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ANDOVER-HARVARD THEOLOGICAL 
LIBRARY 

MDCCCCX 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 




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MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS. 

VOL. II. 



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o 



MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS 



BY 



H. T. COLEBROOKE. 



IN TWO YOLUBfES. 
VOL. II, 



LONDON: 
Wm. H. ALLEN and CO., 

LBADENHALI, 8TBBBT. 

1837. 




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Google 



AllDOVbh tlAKVAM) 



Co\eV 






Printed by J. L. Cox and Sows* 75* Omt Qomb Straet* 
Linoolii'f-Inn Piddt. 






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CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



Page 

I. On the Sanscrit and Pr6cr)it Languages. [From the 

Asiatic Researches, vol. vii., p. 199— 231.] 1 

II. Preface to the Author's Grammar of the Sanscrit Lan- 

guage 35 

List of SantcT^i Grammars, with Commentaries, Ice ... . 40 

III. Preface to the Author's edition of the jimera Cosha .... 50 
TV. On Sanscrit and Prdcrtt Poetry. [From the Asiatic 

Researches, vol. x., p. 389— 474.] 62 

V. Introductory Remarks, prefixed to the edition of the 

Hitbpad^ published at Calcutta, 1804, 4to 166 

VL Examination of Indian Classes. [From the Asiatic Re- 
searches, vol. v., p. 53 — 67.] 177 

VII. Observations on the Sect of Jains, [From the Asiatic 

Researches, vol. ix., p. 287—322.] 191 

VIII. On the Origin and peculiar Tenets of certain Muham- 

medan Sects. [From the Asiatic Researches, vol. vii., 
p. 338— 344.] 225 

IX. Translation of one of the Inscriptions on the Pillar at 

Delhiy called the L&t of FIrOz Shah. [From the 
Asiatic Researches, vol. vii., p. 179— 182.] 232 

X. On Ancient Monuments containing Sanscrtt Inscriptions. 

[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. ix., p. 398 — 444.] . . 238 

XI. Inscriptions upon Rocks in South Bihdr. [From the 

Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i., 
p.201— 206.] 289 

XII. On three Grants of Land, inscribed on copper, found at 

Ujjayaniy and presented by Major James Tod to the 
Royal Asiatic Society. [From the Transactions of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i., p. 230—239 and p. 462— 
466.] 297 



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VI CONTENl-S. 

Page 

XIII. On Inscriptions at Temples of the Jaina Sect in Sooth 

Bihar, [From the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, vol. i., p. 520— 523.] 315 

XIV. On the Indian and Arahian Divisions of the Zodiac. 

[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. ix., p. 323 — 376.] 321 

XV. On the Notion of the Hindu Astronomers concerning 

the Precession of the Equinoxes and Motions of the 
Planets. [From the Asiatic Researches, vol. xii., 
p.209-250.] 374 

XVI. Dissertation on the Algehra of the Hindus. [Prefixed 

to the Author's " Algehra, with Arithmetic and Men- 
suration, from the Sanscrit of Brahmeoupta and 
BhIscara," London, 1817. 4to.] 417 



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L 

On the SANscRtx and PrAcrKt Languages. 



I From the Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 199 — 231. Calcutta, 
1801. 4to.] 



In a treatise on rhetoric, compiled for the use of MA- 
NiCYA CHANDRA, RajcL of Ttrahhucti or Tirhuty a brief 
enumeration of languages used by Hindu poets is quoted 
from two writers on the art of poetry. The following is a 
literal translation of both passages. 

Sanscritay Pracrtta, Paisachi, and Magadhi, are in 
short the four paths of poetry. The gods, &c. speak 
Sanscrita ; benevolent genii, Praanta ; wicked demons, 
Paisachi; and men of low tribes and the rest, Magadhi, 
But sages deem Sanscrita the chief of these four lan- 
guages. It is used three ways : in prose, in verse, and 
" in a mixture of both.'^ 

Language, again, the virtuous have declared to be 
fourfold, Sanscrita [or the polished dialect], Pracrita 
[or the vulgar dialect], Apdbhrania [or jargon], and 
Misra [or mixed]. Sanscrita is the speech of the celes- 
tials, framed in grammatical institutes; Pracrtta is 
similar to it, but manifold as a provincial dialect, and 
otherwise ; and tliose languages, which are ungramma- 
tical, are spoken in their respective districts." 
The Paisachi seems to be gibberish, which dramatic 
poets make the demons speak, when they bring these fan- 
tastic beings on the stage. The mixture of languages 
noticed in the second quotation, is that which is employed 
in dramas, as is expressly said by the same author in a 

VOL. II. B 



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2 ON THE SANSCrYt 

subsequent verse. It is not, then, a compound language, 
but a mixt dialogue, in which different persons of the drama 
employ different idioms. Both the passages above-quoted 
are therefore easily reconciled. They, in fact, notice only 
three tongues. 1. Sanscrit , a polished dialect, the in- 
flections of vehich, with all its numerous anomalies, are 
taught in grammatical institutes. This the dramatic poets 
put into the mouths of gods and of holy personages. 2. 
Pracrit, consisting of provincial dialects, which are less 
refined and have a more imperfect grammar. In dramas it 
is spoken by women, benevolent genii, &c. 3. Mdgadhi, 
or Apabhransa, a jargon, destitute of regular granunar. 
It is used by the vulgar, and varies in different districts. 
The poets accordingly introduce into the dialogue of plays 
a provincial jargon, spoken by the lowest persons of the 
drama.* 

The languages of India are all comprehended in these 
three classes. The first contains Sanscrtty a most pohshed 
tongue, which was gradually refined until it became fixed 
in the classic writings of many elegant poets, most of whom 
are supposed to have flourished in the century preceding 
the Christian era. It is cultivated by learned Hindus 
throughout India, as the language of science and of litera- 
ture, and as the repository of their law, civil and religious. 



* Sanscrita is the passive participle of a compound verb, formed 
by prefixing the preposition sam to the crude verb crt^ and by 
interposing* the letter s when this compound is used in the sense of 
embellishment. Its literal meaning then is ^'adorned;" and when 
applied to a language it signifies " polished." Pr&cr^ta is a similar 
derivative from the same crude verb, with pra prefixed : the most 
common acceptation of this word is " outcast, or man of the lowest 
class ;" as applied to a language it signifies " vulgar." Apahhrama 
is derived from bhrai^ " to fall down :" it signifies a word, or dialect, 
which falls off from correct etymology. Grammarians use Sanscr^ta 
as signifying " duly formed or regularly inflected ;" and Apahhrama 
for false grammar. 



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AND PRACRIT LANGUAGES. 6 

It evidently draws its origin (and some steps of its progress 
may even now be traced) from a primeval tongue, which 
was gradually refined in vaiious climates, and became 
Sanscrit in India, Pahlavi in Persia, and Greek on the 
shores of the Mediterranean. Like other very ancient 
languages, Sanscrit abounds in inflections, which are, how- 
ever, more anomalous in this than in the other languages 
here alluded to ; and which are even more so in the obso- 
lete dialect of the Vidas^ than in the polished speech of 
the classic poets. It has nearly shared the fate of all 
ancient tongues, and is now become almost a dead lan- 
guage ; but there seems no good reason for doubting that 
it was once universally spoken in India. Its name, and 
the reputed difficulty of its grammar, have led many per- 
sons to imagine that it has been refined by the coticerted 
efforts of a few priests, who set themselves about inventing 
a new language ; not, like all other tongues, by the gra- 
dually improved practice of good writers and polite speakers. 
The exquisitely refined system by which the grammar of 
Sanscrit is taught, has been mistaken for the refinement 
of the language itself. The rules have been supposed to 
be anterior to the practice, but this supposition is gratui- 
tous. In Sanscrit, as in every other known tongue, gram- 
marians have not invented etymology, but have only 
contrived rules to teach what was already established by 
approved practice. 

There is one peculiarity of Sanscrit compositions which 
may also have suggested the opinion that it could never be 
a spoken language. I allude to what might be termed the 
euphonical orthography of Sanscrit. It consists in extend- 
ing to syntax the rules for the permutation of letters in 
etymology. Similar rules for avoiding incompatible sounds 
in compound terms exist in all languages ; this is sometimes 
effected by a deviation from orthography in the pronuncia- 

B 2 



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4 ON THE SANSCRtr 

tion of words ; sometimes by altering one or more letters to 
make the spelling correspond with the pronunciation. These 
rules have been more profoundly investigated by Hindu 
grammarians than by those of any other nation ; and they 
have completed a system of orthography which may be 
justly termed euphonical. They require all compound terms 
to be reduced to this standard, and Sanscrit authors, it 
may be observed, delight in compounds of inordinate 
length : the whole sentence, too, or even whole periods, 
may, at the pleasure of the author, be combined like the 
elements of a single word, and good writers generally do 
so. In common speech this could never have been prac- 
tised. None but well-known compounds would be used by 
any speaker who wished to be understood, and each word 
would be distinctly articulated independently of the terms 
which precede and follow it. Such, indeed, is the present 
practice of those who still speak the Sanscrit language ; 
and they deliver themselves with such fluency, as is suffi- 
cient to prove that Sanscrit may have been spoken in 
former times with as much facility as the contemporary 
dialects of the Greek language, or the more modem dialects 
of the Arabic tongue. I shall take occasion again to allude 
to this topic, after explaining at large what are, and by 
whom were composed, those grammatical institutes, in 
which the Sanscrit language is framed, according to the 
author above-quoted ; or by which (for the meaning is ill- 
conveyed by a literal translation) words are correctly formed 
and inflected. 

PAnini, the father of Sanscrit grammar, lived in so 
remote an age, that he ranks among those ancient sages 
whose fabulous history occupies a conspicuous place in the 
PuranaSy or Indian theogonies.* The name is a patro- 



• Every Purdna treats of five subjects : the creation of the uni- 
verse, its progfress, and the renovation of worlds ; the genealogy of 



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AND pracrTt languages. 5 

nymic, indicating his descent from Pan in; but, according 
to the Pauranica legends, he was grandson of D^vala, 
an inspired legislator. Whatever may be the true history 
of PAnini, to him the Sutras, or succinct aphorisms of 
grammar, are attributed by universal consent: his system 
is grounded on a profound investigation of the analogies in 
both the regular and the anomalous inflections of the 
Sanscrit language. He has combined those analogies in 
a very artificial manner ; and has thus compressed a most 
copious etymology into a very narrow compass. His pre- 
cepts are indeed numerous,* but they have been framed 
with the utmost conciseness ; and this great brevity is the 
result of very ingenious methods which have been contrived 
for this end, and for the purpose of assisting the student's 
memory. In PAnini's system, the mutual relation of all 
the parts marks that it must have been completed by its 
author : it certainly bears internal evidence of its having 
been accompUshed by a single effort, and even the correc- 
tions which are needed cannot be interwoven with the text. 
It must not be hence inferred, that PAnini was unaided 
by the labours of earlier grammarians. In many of his 
precepts he cites the authority of his predece8sors,t some- 
times for a deviation from a general rule, often for a gram- 
matical canon which has universal cogency. He has even 
employed some technical terms without defining them, 
because, as his commentators remark, those terms were 
already introduced by earlier grammarians.^: None of the 

gods and heroes ; chronology, accordiDg to a fabulous system ; and 
heroic history, containing the achievements ofderai-^ods and heroes. 
Since each Purana contains a cosmogony, with mythological and 
heroic history, the works which bear that title may not inaptly be 
compared to the Grecian theogonies. 

• Not fewer than 3,996. 

t Sacalya, Garoya,CaSyapa,Galava, Sacatayana, and others. 

t In a few instances he quotes former grammars to refute them. 



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6 ON THE SANSCRIT 

more ancient works, however, seem to be now extant: 
being superseded by his, they have probably been disused 
for ages, and are now perhaps totally lost. * 

A performance such as the Paniniya grammar must 
inevitably contain many errors. The task of correcting its 
inaccuracies has been executed by CiTYAYANA,t an in- 
spired saint and lawgiver, whose history, like that of all 
the Indian sages, is involved in the impenetrable darkness 
of mythology. His annotations, entitled VarticciSy restrict 
those among the Paniniya rules which are too vague, 
enlarge others which are too hmited, and mark numerous 
exceptions which had escaped the notice of PAnini 
himself. 

The amended rules of grammar have been formed into 
memorial verses by BnARTRlf-HARi, whose metrical apho- 
risms, entitled Caricciy have almost equal authority with 
the precepts of PAnini and emendations of CAtyayana. 
If the popular traditions concerning Bhartri-hari be 
well founded, he lived in the century preceding the Chris- 
tian era;:]: for he is supposed to be the same with the 
brother of VicramAditya, and the period when this 
prince reigned at Ujjayini is determined by the date of the 
Samvat era. 

The studied brevity of the Paniniya Sutras renders 

• Definitions of some technical terms, together \nih grammatical 
axioms, are also cited from those ancient works in the commentaries 
on Pacini. They are inserted in a compilation entitled Pnrihhdshdy 
which will be subsequently noticed. The various original authorities 
of SanscrU grammar, as enumerated in a memorial verse, are eight 
in number, viz, Indra, Chandra, Ca^acritsna, Api^ali, §aca- 
fivANA, Pacini, Amera, and Jin^ndra. 

t This name likewise is a patronymic. 

X A beautiful poem has been composed in his name, containing 
moral reflections, which the poet supposes him to make on the dis- 
cover\' of his wife's infidelity. It consists of either three or four 
SatacaSy or centuries of couplets. 



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AND PHACRIT LANGUAGES. 7 

them in the highest degree obscure. Even with the 
knowledge of the key to their interpretation, the student 
folds them ambiguous. In the appUcation of them when 
understood, he discovers many seeming contradictions; 
and, with every exertion of practised memory, he must 
experience the utmost diflSculty in combining rules dis- 
persed in apparent confusion through different portions of 
PANiNfs eight lectures. A commentary was therefore 
indispensably requisite. Many were composed by ancient 
grammarians to elucidate the text of PAnini. A nK)6t 
copious one on the emendations of his rules was compiled 
in very ancient times by an uncertain author. This volu- 
mmous work, known by the title of Mahabkdshya, or the 
great commentary, is ascribed to Patanjali, a &bulous 
personage, to whom mythol(^ has assigned the shape 
of a serpent. In this commentary almost every rule is 
examined at great length. All possible interpretations 
are proposed : and the true sense and import of the rule 
are deduced through a tedious train of argument, in which 
all foreseen objections are considered and refuted, and 
the wrong interpretations of the text, with all the argu- 
ments which can be invented to support them, are obviated 
or exploded. 

Voluminous as it is, the Mahabhashya has not exhausted 
the subject on which it treats. Its deficiencies have been 
supplied by the annotations of modem grammarians. The 
most celebrated among these scholiasts of the Bhashya is 
CAiYAf A, a learned Cashmirian. His annotations are 
almost equally copious with the commentary itself. Yet 
they, too, are loaded by numerous glosses ; among which 
the old and new Vivcaranas are most esteemed. 

The difficulty of combining the dispersed rules of gram- 
mar, to inflect any one verb or noun through all its varia- 
tions, renders further aid necessary. This seems to have 



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8 ON THE SANSCRjfx 

been anciently afforded in vocabularies, one of which ex- 
hibited the verbs classed in the order impUed by the 
system of Panini, the other contained nouns arranged 
on a similar plan. Both probably cited the precepts 
which must be remembered in ccmjugating and declining 
each verb and noun. A catalogue of verbs, classed in 
regular order, but with few references to the rules of 
etymology, is extant, and is known by the title of 2)Aa- 
tupaia. It may be considered as an appendix to the 
grammar of PAnini; and so may his treatise on the 
pronunciation of vocal sounds, and the treatise of YAsca 
on obsolete words and acceptations peculiar to the Veda. 
A numerous class of derivative nouns, to which he has 
only alluded, have been reduced to rule, under the head 
of Unadi, or the termination u &c. ; and the precepts 
respecting the gender of nouns have been, in like manner, 
arranged in SiitraSy which are formed on the same prin- 
ciples with PAnini's rules, and which are considered as 
almost equally ancient. Another supplement to his gram- 
mar is entitled Ganapaia, and contains lists of words 
comprehended in various grammatical rules, under the 
designation of some single word, with the term " &c." 
annexed to it. These supplements are due to various 
authors. The subject of gender alone has been treated by 
more than one writer reputed to be inspired ; namely, by 
CAtyAyana, G6bhila, and others. 

These subsidiary parts of the Paniniya grammar do not 
require a laboured commentary; excepting only the cata- 
logue of verbs, which does need annotation ; and which is, 
in truth, a proper groundwork for a complete review of all 
the rules of etymology that are applicable to each verb.* 

• The number of verbal roots amounts to 1,750 nearly; exclusive 
of many obsolete words omitted in the Dhdtupdlay but noticed m the 
Sutras as the roots of certain derivatives. The crude verbs, however. 



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AND PRAcRtT LANGUAGES. 9 

The Vritti nyam, a very celebrated work, is, I believe, a 
commentary of this sort.* It is mentioned by Maitr£y a 
RAcsHiTA, the author of the Dhatu pradipa, as the work 
chiefly consulted by him in compiling his brief annotations 
on the Dhatupaia. A very voluminous commentary on 
the catalogue of verbs, was compiled under the patronage 
of Sayana, minister of a chieftain named Bucca rAya and 
is entitled Madhavtya vritti. It thoroughly explains the 
signification and inflection of each verb ; but at the same 
time enters largely into scholastic refinements on general 
grammar. 

Such vast works as the Mahabhashya and its schoUa, 
with the voluminous annotations on the catalogue of verbs, 
are not adapted for general instruction. A conciser com- 
mentary must have been always requisite. The best that 
is now extant is entitled the Casica vritti, or commentary 
composed at VaraAasi. The author, Jayaditya, in a 
short preface explains his design : ' to gather the essence 
of a science dispersed in the early commentaries, in the 
Skashya, in copious dictionaries of verbs and of nouns, 
and in other works.' He has well fulfilled the task which 
he undertook. His gloss explains in perspicuous language 
the meaning and application of each rule : he adds exam- 
are more numerous, because many rootR, containing^ the same radical 
letters, are variously conjugated in different senses. The whole num- 
ber of crude verbs separately noticed in the catalog^ue exceeds three 
thousand. From each of these are deduced many compound verbs, 
by prefixing one or more prepositions to the verbal root. Such com- 
pounds often deviate very widely in their signification, and some even 
in their inflections, from the radical verb. The derivative verbs, 
again, are numerous; such as causals, frequentatives, £cc. Hence 
it may be readily perceived how copious this branch of grammar 
must Tie. 

* I have not yet had an opportunity of inspecting either this or its 
gloss. It has been described to me as a commentary on the Cdsicd 

VT^iUi. 



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10 ON THE SANSCRIT 

plesy and quotes^ in their proper places^ the necessary 
emendations from the Varticas and Bhashya, Though 
he never deviates into frivolous disquisitions nor into tedious 
reasoning, but expounds the text as succinctly as could 
consist with perspicuity, his work is nevertheless volumi- 
nous ; and yet, copious as it is, the commentaries on it, 
and the annotations on its commentaries, are still more 
voluminous. Amongst the most celebrated is the Pada- 
manjari of Haradatta misra, a grammarian whose 
authority is respected almost equally with that of the au- 
thor on whose text he comments. The annotators on this, 
again, are numerous ; but it would be useless to insert a 
long list of their names, or of the titles of their works. 

Excellent as the Casica vritti undoubtedly is, it partakes 
of the defects which have been imputed to PAnini's text. 
Following the same oi-der in which the oiiginal rules are 
arranged, it is well adapted to assist the student in 
acquiring a critical knowledge of the Sanscrit tongue. 
But for one who studies the rudiments of the language a 
different arrangement is requisite, for the sake of bringing 
into one view the rules which must be remembered in the 
inflections of one word, and those which must be combined 
even for a single variation of a single term. Such a gram- 
mar has been compiled within a few centuries past by 
RAmachandra, an eminent grammarian. It is entitled 
Pracriya caumudi. The rules are PAninTs, and the expla- 
nation of them is abridged from the ancient commentaries ; 
but the arrangement is wholly different. It proceeds from 
the elements of writing to definitions; thence to ortho- 
graphy: it afterwards exhibits the inflections of nouns 
according to case, number, and gender ; notices the inde- 
clinables ; and proceeds to the uses of the cases. It sub- 
joins the rules of apposition, by which compound terms 
are formed ; the etymology of patronymics and other 



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AND PrAcRIT languages. 11 

derivatiyes from nouns ; and the reduplication of particles, 
&c. In the second part it treats of the conjugation of 
verbs arranged in ten classes: to these primitives succeed 
derivative verbs, formed from verbal roots or from nouns. 
The rules concerning different voices follow ; they are suc- 
ceeded by precepts regarding the use of the tenses ; and 
the work concludes with the etymology of verbal nouns, 
gerunds, supines, and participles. A supplement to it con- 
tains the anomalies of the dialect in which the Veda is 
composed. 

The outline of PAnini's arrangement is simple; but 
numerous exceptions and frequent digressions have involved 
it in much seeming confusion. The two first lectures (the 
first section especially, which is in a manner the key of 
the whole grammar) contain definitions ; in the three next 
are collected the affixes, by which verbs and nouns are 
inflected. Those which appertain to verbs occupy the 
third lecture : the fourth and fifth contain such as are 
affixed to nouns. The remaining three lectures treat of 
the changes which roots and afiixes undergo in special 
cases, or by general rules of orthography, and which are 
all effected by the addition or by the substitution of one or 
more elements.* The apparent simplicity of the design 
vanishes in the perplexity of the structure. The endless 
pursuit of exceptions and of limitations so disjoins the 
general precepts, that the reader cannot keep in view their 
intended connexion and mutual relation. He wanders in 
an intricate maze, and the clew of the labyrinth is conti- 
nually slipping from his hands. 

The order in which RAmachandra has delivered the 
rules of grammar is certainly preferable ; but the Sutras of 
Pan INI, thus detached from their context, are wholly unin- 



* Even the expunging of a letter is considered as the substitution 
of a blank. 



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12 ON THE SANSCRlfx 

telligible. Without the commentator's exposition, they are 
indeed what Sir William Jones has somewhere termed 
them^ " dark as the darkest oracle." Even with the aid 
of a comment, they cannot be fully undei^stood until they 
are perused with the proper context. Notwithstanding this 
defect, BHAff6ji dIcshita,* who revised the Caumudiy 
has for very substantial reasons adhered to the Paniniya 
sittras. That able grammarian has made some useful 
changes in the arrangement of the Pracriya: he has 
amended the explanation of the rules, which was in many 
places incorrect or imperfect ; he has remedied many omis- 
sions, has enlarged the examples, and has noticed the most 
important instances where the elder grammarians disagree, 
or where classical poets have deviated from the -strict rules 
of grammar. This excellent work is entitled Siddhanta 
caumudi. The author has very properly followed the 
example of RAmachandra, in excluding all rules that 
are peculiar to the obsolete dialect of the Veda, or which 
relate to accentuation ; for this also belongs to the Veda 
alone. He has collected them in an appendix to the 
Siddhanta caumudi ; and has subjoined, in a second 
appendix, rules concerning the gender of nouns. The other 
supplements of PAnini's grammar are interwoven by this 
author with the body of his work. 

The Hindus deUght in scholastic disputation. Their 
grammarians indulge this propensity as much as their 
lawyers and their sophists.f BHAff6ji dicshita has 
provided an ample store of controversy in an argumentative 
commentary on his own grammar. This work is entitled 

• Descendants of BHAff6jf in the fifth or sixth dep:ree are, I am 
told, now living at Benares. He must have flourished, then, between 
one and two centuries ago. 

t Many separate treatises on different branches of general gram- 
mar are very properly considered as appertaining to the science of 
logic. 



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AND pracrIt languages. 13 

Pranaha man&ramd. He also composed a very voluminous 
commentary on the eight lectures of PAnini, and gave it 
the title of Sabda caustubha. The only portion of it I 
have yet seen reaches no further than to the end of the 
first section of PAnini's first lecture. But this is so diffu- 
sive, that, if the whole have been executed on a similar 
plan, i^ must triple the ponderous volume of the Mdha- 
bhashya itself. I have reason, however, for doubting that 
it was ever completed. 

The commentaries on the Siddhanta caumudi and Ma- 
n&rama are very numerous. The most celebrated shall be 
here briefly noticed. 1. The Tatwa bSdhini expounds the 
Siddhanta: it is the work of JnyAn6ndra saraswatI, 
an ascetic, and the pupil of Vaman^ndr A swamI. 2. The 
Sabdendu kec'hara is another commentary on BHAff 6ji's 
grammar. It was composed by a successor, if not a de- 
scendant, of that grammarian. An abridgment of it, 
which is very generally studied, is the work of NAg^Sa, 
son of SivA BHAff A and pupil of Hari dIcshita. He 
was patronised, as appears from his preface, by the pro- 
prietor of Sringavera pura.* Though called an abridg- 
ment, this Laghu Sabdindu is a voluminous performance. 
3. The Laghu Sabdaratna is a commentary on the Man6- 
rama of BHAff6ji dIcshita, by the author's grandson, 
Hari d!cshita. This work is not improperly termed an 
abridgment, since it is short in comparison with most other 
commentaries on grammar. A larger performance on the 
same topics, and with the same title of Sabda ratna, was 
composed by a professor of this school. 4. BAla sarman 
Pagondiya, who is either fourth or fifth in succession 
firom BHAff6ji, as professor of grammar at Benares, has 
written commentaries on the Caustubha, Sabda ratna, and 

• A town on the Gangfes, marked Singho9'e, in Rknnei/s maps. 
It 18 situated above IlaJidbad. 



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14 ON THE SANSCRTt 

Sabdendusec'hara, His father, Baidy an At' ha BHAffA, 
largely annotated the Paribhashendu sec'hara of NAcfesA 
BHAff A, which is an argumentative commentary on a 
collection of grammatical axioms and definitions cited by 
the glossarists of PAnini. This compilation, entitled Pa- 
ribhasha, has also furnished the text for other controversial 
performances bearing similar titles. 

While so many commentaries have been written on the 
Siddhanta caumudiy the Pracriya caumudi has not been 
neglected. The schoUasts of this, too, are numerous. The 
most known is Crishna pan6ita ; and his work has 
been abridged by his pupil J ay ant a, who has given the 
title of Tatwa chandra to a very excellent compendium.* 
On the other hand, CrIshna pan6ita has had the fate 
common to all noted grammarians, since his work has 
employed a host of commentators who have largely com- 
mented on it. 

The Caumudisj independently even of their numerous 
commentaries, have been found too vast and intricate for 
young students. Abridgments of the Siddhanta caumudi 
have been therefore attempted by several authors with 
unequal degrees of success. Of three such abridgments 
one only seems to deserve present notice. It is the 
Madhya caumudi, and is accompanied by a similar com- 
pendium of annotations, entitled Madhya manSramd. The 
name indicates, that it holds a middle place between the 
diffuse original and the jejune abstracts called Laghu 
caumudi, &c. It contains such of PAnini*s rules as are 
most universal, and adds to each a short but perspicuous 
exposition. It omits only the least common exceptions and 
limitations. 



* Finished by him, as appears from a postscript to the book, in the 
year 1687 of the Samvat era. Though he studied at Benares, he 
appears to have been born on the banks of the Tapadf a river marked 
Taptee in Rknnei.'s map. 



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AND PEACRIT LANGUAGES. 15 

When Sanscrit was the language of Indian courts, and 
was cultivated not only by persons who devoted themselves 
to religion and literature, but also by princes, lawyers, 
soldiers, physicians, and scribes (in short, by the first three 
tribes, and by many classes included in the foui-th), an 
easy and popular grammar must have been needed by 
persons who coiJd not waste the best years of their hves in 
the study of words. Such grammars must always have 
been in use; those, however, which are now studied are not, 
I believe, of very ancient date. The most esteemed is 
the Sdraswata, together with its commentary named 
Ckandrica. It seems to have been formed on one of the 
Caumudis, by translating PAnini's rules into language 
that is inteUigible independently of the gloss, and without 
the necessity of adverting to a diflferent context. 

Another popular grammar, which is in high repute in 
Bengal, is entitled MugdhabSdhoy and is accompanied by 
a commentary. It is the work of V6PADfevA, and pro- 
ceeds upon a plan grounded on that of the Caumudis ; but 
the author has not been content to translate the rules of 
PAnini and to adopt his technical terms. He has, on the 
contrary, invented new terms and contrived new abbreviations. 
The same author likewise composed a metrical catalogue of 
verbsalphabeticallyarranged. It is named Cavicalpadrumay 
and is intended as a substitute for the Dhdtupaia, 

The chief inconvenience attending V6p a diva's innova- 
tion is, that commentaries and scholia, written to elucidate 
poems and works of science, must be often unintelligible to 
those who have studied only his grammar, and that the 
writings of his scholars must be equally incomprehensible 
(wherever a grammatical subject is noticed) to the students 
of the Paniniya, Accordingly the Pandits of Bengal are 
cut off, in a manner, from communication on grammatical 
topics with the learned of other provinces in India. Even 



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16 ON THE SANSCRIT 

etymological dictionaries, such as the commentaries on the 
metrical vocabularies, which I shall next proceed to men- 
tion, must be unintelUgible to them. 

It appears from the prefaces of many different gram- 
matical treatises, that works entitled Dkatu and Noma 
par ay ana were formerly studied, lliey must have com- 
prehended, as their title implies, " the whole of the verbs 
and nouns" appertaining to the language ; and, since they 
are mentioned as very voluminous, they must probably 
have contained references to all the rules applicable to 
every single verb and noun. Haradatta's explanation 
of the title confirms this notion. But it does not appear 
that any work is now extant under this title. The Dha- 
tupdiay with its commentaries, supplies the place of the 
Dhdtuparayana, A collection of dictionaries and voca- 
bularies, in like manner, supplies the want of the Noma 
pardyana. These then may be noticed in this place as a 
branch of grammar. 

The best and most esteemed vocabulary is the Amera 
c6ska. Even the bigotry of Sancara AchArya spared 
this, when he proscribed the other works of Amera 
sinha.* Like most other Sanscrit dictionaries, it is 

* Amera sinha was an eminent poet and one of the nine g;ems (for 
so these poets were called), M'ho were the ornament of Vicrama- 
ditya's court. Unfortunately he held the tenets of a heterodox sect, 
and his poems are said to have perished in the persecutions fomented 
hy intolerant philosophers against the persons and writings of hoth 
Jainas and Bauddhas. The persecution, instigated hy Sancara 
and Udayana acharya, was enforced, perhaps from political mo- 
tives, by princes of the Vaishhava and ^iva sects, who compelled the 
Bauodha monarchs to retire from Hindustan, and to content them- 
selves with their dominions of Ldsaia and Bhbta. It would be curi- 
ous to investigate the date of this important revolution. The present 
conjecture, (for it is little more than mere conjecture) is partly 
founded upon some acknowledgments made by PaiiSUts, who confess 
that ^ANGARA and Udayana persecuted the heterodox sects and 



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AND PRAcRtx LANGUAGES. 17 

arranged in verse to aid the memory. Synonymous words 
are collected into one or more verses^ and placed in fifteen 
different chapters, which treat of as many different sub- 
jects. The sixteenth contains a few homonymous terms, 
arranged alphabetically, in the Indian manner, by the 
final consonants. The seventeenth chapter is a pretty full 
catalc^e of indeclinables, which European philologists 
would call adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and inter- 
jections, but which Sanscrit grammarians consider as 
indeclinable nouns. The last chapter of the Amera c6sha 
is a treatise on the gender of nouns. Another vocabulary 
by the same author is often cited by his conmientators, 
under the title of Amera mala. 

Numerous commentaries have been written on the Amera 
cSsha. The chief object of them is to explain the deriva- 

proscribed their books ; and partly on the evidence of the engraved 
plate found at Mttdgagiri, and of the inscription on the pillar found 
BtBeddl (See As. Res. vol. i. p. 123 and 133), from which it appears 
that D^vapIla d£va belonged to the sect of Buodha, and that he 
reigned over Bengal and CarMla as well as Ldstda and Bh6ta, and 
had successfully invaded Camboja^ after traversing as a conqueror the 
Vindhya range of mountains. His descendants, as far as the fourth 
generation, governed a no less extensive empire; as appears from the 
inscription on the pillar at Bedal, 1 must however acknowledge, 
that this last mentioned inscription does not indicate any attachment 
to the sect of Buddha. This may be accounted for, by supposing that 
the worshippers of CaKsHif a and of Rama, or whatever other sects 
prevailed, were then as cordial to the followers of Buddha, as they 
now are towards each other. The king and his minister might belong 
to different sects. 

Amkba is mentioned in an inscription at Buddha gayd as the 
founder of a temple at that place. (As. Res. vol. i. p. 284.) This 
circumstance may serve to explain why his works have been proscribed 
with peculiar inveteracy, as it is acknowledged by many Pa^ts that 
they have been. He was probably a zealous sectarist. 

This is, however, by no means certain : and BhInuj! DIoshita, 
in his commentary on the Amera cbsha^ denies that there is any evi- 
dence to prove that the author belonged to the sect of Jainas. 

VOL. II. C 



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18 ON THE SANSCrYt 

tions of the nouns and to supply the principal deficiencies ot 
the text. Sanscrit etymologists scarcely acknowledge a 
single primitive amongst the nouns. When unable to trace 
an etymology which may be consistent with the acceptation 
of the word, they are content to derive it, according to 
grammatical rules, from some root to which the word has 
no affinity in sense. At other times they adopt fanciliii 
etymologies from Puranas or from Tantras : but, in gene- 
ral, the derivations are accurate and instructive. The best 
known among these commentaries of the Amera c6sha is 
the Pada chandricay compiled from sixteen older com-* 
mentaries by VkKhaspati, sumamed Mucuf a, or at full 
length Raya MUcuf a mani. It appears from the inci* 
dental mention of the years then expired of astronomical eras, 
that Mucuf A made this compilation in the 4532d year of the 
Cali yug, which corresponds with A. D. 1430. Achyuta 
jALLAcl has abridged Mucuf a's commentary, but with* 
out acknowledgment ; and has given the title of Vyac'hyi 
pradtpa to his compendium. On the other hand, BhAn ujf 
DicsHiTA has revised the same compilation, and has cor* 
rected the numerous errors of Mucuf a, who often derives 
words from roots that are unknown to the language, or 
according to rules which have no place in its grammar. 
BhAnujI has greatly improved the plan of the woA, by 
inserting from other authorities the various acceptations of 
words exhibited by Amera in one or two senses only. 
This excellent compilation is aititled Vyac*hya sudha. 

The Amera cSsha, as has been already hinted, gives a 
very incomplete list of words that have various acceptations. 
This defect is well supplied by the Mediniy a dictionary so 
named from its author, M^dinIcar. It contains words 
that bear many senses, arranged in alphabetical order by 
the final consonants ; and a list of homonymous indecUn- 
ables is subjoined to it. A similar dictionary, compiled by 



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AND prAcrYt languages. 19 

MAHifiwARA and entitled VUwa pracasa, is much con- 
sulted, though it be very defective, as has been justly 
remarked by MiniNlcAR. It contains, howeyer, a very 
useful appendix on words spelt more than one way; and 
another on letters which are liable to be confounded, such 
as V and b ; and another, again, on the gender of nouns. 
These subjects are not separately treated by MiniNfcAR ; 
but he has, on the other hand, specified the genders with 
great care in the body of the work. The exact age of the 
Mcdini is not certainly known ; but it is older than 
Mucuf a's compilation, since it is quoted by this author. 

Am era's dictionary does not contain more than ten 
thousand different words; yet the Sanscrit language is 
very copious. The insertion of derivatives, that do not at 
all deviate from their regular and obvious import, has been 
Tery properly deemed superfluous. Compound epithets, 
and other compound terms, in which the Sanscrit language 
is peculiarly rich, are Ukewise omitted ; excepting such as 
are especially appropriated, by a limited acceptation, either 
as titles of deities, or as names of plants, animals, &c. In 
fiict, compound terms are formed at pleasure, according to 
the rules of grammar ; and must generally be interpreted 
in strict conformity with those rules. Technical terms, too, 
are mostly excluded from genei-al dictionaries and consigned 
to separate nomenclatures. The Amera c6sha, then, is 
less defective than might be inferred from the small num- 
ber of words explained in it. Still, however, it needs a 
supplement. The H&ravali may be used as such. It is a 
Yocabulary of uncommon words, compiled by Purush6t- 
TAMA, the autiior of an etymological work, and also of a 
httle collection of monograms, entitled JScacshara. His 
HaravaH was compiled by him under the patronage of 
DhrYtasinha. It is noticed by MfeniNicAR, andseems 
to be likewise anterior to the Viswa. 

c 2 



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20 ON THE SANSCRtT 

The remaining deficiencies of the Amera cisha ate sup- 
plied by consulting other dictionaries and vocabularies; such 
as HelAyudha's, VAchespati's, the Dharani cishay or 
some other. Smiscrtt dictionaries are indeed very nume- 
rous. Purush6ttama and MiDiNlcAR name the Ut- 
paliniy Sabdarnava, and Sansaravarta, as works considted 
by them. Purush6ttama adds the names of VAches- 
PATi, Vya6i, and Vicramaditya; but it is not quite 
clear whether he mentions them as the authors and patrons 
of these, or of other dictionaries. M&dinIcar adds a 
fourth vocabulary, called Namamala, and with similar 
obscurity subjoins the celebrated names of BhAguri, 
Vararuchi, SASwata, B6pAlita, and Rantid^va. 
He then proceeds to enumerate the dictionaries of Amera, 
SubhAnga, HelAyudha, G6verdhana, Rabhasa 
pAla, and the Ratna c6sha; with the vocabularies of 
RuDRAy Dhananjaya, and GangAdhara; as also the 
DharaAi cSsha^ Haravali, Vrtkad amara, TricaAcla seshuy 
and Ratnamala. Many of these are cited by the com- 
mentators on Amera and by the scholiasts on different 
poems. The following are also frequently cited ; some as 
etymologists, the rest as lexicographers : SwAm!, Durga, 
Sarvadhara,VAman A, Chandra, and the authors of the 
Vaijayantij Namanidhanay Haima, Vrthat-nighanii, Sec. 
To this list might be added the Anecarf/ia dhward man-- 
jari, Nanarfha, and other vocabularies of homonymous 
terms ; the DuAructi^ Bhdripraydga c6sha, and other lists 
of words spelt in more than one way ; and the various 
Nigkaniis or nomenclatures, such as the Dhanwantari- 
nigharAa and Raja nighaniay which contain lists of the 
materia medica; and the Nighanti of the Fcrfa, which 
explains obsolete words and unusual acceptations.* 

• The Niructiy as explained in Sir William Jones's treati0eon the 
literature of the Hindus, belongs to the same class with the Nighaidi of 



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AND prAcrYt languages. 21 

Before I proceed to mention other languages of India, 
it may be proper to mention, that the school of Benares 
now uses the Siddhanta caumndi, and other works of 
BnAffoji, as the same school formerly did the Caiica 
vritti. The Pracriya caumtidi, with its commentaries, 
maintains its ground among the learned of Mifhila or 
Tirhiit, In both places, howeyer, and indeed throughout 
India, the Mahahhashya continues to be the standard of 
Sanscrit grammar: it is therefore studied by all who are 
ambitious of acquiring a critical knowledge of the language. 
The Hancarica^ with its commentaries by H^lArAja and 
PunjarAja, was probably in use with a school that once 
flourished at Vjjayinij but it does not seem to be now 
generally studied in any part of India. 

The second class of Indian languages comprehends the 
written dialects which are now used in the intercourse of 
civil Ufe, and which are cultivated by lettered men. The 
author of a passage already quoted includes all such dialects 
under the general denomination of Pracrit: but this term, 
is commonly restricted to one language, namely, to the 
Saraswati bdla banif or the speech of children on the 
banks of the SaraswatL* There is reason to believe that 
ten polished dialects formerly prevailed in as many difiei-ent 
civilized nations, who occupied all the fertile provinces of 
Hindustan and the Dacshin, Evident traces of them still 
exist. They shall be noticed in the order in which these 
Hindu nations are usually enumerated. 



the Vida: and a small vocabulary under both these titles is commonly 
annexed to the R)tgvhda to complete the set of Upavidas, There is, 
however, a much larger work entitled Niructi; and the commentators 
of it are often cited upon topics of general grammar. See vol. i. p. 26. 

• The term will bear a different interpretation, but this seems to 
be the most probable explanation of it. The other (youthful speech 
of Sari SWAT f) is generally received. 



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22 ON TH£ SANSCBKt 

Tlie Saraswata was a nation which occupied the banks 
of the river Sarastoati. BrahmoAaSj who are still distin* 
guished by the name of their nation, inhabit chiefly the 
Penjab or Panchanada, west of the river fiom which 
they take their appellation. Their original language may 
have once prevailed through the southern and western 
parts of Hindustan proper, and is probably the idiom to 
which the name of Pracrit is generally appropriated. This 
has been more cultivated than any other among the dialects 
which will be here enimierated, and it occupies a principal 
place in the dialogue of moat dramas. Many beautiful 
poems composed wholly in this language, or intermixed 
with stanzas (^ pure Sanscrit, have perpetuated the memory 
of it, though perhaps it have long ceased to be a vernacular 
tongue. Grammars have been compiled for the purpose of 
teaching this language and its prosody, and several treatises 
of rhetoric have been written to illustrate its beauties. The 
Pracrita manSrama and Pracnta Pingala are instances 
of the one, and the Saraswaii caniabharana of Bh6ja- 
d£va, may be named as an example of the other, although 
both Sanscrit and Pracrit idioms furnish die examples 
with which that author elucidates his precepts. For the 
character of the Pracrit language I must refer the reader 
to Sir William Jones's remarks, in his pre&ce to the 
translation of the Fatal Ring. 

The Canyacubjas possessed a great empire, the metro- 
polis of which was the ancient city of Canyacubja or Can6f. 
Theirs seems to be the language which forms the ground- 
work of modem Hindustani^ and which is known by the 
appellation of Hindi or Hindevi. Two dialects of it may 
be easily distinguished, one more refined, the other less so. 
To this last the name of Hindi is sometimes restricted, 
while the other is often confounded with Pracrit, Nume- 
rous poems have been composed in both dialects, not only 



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AND prAcrYt languages. 23 

he£are the Hindustani was ingrafted on the Hindi by a 
large intermixtui'e of Persian, but also in very modem times, 
byMuhammedan as well as Hindu poets. i><$Aratf or detached 
<x)uplet8, and Cabits or stanzas, in the Hindetn dialect, 
may be found among the works of Muslem&n authors : it 
will be sufficient to instance those of Melic Muhammeo 
JaisI, Muhammed Afzel, and AmIbkhIn AnjAm. 
Most poems in this dialect are, however, the exclusive pro- 
duction of Hindu poets.* On examining them, the affinity 
of HinA with the Sanscrit language is peculiarly striking ; 
and no person acquainted with both can hesitate in affirm- 
ing that Hindi is chiefly borrowed from Sanscrit. Many 
words, of which the etymology shows them to be the purest 
Sanscrit f are received unaltered ; many more undergo no 
change but that of making the final vowel silent ; a stiU 
greater number exhibits no other difference than what arises 
from the uniform permutation of certain \eit&^ ; the rest, 
too, with comparatively few exceptions, may be easily traced 
to a Sanscrit origin. That this is the root from which 
Hindi has sprung (not Hindi the dialect whaice Sanscrit 
has been refined) may be proved by etymology, the analogy 
of which is lost in Hindi and preserved in Sanscrit. A few 
examples will render this evident. 

* Among the most admired specimens of Hindi poetry, the seven 
hundred couplets of Bihar! lal, and the amatory verses of Sender 
and of Matiram, are conspicuous. But their dialect is not pure 
Hindevty since they sometimes borrov from the Persian language. 
SCndbr wrote his poems in the reign of ShahjkhIn, and seems to 
have been patronized by that prince, whom he praises in his preface. 
Bihar! lal flourished at the court of Ambhir, towards the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century of the Christian era. His poems were 
arranged in their present order for the use of the unfortunate prince 
AzBM Shah, and the modern edition is therefore called Azemshdki. 
The old edition has been elegantly translated into SariscrU verse by 
Hariprasada Pa66ita, under the patronage of Ch^t Sinh, when 
Rdja of Benares, 



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24 ON THE SANSCRTt 

Crtya signifies action, and carma act, both of which are 
regularly derived from the root crt to do. They have been 
adopted into Hindustani^ with many other regular deriva- 
tives of the same root; (such, for example, as carana [con- 
tracted into camii] the act of doing ; carta the agent ; 
carop/i cause, or the means of doing ; carya [c&rjf caji\ the 
thing to be done, and the intent or purpose of the action.) 
But I select these two instances, because both words are 
adopted into Hindustani in two several modes. Thus cria 
signifies action, and dria expresses one metaphorical sense of 
the same Sanscrit word, viz, oath or ordeal. Again, drta- 
caram signifies funeral rites; but cam is the most usual 
form in which the Samcrit carma is exhibited in the Hin- 
dustani; and it thus assumes the same form with cam^ 
desire, a very different word taken firom the Sanscrit deri- 
vative of the root cam, to seek. Here then the Hindustani 
confounds two very different words in one instance, and 
makes two words out of one in the other instance. 

Sat Uterally signifies existent: it is employed in the 
acceptation of truth. Satya, a regular derivative firom it, 
signifies true ; or, employed substantively, truth. The 
correspondent Hindi word, sach, is corrupted from the 
Sanscrit satya, by neglecting the final vowel, by substitut- 
ing j for y, according to the genius of the Hindevi dialect, 
and by transforming the harsh combination tj into the softer 
sound of ch. Here then is obviously traced the identity of 
the Hindustani sack, and Bengali shotyo, which are only 
the same Sanscrit word satya variously pronounced. 

Yuvan signifies young, and yauvana youth. The first 
makes yuva in the nominative case : this is adopted into 
Hindustani with the usual permutation of consonants, and 
becomes JwJa, as yauvana is transformed \nioj6ban. The 
same word has been less corrupted in Persian and Latin, 
where it stands juwan and juvenis. In many inflections 



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AND prXcrIt languages. 25 

the root of yuvan is contracted into y4m : the pofisessive 
case, for example, forms in the three numbers, yuruUf 
yunSs, jfunam. Here, then, we trace the origin of the 
Latin comparative jtcnior ; and I cannot hesitate in refer- 
ring to these Sanscrit roots, the Welsh jevangk, and 
Armorican Jovan^, as well as the Saxon yeong, and finally 
the English young. This analc^, which seems evident 
throngh the medium of the Sanscrit language, is wholly 
obscured in Hindustani. 

These examples might be easily multiplied, but unprofit- 
ably, I fear; for, after proving that nine-tenths of the 
Hindi dialect may be traced back to the Sanscrit idiom, 
there yet remains the difficulty of accounting for the 
remaining tenth, which is perhaps the basis of the Hindi 
language. Sir William Jones thought it so; and he 
thence inferred, that the pure Hindi was primeval in Upper 
India, into which the Sanscrit was introduced by con- 
querors from other kingdoms in some very remote age.* 
This opinion I do not mean to controvert. I only contend, 
that where similar words are found in both languages, the 
Hindi has borrowed from Sanscrit, rather than the Sanscrit 
from Hindi. It may be remarked too, that in most coun- 
tries the progress has been from languages rich in inflec- 
tions, to dialects simple in their structure. In modem 
idioms, auxiliary verbs and appendant particles supply the 
place of numerous inflections of the root : it may, for this 
reason, be doubted, whether the present structure of the 
Hindi tongue be not a modem refinement. But the ques- 
tion, which has been here hinted rather than discussed, can 
be decided only by a carefril examination of the oldest 
compositions that are now extant in the Hindi dialect. 
Until some person execute this task, a doubt must remain, 



• See Sir W. Jones' third anniversary discourse. 



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26 ON THB SANSCRIT 

whether the groundwork of Hindis and consequently of 
Hindustani^ be wholly distinct from that of Sanscrit. 

On the subject of the modem dialect of Upper India, 
I with pleasure refer to the works of a very ingenious 
member of this society, Mr. Gilchrist, whose labours 
have now made it easy to acquire the knowledge of an 
elegant language, which is used in every part of Hindustan 
and the Dekhin, which is the common vehicle of colloquial 
intercourse among all well-educated natives, and among 
the illiterate also, in many provinces of India, and which is 
almost every where intelligible to some among the inhabi- 
tants of every village. The dialects which will be next 
noticed are of more limited use. 

Gauraf* or as it is commonly called Bengalah, or 
Bengalif is the language spoken in the provinces of which 
the ancient city pf Gaur was once the capital. It still 
prevails in all the provinces of Bengal, excepting perhaps 
some frontier districts, but is said to be spoken in its 
greatest purity in the eastern parts only ; and, as there 
spoken, contains few words which are not evidently derived 
from Sanscrit. This dialect has not been neglected by. 
learned men. Many Sanscrit poems have been translated, 
and some original poems have been composed in it : 
learned Hindus in Bengal speak it almost exclusively; 



* It is oeceesary to remark, that although Oaura be the name of 
Bengal^ yet the Brdhma^oif who bear that appellation, are not inha* 
bitantfl of Bengal but of Hindustan proper* They reside chiefly in 
the Subd of Delhi, while the Brdhma^as of Bengal are avowed colo- 
nists from Canbj. It is difficult to account for this contradiction. 
The Oawra BrdhtnoAas allege a tradition, that their ancestors mi- 
grated in the days of the PdMavas, at the commencement of the 
present Caliguga. Though no plausible conjecture can be founded 
on this tradition, yet I am induced to retract a conjecture formerly 
hazarded by me, that the Gar of our maps was the original country 
of the Gaura priests. 



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AND prAcrIt languages. 27 

verbal instruction in sciences is communicated through this 
medium, and even public disputations are conducted in 
this dialect. Instead of writing it in the Devanagari, as 
the Pracrit and Hindem are written,''^ the inhabitants of 
Bengal have adopted a peculiar character, which is nothing 
else but Devanagari, difformed for the sake of expeditious 
writing. Even the learned amongst them employ this 
character (or the Sanscrit language, the pronunciation of 
which, too, they in Uke manner degrade to the Bengali 
standard. The labours of Mr. Halheo and Mr. For- 
STER have already rendered a knowledge of the Bengali 
dialect accessible; and Mr. Forster's further exertions 
will still more facilitate the acquisition of a language 
which cannot but be deemed greatly useful, since it pre- 
vails throughout the richest and most valuable porticm of 
the British possessions in India. 

MaifAila, or Tirhutiya, is the language used in Mp- 
i'kila (that is, in the Sircar of TirhHit), and in some adjoin- 
ing districts, limited however by the rivers CuH (CauHci), 
and Gandkac iGandhaci), and by the mountains of Nepal. 
It has great affinity with Bengali ; and the character in 
which it is written differs little from that which is employed 
throughout Bengal. In Tirhut^ too, the learned write San" 
scrit in the Tirhutiya character, and pronounce it after 
their own inelegant manner. As the dialect of Mit'hild 
has no extensive use, and does not appear to have been at 

• Pr6crU and Hi7^d4 books are commonly written in the DivanS- 
gari ; but a corrupt writing, called Ndgarf^ is used by Hindus in all 
common transactions where Hindi is employed by them ; and a still 
more corrupted one, wherein vowels are for the most part omitted, is 
employed by bankers and others in mercantile transactions. I must 
here confess that I can give no satisfactory explanation of the 
term. The common etymology of N&gar'i is unsatisfactor}'; unless 
Nagma be taken as the name of some particular place emphatically 
<:aUed the city. 



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28 ON THE SANSCRIT 

any time cultivated by elegant poets, it is unnecessary to 
notice it further in this place. 

Utcala, or O clradesa, is co-extensive with the Suba of 
(yresa, extending from Medinipur to Manacapattanoy and 
from the sea to Sammall-pur. The language of this pro- 
vince, and the character in v^hich it is written, are both 
called Uriya, So far as a judgment can be formed from 
imperfect specimens of this language, it contains many 
Sanscrit words variously corrupted, vrith some Persian and 
Arabic terms borrowed through the medium of Hindustaniy 
and with others of doubtful origin. The letters are evi- 
dently taken from the Devanagari; and the Brahmens of 
this province use the Uriya character in writing the San- 
scrit language. Its deviations from the Devanagari may 
be explained, from the practice of writing on palm leaves 
with an iron style, or on paper with a pen cut from a por- 
cupine's quill. It differs in this respect from the hand- 
writing of northern tribes, and is analogous to that of the 
southern inhabitants of the peninsula. 

The five Hindu nations, whose peculiar dialects have 
been thus briefly noticed, occupy the northern and eastern 
portions of India; they are denominated the five Gaurs, 
The rest, called the five Dravirs, inhabit the southern and 
western parts of the peninsula. Some PancHts, indeed, 
exclude Carnaiay and substitute Casmira; but others, 
vrith more propriety, omit the Caskmirian tribe ; and, by 
adding the Canaras to the list of Dravirs, avoid the incon- 
sistency of placing a northern tribe among southern nations. 
There is reason, too, for doubting whether Casmira be 
occupied by a distinct nation, and whether the inhabitants 
of it be not rather a tribe of Canyacubjas. 

Dravira is the country which terminates the peninsula 
of India: its northern limits appear to lie between the 
twelfth and thirteenth degrees of north latitude. The lan- 



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AND prAcrYt languages. 29 

guage of the proviDce is the Tamely to which Europeans 
have given the name of Malabar^* from Malay-w&r, a 
province of JDravira. They have similarly corrupted the 
true name of the dialect into Tamul, Tamulic, and Tamu- 
lian^t but the word, as pronounced by the natives, is 
Tamla, or Tamalah ; and this seems to indicate a deri- 
vation from Tamray or Tamraparniy a river of note which 
waters the southern MaChuray situated within the limits 
otDravira. The provincial dialect is written in a character 
which is greatly corrupted from the parent Devayiagariy 
but which nevertheless is used by the Brakmens oiDravira 
in writing the Sanscrit language. After careftilly inspect- 
ing a grammar published by Mr. Drummond at Bombay, 
and a dictionary by missionaries at Madras, I can venture 
to pronounce that the Tamla contains many SaTWcri^ words, 
either unaltered or Uttle changed, vnth others more cor- 
rupted, and a still greater number of doubtful origin. 

The Maharashtra, or MahraHa, is the language of a 
nation which has in the present century greatly enlarged 
its ancient limits. If any inference may be drawn from the 
name of the character in which the language is vmtten, 
the country occupied by this people was formerly called 
Mdru ;J for the peculiar corruption of the Devanagari, 

* A learned Brdhmen of Drdvira positively aMures me, that the 
dialect of Malabar, though confounded by Europeans with the TdmeU 
is different from it, and is not the language to which Europeans have 
allotted that appellation. 

t The Romish and Protestant missionaries who have published 
dictionaries and grammars of this dialect, refer to another language, 
which they denominate Grandam and Orandoniami. It appears that 
Sanscrit is meant, and the term thus corrupted by them is Oranfhaf 
a volume or book. 

t Mentioned in the royal grant preserved at a famous temple in 
CarMia. See As. Rbs. vol. iii. p. 48. However, the Mahrattaa 
themselves affirm, that the Mitru character was introduced amongst 
them from the island of Sildn, 



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30 ON THE SANSCRYt 

which is employed by the MtihkraslAras in common trans^ 
Bctionsi is denominated by them Mur, Their books^ it 
must be ranarked, are commonly written in Devanagari, 
The Mahraiia nation was formerly confined to a moun- 
tainous tract situated south of the river Nermada, and 
extending to the province of C6can. Their language is 
now more widely spread, but is not yet become the yema- 
cular dialect of provinces situated far beyond the ancient 
bounds of their country. Like other Indian tongues, it 
contains much pure Sanscrit, and more corruptions of that 
language, intermixed with words bcmrowed from Persian 
and Arabic, and with others derived from an unknown 
source. If the bards of Miiru were once fiunous, their 
supposed successors, though less celebrated, are not less 
diligent. The MahraticLs possess many poems in thrown 
dialect, either translated from the Sanscrit, or ordinal 
compositions in honour of CrYshna, RAma, and other dei- 
fied heroes. Treatises in prose, too, on subjects of logic 
and of philosophy, have been composed in the MakraHa 
dialect 

CarMka, or Canata, is the ancient language of Car* 
naiaca, a province which has given name to districts on 
both coasts of the peninsula. This dialect still prevails in 
the intermediate mountainous tract, but seems to be super- 
seded by other provincial tongues on the eastern coast A 
peculiar character formed from the Devanagart, but like 
the Tamkif much corrupted from it through the practice of 
writing on palm-leaves mih an iron style, is called by the 
same name vnth the language of CanicUac, Brahmens of 
this tribe have assured me that the language bears the 
same afiinity to Sanscrit as other dialects of the Doeskin. 
I can affirm, too, firom their conversation, that the Canaras, 
like most other southern tribes, have not followed the ill 
example o( Bengal and the provinces adjacent to it, in pro- 



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AND prXcrIt languages. 31 

noDDcing the Sanscrit language in the same melegantman* 
ner with their own provincial dialects. 

Tailanga, THingah^ or Tilanga, is at once the name 
cf a nation, of its language, and of the diai*acter in which 
that language is written. Though the province of Telingima 
alone retain the name in pubUshed maps of India, yet the 
adjacent provinces on either bank of the CnshiML and G6d&~ 
vert, and those situated on the north-eastern coast of the 
peninsula, are undoubtedly comprehended within the an- 
cient limits of Tilanga, and are inhabited chiefly by peojde 
of this tribe. The language, too, is widely spread : and 
many circumstances indicate that the Tailangas formerly 
occupied a very extensive tract, in which they still consti- 
tute the principal part of the population. The character 
in which they write their own language is taken from 
Devanagari, and the Tailanga Brahmens employ it in 
writing the Sanscrit tongue, from which the Tailanga 
idiom is said to have borrowed more largely than other 
dialects used in the south of India. This language appears 
to have been cultivated by poets, if not by prose writers ; 
for the Tailangas possess many compositions in their own 
provincial dialect, some of which are said to record the 
ancient history of the country. 

The province of Q&tjara* does not appear to have been 
at any time much mcnre extensive than the modem Guzrat, 
although BrahmaAaSy distinguished by the name of that 
country, be now spread over the adjoining provinces on 
both sides of the Nermada. This tribe uses a language 
den(Hninated fix>m their own appellation, but very nearly 
allied to the Hindi tongue, while the character in which it 

* The limits of Giurjaray as here indicated, are too narrow. It 
seems to have heen co-extensive with the ancient, rather than the 
modem Quzrat^ and to have included the whole, or the greatest part 
of €and€9h and Malwa, 



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32 ON THE SANSCRIt 

is written conforms almost exactly with vulgar Nagari. 
Considering the situation of their country^ and the analogy 
of language and writings I cannot hesitate in thinking that 
the Grufjaras should be considered as the fifth northern 
nation of India, and the U'Ayas should be ranked among 
the tribes of the JDacshin. 

Brief and imperfect as is this account of the Pracrtts of 
India, I must be still more concise in speaking of the lan- 
guages denominated Magadhi and Apabhrania in the 
passages quoted at the beginning of this essay. Under 
these names are comprehended all those dialects which, 
together with the Pracrtts above-noticed, are generally 
known by the common appellation of Bhasha^ or speech. 
This term, as employed by all philologists, from PAnini 
down to tlie present professors of grammar, does indeed 
signify the popular dialect of Sanscrit, in contradistinction 
to the obsolete dialect of the Veda ; but in common accep- 
tation, Bhakha (for so the word is pronounced on the 
banks of the Granges) denotes any of the modem vernacular 
dialects of India, especially such as are corrupted firom 
the Sanscrit: these are very numerous. After excluding 
mountaineers, who are probably aborigines of India, and 
whose languages have certainly no affinity with Sanscrit^ 
there yet remain in the mountains and islands contiguous 
to India, many tribes that seem to be degenerate Hindus. 
They have certainly retained some traces of the language 
and writing which their ancestors had been taught to 
employ. 

Without passing the limits of Hindustan, it would be 
easy to collect a copious list of different dialects in the 
various provinces which are inhabited by the ten principal 
Hindu nations. The extensive region which is nearly 
defined by the banks of the Saraswati and Ganga on the 
north, and which is strictly limited by the shores of the 



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AND prAcrKt languages. 33 

eastern and western seas towards the south, contains fifty- 
seven provinces according to some lists, and eighty-four 
according to others. Each of these provinces has its 
peculiar dialect, which appears, however, in most instances, 
to be a variety only of some one among the ten principal 
idioms. Thus Hindustani^ which seems to be the lineal 
descendant of the Canyacubja, comprises numerous dialects, 
from the Ordu zeban, or language of the royal camp and 
court, to the barbarous jargon which reciprocal mistakes 
have introduced among European gentlemen and their 
native servants. The same tongue, under its more appro- 
priate denomination of Hindi, comprehends many dialects 
strictly local and provincial. They differ in the proportion 
of Arabic, Persian, and Sanscrit, either pure or slightly 
corrupted, which they contain ; and some shades of differ- 
ence may be also found in the pronunciation, and even in 
the basis of each dialect. 

Not being sufficiently conversant with all these idioms, 
I shall only mention two, which are well known, because 
lyric poets have employed them m songs, that are still the 
delight of natives of all ranks. I allude to the Penjaln 
and to the Brij-hhakha. The first is the lanofuage of 
Panchanada, or Penjab, a province watered by the five 
celebrated rivers which fall into the Sindhu. The songs 
entitled Khidls and Teppas, which are no doubt familiar 
to all who have a taste for the vocal music of India, are 
composed almost exclusively in this dialect ; as the Dhur^ 
peds and regular i2ag5 are Hindi; and Rikhtah*, in the 
language of the court of Hindustan. 

The Brij'bhakha, or Vraja bhasha, is the dialect sup- 
posed to have been anciently spoken among the peasants 



• The author of the Tazcareh Shudrd Hind explains Rckhtah as 
sig^nifying a poetry composed in the language of the royal court of 
Hindustan^ but in the style and metre of Persian poetry. 
VOL. II. 1> 



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34 ON THE SANSCRIT AND PRACRtt LANGUAGES. 

in the neighbourhood of Mafhura. It derives its name 
from the cow-pens {vrajd) and dairies in the forest of 
Vrind&y where CrKshna was educated among the wives 
and daughters of the cowherds. His amorous adventures 
with RAdhA and the G6pis furnish the subject of many 
favourite songs in this dialect. It is still spoken with 
much purity throughout a great part of the AntarMd or 
D6ab, and in some districts on the opposite banks of the 
Yamuna and Gangd. 

To these cursory observations might be fitly added a 
specimen of each language, and of the character in which 
it is written, togethei* with a Ust of the most common terms 
in the various dialects of India, compared with words of 
similar sound and import in the ancient languages of 
Europe. I have, indeed, made collections for this purpose: 
but the insertion of a copious list would exceed the Umits 
of a desultory essay. For this reason, and because the 
collection is yet incomplete, I suppress it ; and shall here 
close the present essay abruptly, with the intention of 
resuming the subject, should the further prosecution of 
these enquiries at any future time enable me to furnish 
the information called for by this Society, concerning the 
number of Hinduwi dialects, and the countries where they 
are spoken. 



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II. 

Preface to <A« Author's ^Grammar of theS avscrIt 
Language.' 



[Calcutta, 1805. Folio.] 

Having accepted on honourable nomination to the post 
of Professor of the Sanscrit Language in the College of 
Fort William, early after the foundation of that useful in- 
stitution, I felt it incumbent on me to furnish, through 
the press, the means of studying a language, which it 
was my duty to make known, but on which I had no inten- 
tion of delivering oral instruction. 

Among other imdertakings adapted to this purpose, the 
publication of a Sanscrit Grammar was commenced, which 
was first intended to be brief and elementary, but of which 
the design has been enlarged in its progress. As the entire 
work will exceed the bounds of a single volume, a conve- 
nient break has been chosen to close the first, and a few 
remarks will be now prefixed to it, since a considerable 
time may dapse before the second volume be completed. 
I have the less scruple, in pausing upon this work, to devote 
my attenticoi to other duties, because the deficient part of 
it may be supplied by the grammai*s which Mr. Forster 
and Mr. Carey will severally publish. 

In the composition of this grammar, I have followed 
the system taught by writers, whose works are considered 
by the prevailing sects of Hindus to be sacred, and to 
form an appendage of their scriptures. My reasons for 
preferring these to the popular or profane treatises on 
Grammar, were stated in an essay on the Sanscrit lan- 

D 2 



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36 PREFACE TO THE AUTHOR's GRAMMAR 

guage inserted in the seventh volume of the Asiatic Re- 
searches.* I adhere to the opinion there expressed. The 
sacred grammar has been more cultivated, its agreement 
with ancient writings and classical authors has been more 
carefully verified, than any other grammar of the language : 
it is more usually cited, and moi'e generally understood : 
and, as finally corrected by a long train of commentators, 
it is more accurate and complete. 

The arrangement, indeed, w ill-adapted to &cilitate 
study ; both in the original work, and in the numerous 
illustrations of it. But I thought it practicable to frame a 
grammar upon the same system, which should be easily 
intelligible to the English student of Sanscrit. Without 
believing that I have succeeded, I still think it to be 
practicable : and the difficulties which may be experienced 
in the following pages, will in general be found owing 
merely to the want of examples ; which have been omitted, 
under the apprehension of rendering the work too voluminous. 

An improvement which has been recently effected in 
the types of the Nagari character, by reducing their size, 
without diminishing their distinctness, has removed the 
objection to ample illustrations by examples : and, if this 
work should be reprinted, examples of every rule will 
accordingly be inserted ; and, at all events, they will be 
retained in the second volume of this grammar. 

On the same supposition of a new edition of this first 
volume, I should be desirous of altering some of the 
terms adopted by me in place of technical words in Sans- 
crit grammar. An unwillingness to coin new words in 
English, led me to use some expressions, which are not 
sufficiently precise ; others were selected by me, not anti- 
cipating objections to their use, which have since occurred : 
and, in some instances, I have inadvertently changed an 
appropriate term for one less suitable. The most material 

• See page 15 of the present volume. 

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OF THE SANSCRTt LANGUAGE. 37 

intended changes are mentioned in the margin ;* and the 
reader is requested to notice them. 

I shall be likewise glad to have an opportunity of insert- 
ing the original rules of Sanscrit Grampiar. They are 
usually committed to memory by native students of the 
language ; and are cited by Sanscrit authors, in words, 
and not by reference to their place or their import. The 
knowledge of them is, therefore, material to the student 
of Sanscrit : and they are framed, like the aphorisms of 
other sciences among the Hindus, with studied and inge- 
nious brevity. 

The author of these grammatical aphorisms is Panini. 
His rules, with the annotations of CatyAyana entitled 
VarticaSf confirmed or corrected by Patanjali in the 
Mahabhashya, constitute the standard of Sanscrit gram- 

* Letters, added by Sanscrit grammarians, as marks, but which 
are not sounded, nor retained in the inflections, are called by them 
Anuhandha OT It 'y which, in this grammar, has been translated mutei 
but the circumstance of such vowels being accented, leads to the 
inconsistency of speaking of accented mute voweb. They would be 
better designated by the word indicatory, 

A class of derivative verbs, which in a former treatise I denomi- 
nated FreqttentativeSy has been here named Intensives, On considera- 
tion, I revert to the first-mentioned term. 

Under the head of tenses, I have used the word Aorist to signify 
indefinite in respect to a species of time, instead of indefinite as to 
time in general : the name of Remote past is not sufficiently descrip- 
tive of the import of the tense to which it has been assigned ; and 
several others are open to a similar remark: I wish therefore to 
change the names of the tenses, according to the following scheme. 

1. Present. 

2. Preterite unperceived (Remote past) 

3. Crastine future (Absolute future.) 

4. Indefinite future (Aorist future.) 

5. Aorist Isi. (Imperative, &c.) 

6. Pridian past (Absolute past) 

7. Aorist 2d, (Imperative, &c.) 

8. Indefinite past (Aorist past.) 

9. Conditional (Conditional future.) 



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38 PREFACE TO THE AUTHOR's GRAMMAR 

mar. From the three saints^ as Hindu grammarians affect 
to call them, there is no appeal. Other authorities may be 
admitted, where they are silent : but a deviation even by a 
classical or an ancient writer, from a rule in which they 
concur, is deemed either a poetical license or a privileged 
barbarism. 

The works of these sacred writers, with the notes of 
CAiYYAf A on the Mahabhashyay interpreted by his scho- 
Uasts, and more especially the perpetual commentary of 
VAmana on PAnini's aphorisms, under the title of Casi' 
cavrittiy elucidated by the copious annotations of Hara- 
datta MisRA in the Padamanjarty are the basis of the 
grammar here printed. The Siddhanta caumudty and 
ManSrama of BHAff6ji, with their commentaries, have 
been frequently consulted by me. Much use has also been 
made of the Pracriya caumudty with its commentaries, the 
Prasada and Tatwa chandra: and I have continually 
referred to Maitr^ya, MAdhava, V6PADi:vA, and the 
other interpreters of Sanscrit roots. A reader, who may 
be desirous of verifying my authorities, should be apprized^ 
that the Casica vrittiy Siddhanta caumudi, and Madha- 
viya vritti have been my chief guides: and that others, 
besides the books enumerated, have been occasionally con- 
sulted ; as the Ganaratna mahSdadhiy the Vritti sangraka, 
and the commentators of the Paribhashas; and sometimes, 
though rarely, the popular grammars. 

For the information of the Sanscrit student, a list of 
these and other grammatical works will be subjoined, in- 
cluding many treatises which have not been used for this 
grammar ; but none, which I do not know to be extant ; 
and few, of which I do riot actually possess complete copies. 
The list might have been greatly enlarged by adding the 
names of books quoted by undoubted authorities : and I 
shall only remark, in regard to such works, that the earliest 



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OF THE SANSCrYt LANGUAGE. 39 

grammaiians are expressly stated by V6pADfevA, to have 
been Indra, Chandra^ CASACRtTSNA, Apisal!, SAca- 
TAYANA, PAnini, Amera^ and Jainbndra. Among 
thesePAiiiNi remains ; and some of the others : perhaps all. 

The authorities, which have been mentioned by me, as 
generally followed in this grammar, differ materially in 
their arrangement. I have been guided sometimes by one, 
sometimes by another, as seemed best adapted to the two 
objects proposed, conciseness and perspicuity. I am ap- 
prehensive, that, in the pursuit of both objects, one has 
frequently been missed. It was, however, with the view 
of compressing much grammatical information in a small 
compass, that paradigmas have been multiplied, but ex- 
hibited in a succinct form ; and that general rules only are 
usually inserted in the text, while exceptions and special 
rules are placed in the notes. 

I have admitted no remarks on general grammar, though 
suggested by the numerous pecuUarities of Sanscrit. These, 
with the observations which occur on a comparison of the 
ancient language of India with those of Europe, are de- 
ferred until the completion of the work. 

In the meantime, one singularity of the Sanscrit lan- 
guage may be noticed : its admitting both the ancient and 
the modem systems of grammatical structure. It abounds 
in inflections for cases and genders ; tenses and persons : and 
it also admits a simple construction of indecUnable nouns 
vrith prepositions, and of participles with auxiliary verbs. 

This remark anticipates on a part of the grammar 
reserved for the second volume, in which composition and 
syntax will be explained, with other matters indicated in 
the note subjomed to the table of contents of the first 
volume. 



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LisTo/*SANscRlfT Grammars, t/7iMCoMMENTARiEs,^c. 



Siittra by Pan INI : rules of grammar in eight books en- 
titled Ashiadhyaya ; comprising 3,996 aphorisms. 

Varticahy CatyAyana, amending or explaining PAnini's 
rules. 

Mahabhashya by Patanjali, interpreting or correcting 
CAtyAyana's annotations. 

Mahabhashya pradipa by Caiyyat a, annotating Patan- 
j A Li's gloss. 

Bhashya pradip6dy6ta by NAgoji BHAffA, commenting 
on CAiYYAf a's notes. 

Bhashya pradipa vivarana by IswarAnanda: another 
commentary on CAiYYAfA's notes. 

Casica vritti by JayAditya or VAmana jayAditya : a 
perpetual commentary on PAnini's rules. 

Padamanjari byHARADATXA miSra: an exposition of 
tlie last mentioned work. 

Nyasa or Casica vritti panjica by Jin^ndra: another 
exposition of the same,* with explanatory notes by 
Racshita. 

Vritti Sangraha by NAg6ji bhatt a : a concise commen- 
tary onPANiNi. 

Bhasha vritti by Purush6ttama nfevA : a commentary 
on PAnini's rules (omitting those which are peculiar 
to the dialect of the Vidas). 

* I state this with some distrust, not having yet seen the book. 
The Nydsa is universally cited; and the Bbdhinydsa is frequently so. 
V^oPAoivA's Cdvya cdmadhcnu quotes the Nydsa of JiNiNDRx and 

that of JlNiNDIlA BUDDHl. 



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LIST OF SANSCRtT GRAMMARS^ &C. 41 

Bhasha vrittyarfka vivritti by SRtsuf idh ara ; explaining 
Purush6ttama's commentary. 

Sabda caustubha by BHAff6ji dIcshita, consisting of 
scholia on PAnini (left incomplete by the author). 

Prabha by BaidyanIt'ha pAyagunda, also named 
BALAMBHAfiA; a commentary on the Sabda cau- 
stubha. 

Pracriya caumudi by RAmachandra AchArya : a 
grammar in which PAnini's rules are used, but his ar- 
rangement changed. 

Prasada by Viff'HALA AchArya ; a commentary on the 
Pracriya caumvdi. 

Tatwa chandra by Jayanta: another commentary on 
the same, abridged from one by CrIshna ?an6ita. 

Siddhanta caumudi hy BHAffoji dIcshit a: a grammar 
on the plan of the Pracriya ; but more correct and com- 
plete. 

Man6ramd or Prauclha man&rama by the same author; 
containing notes on his own work. 

Tatwa bddkini by JnyAn^ndra saraswatI : a com- 
mentary on BHAff 6ji's Siddhanta caumudL 

Sabdendu sec'hara by NAg^sa BHAff a (same with NA- 
G6jiBHAffA): another commentary on the S^ic^Aanto 
caumudi. 

Laghu sabdendu sec'hara : an abridgment of the last. 

Ckidast'kimala by BaidyanAt'ha pAyagunda: acom- 
mentary on the abridged gloss of NAg^sa. 

Sabdaratna by H ari dIcshita : a commentary on BuAf- 
f6ji's notes on the Man6rama. riT' t»v! ;.^^ i^jj.^ 

Laghu sabdaratna : an abridgment of the same. 

JBhava pracasica hy BaidyanAt'ha pAyagunda: an 
exposition of H ARI dIcshita's commentary. 

Madhya caumudi by Barada rAja : an abridgment of 
the Siddhanta caumudi. There is also a Madhya ma- 



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42 LIST OF sanscrKt grammars, 

n&rama; besides other abridgments of the Siddhanta 

itself, as the Laghu caumudiy &c. 
Paribhasha : maxims of interpretation from ancient gram- 
marians, cited in the Varticas and Bhashyaj as rules for 

interpreting PAnini's sdtras. 
Paribhasha vritti by SIra d^va : a commentary on the 

cited maxims of interpretation. 
Laghu paribhasha vritti by BhAscara BHAff a : a suc- 
cinct commentary on the same. 
Paribhasharfha sangraha: another commentary on the 

same. 
Chandrica by Swayampracasananda : interpreting the 

last mentioned commentary. 
PaHbhashendu sec'hara by NAg^Sa BHAff a: a brief 

exposition of the same maxims. 
Paribhdshendu sec*hara casica by Baid\ anAt'ha pAya- 

GUNDA, commenting the gloss of NAofesA. 
Carica : metrical rules of grammar, cited in iJie Mahabha- 

shya, Casica vritti, 8cc. 
Vacf/a pradipa by Bhartrihari: metrical maxims 

chiefly on the philosophy of syntax. These are often 

cited under the name of Haricarica. 
Vaiyacarana bhushana by Con 6 a BHAff a: on syntax 

and the philosophy of grammatical structure. 
Bhushana sara darpana by Hariballabha : a commen- 
tary on the work last mentioned. 
Vaiyacarana bhdshana sara : an abridgment of the same 

work. 
Laghu bhushana canti by Baidyanat'ha pAyagunda : 

a commeid^iry on that abridgment. 
Vaiyacarana siddhanta manjdsha by NAofe&A BHAff a: 

on syntax and the philosophy of grammatical structure. 
Laghu vaiyacarana siddhanta manjusha : an abridgment 

of the same. 



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WITH COMMENTARIES^ &C. 43 

Qiia by BaidyanAt*ha payagunda: a commentary on 
the last mentioned abridgment. 

Other treatises on construction logically considered, 
which are very numerous, are omitted as belonging 
more properly to the science of logic. 

Ganapaia : lists of words comprehended in rules of gram- 
mar, under general classes. 

Ganaratna mahSdadhi : a collection of such lists, with a 
commentary. 

Dhatupaia by PAnini : the roots or themes systemati- 
cally arranged, with their indicatory letters and their 
interpretations. 

Dhatupradipa or Tantrapradipa by Maitr^ya rac- 
SHiTA : an illustration of the list of roots, with exam- 
ples of their inflections. 

Madhamyavrittihy^kYh'SA kcv{kKy\j in the name of 
Madhava AchArya: a copious exposition of the 
roots with their derivatives. 

The Bhaiii cavya, a poem describing the adventures of 
RAma, may be considered as a grammatical work, 
having been purposely written for a practical instruction 
on grammar. It has several commentaries. 

The Sicsha of PAnini and Niructa of YAsca, with the 
commentaries on the Nighania included in the last, are 
there omitted, as they are of little use, except in the 
reading of the Vedas. Treatises on particular branches 
of etymology are also omitted, as not very generally 
consulted. Such is the Ya?i luganta sirSmani on the 
formation of frequentative verbs. 

Numerous other works, belonging to this grammar, have 
not been ascertained to be extant, being at present 
known only through quotations from them : as the Por 
niniya mata darpana quoted in the Prasada ; and many 
others cited in the Madhaviya vrittu 



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44 LIST OF SANSCRlfx GRAMMARS^ 

The following belong to other Systems of Grammar. 

Sdraswati pracriya by Anubh6ti swar^pAchArya : 
a grammar founded on seven hundred rules or apho- 
rismsy pretended to have been received by the author 
from the goddess SaraswatI. This grammar is much 
used in Hindustan proper. 

A commentary on the same by PunjarAja. 

Another by MAHiBHAff a. 

Siddhanta chandricd: another commentary on the same 
grammar. 

Pada c/iandricd: another^ in which PAnini's aphorisms 
are also exhibited. 

Haimavyacarana by H^machandra or H^MAstiRl. A 
Sanscrit grammar is cited under this title, which is 
probably the same with H&machandra's commentary 
on the Sabdanitsasana, entitled Laghu vritti ; comprised 
in eight books, including in the last the anomaUes of 
the Pracrit language as derived from the Sanscrit. 
(The Camadhenu cites a Sahddnusasana by Abhinava 
SAcAf Ayana besides H^masOri's work.) This gram- 
mar is used by the Jainas. 

A commentary, without the author's name, is annexed to 
Hi^MACHANDRA's grammar. 

Pracrita man&rama: an abridged commentary on the 
Pracrtta chandricd of Vararuchi ; showing the ano- 
malies of Prdcrit formed from Sanscrit. 

Cdtantra or CaJapa : a grammar, of which the rules or 
aphorisms are ascribed to the god CumAra. It is 
much used in Bengal. 

Daurgasinhi: a commentary on the above by Durga- 
siNHA ; but stated in the introductory couplet to be the 
work of Sarva v arm an, who is accordingly cited in 
V6p A diva's Cdmadhenu. 



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WITH COMMENTARIES, &C. 45 

Catantra vrttti Hca byDuRGASiNHA: an exposition of 

the above mentioned commentary. (The Camadhenu 

quotes the Durga Hca of Durgagupta, and the Ca- 

tantra vistara o{Vab.dh AM ks A misra.) 
Catantra panjica by Tril6chanadA.sa: a commentary 

on the same grammar. 
CbJopato^arTiat^a by Raghunandana AchArya Sir6- 

MANi : another commentary on the same grammar. 
Catantra chandrica: another commentary on the same. 
Chaitracuti byVARARucHi: another on the same. 
Vyac^hya sara by HarirAma chacravartI: another 

commentary. 
Vyac^hya sara by RAmadAsa : another, under the same 

title. 
Other commentaries on the same granmiar by Sush6na 

cavirAja, RamAnAt'ha, UmApati, Culachandra, 

and MurAri. 
Catantra parisishia by SrIpatidatta : a supplement to 

the Catantra. 
Parisishia prabddha by G6piNAT'HA : a commentary on 

the above. 
Parisishia siddhanta ratnacara by SivarAma chacra- 

vartI : another on the same. 
Catantra gana dhatu : the roots or themes systematically 

arranged for the Catantra. 
Man&rama by RamAnAt'ha : a commentary on that list 

of verbs. 
Many other treatises belong to tliis grammar; as the 

Catantra Sliaicaraca by Rah as an and!, the Catantra 

Unadi vritti by SivadAsa, the Catantra chatushiaya 

pradipay Catantra dhatughSsh&y Catantra sabda mala, &c. 

Sancskiptasara byCRAMADifiwARA: a grammar, corrected 
by JuMARANANoi and often cited under the title of 
Jaumara, This grammar is in use in Bengal. 



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46 LIST OF sanscrYt grammars, 

A commentary on the above, by G6YicHANDRA. 
Vyacara dipica by NyAya panchAnana: an exposition 

of G6YicHANDRA's Commentary. 
Another exposition of the same commentary by VANsivA- 

DANA. 

Durgkaia ghaiana : another commentary on the Sancship- 

tasara. 
Other commentaries on the same grammar, by different 

authors, as G6pJila chacravartI, &c 
A supplement to JumabanandI's corrections of the 

Sancshiptasara by G6YicHANDRA. 
Other treatises appertain to this grammar, as SabdaghdiJuiy 

DhatughSsha, &c. 

Mugdhab6dha by V6pad6va : a grammar of the Sanscrit 
language, much studied in Bengcd. 

A commentary by the author of the grammar. 

Another by DurgAdAsa, entitled Subddhini. 

One by MiSra, entitled Ch'kaia. 

Other commentaries by RAmAnanda, RAma tarcavAg- 
fsA, Madhus6dana, DfevioAsA, RAmabhadra, 
RAmaprasAda tarcavAgIsa, SrIballabhAchAr- 
YA, DayArAma vAchespati, Bh6lAnAt'ha, CAr- 
TicA siddhAnta, RaticAnta tarcavagISa, G6- 

VINDA rAmA, &C. 

MugdhabSdha pariiishia by CA§!swara : a supplement 

to the MugdhabSdha. 
Another by Nandacis6ra. 
Camcaipadmma by V6PADfevA : an alphabetical catalogue 

of roots, arranged in verse. 
Cavya camadhenu by the same author, explaining his own 

list of verbs. 
Dhatu dipica by DurgAdAsa: a commentary on the 

same catalogue of verbs. 



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WITH COMMENTARIES, &C. 47 

Camcalpadrama vyac'hya by RAma nyItAlaj^cAra : 
another commentary on the same. 

D'hatwratnavali by RAd'hAcbYshi^a : a metrical cata- 
logue of roots. 

Cavirahasya by HelAyudh a : exhibiting in verse examples 
of the most common verbs. 

A commentary on the same. 

SupadmahyP ADM AN kBH A datta : a grammar of Sans- 
crit. It is in use in some parts of Bengal. 

Sfupadma nuwaranda or McLcaranda: a commentary on the 
above, by Vishnu mi£ra. 

Other commentaries by various authors: as Candarpa 

SIDDhAnTA, CAfiisWARA, SrIdHARA CHACRAVARTi, 

RAmachandra, &c. 

Supadma parisishia : a supplement to the grammar. 

Supadma dhatupaia by PadmanAbha datta: a list 
of themes or roots for the author's grammar, called 
Supadma. The same author added other appendages to 
his grammar, viz. Paribhasha and Unadivritii. 

Other treatises belong to this grammar ; as the Camwan 
gana, and its commentary by RAmacAnta. 

Ratnamala by Purush6ttama : a grammar used in 

Camarupa. 
Druta h6dha by Bharatamalla : a grammar, with a 

commentary on it by the same author. This and the 

following are not much in use. 
Sudhaiub6dha by RAm^swara : another grammar with a 

commentary by the author himself. 
Harinamamrita by JivAGH68HA swAivii : another, with a 

commentary. 



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48 LIST OF sanscrKt grammars, 

Chaitanyimrita : another, also accompanied by a com- 
mentary. 

Caricavalt by RAma nArayana : a grammar in verse. 

Prabddha pracasa by BalarAma panchAnana : a 
grammar. 

Ritpamala by Vimala saraswati; another grammar. 

Jny&namrita byCA§i§wARA : another. 

AsubSdka, Laghub6dhay Sighrabddha, Saramuta, Divya, 
Padavaliy Ulca ; and many other grammars by various 
authors. 

Besides Vararuchi's Pracrita pracasa or Chandrica, 
and BhAmaha's commentary entitled Man&rama vrttti 
before-mentioned, other grammars of Pracrit are known : 
as the Pracrita camadhenu, Pracrita lanceswara, 8cc. 

Authorities of Sanscrit grammar, cited in books which 
have been used for the present volume, but not otherwise 
known, nor in any manner ascertained to be now extant, 
have been excluded from the foregoing list. Many of them 
could not be confidently referred to any particular system 
of grammar ; and, in numerous instances, a doubt arises, 
whether the same work be not quoted under different 
names, in different places : sometimes, under the title of 
the book ; at other times, under the designation of the 
author. A few of these names, which occur most fre- 
quently, will be here enumerated, with a notice of the au- 
thority by which they are quoted. 

PAnini himself names SAcalya, GArgya, CASyapa, 
GAlava, ApisALi, SAcAfAvANA, BhAradwAja, As- 
walAyana, Sp'H6f Ayana, and ChAcravarmana. 

The Madhavtya vrttti quotes, among many other au- 
thors, Chandra, ApisalI, SAcAfAYANA, Atr^ya, 
Dhanapala, Causica, PurushacAra, SudhAcara, 



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WITH COMMENTARIBSy &C. 49 

MaDHUSOdANA^ YAdAVA, BhAgURI, ^RfBHADRA, Sl- 

vAD^vAy RAmad£va misra, D&vAy NANDi, RAma, 
BhIma, BH6jAy H^lArAja, SubhCti chandra, 

P6rNA CHANDRA, YaJNTANArA YANA, CaNWA, SwAlif , 

CisAVA swAMiy Siva swAm}, Dh^rta swAmI, CshIra 
swAmI (this last is cited in the Prasada as author of the 
Cshira tarangini). The Madhamya likewise frequently 
cites the Taranginij AbharaAa, Sabdicahharana^ Samanta, 
Pracriya ratna and Pratipa. 

The Varticas of VyAghra bh^ti and VyAghra 
pAda are mentioned by many authors; and so is the 
Dkatu parayana. VbvAoiyA, in the Camadhenu, has 
quoted the Panjica pradipa o{ Cv^ala (belonging perhaps 
to the grammar called Catantra;) and the Saratwati 
canidbharana (ascribed by some to Bh6ja d^va). The 
Prasada often cites the Ramavyacaranaj and seems to 
name V6pad6va as the author of it. 

The following are, among others, noticed in the Dhor- 
tudipica o{ Dv^Gk dAsa, viz. BHAff amalla,G6vinda 
BHAffA, Chaturbhuja, Gadisinha, G6vardhana, 
and Saramad£va. 



VOL. II. 



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III. 

Pbefacb to the Author^s Edition of the Ambra 

c6sHA. 



[Calcutta, 1808. 4to.] 



The compilation of a Sanscrit dictionary having been 
undertaken eariy after the institution of the collie of 
Fort William, it was at the same time thought advisable 
to print, in Sanscrit and English, the work which has been 
chosen for the basis of that compilation, as well for the 
sake of exhibiting an original authority to which reference 
will be frequently necessary, as with the view of furnishing 
an useful vocabulary, which might serve until an ampler 
dictionary could be prepared and published. 

The celebrated Amera cSsha, or Vocabulary of Sanscrit 
by Amera sin ha, is, by the unanimous sufirage of the 
learned, the best guide to the acceptations of nouns in 
Sanscrit. The work of PJinini on etymology is rivalled 
by other grammars, some of which have even obtained the 
preference in the opinion of the learned of particular pro- 
vinces ; but Amera's vocabulary has prevailed wherever 
the Sanscrit language is cultivated, and the numerous 
other vocabularies which remain, are consulted only where 
Amera's is either silent or defective. It has employed the 
industry of innumerable commentators, while none of the 
others (with the single exception of HfeMACHANDRA's) 
have been interpreted even by one annotator. Such decided 
preference for the Amera c6sha, and the consequent fre- 
quency of quotations from it, determined the selection of 
this as the basis of an alphabetical dictionary, and sug- 



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PBEPACE TO THE AMERA c68HA. 51 

gested the expedUency of ako pubiishiiig the original text 
with an English inCerpietation. 

like other Tocabolaries of Sanscrit, that of Amera is 
in metre ; and a considerable degree of knowledge of the 
hngcuige becomes requisite to discriminate the words from 
their interpretations^ and to separate them from contiguoas 
t^rms whidi ^ttect their initials and finals. On this ac- 
count, and to adapt the work to the nse of the English 
student, the worcte, of wfaieh the sense is exhibited, are 
disjoined firom their interpretation (which is included be- 
tween crotchets) ; and the close of each word is marked by 
a roman letter over it indicating the gender of the noun. 
Where a letter has been permuted according to the Seau- 
crit system of orthography, a dot is placed under the line, 
to intimate that a letter is there altered or omitted : and a 
marginal note is added, exhilnting the radical final of the 
noun, or its initial, in every instance where either of them 
is so far disguised by permutation as not to be easily 
recognized upon a slight knowledge of the rudiments of 
the language, and c^ its orthography. An explanation in 
English is given in the margin, and completed when ne- 
cessary at the foot of the page. The different interpre- 
tations proposed by the several commentators, and the 
variations in orthography remarked by them, are also 
specified in the same place. 

According to the original plan of the present publica- 
tion, the variations in the reading of the text (for which a 
carefiil collation has been made of several copies and of 
numerous commentaries) are noticed only where they affect 
the interpretation of a word or its orthography. It was 
not at first intended to insert those differences which are 
remarked by commentators upon other authority, and not 
upon the ground of any variation in the text itself. How- 
ever, the utility of indicating such differences was afler- 

E 2 



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62 PRJBFACE TO THE AUTHOR's EPITION 

wards Uiought to counterbalaace any inconvenience attend- 
ing it; and after some progress had been made at the 
press, this and other additions to the original design were 
admitted, which have rendered a supplement necessary to 
supply omissions in the first chapters, and complete the 
work upon an uniform plan. 

To avoid too great an increase of the volume, the various 
readings and interpretations are rather hinted than fully set 
forth : it has been judged sufficient to state the result, as 
the notes would have been too much lengthened, if the 
ground of disagreement had been every where exhibited 
and explained. For the same reason, authorities have not 
been cited by name. The mention of the particular com- 
mentator in each instance would have enlarged the notes, 
with very little advantage, as the means of verifying autho- 
rities are as effectually furnished by an enumeration of the 
works which have been employed and consulted. They 
are as follow : 

I. The text of the Amera cdsha. 

This vocabulary, comprised in three books, is frequently 
cited under the title of Tricdn^a,* sometimes under the 
denomination of Abhidhdna (nouns), from its subject; 
oflen under that of Amera cSsha, from the name of the 
author. The commentators are indeed unanimous in ascrib- 
ing it to Amera sin ha. He appears to have belonged to 
the sect of Buddha (though this be denied by some of 
his scholiasts), and is reputed to have lived in the reign of 
VicramAditya ; and he is expressly named among the 

* I. e. the Three Books. But that name properly appertains to 
a more ancient vocabalary, which is mentioned by the commen- 
taries on the Amera cos/la^ among the works from which this is 
supposed to have been compiled. 



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OF THE AMERA c6sHA. 53 

ornaments of the court of Raja Bh6ja,* one of the many 
princes to whom that title has been assigned. If this 
mention of him be accurate, he must have lived not more 
than eight hundred years ago; for a poem entitled Subhd- 
shita ratna sandSha, by a Jaina author named Amita- 
GATi, is dated in the year 1060 from the death of Vicra- 
MADiTYA, and in the reign of Munja, who was uncle and 
predecessor of RAjA Bh6ja. It, however, appears incon- 
sistent with the inscription at Buddha gaya which is dated 
in the year 1005 of the era of VicramAditya, and in 
which mention is made of Amera nfevA, probably the 
same with the author of the vocabulary. From the fre- 
quent instances of anachronism, both in sacred and profane 
stoty as current among the Hindus, more confidence seems 
due to the inscription than to any popular tales concerning 
Raj A Bh6ja ; and the Amera cosha may be considered 
as at least nine hundred years old, and possibly more 
ancient. 

It is intimated in the, author's own preface that the work 
was compiled from more ancient vocabularies: his com- 
mentators instance the TricanAay-); Utpalini, Rabhasa 
and CAtyAyana, as frimishing information on the nouns, 
xmd VyA6i and Vararuchi on the genders. The last 
mentioned of these authors is reputed contemporary with 
VicramAditya, and consequently with Amera sinha 
himself. 

The copies of the original which have been employed in 
the correction of the text, in the present pubUcation, are, 

1st. A transcript made for my use from an ancient cor- 
rected copy in the Tirhutiya character, and collated by 
me with a copy in Devanagari, which had been carefiiUy 
examined by Sir William Jones. He had inserted in it 

• In the Bho;'a prabandha. t See a preceding note. 



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64 PREFACE TO THE AUTHOR's EDITION 

an English interpretation, of whidi also I reserved a copy, 
and have denyed great assistance from it in the present 
publication. 

2d. A transcnpt in 2>et9a«agaHcharacfeer, with a commen- 
tary and notes in the Canara dialect It contains immeioiis 
passages, which axe mmoticed in ibe most approved com- 
mentaries, and which are accordingly omitted in the present 
edition. 

3d. Another copy in the Divanagcari character, with a 
brief and imperfect interpretation in Hindi. 

4th. A copy in the Bengal character, with marginal 
notes explanatory of the text. 

5ih. A copy in duplicate, accompanied by a Scmscnt 
commentary, which will be forthwith mentioned (that of 
RamASrama). It contains a few passages not noticed by 
most of the commentators. They have been, however, 
retained on the authority of this schoUast. A like remark 
is applicable to certain other passages expounded in some 
commentaries, but not in others. All such have been 
retained, where the auUiority itsdf has been deemed 
good. 

6th. Recourse has been oocasumally had to otlier copies 
of the text in the possession of natives, whenever it has 
been thought any ways requisite. 

II. Commentaries on the Amera c6ska. 

1. At the head of the commentaries whidi have been 
used, must be placed that of RAta MucufA, (orVRYnAS- 
PATi, sumamed RAya Mucuf a mani). This work, en- 
tided Padaehandrie&f was compiled, as the author himself 
informs us, from sixteen earlier commentaries, to many of 
which he repeatedly refers ; especially those of CshIra 
swAmI, SubhOti, Ha66a chanora, Calinga, C6n- 



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OF THE AMERA c68HA. 55 

cAf A| Sarvadhara, and the Vyac'kjfamrita, Ticasctr^ 
vanoa, ^c* 

Its age is ascertained from the incidental mention of a 
date^ viz. 1353 Saca, or 4532 of the Cali yuga, correspond-* 
ingto A.D. 1431. 

Though the derivations in Mucuf a's commentary be 
often inaccurate, and other errors also have been remarked 
by later compilers, its authority is in general great ; and 
accordingly it has been carefully consulted under every 
article of the present work. 

2. Among the eariier commentaries named by RAya 
MucufA, that of CshIra swImI is the only one, which 
has been examined in the progress of this comjnlation. It 
is a work of considerable merit ; and is still in general use 
in some provinces of India, although the interpretations not 
unfrequently differ from those commonly received. 

3. The Vyac^hyasudhcLy a modem commentary by RA- 
masrama or by BhAnudIcshita (for copies differ as to 
the name of the author), is the work of a granunarian of the 
school of Benares. He continually refers to RA ya m ucuf a 
and to SwAm! ; and his work serves to confirm their scholia 
where accurate, and to correct them where erroneous. It 
has been consulted at every line. 

4. The Vya&hya pradipaj by Achyuta UpAdhyAya, 
is a concise and accurate exposition of the text ; but adds 
little to the information frunished by the works above- 
mentioned. It has been, however, occasionally consulted. 

In these four commentaries, the derivations are given 

* The following Dames may be selected from Muouf a's quotatioDS, 
to complete the number of sixteen : Mddhavi^ Mad/tu mddhavi, Sar- 
v6nanda, Abhinanda^ RXjADivA, 66verdhana, DRlyi6A, Bh6ja- 
RAJA. But some of these appear to be separate works, rather than 
commentaries on the Amera cosha, Muouf a occasionally cites the 
most celebrated grammarians, as Pacini, Jayaditta, JinInora, 
MAiTRivA, Raoshita, Purush6ttama, Maduava, &c. 



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56 PREFACE TO THE AUTHOR's EDITION 

according to PAif iNi's system. lo otheiB^ which are next 
to be enumerated, various popular grammars are followed 
for the etymologies. But, as the derivations of the words 
are not included in the plan of the present work, being 
reserved for a place in the intended alphabetical dictionary 
of Sanscrit, those commentaries have not been the less 
useful in regard to the information which was sought in 
them. 

5. The commentary of Bharata malla (entitled 
MugdhabSdhinz) has been as regularly consulted as those 
of Mucuf A and RAmASr am a. It is, indeed, a very excel- 
lent work; copious and clear, and particularly full upon 
the variations of orthography according to different readings 
or different authorities : the etymologies are given conform- 
ably with V6p A diva's system of grammar. The author 
flourished in the middle of last century. 

6. The Sara sundari, by Mat'hur&^a, has been much 
used. It is perspicuous and abounds in quotations from 
other commentaries, and is therefore a copious source of 
information on the various interpretations and readings of 
the text. The Supadma is the grammar followed in the 
derivations stated by this commentator. Mat'hur6§a is 
author likewise of a vocabulary in verse, entitled Sabda- 
ratnavaH^ arranged in the same order with the Amera 
cSsha, and which might serve therefore as a commentary 
on that work. It was compiled under the patrcmage of a 
Musleman chieflain, Murch'hA khan, whose name is pre- 
fixed to it. The auUior wrote not more than 150 years ago.* 

7. The Padarfha CaumucU, by NarAyana chacra- 
vARTi, is another commentary of considerable merit, which 
has been ii-equently consulted. The Calapa is the grammar 
followed in the etymologies here exhibited. 

* His work coDtains the date 1588 .^co, or 1666. 



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OF THE AMERA c6sHA. 57 

8. A commentary by RamAnAt'h a vidyA vJIchespati, 
entitled TricanAi vivecay is peculiarly copious on the varia- 
tions of orthography, and is otherwise a work affording 
much useful information. 

9. Another commentary, which has been constantly em- 
ployed, is that by Nl L A c a Nf ' ha. It is iuU and satisfactory 
on most points for which reference is usually made to the 
expositors of the Amera c6sha. 

10. The commentary of RAmatarca VAci^A has been 
uniformly consulted throughout the work. It was recom- 
mended for its accuracy ; but has furnished little informa- 
tion, being busied chiefly with etymology. This, like the 
preceding, follows the grammar entitled Calapa. 

Other commentaries were also collected for occasional 
reference in the progress of this work; but have not been 
employed, being found to contain no information which was 
not also furnished, and that more amply, by the scholiasts 
above mentioned. 

The list of them contained in the subjoined note may 
therefore suflSce.* 

III. Sanscrit dictionaries and vocabularies by other authors. 

Throughout the numerous commentaries on the Amera 
c6sha, the text itself is corrected or confirmed, and the 
interpretations and remarks of the commentators supported, 
by reference to other Sanscrit vocabularies. They are often 
cited by the scholiasts for the emendation of the text in 

• Ckmmudi by Nayanananda ; TricdhSa chintdmaM by Raghu- 
nat'ha ohacrayart! ; both according to Pacini's system of ety- 
mology. Vaishamya caumudi by Ramapresada tarcIlancara; 
Pada manjarl by L6oanat'ha ; both following the grammatical 
system of the Caldpa. Pradipa manjari by RamaSrama, a jejune 
interpretation of the text. Vrthat Mr&vali by Ram£§v7Ara. Also 
commentaries by GRfsHitADASAyTRiiiOOHANADASA, Sundarananda, 

VANADlVABHAffA, Vi^WANAT'hA, G6paLA OHACRAVARTfy G6viN- 
DANANDA, RaHANAKDA, Bh6lInIt'hA, &C. 



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68 PREFACE TO THE AUTHOR's EDITION 

regard to the geiKler of a noun, and not less fnqaat&y for 
a variation of orthography , or for a diffieKnee of interpreta- 
tion. The authority quoted has been in general consulted^ 
before any use has been made of the quotations ; or, where 
the crigiaal woik cannot now be procured, the agreement 
of commentators has been admitted as authenticating the 
passage. This has been particularly attended to in the 
chapter containing homonymous words, it having been 
judged usefiil to introduce into the notes of that chapter 
the numerous additional acceptations stated in other dic- 
tionaries, and understood to be alluded to in the Amera 
cAsha. 

The dictionaries which have been consulted are, 1st The 
Mediniy an alphabetical dictionary of homonymous terms 

by M^DINiCARA. 

2d. The Viiwa pracasa by Mah&^wara vaidya, a 
similar dictionary, but less accurate and not so well 
arranged. It is the ground-work of tiie Medirdj which is 
an improved and corrected work of great authority. Both 
are very frequently cited by the commentators. 

3. The Haima, a dictionary by Hem a chandra, in 
two parts ; one containing synonyiiious words arranged in 
six chapters ; the other containing homonymous terms in 
alphabetical order. Both are works of great excellence. 

4. The Abhidhana ratnamala, a vocabulary by HelA- 
Yi] DH A, in five chapters ; the last of which relates to words 
having many acceptations. It is too concise for general 
use, but is sometimes quoted. 

6. The Dharani, a vocabulary of words bearing many 
senses. It is less copious than the Medini and Haima; 
but being frequently cited by commentators, has been 
necessarily consulted. 

6. The TricanSa sesha, or supplement to the Amera 
cSsha, by Purijsh6ttama d6va. 



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OF THE AMERA c68HA. 59 

7. The HiaraoaU of the same author. 

The last of these two supplements to Amera^ being a 
ooUeetion of uncommon words, has not been much employed 
for the present publication. The other has been more used. 
Bctii are of considerabk authority. 

The reader will find in the notes a list of other dictiona- 
ries quoted by the commentators, but the quotations of 
whidi have not been T^ified 1^ refarenoe to the c^^inak, 
as these have not been procurable.* 

WcMrks under the title of Var^ctdesanaf Dunritpa, and 
Uhadi, have indeed been procured ; but not the same with 
the books cited, many difierent compilations being current 
under those titles. The first relates to words, the ortho- 
graphy of which is likely to be mistaken fi*om a confusion 
of similar letters; the second exhibits words which are 
spek in more than one way ; the third relates to a certain 
class of deriratives separately noticed by grammarians. 

IV. Grammatical works. 

Grammar is so intimately connected with the subject of 
this publication, that it has been of course necessary to 
advert to the virorks of grammarians. But as they are 
r^ularly cited by the commentators, it is needless to name 
them as authorities, since nothing will be found to have 
been taken fi'om this source, which is not countenanced by 
some passage in the commentaries on the Amera cSsha. 

V. Treatises on the roots of Sanscrit. 

Verbs not being exhibited in the Amera cdsha, which is 
a vocabulary of nouns only, the treatises of MAiTsfiYA, 

* Amera mdld^ Ambra datta, SabdAr^avay S6ko(Ua, Vaariia disand, 
Dwirupay Un6di cbsha, Ratna cdsha, Ratna moldy RANTioivA, Ru- 
DRA, VYA6iy Rabhaea, V6plL!TAy Bhaouri, Ajaya, Vachbspati, 
TarapIla, Aru^adatta. 



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60 PREFACE TO THE AUTHOR's EDITION 

MAdhava, and others, on the Sanscrit roots, though 
furnishing important materials towards a complete dic- 
tionary of the language, have been very little employed in 
the present work ; and a particular reference to them was 
unnecessary, as authority vnll be found in the commen- 
taries on Am ERA, for any thing which may have been 
taken from those treatises. 

VI. The Scholia of classic writings. 

Passages from the works of celebrated writers are cited 
by the commentators on the Amera cosha, and the scho- 
liasts of classic poems frequently quote dictionaries in sup- 
port of their interpretation of difficult passages. In the 
compilation of a copious Sanscrit dictionary ample use 
may be made of the scholia. They have been employed 
for the present publication so far only as they are expressly 
cited by the principal commentaries on the Amera c6sha 
itself. 

Should the reader be desirous of verifying the authorities 
upon which the interpretation and notes are grounded, he 
will in general find the information sought by him in some 
one of the ten commentaries of Amera, which have been 
before named, and will rai-ely have occasion to proceed 
beyond those which have been specified as the works re- 
gularly consulted. 

In regard to plants and animals, and other objects of 
natural history, noticed in different chapters of this voca- 
bulary, and especially in the 4th, 5th, and 9th chapters of 
the second book, it is proper to observe, that the ascertain- 
ment of them generally depends on the correctness of the 
corresponding vernacular names. The conmientators seldom 
furnish any description or other means of ascertainment 
besides the current denomination in a provincial language. 
A view of the animal, or an examination of the plant, known 



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OF THE AMBRA c6sHA. 61 

to the vulgar under the denomination, enables a person 
conversant with natural history to determine its name 
according to the received nomenclature of European Botany 
and Zoology : but neither my enquiries, nor those of other 
gentlemen, who have liberally communicated the informa- 
tion collected by them,* nor the previous researches of Sir 
William Jones, have yet discovered all the plants and 
animals, of which the names are mentioned by the com- 
mentators on the Amera c6sha; and even in regard to 
those which have been seen by us, a source of error remains 
in the inaccuracy of the commentators themselves, as is 
proved by the circumstance of their frequent disagreement 
It must be therefore understood, that the correspondence of 
the Sanscrit names with the generic and specific names in 
natural history is in many instances doubtful. When the 
uncertainty is great, it has usually been so expressed ; but 
errors may exist where none have been apprehended. 

It is necessary likewise to inform the reader, that many 
of the plants, and some animals (especially fish), have not 
been described in any work yet published. Of such, the 
names have been taken from the manuscripts of Dr. Rox- 
burgh and Dr. F. Buchanan. 

Having explained the plan and design of this edition of 
the Amera c6sha, I have only further to state,' that the 
delay which has arisen since it was commenced (now more 
than five years) has been partly occasioned by my distance 
trom the press (the work being printed by Mr. Carey at 
Serampoor), and partly by avocations which have retarded 
the progress of collating the different copies of the text and 
commentaries : a task, the labour of which may be judged 
by those who have been engaged in similar undertakings. 

Calcutta, December, I8O7. 

* Drs. Roxburgh, F. Buchanan, and W. Hunter : and Mr. 
William Carry. 



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III. 

Oh SanscrYt and PrAcrKt Poetry. 



[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. x. p. 389 — 474. Calcutto, 
1808. 4to.] 



The design of the present essay is not an enumeration 
of the poetical compositions cmrent among the Hindus, 
nor an examination of their poetry by maxims of criticism 
recognized in Europe, or by rules of composition taught in 
their own treatises of rhetoric ; but to exhibit the laws of 
versification, together with brief notices of the most cele- 
brated poems in which these have been exemplified. 

An mquiry into the prosody of the ancient and learned 
language of India will not be deemed an unnece^rary 
introduction to the extracts firom Indian poems, which 
may be occasionally inserted in the supplementary volumes 
of Asiatic Researches ; and our transactions record more 
than one instance of the aid which was derived firom a 
knowledge of Sanscrit prosody, in decyphering passages 
rendered obscure by the obsoleteness of the character, or 
by the inaccuracy of the transcripts.* It will be foxmd 
similarly usefiil by every person who studies that language, 
since manuscripts are in general grossly incorrect ; and a 
familiarity with the metre will fi-equently assist the reader 
in restoring the text where it has been corrupted. Even to 
those who are unacquainted with the language, a concise 
explanation of the Indian system of prosody may be curious, 
since the artifice of its construction is pecuUar, and not 

• As. Res., vol. i. p. 279; vol. ii. p. 389. 



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ON SANSCRtT AND PRACR!t POETRY. 63 

devoid of ingenuity ; and the prosody of Sanscrit will be 
finmd to be richer than that of any other known bmgostge, 
in variations oi metre, regulated either by quantity or by 
number of syllables, both with and without rhyme, and 
subject to laws imposing in some instances rigid restric- 
tions, in others allowmg ample latitude, i am prompted 
by these amaderations to undertake the explanation of 
that system, premising a few remarks on the original works 
in which it is taught, and adding notices of the poems 
from which examples are selected. 

The rules of prosody are contained in Siitrcu, or brief 
aphorisms, the reputed author of which is PingalanAoa, 
a fabulous being, represented by mythologists in the shape 
of a serpent ; and the same who, under the title of Patan- 
JALI, is the supposed author of the Makabhashya, or 
great commentary on grammar, and also of the text of 
the Y6ga sastra ,•* and to whom likewise the text or the 
commentary of the JyStish annexed to the Vedcisf appears 
to be attributed. The aphorisms of PingalAchArya, as 
he is sometimes called, on the prosody of Sanscrit (exclu- 
sive of the rules in Pracrtt likewise ascribed to him), are 
collected into eight books, the first of which allots names, 
or rather literal marks, to feet consisting of one, two, or 
three syllables. The second book teaches the manner, in 
which passages of the Vedas are measured. The third 
explains the variations in the subdivision of the couplet 
and stanza. The fourth treats of profane poetry, and 
especially of verses, in which the number of syllable J, or 
their quantity, is not uniform. The fifth, sixth, and se- 



* Or Sdnc^hya system of philosophy, distinguished from that of 
Capila. [See vol. L p. 235, &c.] 

t In the subscription to the only copy of this commentary which I 
have seen, it is ascribed to SisHANlex; but, in the body of the 
work, the commentator calls himself S6mao A R A. 



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64 ON sanscrYt and 

venth| exhibit metres of that sort which has been called 
monoschematicy or uniform, because the same feet recur 
invariably in the same places. The eighth and last book 
serves as an appendix to the whole, and contains rules for 
computing all the possible combinations of long and short 
syllables in verses of any length. 

This author cites earlier writers on prosody, whose works 
appear to have been lost: such as Saitava, Craush- 
ficA, Tan6in, and other ancient sages, YAsca,CASya- 
PA, &c. 

Pingala's text has been interpreted by various com- 
mentators; and, among others, by HelAyudha BHAff a, 
author of an excellent gloss entitled Mrita sanjivini.* It 
is the work on which I have chiefly reUed. A more modem 
commentary, or rather a paraphrase in verse, by NArA y an a 
BHAff A TAR A, Under the title of Vritt6ct% ratna, presents 
the singularity of being interpreted throughout in a double 
sense, by the author himself, in a further gloss entitled 
Partcsha. 

The Agni puraAa is quoted for a complete system of 
prosody,t founded apparently on Pingala's aphorisms; 
but which serves to correct or to supply the text in many 
places ; and which is accordingly used for that purpose by 
commentators. Original treatises likewise have been com- 
posed by various authors ;| and, among others, by the 

* I possess three copies of it, two of which are apparently ancient; 
but they have no dates. 

t It is stated by the authors who quote it (NarXta^a SRAff a and 
others), to he an extract from the ^gni purdha; but I have not been 
able to verify its place in that Pur&ha. 

I Such are the VdMhhdsha^, VrtUa derpaka, VrtUa caumudi, and 
Frttta retndcaray with the Ch^handb manjari, Ch*hando m&ruMa^ 
Ch'handd mdid, Ch'^handb niviti, CK'handb gbvindOy and several tracts 
under the title of f^r^tia-muctdvali, besides treatises included in works 
on other subjects. For example, Vabahamihira'b system of astro- 
logy, which contains a chapter on prosody. 



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prAcrIt poetry. 66 

celebrated poet CAlidAsa. In a short treatise entitled 
Sruta bSdha, this poet teaches the laws of versification in 
the very metre to which they relate ; and has thus united 
the example with the precept. The same mode has been 
idso practised by many other writers on prosody; and 
in particular, by Pinoala's commentator NArAyana 
BHAffA; and by the authors of the Vrltta retnacara 
and Vritta derpaAa. 

CAlid Asa's Sruta h6dha exhibits only the most com- 
mon sorts of metre, and is founded on Ping a la's Pracrit 
rules of prosody; as has been remarked by one of the 
commentators* on the Vritta retnacara. 

The rules generally cited under the title of Pracrit 
Pingala, have been explained in a metrical paraphrase, 
teaching the construction of each species of metre in a 
stanza of the same measure, and subjoining select examples. 
Tins Pracrit paraphrase, entitled Pingala vritti, is quoted 
under the name of HAMMiRA,f who is celebrated in more 
than one passage given as examples of metre, and who 
probably patronized the author. It has been imitated in a 
modem Sanfcrit treatise on Pracfit prosody, entitled Vritta 
niuctavali;% and has been copiously explained in a Sanscrit 
commentary named Pingala pracasa.% 

Though relative to Pracrit prosody, the rules are appli- 

The VriUa retndcara of CioARA BHAffA, with its commentaries by 

DlvICABA BHAffA, NlRXVAilA BHAffA, EDd HaRI BHA80ARA, haS 

been the most consulted for the present treatise. The P^r^Ua derpaiha^ 
which relates chiefly to Prdcrit prosody, has been also much em- 
ployed. 

* DlvICARA BHAffA. 

t In the commentary on the Vr^tibcti ratna. 

t The author, DuUoIdatta, was patronized by the Hinddpati 
princes of BundUc'h<md. The examples, which like the text are 
Smiscrit in Pr6cr^t measure, are in praise of these chieftains. 

§ By ViSwabat'ha. 

VOL. II. F 



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66 ON sanscrYt and 

cable, for the most part, to Sanscrit prosody also: since, 
the laws of versification in both languages are nearly the 
same. 

The Pracrit, here meant, is the language usually em- 
ployed under this name by dramatic writers ; and not, in a 
more general sense of the term, any regular provincial 
dialect corrupted from Sanscrit. Hj^machandba in his 
grammar of Pracrtt, declares it to be so called because it 
is derived from Sanscrit.* 

Accordingly his and other grammars of the language 
consist of rules for the transformation of Sanscrit words 
into the derivative tongue : and the specimens of it in the 
Indian dramas, as well as in the books of the Jains, 
exhibit few words which may not be traced to a Sanscrit 
origin. This is equally true of the several dialects of 
Pracrit: viz. Saurasini or language o( Surasina^-f and 
Magadhi or dialect of Mc^adha;i which according to 
grammarians, who give rules for deducing the first fix>m 
Sanscrit, and the second from the first, ^ or both finom 
Sanscrit, \\ are dialects nearly allied to Pracrit, and r^u- 
larly formed by permutations, for which the rules are stated 
by them. The same may be said of the Pais6cM as a 
language, (and distinguished fix>m the jargon or gibberish 
which either dramatic writers, or actors exhibiting their 
dramas, sometimes put into the mouths of demons); for 

* '' Pracr^ak sanscr^iam ; iatrabhavam UUa 6gatam vd pricr^tam." 

t CuLLtxoA BBAff A (on Mknu 2. 19.) says, tliat 6urasina is the 
country of Mafhur6, 

X Cicaia or Bihdr. But it does not appear, that either this, or the 
preceding dialect, is now spoken in the country from which it takes 
its name. Specimens of hoth are frequent in the Indian dramas. 

§ Vababuohi, and his commentator Bhamaha. 

II H^MAOHANDBA, who, after stating the special permutations of 
these dialects as derived from SanscHty observes in both places, that 
the rest of the permutations are the same with those of Frdcr^i. 



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prAcrYt poetry. 67 

the grammarians of Pracrit teach the manner of forming 
the Paii&chi* from the dialect called Saurasini.f That 
remark may be also extended to Apabhrania, as a fixed 
bmguage partaking o( Pracrit and Saurasim^ but deducing 
many terms immediately from the Sanscrit under rules of 
permutation pecuUar to itself. :{: 

The a£Bnity of these dialects of Pracrit to the Sanscrit 
and to each other is so great, that they reciprocally borrow, 
notwithstandmg their own particular rules, terms permuted 
in the manner of other dialects, and even admit, without 
alteration, words inflected according to the Sanscrit 
grammar. § They may be therefore considered as dialects 
of a single language, the Pracrit or derivative tongue; 
so termed with reference to Sanscrit, from which it is 
derived. 

Besides these cognate dialects, the dramatic writers in- 
troduced other languages as spoken by different persons 
of the drama. Such, according to the enumeration in the 
Sahitya derpaAa^W ^^^ ^ Dacshinaty&f% or language 
used in the south of India ; the Dravuli, or dialect of the 
southern extremity of the peninsula; the Avantic& (pro- 
bably the language of Malctva);** the Ardha m&gadki, 



• Or language of the Pisdchas, '* Pisdchdndm bhdshd PaisdchV^ 
BhXmara on Vabaruohi. 

t Varabuohi and H£maohandba. The last mentioned author 
notices a variation of this dialect under the name of ChiUicdpaiidchiy 
which differs very little from the proper Paiidchi. 

{ It b taught under this name hy H^machandra, among other 
dialects of Prdcrtt But the name usually signifies ungrammatical 
language. 

§ H£machandra ad finem. || Ch. 6. [p. 180, ed. Calc] 

^ Same with Vaidarbhk, according to the commentator of the 
Sahitya derpaHa, The country of Viderhha is said to be the modern 
Berar proper. 

•• Avanti is another name of UjjayanU 

F 2 



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68 ON SANSCRtx AND 

distinguished from Magadhi properly so called ;^ the 
Bahlicabhasha (perhaps the langui^e of Bdlkk in the 
Tnmsoxana) ;* the Maharashiri, or dialect of the Mar-- 
haiias; the Prachya, or language employed in the east of 
India; t the Abkiri and Chandaliy which, from their names^ 
seem to be dialects used by herdsmen and by persons of the 
lowest tribes ; the Sancara iSacart) and Sabari, concerning 
which nothing satisfactory can be at present suggested ; 
and generally any provincial dialect. 

It is not to be supposed, that the Pracrit rules of pro- 
sody, as taught by Pingala, are suited to all these 
languages : but it is probable that they were framed for 
the same dialect of Pracrit, in which they are composed; 
and they are applicable to those cognate dialects, which 
differ much less fix)m each other (being very easily con- 
founded), than they all do from Sanscrit, their acknow- 
ledged common parent. Generally those rules may be 
considered applicable to all the lai^uages comprehended 
under the designation of Pracrity% as derivative from 
Sanscrit; and certainly so to the vernacular tongues of 
the ten nations of Hindus now inhabiting India. A writer 
on Sanscrit pro8ody§ pronounces the various kinds of metre 
to be admissible in the provincial languages, and has 

* Bdhlica or Bdhlica (for the word is spelt variously) is a country 
famous for the breed of horses. Amera» 2. 8. 45. It appears to be 
situated north of India, beings mentioned in enumerations of countries, 
with Turushca, Ckasoy Cdm^aykc, (HiMAOHi^NOBA, 1.4. 25. Tri* 
c&Maushay 2.1.9.) 

t The commentator on the Sahitya derpaka (Rama chaba:6a), 
interprets Prdchyiy by OauBXyh; meaning, no doubt, the language 
of Bengal, He was himself a native of this province ; and his work 
is modem, being dated §dca 1622 (A.D. 1700). 

X At. Res., vii. p. 219. [Page 21, &c. of the present volume.] 

§ Nabava^a BHAffA in a commentary on the Frttla retnacrn'a, 
written in Samvat 1602 (A.D. 1546), 



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prAcrYt Poetry. 69 

quoted examples in those of Mtihar&shira, GnrjarOf and 
Canyacubja. The last-mentioned, which is the same with 
the old Hindi, as is demonstrated by this specimen of it, 
might furnish very numerous instances; especially the 
Hindi poetry of C^iAVA dAsa,* who has studiously em- 
ployed a great variety of metre. Some examples will ac- 
cordingly be quoted from the most distinguished HtTidi 
poets. The sacred books of the Sikhs^ composed in a 
Pejtjubi dialect, which is undoubtedly derived from the 
ancient Sarestoataff abound in specimens of such metre. 
The language of Mifkila, and its kindred tongue, which 
prevails in Bengal, also supply proof of the aptitude of 
Sanscrit prosody : and the same is probably true of the 
other four national languages, j: 

Pingala's rules of Sanscrit prosody are expressed with 
singular brevity. The artifice by which this has been 
effected is the use of single letters to denote the feet or 
the syllables. Thus /, the initial of a word signifying short 
Qaghu), indicates a short syllable : g, for a similar reason,^ 
intends a long one. The combinations of these two letters 
denote the several dissyllables: Ig signifying an iambic; 
gl a trochseus or choreus ; gg a spondee ; U a pyrrhichius. 
The letters m. y. r. s. L j. bh. and n, mark all the trisylla- 
bical feet, from three long syllables to as many short. A 
Sanscrit verse is generally scanned by these last-mentioned 
feet, with the addition of either a dissyllable or a mono- 

* CoDtemporary with JBHANofR and Shah JbhIn. 

t The remaining Sdreswata Br&hmahas inhabit chiefly the Penj6b. 

