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Full text of "Mission field, a monthly record of the proceedings of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts"

. 






THE 



MISSION FIELD. 



A MONTHLY RECORD 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



hm 0f 



AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



Tfo .v Gospel of the kingdom shall le preached in all the world for a ivitnesv-tmio a! 
nations; and then shall the end tome." ST. MATT, xxiv 



1880. 



LONDON: 
G. BELL & SONS, 4 & 5, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



LONDON : 
R. CLAY, SONS, AND TAYLOR, 

BREAD STREET HILL, B.C. 




CONTENTS AND INDEX. 



EUROPE. 

British Congregations on the Continent, 101. 
Cyprus, 427. 

ASIA. 

Calcutta, 41. 

Lahore, 233, 244, 379. 

Rangoon, 44, 148, 243, 323, 381, 388, 421. 

Madras, 138, 143, 145, 249, 358, 387. 

Bombay, 52, 63, 151. 

Labuan, 154, 422. 

Japan, 66, 155, 264. 

AFRICA. 

Capetown, 39, 71, 135, 289. 

Grahamstown, 75, 290, 399. 

St. John s (Kaffraria), 79, 169, 399. 

Zululand, 81, 87, 181, 300, 408. 

Natal, 428. 

Maritzburg, 81, 176, 300, 406. 

Bloemfontein, 88, 182, 305, 399. 

Pretoria, 89, 184, 316, 418. 

Central Africa, 197, 319. 

Mauritius, 194, 420. 

Sierra Leone, 188, 320, 394, 418. 



AUSTRALIA. 



Sydney, 214. 
Newcastle, 12. 
Brisbane, 15, 216. 



North Queensland, a, 217. 
Melbourne, 20, 218. 
Grafton and Armidale, 203. 
Perth, 23. 



NEW ZEALAND AND THE PACIFIC. 

Auckland, 25. 
Melanesia, 28, 220. 
Fiji, 220. 
Honolulu, 225. 



NORTH AMERICA. 

Montreal, 105. 
Quebec, 106. 
Huron, 114. 
Fredericton, in. 
Algoma, 118, 325. 
Rupertsland, 121. 
Saskatchewan, 126, 328. 
Newfoundland, 161, 327. 
New Westminster, 332. 

WEST INDIES AND SOUTH AMERICA 

Jamaica, 344. 
Nassau, 128. 
British Guiana, 349 
Trinidad, 133. 
Honduras, 346. 



Aborigines, 7, 8. 
Accessions, 250. 
Adult Baptism, 67. 
Anniversary of the S.P.G., 227. 
Anniversary Sermons, 227, 397. 
Arrivals and Departures, 36, 396. 



Baptism, 43, 133, 153, 155, 157, 161, 220. 241. 
Bishops Charges and Synodical Addresses, 
Bishops Consecrated, 2, 12. 
Brief Report, 428. 
Buddhists, 159, 390. 
Bermuda, 327. 



IV 



Index. 



Cambridge Mission, 233, 244, 379, 

Caste, 61. 

Catechists and Readers, 59, 250, 351. 

Centenary in Tinnevelly, 137. 

Christmas, 76, 158, 171, 187. 

Church Building, 20, 25, 27, 80, 82, 109, na- 

120, 127, 147, 161, 182, 219, 357, 381. 4 12 - 
Church Rites Valued, 19. 20. 
Clergy, Need of, 15, 134, 306, 318. 
Clergy, Hardships of, 15, 328, 333, 342. 
Confirmation, 114, 130, 184, 218, 225, 320. 
Confederation in South Africa, 226. 
Constitution of Society, 282. 
Coolies, 133, 350. 
Deaths, 43, 88, 99, 106, 108, 200, 226, 229, 300, 

322, 394, 418. 
Diamond Fields, 88. 
Drunkenness and Temperance, 196. 
Edeyengoody, 357. 
Ellora Caves, 41. 
Emigrants, 107, m, 274. 
Five Weeks on the Trek, 89 
Grants, Annual, 199. 
Hindrances, 27, 105, 155, 172, 243, 394, 400, 

420. 

Hospitals, 173, 352. 
How a Church may be Built, 161. 
Income (Society s) 37, 99, 135, 167, 198, 231, 

281, 324, 356, 395, 426- 
Incorporation, 40, 72, 104, 136, 168, 200, 232, 

288, 396, 428. 

Indian Tribes, 114, 118, 126, 325, 328, 329. 
Interesting Cases, 68, 156, 157, 160, 195, 312, 

325, 386. 

Isandhlwana, 81, 181, 305, 408. 
Journeys, 44, 52, 63, 89, 109, 114, 118, 121, 143 
148, 151, 157, 187, 217, 244, 266, 300, 332^ 
381, 384, 387, 411, 416. 
Kaffir Institution, 290. 
Karens, The, 44, 148, 381, 421. 
Ladies Association, 35. 
Letters, Commendatory, 107. 
Madras to Liverpool, 387, 421. 



Medical Knowledge Useful, 42, 44, 79, 173 

253. 383- 

Meetings, 68. 185. 
Meetings, Annual, 98 
Meetings, Monthly, 37, 70, 134, 167, 197, 231 

281, 394, 425. 
Moore College, 214. 
Nagar Mission, 52, 154. 
Needs, 201, 263. 

Neglected English Settlers, 117, 119. 
New Dioceses, 2. 
New Year, Thoughts for, i. 
Old Indians, 268. 
Openings, 22, 410. 

Ordinations, 153, 169, 194, 240, 327, 328. 
Orphans, 370. 
Peace, the Blessing of, 73. 
Poverty, 20, 108. 

Reports Received, 37, 70, 98, 134, 166, 228, 
230, 280, 324, 356. 

Reviews. Personal Recollections of British 
Burma, 323. Christianity and Hinduism, 
356. The Inner Citadel of Religion, 356, 

Sailors, Ministrations to, 107. 

Schools and Colleges, 41, 48, 77, 79, 85, 126, 
142, 169, 179, 214, 234, 290, 328, 406. 

Self-Help, 15, 154, 164, 185. 

Sickness, 43, 67, 169, 326, 

Society s Missionaries, Testimony to, 3. TO, 398. 

Smith, Rev. George, 81, 85, 410. 

Sowing Beside the Waters, 188. 

Superstition, 33. 

Synods and Conferences, 23, 182. 

Tounghoo, 44, 421. 

Translations, 44, 76, 225, 265, 343, 420. 

Trichinopoly, 257, 369. 

Tristan d Acunha, 421. 

Turks Islands, 128. 

Use of Society s Help, 8, 23, 25. 

Visitations, 10, 21, 26, 89, 105, 114, 128, 184, 
237, 249, 289, 307, 32-;, 328, 361. 

War, 73, 75. 81, 86, 87, 88, 176, 181, 186, 400, 
406, 417. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



re feto u i\t faorllr. % a& ix tip EHurb of $0b. 




JANUARY i, 1880. 



THOUGHTS FOR THE NEW YEAR. 

N the December number of this magazine we en 
deavoured to bring to the minds of its readers 
how close is the connection between the thoughts 
of Christmas and those which especially influence 
the friends of Missions. We would now follow 
up the remarks then made, by pointing out that the 
New Year, also, brings with it loud calls to Missionary interest. 

Upon the threshold of the year stands the festival of the Epiphany, 
a festival not regarded by most professing members of the Church of 
England as it should be. For what were even Christmas to us, 
had no Epiphany followed? Had not the Holy One manifested 
Himself as the God " not of the Jews only, but also of the Gen 
tiles," His Incarnation, to us, aliens from the commonwealth of 
Israel, would be rather a matter of wonder than of joy. But 
scarcely was He born than He called to His feet disciples from the 
far east ; pioneers of the vast army that has since gathered round 
Him from east and north and south, ay, and, thank God, from 
these isles of the distant west. 

Closely following upon the Epiphany comes the other great 
festival of the Gentiles, that of the Conversion of St. Paul ; for 
which the Church calls upon us to " show forth our thankfulness," 
NO. CCLXXXIX. B 



2 North Queensland. [ 1 tnm* 

as the means whereby the light of the Gospel has shone throughout 
the world. This month of January, then, reminds us, above all 
others, that the lot of England was once worse than that of still 
heathen nations ; and that, but for the Missionary spirit and Mission 
ary enterprise, we should even now be "sitting in darkness and the 
shadow of death." The absolute duty of Missionary effort on our 
own part, follows as a necessary deduction. 

The New Year should always be a time of new beginnings and 
renewed resolutions. Let it be such this year in regard of neglected 
evangelistic responsibilities. "Speak unto the children of Israel 
that they go forward," is once again the Great Captain s bidding to 
His Church. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel stands 
ready to obey the command; her Missionaries to lead the way, 
to bear the brunt of the conflict. But how far she can do so depends 
upon the willingness of the Church at large; that is, upon the 
readiness of individual members of the Church to help on, each in 
his own way, the great advance. 

New fields are opening on every side mention of several will 
be found in the accompanying pages, shall they be unoccupied? 
Voices are asking, wherever British civilisation has penetrated, 
"Where is He Who is born the world s true King and Saviour?" 
Shall we leave these seekers to the blind instincts of their own 
hearts, to the dim teachings of nature ? Shall we not point them to 
Bethlehem, to Calvary, to the Jerusalem above? Let us all do more, 
at least by prayers and gifts, to possess the earth for Jesus ; lest, with 
the experience of so much mercy, we be found ungrateful, unprofit 
able servants, when all our years of opportunity are ended. 

NORTH QUEENSLAND. 

ARRIVAL OF THE BISHOP. VIGOROUS WORK. NEEDS OF THE 

DIOCESE. 

THIS newly-formed diocese comprises whatever of the province 
of Queensland is not included in the diocese of Brisbane. 
It has a population of about 18,000 Europeans; and, in addition to 
these, thousands of immigrants from China and the Polynesian 
islands, besides large numbers of natives. The consecration of 
its first Bishop on St. John Baptist s Day, 1878, was noted on page 
339 of the Mission Field for that year. Since then there has been 



a 1 ? 1 ] Arrival of the Bishop. 3 

nothing of importance to lay before our readers in reference to 
North Queensland, beyond allusions to the anxiety felt in many 
parts of Australia for Bishop Stanton s coming, and hints of ample 
work awaiting him, of many different kinds. 

We have now the happiness of recording the safe arrival, in the 
latter part of May, of the Bishop, who has lost no time in gaining a 
thorough insight into the necessities of his diocese, and grappling 
with the various difficulties they present. His lordship s own most 
interesting communications printed below will, we are confident, 
convey this impression ; and we have before us many colonial papers 
in which Dr. Stanton s energy and popularity are abundantly 
recognised. The Bowen correspondent of the Brisbane Mail, as an 
instance, writing on May 26th, says : 

"Our Bishop, Dr. Stanton, has reached his diocese. Arriving here 
early last Tuesday morning, before he was expected, there were very few 
down on the jetty to welcome him. The general impression he has made 
is that he will prove to be the right man in the right place. His sermons 
clearly show that he is thoroughly sincere and in earnest a quality 
apparently becoming rarer in modern society. He preached twice on 
Sunday, and on the same afternoon held a confirmation. In his sermons 
he sketched out the work he intended to perform, in which no narrow- 
minded churchism appeared. On Monday evening a conversazione was 
held, in order to give all his Church members an opportunity of making 
his personal acquaintance. The Bishop was the host, and no better 
could be wished for, as he made everybody feel at home in a moment. 
In his introductory speech he said that if there was any starch about 
it would be necessary to remove it. This is the sort of man who will be 
beneficial in the small communities of North Queensland. It is his 
opinion that by means of the parochial organisations in England it would 
be possible to obtain the desirable quality of immigrants for this colony 
in any number. No allusion was made by him to the vexed question 
of his future residence. It is evident, however, that he will not for the 
present fix himself anywhere." 

""Bishop Stanton s first letter to the Society, dated September 2oth, 
1879, runs thus : 

" I came to Queensland via Melbourne, in order to accept the 
pressing invitation of my London friend, Bishop Moorhouse. A 
fortnight with him was time well spent. He seems made for Mel 
bourne. We are going to compare notes and plans periodically, and 
work vigorously together. Already I have moved about enough here 
to see that the wide lines of the Church must not be narrowed. 
Australia is altogether too big in heart and head for the littleness of 
the sects. I went overland to Sydney, and saw much on the way. 
Moore College promises better things in the future. The Principal, 

B 2 



North Queensland, 



PMission Field, 
L Jan. 1, 1880. 



Mr. Williams, was recommended by Bishop Lightfoot and Canon 
Wescott, and is a man after their hearts. He is bent on carrying 
out the Cambridge Theological System, and on raising the standard 
and character of the College. My four students are amongst his best 
men. I spent some time with Mr. Sharp, the Warden of St. Paul s 
College, Sydney. He wished to confer with me as to the methods 
for rendering St. Paul s serviceable to the Church. It is connected 
with Sydney University, and is a most valuable feeder to the Church ; 
but hitherto few clergy have been drawn from it. As I strongly 
believe in university training, I hope to send my best-prepared 
students there men educated enough to matriculate while others 
can go to Moore College. I hope the S.P.G. will leave me at liberty 




HOLY TRINITY CHURCH A\D PARSDftAGE, BOWEX. 

to use its grant for either college. Bishop Moorhouse has a Church 
College similarly connected with Melbourne University, and he is 
making it the sole training- place for his students, supplementing 
the University work with Divinity Lectures. It is certain that crude, 
half-educated clergy here would ruin the Church, and that no theo 
logical electroplating will do. A splendid path lies straight before 
the Church, but her clergy must be men capable of taking it and 
keeping it. 

"The Bishop of Brisbane came to meet me at Sydney, and 
returned with me towards the North. The first town that I stayed at 
in my diocese was Mackay. The town is small, but is the centre of a 
considerable number of sugar-planters. I spent a busy week there 



jan i Fsso 1 ] Letter from the Bishop. 5 

confirming, laying foundation-stone of a new church, &c. Maclaren 
whom you remember, is the rector. He is a first-rate, energetic, 
devoted man, greatly respected by all classes. The new church, 
which is now rapidly rising, is due to his energy. It will soon be 
ready for consecration. A large and handsome church is much 
needed at Mackay, for the sugar-planters are our best-educated people, 
and people of wealth ; and a rough, wooden, barn-like church is as 
unworthy as it is unattractive. Maclaren will be a zealous helper in 
my diocese. He has full liberty to exercise any little preferences, 
such as the eastward position, &c., for I shall never contract the 
wise liberty that the Church has given. I am giving him whatever 
backing up he needs, and am just leaving for a second visit to 
him, as he has telegraphed for me. 

" Bowen was my next halting-place. It is a small and declining 
town. Here towns go up and down with extraordinary rapidity 
just as some mine is discovered, or some easier road to the back 
country is found by the cattle-drivers. An enormous district is 
attached to Bowen, in order to raise a stipend for the clergyman. 
But great inconvenience and damage to the Church ensue by his 
absence from Bowen, and the necessary employment of some 
licensed Lay Reader. I shall make some arrangement, and must in 
crease the Bowen part of the stipend so as to free it from dependence 
on the distant stations. These town churches must be efficiently 
served. People dislike Lay Readers. I have now got two un 
attached pioneer clergy, so things will move more regularly in the 
towns. Townsville is a large and fairly thriving place able to 
provide a fair stipend, and now subscribing to enlarge the church. 
It will be the capital of the north. A railway is being made from 
it to Charters Towers. I have appointed Mr. Plume to Townsville. 
Charters Towers and Ravenswood are mining towns the former a 
large and flourishing place noisy, with ten huge crushing mills 
thundering by night and day. The latter is a poor man s place 
just holes dug in small claims, and the surface-gold extracted 
without machinery. Cooktown has greatly declined since the failure 
of the Palmer gold field, failure at least in finding means for 
bringing huge machinery over a mountain and along more than a 
hundred miles in bullock drays. Cooktown was half Chinese, but a 
recent restrictive Act of Parliament has considerably thinned it of 
foreigners. I urged the Ravenswood people to rebuild their church, 
for white ants have greatly damaged the present structure. White 



6 North Queensland. 

ants are a terrible plague to churches and parsonages. From the 
fund that I raised at home 1 was able to offer 2oo/., and so started 
the scheme. The new church is being built. Distances between 
places are a great drawback, and the means of locomotion slow to a 
Londoner. I cannot relate in one letter a fraction of the great course 
that the Church must enter, and claim and cover. The whole colony 
bristles with splendid opportunities. People are intelligent, large- 
hearted, and responsive. Their energy and go have done wonders. 
Where I expected only log-huts and wigwams, I find well-built houses 
and large towns. Where I expected only rough irreligion and even 
insult, I have been received with enthusiasm and warmest welcome. 
I feel thoroughly at home amongst them, and already understand the 
line that the Church must imperatively take for her own standing and 
progress. 

" Now a word about the Bishopric Fund. It was most unfortu 
nate that when the scheme was started two years ago, during the 
* golden age of the north, that promises not cash payments were 
received for it. Half the promisers have removed in this fluctuating 
population and the other resident half are almost too poor to pay, 
for the financial depression is really terrible. Stations and stock 
have sunk so low in price that the noble bequest of the late good 
Bishop of Newcastle yielded no income, and could not be sold ; so 
the appointment of his successor has been delayed. Things may 
soon mend, and we earnestly hope they will. The Governor, Sir 
Arthur Kennedy, explained to me a few days ago that our Queensland 
National Debt amounts to thirteen millions, while our population is 
200,000 so taxation is frightful. Until railways are made, and heavy 
machinery is brought, the gold mines cannot be worked. The 
colony requires capitalists and cheap labour. Here is a magnificent 
country capable of supporting millions of our surplus population 
but the penniless, pauper emigrants from London slums are utterly 
useless. I have got a body of trustees, according to the resolution of 
the Colonial Bishoprics Fund Council the Bishops of Brisbane, 
Sydney, and North Queensland, with three laymen of standing. The 
latter have been chosen from three chief towns Mackay, Bowen, and 
Towns ville. The Deed has been duly signed, and the money that 
has been raised, invested. I shall strain every nerve to complete 
the endowment by 1881 ; but unless the colony improves financially, 
it is hopeless by that date. The cost of living in North Queensland 
is enormous things twice or thrice as dear as at home. Travelling, 



"SSr, S d> ] Letter from the Bishop. 7 

too, is exceedingly expensive. I must set on foot some Mission 
ary agency for the South Sea Islanders. More than 1,000 of 
them are employed on sugar plantations. At Maryborough x the 
Bishop of Brisbane and I baptized no fewer than forty of them 
the result of a Bible Class conducted by some laymen there. 
I have got a Missionary for the Chinese ; but public feeling is strongly 
anti-Chinese in Cooktown, and I must watch my opportunity for intro 
ducing him there. The Aborigines are numerous and sadly degraded 
learning all European vices, and rendered only more savage. 
The Reserves for them are being withdrawn by Government, and 
chances of their long survival are slender. I have seen several 
people connected with these Reserves ; and hope to start something 
for these poor creatures, whose hunting grounds are being turned 
into plantations for the white man s wealth. So many thanks for the 
notice of renewed grants that you kindly sent to me. Money is 
greatly needed now, but the time is not distant when Queensland 
will be financially independent. We are much worse off than 
the other colonies, for in early days of settlement they had State 
aid for Church support. In this, the youngest of the Australian 
colonies, no such aid has been given, but the Church is wholly 
abandoned to the voluntary system. Few of the people here are 
capitalists. The Queensland Almanack tells a sorry tale by the 
number of stations in the hands of the banks. The banks advance 
money at high interest, and then pounce on the borrower at the first 
symptom of weakness, and seize his property. The Church here must 
interest herself in all the wants of the people, and endeavour to 
supply them from herself. Good medical men are desperately 
needed, and are well paid. The Church should introduce them, as I 
have written to my old parishioner Professor Flower, President of 
the College of Surgeons, on the subject. We want higher class 
education conducted by some of the godly and devoted Church 
women at home. We want good boarding-house keepers, where 
young men need not drink and gamble, and the Church should 
seek for them and superintend them. 

" My plan of sending clergy by emigrant ships was good. They 
held services regularly, and have continued to be useful since they 
landed, to those of the crew whom they have round them." 

Three weeks later the Bishop writes : 

M Since my arrival in the diocese I have been travelling incessantly, in 

i In the diocese of Brisbane. 



8 North Queensland. [ M JSK?* 

order to see much of the colony before summer heat passes beyond 
locomotion point. Everywhere I have been received with the heartiest 
welcome. I have visited every town and centre of population ; and, in 
company with the Bishop of Brisbane, have extended my visits over a 
large part of his southern diocese. All the people assure me of their 
readiness to co-operate in vigorous Church work. I like the colony ex 
ceedingly, and the people are most generous. Here is a splendid field for 
the Church ; placed on its own wide lines, and worked with devoted, 
educated, well-disciplined clergy ; no inferior men, however well meaning, 
will suit the Church in this colony. Among the squatters are many 
university and public school men, while the struggles of a young settle 
ment have sharpened the people beyond average intelligence. They take 
a clergyman s measure very quickly. They thoroughly respect real 
devotion to Church work, and care little about its exact complexion. The 
Church of England is exactly suited to these people. My own course has 
been to identify the Church with the best interests of the people, to make 
her the patron, and friend, and helper of every good work for the welfare 
of the colony. Signs of progress are already numerous. Two new churches 
are being built, one at Mackay, and another at Ravenswood. The Towns- 
ville church is being enlarged, and a large chancel being added, with organ- 
chamber, and choir stalls for a good and surpliced choir. I have held 
confirmations in every town. I have consecrated two cemeteries, and have 
ordained four priests. The formation of a diocesan council is the next 
matter in hand, for the future Synod must take shape from it. Here every 
thing must be begun, for no organized Church life has existed. Difficulty 
arises from the scattered condition of the people, and the impossibility of 
gathering them for any central meeting. The stations or farms are usually 
about forty miles apart, and the towns are more than a hundred miles 
distant from each other. The present population of North Queensland is 
very small, certainly not more than 20,000 Europeans. As a large 
number of these are Germans or Irish Roman Catholics, you can under 
stand the smallness of our Church community. When the untouched 
resources of North Queensland become better known at home, a large 
influx of population must take place. It will certainly be the richer half 
of Queensland. Like a new house being furnished, the first expense of 
railways and roads now presses heavily in increased taxation. Cattle on 
these stations so multiply that no adequate market has been found for 
them, and station property has sunk in value ruinously. Few capitalists 
have come here yet. The large men are merely borrowers from the 
banks, and the present depression is bringing terrible collapses among 
them. All imported goods are very dear, and money here is about half 
its value at home. The clergy have hard struggles to make ends meet. 
We could not continue without the S.P.G. s help. Few owners live on 
their stations ; they employ a superintendent, while themselves reside in 
Sydney, or in England for very many of them are there. This increases 
our difficulty in raising money. The Bishop of Brisbane has felt this 
difficulty severely. I am extremely anxious to obtain land while it is 
cheap for the Church. The corner allotments in and near growing towns 
are the best and safest investments. The Roman Catholics have consider 
able property in all parts of the colony. In time such property would 
relieve the Church of the inconveniences belonging to our voluntary 
system. 

He again refers to his anxiety to organise Church work among the 
Aborigines and South Sea Islanders, and other Immigrants : 



Mission Field,] 
Jan. 1, 1B80.J 



A " Slacks Camp" 



"There are about 10,000 Islanders and as many Chinese in this diocese 
The former are very accessible, and classes already exist in some places 
for them. They learn English quickly, and remain on the sugar plantations 
not less than three years, many of them for life ; some have contributed 
to the building fund of Mackay church. The Chinese are less approach 




able on account of the violent antipathy to Chinese labour felt by the 
workmen in Queensland. The Aborigines are lamentably degraded. 
Their roaming habits render them very unapproachable, for they do not 
build even huts, but camp anywhere in the scrub. The only employ 
ment found for them is riding after wild cattle the breakneck dashing 



io North Queensland. 

through the dense scrub and rounding up a mob of bullocks just 
suits their wild nature. We have a Government Reserve for them at 
Mackay, and Mr. Maclaren will do his best to render it a Missionary 
centre." 

Several photographs were inclosed in the Bishop s letter, some of 
which we reproduce, and others are promised from time to time. 
The Bishop thus concludes : 

"Pray convey to the Committee my deep sense of obligation and 
gratitude for their help. This infant diocese could not live without it. I 
will have a collection made annually for S.P.G. in each church, so that the 
colony may clearly understand its indebtedness to the Mother Church 
through you." 

Our latest information as to the Bishop s movements comes from 
Townsville, the Northern Standard of which town for October 14 
contains the following article : 

" The re-arrival in our town of the Right Rev. Dr. Stanton was wel- 
comei by many persons besides those who actually belong to the Church 
of England. His Lordship s free and easy manners and winning 
style have won for him numerous friends during his last stay among us. 
His recent visit to the South has not been an idle one, and will, we hope, 
not be without its good results. His Lordship has, since he left Towns- 
villr, travelled to all the most important towns in the colony, besides 
visiting some of the stations ; and has thus been enabled to gain a good 
outline of colonial life, and obtain considerable experience of both things 
and persons. During the greater portion of his travels he accompanied 
Dr Hale, Bishop of Brisbane, and assisted in the consecration of churches 
and grounds, as well as other ceremonies of the Church of England. 
His present tour through his diocese commenced at Mackay, where he 
improved the time by visiting several of the sugar plantations in the 
neighbourhood of that prosperous town, and making himself thoroughly 
acquainted with the wants of that district ; from thence he proceeded to 
Bo wen, in which place he spent a week, availing himself of the oppor 
tunity to cultivate a closer acquaintance with his people there. He 
preached a sermon at the English church in that town on Sunday last to 
a large congregation. The Bishop speaks in high terms of the numerous 
industries he has visited in the Southern portions of the colony, and of 
the welcome reception that has been accorded to him at every place 
which he has visited making particular allusions to the kind manner in 
which he was received at the various stations in the country districts. 
On his arrival in Townsville Dr. Stanton proceeded to the residence of 
Mr. Walter Hays, on Melton Hill, where he will reside during his stay 
in town. 

" On Sunday afternoon the Bishop delivered a very interesting and 
practical address at St. James s Church to the children attending the 
Sunday-school. There were over 200 children present, besides the 
teachers and a few adults. 

" His Lordship preached an excellent sermon, selecting for his text the 
fourth verse of the twentieth chapter of St. John * So they ran both 
together ; and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the 
sepulchre. In a long and able discourse the Bishop applied this passage 



Mission Field,-] 
Jail. 1, 1880. J 



Work of the Bishop. 



ii 



of Scripture to both individuals and churches, and gave some illustrations 
to prove the accuracy and force of his applications. He afterwards 
alluded to the high impressions he had formed of the colony, and how 
little its real position was understood in England ; and then gave the 
congregation an outline of what he intended to do for the good of his 
diocese, and his intended trips. 

" The Bishop has intimated that it is his present intention to hold an 
ordination service on Sunday morning next ; when a Mr. Amos, who is 
at the present time in Townsville, will receive orders at the hands of his 
Lordship. After this ordination Mr. Amos will, we understand, proceed 
to Mackay for a time, in order to relieve the Church of England clergy 
man stationed there, after which he will be allotted a district of his own 
in the diocese, when the Bishop has completed his plans with regard 
to the formation of the various districts. 

" It is not improbable that, should the Bishop be able to carry out his 
present intentions, he will leave Townsville next week, and proceed 
up \ the country, paying visits to the different stations on his route, 




ST. PAUL S, CHAPTERS TOWEI S. 



hoping eventually to reach Hughenden, and afterwards to visit several 
of the stations on the Flinders and around Dalrymple, returning to 
Townsville before the wet season sets in. After his trip up country 
has been accomplished, His Lordship has decided to visit Sydney 
during the time that the Exhibition is open, in order to preach a series of 
sermons there. He will, therefore, on his return to Townsville pay a 
short visit to the capital of New South Wales where, while he will be 
still working in the interests of his diocese, he will be able to give our 
friends in that colony a better description of our present position and our 
wants, as well as avail himself of the experience and advice of the 
Metropolitan Bishop (Dr. Barker), whose interest in this diocese was 
apparent to all on his last visit to us, and to whom we are indebted for 
the formation of our Northern Bishopric. On his return from Sydney 
Dr. Stanton purposes to visit the diocese of Singapore, which is the ad 
joining diocese to the north of this. It appears the Bishop of Singapore 



12 Newcastle. PBR3F 

[Labuan] 1 is expecting to be absent for a short time, and Dr. Stanton is 
therefore going to relieve him. According to this arrangement his 
Lordship will be away from Northern Queensland during the best part 
of the wet season, during which time he could do very little in the way of 
travelling about his diocese, and that portion of his duties will doubtless 
occupy most of his attention for some time to come, as in its present 
state no one place is of sufficient importance, or possesses a sufficient 
amount of Church work going on, to occupy the Bishop for any length of 
time. And, while on the subject of the Bishopric of North Queensland, 
we should mention that the Rev. B. Reid, who has been staying in town 
lately, and assisted in the performance of Divine service on Sunday last, 
is shortly about to leave for the Herbert River, where he will have clerical 
charge of the district. Mr. Reid is a graduate of Cambridge University, 
where he has taken his B. A. degree. He was ordained in England previous 
to coming out to the colonies. One other subject in connection with the 
diocese, and Townsville in particular, is the recent enlargement of St. 
James s Church. The work is now nearly completed, and was formally 
opened by the Bishop on Sunday last. The addition to the church con 
sists of a chancel, of twenty-two feet in length, the width and height 
corresponding with the other parts of the building. The extension 
appears to be well executed, and gives a considerable amount of additional 
room ; we should imagine this portion of the church would hold quite 
one hundred persons, including the choir. Not only does it make a most 
necessary and useful addition to the main building, but it also improves 
the appearance of the whole structure." 

It would seem from the above that Dr. Stanton s energy at present 
shows no sign of diminishing. 



NEWCASTLE. 

CHOICE OF NEW BISHOP - SATISFACTORY PROCEEDINGS - THE MEMORY 
OF BISHOP TYRRELL. 

WITH deep thankfulness we record the election of a successor 
to the noble Bishop Tyrrell, accomplished in a manner 
very favourably in contrast with that of a recent similar choice of a 
chief pastor for on e of the Canadian dioceses. As the late pro 
ceedings at Toronto, and others of a different nature in South Africa, 
have saddened the minds of all who " pray for the peace of Jeru 
salem," so are the hearts of such gladdened by the spectacle of a 
Diocesan Synod conducting important deliberations in a manner 
harmonious with the principles of Christianity ; and whose members 
readily lay aside personal preferences for the sake of unanimity and 
holy co-operation. 

i Dr. Chambers, who, since the above was written, has been compelled by ill-health to resign 
the see. 



t ] Election of new Bishop. 1 3 

The Australian Churchman, of September n, rightly remarks: 

" Last week will remain for ever memorable in the annals of the 
Church in New South Wales, as having witnessed the first exercise by a 
Diocesan Synod of its right to elect or appoint its Bishop. The Presi 
dent of the Newcastle Synod was guilty of no exaggeration when he 
said, The eyes of the Church, not only in Australia and Tasmania, our 
own Australian province, but in the whole world, are upon us. For the 
manner in which the whole business has been transacted the Australian 
Church may well thank God and take courage/ " 

The actual election was preceded by a conference, in which the 
qualifications of those proposed were very thoroughly considered. 
Of this the Maitland Mercury says : 

" Although the Press was excluded from the open conference, in which 
opportunity was taken to discuss human nature very searchingly, we 
violate no secrecy, nor do we trespass beyond the limits of truth and 
propriety, when we say that little was said that a critic in cool blood 
could have wished unsaid. Men were earnest, they were free to utter the 
thoughts within them, they owned strong convictions. But neither zeal, 
nor liberty of speech, nor strength of opinion, begot undue violence of 
language or demeanour ; and when at last the way to a decision was 
opened by judicious debate, and the work was forwarded sufficiently for 
public transaction, observers failed to find any trace of storm. If there 
had been passions roused to tempest, the rippled sea now smiled serene." 

The name ultimately chosen, almost unanimously, was that of Dr. 
Pearson, Vicar of Newark, who had been suggested as eminently 
suited to the office by Bishop Moorhouse of Melbourne. 

His rival was the Rev. Robert Hodgson, recommended by the 
late Bishop Selwyn, and approved by Bishop Tyrrell himself. 

As showing the general feeling in Australia towards Dr. Pearson, 
we quote once more the Australian Churchman 

" The colony will be fortunate indeed if Dr. Pearson accepts the 
Bishopric to which he has been elected. Dr. Pearson is intimately 
associated with the intellectual life of the University of Cambridge, in 
which for some time he occupied the post of Assistant Professor of 
Moral Philosophy, and is the valued friend of such men as Bishop 
Lightfoot, Professor Westcott and Professor Clerk Maxwell. He realizes 
the picture drawn by the President of the Newcastle Synod in his open 
ing address, we want a man of earnest piety, of sound churchmanship, 
of untiring zeal, a scholar who can set forth the simple truths of the 
Scriptures to all classes of men, a winning, loving man, one who can 
deeply influence the souls whom he is to oversee, a lover of the souls for 
whom Christ died, a man who has long worked among such souls, and 
as such has a sympathy for their trials, and an earnest desire to satisfy 
their cravings ; one, in short, who loves, and can well be loved in 
return. 

" We cannot conclude our notice of the election without expressing our 
extreme satisfaction that, in alluding to the beneficial results which he 



/> t> i vr o /> f Mission Field 

14 IVCd caSUe. L Jan. 1. 1860. 

hoped would accrue from such an Episcopate, the President made use of 
the following words : He will help us to save the few Church schools we 
possess ; he will bring to bear on our present system of public education 
some method of rescuing the children of our Church from their imperfect 
acquaintance with Divine truth, in which we can all unite. " 

Constant reference is still made in all that reaches us from the 
Colony to the life and death of the late Bishop. One of the most 
noteworthy expressions of feeling is contained in the opening address 
above alluded to, of Archdeacon Child : 

" When we remember that the late Bishop was, from his feeble state 
of health, unable to preside over us last year, it was hardly to be ex 
pected that, even if he had been spared, he would have been able to pre 
side over us now. Rapidly failing health and general feebleness of 
powers were too visible in a frame which many of us well remember as 
one which could endure more mental and bodily fatigue in the laborious 
work of this diocese than most of us could endure in carrying on the 
work of our parishes. The termination of his life of seventy-two years 
may be regarded as sudden. An injury which he had received twenty- 
seven years ago, and which latterly had caused him much pain and 
depression of spirits, may be said to have caused this suddenness. In 
his last interval of consciousness he expressed to me, as far as looks could 
express, his trust in the Great Head of the Church, His only Saviour 
the Lord Jesus Christ. We have been left without our head at a time 
when the presence of a Bishop was much needed, and when the financial 
affairs of the diocese much required him to be amongst us. But all is 
well, and is doubtless ordered well, if we could only see through the 
gloom ; and all will, let us trust and pray, end well for the glory of God 
and His Church. The unselfish devotion of our Bishop to his work 
for thirty-two years without leaving his diocese except on the short and 
perilous Melanesian voyage of 1851 is a great example for each one of 
us to follow in our parishes. His long-practised principle of self-denial 
for the good of others, and his silent endurance for the last few years of 
much bodily pain, while doing his work, is a pattern too little followed 
in the world ; and his giving up all he possessed for the good of our 
Church in this diocese, has set before us a noble example, which has 
startled the world, and told us of a spirit existing in his mind which 
very few are possessed of in these days. It is not for me to speak here 
of defects of character who is without them ? but to dwell upon the 
bright points of his life and of his long Episcopate. Let us all look 
upon these. Let those who remember the earlier days of his work 
amongst us his methodical arrangement of time his powers of 
organization his desire to encourage rather than to discourage his 
perseverance in keeping up the knowledge of the day his scholarly 
attainments and, above all, his simple preaching of the Gospel let 
those who remember these think also of the untiring zeal and energy 
with which he did his work, and go and do likewise. " 

It is satisfactory to know that the estates left by the Bishop for the 
purpose of endowments are confidently believed to be capable of 
producing all that was expected from them after a time, though for 
the present depreciated in value, in common with almost all property 
in New South Wales. 



Mission Field,"] RrisbfinP T C 

Jan. 1,1880. J j^nsvanc. 15 



BRISBANE. 

VISIT OF BISHOP STANTON. BISHOP HALE ON THE GENERAL CHURCH 

FUND. WORK TO BE DONE. THE DUTY OF GIVING. REPORT 
FROM DRAYTON. NEW CATHEDRAL. 

THE visit of Bishop Stanton of North Queensland, and his hearty 
co-operation with Dr. Hale in various good works, has been 
one of the chief features of Church life in this diocese during the 
past half-year. He has been heartily welcomed, and at Roma an 
address was presented to him, expressing an earnest wish that his 
temporary sojourn in those parts might tend to unite the diocese of 
Brisbane with his own. 

Bishop Hale has issued a pamphlet of considerable interest, entitled, 
" Some Account of what has been done by means of the General 
Church Fund in the Diocese of Brisbane," which we would commend 
to the notice of all who are inclined to think that reliance upon 
pecuniary aid from the mother country takes the place of self-help 
in colonial dioceses. It proves that the Bishops at least are alive to 
the necessity of self-support, and are doing all in their power to 
promote it ; and that much is actually accomplished by the colonists- 
themselves, however much more there is room for doing. 

The writer s purpose is to plead for increased help to the General 
Church Fund ; having stated which, he continues 

" It is, however, quite proper that I should state what has been done 
by means of this fund, and I begin by saying that it has enabled us to 
obtain a number of excellent clergymen from the mother country. And, 
if for no other reason than this, it has already been of indescribable 
value to the diocese. Good men in the mother country may be quite 
willing to emigrate to a distant colony, but they require funds to enable 
them to do this. And, as regards such men as we desire to secure 
young men whose ministrations are appreciated in their home parishes 
it is not reasonable to ask them to move to the other side of the globe at 
their own expense. But whether such a request be reasonable or not, we 
know by experience that it is one which is not responded to men will not 
come out at their own cost ; and therefore if clergymen are to be obtained 
from England, they must be helped in the matter of their passage- 
money. And further, before they give up their engagements at home, 
they require to be assured of a certain rate of stipend on their arrival 
here. Into these definite arrangements we had to enter with the clergy 
men who have come here, and before we could do this it was absolutely 
necessary that we should have funds in hand to enable us to fulfil the 
engagements thus entered into. Most persons who will read these pages 



T /c 7?-r/V/)/r*7^ fMission Field, 

ID -o rn> oane. Jan l 1880 



Jan lt 1880 

will be aware of the great difficulties which had to be overcome before 
we were enabled to reach the position which we desired. 

" But we did reach it at last, and we have thus secured the happy 
results which I have just described. It would be impossible for me to 
describe in words the immense difference which the establishment of this 
fund has made to me in my position as Bishop. When I first arrived 
here certain vacancies had occurred and were occurring in the diocese, 
and I used to receive letter after letter containing piteous appeals to me 
to send clergymen to these vacant parishes, and giving the most touching 
representations of the forlorn condition of the congregations. But I was 
powerless ; I had no clergymen to send, and I had no prospect of being 
able to obtain any. 

" Happily this state of things was altogether changed when the General 
Church Fund was established, and when the men engaged for the work 
began to arrive. I will endeavour to illustrate this change, and first I 
will refer to what happened in the case of certain towns, important 
centres of population. Mackay fell vacant by the death of Mr. Douglass, 
Roma by the resignation of Mr. Warner, Rockhampton by the failure of 
health and consequent resignation of Mr. Locke. In all these cases so 
it happened in the good providence of God, and through the instru 
mentality of the General Church Fund I had men immediately at hand, 
and thus I was able to fill up those important cures without delay, and 
that in the most thoroughly satisfactory manner. In the two cases of 
resignation, the new men were actually on the spot ready to take up the 
work the very hour that the former incumbents left. 

" But happy as have been these results to the towns, the beneficial 
effects which have resulted to certain country districts demand, if possible, 
still warmer expressions of thankfulness to the Giver of all good. Six 
country districts have received clergymen, which had never before 
enjoyed the privilege of having a separate Church of England clergyman 
assigned to them, (i) Blackall and Tambo ; (2) Bundaberg ; (3) Helidon 
and Gatton ; (4) certain villages or townships adjacent to Warwick ; 
(5) the Upper Brisbane River ; (6) Caboolture. Another district, a very 
important one which had been vacant for a considerable time, is again 
supplied with a clergyman, viz. Leyburn and Yandilla. And from each 
of these places I receive the most gratifying account of the way in which 
the men are doing their work. All seven are new men, five from the 
mother country, one from South Australia, and one, who has been for 
some years a resident in this colony, was ordained for his present cure. 

" It would be impossible to estimate the amount of increased activity 
and life in Church work which is represented by the mere mention of 
the above-named facts. In attempting any such estimate we must take 
into account not only the good which is done to individual souls by 
the actual ministrations of religion publicly and from house to house ; 
but we must remember also the advantages which arise to these several 
communities through the efforts which they are induced to make to 
help themselves. In some instances, it was a matter of uncertainty 
whether the people of the districts would be able to make up the 
requisite stipend. But it was absolutely necessary that they should 
have a clergyman, and therefore we had to say to them, Put forth your 
own efforts, do your best yourselves to raise the stipend, make it manifest 
that you are really in earnest, and the General Church Fund will not leave 
you in the lurch/ It was quite natural that the people in the country should 
be somewhat timid about engaging in an enterprise of such grave im 
portance, and that they should hesitate about taking upon themselves the 



"ST, fss a ] Diocesan Church Fund. 17 

serious responsibilities connected therewith. But when they received the 
encouragement and the assurance of help which we were able to give 
them, they on their part felt able to go manfully about the work of raising 
the requisite stipends. And, as a rule, their success in these efforts has 
exceeded their expectations. Every one who reads the above statement 
of facts will, I trust, feel constrained to acknowledge that very much has 
already been accomplished by the General Church Fund." 

Bishop Hale next turns to the consideration of what yet remains 
to be done, and shows that a very great necessity exists for increase 
of funds. Considerable sums are wanted in the first place to main 
tain stipends already guaranteed ; clergymen s quarters are sadly 
needed in most of the newly-occupied districts ; work altogether new 
must be undertaken in several parts of the diocese yet unprovided 
for, and crying out for the ministrations of religion ; and the Bishop 
is particularly anxious to establish a branch of the fund for the 
superannuation of aged and infirm clergymen, and to make some 
provision for the widows and orphans of the clergy. 

The fund has hitherto been supported mainly, the Bishop states, 
by the contributions of those with limited and precarious incomes ; 
and he makes a courageous, earnest, and plain-spoken appeal to the 
wealthy, who, as a class, it appears, stand aloof from the fund. 
Very much of what Dr. Hale says on this head might well be taken 
to heart by the richer members of society in England, with reference 
to the duty of supporting such Societies as the S.P.G. After urging 
that no man can reckon himself really a Christian who ignores the 
Christian responsibility of doing good to the utmost of his power 
with the means wherewith GOD has blessed him, he points out to 
how great an extent the love of money blinds the eyes of those who 
yield to it. He says 

" Three hundred years ago there lived a famous confessor, St. Francis 
de Sales, who was much resorted to by devout persons. He has recorded 
that penitents came to him confessing sins of every kind and description, 
except covetousness. No one confessed that. Another most remarkable 
circumstance, which increases greatly the difficulty in dealing with this 
sin, and which shows its tenacity upon the soul, is the fact that even at 
the approach of death, persons who have, during the greater portion of 
their lives, been abject slaves to the love of money, do not seem to be 
visited with those feelings of remorse which one would expect at such an 
awful time. 

" The money-loving man clings to his money while life remains. Even 
when he has been for years wholly immersed in the occupation of getting 
rich, and has been as heedless and reckless of any heavenly crown as 
Bunyan s man with the muck-rake, he makes no lamentations (provided he 
has been successful in his great object) over the wrongs which he has done 

NO. CCLXXXIX. c 



Q 72i i r/>/v it a ("Mission Field, 

i o > ^ isoane. [ Jan . lf 1880 . 

to God ; and he thinks nothing of the neglect and unconcern with which he 
has treated Him through life. The money which he has accumulated 
supplies him with the fatal means of cheating himself even to the last. 
He would like to die with the reputation of a charitable man; and, in 
making his will, he portions off something for charity. He makes an 
effort for once, and he names a sum quite beyond the rate of any gift 
which he has parted with in life. But he does this, not because he feels 
compassion for any sufferers whom he wishes to relieve, nor because his 
heart goes with his intended bequest. He does it for a purpose, and he 
thinks, perhaps, after all that purpose may not be accomplished. He is 
not easy about it ; and, as he tosses wearily on his sick bed, he is troubled 
in his feverish dreams with the idea that, in a weak moment, he has done 
a foolish thing. Something has gone from him, and he ought to have 
kept it. But again he is awake, and he remembers what has taken place. 
No, no/ he says ; it is not gone ; it is mine it is mine ; and as long as 
I lie here I can think of it all as mine. It shall be mine to the end. 
But the end must come. The man dies, and his will is read ; and the 
tidings go from one to the other that he has given so much to charity. 
Given it ! No ; he never gave it ; it simply dropped from his grasp 
when his hands could close upon it no longer." 

The manner in which the Bishop deals with the excuse of bad times 
is also singularly appropriate to the condition of our own country at 
the present time. 

"The point I must next touch upon, is the plea of the badness of 
the times. And, with reference to this plea, I say emphatically that 
in cases where persons have been affected by the badness of the 
times in their family arrangements or personal expenditure, so that 
they have been deprived of any comfort, or have been obliged to 
forego any healthful recreation to which they had been accustomed ; 
there is then evidence that the ability to spend is not what it was 
before. But even in such cases the obligation still remains to spend 
in good works according to the ability. But frequently one hears this 
plea put forward by persons who, so far as one can discover, are not 
affected in the least degree as regards the amount which they spend upon 
themselves. In many instances, persons who plead bad times have 
been making money so rapidly that hitherto there has been a marked 
difference almost every year between their position that year and their 
position the year before. And the difference in their position now, 
as compared with their first start in life, is immense. What they mean 
by bad times, is that their onward money-making career has received a 
check. They find themselves thrown back, it may be, a year, or two 
years, or three years ; but this check has not touched their personal com 
fort. The necessity for practising any bodily self-denial has never 
crossed their minds. And then again, if one inquires about the previous 
habits of these complainers, what is the result ? Why almost invariably 
one finds that, even when times were prosperous with them, when, as the 
expression is, they were making money hand over hand, they did not then 
give to God in the least degree according to their ability. God has, so to 
speak, a long account against them, concerning that which was due to Him. 
And if it has happened that He not only has checked them in their 
money-making course, but has even visited them with serious and heavy 



J SSi, SSM Dray ton Mission. 1 9 

losses what then ? He has simply taken from them that which He 
justly claimed as His own that which they ought to have given to Him 
from time to time with willing and grateful hearts. Do not people 
provoke God to send bad times, when they deal wrongfully with Him in 
good times, and when in the days of their prosperity they refuse to 
honour Him with their substance ? " 

The Report of the Rev. James McCleverly of Dray ton, for the 
quarter ending March 31, gives a general idea of the work of the 
Society s Missionaries in the diocese: 

" First Sunday of the month. I have Divine service at Drayton, i r 
o clock morning, and in the evening of the same day at Gowry station at 
7 o clock. Gowry is about eleven miles from Drayton. From Gowry 
I go on Monday morning to a farmer of the name of Stary, and there 
meet a number of peasants who are living in the scrub, and have Divine 
service with them at n A.M.; and then have about fourteen miles to 
drive home that evening to Drayton. 

" Second Sunday of the month. Have morning service at Drayton, ir 
o clock ; then drive about twelve miles to Mr. Dawn s, and have Divine 
service at 3.30, meeting another people who are settled on the borders 
of the Gowry station. Have a good congregation here. Visit round 
the district on Monday, getting home on that evening to Drayton. 

" Third Sunday of the month. Service at Drayton, 1 1 o clock morn 
ing, then drive to Eaton Vale station and have Divine service there at 
3.30, for the station- people. On Monday morning I visit all round the 
station. Have Scriptural instruction with the children in this private 
daily school. 

"Fourth Sitnday of the month. Have Divine service at Drayton, and 
see my Sunday-school, and give spiritual instruction to the upper classes. 
The following week I visit the selectors, some sixteen miles out, and have 
service every night about 7 o clock in the evening." 

His remarks in a letter dated June 30 throw additional light upon 
the nature of his particular work : 

" At the stations the owners generally make all their working people 
welcome to come in to service. They willingly throw their houses open 
to them ; but the difficulty is to get them to attend. In many instances 
men, from long privation of Divine ordinances, have grown indifferent 
or sceptical, and are often more inclined to mock than to attend, rais 
ing objections against masters and superintendents ; and were it not 
that the good people of dear old England send the Gospel after them 
the colonies would be full of white heathenism. But in other places, 
where people are deprived of Divine ordinance, they learn to appreciate 
it. For example, I have lately opened a midday service in Gowry 
Scrub ; and though I can only meet them at u A.M. on a working day, 
yet the last time I met them nineteen working people at that hour came 
to the service, and seemed very thankful. I can report favourably of our 
services at Mr. Dawn s ; there I often meet forty or fifty persons at our 
afternoon Sunday services. We indulge the hope of getting a church 
built here. Indeed we require it any time ; but the difficulty is to get the 
means, the people struggling and very poor ; but we hope the Lord will 
provide." 

C 2 



20 Melbourne. PS? ? 



L Jan. 1, 1880. 



The new cathedral at Maryborough was consecrated with much 
rejoicing at the end of August, by the Bishops of Brisbane and 
North Queensland. 



MELBOURNE. 

THE GIPPS LAND FOREST IMPORTANT OPENINGS. 

TWO reports are to hand from the Rev. S. Sandiford, which 
bring our knowledge of the work of his Mission at Bulu-Bulu 
down to the end of June. The geographical information contained 
in them increases the interest of the particulars supplied. Mr. 
Sandiford writes on Lady Day, 1879 : 

" When presenting my first report on the Gipps Land Forest District, 
I may, for the information of the Society, be permitted to enter a little 
fully into the situation of the country, people, and church. It is 
difficult to fix where to begin, as so much is now known of the colony 
and bush life, and yet the real life cannot be pictured, nor can any sketch 
make the home mind grasp the true state of things. Living is repre 
sented either as the roughest, or as abounding in every luxury. In the 
bush generally, life is extremely hard and rough, but many of the 
comforts of civilization are not strangers. Perhaps many home readers 
will ask why should a home Society help a district in the prosperous 
colony of Victoria ? This Mission district which the Bishop of Mel 
bourne has lately given into my charge is unique. No other portion 
of the colony can be compared with it. It represents Australian life as 
it existed forty years ago in other parts. Struggling for existence at the 
present, while for those who struggle on, a rich future laden with every 
prosperity is in store. And Church work now carried on altogether by 
outside help will be amply provided for by the inhabitants of the 
district. At present, numbers of places are asking for services from the 
Church, and one quarter cannot be given, while a few years hence by 
God s blessing, churches and parsonages will appear in several townships 
if only the Church can continue her offices now in the time of necessity. 
I will try and give a short sketch of the history and position of the place. 
The land is the third best in the colony, inexhaustible in its fertility. Seven 
or eight years ago it was a wild desolate district covered with a scrub or 
jungle, so dense, that to penetrate it was impossible without the aid of the 
axe, while the forest-tree rises 300 feet, with a diameter often reaching 
20 feet. Into such a place the selectors pushed their way and began the 
work of sweeping away the forest, to be succeeded by crops of all kinds. 
The capital brought by these pioneers was soon spent in clearing, 
building homesteads, and fencing. No returns came. The banks were 
resorted to, and as a consequence, eight out of every ten are trembling 
in the balance between struggling on for a few more years in poverty, or 
breaking up. Such is the general state of the selectors or farmers in a 



"an! ?, fsso d> ] Gipps Land Forest District. 2 1 

district forty miles by thirty. From such we cannot expect to receive 
much subscriptions. 

" Another difficulty "arises from the nature of the roads. After the rains 
the earth works up into puddles, and the track being shaded by the 
thick trees and underwood during the winter months never dries. This 
mud, two feet and at times three feet, studded with roots, stumps, and crab 
holes, prevents long journeys being made either on Sunday to the various 
centres, or visiting the people during the week. 

"With regard to Church work, I heartily thank God that there is a 
work to be done, and a great one too. Three clergymen could be 
employed. Openings for holding services are continually presenting 
themselves, and the only difficulty is how to service so many places. I 
hope to be able to report more fully on the work here in my next 
quarter s report. At present I am organizing services at the [various 
townships, and arranging the conducting of them by laymen licensed by 
the Bishop. Unfortunately we have not a single church in the district. 
The nearest approach to one is a building at Bulu-Bulu, the property of 
the Church, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan a most unsatisfactory 
arrangement made in former years. Bulu-Bulu, or Brandy Creek as it 
is better known by, is my headquarters ; fiom this I work round. I have 
opened and supplied regularly, services at Dronin, Jendervicke, Moe 
(twenty-eight miles distant), and take service at Bulu-Bulu. Morning 
and evening, whenever I can, with the help of lay readers licensed by the 
Bishop, I hope to hold about thirty services a month, and supply eight 
or nine places. By next quarter I will be in a better position to report on 
the established centres. As a rule the people are lax as to the great 
Church principles, and indeed are very careless in attending services. 
The Wesleyans holding cottage services encourage the non-attendance 
at the public services, and nothing but continued Church work will 
educate the people into a steady Church-going community. 

" During the last quarter we had one or two bright days. The Bishop 
paid us a visit and preached at Bulu-Bulu, and at Dronin, to good con 
gregations, and stirred us all up to greater earnestness. 

"On Easter Day we had a really hearty service, or rather services, at 
Bulu-Bulu. The building was decorated with great taste flowers, fern 
tree branches and evergreens, making the timber walls lively and gay, 
while the altar was adorned with the most exquisite flowers. Morning 
service at u A.M., after which I had a celebration of the Holy Com 
munion. At 3 P.M. I held a school service, during which the Sacrament 
of Baptism was administered to three infants. Evening service closed 
the Easter Day. 

"Though there is much to discourage in the work here, yet there is 
much to impel us onward. The future of the place just now looks well, 
and if the Church can only do her work now in the day of distress and 
difficulty, in the day of prosperity she will not be forgotten. Through 
discouragement and difficulties the seed is being sown, which under 
God will will spring up and bring forth fruit." 

On June 24 the hopeful spirit of the foregoing was less prominent ; 
inclement weather and consequent hindrances to work having ap 
parently affected the Missionary s view of matters. Nevertheless he 
was able to speak with some confidence of a great future in store for 
the Church in his district, if work of faith be persevered in steadily. 



22 Melbourne. 

" This quarter ends in winter weather, and in consequence I cannot 
report the accomplishment of as much work as I hoped to be able to do. 
But although muddy roads and short days have in a measure curtailed 
the work of the Mission, yet it is my privilege to report that by God s 
blessing, progress is being made and fresh work is weekly opening out. 

"(i.) Taking a general view of the district, things begin to wear a 
brighter aspect. Some returns have been received from the late crops. 
New farmers with capital are daily buying out the old residents, and 
although poverty still presses upon all, the turn seems to have come, and 
in hope I look forward. 

" (2.) Turning to Church work, the miserable state of the roads makes 
travelling difficult and in the dark very risky, and seven or eight miles are 
as much as twenty in another district. As a rule I take two services in 
different places, and two lay helpers licensed by the Bishop take two 
other services. The following is the number of services since April 27 
advertised, though some few, about four altogether, were not conducted 
owing to the non-attendance of the congregation, the weather being ex 
cessively wet. Twenty-five services at six centres. The sacraments of 
baptism and the holy communion have been celebrated whenever an oppor 
tunity presents itself. These services do not seem much on paper, but the 
carrying them out is by no means an easy task ; nor is it very inspiriting 
after riding seven or eight miles through rain such as can be seen only in 
Gipps Land to find no congregation, and to return having done nothing. 
The last Sunday s work compelled me to walk thirty-two miles, and take 
a train journey for over forty. I do not put this on paper for the sake of 
grumbling, but for the purpose of letting your Society know something of 
the work in the Mission. In summer nothing can be pleasanter. A 
splendid climate, and all the forest beautiful with everything to please ; 
work is a delight. But as a contrast riding in a complete suit of oil 
skins, with rain coming down, with mud from four inches to two feet deep, 
with the prospect every moment of turning over horse and rider, can only 
be experienced to be understood. 

" (3.) I may say that encouragement is present in the shape of increase 
in our centres. During the quarter I have secured a room at Warragul, 
and since, service has been held. Trafalgar is the other place. In the 
latter I am, compelled to hold the service in a public-house for want 
of a room. It is a wonderful township. There are three houses, and all 
hotels, the population all living in selections round. However, I have 
set in motion a plan which I hope to have the pleasure next quarter of 
proving a success, and being able to hold service in a room, the property 
of the Church. 

"(4.) When the work to be done is thought of, it is enough to make 
one downcast, so much to be done and so few to do it, so few to take an 
interest. But God will not permit His Church to fail here I am confident, 
and trusting to His Almighty help I will go on and do what I can to build 
up the Church in these townships, which in time to come will be some of 
the leading places in the colony." 

The report of the Rev. E. W. F. Hartmann is also one of recently 
undertaken work, and, though not so hopeful in its general character 
as those of Mr. Sandiford, yet speaks of great openings for the 
Church, of which we trust she may be able to take advantage. He 
writes from Bairnsdale, at the end of June 

"I was appointed to this district on the ist April, and have therefore 



Mission Field, ~| Pprfh <? t 

Jan. 1,1880. J ZTTWK 23 

not had much time for purely Missionary operations. I think I cannot 
do better than describe the condition of the district, so far as I have 
been able to ascertain. 

"At Bairnsdale itself which is a little town of some 1,000 inhabitants, 
and the capital of the shire of the same name I found a partially built 
brick church of indifferent design and in bad repair, and a weather-board 
parsonage containing in all six rooms in very bad repair, and the parochial 
fund, upon which so much depends, in debt to the extent of over half a 
year s stipend the greater part of which was owing to the late incumbent 
and the people in a state of great indifference. I therefore am devoting 
myself in the main at least for the present to what is more strictly 
parochial work. I have had the most necessary repairs done to the 
church and parsonage, and have been busy in furnishing the latter, and 
preparing it for the reception of a mistress, who I hope will prove a worthy 
helpmeet for me in the work of Christ s Church in my district. 

" Subject to Bairnsdale is the reader s district of Omer, where Mr. W. 
G. Hindley is labouring with, I believe, every success and encouragement. 
I have requested Mr. Hindley to visit Grant and Dargo on a Missionary 
tour, with a view to taking steps to planting the Church in both places ; 
which he has also undertaken to do. I hope that in due time the more 
northerly part of my parochial district will be raised into a separate 
incumbency with a clergyman in full orders. This would be a great 
relief to the clergyman at Bairnsdale, as the long journey over the 
mountains, viz., 70 to Omer, thence 50 to Grant, and thence again 
50 back, holding services on the way, entail an absence of a fortnight 
from headquarters, during r which the services must occasionally be stopped, 
to the great injury of the Church. 

" My afternoon services are more of a Missionary character ; they are 
held] in four schoolhouses in rotation, from five to fourteen miles distant, 
named respectively Wy Yung, Forge Creek, Sarsfield, and Lindenow. 
The congregations consist mainly of farmers. 

" I am besides constantly receiving requests from other districts to 
come over and help them/ but hitherto I have not been able to do much. 
At a place called Burthere, some ten or twelve miles from Sarsfield, I 
have lately arranged to hold a service within three months ; and for a 
number of fishermen who have lately taken up their quarters on an island 
in Lake King, some fourteen miles from here, I am striving to procure a 
reader, who will besides assist me in spreading the work of the Church 
in other quarters. 

" If I am asked what I consider the prospects to be, I must answer 
Not encouraging. The work before me is immense, the workers 
together with me are few ; the majority of the well-to-do treat religion as 
a luxury, and the masses almost ignore it." 



PERTH. 

APPORTIONMENT OF S.P.G. GRANT THE ABORIGINES EDUCATIONAL 

EFFORTS. 

IN the Bishop s Address to the Synod, delivered on the 22nd of 
July, mention is made of the application of a portion of the 
3oo/. per annum granted by the Society to this diocese to the 
Williams River district, to which Dr. Parry refers as follows 



A ; fMission Field, 

reiui. |_ Jau i il880 . 

" I spoke at the opening of the last session also of arrangements which 

1 then hoped shortly to make towards some regular provision for the 
spiritual wants of the Williams River district to the south, and of the 
Victoria Plains and Yatheroo district to the north. These arrangements 
are now completed. I myself visited both these districts towards the 
close of last year. It has since been arranged, with regard to the latter, 
that it be considered for the present as attached to the Cure of the 
clergyman at Newcastle, who shall regularly visit it once a quarter, hold 
ing services at the several stations, and occasionally at other times for 
any special calls of duty ; receiving through the Diocesan Church Fund 
in return for such services, and for expenses of travelling, the sum of 5o/. 
annually, raised by contributions from the settlers. Two such quarterly 
visits have since been paid by the Rev. Mr. Pidcock ; whilst the amount 
contributed from the district has fully met the first two quarters of his 
stipulated allowance. For the Williams I have been enabled to secure 
the ministrations of a resident clergyman under the following arrange 
ment. The Rev. Mr. Withers, for the last seventeen years chaplain at 
Bunbury, has agreed to transfer his services to the Williams River dis 
trict, as soon as a clergyman can be obtained to take his place at Bunbury. 
Two reasons decided me on thankfully accepting Mr. Withers offer to 
this effect. First, it seemed to me a great advantage that the clergyman 
first appointed to a district such as the Williams, needing to be organized 
from the very beginning, and in which the work for some time to come 
must be of an itinerating character, should be one already well acquainted 
with the colony and experienced in such itinerating work, rather than a 
man fresh from England. Secondly, it would, I thought, be more easy 
to obtain a clergyman from England for an old settled district such as 
Bunbury than for an altogether new district ; more easy, too, to obtain 
from the settlers of the Bunbury district the contributions necessary to 
secure a sufficient stipend for a fresh clergyman. Active steps have 
since been taken to raise in both districts the required amounts, and I 
hope shortly to hear from my commissary in England that a clergyman 
such as we require has been found to succeed Mr. Withers at Bunbury." 

Another portion goes towards the stipend of a third clergyman in 
Perth 1 itself, who, besides having charge of Bishop s College, is 
responsible for Mission services in the back part of the city, where 
arrangements are in progress for the erection of a new church, and 
also for ministrations in outlying places, 

The Bishop states that in the recently published Report of the 
Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the condition of the 
Aborigines of Victoria 

" Comparing the Mission Stations with the Government Stations the 
Commissioners say emphatically, our own observation has shown us 
that without comparison stations under the Missionaries are most effec 
tive. We therefore strongly recommend that all be placed under similar 
management. With such information before them the Committee 
appointed at the last session of the Synod to promote Missionary work 
among the aboriginal inhabitants, decided to recommend : ist, That 
steps should be taken as soon as possible, in accordance with the per 
mission already obtained from the Government, to establish a Church of 

1 The Bishop has been informed that the Society s Regulations do not allow its grants to be 
spent on capital towns. 



SSftaM Auckland. 25 

England Mission Station on the Reserve recently set apart for the natives 
on the Murchison River, on a plan similar to that of the Mission Stations 
in Victoria. 2nd, That the North-west district, where already a good 
deal has been done on the settlers stations to bring the natives into 
habits of regular industry the number of natives so employed, being 
estimated in Mr. Watkins report (See Mission Field, 1879, p. 307), at 
from 2,000 to 2,500 the plan best to be adopted will be that of establish 
ing schools for the children on each of those stations, as well as at 
Roebourne and Cossack ; and that the newly-appointed clergyman be 
requested to give this matter his special attention on his arrival in the 
district. Amidst the many other demands that of late have been made 
on the contributions of our congregations it has seemed to me better to 
postpone a while any actual steps towards the establishment of a Mission 
Station on the Murchison River ; but I trust that it will not be long now 
before we see our way to make a commencement of such work. Mean 
while the Rev. Mr. Hayton, having entered on his work in the Roebourne 
district, has promised to make the matter of schools for native children 
one of his chief concerns. The Native and Half-caste Home in Perth 
continues to do its work well. The number of children is twenty-two, 
and there are four at the small branch institution at the Vasse." 

We have a communication from the Bishop himself, dated so late 
as November 3, 1879, which gives a very satisfactory account of 
educational progress in his diocese. 

"We have made a commencement of our new Cathedral, I hope 
to send you shortly a photograph of the design. We propose to 
build first the nave, aisles, and transepts ; leaving chancel, tower, 
chapter-house, and vestries to be added subsequently. Bishop s 
College is quite full : ten boys as boarders who (with the head 
master of the High School s own boarders) receive regular religious 
instruction before breakfast every morning, and join the class at 
the High School during the day ; and two young men residing there 
as students, with three others (of whom my own son is one) attend 
ing lectures. My newly-started Girls College, too, is so far a decided 
success. We have an excellent head teacher from England, and 
thirty-three girls this term. I purpose shortly asking your special 
help towards the commencement of some regular Mission work 
amongst the aborigines in the northern parts of this colony." 



AUCKLAND. 

THE BISHOP S APPRECIATION OF THE SOCIETY S AID THE OMATA 
DISTRICT NEW CHURCHES. 

OUR readers will not have forgotten that in June last the Society 
found it necessary to announce a withdrawal of all grants to 
New Zealand, with the exception of that to the diocese of Dunedin. 



[Mission Field, 

[ Jan . lf 18 8o. 

The following letter from Bishop Cowie, dated Auckland, July 22, 
contains a suggestion well worthy the consideration of supporters of 
Missions, in connection with that enforced announcement, and a 
striking testimony to the value of aid given on the Society s 
principles. 

" I quite recognize the necessity felt by the venerable Society for 
discontinuing annual grants to dioceses like those of New Zealand ; 
but it is to be hoped that some special organization may be instituted 
in England, for helping to provide the ministrations of clergy to the 
large numbers of immigrants who come to us, on their first arrival. 
The assistance that the Society has given this diocese in past years 
has been most valuable, not only as so much money, but also and 
chiefly as a constant encouragement to our people to help them 
selves. It will be gratifying to your Committee, and will encourage 
them to persevere in their work, to be informed that we have fifty 
clergy at work at the present time, including twelve Maories, and 
that most of them are maintained, in whole or in part, by the weekly 
offerings of their congregations. 

I see little prospect of being able to take a holiday (after ten years 
of incessant work), or it would be an additional reason for visiting 
England, to have an opportunity of telling some of our people at 
home of the good work done by the S.P.G. in the colonies, where the 
Society helps the children of the Church by means of the Church s 
own organization." 

The Rev. H. M. Brown has many a long journey to make in his 
ministrations in the district about Omata. These are more than 
usually trying at times. He writes 

" The extremely wet weather in winter and spring interfered with my 
visits to Inglewood. I think, that without boasting, I may say that I 
encounter such weather as few clergymen would care to encounter. Yet 
twice I turned back from the road to Tnglewood. The third time I went, 
but there was no congregation. The streets were almost impassable for 
females. 7 

A visit from the Bishop enabled Mr. Brown, early in last year, to 
extend the blessings of the Church s offices to unaccustomed places. 

" As he held service at Omata on the evening of the i6th of February, 
and ns the congregation at the Henui were mainly attracted to the con 
firmation held in the town church (only a mile and a half from the Henui 
church), I was set at liberty to officiate at three places where I much 
wished to hold service. After the regular service at Muraigi, I held 
service at Wacongoria at two p.m., at Malectaiwo at four p.m., and at 



S ?, i F 88 e o d> ] New Churches. 27 

Warpuhu at seven p.m. At Wacongoria and at Warpuhu no service had 
ever been held ; I wish that I could officiate in those places more fre 
quently. A Roman Catholic begged me to hold service at Warpuhu, and 
several Roman Catholics attended." 

Mr. Brown s labours, as well as his anxieties, have been increased 
by the recent threatening attitude of the natives. 

u Once in four weeks I hold a short service at nine a.m. with the men 
of the armed constabulary who have been quartered in a camp at Oahuru 
since the Maories began their illegal ploughing on confiscated land." 

At Waitara the foundation-stone of a church was laid on May 6. 
The site has been given by the Rev. P. Walsh, the first and present 
pastor of the Mission, who has also designed the church, which will 
be of wood with iron roof. 

Another new church has been opened in the diocese, concerning 
which the Church Gazette reports : 

" TAUHOA, KAIPARA. Opening of a new C/tttrcti.The new church of 
this district was used for the first time on Trinity Sunday, June 8. After 
the very rough weather of the previous three weeks it was thought 
scarcely possible for the Rev. H. D. D. Sparling to travel over the really 
dangerous track from Warkworth, to open our new church ; but, as on 
former occasions, our devoted clergyman kept his engagement with us in 
spite of all difficulties including the crossing of the Korowhero by a 
bridge only partly above the flood. Notwithstanding the heavy rain 
that fell about the hour appointed for the opening service, the majority of 
the settlers were present. None of them, however, were wetter probably 
than the clergyman, who had had to wade a swollen stream just before 
entering the church, and to remain with wet feet and legs for the re 
mainder of the day. The first service was held at eleven a.m. The 
canticles were well chanted by the choir, who had met for practice in the 
new schoolhouse, under the direction of Mr. Theodore Barnett. The 
sermon was on Contact with holy things/ drawn from a combination of 
the return of the ark of the covenant and the touching of the hem of the 
garment. The collection at the offertory amounted to i/. 14^. qd. At a 
meeting held after the service it was agreed that the church should be 
named the Church of the Holy Trinity. In the afternoon the congrega 
tion assembled again, in number almost as many as in the morning ;. 
though it was near mid-winter, and some of the people had to go home 
through the bush, by a track that takes nearly two hours to travel. A 
child was baptized at this service. Mr. Sparling s second sermon was 
on public worship and common confession of the faith. The offertory 
collection, Ss. i</., together with that of the morning (amounting to 
2/. 2s. icw 7 .), was devoted to the purchase of such articles of furniture as 
are necessary for the orderly and becoming celebration of Divine service. "" 



28 Melanesia. 

MELANESIA. 



" 



NORFOLK AND PITCAIRN ISLANDS VOYAGE OF THE SOUTHERN 
CROSS " BISHOP SELWYN AT SYDNEY LETTER FROM THE REV. 
C. BICE. 

THOSE of our readers who were interested in the history and 
present condition of the inhabitants of Norfolk and Pitcairn 
Islands, as put before them in the last Australasian number of the 
Mission Field (p. 325, 1879), will welcome the insertion in our 
present number of two documents in continuation of the narrative. 
The first is a letter from the aged chaplain of Norfolk Island him 
self, the Rev. G. H. Nobbs. It is addressed to the Secretary of 
the S.P.G., and dated Norfolk Island, June 12, 1879. We print 
it in its entirety: 

"REV. SIR, 

" I have just heard of the death of my valued friend, Rev. 
William Thomas Bullock, and very sincerely proffer condolence to our 
mutual friends. 

" The reverend deceased was the successor of a brother in Christ 
Rev. Ernest Hawkins whose unqualified kindness to myself personally, 
and to my people, by the interest he took in their welfare, is still borne in 
mind. The late Secretary also evinced in his correspondence with us, 
since our removal to this place, much sympathy, in regard to myself as 
chaplain, and to the community, in various grants of Bibles, Prayer-books, 
and other publications suited to the beneficial instruction, spiritual and 
temporal, of our rapidly increasing community, now numbering 370 
persons, included in 63 families, and nearly numbering the same in either 
sex. I am becoming very feeble from age ; and my memory fails me in 
consequence of an operation at the back of my neck for carbuncle two 
years since. The clergy of the Melancsian College established here 
give me assistance on Sunday, taking the Afternoon Service, and also at 
the Holy Communion on the first Sunday of the month. There are more 
than a hundred communicants, and the average attendance is ninety. 
There are 108 scholars in the Day-school instructed by two efficient masters, 
and several pupil-teachers ; and in our Sunday-school there are eleven 
classes four of the instructors; one lady, Mrs. Colenso, and three clergy, 
Messrs. Bice, Penny, and Comins, are of the Melanesian Establishment. 
We have been frequent recipients of most acceptable donations of Bibles, 
Prayer-books, and other religious and school publications -made us by 
the venerable Society; and would, with diffidence, ask an increase of our 
obligation in Bibles and Prayer-books for Church Service : other 
religious and moral books, for family use, would be most acceptable. Mr. 
Arthur Mills and other gratefully remembered friends will inform you of 
our antecedents although I am given to understand but not officially 
that the successor of Mr. Bullock is the Rev. H. W. Tucker, whose 
memoir of the late Bishop Selwyn I have just received from England; if 
so, you will no doubt have heard somewhat of our unique history. We 
are at this time in anxiety as to a medical practitioner; our resident, 
Herbert Duke, M.D., a most excellent man, is in a bad state of health 
and about to leave us, returning to his friends in England. We have 



Mission Field, 
Jan. 1, 1880. 



] Norfolk and Pit cairn Islands. 29 



written to Sir Alfred Stephens upon the subject, but some length of time 
must elapse before a proper person can be obtained, and I am become 
too infirm to resume the onerous charge. 

11 June 14. This evening a merciful deliverance from sudden death was 
experienced in our midst. Two of our boats, with twelve persons in each, 
including some of our Mission friends, went to visit the caves and other 
natural curiosities on the western side of the island. The day was very 
fine, and the party highly gratified with their excursion, but on their 
return, and just as they were about to land, a heavy roller capsised one of 
the boats and injured her badly ; twelve persons were in this boat, five of 
whom were women. Providentially several persons were close at hand, 
and though it was nearly dark they without hesitation plunged into the 
boiling surge and rescued the women ; and two of the men, who were from 
injuries received unable to make head against the outset. All were 
brought safe to land, and we are now praising GOD with heart and voice 
for so great a deliverance from what may be literally called the jaws of 
death. Two of the men in this boat are sons of mine, and their wives 
were with them, the parents of sixteen children. Just in the midst of this 
fearful dilemma a steamer from Sydney came in, landed a doctor for 
island service, and proceeded to Fiji. All that I have related did not 
occupy more than an hour : our people providentially rescued from death, 
those in a precarious state properly attended to, and the new doctor 
heartily welcomed. We sorely regret the failing health of Dr. Duke, for 
he was an excellent man ; but we hope that we have obtained an efficient 
successor. We are expecting Bishop Selwyn here by the end of August. 
The Missionary vessel Southern Cross will be, D.V., in Sydney to receive 
our excellent friend. And now, reverend Sir, may I ask you to present 
my humble and grateful respects to the venerable Society for the many 
benefits conferred on this community during the past twenty-five years ? 

" Respectfully yours, 

"GEORGE H. NOBBS. 

" Chaplain" 

The other document is an account of a very recent visit to 
Pitcairn Island, embodied in the report to the Admiralty of Captain 
F. C. B. Robinson, of H.M.S. Opal, who was commissioned to convey 
to the islanders an organ, a present from the Queen. The organ, 
being nearly six feet high, was not easily landed through the surf, 
abounding in sharks, which broke round the island. When landed- 
Captain Robinson says 

" Owing to the heavy rain the narrow path up the cliffs to Adamstown 
was so slippery that we found even climbing up it difficult ; the sturdy 
inhabitants, however, thought little of it, for they shouldered the organ 
and walked it up to the top and to the church-house without once paus 
ing no light feat, considering the state of the path, and that their village is 
210 feet above the sea. The night had closed in before they had got it 
up, but the full moon which had just risen made the little village almost 
as light as day. It is difficult to describe the gratitude of the islanders to 
her Majesty for the present, or their pleasure with the form in which you 
placed the gift. The whole community assembled to see the organ un 
packed and placed in the church-house, and when there their first impulse 
and act was the spontaneous bursting forth of God save the Queen/ and 
as their sweet voices sang verse after verse of our anthem their earnestness 



30 



Melanesia. 



and depth of feeling spoke more than words can convey their gratitude and 
loving loyalty to the Queen ; this natural expression of the fulness of their 
simple hearts was eloquence they were unaware of, and touchingly con 
veyed thanks which they tried so often and so hard to put into words. 
They appeared to have feared that in leaving Norfolk Island they might 
have been thought ungrateful for that gift, and that in having done so 
they incurred displeasure, and had forfeited their right to be considered 
as belonging to England ; a present so unexpected from the Queen 
removed this fear, and intensified a delight too real to be called extra- 



The following day all on the island were busily employed in supplying 
the Opal with yams, sweet potatoes, and other vegetables, a ten days 
supply of which, together with some fruit, I was glad to be able to get for 
the ship s company, a partial change in diet much needed, considering the 
length of the passage from San Francisco to Valparaiso the distance 
sailed over being 8,836 miles. The crops had been abundant, and had 
our stay been longer, they could and would have gladly given us far more 
than we took, but the double pleasure of supplying our wants and coming 
off to see the ship limited the amount they could get ready in the short 
time we remained. The value at which the supplies were rated was three- 
halfpence per pound, a lesser rate than anywhere else on this station, and, 
according to their wish, I bartered soap in payment. Certain other 
Government stores, induced by their urgent necessities, I left with the 
islanders. Arrowroot continues to be manufactured by the islanders, in 
the hope that ships passing might like to take it in barter, but as ships 
generally require fruit and vegetables, they cannot readily dispose of their 
arrowroot, which is to be regretted, as from its purity and excellent 
quality, and their industry in making it, it deserves a market. 