\ Those of DrStviaOy CarUiaca, TUinga, and OBra or USiya. t 
omit Gaura. The BrShmahaa bearing this national designation- are 
settled in the districts around Delhi : but, unless theirs be the lan- 
guage of MfU^hwr^^ it is not easy to assign to them a particul^ 
national tongue. 

S Being the initial of gurUy long. 



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70 ON sanscrIt and 

Byllable at the close of the verse, if neoessary. This may 
be rendered plain by an example taken from die Greek and 
Latin prosody. 

Scanned in the Indian manner, a phaleucian verse, 
instead of a spondee, a dactyl and three trochees, would 
be measmed by a molossus, an anapeest, an amphibrachys 
and a trochee ; expressed thus, m. s. j. g. L A sapphic 
verse would be similarly measured by a cretic, an antibac* 
chius, an amphibrachys and a trochee ; written r. t.j. g. L 

To avoid the too frequent use of uncommon terms, I 
shall, m describing the different sorts of Sanscrit metre, 
occasionally adopt a mode of stating the measure more 
consonant to the Greek and Latin prosody, in which the 
iambic, trochee, and spondee, dactyl, anapeest, and tri- 
brachys, are the only feet of two or three syllables which 
are commonly employed. 

In Pracrit prosody the variety of feet is much greater : 
verses being scanned by feet of different letigths, from two 
matras (two short syllables or one long), to three, four, 
five, and even six matras or instants. These various 
' descriptions of feet have been classed, and denominated, 
by the writers on this branch of prosody. 

The verse, according to the Sanscrit system of prosody, 
is the component part of a couplet, stanza, or strophe, 
commonly named a sl6ca, although this term be sometimes 
restricted to one sort of metre, as will be subsequently 
shown on the authority of CAlidAsa. The stanza or 
strophe consists usually of four verses denominated pada ; 
or, considered as a couplet, it comprises two verses subdi- 
vided into padas or measures. Whether it be deemed a 
stanza or a couplet, its half, called ardhaslSca, contains 
usually two padas ; and in general the pauses of the sense 
correspond with the principal pauses of the metre, which 
are accordingly indicated by lines of separation at the 



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prAckYt poetry. 71 

dose of the il6ca and of its hemistich. When the sense 
is suspended to the close of a second ilSca, the double 
stanza is denominated yugma; while one, comprising a 
greater number of measures, is termed ctdaca. In common 
with others, I have sometimes translated il6ca by " verse," 
or by " couplet ;" but, in prosody, it can only be consi- 
dered as a stanza, though the pauses are not always very 
perfectly marked until the close of the first half: and, in 
conformity to the Indian system, it is generally treated as 
a tetrastich, though some kinds of regular metre have uni- 
form pauses, which might permit a division of the stanza 
into eight, twelve, and even sixteen verses. 

In Pracrit prosody, a greater variety is admitted in the 
length of the stanza ; some species of metre being restricted 
to a true couplet, and others extended to stanzas of six 
and even sixteen verses : independently of pauses, which, 
being usually marked by rhyme, would justify the farther 
subdivision of the stanza into as many verses as there are 
pauses. Even in Sanscrit prosody, instances occur of 
stanzas avowedly comprising a greater or a less number of 
verses than four : as three, five, six, &c. But these are 
merely exceptions to the general rule. 

Concerning the length of the vowels in Sanscrit verse, 
since none are ambiguous, it is only necessary to remark, 
that the comparative length of syllables is determined by 
the allotment of one instant or matra to a short syllable, 
and two to a long one ; that a naturally short vowel be- 
comes long in prosody when it is followed by a double or 
conjunct consonant ;* and that the last syllable of a verse 

• Or by the nasal termed Anuswdra, or the aspirate Visarga, By 
poetical license, a vowel may be short before certain eonjuncts {viz, 

H and ^ ; as also ^ and H)). This license has been borrowed 
from PracrU prosody, by the rules of which a vowel is allowed to 



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72 ON sanscrIt and 

IS either long or short, according to the exigence of the 
metre,* whatever may be its natural length. 

Sanscrit prosody admits two sorts of metre. One go- 
verned by the number of syllables ; and which is mostly 
uniform or monoschematic in profane poetry, but altogether 
arbitrary in various metrical passages of the Vedas. The 
other is, in &ct, measured by feet, like the hexameters of 
Greek and Latin : but only one sort of this metre, which 
is denominated Arya, is acknowledged to be so regulated ; 
while another sort is governed by the number of syllabic 
instants or matras. 

I. GanacJChandcLSf or metre regulated by feet. 

AryA or GAt'hA. 

The metre named Aryhj or in Pracrtt, Gaka, from the 
Sanscrit Gafha, is measured by feet denominated gana^ 
or matragana, which are equivalent to two long syllables 
or to four short : it is described as a couplet, in which the 
first verse contains seven and a-half feet ; and the sixth foot 
must consist of a long syllable between two short, or else 
of four short; while the odd feet (1st, 3d, 5th, and 7th) 
must never be amphibrachys.f In the second verse of the 

be sometimes short before any conjunct, or before the nasal: but 
instances of this license occur in classical poems with only four 
conjunctSy as abovementioned ; and, even there, emendations of the 
text have been proposed by critics to render the verse conformable 
to the general laws of prosody. (See remarks in the Durghtda 
vriuiy on passages of MXgha's poem and of the Cum&ra). 

* This rule of prosody is applicable to any verse of the tetrastich : 
but it is considered by writers on rhetoric inelegant to use the 
privilege in the uneven verses ; and they thus restrict the rule to the 
close of the stanza and of its half, especially in the more rigid 
species of regular metre. 

f If ihe rule be violated, the metre is named Gurvikl; but thi^ 
is reprobated by writers on prosody. 



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prAcrYt poetry. 73 

couplet, the sixth foot (for here too it retains that name) 
consists of a single short syllable. Consequently the pro- 
portion of syllabic instants in the long and short verses is 
thirty to twenty-seven.* The same metre has, with some 
propriety, been described as a stanza of four verses :t for 
it is subdivided by its pauses into towrpadas, which have 
the usual privilege of giving to the last syllable, whether 
naturally long or short, the length required by the metre. 
The pause is commonly restricted to the close of the third 
foot, and the measure is in this case denominated Pafhya ; 
but if the pause be placed otherwise in either verse, or in 
both of them, the metre is named Viptdd. 

A particular sort of this measure, deduced fi-om either 
species above described, is called Chapala ; and the laws 
of its construction require, that the second and fourth feet 
should be amphibrachys, and that the first foot should be 
either a spondee or an anapeest, and the fifth a dactyl or 
a spondee. The first verse of the couplet, the second, or 
both, may be constructed accordmg to these rigid rules : 
hence three varieties of this sort of metre. 

The regular Arya consists of alternate long and short 
verses : but, if the short verse precede the long one, the 
metre is called Udgiti. If the couplet consist of two long 
verses, it is named Giti : or of two short verses, Upagitu 
Another sort of this metre is named Arya giti: it is con- 
structed by completing the eighth foot of the regular 
Arya.X 

This measure admits therefore of eighty principal varia- 
tions, deducible fix)m the nine sorts abovementioned : for 
the pause may be placed at the close of the third foot in 
either verse of each couplet, in both, or in neither; and 



• As. Res., vol. ii. p. 390. f PrUta muctdvali, 

X It may be varied by alternating^ a long and a short verse, or a 
short and a long one, or by making both verses long. 



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74 ON sanscrYt and 

either verse, both, or neither, may be constructed acccmling 
to the strict rules of the Chapala measure ; and the verse 
may consist of seven and a-half, or of eight feet; and 
may be arranged in couplets consisting of verses alternately 
long and short, or alternately short and long, or else uni- 
formly long, or uniformly short. 

The Arya metre is very frequently employed by Indian 
poets ; but works of great length in this measure are not 
common. It is oftener intermixed with verses of other 
kinds, though instances do occur of its exclusive use : 
thus the first and fourth cantos, and most part of the 
second and third, in the poem entitled NalSdaya, and the 
entire work of G6verdhana,* are in the Arya metre. 
And so is the brief text of the Sanc'hya philosophy of 
Capila, as taught by ISwaracrYshna ;t and the copious 
treatise of astronomy by Brahmegupta.| 

The NalSdaya abovementioned, which is ascribed to the 
celebrated poet CA lid As a, is a poem in four cantos, com- 
prising 220 couplets or stanzas,§on the adventures of Nala 
and DamayantI : a story which is already known to the 
English reader.|| In this singular poem, rhyme and alli- 
teration are combined in the termination of the verses: for 

* Consisting of seven hundred (or with the introduction 7^^) 
stanzas of miscellaneous poetry ; and entitled, from the number of 
stanzas, Sapta satt, 

i Author of the Carted or metrical maxims of this philosophy. 
Sutras, or aphorisms in prose, which are ascribed to Capila himself, 
are extant : but the work of f §wara CrYsh^ a is studied as the text 
of the Sdnc^hpa, (As. Res., vol. viii. p. 466.) 

I Entitled Brahmesp^huta siddhdnta : other treatises, bearing the 
same or a similar title, are works of different authors. 

§ Chiefly Aryd, with a few anapaestic stanzas ( T^iaca), and a still 
smaller number of iambics and trochaics (Pramdni and SamdnQ 

II Translated by Mr. Kinoerslev of Madras, from a tale in the 
provincial language. 



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peacrIt poetry. 75 

the three or four last syllables of each hemistich within 
the stanza are the same in somid though different in sense. 
It is a series of puns on a pathetic subject. 

It is supposed to have been written in emulation of a 

short poem (of twenty-two stanzas) similarly constructed, 

but with less repetition of each rhyme ; and entitled, from 

I the words of the challenge with which it concludes, Ghaia 

carpara. 

" Thirsty and touching water to be sipped from the hol- 
low palms of my hands, I swear by the loves of sprightly 
damsels, that I will carry water in a broken pitcher for 
any poet by whom I am surpassed in rhymes." 

However, the epic poem of MAgha, which will be men- 
tioned moi'e particularly under the next head, contains a 
specimen of similar alliteration and rhyme ; the last four- 
teen stanzas of the sixth canto (descriptive of the seasons) 
being constructed with like terminations to each half of the 
stanza. Instances will also be cited from BhAravi's 
poem hereafter noticed. 

The following example of a species of the Arya metre 
is taken from the preface of the NaUdaya. 

Arya giti (8 feet). 

Asti sa raja nite 
RamakhyS, y6 gatik para janite, 

yasya rarajd 'nite 
ratnanijanah kule dharajani Hi^ 

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76 ON sanscrKt and 

<MrWM<l>sll'nd<HK<rfri'5n^|rO;M\MlHlHl 

" The king celebrated under the name of RAm a,* exists, 
who is conversant with the supreme ways of moral con- 
duct ; in whose family, exempt from calamity and enriched 
with the gems of the earth, dependants flourish/' 1. 5. 

The next is taken from DamayantI's lamentation on 
finding herself deserted by her husband Nala. It is in 
the same species of metre. 

26. Tatraf pade vyaliriam, 

at'ha vibhrantam vane cha devya, 'Unam 

tanu^vrinde vyalinam 
tatin dad^han£^ taya * spade vyalinam, 

27. Vega-bala *pdsitaya, 
venya, Bhaimi yuta lalapa 'sitaya. 

*' Nripa! sorcaldpa 'sitaya 
hatwa Yin, bandhavan cUa 'pasi taya. 

28. Sa caVham manc^vananam, 
nyayavid! acharasi sevyamana-vananatn, 

dhrita'sima navananam, 
daranam tyagam, anupama! 'nuvananam. 

29. Para'critam etat twenah [tu 6nah] 
smarami, tan na smntd 'gi me tattwina, 

dSsha^samiUitwena 
pradHishaye na *tra sambhrame tat twena! [twa, 
ina!T 

* Rama raja, by whose commaDd the poem was composed. So 
the commentators remark : but it remains uncertain who he was, or 
where he reigned. 



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PRAcRJfT POETRY. 77 

TFTT t 

" Then the princess wandered in the forest, an abode of 
serpents, crowded with trees which resound with the sweet 
buzz of bees, the resort of flocks of birds. With her 
dark hair dishevelled through her haste, BHAiMi thus 
lamented : ' King ! thou slayest foes, but defendest thy 
kindred, with thy quiver and thy sword. Unrivalled in 
excellence and conversant with morality, how hast thou 
practised the desertion of a wife proud but left helpless in a 
forest ; thus rendering thyself the limit of praise ? But I 
consider this evil to be the act of another, and do not 
charge thee with it : I do not blame thee, my husband, 
as in fault for this terror.' " 3. 26—29. 

In the passage here cited, some variations in the read- 
ing, and greater differences in the interpretation occur; 
with which it is, however, unnecessary to detain the reader. 
After consulting several scholia, the interpretation which 
appeared preferable has been selected. The same mode 
will be followed in subsequent quotations from other poems. 



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78 ON SANSCRtT AND 

II. Matrach^kmidas, or metre regulated by quantity. 
1. VaitAlIya. 

Anotlier sort of metre, regulated by the proportion of 
matras or syllabic instants, is measured by the time of the 
syllables exclusively; without noticing, as in the gana- 
cVhandaSj the number of feet. It is therefore denominated 
matracVhandaSy and the chief metre of this kind is named 
VaitaUya, It is a tetrastich, or strophe of four verses, 
the first and third containing the time of fourteen short 
syllables, and the second and fourth sixteen. The laws of 
its construction impose that each verse shall end in a cretic 
and iambic, or else in a dactyl and spondee,* or by bac- 
chius.i- In regard to the remaining moments, which are 
six in the odd verses, and eight in the even verses of the 
strophe, it must be observed as a general rule, that neither 
the second and third, nor the fourth and fifth moments 
should be combined in the same long syllable ; nor, in the 
second and fourth verses, should the sixth matra be 
combined with the seventh. That general rule however 
admits of exceptions, and the name of the metre varies 
accordingly.^ 

Although the Vaitaliya regularly consist of alternate 

* This variety of the metre is named Apatdiicd, 

t Thus augmented, the measure is called Aiipach^handasica, The 
whole of the last canto of MIoha's epic poem hereafter mentioned is 
in this metre, and so is the first half of the 13th canto in BrIravi's 

t In the even verses of the strophe, if the fourth and fifth moments 
be combined in one long syllable, contrary to the general rule above- 
mentioned, the metre is named Pr&chya vr^tti: or, in the odd verses, 
if the second and third moments be so combined, the metre is deno- 
minated Udkhya vritH : or the rule may be violated in both instances 
at the same time, and the measure then takes the name of Pra^ 
vrittaca. 



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prAcrIt poetry. 79 

short and long verses, it may be varied by making the 
stanza consist either of four short or four long verses, admit- 
ting at the same time the exception just now hinted.* 

The following is an example of a stanza composed in a 
species of this metre : 

Vaitaliya {Pravrtttacd). 

Idam, Bharata-vansa-bhubhritam, 
srityatanif sruti-mandrasayanamj 

pavitram, adkicam, subhSdayam, 
Vyasa-vactra-cafhitam, Pravrittacam. 

Listen to this pure, auspicious, and pleasing liistory of 
the kings of the race of Bharata, as uttered from the 
mouth of VyAsa." 

Here, as in most of the examples given by the commen- 
tator HelAyudha, and by other writers on prosody, the 
name of the metre occurs, but with a different acceptation. 
Where the stanza has the appearance of being a quotation 
(as in the present instance), it might be conjectured that 
the denomination of the measure was originally assumed 
from the example ; and this conjecture would appear pro- 
bable, wherever the name (as is frequently the case) has 
no radical meaning connected with the subject of metre. 
But, in many instances, the radical interpretation of the 
word is pertinent, and has obviously suggested its applica- 
tion as a term of prosody ; and the stanza, which is given 
as an example, must therefore have been purposely con- 

* A tetrastich, consisting of four short verses of the sort called 
Prwr^Uaca, is named Chdruhdsini: and one comprising four long 
Tcrses of that description is termed Apar&nticd, 



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80 ON sanscrYt and 

structed to exhibit the metre by words in which its denomi- 
nation is included. This is confirmed by the circumstance 
of some of the words being incompatible with the measure 
which they designate : and, in such cases, the author apo- 
loffies on that ground for not exhibiting the name in the 
example. 

The Vaitaliya metre has been employed by some of the 
most eminent poets; for instance, in the epic poem of 
MAgha, the sixteenth canto of which is chiefly in this 
measure, as the twentieth and last canto is in that species 
of it which is called AupacVhandasica, 

The work here mentioned is an epic poem, the subject of 
which is the death of SiSupAla slain in war by CrYshn a : 
it is entitled Siiupala badha, but is usually cited under the 
name of its author, whose designation, with praises of his 
family, appears in the concluding stanzas of the poem. 
Yet, if tradition may be trusted, MAgha, though expressly 
named as the author, was the patron, not the poet. As the 
subject is heroic, and even the unity of action well pre- 
served, and the style of the composition elevated, this poem 
is entitled to the name of epic. But the Indian taste for 
descriptive poetry, and particularly for licentious descrip- 
tion, has disfigured even this work, which is otherwise not 
undeserving of its high reputation. The two first cantos 
and the last eight are suitable to the design of the poem ; 
but the intermediate ten, describing the journey of CrYshna 
with a train of amorous damsels, fix)m Dwaraca to Indra^ 
prasfha, is misplaced, and in more than one respect ex- 
ceptionable. 

The argument of the poem is as follows. In the first 
canto NAreda, commissioned by Indra, visits CrYshna 
and incites him to war with his cousin, but mortal enemy, 
SiSuPALA king of the Chedis. In the second, CrYshna 
consults with his uncle and brother, whether war should be 



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PRAcRtT POETRY. 81 

immediately commenced, or he should first assist Yu- 
DHisnf'HiRA in completing a solemn sacrifice which had 
been appointed by him. The result of the consultation is 
in favour of the latter measure ; and accordingly, in the 
third canto, CrYshna depails for YuDHisHf'aiRA's ca- 
pital. In the thirteenth he arrives and is welcomed by the 
PAn6avas. In the following canto the sacrifice is begun; 
and in the next, Si^upAla, impatient of the divine honours 
paid to CrYshna, retires with his partisans from the place 
of sacrifice. A negociation ensues, which is however inefiec^ 
tual, and both armies prepare for action. This occupies two 
cantos. In the eighteenth both armies issue to the field of 
battle, and the conflict commences. The battle continues 
in the next canto, which describes the discomfiture and 
slaughter of §i§upAla's army. In the last canto, the 
^^9 grown desperate, dares CrYshna to the combat. 
They engage, and in the Indian manner fight with super- 
natural weapons. SiSupAla assails his enemy with ser- 
pents, which the other destroys by means of gigantic cranes. 
The king has recourse to igneous arms, which CrYshna 
extinguishes by a neptunian weapon. The combat is pro- 
longed with other miraculous arms, and finally CrYshna 
slays SisupAla with an arrow. 

The following example is firom a speech of SiSupAla's 
ambassador, in reply to a discourse of SAtyaci, brother 
of CrYshna, at an interview immediately preceding the 
battle. 



^R>slMlPid<§rii|^ri^tl^(?tl 



VOL. II. 



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82 ON sanscbYt and 

<iM<:5llM<l:M\yR4 

<i^<ini^5indOr^M: 

'^ A low man, poor in understanding, does not pereeiTe 
his own advantage: that he should not comprehend it 
when shown by others, is surprising. The wise, of them- 
selves, know the approach of danger, or they put trust in 
others: but a foolish man does not believe information 
without personal experience. The proposal which I made 
to thee, CrYshna, was truly for thy benefit: the generous 
are ready to advise even their enemies bent on their destruc- 



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pracrIt poetry. 83 

tion. Peace and war have been ofiered at the same time 
by me; judging their respective advantagesy thou wilt 
choose between them. Yet good advice addressed to those 
whose miderstanding is astray, becomes vain, hke the 
beams of the cold moon directed towards lakes eager for 
the warm rays of the swi/' 16. 39 — 43. 

Another passage of the same poem is here subjoined as 
a specimen of a different species of this metre. It is the 
opening of the last canto, where SiSupAla, impatient of 
the discomfiture of his troops and those of his aUies, dares 
CrYshna to single combat. 

AupacKhandasica. 

f%^iji|iflNU|<vrFT: \ 
^fi|rilRrdR5h*iM^M 
3TrT^<l^ri^f<<KAJ<ir< tl 

Mu&ham uIlasitcHtri-rec^ham uchchair 

bhidura'-hhrii'-yuga-'bhisha'Aan dadhanahy 
Samitav iti vicraman amriskyan, 

gcUabhir, ahwata Chedirai Murarim. 
** Raising his head, and with a countenance terrible by 
its forked brow and wrinkled forehead, the king of the 
ChediSf impatient of the prowess thus displayed in battle, 
banished fear, and challenged the foe of Mur a to the 
fight" 20. 1. 

A fiirther example of the same metre is the second 
stanza of the following extract firom the Ciratarjuniya* of 
BharavI . The remaining stanzas exhibit variety of mea- 
sure, with two instances of smgular alliteration. 

* Arjuna and the mountaiDeer. Cir&ta is the name of a tribe of 
mountaineers considered as barbarians. 

g2 



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84 ON SANSCRtT AND 

The subject of that celebrated poem is Abjuna's obtain- 
ing celestial arms from Siva, Indra, and the rest of the 
gods, to be employed against Dury6dhana. It is by a 
rigid observance of severe ansterities in the first instance, 
and afterwards by his prowess in a conflict with Siva (in 
the disguise of a mountaineer), that Arj una prevails. This 
is the whole subject of the poem ; which is ranked with 
the Cumara and Raghu of CALiDAsA,theiVawA<KfAlya of 
Sfif RARSHA, and MAgh a's epic poem, among the six excel- 
lent compositions in Sanscrit. The sixth is the MeghadLta, 
also ascribed to CAlidAsa ; and, on account of its excel- 
lence, admitted among the great poems {Mahacavya), not- 
withstanding its brevity. 

^^^X"!^^ I r^ Mr) <8| I 

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PRAcRtx POETRY. 86 

^^'\ I W^: fiy IrliJrTTfrPfrn 

* The stanzas, which contain alliteration, are here copied 
in Roman characters. 

18. Iha duradhigamaih 

cinchid ivagamaih 
satatam asutaram 

varnayantyantaram. 
Amum ativipinam 

veda digvyapinam 
puruskam iva param 

Padmay6nih param. 
20. Sulabhaik sada nayavata 'yavata 

nidhUguhyacadhipa-ramaih paramaik 
amuna dhanaih cshitibhnta 'tibhrtta 
samatitya bhatijagatijagatu 
* Then Arjuna, admiring the mountain in silent asto- 
nishment, was respectfully addressed by his conductor, 
Cut^ra's attendant : for even loquacity is becoming in its 
season. 

' " This mountain with its snowy peaks rending the cloudy 
sky in a thousand places, is, when viewed, able to remove 
at once the sins of man. An imperceptible something 
within it, the wise ever demonstrate to exist by proofs 
difficultly apprehended. But BrahmA alone thoroughly 
knows this vast and inaccessible mountain, as he alone 



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86 ON sanscrKt and 

knows the supreme soul. With its lakes overspread by 
the bloom of lotus, and overshadowed by arbours of creep- 
ing plants whose foliage and blossoms are enchanting, the 
pleasing scenery subdues the hearts of women who main- 
tained their steadiness of mind even in the company of a 
lover. By this happy and well governed mountain, the 
earth, filled with gems of easy acquisition and great excel- 
lence, delightful to the god of riches, seems to surpass both 
rival worlds/"* 5.16—20. 

2. MItrAsamaca. 

The metre denommated Matrasamaca consists of four 
verses, each of which contains the quantity of sixteen short 
syllables; and in which the last syllable must be a long 
one ; and the ninth syllabic moment must be in general 
detached from the eighth and tenth, and be exhibited of 
course by a short syllable : if the twelfth be so Ukewise, 
the metre is distinguished by another name ; or if the fiflh 
and eighth remain short, the denomination is again changed. 
The last sort of metre is varied by deviating from the rule 
respectmg the ninth moment ; and another variety exhibits 
the fifth, eighth, and twelfth moments by short syllables f. 
These five varieties of the metre called MatrasamcLca may 
be variously combmed in the same stanza; and in that 

* The first and fourth stanzas, in this quotation, are in the Dru~ 
tavilambita metre, and the fifth in the Pramitdcshard; which will be 
both noticed under a subsequent head. The third is in an uncommon 
measure named Chandrica or Cshamd, 

t The names of these four varieties are 1st, f^dnavdsicd, which exhi- 
bits the ninth and twelfth moments by short syllables, and the fifteenth 
and sixteenth by a long: o^® ' the rest beingf optional. 2dly, Chitrdf 
exhibiting the fifth, eighth, and ninth, by short syllables, the fifteenth 
and sixteenth by a long one. 3dly, Upt^hitru, the fifth and eighth 
short; the ninth and tenth long; also the fifteenth and sixteenth long. 
4thly, Vislbca; fifth, eighth, and twelfth short; fifteenth and sixteenth 
long; and the rest indeterminate. 



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prAcrYt poetry. 87 

case the measure is denominated P&daculaca; a name 
which is applied with greater latitude in Pracrit prosody, 
to daiote a tetrastich wherdn each verse contains sixteen 
moments, without any other restriction as to the number 
and place of the long and short syllables. 

A poem inserted in the first volume of Asiatic Researches* 
is a specimen of the variety which this sort of metre admits. 
In a collection of tales entitled Vetala panchavinsatif the 
author, SivadAsa, has quoted several stanzas of that poem 
intermixed with others, in which the measure is still more 
varied : and I may here remark, that the introduction of 
rhyme into Sanscrit verse is not peculiar to this anapeestic 
metre: Jayad^a has adopted it with success in several 
other sorts of lyric measure, and it is frequent in Sanscrit 
poetry composed in any species of Pracrit metre. 

3. GItyAryA. 
Another species of metre regulated by quantity is named 
Gityarya. Like the preceding, it is a tetrastich, in which 
each verse consists of sixteen matras or moments, but all ex- 
pressed by short syllables. In other words the stanza con- 
tains sixty-four short syllables distributed into four verses. 
From the mixture of vei'ses of this description with others 
consisting exclusively of long syllables, arises another metre, 
distmguished into two sorts, according as the first couplet 
in the stanza consists of short syllables and the second of 
long ; or, conversely, the first long and the second short-f 
The Gityarya may be further varied by making the last 
syllable of each couplet long and all the rest short ; at the 

• Page 35. 

t The mixed metre, in which one couplet of the stanza contains 
short syllables and the other long, is termed Sic^hd or ChliSd. If the 
first couplet contain the short syllables, it is denominated .^o^A; but 
is called Sattmyd or Anan^ancfiSd, when the first couplet consists of 
long syllables. 



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88 ON sanscrYt and 

same time reducing both couplets to twenty-nine moments ; 
or the first only to that measm^, and the second to thirty* 
one; or the first couplet to thirty, while the second contains 
thirty-two.* 

4. Pracrit measures. 

The foregoing are all comprehended under the general 
designation of Jati : and besides these, which are noticed 
in treatises on Sanscrit prosody, other kinds belonging to 
the class of metre regulated by quantity, are specified by 
writers on Pracrit prosody. They enumerate no less than 
forty-two kinds, some of which comprehend many species 
and varieties. The most remarkable, including some of 
those akeady described as belonging to Sanscrit prosody, 
are the following, of which instances are frequent in 
Pracrit y and which are also sometimes employed in Sans- 
crit poetry. 

A stanza of four verses, containing alternately thirteen 
and eleven moments (and scanned 6+4 f 3 and 6+4+1), 
is named either 2)($Aat (S. Dwipafha) ot S6raii'ha (S. 
Saurashh^a), according as the long verse precedes the short 
one, or the contrary. This metre, of which no less than 
twenty-thi*ee species bear distinct names (from forty-eight 
short syllables to twenty-three long and two short), is very 
commonly used in Hindi poetry. As an instance of it, the 
work of BihArilal may be mentioned, which consists of 
seven hundred couplets {sat sdi) all in this measure. It is 
a collection of descriptive poetry; of which CrYshna, 
sporting with RAdhA. and the G6pis, is the hero. The 
following example is from that celebrated author. 

* This metre, concemiog which aatborities disagree, is called 
ChitcUcd or Oiulica; or, according to the Fr^tta retn6cara, Atiruchird. 
t Corruptly Dbhra. 



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prAcrKt poetry. 89 

Macaracrita GSpala ce 

cuASalajhalacata cana, 
Dhasyd mandhiya gaciha samara : 
AySAht lasata nisana. 
The dolphin-shaped ring, which glitters in G6pAla'8 
ear, may be taken for the symbol of Cupid suspended at 
the gate, while the god is lodged in his heart'' 

To understand this stanza it must be remarked, that 
the symbol of the Indian cupid is the aquatic animal 
named Macara (which has in the Hindu zodiac the place 
of Capricorn). It is here translated dolphin, without how- 
ever supposing either the deliverer of ARioN,or any species 
of dolphin (as the term is appropriated in systems of natural 
history), to be meant. 

The Gafha or Gaha has been already noticed as a 
name of the Arya measure in Pracrit prosody. Including 
under this as a general designation the seven species of 
it, with all their numerous varieties, it is no uncommon 
metre in Pracrit poetry. A collection of amatory verses 
ascribed to the famous monarch SalivAhana, comprising 
seven hundred stanzas,* and purporting to be a selection 
from many thousands by the same author, is exclusively 
in metre of this kind. The introductory verse intimates, 
that 

Seven hundred couplets (gahas) are here selected out 
of ten millions of el^ant couplets composed by the poet 
HAla.'' 

HAla is a known title of ^AlivAhana, and is so ex- 
plained both here and in a subsequent passage by the 

• From their number, entitled Sat s<^. 



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90 ON SANSCRYt AMD 

scholiast GangAdhara SHAffA. It is not, however, 
probable, that he really composed those verses : and it 
would be perhaps too much to conjecture, that the true 
author of them was patronized by that monarch, whose 
existence as an Indian sovereign has been brought in 
doubt. 

The metre called Mahara8hira(jn Pracnt, MarahaHa) is 
a tetrastich, of which each verse contains twenty-nine mo^r^, 
scanned by one foot of six, and five of four ; with a termi- 
nating trochee. It has pauses at the . eighteenth and 
twenty-ninth matras. This measure is evidently denominated 
from the country which gives name to the Marahtxtia na- 
tion : as another species, beforementioned, takes its design- 
ation from Saurashira or S6rai^ha.* The circumstance is 
remarkable. 

Another tetrastich, which it is requisite to notice, is 
denominated Rdlh. Each verse contains twenty-four mo- 
tria: and this species of metre admits twelve varieties, 
from twenty-four short syllables to eleven long and two 
short, bearing distmct names* 

The Shaipadica {Pr. CJChappda) is a stanza of six 
verses, airanged in a tetrastich and couplet; the first 
termed Cavya, and the second Ullala. In the tetrastich, 
each verse contains twenty-four moments (scanned 2 + five 
times 4+2, or else 6 + four times 4+2) with a pause at 
the eleventh moment ; and each verse of the couplet con- 
tains twenty-eight moments, with a pause at the fifteenth. 
The varieties are extremely numerous, according to the 

* The peninsula, between the gulfs of Cambay and QUch. The 
name remains, but the boundaries of the province are more restricted 
than in ancient times. It still, however, includes the remains of 
CrYshi&a's city of Dtodrcd ; the celebrated temple of S6man6t''ha 
so frequently plundered by the Muhammedans ; and the mountain of 
Girandra, held sacred by the Jainas no less than by the followers of 
the Ftda. 



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PRiCRtx POEtBY. 91 

namber and tbe places of the long and short syllables* 
No fewer than forty-five variations of the tetrastich^ and 
seventy-one of the whole stanza, have separate names. 
They are distinguished by the number of short and long 
syllables (from 152 short to 70 long and 12 short in the 
whole stanza, or from 96 short to 44 long and 8 short 
in the tetrastich). The following example is extracted from 
the Pingala mritH. 

Ch'happaa or Shaipadica. 

Pindhiiu diAha sannaha; baha uppara pac'hc'hara dot, 
Barulhu samadiy rana dhaViu. Sand Hammira ba'dna lai, 
U3uu naha ; paha bhamau ; c'hagga r'iu Asa hijhatdu. 
Pac'hc'harapac'h&haray 'fhellipelli, pabbaa appar'du. 
Hammira cajja Jajjdlla bkaiia, cSfianala mahu maha 

jaldu. 
Sulatana dsa carabala ddi, tejji caUvara, dia chaliiu. 

Jajjala, general of HammIra's forces, taking the 
field against the Mtihammedan emperor, says vauntingly : 

" I put on strong armour, placing barbs on my horse, 
and taking leave of kinsmen, I hasten to the virar. Hav- 
mg received the commands of my master HammIra, 
I fly through the sky; I pursue the road; I flourish my 
scimitar on the head of the foe. Amid the bustle of horse 



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92 ON SANSCRIT ANO 

and foot I scale mountains. In HammIra's cause, Jaj*^ 
JALA declares. The fire of wrath bums within me ; laying 
my sword on the head of the Sultan, and abandoning tHis 
corporeal fi*ame, I ascend to heaven." 

The emperor, whose death was thus vainly promised to 
HammIra by his braggart general, must have been Sul- 
tAn Muhammed KhiDnI, with whom he is stated to 
have been contemporary, and who reigned from A.D. 1326 
to 1351.* HammIra was sovereign of Sacambhari, 
which, with unfeigned deference for the opinion of Captain 
WiLFORD on a geographical question, I still think to be 
Sambker rf and for this simple reason, that the culinary 
salt brought from the lakes of Sambher is named in Sans^ 
crity Sacambhariya lavana, answering to the Hindi Sam- 
bher tiun. It is, however, proper to remark, that maps 
exhibit a place of the name of Sambhere between Ujjayani 
and Indor. 

The UtcaxiVha is a stanza of six verses, each comprising 
eleven moments (scanned 4+4+3). In admits eight 
species from sixty-six short syllables to twenty-eight long 
and ten short. 

The Cunclalica is composed of one stanza of the metre 
named D6ha, followed by another in the measui-e called 
Il6la: the entire stanza consequently comprises eight 
verses. In this species of metre, rhyme and alliteration 
are so appropriate ornaments, that it admits the repetition 
of a complete hemistich or even an entire verse : as in the 
following example extracted from the Pingala vrtttu 

Cunckdica or Cun^l'ia. 

Dh6lla maria Dhilli maka, muck'hia Mech'ha sarira, 
Pura Jajjalla malla bara, chalia bira Hammira. 

♦ As. Rep. vol. ix., p. 192. t As. Res. vol. vii., p. 511. 



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PRAcRtT POETRY. 93 

CkaRa lira HamnAra, paa bhara metni campai. 
Diga maga Aaha andhara dhidi sdraha rahajhampau 
Diga maga naha andhara ana. Ohurasanaca 6Ua 
Davali, damasi vippac*hc'ha : mam Dhillt maha dhSlla. 

Having made the barbarians feint at the sound of the 
dram beaten in the midst of Dhillt and preceded by Jaj- 
JALA, eminent above athlets, the heroHAMMfRA advances; 
and as the hero HammIra advances, the earth trembles 
under his feet. The cloud of dust, raised by the march of 
his multitudes, obscures the chariot of the sun. Darkness 
spreads vrith the march of his multitudes. The hostages 
of the E^orasanian are slain; the foe is slaughtered, and 
the drum is beat in the midst of DhillV^ 

A stanza of nine verses, composed of one of five with a 
tetastrich of the metre called D6ha subjoined to it, is 
denominated BaclAha. Here the stanza of five contains 
three verses of fifteen moments each, with two of twelve 
and eleven interposed. The distribution of the feet, toge- 
ther with a restriction as to the terminating one, varies in 
each verse : and a difference in the regulation of the feet 
gives rise to six varieties which have distinct appellations. 

The Chatushpadica (Pr. Chaupaia or Chaupai) is a 
stanza of sixteen verses distributed into four tetrastichs, in 
which each verse contains thirty moments (scanned seven 



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94 ON sanscrYt and 

times 4+2), and terminated by a long syllable. This mea- 
sure is of very frequent use in the poetry of the modem 
languages. The Ramayana of TulaSIdAsa, in seven 
cantos, a poem held in great estimation by Hindus of the 
middle tribes, is composed chiefly in a similar metre under 
the same name {Chaupai\ and containing the same num- 
ber of verses (sixteen) in the stanza. It alternates with the 
D6ha, and very rarely gives place in that poem to any 
other metre. 

In this metre the stanza contains the greatest number of 
verses of any admitted into Pracrit prosody. The other 
measures regulated by quantity are tetrastichs, except the 
Ghaiia and certain other couplets noticed at the foot of the 
page;* some of which might have been ranked with more 
propriety under the next head of uniform metre. 

One other measure which is placed in this class, but 
which belongs rather to another, remains to be noticed. 
It is an irregular stanza of four verses, contdning alter- 
nately seventeen and eighteen syllables, with no regulation 
of their length or of the quantity of the verse or stanza* 
It is termed Gandhoy or in Pracrit Oandhana. 

The rest of the Pracrit metres may be sought in the 
synoptical tables subjoined to this essay. 

The present may be a proper place for noticing a class of 
poetry which has been even more cultivated in the Pricrit 
and provincial languages than in Sanscrit. I allude to 
the erotic poetry of the Hindus. 

• The Ghattd and Ghattdnanda, coDsistiug of two verses of thirty- 
one mdtrds each. In the first species the paases are after the tenth 
and eighteenth mdtrds ; in the other after the eleventh and eighteenth; 
There is also a slight difference in the distrihation of the feet (7 
times 4+3 short; and 6+3 times 3+5+6+3+3 short) The Dwi- 
padicd has in each verse twenty-eight m^^ (6+ five times 4+1 long). 
The Sie'ha containing the like ntunber, the Chanjd with forty-otie 
m4irde to the verse, and the Mdld with forty-five, are cooplett ; bat 
the feet are strictly regulated. 



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frAcrKt poetry. 95 

On its general character I shall briefly observe^ that it is 
free fipom the grievous defects of the Hindi poems composed 
in the style and metre of Persian verse ; but it wants ele- 
vation of sentiment and simplicity of diction. The passion, 
which it pictures, is sensual, but the language refined, wtdi 
some tenderness in the expression and in the tbooghts* 
Among the most celebrated poems in this class may be 
mentioned the ChaurapanchaiiccLy com^/ming fifty stanzas, 
by Chaura, and Amaru sataca^ containing twice that 
number, by Amaru. The first is supposed to be uttered 
by the poet Chaura, who, being detected in an intrigue 
with a king's daughter, and condemned to death, triumphs 
in the recollection of his successful love. The other, which 
is a collection of uncomiected stanzas on amatory topics, is 
reputed to be the work of the great Sancara Acharta, 
oomposed by him in his youth, before he devoted himself to 
the study of <lieology. 

Some of the commentators on this poem have attempted 
to explain it in a devout and mystical sense, on the same 
principle upon which Jayad^va's lyric poems are inter- 
preted as bearing a religious meaning. The interpretation, 
however, is too strained to be admitted ; and though 
J ATA diva's intention may have been devout, and his 
meaning spiritual, Amaru, or whoever was the true author 
of the work bearing this name, is cleariy the lover of an 
earthly mistress. 

The most singular compositions in this class of poetry, 
and for which chiefly a notice of it has been here intro- 
duced, are those in which the subject is treated with the 
studied arrangement and formal precision of the schools. 
I shall instance the RasamanjaA of BhAnudatta miSra 
in Sanscrit^ and the works of M atirAma and Sundara 
in Hindi. Mete various descriptions of lovers and mis- 



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96 ON SANSCRtT AND 

tresses distinguished by temper, age, and circumstances, 
are systematically classed and logically defined, with the 
seriousness and elaborate precision of scholastic writers. 
As ridicule was not intended, these poems are not humorous 
but trifling : and I should not have dwelt on the subject, 
if their number, and the recurrence of them in different lan- 
guages of India, were not evidence that the national taste 
is consulted in such compositions. 

III. Varha vritta ; metre regulated by the number of 
syllables. 

The next sort of metre is that which is measured by the 
number of syllables ; it is denominated Acsharach'handas 
or Variia vrttta, in contradistinction to the preceding kinds 
which are regulated by quantity ; and it may be subdivided 
into three sorts, according as the verses composing the 
stanza are all similar, or the alternate alike, or all dissi- 
milar. 

This also is a stanza of four verses (padas), each con- 
taining an equal number of syllables, the length of which 
is regulated by special rules. The number of syllables 
varies from twenty-four to a hundred and four, in each 
strophe : this is, from six to twenty-six in each verse. 
There are indeed names in Pracrit prosody for verses from 
one to five syllables, and instances of Sanscrit verse con- 
taining a higher number than above stated, viz. from 
twenty-seven to one less than a thousand. But these consti- 
tute distinct classes of metre. Between the limits first-men- 
tioned, twenty-one kinds receive different appellations appro- 
priated to the number of syllables contained in the stanza. 

Each kind comprehends a great variety of possible 
metres, according to the different modes in which long and 
short syllables, as well as pauses, may be distributed; and 



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PRACRtT POETRY. 97 

since the four quarters of each stanza may be either all 
alike, or only the alternate similar, or all different, the 
variety of possible metres is almost infinite. Pingala, 
however, gives directions for computing the number of 
species, and for finding their places, or that of any single 
one, in a regular enumeration of them ; or conversely, the 
metre of any species of which the place is assigned: and 
rules have been given even for calculating the space 
which would be requisite for writing down all the various 
species. 

In the first class or kind, wherein the verse consists of 
six syllables, sixty-four combinations are computed on the 
syllables of each verse ; 4,096* on those of the half stanza; 
and 16,777,2liSt on the twenty-four syllables which con- 
stitute the complete stanza of this class. In the last of 
the twenty-one kinds, 67,108,864 combinations are com- 
puted on twenty-six syllables within each verse; nearly 
4,503,621,000,000,000, on fifly-two syllables; and more 
than 20,282,388,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, on a 
hundred and four syllables which form the stanza. ;{: 

The different sorts, which have been used by poets, are 
few in comparison with the vast multitude of possible 
metres. Still they are too numerous to be all described at 
full length. I shall therefore select, as specimens, those 
sorts of metre which are most frequently employed, or 

* Fiz, 64 aniform and 4,032 half equal. 

t Viz. 64 uoiform, 4,032 half equal, and 16,773,120 unequal or dis- 
similar. 

X A mode of calculating the possible varieties of metre is also taught 
in the HUdvaiiy a treatise of arithmetic and geometry, by BhIsoara. 
This truly learned astronomer was also a poet, and his mathematical 
works are composed in highly polished metre. If the reader figure 
to himself Euclid in Alcaic measure, Diophantus in anapaests, or 
the Almagest versified with all the variety of Horatian metre, he will 
form an adequate notion of this incongruity. 

VOL. II. H 



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98 ON sanscrYt and 

which require particular notice; referring for the rest to the 
subjoined tables, in which the various kinds are succinctly 
exhibited by single letters descriptive of feet scann^ in the 
Indian and in the Latin mode. 

In the best Sanscrit poems, as those of CAlidAsa, 
BhAravI, SrIhabsha, MAgha, &c. the poet usually 
adheres to the same, or at least to similar metre, throughout 
^;he whole of the canto;* excepting towards the close of 
it, where the metre is usually changed in the last two or 
three stanzas, apparently with the intention of rendering 
the conclusion more impressive. Sometimes, indeed, the 
metre is more irregular, being changed several times within 
the same canto, or even altering with every stanza. 

The BagJiava panclaviyay by CAviRAjA,t is an instance 
of a complete poem, every canto of which exhibits variety 
of metre. This extraordinary poem is composed with 
studied ambiguity ; so that it may, at the option of the 
reader, be interpreted as relating the history of RAma and 
other descendants of Dasarat'ha, or that of Yudhish- 
f'HiRA and other sons of PAn6u. The example of this 
singular style of composition had been set by Subandhu 
in the story of Vasavadatt&f and BANABHAff a in his 
unfinished work entitled CadambaA; as is hinted by Ca- 
virAja. Both these works, which like the Ddsacumara 
of DANiSi^ are prose compositions in poetical language, 
and therefore reckoned among poems, do indeed exhibit 
continual instances of terms and phrases employed in' a 
double sense : but not, like the Raghava panAaviya^ two 
distinct stories told in the same words. 

* Writers on rhetoric (as the author of the Sdhitpa darpaha and 
others) lay it down as a maxim, that the metre and style should in 
general he uniform in each canto : hut they admit occasional devia- 
tions in regard to the metre. 

t So the author has called himself. 



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prAcrKt poetry. 99 

The foUowmg passage will sufficiently explain the man- 
ner in which the poem is composed. The first stanza is of 
the mixed sort of metre named Upajati^ which will be im- 
mediately described ; the second is in one. of the measures 
composing it, termed UpSndravajra. 

60. Matuh iriyan sandadhad Indumatyah 

ilaghyah saratcala iv6Aupancteh^ 
AsaUj prajapalaruidcLCshabhavadj 

Ajasya chctcre manasah pram6dam. 
51. Vichitravvryasya divan gatasya 

pituh sa rajyam pratipadya balyiy 
Purim AySdhyaniy Dhritrashirabhadram^ 
sa kastisSbham suc^ham adhyuvasa. 
" Having the beauty of his mother IndumatI, and 
admirable like the dewy season when it enjoys the beauty 
of the stars, he (DaSarat'ha) made glad the mind of 
Aja* by his skill in the protection of the people. Suc- 
ceeding in youth to the kingdom of his variously valiant 
father, who departed for heaven, he dwelt happily in the 

• Aja was father, and iNDUMAxf mother of DaIarat^ha. 
h2 

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100 ON sanscrKt and 

city of AySdhy&f which was adorned with elephants and 
upheld the prosperity of his realm." 

Otherwise interpreted the same passage signifies, 

^' Having the beauty of his mother, and admirable Uke 
the dewy season when it enjoys the beauty of the stars and 
of the moon, he (PAn6u) made glad the heart of tl\e unborn 
god by his skill in the protection of creatures. Succeeding 
in youth to the kingdom of his father ViCHiTRAviRYA* 
who departed for heaven, he dwelt happily in the peaceful 
city of HasHnapura auspiciously inhabited by DhrYta- 
RAsHf RA." 1. 50. and 51. 

To proceed with the subject. 'In general the different 
sorts of verse which are contained in the subjoined synop- 
tical table of uniform metre, are used singly, and the stanza 
is consequently regular : but some of the species, differing 
little from each other, are intermixed. Thus the Indravajra^ 
measured by a dactyl between two epitrites (third and 
second), and the Upendravyray which begins with a diiam- 
bus, may be mixed in the same stanza. This sort of mixt 
metre (an example of which has been just now exhibited) 
is denominated Upajati: it of course admits fourteen 
variations ;t or, with the regular stanzas, sixteen. The 
reUef which it affords firom the rigorous laws of the uniform 
stanza, renders it a favourite metre with the best poets. It 
has been much employed by CAlidAsa, in whose poem on 
the birth and marriage of PArvatI, three out of the seven 
cantos which compose it are in this metre; as are eight 
out of nineteen in his heroic poem on the glory of the race 
of Raghu. 

The last mentioned work, which is entitled Raghuvajisc^ 

* ViCHiTBAvfRYA was husband of Plif^u's mother. 

t They have distinct names, which are enumerated in the Ch^han- 
d6m&rtaii3ay cited by the commentator on the Vr^Ha Retndcara : as 
MaMprahhd CanHmati, &c. 



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prAcrIt poetry. 101 

and is among the mostBdmired compositions in the Sanscrit 
tongue, contains the history of RAma and of his predeces- 
sors and successors, from DiLiPA father of Raghu, to 
AoNivBRN A a slothful pnnce who was succeeded by his 
widow and posthumous son. The first eight cantos relate 
chiefly to Raghu, with whose history that of his father 
DilIpa, and of his son Aja, is nearly connected. The 
next eight concern RAma, whose story is in like manner 
intimately c(xmected with that of his fitther DaSarat'ha 
and of his sons Cv&a and Lava. The three concluding 
cantos regard the descendants of CuSa, from Atit'hi to 
Agniverna, both of whom are noticed at considerable 
length ; each being the subject of a single canto, in which 
thdo* characters are strongly contrasted ; while the inter- 
mediate princes, to the number of twenty, are crowded 
into the intervening canto, which is little else than a dry 
genealogy. 

The adventures of RAma are too well known to require 
any detailed notice in this place. The poet has selected 
the chief circumstances of his story, and narrates them 
nearly as they are told in the mythological poems and 
theogonies, but with far greater poetical embellishments. 
Indeed, the general style of the poems esteemed sacred (not 
excepting from this censure the R&mayana of VAlmIci,) 
is flat, difiuse, and no less deficient in ornament than 
abundant in repetitions; and it is for this reason that 
examples have been selected, for the present essay, ex- 
clusively fiom the celebrated profane poems. RAma's 
achievements have been sung by the profane as frequently 
as by the sacred poets. His story occupies a considerable 
place in many of the Pur anas y and is the sole object of 
VAlmIci's poem, and of another entitled Adhyatma Ra- 
mayana, which is ascribed to VyAsa. A fragment of a 
Ramayana, attributed to BAUDuAvANAis current in the 
southern part of the Indian peninsula; and the great 

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102 ON sanscrYt and 

philosophical poem, usually cited under the title of YSga 
vasishi^ha, is a part of a Mamayana, comprising the edu- 
cation of the devout hero. Among pro&ne poems on the 
same subject, the Raghuvania and BhaHicavya with the 
Raghavap&nAi'dya beforemendoned, are the most esteemed 
in Sanscrit, as the Ramayana of TulaSIdAsa and Rcarna- 
cAandrica of C^^avadAsa are in Hindi. The minor 
poets, who have employed themselves on the same topic, 
both in Sanscrit and in the Pracrit and provincial dialects, 
are by far too numerous to be here specified. 

The other poem of CAlidAsa abovementioned, though 
entitled Cumara sambhava or origin of CumAra (who is 
son of PAbvatI), closes with PArvatI's wedding. It has 
the appearance of being incomplete; and a tradition runs, 
that it originally consisted of twenty-two books. However, 
it relates the birth of the goddess as daughter of mount 
Himalaya, and celebrates the religious austerities by 
which she gained Siva for her husband ; after Candarpa, 
or Cupid, had failed in inspiring Siva with a passion for 
her, and had perished (for the time) by the fiery wrath of 
the god. The personages, not excepting her father, the 
sno¥^ mountain, are described with human manners and the 
human form, with an exact observance of Indian costume. 

The following stanza from a poem in mixed language 
upon the same subject (the birth of CumAra), is selected 
as a further example of Upajati metre, and as a specimen 
of the manner in which Sanscrit and Pracrit are some- 
times intermixed. It is quoted for that purpose in tlie 
Pingalavritti. 

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prAcrYt poetry. 103 

Balah cunutrah; sa ch^ha-munAa-dhari. Upad-hina 

hamu eccornari. 
Ahar-iiiiam c^hai visham bhic*h&ri, Gatir bhavitri 
cila ci ham&ri. 

Diviy grieving over her infant son CumAra or Scanda, 
says, 

'^ The child is an infant, but he has six mouths [to be 
fed]: I am a helpless, solitary female: night and day my 
mendicant husband swallows poison : what resource is there, 
alas, for me?" 

An instance of the same measure used in the Sfarahaiia 
(Maharaahira) language is quoted by the commentator on 
the Vritta retnacara. It appears, however, from the 
rhymes, that the verse is there subdivided by a pause after 
the fifth syllable. 

The variety of the Upajati metre is increased by the 
further mixture of two sorts of iambic measure named 
Vajisasfha and Indravansa. The first is composed of a 
choriambus between two diiambi ; in the second, the first 
dissyllable is a spondee instead of an iambic. Instances of 
this mixt metre occur in VALMici's Ramdyana^ in the 
Sri Bhagavata purana,f and in a metaphysical and theo- 
logical drama entitled PrabSdha chandr6daya.% 

The follovnng example firom the drama now mentioned, 
exhibits the combination of those four sorts of metre in a 
single stanza. 

'i'Klui^ijn+yOPKt'M'ill 1 

* In a passage of the Sundara cdMa, 

t Book 10th. 

X AmoDg the persons of this drama are the passions and vices 
(pride, anger, avarice, &c.) with the virtues (as pity and patience), 
and other abstract notions, some of which constitute very strange 
personifications. The author was GaiSHirA PAifi6iTA. 

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104 ON sanscrTt and 

Vidya-^abSdhSdaya-janma-'bhiimir, 

VaranoA mucti-puri niratyaya 
Atah culSchchhedorTndhim vidhitsur 

niv(istum atrecVhati nityam eva sah. 

" VaraAasi, the indestructible city of eternal salTation^.is 
the native land of science and intellect: hence, one desirous 
of observing the precepts by which a continuance of fiunily 
is cut off [and final beatitude obtained], is solicitous to 
dwell there continually." 

The same term (JJpajat%)y as descriptive of mixt metre, 
has been also applied to the intermixture of two spondaic 
measures named Vat6rmi and Salini; which are very simi- 
lar, the first having an anapaest, the other a cretic, bd;ween 
a dispondeus and second epitritus, with a pause at the 
fourth syllable. Analogous to the first of these are the 
Rafh6ddhata and Swagata, measured by an anapsBst 
preceded by two trochees, and followed in the one by two 
iambics, and in the other by an ionic. These and the pre* 
ceding are metres in very common use with the best poets ; 
and instances of them will occur in subsequent extracts, 
chosen for the sake of other measures with which they are 
joined. 

The several sorts of metre above described are, like the 
two last, also employed separately : for instance, the first 
cantos of the Naiskadhtya of SrIhabsha, and Ciratar- 
juniya of BhAravI, as well as that of the epic poem of 
MAgha, are in the iambic measure called Vansasfha; 
which recurs again in other parts of the same poems ; espe- 
cially in the Cirata, of which four books out of eighteen 
are in this measure. 

The first of the works just now mentioned is a poem 

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pracrYt poetry. 106 

in twenty-two cantos, on the marriage of Nala, king of 
Nis/uidha, and DamayantI, daughter of BhIma, king of 
Viderbha. It is a favourite poem on a fevourite subject ; 
and though confessedly not free from faults, is by many 
esteemed the most beautiful composition in the Sanscrit 
language. The marriage of Nala and DamayantI, his 
loss of his kingdom by gaming, through the fraudulent 
devices of Cali disguised in the human form, his desertion 
of his wife and his transformation, her distresses, her 
discovery of him, and his restoration to his proper form 
and to his throne, are related in another poem already 
noticed under the title of NalSdaya. Their adventures 
likewise constitute an episode of the Mahabharatay* and 
are the subject of a novel in prose and verse, by Trivi- 
CRAMA BHAff A, cutitied Nolackamp&f or Damayanti 
cat^ha. SrI HARSH a's poem, though containing much 
beautiful poetry according to the Indian taste, is very 
barren of incident. It brings the story no further than the 
marriage of Nala and DamayantI, and the description 
of their mutual affection and happiness, which continues 
notwithstanding the machinations of CalL The romantic 
and interesting adventures subsequent to the marriage, as 
told in the NaUdaya^ are here wholly omitted ; while the 
poet, with a degree of licentiousness, which is but too well 
accommodated to the taste of his countrymen, indulges in 
glowing descriptions of sensual love. 

The following example of Vamasfka metre is from the 
intix)duction of the Naishadhiya. To render the author's 
meaning intelligible, it may be necessary to premise, that 
the mere celebrating of Nala and DamayantI is reckoned 

• From the 53d to the 79th chapters of the f^ana parva. 

t A composition, in which prose and verse are intermixed, is called 
Champu, 



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106 ON sanscrYt and 

sufficient to remore the taint of a sinfiil age> and is so 
declared in a passage of the Mahabkarata. 

Vaniast'ha metre. 

Pavitram atratanutejagad yvge, 

smrita, rasa-cshalajmyeva yat, cafha; 

Cafkam na sa mad-giram, avilam api, 
swasevinim evUy pavitrayishyati. 

" How should a story, which, being remembered, purifies 
the world in the present age, as it were by an actual ablu-^ 
tion, fail of purifying my voice, however faulty, when em- 
ployed on this narration/* 1. 3. 

In the following passage from BnARAvi's Ciratarjuniya, 
the last stanza is an example of the Malini metre, and the 
preceding one of the Pushpitagra; which will be noticed 
further on : all the rest are in ihe^Vaniasfha measure. It 
is the close of a reproachful speech of DraupadI to her 
eldest husband, YuDHiSHf 'hira, inciting him to break the 
compact with Dury6dhana, by which the PAn6avas 
had engaged to remain twelve years in exile. 

M Priori; W>fHHIvnfr: t| ^\9"n 



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PRAcRtT POETRY. 107 

>i1*il<dl|wnilUl<^s«lRl'il- 
HNr?!l^fNW(X^<^llr|ri; 

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108 ON sanscrKt and 

" I do not comprehend this thy prudence ; for opinions 
are indeed various : but anguish forces itself on my mind 
when considering thy extreme distress. Thou, who didst 
formerly repose on a costly couch, and wert wakened with 
auspicious praise and song, now sleepest on the ground 
strewed with pungent grass, and art roused from thy 



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prAcrKt poetry. 109 

slumbers by the dismal bowlings of shakals. Thy feet, 
which, resting on a footstool adorned with precious stones, 
were tinged by the dust of the blossoms in the chaplets 
worn by prostrate mcmarchs, now tread the wilderness, 
where the tips of sharp grass are cropped by the teeth of 
stags. Thy person, O king, which formerly gained. beauty 
by feeding on the blessed remnant of the feast given to 
holy men, now wastes with thy glory, while thou feedest 
on the fruits of the forest. That thou art reduced to this 
condition by the act of thy enemies, harrows up my soul. 
To the valiant, whose courage is unsubdued by the foe, 
misfortune is a triumph. Relinquishing peace, O king, be 
active, and rouse thy energy for the slaughter of thy foes* 
Placid saints, not kings, attain perfection, disanning their 
enemies by patience. If persons such as thee, whose ho- 
nour IS their wealth, who are leaders of the brave, submit 
to such insupportable disgrace, then is magnanimity de- 
stroyed without resource. If, divested of courage, thou 
deem submission the means of lasting ease, then quit thy 
bow, the symbol of a sovere^, and becoming a hermit, 
feed here with oblations the purifying flame. Adherence 
to the compact is not good for thee, valiant prince, while 
thy foes compass thy disgrace; for kings, ambitious of 
victory, scruple not the use of stratagem in treating with 
enemies. Thee, who by force of ikte and time art now sunk 
in the deep ocean' of calamity, dull with diminished splen- 
dour, and slow to enterprise, may fortune again attend, as 
thou risest like the sun with the new bom day, dispelling 
hostile gloom." 1. 37—46. 

To return to the enumeration of analogous sorts of 
metre. A true spondaic metre, named Vidyunmala, con- 
sisting of four spondees, with a pause in the middle of the 
verse, which virtually divides the tetrastich into a stanza of 
eight, is often mixed, as before observed, with the metre 



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110 ON sanscrYt and 

termed Gityarya, contaimng the same quantity in a gneater 
number of syllables. 

Other measures, also contaimng the same quantity but 
in a greater number of syllables, occur among the species 
of uniform metre. The subjoined note* exhibits several 
species, in which the vei-se is divided by the position of the 
pauses into two parts equal in quantity, and some of them 
equal in number of syllables. Further instances are also 
stated in the notes, of metre containing the same quantity 
similarly reducible to equal feet.t Some of the species of 
metre which contain a greater number of syllables, are 
reducible, in conformity to the position of their pauses, to 
this class. X 

All these varieties of metre have a great analogy to the 
Matrasanuica and other species before described, which 
similarly contain the quantity of sixteen short syllables or 
eight long, reducible to four equal feet. 

Among the kinds of metre described at the foot of the 
preceding paragraphs, the DSdhacay TSiaca, and Pra-- 
mitacshara are the most common. A stanza in the ana- 
peestic measure named Prandtacshara, in which each verse 
exhibits alliteration at its close, has been already quoted 

* Rttcmavafi or Champacamald, composed of alternate dactyls and 
spondees ; Mattd, measured by three spondees with four short sylla- 
bles before the last; Pa^va^ containing a spondee and dactyl, and 
an anapaest and spondee ; Bhramaravilasitd, measured by two spon- 
dees, four short syllables and an anapaest; Jdlbddhatagatd, composed 
of alternate amphibrachys and anapaests; and several other species, as 
Ckmima vichiira, Mahiguiia nicara, Cudmala dantif Lakmdy &c. 

t DddhacGf composed of three dactyls and a spondee ; Tdtaca, con- 
taining four anapaests ; Pramitdcshard, measured by three anapaests 
with an amphibrachys for the second foot ; Mold, a species of Chan^ 
dravartd, and some others. 

X Thus MaUdcriSd combines two simple kinds, the VidyunmSUd and 
Chandravartd, So Crmmchapadd is composed of two species before- 
mentioned, the Ckampacamdld and MMgttha, 



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prAcrYt poetry. Ill 

Scorn the fifth canto of the Ciratarjumya of BhAravI. 
The spedmen of anapaestic measure TSiaeay which will be 
here cited from the close of the NalSdaya, is a further 
instance of alliteration introduced into every stanza of this 
singular poem. 

T6fACA, 

Arisanhatir asya vaneshu sucham 

padam hpadam apad am& 'padami. 
Suc^hadan cha yafhaiva janaya Harim 
yatam ayatamaya tarn ayata Ma. 

'^ The luckless and despondent crowd of his foes found 
in the forests a calamitous place of sorrow ; and prosperity 
was constant to him, who gave happiness to a sincerely 
affectionate people, as she clings to Hari, who blesses the 
guileless." 4. 46. 

It has been before said, that, in several sorts of metre, 
the pauses would justify the division of the stanza into a 
greater number of verses than four, and instances have 
been shown, where either the number of syllables, or the 
quantity, would be the same in each verse of a stanza of 
eight, twelve, or even sixteen short verses. In the follow- 
ing species of metre, the verses of the stanza, subdivided 
according to the pauses, are unequal. 

The SardMavicriAitay a very common metre, of which 
examples occur in the former volumes of Asiatic Re- 
searches,'*^ is a tetrastich, in which the verse consists of 

• Vol. i. p. 279. 



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112 ON sanscrYt and 

nineteen syllables divided by the pause intd portions ol 
twelve and seven syllables respectively. The iidlowing 
instance of this metre is irom the close of the first book of 
MAgha's epic poem; where NArbdAi having delivered 
a message from Indra, inciting CrYshna to war with 
SiSupAla, king of the ChediSj departs, leaving the hero 
highly incensed against his kinsman and enemy. 

O'm ityuctaveUS ^fha iamgina, iti 

vyahritya vachan, nabhas 
Tasminn utpatite purah mra-munav 

inddh sriyam bibhrati, 
Satrdnam aniiam vinasa-pisunah, 

cruddhasya Chaidyam prati, 
Vyimniva, bhticuii cVhaUna, vadatie 
cctus chacar' aspadam. 
^' While the divine sage, having delivered this discourse, 
ascended the sky, bearing on his fi*ont the radiance of the 
moon ; the hero, armed vnth a bow, uttered an expression 
of assent ; and the frown, which found place on his brow 
wreakfiil against the prince of the Chedis, was as a portent 
in the heavens, foretokening destruction of his foes/' 1. 75. 
The MaTidacranta, which is the metre in which the 
Migkaduta is composed, has pauses subdividing each 
verse of seventeen syllables into three portions, containing 
four, six, and seven syllables respectively : viz. two spon- 
dees ; two pyrriiichii and an iambic ; a cretic, trochee, and 
spondee. The Harini diflfers from the preceding in trans- 



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pracrIt poetry. 113 

posing the first and second portions of the verse, and mak- 
ing the third consist of an anapoest between two iambics. 
An instance of it will be subsequently exhibited. 

The example of the first mentioned metre, here inserted, 
is fit>m the Megha duta. This elegant little poem, attri- 
buted as before observed to CAlidAsa, and comprising no 
more than 116 stanzas, supposes a Yacsha or attendant of 
Cuv6ra to have been separated fi-om a beloved wife by an 
imprecation of the god Cuv6ra, who was irritated by the 
n^ligence of the attendant, in sufiering thejcelestial garden 
to be trodden down by Indra's elephant. The distracted 
demigod, banished firom heaven to the earth, where he 
takes his abode on a hill on which RAma once sojourned,* 
entreats a passing cloud to convey an affectionate message 
to his wife. 

Mandacranta metre. 

>5lMiri|c=liM«t.fdy^MchW*.MMMl'i: 1 

'5(l«HI*riMN<iirv^JjUl'1Nii^«iMct,|Hltl 
^di^M W^ PMSlKUM^M'SlXrM'y I'M I: 

* Called Ramagiri. 
VOL. II. I 

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114 ON sanscrIt and 

6. Jatam vanse, bhuvana'-vidite, pmhcaravartacanam^ 
Janami tioam^ pr<icriti''purtishan,camariipamfMagh6nah, 
Tend 'rt'hitwan, twat/i, vidki-vasad durabandhur, gato 



Yachnya mSgka varam adhigune, nadhame labdliacama. 
7. Santaptanan twam asi iaranan ; tat, paySda, priyayah 

Sandesam me hara, dhanapati^crddha-visUshitasya. 

Gantavya te vasatir Alaca nama yacsheiwaranam. 

VahySdyana-st'hita'Hara-siraS'chandrica'^hauta-har- 
V mya. 

" I know thee sprung from the celebrated race of dilu- 
vian clouds, a minister of Indra, who dost assume any 
form at pleasure: to thee I become an humble suitor, being 
separated by the power of fate from my beloved spouse : a 
request preferred in vain to the noble is better than success- 
fill solicitation to the vile. Thou art the refiige to the in- 
flamed : therefore do thou, O cloud, convey to my beloved 
a message from me who am banished by the wrath of the 
god of riches. Thou must repair to Alaca the abode of the 
lord of Yacskas, a palace of which the walls are whitened by 
the moonbeams from the crescent on the head of Siva, 
who seems fixed in the grove without." 6 and 7. 

The Sic'harim, also a common metre, distributes seven- 
teen syllables into portions of six and eleven : an iambic 
and two spondees in the one, and a tribrachys, anapaest, 
dactyl, and iambic in the other. This is the metre of the 
Ananda lahart, a hymn of which SancarAchArya is the 
reputed author, and which is addressed to Si v A, the oacti 
or energy of Siva or MahAd^va. It comprises a hun- 
dred stanzas of orthodox poetry held in great estimation by 
the devout followers of Sancara: the devotional poetry 
of the Hindus does not usually employ metre of so high an 
order. 

Examples of this measure will be shown in a subsequent 



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PRACRtx POETRY. 115 

extract firom a work of a very different kind : a drama^ 
by Bbavabu^jti entitled Malati madhava. 

The Malinij consistmg of fifteen syllables, places two 
tiribrachys and a spondee in the one subdivided portion of 
the verse, and a cretic, trochee, and spondee, in the other. 
An instance of it occurs in a former extract fi-om the Cira- 
tarjufAya. The following example of this metre is from 
the drama abovementioned. The passage is descriptive of 
a love-sick maid. 

Malini metre. 

ir1^'1'=l«*r«Ti^<^,|rri:^nfl^: Tl 

PaHmrtdita'-mrtnali'-ndanam angam ; pi'ovrittih 
Cafham api parivara-prart^hanabhih criyasu. 
Calayati cha himanidr nishcalancasya lacshmim 
Abhinava-cari'danta^chchhida'cantah capdlah . 
" Her person is weary like bruised threads of a lotos ; 
scarcely can the earnest entreaties of her attendants incite 
her to any exertion ; her cheek, pale as new wrought ivory^ 
emulates the beauty of a spotless moon." 1. 22. 

The Praharshintf containing thirteen syllables, separates 
a molossus fi*om two pyrrhichii, as many trochees, and a 
spondee. An example of it will be shown in a subsequent 
extract from Bhavabh6ti's drama. 

The RtLchira, with the same number of syllables, dis- 
joins two iambics from two pyrrhichii, a trochee, and cretic. 
The opening stanza of the Bhatticavya may serve as an 
instance of this metre* The poem bearing that title is on 
the subject of the adventures of RAma : it is comprised in 

I 2 



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116 ON sanscrTt and 

twenty-two cantos. Being composed purposely for the 
practical illustration of grammar, it exhibits a studied 
variety of diction, in which words anomalously inflected are 
most frequent. The style, however, is neither obscure nor 
inelegant; and the poem is reckoned among the classical 
compositions in the Sanscrit language. The autiior was 
BhartrYh ARi : not, as might be supposed from the name, 
the celebrated brother of VicramAditya ; but a gram- 
marian and poet, who was son of SrIdhara swAmI, as 
we are informed by one of his scholiasts, VidyAvin6de. 

Ruchira metre. 

^:1 m1 r^ ^ v^ ^ ^ :^trnT: 

Abhiin nrtpS, mbudha-sac^hahy parantapah, 

SrutantcitS, Dasarafha ityudahritahj 
ChiAair varamy bhuva7ia'hita'chch'haUna,yam 

Sanatanah pitaram upagamat swayam. 
" He, whom the eternal chose for a father, that he might 
benefit the world [in a human form], was a king, a friend 
of the gods, a discomfiter of foes, and versed in science : 
his name was Dasarat'ha. He was a prince eminent for 
his virtues." 1. 1. 

The Suvadaiia distributes twenty syllables in three por- 
tions of the verse: one containing two spondees and a 
bacchius; the second four short syllables and an anapaest; 
the third a spondee, pyrrhichius, and iambic. The Srag- 
dharif a very common metre, differs frx)m it only in the third 
portion of the verse, which contains a trochee, spondee, and 



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prAcrKt poetry. 117 

baocbius : but here the number of syllables in every sub- 
division is equal : viz. seven. In all the other instances 
above described, the subdivisions of the regular verses were 
unequal. 

The following sorts of metre, which are usually em- 
ployed, have no pauses but at the close of the verse. The 
Druta vilambita contains in each verse two anapaests pre- 
ceded by three short syllables and a long one, and followed 
by an iambic. Instances of this measure have been already 
cited in an extract from the Ciratarjuniya, The Sragoini 
is measured by a trochee, spondee, and iambic repeated ; 
as Ae Bhujangaprayata is by a similar repetition of an 
iambic, trochee, and spondee. Both sorts of metre are of 
frequent occurrence in classic poems. 

The Vamntatilacay which consists of a spondee, iambic, 
tribrachys, dactyl, trochee, and spondee, is one of the 
metres in most general use. It commonly occurs as a 
change from other metre. But the whole fifth canto of 
Magha's poem is in this measure. The Chaura pancka- 
sica, a short poem before described, is in the same metre, 
and so is a pathetic elegy on the death of a beloved wife 
which occurs in the Bhamani vilasa, a collection of mis- 
cellaneous poetry by JagannAt'ha Panclita raja. It 
begins thus : 

Vasantatilaca. 

" Since fate, alas ! is become adverse, and the gem of 
kindred is departed towards heaven, to whom, O my soul. 



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118 ON sanscrIt and 

wilt thou tell thy grief? and who will appease thy anguish 
with refreshing words?" 

The following passage irom some Hindi poem, is quoted 
in NArayana BHAff a's commentary on the Vritta ret- 
nacara as a specimen of this metre in the Canyacubja 
dialect. 

Candarpa-r&pa jala tin tumha linha, CrUhAa ! 

L6c6pacama hama Am, hahu-ptra, ch*h6ri. 
Jan bheiicain viraha-pira nasaii meA, 

Yain hhanti ddti pai'hat, caki bata, G6pi,* 
*^ CrIshna, since thou didst assume the form of Cupid, 
I have neglected worldly afiairs, sufiering much anxiety. 
Relieve by thy presence the pain of separation which I 
endure. Such was the message, with which the G6pi dis- 
patched her embassadress.'' 

V. Sl6ca or Vactra. 
The most common Sanscrit metre is the stanza of four 
verses containing eight syllables each, and denominated 
irom the name of the class, Anushhibh. Several species 
of it have been described. Two very simple kinds of it 
occur, consisting of iambic, or trochaic feet exclusively :+ 

• Short vowels, when final, are so faintly soutaded, that they are 
usually omitted in writing the provincial languages of India in Roman 
character. But they have been here preserved at the close of words ; 
being necessary, as in Sanscr% for correctly exhibiting the metre. 

t The first termed FramdnU the other SamdnU Considered as a 
species of uniform metre, the first is also named Nagoiwafupi^i or 



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PRACRtT POETRY. 119 

the rest are included in one general designation.* But 
several analogous species are comprehended under the 
denomination of Vactra. Here the laws of the metre, 
leaving only the first and eighth syllables indeterminate, 
require either a bacchius or an amphibrachysf before the 
eighth syllable, and forbid an anapaest or tribrachys after 
the first; as also in the second and fourth verses of the 
stanza, an amphimacer. A variety of this metre introduces 
a tribrachys before the eighth syllable in the first and third 
verses, and a bacchius in the second and fourth |. And 
another sort,§ which admits five varieties, requires the 
penultimate syllable to be short in the second and fourth 
verses; and introduces before the eighth syllable of the 
first and third verses, a dactyl, anapaest, tribrachys, amphi- 
macer, or molossus. 

The metre which is most in use, is one of the species 
now described, in which the number of syllables is deter- 
minate (viz. eight), but the quantity variable. CAlidAsa 
appropriates to this metre the term Sl6ca (abbreviated from 
Anuskiubh slSca); and directs, that the fifth syllable of 
each verse be short, the sixth long, and the seventh alter- 
nately long and short. The mythological poems under the 
title of Purana, and the metrical treatises on law and other 
sciences, are almost entirely composed in this easy verse ; 
with a sparing intermixture of other analogous sorts, and 
with the stiU rarer introduction of other kinds of metre. 

Mataliicdf and the second is denominated Mallicd, There is also a 
regular measure which alternates trochees and iambics, and is deno- 
minated MdnawtcdcfiSd : and another, named Chitrapaddf consisting 
of two dactyls and a spondee. 

• Vitdna. 

t The metre is named Pafhyd when an amphibrachys is intro- 
duced in the second and fourth verses; some say in the first and 
third. 

t Chapald. h ripuld. 



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120 ON sanscrKt and 

The varieties of the Anushiubh ilSca which most frequently 
occur, make the fifth, sixth, and seventh syllables of the 
first and third verse all long or all short; or else the fifth 
long with the sixth and seventh short. Thus varied, it is much 
used by the best poets. CAlidAsa has employed it in the 
second and sixth cantos of his poem entitled Cumara mm» 
bhava, and in the first, fourth, and several others of the 
Raghuvania. The second and nineteenth cantos of MA- 
gha's poem are in this metre, and so is the eleventh of 
the Ciratarjuniya, 

The examples here subjoined are from MAgha's poem. 
One passage is part of a speech of BalarAma to CrIsh- 
KA, urging him to the immediate conmiencement of hosti- 
lities against SiSupAla : the other is extracted firomUi>- 
dhava's reply, dissuading CrYshna from instant war, and 
advising his previous compliance with YuDHisufniRA's 
invitation to assist at a solemn sacrifice which the king was 
on the point of celebratmg at Indraprasfha. 

3Mch^ir<uiwr«-yJirii^uiiMchir<uii i 



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PRACUjfx POETRY. 121 

ri^l>s(«lPl<c|j^^*tcf)^5ychir<U|: 'n^M'n 

BalarAma speaks. '* A proved enemy^ and a tried friend^ 
are most to be regarded ; for they are known by their actions : 
others, presumed to be so, from temper or affinity, may be 
fomid in the end to be friend or foe. Peace may be main- 
tained with a natural enemy, who confers benefits; not with 
a presumptive firiend, who commits outrages ; kindness or 
injury, is the proper test of both. The king of the Chedis 
was offended, O Hari, by the seizure of RucminI; for - 
woman is the chief cause, that the tree of discord takes root. 
Whilst thou wert engaged in subduing the offspring of the 
earth, he besieged this city, as darkness encircles the skirts 
of Meru while the sun is remote. To hint, that he ravished 



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122 ON SANSCRIT AND 

the wife of Vabhru is enough : the narratioD of crimes is 
too disgustful. Thus aggrieved by thee, and having much 
injured us, the son of Srutasravas is an enemy demon- 
strated by deeds. The man who is negligent, while an 
enraged foe meditates aggressions, sleeps in the wind with 
fire under his arm. What forbearing man, who would 
cheerfully dissemble a slight and single injury, can patiently 
endure repeated wrongs ? At other times, patience becomes 
a man ; and pudency, a woman : but valour befits the in- 
sulted warrior ; as modesty should be laid aside by a woman 
in the nuptial bed. Whoever lives (may none so live!) 
tortured by the pain of insults from his enemy, would that 
he had never been bom, vainly giving his mother anguish. 
Dust, which, kicked by the foot of the traveller, rises and 
settles on his head, is less contemptible than the dastard, 
who is contented under wrongs." 2. 36 — ^46. 
Uddhava, in reply, addressed to CrKshna : 



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PRAcRtT POETRY. 123 

rfl5^IMI^«Tj<|^|^:5R^5lHcriMdlM«=lri; 1 
•riMriirM^T|:HlbHc(|I)chMi4.fi|r|:^nT: tl 1 o (^Tl 

" The just king and his kinsmen, relying on thee for an 
associate capable of sustaining the heaviest burden, are 
willing to undertake the task of a solemn sacrifice. Even 
to enemies, who court them, the magnanimous show kind- 
ness ; as rivers convey to the ocean the rival torrents from 
the mountakis. Violence, used against foes by the strong, 
is at length successful ; but friends, once offended, are not 
easily reconciled even by compliances. Thou thinkest, that the 
slatighter of the foe will most gi*atify the inhabitants of 
heaven ; but far better is it to present offerings, which are 
desired by the deities who devour oblations. What the 
virtuous offer, under the name of ambrosia, in flames, whose 
tongues are holy prayers, was the splendid ornament of the 
ocean churned by the mountain Mandara. The promise 
made by thee to thy father's venerable sister, to forgive her 
son a hundred offences, should be strictly observed. Let 
the intellect of a good man be sharp without wounding ; 
let his actions be vigorous, but conciUatory ; let his mind 
be warm without inflaming: and let his word, when he 
speaks, be rigidly maintained. Before the appointed hour, 
even thou art not able to destroy the tyrant, on whom thy- 
self conferred that boon ; no more than the sun can pre- 
maturely close the day, which he himself enlightens." 2. 
103—110. 



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124 ON sanscrYt and 

V. Compound metre. 

Instances of compound metre have been already exhibited 
mider the designation of Upajati, consisting of two kinds of 
simple metre variously combined : two of these combina- 
tions are repeated under the head of half equal metre, mtb 
the contrasted names of Ac* hyanad and Vipcaritac'hr/anaci. 
Other species of metre belonging to this class are in use 
among eminent poets : particularly the Pushpitagra and 
Aparavactra, In the first, both verses are terminated by 
two trochees and a spondee, and begin with four short 
syllables, one verse interposing a pyrrhichius, and the other 
a dactyl. In the next species, both verses are terminated 
by three iambics, and begin like the preceding with four 
short syllables; but one verse interposes a single short 
syllable, and the other a trochee. 

Examples of the first of these mixed measures are very 
common. One instance has been already exhibited in a 
quotation from the first canto of BhAravI's poem of 
Arjuna and the mQuntaineer. The whole tenth canto of 
the same poem, and the seventh of M Achats death of 
^isupAla, are in this mixt metre. The second is less 
common : but an instance occurs in the eighteenth canto of 
the Cirataijuniya, 

The close of the ninth canto of CAlidAsa's Raghu- 
vansa, exhibiting a variety of metre, in which two of the 
species now mentioned are included, is here cited, for the 
sake of these and other species which have been before 
described. The subject is Dasarat'ha's hunt, in which 
he slew the hermit's son: a story well known to the readers 
of the RamayaAa. 



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PRAcRtx POETRY. 126 



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prAcrKt poetry. 127 

5lllM<V^ssc|^-iHVrH^I^<in(l: tl t\9tl 



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126 ON sanscrKt and 

<IHI^rr1chR<d^|chl''JR*N'«- 

H:dMd:^t»nri*JMrd:Sa^ tl tRXi 
f<«Mi||H^(rWc<MrMy3|itl|chl- 



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prAcrKt poetry. 127 

sillM<Mssc|^cii^VfH'i||^<intr: Tl t\9*n 



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128 ON SANSCRtT AND 

'* Thus did the chase, like an artM mistress^ allure the 
kingy forgetful of all other business, and leaving to his 
ministers the burthen of the state, while his passion grew 
by indulgence. 

** The king, without his retinue, passed the night in some 
sequestered spot, reposing on a bed of leaves and blossoms, 
and enlightened by the flame of wild herbs. At dawn, 
being awakened by the flapping of his elephant's ears in 
place of the royal drums, he delighted in listening to the 
sweet and auspicious tones of chirping birds. 

** One day, pursuing an antelope, and outstripping his at- 
tendants, he arrived, with his horse foaming with fatigue, on 
the bank of the Tamasa, a stream frequented by the devout. 
In its waters a deep sound, caused by the filling of a vase, 
was mistaken by the king for the grumbling of an elephant, 
and he directed an arrow towards the spot whence the 
sound proceeded. By this forbidden act* DaSarat'ha 
transgressed : for even the wise, when blinded by passion, 
deviate into the pathless waste. ' Ah father !' was the 
piteous cry which issued : and the king, anxious, sought 
its cause among the reeds. He found the vase, and near 
it a hermit's son pierced by his arrow, and he stood amazed 
as if internally wounded. The king, of glorious lineage, 
who had already alighted from his horse, eagerly inquired 
the parentage of the youth ; who, resting on the vase, with 
feeble accents said ' he was the son of a hermit, but no 
priest.' Instructed by him, the king conveyed the wounded 
youth to his bUnd parents : and to them, as they approached 

* The royal and military tribe is prohibited from killiDg elephants 
unless in battle. 



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PRjlCRlfT POETRY. 129 

tbeir only son^ he related his mistaken deed. The unhappy 
pair, lamenting, conjured the king to draw the arrow from 
the breast of their wounded son. The youth was dead. 
The aged hermit ratifying his curse with tears instead of 
water for a libation, pronounced this imprecation on the 
king : ^ In thy extreme age thou shalt reach thy fated 
time, with grief Uke mine for a beloved son.' While he 
spoke, as it were a serpent assailing first and then discharg- 
ing fatal Tenom, Cauj^alya's lord, conscious of the first 
ofience, addressed him thus : ' Thy curse has fallen like a 
boon on me, who have not seen the beauteous countenance 
of offspring ; as fire, fed with fuel, fertilizes the soil which 
it bums.' The king then said, ' For me, who merciless 
deserves death at thy hands, what are thy commands?' 
The holy hermit asked fuel for the funeral pile ; he and his 
wife resolving to follow their son in death. The king, 
whose attendants were now arrived, promptly fulfilled hb 
command, and remained dejected, bearing with him the 
hermit's curse, a cause of his future destruction, as the 
ocean embraces the devouring fire. Again the king ad- 
dressed him. ' Wise hermit ! what shall this shameless 
criminal, who deserves death from ihee, now perform.' 
He desired the funeral fiame to be duly lighted : and the 
king presented the fire for him, and his wife and son. 

" The chief of the race of R aghu, attended by his army, 
now returned to his palace, dejected, bearing in his mind 
the heavy imprecation of the saint, as tl^ ocean holds 
within itself the fire of destruction." 9. 74 — 89. 

This extract exhibits, besides two stanzas of Pttshpitagra^ 
and as many of Sundari metre, f both belonging to the 
present head, and one, of which an example was promised 

• 75 and ^6, t 77 and 79, most properly the last, 

VOL. II. K 



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130 ON SANSCRtT AND 

in this place,* several others which have been before ex- 
emplifiedyf and two which are less common.:|: 

A singular species of variable metre is mentioned by 
writers on prosody, who describe it as a stanza in which 
the verses increase in arithmetical progression. In the 
instance exhibited by them the four verses of the stanza 
increase regularly from eight to twenty syllables. Varieties 
of it are noticed in which the prc^ression is not regular, 
the short verse exchanging places with the second, third, 
or fourth. The quantity of the syllables is in general in- 
determinate; but varieties are stated in which the verse 
consists of short syllables, either ending or beginning with a 
spondee, or both ending and beginning with spondees. 

A class of metre which admits an inordinate length of 
the verse, is known under the general designation of Danr- 
Aaca. The verse may consist of any number of syllables, 
from twenty-seven to nine hundred and ninety-nine ; and 
the specific name varies accordingly. § The construction of 
the metre requires that the first six syllables be short, and 
the remainder of the verse be composed of cretic feet ; or, 
instead of the cretic foot, the bacchius. These two kinds 
of metre are distinguished by different names. A verse 
consisting of any number of anapaests within the limitation 
abovementioned, is also comprehended under this general 
designation ; as are verses of similar length consisting exclu- 
sively of iambic or trochaic feet. They have their peculiar 
denominations. 

Examples of these extravs^antly long verses are to be 

• Sw6gata 78. 

t Vasanta Hlaca 81 — 87 and Upindrnvajra 88. Rttchird 89. 
t Manjiibhdshini 74 (P. T. D. 3 I.) and Mattamayitra 80 (2 S + T. 
I.D.S.) 

§ For example, Ariia which comprises ten feet ; Ar^ava eleven ; 
Vydla twelve ; JkniUa nineteen, &e. 



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PRAcRtT POETRY. 131 

found in the works of the poet VAn a. It is unnecessary to 
insert any specimen of them in this place, as an example will 
occur in a subsequent quotation from BnAVABHiOTi'sdrama. 

That class of metre, which is termed half equal, because 
the alternate verses are alike, comprises various sorts, which 
appear to be compounded of two simple kinds with an 
appropriate number of syllables of a determinate quantity. 

Another class, in which every verse of the stanza is dif- 
ferent, appears more complex. But, here also, the quantity 
as well as the number of syllables being regulated, the 
stanza is in fact composed of four kinds of uniform metre. 

The most common metre of this class is that called 
Udgata. Here the number of syllables in each verse, as 
well as their quantity, differs ; the first verse comprising an 
anapaest, iambic, tribrachys, and trochee; the second, a 
tribrachys and anapaest with two iambics; the third, a 
trochee, tribrachys, and two anapaests;* and the fourth, 
an anapaest, iambic, and pyrrhichius with three iambics. 

The twelfth canto of the Ciratarjuniya is in this metre ; 
and so is the fifteenth canto of MAgha's epic poem. It 
begins thus : 

*' But the king of the Chedis was impatient of the ho- 
nours which the son of Pandu commanded to be shown in 
that assembly to the foe of Madhu; for the mind of the 
proud is envious of the prosperity of others." 

* Or the third verse may consist of a trochee and dactyl, with two 
anapttsts ; or of two trochees, with two anapsests : and the metre is 
denominated, in the first instance, Saurabhacd; in the second, 
Lalita. 

k2 



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132 ON sanscrYt and 

Other kinds of metre, in which every verse of the stanza 
differs in the number and quantity of syllables, are com- 
prehended mider the general name of Gafha; under which 
also some writers on prosody* include any sort of metre 
not described by Pingala, or not distinguished by a spe- 
cific appellation. The same denomination is appUcable 
also to stanzas consisting of any number of verses other 
than four, f An instance of a stanza of six verses has been 
remarked in the Mahabharata, and another example occurs 
at the beginning of MIgha's poem.:|: 

Dwidha crttatnia, dm ayam divacarS ? 
Vidh&ma-rdchih, dm ayam hutasanah ? 
Gatan tiraschinam andru-sarafhih. 
Prasiddham drddhwajwalanam havirbhujah, 
PatatyadhS dhama-visari sarvatah. 
dm etad? ityaculam icshitamjanaih. 

• HelIyudha and NarIta^a tIrI. 

t DivicARA on the Vr^tta retn&cara. 

X It is cited by DivIcara BHAffA as an instance of a stanza of 
six. Yet the scholiasts of the poem omit the two first verses and 
read the stanza as a tetrastich. One commentator, however, does 
remark, that copies of the poem exhibit the additional verses ; and 
another commentator has joined them with two more verses in a 
separate stanza. 



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PRAcRlfT POETRY. 133 

NAreda descending from the heavens to visit CrIshna, 
is thus described : 

" ' Is this the sun self-parted into two orbs ? Is it fire 
shining with light divested of smoke? The motion of the 
luminary whose charioteer has no legs, is distinguished by 
its curvature ; the ascent of flame is a known property of 
fire. Then what is this, which descends diffusing light 
around V Thus was the sight contemplated with wonder 
by the people." Magha 1. 2. 

VI. Prose ; and Verse mixed with Prose. 

I follow the example of Sanscrit writers on prosody, in 
proceeding to notice the different species of prose. They 
discriminate three, and even four sorts, under distinct 
names. 1st. Simple prose, admitting no compound terms. 
It is denominated Muctaca. This is little used in polished 
compositions ; unless in the familiar dialogue of dramas. 
It must undoubtedly have been the coUoquial style at the 
period when Sanscrit was a spoken language. 2d. Prose, 
in which compound terms are sparingly admitted. It is 
called Culaca. This and the preceding sort, are by some 
considered as varieties of a single species named Chdn/iica. 
It is of course a common style of composition ; and when 
polished, is the most elegant as it is the chastest. But it 
does not command the admiration of Hindu readers. 3d. 
Prose, abounding in compound words. It bears the appel- 
lation of Utcalica praya. Examples of it exhibit com- 
pounds of the most inordinate length : and a single word 
exceeding a hundred syllables is not unprecedented. This 
extravagant style of composition being suitable to the taste 
of the Indian learned, is common in the most elaborate 
works of their favourite authors. 4th. Prose, modulated so 
as frequently to exhibit portions of verse. It is named 
Vrittagandhi. It will occur without study, and evea 



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134 ON sanscrKt and 

against design^ in elevated compositions, and may be 
expected in the works of the best writers. 

Some of the most elegant and highly wrought works in 
prose are reckoned among poems, as already intimated, in 
like manner as the " TeUmaque" of F£n£lon and " Tod 
Abels" of Gessneb. The most celebrated are the Vasa- 
vadatta of Subandhu, iheDasa cumara of DanSI, and 
the Cadambari of VAn A. 

The first of these is a short romance, of which the story 
is simply this. CANDARPAcfeTU, a yomig and valiant 
prince, son of ChintAmani king of Cusumapura,* saw 
in a dream a beautiful maiden, of whom he became despe- 
rately enamoured. Impressed with the beUef, that a per- 
son, such as seen by him in his dream, had a real exist- 
ence, he resolves to travel in search of her, and departs, 
attended only by his confidant Macaranda. While re- 
posing under a tree in a forest at the foot of the Vindhya 
mountains, where they halted, Macaranda overhears 
two birds conversing, and from their discourse he learns 
that the princess VAsavadattA, having rejected all the 
suitors who had been assembled by the king her fether 
for her to make choice of a husband, had seen Candar- 
PAc^TU in a dream, in which she had even dreamt his 
name. Her confidant, TamAlicA, sent by her in search 
of the prince, was arrived in the same forest, and is dis- 
covered there by M agar an da . She delivers to the prince 
a letter fi^m the princess, and conducts him to the king's 
palace. He obtains fi-om the princess the avowal of her 
love ; and her confidant, CalAvatI, reveals to the prince 
the violence of her passion. 

The lovers depart together: but, passing through the 



* Same with Fdtalipttra or Pdtali pittra ; the ancient Palibothra, 
now Patna, As. Res., vol. iv., p. 11. 



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prAciiTt poetry. 135 

foresty he loses her in the night. After long and unsuc- 
cessful search, in the course of which he reaches the shore 
of the sea, the prince, grown desperate through grief, 
resolves on death. But at the moment when he was about 
to cast himself into the sea, he hears a voice from heaven, 
which promises to him the recovery of his mistress, and 
indicates the means. After some time, Candarpacetu 
finds a marble statue, the precise resemblance of VAsava- 
DATTi. It proves to be her ; and she quits her marble 
form and regains animation. She recounts the circum- 
stances under which she was transformed into stone. 

Having thus fortunately recovered his beloved princess, 
the prince proceeds to his city, where they pass many 
years in uninterrupted happiness. 

This story, told in elegant language, and intermixed 
with many flowery descriptions in a poetical style, is the 
VAsavadattA of SuBANDHU. There is an allusion, 
however, in BnAVABHtiTi's drama,* to another tale, of 
VAsavadattA's having been promised by her father to 
the kingSANjAYA, and giving herself in marriage to Uda- 
YANA. I am unable to reconcile this contradiction other- 
wise than by admittmg an identity of name and difference 
of story. But no other trace has been yet found of the 
story to which BhavabhiOti has alluded. 

In the work above described, as in various compositions 
of the same kind, the occasional introduction of a stanza, 
or even several, either in the preface or in the body of the 
work, does not take them out of the class of prose. But 
other works exist, in which more frequent introduction of 
verse makes of these a class apart. It bears the name of 
Champd : and of this kind is the Nala champii of Trivi- 
CRAM A before mentioned. This style of composition is not 



* Malad mddhava. Act 2d. 



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136 ON sanscrYt and 

without example in European literature. The ^ Voyage 
de Bachaumont et de la Chapelle/' which is the most 
known, if not the first instance of it in French, has found 
imitators in that and in other languages. The Sanscrit 
inventor of it has been equally fortunate ; and a numerous 
list may be collected of works expressly entitled Champii.* 

The Indian dramas are also instances of the mixture 
of prose and verse ; and, as already mentioned, they like- 
wise intermixed a variety of dialects. Our own language 
exhibits too many instances of the first to render it neces- 
sary to cite any example in explanation of the transition 
fi'om verse to prose. In regard to mixture of languages, 
the Italian theatre presents instances quite parallel in the 
comedies of Angelo Beolco sumamed Ruzanti :t with 
this difference, however, that the dramas of Ruzanti and 
his imitators are rustic farces, while the Indian dramatists 
intermingle various dialects in their serious compositions. 

Notwithstanding this defect, which may indeed be easily 
removed by reading the Pracrit speeches in a Sanscrit 
version, the theatre of the Hindus is the most pleasing 
part of their polite literature, and the best suited to the 
European taste. The reason probably is, that authors are 
restrained more within the bounds of poetic probability 
when composing for exhibition before an audience, than 
in writing for private perusal or even for pubUc recital. 

The Sacuntala by CA lid As a, which certainly is no un- 
favourable specimen of the Indian theatre, will sufficiently 
justify what has been here asserted. I shall conclude this 
essay with a short extract firom Bhavabh^tI's unrivalled 
drama, entitled Malati madhava ; prefixing a concise argu- 
ment of the play, the fable of which is of pure invention. 



* As the Nrisinha champii, Gan^i champu, Vrtnd&vana champu, 
&c. t Walker's Memoir on Italian tragedy. 



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prAcrKt pobtry. 137 

* BhOrivasu, minister of the king of Padmavatiy and 
DivARATA in the service of the king of Viderbha, had 
agreed, when their children were yet infants, to cement a 
long subsisting friendship, by the intermarriage of MAlat!, 
daughter of the first, with MAdhava, son of the latter. 
The king having indicated an intention to propose a match 
between Bh6rivasu's daughter and his own favourite 
Nandana, who was both old and ugly, the minister is 
apprehensive of giving offence to the king by refusing the 
match; and the two fnends concert a plan with an old 
priestess, who has their confidence, to throw the young 
people in each other's way, and to connive at a stolen 
marriage. In pursuance of this scheme, MAdhava is 
sent to finish his studies at the city of Padmavati, under 
the care of the old priestess CAmandac!. By her con- 
trivance, and with the aid of MAlatI's foster sister La- 
vANOicA, the young people meet and become mutually 
enamoured. It is at this period of the story, immediately 
after their first interview, that the play opens. The first 
scene, which is between the old priestess and her female 
pupil Aval6citA, in a very natural manner introduces an 
intimation of the previous events, and prepares the appear- 
ance of other chai*acters, and particularly a former pupil 
of the same priestess named SaudAmin!, who has now 
arrived at supernatural power by religious austerities ; a 
circumstance which her successor Aval6citA has learnt 
firomCAPALACUN6ALA, the female pupil of a tremendous 
magician, AGH6RAGHANf a, who frequents the temple of 
the dreadfiil goddess near the cemetery of the city. 

' The business of the play commences ; and MAdhava, 
his companion Macaranda, and servant Calahansa, 
^pear upon the scene. MAdhava relates the circum- 
stances of the interview vrith MAlat!, and acknowledges 
himself deeply smitten. His attendant produces a picture 



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138 ON sanscr¥t and 

which MAlat! had drawn of MAdhava, and which had 
come into his hands from one of her female attendants. 
In return MAdhava delineates the likeness of MAlatI 
on the same tablet, and writes mider it an impassioned 
stanza. It is restored; and bemg in the sequel brought 
back to MAlatI, their mutual passion, encouraged by 
their respective confidants, is naturally increased. This 
incident furnishes matter for several scenes. Meantime, 
the king had made the long expected demand; and the . 
niinister has returned an answer that '' the king may dis- 
pose of his daughter as he pleases." The intelligence 
reaching the lovers throws them into despair. Another 
interview in a public garden takes place by the contrivance 
of CAm ANDAcl. At this moment a cry of terror announces 
that a tremendous tiger has issued from the temple of Siva : 
an instant aftery Nandana's youthful sister, Madayan- 
TicA, is reported to be in imminent danger. Then MA- 
dhava's companion, Macaranda, is seen rushing to her 
rescue. He has killed the tiger. He is himself wounded. 
This passes behind the scenes. Mada yanticA, saved by 
the valour of Macaranda, appears on the stage. 'The 
gallant youth is brought in insensible. By the care of the 
women he revives: and MadayanticA, of course, falls 
in love with her deliverer. The preparations for MAlatI's 
wedding with N and an a are announced. The women are 
called away. MAdhava in despair resolves to sell his 
living fiesh for food to the ghosts and malignant spirits, as 
his only resource to purchase the accomplishment of his 
wish. He accordingly goes at night to the cemetery. 
Previous to his appearance there, CapAlacundalA, in a 
short soliloquy, has hinted the magician's design of offer- 
ing a human sacrifice at the shrine of the dreadful goddess, 
and selectmg a beautiful woman for the victim. MAdhava 
appears as a vendor of human fiesh ; offering, but in vain. 



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prAcrKt poetry. 139 

to the ghosts and demons the flesh off his limbs as the 
purchase of the accomplishment of his wish. He hears 
a cry of distress and thinks he recognizes the voice of 
MAlatI . The scene opens, and she is discovered dressed 
as a victim, and the magician and sorceress preparing for 
the sacrifice. They proceed to their dreadful preparatives. 
MAdhava rushes forward to her rescue : she flies to his 
arms. Voices are heard as of persons in search of MA- 
latI. MAdhava, placing her in safety, encounters the 
magician. They quit the stage fighting. The event of the 
combat is announced by the sorceress, who vows ven- 
geance against MAdhava for slaying the magician, her 
preceptor.' 

The &ble of the play would have been perhaps more 
judiciously arranged if this very theatrical situation had 
been introduced nearer to the close of the drama. Bha- 
vabhi6ti has placed it so early as the fifth act. The 
remaining five (for the play is in ten acts) have less 
interest 

* MAlatI, who had been stolen by the magician, while 
asleep, being now restored to her fiiends, the preparations 
for her wedding with Nandana are continued. By con- 
trivance of the old priestess, who advised that she should 
put on her wedding dress at a particular temple, Maca- 
RANDA assimies that dress, and is carried in procession, 
in place of MAlatI, to the house of Nandana. Dis- 
gusted with the masculine appearance of the pretended 
bride, and offended by the rude reception given to him, 
Nandana, to have no further communication with his 
bride, vows and consigns her to his sister's care. This, 
of course, produces an interview between the lovers, in 
which Macaranda discovera himself to his mistress, and 
she consents to accompany him to the place of MAlatI's 
concealment. The friends accordingly assemble at the 



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140 ON sanscrYt and 

garden of the temple : but the sorceress, CapAlacun- 
6alA, watches an opportunity when MAlatI is unpro- 
tected, and carries her off in a flying car. The distress of 
her lover and friends is well depicted : and, when reduced 
to despair, being hopeless of recovering her, they are hap- 
pily reUeved by the arrival of SaudAminI, the former 
pupil of the priestess. She has rescued MAlat! from 
the hands of the sorceress, and now restores her to her 
despairing lover. The play concludes vnth a double wed- 
ding.' 

From this sketch of the story it mil be readily perceived, 
that the subject is not ill suited to the stage : and making 
allowance for the beUef of the Hindus in magic and super- 
natural powers, attainable by worship of evil beings as well 
as of beneficent deities, the story would not even carry the 
appearance of improbability to an Indian audience. Set^ 
ting aside this consideration, it is certainly conducted with 
art ; and notwithstanding some defects in the fable, the 
interest upon the whole is not ill preserved. The incidents 
are striking ; the intrigue well managed. As to the style, 
it is of the highest order of Sanscrit composition ; and the 
poetry, according to the Indian taste, is beautifrd. 

I shall now close this essay vrith the promised extract 
from the play here described. It contains an example, 
among other kinds of metre, of the DaA&ica or long 
stanza, and is selected more on this account than as a 
fiiir specimen of the drama. This disadvantage attends all 
the quotations of the present essay. To which another 
may be added : that of a prose translation, which never 
conveys a just notion of the original verse. 



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pbacbIt poetry. 141 

Extract from Malati madhava. Act 6. 
MAdhava continnes to wander in the cemetery. 

** Human flesh to be sold : unwounded, real flesh from the 
members of a man. Take it. Take it."* 

' How rapidly the Paisachas flee, quitting their terrific 
forms. Alas ! the weakness of these beings.' 

He walks about. 

'The road of this cemetery is involved in darkness. 
Here is before me '' the river that bounds it ; and tremen- 
dous is the roaring of the stream, breaking away the bank, 
while its waters are embarrassed among the fragments of 
skulls, and its shores resound horribly with the howUng of 
shakals and the cry of owls screeching amidst the conti- 
guous woods."t 

Behind the scenes. 

* Ah ! unpitying father, the person whom thou wouldst 
make the instrument of conciliating the king's mind, now 
perishes.' 

MAdh., listening with anxiety.^ *^ I hear a sound 

• Anushhihh. 

t ^rcUtla vicriSita, 



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142 ON sanscrYt and 

piercing as the eagle's cry, and penetrating my soul as a 
voice but too well known. My heart feels rent within 
me ; my limbs fail ; I can scarcely stand. What means 
this?''* 

^' That piteous sound issued from the temple of C arAlA. 
Is it not the resort of the wicked ? a place for such deeds ?t 
Be it what it may, I will look." 

He walks round. 

The scene opens; and discovers CAf»ALACUN6ALJl and 
AcHORAGHANfA^ engaged in worshipping the idol: 
and MiLATf dressed as a victim. 

MAl.] *Ah unpitying father! the person whom thou 
wouldst make the instrument of conciliating the king's 
mindy now perishes. Ah fond mother ! thou too art slain 
by the evil sport of fate. Ah venerable priestess ! who 
lived but for MalatI, whose every effort was for my 
prosperity, thou hast been taught by thy fondness a lasting 

• Manddcrdntd. 
t Vactra. 



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prAcrIt poetry. 143 

sorrow. Ah gentle LavangicA ! I have been shown to 
thee but as in a dream.'* 

MAdh.] ' Surely it is she. Then I find her living.' 

CapAlaci3n6alA worshipping the idol CarAlA.] * I 
bow to thee, divine ChAmun6A.' 

** I revere thy sport, which delights the happy court of 
Siva, while the globe of the earth, sinking under the 
weight of ihy stamping foot, depresses the shell of the 
tc»rtoise and shakes one portion of the universe, whence the 
ocean retires vnthin a deep abyss that rivals hell."t 

*' May thy vehement dance contribute to our success and 
satisfaction ; amidst the praise of attendant spirits, astonished 
by the loud laugh issuing from thy necklace of heads which 
are animated by the immortalizing liquid that drops from the 
moon in thy crest, fractured by the nails of the elephant's 
hide roimd thy waist, swinging to the violence of thy ges- 
tures : while mountains are overthrown by the jerk of thy 
arm, terrible for the flashes of empoisoned flame which 
issue from the expanded heads of hissing serpents closely 
entwined. The regions of space meantime are contracted, 
as within a circle marked by a flaming brand, by the roll- 

• The PrdcrVt original of this passage, though prose, is too beau- 
tiful to be omitted. 

* Hi t^a niccarun'a ! 4s6 d&n'i n'ar^udar-chittirdhdbaiiran'an jan6 
bibajjaT. Hd amba sin^hamaii-hra^ ! turn api hadasi d^bba dubbila- 
sid^na. Hi Miladimaft-jivid^, mama call^'a-eihan^ccarsuha-saitlar 
bbdbdr^, bhaftvadi ! chirassa jdnabiddsi ducc'ham sin^h^n'a. Hi pVa 
sahi Lavaugi'^ ! sivina-ivasara-m^tta dansan'i aham d^ sambutti.* 

t Sdrdiiiavicrldita, 



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144 ON SANSCRtx AND 

ing of thy head terrific for the wide flame of thy eye red as 
raging fire. The stars are scattered by the flag that waves 
at the extremity of the vast skeleton which thou bearest. 
And the three-eyed god exults in the close embrace of 
GaurI, frightened by the cries of ghosts and spirits trium- 
phant/'* 

They both how before the idol. 

MAdh.] ' Ah ! what neglect/ 

'^ The timid maid, clad as a victim in clothes and gar- 
lands stained with a sanguine die, and exposed to the view 

* The original stanza is in Da^uLaca metre, of the species denomi- 
natedProcAito and SinhavicrdrUa. The verse contains eighteen feet 
(2 Tr. 16 C.) or fifty-four syllables, and the stanza comprises 216 
syllables. 

rT>i.siJi>nirwi<npHiRbin<iciWiK4f^^- 

Hiri<0-<«i"<^M4^iRirii^ivrtti ^ssc^. 



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prAcrIt poetry. 146 

of these wicked and accursed magicians, like a fawn before 
wolves, is in the jaws of death ; unhappy daughter of the 
happy Bh^rivasu. Alas ! that such should be the relent- 
less course of fete."* 

CapAl.] *^ Now, pretty maid, think on him who was 
thy beloved. Cruel death hastens towards thee."+ 

MAlatS.] * Beloved MAdhava ! remember me when I 
am gone. That person is not dead who is cherished in the 
memory of a lover.' 

CapAl.] *Ah! enamoured of MAdhava she will be- 
come a feithful dove. However that be, no time should be 
lost.* 

A6h6r. lifting the sword.^ " Divine ChAmun6A! 
accept this victim vowed in prayer and now offered to 
thee."t 

• idrd(Ua vicrUlita. 

t FraharshiM, 
X PraharshiHi. 



^ft^T^^Tl%f^rriH3RqTpn Tl 



VOL. II. 



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146 ON SANSCRtT AND 

MAdh. rushing forward, raises MAlatI in his arms.] 
' Wicked magician ! thou art slain.' 

CapAl.] ' Avaunt villain. Art thou not so?' 
MAl.] * Save me, prince!' She embraces MAdhava. 
MAdh.] ' Fear nothing. " Thy friend is before thee, who 
banishing terror in the moment of death, has proved his 
affection by the efforts of despair. Cease thy trembling. 
This wicked wretch shall soon feel the retribution of his 
crime on his own head.'"* 

Agh6r.] ' Ah! who is he that dares to interrupt us?' 
CapAl.] * Venerable Sir! he is her lover ; he is MA- 
dhava, son of CAmandacS's friend, and a vender of hu- 
man flesh.' 

MAdh. in tears.] 'How is this? auspicious maid !' 
MAl. sighing.] ' I know not, Prince ! I was sleepily 
on the terrace. I awoke here. But how came you in this 
place r 

MAdh. blushing.] " Urged by the eager wish that I 
may be blessed with thy hand, I came to this abode of 
death to sell myself to the ghosts. I heard thy weeping. I 
came hither."t 



• Hariri. 



t Vasanta tilaca. 



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prAcrIt poetry. 147 

MAl.] ^ Alas ! for my sake wert thou wandering regard- 
less of thyself! ' 

MAdh.] ' Indeed, it is an opportune chance.' 

" Having happily saved my beloved from the sword of 
this murderer, like the moon's orb from the mouth of de- 
vouring RahUf how is my mind distracted with doubt, 
mehed with pity, agitated with wonder, inflamed with 
anger, and bursting vrith joy."* 

Aoh6r.] * Ah ! thou Brahmen boy ! '* Like a stag 
drawn by pity for his doe, whom a tiger has seized, thou 
seekest thy own destruction, approaching me engaged in 
the worship of this place of human sacrifice. Wretch ! I 

WTRTf'lHiHMUMI'MM\riiJirT- 

* ^dida vicricUta. 

<HW«*in|ct,^^dct,vu|^||ti5y^r>fftfq-W5n^ 

t ^rdUa mcriSUta, 

L 2 



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148 ON sanscbKt and 

will first gratify the great mother of beings with thy blood 
flowing from a headless trunk/' 

MAdh.] 'Thou worst of sinful wretches! " How 
couldst thou attempt to deprive the triple world of its rarest 
gem, and the universe of its greatest excellence, to bereave 
the people of light, to drive the kindred to desperation, to 
humble love, to make vision vain, and render the worid a 
miserable waste!"* 

* Ah wicked wretch ! " Hast thou dared to lift a weapon 
against that tender form, which even shrunk from the blow 
of light blossoms thrown in merry mood by playful dam- 
sels. This arm shall light on thy head like the sudden club 

of YAMA."t 

Agh6r.] ' Strike, villain ! Art thou not such?' 

MAl. to MAdh.] 'Be pacified, dearMAnHAVA! The 

• Sic'hariM. 

^i|55nifflWeh«IHr^R!V||(j«M«tR|r|:tl 

t A very uncommon metre named Avitafha or Narcutacii, 

<=l4rNc|V<|^ri'lric|5iN4JMR:IMri: 



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prAcrKt poetry. 149 

cruel man is desperate. Abstain from this needless ha- 
zard.' 

CapAl. to Agh6r.] ' Venerable Sir, be on your guard. 
Kill the wretch.' 

MAdh. and A6h6r., addressing the women.^ *' Take 
courage. The wretch is slain. Was it ever seen that the 
lion, whose sharp fangs are fitted to lacerate the front of 
the elephant, was foiled in fight with deer?"* 

A noise behind the scenes. They listen. 

' Ho ! ye guards who seek MAlatI. The venerable and 
unerringCAMANDAcS encourages BhiOriv Asu and instructs 
you to beset the temple of CarAlA. She says this strange 
and horrid deed can proceed from none but A6h6ra- 
OHANf a; nor can aught else, but a sacrifice to CarAlA, 
be conjectured.' 

CApal.] ' We are surrounded.' 

A6h6r.] ' Now is the moment which calls for courage.' 

MAl.] * Oh father ! Oh venerable mother ! ' 

MAdh.] * Tis resolved. I will place MAlatI in safety 
with her friends, and slay this wicked sorcerer.' 

MAoH. condticts MAlatS to the other side, and returns 

towards AGH6RA6HANf a. 

A6h6r.] ' Ah wretch ! *' My sword shall even now 
cut thee to pieces, ringing against the joints of thy bones, 

* Fasanta tilaca. 



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150 ON sanscrYt and 

passing with instantaneous rapidity through thy tough 
muscles^ and playing unresisted in thy flesh like moist 
clay."* 

They fight. The scene closes. 

• kd'hariM. 

^<lf^AiRl«Mrdct,«U|r4iI<Ai<c|<: 



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PRAcBtr POETBY. 161 

SYNOPTICAL TABLES 

OP 

INDIAN PROSODY. 



Feet used in Sanscrit Prosody. 

Trisyllabic. 

At. M0LO88U8. M. 

y. w Baoohius. B. 

Ji. — »^ — Grbtious or Amphimacbr. C, 
«& V* w — Anapjbstus. a. 

T. w ANTIBAO0HlU8,PALlMBA00HIU8yOrHTPOBA00HIUS.H. 

</. w — w Amphibbaoht8 or Sooliu8. So. 
Bb. — wo Daotylus. D. 
iV. V w w Tbibbaohys. Tb. 

MoN()STLLABIC. 
L. w Bbbvis. Br. G. — Lonous. L. 



Feet used in Pracrit Prosody. 

1 c. One MdtT& or CM, Sara: Brbvis w Bb. 

2 c. Two Miirds or Calis. 
H6ra: Lonous — L. 

Supriiya: Pyrbhiohius or Pbbiambu8. w w P. 

3 c. Three M6ir6s or Calas, 

T6la: Tboghjius — T. 
Dwaja: Iambus w — I. 
T%k8ava: Tbibbaohys o ^ v Tb. 
Haya : 4 c. M6trds or Colds. 

Carina: Spondaus 8. 

Taifbdhara: Soolius w — w So. 

Hatta: Anapastus >j ^ — A. 

Charafta: Daotylus — ^ o D. 

Fipra: Pbooblbusmatious ^ ^ « ^ Pb.. 



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152 



ON SANSCBtx AND 



Indrdsana : 5 c. Five Mdtrds or Ckilds. 

Cbbticus C, Bacohius B., Pjbon P-«., &c. 
Sarijjai 6 c. Six Mdtrds or Colds. 

MoLOssus M. &c. 



Metre of the Vedas ; regulated by the number of syllables. 

Seven classes subdivided into eight orders. 

CLASSES. 

Anush- Trish" 

Gdyatrl. Ushiiih. tubh. Vr^hati. Pancti. tubh. Jagatu 

Arshi 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 

Daivf 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 . 

ooAfluri 15 14 13 12 IJ 10 9 

g Prijipaty^ ..8 12 16 20 24 28 32 

P Yajnsh .... 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

gstoan 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 

Rlfch 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 

Bvihmi ....36 42 48 64 60 66 72 



Distribution of the Syllables in Triplets, Tetrastichs, ^c. 

I. GAyATRI. III. ANUSHf UBH. 

l.Tripdd 8x3=24 1. Chatushpdd 8x4=32 

2. Chatushpdd 6x4=24 2. Tripdd (8+12x2), viz. 12+8 

aPidanivrfT. 7X3=21 +12, or 12+12+8, or 8+12 

4. AtipidanivrYt . .6+8+7=21 +12=32. 

S.N^f 9+9+6=24 IV. VbihatS. 

6.VArdhf 6+9+9=24 i. chatushpdd 9x4=36 

7. Vardhamini ..6+7+8=21 2 8x2+10x2=36 

8. Pratishf^hi.... 8+7+6=21 3 8x3+12 =36 

9. DwipAdvirdj ....12+8=20 \,P(U'hyd.. 8+8+12+8=36 
10. Tripkdviraj 11x3=33 % Nymcusdriki {ScandUgtivd 

or Crr6w*Aa<0, 8+12+8+8 

II. USHNIH. 5«36 

1. TripAd (12+8x2). 3. Uparishtddvf^hati, 8x3+12 

l.Cacubh 8+12+8=28 =36. 

2. Pura UsMih . . 12+8+8=28 4. TurastddoT^haHU-^'^y. 3=36 

3. Par6shMh . . . .8+8+12=28 4. Mah^vrthatf (Sat6vrthatf), 12 
2.Chatu8hpdd 7X4=28 x3=36. 



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frAcrYt poetry. 163 

V. pancti. ^t ,;••;•••• '■^^■^'/^'t 

3. Pat'hyi 8x5=40 

l.Chatoshpid (12x2+8x2). 4 j ^ 8x6=48 

1. SKoA-p... 12+8+12+8=40 ^ 

or 8+12+8+12=40 VI. TRISHfuBH. 

2.^«<4rflr-jt>.. 8+8+12+12=40 1. Jy6ti8hmati 11+8x4=43 

3.Pnw<<ira-jj.l2+12+8+8=40 2. Jagatl 12+8x4=44 

4. Fhtdra-p. 8+ 12+ 12 + 8=40 Purast&djybtishmaii ..11(12) 

6.&fM/<ira.jj.l2+8+8+12=40 +8x3. 

2. 1. AcshfrrapmcH . ..5x4=20 Madhy&,%-\'%^U (12) +8+8 

2. Jlpasahpancti . ..5x2=10 Q^amAMrf ..8+8+8+8+11 

3. Padapancti 5 x 5=25 (12). 



Deficient and exvberant Metre. 

1. Sancumatf =5+ax3,ex. (Giyatri) 5+6x3=23. 

2. Cacodmatf =6+ax3. 

3. Pipflica madhyi =(Tripid) =many + few + many, ex. 8+4+8. 

4. Yavamadhyi = (Tripid)= iew + many + few, ex. 8+10+8. 

5. Nirrft =a— 1, ex.(Gayatri)24— 1=23. 

6. Bhurij =a + 1, ex. (GAyatrf)24+l=25. 

7. Virdj =a^2, ex. (G^yatri) 8+8+6=22. 

8. Swarij =a+2, ex. (Giyatrf) 8+8+10=26.* 



1. GaAavntta of Sanscrit Prosody, and Matr&writta of 
Pracrit Prosody ; regulated by quantity. 

1. Iryi or Ga£h&y Pr. Gak&. Each verse ends in L. 

30+27=57 c. Pause in Ist verse before 7th ft. 

Odd verse : 30 c. =7i ft. (6th= if Pr. But if 6th ft. be Pr., then 

Sc. or Pr.). pause after 1st syllable. 
Even verse : 27 c.=7i ft. (6tb= Pause in 2d verse before 5th ft. 

Br.). if Pr. 

• If there be room to doubt whether the metre be reduced from 
the next above, or raised from the next below, the first verse deter- 
mines the question ; for it is referred to the class to which the first 
verse or pdda belongs. If this do not suffice, the metre is referred 
to that class, which is sacred to the deity, to whom the prayer is 
addressed. Should this also be insufficient, other rules of selection 
have been provided. Sometimes the metre is eked out by substituting 
iya or uva for correspondent vowels. This in particular, appears to 
be practised in the Sdmaveda. 



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1C4 



ON sanscrYt and 



16 Species: Pat'hyd: Pause 
after 3d ft. (3+4j=7i ft. and 12 
+18+12+ 15 = 57 c). VipM: 
Pause placed othenrise. Heace 
Adttfipuldy ulnt jftt vif nUd and Ubha- 
yampuld, with 1st verse, 2d, or 
both, irregularly divided by the 
pause. Chapald 1st f. S. or A. 
2d Sc. 3d S. 4th 8c. 5th 8. or D. 
6th 8c. or Pr. (in the short verse, 
Bb.), 7th 8. D. A. or Pe. Hence 
MuchachapeUdf Jaghanya chapald 
and Mahachapaidf with 1st, 2d 
or both verses so constructed. 
Therefore Aryd + 3 Chapaldsx 
Pafhyd+3 Fipulds=:\6 species. 

Variations: Arydf 1st verse 
10,800. 2d verse 6,400. Chapaid 
1st verse 32, 2d verse 16. 

In Prto^< prosody, 27 species : 
from 27 L. + 3 Be.=30 syll. to 
XL. and55BB.=56syll. 

Specific varieties. Cutmd con- 
taining 1 Sc. Culat'hd, 2 Sc. 
r^df many Sc. Ra^tSd^ no Sc. 
Ourvi^ Sc. 1st, 3d, 5th or 7th 
ft. But this is against rule : 
which excludes amphibrachys 
from the odd feet. 

2. Ud^Ui or Fiydt'hd, Pr. Ft- 
^iA4. 27+30=57 c. viz. 12+15+ 
12+18. 

3. UpagUiy Pr. Odhu. 27+27 
=54 c. viz. 12+15+12+15. 

4. GUi or UdgdChd, Pr. Ug- 
gdhd. 30+30=60 c. viz. 12+18 
+12+18. 

5. ArgdgUi or Chandhaca^ Pr. 
Scandha. 32+32=64 c. 



8 ft. complete. (3+5ts8 ft.«nd 
12+20+ 12+20=64 c. 

Species 16 {PaChyd, &c.), va- 
riations of each verse 10,800. 

In Prdcrit prosody, 28 species 
frt>m 28 L. £c 8 Bb. to 1 L. and 62 
Bb. 

6.Chandricd,SangUi or Gdl'hM, 
Fr.Odhint 30+32^ 62 c. viz. 12 
+18+12+20. 

7.Sug{ti,0TParigUt, Pr.Sinhini, 
32+30=62 c. viz. 12+20+12+ 
18. 

Also 

6. SangUi, 32+29=61 c. 
Aryd(7j ft.) + L. in both verses. 

7. SugUi, 32+27=59 c. 
L. in first verse only. 

8. Prt^Ui, 30+29=59 c. 
+ L. in second verse only. 

9. AnugUi, 27+32=59 c. 
Reverse of Sugfti. 

10. ManfugUi, 29+30=59 c. 
Reverse of Pragfti. 

11. Fi^/i, 29+29=58 c. 
Upagiti + L. in both verses. 

12. GidrugUiy 29+32=61 c. 
Reverse of Sanglti. 

13. Vailari, 32+30=62 c. 
Ary^gfti — L. in last verse. 

14. Lalitdy 30+32=62 c. 
^L. in first verse. 

15. Pramadd, 29^+27=56 c. 
Upagiti + L. in first verse. 

16. Chandricdy 27+29=56 c. 
+ L. in last verse. 

All these kinds admit 16 spe- 
cies as above : viz. Pa^hyd, &c. 



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prAcrYt poetry. 



155 



IL Jlkra vritta or Matra cVhaiidaSy of Sanscrit 
Prosody. 

1. VAlTALfTA, 56 to 68 c. 

l.Vaitaiiya, 14+16+14+16 
=60 c. 

End in C. + I. 
Short syllables by pairs (even 
verses not to begin with 
2Tr.) 

2. Ipaidlica, End in D. & S. 

3. Aupach^handasicay 16+18 
+16+18=68c. End in C. 
&B. 

Each kind admits 8 yarieties 

of the short verse and 13 

of the long ; from 3 long 

syll. to 6 short beginning 

the one, and from 4 long 

syU. to 1 long and 6 short in 

the other. 
Also the following species un- 
der each kind. 

1. I>acshiMntic6, begin with I. 
Comprising 2 varieties of 
the odd verses. 
I. I. (or Tr.); and 4 of 
the even verses. I. B, (or 
Pa. 2d or 4th or 5 Br.) 

2. Udichya VT^UOy odd verses 
begin with I. 

3. Fr&chya vr^tta^ even verses, 
C. orP«.4.. 

4. Pravr^Uacay the two pre- 
ceding combined. 

5. Apar&niic&y 16 x 4 = 64 
c. (Pr&ch.y 

6. Ck&ruhdsini, 14x4 = 56c. 
(Udich). 

2. Matra samaca, 16 (4 x 4) 
X 4=64 c. End 8. or A. Be- 
gin 8. A. D. or Pb. 



1. Bi^i^ samaca, 2d a S. A. 
or D. 3d ft A. 

2. nmca, 2d Sc.or Pb. 3d 8. 
or D. 

3. Fdnavdsicdy 2d 8. A. or D. 
3d 8c. or Pr. 

4. C^itrd, 2d 8c. or Pr. 3d 
A. Sc. or Pr. 

5. Upachitrd, 2d. 8. A. or D. 
3d 8. or D. 

6. PaddculacOy the above in- 
termixed. 

The 1st species admits 24 va- 
rieties ; the 2d, 32 ; and the 
3 next, 48 each. The va- 
riations of the last species 
very numerous. 

3. QiTY Iky 1 or Achaladhr^H, 16 
X4. All short syllables. 

4, Dwio'ha^6ioa ; or Couplet 
1. ^c'hd or ChUuld, 32 Br. + 

16 L. 
Two species : JybtishfUt verse 

32 Br. 2d 16 L. 
Saumyd or AnangacriSld 1st 

verse 16 L. 2d 32 Br. 
Also 1 Sic'M 30 + 32 ^G^2 c. 

Ist Verse 28 Br. + L. 2d 30 

Br. + L. 

2. C'hanjdy 32+30=62 c. 
1st 30 Br. + L. 2d 28 Br. 
+ L. 

3. Chidica or Atiruchird 29 
+29=58 c. 27 Br. + L. 

Also 3 a6/k7<i 29+31=60 c. 
1st Verse 27 Br. + L. 2d 29 
Br. + L. 



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166 



ON sanscrYt and 



IIL MatrL vritta of Pracrit prosody continued from 

Table I. 

S.D6h6, 8. Dwipat'hd, 13+ 
ll-(-13H-ll=48c. 
3 ft, vi«. odd verse 6-|-4 + 3; 

even verse 6-|-4-|-l. 
23 species from 23 L. +2 Br. to 

48 Br. 

9. Utcach'h^ Pr. Uccach'hd, 
11x6=66 c. 

6 verses, 3 ft each, 44-4+3. 
8 species, from 66 Br. to 28 L. 

+10 Br. 

10. R6li OTlMi, 24x4=96 c. 
Pause 11 + 13. Usually end in L. 
12 species, from 12 L. to 24 Br. 

ll.Gandhd, Pr. Oandh&na, 17 
+18+17+18=70 Syll. 

12. Gbatnsbpadd or Chatusb- 
padicd, Pr. ChUupdiay ChdUpdU^ 
30x4x4=480 c. 
16 verses: 7tft.4x7+L. 

13. Ohaft'a & GhaffiDanda,31 
x2=62c.l0 + 8 + 13=4x7+ 
3 Br. or 11+7+13=6+3x3+ 
54.4+3+2+2 Br. 

14. Shafpada or Shafpadidl, 
Pr. Ch'happdit, 96 + 56 = 152 c. 

Civya 24 (11 + 13 = 6 +4x 4 
+2 Br.)+4=96, Ullala 28 (15 
+ 13) X 2=56. Varieties of the 
Tetrastich 45, from 96 Br. to 44 
L.+8 Br. Varieties of the whole 
staDza 71 > from 70 L.+12 Br. to 
152 Br. 

15. Prajjafica, Vr.Peyjatid, 16 
X 4=64 c. 4 ft End in Sc. 

16. Atiliha A tiling, Fr.Jtild, 
16x4=64 c. No Sc. End in P. 

17. PAdiculaca, Pr. CulapdH, 
16x 4=64 c. 6+4x2+2 L. 

18. Raddd stanza of nine=116 



C. VIZ. 



lst=15 c.=4 ft viz. 3+4+ 

4+4. End in Sc. or Pr. 
2d=l2 c.=4 ft. End in Pr. 
3d=15c. End in D. 
4th=l I c. =3 ft. End in Tr. 
5th=15c. EndinD. 
6th to 9th=D6hd as before. 
Five species. 

19. Padmdvatf, Pr.Ptfttf?*^, 32 
X 4=128 c. 8 ft noSc. 

20. Con'd'alica, Pr. CtMalid, 
stanza of eight=142 c. 
D6hd + R61d or C^vya. 

21. Gagan'^ngan^ 25x4=100 
c. 20 syll. viz. 5 L. £c 15 Br. End 

in I. 

22. Dwipadf or Dwipada,28x 
2=56 c. 61 ft. viz. 6+4+5+L. 

23.C'hanji,41x2=82c. 
10 ft viz. 9 Pr. + C. 

24. gic'hd, 28x2=56 c. 
7 ft. viz. 6 Pr. + Sc. See San- 
scrit metre. 

25. Mdli, 45x2=90 c. 
Ilftviz.4x9+c. +S. 
Also 25. MdU 45+27=72 c. 
1st verse as above, 2d verse Arjfd. 

26. Ghfidicala, Vx.CktUuMy 29 
X2=58c. Half the D6hd+5. 

37. Saurtbhf i-a, Pr. S^ra^'ha, 
ll+13+ll+13=48c. 
Reverse of the D6hd. 

28. Hdcali, 14x4=56 c. 
3i ft viz. 4 X 3 + L. (syll. 11 or 
10). ft D. Pr. or A. sometimes 
S. Not end in P. S. 

29. Madbubh^va, 8x4=32 c. 
2 ft. End in Sc. 

30.Abhfra, 11x4=44 c. 
7 + Sc. orD. +1. + Sc.orSc.+ 
Tr. +Sc. 



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pbAcbYt poetby. 



167 



31. Dan'd'acala, 32 x 4=128 c. 
4x4+6+2 -H 8or 10 +8 -H 14. 
End in L. 

32. Dfpaca, 10 x 4=40 c. 
4-|-5+Br, usually eud in Sc. 

33. SinhAvakSca, Pr. Sinh6Utb 
16x4=64 c. 

4 ft A. or Pb. but end in A. 
34.Plavangam^ FT.Paranffamd, 
21 X 4=84 c 
6x3-fl. Beg^inwithL. 

35.LlUTati, 24 or less x4= 
% or less. 6 ft or less : not end 
in A. 

36. HarigftA, 28x4=112 c. 
5-1-6-1- 5 X 3 -h L. Should begin 
with Pb. and end in 8. 

37. Tribhangf, 32 x 4= 128c. 
8 ft. No Sc. End in L. 

38. Durmila or Durmilicd, 32 
X 4=128 c. 

10+8H-14.ft. 8. 

39. Hfra or Hfraca, 23x4= 
92 c. 

4fk. viz.6 X 3 H- 6. ft.6BB. or 1 
L. with4BB. EndinL. 

40. Jaladhara or Jalaharan'd, 
32 X 4=128 c. 

Pauses 10+8-1-6+8. ft 8. Gene- 
rally Pb. End in A. 

41. Madanagriha or Madana- 



har^ 40x4=160 c. 
10+8+14+8=40. 

42. Mah^r^hfra, Pr. Mara- 
haitoy 29x4=1 16 c. 
10+8+11+ or6+4x5+L.+ 
Bb. 

Also the following kinds : 

43. Ruchirti, 30 X 4 = 120 c. 
71 ft. end in L. 

44. Calici, 14 X 4=56 c. 
Pauses 8+6. 

45. VAsan'a, 20 X 4=80 c. 

4 ft. End in C. Pause before the 
last 

46. Chaur61a, 16 + 14 + 16+ 
14=60 c. ft. A. or Pb. 

47. Jhalland, 37x4 = 148 c. 
7t ft 5x7+L. Pauses 10+10+ 
10+7. 

48. Ashdd'ha, 12 +7+12+7= 
38 c. 

49.Milavf, 16+12+16+12= 
56 c. 

Long verse 4 ft. , short verse end 
in L. 

50.Matti,20x4=80c. 

5 ft no Sc. 

51. Rasamala, 24 x 4=96 c. 

6 ft. 

52. Avalambaca, 13x4 = 52. 
3 ft. 4 X 2 + 5. End in L. 



IV. Metre regulated by number of syllables. 



Vactba. 8x4=32 syll. 

2 ft between 2 syll. The spe- 
cies vary in the 2d ft or 3d 
place. 
1. Simple Vacira. 
L. or Bb. + M. &c. (except 
Tb. & a. and, in the even 
verse, C.) + B. + L. or Bb. 
Therefore 1st 4th & 8th syll. 



either long or short. 5th short. 
6th and 7th long. Either 2d or 
3d long. 

Variations of the Ist verse 24; 

of the 2d 20. 
2. Pm'hyd. 

1st verse as above; 2d with 

Sc. for 2d ft. Hence 7th syll. 

short. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



168 



ON sanscrYt and 



3. ViparUa pafh^d. 

The preceding transposed. 

4. Chapald, 

Ist verse with Te. for 2d ft. 
Therefore 6th and 7th syll. 
short. 

5. Fipuid. 

2d verse (some say Ist, others 
all) with 7th syll. short. 
Therefore 2d ft D. Sc. H. or 
Tr. 



5 or 7 species: Bha-vipM, 
1st verse (some say either) 
with D. for 2d ft. Ba^puld^ 
with C. for 2d ft Na-vtpuid, 
2d ft. Tr. Ta-vipuld, 2d ft. 
H. Ma-vipuid, 2d ft. M. Ya- 
vipuld, 8 ft. B. JorvipM, 2d 
ft. Sc. 
No instance occurs with an ana- 
piest for the 2d ft. or 3d 
place. 



V. Acshara ch'handas or VarAa vrttta. Metre regulated 
by number and quantity. 

Regular or uniform metre; the stanza being composed of 
equal and similar verses. From one to five syllables in 
the verse, or from four to twenty in the stanza. 

IV. PRATisHf'HA. 4x4x16* 

1. CanyA, or Tim'a, Pr. 7¥fi- 
n6, m. ^.=z2 S. 2. Ob^', or 
Hirici, r. /.=2 T. 3. NagAlicii, 
Lagilicd, Nagdnf, or Nagdnici, 
Pr. Nagdnld, or NagStni^ j\ ^.= 
21. 4. Satf, ».y.=P.I. 
V. SuPRATiSHf HA 5x4=20. 
1. Panctiy Acsharapancti, or 
Hansa, bh. 2^.=D. S. 2. Sam- 
m6h4, m. 2 ^.e=M. S. 3. UirU 
tabandba, or Hdrl, 2 g,L2 g, or 
1 2 ^.ssS. B. 4. Priyi, 2 /. r.=a 
A. I. 5. Yamaca, Pr. Jamaca^ n. 
2 /.=P. Tr. 



I. UctI or Uct'ha. 1 x 4=4. 

1. §rf,^.=L. 2Mahf, /.=Br. 
II. AtyuctI. 2x4=8. 

1. Strf, orCama, 2 ^.=5. 2. 
Rati, or Mahf, /.^.=I. 3 SiLru, 
g. /.=T. 4. Madhu, Pr. Mahu, 
2 /.=P. 

III. Madhya. 3x4=12. 

1. Narf, or Tdlf, m. = M.2 
§afif, Pr. Sasi, y.=B. 3. Priy^ 
Pr. F^; or MrYgi, r. = C. 4. 
Raman'f, or Raman'^ ^.^A. 5. 
Panch^la, or P^nchdla, t. = H. 
6. MrYg^ndra, Pr. Malnda, j,^=^ 
Sc. 7. Mandara, M.=D. 8. Ga- 
malf, or Camala, n.^TB. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



prAcrIt poetry. 



169 



From six to twenty^syUahles in the Verse. 

n2^ = 3PS. 9. Camala,2/ 
n r =2 P 2 1. 10. Hansapadi, 2 
^m9 = 2STI. lJ.Mdtangf,m 
2 / f» sr S T I S. 12. RambhA, 
n/^m = 2P2S. 

IV. VRlfHATi 9x4=36. 
1. Halamuc'hi, (3 + 6), rn # 

= C H- 2 P I. 2. BhujagaSi- 
Sosrfta, (7 + 2), 2 It f» = 2 P 
A + S. 3. Bhadricd, rn r =2 
T A I. 4. Mahdlacshmf , 3 r = 
T 8 B I. 5. SiraDgf, or Sinigl, 
n y *= 2 P S A. 6. Pdvitra, Pr. 
FdyiUd, f»M. « = 2 8 P A. ^. 
Gamald, 2 » « = 3 P A. 8. 
Bimba, n 8 y= P Tb. T 8. 9. 
T6mara, « 2 / = A I P T. 10. 
Rdpam^lf, rm = 3 8 M. 11. 
Man'imadbya or Manlbandha, 
M. r * = D 2 T I. 12. Bhujan- 
gasangat^y «y r = A3 I. 

V. Pancti 10x4=40. 

1. §uddhavirijy m «/ ^ = S 
T 3 I. 2. Paoava, (5+5) m n 
y g =i S D -^ A 8 or m n J sf^ 
8 D + A I. 3. Mayiirasarin'l, r 
y r ^ = 4 T 8. 4. Matta, (4 + 
6), m M. *y = 2 8 + 2 P 8. 5. 
Upast'hita, (2+8) i 2jg = 8 + 
2 A I. 6. Rucmavatf or Champa- 
cam^a (5+ 5§) 6^. ti» «y D 8 + 
DS. 7* Mandrama, nrjg^^Y 
4 I. 8. 8anyucta, P. Sanfutd, s 2 
y^=P 2T 2 1. 9. 8Arayatf, 3 bh. 
^ = 2 D T I. 10. 8ii8ham^ *y 
*A.^ = S ASA. 11. Amrlta- 
matf , or AmrYtagati, nj ng^s^V 
A P A. 12. Hansf, (4 + 6), m 
bh. mg^2B Tr. 8. 13. Chd- 
rumuc'hf , nyM.^ = PA8A. 
14. Chandramuc'hf, t n bh, g=i 
8P2A. 



I. GAyatrI. 6x4=24. 

1. Tanamadhy^ * y.s=8P8. 
2. Vidyall^c'h^ or g^sha, Pr. 
SUd, 2 m=3 S. 3. SaSivadaD^ 
or Chaurans^ n ^=2 P8. 4. 
Vasumatf, t s=zSFL 5. Va- 
niU, or Tilaca, Pr. Dilid, 2 *= 
2 A. 6. Y6dha, or Dwiyddhf, 
Pr. Vijbha, 2 r =T 8 I. 7. Cha- 
turans^ Pr. Chauvansd, n g=z2 
P S. 8. Mant'h^a, or Ctunttr 
vatara, (half of the Sdranga), 2 
/ = 8 I T. 9. Sanc'handrf, or 
86martijf, (half of the Bhujan'^ 
gaprayaia),2yz=z\ T 8. 10. Md- 
latf, 8amd]ati, VasaDta, or Cd- 
minfcdnta, 2/=! P T. 11. Da- 
maDaca, 2 n=3 P. 

II. UsHNiH 7x4=28. 

1. Comdralaliti, (2+ 5)^*^ 
= 1 + Tb. 8. 2. Madal^c'hd, 
f» * ^= 8 D 8. 3. HansamdW, 
* r^= A T 8. 4. Madhumatf, 
2 n ^ = 2 P A. 5. 8amdDic4, 
rgU=ZT C, 6. Savdsa, n / / 
= 2 P D. 7. Carahanchd, n s I 
= 2 P8c. 8. gfrshd, Pr. 5i5ii, 
2m^=2SM. 

III. ANusHfuBH 8x4= 
32. 

1. Chitrapad^ 2 bh. 2y = 2 
D 8. 2. Vidyunmald, Pr. Bij- 
jkmdld, (4 + 4t)2m2y = 2 
8 + 28. 3. Man'avaca, or Ma- 
n'avac^rfd'a, (4 + 4t)M. t lgz= 
TI+TI. 4. Hansaruta, mn 
2 ^ + 8 D B. 5. Pramdn'ici, 
Nagaswardpin'f, or Matallic^yr 
/y:=4 I. 6. Saminic^ or Mal- 
lici, r/y /=4T. 7. Vitina, 
> * 2 ^=2 I T 8. 8. Tungii, 2 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



160 



ON sanscrYt and 



VI. TRISHfUBH 11X4= 

44. 

1. Indravajrd, 2 ij2 ^ = 81 
D T S. 2. Up^ndravajrA,y t j 2 
^ = 2 I D T 8. 3. Upajdti, or 
Ac'hyiDacf, (14 species). The 
two foregoing intermisped. 4. D6- 
d'haca, Baodhu or Nllaswartipa, 
3 6A. 2 ^ = 3 D S. 5. Sdlinl, 
(4H-7t), w2<2^=2S + C 
T S. 6. Vdt6rmf, (4 + 7t), m 
*A. < 2 ^ = 2 S + A T 8. 7. 
Bhramaravilasita, (4 -f 7 t), ^ 
M. n / ^ = 2 8 H- 2 P A. 8. 
Rat'h6ddhaU, r » r / ^ = 2 T 
A 2 I. 9. Swdgata, r » ftA. 2 ^ 
= 2 T A P S. 10. Vrfntd or 
Vrftta, (4H-7t), 2ntf2^=:3 
PAS. 11. Sy^nicd, orSr^n'ic^ 
rjrlg^^TC. 12.Sumuc'hf, 
(6+6t), n2y/^ = PAH-2A. 
13. Bhadridl, 2nr lg=2 P A 2 
I. 14. Maueticamdla, ^rf, Anu- 
cdli or Cudmaladanti, (5 -f 6), 
M.<n2^ = DS-|-2PS. 15 
Upast'hiti,^ * t 2 g=l Tb. 8 T S 
16. Upachitra or Vi^^shicd, 3s I 
^ ss 3 A I. 17. Capurushajani- 
a, 2 »r2y = 2PA IS. 18. 
Anavasitd, n g bh. 2 g^2 PS 
D 8. 19. M6faoaca, t 2 j Ig 
= 8 3 A. 20. M^afim&l^ 3 m 
2 y = 4 8 M. 21. Damanaca, 
r»/y=4PA. 22. MadindhiL, 
f» 5/2^ = 8 2X8. 

VII. jAGATi 12x4=48. 

1. Van^ast'ha or Vaniast'ha- 
vila,yo'r = 2IT 31. 2. In- 
dravaii6i,2o> = SlT3I. 3. 
Upajdti, the two foregoing inter- 
micced. 4. T6f aca, 4^ = 4 A. 
5. Drutavilambita, n 2 W. r = 
P I 2 A 1. 6. §rfputa or Puta, 



(8 + 4), 2nmy = 3PS + T 
8. 7. Jaldddhatagati, (6 + 6), 
y^y* = IPI -hIPI. 8. Ta. 
ta or Lalitii, 2«mr = 3P2S 
I. 9. CusumavichitrA, (6 + 6), 
»y»j^ = 2PS+ 2 P S. 10. 
ChanchalacshicA, Pramuditava- 
dan^ Mand4cinf, Gaurf or Pra- 
bhi, (7 + 5),2 n2r = 2PA + 
BI. 11. Bbujangapraydta, Ay 
= I T 8 I T 8. 12. Sragvin'f or 
Lacshmfdhara, 4r=s:T8lTS 
I. 13. Pramiticsbard, sj2sss 
A Sc. 2 A. 14. Ciint6tpAd'a or 
Jaladbaramdli, (4 + 8), m hh. s 
f» = 2S -|-2P2SorW. t» «m 
= D 3 D 2 8. 15. VaiSwAdevf, 
(5+7). 2m2y=:MS + T8 
B. 16. Navamilin'i, (8 + 4), 
nyiA.sr = 2P2T+P8. 17- 
Cbandravartma, (4 + 8t)i •^ » 
M.* = 2T + PDA. 18. Pri- 
yamvad^ n bh.jr=z P I P 3 I. 
19. Man'irodli, (6 + 6), < i^ < y 
= 8 P 8 + 8 P 8. 20. Lalita, t 
bh.jr=S I P 3 I. 21. Ujjwalf, 
2»M.r = 3PT2I. 22. Mi- 
latl or Varatanu, (6 + 7), » ^J 
r = PA+A2I. 23. Tamarasa 
or Lalitapada, » 2y y =2 P 2 D 
8. 24. Laland, (5+7) bh.m2s 
=D8 +DT lorbh.tns^D 
8 + 2 P A. 25. Drutapada, u 
bh.ng^FlSFS. 26. Vidyi- 
dhara, (4 + 8), 4 m = 28+ 4 
8. 27. SaraDga, 4«=8ITSl 
T. 28. Maucticaddma, 4y x= I 
P T I P T. 29. M6daca, 4 bh. 
5= 4 D. 30. Taralanayanf, 4 n 
= 6 P. 

VIII. AtuagatI, 13 X 
4=52. 

I. Praharsbin'I, (3+10)mwy 
r<7=M +2P2TS. 2. Ru. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PBAcRtT POETRY. 



161 



cLird, or Atinichir^ (4+9)/ 6A. 
*y^ = 2 I + 2 P T C. 3. Mat- 
tamaydra, or Mdy^ (4 + 9) m 
t y sg=2 8-l-T I D S. 4. Gaurf , 
2 n 2 r^=3 P T 8 B. 6. Man- 
jubh^hin'ly Prab6dhiU^ Sunan- 
dini, or Canacaprabhd sj sjsr= 
A I 4- P 3 I. 6. Chandric^ 
Csham^ Utpalinf, or Cotllagati, 
(7-1-6) 2 n2<^=P A + T8 
I. 7* Calabaosa, Chitravatl, or 
SinhanAda, s j 2s g =P 2 T P 
D8. 3. Chancharicdvalf, ym2 
r^=I2SCT8. 9. Chan- 
dral^c'hd, (6 + 7)»5r5^^==2 
P I -h 2 T M. 10. Vidyut, (6 
-|-7)n«2/^=2PI-|-SI 
G. 11. MrYg^ndramac'ha, 91 2/ 
r ^ = P A P 2 T 8. 12. Tira- 
ca, 4*^=3 APS. 13. Cal^ 
canda, or Canda 4 ^ / := B I T 
SIT. 14. Pancajdvalf, or Pan- 
civalf, M. n 2y / = D2 P 2 D. 

15. Chan'd'f , 2n2*^ = 4PDS. 

16. Prabbivatf, (4+9) t bh. sj g 
=S I + 2 P T C. 

IX. SaccarI, 14x4 = 

66. 

]. Asamb^ha, (5 + 9) tn < n 
«2^=MS + 2PAS. 2. 
Aparijit^ (7 -I- 7) 2 n r * / ^= 
2PA + IAIor*» rslgzs, 
P T A I A I. 3. Praharan'acalitts 
or Called, (7 +-7) 2nbh.nlg:=z 
2 P A + 2 P A. 4. Vasantati- 
laca, 8inh6nnat^ Uddbarsbin'f, 
Madbamddhavf, or §6bhd7ad , t 
hh.2j2g = 8lFlFT8. 5. 
L6\i, or A161^ a + 7)msm bh, 
2g=8 D S + 8 D 8. 6. Indu- 
vadand, or Varasundarf, bh,jsn 
2g^ T PT PT P 8. 7. Nadf, 
a+1)2ntj2g=^ 2PA + 
D T S. 8. Lacsbmi, m s t bh, 
VOL. II. 



2^=:8D8TDS. 9.Supavitra, 
(8 + 6) 4 n 2^ = 4 P -1-2 PS. 
10. Madbyacsham^ (4-|- 10) or 
Cut'il^ (4 + 6+4) mbh. ny2 
^=528-|-3P + 28. 11. Prama- 
di, njbh.jlg^=2 P 2 T P T I. 
12. Manjarf, (5+9) sj sg I g=i 
P 2 T P T S T. 13. Cumarf, (8 
+ 6)ny^^.j2^=2P2TP 
T 8. 14. Suc^aara, nrnr Igsss. 
P2IP3I. 15. V&antf, t»<nm 
2yr=28DA2S. 16. Ndndf- 
muc'hf, (7 + 7) 2 » 2 t 2^ = 3 
PS IT 8. 17. Chacra,orCba- 
crapdta, bh. 3 n /^= T 5 P I. 18. 
Lfldpavatf, (4 -I- 10) 4 t» 2 ^ = 2 
8 + 58. 19. Natagati, 4 n 2 ^ 
=6 P + 8. 20. C6pavatf, bh, m 
*</y = D8DSTI. 

X. AxifiACCARi 15x4= 

60. 

1. Cbandrtlvart^(7+8t) 4 n 5= 
2PTb.+PTb.A, 2,Mdld,or8raj. 
(6 + 9) 4 f» * = 2 Tb, + 2 Tb. 
A. 3. Man'igun'anicara, (8 + 
7) 4 f» * = 4 P + 2 P A. 4. 
Mdlinf, or Nandfmuc'bf, (8 
+ 7)2nf»2y = 3PS+CT 
8. 5, Chandral^c'bd, (7 + 8) 
fur f»2y = 28B + 8IT8. 
6. Camacrld'd, Lflac'btia, or Si- 
brangicd and Sarangaca, 5 m ss 
6 8 M. 7. Prabbadraca, or Su- 
bbadraca and Suc^sara, (7 + 8 
njbhj rr=z2FC + P 3 I. 8. 
El^ (5 + 10) * y 2 n y = A I 
+ 4 I T. 9. Upamilinf, (8 + 
7) 2 n < M. r = 3 P T + 8 A I. 
10, Vipinatilaca, ft ^ n 2 r =s 2 
PITB.T8I. 11. Cbitrd, 3 m 
2y = 3 8 M ITS. 12. Tun'- 
aca, or Chdmara, (8 L 7 Bb. = 
23 c.) = 6 T C. 13. Bbramari- 
vali, 5 « = 5 A. 14. Manahansa, 
M 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



162 



ON sanscrKt and 



*2yW.r = AIP2T2I. 15. 
§arabba, or Safiicald, 4 » + tf =£ 
6 P A. 16. Niiipila, ftA.y*nr 
r=DIPlP2I. 17.Ut8iira,r» 
2iA.r = 2T3AT. IS.Hansa, 
(8+7) «2yry«2PD3T8, 

XI. AsHfi, 16x4=64. 

1. Rtshabhagajavilasita, or Ga- 
jaturangavilasita, (7-f 9) bh,r3n 
^ = D2T + 3PA. 2. Vdn'- 
inf , nj bh.jrg=2 P 2 T P 2 T S. 
3. C hitra, Chitrasanga, Atisun- 
dara or Chancbald (double So- 
m6nicd)rjrjrl:=8T, 4. Pan- 
ohacbdmaray Nirdcha, or Nard- 
cba, (double Pramanicd), J rjr 
jg = 8 T. 5. Dhf ralalita, hh, r n 
r»^D2TP2TA. 6.Cba. 
gati, Nfla, Llld or A§wagati, 5 
M. ^ = 4 D T I. 7. Chacita (8 
•\-S)bh.8mtng = DA8-^8 D 
A. 8. Madanalalit^, (4 + 6 + 6) 
mftA.7»wny=2S+2PI+SPI. 
9. Pravaralalita, mnsr ff=l 2 8 
2 P 1 T 8. 10. Ganid'aruta, nj bh. 
y^^=2P2TPTSI. ll.Sai- 
iMkic'U, (16or5 + 6 + 5) *A.r 
n2*A.^==D2T3AorDT+T 
P T + I A. 12. Varayuvati, bh. 
ry2«^=tD2TS2PA. 13. 
Brahmerdpaca, (double Vidytm- 
mdld) 5 m ^ = 8 8. 14. Acbala- 
dhrYta, or Gity&rya, 5nl=SF. 
15. PfDanitamb^, (4+5+7) m t 
y msg^2 8+D 8 +8 D S. 16. 
YauvanamattA, (5+11) bh.Sms 
^=D8+3SDS. 

XII. ATYA8Hfl,17x4= 

68. 

1. Sic'harin'f, (6+11) yt»«* 
M./^=I28 + 2PIDI. 2. 
Prlt'hwi, (8 + 9) / sjsylg^l 
P2I + TR.T8L 3. Van^apa- 



trapatita, or Vaniapatra, (10 + 
^)bh.rnbh. n lg=D 2 T A + 2 
PA. 4.Harin'f,(6+4+7or4+ 
6 + 7) «*»»^*/^=2P 1 + 28 
+ IAT. 5. Mandiicrintd, (4+6 
+7)mW.n2«2^=2S+2PI 
+ C T S. 6. Narcufaca, or 
Nardbafaca (7+10),or Avitat'ha 
(I7t), ny^A. 2//^= Tr. 21 + 
Tr. T I A. 7. C6cilaca, (7 + 6 
+ 4: or 8 + 5 + 4t)=TB. 2 1 + 
PIP+TI. 8. Hari, (6+4+7) 
2nmr#/y=3P + 2S+IAI. 

9. Ctotd, or Crttnti, (4+6+7) jf 
M.nr */ y=I 8 + 2PI+1 A 1. 

10. Cbitral^c'hi, or AtiSayanf, 
(10 + 7)2*y W.y2^ = 2A2I 
+ Tr. T S- 11. MdlWhara, or 
VanamiUdbara, nsjsylg^i 
P 2 I Tb. T H I. 12. U&nnfi, (4 
+6+7) mbh.nmg lg=2 8+2 
PI+8BI. 

XIII. DHRtTI, 18x4 = 

72. 

1. Cusumitalati v^lliti, (5+6 
+7) m * n 3y = M S+2 P I+C 
T S. 2. MabdmAlicd, Niricba, 
Lat^ Vanamild, (10+8t) 2 « 4 
r =s3PT8 +IT8I. 3.8a- 
dhi, (6+6+6)ymn*< «=I 2 8 
+2 PI+ 8 P I. 4. Harm'apluta, 
(8+5+5) t»*2y^A.r = ST2I 
+A 1+ A I. 5. ASwagati, 5 bh. 
#=s5DA. 6. Chitral^c'hi, (4+ 
7+7)t»2«2*m = ST + PTB. 
8 + 1 T M. 7- Bbramarapada, 
W.r3nm=D2T3P AS. 8, 
g^dtilalalita, (12 + 6)fhsj»t8 
=S D 2 T A + 8 P I. 9. &r. 
d^ (12+6) tn$j8r m=S D 2 
TA+T28. 10. C^sara, (4+7 
+7) m M. n y 2 r =2 S+2 P A 
+ 8IC. 11. Nandana, (U + 
7) njbh. y 2 r=2 P T D 1+21 



Digitized by (^OOQ IC 



prAcrYt poetry. 



163 



C. 12. Ghitns^ Ghitral^e'hi, 
(4+7+7) t» M. n3 y=2 S -f 2 
P A + C T S. 13. Chala, 4+7 
+7) t» bh. nj bh. r=2 S+2 P A 
+1 A I. 14. Vibudhapriya, (8+ 
10t)r*2y hh.r^2T2\ + 
P2T21. 15.Manjfra,2mM. 
m«tR=:3SDSD2S. IG.Crfd- 
4chandra,6y=I TPITPITP. 
17. Charcharf , r s 2j bh. r=T D 
ID2T2I. 

XIV. AtidhrKti, 19 X 
4^76. 

1. ^rdilayicrf dita, or ^^b^dla, 
(I2+7)t?i*y*2^^ = 8D2T 
A + S I C. 2. M^g^havisp'har- 
jha, or VUmita, (6+6+7) 9 m 
ii*2ry=I2S+2PI+CTS. 
3. Ptachachlbnara, 2 n-^- alter- 
nate^ ^Tr. P 7 I. 4. Pushpa- 
d^^^a^(5 + 7 + 7) «» * « *2r^= 
MS+2PA+CTS. 6. BimM, 
(5+ 7 + 7) w < n*2 <^=M S+2 
PA+HSI. 6. Ch'hdyi, (6+6 
+7 or 12 + 7)y mn8bh,tff = l 
28 +2 PI +0 81, 7. Maca. 
randic^ (6+6+7) jf mn s 2jg 
=:I2S+2PI + IAI. 8.8i^ 
mndratati, (8+4 +7)^ 9J s t bh. 
^=1 P 2 l+P 1+8 I A. 9.8ii. 
«8^ (7 + 7 + 5)f»r*^.nyii^ 
= MTe + 2PA+DI. 10. 
Manlmanjari, y hh. nyj g^l 
S2PA2T2I. 11. Chandra. 
m£l^ or Chandra, (10 + 9) 3 nj 
2«/=i6f + D3P. 12. Dha- 
iraUnca, or Dhavala, 6 » ^ = 8 P 
A. 13. 8ambhu, (7+6+6) s t y 
^2«»^=ASA8A3S. 

XV. CrIti, 20x4«80. 

1. Soradaaa, (7+74-«)wir M. 
nybh. /^=2SB+2 P A+8 P f. 
2. Vr¥tt% or Oai ijki c a, rj rj rj 



^/cclOT. 3. §6bh4, (6 + 7 + 
7)yt»2n2*2^=l28+2PA 
+T 8 B. 4 Giiick, or OfU, s 2 
J bh. r s /^exA IP2T2IAI. 

XVI. PracrTti, 21x4 

=84. 

1. Sragdhari, (7 + 7 + 7) w»r 
M.n3y = 2SB + 2PA + 
T S B. 2. 8alilanidhi, Sarasf, 
8iddhacay §a6ivadana, or Dhr¥- 
taSrf, nj bh. 3/ r =2 P T D 1+ 
2A2I. 3. Nar^ndra, 6A. r 2 fi 2 
^•5^=D2T3P2DS. 

XVII. AcRtTi, 22x4= 

88. 

1. Bhadraca,(10 + 12) M. r f» 
rnrny=D 2 TA+TTE.2T A. 

2. Madir^ or Lalitk, Tbh.g:=S 
DTI. 3. Hansf, (8+14) 2 m2 
^4 » 2^=4 8+6 PS. 

XVIII. VicrIti, 23x4 
=92. 

1. Aiiwalalita, or Adritanayi, 
(11 + 12) nJ bh.j bh.J bh. Ig^ 
2 P T D I + I Tb. T D I. 2. 
MatUUsrld'^ or Vdjiv^hana, (8+ 
15)2m<4n/y=4S+6PA. 3. 
Sundarf , (7 + 6 + 10) 2 # M. * < 
2j = AP8+2PS + 2D. 4. 
M^tl, or Madamatt^ 7 bh.2y 
=7 D 8. 6. Chitrapada, 7 bh. I 
^=7DI. Mallic^7y/^ = IP 
T T P T I P T I A. 

XIX. SancrKti, 24 X 4 

=96. 
1. Timwf,(5 +7 +12 or 12+12) 
bh.t n # 2 M. ny=D 8+2 P A+2 
D2P8. 2. Darmild,8 9s3 8 A. 

3. Cirita, 8 M.=8 D. 4. Jdna- 
cf,8r=TSlTSIT8IT8I. 
6. Madbiwls7y^= I P T I PT 
IPTIP8. 

M 2 



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164 



ON BANBCB^fT AND 



XX. ATlCRlfTI, 26 X 4 
100. 
]. CrauiichpadB,(6 + 5 + 8 + 

+ 4 P + 2 P A. 2. §ambhu, 8 



XXI. UTCHtTi, 26x4 « 
104. 

1. BbujaDgavijrtmbhita, (B -f 
11 +7)2m<3»r*'/^=4S + 
4PA-I-IAI. 2. Apavdha,(9 
^-6-f 6 +5) m6n*2^ = SD2 
p 4- 3 P-i-3 P4-A S. 3. Gaurf, 
8m2^ = 13 S. 



From 27 to 999 syllables in the verse. 
DAir6A0A, 27x4=108 to 999x4 4. Mattain^taDgalfldcara, 9 &c. r 

=9 he. C. 

5. SinhavicrdDta, 2n 10 &c. r. 

6. Cusumastavaca, 9 &c. « ^ 9 
&C.A. 

7. Anang^as'^c'haray /y /^ £cc«s= 
15 &c. I. 

8. A§6camanjarf , r J &c. = 15 
&C.T. 

AUo SXl6ra, 2^8»« = S12 
PA. 



=3,996. 

1 . Ghan'd'avrYsht'iprayitay 2 n 
7r=2TE.7C. 

2 Prachita, 2 « 8 &c. r. 
325 species from 9 to 333 feet, 
viz. 2d Arn'^ 2 n 8 r. 3d Ar- 
n'ava, 2 « 9 r. 4th Vydla, 2 n 10 
r. 5th Jfmtita, 2 » 11 r&c. 
Or 3. Prachita, 2 » 7 &c.y = 2 

Tb. 7&C.B. 



VL Half equal Metre; the stanza being composed of equal 

and similar couplets ; but the couplets ^ of dissimilar verses. 

1. Upachitra, {Upajdti -|- Td- 
marasa) Ist 3 verse 3 « /y = 3 A 
I. 2d3JA.2^ = 3D8. 



2. Drutamadhy^ {Dbdkaca + 
Tdmartua). Ist 3 M. 2 ^ = 3 D 
S. 2dn2yj^=:2P2DS. 

3. V^gavatf, ( t^^acAiVra— pe- 
nult Br. in Ist verse). 1st 3s ff 
=2 A PS. 2d3JA.2y=3DS. 

4. Bhadravir^j (species of Au- 
pach^handasica) 1st tj r ^=:S P 
2TS. 2dm*j2^=SD2TS. 

5. C^tumatf, 1st sjsg^aAl 
Tb. S. 2dJ^.rn2^ = T. 21 
Tb. S. 

6. Ac'hytoacl ( UpajdH viz, al« 
temate Jndravtyra and Upenr 



some say one verse 
Indravajra, three Uphndnwajm.) 
1st (and 3d) 2 tj 2 ^=S I D T S. 
2d (and 4th, some say 3d)y <y-|-2 
^=2IDTS. 

7. Viparftdc'hy^nacf {the con- 
verse of the preceding) Utj tj 2 
g=2lDTS. 2d2 tj2 ff=zSl 
DTS. 

8. Harin'aplati {Druktvilam' 
bita — one syllable) 1st 3 ^ /^ ss 
3AI.2d«2JA.r=PI2Ar. 

9. Aparavactra( species of Fat- 
taiigaoT Ehadricd + MdUufy 1st 
2nr/y = 2PA2I. 2d»2jr 
+P2A2I. 

10. Pusbpitigri (species of 



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PRiCBYx POETRY. 



165 



AupacKhandasica). 1st 2 n r jf 
= 3P2T8. 2d»2yr^=2P 
D2TS. 

1 1 . Yavamatf , Ist r Jrj^^S 
T. 2djrjr^ = 5IB. 

12. §ic'hA. 1st 28/^= 7 Tb. 
L2d30/^=:7TB.PI. 

13. C'hanji, Ist 30 /y = 7 Tr. 
P.2d28/^ = 7TR.I. 



14. Laliti, lstr*/y=2T2 
I. 2d5nJ^=ATB.2l. 

15. Caumudf. {Bhadricd + 
Chanchaidcshicd 3). Ist 2 » r / ^ 
= Tb. P3L 2d 2n2r=3P 
TSI. 

16. MaDJasaorabha (Mdlati + 
Man^hdshiM) 1st n 2 j r := 
2PT3I. 2d*^*j^=AIP3L 



VII. Unequal Metre; the stanza being composed of 
dissimilar verses. 



1. Udgat^ 1st verse sjsl^sz 
A I Tr. T.2d n tj ^=Tb. A 2 
I. 3d^A.ny/^ = T Tr. 2A. 
Mhsjsjg:=^Kl P3I. 

2 varieties : viz» Sawrabhacay 3d 
yer8ernM.^=TD2 A. LaUta^ 
3dver8e2»2* = 2TR. 2A. 

2. Upast'hitaprachopita, Ist 
verse m sj bh, 2^r=sS D 2 T D 8. 
2d *ny r^r=A2P2TS. 3d2»* 
=3PA. 4th3nyy = 6 PDS. 
2 varieties: viz. Vardkam&nay 3d 
ver8e2n*2fi« = 3P A3PA; 
§uddhavir6lr¥shabhaf 3d verse t 

yr = 8 A2I. 



3. Padachaturordha, increasing 
in arithmetical progression from 
8 to 20 syll. viz. 1st verse 8, 2.d 
12. 3d 16. 4th 20. 
6 species : viz. ApiSd, End in S. 
Rest Br. PratydpiSa, Begin with 
8 or begin and end with 8. Man- 
jari or Calicd, 1st and 2d verses 
transposed 12+8 + 16 + 20. 
LavaHf 1st and 3d transposed 16 
+ 12 + 8 + 20. Amr^iadhdrd, 
1st and 4th transposed 20+12+ 
+16+8. 



VIII. Supplement, under the denomination of GAt'hA. 

1. Stanzas comprising four un- 
equal verses, constituting a metre 
not described by writers on pro- 
sody. 

2. Stanzas comprising more or 
fewer verses than four ; viz. three, 
five, six, &c. 



3. Any metre not specified by 

PlNGALA. 

4. Metre not specified by any 
writer on prosody. 



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V. 

Intboductory Remarks, 

Prefixed to the Edition of the HiT6pAD&SAy 

Pablished at Calcutta, 1804. 4to. 



To promote and &cilitate the study of the anci^it and 
learned language of India, in the College of Fort William, 
it has been judged requisite to print a few short and easy 
compositions in the original Sanscrit. The first work 
chosen for this purpose, and inserted in the present volume, 
under its title of HitSpadeia, or ' Salutary Instruction,' 
had been translated by Mr. Wilkins, and by the late Sir 
William Jones, as the text of a very ancient collecti<»i 
of apologues, familiarly known, in the numerous versions 
of it, under the name of ' Fables of Pilpay/ The great 
advantage, which may be derived by students, firom con- 
sulting correct translations, at their first acquaintance with 
Sanscrit literature, has indicated this work as the fittest for 
selection ; although it be not strictly the original text, trom 
which those beautiful and celebrated apologues were trans- 
ferred into the languages of Persia, and of the West, 

In the concluding line of the poetical preface to the 
Hit&padesay it is expressly declared to have been drawn 
fh)m the Panchatantra and other writings. The book, 
thus mentioned as the chief source, from which that col- 
lection of fables was taken, is divided into five chapters, as 
its name imports : it consists, like the Hit6padesa, of apo- 
logues, recited by a learned Brahman named Vishnu sar- 
M AN, for the instruction of his pupils, the sons of an Indian 



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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, &C. 167 

monarch ; but it contains a greater yariety of fables, and 
a more copious dialogue, than the work, which has been 
chiefly compiled from it; and, on comparison with the 
Persian translations now extant, it ii found to agree with 
them more nearly, than that compilation, both in the order, 
and the manner in which the tales are related. 

To compare them, it has been first necessary to excliKie 
all the additions, which have been made by translators. 
These have been explained by Abu'lfazl, with the history 
of the publication itself in the preface to hi^ own version, 
entitled Ayitr danish ; and by Hxjsain WAez, in the in- 
troduction to the Anwari Suhaili 

They recite from Abu'lmala's preface to his translation 
of the Calilak u Damnah, that Barz^yah, an eminent 
and learned physician, being purposely sent into Hindustan 
by NtisHf rvAn, king of Persia, brought a transcript of 
this with other books, which were preserved among the best 
guarded treasures of the kings of India : and it was imme- 
diately translated into Pehlem, hr the gratification of tiie 
Persian monarch, under the superintendence of his minister 

BUZERCHUMIHR. 

From this version in PehletA, by Buzerchumihr, or 
by Barzuyah, (and which is said to have borne the title 
of Hy$n&yim nwnehf Jawidan khird, and testament of 
Sushenk,) the book was translated into the Arabic language 
by JmamABu'LHASAN Abdullah benu'l Mukaffa, in 
obedience to the commands of Abu'ljafeb Manser, 
second khalif of the house of AbbAs. From AraUc, it 
was restored into Persian, by direction of Abo'l Hasan 
Nasrv'ddIn Ahmed, a prince of the race of SAmAn; 
and was clothed in verse by the poet R^dacI, for Sultan 
Mahm^d SabactagIn. It was a^ain translated into 
prose,, from the Arabic of Abdullah, by desire o( Abu% 
muzafr BaurAm shAh, son of Sultan MasaCd, a de- 



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168 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

scendantof iSieZ^a/i Mahm(jd o[ Ghazna: and thisversiony 
the author of which was Abu'lmala Nasrullah^ is 
the same which has been since current under the title of 
Calilah u Damnah. It underwent a revidon, and received 
the embellishment of flowery language from Hus ainWAez 
CAshafI, at the suggestion of Amir Shaikh Ahmed, 
sumamedSuHAiLi, a chieftain commanding under jSufton 
HusAiN Minzk, of the house of Taim6e; and this highly 
polished version is named irom the author's patrcm Anwari 
Suhaili. It was lastly revised, and put into plainer, but 
elegant language, by Abu'lf azl, in obedience to the orders 
of the Emperor Ac bar. 

This amended translation comprises sixteen chapters; 
ten of which, as Abu'lfazl states in his preface, were 
taken firom the Hindi original entitled Caratac and 
Dawanac; and six were added by Buzerchumihr, 
namely, the four last, containing stories recited by the 
Brahman BIdpAi, in answer to the questions of the King 
DAbishlIm ; and the two first, consisting of a prefece by 
Buzerchumihr, with an introduction by Barz^yah. 
Both these introductory chapters had been omitted by 
HusAiN WAez, as foreign to the original work : but he 
substituted a different beginning, and made other additions, 
some of which are indicated by him, and the rest are pointed 
out by Abu'lfazl; who has nevertheless retained them, 
as appendages not devoid of use, and therefore admissible 
in a composition intended solely to convey moral instruction. 
The whole of the dramatic part, including all the dialogue 
between DAbishlIm, king of India, and BIdpAi or 
Pi LP A I, a Brahman of Sarandip, as well as the finding of 
Hushenk's legacy, (firom both which the work itself has 
derived two of the names, by which it has been most fi^ 
quently distinguished ;) appears to have been added by the 
translators, although the appellations of the king, and of 



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TO THE HlTbVADk&Af &C. 169 

the philosopher, are stated to be of Indian origin."* For 
Abu'lfazl has inserted the story at the close of the second 
chapter ; after expressly declaring^ in one place, that the 
substance of the work begins with the third ; and in another, 
that the two first were added by the author of the Pehlevi 
translation. 

Setting apart then the dramatic introduction, in which 
the Persian differs from both the Panchatantra and the 
Hit6padisa^ and beginning the comparison from the third 
chapter of the Calilah u Damnahj it is found, that the fable 
of the oxf and lion, with all the subsequent dialogue be- 
tween the shakals Carciaca and Damanaca^ constituting 
the first chapter of the Panchatantra, corresponds with the 
Persian imitation; excepting, however, a few transpositions, 
and the omission of some apologues, as well as the insertion 
of others. 

Thus the fable of ' The Ape and the Carpenter's wedge,' 
which is first in both works, is immediately followed, in the 
Panchatcmtra, by that of * The Shakal and the drum ;' but 
the Persian translators have here introduced a different 
apologue. They have placed the story of ' The Thief and 
the Mendicant,' with others included in it, immediately after 



* HusAiN Waez and Abu'li^azl explain Bidpdi, as equivalent to 
the "Persian term Hacimmehrb6n ; and, according to the ingenious 
conjecture of Sir William Jones, that appellation is corrupted from 
the Sanscrit Vaidya priya. The name of DIbishlIm, interpreted 
Pddshah buzurgy or great King, has not so striking a resemblance to 
any Sanscrtt term of the same signification. Pilpai appears to be 
Persian ; and in some copies of the Anwari Sukaili (for the passage 
is wanting in others), it is mentioned to have been translated from the 
Hindi HasHpdt; which, in Sanscrit^ bears the same meaning, viz^ 
elephant's foot 

t The Persian name, Shanzehdk (for so the word should be read, 
and not, as written in many copies, Shuierbah), is evidently formed on 
the Sanscr^ name for this oz, Sanfwaca. 



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170 INTRODUCTORY RBMARXd 

that of ' The Fox and the dram ;' but the Panchatanira 
int^poses another tale, the omission of which, however, 
induces no imputation on the good taste of the translators. 
They have next substituted two fiibles, (' The Sparrow, the 
Ha^, and the Sea,' and 'The Reformed Tyrant;') for a 
story of a wheelwright's marriage vnth a king's daughter. 

The next three fables are alike in the Scmtcrit and Per- 
sian ; but two, whidi follow (viz. ' The Louse and the Bug,' 
and 'The Blue Shakal,') are omitted by the translatcHB ; who 
have evinced their judgment in the rejection of the first. 

The fable of 'The Three Fish,' is placed next by the Per- 
sian authors, and is followed by five others, wiiich do not 
occur in the Pcmchatantartu These are succeeded by three 
more, which are placed by the Semscrit author, immednteiy 
after the faUe of ' The Blue Shakal,' and before diat of ' The 
Three Fish.' 

Here the Panchatantra introduces a story of an elephant, 
whose death was procured through the means of a gad-fly, 
by birds whom he had aggrieved. But it has been omitted 
in the Persian, and so has the next foble, of ' The Lion and 
the Leopard.' 

Tlie remaining apologues, belonging to the first chapter, 
are aUke in both works ; excepting that of ' The Grardener, 
the Bear, and the Fly,' which is inserted last but one, in 
the Persian translation ; but which does not occur in the 
Panchatcmira. 

Many of these fables are also found in the Hit6padSia, but 
arranged in quite a different order, being interspersed with 
others, through the three last diapters of that compilation. 

Witholit further particularizing the variations of the Per- 
sian from the Sanscrit ^ it may be sufficient to say, that the 
five chapters of the Panchatanira agree, in the subject, and 
in the general arrangement of the fables, with the third, 
fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth, chapters of the Ayiar 



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TO THE HIT6pAd66a, &C. 171 

(UniMk : and that more than half of the fMes, contaiaed ia 
that part of the Persian woric, which purports to faaite been 
derived firom the Indian text» ccnxeBponda exactly to similar 
apokgnes in the Sa$ucrit. In most instances of omission, 
a reason may be eaoly conjectured finr the rejection of the 
original stories: and those, which have been substituted 
br Aem, as wdl as the few contained in the remaining 
chapters, which are not avowedly additional, may have been 
taken by the first translator, either from other Indian works, 
(for Bar2Ctah is stated to have brought more than one 
book firom jBindust&n;) or, though not acknoidedged by 
him, may have been drawn fit)m different sources. It pro- 
bably was more his design to present to the King of Persia 
a pleasing collection of apologues, flian a strictly iaidifiil 
translation of a single Indian work. 

This collection of faUes has been translated more fire- 
quently, and into a greater variety of languages, than any 
other composition not sacred ; and, although the earliest 
paraphrase, in Pehledj be now lost, its Arabic version is 
extant, or lately was so ; and may be easily verified through 
the translations made into more than one language, upon 
the Arabic text. 

It is unnecessary to speak of another Aralnc version said 
to have been taken from the original text of a pretended 
king of India named Isam , three hundred years before the 
time of Albxandsr ; or to mention that made from the 
testament of Hushenk (entitled Jawid&n khird)y by 
Hasan, son of Suhail, Minister of al MamCn, the 
seventh khalifoi the AbbaA dynasty. For both these pre- 
tended versions are probably the same with Abdi^llah's, 
but erroneously ascribed to other authors. 

From his Arabic text, a Greek translation, entitled Ste- 
phanites and Ichnelates, was completed, seven hundred 
years ago, by Simeo Sethus, for the Emperor Alexius 



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172 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

CoMNENUs. One in Syriac, under the title of CalaUeg 
and Damnagf is probably taken from the Arabic, though 
purporting to be derived immediately from the Indian text 
The Turkish versions (for there are more than one) have 
been derived mediately or immediately from the Arabic; 
and several Latin and Italian translations have been drawn 
from the Greek of Sethus ; not to mention another Latin 
one from the Hebrew, nor the Grerman and Spanish versions 
from the Latin and the Italian. AU these, as well as the 
French translations of Oaulmin, David Said, Oalland 
and Cardonne, from the Persian Calilah u Damndhy 
and from the Turkish Humaydn nameh and Anwari Suhaili, 
as also the English version from the French, appear to have 
been compared with considerable attention by various per- 
sons : but, excepting two unfaithful imitations in Latin and 
Italian, the general correspondence of the rest seems to be 
acknowledged."* 

We may conclude, therefore, that the Persian Calilah u 
Damnahf and Aycar danishy exhibit a sufficiently exact 
representation of the Arabic translation from the Pehlevi; 
and that, after rejecting avowed additions, we ought to find 
there a near resemblance to the Indian original. From a 
careful collation of both Sanscrit works with the genuine 
parts of the Persian translation, it is evident, as has been 
already shown, that the Panchatantra corresponds best 
with them : and there can be little hesitation in pronouncing 
this to be the original text of the work, which was procured 
from India by N^jsIhIrvAn more than twelve hundred 
years ago. 



• See Bibliotheca Grseca of Fabricius, vol. vi. p. 460, and vol. x. 
p. 324; Biblioth^ue Orientale of d'Herbelot, pp. 118, 206, 245, 399. 
and 456; Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. vi.p. 4; and As. Res. vol. i. 
p. 429; also Wilkins's Heetopades, preface, p. xiii. 



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TO THE HlT6PAD6§Ay 8CC. 173 

This fkct is not without importance in the general history 
x)f Indian literature ; since it may serve to establish the 
greater antiquity of authors who are quoted in the Pancha- 
tantra ; and amongst others, that of the celebrated astro- 
loger VarAha MiHiRAy who is cited by name in one 
passage of the first chapter. 

The HitApadiiaj containing nearly the same fables told 
more concisely and in a different order, has been translated 
into Persian, in comparatively recent times, by MaularA 
TAju'ddIn, who entitled it Muferrehu^lhdiib; and who 
does not appear, from his preface, to have been aware, that 
the work, translated by him, was any way connected vrith 
the CaHlah u Damnah. 

This, as well as the iStncK version of it, by J/ItBehAdur 
Al!, which has been printed for the use of the College of 
Fort William, and which is entitled Akhlaki Hindi, may 
afford some help to a student, reading the Hitiptzdeia, for 
his first exercise in the Sanscrit language. He will find 
still more effectual assistance in the English translations by 
Sir William Jones and Mr. Wilkins: and, for this 
advantage, no less than for its easy style, the HitSpadSsa 
has the first place in the present collection of Sanscrit 
works. 

The second place in it has been allotted to a short story 
in verse, which is abridged fix>m a celebrated poem of 
DAN6rs. This distinguished poet, famous above all other 
Indian bards for the sweetness of his language, and there- 
fore ranked by Calidasa himself (if tradition may be cre- 
dited) next to the fathers of Indian poetry, VAlmIci and 
y yAsa, composed a pleasing story in harmonious verse, 
under the title of Daia cum&ra charita, or ' Adventures of 
the Ten Youths.' It is divided into two parts : the first 
comprising five chapters, and ending ynih the marriage of 
the principal hero; the other containing, through eight 



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174 INTBODUCTORY RBMAKK8 

more cbaptersy the adventures of the same prinee and his 
nine companions* The first part has been abridged bj 
more than one author; among others, by VinIyaca in 
about two hundred couplets collected into tiiree sections; 
and by Aptayya, in as many sections, and nearly the 
same number of couplets. This abridgment, beii^ com- 
posed in easy, correct, and smooth language, ia prderable 
to the other, and has been sheeted for its merits m those 
req)ects ; though the stoiy be toU with too great concise- 
ness to preserve much interest. 

Concenui^ the author of this epitome, or argument, 
of Da ir 6i'8 poem, no information has been yet obtained. 
He calls himself a counsellor and minister, and was pro- 
bably in the serrice of some Hindu Sofa, 

The present volume ends with three Satcuxu or centuries 
of verses by BhartsY hari« They were recommended 
for selection, partly by their prevailing moral tendency, 
though some passages be fiur firom unexoeptionaUe ; and 
partly as a fit specimen of polished jSonsm^ verse. The 
poetical beauties, vfbich are most admired by the Hindu 
learned, and which are inculcated by their writers on 
rhetoric, are scattered in diese couplets of Bh artrY hari, 
with a more sparing hand than in most of the laboured 
performances of Indian poets : and, firom this cause, his 
poetry is less obscure than theirs. 

These Satacas are ascribed by the unanimous consent of 
the learned, to BhartrI hari, the brother of Vicra- 
mIditya. He is also the reputed an&or of a gram- 
matical treatise* It is possible, perhaps it might be said 
probable, that these may have been composed by a di^ 
fi^rent person in his name. But it is dear firom the first 
couplet of the Niti satacay that they have been written 
dther in the real, or in the assumed character of BhartrY 



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^O THE HIT6PADiSAy 8CC. 175 

HARiy since that couplet alludea to a drcumstance con- 
spicuous in the traditional story of his life. 

The authentic history of BhartrY hari, is too in- 
timately blended -with that of ancient India, and inyolves 
questions of too great intricacy, to be stated, or discussed, 
in this preface. It remains only to say a few words respect- 
ing the inresent edition of the three works which have been 
here mentioned. 

The editor, Mr. Caret, undertook the publication, on a 
suggestion fiom the Council of the College of Fort William, 
and under the patronage of Government. He has, at the 
same time, risked a larger edition than was required for the 
College, in the expectation of encouragement from the 
public. 

In printing the Hitipcuieia, six manuscript copies were 
collated. They were found to differ much, in the quotation 
of whole passages, as well as in the reading of single words. 
Either the reading most suitable to the context, or that 
which was found in the greatest number of copies, has been 
selected, according as circumstances have dictated the pro- 
priety of following one rule or the other. 

The abridgment of the Dasa cumara has been printed 
from a single copy: and the Satacas of BhartrY hari, 
from three manuscripts ; every one of which vms incom- 
plete: but the deficiencies did not occur in the same 



With the last Sataca^ the style of which is, in general, 
less dear than that of the preceding, the scholia have been 
printed. They will serve to make the reader acquainted 
with the manner of Sanscrit commentators : and owing to 
the peculiar difficulties of the language, the student will 
find it long necessary, and always useful, to consult the 
conmientaries, while perusing Sanscrit compositions. To 



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176 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

lessen one of those difficulties, which arises from the fre* 
quent permutation of letters at the beginning and close of 
words, the editor has marked, by a dot under the syllable, 
places where the elision of a letter is found, or any other 
permutation, that is not obvious. 

In this first attempt to employ the press in multiplying 
copies of Scmscrit books with the Divanagari character, it 
will be no matter of surprise, nor any cause of imputation 
on the editor's diligence, that the table of corrections should 
be large. The whole volume has been carefully examined 
by several Pandits ; and there is reason to beUeve, that no 
error of consequence can have escaped their notice. 

Calcutta, \7tk September 1804. 



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VI. 
Enumeration of Indian Classes. 



[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. v. p. 63 — 67. Calcutta, 
1798. 4to.] 



The permanent separation of classes, with hereditary 
professions assigned to each, is among the most remarkable 
institations of India; and, though now less rigidly main- 
tained than heretofore, must still engage attention. On 
the subject of the mixed classes, Sanscrit authorities, in 
some instances, disi^ee: classes mentioned by one, are 
omitted by another; and texts differ on the professions 
assigned to some tribes. A comparison of several autho- 
rities, with a few observations on the subdivisions of classes, 
may tend to elucidate this subject, in which there is some 
intricacy. 

One of the authorities I shall use, is the Jatimidaj or 
Oarland of Classes ; an extract from the Rudra yamala 
tantroy which in some instances corresponds better with 
usage, and received opinions, than the ordinances of Menu, 
and the great Dharma purana.* On more important points 
its authority could not be compared with the Dharmasastra ; 
but, on the subject of clai9ses, it may be admitted ; for the 
Tantras form a branch of literature highly esteemed, though 
at present much neglected.f Their fabulous origin derives 

• The texts are cited in the Ftvdddr^vd sStu, from the Vr^hdd 
dharma pwdAa. This name I therefore retain ; although I cannot 
learn that such a pur6^ exists, or to what treatise the quotatioi^ 
refers under that name. [See vol. i. p. 103 of the present work.] 

t [See vol. i. p. 199 of the present work.] 

VOL. II. N 



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178 ENUMERATION OF 

them from revelations of Siva to PARVATf, confirmed by 
Vishnu, and therefore called Agama, fix>m the initials of 
three words in a verse of the TSdala tantra. 

*' Coming from the mouth of Siva, heard by the moun- 
" tain-bom goddess, admitted by the son of Vasud6va, it 
" is thence called Agama" 

Thirty-six are mentioned for the nmnber of mixed classes ; 
but, according to some opinions, that number includes the 
fourth original tribe, or all the original tribes, according 
to other authorities: yet the text quoted from the great 
Dharma puraiia, in the digest of which a versicm was trans- 
lated by Mr. Halheb, name thirty-nine mixed classes; 
and the Jatimala gives distinct names for a greater number. 

On the four original tribes it may suffice, in this place, 
to quote the Jdtimala, where the distinction of BrahmaAaSf 
according to the ten countries to which their ancestors be- 
longed, is noticed : that distinction, is still maintained. 

'^ In the first creation, by BrahmA, BrahmaAas pro-* 
'' ceeded, with the Veday fix>m the mouth of BrahmJL. 
** From his arms Cshatriyas sprung; so from his thigh, 
^* VaUym; ftom his foot Sybra$ were produced : all with 
'* their females. 

'' The Lord of creation vievring them, said, ' What shall 
" ' be your occupations V They replied, ' We are not our 
'' own masters, oh, God ! command us what to undertake/ 

'' Viewing and comparing their labours, he made the 
'^ first tribe superior over the rest. As the first had great 
'' inclLpation for the divine sciences, (Brahme vSda^) there- 
'' fore he was BrahmaAa. The protector ftaax ill (cshayate) 
'' was Cshatriya. Him whose profession (veia) consists in 
'' commerce, which promotes the success of wars, for the 
'^ protection of himself and of mankind, and in husbandry, 
'' and attendance on cattle, he called Vaisya. The other 
'^ should voluntarily serve the three tribes, and therefore 



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INDIAN CLASSES. 179 

'' he became a §{ulra : be should humble himeelf at their 
*' feet." 

And in another place : 

" A chief of the twicer-bom tribe was brought by Vishnu's 
" eagle from Saca dvApa: thus have Saea duApa Br&hma^ 
" iia$ become known in Jambu dwfpa. 

'' In Jambu dvbipay BrahmaAa$ are reckoned tenfold ; 
" Sareswatay Cimyaculya, GavAa^ MaifhUay Utcakiy Drh- 
** viAiy Mah&roihiray Tailangay Oujjaray and C&itniray re- 
'^ siding in the several countries whence they are named.* 

" Their sons and grandsons, are considered as Cmya^ 
^' cvbja priests, and so forth. Their posterity, descending 
'' from Menu, also inhabit the southern regions : others 
*^ reside in AngOy Banga, and Calinga; some in Cama^ 
'* rUpa and OStra, Others are inhabitants of Sumbhadeia: 
*' and twice*bom men, brought by former princes, have 
** been established in MaAiy MagadhUy Varindray Ch6lay 
" SweHuigr&may Chinay C6Za, Saca, and Berbera"f 

* These several countries are, Sdrestoata, probably the region 
watered by the river Sersutty, as it is marked in maps ; nnless it be a 
part of Bengal, named from the branch of the Bh&gkrat^ki, vhiok is 
distinguished by this appellation ; Cdnyacubfa or Canqf; Gau3a^ pro- 
bably the western Gdr, and not the Oawr of Bengal ;(*) Mit^hila, or 
l^rabhuctif corrupted into Tirhut; Utcala, said to be situated near 
the celebrated temple of JagawMha; Dr&vida^ pronounced Dravira; 
possibly the country described by that name, as a maritime region 
south of Car^aia, (As. Res. vol. ii. p. 1 1?) ; Mahdrdshtray or MarhaHa; 
Telingay or Telingdna; Gujjara^ or Ouzrat; Casm^^a, or Cdshmir. 

t Anga includes Bh6galpur, Benga, or Bengal Proper, is a part 
only of the Suba. VarMtraj the tract of inundation north of the 
Ganges, is a part of the present Zila oi Bajeshdhi,^ Calinga is watered 
by the Goddveri^ (As. Res. vol. iii. p. 48.) Cdmardpa, an ancient em- 
pire, is become a province of Asdm, Odra I understand to be Orisa 
Proper. RaBa (if that be the true reading) is well known as the 
country west of the Bhd^irafha. Magadha, or MagadhOy is Bahar 
Proper. CJihla is part of Bisrhhum. Another region of this name is 
mentioned in the Asiatic Researches, vol. iii. p. 48. Swer^agrdmay 
• [See the note at page 87 of the present volume.] 
N 2 



K 



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180 ENUMEBATION OF 

I shall proceed^ without further preface, to enumerate 
the principal mixed classes, which have sprung from inter- 
marriages of the original tribes. 

1. Mirdhabhishicta^ from a BrahmaAa by a girl of the 
Cshatriya class ; his duty is the teaching of military exer- 
cises. The same origin is ascribed in the great Dharma 
puraAa to the Cumbhacaray* or potter, and Tantr<wayay^: 
or weaver: but the Tantravayay according to theJia^moZa, 
sprung from two mixed classes; for he was begotten by a 
man of the Mambandha on a woman of the MaMcara 
tribe. 

2. Ambashi^haf or Vaidya,% whose profession is the 
science of medicine, was bom of a Vaisya woman, by a 
man of the sacerdotal class. The same ori^ is given by 
the Dharma puraAa to the Cam(xcara,\\ or brazier, and to 
the SaTufhacarUf^ or worker in shells. These c^ain are 
stated, in the tanira, as springing from the intermarriages 
of mixed classes ; the Cansacara from the Tamraciiita and 
the Sanc*hacara; also named Satu^hadareca, from the 
Rajaputra and Gandhica: for Rqjaputra not only denotes 
Cshatriyas as sons of kings, but is also the name of a 
mixed class, and of a tribe of fabulous origin. 

Jtudra yamala tantra : " The origin of JRqjaputras is 
'' from the Vaisya on the daughter of an Ambashi'ha. 
'' Again, thousands of others sprung from ihe foreheads of 
** cows kept to supply oblations." 

3. Nishada, or Parasava, whose profession is catching 
fish, was bom of a Siidra woman by a man of a sacerdotal 
class. The name is given to the issue of a l^al marriage 

vulgalarly Sunarffau, is situated east of Dacca. China is a portion 
of the present Chinese empire. On the rest I can offer no conjecture. 
6dca and Berbera, here mentioned, must differ from the Dwipa, and 
the region situated between the Cu^ and 6anc^ha dw^ipat. 

• Vulgarly, Ciimdr. f Vulgarly, T6nn, I Vulgarly, Baidya. 

§ Vulgarly, Cascrd, || Vulgarly Sac'hira. 



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INDIAN CLASSES. 181 

between a Brahmana and a woman of the Siidra tribe. It 
should seem that the issue of other legal marriages in dif- 
ferent ranks, were described by the names of mixed classes 
springing from intercourse between the several tribes. This, 
however, is liable to some question ; and since such mar- 
riages are considered as illegal in the present age, it is not 
material to pursue the inquiry. 

According to the Dharma puranay from the same origin 
with the Nishada springs the Varajivi, or astrologer. In 
the tantray that origin is given to the Brahme-siidray whose 
profession is to make chairs or stools used on some religious 
occasions. Under the name of Varajim* is described a 
class springing from the G&pa and Tantravaya, and em- 
ployed in cultivating betel. The profession of astrology, 
or, at least, that of making almanacks, is assigned in the 
tantruy to degraded Brahmanas. 

*' Brahmanas, felling from their tribe, became kinsmen 
'' of the twice-born class : to them is assigned the profession 
" of ascertaining the lunar and solar days." 

4. Mahishya is a son of a Cshatriya by a woman of the 
Vaiiya tribe. His profession is music, astronomy, and 
attendance on cattle. 

6. Ugra was bom of a S&dra woman by a man of the 
military class. His profession, according to Menu, is 
killing or confining such animals as Uve in holes: but, 
according to the tantray he is an encomiast or bard. The 
same origin is attributed to the Napita^; or barber ; and to 
the Maudojcay or confectioner. In the tantra, the Napita 
is said to be bom of a Cuverina woman by a man of the 
Patticara class. 

6. CaranaX from a Vaiiyay by a woman of the ^udra 

• Vulgarly, Baraiya. f Vulgariy, N6,ya or Ndi. 

X Vulgarly, Curaiu 



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182 ENUMERATION OF 

clasSy is an attendant on princes, or secretary. The appel- 
lation of Cayasfka* is in general considered as synonymous 
with Carana; and accordingly the CaraAa tribe commonly 
assumes the name of CaydsVka: but the Cicgazfhan of 
Bengal have pretensions to be considered as true Sidr<M$, 
which the Jatimala seems to authorize ; for the origin of the 
CaycLsfha is there mentioned, before the subject of mixed 
tribes is introduced, immediately after describing the Ct6pa 
as a true Sitdra. 

One, named Bhutidatta^ was noticed for his domestic 
assiduity ;t therefore the rank diCayatt'ha was by BriLh- 
tnanas assigned to him. From him sprung three sons, 
Chitrangadaf Chitrasina^ and Chitragupta: they were 
employed in attendance on princes. 

The Dliarma pur&Aa assigns the same origin to the 
TambuUf or betel-seller, and to the Tanlica, or areca- 
seller, as to the Caraia. 

The six before enumerated are b^otten in the direct 
order of the classes. Six are begotten in the inverse 
order, 

7. SutOy begotten by a Cshatriya on a woman of the 
priestly class. His occupation is managing horses and 
driving cars. The same origin is given, m the puranay 
to the MalacaraX or florist ; but he sprung from the Car- 
macara and Tallica classes, if the authority of the tantra 
prevails. 

8. Mitgadhay bom of a Cshatriya girl, by a man of the 
commercial class, has, according to the sastra, the profes- 
sion of travelling with merchandize ; but, according to the 
puraAa and tantra, is an encomiast. From parents of those 



• Vulgarly, Cdit, 

t Literally, Staying at home, {cdyt sanst'hitah,) whence the etymo- 
logy of CayasCha, % Mdti, 



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INDIAN CLASSES. 183 

classes sprung the G6pa^ if the pur ana may be believed; 
but the tantra describes the G6pa as a true S{uira, and 
names GSpyimf a mixed class, using the same profes- 
mmy and springmg from the Tantravaya and Miaiibandha 
tribes. 

9 and 10. Vaidiha and Aydgava. The occupaticm of 
the first, bom of a BrahnuiM by a man of the commercial 
class, is waiting on women : the second, bom of a Vaisya 
woman by a man of the servile class, has the profession of 
a carpenter. 

1 h Cshattri, or Cshatta, sprung from a servile man by 
a woman of the military class, is employed in killing and 
confining such animals as live in holes. The same origin 
is ascribed by the purana to the Carmacara, or smith, and 
Dasa^ or mariner. The one is mentioned in the tantra 
without specifying the classes from which he sprung ; and 
the other has a different origin, according to the i&stra and 
tantra. 

All authorities concur in deriving the ChaAclala from a 
S6dra father and BrahmaM moth^. His profession is 
carrying out corpses, and executing criminals ; and officiate 
ing in other abject employments for the public service. 

A third set of Indian classes originate from the inter- 
marriages of the first and second set: a few only have 
been named by Menu; and, excepting the Abhiray or 
milkman, they are not noticed by the other authorities 
io which I refer. But the pur&na names other classes of 
this set. 

A fourth set is derived from intercourse between the 
several classes of the second : of these also few have been 
named by Menu ; and one only of the fifth set, spring- 
ing fix>m intermarriages of the second and third ; and 

• 06p. i 66ari&-6bp. 



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184 ENUMERATION OF 

another of the sixth set, derived fix)in intercourse between 
classes of the second and fourth. Menu adds to these 
tribes four sons of outcasts. 

The tantra enumerates many other classes^ which must 
be placed in lower sets^* and ascribes a different origin to 
some of the tribes in the third and fourth sets. To pursue 
a verbose comparison would be tedious^ and of Uttle use ; 
perhaps, of none; for I suspect that their origin is fanciful ; 
and, except the mixed classes named by Menu, that the 
rest are terms for professions rather than tribes ; and they 
should be considered as denoting companies of artisans, 
rather than distinct races. The mode in which Am era 
sinha mentions the mixed classes and the professions of 
artisans, seems to support this conjecture. 

However, the Jatimala expressly states the number of 
forty-two mixed classes, springing fix)m the intercourse 
of a man of inferior, with a woman of superior class. 
Though, like other mixed classes, they are included under 
the general denomination of Sudra, they are considered as 
most abject, and most of them now experience the same 
contemptuous treatment as the abject mixed classes men- 
tioned by Menu. According to the Rvdra yamalay the 
domestic priests of twenty of these tribes are degraded. 
" Avoid," says the tantra, " the touch of the Chanclala, 
" and other abject classes; and of those who eat the flesh 
" of kine, often utter forbidden words, and perform none of 
** the prescribed ceremonies ; they are called MUcVha, 
" and going to the region of Yavana, have been named 

Yavaruis. 

" These seven, the Rajaca, Carmacara, Naia, Barucla, 
** Caiverta, and Medabhilla, are the last tribes. Whoever 
*' associates with them, undoubtedly falls from his class ; 
" whoever bathes or drinks in wells or pools which they 
*' have caused to be made, must be purified by the five 



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INDIAN CLASSES. 185 

** productions of kine ; whoever approaches their women, 
'^ is doubtless degraded from his rank. 

** For women of the Naia and Capala claBses, for pro- 
'* stitutesi and for women of the Rajaca and Napita tribes, 
^* a man should willingly make oblations, but by no means 
" dally with them/* 

I may here remark, that, according to the Rudra yamala, 
the Naia and Naiaca are distinct ; but the professions are 
not discriminated in that tantra. If their distinct occupa- 
tions, as dancers and actors, are accurately applied, dramas 
are of very early date. 

The Punclraca and Paiiasiitracaray or feeder of silk- 
worms, and silk-twister, deserve notice; for it has been 
said, that silk was the produce of China solely until the 
reign of the Greek Emperor Justinian, and that the laws 
of China jealously guarded the exclusive production. The 
frequent mention of silk in the most ancient Sanscrit books 
would not fully disprove that opinion ; but the mention of 
an Indian class, whose occupation it is to attend silk-worms, 
may be admitted as proof, if the antiquity of the tantra be 
not questioned. I am informed, that the tantras collectively 
are noticed in very ancient compositions ; but, as they are 
very numerous, they must have been composed at different 
periods ; and the tantra which I quote, might be thought 
OMnparatively modem. However, it may be presumed that 
the Rudra yamala is among the most authentic, and, by 
a natural inference, among the most ancient; since it is 
named in the Durga mehattwa where the principal tantras 
are enumerated.* 

* Tho8 enumerated/* Colt tantra, M^indrndid^Tdrd, NHrv/t^ tantra, 
Serva sdran, Bira tantra, Sin^drchana, Bhdia tantra, Uddesan and 
Cdlicd calpa, Bhairavi tantra, and Bhairavi calpa, Tbdala, Mdtr^- 
bhcdannca, Maya tantra, Bircswara, Viiwas&ra, Samayd-tantra, Brah- 
ma-ydmala- tantra, Rudra-ydmala-tantra, Sancu-ydmala-tantra, Gdya- 



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• 186 ENUMERATION OF 

In the comparative tablet to which I have referred, the 
classes are named, with their origin, and the particular pro- 
fessions assigned to them. How far every person is bound, 
by original institutions, to adhere rigidly to the profession 
of his class, may merit some enquiry. Lawyers have largely 
discussed the texts of law concerning this subject, and some 
difference of opinion occurs in their writings. This, how- 
ever, is not the place for entering into such disquisitions. 
I shall therefore bri^y state what appears to be the best 
established opinion, as deduced from the texts of Menu, 
and other legal authorities. 

The regular means of subsistence for a Brahmaha^ are 
assisting to sacrifice, teaching the VidaSy and receiving 
gifts ; for a Cshatriyaf bearing arms ; for a Fat^a, mer- 
chandize, attending on cattle, and agriculture ; for a ^udra, 
servile attendance on the higher classes. The most com- 
mendable are, respectively for the four classes, teaching the 
Veda, defending the people, commerce, or keeping herds 
or flocks, and servile att^idance on learned and virtuous 
priests. 

A BrakmaAay unable to subnst by his own duties, may 
live by those of a soldier : if he cannot get a subsistence by 
either of these employments, he may apply to tillage, and 
attendance on cattle, or gain a competence by traffic, 
avoiding certain commodities. A Cshatriya, in distress, 
may subsist by all these means; but he must not have 
recourse to the highest functions. In seasons of distress, 
a further latitude is given. The practice of medicine, and 
other learned professions, painting and other arts, work for 
wages, menial service, alms, and usury, are am<Hig the 

tfi^afUrOt Cdiicdcula servaswa, Cui6r^uway YhgifA-imOray and the 
TofUra Mekishamardifii. These are here oniyersally known, Oh 
BHAiRAvf, greatest of souls! And many are the Umtraa uttered by 
Sambhu." 



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INDIAN CLASSES. 187 

modes of subsistence allowed to the Brahimana and C$ha^ 
triya. A Vaiiyaj unable to subsist by hia own duties^ 
may descend to the servile acts of a Siidra. And a Sudra, 
not finding employment by waiting on men of the higher 
classes, may subsist by handicrafts ; principally following 
those mechanical occupations, as joinery and masonry; 
and practical arts, as painting and writing; by following 
of which he may serve men of superior classes: and, 
although a man of a lower tribe is in general restricted 
from the acts of a higher class, the Sudra is expressly per- 
mitted to become a trader or a husbandman. 

Besides the particular occupations assigned to each of 
the mixed classes, they have the alternative of following 
that profession which regularly belongs to the class fit>m 
which they derive their origin on the mother's side : those, 
at least, have such an opticm, who are bom in the direct 
order of the tribes, as the M^Lrdhabhishicta, Ambashi^ha, 
and others. The mixed classes are also permitted to sub- 
sist by any of the duties of a Sddra ; that is, by a mmiial 
service, by handicrafts, by commerce, or by agriculture. 

Hence it appears that almost every occupation, though 
regularly it be the profession of a particular class, is open 
to most other tribes ; and that the Umitations, bx firom 
being rigorous, do, in &ct, reserve only one peculiar pro- 
fession, that of the JBrahmaAa, which consists in teaching 
the Veda, and officiating at religious ceremonies. 

The classes are sufficisitly numerous ; but the subdivi- 
moDB of them have fiother multiplied distractions to an 
endless variety. The subordinate distinctions may be best 
exemplified from the Brakmana and Cayasfha, because 
some of the appellations, by which the different races are 
distinguished^ will be femiliar to many readers. 

The Brahma'nas of Bengal are descended from five 
priests, invited from Canyacubja, by AniSwARA, king of 



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188 ENUMERATION OF 

Gauruy who is said to have reigned about nine hundred 
years after Christ. These were BHAffA NArAyana, 
of the family of Sandila, a son of CaSyapa ; Dacsha, 
also a descendant of CaI^yapa; V^dagarva^ of the 
family of Vatsa ; Chandra, of the &mily of Saverna, 
a son of CaSyapa; and Sai Hersha, a descendant of 
Bharadwaja. 

From these ancestors have branched no fewer than a 
hundred and fifty-six families, of which the precedence 
was fixed by BallAla stN a, who reigned in the eleventh 
century of the Christian sera. One hundred of these fami- 
Ues settled in Varendra^ and fifty-six in Rara. They are 
now dispersed throughout Bengal, but retain the family 
distinctions fixed BallAla s£na. IThey are denominated 
from the families to which their five progenitors belonged, 
and are still considered as Canyacubja BrahmaAas. 

At the period when these priests were invited by the king 
of Gaura^ some Sareswata Brahmamis, and a few Vaidicas, 
resided in Bengal. Of the Brahmanas of Sarestoata, none 
are now found in Bengal ; but five families of Vaidicas are 
extant, and are admitted to intermarry with the BrahmaAas 
of Rara. 

Among the BrakmaAas of Varendraj eight families have 
pre-eminence, and eight hold the second rank.* Among 





• ViE§NDRA BbIhMA^AS. 








CuLfNA 8. 




Maitra. 


Bhima, 


Rudra-F6^m. 


Sanifommif 




or 




or 




Cdli. 




Sandifdl. 


Ldhari. 


Bhadun. 


SadhU'V6sfi8i. 


Bhadara, 



The last was admitted by election of the other seven. 
§UDHA 6r6tbiya 8. 
CAsufA ^r6trita 84. 
The names of these 92 families seldom occur in common intercourse. 



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INDIAN CLASSES. 189 

those o{ Rcsray six hold the first rank.* The distinctive 
appellations of the several families are borne by those of 
the first rank ; but in most of the other fiunilies they are 
disused ; and iennanj or serma^ the addition common to 
the ivhole tribe of BrahmaAas, is assumed. For this prac- 
tice, the priests of Bengal are censured by the Brahmamu 
otMifhila, and other countries, where that title is only 
used on important occasions, and in religious ceremonies. 

In MifhUa the additions are fewer, though distinct fami- 
lies are more numerous; no more than three surnames are 
in use in that district, T'hacura, Misraj and Ojha ; each 
appropriated to many families. 

The Cayasfhas of Bengal claim descent from five Cayor 
sfhas who attended the priests invited from Canyacuhja. 
Their descendants branched into eighty-three families; and 
their precedence was fixed by the same prince BallAla 
s£na, who also adjusted the family rank of other classes. 

In Benga and DacshiAa Bara, three families of Cayor 
sfhas have pre-eminence ; eight hold the second rank.f The 



• RarIyA BBAHMAilAS. 

CulIna 6. 
Muc'kuHy GangulL C6njeiala. 

vulgarly, Muc'hefya. 

QMsh61a. BandyagaH^ ChataU^ 

vulgarly, Banojt vulgarly, Chatoji, 

§b6tbita 50. 
The names of these 50 families seldom occur in common intercourse. 

t Catast'has of DAosHiiiA RIba and Benoa. 
CulIna 3. 
OUiha Fasuy Mitra. 

yx\g.B6se. 

SaNM AULIOA 8. 

Di. Datuu Cora, Palita. 

Sena. Sinha. D&sa, Guha. 

Mau- 



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190 ENUMERATION OF INDIAN CLASSES. 

Caya$fhas of inferior rank generally aasame the addition of 
Da$a, common to the tribe of Siuircu, in the same manner 
as other dasses have similar titles common to the whole 
tribe. The regular addition to the name of a Cskatriya is 
Verman ; to that of a Vaisya^ Gupta ; bnt the general title 
otJDeva is commonly assumed; and^ with a feminine ter- 
nation, is also borne by women of other tribes. 

The distmction of families are important in regulating 
intermarriages. Genealogy is made a particular study; 
and the greatest attention is given to regulate the alliance 
according to established rules, particularly in the first mar- 
riage of the eldest son. The principal pdnts to be observed 
are, not to marry within the prohibited degrees ; nor in a 
fiimily known by its name to be of the same primitive 
stock; nor in one of inferior rank; nor even in an in- 
ferior branch of an equal one; for within some families 
gradations are established. Thus, among the CuHna of the 
Cayasfhas^ the rank has been counted from thirteen de- 
grees; and in every generation, so long as the marriage 
has been properly assorted, one degree has been added to 
the rank. But, should a marriage be contracted in a family 
of a lower d^ee, an entire forfeiture of such rank would 
be incurred. 







Maulioa 72. 






Guhan. 


Gana, 


Heda. 


Huhin. 


Naga. 


Bhadre. 


Soma. 


Pui. 


Rjidra. 


Pdia. 


AdUya. 


Chandra. 


Sdnya, or Sain. 






Suin, Sfc. 






Sy&ma, Sfc. 












Ttja, Sfc. 












Ch6ci,^c. 












The others are 


omitted for the sake of brevity; 


their names seldom 




occur in common intercourse 


u 





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VII. 

Obsebvations an the Sect 0/ Jains. 



[From the Asiatic Researches^ vol. ix. p. 287 — 322. Calcutta, 
I8O7. 4to.] 



The informatioii collected by Miyor Mackenzie, 
coDcerning a religious sect hitherto so imperfectly known 
as that of the JcAnas, and which has been even confounded 
with one more numerous and more widely spread (the sect 
of BunDH a)i may furnish the ground of fiirtber researches, 
fit>m which an exact knowledge of the tenets and practice 
of a very remarkable order of people may be ultimately 
expected. What Major Mackenzie has communi- 
cated to the Society, comes from a most authentic source ; 
the declarations of two principal jmests of the Jairuu 
themselves. It is supported by similar information, pro- 
cured from a like source, by Dr. F. Buchanan, during his 
journey in Mysore, in the year following the reduction of 
SeriTigapatam. Haying the permission of Dr» Bucha- 
nan to use the extracts, which I had his leave to make 
from the journal kept by him during that journey, I have 
inserted, in the preceding article, the information received 
by him from priests of the Jaina sect. 

I am enabled to corroborate both statements, from con- 
versation with Jaina priests, and from books in my pos- 
session, written by authors of the Jaina persuasion. Some 
of those volumes were procured for me at Benares; others 
were obtained from the present Jaoat s£t, at Morshed&r 
bid, who, havmg changed his religion, to adopt the wor- 



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192 OBSERVATIONS ON 

ship of Vishnu, forwarded to me, at my request, such 
books of his former faith as were yet within his reach. 

It appears, from the concurrent result of all the inquiries 
which have been made, that the Jainas constitute a sect 
of Hindus, differing, indeed, from the rest in some very 
important tenets; but following, in other respects, a similar 
practice, and maintaining like opinions and observances. 

The essential character of the Hindu institutions is the 
distribution of the people into four great tribes. This is 
considered by themselves to be the marked point which se- 
parates them from MUcVhas or Barbarians. The Jainas^ 
it is found, admit the same division into four tribes, and 
perform like religious ceremonies, termed sanscaras, from 
the birth of a male to his marriage. They observe similar 
fasts, and practise, still more strictly, the recaved maxims 
for refraining from injury to any sentient being. They ap- 
pear to recognise as subordinate deities, some, if not all, 
of the gods of the prevailing sects ; but do not worship, in 
particular, the five principal gods of those sects ; or any 
one of them by preference ; nor address prayers, or per- 
form sacrifice, to the sun, or to fire: and they differ from 
the rest of the Hindus, in assigning the highest place to 
certain deified saints, who, according to their creed, have 
successively become superior gods. Another point in 
which they materially disagree is the rejection of the 
Vidas, the divine authority of which they deny; condemn- 
ing, at the same time, the practice of sacrifices, and the 
other ceremonies which the followers of the V6das per- 
form, to obtain specific promised consequences, in this 
world or in the next. 

In this respect the Jainas resemble the Bauddhas or 
Saugatas, who equally deny the divine authority of the 
VeAis; and who similarly worship certain pre-eminent 
saints, admitting likewise, as subordinate deities, nearly 



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THE JAINS. 193 

the whole pantheon of the orthodox Hindus. They differ, 
mdeed^ in regard to the history of the personages whom 
they have deified; and it may be hence concluded, that 
they have had distinct founders; but the original notion 
seems to have been the same. In fact, this remarkable 
tenet, fix)m which the Jainas and Bauddhas derive their 
most conspicuous peculiarities, is not entirely unknown to 
the orthodox Hindus. The followers of the Vedizs, accord- 
ing to the theology, which is explained in the Vedanta, 
considering the human soul as a portion of the divine and 
universal mind, believe, that it is capable of perfect union 
with the divine essence : and the writers on the VedantCf 
not only affirm, that this union and identity are attained 
through a knowledge of God, as by them taught; but 
have hinted, that by such means the particular soul be- 
comes God, even to the actual attainment of supremacy .'*'' 

So far the followers of the Vedas do not virtually dis- 
agree with the Jaincis and Bauddhas. But they have not, 
like those sects, framed a mythology upon the supposed 
history of the persons, who have successively attained divi-* 
nity ; nor have they taken these for the objects of national 
worship. All three sects agree in their belief of transmi- 
gration. But the Jainas are distinguished from the rest 
by their admission of no opinions, as they themselves af- 
firm, which are not founded on perception, or on proof 
drawn from that, or from testimony. 

It does not, however, appear, that they really withhold 
belief from pretended revelations : and the doctrines which 
characterize the sect, are not confined to a single tenet ; 
but form an assemblage of mythological and metaphysical 
ideas found among other sects, joined to many visionary 
and fantastic notions of their own. 

* Vr^had drafiyaca upanishad. 

VOL. II. o 



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194 OBSERVATIONS ON 

Their belief in the eternity of matter^ and perpetuity of 
Uie world, ia common to ihe Sanc^hya philosophy, from 
which it was, perhaps, immediately taken. Their descrip- 
tion of the world has much analogy to that which is given 
in the PwraAoij or Indian theogonies: but the scheme has 
been rendered still more extrayagant. Their precaution to 
avoid injuring any being, is a practice inculcated in the 
(Hrthodox religion, but which has been carried by them to 
a ludicrous extreme.'*. 

In their notbns of the soul, and of its union with body, 
and of retributicni for good and evil, some analogy is like- 
wise observable. The Jainas conceive the soul (Jwa) to 
have been eternally united to a very subtil material body, 
or rather to two such bodies, one of which is invariable, 
and consists (if I rightly apprehend their metaphysical 
notions) of the powers of the mind ; the other is variable, 
and is composed of its pas»ons and affections : (this, at 
least, is what I understand them to mean by the taijma 
and darmana sariras). The soul, so embodied, becomes^ 
in its successive transmigrations, united with a grosser body 
denominated <iudaricaf which retains a definite form, as 
man and other mundane beings ; or it is joined with a 
purer essence, varying in its appearance at pleasure,, as the 
gods and genii. This last is termed fxdcarica. They dis- 
tinguish a fifth sort of body, under the name of aharicoy 
which they explain as a minute form, issuing from the head 
of a meditative sage, to consult an omniscient saint; and re- 
tumii^ with the desired information to the person whence 
that form issued, or rather fix^m which it was elongated ; 
for they suppose the communication not to have been in- 
terrupted. 



* Jaina priests usually bear a broom adapted to sweep insects out 
of their way; lest they should tread on the minutest being. 



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TflE JAlKS. 195 

The soul is never completely separated from matter, 
mitil it obtain a final release from corporeal sufferaBce, by 
deification, through a perfect disengagement fi*om good 
and evil, in the person of a beatified saint. Intermediately 
it receives retribotion for the benefits or injuries ascribable 
to it in hs actttti or precedent state, according to a strict 
principle of retaliation, receiving pleasure or pain from the 
same individual, who, in a present or former state, was 
either benefitted or aggrieved. 

Major Mackcnzib's information confirms that which 
I had also recdved, concerning the distribution of these 
sectaries into clei^ and laity. In Hindusthn the JaiiMs 
are usually called Syaufas; but distingui^ themselves 
into SfavacoB and Yatis. The laity (termed Sraoatd) in- 
cludes persons of various tribes, as, indeed, is the case with 
Hindus of other sects : but, on this ^e of India, the 
Jainos are mostly of the Vaisya class.'*'' The orthodox 
Hindus have a secular, as well as a regular, clergy : a 
JBr&hmaAa, fUlowing the practice of officiating at the ce* 
liemonies of his religion, without quitting the order of a 
householder, may be considered as belonging to the secu- 
lar clergy ; one who follows a worldly profession, (that of 
husbandry for example,) appertains to the laity; and so do 
people of other tribes: but per^oiis, who have passed into 
the several orders of devotion, may be reckoned to consti^ 
tute the regular clergy. The Jainas have, in like manner, 
priests who have entered into an order of devotion ; and 
also employ Br&hmaAas at their ceremonies ; and, for 
want of Br&kmanas of their own fisdth, they even have re- 
course to the secular dei^ of the orthodox sect. This 
subject is sufficiently explained by Major Mackenzie 

* I onderstand that their Vaisya e\ns9 includes ei|phty-four tribes : 
of whom the most oomioon tfe those denominated Osw6ly Agnrw&l, 
Pariwdr, and C^kandewdi, 

O 2 



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196 OBSERVATIONS ON 

and Dr. Buchanan; I shall^ however, add, for the sake 
of a subsequent remark, that the Jamas apply the terms 
Yati and Sramaiia, (in Pracrit and Hindi written Sa- 
mana,) to a person who has devoted himself to reiligious 
contemplation and austerity; and the sect of Buddha 
uses the word SramaAa for the same meaning. It cannot 
be doubted, that the Sammonacodom of Stam, is merely a 
corruption of the words Sramaiia Gautama, the holy Gau- 
tama or Buddha.* 

Having been here led to a comparison of the Indian 
sects which follow the precepts of the VedaSf with those 
which reject their authority, I judge it necessary to notice 
an opinion, which has been advanced, on the relative anti- 
quity of those religions ; and especially the asserted prio- 
rity of the Bauddhas before the BrahmoAas. 

In the first place, it may be proper to remark, that the 
earliest accounts of India, by the Greeks who visit^ the 
country, describe its inhabitants as distributed into sepa- 
rate tribes.'!' Consequently, a sect which, like the modem 
Bauddhas, has no^ distinction of cast, could not have been 
then the most prevalent in India. 

It is indeed possible that the followers of Buddha may, 
like the Jainas, have retained the distribution into four 
tribes, so long as they continued in Hindustan. But in 
that case, they must have been a sect of Hindus ; and the 
question, which is most ancient, the Brahmana or the 
Bauddhttj becomes a solecism. 

If it be admitted that the Bauddhas are originally a 
sect of Hindus, it may be next questioned whether that, or 
any of the religious systems now established, be the most 

• See As. Res. vol. vii. p. 415. 

t Seven tribes are enomerated : but it is not diffionlt to reconcile 
the distributions which are stated by Abbian and Stbabo, with the 
present distribution into four classes. 



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THE JAINS. 197 

ancient I have, on a former occasion,* indicated the 
notions which I entertain on this point. According to the 
hypothesis which I then hinted, the earliest Indian sect of 
which we have any present distinct knowledge, is that of 
the followers of the practical Vedas, who worshipped the 
sun, fire, and the elements ; and who believed the efficacy 
of sacrifices, for the accomplishment of present and of 
future purposcfs. It may be supposed that the refined 
doctrine of the Vedantisy or followers of the theological 
and argumentative part of the Vedas, is of later date : and 
it does not seem improbable that the sects of J in a and of 
Buddha are still more modem. But I apprehend that 
the VaishnavaSf meaning particularly the worshippers of 
RAma and of CRYsHNA,t may be subsequent to those 
sects, and that the Saivcut also are of more recent date. 

I state it as an hypothesis, because I am not at present 
able to support the whole of this position on grounds which 
may appear quite satisfactory to others ; nor by evidence 
which may entirely convince them. Some arguments will, 

• As. Res. vol. viii. p. 474. [vol. i. pp. 110, 111 , of the present work.] 
t In explanation of a remark contained in a former essay [vol. i. 
p. 1 10, &c. of the present work] I take this occasion of adding, that the 
mere mention of RIma or of CRisniiA, in a passage of the Vidasy 
without any indication of peculiar reverence, would not authorize a 
presumption against the genuineness of that passage, on my hypo- 
thesis ; nor, admitting its authenticity, furnish an argument against 
that system. I suppose hoth heroes to have been known characters 
in ancient fabulous history; but conjecture, that, on the same basis, 
new fables have been constructed, elevating those personages to the 
rank of gods. On this supposition, the simple mention of them in ge- 
nuine portions of the Vcdas^ particularly in that part of it which is 
entitled Brdhmana^ would not appear surprising. Accordingly^ 
CrYsh^a, son of D£vAof, is actually named in the Ch'Mndogya 
upanishad (towards the close of the 3d Chapter,) as having received 
theological information from Ghora, a descendant of Anoirab. 
This passage, which had escaped my notice, was indicated to mc by 
Mr. Speke, from the Persian translation of the' Upanishad. 



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198 OBSERVATIONS ON 

however, be advanced, to show that the supposition is not 
gratuitous. 

The long sought history of Cd$hmir, which in the origin 
nal Sancdfritf was presented to the emperor Acber, as re- 
lated by Ab<jVFazil in the Ayin Aoberi,* and of which 
a Persian translation exists, more ample than Ab^VFa* 
zil's brief abstract, has been at length recovered in the ori- 
ginal language.f A fuller account of this book vnll be 
hereafter submitted to the society: the fNres^ occasion for 
the mention of it, is a passage which was cited by Da. 
BucHANAN,:|: from the English translation of the Ayin 
Acberi, for an import which is not supported by the Per- 
sian or Sanscrit text. 

The author, afler briefly noticing the colony established 
in Ccuihmir by C as yap a, and hinting a succession of kings 
to the time of the Curu$ and Pamiavaf, opens his detailed 
history, and list of princes, with Q6narda, a contempo- 
rary of YuDHisHt'HiRA. He describes A£6ca (who was 
twelfth in succession from 66n abda,) and his son J al6ca, 
and grandson DAm6dar a, as devout worshippers of Siva ; 
and Jal6oa, in particular, as a conqueror of the MUck*has, 
or barbarians. DAm6dara, according to this history^ was 
succeeded by three kings of the race of Turushca ; and 
they were followed by a BSdhisatwa^ who wrested the 
empire from them by the aid of SAcyasinha, and intro- 
duced the religion of Buddha into Cashmir., He reigned 
a hundred years; and the next sovereign was Abhi- 
mantu, who destroyed the Bauddhas^ and reestablished 
the doctrines of the NUa pwrd'Aa. This account is so far 



• Vol. ii. p. 178. 

t The «opy which I possess, belonged to a Brdhmanaf who died 
some months ago (1805) in Calcutta. I obtiuncd it from his heirs. 
X As. Res. vol. vi. p, 165. 



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THE JAINS. 199 

fixun proving the priority of the Bauddkas^ that it directly 
avers the contrary. 

From the legendary tales C(Hieeming the last Buddha, 
currrent in all the countries, in which his sect now flou- 
rishes ;* and upon the authority of a life of Buddha in 
the Sament language, under the title of LaKta 'purana^ 
which was procured by Maj(»r Knox, during his public 
mission in Nepali it can be affirmed, that the story of 
Gautama Buddha has been engrafted on the heroic his- 
tory of the lunar and solar races, received by the orthodox 
Hindus ; an evident sign, that his sect is subsequent to 
that, in which this fabulous history is original. 

The same remaric is applicable to thet7atit£», with whom 
the legendary story of their saints also seems to be en- 
grafted on the faurbmc tales of the orthodox sect. Suffi- 
cient indication of this will appear, in the passages which 
will be subsequently cited from the writings of the JairMs. 

Considerable weight might be allowed to an argument 
deduced from the aggravated extravagance of the fictions 
admitted by the sects of Jina and Buddha. The my- 
tholi^ of the orthodox Hindus, their present chronolc^ 
adapted to astronomical periods, their legendary tales, 
their mystical allegories, are abundantly extravagant. But 
the Jaincts and Baiuddhas surpass them in monstrous ex- 
a^erations of the same kind. In this rivalship of absurd 
fiction, it would not be unreasonable to pronounce that to 
be most modem, which has outgone the rest. 

The greater antiquity of the religion of the Vidas ]& also 
rendered probable, from the prevalence of a similar worship 
of the sun and of fire in ancient Persia. Nothing forbids 
the supposition, that a religious worship, which was th^re 
established in times of antiquity, may have also existed 

• Tachard, Voyage de Siam, LALouBkaE, Royaume de Siam. 



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200 OBSERVATIONS ON 

from a remote period in the country between the Ganges 
and the Indus. 

The testimony of the Greeks preponderates greatly for 
the early prevalence of the sect, from which the present 
orthodox Hindus are derived. Arrian, having said that 
the Br(ichmane8 were the sages or learned among the In- 
dians,* mentions them under the latter designation i<rofirau) 
as a distinct tribe, ^ which, though inferior to the others in 
number, is superior in rank and estimation : bound to no 
bodily work, nor contributing any thing from labour to the 
public use ; in short, no duty is imposed on that tribe, but 
that of sacrificing to the gods, for the common benefit of 
the Indians ; and, when any one celebrates a private sacri- 
fice, a person of that class becomes his guide ; as if the 
sacrifices would not else be acceptable to the gods.'f 

Here, as well as in the sequel of the passage, the priests 
of a religion consonant to the Vcdasy are well described : 
and what is said, is suitable to them ; but to no other sect, 
which is known to have at any time prevailed in India. 

A similar description is more succinctly given by Str a bo,^ 
' It is said, that the Indiain multitude is divided into seven 
classes; and that the philosophers are first in rank, but 
fewest in number* They are employed, respectively, for 
private benefit, by those who are sacrificing or worshipping, 
&c.'t 

In another place he states, on the authority of Mega- 
sTHENEs, 'two classcs of philosophcrs or priests; the 
Brachmanes and Germanes: but the Brackmanes are best 

vi. 16. 

el Ip^treu tla-t, tc, t. A. Abbian. Indic, c. 11. 

I 4fno-i in rirm 'UiSt xXiihi fi$ I'jrru fii^nitvi^H<r^att xai x^mrvi fttf 
revi f>t>i6o-cfovi U9Xh "'* t. A. Strab. xv. c. 1. (p. 703. cd. Casaub.) 



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THB JAINS. 201 

esteemed, because they are most consistent in their doc-' 
trine.' * The author then proceeds to describe their manner^ 
and opinions : the whole pass^e is highly deserving of atten- 
tion, and will be found, on consideration, to be more suitable 
to the orthodox Hindus, than to the Bauddhas or Jaituu : 
particulariy towards the dose of his account of the Brack- 
manes, where he says, ' In many things they agree with the 
Greeks ; for they affirm, that the world was produced and is 
perishable; and that it is spherical : that God, governing it 
as well as framing it, pervades the whole : that the principles 
of all things are various; but water is the principle of the 
construction of the world : that, besides the four elements, 
there is a fifth nature, whence heaven and the stars: that 
the earth is placed in the centre of all. Such and many 
other things are affirmed of reproduction, and of the soul. 
Like Plato, they devise fables concerning the immortality 
of the soul, and the judgment in the infernal i-egions ; and 
other similar notions. Tiiese things are said of the Brack" 
mamesJ' 

Strabo notices likewise another order of people opposed 
to the Brcu:kmanesj and caHXeA Pramrus : he characterizes 
them as ' contentious cavillers, who ridiculed the Brack-- 
manes for their study of physiolc^ and astronomy.'f 

Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, speaks of 
the Brackmanes as worshipping the sun. ' By day they 
pray to the sun respecting the seasons, which he governs, 
that he would send them in due time; and that India 
might thrive : and, in the evening, they intreat the solar 

rtvi fUf B^aj^ft^fUf xttXUy r»vit*Tt^fuifmi* x, r. A. Strab. xv. c. 1. 
pag. 712. 

rt9tn Kttl IXtyxTtKtvi. «. t. A. SxRAB. 1. c. pag, 718. 719, 



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202 OBSERVATIONS ON 

ray not to be impatient of night, and to remain as con- 
ducted from them/* 

Pliny and SoLiNuef also describe the Grymnosophists 
contemplating the sun : and Hieroclbs, as 'Cited by Ste-^ 
VHX19VS of Byzantium,% expressly declares the ^rocAmanes 
to be particularly devoted to the sun. 

This wcHTship) which distinguishes the orthodox Hindus, 
does not seem to have been at any time practised by the 
rival sects of Jina and Buddha. 

PoRPHYRius, treating of a class of religious men, anuxig 
the Indians, whom the Oreeks were accustomed to call 
Gymnatophists, mentions two orders of than; one, the 
Brachmanes ; the other, the SamatUBans : * the Brachmanes 
recdve religious knowledge, Uke the priesthood, in right of 
birth; but the ScmujouBCMs are select, and consist of persons 
choosing to prosecute divine studies/ He adds, on the 
authority of Bardbsanes, that * a]l the Brachmanes are 
of one race ; for they are all descended from one father and 
one mother. But the Samanceans are not of their race ; 
being selected from the whole nation of Indians^ as before 
mentioned. The Brachman is subject to no domination, 
and contributes nothing to others.'^ 

In this passage, the Brachman, as an hereditary ordar 
of priesthood, is contrasted with another religious order ; to 
which persons of various tribes were admissible : and the 
Samanmans, who are obviously the same with the Germants 
of Strabo^ were doubtless Sannyasis; but may have be- 

* Mi^' ifci^af fi,h tw nXidt inr^ r«y w^Afr, ». r. A. Hb. iii. cap. 4. 
t Plin., lib. vii. c. 2. Solin. i. 52. 

Xira Ka^MctoifAUeiv. Stbphan. de Urbibus, ad vocem Bracbmancs. 
§ PoRPH. flfe jUstincntia^ lib. iv. 



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THE JAINS. 203 

longed to any of the Beets of Hindus. The name seems to 
bear some affinity to the SrcmamSi or ascetics of the Jainas 
Bsid BauddAas, 

Clbmsns Albxandrinus does indeed hint, that all 
the JBrachmanes revered their wise men as deities ;* and in 
another place, be describes them as worshipping Hekoules 
and PAN.f But the following passage from Clemens is 
most in point. Having said, that philosophy flourished 
anciently among the barbarians, and afterwards was intro* 
duced among the Greeks, he instances the prophets of the 
Egyptians, the Chaldees of the Assyrians ; the Druids of 
the Gauls (Galatae) ; the Samaneeans of the Bactrians ; 
the philosophers of the Celts; the Magi of the Persians; 
the Gymnosophists of the Indians: and proceeds thus:-^ 
' They are of two kinds, some called SarmaneSy others 
Brackmmes. Among the Sarmanesy those called Allohii,% 
neither inhabit towns, not have houses ; they lure clad with 
the baik of trees, and eat acorns, and drink water with 
their hands. They know not marriage, nor procreation of 
children ; like those now called JSncrtitetai (chaste). There 
are hkewise, am<mg the Indians, persons obeying the pre* 
cepts of BuTTA, whom they worship as a god, on account 
of his extreme veoerableness/l 

Here, to my apprehension, the followers of Bupdha are 

• K«i>*i i^iirtf, «kc. Sirom. Jib, i. c. 15, p. 130. ed. Sylb. 
t Siram, lib. iit c. 7. p» 194. ed Sylb. 
t 8ame with the Hylolni of BtrAbo. 

tut?^$Vf^tHt* n,al rm l^tymimf ti AXXofi§9$ iri6ray»^vifMfiy •vri woXUi 
Wmvviv, «vrt riyH iX*0'<'> iifi^Mt it ufiftiffvrrect f A«<«r$, km} uK^ii^iKC 
p-tr6vrrctiy mi vioi^ reu^ jC^(n ^Ifuvif 6v ytifccf, •v Tatio^ditav la-artf, 
iWl^ oi tuf *Eyx^»ni^Ai xaXdvfcifot . ihi il rii him* oi rtTi B«vrla xu- 
$ifH99t ^ei^ttyyihfJkaa-i$' 'o$ iC VTi^6«A«y ai^v«Ti)T«( %U &<«» rtrtfiiKan. 
Strom, lib. i. c. 15. p. 131. ed. Sylb. 



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204 OBSERVATIONS ON 

clearly distinguished from the Brachmanes and Sarmanes.^ 
The latter, called Germanes by Strabo, and SanumcBans 
by PoBPHYRius, are the ascetics of a different religion; 
and may have belonged to the sect of Jin a, or to another. 
The Brachmanes are apparently those who are described 
by Philostratus and Hierocles, as worshipping the 
sun; and, by Strabo and by Arrian, as performing 
sacrifices for the common benefit of the nation, as well as 
for individuals. The religion which they practised, was 
80 far conformable with the precepts of the Ved/xs: and 
their doctrine and observances, their manners and opinions, 
as noticed by the authors above cited, agree with no other 
religious institutions known in India, but the orthodox sect. 
In short, the Brahma'Aas are distinctly mentioned by Greek 
authors as the first of the tribes or casts, into which the 
Indian nation was then, as now, divided. They are ex- 
pressly discriminated firom the sect of Buddha by one 
ancient author, and from the Sarmanesy or SamaruBans, 
(ascetics of various tribes) by others. They are described 
by more than one authority, as worshipping the sun, as 
performing sacrifices, and as denying the eternity of the 
world, and maintaining other tenets incompatible with the 
supposition that the sects of Buddha or Jina could be 
meant. Their manners and doctrine, as described by tliese 
authors, are quite conformable with the notions and prac- 
tice of the orthodox Hindus. It may therefore be con- 
fidently inferred, that the followers of the Vedas flourished 
in India when it was visited by the Greeks under Alex- 
ander : and continued to flourish from the time of Me- 
GASTHENES, who described them in the fourth century 
before Christ, to that of PorphyrIus, who speaks of 

* The passage has been interpreted differently; as if Clemens 
said, that the Allobii were those who worshipped Butta. (See 
MoREBi, Art. Samancens*) The text is ambiguous. 



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THE JAINS. 205 

them, on later authority, in the third century after 
Christ. 

I have thus stated, as briefly as the nature of the subject 
permitted, a few of the facts and reasons by which the 
opinion, that the religion and institutions of the orthodox 
Hindus are more modem than the doctrines of Jin a and 
of Buddha, may, as I think, be successfully resisted. I 
have not undertaken a formal refutation of it, and have, 
therefore, passed unnoticed, objections which are founded 
on misapprehension. 

It is only necessary to remark, that the past prevalence 
of either of those sects in particular places, with its subse- 
quent persecution there by the worshippers of Siva, or of 
Vishnu, is no proof of its general priority. Hindustan 
proper was the early seat of the Hindu religion, and the 
acknowledged cradle of both the sects in question. They 
were foreigners in the Peninsula of India ; and admitting, 
as a fact, (what need not, however, be conceded,) that the 
orthodox Hindus had not been previously settled in the 
Cariiaiaca and other districts, in which the Jainas or the 
Bauddhas have flourished, it cannot be thence concluded, 
that the follower^ of the Vedas did not precede them in 
other provinces. 

It may be proper to add, that the establishment of par- 
ticular sects among the Hindus who acknowledge the 
Vedasy does not affect the general question of relative 
antiquity. The special doctrines introduced by Sancara 
Acharya, by RAmAnuja, and by MAdhavAcharya, 
and of course the origin. of the sects which receive those 
doctrines, may be referred, with precision, to the periods 
when their authors lived : but the religion in which they 
are sectaries, has undoubtedly a much earlier origin. 

To revert to the immediate object of these observations, 
which is that of explaining and supporting the information 



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206 OBSERVATIONS ON 

commnnicated by Major Mackenzie : I shall^ for that 
purpose, state the substance of a few passages from a work 
of great authority among the JainaSf entitled Calpa 9titra, 
and from a vocabulary of the Sanscrit language by an 
author of the Jaina sect. 

The AbMdh&na chmt&maM, a vocabulary ct synonymous 
terms, by H^machandra AchAbya, is divided into six 
chapters (caiiAis,) the contents of which me thus stated- 
in the author's prefece. ' The superior deities {Deva- 
dhidcvas) are noticed in the first chapter ; the gods (Devas) 
in the second ; men in the third ; beings furnished with one 
or more senses in the fourth ; the infernal regions in the 
fifth ; and terms of general use in the sittfa/ ' The earth/ 
observes this author, ' water, fire, air^ and trees, have a 
single organ or sense {indriya); worms, ants, spiders, and 
the like, have two, three, or four senses; elephants, pea^ 
cocks, fish, and other beings movmg on the earth, in the 
sky, or in water, are furnished with five senses : and so Bsre 
gods and ro^, and the inhabitants of hell/ 

The first chi^ter begins with the synonyma of a Jina or 
deified saint: among whieh the most common are Athat^ 
Jiniiwaraj Tirfha$icaTa or Tirfkacara: others, viz. Jinay 
Sarvqjnya, and Bhagavat, occur also in the dictionary of 
Amer A as terms for a Jina or Buddha; but it is deserving 
of remark, that neither Bvddkaj nor Sugata, is stated by 
HfiMACHANDRA among these synonyma. In the subse- 
qu^it chapter, however, on the subject of inferior gods, 
after noticing the gods of Hindu mylliology, (Indra and 
the rest, including BrahmA, &c.) he states the synonyma 
of a Bttddhoy Sugata, or BSdhisatwa; and afWwards 
specifies seven such, viz. VipaSyI, Sic'hI, VISwanna, 
CucucH^HANnA, CAnchana, and CAsyapa,* expressly 

• Two of these names occur in Captain Mahony's and Mr. Join- 
ville's lists of ftre Buddhas. As. Res. to!, vii. p. 32 and 414. 



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THE JAINS. 207 

meDiioning as the seventh Buddha, Sacyasinha, also 
named SfiRvABT'HAsiDDHAy son of Suddh6dana and 
MayA, a kinsman of the sun, from the race of Gautama. 

In the first chapter, after stating the general terms for a 
Ji$ui or Arhatf the author proceeds to enmnerale twenty- 
four Arhatgj who have appeared in the present Awxsarfi^ 
age: and afterwards observes, that exceptmg Munisu* 
VRATA and N6mi, who sprung from the race of Hari, 
the remaining twenty^wo Jinas were bom in the line of 
IcsHwAcu.* The fathers and mothers of the several 
Jinc» are then mentioned ; their attendants ; their standards 
or characteristics; and the complexions with which they 
are figured or described* 

The author next enumerates twenty-four Jinas who have 
appeared in the past UtsarpiM period; and twenty-four 
others who will appear in the fritnre age : and, through the 
remainder of the first book, explains terras relative to the 
Jaina rdigion. 

The names of the Jituisf are specified in Major Mac- 
kenzie's communication.t Wherever those names agree 
with HiMACHANDRA's enumeration, I have added no re- 
mark ; but where a differaice occurs I have noticed it, add- 
ing in the margin the name exhibited in the Sanscrit text. 

I shall here subjoin the information gathered from 
H£machandra's vocabulary, and from the Culpa sikra 
and other authorities, rdative to the Jinas belonging to the 
present pmod. They appear to be the deified saints, who 
are now worshipped by the Jaina sect* They are all 
figured in the same contemplative posture, with little varia- 

* I understand that the Jainas have a mythological poem entitled 
Harivansa purd'hOy different from the Harivansa of the orthodox. 
Their losHvirXou, likewise, is a different person ; and the name is 
said to be a title of their first Jina, Rishabha nivA. 

t [In the Asiatic Researches, toK ix. p. 244, &c.] 



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208 OBSERVATIONS ON 

tion in their appearance, besides a difFerence of complexion : 
but the several Jinas have distinguishing marks or charac- 
teristic signs, which are usually engraved on the pedestals 
pf their images, to discriminate them. 

1. RIsHABHA, or VbYshabha, of the race of Icsh- 
wAcUy was son of NAbhi by Marud&va: he is figured 
of a yellow or golden complexion ; and has a bull for his 
characteristic. His stature, as is pretended, was 500 poles 
(dhanush ;) and the duration of his life, 8,400,000, great 
years (purva varsha.) According to the Calpa sdtra, as 
interpreted by the commentator, he was bom at CSiala or 
Ay6dhya (whence he is named CauSalica), towards the 
latter part of the third age. He was tha first king, first 
anchoret, and first saint ; and is therefore entitled Pra- 
fhama Raja, Prafhama £hicskacaraf Prafhama Jina, 
and Prafhama TvrVhancara. At the time of his inaugu- 
ration as king, his age was 2,000,000 years. He reigned 
6,300,000 years ; and then resigned his empire to his sons: 
and having employed 100,000 years in passing through 
the several stages of austerity and sanctity, departed from 
this world on the summit of a mountain, named AsAiapada. 
The date of his apotheosis was 3 years and 8i months 
before the end of the third age, at the precise interval of 
one whole age before the deification of the last Jina. 

2. Ajita was son of JitaSatru by VijayA: of the 
same race with the first Jina, and represented as of the 
like complexion; with an elephant for his distinguishing 
mark. His stature was 450 poles; and his hfe extended to 
7,200,000 great years. His deification took place in the 
fourth age, when fifty lacshas of cr6rs of oceans of years 
had elapsed out of the tenth cr6r of crSrs,* 



• The divisions of time have been noticed by Major Maokenzib, 
As. Res. vol. ix. p. 257> and will be further explained. 



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THE JAINS. 209 

3. Sambhava was son of JitAri by S^nA; of the 
same race and complexion with the preceding; distin- 
guished by a horse ; his stature was 400 poles ; he lived 
6,000,000 years ; and he was deified 30 lacshas of cr6rs of 
sagaras after the second Jina. 

4. Abhinandana was son of Sambara by Sid- 
dhArt'hA : he has an ape for his peculiar sign. His sta- 
ture was 300 poles ; and his life reached to 5,000,000 years. 
His apotheosis was later by 10 lacshas of cr6rs of sagaras 
than the foregoing. 

6. SuMATi was son of M&gha by MangalA: he 
has a curlew for his characteristic. His life endured 
4,000,000 years, and his deification was nine lacshas of 
cr6rs of sagaras after the fourth Jina. 

6. Padmaprabha was son of SrIdhara by SusImA; 
of the same race with the preceding, but described of a 
red complexion. He has a lotos for his mark : and lived 
3,000,000 years, being 200 poles in stature. He was dei- 
fied 90,000 crdrs of sagaras after the fifth Jina. 

7. SupArswa was son of PRATisnt 'ha by PRlx'Hwi ; 
of the same line with the foregoing, but represented with 
a golden complexion; his sign is the figure called Swastica. 

He lived 2,000,000 years; and was deified 
— 9,000 crSrs of sagaras subsequent to the sixth 
I Jina. 



8. Chandraprabha was son of MahAs£na by 
LacshmanA; of the same race with the last, but figured 
with a fair complexion : his sign is the moon : his stature 
was 160 poles, and he lived 1,000,000 years ; and his apo- 
theosis took place 900 cr6rs of sagaras later than the se- 
venth Jina. 

9. Pushpadanta, also named Suvidhi, was son of 
SupRiYA by RAmA : of the same line with the preceding, 

VOL. II. p 



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n. complexion : 



210 OBSERVATIONS ON 

and described of a similar complexion : his mark- is a 
marine monster (macara): his stature was 100 poles, 
and the duration of his life 200,000 years. He was deified 
90 cr6rs of sagaras after the eighth Jina. 

10. SItala was son of DRt6HABAT*HA byNANDA: of 
the same race, and represented with a golden complexion : 
his characteristic is the mark called Srivatsa. 
His stature was 90 poles ; and his life 100,000 
great years; his deification dates 9 cr6rs 
sagaras later than the preceding. 

11. Sr^yAn (SfifeYAs) or Sr£:yAn§a, was son of 
Vishnu by VishnA ; of the same race, and with a similar 
complexion; having a rhinoceros for his sign. He was 
80 poles in stature, and lived 8,400,000 common years. 
His apotheosis took place more than 100 sagaras of years 
before the close of the fourth age. 

12. VAsup^JYA was son of Vasup6jya by JayA : of 
the same race, and represented with a red complexion, 
having a buffalo for his mark; and he was 70 poles high, 
lived 7,200,000 years, and was deified later by 64 sagaras 
than the eleventh Jina. 