" Little change has taken place in this small community since your visit 
in September last year. They all appear in excellent health at present ; 
their number is ninety-three, three children had been born since then ; 
one man, an American, named Peter Butler, who had lived among them 
for about two years, left the island in October last year, leaving a wife and 
twin babies behind. Although she appears still to hope he may return, 
others do not consider this probable, particularly as two of the native 
islanders who left by the same vessel (trading to the Samoan Islands) 
have come back. 

" The islanders appear to dislike, but to be doubtful of their power to 
prevent, strangers, particularly foreigners, taking up their abode among 
them ; they say that foreigners do not care to submit to the laws of the island 
(professing not to consider them English laws), an exemption from con 
trol which brings ridicule and reproach on the simple rules which they 
find sufficient for themselves and cheerfully submit to ; their uneasiness 
about this, and anxiety to know the status of foreigners who might 
come, and the authority of the magistrate over them, was very marked. 
Mr. M Coy put the case in a very apposite manner in saying, If a 
stranger who may be on the island wishes to marry one of our women, 
and she also desires it, let them do so ; but surely the man should take 
his wife away to his own home, and not expect to settle in his wife s, and 
fill to overflowing the island, none too large for its own people. 

" On the 3rd of July I asked the islanders to visit the Opal, and with 
the exception of three women, who remained to take care of the very 
youngest babies, I think every soul came ; unfortunately the ground 
swell at such an exposed anchorage made the Opal pitch and roll con 
siderably, and as her disturbing powers are great, I was not surprised to 



S dl ] Pitcairn Island. The " Southern Cross." 31 

find that the combined motion produced sea sickness, which soon 
prostrated the women and children ; they appeared, however, to prefer 
it, and remaining on board to returning to the shore a fortitude I was 
glad of, as it enabled some photographs of them to be taken during 
pauses in their indisposition. As these, the first, I think, taken of them 
on the island, will be interesting, I append a few to this letter. 
*" " On the Opal s destination becoming known at San Francisco, 
numerous presents were sent on board for the Pitcairn Islanders, who 
speak most thankfully of the kindness of the people of San Francisco, 
who, when they get an opportunity, send things they think are most re 
quired ; they sent some packets of seeds, and I was also able to give 
the islanders a considerable number of pods of the silk cotton plants 
I got them last year at Bara-Bara, when the Opal visited the inde 
pendent islands of the Society group. It is so very much superior to 
the poor quality of cotton they are trying to cultivate at Pitcairn, and 
they appeared to prize it so highly, that I hope they will be able to raise 
it from the seed I left. 

" It is unnecessary for me to do more than allude to the simple piety 
and moral excellence of these charming islanders, whose guilelessness 
and affectionate hospitality must win on the hearts of all who come in 
contact with them ; it did so with us, and I should be sorry to lose this 
opportunity of mentioning opinions so much in accord with those of 
previous visitors. They were in great distress at having nothing they 
could think worthy to offer for her Majesty s acceptance, and they 
brought off a model of one of their canoes, which they ventured to hope 
the Queen would deign to receive from them." 

A grandson of the well-known Patriarch of Pitcairn s Island is 
now preparing for ordination at St. Augustine s, Canterbury. 

We extract the following paragraphs from the Church Gazette of 
the diocese for May and June : 

" Departure of the SOUTHERN CROSS. The Mission schooner Southern 
Cross left Auckland for Norfolk Island on Thursday in Holy Week, 
April 10, having on board as passengers the Rev. J. Palmer and Mrs. 
Palmer, and Mrs. Bongard, and their children. The vessel was more 
than usually filled up with stores ; the number of island stations which 
have to be supplied is now so large that, humanly speaking, on this as on 
other grounds, a larger vessel will ere long be a necessity. Before the 
Mission party left Auckland, they participated in the early Communion at 
St. Sepulchre s, which forms the usual service at this church on Maunday 
Thursday, and which thus assumed for this occasion a valedictory 
character. Several friends were present. It had been expected that a 
quiet Easter Sunday would be spent at sea ; but stress of weather and 
the severe sea-sickness of Mrs. Palmer compelled resort to the Bay of 
Islands for shelter for two or three days ; and so, as Mr. Palmer remarked 
in his letter We might as well have spent our Easter Sunday in 
Auckland. 

" Letters dated April 26 have been received by the schooner Venture 
from Norfolk Island, the head-quarters of the Mission. The Southern 
Cross reached the island on April 19, and left again on the 23rd on her 
first voyage for the season, taking the Revs. J. Palmer, C. Bice, and A. 
Penny to the islands, together with a large party of boys and girls. After 
leaving Mr, Penny at Florida, the vessel will return to the Banks Islands, 



-><> fnilPsn TMission FieM, 

3 2 2yjciu/ie^iu. |_ jau. i, isso. 

where Mr. Palmer will probably be left, and thence to Norfolk Island, 
where she is expected early in July. The vessel will then go back to the 
Banks group with the Rev. R. B. Comins, and after leaving Mota Island 
will go over to Sydney for the Bishop, who was to leave England on 
June 1 6 and reach Sydney in the first week of August. The Southern 
Cross will probably take with her to Sydney Mr. Duke, the excellent 
doctor of the Mission, who is obliged to leave the island on account of 
his health, to the great regret of all. At St. Barnabas all were well on 
April 26, on which day there were about sixty boys and twenty-two girls 
in the school. The Rev. R. H. Codrington will probably visit Auckland 
in the end of the year, on his way to Adelaide. 

Bishop Selwyn was at Sydney in August, when, speaking at a great 
gathering in aid of the Melanesian Mission on the i8th, he said 

" There were now seven white teachers, six native teachers, and thirty- 
four schools. As to the manner of conducting the Mission, the white 
men, as far as practicable, visited the different stations and brought as 
pupils to the head station at Norfolk Island as many natives, to become 
Missionaries to their own countrymen. That was the leading feature of 
the Mission. He described the obstacles that had to be overcome 
different languages and dialects in different districts, and the natives in a 
chronic state of war with each other. He also gave many details connected 
with Missionary work. Trade, he said, was going down to the islands 
very rapidly, and he, for one, was glad to see it. At present it was 
carried on by barter, but he hoped soon to see money transactions. A 
trader went down there to settle and trade, and he liked to encourage 
such men, and he asked him to introduce no spirits, and to lead a moral 
life ; but he could not work with men who were drunken, and led im 
moral lives. And yet there were people who said that that was stopping 
civilization ; but it was not stopping civilization ; it was stopping the 
curses of civilization. Let them bring public opinion so to bear that 
their influence would be by trade that ennobled and elevated, and 
not by trade that debased. There were many outrages committed on 
the islands, the causes of which were not known ; but one of the most 
fertile was the wrong done to husbands, who were powerless to obtain 
redress. The progress to civilization was slow, but it was sure, as many 
in the islands could testify. With regard to future work, the islands 
were so unhealthy, and the distances so great, that they would have lost 
rather than have gained by stationing men permanently on the islands ; 
but he now saw his way to placing the clergy more permanently. An 
old lady at home had given him a ship, in addition to what they already 
had, in order that he might have more supervision over the work. Four 
additional men joined him, and one gentleman who had studied surgery, 
and some labourers in prospect. He hoped soon to visit the islands more 
frequently. He asked them to cheer the work with their prayers and 
blessings, and, God helping them, they would do their best." 

The following passages from a letter of the Rev. C. Bice, though 
written at some distance of time, are well worthy a place irTour 

pages : 

"TAVALA VGLA, OPA, Sept. 20, 1878. 

" As you will perceive by the heading of this sheet, I am again at"my 
old work, and at my old station at Leper s Island. Thank God! I am 



Mission Field 
Jan. I,] 



Journey by Rev. C. Bice. 33 



almost perfectly restored to health and strength. The ague has not quite 
gone out of me, and to-day I feel my hand shaky, and my senses not 
altogether on the spot. I have just returned from a long and fairly 
interesting journey, the details of which I must proceed to give you, and 
this may account for my present unlikeness to my usual self. I started 
on Tuesday for a village inland about three miles, with a following of 
four people. As my journey was to be performed on foot, and the paths 
are very diminutive and unformed, I did not burden myself with an over 
abundance of personal vanities, or encumber myself with more than the 
bare necessities of existence for a day or two. Besides the garments I 
stood in an ordinary pair of tweed trousers, a Crimean shirt, and straw 
hat I took very little else ; just as much as I could get into an ordinary 
satchel. Biscuits, a cake of chocolate, sugar, and other condiments, and 
a few sticks of tobacco, knives, beads, &c., to pay my way. The village, 
where we were to spend the night, lies about three miles inland, and 
the way to it is up rather a steep ascent. It was fearfully hot when we 
started about noon, and I don t think J was ever more like a drowned 
rat than when I reached the village of Mr. Gueva, alias Jin/ alias , 
alias, alias, ad lib. He is by far the most chief-like man on this island, 
and there is a good deal that is still primitive and interesting about him. 
His influence extends certainly farther than that of any other person 
here, and he is looked upon somewhat as a demi-god. He is sun and 
weather maker ; can make or dissipate war at pleasure ; has the power 
of life and death, and other potencies too numerous to mention. He 
keeps a most extensive establishment, admittedly on his part, of over 
forty ladies. The highest computation I have heard has raised their 
number to ninety. His children are very numerous, nineteen sons and 
more daughters than he could or chose to count. He has twenty-five 
club-houses under his immediate control and authority, and in case of 
war can command more forces than any other man. He is naturally 
looked upon as a potentate, and his last chosen appellation or title, Jin 
na Vanua (he who has out-topped the whole land) marks his own esti 
mation of himself. He is a very old gentleman, and very amenable to 
sense and reason. He has forbidden war and fighting, and cannibalism, 
and other native propensities, which were formerly looked upon as correct 
and proper. A person of such importance and distinction is worth culti 
vating, and I have always supposed, if I could make any impression on 
him personally, I should get at a large body of people through him. I 
am the first white man, I believe, who has ever done him the honour or 
satisfaction to sleep at his village, and consequently he was very obse 
quious in his attentions to me. We reached his village about two o clock, 
and the afternoon, with nothing to do but sit and gossip, was long enough. 
Of course, without falling into the danger of casting pearls before swine, 
I spoke my message where I could and as I could. How far these 
desultory stray words have any good effect, or produce anything like 
lasting impression, remains to be proved. Six o clock arrived, and I had 
my tea, consisting of a cup of chocolate and a roasted yam. At seven 
o clock, being tired of hearing my own voice, and the time hanging 
heavily and the conversation flagging, I suggested their singing some of 
their native songs. I feel sure you will pity me when I tell you that for 
two long weary hours they went on incessantly, and I, martyr-like, had to 
sit a victim to my own rashness. The only interruption to the perform 
ance was the ceremony of old Jin drinking his kava. There was 
strict silence kept during this performance, and he signified his having 
got to the bottom of his bitter cup by the peculiar noise they affect in 

NO. CCLXXXIX. D 



34 Melanesia. 



Field, 
If: 80. 



these instances. He then retired for the night, and I saw nothing 
more of him. There was no best bedroom prepared, no jug, basin, 
or bath, no toilet requisites, no well-aired sheets or cosy-looking 
bed curtains, but bare cold mother earth, without any attempt at 
art or adornment. The only shelter afforded us was overhead. When 
the singing was at length over, as you may expect, I wanted very 
little inducement to go to sleep. I read my evening psalms, went 
through my devotions, and blew out my candle, stretched myself on the 
ground, and, hard and uninviting as the position was, I fell to sleep in 
spite of the incessant gossip. Towards morning it got very cold, and I 
couldn t sleep, and longed for fire and comfort. We were all stirring 
very early, and by six o clock I had finished my breakfast of hot chocolate 
and a roast yam. My toilet was not very extensive, and without much 
attempt at adorning the outward man, I was content to strengthen, as far 
as possible, the inner. Shortly after this my old friend Jin was ready 
to start, and preceded by ten of his wives, neither young nor beautiful, 
but stout-legged and heavy-burdened, they were well-fitted for the pur 
pose for which they were wanted on the journey, viz., to take the place 
of horses and carry the burdens which the lazy males should shoulder. 
We led the procession with a following of about thirty, and when we 
started it was already threatening for rain, and the roads were already wet 
and unpleasant. Having the sun-maker with us, of course we had to 
take his word for it that we were to have a fine day. It rained, however, 
and when it was most palpably evident to every one, as well as to the 
sun-maker himself, that it would be sunshine, a great ceremony was gone 
through, and Mr. Jin performed the operation of blowing away the 
clouds, and sure enough out came the sun, This succeeded very well 
for a time, but finally it settled into a thorough day s rain, and on 
we trudged, I mechanically, until about ten o clock we reached the 
first village : and I travelled on and on, stopping here and there to 
say my say and be mauled about, stared at and flattered by the 
ladies on my height and beauty, the largeness of my feet, and the 
exquisite fit of my clothes, &c., &c., till ten o clock. Jin and party 
had meanwhile stopped short on the way, and when I returned to where 
I had left them, they had already gone homewards. I ate a hasty 
dinner, being very wet and dirty, and got ready, after a desultory sort of 
conversation, for my journey home. The people, after their native 
custom, would press on me all manner of food, which, at the risk of 
displeasing them, I had to refuse, as the way was long, and my people 
were not partial to horse-loads of yams and other food. I was very glad 
to have made the visit, however, for I saw and made the acquaintance of 
many people I had long wished to know, and who had only before known 
me by hearsay. Everywhere I was much admired for my height, and 
civility, and generosity, and my knowledge of the language of Opa. The 
custom here is for fathers or mothers to bring their children for the bless 
ing or what not of my touch, and when I put a string of beads around 
the little things necks, there was a general exclamation of Eh ! ratahigi 
hogo ! (Ah ! he is a true chief !) Everywhere food was pressed upon 
me, and looks of sadness overspread their jolly excited faces when I had 
to refuse them. I saw a very large population during the day, and had it 
been but fine weather, I would willingly have spent some days on the 
road. As it was, it was very unpleasant travelling, and without a change 
of raiment I daren t spend a night anywhere. Had we stayed, however, 
another hour, we would not have reached home for some time, for the 
rain was so heavy as to flood the dry river beds, and in one instance we 



Ladies Association. 



35 



had the greatest possible difficulty to cross without danger. We 
overtook Jin before we had got very far, and we were once more 
marching in a long connected rank and file. In this order we 
reached Jin s village, and I and party returned direct to this place, 
reaching here at sundown between six and seven o clock, tired, hungry, 
footsore, wet, and weary. The people here look upon me as a perfect 
prodigy for having accomplished the distance, something between twenty 
and thirty miles, and in the time. I shan t do it again in a hurry ; in 
future I shall go by boat, or spend some days on the road. Thank God 
my work has spread wondrously this year beyond all other years, and 
never in all my missionary experience have I passed a more pleasant and 
profitable two months. The people everywhere are most anxious to be 
taught, and send their children regularly to school. This station I have 
occupied only this year, and my visits hither in other years have been few 
and desultory. This season the people volunteered to put me up a house, 
and succeeded for once in being as good as their word. I am at present 
occupying a very fair residence, not over clean or wind-proof, but as good 
as could be expected from entirely native fabrication. I have a very nice 
and regular school twice a day of thirty very excellent and bright boys, 
and have always a house full of adult visitors. The good people here are 
most enthusiastic, and are ready to do exactly as I may choose. I have 
in this neighbourhood a large and easily worked field of operations, and 
it is much more central as a chief station than my old one at Walurigi, 
six miles further down the coast. There also I have a very nice school, 
and very fair Sunday congregations. Between these two stations I have 
a third, at a place called Tombaka, and, thank God, I have native teachers 
at each place. Here a little fellow, who came back from Norfolk Island 
with me, has got together a nice little schcol of his friends and relations, 
and eight youngsters read very fairly well, and have been taught by him 
the first rudiments of Christianity. He is only about twelve, and is a 
steady, excellent boy. Two natives at my station at Tombaka have the 
whole population of adults, and boys and girls and women, to school with 
them, and quite of their own accord have built themselves a very nice 
neat school or prayer-house. Never before has my work here looked so 
cheering, and I pray God His continual blessing may rest upon us. Yours 
in all Christian love and brotherhood, CHARLES BICE." 



LADIES ASSOCIATION, S.P.G. 

THE Committee of the Ladies Association were glad to find 
that at the close of their financial year (November 3oth), in 
addition to a balance in hand, the subscriptions and donations 
received during the year 1879 amounted to 4.9927. The expenditure 
during the same time was 4,6147. The total receipts include 88 y7. 
a Special Fund entrusted to the Association for the support of 215 
Female Scholars in various Mission Schools, and therefore not avail 
able for the general purposes of the Association, or for its chief 
object, which is the maintenance of Female Teachers. There is 
an increase of 2347. in the receipts over those of the previous 
year 

D 2 



36 Arrival and Departures. pgjfj gg d - 

The Zenana Missions at Bombay, Calcutta, Cawnpore, and Delhi 
have prospered during the year, the number of pupils under instruc 
tion being not less than 1,300. A fifth Zenana Mission has been 
commenced at Madras under very favourable circumstances. In addi 
tion to the pupils in the Zenanas and in the schools connected with 
the Zenana Missions, about 1,100 girls are being taught in the fifteen 
schools connected with the Ladies Association in Roorkee, Burmah, 
Japan, Madras, Madagascar, and South Africa ; and 180 are boarded 
and educated in S.P.G. Schools at the expense of members of the Asso 
ciation. Three fresh workers have gone forth this year to reinforce 
the Missions in Burmah, Cawnpore, and Calcutta ; and niney-three 
Teachers, European and Native, are now on the list of the Associa 
tion. Two hundred and fifty English Working Parties have contri 
buted a large quantity of work and native clothing; and the 
Association has thus been enabled to despatch forty large and 
valuable boxes in the course of the year seventeen to South Africa, 
the remaining twenty-three to India and other parts. 

The insufficiency of the present income of the Ladies Association 
to meet the various applications received from abroad, has been a 
cause of deep regret to the Committee. Two applications on behalf 
of promising openings for new Zenana Missions, one in North India, 
the other in the Bombay Diocese, and several for teachers for Native 
Girls Schools in South Africa, have been reluctantly declined or 
postponed. It is therefore to be hoped that all the friends and 
supporters of the Association will be roused to renewed efforts and 
exertions, and will also take courage and be thankful for the measure 
of success already vouchsafed. 



ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURES. 

THE Bishop of Mauritius has arrived in England, and expects to remain about 
nine months. 

Mrs. Wright left for Japan on December II, Messrs. H. Raynbird and By water 
on December i8th for Calcutta and Borneo respectively, and the Rev. R. M. 
Johnson on December 23rd for Newfoundland. 

The British India Steam Navigation Company s ship Eldorado^ which sailed on 
November 29th, with ninety-five passengers on board, and a Lascar crew of about 
sixty, put into Plymouth Sound on December 6th to repair damages, after a hair 
breadth escape from total loss in the Bay of Biscay, where she lay for thirty hours, 
during the storm on the previous Wednesday and Thursday, in a state of total 
disablement. Nearly all her crew during the whole time of danger were incapa 
citated by fear and exhaustion, and, but for the exertions of the passengers, 
there is little question that she would have gone down just as, fourteen years "ago, 
the steamship London perished under very similar circumstances. Among the 
passengers are Messrs. Boyd and Papworth, who are going to Tanjore. With 
the exception of one of the Lascars, no lives were lost. The Rldora io sailed again 
on December nth. 



Mission Field,"! 
Jan. 1, 1880. J 



Monthly Meeting. 



37 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. Dr. Marks of the Diocese of Rangoon ; Dr. 
Strachan of Madras ; W. H. Gomes of Lab/tan; W. Bramley of Capetown ; C. Taberer of 
Grahamstoivn; J. C. Hands of St. Helena ; R. J. French and J. Baptiste of Mauritius; W. 
B. Armstrong of Fredericton ; G. Ditcham oE New Westminster, and H. J. Foss and W. B. 
Wright, Missionaries in Japan. 



MONTHLY MEETING, 

THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, West 
minster, on Friday, December 19,1879, Bishop Piers Claughtonin the Chair. There 
were also present Bi-hop Perry, C. Raikes, Esq. , C.S.I., and T. Turner, Esq., 
Vice- Presidents ; Rev. B, Belcher, Yen. Archdeacon Blouifield, Ven. Archdeacon 
Burney, Rev. B. Compton, Major-Gen. Dalton, C.S.I., Rev. J. W. Festing, 
Col. Gillilan, Rev. J. F. Moor, jun., Sir B. Robinson, Rev. E. J. Selwyn, 
Rev. W. J. Stracey, A. Strickland, Esq. (Treasurer], Lieut. -Gen. Tremenheere, 
C.B., Lieut. -Gen. Turner, W. Trotter, Esq., and Rev. R. T. West, Mem 
bers of the Standing Committee ; and Revs. II . Adcock, S. Arnott, H. M. 
Backler, Esq., Revs, H. R. Baker, G. F. Barrow, Bennett, J. Boodle, Esq., 
Revs. J. A. Boodle, R. H. N. Brown, T. Copeman, Esq., R. Cust, Esq., Revs. 
T. Darling, T. W. Downing, J. Duncan, J. J. Elkington, G. H. Fielden, Dr. 
Finch, General Fookes, Revs. W. C. Fox, C. D. Goldie, O. Gordon, G. Green 
wood, Marshall Griffith, Esq., Col. Hardy, Revs. J. W. Horsley, E. Hoskins, 
W. W. Howard, Dr. A. T. Lee, F. S. May, J. F. Moor, W. Panckridge, A. R. 
Pennington, E. Pennington, Esq., Rev. H. F. Rackham, H. A. Rickman, Esq., 
J. W. B. Riddell, Es^., Revs. A. C. Rogers, L. L. Sharpe, E, Shears, G. A. 
Trevor, R, D. Tyssen, J. H. Worsley, and C. Wyatt-Srnith, Members of the 
Society. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. A Strickland, Esq., on behalf of the Treasurers, presented the 
following Statement of the Society s income to the 3oth of November : 



f0r 1879- 



A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

T. GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. II. APPROPRIATED FUNDS, 

adm.mstered by the Society. III. SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the Society, but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 





i. 2- 


3- 


Tot-vl 


Total 


January Nov., 1879. 


Subscriptions, 
Uon.itiona, and 


Legacies. 


Dividends, 


RECEIPTS. 


PAYMENT* . 




Collections. 



























I. GENERAL .... 


28.640 


10088 


4,165 


42,893 


83.030 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


3-922 


269 


5.334 


9-525 


17-435 


III. SPECIAL .... 


26,615 


8 9 


*>497 


28,201 


30,007 


TOTALS . . 


59- J 77 


10.446 


i a. 996 


80.619 


130.472 



Monthly Meeting. 



Mission Field. 
Jivii. 1, 1M80. 



B. Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of November in five 
consecutive years. 



I. GENERAL 


i375- 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


i. Subscriptions, &c. . 


^28,321 


26,827" 


27,471 
ii 654 


,28,877 
13,266 


28,640 
10,088 








4 083 


4,227 


4.165 




4 i-7 
39-745 

8 4.7? 


LIi- 

42,754 

8 8^3 


43,i88 


46,370 


42,893 
9 5 2 5 


Ill SPECIAL 


18 ?3o 


28 66? 






23 2OI 














TOTALS 


.67 009 


/8o 2to 




87 611 


.80,619 















3. The Secretary announced that the Members of the Standing Com 
mittee, who would retire at the February meeting were, from paucity of 
attendance, Lieut. -Col. Childers, Rev. C. T. Procter, and F. Calvert, Esq., 
Q.C. ; from seniority, Lieut.-Gen. Tremenheere, C.B., Yen. Archdeacon 
Blomfield, and Rev. C. H. Rice. And it was announced that the 
Standing Committee would propose at the meeting in January, for election 
in February, Lieut.-Gen. Tremenheere, C.B., Yen. Archdeacon Blom 
field, Rev. C. H. Rice, Gen. Nicolls, Rev. W. C. Bromehead, and 
Major-Gen. Lowry. 

4. The Secretary announced that the Members of the Continental 
Chaplaincies Committee who would retire at the February Meeting 
were Rev. F. S. May, J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., Lt.-Col. Childers, and 
Rev. B. Belcher. And it was announced that the Continental Chap 
laincies Committee would propose at the Meeting in January for election 
in February, Rev. B. Belcher, Rev. Dr. A. T. Lee, Rev. W. F. E. Knollys, 
and L. M. Rate, Esq. 

5. On the recommendation of the Bishops of the respective dioceses, the 
following appointments were confirmed : 

Rev. F. Green to Maritzburg ; Rev. II. E. Carlyon to Ladismith ; Rev. K. 
Markham to Highflats (Maritzburg) ; Rev. F. Coghlan to Perth (We. teni 
Australia) ; Rev. R. M. Johnson to Carbonear (Newfoundland). 

And on the recommendation of the Board of Examiners the Rev. 
H. M. Burrows was accepted for work in the Diocese of Antigua, 
Mr. C. E. Smith was accepted for Newfoundland, Mr. H. F. Lord for 
India, Mr. F. H. Fisher for Capetown, and Mr. F. W. A. Strange for 
Missionary work, his destination being at present unsettled. 

6. The Secretary stated that a telegram had been received from 
Calcutta to the effect that the Government of India wanted immediate 
possession of Bishop s College, for which they offered two lacs of rupees 
and either a site in the city, the negotiations for the transfer of which were 
not yet complete, or, in the event of the site in question not being 
obtained, a further sum of one lac in lieu of the site. On the recom 
mendation of the Standing Committee it was agreed to accept the terms 
offered by the Government of India. 



"SH"?, S? ] Monthly Meeting. 39 

7. The Secretary read a letter from the Bishop of Capetown, dated 
Nov. 4, 1879, in reference to certain statements made by Mr. Colley at 
Durban in Natal. And notice was given on behalf of the Standing 
Committee, that the following resolution would be proposed to the 
Society for adoption in January : 

" Whereas it has been alleged that a person in Holy Orders has recently gone 
out from England with the intention of acting ministerially under the authority of 
Dr. Colenso as Bishop within the Colony of Natal, and has publicly made a 
statement as to the sanction given to such intention : 

"The Society hereby solemnly reaffirms the several resolutions by which it 
ceased to recognise the episcopal authority of Dr. J. W. Colenso, and records its 
firm determination to uphold and maintain, so far as lies in its power, the sole 
episcopal authority of Bishop Macrorie within the Colony of Natal, as committed 
to him by the Church in South Africa." 

The Rev. B. Compton gave notice that he would move as an amend 
ment, that the preamble to the Resolution of the Standing Committee be 
as follows : 

" Whereas at the Annual Meeting of the Society held on February 20, 1863, a 
letter from His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, dated February 9, 1863, was 
read, in which His Grace stated that, having conferred with his episcopal 
brethren, he had come to the conclusion that in consequence of the recent publica 
tions of the Bishop of Natal it became necessary for the S.P.G. to withhold its 
confidence from him until he shall be cleared from the charges notoriously incurred 
by him by reason of such publications : 

" And whereas the Society thereupon adopted a resolution expressing its in 
tention of acting upon the advice given by His Grace : 

"And whereas in a letter dated February 12, 1866, the Metropolitan of the 
Church in the Province of Capetown communicated to the Society the following 
sentence (consequent upon certain proceedings taken by the said Church against 
Dr. J. W. Colenso) which had been published in the Cathedral Church of Maritz- 
burg on Sunday, January 7, 1866, separating the Right Rev. J. W. Colenso from 
the peace and communion of the Church : 

IN THE NAME OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, 

" WE, Robert, by Divine Permission Metropolitan of the Church in the Pro 
vince of Capetown, in accordance with the decision of the Bishops of the Province 
in Synod assembled, do hereby, it being our office and our grief to do so, by the 
authority of Christ committed unto us, pass upon John William Colenso, D.D., 
the sentence of the greater excommunication, thereby separating him from the 
communion of the Church of Christ so long as he shall obstinately and impeni- 
tently persist in his heresy and claim to exercise the office of a Bishop within the 
Province of Capetown. 

" And we do hereby make known to the faithful in Christ that, being thus ex 
cluded from all communion with the Church, he is, according to our Lord s com 
mand, and in conformity with the provisions of XXXIII. of the Articles of 
Religion, to be taken of the whole multitude of the faithful as an heathen man 
and a publican (St. Matt, xviii. 17, 18). 

" Given under our hand and seal this sixteenth day of December in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five. " 

" And whereas at the Monthly Meeting of the Society held on March 19, 1869, 
a letter dated February 2, 1869, was read from the Metropolitan of the Church 
in the Province of Capetown, informing the Society of the consecration of the 
Kev. W. K. Macrorie as Bishop in Natal and Zululand,and the Society thereupon 
passed a resolution recording the thankfulness with which it has heard the in 
telligence of the consecration of Bishop Macrorie : 



40 Monthly Meeting. RST.ffii* 

" And whereas since the consecration of Bishop Macrorie the Society has 
entrusted to him, as Bishop in Natal, the administration of the annual grant to its 
Missionaries within that Colony, and has always required the Missionaries deriving 
aid from that grant to hold his licence as their Bishop, thus recognizing him as 
Bishop in Natal in the place of Dr. J. W. Colenso : 

" And whereas it has been alleged that a person in Holy Orders has recently gone 
out from England with the intention of acting ministerially under the authority of 
Dr. Colenso as Bishop in Natal, in contempt of the excommunication of Dr. 
Colenso by the Church in the Province of Capetown, and in defiance of the 
Episcopal authority of Bishop Macrorie in Natal : and has also publicly declared 
that in so doing he has received the good wishes and encouragement of eminent 
persons in England, which declaration appears to be not without foundation : 

"And whereas the prosperity of the Society s Missions in Natal is seriously 
imperilled thereby, ..." 

8. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee a grant was 
voted from the Negus Fund for the purchase of two pamphlets by Bishop 
Caldwell, viz., Christianity in India, and The Inner Citadel of Religion, 
for distribution among the Missionaries in India and elsewhere. 

9. Bishop Riley of Mexico addressed the Meeting in reference to his 
work in Mexico. 

10. All the candidates proposed in October were elected into the 
Corporation. 

1 1. The following were proposed for election in February. 1880 : 

Rev. C. F. Maude, Woodham Mortimer, Maldon ; Rev. J. Erskine Binney, 
Summertown, Oxford ; Rev. T. Fawalt Burra, Kidlington, Woodstock ; Rev. T. 
C. Stanley, LL.D., Camp, Aldershot ; Rev. C. Hill Wallace, 3, Harley Place, 
Clifton, Bristol ; Lieut. -Col. Joicey, Newton Hall, Stochsfield-on-Tyne ; Rev. 
Ed. Haudley, Clipsham, Oakharn ; Rev. H. Hill, Preston, Weymouth ; Rev. C. 
W. Hatters, Bodle Street Green, Hawkhurst ; Rev. J. B. Wilkinson, Lavender 
Hill, S.W. ; Rev. S. B. Burnaby, Hampstead, N.W. ; Rev F. J. Holland, 34, 
Bryanston St., W. ; Rev. A. J. A. Drought, St. Paul ?, Winchmore Hill, N. ; 
Rev. J. P. Waldo, 23, Kensington Gate, W. ; Rev. Wharton B. Smith, 260, 
Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W. ; Rev. G. H. Herklots, St. Saviour s, Haverstock 
Hill, N.W. ; Rev. G. H. Tidcombe, St. Peter s, Hammersmith; Rev. H. W. 
P. Richards, Isleworth, S.W. ; Rev. J. W. Bennett, St. Paul s, Avenue Road, 
N.W. ; Rev. G. A. M. How, Bromley-by-Bow, E. ; Rev. H. G. S. Blunt, St. 
Andrew s, Holborn, W.C. ; Rev. J. J. G. Nash, 52, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. ; 
Rev. D. S. McClean, Norwood, Southall ; Rev. Perceval Webb, St. Olave s, Chi- 
chester; Colonel Eyre, Rampton Manor, Newark ; Rev. E.Cayley, South Leverton, 
East Retford; Rev. Edgar Smith, All Saints , Highgate ; Rev. W. de Foe 
Baker, Saxilby, Lincoln ; Rev, Arthur Ellis, St. Saviour s, Hitchin, Herts ; Philip 
Hughes, Esq., I, Randolph Gardens, Carlton Road, Kilburn. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



Eelb h i\z foorlb. &!je stefc h % Horb of 



FEBRUARY 2, 1880. 



CALCUTTA. 

THE ASSAM MISSION. EVANGELISTIC EDUCATION. ROORKEE. 

MUCH SICKNESS. NEED OF MEDICAL MISSIONARIES. 

THE report of greatest interest which has reached us from the 
Metropolitan see during the last quarter, is that of the Rev. 
S. Endle, of Tezpore, which gives a general view of the work carried 
on in Assam. The report bears on its surface evidence of both 
honesty and discrimination on the part of the writer. He divides 
his retrospect of the year s labours, ending September 3oth, 1879, 
under three heads Preaching, Education, and Pastoral Work. Of 
the former he writes : 

u Out-door preaching from village to village is of necessity confined 
mainly to the cold season November to February inclusive. The 
greater part of these four months were devoted to this work last year, 
mainly in the Kachari country skirting the Bhutari frontier. This is a 
work carried on under special difficulties, chiefly of an intellectual cha 
racter ; for the Kacharis are by no means quick in grasping any idea 
which at all rises above the level of the wants of every-day life. Further, 
their language differs altogether from that of their Hindoo neighbours, 
Assamese ; which, though partially understood, is seldom sufficiently 
familiar to the Kachari to enable him to understand definite instruction 
in spiritual matters in that tongue ; whilst their own language, which has 
never yet been reduced to writing, is well-nigh wholly wanting in terms to 
express religious truth. With scarcely an exception I found a ready 
welcome and hearing for the Gospel in all the Kachari villages I visited 

NO. CCXC. E 



A 9 CnTruttn [Mission Field, 

42 ^aicuua. [ Feb- 2) i88o. 

last season ; whilst not unfrequently the simple people showed their 
gratitude for the effort made to benefit them in spiritual things by bringing 
out little presents of rice, plantains, oranges, &c. I cannot say that any 
conversions to the Faith in Christ can be traced to the influence of 
preaching in this Mission during the past year ; but I am quite certain 
that this work is not wholly thrown away. It serves to bring the teacher 
into direct personal intercourse with those whom he comes to teach ; it 
tends to broaden and deepen the common ground between them, to 
explain away prejudices, and to make the people see that the Missionary 
comes among them for their good, and not for his own. Especially is 
this the case where the preacher is able by distributing medicines, books, 
&c., to minister to the physical and intellectual wants of his people ; for 
such unselfish effort, if carried out in a spirit of persevering faithfulness, 
never fails to do much to counteract and remove that peculiar suspicions- 
ness with which the bulk of the people of this country regard the teaching 
of a foreign creed from foreign lips a creed, too, identified and bound 
up in their eyes with a conquering, and therefore unpopular race." 

It is, however, to the Educational work that Mr. Endle looks with 
the greatest hope as the most powerful lever wherewith to raise the 
people from heathen degradation : 

" It being always understood that this education shall be worthy of the 
name, i.e. that it shall not be confounded with mere intellectual culture 
and development, but shall ever keep in view the elevation of the whole 
man body, soul, and spirit : and shall aim at furthering this elevation in 
one particular way, i.e. by causing him to understand and value aright his 
privileges as belonging to a world which Christ lived and died to redeem, 
and in which redemption we are privileged to invite them to share. 
The village schools (fourteen in number) have on the whole worked 
successfully during the past twelve months ; though a severe outbreak of 
cholera last April seriously affected the attendance, and caused one or 
two schools to be temporarily closed. These schools are now valued by 
the people ; and though the cost of supporting them is defrayed mainly 
from the Public Treasury, yet all the details involved in their working 
are under the Missionary s control; and hence he is able to give them a 
tone and character which makes not only civilising, but Christianising, 
agencies, and thus to make each school a centre of spiritual and moral, 
as well as intellectual light, leading the learners to the True Light that 
enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world." 

Under the head of Pastoral Work we read : 

" When I am in Tezpore, morning service in Assamese (a shortened 
form) is held daily in the station church, the Ante-Communion Service 
being used on Saints Days, &c. Holy Communion, as a rule, has been 
administered on every alternate Sunday in English and Assamese after 
morning service, and there is also a small Sunday-school, attended by 
the boys of the Kachari Normal Class. Of late years the Assamese 
Prayer Book has been regularly used in our public services, and its 
becoming and reverent ritual is not a little valued by the people, both as 
a standard of doctrine and a guide of devotion." 

Mr. Endle has not neglected the Europeans in the district, and 



Mission Field,! 

Feb. 2, i860. J 

mentions especially with encouragement and hopefulness visits 
which, at the Bishop s wish, he has made to neighbouring tea- 
factories : 

"With scarcely an exception my presence has been gladly welcomed, 
and Church privileges are, I think, increasingly valued among the tea- 
planters of this province. Tn most of the larger factories, too, there will 
now be found a small knot of native Christians, and opportunity is 
gladly taken to minister to the spiritual wants of these, whilst formally 
visiting their employers. It is great matter of thankfulness, too, to be 
able to record that some of the owners and managers of tea-factories are 
ready and willing to open schools at their gardens, and in other ways to 
further the intellectual and spiritual well-being of their labourers." 

At the date of Mr. Hoppner s last letter from Roorkee (September 
3oth), fever and other sickness was raging around him. He speaks, 
however, with much thankful encouragement of recent results of his 
work. The fourth year of the re-occupation of Roorkee having 
just ended, he says 

" If we take a retrospective view of this short period, we find that 
whilst the native Christian congregation of this station four years ago 
numbered about seventy souls, it now numbers 224. Making allowance 
for seventy orphan boys, who were partly sent from Cawnpore, and partly 
have since been added, there still remain eighty-four who have been 
added partly from conversions from among the heathen, and partly being 
born in the congregation. So that exclusive even of the orphans, the 
congregation has been doubled during the last four years. 

" During the last twelve months sixty-five souls have been added by 
Baptism, of whom twenty-four were adults, six infants, and the rest 
children under the age of twelve years, the greater number orphans. 
From this it will be seen that we have reason to be thankful, and to take 
courage for the future. More so as a way has been opened to Hardwar 
and its neighbourhood, where there are now living altogether forty-four 
Christians including the children, who, we trust, will prove a good salt to 
their neighbours." 

He has been much cheered and helped by a visit from the Bishop, 
who found a considerable number of well-prepared candidates for 
Confirmation. His lordship went to see the Sacred Bathing Ghaut 
at Hardwar (vide p. 469, 1879) upon an elephant; and it is not with 
out a touch of quiet humour that Mr. Hoppner tells how " the 
elephants descended the fifteen or twenty stone steps into the river 
with the greatest care and precision, to our great astonishment." 
The orphan boys from Delhi are in all respects doing well, as a 
whole. 

Sickness has been very prevalent at Ranchi also, especially 
cholera, and has greatly interfered with regular work. The death 
of one of the most valued native priests, Padri Jakaringah, was 

E 2 



44 Ten Days at Toungoo. [ SSTSSaf 

mentioned in our December number. The Rev. F. Bohn, writing at 
the end of September, pleads thus earnestly for medical help : 

"As it is my special work, when present in Ranchi, to look after the 
sick people, and to distribute medicine to them, times of severe sickness 
are rather a heavy burden, as the responsibility is so very great ; and I 
pray and long to see the time coming when a Medical Missionary shall be 
attached to our staff, to the great blessing, not only of the many sufferers 
of our thousands of native Christians, but also of the poor benighted 
heathens ; many a heart will thereby be softened, and the way prepared 
for the preaching of the Holy Gospel." 

The Rev. J. C. Whitley, who is the Senior Missionary in Chota 
Nagpore, has been busy compiling a Hindi Hymnal, which has 
involved the translation by himself of some suitable for the chief 
festivals from Hymns Ancient and Modern. The collection will be 
warmly welcomed. 



TEN DAYS AT TOUNGOO. 

BY THE REV. DR. MARKS, PRINCIPAL OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, 
RANGOON. 

TOUNGOO was the only station in Burma which, during my long 
residence in the country, I had never visited, and I was very 
anxious to see it. Under even favourable circumstances the return 
journey takes about a month to accomplish, and the greater part of 
the time is spent in a Burman boat slowly and wearily toiling up the 
Sittang River. The native doctor, Mr. Melchizedek, who was 
recently sent from Madras for the Karen Medical Mission, took 
twenty-five days to get from Rangoon to Toungoo; and a young 
English lad who has just joined St. John s College as a pupil-teacher 
took twelve days in the downward passage. As you may imagine, I 
have not had the time to spare for such a trip. But just as our 
September holidays were commencing that kind friend to all good 
works in Burma, J. W. Darwood, Esq., our Rangoon millionaire, 
offered me a passage up and down in his steam launch, and I very 
gladly availed myself of his kindness. So with a portmanteau and 
two Burmese boys, Claud Hpo Myine and Moung Shway Utt, I put 
myself on board the comfortable barge attached to the powerful 
little launch, at 8 A.M. of Friday the 26th September. Besides our 
worthy host, my fellow-passengers were a colonel and major of the 
artillery, joining the Toungoo garrison, the principal medical officer 
going to inspect the British troops, hospitals, &c. there, and a young 



The Sittang Arrival at Toungoo. 45 

clerk. The tide serving, we steamed down the Rangoon (or Hline) 
River into the Pegu River, the water being remarkably smooth, and 
the weather all that we could desire ; Mr. Darwood acted as captain, 
and he had a most willing and capable crew, many of the men having 
been his servants for years. We got by 4 P.M. into the canal ; this 
has been lately completed by Government to join the Pegu and Sit- 
tang Rivers, and to avoid the very dangerous bore which, to the 
height of from six to sixteen feet, had formerly to be encountered. 
The canal is thirty-five miles long, but we steamed through it very 
rapidly. The moonlight enabled us to go on till 4 A.M., when we 
anchored at the northern lock gate. We started again at daylight, 
and by noon were at SHWAY GYEEN, where we remained for an hour 
to send off letters and telegrams. The Sittang, which I had never 
seen before, disappointed me greatly. Though it was in full flood, 
higher than it has been known for years, it appeared quite an insigni 
ficant stream compared with the mighty Irrawaddy with which I am so 
familiar. The towns and villages on its banks are fewer and smaller. 
Yet the scenery is very beautiful. We were never out of the view of 
ranges of mountains. The windings of the Sittang are curious and 
puzzling. The same hill appeared first in front of us, then behind, 
then before us again, in most bewildering fashion. I was constantly 
shown the Toungoo hills, which appeared to dodge about to all points 
of the compass. Burman boats seemed to be making poor head 
way. There are no long straight reaches as there are in the Irra 
waddy, where sails can be put up and the boats go before the wind 
with a rapidity greater than that of the excellent Flotilla steamers. 
We encountered very strong water, and furious eddies, that might have 
wrought mischief to a less powerful launch, or a les.s skilful captain. 
Without the slightest misadventure we arrived safely at Toungoo at 
noon of Monday the 29th, having taken three days and three hours 
only in the up journey perhaps the shortest time known. The day 
of our arrival was the beginning of the Burmese holidays and the 
Buddhist Sabbath, and I therefore expected to find the place per 
fectly quiet. I was agreeably surprised to find coming to meet us 
two large boats crowded with well-dressed Karen and Burmese 
youths, some dancing, some rowing the boats over the swift and 
swollen waters, and others waving aloft large red flags with the letters 
S.P.G. inscribed on them. On the right or Toungoo bank stood 
the Rev. T. W. Windley and the Rev. John Kristna with a great 
lot of boys, whose hurrahs told me how glad they were to see me. 



46 Ten Days at Toungoo. [ 



Mission Field, 
Feb. 2, 1880. 



But there was a large white banner carried by two boys with the 
word " Welcome " in large letters on it, and my guard of honour on 
landing consisted of about twenty-five S.P.G. schoolboys, mounted 
on ponies, making a very pretty cavalcade. I was completely taken 
aback by such a reception where I had expected to land as a 
stranger on this my first visit to Toungoo. I need not tell you how 
kindly and cordially I was welcomed by my dear colleagues, Windley, 
Kristna, and Jones. After a few kind words to the boys we drove to 
the Mission House, where I was informed that the arrangements for 
my reception at the school would not be complete till the morrow, 
as I had come sooner than was expected. During the afternoon 
Mr. Windley took me through the town. Though, of course, in many 
respects it is like other Burman towns, it has very peculiar charac 
teristics. The foliage is marvellously abundant and luxurious. The 
modern town of 10,000 people is regular and well laid out, having 
twenty-nine miles of road, with good bazaars, markets, &c. But 
the walls and moats marking the lines of the old city show that it 
must anciently have been one of the largest and most important in 
the Eastern Peninsula. It has been greatly neglected by the English 
Government. The fort is in most wretched condition, and would 
be a snare and a delusion in time of war, and nothing has yet been 
done towards a railway from Rangoon, though it has been talked of 
for many years. Toungoo is very healthy but the difficulties of 
access to it, and means of leaving it, make it dreaded. We went into 
the cemetery to see the grave of dear Warren and his wife. It is 
well kept. The cross tells of the cause they laboured in, and of the 
Master they served. 

Standing over that grave I could not but remember the career of 
dear Warren. I was walking through the library at St. Augustine s 
in 1865 with "the Warden," earnestly looking out for men to come 
out with me, when we came upon Warren, who was doing some 
carpentering. The Warden whispered "Iry htm" I put my hand 
on his shoulder and said, "Will you come to Burma?" After a 
moment s hesitation he said, " Yes." You know the rest. How he 
came out here, took charge of St. John s College when I went to 
Mandalay, and then was sent to Toungoo ; where he tried to do too 
much, and was cut off by death just when his troubles seemed to 
have ceased and he was settling down to his work, beloved by all 
around him ! 

The day following I went with Windley, Kristna, and Jones to the 



] Boys School : Rev. John Kristna. 47 

Mission School for boys. It stands a few yards off from the 
Mission House, but it is in many ways inconveniently situated. The 
room had been nicely decorated, and the boys were all in their best. 
One can scarcely see a prettier picture than a Mission School in 
Burma on a grand day. The Burmese, Mussulmans, Madrassis, 
Karens, Chinese, Hindoos, all in their beautiful national costumes, 
comprise a scene not to be met with elsewhere. The colours are 
of the brightest, and the materials of the richest, but a minute 
description of them would tire you and me. The Rev. John 
Kristna is the Principal. Let me tell you his history. In 1861 
a bright intelligent high-caste Hindoo Madrassi lad, Kristnasawmy, 
aged about thirteen, was brought to me at our Maulmain 
S.P.G. School by his father, a Soubadhar or captain in a Madras 
native regiment. The boy and I soon became great friends, 
and he spent all his spare time with me. His father being ordered 
to Madras with the regiment, the lad begged to be allowed to 
remain in Burma with me. The parents reluctantly consented, 
only begging of me not to force their son to be a Christian. Kristna 
sawmy went with me to Rangoon in 1864, and was exceedingly 
useful as teacher and clerk of our own new school (St. John s 
College). He did excellent service while I was in England in 1865. 
On my return in 1866, to my exceeding joy, all his difficulties (and 
they had been many) with regard to Christianity gave way, and I 
had the great pleasure to baptize him in the Rangoon Town Church, 
of which I was then minister, in the presence of several of the 
officers of the garrison, who knew and highly respected his father. He 
took my Christian name at the font. He continued his useful 
and laborious work at St. John s, refusing several offers of far more 
lucrative employment in Government service, until he was sent to be 
Master of your school at Shengadat. The school he raised to be 
one of the best of its kind in the province. But when after much 
hesitation you at length determined to commence a Mission at 
Toungoo, Mr. John Kristna and his wife Ruth one of the best 
pupils of St. Mary s School, S.P.G. (I married them on one of my 
visits from Mandalay) were chosen by Mr. Warren as his fellow- 
workers, and a better selection could not have been made. In the 
trying times of the Mission at its starting, and after poor Warren s 
death, Mr. Kristna acted nobly. Assailed by the Baptist faction with 
most unworthy virulence, he came out thoroughly well from the con 
test, securing the respect and esteem of all with whom he has 



48 Ten Days at Toungoo. [^f ? 5*? 

to do. The circumstances attending his ordination are too recent 
to need recapitulation ; you know what a capital examination he 
passed, and how he was selected to read the Gospel, and how well he 
did it. It made me very happy to hear every one speak so highly 
of him; Mr. Windley told me constantly how he loves and values him, 
and the Colonel how officers and men like to hear the " Soubadhar," 
as they call him, ministering to them in the church. He preaches 
with fluency and ease in English, Tamil, Telugoo, and Burmese, and 
has some knowledge of Karen. Yet he is as simple and unaffected 
as when he was a boy. There is not the least bumptiousness or 
conceit about him. 

There were over one hundred boys in the school, really more than 
the room could well accommodate. The order and discipline were 
excellent. The routine was just the same as in our other schools. For 
two hours I carefully examined the boys in all their lessons, and I 
was thoroughly pleased. A Burma boy, giving in his own words in 
English the story of the Prodigal Son, said that the citizen sent him 
into the jungle to feed sheep, and that he wanted to eat the broken 
rice ! (Sheep except as imported are unknown, and broken rice is 
the food of fowls and cattle.) But the result of the examination 
showed how carefully and thoroughly the boys had been taught. I 
told them in Burmese that I was very proud of them, and that as 
their teachers were my sons I must call them my grandchildren 
whereat they were greatly amused. I went to see the Orphanage 
which Mr. Windley is starting. It is an institution greatly needed, and 
I trust it will succeed. But it is an arduous undertaking, as experi 
ence has painfully taught me. The boys were dismissed for their 
fortnight s holiday, and in breaking up they cheered as lustily as 
English boys do. 

In the afternoon we went to see the Government School, a few 
yards from your Mission Institute. It is a beautiful building, erected 
a few years ago on a charming site, and it cost over 12,000 rupees. 
It has never succeeded, though it has had certificated English masters, 
and Government has lavished money upon it. There are now not 
twenty boys, and each costs 370 rupees a year to the country, while the 
boys in your school cost under 107 rupees each. The people of 
Toungoo recently petitioned to have it abolished, but the Govern 
ment insisted upon their maintaining it ; and they cut off half the 
grant to your school upon which their own inspector had reported 
most highly. Government is trying very hard to force secular schools 



Mission Field, 
Feb. 2, 1530. 



] Karen Schools. 49 



upon the people ; but wherever a Government and a Mission School 
are together, the former gets the money, the latter the pupils. 

The following day we went to see the Roman Catholic Mission 
under the Very Rev. Father Biffi, an old gentleman who has resided 
very many years in Toungoo and is greatly respected. The Mission 
seems to be a strong one, and to be doing a great deal of good 
in its own way. 

I received a large number of visitors, Burmese and Karens, many 
of whom I had known before. 

On Friday I went over the river to see Mr. Windley s Mission 
among the Karens. The Sittang was, as I have said, very broad, 
full, and rapid \ but I am informed during the dry season there is 
so little water that the river can easily be crossed on horseback. A 
few minutes walk brought us to the new church of St. Paul, which 
was finished and consecrated last year. It cannot boast of much 
beauty exteriorly, but the inside is remarkably good. It is one of 
the best Mission churches that I have ever seen. Much needs to 
be done to it to complete it, but everything is arranged decently and 
orderly. I thought that if Mr. Windley s friends at St. George s, 
Bloomsbury, and elsewhere, could see him in his poor but noble 
church, they would not allow him long to remain without those 
things of which he stands now so much in need. Sure I am that 
help could not be better bestowed. 

Were it not that I fear to offend him, I should like to describe the 
house in which he and Mr. Jones live. You would not then be sur 
prised to hear that they have frequent attacks of fever and seasons of 
depression, 

The school-room is under the house, and I found there nearly 
loo Karen boys and girls, most of them dressed in their own pecu* 
liar costume. There is as much difference between Karens and 
Burmans as between Welsh and English. The Karens have sweet 
voices, and are passionately fond of singing. I examined the chil 
dren as well as I could by interpretation and in Burmese. They 
worked sums and wrote from dictation correctly. The first class 
answered with intelligence the questions that I asked on Psalm ex., 
which they read in Burmese. When school was dismissed, I went 
with Mr. Windley to see the boys houses, dormitories, &c. It has 
been very justly determined not to build any permanent structures 
at present, so the houses are merely of bamboo, reached by ladders 
of the same material very rude and simple, just like the boys 



5 Ten Days at Toungoo. 

homes in the jungles and the hills. Burman boys let loose from 
school would have betaken themselves to games and noise ; the 
Karens quietly and patiently set to work to husk their rice and do 
other work for themselves. When I mentioned this difference to 
Windley, he said, " Theirs is a sad life hard work to get a scanty 
living. They never think of play." 

I had heard many objections to the Mission and church being 
on the left bank of the Sittang away from the civilization of the 
English settlement, and in the feverish lowlands. Certainly these 
objections are not ill founded. Both the Missionaries are subject to 
fever there, and Mr. Jones at the time of my visit had to live in 
Toungoo to get well of a bad attack. But still I think that Mr. 
Windley has decided rightly, though he has shown much more thought 
for the Karens and the work than for himself. As the Mission 
premises are drained and cultivated they will become less unwhole 
some; and the Karen sfeel what has been done for them, that they 
have their church, schools, and pastor on their side, without having 
to cross the river in search of them. 

Sunday was a peculiarly happy day to me. At 7 A.M. we had 
celebration of the Holy Communion in Tamil, for the Madras 
Christians, the service being in the School Chapel. I was celebrant 
and preacher, and my dear son in the faith, the Rev. John Kristna, 
deacon. At 8.30 A.M., at the same place, we had Burmese matins 
and sermon, Kristna reading prayers and I preaching. We had a very 
good congregation, five of whom I had baptized years ago. We then 
crossed the river, and at 1 1 o clock had Karen service in St. Paul s. 
I never enjoyed a service more in my life. There were about 
120 Karens of both sexes and all ages in the congregation. The 
surpliced choir consisted of twenty-four Karen boys, from seven to 
eighteen years of age. The clergy were Windley, Jones, Kristna, and 
myself; and two Karen deacons, the Revs. Shway Noo and Martwai. 
The service was wholly in Karen, but it was fully choral and most 
sweetly rendered. The service was Tallis, the Psalms were Gregorian, 
and the hymns " Ancient and Modern " tunes ; but alias beautifully 
sung as one could desire. I preached in Burmese, which was inter 
preted by Teacher Sheemon into Karen. After tiffin we all recrossed 
the river for the evening English service. Mr. Windley is weighted 
with the English chaplain s duties in addition to his own, and 
Government saves 400 rupees a month by the arrangement. Yet an 
application for a small grant in aid for the Karen school met with a 



"SS, fssa ] Baptism of Burmese. 5 1 

flat refusal, on the ground that enough was being done for the Karens 
under the Baptists and Roman Catholics ! 

The Cantonment Church is small and plain, without the slightest 
attempts at ornament either inside or out. It is too small to hold all 
the garrison at once, so there are parade services morning and even 
ing. The church was well filled. Mr. Windley read the first part of 
the service, Mr. Jones the second. Mr. Kristna read one lesson, 
and I read the other, and preached, taking occasion to bespeak help 
for my brethren in Toungoo in their various works. 

On Monday we all went about to fix upon a suitable spot for the 
permanent Burmese Mission. The present site is in very many 
respects unsuitable. It is leasehold, and the title is disputed. The 
Mission House is terribly out of repair, and I doubt if it will outlast 
the lease without the expenditure of more than it is worth to put it 
to rights. It adjoins the Baptist compound, and the school-house is 
away from it. We fixed upon a very eligible site on the ramparts of 
the old city. It would be near the town, away from other missions, 
and very healthy. A small sum would have to be expended in 
buying out a few squatters, and say i,ooo/. in erecting suitable 
premises which would serve as mission-house, school, and chapel. 
It would be money thoroughly well spent. The work is real, by 
earnest, self-denying men, for the glory of God and the extension 
of His dear Son s kingdom. 

I may not omit to mention with gratitude the most kind hospitality 
with which I was treated by military and civilian friends during my 
stay. On the Friday evening I gave a lecture in the theatre of 
H.M. SQth P.V. Regiment, on "Mandalay; " and what I said was 
quite new to my audience, which comprised nearly the whole 
garrison. 

I must also tell you that I had the pleasure to baptize two of the 
children of Andrew Moung Khyoo, the second master of the 
Government School. He was with me in Maulmain, followed me as 
school teacher to Mandalay, where, reading with another young man 
St. Augustine s Confessions, he renounced Buddhism and embraced 
Christianity. 

The brother of the Rev. John Kristna, Mr. Ramasawmy, is head 
master under him. He has hitherto seemed hardened against Chris 
tianity, though of high moral character and reputation. But he was 
my pupil when he was a child, and he came to me as of old of his 
own accord, and he opened his grief. We prayed and talked 



52 The Nagar Mission and its Branches in 1879. 



r Mission PieM, 
I Feb. 2, 1880. 



together, and he has asked me to baptize him. His becoming a 
Christian will, both in his family and in his prospects, be a positive 
loss; but he is firm and resolved. You may judge how happy and 
thankful we all feel. 

We left in the steam launch at daylight on Wednesday morning. 
I felt, indeed, sorrow at parting with my dear brethren, with whom 
during the past ten days I had had such pleasant intercourse, cheer 
ing them and being cheered by them. I thanked God with them 
very heartily for His mercies in allowing us this happy conference, 
and prayed His blessing upon what we had said and done. 

We arrived at Shway Gyeen the same evening, but did not stop, as 
we were anxious to reach Rangoon. Rut we were doomed to disap 
pointment. The canal had burst its sides, and all the water had run 
out, and we were detained half way through, sixty-five miles from 
Rangoon, for three days, unable to move. On Sunday a little more 
water got into the canal, and on the evening of that day I found 
myself again in safety at St. John s College, to hear the news of 
the departure of the Resident and Mr. Colbeck and party from 
Mandalay. 



THE NAGAR MISSION AND ITS BRANCHES IN 1879. 

BY REV. T. WILLIAMS, S.P.G. MISSIONARY AT AHMEDNAGAR, BOMBAY. 



The Sungumnair Field. 

"T^HIS is the most western of our branches, extending up to the 
JL very crest of the Ghauts overlooking the Koukan. From 
the summit of the giant hill rejoicing in the classical name Hur- 
rischandra, a long length of Koukan with its western sea-border 
comes into view, with Thana W.S.W. and Bombay S.W. On the 
north lies mapped out the Nasik Jilha, and on the south a great 
part of the Poona Jilha, with Poona well in view; while on the 
east stretches out from one s feet, at the apex of the angle, the 
Nagar Jilha, ever widening as one goes eastward, but at first 
wholly comprised in the two valleys of the Moola and Pravara, 
whose sources themselves lie on opposite sides of this same moun 
tain, and which flow in courses wonderfully parallel, until the 
former at length joins the latter, which again on its part soon empties 
the combined waters into the sacred Godavery at Toka. Almost 



M *K38? ] Native Catcchist. 53 

all our work northern and western is indeed confined to the valleys 
of these two rivers, so that any one taking a map and tracing them 
both out, would at once gather what are the limits and the extent of 
our whole field on those sides, 

Rajoor is a large village, the last of any importance in that 
direction, about ten miles from the crest of the Ghauts, in the district 
of hill country called the Dang, which seems to be a name given to 
a very narrow but long strip of country along the very ridge of the 
Ghauts, and inhabited chiefly by the Kotis. On arriving amongst 
them it is at once apparent that in race, in appearance, in clothing, 
in habits and deportment, they are different from the people living 
down the valleys eastward, amongst whom our work as yet really 
lies. 

I had visited Sungumnair six years ago, and had stationed there 
Raghoo, our catechist at present at Vamooree. Mr. Barker removed 
Raghoo, placing him at the other extremity, at Sevgav, and wholly 
abandoned the upper part of the Pravara valley. I was glad to find, 
however, on returning last December, that the field had on this side 
been somewhat reoccupied. Upon again visiting it in May last, I 
was able to make arrangements for the complete reoccupation of it, 
and that right up to Hurrischandra, on whose summit, in company 
with my wife, I spent three days, in the very height of the hot 
season ; not a little glad to find that, without passing the bounds of 
our own Mission, there could be reached a sanatorium for the hot 
weather rivalling Matheran and even Mahabaleshwur. 

Early in April the Bishop informed me that a Guild in England 
had offered to send every year 307. for the maintenance of a catechist 
in the Nagar field, who should be so situated as that his work could 
be distinctly marked, and who should report direct to the Guild upon 
the work he did. I at once proposed Sungumnair as the post, and 
was soon enabled to propose Balajee Ramdas as the Guild catechist. 
It offered just the features demanded. 

I believe we were equally happy in our choice of the man. 
Balajee Ramdas is the nephew of Lukhiman Bava, one of the 
most conspicuous converts of the late Mr. Ballantyne, the able 
American Missionary. There is a little tract known to every 
Marathee Missionary, named after, and giving an account of, this 
same Lukhiman Bava. Balajee is said to possess, though perhaps 
in a less degree, the gifts of his uncle. He has a good presence 
and superior powers, 



54 The Nagar Mission and its Branches in 1879. 



ssion Fteld, 

eb. 2, 1880. 



Balajee is stationed at Sungumnair, where there is also a school 
master. There is another schoolmaster at Kokungav, about six 
miles from Sungumnair, and a Scripture-reader or Upadeshuk has 
been planted at Akole, the largest town to the west of Sungumnair, 
and the chief town of the Talooka of the same name. This Talooka 
with that of Sungumnair comprise the field under Balajee s charge. 
As yet there are only fifty Christians, young and old, and these 
include the members of our agents families. 

Sungumnair and Akole are very Brahmanical. It was at the 
former that six years ago I met, and had an interview with, the 
famous Yeshwunt Rao Mamlutdar, who is believed throughout these 
parts to be an incarnation of God. Akole is equally full of Brah- 
mans, and, judging from my own late experience, our agents, whether 
at Sungumnair or Akole, have to call up no little courage to stand in 
the streets and speak for Christianity. The bigotry is as unabated as 
if Christianity had never been heard of there, and as if Christians 
were not to be numbered by hundreds not sixty miles away. Yet I 
think I can see that a breach will be made before very long. We 
have not brought our work to bear upon the people yet, as we hope 
soon to do. 

Now, leaving the Sungumnair, and descending eastwards, we enter 

The Rahnri Field. 

This field was so large as to be unwieldy. We have now severed 
from it the western portion, which has been assigned to the Sun 
gumnair district, and again on its eastern side a strip has been taken 
and joined to the Vamooree. It is now therefore more manageable, 
and is comprised almost wholly in the lower part of the Moola and 
Pravara valleys. It was here that most of the baptisms took place. 
For the short portions of the Moola and Pravara valleys, wherein the 
villages containing our Christians lie, the population is comparatively 
dense, so that the villages lie very close to each other, so much so, 
that sometimes one may throw a stone out of one into the other ; and 
as they lie alternately on opposite sides of the river, to go from one 
to the other means to be incessantly crossing and recrossing the 
river. No other part of our Mission field depressed me except this. 
In going from one village to another here, I met in each none 
but the poorest of the poor, the dirtiest of the dirty. None 
clamoured for food and clothing .like these, none more abject, none 
more degraded. The dirtiest and most ruinous side of each village 



1 fS*3 I ] Proselytizing. 55 

was their habitat. Never was the charge that natives become 
Christians only for food or clothing so nearly justified, as on the 
occasion of my visit to these villages. Yet I strove, and still 
strive, to get a real footing for Christianity amongst them. For 
nearly every one of them we have a master. He is a standing 
witness to the religion into which they were baptized. It is true that 
in many cases few, very few, children attend, and that for the very 
best of reasons, i.e. the fact that these baptized Christians are 
abjectly poor nay, absolutely starving and young and old alike 
have to go out and scrape together something, whatever they can, 
for the sake of keeping life within them. What wonder, then, that 
every other consideration had to give way before the overwhelming 
one of trying to palliate the hunger with which they were being 
devoured ! What wonder, then, that instead of demanding from me 
instruction, they begged from me rather bread and cloth ! 

I do not despair. This monsoon has been most favourable, so 
that the late and present scarcity will soon pass away. It is true 
that already many of our poor Christians have died of starvation, 
and many will yet die, even after the scarcity has ceased, simply 
owing to the very exhausted state to which they have been reduced, 
and which better times will fail to renovate for them; but I repeat 
that masters have been supplied them, and care has been taken not 
to aggravate their disappointment, but rather to soothe and encourage 
them. Since my arrival there have been hardly any baptisms in 
this field. It is not that I have refused to baptize ; but every agent 
has been told that none are to be presented for baptism excepting 
after due preparation, and this has done much undoubtedly to check 
the number of candidates. Besides, we feel that to add, without 
weighty reason, to the number of our extremely poor and low-caste 
members, is to hinder our work amongst the higher castes, and to 
increase unfairly the heavy expenditure under which our Society at 
present labours. 

In this particular field, then, we seek chiefly to hold our own, and 
to consolidate rather than to widen our work. 

To add to our difficulties, it is in this field that the Roman 
Catholics are making whatever effort they can to supplant us. In 
spite of repeated professions to the contrary, they seem to work on 
the principle that every S.P.G. station is legitimate spoil. 

Our agents deserve every commendation for the firm opposition 
they now give to the insidious working of the Roman Catholic 



56 The Nagar Mission and its Branches in 1879. [Hfe b a,i88c? 

priests. The best proof of this is the terms in which these priests 
speak of them, and that in letters to myself. They do not hesitate 
to use of them words which, to one not behind the scenes, would 
give the impression that our agents were veritably imps of Satan. 
But all this simply means that these agents offer a sturdy, and, on the 
whole, successful, opposition. In spite of all they do in spite, that 
is, of giving small coin to children, and the offer of more substantial 
things to adults few have gone over to them. 

Shantwan, the catechist of this field, has the misfortune not to be 
appreciated as much as he ought to be; and that almost wholly, 
it seems to me, owing to the unyielding independence of his 
character. 

Leaving the Rahuri and coming southwards, we enter 

The Vamooree Field. 

Through this, almost through the centre of it, as also through the 
centre of the Rahuri field, runs the railway, now finished as far as 
this field extends, i.e. up to the Moola River. It is in the Rahuri 
that the three bridges those over the Moola, Pravara, and Goda- 
very remain to be finished, in order to complete the line up to 
Manmad, where is its junction with the Bombay and Calcutta line. 
This field is as yet our central one ; and is the only one whose 
bounds are definitely marked on every side, having the Moola 
River on the north, the Aurungabad Road on the east, the Manmad 
Road on the west, and the Nagar Ghauts on the south. The only 
village outside these limits is Pimpre Gomut, on the south-west, 
where we have three Christians two men and a boy. It is not only 
the best defined field, but is also the most completely worked. 
There is hardly a village where we have no Christian, and certainly 
not one where something is not being done. 

Raghoo, the catechist in charge, is particularly energetic, and has 
his work and field well in hand. 

There have been baptisms, though sometimes only single ones, at 
many of the villages, and particularly at Sude- Pimpre and Soaai. 
It was at the former place that, contrary to my practice, I baptized a 
man without his having made the usual preparation. But circum 
stances alter cases. This man had been examined with the others, 
and not having given satisfaction, was told that his baptism could 
not then take place. I had got the others in a row, and had gone 
so far in the service as to have begun to actually baptize, when 



>y~] Sevgav Field. 57 

Punja pressed forward, and kneeling down a little ahead of me, 
declared I must baptize him. His earnest tone and look and 
decided action betokened sincerity. I felt I should not be wrong 
in baptizing him there and then, notwithstanding his deficient pre 
paration. I did, and have had no occasion since to regret it. 

The schools in this district are well looked after, and consequently 
they give much more satisfaction than do those of the others. This 
character unfortunately applies to the next field; i.e. 

The Sevgav Field. 

This has but three sides well defined by bounds, i.e. the north 
by the Godavery, on the other side of which works the Aurungabad 
Mission of the C.M.S., led by the energetic and able Parsee convert, 
Ruttonjee ; on the west by the Aurungabad Road, beyond which are 
our Rahuri and Vamooree Fields ; and on the south by the Nagar 
Ghauts, beyond which is, for some distance, our fifth, the Nagar Field. 

On the east there is no limit, and it is on this side only that 
our Mission can in the future extend. On every side but this we 
have our well-defined limits, but on this side there is room for 
extension to an indefinite distance. With the Godavery as our 
northern border, and the Seena, and afterwards the Mangera, for our 
southern, there is nothing to hinder us stretching eastwards for many 
leagues, until at length we reach Hyderabad, the capital of the 
Nizam s dominions, where we should be stopped by the strong 
Secunderabad Mission, belonging to our own Society, in the Madras 
diocese. 

I am very anxious for us to work away in this direction, for this 
great reason, that the work done will be all our own. Up to the 
limits we have gone as yet, we find the American Missionaries have 
been before us, with the exception of the little work done by C.M.S. 
agents on the Sungumnair side. It is consequently to the American 
Missionaries to whom a large share of our success up to the present 
will have to be awarded ; and it will ever be so until we push on 
eastwards beyond the points to which we have as yet so far reached. 
I hope, even this cold weather, to do a little in this direction. 

The comparatively unsatisfactory condition of this, the Sevgav Field, 
is mainly owing to the want of power on the part of the old man 
Krishna] ee, who has had a sort of prescriptive right to be regarded 
as the catechist in charge. In spite of this, however, we have now 
put Jankey in charge of it, and made him responsible, confining old 

NO. ccxc. F 



58 The Nagar Mission and its Branches in 1879. [^S ", S" 

Krishnajee s work to the superintendence of the part between the Goda- 
very and the Peithun Road ; while his son, Sukharam, has a similar 
charge over the part between that Road and the Nagar Ghaut. 

It is only round the places in this field that there have been 
baptisms since my arrival, viz. at Geedegar, Dorchandgav, Akhegav,. 
Pagore Pimpulgav, Kasari Pimpulgav, and Sevgav. With the other 
places our work has been simply one of consolidation and the 
improvement of the agents employed, who, for some strange reason, 
and with some bright exceptions, have, on the whole, been markedly 
inferior to those of our other fields, both morally and mentally. The 
training at Nagar during the monsoon will have benefited none so 
much as the men here employed. 

The great difficulty in the way of extension eastwards in the way 
I have spoken of, and so ardently desire, because of the genuine 
nature of the work to be done, it being wholly to be claimed as our 
own, is the supply of masters. We have not enough for the con 
gregations we have already, and before supplying fresh ones, those 
already formed must be first provided for. These we shall gradually 
secure ; but by that time the number of agents drawing salaries from 
the Society will reach a number so formidable as to create a reason 
able fear that the Society will not bear a further tax upon its 
resources. The only course then will be to draw men from old 
stations, leaving them to provide themselves, or at least maintain, their 
own agents. As yet this clearly cannot be done, and many years 
must pass before much can be looked for. Still the " door " is opened, 
and there are many considerations that urge me to make the at 
tempt. When the need absolutely arises, the means will follow. 

Coming now homewards we have left to describe 

The Nagar, or Home Field. 

It happens that just so much of the country surrounding Ahmed- 
nagar as there have been baptisms in, is capable of being for the 
present clearly defined. On the north are the Nagar Ghauts, on the 
west the Manmad Road, and on the south and east the Sevgav 
Road. On the north and west these bounds are permanent ; but on* 
the south and east it is not so. This is the side which, in common 
with the Sevgav east side, opens eastward on a tract where I say 
nothing has yet been done, and where, therefore, there is no previous 
claim to hinder us going forwards to any extent. On every other 
side we are now definitely and permanently shut in. 



KK, SSf ] ^fc/ft* " Leaders: 1 59 

Within the limits mentioned above, there is the same to be said as 
of the Vamooree Field, viz., there is not a village where work is not 
being done, and but very few indeed where we have no Christians. 
No part stands in need of masters so badly. We have small con 
gregations at Nagapore, Khanki, Agadgav and Jeur, which are of a 
size to absolutely need a master each ; but there are as yet none for 
them. We shall soon have the two or three Christians, who hail, 
some from Wudegav, some from Douger-Gun, Mathnee, and Ranjnee, 
increasing in number and demanding masters too. Indeed, Jmam- 
pur, Vojnee, Pimpulgav, and Ruttudgav, are the only congregations 
possessing them in this field, with the exception of our Mission 
compound in Nagar itself. The want of masters is felt in every 
field, but in none so much as in this. 

We supply masters only where there are Christians. Where there 
are none, and only inquirers, there Scripture-readers, or, as we call 
them, Upadeshuks, alone are sent ; and these, staying there day and 
night, do not cease their work until the people are prepared for and 
receive baptism. I imagine this is not the case with any other 
Mission. In every other one, so far as I know, masters are sent to 
initiate work, and to teach where there is not a soul as yet Christian. 
This I deem a mistake. Happily in our Mission matters are so far 
reversed that we have not masters enough for our Christian con 
gregations, much less enough for a supply where there are no 
Christians at all. 

Home Work during the Monsoon. 

Having gone through all our fields, I will now give an account 
of our work in the last monsoon season, which was almost wholly 
scholastic. We trust that the benefits that will accrue to the Mission 
will be marked and lasting. 

We began with our Scripture-readers, or Upadeshuks, and after a 
month s work with them they were sent down, and the masters came 
up for two months drill. In the meantime the congregations were 
without break in the charge of the Leaders, or Karbheries. 

I may mention that this is an institution commenced by me eight 
years ago, and it has been found, in spite of occasional fault-finding, 
to work excellently, where the men have not been allowed to go to 
sleep. Every leader is a native of the village where his duties lie. 
He is, moreover, the most respected, both on account of moral in 
fluence and worldly means, among the Christians. His position is 

F 2 



60 The Nagar Mission and its Branches in 1879. [*}~ f^ w> 

that of the " elder " in apostolic days, who, I imagine, was never an 
outsider, but as our leaders are, was a native of the. place, and the 
most worthy man amongst the Christians there. Yet our leader is 
not called upon to clo the work of a teacher, whether master or 
Upadeshuk. His whole duty is summed up in this that he has to 
look after the interests of his fellow- villager Christians, as does the 
people s churchwarden at home. From this point of view all are 
subordinate to him even the schoolmaster, and also the Upadeshuk 
who may happen to be residing there. To him I look to report on 
the master if he be not doing his duty. To him I look to see that 
the children attend. To him also I look to provide the master a 
house, and the children a school. And if it happen, as during 
this monsoon it has happened, that the master or Upadeshuk be 
called away, then it is his business to guard his flock, and prevent 
any of them straying. They have, in fact, proved themselves the 
wardens of their flocks, especially in opposition to the Roman 
Catholics. It is of them that Fathers Geron and Martin write so 
bitterly ; and all because the said fathers found that though Upa- 
deshuks and masters were away, yet that there were watchers more 
true than either master or Upadeshuk. Being natives of the place, 
there was no temptation to them to stray, as does sometimes a 
schoolmaster or an Upadeshuk. I know, notwithstanding, that it is 
an easy thing to abuse the post ; and therefore I never lose an op 
portunity of reminding the leaders what their duties are, and I 
jealously guard those duties from being infringed, or overridden by 
master or Upadeshuk, or even catechist. 

We had just begun with the Upadeshuks when Mr. Ellis joined us. 
Mr. King had already done so. We had thus a staff of four 
Europeans and one catechist, Jankey, and the work was divided 
accordingly. When the masters came up we called in the help of 
Shantwan and Raghoo, and also that of Bulwant, our Nagar head 
master ; for the Upadeshuks are between twenty and thirty, but the 
masters between sixty and seventy. 

From the first day to the last, with a break of ten days, t be 
mentioned hereafter, our bungalow has rung with the din of voices 
in room and verandah from ten till two every day. The first three 
hours were divided for the Upadeshuks amongst the following sub 
jects : New Testament, Old Testament, Catechism, Prayer Book, 
and Liturgy. By Liturgy, as distinct from Prayer Book, we mean 
the actual use of the book, as apart from its study. Mr. King took 



"SK S ] Caste Difficulties. 6 1 

this the ?/^ while Mr. Lateward took the study. This part of 
the work was much hindered owing to the want of copies of the 
Prayer Book. Again and again had we begged for a supply, and 
that if the complete book could not be supplied, yet that a volume 
containing the parts most required for use should be provided. It 
is only now (the last week in September) that this volume has been 
supplied. Vet for this we are very grateful, and earnestly hope that 
we shall not be prevented from having the supply doubled. 

The fourth hour every day was devoted to preaching. Four 
Upadeshuks had each a quarter of an hour allowed ten minutes 
for him to speak, and five for the rest, with ourselves, to criticise. In 
no exercise more than this did the ignorance of these agents, for the 
most part, come out so clearly. The only satisfactory thing about it 
was this, that words seldom failed, and there was a power of copiously 
illustrating, from the current books of the Hindoos on the one hand, 
and from ordinary every-day matters on the other. 

As day by day passed there was marked improvement, but par 
ticularly in this subject of preaching, which, I need not say, is after 
all the main thing with men whose specific work it is to preach. 

But apart from the direct teaching, there was the discipline of at 
tending twice a day regularly by the clock for morning and evening 
prayer. There was also the unanimous responding and chanting, 
as well as singing ; and on Sundays and Saints Days the Holy Com 
munion. From the regular performance of this, universally, in 
telligently, and heartily joined in, much of gain is to be looked for. 

At the end of the month we had an examination, and gave prizes 
to the most successful. It was just when we were beginning with 
the instruction of our Upadeshuks that an incident occurred that 
will, I trust, mark an epoch in the advance of Christianity in at least 
this part of the country. 

Colonel Bates, the commandant of the station, sent us three 
orphans, promising to pay us 5 rupees per month. These three turned 
out to be Mangs, one boy and two girls. It was observed at the 
morning meal that the Mang boy was kept at a distance by our 
boys, and that no one ate out of the same dish with him. Upon 
being asked why they made this distinction, they replied that until 
the boy was baptized^ and made a Christian like themselves, they 
could not eat with him. They were remonstrated with, and told 
they must not repeat this, as there was no caste in Christianity, nor, 
moreover, did Christians themselves form a caste. It however was 



62 The Nagar Mission and its Branches in 1879. 

repeated. We thereupon called the boys before us one by one, and 
each was asked whether henceforth he would eat with the Mang 
boy. At first they one by one refused, and were told to leave the 
Mission compound and go to their homes. About thirteen were 
thus dismissed, and amongst them some of our best and most forward 
boys. How long they would go on, one by one, refusing, we did 
not know, but we went on dismissing them as often as they refused, 
and were resolved to empty the school rather than yield on a point 
so essential to Christianity as this. At length, after the thirteen had 
been expelled, to our great relief they began to consent, seeing how 
serious a matter it was. Nor did we eventually lose the others, for 
they came back after a few days, one by one ; and upon consenting 
to eat with the Mang, and expressing sorrow for what they had done, 
we re-admitted them. We were very thankful for this result. The 
bulk of our converts were Mahars, and they have very strong caste 
prejudices with regard to the castes inferior to them. Some time ago 
the American Mission had a similar trial, but had to give in. They 
wished to admit a Mang into their school; but thereupon all the 
Mahar Christians threatened to leave; and, if I remember, left. 
Instead of holding out, the American Missionaries yielded, and in 
consequence their converts are almost all Mahars, and caste feeling 
is rampant amongst them, doing very serious mischief. The same 
thing marks the work of the C.M.S. Aurungabad Mission. The 
large majority of our converts being Mahars is undoubtedly a 
great obstacle to the admission of higher castes. Christianity has 
begun to be looked upon as the Mahar religion, and to be wholly ap 
propriated by them. However, we are determined to set our faces 
against this ; and by the step we took in the case of the Mang boy have 
made a decided advance towards saving Christianity not only from 
countenancing caste, but also from being regarded as itself a caste, 
which was a danger not so manifest, perhaps, but many times more fatal. 

Having dismissed our Upadeshuks, we set to work to improve 
our schoolmasters. 

To the subjects of the first three hours were added for the masters 
the Acts of the Apostles and Church history, and also school 
teaching. While for the fourth hour, for the first of the three 
classes into which we divided the masters, one day of the week was 
set apart for each of the following six subjects : English, Euclid, 
Arithmetic, History, Geography, and Grammar, taken by myself and 
Shantwan, who had also the subject, "Acts of the Apostles," assigned 



The Ellora Caves, and their Missionary Value. 63 

to him. The other two classes did a little grammar and arithmetic ; 
and, in addition, were taken in reading in Balbodh and Modi, and 
also in writing in the same. These were taught by Bulwant, Jankey, 
and Raghoo, to which latter was also assigned the Church history. 

In the case of the masters, again, as time went on, there was 
evidence of marked improvement, and in no subject so much as in 
preaching and school teaching. 

During the time of the masters stay we had funerals, baptisms, 
marriages, and churchings ; so that there was nothing wanting to show 
how all the specifically religious acts of a Christian man ought to be 
performed. 

Nearly eveiy Sunday we have had baptisms. The candidates 
were brought in from surrounding villages by our agents, after having 
been prepared by them in the way mentioned above. In this way, 
there is scarcely a village in the home field, as limited above, but has 
supplied one or more candidates. On the Sunday, too, our con 
gregation has been very great, consisting not only of our agents, but 
also of our poor Christians from surrounding villages. 



THE ELLORA CAVES, AND THEIR MISSIONARY VALUE. 

BY THE REV. T. WILLIAMS. 

FOR the few last days of September, in order to give time to 
the masters to refresh their memorfes prior to the examination, 
and also to freshen up ourselves, jaded by the last few months work, 
a party of us set off for the caves of Ellora, or Versota, as the 
natives call them. 

The caves lie outside our field a couple of days journey. Aurun- 
gabad has to be taken on the way, and there not only did the 
Mussulman monuments engage our attention, and, I need hardly 
add, win our admiration, but the work of the C.M.S. Mission, con 
ducted by Mr. Ruttonjee, afforded us not a little interest. Especially 
was this the case with his church, just opened, which was built 
by contributions wholly solicited by him, amounting to Rs. 9,500, 
and is in a style altogether original. It is, I must say, the first 
attempt within my knowledge to build a church that shall look like 
one according to our notions, and yet shall have those modifications 
which this climate absolutely demands, but which are so generally 
disregarded. 



64 The Ellora Caves, and their Missionary Value. PS" 10 " 



L Feb. 2, 



On our way from Aurungabad, where our stay had been rendered 
very comfortable through the courtesy and kindness of the officers 
of the Aurungabad mess, and particularly of Colonel Dun, the com 
mandant, we entered and mounted to the top of which was no easy 
task the very ancient fortress of Doulutabad, whose amazing natural 
strength we shall not soon forget. That evening we arrived at 
Rozah, a village, part of the crown possessions of the Nizam, and 
which is just over the caves. We put up in the mosque, which had 
been given to the officers above mentioned as a sort of sanatorium, 
and which was most kindly vacated for us by Dr. Eves, of the 
Hyderabad Contingent, who, with his family, was staying there. 

In two days we did the caves, and secured in that time knowledge, 
by the aid of Fergusson and Burgess, which, I trust, will prove of 
the highest value for Mission purposes. This knowledge is mainly 
of use for its chronological testimony. Every one knows what a 
difficult problem, as yet defying solution, is the determination of 
Hindoo chronology. The literature of the country has well-nigh up 
to the present been the only sphere wherein search has been made, 
and that with comparatively little success, owing to the Brahman 
writers having, with sinister intent, eliminated from their books, not 
only the later, but also the earlier even from the Vedas every pos 
sible trace of the progress of time. That they, in spite of their astute 
ness, have not wholly succeeded in effecting this, is a matter to be 
sincerely rejoiced at; but they, notwithstanding, have succeeded far 
enough to make the task a very, very difficult and lasting one. The 
caves, however, and especially, as it seems to me, the Ellora ones, 
supply a guide hitherto too much neglected, but surpassing in value 
every other, for their testimony is clear and incontrovertible. Not 
that there is a single date actually engraved upon any part of them ; 
their value does not lie in this, but in supplying us with a relative 
chronology too distinct to be mistaken. They do this in this way. 

The style of carving varies throughout the range of caves so 
clearly that no one can fail to see that some is very ancient and 
some less so ; indeed, so much less so as to be called modern, when 
speaking of Hindoo styles. Now it is equally clear that the most 
ancient is Buddhistic, and that consequently the mythology re 
presented in the caves of later style represented a mythology subse 
quent to Buddhism. But this mythology is first of all that of 
Saivism, and next it is that of Vaishuarism, and later still it is that of 
Jainism. The conclusion so far is, that the worship of Siva, and con- 



*8S2, 58?*] Chronology of Hinduism, 65 

sequently the age of the Puranik literature, which was the outcome 
of Saivism, is subsequent to Buddhism. In like manner, the worship 
of Vishnu, and the production of the Puranik literature springing 
out of that, is also subsequent in a degree to the Saivite worship. 

Now from data incontestible, because relying on the testimony of 
the Greek, Singalese, and Chinese literature, we know when Budd 
hism sprang up, and when it declined; and we know from the rock 
inscriptions of Asoka, when and how far it was most prevalent. This 
shows that the rise of Saivism and Vaishuarism could not be earlier 
than say the sixth century A.D., and that the Puranas that describe 
the Avatars of Siva and the earlier ones of Vishnu must therefore 
be dated not earlier than the seventh century A.D. 

But again, there is no sign whatever in these caves of the worship 
of Rama and Krishna. Scenes out of the Ramayana and Mahabharata 
are sculptured, it is true, on the outside of one of the rooms in the 
central temple of the Keilasa cave, which, be it remembered, is the 
latest of all. But this is a very different thing from sculpturing 
Rama and Krishna as idols to be worshipped. Of this there is 
absolutely no indication whatever. 

The worship therefore of Rama and Krishna must be subsequent 
to the formation of the latest of these caves and consequently 
those interpolations in the Ramayana and Mahabharata describing 
Rama and Krishna as gods, must be subsequent to the same, and be 
clearly the creation of the fertile brain of the Brahmans in com 
paratively late times ; for one whose judgment has too much to sup 
port it to be far wrong, gives the latest cave a date, which brings the 
time of its formation considerably within the last ten hundred years. 

A large share of Hinduism, as it is at present, is wholly occupied 
with Rama and Krishna. These astute concessions of Brahmans, 
then, to the pressure brought to bear on them by the growing 
power of the lower castes, can date back no further than just before, 
or contemporaneously with, the Mohammedan invasion. The real 
date is probably later still. And the enrolling of Buddha, their 
arch enemy, among Vishnu s Avatars, was probably the stroke by 
which they finally reconciled to themselves those that yet remained 
in the ranks of Buddhism ; and this, since Buddha is counted the 
last actual Avatar of Vishnu, must have been a step taken perhaps 
within the last six hundred years. 

Here, then, we have a chronology for Hinduism which stamps it 
in its present form as really of comparatively modern origin, and far, 



66 7n<hfl11 F Mission Field, 

japan. 



_ Feb 2j 



far subsequent to Mohammedanism, the spread of which it had, up 
to the arrival of the English, pretty well succeeded in stemming. 

Were it not for the intercourse with Europe, which every day 
becomes wider, deeper, and more intimate, we should find the astute 
Brahman s devising some formula or other some calculus or other 
by which Christianity in its turn would be found reconcilable with 
modern Hinduism, and capable of being embraced within its all 
elastic arms, at the same time that Brahmanism would be preserved 
intact, and Brahmins still dominate in religion and politics. 

Happily this cannot be the case. The exclusivism of India is in 
all respects broken down for ever. Every day, and every fresh wave 
of knowledge from the West, makes the absorption and assimilation 
of Christianity more and more impossible. 

Already I have made frequent use of the arguments supplied me 
by the Ellora caves. No opinion is more common, not only with 
natives, but also with Europeans, than that Hinduism is hoary with 
age, and dates back beyond historical times. No answer is more 
common on the part of the natives than that they cannot give up 
the belief that has descended from father to son for, not hundreds, 
but thousands, nay, millions of years ! The Ellora caves tell the 
contrary, and show that the religious commotion in Europe led by 
Luther was not far from being contemporaneous with a religious 
commotion in India of a similar, but, on the other hand, retrograde, 
and more decisive character. 



JAPAN. 

CIVILISATION. - A MOUNTAIN ASCENT. - INTERESTING BAPTISMS AND 

MARRIAGE. 

THE article on the episcopal needs of China and Japan by 
Admiral Ryder, which appeared in our number for August 
last, would seem to have met with the approval of the Missionary 
community in the latter country. The Rev. W. B. Wright, writing 
from Tokio in October, speaks of it as of great value, though he 
thinks it right to mention one or two points on which he cannot 
quite agree with the author s opinions, On the subject of the adop 
tion of western manners by the Japanese generally, he says 

" The great mass of the people are untouched. It is only in the treaty 
ports that it is true, and perhaps of the official classes elsewhere. Again, 
the difficulties of the Chinese language seem to be contrasted with the 



o" ] A Mountain Ascent. Baptisms. 67 

Japanese language. Perhaps those who know both are the best judges. 
Two of the C.M.S. Missionaries, Messrs. Warren and Piper, who lived 
formerly in China, and made remarkable progress in both languages, say 
the Japanese is much more difficult. The Chinese language is simpler. 
It is the Chinese characters that are so difficult ; but they are also used 
in Japan. Again, one reading the paper would imagine that no one 
can go outside the treaty ports, whereas there is an open space of twenty- 
five miles around each of them ; and beyond that, any Missionary can go 
out by applying for a passport. If he goes without a passport, he is 
quietly conducted back. But I assure you that some Missionaries go 
constantly on Missionary work into the interior by the use of passports." 

Cholera and extreme heat have tended to slacken work, and Mr. 
Wright found leisure in July for an excursion which, considering its 
interest, he expresses shame at not having made before, during his 
six years in Japan. 

" I mean the ascent of Fujinoyama, or Mount Fuji, the beautiful 
sugar-loaf mountain which rises 12,500 feet above the sea, just about 
sixty miles S.W. from Tokio. I had once before got to the foot of it, 
but was taken ill. This time I had an agreeable companion, Mr. Cooper, 
a Cantab, and Professor of History in Tokio University. On the evening 
of the second day after leaving we arrived at Subashiri, a village at the 
foot of Fuji ; and next morning at 6.30 started up with a guide. About 
a third of the way was through beautiful woods, in which were heaps of 
wild strawberries. We reached the top, at which is the crater of an 
extinct volcano, about 3.30 P.M. ; but, alas ! it had become clouded over, 
and we could see nothing. However, on the way up we had fine views of 
the country on one side. We came down in about two hours, but owing 
to the scoriae on the side I was quite lamed. W T hen we came to the first 
village on the way back, the police told us we must go into quarantine for 
five days. However, I argued with them, and finally they gave way ; and 
after six days trip we got safely back." 

The following are items of especial interest in the narrative of 
his work : 

" In August lida and I went out to the Oyama district, where I placed 
him to work as catechist for the next year. In the central village of 
Nakatsu I have built a couple of rooms for him to live in, and where I 
may stay when I go out. I baptized the two men Uchino, who have been 
working so hard in the villages all about. It being the summer, they 
proposed I should baptize them in the river ; and accordingly at 7 A.M. 
we went to a nice sandy-bottomed part, where we held the service, and I 
went in, and baptized them by pouring water on them, they standing up 
to the waist in the river. This pleased them very much. They said it 
was like the baptism of Christ Himself, and that in that village they 
would need no font. They were to have been baptized in April, but had 
some doubts about the doctrine of the resurrection of the body. At Ono 
I celebrated the Holy Communion there were seven communicants. 
Invitations to preach have come from other villages since, and I hope 
to go out in a few days. Last month I was fully prepared to go, but 
owing to the cholera the people wrote to me to put it off for a while. In 
Tokio I cannot report much change ; but I have stationed Shimada and 



68 A Missionary Meeting in a Kitchen. ["S ?. SB? 

Yamagata at the two chapels on the west side of Tokio, and they have 
opened preaching at night as well in two hired rooms. At Ichigaya 
one interesting man, who is an employe of the arsenal, has become 
a catechumen with his two children. 

" Last month at the Chapel of the Ascension, on the 28th, I baptized 
four men. One of these, an old man named Ohara, was eighty years of 
age ; and for a good while has walked a long distance every Sunday, and 
answered very intelligently at his examination. He was named Simeon 
at his baptism. The Divinity school, which Bishop Williams com 
menced last fall, was resumed this month, and I have been assisting by 
lecturing on Christian Evidences. The hours are from 9 to I, five 
times a week. Three of my helpers are going on with their studies, 
while helping in the work here as well. Andrew Shimada, to whom the 
Society has consented to give a title for Holy Orders in due time, was 
married on the 23rd of last month. It is the first bridal we have had yet. 
The bride was a pupil of the Mission School of the American Church, 
and so Mr. Blanchet of that Mission tied the knot in his chapel, assisted 
by me. A large congregation was gathered to see what was a novel 
spectacle to them a Christian marriage. 

" The Prayer Book, or at least the public offices, are now in the press, 
and we are daily hoping to hear of the publication. It will be a great 
boon to the Christians. At present we only have a few MSS. of the 
Baptismal and Communion Services. Great preparations are being made 
for the revision of the treaties Avith foreign countries ; and it is un 
fortunate that Sir H. Parkes should be summoned home, just when the 
negotiations are about to begin. The illness of Lady Parkes, however, 
necessitates this. It is hard to say what the result of this revision will 
be. Some think the country will be thrown open, but that the Japanese 
will proclaim the abolition of extra-territoriality, which means, of course, 
that they can try all foreigners in their courts (at present they can do so 
when the foreigner is plaintiff). I don t suppose, however, the Powers 
will agree to this yet. 

" Christianity is bound in the end to overturn the opposition against it, 
but my opinion is that it will neither be faster * nor slower in its progress 
than it always has been. The extravagant expectations entertained some 
years ago in England and America, however, are doomed to be disap 
pointed. The mass of the people are yet attached to their own sects, 
but the schools spread over the country will gradually pave the way for 
the Gospel ; and even now the doctrine of a Creator is taught in the 
school-books/ 



A MISSIONARY MEETINGS IN A KITCHEN. 

WE gladly give insertion to a portion of a letter kindly ad 
dressed to us, which records an occurrence small in itself, 
but which yet has an interest of its own, and may serve as an 
example of humble efforts in aid of the Society s great work, to 
those whose opportunities of usefulness are limited : 

1 " Staying in a retired country rectory, I was unexpectedly present at 
the following interesting gathering. 

"A Missionary from Japan, who has been obliged from ill-health to 



Ssi? 1 ] ^ Missionary Meeting in a Kitchen. 69 

return home, was also a guest in the house. He had preached to th e 
people the Sunday before about the Japanese heathen, and finding they 
seemed interested, thought the opportunity might be seized for a little 
meeting, at which he could tell them more, and show some of the idols 
and books, &c., which he had brought with him. 

" The village is small, and there is no school-room, and the only 
available room was the rectory kitchen. I had never before heard of a 
Missionary meeting in a kitchen, and was curious to see who would 
come. 

i: At the appointed time the room filled ; there was a representative 
from almost every house. 

" The meeting was opened with prayer and a hymn. The Missionary 
first told them about the Japanese religion, showing them some of their 
pictures and hideous idols, and telling them many curious stories of their 
superstition and ignorance. He also showed them a Japanese Prayer 
Book, and the Ten Commandments translated into the same language, 
and the curious letters seemed to greatly interest the people. 

" He is particularly interested in the Bonin Islands, the inhabitants 
being chiefly descended from sailors dropped from ships of various 
nations, who have settled on the Islands and married coloured women, 
and who have lapsed from Christianity, such as it was, to a sad state of 
ignorance bordering on heathenism. 

" He has therefore (with their parents permission) secured some little 
boys whom he is having taught and brought up as Christians, in order that 
they may return and teach their own people. It is thought they will have 
great influence, as they will speak Japanese as well as English. 

" He also" showed some photographs of them ; and an old man, after 
looking at them intently for a few seconds, said to me, Ay, but they must 
stand rirm ! 

" Two old dames shared one pair of glasses, and the taking on and off 
and passing to and fro was quite unique, when they wanted to look at 
the things. 

" Such a meeting in such a village must have, I think, a twofold in 
terest ; it must open the minds of the simple folks to the fact of there 
being far more in the world than their own quiet homes and market- 
towns ; while the deep earnestness they evinced in the account of the 
v/ork would, I am sure, be very encouraging to those who are toiling and 
working in distant lands, could they have witnessed it. 

" The meeting was closed with the hymn, Sun of my soul, and after 
it was given out, the old shepherd rose (he is quite a musician, and a 
well-known village character), pulled his pipe out of his pocket, offering 
to play the tune. Very sweet notes he produced, too, and there was 
something at the same time quaint and touching in the old shepherd 
leading his fellow-villagers in that beautiful hymn. 

" They were dismissed with prayer, and the meeting was over. It was 
only a gathering of simple Wiltshire people in their rectory kitchen, but 
who knows how much fruit it may bring forth, how many hearts may 
have been touched with pity for their fellow-creatures, how many prayers 
may have been the result, for the heathen and Christian workers ?" 

It is by no means difficult to recognise the Rev. F. B. Plummer as 
the Missionary speaker of the occasion. 



70 Monthly Meeting. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. F. H. T. Hoppner of the Diocese of- Calcutta ; C. 
Ah Luk, \V. Howell, and W. R. Mesney of Laluan ; C. L. Atkinson, T. Browning, J. F. 
Curlewis, F. W. Kevvley, and W. J. R. Morris of Capetown; W. C. Shaw of Grahamstown ; 
S. Adonis, T. Button, E. L. Coakes, and T. W. Green of St. Johns, Pondoland; W. Greenstock 
of Maritzburg; W. H. R. Bevan and E. W. Stenson of Blocnifontein ; J. Thorne and H. 
Sadler of Pretoria ; G. H. Allnutt, R. R. Eva. and H. Heath of North Queensland; W. C. 
Anderson of Goulburn ; J. McCleverty of Brisbane ; J. B. Stair of Ballarat ; W. Anderson,. 
W. Jones, and T. A. Youn? of Montreal; A. Jamison of Huron: G. S. Jarvis, R. Simonds, 
and W. W. Walker of Fred:ricton; and D. C. Moore and T. Richey o Nova Scotia. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at the Rooms of the National 
Society on Friday, January i6th, the Right Hon. and Right Rev. the Bishop of 
London in the Chair. There were also present the Bishops of Winchester, St. 
Alban s, Lichfield, and Antigua, Bishops Claughton and Staley, Archdeacons 
Hessey, Harrison, and Huxtable, Canon Bailey, Canon Gregory, the Master of the 
Charterhouse, Rev. J. E. Kempe (Treasurer}, C. Raikes, Esq., C.S.I.,T. Turner, 
Esq., and L. T. Wigram, Esq., Vice- Presidents ; Archdeacons Blomfield and 
Burney, Colonel Anderson, Rev. Brymer Belcher, Rev. W. Cadinan, Rev. B. 
Compton, Hon. and Rev. II. Douglas, Colonel Gillilan, Hon. and Rev. A. Legge, 
Rev. H. V. LeBas, Rev. J. F. Moor, Rev. C. H. Rice, Sir Bryan Robinson, 
Rev. E. A. Salmon, Lieut. -Gen. Tremenheere, C.B., W. Trotter, Esq., Rev. 
R. T. West, S. Wreford, Esq., Members of the Standing Committee; and about 
250 other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Secretary, on behalf of the Standing Committee, proposed for 
election at the Annual Meeting on February 2oth, the following gentle 
men as Members of the Standing Committee : Archdeacon Blomfield, 
Rev. C. H. Rice, and General Tremenheere, C.B., (who retire from 
seniority under Bye-Law VI.), and Rev. \V. C. Bromehead, General 
Nicolls, and General Lowry, C.B. 

The Rev. J. W. Horsley proposed the Rev. C. D. Goldie as a 
Member of the Standing Committee. 

3. The Secretary, on behalf of the Continental Chaplaincies Com 
mittee, proposed for election at the Annual Meeting the following 
gentlemen as Members of the Continental Chaplaincies Committee : 
Rev. Brymer Belcher, Rev. Canon Erskine Knollys, Rev. Dr. A. T. Lee, 
and L. M. Rate, Esq. 

The Rev. T. Darling gave notice that at the Annual Meeting he would 
propose the Rev. F. S. May as a Member of the Continental Chaplaincies 
Committee, in the place of L. M. Rate, Esq., w r ho, not being an Incor 
porated Member, was believed to be ineligible to serve on the Continental 
Chaplaincies Committee. 

4. On behalf of the Standing Committee the Secretary proposed the 
follo\ying resolution, of which notice \vas given at the last Meeting : 

"Whereas it has been alleged that a person in Holy Orders has recently gone 
out from England with the intention of acting ministerially under the authority of 



M Feb?, isso. 1 ] Monthly Meeting 71 

Dr. Colenso as Bishop within the Colony of Natal, and has publicly made a 
statement as to the sanction given to such intention : 

"The Society hereby solemnly reaffirms the several resolutions by which it 
ceased to recognise the episcopal authority of Dr. J. W. Colenso, and records its 
firm determination to uphold and maintain, so far as lies in its power, the sole 
episcopal authority of Bishop Macrorie within the Colony of Natal, as committed 
to him by the Church in South Africa." 

The Rev. B. Maitland moved, and the Rev. Canon Ince seconded, the 
previous question. 

After discussion the Chairman put it to the Meeting that the Resolution 
of the Standing Committee be not put. On a division the numbers 
were 128 for, and 130 against, the motion. The motion for the previous 
question was therefore lost. 

The Rev. B. Compton then moved, and the Rev. R. T. West 
seconded, as an amendment to the preamble of the Resolution proposed 
by the Standing Committee, the following preamble : 

" Whereas at the Annual Meeting of the Society held on February 20, 1863, a 
letter from His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, dated February 9, 1863, was 
read, in which His Grace stated that, having conferred with his episcopal 
brethren, he had come to the conclusion that in consequence of the recent publica 
tions of the Bishop of Natal it became necessary for the S.P.G. to withhold its 
confidence from him until he shall be cleared from the charges notoriously incurred 
by him by reason of such publications : 

" And whereas the Society thereupon adopted a resolution expressing its in 
tention of acting upon the advice given by His Grace : 

"And whereas in a letter dated February 12, 1866, the Metropolitan of the 
Church in the Province of Capetown communicated to the Society the following 
sentence (consequent upon certain proceedings taken by the said Church against 
Dr. J. W. Colenso) which had been published in the Cathedral Church of Maritz- 
burg on Sunday, January 7, 1866, separating the Right Rev. J. W. Colenso from 
the peace and communion of the Church : 

" IN THE NAME OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, 

" WE, Robert, by Divine Permission Metropolitan of the Church in the Pro 
vince of Capetown, in accordance with the decision of the Bishops of the Province 
in Synod assembled, do hereby, it being our office and our grief to do so, by the 
authority of Christ committed unto us, pass upon John William Colenso, D.D., 
the sentence of the greater excommunication, thereby separating him from the 
communion of the Church of Christ so long as he shall obstinately and impeni- 
tently persist in his heresy and claim to exercise the office of a Bishop within the 
Province of Capetown. 

" And we do hereby make known to the faithful in Christ that, being thus ex 
cluded from all communion with the Church, he is, according to our Lord s com 
mand, and in conformity with the provisions of XXXIII. of the Articles of 
Religion, to be taken of the whole multitude of the faithful as an heathen man 
and a publican (St. Matt, xviii. 17, 18). 

" Given under our hand and seal this sixteenth day of December in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five. " 

" And whereas at the Monthly Meeting of the Society held on March 19, 1869, 
a letter dated February 2, 1869, was read from the Metropolitan of the Church 
in the Province of Capetown, informing the Society of the consecration of the 
Rev. W. K. Macrorie as Bishop in Natal and Zululand, and the Society thereupon 
passed a resolution recording the thankfulness with which it has heard the in 
telligence of the consecration of Bishop Macrorie : 

" And whereas since the consecration of Bishop Macrorie the Society has 
entrusted to him, as Bishop in Natal, the administration of the annual grant to its 
Missionaries within that Colony, and has always required the Missionaries deriving 



72 Monthly Meeting. 



him 



aid from that grant to hold his licence as their Bishop, thus recognising hi 
Bishop in Natal in the place of Dr. J. W. Colenso : 

" And whereas it has been alleged that a person in Holy Orders has recently gone 
out from England with the intention of acting ministerially under the authority of 
Dr. Colenso as Bishop in Natal, in contempt of the excommunication of Dr. 
Colenso by the Church in the Province of Capetown, and in defiance of the 
Episcopal authority of Bishop Macrorie in Natal, and has also publicly declared 
that in so doing he has received the good wishes and encouragement of eminent 
persons in England ; and the attention of the Society has been called by the 
Metropolitan of the Church in South Africa to the distress and anxiety thereby 
caused in his province : 

"And whereas the prosperity of the Society s Missions in Natal is seriously 
imperilled thereby, . . ." 

After discussion the amendment was put, and on a division the numbers 
were 106 for, and 107 against, the amendment. The amendment was 
therefore lost. 

The Resolution, as proposed by the Standing Committee, was then put, 
and carried without a division. 

5. The Secretary announced that the Rev. C. B. Dalton and the Rev. 
C. W. Edmonstone had retired from the Board of Examiners, and that 
the Rev. Robinson Thornton. D.D., and the Rev. C. H. Turner, had been 
appointed in their place by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and 
the Bishop of London, with whom, under Bye-Law XIX. ? the nomination 
rests. The Board as constituted for the year 1880 consists therefore of 
the following members : Rev. Dr. F. Hessey, Rev. Canon r |Barry, Rev. 
W. Cadman, Rev. Robinson Thornton, D.D., and Rev. C. H. Turner. 

6. The Secretary gave notice on behalf of the Standing Committee that 
at the February Quarterly Meeting the following alteration would be pro 
posed in Bye-Law X., namely, that instead of the words, "for a period of 
two years last past/ there be substituted the words, "during each of the 
two years preceding the first of January of the year in which the recom 
mendation shall be made." 

7. All the candidates proposed in November were elected into the 
Corporation. 

3. The following were proposed for election in March : 

Charles Frederick Dean, Esq., Carlton Villas Slough; Rev. E. Pinwill, 
Slough ; Rev. T. H. R. Shand, Clayton, Hurctpierpoint ; Rev. F. Amcotts 
Jarvis, Kettlethorpe, Newark; John H. Nelson, Esq., 7, Stanhope Garden?, 
Queen s Gate ; Thomas Dunn, Esq., I, Princes Gardens, S.W. ; Rev. R. M. 
Heanley, 19, Delahay Street, Westminster; Charles Hoare, Esq., 37, Fleet 
Street ; H. G. Hoare, Esq., 37, Fleet Street ; Rev. G. H. W. Lockhart Ross, 
Sutton Valence, Staplehurst ; Rev. F. F. Collins, Church Kirk, Rugby ; Rev. 
W. H. Chambers, St. Anne s, Holloway ; Rev. E. Wanklyn, St. Michael s, 
Bournemouth; Rev C. S. Taylor, St. Thomas , Bristol; Rev. E. P. Nicholas, 
Worfield, Bridgnorth ; Rev. J. G. Deed, National Society ; Charles Roff, 
Tamplin, Esq., Roystons, Ramsden Road, Balham, S.W. ; Rev. Edward Miller, 
Eucknell, Bicester ; W. F. Green, Esq., 2, Lennard Road, Croydon ; Rev. 
J. W. H. Carr, All Saints , Middlesborough ; Rev. J. Young Nicholson, Aller, 
Langport. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



&fre fwlb is fyt feorlb. 




MARCH i, 1880. 



* THE BLESSING OF PEACE." 

[HE Lord shall give His people the blessing of peace." It 
is impossible to commence another African number of 
this magazine without recalling this gracious promise, 
which is even now being fulfilled to our brethren beyond the sea. 
Great as are their troubles of many kinds still, the anxiety of ever- 
impending war is removed, and they are again free from its actual 
experience. Both they and we, who have by sympathy, and in 
other ways, shared to some extent their trials, have much cause 
for rejoicing. That rejoicing should take a certain definite shape. 

It should take the form of thankfulness, the grateful recognition 
of His Hand Who alone has delivered from great peril. Now that 
the terror is over, the real danger which existed of calamities far 
beyond any which actually came, must not be forgotten ; nor must it 
be overlooked that our position was at one time such, that nothing 
save the merciful over-ruling Providence of God can, even by the 
thoughtless, be credited with our escape. 

But thankfulness, if true, finds tangible modes of expression ; and 
ours can hardly fail to show itself in increased interest and earnest 
ness in the great warfare which the Church is waging in those parts 
with heathenism and sin. This should be our noble revenge for 

NO. CCXCI. G 



74 " The Blessing of Peace." [S. ?, 58? 

whatever of loss or alarm we have suffered at the hands of our 
savage enemies ; or if it seem to us that any suspicion of injustice 
has attached to our own conduct, still more, let this be a recompense 
to them. Now, more than ever before, should England, as a na 
tion, the colonists throughout South Africa, the Missionary Church? 
and the Church at home, determine that new and more vigorous 
efforts shall be made to carry the standard of the Cross into the 
forests and wilds of that great continent, and to influence more deeply 
the hearts of our darker neighbours with Christianity. Peace itself 
is precious, far more than for its own sake, because it is a condition 
of opportunity, a state in which the minds and hands of men are 
free to cultivate what is good and holy, to make progress in all that 
exalts a nation, and benefits the world. 

A scheme of the Bishop of Maritzburg for establishing a 
Mission at Isandhlwana itself will be found mentioned in these 
pages; and there are other and more ordinary channels through 
which help may flow, while prayers ascend, towards advancing the 
Kingdom of the Prince of Peace in those parts which are at present 
associated in our minds with the worst horrors of war. How much 
of aid, both human and Divine, is needed by those faithful mes 
sengers of the peaceful Gospel, now returning to homes desolated 
and churches thrown down, which only years of patient, self-denying 
toil and prayer had raised ; to begin once more, in much-tried faith, 
undertakings of which human nature must be sorely tempted to 
say, " I have laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nought 
and in vain " ! 

While we pray for those labourers in vineyards laid waste per 
sonally, and for the general success of Missionary effort in South 
Africa, another subject of supplication is of at least equal importance 
that the Lord will give His people the blessing of spiritual peace 
within their own fold, among themselves. In no part of the Church 
does there seem more need for this than in those very districts in 
which war has been so lately at the gates. May God add to the out 
ward blessing this internal mercy also. Nor are we without occasion 
to pray such a prayer for our own Church at home ; nay, even 
for our own Society, through which our scattered efforts are directed 
towards possessing the earth for Christ. Let us remember to whom 
the promise is given that such efforts shall be successful. Blessed 
are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth." May that spirit of 
meekness more wholly possess all Christ s soldiers, which, while the 



K ] Grahams fown. 7 5 

pledge of victory in their holy war against darkness without, is 
the source and secret spring of inward unity and concord. - The 
meek-spirited shall possess the earth, and shall be refreshed in 
the multitude of peace." 



GRAHAMSTOWN. 

CHRISTMAS AT HERSCHEL. SUCCESSFUL LABOUR AT KING WILLIAM S 
TOWN AND SEYMOUR. 

THE Mission at Herschel continues to be one whose progress 
it is pleasant to follow, although Mr. Cox writes modestly 
" There is no cause for satisfaction, but much for encouragement ; 
indeed, it is rather early to look for results." 

The Mission completed the first year of its existence in September 
last ; and Mr. Cox s efforts are now mainly directed : 

"Towards strengthening and increasing the work at places already 
occupied, by drawing in the natives in their vicinity. The attendance at 
the Home Station is on the whole satisfactory, and in the case of 
several, very regular. At times the beer-drinkings, generally fixed for 
Sunday morning, interfere with our work by drawing away some who 
would attend. At other times our rough chapel, which as you know was 
a blacksmith s forge, is so crowded as to be unpleasantly close, and now 
that summer has come I purpose having the services under the trees. 

" The language difficulty is a great one here, Dutch, Kaffir, and Sesuto 
being spoken within the Mission district. I have only attempted Kaffir 
services and preaching so far, except once, as that is the most widely 
spoken, but I hope to be able to arrange for separate services if I can get 
a Sesuto interpreter. It is probable that the way will be open for placing 
a school in the midst of some kraals where I preach occasionally, and 
where the people strongly objected a few months back. 

"There are now 102 children on the books in the three schools, which 
is encouraging considering the people in the neighbourhood, their Avild- 
ness and degradation. The Tambookie Kaffirs are indeed a hard tribe 
to deal with, always civil, but with no liking for civilisation. Some of 
their abodes are difficult of access, their hearts much more so." 

There has been some fear that, after the quelling of Moirosi s 
rebellion, a removal of the natives into other parts of the country 
might take place. This would break up the Herschel Mission ; but 
Mr. Cox speaks of his readiness to go with the natives wherever they 
may be moved. In his last letter, dated December 3151, he speaks 
of the great regularity and attention of the newly-baptized at the 
services, adding : 

" It is indeed hard for these people to become Christians, for they have 
to make a vast change in their lives ; it may be, give up one or two wives. 

G 2 



7 6 Grahams fown. [ M ^fi, X 

" There are several intelligent and well-disposed Kaffirs here, who I 
feel sure will join the Church in time." 

His account of the manner in which Christmas was kept is full of 
happiness : 

" The children of the out-stations with their teachers, arrived on Christ 
mas-eve. Our little chapel pro tern, was decorated for the occasion. On 
the eve, we had evensong, when it was quite a pleasure to have a few 
Christians together to join in the Christmas hymns. The children had 
learnt a Kaffir translation of the hymn, O come all ye Faithful, which 
they sang to the tune in Hymns Ancient and Modern. We had no mid 
night celebration, as last year, no priest being present. 

" On Christmas day more children arrived, and a service was held in 
the chapel at 10 A.M., when it was so crowded that the heat became very 
oppressive. By this time a great number of adults had arrived, Tam- 
bookies, Basutos, and Fingoes, I should say about 200. A second service 
was held for these under the trees, when the behaviour of all was most 
pleasing, and their attention also. At this service, the magistrate of the 
country where the rebellion has occurred, was present, with some of his 
family. He expressed himself highly gratified to see such a number of 
the wild Tambookies present. At this service, before all these people, 
I baptised two native children. Evensong was again held in the chapel, 
and then all retired to rest. Next morning, before sunrise, both teachers 
and children left for their homes." 

From both Mr. Gordon of King William s Town, and Mr. Shaw 
of Seymour, come cheering accounts ; although the latter observes 
with reference to his regular Sunday work, holding services at three 
places, each twenty miles apart : 

" I am generally very weary ; but God is very good to me, and gives 
-me strength for my work. I am generally cheered too by a good 
congregation." 

SOME ACCOUNT OF ST. MATTHEW S MISSION, 
KEISKAMA HOEK. 

BY THE REV. CHARLES TABERER, MISSIONARY IN CHARGE. 

Spiritual Work. 

THERE are in all about eleven hundred native Christians be 
longing to the Mission. Only a very small proportion of these 
.are on the station itself the majority live at the various kraals, 
scattered over a tract of country forty by twenty miles in extent. 
Some of these kraals are what we call permanent out-stations, where 
a native catechist and schoolmaster resides, and are (although 
branches of the principal station) centres of work among the heathen 
in their particular localities. The other kraals are visited occasionally. 



?"] St. Matthew s, Keiskama Hoek. 77 

and in this manner the whole district is worked. To assist me in 
carrying out the work, I have a staff of one deacon, nine catechists 
and schoolmasters, and five unpaid agents or readers. I am glad 
to be able to say that as far as St. Matthew s is concerned the late 
rebellion has in no way influenced for evil the spiritual work of the 
Mission ; although the whole district was for a considerable time in 
a very disturbed state, and the station itself in no little danger from 
its close proximity to the Perie bush, where the rebels were for some 
time in great force. As a proof of this, 169 candidates for con 
firmation have been presented to the Bishop since the close of the 
contest with the Gaikas under Sandili ; fifty others are now being 
prepared for the rite, and during the past two years no less than 
1 93 native children and adults have been baptized. There are now 
350 communicants 165 being the largest attendance at any one 
communion service during the past year. Our great drawback has 
been the suffering and want created by the long drought, and almost 
famine, that prevailed for so long a time. These have prevented my 
people from paying off the remainder of the debt on the new church 
opened in 1877, amounting to 4427. (total cost of building 1,6457.); 
but I have every hope that with the brighter prospects and hopes for 
the future that we now have, they will be able very soon to do some 
thing towards this very desirable object. At the same time, I am 
glad to be able to add, that since the foundation-stone of the church 
was laid about three and a half years ago, my native congregation 
has raised for various ecclesiastical purposes nearly 1,3007. 

Mission Schools. 

Two hundred and forty children have attended the various schools 
during the past year; 191 were present at the examination. 

Industrial Work. 

We have a boarding establishment for native girls under a lady 
superintendent ; forty- eight have been on the books during the past 
year thirty-two being the largest number in residence at one time. 
These girls are taught not only the three R s in school, but all kinds 
of industrial and household work besides, including sewing, washing, 
ironing, and cooking ; they also do all the cleaning-up of the institu 
tion, and of the school-rooms and new church, and are made to 
fetch firewood, carry water, and work in the gardens whenever such 
work is required to be done. I am also establishing as speedily as 



7 8 Grahamstown. 



Mission Field, 



I can various industries for the benefit of native boys, with the 
object in view of teaching them regular habits of industry, hoping 
also at the same time to be eventually able by means of these 
industries to make the Mission self-supporting, and to extend our 
influence and spiritual work more and more as time goes on. I have 
at present three industries in operation carpentering, tin-smithing, 
and farming. In the carpenter s shop during the past year work to 
the value of between 3oo/. and 4oo/. has been executed. It is 
difficult to estimate exactly the value of the work in this depart 
ment, as so much is done by way of repairs and additions to the 
Mission buildings and furniture, and of which no exact account is 
kept. The following items, however, are included in the total I have 
given : fifteen church seats, each twelve feet long, to complete the 
sittings in the new. church ; fourteen seats, each six feet long, for the 
English church at Keiskama Hoek ; the woodwork of two cottages ; 
the doors and windows for an out-station chapel ; the same for a new 
carpenter s shop that I hope shortly to build ; eight school desks, 
with forms, each ten feet long ; twenty-five boxes, eight tables, four 
cupboards, and a multitude of smaller articles. In this department 
we have employed one master-man and five apprentices. 

The tin-factory has been established four years. It was at first 
very small, and only gave employment to two or three boys ; but 
during the past year we have employed one head man, two ex- 
apprentices, and twelve apprentices under indentures. Work has 
been sold during the twelve months to the value of 80 1/. i6.r. $d. 

Farming. 

This industry was commenced about a year ago, and bids fair to 
prove successful. About 3807. has been spent in the purchase of 
the necessary plant for carrying on operations, including one waggon, 
twenty-two oxen, ploughs and other implements, and seed of various 
kinds. From twelve to twenty men and boys are employed as 
labourers under a superintendent, and produce to the value of about 
2oo/. has already been reaped. 

It will be seen from this that for the past year the aggregate 
amount of work done in the three departments represents the sum 
of about i,4oo/. 



St. yohris, Kaffraria. 79 



ST. JOHN S, KAFFRARIA. 

GENERAL STATE OF THE DIOCESE. NEW WORK AT UMTATA. WELL- 
DISPOSED CHIEFS. 

WRITING from Umtata on the i4th of November, Bishop 
Callaway gives the following report of progress : 

"The work throughout the diocese is really growing, and matters 
are becoming more complete and organised. The work might, 
however, without any difficulty, be trebled, with the requisite workers 
and funds ; indeed Church work to which we have been invited in 
various parts of the diocese is either left undone or is being taken 
up by other bodies, because of our inability to undertake it. Indeed 
it is almost impossible to keep up the work already undertaken, 
much less to take up new work. Yet every Missionary is striving 
to extend his work by the use of native agency at off-stations in 
connection with his own central station. These out-stations are 
frequently very feeble and inefficient. But though small, they must 
not be despised : it is working in a right direction, as it is an attempt 
to make the Church in Kaffraria an institution carried on by the 
people themselves, and resting upon their own work and exertions. 
We are doing all we can to increase the efficiency of these native 
agents by providing a higher education, secular and theological, at 
this place. Native teachers, by ones or twos, spend a few months 
with us, and return to their work, stronger, we trust, and wiser. 
There are many in our school of whom we entertain hopes that they 
will dedicate themselves to God s work. They are being educated 
accordingly with the distinct expectation that they will help to form 
the future native clergy of Kaffraria. The age from 15 to 22 or 
more is one of extreme temptation, from the wild power of animal 
passions ; and it really is becoming a very serious question, requiring 
grave consideration, whether as a rule it would not be better to 
postpone Ordination to Holy Orders until the age of 30. 

" The School and College Buildings are begun, and progressing as 
rapidly as means admit. 

"We hope soon to begin buildings for a Girls School. 

" The Hospital System, so many years talked of and worked for, 
may now be regarded as fairly started. Dr. Craistor is the medical 



8o St. John s, Kaffraria. ISS^S? 

officer. I began to move in this matter about ten and a half years 
ago at Spring vale. I received about 3oo/. from the kindness of 
English friends, and about i8o/. from friends in Natal. This has 
been carefully husbanded until it has reached QOO/. It would have 
been clearly impossible to work a hospital, had it been possible to 
build anything of real use, with so small a sum as 4807., and the 
current expenses would have been more than I could have borne. 
There is every reason now to think that we shall obtain assistance 
from the Cape Government. We have purchased from the Mission 
a cottage built for a clergyman, and are using it as a Cottage 
Hospital. From this will grow a Hospital System, in proportion to- 
the requirements and capabilities of the future." 

The Diocesan Secretary, the Rev. E. S. Coakes, in a letter of 
nearly the same date as the Bishop s, speaks of services recently 
begun at Umtentu : 

" The place is just over thirty miles from here. Gangelizwe, the chief 
of the Tembus, lives about three miles further on, and though he does 
not feel himself at liberty " to believe," he has no objection to his people 
becoming Christian, and he is extremely anxious that his children 
should be educated. He speaks of this every time I see him. and pro 
mises that there shall be plenty of scholars if the Bishop will only send 
a teacher. The traders, of whom I can reckon twenty-six, live at con 
siderable distances from Umtentu, but often pass on business. It seems 
quite a new experience for them to be thought of and cared for in any way, 
and they seem much gratified with even the little we have been able to 
do for them. They talk of building a little Church for themselves, and 
have already raised over ApL for that purpose. A parochial lending 
library is in course of formation there." 

The Rev. T. W. Green at the end of September was in the midst 
of building operations at Kalinyanga, laying down floors and doing 
similar work with his own hands to eke out his limited pecuniary 
store. At the same time the services were being regularly conducted, 
and genuine Missionary efforts made, with encouraging success. 
He writes : 

" I have begun to hold service at the chief s (Dalasiles) great kraaL 
He sent an ox to help the Bishop s College fund. Another chief, his 
brother, told me to make his kraal my home as regards holding service. 
But he would not hear of the establishment of a school." 



, i Maritzburg and Zululand. 8 1 

MARITZBURG AND ZULULAND. 

PROPOSED MEMORIAL MISSION CHURCH UPON THE FIELD OF ISANDHL- 
WANA. THE REV. G. SMITH. ST. FAITH S, DURBAN. 

THE REV. GEORGE SMITH, who has had charge of the 
parish of Estcourt, Natal, since 1871, and was Acting 
Chaplain to H.M. Forces at Isandhlwana, Rorke s Drift, and Ulundi, 
has just arrived in England, and furnishes us with the following 
particulars, which will doubtless prove interesting to our readers : 

"The field of Isandhlwana forms a portion of the territory formerly 
belonging to Sirayo, the celebrated Zulu chieftain, and now belonging to 
the Basuto Chief Hlubi, one of the thirteen Rulers of Zululand. 

" Hlubi is the son of the late Basuto Chief Umbunda, whose territory 
was taken from him by force of arms, by Moshesh, who, without any 
title to chieftainship, except shrewdness and valour, managed to obtain 
supremacy, by waging war successfully upon numerous small tribes 
inhabiting the country now known as British Basutoland. 

" Umbunda, driven from his own territory, sought a refuge in the 
Orange River Free State ; but, being ill-treated by the Dutch, he ob 
tained permission from the British Government to bring a portion of his 
tribe into Natal. He purchased a farm under the Drakensberg Moun 
tains, thirty miles from Estcourt ; there, and upon the Government land 
adjoining, he settled with his people. 

" Umbunda died some twelve years ago, and his son Hlubi, then a very 
young man, succeeded to the chieftainship. 

"During the Langalibalele rebellion in 1872, Hlubi and his people 
were conspicuous for their loyalty, one of bis men being amongst the 
slain at the Bushman s Pass. 

" When I accompanied an armed party in search of the bodies of 
those who were killed, and gave them Christian burial, Hlubi applied to 
me for a teacher for himself and his people. 

" His request was complied with ; the Bishop of Maritzburg appointed 
a catechist, and the Mission was named St. Augustine s, and Hlubi and 
his people erected a temporary school-church and teachers residence. 

" Hlubi s loyalty was again shown in the Zulu War : Hlubi and every 
man of his tribe capable of bearing arms came forward ; they were present 
at Isandhlwana and Ulundi, and rendered great assistance as scouts 
throughout the whole campaign. 

" On the settlement of the Zulu country Sir Garnet Wolseley ap 
pointed Hlubi to take possession of the district formerly held by the 
troublesome chief Sirayo. As soon as the decision of the Government 
was communicated to him, Hlubi at once requested me to secure 
for him and his people the continuance of the privileges, educational and 
spiritual, which they had hitherto enjoyed. The promise was given, with 
the hearty approval of the Bishop of Maritzburg ; and Mr. Charles 
Johnson, who had gained the confidence of chief and people as catechist, 
agreed to move with them to their new sphere, and continue his work 
amongst them. 

"On December 9th, 1879, the Bishop of Maritzburg, accompanied by 
the Ven. Archdeacon Usherwood, Mr. Johnson, and myself, visited the 
fatal field of Isandhlwana for the performance of a twofold duty, viz. to 



82 Maritzburg and Zululand. [ M M. i,w8o d> 

hold a solemn funeral service upon the spot where so many brave men 
fell, and to select a site, with the full approval of the chief, upon which 
to erect a memorial church, which should at once be a monument to the 
noble dead, and the centre of spiritual life for the Christian natives, and 
those who may hereafter be gathered into the Church from the tribes 
around. 

" The Bishop and party were met by the British Resident (Mr. W. D. 
Wheelwright), the Resident Magistrate of the Natal district adjoining 
(Mr. J. F. Fynn), by the Chief Hlubi, and some fifteen of his principal 
men, and a number of English and Dutch Residents from the northern 
parts of Natal. Great care was exercised in the selection of a site for 
the proposed Mission-church, and a spot was chosen, to the left of the 
great Isandhlwana Rock, upon the neck, situated just above the spot 
where so many Natal Volunteers and men of the 24th Regiment fell 
together, and commanding a view of the Rorke s Drift Hill and Natal. 
Here the funeral service was read, and the Holy Communion was cele 
brated : and the site was marked by fixing a handsome iron cross on a 
wooden pedestal (which had served as an altar), upon a cairn of stones. 

" It is proposed to erect upon this spot a small church (if possible, of 
stone), about forty feet in length by twenty feet in width, with porch, 
vestry, and bell-turret. It is hoped that the surviving relatives and 
friends of those who so nobly died at Isandhlwana will provide the 
various internal and other fittings the altar, altar-cross, reredos, credence 
table, lectern, pulpit, font, prayer-desk, harmonium, bell, stained glass for 
the east and eight other small windows ; each and every one of which 
would be most appropriate as a memorial to the fallen, and an offering to 
the service of God. 

" The church must be surrounded by a rough stone wall, inclosing 
about an acre of ground ; and within the churchyard an excavation should 
be made, and a small Mausoleum built of stone, some 15 ft. by 10 ft. in 
dimensions, and rising a few feet above the ground, with an iron roof ; in 
this could be, from time to time, reverently deposited the scattered frag 
ments of frail humanity which necessarily form so sad a feature of every 
battle-field. 

"The Memorial Church might be built for about QCO/., and the 
Mausoleum and inclosing wall for zoo/. 

" But besides the church, if a real work is to be carried on amongst 
these Basutos and their Zulu neighbours, a school-house and a residence 
for a clergyman and a catechist, containing sufficient accommodation to 
enable them to board and lodge children who may be sent from a distance 
to receive instruction, will be necessary. 

" Hlubi has set apart (and handed over, as far as the British Govern 
ment will permit him to do so) suitable land, also near Isandhlwana, for 
school purposes, and for the houses and gardens of all who may be 
attached to the Mission. 

" For the school, the house, and other necessary buildings, another 
i,ooo/. will be required. 

"All offers of Memorial fittings and furniture for the church should 
be made to the Rev. George Smith, Sunny Side, West End, Aldershot, 
who will be happy to give every information. 

" Subscriptions and offerings for the Memorial Church and Mission 
( St. Augustine s, Isandhlwana, Mission, ) should be paid to the Treasurers 
of the Society, at 19, Delahay Street." 

[Readers of the foregoing will observe that Mr. Smith is careful to 



84 Maritzburg and Zululand. [ M ^ i0 ?, Jg? 

say that Hlubi has handed over suitable land "as far as the British 
Government will allow him to do so." This is a painful but true 
statement : it means that whereas Heathen Sovereigns, Panda and 
Cetywayo, gave to the Missionaries and their people sites on which 
to build churches and schools, the transfer of conquered Zululand to 
the Crown of Great Britain has led not only to the confiscation of 
the sites thus given, and for so many years so profitably occupied, 
but also to the impossibility of any similar grants being made for the 
future. These are the terms of Sir Garnet Wolseley s proclamation : 
he sanctions land being appropriated to Missionary use, but only on 
the condition that possession of it may be at any moment resumed 
by the chiefs. But the Christian conscience of English people is 
not likely long to tolerate an edict so unjust, and it is confidently 
expected that the Home Government will annul the injurious legis 
lation of the High Commissioner. In asking therefore gifts for the 
erection of the proposed Memorial Church, we are anxious to assure 
intending donors that no money will be spent in building operations 
until a title to the land, more assured than the caprice of a native 
chief, who must be subject to many influences, has been secured. 
EDITOR.] 

Some further account of Hlubi and his people will be found in the 
Mission Field for June 1879, p. 250. His own tribe consists of 
Basutos about 500 in all and with these will be connected the 
former Zulu inhabitants, occupying an area of about twenty miles. 
In a recent letter home Bishop Macrorie, who, since the sad death 
of the Rev. J. Alington, has been acting as Commissary for the 
Metropolitan, wrote : 

"Whatever our opinions about the causes of the Zulu war, or our 
present disappointment at its results, here is a remarkable conjunction of 
circumstances, that the district containing the graves of so many of our 
fellow-countrymen should be assigned to a chief who is not only favour 
able to the establishment of a Mission amongst his people, but has for 
years shown his desire to be himself instructed by the Church, and ta 
have his followers brought under the influence of Church teaching ; and 
the Missionary who has been with him possesses his confidence, and is 
ready to settle amongst his tribe. The site must always be memorable 
in the history of our race, and the grand rock of Isandhlwana, as every 
one who visits it must remark, is itself an imperishable monument to the 
brave men who fell on that sad 22nd of January ; but there does appear 
to be a special call to us to raise a true Christian memorial to them on 
this spot. Isandhlwana is about the centre of the district allotted to 
Hlubi, and a church erected on the neck of the hill would overlook the 
battlefield, where the majority of the bodies lie, and at the same time be 



HissioB Field, 
Mar. 1, 1880. 



g d> ] Proposed Isandhlwana Mission. 85 



within sight of the Ityani hill, which rises behind the house at Rorke s 
Drift, whose gallant defence the same night was the means, under God s 
providence, of saving the colony. The exact situation of the residence 
of the Missionary is not yet decided, nor, indeed, do I think that the 
chief himself has chosen the site for his own head-quarters ; but I cannot 
but feel that were I in the position of Mr. Alingtori s successor, I should 
be disposed to make this part of Zululand my centre for the present at 
least, or at any rate to endeavour to obtain the services of some one in 
priest s orders to take the spiritual and ecclesiastical direction of the 
work, if my head-quarters had to be elsewhere. Mr. Johnson is 
thoroughly interested and in earnest about the work, and understands 
the native language and customs well ; but of course, as a layman, he 
stands in need of the superintendence of a priest. The Zulus appear 
to have accepted the position as a defeated people with the utmost 
equanimity, and not only expected but wished to be governed now by the 
great Queen." 

In connection with this we may quote a paragraph from the 
London daily papers of February 5th, which shows that the gallantry 
of Mr. Smith is not to pass altogether unnoticed by the civil and 
military authorities : 

"The Queen has been pleased to confer an army chaplaincy on the 
Rev. George Smith, late incumbent of the parish of Estcourt, in the 
Colony of Natal. This gentleman, on the day of Isandula, espied from 
some high ground the Zulu advance on the Buffalo. He hurried to 
Rorke s Drift to warn the troops, and remained there through the night 
of the defence. Subsequently he volunteered to bury the bodies of 
Lieutenants Melville and Coghill, and was present at the battle of 
Ulundi. His gallant conduct in a previous Kaffir war had drawn 
attention to him." 

Anything which breaks Mr. Smith s connection with the Society, 
now of nine years standing, will be deeply regretted by its members, 
at the same time that they rejoice with him in his nobly-earned 
honours, and believe him to be admirably qualified to serve His 
Master among military men. 

A visit paid by Mr. Smith to St. Faith s School-church for natives 
is noted in the autumn report of Mr. Blair, of Durban ; also an 
address given there by another military chaplain, the Rev. C. J. 
Coar, when the scholars present numbered sixty : 

" He said he supposed those present were of the same race as those 
lie had just left in Zululand, for he was with the tro >ps at the battle of 
Ulundi. Those whom he was addressing were wiser than those in 
Zululand, for they engaged in the peaceful occupations of working and 
learning, whilst those in Zululand had studied the use of the assegai, 
which they used not only against their foes, but against their friends. 
They had, however, been taught such a lesson now, that it would be a 
long time before they interfered with white people again. The white 



86 Maritzhu-g and Zululand. [Jft f X d> 

man was a friend to the black man. He came here to teach him 
Christianity, and to work ; and the man who worked hard was a great 
man. He (the speaker) was about to leave Natal, to return to England, 
It would be a long time before he saw black people again, but he should 
not forget the earnestness with which they tried to learn. At the con 
clusion" the scholars thanked the reverend gentleman for his address, and 
wished him a safe and pleasant voyage." 

One of the native scholars, named Somani, took his part in the 
war, and accompanied Commodore Richards, of H.M.S. Boadicea, 
as servant in the expedition to relieve Ekhowe. The following is 
his account of the battle of Ginginhlovu, which was fought on the 
road : 

" We arrived at Ginginhlovu on the Wednesday. In the afternoon 
some scouts came in, and reported that they had se en the enemy. We 
saw the enemy, they having lighted fires on the upper part of the Inyezane 
in the evening. The white people (ba dubula ngokuka Kristmas) fired 
after the manner of Christmas, sending up one rocket, thinking to 
frighten the enemy, that it might not come in the night. 

" On our arrival, a shelter trench was dug, and the waggons arranged 
in laager. It rained when we reached Ginginhlovu, but as the sun sank 
the rain ceased. It did not rain in the night. In the morning the 
enemy came, the sun being obscured by a cloud. The enemy opened 
fire, but the General gave orders that the white people were not to fire 
whilst the enemy was distant. The enemy approached, and fired, and 
the white people fired also. At length breakfast-time passed, and the 
Zulu army fled. No breakfast was eaten, however. We ate when the 
fight was over. The black people, and also the white people who rode on 
horses, drove the enemy away. Many of the enemy were killed by 
rockets, Catling guns, and small arms. When a rocket is ignited, and 
comes in contact with a person, his skin is burnt, and resembles the 
burnt and scraped skin of a pig. Sometimes the skin is burnt off. 

" Whilst I was looking at the fighting and considering which side was 
likely to get the best of it, the Zulus began to retire, and I was glad to 
see them run a\vay. It was difficult to tell how many white soldiers were 
wounded or killed, as there were men whose work it was to remove those 
who fell, and I saw no more of them. 

" My master, Commodore Richards, was in the trench all the time with 
his soldiers (the Naval Brigade). Lord Chelmsford was sometimes at 
the trench and sometimes at the waggons, giving orders to the soldiers 
to fire quickly. I held my master s horse inside the waggon laager. A 
native waggon driver, who was standing on a waggon looking at the 
fighting, was killed. 

" As soon as the Zulus had run away, they went on to a hill. The 
white people fired a cannon at them. At first the shot did not reach 
them, but afterwards it did, and they fled. That is what I saw." 



Mission Field, "1 7ii7ii7fitt fj o 

Mar. 1,1880. J ^lUltia?ia. gy 

ZULULAND. 

RE- COMMENCEMENT OF SERVICES AT ST. PAUL S. SCENES OF 

DESOLATION. 

IT is no matter for surprise, but indeed the contrary, that a tone 
of depression should pervade the letters of those returning, 
with much difficulty, and after many and great hardships, to their 
stations; to find ruin and confusion where once were churches, 
schools, and parsonages, the results of months and years of perse 
vering, faithful labour. The Rev. S. M. Samuelson, who, our readers 
will remember, paid a visit to St. Paul s in September last, has now 
once more re-established himself at that important post ; his patience 
having been sorely tried by various obstacles in the way of his doing 
so. He arrived safely, however, on November i2th, and received a 
hearty welcome. He writes from a waggon on the i6th : 

"To-day I have had the first Divine Service at St. Paul s since the war, 
in my shady garden, addressing my hearers from Exodus v. 2. 

" The sun is burning hot here now when it does not rain, and the houses 
and church are all ruins, so it is difficult to make up one s mind where to 
commence, and the expense of restoring the place will be great." 

The Rev. J. Jackson, whose work lies among the Amaswazi, had 
a similar sad tale to tell at the end of October : 

"The Isandhlwana disaster came so soon after hostilities began, and made 
the border so unsafe, that I was not able to carry away my property from 
the station before it had been destroyed or carried off by the enemy. And 
when I went down to the station about two months ago, I found every 
thing in ruins. The Zulus had set fire to the buildings not many days 
previous, and the ashes were still smouldering. The Swazies in the neigh 
bourhood said the Zulus had been induced by Boers to burn our places, 
because they (the Boers) want to get all the English out of the country. 
I had also very good reason to think that the Swazies were not far wrong 
in this, because I knew that communications had passed between the 
Zulus and the Boers in the neighbourhood only just before, and those who 
set fire to the places were said to have been seen at a Boer s house not 
far away. Since leaving our station in January we have lived until a few 
weeks ago in tents and huts, and have often had to move about for safety. 
We have, after months of hard labour, succeeded in getting under a good 
roof, just as the summer rains set in, but we have not yet a schoolroom, 
and my one room has to be used both as dwelling-house and church. 

" The windows have not yet been made, but to be without them is a small 
inconvenience compared with what one has had to bear of late. These 
things however would not discourage us if we could see a bright prospect 
for the future, but events seem to conspire to retard our progress. Mr. 
Alington had been able to pay us but one short visit since his arrival in 
the diocese, and on the day I was expecting to see him here again the 
post arrived which told me that he had been taken from us. It is indeed 



88 tiloemfontein. [l^tSS? 1 

a very great disadvantage, and particularly so under the present circum 
stances, to be again without a head in the diocese. Now is the time when 
we must form new plans for our work, but these plans require the sanction 
and aid of a responsible head. 

" May the Great Head and Shepherd of the flock, manifest Himself 
more and more to us, and guide us through the present storm and all our 
difficulties ! " 

Mr. Alington s death is touchingly referred to, as an incal 
culable loss, by Mr. Samuelson also, whose son nursed him to the 
last through the typhoid fever which proved fatal. 



BLOEMFONTEIN. 

PHOKOANE AFTER THE WAR. THE " QUARTERLY PAPER" OF THE 

MISSION. 

THE recent history of this diocese, as of most of those of 
South Africa, is to a great extent that of Missionaries 
returning to posts from which they had been driven, and of the 
resumption of broken threads of work. The Rev. W. H. R. Bevan s 
description of the state of things at Phokoane up to November 2ist, 
will show that much is being done, though outward circumstances are 
still unsettled : 

" Until the end of April, I was living at Kimberley, the centre of the 
Diamond Fields, where I had taken refuge during the war. On the 
restoration of peace and order, the Bishop allowed me to come back to 
this, my proper post, where I have been ever since. I do not wish to 
enter into political questions, or to blame the Government ; besides, the 
story of the weak and de/enceless being cleaned out of the country 
by the powerful has been too often told to need repeating by me. The 
net result is that the natives are remaining here at present merely on 
sufferance, until it pleases the Boers to drive them away. 

" It has of course been out of the question to build under these 
circumstances. We have just gone on from day to day doing the day s 
work, with a miserably inadequate building of poles and thatch for a 
church. I am living myself in a native hut, which is very fairly com 
fortable as far as it goes much better than a tent. My proper work, of 
building up the Living Church, is proceeding very hopefully and happily, 
and this is what really signifies. On Whitsun Eve eleven adults were 
baptized, and these, together with four others whom I baptized in a short 
visit which I paid here a year ago, are now all regular Communicants. 
All these neophytes, with a few boys and girls who have grown up in the 
faith, attend a class once a week for special instruction upon the Holy 
Communion. They are very regular and attentive. There is also a 
weekly class for Catechumens, adults, candidates for baptism, which has 
at present twenty-six members. Only one or two of them are old-comers, 
ten were received on Whitsun Eve, and the rest at various times since. 



8 9 

They keep on dropping in one by one. The last comer, whom I received 
last Sunday, is the wife of a young man who was himself received three 
months ago. He has been very regular and attentive in his religious 
duties, and besides, he has shown piety and dutifulness to his old 
parents, in spite of the bad example of his elder brother. His wife s 
following him in embracing the faith shows that he has approved 
himself as a consistent Christian at home as well as at church. 

"On Sundays we have four services Holy Communion at sunrise with 
a dozen Communicants, more or less, (they all come to prepare themselves 
first on Saturday afternoons,) Matins (after my breakfast), with sermon. 
This service is generally well attended our wretched little hovel of a 
church is crowded quite full. Litany and Catechising, with receiving 
catechumens if there are any at noon, or earlier in summer. The 
congregation at this service is nearly the same as at matins. Evensong 
an hour before sunset, with infant baptisms after second lesson, if there 
are any. The congregation at this service is often very small, for the 
Christian people most of them live three miles or more away, and after 
Litany go home to breakfast. Between Matins and Litany, there is 
Sunday School, which I leave them to do themselves, with the school 
master s help, while I rest a little. In this hot country one gets very lazy, 
and one does not do anything like the amount of work which clergymen 
do in England. 

" On week days, there are often ten people at the morning service, at 
sunrise, and twenty-five at evensong, an hour before sunset, sometimes 
not so many." 

The Bloemfontein Quarterly Paper contains, as always, much 
matter of interest, especially an account of a visit to Moirosi s 
mountain, by Archdeacon Croghan. 



FIVE WEEKS ON THE TREK. 

BY THE BISHOP OF PRETORIA. 

THE boundaries of the Transvaal are not at present the bound 
aries of the diocese of Pretoria, the Provincial Synod having 
thought it wise, in one part, to prefer as a boundary the watershed of 
the Drakensberg range. Therefore I had been requested by the 
Metropolitan to settle with Mr. Alington what was the boundary line 
between us ; and to this point one day on shipboard we directed our 
minds ; but with so ill success, that we decided to refer the question 
to the Bishops themselves ; and until their decision, that if episcopal* 
services were needed in any place within the Transvaal limits, I 
should perform them ; so that should the boundary be hereafter 
altered, the people might have what episcopal associations they had 
with the Bishop of Pretoria. In pursuance of this plan I had 1 
NO. ccxci. H 



9 o Five. Weeks on the Trek. [ BST.SSof 

promised Mr. Alington to visit Wakkerstroom and Utrecht for a 
Confirmation as soon as I could do so ; and this being the earliest 
date at which I could fulfil the promise, we started on Thursday, 
September 25th. 

We this time were three in number Hugh and I, and Mrs. 
Bousfield with us. She had been so long unwell, shattered in every 
nerve by the long and heavy trial time that we have had to pass, that 
a change was the only, and the absolutely necessary, remedy. To 
me it seemed a case of kill or cure, and I started with no small 
anxiety, knowing too much of the risks that lay before us. Our 
conveyance was my new-bought cart, a ramshackle old thing, repaired, 
as I supposed, at an expense equal to what I had to give for it, and 
that more than twice its value. The thought would rise as one drove 
along, what would the parishioners and the grooms of the old home 
have thought of our vehicle to-day? 

This cart contained my own clothes and Hughy s in one box made 
to fit a certain portion, and in another my robes, font, chalice, and 
paten, with a few books, a luncheon basket, and a small canteen, 
should cooking be needful on the way; our rugs and macintosh 
cloths, in case of having to make our beds upon the veldt, and a 
half-made sail-tent in that case to give us some protection rugs 
for the horses in like case, and a little portmanteau of Mrs. B. s. 
A heavy load, and all the worse because neither of the horses was 
-at all equal to the journey, both having been ill since they arrived in 
Pretoria from their last trip. Nelly was all right, however, and with 
Hughy on her back, as outrider such is our episcopal state we 
started. Alas ! too soon to find the weakness of our steeds ; at the 
very first spruit they stuck, absolutely refusing to pull at all. After 
some little trouble this difficulty was overcome, and about 9 A.M. we 
were fairly clear of Pretoria. Pleasantly enough we trudged along 
for about eleven miles, and then we halted for our midday meal and 
rest; and it was an anxious halt, our poor horse seemed so ill; 
otherwise we entered heartily into the contents of our basket, and 
the sunny day made our "outspan " pleasant enough. 

One of our travelling purposes was to break Miss Nelly in to 
harness, as the leader of a unicorn team, and so at starting we 
inspanned her also ; but, alas for trusting anybody in South Africa ! 
the leader s reins were too short to drive with, and so Hughy had 
to ride postilion through this first experiment, whereby Miss Nelly 
had just double work to do. However, she did it very well, and as 



3 iSi l SIS 1 ] An African Storm. 91 

our journey drew towards its close we had to go so long down hill 
that we dispensed with her, until just at its end we had another 
spruit to pass, with really steep banks on both sides, and once more 
the horses stuck; one of them, who from this tendency we call 
<: Stander," would not pull. We turned to Nelly and put her in 
again, and bravely did she pull, infusing her plucky spirit into the 
others, and we were safely out at last. 

We were at our journey s end, a farm which I had promised to 
revisit, in the prettiest situation in this part of the country, whose 
owners keep all things so trim and tidy in this land of slovenliness 
that it did us good to be there. We were made welcome, as always 
on our travels; and in the evening I baptized three children. Next 
day we started about 9, having left a bundle of our wraps behind to 
lighten our load. Very quickly we had a little pull to make, and once 
more "Stander" stood, bringing on himself a hearty thrashing, 
which began to tell for good. With more than one repetition of 
these scenes we reached our first halting-place, and there met Sir 
Garnet Wolseley on his road to Pretoria. With him, and some of 
his staff, I had some half hour s talk, taking his measures, to my own 
mind, as perhaps he did mine also. 

About i P.M. we started, and after a couple of hours halted for our 
horses and our own refreshment. Our "outspan" was sunny and. 
refreshing, and in good heart we started for Heidelberg ; but soon 
the sunny skies were overclouded, and the thunder claps, and 
lowering clouds, and lightning flashes made us press our steeds in 
hope of reaching safety if it might be, or crossing an ugly spruit at 
least which lay ahead of us. But all efforts were in vain ; first a few 
drops, then, no question, the full storm was on us, and we stopped, 
u outspanned," threw the sail over the cart, and made the best 
preparation for a refuge we could make. The horses turned tail to 
the storm, we crouched beneath the tent, and so spent a good two 
hours in drenching rain, and most brilliant lightning blazing round 
the wheels. At last came a lull, and now how changed the land ! 
pools and streams where before were dry ruts, and roads quite im 
passable, so slippery and soft the surface mud, With the lull shone 
forth the moon, so calm, so bright, so fair, it seemed impossible t6 
realize the violent commotion just over. We fed our horses, made our 
shelter a little more satisfactory, which our leisure now allowed ; and 
tinder the cart Mrs. B. and H. sought slumber, while I watched now 
walking up and down to keep me warm, now lying down to rest a 

H 2 



92 Five Weeks on the Trek. [*? Sk* 

little on the wet ground ; while the moon walked above in her gentle 
brightness, the wind howled round in somewhat ominous tones, to 
which black thunder clouds gave emphasis, and the shrill cry of the 
jackals broke the silence of the night. But in the midst of my watch- 
ings a new trouble began ; Nelly stamped and rolled, now standing up, 
now lying down, apparently in the greatest pain, and I could give her 
no relief nor find a cause for her suffering. When I tried to touch her 
she would neigh with pain. After some time, as rest was hopeless, 
about i A.M. we determined to make a start, and try to reach the 
spruit ahead of us at least, and so we harnessed the horses ; while 
doing so poor Nelly lay down groaning, and for a minute Hugh let 
go her veem not chain, as the word was once misprinted for me 
to our surprise up she jumped and off she started. I tried to clutch 
her, but in vain ! and over the veldt she scampered, leaving us in 
blank despair, for she was our only hope for riding after aid, and a 
little treasure in herself, now lost apparently, unless she trotted to 
our last resting-house, and was there recognised. Fretting was in 
vain, and so we turned attention to the cart ; but in vain also the 
horses would not pull, and could not, for the ground was so slippery 
they could scarcely stand and there was nothing for it but to " out- 
span " again and wait for daylight. This we were just completing 
when a dot appeared upon the veldt, and seemed drawing nearer ; 
what wild beast could it be ? Nearer, nearer, at last Can it be so ? 
It is. Nelly has come back of her own secret will, to our no small 
delight. Thankful indeed, we try again to rest till morning, and are 
glad that the second storm which passed over us was lighter than- 
the first after it, indeed, no storm at all. 

When morning came again we tried to start, but again in vain ; 
what little strength our jaded steeds had once was washed out of 
them utterly, and not only " Stander " would not, but poor " Gibson " 
could not, pull. What can we now do? No water, no moving the 
cart. Shall I push on for help, or Hughy try to reach a farm some 
nine miles off, with risk of losing himself, or shall we desert the 
cart, stick to each other, and lead on the horses ? This last is OUT 
decision, so we pack the cart, abandon it, and set off to walk just to 
the neighbouring spruit, and then, refreshed by the remaining con 
tents of our basket, boldly attempt the remaining miles. This was 
the most congenial plan, though I attempted it with much misgiving. 
Weary myself, I was not much up to a nine miles walk in a broiling 
sun, and how the others could endure, or rather how certainly they 



Mission Field,! TT 7fi I., fl. TTT 

Mar. i, igo. J neip uy i/ie traj. 



would not, was the point with me. But nothing else can be done, so 
we set off three weary walkers, three weary horses, three cloaks to 
face the fresh threatening storm, and a basket to carry, too ; and so 
we trudge on, up one rise, down another, till at last the long-talked-of 
spruit appears. And, oh delight ! some chance of help at last two 
waggons by it, delayed by the muddy spruit. 

Before they have started we reach them, and after a half-made cup 
of tea, for the wind blows the paraffin flames from under our little 
pot, Mrs. B. and H. are packed on a waggon-load of forage, the 
basket and cloaks are with them, two horses go behind with some 
sick oxen, and I mount Nelly to ride on for further aid, Nelly now 
free from the fly which proved the cause of last night s trouble. 