13. ViMALA was son of CrKtavarman by SyAmA ; of 
the same race : described of a golden complexion, having 
a boar for his characteristic ; he was 60 poles high, lived 
6,000,000 years, and was deified 30 sagaras later than 
the twelfth Jiruz. 

14. Ananta, also named Anantajit, was son of 
SiNH AS&NA by Suya^Ah. He has a falcon for his sign ; 
his stature was 50 poles, the duration of his life 3,000,000 
years, and his apotheosis 9 sagaras after the preceding. 

15. Dharma was son of BhAnu by SuvratA ; cha- 
racterised by the thunderbolt: he was 45 poles in stature, 
and Hved 1,000,000 years : he was defied 4 sagaras later 
than the foregoing. 



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THE JAINS. 



211 



16. SAnti was son of ViiwAsfeNA by Achira, having 
an antelope for his sign ; he was 40 poles high, lived 
100,000 years, and was deified 2 sagaras subsequent to 
the last mentioned."*^ 

17. Cunt'hu was son of S6ra, by &Ri ; he has a 
goat for his mark ; his height was 35 poles, and his life 
95,000 years. His apotheosis is dated in the lost palya of 
the fourth age. 

18. Ara was son of Sun a rs an a by Dfevi : charac- 
terised by the figure called Nandavarta : 



:i\ 






his stature was 30 poles, his Ufe 84,000 years, and his dei- 
fication 1,000 cr6rs of years before the next Jina. 

19. Malli was son of Cumbha by PrabhavatI; of 
the same race with the preceding ; and represented of a 
blue complexion ; having a jar for his characteristic ; he 
was 25 poles high, and Uved 55,000 years ; and was dei- 
fied 6,584,000 years before the close of the fourth age. 

20. Munisuvrata, also named Suvrata, or Muni, 
was son of Sumitra by PadmA, sprung from the race 
called HarivanSa; represented with a black complexion, 
having a tortoise for his sign : his height was 20 poles, and 
his life extended to 30,000 years. His apotheosis is dated 
1,184,000 years before the end of the fourth age. 

• The life of this Jina is the subject of a separate work entitled 
Sanii purd^. 

p2 



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212 OBSERVATIONS ON 

21. NiMi was son of Vijaya by ViprA ; of the race 
of IcsHwAcu : figured with a golden complexion; having 
for his mark a blue water-lily {nilStpala); his stature was 
15 poles ; his life 10,000 years ; and his deification took 
place 584,000 years before the expiration of the fourth 
age. 

22. N^Mi, also called ARisnf an^mi, was son of the 
king Samudrajaya by SivA; of the line denominated 
Harivansa ; described as of a black complexion, having 
a conch for his sign. According to the Calpa sutra, he 
was bom at S&riyapura ; and, when 300 years of age, en- 
tered on the practice of austerity. He employed 700 years 
in passing through the several stages of sanctity; and, 
having attained tjie age of 1,000 years, departed fi'om this 
world at Ujjinta, which is described as the peak of a 
mountain, the same, according to the commentator, with 
Giranara.* The date of this event is 84,000 years before 
the close of the fourth age. 

23. PArSwa (or PArswanAt'ha) was son of the king 
ASwAsfeNA by VAmA, or BAmAd^vI ; of the race of 
IcsHwAcu ; figured with a blue complexion, having a 
serpent for his characteristic. The life of this celebrated 
Jin A, who was perhaps the real founder of the sect, is the 
subject of a poem entitled Parswanafha charitra. Ac- 
cording to the Calpa sutraj he was bom at Banarasi;^ 
and commenced his series of religious austerities at thirty 
yeare of age ; and having completed them in 70 years, and 
having consequently attained the age of 100, years, he died 
on Mount Sammeya or Samet.% This happened precisely 

• 1 understand this to be a mountain situated in the west of India; 
and much visited by pilgrims. 

t BhUupurGy in the suburbs of Benares, is esteemed holy, as the 
place of his nativity. 

J Samet sichara, called in Major Rennbi/s map Parsonaut^ is 



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THE JAINS. 213 

250 years before the apotheosis of the next Jina : being 
stated by the author of the Calpa sutra at 1,230 years 
before the date of that book. 

24. VabdhamAna, also named VIra, MAHivfBA, 
&c. and sumamed Charama tirfhcLcrity or last of the 
Jinns: emphatically called S ram an a, or the saint. He is 
reckoned son of SiddhArt'ha by TrisalA; and is de- 
scribed of a golden complexion, having a Uon for his 
symbol. 

The subject of the Calpa siitra, before cited, is the hfe 
and institutions of this Jina. I shall here state an ab- 
stract of his history as there given, premising that the 
work, like other religious books of the Jainas, is composed 
in the Pracrit called Magadhi; and that the Sanscrit 
language is used by the Jainas for translations, or for 
commentaries, on account of the great obscurity of the 
Pracrit tongue.* 

According to this authority, the last Tirt*hancara, quit- 
ting the state of a deity, and relinquishing the longevity of a 
god, to obtain immortality as a saint, was incarnate towards 
the close of the fourth age, (now past,) when 75 years and 
8 k months of it remained. He was at first conceived by 
DevAnandA, wife of RYshabhadatta, a Brahmana in- 
habiting Brahmanacunda gr&ma a dty of Bharata varsha, 
in Jamhu dmpa. The conception was announced to her by 

situated among the hills between Bihdr and Bengal, Its holiness is 
great in the estimation of the Jainas : and it is said to be visited by 
pilgrims from the remotest provinces of India. 

• This TrdcrUy which does not differ much from the language intro- 
duced by dramatic poets into their writings, and assigned by them to 
the female persons in their dramas, is formed from Sanscrit, I once 
conjectured it to have been formerly the colloquial dialect of the 
Sdrastoata Brdhmens [p. 21 of the present volume] ; but this conjecture 
has not been confirmed by further researches. I believe it to be the 
same language with th^ Pdli of Ceylon, 



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214 OBSERVATIONS ON 

dreams. Indra,* or Sacra, who is the presiding deity 
on the south of Meru, and abides in the first range of 
celestial regions, called Saudharma, being apprized of Ma- 
hAyIra's incarnation, prostrated himself, and worshipped 
the fiiture saint ; but reflecting that no great personage 
was ever bom in an indigent and mendicant family, as that 
of a BrahmaAay Indra commanded his chief attendant 
Harinaigum^sh!, to remove the fetus from the womb 
of D^vAnandA to that of TrisalA, wife of Sid- 
dhArt'ha, a prince of the race of IcshwAcu, and of the 
Caiyapa family. This was accordingly executed ; and the 
new conception was announced to TriSalA by dreams; 
which were expounded by soothsayers, as foreboding the 
birth of a future Jhia, In due time, he was bom ; and 
his birth celebrated with great rejoicings. 

His father gave him the name of VardhamAna. But 
he is also known by two other names, Sramana and 
MahAvIra. His father has similarly three appellations, 
SiddhArt*ha, SreyAnSa, and YaSasw!; and his mother 
Ukewise has three titles, TrisalA, Vid6hadinnA, and 
PRfTicARiNf. His paternal uncle was SupAr§wa, his 
elder brother, Nandivardhana, his sister (mother of 
JamAli) SudarSanA. His wife was Yas6dA, by whom 
he had a daughter, (who became wife of JamAli,) named 
An6jja and PriyadarSanA. His grand-daughter was 
called SfesHAVATi and Ya§6vat!. 

His father and mother died when he was twenty-eight 
years of age ; and he afterwards continued two years with 
his elder brother: after the second year he renounced 
worldly pursuits, and departed amidst the applauses of 
gods and men, to practise austerities. The progress of his 

* The Jainas admit numerous In drab ; but some of the attributes, 
stated in this place by the Calpa sUtra^ belong to the Indra of the 
Indian mythology. , 



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THE JAINS. 215 

devout exercises, and of his attainment of divine knowledge^ 
is related at great length. Finally, he became an ArhcU, 
or Jiriaj being worthy of universal adoration, and having 
subdued all passions;* being Ukewise omniscient and all- 
seeing: and thus, at the age of seventy-two years, he 
became exempt from all pain for ever. This event is stated 
to have happened at the court of king HastipAla, in the 
city of Pawapari or PapapuA ;-); and is dated three years 
and eight and a-half months before the close of the fourth 
age, (called Duh&hama suc^hama) in the great period named 
avasarpinu The author of the Calpa sdtra mentions, in 
several places, that, when he wrote, 980 years had elapsed 
since this apotheosis.;}: Accordmg to tradition, the death 
of the last Jina happened more than two thousand four 
hundred years since; and the Calpa sutra appears, therefore, 
to have been composed about fifteen hundred years ago.§ 

The several Jinas are described as attended by numerous 
followers, distributed into classes, under a few chief disci- 
ples, entitled Ganadliarasj or Ganadhipas. The last Jina 
had nine such classes of followers, under eleven disciples. 
Indrabh^ti, AoNiBHtJTi, VAyubh6ti, Vyacta, Su- 
dharma,Manditaputra,Mauryaputba,Acampita, 



* So the commentator expounds both terms. 

t Near Rdjagrtha, in Bikdr. Tt is accordingly a place of sanctity. 
Other holy places, which have been mentioned to me, are Champdpuri, 
near Bhagalpdr, Chancb'dvtUi distant ten miles from Benares, and the 
ancient city Hastindpura in Hindustan: also l^atnmja^a, said to be 
situated in the west of India. 

I Samanassa bhagavau MAHAsfRAssA jdra duhc'ha hfnassa nava- 
b^sa say^Vn bicwantii'n dasamassaya b^a sayassa ayam asf im^ sam- 
bach'hare cal^ gach'hal'. " Nine hundred years have passed since 
the adorable MahabIra became exempt from pain ; and of the tenth 
century of years, eighty are the time which is now elapsed." 

§ The most ancient copy in my possession, and the oldest one which 
I have seen, is dated in 1614 samvat : it is nearly 250 years old. 



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216 OBSERVATIONS ON 

AchalabhrAtA^ MfevARYA, PbabhAsa. Nine of these 
disciples died with MahavIra ; and two of them, Indra- 
bh6ti and Sudharma, survived him, and subsequently 
attained beatitude. The Calpa sdtra adds, that all ascetics, 
or candidates for holiness, were pupils in succession from 
SuDHARMA, none of the others having left successors. 
The author then proceeds to trace the succession fix)m 
SuDHARMA to the different sac'haSf or orders of priests, 
many of which appear still to exist. This enumeration dis- 
proves the list communicated to Majw Mackenzie by 
the head priest of Belligola. 

The ages and periods which have been more than once 
alluded to in the foregoing account of the Jamas^ are 
briefly explained in H6maciiandra's vocabulary. In the 
second chapter, which relates to the heavens and the gods, 
&c. the author, speaking of time, observes, that it is distin- 
guished into Avasatjpvht and Utsarpini, adding that the 
whole period is completed by twenty c6iis of cSiis of «a- 
garas; or 2,000,000,000,000,000 oceans of years. I do 
not find that he any where explains the space of time 
denominated sagara, or ocean. But I understand it to be 
an extravagant estimate of the time, which would elapse, 
before a vast cavity filled with chopped hairs could be 
emptied, at the rate of one piece of hair in a century : 
the time requisite to enter such a cavity, measured by a 
ySjana every way, is ^palya; and that repeated ten c6ii8 
of cSiis of times,* is dis&gara. 

Each of the periods above-mentioned, is stated by 
H&MACHANDRA, Rs Comprising sixaras; the names and 
duration of which agree with the information communicated 
to Major Mackenzie : In the one, or the declining period, 
they pass from the extreme feUcity {ecanta suc'ha) through 

• 1,000,000,000,000,000 /?a(ya*=oue samara, ov sdgardpama. 



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THE JAINS. 217 

intermediate gradations^ to extreme misery {icanta duhc'ka). 
In the other^ or rising period, they ascend, in the same 
order, from misery to felicity. During the three first ages 
of one period, mortals lived for one, two, or three palyas; 
their stature was one, two, or three leagues {gavydtis); 
and they subsisted on the fruit of miraculous trees ; which 
yielded spontaneously food, apparel, ornaments, garlands, 
habitation, nurture, light, musical instruments, and house- 
hold utensils. In the fourth age, men lived ten miUions of 
years ; and their stature was 500 poles {dhanush) : in the 
fifth age, the life of man is a hundred years : and the Umit 
of his stature, seven cubits : in the sixth, he is reduced to 
sixteen years, and the height of one cubit In the next 
period, this succession of ages is reversed, and afterwards 
they recommence as before. 

Here we cannot but observe, that the Jainas are still 
more extravagant in their inventions than the prevailing 
sects of Hindus, absurd as these are in their fables. 

In his third chapter, H^machandra, having stated the 
terms for paramount and tributary. princes, mentions the 
twelve ChacravartUf and adds the patronymics and origin 
of them. Bharata is sumamed Arshabhi, or son of 
RYshabha; Maohavan isson of Vijaya; and San at- 
cumAra, of AswAs^NA. SAnti, Cunt'hu, and Ara 
are the Jiruis so named. Sagara is described as son of 
Sumitra; SuBHiJMA isentitledCARTAviRYA; PADMAis 
said to be son of Padm6ttara ; Harish&na of Hari ; 
Jaya of Vijaya ; Brahmadatta of Brahme ; and all 
are declared to have sprung from the race of Icshw Acu. 

A Ust follows, which, like the preceding, agrees nearly 
with the information communicated to Major Mackenzie. 
It consists of nine persons, entitled VasudevtiSf and CmA- 
lias. Here TRiPRYsHf 'u a is mentioned with the patronymic 
PrAjApatya; DwiPRtsnf'HA is said to have sprung from 



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218 OBSERVATIONS ON 

Brahme; Swayambh^ is expressly called a son of 
Rudra; and PuRUSH6TTAMAy of S6ma, or the moon. 
PuRUSHAsiNHA is sumamed Saivi, or son of Siva ; Pu- 
RUSHAPUN^ARicA, is «aid to have sprung from MahA- 
SiRAs. Datta is termed son of Agnisinha; NArayana 
has the patronymic DAIarat'hi (which belongs to RAma- 
chandra): and CrYshna is described as sprung from 

VASUDfevA. 

Nine other persons are next mentioned^ under the desig- 
nati(»i of Sucla bcdas, viz. 1. Achala, 2. Vijaya, 3. 
Bhadra^ 4. SuPRABHA, 5. SudarSana, 6. Ananda> 
7. Nandana^ 8. Padma, 9. RAma. 

They are followed by a list of nine foes of Vishnu: 
it corresponds nearly with one of the lists noticed by 
Major Mackenzie, viz. 1. ASwagrIva, 2. TAraca^ 
3. M&RACA, 4. Madhu, 5. Nisumbha, 6. Bali, 7. 
PrahlAda. 8. The king of Lanca (RAvana). 9. The 
king of Magadha (JarAsandha). 

It is observed, that, with the Jinas, these complete the 
number of sixty-three eminent personages, viz. 24 Jinasy 
12 Chacravartis, 9 VasudevaSf 9 Baktdevas, and 9 Prativor 
sudevas. 

It appears from the information procured by Major 
Mackenzie, that all these appertain to the heroic history 
of the Jaina writers. Most of them are also well known to 
the orthodox Hindus, and are the principal personages in 
the PurancLs. 

H&MACHANDRA Subsequently notices many names of 
princes, familiar to the Hindus of other sects. He begins 
with Prit'hu son of VfeNA, whom he terms the first king: 
and goes on to MAndhAtA, HariSchandra, Bharata 
son of DusHY ANTA, &c. Towards the end of his enumera- 
tion of conspicuous princes, he mentions Carna, king of 
Champa find Anga ; HAla or SAlivAhanaj and CumA- 



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THE JAINS. 219 

rapAla^ sumamed Ch aulucya, a royal saint, who seems, 
from the title of Paramaxhataj to have been a Jaxna^ and 
apparently the only one in that enumeration* 

In a subsequent part of the same chapter, H£ma- 
CHANDRA, (who was himself a theologian of his sect, and 
author of hymns to Jin a,*) mentions and discriminates the 
various sects; viz. 1st, Arhatoui^ or Jainas. 2dly, SaugaUUj 
or BauddhcLSy and, 3dly, six philosophical schools, viz. 
1st. Naiyayica; 2d. Y6ga; 3d. C a pi las Smcfhya; 4th. 
Vaiseshica; 6th. Varhaspatya, or Nastica; and 6th. Char' 
vaca, or LScayata, The two last are reputed atheistical, 
as denying a future state and a providence. If those be 
omitted, and the two Mimansas inserted, we have the six 
schemes of philosophy familiar to the Indian circle of the 
sciences. 

The fourth chapter of H£machandra's vocabulary re- 
lates to earth and animals. Here the author mentions the 
distinctions of countries which appear to be adopted by the 
Jcdnas ; viz, the regions (parsha) named Bharata^ Aira- 
vatOy and Videha, to which he adds Curu; noticing also 
other distinctions ^miliar to the Hmdus of other sects, but 
explaining some of them according to the ideas of the 
Jainas. * Aryavarta/ he observes, ' is the native land of 
Jiruis, Chacrisy and Arddhachacris, situated between the 
Vindhya and Himadri mountains.' This remark confines 
the theatre of Jaina history, reUgious and heroic, virithin 
the limits of Hindustan proper. 

A passage in BhAscara's treatise on the sphere, will 
suggest further observations concerning the opinions of the 
Jainas on the divisions of the earth. Having noticed, for 
the purpose of confuting it, a notion maintained by the 



• A commentary on these hymns is dated in haca 1214 (A. D. 1292); 
hut how much earlier H£machandra lived, is not yet ascertained. 



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220 OBSERVATIONS ON 

Bauddhas (whom some of the commentators, as usual 
among orthodox Hindus, confound with the Jainm^ res- 
pecting the descent or fall of the earth in space ; he says,* 
' the naked sectaries and the rest affirm, that two suns, 
two moons, and two sets of stars, appear alternately: 
against them I allege this reasoning. How absurd is the 
notion which you have formed of duplicate suns, moons, 
and stars ; when you see the revolution of the polar fish.*+ 

The commentators j: agree that the Jaincts are here 
meant : and one of them remarks, that they are described 
as * naked sectaries, &c.' because the class of Digambaras 
is a principal one among these people. 

It is true that the Jainas do entertain the preposterous 
notion here attributed to them : and it is also tme, that the 
Digambarasj among the Jainas^ are distinguished from 
the Suclambaras, not merely by the white dress of the one, 
and the nakedness (or else the tawny apparel) of the other; 
but also by some particular tenets and diversity of doctrine. 
— However, both concur in the same ideas regarding the 
eaiih and planets, which shall be forthwith stated, from the 
authority of Jaina books ; after remarking, by the way, 
that ascetics of the orthodox sect, in the last stage of 
exaltation, when they become Paramahansa, also disuse 
clothing. 

The world, which according to the Jaiims, is eternal, is 
figured by them as a spindle resting on half of another; or, 
as they describe it, three cups, of which the lowest is 
inverted ; and the uppermost meets at its circumference the 
middle one. They also represent the world by comparison 
to a woman with her arms akimbo. § Her waist, or accord- 

• Gbl&dhydya, § 3. v. 8 & 10. t Urea minor. 

I LAosHMfolsA, MuNf^wARA, and the F'dsandhMshya. 
§ The Sangraha^i ratna and Lbcandb Sutras both in Fr6crity are the 
authorities here used. 



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THE JAINS. 221 

ing to the description first mentioned ^ the meeting of the 
lower cups, is the earth. The spindle above, answering to 
the superior portion of the woman's person, is the abode of 
the gods ; and the inferior part of the figure comprehends 
the infernal r^ons. The earth, which they suppose to be 
a flat surface, is bounded by a circle, of which the diameter 
is one raju.* The lower spindle comprises seven tiers of 
inferior earths or hells, at the distance of a raju from each 
other, and its base is measured by seven rajus. These 
seven hells are Ratna prabha, ^arcara prabha, Balue& 
prabha, Panca prabha^ Dhuma prabha, Tama prabha^ 
Tamatama prabha. The upper spindle is also seven rajus 
high; and its greatest breadth is five rajus. Its summit, 
which is 4,500,000 ydjanas wide, is the abode of the deified 
saints : beneath that are five Vimanas, or abodes of gods : 
of which the centre one is named Sarvarfhasiddfia : it is 
encompassed by the regions Aparqjita, Jayanta, Vaija- 
yanta, and Vijaya. Next, at the distance of one rqju 
from the summit, follow nine tiers of worlds, representing 
a necklace (graiveyaca), and inhabited by gods, denomi- 
nated, from their conceited pretensions to supremacy. Aha- 
mindra. These nine regions are, Aditya, Pritincara, 
Sdmanasa, Sumanasa, Suvisala, Sarvatdbhadra, ManS- 
rama, Supravaddha, and Sudarsana. 

Under these regions are twelve (the Digambaras say 
sixteen) other regions, in eight tiers, from one to five rajus 
above the earth. They are filled with Vimanas, or abodes 
of various classes of gods, called by the general name of 
Calpavasis. These worlds, reckoning firom that nearest 
the earth, are, Saudhama and liana; Sanatcumara and 



• This is explained to be a measure of space, through which the 
gods are able to travel in six months, at the rate of 2,057,152 yqfanas, 
(of 2,000 crosa each,) in the twinkling of an eye. 



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222 OBSERVATIONS ON 

Mahendra; Brahme ; Lantaca; Sucra; Sakasrara; Ana- 
ta and Pranata ; Arana and Achyuta, 

The sect of Jina distinguish four classes of deities^ the 
VaimanicaSf Bhuvanapatis, JydtisMs, and Vyantaras. 
The last comprises eight orders of demigods or spirits, 
admitted by the Hindus in general, as the Raeshasas, 
PiiachaSf Ciimaras, &c. supposed to range over the earth. 
The preceding class (JyStishisX comprehends five orders 
of luminaries ; suns, moons, planets, constdlations, and 
stars, of which more hereafter. The Vaimanicas belong to 
the various Vimanas, in the twelve regions, or worids, 
inhabited by gods. The class of BhmanctpaH includes 
ten orders, entitled Amracumiaray Nagacwncaray &c.; each 
governed by two Indras. All these gods are mortal, ex- 
cept, perhaps, the luminaries. 

The earth consists of numerous distinct omtinents, in 
concentric circles, separated by seas forming rings between 
them. The first circle is Jambu dvnpa^ with the mountain 
Sudarsa Meru in the centre. It is encompassed by a ring 
containing the salt ocean; beyond which is the zmie, 
named Dhatuci dwtpa; similarly surrounded by a black 
ocean. This is again encircled by Pnshcara dunpa ; of 
which only the first half is accessible to mankind : being 
separated itom the remoter half, by an impassable range of 
mountains, denominated Manush6ttara parvata. Dhatur 
d dtdpa contains two mountains, similar to Sumeru, named 
Vijanga and Achala ; and Pushcara contains two others, 
called Mandira and Vidyunmali. 

The diameter of Jambu dwipa being 100,000 great yA- 
janca^ if the 190th part be taken, or 626A, we have the 
breadth of Bharata varsha, which occupies the southern 
segment of the circle. Airavata is a similar northern s^- 

* Each great yijana contains 2,000 cos. 



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THE JAINS. 223 

ment. A band (33648 ySjanas wide) across the circle, 
with Sudaria Mem in the middle of it, is Vidiha varsha, 
divided by Meru (or by four peaks like elephant's teeth, at 
the four comers of that vast mountain) into east and west 
Videha. These three regions, Bharata, Airavata, and 
Videhcy are inhabited by men who practise religious duties. 
They are denominated Camuibhiimiy and appear to be iur- 
nished with distinct sets of Tirthancaras, or saints entitled 
Jina. The intermediate regions north and south of Meru, 
are bounded by four chains of mountains ; and intersected 
by two others: in such a manner, that the ranges of 
mountains, and the intermediate vallies, increase in breadth 
progressively. Thus Himavat is twice as broad as Bha-^ 
rata varsha (or 1052^) ; the valley beyond it is double its 
breadth (2105 •^); the mountain Mah&himavat is twice 
as much (4210 Ig) ; its valley is again double (8421 jV) ; 
and the mountain Nishadha has twice that breadth (16842 
^). The vallies between these mountains, and between 
similar ranges reckoned from Airavata (viz. Sic'hari, 
Rucmiy and Nthi) are inhabited by giants (Yugala), and 
are denominated BhSgabhiimi. From either extremity of 
the two ranges of mountains named Himavat and S'tc'Aari, 
a pair of tusks project over the sea ; each divided into 
seven countries denominated ^n/ara dtmpas. There are con- 
sequently fifty-six such ; which are called CubhSgabhiimi, 
being the abode of evil doers. None of these regions suffer 
a periodical destruction ; except Bharata and Airavata, 
which are depopulated, and again peopled at the close of 
the great periods before-mentioned. 

We come now to the immediate purpose for which these 
notions of the Jainas have been here explained. They 
conceive the setting and rising of stars and planets to be 
caused by the mountain Sumeru : and suppose three times 



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224 OBSERVATIONS ON THE JAINS. 

the period of a planet's appearance to be requisite for it to 
pass round Sumeruj and I'etum to the place whence it 
emerges. Accordingly they allot two suns^ as many 
moonsy and an equal number of each planet^ star, and con- 
stellation, to Jambu dmpa; and imagine that these appear, 
on alternate days, south and north of Meru. They simi- 
larly allot twice that number to the salt ocean ; six times 
as many to Dhatua. dwipa ; 21 times as many, or 42 of 
each, to the CalSdadhi; and 72 of each to Pushcara 
dwipa. 

It is this notion, applied to the earth which we inhabit, 
that BhAscara refutes. His ai^ument is thus explained 
by his commentators. 

* The star close to the north pole, with those near it to 
the east and west, form a constellation figured by the In- 
dian astronomers as a fish. In the beginning of the night 
(supposing the sun to be near Bharani or Musca), the fish's 
tail is towards the west, and his head towards the east ; 
but at the close of the night, the fish's tail, having made a 
half revolution, is towards the east, and his head towards 
the west : and since the sun, when rising and setting, is 
in a line with the fish's tail, there is but one sun ; not 
two.' This explanation is given by MunIIwara and 
LacshmIdAsa. But the Vasana bhashya reverses the 
fish ; placing his head towards the west at sun-set, when 
the sun is near Bharani, 



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VIII. 
On ^^6 Origin and Peculiar Tenets of certain 

MUUAMMEDAN SeCTS. 



[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 338— .344. 
Calcutta 1801. 4to.] 



The BSkrahs, numerous in the provinces of the Indian 
peninsula, but found also in most of the great cities of 
Hindustan, are conspicuous by their peculiar customs ; 
such, for example, as that of wearing at their orisons an 
appropriate dress, which they daily wash with their own 
hands. Their disposition for trade to the exclusion of 
-every other mode of livelihood, and the government of 
their tribe by a hierarchy, are further peculiarities, which 
Jiave rendered them an object of inquiry, as a singular 
sect. 

Researches made by myself, among others, were long 
unsuccessful. My informers confounded this tribe with 
the Ismailiyahs, with the AU-ilahiyahs, and even with the 
unchaste sect of Cheragh-^ush. Concerning their origin, 
the information received was equally erroneous with that 
regarding their tenets. But at length a learned Sayyad 
referred me to the Myalisu^lmimdrdn composed by N6r- 
ULLAH of Sh&steTy a zealous Shi&h, who suffered for his 
religious opinicms in the reign or JEHANciR. In the pas- 
sage, which will be forthwith cited irom that work, the 
B6hrahs are described by the author as natives of Guj- 
rat, converted to the Muhammedan religion about three 
hundred years before his time, or five centuries ago. 

To that passage I shall subjoin extracts fit>m the same 

VOL. II. Q 



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226 ON THE ORIGIN AND PECULIAR TENETS 

worky contaiDing an account of similar tribes, with some of 
which the B6hrahs may, perhaps, have been sometimes con- 
founded. Cionceming the Ismailiyahs, for whom they have 
been actually mistaken, it must be remembered, that these 
form a sect of ShiAhs, who take their distinctive appellation 
from IsMAtL, eldest son and nominated successor of Imam 
JAfbr, sumamed Sadik. They consider IsmAIl as the 
true heir of the Imamet, and do not acknowledge the legal 
succession of his brother Mtsk and of the five last Imams. 
This sect flourished under the Egyptian dynasty of kka- 
/(/s founded by Muhammed Mahad!, who claimed de- 
scent from the Imam IsmAIl himself. It was also con- 
spicuous under a dynasty of princes of this sect, the first of 
whom, Hasan Sabah, founded a principality in Irak.* 
The sect may still exist in Syria; but it does not seem to 
be at present known in the Indian portion of Asia. 

The AU'ilahiyahs on the contrary, are become nume- 
rous in India. This sect is mentioned by the author of the 
D&bistan, as prevalent in his time, only at UzMl, or Azbal, 
in the mountainous tract near Khata* It now prevails, 
according to information which I have recdved, in a part of 
the dominions of NawAb NizAmu'l-molc. The singular 
tenets of this heretical sect are thus stated by Mohsen 
FANi. " The AlUilahiyahs hold, that celestial spirits, 
which cannot otherwise be known to mankind, have fi^ 
quently appeared in palpable shapes. God himself has 
been manifested in the human form, but especially in the 
person of AlI MurtezA, whose image, being that of Atf 
Ullah, or ALf God, these sectaries deem it lawfrd to 
worship. They believe in the metempsychosis; and, like 

* See the DdbistSn of MuUd Mohsen Fan! ; imd D'Hbbbblot's 
Bibliothiqw Orieniale* If the indostrioas BShrahs and the remorse- 
less ** assassins " had really arisen out of the same sect, it woald be a 
new fact in the history of the human mind. 



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OF CERTAIN MUHAMMEDAN SECTS. 227 

others who maintain that doctrine, abstain from fleshmeat. 
Th^ imagine, that AlI MurtezA, when he quitted this 
earth, returned to the sun, which is the same with himself; 
and hence they call the sun AlI Ullah. This sect does 
not admit the authenticity of the Korhuy as it is now 
extant: some pretending, that it is a forgery of Ab6becb% 
Omar's, and OthmAn's; others condemning it, simply 
because it was edited by the last mentioned khaUf. The 
members of this sect appear to vary in regard to some 
points of doctrine ; but the leading and universal tenet of 
this sect is, that, in every age of the w<H'Id, Grod is mani- 
fested in the pansons of prophets and of saints ; for instance, 
he was Adam, and afterwards Ahmed and AiA : and in 
like manner these sectaries believe in the transmigration of 
God into the persons of the Imams, Some of them affirm, 
that the manifestation of the divine being, in this age of 
the world, was AlI Ullah; and after him, his glorious 
posterity: and they consider Mu hammed as a prophet 
sent byALi Ullah. When God, say they, perceived 
Muh ammed's insufficiency, he himself assumed the human 
form for the purpose of assisting the prophet/** 

It does not appear from any satisfactory information, that 
the B6krahs agree with either of these sects, in deifying 
Al) , or in contesting the legal succea»on of the six last 
Imams. On the contrary, the tribe is acknowledged to 
consist of orthodox Sunnisy and of true Shi&ks; but mostly 
of the last mentiooed sect These and other known cir* 
cumstances corroborate the following account of that tribe, 
as giv^d by N^rullah of Sh^ter, in the work before 
mentioned. 

" The B6hr4xhs are a tribe of the faithful, which is settled 
chiefly at Ahmedabad and its environs. Their salvation in 

* See the DdbistdUy from which this account is ahstracted. 
q2 



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228 ON THE ORIGIN AND PECULIAR TENETS 

the bosom of religion took place about three hundred years 
ago^ at the call of a virtuous and learned man^ whose name 
was Mull A AlI, and whose tomb is still seen at the city 
of Cambayat. 

^^ The conversion of this people was thus conducted by him : 
As the mhabitants of Gujrat were pagans^ and were guided 
by an aged priest^ a recreant, in whom they had a ^eat 
confidence, and whose disciples they were ; the missionary 
judged it expedient, first to offer himself as a pupil to the 
priest; and after convincing him by irrefragable proofs, 
and making him participate in the declaration of faith, then 
to undertake the conversion of others. He accordingly 
passed some years in attendance on that priest, learnt his 
language, studied his sciences, and became conversant with 
his books. By degrees he opened the articles of the faith 
to the enlightened priest, and persuaded him to become 
Musleman. Some of his people changed their religion in 
concert vnth their old instructor. The circumstance of the 
priest's conversion being made known to the principal 
minister of the king of that country, he visited the priest, 
adopted habits of obedience towards him, and became a 
Muslem, But for a long time, the minister, the priest, and 
the rest of the converts, dissembled their faith, and sought 
to keep it concealed, through dread of the king. 

" At length the intelligence of the minister's conversion 
reached the monarch. One day he repaired to his house, 
and, finding him in the humble posture of prayer, was 
incensed against him. The minister knew the motive of 
the king's visit, and perceived that his anger arose firom 
the suspicion that he was^reciting prayers and performing 
adoration. With presence of mind, inspired by divine 
providence, he immediately pretended that his prostrations 
were occasioned by the sight of a serpent, which appeared 
in the comer of the room, and against which he was 



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OF CERTAIN MUHAMMEDAN SECTS. 229 

employing incantations. The king cast his eyes towards 
the comer of the apartment, and it so happened that there 
Jie saw a serpent ; the minister's excuse appeared credible, 
and the king's suspicions were lulled. 

* After a time, the kmg himself secretly became a con- 
vert to the Musleman faith ; but dissembled the state of his 
mind, for reasons of state. Yet, at the point of death, he 
ordered, by his will, that his corpse should not be burnt, 
according to the customs of the pagans. 

" Subsequently to his decease, when SultAn Zefer, 
one of the trusty nobles oi Sultan FiatzSHAH, sovereign 
o{ Dehliy conquered the province of Gujrat; some learned 
men, who accompanied him, used ailments to make the 
people embrace the faith, according to the doctrines of 
such as revere the traditions.* Hence it happened, that 
some of the tribe of BShrahs became members of the sect 
of the SunneL 

'^ The party which retains the Imamiyek tenets, compre-- 
hends nearly two thousand families. They always have a 
pious learned man amongst them, who expounds cases of 
law according to the doctrines of the Imamiyehs. Most of 
them subsist by commerce and mechanical trades; as is 
indicated by the name of B6hrahy which signifies mer- 
chant, in the dialect of Gujrat. They transmit the fifth 
part of their gains to the Sayyads of Medinek ; and pay 
their regular eleemosynary contributions to the chief of 
their learned, who distributes the alms among the poor of 
the sect. These people, great and small, are honest, pious, 
and temperate. They always suffer much persecution (for 
the crime of bearing affection towards the holy family) 
fi-om the wicked murderers,+ who are invested with public 
authority ; and they are ever involved in the difficulties of 
concealment. 



The Smmis, or orthodox sect. t The orthodox. 



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230 ON THE ORIGIN AND PECULIAR TENETS 

'' The §adikitfak$ are a tribe of the faithful Hindtatan^ 
pious men, and disciples of Sayyad CABfRu'oDf n, who 
derived his descent from IsmAIl, son of Imam JIfeb* 
Tins tribe is denominated Sadikiyahs, by rtBSoa of the 
sincere [sculik'] call of that Sayyad. Althou^ that appel- 
lation have, according to received notions, a seeming rela- 
tion to Ab^becr, whose paitisans gave him this title; yet 
it is probable that the sect assumed that appellation for the 
sake of concealment. However, no adviali^ ever accrues 
to them from it. On the contrary, the arrogant adubitants 
of Hindy who are Hinduis, being retainers of the son of 
the impious Hind,* have discovered their attachment to 
the sect of Shidhs, and have revived against them the 
calumnies which five hundred years before they broached 
against the Ismailiyahs. They maliciously charge them 
with impiety ; such, indeed, is their ancient practice. They 
violate justice, and labour to extirpate this harmless tribe. 
In short, ihey cast the stone of calumny on the roof of the 
name and reputation of this wretched people, and have no 
fear of God, nor awe of his Prophetf 

'' In short, nearly thirty thousand persons of this sect 
are settled in provinces o( Hindustan, such as Mtdtm, 
L&h6r, Dehliy and Gtyrat. Most of them subsist by com- 
merce. They pay the fifth part of their gains to the 
descendants of Sayyad CABfB, who are their priests; 
and both preceptor and pupil, priests and laymen, all are 
zealous Shidhs. God avert evil from them, and make the 
wiles of their foes recoil! 

'* The Hazarehs of Cabul are an innumerable tribe, who 
reside in Cabul, Ghazntn, and Kandahar. Many of them 

* Meaning HindI the mother of Moaviytbh. 

t The author proceeds in a strain of invective against the Sunnis; 
especially against Mulld Abdullah of Ldh6r, who hore the title of 
the Makhd6mu'l-mulc. This, heing superfluous, is here omitted. 



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OF CERTAIN MUHAMMEDAN SECTS. 231 

are SM&hsy and adherents of the hdy fiunily. At present, 
among the chiefs of the StA&hs^ is Mirza ShAdmAn, with 
whom the faithful are weU pleased, and of whose incursions 
the Khargis* of C&bvl and Ghaznin bitterly complain. 

" The Bal6ch of Sind; many of these are devoted 
Shiahs. They call themselves, and are called by all the 
fidthful, AlI's friends. Sayyad RAji6 of Bokhara exerted 
himself in the guidance of this tribe; his descendants 
remain among them, and are occupied with the concerns 
of the sect.'' 



* The word is here used as a term of reproach; for its origin, as 
the appellation of a sect, see D'Hsbbblot's BibHothi^ OrimUUe. 



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IX. 

Translation of one of the Inscriptioiis on the Pillar at 
Delhi, called the Lot of ¥lntz ShAh. 

[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 179—182. 
Calcutta 1801. 4to.] 

SanscrIt Inscription.* 

^ 3priciiHri4rM«iiH^'i'5ri:wt'yr'j«(dM^ 



• See Plate i. 



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•J 






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4^ 



i: 
• » 



1 



Dig zed by 



Googi 



TRANSLATION OF AN INSCRIPTION, &C. 



233 



)ct,|c||4^bri?|^^^c|r?l'ilM=l<^KiP|V|. 

ir^fadn=i< cRwteF^^miR 

Samvat 1220 vaiiac^ha sudi 15 sacarnhhari bkupati 
srimad villa dev&tmaja snmad visala devasya. 

Avindhyitd ahimadrer vircichita-vijayas ttrfha-yatron 

prasangad udgrivishupraharta nripatishu vinamat can' 

dharishu prasannah 

ary aver tarn yafharfhampunar api critavan mUchcVha^ 

vichcVhedanabhir devah sacambharindrS jagati vija- 

yate visalah cshMipalah. 

Briiti samprati bahujata tilacah sacambhari bhdpatih 

irimad vigraha raja esha vijayt santdnajan atmanak 

asmabhih caradam vyadhayi himavad-vindhyantaralam 

bhtivah sisha-swicaranaya mastu bhavat&m tuiySga- 

iunyam manah. 

AmbhS ndma ripu-priya-nayanaySkpratyarfhi-dantan' 

tare pratyacskani trinani vaibhava-milat cashiam yasas 

tavacam 

margS IScorviruddka eva vijanah simyam man6 md- 

wisham srimad vigraha rajadeva bhavatah prapte pra- 

yanStsave 

Ltla-mandira'sSdareshu bhavatuswanteshu vamabhruvam 



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234 TRANSLATION OF AN INSCRIPTION 

satr{tAan nanu vigraha cshitipate nyayyai cha vcuas 

tava 

ianca va purushSttamasya bhavatS nasty eva vcaran 

nidher nirmafhy&pahrita''ir%yah cimu bhavdn cr6d6 na 

nidrayitah. 

Samvatiri vicram&dUya 1220 vaiicufha sudi 15 gtarau 

lic'hitamidam 

pratyacsham gau^nwaya-'cayasfharmahava'putra'^-' 
patina atra samayi maha-mantri rajaputra himal'' 
lacsha'Aapalah. 

Verbal Translation. 

'' In the year 1220, on the 15th day <^ the biigbt half 
of the month Vaisac^hay [this moniiment] of the fortunate 
VtsALA Di^TA, 0on of tte fertonate V£lla D^va,*" king 
f£ SaoambhaA. 

" As far as Vindhya , f as fieur as Himadriff having achieved 
conquest in the course of travelling to holy places ; resent- 
ful to haughty kings, and indulgent to those whose necks 
are humbled ; making Aryavertarf once more what its name 
signifies, by causing the barbarians to be exterminated ; V i- 
SALA DkvAf supreme ruler of oacambhaAyX and sovereign 
of the earth, is victorious in the world. 

'^ This conqueror, the fortunate Vigraha RAja,§ king of 

* Colonel Polier's transcript exhibited Am illa; the present copy 
may be read either Av£lla or V£lla. 

t The J^indhya hills form the range which passes through the 
provinces of Bahdr, Bendres, &c. Hirnddri, the mountain of snow, 
(called Himavat in the next verse,) is the Imaus and Emodus of an- 
cient geographers. Arydverta signifies the land of virtue, or ** inha- 
bited by respectable men J* See Menu, Ch. ii. v. 22. 

t ^ambhari is the modern §dmbhar, famous for its salt lakes. 
It is situated at the distance of about thirty miles west of Jeypur» 

§ Whether Vigraha Raja and VIsala D^va be names of the 
same person, or of different princes, it is impossible to determine 
from the tenor of the inscription, without other information. 



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ON THE PILLAR AT DELHI. 235 

SacamhhoAj moet eminent of the tribe which sprang from 
the arms^ [of BbahmAJ now addresses his own descen*- 
dants : ' By us the region of the earth between Himavat 
^ and Vindhya has been made tnbatary ; let not your 
' minds be void of exertion to subdue the remainder/ 

" Tears are evident in the eyes of thy enemy's consort ; 
blades of grass are perceived between thy adversary's 
teeth ;t thy fame is predominant throughout space ; the 
minds of thy foes are void [of hope] ; their route is the 
desert where men are hindered from passing; O Vigraha 
RAja D£va, in the jubilee occasioned by thy march. 

'* May thy abode, O Vigraha, sovereign of the earth, 
be fixed, as in reason it ought, in the bosoms (akin to the 
fwmflkwi of daUiance) of the women with beautiftil eye- 
brows, who were mmxtied to thy enemies. There is no 
doubt of thy being the highest of embodied soiik^ Ditbt 
thou not sleep in the lap of SrI, whom thou didst seize 
from the ocean, having churned it?§ 

" In the year fix)m the fortunate VicrA'maditya 1220|| 
on Thursday the 15th day of the bright half of the month 

* The transcript of the inscription exhibits v6ham^ia tilacahy as 
it was also read in the former fac simile: Serv6ru TRiv^of advises 
me to read it bahufdta tilacah, and I accede to his emendation. [See 
the note in the following page.] 

t This alludes to the Indian custom of biting a Made of grass as a 
token of submission, and of asking 4]uarter. 

{ SRRy6Bn explains this very obscure passage otherwise: '' there is 
(t. e. there should be) no doubt or hesitation in the mind of thee, who 
art the highest of embodied souls (^PvrttshdUaima)^^^ 

§ PuRnsH6TTAMA is a title of ViSHiru. With reference to this 
term, the author of the inscription asks, '* Art thou sot ViSHiru 
himself? Art thou not he who slept in the arms of LAcsHvf P" 
The legend of the churning of the ocean is well known. 

II In the present copy the date is very distinct ; and proves to be 
1220; not 123 as was suspected by Sir William Jones. 



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236 TRANSLATION OF AN INSCRIPTION 

Vaisac'ha^ this was written in the presence of * . • . . 

by SrIpati, the son of MJIhava, a 

Cayasfha of a family in OauSa : at this time the fortu- 
nate Lacshana pAla, B,Rqjaputraf is prime minister. 



" Siva the terrible, and the miiversal monarch." 




There are on the same page, some short inscriptions, 
which I cannot decypher. One of them, however, is partly 
legible, and appears to be in the Hindustani language. 
It contains the name of Sultan IbrAhIm, and wishes 
him a long life. 



Note to t/ie preceding TuAiishATioji. 
[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. ix. p. 453. Calcutta, I8O7. 4to.] 

A passage in the preface of the Samgadhara pad-- 
dhatif and another in the body of that work, whidi were 
first indicated by Capt. WiLFORD,t show, that a term, 
contained in the inscription on the column at Delhiy for 
whidi I proposed to substitute, with the advice of the 
PanStit who assisted me, the word ' hahujata* as a con- 
jectural emendation, must be read ' chdhumanay or ' clwr 
luLvana ;' being the name of the tribe to which the prince, 
there mentioned, belonged, and which is well known at 
this day under the appellation of Chauhan. In the preface, 
^Arngadhara describes himself as second in descent 
from Raghud&va, a priest attending on HammIra king of 
*Sacambhari, of the tribe of Ch'duh&n, Chahuvan, or Bahw 
vana (for the name is variously spelt in different copies). 
The work itself is a compilation of miscellaneous poetry 

* This part of the inscription is not legihle. 
t As. Res., vol. ix. p. 189. 



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ON THE PILLAR OF DELHI. . 237 

aiTEDged under distinct heads ; and one chapter (the 73d) 
is devoted to the admission of stanzas concerning indivi- 
du^ princes. Among them two stanzas occur, which are 
there cited as an inscription on a royal column of stone, 
erected as a sacrificial pillar ;* and which, on comparison, 
are found to be the same with the two first of the stanzas, 
on the pillar at Delhi. Several copies of the Sam^adhara 
paddhati have been collated, in aU of which, the term in 
question is written Bahuvana. Comparing this with the 
preface of the same compilation, and with the inscription 
itself, we may be allowed to conjecture, that Chahuvana 
is the correct reading : the Nagari letters ^ and ^ b^g 
very liable to be confounded. 



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X. 

On Ancient Monuments, containing SansceIt 
Inscriptions. 

[From the Asiatic Researches, voL ix. p* 398 — 444. 
Calcutta 1807. 4to.] 

In the scarcity of authentic materials for the ancient, 
and even for the modem, history of the Hindu race, im- 
portance is justly attached to all genuine monuments, and 
especially inscriptions on stone and metal, which are occa- 
sionally discovered through various accidents. If these be 
carefully preserved and diligently examined, and the fects 
ascertained from them, be judiciously employed towards 
elucidating the scattered information, which can be yjet 
collected from the remains of Indian literature, a satisfac- 
tory progress may be finally made in investigating the his- 
tory of the Hindus. That the dynasties of princes who 
have reigned paramount in India, or the line of chieftains 
who have ruled over particular tracts, will be verified ; or 
that the events of war, or the effects of poUcy, during a 
series of ages, will be developed ; is an expectation which 
I neither entertain, nor wish to excite. But the state of 
manners, and the prevalence of particular doctrines, at dif- 
ferent periods, may be deduced from a diligent perusal of 
the writings of authors, whose age is ascertained ; and the 
contrast of different results, for various and distant periods, 
may furnish a distinct outline of the progress of opinions. 
A brief history of the nation itself, rather than of its go- 
vernment, will be thus sketched ; but if unable to revive 
the memory of great political events, we may at least be 
content to know what has been the state of arts, of sciences, 
of mannei's, in remote ages, among this very ancient and 
early civiliz^ people; and to learn what has been the suc- 



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ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS, &C. 239 

oeasioii of doctrines, religious and philosophical, which have 
prevailed in a nation ingenious yet prone to superstition. 

Unf(»rtunately, writers have seldom given the dates of 
their compositions; and the Hindu's love of fable, and 
distaste for sober narrative, have been as unfiiendly to the 
biography of authors, as to the history of princes. The 
lives of few celebrated persons have been written; and 
those which have been composed, exhibit the same foodr 
ness for improbable fiction which pervades the mytho- 
logical works of the Hindus. The age of an author must 
be, therefore, sought from circumstances mentioned in his 
writings: and none more frequently affords the desired 
information, than the author's notice of his patron ; who 
generally is either the sovereign of the country, or some 
person standing in such relation to the court, as gives 
occasion to mention the name of the reigning prince. Thus 
every ancient monument which fixes the date of a reign, 
or determines the period of a particular dynasty, tends to 
the ascertainhient of the age of writers who flourished in 
that reign or under that dynasty : and convei*sely, wher- 
ever dates can be, with confidence, deduced immediately 
fiom an author's works, these may frimish historical infor- 
mation, and assist the explanation of ancient monuments. 

On this account the preservation and study of old in-* 
scriptions may be earnestly recommended. It is not on a 
first or cursory examination, that the utility of any par- 
ticular mcmument for the illustration of the civil or literary 
history of the country can be certainly determined. Even 
those which at first sight appear uninteresting, may be 
afterwards found to bear strongly on an important point. 
Instances might be brought from the few inscriptions which 
have been already published. But it is not my present 
purpose to enter on an examination of published monu- 
ments, but to urge the communication of every inscription 



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240 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

which may be hereafter discovered ; at the same time that 
I lay before the Society copies and translations of those 
which have been recently communicated from various parts 
of India. 

It is a subject for regret, that the originals of which 
versions have before been made public, are not deposited 
where they might be accessible to persons engaged in re- 
searches into Indian literature and antiquities : but much 
more so, that ancient monuments, which there is reason to 
consider as important, have been removed to Europe before 
they had been sufficiently examined, or before they were 
accurately copied and translated. I may specify^ with 
particular regret, the plate of copper found at Benares, 
and noticed by Capt. Wilford in the ninth volume of 
Asiatic Researdies (p. 108) ; and still more a plate which 
has been mentioned to me by a learned PaAS&t, (who 
assured me that he v^as employed in decyphering it),"* and 
which appears, from a copy in his possession, to have con- 
tained a grant of land by the celebrated Jatachandra, 
when a young prince associated to the empire of his father; 
fix)m this information it seems to have been particularly 
valuable, on account of the genealogy comprised in it. 

Translations might indeed be made ftom the PwiAifs 
copy of the last-mentioned plate, and from one taken by 
a learned native in Capt. Wilford's service, from the 
plate discovered at Benares. But my experience of the 
necessity of collating the copies made by the best PaticlitSf 
from inscriptions in ancient or unusual character, discou- 
rages me firom placing impUcit confidence in their trans- 
cripts ; and the originals are at present beyond reach of 



* Sbrv6ru TRiviof; the same who assisted me in decyphering 
the copy of an inscription on Fir6z Shah's pillar at Delhi. As. 
Hes. vol. vii. p. 180. [page 232 of the present volume.] 



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CONTAINING SANSCrYt INSCRIPTIONS. 241 

reference, having been conveyed to Europe to be there 
buried in some public museum or private collection. 

Tlie only am^ds, which could be now made for the 
removal of those interesting monuments, would be the 
publication of copies correctly made in fac simile. From 
such transcripts, provided they be executed with great care, 
the text may be decyphered and translated. An exact 
copy of the Sanscrit inscription on the stone at Cintra in 
Portugal, enabled Mr.WiLKiNs to ascertain the date and 
scope of that inscription ; as well as the names, which it 
contains."* Similar copies of other inscriptions would, in 
like manner, furnish oriental scholars with the means of 
ascertaining their purport ; and the publication of fac 
similes may, for this purpose, be recommended to those 
who are in possession of the originals. 

I now proceed to describe, and so far as I have suc- 
ceeded in decyphering them, to explain, the several in- 
scriptions on ancient monuments in stone and copper, 
which have been lately presented to the Asiatic Society. 

I. Inscription on a Plate of Copper found in the district 

of TiPURA. 

Towards the end of 1803, a plate of copper was dis- 
covered in digging earth for the repair of the highway 
through the Manamati hills in the district of Tipura, It 
was carried to Mr. Eliot, magistrate of the district ; and 
by him communicated to the Asiatic Society. On exa- 
mination, it has been found to contain an inscription decla- 
ratory of a grant of land, dated near 600 years ago. 

The plate measures eleven inches in height and nine in 
breadth, and is engraved on one surface only. The sides 

• Mlrphy's Travels in Portug^al, p. 277* 
VOL. II. R 



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242 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

have a gentle curvature ; and, at top, is an abrupt bend, 
allowing room to a figure coarsely delineated, and appcH 
rently intended to represexit a temple. The character 
agrees ^nearly wiA that now in use in Bengal: but some 
of the letters bear a closer resemblaxu^e to the writing of 

The following is an exact copy of the inscription in 
Nagari letters, as decyphered by the aid of several Paii- 
Aits. A literal translation is subjoined ; and a fac simile 
of the original is exhibited in the annexed plate.f 

dfHKJi<*lc^c|nn?ch^lRdM: 



* There is reason to suppose the writings as well as the language 
of Bengal^ to be originally the same with the TirMiii^: altered, in 
coarse of time, since the separation which has been the conseqaence 
of a colony of Cdnyacubja Brdhmens settling in Bengal 

t See Plate ii. 



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.^<r 



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CONTAINING «ANSCRtT INSCKIPTIONS. 243 

ri^lHKrjMH^;qi1rK^nVTT: ^<Mif»Hi t 

^4v^^<*H^^rci<x:nmr5h^c(it^^>nfrr \ 



s2 



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244 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

f^i|^<^c^jjur ( ^iU^iH<t.'^H | U| ; 

Translation. 

1. "In that* eminent and spotless family, was born, an 
ornament of the learned, renowned throughout the world, 
endowed with science, and practising good deeds, the cele- 
brated, happy, and venerable Hfe6i ;t in whose pure mind, 
virtue ever ranges, like a swan in the limpid lake. 

2. " From him sprung the happy chief of ministers, who 
exhibits the joys of unsullied glory; a spotless moon 
among mortals, and at sight of whom the hare-spotted 
luminaryt appears swoln [with envy], and distempered with 
alternate increase and wane. 

* This use of the pronoun indicates the conspicuousness of the 
object ; as if sufficiently known without further designation. 

t Here, as well as with the subsequent names, the particle iva 
is subjoined without changing the preceding vowel. This is con- 
trary to the rules of the language, and emendations have been 
accordingly proposed : but I shall not disturb the text 

{ The moon is named §aiiny from a fancied resemblance of its 
spots to a leveret. Tahdits^ to whom I showed maps of the moon, 
copied ft'om Hevblius and Riooiolus, fixed upon the Loca Palu- 
dosa and Mons Porphyrites, or KbplkrOs and Arista rohus, for the 
spots, which, they think, exhibit the^imilitude of a hare. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRYt INSCRIPTIONS. 245 

3. " That venerable officer,* ever relying on holy virtue8,t 
is eminently conversant with well guided morals, and con- 
spicuous for the observance of practical duties. 

4. *' Himself an ocean of generosity and meditation, yet 
thirsting to taste, by practice of austerity, that which alone 
confines the fleeting thoughts ;% sympathising with other 
living beings, an unrivalled theatre of virtue, practising 
good deeds, and, in private, only a contemplative saint, 
this auspicious Dha6i alone rose, as a luminary of joy 
above the earth. 

6. " Superior to the world was the deUght of this pre-emi- 
nent sovereign of the earth, thehappyRANABANCA malla» 
whose officer^ he was ; for the deity who has a hundred 
eyes II is obscured, even in his own abode, by the dazzling 
glories of that [monarch], which traverse the three worlds, 
in all directions. 

6. " May the twenty rfr6iww1[ of land, in the village of 
Ijac^hafiBaj granted to him by that generous prince, con- 
tinue as long as sun and moon endure, yielding the ample 

* The term is Akoanibandhica, which the PaMiis are disposed to 
explain as signifying; ** a general commanding cavalry." Other inter- 
pretations may he suggested : the word is an unusual one. 

t Thisy as indeed the whole of the verse, is ohscure, and admits 
of various interpretations. In this place, more than one reading has 
been proposed. 

t Here again the sense is obscure ; and more than one reading may 
be proposed. The praise is evidently grounded on the union of prac- 
tical virtues, with religious contemplation. 

§ Aswanibandhica, 

It Indra. 

If A measure of land, still used in the eastern parts of Bengal, 
originally as much as might be sown with one dr^a of seed : for a 
drb^ is a measure of capacity. (As. Res., vol. v. p. 96.) The 
dr6^y vulgarly called dun^ varies in different districts. It may, 
however, be reckoned nearly equivalent to eight btghas^ or two acres 
and two-thirds. 



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246 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

hanrest of unsullied praise; for it is land secure from 
invasion, delightful, lik^a pleasant painting, and i^pears 
like a crest in the assemblage of cities. 

7« '' This land, with definite boundaries, has been given 
by the liberal prince himself, the range of whose glory 
therefore extends, as is fit, in all directions. 

8. '* O future kings ; understand this inscription on cop- 
per, by which that officer* humbly now solicits you: 
this land should be preserved ; nor is the permanence of 
the realm consistent with the slightest injury : a shame on 
avarice ! That land is, as it were, a widow, the sovereign 
of which is despised [for his covetousness]. 

9. '' Although this excellence of the descendants [of that 
prince] which is guarded by their natural virtues, be suffi- 
ciaitly apparent, yet does MiniNi, ui^ed by the multitude 
of the good qualities of that unsulUed race, thus make it 
known.f 

** Years expired of the Saca king 1141 ;% dated in the 
seventeenth year of Ranabanca malla, SrImat Hari- 
cAla d£va,§ or expressed in numerals, Samva^\, 17 ; on 
the 29th of the Sun's being in the balance/' 

* Jswanibandhica. 

t This inscription appears not to be a grant by the sovereign ; 
bat a memorial of the grant recorded by the possessor, who most 
have been the heir of the grantee, and who seems to acknowledge in 
this place the liberality of the grantor's successors continuing the land 
to him. 

X Corresponding to A.D. 1219. 

§ This prince is probably a different person from the grantor named 
in the fifth verse. 

II Here Samvat is used for the year of the king's reign. See re- 
marks, towards the close of this paper, on an inscription found at 
Amgdchh^ in DifU^pur. 



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.1 



t 



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Google 



I 




\ 



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CONTAINING SANSCrIt INSCRIPTIONS. 247 



II. Inscription an a Plate of Copper found in the district 

0/*OORAKHPUR. 

A PLATE of copper, containing an inscription in the San- 
scrit language, declaratory of a grant of land, but without 
date, was lately found in the district of Gorakhpur, near 
the river called the little Gandhac. It was brought to Mr. 
John Ahmuty, magistrate of the district, and by him 
communicated to Captain Wilfo a d, who has presented it 
to the Asiatic Society. 

The plate, which is 16^ inches long, and 12^ broad, 
is engraved on one face only. The lines, of which there 
are 24, nm in the length of the plate ; and on the left side 
is a curvature, on which a semi-circular appendage is 
riveted, containing a flat button representing the impression 
of a seal. The figure is very imperfect, but seems to be 
intended for some animal. 

With the plate itself. Captain Wilfo rd communicated 
a copy of its contents as decyphered by a Paiiclit in his 
service. On carefully comparing it with the original, I 
found all the essential passages, as well as the names, 
correctly given : a few alterations, which this comparison 
showed to be necessary, have been made mih the concur- 
rence of several PanAits from Tirhitty who assisted me in 
collating it. I preferred the aid of PanAits of that pro- 
vince, because the peculiarities of the characters where 
they differ widely, as they do in many instances, from 
common Devanagari, make a nearer approach to the 
Tirhutiya letters than to any other now in use. The whole 
inscription is indeed remarkable for the uncommon form of 
the consonants, and the very unusual manner in which the 
vowels are marked. On this account an exact copy of the 
original in fac simile will be subjoined ;* as well as a correct 

• See Plate iii. 



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248 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

transcript in modern Devanagart letters. The following 
version is as literal as the difference of idiom permits. 

Translation. 

1. " Salutation to the God, who is manifested in va- 
rious forms, from earth to tlie performer of a sacrifice,* 
who is an universal soul, to be apprehended only by 
contemplation of saints ; and who pervades all. 

2. " Salutation to the unborn God,t who makes the 
world's production, its continuance, and ultimate de- 
struction; and the recollection of whom serves as a 
vessel of transport across the ocean of mundane ills. 

3. " Salutation be to the husband of LacshmI; to him 
who reposes on S&s ha as on a couch; to him who is 
Vishnu extracting the thorns of the three worlds; to 
him who appears in every shape.? 

4. " Salutation be to the blessed foot of PARVATi,§ 
which destroyed the demon Mahisha, by whom all 
had been overcome; and which gives felicity to the 
world. 

6, " Surrounded by groves of lofty canes,|| inaccessi-- 
ble through the range of edifices on the hill's summit; 
encompassed by a deep ditch, in which fountains spring; 
secure by impassable defence from dread of foes, a 

• Siva, manifested in eight material forms: viz. Earth, Water, 
Fire, Air, Ether, the Sun, the Moon, and the person who performs 
a sacrifice. 

t Brahma the creator, himself not created, and therefore termed 
unborn. 

t ViSH^u, who reposes on the serpent Ananta or ^tsJia ; and who 
has been incarnate in various shapes, to relieve the world from op- 
pressors. 

§ BhavanI or DuRoX slew MahishIsura. The legend is well 
known. 

II Bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea and other species). 

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CONTAINING SANSCRIt INSCRIPTIONS. 249 

6. royal abode there is named Vijeyapura/^yN}nch is situated 
on the declivity of the northern mountain, where the 
pain of regret is unknown, and every gratification is 
found. 

7. '* There reigned the fortunate DharmAditya, 
like another BSdhimtwa, a mighty and prosperous 
prince, whose glory spread over the four seas. His 

8. son was jAYADiTYA,t adorable like the moon, the 
fortune of the world, like the tree which bears every 
desired fruit, and satisfying thirst like a deep lake : 

9. humble, though a king ; though young, prudent and 
averse from amorous passion ; though liberally bestow- 
ing all, yet ever receiving the best result of all. 

10. ** His minister, learned, intelligent, and van- 
quisher of foes, the son of a mighty chieftain and 
counsellor CatTAciRTi, was the fortunate MadAli,| 

* The place here described may be f^ijey^pur, on the Dorthem 
declivity of the Ftndhya hills, a few miles from the temple of 
Findhyd'Vdsini near Mrzdpur on the Ganges. It is the ancient resi- 
dence of a family, which claims descent from the former sovereigns 
of Benares ; and is still the abode of the head of that family. But the 
terms of the text, UttaTogiri catace, rather seem to signify * declivity 
of the northern mountain,' than * nprthem declivity of the mountain ;' 
and that interpretation points to the range of snowy mouptains, instead 
of Fmdhya which is reckoned a tropical range. 

t The name of JAviniTTA, is known as the patron of certain 
authors, who flourished at C6i\; and who are considered as ancient 
writers* He is mentioned in the title of the F'amana caiicdy aod even 
termed the author of that grammatical work. I shall not undertake 
to determine whether this be the same person. ■ 

% The names, being uncommon, are, in this instance, doubtful. 
§rtmadali is clearly given as the name of the minister: and either the 
whole of it may be his name ; or it may be resolved into 6rhn(U Alt, 
or into 6fi Maddli, The latter is most agreeable to the prevailing 
practice of prefixing ^ri to a proper name. In this inscription, the 
auspicious syllable is prefixed to the names of the two kings first 
mentioned ; but is not added to the names of the writers of it, who are 
noticed towards the close, (v. 20 & 22.) 

Crtla- 



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250 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

11. whose pleasing counsels obtained a ready hearii^y and i 

who was by nature eager for the reduction of raemied.* 

12. ^^ The village of lhimmadumaj'\ obtained by 
him from the royal favour^ and rich in tillage, dwell- 
ings, and cattle, has been assigned by him to DurgA^ % 

13. " The opulence of the good, who put their trust 
in the great, is, indeed, beneficial to others : the clouds 
gather water firom the sea, and shower it down on the 

14. growing crop. Rare indeed are those Uberal persons, 
who distinguish not between their own dependants and 
strangers : how many are the all-productive trees even 
in the celestial .grove ? § 

15. '' Do not imagine, father, that, in the sinful age, 
a general equality prevails : the sovereign defends the 
earth, but a weak individual guards not even his house. || 

16. Birth and death, success and misfortune, are perpe- 
tually passing: why not, therefore, protect another's 

17. glory like one's own? He, who bestows fertile land 

Critacirti may signify ' of established fame :' but, if taken as an 
epithet, it leaves no other term which can be assumed as the name of 
the minister's father. 

* The text exhibits Pracr^H parabaddhftcccshO, Though a very 
unsatisfactory reading, it is here preserved, and has been translated in 
the most probable sense which I am able to suggest for it 

t A village of this name is situated in the district of Aliahdbdd, 
within twenty miles of Bijeypur on the Ganges. But the name is 
not uncommon : and may belong to some place nearer to the northern 
mountains. 

t Jayaditta's minister, Madali, appears to have assigned this 
village for general charitable uses, by consecrating it to the goddess 
DuRoI. Such at least seem to be the most consistent reading and 
interpretation of the text. 

§ Indra's garden called Naadana; in which five celestial trees are 
placed, termed Calpadmmaf Parijdtay &o. The Calpadruma yields, 
as its fruit, every thing which is desired. 

II The intention of this and the following lines is to deprecate the 
resumption of the grant. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRIt INSCRIPTIONS. 251 

fiumtshed with the means of agriculture^ mounts a 

. celestial vehicle, and ascends to heaven, gladdening 

18. his progenitors. But he, who foolishly resumes land 

allotted to gods or priests, assuredly causes his ances* 

^tors to iaU to hell, even though they had previously 

attained heaven. 

19. " Sprung from a very pure race, respectful towards 
gods, priests, spiritual parents, and.the king, a generous 

20. founder of temples, who has dug many ponds ; by the 
tenderness of his disposition an image of Sugata,* a 
treasure of virtues, with subdued organs, wise, and 
averse from unpleasing discourse: such was the Ca- 

21. ycw^AaNAoADATTA. By him was composed with great 
devoutness, this praise of the minister ; in apt measure 
and pleasing verse, elegantf and apposite. 

22. *' The last three verses were written by his 
younger brother VidyAdatta ; for he himself was 
fearful of proclaiming his own virtues. 

23. *^ Rich and fertile is the village, obtained through 



^ From this comparison to Suoata or Buddha, as well as a pre- 
vious comparison to a BbdhistUwaf it may be inferred that the author, 
if not himself a follower of the sect of Buddha, was at least more 
amicably disposed towards that sect than modem orthodox Hindus 
appear to be. 

It is hardly necessary to inform the reader, that the last Buddha 
was conspicuous for his tender, compassionate disposition. The my- 
thology of the sect of Buddha peoples heaven with Bbdhisatwas; 
' and, from this class of beings, the Buddhas are selected. Gautama 
Buddha was a Bodhisahoa under the name of Sw^TAoiru, before 
he was incarnate as SiddhIrt'ha son of §uddh6dana. 

t The text exhibits Surha crttasobhd; which must be amended by 
reading either SwaHia or SuvaHia* The last is preferable as giving 
the most correct metre : either way the meaning is rendered ' elegant, 
as gold,' or by * well selected words :' for suimr^n or swarda signifies 
gold ; and may be resolved into two words, su well, and varna or arka 
a letter or syllable* 



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252 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

the king's fevour as an endowment for subsistftnce, 
and still more productive is this other villi^ for vir- 
tuous men."* 

^4MiwiMi|*^WM*^+d«MirM^'iH: tin 
m \KH\i\i)H\K^r\ ^^rl^jpT: tl=^tl 

^HkV^tflf<t4^'lMfd T>j[ftftra?qT? tlv9Tl 



• The last line is very obscure. If it have been rightly decyphered 
and explained, it may allude to some other grant held by the Raji^s 
minister, for his own subsistence. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRtx INSCRIPTIONS. 263 



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264 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

♦iiMWrd*l:«J.M'm^JuiPlfvrTM*^r^HPiiL4^R4Kl 
<WWMKc^«An^*1c*<'lchHHI<J^ird^^c|rn 1 

III, Inscription, on three Plates of Brass found at 
Chitradu&o. 

A GRANT of land^ engraved on three plates of brass, 
which were found at Chitradurg in the year 1800, and a 
fac simile of a similar grant found at the same place, have 
been presented by Major C Mackenzie to the Asiatic 
Society. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRIt INSCRIPTIONS. 265 

The plates^ which i4>pear to be very similar in both 
grants, may be described from that> of which the original 
has been received. They are nearly seven inches wide and 
as many high, but surmounted by an arch of two inches 
in height. The two exterior plates have been engraved on 
the inner side only : the middle one is so on both feces. 
At the edge is a rim, half a line thick, by which the 
inscription is soured from being effaced by the rubbing 
of the plates. They are held together by a brass ring, 
on which is a seal of the same metal representing a boar. 
The engraved surfaces have some appearance of having 
been once gilt. 

The language is Sariscnt, excepting the description of 
the lands, which is in the Canara dialect. The whole 
inscription is in JDivanagaH characters : but some of the 
letters are formed in a very unusual manner. It contains 
a grant by the king of Vidyanagar (pronounced Bija- 
nagar\ formeriy the capital of CarAai(ica : and is dated 
litUe more than four hundred years ago. Grants, by kings 
of this dynasty, are not uncommon in the JDekhin ; and 
may be of use in determining the dates of their several 
reigns. These princes were enlightened patrons of science : 
especially Harihara and Bucc A rAta sons of Sangama 
the founder of the dynasty. 

Major Mackenzie forwarded a translation of this 
inscription made by his interpreter Cavelly Boria. 
The original is, in some instances, read differentiy by the 
PahRits whom I have consulted: not, however, making 
any change in the purport, nor in any material passage. 
The following translation is conformable to their interpre- 
tation : and the copy, which is subjoined, exhibits the text 
as read by them. 



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256 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 



Translation. 



1. Salutation to GanMa. I bow to dambhu, 
graced with the beautiful moon crowning his lofty 
head; himself the pillar, which upholds the origin of 

2. the three worlds.* May he, whose head is like an 
elephant's, the son of HARA,t the cause of uninter- 
rupted supremacy, the giver of boons, and the luminary 

3. which dispels darkness, ;{: preserve us. May the auspi- 
cious primeval boar, § by whom closely embraced, the 
earth exults, grant us vast prosperity. 

4. '^ The ambrosial moon, brother of the goddess 
Rama, is the offspring of the milky ocean,|| having a 
common origin with the gem Catistubha, the all-pro- 

6. ductive tree and the ever beneficent cow. In the lunar 
race was bom a king named Yadu,^ by a descendant 
of whom [CrYshna] son of Vasud&va, the earth has 

6. been protected. In his line arose a king named San- 

* Siva, or MahId^va, is figged with the moon as a crest. Accord- 
ing^ to mythology, he upholds the creator. 

This, and the two following stanzas, seem to he the same whicK 
are found, hut in a different order, at the heginning of the inscrip- 
tion on the plates preserved at the temple of Conjeveram : (As. Res., 
vol. iii. p. 39.) with some difference, however, in the reading and in- 
terpretation. 

t GAii£§A, figured with an elephant's head, reckoned son of Hara 
or MahIdIva and of his wife Parvat!. 

t The original is here inaccurate : it exhibits Ta^as iivra iimira 
gihirb; which means nothing, and in which a syllahle is deficient for 
the metre. In the fac simile of another grant, the same passage is 
correctly written Varadas Hvra timira mihirb, 

§ The incarnation of Visniru, as a boar, who upheld the earth 
eabmerged by the ocean, is well known to all who are conversant 
with Indian mytholog^y. 

11 The story of the churning of the ocean is familiar to every one. 

IT Yadu, the celebrated ancestor of CrYshAa, was of the lunar 



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CONTAINING SANSCRIt INBCITIPTIONS. 257 

GAM A,* v^ho abounded in weighty virtues, and shunned 
the society of the widced. 

7. ^* This king had [five] sons, Habihara, Campa, 
BuccarAta who was soverdgn of the earth,t MA- 

RAPA and MUDGAPA. 

8. ''Among these five graceful princes, the most 
celebrated was Bucca, sovereign of the earth, conspi- 
cuous for valour, as Arjuna among the PAn6avas. 

9. Therefore, did BuccarAya, fierce in battle, become a 
fortunate prince, applying his left shoulder j: to uphold 
the burden of the mighty elephants posted at the quar- 
10. ters of the world. When his army, in warUke array, 
performed evolutions on the fi'ontier of his dominions, 
the Turashcas felt their mouths parched ; the CSncana, 
terrified, apprehended impending death ; the Andhras 
fled, in consternation, to the caverns; the Gurjaras 
trembled; the CambSjas lost their firmness; and the 
Calingas were quickly discomfited.^ 

*The pretensions of Sanoama to be descended from the lunar 
line of CshiUriyas or Chandraoamis are here asserted. 

t The names of three of these princes, as well as of their father, 
occur in the writings of MIdhava IchIrya, and of his brother 
Saya^a IchIrya, who were priests and counsellors of those mo- 
narchs. 

Harihara RIja, and Buggana RIja or Buooa rIya, are named 
in MIdhava's commentary on the Vidas, and Campa is mentioned 
in his grammatical works. 

t The text appears to exhibit the negative of dacshiiia right 
At the eight principal points of the compass, elephants uphold the 
world. 

§ This verse is extremely inaccurate in the original: it has been 
corrected with the aid of the fac simile of another grant beforemen- 
tioned. It begins Yasybddhaya yuddhi puddha rangi^ which is un- 
meaning and contains too many syllables for the metre. It should 
be, as in the other inscription, Ytuifbdyad yuddha range. A syllable 
VOL. II. S 



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258 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

11. ''He was a conspicuous monarchy splendid, and 
a supreme ruler of kings, but acting towards disobe- 
dient princes, as the king of birds towards serpents : 
12. embraced by the concubines of kings, destroying hos- 
tile chiefs, defending the heroes of Hindd raya^ en- 
dowed with knowledge and other qualities.* 

13. '' By that victorious king was Vidyd nagari made 
a permanent metropolis; a fortunate city^ which is 
adapted to promote universal conquestf 

14. '' OaurAmbicA became his queen; a princess 
respectable for her virtues ; as Ram A the beloved wife 

16.of CrYshna; as GaurI, of Siva; as SachI, of 

16.Indra; as Saraswat!, of BrahmA ; as Ch'hAyA, 

of S^RYA.;}: By the charms of her graceful gaiety, 

is wanting in ThirushcSht written TushcdlL Two were deficient in 
Bhaya bftara bharitah^ expressed Bhava bharitah. Both inscriptions 
write Cdmbhofdh for C6mbi>jah. In one, Sapari is erroneously put for 
Sapadi. 

Air the names of nations, which occur in this place, have been re- 
peatedly explained. 

• These stanzas are very obscure : and I am not confident, that 
they are rightly translated. Hindk r6ya seems to be similar to the 
HindkpaH of Btmdelc^hand : for so the goyernment of that country was 
denominated under the chiefs, who ruled it in the last and in the pre- 
ceding century. 

The stanzas appear to be similar to two in the grant preserved at 
Conjeveram : viz. 25th and 26th. (As. Res., vol. iii. p. 470 But there 
is some difference in reading as well as interpretation. 

t Vi^d nagari signifies the city of science. Fkbishtah was mis- 
taken, when he affirmed, that it was founded by RXjI BbllXi. nfio 
and named after his son Bfjl ray. (Scott's History of Dekhan, 
Intr. p. xi.) It is believed to have been founded by the two brothers 
Harihara and Bucca raya. 

} The gods and goddesses, to whom the happy couple is here com* 
pared, are mentioned in the text by titles, some of which are uncom- 
mon ; and have been therefore changed, in the translation, to others 



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CONTAINING SANSCrYt INSCRIPTIONS. 250 

she obscured TiL6TTAMi ;* by her happy fidelity to 
her husband, she excited the envy of ANAS^rA^f 

17. '^ This liberal prince, pre-eminent among kings, 

begot, on that divine princess,;]: a son named Hari* 

18. HARA : who is become a protector of the good and 

punisher of the wicked ; who has obtained his wish, 

with the wise : who is enviable, and is devoted to the 

godHARlHARA. 

19. " The tree of virtue thrives by water poured with 
his donations ;^ while he shines with the ^lendid glory 
of sixteen kinds of gift.H 

20. " In the year 1317 fH and, of the cycle, Dhata; 
in the month of Magha, and light fortnight; on the day 

21. of full moon ; under the asterism sacred to the Pitru 
(Magha) ; on Sunday ; upon the bank of the rivet 
Tungabhadra, which is adorned by the mountain H6' 

22. nuidiia ; in the presence of the auspicious deity, Vi- 
RtjpAcsH A ;** the valiant HARiHARA,tt revered among 

more generally known. Rama is probably intended for RadhX as a 
representative of Lacshm!. 

In the original, Saraswat! is called VIM; bnt the fac simile of 
the other inscription exhibits SavitrI. ^aoh! is, in the original, 
erroneously written §achi ; sndjdma occurs at the beginning of the 
verse for noma. 

• Til6ttama is the name of a nj^ph celebrated for her beauty. 

t Ana8(jya 18 wife of Atri, and distinguished for conjugal affec- 
tion. The name signifies unenvious. 

{ The princess is here termed GaurI, which is a title of PlRVATf ; 
and which conveys an allusion to her own name GaurImbioa. 

§ Solemn donations are ratified by pouring water into the hand of 
the donee. 

II Sixteen meritorious gifts are enumerated in treatises on dona- 
tion. 

IT Corresponding to A.D. 1395. 

## A title of Siva. 

ft The difference of idiom makes it necessary to transpose, in the 
translation, some of the verses of the original. 

s 2 



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260 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

mortals^ liberal in his gifts of land, and especially atten- , 
24. live to venerable priests, has graciously given, with gold 
22. and with a libation of water, to the auspicious descen- 
23.dant of BhIeadwAja and follower of the JRigve- 

da, the wise VishnudIcshita PAff abardhI, son of 

24. VAcHESPATi sumamed Bhila ; and to the learned 
AnantadIcshita son of RAMABHAff a, a descen- 

25. dant of VAsisnf'HA and follower of Apastamba's 
28. Yajw^vida, inhabitant of JRuchangi (a place known to 

have been visited by the PaAdavcus), the fertile and all- 

25. productive village of Madenahalli, also named Hari- 

26. harapuray situated in the midst of Bhilichedra, east of 

27. the village called Arisicery south of GandicehaUi, west 
of PaUavacaia, and north of Bhudihalli, a place to 

29.be honoured by all; marked on the four sides by 
distinct boundaries; tc^ether with its treasures,- and 
hidden deposits, its stones, and every thing which it 

30. does or may contain ; abounding with objects pleasing 
to the eye ; fit to be enjoyed by two persons ; graced 
with elegant trees; furnished with wells, cisterns, 
ponds and banks ; to be successively possessed by the 

31. sons, grandsons and other descendants [of the grantees], 
as long as the sun and moon endui'e, subject to be 

32. mortgaged, sold, or any way disposed of; a village 
visited by assiduous and gentle priests and attendants, 
and by various wise persons, who are conversant with 
holy rites, and surpass in voice melodious birds."* 

• Some parte of this long* passage are obscure and doubtful. The 
last stanza, with two preceding, omitting one, (that is the 29th, 30th, 
and 32d) appears to be the same with three which occur in the 
grant preserved at Conjeveram^ viz. 43d, 44th, and 45th. fAs. Res., 
vol. iii, p. 51.) But there are some variations between the reading 
of them in this inscription, and in the copy of the Conjeveram 
plates, from which Sir W. Jones made his version of that grant: 
and, in a few instances, the interpretation which I have adopted 
differs from his. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRYt INSCRIPTIONS. 2&t 

A particular description of the bounds of the village, 
and its land-marks, is next inserted in the Canara lan- 
guage* After which the patent proceeds thus : 

'^ This patent is of the king Harihara, the sole unal- 
terable tree of beneficence, magnanimous, and whose sweet 
strains compose this royal grant. By his command this 
patent has been firamed, expressed in due form, in the 
sacred tongue,* 

'^ The boundaries of the village on aU iddes, have been 
stated in the provincial dialect. 

'^ Of original gift or confirmation of it, confirmation is 
superior to gift ; by generous grants a man obtains hea- 
ven ; by confirmation of them, an unperishable abode ; for 
the confirmation of another's donation is twice as merito- 
rious as a gift made by himself; and his own munificence 
is rendered firuitless by resumption of another's grants. He 
who resumes land, whether bestowed by himself or by 
another, is bom an insect in ordure for sixty thousand 
years. In this world is one only sister of all kings, namely 
land, which has been confared on priests :t she must not 
be enjoyed nor espoused.^! This general maxim of duty 
for kings, should be strictly observed by you in all times ; 
so RAmachandra eamesdy conjures all future sove- 
reigns.§ 

* This passage may indicate the artist's name^ Y1^id£va. 

t The terms may signify " fully granted away, or properly be- 
stowed." 

{ In mythology, as well as in figurative language, the earth is wife 
of the sovereign. With an allusion to this idea, land, which has been 
granted away, is here called the king'is sister : and his seizure of such 
land is pronounced incestuous. 

The expression which has been translated espoused (caraffrahyd^ 
literally, * to be taken by the hand ')» will also signify * subjected to 
taxation : ' for cara signifies tax as well as hand. 

§ This appears to be a quotation from some poem (a PvrdiM or 
the Rdmdyaha), The whole of the concluding part of the inscription 



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262 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

" h&i VieCpAcsua ; or the auspicious deity with uu- 
even eyes."* 

*ll<Ml^i4M^fd^^KIW^^Mrl: tlv9Tl 

(comprised in five stanzas) seems to be the same with the close of 
the grant on plates of copper preserxed at Conjeveram. See As. Res., 
vol. iii. p. 53. 

* This signature is in C6n<ira letters. 



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CONTAINING SANSCftYx INSCRIPTIONS. 263 

^R^^jR^chH>v^^: M|u<j<^H|^i^^^s|^ ;^^^;t^ 

<iviiRi>iir^'iW'i<MviKi<}wiir^<i "5<)^Ti 



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264 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

«Mr^'i'?i<^5M<MirH'M5«MiMr<i(i)n^ i 

«lRl«in'l>sll'S|IMW*i|J«Kc|Wi|ir4j^ \ 

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CONTAINING SANSCRYt INSCRIPTIONS. 266 

Mfri*1lilWHKo^|ri4<^r<^<ir3rV 1 
tl 



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266 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

IV. Another and similar Inscription found ai the same 

place. 
With a fac simile of the foregoing inscription^ Major 
Mackenzie communicated the copy of another inscription 
found also at Chitradvrg and in the same year. The whole 
of the introductory part, containing the name of the prince, 
and his genealogy, is word for word the same in both 
grants : excepting a few places, where the variations are 



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CONTAINING SANSCRtT INSCRIPTIONS. 267 

evidently owing to mistakes of the artist, by whom the 
plates were engraved. I have consequently derived much 
assistance bom this fac simile in decyphering the original 
inscription before described. 

The grant, here noticed, is by the same prince, and 
dated in Saca 1213 ; only four years anterior to the one 
before translated. I think it, therefore, imnecessary to 
complete the decyphering of it, or to insert a copy or 
translation merely for the name and description of the 
lands granted, or the designations of the persons on whom 
they were bestowed. 

Concerning the similarity of the grants, it may be re- 
marked, that this circumstance is not a sufficient ground 
of distrust; for it cannot be thought extraordinary, that a 
set form of introduction to patents should have been in use; 
or that grants, made within the space of four years, by the 
same person, should be alike. I must acknowledge, how- 
ever, that the inaccuracies of the original have impressed 
me with some doubt of the genuineness of the preceding 
grant I do not, however, suspect it to be a modem 
forgery : but I apprehend, that it may have been fabricated 
while the upper Cariiaiaca continued under the sole domi- 
nation of Hindu princes. Still it may not be without its 
use, as an historical monument: since it may be fairly 
presumed, that the introductory part is copied from a more 
ancient monument ; perhaps from that, with which it has 
been now collated. 

V. Inscription on a stone found at Curug6d£ in the 
district of Adoni.* 
Another ancient monument, for the communication of 
which the Asiatic Society is indebted to the same gentle- 
man, whose zeal for literary research, and indefatigable 



Adavanu 



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268 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

industry in the prosecution of inquiries, cannot be too much 
praised, was found by him in the upper Carniiaca in 1801, 
and has been presented to the Asiatic Society, with the 
following account of its discovery and of the inscription 
which it contains. 

' The accompanying stone was found at CurugSde, four- 
teen miles north of BaUari, not far from the Tungabhadra, 
among the ruins of the ancient town at the foot of the Durg ; 
and was removed thence, in March, 1801, with the con- 
sent of the principal inhabitants, under the impression, 
that this specimen of ancient characters, with which it is 
covered, would be a desirable acquisition to gentlemen who 
cultivate the study of Hindu literature. 

' The inscription is chiefly written in the ancient Canara 
language much mixed with Sanscrit f of which some of the 
SlScas or stanzas are exclusively composed. It commences 
with the invocation of Sambhu (Siva), and after intro- 
ducing the grant, date, and description of the lands, con- 
cludes with several slScas usually added as a formula in 
confirmation of such donations. 

' A few of the stanzas, said to be written in the Procri^ lan- 
guage, could not be understood by the Sastris and PaAclits 
at TripUcane, who explamed the greatest part of the in- 
scription to my Brahmens: by their united efforts and 
knowledge, the accompanying translation was given, in 
which I have every confidence after the experience I have 
had of the fidelity of other translations by the same hands 
(some of which are already communicated). 

' The mscription is useful as an historical record, if the 
Raja Racshamalla, mentioned here, be the same with 
the sovereign of the same name, mentioned in a history of 
Mysorej who flourished about the eighth century; thus 
agreeing in date nearly with the monimient. 

* The beauty of the character was also a strong motive 



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CONTAINING sanscrIt inscriftions. 269 

for removing it, as an appropriate offering to a Society, 
whose labours have been so successfully employed in illus- 
trating the interesting remains of Hindu antiquity ; and a 
permanent specimen of a character which appears hitherto 
to have escaped much notice. 

^ The common Cimara language and character are used 
by the natives of all those countries extending firom Coxm-- 
hatorej* north to Balkeej\ near JBeder, and within the 
parallels from the eastern GhS^s to the western, compre- 
hending the modem provinces of Mysore^X Sera,% upper 
JBednare,\\ Soonda^^ Goa, Adoni, Bachore^** Canow/,+t 
the Ddab of the Kishna and Tungabhadra, and a consi- 
derable part of the modem Suhahs of JBeder and Bijapur, 
as far as the source of the Kishna at least. Its limits and 
point of junction with the McAraHas may be yet ascertained 
with more precimon ; but in 1797, I had the opportunity 
of observing, that the junction of the three languages, 
Telinga, MahraHa, and Canara, took place somewhere 
about Beder. 

* Besides the common character and language, another 
appears to have been used, denominated at present the 
Halla or ancient CanarOf in which this inscription is 
written : it has gone so much into disuse, that it was with 
some difficulty I could get people to read it An alphabet 
will be yet communicated ; as several books and ancient 
inscriptions are written in this character: and the remaining 
literature of the Jains in Balaghai, appearing to be pre- 
served in it, affords additional motives for pointing it out 
to the attention of the learned, as probably affording means 
of extending the field of knowledge of Hindu literature. 

* Some of the inscriptions, at Canara and Salset, appear 

* Otyamutdr, t PhdlacU % Mehisdr. § Sird. 

II Bedniir, IT Stmdd, •• Rachiir. ft Candmitr. 



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270 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

to be written in this character; and many monuments of 
the kind, dispersed over the upper Camatic, hold out the 
prospect of fiirther information. 

' Among several manuscripts in CanarOf five, relating 
to the Jain religion and customs, are in my possession. 

^ The name of Cavellt Boeia, a JBr&hmen, who was 
highly instrumental in forwarding and facilitating the inves* 
tigations carried on in Mysore and the NizanCs dominions, 
is inscribed on the edge of this stone, as a small tribute to 
the zeal and fideUty of a native who evinced a gaiius supe- 
rior to the common prejudices of the natives. He first 
suggested the idea of removing the stone to scnne place 
where it could be usefiil to European literature ; and, by his 
conciliatory manner, obtained the concurrence and assistance 
of the natives for that purpose/ 

The stone, sent by Major Mackenzie, with the fore- 
going account of the discovery of it, is nearly five feet high, 
and three wide, and about ten inches thick. The firont is 
covered with writing in large characters, above which is a 
representation of the Unga in the form usual in temples : it 
is surmounted by a sun and crescent ; and near it stands a 
bull, intended perhaps for the bull called Nafidi, a con- 
stant attendant of ^ivA : this is followed by the figure of a 
smaller animal, of similar form. The back of the stone is 
half covered with writing. 

The translation, mentioned by Major Mackenzie, is 
here subjoined. Not being acquainted with the character 
in which tiie original is vnitten, I have not collated the 
version ; and have therefore used no fi'eedom with it, except 
that of substituting, in many places, English words for 
Sanscrit, which the translator had preserved. 



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CONTAINING SANSCrIt INSCRIPTIONS. 271 



Translation. 

" Adoration be to the auspicious Swayambhu 
nAt'ha, or Self-existent Protector. 

1. " I prostrate myself before Sambhu : whose glorious 
head is adorned with the resplendent moon ; and who is 
the chief prop of the foundation of the three worlds.* 

2. " May Swayambhu be propitious: he, who won 
immortal renown; who grants the wishes of those that 
earnestly intreat him ; who pervades the universe ; the So- 
vereign Lord of Deities ; who destroyed the state and arro- 
gance of the demons ; who enjoyed the delightful embraces 
of PArvatI, to whom the learned prostrate themselves : 
the God above all gods. 

3. ^^ I prostrate myself before Sambhu; whose un- 
quenchable blaze consumed the magnificent Tripura; 
whose food is the nectar dropping from the beams of the 
moon ; who rejoiced in the sacrifice of heads by the Lord 
of Racshasas ,•+ whose fiace is adorned with smiles, when 
he enjoys the embraces of Ga uai. 

(The foregoing stanzas are Sanscrit : the fourth, which is 
Pracrii, is unexplained. Those which follow, are in Canara.) 

5. ^^ By the consort of Divf, whose divinity is adored, 
the spouse of PArvatI, resplendent with the glorious 
light of gems reflected firom the crowns of the Lords of 
Gods and demons whose heads lay prostrate at his feet ; 
with a fitoe ever lighted up with smiles ; he is the self- 
existent deity: may the wealth, and the stations of his 
saints, be ever granted to us. 

* This is the same stanza, which begins the two inscriptions found 
at Oiitradurg, and which likewise occurs in a grant in the possession 
of a Brahmen at Nandigul; and in that preserved at Conjeveram, 

t RiVAi^A. 



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272 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

6. ^'The beams of whose sight, like the frequent waving 
of the lotus flower, flash reflected from the numerous 
crowns of glorious kings, of the chief of Gods, of the 
King of Kings, and of the Lord of Demons ; who exists 
in all things, in all elements, in water, air, earth, ether, and 
fire, in the sun and moon : the renowned deity manifested 
in eight forms ; ^ambhu ; may he grant our ardent 
prayers. 

7. '^ Cheerfully I bow to §ambhu in the lotus of the 
heart; to him who increases and gives life to all; who 
holds supreme command over all ; who, through his three 
divine attributes, created and animated fourteen worlds; 
who ever resides in the minds of his saints." 

(The two next stanzas have not been explained. The 
following is in HaUa Canard). 

10. '^ For ever be propitious to S6m£$wara DivADi, 
son of the fortunate Bhuvana malla vIra, the pro- 
tector of the world, the chief sovereign of kings, the pre- 
eminent monarch, a man of superior virtue, a distinguished 
pei*sonage of the noble race, the ornament of the Chaluca 
tribe, whose state be increased progressively in this world, 
so long as the sun and moon endure ; who reigns in the 
city of Calyauy enjoying every happiness and good fortune, 
vrith the converse of good men and every other pleasure. 
In this country of CunlaUxdesa,* a land renowned for 
beauty and for manly strength over all the sea-girt earth, 
is situated Condavipattan, placed as the beauty spot on 
the human face ; a city favoured by the goddess of pros- 
perity; as a nos^ay of elegant flowers adorning the 
tresses of the beauteous goddess of the earth. 

11. '^ How is this favoured land? In its towns are nume- 

* Cuntaia dSsa, the ancient name of the province in which Curu- 
gbde is situated ; part of the BdUM or Adoni District. (Note by Major 
Maokbnzie.) 



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CONTAINING SANSCRYt INSCRIPTIONS. 273 

rous groves of mango ; plantations of luxuriant betel and 
fields of rice : in every town are channels of water^ and 
wells^ opulent men and beautiful women ; in every town 
are temples of the Gods and of the saints : in every town 
are men blessed with vigour and every virtue. 

12. " In its centre, is the mighty hill of Ciirugdde durgy 
like the fastnesses* of heaven, ever famed, rearing aloft its 
top crowned with fortresses ; in height and compass sur- 
passing all the strong hills on the right or left. 

13. ** This CurugSde was established as the capital of 
his dominions by the king of CuntdUiy who was the foe of 
the king of Ch6la ;t who terrified the Gurjara; who is the 
instrument to destroy the plants of Madru; who put Pati- 
dya to flight. Is it possible for the king of snakes, though 
possessed of a thousand tongues, to praise sufficiently the 
beauty of this city ? 

14. " What is the description of the delightful gardens 
that encompass the city? They are gardens wherein are 
found the tilaCy the tamal^ the palm, the plantain, the 
Mimusops, the trumpet-flower, the tremulous fig-tree, the 
citron, the Oleander, Mesua, and Cassia, the cotton-tree, 
the Carambola and Pcederia, the mango, Butea, and fra- 
grant Nalica; and various trees, that flourish and produce 
through all seasons as in the garden Nmdana: these sur- 
rounded this city of CurogSdeJ' 

(The fifteenth stanza is unexplained.) 

16. ^* In the city of Curugddef the residence of the god- 

• The poet indulges his fancy in describing this favoured cfo^^y ; 
but, in fact, it is only about 250 feet high, and no ways remarkable 
for strength. (Note by Major Mackenzie.) 

t Qibla dcMy The modern Tanjore country. 

Gurjara^ Guzarat. 

Madni, Madura and Trichinopoly. 

Pandya Marawar and Tinevelly. M. 

VOL. II. T 



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274 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

dess of prosperity, where are numerous temples of worship, 
fertile lands, happy spouses, friendly intercourse, a favour- 
able government, every sacred decoration and zealous de- 
votion in the service of Siva ; 

17. " The Lord of that city, a warrior unrivalled, whose 
name was RacsuAmalla, whose breast is tinged with 
the saffron communicated from the bosom of beauty, whose 
renown is ever praised over the whole world.*' 

(The eighteenth stanza is in Pracrtt, and not explained.) 

19. " This Raja RacshAmalla, prince of the earth, 
bom of so renowned a race of sovereigns, was happily pos- 
sessed of valor, of victory, and of wealth. 

20. *' For the king RacshAmalla, who was lord of 
riches and a devout worshipper of Siva, had for his con- 
sort S6mal d£v1, and begot a son named N£rungala 
RAjA, husband to the goddess of renown, the bestower of 
wealth on the distressed, on the learned, and on the unfor- 
tunate, to the utmost extent of their wishes. 

21. " To NfeRUNGALA RAjA and to his wife Pacsha- 
lA Dfevi (the source of all virtues), were happily bom 
two sons, named ImAdi RacshAmalla and S6ma- 
bhupAla, whose renown, like the sky, overspread the 
whole earth. 

22. "What is the description of the eldest of these 
princes? ImAdi (or the second) RacshAmalla RAjA, 
the successor of the former, seated on the excellent throne, 
attended by many mighty elephants, in colour like the 
Chamari* mled the whole kingdom under one umbrella, 
possessing the wonderful power, like Chinna g6vinda, 
of feeding tigers and sheep in the same fold. 

23. " The king RacshAmalla acquired great power: 
his mighty splendor and good fortune were such as drew 

• Bos gnmnieiis. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRYt INSCRIPTIONS. 275 

the applause of the whole admiring world. The globe was 
filled with the light of his reputation. The beauty of his 
person is worthy of the praise even of Cupid, the God 
famed for beauty. He was the destroyer of sin ; eminent 
above foreign kings, and in bal^tle he was as Vishnu. 

24. " May MeItu [Siva] graciously bestow eternal 
wealth and prosperity of empire, on the king RacshA- 
MALLA, among all his chief saints. 

^' During the gradual increase of the empire of RacshA- 
MALLA extending from the north, all around, even to the 
north, his servant and worshipper, a descendant of Ca- 
iiTAPA^s race, manner of the affairs of TalgarA amarI, 
invested with full authority; equal in knowledge to Yu- 
gandhar, the sun to enlighten the caste of Vajinasa, [as 
the sun enlightens the sky] ; chief of ministers, bom by the 
blessing of the god Swatambhu, the source of wealth, 
was BAbarAju." 

(Several lines follow giving an account of the ancestors 
of BAbarAj^, which have not been translated.) 

^^ Such is BAbarAjiO, who built a temple to the god 
Swatambh6 nivi, while he was managing the affairs 
of his sovereign lord, the nughty king, the great Rac- 
shAmalla, whose god was the self-existent deity. 

*^ The praise of the priests of the temple. 

" They were learned in the sacred ceremonies of holy 
devotion, in self-restadnt, in austere fast, appropriate studies, 
alms, remembrance, nlence, religious practice, and the 
worship of &iva. 

^^ They were devout in performing the ceremonies of the 
worship of the gods of the family. Among them was one 
named BAlaSiva AchArta, unequalled for a good or 
happy genius. To this famous BAlaSiva AchArya was 
granted this gift with water poured into his hands. 

t 2 



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276 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

^' The charitable donation of lands given to the good 
SwAYAMBHU in the year of ^IlivAhan 1095* in the Vi- 
jaya year of the cycle, and on the 30th of the month Mar- 
gasira, on Monday, in the time of an eclipse of the sun.'* 

(It appears unnecessary to insert the description of the 
lands.) 

" Also Chinna g6vinda sItara gundi, king of 
the city of BhSgavati, equal to the sovereign of JBhaHal, 
who was acknowledged for ever by the excellent VIracA- 
lId^iva, the mighty king of the earth named ImAdi Rac- 
shAmalla DfevA. In the year of SAlivAhan 1103,t of 
the cycle Plava, and on the 16th of Carticay on Monday, 
in the gracious time of the moon's eclipse, at the time 
when he made over in alms THpura Agraharamy granted 
under DARAptjRBAC to BAla^iva d^va, who repaired 
all the buildings of Swatambhu nivA, who is distin- 
guished for knowledge of the pure VcdaSy and of other 
religious institutions and pcustoms of the worshippers of 
Siva, and for charity in feeding the coor.'c 

(The sequel of the inscription is likewise omitted : it 
relates to a further grant made by the widow of BAb arAj^j, 
at the time of her burning herself with the corpse of her 
husband. The concluding part of it was left untranslated, 
being stated to be illegible.) 

The eclipses, mentioned in these grants, do not appear 
reconcileable with their dates. According to the table of 
ecHpses calculated by Pingre,^ the solar ectipses, which 
occurred in 1172 and 1173, fell on 27th January and 23d 
June, 1172, and 12th June, 1173; and the lunar eclipses 
1 ■ ■ ■ - 

• Answering to A.D. 1173. 

t Corresponding toA.D. 1181. 

X Published in Vart de verifier les dates; and inserted in Play- 
fair's System of Chronology. 



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CONTAINING iSANSCRtx INSCRIPTIONS. 2T7 

in 1180 and 1181, were on the 13th February and 7th 
August 1180, and 22d December, 1181. None of these 
approach to the dates of Margasira or Agrahayana 1095 
and Cartica 1103. Unless, then, the era of SAlivIh an A 
have been counted differently in the peninsula of India, 
from the mode in which it is now reckoned, and on which 
the comparison of it with the Christian era is grounded, it 
seems difficult to account for this disagreement of the dates 
and eclipses in any other way, than by impeaching the in- 
scription, the authenticity of which there is not otherwise 
any reas<Hi to question. 

VI. Inscription on a Stone found at Kurrah. 

Having learnt from Captain C. Stewart (a Member of 
this Society), that an inscription had been remarked by him 
in the gateway of the fort of Kurrah {Khard)^ I obtained, 
through the assistance of Major Lennon, then stationed 
in the vicinity of that place, the stone itself which con- 
tains the inscription. It now belongs to the Asiatic So- 
ciety. 

The inscription is very short ; contains the date 1093 
Samvatf the name of the prince, as also names of several 
places ; and is written in a very legible character : yet all 
my endeavours to arrive at any explanation of it have been 
unsuccessful. Whether it be only a fragment of an in- 
scription (for the stone is very narrow),* or the inscription 
have been inaccurately engraved (and this also is counte- 
nanced by its appearance), I shall not take upon myself 
to determine. At present, I can only translate the first 
six, out of sixteen lines, which run thus : " Samvat 1093,1c 

* Its height is four feet nine inches, but it is only nine inches wide. 
t Corresponding to A.D. 1037. 



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278 



ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 



on the first day of the light fortnight of AshoAha. This 
day, at this auspicious Ccia^ the great and emment prince 
YaSahpAla^j: in the realm of CauAamhay and village of 
Payahasa^ commands^ that .** 



TlHHlRilird^8|| 






• It may be worth remarking, that the inscription discovered at 
Sdrandt^ha near Benares^ dated ten years antecedent to this, relates 
to a family of princes whose names had a similar termination. As. 
Res., vol. V. p. 133. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRIt INSCRIPTIONS. 279 

VII. Inscription on a Plate of Copper found in the district 
o^DinAjpur. 

Id the beginning of the present year (1806), a plate of 
copper was found at Amgach'hi in Sultanjmr, by a pea- 
sant, dicing earth for the repair of a road near his cottage. 
He delivered it to the nearest police officer, by whom it 
was conveyed to the magistrate, Mr. J. Pattle : and by 
him forwarded for communication to the Asiatic Society. 
Amgach^hi, though now a small village, is described as 
exhibiting the appearance of having formerly been a consi- 
derable place. Remains of old masonry are found there ; 
and numerous ponds are remarked in the vicmity of that 
and of the adjacent villages. It is situated at the distance 
of about fourteen miles from Budal; where an ancient pillar 
stands, of which a description (as well as the insmption, 
which is read on it), was published in the first volume of 
Asiatic Researches (p. 131). 

The plate is very large, being fourteen inches high and 
thirteen broad. It is surmounted by a highly wrought 
ornament of brass, fixed on the upper part, and advanced 
some distance on the plate so as to occasion a considerable 
break in the upper lines. The superior surface is covered 
with writing in very close lines and crowded characters. 
The inscription is completed on the inferior surface, which 
contains sixteen Unes (the upper surface having no less than 
thirty-three). The character is ancient Devanagari ; and 
the language Sanscrit : but so great a part of the inscription 
is obliterated (some portion of every line being illegible), 
that it is difficult to discover the purport of the inscription. 
After wasting much time in endeavouring to decypher the 
whole of it, I have been able only to ascertain the name of 
the grantor, and a part of his genealogy ; with the date 



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280 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

of the grants which unfortunately is reckoned only by the 
reign, without any reference to a known era. 

The ornament affixed to the plate, and representing a 
seal, contains a single line of writing, which is distinctly 
read, ^Rf VigrahapAla ntvA. This name as of the 
grantor, is found at the close of the inscription ; and it oc- 
euro more than once in the body of the patent. Among his 
ancestors and predecessoro, the following names are dis- 
tinctly legible. 

The firet prince mentioned is L6cAPiLA, and after him 
Dh armapAla. The next name has not been decyphered : 
but the following one is JayapAla, succeeded by DivA- 
pAla. Two or three subsequent names are yet undecy- 

phered:* they are followed by RAjapAla, pAlad^va, 

and subsequently MAnf pAla d^ya, NayapAla and again 
VigrahapAla dIsya. 

So far as a glimpse has been yet obtained of the purport 
of the inscription, it seems to be a grant by VigrahapAla 
Div a, in the making of which NayapAla likewise appears 
to have had some share. It is dated Samvatf 12, on the 
9th day of Chaitra. 

The use of the word Samvat (which properly signifies a 
year) to denote the year of the king*s reign, and not that of 
VicramAditya's era, merits particular notice. In the 
inscription on the plates found at MongiryX containing a 
grant of land by a prince who appears to be of the same 
family, the date was read by Mr. Wilkins, Samvat 33 ; 
which was supposed both by him and by Sir W. Jones 
to intend the era of VicramAditya.^ I have always 

• One seems to be NlRAYAifA; perhaps NlBAYAi^APALA. 
t The original seems to exhibit Samat: but this must be intended 
for Sambat or Samvat, 

J As. Res., vol. i. p, 123. § Ibid. p. 130. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRYt INSCRIPTIONS. 281 

entertained doubts of that interpretation: and, among other 
reasons for hesitating, one has been the improbability, which 
to my apprehension exists, that the era should have been 
in use, and denoted by the same abbreviated term, so early 
after the time at which it commences. Eras by which 
nations have continued to reckon for a series of ages, have 
not usually been introduced until a considerable time after 
the event from which they are counted: and, when first 
introduced, have been designated by some more definite 
term than one merely signifying a year. But the word 
Samvat (abbreviated from Samvatsara a year,) being in 
that inscription prefixed to a low numeral, and not ex« 
pressly restricted, as is usual where VicramAditya's era 
is meant, was more likely to intend the year of the reignmg 
king (though Sir W. Jones thought otherwise,*) than that 
of a period reckoned from the birth, or the accession, or 
the demise of another monarch. It appeared to me like^ 
wise, as to Captain Wilford, on examining the fac simile 
of the inscription in question,f that the character, which 
stands in the place of the t of Samvat, resembled more 
nearly the numeral 1. The date might therefore be 133 
instead of 33. I inclined, however, to believe the lower 
number to have been rightly read by Mr. Wilkins on the 
original plate: and consequently supposed it to be the 
date of the reign of D^vapAla, the prince who made the 
grant. The date of the An^dch'hi plate, which must be 
referred to the reign of the grantor VigrahapAla, seems 
strongly to corroborate this opinion. 

The present inscription, though yet imperfectly decy- 
phered, appears to be useful towards ascertaining the age 



• As. Res., vol. i. p. 142. 

t Plates i. and ii. in the Ist. vol. of As. Res. 



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282 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

of the MonffT grant The names of DhermapAla and 
Di^yApA.LA occur in both inscriptions; as that of RAja- 
PALA does, on the pillar at JBudal, as well as on the 
Amgach'hi plate. Some of these names are also found in 
the hst of princes enumerated in the At/in cLcheri* as having 
reigned in Bengal before BallAlasSna. The authority of 
AbiO'lfazl, on Hindu history, is indeed not great: but 
the inscription on the statue of Buddha, which was found 
at Saranafha^ near BenareSy-); proves, that a family of 
princes, whose names terminated in paUiy did reign over 
GavAa in Bengal, near eight hundred years ago : and this 
is consistent vnth the period to which that dynasty is 
brought down by Astj^LPAZL; namely, the middle of the 
eleventh century of the Christian era. It appears also, from 
the same inscription found at Saranafhay that these princes 
were worshippers of Buddha, a circumstance which agi-ees 
with the indications of that faith in the Mon^ grant, as 
translated by Mr. Wilkins. The name of Mah!pAla, 
mentioned as king of GauSa in the SaranaVha inscription, 
occurs likewise in the AmgacVhi plate ; and if it be rea- 
sonable to beUeve, that the same person is intended in both 
instances, it will be right to infer, that the grant contained 
on the plate found at AmgacKhi is nearly eight hundred 
years old ; and that the plate found at Mon^r is more 
ancient by two or three centuries. This reduces the age of 
the Mongir grant to the eighth or ninth century of the 
Christian era ; which I cannot but think more probable, 
than the opinion of its being anterior to the birth of 
Christ. 

• Vol. ii. p. 26. t As. Res., vol. v. p. 133. 



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CONTAINING SANSCRKt INSCRIPTIONS. 283 

VIIL Inscriptions on Plates of Copper at Nidigal and 

GOUJDA. 

To the foregoing description of several monuments, which 
have been presented to the Asiatic Society, I shall add a 
brief notice of two other inscriptions, of which copies have 
been received. 

Mention has been already made of a grant of land, in- 
scribed on five plates of copper, seen at Nidigal, in the 
year 1801. It was in the possession of a Brahmana resid- 
ing at that place : and a copy of it was taken by Major 
Mackenzie, which has been communicated by him to the 
Society. The grant appears to be from the second Bucca 
rAjA, who was third in succession from the first prince of 
that name, and grandson of the king by whom the grants 
beforementioned were made. If the date have been cor- 
rectly decyphered from the copy of this inscription, it is of 
the year 1331 Saca, corresponding to A. D. 1409. 

Another inscription, commimicated by Major Mac- 
kenzie, purports to be a grant by Janam^jaya, the 
celebrated monarch who reigned in India at the commence- 
ment of the present age or Galiyuga. It is in the hands of 
the Brahmens or priests of Goujda Agraharam in Btdndr; 
and was, with some reluctance, entrusted by them to Major 
Mackenzie, who himself took from it a copy in fac simile, 
the exactness of which is demonstrated by the &cility with 
which the inscription may be decyphered ftom that copy. 
The original is described as contained in three plates of 
copper, fastened together by a ring, on which is the repre- 
sentation of a seal, bearing the figure of a boar with a sun 
and crescent. The purport of the inscription, for I think 
it needless to make a complete version of it, is that ' Ja- 
NAMfijAYAy son of ParIcshit, r mouarch reigning at 
Hastinapura, made a progress to the south, and to other 



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284 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS 

quarters, for the purpose of reducing all countries under 
his domination ; and performed a sacrifice for the destruc- 
tion of serpents, in presence of the god (or idol) Hari- 
DRA, at the confluence of the rivers Tungahkadra and 
Haridi'a, at the time of a partial eclipse of the sun, which 
fell on a Sunday, in the month of Chaitra, when the sun 
was entering the northern hemisphere ; the moon being in 
the Nacshatra Astoim.'* 

Having completed the sacrifice, the king bestowed gold 
and lands on certain Brahmaiias of Gautamagrama : 
whose names and designations are stated at full length, 
with the description and limits of the lands granted. The 
inscription concludes with two verses ; the same with two 
of those which occur in the plates found at Chitradurg ;t 
and in those preserved at Conjeveram.'Jl, 

If reliance might be placed on this as an ancient and 
authentic monument, its importance, in the confirmation of 
a leading point of Indian history, would be obvious and 
great. Major Mackenzie, in communicating the copy 
of it, expresses a doubt of its authenticity ; but remarks, 
that it can be no modem forgery, for the people them- 

* Sach is the deduction from the text, which states a half eclipse 
of the son in Chaitra, on the sun's entrance into the Uttardya^ or 
northern path^ at the moment of Vyaiipata (which imports new moon 
on a Sunday in any one of the undermentioned NacsJuUraSy viz. Ji- 
winiy §rava^dy DhanUhVhdy Ardrdy AiUshCy and Mrigakiras: the first 
of which is the only one compatible with the month). The words of 

the text are Chaitramdsi crishfui [should be crishim] pacshc so 

caraha lUtar&yaha san vyatipdta nimittc surya 

parvaM ardha grdsa grihita [should be grWUa] samac [should h% 
samayS ] 

In the places marked with dots, the letters are wanting in the 
original. 

t See pages 261 and 266 of this volume. 

X As. Res., vol. iii. p. 52. The verses are those numbered 50 
and 54. 



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CONTAINING SANSCrKt INSCRIPTIONS. 285 

selves cannot read the inscription. I concur with Major 
Mackenzie both in distrusting the genuineness of this 
monument ; and in thinking that it is no recent fabri- 
cation. 

Numerous and gross errors of grammar and orthography,* 
which can neither be explained by a gradual change of lan- 
guage, nor be referred to the mistakes of a transcriber or 
engraver, but are the evident fruit of ignorance in the per- 
son who first penned the inscription in NagaA characters, 
would furnish reason for discrediting this monument, were 
it otherwise liable to no suspicion. But, when to this cir- 
cumstance are added the improbability of the copper-plates 
having been preserved during several thousand years, and 
the distrust with which any ancient monument must be 
received, where its present possessor, or his ancestor, may 
have had claims under the grant recorded in it, there can 
be little hesitation in considering this grant of Janam&- 
j AY A as unauthentic ; independently of any argument de- 
duced from the character, which is not perhaps suflSciently 
antique ; or from the astronomical data in tiiis inscription, 
which, however consistenit with Indian notions of astro- 
nomy and chronology, will hardly bear the test of a criti- 
cal examination. 



• For example samd^ for samayc (t1*i^ for ^^^) a palpable 

error obviously arising from the blunder of an ignorant amanuensis 
writing from dictation. The mistake occurs more than once ; and 
can be accounted for in no other manner: the syllables i and ye, 
being alike in sound, though dissimilar in form; and the blunder 
being such as no person acquainted with the rudiments of the Sans- 
cr^t language could have committed. Other instances have been 
remarked, alnost equally strong : as Paricshiti for Pofticshit : cha- 
cravrarUi for chacravarttL Short vowels for long, and vice vers&, in 
repeated instances; the dental for the palatal s; and numerous other 
errors of spelling ; besides faults of grammar and style. 



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286 ON ANCIENT MONUIIBNTS 

IX. A grant of Land by JAYACHANDRA^iZo/a of CanCj* 

It may be proper to notice further, in this place, the 
inscription of which mention was made at the beginning of 
this essay, as having been decyphered by a Pa'AStit (Seb- 
voRU TRivfiDi) who communicated to me a copy of it, 
with the information, that the original has been conveyed 
to England by the gentleman in whose possession it was 
seen by him. According to that copy, the genealogy of 
the pnnce, who made the grant recorded in the inscrip- 
tions, is as follows : 

1. SrIpAla, a prince of the solar race. 

2. His son MahIchandra. 

3. SrIchandra d£va, son of the last mentioned ; ac- 
quired, by his own strength, the realm of Gadhipura or 
Canyacuhja (Candj); visited Casi and other holy places; 
and repeatedly gave away in alms, his own weight in gold. 
He appears to have been the first king of CanSjy in this 
family. 

4. MadanapAla d&va, son and successor of SrI- 
chandra. 

5. GoVINDA CHANDRA, SOn of MaDANApAlA. 

6. VijAYA CHANDRA D&VA, (the samc with Jaya 
CHAND,) son of G6viNDA CHANDRA; is Stated in the 
inscription as issuing his commands to all public officers, 
and to the inhabitants of Naguli assembled at DcvapaU 
Upaiiana, enjoining them to observe and obey his patent ; 
which is recited as a grant of land to two BrakmanaSy con- 
ferred by him on the day of full moon in Magha 1220,* 
subsequeiitly to his inauguration as Yuvaraja or desig- 
nated successor and associate in the empire. The inscrip- 
tion concludes by quoting, from a Pura'/uif four stanzas to 

• Corresponding to A.D. 1164. 



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CONTAINING sanscrIt inscriptionb. 287 

deprecate the resumption of the grant : and by a signature 
importing " this copper was engraved by JayapAla." 

Without having seen the original, no opinion can be 
offered on the probable genuineness of this monument. 
But it will be observed, that the inscription is consistent 
with chronology; for Jaya chand, who is described in 
the Aytn Acheri^ as supreme monarch of India, havmg 
the seat of his empire at Can6j, is there mentioned as the 
ally of SHEHAsuDDiN in the war with PrKt^havIrAja 
or Pit'h6rA, about the year of the Hejra 668, or A. D. 
1192 : twenty-eight years after the date of this grant. 

Remarks. 

A few observations on the general subject under conside- 
ration will terminate this essay. 

Most of the ancient monuments, which have been yet 
discovered, contain royal grants of land ; framed, com- 
monly, in exact conformity to the rules delivered by Hindu 
writers who have treated of this subject. + That durable 
memorials have been usually framed to record other events 
or circumstances, there is no reason to suppose ; and this 
consideration is sufficient to explain the comparative fre- 
quency of monuments which recite royal grants. It was 
the interest, too, of persons holding possession under such 
grants, to be careful in the preservation of the evidence of 
their right. But this circumstance, while it accounts for 
the greater frequency of monuments of this description, 
suggests a reason for particular caution in admitting their 
genuineness. Grants may have been forged in support of 
an occupant's right, or of a claimant's pretensions. It will 

• Gladwin's Translation, vol. ii. p. 119. 

t As. Res., vol. iii. p. 50. Digest of Hindu law, vol. ii. p. 278. 



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288 ON ANCIENT MONUMENTS, 8CC. 

be, therefore, proper to bring a considerable portion of dis- 
trust and jealousy to the examination of any inscription on 
stone or metal, alleged to be ancient, and now possessed 
by persons who have any claims or pretensions under the 
grant which it contains. But no such cause of jealousy 
exists, where the monument in question favours no one's 
pretensions, and especially where it is accidentally dis- 
covered after being long buried. It is, indeed, possible, 
that such a monument, though now casually found, may 
have been originally a forgery. But even where that may 
be suspected, the historical uses of a monument fabricated 
so much nearer to the times to which it assumes to belong, 
will not be entirely superseded. The necessity of rendering 
the forged grant credible, would compel a fabricator to 
adhere to history, and conform to established notions : 
and the tradition, which prevailed in his time, and by 
which he must be guided, would probably be so much 
nearer to the truth, as it was less remote from the period 
which it concerned. 

In the present state of researches into Indian antiqui- 
ties, the caution here suggested appears to be that which 
it is most requisite to observe. When a greater number 
of monuments shall have been examined and compared, 
more rules of criticism may be devised ; and will, at the 
same time, become particularly requisite, should the prac- 
tice arise of purchasing ancient monuments ; or of giving 
rewards for the discovery of them. At present no temp- 
tation exists for modem fabrications, and little caution is 
therefore necessary to avoid imposition. 



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XL 
Inscriptions upon Rocks in South Bihak.* 

[From the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. L p. 201—206.] 

Dr. Buchanan Hamilton, while engaged in statis- 
tical researches in the provinces subject to the govemment 
of Bengal, gave attention to the antiquities of the country, 
as to other scientific objects, which he had the opportunity 
of investigating. His reports, comprising the result of his 
inquiries, are deposited in the Library and Museum of the 
East-India Company: and, at his instance, the Court of 
Directors have sanctioned a Uberal communication of the 
information contained in them, to this Society. Among the 
antiquities collected by him, there are many fac-similes of 
inscriptions. I purpose submitting to the Society explana- 
tions of such among them as are interesting : and I now 
present the translation of one, which appears curious. 

It is an inscription upon a rock, denominated, from an 
idol delineated on it, Tarachdndiy in the vicinity of Sahasram^ 
in South Bihar ; and contains the protest of a chieftain, 
named PratApa dhavala d£va, bearing the title of 
Nayacay and that of Raja otJapila, against an usurpation 
of two villages by certaAn Brahmanas in his neighbourhood, 
under colour of a grant, surreptitiously obtained through 
corruption of his ofiicers, from the Raja of Gadhinagara 
or Canyacubja (CanSj), who was the celebrated Vijaya 
CHANDRA. Its date is 1229 Samvat, corresponding to 
A.D.1173. 



• Read at a public meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, Decem- 
ber 4, 1824. 

VOL. II. U 



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290 INSCRIPTIONS UPON ROCKS 

In Dr. Buchanan Hamilton's collection^ there are 
copies of two other inscriptions upon rocks, in the neigh- 
bourhoody exhibiting the name of the same chieftain, in 
conjonction with many of his kindred in the one; and 
followed by a long series of his successors in the other. I 
observe little else interesting in them, besides the names 
and the dates. 

The site of the principal inscription is thus described by 
Dr. Buchanan Hamilton. ' In a narrow passage, 
which separates the northern end of the hills from the great 
mass, and through which the road leads from Sahasram to 
Rautasghar, is a place where Tarachandi is worshipped. 
The image is carved on a ledge of rock ; and is so small, 
and ^o besmeared with oil and red lead, that I am not sure 
of its form. It seems, however, to represent a woman 
sitting on a man's knee ; but not in the form usual in 
Bihar f which is called Hara-gauru Adjacent to the 
image, a cavity in the rock has been enlarged by one or 
two pillars in front, supporting a roof, so as to form a shed, 
to which the priest, and a man who sells offerings and 
refreshments for votaries and passengers, daily repair. A 
few persons assemble in the month of Sravan. But the 
chief profit arises from passengers ; who are very numerous : 
and all who can afford, give something. The priest is a 
Sannyasi. Above the shed, the Moslemans have erected 
a small mosque, in order to show the triumph of the faith : 
but it is quite neglected. The image is usually attributed 
to the Cher 6s: and many small heaps between the place 
and Sahasfam, are said to be njuns of buildings erected by 
the same people. But a long inscription, carved on the 
rock within the shed, refers toVijAYA chandra, sove- 
reign of Can6j.' 

That inscription was strangely mismterpreted by the 
PaAclita attached to the survey on which Dr. Buchanan 



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IN SOUTH BIHAR. 291 

Hamilton was engaged. The PahAita supposed the 
chieftain, PratApa dhavala, to premise an intention of 
commemorating his descendants; and to proceed to the 
mention of Vijaya chandra, proprietor of Can6j ; and 
oATRUGHNAySonoftheii/aAara/a: whence Dr. Hamilton 
inferred, that Vijaya chandra was son of PratApa 
DHAVALA. Dr. Hamilton observes, indeed, that others 
gave a totally different interpretation: considering it as 
' an advertisement from PratApa dhavala, that he will 
not obey an order for giving up two villages, which, he 
alleges, had been procured by corruption from the officers 
of Vijaya chandra, king of Can6j.' 

The oriental scholar, upon inspection of the fac-simile, 
vnll have no difficulty in perceiving that the latter vms the 
right interpretation ; and it is, therefore, needless to pursue 
remarks which were built upon the Panclita's grossly 
erroneous translation. 

The style of the protest is singular ; and, on that ac- 
count alone, I should have thought it very deserving of 
notice. It serves, however, at the same time to show, that 
the paramount dominion of Canyacuhja extended to the 
mountains of South Bihar : and it presents an instance of 
the characteristic turbulence of Indian feudatories. 

The second inscription, bearing the name of the same 
chieftain, Nayaca PratApa dhavala nfevA, vrith the 
date 1219, (A.D. 1163) Saturday, 4th Jyaishi'ha badi, 
and underneath the name of his brother, the prince Tri- 
BHUVANA DHAVALA, the priucc's vrifc SuLHi, and another 
female S6MALf, and two sons LacshmyAditya and Pad- 
mAditya ; exhibits a rude figure of a goddess T6talA 
Dfivi, attributed to the femily priest ViSwar^jpa. On the 
other side of the figure are the names of five daughters, 
and, at the foot of it, six sons of the Nayaca. These are 
Varcu, Satrughna, BiRABALA, Sahasa dhavala, 

u 2 



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292 INSCRIPTIONS UPON ROCKS 

YAMi-cARTicfeYA and SAntayatna d^va. Beneath 
are names of CayasfhaSy Yajnyadhara, and VidyA- 
dhara, sons of CusumahAra; the treasurer D^varAja^ 
and the door-keeper (pratihara) Tishala. 

The site of this inscription is described by Dr. Bucha- 
nan Hamilton : * Where the Tutrahi, a branch of the 
Kudura river, falls down the hills of Tilofhu, is a holy 
place, sacred to the goddess T6talA. The recess, into 
which this stream falls, is about half a mile deep ; and ter- 
minates in a magnificent, abrupt rock, somewhat in the 
shape of a horseshoe, and from 180 to 250 feet high. In 
the centre is a deep pool, at all times filled with water, and 
which receives the stream, that falls from a gap in this 
immense precipice. This gap maybe thirty feet wide; and 
the perpendicular height there, 180 feet. 

' The image is said to have been placed by the Cher6s, 
about eighteen centuries ago ; and, in fact, resembles one 
of the images very common in the works attributed to that 
people in Bihar. But this antiquity is by no means con- 
firmed by the inscription, the date of which is evidently in 
Samvat 1389, or A.D. 1332. 

^ In another inscription it is said, that the faipily priest of 
a neighbouring prince, PratApa dhavala, had, in A.D. 
1158, made the image of the goddess: alluding evidently 
to a rude figure, carved on rock, and now totally neglected. 

' The image now worshipped is, as usual, a slab carved 
in relief, and represents a female with many arms, killing 
a man springing from the neck of a buffalo.* It is placed 
on the highest ledge of the sloping part of the rock, imme- 
diately under the waterfall. From two to three hundred 
votaries, at different times in the month of Sravany go to 
the place, to pray.' 

• It figures MAniSHASUitA, vulg. Bhainsdmry shin by BhavInI. 



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IN SOUTH BIHAR. 



293 



The third inscnption is upon a rock at Bandughata, on 
the S6ne river, opposite to Japikt, which was the chieftain's 
principality. The date assigned to Maha nripati (i. e. 
Maharaja) PratApa dhavala, besides the number of 
twenty-one years (apparently the duration of his reign, as 
chief of Japila), is, in the fac-simile, written 2219 Sam- 
vat; but the first digit being clearly wrong, it must be cor- 
rected to 1219, or 1229 : most likely the latter. No date 
is assigned to his predecessor Udata dhavala ; nor to 
the Ime of his successors, beginning with Vicrama, who 
is perhaps the same with Varcu (the first among his sons, 
named in the second inscription,) and who appears fix)m 
the epithet of vijayin, ' victorious,' to have been the 
reigning prince, when his name was here set down. The 
I'est must have been subsequently, firom time to time, 
added; and the first among them is Sahasa dhavala, 
perhaps the fourth son of PratApa dhavala, mentioned 
in the second inscription. 

Above all this, there have been inscribed, at a much later 
period, other names, viz. ^Maharaja Nyunat rai or 
Nyunta rAya, who went to heaven (surapura, i. e. the 
city of the gods) in the year 1643 Samvat;' and ' Maha' 
raja PratApa rAya, or PratApa rudra, who went to 
heaven in the year 1663 SamvatJ 

In another part of the inscription, there occurs the name 
o{ Maharaja MAnasinha, with the dates of 1662 and 
1663 Samvat ; and lower down, a string of three names, 
JlfaAaro/a CansarAja, PratApa dhavala d^va, and 
Madana sinha. Between the two last, there is inter* 
posed the date of 1624 Samvat, 

The name of PratApa appears then to have been of 
frequent recurrence. The family, which yet possesses the 
principality of Bilonjoy the representative of which, when 
visited by Dr. Hamilton, was Raja Bh6panAt'ha 



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294 INSCRIPTIONS UPON BOCKS 

sA, claims descent from PratApa dhavala, chief of Ja- 
pila. 

Japila is a large estate south of Rautas {RShitaswa), 
in the district of Ramaghar. But the territories of the 
ancient chieftain seem to have extended beyond its present 
Umits, and to have reached the vicinity of Sahasram. 

These inscriptions have no other chronological value, 
but as they corroborate the date of one possessing more 
historical interest^ noticed in the Researches of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal (vol. ix. p. 441).* It records a grant of 
land, by the same Rya of Cdnyacubjaf Vuaya Chan- 
dra ; and, as usual, recites the names of his ancestors, 
tracing his genealogy through no less than six generations. 
The original was said to have been transmitted to Grreat 
Britain by the late Sir John Murray M'Gregor ; but 
I am unable to say where it has been deposited.f It 
would be an acceptable communication, as semng to 
authenticate the history of a prince among the most conspi- 
cuous in the annals of his country ; on which he inflicted 
the same calamity which Count Julian did on Spain, by 
assisting a Musleman conquest of it, in revenge for the 

* [See page 286 of the present volume.] 

t It appears from an inscription (a grant on plates of copper) 
published, with a translation, in the fifteenth volume of Asiatic Re- 
searches (p. 447), that Jayaohandra was son of Vuayaohandra ; 
and that there has been a mistake in considering Vijayachandra 
and Jayachand to be equivalent Sanscrit and Hindi appellations of 
the same individual. The error originated with the p(^t Sebv6bu 
TRivini, who communicated a copy of the inscription noticed in 
the ninth volume of the Asiatic Researches [see pages 240 and 286 of 
the present volume], as relative to Jayachand, whom he identified 
(erroneously, as now appears) with Vuayaohandra. 

The series of princes who reigned at Gddhipura or Cdnyacuhja^ 
ancestors of Ja yaohandra, is now completely and accurately deter- 
mined ; and the reading of the inscription in question ceases to be a 
matter of any interest. 



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IN SOUTH BIHAR. 295 

abduction of his daughter.* The analogy indeed is not 
quite complete ; for it was seduction of a daughter which 
Count Julian sought to revenge. 

Concerning the inscripticm at Tarackandiy of which a 
translation is here presented, it is to be remarked, that the 
denunciation or protest, which it records, is first expressed 
in verse,t and is then repeated in prose. This repetition 
has much assisted the decyphering of it, and the correction 
of some errors, either of the original, or of the copy. A 
few explanatory notes will be found annexed. 

Translation of the Inscription at Tarachandi. 

" PratApa dhavala, wholly divine (deva), possessor 
of happily risen and celebrated glory, addresses his own 
race. In these villages, contiguous to CaJahancli,^ that 
contemptible ill copper^ [grant], which has been obtained 
by fitiud and bribery, from the thievish slaves of the sove- 
reign of GadhinagarOfW by priests sprung from Suvalluhala : If 
there is no ground of faith to be put therein by the people 
around. Not a bit of land, so much as a needle's point 
might pierce, is theirs. 

" Samvat 1229. Jyeshiha hadi 3d, Wednesday. 

* Transactions of the Roj'al Asiatic Society, vol. L p. 147. 
t In two stanzas of Fdsnnta tilaca metre. 

I CalahMU; written CalahahStiy with a long vowel, in the prose 
paraphrase. 

§ The text exhibits, in two places, cuiamhra: which, I conjecture, 
should be cU'tdmra, from cu, ill, and tdmrOy copper ; alluding to a 
grant inscribed, as usual, upon copper. There may be an allusion to 
Cutdmboy the name of a district in that vicinity. 

II GadhtnagarUy the same with Gadkipura, is identified with Cdnya- 
cutja. — See As. Res., vol. ix. p. 441, [p. 286 of the present volume.] 

IF Suvalluhala; written Swalluhaniya in the prose paraphrase; it 
appears to be the designation of the BrdhmaihaSt who had obtained 
the grant of land in question. 



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296 INSCRIPTIONS UPON ROCKS, &C. 

" The feet of the sovereign of Japila, the great chief- 
tain, the fortunate PratApa dhavala d6va, declare the 
truth to his sons, grandsons, and other descendants sprung 
of his race : this ill copper [grant] of the villages of CcUa- 
hoAdi and Badayita, obtained by fraud and bribery, from 
the thievish slaves of the fortunate Vijata chandra, 
the king, sovereign of Canyacubja^ by SwMuhamya 
folks : no faith is to be put therein. Those priests are 
every veay libertines. Not so much land, as might be 
pierced by a needle's point, is theirs. Ejiowing this, you 
will take the share of produce and other dues; or 
destroy. 

'' [Signature] of the great Rajaputra (king's son), 
the fortunate ^atrughna." 



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XII. 

On Three Grants of Land, inscribed on Copper, found 
at UjjAYANi, and presented by Major James Tod to 
the Royal Asiatic Society.* 

[From the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society^ 
vol. i. p. 230—239, and 462—466.] 

The translations, ivhich accompanied the Sanscrit mr- 
scriptions on copper, presented to the Society by Major Tod, 
having been made through the medium of an interpreter, I 
have thought it right to reexamine the originals, at the 
same time that I undertook the decyphering of a third 
inscription, likewise presented by Major Tod, but unac- 
companied by a translation. 

Neither of the three inscriptions in question is complete. 
They had originally consisted of a pair of plates in each 
instance : as is evident, both from the contents, and from 
the very appearance ; for they exhibit holes, through which 
rings were no doubt passed to hold the plates together. In 
one instance, it is the last of the pair, which has been pre- 
served. In the two others, the first of each remains, and 
the last has been lost. Enough, however, subsists, in these 
fragments of inscriptions, to render them usefrd historical 
documents ; as is amply shown in the very interesting com- 
ments on them which Major Tod has communicated. 

I now lay before the Sodety a transcript of the contents 
of each plate, as read by me; and copies, fee-simile, of the 
originals. My own translations follow ; and notes will be 
found annexed. 

* Read at a public meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, Decem- 
ber 4, 1824. 



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298 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND 

On collating the fac-simile with the transcript, the 
leaiTied reader will observe that errors (for engravers are 
not less apt, than ordinary copyists, to commit blunders) 
have been in several places corrected. Where the mistake 
and requisite correction seem quite obvious, I have in 
general thought it needless to add a remark. But, 
wherever it has appeared necessary to give a reason for 
an emendation, an explanatory note is subjoined. 

All these inscriptic»is are grants of land, recorded upon 
copper, conformably with the usage of the Hindus, and 
the direction of the law, which enjoins, that such grahts 
should either be ¥nritten upon silk, or inscribed upon copper,^ 

One of these grants or patents, records a donation of 
land made by the reigning sovereign of D/uira, on the 
anniversary of the death of his father and predecesscH*, in 
1191 of the Satnvat era; omfirmed by the prince his son, 
at the time of an eclipse of the moon, in Sravana 1200 
Samvat. It appears from calculation that a lunar eclipse 
did occur at the time; viz. on the 16th of July A. D. 1144, 
about 9k P-M. apparent time, at Ujjayanu 

This date, so authenticated, becomes a fixed point, 
whence the period, in which the dynasty of sovereigns cS 
Dhara flourished, nmy be satisfactorily computed. The 
series of four princes, whose names are found in these patents, 
two of them anterior to A. D. 1134 (\\90 Samvai\ and 
two of them subsequent to that date, (for the anniversary 
of Nara varma's funeral rites in 1191, determines his 
demise in 1190 Samvat;) may be taken to extend fT<Mn the 
latter part of the eleventh century of the Christian era to 
near the dose of the twelfth. It is carried retrospectively, 
through a line of three more princes, to Sindhu, grand- 
father of Raja Bh6ja, by the marble at Madlmcara ghoTy 
and other evidence ; as shown by Major Ton. 

• Digest of Hindu Law, vol. ii. p. 278. As. Res., vol. ii. p. 60. 



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^ BMnvounjoMis litko^rrKphAf. 



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FOUND AT UJJAYANI. 299 

The earliest of the three patents inscribed upon copper, 
which were procured by Major Tod at Ujjayani, bears the 
date of 3d Magha sudi 1 192 Samvat, answering to January 
A. D. 1137. It has the signatuie of YAg6vARMA d&va, 
who, in the preceding year, 1191 Samvatf had made a 
donation of land on the anniversary of the demise of his 
father Nara varma dI:va, which was confirmed (appa- 
rently in Ya§6varma'8 life-time), by his son Lacshm! 
VARMA DfevA, in 1200 Samvat: as above noticed. The 
latest of the three grants is by his successor Jaya varma 
D^vAy and being incomplete, exhibits no date. Both these 
patents agree in deducing the line of succession from Uda- 
yAditya d£va, predecessor of Nara varma. There is 
consequently this series perfectly authenticated : 
UdayAditya dI:va 

I 

Nara varma d&va 

I 

Yas6varma DfeVA 
Jaya varma d£va. LacshmI varma DJ§(VA. 

No. I. 
A Grant of Land ijiscribed on Copper, found at Vjjayani.^ 

• See Plate iv. 



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300 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND 

'=I<^^<AIW ^^T^TCfS MIMlR^il W^^ 

M <*l^ i ?ft 2n5t^ ^^ ?fr t^raw ^- 

t^<U^\rlM fc^T >TH% 3T^5J f%VR ^if^- 

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FOUND AT VJJAYANI. 301 



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302 ON THREE GRANTS OP LAND 

" Om ! Well be it ! Augpicioug victory and elevation.i 

" Victorious is he, whose hair is the etherial expanse;^ 
who, for creation, supports with his head that lunar line ' 
which is a type of the germ in the seed of the universe. 

" May the matted locks of love's foe,* reddened by the 
lightning's ring that flashes at the period of the world's end, 
spread for you nightless^ prosperity. 

" The great prince,^ resplendent with the decoration of 

^ Both this and the following inscription begin alike, and contain 
several other parallel passages. There are gross errors in both ; but 
one has helped to correct the other. 

' VT6HAo£dA, a title of §iva, whose hair is the atmosphere. 

' The crescent, which is Diva's crest. 

* SmararIti , a title of ^iva. He is represented with his hair clot- 
ted and matted in a long braid rolled round his head, in the manner in 
which ascetics wear their's. Hair in that state has a tawny hue. 

^ Nightless, endless : eternal. 

* Mahdcumdra : a royal youth, a young prince. 



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FOUND AT UJJAYANJ. 303 

five great titlefl,^ ^inth which he is thoroughly and excellently 
embued and poBsessed, the fortunate LacshmI vabma 
D&yA, son^ of his Majesty^^ the great king, soyereign, and 
supreme lord, the fortunate YAi6 varma DivA, son of 
Nara varma Dl^vAy son of Udayaditya D^vAy ac- 
quaints the Paiicudla^^ and people, Brahmcdag and others, 
inhabiting BaSduda ^ama^^ dependant on SurasaAi, and 
UfhavaAaca grama^^ appertaining to 7^^a-^rarna-j9ra- 
sadica,^^ both ^tuated in the twelve great districts ^^ held 
by royal patent ; be it known unto you : Whereas, at the 
fortunate Dhara,^ the great king, sovereign, sup-erne lord, 
the fortunate Ya§6 varma nfevA, upon the anniversary^^ 
of the great king, the fortunate Nara varma d^va, which 

^ I am not entirely confident of the meaning of this passage. 

B PdddnudhydtOy an ordinary periphrasis for son and successor : 
literally, " whose feet are meditated, t. e. revered, hy " 

'The additions are those usually home hy sovereign princes among 
the Hindus. Bhattdraca answers to the title of majesty. Adhir&ja 
is a sovereign or superior prince, ^ly signifying fortunate or auspi- 
cious, is prefixed to every name. 

Varman is the customary designation of a Rdjaputra ; as ^rman 
is of a Brdhmaiha, The term enters into composition in the names 
of many of this family. 

*** Patiacila is prohahly the Patiail of the moderns. The term 
occurs again lower down ; and also in the next grant (No. 2). 

" Pronounce Bar^iud^dm. SurdsaM appears to he the district, or 
province, in which it is situated. 

" Perhaps Ughavan rather than Ut^havan, 

" This seems to be the name of a district. 

^* An apanage, comprising twelve great districts. Mahdndwddakacor 
ma^ulala seems to have been held hy this prince, under a royal grant 
from his father. He did not become his successor : for Java varma is, 
in another inscription, named immediately after Ya§6 varma; and 
was reigning sovereign. 

" Dhdrd was the capital of this dynasty. 

'^ Anniversary of the death. It appears, therefore, that Nara 
VARMA died in 1190 Samvat. 



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304 ON THBEE GRANTS OF LAND 

took place on the 8th of Cartica kidi, years eleven hun- 
d]*ed and ninety-one elapsed since Vicram a, having bathed 
with waters of holy places, having satisfied gods, saints, 
men and ancestors with oblations/7 having worshipped the 
holy BhawAnIpati,^^ having sacrificed to fire offerings of 
samt, sacrificial grass, sesamum and boiled rice,^^ having 
presented an arghya^ to the sun, having thrice perambu- 
lated Capila,'^^ seeing the vanity of the world, deeming life 
a tremulous drop of water on the leaf of a lotus, and reck- 
oning wealth despicable : — ^As it is said : 

'^ This sovereignty of the earth totters with the stormy 
blast ;^ the enjoyment of a realm is sweet but for an in- 
stant ; the breath of man is like a drop on the tip of a blade 
of grass : virtue is the greatest firiend in the journey of the 
other world. — 

*' Considering this, did grant by patent, preceded by gift 
of water,^ for as long as the sun and moon shall endure, 

*^ The allusion is to the five great sacraments, which a Hindu is 
hound to perform. — See Menu, iii, 67* 

'" BHAWANfpATT is a title of §iva, hushand of BnAwlNf, In the 
following inscription, the name again occurs in a similar manner, with 
the further designation of VarIvara ourcj. 

^ The dhuti, or burnt offering ; consisting of boiled rice, with tila 
(Sesamum orientale), cuia (Poa cynosuroides), and sanU ( Adenanthera 
or Prosopis aculeata). 

^ An arghya is a libation or oblation, in a conch, or vessel of a 
particular form, approaching to that of a boat.-^As. Res., toI. vii. 
p. 291. 

'^ Capild probably is fire, personified as a female goddess. 

^Abhra is a cloud; and vdia^ wind: whence vdidbhrOf a windy 
cloud. Or abhra may signify the etherial fluid {dc6ia). The stanza 
is repeated in the next inscription. 

^ A requisite formality in a donation of land. — See Digest of Hindu 
Law, vol. ii. p. 276. Treatises on Law of Inheritance, p. 258; 



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FOUND AT UJJAYANI. 305 

nnio iheAvasat'kica'^* the fortunate Vana pAla,-^ son of 
the fortunate Vi§war6pa, grandson of the fortunate Ma- 
HiRA«5 swAmI| a venerable Brahmana of Carnata in the 
south, who studies two vtda^ and appertains to the Aswa- 
layavjoP sac'hay sprung from the race of BhAradwAja,*^ 
and tracing a triple line of descent, Bharadwaja, Angi- 
rasa, and Varhaspatyay^ settled at Adrelavaddhavari- 
sfhdna,^ the aforesaid Baclauda grama and Ut*havaAaca 
grama, with their trees, fields and habitations,'^ together 

** Erroneously written Avasfhica in the text. Its derivation is 
from dvasat^haf a house : and it bears reference to the householder's 
consecrated fire {gdrhapatya), H ela yudh a , author of the Brdhma^ 
sarvaswa, has, in the epigraph of his work, the title of Avasat^hica 
mahd dhannddhyacsha* 

**• On a reperusal of the grant No. 1, it appears probable that the 
grantee's name was DhanapIla instead of Vanapala. Throughout 
the inscription, the letter V( has for the most part the appearance of ^ 

the detached stroke being defaced : and DhanapIla is doubtless 
the more ordinary name. 

^ This probably should be Mthiray which is a name of the sun. 

*• Dwivid ia one who studies two vidas: as Trividy one who studies 
three. 

^ The text exhibits Aildyana; doubtless for Aswaldyanay by which 
name one of the sdc^hds of the vSda is distinguished. A^walayana 
is author of a collection of aphorisms on religious rites (Culpa siUra). 

" Gotra, descent from an ancient sage (Rtshi)^ whence the family 
name is derived. There are four such great families of Brdhmaiias ; 
comprehending numerous divisions. 

® Pravara, lineage traced to more of the ancient sages. The dis- 
tinction between yotra Bud pravara is not very clear. Madhava on 
the Mhndnsdf 2, 1,9, names these very three families as constituting 
z.gbtra: and gives it as an example of pravara, 

^ This, which seems to be the name of a country, is differently 
written in the next inscription. Perhaps it may be a branch of the 
gotrUy or family, from which the donatory derived his descent 

'^ Mdkiy signifies field ; and cula, abode. The passage may admit 
a different interpretation. 

VOL. II. X 



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306 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND 

with hidden treasure, and deposits, and adorned with ponds, 
wells and lakes. 

'' On the 15th ot^avaika sudi in the year 1200, at the 
time of an eclipse of the moon,^ for our father's welfare, 
we have again granted those two villages by patent with 
the previous gifl of water ; therefore all inhabitants of 
both villages, as well the Pa^acUa and other people, as 
husbandmen, bmg strictly observant of his commands, 
must pay unto him all dues as they arise, tax, money-rent, 
share of produce,^ and the rest. 

** Considering the fruit of this meritorious act as common, 
Aiture princes, sprung of our race, and others, should 
respect and maintain this virtuous donation accordingly.^ 

'^ By many kings, Sagaba as well as others, the earth 
has been possessed. Whose-soever has been the land, his 
has then been the fruit^ 

** He, who resumes land, whether given by himself, or 
granted by others, is regenerated a worm in ordure, for 
60,000 years.36 

M&la implies, (as I learn from Major Tod), according' to the ac- 
ceptation of the country, land not artificially irrigated, bat watered 
only by rain and dew. 

** An eclipse of the moon appears, from calculation, to have taken 
place at the time here assigned to it: viz, 16th July 1144; as in the 
preceding year, 28th July 1143. — Art de verifier les Bates, vol. i. 
p. 73. 

^ Hirakyaf gold : rent in money. 

Bh6ga bMga; in another place, hh6g6bhbga; share of produce, rent 
in kind. 

»♦ This stanza, a little varied, recurs in the third grant (No. 3). 

«» This also recurs in the same (No. 3); and is likewise found in a 
grant translated by Sir William Jonbs. — As. Res., vol. i. p. 365, 
St. 1. 

«6 A quotation.— See * Digest of Hindu Law,' vol. ii. p.28l, and As. 
Res., vol. ii. p. 63. Also, vol. i. p. 366; and vol. viii. p. 419. 



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9ii.^Mi^iyif>^ 



":•%■■ 



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FOUND AT UJJAYANI. 307 

Rama BH ADR A again and again exhorts all these future 

rulers of the earth : this universal bridge of virtue "^ 

(The remainder, upon another plate, is wanting.) 



No. 2. 



A Grant of Land, inscribed on Copper, found at 
Ujjayanu* 

fWST M<*1>^< 5fr >i<'S|lR<'S|^«=IMI<l- 
^"^T 'ft ^i^ii^^cmK^f^v^iH tHTT 



37 The remainder of the stanza (which may be easily supplied from 
the other inscriptions: see the next grant; and As. Res., vol. i. p. 365, 
St. 3, and vol. iii. p. 53, and vol. viii. p. 419) was probably followed in 
the second plate, by further quotations, deprecating the resumption of 
the gift by future sovereigns : and to which was subjoined the sign 
manual, with the names of attesting officers; as in the accompan3ring 
grant by YaS6 varma (No. 3). 

The bridge of virtue, which signifies " the maxim of duty," bears 
an allusion to Rama's bridge, to cross the sea to Lancd, 

• See Plate v. 

x2 



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308 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND 

TT3nfVTT3r M<^N< ^fWsdilc^uf^^^ 

^CRc^Td TfrT STJTfft f^^Tt H*vM*i I - 
WMf fn^r iTKTT3T - - - - 

" Om ! Well be it ! Auspicious victory and elevation ! 
" Virtuous is he, whose hair is the etherial expanse ; 
who, for creation, suppoils with his head that lunar line 

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FOUND AT UJJAYANI. 309 

which is a type of the germ contaiued in the seed of the 
universe. 

" May the matted locks of love's foe, reddened by the 
lightning's ring, that flashes at the period of the vv^orlds' 
end, spread for you nightless prosperity.* 

" From his abode at the auspicious Bard/tamanapura, 
his Majesty, the great king, sovereign, and supreme lord, 
the fortunate Java varma d^va, whom victory attends, 
son of Yas6 varma d^iva, son of Nara varma 
d6va, son of Udayaditya d^va, acquaints all king's 
officers, Brahmanas and others, and the Paiiacila and 
people, &c. inhabiting the village of MdyambSiaca which 
appertains to the thiity-six villages of Vata:"^ Be it known 
unto you : Whereas we, sojourning at Chandrapurt^ having 
bathed, having worshipped the holy, beneficent and ado- 
rable BhawAnIpati : — 

Considering the world's vanity : 
for 

This sovereignty of the earth totters with the stormy 
blast; the enjoyment of a realm is sweet but for an in- 
stant ; the breath of man is hke a drop of water on the 
tip of a blade of grass: virtue is the greatest friend in the 
journey of the other world. — 

" Having gained prosperity, which is the receptacle of the 
skips and bounds^ of a revolving world, whoever give not 
donations, repentance is their chief reward. — 

" Reflecting on the perishable nature of the world, prefer- 

' These two stanzas occur also in the preceding inscription. 

' Vatorc'hidaca'Shat'trimati ; thirty-six villages of Vata: for it 
should probably be read c'heiaca (which signifies a village) instead of 
c'Mdaca. 

« F'alg&gra'dhdTd-dhdrd : an allusion is probably intended to Dhdrd 
the seat of government of this dynasty. f^al(j[a signifies a leap; and 
dhdra^ a horse^s pace. 



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310 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND 

. ling unseen (spiritual) fruit, [do grant] to be fully pos- 
sessedy so long as moon and sun, sea and earth, endure 

[unto sprung firom the race] of BhAradwAja^ 

settled at Adriya Iambi davari sfhana, situated 

within the southern region, at JRqja brahma pwri " 

(The remainder, insaibed on a separate plate, is wanting.) 

No. 3. 
A grant of Land inscribed on Copper ^ found at Ujjayanu* 

•MIHM^ W^MI rJurafrT Jft^ TT^: 



^ The grantee was either the same person, or one of the same 
family, as in the preceding grant; for the designations are identical, 
so far as this reaches. 

• See plate vi. 



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K';k,K*9i^nc^ 




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Googfe 



; N 



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FOUND AT UJJAYANI. 311 

f-lwfMMpHMrriAHrHdlheRt'nJnnVf: 

g^: ^TT^fl*Tt t%^t^ ^ tl 
3^ ?ft ^TJR ?^t1^ ?^^ ?ft 4^Ntf|^ - 
'tJI^JT^'ftrtl 



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312 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND 

•T 

3Tfq- -a 9fr: a 

(The beginning, inscribed upon another plate, is wanting). 

" In respect of two portions * of Brahmana's allowance, 
by exchange for two portions allotted to the attendant of 
the temple and the reader, to be held as assigned for the 
anniversary of the auspicious M6mala D£yl ;^ and in 
respect of seventeen nivartana^ of land, with eleven 
ploughs of land, assigned to both persons in a partition 
of Vtcarica grama ;* the whole of the aforesaid little Vain- 
ganapadra grama^ also a moiety of Viccarica grama 
within the proper bounds, extending to the grass and pas- 
ture, with trees, fields and habitations, with money-rent, 
and share of produce, with superior taxes, and including 
all dues ; for increase of merit and fame of my mother, of 
my father, and of myself, are granted by patent, with the 

' For want of the first plate of this patent, the beginning of the 
second is very obscure; and, perhaps, not rightly intelligible, without 
divining what has gone before. I have endeavoured to make sense 
of it, but am far from confident of having succeeded. 

* M6mala oivf was not improbably the name of Ya§6 varma's 
mother; and the anniversary is that of her obsequies: as in the pre- 
ceding patent for a g^rant on the anniversary of the obsequies of 
Ya§6 varma's father. Else it may be the annual festival of an idol 
of that name. 

3 Nivartana is a land-measure containing 400 square poles of ten 
cubits each, according to the LildvntU See Algebra of the Hindus. 

♦ The name is written ricaricdgrdma in one place; and F'iccaricd 
ffrdma in another. 

Major ToD observes that the ancient name of Burhdnpura is Cart- 
grama. 



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FOUND AT UJJAYANI. 313 

previous gift of water. Aware of this, and obedient to 
his commands, they must pay all due share of produce, 
taxes, money-rent, &c. to them both. 

*' Considering the fruit of this meritorious act as common, 
future princes, sprung of our race, and others, should res- 
pect and maintain this virtuous donation, as by us given. 

" And it is said, — By many Kings, Sagara as well as 
others, the earth has been possessed. Whose-soever has 
been the land, his has then been the fruit. 

*' The gifts, which have been here granted by former 
princes, producing virtue, wealth, and fame, are unsullied 
reflections. What honest man would resume them ? 

*' This donation ought to be approved by those who exem- 
pUfy the hereditary liberality of our race, and by others. 
The flash of lightning from Lacshm! swoln with the rain- 
drop,* is gift; and the fruit is preservation of another's 
fame. 

'^ RA.MABHADRA again and againexhorts all those future 
rulers of the earth : this universal bridge of virtue for 
princes is to be preserved by you from time to time. 

" Considering therefore prosperity to be a quivering drop 
of water on the leaf of a lotus ; and the life of man is such ; 
and all this is many ways^ exemplified ; men therefore 
should not abridge the fame of others. 

'' Samvat 1192, 3d of Magha badi (dark half) ; witness 

* I have here hazarded a conjectural emendation ; being unable to 
make sense of the text, as it stands. Perhaps the transcriber had 
erroneously written tundaid for timdild; and the engraver, by mistake, 
transformed it into the unmeaning vandald, which the text exhibits. 
LACSHMf is here characterized as a thunder-cloud pregnant with fer- 
tilizing rain. 

G Chanudhd, in the text, is an evident mistake; it should un- 
doubtedly be bahitdhd. Several other gross errors in this inscription 
have been corrected; too obviously necessary to require special 
notice : as a short vowel for a long one, and vice versd. 



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314 ON THREE GRANTS OF LAND, 8CC. 

the venerable purShita, V Am an a; the venerable swami, 
PiFRusHoTTAMA ; the prime minister and king's son, D6- 
VADHARA ; and others. 

*^ Auspiciousness and great prosperity. 
R. 
''This is the sign manual of the fortunate YAji6vARMA 
DfevA." 

Adhi. Sri. 



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XIII. 



On Inscriptions at Temples of the Jaina Sect in 
South BihAr.* 



[From the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. i. p. 520—623.] 



As connected with the subject of an essay on the Srawacs 
or JainaSff read at a former meeting, I lay before the 
Society copies of inscripticms fomid by Dr. Buchanan 
Hamilton in South Bihar. Though not ancient, they 
may be ccHisidered to be of some importance, as confirm- 
ing the prevalence of a Jaina tradition relative to the site 
of the spot v^here the last of the Jinas terminated his 
earthly existence, and as identifying the first of his disci- 
ples with Gautama, whose death and apotheosis took 
place, according to current belief, in Xhe same neighbour- 
hood. 

In the Calpa sdtra and in other books of the Jainas, 
the first of MahAvIra's disciples is mentioned under the 
name of Inora bh^ti : but, in the inscription, under that 
of Gautama swAm!. The names of the other ten pre- 
cisely agree : whence it is to be concluded, the Gautama, 
first of one list, is the same with Indra bh^ti, first of 
the other. 

It is certainly probable, as remarked by Dr. Hamilton 
and Major Delamaine, that the Gautama of the Jainas 
and of the Bauddhas is the same personage : and this 

* Read at a Public Meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, Novem* 
ber I8th, 1826. 

t By Major Jambs Delamaine. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, vol. i. p. 413—438. 



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316 ON INSCRIPTIONS AT TEMPLES 

leads to the further surmise, that both these sects are 
branches of one stock. Aecording to the Jai7ia$, only one 
of MahAvIra's eleven disciples left spiritual successors: 
that is, the entire succession of Jaina priests is derived 
from one individual^ Sudharma swAm!. Two only out 
of eleven survived MahavIra, viz. Indrabh^ti and 
Sudharma:* the first, identified with Gautama swAm!, 
has no spiritual successors in the Jaina sect. The proper 
inference seems to be, that the followers of this surviving 
disciple are not of the sect of Jina^ rather than that there 
have been none. Gautama's followers constitute the 
sect otBauddha, with tenets in many respects analogous 
to those of the Jainas, or followers of Sudharma, but 
with a mythology or fabulous history of deified saints 
quite different. Both have adopted the Hindu Pantheon, 
or assemblage of subordinate deities; both disclaim the 
authority of the vedas ; and both elevate their pre-eminent 
saints to divine supremacy. 

In a short essay on their philosophical opinions, which 
will be likewise submitted to the Society, it will be shown 
that a considerable difference of doctrine subsists on various 
points ; but hardly more between the two sects, than be- 
tween the divers branches of the single sect otBauddha. 

It deserves remark, that the Bavddhas and the Jairias 
agree in placing within the Umits of the same province, 
South Bihar, and its immediate vicinity, the locaUty of 
the death and apotheosis of the last Buddha, as of the 
last Jina, and of his predecessor and his eldest and fa- 
vourite disciple. Both religions have preserved for their 
sacred language the same dialect, the Pali or Pracrtt, 
closely resembling the Magadhi or vernacular tongue of 
Magadha (South Bihar). Between those dialects {Pali 

• Page 216 of the present volume. 



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OF THE JAINA SECT IN SOUTH BIhAr. 317 

and Pracrit) there is but a shade of difference,* and they 
are often confounded under a single name. 

The traditional chronology of tlie two sects assigns nearly 
the same period to their Gautama respectively: for, 
according to the Bauddhas, the apotheosis of Gautama 
BUDDHA took place 643 years before the beginning of the 
Christian era ; and according to the Jainas, the apotheosis 
of MAHAviBA, Gautama sw A mI's teacher, was somewhat 
earUer, viz, about 600 years before the Christian era. 
The lapse of little more than half a century is scarcely too 
great for the interval between the death of a preceptor and 
of his pupil ; or not so much too great as to amount to 
anachronism. 

Without ^elymg much upon a similarity of name, it may 
yet not be foreign to remark, that the Buddha, who pre- 
ceded Gautama buddha, was CAsyapa : and that 
MahAvIra, the preceptor of Gautama swAm!, was of 
the race of CaSyapa. 

I take PAr§wanAt'ha to have been the foundei* of the 
sect of Jainas, which was confirmed and thoroughly esta- 
blished by MahAvIra and his disciple Sudharma ; by 
whom, and by his followers, both MahAvIra and his pre- 
decessor PAbSwanAt'ha have been venerated as deified 
saints (Jinas), and are so worshipped by the sect to this day, 

A schism, however, seems to have taken place, after 
MAHAviRA, whose elder disciple, Indra bh^ti, also 
named Gautama swAmI, was by some of his followers 
raised to the rank of a deified saint, under the synonymous 
designation of Buddha; (for Jinn and Buddha bear the 
same meaning, according to both Buddhists and Jainas). 
The preceding Buddha, according to this branch of the 
sect, was CAsyapa, who is not improbably the same with 

• BuRNOUF et Lassen, Essai sitrlr Pdliy p. 154. 



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318 ON INSCRIPTIONS AT TEMPLES 

Srcmaia VardhamAna MAnAvfRA, son (bom of tbe 
wife) of SiddhArt'ha, a Sitryavansi prince of the Ca- 
syapa race. 

It is to be observed, without, however, attaching much 
weight to this coincidence, that the name of SiddhArt'h a 
is common to MAHAvfRA's father and to Gautama 
BUDDHA, whom I suppose to be the same with the Jina^s 
disciple, Oautama swAmI. 

The appeOative Gautama is unquestionably a patronymic 
(derived from 66tama), however SAcya sinha may have 
come by it, whether as descendant of that lineage, nearer 
or remoter, or for whatever other cause. His predecessor 
among Buddkas is, in like manner, designated by a patro* 
nymic as above noticed, viz. CASyapa. 

The name of Oautama occurs also as an appellative in 
other instances besides that of the sixth Buddha, or of the 
twenty-fourth Jina's eldest disciple. One of the legislators 
of the Hindus is Oautama, whose aphorisms of law are 
extant.* 

The gentile name of the last Buddha has prevailed in 
China and Japan, where he is best known under the desig- 
nation of SAcYA. His appellation of Oautama remains 
current in countries bordering upon India. 

Inscription at NAKHAUR.t 



* Preface to two Treatises on the Hindu Law of Inheritance, p. z. 
t See Plate vii. 



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.Gocde 



OF THE JAINA SECT IN SOUTH BIHAr. 319 

'' In the year 1686 Samvat, on the 15th day of Vaisac^ha 
sudi, the lotus of Gautama swAmI's feet was here placed 
by NiHAL6 mother of !tha. (H^haccur), SangrAma g6- 
VARDHANA dAsa, Bon of ^Aa. TuLAsi dAsa^ son of 
^a. ViMALA nAsAy of the race of Ch&para and lineage 
of [^Bharata Chacravarti*s] prime councillor : the fortunate 
Jina-rAja stRi, the venerable guide of the great Oha- 
ratara tribe, being present 

The same pious family, which is here recorded for erect- 
ing, or more probably restoring, the representation of 
Gautama swAmI's feet at NaJchaur, is in like manner 
commemorated by three inscriptions, bearing date six years 
later (piz. 1692 Samvat),* for the like pious office of 
erecting images of the feet of MahAvIra and of his eleven 
disciples, at Patoapuri, which, or its vicinity, is in those 
inscriptions stated to be the site of that saint's extinction 
(nirvaiia) or translation to bliss. 

The same names recur, with those of many other persons, 
inhabitants (as this family was) of the town of Bihar, 
where a numerous congregation of Jainas seems to have 
then dwelt ; and with the same additions and designations 
more fully set forth : whence it appears, that the designa- 
tion of " descendant of a prime councillor" bears reference 
to a supposed descent from the prime minister of the 
universal or paramount sovereign, Bharata, son of the 
first Jina RYshabha. 

* The largest of those inscriptions names likewise the reigning 
Emperor, 8hah Jbhan. 

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320 ON INSCRIPTIONS AT JAINA TEMPLES. 

SangrAma and G6vardhana, here joined as an ap- 
pellation of one person, are in those inscriptions separated 
as names of two brothers, sons of TuLAsi dAsa and his 
wife NiHAL6. In other respects, the inscriptions confirm 
and explain each other. * 

• Copies of those at Pdtoaptifi were not taken in fac-simile, but 
are merely transcripts. 



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XIV. 

On the Indian and Arabian Divisions of the 
Zodiac. 



FFroin the Asiatic Researches, vol. ix. p. 323 — 376. Calcutta, 1807- 

4to.] 



The researches, of which the result is here laid before 
the Asiatic Society, were undertaken for the purpose of 
ascertaining correctly the particular stars, which give names 
to the Indian divisions of the zodiac. The inquiry has, at 
intervals, been relinquished and resumed: it was indeed 
attended with considerable difficulties. None of the native 
astronomers, whom I consulted, were able to point out, in 
the heavens, all the asterisms for which they had names : 
it became, therefore, necessary to recur to their books, in 
which the positions of the principal stars are given. Here 
a fresh difficulty arose from the real or the seeming dis- 
agreement of the place of a star, with the division of the 
zodiac, to which it was referred ; and I was led from the 
consideration of this and of other apparent contradictions, 
to compare carefully the places assigned by the Hindus to 
their nacshatras, with the positions of the lunar mansions, 
as determined by the Arabian astronomers. After repeated 
examination of this subject, with the aid afforded by the 
labours of those who have preceded me in the same in- 
quiry, I now venture to offer to the perusal of the Asiatic 
Society the following remarks, with the hope that they 
will be found to contain a correct ascertainment of the stars 

VOL. II. Y 



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322 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

by which the Hindus have been long accustomed to trace 
the moon's path. 

The question, which I proposed to myself for investi- 
gation, appeared to me important, and deserving of the 
labour bestowed upon it, as obviously essential towards a 
knowledge of Indian astronomy, and as tending to deter- 
mine another question; namely, whether the Indian and 
Arabian divisions of the zodiac had a common origin. Sir 
William Jones thought that they had not; I incline to 
the contrary opinion. The coincidence appears to me too 
exact, in most instances, to be the effect of chance : in 
others, the differences are only such as to authorize the re- 
mark, that the nation, which borrowed from the other, has 
not copied with servility. I apprehend that it must have 
been the Arabs who adopted (with slight variations) a divi- 
sion of the zodiac famiUar to the Hindus. This, at least, 
seems to be more probable than the supposition, that the 
Indians received their system from the Arabians: we know, 
that the Hindus have preserved the memory of a former 
situation of the Colures, compared to constellations, which 
mark divisions of the zodiac in their astronomy ; but no 
similar trace remains of the use of the lunar mansions, as 
divisions of the zodiac, among the Arabs, in so very remote 
times. 

It will be found, that I differ much from Sir William 
Jones in regard to the stars constituting the asterisms of 
Indian astronomy. On this, it may be sufficient to remind 
the reader, that Sir William Jones stated only a con- 
jecture foimded on a consideration of the figure of the 
nacshatra and the number of its stars, compared with 
those actually situated near the division of the ecUptic, \jd 
which the nacshatra gives name. He was not apprized 
that the Hindus themselves place some of these constella- 
tions far out of the limits of the zodiac. 



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age 322. 





1 


2 


3 


' 28 


Names of the Nacshatras 


Aswini. 


Bhara^. 


Cr^tticd. 


^^^mvoii. 


Presiding deities or regents of > 
each asterism j 


The 
Jswins. 


Yama. 


Fire. 


PrajI' 
pati. I^shan. 


The figures of the Nacshairas^ 
according to SrIpati, &c. . . j 


A horse's 
head. 


The 
Ydni. 


A razor 
or knife. 


A WII66KC 

Ctrrin^t 


abor. 


T heir figures according to other > 
authors j 








A tem-T" 
pie.* 


Number of stars according to\ 
SrIpati, &c f 


3 


3 


6 


5 i 




Other numbers assigned by dif- ' . 
ferent authorities 


2f 






^- 


Relative situation of the prin- -j 
cipal star ; according to the i 


N. 


S. 


S. 


E. 


Place of the star in Gths of de- \ 
grees firom the origin of the f 
l^acshaira; according to the l 
same J 


48 


40 


65 


57 > 


Its place, in degrees, from the\ 
origin of the Ecliptic ) 


8° 


20° 


37° 30^ 


49° 30^5 


I^SO' 


Its distance from the Ecliptic . . 


10° N. 


12° N. 


5°N. 


^'^S. " 


Place of the star in dep^es,-j 
measured on the Ecliptic, ac- > 
cording to Brahmboupta . . J 


&> 


20° 


37^28' 


49° 28^ t] 


° 
> 


Distance from the Ecliptic 


\(yN. 


12° N. 


4°3l'N. 


4°3ys.' 


Place in degrees measured on*^ 
the Ecliptic, according to the > 
Siddhdnta iir&mahi J 


8° 


20° 


37° 28' 


49° 28^ I 


Distance from the Ecliptic 


10<>N. 


12° N. 


4»30'N. 


4° 30^8. 




Place in degrees measured on"j 
the Ecliptic, according to > 
the Graha Idphava J 


8o 


21° 


38° 


49° 


1° 


Distance from the Ecliptic 


10°N. 


12° N. 


5°N. 


5° 8. 




True longitude according to\ 
the Siddhdnta sdrvabhauma . / 


12«4(K 


25° 8' 


39° 2' 


480 9^ 


»°50' 


True latitude ...••..... 


10«>5(KN. 


12°5yN. 


4°44'N. 


4° 40^8. 








Star supposed to be meant 


• Arietis. 


Musca. 


„Tauri. 
Pleiades. 


• Tauri. 

Aldeba- 

ran. 


Pis- 
am. 



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k i 



DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 323 

I shall examine the several nacshatras and lunar man- 
sions in their order ; previously quoting from the Hindu 
astronomers, the positions assigned to the principal star, 
teimed the ySgatara, This, according to Brahmegupta, 
(as cited by LacshmIdAsa in his commentary on the SirS- 
mani,) or according to the Brahme siddkanta (cited by 
Bh6dhara, is the brightest star of each cluster. But 
the Surya siddkanta specifies the relative situation of the 
YSgatara in respect of the other stars ; and that does not 
always agree with the position of the most conspicuous 
star. 

The number of stars in each astensm, and the figure 
under which the asterism is represented, are specified hy 
Hindu astronomers: particularly by SfifpATi in the 
JRatnamala. These, with the positions of the stars rela- 
tively to the ecliptic, are exhibited in the annexed table. 
It contains the whole purport of many obscure and almost 
enigmatical verses, of which a verbal translation would be 
nearly as unintelligible to the EngUsh reader as the original 
text. , 

The authorities, on which I have chiefly relied, because 
they are universally received by Indian astronomers, are the 
Sitrya sidd/ianta, Sir6maAiy and Graha lagkava. They 
have been carefully examined, comparing at the same time 
several commentaries. The Ratnamala of SrIpati is 
cited for the figures of the asterisms ; and the same passage 
had been noticed by Sir William Jones.* It agrees 
nearly with the text of VASisnf 'h a cited by MunIsw ara, 
and is confirmed in most instances by the Muhdrta chinta- 
mani. The same authority, confirmed with rare exceptions 
by Vasish'Pha, SAcalya, and the Ahharaiiay is quoted 
for the number of stars in each asterism. The works of 



• As. Res., vol. ii. p. 294. 
y2 



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324 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

Brahmegupta have not been accessible to me : but the 
Marickiy an excellent commentary on the Siddkanta HrS- 
maniy by MunISwara^ adduces irom that author a state- 
ment of the positions of the stars ; and remarks, that it 
is founded on the Brahme siddkanta, contained in the 
Vishnvdherm6ttara.* Accordingly, I have found the same 
passage in the Brahme siddhanta, and verified it by the 
gloss entitled Vasana ; and I, therefore, use the quotation 
without distrust. Later authorities, whose statements coin- 
cide exactly with some of the preceding (as CamalAcara 
in the Tatwavivecd) would be needlessly inserted : but one 
(MuNiSwARA in the Siddhanta sarvabkauma), exhibiting 
thg position of the stars differently, is quoted in the an- 
nexed table. 

The manner of observing the places of the stars is not 
explained in the original works first cited. The Surya 
siddhanta only hints briefly, ' that the astronomer should 
frame a sphere, and examine the apparent longitude and 
latitude, f' Commentators,:]: remarking on this passage, 
describe the manner of making the observs^tion : and the same 
description occurs, with little variation, in commentaries on 
the Sir6mani.% They direct a spherical instrument (GS- 
layantrci) to be constructed, according to instructions con- 
tained in a subsequent part of the text. This, as will be 
hereafter shewn, is precisely an armillary sphere. An ad- 
ditional circle graduated for degrees and minutes, is di- 
rected to be suspended on the pins of the axis as pivots. 



* Another Brahme siddhdnta is entitled the S&calya sanhUd, The 
author of the Marichiy therefore, distin^shes the one to which he 
refers. 

f Sp*hutavicshipa and Sp'hutadhruvaca ; which will he explained 
further on. 

X Ranganat'ha and Bh^dhara. 

§ In the Vasana bhashya and in the Marichi, 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 325 

It is named Vedhavalaya or intersecting circle, and appears 
to be a circle of declination. After noticing this addition 
to the instrument, the instructions proceed to the rectifying 
of the GSlayantra, or armillary sphere, which is to be 
placed, so that the axis shall point to the pole, and the 
horizon be true by a water-level. 

The instrument being thus placed, the observer is in- 
structed to look at the star Revati through a sight fitted 
to an orifice at the centre of the sphere; and having 
found the star, to adjust by it the end of the sign Pisces 
on the ecliptic. The observer is then to look, through the 
sight, at the y6ga star of Aswini^ or at some other pro- 
posed object ; and to bring the moveable circle of decli- 
nation over it. The distance in degrees, from the inter- 
section of this circle and ecUptic, to the end of Mina or 
Pisces, is its longitude {dhruvaca) in degrees; and the 
number of degrees on the moveable circle of declination, 
from the same intersection to the place of the star, is its 
latitude (vicskepa) north or south.* 

The commentatorsf further remark, that * the latitude, 
so found, is (sp^huia) apparent, being the place intercepted 
between the star and the ecliptic, on a circle passing 
through the poles ; but the true latitude {(zsp'huia) is found 
on a circle hung upon the poles of the celestial sphere, as 
directed in another place.' The longitude, found as above 
directed, is, in Uke manner, the space intercepted between 
the origin of the ecliptic and a circle of declination passing 

* Father P^tau, and, after him, B a illy, for reasons stated by 
them (Uranol. Dissert 2. 2. Ast Anc. p. 428.), are of opinion, that 
the ancient astronomers referred stars to the equator ; and that Eu- 
DOXU8 and Hipparohus must be so understood, when speaking of the 
longitudes of stars. Perhaps the Greek astronomers, like the Hindus, 
reckoned longitudes upon the ecliptic intersected hy circles of decli- 
nation, in the manner which has heen here explained. 

t BhOphara is the most explicit on this point. 



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326 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

through the star : difFeringy consequently^ from the troe 
longitude. The same commentators add, that the longh 
tudes and latitudes, exhibited in the text, are of the de- 
scription thus explained : and those, which are stated m 
the Siirya siddhanta, are expressly affirmed to be adapted 
to the time when the equinox did not differ from the origin 
of the ecliptic in the beginning of Mesha. 

It is obvious, that, if the commentators have rightly 
understood the text of their authors, the latitudes and lon- 
gitudes there given, require correction. It will indeed 
appear, in the progress of this inquiry, that the positions 
of stars distant from the ecUptic, as there given, do not 
exactly correspond with the true latitudes and longitudes 
of the stars supposed to be intended : and the disagree- 
ment may be accoimted for, by the circumstance of the 
observations having been made in the manner above de- 
scribed. 

Another mode of observation is taught in the SiddhiaUa 
sundara, cited and expounded by the author of the Sid- 
dhanta sarvabhauma. * A tube, adapted to the summit of a 
gnomon, is directed towards the star on the meridian : and 
the Une of the tube, pointed to the star, is prolonged by a 
thread to the ground. The line from the summit of the 
gnomon to the base is the hypotenuse ; the height of the 
gnomon is the perpendicular ; and its distance frt>m the 
extremity of the thread is the base of the triangle. There- 
fore, as the hypotenuse is to its base, so is the radius to a 
base, from which the sine of the angle, and consequently 
the angle itself, are known. If it exceed the latitude, the 
declination is south ; or, if the contrary, it is north. The 
right ascension of the star is ascertained by calculation 
fi^m the hour of the night, and from the right ascension of 
the sun for that time. The declination of the correspond- 
ing point of the ecliptic being found, the sum or difference 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 327 

of the decUnations, according as they are of the same or of 
different denominations^ is the distance of the star from the 
ecliptic. The longitude of the same point is computed ; 
and from these elements, with the actual precession of the 
equinox, may be calculated the true longitude of the star ; 
as also its latitude on a circle passing through the poles of 
the ecUptic.' 

Such, if I have rightly comprehended the meaning in a 
single and not vary accurate copy of the text, is the purport of 
the directions given in the Siddhanta smidara and sarvor 
bhaumu: the only works in which the true latitudes and lon- 
gitudes of the stars are attempted to be given. All the rest 
exhibit the longitude of the star's circle of declination, and 
its distance from the ecliptic measured on that circle. 

I suppose the original observations, of which the result 
is copied from Brahmegupta and the Sdrya siddhanta^ 
with little variation, by successive authors, to have been 
made about the time, when the vernal equinox was near 
the first degree of Mesha,* The pole then was nearly 
seventeen degi-ees and a quarter from its present position, 
and stood a little beyond the star near the ear of the 
Cameleopard. On this supposition it will be accordingly 
foimd, that the assigned places of the nacshatras are easily, 
reconcileable to the positions of stars likely to be meant 

I shall here remark, that the notion of a polar star, com- 
mon to the Indian and Grecian celestial spheres, implies 
considerable antiquity. It cannot have been taken from 
our present pole-star (aUrsse minoris), which, as Mons. 
B A ILLY has observed,^ was remote from the pole, when 

• Brahmegupta wrote soon after that period; and the Sdrya 
siddh6nta is probably a work of nearly the same age. Mr. Bbntlbt 
considers it as more modem (As. Res., toI. vi.) : it certainly cannot 
be more ancient ; for the equinox must have past the beginning of 
Misha^ or have been near it, when that work was composed. 

t Astronomic A ncienne, p. 511. 



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328 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

EuDOxus described ihe sphere; at which tune, according 
to the quotation of Hipparchus, there was a star situated 
at the pole of the world.* Bailly conjectures, as the 
intermediate stars of the sixth magnitude are too small to 
have designated the pole, that u Draconis was the star 
meant by Eudoxus, which had been at its greatest ap- 
proximation to the pole, Uttle more than four degrees from 
it, about 1326 years before Christ. It must have been 
distant, between seven and eight degrees of a great circle, 
when EuDOxus wrote. Possibly the great star in the 
Dragon (a Draconis), which is situated very near to the 
circle described by the north pole round the pole of the 
ecUptic, had been previously designated as the polar star. 
It was within one d^ree of the north pole about 2836 years 
hetore Christ. As we know, that the idea could not be 
taken from the star in the tail of Ursa minor, we are forced 
to choose between Bailly's conjecture or the supposition 
of a still greater antiquity. I should, therefore, be inclined 
to extend to the Indian sphere, his conjecture respecting 
that of EuDoxTJS. 

I shall now proceed to compare the nacshatras with the 
manzils of the moon, or lunar mansions. 

I. Aswini, now the first nacshatra, but anciently the last 
but one, probably obtamed its present situation at the head 
of the Indian asterisms, when the beginning of the zodiac 
vms referred to the first degree of Mesha, or the Ram, on 
the Hindu sphere. As measuring a portion of the zodiac, 
it occupies the first 13^ 2(/ of MSsha: and its beginning 
follows immediately after the principal star in the last 
nacshatra {Revdtt), reckoned, by some exactly, by others 
nearly, opposite to the very conspicuous one, which forms 
the fourteenth asterism. Considered as a constellation, 

* HippABCHUS, Comment on Aratus, lib. i. p. 179. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 329 

Asvoini comprises three stars figured as a horse's head; 
and the principal, which is also the northern one, is stated 
by all ancient authorities, in 10^ N. and 8^ E. from the 
beginning of Misha. 

The first manzil, or lunar mansion, according to the 
Arabs, is entitled Shercaan, (by the Persians corruptly 
called, as in the oblique case, Sheraiain), and comprises 
two stars of the third magnitude on the head of Aries, in 
lat. 6^ 36' and T" SV N., and long. 26^ 13' and 27*^ 7'.* 
With the addition of a third, also in the head of the Ram, 
the asterism is denominated Ashrat. The bright star of 
the second or third magnitude which is out of the figure of 
the Ram, according to Uluoh beg, but on the nose 
according to Hipparchus cited by this author from Pto- 
lemy, is determined Natih: it is placed in lat. 9® 30' N. 
and long. 1*0^ 43', and is apparently the same with the 
principal star in the Indian asterism; for Mtjhammed of 
Tizin, in his table of declination and right ascension, ex- 
pressly terms it the first star of the Sheraiain.f 

MBXiypaA^ts, consulted by me, have concurred in point- 
ing to the three bright stars in the head of Aries (apwad 7) 
for the Indian constellation Ahvini. The first star of 
Aries (a) was also shown to Dr. Huntes, at Ujjayinij 
for the principal one in this asterism; and Mr. Davis j: 
states the other two, as those which were pointed out to 
him by a skilfiil native astronomer, for the stars that dis- 
tinguish Astoini. The same three stars, but with the addi- 
tion of three others, were indicated to Le Gentil, for this 
constellation. § I entertain, therefore, no doubt, that Sir 

• Hydb's Uluoh beg, p. 68. 

t Hyde's Com. on Uluoh bbo's tablen, p. 97.. 

I As. Res., vol. ii. p. 226. 

h M^m. Acad. Scien., 1772, P. ii., p. 209. * 



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330 ON THE INDIAN AND ABABIAN 

William Jones* was right in placing the three stare of 
Aswird in, and near, the head of the Ram ; and it is evident, 
that the first nacshatra of the Hindus is here rightly deter- 
mined, in exact conformity with the first lunar mansion of the 
Arabs ; although the longitude of a Arietis exceed, by half a 
degree, that which is deduced, for the end of Astoini, from the 
supposed situation of the Virgin's spike opposite to the be- 
ginning of this fuicshatra; and although its circle of decli- 
nation be 13^ instead of 8^ from the principal star in Rivafi, 
II. Bharani, the second Indian asterism, comprises 
three stars figured by the Y6nt or pudendtan muliebre: and 
all ancient authorities concur in placing the principal 
and southern star of this nacshatra in 12^ N. The second 
manzily entitled Butain, is placed by Ulugh BEof in 
lat. 1^ 12' and 3^ 12^; and this cannot possibly be recon- 
ciled with the Hindu constellation. But Mu hammed of 
TisAn^X assigns to the bright star oi Butain a declination 
of 23® N. exceeding by nearly 2® the decUnation allotted 
by him to Natih, or his first star in Sheraiain. This 
agrees with the difierence between the principal stars of 
Aswini and Bharani; and it may be inferred, that some 
among the Muhammedan astronomere have concurred with 
the Hindus, in referring the second constellation to stars 
that form Musca. There were no good grounds for sup- 
posing Bharani to correspond with three stars on the tail 
of the Ram ;§ and I have no doubt, that the stars, which 
compose this nacshatra, have been rightly indicated to me, 
as three in Musca, forming a triangle almost equilateral : 
their brightness, and their equal distance fiom the first and 
third asterisms, corroborate this opinion, which will be 
confirmed by showing, as will be done in the progress of 



• As. Res., vol. ii. p. 298. t Hydk, p. 61. 

J See Hyde's Commentary, p. 97. § As. Res., vol. ii. p- 298. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 331 

this comparison, that the nacshatras are not restricted to 
the limits of the zodiac. 

III. Crittica, now the third, but formerly the first, 
Tuicshatra, consists of six stars figured as a knife or razor, 
and the principal and southern star is placed in 4i^ or 5^ N. 
and in 65 sixths of degrees (or 10^ 50 ) from its own com- 
mencement, according to the 5^rya siddhantOy or 37^ 28' to 
38^ firom the beginning of Mesha, according to the Sid- 
dhanta HrSmani, and Graha laghava, respectively. This 
longitude of the circle of declination corresponds nearly 
with that of the bright star in the Pleiades, which is 40^ of 
longitude distant from the principal star oiRevati. 

The stars indicated by Ultjoh beg for Thwrayyk, also 
correspond exactly with the Pleiades; and these were 
pointed out to the Jesuit missicHiaries,* as they have since 
been to every other inquirer, for the third nacshatra. If 
any doubt existed. Mythology might assist in determining 
the question; for the Cntiicas are six nymphs, who nursed 
ScANDA, the god of war, named fi'om these, his foster 
mothers, CJLRTiciYA or ShanmItura. 

IV. We retain on our celestial globes the Arabic name 
of the fourth lunar mansion Debaran (or with the article, 
Aldebaran): appUed by us, however, exclusively to the 
bright star called the Buirs-eye ; and which is unquestion- 
ably the same with the principal and eastern star o(R6hiiii, 
placed in 4^® or 5** S. and 49^** E. by the Hindu writers 
on Astronomy. This nacshatraj figured as a wheeled car- 
riage, comprises'five stars, out of the seven which the Greeks 
named the Hyades. The Arabs, however, like the Hindus, 
reckon five stars only in the asterism; and Sir William 
Jones rightly supposed them to be in the head and neck 
of the Bull ; they probably Bie apyis Tauri, agreeably to 
Mons. Bailly's conjecture.f 

* Costard's Hist, of Astr., p. 51. Bailly's Astr. Ind., p. 131 
t Astr. Ind., p. 129. 



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332 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

Hindu astronomers define a point in this constellation, 
of some importance in their fancifiil astrology. According 
to the Sdrya siddkanta, when a planet is in the 7th de- 
gree of Vrisha (Taurus) and has more than two degrees 
of south latitude, or, as commentators expound the pas- 
sage, 2^ 4(y ; the planet is said to cut the cart of RShini. 
This is denominated iacaiabheda, or the section of the 
wain. Lalla and the Graha laghava give nearly the 
same definition ; and it is added in the work last men- 
tioned, that, when Mars, Saturn, and the Moon, are in 
that position (which occurs, in regard to the moon, when 
the node is eight nacshatras distant firom Puruxrvasu, and 
might happen in regard to the rest during another tfuga\ 
the world is involved in great calamity. Accordingly, the 
puraAas contain a legendary story of DaI^arat'ha's dis- 
suading Saturn fix>m so traversing the constellation i2(5Aini. 

V. Mrtgasiras, the fifth nacshatra, represented by an 
antelope's head, contains three stars ; the same which con- 
stitute the fifth lunar mansion Hakah ; for the distance of 
10^ S. assigned to the northern star of this nacshat7*a, will 
agree vrith no other but one of the three in the head of 
Orion. The difference of longitude (24'' to 26^"*) from 
Crittica corresponds with su£Bcient exactness ; and so does 
the longitude of its circle of declination (62^ to 63^) fix>m 
the end of Revati; since the true longitude of x Orionis, 
fi-om the principal star in Revati ii Piscium), is 63 i®. It 
v^s a mistake to suppose this asterism to comprise stars in 
the feet of Qemini, or in the Gralaxy.* 

VI. ArdrcLy the sixth Tiacshatra, consists of a single 
bright star, described as a gem, and placed in 9^ S. by 
one authority, but in 11** by others, and at the distance of 
4^** to 4® in longitude fix)m the last asterism. This indi- 
cates the star in the shoulder of Orion (a Orionis); not, as 

• As. Res., voL ii. p. 298. 



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DIVISIONS OF THB ZODIAC. 333 

was conjectured by Sir Willam Jones, the star in the 
knee of Pollux.* 

The sixth lunar mansion is named by the Arabs, Han&h ; 
and comprises two stars in the feet of the second Twin, 
according to Ulugh beg, though others make it to be 
his shoulder.f Muhammed of Tizin allots five stars to 
this constellation ; and the Kamiis, among various mean- 
ings of Han&hy says, that it is a name for five stars in the 
left arm of Orion ; remarking, also, that the lunar man- 
sion is named Tahayi^ comprising three stars called 
Tahyat. Either way, however, the Indian and Arabian 
asterisms appear in this instance irreconcileable. 

VII. The seventh nacshatray entitled PtmarvagUj and 
represented by a house, or, according to a Sanscrit work 
cited by Sir William Jones,;}: a bow, is stated by astro- 
nomers as including four stars, among which the principal 
and eastern one is 30^ or 32^ firom the fifth asterism ; but 
placed by all authorities in 6^ N. This agrees with 
(j3 Gteminorum) one of the two stars in the heads of the 
Twins, which together constitute the seventh lunar mansion 
jZiraA, accordingto Muhammed of T&s and Muhammed 
of Tizin and other Arabian authorities.^ 

It appears fit)m a rule of Sanscrit grammar,|| that Pu- 
noTvasUy as a name for a constellation, is properly dual, 
implying, as it may be supposed, two stars. On this 
ground, a conjecture may be raised, that Punarvasu ori- 
ginally comprised two stars, though four are now assigned 
to it. Accordingly, that number is retained in the Sacalya 
sanhita. 

It may be fiirther observed, that the seventh lunar 

♦ As. Res., vol. ii. p. 298. t Hydk, Com. p. 7 and 44. 
X As. Res., voL ii. p. 295. § Hyde on Uluoh bbo, p. 43. 

Pli^iNi, 1. ii. 63. 



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334 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

mansion of the Arabs is named ZiroA ul ased according to 
jAUHARf and others cited by Hyde;* and that iheKamus 
makes this term to be the name of eight stars in the form 
of a bow. 

Upon the whole^ the agreement of the Indian and Ara- 
Uan constellations is here apparent, notwithstanding a 
variation in the nmnber of the stars ; and I conclude, that 
Punarvagu comprises, conformably with Sir William 
Jones's supposition,t stars in the heads of the twins; 
viz. a, fi, Geminorum ; and which were indicated to Dr. 
Hunter by a Hindu astronomer at Ujjayini: to which, 
perhaps, and t may be added to complete the number of 
four, 

VIIL Pushya, the eighth asterism, is described as an 
arrow ; and consists of three stars, the chief of which, 
being also the middlemost, has no latitude, and is 12^ or 
13^ distant from the seventh asterism, being placed by 
Hindu astronomers in 106® of longitude. This is evidently 
3^Cancri ; and does not differ widely from the eighth lunar 
mansion Nethrah, which, according to Ulugh beg and 
others, j: consists of two stars, including the nebula of 
Cancer. The Indian constellation comprises two other 
stars, besides i Cancri, which are perhaps y and of the 
same constellaticm ; and Sir William Jones's conjecture, 
that it consists of stars .in the body and claws of Cancer, 
was not fax from the truth. 

IX. The ninth asterism, AsUsha^ contains five stars 
figured as a potter's wheel, and of which the principal 
or eastern one is placed in 7® S., and according to different 
tables, lO?"", 108^ or 109«, E. This appears to be intended 
for the bright star in the southern claw of Cancer ( a Cancri), 

• Com. on Uluoh beo, p. 44. f As. Res., vol. ii. p. 299. 

X Hyde's Com., p. 45. 



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1»IV18IONS OF THE ZODIAC. 335 

and cannot be reconciled with the lunar mansion Tarf or 
Tarfahj which comprises two stars* near the lion's eye; 
the northernmost being placed by Muhammed of Tlzrtit 
in 24"^ of N. declination, f The Jesuit missionaries, if 
rightly quoted by Costa rd^ made AiUsha correspond 
with the bright stars in the heads of Castor and Pollux, 
together with Procyon. This is evidently erroneous. Sir 
William Jones's supposition that AiUsha might answer 
to the face and name of Leo, nearly concurs with the 
Arabian determination of this lunar mansion, but disagrees 
with the place assigned to the stars by Hindu astronomers. 
B A ILLY committed the same mistake, when he affirmed, 
that AiUsha is the lion's head.§ 

X. The tenth asterism, Magha, contains, like the last, 
five stars ; but which are figured as a house. The princi- 
pal or southern one has no latitude ; and, according to all 
authorities, has 129^ longitude. This is evidently Regulus 
(a Leonis) : which is exactly 1291° distant from the last star 
in Rhati. 

According to the Jesuits cited by Costard, Magha 
answers to the Lion's mane and heart; and the tenth 
lunar mansion of the Arabians, Jebhahy comprises three 
(some say four) stars, nearly in the longitude of the Uon's 
heart.|| In this instance, therefore, the Indian and Arabian 
divisions of the zodiac coincide : and it is owing to an 
oversight, that Sir William Jones states the nacshatra 
as composed of stars in the lion's leg and haunch. It 
appears to consist oiayiri and y Leonis. 

XI. Two stars, constituting the eleventh nacshatra^ or 
preceding P'halguni, which is represented by a couch or 

• Hyde's Com., p. 8. t Hyde's Cora., p. 101. 

X Hist, of Astr., p. 51. § Astr. Ind., p. 328. 

II Hyde's Uluoh beg, p. 74, and Com., p. 4G. 



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336 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

bedstead, are determined by the place of the chief star 
(the Dorihemmost according to the Sdrya siddhanta) in 12'' 
N. and 144'' E. or, according to Brahmegupta, the 
SirimaAi and the Graha laghava 147« or 148'' E. They 
are probably i and 6 Leonis : the same which form the 
lunar mansion Zuhrah or Khertan,* 

It may be conjectured, that Brahmeoupta and BhAs- 
CARA selected the southern for the principal star ; while 
the SUtrya siddhanta took the northern: hence the latitude, 
stated by those several Hindu authorities, is the mean 
between both stars ; and the difference of longitude, com- 
pared to the preceding and subsequent asterisms, may be 
exactly reconciled upon this supposition. 

XII. Two other stars, constituting the twelfth Tuicshatra, 
or following P'halguni, which is Ukewise figured as a bed, 
are ascertained by the place of one of them (the northern- 
most) 13'' N. and 166" E. This mdicates Leonis; the 
same which singly constitutes the Arabian lunar mansion 
Serfahff though Muhammed of Tizin seems to hint 
that it consists of more than one star.;]: By an error re- 
garding the origin of the ecliptic on the Indian sphere. Sir 
William Jones refers to the preceding nacshatra, the 
principal star of this asterism. 

XIII. Hasta, the thirteenth nacshatra, has the name 
and figure of a hand ; and is suitably made to contain 
five stars. The principal one, towards the west, next to 
the north-western star, is placed according to all authori- 
ties in IP and 170** E. This can only belong to the con- 
stellation Corvus : and accordingly five stars in that con- 
stellation (afiyit Corvi), have been pointed out to me by 
Hindu astronomers for this nacshatra. 

• Hydk'sUluoh beg, p. 76, and Cora., p. 47. 
t Hyde's Ulugh beg, p. 78, and Com., p. 47. 
: Hyde, p. 102. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 337 

Aivwa, the thirteenth lunar mansion of the Arabs^ is 
described as containing the same number of stars, situated 
under yirgp, and so disposed as to resemble the letter Alif. 
They are placed by Ulugh beg in the wing.* 

In this instance the Indian and Arabian divisions of the 
zodiac have nothing in common but the number of stars 
and their agreement of longitude. It appears, however, 
from a passage cited from S^pi by HYDE^f that the Arabs 
have also considered the constellation of Corvus as a man- 
sion of the moon. 

XIV. The fourteenth nacshatra, figured as a pearl, is a 
single star named Chitra. It is placed by the Sdrya 
siddhanta in 2^ S. and 180^ E., and by Brahmegupta, 
the Sir6mani and Graha laghava, in If® or 2^ S. and 
183o E. This agrees with the Virgin's spike (<« Virginis ;) 
and Hindu astronomers have always pointed out that star 
for Chitra. The same star constitutes the fourteenth lunar 
mansion of the Arabs, named from it Simac ul aazU. Le 
Gentil's conjecture, j: that the fourteenth nocsia^a com- 
prises the two stars 3^ and t Virginis, was entirely erroneous. 
And Mons. Baillt was equaUy incorrect in placing $ 
Virginis in the middle of this asterism.§ 

XV. Another single star constitutes the fifteenth ncuy 
shatra, Swati, represented by a coral bead. The Sdrya 
siddhanta^ Brahmegupta, the Sir6mam and Graha 
laghava, concur in placing it in 37® N. They differ one 
degree in the longitude of its circle of declination ; three of 
these authorities making it 199% and the other 198®. 

The only conspicuous star, nearly in the situation thus 
assigned to Swati, (and the Indian astronomers would 
hardly travel so far frx>m the zodiac to seek an obscure 

* Htdb*8 Ulugh bbo, p. 80. t Com., p. 82. 

t Bailly Astr. Ind., p. 227. § Astr. Ind., p. 227. 

VOL. II. Z 



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338 ON THE INDIAN AND ARAD1AN 

star ;) is Arctunis, 33° N. of the ecliptic in tlie circle of 
declination, and 198° E. (rom the principal star of RevcUi. 
I am therefore disposed to believe, that Swati has been 
rightly indicated to me by a native astronomer who pointed 
out Arcturus for this nacshatra. The longitude, stated by 
MuNi^wARA {viz. H° less than Chitra) indicates the same 
star : but, if greater reliance be placed on his latitudes, the 
star intended may be t Bootis. At all events, Moos. 
Bailly mistook, when he asserted, on the authority of Lb 
Gentil, that the fifteenth nacshatra is marked by a Vir- 
ginis ; and that this star is situated at the begionhig of the 
nacshatra.* 

The Indian asterism totally disagrees with the lunar 
mansion Ghafr, consisting of three stars in the Virgin's 
foot, according to Ulugh B£6,t but in, or near, the 
balance, according to others. 

XVI. Fiiic'Aa, the sixteenth nacshatra^ c<H)8i8ts of 
four stars described as a festoon. Authorities difier little 
as to the situation of the principal and northernmost star : 
placing it in F, 1° 20', or P 30' S., and in 212% 212^ 6' or 
213^ E. The latitude seems to indicate the bright star in 
the southern Scale (a Librae), though the longitude dis- 
agree : for this suggests a remote star (possibly » Librse). I 
apprehend the first to be nearest the truth; and hence 
conclude the four stars to be a y i Librae and y Scorpii. 

The sixteenth lunar mansion, named Zubanah or Ztiba- 
niyah, is according toMuHAMMBDof Tizin,t the bright 
star in the northern Scale (fi Librae), which Sir William 
JoNBs supposed to be the fifteenth nacshatra. 

Father Souciet, by whom Corona Borealis is stated 

• Astr. Ind., p. 139 and 22?. 
t Hyde, p. 82, and Com., p. 50. 
t Hydb, Com., p. 104. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 339 

for the asterism VUac'ha, is censured by Sir William 
JoNBSy under an impression, that all the nacsAatras must 
be sought within the zodiac. The information^ received by 
Father Souciet, does appear to have been erroneous ; but 
the Sfune mistake was committed by a native astronomer, 
who showed to me the same constellation for Vtsac^ha; 
and the nacshatras are certainly not restricted to the neigh- 
bourhood of the ecliptic. 

XVII. Four stars, (or, according to a different readmg, 
three,) described as a row of oblations, that is, in a right 
line, constitute the seventeenth nacshatra named Anu- 
radha. Here also, authorities differ little as to the situa- 
tion of the chief and middlemost star; which is placed in 3^, 
or 2^ or 1^ 45' S., and in 224*> or 224^ 5' E. This must in- 
tend the starnearthehead of the Scorpion (3^ Scorpionis) ; and 
the asterism probably comprises fii^r and p Scorpionis. 

The seventeenth lunar mansion of the Arabs called IcHl 
or IcUlu'ljebhah, contains four (some say three, and others 
six,*) stars lyii^ in a straight line. Those assigned by 
Ulugh BBGf for this mansion, sie fiivw Scorpionis. 

Here the Indian and Arabian divisions appear to c(»icur 
exactly ; and Sir William Jones,! as well as the mis- 
sionaries cited by Costabd,§ have apparently understood 
the same stars; though the latter extend the nacshatra to 
the constellation Serpentarius. 

XVIII. Jyishi'ha, the eighteenth nacshatra, comprises 
three stars figured as a ring. In regard to this, also, 
authorities are nearly agreed in the position of the prin- 
cipal and middlemost star, placed in 4®, 3i*^, or 3*^ S., and 
in 229% 229^ 6', or 230*^ E. This position clearly indicates 
Antares or the ScorpicHi's heart (a Scorpionis) ; which is 

• Hyde, Com., p. 51. t Hydb, p. 87. 

t As. Res., ii. p. 299. § Hist Astr., p. 51. 

z2 



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340 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

also the eighteenth lunar mansion, named Kalb or Kalinin 
Vakrab. The three stars of the Indian asterism may be 
a a and t Scorpionis. 

XIX. The nineteenth asterism, Mdla, represented by a 
lion's tail, contains eleven stars, of which the characteristic 
one, the easternmost, is placed in 9^, 8i^, or 8^ S., and in 
241^ or 242*^ E. Although the latitude of v Scorpionis be 
five degrees too great, there seems little doubt that either 
that or the star east of it, marked y, must be intended ; and 
this determination agrees with the eighteenth lunar mansion 
of the Arabs called Shaulah, consisting of two stars near the 
Scorpion's sting. The Hindu asterism probably includes all 
the stars placed by us in the Scorpion's tail, viz. $ fA (nO lu 
X u and y Scorpionis. 

XX. The twentieth nacshatrGf entitled preceding Asha- 
ciha^ figured as an elephant's tooth, or as a couch, consists 
of two stai*s, of which the most northern one is placed in 
6i^, 67% or 6« S., and 254<» or 266*^ E. This suits with i 
Sagitt&rii, which is also one of the stars of the twentieth 
lunar mansion caUed Naaim. It consists of four, or, ac- 
cording to some authorities, of eight stars. The Indian 
asterism seemingly comprises i and e Sagittarii. 

XXI. Two stars constitute the twenty-first asterism, 
named the subsequent AshaSLha^ which is represented by a 
couch or by an elephant's tooth. The principal star, which 
also is the most northerly one, is placed in 6® S., and 260®, 
or 261° E. This agrees with a star in the body of Sagit- 
tarius (t Sagittarii), and the other star is perhaps the one 
marked (. 

The twenty-first lunar mansion of the Arabians, named 
BaMahf comprises six stars, two of which are placed by 
MuHAMMED of Tiziu in declination 21^ and 16°. One 
of these must be a star in the head of Sagittarius. Some 
authors, on the contrary, describe the lunar mansion as 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 341 

destitute of stars.* At all events^ the Hindu and Arabian 
divisions appear, in this instance^ to be but imperfectly re- 
concileable. 

XXII. Three stars^ figured as a triangle, or as the nut 
of the floating Trapa, form the twenty-second asterism, 
named Abhijit; v^hich, in the modem Indian astronomy, 
does not occupy an equal portion of the ecliptic v^ith the 
other nacshatrasy but is carved out of the contiguous divi- 
sions. Its place (meaning that of its brightest star) is very 
remote from the zodiac ; being in 60® or 62*^ N. The lon- 
gitude of its circle of declination, according to different 
authorities, is 265''» 266® 4(y, or 268®. Probably the 
bright star in the Lyre is meant. It was shewn to Dr. 
Hunter, at Ujjayini for the chief star in Abhijit; and 
the same was pointed out to me for the asterism, by a 
Hindu astronomer at this place. 

The Arabian lunar mansion Zabih, consists of two stars 
(some reckon four+) in the horns of Capricorn, totally dis- 
agreeing vnth the Indian ncLcshatra, 

XXIIL Sravana, the twenty-third nacsfuitra, repre- 
sented by three footsteps, contains three stars, of which 
one, the middlemost, is by all authorities placed in 30® N., 
but they differ as to its longitude ; the Siirya siddhanta 
placing it in 280® ; Brabmegupta and the Sirdmani, in 
278®; and the Graka laghava in 276®. The assigned 
latitude indicates the bright star in the Eagle, whence the 
three may be inferred to be a and y Aquilse. 

The twenty-third mansion of the moon, called by the 
Arabs Bala, consists of two stars in the left; hand of Aqua- 
rius. C!onsequently the Arabian and Hindu divisions are 
here at variance. 

* Hyde, Com. on Uluoh beo, p. 9. 

t Ulugh BEG) p. 94, and Hyde's Com., p. 54. 



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342 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

XXIV. Dhanishi'ka, the twenty-fourth asterism, is re- 
presented by a drum or tabor. It comprises four stars, one 
of which (the westernmost) is placed in 36^ N., and ac- 
cording to the Siirya siddhantay Brahmeoupta and 
the SirSmaAiy in 290^ E., though the Graha laghava state 
286^ only. This longitude of the circle of declination, and 
the distance of the star on it from the ecliptic, indicate the 
Dolphin ; and the four stars probably are a y and i Del- 
phini. The same constellation is mentioned by the Jesuit 
missionaries as corresponding to Dhanish^ha ;* and there 
can be little doubt that the ascertainment is correct The 
longitude stated by MunISwara, {viz. 294° 120 supports 
the conclusion, though his latitude (26° 260 be too small. 
To determine accurately the position of this Tuxcshatra is 
important, as the solstitial colure,' according to the ancient 
astronomers, passed through the extremity of it, and through 
the middle oi AiUsha. 

The twenty-fourth mansion, called by the Arabs S^md^ 
comprises two stars in Aquarius (0 and I Aquarii); totally 
disagreeing with the Hindu division. 

XXV. Satabhishay the twenty-fifth nacshatra, is a dus- 
ter of a hundred stars figured by a circle. The jHrincipal 
one, or brightest, has no latitude ; or only a third, or at the 
utmost half, a degree of south latitude ; and all the tables 
concur in placing it in long. 320°* This will suit best with 
X Aquarii. These hundred stars may be sought in the 
stream firom the Jar, where Sir William Jones places 
the nacshatra; and in the right 1^ of Aquarius. 

AkhhiyaJi, the twenty-fifth lunar mansion, is stated to 
consist of three stars only, which seem to be the three in 
the wrist of the right hand of Aquarius.t However, it ap- 
pears from Ulugh beg's tables, as well as firom Mu- 

• Costard, p. 81. f Hyde's Com., p. 55. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 343 

HAMMED of Ti^iAn^Sy that four stars are assigned to this 
mansioii.* 

The Hindu and Arabian asterisms differ here less 
widely than in the instances lately noticed: and a passage, 
cited by Hyde from FiR^ziBlDi, even intimates the cir- 
cular figure of the constellation.t 

XXVI. The twenty-sixth of the Indian asterisms, called 
the preceding Bhadrapadaf consists of two stars repre- 
sented by a couch or bed, or else by a double-headed 
figure ; one of which is placed by Hindu astrcmomers in 
24^ N., and 325^ or 326^ E, The only conspicuous star, 
nearly in that situation, is the bright star in Pegasus (a Pe- 
gasi) ; and the other may be the nearest considerable star 
in the same constellation (^ Pegasi.) I should have consi- 
dered fi Pegasi to be the second star of this nacshatra^ 
were not its y6ga or chief star expressly said to be the most 
northerly. Mukaddim, the twenty-sixth lunar mansion, 
consists of the two brightest stars in Pegasus {a and fi %) ; 
and thus the two divisions of the zodiac nearly concur. 

XXVII. Two other stars constitute the twenty-seventh 
lunar mansion named the subsequent Bhadrapada, They 
are figured as a twin, or person with a double face, or else 
as a couch. The position of one of them (the most northeriy) 
is staled in 26"* or 2V N., and 337^ E. I suppose the 
bright star in the head of Andromeda to be meant ; and the 
other star to be the one in the extremity of the wing of 
Pegasus (y Pegasi). This agrees exactly with the twenty- 
seventh lunar mansion of the Arabians, called Muakkher. 
For Ulugh beg assigns those stars to it § 

XXVIII. The last of the twenty-eight asterisms is 
named Bevati, and comprises thirty-two stars figured as 

* Hydb, p. 99, and Com., p. 95, t Com., p. 10. 

X Hyde's Uluoh bbo, p. 53, and Com., p. 34. 
§ Hyde, p. 53, and Com., p. 34 and 35. 



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344 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

a tabor. All authorities agree that the principal star, 
which should be the southernmost, has no latitude, and 
two of them assert no longitude ; but some make it ten 
minutes short of the origin of the ediptic, viz. 369® dff. 
This clearly marks the star on the ecUptic in the string of 
the Fishes (( Piscium ); and the ascertainment of it is im- 
portant in regard to the adjustment of the Hindu sphere. 

The Arabic name of the 28th mansion, Rishhy signifying 
a cord, seems to indicate a star nearly in the same position. 
But the constellation, as described by JauharI cited by 
GoLius, consists of a multitude of stars in the shape of a 
fish, and termed Betnu'lhiit ; in the navel of which is the 
lunar mansion : and M uhammed of TisAn^ with some 
others, also makes this lunar mansion to be the same with 
Betnu^lh'ktf which appears, however, to be the bright star 
in the girdle of Andromeda (j3 Andromedse) ; though others 
describe it as the northern Fish, extending, however, to the 
horns of the Ram.* The lunar mansion and Indian aste- 
rism are, therefore, not reconcileable in this last instance. 

The result of the comparison shows, I hope satisfactorily, 
that the Indian asterisms, which mark the divisions of the 
ecUptic, generally consist of nearly the same stars, which 
constitute the lunar mansions of the Arabians : but, in a 
few instances, they essentially differ. The Hindus have 
likewise adopted the division of the ecliptic and zodiac into 
twelve s%ns or constellations, agreeing in figure and de- 
signation with those of the Greeks ; and differing merely 
in the place of the constellations, which are carried on 
the Indian sphere a few degrees further west than on the 
Grecian. That the Hindus took the hint of this mode of 
dividing the ecliptic from the Greeks, is not perhaps alto- 
gether improbable ; but, if such be the origin of it, they 

♦ Hyde's Com., p. 10, 35, and 96. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 345 

have not implicitly received the arrangement suggested to 
them, but have reconciled and adapted it to their own an- 
cient distribution of the ecliptic into twenty-seven parts.* 

In like manner^ they may have either received or given 
the hint of an armillary sphere as an instrument for astro- 
nomical observation : but certainly they have not copied 
the instrument which was described by Ptolemy, for the 
construction differs considerably. 

In the Arabic epitome of the Almagest entitled Tahriru'l- 
mejestiff the armillary sphere {Zat ul haUc) is thus de- 
scribed. ^' Two equal circles are placed at right angles ; 
the one representing the ecliptic, the other the solstitial 
colure. Two pins pass through the poles of the ecliptic ; 
and two other pins are placed on the poles of the equator. 
On the two first pins are suspended a couple of circles, 
moving the one vnthin, the other without, the first men- 
tioned circles, and representing two secondaries of the 
ecliptic. On the two other pins a circle is placed, which 
encompasses the whole instrument, and within which the 
different circles turn ; it represents the meridian. Within 
the inner secondary of the ecliptic a circle is fitted to it, in 
the same plane, and turning in it. This is adapted to 
measure latitudes. To this internal circle, two apertures, 
or sights, opposite to each other, and without its plane, 
are adapted, like the sights of an instrument for altitudes. 
The armillary sphere is complete when consisting of these 
six circles. The ecUptic and secondaries are to be gra- 

♦ According to the longitude of the three brightest stars of Aries, 
as stated by Ptolemy, viz. \0** 40', 7° 40', and 6° 40^, (I quote from 
an Arabic epitome of the Almagest) ; the origin of the ecliptic, in the 
Greek book which is most likely to have become known in India, is 
6^ 20' from the star which the Hindus have selected to mark the 
commencement of the ecliptic. 

t By the celebrated NAsfRuoofN T^sl ; from the Arabic version 
of Is'hak bkn HoNAiN, which was revised by Thabit. 



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346 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

dnated as minutely as may be practicable. It is best to 
place both secondaries, as by some directed, wtthm Ae 
ecliptic (instead of placing one of them mdbont it), that 
the complete revidiitMm of &e crater secondary may not 
be obrtmcted by the pins at the poles of the equator. The 
Meridian, likewise, should be doubled, or made to consist 
of two circles ; the external one graduated, and the internal 
one moving within it. Thus the pole may be adjusted at 
its proper elevation above the horizon of any place. The 
instrument so constructed consists of seven circles. 

^^ It is remarked, that when the circle representing the 
meridian, is placed in the plane of the true meridian, so 
that it cuts the plane of the horizon at right angles, and 
one of the poles of the equator is elevated above the hori- 
zon conformably with the latitude of the place ; then the 
motions of all the circles round the poles represent the 
motions of the universe. 

" After rectifying the meridian, if it be wished to ob- 
serve the sun and moon together, the outer secondary of 
the ecliptic must be made to intersect the ecliptic at the 
sun's place for that time: and the solstitial colure must be 
moved until the place of intersection be opposite to the sun. 
Both circles are thus adjusted to their true places; or if 
any other object but the sun, be observed, .the colure is 
turned, until the object be seen in its proper place, on that 
secondary referred to the ecliptic : the circle representing 
the ecliptic being at the same time in the plane of the 
true ecliptic and in its proper situation. Afterwards, the 
inner secondary is turned towards the moon (or to any star 
intended to be observed), and the smaller circle within it, 
bearing the two sights, is turned, until the moon (or to 
any star intended to be observed), and the smaller circle 
within it, bearing the two sights, is turned, until the moon 
be seen in the line of the apertures. The intersection of the 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 347 

secondary circle and ecliptic is the place of the moon in 
longitude ; and the arc of the secondary, between the aper- 
ture and the ecliptic, is the latitude of the moon on either 
side (north or south)." 

The same instnimeat, as described by Montucla from 
the text of Ptolemy (1. 3. c. 2.*), connsts of six ctrdea: 
first, a large circle representing the meridian ; next, four 
circles united together, representing the equator, ecliptic 
and two colures, and turning within the first circle on the 
poles of the equator ; lastly, a circle turning on the poles 
of the ecliptic, furnished with sights and nearly touching, 
on its concave side, the circumference of the ecliptic. 

The armiUary sphere, described by the Arabian epi- 
tomiser, differs, therefore, firom Ptolemy's, in omitting 
the equator and equinoctial colure, and adding an inner 
secondary of the ecliptic, which, as well as the meridian, 
is doubled. 

According to Lalande, the astrolabe of Ptolemy, 
fi'om which Tycho Brahb derived his equatorial armil- 
lary, consisted only of four circles : two placed at right 
angles to represent the ecliptic and solstitial colure; a 
third turning on the poles of the ecliptic and serving to 
mark longitudes ; and a fourth, within the other three, fur- 
nished with sights to observe celestial objects and iheasure 
their latitudes and longitudes.t 

Whether the ancient Greeks had any more complicated 
instrument formed on similar principles, and applicable to 
astronomical observations, is perhaps uncertain. We have 
no detailed description of the instrument which Archi- 
medes is said to have devised to represent the phenomena 
and motions of the heavenly bodies ; nor any sufficient 

• HLst. des Math^m., i. p. 301. 
t Lalandb Afltron., i. 13. (§ 2279). 



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348 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

hint of its construction ;* nor does Cicero's account of 
the sphere exhibited by PosiDONiusf suggest a distinct 
notion of its structure. 

Among the Arabs, no addition is at present known to 
have been made to the armillary sphere, between the period 
when the Almagest was translated,]: and the time of Air 
HAZEN, who wrote a treatise of optics, in which a more 
complicated instrument than that of Ptolemy, is de- 
scribed. Alhazen's armillary sphere is stated to have 
been the prototype of Tycho Brahe's;§ but neither the 

* If Claudian's epigram on the subject of it was founded upon any 
authority, the instrument must have been a sort of orrery, enclosed in 
glass. 

Vide Claud, epigr. 18. Cic. Tusc. Qusest. i. 25. De Nat Deor. ii. 35. 

t Cio.De Nat. Deor. ii. 34. 

} In the Hejira year 212, or A.D. 827, hy Alhazen ben Yusep 
with the aid of Skroius (Montucla, ii. p. 304); or rather by 
Is'hak ben Honain, whose death is placed about the Hejira year 260 
(D'Hbrbelot, p. 456). According to the CasJ^fulzunim^l^'^HAK's 
version was epitomised by Hajaj ben Yusep, by Thabit ben Kor- 
bah, and by NAsfRUoofN TOsf. Other versions, however, are 
mentioned: particularly, one by HajXj, said to have been cor- 
rected first by HoNAiN ben Is'hak, and afterwards by Thabit ; 
another by Thabit himself; and a third by Muni ben yahta. A 
different account is likewise given of the earliest ti*anslation of the 
Almagest, which is ascribed to Abu Hisan and Salman, who are 
said to have completed it, after the failure of other learned men, 
who had previously attempted the translation. Mention is also made 
of a version by IbrahIm brn Salat, revised by Honain. But 
none of these iranslations are anterior to the ninth century of the 
Christian era. 

§ Adhibuit (Tycho) armillare quoddam instrumentum, quod tamen 
comperi ego positum et adhibitum olim fuisse ante Tychonem ab 
Alhazeno, lib. 7* opt. C. 1. prop. 15. et a Vitell. lib. 10. propos. 49. 
cujus instrumenti astronomice collocati ope atque usu, (vide instru. 
mentum multiplex armillare apud Tycho. in Mecbanicis Astronomie), 
eandem elevationem falsam 9 scrupulorum invenit, quam per alia duo 
diversa instrumenta compererat — Bbttini Apiarian vol. ii. p. 41. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 349 

original treatise, nor the Latin translation of it, are here 
procurable ; and I am therefore unable to ascertain whe- 
ther the sphere, mentioned by the Arabian author, resem- 
bled that described by Indian astronomers. At all events, 
he is more modem* than the oldest of the Hindu writers 
whom I shall proceed to quotcf 

The construction of the armillary sphere is briefly and 
rather obscurely taught in the Siirya siddhanta. The fol- 
lowing is a Uteral translation. 

*' Let the astronomer frame the surprising structure of 
the terrestrial and celestial spheres. 

'' Having caused a wooden globe to be made, [of such 
size] as he pleases, to represent the earth ; with a staff for 
the axis passing through the centre, and exceeding the 
globe at both ends ; let him place the supporting hoops,j: 
as also the equinoctial circle. 

" Three circles must be prepared, (divided for signs and 
degrees,) the radius of which must agree with the respec- 
tive diurnal circles, in proportion to the equinoctial: the 
three circles should be placed for the Ram and following 
signs, respectively, at the proper declination in degrees, 
N. or S. ; the same answer contrariwise for the Crab and 
other signs. In like manner, three drcles are placed in 
the southern hemisphere, for the Balance and the rest, and 
contrariwise for Capricorn and the remaining signs. Circles 
are similarly placed on both hoops for the asterisms in both 
hemispheres, as also for Abhijit; and for the seven Rtshis, 
Agastya, Brahmej and other stars. 



• He wrote his treatise on optics and other works about the year 
1100.— Bto^. Diet. 

t BhXsoara flourished in the middle of the twelfth century; being 
bom, as he himself informs us, in the ^ca year 1036, answering to 
A. D. 1114. But the Sdrya siddhdnta is more ancient. 

t They are the colures. 



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360 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

'' In the middle of all these circles is placed the equi- 
DoeliaL At the iDteraection of Hmt and the supportiiig 
hoopSy and distant from each other half Ae signs, the tiro 
equinoxes should be determined ; and the two solstices, at 
the degrees of obliquity from the equinoctial; and the 
places of the Ram and the rest, in the order of the signs, 
should be adjusted by the strings of the curve. Another 
circle, thus passing from equinox to equinox, is named the 
ecliptic ; and by this path, the sun, illuminating worlds, for 
ever travels. The moon and the other planets are seen 
deviating from their nodes in the ecliptic, to the extent of 
their respective greatest latitudes [within the zodiac]." 

The author proceeds to notice the relation of the great 
circles before mentioned to the horizon ; and observes, that, 
whatever place be assumed for the apex of the sphere, the 
middle of the heavens for that place is its horizon. He 
concludes by showing, that the instrument may be made 
to revolve with regularity, by means of a current of water ; 
and hints, that the appearance of spontaneous motion may 
be given, by a concealed mechanism, for which quicksilver 
is to be employed. The maimer of using this instrument 
for astronomical observations has been already explained 
(p. 324, &c.) 

More ample instructions for framing an armillary sphere 
are delivered in the Siddhanta sirSmaAi. The passage is 
too long for insertion in this place ; and I reserve it for a 
separate article, on account of the explanations which it 
requires, and because it leads to the considerations of other 
topics,* which cannot be sufficiently discussed in the pre- 

* Among others, that of the precession of the equinoxes ; respect- 
ing which different opinions are stated hy Bhasoara. It appears, 
from what is said by him, that the notion of a libration of the equi- 
noxes has not universally prevailed among Hindu astronomers. The 
correcter opinion of a revolution of the equinoctial points was ad- 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 361 

sent essay. A brief abstract of BhAscara's description 
may here suffice. In the centre he places a small globe to 
represent the earth encompassed with circles for the orbits 
of the planets arranged like the curved lines in a spider's 
web. On an axis passing through the poles of the earth, 
and prolonged on both sides, a sphere, or assemblage of 
circles, is suspended, by means of rings or tubes adapted 
to the axis, so that the sphere may move freely on it. This 
assemblage of circles comprises a horizon and equator 
adjusted for the place, with a prime vertical and meridian, 
and two intermediate verticals (intersecting the horizon at the 
N. E. and S.W. and N.W. and S. E. points); as also the 
equinoctial colure. Another circle is suspended within this 
sphere on the poles of the horizon, apparently intended to 
measure the altitude and amplitude of an object. 

Another sphere or assemblage of circles is in like manner 
suspended on the pole of the equator, ft consists of both 
colures, and the equinoctial, with the ecliptic adjusted to 
it ; and six circles for the planetary orbits duly adjusted to 
the ecliptic ; as also six diurnal circles parallel to the equi- 
noctial, and passing through the extremities of the several 
signs. 

This, though not a complete description of BhAsc aba's 
armillary sphere, will convey a sufficient notion of the in- 
strument for the purpose of the present comparison; and 
will justify the remark, that its construction di£rers greatly 
from that of the instrument specified by Ptolemy. 

In the description of the armillary sphere cited from the 
Sdrya siddhanta, mention is made of several stars not 
included in the asterisms which mark the divisions of the 
ecliptic. The following table exhibits the positions of 



vanced by some authors, bat has not obtained the general suffirage of 
Hindu writers on astronomy. 



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362 



ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 



those, and of the few other stars which have been particu- 
larly noticed by Hindu astronomers. 





Brdhme 

sicMdnta ^ 

sirbman'i. 


Graha 
I6ghava, 


sdrvabhauma. 


siddhdnia. 


Agastya 


77* S. 


Long. 

87° 


Lat. 

76° S. 


Long. 

80° 


Lat. 

77M6'S. 


Loog. 
85° 5' 


Lat. 

80° 8. 


Long. 
90° 


LubdhacOy or) 
the hunter f 


WS. 


86° 


40° S. 


810 


40° 4^8. 


84° 36^ 


40° 8. 


80° 


-4^t 


— 


— 


8°N. 


53° 


8° 14^N. 


57° 4^ 


8°N. 


52° 


Brahmehr^daya 


— 


— 


310N. 


56° 


30° 49'N. 


58° 36^ 


30° N. 


52°t 


Prajdpati, \ 
or Brahmd f 


— 


— 


39° N. 


61° 


38°38'N. 


56° 53^ 


38° N. 


57° 


Apdmvatsa .... 


— 


— 


3°N. 


183° 


3° N. 


183° 


3°N. 


180° 


i/«« 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 9°N.180° 



The seven ii&Aw According to the 

Sacalya sanhita. 
Lat 

Cratu 66° N. 

PULAHA . 60° N. 

PULASTYA 60° N. 

Atri 66° N. 

Angiras 57^ >\ 

VASISHf'HA 60° N. 

MarIchi 60° N. 

Here Agastya is evidently Canopus; as Luhdhaca is 
Sirius. Brahmehridaya seems to be Capella, which was 
shown, under that Indian name, to Dr. Hunter at Vjjor 

t The Sdcalya sankitd and Tatwa vMca agree with the SQfya 
siddh6nia as to the positions of the first four stars. They omit the* 
other three. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 353 

yinu Agni may be the bright star in the northern hom of 
the Bull (0 Tauri) : Prajapati is perhaps the star on the 
head of the Waggoner (J AurigaB). The distances of the 
three last mentioned stars from the ecliptic do not exactly 
agree with the places stated : but no conspicuous stars are 
found nearer to the assigned positions : and it may be 
remarked^ that they are all nearly in the longitude of 
the nacshatra MrigasiraSy con*esponding to the head of 
Orion ; and that the latitude^ assigned to them by Hindu 
astronomers, is as much too small, as that of Mrigasiras is 
too great. 

The star, mentioned in the Surya siddhanta under the 
name oiApas or water, is doubtless I Virginis ; and Apam- 
vatsa comprises the nebulous stars in the same constella* 
tion, marked b. 1. 2. 3. 

Astronomers give rules for computing the heliacal rising 
and setting of the star Agastya, on account of certain 
religious ceremonies to be performed when that star appears. 
VaeAha mihira says, ^Agastya is visible at Ujjayinty 
when the sun is 7° short of the sign Virgo.' But he after- 
wards adds, that * the star becomes visible, when the sun 
reaches Hasta, and disappears when the sun arrives at 
R6hiAV His commentator remarks, that the author has 
here followed earlier writers ; and quotes Par as a ra, say- 
ing, ^ When the sun is in Hastaj the star rises; and it 
sets when the sun is in RShiiit.*^ BHAff6TPALA cites 
from the &veSiddhantasf a rule of computation, analogous 
to that which will be forthwith quoted from the Bhaswati ; 
and remarks, that three periods of Agastya* s heliacal rising 

t Pancha siddhdnitty atreatise by Varaha mihiba. 
VOL. II. 2 A 



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364 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

are observed, viz. 8th and 15th of Aswina and 8th of 
Cartica. 

The Bhaswati directs the day of Agastya's rising for 
any particular latitude to be found by the following rule. 
' The length of the shadow of a gnomon* at a particular 
latitude, on the day of the equinox, is multiplied by 25 ; 
and to the product 900 are added ; the sum, divided by 
225, gives in signs and degrees the place of the sun, on 
the day when Agastya rises or appears in the south, at 
the close of night/ The commentator adds, that ' the day 
of the star's setting may be computed by deducting the 
sum found as above, from 1350 ; the difference reduced 
to signs and degrees, is the place of the sun, on the day 
when Agastya sets in the southwest.' According to these 
rules, Agastya in latitude 2^ 34', rises when the sun is in 
4" 20° and sets when the sun is in 1^ lO''. 

The Graha laghava teaches another method of calcula- 
tion. The length of the shadow of the gnomon is multiplied 
by 8, and the product is added to 98 for the sun's place in 
degrees, on the day when Agastya rises ; or is deducted 
from 78, to find the sun's place when that star sets. By 
this rule, the star should rise, in latitude 26^34', when 
the sun is at the 26th degree of the Lion, and should set 
when the sun quits the Ram. Accordingly, the Bhavishya 
and the Brahmeoaivarta puraiias ordain oblations for 
Agastya three days before the sun reaches the zodiacal 
sign Virgo; though the inhabitants of the province of 
Gaura, as observed in the last-mentioned purana^ perform 
this ceremony three days earlier. 

In regard to the passages above quoted, it may be 
remarked, that the rule, stated in the Bhastoati, implies 
the distance of three signs, from the beginning of Aries, to 

• In duodecimal parts. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 355 

Agastya, and supposes the star to become visible when 
distant one sign from the sun. But the rule delivered 
in the Graha laghava places the star at the distance of 
SS"" from the beginning of Mesha, and supposes it visible 
in the right sphere, when lO"" distant froai the sun. Ac- 
cording to Uie quotation from ParAsara, the right ascen- 
sion of the star must have been, in his time, not less than 
100^ reckoned from the beginning of Mcska; and the star, 
rising cosmically, became visible in the oblique sphere, at 
the distance of 60^ from the sun ; and disappeared, setting 
acronychally, when widiin that distance. Making allow- 
ance, therefore, for the star's proper motion, and change of 
declination and right ascension, it remains probable, that 
ParAsara's rule was framed for Uie north of India, at a 
period when the solstitial points were, as stated by that 
author, in the middle of Aslcsha and beginning of Dha- 
nishi'ha.* 

I have purposely reserved tat separate consideration the 
seven Rhhis, who give name to seven stars in Ursa major ; 
not only because their positions are not stated by Brah- 
MEGUPTA, BhAscara, and ihe Siirya siddhanta, but also 
because the authors, who give their positions, ascribe to 
them a particular motion, or variation of longitude, different 
from other stars, and apparently unconnected with the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes. 

Varaha mihira haQ a chapter in the Var&himnhita 
expressly on the subject of this supposed motion of the 
Btshis. He begins by annoui^cing the intentjon of stating 
their revolution conformably with the doctrine of VRtoDH a 
Garga, and proceeds as follows: 'When king Yu- 
dhisht'hira ruled the earth, the Munis were in Magha, 
and the period of the era of that kmg is 2526 years. They 



• As. Res., vol. ii, p. 393. 
2 a2 



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356 ON THB INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

remain for a hundred years in each asterism, being con- 
nected with that particular nacshatra^ to which, when it 
rises in the east, the line of their rising is directed.'* 

The commentator, BHAff6TPALA, supports the text of 
his author by quotations from VrYddha Garga and 
C^^YAPA. ^ At the junction of the Cali and Dwapara 
ages/ says Garga, * the virtuous sages, who delight in 
protecting the people, stood at the asterism, over which 
the Pt^m preside/ That is at Magha. 'The mighty 
sages/ says CA^tapa, ' abide during a hundred years 
in each asterism, attended by the virtuous ArundhatI.' 

The author next states the relative situation of the seven 
Htshisy with Arundh ATi near her husband VAsisefHA ; 
and the remainder of the chapter is devoted to astrology. 

The revolution of the seven Rtshis, and its periods, are 
noticed in puranas. The following passage is from the 
Sri Bhagavata.f 

' From your birth (Paricshit is addressed by Suca) 
to the inauguration of Nanda, 1116 years will elapse. 

• ^MW'HMIti g5R:5lllHrrl4M1*^|\rr«t 

According to a different reading noticed by the commentator, the 
concluding hemistich signifies " they constantly rise in the north-east ; 
together with ABUNDHAxf." 

t Book xii. c. 2. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 357 

' Of the seven Rishis, two are first perceived, rising in 
the sky ; and the asterism, which is observed to be at night 
even with the middle of those twostars, is that, with which 
the Rishis are united, and they remain so during a hundred 
years of men. In your time, and at this moment, they are 
situated in Magha. 

'When the splendour of Vishnu, named CfitsHNA, 
departed for heaven, then did the Cali age, during which 
men delight in sin, invade the world. So long as he con- 
tinued to touch the earth with his holy feet, so long the 
Cali age was unable to subdue the world. 

' When the seven Rishis were in Magha, the Qdi age 
comprising 1200 [divine] years* began ; and when, firom 
Magha, they shall reach PvrvashaAha, then will this Cali 
age attain its growth under Nanda and his successors." 

The commentator SrIdhara swAm! remarks, that the 
constellation, consisting of seven stars, is in the form of a 
wheeled carriage. MarIchi, he observes, is at the extre- 
mity; and next to him, VAsisHf'HA in the arched part of 
the yoke ; and beyond him Angiras : next to whom are 
four stars in a quadrangle : Atri at the north-east comer ; 
south of him Pulastya ; next to whom is Pulaha ; and 
Cratu is north of the last Such being their relative 
position, the two stars, which rise first, are Pulaha and 
Cratu ; and whichever asterism is in a line south fi-om 
the middle of those stars, is that with which the seven 
Rishis are united ; and they so remain for 100 years. 

A similar passage is found in the VishAu puraiia,f and 
a similar exposition of it is given by the commentator Rat- 
naoarbha : but the period, there stated to elapse be- 
tween the birth of Paricshit and the inauguration of 
Nanda, is 1016 years only. 

• 432,000 common yeais. t Part 4. ch. xxiii. v. 32, &c. 



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368 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

The Matsya puraAa contains a passage to the like 
effect; but allows 1050 years from the birth of Paricshit 
to the inauguration of M ahApadma ; and the seven 
Rhkis are stated as being in a line with the constdlation 
sacred to fire (that is Crtttica), 836 years later^ in the 
time of the Andhra kings. 

In the JBrahme siddhanta of SAcalya, denominated 
from its reputed author Sacalya sanhita, the supposed 
motion of the seven Rtskis is thus noticed:* 'At the 
commencement of the yt^a, Cratu was near the star 
sacred to Vishnu iSravoAa), at the beginning of the aste- 
rism. Three degrees east of him, was Pulaha; and 
PuLASTYA, at ten degrees from this; Atri followed at 
three degrees from the last; and Angiras, at eight de^ 
grees from him ; next came VAsiSHf 'ha, at the distance 
of seven degrees; and lastly, MARfcHi at ten. Their 
motion is eight liptas (minutes) in a year. Their distances 
frorti the ecUptic, north, were respectively 55®, 60°, 50°, 66°, 
57®, 60®, and 60®. For, moving in the north into different 
positions, the sages employ 2700 years in revolving through 
the assemblage of asterisms ; and hence their portions 
may be easily knovm at any particular time.' 

Lalla, dted by MuNiSwARA in bis gloss on the Sir6- 
manij says, ' If the mimber of years of the Calx age, less 
fourteen, be divided by 100, the quotient, as the wise de- 
clare, shows the asterisms traversed by MarIchi and 
other celestial sages, beginning from the asterism of Fi- 
rarvchi (BrahmA).' 

Here Lalla is generally understood to mean BAhihij 
which is sacred to PrajApati (or BrahmA). But Mu- 
Ni^wARA has remarked, in another place, that Lalla 
may intend Abhijit, which is sacred to Vidhi ot BrahmA; 

.• Prama 2. ch. ii. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 369 

and consequently may mean SravaAiy of which Abhijit 
forms a part: and thus Lalla and SAcalya may be re- 
conciled. 

Most of the commentators on the Siirya siddhanta and 
Sir6mani are silent on the subject of the seven Rt$hi$. 
But NrYsinha, in his rar^a to the Vasana bhaskyd, or 
gloss on the StrSmaAi, quotes and expounds the Sacalya 
sanhitay and rejects VarAha's rule of computation, as 
disagreeing with puraAas. MunISwara, in his commen- 
tary on the SirSmani, cites some of the passages above 
noticed, and remarks, that BhAscara has omitted this 
topic on account of cimtradictory opinions concerning it, 
and because it is of no great use. 

The same author, in his own compilation entitled Sid- 
dhanta sarvabhaumay has entered more fully into this sub* 
ject. He observes, that the seven Rhhis are not, like 
other stars, attached by spikes to the solid ring of the 
ecliptic, but revolve in small circles round the northern 
pole of the ecliptic, moving by their own power in the ethe- 
rial sphere above Saturn, but below the sphere of the stars. 
He places the Rhhis in the same relative positions, which 
SAcalya had assigned to them ; states in other terms the 
same distances from the ecliptic, and the same annual 
motion ; and directs their place to be computed by deduct- 
ing 600 from the years of the Cali age, doubling the re- 
mainder and dividing by fifleen : the quotient, in degrees, 
is divided by 80, to reduce it into signs. MunIswara 
supports this mode of calculation on the authority of SA- 
calya, against VarAh a MiHiRA and Lalla ; and affirms, 
that it agrees with the phenomena, as observable at the 
period of his compilation. It appears, however, to be a 
correction of SAcalya's rule. 

CamalAcara, in the Tatwavivecay notices the opinion 
delivered in the Siddhanta sarvabhauma; but observes. 



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360 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

that no such motion of the stars is perceptible. Remain- 
ing, however, that the authority of the puranas and saii- 
kitas, which affirm their revolution, is incontrovertible, he 
reconciles faith and experience by saying, that the stars 
themselves are fixed ; but the seven Rishis are invisible 
deities, who perform the stated revolution in the period 
specified. 

If CamalAcara's notion be adopted, no difficulty 
remains: yet it can hardly be supposed, thatVARAnA 
MiHiRA and Lalla intended to describe revolutions of 
invisible beings. If then it be allowed, that they have 
attributed to the stars themselves an imaginary revdution 
grounded on an erroneous theory, a probable inference 
may be thence drawn as to the period when those authors 
lived, provided one position be conceded ; namely, that 
the rules, stated by them, gave a result not grossly wrong 
at the respective periods when they wrote. Indeed it can 
scarcely be supposed, that authors, who, like the cele- 
brated astronomers in question, were not mere compilers 
and transcribers, should have exhibited rules of compu- 
tation, which did not approach to the truth, at the very 
period when they were proposed. 

If this reasoning be admitted, it would follow, that 
VarAha MIHIRA composed the Vdrahi sanhita about 
2800 years after the period assigned by him to the com- 
mencement of the reign of YcDHisHf*HiRA, or near the 
close of the third century after the expiration of Yodhish- 
f'HiRA's era as defined by him. For the circle of declina- 
tion passing between Cratu and Pulaha (the two first of 
the seven Rishis\ and cutting the ecliptic only 2** short of 
the beginning of Magh&y was the solstitial colure, when 
the equinox was near the beginning of Crlttica ; and such 
probably was the reason of that line being noticed by 
ancient Hindu astronomers. It agrees with the solstitial 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 361 

olure on the sphere of Eudoxus, as described by Hip- 
parch us.* A similar circle of declination, passing between 
the same stars, intei-sected the ecliptic at the beginning of 
Magha when the solstitial colure was at the middle of 
AsUsha; and a Uke circle passed through the next asterism 
when the equinox corresponded with the first point of 
Mesha. An astronomer of that period, if he were apprised 
of the position assigned to the same stars by Garga, i^« 
puted to have been the priest of CeKshn a and the PaAAusy 
might conclude with Varah a mihira, that one revolution 
had been completed, and that the stars had passed through 
one nacshatra of the second revolution. In corroboration 
of this inference respecting the age of VarAha mihira's 
astrological treatise, it may be added, that he is cited by 
name in the Pancha tantra, the original of the fables of 
Pilpay, which were translated for N^shIrvAn more than 
1200 years ago.f 

The theory being wholly unfounded, VabAha mihira's 
rule of computation soon ceased to s^ree with the pheno- 
mena, and other rules have been successively introduced 
by different authors, as Lalla, SAcalya, and lastly. 



• " H1PPABOHU8 teJls U8, that Eudoxus drew the colure of the sol- 
stices, through the middle of the Great Bear ; and the middle of 
Cancer ; and the neck of Hydras ; and the star between the poop 
and mast of Argo; and the tail of the South Fish; and through the 
middle of Capricorn, and of Sagitta ; and through the neck and 
right wing of the Swan ; and the left hand of Cepheus; and that he 
drew the equinoctial colure through the left-hand of Arctophylax ; 
and along the middle of his body; and cross the middle of Chelse; 
and through the right-hand and fore-knee of the Centaur ; and 
through the flexure of Eridanus and head of Cetus ; and the back (^ 
Aries across, and through the head and right-hand of Perseus." Sir I. 
Newton's Chronology, § 29. Hipparoh. ad Fhcmom. in Petavii 
Uranologiay p. 207, 208. Bailly, Aatr. Anc,^, 506. Costard, p, 136. 

t Preface to the Sanscrit edition of the HitOpadSia, p. zi. [page 
173 of the present volume.] 



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362 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

MuNiswARA ; whose rule^ devised less than two hundred 
years ago, does not yet grossly betray its insufficiency. 

This pretended revolution of the stars of Ursa Major is 
connected with two remarkable epochas in Indian chrono- 
logy ; the commencement of the Cali yuga, or sinful age, 
in the reign of YuDHisnf'HiRA ; and its prevalence, on 
the fidlure of the suoces^on of Cshatriya princes, and 
estabUshment of a different dynasty, 1015 years after the 
birth of Paricshit, according to the Vi$hAu purana ; or 
1115 years, according to the Bhagavata; but 1498 years, 
if a correction, which has been proposed by SrIdhara 
swAmI and some other commaitators, be admitted. This 
subject has been already noticed by Capt Wilford in his 
Essay on VicramAditya;* and it is, therefore, unne- 
cessary to enlarge upon it in this place. 

It has been noticed, towards the b^imung of the present 
essay, that the principal star of each nacshcUra, is denomi- 
nated YSgatara. Perhaps it may not be superfluous to 
<!antion the reader against confounding these y6ga stars 
with the ySgaSf of which a list is inserted in Sir William 
Jones's Treatise on the Indian Zodiac.^ They are men- 
tioned by him as divisions of the ecliptic : but it will pre- 
sently appear, that they cannot in strictness be so denomi- 
nated. Their principal purpose regards astrology; but 
they are also employed in regulating certain moveable 
feasts ; and they are of such frequent use, that every Indian 
almanac contains a column specifying the y6ga for each 
day, with the hour of its termination. 

The y6ga is nothing else than a mode of indicating the 
sum of the longitudes of the sun and moon. The rule for 
its computation, as given in the Sdrya siddhanta, JBhaS' 
watt, and Graha laghava^ directs, that the longitude of the 

• As. Res., vol. ix. p. 117, &o. t As. Res., vol. ii. p. 302. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 363 

sun be added to the longitude of the moon ; and the sum, 
reduced to minutes, is to be divided by 800 (the number of 
minutes in 13® 20 ): the quotient exhibits the elapsed y6g€Uj 
counted from Vishcumbha.* It is obvious, Aerefore, that 
the ydgas are twenty-seven divisions of 360® of a great 
ckcle, measured upon the ecUptic. But, if they be repre- 
sovted on a cirde, it must be a moveable one in the plane 
of the ecliptic. 

Astrologers also reckon twenty-eight y^as, wliich cor- 
respond to the twenty-eight nctoshatrcu or divisions of the 
moon's path; varying, however, according to the day of 
the week. As the Indian almanacs sometimes appropriate 
a cohimn to the moon's y6ga for each day, I shall insert in 
a note a list of these ySgas, with the rule by which they are 
determined.f 

• 1, Ptshcumhha. 2. FtUi. 3. AyushmaU 4. Saubh6gya, 5. fe- 
bhana, 6. Atigahaa. 7- Sucarman. 8. Dhr^i. 9. Sdla. 10. Oa^ela. 
11. Vriddhi. 12. Dkruva. 13. Vyaghdta. 14. Hersha^. 15. Vajra. 
16. Siddhi, 1?. Vyatip&ta. 18. Variyas. 19. Farigha. 20. I^iva. 
21. Siddha, 22. Sddhya. 23. ^ha, 24. ^ucla. 25. Brahman. 26. 
Aindra, 27. Vaidhr^H, 

i \. Ananda. 2. CdladaMa, 3. DhUnnra. 4.Prajdpati. 5, Saumya. 
6. Dhwdncsha, 7. Dhwaja, 8. §rivatsa, 9. Vajra. 10. Mudgara. 
\\. Ch'hfUra. \2. Maitra. 13. M6nasa. 14. Padma. 15. Lambtwa. 
16. Utpdta. 17. Mriiyu. 18. Cd^. 19. Siddhi. 20. §ubka. 21. 
AmrUta, 22. Musula, 23. Gada. 24. Mdtanga, 25. Rdcshasa. 26. 
Chara, 27. 5I^'At>fl. 28. Pravardha. 

The foregoing list is extracted from the Ratnamdld of §RfpATi. 
He adds the rule by which the ybyas are regulated. On a Sunday, the 
nacshairas answer to the ybgas, in their natural order; viz. Ahoini to 
Ananda, Bharahi to CdlandaMay &c. But, on a Monday, the first ybga 
{Ananda) corresponds to MrtgaUras, the second to Ardrdy and so 
forth. On a Tuesday, the navshaira, which answers to the first yOya, 
is Aslcshd; on Wednesday, Hasta; on Thursday, Anurddha; on 
Friday, UttnrdshdSIia ; and on Saturday, Satabkishd. 

Almanacs usually contain another set of astrological divisions of 
the lunar month, which it may be proper to explain. They are de- 



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364 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

Another topic, relative to the zodiac, and connected 
with astrology, remains to be noticed. I allude to the 
DreshcancLs answering to the Decani of European astrolo- 
gers. The Hindus, like the Egyptians and Babylonians, 
from whom that vain science passed to the Greeks and 
Romans, divide each sign into three parts, and allot to 
every such part a regent exercising planetary influence 
under the particular planet whom he there represents. 

The description of the thirty-six Dreshcanas is given 
towards the close of VarIha mihira's treatise on the 
casting of nativities, entided Vrthat jataca. It is here 
translated conformably with the gloss of BHAff6TPALA: 
omitting, however, some variations in the reading of the 
text, which are noticed by him ; but which can be of no 
use, unless occasion should arise for reference to them in 
comparing the description of the dreshcanas with some 
amulet or ancient monument in which the Decani may be 
supposed to be figured. Even for that purpose, the follow- 
ing description will probably suffice. 

1. [Mars] A man with red eyes, girt round the waist 

nominated CaraAa; and consist of seven variable and four invariable, 
as in the subjoined list: 

Variable Caracas. Invariable Caranas, 

1. Bava. 1. §acuni. 

2. B^lava. 2. Ghatusbpdd. 

3. Caalava, 3. N^ga. 

4. Taitila. 4. Cintughna. 

5. Gara. 

6. Van'ij. 

7. Visht'i. 

They answer successively to half a tifhi or lunar day ; CifUughna 
being always assigned to the first half of the first tiChi ; and the 
variable carahas afterwards succeeding each other regularly, through 
eight repetitions: they are followed by the three remaining invariable 
carafMS^ which conclude the month ; Chatushpdd and Na^a apper- 
taining to Amdvdsyd or the new moon, and §acuni being appropriated 
to the latter half of the preceding tifhi. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 366 

with a white cloth, of a black complexion, as formidable as 
able to protect, holds a raised battle-axe. 