Onward I ride till I reach our kind friend s farm, to whom I have 
had occasion to refer in other printed records, and Mr. Bennett 
proves as kind as ever ; first giving man and beast refreshment, then 
undertaking to send oxen for our cart, and finally getting some tea 
ready for Mrs. Bousfield, whose arrival on her forage bed I awaited 
before riding on to Heidelberg. This place reached, our hosts so 
often, Messrs. Hall and Graham, give us welcome, while the former 
drives out in his spider to fetch Mrs. Bousfield in. And finally 
Saturday night finds us safely housed at the Hotel at Heidelberg, 
though not till church time next morning does our cart come in, and 
a change of clothes for the Holy Day. Sundays at Heidelberg have 
been three or four times described, and so I will pass over this; 
three services in the school-room, with a heavy storm to wash away 
one congregation at least. The special feature of this visit was the 
presence of troops, and it is most gratifying that, a service in camp 
being prevented by the rain, our morning congregation was formed 
of soldiers chiefly. 

On Monday we were off for Standuton, but when oiling the cart 
before starting, found the bush of one wheel worn quite away ; and 
this involved vain telegraphing to Pretoria, vain consultations with 
civil and military wheelwrights, and finally the kindly loan of a pair 
of wheels, on which we make a start on Wednesday morning, 
October ist. This day, with one outspan, we reach a post -cart 
station just in time to escape a frightful storm, which raged all night 
with wondrous fury. I spend an hour in the evening preparing our 
hostess for baptism, and then we go to our rough-made beds, upon 
the floor in one case, almost supperless, as bread can scarcely be 
had. The next day involved a long, trying thirty miles over hill and 



94 Five Weeks on the Trek. ["iS ", SS d 

swampy ground, made worse by the night s sharp storm. Its incident 
was crossing a stream so swelled that we had to unload our cart in 
some measure, and to carry bundle after bundle through on Nelly, 
finally setting Mrs. Bousfield on her back, while I waded through to 
guide the little steed. As we drew to our journey s end another 
heavy storm was round us, and threatening to overtake us at any 
moment, to avoid which we finished our journey at full gallop. Our 
resting-place was a wayside accommodation-house, rough indeed in 
all its appliances, but a shelter from the storm ; and here we closed 
the day with evening prayers, at which the little household joined us. 
The next day we safely reached Standuton, and were kindly enter 
tained by Mrs. Schwikhard, our hostess on our former visit. Here 
we received and answered a packet of letters from England, and had 
service in the evening in a private house, the room being filled with 
troops, notwithstanding a furious storm. 

On Saturday I presided at a meeting of the Church Committee, 
appointed at my former visit, and was sorry to find no progress 
made in action to raise a clergyman s stipend, but good hopes, and 
words, and expectations still all that I received. In the evening I 
again held service, and again had a congregation of soldiers, as well 
as others. 

On Sunday morning I went to the Camp at 9.30, and said morning 
prayer with the troops, preaching at its close. At n, 4, and 7 we 
had services in Mr. Gibson s store ; at the former nine communicants, 
and in the whole day offertories amounting to io/. towards the first 
year s stipend of a resident clergyman. 

On Monday we had a second meeting of the Church Committee, 
and a day of visiting and letter-writing, enlivened by a donation of 
io/. towards the stipend of the clergyman as a thank-offering from 
one of the officers, and ioo/. as a contribution towards our Boys 
School in Pretoria (S. Birinus), the donor to have the right of 
nominating two scholars at a slightly reduced rate. By this means I 
hope to raise some other sums for the same purpose, our greatest 
want, after clergymen, being aid for good school buildings. 

Next day we start for Wakkerstroom, and have a heavy day of 
thirty miles, which brought us to a store and empty house, in which 
the storekeeper kindly made us shakedowns for the night. The 
next day a shorter stage brought us to a farm and store, which I had 
visited on our way up country at Christmas last, and staying for the 
afternoon as well as night, I spent the former in a visit to Coldstream, 



Mission Field.! 
M;ir. 1, 1880. J 

two or three miles away, at which place we spent our Christmas Day 
last year. Here I found our former acquaintance, whose baby of a 
month oldl baptized. The place was wonderfully improved. 

On Thursday morning we started for Wakkerstroom, a short day s 
journey, but yet trying from the hills, and pleasanter than usual from 
the lines of hill being closer to each other, and the intervening flats 
much narrower a change on the interminable sameness of the 
Transvaal scenery, and a little more like the mountain scenery of 
other lands. About half-past twelve we seemed nearing the town, 
but we had yet another hour s drive, first along the edge of, and then 
across, a large vley or marsh which lay between us and the town. 
As there had not been much rain of late, the crossing was not so 
very difficult, but still enough so to try the nerve and test the wrist of 
the driver of a Cape cart heavy laden. The situation of the town is 
very strange, cut off by the vley from the rest of the world, on one 
side, and by a very fairly lofty range of hills behind. Arrived in the 
town, or village one knows not what to call our Transvaal places, 
thirty to fifty houses is but a small " town," and yet there is little of 
the " village " about them we were directed to a little boarding- 
house, where we made our quarters ; and, arrived there, the sad 
news met us that Mr. Ransom, one of the clergy whom we had 
hoped to meet, was called away suddenly by telegram to the sick-bed 
of Mr. Alington, whose life was in danger. The afternoon was 
occupied by visitors, chiefly military, whose ready kindnesses and 
courtesy let me here acknowledge : a Boer, or a Kaffir, one would 
fear to become, but for some occasional association with these 
English gentlemen. 

On Friday I rode up to the camp in the morning, to make 
arrangements for a service on Sunday, and for visiting the sick troops 
in hospital. The afternoon I spent with eight approved candidates 
for Confirmation,, whose names Mr. Ransom had left me. In the 
evening came the sad news of Mr. Alington s death. Of his life 
and work it is not for me to speak but of the good done by him 
and his companion in Wakkerstroom, the candidates for Confirmation 
and the hearty feelings of a few were witness. 

On Saturday I visited the sick in camp, and many of the residents 
in the afternoon. 

Sunday was as usual my busy field day. A very pleasant camp 
service in the morning, some 600 men of the Dragoons, Artillery, 
and Both, drawn up on three sides of a square on the hill-sides 



96 Five Weeks on the Trek. [<SSSJB?* 

sloping in a natural amphitheatre; at n morning prayer, followed 
by Confirmation and Holy Communion ; in the afternoon the Litany 
with catechising, and at 4 evening prayer and service. A very 
violent storm at night prevented my meeting those confirmed in the 
morning. 

On Monday I was delayed by the hope of the mail arriving, until 
it was too late to start for Utrecht ; but on Tuesday I was off by 
6 A.M., and had a long rough ride up and down tremendous hills, 
reaching it in time for evening prayer in the neat, but very humble 
chapel of the Church-house, for a visit to Mr. Alington s grave, and 
a few calls with Mr. Ransom. 

As there was no need of my stay being lengthened, alas ! no 
candidates for Confirmation, and no Communicants I started again 
at 5 next morning, and after a fatiguing journey up steep hills, 
indeed a regular mountain drive diversified by a two hours delay 
at a Dutch farm, where I discussed some Scripture points by refer 
ences to the Dutch Bible, and helped to peel potatoes, by way of 
recommending myself to the family as of a domestic turn of mind, 
I reached Wakkerstroom about 5 P.M., and presided at a meeting, by 
which provision was made for some steps at least towards the building 
of a church. The community is very small, the Churchmen very 
very few, but I hope they will succeed in raising a small building ; 
and I promised them from S.P.C.K. grant 5o/., and another 5o/. from 
our own funds if they raised and wisely spent 3oo/. besides. For 
the present Mr. Ransom will give them a service on alternate 
Sundays, and this I hope may be a step to the location of a clergy 
man among them ere long. 

On Thursday we started for Standuton, returning by the route we 
had travelled down. There we held our usual Sunday services, and 
again convened the Church Committee. The following night, by three 
stages, we reached Heidelberg, with no other incident than a stick in 
a mud-hole in crossing a spruit ; which gave me an hour s hard work 
in unloading and re-loading the cart, floundering in mud meanwhile, 
and a horse knocked up, which involved me in the novel task of 
horse-breaking, borrowing on the road a horse never harnessed befoie, 
and successfully driving him some twelve or fifteen miles of our 
road. 

This very lack of incident may show our readers and friends the 
nature and the very trial of our work. A small scattered population 
three English or Africandic households only, and these small, in i 



^SlS] The Need of Men. 97 

space of fifty miles, separated from each other by rivers or small 
streams boggy bottoms and mountain ranges, which make travelling 
so difficult and uncertain, that you can scarcely reckon what time 
each stage may take you. At present, and for years to come, our 
work must be looking for Christ s sheep scattered abroad indeed ; 
and the case of our little towns is not much more inviting a small 
knot of people, some three or four perhaps real Churchmen, others 
trained in one sect or another; several Scotch Presbyterians who, 
at a distance from any ministrations of their own, gladly welcome 
the Church s services. Of such material are our little congregations 
formed, who meet in a store, or court-house, or a private house for 
the Sunday, and, if I can gather them, the daily worship. I have 
now visited every place where any hope of congregations could be 
found, and many a lonely farm besides. My journals of each journey 
sent home for publication have, I hope, attracted some attention to 
the task which the Church has laid upon me. I cannot present a 
list of attractions to bring men out to help ; but if scattered souls, 
without a shepherd or a guide losing the sense of religion which 
education and early association had bred their children, with no 
such associations at all souls for which a Saviour laid his glory by 
to die may plead with some to do as that Saviour did, and come to 
seek these scattered and endangered sheep, then surely I shall not 
long be left without some helpers to share the trying and most up-hill 
work of laying the foundations of the Church of God in this vast, 
barren land, whose willows by the watercourses suggest, amidst the 
surrounding barrenness, what would be if the streams that make glad 
the City of God flowed freely among men too. 

At Heidelberg we spent Sunday, having unusual congregations 
through the presence of troops, who provided us with a respectable 
choir ; and I was able to arrange also for the revival of the Sunday 
services, at least for the present. Two hot, and so weary, stages 
brought us home, once more to find, through God s fatherly care and 
His Holy angels ministries, all well at Bishop s Cote. 

BISHOP S COTE, PRETORIA, 
November yd, 1 879. 



98 Annual Meeting. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. P. A. Ellis, A. Gadney, C. Gilder, H. Latevvard, 
G. Ledgard, J. J. Priestley, C. S. Rivington, J. St. Diago and J. Taylor of the Diocese of 
Bombay; W. Bramley, R. M. Clark, J. F. Curlers, J. Maynard, B. C. Mortimer and W. F. 
Taylor of Capetown; J. Boom, J. Gordon, W. Llewellyn, D. Mzamo, A. J. Newton and W. 
Rossiter of Grahamsto n .un ; T. Button of St. John s; R. A. Ransom of Zulu land; W. A. 
Jlling of Maritzburg; H. Sadler of Pretoria ; R. Hosken of North Queensland; J. C. Belts 
of Goulburn; J. Johnston, R. Lonsdell, J. W. Pyke and E. G. Sutton of Montreal; F. J. B. 
Allnatt, A. J. Ealfcur, T. L. Ball, J. Boydell, F. J. Boyle, J. B. Debbage, J. Foster, M. M. 
Fothergill, J. Hepburn, E. A. W. King, W. G. Lyster, J. P. Richmond, P. Roe, A. Stevens, 
H. C. Stuarc, J. S. Sykes, G. Thornloe and J. Washer of Quebec ; S. J. Hanford of Fredericton; 
W. M. Tooke of Algonia; W. Newton of Saskatchewan ; J. Abbott, J. Ambrose, R. Avery, 
F. J. H. Axford, E. H. Ball, C. H. Brenton, R. F. Brine, P. H. Brown, C. Croucher, H. De 
Blois, W. Ellis, P. J. Filleul, J. Forsythe, W. E. Gelling, W. M. Godfrey, F. P. Greatrex, H. H. 
Hamilton, A. D. Jamison, T. Johnston, J. A. Kaulbach, A. C. Macdcnald, G. W. Metzler, 
J. T. T. Moody, D. C. Moore, E. E. B. Nichols, J. P. Sargent, D. Smith, J. S. Smith, F. 
Skinner, W. H. Snyder, H. Stamer, H. Sterns, G. Townsend, T. H. White, L. M. Wilkins and 
F. M. M. Young of Nova Scotia; C. Baker, G. Bishop, G. S. Chamberlain. H. Dunfield, E. 
Colley, J. Godden, T. A. Goode, C. Ellingham, H. Johnson, C. Meek. T. G. Netten, F. J. 
Smith, R. H. Taylor, R. Temple, W. K. White and T. M. Wood of Newfoundland; G. 
Ditcham of New Westminster; J. Parry of Barbados; J. Clark of Antigua ; W. Heard, S. C. 
Hore, F. P. A. Josa, J. R. Moore, W. T. Veness and J. F. Wyatt of Guiana, and C. G. Curtis, 
Missionary at Constantinople. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

THE Annual Meeting of the Society was held in compliance with the Charter, 
on Friday, February 2Oth, at 11.45 A.M., at the Westminster Palace Hotel, 
His Grace the President in the Chair. There uere also present the Archbishop 
of York, the Bishops of London, Chichester, Ely, Rochester, St. Alban s, St. 
David s, Antigua, Colombo, and Rangoon, Bishops Claughton and Kelly, Sir 
C. Hobhoupe, Bart., the Master of the Charterhouse, Archdeacons Harrison, 
and Huxtable, Canons Gregory and Harvey, Rev. Dr. Bailey, Rev. C. B. Dalton, 
Rev. J. E. Kempe, C. Raikes, Esq., C.S.I., K. Pryor, Esq., T. Turner, Esq., 
and.L. T. Wigram, Esq., Q.C., (Vice- Presidents], Col. Anderson, Rev. B. Belcher, 
Archdeacons Barney and Blomfiekl, Rev. B. Compton, F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., 
Rev. W. Cadnian, Major-General Dalton, Hon. and Rev. H. Douglas, Rev. 
J. W. Festing, Col. Gillilan, W. L. Lowndes, Esq., Rev. J. F. Moor, A. 
Strickland, Esq. (Treasurer), Lieut. -Gen. Tremenheere, C.B., W. Trotter, Esq., 
Rev. R. T. West, S. Wreford, Esq., (Members of the Standing Committee), and 
about 400 other members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Auditors report was presented by C. J. Bunyon, Esq., and was 
accepted, and the cordial thanks of the Society were tendered to the 
Auditors and Treasurers for the care which they have bestowed on the 
business of their departments in the past year. 

A letter was read from E. M. Browell, Esq., resigning the post of one of 
the Society s auditors, and a special vote of thanks was accorded to 
Mr. Browell for his past services. 

3. The Rev. J. E. Kempe presented the following Report of the 
Treasurers on the Society s Income for the past year as compared with 
that of 1878 : 



M M.?, So? ] Annual Meeting. 99 

I. GENERAL FUND : 1878. 1879. 





Collections, Subscriptions, &c. 
Legacies 



73^069 

14. 4^4 


S. 

8 
6 


d. 
7 


1 

71, 


099 


S. 

2 
T 1 


i 

r 




Dividends &c . . 


4O28 


5 






7C -3 


IO 


9 














/ JO 






II. 


APPROPRIATED FUNDS . . . 


92,422 
20,807 


i 

8 


o 
ii 


86, 
9, 


787 

942 


16 

18 


3 
ii 


TIT 




113,229 
32.OO7 


9 

i 


ii 

IO 


96, 


730 


15 


2 














^ 







^145,236 17 9 131,674 4 ii 

The following Resolution was passed by the Society in reference to the 
late Mr. Philip Cazenove, one of the Treasurers of the Society. It was 
Resolved : 

" That the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts desires to record its sense of the loss which it has sustained 
in the decease of Mr. PHILIP CAZENOVE, Treasurer of the Society 
for twenty-eight years. 

" The name of Mr. Cazenove has for many years been associated 
with the works of benevolence and charity carried on in the 
Metropolis and other parts of the land, especially such as were in 
connection with the National Church, of which he was a loyal and 
attached member. Residing in a district in which a vast and ever- 
increasing population has sprung up within the last half century, 
he recognised, from the first, the duty of our Church to make 
provision for the temporal and spiritual wants of those who 
were thus gathered together, and the responsibility which rested 
upon its individual members to promote this great object. With 
conscientious resolution he set himself to do his part, and in all 
the various organisations called into existence with this aim, Mr. 
Cazenove was ever a prime mover, and a steady and liberal 
supporter. 

" In our great Church Societies, formed for the advancement of 
Christ s kingdom at home and abroad, he was a constant worker ; 
filling, in many instances, the office of Treasurer, which, with him, 
involved much patient labour and active vigilance. 

" In the affairs of the S.P.G. this was conspicuously seen. Bringing 
with him a thorough knowledge of business, he was able materially 
to promote the interest of the Society by wise counsels and prudent 
management. He gave unsparingly of his time and thought to the 



ioo Annual Meeting, 

administration of its funds, and in this way aided the Society even 
more than by the liberal contributions which he continually made 
from his own private resources. 

"But in the routine of business, faithfully and punctually performed, 
he never lost sight of the spiritual character of the work to which 
the funds of the Society are applied. He regarded his substance, his 
abilities, and his time, as talents entrusted to him ; and employed them 
carefully and unostentatiously in his Master s service, giving with 
simplicity, ruling with diligence, showing mercy with cheerfulness. 

" His intercourse with those who were working with him, and under 
him, was ever marked by Christian courtesy and kind consideration; 
and few, if any, have left behind them a name more respected and 
more beloved. 

" It has been granted to Mr. Cazenove to depart from this life in 
the ripeness of a good old age, with mental faculties unimpaired, 
subjected only to the infirmities of declining years and failing strength. 
His memory lives in the hearts of all who knew him, honoured by 
all ; very dear to those relatives and friends who were most in 
timately acquainted with his worth, who, while they mourn his loss, 
can yet rejoice in the blessed hope which cheered and sustained him 
through life, and in which he now rests from his labours." 

4. Resolved that His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury be requested 
to accept the office of President of the Society for the ensuing year. 

The Standing Committee further proposed that the surviving Vice- 
Presidents of last year be re-elected, and that the Bishops of Bedford, 
Toronto, Caledonia, New Westminster, Jamaica, Jerusalem, Travancore, 
Bishop Chambers, Bishop Courtenay, the Rev. J. B. Pearson, LL.D., 
Bishop-Elect of Newcastle, and Frederick Calvert, Esq., O.C., be elected 
Vice- Presidents for the ensuing year. 

Archdeacon Denison, who had given notice of an amendment to the 
effect " that from the foregoing list the names of the Bishops of Wor 
cester and Exeter be excepted," after reading some correspondence on 
the subject between the Bishop of Worcester and himself, withdrew his 
amendment. 

The Rev. H. R. Baker then moved the following amendment 

" That the name of the Bishop of Worcester be omitted from the list." 

The Rev. C. D. Goldie moved, and Archdeacon Denison seconded, a 
further amendment 

"That a certain letter from the Bishop of Capetown to the Secretary be read 
before Mr. Baker s amendment be put to the meeting." 

The Archbishop of York thereupon moved, and Canon Barry seconded, 
another amendment 

"That the Standing Committee be requested to print and circulate the letter 
of November 20, 1879, from the Bishop of Capetown." 



M M"r.t SS d> ] Annual Meeting. 1 1 

This amendment was carried without a division : and Mr. Baker s 
amendment was then withdrawn by leave of the meeting, and the list of 
Vice-Presidents, as proposed by the Standing Committee, was then 
adopted. 

Resolved that the Bishops of the Church in the United States of 
America, in communion with the Church of England, be elected 
Honorary Associates of the Society for the ensuing year. 

5. Resolved that the Rev. J. E. Kempe, Henry Barnett, Esq., and A. 
Strickland, Esq., be re-elected Treasurers ; C. J. Bunyon, Esq., H. W. 
Prescott, Esq., and R. M. Harvey, Esq., Auditors ; that the Rev. H. W. 
Tucker be re-elected Secretary, and W. F. Kemp, Esq., and the Rev. Henry 
Swann, Assistant-Secretaries for the ensuing year. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to J. W. Ogle, Esq., M.D., 
the Society s Honorary Consulting Physician, and he was requested to 
continue his valuable services. 

6. Lieut. -Gen. Tremenheere, Ven. Archdeacon Blomfield, and Rev. 
C. H. Rice, were proposed by the Standing Committee for re-election ; 
and Rev. W. C. Bromehead, General Nicolls, and General Lowry, C.B., 
for election as Members of the Standing Committee, in accordance with 
the Society s Bye-Laws ; and the Rev. C. D. Goldie was proposed by the 
Rev. J. W. Horsley. After a poll in which the numbers were Gen. Tremen 
heere, 369; Archdeacon Blomfield, 366; Gen. Nicolls, 366; Gen. Lowry, 
360; Rev. W. C. Bromehead, 357 ; Rev. C. H. Rice, 331 ; Rev. C. D. 
Goldie, 95 ; the Chairman declared the six first members duly elected. 

7. The elections of the following Diocesan Representatives were con 
firmed : 

LICHFIELD Archdeacon Sir L. T. S tamer, Bart., and Canon Lonsdale ; 
LINCOLN Canon Venables, and Thomas Garfit, Esq., M.P. ; LLA.NDAFF Rev. 
W. Feetham ; ST. ALBAN S Rev. H. F. Johnson, and J. W. Perry Watlington, 
Esq. ; CHICHESTER Rev. Dr. T. F. Crosse (vice Canon Ashwell, deceased] ; 
CARLISLE Canon Prescott, and Colonel C. E. Watson; HEREFORD W. L. 
Lowndes, Esq., and Rev. Prebendary Hill ; WORCESTER Edward Chance, Esq., 
and Hon. and Rev. H. Douglas ; DURHAM Hon. and Rev. F. Grey, and R. 
K. Ellis, Esq. ; NORWICH Rev. W. J. Stracey, and S. Westhorpe, Esq. ; 
MANCHESTER H. Birley, Esq., M.P., and the Dean of Manchester ; YORK 
Rev. J. Palmes, and Canon Randolph ; RIPON Rev. C. H. Sale, and Canon 
Boyd. 

8. The following Report was presented on behalf of the Continental 
Chaplaincies Committee : 

"The Continental Chaplaincies Committee report to the Society that out of 
the sum of 2OO/. granted to them by the Society, they have made grants to the 
following places : Athens, 2O/. ; Caen, 25/. ; Havre, 2$l. ; Lisbon, I5/. ; 
Marseilles, 4O/. ; Ostende, 2O/. ; Patras, 2O/. ; Saxe- Weimar, io/. ; and from the 
Continental Chaplaincies Fund, Blankenberge, io/. ; Darmstadt, 2O/ ; Frankfort, 
3O/. ; Spa, io/. ; to the fund for the erection of a church at Engelberg, io/. ; and 
towards the enlargement of the English church at Meyringen, io/. 

"The Committee have also to report that during the past year the English 
church at Marienbad in Bohemia (built through the liberality of Mrs. Scott, of 
Rodono, and her friends) has been consecrated and conveyed to the Society ; that 
the Foundation Stone has been laid and the foundations put in of the church at 
Pontresina, and that through the liberality of visitors to the place a sum of 
nearly 4007. has, during the past year, been added to the Church Building Fund ; 
and that all the expenses incurred in the erection of the church at Mtirren, and in 
providing its fittings have been defrayed, so that there is now no debt existing on, 
the Church there. 



102 Annual Meeting. [ SStS? 

" The Committee have further much pleasure in stating that the Rev. Canon 
Sidebotham, the Society s Chaplain at Mentone, has, with the cordial approval 
and support of the Bishop of Gibraltar, opened a House of Rest at Mentone for 
invalided clergy, who will thus be enabled to obtain, at a comparatively small 
expense, the change of air and rest which are oftentimes absolutely essential to 
their recovery. Further particulars on the subject will gladly be given on 
inquiring at the office of the Society, where subscriptions and donations in 
support of the work will be thankfully received and placed to the account of 
the St. John s House of Rest, Mentone. 

" The Summer Chaplaincies have been duly provided for, but the shortness of 
the season, in consequence of the inclement weather which prevailed on the 
Continent during the early part of last summer, has affected materially the 
amount of the offertories, on which the maintenance of those chaplaincies 
depends. The total sum contributed in this way from twenty-three stations, with 
an average sea-on of thirteen weeks each was, in 1879, about 475/., that is, at the 
rate of only about a guinea and a half per Sunday from each chaplaincy. 

" The Committee desire to call the serious attention of their countrymen and 
others who are in the habit of availing themselves of, and who profess to value 
the spiritual privileges thus provided for them, to the very scanty support given 
to the furtherance of so important an object as the providing Services in 
accordance with the Rites of the Church of England at the several Tourist 
resorts on the Continent during the season. 

" The Committee were enabled in the past year to defray, out of a special fund 
contributed for the purpose, the expense of the journey of Bishop Claughton, 
who held confirmations in Belgium, and France in the month of April last. At 
the Annual Meeting in February, 1879, the number of the members of the Com 
mittee was increased from twelve to sixteen ; and, in accordance with the 
constitution of the Committee, which is analogous with that of the Standing 
Committee, four of its members who have served longest and have, during the 
past twelvemonth, attended fewest meetings of the Committee, retire. 

"The retiring members are Lieut. -Col. Childers, J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., 
Rev. Brymer Belcher, and Rev. F. S. May. The Committee have nominated to 
fill the places thus left vacant the following gentlemen : Rev. Brymer Belcher, 
Rev. Dr. A. T. Lee, Rev. Canon Erskine Knollys, and L. M. Rate, Esq. 
*, " In conclusion, the Committee would respectfully represent to the Society that 
the work of the Committee is seriously restricted by reason of the smallness of 
the funds at their disposal ; and they would request the Society to considsr 
whether the scope of the Committee s labours might not be usefully enlarged, and 
an increased annual grant be made them, so as to enable their work to be done 
more efficiently and successfully than is possible at present." 

The Members above nominated were elected, with the exception of Mr. 
Rate, who proved not to be qualified and the Rev. F. S. May was elected 
in his place. 

9. Resolved that the cordial thanks of the Society be given to the follow 
ing Honorary Deputations for the valuable assistance which they have 
rendered to the Society during the past year in pleading its cause, by 
preaching Sermons or addressing Meetings : 

The Rev. C. T. Ackland, Rev. J. Ambrose, Bishop of Antigua, Rev. Dr. D. 
Armstrong, Rev. II. W. Bagnall, Rev. Canon Barry, D.D., Rev. S. E. Bartleet, 
Rev. R. T. Batchelor, Rev. E. B. Bhose, Rev. H. J. Bodily, Rev. G. Body, 
Rev. J. Bridger, Rev. \V. C. Bromehead, Rev. C. Bull, Ven. Archdeacon 
Burney, Bishop Piers Claughton, Rev. W. R. Cochrane, Rev. J. W. Coe, D.D., 
Bishop of Columbia, Rev. Astley Cooper, Rev. W. Crossland, Bishop of St. 
David s, Ven. Archdeacon Daykin, Rev. J. Denton, Rev. H. P. Dodd, Rev. G. 
W. Downer, Bishop of Dunedin, Rev. F. W. Ellis, Bishop of Ely, Rev. A. P. 
Evans, Rev. J. Fairclough, Rev. Canon Farrar, D.D., Rev. H. C. Fellowes, Rev. 
J. L. Gardner, Rev. J. W. Gedge, Rev. G. M. Gorham, Rev. W. Green, Rev. 



Mission Field, 
Mar. 1, 



] Annual Meeting. 103 



W. Greenstoclc, Rev. Canon Gregory, Rev. F. B. Gribbell, Rev. F. H. Hastings, 
Sir C. Hobhouse, Bart., Rev. A. C. Hoggin?, Rev. F. Hopkins, Rev. G. Hor- 
lock, Ven. Archdeacon Huxtable, Rev. W. T. Image, Rev. Blomfield Jackson, 
Rev. T. B. Jenkinson, Rev. Canon W. H. Jones, Rev. J. Kemp, Bishop 
Kestell-Cornish, Rev. Francis King, Rev. H. C. Lory, Ven. Archdeacon Mac- 
Murray, Rev. A. W. Macnab, Rev. P. Marks, Bishop of Melanesia, Earl Nelson, 
Rev. A. F. Northcote, Rev. J. H. Nowers, Rev. H. N. Oxenham, Rev. W. 
Panckridge, Rev. J. Perham, Rev. S. H. Phillips, Ven. Archdeacon Potter, Rev. 
R. C. W. Raban, Bishop of Rangoon, Rev. C. H. Rice, Rev. A. W. L. Rivett, 
Rev. T. Rooke, Bishop of Saskatchewan, Rev. C. B. Seifferth, Rev. A. Shutte, 
Rev. F. Slater, Rev. Adam Clarke Smith, Rev. E. Shears, Rev. W. Tebbs, Rev. 
C. P. Thomas, Rev. J. D. Tovey, Rev. Canon F. Tremayne, Rev. J. Trew, 
Bishop Tufnell, Rev. L. Tuttiett, Rev. J. R. Vernon, Rev. A. H. B. Vivian, 
Rev. H. J. Wale, Rev. E. F. Wayne, Rev. N. G. Wells, Rev. T. Wheler, Rev. 
Provost Whitaker, Rev. R. R. Winter, Rev. A. A. Wood, Rev. A. C. Wood, Rev. 
G. J. Woodward, Rev. A. Wright, Rev. J. L. Wyatt, and Rev. S. York. 

10. The Standing Committee moved : 

"That a Committee be appointed to consider whether any, and, if any, what 
changes should be made in the constitution of the Society, and to report to the 
Society through the Standing Committee in May: and that such Committee 
consist of twenty -one Members." 

After discussion the resolution was carried, and a Committee was 
appointed consisting of the following Members : 

"The Earl of Powis, Earl Nelson, the Bishops of Winchester, Durham, 
Carlisle, and Ely, Sir Charles P. Hobhouse, Bart., Rev. Canon Gregory, Rev. Dr. 
Currey, Rev. R. T. Davidson, F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., Ven. Archdeacon Blom 
field, C. Raikes, Esq., C.S.I., Rev. E. Capel Cure, Rev. C. II. Sale, Rev. F. 
Bennett, Rev. W. J. Stracey, Rev. J. Goring, Hugh Birley, Esq., M.P., Rev. E. 
J. Selwyn, and the Rev. R. R. Bristow." 

11. The following alteration of Bye-law X. was recommended by the 
Standing Committee, viz. : 

"That for the words for a period of two years last past, there be substituted 
the words during each of the two years preceding the fir.-t day of January of the 
year in which the recommendation shall be made. " 

The Rev. T. O. Marshall proposed, and the Rev. J. W. Horsley 
seconded, the following as an Amendment to the Resolution of the 
Standing Committee : 

"That all the words in the Resolution after the word during be omitted, and 
that the following words be inserted in their place, the year in which the 
recommendation shall be made, and during the year preceding. " 

After discussion the Amendment was lost, and the Resolution, as 
proposed by the Standing Committee, carried without a division. 

12. On the recommendation of the Board of Examiners, Mr. G. Scott 
was accepted for work in Noumea, New Caledonia, and the Rev. W. G. 
Harrison was approved for work in the Diocese of Adelaide. 

13. The Rev. T. Williams, of Llanidloes, was appointed Organizing 
Secretary for the Archdeaconry of Merioneth ; the Rev. W. M. H. Elwyn, 
of Waresley, for the Archdeaconry of Hunts ; the Rev. H. S. Syers, of St. 
John s, Peterborough, for the Archdeaconry of Oakham ; and the Rev. 
H. J. Wale for part of the Archdeaconry of Southwark. 

14. In accordance with Bye-law XXIV. a copy of the Regulations 
was laid on the table by the Secretary. 



io 4 Annual Meeting. ftfe?^ 

15. Cn the recommendation of the Standing Committee the Seal of 
the Society was ordered to be affixed to certain documents : and it 
was resolved to accept the Trust of the Perth Bishopric Endowment 
Fund, as proposed by the Bishops of Adelaide (the present Trustee) and 
Perth. 

1 6. The Rev. J. W. Horsley gave notice that he would move at the 
meeting in April : 

"That in all future elections of members to serve on the Standing Committee 
no distinction or separation be made between those nominated by the Standing 
Committee and those proposed by individual members, but that all names be put 
in one list and arranged alphabetically." 

17. All the candidates proposed in December were elected into the 
Corporation. The following were proposed for election in April : 

Rev. Robinson Thornton, D.D., St. John s, Netting Hill; Rev. Charles 
Martin, Woodnorton, East Dereham ; Rev. C. Lovett Cameron, Eton College ; 
Rev. William Dunkerley, Hoar Cross, Burton-on-Trent ; Rev. J. H. Bright, St. 
Mark s, Bristol ; John Rogers, Esq., Holt Hall, East Dereham ; R. Uniacke 
Penrose- Fitzgerald, Esq., Corkbeg Island, Co. Cork ; Rev. A. J. Nicholson, 
Doneraile, Buttevant ; Rev. S. T. Harman, Templebredy, Co. Cork ; Rev. A. C. 
Hoggins, Grammar School, Croydon ; Rev. Clement E. Sherard, Rampisbam, 
Dorchester ; Rev. W. W. Kirby, Rectory, Barn^ley ; Rev. W. Covington, Holy 
Trinity, Brompton ; Rev. A. A. O Neill, Holy Trinity, Newingtcn ; Major 
General F. E. Moberly, 17, St. Stephen s Square, W. ; Rev. Thomas Dalton, 
Eton ; Rev. Robert Hall, Flaxley, Gloucester ; Rev. Roland G. Mathew, All 
Saints , Wigan ; Rev. T. S. Holmes, Wookey, Well?, Somerset; Rev. H. T, 
Waters, North Holrnwood, Dorking; Rev. H. Shrimpton, All Saints , Stoke 
Newington ; H. Wolrige Gordon, Esq., 43, Queen s Gate Terrace, S.W. ; Rev. 
W. Pcole, Hentland, Ross, Herefordshire; Stopford Sackville, Esq., M.P., 17, 
Hill Street, Berkeley Square, W. ; Rev. V. F. Ransome, Compton Bassett, 
Calne ; R. M. Lowe, Esq., 48, Upper Bedford Place ; Rev. T. C. Lewi c , 
Harmondsworth, Slough ; Rev. F. S. Thornton, St. Sepulchre s, Northampton ; 
Rev. F. W. Willis, All Saints , Wellingborough ; Admiral D. Robertson - 
Macdonald, 41, Lansdowne Road, W. ; Rev. F. T. Swinburn, D.D., Acock s 
Green, Birmingham ; Rev. W. J. Frere, St. Mary s, Wolverhampton ; Rev. G. H. 
Rust, St. Mark s, Clerkenwell ; Charles B. Smith, Esq., Queen Square, Wolver- 
hampton ; Rev. G. S. Nottidge, Boughton Aluph, Ashford ; Rev. W. T. Jones, 
St. Nicholas, Guild f ord ; Rev. Claud Brown, Harmondsworth, Slough; Rev. T. 
S. Curteis, Rectory, Sevenoaks, Kent ; Rev. J. S. Boldero, Amblecose, Stour- 
bridge ; Rev. E. Glover, Christchurch, Wolverhampton ; Rev. J. B. Rust, St. Jude s, 
G:ay s Inn Road; Rev. F. L. Moysey, 91, Kensington Gardens Square, W. ; Rev. 
T. Stevens, St. Luke s, Victoria Docks, E. ; Rev. R. Jamblin, Wilmington, 
Dartford ; Rev. J. M. Davenport, St. Peter s Vauxhall, *S.E. ; Rev. Frederick 
Wallis, Caius College, Cambridge; Kev. C. L. Wingfteld, Welwyn, Herts; 
Rev. W. H. Grove, Sec. S.P.C.K., Northumberland Avenue, S.W.; Rev. C. J. 
Robinson, Rectory, West Hackney, E. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD. 



folb u fyt borlb. &(j* steb h ifje $lorb of 



APRIL i, 1880. 



MONTREAL, 

FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES MET. VAUDREU1L. LONG SERVICE. 
COTEAU DU LAC. 

COMMERCIAL failures in the Metropolitan city, and the 
general scarcity of money, have very seriously affected 
Mission work and prospects in the diocese. So much so, that 
almost immediately after his consecration Bishop Bond felt it 
necessary to commence a visitation of the whole diocese, with a 
view to finding a remedy for the disheartening state of things thus 
brought about. This has not been without result, and with noble 
contributions from the congregations of the Cathedral and St. 
George s, Montreal, supplemented by local efforts, matters are once 
more being placed on a better footing. Archdeacon Lonsdell, of 
St. Andrew s, wrote in November of sad effects produced in the 
country districts of his archdeaconry, four Missionaries having been 
obliged to leave their posts for want of support. 

The Rev. T. W. Pyke, in a letter dated December 3ist, records a 
very interesting case of attachment to the Church at Vaudreuil : 

" A sum of two hundred dollars was lately bequeathed to the Church 
here by an old member of the name of Cameron. When I first came 
here he and his father were residents and Presbyterians. They joined 
the Church, and were confirmed, the father being then seventy-five years 
old, the son thirty. They continued steadfast members of the Church, 
the old man dying at the advanced age of ninety-one. The son, who 
had removed from the parish, came to see me in March last specially to 

NO. CCXCII. I 



106 Quebec. rMission *** 



Apr. 1, 1880. 



ask me to administer Holy Communion to him. My own wife being 
sick at the time, we had a celebration in her room,, and he left us 
comforted." 

We regret to add that Mrs. Pyke s death occurred shortly after 
wards. 

The Rev. J. Johnston, who has been forty-one years a Missionary of 
the Society, and seen his original Mission divided into seven, rejoices 
that at the age of sixty- six he finds himself as well able as ever to 
perform his duties at Hull, though very thankful to be relieved of 
the necessity of riding from forty to eighty miles to visit outlying 
stations. He is troubled by almost every kind of dissent, but 
believes the Church to be gradually gaining more and more members 
of all sects into her fold. 

The Rev. Wm. Jones has experienced thirty-six years of Mission 
ary labour, and has now undertaken a new charge in the township 
of Broome, where, he reports, the people have received him very 
heartily. 

At Coteau du Lac a liberal response was made to an appeal by 
he Bishop for aid to the Diocesan Mission Fund, accompanied by 
a circumstance of interest : 

" After the meeting an aged female member of the congregation gave 
the Bishop two gold rings, which she wished to be sold, and the proceeds 
to be given to the Mission Fund. The rings were valued by a jeweller, 
who said their intrinsic worth was i/. $s. a-piece." 



QUEBEC. 

GROWTH AND PROGRESS. NEED OF LETTERS COMMENDATORY. 
WORK IN THE MARINE HOSPITAL AND PORT OF QUEBEC. - AFTER 
MANY DAYS. DEATH OF THE REV. R. SHORT. TRYING JOURNEYS. 
- A NEW PARSONAGE. 

THE work in this diocese, as in Montreal, is not of a nature 
calculated to produce reports from which extracts of peculiar 
interest can be made. For such we must look to more purely 
Missionary dioceses. Yet in looking through the letters and state 
ments of services held and visits paid, sent home from time to time, 
it is impossible not to be impressed with the immense amount of 
labour accomplished by the Society s clergy in performing humble 
and unobtrusive duty. 



Mission Field, 
Ayr. 1, 



Letters of Commendation. 107 



The Rev. John Forster looks back over a period of seventeen 
years to the time when, a newly-ordained deacon, he was sent as 
Missionary to Coaticook, a district with an area of more than two 
hundred square miles, without church or school, and with very few 
Church-folk. There are now four churches and a church school, all 
out of debt, and with good congregations. More than half those 
who are now attached members of the Church have been drawn 
from sects prejudiced against, and hostile to, her communion. 

Mr. Forster speaks strongly upon a subject the Society has already 
done its best to impress upon the English parochial clergy, but with 
little result. He says that the immigrants arriving from the mother 
country 

<l Never bring letters commendatory from the clergy in whose parishes 
they lived in England ; the consequence is they are often lost to the 
Church, because they happen to be employed by a Dissenter in a back 
part of the country, where the Church clergyman never hears of them. 

" It would be a great benefit to the emigrant coming to Canada, if he 
were to bring with him a letter commendatory from his Rector, with 
instructions to present it at once on arriving at his destination in Canada, 
to the clergyman or Missionary of the Church stationed there. The 
presentation of such a letter to any of the clergy of the Church in this 
country would secure for the immigrant a warm personal friend, who 
would give him good advice, and take any reasonable amount of trouble 
to find him profitable employment ; and it would also enable the clergy 
man to look after his spiritual interests, and keep him still in communion 
with the Church of his forefathers." 

Nor is Mr. Forster the only Missionary who feels the necessity of 
such a custom. The Rev. A. J. Balfour writes from Hatley thus at 
the close of last year : 

" It would be a very great help to us if parish clergymen in England 
would only take the trouble to give intending emigrants a letter of intro 
duction addressed to any Episcopal clergyman as our brother clergy in 
the United States often do. With such a letter a stranger in a new land 
would naturally lose little time in using it, and thus a sympathetic link 
would at once be formed, and the first such is ever the most important. 
Scores are lost to us who might thus be retained. One s heart would 
naturally warm towards a stranger thus presenting himself, and take in 
him, if possible, an especial interest. Will they not do it?" 

The subject is indeed one of very frequent occurrence in Mission 
ary correspondence. It will be seen that it is referred to again at 
the close of the following letter from the Rev. M. M. Fothergill, 
whose work lies in the Marine Hospital and Port of Quebec. We 
print the letter almost at length, as showing a distinct branch of 
S.P.G. influence : 

I 2 



_ _O /")*/ />/>/>/- TMission Field, 

1 06 {meuec. |_ Apr . lt 1880 . 

" In May and June we received largely from the Spring Fleet. One 
family of the name of Nutt came to us from Hull by the first steamer, 
and remained until late in the summer, all being laid up in turn with 
scarlet fever. They were bound for Manitoba, but in consequence of 
their long detention, I prevailed upon them to give up their long journey 
westward, and to settle down on a farm in the Mission of Cookshire ; 
they are valuable additions to the Church there, being consistent and 
intelligent people. 

" We have received about 350 from the British Isles, besides a large 
number from Norway and Sweden. 

" I have had many opportunities of doing some work amongst the 
Fleet. The captains and sailors are always glad of my visits. 

"The Water-Side Mission very generously sent me a valuable supply 
of books, tracts, &c., which I found most useful. My great want is 
books books of all kinds. I might also mention another great want, 
and that is, a suitable instrument for the chapel in the hospital. The 
sailors, as a rule, thoroughly appreciate a hearty musical service. 

" On the whole I am much encouraged in my work, and have been 
often cheered by kind letters from people at home, thanking me for seeing 
after their friends and relatives. Might I venture to suggest that emigrants 
to this Port would do well to bring letters from their respective clergymen 
to me ? Often a word might save them not only from positive sin, but 
from loss at the hands of those who ever prey upon the friendless and 
unwary." 

Writing from Bourg Louis at Christmas, the Rev. H. C. Stuart, 
among other signs of the growth of Christian principle in his district, 
mentions the fact that wakes and faction fights, formerly very 
frequent, have been unknown for some two years past. " These 
happy changes," he writes, 

"Are clearly the result of the good seed sown by the Society s Mission 
aries years ago, now at last bearing fruit. The schools, also, which have 
now been in constant operation for several years, are yielding a harvest, 
which their first promoters could have scarcely predicted. I cannot but 
think that if the Missionaries who laboured here thirty and forty years 
ago could revisit the scenes of their toils and frequent disappointments, 
they would see abundant reasons for believing that their labours had been 
signally blessed ; that the seed which they scattered so earnestly and 
anxiously, indeed fell into good soil." 

We have painful accounts of the poverty at many stations ; but, 
at the same time, the crops are now said to be better and prospects 
improving. 

The death of the Rev. Robert Short at Gaspe Basin must not 
be left unnoticed. He was the oldest clergyman in the diocese of 
Quebec, having been ordained by its first Bishop, and had been for 
more than fifty years an S.P.G. Missionary. His faculties were 
bright to the last, and he could speak of the various charges he had 
held in both Upper and Lower Canada. 



"SST, 3S 1 ] Perils by Land and Sea. 109 

The Rev. J. P. Richmond has nearly completed his new church 
at Gaspe Basin, and has undertaken some arduous work at a distance, 
his account of which will, we believe, interest our readers : 

" During the month of November last application was made to me 
through the Diocesan Board to know what services I could render to the 
people at Peninsula and Little Gaspe". The Board felt that owing to the 
few services given, and the difficulty of serving those places from Sandy 
Beach, many were being lost to the Church. I have promised to try to 
serve Little Gaspe once a month taking one Sunday out of every four 
for Little Gaspe", and having service on my way back at Peninsula and 
on another Sunday in the month to try to service St. Paul s and St. 
James s churches and Peninsula on the same Sunday. With good roads 
in winter and fine weather in summer this will be possible, as long as I 
enjoy good health ; but there will be times when it will be impossible to 
cross the Bay or to go round and cross the river, and then the people 
will not expect me. 

" I commenced the new arrangement on the first of the month, and 
began by a rough trip. The ice was forming in the Bay, and the drift 
ice and intense cold 20 below zero made an attempt to reach Peninsula, 
three miles distant by water, unpleasant and unsafe. However, the ice 
at the bottom of the north-west arm had formed and was firm. There 
had been a thaw, then hard frost, and the roads were covered with ice on 
this side of the Bay. A regular sleigh was out of the question, owing to 
the roughness of the road. So to reach Peninsula, only three miles over 
the water, I had to procure a sleigh usually used for drawing firewood, 
a good driver who was acquainted with the ice and would shun bad 
places, a good horse, a bundle of straw for a seat, and two good skins. 
Thus provided we started on a journey of sixteen miles. The first six 
were made in good style and the ice crossed, but on the other side of the 
Bay we found more bare ground than good road, and had to walk most 
of the remaining nine miles. We made the journey in three and a half 
hours, and were very glad to reach the hospitable abode of Captain 
Annett. In the evening I held a meeting of Church-people, numbering 
twenty-nine families told them what the Diocesan Board proposed for 
them, and entered into an agreement as to payments, &c. The people 
were delighted to find they were cared for, and were not to be cast off a 
prey to Methodism and Romanism, both of which they seemed to hold in 
abhorrence. I commenced by regular ministrations the following Sunday 
morning, and proceeded on Sunday afternoon to Little Gaspe", distant ten 
miles. Here the road was through woods, and we had good roads. I 
saw the churchwardens before service, told them of the arrangements, 
and they promised to see the few who had remained faithful twelve 
families out of over twenty. I had a large congregation, and spoke to 
them after service about the difficulties of their position, and the provision 
made for them ; and promised in January to spend a longer time with 
them. After service I hastened homewards towards Peninsula, hoping 
with Mr. Annett that as the wind was in/ we would have snow to make 
good roads ; reached Mr. Annett s at Peninsula the same evening and 
slept. In the morning three inches of snow rejoiced that the journey 
round the Bay was to be done in short time. After breakfast started 
rejoicings premature snow balled up horses feet ice beneath driving 
almost impossible took four and a half hours to travel sixteen miles. 
Horse off its legs several times reached Gaspe Basin man and beast 



Tin 



r Mission Fiel*. 

\_ Apr< 1( 188(X 



tired out --without serious accident. Since then I have made three 
journeys on the ice direct to Peninsula on St. Stephen s Day for 
Christmas Communion, and twice on sick calls roads good, and travelling 
pleasant, in spite of cold. Soon, however, the weight of snow on the ice 
will weigh it down, and bring the water over it, and then the travelling 
will be bad until the month of March. 

" Peninsula and Little Gaspe were three years ago a separate Mission, 
but too poor to maintain a clergyman. The Mission was then added to 
Sandy Beach, and now falls to my lot. The people in these parts are, 
and I am afraid will be, poor ; they have to live the whole year on the 
product of six months fishing and labour. In the winter there is not 
work enough to employ the men, most of whom take to hunting, which is 
hard work, and gives no returns besides the fresh meat they thus obtain 
for their families. About one hundred Carriboo are killed yearly in 
Gaspd, but the hunting-ground is fifty miles inland, away from human 
habitations, and camping out in the cold is very hard work. And the 
Cod-fishery is not so productive, owing to the markets being flooded 
with Norwegian fish. 

" Now that Canadian salmon can be sent to the English markets, my 
people have a chance of selling their salmon about one penny a Ib. 
dearer making six cents (about threepence sterling) instead of four or 
five cents per lb., the old selling price." 

Progress appears to have been made at Drummondville in both 
outward and inward things. The following is from a letter of the 
Rev. J. J. B. Allnatt, the Missionary there, dated December 3ist : 

"The great effort of the past year has been the building of a new 
Parsonage, long and sorely needed. The old one was a large, incon 
venient building cold and draughty the heating of which during the 
winter cost more than would have paid for both rent and fuel in a more 
comfortable house. I was at length obliged, from motives of both health 
and economy, to leave it, and rent a small house near the church. The 
congregation were thus stimulated to make a mighty effort, and a list was 
prepared at very short notice, and carried round by the wardens and 
members of the Parish Council, for signature, some promising money, 
but the greater part, in default of money, labour or materials. It was a 
touching sight, when the time came for digging the foundation and cellar, 
to see the band of volunteers, already tired with their day s work at their 
different avocations, coming together with spade and shovel for their 
labour of love, and toiling with might and main, by the fading light of the 
summer evening. The parson was in the midst of them, digging and 
shovelling (he flatters himself) with the best. 

" And so we struggled on, through the summer and fall, and part of 
the winter, and now we are comfortably settled in our new home. 

" I am thankful to report increasing congregations, and evidently 
increasing appreciation for the means of grace reverent attention and 
I hope some signs of telling effect from the Word preached. 

"One great subject for thankfulness is the increased observance of the 
seasons of the Church our Lenten and Holy Week services especially. 
The congregation, being in great measure composed of families formerly 
belonging to Presbyterian and other dissenting bodies, were disposed to 
regard these services as superfluous, if not objectionable. But this 
feeling has passed away; and now our Holy Week, with its daily services 



Mission Field,"! ff/frrn T T T 

Apr. 1,1880. J neaeiicwn. 

and course of lectures on the Passion, has become a recognised insti 
tution, and a marked feature in our parish life. The attendance increases 
year by year, and many avowed dissenters take part in the services with 
evident interest. Still I am far from daring to assert that the spiritual 
life of the parish is in a satisfactory state." 



FREDERICTON. 

THE DANISH COLONY AT NEW DENMARK. COLONIAL CHURCH WORK 
IN ALBERT COUNTY. 

THE Mission at New Denmark is one of extreme interest. The 
population of the place consists wholly of Danes, numbering 
about 250, and is increased every year by fresh immigrants from 
Denmark. All were originally educated as Lutherans, but upon the 
principles of the English Church being carefully explained to them 
by their Danish pastor, the Rev. R. M. Hanson, old and young 
together, without an exception, joined the communion of our Church. 
It is now two years since Mr. Hanson was ordained a priest by the 
Bishop of Fredericton; and the service of the Prayer Book is now 
regularly celebrated by him in the Danish language every Sunday, 
the congregations comprising nearly the whole number of colonists. 
A church is rising among them, help having been contributed by the 
Bishop and their Anglican brethren; and as soon as this is con 
secrated Mr. Hanson intends to hold an English service once a 
month for the benefit of the settlers in the neighbourhood, no 
English church being near. Even already he is ministering to them 
in such ways as he can, and expresses very great regret at finding so 
many descendants of Church families who have drifted into dissent 
of various kinds, or utter irreligion, for lack of Church ministrations 
in the land to which they have emigrated. 

An old and decayed Mission, unoccupied by the Church for seven 
teen years, has been very successfully revived by the Rev. G. Love, 
the Society s Missionary at Hopewell. The following is from 
the report furnished by him to the Diocesan Church Society at 
Midsummer last : 

" With the exception of a four or five months residence by Rev. J. H. 
Talbot, Albert County has been without a clergyman for a period of 
nearly seventeen years. In September last, or about nine months 
ago, I was sent here to see what could be done. On arrival, I found that 
there were three churches in the county : one at Hopewell Hill, one at 
Harvey, and one at New Ireland . The church at Hopewell Hill was in 



v/>//>r>rnu [Mission Field. 

112 j: react icwn. |_ Apr. i, isso. 

a deplorable state. The Communion Table had been removed, the cloth 
stolen, no Service Books, neither Bible nor Prayer Book, the walls 
scribbled over, portions, of the stove pipes gone, others broken, the 
melodeon unfit for use. The church at Harvey was still worse, and 
deemed so unsafe, and needing so much repair that I had to abandon all 
idea of holding service in it, till proper and efficient means could be 
devised for raising a sufficient sum of money to begin the work of re 
storation. The third church is situated in New Ireland, an out-of-the- 
way place, and very difficult of access, and without any seeming sur 
rounding population. Probably it is owing to this fact that I found the 
church building in a better state of preservation than could well be 
expected after the lapse of seventeen years. The Communion Table, the 
cloth, reading-desk, pulpit, and seats were all there. The graveyard was 
fenced in, and the sanctity of the place respected. I felt it was a 
mistake ever to have built this church. The worshippers who may have 
lived around it in former years had either died or left the neighbourhood. 
There remain (or they have been succeeded by) a few Roman Catholic 
families, who eke out a scanty subsistence. I grieved at what I saw, but 
I could not resist the conviction that this church was like a stranded 
vessel from which the waters had receded. I was, therefore, reluctantly 
obliged to turn aside, and, like the engineer who has to construct a rail 
road, follow population. 

" Such was the condition of things nine months ago. Let me briefly 
state what has been done, and what we are at present doing. 

" In the first place, Hopewell Hill Church was immediately made ready 
for service. The Communion Table was recovered, the walls were 
whitened, stove pipe purchased at a cost of about 24^., the stoves placed 
in position and fitted for winter use, the melodeon repaired at a cost of 
i6s. and placed in the chancel, where, on Christmas Day, it was heard 
for the first time, after a silence of about seventeen years. Lamps and 
shades were also purchased, locks repaired, and a kneeling cushion for 
the prayer-desk presented by Mrs. Charles Peck, whose zeal for the 
Church s welfare is beyond all praise. In addition to this, services have 
been held and regularly maintained at Hillsboro, fifteen miles distant ; 
at The Hall, Riverside ; at the Methodist Chapel, Harvey ; at the Court 
House, Hopewell Cape, and at the Albert Mine Church six stations in 
all. 

" When I first came to the county, I could find but one young lady 
who understood anything of church music, and every one else seemed to 
hold back from even singing a simple hymn. My wife was, therefore, 
obliged to take the playing and singing in hand at the different places, 
and conduct that portion of the service for me. As this state of things 
was undesirable, inconvenient, and could not always be possible, I exerted 
myself to form local choirs, or the nuclei of choirs, in each place, and I 
am happy and encouraged to be able to report that each of the six 
Missions, or stations in the county, is now in a position to depend upon 
itself, and furnish its own music and singing. I regard this as a great 
gain and step in advance. I may here mention that a sum of about 
3/. I2s. has also been expended on Prayer-books, hymn-books and 
music-books. These necessary outlays, together with sexton s salary, 
lighting and firing the places where services were held, and the payments 
for many other accessories to the decent performance of public worship, 
have taxed the strength of all of us to the utmost. One collection, 
i$s. 4d., for Algoma Mission, is all I am able to report for external use. 
I ought probably also to add that the requisite guarantee for the 6o/. 



of the Liturgy. 113 

conditional on the Society s grant of loo/, was signed and delivered to 
the Secretary in due form. 

" Our financial account for the nine months ending June 15, 1879, 1S as 
follows, viz. : 

> s - d 

Offertory 8 8 n 

Algoma Mission 13 4 

Net proceeds of Concerts 901 



2 4 



" Hitherto, further than the grant for the support of the Ministry by 
the Diocesan Society, nothing has been received, I may say, outside the 
county. It is now necessary to make a deviation, and appeal for funds 
to supplement what we are raising amongst ourselves, so that Harvey 
parish church may be rendered safe to hold service therein. Accord 
ingly, I told the people of Harvey that if they would raise 2O/. them 
selves, or even io/., that I would undertake to collect, get, and give them 
io/. more. That is now being done. Much more will be necessary to 
carry on the work to completion ; but it is thought that 3o/. judiciously 
expended now will arrest decay, ensure the safety of the building, and 
enable us to hold services and Sunday School therein, and so bear us on 
to the time when another effort, or efforts, can be made to render the 
work we have undertaken complete. All of the Mission Stations now 
established are, with one exception, well attended. We count fifty a 
small congregation ; sixty, seventy, or eighty good ; 100 or 120 very good, 
and there have been times when we mustered as many as 200. As an 
illustration, the following represents the attendance and offertory at the 
three places where service was held last Sunday, June 22nd, viz. : 

Hope well Hill, Attendance 80 Offertory $0.63 

Riverside, 60 54 

Harvey, 120 56 

" One other phase of my \vork is worth mentioning. The whole 
county of which I have charge was given over to the Baptists and 
Methodists. The population is about 10,000. A large number of the 
Dissenters who, from novelty or curiosity, attended our service in the first 
instance have been retained, interested and familiarised with the Church 
services by means of the uniformly paged Prayer-book, which we have 
been using all along. These Prayer-books, which I take around with me 
in my wagon, are distributed amongst the congregation, who at the com 
mencement of service are politely requested to stand up, told the page 
where they will find the order for Morning or Evening Prayer, and then, 
as the service proceeds, they are likewise told the page where the Psalms, 
Collects, additional prayers, chants, &c., may be found. I also make it a 
point to request them to repeat the Responses, and the Creeds, which 
they always do, after me. Thus a large number of people all over the 
county are made as familiar with the Church s forms of worship, as they 
are \vith their own chapel services. // is not difficult to foresee or predict 
the ultimate result of this policy if persevered in. 

" To sum up. The result of the nine months work is this : The 
guarantee required by the Diocesan Society has been signed ; six Mission 



T T A PTlirni) I MifSiou Field,, 

114 ** " ; OJl I Ai,r. 1, 1880. 

points have been established, and services regularly held in all ; one 
church has been repaired and made fit for service ; the nuclei of six 
choirs have been formed ; a large number of people, hitherto unacquainted 
with our services, have been, and are still being, familiarised with them ; 
the young have been baptized ; those willing to be confirmed will 
probably more than double the number of communicants in the county ; 
the sick have been visited ; the dead buried ; a number of Prayer-books, 
hymn-books and music-books have been purchased, and extensively 
used. 

"We are now engaged in repairing a second consecrated church, 
which bids fair to have a good congregation and a Sunday School, and 
so meet a need very much felt." 

Since writing the above report Mr. Love has collected the money 
required to put the church at Harvey in partial repair, and services 
are now held regularly there instead of in the Methodist chapel. 
He is gradually proceeding with the fitting, furnishing, and adorn 
ment of the church. The Bishop has visited the Mission, and held 
a Confirmation of nine adults, formerly Baptists or Methodists. Mr. 
Love is apprehensive lest from the impossibility of his people raising 
the sum expected to meet the Diocesan Society s grant, that aid may 
be withdrawn, which would necessarily cause a collapse of Church 
work in the county. 



HURON. 

CHRISTIANITY IN WALPOLE ISLAND. SCATTERED SHEEP. FREE 
WILL OFFERINGS. 

THE following very interesting description of the present 
condition of the Indian population of Walpole Island, and 
of the hold Christianity has gained upon them, comes from the 
Rev. Andrew Jamieson, and reaches to the end of last year : 

" I am thankful to be able to report progress to tell you that the 
Indians are industrious, working steadily on their little farms and anxious 
to follow in the white man s ways, depending less upon hunting, and more 
upon the cultivation of the soil. 

"They continue, at the same time, to take a lively interest in the 
Church services. Our seasons for Holy Communion are looked forward 
to with joy, and a goodly number of communicants religiously and 
devoutly disposed, come to the most comfortable Sacrament of the Body 
and Blood of Christ. 

" On Tuesday, the 28th of October, we had Confirmation. On the day 
before I had been with the Bishop in the township of Moore, eighteen 
miles from our Island, assisting in Confirmation services there. The 



"ASS, S ] Walpok Island. 1 1 5 

weather was very stormy, and as the wind was raging with great violence, 
I was somewhat fidgety and uneasy about the appointment for the 
morrow. At midnight, while in bed, as I listened to the howling of the 
wind, I made up my mind that we could not possibly reach the Island 
Church. Towards morning, however, there was a slight lull. At i P.M. 
we entered our boat, the wind still raging, and the river, a mile wide, very 
rough. On some one remarking that it was a pity that his Lordship 
should be out in such weather, the Bishop replied, this was nothing, 7 
that he was an old sailor, having crossed the Atlantic thirty times. 

" Our Bishop certainly roughs it well, and in the discharge of duty sets 
an example of zeal and energy, of promptitude and punctuality to the 
youngest of his clergy. On landing near the church we had no reason 
to regret the efforts we had made to keep our appointment, for we found 
the church open and filled with worshippers. After prayers and singing, 
the candidates, thirty-two in number, were called forward. They seemed 
to realise the meaning and the importance of what they were doing. We 
had been preparing for Confirmation throughout the summer months, so 
that I had every reason to hope that all who went forward to receive this 
Apostolic rite, did so intelligently, prayerfully, and with a sincere 
desire ever hereafter to walk in God s ways, and in obedience to His 
commandments. 

" The Confirmation Service being ended, we had a Missionary meeting, 
when stirring addresses were made by several speakers. A subscription 
list was then opened in aid of the Diocesan Mission Fund, and the 
Indians were called on to put their names clown for any amount they felt 
themselves able and willing to pay. 75$, or about I5/. were subscribed 
to be paid on Christmas Day, two or three promising two dollars, some 
one dollar, the majority twenty-five cents, and others less than that. 

"We have no collectors, but the subscribers, if ready on the day 
appointed, come up to me standing within the chancel rails, and place 
their money in my hands. They look upon it as offered for God s service, 
and it is called Kryha muncdro roghonearomur, Anglice, God s Money. 

"Christmas Day has passed and gone; I am happy to say that the 
services were well attended ; every place was occupied, and additional 
seats were brought into the aisle to accommodate the people. The church, 
as usual, was tastefully decorated. After prayers and a short sermon 
suitable to the day, the Holy Communion was administered to sixty 
communicants ; at the same time, nearly all the subscriptions to the 
Mission Fund were willingly and devoutly paid in. 

" When the services were ended, a box full of articles of clothing, with 
a number of pictures beautiful illustrations of certain parts of the Bible 
Story, was opened and distributed to the most needy and deserving. 
This box was sent by a Christian lady who takes a great interest in this 
Mission, and who has for eight years past, gladdened, in a similar way, 
the hearts of my people. Our late Christmas will long be remembered 
amongst us as a season most joyous and refreshing. 

" 1 must now turn your attention to another part of the picture. The 
Indians just now are uneasy about their annuity. This money arises 
from the sale of lands which years ago they had surrendered to the 
Crown. 

" Walpole Island, as you are aware, is occupied by a portion of three 
different tribes, viz. the Ojibways, Potto wawtomies, and Ottawas. The 
Ojibways, 600 in number, are the only parties who have any claim to the 
annuity. From this source, after deducting small allowances to the chief, 
and four councillors, four dollars per annum are given to each individual 



T /C fTuvntt I Mi-ssion Field, 

fiuron. i Apr- 1, 1880 . 

Indian; the youngest receiving as much as the oldest member of the 
tribe a child a day old being entitled to as much as a man of four-score 
years. The larger the family, the greater the amount to be received by 
the head of the household. 

" In 1827, a treaty was entered into with those Indians, under which a 
certain amount of money was guaranteed every year to them, as payment 
for lands ceded to the Crown. The Indians included in this treaty were 
440, and the money was to be paid to them and their descendants. 

"To understand the origin and nature of the present trouble, it is 
necessary for me to mention that of the Indians on the Island, at the 
present time a large proportion are of American descent, i.e. Indians 
from the frontiers of the United States, who have been domiciled here 
for forty and even fifty years. These Indians being related by blood to 
the Walpole Islanders had been invited to settle on the island, and as 
about this time they were threatened by the American government with 
removal to the Far West, they most gladly accepted the invitation. On 
their arrival they were kindly received by their kinsmen, and, in a short 
time, agreeably to Indian custom, were adopted as members of the band, 
and as such were looked upon as entitled to all the rights and privileges 
of Indians born on British soil, and, as a matter of fact, did enjoy the 
same. These immigrants or refugees and their children were then per 
mitted to receive an equal share in the yearly payments, as well as in all 
the benefits arising from their connexion with England. 

" But the old chiefs under whose regime this state of things began, have 
all passed away, and the young Indians of the present time, more 
enlightened than their ancestors, and looking more carefully after their 
pecuniary interests, are dissatisfied, and now wish to reverse the policy of 
their fathers, or, as they say, to adhere to the strict terms of the treaty. 
They urge that in receiving the new comers from the United States, and 
especially in giving them an equal share in the annuities, the old chiefs 
had acted ultra vires, and had ignored the provisions of the treaty which 
limited the payment to such only as were included in the original 440. 
Thus, at this moment, our population is divided into treaty and non- 
treaty Indians. 

" One circumstance which no doubt has had much to do with the 
present movement, is jealousy on the part of the treaty Indians. Of the 
two sections, the non-treaty Indians, as a general thing, are the more in 
telligent and enterprising. They are more industrious and better off, and 
on this account have more influence and authority on the island. This 
has given offence, and has contributed, in a great degree, to strengthen 
the desire for a change. There has been restlessness from this cause, 
since 1870. Some think that this difficulty might have been settled 
sooner, but there were hindrances in the way. Since the arrival of these 
" Mayuggezezig " (strangers), as they are called by the natives, many 
years had passed away, and intermarriages of the Ojibways with the 
Pottowawtomies or Ottawas, had been more or less frequent. It seemed, 
too, a hardship to cut off from the annuity parties that had shared in it 
for the long period of fifty years. Moreover, it was hoped that the dis 
satisfaction existing would gradually die away, and that, after a while, all 
would settle down into their former state of contentment. 

"But matters grew worse, and latterly the agitation became so trouble 
some as to attract the serious notice of the Government, and the local 
agent, an honourable and upright man, was instructed to call the Indians 
together, and examine them under oath as to their antecedents, viz. when 
and where born ? where their parents came from ? when they came to 



Mission Field,") / r *7s,, 7>c7i~ii-rr 

Apr. 1, 1680. J C la) KSOlllg. 



the island? and their relation, if any, to the treaty Indians? The 
examination was very tedious, and lasted a long time. 

" There were several touching incidents as the examination proceeded. 
Amongst several, I shall mention one, the testimony of an aged squaw, 
named Gunnukwanbubmequa, a woman much respected in her tribe. 
Her daughter had married a Pottowawtomie, and she was afraid that on 
this account the daughter and her children would lose their interest in the 
annuity. When addressing the agent she took out of a bag a scarlet- 
coloured coat which had been worn by her father, an Indian brave, who 
had seen much service during the war of 1812 1814. She also produced 
a medal which had been given him for courage and good conduct. 
These she had kept, and would continue to keep, she said, with 
jealous care, and she hoped that in remembrance of the soldier s merits, 
the interests of her child, and of her grandchildren, would be nrotected. 
Her statement was taken down and appended to her testimony. 

"The agent, I am glad to say, spoke most favourably of the manner in 
which the evidence was given. He was much struck with the strong 
desire on the part of almost every one to tell the truth, however strongly 
that truth might seem to operate to his prejudice. 

" The testimony thus obtained has been forwarded to Ottawa, and a 
final decision may be expected soon, which I trust will bring peace, if 
not complete satisfaction, to these children of the forest. 

" Of course, if the result prove unfavourable to the claims of the 
strangers/ it will be a great loss to some of them. The aged and infirm 
will feel it keenly ; as for the rest, time will be the great consoler, and I 
always tell them that the erasure of their names from the pay list, even if 
it should take place, need not be a great calamity, that a few more 
potatoes or ears of maize put in the ground would easily make up for the 
loss." 

The Rev. J. D. Brown, of Clarksburg, in his letter of September 
3oth, 1879, mentions an incident, not of an uncommon nature in 
Missionary life, but leading perhaps to more immediately happy 
results than usual : 

" Some two months ago in visiting in a remote corner of my Mission, I 
came across quite a number of Church families, who had not seen a 
clergyman in their houses for some years, and it was quite a pleasure to 
see the hearty way in which they welcomed me, and see them willing to 
leave their harvest work and sit down while I read and expounded God s 
Word and prayed with them. Finding them so anxious to have the 
service of the Church of England carried on near them, I obtained per 
mission to use a Primitive Methodist Church, and appointed a monthly 
service on Thursday evenings. The first time I went was a very dark 
night, thundering and lightning and pouring with rain, still I had twenty- 
five present, some having walked two miles. The next evening that I 
had service about ninety attended, in fact, the little church was full and 
some were sitting outside, and a more attentive congregation I never 
preached to. I am thinking of going there on Sunday evenings once a 
month, as it is only five miles from one of my other churches. The 
people are very poor and have no horses to drive out with, and many live 
some miles further still." 

A glimpse of curiously primitive customs at Meaford is given us 



__O A 7,Y/ijj/T TMission Field, 

I 10 AlOma. Ar. 1 1880. 



Apr. 1, 1880. 

in a report from the Missionary there, the Rev. J. Hill, which at 
least speaks well for the spirit of the people towards their pastor : 

" Tucker s school-house, which is secured every second Wednesday 
evening, gave during the past winter firewood and provisions to the 
extent of about $25 worth, in one of the old-fashioned donation parties 
unknown I think in England, but common in the States the minister s 
house being suddenly invaded by a host of people who bring with them 
provision for a supper, and a quantity of grain and vegetables for the 
pastor s use." 



ALGOMA. 

SPIRITUAL DESTITUTION IN THE BACKWOODS. 

MISSION work in Algomalies, to a great extent, among heathen 
Indian tribes, but that it has, as all the work undertaken by 
the S.P.G., two distinct sides, we are reminded very forcibly by the 
October report of the Rev. Win. Crompton, a travelling Missionary 
in the diocese, whose efforts are especially directed to benefit our 
own countrymen settled in the bush. The spiritual condition of the 
vast tract of country through which he journeys is truly appalling, and 
should stir the hearts of many to aid the fund he desires to place in 
the hands of the Bishop, for the purpose of building numerous small 
places of worship at central points in the backwoods. 

" I have the honour to hold the position of travelling clergyman in the 
Diocese of Algoma, and in that capacity have at presentyf/fe^ stations at 
which I conduct services, some fortnightly, some monthly. I have, as a 
rule, three services every Sunday, sometimes four, and the stations are 
from seven to fourteen miles apart. My district is in the form of an im 
mense triangle, one side of which is sixty-three miles long, the other forty- 
four miles, and the base twenty miles. 

" Many of my stations cannot have Sunday, so they are compelled to be 
satisfied with week-day services, and hundreds of settlers gladly avail 
themselves of this privilege. This to some may appear a matter of course, 
bat when I state that the labour of the a.re is the daily food of a settler, not 
only at the immediate time, but in the future for himself and his children, 
considerate people will see that, when a settler gives up his time to attend 
the services of his church during the week-day, having already set apart 
the Lord s Day, he is giving liberally of his substance and shows a strong 
devotion to the Church. 

" My home is completely in the backwoods of Canada, in the district 
called Free Grant, and my residence is the ordinary log-house of the 
settler. 

" I came to settle here with my large family after a toilsome life as a 
City Missionary and Lay-reader, and finding there was a demand for my 
help by my Church, I offered myself and chose the life I lead with my eyes 
open. I commenced as Lay-reader amongst my immediate neighbours, 



Mission Field, 

Apr. 1. 1880. 



! A C- ,/ p:/.!*,*,? 

J - ^> aa * iciure. 119 



and in that capacity soon had seven stations at which to hold service ; 
then passed for Orders, because there would be a wider and more useful 
sphere of labour opened out to me. . 

" Of course I have to give up many of the conventionalities of life on 
my travels, and it is very hard work. But personal inconveniences are 
not what I wish to speak about, or those which give me the most pain ; 
these do not form the hardest part of my work. That which wearies me, 
makes me heart-sick, and depresses me so much that, at times, I am 
tempted to yield to a feeling of despair is, that there is so much work 
around me which, with all my labour, I cannot begin to do. 

" My travels lead me into or through eleven townships ; each township 
is upwards of ten miles square, so that my small parish contains about 
eleven hundred sqtiare miles ! I border on Perry, Franklin, Armour, and 
seven other townships, which makes another thousand square miles, and 
Government is now surveying six fresh townships or another six hundred 
square miles. All these townships are well settled up, and we have thus 
some sixteen townships, or sixteen hundred square miles of country which 
are never visited by a parson, and many of which have no sort of minis 
terial services whatever. I am the only clergyman of our Church in a 
country of about two thousand seven hundred square miles, teeming with 
thousands of souls for whom Christ died and who once knew Him as their 
.Saviour. 

" I pray you, if possible, publish what I write, because I ask that some 
thing may be done for these perishing thousands. I ask not that the 
heathen may be converted into the Christian, but my prayer is, that 
Christians may be prevented becoming worse than heathens. 

"With an experience of S. Giles , London, Gosta Green, of Birming 
ham, and Angel Meadow, of Manchester, I can boldly say, I never heard 
blasphemy in the slums which could equal that I have heard in the 
Backwoods. 

" These people can say Paul I know, but it is only to dispute with 
him ; and ( Christ I know, but only to use His name as a vehicle for 
blasphemy. But have we any right to expect that it should be otherwise, 
when, by the system of free grants, people are tempted into the isolation 
of backwoods life, and no provision whatever is made that they are re 
minded that they have a soul to be saved and a God to honour and obey? 
I may be met with Why, how is this ? Canada is a prosperous country. 
A church of her own ; let that Church see to her own children. Alas ! 
here is where I am compelled to join issue with our brethren. Five years 
ago there were only thirty heads of families in the township where my 
house is, now they number hundreds. There are known to be at the 
present moment tens of thousands of human beings, where, five years ago, 
the residents could be counted on both hands ! And the majority of these 
come from England. Of all my fifteen congregations, I do not know 
that I have thirty souls who are Canadians. In many places my congre 
gations are either entirely English or Irish. There is not a colonial 
church anywhere which could make due provision that these souls should 
be properly cared for : and I feel deeply the responsibility which will lie 
upon our brethren at home if they do not make strenuous efforts that 
these wandering, should not become lost sheep to our Israel. 

" Not only blasphemy and immorality of the worst kind, but commun 
ism and infidelity must of necessity increase. Whilst the Church is 
sleeping, so far as the bush settlers are concerned, the enemy of souls is 
busy, and vile papers and agents are spread widely around. The outcome 
of this will as certainly be, as that the sun gives us daylight. The evil 



T?0 



Miwlon Field,. 

_ Apr 1> im 



thoughts, passions, and indulgences of bush-life must and will gradually 
increase the sphere of its influence, and even quiet England herself, with 
all her religious advantages, will feel that influence, and Satan s kingdom 
will spread where least expected. Soon the facilities of trade will be 
within the reach of these our isolated backwoodsmen, for there is no part 
of the country of North America better suited for the production of cattle 
to meet the demand of the meat-trade with England than Muskoka, and 
any one may trace the effect which will gradually be produced on the 
world at large when these men, keen where money is concerned, but to all 
intents and purposes unbelievers of the worst kind, are thus brought to 
mix with their fellow men outside. Modesty, decency, honesty, nay, 
everything goes when religion goes ; and how can we hope to preserve 
religion amongst the men whose chief motive (speaking generally) of 
coming to the bush, has been a worldly one entirely ? What other results 
can we look for when these thousands on thousands are left in isolation of 
bush-life far from the ken of neighbours and without the restraining in 
fluences of religion, and without any fear of a call from one whose duty 
it would be to, and whose very presence would, restrain evil habits and 
remind every one of that Jesus by Whose name they are called ? True 
there is a great deal of prosperity in Canada, but that is not this part of 
Canada ; and the portion which is prosperous has almost more than she 
can do to see that her children there are provided with religious 
sustenance. 

" Alas ! the Church in Canada, so far as we are concerned, can do little 
more than wring her hands in helplessness at the sound of the great call 
she hears on every side without the power to aid. We are compelled to 
look to our mother in England and ask her to come over and help us. 
And there are thousands who see the danger of bush-life to themselves 
and their little ones, who are craving for the Bread of Life. I can num 
ber my people by hundreds now I could number them by thousands if 
my physical powers would only support the wishes of my heart. In every 
possible way they can these settlers show their earnest desire for the 
services of their loved Church. I know of a woman who had to walk 
some three miles to meet me once a month for service, and who borrowed 
a pair of her husband s top-boots to help her to keep out of the swamps ; 
and before she would be kept back by the deep snow, has even worn her 
husband s trousers. 

"A man met me the other Sunday, having walked twelve miles for 
the purpose, to ask me to go near where he lived and give them an 
occasional service, for he said, There are more than forty Church families 
there. 

" On Sunday, October 5th, I opened a so-called church at Seguin Falls 
$39 (about 7/.) was all the money we could get, but the men did the 
work. I fear we cannot have service there during the winter. But I shall 
not soon forget the scene. As a special favour I gave them the whole 
day for the opening. The people literally came miles to service, none 
came less than three-quarters of a mile, many came ten miles. In the 
morning we had sixty-three adults as a congregation, and in the afternoon 
the place was crammed, barely leaving me room in which to officiate. A 
poor man from Manchester would have made a good picture. In his 
excitement he stood prominently forward literally shouting the chants 
and hymns, with the tears streaming down his face. At the end, he 
hardly gave me time to take off my surplice before he grasped me by the 
hand and said, Sir, sir, Mr. Crompton, I have been right to the top 
right to the top of the tree to-day. Thank the good God for this day. 



^ST-fm ] Rupertsland. 121 

He had walked seven miles to service. Dear Mrs. V. from Walsall sh3 
could not stand for emotion, but how she sang ! Her whole soul seemed 
to be pouring from her, whilst her husband knelt by her side during the 
whole service ; they had walked six miles to it. 

" But Mrs. W., from London, was the lady for the occasion, because her 
baby was to be the first baptized in our new church ; ! Was ever baby 
so honoured ? One lent a nice lace cap, another a white frock, another 
something which did duty for a robe. When I was going to our font (?) 
the whole congregation seemed as if they were desirous of getting there 
too and oh, those responses ! they came from full hearts, accompanied 
in some cases with full eyes. Before the whole crowd, Mrs. W. said out, 
I have never been in a church since I heard Bow bells, and my baby is 
the first baptized here ! It was the outpouring of a grateful heart which 
had been deprived of the means of grace for eight years ! 

" But why multiply instances ? I could give them by the score, where 
our fainting brethren are longing for the Waters of Life." 



RUPERTSLAND. 

THE WORK OF THE CATHEDRAL MISSION STAFF, BY THE REV. 

j. O MEARA, OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE. 

OUR work is carried on upon the principle of the associate 
Missions, which have been found so successful in the more 
recently established dioceses of the Western States. We are some 
times aided in this work by the clergy of the neighbouring parishes, 
whose services are in that case supplied during their absence by the 
members of our staff. By this arrangement the following Missions 
are supplied Cook s Creek once a month; Rockwood once a 
month ; Victoria once a fortnight ; Woodlands once a fortnight 
Ossowa once a month; Morris once a fortnight. In addition to 
these we have five services at the centre every Sunday, viz. three in 
St. John s Cathedral itself, and two in Christ Church, which has now 
been erected into a separate parish under the incumbency of the 
Rev. Canon Grisdale, B.D., and gives every promise of becoming a 
strong and flourishing congregation. This congregation will doubtless 
ere long be in the same independent and self-supporting position as 
Holy Trinity Church is now : a congregation which was for some 
years supplied from the Cathedral by the aid of a grant from the 
Society. 

I shall now give a more minute account of the various Mission 
stations referred to. 

NO. CCXCII. K 



1 2 2 Rupcrtsland. 



This is a Mission established some years ago. Owing, however, 
to the circumstance that it lies to the rear of a large and almost 
unoccupied half-breed reserve, the population of this settlement has 
not increased in the proportion which was at first looked for. It is 
considered, however, important for us to hold our ground until the 
reserve shall be settled, in which case our congregations would 
largely increase, and the Mission become a much more flourishing 
one. Land has already been secured for the erection of a church. 

Victoria. 

This is a Mission lying some thirty miles north of St. John s. In 
the summer time it is exceedingly difficult to serve, as there is a 
good deal of swamp to be crossed in reaching it. Here there is an 
exceedingly neat and comfortable little church, erected through the 
exertions of the Rev. S. P. Mattheson, of St. John s College, who 
for some years had the pastoral care of this Mission. There are 
some strongly- attached Church families in Victoria, the land is good, 
the settlement increasing in population : altogether the prospects of 
the Mission are very good. The last occasion on which I held 
service at Victoria I was much pleased and encouraged. The 
church was well filled with a devout and attentive congregation. 
The responding was good, and the singing was very hearty and 
decidedly congregational. There is a large section beyond Victoria 
which is rapidly filling up, and in which there are, I understand, 
many Church families. The whole district requires the services of 
an active and earnest resident clergyman, who would do much 
towards the building up of the Church and the establishment of it 
on a strong and permanent basis. We hope in a very short time to 
have arrangements completed by which we may bring into operation 
the Society s grant to Victoria and neighbourhood, so that this large, 
important, and growing district will be placed in the hands of a 
resident minister. 

Rockwood. 

This settlement lies about two miles to the west of Victoria, and 
is supplied with services once a month. The Church population of 
this settlement is not large, but the families which belong to the 
Church deserve great credit for the steadfastness with which they 
have clung to the Church amidst great discouragements and a good 



Apr 



t US ] Work of Cathedral Mission Staff. 1 23 



deal of necessary isolation. They now gladly avail themselves of 
the monthly service, and show a loving appreciation of the Church s 
ministrations. Upon the last occasion when I held service here the 
house in which I held service was well filled, some of the congre 
gation having come a very considerable distance to be present. 
Land has, I understand, been promised at Stonewall, a village some 
three miles from the centre of Rockwood, in case of our wishing to 
erect church buildings; but this cannot be done till there is a 
clergyman resident in the district. 

Woodlands. 

This is a settlement some thirty-five miles distant from St. John s. 
It is an exceedingly difficult matter to serve this Mission, as a 
great proportion of the road lies over a bleak uninhabited plain, in 
addition to which the swamps in summer and the deep snow in 
winter make the travelling very laborious both for horse and man. 
There is here a church capable of seating about a hundred, which 
was built some two years ago, the people themselves doing a con 
siderable share in the way of furnishing material and labour. The 
congregations here are fairly good, averaging between thirty and 
forty. There is not as yet a very strong Church tone amongst the 
people. They require to have a clergyman going in and out amongst 
them constantly, visiting them in their houses, holding week-day 
services amongst them, and thus establishing a more decidedly 
Church feeling amongst them. When this can be done I believe that 
a really vigorous parish may be established here, as the people have 
always expressed themselves as very willing to aid in supporting the 
ministrations of the Church in their midst. It was originally con 
templated to connect this Mission with Victoria, but grave doubts 
have arisen as to whether this is practicable. 

Ossowa. 

This is a small settlement about fifteen miles west of Woodlands, 
and therefore about fifty miles from St. John s. 

Although the distance renders it extremely difficult to serve this 
place regularly, still an effort is made to give the Church families 
there residing a service at least once a month, for which they are 
very grateful. 

Morris. 

This Mission lies in a direction entirely different from those to 
which I have already referred. It is a small town situate about 

K 2 



i2 4 Rupertsland. 

forty-five miles south of Winnipeg. This Mission, which was com 
menced by the Rev. Canon Grisdale about a year ago, has been for 
the past six months under the supervision of the Rev. W. Cyprian 
Pinkham, of St. James s. The prospects of our Church are at this 
place very promising. There is a strong Church feeling amongst the 
people, many of whom are of quite a superior class. They have 
guaranteed a fair proportion of the salary for a resident clergyman. 
On my visit to that Mission last spring I was delighted with what I 
observed of the general feeling of the congregation. The service 
was good ; there was an excellent choir, hearty congregational 
singing, and very good responding. I am happy to say that through 
the liberality of the Society, aided by the offering of the people and 
a small grant from our own funds, a sufficient salary has been secured 
for the obtaining of the services of a resident clergyman at Morris, 
and I am also glad to know that there is a prospect of securing a 
suitable clergyman for this position at no very distant date. 

And now I would make a few general remarks upon the work of 
our Church in the new settlements of the Canadian North West. 
These settlements are, to a very considerable extent, composed of 
farmers from the older provinces of the Dominion. 

Now there are certain characteristics attaching themselves to our 
Canadian farmers as a class which require of a clergyman labouring 
among them special methods of work. In treating of the feelings 
towards the Church of England of the Canadian middle-class 
farmers, better class mechanics, and others of a similar stand 
ing, it cannot be too carefully borne in mind that the Church of 
England is not the Church of the Dominion, either in point of 
numbers or wealth : the Methodists being the most numerous, and 
the Presbyterians the most wealthy, of the religious denominations. 
It is true that in the general social rank, and consequent intelligence 
of her members, the Church of England in Canada has considerably 
the advantage ; but this circumstance does not of itself weigh much 
amongst our rural communities. The Church in Canada there 
fore must take her position as simply one amongst several principal 
denominations ; lacking, therefore, at least amongst our county 
populations, the prestige of historic greatness and national im 
portance which attaches itself to the minds of well nigh every 
native Englishman to the Church of his nation. As a consequence 
of this, there is not amongst our Canadian farmers that acquaintance 
with the special forms of our Church which one would like to see. 



i. 58? ] How to Win the People. 12 5 

In many congregations, even where there is quite a warm attachment 
to the Church, there is a terrible lack of hearty responding. There 
is also amongst our Canadian settlers a certain independence of 
character, resulting sometimes in a kind of brusqueness of manner 
which requires to be understood by one working amongst them. 
There are, however, other points which somewhat counterbalance 
these difficulties. Our Canadian settlers thoroughly understand and 
appreciate the position of the Church in British North America, 
as being entirely dependent upon its own resources, and upon the 
liberal support of its own people. They are, therefore, in the great 
majority of cases, found willing to bear their share in the support of 
the means of grace amongst them ; and the natural push and energy 
of their character makes them usually quite ready to lend a hand in 
the erection of new churches and parsonages in their midst. They 
are also exceedingly hospitable, and are always prepared to give the 
best their house affords to the clergyman. 

In our work amongst the Canadian settlements, and our endeavour 
to lay the future prosperity of our Church upon strong and permanent 
foundations in the affection and respect of the people, we her 
ministers must endeavour by every means in our power to adapt 
ourselves to the peculiar needs and characteristics of the class 
amongst which we labour. 

There are two plans which if followed would, I conceive, result in 
the drawing of these new settlers more closely to the Church. The 
one is the adoption of a simple Mission service, such as is in use in 
some of the Western States. A form of service in which the whole 
morning and evening prayer might be simplified, and in which all the 
collects, psalms, responses, chants, &c., should be presented, just in 
the order in which they were to be used, so that even the most 
ignorant might have no difficulty in following the service and joining 
in the responses and chants. Such a service, if got up in a cheap 
form, with say twenty or thirty well-known hymns at the end, would 
be of untold value in teaching our people to enter into and appreciate 
the sweet services of the Church. Another plan, which I believe 
would be found exceedingly useful in this way, would be the esta 
blishing of a singing class under the auspices of the Church. At 
this class the hymns and chants for the Sunday might be gone over, 
some general singing instruction given, and the responses taught and 
practised in a way which would be impossible in the regular Church 
service on the Sunday. 



1 2 6 Saskatchewan. * 



SASKATCHEWAN. 

OPENING OF NATIVE TRAINING COLLEGE. THE EDMONTON MISSION. 
INDIANS ASKING TEACHING. 

ONE of the schemes of the Bishop of Saskatchewan which lies 
nearest to his heart, is that for a Training College for Native 
Helpers. Both the need which exists for such an institution, and 
the progress made towards supplying it, are set forth in the Bishop s 
letter from Prince Albert, of November last : 

" The work of the Training College for Native Helpers was begun 
here on All Saints Day by a service in St. Mary s Church. On that day, 
thirteen years ago, I preached a sermon at St. John s Cathedral, Manitoba, 
at the opening of St. John s College, of which I was then, and for eight 
years after, Warden, and Divinity Professor. 

" The buildings of the Training College are so far advanced that the 
tutor in Cree has taken up his residence, and a boarding-house for 
students will be opened next week under the charge of a tutor who will 
reside with the Students. The main building, which includes class-rooms, 
library, and warden s residence, is in progress, but will not be ready for 
some months. The large hall, to be used as a library, will contain the 
books already received from the University of Cambridge, and those 
promised by the University of Oxford. 

"The necessity for this Training College becomes more manifest every 
day. Almost within sight of the College grounds are encamped about 
a thousand Sioux Indians all heathens they have been attracted here 
by the prospect of receiving help from the settlers, as the failure of the 
buffalo has caused great privation among them. They are to be seen 
every day along the roads of the settlement, or sitting on the floor around 
the kitchen stove in the people s houses. Their faces are painted with 
the brightest colours some green, others red, blue, yellow while many 
prefer a variety of colours. Their hair is plaited with feathers, and their 
ears ornamented with trinkets of brass. Their tents are scattered all 
round the settlement, and their drums may be heard at all hours of the 
night as they carry on their heathenish dances. Although, as I have 
already informed you, a Mission in connexion with S.P.G. has been 
opened among them, the work can only proceed slowly until we can get 
a good interpreter, or until the Missionary masters the language. He 
is a most able young man, highly educated, and possessed of a perfect 
knowledge of the Cree Indian language ; but this language is altogether 
different from the Sioux. 

" What a noble opportunity we have here for the work of the Training 
College ! We want means to provide a Sioux tutor and to support some 
young men of the tribe as students at the College. These Sioux are 
part of a large band of ten thousand all heathens now within the 
diocese of Saskatchewan. They were some time ago driven into our 
territory by the United States troops after many bloody battles. We 
believe that they will be permanently settled among us. What a mass of 
heathenism added to the many thousands of heathen Crees and Black- 
feet properly belonging to the diocese of Saskatchewan ! What a grand 



SST5F] Edmonton. 127 

opportunity for the Church to seize ! What a harvest of immortal souls 
ripe for the sickle ! But we must work by means, and by approved means 
too. We must have men from among these Indians under systematic 
tuition before they can become intelligent and effective teachers of their 
countrymen. A leading feature of the plan of the Training College of 
this diocese is having tutors in the Indian languages, who shall give 
grammatical training to the Indian students in their own language. As 
yet we have only one tutor of this class. He is a most effective one in 
the Cree language. For example, he is now giving instruction in Paley s 
Evidences, and Maclear on the Old Testament. He trains the students 
to reply to his questions both in English and Cree, that is, to study up the 
books in both languages, so that they will be able to deal with theological 
terms, idioms, and modes of thought and expression in the Indian lan 
guage (of which they are masters as regards the ordinary conversational 
style). What a blessing it would be if I could get this done in Sioux and 
Blackfeet as well as in Cree ! I have my anxieties about the College, 
even of a financial character regarding the buildings. The expense of 
building is simply enormous here. The two catechists of the Society, 
Messrs. Matheson and Hilton, are working to my entire satisfaction in 
Prince Albert and surrounding district. Mr. Matheson goes regularly to 
Halcro settlement, a distance of twenty miles. He has already gathered 
a congregation of between fifty and sixty Church people." 

Writing on i8th December the Bishop says : 

" We have now seven students actually engaged at work in the College, 
and expect to have three more by and by." 

From the Rev. Dr. Newton we have received some interesting 
particulars of the work of his Mission at Edmonton up to the 
middle of last year. He has now been stationed there moie than 
four years : 

"The mission covers 125 square miles of a difficult country to travel 
in ; and where everything is frightfully expensive. In this district I have 
conducted 211 services, and travelled between 2,000 and 3,000 miles. 
Thirty-nine baptisms have been performed, and of these nineteen were 
adult persons living out on the plains. 

" Holy Communion was administered only seven times owing to the 
difficulty of procuring wine. 

"This year saw the opening of the first church in this vast section of 
country : the congregations especially during the winter were very good, 
the church often being well filled with settlers and Indians. For the 
latter were frequent Cree services. At All Saints, Edmonton, the people 
have fairly assisted by labour, &c., in building the church. The cost of 
building is enormous." 

Dr. Newton enlarges on the vast field of work among the Indians 
which lies open to him, and again pleads earnestly the claims of those 
at Saddle Lake (p. 445, 1879) : 

" In several directions from Edmonton Fort within fifty or sixty miles 
two or three Indian Missions could at once be established with every 
probability of success. Indeed the distress and misery of the Indian 



1 2 8 Notes of a Visitation of the Turks Islands, [*JJ d - 

population cry aloud for Christian aid and sympathy. But I cannot 
refrain in this report from urging the venerable S.P.G. to give their 
special attention to the earnest invitation of a large band of Indians at 
Saddle Lake a place situated about 125 miles north-east of Edmon 
ton for a Missionary to settle amongst them. On my first visit to them 
they pleaded as souls without a shepherd that I would tell the authorities 
of our Church their great need. They said with much quiet dignity of 
manner, * We are poor and ignorant, we know nothing. Nobody takes 
any heed of us what can we do ? We wish to know how to live as 
civilised and Christian men. I ventured to encourage their desire for a 
Missionary, especially when I saw that the station was good, and that 
they had really settled down to farm on a location where hundreds of 
plain Crees could be soon gathered. Every visit I pay them increases 
my interest in and love for these people. Day by day large numbers of 
children are instructed : service is held every evening so that the largest 
Wigwam is filled ; and late into the night my tent has visitors asking 
about Divine things. The sort of questions asked are as follows : 
* What is the Christian Religion? Where did it come from? Is 
there more than one Church ? and how can we find the true one ? And 
again, What ought a Christian man to believe and do ? Most intelli 
gent questions, and the same as men are asking everywhere. At present 
Joseph Howe, a respectable Cree, conducts prayers on Sundays at 
Saddle Lake, and teaches in the week ; also acting as interpreter when I 
go down. His salary is made up by a government grant, as Indian 
teacher, and also by assistance received from the Bishop of Saskatche 
wan. But a Missionary is earnestly needed there, and I beseech the 
venerable Society to accede to their request : I never shall have the heart 
to go and tell them that their prayer has been refused." 



NOTES OF A VISITATION OF THE TURKS ISLANDS. 

BY THE BISHOP OF NASSAU. 

"May 6th, 1879. At 5 A.M. I started on board the schooner Osborne, 

which I chartered for the trip, accompanied by my friend, Mr. M 

(an earnest Church worker in Nassau, and a very pleasant companion) for 
Turks Islands and the Caicos, some 500 miles to the S.E. of New 
Providence. The view of Nassau Harbour at this early hour, with the 
eastern horizon lit up by the rising sun, the shipping standing out in 
bold relief, was a sight not quickly to be forgotten. When we started 
we had the vain hope that by the end of the week we should reach Grand 
Turk ; but with a daily succession of light head winds our progress was 
slow. Making up our minds not to complain, we passed the days in the 
usual way they are spent at sea, in reading and sleeping, with nothing but 
the sight of an occasional shark to vary the monotony of sailing in calm 
waters under a tropical sun. 

" Saturday, May loth Drifted all day yesterday in a dead calm, making 
scarcely any headway. This morning we sighted Crooked Island. I 
now made up my mind to spend to-morrow at Long Cay Fortune Island, 
and resume our voyage on Monday. About 4 P.M. we anchored off Long 
Cay, and were immediately boarded by the Rev. W. W. Buncombe, 
rector of S. David s, who was accompanied by the resident justice. 



Mission Field," 
Apr. 1, 1880. 



"] Cmms 

J ^atCOS. 129 



With as little delay as possible we gathered our things together and 
landed, making our way to the Rectory, when we were most heartily 
received, and where we spent a pleasant time under the hospitable roof of 
the rector and Mrs. Buncombe. 

"Sunday, May nth. I celebrated Holy Communion this morning at 
seven o clock, and preached at the eleven o clock service. At this 
service the rector presented me with a very cordial address of welcome 
from the Church people in his parish. There is established in this 
parish a guild, known as the Christian Army. It seems very successful 
in keeping the younger members of the Church together ; they have 
special services for the guild on certain Sundays in the month, and I was 
told they are most attractive. I preached again at evensong, when we 
had a very large congregation. The church here is a wooden structure 
with tabby work inside. It is commodious and well arranged. The 
chancel has been fitted up with taste; a reredos of yellow pine, with 
some dark wood introduced, and the sacred monogram of the same wood 
filling three niches is very effective. The singing was hearty and con 
gregational. This is one of the many stations throughout the diocese, 
where little heed has been paid to Canon iii. respecting the payment of 
Church dues. The people here, like others elsewhere, contribute next to 
nothing towards the Clergy Sustentation Fund, and Bishopric Endow 
ment. They seem to have a sort of notion that money will be forth 
coming somehow or other, and they do not understand why they are 
called upon to do now what has never been expected of them before. 
It is very difficult to get people to grasp the true meaning of disestablish 
ment and disendowment. I fear it will be a lesson never thoroughly 
learnt till it is brought to bear upon the Church people out here by the 
sad practical experience of a parish being deprived of the services of one 
of the present clergy, which God forbid should be the case for many 
years to come. 

" Monday, May \-2th. Soon after 2 P.M. we were mounted on horse 
back to ride to the south side of the island, when we found the Osborne 
waiting for us; we quit kly embarked with all our impedimenta, which 
had considerably increased, through the generosity of the people, who 
made us offerings of vegetables, fruit, &c. &c. We were now fairly on 
our way to Turks Islands, but again we experienced similar weather to 
what we had last week, and it was not till Thursday that we began to 
sail over the Caicos Banks. 

" Saturday, May 17 th. Last night we saw a good deal of lightning to 
the south, and the weather looked threatening. At 5 A.M. we began to 
make preparations to start, having anchored for the night off some Cays 
on the eastern side of the Caicos Banks. The breeze increased, but 
unfortunately it blew from the wrong quarter, so we had rather a rough 
time of it, beating against a strong head wind. Our appetites seemed 
now to have entirely forsaken us, and we were more or less compelled to 
keep quiet, though everything else in the ship, as she gave a lurch, acted 
in just the contrary way. After thirteen hours rough sailing we anchored 
off Grand Turk, which is a low-lying, uninteresting, and barren-looking 
island, with about as many trees on it as there are fingers to one s hands. 
On anchoring, the Rev. H. Crispin, accompanied by the Commissioner 
of the island and the Custom House officer, came on board. This 
island, not forming part of the Bahamas, is a foreign port, and so we 
had to undergo Custom House inspection. I was very glad to be once 
more on land after the tossing we had had through the day. 

"The Commissioner most kindly took myself and M - into 



130 Notes of a Visitation of the Turks Islands. [*JJ* JJg* 

Government House ; I think the pleasure of being there was mutual, as 
he is alone, two miles out of town ; and Turks Island, at best, must be a 
dreary place to live in. 

"Sunday, May i8/^. After breakfast we drove into town for morning 
service in the parish church, S. Thomas. The church itself is most 
inconveniently situated, being about half a mile away from the town, with 
salt ponds intervening. This latter is a considerable drawback as regards 
the congregations at church, hi wet weather (and they seem to have a 
good many rainy days here) the roads become almost impassable with a 
briny slush, and when the sun shines brightly, the glare beating down 
upon the salt heaps is so intense that it is very trying to the eyes ; con 
sequently it makes some people think twice before they venture to church. 
The parish church was built in its present position, because in the days 
when it was erected there was a difficulty in procuring the means of 
carrying stone, so the contractor of his own accord selected a site in close 
proximity to the quarry. It is an old-fashioned and inconveniently 
arranged church. Externally, if it were not for a cross surmounting a 
kind of central dome, there is little to indicate that it is a Christian place 
of worship. Internally, there are pews going in all directions, a gallery 
on the south side and west end, no chancel, nor any possible means of 
making one. Besides the parish church there is a small Mission Church, 
S. Andrew s, in the town, but this is far too small to accommodate those 
who go there. Mr. Crispin therefore has to arrange his Sunday services 
in this way : morning service in the parish church, a children s service at 
S. Andrew s, and evening service in a room which is hired for the purpose. 
I preached at the morning service, and was the celebrant at Holy Com 
munion in the parish church, Mr. Crispin taking the children s service, 
giving a short address on Confirmation. I preached again at the evening 
service, when we had an overflowing congregation, and a very hearty 
service. The great need here is a new church situated in a central part 
of the town ; until this is done I greatly fear the Church work will have a 
considerable hindrance in its success. 

" Tuesday, May loth. Yesterday was spent chiefly in transacting 
matters of business connected with the Church work. To-day was a very 
busy one. It being a Rogation Day, and one of those appointed for 
Intercessions for Foreign Missions, we had morning prayer and celebra 
tion of Holy Communion in St. Andrew s Mission Church. The Com 
missioner afterwards took me to visit the public schools, which were well 
attended, and the children fairly efficient in answering the questions asked 
them. The afternoon was spent in further discussion with some of the 
Church people as to the future provision for the stipend of a clergyman, 
when the present rector resigns, which he is compelled to do through ill 
health ; though I cherish the hope, which I trust may one day be realised, 
of his returning to work in the diocese. There is an anomaly in these 
islands, whereby the Church people do not consider themselves bound to 
the decision of the Synod in Nassau. The canons passed in our Synod 
are therefore totally disregarded by them ; for at the time of the dis 
establishment of the Church, there was an ordinance passed in Jamaica 
for the formation of a Synod in Turks Islands, to be presided over by the 
Bishop of Nassau. How this is ever to be carried out is a question 
requiring careful consideration. At 5 P.M. we had evensong in S. Andrew s, 
at which I gave an address upon Foreign Mission work, and our respon 
sibility in it. In the evening a public meeting was held to consider the 
same subject that had been discussed in the afternoon. I endeavoured to 
urge upon them the importance of making some provision for the stipend 



M A So? ] Long Cay Fortune Island. 1 3 1 

of the next clergyman, and the future endowment of the Church in that 
colony. 

" Wednesday, May 2ist. Made an early start to visit Salt Cay, about 
nine miles distant. Unfortunately we were becalmed, and instead of 
reaching our destination in good time for morning service, we found our 
selves at one o clock still five miles away. All that could be done was to 
row in. We had a boat lowered, and under a very hot sun with scarcely a 
breath of air, we were pulled ashore, reaching Salt Cay a little before two 
o clock. The rector, Mr. Astwood, is absent on leave at Bermuda for his 
health. Mr. Herriott, the excellent lay reader, entertained us most 
hospitably. At 3.30 I held a Confirmation in the neat, clean, but un- 
ecclesiastical looking church. Considering the short notice the people 
had, only seven candidates received the holy rite. The inhabitants of 
Salt Cay depend wholly upon salt, which is a rather precarious com 
modity to depend upon. We left in the evening, expecting to get back to 
Turks Island before midnight, but through the continued calm weather, 
we did not land till 6.30 next morning. 

"Ascension Day, May 22nd. Morning service and celebration of Holy 
Communion in the parish church. Poor Crispin looked very ill, and it 
seemed a great exertion to him to take part in the service. In the after 
noon I held a confirmation in S. Thomas, when we had a large congrega 
tion, and forty candidates were presented. I was greatly struck by the 
quiet and reverent behaviour of all ; it speaks well for the careful instruc 
tion they had received from Mr. Crispin. I was to have started to-night 
for Inagua, but through the unexpected arrival of H.M.S. Contest, my 
plans were all changed. She brought news of yellow fever being at 
Inagua, and I was advised not to run any unnecessary risk; so with 
considerable reluctance I gave up my visit there, for which I must say I 
was exceedingly sorry. 

"Sunday, May 2$th. At 4.50 A.M. we left Turks Island for S. George 
East Harbour, Caicos, where we arrived about 9.45. After breakfast we 
landed for matins. There is some considerable interest attached to this 
place. Three years ago the priest in charge, the Rev. D. R. Wait, was 
drowned. He was greatly beloved by the people, and he had done a 
great deal with his own hands towards the work in the church, which is 
really a nice little church, though not yet entirely completed. I suggested 
to the people that they should finish the church as a small memorial to 
their late parish priest. The altar-rails, chancel-rails, and prayer-desks 
were entirely done under Mr. Wait s superintendence. In the afternoon 
I held a Confirmation, when twenty-eight persons renewed their baptismal 
promises, which reflects much credit upon the lay reader, Mr. A. Stubbs, 
who keeps the Church people together. It will be an inestimable benefit 
to the Church when a resident priest is found for this station. Oh ! that 
we could get some earnest man from England for this place, who would 
not require a large stipend, but who is willing to serve his Master amongst 
people who have very few opportunities of receiving the means of 
grace. 

" Monday, May 26th. About mid-day we set sail on our homeward 
voyage, with a delightful fresh breeze and very favourable. 

" Wednesday, May 2%th. After two days pleasant sailing we found 
ourselves once again back at Long Cay Fortune Island, where we anchored 
about 9 A.M. On landing I found that the remarks and suggestions I had 
made in my previous visit were not lost. The church, which needed 
reshingling, had had the work completed. An enthusiastic Churchman, 
and great helper to the rector, secured the gratuitous services of fourteen 



132 Notes of a Visitation oj the Turks Islands. [j 

men, and with these he managed to have the roof done in two days. In 
the evening I held a Confirmation, when there were fifty-two candidates. 
We all felt most grateful to Mr. Brown for his energy in having the roof 
so expeditiously reshingled for it happened in the middle of service, we 
had such a downpour, a regular tropical rain, that if the old roof had 
been on, we should have had a very unpleasant shower-bath. 

" Thursday, May 29^. There was to have been an early celebration 
of Holy Communion this morning, but the rain was so heavy that we had 
to put the service off till 1 1 o clock, when we had a good congregation and 
sixty-six communicants. Rain, when it does fall in the tropics, is so 
heavy, that people never think of leaving their houses ; but as soon as the 
church bell rings on the out islands, it does not always matter whether 
notice has been given or not, people flock to church. Soon after n 
o clock P.M., we bade farewell to Mr. Duncombe and the many people 
who accompanied us to the beach to see us start, en route for Long 
Island. 

" Friday, May y>th. After a considerable amount of tossing in a heavy 
swell, we anchored in the snug harbour at Clarence Town. Long Island. 
I was greatly disappointed at hearing from the resident justice, that the 
Rev. J. Crowther was absent at the north end of the island, some 
seventy miles distant. My visit was rather unexpected, so he had not 
hurried home. The people seemed to fancy that Crowther would be 
much disappointed if he were not told that I was at Clarence Town. So, 
after some considerable debating, I resolved to send him a letter, though 
I did it with reluctance, as I knew how hard his work is at all times, and 
he might think it necessary to come and meet me. 

" Whit Sunday, June ist. The first thing I heard on waking was that 
Mr. Crowther had arrived from the north end. He received my letter 
yesterday morning, and by 10 A M. was in the saddle, and with the excep 
tion of about three hours rest, he rode the entire distance (about seventy 
miles) in something like fifteen hours. The road he describes as very 
rough, sometimes going through thick bush, sometimes passing through 
water, which, owing to the late heavy rains, reached to the girths of his 
saddle. This, I believe, is nothing very unusual for him to do, in his 
gigantic parish. As he rides about he sleeps where he can ; sometimes 
he is compelled to seek rest on a seat in one of his churches. He looked 
worn out on his arrival, and was it any wonder ? Matins were sung by 
Mr. Crowther, after this ride, without any musical accompaniment. We 
had about thirty communicants at the mid-day celebration. At 4 o clock 
there was a children s service, which I prevailed upon Crowther to let me 
relieve him of. He then took me to confirm an old crippled woman, 
about a mile distant ; and at evensong I held a Confirmation, when thirty- 
three candidates were presented. 

" Monday, June -2nd. We had early celebration, when between forty 
and fifty made their communion ; most of them were those confirmed last 
night. The people in Long Island seem, like those elsewhere, very back 
ward in contributing to the future endowment of the Church. They are 
ready enough to receive the ministrations of the Church, but they dislike 
being asked to provide for them. Their conduct reminds me of a stor-y I 
heard of a Methodist Missionary Meeting. A member of their body got 
up and said, f Thank God I have been a Methodist for twenty years, and 
it has not cost me 20 cents. Whereupon the Methodist minister rose 
and said, Thank God for your stingy soul. I fear selfishness is a good 
deal at the bottom of their backwardness to support the Church. 

"Soon after 9 A.M. we left Clarence Town to ride across the island, 



TKtStf 1 ] Irmidad. 133 

about three miles to the south side, where I had sent the Osborne round 
to wait for us. The road over which we passed, unlike our English ones, 
was narrow, rough, and rugged ; the bush in some places almost meeting, 
so that we had to take care that portions of our coat-tails were not left 
behind. The scenery though wild was picturesque ; some old disused 
salt ponds adding considerably to the landscape. 

" Tiiesday, June yd. Anchored last night off Rolle Town, Exuma. 
Through a misunderstanding of the captain of the schooner, we found 
ourselves here instead of the chief settlement. Sent a message to the Rev. 
W. S. Page, deacon in charge, 1 to come that we might consult as to my 
visiting Exuma. At 5 A.M. he was alongside, but as my visit was so 
unexpected, I resolved not to land. After breakfast we weighed anchor 
for Nassau. 

" Wednesday, June ^th. By 2.30 P.M. were once again alongside the 
wharf in Nassau Harbour, after a month s absence, and after having sailed 
over 1,000 miles, visited several islands, and confirmed 161 persons. 

" One of our greatest needs out here, and the more I travel the more 
clearly the want presents itself, is that of men. The harvest truly is 
plenteous, but the labourers are few. 

" I only wish some of our earnest young Churchmen at home could be 
prevailed upon to come out, if only for two years, and see how they like 
the work. Many I believe would be disposed to remain. The climate is 
almost perfect, the Bahamas are healthy, and the work interesting. 

" Unfortunately our funds are so circumscribed that the stipends we 
can offer must necessarily be small. But for any one to whom God has 
given some private means, and who are compelled to seek at certain times 
of the year a more genial climate than is afforded them in England, then 
I do not hesitate to say that here they would find what they seek." 



TRINIDAD. 

COOLIE MISSION. BAPTISM OF HINDOOS AND CHINESE. 

NEED OF CLERGY. 

following letter from Bishop Rawle will be read with much 
interest : 

" TRINIDAD, January %th, 1880. 

" I hope the Society will renew the grant of 4o/. fora Hindoo Catechist, 
which I have received for three years. It has enabled me, with the 
local contributions that have met it, to maintain a Chinese Catechist 
also. Of Hindoos there have been more than 300 adult baptisms since 
I began to employ a Catechist for them of Chinese, in the same time, 
upwards of ioo. 2 

" Of the Chinese there is no new immigration ; they are mostly 
settled here in permanence, and when they offer themselves for biptism, 
though they do it in all seriousness and with a pleasant feeling (Chinese 
character is grave and steady), the secondary motive, of being what we 
are, has not been without an influence in the decision. Last Sunday I 
began to have a Chinese Evensong in the parish-room of my house, 
which meets a want amongst them for their wonderful monosyllabic 
language seems to incapacitate them from catching English, and a 

1 Mr. Page was ordained priest in Christ Church Cathedral, Nassau, Sunday, June 2Qth 
(St. Peter s Day), 1879. 
3 Fourteen more were baptized on 24th January we since learn. ED. 



i 3 4 Monthly Meeting. 

service in their own tongue is the only one they can take part in. I 
have only now obtained from Demerara a Catechist who is equal to this. 

" For the Hindoos what we are doing is miserably inadequate to the 
occasion. They are imported at the rate of 2,000 a year, and are rapidly 
forming the chief population, not only (as they have long been) on sugar 
estates, but also in the free villages and settlements all over the island. 

" I cannot do much with them unless I have a Hindi-speaking clergy 
man who can devote himself to Mission work, and train Catechists and 
Teachers as is being done by three excellent Presbyterian ministers from 
Nova Scotia maintained by their congregations in the Canada Dominion. 

" The good men work in no sectarian spirit, and would rejoice if I 
could divide the land with them. 

" Can you help me to an ex-Indian Missionary who would take up this 
work in earnest ? Given the man, I would make every effort to provide 
for him, and turn him to good account. 

" We are poor the one or two rich people belonging to us are not good 
at giving few have any margin of income and in the rural Parishes we 
depend almost entirely on the labouring class. My whole official income 
from the beginning has been spent on Church needs, mostly very urgent 
needs, for which there was no other resource available. I am greatly in 
need of clergy." 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. F. Bohn, F. H. T. HOppner and F. Kruger of 
the Diocese of Calcutta, , W. Bramley and W. L. Clementson of Capetown, , E. L. Coakes, 
T. W. Green and H. T. Waters of St. Johns, Pondoland; S. M. Samuelson of Zuhiland ; 
J Thorne of Pretoria ; H. Whitehead of St. Helena ; A. Chiswell of Madagascar ; E. Rogers 
of Sydney; T. L. Stanley of Dunedin ; J. C. Harvey of Newfoundland; C. G. Curtis, 
Missionary at Constantinople, and W. B. Wright, Japan. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

THE Monthly Meeting was held on Friday, March igth, 1880, at the rooms of 
the National Society, His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Chair. 
There were also present the Bishop of Rangoon, Archdeacon Harrison, Rev. J. 
E. Kempe (Treasurer}, C. Raikes, Esq., C.S.I., T. Turner, Esq., Loftus 
Wigram, Esq., Q.C., F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., Canon Gregory (Vice- Presidents}, 
Col. Anderson, Rev. B. Belcher, Archdeacon Blouifield, Rev. W. C. Bromehead, 
Rev. W. Cadman, Rev. E. Capel-Cure, Gen. Davies, Rev. J. W. Testing, Col. 
Gillilan, Rev. Hon. E. C. Glyn, Rev. J. Goring, Gen. Lowry, Rev. J. F. Moor, 
Gen. Nicolls, Rev. C. H. Rice, Sir B. Robinson, Rev. E. J. Selwyn, Lt.-Gen. 
Tremenheere, C.B., Lt.-Gen. Turner, Rev R. T. West (Members of the Standing 
Committee}^ and the following members of the Corporation : Rev. C. T. Ackland, 
H, McL. Backler, Esq., Rev. H. R. Baker, Rev. G. F. Barrow, Rev. A. H. 
Barrow, Rev. E. J. Beck, Rev. Cole, Rev. Bennett, J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. 
J. A. Boodle, Rev. V. G. Borradaile, Rev. Canon Borton, E. Browell, Esq., 
Rev. J. T. Brown, Rev. C. Bull, Rev. W. Calvert, T. Charrington, Esq. Rev. 
N. G. Charrington, Rev. W. L. Collett, R. N. Cust, Esq., Rev. T. Darling, 
Rev. J. Duncan, C. C. Ferard, Esq., J. Field, Esq., J. F. France, Esq., Rev. 
Subdean Garden, Rev. C. D. Goldie, Gordon, Esq. Rev. R. S. Gregory, 
Rev. C. M. Harvey, Rev. J. W. Horsley, E. G. Houndle, Esq., G. B. Hughes, 
Esq., Rev. J. W. Irving, A. C. King, Esq., Rev. H. T. Lane, Rev. Brownlow 
Maitland, Rev. F. H. Murray, Rev. R. S. Oldham, J. Palmer, Esq., Rev. 
W. Panckridge, A. H. Pearson, Esq., F. B. Price, Esq., J. Pulman, Esq., 
J. W. B. Riddell, Esq., Rev. W. F. tiatchell, Rev. L. Sharpe, Rev. Wharton 



Mission Field,! 
Apr. 1, 1880. J 



Monthly Meeting. 



35 



Smith, Rev. W. O. Thompson, Rev. Dr. Townsend, Sir G. Wakeman, Rev. 
W. T. T. Webber, J. Wigan, Esq., Rev. G. Wingate, A. Witherby, Esq., Rev. 
J. C. Wharton. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of the Society s 
Income up to February 29th : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

I. GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. II. APPROPRIATED FUNDS, 
administered by the Society. III. SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the Society, but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 



January Feb., 1880. 


i. 

Subscriptions, 
Donations, and 
Collections. 


2. 

Legacies. 


3- 

Dividends, 

.Rents, &c. 


Total 

RECEIPTS. 


Total 
PAYMENTS. 



















I. GENERAL .... 


5,586 


1,050 


943 


7,579 


11,677 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


602 





962 


1,564 


1,695 


III. SPECIAL .... 


4,5 J 7 





343 


4,860 


4,130 


TOTALS . . 


10,705 


1,050 


2,248 


14.003 


17,502 



B. Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of February in five 
consecutive years. 



I. GENERAL 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


i. Subscriptions, &c. . . . 


5,163 


4-892 
600 


4,790 
606 


5,136 

I752 


5-586 




888 




088 


















II. APPROPRIATED 
III. SPECIAL 


7,45i 
i,732 


6,492 
i,545 


6,474 
x,68i 

2 408 


7,837 

1,641 


7,579 
1,564 

A, 860 














TOTALS . . 


f\\ 827 























3. The Secretary presented the following Report of the Standing 
Committee on the Minute of the Board of February 2Oth, in reference 
to a letter from the Bishop of Capetown : 

"The Standing Committee of the S.P.G. have the honour of reporting to the 
Society that its resolution of the 2Oth February last, viz. : that the Standing 
Committee be requested to print and circulate the letter of the 2Oth November, 
1879, from the Bishop of Capetown was duly communicated by the Secretary 
to the Standing Committee at a meeting of such Committee held on the 26th day 
of February, being the first meeting of the Committee after the passing of the 
said resolution of the Society, and that the same was thereupon brought under 
the consideration of the Standing Committee. 

"That upon this being done, a preliminary question was raised, whether the act 
which the Standing Committee were requested by the Society s resolution to carry 
out was within its competence, i.e., whether the right of printing and circulating, 
and so making public, the letter was legally and exclusively in the power of the 
Society, independently of the writer. A question was also raised whether, irre 
spective of legal responsibilities, the letter was not, having regard to the 
circumstances under which it was written, and the usual practice of the Standing 
Committee in its correspondence with Colonial Bishops, to be considered in the 
nature of a confidential communication. 

" The Standing, Committee, after a full discussion of the question before them 



1 3 6 Monthly Meeting. [gj 

in all its bearings, and with such assistance as those of its members as were con 
versant with law were able to bring to the elucidation of the legal points 
involved, came to the conclusion that they would act most safely and best for the 
interests of the Society by passing the resolution following : 

"That, previous to entertaining the question of printing and circulating the 
Bishop of Capetown s letter of December 30, 1879, a minute of the Society s 
Proceedings, on Friday, February 20, be submitted to the Bishop, and he be asked 
to state whether he desires the publication of the said letter." 

4. The Rev. J. W. Horsley brought forward the motion of which 
he had given notice at the last meeting, which was seconded by the 
Rev. H. R. Baker. 

" That in all future elections of members to serve on the Standing Committee, 
no distinction or separation be made between those nominated by the Standing 
Committee and those proposed by individual members, but that all names be put 
in one list and arranged alphabetically." 

After discussion a division was taken, when the motion was lost. 

5. On the recommendation "of the Board of Examiners the Rev. 
Sampson Cordon was approved for work in the Diocese of Ballaarat, 
and Mr. G. E. Grogan, B.A., Keble College, Oxford, was approved for 
Mission work in the Diocese of British Columbia. 

6. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee a grant of 25/. 
was made from the Negus Fund for the purchase of Bibles, Prayer 
Books, and Hymnals for the use of the people in Norfolk Island, at the 
request of the Rev. G. Nobbs, the Society s Missionary there. 

7. The Seal of the Society was ordered to be affixed to a Trust Deed 
accepting the Gift of a capital sum the interest only to be applied 
towards the maintenance of a Female Teacher in connection with the 
Ladies Association ; and to a Power of Attorney for adding the names 
of Messrs. F. L. Huzzard and W. Morson to the list of S.P.G. Attorneys 
for Prince Edward s Island. 

8. The Rev. E. K. Clay, Rector of Great Kimble) was appointed 
Organizing Secretary for the Archdeaconry of Buckingham, in the room 
of the Rev. C. Lloyd, resigned. 

9. All the candidates proposed for election in January were elected 
into the Corporation. 

10. The following gentlemen were proposed for election in May : 
Rev. J. E. Pryor, Bennington, Stevenage ; Rev. W. A. Carter, Worplesden, 

Guildford ; Rev. T. G. Browne, Tilford, Farnham ; Walter R. Browne, Esq., 
38, Belgrave Road, S.W. ; J. Holdship, Esq., 8, Montagu Place, Montagu 
Square, W.; Rev. T. S. Hichens, Guilsborough, Northampton; Rev. F. G. Hop- 
wood, Winwick, Newton-le- Willows ; Rev. C. S. Upperton, Ince, Chester; C. 
J. Relton, Esq , 9, Great Ormond Street, W.C. ; Ralph Assheton, Esq., M.P., 
Downham Hall, Clitheroe ; Rev. F. Northcote-Smith, Rugby ; Rev. George 
M Cutchan, Kenmare, Ireland ; Rev. W. H. Walford, Tring, Herts ; Rev. W. 
M. Hutton, Hungarton, Leicester; Rev. F. P. B. N. Hutton, St. Saviour s, 
Leicester ; Rev. E. F. Taylor, bt. Augustine s College, Canterbury ; Rev. E. 
Cams Selwyn, King s College, Cambridge ; Rev. E. G. Barnwdl, Farnham, 
Surrey ; Rev. B. A. Galland, South Thoresby, Alford ; Rev. Alexander Poole, 
Ryde, Isle of Wight; Rev. J. J. R. Leigh Knipe, South Thore-by, Alford; 
Rev. G. W. Huntingford, Barnwell, Qundle ; Rev. W. M. Croome, Syston, 
Leicester ; Rev. J. Priestley Foster, Mirfield, Normanton ; Rev. Edwin Bittleston, 
South Stainley, Ripley ; Rev. J. I). Evans, Walmersley, Bury, Lancashire ; Rev. 
T. G. Collier, 6, Mount Ararat Villas, Richmond, S.W. ; Rev. W. A. Spooner, 
New College, Oxford ; Rev. E. W. Kempe, Forty Hill, Enfield ; Rev. Edgar 
Silver, Medstead, Alresford, Hants ; F. J. Dickinson, jun., Esq., I, Deptford 
Bridge, S.E. ; Rev. W. Hanson Jackson, 15, Amersham Park Villas, New 
Cross, S.E. ; Rev. L. F. Clarkion, Molesworth, Thrapstone. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



fblb xg foorlfr. %t utb is tfje BSEorb of 




MAY i, 1880. 



CENTENARY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY 
INTO TINNEVELLY. 

]MONG the many depreciations to which Missions are sub 
jected, not the least is the allegation that their progress 
is so slow as to be hardly discernible. Faithful people, 
whose hearts and sympathies are above the vulgar influence of 
statistics, know that it is not a question of figures, or of success, but 
of obedience ; but there is a large class of persons, by no means 
indifferent to what is good, who nevertheless salve their consciences 
by thinking that work which has so little of result to show has no 
paramount claim upon them, and that in schemes of active bene 
volence for the relief of ignorance or suffering in their own country 
they will find the more obvious sphere for the exercise of their 
charity. There are two questions to be asked here : (i) Have we 
.any right to expect, looking to the teaching of the past, that the 
progress of the Church will be rapid and decisive, like the onward 
march of a great earthly conqueror? (2) Are we quite sure that with 
our notions of time we really assign to those words " rapid "and 
"slow" their true meanings, when applied to the Spiritual things of 
the Kingdom of Christ ? History teaches us that there never was a 
time when, as men judge such thii-gs, the progress of the Church 

NO. CCXCIII. L 



138 Tinnevelly Centenary. 

was anything but slow, and its cause, to human eyes, a losing one. 
" Per aspera ad ardua " seems to have been the law of the Catholic 
Church from the beginning. When St. James was put to death, and 
St. Peter was cast into prison, because it pleased the populace, surely 
the prospects of the Church were gloom itself ; monarchy and people 
were both hostile, but yet at that very time it was recorded by God 
the Holy Ghost that "the Word of God grew and multiplied." 
Some of the churches which were founded by the Apostles were not 
of importance sufficient to warrant the writing of special epistles to 
them. Lystra, Iconium, and Athens received no such particular 
teaching from their founders. The Epistle to the Romans was 
addressed to scattered Christians, who in their perplexity had as 
sembled in Rome. The Great Shepherd Himself, in four years of 
superhuman, ceaseless toil, only gathered together about 120 Believers 
in Galilee, Samaria, and Judaea. Of Apostolic converts many were 
unworthy, and brought scandal on their profession : the First Epistle 
to the Corinthians shows what was the private life of the Church 
which the unsparing labours of St. Paul had planted in their city. 
Through the successive Imperial Persecutions the power of the 
Church seemed to have been all but crushed out, although probably 
it was greater than when it was patronised by the power of the 
world, just as Isaac was never more truly the child of promise than 
when he lay bound on the altar. Heresies, divisions, rendings 
asunder, hypocrisies, zeal without knowledge these have charac 
terised the Church each in their turn, and to superficial observers 
have seemed to be her special marks : but through the long centuries 
she has done the Lord s work as He has allowed, in Whose sight a 
thousand years are but as a single day. 

The result which has been permitted to our special efforts in this 
century are in exact analogy with the history of the past. The 
forlorn hope must ever be furrowed and thinned by death before the 
flag is planted on the breach, and the same condition prevails in those 
wars whose weapons are spiritual. A quarter of a century passed 
before the Missionary s toil bore fruit in New Zealand, even as 
twenty years elapsed from the landing of S. Augustine in Kent 
before the Gospel crossed over the border into Sussex. The churches 
of Western Africa have risen into life and vigour, not without 
patience and the costly sacrifice of many precious lives. More 
recently, when Bishop Mackenzie and his party laid down their lives 
in the centre of that continent, the dying ministering to the 



M Mayi, FsS? ] Tinnevelly Centenary. 139 

dead, and two or three emaciated survivors traced their painful 
homeward way and told the story, the wise of this world con 
sidered the whole expedition as deservedly a failure of misdirected 
zeal, and now Christian Stations are being formed in those regions 
which are also attracting the enterprise of traders. 

Impatience mars our work and alienates many who might be 
made valuable fellow-labourers. Looking back over a few years, we 
see that progress has not been slow, that it has been real and solid, 
and even more rapid than was the case in the earlier stages of the 
Church. One such resting-place, one such vantage ground of 
retrospect, has been afforded to the Church lately in the centenary of 
the introduction of Christianity into Tinnevelly. It was worthily 
observed at Palamcottah, and the record of what our brethren did 
with thankful hearts may well cheer our own spirits, and incite us to 
further effort. Three Bishops and ninety Native Clergy joined, 
as was fitting, in an Eucharistic Service on January 20. It was 
in 1780 that Swartz made his first visit to Tinnevelly ; to the shame 
of our Communion it must be stated that for many years the 
Lutheran Missions supplied our lack of zeal. After nearly fifty 
years, Bishop Heber estimated the Non-Roman Converts in South 
India at 15,000, and now we can point to the figures given below 
with a satisfaction that is largely leavened with humility. The 
paper which was read by the veteran Bishop Caldwell on the 
occasion will, we feel sure, be acceptable to our readers, and we 
refrain from weakening its effect by any words of our own : 

"We celebrate this year the centenary of the establishment of the 
Tinnevelly Mission. Its beginnings were small, and for a long period it 
made but little progress, though in later times it has risen to the first 
rank amongst Indian Missions. It was in 1780 that the Mission first took 
an organised shape by the formation in Palamcottah of a small congre 
gation. The founder of the Mission was Swartz, the most memorable 
name in the history of South Indian Missions. Swartz s earliest station, 
after some preliminary labour at Tranquebar, was Trichinopoly, and it 
was whilst he was connected with that station that he began to take an 
interest in Tinnevelly. The first notice of Palamcottah in Swartz s 
journals was in 1771, when the nucleus of a congregation was formed by 
the baptism of a young heathen accountant by a Christian serjeant, with 
out waiting for Swartz s approval. Swartz visited Palamcottah several 
times before 1780, and, in one of his visits, baptized a Brahman widow 
called Clorinda, by whom afterwards a little church in the fort was built 
the first church erected in connection with the Tinnevelly Mission. 
A document of great interest has been preserved in connection with 
1780. It is the first Tinnevelly church register containing the names 
of the members of the congregation in Palamcottah. I found this 
register many years ago in Tanjore. The congregation in Palamcottah 

L 2 



140 Tinnevelly Centenary. [ M 4 s a s y 01 i. SS? 

was then the only one in Tinnevelly, and the number of members enrolled 
in it was forty. When we look around us now, although we see much 
that still remains to be done, especially amongst the higher classes, have 
we not much reason to thank God and take courage ? The caste and 
condition of eighteen persons included in this list of forty are not men 
tioned, but we know that the remaining twenty-two belonged to thirteen 
different castes. Nothing could more strikingly illustrate the infantile 
condition of the Mission at that time. It gathered but one of a city 
and two of a family into the Good Shepherd s fold. It is natural that 
many of those persons of whom nothing is known but their names should 
sometimes be regarded now as mere waifs and strays. But there was 
one family at least, consisting of six souls, of whom this could not be 
said. They were Vellalas. The father, one Devasa-gayam, is described 
as a poet, and amongst his children there was a son called Vedana-yagam, 
who became a much more celebrated poet than his father. This was the 
Tanjore poet, Vedanayaga Sastriyar, who left Tinnevelly for Tanjore 
when twelve years of age, and who, during his long life, enriched Tamil 
Christian literature with a multitude of poetical compositions. Many of 
his lyrics are still sung in our churches, especially on festival occasions, 
and they are still more frequently sung at marriages and prayer meetings. 
In 1783 Swartz dedicated the little church in Palamcottah to the worship 
of God. From this time the congregation gradually increased. An able 
catechist called Satyanathan, afterwards ordained, was appointed to the 
new station, by whom several congregations were established in places 
in the country, and at length Swartz considered it desirable that a 
European Missionary should be appointed. This was done in 1791, when 
Jaenicke came to reside here, and was so much struck with the prospects 
of usefulness that presented themselves on every hand that he uttered the 
remarkable prediction : There is every reason to hope that at a future 
period Christianity will prevail in the Tinnevelly country. Jaenicke 
suffered so much from hill fever that he was never able to stay long in 
Palamcottah at a time. He died in 1800 at Tanjore, but before he died 
in 1797 that movement commenced amongst the Shanars in the neigh 
bourhood of what is now the village of Mudalur, which afterwards ex 
tended through the country and has produced such remarkable results. 
In the first years of the century Tinnevelly was visited by Gericke, 
perhaps the most eminent of Swartz s successors. When the move 
ment towards Christianity amongst the Shanars, in the villages in the 
south-east, assumed remarkable dimensions, Gericke himself seems to 
have baptised 1,300 souls in the course of his tour, and Satyanathan 
baptised twice that number before the end of 1802. Kohlhoff visited the 
district in 1803. From 1806 till 1809 the Mission was under the manage 
ment of a Missionary of the London Missionary Society called Rengel- 
taube, who generally resided in Palamcottah, and who at the same time 
founded the Mission in Travancore. 1811 was a disastrous year for 
Tinnevelly and the Tinnevelly Mission. The district was devastated by 
a pestilential fever, owing to long-continued unseasonable rain. The 
new Christians baptised by Gericke and Satyanathan having been left 
without due pastoral care, a considerable portion of them, at least a third, 
were driven back by their fears to the worship of their ancient demons. 
The first visit of a Bishop to Tinnevelly was in March, 1816, when Bishop 
Middleton, the first Bishop of Calcutta, visited Palamcottah. He was 
only like a bird of passage on his way from Madras via Cochin to 
Bombay ; still his visit formed an epoch in the history of the Mission. 
At his last stage before reaching Palamcottah he received three depu- 



sJ di ] Jinnevelly Centenary. 141 

tations ; one was as usual from the native officials of the neighbourhood ; 
another was from thirty or forty Brahmans from the Tinnevelly temple, 
representing to him that the allowances they received from Government 
for their temple services were so small that they and their religion were 
in danger of being starved, and requesting the Bishop to intercede with 
Government in their behalf. The next deputation was one which the 
Bishop received with much pleasure. It was from thirty representatives 
of the native Christian community in Tinnevelly, and especially in 
Palamcottah, headed by their native pastor. The Bishop s writer acted 
as interpreter, and this writer was a son of Satyanathan, whose converts 
most of those people were. The Bishop remembered that before he 
came to India he had read a sermon by the same Satyanathan, published 
in the proceedings of the Christian Knowledge Society. In Palamcottah 
the Bishop visited the school and the little Mission-church in the fort. 
The English service was held in the house of the collector. A few days 
afterwards, on passing through the Aramboly pass, he received a deputation 
from the Christians belonging to Rengeltaube s Mission in Travancore, 
who were then said to number 800 souls. Mr. Hough, the author of 
The History of Christianity in India then recently appointed a chaplain 
on the Madras establishment reached Palamcottah towards the end of 
the same year 1816, and his labours mark an epoch in Tinnevelly 
Christianity of the highest importance. He must be regarded as the 
second father of the Tinnevelly Mission. The land on which this 
building stands was originally purchased by Mr. Hough. The Mission- 
house now inhabited by Bishop Sargent was originally his house, but he 
succeeded in purchasing a piece of land adjoining it, on which he erected 
two schools, one English, one Tamil. In 1817, at the request of the 
Madras Committee of the Christian Knowledge Society, Mr. Hough 
visited all the stations of the Society in the rural districts. His account 
appeared in the only report ever published by that Committee, a very 
interesting report, of which Mr. Hough s communication was the most 
interesting part. This account did more than anything else to awaken 
an interest in Tinnevelly. Indirectly it led to the establishment in 
Tinnevelly of the C. M. S. Mission, in the person of Rhenius in 1820 
and ultimately to the resuscitation of the old Mission in 1829 or rather 
in 1835 m the person of Rosen. Rosen, like Rhenius, was in Lutheran 
orders. Rhenius came at first to assist Hough. In reality, however, he 
succeeded him in his work, for Hough left in March, shortly after 
Rhenius s arrival. The two missions were Hough s two children, the 
older and younger, and Swartz s two grand-children. Hough seems 
to have crossed his hands, like Jacob, in giving his parting blessing to his 
two children, for the younger outstripped the elder. From 1820 the 
Church Missionary Society s Mission was never without a supply of 
European Missionaries, whereas the succession of the Missionaries of 
the S.P.G. dates only from i835. r Since then each of the Societies has 
pursued its course independently of the others. The lines have been 
different, but almost parallel, certainly not antagonistic, and it may be 
permitted to an old Missionary of the older Society to hope that that 
older Society is not now so much behind the younger as it was at one 
time. Till lately two-thirds of all the Christianity and Christian agency 
in Tinnevelly belonged to the C.M.S., and only one-third to the S.P.G. 
At present, the difference, it will be seen, is not by any means so great. 
May God bless both the Societies and make each of them, like each of 

[ J The Missions in Tinnevelly which had been supported by the help of the S.P.C.K. were 
made over to the S.P.G. in 1826. EDITOR.] 



142 



Madras. 



TMigsion Field, 
L May 1, 1880. 



Jacob s two grandsons, the father of a multitude. The following is a 
summary of the statistics of the two Societies as made up to the 3oth 
June, 1879 ; the S.P.G. statistics include Ramnad : 





in 

<u 


j> 






6nc 


t/> 






oJQ 


*4J * 




T3 


rt I 3 


H 






P"! 


5 


1 




id s 


| 


Contributions 




> cl 


CO 




0, 


^o c -^ 


S 


from Native 




*o u 


o.g 


& 

cj 


^ 


^ rt* 


S 


Christians. 




6 


6^ 


PQ 


P 


o s 


r- 1 

o 






^ 


^ 






K-5 


u 




C. M. S 


875 


58 


34,484 


19,052 


53,536 


8,378 


24,498 3 5 


S. P. G 


631 


31 


24,719 


19,350 


44,069 


4,887 


13,056 13 2 


Total . 


i,co6 


89 


CJQ,2O^ 


38,4O2 


07,60, 


1 1,26"; 


37,crcc o 7 



















"Who could have predicted in 1780 that such an assembly as this 
would take place here this day ? There was then no Bishop of Madras, 
and if there had been, the only clergyman of the Church of England he 
would have had in his diocese would have been the one chaplain of 
Fort St. George. The only Missionaries in the country at that time 
were in Lutheran orders. He would have needed no assistance in Tin- 
nevelly, like Bishop Sargent and myself, to help him to superintend the 
one congregation then in existence in Tinnevelly, comprising forty souls. 
There would have been no European Missionaries of cither of our two 
Societies present, for the C.M.S. had not then come into existence, and 
the S.P.G. had not then extended its operations to India. Its work in 
India was carried on by the Christian Knowledge Society. There would 
have been no native clergy present, and probably only one native agent. 
Who can predict what the state of things will be in Tinnevelly in 1980 ? 
If in the first 100 years of the history of the Tinnevelly Mission it has 
grown from 40 souls to 59,203 to give the number of the baptised alone 
by the end of the second 100 years nearly the whole of Tinnevelly should 
be converted to Christ. It is useless, however, to attempt to predict 
what may or not be witnessed here in so far distant a future as 1980. 
The future is in God s hands, but hitherto we have always found that the 
future takes its rise out of the past. The past, the present, and the future 
are under the government of one and the same divine Ruler. All power 
is given to our Blessed Saviour in heaven and in earth, and in sending 
His disciples to all lands. He has promised to be with them always to 
the end of the world." 



Good news as to educational progress in Tan j ore comes from the 
Rev. W. H. Kay, under date December i2th : 

" To a certain extent the district has wiped out one of the charges that 
have been brought against it for many years, viz., their refusal to do any 
thing for themselves. The Boarding School is now very large ; there are 
118 on the list now, and we found fifteen, and the fees paid by the boys 
now amount to Rs. 100 a month ; such a thing has not been known in 



Ssf ] Itinerating Work in Tinnevelly. 143 

any of the boarding schools in South India. This is a bond fide fee- 
collection and not English money, but native money. I have succeeded 
chiefly by fixing each boy s fee according to the circumstances of the 
-family, and avoiding any appearance of anxiety to take the boys on any 
other terms. The most wonderful thing is that they are all mixed now 
all castes eating in one room, and scarcely two boys of the same caste 
sitting together, with the exception of brothers, and the low caste only 
numbering one-third of the whole. However, it has not been smooth 
sailing all the time." 

The Girls school also has increased from fifteen to fifty- four, 
and still extends, though the fees paid are not of so Iwnafide a 
nature as in the Boys School. 



ITINERATING WORK IN TINNEVELLY. 

BY THE REV. J. A. SHARROCK. 

I PROPOSE to take the reader for a visit to a heathen village, and 
show him one day s work of the kind with which I am myself 
more especially connected ; not troubling him, however, with the heat, 
the dirt, the strange language, the Robinson Crusoe-like isolation, and 
the general discomforts of " roughing it " in tents and schoolrooms, 
&c. To begin, then, at the beginning of the day. The itinerating and 
local catechists are sent out early in the morning to a village com 
posed principally or entirely of heathens Christian places, of course, 
being left to the native clergy. These agents speak to every man 
and woman that they can find either about their houses or at their 
work, arguing with them, answering their questions, teaching them 
the primary doctrines of Christianity, and inviting them to attend 
the meeting to be held in the evening. Sometimes a tract or a page 
of a book is read, but oftener a long discussion is entered into, 
interspersed with quotations from Hindu religious books and poems 
(which latter are invariably sung), with some more or less intelligent 
Hindu, who thoroughly enjoys an argument on some metaphysical 
subject. It is nothing to him whether or no Christ s Advent is an 
historical fact, but to speculate on the necessity or not of His Atone 
ment is a matter which will agreeably occupy his attention for hours. 
My own evangelistic work does not begin till the evening for the 
Missionary of the nineteenth century has his time occupied and his 
brain-power used up in satisfying civilisation s clamour for an almost 
endless series of examinations to be passed. On entering the 



144 Itinerating Work in Tinnwelfy. 

village which generally consists of a number of mud and thatch 
huts, and a few stone houses, with their courtyards, verandahs, and 
raised earth seats in front, and is interspersed with temples of all 
sorts I make a point of speaking to all the people that I can find 
in the streets willing to listen. The arguments one has to meet are 
sometimes difficult to answer satisfactorily, and sometimes are absurd 
and childish. Here are a few samples "If God wished us to 
become Christians, He would give us the mind (or disposition) to do 
so ; and when He does so, we will join you we worship the same 
Supreme God that you do, our religious books are just as much 
inspired as yours ; show us, then, what advantage there is in 
Christianity ! If the Government believed Christianity to be the 
only true religion, they would enforce it upon all, instead of favouring 
Hinduism. If it were good, we should flock to it like bees do to 
honey. You tell us the devil is not to be appeased with offerings ; 
why does God allow the devil to exist to hurt us and send illness to 
us? God, to be God, must be infinitely merciful; therefore it is 
absurd to say that it was necessary that the blood of Christ should 
be shed for our sins." Allow me to observe in passing that, though 
it seems to be the opinion of many English people that our educated 
clergy should remain at home, for my own part I would rather preach 
a dozen English sermons to a Christian congregation than have to 
argue in a foreign language on such subjects with a metaphysical 
Brahman. Caste is of course the great stumbling-block. When all 
other difficulties have been removed from the path of the high caste 
man, there always remains that all but insuperable one, " To whom 
will our daughters be married if we degrade ourselves by becoming 
Christians ? " 

As it grows dark, a table and chair are placed for me in the most 
central spot, and the people are collected together ; then our singing- 
boys strike up a Christian lyric, which has the twofold effect of 
attracting the people and pleasing them and keeping them together 
when they have come, as they are intensely fond of their own native 
music. We begin with a few collects and ; an appropriate lesson, both 
for the sake of our own party, and to show the heathens what our 
worship is like. The people squat about on mats or on the sand, 
and I give my address, which embraces, as far as possible, the 
objections which have been brought forward, but is for the most 
part plain Christianity for experience shows that an attack on Caste 
or Hinduism simply acts as an irritant, and does harm. Then 



ll d ] The Colleroon Mission. 145 

follows more singing and addresses from the native clergyman, if 
present, and one or more of the catechists. These addresses are 
often interrupted by argumentative people, but only once have we 
met with active opposition. 

And now, what about results? people ask. By outsiders a 
Missionary s work is often judged by immediate results ; but this is 
scarcely a fair way of looking at the matter. We have had some 
accessions and a good many more or less satisfactory promises, but 
these, of course, are the results, not of my work, but of my pre 
decessors in the field. Our work is not to reap, but to make new 
roads, to fell trees, to clear away stones, to cut away jungle, to tear 
up old roots and weeds, to dig up the soil, and to sow the seed. 
This requires faith, and to ask a Missionary for immediate results is 
to damp his faith. 

A great many people in England think that Missionary work is 
going on all right, and that there is no special call to every Christian 
man, woman, and child in the country to become a Missionary 
either personally, or, if that is absolutely impossible, by proxy. They 
look upon Tinnevelly as one of the brightest spots in the Missionary 
world, and congratulate themselves that there, at any rate, little more 
remains to be done. Could such people go out thus day by day in 
this " bright spot," their minds would soon be disabused, and a 
feeling of despair at the magnitude of the work to be done, and the 
insignificance of the means, probably soon creep over them. 



THE COLLEROON MISSION. 

BY THE REV. C. S. KOHLHOFF. 

THE Erungalore (or, as it was called, the Colleroon} Mission, 
stretching along the river of that name, and therefore named 
by the natives the North Shore Mission, was commenced in 1830, 
and was superintended by the Missionaries at Tanjore and Trichi- 
nopoly for thirteen years. In 1843 Bishop Spencer, having formed 
the design of dividing the congregations which formed the out- 
stations of the Tanjore and Trichinopoly Missions into separate 
districts, appointed me to that known by the name of the Colleroon 
Mission. It then comprised sixteen village congregations, consisting 
of 900 baptized persons. Erungalore, a village twelve miles north 



i 4 6 



Madras. 



.Mission Field, 
_ May 1/1880. 



of Trichinopoly, was fixed upon as the station of this Mission, and 
the work of constructing a church (which is called St. John the 
Evangelist), a Boys and Girls Boarding-schools, Mission-house, &c., 
fell to my care. In the course of time the Mission gradually 




extended to the east and west and north. It is bounded on the 
south by the Colleroon, which separates this Mission from that of 
Trichinopoly, and therefore could not stretch further in that direction. 
From being a small, insignificant village, it has now grown to the 



S May?.S 8 e o d> ] The Colleroon Mission. 147 

importance of having not only an hospital, under a medical evan 
gelist, but also a post-office. The number of village congregations 
gradually increased, till by the last returns (1878) they numbered 
thirty, containing 1,360 baptized persons. It was long ago found to 
be too extensive to be worked efficiently by one Missionary : but it 
was only this year that another Missionary could be spared to divide 
this field with me. The Rev. Mr. Taylor was sent to relieve me of 
the eastern portion of the district, with eighteen village congregations, 
comprising 838 baptized persons, while the western portion of it is 
now left to my sole charge. It contains twelve village congregations, 
and extends over a tract of country twenty-seven by twenty-five 
miles ; some of these village congregations are from thirty-five to 
forty miles distant from my station, and cannot be reached in less 
than two days, travelling over the roughest roads imaginable. I have 
not found it too much for me to pay my regular visits to these out- 
stations, but I regret that I cannot give more than six days at a time 
to these towns, as the weekly Communion at my station, which has 
become a practice for the last two years, obliges me to be at Erunga- 
lore every Sunday. 

St. John the Evanglist s Church at Erungalore is built in memory 
of the late Rev. J. C. Kohlhoff, father of the present Incumbent, 
who laboured as a Missionary of the S.P.C.K. at Tanjore for fifty- 
seven years. He was the son of the Rev. J. B. Kohlhoff, who came 
out to India in 1737, in connection with the Royal Danish Mission, 
and laboured as a Missionary at Tranquebar for upwards of fifty-two 
years. 

The foundation-stone of this church was laid by Bishop Spencer 
on the 1 8th February, 1845, and it was opened for Divine service 
in 1850. It is a cruciform building, capable of accommodating 500 
persons. It is a substantial edifice, but, owing to want of funds, has 
been left unfinished, and therefore still remains unconsecrated. 

It is a singular fact, that in the family of Kohlhoffs, the Missionary 
succession has been preserved for 143 years, from father to son, and 
to the grandson, all labourers in the Indian Field. 



148 A Missionary Tour to the Karens. 



A MISSIONARY TOUR TO THE KARENS ON THE THABYAY 

KOUNG. 

BY THE REV. W. E. JONES, OF ST. PAUL S MISSION, TOUNGOO. 

IT had been for a long time our earnest wish to extend our work 
, to the Karen tribes to the west of Toungoo, where there are a 
great number of Karens, who, having little or no religion of their 
own, are very desirous to know more of Christianity ; but this until 
now we have been unable to do, as our whole time has been 
necessarily taken up with the Karens to the east of Toungoo, who 
came over to the Church of England from the Baptists, and even 
now our hands are quite full. However, when an actual invitation 
arrived from the Karens of the west, or rather a particular village in 
that district, we decided that we ought to wait no longer, but at once 
occupy the glorious field of labour which was opened to us, for 
extending the Church of Christ. 

With this intention, therefore, we set out on our journey, taking as 
our guide the Kaboung stream, an affluent of the river Sittang, as 
there was no other guide forthcoming. Our party consisted of a 
native deacon (Shway Gno), myself, a Karen boy, from our A. V. 
school, and three coolies who carried our luggage. 

About noon on the 2nd February last, after trying to persuade (to 
no purpose) a Burman who knew those parts to accompany us as a 
guide, we determined to shift for ourselves, and accordingly set out. 
After following the Kaboung stream for a considerable distance, as 
the sun began to decline, we put up for the night in a Burmese 
village, and, after having called our people together, we had short 
Evensong (according to our custom when travelling) in Karen, and 
then invited several of the men of the village to come and talk 
about Christianity. The Karen deacon (Shway Gno), who under 
stands Burmese very well, argued in favour of Christianity with great 
force. The Burmans seemed to be very much interested, and 
listened very attentively. After leaving some little books on 
Christianity in the village, we set off next morning very early to the 
next villages on the Kaboung. We heard that they were some 
twenty-five miles off, and so made as much speed as we could. 
Having no guides, we could not take any of the short cuts through 
the jungle, for fear of losing our way, and confined ourselves to the 
river, riding through the water. This made the journey much 



*iay7. Fsl? ] A Missionary Tour to the Karens. 149 

longer and more tiresome. After pushing on all day, and when it 
was growing dark, we made up our minds to encamp for the night in 
the jungle, when we came across a Shan who had come up the river 
to cut bamboos, and he told us that we were not far from the village 
of Sain Yay. 

To this village we therefore determined to push on and put up for 
the night. There I met Mr. Copleston, the brother of the Bishop of 
Colombo, and Mr. Hill, the forester officer, who kindly showed me a 
map of the district, and thus enabled rne to plan out my route. This 
was a sketch map which Mr. Hill had made, and I found that the copy 
I took was perfectly correct. The next two days I journeyed forward, 
riding up the partially filled Thabyay stream ; as there were rocks of 
great height on either side, we had still to march through the water. 
The scene around was most romantic and wild. The fourth day 
brought us to the first Karen village (Shway Dike), which takes its 
name from the headman of the village. This man, although he 
received us courteously, did not seem to pay very much attention to 
our exhortations and arguments, which, as I found out afterwards, 
was because he was deaf. Our efforts to persuade his people had 
as little success, for to all that I said their reply was, " Go and tell 
our children, we are too old now to change our religion." I there 
fore promised them that I would teach their children, and this 
intention I hope soon to put into practice by opening a school at 
Shu Moung, and inviting the people in the villages around to send 
their children for instruction. At Mg Tso I had no better result, 
and therefore, when the people of Mg Tso would not listen to me, I 
went on to Tsoo Doo. Here the headman of the village welcomed 
us very heartily, and tried his best to make us comfortable, calling 
out his men to make a sakan of bamboos and leaves for us to sleep 
in, and allowing us to purchase provisions, which was refused in the 
other villages. In the evening he came to our service which we held 
in the sakan, and prayers being over, I began talking to him about 
Christianity, and explaining the reasons for my coming to his village. 
After about an hour s conversation he gave me this very sensible 
answer. " I know nothing," said he, "about your religion, but what 
I see and hear of it from you is good ; you cannot, however, expect 
me to give up all the practices which I have accustomed myself to 
for these sixty years, all at once ; if you will teach me more of your 
religion, and I find it is better than mine, I will give up my old 
customs altogether." This was very encouraging, and I promised 



150 A Missionary Tour to the Karens. KTSS? 

him that I would make arrangements for staying a month or so 
among his people, or at all events near to them. 

We then started out for the next village (Shway Thai), and were 
encouraged even more than before. 

The headman had heard about Christianity, and was most 
desirous to know more about it ; and when we were about to have 
service, having heard that it was the Christian custom to ring a gong 
before service, he said, " I have a gong in my house," and at once 
went off and rang it, and caused the whole village men, women, 
and children to turn out for the service ; and so we had quite a 
pleasant service in the bamboo grove adjoining. The native deacon 
gave an instruction, which lasted nearly all night long. The people 
were very interested and attentive all the while, continually asking- 
questions, or making signs of approval. Next morning the head 
man begged us not to forget to return and teach him and his people, 
which when we had promised to do, we set out for the next village 
(Shu Moung), the largest in that part ; and although we did not meet 
with such a hearty welcome yet the people were well-disposed 
towards us, and listened attentively. The next day we set off for 
Toungoo, the headquarters of the Mission. 

The object of the journey was not so much to convert people, as 
to " spy out the land" for future operations ; and as soon as arrange 
ments have been made, I shall again set out for this district, and try 
to have a school established at Shu Moung. But there is no time to 
be lost if we are to 

u Strike with all our might 
While the iron s red." 

Of course the work will take time to arrange properly, and at first 
will be slow, partly from the fear the people have of Europeans, and 
partly from their natural slowness. But with such a promising field 
before us, and such encouragement, there is every reason for us to 
thank God and take courage. 



Bombay. 151 



BOMBAY. 

PREACHING TOURS. LECTURES TO BRAHMANS. MARATHI ORDINATION. 