2. [The Sun] A female, clad in red apparel, with her 
mind fixed on wearing ornaments, having a mare's head, 
and a belly like a jar, thirsty and resting on one foot, is 
exhibited by Yavana as the figure of the Arishcana in 
the middle of Mesha,^ 

3. [Jupiter] A fierce i^d wrathful man, conversant 
with arts, of a tawny complexion, solicitpus of action, but 
unsteady in his resolves ; holds in his hands a raised stick, 
and wears red, clothes. He is the third in the tripatite divi- 
sion of Mesha. 

4. [Venus] A woman with hair clipped and curled, a 
body shaped like a jar, her clothes burnt, herself thirsty, 
disposed to eat, and fond of ornaments : such is the figure 
of the first in Vrtshabha. 

6. [Mercury] A man with the head of a goat, and a 
shoulder like a bull, clothed in dirty apparel, skilful in 
regard to the plough and the cart, acquainted with field, 
grain, house, and kine, conversant with arts ; and in dis- 
position, voracious. 

6. [Saturn] A man with a body vast as an elephant's, 
and feet great as a Sarabha'Syf with white teeth and a 
tawny body, his mind busied upon the wool of wild sheep, 
occupies the extremity of the sign Taurus. 

7. [Mercury] Such as are conversant with the sub- 
ject, declare the first in the tripartite partition of the third 
sign, to be a woman fond of working with the needle, 
beautiful, delighting in ornaments, childless, amorous, and 
with her arms elevated. 

• " Mishamadhyi drishcdiiardpam yavmihpadishtamJ^ BHAff6T- 
PALA expoands this " declared by YAVANicHARyA," " Yavan6^ 
cMryaih cafhitam,'^ 

t A monster with eight legs, who destroj's elephants. 



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366 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

8. [Venus] In the middle of the sign Gemini is a man, 
with the face of a garv^Uty* standing in a grore : he is an 
archer clad in armour, and holds a bow ; he meditates on 
sport; his children, ornaments, and wealth. 

9. [Saturn] At the end of the sign Gemini is a man 
decorated with ornaments, having as many gems as the 
ocean contains; clad in armour and furnished with bow 
and quiver ; skilled in dance, music, and song, and prac- 
tising poetry. 

10. [ The Moon] The wise declare the first in Cancer 
to be an animal with the body of an elephant, the feet of a 
Sarabha, a boar's head and horse's neck, standing in a 
grove under a sandal-wood treeji* and upholding leaves, 
root, and fruit. 

11. [Mars] In the middle of the sign Cancer, a w(»nan, in 
prime of youth, with blossoms of lotus on her head, att^ided 
by a serpent, cries while standing in a forest, resting against 
the branch of a palaiaX tree. 

12. [Jupiter] Last in Cancer is a man with his head 
inclined ; he is decorated with golden ornaments, and, em- 
barking on a vessel and encompassed by serpaits [twined 
round him,] he traverses the ocean to seek ornaments for 
his wife. 

13. [The Sun] A vulture and shakal stand on a cotton 
tree:§ a dog is near: and a man, in a squalid dress, laments 
for his father and mother. This representation is ppcoiounced 
to be the first of the Lion. 

14. [Jupiter] A man formed Uke a horse, bearing on 
his head a garland of yellowish white flowers, wears a leather 
dress : unconquered like a lion ; armed with a bow, and 

• An eagle : or else a gigantic crane. Perhaps a vulture. 

t Santalum album sive Sirium myrtifolium. 

X Butea frondosa. § Bombax heptaphyllum. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 367 

distinguished by a hooked nose; he is placed in the middle 
of Leo. 

15. [Mars] The third in the tripartite division of Leo, 
is a man having the head of a bear, with a long beard and 
curled hair ; in disposition similar to an ape ; and holding 
a staff, fruits, and flesh. 

16. [Mercury] A damsel, bearing a jar filled with 
blossoms, (her person clothed in apparel soiled with dirt,) 
solicitous for the union of dress with opulence, is going 
towards the family of her spiritual parent : such is the first 
of Virgo. 

17. [Saturn] A man of a dark complexion, with a 
doth on his head, holds a pen, and is casting up accounts 
of receipts and disbursements : he bears a large bow, and 
his body is covered with hair : he is placed in the middl 
of the sign. 

18. [Venus] A woman of a fair complexion, dressed in 
bleached silk, tall, holding in her hand ajar and ladle; is 
devoutly going towards a temple of the gods. The wise 
pronounce this to be the last of Virgo. 

19. [Venus] A man is proceeding along the middle of 
a highway ; holding a balance, and having weights in his 
hand; he is skilled in measuring and meting, and meditates 
on commodities and their prices. The Yavanas declare this 
form to be first of Libra.* 

20. [Saturn] A man with the head of a vulture, car- 
rying a water-pot, is anxious to proceed, being hungry and 
thirsty; in thought, he visits his wife and son. He is 
middlemost of the balance-bearer (Libra.) 



• " Tadritpam vadarUi Yavandh prafhamam iuldydh" This might 
signify " Yavana declares;" for the plural is used in SanscrU re- 
spectfully: and Bha'H'6tpala has before expounded Yavana as in- 
tending Yavanaoharya: but a different explanation occurs a little 
lower. 



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368 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

21. [Mercury] A man, iii figure like an ape, adorned 
with gems, bearing a golden quiver and armour, and carry- 
ing fruits and flesh, is scaring deer, in a forest: such is the 
figure exhibited by the Yavanas.* 

22. [Mars] A woman, without clothes or ornaments, 
comes from the great ocean, to the shore ; she has fallen 
from her place ; round her feet are serpents entwined ; but 
she is pleasing : such is the first of the sign Scorpio. 

23. [Jupiter] A woman, with a body like a tortoise 
and a jar, and with serpents entwined round her person ; is 
solicitous to prepare local comforts for her husband. This 
figure the wise pronounce to be the middle one of Scorpio. 

24. [The Moon] The last of the Scorpion is a lion 
with a large and stooping head resembling that of a tor- 
toise ; he guards the place where sandal-wood grows, ter- 
rifying dogs, deer, boai*s, and shakals. 

25. [Jupiter] An animal with the body of a horse 
and head of a man, holding a large bow, stands near a 
hermitage and devoutly guards the implements of sacrifice : 
such is the first of the three divisions of the bow (Sagitta- 
rius.) 

26. [Maes] A pleasing female, of golden complexion 
like the cAampaca,t moderately handsome, sits on a 
throne, distributing marine gems. This is described as the 
middle division of the bow. 

27. [The Sun] A man with a long beard, of a com- 
plexion yellow like the champaca, is sitting on a throne 
with a staff in his hand : he wears silk raiment and a 
deer's skin : such is the third figure of the ninth sign. 

28. [Saturn] A man, of a terrible aspect, with the 

• " Yavanair tiddhr^tahj'^ which BHAff6TPALA expounds ''declared 
by the ancient Yavanas" " puraAayavanaih,^^ 

f Michelia Champaca. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC* 369 

body of a hog, hairy, having tusks like a Macara^ holds 
a yoke, a net, and fetters. He is first of Capricorn. 

29. [Venus] In the middle of Macara is a woman 
skilled in music, with eyes large hke the petals of the 
lotos, and with a dark complexion. She seeks various 
things ; she is decorated with jewels ; and wears metallic 
ornaments in her ears. 

30. [Mercury] A man, shaped like a Cinnaray-); clothed 
in a woollen cloth, and furnished with quiver, bow, and 
armour, bears on his shoulder a jar adorned with gems : 
he is last of the sign Macara, 

31. [The Sun] The first of the jar (Aquarius) is a man 
with the head of a vulture, clothed in silk and wearing an 
antelope's hide with a woollen cloth : his mind is busied in 
obtaining oil, ardent spirits, water, and food. 

32. [Mercury] In a burnt carriage, a woman clad in 
soiled apparel, bearing vessels on her head, is collecting 
metals in a forest containing cotton ti*ees. 

33. [Venus] A man of a dark complexion, with hairy 
ears, adorned with a diadem, carries and transports vases 
vnth articles of metal, and with bark, leaves, gum, and 
fiiiit. He is last of Cumbha. 

34. [Jupiter] The first of the fish (Pisces) navigates 
the sea in search of ornaments for his wife : he has jewels, 
and his hands are full of vessels used in sacrifice, together 
with pearls, gems, and shells. 

36. [The Moon] A woman, surpassing in complexion 
the blossom of the champacaj ascends a ship with lofty 
masts and flags ; and approaches the shore of the sea, 
accompanied by her retinue. This is declared bj^ sages 
to be the second in the tripartite division of Mina, 

• A sea monster. Perhaps the Narwhal may be intended, 
t A human figure with the head of a horse. 
VOL. II. 2 B 



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370 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

36. [Mars] Near a cavern, in a forest^ a naked man, 
with serpents entwined round his body, and tormented by 
robbers and fire, laments. He is the last of the fish. 

Arabian astronomers in like manner divide each sign of 
the Zodiac into three parts, denominated Wajeh (^j) or 
in the plural Wujih (*^^), which severally belong to the 
different planets* thence called Rab ul wajeh. The proper 
import of the term (<i^^) is face or countenance ; agreeing 
with the Greek '^potranov, which is similarly employed in 
this acceptation.^ 

The near correspondence of the dreshcanas with the 
Decani of Roman authors and ^i)cayo\ of Grecian writers 
will be evident from the following passage of Manilius, 
supported by quotations fi'om other authors, which I shall 
insert on the faith of Saumaise ;J the original works, 
from which they are taken, not being here procurable. 

Manilius says§ 

Quam partem deciman dixere Decania gentes ; 
A numero noinen positum est, qaod partibus astra 
Condita triceuis propria sub sorte feruntur, 
Et tribaunt denas in se coeantibus astris, 
Tnque vicem terris habitantur sidera Signis. 

Hephjestion expressly declares,|| that " each sign of 
the zodiac is divided into three Decani comprising ten 

• lu the following order, beginning from Aries: viz. Mars, the 
8an, Venus, Mercury, the Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, &c. 

TkhtJD&nu'l Sa/a. 
t FiRMioi Mathesis seu Astron., vide infra. 

I Salmasti PliniaruB Exercitationesy p. 460, &c. 

§ Lib. iv. 298—302. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 371 

degrees each : the first division of Aries is named Chontare; 
the second Chontachre, and the third Sicet" 

Firm I c us differs in the names, and does not allow ten 
complete degrees to each Decanus. Thus, in the sign 
Aries, the three first degrees are, according to him, unap- 
propriated ; the five next belong to the first Decanus 
Asitart; the next nine are vacant ; and the four following 
appertain to the second Decanus Senacher ; five degrees 
are again unoccupied ; and the four last belong to the third 
Decanus Sentacher.^ 

We learn firom Pselhjs+ that the several Decani were 
figured with different attributes and dresses ; and, firom 
Demophilus and FirmicusJ that they represent the 
planets. The first appertained to Mars : the second to 
the Sun ; and the third to Venus (the Hindu author says, 
Jupiter). 

This astrological notion was confessedly received fix)m 
foreign nations. The doctrine seems to be ascribed by 
FiRMicus to Nekepso, king of Egypt :^ and Psellus 
cites a Babylonian author, whom he calls Teucer; and 
who is also noticed byPoRPHYRius: besides, the names of 

• Salmasii Plin, Ewerc. p. 460. 

t E<Vi yk^ h ixdr^ rSv ^Jilttf r^tJi xarttXtyfciui Attutvot wuct- 

tlxua-fcx* if i! Tfik ii}» Koci ru r^iuat» ixKTvXitff iyyXv^tf aiftPOO' 

I ** Primum w^irsiwov est is planeta cujus signum est : secBodum 
^^6a-6tir69 planeta sequens, et sic deinceps. Aries est Martis primum 
«-^oo-*?r«if, secundum Solis, tertium Veneris, juxta seriem errantium." 
This agrees precisely with the Arabian *^^» 

§ Sic et Nekepso, ^gypti justissimus imperator, et astrologus 
valde bonus, per ipsos Decanos omnia vitia valetudinesquc collegit^ 
ostendens quam valetudinem quis Decanus efficeret, &c. 

2 B 2 



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372 ON THE INDIAN AND ARABIAN 

the Decani, stated by HEPHiESTioN and Firmicus, are 
decidedly barbarous. It was not, therefore, without reason, 
that Saumaise and Kircher sought a derivation of the 
word Decanus itself from a foreign language. It cannot 
be deduced, as Scaliger proposes, from the similar term 
for an inferior officer commanding ten men;* since this 
office and its designation were first introduced later than 
the time of Manilius, by whom the astrological term is 
employed; and Porphyrius expressly affirms that the 
word was used by those whom he denominates ' an- 
cients.'t Huet, not concurring in either of the opinions 
above-mentioned, supposes the term to have been cor- 
ruptly formed by the astrologers of Alexandria from the 
Greek numeral with a Latin termination. | If this be ad- 
mitted, it still remains not improbable that some affinity of 
sound, in the Egyptian or in the Chaldaic name, may have 
su^ested the formation of this corrupt word. 

The Sanscrit name apparently comes firom the same 
source. I do not suppose it to be originally Sanscrit ; 
since, in that language, it bears no etymological signifi- 
cation. For the same reason, it is likely, that the astro- 
logical doctrine itself may be exotic in India. One branch 
of divination, entitled Tajaca, has been confessedly bor- 
rowed from the Ai-abians : and the technical terms used in 
it, are, as I am informed by Hindu astrologers, Arabic. 
The casting of nativities, though its practice is of more 
ancient date in India, may also have been received from 
Western astrologers : Egyptians, Chaldeans, or even Greeks. 
If so, it is likely that the Hindus may have received astro- 
nomical hints at the same time. 

• Erant Decani denis militibus propoi^iti. Veget. 2. 8. 
I HuETii animttdversi&nes ad Manilium, Lib. iv. v. 298. 



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DIVISIONS OF THE ZODIAC. 373 

By their own acknowledgment,* they have cultivated 
astronomy for the sake of astrology ; and they may have 
done so with the aid of hints received from the same quar- 
ter, from which their astrology is derived. In the present 
instance VabAha mihira himself, as interpreted by his 
commentator, quotes the Yavanas (meaning perhaps Gre- 
cian authors), in a manner which indicates, that the de- 
scription of the dreshcanas is borrowed from them. 

The name of YavanAchArya, who is cited by Bhat- 
f 6tpala, would not be alone decisive. He is frequently 
quoted by Hindu astronomers : and it is possible, though 
by no means certain, that, under this name, a Grecian or 
an Arabian author may be intended. To determine that 
point, it will be requisite (unless the work attributed to 
him be recovered) to collect all the passives, in which 
YavanAcharya is cited by Sanscrit authors; and to 
compare the doctrmes ascribed to him with those of the 
Grecian and Arabian vniters on astronomy. Not being 
prepared for such a disquisition, I shall dismiss this sub- 
ject for the present, without offering any positive opinion 
on the question, which has been here proposed. 



• Bhasoara expressly says, " By ancient astronomers, the pur- 
pose of the science is declared to he judicial astrology; and that, 
indeed, depends on the influence of configurations; and these, on the 
apparent places of the planets."— <z6^fld&y<!iyo, 1. v. 6. 



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XV. 

On the Notion of the Hindu Astronomers concerning 
the Precession of the Equinoxes aTui Motions of 
the Planets. 



[From the Asiatic Researches, vol. xii. p. 209 — 250. 
Calcutta, 1816. 4to.] 



In an essay on the Indian and Arabian divisions of the 
zodiac, inserted in the ninth volume of the Asiatic Re- 
searcheSy I adverted to a passage of BhAscara, on the 
precession of the equinoxes, and intimated an intention of 
further noticing this subject in a separate essay.* The 
passage which I had then in view, occurs in BhAscara's 
description of the armillary sphere.f It appears to me 
deserving of distinct examination for the information which 
it contains, the difficulties which it presents, and the va- 
riety of topics which it suggests. I shall here quote the 
original, and add a verbal translation. 

rR^%r)tiJ|U||chrO Jri^-^'1'<iri^<l: Tl<ttTI 

' The intersection of the ecliptic and equinoctial circles 
is the CrantipatUf or intersecting point of the sun's path. 

• As. Res., vol. ix. p. 353. [p. 350 of the present volume-l 
+ GMdhy&ya, c. 6. v. 17 and 18. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 376 

Its revolutions, as declared on the authority of Sury a {SaU" 
rSctah), are retrogade three myriads in a calpa. This is 
the same with the motion of the solstice, as affirmed by 
MunjAla, and others. But, according to their doctrine, 
its revolutions are 199, 669 in a calpaJ 

This is the very passage to which the commentator on 
the Surya siddkdnta, cited by Mr. Davis,* alludes, where 
he says, * the meaning of BhAscaka AchArya was not 
that StjRYA [in the Surya siddhanta^ gave 30,000 as the 
revolutions of the places of the colures, in a calpa ; the 
name he used being Saura not Surya, and applied to some 
other book.' 

It is certainly true, as here observed by this commen- 
tator, that BhAscara's quotation does not agree with the 
text of the S&rya siddhanta, which expresses, * The circle 
of the asterisms moves eastward thiiiy scores in a yuga. 
Multiplying the number of elapsed days by that, and di- 
viding by the terrestrial days, [which compose the cycle,] 
the quantity obtained is an arc, which, multiplied by three, 
and divided by ten,t gives degrees (ansa) termed ayana, 
[or the place of the colure.]' 

Here the number of revolutions is 600 in a yuga, an- 
swering to 600,000 in a calpa; and not, as stated by 
BhAscara, 30,000. But the commentator's mode of re- 
conciling the contradiction, by supposing a different book 
from the Sdtrya siddhanta to have been intended, is incom- 

• As. Res., vol. ii. p. 267. f Ratio of 27** to 90<>. 



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376 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

patible with BhAscara's own explanation of his text in 
the Vasana hhashya^ containing annotations by himself on 
his own treatise. He there says in express words, ' the 
revolutions of the intersecting point of the sun's path are 
stated in the Surya siddhanta, as amounting to 30,000 in 
a calpa.^ 

His commentator, MunIswara, has therefore recourse 
to other expedients for reconciling the contradiction between 
BhAscara-s quotation and the text of the Surya sid- 
dhanta. Some, he observes, have proposed to read niyuta 
* a hundred thousand,' for ayuta * a myriad/f Others 
have supposed the calpa to be a twentieth part only of Uie 
period usually so denominated. The commentator further 
suggests the resolution of the term vyastah, translated 
' retrograde,' into vi for mrisati ' twenty,' and astak, 
which he makes to signiiy ^ multiplied,' and expounds the 
phrase, ' thirty thousand multipUed by twenty.' But, dis- 
satisfied with this and vnih another exposition, by which ' 
trayam ' three ' is construed into ' sixty,' he gives the 

* Bhascara's Vasand hh&shya on the astronomy and spherics of his 
Siddhdnta sir6ma£i. This volume of annotations is commented, with 
the ^Mmahiy by NrYsinha in the Vdsand vdrticGy as proceeding from 
the same writer ; and is expressly acknowledged to be a work of the 
author of the text (as it actually purports) by the scholiast MunIS- 
waba, in this very place, where he is endeavouring to support his 
own interpretation of the text, against the apparent and natural sense 
of a passage in the author's notes. 

t He alludes either to the Vdsand vdrtica, in which that emenda- 
tion of the text is actually suggested by the annotator NbYsinha, or 
to some earlier commentary in which the same conjectural emendation 
may have been originally proposed. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 377 

preference to an equally strained interpretation, which 
divides the sentence into two members : * its revolutions 
are declared by S^rya, and [according to a different au- 
thority] are retrogade three myriads in a calpa.* 

However unsatisfactory these explanations of the text 
may be, they prove the concurrence of the commentators 
of both works, in the received interpretation of the obscure 
passage of the Surya siddhanta, which is the subject of 
their discussion. That interpretation is supported by cor- 
responding passages of the S6ma siddhanta, Laghu van 
sishi*ha, and Sacalya sanhita, in which the number of six 
hundred revolutions is explicitly stated:* as well as by 
other quotations, which clearly demonstrate, that a libra- 
tion of the equinoxes, at the rate of six hundred in a yuga, 
was there meant. For, in all the passages quoted, the 
revolution, as it is termed, of the equinoctial points, consists 
in a libration of them within the limits of twenty-seven 
degrees east, and as many west, of the beginnings of Aries 
and Libra : and that such is the meaning conveyed in the 
text of the Surya siddhanta, is distii^ctly shown by the 

Sima siddhdnia. 

Sacalya safihitdy i. 286— 291. 

Laghu vasishVka siddhdnta, 
cited by Dadabuai' and Nrisinha, on the Sdrya siddb6nUi. 



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378 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

commentator cited by Mr. Davis,* as well as by the other 
commentators on that work. 

The same doctrine is taught in the Parasara siddkanta, 
as quoted by MunIswara ; and, if we may rely on the 
authority of -a quotation by this author from the works of 
ARYABHAffA, it was also maintained by that ancient 
astronomer : but, according to the first-mentioned treatise, 
the number of librations amounts to 581,709, and, accord- 
ing to the latter, 578,159 in a calpa, instead of 600,000 ; 
and ARYABHAffA has stated the limits of the libration at 
24° instead of 27 °.t 

BhAscara himself, adopting the doctrine for which he 
quotes the authority of Munjala, in the passage above 
cited, mentions a complete revolution of the places of the 
colures through the twelve signs of the zodiac, at the rate 

II lit IT ▼ TI 

of 59 54 9. 31 12 per annum, or 199,669 complete revo- 
lutions in a calpa. Having computed upon the same 
principle, the quantity of the precession in his own time 

rev. • o I II III nil T TI 

at 91,189 10 54 35 23 55 40 48, he thence, for the 
sake of facility in calculation, assumes in his practical trea- 
tise, named Carana cutdhala^ the actual precession in 
whole numbers at eleven degrees, and allows the annual 
motion to be taken at one minute. % The time for which this 



• As. Res., vol. ii. p. 267. The commentator is NrIsinha. 

ARYABHAff A,in the Art/dsMosata ; quoted byMuNfSwARA. It is espe- 
cially necessary to distinguish the particular work of this author, to 
which reference is made: for Brahmeoupta reproaches him for his 
inconsistency in affirming revolutions of the nodes in the Ary6sh- 
iasatay which he denied in the DasagUnca. It is therefore probable, 
that the libration of the equinoxes (considered as nodes) for which the 
first-mentioned work is quoted, may not be stated in the other. 
X MuNfswARA, in his commentary' on the ^irdmani. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 379 

computatioii was made, is the same with the epocha of the 
Carana cutuhala;* which is the year 1105 Saca,t thirty- 
three years after the Sir6mani was completed. J 

Bhascara's authority, supporting that of MunjAla, 
and countenanced by Vishnu Chandra's, § has not 
availed with Indian astronomers. Even his commentator 
MuNiSwARA rejects the notion of a complete revolution; 
and, in his own treatise entitled Siddhanta sarvabhauma, 
asserts the doctrine of libration, and attempts to refute the 
other opinion, not indeed by argument, but in deference to 
the Surya siddhanta and other authorities to which it is 
opposed. Upon the same ground, CamalAcara in the 
Siddhanta tatwaviveca says, ' The degrees of the colures, 
as stated by MunjAla, and taught in the SirSmani, con- 
trary to what is declared by Arc a (S6rya) and others, 
from not rightly understanding what was by them declared, 

• The Graha Idghava^ written in 1442 ^dca, deducts 444 from the 
expired years of the ^dca, and divides by sixty, reckoning the pre- 
cession at a minute a year. This agrees nearly with the CaraHa cutd- 
hala; for, if the same number (444) be deducted from the years expired 
(1 105 Sacd)y the remainder gives but one minute above 1 1°, the quan- 
tity there assumed by Bhascaba. 

Ramagmandra, who in the Cdla nirAaya states the quantity of 
precession as amounting to 12^, and reckons the precession at a 
minute of a degree, a year, seems also to have followed the same 
authority. He may therefore have written about sixty years subse- 
quent to the date of the Ckuraha ctUdhala; or Sdca, 1165. This ascer- 
tainment of the age of Ramachandba aohabya is a step towards 
investigating the age of writers in other branches of science who 
have quoted this author, or who are cited by him. They are nume- 
rous. 

t FaizI, in his translation of Bhascara's Lildvad, 

I For it was finished when the author was thirty-six years of age ; 
and he was bom in 1036 ^dca: as he informs us. 

§ Author of the FasishVha siddhdnta, a distinct work from the 
Laghu vashhVha cited by Dadabua'i, and (under the title of Va- 
sishVha siddhanta) by Nrisinua. 



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380 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

must be rejected by the wise.' He certainly here expresses 
the prevalent opinion of the Hindu astronomers, which is 
decidedly in favour of a libration of the places of Uie 
colures. 

Besides MunjIla mentioned by BhAscara, the only 
other ancient author, whose name I find quoted for a com- 
plete revolution of the equinoctial and solstitial points, is 
Vishnu chandra, from whose works a passage is cited 
by PRtx'HfiDACAswAMl, declaratory of a solstitial yuga^ 
or period of the ayana. The text is corrupt in respect of 
the lowest digits of the number; and, having found no 
other quotation of it, I shall not attempt to state the period 
from a conjectural emendation of this passage. 

It is necessary to observe, that some of the ancient 
writers on astronomy have not admitted a periodical motion 
of the equinoxes. This is adverted to by BhAscara him- 
self,* who instances Brahmegupta. Thereason of that 
omission or denial is supposed by BnAscARAf to have 
been the inconsiderable quantity of the deviation or preces- 
sion, not then remarkable, and consequently unheeded by 
Brahmegupta; since whose time it is become sensible, 
and therefore it is now taken into account. :}: BhAscara 
next inquires ' why Brahmegupta and the rest did not 

• In the Vdsand hUshya, t Ibid, 

* Why has it not been stated by Brahmegupta and other skilful 
astronomers ? It was not perceived by them, because it was then in- 
considerable. But it is perceived by the modems, because it is now 
considerable. Accordingly it is concluded, that there is motion, [of 
the solstice.'] Bhascaka in the Fdsand bhdshya. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 381 

nevertheless state it on the strength of authority^ since it 
had been declared in the Saura siddhanta; in like manner 
as the numbers of revolutions, the periphery of epicycles, 

&C.?'* 

He replies : ' In mathematical science holy tradition is 
authority, so far only as it agrees with demonstration.' 
He goes on to say> ' Such motion, as results from the 
assigned revolutions, by which, places being calculated agree 
with those which are observed, must be admitted, whether 
taught by a holy sage or by a temporal teacher. If then 
the same places are deducible from other revolutions, 
which of the assigned motions is the true one ? The an- 
swer is, whichever agrees with present observation must 
be admitted. But, if in process of time, the difference 
become great, then men of genius, like Brahmegupta, 
will arise, who will acknowledge such motions as agree 
with present observation, and compose books {sastras) 
conformable thereto. Accordingly this mathematical science 
has no end in eternal time.' 

But Brahmegupta's commentator, expounding a pas- 
sage of this author,t which he considers to be levelled 
against those who affirmed a periodical revolution of the 
solstitial points, and which does deny such a revolution, 
and declares the solstice to be invariable, because the 
longest day and shortest night occur constantly at the end 
o( Mifhuna or Gemini, adverts, in the course of his expo- 
sition of the text, to passages which place the southern and 
northern solstice respectively in the middle of Aslesh&y and 
beginning of Dhanishi'h&y and proceeds to remark * this 

t Ch. ii. 



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382 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

only proves a shifting of the solstice, not numerous revo- 
lutions of it through the ecliptic' His notion appears 
.then to have been, that his author was aware of the feet of 
a change in the positions of the solstitial and equinoctial 
points, but did not admit the inference that the motion must 
be periodical. 

From all that has been said, it appears, that some of the 
most celebrated astronomers, as Brahmegupta, have 
been silent on the subject of a change in the places of the 
colures, or have denied their regular periodical motion. 
That others, as MunjAla and BhAscara (we may add 
Vishnu chandra) have asserted a periodical revolution 
of the places of the colures. But that the greater number 
of celebrated writers, and all the modem Hindu astrono- 
mers, have affirmed a libration of the equinoctial points. 

The earUest known author who is cited for the support 
of this doctrine, as fer as present research has gone, is 
ARYABHAff A, who is undoubtedly more ancient than 
Br A HMEGUPTA ; for he is repeatedly quoted in the Brahme 
sp'huta siddhanta which is ascribed to Brahmegupta, 
and which there is every reason to consider genuine, since 
the text of the book accords with the quotations from that 
celebrated astronomer to be found in treatises of various 
dates. 

I purposely omit in this place the Sdrya siddk&nta, 
SSma, Sacalyaj Vasishi'ha and Parasaray because their 
authenticity and age are subjects of question or of contro- 
versy. 

Relying then upon the quotation from the work of ARYA- 
BHAff a, and on the tendency of BhAscara's observa- 
tions both in his text and notes, it may be inferred, that 
the notion of a hbration of the equinoxes is of some anti- 
quity in India: since Brahmegupta, by whom ARYA- 
BHAff a is repeatedly mentioned, is either author or 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 383 

republisher of an astronomical system which was copied by 
BhAscara in 1150 a.d., but which is adapted to a much 
earlier age. 

The doctrine in question found advocates formerly among 
the astronomers of Europe and of Arabia. Arzael, a 
Spaniard, and a mathematician of the eleventh century,* 
author of a treatise, entitled observations on the obUquity 
of the zodiac, affirmed a Ubration or trepidation in longi- 
tude vrithin the Umits of 10° E. and W. at the rate of 
a degree in seventy-five years.f Two centuries after him, 
ThAbit ben Korrah, an astrologer,;]: assigned to this 
supposed trepidation the Umits of 22 E. and W,% To 
the same astrologer, by some supposed to have lived as 
much earUer, as he is here stated to have been later, a 
different doctrine is ascribed, affirming a motion of the 
intersected points of the ecliptic and equinoctial in a small 
circle described with the radius 4° 18' 43".|| 

They were led to that hypothesis (according to a remark 
quoted by the authors who have refuted the notion^) by 
considering that ' Hermes had found some of the fixed 
stars more distant firom the beginning of Aries, than Pto- 
lemy subsequently did: for instance the bright star of 
Hydra in 7** of Leo, placed by Ptolemy in 30 of Cancer; 
and the star named Vultur Cadens, in 24° of Sagittarius, 
but by Ptolemy in 17°.* 

* He observed the quantity of the obliquity of the ecliptic about 
the year 1070; aud is named by Abraham ebn Ezra, who wrote in 
the twelfth centqry (A.D.I 144 or 1150), as anterior to him by seventy, 
one years. Riccioli, Almag. nov, 

t RicoioLi, Almagestum novum, 3, 28, 6. 

t MORERI, Diet, 

§ Erasmus Reinhold on Pur bach; Rico. Almag. nov, 3, 28, 6. 

II MoNTuoLA, Hist, des Math., vol. i. p. 346. 

IT AuousTiNus Riocius, de motu octava sphcerce. Reoiomonta- 
NU8, lib. 7. Epitomes Almagesti. Rice. Aim, nov. 3, 28, 6. 



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384 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

The notion of a trepidation in longitude, but at a rate 
not equable^ had been entertained by the astronomers, who 
compiled the Alphonsine Tables, though Alphonsus him- 
self was subsequently led to the adoption of a correcter 
opinion, and to the consequent alteration of the tables first 
published by him.* 

The earliest mention of a libration in longitude, which 
has been found in any Arabic writer, is in the work of 
MuHAMMED ben Jaber, sumamcd AlbAtanI, and by 
us called Albategnius. This celebrated astronomer, an 
Arabian by birth and Sabiau by religion, flourished at the 
end of the ninth century ;t or, to speak with precision, 
about the year of Christ 879; J and from him we learn, 
that certain astronomers whom he does not appear to have 
any where named, had before him affirmed a libration of 
the fixed stars within the limits of 8^ E. and W. at the 
rate of a degree in eighty or eighty-four years. § He him- 
self maintained the doctrine of a uniform motion at the rate 
of a degree in sixty-six years. || 

I have dwelt the longer upon the history of this opinion, 
because it appears to me deserving of attention on more 
than one account AlbAtan! is the earliest of the Ara- 
bian astronomers who improved upon Ptolemy : (for 
Alf ARGANi, who was a century earlier, is not cited as cor- 
recting the Grreek astronomer on this point.) It was he then, 
who first, among the astronomers of the west of Asia, com- 
puted the motion of the stars at a degree in sixty-six years ; 
which is almost the same with the rate of the motion of trepi- 

* Abraham Zacuthus, cited, like the preceding authorities, in 
RiccioLi's Almagest. 3, 28, 6. 

t D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. 

t He himself furnishes the date, heing the year 1627 of the era of 
Nabonassar. Albatron. c. 51, cited in RicoiOLrs Almagest. 6, 
16, 2. 

§ Albateomius, c. 52. as cited hy Ricoioli. || Ihid, c. 51. 



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ON THE EI^UINOXES. 385 

dation according to the Sdrya siddhanta, and the herd of 
Hindu astronomers^ who reckon a degree and a-half in a 
century.* He is the first also, as far as can be discovered, 
in whose works mention is made of a motion of trepidation, 
and we may be permitted to conjecture, that the earlier 
astronomers alluded to by him were Indian; since we find 
ARYABHAffA, an author seemingly of an earlier age, 
quoted for a libration of the equinoctial points within the 
limits of twenty-four degrees, at the rate of one in seventy- 
^ht years; and since we know that an Arabian astro- 
nomer, anterior by nearly a century to AlbAtanI, had 
compiled tables in conf<Nrmity to rules of astronomy appa- 
rently Indian.t 

We may then safely conclude, that, on the subject of 
the precession of the equinoxes, the Hindus had a theory, 
which, though erroneous, was their own ; and which, at a 
subsequent time, found advocates among the astronomers 
of the west. That they had a knowledge of the true doc- 
trine of an uniform motion in antecedentia, at least seven 
hundred years ago,;]; when the astronomers of Europe also 
were divided on the question. That they had approximated 

* This is the rate resulting from the quantity of the motion in tre- 
pidation stated in the Sdrya siddhdnta : and the same results from the 
rules of calculation given in the Bhdswati caraha of Satan anda and 
in the JSAacdr^aoa improperly ascribed to Vabaha mihira. They 
both direct the number 421 to be deducted from the expired years of 
hdca; and the one deducts a tenth and reduces the remainder into 
degrees; the other adds half and divides by a hundred. Another 
mle, producing the same result, is mentioned in Baii*ly*8 Asit, Ind^ 
p. 76. 

t ^AdreguUuSendHend: {Siddh6ntf) Abdlfarao. Hist. Dynast. 
p. 114 and 161. Costard's Astronomy, p. 157, ^md Montuola 
Hkt. des Math.y vol. i. p. 344. 

X BhIscara, who quotes MunjIla, completed the ^ir^ma^' in 
1072iaca,orA.D.1160. 

VOL. n. 2 c 



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386 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

to the trae rate of that motion much nearer than Ptolemy, 
before the Arabian astronomers, and as near the truth as 
these have ever done since. From this we may perhaps 
be led to a further conclusion, that the astronomy of the 
Hindus merits a more particular examination than it has 
yet obtained, not indeed with any expectation of advancing 
the science of astronomy, which needs not such aid, and 
can derive none from the labours of astronomers who have 
recorded no observations ; but for the history of the 
science, and ascertainment of the progress which was here 
made : and that, with this view, the works of Hindu astro- 
nomers, whose age is precisely known, and in particular, 
those of BhAscara, which contain a complete course of 
astronomy and of sciences connected with it, should be 
cai'efully perused; as well as those of Brahmegupta, 
which are full of quotations from earlier astronomers, as 

ARYABHAff A,* VARAHAMIHIRA,f &RiSHfiNA,t VlSH- 

NUCHANDRA,^ and some others, who are cited by him for 
the purpose of exposing and correcting their errors. 

In regard toYARAHAMiHiRA and the Surya siddhanta, 
both separately quoted in the Brahme sp*huia siddhanta of 
Brahmegupta, I may here remark that a book entitled 
S6rya siddhanta is mentioned by VarAhamihir^a him- 
self, in his most undoubted work, the treatise on Astrology, 
entitled Varaht sanhithy where, describing the qualifications 
requisite to form an accomplished astrologer, he says, ' the 
astrologer should be conversant with divisions of time and 
geometrical figures, as taught in the five Siddhantas, or 

• Author of the DasagUicd and Art/dskta sata: 

t Named with censure by Brahmegupta. 

t Author of the Ratnaca siddhdnta. 

§ Mentioned as the author of the VdsishVha siddhanta. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 387 

systemB of astronomy, called Paulisa, RSmaca, VasisKfhaj 
Saura^ and PcAtamaJia.* * 

VarAhamihira^ as appears from the quotations of his 
own commentator BHAff6TPALA and many other astro- 
nomical writers, is likewise author of a treatise entitled 
Pancha siddhkntica, in which the five systems above men* 
tioned are compared ; and, as far as can be gathered from 
quotations, their agreements and disagreements noticed. 
A passage of this treatise as cited by BuAff 6tpala, is 
sufficiently remarkable to be here inserted, since it bears 
relation to the subject of this paper. It corresponds 
in import to a passage quoted by Mr. Davis, and Sir 
William JoN£S,t firom the third chapter of the Varahi 
sanhita; but refers the actual position of the colures to the 
asterisms instead of the signs of the zodiac. 

' When the return of the sun took place from the middle 
of Ailesha, the tropic was then right. It now takes place 
firom Punarvasu.* 

The same five systems of astronomy from which VarA- 
HAMiHiRA is understood to have compiled the astronomical 
treatise just now quoted, and which are named by him in 

t As. Res.y vol. ii. p. 391. 



2 c2 



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388 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

the passage of his astrology before cited^ are mentioned by 
Brahmegupta also as standard authcmtiesy and enume- 
rated by him in the tame order : and his names^ which are 
precisely the same with those inVARiHAMiniRA's enume- 
ration,'*^ are explained by BHAff6TPALA| as intending 
the Puliia siddhaMay MAmaca siddhanta, Vanshi^ha sid- 
dh&nta, S&rya siddhanta, and Brakme siddhanta. 

All these books are fireqaendy cited in astrooomical 
compilations, and are occasionally refierred to their real (x 
supposed authors. The first is ev^ where assigned to 
PuliSa, whose name it bears. The Riauiea siddh&nta is 
ascribed by the scholiast of Brahmegupta, and by a 
commentator of the Sivrya giddkanta, to SrI^^na or 
^RlsHfiifA (for the name is variously written). The Fa- 
sishi^ha siddhanta is by the same authority gtTen to 
YisHNUCHANDRA. Both thesc authors are repeatedly 
mentioned with censure by Brahmegupta; and it is 
acknowledged that they are entitled to no particalar ckfe- 
rence. 

This passage, in which the Paulishtif Rbmaca^ FdstshVhOy SaurOy and 
Pait6maha are specified, is introductory to a di^dsion of the lunar 
asterisms (for astrological purposes, it should seem), in unequal por- 
tions, hy allotting to fifteen of them a quantity equivalent to the mean 
diurnal motion of the moon in minutes of a degree Q^^ZST)^ and half 
as much more to six of those asterisms (lids' 52^), and so much less 
to the like numher of nac^uOras (395^ 170 ttnd assigning the comple* 
ment of the circle (254' IS'') to the supplementary nacshatra called 
AI>hijit. 

{l^f '^^^ numbers here set down are copied from the scholiast 
BHAff6TPALA, and from BhIsc aea's commentators ; being stated by 
them at the nearest second : for the moon's mean daily motion accord- 
ing to Brahmboupta and BhIscaba is a little less than T^C 35^.) 



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ON TH£ EQUINOXES. 389 

Hie Brahme siddhantOf which is the basis of Brahme- 
oupta's work, is not any where attributed to a known 
author; but referred in all quotations of it which have 
fallen under observation, either to the ViskAu dharmSttara 
purana, of which it is considered as forming a part, or to 
Brahme (also called PitAmaha), who is introduced into 
it as the speaker in a dialogue with BhrIgu; or it is 
acknowledged to be the work of some unknown person.^ 
The true author it may be now impracticable to discover, 
and would be vain to conjecture. 

The Sivrya siddhanta (if the same which we now pps* 
sess) is in hke manner ascribed to no certain author, unless 
in the passage cited by our colleague Mr. BENTLEY^f vdio 
says, that ' in the commentary on the JBhastvati, it is 
declared, that VarAha was the author of the Sdrya 
siddhantaf and who adds, that ' SatAnanda, the 
author of the Bh&swaH, was a pupil of VarIha under 
whose directions he himself acknowledges he wrote that 
wwk.' 

The concluding remark alludes to the follovring verse of 
the Bhaswati caraha. 

Next I will propound succinctly, firom Mihira's 
instruction, [this system] equal to the Sdrya siddhanta' 

* DadIbhaI*, in his commentary on the Sdarya siddhdnki, says so. 
t As. Res., vol. vi. p. 572. 



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390 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

It is preceded by an introductory couplet which will be 
found quoted at the foot of the page,"*^ or is omitted in some 
copies : but the correct reading, as appears from collation 
of text and scholia, retains both. 

Admitting then its authenticity, and supposing, with 
most of the commentators, that VarIhamihira is here 
intended by the single word Mihira, which, however, is a 
name of the sun, and may here allude to the fabled dia- 
logue of S6rya with Meya, as is observed by the scholiast 
Balabhadra ; t still the passage is not unambiguous. It 
does not necessarily imply oral tuition, and may refer to 
instruction derived from the works of Y arIha ; especially 
from the Pancha siddhantica of that author, in which the 
Siirya siddhanta was explained concurrently with four 
other treatises termed Siddhanta. 

To return from this digression. It appears from what 
had been before said, that a work bearing the title of Sdrya 
siddhanta is named as authority by YarAhamihira, in 
whose time, according to his assertion, the place of the 

snT% f^ift% s[FfstnTt%^ ti 

< HaviDg bowed to the foot of the foe of Muba, the fortunate Sa- 
TANANDA propounds, for the benefit of students, the Bhaswaii, in the 
Sdca year 1021.* 

The author SatInanda, as he himself informs us in the close of 
the book, was an inhabitant of PurushoUama (the site of the temple 
of Jagann&tlia) : and dates his work there in 4200 of the Cali yuga. 
In the body of the work he directs the difference of longitude to be 
reckoned from the meridian of Funtshhttama cshttra, 

t His commentary is dated in 1465 of Vicbamaditta ; more than 
400 years ago. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 391 

summer solstice was at the beginning of the sign Carcaia, 
and in the asterism Punarvasu. A treatise under the same 
title is similarly mentioned by Brahmegupta, who has 
likewise noticed VarAhamihira himself, and who is 
supposed by BhAscara to have lived when the colures had 
not sensibly deviated from that position. 

It may be questioned whether this testimony be not over- 
thrown by proofs of a more modem date (between seven 
and eight hundred years ago), drawn from internal evidence, 
as set forth by Mr. Bentlet, in his ingenious essays 
inserted in the sixth and eighth volumes of our Researches.^ 

Without entering at present into any disquisition on this 
subject, or discussmg the accuracy of the premises ; but 
acceding generally to the position, that the date of a set of 
astronomical tables, or of a system for the computation of 
the places of planets, is deducible from the ascertainment 
of a time when that system or set of tables gave results 
nearest to the truth; and granting that the date above- 
mentioned approximates within certain limits to such an 
ascertainment ; I shall merely observe, that supposing the 
dates otherwise irreconcileable, still the book which we 
now have under the name of Sdrya^ or Saura, siddhanta, 
may have been, and probably was, modernized from a 
more ancient treatise of the same name, the later work 
borrowing its title firom an earlier performance of a dif- 
ferent author. We have an instance of this practice in the 
kindred case of the Brahme siddhanta ; for we are ac- 
quainted with no less than three astronomical treatises 
bearing this title; one extracted from the VtshAudhar- 
mdttara ; another termed the Sacalya ; and tiie third the 
Sp^htia siddhanta of Brahmeoupta : and an equal 
number of tracts entitled VasishVha siddhanta may be 

* As. Res., ToL vi. p. 572, and vol. viii. p. 206. 



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392 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

traced in the quotations of authors; one by Visbnu- 
CHANDRA ; another termed Laghu v&sishi'hay which from 
its name should be an abridgment ; and the third, appa- 
rently an ample treatise, distinguished as the Vriddha 
vasishi'ka. This solution of the objection also is ^itirely 
compatible with the tenor of the references to the Saura, 
which have been yet remarked in the works of Brahme- 
GUPTA and YarAhamihira ; none of them being relative 
to points that fiimish arguments for concluding the age of 
the book from internal evidence. 

At all events, whatever may be thought of the Surya 
siddhanta, we have the authority of a quotation from 
ARYABHAff A, to show, that the Hindus had ascertained 
the quantity of the precession more correctly than Pto- 
lemy ; and had accounted for it l^ a motion in libration 
or trepidation, before this notion was adopted by any other 
astronomer whose labours are known to us. 

It appears also from a passage of Brahmegupta's 
refutation of the supposed errors of that author, and from 
his conunentator's quotation of AaYABHAff a's tes^t, that 
this ancient astronomer maintained the doctrine of the 
earth's diurnal revolution round its axis. * The sj^ere of 
the stars,' he affirms * is stationary ; and the earth, making 
a revolution, produces the daily rising and setting of stars 
and planets.'* Brahmbgupta answers, ' If the earth 
move a minute in a prana, then whence and what route 
does it proceed ? If it revolve, why do not lofty objects 
fall?'f But his ocHumentator, PRlT'HtiDACA swAmI, re- 

AaYABHAff A cited by PBlfT'H<JDAOA. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 393 

plies, ^ ARYABHAff a's opimon appears neTerthelese satis- 
factory '^ since planets cannot hare two motions at once : 
and the objection, that lofty things would fidl, is contra- 
dicted ; for, every way, the under part of the earth is also 
the upper; since, wherever the spectator stands on the 
earth's surface, even that spot is the uppermost point/ 

We here find both an ancient astronomer and a later 
commentatoi* maintaining, against the sense of their coun- 
trymen, the rational doctrine which Heraclidbs of Pontus, 
the Pythagorean Ecphantus, and a few others among the 
Ghreeks, had affirmed of old, but which was abandoned by 
the astronomers both of the east and of the west, until 
revived and demonstrated in comparatively modem times.f 

Brahmegupta is more fortunate in his reascming where 
he refutes another theory of the alternation of day and 
night imagined by the Jairuzs, who account for the diurnal 
change by the passage of two suns, and as many moons, 
and a double set of stars and minor planets, round a pyra- 
midical mountain, at the foot of which is this habitable 
earth. His confutation of that absurdity is copied by B h As- 
CAiA, idio has added to it from PRYr'ntiDACA's gloss on 
a different passage of Brahmeoupta, a refutation of ano- 
ther notion ascribed by him to the same sect, respecting 
the translatbn of the earth in space. 

This idea has no other or^n than the notion, that the 
earth, being heavy and without support, must perpetually 
descend: and has, therefore, no rdation whatever to the 
modem opim<ni of a proper motion of the sun and stars. 

Brahme sp'huta siddh6nia, 

* The commentator wrote at least seven centuries ago; for he is 
qqoted by Bhasoara in the text and notes of the ^iromahu 

t For an outline of ARVABHAffA's system of astronomy, see a 
note at the close of this Essay, (p. 414.) 



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394 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

Part of the passage of BhAscara has been quoted in a 
former essay.* What regards the further subject now no- 
ticed, is here subjoined. 

' The earth stands firm, by its own power, without other 
support in space. 

' If there be a material support to the earth, and another 
upholder of that, and again another of this, and so on, 
there is no limit. If finally self-support must be assumed, 
why not assume it in the first instance ? why not recognise 
it in this multiform earth ? 

' As heat is in the sun and fire, coldness in the moon, 
fluidity in water, hardness in iron ; so mobility is in air ; 
and immobility in the earth, by nature. How wonderful are 
the implanted faculties ! 

' The earth possessing an attractive force,t draws towards 
itself any heavy substance situated in the surrounding atmos- 
phere, and that substance appears as if it fell. But whither 
can the earth fall in ethereal space which is equal and alike 
on every side ? 

' Observing the revolution of the stars, the Bauddha^ 
acknowledge, that the earth has no support ; but as nothing 
heavy is seen to remain in the atmosphere, they thence 
conclude that it falls in ethereal space. 

* Whence dost thou deduce, O Bauddha, this idle notion, 
that, because any heavy substance thrown into the air, 
falls to the earth, therefore the earth itself descends ? ' § 

He adds this further explanation in his notes : ' For if 
the earth were falling, an arrow shot into the air would not 
return to it when the projectile force was expended, since 

* As. Res., vol. ix. p. 322. [p. 224, of the present volume.] 

t Like the attraction of the loadstone for iron. Mdfichi on BhXs- 

OABA. 

t Meaning the Jainas ; as appears from the author's own annota- 
tion on this passage. 
§ ^bma^iy G6l&dhydyay c. i. v. 2, 4, 7 and 9. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 395 

both would descend. Tfor can it be said that it moves 
slower, and is overtaken by the arrow ; for heaviest bodies 
iail quickest, and the earth is heaviest.' 

It has been observed in a former part of this essay, that 
Brahmegupta's treatise of astronomy is founded on an 
anterior one entitled Brahme siddhanta ; and the authen- 
ticity of the book extant under Brahmegupta's name 
has been relied upon, and passages have been freely cited 
from it, as the genuine performance of that ancient astro- 
nomer. These matters appear to be of sufficient import- 
ance to deserve a more particular explanation of their 
grounds. 

The source from which Brahmegupta drew, is indi- 
cated by the author himself, in his introductory couplet, 
cited by LacshmIdAsa in the commentary on BhAs- 
cara;* 

which, in a literal version, will stand thus : — ' The compu- 
tation of planets, as declared by BrahmA, and become 
imperfect by great length of time, is perspicuously {sp'huid) 
explained by Brahmegupta, son of Jishnu.' 

The ambiguity imputable to this passage is obviated by 
the more explicit terms of the initial stanza of his eleventh 
chapter, where Brahmegupta announces a refutation of 
opinions opposed to the Brahme siddhanta : 

• • The Oahita taiwa chmtdmaiiiy dated in 1423 ^dca^ or 1501 A.D. 



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396 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

' I wUl refiite the errors (respecting the yugas and other 
matters) of those who, misled by ignorance, maintain things 
contrary to the Brakme siddhanta/ 

What the work is, to which Brahmegupta refers under 
the title specified by him, and corresponding to a subse- 
quent mention by him of the Paitamaha nddh&nta (both 
titles being of the same import), is explained by the scho- 
liasts of BhAscara and of the Sdrya siddhanta. NrY- 
siNH A, a commentator on both texts,* affirms that Brah- 
meoupta's rules are formed from the VishAu dharmSttara 
puranaf in which the Brakme tiddhanta is contained ^ 
BhAscara's commentator, MuNiSwARA;]:, remarks, that 
Brahmegupta, having verified by observation the revo- 
lutions stated in the Brakme riddhanta of the Vish^ 
dharmSttara^ and having found them suitable to his own 
time, adopted these numbers, rejecting the revolutions 
taught by Surya and the rest. In other places the com- 
mentator cites parallel passages from Brahmegupta and 
the Brakme (also termed by him Paitimakd) Hddkanta 
of the Visknu dkarmdttara :% and these with numerous 



* He is the author of a comroentary on the S(trya MdhSniOy and of 
the Vdsand v6riica on BhIsoaba's text and notes. It is dated in 
1543 ^^kra, orl62lA.D. 

t As. Res., vol. ii. p. 242. 

X Author of the Mdfichi on BhIsoara's 6if^mdii, and of a dis- 
tinct treatise of astronomy, the Siddfidnta sdrvabhauma. The ear- 
liest copy of the Mdrichi is dated 1560 §6ca (A.D. 1638), which is not 
much later than the date of the work itself; for the Emperor N6b- 
UDDfir JbhIn ofR is mentioned at the close of the bode, as he also 
is in the preface of a commentary on the Siktya iiddkdfUa by the 
aathor*s father Ranoanat*ha. 

§ Take the following as examples : 

ht. The number of sidereal days in a calpa, (viz. 1582,236,450,000) 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 397 

quotations irora Brahmegupta in the Chintamani and in 
other commentaries on BhAscara, as well as in the 
author's notes on his own text^ are exactly conformable with 
the Brahme sp'kuia siddhanta now An my possession, and 
which is accompanied by the gloss of Brahm£6Upta*s 
celebrated commentator Chaturv^da PrKt'e^jdaca 
swlMf. 

It appears then, from a collation of the passages so cited, 
that Brahmboupta's work is, at least in part, a para- 
phrase of the Brahme or Paitamaha ; containing, how*- 

which the PaUdmaha siddhSnta of the Vishim dhermbttara (cited in 
MMchif ch. i.) ezpreMes hy these words : 

and Brahmegupta renders by the equivalent terms, 

frT«R:tl 

2d. The commencement of the calpOf on Sunday, Ist ChaUra^ at 
the moment of sunrise on the meridian of Lancd, which the Brdhme 
siddhdnia of the Vish^ dhannibUara pvr&ha (Mdrichiy ch. ii.) thus 
expresses : 

and Brahmboupva by the following couplet. 



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398 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

ever, additional matter: and it is accordingly termed by 
one of the scholiasts of the Surya siddhanta,* a commen- 
tary on the Paitamaha; and Chaturv^da's gloss is 
denominated, by the same scholiast, an interpretation of the 
Paitamaha bhashya. 

In support of what has been here said, I shall adduce a 
few instances of quotation on subjects possessing some 
degree of interest. 

The first is one in which BhAscara vindicates a pas- 
sage of Brahmegupta from the objections of his com- 
mentator, quoting the passage itself in his notes, and 
there naming the scholiast, Chaturv£da : from which, 
be it remarked, the commentary is ascertained to be ante- 
rior to BhAscara's work: I have a further reason, how- 
ever, for citing the passage, as it furnishes occasion for 
some observations on the Indian theory of astronomy. 

The Hindus, as is well known, place the earth in the 
centre of tlie world, and make the Sun and Moon and 
minor planets revolve round it, apparently in concentric 
orbits, with unequal or irregular motion. For a physical 
explanation of the pheenomena, they imagine the planets 
driven by currents of air along their respective orbits (be- 
sides one great vortex carrying stars and planets with 
prodigious velocity, round the earth, in the compass of a 
day). The winds or currents, impelling the several planets, 
communicate to them velocities, by which their motion 
should be equable and in the plane of the ecUptic; but the 
planets are drawn from this course by certain controlling 
powers, situated at the apogees, conjunctions, and nodes. 

These powers are clothed by Hindu imaginations with 
celestial bodies invisible to human sight, and furnished with 
hands and reins^ by which they draw the planets from their 

• DadabhaI. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 399 

direct path and uniform progress. The being at the apogee, 
for instance, constantly attracts the planet towards itaetf, 
alternately, however, with the right and left hands. The 
deity of the node diverts the planet, first to one side then 
to the other, from the ecliptic. And lastly, the deity at 
the conjunction causes the planet to be one while stationary, 
another while retrograde, and to move at different times 
with velocity accelerated or retarded. These fismcied beings 
are considered as invisible planets ; the nodes and apogees 
having a motion of their own in the ecliptic. 

This whimsical system, more worthy of the mythologist 
than of the astronomer, is gravely set forth in the Sdrya 
siddhanta: and even BhAscara gives into it, though not 
without indications of reluctant acquiescence ; for he has 
not noticed it in his text, and only briefly in his notes. 

To explain on mathematical principles the irregularity of 
the planetary motions, the Qindu astronomers remove the 
earth fi'om the centre of the planet's orbit, and assume the 
motion in that excentric to be really equable, though it 
appear irregular as viewed from the earth. Another hypo- 
thesis is also taught by them ; according to which the 
planet revolves with an equal but contrary motion in an 
epicycle, of which the centre is carried with like but direct 
motion on a concentric orbit. 

BhAscara remarks, that both theories are equivalent, 
giving the same results in computation : but he maintains, 
that the planet's motion in an excentric orbit (pratimaii'' 
Sala) is consonant to the truth ; and the other hypothesis 
of an epicycle (nichSchcAa vrttta) is merely a device for the 
facility of computation. 

Both theories, with certain modifications, which will be 
subsequently noticed, suffice for the anomaly of the Sun 
and Moon. ' To account for the still greater apparent irre- 



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400 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

gularities of the five minor planets, the Hindu astronomers 
make them revolve with direct motion on an epicycle borne 
on an excentric deferent. (In the case of the two inferior 
planets, the revolution in the excentric is performed in the 
same time with the Sun : consequently the planet's motion 
in its epicycle is in fiu^t its proper revolution in its orbit. 
In the instance of the superior planets, on the omtrary, the 
epicycle corresponds in time to a revolution of the Sun, and 
the excentric deferent answers to the true revolution of the 
planet in its orbit.) 

So far the Indian system, as already remarked by Mr. 
Davis in his treatise on the astronomical computations of 
the Hindus,* agrees with the Ptolemaic. At the first glance 
it will remind the reader of the hypothesis of an excentric 
orbit devised by Hipparchus ; and of that of an epicycle 
on a deferent, said to have been invented by Apollonius, 
but applied by Hipparchus. At the same time the 
omission of an equant (having double the excentricity of 
the deferent) imagined by Ptolbmt for the five minor 
planets, as well as the epicycle with a deferent of the centre 
of the excentric, contrived by him to account for the eveo- 
tion of the Moon ; and the circle of anomaly of excentricity, 
adapted to the inequality of Mercury's motions, cannot fail 
to attract notice. 

The Hindus, who have not any of Ptolemy's additions 
to the theory of Hipparchus, have introduced a different 
modification of the hypothesis, for they give an oval fonn 
to the excentric or equivalent epicycle, as well as to the 
planefs proper epicycle. That is, they assume the axis of 
the epicycle greater at the end of the {sama) even qua* 
drants of anomaly (or, in the line of the apsides and con- 
junctions), and least at the end of the (pishama) odd 

• As. Res., vol. ii. p. 250. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 401 

quadrants (1st and 3d), and intermediately in proportion.* 
This contrivance of an oval epicycle is applied by certain 
astronomers to all the planets ; and by others, is restricted to 
few; and by some, is altogether rejected. ARYABHAffA, 
for example, and the Sdrya siddhanta, make both epi- 
cycles of all the planets oval, placing however the short 
axis of the proper epicycles of Jupiter and Saturn in the 
line of mean conjunction, termed by Hindu astronomers 
their quick apogee (sighrSchcha). Brahmegupta and 
BhAscara, on the contrary, acknowledge only the epi- 
cycles of Mars and Venus to be oval, and insist that the 
rest are circular. The author of the Siddhanta sarva- 
bhauma goes a step fiirther, maintaining that all are circu- 
lar, and taking the mean between the numbers given in the 
Sdrya siddhanta. 

* Rad : Sine of anomaly : : Diff. between circles described on 
greatest and least axis : Diff. between circles described on greatest 
axis and on the diameter of the epicycle for the proposed anomaly. 
Whence the ^ircle described on that diameter is determined ; and is 
used for the epicycle in computations for that anomaly. Since circles 
are to each other as their radii, the proportion above stated answers 
to the following ; semitransverse axis : diff. between transverse and 
conjugate semiaxis : : ordinate of the circle : a fourth proportional ; 
which is precisely the difference between that ordinate and an ordinate 
of the ellipse for the same absciss. Hindu astronomers take it for 
the difference between the radius of the circumscribed circle and the 
semidiameter of the ellipse at an angle with the axis equal to the 
proposed anomaly ; and, in an ellipsis very little excentric, the error 
is small. 



VOL. 11. 2 D 



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402 



HINDU ASTRONOMERS 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON THE EQIUNOXES. 403 

A further difference of theory, though not of practice, 
occurs among the Hindu astronomers, in regard to the cur- 
vature of the excenl^ic deferents, and the consequent me- 
thod of computing on the equivalent hypothesis of epi- 
cycles* 

A refer^ce to Mr. Davis's Essay,* and to the diagrams 
which accompany it, will render intelligible what has been 
already said, and what now remains to be explained. It 
is there observed, that it is only in computing the retrogra- 
dations, and other particulars respecting the minor plan^, 
that the Hmdus find the length of the carna 6 0t (or 
line drawn fix>m the centre of the earth to the planet's 
place in the epicycle). In other cases, as for the ano- 
malistic equation of the Sun and Moon, they are satisfied 
to take he as equal to the sine lm%y (that is, the sine of 
mean anomaly, reduced to its dimensions in the epicycle 
in parts of the radius of the concentric, equal to the sine of 
the anomalistic equation). The reason is subjoined: ' The 
difference, as the commentator on the Surya siddhanta 
observes, being inconsiderable.' 

Most of the commentators on the Sdrya siddhanta do 
assign that reason; but some of them adopt Bbahme- 
oupta's explanation. This astronomer maintains, that 
the operation of finding the car^ is rightly omitted in 
respect of the excentrics or equivalent epicycles of all the 
planets, and retained in regard to the proper epicycles of 
the minor planets carried by the excentric deferents. His 
hypothesis, as briefly intimated by himself, and as ex- 
plained by BhAscara, supposes the epicycle, which re- 
presents the excentric, to be augmented in the proportion 

* As. Bes., vol. ii. p. 249. 

t As. Res., vol. ii. p. 250. Diagram, fig. 2. 

t Ibid, 

2 d2 



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404 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

which carna (or the distance of the planet's place from the 
earth's centre) bears to the radius of the concentric ; and it 
is on this account^ and not as a mere approximation, that 
the finding of the carna^ with the subsequent operation to 
which it is applicable, is dispensed with.* 

The scholiast of Brahmegupta objects to his author's 
doctrine on this point, that, upon the same principle, the 
process of finding the carruif with the subsequent employ- 
ment of it to find the sine of the anomalistic equation, 
should in like manner be omitted in the proper epicycle of 
the five minor planets ; and he concludes therefore, that 
the omission of that process has no other ground, but the 
very inconsiderable difference of the 4*esult in the instance 
of a small epicycle. For, as remarked by another author, f 
treating on the same subject, the equation itself and its 
sine are very small near the line of the apsides ; and at a 
distance from that line, the carna and radius approach to 
equality. 

BhAscara, in the SirSmanif quotes succinctly Brah- 
megupta's doctrine, and the scholiast's objection to it; 
and replies to the latter : and in his notes in the Vasana 
bhashya, cites the text of Brahmegupta and Chatur- 
v^da's reasoning, which he tries to confiite. His quota- 
tion agrees perfectly with the present text of the Brahme 



• For Rad : periphery of the epicycle : : ccvrita : augmented epi- 
cycle. And circle : sine of anomaly : : augmented epicycle : sine of 
anomaly in augmented epicycle. 

Lastly, carna : sine of anomaly in augmented epicycle : : radios : 
sine of anomalistic equation. 

Whence periphery X^X^X ^'-'g.^y ^aine of anoma- 
listic equation. 

And, abridging, periphery X^^^^^^^^^=8ine of anomalistic equa- 
tion. 

t In the Mdrkhi. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 405 

sp^kuia siddhanta and commentary of Chaturv^da PrK- 
T'HtjDACA swAmI, which is annexed to it. 

The passage which has required so much preparatory 
explanation^ is itself short : 

* The carna^ or longest side of the triangle, multiplied 
by the periphery of the epicycle and divided by radius, 
becomes the miiltiplier of the sine and cosine of anomaly. 
The same result, as before, is obtained by a single operation 
in the instance of the anomalistic epicycle : and therefore 
carna is not here employed.' 

BhAscara's words in the Sir6manx are these: ' Some 
say that in this system, in the operation of finding the 
equation of anomaly, the carna or long side of the triangle 
is not employed, because the difference in the two modes 
of computation is very inconsiderable. But others maintain 
that, if the carna be used, the periphery of the epicycle 
must in this operation be corrected, by multiplying it by 
carna and dividing by radius. Wherefore the result is 
the same as by the former method ; and on that account, 
they say, the carna is not employed. It is not to be 
objected, why is not the same method used in the sighra 
epicycle ? For the principles of the two differ.' 

In his notes on this part of his text, he cites, as before 
observed, the precise passage of Brahmegupta which 
has been inserted above, and a portion of Chaturv^da's 
comment on it, and names the author. 

In another instance BhAscara quotes in his SirfmuiM 
Brahmegupta by name, and the commentator by impli- 
cation, (and fuller quotations of both occur in the notes and 
commentaries), for a disagreement in regard to the latitude 



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'406 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

of stars and planets measured from the ecliptic both on a 
circle drawn through its poles, and on one passing through 
the poles of the equator ; the latter termed sp^htAa or appa- 
rent, and the other asp'huia or unapparent.* BhAscara 
remarks that Brahmeoupta has directed the latitudes of 
planets to be computed by one mode, and has given those 
of the stars in the other, but has stated no rule for reducing 
the latitude of one denomination to the other, or for recti- 
fying the true latitude from the measure given on the circle 
of declination. The reason he considers to be the Uttle 
difference between them (which is true in respect of the 
planets, though not so in the case of most of the stars), 
and the frequent occasion in astronomical computations, for 
the declination of stars, while their proper latitude is not 
an element in any calculation ; whereas, in the case of the 
planets, both are employed on different occasions : he ad- 
verts to a strained interpretation proposed by the com- 
mentator to construe Brahmegupta's rule as adapted \o 
the same denomination of latitude which is employed by 
him for the stars. BhAscara refutes that interpretation, 
and justifies Brahmegupta's text taken in its obvious 
and natural sense. 
This passage of the ^ir6ma'Ai'\ confirms what was said 

* Asp'huta sara is the true latitude of m star or planet ; sp^huia sara 
is its decliuation dr deGlination of the point of intersection in the 
ecliptic. 

R^f'M>jMr<^<c||<)j||uH|iMCq-f%tl 
5T^RT0n?^27 5:5r1^rTtm?qf2rn:STO: \ 

G6lddhyaya, c. viii. v. 11, &c. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 407 

by me, from other authority, in a former easay,* concem- 
ing the Hindu method of determining a star's place with 
reference to the ecliptic, by the intersection of a circle of 
decUnation, and by taking the latitude and longitude of the 
star to that point of intersection, instead of employing a 
perpendicular to the ecliptic. 

The only other passage to which I shall draw the reader's 
attention, is one of considerable length, in which Brahme- 
GUPTA, although he has rightly giren the theory of solar 
and lunar eclipses, with the astronomical principles on 
which they are to be computed, affirms in compliance with 
the prejudices of Hindu bigots, the existence of Rahu as 
an eighth planetand as the immediate cause of eclipses, and 
reprehends VarAhamiuira, AaYABHAff a, SaisHiKA 
and VisHNucHANDRA for rejecting this orthodox expla- 
nation of the phenomenon. The passage is quoted by 
BhAscara's commentator in lihe ChintiLmaAi on the occa- 
sion of a more concise text of the Sh^dmani affirming the 
agency of JRahu in eclipses.f 

This quotation from the Brahme siddhanta comprising 
seven couplets in the Ckintamani, has been verified in the 
text of the Brahme sp'htda siddhanta of Brahmegupta.j: 

All these, with numerous other instances in the annota- 
tions and commentaries of the SiritnaM, which I refrain 
from adducing, lest the reader's patience should be tired, 
have established to my entire conviction the genuineness of 
the Sp'huia siddA&nta founded on a prior treatise entitled 
Brahme siddhanta. 

I am not unapprised, that, under a feeling of great dis- 
trust or unvrillingness to admit the conclusions which follow 
from this position, a variety of hypotheses might be formed 

* As. Res., vol. ix. [p. 324, &c. of the present volume.] 
t Part 2, ch. vii. v. 10. t Oblddhy&ya. 



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408 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

to a different effect Brahmegupta, supposing him to 
be entirely an original writer, may have referred to an 
imaginary work to give that kind of authority to his per- 
formance which the Hindus most fancy ; or he may have 
fathered on 9.purana a synopsis of his own doctrine for 
the same purpose; or some other writer, from whatever 
motive, may have fabricated a pretended extract of a purana 
containing the heads of Brahmegupta's system, and have 
given currency to it on the strength of the reference in that 
astronomer's treatise to an anterior work. These and other 
suppositions grounded on surmise of fraud and forgery may 
be formed. I shall not discuss them : for I have no con- 
cern but with the facts themselves. BhAscara, writing 
650 yeai-s ago, declares, and so do all his commentators, 
that he has followed Brahmegupta as his guide. They 
quote numerous passages from his work; and BhAscara 
affirms that Brahmegupta took the number of revolu- 
tions assigned to the planets in the great period termed 
calpa from an earUer authority. The commentators, who 
wrote from two to four centuries ago, assert, that those 
numbers were taken from a treatise in form of dialogue 
between BhAgavat (or BrAhma) and BhrYgu, inserted 
in the Vishnu dharmdttara puraAa and distinguished by 
the title of BrcJima or Paitamaha siddhanta. They cite 
parallel passages^ which do in fact exactly accord in sense 
and import. They occasionally quote observations on 
Brahmegupta by his scholiast Chaturv^da PrIt'hu- 
DACA swAmI. a book is extant (a copy, partly deficient, 
however, having come into my possession with other astro- 
nomical collections) and which consists of a text under the 
title of Brahme sp'huta dddhanta accompanied by a con- 
tinual commentary byCHATURvfeDA PRtT'n^DACA sw Am!. 
The text contains the same astronomical doctnne which 
BhAscara teaches, and which he professes to have derived 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 409 

irom Brahmeoupta ; and passages quoted by him in his 
text, or at more length in his notes, or by his commentators, 
or by other astronomical writers, as the words of Brahme- 
oupta, are found verbatim in it. I consider it therefcH^ 
as the genuine text of the treatise used by BhAscara, as 
Brahme6Upta*s; and seeing no reason for suspicion and 
distrust, I quote it as the authentic work of that celebrated 
astronomer. 

As the evidence which has been here collected with 
reference to particular points, bears also upon other ques- 
tions, I shall now state further conclusions, regarding the 
history of Indian astronomy, which appear to me to be 
justly deducible from the premises. Those conclusions will 
be supported, when necessaiy, by additional references to 
authorities. 

Brahmegupta and VarAhamihira, though named 
at the head of astronomers by BhAscara and SatAn anda 
and by the herd of later writers, are not to be considered 
as the authors of the Indian system of astronomy. They 
abound in quotations from more ancient astronomers, upon 
whose works their own are confessedly grounded. In 
addition to the names before-mentioned,''^ those of Pra- 
DYUMNA, LAla sinha, and LAdhAchArya, may be here 
specified. But the Brahme siddhanta and the works of 
ARYABHAff A are what principaUy engages Brahme- 
gupta's attention : and the five Siddhantas have been the 
particular subject of VarAhamihtra's labours. He ap- 
pears to have been anterior to Brahmegupta, being 
actually cited by him among other writers, whose errors 
are exposed and corrected. 

VarAhamihira, constantly quoted as the author of 
the Varahi sanhita and Pancha siddhantica, must be 

• Page 386. 



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410 HINDU ASTRONOMERS 

judged firom those wcnrks, which are undoubtedly his by the 
unanimous consent of the learned, and by the testimony of 
the ancient schoUast BHAff 6tpala. The minor works, 
ascribed to the same author, may have been composed in 
later times, and the name of a celebrated author have been 
a£Bxed to them, according to a practice, which is but too 
common in India as in many other countries. The Jiia- 
carhava^ for example, which. has been attributed to him, 
may not improbably be the work of a different author. At 
least, I am not apprized of any collateral evidence (such as 
quotations from it in books of some antiquity) to suj^rt 
its genuineness, as a work of VarAhamihira's. 

In the Varahi sanhita, this author has not followed the 
system which is taught in the Sdrya siddhanta. For in- 
stance, his rule for finding the year of the cycle of sixty 
years, founded on the mean motions of Jupiter, shews that he 
employed a different number from that which the S^rya 
siddkanta furnishes, viz. 364,224 revolutions in a yuga, 
instead of 364,200 ; and it appears fix>m a quotation of the 
scholiast that ARYASHAftA is the authority for that num* 
ber of revolutions of Jupiter. 

Before the age of VarAhamihira and Brahme- 
GUPTA, and subsequently to that of Oarga, a number of 
illustrious astronomers flourished, by whom the science was 
cultivated and promoted, but whose works unhappily are 
lost, or at least have not been yet recovered, and are at 
present known to us only by quotation. No less than 
ten intermediate writers are cited by Brahmegufta ; of 
whom five at the least are noticed by VarAhamihira.* 

The proficiency of the YavatKis in astronomy was known 
to VarAhamihira. He has mentioned it with applause,t 

' See before, p. 386, 388, and 409. 



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ON THE EQUINOXES. 411 

and has more than once referred to the authority of their 
writers. The name of YavakAchArya, which occurs 
frequently in the compilations of Hindu astronomers,''^ has 
apparently reference to an author of that nation ; which is 
characterized by VarAhamihira as a people oi MUcV'^ 
has, or barbarians. The title of RSmaca siddhanta, given 
by SrIsh^na to his astronomical treatise, which is quoted 
under this title by VarAhamihira and Brahmegupta, 
may be presumed also to carry some allusion to the sys- 
tem of the astronomers of the West. 

If these circumstances, joined to a resemblance hardly 
to be supposed casual, which the Hindu astronomy, with 
its apparatus of excentrics and epicycles, bears in many 
respects to that of the Greeks, be thought to authorize a 
belief, that the Hindus received from the Greeks that know- 
ledge which enabled them to correct and improve their 
own imperfect astronomy, I shall not be inclined to dissent 
from the opinion. There does, indeed, appear ground for 
more than a conjecture, that the Hindus had obtained a 
knowledge of Grecian astronomy before the Arabs began 
to cultivate the science ; and that the whole cluster of 
astronomers mentioned by Brahmeoupta must be placed 
in the internal between the age of Hipparchus, and pos- 
sibly that of Ptolemy, and the date of Brahmegupta's 
revision of the Brahme siddhanta. 

In reforming the Indian astronomy, Brahmegupta, 
and the astronomers who preceded, him, did not take im- 
plicitly the mean motions of the planets given by the Gre- 

* For the Yavanas are barbariaDs ; but this science is well esta- 
blished among them ; and they are revered like holy sages : much 
more shall a priest who is learned in it be venerated.' 

• As. Res., vol. ix. p. 376 [see p. 365, 367, and 368 of the present 
volume.] 



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412 



HINDU ASTRONOMERS 



cian astronomer. In general they are wider from the truth 
than Ptolemy."!^ But, in the instance which is the sub- 
ject of this paper, they made a nearer approach to aoenracy 
than he had done, and must therefore have used other ob- 
servations besides those which he has recorded. 

The Arabs adopted in its totality Ptolemy's theory cf 
the motions of the planets ; which the Hindus have only 



* Mban Diurnal Motions op thb Plamrts. 





Beaumkoupta. 


Sirya siddhSnta. 




o I 11 Ml nil 


O I II tit Ilti 


© 


59 8 10 22 


59 8 10 10 


J> 


13 10 34 52 47 


13 10 34 52 3 


3)- 


-0 12 11 26 42 25 


12 11 26 41 53 


^ 


31 26 28 7 


31 26 28 11 


9 


4 5 32 18 28 


4 5 32 20 42 


It 


459 9 9 


4 59 8 48 


9 


1 36 7 44 35 


1 86 7 43 39 


1? 


2 22 52 


2 22 53 



Ptolbmt. 



II 111 tilt 



59 8 17 13 
13 10 34 58 30 
12 11 26 31 17 
31 26 36 53 
4 5 32 24 IS 

4 59 14 26 

1 36 7 43 6 
2 33 31 



o I II m na 

59 8 19 46 
13 10 35 I 40 
12 11 26 41S 
31 26 39 23 
4 5 32 3IIS 

4 59 15 53 

1 a6 7 46 S« 
2 0353B 



In ibis comparative table computed to fourth minutes, it will be 
remarked, tbat the Hindu astronomers mostly agree to third minutes, 
and differ in the fourths. They disagree with Ptolbmt at the diirdt, 
and give, in almost every instance, slower motions than he does, to 
the planets, and still slower than the truth. In the moon's syDodicml 
motion, however, they are very nearly correct On the other band, 
the equation of the centre deducible from the epicycles (page 404) is 
a nearer approximation to the truth than results from the excen- 
tricity assigned by Ptolemy to the orbits of the planets. For in- 
stance, 

EXCBNTRIOITY OF THE Sun's OrBIT. 

o I n 
5^r^a 5t(/(2^^($n<a and Bra HMEOUPTA (Had. of the epicycle) 2 10 30 

HiPPAROHUsandPTOLEMT (Aim., 1.3. c. 4.) in parts, of 

which radius contains 60 2 29 30 

ALBlTANf (c. 28.) 2 445 

Oreatibst Equation op the Sun's Centre : 

Sdrya siddhdnta, &c. (computed by the commentators) . . 2 10 32 

Ptolemy (Rico. Aim. nov.) 2 23 

AlbItanI 159 

Alphonsine Tables 2 10 

Kbpler,&c 2 3 46 

Lalande (3d edit.) 1 55 36J 



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ON THE EQUINOXES^ 413 

in part. But the Arabs improved on his astronomy by 
carefiil observations : a praise to which the Hindus are not 
equally entitled. AlbAtanI discovered the motion of 
the Sun's apogee^ and suspected from analogy a motion of 
the apsides of the minor planets.''^ The Hindus surmised 
the motion of the apogee of the Sun, and nodes and apsides 
of the planets, from analogy to the Moon's ;t but were 
unable to verify the conjecture by observation ; and have, 
in fact, merely assigned arbitrary numbers to the supposed 
revolutions, to bring out the places right, (or as nearly so 
as they had determined them,) relatively to the origin of 
the ecUptic at a vastly remote period. BhAscara, when 
treating of the manner of verifying or of finding the number 
of revolutions of the planets, &c. in a given period, teaches 
the mode of observing the planetary motions, but considers 
the life of man too short for observing the motion of the 
apsides and nodes (the Moon's excepted); and certainly the 
revolutions assigned to them by him and other Hindu 
astronomers are too few, and the motions too slow, (the 
quickest not exceeding seven degrees in 100,000 years) to 
have been assumed on any other ground but the arbitrary 
one just now stated. The astronomical instruments em- 
ployed by the Hindus, of which BhAscara describes nine, 
including one of his own invention, and comprehending the 
quadrant, semicircle and entire circle, besides the armillary 
sphere, horary ring, gnomon and clepsydra, J were too 
rudely executed, whatever may be thought of their 
design, to enable the astronomers to make very delicate 
observations ; and they were not assisted, as in the preces- 
sion of the equinoxes, by the memory of a former position 
recorded in their ancient writings. 

• MoNTUOLA, p. 349. t Bhascara in Fdsana hh&shya, 

\ Gblddhyaya^ ch. 9. 



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414 ^INDU ASTRONOMERS 



Note referred to prom Page 397. 

According to ARYABHAff a as quoted by Brahmboupta aod bu 

scboliastPatT'HOoAOA swiiif, 

One ^u^a contains Years 1,080,000 

One mahdjfuga = Aytigas 4,320,000 

One Menu puffa sc 72mahdysgas 311,040,000 

Onecalpa = U Menus = lOOS mahd yuffoSy 4,354,560,000 
f^T' 'I'be calpa began on Thursday Ist Ckaitra sucla, 

at the moment of sun- rise at Lanca, 

Years expired from the commencement of the calpa 

to the war of the Bhdrata, or beginning of the Cali age 1,986,120,000 
Add expired years of the CcUi to the ^a era 3,179 

Years from the beginning of the calpa to the com- ] 
mencement < 



om the beginning of the calpa to the com- > 

; of the ^^ era 3 1,986,123,179 



Years expired from the commencement of the present 
Mahd yugUy to the beginning of the Cali age, when there 
was a conjunction 3,240,000 

Revolutions of the earth round its own axis, in a qua- 
druple yuga or mahd yuga * 1 ,582,237,500 

Hence, deducting revolutions of the sun, 4,320,000 

Remain, nycthemera, or sdvana days, in a fMM yuga 1, 577*917,500 

itsf" Length of the sidereal year is 4. r > <> d. h. r n 
therefore, according to ABYAsaAff a, 365 15 31 15 or 365 6 12 30 

N. B. ARYABHA^fA taught the earth's diurnal revolution round its 
axis; a doctrine which BRAHMsauPTA controverts; but to which his 
scholiast pRYr'nifDACA swImI inclines* 

According to the Paulisa siddhdnta cited by BHAff6TPALA on 
VarIhamihiba's Sanhitdy and by PbIt'h^daoa swliif ob Bbah- 
meoupta's Siddhdnta, 

Cr^tayuga, 4,800 divine years = 1,728,000 
Tritd, 3,600 = 1,296,000 

Dwdpara, 2,400 = 864,000 

3,888,000 
Cali, 1,200 s 432,000 

Mahdyuga « 4,320,000 



This author's computation of the calpa has not been found 
in any quotation ; but he is cited as reckoning its commencement 
from midnight 



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ON THE EQUTNOXE&U 416 

Years expired from the commeiicemeDt of the present 
fnahd yuga tu the first conjunction of the planets, in the 
Cf^tayuga 648,000 

Interval between that and the last conjunction, at the 
beginning of the Ga/t yw^ 3,240,000 

Years expired to the commencement of the CkUi yuga 3,888,000 

Mean solar {saura) days, termed by other astronomers 
sdvana days, in one mah6t yuga 1,577,917,800 

^tSt" Length of the year, according d. %. i n d. h. i n 
to the PaultM siddMnta 365 15 31 30 or 365 6 12 36 

N. B. The difference of 300 days in the computations of Arya- 
BHAff A and PdliSa, gives one day in 14,400 years, as is remarked 
by Brahmboupta. 

Length of the year accord- d. f. x u m d. h. i n m iv 
ing to the Siirya siddhdnta .. 365 15 31 31 24=365 6 12 36 33 36 

According to Brahmr- 
ouPTA 365 15 30 22 30=365 6 12 9 

The computation of the yuga and calpay according to these autho- 
rities, is well known, and need not be exhibited in this place. They 
make it begin on Sunday ; the one at midnight, the other at sun-rise, 
on the meridian of Lancd; and the elapsed years to the beginning of 
the Cali age are, 1,972,944,000. To which Brahmegupta adds 
3,179 years to the l^a era. The SArya siddhdnta deducts 17,064,000 
years ; making the epoch of a supposed conjunction of planets by so 
many years later than the beginning of the caipa. 



Rbvolutions of the Planets. 

According to PuliSa According to Accordmg 

quoted by the to 

BflAffdrPALA, Sdryasiddhdnta, Brahmegupta, 

In a mahd yuga. In a mahd yuga. In a calpa. 

Sun 4,320,000 4,320,000 4,320,000,000 

Moon Tpe- 1 

riodical)/ •••• ^7,753,336 57,753,a36 57,753,300,000 

Mars 2,296,824 2,296,832 2,296,828,522 

Mercury 17,937,000 17,937,060 17,936,998,984 

Jupiter 364,220 364,220 364,226,455 

Venus 7,022,388 7,022,376 7,022,389,492 

Saturn 146,564 146,568 146,567,298 

Days • . . . 1,577,917,800 1,577,917,828 1,577,916,460,000 



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416 HINDU ASTRONOMERS ON THE EQUINOXES. 

1^^ AaTABUAffA states the revolutions of Jupiter at 364^24; 
and Varahamihira's rule for the cycle of sixty years of Jupiter is 
founded on that number. The periods assigned by these two authors 
to other planets have not been ascertained; except Saturn's aphelion, 
reckoned by ARYABHAff a at fifty-four revolutions in a calpa. Arta- 
BHAff a's numbers are said to have been derived from the Fdrdsara 
siddMnta, (As. Res., vol. ii. p. 242.) 



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XVI. 
Dissertation on the Algebra of the Hindus. 



[Prefixed to the Author's < Algebra, with Arithmetic and Menso- 
ration, from the Sanscrit of Brahmeoupta and BhXscara.* 
London, 1817. 4to.] 



The history of sciences, if it want the prepossessing 
attractions of political history and narration of events, is 
nevertheless not wholly devoid of interest and instruction. 
A laudable curiosity prompts to inquire the sources of 
knowledge ; and a review of its progress furnishes sugges- 
tions tending to promote the same or some kindred study. 
We would know the people and the names at least of the 
individuals, to whom we owe particular discoveries and suc- 
cessive steps in the advancement of knowledge. If no 
more be obtained by the research, still the inquiry has not 
been wasted, which points aright the gratitude of mankind. 

In the history of mathematical science, it has long been 
a question to whom the invention of Algebraic analysis is 
due ? among what people, in what region, was it devised ? 
by whom was it cultivated and promoted ? or by whose 
labours was it reduced to form and system ? and finally, 
from what quarter did the diffusion of its knowledge pro- 
ceed ? No doubt, indeed, is entertained of the source from 
which it was received immediately by modern Europe ; 
though the channel have been a matter of question. We 
are well assured, that the Arabs were mediately or imme- 
diately our instructors in this study. But the Arabs them- 

VOL. II. 2 E 



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418 DISSERTATION ON THE 

selves scarcely pretend to the discovery of Algebra. They 
were not in general inventors but scholars, during the short 
period of their successful culture of the sciences : and the 
germ at least of the Algebraic analysis is to be found 
among the Gi^eeks in an age not precisely determined, but 
more than probably anterior to the earhest dawn of civili- 
zation among the Arabs ; and this science in a more ad- 
vanced state subsisted among the Hindus prior to the ear- 
liest disclosure of it by the Arabians to modem Europe. 

The object of the present publication is to exhibit the 
science in the state in which the Hindus possessed it, by 
an exact version of the most approved treatise on it in the 
ancient language of India, with one of the earlier treatises 
(the only extant one) from which it was compiled. The 
design of this preliminary dissei*tation is to deduce from 
these and from the evidence which will be here offered, the 
degree of advancement to which the science had arrived in 
a remote age. Observations will be added, tending to a 
comparison of the Indian with the Arabian, the Grecian, 
and the modern Algebra : and the subject will be left to 
the consideration of the learned, for a conclusion to be 
dravm by them from the internal, no less than the external 
proof, on the question who can best vindicate a claim to 
the merit of having originally invented or first improved 
the methods of computation and analysis, which are the 
groundwork of both the simple and abstruser parts of 
Mathematics ; that is. Arithmetic and Algebra : so far, at 
least, as the ancient inventions are affected; and also in 
particular points, where recent discoveries are concerned. 

In the actual advanced condition of the analytic art, it is 
not hoped, that this version of ancient Sanscrit treatises on 
Algebra, Arithmetic, and Mensuration, will add to the 
resources of the art, and throw new light on mathematical 
science, in any other respect, than as concerns its history. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 419 

Yet the remark may not seem inapposite, . that had an 
earlier version of these treatises been completed, had they 
been translated and given to the public when the notice of 
mathematicians was first drawn to the attainments of the 
Hindus in astronomy and in sciences connected with it, 
some addition would have been then made to the means 
and resources of Algebra for the general solution of pro- 
blems by methods which have been re-invented, or have 
been perfected, in the last age. 

The treatises in question, which occupy the present 
volume, are the Vija ganita and Lilavati of BhAscara 
achArya, and the Ganitadhyaya and CvHacadkyaya of 
Brahmegufta. The two first mentioned constitute the 
preliminary portion of BhAscara's Course of Astronomy, 
entitled Siddhanta sir6mani. The two last are the twelfth 
and eighteenth chapters of a similar course of astronomy, 
by Brahmegufta, entitled Brahma siddhanta. 

The questions to be first examined in relation to these 
works are their authenticity and their age. To the con-* 
sideration of those points we now proceed. 

The period when BhAscara, the latest of the authors 
now named, flourished, and the time when he wrote, are 
ascertained with unusual precision. He completed his 
great work, the Siddhanta sirSmaAi, as he himself in- 
forms us in a passage of it,* in the year 1072 Saca. This 
information receives corroboration, if any be wanted, fit)m 
the date of another of his works, the Carana cutiihala, a 
practical astronomical treatise, the epoch of which is 1 105 
Saca;'\' thirty-three years subsequent to the completion of 
the systematic treatise. The date of the Siddhanta 
sirdmani, of which the Vija gaiiita and Lilavati are parts, 

• Gblddhy6yay or lecture on the sphere, c. 11. § 56. As. Res., 
vol. ill. p. 214 [p. 379 of the present volame.] 
t As. Res., ibid, 

2 E 2 



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420 DISSERTATION ON THE 

is fixed, then, with the utmost exactness, on the most satis- 
factory groimds, at the middle of the twelfth century of the 
Christian era, A.D. 1150.* 

The genuineness of the text is established with no less 
certainty by numerous commentators in Sanscrit, besides 
a Persian version of it. Those commentaries comprise a 
perpetual gloss, in which every passage of the original is 
noticed and interpreted : and every word of it is repeated 
and explained. A comparison of them authenticates the 
text where they agree ; and would serve, where they did 
not, to detect any alterations of it that might have taken 
place, or variations, if any had crept in, subsequent to the 
composition of the earUest of them. A careful collation of 
several commentaries,t and of three copies of the original 
work, has been made ; and it will be seen in the notes to 
the translation how unimportant are the discrepancies. 

From comparison and collation, it appears then that 
the work of BhAscara, exhibiting the same uniform text 
which the modem transcripts of it do, was in the hands of 
both Muhammedans and Hindus, between two and three 
centuries ago : and, numerous copies of it having been dif- 
fused throughout India, at an earlier period, as of a per- 
formance held in high estimation, it was the subject of 
study and habitual reference in countiies and places so 
remote from each other as the north and west of India and 
the southern peninsula ; or, to speak with the utmost pre- 
cision, Jambusara in the west, Agra in North Hindustan, 
and Partkapura, Gdlagrama, Amaravati, and Nandir 
grama, in the south. 

• Though the matter he introductory, the preliminary treatises on 
arithmetic and algehra may have heen added subsequently, as is 
hinted by one of the commentators of the astronomical part {F6rtic). 
The order there intimated places them after the computation of 
planets, but before the treatise on spherics ; which contains the date. 

t Note A. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 421 

Thisy though not marking any extraordinary antiquity, 
nor approaching to that of the author himself, was a mate- 
rial point to be determined : as there will be in the sequel 
occasion to show, that modes of analysis, and, in particular, 
general methods for the solution of indeterminate problems 
both of the first and second degrees, are taught in the 
Vija ganita, and those for the first degree repeated in the 
Lilavatiy which were unknown to the mathematicians of 
the west, until invented anew in the last two centuries by 
algebraists of France and England. It will be also shown, 
that BhAscara, who himself flourished more than six hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, was in this respect a compiler, 
and took those methods firom Indian authors as much more 
ancient than himself. 

That BuAscara's text (meaning the metrical rules and 
examples, apart from the interspersed gloss) had con- 
tinued unaltered firom the period of the compilation of his 
work until the age of the commentaries now current, is 
apparent from the care with which they have noticed its 
various readings, and the little actual importance of these 
variatioas ; joined to the consideration, that earUer com- 
mentaries, including the author's own explanatory anno- 
tations of his text, were extant, and lay before them for 
consultation and reference. Those earlier commentaries are 
occasionally cited by name : particularly the GaMta cau- 
mttdi^ which is repeatedly quoted by more than one of the 
scholiasts.* 

No doubt then can be reasonably entertained, that we 
now possess the arithmetic and algebra of BhAscara, as 
composed and published by him in the middle of the 
twelfth century of the Christian era. The age of his pre- 
cursors cannot be determined with equal precision. Let 

* For example, by S(jbyadasa, under LildvatHy § 74; and still 
more frequently by Rang an at 'ha. 



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422 DISSERTATION ON THE 

US proceed, however, to examine the evidence, such as we 
can at present collect, of their antiquity. 

Towards the close of his treatise on Algebra,* BbAs- 
CAR A informs us, that it is compiled and abridged from the 
more diffuse works on the same subject, bearing the names 
of Brahme, (meaning no doubt Brahmegupta,) SrI- 
BHARA and PadmanAbha ; and in the body of his trea- 
tise, he has cited a passage of SrIdhara's algebra,t and 
another of Padmanabha's.J He repeatedly adverts to 
preceding writers, and refers to them in general terms, 
where his commentators understand him to allude to Ar- 
YABHAff A, to Brahmegupta, to the latter's schoUast 
ChaturvIida Prit'h6daca swAMi,§ and to the other 
writers above mentioned. 

Most, if not all, of the treatises, to which he thus alludes, 
must have been extant, and in the hands of his commen- 
tators, when they wrote ; as appears from their quotaticms 
of them; more especially those of Brahmegupta and 
ARYABHAff A, who are cited, and particularly the first 
mentioned, in several instances. || A long and diligent re^ 
search in various parts of India, has, however, failed of 
recovering any part of the Padmanabha vija (or Algebra of 
Padmanabha), and of the algebraic and other works of 
ARYABHAff A.IT But the translator has been more for- 
tunate in regard to the works of SrIdhara and Brah- 
megupta, having in his collection SrIdhara's compen- 
dium of arithmetic, and a copy, incomplete however, of the 
text and scholia of Brahmegupta's Brahma siddhanta, 
comprising among other no less interesting matter, a chap- 
ter treating of arithmetic and mensuration ; and another, 

• Vijaga^ta, § 218. t Ibid, § 131. J Ibid. § 142. 

§ Vtjaga^,, ch. 6, note of S(jryadasa. Also rifaga^.^ § 174; and 
LiLy § 246, adfinem. 
II For example, under LiL ch. 11, f Note G. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 423 

the subject of which is algebra : both of them fortunately 
complete.* 

The commentary is a perpetual one ; successively quot- 
ing at length each verse of the text ; proceeding to the 
interpretation of it, word by word ; and subjoining eluci- 
dations and remarks: and its. colophon, at the close of 
each chapter, gives the title of the work and the name of 
the author. + Now the name, which is there given, Cha- 
TURv^DA Pbit'h6daca swAmI, is that of a celebrated 
scholiast of Brahmegupta, frequently cited as such by 
the commentaries of BhAscara and by other astronomical 
writers : and the title of the work, Brahma siddhdnta, or 
sometimes Brahma sp^huia siddhanta, corresponds, in the 
shorter form, to the known title of Brahmegupta^s trea- 
tise in the usual references to it by BhAscara's commen- 
tators;! and answers, in the longer form, to the desig- 
natioti of it, as indicated in an introductory couplet which 
is quoted firom Brahmegupta by LacshmIdAsa, a scho- 
liast of BhAscara. § 

Remarking this coincidence, the translator proceeded to 
collate, with the text and commentary, numerous quota- ' 
tions from both, which he found in BhAscara's wiitmgs, 
or in those of his expositors. The result confirmed the^ 
indication, and established the identity of both text and 
scholia as Brahmegupta's treatise, and the gloss of 
Prit'h6daca. The authenticity of this Brahma sid" 
dh&nta is further confirmed by numerous quotations in the 
commentary of BnAff 6tpala on the sanhita of VarAha- 

• Note B. 

t Vdscmd bhdshya by Chaturv^da PBiT'ntjDACA swamI, son of 
MadhusCoana, on ilke Brahma aiddhdnta ; (or sometimes Br^mo- 
sip\ini'^8iddh6nta.) 

X They often quote from the Brdhma siddhdnta after premising a 
reference to Brahmegupta. ' 

§ Note C. . . 



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424 DISSERTATION ON THE 

MiHiRA : as the quotations from the Brahma siddhanta 
in that commentary, (which is the work of an author who 
flourished eight hundred and fifty years ago,) are veri- 
fied in the copy under consideration. A few instances of 
both will suffice, and cannot fail to produce conviction.* 

It is confidently concluded, that the chapters on aritJi- 
metic and algebra, fortunately entire in a copy, in many 
parts imperfect, of Brahmegupta's celebrated work, as 
here described, are genuine and authentic. It remains to 
investigate the age of the author. 

Mr. Davis, who first opened to the pubUc a correct 
view of the astrcMiomical computations of the Hindus,f is 
of opinion, that Brahmegupta lived in the seventh cen- 
tury of the Christian era.;}: Dr. William Hunter, who 
resided for some time with a British embassy at Ujjayam, 
and made diligent researches into the remains of Indian 
science at that ancient seat of Hindu astronomical know^ 
ledge, was there furnished, by the learned astronomers 
whom he consulted, with the ages of the principal ancient 
authorities. They assigned to Brahmegupta the date of 
650 Saca; which answers to A.D. 628. The grounds on 
which they proceeded are unfortunately not specified : but, 
as they gave BhA.scara's age correctly, as well as several 
other dates right, which admit of being verified ; it is pre- 
sumed that they had grounds, though unexplained, for the 
information which they communicated. ^ 

Mr. Bentley, who is Uttle disposed to favour the anti- 
quity of an Indian astronomer, has given his reasons for 
considering the astronomical system which Brahme- 
gupta teaches, to be between twelve and thirteen hundred 
years old (12631 years in A.D. 1799). || Now, as the 
system taught by this author is professedly one corrected 

• Note D. t As. Res., vol. ii. p. 225. t As. Res., vol. ix. p. 242. 
§ Note E. II As. Resi, vol. vi. p. 586. 



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i 



ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 425 

and adapted by him to conform with the observed positions 
of the celestial objects when he wrote,* the age, when 
their positions would be conformable with the results of 
computations made as by him directed, is precisely the 
age of the author himself: and so far as Mr. Bentley's 
calculations may be considered to approximate to the truth, 
the date of Brahmegupta's performance is determined 
with like approach to exactness, within a certain latitude 
however of uncertainty for allowance to be made on account 
of the inaccuracy of Hindu observations. 

The translator has assigned on former occauons*)- the 
grounds upon which he sees reason to place the author's 
age, soon after the period when the vernal equinox coin- 
cided with the beginning of the lunar mansion and zodiacal 
asterism Asmni^ where the Hindu ecliptic now commences. 
He is supported in it by the sentiments of BhAscara and 
other Indian astronomers, who infer from Brahmegupta's 
doctrine concerning the solstitial points, of which he does 
not admit a periodical motion, that he lived when the 
equinoxes did not, sensibly to him, deviate from the begin- 
ning o(Aswini and middle of Chitra on the Hindu sphere.;}: 
On these grounds it is maintained, that Brahmegupta 
is rightly placed in the sixth or beginning of the seventh 
century of the Christian era ; as the subjoined calculations 
will more particularly show.^ The age when Brahme- 
gupta flourished, seems then, from the concurrence of all 
these arguments, to be satisfactorily settled as antecedent 
to the earliest dawn of the culture of sciences among the 
Arabs; and consequently establishes the fact, that the 
Hindus were in possession of algebra before it was known 
to the Arabians. 

• Supra. t As. Res., vol. ix. p. 329. [p. 327 of the present vol.] 
t As. Res., vol, xii. p. 215. [p. 380. of the present vol.] § Note F. 



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426 DISSERTATION ON THE 

Brahmegupta'^ treatise, however^ is Dot the earliest 
work known to have been written on the same subject by 
an Indian author. The most eminent scholiast of BhAs- 
CARA"*^ quotes a passage of ARYABHAff a spedfyiog 
algebra under the designation of Vija, and making sepa- 
rate mention of Cuiiaca^ which more particularly intends a 
problem subservient to the general method of resolution of 
indeterminate problems of the first degree : he is tmder- 
stood by another of BhAscara's commentators f to be at 
the head of the elder writers, to whom the text then under 
consideration adverts, as having designated by the name 
of MadhyamaharqLna the resolution of affected quadratic 
equations by means of the completion of the square. It 
is to be presumed, therefore, that the treatise of ARYA- 
BHAff a then extant, did extend to quadratic equations 
in the determinate analysis, and to indeterminate problems 
of the first degree ; if not to those of the second likewise, 
as most probably it did. 

This ancient astronomer and algebraist was anterior to 
both VarAhamihira and Brahmegtjpta, being re- 
peatedly named by the latter ; and the determination of 
llie age when he flourished is particularly interesting, as 
his astronomical system, though on some points agreeing, 
essentially disagreed on others, vrith that which those 
authors have followed, and which the Hindu astronomers 
still maintain, j: 

He is considered by the commentators of the Skrya 
siddhanta and SirSmani,^ as the earliest of iminspired 
and mere human writers on the science of astronomy ; as 
kaving introduced requisite corrections into the system of 

^ Gx^i^A, a distinguished mathematician and astronomer, 
t StjR. on nja gad. § 128. J Note G. 

4 NrIsinha on Sdr, GkiiikA pref. XoOrdh. lagh. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 427 

ParAsara, from whom he took the numbers for the 
planetary mean motions; as having been followed in the 
tract of emendation^ after a sufficient interval to make 
further correction requisite, by DuRGASiNH a and Mihira; 
who were again succeeded after a fiirther interval by Brah- 

MEGUPTA son of JlSHNU.* 

In shorty Ary ABHAff a was founder of one of the sects 
of Indian astronomers, as PuLf§A, an author likewise an- 
terior to both Varahamihira and Brahmegupta, was 
of another: which were distinguished by names derived 
from the discriminative tenets respecting the commencement 
of planetary motions at sun-rise according to the first, but 
at midnight according to the latter, f on the meridian of 
Lancdj at the beginning of the great astronomical cycle. 
A third sect began the astronomical day, as well as the 
great period, at noon. 

His name accompanied the intimation which the Arab 
astronomers (under the Abbasside Khalifs, as it would 
appear,) received, that three distinct astronomical systems 
were current among the Hindus of those days : and it is 
but slightly corrupted, certainly not at all disguised, in the 
Arabic representation of it Arjabahary or rather Arjdbhar. % 
The two other systems were, first, Brahmegupta's 

• A8. Res., vol. ii. p. 235, 242, and 244; and Note H. 

t Brahmeoupta, ch. 11. The names are Audai/aca from Udatfa 
rising; and Ardhardirica from Ardhardtri, midnight. The third 
school is noticed by BHAff6TPALA the scholiast of Varahamihira, 
under the denomination of Mddhyandinas, as alleging the commence- 
ment of the astronomical period at noon : {horn Madhyandina^ mid- 
day.) 

X The San$cr^t t, it is to be remembered, is the character of a 
peculiar sound often mistaken for r, and which the A rabs were likely 
so to write, rather than with a te or with a tau. The Hindi t is 
generally written by the English in India with an r. Example: Ber 
{v&ta)f the Indian fig, vulg. Banian tree. 



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428 DISSERTATION ON THE 

Siddhanta, which was the one they became best ac- 
quainted withy and to which they apply the denomination 
of Hie sind-hind; and second, that of Area the sun, which 
they write Arcand, a corruption still prevalent in the vulgar 
Hindi* 

ARYABHAff A appears to have had more correct notions 
of the true explanation of celestial phenomena than Brah- 
MEGUPTA himself; who, in a few instances, correcting 
errors of his predecessor, but oftener deviating from that 
predecessor's juster views, has been followed by the herd 
of modem Hindu astronomera, in a system not improved, 
but deteriorated, since the time of the more ancient au- 
thor. 

Considering the proficiency of ARYABHAff a in astro- 
nomical science, and adverting to the fact of his having 
written upon Algebra, as well as to the circumstance of 
his being named by numerous vmters as the founder of a 
sect, or author of a system in astronomy, and being quoted 
at the head of algebraists, when the commentators of extant 
treatises have occasion to mention early and originalf writers 
on this branch of science, it is not necessary to seek fur- 
ther for a mathematician qualified to have been the great 
improver of the analytic art, and likely to have been the 
person by M^hom it was carried to the pitch to which it is 
found to have attamed among the Hindus, and at which it 
is observed to be nearly stationary through the long lapse 
of ages which have since passed : the later additions being 
few and unessential in the writings of Brahmegopta, of 
BhAscara, and of JnyAna rAja, though they Uved at 
intervals of centuries from each other. 

ARYABHAff A then being the earliest author known to 

• See notes I, K, and X. 

t S6rya dIsa on Vijagahita^ ch. 5. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 429 

have treated of Algebra among the Hindus, and being 
likely to be, if not the inventor, the improver of that 
analysis, by whom too it was pushed nearly to the whole 
degree of excellence which it is found to have attained 
among them ; it becomes in an especial manner interesting 
to investigate any discoverable trace in the absence of better 
and more direct evidence, which may tend to fix the date 
of his labours, or to indicate the time which elapsed be- 
tween him and Brahmegupta, whose age is more accu- 
rately determined.* 

Taking ARYABHAff a, for reasons given in the notes, 
to have preceded Brahmegupta and VarAhamihira 
by several centuries; and Brahmegupta to have flou- 
rished about twelve hundred years ago;t and VarAha- 
MiHiRA, concerning whose works and age some further 
notices will be found in a subjoined note,J to have lived at 
the beginning of the sixth century after Christ,^ it appears 
probable that this earliest of known Hindu algebraists 
wrote as far back as the fifth century of the Christian era ; 
and, perhaps, in an earlier age. Hence it is concluded 
that he is nearly as ancient as the Grecian algebraist 
DioPHANTUs, supposed, on the authority of Abulfaraj,|| 
to have flourished in the time of the Emperor Julian, or 
about A.D. 360. 

Admitting the Hindu and Alexandrian authors to be 
nearly equally ancient, it must be conceded in favour of 
the Indian algebraist, that he was more advanced in the 
science ; since he appears to have been in possession of the 
resolution of equations involving several unknown, which 
it is not clear, nor fairly presumable, that Diophantus 

• Note I. t See before and note F. 

{ Note K. § See before and note £. 

II Pococke's edition and translation, p. 89. 



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430 DISSERtATION ON THE 

koew ; and a general method for indeterminate problems of 
at least the first degree, to a knowledge of which the 
Grecian algebraist had certainly not attained ; though he 
displays infinite sagacity and ingenuity in particular solu- 
tions ; and though a certain routine is discernible in them. 

A comparison of the Grecian, Hindu, and Arabian alge- 
bras, will more distinctly show, which of them had made 
the greatest progress at the earliest age of each, that can 
be now traced. 

The notation or algorithm of Algebra is so essential to 
this art, as to deserve the first notice in a review of the 
Indian method of analysis, and a comparison of it with the 
Grecian and Ambian algebras. The Hindu algebraists use 
abbreviations and initials for symbols: they distinguish 
negative quantities by a dot,* but have not any mark, 
besides the absence of the negative sign, to discriminate 
a positive quantity. No marks or symbols indicating 
operations of addition, or multiplication, &c. are employed 
by them : nor any announcing equality f or relative magni- 
tude (greater or less)4 But a factum is denoted by the 
initial syllable of a word of that import,^ subjoined to the 
terms which compose it, between which a dot is sometimes 
interposed. A fraction is indicated by placing the divisor 
under the dividend,|| but without a line of separation. 
The two sides of an equation are ordered in the same 
manner, one under the other :5[ and this method of placing 



• Fija gah. § 4. 

t The sign of equality was first used by Robert Records, because, 
as he says, no two things can be more equal than a pair of parallels, 
or gemowe lines of one length. Hutton. 

t The signs of relative magnitude were first introduced into Euro- 
pean algebra by Harriot. 

J Vijaga^.h2\, \\ ZJ/. § 33. 

IF Vija gah, and Braum. 18, passim. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 431 

terms under each other being likewise practised upon other 
occasions,* the intent is in the instance to be collected 
firom the recital of the steps of the process in words at 
lengthy which always accompanies the algebraic process. 
That recital is also requisite to ascertain the precise intent 
of vertical lines interposed between the terms of a geometric 
progression, but used also upon other occasions, to separate 
and discriminate quantities. The symbols of unknown 
quantity are not confined to a single one : but extend to 
ever so great a variety of denominations : and the charac- 
ters used are initial syllables of the names of colours,t 
excepting the first, which is the initial of yavat-tavat, * as 
much as'; words of the same import with Bombelli's 
tanto^ used by him for the same purpose. Colour there* 
fore means unknown quantity, or the symbol of it : and 
the same Sanscrit vford, variia, also signifying a Utera) 
character, letters are accordingly employed likewise as 
symbols; either taken from the alphabet ;j: or else iilitial 
syllables of words signifying the subjects of the problem ; 
whether of a general nature,^ or specially the names of 
geometric lines in algebraic demonstrations of geometric 
propositions or solution of geometric problems.|| Symbols 
too are employed, not only for unknown quantities, of 
which the value is^ sought ; but for variable quantities of 
which the value may be arbitrarily put iVij, Ch. 6, note 
on commencement of § 163 — 166), and especially in de- 
monstrations, for both given and sought quantities. Ini- 
tials of the terms for square and solid respectively denote 
those powers; and combined they indicate the higher. 
These are reckoned not by the sums of the. powers, but 
by their products. An initial^ syllable is in like manner 

• rifa ffait. § 55. f r^a gak. § 17. Bbahm. c. 18. § 2. 

t V^agah. ch. 6. § Vija gah, § 111. || Vija gnU. § 146. 
5f Zi/. §26. 



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432 DISSERTATION ON THE 

used to mark a surd root* The terms of a compound 
quantity are ordered according to the powers; and the 
absolute number invariably comes last. It also is distin- 
guished by an initial syllable, as a discriminative token of 
known quantity.f Numeral coefficients are employed, in- 
clusive of unity which is always noted, and comprehending 
fractions ;| for the numeral divisor is generally so placed, 
rather than under the symbol of the unknown : and in 
like manner the niegative dot is set over the numeral coeffi- 
cient : and not over the literal character. The coefficients 
are placed after the symbol of the unknown quantity.§ 
Equations are not ordered so as to put all the quantities 
positive; nor to give precedence to a positive term in a 
compound quantity: for the negative terms are retained, 
and even preferably put in the first place. In stating the 
two sides of an equation, the general, though not inva- 
riable, practice is, at least in the first instance, to repeat 
every term, which occurs in the one side, on the other: 
annexing nought for the coefficient, if a term of that parti- 
cular denomination be there wanting. 

If reference be made to the writings of Diophantus, 
and of the Arabian algebraists, and their early disciples 
in Europe, it will be found, that the notation, which has 
been here described, is essentially difierent fit>m all theirs, 
much as they vary. Diophantus employs the inverted 
medial of ix^t^iq, defect or want (opposed to iira^^tq, sub- 
stance or abundance II) to indicate a negative quantity. He 
prefixes that mark ^ to the quantity in question. He calls 
the unknown, api6fA6( ; representing it by the final $, which 

• Vijaffa^.k 29. t P'ijagaii.hn. 

% Stbvinus in like manner included fractions in coefficients. 

§ ViBTA did 80 likewise. 

II A word of nearly the same import with the Sanscrit dhana, used 
by Hindu algebraists for the same signification. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 433 

he doubles for the plural ; while the Arabian algebraists 
apply the equivalent word for number to the constant 
or known term ; and the Hindus, on the other hand, 
refer the word for numerical character to the coefficient. 
He denotes the monad, or imit absolute, by m*; and the 
linear quantity is called by him arithmos; and designated, 
Uke the unknown, by the final sigma. He marks the 
further powers by initials of words signifying them : 3^, *", 
JJ", Sk", lof", 8cc. for dynamisy power (meaning the square) ; 
cubosj cube; dynamo^dynamis, biquadrate, &c. But he 
reckons the higher by the sums, not the products, of the 
lower. Thus the sixth power is with him the cubo^cubos, 
which the Hindus designate as the quadrate-cube, (cube of 
the square, or square of the cube). 

The Arabian algebraists are still more sparing of sym- 
bols, or rather entirely destitute of them.f They have 
none, whether arbitrary or abbreviated, either for quantities 
known or unknown, positive or negative, or for the steps 
and operations of an algebraic process ; but express every 
thing by words, and phrases, at full length. Their Euro- 
pean scholars introduced a few, and very few abbreviations 
of names : c®, c*, c", for the three first powers ; c^, q*, for 
the first and second unknown quantities ,- p, m, for plus 
and minus ; and R for the note of radicality ; occur in the 
first printed work, which is that of Paciolo. J Leonardo 
BoNACci of Pisa the earliest scholar of the Arabians, § 
is said by Targioni Tozzbtti to have used the small 
letters of the alphabet to denote quantities. || But Leo- 



• Def. 9. t As. Res., vol. xii. p. 183. 

t Or Paoioli, Paciuolo, — li, &c. For the name is variously 
nrritten by Italian authors. 
§ See note L. 

II Viofffft, 2d Edit., vol. ii. p. 62. 
VOL. II. 2 F 



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434 DISSERTATION ON THE 

NARDO only does so because he represents quantities by 
straight lines, and designates those lines by letters, in 
elucidation of his algebraic solutions of problems.* 

The Arabians termed the unknown (and they wrought 
but on one) shai thing. It is translated by Leonardo of 
Pisa and his disciples, by the correspondent Latin word 
res and Italian cosa ; whence Regola de la Corny and Rule 
of Cossy with Cossike practice and Cossike number of our 
older authors,t for Algebra or Speculative practice, as 
Paciolo I denominates the analytic art ; and Cassic 
number, in writers of a somewhat later date, for the root 
of an equation. 

The Arabs termed the square of the unknown mal, pos- 
session or wealth ; translated by the Latin census and 
Italian censo; as terms of the same import : for it is in the 
acceptation of amount of property or estate^ that census 
was here used by Leonardo. 

The cube was by the Arabs tenned caby a die or cube ; 
and they combined these terms mal and c&b for compound 
names of the more eleyated powers, in the manner of 
DioPHANTUs, by the sums of the powers; and not like 
the Hindus by their products. Such, indeed, is their method 
in the modem elementary works : but it is not clear that 
the same mode was observed by their earlier writers ,• for 
their Italian scholars denominated the biquadrate and 
higher powers Relato primo, secundo, tertio, &c. 

Positive they cidl zaid additional; and negative nakis 
deficient: and, as before observed, they have no discrimi 
native marks for either of them. 

• C0S8AM, Origine dell'Algebra, i. 

t Robert Reoordb's Whetstone of Witte. 

X Secondo noi detta Pratica Speculativa. Summa 8. 1. 

§ CcTtsitSj quicquid fortunarum quis habet. Stbph. TTies. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 435 

The operation of restoring negative quantities, if any 
there be, to the positive form, which is an essential step 
with thero, is termed jebr, or with the article Aljebr, the 
mending or restoration. That of comparing the terms and 
taking like from like, which is the next material step in 
the process of resolution, is called by them mukdbalahy 
comparison. Hence the name of Tarik aljebr tea almukd" 
balah, ' the method of restoration and comparison,' which 
obtained among the Arabs for this branch of the analytic 
art; and hence our name of Algebra, from Leonardo of 
Pisa's exact version of the Arabic title. Fi istikhraju'l 
majhiilat be tarik aljebr wa almukdbalah,* De solutione 
quarundam queestionum secundum modum Algebrce et 
Almuchabalai,'\ 

The two steps or operations which have thus given 
name to the method of analysis, are precisely what is 
enjoined without distinctive appellations of them, in the 
introduction of the arithmetics of Diophantus, where he 
directs, that, if the quantities be positive on both sides, 
like are to be taken from like, until one species be equal to 
one species ; but if on either side or on both any species 
be negative, the negative species must be added to both 
sides, so that they become positive on both sides of the 
equation : after which like are again to be taken from like, 
until one species remain on each side. % 

The Hindu algebra not requiring the terms of the equa- 
tion to be all exhibited in the form of positive quantity, 
does not direct the preliminary step of restoring negative 
quantity to the affirmative state, but proceeds at once to 
the operation of equal subtraction {sanuisSdhana) for the 
difference of like terms, which is the process denominated 

• Khuldsatu'l hisdb. c. 8. Calcutta, 1812. (8vo.) 
t Liber abb 9. 15. 3. M.S. in Magliab. Libr. Jef. 11. 

2f2 



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436 . DISSERTATION ON THE 

by the Arabian algebraists comparison (mukabalak). On 
that point, therefore, the Arabian algebra has more affinity 
to the Grecian than to the Indian analysis. 

As to the progress which the Hindus had made in the 
analytic art, it will be seen, that they possessed well the 
arithmetic of surd roots;* that they were aware of the 
infinite quotient resulting from the division of finite quan- 
tity by cipher ;+ that they knew the general resolution of 
equations of the second degree, and had touched upon 
those of higher denomination, resolving them in the sim- 
plest cases, and in those in which the solution happens to 
be practicable by the method which serves for quadratics: J 
that they had attained a general solution of indeterminate 
problems of the first degree ; § that they had arrived at a 
method for deriving a multitude of solutions of answers to 
problems of the second degree from a single answer found 
tentatively, II which is as near an approach to a general 
solution of such problems as was made until the days of 
Lagrange^ who first demonstrated, that the problem, on 
which the solutions of all questions of this nature depend, 
is always resolvable in whole numbers.lf The Hindus had 
likewise attempted problems of this higher order by the 
application of the method which suffices for those of the 
first degree;** with indeed very scanty success, as might 
be expected. 

They not only applied algebra both to astronomyft and 



• Brahm. 18. § 27—29. Flj,'gan. § 23—52. 

t LU, § 45. rij,'gafi. § 15-16 and § 135. 

X rij.-gan. § 129, and § 137—138. 

§ Brahm. 18. § 3—18. Vij.-gah. 53-73. LU. § 248—265. 

II Brahm. 18. § 29—49. Vij.-gah. § 75—99. 

If Mem. of Acad, of Turin : and of Berlin. 

•• Vij^-gaH. § 206—207. ft Brahm. 18. passim. Vy.-gan. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 437 

to geometry,* but conversely applied geometry likewise to 
the demonstration of algebraic rules, f In short, they 
cultivated algebra much more, and with greater success, 
than geometry ; as is evident fix)m the comparatively low 
state of their knowledge in the one,^ and the high pitch of 
their attainments in the other : and they cultivated it for 
the sake of astronomy, as they did this chiefly for astro- 
logical purposes. The examples in the earliest algebraic 
treatise extant (Brahmegupta's) are mostly astronomical: 
and here the solution of indeterminate problems is some- 
times of real and practical use. The instances in the later 
treatise of algebra by Bhascara are more various: many 
of them geometric ; but one astronomical ; the rest nume- 
ral : among which a great number of indeterminate ; and 
of these some, though not the greatest part, resembling the 
questions which chiefly engage the attention of Diophan- 
Tus. But the general character of the Diophantine pro- 
blems, and of the Hindu unlimited ones, is by no means 
alike : .and several in the style of Diophantine are noticed 
by BhAscara in his arithmetical, instead of his algebraic, 
treatise. § 

To pursue this summary comparison further, Diophan- 
Tus appears to have been acquainted with the direct reso- 
lution of aflected quadratic equations ; but less familiar 
with the management of them, he seldom touches on it. 
Chiefly busied with indeterminate problems of the first 
degree, he yet seems to have possessed no general rule for 
their solution. His elementary instructions for the prepa- 
ration of equations are succinct ; \\ his notation, as before 

• Flj.'^a^. § 117-127, § 146—152. f vy.-ffa^. § 212— 2J4. 

X Brahm. 12. § 21 ; corrected however in Lil. § 169 — I7O. 
§ Lii. § 59 — 61, where it appears, however, that preceding writers 
had treated the question alg:ebraicaliy. See likewise § 139—146. 
llDef. 11. 



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438 DISSERTATION ON THE 

observed, scanty and inconvenient. In the whole science 
he is very far behind the Hindu writers, notwithstanding 
the infinite ingenuity by which he makes up for the want 
of rule, and although presented to us under the disadvan- 
tage of mutilation ; if it be, indeed, certain that the text of 
only six, or at most seven, of thirteen books, which his 
introduction announces, has been preserved.* It is suffi- 
ciently clear fit>m what does remain, that the lost part 
could not have exhibited a much higher degree of attain- 
ment in the art. It is presumable, that so much as we 
possess of his work is a fair specimen of the progress 
which he and the Greeks before him (for he is hardly to be 
considered as the inventor, since he seems to treat the art 
as already known) had made in his time. 

The points m which the Hindu algebra appears parti- 
cularly distinguished fi*om the Greek, are, besides a better 
and more comprehensive algorithm, — 1st, The manage- 
ment of equations involving more than one unknown term. 
(This adds to the two classes noticed by the Arabs, namely, 
simple and compound, two, or rather three, other classes of 
equation.) 2d, The resolution of equations of a higher 
order, in which, if they achieved little, they had, at least, 
the merit of the attempt, and anticipated a modem dis- 
covery in the solution of biquadratics. 3d. General me- 
thods for the solutions of indeterminate problems of first 
and second degrees, in which they went far, indeed, be- 
yond DioPHANTUS, and anticipated discoveries of modern 
algebraists. 4th, Application of algebra to astronomical 
investigation and geometrical demonstration, in which also 
they hit upon some matters which have been reinvented in 
later times. 

This brings us to the examination of some of their anti- 



• Note M. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 439 

cipations of modern discoveries. The reader's notice will 
be here drawn to three instances in particular. 