BAPTISMS. A CHRISTIAN VERNACULAR PAPER. MILITARY CON 
TRIBUTIONS TO MISSION FUNDS. 

r I ^HE Bombay diocese is still one to which we turn with especial 
X anxiety, lest the hopes raised by the great movement in the 
Nagar district should be to any serious extent disappointed. The 
Rev. J. Taylor, of Kolhapur, has seen something of the results in a 
series of preaching excursions he has been making during last year. 
In his report, which contains a variety of interesting information, he 
writes : 

" My first tour was across the country almost in a straight line from 
Nagar to Kolhapur in January, and led me through several important 
towns and villages, in some of which we have a considerable number of 
Christians, baptised in 1877, and whom I was anxious to revisit. The 
railway took me to Madrid on the Sholapur line, and the rest of the 
inarch was got over by stages. At each halting place I preached, and 
had some very encouraging work.- At Madhe the people were anxious 
to have some Christian books, and I gave them a few. At Shetphale 
an orphan boy begged me to take him along with me, which I did. At 
Pandharpur the famous place of pilgrimage in the Deccan, I met an old 
inquirer whom I had not seen for ten years, but with whom I have kept 
up a correspondence. He is head clerk in the Mamletdar s office, and I 
had some very earnest conversation with him. By his means about 
seventy of the leading natives met me in the library at Pandharpur, and 
listened attentively to an address I gave them. Unhappily the Munsiff, 
or judge of the place, a Sujarathi, and a member of the Brahma Samaja, 
tried to upset what I had said, and has led the head clerk away from 
Christianity rather than towards it. 

" At Anawale, about four miles south of Pandharpur we have twenty- 
seven Christians. I stayed two days with them, and was glad to find 
them steadfast amid their trials by famine. 

"On the nth, I reached Mangulvedha, where we have twenty-three 
Christians, and was joined here by Mr. Priestley, who rode from Kolha 
pur in six days ! We spent the Sunday there with the native Christians, 
and I baptised the child of our Scripture Reader. I am sorry I was not 
able to have a meeting with the better classes in the town, as they were 
taken up with the political agent who happened to come there at 
the time. 

" On the 1 4th, we left for Nandur, and stayed two days, baptising 
twelve people who had been prepared by our preacher, Panher, who is 
stationed there, and constantly visits the Christians in turn. We have 
now had about thirty-six Christians belonging to this small village, the 
fruits of Panher s work. At Dhonja, Lovi, and Gonewadi, three other 
small villages in that district, we have nearly a dozen more. The whole 
ought to be formed into a separate Mission with Pandharpur as head 
quarters, for it is much too far away from Kolhapur for proper super 
vision, being from 120 to 140 miles off. 



i S 2 . Bombay. \-SftSQ 

" On the 1 5th, we parted from the Nandur Christians and continued our 
march through an altogether heathen country. At Umadhi and Bublad, 
in the lat State, we had attentive audiences, and distributed some books. 
On the 1 8th we reached Bijapur, which we were anxious to see on account 
of its far-famed ruins. The next day being Sunday, we had divine service 
in the celebrated Ibrahim Roza Mosque, which is capable of holding 
2,000 worshippers, and is still with the adjoining palace, like Roza itself, 
in good preservation. In the evening we preached in the city, but had a 
difficulty in being understood, so few of our audience knew Marathi. 
While there we visited the principal places of interest, chiefly the great 
tomb of Sultan Mohamad, said to have the largest dome in the world, and 
which is visible many miles off; the Juma Musjid or chief mosque, said 
to contain kneeling places for 2,500 worshippers ! the Arkilla, or chief 
citadel, full of ruined palaces and halls, such as the seven storied palace 
of the harem described in Colonel Meadows Taylor s Sitaj the China 
Mahul, the Hall of Joy, the Hall of Justice, said to contain a real hair of 
the Prophet s beard, which is exhibited with ceremony once a year ; and 
a beautiful little gem of a mosque said to be a facsimile of that at Mecca. 
There are many interesting inscriptions connected with these buildings. 
I managed to secure a copy of the chief ones. The whole place for 
miles and miles round is full of tombs and mosques, but resembles a 
huge graveyard, which sends a chill of sadness and melancholy through 
the beholder. 

" Leaving Bijapur, with all its sad records of the past, we arrived at 
Tikota, an outlying town belonging to the Kurundwad State. The Mam- 
letdar was very courteous, and I had an interesting meeting in his house. 
At Tel Sange, and Burchi, where we halted, we also preached, and at 
Atheic we had an interesting public meeting in the Municipal Hall, at which 
most of the chief people in the place were present. They listened very 
respectfully and attentively to an address I gave them. At Ainapur we 
had also a very good audience, and were able to distribute some books. 

" On the evening of the 25th, we reached Kuzwad, one of our stations, 
and remained there till the 27th, holding services in the new church, and 
doing all in our power to revive the work there, which has suffered much 
during the past year. The results were not very encouraging, but I still 
hope we may again make way there, though the villagers are much 
opposed to Christianity, and have strong caste prejudices. 

"At Kurandwad we visited the chief schools, and I took occasion 
while doing so, to say a few words to the boys, girls, and visitors present. 
The following day we went on to Bognur, and I had a very encouraging 
meeting with the villagers whom I had met before ; and a few earnest 
minded Brahmans, to whom I gave some books. We reached Kolhapur 
on the 29th, after an absence to me of nearly eleven months." 

During the months of February and March Mr. Taylor devoted 
much time to looking up old inquirers in the city of Kolhapur and 
the surrounding villages. He continues : 

" From the loth to the 22nd, I went into the districts south-eastward 
and had a very interesting tour through Sangavade, Hupari, Bhoja, 
Bhedkyal, Sadalga, Eksambe , Chikodi, Nipani, Saundalgd, and Kagal, 
my chief reason for going that way then was to visit the native Christians 
at Eksambe", whose condition has been matter for anxiety. They have 
been much persecuted by the heathen, and were afraid to meet me or be 
seen talking with me." 



*Mayi! feso a> ] Lectures to Brahmans. 153 

Mr. Taylor has also found time to deliver two valuable lectures, 
one by invitation, at the Kolhapur High School Hall, of which he 
says : 

" Upwards of 200, 1 think, were present. The subject was caste, and it 
was astonishing to see how well it was received considering the Brahmanic 
audience. Preparation involved a great deal of labour and research. 
The local vernacular paper printed the whole of it from my notes, and a 
correspondent sent it to a Poona vernacular paper, in which it also ap 
peared in full. This correspondent is an enlightened Brahman leper who 
is, I regret to say, now on his death-bed, but has freely allowed me to 
visit him. Would that he had been baptised, for we had knowr each other 
for several years. 

"This lecture I have prepared since for the press." 

The other lecture was delivered at Poona at Whitsuntide, Mr. 
Taylor having gone thither for retreat, and to be present at the 
ordination of Messrs. Priestley and Ellis. The subject was the 
Vedas, and the audience was largely composed of Brahmans. The 
ordination, he says 

" Was held in St. Paul s Church in the Marathi language, the Bishop 
taking all his own part of the service, and being perfectly understood, 
which is matter for great congratulation." 

As an instance of the care exercised by our Missionaries in 
baptising converts, we quote from the Rev. G. Ledgard s report : 

" I have had the pleasure of baptising three adults, two Mussulmans 
and one Hindu. One Mussulman was a young man who had visited me 
more than a year ago for instruction in Christianity, and who seemed 
even then very anxious to know the truth. He left me for a time and 
visited the native pastor of the Scottish Free Church. But he returned 
after some months, and when he had received further instruction he 
became desirous of baptism. He was kept, however, for a considerable 
time even after that on probation ; but at last he seemed so really in 
earnest and anxious for baptism that I felt it would be wrong to keep, 
him longer in suspense ; he was therefore received into the Church by 
baptism on the 2ytn of June. 

"The other two were women, one of whom is still going on very 
satisfactorily ; about the other, however, I have some fears, but I cannot 
yet fairly judge of the case." 

A fresh attempt to reach the natives by means of the press has 
been made at Ahmednagar by the Rev. T. Williams, of which he 
writes at the end of last year : - 

" We have started our paper, the Prahashta Enlightcner. The Colaba 
Missionary Association, whose secretary is the Mission s old friend, the 
Rev. W. H. Bagnell, has generously contributed Rs. 120 for its first six- 
months expense. In the first issue the only contributors were Raghoo 
and myself. In the next one there will be something from each of us. 

NO. CCXCIIJ. M 



1 54 Labuan and Sarawak. \^l Sf 

especially on the subject taught by each during the rains. The printer s, 
or rather lithographer s, (for it is as yet lithographed) stone broke through, 
and delayed the first issue a couple of days. It was amusing to watch 
the effect of superstition upon the man s face as he declared his belief 
that it was owing to his lithographing a distinctly Christian paper that 
his stone broke. 

The Nagar Mission has been fortunate in receiving very acceptable 
aid in several different ways during the past few months. Mr. 
Williams says : 

" We have to record among our contributions especially those of the 
soldiers of the yth Royal Fusiliers, stationed here under the command 
of Major Kerr. They have, up to a large number, agreed among them 
selves to give up a small sum out of their pay for Mission purposes. 
Thus for some months now we have been in the receipt of about Rs. 12 
in this way. This surely is highly creditable to the soldiers. 

"We have to record our great thankfulness for the help afforded us 
con amore by the Chaplain of the station, the Rev. G. B. Streeten, who 
has been the means of our obtaining larger contributions, and also has 
given us the benefit of his long experience in Church work Also 
similarly for that afforded us by Father Black, of the Cowley Fathers, 
who, staying with us for the purpose of learning Marathee, has entered 
thoroughly into the spirit of our work. His intuitive apprehension of the 
real nature of it, and his singularly good judgment in the matters that 
from time to time turned up, made his presence amongst us most valu 
able, we cannot help but regret his departure. He has left us, amongst 
other mementoes of his visit, a beautiful cross and pair of candlesticks 
for the altar of our New Church." 



LABUAN AND SARAWAK. 

INCREASED SELF-HELP. A CONVERT EVANGELIST. 

FROM Singapore we learn that fruits of systematic labour have 
been showing themselves in the improved attendance at 
divine worship, and also in the increasing number of inquirers who 
present themselves for instruction. 

The Rev. W. H. Gomes wrote in October last : 

" The Christians at our branch-station at Jurung have lately shown 
unusual activity. They have rebuilt, at a cost of $76, the rustic chapel 
put up three years ago by one of them, and are striving, by word and 
example, to win over the heathen around them to the truth as it is in 
Jesus." 

Such facts cannot fail to cheer and encourage the supporters of 
Missions as they do the Missionaries themselves. The local feeling 
on the subject is thus expressed by Mr. Gomes : 



Mission Field," 

May 1, 1880. J 



Japan. 155 



"The increased contribution, on the part of the native Christians, for 
Church expenses and charitable purposes, is an encouraging- proof to us, 
who know their circumstances, of their sincerity. One of them lately 
gave me forty-five dollars ($45) to be devoted to any object I may think 
proper. Such offerings, coming unsolicited, coupled as in this instance 
With a consistent life of true devotion, are highly gratifying as tests of the 
real hold the Gospel is having upon the native mind." 

The following instance of thoroughness in the Christian profession 
is also highly satisfactory. 

" The Chinese proprietor of the principal plantation brought to me 
three candidates for baptism, servants under him, whom he had been 
instructing, in the evenings, after the labour of the day. I was surprised 
at the knowledge of Gospel history they possessed, and pleased with the 
evident earnestness and sincerity of their behaviour. Great pains, and 
that for over a year, must have been bestowed by their master on their 
instruction. I was so satisfied with the result of their examination that 
I had no hesitation in receiving them into the Church by baptism. May 
God, by His Spirit, enable all our converts to set forth, by word and ex 
ample, before the heathen, the excellency of the knowledge of Christ 
Jesus our Lord/" 

Mr. Gomes is now able both to say the prayers and preach in 
Malay and also in Chinese without aid from an interpreter. 

The Rev. J. Perham left England on April 23, to resume his 
work in Borneo. 



JAPAN. 

TRIALS AND DISCOURAGEMENTS. AN INQUIRER. A HARVEST THANKS 
GIVING. A METAPHYSICAL DOCTOR. INTERESTING BAPTISMS. 

GREAT FIRE AT TOKYO. CONVERSATION WITH A BUDDHIST PRIEST. 

WITH the close of 1879 the Rev. W. B. Wright completed 
a sixth year of very useful work in Japan. Many of the 
persons referred to from time to time in his narratives must have 
become familiar acquaintances to the careful perusers of the Mission 
Field, and with so graphic a pen does Mr. Wright sketch their 
characters, that further information concerning them will be welcomed. 
During the past year Mr. Wright has had many discouragements, 
especially in his town work ; but such fluctuations will not dishearten 
those who take a comprehensive view of the Missionary s calling, 

M 2 



Ti-A TnAnn [Mission Field, 

15 japan. L May i, im 

Our sympathy with him in his trials and successes is increased by 
the knowledge of his great danger during the late terrible con 
flagration at Tokyo. His last report is as follows : 

" It was just six years at the end of the last quarter since we landed 
in this country. Since then what trials and disappointments and also 
what cause for thankfulness and praise? The last year has truly been very 
blessed in my work, though that success has been tempered with doubts 
and fears ; the year has also been an anxious and lonely one, separated, 
as I have been in the Providence of God, from my beloved wife and 
daughter, and ever troubled about the serious illness of the former ; but 
now that care, I hope, is past, and I am hoping soon to have them back 
with me. My work has had no great change. I go out still as before 
on Sundays to the two chapels of Ichigaya and Ushigomi, at which 
Yamagata and Shimada are working as catechists. The former of these, 
though the oldest, is not so promising as the other. We seem to make no 
impression on the people about. They don t come, nor do the military 
students who formerly did. There are about ten or twelve faithful 
Christians there : of the others, some are scattered elsewhere, and some 
have given up, through lack of faith working by love, though I can 
trace no case of apostasy. The fact is youths and young men, who 
are the lapsed, are in Japan a most unsatisfactory, fickle, variable set. 
There is no doubt many of them have received Christianity as they did 
the English language or other branches of study, as something novel and 
interesting, but they never counted the cost or really took up the Cross. 
I have become very cautious now in baptising young men. I have had 
several cases of seemingly earnest constant following, until the Sacrament 
was received with gradual slackening and abandonment after. I hope it 
is not for always ; that some will come back again when they grow older 
and more settled. The observance of Sunday is a great stumbling block. 
They do not seem to realise the necessity of it, and in this too I am 
not a Sabbatarian. However, this chapel is on a most important site, and 
some day will play a part far beyond what it does now. The other 
chapel, at Ushigomi, five miles from my house, is more promising. There 
is a nice little band of Christians there, and Shimada, who is still working 
on for Holy Orders, on week days lives there, and preaches on Sunday 
and Wednesday, holding a class for the Christians on Tuesday. The 
Central City Preaching House I moved in November to a place near my 
house, only ten minutes walk away, instead of forty minutes , and a 
better, larger house, more central still. It is just by Kiyo or Metro 
politan Bridge, a few doors removed from the main thoroughfare of the 
city. Here I have preaching on Sunday nights, and exposition on 
Wednesday nights. There is a small but attentive congregation, and 
some candidates for baptism. At the former house there were thirty-five 
scholars in the children s school; they all left, however, and we have 
had to start anew. I hope to have a good many scholars, however, in 
a month or two. During the week days I have been teaching and 
preparing lectures for the Divinity School. I take Paley s Natiiral 
Theology as my class-book at present. The students passed a severe 
examination, oral and written, of two days, just before Christmas, and 
most of them did very well. The subjects Epistle to the Romans ; 
History of the Old Testament from Joshua onwards ; Church History, 
second and third centuries ; Heresies and Prosecutions, and Natural 
Theology, also the first three Articles, with Browne s Commentary? 



f83 e o d> ] Earnest Inquirers Harvest Thanksgiving. 157 



The country work has produced several cases well worthy of note. 
On this subject Mr. Wright says: 

" I have gone out regularly during the last three months to the Sagami 
country. I spend ten days at a time there. Of course during that 
time my work at the Divinity School rests. It is now about fourteen 
months since I found the villages open to me, and still they are open ; 
new ones each time, and the prospects of more still between the present 
ones and Tokyo. It would be going over the same ground too much 
to tell of my work each time ; so I will say something of the December 
one. I went out on the nth to Fujisawa, where the blind Christian, 
Paul Fukawa, lives ; and in the evening he and his wife came to the inn, 
where I explained to him the first two chapters of St. Luke. While 1 
was speaking a stranger came, and asked if he might listen. He was a 
silkworm merchant from the mountainous district in the centre of the 
island, and had once or twice heard a little preaching in his travels, 
and had even bought a copy of St. Matthew s Gospel. He was great! y 
interested in the account of John the Baptist and the birth of Christ. 
The next morning I administered Holy Communion to the blind man 
and his wife. He is a righteous Lot in a Sodom. Fujisawa is a sink 
of iniquity. Such awful things as I have heard of the doings there. 
There is only one hotel in the whole place that is reputable. Neverthe 
less God had some souls to be saved there. The next day I went to 
Ono, the first village in the Sagami country, where I preached. The 
little band of Christians there have been a good deal tried, and the old 
farmer Yoshizawa is too much taken up with the cares of this world. 
There are thorns in that ground. It appears that, many years ago, the 
elder brother of Yoshizawa acquired a good deal of land by lending 
money on pledge ; the villagers did not redeem the pledge at the 
appointed time, and so forfeited their ground. It has, however, been the 
cause of enmity and lawsuits, and during the life-time of the present 
father there will be no advance, I fear. I found likewise that, when the 
elder brother died this year a heathen, the Yoshizawa had been mixed 
up with the ceremonies of worshipping the dead, so that I was obliged 
to speak severely to them, and discontinue the communion. On this 
occasion I could not gather them together, and so went on to Nakatsu, 
where lida and a young student named Saito live. They had just moved 
into a cottage built for them, and, as Sunday was appointed for a Harvest 
Thanksgiving, were working hard to get up decorations for the purpose. 
I had made a translation of the Service for Thanksgiving in the American 
Prayer Book. 

" On Sunday morning, the I4th, I baptised an old farmer named Kuma- 
saka by the name of Simeon. He went down for the actual ceremony to the 
river below the village, where I stood on a rock jutting out, and the 
candidate entering the water to his waist, I poured water on his head 
three times in the name of the Trinity. Afterwards we had Communion, 
and in the afternoon the Harvest Thanksgiving. The few Christians 
brought their offerings of the fruits of the earth, rice and barley and 
other grains, which we afterwards gave to the poor. I preached on 
Matthew xiii. The harvest is the end of the world, the reapers are the 
angels. A good number came, and after the service I held an exami 
nation in the Creed, Lord s Prayer, and Commandments, giving little 
rewards to those scholars who could repeat them. I should mention that 
lida and one of the Christians have a little school there. I then preached 



153 Japan. BS8S 

around for six nights running in neighbouring villages, with good congre 
gations. The last day, Friday, the iQth, I went in the afternoon to the 
house of a Mr. Watanabe, a doctor, who is well educated and very 
intelligent. He has a business also in Yokohama ; I went by invitation 
and expounded St. Matthew i. ii. to him and six or seven pupils, who 
were much interested. He had already cleared out the family idol 
shelves and put medicines therein instead. He also believed in the 
Creator. After the exposition a conversation ensued on the Buddhist 
doctrine of cause and effect. They hold similar views to our modern 
philosophers, though they make a distinction between good and evil, and 
the whole thing is made to connect with the doctrine of transmigration 
of souls. I showed them that Ingwa, or cause and effect, if it was made 
natural and necessary in the cause of man, would sap the foundations of 
theism and morality. Fortunately, Buddhism is inconsistent with itself, 
and no fact is more self-evident than the freedom of the human will. 
I was invited to preach again at night, which we did from 8 to 10.30 
in the dispensary. I hope we may gain this man. The next morning 
I returned to Tokyo. On Christmas morning I baptised a very nice man 
named Kawakami at Ichigaya, by the name of Isaac. He is an employe 
of the arsenal, and his wife and children are also catechumens. We had 
Holy Communion with about twenty-five communicants. I preached to 
the people on the contrast of the feelings of Eve in bearing Cain and 
those of Mary at the birth of our Lord, showing how appropriate it was 
that, as through the medium of a woman the race of sin was born, so 
through a woman the Saviour from sin should come. After service the 
Christians met at the Kiyo Bridge Preaching House, where we sang 
hymns, had addresses, and they partook of refreshment. The next day 
occurred the awful fire, which in about seven hours (while a furious 
west wind was blowing) burnt down about 15,000 houses, and 
destroyed some hundreds of people. This house had a narrow escape. 
I had all my furniture and books out in the yard, but God was very good 
and saved us. Alas ! what awful misery has been brought to thousands, 
without house or clothes in the cold winter weather. I hope to present 
some ten or twelve candidates for confirmation at Epiphany Day to 
Bishop Williams." 

We are happy to be able to lay before our readers an engraving of 
Mr. Shaw s church (the opening of which was reported in the Mission 
Field for November last), with the following interesting letter 
written by Mr. Shaw on January i8th : 

" Christmas passed as usual with us very pleasantly. The stained 
glass for the chancel windows arrived just in time, and we managed to 
get them finished for Christmas Day. They are much admired by all, 
both Japanese and foreigners. We are very proud of our little church. 
Christmas evening my wife and I gave our annual feast to the Christians, 
and our large school-room was quite filled. 

" Wright has probably given you full accounts of the great fire which 
so nearly destroyed his house, and again left Bishop Williams homeless. 
I suppose at least 60,000 people were burnt out. The following day I 
made an appeal to my little English flock, and the members of it very 
liberally subscribed not far short of five hundred dollars in aid of the 
sufferers. With part of this we bought material which the Christian 



Mission Field,"] 
May 1, 1880. J 



Conversation with a Buddhist Priest. 



159 



women in my native congregation made up into clothes. The remainder 
was distributed at the school-house, partly in rice, partly in bedding, and 
the remainder in money. 

" I had rather an unusual conversation with a Buddhist priest a few 
days ago, which may perhaps be worth inserting in the paper if I can 




recall the principal facts to mind. The priest belonged to the Shin or 
true sect of Buddhists. He called on me at my own house a most 
unusual thing. I found him very well educated, and intelligent. He had 
been educated at a school where the most advanced opinions of modern 
science are current, and being able to read English was well acquainted 
with many of the arguments most antagonistic to Christianity. I asked 
him how it was that he, a believer in evolution, and educated in such a 



fMission Field, 

\_ May lf 1880 . 

school, was a member of the Buddhist priesthood. To this he answered : 
(i) That in his sect the priesthood was hereditary. (2) That he looked 
upon Buddhism, Christianity, Mohammadanism, Confucianism, as aids to 
morality, and (3) that evolution was quite in accordance with Buddhistic 
teaching. By this last statement he referred, of course, to the doctrine 
of the transmigration of the soul. He then expressed his disbelief in 
the existence, or in the necessity for the existence, of a personal God, 
stating that he thought the doctrine of evolution sufficient to account for 
every phenomenon of existence. 

" I replied that though there could be no doubt that evolution was to a 
certain extent true, yet that more had been laid on the theory than it 
seemed able to bear. Did he believe that mind was only a function of 
matter ? At this he was silent. Or why again should there not now be 
some evidences of the spontaneous generation in which he trusted, or of 
the gradual process of evolution ? These latter changes, he replied, re 
quired long ages, and then turning sharply on me, he asked, When do 
you believe the world was created ? This, of course, was a trap. I said, 
1 I cannot tell. It may have been millenniums of years ago, but some 
recent investigations seem to limit its age to a period much less than that 
demanded by those who hold the extreme evolution theory. 

" Do you believe, he next asked, that the spirit of man resembles the 
Spirit of God ? In our Scriptures/ 1 replied, itis written,that God created 
man in His own image, after His own likeness. I also believe, he said, 
that the soul of man not only resembles but is a part of the world, 
soul appearing for a little time only to be absorbed again into its 
original. * Doeb not Pantheism/ I said, seem to strike at the root of 
all morality? He fenced this by asking the old question as to the 
existence of evil If God ceased to permit evil would He not at the 
same time destroy man s power of free will and moral responsibility, and 
so reduce him to the condition of the brute creation? I asked, You 
admit the existence of evil, for you acknowledge that Buddhism is an aid 
to morality ; which then is the more comforting doctrine, yours or mine ? 
By yours each man is a solitary unit working out his own salvation. By 
mine every faithful earnest soul is a fellow-worker with a personal loving 
God on the side of right. To this he gave me no answer, but asked me 
if it were true that God had sent Jesus Christ to save the world, would it 
not seem that He had waited too long ; was it not a pity that He had 
allowed the world to grow so corrupt first ? As he said this in a scoffing 
tone, I told him I thought he was not really seeking after truth, and that 
argument of this kind would not be likely to lead to any beneficial result. 
He said he did not intend to scoff. That he had no manner of dislike to 
Christianity, though he felt assured it would be impossible for him ever 
to become a believer : still he would like occasionally to read the Scriptures 
with me. However/ he added, my principal object in coming to-day, was 
if possible to learn something of the constitution and practical working 
of the Church of England. My sect/ he said, is in great danger. Its 
government has always been on the principle of absolute monarchy. 
Now, however/ a majority of the priests are anxious to bring about a 
form of representative government a change which, in my opinion, 
would be fatal. I quite agreed with him in this, and after some further 
conversation he retired, promising in Japanese idiom to give me 
trouble another day. His visit was interesting : (i) As showing the 
renewed life and activity in this great sect. It is far the most powerful in 
Japan, and the only one likely, I think, to give trouble to Christian 
teachers. (2) As showing the readiness of its teachers to adapt them- 



M w SS? ] &w> a Church may be Built. 1 6 1 

selves to the circumstances of the day, and to make use of anything, from 
whatever source, which holds out a promise of assistance; willing to 
draw to itself evolution on the one hand or the system of the Christian 
Church on the other. 

" It is quite possible that if this Shin Shu should turn into a philoso 
phical sect, Christianity may yet find a great enemy in it. 

" My work is going on very well. I forgot to mention in the first part 
of my letter that I had the happiness of admitting twelve catechumens 
to baptism on Christmas Day. The son of one of the chief nobles of 
Japan has, with his father s consent, applied to me for baptism. He is 
now in my school." 



HOW A CHURCH MAY BE BUILT. 

BY THE REV. G. M. JOHNSON, RECTOR OF BARNINGHAM, NORFOLK, 
AT PRESENT IN CHARGE OF THE CATHEDRAL OF NEWFOUNDLAND. 

AT the moment I am writing the whole town of St. John s is 
thrilling with excitement about "stone-hauling," as it is 
called here, for the completion of the Cathedral. 

In explanation of the term, let me say that by "a haul of stone " 
is meant the muster of volunteer gangs, or " crews," as from the 
nautical character of our population the favourite expression runs, for 
the special purpose of furnishing stone for church or chapel, as the 
case may be, according to the religious denomination in favour 
of which the help is offered. By the former term the Church of 
England is understood, and by the latter Roman Catholics, or 
Wesleyan Methodists, or other dissenters. 

For the first time in the writer s long experience of Newfoundland 
life an enthusiasm seems to have seized upon the population of St. 
John s in favour of the Cathedral of the Church of England, partly, 
no doubt, from loving respect and regard to the memory of good 
Bishop Feild, who began the building, and partly from desire to see 
the completion of the noble pile, as " a thing of beauty and a joy 
for ever;" and all differences are for the time forgotten in the desire 
to help on the completion of the building so well conceived and 
begun, and finished, as far as the nave is concerned, more than 
thirty years ago by Bishop Feild, upon a noble design furnished by 
the late Sir Gilbert Scott. 1 The transepts, tower and spire, and 
chancel remain yet to be added, and this is the undertaking now in 

1 See page 165. 



1 62 How a Church may be Built. [IS-T.SS 3 

hand. The state of the roads through the town is just at present 
most suitable for sledge-drawing, or "hauling/ as being well 
covered with hard ice ; and the circumstance that St. John s is now 
full of hardy men ready for departure next week on the annual 
sealing voyage has afforded a most favourable juncture for the opera 
tion. These two circumstances, and the fact of the call for volunteers 
having been just now made, have aroused a perfect furore, as I 
may not untruly call it, for the work, to which all have rushed, as it 
were, with one accord, and with regard to which the difficulty has 
been to restrain the ardour evoked within due bounds, and to 
persuade the men who have come forward to be content within the 
limits which daylight would naturally impose, and to refrain from 
still carrying on the work after darkness had closed in. This was 
actually done two days ago, when by the aid of torches a couple 
of heavy loads were put up and hauled home after night had come 
on, the loads having been actually deposited towards nine o clock 
at the Cathedral. The same would have been also done the follow 
ing night, but for the great danger to the men engaged, their zeal 
having, even in daylight, twice nearly resulted in disaster, from their 
unwillingness to be content with moderate loads, and from the 
difficulty of keeping a proper check upon the great weight over 
snow and ice, when the incline is downward. 

The mode of procedure is as follows. Immense sleds or drays, 
with runners of solid timber framed together as strongly as possible, 
and in themselves of no little weight, are constructed, each capable 
of carrying twelve or fifteen tons of stone. These are then furnished 
with chains, and very long hauling ropes of the strongest kind, and 
lashed together, one behind the other. When loaded, the train oi 
sleds is taken in hand by a " crew " of from a thousand to fifteen 
hundred men, and drawn through the town to the Cathedral. The 
sleds are decked the while with flags, and a band of music usually 
precedes, while a shouting and cheering crowd accompanies the 
band and crew, and the greatest enthusiasm prevails, the whole 
reminding one of the passage of Zechariah (ch. iv., 7), "He shall 
bring forth the headstone with shoutings, crying, Grace, grace 
unto it." 

The work was begun by the young men of the guild of St. John 
the Baptist, attached to the Cathedral, and was taken up next day 
by the Fire Brigade and the British Society both town organisations 
of no small utility and importance, and furnishing fine bodies of 



:c> a Church may be Built. 163. 

enthusiastic zealous men. On the following day came two smart 
sealing crews, under their respective captains, assisted by the crew of 
a third sealing steamer. These sealing men, or "sealers/ as they 
are called here, have to-day delivered upon the ground as their 
final load (two heavy loads having been previously drawn by them) 
not less than from thirty to forty, if not more, tons of stone ; no 
light weight to be drawn at once, and requiring able arms, strong 
muscles, and tough and well-tried ropes to drag them. To-morrow 
night work being still forbidden for fear of accident other sealing 
crews, and the Society of United Fishermen, are to take the place of 
the sturdy fellows who did such noble work yesterday and to-day ; and 
a third relay of hardy sealers have volunteered to finish the work on 
Monday ; Wednesday morning being the time fixed for their depar 
ture on their perilous, but, when successful, profitable pursuit of seals 
among the northern ice-fields, which at this season lie off our coast 
and so frequently sever us from all communication, save by " cable," 
with the outside world. 

I suppose no other country could furnish such scenes as the town 
of St. John has witnessed during the present week ; and that in no 
country, except Newfoundland, is Church work of the kind this 
narrative refers to helped forward with more willingness and greater 
enthusiasm than has been shown by the noble fellows who have just 
given the work of finishing our Cathedral so good an impetus with 
their strong arms and willing, helping hands. A remarkable feature 
in the work indeed the remarkable feature, I should be inclined to 
call it has been the zeal with which Roman Catholics and Dissenters 
have vied with members of the Church, and refused to allow them 
selves to be outdone by our own people. No such scene have I 
ever witnessed before, although I was in St. John s when the existing 
portion of the building was erected. Then, though I do not say 
good-will was absent, Churchmen were left alone to do the work, 
which was at that time looked upon as theirs, and theirs only and 
alone. I suppose this week will have seen the united efforts of 
several thousands of the finest, healthiest, and most powerful and 
willing men that any country could produce from a similar popula 
tion ; Churchmen vying with Roman Catholics, and Dissenters with 
both, in helping forward the erection of the Cathedral of the Church 
of England. Feelings of the utmost delight have been manifested 
as each load reached its destination, the attempt being always made 
to make each load bigger than the last, and each successful effort 



1 64 How a Church may fo Built. [gj<j d - 

culminating in, and being acclaimed by, the heartiest hurrahs and 
cheers for the grand old Church of England ; and in these shouts, 
Roman Catholics, of whom there are 15,000 in St. John s, Dissenters, 
and Churchmen all joined equally, and each strove earnestly in the 
general roar to outdo his fellow. The interest and picturesqueness, 
so to speak, of the scene were unique. Let us hope that the 
effect of the spirit thus shown, and the result of the good feeling 
called forth, and unanimity manifested, may not only promote good 
will generally, and tone down asperities on account of differences of 
belief, but help towards religious unity in the bond of peace. Surely 
these great benefits can hardly fail thus to be promoted. Well, 
therefore, may I close the account with the pious words of David, as 
well suited to the occasion : "Pray for the peace of Jerusalem ! they 
shall prosper that love thee." Surely the work has been a work of 
love, and done for Zion s sake ; as such it cannot fail to receive a 
blessing. May the blessing follow speedily as well as surely ! 

Besides the work above recorded, nearly 7,ooo/. sterling has been 
subscribed since the death of Bishop Feild, to whose memory it is 
proposed to dedicate the contemplated work. At this time autho 
rised collectors are canvassing the town, whose work is no doubt 
receiving a valuable [impulse from the zeal and good-will shown by 
the humbler members of the community in the good work done by 
them, which in the foregoing account I have endeavoured to 
describe. 

Postscript, March 8, 1880. 

To-day has been a most lovely day, with good snow roads one of 
those peculiarly clear beautiful blue skies and transparent atmo 
spheres that from time to time occur, called here " pet days," or 
" weather breeders," as being supposed to precede stormy snowy 
changes. Be the morrow however what it may, the motto carpe diem 
has been fully acted on, and Saturday having been a lost day already 
through a snow-drift which lasted from morning till night, and this 
the very last day sealing crews can conveniently work, they turned 
out in great strength. Five noble crews, those of the steamships 
Ranger, Proteus, Eagle, Neptune, and Hector, have been at work, and 
the excitement has been even greater than on any of the previous 
days, and the numbers of men larger, for besides those crews under 
the command of their several captains, and the Society of United 



Mission Field,"! 
May 1, 1880. J 



How a Church may be Built. 



Fishermen, a strong and able band of men, all cheered and in. 
spirited with music and flags, numerous horses have been bringing 
loads all day. Nor has the enthusiasm been confined to men, for a 
crew of boys has also joined, and has worked with unflagging spirit 



- 







ST. JOHN S CATHEDKAL, NEWFOUNDLAND. (See page 161.) 



a labour of love which will result to them I venture confidently to 
predict in sound, because well-earned, sleep to-night. 

The satisfactory result of the whole haul now stands thus : a 
thousand tons at least of heavy stones have been placed upon the 
ground which were not there a week ago, and the good intentions of 



1 66 How a Church may be Built. ["?!, 3S 1 

the captains and crews of the Panther and Wolf, who were to have 
turned out to-morrow for the purpose of hauling stone, at whatever 
inconvenience to themselves, have had to be declined because no 
more quarried stone remains, the whole quantity at present available 
having been swept, by the gallant crews that have been at work, from 
the various places where it had been deposited, into the Cathedral 
yard. It has been great matter of regret, and one which the clergy 
who have each evening addressed the men at breaking off have 
dwelt upon, that the Bishop is now absent in Bermuda. No doubt 
the news will greatly cheer his heart, and assuredly his warmest and 
most grateful thanks will be accorded. 

The wildest excitement prevailed at the close to-night of the men s 
successful labours. In the presence of I suppose not less than two 
thousand cheering, shouting fellows, whose voices broke out at the 
end of almost every sentence, as they stood listening with eager 
upturned faces to those who spoke to them from the vantage coign 
of the top of the churchyard wall, the difficulty was to gasp out 
between each roar the hearty thanks which the clergy and all 
members of the Church so deeply felt. The captains of eleven 
powerful steamships have either given or proffered their help with 
crews whose numbers range from 295 the largest, to 160 the smallest, 
giving an average of 220 men to each. A finer fleet, or one manned 
by finer men, has never been fitted out for this voyage. May the 
providence of God protect them in all peril, and may their return be 
crowned with the success which I trust it is not presumptuous to say 
their behaviour as above recorded has so far deserved ! 

More will no doubt be done, because, now that the sealing crews 
have left, others will go to work as soon as more stone can be pro 
cured. The local mail contractor, a Roman Catholic, to-day 
offered to put all his horses to work whenever they could be used to 
advantage. The value of the return of those now engaged in 
collecting subscriptions will also assuredly be largely enhanced by 
the strong feeling aroused, and the time for their being brought in 
will be looked for with interest. The result will no doubt be shortly 
known. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. W. H. Kay and J. F. Spencer of the Diocese of 
Madras; W. H. Gomes of Labuan; W. Greenstock of Maritzburg ; J. B. Stair of Ballarat ; 
A. Macintosh of Honolulu; W. Jones, R. Lonsdell, and T. A. Young of Montreal; H. Bartlett, 
F. D. Brown, J. Chance, R. S. Cooper, A. E. Forbes, G. Keys, T. E. Sanders, E. Softley, and 
W. Stout of Huron; and J. P. Massiah of Newfoundland* 



Mission Field,! 
3Iay 1, 1880. J 



Monthly Meeting. 



167 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

THE Monthly Meeting was held on Friday, April 16, 1880, at 19, Delahay 
Street, the Master of the Charterhouse in the Chair. There were also present 
the Bishops of Carlisle, Antigua, and New Westminster, Earl of Powis, F. 
Calvert, Esq., Q.C., F. H. Dickinson, Esq., Canon Gregory, andC. Raikes, Esq. , 
C.S.I., Vice- Presidents ; Rev. B. Belcher, Rev. W. C. Bromehead Rev. W. 
Cadman, Rev. Dr. Crosse, Col. Gillilan, Rev. J. Goring, Gen. Lowry, Rev. L 
Frewen Moor, Gen. Nicolls, Sir Bryan Robinson, Rev. E. J. Selwyn, Gen. 
Tremenheere, C.B., and Gen. Turner, Members of the Standing Committee ; and 
Rev. H. R. Baker, Rev. G. F. Barrow, Rev. G. T. Cull Bennett, H Blunt 
Esq., Rev. W. Blunt, Rev. J. A. Boodle, J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. V. G. Borradaile 
Rev. R. H. N. Browne, Rev. T. Darling, Rev. C. Dent, Rev. J. D. Dyke, C C 




Lilley, Rev. C. F. Norman, Alfred North, Esq., Rev. L. W. Owen, Rev \V* 
Panckridge, Rev. G. P. Pownall, Rev. W. F. Satchell, Rev. L. L. Sharpe 
Rev. Wharton Smith, Rev. C. Wyatt Smith, Rev. R. Straffen, Rev. Dr. 
Townsend, J. Wigan, Esq., JRev. J. H. Worsley, Rev u T. P. Waldo, S. T. Wilde 
Esq., Rev. S. York. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of the Society s 
Income up to March 31, 1880 : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

I. GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. II. APPROPRIATED FUNDS 
administered by the Society. III. SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the Society but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 



January March, 1880. 


i. 

Subscriptions, 
Donations, and 
Collections. 


2. 

Legacies. 


3- 
Dividends, 
Keiits, &c. 


Total 
RECEIPTS. 


Total 

PAY3LENTS. 


I. GENERAL .... 




7,5o6 


4 

1,650 




968 




10,124 




19,408 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


727 





962 


1,689 


2,596 


III. SPECIAL .... 


7,128 


- 


363 


7,49* 


5,955 


TOTALS . . 


i5,3<5i 


1,650 


2,293 


19,304 


27,959 



^.Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of March in five 
consecutive years. 



I- GENERAL 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


i. Subscriptions, &c. . . . 


6,931 


6,663 


6,744 


6,739 


7,506 












1,650 




1,012 


99 1 




949 


968 


II. APPROPRIATED 


12,658 
I 088 


8,770 
i 676 


8,997 


9o6o 


10,124 


III. SPECIAL 










1,689 




3,3*9 


5-97 1 


3-560 


8,611 


7,49r 


TOTALS 


17,965 


16,417 


*5>337 


19,837 | 


19,304 



1 68 Monthly Meeting. [*J d - 

3. The Secretary reported that a telegram had been received from the 
Bishop of Capetown in these words " Refuse publishing ; " and that in 
consequence the Standing Committee were not in a position to comply 
with the request contained in a Resolution passed by the Board on 
February 20, 1880. 

4. On the recommendation of the Board of Examiners the Rev. 
H. A. W. Jones and Mr. E. O. McMahon were accepted for work in 
Madagascar, and Mr. C. Blanchard for work in the Diocese of New 
Westminster ; and the Rev. J. R. Ward, of Maritzburg, was placed on 
the Society s list on the recommendation of the Bishop of Maritzburg. 

5. The Secretary announced that the Rev. and Hon. A. Legge, finding 
that his other duties prevented him from giving to the business of the 
Society the attention which he considered due to it, had resigned his 
seat on the Standing Committee ; and gave notice, on behalf of the 
Standing Committee, that at the next Meeting they would propose for 
election in June next the Rev. R. T. Davidson, to fill the vacancy thus 
created. 

6. The Bishop of New Westminster made a statement of the condition 
and prospects of the Church in his Dioces3 ; and took leave of the 
Meeting, preparatory to his departure for his new See on April 29. 

7. All the members proposed for Incorporation in February were 
elected into the Corporation. 

8. The following gentlemen were proposed for election in June : 

Rev. Dr. Creswell, North Repps, Norwich ; Rev. J. H. Plowman, Burbage, 
Maryborough ; Rev. A. C. Smith, Yatesbury, Calne ; Summers Hutchinson, 
Esq., 10, Richmond Place, Mountjoy Square, Dublin ; Rev. W. A. Scott, 
Minchinhampton ; Rev. A. W. Bailey, East Stoke, Newark ; Ven. Brough 
Maltby, Farndon, Newark ; F. W. Burton, Esq., Red Hill Lodge, Nottingham ; 
Thomas Bullard, Esq., 52, Lewisham High Road, S.E. ; J. C. Moberly, Esq., 
Alresford, Hants ; and Rev. W. R. Supple, Arthurstown, Ireland. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



fielb u % foorlb. & fee mb i* % Uorb of (gob. 




JUNE i, 1880. 



ST. JOHN S, KAFFRARIA. 

SERIOUS ILLNESS OF THE BISHOP. CHEERING PROGRESS. THE 
POWER OF SUPERSTITION. KRAAL PREACHING. 

HEAVY trial has fallen on this diocese. The good Bishop 
has been stricken down with sickness and temporary loss 
of sight, the result of overwork. His life was in some 
danger, but it is not without hope that we pray that it may be only for 
" a little while " that the diocese will lose his services, and that the 
voyage to England (the only means, humanly speaking, of saving 
his most valuable life), will, under God s blessing, restore health and 
strength, and that before these pages are before our readers he will 
have arrived in England convalescent. Meanwhile the various 
Missionary organisations which he has created are working vigorously 
and successfully ; though their usefulness must be seriously impaired 
if left long without a fitting head. Before leaving St. John s the 
Bishop was able to hold an ordination, at which Messrs. Cameron 
and Waters were admitted to the Priesthood. The Native Night 
School and Boys Boarding and Day Schools, as well as the Labour 
Department, were all at the end of the year in a flourishing condition. 
On another page will be found an interesting account of the medical 
work. 

Archdeacon Waters writes from Transkei on December 3151 : 
NO. ccxciv. N 



170 St. John s, Kaffraria. ["SKSSSf 

" The past quarter has been remarkable for the increased efforts of 
native Churchmen to forward the Gospel, and for searching into the 
manner of life of professing Christians. Five members have been 
suspended, but many have been led to careful living, and generally a 
more serious life has been manifested, free from excitement. 

" At the home station, the churchwardens and sidesmen have done a 
good work, but the band of women workers, elected at Easter, have done 
an amount of general good far outstripping the officials referred to. 
Through the help of these men and women, the regular Wednesday 
classes for instruction on baptism, confirmation, and communion have 
been revived and well attended. A churchwarden or sidesman, and two 
or three women helpers, attend as witnesses at these classes, and at their 
own homes teach those unable to read, the Creed, the Lord s prayer, and 
the ten commandments. The classes meet after early Litany, and are 
taught by myself. Candidates for baptism are first taught, while those 
for confirmation and communion listen to the instruction. The baptism 
class is dismissed, and that for confirmation is taken, instructed, and 
dismissed, when advanced doctrine is taught to those for communion. 

"The adult Sunday-school has been re-opened through the same 
agency, where I am assisted by a churchwarden and sidesman. Both 
men and women show anxiety to learn to read the Bible, and it is a real 
pleasure to teach them. 

" Through Mrs. D. Barr s kindness, the English Sunday-school has 
been re-opened, to the great advantage of the Europeans. 

" The congregations at all our stations have increased to such an ex 
tent that, excepting Hohiba, the chapels are altogether inadequate to the 
demand for room. From ten to twenty pounds will pay for a good 
temporary chapel hut, and I shall be thankful for help in this matter. 
If any one will guarantee forty per cent. I can undertake to built 
chapels of burnt brick or stone, of the value of ioo/. or more. 

" The new chapel at Hebehebe, through the exertions of Mr. Frederick 
Thompson, will shortly be ready for service, and I hope to report its 
formal opening next quarter, The schools have done well and are 
attended much more regularly than formerly, and the native teachers are 
on the improve. 

"While earnestly desirous to have at least one half of my present 
district taken off my hands, I have been compelled to increase it by 
adding the Idutywa Reserve and New Gcalekaland, a tract of country 
fifty miles by fifty. 

" As with others, I have had a share of trouble and annoyances, so 
also I have had a more than usual share of an opposite character. 
Gentlemen who wish to be unknown, have done great things for me. 

" I thank those who have sent me newspapers. These papers are all 
re-stamped by me, and sent to different members of the Church. They 
are much valued, and well repay the trouble and expense of postage by 
promoting interest in Church work. May I beg for a continuance of 
these papers and magazines ? I have just had two travelling Jews from 
Newcastle, to ask for the Newcastle Chronicle. Another young man 
from the same place called a few weeks ago, and read the same paper 
through, not omitting the advertisements. If any one will send me fifty 
copies of the S.P.C.K. Companion to the Altar, Bishop Andrew s 
Devotions, or something equivalent, I shall make good use of them, 
also a number of tracts on infant baptism, confirmation and holy com 
munion. 

" I shall be glad to correspond with any one who now supports, or 



ftf 1 ] Christmas at St. Mark s. 1 7 1 



wishes to do so, a female teacher at a Kaffir village, or who may wish to 
maintain a boy or girl at school. 

" From 61. to 9/. is required to meet the requirements for a female 
teacher, and from 3/. to 5/. to help a child at school. 

u To show how much female teachers are valued, I may mention that a 
native policeman under Captain Blyth, has undertaken to pay 6/, a year, 
and provide board and lodging, if I send a girl to teach his children, to 
this I promised 4/. from Edinburgh ladies, and a gentleman has offered 
5/. more, so as to give the teacher I5/. a year. 

" Another policeman under Mr. F. N. Streatfield, has promised to do 
the same, and three men are building a school house, and guaranteed io/. 
a year each, if I send them teachers." 

The Archdeacon has also commenced a native school among the 
Gcalekas near Willow Vale, with the help of the chief Leindingxowa, 
of whom he says : 

" He is a brother of Kreli, and may be considered as second in rank 
among the tribe. He is a tall well made man and pleasant in his 
manners. In 1856, he lived with Kreli, about ten miles from* St. Mark s. 
At that time I held service and school every Wednesday at Kreli s great 
place, and had Leindingxowa as my school sergeant. Sir George Grey 
took great interest in the work, and frequently sent a present of a coat 
or other article, to this chief, as well as to Kreli. Leindingxowa was 
accompanied by two men of eminence in the tribe ; one named Wapi, 
was taught to read the New Testament by me, at St. Mark s, many years 
ago. After explaining my object in calling him, he consulted with Mr. 
Streatfield, and his native councillors, and determined to have the school 
opened at once. Definite arrangements were made for the erection of 
two good large Kaffir huts, and for sending thirty children to school. 
Since that time, I have sent a teacher, who has begun work under 
promising circumstances, and the Superintendent General of Education 
has authorised 2O/. a year to be issued for 1880. I will lead them in 
paths they have not known may be applied to the circumstances con 
nected with the opening of this Mission, but I am not authorised to 
mention them. 

" Willow Vale is a beautiful place, kloofs intersecting on every side, 
high flat-topped hills in the distance, striped with patches of fine bush, 
tall gaunt trees in the foreground, remnants of an ancient forest, with a 
few fine weeping willows close by the homestead, telling of European 
occupation. The woods are fairly stocked with game, and among the 
birds the beautiful golden cuckoo is prominent." 

Christmas must have been a happy season at St. Mark s, though 
involving heavy work. On the 25th : 

" The chapel of St. Mark s was neatly decorated, and at seven in the 
morning, upwards of 100 natives received Holy Communion. At ten 
Kaffir matins was sung. The chapel was densely crowded, the floor up 
to the altar was a mass of people, the vestry and porch the same. A 
large number of red Kaffirs were present, and I preached on Jesus 
coming to help every one, even those who did not love Him. 

" The Tembu Chief Mantanzima, came later in the day. At midday 
English service was well attended, and among the communicants was 

N 2 



1 7 2 /. John s, Kaffraria. [^, 33? 

one upwards of seventy years of age, who had come six miles by waggon 
to celebrate her Saviour s birth. 

" A German family came fifteen miles to bury a child in our cemetery. 
The funeral, which was largely attended, was in striking contrast to the 
festivities connected with Christmas. 

"At five o clock there was Kaffir evensong, and at eight English. As 
I had no help beyond having the Kaffir lessons read, I felt fatigued at 
night, and longed for more labourers in the Lord s vineyard." 

The Mission has, however, been troubled by 

11 Heathen customs cropping up among Christians, as for instance 
c vumiso or consulting the witch doctor, hlonipa or women clipping 
words which infer the name of their husbands and certain other re 
lations, in fear of offending the imishologu or departed spirits. 
Women not being allowed to drink milk at certain times lest the cattle 
die. The Ubuti, or power of bewitching, is one of the most deeply 
rooted superstitions in the Kaffir mind, and very little progress has been 
made towards rooting it out. Those only who live much among Kaffirs, 
know how the b3lief is clung to." 

The same subject is referred to by the Rev. Bransby Key, in his 
report of St. Augustine s Mission last November : 

" Their belief in witchcraft has been one great difficulty ; according 
to them nearly every sickness or accident is the work of some evil-minded 
person, and to find him (or her) out, recourse is had to the inspired 
Doctor ; all this may be read in accounts of other Missions ; but what 
it is in real life, no one can realise, except by living in the midst of these 
people ; when you will detect (for they do not speak of it openly) the 
line of their thought in any domestic affliction. Instead of being able to 
point to God as the sender of trouble as of blessing, we have to combat 
first this blinding superstition, which fills the heart of the sufferer, as well 
as his friends, with fear, hatred, and desire for revenge. 

" I believe ignorant suspicion to be the leading characteristic of the 
race. They are shrewd, keen of intellect, as far as they can see ; and 
beyond their narrow vision they will not trust ; you may see this in the 
suspicion they show in dealing with traders (sometimes not misplaced), 
and with Government ; this last form of it has been the ruin of more 
than one tribe, and will be of many more. They suspect the English 
man s intentions to be as false as their own ; unable to read a document, 
they will without cause question its authority or its genuineness ; and 
war, with all its horror cannot but follow. 

" Such are the people as they have been taken under Government ; 
not without many good qualities ; they have not yet acquired the vices 
of the white men ; they are yet strangers to drink ; and in manners and 
customs are just what they were generations back ; they still depend 
on agriculture, and their flocks and herds for their subsistence, with their 
own laws and customs of tenure and inheritance." 

At All Saint s, Kalinyanga, the ruinous state of both church and 
house has proved a sad hindrance. Mr. Green has, however, met 
with much success in services at the kraals. His letter of January 



] The Kaffrarian Church Mission Hospital. 173 

contains some valuable remarks on the social habits of his neigh 
bours : 

" The order of services at out-places is, one Sunday to some distant 
part, and the next Sunday to some place close by. At the last service 
at the chief s kraal (Dalasile s) about seventy grown-up people attended ; 
at his principal councillor s place only five adults. But the latter said 
he would put blame upon us if we did not come to him often. He is a 
diplomatic old man. I have three new places waiting for school 
teachers, where (or at two at least) there is a hope of very many 
children attending, but I have no money to pay teachers. The Sunday 
services are well attended by the people of this station, scarcely at all 
by the heathen from outside ; but these readily assemble to hear the 
preacher at their own kraals. The offertory and other pecuniary support 
of the Mission from the Mission people is utterly insignificant, though 
they join heartily in the services. Christian families with one exception 
still live in unpartitioned huts, the roofs grimy with soot from fires lit 
in the centre of the floor. But I have lately noticed slight indications of 
increasing personal tidiness and cleanliness, with a token of industry in 
four more inclosed house gardens, making five now on the station. 
There is a Sunday-school, but the parents are calmly indifferent whether 
their children attend or not. But, considering all things, both in cleanli 
ness and morality, leaving religion of the heart to God Who alone knows 
the heart, if Europeans were trained in childhood as these people are, 
grew up in ignorance as they do, found themselves in their position, 
and the same condition of circumstances surrounding them, the 
Europeans would be as degraded in actual status as the Kaffirs. But if 
causes made them sink to their social level, the white man would drop 
lower in morality and social behaviour." 



O 



THE KAFFRARIAN CHURCH MISSION HOSPITAL. 

BY S. E. CRAISTER, RESIDENT SURGEON. 

N my arrival at Umtata at the end of August I found the out 
patient department in active work, as it had been carried on 
by the Bishop since his coming to this station. Numbers of the 
natives attended each day for treatment, and received medicines, in 
most cases free of charge, some paying a small sum to cover the 
cost of drugs. As I could not understand their language, it was at 
first very hard for me to prescribe for them, but with the aid of 
interpreters none were sent away unassisted. The European popu 
lation around Umtata availed themselves of our help, generally as 
private patients, paying us fees for our attendance upon them at their 
own homes, or at the dispensary. 

At the beginning of September I took over the entire medical 
charge of this work. 

During these four months the out-patient department has continued 



174 The Kaffrarian Church Mission Hospital. 

as heretofore, the patients, both European and native, attending daily, 
coming from Umtata itself, and from places many miles away from 
here ; the natives are of all classes, so far as I at present understand 
their social positions, sometimes great chiefs, sometimes lesser ones, 
prime ministers of their respective " great places," generals of their 
tribes, and plain folk men, women, and children. The cases brought 
to the dispensary are of a mixed kind, as will be seen from the short 
statistical report. I have occasionally, in serious cases, visited the 
Kaffirs at their " kraals." One case or two I may mention : soon 
after my setting to work I was sent for to go to a poor Kaffir wife in 
her trouble, who had been given up in despair by their own " medical 
fraternity." A European trader who lived near persuaded them to 
let him fetch the " English doctor," and he came with his own horses 
for me; and so grateful were they for the help I gave to the woman 
that the friends sent me the full fee in gold. They were grateful 
because I had been the means of saving her ; they could well pay a 
fee, for I had saved the wife s friends the eight head of cattle which 
they would have had to pay back to the husband as her " marriage 
price, ; had she died. I am now attending a poor Gcaleka man without 
home or relations, who had his thigh broken a little time since by a 
waggon accident, while crossing " the Drift." A few days ago a 
Kaffir youth came to the dispensary suffering from a simple accident, 
which had defied their " Kaffir doctors " for ten days ; he left the dis 
pensary in a few minutes quite relieved from the injury he had 
received. As soon as I can converse with the natives, I hope to give 
much greater comfort and satisfaction to our numerous applicants. 

There is now at this Mission a resident surgeon devoting the 
whole of his time to the work, and also a fully qualified and trained 
nurse, who can superintend and direct the internal management and 
the nursing of a cottage hospital for in-patients ; and a start has been 
made with such an institution. A fund which had been accumulating 
for many years past as the " Hospital Fund " was available for the 
purchase of premises ; and the house which I am now occupying, 
belonging to the Kaffrarian Church Mission, was purchased for the 
hospital of the future. This was the more necessary as the dispensary 
was at the time (September) in a very inconvenient room, which was 
used also for other purposes of the Mission, which necessitated its 
removal. A new dispensary has been provided by building a "lean- 
to " to the house, which is now dispensary, surgeon s residence, and 
hospital. The hospital part has a ward for male, and one for female, 



Mission Field, 



] Value of Medical Missions. 175 

patients ; but it is absolutely a pressing want of Umtata that much 
larger accommodation should be provided, as well for natives as for 
Europeans; and although the Cape Government and the colonists 
will help us, yet, I think, we cannot expect them to undertake the 
entire cost of this hospital building, because, though it is intended to 
be a public institution open to all classes alike, yet it is to be the 
Kaffrarian Church Mission Hospital, built on Mission land, and 
entirely in the hands of the Bishop of St. John s, as the Church s 
trustee; we must therefore appeal for immediate and liberal help 
from our friends at home. 

As soon as we had decided that we would open our miniature 
hospital we were " crowded " by applications. There is one patient 
now in hospital, the wife of one of your Missionaries, who has been 
under Mrs. Craister s care, and is doing well with her babe. I shall 
not soon forget the relief it gave to the husband when I told him we 
could admit his wife in her trouble. We have had already to refuse 
another case in this little time. Scattered up and down KafTraria 
are colonists living miles away from the doctor, miles away from any 
other white face j and often have I heard from the mother or husband, 
weary with constant day and night watching, with none to help to nurse 
the sick one, " Oh ! I wish you could take us to your hospital ;" and 
though they would readily pay current expenses, yet we cannot expect 
to have them pay the heavy cost of building, furnishing, and reserved 
fund, all required to start an hospital at all sufficient for the need ; 
so we cannot bring the sick under the Mission s direct influence for 
good. For the Kaffir sick we need more help still, and our hospital 
will fail in its purpose if we do not provide equally for white and 
black, for St. John s is the central Mission station. Several cases of 
natives which ought to have been in hospital under our care have 
had to be sent away notably a man who had come some distance, 
and whose foot required amputation. This man had to go over 
100 miles to hospital. Two cases of tumours which require excision 
we cannot undertake; the poor Gcaleka whose thigh is fractured 
is but poorly tended for so severe an accident, and is a long way 
from my house (three miles). 

It is my own opinion that medical Missions are a valuable help in 
evangelising the heathen, whether the savage Kaffir of Africa, or the 
civilised Hindoo of India ; and most surely the quiet daily acts of 
Christian kindness done to the sick and suffering bodies of the 
heathen as he lies in hospital, speak often to hearts which might not 



T _/: A/Tni itvhijrcr ["Mission Field, 

170 mat itzuurg. \_ June 1( 1880 . 

be otherwise touched ; in proof of this we need only refer to the 
details in the reports of our well-nursed hospitals at home, or to the 
testimony of an earnest, energetic Scotch medical Missionary in 
India, who on looking over a Mission hospital to which we were 
attached, addressed the chaplain and founder thus : " Yes, sir, you 
have a great advantage over us medical Missionaries, who have no 
hospital. I can only speak to my patients, give them medicine, and 
let them go ; but you have them here day by day under your care. 
How much more you can tell them ; how often, almost hourly, can 
your good nursing-sisters drop into the heart words of truth, as their 
hands tend and care for the sick body." And so I believe we 
surgeons may draw the patients, but it is the woman who nurses as 
nursing can only be really done for the love of Jesus, that shows 
the heathen (or the infidel) what is Christ-like love; as an atheist 
once said in a cottage home in England : " Well, doctor, there must 
be something after all in a faith that can make a lady do this 
for me." 

Another evidence still : a little while ago the chief magistrate of 
Tembuland said to me, " I am quite of opinion that our Government 
would do well to encourage medical men to settle in the native 
districts, as here ; for a medical man who is willing to go amongst 
the natives can do very much to break down their native super 
stitions." 



MARITZBURG. 

THE LATE WAR AND THE MISSIONS. ST. CYPRIAN S, AND ST. FAITH S, 

DURBAN. 

THOSE who are especially interested in Bishop Macrorie s 
diocese will henceforth be better supplied than formerly with 
information as to the work in progress there. The first number of 
the Quarterly Paper of the Maritzburg Mission appeared with the 
beginning of the year; an excellently printed and well- written 
magazine of Missionary news. Many of the articles are of very 
great interest. We reprint a portion of one by an S.P.G. Missionary, 
the Rev. T. Taylor, which contains particulars of the effect of the 
battle of Isandhlwana upon the inhabitants of Greytown, a frontier 
station : 

" Our own county of Ulundi had a volunteer corps of about forty 
men, my second son being one of them, when war was proclaimed eight 



jSSi! faSM A f ter Isandhlwana. 1 7 7 

months ago. The 24th Regiment was then stationed at Greytown, 
waiting for orders to move on. 

" We shall not forget the day when our Hussars left us, accompanied 
to a neighbouring stream by the cheering strains of the band of the 24th 
and a large company of parting friends. Some of the poor fellows had 
a presentiment that they would never return, but now all returning, it 
proved to be only a presentiment. 

" They fought in the battle of Inyazene on January 22nd, the very day of 
our defeat at Isandhlwana, and an eye-witness, who did not belong to 
them, tells me that they were deep in the fight/ which lasted three 
hours, but not one was lost. Mark the somewhat singular contrast not 
one of our volunteers fell at Inyazene, but the whole of that band of 
the 24th, I believe, perished at Isandhlwana, both fighting on the same 
day, but about 150 miles apart. That fearful and unanticipated disaster 
was made known to us by two of the young mounted contingent, who 
had so narrow an escape, cutting their way through the enemy and rush 
ing headlong among rocks and through declivities at other times impass 
able, looking back now and again to witness only the cutting down of 
their comrades, to whom they could render no assistance, and dashing 
through the swollen river to reach a point of safety. They could barely 
sit on their exhausted horses (one of which had received an assegai 
wound) while they told us the sad tale. The repeated reply to every 
question as to this one and that whom we had seen leave here in good 
spirits but a few days before, was, Oh, they are cut up. Such a sight 
was never seen, and we cannot describe it. They were known to be 
splendid riders, had ridden that day about sixty miles, and, after a rest, 
rode on through the night to carry the incredible news to Maritzburg, 
forty-five miles. 

" The whole country was panic-stricken, the report having closely 
followed upon the heels of the two messengers that many thousands of 
the Zulus had crossed at Rorke s Drift, and would be down in the heart 
of the colony in a few hours. The farmers rushed into the village from 
every part of our county, and every family in the village at once hastened 
into the laager, or fort, a large square inclosure surrounded by a deep 
moat. 

" The magistrates offices are within the laager, but every scrap of 
room was at once occupied by the women and children, beds, bedding, 
and food, whilst every man and boy who could carry a rifle was 
immediately armed, and young men were sent out in all directions as 
patrols, to watch the approach of the enemy and give the necessary 
warning. The two companies of troops were also promptly in arms and 
at their posts, ready for an attack. No enemy appeared, or has yet 
appeared, but many of the Dutch remained inside the laager, sleeping in 
their waggons, for several weeks. 

" Leaving my family that night under such good protection, and feel 
ing convinced in my own mind that the enemy would not surprise us, I 
returned to the parsonage, now and again listening through the stillness 
of the night for any sounds of war that might be heard. 

"Since then, until now, the time has been an anxious one, the Zulus 
being within fifteen hours march of Greytown for months. The ever- 
passing and re-passing of officers and troops and of military stores, and 
the constant tramp of the soldiers through our streets ; the repeated 
sound of the bugle, and the ceaseless recurring at all times of the watch 
words of the guard, Halt, who goes there? 3 the rebounding echo 
through the stillness of the night hours, No. i ; all s well/ &c. &c. ; the 



1 73 Marilzburg. [SR Sff 

sad havoc of dysentery among our troops, and the rapid filling up of our 
little cemetery ; the news of disasters unforeseen, and for which our 
most valiant men were unprepared these have been incidents in our 
small community for seven or eight months which are beginning to tell 
upon some of us, and which are associated with reminiscences which 
cannot be forgotten, and which a year ago we could not have thought 
possible. Our two bells are removed from their places and fixed in the 
laager, that in case of sudden surprise they might sound the alarm and a 
rush might be made for safety. One or two accidental twangs turned 
more than one sensitive person among us quite pale, so that many minds 
have been kept in painful suspense for a long time ; but now we may 
hope that matters are rapidly approaching a permanent settlement, but 
Cetywayo still being at large, there is some doubt hanging over the 
whole matter. 

" I must not omit to mention two or three names which have become 
familiar, and with whom we had formed a brief acquaintance. 

" Lieut. Griffith, who took a great interest in our Church services, and 
assisted in the decorations at Christmas. He was quite a sunbeam in 
the place, always cheerful and always busy. I saw him but a few 
minutes before he left with the 24th, never to return. When last seen at 
Isandhlwana he was in the midst of the fight, but at last fell. 

" There was also young Stimpson, who on several occasions played the 
harmonium at church, and was very regular in his attendance when 
stationed here with the mounted police. He was a very pleasing, gentle 
manly young fellow, steady and dutiful. I have had two most touching 
letters from his bereaved mother. He left a neat hymn-book behind, 
which I have permission to keep as a memento. He also fell doing his 
duty on the field at Isandhlwana. 

" There was also Lieut. Melville, who took his place every Sunday 
evening in our seat in church, in front of me and almost within arm s 
reach. His manner was most reverential and devotional, and he entered 
with good spirit into the services of our Church. He was a good scholar, 
and a model for his men of the 24th. Who does not know how bravely he 
fell in saving the colours of his regiment ! 

" I have one deep regret, and it is that I did not know more of the 
poor fellows who fell so nobly ; but we looked upon them as birds of 
passage, none of us dreaming of the terrible doom which awaited them 
within a few days of the last solemn words I addressed to them, and to 
which they listened with marked attention, and which, I have reason to 
believe, many of them did not forget. 

" Both men and officers, I found from my conversation with them, 
thought that in entering upon this war with the Zulus, there would be no 
fighting of any consequence, but that it would be like that of the old 
colony a mere hunting of the enemy down in broken and scattered 
numbers, and that a few weeks would settle the whole business. Hence 
one of the men, who also had narrowly escaped at Isandhlwana, told me 
that when they marched out from camp to meet the enemy, they did it 
as if going to a mere parade, and consequently without any well- 
organised plan, and so being surrounded rapidly, they lost all chance of 
defeating the enemy, but fell in hundreds fighting back to back to the 
last. Could men do more ? 

" When men condemn the officers in command, it should be re 
membered that the strength, the courage, the determination, pluck, and 
discipline of the Zulus were not fully known, and no one could have 
supposed that such a disastrous surprise was possible from them. 



^XT.SS? ] Native Addresses. 179 

" Major Black, now Lieut-Colonel, has done great service at much risk, 
in getting very many of the bodies interred. 

" Nor must I forget to remind my readers of my friend the Rev. 
George Smith, whom the Bishop of Maritzburg permitted to act as 
chaplain to these forces. He saw the enemy s approach, and when Mr. 
De Witt begged of him to escape with him, he gallantly protested that 
he would remain at his post, which he did, through that terrible night at 
Rorke s Drift, supplying the men with ammunition, and in the 
momentary intervals praying for protection from Him, without whom 
the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong. 

"I have not time to write more at present, but let us hope, in the 
providence of God, that South Africa has been saved from disasters no 
less terrible and possibly far more widespread than such as have 
darkened the field of Isandhlwana ; let us hope that even this sad war 
and loss of life may be the prelude to the reign of the Prince of Peace 
over as fine a race of savages as ever roamed through the wilds of 
heathendom ; for we have now an ascendency and a prestige, which, if 
maintained in the even balances of clemency and justice becoming the 
British nation, will open up a field of labour and love as promising as 
any which God has pointed out to us as ripening for the great harvest." 

St. Cyprian s, and St. Faith s, Durban, still continue successfully 
to accomplish work which attracts the favourable notice of the local 
press. The Natal Mercury, in its issue of November ist, contained 
the following notice of the Mission : 

"On Sunday, the I9th October, the Rev. H. F. Whittington baptised 
nineteen adult native attendants at St. Faith s school-church, Durban. 
The rite was administered in St. Cyprian s, of which church the reverend 
gentleman is incumbent. The congregation consisted mostly of natives, 
and numbered about ninety. 

" On Tuesday evening last a tea-meeting was held in St. Faith s school 
room, which was crowded on the occasion. At half-past seven o clock 
about seventy natives took their seats, to partake of a liberal supply of 
bread and butter, cakes, buns, tea, &c., the expense of which was borne by 
the natives themselves. After tea two hours were pleasantly passed in 
singing and speaking : some of the natives delivering addresses peculiar 
to their own modes of thought. The devil, one of them said, was not a 
good master. He pointed out the road to a man for him to walk in, and 
when the man followed his directions, he soon discovered that Satan 
carried a stick. Another native spoke of the future, and said he thought 
he saw difficulties ahead. The attendants at the school were numerous, 
and most of them were young men who worked in Durban. Some of 
them were thinking of being married, and it would not be possible for 
them then to reside in town. Their wages were not sufficient to bear the 
burdens of town life. The Church had no Mission-station in the neigh 
bourhood on which they could reside, but it would be well if it began to 
make one. The Rev. Mr. Whittington replied to the suggestion, and 
shortly afterwards the meeting ended." 

The same "paper of January pth reported the proceedings at a 
meeting which must have presented many characteristic and amusing 
features : 



i8o Maritzburg. [^S 

" The annual meeting of the natives attending St. Faith s school-church, 
Durban, was held on New Year s Eve, when sixty scholars were present. 
As is usual on such occasions, the midnight service was preceded by a 
meeting, at which several of the scholars addressed the assembly, the 
intervals being pleasantly passed in singing and conversation. The 
Christmas decorations, consisting of flowers and evergreens, still remained 
on the walls, and the well-lighted building presented a pretty appearance. 
The natives were well dressed, and appeared pleased with the opportunity 
of spending an evening in social intercourse. 

" Daniel, the native teacher, first addressed the school, in a speech of 
much earnestness. He said they had all come dressed, and for their 
clothes they were indebted as well to the white people as to their own 
exertions, by which they obtained means to purchase clothing ; but they 
must remember that goodness did not consist in fine apparel, neither did 
wearing clothes affect the heart. Clothes merely covered the body, which 
was made of earth, and would turn to earth again. He saw before him 
two different kinds of persons, some were Christians and some were not. 
Those who were baptised were Christians, whatever they wore ; and those 
who were not baptised were not Christians. They were still in the state 
in which they were born if they were not baptised, although they attended 
school and church, and wore clothes. Goodness was the effect of the 
heart being changed by the Spirit of God. He (the speaker) was glad 
that many had been admitted into the Church during the year, but there 
was room for all. In conclusion, he exhorted those who had not been 
baptised to come forward at once. The Lord s command was that they 
were to be baptised, as well as to repent and believe the Gospel, in order 
to be saved. 

" Paul next rose, and in an impressive speech told his hearers that they 
were born in a state of darkness, which was equalled only by the colour 
of their skins. Until baptised, they were the children of Satan, and did 
Satan s work. Many of his hearers had left their kraals either without 
leave or without reporting their destination, as messengers from kraals 
often arrived in Durban to make inquiries concerning them, and some 
times their instructions from their fathers were to this effect Go and 
see if you can find that naughty boy of mine, who has run away, and 
is now wearing clothes (laughter). He (the speaker) begged them to 
consider their position. They had decamped from their kraals (laughter). 
They had come to school, but they had not been sent by their fathers. 
Therefore they had come voluntarily. If then, they remained unbaptised, 
to whom did they belong ? They could not look back to their kraals, 
which they had thus left, ani they did not belong to the Church. This 
was an important point to be considered. They were nowhere, although 
they attended school and wore clothes. It was all very well, he continued, 
for a girl to dress gaily and walk down the street, and when she reached 
the bottom of it to turn round and walk up the street again, for the pur 
pose of young men admiring her and saying, Oh, what a fine girl is 
that ! (laughter). But such doings were nothing, and did no good. At 
home they had been taught that Unkulunkulu made them, and after they 
were dead they would turn into snakes. But did they really think that if 
a snake entered the church at that moment, it would be the grandfather 
or great-grandfather of either of them? (laughter). No. They must 
look to the Saviour, who came from heaven to die for sinners, and although 
He did no sin, bore the weight of all our iniquity, and was treated in a 
cruel manner (pointing to a picture which hung on the wall of Christ 
carrying the Cross ) by evil-disposed persons, and afterwards crucified. 



"5S. X d> ] Zulu/and. 1 8 1 

" Thomas, another of the scholars, remarked that they had reached the 
end of another year, and it ought to be a time of rejoicing to them, 
because when it began they did not know whether they would see its end. 
He was glad to have another opportunity of addressing them, for he, like 
them, much enjoyed these annual gatherings. In the year about to close, 
the country had passed through much trouble, and many of those who 
saw it begin were now no more. But, by the goodness of God, the school 
had not lost any of its number, although some of those present had been 
on service in Zululand, whence they had returned in safety. He wished 
them to ponder over the events of the year, and to consider what they 
had done in it. They had heard the Word of the Lord continually, and 
had been taught to read, and much besides. But they were weak, and did 
not know what they had been doing. They had committed many sins, and 
they all needed forgiveness. In conclusion, he exhorted his hearers to be 
industrious. If they did not work, whatever else they did would be 
useless. 

" Samuel, in the course of some amusing remarks, in which he criticised 
the native character, said that Christians might be likened to persons 
who were going a journey by rail, and who had taken their tickets ; some 
of them were baptised, and thus had their tickets ; but they must look 
out as well they must watch. If a person took a ticket, and then heed 
lessly sat down, the train would start, and leave him behind. 

" One or two more addresses were delivered, and it being past eleven 
o clock, preparations were made for divine service, which concluded 
shortly after twelve, when all dispersed to their respective quarters." 



ZULULAND. 

ST. PAUL S MISSION. APPOINTMENT TO ISANDHLWANA. 

THE news from this diocese is still of uphill efforts to restore 
ruined stations ; cheered by the greater readiness manifested, 
now that peace is established, by the natives, to give heed to the 
Missionaries words. Mr. Samuelson wrote from St. Paul s in 
April : 

" I have been able regularly to have divine service, Sunday-school, and 
morning and evening classes with my working people all through this 
quarter. 

" My neighbours have continued to be very civil and kind to me, and 
very attentive during service. They confess that they now believe what 
I tell them, as they realised during the war what I had before told them. 

"A pretty large number of children attend regularly on Sundays now, 
and when the harvesting is over, to which they must attend at present, I 
shall try all I can to get up a week school." 

We are glad to announce that the Rev. R. A. Ransom, formerly of 
Utrecht, has been sent by the Bishop of Maritzburg to the new 
station at Isandhlwana, in answer to the request of the Basuto chief 
Hlubi. This is quite in accord with Mr. Ransom s own wishes, he 
having always been anxious for entirely Missionary work. 



1 82 Bloemfontein. [ juulT, 5$? 



BLOEMFONTEIN. 

DIOCESAN SYNOD. GROWING ORGANIZATION. WOMAN S WORK. 

GREAT ENCOURAGEMENTS. 

A VERY successful Diocesan Synod has been held at Bloem 
fontein, the proceedings of which, by the testimony both of 
the Bishop and of the colonial papers, have been marked by patience 
and dignity in discussion, and by a considerable amount of solid 
work satisfactorily accomplished. The organisation of the diocese 
is rapidly developing itself, and the results attained in this part of 
the Mission field are most encouraging. 

Among the various letters received by us, we find the Rev. George 
Mitchell s, of Thaba Nchu, peculiarly cheerful and pleasant reading. 
On February i8th he wrote : 

" Our church has lately got ceiled at last, and everybody is pleased 
with it, and the difference in sound and temperature is most marked, and, 
best of all, it was fortunately almost done before we had begun to feel 
the great heat which comes on in this country in the last quarter of the 
year, and we were prevented from taking only one native Sunday midday 
service in it, which in that instance was taken under the willow-trees in 
the graveyard. We also at the same time had the bell raised a little 
higher, and more securely hung ; and the carpenters being here, I also 
had the ridge of the church repaired, two new floors put into the Mission 
House, and some other repairs done, and all has been paid for ; and, 
wonderful to say, of what was given for the ceiling of the church there 
remains something over and above what was needed, which I have put 
out to interest until it shall be wanted for the next thing to be done in 
this place. 