The first is in the demonstration of the noted proposition 
of Pythagoras, concerning the square of the base of a 
rectangular triangle, equal to the squares of the two legs 
containing a right angle. The demonstration is given two 
ways in BhAscara's algebra {Vij.-gan. % 146). The first 
of them is the same which is delivered by Wallis in his 
treatise on angular sections (ch. vi.), and, as &r as appears, 
then given for the first time. * 

On the subject of demonstrations, it is to be remarked 
that the Hindu mathematicians proved propositions both 
algebraically and geometrically : as is particularly noticed 
by BhAscara himself, towards the close of his algebra, 
where he gives both modes of proof of a remarkable method 
for the solution of indeterminate problems, which involve a 
factum of two unknown quantities. The rule which he 
demonstrates is of great antiquity in Hindu algebra, being 
found in the works of his predecessor Brahmegupta, 
and being there a quotation from a more ancient treatise ; 
for it is injudiciously censured, and a less satis&ctory 
method by unrestricted arbitrary assumption given in its 
place. BhAscara has retained both. 

The next instance, which will be here noticed, is the ge- 
neral solution of indeterminate problems of the first degree. 

* He designates the sides C. D. Base B. Segments »> ^ Then 

»'^''^'5^«^d thereforei^^* 

Therefore C«-HD«=(B*-|-B >=:B into«-|->=) B*. 
The Indian demonstration^ with the same symbols, is 

"b 

Therefore B=«+J=C«+D« and B2=C«-hD«. 
B B 



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440 DISSERTATION ON THE 

It was first given among modems by Bachet oe Mezi- 
RiAc in 1624.* Having shown how the solution of equa- 
tions of the form ax — hy^c is reduced to ax- 6y=+l, he 
proceeds to resolve this equation ; and prescribes the same 
operation on a and b as to find the greatest common divi- 
sor. He names the residues c, d^ e, J\ 8cc. and the last 
remainder is necessarily unity : a and b being prime to each 
other. By retracing the steps from «ipi or /^l (accord- 
ing as the number of remainders is even or odd) 64^1=1, 
fd+l =3; fc+l=y, yb±l =/J, |5a+l=a 

e "5 ~ b 

or /±1=^, j^ =f, £d+l=J, &c. 

/ 
The last numbers and a will be the smallest values of 
X and y. It is observed, that if a and b be not prime to 
each other, the equation cannot subsist in whole numbers, 
unless c be divisible by the greatest common measure of 
a and b. 

Here we have precisely the method of the Hindu alge- 
braistSy who have not fiuled, likewise, to make the last 
cited observation. See Brahm. Algebra, section 1. and 
BhAsc. LiL ch. xii. Fy. ch. ii. It is so prominent in the 
Indian algebra as to give name to the oldest treatise on it 
extant, and to constitute a distinct head in the enumera- 
tion of the different branches of mathematical knowledge in 
a passage cited fi*om a still more ancient author. See LiL 
§248. 

Confining the comparison of Hindu and modem algebras 
to conspicuous instances, the next for notice is that of the 
solution of indeterminate problems of the second degree ; 
for which a general method is given by Brahmegupta, 



* Probl^mes plaisans ct d^lcctables qui se font par les nombres. 
2d Edit. (1624). LAaRANoe^s additions to Euler's Alg^cbra, ij. 382. 
(Edit. 1807.) 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 441 

besides rules for subordinate cases^ and two general 
methods (one of them the same with Brahmegupta's) 
besides special cases, subservient, however, to the universal 
solution of problems of this nature; and, to obtain whole 
numbers in all circumstances, a combination of the method 
for problems of the first degree with that for those of the 
second, employmg them alternately, or, as the Hindu alge- 
braist terms it, proceeding in a circle. 

BhAscara's second method (Fj/. § 80—81) for a so- 
lution of the problem on which all indeteiminate ones of 
this degree depend, is exactly the same which Lord 
Brouncker devised to answer a question proposed by 
way of challenge by Fermat in 1667. The thing required 
was a general rule for finding the innumerable square 
numbers, which multiplied by a proposed (non-quadrate) 
number, and then assuming an unit, will make a square. 
Lord Brouncker's mle, putting n for any given number, 
r for any square taken at pleasure, and d for difference 

2 4 7^/ 2rx^\ 

between n and r- (r CQ n) was -^ ( =-^ -r ) the square 

9/r 
required. In the Hindu rule, usmg the same symbols, -7 

CL 

is the squai'e root required.* But neither Brouncker, 
nor Wallis, who himself contrived another method, nor 
Fermat, by whom the question was proposed, but whose 
mode of solution was never made known by him, (probably 
because he had not found any thing better than Wallis 
and Brouncker discoveredf), norFRENiCLE, who treated 
the subject without, however, adding to what had been 
done by Wallis and Brouncker, J appear to have been 
aware of the importance of the problem and its universal 
use ; a discovery which, among the modems, was reserved 
for Euler in the middle of the last century. To him, 

• yij.-gah, § 80—81. f Wallis, Alg. c. 98. J Ibid. 



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442 DISSERTATION ON THE 

among the modems^ we owe the remark which the Hindus 
had made more than a thousand years before,'*' that the 
problem, was requisite to find all the possible solutions of 
equations of this sort. Lagrange takes credit for having 
further advanced the progress of this branch of the indeter- 
minate analysis, so lately as 1767 ;t and his complete solu- 
tion of equations of the second degree appeared no earlier 
than 1769. J 

It has been pretended, that traces of the art are to be 
discovered in the writings of the Grecian geometers, and 
particularly in the five first propositions of Euclid's thir- 
teenth book; whether, as Wallis conjectures, what we 
there have be the work ofTnRON or some other ancient 
scholiast, rather than of Euclid himself: § also examples 
of analytic investigation in Pappus ;|| and indications of a 
method somewhat of a like nature with algebra, or at least 
the effects of it, in the works of Archimedes and Apollo- 
Nius, though they are supposed to have very studiously 
concealed this their art of invention. 5[ 

This proceeds on the groimd of considering analysis and 
algebra as interchangeable terms ; and applying to algebra 
Euclid's or Theon's definition of analysis, 'a taking of 
that as granted, which is sought, and thence by conse- 
quences arriving at what is confessedly true.'** 

Undoubtedly they possessed a geometrical analysis; 
hints or traces of which exist in the writings of more than 

• Bhascara Vij. § 173, and § 207. See likewise Brahm. Alg. § 7. 
t M6m. de PAcad. de Berlin, vol. xxiv. 

X See French translation of Euler's Algebra, Additions, p. 286. 
And Lbobndrb Th^orie des Nombres 1. § 6. No. 36. 

§ Wallis, Algebra, c. 2. |1 Ibid, and Preface. 

IF Md, and Nunez Algebra 114. 

** Wallis, following Vieta's Version, Alg. c. 1. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 443 

one Greek mathematician, and especially in those of 
Archimedes. But this is very different from the alge- 
braic calculus. The resemblance extends, at most, to the 
method of inversion; which both Hindus and Arabians 
consider to be entirely distinct from their respective alge- 
bras; and which the former, therefore, join with their 
arithmetic and mensuration.* 

In a very general sense, the analytic art, as Hindu 
writers observe, is merely sagacity exercised, and is inde- 
pendent of symbols, which do not constitute the art In a 
more restricted sense, according to them, it is calculation 
attended with the manifestation of its principles ; and, as 
they further intimate, a method aided by devices, among 
which symbols and literal signs are conspicuous, f Defined, 
as analysis is by an illustrious modem mathematician,;}: ' a 
method of resolving mathematical problems by reducing 
them to equations,' it assuredly is not to be found in the 
works of any Grecian writer extant, besides Diophantus. 

In his treatise the rudiments of algebra are clearly con- 
tained. He delivers in a succinct manner the algorithm of 
a€Krmative and negative quantities; teaches to form an 
equation ; to transpose the negative terms ; and to bring out 
a final simple equation comprising a single term of each spe- 
cies known and imknown. 

Admitting, on the ground of the mention of a mathema- 
tician of his name, whose works were commented by Hy- 
PATiA about the beginning of the fifth century,^ and on 
the authority of the Arabic annals of an Armenian Chris- 
tian, || which make him contemporary with Julian, that 

• LU. 3. 1. § 47. Khuiasatu'l Hisdb, c. 5. 
t V^\'ffa^, § 110, 174,215, 224. 

X D'Albmbkrt. § SuiDAs, in voce Hypaiia, 

II Gregory Abulkaraj. Ex ijs etiam [nempe philosophis qui 
prope tempora Juliani florueruntj Diophantus, cujus liber, quern 



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444 DISSERTATION ON THE 

he lived towards the middle of the fourth century of the 
Christian era ; or, to speak with precision, about the year 
360 ;* the Greeks will appear to have possessed in the 
fourth century so much of algebra, as is to be effected by 
dexterous application of the resolution of equations of the 
first degree, and even the second, to limited problems; and 
to indeterminate also, without, however, having attained a 
general solution of problems of this latter class. 

The Arabs acquired algebra, extending to sim]de and 
compound (meaning quadratic) equations ; but it was con- 
fined, so far as appears, to limited problems of those de- 
grees ; and they possessed it so early as the close of the 
eighth century, or commencement of the ninth. Treatises 
were at that period written in the Arabic language on the 
algebraic analysis, by two distinguished mathematicians 
who flourished under the Abasside AlmAmun ; and the 
more ancient of the two, Muhammed ben Musa al 
Khuwarazmiy is recognized among the Arabians as the first 
who made algebra known to them. He is the same who 
abridged, for the gratification of AlmAm6n, an astrono- 
mical work taken from the Indian system in the preced- 
ing age, under Almans6r. He framed tables, likewise, 
grounded on those of the Hindus, which he professed to 
correct. And he studied and communicated to lus country- 
men the Indian compendious method of computation ; 
that is, their arithmetic, and, as is to be inferred, their ana- 
lytic calculus also.t 

The Hindus in the fifth century, perhaps earlier, j: were 
in possession of Algebra extending to the general solution 



Algehram vocant, Celebris est, in quern si iromiserit se lector, 
oceanum hoc in genere reperiet. — Pococke. 

* Julian was emperor from 360 to 363. See note M. 

t Note N. X See note T. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 445 

of both determinate and indeterminate problems of the 1st 
and 2d degrees : and subsequently advanced to the special 
solution of biquadratics wanting the second term ; and of 
cubics in very restricted and easy cases. 

Priority seems then decisive in favour of both Greeks 
and Hindus against any pretensions on the part of the 
Arabians, who in fact, however, prefer none, as inventors 
of algebra. They were avowed borrowers in science ; and, 
by their own unvaried acknowledgment, from the Hindus 
they learnt the science of numbers. That they also received 
the Hindu algebra, is much more probable, than jthat the 
same mathematician who studied the Indian arithmetic 
and taught it to his Arabian brethren, should have hit 
upon algebra unaided by any hint or suggestion of the 
Indian analysis. 

The Arabs became acquainted with the Indian astronomy 
and numerical science before they had any knowledge of the 
writings of the Grecian astronomers and mathematicians; and 
it was not until after more than one century, and nearly two, 
that they had the benefit of an interpretation ofDioPHANTus, 
whether version or paraphrase, executed by Muhammed 
AbulwafA al Buzjani; who added, in a separate form, 
demonstrations of the propositions contained in Diophan- 
Tus; and who was likewise author of commentaries on 
the algebraic treatises of the Khuwarezmite Muhammed 
BEN MusA, and of another algebraist of less note and 
later date, Abu Yahya, whose lecture she had personally 
attended.* Any inference to be drawn from their know- 
ledge and study of the Arithmetics of Diophantus, and 
their seeming adoption of his preparation of equations in 
their ovm algebra, or at least the close resemblance of 
both on this point, is of no avail against the direct evidence, 



• See note N. 



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446 DISSERTATION ON THE 

with which we are furnished by theniy of previous instruc- 
tion in algebra and the publication of a treatise on the art, 
by an author conversant with the Indian science of com- 
putation in all its branches. 

But the age of the earliest known Hindu writer on 
algebra not being with certainty carried to a period ante- 
rior, or even quite equal to that in which Diophantus is 
on probable grounds placed, the argument of priority, so 
far as investigation has yet proceeded, is in favour of 
Grecian invention. The Hindus, however, had certainly 
made distinguished progress in the science, so early as the 
century immediately follovring that in which the Grecian 
taught the rudiments of it. The Hindus had the benefit of 
a good arithmetical notation : the Greeks, the disadvantage 
of a bad one. Nearly allied as algebra is to arithmetic, 
the invention of the algebraic calculus was more easy and 
natural where arithmetic was best handled. No such 
marked identity of the Hindu and Diophantme systems is 
observed, as to demonstrate communication. They are 
su£Bciently distinct to justify the presumption, that both 
might be invented independently of each other. 

If, however, it be insisted, that a hint or suggestion, the 
seed of their knowledge, may have reached the Hindu 
mathematicians immediately from the Greeks of Alexandria, 
or mediately through those of Bactria, it must at the same 
time be confessed, that a slender germ grew and fructified 
rapidly, and soon attained an approved state of maturity in 
Indian soil. 

More will not be here contended for : since it is not im- 
possible, that the hint of the one analysis may have been 
actually received by the mathematicians of the other nation; 
nor unlikely, considering the arguments which may be 
brought for a probable communication on the subject of 
astrology; and adverting to the intimate connexion between 



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ALGEBRA OF 1 HE HINDUS. 447 

this and the pure mathematics, through the medium of 
astronomy. 

The Hindus had undoubtedly made some progrees at an 
early period in the astronomy cultivated by them for the 
regulation of time. Their calendar, both civil and religious^ 
W2LB governed chiefly, not exclusively, by the moon and 
sun : and the motions of these luminaries yvere carefully 
observed by them, and with such success, that their deter- 
mination of the moon's synodical revolution, which was 
what they were principally concerned with, is a much more 
correct one than the Greeks ever achieved.* They had a 
division of the ecliptic into twenty-seven and twenty-eight 
parts, suggested evidently by the moon's period in days, 
and seemingly their own : it was certainly borrowed by the 
Arabians.f Being led to the observation of the fixed stars^ 
they obtained a knowledge of the positions of the most 
remarkable ; and noticed, for religious purposes, and from 
superstitious notions, the heliacal rising, with other phoeno- 
mena of a few. The adoration of the sun, of the planets, 
and of the stars, in common with the worship of the ele- 
ments, held a principal place in their religious observances 
enjoined by the Vedas.'X ^°^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ consequently 
by piety to watch the heavenly bodies. They were parti- 
cularly conversant with the most splendid of the primary 
planets ; the period of Jupiter being introduced by them, 
in conjunction with those of the sun and moon, into the 
regulation of their calendar, sacred and civil, in the form of 
the celebrated cycle of sixty years, common to them and to 
the Chaldeans, and still retained by them. From that 
cycle they advanced by progressive stages, as the Chal- 
deans likewise did, to larger periods; at first by combining 

* As. Res., Tol. ii. and xii. 

t See p. 321, &c. of the present volume. J See vol. i. p. 106. 



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448 DISSERTATION ON THE 

that with a number specifically suggested by other, or 
more correctly determined, revolutions of the heavenly 
bodies ; and afterwards, by merely augmenting the places 
of figures for greater scope, (preferring this to the more 
exact method of combining periods of the planets by an 
algebraic process, which they likewise investigated*), 
until they arrived finally at the unwieldy cycles named 
Mahayugds and Calpas. But it was for the sake of 
astrology that they pushed their cultivation of astronomy, 
especially that of the minor planets, to the length alluded 
to. Now divination, by the relative position of the planets, 
seems to have been, in part at least, of a foreign growth, 
and comparatively recent introduction, among the Hindus. 
The belief in the influence of the planets and stars upon 
human affairs is with them, indeed, remotely ancient ; and 
was a natural consequence of their creed, which made 
the sun a divine being, and the planets gods. But the 
notion, that the tendency of that supposed influence, or 
the manner in which it will be exerted, may be foreseen 
by man, and the effect to be produced by it foretold, 
through a knowledge of the position of the planets at a 
particular moment, is no necessary result of that creed ; 
for it takes from beings believed divine, free-agency in other 
respects, as in their visible movements. 

Whatever may have been the period when the notion 
first obtained, that foreknowledge of events on earth might 
be gained by observations of planets and stars, and by 
astronomical computation, or wherever that fancy took its 
rise, certain it is, that the Hindus have received and wel- 
comed communications firom other nations on topics of 
astrology : and although they had astrological divinations 
of their own as early as the days of Parasara and 

• Bbahmkoupta, Algebra. 



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ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 449 

GARGAy centuries before the Christian era, there are yet 
grouikls to presume that communications subsequently 
passed to them on the like subject, either from the Greeks, 
or from the same common source (perhaps that of the 
Chaldeans) whence the Greeks derived the grosser super- 
stitions en^fted on their own genuine and ancient astro- 
logy, which was meteorolc^cal. 

This opinion is not now suggested for the first time. 
Former occasions have been taken of intimating the same 
sentiment on this point:"* and it has been strengthened by 
further consideration of the subject. As the question is 
closely connected with the topics of this dissertation, 
reasons for this opinion will be stated in the subjoined 
note.f 

Joining this indication to that of the division of the 
zodiac into twelve signs, represented by the same figures 
of animals, and named by words of the same import with 
the zodiacal signs of the Greeks; and taking into con- 
sideration the analogy, though not identity, of the Ptole- 
maic system, or rather that of Hipparchus, and the 
Indian one of excentric deferents and epicycles, which in 
both serve to account for the irregularities of the planets, 
or at least to compute them, no doubt can be entertained 
that the Hindus received hints from the astronomical 
schools of the Greeks. 

It must then be admitted to be at least possible, if not 
probable, in the absence of direct evidence and positive 
proof, that the imperfect algebra of the Greeks, which had 
advanced in their hands no further than the solution of 
equations, involving one unknown term, as it is taught by 
Diophantus, was made known to the Hindus by their 
Grecian instructors in improved astronomy. But, by the 

* See page 410, &c. of the present volume. t Note O. 

VOL. II. 2 G 



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450 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

ingenuity of the Hindu scholars^ the hint was rendered 
fruitful, and the algebraic method was soon ripened from 
that slender beginning to the advanced state of a well 
arranged science, as it was taught by ARYASHAff a, and 
as it is found in treatises compiled by Brahmegupta and 
BhAscara, of bodi which versions are here presented to 
the public. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Scholiasts of BhAscara. 

The oldest commentary of ascertained date which has 
come mto the translator's hands, and has been accordingly 
employed by him for the purpose of collation, as well as in 
the progress of translation, is one composed by GangA- 
dhara, son of G6BARDHANA, and grandson of DivA- 
CAR A, inhabitant of Jamhusara.* It appears from an 
example of an astronomical computation which it ex- 
hibits,t to have been written about the year 1342 Saca 
(A.D. 1420). Though confined to the LUavati, it ex- 
pounds and consequently authenticates a most material 
chapter of the Vija ganita, which recm*s nearly verbatim 
in both treatises ; but is so essential a part of the one, as 
to have given name to the algebraic analysis in the works 
of the early writers.^ His elder brother Vishnu pan- 

* A town situated in Gujrat (CrUfyara), twenty-eight miles north of 
the town of Broach. 

t Cutiacddh^dya, thetitle of BBAHMEOUPTA'schapter on algebra, 
and of a chapter in Ar vABHAff a's work. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 461 

61TA was author of a treatise of arithmetic, &c. named 
Gamta sara, a title borrowed from the compendium of 
SrIdhara. It is frequently quoted by him. 

The next commentary in age^ and consequent importance 
for the objects now under consideration, is that of S6rya 
suRi, also named S^jryadasa, native of Part' hapura, near 
the confluence of the G6da and Vtdarbha rivers.* He was 
author of a complete commentary on the Siddhanta sirS- 
mani; and of a distinct work on calculation, under the title 
of Ganita malati ; and of a compilation of astronominal and 
astrological doctrines, Hindu and Muhammedan, under the 
name of Siddhanta sanhita sara samuchchayaj in which 
he makes mention of his commentary on the Sirdmani. 
The gloss on the Lilavatif entitled Ganitamrita, and that 
on the Vija ganita^ named Siirya pracasa, both excellent 
works, containing a clear interpretation of the text, vrith a 
concise explanation of the principles of the rules, are dated 
the one in 1460, the other in 1463 &zca ; or A. D. 1638 and 
1641. His father JnyAnarAja, son of NAganAt'ha, a 
Brahmen and astronomer, was author, among other works, 
of an astronomical course, under the title of Siddhanta- 
sundara, still extant,t which, like the Siddhanta sirS- 
mani, comprises a treatise on algebra. It is repeatedly 
cited by his son. 

Gan£§a, son of C^Sava, a distinguished astronomer, 
native otNandi grama, near Devagiri, (better known by 
the Muhammedan name of Dauletabad),% was author of a 
commentary on the Siddhanta sirSmani, which is men- 
tioned by his nephew and scholiast NrYsinha, in an 

• Gbddvari nnd fTerdd. 

t The astronomical part is in the library of the East- India Com- 
pany. 

I Nandigrdm retains its ancient name, and is situated west of 
Daulet6bddf about sixty-five miles. 

2 G 2 



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452 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

enumeration of his works, contained in a passage quoted by 
ViswanAt'ha on the Chrahalaghava. His commentary 
on the Lilavati bears the title of Buddhivilasini, and date 
of 1467 Saca, or A.D. 1646. It comprises a copious 
exposition of the text, with demonstrations of the rules ; 
and has been used throughout the translation as the best 
interpreter of it. He, and his father CfesAVA, and nephew 
NrYsinha, as well as his cousin LacshmIdAsa, were 
authors of numerous works both on astronomy and divi- 
nation. The most celebrated of his own performances, the 
Qrahalaghava, bears date 1442 Saca^ answering to A.D. 
1620. 

The want of a commentary by Gan£§a on the Vija 
ganitay is supplied by that of CrYshna, son of BallAla, 
and pupil of Vishnu, the disciple of Gan^sa's nephew 
NrTsinha. It contains a clear and copious exposition of 
the sense, with ample demonstrations of the rules, much in 
the manner of Ganesa, on the Lilavati ; whom also he 
imitated in composing a commentary on that treatise, and 
occasionally refers to it. His work is entitled Calpcdata' 
vatara. Its date is determined at the close of the sixteenth 
century of the Christian era, by the notice of it and of the 
author in a work of his brother RanganAt'ha, dated 
1624 Saca (A.D. 1602), as well as in one by his nephew 
MunISwara. He appears to have been astrologer in the 
service of the Emperor JehAngIr, who reigned at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

The gloss of RanganIt'ha on the V&san&y or demon- 
stratory annotations of BhAscara, which is entitled Mita- 
bhashinif contains no specification of date ; but is deter- 
mined, with sufficient certainty, towards the middle of the 
sixteenth century of the Saca era, by the writer's relation of 
son to NrYsinha, the author of a commentary on the 
Sitrya siddhanta, dated 1642 Saca, and of the Vasana 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 453 

vartica (or gloss on BhAscara's annotations of the Sir6~ 
mani), which bears date in 1643 ^a, or A.D. 1621 ; and 
his relation of brother, as well as pupil, to CamalAcara, 
author of the Siddhanta tatwa viveca, also composed to- 
wards the middle of the same century of the Saca era. 
NrTsinha, and his uncle ViswanAt'ha, author of astro- 
logical commentaries, describe their common ancestor 
DivAcara, and his grandfather RAma, as Maharashira 
Brahmensj hving at G6lagramaj^ on the northern bank of 
the GSdavari, and do not hint a migration of the family. 
NrYsinha's own father, CrYshna, was author of a treatise 
on algebra in compendious rules {s{ttraX as his son affirms. 

The Vija prabSdha, a commentary on the Vija gaAitay 
by RAma CrYshna, son of Lacshmana, and grandson 
of NrYsinha, inhabitant o{ Atnaravatljf is without date 
or express indication of its period ; unless his grandfa&er 
NrYsinha be the same with the nephew of ViSwanAt'ha 
just now mentioned ; or else identified with the nephew of 
Gan£§a and preceptor of Vishnu, the instructor of 
CrYshna, author of the CalpaJatavatara. The presump- 
tion is on either part consistent with proximity of country : 
Amaravati not being more than 150 miles distant from 
Nandigrama, nor more than 200 from G6lagr&ma. It is 
on one side made probable by &e author's frequent refer- 
ence to a commentary of his preceptor CrYshna, which in 
substance corresponds to the Calpalatavatara; but the title 
differs, for he cites the Navancura. On the other side it 
is to be remarked, that CrYshna, father of the NrYsinha, 
who wrote the Vasana virtica, was author of a treatise on 
algebra, which is mentioned by his son, as before observed. 

The Man&ranjanay another commentary on the LU&vati, 

• Golgdm of the maps, in lat. 18° N. loDg. 78** E. 
t A great commercial town in Berdr. 



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464 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

which has been used in the progress of the translation, bears 
no date, nor any indication whatsoever of the period when 
the author RAma crIshna d£ta, son of SadAd^ya, 
surnamed Apad^va, wrote. 

The Ganita caumudiy on the Lilavati, is fieqiiefl% 
cited by the modem commentators, and in particular by 
S6rya suri and RanganAt'ha ; but has not been reco- 
vered, and is only known from their quotations. 

Of the numerous commentaries on the asti'onomical por- 
tion of BhAscara's Siddhanta sirSmaM, little use having 
been here made, either for settling the text of the algebraic 
and arithmetical treatises of the author, or for interpreting 
particular passages of them, a reference to two commen- 
taries of this class, besides those of S^rya suri and 
Gan^sa (which have not been recovered), and the author's 
own annotations, and the interpretation of them by NrYsin- 
HA above noticed, may suffice: viz. the Gahita tcttwa chin" 
tama^i, by LAcsHMinAsA, grandson of C^sava, (probably 
the same with the father of GanIeSa before mentioned), 
and son of VAchespati, dated 1423 iSoca, A.D. 1501); 
and the Maricha, by MunIswara, surnamed Viswa- 
r6pa, grandson of BallAla, and son of RanganAt'h a, 
who was compiler of a work dated 1524 Saca^ A. D. 1620), 
as before mentioned. MunIswara himself is the author 
of a distinct treatise of astronomy entitled Siddhanta 
sarvahhauma, 

Persian versions of both the Lilavati and Vya ganita 
have been already noticed, as also contributing to the 
authentication of the text. The first by FaizI, undertaken 
by the command of the Emperor Acber, vras executed in 
the 32d year of his reign; A.H. 995, A.D. 1587. The 
translation of the Vija ganita is later by half a century, 
having been completed by At a Ullah RASHini, in the 8th 
year of the reignof ShAh JehAn; A.H. 1044. A.D. 1634. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 455 

B. 
Astronomy ofBRAHMEGUPTA. 

Brahmegupta's entire work comprises twenty-one 
lectures or chapters; of which the ten first contain an 
astronomical system, ccmsisting (1st and 2d) in the com- 
putation of mean motions and true places of the planets ; 
3d, solution of problems concerning time, the points of the 
horizon, and the position of places ; 4th and 5th, calcula- 
tion of lunar and solar eclipses ; 6th, rising and setting of 
the planets ; 7th, position of the moon's cusps ; 8th, ob- 
servation of altitudes by the gnomon ; 9th conjunctions of 
the planets ; and, 10th, their conjunction with stars. The 
next ten are supplementary, including five chapters of pro- 
blems with their solutions: and the twenty-first explains 
the principles of the astronomical system in a compendious 
treatise on spherics, treating of the astronomical sphere and 
its circles, the construction of sines, the rectification of the 
apparent planet firom mean motions, the cause of lunar 
and solar eclipses, and the construction of the armiUary 
sphere. 

The copy of the scholia and text, in the translator's pos- 
session, wants the whole of the 6th, 7th, and 8th chapters, 
and exhibits gaps of more or less extent in the preceding 
five ; and appears to have been transcribed firom an exemplar 
equally defective. From the middle of the 9th, to near the 
close of the 15th chapters, is an uninterrupted and regular 
series, comprehending a very curious chapter, the 11th, 
which contains a revision and censure of earlier vmters : 
and next to it the chapter on arithmetic and mensuration, 
which is the 12th of the work. It is followed in the 13th, 
and four succeeding chapters, by solutions of problems 
concerning mean and true motions of planets, finding of 



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456 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

time, place, and points in the horizon ; and relative to 
other matters, which the defect of the two last of fiw 
chapters renders it impracticable to specify. Neirt comes, 
(but in a separate form, being transcribed fix)m a difierent 
exemplar,) the 18th chapter on Algebra. The two which 
should succeed, (and one of which, as appears from a 
reference to a chapter on this subject, treats of the various 
measures of time under the several denominations of sdar, 
siderial, lunar, &c. ; and the other, from like references to 
it, is known to treat of the delineation of celestial phseno- 
mena by diagram,) are entirely wanting, the remainder of 
the copy being defective. The twenty-first chapter, however, 
which is last in the author's arrangem^it, (as the cor- 
responding book on spherics of BhAscara's Siddhanta 
sir6mani is in his,) has been transposed and first expounded 
by the schoUast : and very properly so, since its subject is 
naturally preliminary, being explanatory of the principles 
of astronomy. It stands first in the copy under con- 
sideration; and is complete, except one or two initial 
couplets. 

C. 

Brahma siddhanta, title of Brahmegupta's Astronomy. 

The passage is this : " BHAHMdcta^graha-gcMtam 
mahata caUna yat c^hilUbhiitam, abhidhiyate sp'hut'an tat 
JisHNu-^tt^a Brahmegupt^na." 

' The computation of planets, taught by Brahma, 
which had become imperfect by great length of time, is 
propounded correct by Brahmegupta, son of Jishnu.' 

The beginning of PRtx'HiDACA's commentary on the 
Brahma siddhanta where the three initial couplets of the 
text are expounded, being deficient, the quotation cannot 
at present be brought to the test of collation. But the 
title is still more expressly given near the close of the 



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^ 



NOTES ANp ILLUSTRATIONS. 467 

eleventh chapter,^ (§ 69) " Brahme sp'huia-siddh&nte 
ravindu-bhii-yogain, &c." 

And again^ (§ 61) " Chandra-ravUgraha'Aendu-ch^haya- 
dishu sarvada yat6 Brahme, drig-ganitaicyam bhavati, 
spliuta-siddh&ntas tatS Brahmah." * As observation and 
computation alveays agree in respect of lunar and solar 
eclipses, moon's shadow (i. e. altitude) and other particulars, 
according to the Brahma, therefore is the Brahma a cor- 
rect system (sp^huia siddhanta).' 

It appears from the purport of these several passages 
compared, that Brahmegupta's treatise is an emendation 
of an earlier system, (bearing the same name of Brahma 
siddhanta, or an equivalent title, as Pitamaha siddhanta, 
or adjectively Paitamaha,) which had ceased to agree with 
the phenomena, and into which requisite corrections were 
therefore introduced by him to reconcile computation and 
observation ; and he entitled his amended treatise ' Correct 
Brahma siddhanta.' That earlier treatise is considered to 
be the identical one which is introduced into the Vishnu 
dharmSttara puraiia, and from which parallel passages are 
accordingly cited by the scholiasts of BhAscara. (See 
following note.) It is no doubt the same which is noticed 
by VarAhamihira under the title of Paitamaha and 
Brahma siddh&nta. Couplets, which are cited by this 
commentator Bh Aff6TPALA fix)m the Brahma siddhanta, 
are found in Brahmegupta's work. But whether the 
original or the amended treatise be the one to which the 
scholiast referred, is nevertheless a disputable point, as the 
couplets in question may be among passages which Brah- 
MEGUPTA retained unaltered. 



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458 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 



D. 



Verification of the ITer/ of Brahmegupta's TVeatise of 
Astronomy. 

A passage^ referring the commencement of astronomical 
periods and of planetary revolutions to the supposed instant 
of the creation, is quoted from Bhahmegupta, with a 
parallel passage of another Brahma siddhanta (compre- 
hended in the Vishnu dharm6ttara pvraAcL) in a com- 
pilation by MunISwara, one of BhIscara's glossators.* 
It is verified as the 4th couplet of Brahmegupta's first 
chapter (upon mean motions) in the translator's copy. 

Seven couplets, specifying the mean motions of the 
planets' nodes and apogees, are quoted after the parallel 
passage of the other Brahma siddhanta, by the same 
scholiast of BhAscara, as the text of Brahmegupta : 
and they are found in the same order from the 16th to the 
21st in the first chapter of his work in the copy above- 
mentioned. 

This commentator, among many other corresponding 
passages noticed by him on various occasions, has quoted 
one from the same Brahma siddhanta of the Vishmt 
dharmbttara concerning the orbits of the planets deduced 
from the magnitude of the sky computed there, as it also is 
by Brahmegupta (ch. 21, §9), but in other words, at a 
circumference of 18712069200000000 ySjanas. He goes 
on to quote the subsequent couplet of Brahmegupta, 
declaring that planets travel an equal measured distance in 
their orbits in equal times; and then cites his scholiast 
{iicac&ra) CHATURvfeDAcHARYA. 

The text of Brahmegupta (ch. 1, § 21), specifying the 
diurnal revolutions of the siderial sphere, or number of 



■ As. Res., vol. xii. p. 232. [p. 396 of the present volume.] 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 469 

siderial days in a calpa, with the correspondent one of the 
Paitamaka siddhdnta in the ViskAu dharmSttara, is ano- 
ther of the quotations of the same writer in his commentary 
on BhAscara. 

A passage relating to oval epicycles,* cited by the same 
author in another place, is also verified in the 2d chapter 
(m the rectification of a planet's place). 

A number of couplets on the subject of e^pses-f- is cited 
by LacshmIdAsa, a commentator of BhAscara. They 
are found in the 6th chapter (on eclipses) § 10 and 24 ; 
and in a section of the 21st (on the cause of eclipses) § 37 
to 46, in the copy in question. 

Several couplets, relating to the positions of the constel- 
lations and to the longitudes and latitudes of principal fixt 
stars, are cited firom Brahmeoupta in numerous com- 
pilations, and specifically in the commentaries on the 
S{irf/a siddhanta and Siddhanta 8ir6ma'/iL% They are all 
found correct in the 10th chapter, on the conjunctions of 
planets with fixt stars. 

A quotation by Gan&Sa on the Lilavati (A.D. 1646) 
describing the attainments of a true mathematician, § occurs 
with exactness as the first couplet of the 12th chapter, on 
arithmetic; and one adduced by BhAscara himself, in 
bis arithmetical treatise (^ 190), giving a rule for finding 
the diagonal of a trapezium, || is precisely the 28th of the 
same chapter. 

A very important passage, noticed by BhAscara in his 
notes on his Siddhanta sirSmaM, and alluded to in his 
text, and fiilly quoted by his commentator in the Maricha, 
relative to the rectification of a planet's true place firom the 

• Page 401, &c. of the present volume. 
t Page 497 of the present volume. 
X Page 323, &c. of the present volume. 
§Zi/. ch. 11. II £i/. §190. 



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460 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

mean motions,* is found in the 21st chapter, § 27. BhAs- 
CARA has, on that occasion, alluded to the scholiast, who 
is accordingly quoted by name in the commentary of 
LAcsHMioAsA (A.D. 1501) : and here again the corres- 
pondence is exact. 

The identity of the text as Brahmeoupta's, and of the 
gloss as his scholiast's, being (by these and many other 
instances, which have been collated) satisfactorily esta- 
blished ; as the genuineness of the text is by numerous 
quotations from the Brahma siddhanta (without the author's 
name) in the more ancient commentary of BuAff 6tpala 
(A.D. 968) on the works of Varahamihira, which abo 
have been verified in the mutilated copy of the Brahma 
siddhanta under consideration ; the next step was the 
examination of the detached copy of a commentary on the 
18th chapter, upon algebra, which is terminated by a 
colophon so describing it, and specifying the title of the 
entire book Brahma siddhanta^ and the name of its author 
Brahmegupta. 

For &is purpose materials are happily presented in the 
scholiast's enumeration, at the close of the chapter on 
arithmetic, of the topics treated by his author in the chapter 
on algebra, entitled Cuiiaca:'\' in a general reference to 
the author's algorithm of unknown quantities, aflirmative 
and negative terms, cipher and surd roots, in the same 
chapter;;]: and the same scholiast's quotations of the initial 
words of four rules ; one of them relative to surd roots ; § 
the other three regarding the resolution of quadratic equa- 
tions : n as also in the references of the scholiast of the 

* Page 404, &c. of the present volume. 

t Arithm. of Bbahm. § 66. X Arithm. of Brahm. § 13. 

§ Arithm. of Bbahm. § 39. |i Arithm. of Brahm. § 15 and 18. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 461 

algebraic treatise to passages in the astronomical part of 
his author's work.* 

The quotations have been verified: and they exactly 
agree with the rule concerning surds (§ 26) and the three 
rules which compose the section relating to quadratic equa- 
tions (§ 32 — 34) ; and with the rule in the chapter on the 
solution of astronomical problems concerning mean motions 
(ch. 13^ ^ 22): and this verification and the agreement of 
the more general references demonstrate the identity of 
this treatise of algebra, consonantly to its colophon, as 
Brahmbgupta's algebra entitled CuHaca and a part of 
his Brahma siddhanta. 

E. 

Chronology of Astronomical Authorities according to 
Astronomers of UjjayanL 

The names of astronomical writers with their dates, 
as furnished by the astronomers of Ujjayaniy who were 
consulted by Dr. William Hunter sojourning there 
with a British embassy, are the following : 

Varahamihira .... I22,§aca [A.D. 200-1] 
Another VarIh AM iHiRA ....427 [A.D. 505-6] 

Brahmeoupta 550 [A.D. 628-9] 

MunjXla ;... 854 [A.D. 932^] 

BHAff6TPALA 890 [A.D. 1068-9] 

§w6t6tpala 939 [A.D. 1017-8] 

VARuifA BHAffA .... 962 [A.D. 1040-1] 

Bh6ja raja 964 [A.D. 1042-3] 

BhJiscara 1072 [A.D. 1150-1] 

CaLYANA CHANDRA ..1101 [A.D.1179-80] 

The grounds on which this chronology proceeds are 
unexplained in the note which Dr. Hunter preserved of 
the communication ; but means exist for verifying two of 
the dates specified and corroborating others. 

• Alg. of Brahm. § 96. (Rule ^5). 



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462 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

The date assigned to BhAscara^ is precisely that of 
his Siddhanta sirdmani, plainly concluded from a passage 
of it, in which he declares, that it was completed by him, 
being thirty-six years of age ; and that his birth was in 
1036 Saca. 

Raja Br6ja d£va, or Bh6ja rAja, is placed in Uiis 
list of Hindu astronomers apparently on account of his 
name being affixed, as that of the author, to an astrolo- 
gical treatise on the calendar, which bears the title of 
Raja marta'AAa^ and which was composed probably at bis 
court and by astrologers in his service. It contains no 
date ; or at least none is found in the copy which has been 
inspected. But the age assigned to the prince is not incon- 
sistent with Indian History: and is supported by the 
colophon of a poem entitled Subhashita ratna sand6ha, 
composed by a Jaina sectary named Amitag ati, who has 
given the date of his poem in 1060 of VicramAditya, in 
the reign of Munja. Now Munja was uncle and prede- 
cessor of Bhoja rAja, being regent, with the title of 
sovereign, during his nephew's minority: and this date, 
which answers to A.D. 993-4, is entirely consistent with 
that given by the astronomers of Vjjayaniy viz. 964 Saca 
corresponding to A.D. 1042-3: for the reign of Bh6ja 
d£va was long ; extending, at the lowest computation, to 
half a century, and reaching, according to an extravagant 
reckoning, to the round number of an hundred years. 

The historical notices of this King of Dhara^ are exa- 
mined by Major Wilford and Mr. Bentley in the 
ninth and eighth volumes of Asiatic Restarches : and they 
refer him to the tenth century of the Christian era, the 
one making him ascend the throne in A.D. 982 ; the 
other, in A.D. 913. The former, which takes his reign 

• The modern Dhar, Wii.ford, As. Res. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 463 

at an entire century, including of course his minority, or 
the period of the administration, reign, or regency, of his 
uncle MuNJA, is compatible with the date of Amitagati's 
poem (A.D. 993) and with that of the Raja martaAAa or 
other astrological and astronomical works ascribed to him 
(A.D. 1042) according to the chronology of the astronomers 
of UjjayanL 

The age assigned to Brahmegupta is corroborated 
by the arguments adduced in the text. That given to 
MunjAla is consistent with the quotation of him as at 
the head of a tribe of authors, by BhAscara, at the dis- 
stance of two centuries. The period allotted to VarAha- 
MiHiRA, that is, to the second and most celebrated of the 
name, also admits corroboration. This point, however, 
being specially important to the history of Indian astro- 
nomy, and collaterally to that of the Hindu algebra, de- 
serves and will receive a full and distinct consideration. 

F. 

Age of Brahmegupta inferred from Astronomical data. 

The star Chitra, which unquestionably is Spica Virginis,* 
was referred by Brahmegupta to the 103d degree counted 
from its origin to the intersection of the star's circle of 
dech'nation;t whence the star's right ascension is deduced 
182^ 46'. Its actual right ascension in A.D. 1800 was 
198^ 40^ 2".t The difference, 16^ 66' 2\ is the quantity 
by which the beginning of the first zodiacal asterism and 
lunar mansion, Aiwini, as inferrible from the position of the 
star Ckitr&f has receded from ike equinox : and it indicates 

* Page 337 of the present volume. 

t Pages 343, &c. and 406 of the present volume. 

I Zacr's Tables for 1800 deduced from Maskbltnb's Catalogue. 



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464 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

the lapse of 1216 years (to A.D. 1800) since that point 
coincided with the equinox ; the annual precession of the 
star being reckoned at 47", 14.* 

The star RevaH, which appears to be ^ Piscium, f had 
no longitude, according to the same author, being si- 
tuated precisely at the dose of the asterism and com- 
mencement of the following one, Aswini, without latitude 
or declination, exactly in the equinoctial point. Its actual 
right ascension in 1800 was 16** 49 16". J This, which is 
the quantity by which the origin of the Indian ediptic, as 
inferrible from the position of the star Bevati, has receded 
from the equinox, indicates a period of 1221 years elapsed 
to the end of tl^e eighteenth century ; the annual preces- 
sion for that star being 46", 63 .§ 

The mean of the two is 121 8| years ; which, taken 
from 1800, leave 581 or 682 of the Christian era. Brah- 
MEGCPTA then appears to have observed and written to- 
wards the close of the sixth, or the begmning of the 
following century; for, as the Hindu astronomers seem 
not to have been very accurate observers, the bdief of his 
having lived and published in the seventh century, about 
A.D. 628, which answers to 660 ^aca^ the date assigned 
to him by the astronomers of l^ayam^ is not inconsistent 
with the position, that the vernal equinox did not sensibly 
to his view deviate from, the b^inning of Aries or Mesha, 
as determined by him frx)m the star Revati (( Pisdum) 
which he places at that point. 

The same author assigns to Agastya or Canopus a dis- 
tance of 87 , and to Lvbdhaca or Sirius 86^, from the 

* Maskelyne's Catalogue : the mean precession of the equinoc- 
tial points being reckoned 50^, 3. 

t Page 343 of the present volume. 

\ Zaoh's Tables. § Zach's Tables. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 465 

beginning of Misha. From these positions a mean of 
1280 years is deducible. 

The passage in which this author denies the precession 
of the colores, as well as the comment of his schoUast on 
it, being material to the present argument, they are here 
subjoined in a literal version. 

^ The very fewest hours of night occur at the end pf 
Mifhuna, and the seasons are governed by the sun's 
motion ; therefore the pair of solstices appears to be sta- 
tionary, by the evidence of a pair of eyes.** 

Scholia: ' What is said by Vishnu chandra at the 
beginning of the chapter on the yuga of the solstice 
( * Its revolutions through the asterisms are here [in the 
calpd] a hundred and eighty-nine thousand four hundred 
and eleven. This is termed a yuga of the solstice, as of 
old admitted by Brahma, Arca, and the rest.") is wrong : 
for the very fewest hours of night to us occur when the 
sun's place is at the end of Mifhuna [Gemini] ; and of 
course the very utmost hours of day are at the same 
period. From that limitary point, the sun's progress 
regulates the seasons ; namely, the cold season (sisira) and 
the rest, comprising two months each, reckoned from 
Macara [Capricorn]. Therefore what has been said con- 
cerning the motion of the limitary point is wrong, being 
contradicted by actual observation of days and nights. 

' The objection, however, is not vaUd: for now the 
greatest decrease and increase of night and day do not 
happen when the sun's place is at the end of Mifhuna : 
and passages are remembered, expressing '^ The southern 
road of the sun was from the middle of AsUsha ; and 
the northern one at the beginning of Dhanishi*ha ;"t and 

* Brahma siddhdnta, ii. § 54. 

t This quotation is from VARAHi^MiHiiiA's sanhiidy ch. 3, § I and 2. 

VOL. II. 2h 



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466 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

others [of like import]. But all this only proves^ that 
there is a motion ; not that the solstice has made many 
revolutions through the asterisms.'* 

It was hinted at the beginning of this note^ that Brah- 
megupta's longitude idhruvaca) of a star is the arc of the 
ecliptic intercepted by the star's circle of declination, and 
counted from the origin of the ecliptic at the beginning 
of Mesha ; as his latitude {vicshepa) of a star is the star's 
distance on a circle of declination from its point of inter- 
section with the ecliptic. In short, he, like other Hindu 
astronomers, counts longitude and latitude of stars by the 
intersection of circles of declination with the ecliptic. 
The subject has been before noticed.f To make it more 
clear, an instance may be taken : and that of the scho- 
liast's computation of the zenith distance and meridian 
altitude of Canopus for the latitude of Canyacubja (Canotg) 
may serve as an apposite example. 

From the vicshepa of the star Agastya, 77**, he sub- 
tracts the declination of the intersected point of the ecliptic 
23^ 68' ; to the remainder, which is the declination of the 
star, 63^ 2\ he adds the latitude of the place 26^ 36' ; the 
sum, 79^ 37 , is the zenith distance ; and its complement 
to ninety degrees, 10*^ 23', is the meridian altitude of the 
star.J 

The annual variation of the star in declination, 1", 7, is 
too small to draw any inference as to the age of the scho- 
liast from the declination here stated. More especially as 
it is taken from data furnished by his author ; and as he 
appears to have been, like most of the Hindu astronomers, 
no very accurate observer; the latitude assigned by him to 

• PbIt'h<jdaoa swam! chaturvIda on Brahm. 
t Pages 324, &c., and 407 of the present volume. 
I PRfT*H(jDACA swam! on Brahm., ch. 10. § 35. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 467 

the city in which he dwelt being no less than half a 
degree wrong : for the ruins of the city of Canouj are in 
270 6'. N. 

G. 

ARYABHAtf a's Doctrim. 

ARYABHAff A was author of the Aryashiasata (800 
couplets) and Dasagitica (ten stanzas)^ known by the 
numerous quotations of Brahmegupta, BHAff6TPALA9 
and others^ who cite both under these respective titles. 
The Laghu Arya siddhantaj as a work of the same author^ 
and, perhaps, one of those above-mentioned, is several 
times quoted by Bhascara*s commentator MunISwara. 
He likewise treated of algebra, &c. under the distinct heads 
of Cutiaca, a problem serving for the resolution of indeter- 
minate ones, and Vija, principle of computation, or analysis 
in general. — LiL c. 11. 

From the quotations of writers on astronomy, and par- 
ticularly of Brahmegvpta, who, in many instances, 
cites ARYABHAff A to coutrovert his positions, (and is in 
general contradicted in liis censure by his own scholiast 
PRtT'HfiDACA, either coiTecting his quotations, or vindi- 
cating the doctrine of the earlier author), it appears that 
ARYABHAff A affirmed the diurnal revolution of the earth 
on its axis, and that he accounted for it by a wind or 
current of aerial fluid, the extent of which, according to the 
orbit assigned to it by him, corresponds to an elevation of 
little more than a hundred miles from the surface of the 
earth : that he possessed the true theory of the causes of 
lunar and solar eclipses, and disregarded the imaginary 
dark planets of the mythologists and astrologers, affirming 
the moon and primary planets (and even the stars) to be 
essentially dark, and only illumined by the sun : that he 

2h 2 



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468 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

noticed the motion of the solstitial and equinoctial points, 
but restricted it to a regular oscillation^ of which he assigned 
the limit and the period : that he ascribed to the epicycles, 
by which the motion of a planet is represented, a form vary- 
ing from the circle and nearly elliptic : that he recognised a 
motion of the nodes and apsides of all the primary planets, 
as well as of the moon ; though in this instance, as in 
some others, his censurer imputes to him variance of doc- 
trine. 

The magnitude of the earth, and extent of the encom- 
passing wind, is among the instances wherein he is re- 
proached by Br AHMEGUPTA with versatility, as not having 
adhered to the same position throughout his writings ; but 
he is vindicated on this, as on most occasions, by the scho- 
liast of his censurer. Particulars of this question, leading 
to rather curious matter, deserve notice. 

ARYABHAff A*s tcxt spccifics the earth's diameter, 
1050 y^anas ; and the orbit or circumference of the earth's 
wind [spiritus vector] 3393 ydjanas; which, as the scho- 
liast rightly argues, is no discrepancy. The diameter of 
this orbit, according to the remark of Brahmegupta, is 
1080. 

On this it is to be in the first place observed, that the 
proportion of the circumference to the diameter of a circle, 
here employed, is that of 22 to 7 ,- which not being the 
same which is given by Brahmegupta's rule (Arithm. 
§ 40), must be presumed to be that which ARYABHAff a 
taught. Applying it to the earth's diameter as by him 
assigned, viz. 1050, the circumference of the earth is 3300; 
which evidently constitutes the dimensions by him in- 
tended : and that number is accordingly stated by a com- 
mentator of BhAscara. See Gan. on LiL § 4. 

This approximation to the proportion of the diameter of 
a circle to its periphery, is nearer than that which both 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 469 

Brahmbgupta and I^RfDHARA, though later writers, 
teach in their mensuration, and which is employed in the 
Surya siddhanta ; namely, one to the square-root of ten. 
It is adopted by BhAscara, who adds, apparently from 
some other authority, the still nearer approximation of 1260 
to 3927.— (ii/. ^ 201.) 

ARYABHAff A appears, however, to have also made use 
of the ratio which afterwards contented both Brahme- 
gupta and §Rf dhara ; for his rule adduced by Gan^sa 
{LiL % 207) for finding the arc from the chord and versed 
sine, is clearly founded on the proportion of the diameter to 
the periphery, as one to the square root of ten : as vrill be 
evident if the semicircle be computed by that rule : for it 
comes out the square root of V^ ^^ diameter being 1. 

A more favourable notion of his proficiency in geometry, 
a science, however, much less cultivated by the Hindus 
than algebra, may be received from his acquaintance with 
the theorem containing the fundamental property of the 
circle, which is cited by PRtT'nijDACA. — (Brahm. 12, 
§21.) 

The number of 3300 yijanas for the circumference of the 
earth, or 9i ydjanas for a degree of a great circle, is not 
very wide of the truth, and is, indeed, a very near ap- 
proach, if the ydjana, which contains four crSias, be 
rightly inferred fit)m the modem computed crSia found to 
be 1, 9 B. M.* For, at that rate of 7, 6 miles to a yijana, 
the earth's circumference would be 25080 B. miles. 

The difference between the diameter of the earth and 
that of its air iv&yu), by which term ARYAJBHAff a seems 
to intend a current of vrind whirling as a vortex, and caus- 
ing the earth's revolution on its axis, leaves 16 ydjanas, or 



♦ As. Resy vol. V. p. 105. 



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470 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

114 miles, for the limit of elevation of this atmospheric 
current. 

H. 

Scantiness of the Additions by later Writers on Algebra. 

The observation in the text on the scantiness of the im- 
provements or additions made to the algebra of the Hindus 
in a long period of years after ARYABHAff a probably, and 
after Brahmegupta certainly, is extended to authors 
whose works are now lost, on the faith of quotations from 
them. SrIdhara's rule, which is cited by BhAscara 
{Vij.'gan, \ 131), concerning quadratics, is the same in 
substance with one of Brah megupta's (ch. 18. ^ 32 — ^33). 
PadmanAbha, indeed, appears from the quotation from 
his treatise {Vij.-gan. % 142) to have been aware of qua- 
dratic equations affording two roots; which Brahme- 
gupta has not noticed; and this is a material accession 
which the science received. There remains an uncertainty 
respecting the author, from whom Bhasoara has taken 
the resolution of equations of the third and fourth degrees 
in their simple and unaffected cases. 

The only names of algebraists who preceded Bhasoara, 
to be added to those already mentioned, are, 1st, an earlier 
writer of the same name (BhAscara), who was at the head 
of the commentators of Aryabh Aff a ; and, 2d, the elder 
scholiast of the Brahma siddhanta, named BHArfA 
Balabhadra. Both are repeatedly cited by the suc- 
cessor of the latter in the same task of exposition, 
PrKt'h^daca swAmI, who was himself anterior to ihe 
author of the SirSmani, being more than once quoted by 
him. As neither of those earlier commentators is named 
by the younger BhAscara, nor any intimation given of 
his having consulted and employed other treatises besides 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 471 

the three specified by him in the compilation of the Vya- 
gaMta, it is presumable^ that the few additions, which a 
comparison with the Cuitaca of Brahmbgupta exhibits, 
are properly ascribable either to SrIdhara or to Padma- 
nabha; most likely to the latter, as he is cited for one 
such addition ;* and as SrIdh ara's treatise of arithmetic 
and mensuration, which is extant, is not seemingly the 
work of an author improving on the labours of those who 
went before him.f The corrections and improvements 
introduced by BhAscara himself, and of which he care- 
fully apprizes his readers, J are not very numerous, nor in 
general important. § 

I. 

Age of ARYABHAff A. 

Under the Abbasside khalifs Almans6r and AlmA- 
m6n, in the middle of the eighth and beginning of the 
ninth centuries of the Christian era, the Arabs became con- 
versant with the Indian astronomy. It was at that period, 
as may be presumed, that they obtained information of the 
existence and currency of three astronomical systems among 
the Indians;|| one of which bore the name of ARYABHAff a, 
or, as written in Arabic characters, Arj ABAHAR^f (perhaps 



• nj.-ffa^. § 142. 

t LU, § 147. Brahm. c. 12. § 21 and 40. Ga^. S6r. § 126. 

t Vij,'gah, before § 44, and after § 57. also Ch. 1, towards the end ; 
and Cb. 5. § 142. 

§ Unless X^.§ 170 and 190. 

II TMkhu'lhucamdy or Bibl. Arab. Phil, quoted by Casiri: Bibl. 
Arab. Hisp. vol. i. p. 426. See note M. 

IF C OSS A Li's Argebakr is a misprint (Orig. &c. dell* Alg. vol. i. 
p. 207). Casiri gives, as in the Arabic, Argebahr: which, in the 
orthography here followed, is ArjabcLhr, 



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472 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

intended for Arjabhar), which is as near an approximatioD 
as the difference of characters can be expected to exhibit. 
This then unquestionably was the system of the astro- 
nomer whose age is now to be investigated ; and who is in 
a thousand places cited by Hindu writers on astronomy, 
as author of a system and founder of a sect in this science. 
It is inferred from the acquaintance of the Arabs with the 
astronomical attainments of the Hindus, at that time, when 
the court of the khalif drew the visit of a Hindu astrologer 
and matliematician, and when the Indian determination of 
the mean motions of the planets was made the basis of 
astronomical tables compiled by order of the khalife, * for 
a guide in matters pertaining to the stars/ and when Indian 
treatises on the science of numbers were put in an Arabic 
dress ; adverting also to the difficulty of obtaining further 
insight into the Indian sciences, which the author of the 
Tarikhu'l hucamd complains of, assigning for the cause the 
distance of countries, and the various impediments to inter- 
course : it is inferred, we say, from these, joined to other 
considerations, that the period in question was that in 
which the name of ARYASHAff a was introduced to the 
knowledge of the Arabs. This, as a first step in inquiring 
the antiquity of this author, ascertains his celebrity as an 
astronomical authority above a thousand years ago. 

He is repeatedly named by Hindu authors of a still 
earlier date: particularly by Brahmegupta, in the first 
part of the seventh century of the Christian era. He had 
been copied by writers whom Brahmegupta cites. 
VarAhamihira has allusions to him, or employs his 
astronomical determinations in an astrological work at the 
beginning of the sixth century. These fects will be fiirther 
weighed upon as we proceed. 

For determining ARYABHAff a's age with the greater 
precision of astronomical chronology, grounds are pre- 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 473 

sentedy at the first view promising, but on examination 
insufficient. 

In the investigation of the question upon astronomical 
grounds, recourse was in the first place had to his doctrine 
concerning the precession of the equinoxes. As quoted by 
MuNi^wARAy a scholiast of BhAscaba, he mamtained an 
oscillation of the equinoctial points to twenty-four degrees 
on either side ; and he reckoned 578159 such librations in 
a ccdpa.* From another passage cited by BHAff6TPALA 
on VARAHAMiHiRAyf his position of the mean equinoxes 
was the beginning of Aries and of Libra. J From one more 
passage quoted by the scholiast of Brahmegupta,^ it 
further appears, that he reckoned 1986120000 years ex- 
pired II before the war of the Bharata : and the duration 
of the ccdpa, if he be rightly quoted by BrahmeguptAj^T 
is 1008 quadruple yugas of 4320000 years each. 

From these data it follows that, according to him, the 
equinoctial point had completed 263699 oscillations at the 
epoch of the war of the Bharata. But we are without 
any information as to the progress made in the current 
oscillation when he wrote, or the actual distance of the 
equinox fix>m the beginning of Mesha : the position of 
which, also, as by him received, is uncertain. 

His limit of the motion in trepidation, 24**, was evidently 
suggested to him by the former position of the colures 
declared by PArASara; the exact difference being 23''20^ 

* Page 378 of the present volame. t rHhat tanhitd, ch. 2. 

t * From the beginDing of Mesha to the end of Canyd (Virgo), the 
half the ecliptic passes through the north. From the beginning of 
7\ild to the end of (the fishes) MnOy the remaining half passes by the 
south.' 

§ Prit'h^daca on Braum., c. i. § 10 and 30, and c. xi. § 4. 

11 Six Menus, twenty-seven yuffos and three-quarters. 

H PrYt'hOdaca on Brahm., c. i. § 12. 



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474 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

But the commencement of PiRAiiARA's Ailesha, in his 
sphere, or the oiigin of his siderial Mesha, are unascer- 
tained. Whether his notions of the duodecimal divisicm of 
the zodiac were taken from the Grecian or Egyptian spheres, 
or from what other immediate source, is but matter of 
conjecture. 

Quotations of this author furnish the revolutions of 
Jupiter in a ytigUy* and of Saturn's aphelion in a calpa;^ 
and those of the moon in the latter period : but the same 
passage, { in which the number of lunar revolutions in that 
great period are given, supplies those of the sun ; namely, 
4320000000; differing from the duration of the calpa 
according to this author as cited by more ancient compilers. 
The truth is, as appears from another quotation, § that 
ARYABHAffA, after delivering ouc complete astronomical 
system, proceeds in a second and distinct chapter to deliver 
another and different one as the doctrine of PArAsara ; 
whose authority, he observes, prevails in the CcUi age : and 
though he seems to indicate the ccdpa as the same in 
both, he also hints that in one a deduction is made for the 
time employed in creation; and we have seen, that the 
duration of the calpa differs in the quotations of compilers 
from this author. 

The ground then being insufficient, until a more defi- 
nitive knowledge of either system, as developed by him, 
be recovered, to support any positive conclusion, recourse 
must be had, on failure of precise proof, to more loose 
presumption. It is to be observed, that he does not use 
the ^a or Sambat of VicramAditya, nor the Sa^ era 
of ^AlivAhana, but exclusively employs the epoch of 
the war of the Bharata^ which is the era of Yudhish- 

• As. Res., vol. jii. p. 215. t Mun. on Bhas., c. i. §33. 

I Mun. on Bhas. c. i. § 16—18. § fdrf* and Mtn. on Bhas. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 475 

fniRA and the same with the commencement of the Cali 
yuga. Hence it is to be argued, that he flourished before 
this era was superseded. by the introduction of the modem 
epochas. VARAHAMiHiRA^on the other hand, does employ 
the iSoca, termed by him Saca^bhiLpa-cala and Sacendra^ 
cala: which the old scholiast interprets ^the time when 
the barbarian kings called Stica were discomfited by 
VicramAditya:'* and Brahmegupta uses the modem 
Saca era, which he expresses by Saca-nripante, interpreted 
by the scholiast of BhAscara 'the end [of the life or 
reign] of VicramAditya, who slew a people of barbarians 
named Sacas.' VarAhamihira's epoch of Saca appears 
to have been understood by his scholiast BHAff6TPALA 
to be the same with the era of VicramAditya, which 
now is usually called Sambat, and which is reckoned to 
commence after 3044 years of the Cali age were expired : 
and Brahmegupta's epoch of Saca is the era of SAlivA- 
HANA, beginning at the expiration of 3179 years of the 
Cali yuga : and accordingly this number is specified in his 
Brahma siddhanta. When those eras were first intro- 
duced is not at present with certainty known. If that of 
VicramAditya, dating with a most memorable event of 
his reign, came into use during its continuance, still its 
introduction could not be firom the first so general as at once 
and universally to supersede the former era of Yudhish- 
f*HiRA. But the argument drawn from ARYABHAff a's 
use of the ancient epoch, and his silence respecting the 
modern, so far as it goes, favours the presumption that he 
lived before the origin of the modem eras. Certainly he 
is anterior to Brahmegupta, who cites him in more than 
a hundred places by name; and to VarAhamihira, 
whose compilation is founded, among other authorities, on 

• rr^hat sanhit6. 



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476 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

the R6maca of SfiisHfiNA, and Vasishi^ha of Vishnu 
CHANDRA) which Brahmegupta affirms to be partly 
taken from ARYABHAff a.* The priority of this aathor 
is explicitly asserted likewise by the celebrated astronomer 
Gan^SA) whO) in explanation of his own undertaking, 
says : ' Rules framed by other holy sages were right in 
the Treth and Dwapara ; but, in the present age, PArA- 
sara's. ARYABHAff a, howcver, finding his imperfect, 
after great lapse of time, reformed the system. It grew 
inaccurate, and was therefore amended by Durgasinha, 
MiHiRA, and others. This again became insufficient: and 
correct rules were framed by the son of Jishnu [Brah- 
megupta] founded upon Brahma's revelation. His 
system also, after a long time, came to exhibit differences. 
Cfi^AVA rectified it. Now, finding this Ukewise a little 
incorrect after sixty years, his son Gan^^a has perfected 
it, and i*econciled computation and experience.'t 

ARYABHAff A then preceded Brahmegupta, who lived 
towards the middle of the sixth century of the oaca era ; 
and VarAhamihira placed by the chronolc^ers oiVjjor 
yani at the beginning of the fiftli or of the second ; (for 
they notice two astronomers of the name.) He is prior also 
to Vishnu chandra, SrIsh^na, and Durgasinha; all 
of them anterior to the second VarAhamihira; and an 
interval of two or of three centuries is not more than 
adequate to a series of astronomers following each other in 
the task of emendation, which process of time rendered 
successively requisite. 

On these considerations it is presumed, that ARYA- 
BHAff a is unquestionably to be placed earlier than the 
fifth century of the Saca: and probably so, by several (by 

• Brahm, Siddh., c. 11, § 48—51. 

t Citation by Nrisinha on S&r. Siddh» 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 477 

more than two or three) centuries : and not unlikely before 
the commencement of either Saca or Sambat eras. In 
other words, he flourished some ages before the sixth 
century of the Christian era: and perhaps lived before, or, 
at latest, soon after its commencement. Between these 
limits, either the third or the fourth century might be 
assumed as a middle term. We shall, however, take the 
fifth of Christ as the latest period to which ARYABHAff a 
can, on the most moderate assumption, be referred. 

K. 

Writings and Age of VarAhamihira. 

This distinguished astrological writer, a native of VJja" 
yaniy and son of AdityadAsa,'''' was author of a copious 
work on astrology, compiled, and, as he declares, abridged 
from earlier writers. It is comprised in three parts ; the 
first on astronomy ; the second and third, on divination : 
together constituting a complete course. Such a course, 
he observes in his preface to the third part, has been termed 
by ancient writers Sanhita^ and consists of three scan- 
dhas or parts : the first, which teaches to find a planet's 
place by computation (gaiiito), is called tantra; the se- 
cond, which ascertains lucky and unlucky indications, is 
named h&ra ; it relates chiefly to nativities, journeys, and 
weddings ; the third, on prognostics relative to various 
matters, is denominated sac^ha. The direct and retrogade 



* Frihat j6taca^ c. 26, § 5; where the author so describes himself. 
His scholiast also calls him AvatUica from his native city UjjayanX^ 
and terms him a Magadha Br6hmen^ and a compiler of astronomical 
science. BHAff6TPALA on VH.-jdt. I. The same scholiast similarly 
describes him in the introdaction of a commentary on a work of his 
SCO PbYt'huya^as. 



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478 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

motions of planets, with their rising and settings and other 
particulars, he goes on to say, had been propounded by 
him in a treatise termed Caramiy meaning, as the scholiast 
remarks, his compilation entitled Pancha siddkantica: 
which constitutes the first and astronomical portion of his 
entire work. What relates to the first bi*anch of astrology 
ik6rd)f the author adds, had likewise been deUvered by 
him, including nativities and prognostics concerning jour^ 
neys and weddings. These astrological treatises of his 
author, the scholiast observes, are entitled Vrtkatjatcica, 
Vrihad yatriiy and Vrihad vivaha paiala^ The author pro- 
ceeds to deliver the third part of his course, or the second 
on divination, omitting, as he says, superfluous and pith- 
less matter, which abounds in the wiitings of his prede- 
cessors : such as questions and replies in dialogue, legen- 
dary tales, and the mythological origin of the planets. 

The third part is extant, and entire ; and is generally 
known and cited by the title of Vrihat sanhita, or great 
course of astrology : a denomination well deserved ; for, 
notwithstanding the author's professions of conciseness, it 
contains about four thousand couplets distributed in more 
than a hundred chapters, or precisely (including the metrical 
table of contents) 1 06. 

Of the second part, the first section, on casting of nati- 
vities, called Vrihat jatacay is also extant, and comprises 
twenty-five chapters, or, with the metrical table of contents 
and peroration which concludes it, twenty-six. The other 
two sections of this part of the course have not been 
recovered, though probably extant in the hands of Hindu 
astrologers. 

The scholia of the celebrated commentator of this author's 
works, who is usually called BHAff 6tpala, and who in 
several places of his commentary names himself Utpala 
(quibbling with stimulated modesty on his appellation, for 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 479 

the word signifies stone)^'''' are preserved; and are complete 
for the third part of the author's course, and for the first 
section of the second : and the remainder of it likewise is 
probably extant, as the copy of the first section in the 
possession of the author of this dissertation terminates 
abruptly after the commencement of the second* 

This commentator is noticed in the list of authorities 
fiimished by the astronomers of UJjayani, and is there 
stated as of the year 890 of the Saca era (A.D. 1068). 
Sir William Jones supposed him to be the son of the 
author, whose work is expounded by him. The grounds 
of this notion, which is not, however, very positively 
advanced by that learned orientalist,t are not set forth. 
No intimation of such relation of the scholiast to his author 
appears in the preface or the conclusion, nor in the colo- 
phon, of the commentary which has been inspected : nor 
in the body of the work, where the author is of course 
repeatedly named or referred to, without however any 
addition indicative of filial respect, as Hindu writers usually 
do employ when speaking of a parent or ancestor. Neither 
is there any hint of relationship in the commentary of the 
same scholiast BHAff6TPALA on a brief treatise of 
divination, entitled Prasna-cdshU, comprizing fifty-six 
stanzas by PrYt'huyasas son of VarAhamihira. The 
suggestion of the filial relation of the scholiast is probably 
therefore a mere error. 

The Pancha siddhdntica of VarAhamihira has not 
yet been recovered ; and is only at present known from 

* Preface to the commentary on the VHhat jdtaca. Conclusion 
of the gloss on ch. 1 8 of F'rihat sanhitd. &c. ' Stone (utpala) frames 
the raft of interpretation to cross the ocean composed by V a bah a - 

MIHIBA.* 

t The words are ' the comment written by BHAff6TPALA, who, it 
seems, was a son of the author.' As. Res., vol. ii. p. 390. 



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480 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

quotations of authors ; and particularly a number of pas- 
sages cited from it by his scholiast in course of interpreting 
his astrological writings. An important passage of it so 
quoted will be noticed forthwith. 

It is a compilation, as its name impUes, from five sid- 
dhantas ; and they are specified in the second chapter of 
the Vrihat sanhita, where the author is enumerating the 
requisite qualifications of an astronomer competent to 
calculate a calendar. Among other attainments, he requires 
him to be conversant with time measured by yugasj Sec. 
as taught in the five siddhantas upon astronomy named 
Paulisa, R6macaj Vasisht'ha, Saura, and Paitamaha.* 

The title of VarAhamihira's compilation misled a 
writer on Hindu astronomyf into an unfounded supposition, 
that he was the acknowledged author of the five sid- 
dhantas ; the names of two of which moreover are mis- 
taken, S6ma and Paulastya being erroneously substituted 
for Rinuica and Paulisa. These two, as well as the 
Vasishi'hay are the works of known authors, namely, 
PuliSa, SRisH^KA, and Vishnu chandra ; all three 
mentioned by Brahmegupta : by whom also the whole 
five siddhantas are noticed under the very same names 
and in the same order '^ and who has specified the authors 
of the first three.§ The Vasishi^ha of Vishnu chanora 
was indeed preceded by an earlier work (so entitled) of an 
unknown author, from which that, as well as the RAmacdy 
is in part taken ;|| and it may be deemed an amended 
edition : but the R6maca and Paulisa are single of the 
names ; and no Hindu astronomer, possessing any know- 
ledge of the history of the science cultivated by him, ever 

• rr}ihai sanfiita, c. 2. § 7. f As. Res., vol. viii. p. 196. 

X Brahma siddhdntay e. 14. § Ibid. c. 11. 

II Ibid, 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 481 

ever could imagine, that Vara ham i hi r a composed the 
work which takes its name from PuliSa, the distinguished 
founder of a sect or school in astronomy opposed to that of 

ARYABHAffA. 

The passage of the Pancha siddhantica cited by the 
scholiast,"* and promised to be here noticed, has been 
quoted in an essay inserted in the researches of the 
Asiatic Society ,t as well as a parallel passage of the 
Vrtkat sanhita,X both relative to the ancient and actual 
position of the colures ; and deemed parallel (though one 
be less precise than the other), since they are cited together 
as of the same author, and consequently as of Uke import, 
by the scholiast.§ The text of the Vrihat sanhita is further 
authenticated by a quotation of it in the commentary of 
PrKt'h^daca on Brahmegtjpta ;|| and the former posi- 
tion of the colures is precisely that which is described in 
the calendar appendant on the VedcLs,^ 'and which is 
implied in a passage of PArASara concerning the seasons, 
which is quoted by BHAff6TPALA. 

The position of the colures, affirmed as actual in his 
time by Varahamihira, in the Vrikat sanhita^ implies 
an antiquity of either 1216 or 1440 years before A.D. 1800, 
according to the origin of the ecliptic determined from 
the star Chitra (Spica vii^inis) distant either 180^ or 183^ 
from it ; or a still greater antiquity, if it be taken to have 
corresponded more nearly with the Grecian celestial 
sphere. The mean of the two numbers (disregarding the 
surmise of greater antiquity), carries him to A.D. 472. If 
VarAhamihira concurred with those Indian astrono- 
mers, who allow an oscillation of the equinox to 27 in 

• On Frthai sanhita, c. 2. f See page 387 of the present vol. 
t C. 3. § 1 and 2. § On Fr^hat sanli. c. 2. 

11 Brahm, siddhdnta, c. xi.§54. f See vol. i. p. 108. 
VOL. IK 2 I 



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482 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

1800 years, or a complete oscillation of that extent both 
E. and W. in 7200 years, he must have lived soon after 
the year 3600 of the Call yuga^ or 421 Sacay answering 
to A.D. 499 ; which is but six years from the date assigned 
to him by the astronomers of Ujjayani, and twenty-seven 
from the mean before inferred. 

U is probable, therefore, that he flourished about the 
close of the fifth century of the Christian era ; and this 
inference is corroborated by the mention of an astrologer 
of this name in the Panckatantra, the Sanscrit original 
of the fables of Pilpay, translated in the reign of N us hi r- 
VAN, King of Persia, in the latter part of the sixth century 
and beginning of the seventh.* 

To that conclusion there is opposed an argument drawn 
from a passage of the Bhaswati carana ; in which the 
author of that treatise, dated 1021 Saca (A.D. 1098), pro- 
fesses to have derived instruction ftt>m Mihira, meaning, 
it is supposed, oral instruction from VarAhamihira; 
and the argument has been supported by computations 
which make the Surya siddhanta and Jatacarnavay the 
latter ascribed to VarAhamihira, to be both works of 
the same period, and as modem as the eleventh century .f 

To this it has been replied, that the Mihira, from 
whom SatAnanda, author of the Bhaswati, derived in- 
struction, is not the same person or personage with the 
author of the Vrthat sanhita; if indeed SatAnanda's 
expression do intend the same name, VarAha.;}: That 
expression must be allowed to be a very imperfect designa- 
tion, which omits half, and that the most distinctive half, 
of an appellation : and it is not such as would be applied 



• Pref. to the Sanscrit edition of the Hitbpadcsa^ printed at Seram- 
pur. [See page 173 of the present volume.] 

t As. Res., vol. vi. p. 572. % See page 389 of the present volume. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 483 

by a contemporary and auditor to an author and lecturer, 
whose celebrity could not yet be so generally difiused, as 
to render a part of his name a sufficient intimation of the 
remainder, without previous and well established associa- 
tion of the terms. But even conceding the interpretation, 
it would then be right to admit a third VarAhamihira, 
besides the two noticed by the chronologists of Ujjayani ; 
and the third will be an astronomer, contemporary with 
RAja Bh6ja DfevA, and the preceptor of SatAnanda, 
and author of the Jatacarnavay supposing this treatise on 
nativities to be properly ascribed to an author bearing that 
name, and to be on suflScient grounds referred to the 
eleventh century. 

There remains to be here noticed another treatise on 
casting of nativities, to which the same favourite name of 
a celebrated astrologer is affixed. It is a concise tract 
entitled Laghujataca : and its authenticity as a work of 
the astrologer oiUjjayani is established by the verifying 
of a quotation of the scholiast BHAff6TPALA, who cites 
a passage of his author's compendious treatise on the same 
subject {swalpajataca), in course of expounding a rule of 
prognostication concerning the destination of a prince to 
the throne, and his future character as a monarch (Vrthat 
jataca 11. 1.). That passage occurs in the Laghujataca 
(Misc. Chap.)* It is hardly to be supposed, that the same 
writer can have given a third treatise on the same subject 
of nativities, entitled Jata>carnava. 

The question concerning the age of the Sdrya siddhanta 
remains for consideration. It is a very material one, as 
both VarAhamihira and Brahmegupta speak of a 
Saura (or Solar) siddhanta, which is a title of the same 
import: and unless a work bearing this title may have 
existed earUer than the age which is assigned, for reasons 
to be at a future time examined, to the S(^rya siddhanta, 

2i 2 



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484 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

the conclusions respecting the periods when they respec- 
tively wrote, are impeached in the degree in which those 
grounds of calculation may deserve confidence. Those 
grounds in detail will be discussed at a separate opportunity. 
But independently of this discussion of their merits, suffi- 
cient evidence does exist to estabUsh, that more than one 
edition of a treatise of astronomy has borne the name of 
Sdrya (with its synonyma) the sun. For LacshmIdIsa 
cites one under the title of Vrihat surya siddkanta* (for 
a passage which the current solar Siddkanta does not 
exhibit), in contradistinction to another more frequently 
cited by him without the distinctive epithet of Vrihat : and 
in these latter instances his quotations admit of verification. 
A reference of BhAscara to a passage of the Saura, or, as 
explained by his own annotation, the Surya siddkanta, does 
not agree with the text of the received Surya siddhanta.f 
His commentators indeed do not imreservedly conclude 
from the discrepancy a difference of the work quoted, and 
that usually received under the same title. Yet the infe- 
rence seems legitimate. At all events the quotation fi'om 
the Vrikat surya siddkanta, in the Ganita tatwa ckinta- 
mani of LACSHMtnisA, proves beyond question, that in that 
commentator's opinion, and consistently with his knowledge, 
more than one treatise bearing the same name existed. 

There is evidence besides of Arabian writers, that a 
system of astronomy bearing the equivalent title of Area 
(Solar) was one of three, which were found by them current 
among the Hindus, when the Arabs obtained a knowledge 
of the Indian astronomy in the time of the Abbasside 
khalifs, about the close of the eighth century or com- 
mencement of the ninth of the Christian era.;]: Arcand, 

• 6an, tatwa chinU on Spherics of ^irbmahi, ch. 4. Cons, of Sines. 
+ See page 374 of the present volume. X See note N. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 486 

the name by which the Arabs designate one of those three 
astronomical systems, assigning it as an Indian term, is the 
well known corruption of Area in the common dialects, 
and is familiar in the application of the same word as a 
name of a plant (Asclepias gigantea), which bearing all 
the synonyma of the sun, is called vulgarly Acand or 
Arcand. 

The solar doctrine of astronomy appears then to have 
been known by this name to the Arabians as one of the 
three Indian asti*onomical systems a thousand years ago. 
The fact is, that both the title and the system are con- 
siderably more ancient. Revisions of systems occasionally 
take place; like Brahmegupta's revisal of the Brahma 
siddkanta, to adapt and modernize them; or, in other 
words, for the purpose, as Brahmegupta intimates, of 
reconciling computation and observation. The Surya or 
Area siddhanta, no doubt, has undergone this process, 
and actually exhibits manifest indications of it.* 

In every view^ it is presumed, that any question con- 
cerning the present text of the Surya siddkanta, or deter- 
mination of that question, will leave untouched the evidence 
for the age of the author of the Vrihat sanhita, VarAha- 
MiHiRA, son of AdityadAsa, an astrologer of ZTy^y^w^ 
who appears to have flourished at the close of the fifth, or 
beginning of the sixth century of the Christian era. He 
was preceded, as it seems, by another of the same name, 
who Uved, according to the chronologists of Zljjayam, at 
the close of the second century. He may have been fol- 
lowed by a third, who is said to have flourished at the 
court of RAjA Bh6ja d^va of Dhara, and to have had 
SatAnanda, the author of the Bhaswati, for his scholar. 

* As. Res., vol. ii. p. 235. 



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486 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 



Introduction and Progress of Algebra among tlie Italians. 

Leonardo of Pisa was unquestionably the first who 
made known the Arabian algebra to Christian Europe. 
The fact was, indeed, for a time disputed, and the pre- 
tensions of the Italians to the credit of being the first 
European nation which cultivated algebra, were contested, 
upon vague surmises of a possible, and therefore presumed 
probable, communication of the science of algebra, together 
with that of arithmetic, by the Saracens of Spain to their 
Christian neighbours in the Peninsula, and to others alleged 
to have resorted thither for instruction. The conjecture 
hazarded by Wallis (Algebra historical and practical) on 
this point, was assisted by a strange blunder, in which 
Blancanus was followed by Vossius and a herd of sub- 
sequent writers, concerning the age of Leonardo, placed 
by them precisely two centuries too low. The claims of 
the Italians in his favour, and for themselves as his early 
disciples, were accordingly resisted with a degree of acri- 
mony (Gu a ; M^m. de TAcad. des Sc. 174L p. 436.) which 
can only be accounted for by that disposition to detraction, 
which occasionally manifests itself in the Uterary, as in 
the idler, walks of society. The evidence of his right to 
acknowledgments for transplanting Arabian algebra into 
Europe was for a long period ill set forth: but, when 
diligently sought, and cai*efully adduced, doubt was removed 
and opposition silenced.* 

The merit of vindicating his claim belongs chiefly to 
CossALi.f A manuscript of Leonardo's treatise on 

* MoNTUCLA, 2d Ed. Additions. 

t Origine, &c. dell' Algebra. Parma 179?. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 487 

arithmetic and algebra, bearing the title of Liber Abbaci 
compositus a Leonardo filio JBonacci Pisano in anno 
1202, was found towards the middle of the last century by 
Targioni Tozzetti* in the Magliabecchian library at 
Florence, of which he had the care ; and another work of 
that author, on square numbers, was afterwards found by 
the same person inserted in an anonymous compilation, 
treating of computation, (un trattato d'Abbaco), in the 
library of a royal hospital at the same place. A transcript 
of one more treatise of the same writer was noticed by 
Tozzetti in the Magliabecchian collection, entitled Leo- 
nardi Pisani de jiliis JBonacci Practica Geometrice com- 
posita anno 1220. The subject of it is confined to men- 
suration of land ; and being mentioned by the author in 
bis epistle prefixed to the revised Liber Abbaci, shows the 
revision to be of later date. It appears to be of 1228.t 
Tozzetti subsequently met with a second copy of the 
Liber Abbaci in Magliabecchi's collection : but it is de- 
scribed by him as inaccurate and incomplete. X A third has 
been since discovered in the Riccardian collection, also at 
Florence: and a fourth, but imperfect one, was commu- 
nicated by Nelli to CossALi.^ No diligence of research 
has, however, regained any trace of the volume which 
contained Leonardo's treatise on square numbers: the 
library in which it was seen having been dispersed previ- 
ously to CossALi's inquiries. 

It appears from a brief account of himself and his travels, 
and the motives of his undertaking, which Leonardo has 
introduced into his preface to the Liber Abbaci, that he 

• Viaggj, vol. i. and vi. Edit 1751—1754. 
f CossALi, Origine, &c. c. I. § 5. 
t Viaggi, vol. ii. Edit. 1768. 
§ Origine, &c. dell' Algebra, c. 2. § 1. 



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488 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

travelled into Egypt, Barbary, Syria, Greece, and Sicily ; 
that being in his youth at Bugia in Barbary, where his 
father Bonacci held an employment of scribe at the 
Custom-house, by appointment from Pisa, for Pisan mer- 
chants resorting thither, he was there grounded in the 
Indian method of accounting by nine numerals : and that 
finding it more commodious, and far preferable to that 
which was used in other countries visited by him, he pro- 
secuted the study,* and with some additions of his own 
and taking some things from Euclid's geometry, he under- 
took the composition of the treatise in question, that " the 
Latin race might no longer be found deficient in the com- 
plete knowledge of that method of computation/' In the 
epistle prefixed to the revision of his work he professes to 
have taught the complete doctrine of numbers according to 
the Indian method, f 

His peregrinations then, and his study of the Indian 
computation through the medium of Arabic, in an African 
city, took place towaixls the close of the twelfth century ; 
the earliest date of his work being A. C. 1202. 

He had been pi*eceded by more than two centuries, in 
the study of arithmetic under Muhammedan instructors, by 
Gerbert (the Pope Silvester II. )|, whose ardour for 
the acquisition of knowledge led him, at the termination of 
a two years noviciate as a Benedictine, to proceed by 
stealth into Spain, where he learnt astrology from the 
Saracens, and with it more valuable science, especially 



• Quare amplectens strictiue ipsum modum YDdorum, et actentius 
studeDs in eo, ex proprio sensu qusedam addens, et qusedam ex subti- 
litatibus Euclidis geometrise artis apponeDs, &c. 

t Plenam numerorum doctrinam edidi Yndorum, quern modum in 
ipsa scientia prsestantiorem elegi. 

} Archbishop in 992; Pope in 999; died in 1003. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 489 

arithmetic. This, upon his return, he communicated to 
Christian Europe, teaching the method of numbers under 
the designation o{ Abacus, o, name apparently first intro- 
duced by him (rationes numerorum Abaci*), by rules 
abstruse and difficult to be understood, as William of 
Malmesbury affirms : Ahacum certe primus a Saracenis 
rapiens, regulas dedit, qtuB a sudantihus Abacistis vix 
intelliguntur.f It was probably owing to this obscurity of 
bis rules and manner of treating the Arabian, or rather 
Indian arithmetic, that it made so little progress between 
his time and that of the Pisan. 

Leonardo's work is a treatise of arithmetic, terminated, 
as Arabic treatises of computation are similarly, ;{: by the 
solution of equations of the two first degrees. In the 
enumeration and exposition of the parts comprised in his 
fifteenth chapter, which is his last, he says, Tertia erit 
super modum AlgehrcB et AlmucahalcB; and, beginning to 
treat of it, Incipit pars tertia de solutione quarundam 
qucBstionum secundum modum AlgebrcB et Almucabake, 
scilicet oppositionis et restaurationis. The sense of the 
Arabic terms are here given in the inverse order, as has 
been remarked by Cossali, and as clearly appears from 
Leonardo's process of resolving an equation, which will 
be hereafter shown. 

He premises the observation, that in number three con- 
siderations are distinguished: one simple and absolute, 
which is that of number in itself: the other two relative, 
being those of root and of square. The latter, as he adds, 

* Ep. prefixed to his Treatise De Numerorum Diyisione. Gbrb. 
Ep. 160. (Ed. 1611.) 

t De Gestis Anglorum, c. 2. 

t See Mr. Strachky^s examination of the Khuldsatu I his^y As, 
Res*, vol. xii* Early History of Algebra. 



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490 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

is caUed census, which is the term he afterwards employs 
throughout. 

It is the equivalent of the Arabic mat, which properly 
signifies wealthy estate ; and census seems therefore to be 
here employed by Leonardo^ on account of its corres- 
pondent acceptation {quicquid fortunarum quis habet. 
Steph.); in like manner as he translates the Arabic shai 
by resy things as a designation of the root unknown. 

He accordingly proceeds to observe, that the simple 
number, the root, and the square (census), are equalled 
together in six ways : so that six forms of equality are 
distinguished ; the three first of which are called simple, 
and the three others compound. The order in which 
he arranges them is precisely that which is copied by 
Paciolc* It differs by a slight transposition from the 
order in which they occur in the earliest Arabic treatises of 
algebra ;f and which, no doubt, was retained in the Italian 
version from the Arabic executed by Guglielmo di Lunis, 
and others who are noticed by Cossali upon indications 
which are pointed out by him. J For Paciolo cautions 
the reader not to regard the difference of arrangement, as 
this is a matter of arbitrary choice .§ Leonardo's six-fold 
distinction, reduced to the modern algebraic notation, is 
Ist, w^=p oc, 2d, x^zin, 3d, p wzzn. 4th, a^^ pwzun. 
5th, p 0? + nzzof^. 6th, .ty^+nnp a?. In Paciolo's abridged 
notation it is 1st, c°ec«. 2d, c° en"". 3d, c^e n^ &c.|| 
The Arabic arrangement,in the treatise of the Khuwarezmite, 
is, \si, a/^^pw, 2d, a?^=w. 3d, pa?z:n. 4th,a?*+p.i?=:n. 
6th, a^'\-n=p w. 6th, p x-^-nzzx'^. Later compilations 
transfer the third of these to the first place. If 

* Sum ma de Arithmetica, &c. f See note N. 

\ Origine, &c. dell' Alg. § Summa, 8, 5. 5. 

II Summa, 8, 5, 5. IT Khtddsattil hisdb. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 491 

Like the Arabs^ Leonardo omits and passes unnoticed 
the fourth form of quadratic equations^ o?^ ^p.v + n=:o. It 
could not, indeed, come within the Arabian division of 
equations into simple, between species and species, and 
compound, between one species and two : * quantity being 
either stated aflBrmatively, or restored in this algebra to the 
positive form. Paciolo expressly observes, that in no 
other but these six ways is any equation between those 
quantities possible : Altramente che in questi 6 discorsi modi 
non e possible alcuna loro equatione, 

Leonardo's resolution of the three simple cases of 
equation is not exhibited by Cossali. It is, however, the 
same, no doubt, with that which is taught by Paciolo; 
and which precisely agrees with the rules contained in the 
Arabic books, f To facilitate comparison, and obviate dis- 
tant reference, Paciolo's rules are here subjoined in fewer 
words than he employs. 

1st, Divide the things by the squares [coefficient by 
coefficient], the quotient is the value of thing. 

2d, Divide the number by the squares [by the coefficient 
of the square], the root of the quotient is the value of 
thing. 

3d, Divide the number by the things [that is, by the 
coefficient], the quotient is tlie value of thing.;}; 

The resolution of the three cases of compound equations 
is deKvered by Cossali from Leonardo, contracting his 
rugged Latin into modem algebraic form. 

1st, Bea?«+pa?=n. Then w^-^i p-{"^ (ip^+n). 

2d, Bea?2=pcr+n. Thena?=ip+v' (ip^ + n). 

3d, Be a?«+n=pa?. Then, if ^p^/Lriy the equation is 



* Khtddsaiu'l hisdb. t See note N ; and As. Res., vol. xii. 

\ Summa, 8, 5, 6. 



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492 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

impossible. If ^ p^:^ny then mi^^p. If i p*"7w, then 
a?=ip-V (ip2-n), or -\p+V (ip*-«) 

He adds the remark : Et sic, si non solvetur quuBstio cum 
diminutione, solvetur cum additione. 

The rules are the same which are found in the Arabic 
treatises of algebra.* The same rules will be likewise 
found in the work of Paciolo, expressed with his usual 
verboseness in his Italian text : to which, in this instance, 
he has added in the margin the same instructions delivered 
in a conciser form in Latin memorial verses. As they are 
given at length by Montucla, it is unnecessary to cite 
them in this place. On the subject of the impossible case 
Paciolo adds, as a Notandum utilissimum, ' Sel numero 
qual si trova in la ditta equatione accompagnato con lo 
censo, sel non e minore o veramente eqiwle al quadrato de la 
mita de le cose, el caso essere insoluMle : e per consequente 
dico aguaglimento non potere avenire per aUun modo.* 
Summa, 8, 4, 12. 

Concerning the two roots of the quadratic equation in 
the other case, under the same head, he thus expands the 
short concluding remark of Leonardo : Siccke Vuno e 
Valtro modo satisfa al tema : ma a le volte se have la 
verita a Vuno modo, a le volte a raltro;f el perche, se 
cavando la radice del ditto remanente de la mita de le 
cose non satisfacesse al tema, la ditta radice aggiongni a 
la mita de le cose, e averai el quesito : e mai fallara che 
a Vuno di tai modi non sia satisfatto al quesito, cioe giong^ 
nendo la, owero cavando la del dimeciamento de le cose. 
Summa, 8, 4, 12. 

BoMBELLi remarks somewhat differently on the same 
point. Nei quesiti alcuna volta, ben che di rado, il restante 
non servi, ma ben si la somma sempre. Alg. 2. 262. 

• See note N, 

i Compare with Hindu algebra, yij.-gah. § 130 and 142. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 493 

The rules for the resolution of compound equations are 
demonstrated by Leonardo upon rectilinear figures ; and 
in the last instance he has reference to Euclid. — Lib. 2. 
Th. 5. There is i-oom then to surmise, that some of the 
demonstrations are among the additions which he professes 
to have made. 

Among the many problems which he proceeds to resolve, 
two of which are selected by Cossali for instances of his 
manner, it will be suflBcient to cite one, in the resolution of 
which the whole thread of his operations is exhibited ; 
substituting, however, the more compendious modern signs. 
His manner of conducting the algebraic process may be 
fully understood from this single instance. 

Problem : To divide the number 10 into two parts, such 
that dividing one by the other, and adding 10 to the sum 
of the quotient, and multiplying the aggregate by the 
greater, the amount is finally 114. 

Let the right line a be the greater of the parts sought ; 
which I call thing (qiiam pono rem) : and the right line 
hg equal to 10 : to which are joined in the same direction 
gd, de, representing the quotients of division of the parts, 
one by the other. Since a multiplied by 5 e is equal to 
114, therefore aX J g + aXgrf+a+rfe=114; and taking 
from each side axb g, there will be a Xg d+a x e?e=114 
^ax^bg, Be grf the quotient 10— a, there will arise 

a 
10-a+axde=114-ax&g=:114— 10a; since bg is 
equal to 10. Whence a xde= 104— 9a. But de is 
the quotient a : wherefore a« z=104 — 9 a. So that 
10^ 10^ 

a^=l040— 194a + 9al Restore diminished things (re- 
staura res diminutas), and take one square from each side 
iet extrahe unum censum ab utraqne parte), the remainder 



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494 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

is 8 0- + 1040=194 a; and dividing by eight, o^^lSOzr 
24^ a; and resolving this according to rule, a=97— 

V (97)2 -130:= 97- 33 =8: consequently 10- a=2. ^ 
8 8 "8 

Besides his great work on arithmetic and algebra, Leo- 
nardo was author of a separate treatise, as already 
intimated, on square numbers. Reference is formally 
made to it by Paciolo, who drew largely from this 
source, and who mentions Le quali domande (questions 
concerning square numbers) sono diffidllissime quanta ala 
demonstratione dela practica : comme sa chi ben f a scnUi-- 
nato, Maxime Leonardo Pisano in un particulare tractato 
che fa de quadratis numeris intitulato. Dove con grande 
sforzo se ingegna dare norma e regola a simili solutioni, 
Summa 1. 4. 6. 

The directions for the solution of such problems being 
professedly taken by Paciolo chiefly from Leonardo, 
and the problems themselves which are instanced by him 
being probably so, it can be no difficult task to restore 
the lost work of Leonardo on this subject. The divina- 
tion has accordingly been attempted by Cossali, and 
with a considerable degree of success. (Origine, &c. dell* 
Algebra, c. 6.) 

Among problems of this sort which are treated by Pa- 
ciolo after Leonardo, several are found in the current 
Arabic treatises ; others, which belong to the indeterminate 
analysis, occur in the algebi*aic treatises of the Hindus ; 
some, which are more properly Diophantine, may have 
been taken from the Ai*abic translation, or commentary, 
of the work of Diophantus. Leonardo's endeavour to 
reduce the solution of such problems to general rule and 
system, according to Paciolo's intimation of his efforts 
towards that end, must have been purely his own: as 
nothing systematic to this effect is to be found in the 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 495 

Arabic treatises of algebra ; and as he clearly had no 
communication through his Arab instructors, nor any 
knowledge of the Hindu methods for the general resolution 
of indeterminate problems, simple or quadratic. 

MoNTucLA, who had originally underrated the perform- 
ance of Leonardo, seems to have finally conceded to it 
a merit rather beyond its desert, when he ascribes to that 
author the resolution of certain biquadratics as derivative 
equations of the second degree. The derivative rules were, 
according to Cardan's affirmation, added to the original 
ones of Leonardo by an uncertain author; and placed 
with the principal by Paciolo. Cardan's testimony 
in this respect is indeed not conclusive, as the passage in 
which the subject is mentioned is in other points replete 
with errors; attributing the invention of algebm to Mu- 
HAMMED son of MusA, and alleging the testimony of 
Leonardo to that point ; limiting Leonardo's rules to 
four, and intimating that Paciolo introduced the deriva- 
tive rules in the same place with the principal : all which is 
unfounded and contrary to the fact. Cossali, however, 
who seems to have diligently examined Leonardo's 
remains, does not claim this honour for his author; but 
appears to admit Cardan's position, that the derivative, 
or, as they are termed by Paciolo, the proportional equa- 
tions, and rules for the solution of them, were devised by 
an uncertain author, and introduced by Paciolo into his 
compilation under a sepamte head : which actually is the 
case. (Summa, 8, 6, 2, &c.) 

In regard to the blunder, in which Montucla copied 
earlier writers, respecting the time when Leonardo of 
Pisa flourished, he has defended himself (2d edit. Additions) 
against the reprehension of Cossali, upon the plea, that 
he was not bound to know of manuscripts existing in 
certain libraries of Italy, which served to show the age in 



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496 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

which that author Uved. The excuse is not altogether 
valid: for Targioni Tozzetti had announced to the 
public the discovery of the manuscripts in question^ with 
the date^ and a sufficient intimation of the contents, several 
years before the first volumes of Montucla's History of 
Mathematics appeared.* 

I am withheld from further animadversion on the negli- 
gence of an author who has in other respects deserved 
well of science, by the consideration, that equal want of 
research, and in the very same instance, has been mani- 
fested by more recent writers, and among our own coun- 
trymen. Even so lately as in the past year (1816) a 
distinguished mathematician, writing in the Encyclopaedia 
which bears the national appellation,i' has relied on obso- 
lete authorities and antiquated disquisitions concerning the 
introduction of the denary numerals into Europe, and 
shown total unacquaintance with what was made public 
sixty yeai-s ago by Targioni Tozzetti, and amply 
discussed by Cossali in a copious work on the pro- 
gress of algebra in Italy, and in an earlier one on the 
origin of arithmetic, published more than twenty years 
since : matter fully recognised by Montucla in his second 
edition, and briefly noticed in common biographical die- 

tionaries.J 

In the article of the Encyclopeedia to which reference 
has been just made, the author is not less unfortunate in all 
that he says concerning the Hindus and their arithmetical 
knowledge. He describes the Lilavati as a short and 

• Taboioni TozzBTTi's first volume bears date 1751. His sixth, 
(the last of his first edition) 1754. Montucla's first two volumes 
were published in 1758. 

t Encycl. Brit. Supp. art Arithmetic. 

\ Diet. Hist, par Chaudon et Dalandinb : art. Leonard de Pise. 
7 Edit. (1789). Probably in earlier editions likewise. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 497 

meagre performance headed with a silly preamble and 
colloquy of the gods." (Where he got this colloquy is 
difficult to divine; the Lilavatt contains none.) " The 
examples/' he says, " are generally very easy, and only 
vnritten on the margin with red ink." (Not so written in 
any one among the many copies collated or inspected.) 
" Of fractions," he adds, '^ whether decimal or vulgar, it 
treats not at all." (See Ch. 2. Sect. 3 and Ch. 4. Sect. 2. 
also § 138.) 

He goes on to say, " the Hindus pretend, that this 
arithmetical treatise was composed about the year 1185 of 
the Christian era, &c." Every thing in that passage is 
erroneous. The date of the Lilavati is 1150, at the latest. 
The uncertainty of the age of a manuscript does not, as 
suggested, affect the certainty of the date of the original 
composition. It is not true, as alleged, that the oriental 
transcriber is accustomed to incorporate without scruple 
such additions in the text as he thinks fit. Nor is it 
practicable for him to do so with a text aiTanged in metre, 
of which the lines are numbered: as is the case with 
Sanscrit text books in general. Collation demonstrates 
that no such liberty has been taken with the particular book 
in question. 

The same writer affirms, liiat '' the Persians, though no 
longer sovereigns of Hindustan, yet display their superiority 
over the feeble Gentoos, since they generally fill the oflSces 
of the revenue, and have the reputation of being the most 
expert calculators in the east." This is literally and pre- 
cisely the reverse of the truth ; as every one knows, who 
has read or heard any thing concerning India. 

The author is not more correct when he asserts, that 

it appears from a careful inspection of the manuscripts 
preserved in the different public libraries in Europe, that 
the Arabians were not acquainted with the denary numerals 

VOL. II. 2 K 



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498 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

before the middle of the thirteenth century of the Christian 
era." Leonardo of Pisahad learned the Indian numerals 
from Arabian instruction in the twelfth century, and tau^t 
the use of them in the second year of the thirteenth : and 
the Arabs were in possession of the Indian mode of 
computation by these numerals so far back as the eighth 
century of the Christian era.* 

To return to the subject. 

After Leonardo of Pisa, and before the invention of 
the art of printing, and publication of the first printed 
treatise on the science, by Paciolo, algebra was diligently 
cultivated by the Italian mathematicians; it was publicly 
taught by professors ; treatises were written on it, and 
recurrence was again had to the Arabian source. A trans- 
lation of " tlie Rule of Algebra " (La Regola dell* Algebra) 
from the Arabic into the language of Italy, by Guglielmo 
Di LuNis, is noticed at the beginning of the Ragiana- 
mento di Algebra by Raffaelo Caracci, the extant 
manuscript of which is considered by antiquarians to be of 
the fourteenth century.f A translation of the original 
treatise of Mu hammed ben Musa, the Khuwarezmite, 
appears to have been current in Italy ; and was seen at a 
later period by both Cardan and Bombelli.;]: Paolo 
DELLA Pergola, Demetrio Bragadini, and Anto- 
nio Cornaro, are named by Paciolo as successively 
filling the professor's chair at Venice ; the latter his own 
fellow-disciple. He himself taught algebra pubUcly at 
Peroscia at two different periods. In the preceding age a 
number of treatises on algorithm, some of them with that 
title: others like Leonardo's, entitled De Abaco, and 

• See note N. 

t CossALi, Orig. &c. deir Algebra, vol. i. p. 7. 

X Ibid, vol. i. p. 9. Cardan, Ars Magna, 5. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 499 

probaUy like his touchmg on algebra as well as «rith- 
meiic, were circulated. Paolo bi Dagomari, in parti- 
cular, a mathematician living in the middle of the four- 
teenth century, obtained the surname of DelT Abaco for 
his skill in the science of numbers, and is besides said to 
have been conversant with equations (whether algebraic or 
astronomical may indeed be questioned), as well as geo- 
metry.* 

With the art of printing came the publication of Pa- 
ciOLO, and the subsequent history of the inventbns in 
algebra by Italian masters, is too well-known to need to 
be repeated in this place. 

M. 

Arithmetics of Diophantus. 

Five copies of Diophantus, viz, three in the Vatican 
(CossALi, Orig. delV Alg. i. 4. § 2.); Xylander's, sup* 
posed (Coss. ib. \ 5.) to be the same widi the Palatine 
inspected bySAUMAisE, though spoken of as distinct by 
Bachet, {Epist. ad lect.); and the Parisian used by 
Bachet himself (ti.); all contain the same text. But one 
of the Vatican copies, believed to be that which Bombelli 
consulted, distributes a like portion of text into seven instead 
of six books. (Coss. ib, § 6.) In truth the division of 
manuscript books is very uncertain : and it is by no means 
improbable, that the remains of Diophantus, as we 
possess them, may be less incomplete and constitute a 
larger portion of the thirteen books announced by him 
iDef. 11.), than is commonly reckoned. His treatise on 
polygon numbers, which is surmised to be one (and that 
the last of the thirteen,) follows, as it seems, the six (or 



• CossAU, vol. i. p. 9. 
2 K 2 



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500 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

seven) books m the exemplars of the work, as if the pre- 
ceding portion were complete. It is itself imperfect : but 
the manner is essentially different from that of the foregoing 
books: and the solution of problems by equations is no 
longer the object, but rather the demonstration of proposi- 
tions. There appeal's no ground, beyond bare surmise, to 
presume, that the author, in the rest of the tracts relative 
to numbers, which fuliiUed his promise of thirteen books, 
resumed the algebraic manner : or in short, that the alge- 
braic part of his performance is at all mutilated in the 
copies extant, which are considered to be all transcripts of 
a single imperfect exemplar. (Bachet, Ep. ad lect,) 

It is indeed alleged, that the resolution of compound 
equations (two species left equal to one) which Dio- 
PHANTUS promises (De/. 11.) to show subsequently, bears 
reference to a lost part of his work. But the author, after 
confining himself to cases of simple equations (one species 
equal to one species) in the first three books, passes occa- 
sionally to compound equations (two species equal to one, 
and even two equal to two species) in the three following 
books. See iv. Q. 33 ; vi. Q. 6 and 19; and Bachet on 
Def 11, and i. Q. 33. In various instances he pursues the 
solution of the problem, until he arrives at a final quadratic 
equation ; and, as in the case of a simple equation, he then 
merely states the value inferrible, without specifying the 
steps by which he arrives at the inference. See iv. Q. 23 ; 
vi. Q. 7, 9 and 11. But, in other places, the steps are 
sufficiently indicated : particularly iv. Q. 33 and 45 ; v. Q. 
13 ; vi. Q. 24 : and his method of resolving the equation 
is the same with the second of Brahmegupta's rules for 
the resolution of quadratics (Brahm. 18. § 34). The first 
of the Hindu author's rules, the same with SrIdhara's 
quoted by BhAscara {Vy.-gan, % 131. Brahm. 18. 
§32.), differs from that of Nugnez (Nonius) quoted by 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 501 

Bachet (on DioPH. i. 33), in dispensing with the pre- 
liminary step of reducing the square term to a single 
square : a preparation which the Arabs first introduced, as 
well as the distinction of three cases of quadratics : for it 
was practised neither by Diophantus, nor by the Hindu 
algebraists. 

Diophantus has not been more explicit, nor methodical, 
on simple, than on compound, equations. But there is no 
reason to conclude, that he returned to either subject in a 
latter part of his work, for the purpose of completing the 
instruction, or better explaining the method of conducting 
the resolution of those equations. Such does not seem to 
be the manner of his arithmetics, in which general methods 
and comprehensive rules are wanting. It is rather to be' 
inferred, as Cossali does, from the compendious way in 
which the principles of Algebra are deUvered, or alluded 
to, by him, that the determinate analysis was previously not 
unknown to the Greeks, wheresoever they got it; and 
that Diophantus, treating of it cursorily as a matter 
already understood, gives all his attention to cases of 
indeterminate analysis, in which perhaps he had no Greek 
precursor. (Coss. Orig. deW Alg. i. 4. § 10.) He cer- 
tainly intimates, that some part of what he proposes to 
teach is new : ?<^«$ M^" ^^ 3b*6r ri ir^ayiia 3i/(r%ff erc^oy luBiivi 
fjoiva yvi^ifiov In. While in other places (Def. 10.) he 
expects the student to be previously exercised in the algo- 
rithm of algebra. The seeming contradiction is reconciled 
by conceiving the principles to have been known ; but the 
application of them to a certain class of problems concern- 
ing numbers to have been new. 

Concerning the probable antiquity of the Diophantine 
algebra, all that can be confidently affirmed is, that it is 
not of later date than the fourth century of Christ. 
Among the works of Hypatia, who was murdered A.D. 



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502 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

415, as they are enumerated by Suidas, is a commentary 
on a work of a Diophantus, most likely this author. 
An epigram in the Greek antbologia (lib. ii. c. 22.) is 
considered with probability to relate to him : but the age 
of its author Lucillius is uncertain. Bachet observes, 
that, so &r as can be conjectured, Lucillius lived about 
the time of Nero. This, however, is mere conjecture. 

DiopHANTus is posterior to Hypsicles, whom he cites 
in the treatise an. polygon numbers. (Prop. 8.) This 
should furnish another fixed point. But the date of Hyp- 
siCLEs is not well determined. He is reckoned the author, 
or at least the reviser,* of two books subjoined to Euclid's 
elements, and numbered 14th and 15th. In the introduce 
tion, he makes mention of Apollokius, one of whose 
writings, which touched on the ratio of the dodecaedroQ 
and icosaedron inscribed in the same sphere, was con- 
sidered by Basilides of Tyre, and by the father of him 
(Hypsicles) as incorrect, and was amended by them 
accordingly: but subsequently he (Hypsicles) met with 
another work of Apollonius, in which the investigation 
of the problem was satisfactory, and the demonstration of 
the proposition correct. Here again Bacui^t observes, 
that, so far as can be conjectured, from the manner in 
which he speaks of Apollonius, he must have lived not 
long after him. Cossali goes a little further: and con* 
dudes on the same grounds, that they were nearly con- 
temporary. iOr^. deir Alg. i. 4. § 4.) The grounds 
seem inadequate to support any such conclusion : and aU 
that can be certainly inferred is, that Hypsicles of 
Alexandria was posterior to Apollonius, who flourished 
in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes : two hundred years 
before Christ. 



• TdrikhuH hucamd cited by Casiri, BihL Arab. Hisp., vol. i. 
. 346. The Arabian author uses the word asleh amended. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 503 

Several persons of the name of Dioph antus are noticed 
by Greek authors ; but none whose place of abode, pro- 
fession, or avocations, seem to indicate any correspondence 
with those of the mathematician and algebraist : one, a 
praetor of Athens, mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, 
Zenobius, and Suidas; another, secretary of king 
Herod, put to death for forgery, as noticed by Tzetzes; 
and a third, the instructor ^ of Libanius in eloquence, 
named by Suidas in the article concerning that sophist 
and rhetorician. 

The Armenian Abu'lfaraj places the algebraist Dio- 
phantus under the emperor Julian. But it may be 
questioned, whether he has any authority for that date, 
besides the mention by Greek authors of a learned person 
of the name, the instructor of Libanius, who was con- 
temporary with that emperor. 

Upon the whole, however, it seems preferable to abide 
by the date furnished in a professed history, even an Arabic 
one, on a Grecian matter ; and to consider Diophantus as 
contemporary with the emperor Julian, about A.D. 366. 
That date is consistent with the circumstance of Hypatia 
writbg a commentary on his works ; and is not contradicted 
by any other fact, nor by the affirmation of any other 
writer besides Bombelli, on whose authority Cossali 
nevertheless relies. 

Bombelli, when he announced to the public the exist- 
ence of a manuscript of Diophantus in the Vatican, 
placed the author under the emperor Antoninus Pius, 
without citing any grounds. His general accuracy is, 
however, impeached by his assertion, that the Indian 
authors are frequently cited by Diophantus. No such 
quotations are found in the very manuscript of that author's 
work, which he is known to have consulted, and which 
has been purposely re-examined. (Coss. i. 4. § 4.) Bom- 



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504 



ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 



BELLi's authority was, therefore, very properly rejected by 
Bachet, and should have been so by Cossali. 

N. 
Progress and proficiency of the Arabians in Algebra. 

In the reign of the second Abbassidekhalif Almans6r, 
and in the 166th year of the Hejira (A.D. 773), as is 
related in the preface to the astronomical tables of Ben- 
AL Adami, published by his continuator Al Casem in 308. 
H. (A.D. 920), an Indian astronomer, well versed in the 
science which he professed, visited the court of the khalif, 
bringing with him tables of the equations of planets accord- 
ing to the mean notions, with observations relative to both 
solar and lunar eclipses and the ascension of the signs ; 
taken, as he affirmed, from tables computed by an Indian 
prince, whose name, as the Arabian author writes it, was 
PhIghar. The khalif, embracing the opportunity thus 
happily presented to him, commanded the book to be 
translated into Arabic, and to be published for a guide to 
the Arabians in matters pertaining to the stars. The task 
devolved on Muhammed ben IbrAhIm Alfazari; whose 
version is known to astronomers by the name of the 
greater Sind-hind or Hind-sind, for the term occurs 
vnitten both ways.''^ It signifies, according to the same 
author Ben al Adam!, the revolving ages, Al dehr al 
daher ; which Casiri translates perpettatm {Btemumqtie.f 

No Sanscrit term of similar sound occurs, bearing a 
signification reconcilable to the AraUc interpretation. If a 



• Casiri, Bibl. Arab. Hisp. citing Bibl. Arab, Phil. {Tdrikhu'l 
hucama) vol. i. p. 438. voce Alphazdri. 

t Ibid. vol. i. p. 426. voce Katka. Sind aod Hind likewise signify, 
in the Arabian writers, the hither and remoter India. D'Herbblot, 
Bibl. Orient, p. 415. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 505 

conjecture is to be hazarded, the original word may have 
been Siddhanta. Other guesses might be proposed, 
partly combining sound with interpretation, and taking for 
a termination sindhu ocean, which occurs in titles now 
familiar for works relative to the regulation of time, as 
Cala sindhu, Samaya sindhu, &c. or adhering exclusively 
to sound, as Indu sindhu, or Indu siddhanta ; the last a 
title of the same import with S6ma siddhanta still current. 
But whatever may have been the name, the system of 
astronomy which was made known to the Arabs, and 
which is by them distinguished by the appellation in 
question, appears to have been that which is contained in 
the Brahma siddhanta, and which is taught in Br ah me- 
gupta's revision of it. This fact is deducible from the 
number of elapsed days between the beginning of planetary 
motions and the commencement of the present age of the 
world, according to the Indian reckoning, as it is quoted 
by the astrologer of Balkh, Abu Mashar, and which 
precisely agrees with Brahmegupta. The astrologer 
does not indeed specify which of the Indian systems he is 
citing. But it is distinctly affirmed by later Arabian 
authorities, that only one of the three Indian doctrines of 
astronomy was understood by the Arabs ; and that they 
had no knowledge of the other two beyond their names.* 
Besides, ARYABHAff a and the Area siddhanta, the two 
in question, would have furnished very different numbers. 

The passage of Abu Mashar, to which reference has 
been now made, is remarkable, and even important; and, 
as it has been singularly misunderstood and grossly mis- 
quoted by B A ILLY, in his Astronomic Ancienne (p. 302), 
it may be necessary to cite it at full length in this place. 



* Tarikku'l hucamdf cited by Casiri, Bibl Arab, Hisp,, vol. i. 
p. 426. voce Katka. 



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506 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

It occurs at the end of the fourth tract (and not, as Bailly 
quotes, the beginning of the fifth), in Abu Mashar's 
work on the conjimctions of planets. The author there 
observes, that ' the Indians reckoned the beginning [of 
the world] on Sunday, at sunrise (or, to quote from the 
Latin version, Et eestimaverunt Indi quod principium fuit 
die dominica sole ascendente); and between that day and 
the day of the deluge (et est inter eos, s. inter ilium 
diem et diem diluvii) 720634442716 days equivalent to 
1900340938 * Persian years and 344 days. The deluge 
happened on Friday (et init diluvium die Veneris) 27tfa 
day of Rabe 1st, which is 29 from Cibat and 14 firom 
Adristinich. Between the deluge and the first day of 
the year in which the Hejira occurred (fuerunt ergo inter 
diluvium et primum diem anni in quo fuit Alhegira) 3837 
years and 268 days ; which will be, according to the years 
of the Persians, 3725 years and 348 days. And between 
the deluge and the day of Jesdagir (Yezdajeed) king of 
the Persians, from the beginning of whose reign the Per- 
sians took their era, . . , . 3735 years, 10 months, and 22 
days.' The author proceeds with the comparison of the 
eras of the Persians and Arabians, and those of Alex- 
ander and Philip; and then concludes the treatise: 
completi sunt quatuor tractatus, Deo adjuvante. 

Bailly's reference to this passage is in the following 
words. ^ ALBUMASARf rapporte que selon les Indiens, il 
s'est ecoul^ 720634442715 jours entre le deluge etTepoque 
de rh^gire. II en conclut, on ne sait trop comment, qu'il 
s'est ecoule 3725 ans dans cet intervalle : ce qui placeroit 



* There is something wanting in the number of years : which is 
deficient at the third place. Both editions of the translation (Augs- 
burg 1489, Venice 1515) give the same words. 

t De Magn. Conj. Traite v, au commencement. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 507 

le deluge 3103 ans avant J. C. pr^cis^ment k I'epoque 
cbronologique et astronomique des Indiens. Mais Albu- 
MASAB ne dit point comment il est parvenu k 6galer ces 
deux nombres de 3723 ans et de 720634442716 jours/ 
Ast. anc. eel. liv. i. § xvii. 

Now on this it is to be observed, that Bailly makes 
the ante-diluvian period between the Sunday on which the 
world began and the Friday on which the deluge took 
place, comprising 720634442715 days, to be the same 
with the post-diluvian period, from the deluge to the Hejira ; 
and that he quotes the author, as unaccountably rendering 
that number equivalent to 3725 years, though the text 
expressly states more than 1900000000 years. The blun- 
der is the more inexcusable, as B a illy himself remark- 
ed the inconsistency, and should therefore have re-examined 
the text which he cited, to verify his quotation. 

Major WiLFORD,* relying on the correctness of Bail- 
ly 's quotation, concluded that the en-or originated with 
either the transcriber or translator. But in fact the mistake 
rested solely with the citer : as he would have found if his 
attention had been drawn to the more correct quotation in 
Anquetil du Pebron's letter prefixed to his Rech. 
Hist, et Geog. sur Vlnde, inserted in Bernoulli's 2d 
vol. oi Desc. de VInde (p. xx). But, though Anquetil is 
more accurate than Bailly in quotation, he is not more 
successful in his inferences, guesses, and surmises. For 
he strangely concludes from a passage which distinctly 
proves the use of the great cycle of the calpa by the Indian 
astronomers to whom Abu Mashar refers, that they were 
on the contrary unacquainted in those days with a less 
cycle, which is comprehended in it. So little did he un- 
derstand the Indian periods, that he infers from a specified 

• As. Res., vol. X. p. 1 17. 



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608 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

number of elapsed days and correspondent years, reckoned 
from the beginning of the great cycle which dates from the 
supposed moment of the commencement of the world, that 
ihey knew nothing of a subordinate period, which is one 
of the elements of that cycle. Nor is he nearer the truth, 
but errs as much the other way, in his conjecture, that 
the number of solar years stated by Abu Mashar relates 
to the duration of a life of BraumA, comprising a hundred 
of that deity's years. 

In short, Anquetil's conclusions are as erroneous as 
Bailly's premises. The discernment of Mr. Davis, to 
whom the passage was indicated by Major Wilford, 
anticipated the correction of this blunder of B a illy, by 
restoring the text with a conjectural emendation worthy of 
his sagacity.* 

The name of the Indian author from whom Abu Mashar 
derived the particulars which he has frimished, is written by 
Bailly, Kankaraf; taken, as he says, from an ancient 
Arabic writer, whose work is subjoined to that of Messala, 
published at Nuremberg by Joachim Heller in 1648.t 
The latin translation of Messahala (MA.-shAa-Allah) 
was edited by Joachim Heller at Nuremberg in 1649 ; 
but it is not followed, in the only copy accessible to me, 
by the work of any other Arabic author ; and the quotation 
consequently has not been verified. D'Herbelot writes 
the same variously ; Kankah or Cancah, Kenker or 
KankaVy and Kengheh or Kanghah ;% to which Reiske 
and Schultens, from frulher research, add another varia- 



♦ As. Res., vol. ix. p. 242. Appendix to an Essay of Major Wil- 
ford. 

t Astr. Anc. p. 303. 

t BihL Or, Art. Cancah al Hendi, and Kenker al Hendi. Also 
Ketab Menazel al Gamar and Ketab al Keranat. 



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NOTBS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 509 

tion, Kengch;* which is not of Arabic but Persian ortho- 
graphy. Casiri^ by a difference of the diacritical pointy 
reads from the TarikhvH hucama, and transcribes, Katka.f 
That the same individual is all along meant, clearly 
appears from the correspondence of the works ascribed to 
him : especially his treatise on the greater and less con- 
junctions of the planets, which was imitated by Abu 
Mashar. 

Amidst so much diversity in the orthography of the 
word it is difficult to retrieve the original name, without too 
much indulgence in conjecture. Canca, which comes 
nearest to the Arabic corruption, is in Sanscrit a proper 
name among other significations ; but it does not occur as 
the appellation of any noted astrologer among the Hindus. 
Garga does ; and, as the Arabs have not the soft guttural 
consonant, they must widely corrupt that sound ; yet Can^ 
gliar and Cancah seem too remote from it to allow it to be 
proposed as a conjectural restoration of the Indian name. 

To return to the more immediate subject of this note. 
The work of AlfazaA, taken from the Hindu astronomy, 
continued to be in general use among the Muhammedans, 
until the time of AlmAm6n ; for whom it was epitomized 
by MuHAMMED BEN MusA ol Khuwavezmi; and his 
abridgment was thenceforward known by the title of the 
less Sind'kind. It appears to have been executed for the 
satisfaction ofALMA.M6N before this prince's accession to 
the khelafet, which took place early in the third century of 
the Hejira and ninth of Christ. The same author compiled 
similar astronomical tables of his own ; wherein he pro- 
fessed to amend the Indian tables which frirnished the 



• Bibl. Or. (1777-79), vol. iv. p. 725. Should be Kengeh: a like 
error occurs p. 727, where sharchi^ put for shareh. 
t Bibl. Arab. Hisp., vol. i. p. 426. 



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510 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

mean motions ; and he is said to have taken^ for that por^ 
pose, equations from the Persian astronomy, some oilfa^ 
matters from Ptolemy, and to have added something of 
his own on certam points. His work is reported to have 
been well received by both Hindus and Muhanmiedans : 
and the greater tables, of which the compilatioa was 
commenced in the following age, by Ben al adamI and 
completed by Al Casem, were raised upon the like foun- 
dation of Indian astronomy : and were long in general use 
among the Arabs, and by them deemed excellent Anotb^ 
and earlier set of astronomical tables, founded on the Indian 
system called Sind^hind, was compiled by Habash, an 
astronomer of Baghdad ; who flourished in the time of the 
khalif AlmAm^n.* Several others, similarly founded on 
the mean motions, furnished by the same Indian system, 
were published in the third century of Hejira, or earlier : 
particularly those of Fazl ben HAtim Nariai; and Al 
Hasan ben MisBAH.f 

It was no doubt at the same period, while the Arabs 
were gaining a knowledge of one of the Indian systems 
of astronomy, that they became apprized of the exist* 
ence of two others. No intimation at least occurs of 
any different specific time or moi-e probable period, when 
the information was likely to be obtained by them, than 
that in which they were busy with the Indian astronomy, 
according to one of the three systems that prevailed among 
the Hindus ; as the author of the Tarikhu*l hucamay quoted 
by Casirt, affirms. The writer, whose compilation is of 
the twelfth century, ;{: observes, that * owing to the distance 

• TdrikhuH hucamd, Casiri, vol. i. pp. 426 and 428. Abulfabaj, 
ed. PooocKB, 161. 

t Casiri, vol. 1. pp. 413 and 421. 