" I think I have before spoken of the great need there is for women s 
help in this mission. It is now four months since the Bishop sent 
Deaconess Elsie and Miss Rose to my assistance. I did not write of 
their coming at once, as I had fears that after a few weeks, when the 
romance and freshness of the scene had worn off, they might have drawn 
back and left, even before you had heard of their arrival. For there are 
trials to be borne with in the work among the Barolong which are neither 
light nor easy, and which ladies by no planning of their own can avoid. 
These at first they made light of, as being full of enthusiasm, but they are 
now beginning to feel them as they really are. Still, I am thankful to 
say there is no complaining, rather, on the other hand, there is the most 
devout intention of persevering, together with an ever increasing mani 
festation of interest in the work, as the several phases of it come before 
them. The European Children s School they took off my hands the first 
week. The deaconess also assists in the Native School, and has a native 
girls sewing class twice a week, at which there are usually between twenty 
and thirty. Their influence has also begun to be felt in other parts of 
the work, because especially of their readiness in helping at the Sunday 
services, both native and English, in taking Sunday-school work and 



Thabo? Nchu: Need of a Girls Institution. 183 

catechising, and in visiting the sick as well as the whole ; hence, this 
time I write in good spirits, and full of hope. 

" But besides doing the work indicated above, it is most earnestly to be 
desired that their mission will also in some way reach those poor girls of 
our Christian people who live away in the country. I have begun a 
boarding institution for our boys who are thus situated, and it is doing 
very well. I have now six, who are by far the best behaved and most 
intelligent and useful in our school. It seems to me, therefore, in order 
to bring our country girls under instruction and Christian training that 
we must have a similar institution for them. It will never do to provide 
for the wants of the one, and neglect those of the other ; but besides, we 
may be quite sure that if we do not supply this want, it will be supplied 
by others elsewhere, and what will be the consequence ? Simply ruinous. 
The Church will lose in position and influence, and our children will turn 
perverts to some other denomination, and will demand and obtain the 
setting up of some other altar, and all that because we were backward in 
supplying wants which we ourselves had created ! Therefore, if we wish 
to have our Christian girls in the country Christianly brought up, and to 
keep them of us/ and to supply a want which is certainly beginning to 
be felt more and more, and to retain and increase the influence of the 
Church among the people, we must, as it seems to me, have a girls 
institution, as well as a boys , on the station. 

" But, as to ways and means, we cannot do this ourselves ; we must 
have help from outside. Buildings of some sort are absolutely necessary, 
but we have none, nor money either, to build them with. The only space 
which can be spared is an outside room, scarcely twenty feet by ten, in 
which, the deaconess and her companion live and sleep and entertain 
strangers, and which they call their home/ which, however, it is evident 
must be a very inconvenient one in many ways. Indeed, it is plain that 
they must have more room, even if they are only going to live on alone. 
Much more must this be the case if they are to take native (girls) 
boarders, which the deaconess is most willing to do, and to which she 
has begun to look forward with the utmost pleasure and delight. Where 
fore we must put up some buildings say, a kitchen, dining or common 
room, and dormitory which will cost at least 3007. Towards this I have 
promised ioo/., a portion of which is what was over from the ceiling of 
the church, which I have made up to that amount for that purpose, and 
we hope that friends will be moved to come forward again, and help to 
make up the rest. I fear we shall get very little, if anything, here ; there 
fore, I am constrained still to beg from home. I feel somewhat ashamed, 
as it was only the other day I was begging for the ceiling, but it cannot 
be helped. My prayer a couple of years ago for women s help in the 
work of the Church here has been granted ; they have come, and I must 
find room for them ; but I cannot do it myself, therefore I venture to 
appeal again to you, and, God willing, 1 trust I shall not appeal in vain. 

" Let me thank again all those who have so kindly and abundantly 
contributed towards the ceiling of our church. I forgot to mention that 
we were also able to repair the roof of the aisle, which was injured a 
good deal by a storm of wind, as it happened while the carpenters were 
here, out of the funds given for the ceiling. I also wish further to say 
that I am collecting the names of all persons and churches who have 
helped to build up our Zion here, and who intend to provide for their 
preservation, so that from time to time they may be remembered for 
good, even by us here in the wilderness. 

" A fortnight ago the Bishop, taking the earliest opportunity after the 



fMisaion Field 

[ June 1 1880 



Diocesan Synod, came over and held a Confirmation, when twenty-one 
natives and two Europeans were presented. 

"As I am writing, my native lads are learning their lessons in the next 
room, and, being lads, I have, of course, to call out to them from time to 
time not to play. It has been wet to day, so they have had a good spell 
this afternoon at draughts and dominoes and map-making. They are now 
six, and one more is to come after the harvest, so I am still open to 
further help on their behalf. They are now gone to bed, and I will go 
too, and say good-night, and good-bye for the present." 

In a more recent letter, written in April, Mr. Mitchell was able to 
tell of "glorious" Easter services, with 119 native communicants, 
and 300 partakers of his annual feast on the following Tuesday. 



PRETORIA. 

THE BISHOP " AT HOME." DIOCESAN ORG 

AGAINST SECOCENI. 

Hp* HE ?Bishop of Pretoria is known to readers of the Mission 
\. Field, for the most part, as an intrepid and unwearied traveller,, 
constantly visiting one or another of the distant places of his diocese, 
at much cost of hardship and fatigue. We hear of him now in 
another capacity; for a clergyman at Pretoria having been called 
from his post, first to serve as chaplain to the troops engaged against 
Secoceni, and then, by his mother s death, to England, Bishop 
Bousfield has been for some time acting as parish priest in his room. 
Nor has he been idle. On January the i6th he wrote : 

" Having thus Pretoria for a special charge, I set to work to get out of 
our little old church into our larger new one, and succeeded in getting 
the floor levelled, the windows put in, a raised floor for the sanctuary 
erected (pro tern.}, and what fittings the old church had, moved into 
its successor, also the handsome little marble font, sent us by kind 
friends at Plympton St. Mary, temporarily erected. These arrangements, 
with such lamps and carpet for the choir as the stores of the little city 
could provide, and matting to cover our still mud floor, made the plain 
hut building look church-like, and we commenced our Christian year on 
Advent Sunday in our new Pro Cathedral of S. Alban. The one old 
thing in it is my humble throne, made, after the model of the stalls in 
Winchester Cathedral, of old wood given me by the Dean and Chapter, 
some of which was supporting the roof from the days of William of 
Wickham, the Norman Bishop, full 300 years. I need not add how 
highly I prize this, our chief treasure. May my work bear fruit as long ! 

" Since our entrance into our new church our congregations and offer 
tories have more than doubled, and many hopeful signs of increasing 
interest in the Church have been shown. On the Wednesdays and 
Fridays of Advent I gave readings on the Book of the Revelation, followed 
by a metrical Litany and Collects, in addition to our usual services. 



5Sf ] Pastoral Letter. 185 

"These latter are as follows: On Sundays, 8.15 A.M., Matins; 9, 
Litany and Holy Communion ; II, Morning Prayer, with Holy Ccm 
munion on the first and third Sundays of the month, Litany on othei 
Sundays; 5 P.M., Evening Prayer with Catechising; 7.30, Evening 
Prayer and sermon. On Holy Days the Holy Communion is celebrated 
at 9 A.M., and a sermon added to Evening Prayer ; on Wednesdays and 
Fridays the Litany said at 9.15, and Morning and Evening Prayer said 
daily at 8.15 A.M. and 5.15 P.M. respectively." 

A valuable pastoral letter to the churchwardens, sidesmen, and 
members of the Church in the diocese, has also issued from Bishop s 
Cote, dated March 9th, dealing with future organisation, and the 
matters most necessary for immediate success. The Bishop urges 
on the laity 

" The wisdom, as well as duty, of liberal contribution, and especially 
through the offertory, to the Church s maintenance and work. If the 
Church is to take root and flourish among us, it must be as an endogen, 
and not an exotic maintained from old England. Her Transvaal sons 
must understand her, love her, labour for her and maintain her. They 
can to a great extent now, and in a few years wholly, if they will. 

By the permission of the Standing Committee of the S.P.G., 
a meeting was held in the large room at 19, Delahay Street, 
on May i2th, to consult as to the best steps to be taken for 
assisting the Bishop and clergy of the diocese in carrying out their 
difficult and arduous work. The Rev. A. J. Law, who has just 
returned from the Transvaal, gave some interesting information as to 
the past and present condition of the diocese, and enlarged upon 
the urgent need of assistance in the form of men and money. Earl 
Nelson and several other friends were present, and took a warm 
interest in the proceedings. Letters of sympathy and regret for 
unavoidable absence were read from His Grace the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and the Bishops of Salisbury, Winchester, and others 
the Archbishop forwarding a contribution to the Fund. Owing to 
ill-health the Rev. A. J. Law is prevented for a time from pleading 
the wants of the diocese ; but he will be glad, meanwhile, to receive 
at Eversden House, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, Kent, any communication 
from those desirous to promote the good work. Offers of assistance 
in the form of sermons or meetings will be thankfully received by 
the Honorary Secretary, Mr. James Rogers, 21, Great St. Helen s, 
London, E.G., from whom Reports of the Bishop s work may be 
obtained. The wish of the Committee is to secure the promise 
of small sums from many sources, for a period of seven years, at 
NO. ccxciv. o 



-Of. Pffffnfirt P Mission Field, 



J 



the expiration of which time the Bishop confidently hopes the 
Church in the Transvaal will be fairly launched, and be enabled to 
bear its own burdens. 

The Rev. J. Thorne sends a graphic description of the state of 
Lydenburg during and after the attack upon Secoceni s stronghold ; in 
which will be found some remarks highly creditable to the Church 
feeling of the military quartered in that neighbourhood : 

" The last quarter was an eventful one, on account of the campaign 
against Secoceni. Living as we did on the borders of his territory, we 
could not be otherwise than interested in, and affected by the result. 
And, although the main body of the imperial troops approached the 
stronghold from a point further south than Lydenburg, there were suffi 
cient signs of preparation around us to enable us to realise the importance 
of the impending struggle. Besides a number of white troops, an impi 
of Zwazies, 8,000 strong, passed through our town, exhibiting an amount 
of savagery not often witnessed by Europeans even in this country. 

"The days that intervened between the departure of the forces and the 
news of the attack were full of suspense. It was expected that Sir 
Garnet Wolseley would achieve something worthy his previous reputation, 
but the difficulties of his undertaking were so great, and so many failures 
had marked former attempts to dislodge this mountain-tribe, that every 
one felt that if speedy success were not attained, the consequences might 
be very disastrous. And after the surprises and mishaps which occurred 
during the Zulu war there was an uneasy feeling that we might be on the 
eve of some event that would make this part of the country as memorable 
as Isandhlwana or Intombi. Many of our townspeople had friends or 
relatives at the front. One poor mother was distracted lest her boy, 
scarcely of age, should never return. Several young men intended going 
to the attack as officers in the various native contingents, and these were 
most dangerous posts, for not only the enemy, but their own men were 
savages. I think the daily morning prayers in which special entreaty 
was made for our friends and countrymen at the battle, were a comfort to 
many. It was on a Sunday morning that the news of the first fight 
arrived. The stronghold had been taken, and the loss was not so great 
as had been anticipated. But poor Macauley is dead passed from 
mouth to mouth and Campbell; the former known and liked by 
numbers for his genial disposition and sterling integrity, the latter of 
Shipka fame, notorious for the hair-breadth escapes he had had on many 
an European battle-field. The * fighting-koppie, a detached hill com 
manding Secoceni s town, a place honey-combed with caves and en 
circled by a net-work of walls had been stormed with wonderful dash, 
and with the loss of only a few white men and they had been first and 
foremost in the attack. The Zwazies lost heavily afterwards in clearing 
the caves, and in gaining possession, on their own account, of the enemy s 
cattle. In an attack on one subordinate chief they left 500 of their men 
dead, but quite extirpated their foe. It is now known that at least 1,050 
are missing, and that means that they died in the fight, or were left 
wounded on the field, and perished. Some hundreds of the wounded 
were carried to the hospital-camp, or dragged their way thither, and were 
well attended to. But none but the worst cases could bear the restraint 
of bandages and medical care, and those who came in wounded at night 
would be found away the next morning, joining in a new fray. A number 



The Campaign against Secoceni. 187 

of the badly wounded are still in Lydenburg, under the care of our 
surgeons, and are very much impressed with the good care which has 
been taken of them. 

" Judging from the loss of the Zwazies, and by what has been seen of 
the slain, the enemy must have suffered terribly. The territory was swept 
clean. Our camps occupy the strong positions on the mountains, and 
many of the old inhabitants of the caves and kraals amid the rocks have 
been deported to other localities, where they will not be able to ensconce 
themselves, and disturb the peace of their neighbours. 

" But, if our white troops lost comparatively few in killed and wounded, 
they have since paid a heavy penalty in men stricken with fever and other 
diseases, induced by hardship and exposure. The intense heat of the 
days, sleeping in mud at night, the fatigues of the fight, the camping 
afterwards surrounded by hundreds of corpses which lay in the caves and 
rugged ground, and which it was impossible to bury these brought about 
the inevitable result of prostrate men, and of frequent funerals. Besides 
those in hospital here, there are 150 at Middelburg. 

"After nearly four years of unrest caused by Secoceni s inroads, it 
was for some weeks difficult to realise that we had peace at last, that the 
roads were at length safe to travel, that farmers could return to their 
homesteads, gold-diggers to their claims, and that the district was once 
more and now as it had never been before- open to enterprise and 
development. 

"This town has been made the head-quarters of the 94th Regiment, 
and since its arrival a strong military element has been introduced into 
the Church. At 9 a.m. on Sunday we have a separate parade service, 
when the soldiers fill the church. For a week or two Captain Poe took 
great interest in the music and singing, and had several rehearsals with 
the men, but he was ordered off with his company to Middelburg, and 
thus we have lost one whose heart seemed to be in the Church s work. 
But he is not the only officer of this regiment who is ready to confess his 
Lord. It was refreshing on Christmas day to witness half a dozen of 
them kneeling at Holy Communion. They are setting a good example 
to the civilians by taking a personal and active part in the conduct of all 
our services. 

" Now that the Kaffirs on our borders are subdued, prospecting for new 
gold-fields will go on vigorously, and, let us hope, successfully. I was 
shown a splendid specimen yesterday, worth about 1 5/., which was found 
in a new locality, though exactly where, the bank manager, in whose 
possession it was, was not at liberty to say. I have no doubt that before 
very long digging communities will be settled in various parts of the 
district, and then it will be absolutely necessary that our staff of labourers 
should be increased. One man, and he with broken health, cannot over 
take the work. 

" The Christmas services were very well attended, even the midnight 
ones, considering that there was much sickness abroad. One cannot 
help being impressed with the fact that the Church here, after all the 
conflict and opposition she has met with, has become an institution of" 
recognised importance, and has a hold upon the respect at least of a large 
number of people. 

" At present we are alone in the field, no rival sects or parties having as 
yet established themselves. If we keep abreast of our Mission we may 
continue to hold the ground we have gained. If we fail in supplying 
agents for the growing work, the opening will not be lost sight of by 
others." 

O 2 



1 88 Sierra Leone. RSt SB? 1 



SOWING BESIDE THE WATERS. 

BY THE REV. R. J. CLARKE, OF ISLES DE LOS, WESTERN AFRICA. 

IN the early and latter part of this year I was engaged in making 
journeys on the mainland. I sailed up to the rise of the 
Dubrika and Brammaia rivers, and preached in about forty towns 
along their banks. Mohammedans and heathen alike came readily 
to hear. They expressed their desire to have a resident Missionary. 
I was twenty-three days on this journey between the months of 
January and February. 

These two rivers open towards Fotoba on the north side. The 
distance between their mouths and that island is about ten miles. 
The Brammaia is by far the more important. It is about thirty-five 
miles long by two and a half miles at its mouth, very winding, and 
navigable by a small schooner up to about five miles from its source. 
Its chief towns are Cobea, Yafraia, and Brammaia. This last is the 
residence of the king, the other two are great commercial seats. 
This river contains the finest timber for many miles around. 

The Dubrika is about twenty miles long by one and a half miles 
at the mouth, very dangerous to navigate, even by a small boat, in 
its upper part. Its chief towns are Dubrika and Quorrira. These 
two rivers are entirely under native rule. Their kings receive a 
stipend from the English Government for the protection of British 
subjects. 

In November I paid a visit to the Rio Nunez. The king ex 
pressed a great desire to have the Mission back, although a Moham 
medan himself. I think it is chiefly the advantage of the school he 
wants. He said that he would put up the buildings himself, and 
take special interest in the Mission, if the Board would send it back. 
I visited the site of the late Mission buildings ; but for a few fruit 
trees, it would be hardly known that buildings were there. I 
preached to a tolerably large congregation of Sierra Leone people, 
and administered the Holy Communion to a few who desired it. I 
take this river to be about fifty miles long, and the widest of its four 
mouths to be four miles across. It is rented from the native king 
by the French, whose only object seems to be the raising of customs 
on the exports and imports. It has large sand-banks at its mouth, 



"SK, So 4 ] Sowing Beside the Waters. 189 

on which large flocks of sea-fowl settle very fine to look at when 
the water goes off. Its chief towns are Bocca, the residence of the 
French commandant, Soggobully, the residence of the king, and 
Victoria, the seat of commerce. 

Along the banks of all these rivers are to be found groves of 
trees called " mangrove," extending about a mile inland. The wood 
is used in house building, and is precisely the same with that im 
ported into the West Indies under the name of " Bully-tree." The 
trunks of these trees are almost as straight and smooth as those of 
the cabbage- palm the full-grown ones average about 120 feet in 
height, and seven feet in circumference. When a tree has reached 
about fifteen feet high, a number of rope-like roots protrude from a 
certain point around its trunk, and gradually issuing forth in a curve, 
or semi-circle, enter the earth. From the branches at the top also 
come a set of these roots, like the fibres of the bearded evergreen, 
and enter the earth, forming with the lower roots natural buttresses 
around the tree. From these roots young trees arise, which in their 
turn send out roots interlacing each other so thickly, that nothing, 
save the water of the river can find its way among them. The 
growth of these trees wonderfully exhibits a designing hand ; but for 
these peculiar roots, the trees would easily upset by the repeated 
action of the water, and again, they bind the earth firmly, preventing- 
washes and inundations a natural breakwater. The baboon and 
monkey with all their species skip along these roots, while birds of 
every shape and hue inhabit the upper regions. The country behind 
these mangroves rises gradually, like platforms one above another. 
In the more hilly districts the people plant their farms. From the 
edge of these forests dank exhalations arise, such as come from still 
houses and sugar-boiling houses, often burning the nostrils. These 
are caused by the decayed leaves and filthy alluvials brought down 
by the rivers the great reservoirs of fever and general unhealthiness. 
Out of these groves also issue swarms of flies by day, and swarms of 
mosquitoes by night enemies of man. These flies are of a very large 
size, they attack travellers sailing up the rivers to feed on their bloody 
their stings are fearful, often producing large bloody wales on the skin. 
Their heads are red, and they are very slow and heavy in their nature, 
ever so much brushing and whipping will not carry them farther off 
than the gunwales of your boat ; they are very hard to kill when 
hungry, but when they have got their fills of blood, they roll off 
helpless from the place they have sucked, and the slightest touch will 



190 Sierra Leone. 



-Mission Field 
June 1, 1880. 



burst their distended bodies and spatter your own blood around 
you. 

At sunset these return home to rest ; but rest for the traveller 
there is none ; earth and heaven seem to conspire against him ; 
night, which carries away these, brings an army of mosquitoes, which 
continue not only the same stinging and blood-drinking process, but 
also add to it a loud buzzing which deprives one of all rest, till the 
heavy-god in pity closes up the avenues, and leaves the senseless 
body a prey to these remorseless creatures. On awaking, the bed 
clothes are found spotted with drops of blood, for the mosquito, as 
the fly, is quite helpless after gorging himself, and so he gets crushed 
by the sleeper in turning. Such is the story to be told and retold in 
sailing up either of these West Coast rivers, or in sleeping in a hut 
on their banks. 

On Friday, 28th November, I set out for Matacong, a small island 
about midway between Isles de Los and Sierra Leone, and about two 
miles from the mainland. At low water, one can walk over to the 
mainland. So very shallow is the water in this neighbourhood that 
the nearest approach any schooner or barque can make to the island 
is full four miles off. This is the cause of enormous expense to the 
firm of Randall and Fisher, who have a large factory there ; they are 
obliged to lade and unlade their vessels at this great distance out at 
sea by means of a large stock of small boats, and with adverse 
winds they cannot make even one trip per day to and from the 
vessel. I landed here on Saturday, 29th, and on the following 
Sunday morning I preached to a congregation of fifty Sierra Leone 
people, baptised one child, and administered the Holy Communion 
to sixteen volunteers. At 4 P.M. the same number of Sierra Leone 
people, and seventy natives met (chiefly Mohammedans). I preached 
from no text, but tried to compare Mohammedanism with Christian 
ity, and after giving Mohammed full credit for all he was worth, 
I ended by showing the necessity of a mediator, and the further 
necessity of that Mediator being a sinless man. They replied, 
as Mohammedans usually do to me, that it was all very good 
and very true, they fully believed, and that they would think and 
pray over it to find out the true prophet. I found here an excellent 
little organisation for Church matters under the management of 
Mr. Hughes, catechist of the district : there was a committee with 
its office-bearers, and two men whom I understand conduct two 
services regularly on Sundays in the absence of the catechist. There 



1 



1 ] Sowing Beside the Waters. 191 

is always a congregation of from forty to fifty Sierra Leone people 
on the spot. The services take place in a long piazza of one of the 
factory buildings, a horn serves the purpose of a bell. The members 
seem very orderly and submissive to the little governing body. There 
is a good understanding between them and Mr. Hughes, and every 
thing seems to be going right ; they are collecting to build a church, 
and they well deserve some help. 

The Mission-boat having left me here and gone to town, I sailed 
out on the day following (Monday, December ist) in one of the factory 
boats bound to Conta in the Melliconri river, with a cargo of hides. 
Here Mr. Rigmaiden, the agent of Randall and Fisher, showed me 
no little kindness, and sent me farther on my journey to the town 
Melliconri, where I met the long-sought-for Mr. Hughes. With him 
I tarried a couple of days, and at his bidding I preached to and 
prayed with a large gathering at his place on Wednesday night, 
December 3rd. From hence I returned to Conta, and Mr. Rigmaiden 
of his free will offering his drawing room for service, I called a 
little congregation into it on Friday evening the 5th December, 
where we worshipped God and preached His word. On Saturday, 
6th December, I left Conta to return to Matacong, where the Mission- 
boat was to take me up on her way from Freetown to Rio Pongo. I 
was obliged partly to waste a good Sabbath on the river with a few 
who cared not for our things, and landed about 8 P.M. at Matacong, 
where I remained till the following Tuesday, 9th December, awaiting 
the boat, which heeded not my hurry and much anxiety. Finding she 
did not arrive up to 2 P.M., I took passage in a canoe bound for 
Dubrika, but the captain agreed to put me down at a small seaport 
on the mainland facing Fotoba on the east. After a very troublesome 
night and day at sea, in which an unskilful captain dragged us along 
over many a shoal, and through many swellings of the shallow 
Matacong Bay, I was safely landed at my little port, Camayang at 
7.30 P.M., on Wednesday the loth of December. Here I lodged, 
and I found no difficulty in getting over to Fotoba the following 
morning. 

Four days after, I again set sail for my beloved Brammaia and 
Dubrika rivers, passing by Camayang on Tuesday, i6th December. 
My old friend, Mr. Taylor, supplied me with a congregation of 
ninety natives with whom I had an hour of " Gospel talk." To the 
congregation, Mr. Taylor added a good dinner and a bed, which I 
gladly accepted ; and on the following day, Wednesday, zyth Decem- 



192 Sierra Leone. [?SftS? 

ber, sailing along the sea coast northwards, I landed at the famous 
town Kappora. This is a very large Mohammedan town, and the 
site of Mr. Klein s labours, a Missionary of the C.M.S., in 1812. 
Mr. Klein remained here only long enough to stir up the religious 
instinct of the people, and no Christian Missionaries following him, 
till 1868, when the Rio Pongo Missionaries at Isles de Los began to 
visit this place, the Mohammedans came in in the interval, and 
found an easy victory. Now there is a large mosque in the centre 
of the town, and a well established school. 1 found here a 
small body of soldiers under arms and ready to embark for the 
Brammaia river to assist a Baggar prince, who was contending with 
his brother for the Baggar crown. It was commanded by a son of 
the Mohammedan priest, both of whom I knew intimately. The 
commander showed me into his little armoury in which there were 
as many charms as arms. On showing me the " greegrees " about 
his own person, I was surprised to find under his right arm a crucifix, 
and under his left a medal with the image of Christ stamped on one 
side, and that of St. Peter on the other. On inquiring how he got 
these, I was told that the Portuguese used to bring them to barter 
for slaves. I could get no hearing in this town, as the farmers were 
out at work, and the warriors were too busily engaged ; and not wish 
ing to sail at night, as there was war in those parts, I at once left, 
and running up a small creek of the Dubrika, I arrived at the Port 
of Bomfera at 7 P.M. There is a large town about a mile inland 
from this port, to whose inhabitants I sent, asking them to meet me 
early next morning ; they did so, and I preached to them, and went 
off to the town Dubrika, which I reached the same day at 3 P.M. 
Here I met men of Domingia, who told me that the Mission-boat 
was to leave for Isles de Los on the day before. This made me 
anxious lest she should lose many days there, so I decided to make 
for the open sea again, enter the Brammaia, preach in a few towns, 
and set sail for Isles de Los. Accordingly I walked through the 
streets of Dubrika, to see if I could first get a hearing, but nothing 
was to be done at that early hour, the people being out at farms, so I 
waited till night, and met a congregation of about seventy-five to 
whom I preached. The tide favouring about three in the morning, 
we set out again and sailed up the Brammaia, between two hostile 
camps, on either side of the river. We reached Fanjie about 10 P.M., 
where a Mr. Gomez, from Sierra Leone, keeps a little school on 
his own account. Here we passed the night, and early next morning 



] Solving Beside the Waters. 193 

we took a by-land route to a larger town, more inland, called Kan- 
gola, and here I addressed a large gathering of Mohammedans, one 
of whom, in returning thanks on behalf of the others, said : " You 
know a pumpkin has plenty of water in it ; yet we put more to boil 
it." I understood him to say that they had a knowledge of God 
and religion, but they were always willing to add to it. I replied 
that the water in the pumpkin is bad, and we boil it to purge out the 
bad, and put in good. We returned to Fanjie at 9 A.M. (Decem 
ber 2oth), and went off at once to Youia, and from thence to 
Sombuya, where we preached to a large gathering, at 7 P.M. The 
next day being the Sabbath (December aist) we walked to Cobea, 
and preached to a mixed congregation of Sierra Leone, and country 
people. Returning to Sombuya, we sailed to Brammaia, the king s 
residence. We found him treating with ambassadors from the king 
of the Rio Nunez ; but he soon assembled such as were in the town, 
and lent me a willing ear. From thence we went to Yofraaia, and 
preached the same night. Towards daybreak (December 22nd) we 
set out homeward bound very anxious to clear out of the river 
while the fighting men could distinguish friend from foe. Trying to 
steer clear of the first war fence on our way, we kept hard on the 
opposite side, but the little army shouted lustily after us. We hauled 
in oars, and told from whence we came. They would not be satis 
fied, but demanded us to their camp ; we, after short deliberation,, 
thought it safer to go, and went, and explained our mission to the 
river. The " General " replied that he had no intention to hurt us ; 
but that all boats coming or going must land there to explain their 
errand : we were then glad to sail off scot-free. This was but a 
small detachment, the principal troops were quartered on some wilds 
at the entrance of the river, and as every party would make the 
same demand as this little one, we began to fear being benighted in 
the river. The tide too was now against us, it was mid-day, and the 
men very hungry. We had to ground the boat on a small sand-bank,, 
take some refreshment, and wait for the tide. We started again at 
3 P.M. It would seem that the parties intended to join battle that 
same night, for as soon as we had turned a bend in the river, and 
faced its mouth, we observed four war-canoes set off from the opposite 
side coming rapidly behind us. We were now between the two chief 
camps. We were about one mile ahead of the canoes, and three 
miles in the rear of the encampment to which they seemed bound. 
We had already learned all about their situations, and had decided 



I 9 4 Mauritius. RSS.SK 

to steer clear of them, rather than lose time in calling on them. 
We first thought that these canoes were coming after us for 
not landing at their camp to give explanations. It had begun to 
grow dark, and ten watch fires showed themselves from the front 
camp. The men, through fear and anxiety, missed the channel, 
and ran the boat aground on a sand-bank. The next minute 
all hands were in the water trying to get off the boat. After 
much trouble, we succeeded in righting her in the channel, and we 
put to the oars. A bright moonlight soon came to our aid, and the 
next two hours found us safely out to sea, not overtaken by the 
canoes, nor interrupted by the front camp, from which we took great 
care to sail as far on the other side as we could. " Men soon forget 
the danger that is past." We put down anchor to take rest and 
refreshment, and the men who a few hours before could hardly draw 
their breath through fear, now began to crack their sides with laugh 
ter. Early next morning we reached Fotoba. We set out from 
Fotoba Christmas night, and arrived at Freetown on the morning 
of the 27th December. 



MAURITIUS. 

THE NATIVE PASTOR S WORK AMONG THE TELUGOOS. IMPORTANT 
CONVERSION. DETERMINED HEATHEN OPPOSITION. 

WE have not before had an opportunity of referring to the first 
report of the Rev. A. Alphonse, the native pastor to the 
Telugoos, of Port Louis, whose ordination was recorded on p. 410 of 
our last year s volume. There is a naive simplicity characterising it, 
as also the letter of the Rev. John Baptiste, which lends a charm 
to the narrative of their work. From Mr. Alphonse s report we quote 
the following passages : 

" From the time of my ordination my hands have been much 
strengthened, and I have received much comfort in being the means of 
bringing eight new communicants to theTelugoo congregation. TheTelugoo 
Christians are much pleased at having a minister who is one of their own 
countrymen working among them, and specially at having a regular com 
munion service, all in Telugoo. I believe the work among the Telugoos 
is growing, and a knowledge of the Gospel is being spread among the 
whole class. Several of the people show a desire to learn Christian 
prayers, hymns, and lyrics. I have lately started an eight o clock Sunday 
morning service in St. Mary s to meet the requirements of those who 



1 ] Baptism of a Hindoo Priest. 195 

cannot attend at one. I began this service with an attendance of eighteen, 
and I have reason to hope it will steadily increase. At the beginning of 
this year a mothers meeting was formed, it now numbers twenty : Mrs. 
French and my wife meet the members monthly and give them short 
addresses. This Sangam tends to promote among the women piety, 
almsgiving, and union. At the monthly meetings they all bring offerings 
for the poor. 

" In St. Mary s I hold three weekly services ; two on Sunday, and one 
on Thursday evening. On Saints Days the Tamil and Telugoo congre 
gations join in a united service. At the monthly Missionary meeting about 
forty usually attend. Once a week, on Saturdays, I hold a class for 
catechism. Regular addresses are given to heathens in camps and other 
places where they assemble after they have left their work ; some listen 
with attention, but others pay no regard. 

" In one camp, camp Yoloff/a Hindoo priest has shown much oppo 
sition to my work for the past three years, but some months ago he drew 
towards us, read our prayers and Scriptures, became a convert, and was 
baptised in St. Mary s last month. Through the persecution he has 
received from his friends and relations he is compelled to leave them and 
to work elsewhere as a coolie. After his baptism he asked that a prayer- 
meeting might be held in the neighbourhood, at which forty persons were 
present, and at this meeting he showed himself openly to be a member of 
Christ. 

" My work naturally divides itself into two parts : the first part of the 
day I devote to work among Christians, and the latter part to work among 
heathens. Where I find a Christian living among the heathen I ask 
him to help me to assemble as many people as possible to hear a 
short address. Sometimes they prepare a sort of tent for the people 
to assemble in and hear the Word of God preached. On such oc 
casions fifty or even a hundred persons, mostly heathen, will stand or 
sit around and listen attentively." 

Mr. Baptiste s report we give in its entirety : 

" By the grace of God the work in the northern part of Port Louis is 
progressing. There is an increase in the services which I hold in Port 
Louis, Roche Bois, Pailles and Cassis. In these districts my work is 
partly among Christians whom I visit and assemble for services, and 
partly among heathen with whom I hold long conversations and interest 
ing arguments on religious matters. I have six services for Christians 
during each week, and on Sundays help in the Sunday School in which 
there are about twenty children. We have a monthly Missionary meeting 
to explain to all who may attend, the Mission work carried on in other 
countries of the world. We also have a mothers meeting which at 
present numbers about twenty and gives promise of increasing numbers. 
I find many Tamil Christians disposed to give towards the expenses of 
their Church. 

" I assist Rev. R. J. French, at St. Mary s on Communion Sundays, 
and Festival days, when sometimes we have had 250 of the congregation 
in attendance. In camps there are many heathens, to whom I give 
addresses on Sundays, when sometimes I have had from fifty to seventy 
persons in attendance. I hold on Sundays a service of one hour and a 
half for the Roche Bois Christians, and many heathens also present them 
selves to hear the Word of God. 

" I visit regularly the patients of the Civil Hospital twice a week. This 



196 Mauritius. 



}* 



gives me many opportunities of making known the great Physician to 
those who are sick. 

11 Wherever I preach I find the hearers of the Gospel are many, but few 
become converts. The Hindoo priests do all in their power to keep up 
heathen worship. They have combined together to enforce the following 
rules for regular subscriptions to their temple, viz. : 

" i. That all heathen shop-keepers, traders and vegetable sellers, must 
help the Hindoo pagoda by paying subscriptions to meet all the expenses 
incurred by the said pagoda : first, by a subscription of two cents daily ; 
secondly, by a yearly subscription of one rupee, or more if possible. 

" 2. All persons murmuring or violating this rule shall thereby lose the 
confidence of their friends as well as their support in business. 

" During this year several new heathen pagodas have been erected, and 
many small ones have been built near high roads. The following is 
a table of worship at Terre Rouge and Riviere des Lataniers : 

" i. The gunny merchants will pay all the expenses incurred at a 
festival at this large temple for one week. 

" 2. The vegetable sellers will do the same for one week. 

" 3. The goldsmiths will do the same for one week. 

" 4. The shop-keepers will do the same for one week. 

"In each such festival the expenditure amounts to more than 400 
rupees. Besides these sources of revenue there are large funds belonging 
to these pagodas. 

" My evening work begins daily at 4 P.M., and lasts to 6 and often 
to 8. 30 P.M., except on Sundays and Wednesdays, when there are services 
at St. Mary s Church. I hold long conversations with heathens on 
different religious matters, particularly about the differences between the 
Holy Scriptures and the Hindoo Sastras. Many persons attend to my 
addresses and argue with me. I hope God will soon turn their hearts 
from darkness to light. Some of them come to my church occasionally 
to hear the Word of God. When I go to preach the Gospel to the 
heathens on Sundays, I always meet with Indians, Chinese, negroes, and 
Creoles playing Chinese games of chance. Their wives and children 
have related to me many sad results of this gambling. Though I tell them 
the consequences, and preach to them against so doing, yet they will not 
cease from it, and sometimes they threaten to ill-treat and whip me. 

" Indians here drink much more than they do in India, on account of 
the numerous Chinese shops, which are to be seen in all the corners of 
the streets. The old immigrants induce the new ones to drink, by telling 
them that it is wholesome and cooling for this hot country. Their wives 
too often get intoxicated, and they are thereby excited to make quarrels, 
and to commit thefts, adultery, and even murder. 

" When I visit the camps on Sundays to give instruction to them, I 
always meet people who are intoxicated by liquor, and as soon as I have 
begun to give my instruction, they come forward and ask many foolish 
questions, and thus interrupt the hearers and myself. I am conse 
quently compelled to withdraw, with much grief at having lost a good 
opportunity. 

" Every Tuesday morning I teach Catechism to the Christian boys, at 
the Central Government School, where the average attendance for the 
instruction is sixteen boys." 

The Rev. R. J. French speaks of the manner in which the heathen 
are banding together to protect their own worship and oppose 



^SS 1 ] Central Africa. 197 

Christianity, as evidence of the success which has attended recent 
work in the island ; and bears testimony to the good results of the 
ordination of Mr. Alphonse. The S.P.G. Preparandi Class, from 
which Mr. Alphonse came, continues," he says, "to supply our 
Mission with useful agents." Mr. French, after a long residence in 
Mauritius preceded by ten laborious years in Madras, is coming to 
England under imperative medical orders for rest and change. 



CENTRAL AFRICA. 

NOT the least encouraging feature of this Mission is the hearty 
support which it is receiving in Zanzibar. During the first three 
months of the year the local contributions amounted to over 2oo/. 
besides 1057. raised for an organ for the church. One officer who 
took a cargo of slaves, sent a donation representing roughly his own 
share of the prize-money. 

" On Good Friday," Bishop Steere writes from Zanzibar, " we had 
a special service at noon, lasting till nearly three, with address on 
the seven words from the Cross, hymns and the Litany in Swahili in 
the new church. On Easter Day we had twenty European com 
municants. Mr. Farler has had great misfortunes since his return ; 
Mr. Yorke s death and Mr. Sayres return home invalided have 
left him with very weak forces. Mr. F. J. Williams has been ill also, 
so that Magila is in considerable trouble. Mr. Farler brought 
Mr. Sayres down here, and returned just in time for his Good Friday 
and Easter services which went off well, though, as he says, he never 
felt less festal in his life. In fact, we are hard up for workers 
throughout." 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held on Friday, May 21, 1880, at 
19, Delahay Street, the Master of the Charterhouse in the Chair. There were also 
present the Bishops of Trinidad and Rangoon, the Earl of Powis, F. Calvert, Esq., 
Q.C., Sir C. Hobhouse, Bart., C. Raikes, Esq., C.S.I., Vice- President s ; the Dean 
of Manchester, Archdeacon Blomfield, Rev. W. C. Bromehead, Sir W. R. Farquhar, 
Bart., Rev. J. Goring, Gen. Lowry, C.B., Rev. J. Frewen Moor, Rev. E. J. 
Selwyn, Rev. W. J. Stracey, Lieut. -Gen. Tremenheere, C.B., Rev. R. T. West, 
S. Wreford, Esq., Members of the Standing Committee ; and Revs. S. Arnott, 



198 



Monthly Meeting. 



["Mission Field, 
L June 1, 1880. 



G. F. Barrow, W. E. Belson, J. K. Best, W. Blunt, V. G. Borradaile, R. H. 
Nisbet Brown, N. G. Charrington, H. N. Collier, J. Collin, T. Cree, Esq., 
R. Gust, Esq., Revs. T. Darling, Dr. Deane, R. H. Dickson, T. Edye, Esq., Rev. 
J. J. Elkington, C. C. Ferard, Esq., Rev. Dr. Finch, Gen. Fooks, J. F. France, 
Esq., H. W. Gordon, Esq., Rev. Osborne Gordon, Col. Hardy, Revs. T. W. 
Herbert, F. J. Holland, W. W. Howard, G. B. Hughes, Esq., Rev. Dr. A. T. 
Lee, Revs. E. H. Maclachlan, B. Maitland, T. O. Marshall, F. S. May, Canon 
Murray, Rev. R. S. Oldham, A. A. O Neil, E. Palmer, Esq., J. W. B. Riddell, 
Esq., Revs. T. Rooke, W. F. Satchell, L. L. Sharpe, F. Smith, Preb. G. Smith, 
J. H. Thompson, J. Weston, Esq., and S. J. Wilde, Esq., Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of the Society s 
Income up to April 30, 1880 : 



A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

I. GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. II. APPROPRIATED FUNDS, 
administered by the Society. III. SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the Society, but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 



January April, iS8c. 


i. 
Subscriptions, 
Donations, and 
Collections. 


2. 

Legacies. 


3- 
Dividends, 
Rents, &c. 


Total 
RECEIPTS. 


Total 
PAYMENTS. 


I. GENERAL .... 




9,228 



1,720 




T.743 



12,691 




23,726 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


922 





i.39 1 


2,3 J 3 


3,622 


III. SPECIAL .... 

TOTALS . . 


10,022 





57 


10,592 


9,540 


20,172 


1,720 


3.74 


25,596 


36,888 



B. Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of April in five 
consecutive years. 



I. GENERAL 


1876. 


i8 77 . 


l8 7 8. 


1879. 


1880. 


i. Subscriptions, &c. . . . 


8,063 


^8,639 
1,922 


8,6 9I 

2 266 


8,430 
1,872 


9,228 






1,859 


1,983 




















14,667 
2 468 


12,420 

2 258 


12,940 


12,335 


12,691 




4 458 


8,725 


4t796 


















TOTALS 










y ,- 















3. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, authority was 
given to purchase, for a sum not exceeding Rs. 75,000, a site which had 
been approved by the Bishop and the Calcutta Diocesan Committee, for 
the new Bishop s College, Calcutta. 

4. On the nomination of the Standing Committee, the Rev. R. T. 
Davidson was proposed for election in June as a Member of the Standing 
Committee, vice the Rev. and Hon. A. Legge resigned. 



Mission Field, T 
June 1, 1880. J 



Monthly Meeting. 



199 



5. The Standing Committee recommended the following Grants for 
1881 : 

I. ANNUAL GRANTS. 



AMERICA, c. 
Montreal . .... 




1,000 
2,200 

32 
175 
450 

1,900 
1 20 

2,000 
350 
3,500 
SO 

i,35 

1,210 

250 
200 

750 
650 
750 
40 
520 


ASIA. 





Quebec, i,8oo/., and Students, sso/., 






Ditto, Missions 


475 








Huron, Rev. A. Jamieson, 75/. . . . 


Lahore .... 




Ditto, Cambridge Mission . . . 


840 




Ditto, Students 
Nova Scotia (with Pension, 1877) . . 
Ditto, P. Edward s Island .... 
Newfoundland 






Colombo 




Borneo and the Straits . 




Ditto, Pensions 


240 




Rupertsland 






AUSTRALASIA, &c. 






Caledonia 






North Queensland 


700 




Trinidad. . . 






Guiana . 








100 

280 






AFRICA, &c. 


Ballaarat 




Grafton ... . . . 








Capetown ( 300^. to College ) . . . . 


2,500 

500 
2,670 
60 
2,480 
2,025 
825 
375 
1,275 
900 
300 
590 

3.QOO 


Norfolk Island 


35 


Melanesia 
Ditto, New Caledonia 
Ditto, Fiji 


200 

50 

550 




Ditto, Missionary Scholarships . . 


Natal 


EUROPE. 




Zululand . . 


St. Helena and Tristan d Acunha . . 
Orange Free State, &c. 


Transvaal 










Mauritius, with Pension, 4o/. . . . 


University Exhibitions 


*<*$ 
60 
260 



II. SINGLE PAYMENTS. 

Lennoxville College towards Endowment of Professorship of Divinity 250 

Antigua Clergyman for Nevis TOO 

Grahamstown Mission Buildings 200 

St. John s Passage, &c., of a Superintending Missionary, vice the Bishop 400 

Pretoria For the Bishop in 1881 100 

Zululand Reserved for contingencies 400 

Madagascar Mission Buildings 1,000 

Rangoon Mission Buildings at Tounghoo 1,000 

The Rev. S. Arnott moved as an amendment, " that the scheme be 
referred back to the Standing Committee with a view to prevent the with 
drawal of the representative of the Society from the Isle of Cyprus." 
On a division the amendment was lost. The Grants were then voted for 
1 88 1, as recommended by the Standing Committee. 

Certain Appropriated Funds placed at the disposal of the Society were 
ordered to be disbursed in the manner proposed by the Standing 
Committee. 

6. Bishop Rawle, of Trinidad, made a statement to the Society of the 
condition and wants of his diocese. 

7. The Rev. J. Pitfield, of Brownhills, and the Rev. J. Lewis, of Port 
land, on the request of the Bishop of Ballaarat, and the Rev. C. Groser, 



200 Monthly Meeting. RKftSS 1 

of Wailuku, on the request of the Bishop of Honolulu, were placed on 
the list of the Society s Missionaries in those dioceses. 

8. The Seal of the Society was ordered to be affixed to Powers of 
Attorney, for the management of certain property in British Columbia, 
held on trust for the Bishopric of New Westminster, and for the sale of 
certain Italian Stock on account of the Roman Church Building Fund, in 
the terms of the vote of the Society of February 2oth, 1880. 

9. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, a grant of 2$/. 
was made from the Negus Fund to Mrs. Winter, for the purchase of 
books for use at the S.P.G. Mission in Delhi. 

10. At the request of Bishop Selwyn, and on the recommendation of 
the Standing Committee, it was agreed that the balance of the Patteson 
Memorial Fund, amounting to 3,35o/., should be transferred to the 
Trustees of the Melanesian Mission for investment in New Zealand. 

11. The Rev. G. B. Oldfield, Rector of Sedgehill, Shaftesbury, was 
appointed Organizing Secretary for the Archdeaconry of Sarum. 

12. The Secretary, on b3half of the Committee appointed on February 
2oth to consider the Society s Charter, asked leave to defer the presen 
tation of the Committee s report to a future meeting. 

13. All the members proposed for Incorporation in March were 
elected into the Society. 

14. The following gentlemen were proposed for election in July : 
Henry Simpson, Esq., 32, Cedars Road, Clapham Common ; Capt. Bartleet, 

Redditch ; J. Challinor, Esq., Compton House, Leek; Rev. R. K. Corser, 12, 
Beaufort Buildings, Bath ; Rev. G. A. Fry, Dodworth, Barnsley ; Rev. G. H. F. 
Coope- Arnold, Yatton Keynell, Chippenham ; Rev. V. H. Skrine, St. Paul s, 
Haggerstone, E. ; Rev. J. J. Singleton, Brimington, Chesterfield ; Rev. J. S. 
Pickles, Wooler, Northumberland ; Rev. S. Crawley, Masham, Bedale ; Arthur 
Hedley, Esq., Brize Norton, Witney ; Rev. F. C. Green, Ramsgill, Pateley 
Bridge ; Rev. G. G. Cass, Middlesmoor, Pateley Bridge ; Rev. J. A. Carter- 
Squire, Healey, Masham, Bedale ; Rev. W. H. Oxley, Grewelthorpe, Ripon ; 
T. D. Singleton, Esq., Highfield, Manningham ; Rev. H. Cecil Fellowes, Beighton, 
Acle, Norfolk ; Rev. H. W. O. Polhill, Ashurst, Tunbridge Wells ; Rev. C. J. 
Corfe, R.N. ; Rev. S. W. Payne, D.D., Chaplain, R.N., Plymouth; C. E. 
Hatherly, Esq., 45, Belgrave Road, S. W. ; Rev. C. J. Ridgway, Buckhurst Hill ; 
Rev. Loftus Owen, St. Giles , Shrewsbury ; C. E. Layton, Esq., Gough Square, 
E.G. ; Rev. T. B. MacNanaara, West Cowes, Isle of Wight. 



OBITUARY, 

A brief telegram has been received froin Madras announcing 
the decease, at Tanjore, of Mr. EDWARD BOYD, son of the Rev. 
W. F. Boyd, of Clipston, Northamptonshire. Mr. Boyd was a 
student of St. Augustine s College, who had passed the Cambridge 
Preliminary Theological Examination with distinction, and had 
received special training for the work to which he had devoted his, 
alas ! so brief life. It was only in the autumn of 1879 that he left 
England in the Steamer El Dorado, and his calm and intrepid 
bearing during a storm in the Bay of Biscay won for him the praise 
of the captain and officers. He made a favourable impression on 
all who saw him in Madras, and he was a Missionary of great 
promise. We can only say God s will be done. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



i* foorto. &e **e& i* SSarb of 




JULY i, 1880. 



THE SOCIETY S NEEDS. 

(HE season of the year has once more come round in which 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, after reviewing the work and income of the past 
twelve months, carefully scanning the horizon of Missionary claims, 
and measuring its forces and opportunities, puts forth a more urgent 
appeal to English Churchmen to increase its resources, that it may 
go forward successfully in the way of duty and privilege marked out 
for it. 

Our work in the past has been great and glorious, and certainly 
not less so in 1879 than in previous years. The story of pro 
gress, as told in the Annual Report and by the speakers at the great 
meeting of last month, is such as may well encourage and excite 
to new enthusiasm those to whom the conquest of the world for 
Christ is a matter of daily effort and prayer. The campaign, with 
all its fluctuations of success and apparent failure, some bitter 
disappointments and perplexing anxieties notwithstanding, has been 
on the whole triumphant; ground has been gained, strongholds 
not in -vain assaulted, walls broken down, hills levelled, valleys 
bridged over, previous acquisitions secured, and little by little the 
standard of the cross advanced, and the influence of the Crucified 
extended. 
NO. ccxcv. p 



202 The Society s Needs. 

Yet from one very important point of view the retrospect is 
humiliating. While on every side the blessing of God seems to rest 
upon our labours, and new spheres of usefulness open before us all 
around, the means of carrying on those labours and taking advantage 
of fresh opportunities are withheld from the Society. Our work 
grows apace, and growth of income is absolutely necessary if we 
are to persevere. Yet in place of increase in our pecuniary re 
sources, the record of last year shows a falling off of a very 
considerable sum. To some extent, doubtless, this is to be ex 
plained by the general depression of financial concerns in this 
country, and indeed throughout the world. But on all sides we are 
now hearing of the revival of trade, and the beginning of renewed 
prosperity. Shall the cause of Him Who " though He was rich yet 
for our sakes became poor " be the last to give evidence of returning 
spending power among our people ? Luxury is unabated, pleasure 
goes on its way undisturbed, the " season " is no less an institution 
in our metropolis this year than in former years. Many who for a 
time made unwonted efforts at economy, of which retrenchment in 
charities was perhaps the first, are again raising their expenditure. 
Will not the Christianity of the Church of England suffer disgrace, 
if the tide of subscriptions to her great Missionary Society does not 
begin to rise ? Ay, and to flow, until, with the blessing of the 
Most High upon our people, and the labour of their heads and 
hands, it reaches a level far higher than hitherto it has ever attained ? 

The perusal of the second edition, just issued, of the pamphlet 
* Wants of the Colonial and Missionary Church," J can hardly fail to 
impress the mind very deeply with the absolute duty of wide 
spread increase of contributions to the General Fund of the Society. 
It shows how in almost every diocese in the Colonial and Missionary 
world, high and holy work is crippled, or made impossible, for lack 
of the means to carry it on. The position is just this ; God s voice, 
in tones that cannot be mistaken, is saying in countless places, " Go, 
work in My Vineyard." The labourers stand ready, but a very 
minimum of the hire of which they are worthy is not forthcoming. 
The machinery is prepared, but the Church sets it so very partially in 
motion, that practically her reply to the Master s bidding, while 
apparently saying " I go," is " I go not" God grant that the sequel 
may be, and that without delay, "Afterwards she repented, and 
went." 

(*) Copies of the " Wants " can be obtained at the Society s Office. 



Migon Fieid.-j Diocese of Graftou and Armidale. 203 

We have referred especially to the General Fund of the Society, 
and this it is undoubtedly which most urgently stands in need of 
augmentation. Centralisation and comprehensive organisation tend 
very greatly to economy and efficiency in carrying out results. 
While, therefore, it is well that varying sympathies should be 
provoked by the details of need in separate Missions ; and while it 
cannot be expected that those who are locally or personally in 
terested in particular dioceses should refrain from special efforts 
on their behalf, tangible manifestations of such feeling should be, 
not in place of, but in addition to, the regular systematic aid without 
which the general cause of Missions must languish, to the 
detriment of all its branches alike. 

Is it vain to hope that the time may soon come when every 
baptised Christian shall recognise an obligation resting upon him, 
by his very baptism, to give a definite yearly subscription according 
to his means to such a Society as our own feeling in reference to 
more occasional and spasmodic liberality, the result of peculiar 
influences, "this ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other 
undone " ? 



DIOCESE OF GRAFTON AND ARMIDALE 

BY THE BISHOP. 

THE diocese of Grafton and Armidale is part of the territory which 
remained under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Newcastle in 
New South Wales after the separation of that portion which had been 
some years before assigned to the diocese of Queensland. 

In the year 1867 the Rev. W. Collinson Sawyer, D.D., was consecrated 
to be first Bishop of Grafton and Armidale, and arrived at his diocese 
about the end of December in the same year. 

When the Bishop arrived at Sydney the diocese of Grafton and Armi 
dale was directly cut off from that of Newcastle, so far as any matters 
of finance or administration were concerned ; from that day it has had 
no share in any of the help given by any of the Church Societies at home 
to the diocese of Newcastle. 

On the establishment of the diocese of Grafton and Armidale, and the 
assignment of a large portion of territory to the new diocese of Bathurst, 
the diocese of Newcastle became, what it now is, the smallest diocese in 
area, of any in New South Wales. 

Bishop Sawyer was, to the sorrow of his diocese, accidentally drowned 
on the evening of March 15th, 1868, in the Clarence River, as he was 
returning to Bishopthorpe, after holding Divine Service at Grafton. He 
was therefore Bishop in his diocese for the space of scarcely three 
months, and necessarily little could be done towards organisation in so 
short a space of time, especially as it was much taken up with visiting 
the principal towns, and arranging for residence and future journeys. 

p 2 



204 Diocese of Graf ton and Armidak. [$l fgg? 

On the Feast of St. Matthias, 1869, at Westminster Abbey, after 
delays caused by the illness and decease of the then Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and the needful steps to create and instal his successor, the 
present Bishop of Grafton and Armidale was duly consecrated by royal 
mandate to be a bishop of the Church, and sailed for his diocese in the 
May following, reaching it at the end of August. 

The diocese formed as already described, consists of an area of land 
bounded by the sea on the east, by the colony of Queensland on the 
north and north-west, and to the west and south by the boundaries of the 
dioceses of Bathurst and Newcastle; it stretches from Lat. 32 I2 S. to 
Lat. 28 10 S., and from Long. 154 30 , by a line running N.W.to a point 
crosssing Long. 149, in Lat. 30 S. It has three distinct climates, each,, 
in places, merging into one another, by sudden change or slow degrees. 
The climate of the south and western parts of the diocese, which may be 
called The Plains, is semi-tropical ; the land lies low, and is generally 
flat not over 500 feet above the sea level, and like the bed of a huge 
inland lake or sea, yet varied here and there in parts by low ranges of 
hills, or the sudden uprising of almost isolated mountains, with picturesque 
outlines against the horizon ; perhaps from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above sea 
level. 

That part of the country is subject to hot winds, whose burning will 
wither every particle of fruit and foliage in a few hours, and also to 
severe droughts, whose fierceness may vary, but practically endure for a 
space of years rather than weeks or months. As it is subject to drought, 
so also is it at times subject to violent floodings, miles upon miles being 
covered with water ; and, as you journey afterwards, you may see well up- 
in the trees, the debris which these waters have left, dry now, and waiting 
to be moved off, or added to by another flood. A gentleman once making 
his way home over these plains, in a very wet season, after being delayed 
by the floods so that he had taken six weeks to get over about 200 miles, 
at last found himself stopped again, when he was twelve miles from his 
home ; and having stayed there some days, seeing that there was little 
prospect of a retirement of the waters, in despair got a boat somehow,, 
and leaving his horses and his buggy at his friend s, to be fetched when 
the land was dry, quietly rowed his wife and children home. 

This district is but sparsely peopled by persons occupied in sheep or 
cattle farming, on very varied scales of stock and money capital. There 
are free selectors, who are often simply struggling to live, and of whose 
position I will speak hereafter ; and a much smaller number of squatters, 
who have invested large sums in the purchase of their stock on their 
stations and runs. 

It may be well here to explain the terms so often used in descriptions 
of Australian life, as, for instance (i) squatter; (2) run; (3) station; 
and (4) free selector. 

(i) A "squatter" derives his name from the manner in which such 
persons in the early days of the colony took up portions of land to farm 
sheep thereon. A person with more or less capital a younger son, 
perhaps, of a not very wealthy house ; or an officer in H.M/s service, 
either army or navy ; or a person who had little taste for literature, 
especially Latin or Greek, found in Australia what he deemed an opening 
for his enterprise. Purchasing a thousand or more sheep somewhere, he 
started up country to see where he should locate himself. Having found 
what he deemed a suitable country not previously " taken up," he settled 
down there and paid a small very small rent to the Crown for the use 
of a very large area of country as his sheepwalk possibly as much as 



M juiyi, S d> ] Squatters and Free Selectors. 205 

joo square miles. On some place in that area, generally near to some 
creek or river, the squatter built his home of bark or weather-boards, 
with bark or shingle roof, according as his means or his nearness to 
greater civilisation allowed. Convenient access to water was the point 
chiefly considered in the selection of a site for the homestead, and that 
has often caused the back of the house to have the view, while the front 
looks out on to a plain, perhaps, or mere forest land. The home thus 
-chosen and made was called the " station," or the " head station." 

(2) The "run" is the space of land originally taken up as already 
described at a rent, and on that land the sheep and cattle, or both, u ran," 
i.e. went about as they would freely, without fence, or other let or 
hindrance. The uncertainty of the boundaries of these "runs" led to the 
appointment by the Crown of certain persons to determine such questions 
as would necessarily arise between neighbours, not always inclined to be 
as friendly as, considering their comparative isolation, it was desirable 
that they should be one with another. 

(3) The " station," which strictly meant the " homestead," is now often 
used to indicate the same as the "run;" "Wallabadah station," e.g. 
means, in common parlance, either the squatter s home at Wallabadah, or 
the area rented by him about it. 

(4) The "free selector" is a modern term derived from the manner 
in which persons are now allowed to purchase land of the Crown, and 
may be thus explained. Most of the land occupied by the squatter is 
only rented by him of the Crown; now such land may be chosen or 
selected for purchase by any person whatsoever : that he may do, up to a 
certain area fixed by law, upon very easy terms, and at the same time 
obtain a right of grazing sheep or cattle over a proportional area in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the purchased land, free of any rent. As 
all that is required of such persons is that the land which they select be 
not previously sold or alienated, or is not subject to a right under certain 
circumstances vested in the " squatter," usually called a " pre-emptive " 
right, they are free to select land where they can ; they are popularly called 
"free selectors." It may be of some interest to some to know the terms 
on which the government of New South Wales will alienate land to free 
selectors. The quantity that one person may select at first is from 40 to 
620 acres, with a right of grazing over three times as many acres as he 
selects, provided the land so sought to be used be not already purchased 
by some one else. For^the number of acres selected for purchase he 
must pay forthwith at the rate of $s. an acre , if forty acres io/., and so 
forth ; at the end of three years he must make a declaration upon oath 
that he has resided on his selection, and a commissioner must be satis 
fied that he has during those three years expended i/. an acre on the 
area selected. That settled, by payment of 15^. an acre, he becomes the 
freeholder of his selection ; but should he not choose, or not be able to 
pay the 15^. per acre, it is allowed to remain unpaid, but the selector must 
pay a rent to the Crown, at the rate of 5 per cent, on the balance of the 
purchase money. It will be seen from that, that practically every acre of 
land is put at the value of 2/., i/. for purchase, and i/. for necessary im 
provements, before the land will be enfranchised. 

The second climate of the diocese is that of the Table Land, or New 
England, the first name given from the flat, horizontal outline of the 
ranges upon which the land is, and New England, given because of its 
climate being more like that of Old England than any other in Australia. 
It cannot be denied that the New England climate is better than the 
Old ; a bright, clear sky, keen dry air ; day after day cloudless ; a gentle 



206 Diocese of Graf ton and Armidale. [ 5 ^ 

breeze towards midday until evening ; in summer warm days, with cool, 
pleasant nights ; in winter, cold nights, but warm in the sun, from 10 A.M. 
to 4 P.M. in the daytime, will account for one fact often observed/viz., 
that even the home-born, if they have lived long in New England, New 
South Wales, on their return to their native clime yearn for the sun again, 
and wonder how people live in cloudy, damp England, or much more in 
dull, dark, foggy, dismal London. Speaking only from local experience, 
the thermometer in the shade in the summer about, say, the Feast of the 
Nativity may be as high as 98 or 102 occasionally, and about 70 at 
midnight. Violent and yet gorgeous displays of lightning, accompanied 
with floods of rain, help from time to time to clear the air and lay the 
dust for a few days. It is of course perilous to be out alone in a plain 
under such circumstances, and deaths both to man and beast from 
lightning are very frequent ; and there are also some very marvellous 
escapes, even where persons have been struck. To return, however, to 
the Table Land by name, it is really the country which is to be found on 
the ranges which divide the eastern from the western waters of New 
South Wales. Those ranges are a long series of mountainous hills, 
running from north to south of the eastern side of the continent of 
Australia. They are sometimes called the backbone of New South 
Wales and Queensland, but this is a bold figure of speech, so to speak, of 
them, as they are very far from the middle of the colony. On the eastern 
side the rivers descend among these hills by great leaps, as much at 
places as 1,000 feet ; but except when the rivers are flooded, those falls 
are not very picturesque. The scenery around them is often striking, 
and, in a geological point of view, interesting ; but the general absence 
of water robs the fall of its chief charm. Such rivers as rise on the 
eastern "side of these ranges empty themselves into the sea on the east 
side of Australia, at no very great distance from their sources ; but those 
that rise on the western side, after meandering here and there and nearly 
everywhere, when they have made up their minds, join some larger stream, 
which itself joins another ; and at last they all become one great river of 
the south "called the " Murray," which empties itself into the South 
Pacific Ocean at Adelaide, South Australia. It is to be observed of 
Australian rivers, that in form they are very different from English rivers, 
as, except when in flood, they never are to be seen at the top of their 
banks ; a section of an Australian river-bed is rather of a V-shape than 
any other, and the river s wanderings round and round are quite mazing. 
Some idea may be formed of the ultimate length of such a river as the 
Murray, when I say that persons residing at the south-east corner of my 
diocese, do actually receive much of their stores by water from Adelaide 
a distance of, I suppose, at least 2,000 miles. The winter of New 
England is cold, but bright and healthy ; at night the thermometer will 
will go down to 15, in the day rise to 51, and only rarely in the shade do 
you see in the daytime the relics of the night s frost. As a rule, therefore, 
snow does not lie for any length of time, except perhaps on those ranges 
which are 5,000 feet above the sea. English trees and English fruits 
grow well, and ripen in New England without any protection and with 
scarcely any care ; indeed, fruit such as peaches, plums, nectarines, and 
quinces, are so abundant, that the pigs are feasted on the windfalls, and 
some years ago came a season of such abundance that after friends, 
neighbours, and any who desired were satisfied, even the pigs themselves 
became so dainty that they would not look at a peach. 

As regards horticulture, it might be supposed that in a country with 
such a comparatively mild winter, all such plants as, and many more 



"SSStfltf] New England. 207 

than, will stand out during winter in England, would certainly do so 
there ; but, in fact, it is not so, for the plants are not at rest. The check 
by the frost at night is followed by the rapid thaw in the day ; and a 
fuchsia which will stand out safely in South Devon, is killed in New 
South Wales if not protected during the winter. It is possible that care 
might do something towards acclimatising some plants, especially as 
orange-trees have borne good fruit as high up as Armidale is above the 
the sea, viz., nearly 3,300 feet. 

New England is not subject to the droughts which affect so seriously 
the lower country ; but it feels the consequences of such calamities, as 
many hundreds of thousands of sheep are sent off from the dry pastures, 
to travel New England in search of food, until the long-yearned-for rain 
sends them home. Sheep thus wandering are not regarded by the 
squatters or selectors of New England with any very loving eye ; they are 
carefully shepherded, not only by their own shepherd, but by guards sent 
out by the head stations to escort them carefully along the road through 
the run, that they may not wander off that road on either side beyond the 
distance allowed by law. Looked at in this light as invaders, they bear 
the name of locusts. 

The base of the hills of New England is generally either granite or 
basalt, which gives the hills, for the most part, a decided uniformity of 
outline, the predominant form being, what might be aptly described as a 
long roof, hipped at both ends. The want of a good freestone for building 
purposes in New England is a serious drawback on all work of that sort 
for Church purposes, rendering building very expensive, and that is more 
increased by the absence of limestone. It may give some idea of the 
cost of such works if I state here some of the expenses attending the 
building of St. Peter s Church at Armidale. Every stone (granite) which 
we used in the foundation, or basement course, had to be carried fifteen 
miles, at a cost of 30^., before it was touched with a view to its final 
shape. Every bushel of lime had to be carried over bush-roads for 
seventy-four miles, and when delivered at Armidale it cost $s. a bushel. 
The basalt, which is abundant near Armidale, is, owing to its very irregular 
six-sided formation, a very useless stone for building purposes, as it is 
impossible to create any satisfactory bond with it ; and being utterly im 
penetrable to moisture, prevents secure adhesion of the lime. Neverthe 
less, it is frequently used in ordinary buildings, but almost always with 
bad results. 

The third climate and character of country in the diocese is that of the 
seaboard, which is partly flat and low as to country, and is semi-tropical, 
with much moisture as to climate. This seaboard country is separated 
from the plain country by the New England ranges, which are about 
1 50 miles across. In that part of the diocese tropical fruits abound 
bananas, cherrymoyas (custard-apple-trees), pine-apples, together with 
fruits not strictly tropical such as oranges, lemons, citrons, figs, and 
peaches ; and only in winter, or early spring (June to September), save by 
the untiring zeal of the garden- watering Chinaman, can you in those parts 
hope to enjoy the luxury of peas, asparagus, &c. Here, too, are seen 
those night- wandering marauders, whose form, I suppose, led to the myth 
of the vampire that is to say, the flying foxes, large bats who live in 
herds, and leave their home at night to return at early dawn to their 
haunts, when they have knocked down as many peaches, nectarines, and 
figs, as would doubtless feed a good sized village. Their home is called 
a camp, and there they may be seen, hooked on -to each other in strings 
and rows, sleeping through the to them dreary day, and polluting the air 



2o8 t Diocese of Grafton and Armidale. 

with their odour, and the soil with their guano. Few sheep are kept in 
those parts, as the soil and grass have, after many trials, been found un 
suitable ; indeed, in one very wet season, the moss actually grew upon 
the wool on the sheeps backs ! The runs, therefore, are cattle-runs, 
while the free selections and purchased lands are cultivated with maize 
or sugar-cane. Attempts have also been made in the diocese to grow 
sugar-cane as far south as Port Macquarrie, but with the effect of beggar 
ing nearly every person connected with the undertaking. The frosts were 
too keen for any kind of sugar-cane, and, after great expense of labour 
and capital, the farmers were compelled to get rid of their cane and 
return to the cultivation of maize. 

Now, as Port Macquarrie is one of those places which may exemplify 
one of the troubles of a Colonial Bishop s life, I may venture here to say 
something about it. Port Macquarrie is situated on the south bank of 
the mouth of the river Hastings, and in the days of transportation it was 
an important Government station, having a large convict prison, and 
many officers to govern it, besides a regiment of English infantry, resident 
in barracks near to the prisons. It was part of the good principles of 
governors in those days, that wherever they placed a governmental 
station, there they took care to erect a House of God, and provide a 
stipend for the minister who was to celebrate Divine Service for the 
convicts and Crown officers, and generally to superintend the religious 
wants of the residents. Governor Macquarrie, from whom of course the 
place has its name, had here by convict labour built a large brick church, 
rather of the type of his day, such as was to be seen, comparatively 
lately, at Ealing, Brentford, &c., as also a fair Parsonage house. After 
the system of transporting English criminals to the colony of New South 
Wales ceased, the utility of both the gaol and barracks was diminished, 
but not entirely gone, and the present use of the gaol is for native con 
victs (not aboriginals, but Euraustralians) ; while the barracks (I am not 
able to speak certainly, but) I believe are not inhabited at all, or at least 
but partially. 

Now, when what was called State Aid to Religion in New South Wales 
was done away with, the vested interests only of those who were then in 
receipt of such aid were considered ; the payment was to be paid, and 
has been paid since to them, but ceases at their deaths. As no idea was, 
I have always heard, entertained by any of the religious bodies which 
received such aid, of obtaining by commutation a sum paid down at once 
by the State as against the life of the payees, an opportunity was lost of 
gaining a Sunk Fund, the future interest of which would help to meet the 
value of the original payments from the State, and as lives dropped, be 
come a fund to be applied to such purposes as the Church might approve. 
As it is, every death of a clergyman in receipt of state aid is simply 
a loss of income to the Church, in the place where he exercised his 
Cure of Souls. 

Port Macquarrie has now become, so far as the government of New 
South Wales is concerned, a place of little importance ; its grandeur has 
departed from it, the residences of former high functionaries are either in 
a state of growing, or already utter decay ; the population is diminished, 
and is saddled with a white elephant of a church, large enough, I should 
say, to hold 600 worshippers, while I suppose it would be difficult to 
gather together 100 on any occasion. Once the centre of population, it 
has ceased to be so now ; and yet it is so far removed from the new centre 
and district of population, that it cannot any longer be attached to that 
new district, for there is quite as much clerical work to be done in the new 



M juiy i,3S? ] Difficulties of Administration. 209 

district as any one man can be considered capable of. I mention all 
this because it is a case in point of one of the difficulties that may 
any day arise in any diocese of New South Wales, and because about 
three years ago the curate of Port Macquarrie deceased. He was not 
an old man, but he had laboured hard, and with his life dropped the 
salary paid by the State, which was much the largest part of his 
whole stipend. A successor was of course desired, where the people 
formerly had only found about one-fourth of the necessary stipend ; and 
even now, after an interval of vacancy supplied, so far as it could be 
supplied at Port Macquarrie itself and elsewhere in the district by 
faithful laymen with my consent, the people have only been able to 
guarantee the lowest possible allowed stipend. The last of state-paid 
clergymen in my diocese has now passed away ; and considering the 
general consequences of state aid, while I mourn the loss of men of 
colonial experience, and, in some cases, of personal and esteemed friends, 
I cannot but say that the sooner all districts in the Church in my diocese 
can be brought to sustain their own clergy, the better for them. I do 
not say that they need not be helped, but the help should be so arranged, 
as that it should be clearly understood that they were not unnecessarily to 
lean upon it ; but that they must exert themselves to raise the whole stipend 
as soon as they can, so that other more needy districts may be helped as 
they were helped in their ecclesiastical childhood. 

In each of these different districts of the diocese there is a principal 
town ; in the plains, " Tamworth," in New England " Armidale," and in 
the seaboard, " Grafton." 

It will be seen that from two of those towns, the name of the see of 
Grafton and Armidale is derived, a title which has itself added to the 
difficulty of the administration of the whole see ; for how can a bishop 
be a bishop of apparently two sees, where neither had any previous 
existence? And as the bishop must reside somewhere in his diocese, 
and usually resides at the place whence his title is derived, the bishop of 
Grafton and Armidale should have a residence in both places an expense 
which the endowment of the see is certainly not sufficient to meet, how 
ever much either the people or the bishop, or both, might desire it. It 
may be truly said that a great mistake was committed in naming this see 
with two names. As the first source of the endowment came from 
Grafton, that should have been its title. Nothing but jealousy, embarrass 
ment, and opposition, are engendered by the double (albeit it is a pretty 
sounding) title, for in young communities town looks upon town as one 
rival looks upon another. 

The geographical and geological formation of the diocese of Grafton 
and Armidale, already alluded to in the description of the various 
climates, is also a serious difficulty in the administration of the diocese ; 
indeed, that point was not considered as it ought always to be in the 
formation of a diocese in such a country as Australia. 

In the diocese of Grafton and Armidale there is practically no inter 
course between the people of the eastern part and those of the western 
part. Very little produce ever comes up from the seaboard to either New 
England or to the plains, nor do the plains people ever send their produce 
to the seaboard ; both districts send their produce to Sydney ; and so the 
people are separated by interests as much as they are by the mountain 
ranges. Of one part of the diocese, on the seaboard it is true to say that 
to reach it is necessary, owing to the absence of roads, or the nature 
of such roads as there are. to travel from Armidale or Grafton to Sydney 
first, and thence to those places. Thus you have to travel from Armidale, 



2 1 o Diocese of Graf ton and Armidale. [^f, fig? 

555 miles, to arrive at Port Macquarrie ; or from Grafton to the same 
place, about as many miles by sea, and yet in a straight line Armidale 
is not more than 120 miles from Port Macquarrie, and Grafton is not 
much more distant. As for road, there is only a most impracticable one, 
except to a thorough bushman, between either of those places and Port 
Macquarrie. 

Formerly in New South Wales, as I suppose also in other of the 
Australian colonies, the persons on whom we most relied for all help in 
Church work were " the squatters ; " but the position of the squatter as a 
moneyed man and employer of labour has changed very much during the 
last twenty years. Looking as people in England sometimes do at the 
few rich men, of whom all they perhaps know is that they are rich, and 
came from Australia, they are led to draw the conclusion that such 
examples are the rule, and not, as is really the case, the exception. 
Besides, there are other ways of increasing money in Australia, and those 
more rapid and certain than wool-clipping and wool-selling, or even cattle 
or horse-breeding or all three combined. Judicious investments in 
land, when the price was low, and the sale of it, when it had risen in 
value, not only was, but will long continue to be, an easy method of 
increasing money ; and it may give some idea of the character of such 
investments, if the past value of land in parts of the colony be compared 
with the present value. There is a story told, I believe perfectly truly, 
that a large part of the principal street in Sydney, which now of course 
produces a Regent Street rental, in the early days of Sydney exchanged 
owners for a keg of rum ! Crown gifts of land in Sydney or about it are 
now on the way to create incomes which will some day rival any in the 
home country. 

Of Grafton itself, it would be much understating the truth, I am con 
vinced, to say that much of the land in that town, imperilled though it 
be with the danger of a ravaging flood, is worth now more than one 
hundred times as much as it was thirty-five years back. Happy speculators 
in mining, if such adventurers are, even when prosperous, happy, have 
risen in a few cases rapidly to wealth, not so much by the value of gold 
raised (for verily I believe that every ounce of gold brought up has cost 
its value to some one, and that more gold will come out of grass than is 
ever lodged on it from below, in the shape of ore\ but from the sale of 
properties, where others might dig and bury hope and fortunes, rather 
than raise gold. And yet such is the intoxicating nature of gold-digging, 
that you rarely almost never find a gold-digger tired of his pursuit, 
however vain. In one place it may be profitable, elsewhere it is but to 
take up his "billy," his shovel, a few pans, and his pick, and off he goes 
to a new ground, with new hopes built on old experiences. Whatever 
squatting, or sheep, or cattle farming once was in New South Wales, it is 
not now a way to make a large fortune quickly. The man who would 
prosper by diligence, by careful industry, sobriety, and perseverance in 
England or anywhere else, may do so in New South Wales ; but there are 
some elements of trouble in that colony of which I may now speak, as 
they have a bearing upon the Church s work in a diocese like mine. 
The position of the squatter is very much changed for the worse during 
the last ten or more years, and that exclusive altogether of market rates, 
or such visitations as droughts or floods. In past years he invested his 
capital in the purchase of the sheep or cattle on his station, together with 
the buildings and "plant" thereon ; he became a tenant of the Crown, 
subject to a yearly rental, varied from time to time on appraisement. But 
he is also subject to this, viz., that at any time almost any part of his 



S d> ] Erik of Me Land Law - 2 T J 

rented land may be " selected," even close to his very residence, by any 
one who may choose to offer to the Government to purchase such land 
under the powers of the Crown Lands Alienation Act. His "run," 
therefore, may be hopelessly cut up, and in many cases there are runs 
which from free selection are rapidly becoming valueless for pastoral 
purposes. In other cases the squatter, to defend his run, purchases such 
lands as by law he is allowed, becomes a free selector himself, makes 
such of his children as are of sufficient age selectors too (and until 
recently even little children babes were made free selectors) ; and 
beyond what he may now so purchase as a free selector, he endeavours to 
buy land on his run on other terms, and in such quantities, and in such 
parts of his run as may, if possible, hinder any free selector coming on 
to his run at all, or if he cannot do that, then to keep off as many as he 
can. But how is the land to be bought? Even as a " free selector," he 
must pay something down, and more, if he buys land on other terms. 
To do that, then, he must borrow money at heavy rates of interest 
(lo per cent.), and consequently many squatters are crippled in their 
incomes for years to come, and may be reckoned fortunate if they are not 
by some drought, or perhaps " catarrh " in their flocks, or some other 
visitation, ruined. It will be seen, then, from that, that althpugh a station 
may itself return a large sum yearly, by no means all of that profit is the 
squatter s ; as the price of wool falls, so does his income ; a penny in the 
pound fall in the price of wool means a diminution of income by several 
hundreds of pounds, but neither interest nor wages * diminish, except so 
far as economy in management may help to that end. 

In such an account as this, there is no occasion to enter upon the 
political question involved in the land law of New South Wales, whereby, 
unhappily, class is so much set against class, squatter v. free selector, and 
vice versa. But I may observe that as far as what is called Public 
Education is concerned, it is obvious that its expense is vastly increased 
by allowing persons whose children are to be educated partly at the public 
expense, to have settled themselves up and down in the land, while there 
were districts of land which might have been set apart for purchase by 
selectors for agricultural purposes. 