} He flourished in 595 H. (A. D. 1198), as appears from passaf^ 
of his work. M. S. MDCCLXXIII. Lib. Esc. p. 74 and 316 
Casiri, vol. ii. p. 332. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 611 

of countries and impediments to intercourse, scarcely any 
of the writings of the Hindus had reached the Arabians* 
There are reckoned/ he adds, ^ three celebrated systems 
(mazhab) of astronomy among them ; namely Sind and 
hind; Arjabahar, and Arckajid : * one only of which has 
been brought to us, namely, the Sijid-hind : which most of 
the learned Muhammedans have followed.' After naming 
the authors of astronomical tables founded on that basis, 
and assigning the interpretation of the Indian title, and 
quoting the authority of Ben al AdamI, the compiler of 
the latest of those tables mentioned by him, he goes on to . 
say, that ' of the Indian sciences no other communications 
have been received by us (Arabs), but a treatise on music, 
of which the title in Hindi is 3iyaphar, and the signi- 
fication of that title " fruit of knowledge ;"t the work 
entitled CaUlah and Damanah, upon ethics ; and a book 
of numerical computation, which Abu JAfar Muhammed 
BEN MusA al Khuwarezmi amplified {basat), and which 
is a most expeditious and concise method, and testifies the 
ingenuity and acuteness of the Hindus/ 

The book, here noticed as a treatise on ethics, is the 
well known collection of fables of Pilpai or Bidpai (Sans. 
Vaidyapriya) ; and was translated from the Pehlevi version 
into Arabic, by command of the same Abbaside khalif 
ALMANst]R,:{: who caused an Indian astronomical treatise 
to be translated into the Arabian tongue. The Arabs, 
however, had other communications of portions of Indian 
science, which the author of the Tarikhu*l hucama has in 
this place overlooked ; especially upon medicine, on which 



* GA8iRi,Tol.i. pp.426 and 428. The CtiA^'/irfmicn specifies three 
astronomical systems of the Hindus nnder the same names. 
t Sans. VidySp'hala, fm\X of science. 
X Introd. Rem. to the Hitapad^sa* [page 16? of the present volume.] 



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512 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

many treatises, general and particular, were translated from 
the Indian tongue. For instance, a tract upon poisons by 
Shan AC, (Sansc. Characa?) of which an Arabic Tersion 
was made for the khalif AlmAm6n, by his preceptor 
Abbas ben SA'id JShari. Also a treatise on medicine and 
on materia medica in particular, which bears the name of 
Shashurd (Sansc. SuSruta) : and numerous others.* 

The Khuwarezmite Muhammed ben Musa, who is 
named as having made known to the Arabians the Indian 
method of computation, is the same who is recognized by 
Arabian authors with almost a common consent (Zaca- 
RiA of Casbin, &c.) as the first who wrote upon algebra. 
His competitor for the honour of priority is Abu KAmil 
ShujAa ben Aslam, sumamed the Egyptian arithme- 
tician, (Hasib al Misri) ; whose treatise on algebra was 
commented by Ali ben Ahmed al Amrani of MuieUa;\ 
and who is said by D'Herbelot to have been the first 
among learned Muslemans, that wrote upon this branch 
of mathematics4 The commentator is a writer of the 
tenth century ; the date of his decease being recorded as 
of 344H.§ (A.D. 956). The age in which his author 
flourished, or the date of his text, is not furnished by any 
authority which has been consulted ; and unless some evi- 
dence be found, showing that he was anterior to the 
Khuwarezmi, we may abide by the historical authority of 
Zacaria of Casbin; and consider the Khuwarezmi as the 

• D'Herbrlot, Bibl, Orient. Ketab al samoun, Ketab Sendha- 
schat, Ketab al sokkar, Ketab Schaschourd al Hendi, Ketab Rai al 
Hendi, Ketab Noufschal al Hendi, Ketab al akakir, &c. 

t TdrikhuH hucamd, Casibi, vol, i. p. 410. 

} Bibl. Orient. 482. Also 226 and 494. No grounds are specified. 
£bn KhalcIn and HajI Khalpah, whom he very commonly 
follows, have been searched in vain for authority on this point. 

§ Tar, Casiri, vol. i. p. 410. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 513 

earliest writer on algebra in Arabic. Next was the cele- 
brated Alchindus (Abu Yusef AlkendO, contemporary 
with the astrologer Abu MAshab, in the third century of 
the Hejira and ninth of the Christian eray"*^ an illustrious 
philosopher, versed in the sciences of Greece, of India, and 
of Persia, and author of several treatises upon numbers. In 
the prodigious multitude of his writings, upon every branch 
of science, one is specified as a tract on Indian computation 
(Hisabu'l hindi): others occur with titles which are under- 
stood by Casiri to relate to algebra, and to the * finding 
of hidden numbers ;' but which seem rather to appertain to 
other topics.f It is, however, presumable, that one of the 
works composed by him did treat of algebra as a branch 
of the science of computation. His pupil, Ahmed ben 
MuHAMMED o( Sarkhas in Persia (who flourished in the 
middle of the third century of the Hejira, for he died in 
286 H.), was author of a complete treatise of computation 
embracing algebra with arithmetic. About the same time 
a treatise of algebra was composed by Abu Hanifah 
Dainawariy who lived till 290 H. (A. D. 903.) 

At a later period Abu'lwafA Suzjani, a distinguished 
mathematician, who flourished in the fourth century of the 
Hejira, between the years 348, when he commenced his 
studies, and 388, the date of his demise, composed nume- 
rous ti-acts on computation, among which are specified 
several commentaries on algebra : one of them on the trea- 
tise of the Khuwarezmite upon that subject : another on a 
less noticed treatise by Abu Yahya, whose lectures he 
had attended : an interpretation (whether commentary or 
paraphrase may perhaps be doubted) of the work of Dio- 
PHANTus: demonstrations of the propositions contained 

•Abulfabaj; Pococke, p. 179. 
t TdrVchuH hucamd ; Casiri, vol, i. pp.363— 360. 
VOL. II. 2 I. 



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514 ALGEBBA OF THE HINDUS. 

in that work : a treatise on niunerical computation in 
general : and several tracts on particular branches of this 
subject.* 

A question has been raised, as just now hinted, wh^her 
this writer's interpretation of Diophantus is to be deemed 
a translation or a commentary. The term which is here 
employed in the Tarikhu'l hucama {tafsir, paraphrase,) and 
that which Abujlfara j uses upon the same occasion {fagr, 
interpreted,) are ambiguous. Applied to the relation be- 
tween works in the same language, the term, no doubt, 
implies a gloss or comment ; and is so understood^ the 
very same passage where an intepretaiion of the Khuwa- 
rezmite's treatise, and another of Abu Yahya's, were 
spoken of. But, where a difference of language subsists, 
it seems rather to intend a version, or at least a paraphrase, 
than mere scholia ; and is employed by the same author 
in a passage before cited ,t where he gives the Arabic sig- 
nification of a Hindi term. That Buzjani's performance 
is to be deemed a translation, appears to be fairly infenible 
from the separate mention of the demonstration of the pro- 
positions in DioPHANTUs, as a distinct work: for the 
latter seems to be of the nature of a commentary ; and the 
other, consequently, is the more likely to have been a version, 
whether literal or partaking of paraphrase. Besides, there 
is no mention, by an Arabian writer, of an earlier Arabic 
translation of Diophantus; and the Buzjani was not 
likely to be the commentator in Arabic of an untranslated 
book. D'Herbelot then may be deemed correct in 
naming him as the translator of the arithmetics of Dio- 
PHANTUs ; and Cossali, examining a like question, arrives 
at nearly the same conclusion ; namely, that the Buzjani 

• T&tikhuH hucamd; Casibi, vol. i. p. 433. 
t Ibid, vol. i. p. 426. Art. Katya. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 516 

was the translator^ and the earliesti as well as the expositor^ 
of DioPHANTUs. — {Orig. delV Alg,, vol.i. p. 175.) The 
version was probably made soon after th^ date which 
Abulfaraj assigns to it, 348 H. (A.D. 969), which more 
properly is the date of the commencement of the translator's 
mathematical studies. 

From all these facts, joined with other circumstances to 
be noticed in progress of this note, it is inferred, 1st, That 
the acquaintance of the Arabs with the Hindu astronomy is 
traced to the middle of the second century of the Hejira, in 
the reign of ALMANstjR, upon authority of Arabian histo- 
rians citing that of the preface of ancient astronomical 
tables; while their knowledge of the Greek astronomy 
does not appear to have commenced until the subsequent 
reign of HAr^jn AlrashId, when a ti*anslation of the 
Almagest is said to have been executed under the auspices 
of the Barmacide Yahya ben KhAled, by Abu H'iAn 
and Sal A MA, employed for the purpose.* 2dly, That they 
were become conversant in the Indian method of numerical 
computation within the second century; that is, before 
the beginning of the reign of AlmAm6n, whose accession 
to the Khelafet took place in 205 H. 3dly, That the first 
treatise on algebra in Arabic was published in his reign; 
but their acquaintance with the work of Diophantus is 
not traced by any historical fiicts collected firom their writ^ 
ings to a period anterior to the middle of the fourth century 
of the Hejira, when Abu'lwafA Buzjani flourished. 
4thly, That Muhammed ben Musa Khuwarezmiy the 
same Arabic author who, in the time of AlmAm6n, and 
before his accession, abridged an earlier astronomical work 
taken from the Hindus, and who published a treatise on 
the Indian method of numerical computation, is the first 



•CasirijVoI. i. p. 349. 
2l2 



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516 AI^GEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

also who fiiraished the Arabs with a knowledge of algebra, 
upon which he expressly wrote, and in that khaliTs reign, 
as will be more particularly shown as we proceed. 

A treatise of algebra bearing his name, it may be here 
remarked, was in the hands of the ItaUan algebrakts, 
translated into the ItaUan language, not very long after 
the introduction of the science into that country by Leo- 
nardo of Pisa. It appears to have been seen at a later 
period both by Cardan and by Bombblli. No manu- 
script of that version is, however, now extant ; or at least 
known to be so. 

Fortunately, a copy of the Arabic original is preserved 
in the Bodleian collection. It is the manuscript marked 
CMXVIII. Hunt. 214 folio, and bearing the date of the 
transcription 743 H. (A.D. 1342). The rules of the library, 
though access be readily allowed, preclude the study of 
any book which it contains, by a person not enured to the 
temperature of apartments unvisited by artificial warmth. 
This impediment to the examination of the manuscript in 
question has been remedied by the assistance of the under 
librarian, Mr. Alexander Nicoll, who has furnished 
ample extracts purposely transcribed by him from the 
manuscript. This has made it practicable to ascertain the 
contents of the book, and to identify the work as that in 
which the Khuwarezmi taught the principles of algebra; 
and consequently to compare the state of the science, as it 
was by him taught, with its utmost progress in the hands 
of the Muhammedans, as exhibited in an elementary work 
of not very ancient date, which is to this time studied 
among Asiatic Muslemans. 

I allude to the Khulasetu'l hisab of Behau'ldIn, an 
author who lived between the years 963 and 1031 H. The 
Arabic text, with a Persian commentary, has been printed 
in Calcutta; and a summary of its contents had been pre- 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 517 

viously given by Mr. Strachey in his " Early History of 
Algebra," in which, as in his other exertions for the inves- 
tigation of Hindu and Arabian algebra, his zeal surmounted 
great difficulties, while his labours have thrown much light 
upon the subject.* 

The title page of the manuscript above described, as 
well as a marginal note on it, and the author's preface, all 
concur in declaring it the work of Muhammed ben 
MusA Khuwarezmi: and the mention of the khalif Alma- 
m6n in that preface, establishes the identity of the author, 
whose various works, as is learned from Arabian historians, 
were composed by command, or with encouragement, of 
that khalif, partly before his accession, and partly during 
his reign. 

The preface, a transcript of which was supplied by the 
care of Mr. Nicoll, has been examined at my request by 
Colonel John Baillie. After perusing it with him, I 
am enabled to affirm, that it intimates '' encouragement 
from the Imam AlmAmun, Commander of the Faithful, to 
compile a compendious treatise of calculation by algebra ;" 
terms which amount not only to a disclaimer of any pre- 
tentions to the invention of the algebraic art, but which 
would, to my apprehension, as to that of the distinguished 
Arabic scholar consulted, strongly convey the idea of the 
pre-existence of ampler treatises upon algebra in the same 
language (Arabic), did not the marginal note above cited 
distinctly assert this to be ^^ the first treatise composed 
upon algebra among the faithful;" an assertion corrobo- 
rated by the similar affirmation of Zacaria of Cashiny 
and other writers of Arabian history. Adverting, however, 
to that express affirmation, the author must be here under- 

* See Bija Ganita^ or Algebra of the Hindus; London, 1813. 
Hutton's Math. Diet Ed. 1815, Art. Algebra: and As. Res., 
vol. zii. p. 159. 



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518 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

stood as declaring that he compiled {alaf is tlie verb used 
by him) the treatise upon algebra from books in some other 
language : dbubtless, then^ in the Indian tongue, as it has 
been already shown that he was conversant with Hindu 
astronomy, and Hindu computation and account. 

It may be right to notice, that the title of the manuscript 
denominates the author, Abu Abdullah Muhammed 
BEN MusA al Khuwarezmiy differing in the first part of 
the name from the designation which occurs in one passage 
of the TarikhuH hucama, quoted by Casiri, where the 
KhuwareznA MuHAMMkn ben Musa is called Abu 
J A far.* But that is not a sufficient ground for questtoning 
the sameness of persons and genuineness of the work, as 
the Khuwdrezmi is not usually designated by either of 
those additions, or by any other of that nature taken from 
the name of offspring : and error may be presumed, mosl 
probably on the part of the Egyptian author of the Tiai* 
khu'l hucama, since the addition which he introduces, that 
of Abu Jafah, belongs to Muhammed ben Musa ben 
Shaker, a very different person; as appears from another 
passage of the same Egyptian's compilation.f 

The following is a translation of the KhuwarezmVs direc- 
tions for the sotntion of equations, simple and compound, 
a topic which he enters upon at no great distance from die 
commencement of the volume, having first treated of uni^ 
and number in general. 

^ I found that the numbers, of which ^ere is need in 
computation by restoration and comparison, j: are of three 
kinds ; namely, roots, and squares, and simple number 
relative to neither root nor square. A root is the whole of 
thing multiplied by [root] itself, consisting of unity, or 

• C.\siiti, vol. i. p. 428. t Casiri, vol. i. p. 418. 

} Hii,d!.ulj':br iva al miikalnlnh. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 519 

numberB ascending, or fractions descending. A square is 
the whole amount of root multiplied into itself; and simple 
number is the whole that is denominated by the number, 
without reference to root or square. 

^ Of these three kinds, which are equal, some to some, 
the cases are these : for instance, you say '^ squares are 
equal to roots ;" and ** squares are equal to numbers ;" and 
" roots are equal to numbers." 

' As to the case in which squares are equal to roots ; ((X 
example, *' a square is equal to five roots of the same :" 
the root of the square is five; and the square is twenty-five : 
and that is equivalent tp five times its root. 

' So you say ** a third of the square is equal to four 
roots:" the whole square then is equal to twelve roots; 
and that is a hundred and forty-four; its root is twelve. 

^ Another example : you say '^ five squares are equal to 
ten roots." Then one square is equal to two roots : and 
the root of the square is two ; and the square is four. 

^ In like manner, whether the squares be many or few, 
they are reduced to a single square : and as much is done 
to the equivalent in roots ; reducing it to the like of that to 
which the square has been brought. 

' Case in which squares are equal to numbers : for in- 
stance, you say, " the square is equal to nine." Then that 
is the square, and the root is three. And you say, ^' five 
squares are equal to eighty :" then one square is a fifth of 
eighty ; and that is sixteen. And, if you say, ^^ the half 
of the square is equal to eighteen:" then the square is 
equal to thirty-six ; and its root is six. 

' In like manner, with all squares affirmative and nega- 
tive, you reduce them to a single square. If there be 
less than a single square, you add thereto, until the square 
be quite complete. Do as much with the equivalent in 
numbers. 



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520 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

* Case in which roots are equal to number : for instance, 
you say " the root equals three in number." Then the 
root is three ; and the square, which is raised therefrom, is 
nine. And, if you say " four roots are equal to twenty;" 
then a single root is equal to five ; and the square, that is 
raised therefirom, is twenty-five. And, if you say " the half 
of the root is equal to ten : " then the [whole] root is equal 
to twenty ; and the square, which is raised therefrom, is 
four hundred. 

* I found that, with these three kinds, namely, roots, 
squares, and number compound, there will be three com- 
pound sorts [of equation] ; that is, square and roots equal 
to number ; squares and number equal to roots ; and roots 
and number equal to squares. 

* As for squares and roots, which are equal to niunber : 
for example, you say '^ square, and ten roots of the same, 
amount to the sum of thirty-nine." Then the solution of 
it is : you halve the roots ; and that in the present instance 
yields five. Then you multiply this by its like, and the 
product is twenty-five. Add this to thirty-nine : the simi 
is sixty-four. Then take the root of this, which is eight, 
and subtract from it half the roots, namely, five; the 
remainder is three. It is the root of the square which you 
I'equired ; and the square is nine. 

' In like manner, if two squares be specified, or three, 
or less, or more, reduce them to a single square; and 
reduce the roots and number therewith to the like of that 
to which you reduced the square. 

' For example, you say ** two squares and ten roots are 
equal to forty-eight dirhems ;^* and the meaning is, any 
two [such] squares, when they are summed, and unto them 
is added the equivalent of ten times the root of one of 
them, amount to the total of forty-eight dirhems. Then 
you must reduce the two squares to a single square : and 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 621 

assuredly you know, that one of two squares is a moiety 
of both. Then reduce the whole thing in the instance to 
its half: and it is as much as to say, a square and five 
roots are equal to twenty-four dirhems ; and the meaning 
is, any [such] square, when five of its roots are added to 
it, amounts to twenty-four. Then halve the roots, and 
the moiety is two and a-half. Multiply that by its like, 
and the product is six and a-quarter. Add this to twenty- 
four, the sum is thirty dirhems and a-quarter. Extract 
the root, it is five and a-half. Subtract firom this the 
moiety of the roots; that is, two and a-half: the remain- 
der is three. It is the root of the square : and the square 
is nine. 

' In Uke manner, if it be said '' half of the square and 
five roots are equal to twenty-eight dirhems ;" it signifies, 
that, when you add to the moiety of any [such] square the 
equivalent of five of its roots, the amount is twenty-eight 
dirhems. Then you desire to complete your square so as 
it shall amount to one whole square ; that is, to double it. 
ITierefore double it, and double what you have with it ; as 
well as what is equal thereunto. Then a square and ten 
roots are equal to fifty-six dirhems. Add half the roots 
multipUed by itself, twenty-five, to fifty-six ; and the sum 
is eighty-one. Extract the root of this, it is nine. Sub- 
tract firom this the moiety of the roots ; that is, five : the 
remainder is four. It is the root of the square which you 
required : and the square is sixteen ; and its moiety is 
eight. 

* Proceed in like manner with all that comes of squares 
and roots ; and what number equals them. 

' As for squares and number, which are equal to roots ; 
for example, you say, " a square and twenty-one are equal 
to ten of its roots :" the meaning of which is, any [such] 
square, when twenty-one dirhems are added to it, amounts 



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622 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS 

to what is the equivalent of ten roots of that square : then 
the solution is, halve the roots; and the moiety is five* 
Multiply this by itself; the product is twenty-five. Then 
subtract from it twenty-one, the number specified with the 
square : the remainder is four. Extract its root ; which is 
two. Subtract this from the moiety of the roots ; that is, 
from five : the remainder is thi*ee. It is the root of the 
square which you required : and the square is nine. Or, 
if you please, you may add the root to the moiety of the 
roots : the sum is seven. It is the root of the square 
which you required ; and the square is forty-nine. 

' When a case occurs to you which you hsiag under this 
head, try its answer by the sum : and, if that do not 
serve, it certainly will by the difference. This head is 
wrought both by the sum and by the difierence. Not so 
either of the others of three cases requiring for theii* solu- 
tion tliat the root be halved. And know, that, under this 
head, when the roots have been halved, and the moiety 
has been multiplied by its like, if the amount of the pro- 
duct be less than the dirkems which are with the square, 
then the instance is impossible : and, if it be equal to the 
dirhems between them, the root of the square is like the 
moiety of the roots, without either addition or subtrac- 
tion. 

* In every instance where you have two squares, or more 
or less, reduce to a single square, as I explained under 
the first head. 

' As for roots and number, which are equal to squares : 
for example, you say, " three roots and four in number 
are equal to a square :*' the solution of it is, halve the 
roots: and the moiety will be one and a-half. Multiply 
this by its like, [the product is two and a-quarter. Add it 
to four, the sum is six and a-quartcr. Extract the root, 
which is two and a-half. To this add the moiety of the 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 623 

roots: the sum is four. It is the root of the square 
which you required : and the square is sixteen.]' 

The author returns to the subject in a distinct chapter, 
which is entitled '' On the six cases of Algebra." A short 
extract from it may suffice. 

' The first of the six cases. For example, you say, 
'' you divide ten into two parts, and multiply one of the 
two parts by the other : then you multiply one of them by 
itself, and the product of this multiplication into itself is 
equal to four times that of one of the parts by the other." 

* Solution. Make one of the two parts thiTig, and the 
other ten less thing : then multiply thing by ten less things 
and the product will be ten things less a square. Multiply 
by (bur ; for you said '' four times :" it will be four times 
the product of one pail by the other ; that is, forty things 
less four squares. Now multiply thin^ by things which 
is one of the parts by itself: the result is, square equal 
to forty things less four squares. Then restore it in the 
four squares, and add it to the one square. There will be 
forty things equal to five squares ; and a single square is 
equal to eight roots. It is sixty-four; and its root is 
eight : and that is one of the two parts, which was multi- 
plied into itself: and the remainder of ten is two ; and that 
is the other part. Thus has this instance been solved under 
one of the six heads : and that is the case of squares equal 
to roots. 

* The second case. " You divide ten into two parts, 
and multiply the amount of a part into itself. Then multi- 
ply ten into itself; and the product of this multiplication of 
ten into itself, is equivalent to twice the product of the part 
taken into itself, and seven-ninths : or it is equivalent to 
six times and a-quarter the product of the other part taken 
into itself." 

^ Solution. Make one of the parts things and the other 



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524 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

ten less thing. Then you multiply thing into itself: it is a 
square. Next by two and seven-ninths : the product will 
be two squares, and seven-ninths of a square. Then mul- 
tiply ten into itself, and the product is a hundred. Reduce 
it to a single square, the result is nine twenty-fifths ; that 
is, a fifth and four-fifths of a fifth. Take a fifth of a hun- 
dred and four-fifths of a fifUi ; the quotient is thirty-six, 
which is equal to one square. Then extract the root, which 
is six. It is one of the two parts ; and the other is un- 
doubtedly four. Thus you solve this instance under one of 
the six heads : and that is '^ squares equal to number." * 

These extracts may serve to convey an adequate notion 
of the manner in which Khuwarezmi conducts the reso- 
lution of equations simple and compound, and the investi- 
gation of problems by their means. If a comparison be 
made with the Khulasetu'l hisdb, of which a summary by 
Mr. Strachey will be found in the Researches of the 
Asiatic Society,"*^ it may be seen that the algebraic art has 
been nearly stationary in the hands of the Muhammedans, 
firom the dajrs of Muhammed o{ Khuwarezmf to those 
of BehAu'ldIn o{ AamulyX notwithstanding the interme- 
diate study of the arithmetics of Diophantus, translated 
and expounded by Muhammed of Buzjan. Neither that 
comparison, nor the exclusive consideration of the Khu* 
warezmVs performance, leads to any other conclusion, than, 
as before intimated, that, being conversant with the sciences 
of the Hindus, especially with their astronomy and their 
method of numerical calculation, and being the author 
of the earliest Arabic treatise on algebra, he must be 
deemed to have learnt from the Hindus the resolution of 
simple and quadratic equations, or, in short, algebra, a 
branch of their art of computation. 

• Vol. xii. + On the Oxus. 

X A district of Syria; not Amal^ a town in Khurasan. Com. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 525 

The conclusion, at which we have arrived, may be 
strengthened by the coincident opinion of Cossali, who, 
after diligent research and ample disquisition, comes to 
the following result* 

' Concerning the origin of algebra among the Arabs, 
what is certain is, that Muhammed ben Musa^ the Khu- 
warezmite, first taught it to them. The Casbinian, a writer 
of authority, affirms it ; no historical fact, no opinion, no 
reasoning, opposes it. 

^ There is nothing in history respecting Muhammed 
BEN MusA individually, which favours the opinion, that he 
took from the Greeks the algebra which he taught to the 
Muhammedans. 

^ History presents in him no other than a mathematician, 
of a country most distant from Greece and contiguous to 
India, skilled in the Indian tongue, fond of Indian mat- 
ters, which he translated, amended, epitomized, adorned : 
and he it was, who was the first instructor of the Muham- 
medans in the algebraic art.t 

* Not having taken algebra from the Greeks, he must 
have either invented it himself, or taken it firom the Indians. 
Of the two, the second appears to me the most probable.'J 



O. 

Communication of the Hindus with Western Nations on 
Astrology and Astronomy, 

The position, that Astrology is partly of foreign growth 
in India; that is, that the Hindus have borrowed, and 
largely too, firom the astrology of a more western region, 

• OHsf. delP Alg,, vol. i. p. 216. t Ong. delP Alg., vol. i. p. 219. 
X See his reasons at large. 



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526 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

is grounded^ as the similar inference concemiDg a different 
branch of divination,* on the resemblance o# certain terms 
employed in both. The n^ode of divination, called Tajaca, 
implies by its very name its Arabian origin. Astrological 
prediction by configuration of planets, in like manner, 
indicates even by its Indian name a Grecian source. It is 
denominated H6ra, the second of three branches which 
compose a complete course of astronomy and astrol<^ :f 
and the word occurs in this sense in the writings of early 
Hindu astrologers. VarAhamihira, whose name stands 
high in this class of writers, has attempted to supply a 
Sanscrit etymology; and in his treatise on casting nativities 
derives the word from Ahdratra, day and night, a nycthe- 
meron. This formation of a word by dropping both the 
first and last syllables, is not conformable to the analogies 
of Sanscrit etymology. It is more natural^ then, to look 
for the origin of the term in a foreign tongue : and that is 
presented by the Greek wfa and its derivative wfo^wTtf^, 
an astrologer, and especially one who considers the natal 
kaur, and hence predicts events.j; The same term hSra 
occurs again in the writings of the Hindu astrologers, with 
an acceptation (that of hour|) which more exactly con- 
forms to the Grecian etymon. 

The resemblance of a single term would not suffice to 
ground an inference of common origin, since it might be 
purely accidental. But other words are also remarked in 
Hindu astrology, which are evidently not Indian. An in- 
stance of it is drishcanaj || used in the same astrological 
sense with the Greek iiKavo$ and Latin decanus: words, 
which, notwithstanding their classic sound, are to be con- 
sidered as of foreign origin (Chaldean or Egyptian) in the 

• As. Res., vol. ix. p. 366. [p, 363 of the present volume.] 

t See note K. J Hesych. and Suid. § As. Res., vol. v. p. 107. 

11 As. Res., vol. ix. p 367. [p. 364 of the present volume.] 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 627 

classic languages, at least with this acceptation. The 
term is assuredly not genuine Sanscrit : and hence it was 
before* inferred, that the particular astrological doctrine, 
to which it belongs, is exotic in India. It appears, how- 
ever, that this division of the twelve zodiacal signs into 
three portions each, with planets governing them, and 
pourtrayed figures representing them, is not implicitly the 
same among the Hindu astrologers, which it was among 
the Chaldeans, with whom the Egyptians and Persians 
coincided. Variations have been noticed.f Other points 
of difference are specified by the astrologer of Balkh;X 
and they concern the allotment of planets to govern the 
decani and drishcanaSf and the figures by which they are 
represented. Abu Mashar is a writer of the ninth cen- 
^u^ >^ ^i^d his notice of this astrological division of the 
zodiac as received by Hindus, Chaldeans, and Egyptians, 
confirms the fact of an earlier communication between the 
Indians and the Chaldeans, perhaps the Egyptians, on the 
subject of it. 

With the sexagesimal firacUons, the introduction of which 
is by Wallis ascribed to Ptolemy among the Greeks, || 
the Hindus have adopted for the minute of a degi-ee, be- 
sides a term of their own language, cala^ one taken from 
the Greek ^£9r7a scarcely altered in the Sanscrit lipta. 
The term must be deemed originally Greek, rather than 
Indian, in that acceptation, as it there corresponds to an 
adjective xstTo^y slender, minute: an import which pre- 
cisely agrees with the Sanscrit cala and Arabic dakiky fine, 

• As. Re8., vol. ix. p. 36? & 372. f p. 364 of the present volume.] 
V i de S A L M. Exerc, Flin . 
t Ibid.f vol. ix. p. 374. [p. 371 of the present volume.] 
X Lib. intr. in Ast Albumasis Abalachi, pp. 5, 12 and 13. 
§ Died in 272 H.(885 C.) aged a hundred. 
II Wallis, Alg, c. 7. 



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528 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

minute ; whence^ in these languages respectiYely, cala and 
dakik for a roinute of a degree. But the meanings otlipta 
in Sanscrit^ are, 1st, smeared; 2d, infected with poison ; 
3d, eaten : and its derivative liptaca signifies a poisoned 
arrow; being derived from lipy to smear: and the dic- 
tionaries give no interpretation of the word that has any 
a£Snity with its special acceptation as a technical term in 
astronomy and mathematics. Yet it occurs so employed 
in the work of BRAHMEGUPTA.f 

By a different analogy of the sense and not the sound, 
the Greek ^r^o, a part, and specially a degree of a circle, 
is in Sanscrit ansa, bhaga, and other synonyma of part, 
applied emphatically in technical language to the 360th 
part of the periphery of a circle. The resemblance of the 
radical sense, in the one instance, tends to corroborate the 
inference from the similarity of sound in the other. 

Cendra is used by Brahmegupta and the Surya sid- 
dkantOy as well as other astronomical writers (BhAs- 
CARA, &c.), and by the astrologers VarAhamthira and 
the rest, to signify the equation of the centre.^ The same 
term is employed in the Indian mensuration for the centre 
of a circle ;^ also denoted by madhya, middle. It comes 
so near in sound, as in signification, to the Greek Msyrpov, 
that the inference of a common origin for these words is 
not to be avoided. But in Sanscrit it is exclusively tech- 
nical ; it is unnoticed by the vocabularies of the language ; 
and it is not easily traced to a Sanscrit root*. In Greek, on 
the contrary, the correspondent term was borrowed in ma- 
thematics from a familiar word signifying a goad, spur, 
thorn, or point ; and derived from a Greek theme utvlU. 

• Am, C6sk. t C. i, § 6, et passim, 

% Brahm, siddh, c.'2. Sdr, siddh, c, 2. Vr^hai and La^?iu Jdiacas, 

§ S4r. on LU. § 207. 



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NOTES AND JLLUSTRAT10N8. 629 

The other term^ which has been mentioned as commonly 
used for the centre of a circle, namely, medhya, middle, is 
one of the numerous instances of radical and primary ana- 
logy between the Sanscrit and the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages. It is a common word of the ancient Indian 
tongue ; and is cleai'Iy the same with the Latin medius ; 
and serves to shew that the Latin is nearer to the ancient 
pronunciation of Greek, than fxscroq ; from which Sipon- 
TIN us* derives it, but which must be deemed a corrupted 
or softened utterance of an ancient term coming nearer to 
the Sanscrit medhyas and Latin medius. 

On a hasty glance over Hiejatacas, or Indian treatises 
upon horoscopes, several other terms of the art have been 
noticed, which are not Sanscrit, but apparently barbarian. 
For instance, anap/ia, sunapha, durudkara, and c6ma' 
dr?ima, designating certain configurations of the planets. 
They occur in both the treatises of VarAhamihira ; 
and a passage, relative to this subject, is among those 
quoted from the abridgment by the scholiast of the greater 
treatise, and verified in the text of the less.f The affi- 
nity of those terms to words of other languages used in a 
similar astrological sense, has not been traced ; for want, 
perhaps, of competent acquaintance with the terminology 
of that silly art. But it must not be passed unremarked, 
that Varahamihira, who has in another place praised 
^eYavanas for their proficiency in astrology (or astronomy, 
for the term is ambiguous,) frequently quotes them in his 
great treatise on horoscopes; and his scholiast marks a 
distinction between the ancient YavaTias, whom he cha- 



• Pybbhi Pbbotti, Epincopi Siponiiniy Cornucopia sive LingiuB 
Latina CommetUarii, col. 1019. edit. Aid. 1527- fol. 

t See p. 483. Another passage so quoted and verified uses the 
term ccndrn in the sense above-mentioned. 

VOL. II. 2 M 



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630 ALGEBRA OF THE HINDUS. 

racterizes as '' a race of barbarians conversant with {h6ra) 
horoscopes/' and a known Sanscrit author bearing the title 
of YAVANfeswARA, whosc work he had seen and repeat- 
edly cites ; but the writings and doctrine of the ancient 
Yavanas, he acknowledges, had not been seen by him, and 
were known to him only by this writer's and his own 
author's references. 

No argument, bearing upon the point under consideration, 
is built on BhAscara's use of the woi*d dramma for the 
value of sixty-four cowry-shells (^Lil. § 2) in place of the 
proper Sanscrit term pramanay which SrIdhara and 
other Hindu authors employ ; nor on the use of dinaray for 
a denomination of money, by the schoUast of Brahme- 
gupta (12. § 12) who also, like BhAscara, employs the 
first mentioned word (12. § 14) : though the one is clearly 
analogous to the Greek drachmay a word of undoubted 
Grecian etymology, being derived from ifdHrofjicu ; and the 
other apparently is so, to the Roman denariusy which has 
a Latin derivation. The first has not even the Sanscrit 
air ; and is evidently an exotic, or, in short, a barbarous 
term. It was probably received mediately through the 
Muhammedans, who have their dirhem in the Uke sense. 
The other is a genuine Sanscrit word, of which the ety- 
mology, presenting the sense of ' splendid,' is consistent 
with the several acceptations of a specific weight of gold ; 
a golden ornament or breast-piece ; and gold money : all 
which senses it bears, according to the ancient vocabularies 
of the language.* 

The similarity seems then to be accidental in this in- 
stance ; and the Muhammedans, who have also a Uke term, 
may have borrowed it on either hand ; not improbably 
from the Hindus, as the dinar of the Arabs and Persians is 

• Amera coshay &c. 



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NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 631 

a gold coin like the Indian ; while the Roman denarius is 
properly a silver one. D'Herbelot assigns as a reason 
for deriving the Arabic dinar from the Roman denarius^ 
that this was of gold. The nummus aureus sometimes had 
that designation; and we read in Roman authors of golden 
as well as silver denarii.* But it is needless to multiply 
references and quotations to prove, that the Roman coin of 
that name was primaiily silver, and so denominated because 
it was equal in value to ten copper a$;t that it was all 
along the name of a silver coin \% and was still so under 
the Greek empire, when the Jwafiov was the hundredth 
part of a large silver coin termed afyvpov^*% 

• Plin. 33. § 13, and 37. § 3. Petron. Satyr. 106. 160. 

t Plin. 33. § 13., Vitb. 3. 1., Volus. M^boianus, Didymus. 

I ViTB. and Vol. M^bc. § Epiphanius, cum multis aliis. 



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INDEX. 



A. 
Abacus^ page 489. 
Abbaci, Liber, 435, 499. 
Abdullah ben Mukapfa, 167) 

171. 
Abharana, 49, 323. 
Abhidh&na, 52. 
Abhidh6na chintdmahi, 206. 
Abhidhdnaratndvati, 58. 
Abhijit, 341, 358. 
Abhimanyu, 198. 
Abhinanday 55. 

AbhINAVA SlOAflYANA, 44. 

Abhira, 156, 184. 

Abhiji dialect, 68. 

Abraham ben Esba, 383. 

Abu Hanipah Daindwari, 513. 

Abu HiIn, 515. 

Abu HisIn, 348. 

Abu KImil ShujIa bkn As- 

LAM, 512. 
Abu'lfazl, 167, 168, 198. 
Abu'lmala, 167, 168. 
Abu Mashab, 505, &c. *627. 
Abu Yahya, 445, 513. 
Abu Yusbf al Kbnd!, 513. 
Achaladhr^ti, 155, 162. 
Ac'hydnaci, 124, 160, 164. 

ACUYUTA JALLACf, 18. 
AtHVUTA UPADHYAYA, 55^ 

Acntty 163. 



Acshara chhcmdaSf 158. 

Acshara panciiy 153, 158. 

Adhydtma RdmdyafMy 101. 

Adtswara, 187. 

Adivipuld, 154. 

Adfr^tanaydy 163. 

AgamOy 178. 

Agastya, a star, 349, 352, &c. 

464, 466. 
Agniy a star, 352, 353. 
Agnipurdhay 64. 
Ahdrica, 194. 
Ahmed ben Muhammbd of Stir- 

khas, 513. 
Ahtaiy 304. 
Ajaya, 59. 
Ajita, 208. 
Akhbiyahy 342. 
Akhldki Hindiy 173. 
Albatbonius (Al BatanI) 384, 

412. 
Albumasab, 506. 
Alohindus, 513, 
Aldebardfiy 331. 
Alfa roan!, 384. 
AlfasarI, 504, 509. 
Algebra of the Hindus, 417, &c. ; 

of the Greeks, 432, &c. 442, 

491 ; of the Arabs, 504, &c.; 

of the early Italians, 486, &c. 
Alhazkn ben Yusef, 348. * 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



634 



INDEX. 



Ali-iWiiyahs, 225, 226. 
Al! MuetezI, 226, 227. 
ALf Ullah, 226, 227. 
J//o^'t,203. 
Almagest, 347, &c. 
Alm1m(^n, 444, 471, 509, 51?. 
Alman8(^b, 444, 471, 504, 511, 

515. 
AlbU, 161. 
Apaiahpanctiy 153. 
Alphonsine Tables, 384. 
Amar&vatif 453. 
Amabu, 95. 
Amabu 6ataca, 95. 
AmbashVha, 180. 
Amera cbsha^ 17» 50, &c. 
Ambba datta, 59. 
Amera mdid, 17, 59. 
Ameba sinha, 6, 16, 20, 39, 50, 

184. 
AmgdcK'hi, 279. 
AmIbkhan An jam, 23. 
Amitaoati, 53, 462, 463. 
Amritadhdrd, 165. 
Amritagatif 159. 
Amritamatiy 159. 
Inanda laharl, 114. 
AnofngacfhSlay 87, 1 hh, 
Anangasic*hara, 164. 
Anap'Jia, 529. 
Anavasdtdy 160. 

Atucdrfha dkwam manjariy 20. 
Anga, 179, 218. 
Am 01 B AS, 197. 
Angirasa family, 305. 
Ama, 375. 
Antarbedy 34. 
ArUyavipuld^ 154. 
Anubandha, 37. 



AnubhOti 8wab6pIcuIbya, 44. 
AnuciUd, 160. 
AnugUi, 154. 
Anurddhay 339, 363. 
AnusMubh, 118,141,152,159, 
^ntt«Ah«6As^cff, 119. 
winto^rt Suhaili, 167, &c. 
Apabkrama dialect, 2, 32, 67. 
Apdmvatsa, star, 352. 
Apardjitd, 161. 
Apardnticdy 79, 155. 
Aparavactrd, 124, 164, 
ijDdtf , a star, 352, 353. 
Apatdiica, 78, 155. 
ApavdhOy 164, 
V<^, 165. 
Api§ALf, 6, 39, 48. 
Apollonius, 502. 
Apyayya, 174. 
Arabs, their diYisions of the 

zodiac, 322, &c.; their theory 

of the motion of planets, 412 ; 

their algebra, 433, 444, 504, 

512. 
Area, 484, 485. 
Area siddhdnta, 485, 505. 
Arcand, 428, 484, 485. 
Abchimedes, 347, 442, 443. 
Ardha mdgadliiy 67. 
Ardha rdtrica, 427. 
Ardha slbca, 70. 
Ardrd, 3?2, 363. 
Arghya, 304. 
Arhait, 206, 207. 
Arhatas, 219. 
Afyabahar, 427, 47 \. 
Abjuna, 83, &c. 
Armillary sphere, 345, &c. 
Arna, 130, 164. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IN DEX. 



636 



Ar^ava, 130, 164. 

Arrian, his account of the In- 
dian sages, 200, &c. 

AruHadatta, 59. 

Aryd, 72, 89, 153. 

ARyABHA«A, 378, 382, 386, 392, 
422, 467, 471. 

ArydffUi, 73,75,154. 

ArydshfoMOta, 378, 386, 467. 

Iryavarta, 219, 234. 

Arzael, 383. 

Asamb&dhd, 161. 

Ashaahd, 157, 340. 

Ashtddhydya, 40. 

AsKH, 162. 

Ashrdt, 329. 

AiUshd, 334, 355, 363, 381, 387, 
465, 474. 

Aibca manjariy 164. 

Asp'huta, 325, 406. 

Asp^hufa sara, 406. 

Asidra pancti, 153. 

Astronomical notions of the 
JaifMS, 223, 393. 

Astronomy, Sanscrit works on, 
323, &c. 

AsubOdha, 48. 

Aiwagatiy 162. 

Aswahlita, 163. 

AiwALATANA, 108. 

Aswaldyana idc*hd, 305. 
Aiwanihandhica, 245. 
^woini, 328, 363, 425, 463. 
At A Ullah RASHfnf, 454. 
AfhiUdy 156. 
AticriH, 164. 
AUdhriti, 163. 
AHjagatly 160. 
^^t/i;^<i, 156. 
Atipddanivr>tt gdyatriy 152. 



^/trttc^i>4, 88, 155, 161. 

Atisaccari, 161. 

Atiiayaniy 162. 

Atisimdard, 162. 

Atr^ta, 48. 

Atyashti, 162. 

Auddrica, 194. 

Audayaca, 427. 

Aupachhandasica, 78, 80, 83, 155, 

164, 165. 
Avalambaca, 157. 
Avantif 67. 
Avanticd dialect, 67. 
AvasarpiM age, 207, 215. 
Avasafhica, 305. 
Avitat'ha, 148,162. 
Awwd, 337. 
Ayana, 375. 
-4y4r ddnishf 167. 
iyiw -r^c^cH, 198, 287. 
Aybgava^ 183. 
AzBM ShIh, 23. 
Azemshdhi, 23. 

B. 

fia^/^ca &^<^^a, 68. 
BahrIm Shah, I67. 
Bdhuvdna tribe, 236. 
^aiW^a, 180. 

Baidya nat'ha, 14,41, 42, 43. 
5fl/<i,341. 
Balabhadra, 390. 
Baiadevasy 218. 

BlLAMBHAffA, 41. 

BalarIma PanohXnana, 48. 
Bala I^arman PIg6ndita, 13. 
54/a^, 340. 
BallIla, 452, 454. 
Ballala siNA, 188,189. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



636 



INDEX. 



Balbchy 231. 

BiNABHAff A, 98. 

Bandha, 160. 

Ban^ay 179, 189. 

Barada raja, 41. 

BardiyOy 181. 

Babdbsanes, 202. 

Bartula, 184. 

Babo(jtah, 167, &c. 

Bauddhar, 192, &c. 

Baudhatana, 101. 

Ben al Adam!, 504, 510, &c. 

BuhIdur ALf, 173. 

BEHlu'LDfN, 516, 524. 

Berberoy 179. 

Betnu'lhUty 344. 

Wiadraca, 163. 

Bhadrapaddy 343. 

Bhadravirdj'y 164. 

Bhadricdy 159, 160, 164, 165. 

BhS^abhhgay 306. 

Bh&gavata purdhay 103, 355, 362. 

Bhaoubi, 20, 49, 59. 

Bhdkhdy 32. 

Bhamaha, 48, 66, 6?. 

Bhdmani vildstty 1 17. 

Bhanudatta miSra, 95. 

Bhanu dIcshita, 56. 

BhaNUJI DfcSHITA, 17* 

BharadwXja, 48. 
Bharadwaja, 188. 
mdradwdja family, 305, 310. 
Bharariy 224, 330, 363. 
Bharatamalla, 47, 56. 
BhIrav!, 75, 78, 83, 98, 104, 

106,111. 
BhabtrIhari, 6, 42, 116, 174. 
BhIscara, 97, 219, 224, 349, 

&c.; 373, &c.; 385, 419, 422, 

450,461. 



BhXsOARA BHAffA, 42. 

Bhdshdy 32. 

Bhdskd vrtttiy 40. 

Bhdshd vriUynrfha vivHttiy 41. 

Bhdshya on PI^ini, 7, &c. ; 42. 

Bhdshya pradipa vivasahay 4'^h 

Bhdshya pradipoddyotGy 40. 

Bhdstvady 354. 

Bhdstvati catahay 385, 389, 390, 

482, 485. 
BflAff A Balabhadra, 470. 

BHAff AMALLA, 49. 

Bha«a NIrIya^a, 188. 

Bhattdracay 303. 

BhatU cdijyay 4&y\^2y\\5y 

BHA«^jf DfcSHlTA, 12, 38, 41. 
BHAff6TPALA, 353, &c.; 387, 

410, 414, 423, 457, &c.; 473, 

&c. 
Bhavabh6ti, 115,131,135. 
Bhdva pracdsicd, 41. 
Bha vipuld, 158. 
Bhavishya purdhay 354. 
Bhilupurdy 212. 
mymay 49. 
Bhbgavatiy 274. 
Bh6ja Rajay 53, 298, 483, 485, 

461,462. 
Bh6jad£va,22, 49. 
Bhdja prabandhoy 53. 
Bu6jaraja, 55. 
Bh6lanat'ha, 46. 
Bh6la nat'ha, 57. 
Bhramarapaday 162. 
Bhramardvatiy 161. 
Bhramara vilasiUiy 110, 160. 
Bh{jdhara, 323, 324, 325. 
Bhujayamttsr^tay 159. 
Ehujangapraydtdy 117, 159, 160. 
Bhujanyasanyaidy 159. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IN DEX. 



637 



Bhufan^ ff^r¥rnbhiia, 164. 

Bkurij, 153. 

Bh^ripn^^ga cishoy 20. 

Bhiisha^ s6ra darpa^, 42. 

Bh^tidatta, 182. 

Bhuvana MAI.LA yIra, 272. 

BiDPAl, 168,169,482,511. 

B^hay245. 

BihXbI lXl, 23, 88. 

B^imald, 159. 

BmUy 159, 163. 

BddhisaUwa, 198, 206, 249, 251. 

B^rahsy 225. 

BoMBBLLi, 431, 492, 498, 505, 

516. 
BoNAooi, see Lboma&do. 
B6pXlita, 20, 59. 
Brachmanes, 200, &e. 
BrahmI, 248. 
Brahma, a star, 349, 352. 
Bbahmboupta, 74, 323, &c., 

355, 378, &c., 422, 424, 455, 

461. 
Brdhma^, 178, 195. 
Brahme Mdayoy a star, 352. 
Brahfnesiddh6nta323y kc.y 352, 

358, .388, kc., 396, 407, 423, 

456, 505. 
Brahme sp^hu^a siddhinta, 74, 

383, 386, 393, 397, 404, 407, 

423. 
Brahme i&dra, 181. 
Brahme vaivarta fnsrd^ 354. 
Brij bhdkhd, 33. 
Bucoa Rata, 255, 257, &c. 
BuooA RIjI II., 283. 
Buddha, mentioDed by Glbm ens 

Albxandbin us, 203. 
Boddhists, 192, &e., Epoch of 

their persecution, 16, 17« 

VOL. II. 



Budd^ii viidsifU, 452. 
BttUdn, 330. 
Butta, 203, 204. 
buzbbohumibb, 167. 
Buzjdni, 445, 513, &c. 529. 

C. 

Cdb, 434. 

CABlauDofN, 230. 

Cabiti, 23. 

Cacudmafi, 153. 

CoK^A (twA^UA), 152. 

Cddambati, 98. 

Oi/i, 182. 

Caivertay 184. 
Caiytata, 7, 38, 40. 

Caidy 43. 

C^i^, in mathematics, 52?. 

Caldy in prosody, 15 L 

CaldcandOy 161. 

CaiahansOy 161. ' 

Ctlfo niHtayay 379. 

CiiWpa, 44, 56, 57. 

Caldpatattwdr^vay 45. 

Cb/iage, 357,475. 
Oi/iVii, 157, 161, 165. 
Calidasa, 65, 70, 74. 84, 98» 

100, 113, 119, 136, 173. 
CalUah tea Dimndhy 167. 
Calinoa, 54, 179. 
CaUyugOy 357,475. 
Ckdpoy 375, 378, 396, 414, 415' 

448, 473, 474. 
CaipakUdvaiM'ay 452, 453, 
Caipa siitroy 206, 207, Bus. 315. 
Cafydriy 272. 

CaltIna ohandba, 461. 
Cdma, 158. 
Cdmaoriffdy 161. 
CdmadhinUf 44, 45, 49. 
2 N 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



638 



INDEX. 



Gam ALACARA, 3H 369, 360. 

Camatiy 158. 

C&mardpay 170. 

Cdm&vatdra, 159. 

CdminioAntOy 159, 

Caupa, 257. 

CanacaprabMy 161. 

Oi^ra language, 30, 255, 261, 

268, 269, 271. 
Ccmda, 161. 

Candarpa siddbIvta, 47. 
CanMcdra, 180. 
On^i, 162. 
C6ntimaiiy 100. 
Cantdipdady 160. 
CaAwa, 49. 
Geniyii, a metre, 158. 
amy4» a coiiBlettiitioo, 473. 
Canydcuhfa, 286, 289, 291, 294, 
466. 

Cdnyacutja dialedt, 22, 23, 69, 
118. 

Oinyacubfasy 22, 28. 

CSnyacuifa Br6&nm$y 179, 186, 
242. 

azj»^, 185. 

Cbi>ftt,a04. 

Cabacoi, Raffablo, 498. 

CarahandUi, IfiS. 

Cintm, 181. 

Ciira^, 181,1B2,478. 

€&raU oMMa, 378, Ito.; 419. 

G$ra^a9,364. 

Ctfrtc^ OR FJJtivi, 6, 4fi. 

QirwdtMiri, 48L 

Carc€^<h 391. 

CabdanUi, Hibbon*, 495^ &c.; 
516. 

Carmacdra, 182, 163, 184. 

Car^ 151, 403, Ik. 



CanTkiAi iarira, 194. 
CSsr^a language, 30. 
CknMtaca, 69. 

CIbTICA SIDDHlVTil^ 4fi. 

CIIacbYtsna, 6, 39. 
CXsBM, 504. 
Cash-d, 180. 

CashmiTf chronicle of, 19S. 
Cashtd irdtrijfa Brdhna^m^ 188. 
Cdsicd vritti, 9, 10, 38, 40. 
Cdsica vritU panficdy 40. 
CSi^wma, 46, 47, 48. 
Cdiuwttri ffo^, 47- 
C(Ktnaii0 Brdknu^kmy 179. 
Castes, see Classes. 
Ca§yapa, 188. 
CliTAPA, 5, 48, 64, 317, 356. 
Cdtanira, 44, 49. 
Cdtantra chandricdj 45. 
Cdtanira chatuihh^ prmifpa^ 46. 
Cdtanira dhiiusfhi^kafVL 
Catanirmffa^ dkdtUy •^ 
Cdiantra panjicd, 45. 
Cdtanira parSiMa^ 45. 
Caianfra JoMifiM^t, 45. 
COantra du^tcArmkOyiiK 
COtanirtt unStU vrHtH, 45. 
Oiten/ra vistdra, 45. 
aitafifr»or)fte'lM,46. 
CIttIt ANA, i>, 6, «, 87, 40, S3. 
Caumudiy 12, 13, 57. 8m SmU 

CswfiMM^ m metre, 165. 
Cauiambha, 2J8. 
CxxjiusA^ 48. 
GiiM<u6^13. 
Cavbllv B6BaA, 255, 270. 
Co&i co^ Aimm, 15, 46. 
CbM ctOpadgwmvifdehgd, 47. 
Cavikaja, 98. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1NJ>EX. 



639 



Cavirahasyafil. 

Cdvjfa.156. 
Cdvya cdma dhenUf 46. 
OfyiuCha^ 182, 187» 189, 236,261, 
292. 

CiDARA BHAff A, ^, 

CSmadnmay 529. 
Cendra, 523, 529t 
Censuiy censoy 434. 
Cesaroy 162. 
CfiSAVA, 452, 454, 476. 
CilAVA DASA, 69, 102. 
Ci^AVA swiMi, 49. 
Cetumati 164. 
Chacitay 162. 
Chacray 161. 
ChacrapaUiy 161. 

CalCBAVARlf AilA, 48. 

Chacravards, 215. 
ChagaHy 162. 
Chahuvdn tribe, 236. 
ChaiUmp6mr^tay 48. 
Okit^rac6li, 46. 
C%a//i, 163. 
€%a/uca tribe, 272. 
(^ifiuira, 161. 
a0fV9Ni,2ia. 
Champaca mdldy 110, 159. 
Chan^pwriy 215. 
Champdy 105, 135. 
C^ancAa/<i, 162. 
Chanchaldcshid, 160, 165. 
Chancharicdvaiiy 161. 
ChandacOy 154. 
(MMdhy 183. 
C;4i4^^ dialed;, 68. 
Oo/i^l, 161. 

C%a^^ vf^sMi pray6tay 164. 
Chandra, 6, 20, 39; 48, 188. 



Chandray 163. 
ChandraUc'hd, 161. 
C%a»M^rafln^, 163. 
Cfiandramuc'hiy 159v 
Chandravartiy 110, 16L 
C%aftdlrava9tf7Ui, 160. 
Chandrdvady 216. 
Chandricdy 15, 42. 
Chandricd, a metre, 86, 161, 161 
(rA<m;Vi,94, 155, 156,165* 
a«;>aAi, 73, 74, 119,154,158. 
67ii(p;)<ya, 90, 91. 
Charo^ 151. 
Charatara tribe, 319. 
Charchariy 163. 
Oirtifl^', 154. 
C^arumtM^'Ai, 159. 
ChdruhksMy 79, 166. 
Oiirtite sclux)!, 219. 
Choturansdy 169. 
Chaturbhuja, 49. 
CHATURviDA, 398, 405. 8<« 

PrIt'h(JDACA SVTAMi. 

Ckatushpadd, 156. 
GuOushpdd mushtuhhy 162. 
Chatushpdd gdyaifiy 162. 
Chatuthpadicdy 93, 156. 
Chatashpdd panctty 153. 
Chatushpdd uskhihy 162. 
Chatushpdd vr^haiiy 162. 
ChUuhdn tribe, 236. 
CkdUpdUy 156. 
C%^m;>dir, 93. 
C^tf/Mara,93, J 66. 
Chaura, 95. 
Chaftrdnidy 159. 
Chaura panchdUcif 96, 1 17* 
Chaurdhy 157 
ChdHvansdy 159. 
Cherdgh'cusky 236. 
2 N 2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



640 



INDEX. 



CfiiT SiNH, 23. 

Ch^handb gbvinday 64. 

OCh6ndbgya upanUhadf 197. 

Ch'handb mdl6, 64. 

Ch*handb manjariy 64. 

Ch'handb mdrta^da, 64, 100. 

Ch'handS niviti, 64. 

Ch'happddy 156. 

Ck'hdtd, 46. 

a'Wy^, 163. 

CMdast'hifndld, 4L 

Carnfl, 179. 

Chinna o6yiNDA sfTARA ound!, 

276. 
ChintdmM. See OMta taUwa 

chirUdmafiu 
ChUrOy 162. 

Chitrd, a metre, 86, 155, 161. 
Chiird, a star, 337, 425, 463, 481. 
Chitradurg, 254, 266. 
ChitraguptOy 182. 
Chitraiic'hd, 162, 163. 
Chitrdngadoy 182. 
Chkrapada, 163. 
Chiircpadd 119, 159. 
Chitrasdid, 163. 
Ckitratanffa, 162. 
C%t^ra«^iMi, 182. 
Chitraoaiif 161. 

o^fo, 179, 273. 

C^oro, 319. 
ai<^, 87, 155. 
ChMicd, 88. 
CMtBUstddy 156. 
aifA^, 156. 
CfticliVa, 88, 155. 
C%i</^^;>ail^^{, 67. 
a6r^'c<i, 133. 
Ci'rto, 83. 

drdtdtjuniga, 83, 104, 106, 11 ]> 
131. 



avSto, 163. 

Classes of the Hindus, 177> 19^ 

Known to Greek writers, 200, 

&c. 
Clbmsns Alex akdbinus, 203. 
Cocilaca, 162. 
C6N0Af A, 54. 
C6ir6A BHAffA, 42 
Condavipattan^ 9^i. 
Cbpavatl, 161. 
Com, 434. 
Cosnke, 434. 

CbAM ADffwARA, 45. 

Crdntd, 162. 

CrdntipdtOy 374. 

Craunchapadd, 1 10, 164. 

Craushtica, 64. 

OiSliicAafuJhi, 163. 

CbIsh^a, mentioned in the 

Ch^hdndtgya upanishad , 197. 

His combat with diduplLA, 80, 

^. His sports with the gapU, 

88. 
CriskhaSj nine, of the Jati», 217* 
CRYsHirA, son of BallIla, 452, 

453. 
CRtsHirA dIsa, 57. 
CRisHif A PA^6lTA, 14, 41, 103. 
Wti, 163. 

(H(^^, 331, 358, 360. 
Cshamd,^, 
Cshamd, a metre, 161. 
Cshatriyas, 128, 178. 
CshaUrt, Cshaitd, 113. 
CsHf RA swiif f, 49, 54, 55. 
Cshira tarangiM, 49. 
Cudmala danti, 110, 163. 
Cula, 305. 

caia, 179. 

Ctt/acfl, 71, 133. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDKX. 



541 



CULACBANDRA, 45. 

QOafhay 154. 
(kOind, 154. 
Culina Br6hmafuuj 188. 
C(m6r, 180. 
CumIba, 44. 
Cumdralalitd, 159. 
Cktmdra sambhavof 84, 102. 
Cumdri, 161. 
Cufnbha, 369. 
CumbhacdrOf 180. 
CuMalicd, 92^ 156. 
Om/dAi (fcMi, 272, 273. 
(kipurushajatittSf 160. 
Ckirughde dwrg^ ^3. 
Cu6ala, 49. 
Cusumastavacaf 164. 
Gumma vichitrdy 110, 160. 
Cusumita laid vUHtd, 162. 
0»h7i$, 161. 
CMlagatiy 161. 
C^oca, 460, 467. 
CuHacddhydya, 419. 
Ciiveri^ 181. 

D. 

DIbishlIm, 168, 169. 
Ddbistan, 226, 227. 
Dacsha, 188. 
DacshiMnticd, 155. 
Dacshi^ Rdrdy 189. 
DdcshiAdtya dialect, 67. 
DIdIbhaI, 377, 379, 387, 389. 
Damanaoa, 159, 160. 

DAMAYANTf, 74, 85, i05. 

DamayarUi ca^hd, 105. 
Dam6dara, 198. 
Do^i&iea, 130, 140, 144, 164. 
ZkMacaid, 157. 



DAir6!. 98, 134, 173. 

Ddsa, 183. 

Ddsoy a coinmoD termination of 

proper names, 190. 
D(ua cumdra chariira, 98, 134, 

173. 
DaiasfUicd, 386, 467. 
Daurffasinhi, 44. 

DatIrXmA VACUB8PATI, 46. 

Decani, 364, 370, 526. 

Deities worshipped by the early 

Hindus, 197. Four classes of 

deities distinguished by the 

Jainas, 222. 
Deva, a common termination of 

proper names, 190. 
D£vA, 40. 
Dcvddhidevas, 206. 
DivADi, 272. 
Devagiriy 451. 

DivALA, 5. 

Devandgari, 27. 
DivAPALA, 280, &c, 
D£vapXla d£va, 17. 
Dcvapalli patianay 286. 
2>£t7a« of the Jainas, 206. 

Di^fDASA, 46. 

DifADi, 245. 
Dhananjaya, 20. 
Dhanapai.a, 48. 
DhanishVhay 342, 355, 381, 465. 
Dhanushy 208, 217. 
Dhanwantari nigha^fa^ 2(h 
Dhdrd, 298, 303, 309. 462, 485. 
DharaHi cbsha, 20, 58. 
DhabmIditya, 249. 
Dharmapala, 280, &c. 
DhdtughitsUy 46. 
DhdttA d4picdy 46, 49. 
Dhdtu pdrdyakasy 16, 49. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



543 



>N»SX. 



DMtu p6ia of PXi^iNi, 8, 15, 

43. 
Dhdtuprad^, 9, 43. 
Dhatu ratnSmaiiy 47. 
Dhaoalaj 163. 
Dhavaldnca, 163. 
DhvraUditd, 162. 
DhrItasinha, 19. 
DhrUaifi, 163. 
Dhr^ti, 162. 
Dhruvaca^ 325, 466. 
Dhurpedsy 33. 
DhOrta swIh!, 49. 
Dhwajay 151. 

Dialects of India, I, &c. 21, 66 
DlgamboTOSi 220. 
i>intfr, 530, 531. 
DroPHANTUS, 429, 432, &c. 443, 

499, &c. 513, &c. 524. 
DipacOy 157. 
DivioARA, 450, 452. 

DIVIOARA BHAff A, 65, 132. 

Divyay 48. 

Db6b, 34. 

Dbdhaca, 110, 160, 164. 

i>6*^, 88, 92, 93, 156. 

Dhhras, 23. 

DonadoDs ratified by pourkig 
water into the hand of the 
donee, 259, 260, 275. 

Dramatic writers, dialects em- 
ployed by them, 66, 67, 136. 

Drammoy 530b 

Draviaa, 2&, 55, 67, 69. 

DrdviSa Brdhma^as, 179. 

DrdviSti dialect, 6?. 

Drdviroy weDrdvida, 

DrcshcdAaSy 364, &c. 526. 

Dra^245. 

JDruto hidhu, 47. 



DriUa madhym, 164. 

DnUapada, 160, 

Druta vilamlnta, 86, 117, 160, 

164. 
Duhc*hamd suc^hamdy 215. 
Dufntnadumd, 250. 
DUBGA, 20. 
DuRoi, 250. 
DUROA DA8A, 46, 49. 
DUROI DATTA, 65. 
DUROAOUPTA, 45b 

Durgd mahatiwa, 185. 
DcjROAsiNHA, 44, 45^ 476. 
Durffa ticdy 45. 
D'Jtrghidavr^Ui,J2. 
Durghata ghcHanay 46. 
Durmildy 157, 163. 
DurmUicdy 157. 
DuTudkaray 529. 
Dwdracd, 90. 
Dwic'hahaicdy 155. 
Dwipadiy 156. 
JhDtpadicdy 94. 
Dwipdd virdj igdyatri), 152. 
Dwipafhd, 88, 156. 
Dwiructi chha. 20. 
Dujiritp<h 59. 
Dwivid, 305. 
D'viyodhU 159< 

E. 

Earth, 261; its diurnal revoki- 

tion, 392. 
Ecdcshara cosbaj 19. 
Eclipses, 276, 277, 284^ 306. 

Theory of their caose, 407. 
JSTM, 161. 
Elephants mast not be kiUcd by 

a Cshmtiy^ undett in batck, 

128. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



I N B £ 3C. 



543 



Equinoxes, preoeMUNi of, 3% 
&c. 374, &c. 425, 473* 



FAizf, 379,454. 

Feet, in prosody, how expressed, 

69, 70, 151. 
Fbruat, 441. 
FfRijzSHAH, 229^232. 



Gadhinagara, 289, 294, 295. 
Gddhipura,2S6, 294. 
Oadisinha, 49. 
Oi^tMngani^ 156. 
0&h&, 72, 89, 185. 
O&hini, 154. 
06hu, 154. 

Gf^aturangavUaaiUiy 162. 
Galava, 5, 88. 
Ga^ch'handas, 72, 78. 
Ga^adharaSy 215. 
Ga^ddhipas, 215. 
Ga^p6ia, 8, 43. 
Gaharatnafndhbdadhiy 38, 43. 
Ga^vr^Ua, 153. 
Gafiaaca, 163. 
Gandhay 94. 
^afu2^, 156. 
GandhdnOf 94, 156. 
GdndhicOy 180. 
GAi^fi&A, 426, 451, 459, 476. 
^ofi^^eftam/^, J36. 
GanoXdhaea,20. Another writer 
of that name, 450. 

GanoIdHABA BHAff A| 90. 

(?a*ito, 477. 

<?^Va caumudi, 421, 454. 

Ga^Uddkjfd^ of BBAKftTBOUPXA, 

419. 



Gahita mdlaf*, 45 i . 

(?a/t»to #<l/4, 450. 

^a^tVa to^^a cMfUamadiy 395, 

396, 407, 454, ^4. 
Gaboa, 361, 410. 
GXbota, 5, 48. 
6^anM&x,366. 
GarudarutQy 162. 
(?(i/'^4, 89, 132, 153, 165. 
Gdt'hini, 154. 
Gauda, see ^^tnira;. 
(rou^ Brdhmaikts^ 179. 
Gaudfya dialect, 68. 
Cottw, 26, 69, 187, 188, 330, 354. 
Gauri, 160, 161, 164. 
O^UTAMA, 196, &c., 315. 
Gautama Buddlqa, 251,315, &c. 
Gautama swIm!, 315,316,317, 
Gavyf^k, 217, 
^4ya<r^ 152, 159. 

GsBBBBT (Pope S VLVB8TJIB IL)^ 

488. 
Germ<mes,%(^. 
GWr, 338. 
^A^r^ 158. 
Gha^a carparay 75. 
(?Aa»4, 94, 156. 
Ghattdnanda, 94, 156* 
Gh6ba, 197. 
Girandra, 90, 212. 
^^, 163. 
GUi, 73. 
^?a^V;a, 163. 

GUydryd, 87, 110, 155, 162. 
Gbariagi^ 183, 
G6bhila, 8. 
Gbioffrdma, 453. 
Gfdayantra, 324, 325. 
G6nabda, 198. 
(?6;), 183. 
^^o, 181, 182, 183. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



544 



INDEX. 



66pIlA CHAOBAYARTf, 46, 57* 

06p1nIt'ha, 45. 
aorakhpuTy 247. 
Qbtra^ 305. 

G6VKBDHANA, 20, 49, 55, 74, 
450. 

G6VINDA BHAff A, 49. 

06vinda chandba, 286. 
G6vindInanda, 57* 

(i^YlNDA bImA, 46. 
O6Tf0BANDBA, 46. 

Graha ISffhava, 323, 331, 352, 

354, 379, 452. 
Grammar, early writers on, 5, 38, 

48. List of works on Sanscrit 

grammar, 40, &c. 
Grandam^ 29. 
Grants of land, 240, &c.; 261, 

289, &c. 
Greeks. Their astronomy, 325, 

361, 370, 393, 400, 41 1. Their 

algehra, 430, 442. Hints which 

the Hindus received from the 

astronomical schools of the 

Greeks, 449. 
GUOLIBLMO DI LuNis, 490, 498. 
GviJQTa BrikmahoBy 179. 
Gujrhi, 31, 228. 
Gupia, a common termination of 

proper names, 190. 
GiirfarOy 31. 
GurviMy 72, 154. 
Guzraty see Gujrat. 
Gymnosaphiskgy 202, &c. 

H. 

Hacaliy 156. 

Ha66a ohandba, 54. 

Hama odshOy 20, 58. 



Hakna vpdcara^y 44. 

HajIj bbn Yusbf, 34a 

Hakahy 332. 

Hala, 89. 

H(damuc'hiy 159. 

Halia character and language, 

269. 
HAMiffBA, 65, 91, 92, &c. 
Handhy 333. 
Haruay 158, 162. 
Hansamdidy 159. 
Hdmapadiy 159. 
HmuanOay 159. 
HanHy 159, 163. 
Hdroy 151. 
Habadatta mi§ba, 10, 16, 38, 

40. 
Hdrdvaliy 19, 20, 59. 
HoHy 162. 

Hdtiy 158. 

Habiballabha, 42. 
Habi bhXsoaba, 65. 
Hdricd, 158. 
HabicIla nivA, 246. 
Haricdricdy 21 y 42. 
HabidIoshita, 13, 41. 
Haridrdy a river, 284. 
Habidba, 284. 
HarigUdy 156. 
Habihaba, 255, 257, &ec 

HABlirAlGUM^SHf, 214. 

Haari ndmdmrttay 47. 
HanhaplutOy 162, 166. 
HarMy 112, 146, 162. 
HabipbasXda, 23. 

HaBIbImA OHAOBAVABTf, 45. 

HafUabandhGy 158. 
Hdrwafiia pwrd^ 287. 
HIb^n ALBASHio, 515. 
Hasan BBN SuHAiB, 171« 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 



545 



Hasan Sub AH, 226. 
Hasta, 151, 336, 353, 363. 
Hastmdpura, 215, 283. 
Haya, 151. 
H6z6rehs, 230. 
HI6i, 244. 
HfiLiBiJA, 21, 49. 
HelIyudha, 20, 47, 58, 64, 79, 

132. 
H£mA CHANDRA, 44, 50, 58, ^, 

206, &c. 
H£ma 86ri, 44. 
HiBROCLES, 202, 204. 
Hindevi\9nga9igef 22. 
fffTuiriaDgaage, 22, 23, kc. 
Hind^pati pnncesy 65, 258. 

Hinddrdya, 258. 
Hmdustdni, 23, &c. 

//^ 157. 

f/'irocw, 157. 

Hft6padesay 166, &c. 

ff6r^, 477, 478, 526. 

HoNAiN, 348. 

HtmStyOnndmehy 167, 172. 

HusainMIrza, 168. 

HUSAIN Waez, 167, &c. 

Hushbno, testament of, 167, 168, 
171. 

Hylohii, 203. 

Hypatia, 443, 501, 503. 

Hypsicles, 492. 



IbrahIm bbn Sal at, 348. 
IctUu 'Ijebhah, 339. 
ImIdi racsuamalla, 274, 276. 
Imam Jafer, 226, 230. 
Indra, 6, 39. Many Indras ad- 
mitted by the Jamas , 214. 

iNDRABH<7TI, 315, 316. 
VOL. II. 



Indrasana, 152. 

Indravajra, 160, 164. 

Indravaruay 103, 160. 

InduvadandtlQl* 

Inscriptions, general remarks on, 
238, &c., 287. Inscription on 
the pillar at Beddl, 17; at 
Buddha yaya, 17; at Cintra in 
Portugal, 241 ; on the pillar at 
Delhi, 232 ; from Tipura, 241 ; 
at GtyrakhpuTj 247 ; from Chi- 
tradurg, 254, 266, 284 ; at Cu- 
rughde, 267 ; at Kurrah, 277 ; 
at Sdrandt'ha, 278; in the dis- 
trict of DindjpuTj 279; at 
Mon^, 280, 281 ; at Nidiyal 
and Goujda, 283; in Bihar, 
289; at^Tdrdchandi, 295; at 
Ujjayani, 297. 

Is'hak ben Honain, 345, 348. 

Ismailiydhs, 225, 22^. 

fgwARA CRKshAa, 74. 
fsWARANANDA, 40, 

/<, 37. 



JaoannIt'ha, 117. 
JayaH, 152, 160. 
Jagaii (pancti), 153. 
J(^aii {trishtubh), 153. 
Jaghanya chapald, 154. 
Jainas, 191, &c., 315, &c. 
Jaladhara, 157* 
Jaladhara mdld, 160. 
Jalaharaiia, 157. 
Jal6ca, 198. 
Jalhddhatagatd, 110, 160. 
Jctmaca, 158. 
Jambudw\pa, 179. 
Jambusnra, 450. 
2 o 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



546 



INDEX. 



Jdnaci, 163. 

Janam6jaya, 283,285. 

Japila, 289, &c. 

Jatacabnava, 3te,410,482,&c. 

Jdtiy 88. 

Jdtimdld, 177, 178, &c. 

Ja^puidy 158. 

Jaumara, 45. 

Jdwiddn khird, 167, 171. 

Jayachandba, 240, 286. 

JayadSva, 87, 95. 

Jayaditya, 9, 40, 55, 249, &c. 

Jayanta, 14, 41. 

Jayapala, 280. 

Jayayabma, 299,309. 

Jebhah, 335. 

Jebr, 435. 

JEHANOfR, 396, 452. 

Jhalland, 157. 

Jilm6/flr, 130, 164. 

Jinas, 206, 207, &c. 

JiN^NDBA, 6, 39, 40, 55. 

^tw, 194. 

JfvA oh6sha swAMf, 47. 

JisHifu, 395, 427, 456, 476. 

JnydndmHta, 48. 

Jnyanabaja, 428, 451. 

Jnyan^ndra baraswat!, 13,41. 

JUMARANANDf, 45, 46. 

JytshVka, 339. 

Jyotishy the calendar appended to 

the Fidas, 63. 
Jybtishf a metre, 87, 155. 
JyoHshmad {trishfubh^ 153. 

K. 

Kalb, kalbu'ldkrab, 340. 
Kankarafy 508. 
KUas, 33, 
hertan^ 336. 



Khuldsatu 'ikiM, 435, 489, 616, 
524. 

L. 

Lftcshtnif 161. 
LAcsHMfoASA, 220, 224, 323, 

395, 423, 452, &c. 459, 481 
LacskmSdhara, 160. 

LACSHMfvARHA, 299. 

LI^hXohIbya, 409. 
Lagdlicd, 158. 
Laghu drya siddhdnta^ 467. 
Layhu hhitshaka cdrUi, 42. 
I^Au hbdha, 48. 
Xo^Att caumudiy 14, 42. 
IrfT^Au paribhdshd vrtui^ 42. 
i>z^^t< sabcUtratna, 13, 41. 
i>z^7m sabdindhi, 13, 41. 
Laghu vaiydcara^ ndMiitt 

manjitshdf 42. 
L^Au vomAFAa siddhdnia, 377» 

379, 392. 
Lo^^u vri'Wt, 44. 
Lflr/afwi,110,160. 
LIlasinha, 409. 
Laliid, 131, 154, 160, 163, 165. 
La2itapada,l60. 
LaiUapurdAay 199. 
Lalla, 332, 358, 359, 360. 
Lancdf meridian of, 414, &c., 

427. 
Languages used by Hinda poete, 

l,&c. 
Latdy 162. 
Lavaiiy 165. 
Leonardo Bonacci, 433, Itc, 

487, &c., 498, 516. 
Ltfier ^56<jc«, 435. 
Lild, 162. 
Lildc'hm, 161. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



INDBX. 



647 



LUdvaHy 97, 157, 379, 419, &c. 
LUbpavad, 161. 
Lipia, 358, 527, 52a 
L6oanjlt'ha, 57. 
L6CAPAT,A, 280. 
Lbcdy&ta school, 219. 
J6/a, 156,161. 
lubdhaca, a star, 352, 464'. 
Lunar race, 256. 

M. 

Macara^ the symbol of the Indian 

cupid, 89. The constellation 

Capricorn, 369, 465. 
Macaranda, 47. 
MacoTcmdicdy 163. 
MadaUc'hd, 159. 
Madamattdy 163. 
MadanaffT^ha, 157. 
Madanahardy 157. 
MadanalalUdy 162. 
MadanapIla d^va, 286. 
Maddndhdy 160. 
Madhaya aoharya, 38, 43, 55, 

60, 205, 257. 
Mddhaviy 55. 
Mddhavicdy 163. 
Mddhaviya vritti on Pacini, 9, 

38, 43, 48. 
Madhuy 158. 
Madhubhdvtty 156. 
Madhu mddhaviy 55, 161. 
Madhumafiyl59, 
Madhus6dana, 46, 49. 
MadhyCy see Medhya, 
Madhydy 158. 
Madhya caumudiy 14, 41 . 
Madhyacshamdy 161. 
Madhyd jyotishmaiiy 153. 
Madhyamdhora^y 426. 



Madhya manbramdy 41, 42. 

Mddhyandinay 427. 

Madirdy 163. ; 

Madruy 273. 

Mdgadha 179, 182. 

il%a(2^a dialect, 1, 2, 32, 66, 213, 

316. 
MioHA, 75, 78, 80, 84, 98, 104, 

112,120,131,132. 
Maghdy 335, 355, &c., 360. 
Mahdbhdratay 473, 475. 
Mahdbhdshya on Pii^iNi, 7, &c., 

21, 37, 40. 
Mahdbhdshya prad^y 40. 
Mahdcdvyay six poems thus desigf- 

nated, 84. 
Mahdchapaldy 154. 
Mahdlacshmiy 159. 
Mahdmdlicdy 162. 
Mahdrdshira language, 29, 68, 

103. 
Mahdrdshtray a metre, 90, 157. 
Mahardshtra BrahmahaSy 179. 
MAHAvfBA,315,316,317. 
JlfaAarr^Aa^i; 152. 
Mahdyuya, 4l4y4iS. 

MahISwABA VAIDYA, 58. 

AToA^i, 158. 

MAHlBHAff A, 44. 
MAHfOHANDBA, 286. 

MahIpala DiYA, 280. 
Mahishasuba, 248. 
Mdhishyoy 181. 
Mahratia language, 29, 103. 
Manda, 158. 
Maifhila dialect, 27. 
Maifhila BrdhmaftaSy 179, 189. 
Maitb^ya, 59. 

MAITBiYA BA08HITA, 9, 38, 43» 

55, 
2 o 2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



548 



TNDEX. 



Mdl,4M. 

Mala, 305, 306. 

JMoAi, 94,110,156,161. 

Mdldcdra, 182. 

Mamhara, 162. 

MSdaft, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165. 

MdlaH rnddhavoy 115, 135. 

Mdlad moldy 160. 

Mdlavi, 157. 

Mali, 182. 

Jtfft/mi, 115, 161. 

Jtfa//f(7<i, 119,159,163. 

Manahansa, 161. 

Maiiamaia bills, 241. 

Md^avaca, 159. 

Mdiiavaca crm, 119, 159. 

Manddcini, 160. 

MxfM^(Tdn^, 112, 142, 162. 

Mandari, 158. 

Ma^ibandha, a metre, 159. 

MaMbandha tribe, 180, 183. 

Mahicdra, 180. 

MInTCYA CHANDRA, 1. 

MaM guiia nicara, 110, 161. 
MMmadhyd, 159. 
MaAimdld,l60. 
Mahi manjari, 163. 
itfaj5i>raAA<i, 100. 
Manjori, 161, 165. 
Mar^Wa, 162. 

ManjubhdshiM, 130, 161, 165. 
Manju^Uif 154. 
Manjusawabhoy 165. 
ManOramdy 38, 41, 45. 
Man^amd^ a metre, 159. 
Manoramd vr^ttiy 48. 
ManiiTanjanay 453. 
Man6ub, 167. 
Mant'hdnay 159. 
Manu, sec Menu. 



Manzils of the mooD, 328. 

Marahattdy a metre, 90, 157* 

MiBAPA, 257. 

Mdrichay 394, 396, 397, 454. 

Marichiy 324. See ikfiirkAa. 

Matallicdy 119, 159. 

Mdiangiy 159. 

Mafhurdy 69. 

Mat'hur^a, 56. 

Matirama, 23, 95. 

J»f<i/ra, 70, 71, 151. 

j(fafr<i ch'handasy 78, 153. 

Mdtrdsamacay 86, 110, 155. 

Matsya puf&fuiy 350. 

3fa«a, 110, 157,159. 

3fa^ crkf^, 163. 

3/a^ mdtanga lildcara, 164. 

3fa^ inay(tray 130, 161. 

Matter, believed by the Jainas to 

be eternal, 194. 
Mauctica ddma, 160. 
Mauctica mdldy 160. 
Maulica BrdhmakaSy 190. 
Morvipuldy 158. 
iWa^a, 161. 
MayUra sdriidy 159. 
Mtdabhillay 184. 
Medhycy 529. 
MiDiNfoABA, 19, 20, 58. 
M(;;m^ cd^Aa, 58. 
Mroasthbnbs, 200, 204. 
Meghad(Uay 84,112,113. 
il/^Aa vi$p*hurjitay 163. 
Mefdlisu^lnUtmeniny 225. 
Melio Muhammed Jais!, 23. 
Menu, 177- 
Menuyuffa, 414. 
JI/«Afl, 328, 329, 355, 365, 473, 

474. 
JIfma/a (MI-sHAA-ALtAu), 508. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IN D£X. 



549 



MiHiRA,389, 476, 482. See Va- 

rIha miutba. 
Mna, 369. 473. 
MiSra, 46. 
Msra dialect, 1. 
Misra, a soruame, 189. 
Mtabhdshi/a, 452. 
Mifhii6y 27, 69. 
Miehunoy 381,465. 
MUch'haSy 184,192,198,411. 
Mbdacay 160. 

MOHSEN FlMf, 226. 

M6ianaca, 160. 
Mr^gaUras, 332, 353, 363. 
Mrtghndray 158. 
Mf^gendramuc'hay 161. 
Mi^Sfh 158. 
Mrita sanj'ivini, 64. 
Mttakkher, 343. 
Aluc^ha cht^aioy 154. 
Muctaca, 133. 
Muouf A, 18, 54. 
Mudoapa, 257* 
Mitferrehu'UcuKih, 173. 
Mi^dhab6dha, 15, 86. 
Mugdhab6dha parmshia, 46. 
Mugdhabddhiniy 56. 
MuHAMMED Abu'lwafI o/ J9tf;sr- 
y^a, 445, 513,, 524, &c. 

MUUAMMED AfZAL, 23. 
MUHAMMBD BEN IbrIhIm ol 

Fazdriy 504, 509. 

MUHAMMBD BEN MuSA, 444, 

498, 509, &c. 535. 
MuHAMMED KhUni, 92. 
MuHAMMED of Tizhi. 329. 
Muhammedan sects, 225. 
Muh! BEN Yahta, 348. 
MtihdTta chintdmahi, 323. 
MukaMah, 435, 436, 489. 



Mukaddim, 343. 
M^ldy 340. 
MullI Ali, 228. 
MuNflwABA, 220, 224, 323, 324, 

358, 376, 378, 396, 454, 467, 

473. 
MuNJA, 53, 462. 
MunjIla, 375, 378, 379, 380, 

385, 461. 
MUry Muroy 29, 60. 

MuBARf, 45. 
M(jroh'ha Khan, 56. 
Murdh6hhUhicta, 189. 
MUtu character, 29. 

N. 

Nacshatrasy 321, &c. 
Nadiy 161. 
Nagalicdy 158. 
Nagdniy 158. 
Nmfdndy 158. 
Nqgdnicd, 158. 
Ndgari writing, 27. 
Ndga stoardpiniy 118, 159. 
NiofiiA, 13, 14, 41, 42. 
Ndgi{gdyatri)y 152. 
NlG6jf BHAffA, 40, 41. 

Ndguliy 286. 
iVfli, 181. 

NaishadhiyOy 84, 104, 105. 
Naiydyicay 219. 
iV<i;tw, 434. 
Nala, 74, &c. 105. 
A^o/a champd, 105, 135. 
Nalodayoy 74, 75. 
iVawa m<i/<i, 20. 
Ndmanidhdnay 20. 
Ndma pdTdyahay 16. 
Ndndrt'ha coslMy 20. 
Nandaci§6ra, 46. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



650 



IN DEX. 



Nandana, 162. 
Nanddvarta, 211. 
Nandi, 49. 
NandigrSma^ 450. 
Nandknuc^hif 161. 
iViiptto, 181,185. 
Ndrdcha, 162. 
Naravebm A, 298,309. 

NlRATAifA BHAffA TARA, 64, 

65,68,118,132. 
Naraya^a chacravart!, 56. 
Narcuiaca 148, 162. 
Nardhatacay 162. 
NarSndra, 163. 
iVarl, 158. 

NAsfRUDDfN TiUi, 345, 348. 
Nasrullah, Abulmala, 168. 
JVdsHca school, 219. 
iVii^o, 184, 185. 
Nidacay 185. 
NaUgatiy 161. 
iVahA, 329. 
Navamdliniy 160. 
Navdncttra, 453. 
N€hvipul6, 158. 
JV«ya, 181. 
i%acfl,289, 291. 
Natanananda, 57. 
Nayapala, 280. 
Nerunoala raja, 274. 
Nethrah, 334. 
Nichbchcha vrittay 399. 
Nighahhiy 20, 43. 
iV^ito, 162. 
NlLAOAijf' HA, 57. 
iVXto/mrd^flr, 198. 
iVi^z swardpoy 160. 
Niructiy 20, 43. 
iVin;<i»«,319. 
Nishdday 180. 



NiUpdlay 162. 

Nivartana, 312. 

iVivrJf/, 153. 

Nonius, 500. 

NrKsinha, 359, 376, 377, 379, 

396, 426, 451, 452. 
NHsinha ckamp&y 136. 
Nunez, 500. 
NOrullah, 225, 227. 
N(7Sh(rvJ[n, 167, 172. 
Nyancu sdriM (vr)(h<ai)y 152. 
iVy<bff, 40. 
Nyaya panchanana, 46. 



oaroy 179. 

Odra diSoy 28, 69. 
Q;'^a, 189. 
Ordu zebdn, 33 



Paciolo, 433, 490, &c. 
Pflrffl, 70,73, 96,153. 
Pada chandricdy 18, 49, 54. 
Padachaturitrdhay 165. 
Pdddcuiacoy 87, 155, 156. 
Pada manjariy 13, 38, 40, 57. 
Pddanivrit gdyairiy 152. 
Pdddnudhgdtay 303. 
Padapancti, 153* 
Paddrt^ha caumndiy 56. 
Paddvatiy 48. 
Padhanabha, 422, 470. 
Padmanabhadatta, 47. 
Padmandbka vifoy 422. 
Padmdvatiy 156. 
PajjaJCidy 156. 
Paisdchi dialect, 1, 66, 67. 
Paitdmaha bhdshga, 398. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IN DEX. 



651 



Paiidmaha siddhdrUa, 387» 388, 

396, 408, 457, 480. 
Pdli, 213, 316, 317. 
Palyasy 217. 
PaAava, 110, 159. 
Pancajdvali, 161. 
Pmcdvaliy 161. 
Pancha chdmara, 162, 163. 
Panchdia, 158. 
Pancha siddhdnia, 353. 
Pancha siddhdnticd, 357, 390, 

409, 478, &c. 
Panchatantra, 166, &c., 361, 482. 
Panc<t, 152, 153, 159. 
Pdndjfa, 273. 
Panjicd pradtpa^ 49. 
PI6iNi,4,&c., 11,37, 40. 
Pdhifi/tya mata darpaAa, 43. 
Pdpdpufi, 215. 
Paramahansa, 220. 
Poram4rArrta,219. 
farangamdy 157. 
ParIsara, 353, 855, 427, 448, 

473,474. 
Pdrdsara siddhdnta, 180, 378, 

382, 416. 
Paribhdshds, 38, 42, 47. 
Paribhdshdrfha sangrahay 42* 
Paribhdshd vf^Ui, 42. 
Parihhdshindu tSc'hara, 14, 42. 
Paribhdshendu sec'hara edited, 42. 
Paricshdy 64. 
Parity 154. 
PariUihta prabddha, 45. 
Parmshia siddhdma ratndcara, 

45. 
Pardslinih, 152. 
PIrSwanat'ha, 317. 
Pdrt'hc^ra, 451. 
PiRVATf, 248,271. 



Patanjali, 7, 37, 40, 63. 

P(rt'Ay^ 73, 119,154,157. 

Pafhyd (pancti), 153. 

Pa<%<S (wrAtf<0, 152. 

PaHacilay 303, 306, 309. 

PatiasiUra cdra, 185. 

PaUicdra, 181. 

Paw/wa siddhdnta, 387, 414, 480. 

Ptfttwwj, 156. 

Pdvitra, 159. 

Pdwdpuri, 215, 319. 

P<iyf«<i, 159. 

Pay^dhara, 151. 

Pehleyf traDslation of the fables 

of PiLPAY, 171. 

Pe»y^« language, 33, 69. 
Persian translation of the fables 

of PiLPAY, 167, &c.; of the 

UpnaishadSy 197; of the LiM- 

vo^, 420. 
Persians, their ancient religion, 

199, 200. 
P'hdlguniy 335, 336. 

PHfoAR, 504. 

Philostratus, 201, 204. 

Pia, 158. 

PiLPAY, fables of, 166, &c., 482, 

511. 
Pina nitambdy 162. 
PiNOALA, 63, &c., 97. 
Pinffola pracdsay 66. 
Pinffola vr^tti, 65, 91, 92, 102. 
PipUica madhyd, 153. 
Planets, Hindu theory of their 

motions, 374, &c., 415. 
PlavangafnUi, 157. 
Pliny, 202. 
Polar star, 327, 328. 
Porphyrius, 202. 
Prabhdy 41. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



552 



INDEX. 



Prabhdf a metre, 160. 
Prabhadracaf 161. 
Frabhdvati, 161. 
Prabbdha chandrbdaya, 103. 
Prab6dha pracdsaf 48. 
Prabbdhitd, 161. 
Prachita, 144, 164. 
Prdchya dialect, 68. 
Pr6chya vr^tti, or vrJT/to, 78, 155. 
Prikjrr<, 1, &c. 21, &c. 66, 213, 

316. 
Pr^r^/ measures, 88. 
PrAcrita c&madhenu, 48. 
Pr&crita chandricd, 44, 48. 
Prdcr^ta lanciswaray 48. 
Pr/i^to 97km6ra97^, 22, 44. 
Prdcr^ta PingaUiy 22, 65. 
Prdcr^ta pracdia, 48. 
Pracr¥ti, 163. 
Pracriyd caumudi, 10, 11, 14, 21, 

38, 31. 
Pracriya ratna^ 49. 
Prad^'TMjmjatiy 57- 
Pbadyumna, 409. 
Prflf^', 154. 
Prdharaha cabitd, 161. 
Pr«ifeflr«ftt^, 115, 145, 160. 
Prqjdpati, a star, 352, 353. 
PrajfeiHca, 156. 
Pramaddy 154, 161. 
Pramd^, 530. 
Prom^^i, 74, 118. 
PrcmMicd, 159, 162. 
Pramitdcshardy 86, 110, 160. 
Pramna, 201. 
Pramudiia vadand, 160. 
Pr^^, 392. 
Prasdda, 38,41,43,49. 
Prrttna c6«Aft, 479. 
Prastdra pancti, 153. 



Pratapa dhavala DivA, 289, 

&c. 
Pratihdray 292. 
PraHmahaalay 399. 
Pratipay 49. 
PratishVhay 158. 
PratishVhd ydyattl, 152. 
Praiivdsudhoasy 218. 
Pratydpiddy 165. 
Praudhn manoramdy 13, 41. 
Pravaray 305. 
Pravara lalitdy 162. 
Pravr^ttacoy 78, 79, 155. 
PrIt'h(jdaca swAMf, 380, 392, 

397, 408, 414, 422, 467, 470. 
PrXthuyaSas, 477. 
PrU'hwiy 162. 
Pnytf, 158. 
Priyamvaddy 160. 
Prose, &jfMrrr<, 133. 
Prosody, writers on, 63, &c. 
Ptolrm y , 329, 347, 348, 351 , 383. 

384, 400, 411, 527. 
PuliSa, 388, 415, 472, 482, 
Pu/tia siddhdntOy 388. 
Punarvasuy 332, 333, 387,391. 
Puiuhracoy 185. 
Punjaraja, 21,44. 
Purd^asy 4, 5, 18, 
PurastddjybHshmatiy 153, 
Purastdd w^hatiy 152. 
PurauskMhy 152. 

P^RirAOHANDRA, 49. 

Purbhitay 314. 

PURUSHACJlRA, 48. 

Purush6ttama, 19,20,390. 
Puru8h6ttama oiyA, 40, 41, 

47, 55, 58. 
Pui'va bhddrapada, 343. 
Pdrva p'hdlgun\, a36. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 



653 



Pitrvdshdclha, 3;,T. 
Purva varsfui^ 208. 
Pushpaddntt, 163. 
Pushpitdgrd, 124, 129, 164. 
Pmhya, 334. 
Pvta, 160. 



Rabhasa, 53, 59. 
Rabua8apIla, 20. 
Racshamali.a, 274, &c. 
Racsuita, 40. 
Raaa(Rdrd), 179,188,189. 
RaOaha, 93, 156. 

RlDHACRYsui^A, 47. 

Rdjhava pdricUiviyay 98, 102. 
Raohunandana, 45. 
Raohunat'ha chaokavartI, 

57. 
Raghu vansa, 84, 100, &c. 124, 

&c. 
/?4^«, 33. 

RAHASANANof, 45. 

Rajaca, 184, 185. 
Raja dtva^ 55, 
Raja mdriaMoy 463. 
Rdja niffha^ia, 20. 
RajapIla, 280. 
Rdjapuira, 180. 
RIma, 49, 197. 
RImabhadra, 46. 
Ramacanta, 47. 
Ramachandba, 10, &c. 41, 47, 

379. 
RSmachandricd, 102. 
Rama cutsHirA, 453. 
Rama caYsHifA oivA, 454. 
RamadIsa, 45. 
Ramad^va hiSra, 49. 
RamXnanda, 46, 57, 

VOL. II. 



Rama nIraya^a, 48. 
Ramanat'ha, 45. 
Ramanat'ha tidya yachks- 

PATI, 57. 

RamaAi, lp8. 

RamInuja, 205. 

Rama kyayalancara, 47. 

Ramapbasada tabcalancIrA) 

57. 
RImapbasIda taboa vIoffiA, 

46. 
Rama baja, 76. 
Rama^bama, 54, &c. 
Rama taboa vaoI^a, 46, 57. 
RdmdyaAa of TuLAsfoASA, 94, 

102. 
Rdmdyafui of VlLMfci, 101, 103. 
Rdma vydcarafMy 49. 
Rambhd, 158, 
RlMiSwARA, 47, 57. 

RAifATABCA MALLA, 345. 

RaAad,l54. 

Ranoanat'ha, 324, 396, 421, 

452, 454. 
RANTlDivA, 20, 59. 

Rasamidd, 157. 
Rasamanjati, 95. 
Rafhbddhatd, 104, 160. 
Rasi, 158. 

RaTIOXnTA TABOAYAOf^A, 46. 

Ratna chsha, 20, 59. 

Ratnaoarbha, 357. 

Ratna mdld, a dictionary, 20 ; a 

grammar, 47 ; an astronomical 

work, 323, 363. 
Ra-iiiptddy 158. 
RIya Mucuf a ma^i, 18, 54. 
Rboobde, Robbbt, 430, 434. 
Regions of the world sacred to 

the Jaims, 220, &c. 
2 P 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



554 



INDEX. 



Rikhtah,33. 

Revati, 325, 328. 331, &c. 343, 

464. 
R^SfveSUi, followers of the, 260. 
Rishd, 344. 
Ji^shabha, 208, 319. 
R)i$habha gaqa viloiita, 162. 
R\ishu, seven, 352, 255. 
Rbhi^i, 331,553,358. 
Rbld, 90, 92, 156. 
R'amacasiddhdnta, 386, 388, 400, 

411,476. 
Ruchira, 115, 130, 157, 161. 
Rucmavad, 110, 159. 
Ru^a, 20, 59. 
Rudra ydmala tantra, 177* 
Riipamdld, 48. 
Rdpamdn, 159. 

8. 

^bari dialect, 68. 

Sabda caustubha, 13, 41. 

^abdaghbshd, 46. 

Sabd&mMaana^ 44. 

6abdaratna, 13, 41. 

I^abda ratndvaliy 56. 

SabdaHutva, 20, 59. 

^d^e^eiuittse^^A/ira, 13, 14, 41. 

I^bdicdbhara^, 49. 

Sdbrangicdf 161. 

;§^ 179. 

^dcadtcipoy 179. 

^icaera, 478. 

§XoALYA, 5, 48, 323, 358, 359. 

Sdcalya sanhitd, 324, 333, 391, 

382, 352, 358, 377. 
SacamhhaH, 92, 234« 
&icdr< dialect, 68. 
^aca^a M^, 332. 
SaoatIyana, 5, 6, 39, 48. 



§accarif 161. 
&ic'^d, 477. 
Sac'yera, 180. 
§acuntald, 136. 

§XCTA8INHA, 198, 318. 

^adikiyaht, 230. 

£^tQ^ (feTTMt^, 67, 68, 98. 

6ailaiic'h6, 162. 

Saitava, 64. 

Smvasy 197. 

Salama, 515. 

iS<z/^£ei ntdAt, 163. 

So/mi, 104, 160. 

SXlivXbana, 59. 

SalmIn, 348. 

S<i/iira, 164. 

Samaneans, 20.3. 

.Sam^in^,74,ll8. 

Samdnicd, 159, 162. 

Samant6y49, 

Samaibdhanaf 435. 

Sdmbher, 92. 

SofTiMtf, a metre, 164. 

Sambhu, a metre, 163. 

§AMBHU 271, 272. 

&zme< Hc'hara, 212. 

Sammhhay 158. 

Samudratatdf 163. 

Samvatf in inscriptions, sometiJiies 

denotes the year of the reign, 

246, 281. 
§ANOABA, 16,95,114,205. 
Sdncard dialect, 68. 
Sane' ha cdra, 180. 
Sane* ha ddraea^ 180. 
Sanc'handti^ 159. 
Sdnc'hya, 194, 219. 
S&ncliya cMcd, 74. 
Sancritiy 163. 
SancshiptasdrOy 45, 46, 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



INDBX. 



656 



§ancuma(i, 153. 

§Ai^6lLA, 188. 

Sanoama, 255, &c. 

Srni^f 154. 

Sahgrahafu ratnOf 220. 

Sanhitd, 477. 

Sangatd, 159. 

Sanmaulica Br6hmaha$y 189. 

Sannydsisj 202. 

Sansdrdvarta, 20. 

Sanacdrasy 192. 

StrnMr^M, 1, &c. Derivation of 

the word, 2. 
Sanst^rd panctihy 153. 
Smsfuctd, 159. 
%)to la/^ 74. 
&ira, 151. 
§arabha, 365, 366. 
&ira6A<$, 162. 
Sdrdmr^tay 48. 
SABAirADivA, 49. 
Sdrangay 159. 
Sarangay 160. 
SarangacOy 161. 
Sdrangi, 159. 
&ra«^, 163. 
SdrasufuUtriy 56. 
Sdraswata, 15. 
Sdraswata Brdhmaiiasy VJ% 188, 

213. 
Sdraswata nation and language, 

21,69,213. 
Saraswady a river, 21. 
.S^onoo^ 5^/a ^^i, 21. 
Saraswaii cttkVhdbhara^y 22, 

49. 
Saraswati pracrigdy 44. 
Sdravatiy 159. 
^r(ft£i(i, 162, 163. 
&r(/ttA7 /o/ito, 162. 



§drdiila vicrUUkty 111, 141, 143, 

145, 147, 163. 
harmony see ^0rman. 

§ARNOADHARA, 236 

Sdrngadhara paddhatiy 236. 
5K7^*, 159. 
&ro;a, 152. 
i&lru, 158. 

Sarvadhaba, 20, 55. 
SarvdrumdOy 55, 
Sarya varman, 44. 

^iy 158. 

SaUcaidy 162. 

&xlt rflkfon^, 159, 163. 

idswatoy 20, 59. 

&ito6Af5Aa, 342, 363. 

Satacas of BhartrY hari, 174. 

SatahpancHy 153. 

SatXnanda, 385, 390, 409, 482, 

485. 
Satly 158. 
Sai&vrVhatiy 152. 
^atrunjayay 215. 
i$^Mtir,88,89. 

SlTTACf, 81. 

Saugatasy 219. 

StR^tTi^a, 87, 155. 

Sfiura days, 415. 

Smrabhacay 131, 165. 

Saurasini dialect, 66, 67. 

Saurashtray 88. 

Sawrdshtra metre, 88, 90, 156. 

Saiwra siddftdnta, 381, 387, 388, 

392, 480. ^ 
Sdv€ma days, 414. 
SAYBRifA, 188. 

Satai^a Ioharya, 9, 43, 257. 
Scandhay 154. 
Scandhogrhjd, 152. 
Ser/ahy 336. 

2 p 2 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



566 



INDEX. 



Serman, a commoD termination of 

proper names, 189, 303. 
8KRy6RC7 TRiviof, 235, 240, 

286. 
S^s6y 159. 
6isha, 159. 
§£shanXoa, 63. 
Seven RUhis, 349, 352. Their 

motion, 355. 
Shadman, 230. 
Shah Jrham,319. 
Mm, 434. 

Sha^ImItura, 331. 
Shanzebah, 169. 
ShtApadd, 156. 
Shatpadic&,9Q,^\. 
Shauiah, 3i0. 
SheratSn, 329. 
ShMs, 225, kc. 
5fc7//i, 87, 94,155,156,165. 
&c'Aar«l, 114, 148, 150, 162. 
^hd, 43. 
Siddhaca, 163. 

Siddhdnta cmmudi, 12, 21,38, 4). 
Siddhdnta chandricd, 44. 
Siddhdnta sanhiid sdra samuch' 

chayCy 451. 
Siddhdnta sdrvahhaumay 324, &c., 

352,359,379,396,401. 
Siddhdnta Urvmukij 324, &c., 350, 

352, 376, 385, 393, &c., 396, 

419. 
Siddhdnta sundaroy 325, 327, 451. 
Sidd/idnta tatttca vivica^ 453, see 

Tutttoa vivfca, 
Siddhdrt'ha, 251, 318. 
kighrabbdhuy 48. 
Sighrbchvha^ 401. 
Sikhs f their sacred writings, G9. 
Silk, 185. 



Silvester II., pope, 488. 
Simac ul adzil, 337. 
SiMEO Sbthus, 17)» 172. 
Sind hind, 428, 504, 509, &c. 

SlNDHU,298. 

SinhdUib, 157. 
Sinhandday 161 . 
SinhivaUcay 157. 
Sinhavicrdntay 144, 164. 
^'nAtfti, 154. 
Sinhhnnatdy 161. 
^fRA DBVA, 42. 

Sirbmaiuy 323, &c. 

&r«A<i, 159. 

Sisdy 159. 

^iSupXla, 80. 

§iiupdiabadhay 80, 120—124, 132. 

§ivA,248,256. 

Siva BHAffA, 13. 

§IVADA8A, 45, 87. 

SivAoivA, 49. 

SiVARAMA CHACRAVARTf, 45. 
SiVA SWAMf, 49. 

SAi«i,70,118,119. 
iUhdy 163. 
^blhdvaiiyie]. 
Solarrace, 286, 318. 
SoLiNus, 202. 
S6mabu(jpala, 274. 

S6MACARA, 63. 

Sbmandt'ha, in Goserat, 90. 
Sbmardjiy 159. 
Sbma siddhdnioy 377, 382. 
S6Mi6wARA D£vAoi,272. 
Sammonacodomy 196. 
SbraiVhd metre, 88, 90, 156. 
Soul, 194. 

Sp'H6f AYANA, 48. 

i^'hutay 325, 395, 406, 456. 
Sp'huta suroy 406. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 



557 



Splmta siddhdnta, 391. 
Spots in the moon, 244. 
Sragdhard,\\&,\^. 

5>-«y, 161. 

^ramaha, 196, 203. 
^ravacas, 195. 
§ravandy 34\,35S. 
§rc^cd,\60. 
§ri, 158, 160. 

SrIballabhachIbya, 46. 
SrIbhadra, 49. 
§r1chanoba DivA, 286. 
^RfDUARA, 422, 469, 500. 

SrIdHARA OHACRAVARTf, 4?. 

^rIdhaba swam!, 116, 357. 
§RfHAR8HA, 64, 98, 104, 188. 
SbIpIla, 286. 
§BfpATi, 323, 363. 
SbIpati datta, 45. 
Sriputa, 160. 

§RfsH6ifA, 386, 388, 407, 476, 
480. 

SRjfsuflDHARA, 41. 

Srivaisa, 210. 

SrtOa hbdha, 65. 

Stanza in Sanscrit poetry, how 

composed, 70. 
Stephanus Byzantinus, 202. 
Strabo; his account of Indian 

classes, 200, &c. 
Siri, 158. 

SuBANDHU, 98, 134, 135. 
Suhhadracay 161. 

§UBHANGA, 20. 

Suhhdshita ratna sandoha, 53, 462. 

SuBh6tI CHANDRA, 49, 54. 

SubddJiml, 46. 
Stwesara, 161. 
^uclabaias, 218. 



Sucldmbaras, 220. 
^itddhavirdjy 159. 
^dha virdl Hshabha, 165. 
§uddh6dana, 251. 
iSi^a, 162. 

SUDUACARA, 4S. 

SuDHARMA swXmf, 316, 317. 

^fudha trdtriya Brdhmanas, 188. 

Sudhdsubddha, 47* 

Siidras, 178. 

SuoATA, 206, 251. 

Su^rui, 154. 

SumdUUi, 159. 

Sumdnicd, 159. 

^mbhadesa, 179. 

Sumttc'hi, 160. 

SunandiniflQ]. 

Sunap'hay 529. 

SUMDARA, 95. 
SUNDARANANDA, 57. 

Sundari, 129, 163. 

SENDER, 23. 

SunnUy 226, &c. 

Supadma, 47, 56, 

Supadma dhdtupdia, 47. 

Supadma macaranda, 47. 

Supadma parisishia, 47. 

Supavitrdf 161. 

5i//>r6<wArM, 158. 

Supriydy 151. 

Stfr«*<i, 163. 

Surasina, 66. 

S6rya,375,377. 

S^BYAoisA, 421, 422, 428, 451. 

5<£ryrt pracdsa, 45 1 . 

^MT^rt siddhdnta, 323, &c., 349, 

351, &c., 378, 362, 388, &c. 
SCryasuri, 451, 454. 
Suryavama, 318. 
5yt*rf, 342. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



£58 



INDEX. 



Suvadand^ 116. 
Suvasa, 159. 
^ushamdj 159. 

8u8Hii«A OAVIRAJA, 45. 

S(Ua, 182. 

Sutras of NrYsinha, 453. 

S(Uras of PIi«iNi, 5, 40 ; of Pin- 

OALA, 63. 

Suvadandf 163. 
Sw6g(U6, 104, 130, 160. 
8wlMf, 20, 49. 
Swdmi, 314. 
Swaraj^ 153. 
Swastica, 209. 
^w^W, 337. 

SwatampbaoIIInanda, 42. 
Swe7r^gr6ma^ 179. 
^wiTAciTU, 251. 

§wiT6TPALA, 461. 

Syauras, 195. 
5^eniV^, 160. 



ro^^jTi, 333. 
raAf^rw 'ImefetH, 345. 
ToA^o/, 333. 
7'4;Vico, 526. 
Taijasa iarira, 194. 
Tailanga BrdhnuHuu, 179. 
Tailanga language, 31. 
Tflt/fCfl, 182. 

TIjUDDfN, 173. 

Tdkt, 151. 
Tm, 158. 

Tdmarasa^ 160, 164. 
Tam^r, 182. 
ramrocwJa, 180. 
Tafntt/ language, 29. 
Tafidamy 151. 
TAfj6iN, 63. 



Tanlicay 182. 
Tiifi/i, 180. 

TarUra, in astronomy, 477* 
TTw^nw, 18, 177, 185, &c. 
TarUraprad^ 43. 
Taniravdya, 180, 181, 183. 
Tanumadht/d, 159. 
Tanwi, 163. 
r<Sr<icfl, 161. 
TlRA0HAif6f, 290. 
Toro/aiuiyanS, 160. 
TbfOft^tVU, 49. 

TI&APALA, 59. 

Tajr/; utr/ah, 335. 

Tarar^tt 'Ihucamd, 510, 518. 

7bto,160. 

ro^rtca 66(2Am{, 13,41. 

ro/^tra Chandra, 14, 38, 41. 

r^rtftoa vivcca, 324, 352, 359, 379 

453, 
Torvipuld, 158. 
TeHnga language, 31. 
Teppas,^. 

THiBiT,345,348,383. 
Thacura, 189. 
Thwrayyd, 331. 
TSca MTVOMra, 55. 
7Ytoca,159. 
TVnni, 158. 
rf>ttra, 241. 
TirhuCiya dialect, 27; writbg, 

242, 247. 
Tirii&y 158. 
TMhancara, 213. 
Tifhi, 364. 
7<9<iai<i <afi/ra, 178. 
Tomara, 159. 
T^cfl, 74, 110, 160. 
T6rALl,292. 
Tribhan^ 157. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 



569 



Tricanda, 52, 53. 
TricdiiBa chintdma^, 5?. 
TricdHaa scsha^ 20, 58. 
TricdikSa vivica, 57. 

TrILOOHANA DA8A, 45, 57. 

Tripdd mushiubh, 152. 
Tripddffdy(U7%\52. 
Tripdd ush^ih, 152. 
Tripdd virdj igdyatri)^ 152. 
Trishtubh, 152, 153, 160. 

TriVICBAMA BHAffA, 105, 135. 
Trivid^ 305. 
Tuld, 473. 

TuLASfDASA, 94, 102. 
TuAaca, 161. 
Turigd, 159. 
Tungabhadrd, 284. 
Tunuhcas, 198. 

U. 

Ubhayavipuld^ 154. 
Uccach^hd, 156. 
«7rf'^, 158. 
Udatadhayala, 293. 
UdayXditya, 299, 309. 
Udayana, 16. 
27(i(Mar«Ai^a, 161. 
£/i4rfl<«,131,165. 
Udgdt'hd, 154. 
^7«ferl/l, 73, 154. 
i7fi«<?Ayfl tTr«t, 78, 155. 
CT^fyrt, 69. 
Uggdhd, 154. 
Z7^-rt, 181. 
£5;t»to, 2 J 2. 
UjjwaTi, 160. 
l^/c<S, 48. 
C7/<S/fl,90,156. 
U1.U0H Bbg, 329, &c. 
Umapati, 45. 



UUdi, 59. 

UUdi m^Ui, 47. 

Upachitrd, 86, 155, 160 164. 

UpagUi, 73, 154, 

C5»a;VW, 99, 102, &c., 124, 160, 

164. 
Upamdlini, 161. 
UparishtddjyotishmaH, 153. 
Vparishtdd vrihaii, 152. 
Upast'hitd, 159, 160. 
Upast'hita prachupita, 165. 
Upav6das^ 20, 

Upindravqjray 99, 130, 160, 164. 
UrdvHhatl, 152. 
C^M^A, 152, 159. 
£^<ci, 158. 
rift?/w?A7*4, 92, 156. 
i7/cff/a, 28. 

Z7<cfl/a Brdhmahas, 179. 
Utcalicd prdga, 133. 
i7ifcrf<i, 164. 
£/ifp^mJ,20,53,161. 
i7<*ara, 162. 
UtsarpiM age, 207. 
^iftora bhddrapadoy 343. 
Uitarap'hdisfuni,336. 
Uuardshdelha, 363. 



VIOHESPATI, 19, 59. 
Fac/ra, 118, 142,157. 
Vdcya pradipa^ 42. 
Vaicdrica, 194. 
Vaidarbhi dialect, 67. 
FajV^Aa, 183. 
Vaidicas, 188. 
Fi/%<i, 180. 
Vaijayantif 20. 
VaUtshica school, 219. 
Vaishamya caumt$d(, 57. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



560 



INOBX. 



Vaishhavasy 197. 
Vaiswadevi, 160. 
Fa%«i.9, 178. Vaisffa c\aM Mxaong 

the Jainas, 195. 
VaUdliyay 78, &c, 155, 164. 
Vaiydcarana bhusha^, 42. 
VuiydcarahabhiishdMS&ray 42. 
VaiydcaraHa Hddh&tUa manjitshd, 

42. 
VdjivdhaTMy 163. 
r<%a, 309. 
Fa/Zflr*, 154. 
ViLMfci, 101. 
VImana, 20, 38. 
Vdmana caiicd, 249. 

VaMANA JAYADITYA, 40. 
V^ImANI^NOBA SWAAlf, 13. 

Vana, 131. 

VANADfVA BHAffA, 57. 

Vanamdldy 162. 
Vanamdlddhara, 162. 
Fana vdncd, 86, 155. 
Fo^' 6^i^Aa^, 64. 
Fd^mi, 162. 
Vaniid, 159- 
Vansapatray 162. 
Vansapatrapatita, 162. 
Kati«w/'Aa, 103, 105, 106, 160. 
VoTimsfhavilay 160. 

VANSfVADANA, 46. 

VarIuamihira, 64, 173, 353, 
&c., 359, &c., 373, 385, 389, 
424, 429, 457, 461, 475, 477, 
&c. 

Vdrdhl{gdyatH\\52. 

Vdrdhi sankitd, 355, 337, 409, 
424, 

Vardjivi, 181. 

VARARUcnr, 20, 44, 45, 48, 53. 

Varasundarif 161. 



Varatanuy 160. 
Varayuvatiy 162. 
Vardhamdndy 165. 
Vardhamdnd {gdyatti)y 152. 
Vardhamana, 213, &c. 
Vardhahana mi^ra, 45. 
Varendray 179, 188. 
Vdrhaspatya family, 305. 
Vdrkaspatya school, 219. 
Varmauy see Verman, 
Var^y^l. 
VaHiadesandy 59. 
Variia vr^Ua, 96. 
VdrticaSy 49. 

Vdrticds on Pacini's sutrtu, 6, 
10, 37, 40, 42. 

VARUifA BHAffA, 461. 

F<i*an4, 157, 324, 452. 

Vdsand hhdshyay 220, 224, 359, 

376, 380, 404, 423. 
Vdsand vdrticd, 376, 396, 453. 
Vasanttty 159. 
Vasanta iilacay 117, 130, 146, 149, 

161. 
Vdsandy 161. 
Vdsavadattdy 98, 134. 

VASISHf'HA, 323. 

VasishVha sidd/idntay 379, 382, 

386, &c., 476, 480. 
VdsudevaSy 215. 
Vastimatiy 159. 
Fa/6mi, 104, 160. 
Vatsa, 188. 
FiJya, in astronomy, 469. 

V^DAOARVA, 188. 

VeddjUay 193, 197. 

Vedasy their antiquity, 197, 199, 
204. Obsolete dialect of the 
VedoSy 3. Metres peculiar to 
the VedaSy 152, 153. The VSdas 



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IN DEX. 



661 



rejected by the Bauddhas and 

Jainasy 192. 
Vedhavalaya^ 325. 
Veffavady 164. 
Vermatiy 190, 303. 
Vaya, 154. 

Vetdia panchavinsaiif 87* 
Vibudha priydy 163. 

ViCRAMADITYA, 20, 475. 

FfVri'/i-, 163. 
Ftcshipa, 466. 
Viderbha, 67- 
Vidyddhara, 160. 
Vidydnagar, 255, 258. 

VlDYiviN6DA, 116. 

Vidyuiicc'hdy 159. 
Vidyunmdld, 109, 159, 162. 
TiflS^/, 161. 
Fi>4^^, 154. 
rii7(i/*A<i, 154. 
Ff^W, 154. 

VlGBAHAPALA ofeVA, 280, &C. 

nya, 467. 

?^<;a gaMttty 419. 

Vajaprnb6dhay 453. 

VlJAYA CHANDRA, 286, &C. 

Vijayapuroy 249. 
ry6Aa, 159. 

ViMALA 8ARASWAT1, 48. 
VlNAYACA, 174. 

Vindhya vdsinU 249. 
ViparUdc'hydnaciy 124, 164. 
ViparUapat'hyA, 158. 
Vipina Hhca, 161. 
Fi>ra, 151. 

rf>iiAi,73, 119, 154, 158. 
^tr4;', 153. 
Ft1ac'A4, 338. 
VOL. 11. 



ViUshicdy 160. 
Fishcumbhay 363. 
ViSHiju,248,256. His nine foes, 

218. 

ViSHijU CHANDRA, 379, 380, 

386, 388, 407, 476, 480. 
yishhu dharmbUara purdnOy 324, 
389, 391, 396, 408, 457. 

VlSH^U Mf^RA, 47. 
Vi8h6u PA^6lTA, 451. 

FisMu purdiiay 357, 362. 
Vishnu &ARMAN, 166. 
rislbcay 86, 155. 
Fismitay 163. 
Fistdra panctiy 153. 
Viiwa cbshOy 19. 
ViSwanat'ha, 57. Another 

writer of that name, 452, &c. 
Vihoa pracdsGy 58. 
ViIwarat'ha, ^ti, 
ViswarCpa, 454. 
Fitanay 119,159. 

Vlff*HALA ACHARYA, 41. 

yivdddrhavas'etUy 177- 
Fivaranas on Pacini, 7« 
V6pADf VA, 15, 38, 44, &c. 56. 
V6pal1ta see B6pal1ta, 
Fi'oja bhdshdy 33. 
VRtoDHA OAROA, 355, 356. 
rriddha vdsishVhay 392. 
Frthad amara c6shay 20. 
Vrthad draiiyacay 193. 
rrihad dharma purdnay 177, &c. 
Vrihad hdrdvalU 57- 
VrXhad vivdha patahy 478. 
Vf^hadydtrdy 478. 
Vr^hatiy 152, 159. 
Vrihatjdtacay 364, 477, 478. 
2 Q 



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562 



INDEX. 



Vr^hat mghakti, 20. 

rr^hatsanhitd, 473, 475, 478. 

Vr^hai s^rpa siddhdnta, 484. 

VHndavema champiif 136. 

Vr^fUd, 160. 

Vr^sha, 332. 

rr^shabha,20S,365. 

Vf^tta, 163. 

Vr^Ud, 160. 

FHfttn caumudi, 64. 

FrT/to (jipyTMi^ 64, 65. 

VHttagandhi, 133. 

FrTtta muctdvan, 64, 65, 73. 

Vrtttaretn&cara, 64, &c., 88, 100> 

118, 132. 
FHT^t sangrahOy 38, 40. 
VriUbcH ratna, 64, 65. 
Vydcira dlpicdy 46. 
Vydc^hydmrita^ 55, 
Vydc'hyd pradipay 55, 
Vydc^hyd sdra^ 45. 
Vydc'hyd sudhd^ 55. 
VYlof, 20, 53. 

VTAOHBABHtfTf, 49. 

VtIohbapIda, 49. 
Vydla, 130, 164. 
VtXsa, 101. 



W. 



ff^ujithy 370. 



YXdava, 49. 

YajNYA NARlTAi^A, 49. 

Yajur veda, 35, 260. 



KewTuioa, 158. 

Yan lug anta sir^maM, 43. • 

YaSahpIla, 278. 

YIsoA, 43, 64. 

YAS6yABMA, 299, 307, 309, 312, 

314. 
Faiis, 195. 
Yavamadhydf 153. 
Yavamaii, 165. 

Ydvanas, 184, 365, &c., 373, 410. 
YavanIohabta, 365, 367, 373, 

411. 
Ydvaitdvatf 431. 
Yarvipuld, 158. 
yauvanamof^ 162. 
Ybdha, 159. 
l%a, 362, &c. 
y&^tf 8choo), 219, 
l%a sdstra, 63. 
r6^a/^ra, 323, 362. 
K^a t^o^t^Af^a, 102. 
Ybf'ana, 222. 

YuOHISHf HIRA, 198. 

Yuga, 410, 414, 473, 474, 
yti^a of the solstice, 465. 
Yugma, 71. 
Yuvardja, 286. 

Z. 

Z(^^, 341. 

Z(^ 'Ihaik, 345. 

Ztroa, 333. 

Zodiac, its division, 321, 449. 

Zubanahy zubdniyahy 338. 

Zubrah, 336. 



SND OF VOL. II. 



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ERRATA IN VOL. I. 

Page Line 

15, 11, /or ASwalIyana r^arf ASwalItana. 

17> 7, from bottom, for CouVhumi read CauVhuml. 

42, 12, for 5;icAi>M^ read 5ac%w^a. 

54, 9, for SwiTAofiTU read SwixAcfixu. 

64, 3, for Cdnwa read CdAwa. 

76, 22, /or YARuif A read VARuiiA. 

83, 14, for prapdtacas retid prapdtacas. 

96, 16, for Cat'havain read Cdt'havain. 

107, 23, /or " calender " rearf « calendar." 

185, 22, for kswmi read Aiwivi. 

190, 11, for « does" reoi^ " doest." 

190, 12, from bottom, for BrdhnkMch^handasi read Brdh- 

fMtha ch*handasi, 

200, 15, for " the white Vajush " read " the black Yajushr 
307, 1, for Cau^huma read GdMrAwnfi. 



In vol. II. 



55, last Wne^far MaitrIta, Raoshita r«arf Maitr£ya 

RACSHITA. 



LONDON: 

Printed by J. L. Cox and Son 8» 75« Great Queen Street, 

Lincoln's-Inn Fields. 



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