The very thing which all are agreed is an evil is by this law necessarily 
brought into existence, that is to say, a number of very poor schools are 
required, where one or a few would have done the work effectively. 

The bearing of that isolation of the selectors, and opposition of class 
to class, upon the gathering of the necessary stipend of a clergyman is to 
be observed. 

When, in the early days of the colony of New South Wales, the 
squatter was nearly the sole occupant of the land, when he was served 
with convict labourers, when be was in fact the one employer of labour, 
it was not wrong that he should be chiefly called upon to supply the funds 
necessary to sustain the Church s ministry ; but now he naturally, and not 
unjustly, says "free selectors are on the land which I once rented and 
farmed alone. Their presence necessarily diminishes my profits ; they 
themselves make profits and are landowners ; they must be asked and 

(*) The wages of skilled labour in Armidale is large. A good joiner earns twelve shillings a 
day, and if his work is at a place away from home, he often expects and receives his dinner 
as well, and sometimes breakfast also. A first class bricklayer will receive as much as 4. a week. 



as well, and sometimes breakfast also. A first class bricklayer will receive as much as 4 a week, 
and will not probably lay as many as 600 bricks in a day. An ordinary servant, what is called 
a "wood and water joey," receives fifteen shillings a week and his board (meat and tea three 
times a day) bread, butter, or jam as well, but no beer. A young woman of 19 or 20 years of 
age, as a cook, will expect at least .30 a year. A mere child to (speaking euphemistically) walk 
out with a baby looks for seven shillings a week and board, with permission to leave her situation, 
and nothing be said, at a few hours notice. 



2 1 2 Diocese of Graf ton and Ar mi dale. ]^\ S> d 

must give towards the support of the ministry as well as I, and I certainly 
cannot afford to give what I gave formerly." 

Nor are sheep owners or cattle holders at present in any advantageous 
position ; the effects of nearly four years of drought has diminished both 
their flocks and herds, and very few who have not witnessed it can well 
conceive the effect of a drought in New South Wales ; but imagine a 
plain, say twenty-four miles across, in a good season, waving with grass 
so high that you could not see the body of a horse in it, but only his 
head, when he looked up, or his rider s body, as they passed through it, 
above the heads of grass ; and then imagine that a bare field with only 
here and there a thistle, a few gatherings of " roley poley," and the bones 
of deceased horses, sheep, and cattle, or even starved kangaroos, and you 
may feel what the work of a drought is in the land. It is not very easy 
to over-estimate the loss to all, whether squatters or free selectors, during 
such visitation ; nine-tenths of many herds were lost in one year of the 
drought s greatest severity. Hay ran up in price to from I5/. to 2O/. a 
ton, and maize to i6s. a bushel. Of course the consequences of such 
-seasons do not pass away with the season ; even a plentiful harvest in the 
interior of the country will not repay the impoverished agriculturist, as 
there is little access to any market, and perhaps none to any, except one 
so distant that the carriage of the produce will eat up all the profit before 
it reaches its destiny. 

Nor in general is the free selector a really prosperous man ; in many 
respects he is undoubtedly comfortable, as he has his own home, his little 
garden, his paddock, a few sheep, oxen, and horses ; his meat need cost 
him little, and if he is backed by a family of well-trained sons, by which 
I mean young men brought up with a sense of dutiful obedience and 
reverence to their parents, then the free selection can be carried on with 
out hired labour, and the selector may advance. But that is certainly 
rather the exception than the rule ; a great number of free selectors 
cannot even pay their way clearly. Tempted with the idea held out to 
them by the Crown Lands Alienation Act, that they may become land 
owners with ease a prospect very tempting to some men they purchase 
a selection without reckoning how they are to live before they receive out 
of the land any sufficient return for their labours. Meanwhile they must 
live ; they cannot go without bread and the necessaries of life ; and for 
them they go into debt at the " store " at the nearest township, and in due 
time their all is mortgaged to the storekeeper there. Even their crops 
.are often forestalled ; the storekeeper is a miller, perhaps ; he thus gets 
his corn for flour-making at the lowest price, and sells it as flour to the 
free selector himself at the retail price, having taken out of it the miller s 
share as well. It is not the free selector who is enriched by this, but a 
few shrewd men of business in the neighbouring towns. Such is in 
reality the position of many free selectors, and obviously they are not in 
a position to help largely towards the Clergy Stipend Fund, nor are many 
of them so inclined, for they have often lived long and far away from the 
outward means of Grace in the Christian Church. And since they left 
home they or their fathers, or both, without any clearly defined religious 
principles, as untaught they came to the colony, so, untaught they settled 
down, and to remain untaught ; to remain in a state of dreary, dim, 
indefinite Christianity that is with many the desire now. So that they 
are Protestants, that is sufficient ; thoughts of the value and responsibility 
of having means of Grace to serve God truly in this life, are scarcely 
>entertained. 

Another difficulty, almost unintelligible, until put before your mind, is 



Mission Field,"! tt <? rn tfp rpf l ^Jipp-h" r>T T 

July i.isso. J meaner ea ^neep. 215 

the manner in which free selectors are scattered up and down the land, 
according to no wisely-arranged system of peopling the country, but 
simply on the plan of permitting people freely to choose the best of the 
land anywhere. None but those who have to minister to them can tell the 
labour, amounting almost to practical impossibility, of overtaking the work. 
Often these selectors have chosen their land off the main road, or rather 
" track," four or five miles ; they are thus too far away from any church to be 
led to public worship there ; their very existence may for long be unknown 
to any curate ; the nearest room of any size is possibly a schoolroom, and 
that a government building, which cannot be used for religious worship. 
And as for the station, or the run on which the free selector has set 
himself down, with many it is enough that Divine worship is to be held 
there, to prevent them from attending. 

And again, if a clerygman can only rarely visit such persons, or is not 
aware of their presence, when the stipend collectors ask for help, it is 
often refused with the answer, " I never see the parson ; " while if they 
are sick, or sickness is in their houses, or they have dead to be buried,, 
or children to be baptized, or wish for the sanctification of marriage, they 
will expect the Church of England minister to come at their bidding, and 
make no offering of any kind, either personal or to the Stipend Fund. I 
will mention an instance or more of this, as told to me by a clergyman 
who started in his cure with the expression of a wish that no one should 
offer him any direct remuneration for his offices. In one journey through 
his parochial district he married several couples ; of them all only one 
sent any contribution to the Stipend Fund, and then only ten shillings, 
In no part of the colony is the fee for a marriage under twenty shillings. 
In another case a clergyman was summoned to ride thirty miles to officiate 
at a funeral, and no offering was made. I do not, however, mean to say 
that that kind of treatment is general, but it does happen so at times ; 
and, as a rule/ my experience teaches me that they who subscribe the 
least, are the persons who make complaints, and have least idea of the 
labours of a clergyman in a vast district. 

And what is a parochial district in the colonies ! is it like an English 
parish, even of the largest area ? Certainly not. In the diocese of 
Grafton and Armidale, there are cures extending over seventy miles from 
the curate s residence in one direction, and in another over forty miles. 
In that area you may travel all day and scarcely see a soul, save, per 
haps, some poor German shepherd, with his umbrella under his arm, and 
possibly a dray or two drawn by from twelve to fourteen bullocks, or ten 
horses. The population is about 2,000 or 2,500 souls at most. Over such 
a country has the curate to move, day by day, winter and summer, all 
seasons, cross creeks and rivers, up and down gullies, to look at which in 
a carriage would scare most English people, but which Australian horses 
and drivers and the irrepressible buggy descend and mount without 
any more hesitation than just to look to see what s at the bottom. 

Speaking of this kind of work, it may be of some interest to tell of an 
adventure that befell myself in the western part of my diocese some 
years ago. I had arranged a tour altogether about 1,800 miles long, and 
guided only by maps, had sent notice to every station that I intended to 
visit. Towards the end of the journey, I had crossed a river called the Bar- 
won at about midday ; not a sign was there then of any flood, nay, the 
river was said to be lower than usual, nor could any flood be fairly ex 
pected, inasmuch as there had been no rain beyond thunder showers for 
weeks. We travelled that day twenty-four miles only, to a station called 
Goangera, which is situated on the edge of a river which enters the river 



? T A SWtf/ V r Mission Field, 

2 1 4 7" ne J L J uly 1, 1880. 

Barwon at Walgett. To my amazement, when I reached the station I 
found that the river was bank high, and from that station all my work 
was on the opposite side of this swollen river. Should I give up my ap 
pointments, and take my way on the side of the river on which I was, letting 
the flood be my apology t If not, how should I get across ? After Divine 
service and sermon with administration of Holy Baptism, a council was 
held, and as Australians are not easily beaten when they determine to do 
anything, sundry hearty young men promised me that if I would meet 
them at a fixed place up the river next morning, they would see if they 
could not get me and my belongings over to the other side. Accordingly 
I rnet them at the spot appointed ; the river was not falling yet, and was 
therefore still bank high, and we were to get horses and buggy and our 
selves over to the other side. Now for the operation. Horses un 
harnessed, buggy dismantled, pole, lamps, harness, cushions, &c., with 
Bishop put into a canoe (i.e. a pine-tree scooped out, fore and aft alike) : 
by a galvanized iron rope, fastened to a tree on each side, we were enabled 
to keep up against the stream, and land safely on the opposite shore. 
Next came the horses ; they are gently moved into the water, held by a 
halter, and swim across, getting out where they can. And now for the 
buggy. Having taken out the pole, and fastened an empty cask to the 
upper part of the carriage, a strong rope is attached to the front axletree, 
and the end carried across to the other side ; the buggy is gently let down 
into the river, while the strong fellows on the opposite side by main force 
pull the whole concern through the flooded river. It should be seen to 
be properly appreciated. Gradually the carriage disappears beneath the 
stream. Shall we ever see it again? Will it be kept at the bottom 
awhile by some " snag, J or be carried away in the flood? No ; there it 
comes happily out of the stream, wet and well washed ; and after a good 
overhauling to see if all be sound, horses are harnessed, friends are 
thanked, and off we go on our way again. But it may be asked, whence 
did all this water come? It all came from the New England country, 
where there had been rain in excess three weeks before, and the drainage 
thence had just reached this point in the Mamoi River. It will be 
scarcely necessary to say that clergy, being sometimes over-bold, lose their 
lives in endeavouring to keep their appointments during rainy seasons. 
There is one useful rule to observe in crossing flooded rivers on horse 
back, viz., never to have your feet in your stirrups while you are crossing. 
The process of getting the buggy across the river was gone through three 
times in two days on the River Mamoi ; as the sun was beginning to run 
high the horses were not chilled, nor did the buggy take long to dry. 



SYDNEY. 

MOORE COLLEGE. 

A" great improvement" has lately taken place in Moore 
College ; some passages from the annual report of the Prin 
cipal of which we append : 

" From the foundation of the college its domestic arrangements have 
been in the hands of the Principal, he receiving all fees and being re 
sponsible for the food and service of the college. Though such an 
arrangement was but natural in days when there was no college buildings 
and but few students, it was felt that it would now be better for all if such 



Mission Field, "I A/Tnnr/ C nlJpo P V T C 

juiyi, 1880. J ivioore Lfffuegc. 215 

a change were made as would relieve the principal of this part of his 
duties, and accordingly in July last a steward was appointed. The 
steward has performed his duties up to this date satisfactorily. 

" Besides this I have exercised my own judgment very largely as regards 
the course of studies and the examinations. As in past years so now 
also it has been found difficult to obtain a high standard of scholarship 
from the students, and although I trust that this college may never put 
theological learning above depth of spiritual life, yet as it has been the aim 
of my predecessors to raise the standard of the education of the students, 
so it has been mine also. 

" As one means to this, I have established an uniform entrance examin 
ation. This promises to be beneficial, and though at present easy, will at 
least be a stepping-stone to that period when it shall be necessary for every 
student who desires to obtain the College Hood to have passed the 
University matriculation examination, or an examination equivalent to it. 

"I have also somewhat altered the plan of other examinations in the 
student s course. It has been necessary hitherto for a student to pass the 
examination at the end of every term, or at least the examination at the 
end of his last term. There will henceforth be two examinations, and 
two only, which must be passed before the Hood is granted one at the 
end of the student s first year, the other at the end of his second year. 
The second examination is divided into two parts, one for the pass, the 
other for honours. 

" I once hoped that many of the students would be able to try for the 
examination that has done so much to laise the standard of the English 
Theological Colleges, viz. : The Cambridge Preliminary Examination of 
Candidates for Holy Orders/ but I fear that the time taken in the trans 
mission of the examination papers, of the candidates answers, and of 
the results, will prevent any large use being made of this examination. 
If some scheme of examination could be agreed upon by all the 
Australian dioceses, and the subjects published for a year or two years in 
advance, such a plan would, I conceive, afford largely the same advantages 
as the English scheme, and would tend to raise the standard of theo 
logical education among the clergy. 

"To turn to the buildings of the college. At the beginning of the 
year the buildings of the college were repaired as far as funds would 
allow, and in the end of the year all necessary repairs were finished . Three 
new and convenient rooms have been built for the steward and servants. 

" Five new students have been admitted during the year. In the Lent 
term there were twelve students, in the Michaelmas term there were 
also twelve. In the Michaelmas term there were, besides, two others 
entered on the college books who had come to prepare for the entrance 
examination. This they passed in November. 

" Seven students have been ordained deacons." 

We venture to remind the authorities of Moore College that 
students in Calcutta and in Madras have found distance no obstacle 
to their offering themselves for the Cambridge Preliminary Exami 
nation. In the present year four natives of India were submitted 
to the examination from the Society s Theological College at Madras, 
of whom one obtained a first-class, and his companions were placed 
in the second. And these gentlemen had the additional difficulty of 
acquiring the English language. 



fMission Field, 

L July lt j^ 



BRISBANE. 

WORK AMONG THE ISLANDERS AND CHINESE IMMIGRANTS. 

BISHOP HALE has reason to believe that much good has. 
resulted from the publication of his two pamphlets on the 
Church Fund of the diocese, and the unchristian treatment of the 
Chinese immigrants by the general population, portions of which 
have been already embodied in our magazine. He is still earnest 
in his efforts for the " stranger" as well as for his own countrymen 
committed to his charge. The following passages occur in a letter 
written at the beginning of the year : 

" I take the opportunity of mentioning two matters which I am sure 
will interest you our work with the islanders at Maryborough, and a 
little work which we are commencing with the Chinese. 

" You have already been informed of the origin of the movement at 
Maryborough, and of its progress to a certain stage. I am happy to tell 
you now that I again visited Maryborough at the end of August, Bishop 
Stanton (to my great happiness and advantage) being with me. The 
extremely beautiful new church, which has been erected at a cost of about 
6,ooo/., all paid, was consecrated upon that occasion, and about thirty 
more islanders were baptised. Mr. Holme, the clergyman of Mary 
borough, and I, have felt very much the responsibility of baptising these 
men in considerable numbers, and we have had our misgivings as to- 
the light in which this action of ours might be regarded by Bishop 
Selwyn and Mr. Codrington ; but the men have been so earnest in their 
desire to become Christians, and have been so exemplary in their conduct, 
that we have felt that, whatever others might think of our proceedings,, 
our duty to God and to these poor men was plain, and we dared not refuse 
to baptise them. Under these circumstances it has been to us a source of 
great happiness to have received from Bishop Selwyn an expression of 
his hearty approval. Mr. Holme, writing to me about two months ago, 
says, I had a very kind letter from Bishop Selwyn the other day. He 
speaks with great gratitude of the help we are giving him in Maryborough. 
He says he will pay us a visit as soon as he can. And, in the meantime, 
he wants a register of all the boys whom we have baptised : that he may 
endeavour to find them out and look after them. Mr. Holme then goes 
on to say, Only to-day a Maryborough man sent a message to me. He 
has just returned from the islands. He says he had seen numbers of our 
boys on the islands ; and they were all asking most eagerly after their 
teachers and the work here. This is a man to whom I had never spoken, 
and who had never been to church. 

" You will, no doubt, be much pleased to hear also that we have now in 
Brisbane a small beginning of a Chinese Mission. 

" The catechist, Ah Chee, was trained for his work in the diocese of 
Melbourne. He has been with us about six months. He had some little 
difficulty at first in getting a footing amongst his countrymen. But he 
has, I think, fairly got that footing now, and I have great hope that God s 
blessing will rest upon his work, and give it good success. I inclose 



Sf ] North Queensland. 217 

Ah Chee s own report. On the occasion of my visit to his little conven 
ticle, I heard him address his countrymen. He did it with great ease and 
fluency, and his hearers were remarkably attentive. I also spoke to them, 
and he interpreted with great readiness. His salary is ioo/. per annum, 
and we pay his house rent and find him his few articles of furniture. 
Believing that your usual kind grant will be continued to us, I propose, 
from this time, to devote 5o/. of the same to this Chinese Mission." 



NORTH QUEENSLAND. 

GENERAL STATE OF THE DIOCESE. THE BEGINNING OF BETTER 

THINGS. 

THE BISHOP wrote, on November 6th, from on board ship. 
on his way to open a district at Cairns and Port Douglas 
the people having, in anticipation of his visit, subscribed the 
money for a church. With regard to the general condition of the 
diocese, he says : 

"Nothing exists worthy of Church organisation at least, did not 
exist when I arrived. Seven isolated congregations, with clergy under 
the direction of a Bishop fifteen hundred miles distant, alone occupied 
Church ground. The Church work has begun, and is progressing vigor 
ously. By the end of this year two new churches will have been built and 
consecrated at Mackay and Ravenswood, and that at Townsville greatly 
enlarged and improved. I am very strict as regards these new churches, 
and allow no grant from the proposed General Fund without having been 
shown the plans. Churches out here are the ugliest erections you can 
conceive something between a barn and a log-house. I insist on a 
chancel and proper appointments. The Church must teach these people 
the alphabet of Church life and worship and work. The Townsville 
c hurch will soon be admirable. The choir used to squeeze themselves into 
a corner near the west door now they sit in choir stalls. They had no 
notion of chanting now they render the Psalms antiphonally, and enjoy 
better worship, Hitherto Presbyterianism has caused marriages to be 
celebrated in private houses now they come into the church ; though the 
blunders the people make in their utter ignorance of Church services are 
egregious. 

" Let me tell you what I have done in the subdivision of parishes. A 
very serious drawback has arisen from the long absence of the clergy 
from their churches while on bush travels among the cattle stations. I 
have mapped off four large bush districts, and hope soon to place at least 
four clergy on them. These bush travels can be taken for about seven 
months of the year, and at their expiration the itinerating clergyman will 
come to one of the parish churches as curate. This arrangement will 
provide ministrations for the bush, will strengthen town charges during 
the hot and wet months, when a second clergyman is needed, and will 
refresh the Missionary himself by giving him a share in more ornate and 
regular services than the bush affords. 

" Soon I must earnestly undertake something for the education of the 

NO. CCXCV. Q 



f Mission Field, 

[ July x> 1880< 

sons and daughters of our better class. The Roman Catholics are vigor 
ously at work opening boarding-schools everywhere. The Church here 
has been a poor, feeble instrument not a living Power as the Body of 
Christ. I long for better things. The Church is making headway, and 
I am intensely thankful for it. Our confirmations have been large, and 
most candidates have become regular communicants. These are our 
future hearty Church people, and they will be a better race. 

" I told you of our daily service for children. It is a wholesome 
corrective to the secular teaching of our state schools. Without knowing 
exactly, there cannot be less than a thousand children attending these 
morning prayers and teachings." 



MELBOURNE. 

THE GIPPS LAND FOREST. 

THE summary of a year s work of the Gipps Land Forest 
Mission, forwarded by the Rev. S. Sandiford, from Bulu- 
Bulu, in April, is full of encouragement ; and that Mr. Sandiford is 
the right man for the position in which he finds himself, will be 
gathered from the cheery strain in which he writes, notwithstanding 
the many difficulties with which he has to contend, some of which 
are amusingly described at the end of his letter : 

" Looking on the past I am thankful to be able to say that Church work 
has increased in a wonderful way, and that success has been granted 
more than any one could have expected. Looking forward, if the same 
progress is made, there is a brilliant prospect for the Church in Gipps 
Land Forest. At the beginning of the year all was uncertain ; now men 
have come together, and, with heart and hand, have helped the Church 
along. I give to God all the praise. 

" It is difficult to place on paper, so as to be understood by English 
readers, the work as it was and to what it has increased. In a district, 
forty miles by thirty, there were three places where services were held. 
The district now, in round numbers, is fifty miles by fifty. There are 
twelve places where we hold services, and in a week or two the number 
will be sixteen. These services are regularly held either weekly or 
fortnightly, and only at one place is the time between service so long as 
a month. The average number of services on Sunday, now, is nine. 
The Rev. J. R. Walker has been appointed as helper in the district, 
and will have a portion, extending from the railway to the sea, under his 
charge. Mr. Wilcox, a licensed reader, has his work more especially in 
the eastern portion of the district, though we change as the nature of the 
services demand. It is owing to the liberality of the Bishop in council 
that the services of Mr. Walker and Mr. Wilcox are secured. With 
these earnest workers I trust that even more progress will be showing 
during the year. 

" Since my last report we have built and opened a church at Drorun ; 



] Gipps Land Forest. 2 1 9 

I believe I stated in my last the intention to build, if possible ; now the 
work is done. From the day that we all went into the Forest, with axes 
and saws, and cleared the ground, no difficulty has been experienced. 
That day s work kindled the enthusiasm which has brought us through. 
The church will hold one hundred. It is neat outside and looks like a 
church. Narrow lights, three on each side, and a Thriber window in the 
east. Inside, I am pleased to say, it looks better, though not yet quite 
finished. The chancel is well. raised, and with the altar cloth, neat 
dorsal, and handsome rail, gives quite the appearance of what a church 
ought to be. Perhaps it may be interesting to some to know how we got 
together the church furniture. The first portion of the church was the 
organ, which we got on time payment. Then when the building went up, 
Mrs. Woodhouse kindly sent a altar-cloth, worked by herself, and also 
the material for the dorsal. Then several parishioners followed. The 
polished cedar rail, the black wood reading-desk, the font, a Christmas- 
box from Bulu-Bulu (being the collection on Christmas morning), a cedar- 
chair, lamps, communion linen, matting. In fact, the gifts of the people 
have been many and useful. Every one helped, and the church (Christ 
Church) at Drorun stands a monument of earnest work to the Glory of 
God. To myself the time of building was especially an anxious time. 
I took the responsibility of drawing the plans, and to prove whether the 
church would be what it ought to be when erected was a weight on my 
mind. The work is done, and thank God we can write success after it. 
The Dean of Melbourne kindly came and opened the church, on January 
1 8th, when a congregation of one hundred and sixty were crowded into 
the building. This week we had the privilege of a visit from the Bishop 
and Mrs. Moorhouse. These visits always leave their mark behind 
them. Men are ashamed of their coldness in the cause of Christianity 
when they listen to the burning words of the bishop. He is a tower of 
strength to the Church. 

" My report would be incomplete if I did not mention the Sunday- 
schools, which are now beginning to be organised. This will form an 
important part of our future work. Mr. Willcox, at Waterloo, has 
succeeded in establishing a Sunday-school and a weekly Bible-class. 
Trafalgar, Bungrip, Drorun, have followed in the same line, and now 
wherever we begin Church services, a Sunday-school is one of the first 
things. 

" The work for the future will be building up the already collected 
congregations. A network of centres has been established, and though 
we w shall have to extend this system down to the Bass River and sea- 
coast, yet our work will be to keep together the people, and infuse into 
them the principles of true religion. Trusting to the guidance and 
blessing of the Head of the Church, we are prepared to go down unto 
the year 1880, and hope that from quarter to quarter an increasing work 
may be reported. In my next, all well/ I hope to give a sketch of 
the settlers life in Gipps Land. I may here briefly describe what a 
clergyman has to do on a Sunday, when morning service is held six or 
seven miles from home. In the early morning he has to be up and out 
looking for the horses no slight matter when the paddock is 140 acres, 
and full of scrub and forest trees. When they are found, then comes the 
difficulty of catching them. You catch the easy one, mount him, bare 
back, and round the whole mob of horses into the stockyard, catch the 
horses you want, groom and feed them. When all is ready, a start is 
made for the first service, six miles away. When that is concluded, off 
nine miles to an afternoon service then home five miles, change horses, 

Q 2 



220 Melanesia. 

and away to evening service six miles distant, and after that is over ride 
home. This is one of my rounds. Another illustration. A start is made 
walking to morning service, three miles, then a walk of seven miles to 
an afternoon service ; then a walk of five and a half miles to evening 
service finishes the day. And if an English clergyman can imagine this 
walk in the sun at 140, and three services with the glass at 100 or 
105, he will have some idea of the work in the Gipps Land Forest." 



MELANESIA. 

BISHOP SELWYN AT NORFOLK ISLAND. - THE CHURCH IN FIJI. 
MELANESIAN REPORT. - BISHOP S JOURNAL. 

ADVICES from Fiji, dated January 7, 1880, speak of a report 
brought by the mail steamer from Sydney to Levuka, which 
touched at Norfolk Island on her way, that the inhabitants of that 
island were nearly at the end of their provisions, no vessel having 
come to them for four months, and that Bishop Selwyn had been 
very ill from intermittent fever. Bishop Selwyn, however, writing 
on the loth of January, does not refer to these circumstances, but 
would seem in good spirits and full of hope. He says : 

" With regard to the year 1879, I can write with much thankfulness. 

"The most noteworthy events are (i) beginning of a real stir among 
the people of Florida in the Solomon Islands, mainly through the efforts 
of a young native catechist. Through much opposition he has won his 
way, has a great hold on the people, and has presented upwards of 
thirty well-taught catechumens for baptism during the past year. 

" On my return from England I was able to hold confirmations in the 
Banks Islands, at which some of the old men whom Bishop Patteson 
baptised were confirmed. 

"I have to report far greater steadiness in our various schools under 
their native teachers. Of forty new scholars whom we brought up this 
year twenty-eight could read fairly well ; and as these are from many 
islands, we hope that the school system is working its way well. And I 
have to thank God for a greater appreciation among the young men of 
the object for which they are taught. Men from Mota and Ara volunteer 
without hesitation for work in distant islands. One native deacon is 
stationed from Mota, on the Torres Islands, and I sailed from that 
island with sixteen people who had volunteered to go to stations on other 
islands. 

" On Norfolk Island itself I have to report the use, though not the 
formal opening, of our beautiful chapel. The subscribers to the Patteson 
Memorial Fund would, I think, be gratified if they could see how com 
pletely the building they have raised to his memory fulfills the aspiration 
of his life. The awe-struck, reverent behaviour in it shows how the beauty 
of holiness is teaching the natives. And the chapel is beautiful. Nothing 
that they have ever seen can approach it in beauty and fitness for its use. 
The west window has only just arrived, and has to be fitted, and the organ 



Mission Field,"! EY// ,, T 

July 1,1880. J W 1 * 221 

to be put up. We shall have to defer its consecration till the end of the 
year, when (D.v.) I shall hope to be able to send a full account of the 
services for the Mission Field. Meanwhile let me thank the Society for 
this glorious gift to us, and may we ask its prayers that our words may 
carry on the teaching which the building we speak in most assuredly 
gives. I forgot to mention that we began our regular services in it with 
the Holy Communion on Christmas Day." 

Although Bishop Selwyn looks upon Fiji as hardly an integral 
portion of his diocese, the interest he has shown in it will justify the 
insertion here of a passage of much interest from a letter of Mr. 
Alfred Poole, who arrived at Levuka in October last, as helper to 
the Rev. W. Floyd. 

"The scenery and climate of the South Pacific has not been exaggerated 
by those who have described it in their visits. The scenery is bold, 
rugged, and abrupt, and everywhere covered, precipice, gorge, and 
beach, with a luxurious and rank vegetation, from the long grass on the 
mountain-top to the banana plantain and cocoa-nut tree by the sea-shore. 
I think most visitors to Fiji will be equally astonished with myself 
to find here a church founded and in living organisation without any 
extraneous aid. 

" The Church of the Redeemer (for so it is named) has a complete 
attendance, i.e. being quite full, and capable of accommodating some 
250 souls. There is a well-ordered and devout service, the singing being 
assisted and carried out by an entirely voluntary surpliced choir and 
organist, who have bestowed considerable pains to arrive at their present 
state of efficiency. The Sunday-schools are very well-ordered, well-attended, 
and the scholars respectful and attentive in their behaviour. 

" I am sure much is due to the patient and silent working for so many 
years of the Rev. W. Floyd, who, without clerical help, has maintained the 
Church s position against opposition and pressure brought to bear from 
an opposing sect, and to maintain an episcopal place of worship for our 
people in what until lately was a foreign land." 

The following is an abstract of the Report of the Melanesian 
Mission for 1879, which appeared in the Church Gazette of Auck 
land, of March ist. For more detailed accounts of the work, and 
a variety of those anecdotes which so much brighten the pages of 
Missionary narrative, we must refer our readers to the new number 
of the Island Voyage, which is even more than usually replete with 
interest : 

"The year 1879, if it has been marked by no very striking events in 
the history of the Mission, is yet one in which we may humbly thank 
Almighty God for many blessings, and especially for the faithful and 
earnest work generally shown by the native clergy and teachers at their 
respective stations. 

" Aiming, as the Mission does, at the training a class of men who shall 
be fit, morally and intellectually, to be the teachers of their own country 
men, any evidence which goes to prove that the men now engaged in 



222 Melanesia. 

its service are rising more and more to a sense of the high duty which 
lies before them, is most helpful, alike to those who are directly in charge 
of the work, and to those who support the operations of the Mission. 
Such evidence this year has given us in abundance. Coming to the work 
after a year s absence, the Bishop could see an advance in many places 
so decided as to be almost startling ; and he was also impressed with the 
far more earnest tone and greater capacity which was shown by nearly all 
the teachers and clergy throughout the islands. 

" One fact alone may show that the native schools are beginning to 
exercise an extensive influence. Of the forty new scholars who were 
brought up from the various islands visited this year, no less than twenty- 
eight could read fairly well, and most knew the Creed and the Lord s 
Prayer, many the Ten Commandments also. 

" Another most cheering and hopeful sign is the readiness evinced by 
the converts of the Banks Islands, not only to stay and work in their 
own islands, but to volunteer for work on other islands some of these^at 
a considerable distance. Thus when the Southern Cross left Mota she 
had on board no less than twelve such volunteers for Lakona, in the 
same group, Maewo and Araga, in the New Hebrides. In addition to 
these, Mota furnishes teachers for three stations on the neighbouring 
island of Vanua two for Santa Maria, and a native deacon and assistant 
for the Torres Islands ; while Ara, a little island of 100 souls, sends men 
to Vanua Lava (two stations), Ureparapara, and Merilava. 

" In the north again, the island of Florida, as will be seen in the detailed 
report, is showing great signs of life, and this mainly through the energy 
and courage of one young man, Charles Sapibuana. In the face of 
opposition and threats, and with a single-hearted trust in God, he has 
gathered round him a body of hearers in what is rapidly becoming a 
Christian village. During the past year he was able to present upwards 
of thirty candidates for baptism. The same may be said, though in a 
less degree, of the work of Capel Oka, in Bugotu (Ysabel Island}. 
Working cordially with the converted chief of his place, Capel has 
gathered round him a large village, the inhabitants of which have built a 
most excellent schoolhouse, where they assemble together, and from 
whence a considerable number have been baptised ; and who, while living 
at peace with their neighbours,yet prove that Christianity has raised their 
self-respect by being the only village which has not cowed down before 
the head-hunters of the north, whose attacks they have constantly 
beaten off. 

" One other cause of great thankfulness remains, and that not the 
least. The Bishop in his visit to England was enabled to spread a 
knowledge of the Mission s work, and to elicit interest and support in 
many quarters. 

"In answer to an appeal put forward in the Island Voyage for 1878, 
three young men the Rev. A. Baker, of Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; the 
Rev. D. Ruddock, of Lichfield Theological College ; and Mr. S. W. 
Chettle, volunteered to join the Mission. The latter, however, finding 
the work unsuited to his capacity, has, with the advice and consent of the 
Bishop, resigned ; his place has been filled by the advent of Mr. and 
Mrs. Kaye, who joined at the beginning of 1880. Thus the Mission is 
now more strongly manned than it has ever been before with European 
workers, and with the Divine blessing will be correspondingly more 
efficient. In all cases it has been found that the work of native teachers 
is the most feasible way of teaching native populations, but these at 
present_ need the wider experience of the white man to organise and 



f-I Bishops Journal. 223 

consolidate their efforts hence the necessity of a complete European 
staff for the efficient working of the Mission system. 

" In addition to the men thus obtained, a lady gave the Bishop the 
munificent sum of i,ooo/. to provide a smaller vessel, in which he hopes 
to be able to visit more systematically the different stations of the native 
teachers. She will not in any way supersede the Southern Cross, but 
rather, by acting as tender to her, enable her to perform more efficiently 
her work of carrying the scholars to and from Norfolk Island ; while, at 
the same time, the Bishop will be freer to spend more time where he finds 
his presence required than is now allowed him in the necessarily hurried 
visits of the Southern Cross. 

"A further sum was also subscribed to provide a new auxiliary engine 
for the Southern Cross. This is now being built by Messrs. Maudsley 
and Co., and will, it is hoped, materially add to her efficiency, while not 
increasing the cost of working her. 

"While mentioning the more recent aid thus afforded to the Mission, 
the Bishop cannot refrain from thanking God for the comfort and strength 
afforded to him at the eve of his departure by the oldest and most 
steadfast of its supporters. The association which in 1841 sent forth his 
father from Eton with their prayers and alms to his work in New 
Zealand, and which supported him and Bishop Patteson with unwavering 
constancy, met on St. Barnabas Day last at Eton in undiminished 
vigour, to cheer and strengthen the son going out again to the same work 
a striking proof of the power of friendship when enlisted with all its 
sympathies in the work of Christ." 

EXTRACTS FROM BISHOP SELWYN S JOURNAL OF 1879. 

" The Southern Cross came in about a week after we arrived at 
Sydney. After her arrival we stayed at Sydney for a week, that the 
young men who had come up in her might see the wonders of civilisation, 
which they did, thanks to the kindness of many friends, most success 
fully. A young lady who walked on a tight rope at a circus, I think 
astonished them most. They thought her a puppet until she spoke, when 
one of them exclaimed, Why she^is not an image after all ! ; The printing 
of the evening papers, I think, ran her very close, especially in the minds 
of those who had been employed in the printing-office at Norfolk Island. 
The evenings were given up to many meetings, at which I must most 
gratefully acknowledge not only the sympathy which was shown to the 
Mission but also the very substantial aid which was given it. We 
finally sailed on August 26th, and took nearly a fortnight of very bad 
weather indeed to reach Norfolk Island, arriving on Monday, September 
8th. Here we experienced one of those troublesome delays for which 
Norfolk Island has got an unenviable notoriety. We were to sail on the 
day after, but put it off till the next morning. On that day it was blowing 
a hard gale, and the vessel was nowhere to be seen, nor did she appear 
till nine days afterwards. On September J 8th we sailed, and nothing 
occurred worthy of record till our arrival off Vate or Sandwich. Here I 
found the little vessel which had brought me up from Opathe year before, 
and was most warmly greeted by Mr. Chaffin, the owner. We called in 
at Havannah Harbour to leave letters for the Presbyterian Missionaries 
there, and 1 had the pleasure of personally thanking Mr. Macdonald, 
their Acting-Secretary of Synod, for the letter of condolence on my 
father s death, which they were good enough to send me. 

" Sunday, i%th. Anchored at Mae, and were warmly welcomed by the 
people. This was satisfactory, as Mr. Comins had had considerable 



224 Melanesia. 

difficulty when he left there last year, and we were not quite sure whether 
we should find his house existing. However, there it was, and everything 
in it exactly as he had left it, and the most anxious enquiries made by the 
guardian of the house as to the top of the filter, the only thing missing. 
It was pleasant to see the children s unfeigned delight at getting Mr. 
Comins back among them, which they testified by crowding round him as 
he walked, t Me they were afraid of, not, I hope, on account of my personal 
ferocity, but because I was the chief, and as such more or less * tapu. 

" I was also gladdened by a letter from one of our old lads, Valeia, 
who left me three years ago to go to Queensland, saying that he was 
coming back, and that he had no wish to desert his faith, but had run 
away partly because he was afraid of the chiefs, to whom he had tried to 
speak about their fighting, &c. 

" Altogether, Mr. Comins starts more hopefully this year than ever before 
at Mae, and will, I hope, be able to report progress at the end of this season, 

" October zndsaw us at Mota, where we found Mr. Palmer wonderfully 
well and busy, and with a good report of things in his district. Here we 
landed one of our elder teachers, lately married, and with him Mr, 
Codrington s magnificent wedding present a harmonium, which is to do- 
duty in the chapel. As everybody was there to meet us, we gathered 
together the people in the new chapel, inaugurated the new harmonium 
with a hymn or two, the owner playing, and then I said a few words to 
them of my English visit and the kindness I had received there, and the 
desire everywhere expressed to me to hear of the converts remaining 
steadfast in the faith. I first showed myself at Ara, and quite late in the 
evening at Pek, always one of the most cheering of our places, and not 
the least so now. A shout of greeting rang out in the still night air when 
they saw our signal, and they came hurrying down to the beach to wel 
come us. Here again I assembled the people and spoke for a few minutes 
of my English visit. 

" October i \th In at Maraw Sound and found the Conflict. She with 
the Danae had been trying to exact punishment for the murder and 
robbery of a white trader stationed there by Captain Fergusson. They 
had done but little, as the tribe had scattered in the inaccessible bush. 
The Danae had landed a party and burnt one of the villages. 

" This is the third murder that has happened lately in the district, and 
the people are beginning to think that a white man s life is of little value. 
This ought to be checked when the murder is undertaken for pure 
plunder. Traders and Missionaries take their lives in their hands and 
cannot expect men-of-war to be always looking after them. But it is in 
the interest of the natives themselves that fair trading should be en 
couraged ; and many of the traders deal very fairly, and therefore the 
act of a few unprincipled chiefs ought to be checked as far as possible. 
At the same time, if the men-of-war removed one or two of the traders 
who are doing great harm, even-handed justice would be done. I need 
say but little of my stay in the Florida group, as Mr. Penny s journal 
will go fully over that ground. Going round the island and picking up a 
boy or two here and there, I finally found him at Bugotu, on the Island 
of Ysabel. Here we spent three days, and found things going on fairly 
well. The young men had kept the school well together, and everything 
was in good order. But the main pleasure of our stay here was a visit 
we paid to Tega, a fortress on the hills of Mahaga, which was visited of 
old by Bishop Patteson. The chief here is a first-rate man, who has 
appropriately been baptised Samson, and is a tower of strength in the 
district. More than once he has beaten off the head-hunters who have 



Mission Field,! TTminluJu ? ? C 

July 1, 1880. J JIOIWIUIU. 22$ 

assailed his fortress, and his name has consequently drawn many to him 
under his protection. He works heartily with Oka, the teacher there, 
and with his people has erected the best school-house in the district, in. 
which a very fair school is maintained and simple teaching given. Oka 
was able to present six adults for baptism to Mr. Penny. Besides this 
there was a further class of catechumens under instruction. This is the 
more satisfactory as hitherto we have rather underrated Oka, and it is 
only since he has been on his own resources that his real power has 
come out. From Bugotu we went over to Savo to fetch one of our 
teachers, who will take charge of the Bugotu school, and got him, his 
wife and new-born baby off with considerable difficulty, as night was 
falling and there was a heavy sea. Next morning the aforesaid baby 
was baptised on board, and I have seldom seen a brighter look than that 
which spread over the young mother s face as she received her child 
back from my arms. 

" Friday, October 2$th, found us back again in Florida district, and we 
landed Gura at his own home to try and teach the people at Ravu. He 
is a near relation of Dikea the chief, and of much influence, so that I 
hope he will succeed. He is full of earnestness. 

" A little further on we were met by an urgent message from Takua,. 
Mr. Penny s chief and friend, to say that he was ill, so we landed to see 
him. He had retired from his usual abode to get away from his Tidalo 
(spirit), who, he thought, was angry with him, so I had rather a long tramp 
to find him, but was rewarded by the pleasure it gave the old man." 

(To be continued.} 



[HONOLULU. 

THE BISHOP S WORK. GENERAL PROGRESS. 

A SATISFACTORY account of the position of the Church in- 
this diocese comes from the Bishop, dated January 3rd. He 
thus concludes a report which contains much interesting matter : 

" I may point out that during the year I have confirmed forty-two- 
persons, twenty-five males and seventeen females, and our communicants 
have risen from 190 to 227, of whom 108 are Hawaiian and half-castes. 

" Two new stations are now being occupied. When the return of Mr. 
Davis to S. Kona, Hawaii, was determined on, and Mr. Sala, who was 
then in charge of that Mission, was set free to go elsewhere, a memorial 
was presented from the natives of Napoopoo, a village on Kearekekua 
Bay, the population of which is entirely native, asking that I would 
establish an English school amongst them. This opportunity of getting 
a footing for the Mission amongst an entirely native population has been 
seized. Mr. Sala opened school there in December. 

" At Kaneohe also, on the Island of Oahu, eight miles frDm Honolulu,. 
Mission premises are being erected, and before this reaches you an 
English school will have (D.v.) been opened under a young native 
teacher trained in my school in Honolulu. 

" During the last six months my spare time has been spent in trans 
lating hymns, and from the College Printing Press the sheets of a 
Hawaiian Hymn-book have been struck off as far as Hymn 150. The 
book, I hope, will contain when completed 250 hymns at least." 



226 " Confederation " in South Africa. [^f * gg d 

"CONFEDERATION" IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

THAT which our colonies in South Africa are so slow to adopt, 
even after the awful danger through which they have recently 
passed, the Church there has long been reaping the benefit of. The 
advantages of " Confederation " were recognised by her from the first, 
and since this strengthening of her stakes she has been enabled to 
lengthen her cords and to hold out the helping hand to her enlarged 
borders. Thus, we find a diocese giving up one of its most valued 
and honoured workers, one whom it can ill spare, in order that our 
most advanced outpost may not be left without a leader. At the 
call of three South African Bishops, and with the full consent and 
blessing of his own, Archdeacon Douglas McKenzie of Bloemfontein 
has resigned his Archdeaconry in that Diocese, and undertaken " the 
responsible work of reconstruction " in Zululand, at first as Vicar- 
General under the Metropolitan, but soon it is hoped to become its 
Bishop. 

The Mission was established in 1860, on a site at Kwamagwaza, 
given by King Panda. Five years later another site, twenty-four 
miles from the former, and known as St. Paul s, was given by Prince 
Cetywayo. A third station was founded at Etaleni in 1871 on land 
also given by Cetywayo, and in 1874 St. Andrew s was established 
on the Tugela River. In the same year two native converts were 
admitted to the Diaconate. For a short time before the formation 
of Zululand into a separate See, these Missions were united under 
Bishop Macrorie, who was consecrated in 1869 Bishop of the Church 
in Natal and Zululand. The following year saw the foundation of 
the diocese of Zululand as a memorial to Bishop Mackenzie (the 
sum of 5,ooo/. having been raised for the endowment by friends of 
the Bishop), to whom the Zulu people had always been of peculiar 
interest. Bishop Wilkinson, who was then appointed, was con 
secrated under the Act 5 Vic. Ch. 6, in London, as Bishop of the 
united Church of England and Ireland in Zululand, and in the 
country of the tribes towards the River Zambesi in Africa up to 26 
S. He resigned his charge in 1875, and after much delay the Rev. 
J. W. Alington undertook in 1878 the oversight of the diocese as 
Vicar-General. His death in October last deprived the Church of 
his faithful services, and it was again needful to find a head for the 
Mission. 

May the appointment of Archdeacon McKenzie prove another 



July ?, iS ] The Society s 1 7 <$th Anniversary. 227 

step towards the confederation of the vast races of the dark 
continent in one holy bond of truth and peace, of faith and charity, 
in the one fold of the Good Shepherd. 

" So, when the world shall pass away. 
May we awake with joy and say, 
Now in the bliss of endless day, 
We all are one. " 



THE SOCIETY S 179TH ANNIVERSARY. 

THE proceedings connected with the celebration of the 17 9th 
Anniversary of the Society commenced with a Service in the 
nave of Westminster Abbey, on the evening of Tuesday, June i5th, 
when the Sermon was preached by the Rev. Canon Butler, Vicar of 
Wantage, and the musical portion of the Service was undertaken, as 
in former years, by members of the Lay Helpers Association. Owing 
to the unfavourable weather, the congregation was smaller than is 
usual on such occasions, but a rich compensation awaited those who, 
in spite of a heavy rain and a cold wind, were present in the Abbey, 
for the Service was beautifully rendered, and the Sermon was an 
excellent exposition of St. Mark xvi. 15 and 16. This Sermon will 
be published by the Society, and it is hoped will be widely read. 

The Annual Sermon at St. Paul s Cathedral, on Wednesday, 
June 1 6th, was connected with the Afternoon Service at four o clock 
this return to the old custom of the Society being made in the hope 
that it would enable -a much greater number of its friends to be 
present. Had the weather been more propitious, there is good 
reason for believing that this hope would have been realised ; as it 
was, the congregation was larger than that of last year. 

An eloquent Sermon was preached by the Bishop of St. Alban s from 
St. Matthew xxiv. 14: "And this Gospel of the Kingdom shall be 
preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations ; and then 
shall the end come." 

The Annual Meeting was held in St. James Hall on the afternoon 
of Thursday, June i7th, and was largely attended. The Archbishop of 
Canterbury presided, and the meeting was addressed by the Right 
Hon. the Lord Viscount Cranbrook, the Hon. C. L. Wood, the 
Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Rangoon, the Right Rev. R. K. 
Kestell-Cornish, Missionary Bishop in Madagascar, the Ven. Douglas 



228 The Society s 17 <)th Anniversary. RSyT.im 

McKenzie, Archdeacon of Harrismith, and Vicar-General of the 
Diocese of Zululand. The following Report was read by the 
Secretary : 

"For two successive years the Society has had to announce with regret 
that the pecuniary resources entrusted to its stewardship have fallen off. 
Last year the Treasurers reported that the gross income of the Society for 

1878 had sunk to 145,0007. as against 148,0007. in 1877, and the total for 

1 879 must now be announced as having reached only to the sum of 1 3 1 ,6747. 
This decrease, however, is not so serious as it appears, inasmuch as legacies 
and special funds, and particularly the responses made from time to time 
to the Society s appeal for urgent but temporary needs, such as the South 
Indian famine, necessarily affect the gross total and make its dimensions 
so to depend on accidental circumstances as not to be a true estimate of 
the power of the missionary spirit among its friends. The most painful 
fact is that the General Fund, in which not only the Society s support of 
the Colonial and Missionary Churches depends, but without whose exist 
ence the many Special Funds of 207 of which the Society s Treasurers 
are the Honorary Bankers would scarcely find scope for the expenditure 
of their means, has fallen off during the years 1878 and 1879 to the amount 
of i,2oo7. and 2,ooo7. respectively. 

" Doubtless it is true that in a year of much commercial and agricul 
tural depression as well as of political uncertainty and disturbance, even 
the Treasury of the Lord is not superior to the events which affect the 
affairs of ordinary life ; but it must be remembered that all charitable 
organisations have not suffered during the past year ; that the income of 
some departments of the Church s work has very largely increased, and 
it will be incumbent on the members of the Society to consider whether 
there may not be other and preventible causes for the decreasing sums 
which have been intrusted to its stewardship during the past two years, 
and if it be so to remedy the evil. 

" The Standing Committee are at the present time in communication 
with the Episcopal and other Vice-Presidents, the Diocesan Representa 
tives, of whom every diocese except London has now elected two, the 
Organising Secretaries, and other of the Society s friends on this subject, 
whose importance cannot be underrated when it is remembered that it is 
so closely connected with the Society s power for good. It may at least 
be claimed for the Society that if its income be all too limited, its ex 
penditure is so economically managed as to be spread over a very wide 
area. It is a marvel to me/ wrote the Bishop of Lahore when recently 
sending a liberal subscription to the Society, how it is possible for your 
Society to accomplish one-fourth of what it does in so many dioceses. 

11 During the past year the Society s General Fund has maintained 
wholly or partially 593 ordained Missionaries in fifty-three dioceses, and 
nearly 1,400 Catechists and Lay Teachers, mostly natives, and 259 students 
in theological colleges in foreign parts, the hope of the indigenous 
churches of the future. 

" The great feature in our Indian Missions within recent times has been 
the celebration of the centenary of the introduction of Christianity into 
Tinnevelly, when on January 2oth the Bishop of Madras, with his two 
Missionary suffragans and ninety native clergy, joined in a solemn 
celebration of the Holy Communion. Who can predict, said Bishop 
Caldwell on that memorable day, what the state of things will be in 
Tinnevelly in 1980 ? But it is useless to attempt to predict what may be 



Ss e o d> ] The Society s \iqth Anniversary. 229 

witnessed in so distant a future. That future is in God s hands, but 
hitherto we have always found that the future takes its rise out of the 
past. 

"The Theological College at Madras, under its able Principal, on 
whom his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury has recently conferred 
the degree of D.D., has submitted four native students to the preliminary 
theological examination at Cambridge, of whom one obtained a first class, 
and the other three appeared in the second class. Professor Westcott, in 
communicating the result of the examination, which, he says must be 
highly satisfactory to Mr. Kennet and to the Society, adds that it is a 
proof of excellent teaching, and of careful study on the part of the 
candidates. 

" The accessions from heathenism in South India still continue, in de 
creasing volume it is true, but in numbers quite as great as the Missionary 
staff can adequately provide for. In the last six months of 1879 I ^97 
persons thus offered themselves for Christian instruction. In Northern 
India the Mission of Delhi has received two more representatives of the 
University of Cambridge, and with Mr. Winter, now returned to the 
scene of his life s work, the Society s Mission in the ancient capital is a 
type of what it would wish all its Missions to be. The Society welcomes 
the prospect of Oxford sending its representative Mission to Calcutta, 
and only regrets the decision which has been arrived at, by which the 
Society is excluded from the privilege of giving to the undertaking more 
than sympathy. 

"In China the Society is thankful to state that a purely Missionary 
Bishopric is about to be established for the provinces of Shantung and 
Pe-che-li, towards the endowment of which an anonymous donor has 
contributed io,ooo/. 

f< In Africa the sad story of war and its effect on Missions has yet to 
be told. At present the Church is commencing to rebuild what war has 
destroyed, and in Zululand the prospect of the work does not seem to be 
brighter because of the influence which is exercised by Great Britain in 
that land. 

" The Australasian Church has lost the great and famous Bishop Tyrrell, 
whose unbroken Episcopal labours dated from 1847. He is succeeded by 
the Rev. J. B. Pearson, vicar of Newark, who was consecrated at 
St. Paul s on May 1st, 1880. From New Zealand the Society has now 
wholly withdrawn, and it is with much thankfulness that it points to the 
fact that its aid, first given in 1839 to a solitary colonial pastor, has 
now been with justice withdrawn from a province of six dioceses well 
able to provide for themselves, both in spiritual and in temporal things. 
The Gospel has literally been propagated in these islands ; the branches 
of the Mother Church have taken root and filled the land. 

" From the older Dioceses of North America the Society is annually 
withdrawing its assistance, but faster than adequate reductions can safely 
be effected claims on its funds are made by the rapidly opening districts 
in Rupertsland and the Saskatchewan. The Diocese of Columbia 
has been divided during the past year, and Bishops Ridley and Sillitoe 
respectively hold the sees of Caledonia and New Westminster. 

" The Continental Chaplaincies Committee have., with very insufficient 
funds, provided the comfort of Divine Service at many places on the Con 
tinent to which tourists resort, and have made provision for the ministra 
tion of the Church at Athens, Blankenberge, Caen, Darmstadt, Frankfort, 
Havre, Lisbon, Marseilles, Ostende, Patras, Spa, and Saxe Weimar. 

" To this brief summary of the past should be added the statement 



230 The Society s 17 qth Anniversary. ["jS^ Jm 

that every Mission to the heathen is crippled by the inadequate provision 
which the Society is compelled to make for its conduct ; that the wants 
of the Church abroad, which have been brought under the notice of the 
Society, and are admitted by it as legitimate object of its support if means 
were available, point to an additional expenditure during this year of 
I9,ooo/. ; that ten Bishoprics, unendowed and dependent, in eight in 
stances, on annual grants fron the Society s Treasury, require 57,700^ to 
secure to each the very moderate endowment of io,ooo/. ; that beyond all 
material resources the Church abroad needs the personal services of 
devoted men of liberal education and cultivated intellect. 

" For the attainment of these blessings, as well as for the grace of 
united counsels and brotherly concord at home, the Society calls upon 
the members and friends to strive and to pray." 

In the course of an eloquent speech, Lord Cranbrook said: 
"The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel is one which 
specially commends itself to Churchmen ; and what a Society like 
this wants is a permanent, paid, and dependable income. In 
every parish throughout the country Associations should be formed, 
and I would appeal to the Archbishop and the Bishops present that 
they should address the clergy in their several dioceses in such a 
manner as would lead them to advance the interests of this and 
kindred societies." 

The Hon. C. L. Wood dwelt upon the progress of Christianity in 
India and other eastern lands, and enforced the claims of the Society 
by urging that Missionary enterprise could alone save many of these 
regions from falling under the sway of Mohammedanism. 

The Bishop of Rangoon gave a most encouraging description of 
the success which has attended Missionary efforts in his diocese, 
which occupies 100,000 square miles, and comprises four distinct 
nationalities, speaking five or six different languages. 

Bishop Kestell-Cornish and the Ven. Douglas MacKenzie both 
delivered brief but highly interesting speeches, relating to their 
several spheres of labour. 

On Tuesday, June 2 9th St. Peter s Day the Anniversary of the 
Society will be observed by celebrations of the Holy Communion, 
in about 125 churches in London and its immediate neighbourhood. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 



arts have been received from the Rev. B. C. Choudhury and F. H. T. Hoppner of the 
ie of Calcutta , W. Howell of Labuan ; R. J. Mullins of Grakamstown ; T. W. Green 
John s ; W. H. B. Bevan of Bloemfontein ; G. H. Smith of Madagascar; W. Anderson 



Repor 
Diocese 
of St. Join , 

of Goulburn; S. Sandiford of: Melbourne; H. H. Brown of Auckland; W. M. Godfrey of 
Nova Scotia, and G. Ditcham of New Westminster, 



Mission Field,"] 
July 1, 1880. J 



Monthly Meeting. 



231 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
June 18, 1880, the Bishop of Carlisle in the Chair. There were also present 
Bishop Piers Claughton, the Bishop of Tasmania, F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., the 
Master of the Charterhouse, F. H. Dickinson, Esq., Sir C. Hobhouse, Bart., C. 
Raikes, Esq., C.S.I., Vice- Presidents ; Rev. B. Belcher, Rev. W. C. Bromehead, 
Sir W. Farquhar, Bart., Rev. W. Feetham, J. Floyer, Esq., M.P., T. Garfit, 
Esq., M.P., Col. Gillilan, Rev. H. T. Hill, Rev. J. F. Moor, Canon Randolph, 
Rev. Preb. Salmon, Rev. E. J. Selwyn, Gen. Tremenheere, Rev. R. T. West, 
W. Trotter, Esq., Members of the Standing Committee ; and the Rev. J. A. 
Boodle, J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. V. G. Borradaile, E. M. Browell, Esq., Rev. S. 
Arnott, J. W. Bennett, Rev. W. Calvert, F. J. Candy, Esq., Rev. W. L. B. 
Cator, T. Copeman, Esq., Rev. J. A. Cree, T. Cree, Esq., R. N. Cust, Esq., 
Rev. T. Darling, P. A. De Jessop, R. J. Dundas, J. J. Elkington, C. C. Ferard, 
Esq., Rev. Dr. Gee, C. J. Goody, O. Gordon, F. B. Gribbell, C Thomp 
son, Col. Hardy, E. G. Houndle, Esq., Rev. H. M. Ingram, Rev. Jamblin, 
B. Maitland, T. O. Marshall, Gen. Moberly, A. North, Esq., Rev. W. Panck- 
ridge, E. J. Randolph, J. Riddell, Esq., Rev. W. F. Satchell, W. E. Sharp, 
Esq., Rev. C. Slipperton, Thornhill Webber, A. Witherby, Esq., Rev. S. York, 
Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of the Society s 
Income up to May 31, 1880 : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

I. GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. II. APPROPRIATED FUNDS, 
administered by the Society. III. SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the Society, but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 



January May, 1880. 


i. 

Subscriptions, 

Donations, and 
Collections. 


2. 

Legacies. 


3- 

Dividends, 
Kenta, &c. 



1,768 


Total 
RECEIPTS. 


Total 
PAYMENTS. 


I. GENERAL .... 




12,421 




3,820 




18,009 




31,332 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


1,466 





1,936 


3.402 


3>8i6 


III. SPECIAL .... 
TOTALS . . 


13-538 





960 


14,498 


J 3,5 2 i 


27.425 


3,820 


4,664 


35,909 


48,669 



B. Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of May in five 
consecutive years. 



I. GENERAL 


1876. 


i8 77 . 


i8 7 8. 


1879. 


1880. 


i. Subscriptions, &c. . . . 


9-99 


11,459 


^11,351 


11,035 


12,421 

o 820 




I 880 


i 086 






I 768 














II. APPROPRIATED 


16,784 


19,367 


15.930 


16,359 
o 478 


18,009 


III. SPECIAL .... 




















>y 




TOTALS 


/ 2 - 8S- 




j:>2 o cS 


/^2 803 


jT 















3. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, the Rev. R. T. 
Davidson was elected a member of that Body. 



232 Monthly Meeting. 

4. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, authority was 
given to affix the Society s Seal (subject to the approval of the Society s 
Solicitors) to a Deed of Trust, or other Instrument by which the church 
at Edeyengoody ^hall be held in perpetuity for the use of members of 
the Church there. 

5. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, authority was 
given to affix the Society s Seal to a Deed transferring the Nova Scotia 
See Endowment Fund to the Bishop of Nova Scotia and the Diocesan 
Synod as new Trustees. 

6. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, a grant of 75/. 
was made to the Bishop of New Westminster for the passage and outfit 
of Mr. Blanchard, from the sum voted for Cassiar (New Caledonia) for 
the year 1880, which it was understood would not be required for that 
purpose this year. 

7. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, the capital 
sum and interest (zoo/. 3^ per cent. Metropolitan Stock), and also a cash 
balance of 5/. at present in the hands of the Society for the endowment 
of the Bishopric of Jamaica, was transferred to the Trustees of the 
Jamaica Bishopric Endowment Fund for investment in Jamaica. 

8. The Rev. H. J. Foss addressed the meeting on the work of the 
Society s Mission, with which he is connected, in Japan. 

9. The Bishop of Tasmania made a statement on the condition of his 
diocese. 

13. All the members proposed for Incorporation in April were elected 
into the Society. 

14. The following gentlemen were proposed for election in October : 

R. S. Bartleet, Esq., Redditch ; Rev. W. Sinclair, St. Stephen s, Westminster ; 
Rev. R. Digby Ram, Teddington, Middlesex; Rev. J. C. Wright, Walkern, 
Buntingford ; Rev. Jas. Phillips, Weston Favel, Northampton ; Rev. Henry 
Farley, Mapledurham, Reading; Rev. W. H. L. Cogswell, St. Oswald ?, 
Chester; E. W. Stock, Esq., I, New Square, Lincoln s Inn ; Rev. Horace L. 
Wood, Coalbrookdale, Wellington, Salop ; Rev. A. W. Gurney, Little Hereford, 
Tenbury ; Rev. J. B. Joyce, Coreley, Tenbury ; Rev. G. O. Pardoe, Hyssington. 
Churchstoke, Salop ; Rev. W. Brewster, Middleton, Chirbury, Salop ; Rev. 
John Cawood, Mamble, Bewdley, Salop ; Rev. C. S. Hagreen, Staunton Long, 
Much Wenlock ; Rev. Thomas Cross, Highley, Bridgnorth ; Rev. H. J. Ward, 
Morville, Bridgnorth; Rev. J. J. Peglar, Stow, Brampton Brian ; Rev. Henry 
North, Wentnor, Bishop s Castle ; Rev. J. G. Swainson, Waistanton, Craven 
Arms ; Rev. M. H. Ricketts, Knighton, Radnorshire ; Rev. W. H. Wayne, 
Willey, Broseley, Salop ; Rev. S. Boot, Monk Hopton, Bridgnorth ; Rev. E. 
Lloyd Edwards, Jackfield, Broseley, Salop; Rev. W. L. Jones, Billingsley, 
Bridgnorth ; Rev. J. A. Rawlins, St. Laurence, Reading ; George H. Jackson, 
Esq., Cumberland House, Beckenham ; Frederic Charlesworth, Esq., Widmore, 
Bromley. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



ftelb u % foorlb. Clje sub is ijje 3$tarb of <!0b. 




AUGUST 2, 1880. 



THE CAMBRIDGE MISSION AT DELHI. 

JHE Bishop of Lahore, after paying a visit to the brethren in 
Delhi, has written a bright and hopeful account of the 
work which they are doing, and which was largely pro 
moted by his lordship s sympathy and experience. The Bishop 
proposes in his letter of May 3ist that the Missionaries should 
engage in another department of subsidiary Mission work, viz., the 
training of the more educated young natives for the degree of B.A. 
As his lordship s letter refers to a previous communication, in which 
he set forth the desirableness of such work, it is necessary that 
that letter, dated December 4th, 1878, should also be given, and we 
think our readers will be glad to have before them the encouraging 
thoughts which Bishop French has placed on record. Mr. Winter s 
letter, no less full of cause for gratitude, follows in its place. 

" MIRZUFFURNAGAR, $isf May, i88o. 
" MY DEAR MR. TUCKER, 

" The Cambridge Mission Staff, now assembled at Delhi, under 
the Society s auspices, is exceptionally joined together as it seems to 
me in the same mind and in the same judgment in the approval of 
the things that are excellent. 

"The vacancy in poor dear Murray s quarters, in the early part of 
NO. ccxcvi. R 



234 The Cambridge Mission at Delhi. 

the year, allowed of my taking up my abode with them in their tem 
porary house outside the city, healthily situated on a slight eminence, 
but by present arrangements not easily admitting of such thorough 
ventilation as this hot season imperatively calls for. To this, I fear, 
must be partly attributed the feverish attack from which Bickersteth 
was suffering, somewhat severely, the two or three last days of 
my sojourn with them. I ought to say, however, that the weather 
was singularly trying : and that our dear brother is charged by his 
comrades with a little rashly exposing himself beyond the hour when 
the sun s rays may be endured with safety. The brethren are look 
ing out anxiously for a house and compound within the city walls, 
where greater freedom of access may be enjoyed by those who 
desire intercourse with them and instruction from them, and perhaps 
the private devotions on which they rightly set so much stress and 
value may be occasionally varied by some degree of publicity. 
They have been disappointed thus far in the results of this anxious 
search. Considering the severity and destructiveness of the fevers 
for which the city of Delhi, as well as some others in the Punjab, 
have been notorious the last two or three years, it may be advisable 
that their present house outside the city should be retained, and 
another secured within the city which they could occupy in relays, 
especially the stronger and more robust members of the Mission, 
the whole body uniting itself periodically for joint devotion and 
intercession. 

" The principal Mission works already taken in hand seemed to 
be as follows : 

" (i) Severely systematic study of the languages : with consider 
able success attained. 

" (2) Some hours devoted by the whole staff on alternate days to 
the Central High School, held in the heart of the city. 

" The behaviour of the students was exemplary, and the attention 
most intelligent ; in the morning I delivered a Hindostani address to 
the elder boys, of whom about one hundred were assembled for this 
purpose. 

" (3) You are aware also that the different congregations of 
chamars scattered through the various mahallas or municipal 
sections of the city are distributed among the members of the staff; 
and services held on Sunday and weekday evenings, in suitable 
rooms, until (as may be hoped) the growing numbers will require 
sacred buildings to be erected and set apart for the worship of God. 



SJs.wS? ] Division of Duties. 235 

Mr. Winter is not by any means satisfied with the devout spirit of 
the new converts, and their ready zeal in assembling themselves 
together for worship ; both in the case of the city congregations and 
the outlying flocks. I had the opportunity of addressing one of the 
former and two of the latter (those at Riwari and Mairolee), cele 
brating the Lord s Supper for about twenty communicants in each. 

" (4) Mr. Carlyon devotes himself in a most fatherly and quietly 
impressive manner to the little Christian boarding-school for boys, 
held in the compound, whose number must be close upon twenty, 
and which will probably have a large and steady growth. 

"(5) Most of the Mission staff are already able to take part in the 
public preaching in the famous Chandri Choak, which is the 
main artery through which the whole tide of social and public life, 
commerce, travel, and enterprise of all kinds pours itself along as 
it might have done in Ephesus or Corinth of old, with perhaps less 
of noise and obstruction, and more of brilliance of colour and 
variety of costume with streams of water not the sweetest, and 
leafy avenues, if not the most verdant, yet spreading a welcome and 
helpful shade over the Mission preacher. 

" (6) Add to this theological classes, yet in the germ, and which 
may become in process of time prominent characteristics of the work of 
the Cambridge Mission ; though I should prefer to see them taking 
a distinct line from that appropriated to itself by the Lahore 
Divinity School, and proposed for an affiliated institution at Benares. 

" (7) Courses of lectures for the educated youth of this part of the 
province are occupying Mr. Murray s attention largely at Simla, 
where I hope to help him shortly by fulfilling a part of the pro 
gramme he has assigned to me. 

" Thus much accomplished is something ; but I confess to be a 
little in danger of being dissatisfied until, by such a rare body of 
men sent forth under such eminent auspices, with so much prayer 
and expectation, something is taken in hand beyond the ordinary 
routine of our recognised Mission methods ; on this head I do not 
feel I ought to add much to what I have said before, except that 
possibly the time for action in the direction I indicated is rapidly 
passing away, and the opportunity may have slipped by without 
recall. 

" About two years ago, or rather less, the higher and richer classes 
in Delhi were indignantly reproaching Government for degrading 
their high class school which had acquired some well-earned fame, 

R 2 



236 The Cambridge Mission at Delhi. 

in which a staff of professors trained the elite of their youth for the 
higher University degrees to something more like a middle-class 
school ; making it compulsory for the more advanced students to 
complete their course elsewhere, at great cost, and with no such 
accommodation provided as our English universities supply. It was 
bitterly resented that in Delhi, which had been a kind of Athens, a 
capital in the realm of the highest literature of the land, the 
Government college should cease to be the source whence that higher 
knowledge, literary and scientific, should flow. In their distress, 
I am assured that they made overtures to the Mission to stand in the 
breach, and cause them to inherit the desolate heritages/ so far at 
least as to institute classes in which their ablest and most pains 
taking youth could be trained up to the point of the B.A. degree, in 
the proposed Lahore University, which is about to have its charter 
conferred upon it, to stand on a level with the Calcutta University ; 
partly, I presume, as a reward for the loyalty of the Sikh chiefs 
and army to the British Empire, and the valuable services they had 
rendered us in the mutiny, and Cabul, and elsewhere. 

"The probability, and almost certainty, is that from time to time 
the men of mark from the Mission schools in the Punjab and Sinde, 
as well as from the nearer cities of the north-west, would avail 
themselves gladly of the sound mental and moral training which the 
Cambridge Mission would offer. But, further, I believe that with 
the present deep-seated and instinctive objections which Hindoo and 
Mohammedan parents feel towards a secular education, some of the 
best of the Government college students would seek the higher 
instruction for the B.A. degree at their hands. In consequence of 
the delay which has already taken place in the settlement and 
announcement of plans, the leading razeeses (i.e. dignitaries), and 
merchants of the city have, perhaps at the instigation of Govern 
ment, collected among themselves some 5,ooo/. for the foundation of 
a Training College for higher University degrees. Some of the 
civilians also favour the idea, and it is said that the native chiefs of 
Rajputana are to be appealed to for large sums. It is possible that 
a bold and prompt resolute movement on the part of the Cambridge 
Mission might nip this in the bud, as nothing betokens as yet any 
widespread or popular enthusiasm in favour of the new plan ; but it 
might at any moment ripen into this, and then the complete secular 
ising of the higher education would be inevitable ; and I fear I have 
no great faith in the casual or irregular visits of one and another ot 



Influence of the Teacher in India. 237 

the Government students at the Mission House out of school hours 
The influence gained over a city or district by a class of wel 
qualified and sympathetic instructors is incalculable in India. The 
parents even more than the children, if possible, are linked by 
deepest bonds of respect, if not of affection, to those who in the 
true sense of the word educate their children. The guru, or teacher, 
among themselves is ranked among the deos, and is an object of 
worship. Now, though you do not wish this for your educational 
staff, yet you would be sorry to lose that reverential hold on the 
regard and affections of the people which would set the gates of 
many hearts ajar, at least, for the future entrance of the Gospel of 
salvation, and the word of truth. It will be a great and well- 
founded disappointment if what has been done by so many men of 
inferior calibre for so many years, should be adhered to as the main 
features of the programme of a body of men of such rare qualifi 
cations, and representing the Missionary enthusiasm of such a 
University as Cambridge, at a time when that enthusiasm is almost 
at its height. 

" It is most of all flocks that are wanted at present and not pastors : 
even if they were, Lahore and Benares are well able to supply 
them. Special classes for Christian youth as one of the depart 
ments of the High Training School for which I plead, would, if 
additional help were needed in that direction, more than supply it. 
Allnutt and Lefroy seem full of zeal and alacrity to take in hand 
such a work. Dear Bickers teth thinks the powers vested in them 
are inadequate for their committing themselves to such an enter 
prise. 

" Your faithful Brother in Christ, 

"T. V. LAHORE." 



The following is the Bishop s letter of 4th December, 1878, 
referred to on page 233 : 

" For between three or four weeks of October, I endeavoured 
to testify my interest and sympathy (which I may truly say is that 
of a father towards a child) with the Delhi Mission : by visiting 
both the city church, with its schools, and preaching-centres, scattered 
through the city, and the newly ingathered congregations at Riwarce, 
Rohtuk, Husar, &c. Though suffering from rather a sharp attack 
of fever for about a week, I was yet enabled to address the little 



238 Letter from the Bishop of Lahore. RSSS is8o d 

Christian assemblages, and minister some words of counsel and 
encouragement suited to their feeble condition, and present stage 
of infancy. 

" I most heartily rejoice with Mr. Winter in the measure of success 
our God has given him ; especially on the flourishing classes of 
readers and catechists ; in which I have always thought his work 
and method to be a model for other Missions ; his teachers being 
raised in successive gradations of teaching as they grow in the know 
ledge and ripeness of experience. 

" I was especially pleased with the Riwari congregation, where, in 

an humble mud building, which did duty as a church, some 100 were 

assembled, children in the centre, these fringed about with women 

and their babies, and a larger circle of men round the walls, through 

which I could barely make my way to the little space I was to 

occupy during my address. The ladies of the Zenana Mission there 

led the native hymns, which were sung with spirit. At night, at 

sunset, they most of them assembled a second time in the open air, 

and the poor women were somewhat amused (I hope instructed also) 

by the account I gave them of the way in which the sons of the 

Prophets brought each of them a beam from the Jordan to enlarge 

their home and house of prayer. Poor things, it was a genuine 

smile, when I proceeded to challenge them to call me when they 

were ready to begin, and that I might possibly bring, or help to 

carry a beam too, as the sons of the Prophets begged Elisha to go 

with them ! All my fever prevented me from doing was visiting the 

Zenana work at Alwar, a place I visited and preached in more than 

once in my youthful days. I cannot but hope that an itinerating 

Mission in Rajputana, in connection with the S.P.G., may yet be 

undertaken, as the Church of England, though once represented 

there by our itinerations from Agra, has now no centre of action 

there at all, and not even any preaching Missionary, though Ajmir 

and Jaipur have fairly useful Presbyterian medical missions, as you 

know, the former more so (I believe) than the latter. My heart 

yearns over Rajputana ; and inasmuch as there has been no marked 

blessing yet attendant on recent efforts outside of our Church, I 

cannot but devoutly pray that that very important race and country 

may be one of the blessed and prospered scenes of your new young 

Missionaries labours for Christ. 

" I was sorry that the audience at a lecture I gave in your large 
Delhi schoolroom, one evening, to the Hindostanee-speaking 



S ] A New Departure. 239 

Baboos, was not quite so large as might have been hoped, in con 
sequence of another lecture going on at the same time, by Darjanand 
Sarasvati, a Hindoo reformer, who is a popular speaker and sect 
leader, and travels about Missionary fashion, in the Punjab and 
bordering Hindoo states, to win converts to his system of deism, for 
which he claims the Vedas, as understood in his sense, which is 
typical or allegorical. He tries to attach to the most ancient Hindoo 
books and teachings of sages, a curious and ingeniously devised 
imitation, or adaptation, of modern civilisation and Christian 
morality. I am reading his pamphlets, which are put forward both 
in Sanscrit and Hinduwi, with considerable interest. 

" I fear I am making rather a venturous experiment ; but no kind 
of work in India goes on without such ; and if it is one of faith 
instead of mere presumptuous audacity and restless impulse, it 
usually succeeds, if not always. I should like to say much, but the 
time perhaps is hardly yet come, about the great and urgent import 
ance, as it seems to me, of there being a college as complete as 
possible in its proportions religious, scientific, philosophic, at Delhi, 
and in connection with your Mission there, which should (by God s 
help) rally round it the more highly educated Mohammedans and 
Hindus, trained at the primary and middle Government schools, as 
well as at our Mission schools, training them indeed for M.A. 
degrees, both at Lahore and Calcutta, but with the loftier and purer 
aims which Christian teaching communicates to other studies, when 
that teaching is seen not to be a mere by-end and Trapepyov of an 
institution, but its quickening, informing, and binding principle. 
Such schools as these, we know well, were established with happy 
results, by Theodore and Hadrian, in Canterbury, and in imitation 
of them, by Alcuin, at York ; not to speak of earlier Alexandrian 
times ; nor yet of the Jesuit colleges now established at Calcutta and 
Bombay, perhaps at Indore also ; and not unlikely to be tried in the 
Punjab and north-west, unless we anticipate them by a prompt and 
resolute effort. This is the very crisis at which it is required. 
Delhi is the very place ; the Cambridge movement is in several 
respects, to say the least, the very instrument, which seems to me 
required. I have been trying to light the fuel already at Delhi with 
this spark : but I am not sure it has caught fire. Perhaps though 
younger, they may be more cautious and less precipitate ; but I could 
say more on the subject if you encourage me to do so. It would 
require from your Cambridge leaders, Drs. Westcott, Lightfoot, 



240 Letter from Rev. R. R. Winter. Kt iS d> 

Cowell, &c.,to furnish a body of Christian laymen, skilled in science, 
as well as clergy : ready to scale and intermeddle with all wisdom, 
in order to sublimise and Christianise it, in honest, loving rivalry 
with our friend Darjanand, above named. 

" If ever a St. Saviour s Jesuit college should break in upon you at 
Lahore, you will remember that I did not omit a word of invitation 
and warning. I am sure you will forgive my freedom of speech, 
and somewhat too juvenile ardour in such matters. Curiously 
enough an Amritsar Sirdar (native aristocrat) came up to me three 
weeks ago at a little durbar of native nobility and gentry, and said, 
" I hear that many Missionaries are coming out to Delhi ; and at 
this time the Government of India have just stopped their high- class 
college at Delhi : why do not the Delhi Missionaries undertake it? " 
This was a remarkable coincidence, I think. Of course he knew 
that Christians would form the corner-stone and top-stone of the 
institute, if it ever took shape and form. 

" My letter has grown in my hands ; but it has somewhat relieved 
my mind of a burden to say so much. Other suggestions for your 
Delhi Mission I will reserve, in hopes of this being better ruminated 
upon, and being worthier of putting to paper. Meantime, may we be 
enabled ever to see the plummet in the hand of the Church s great 
Zerubbabel with those seven, whose virtues we so deeply need for 
our beginning ! " 



LETTER FROM REV. R. R. WINTER. 

" DELHI, Junegth, 1880. 

" T AM now able to announce to you the ordination of Munshi Asad 
J_ AH. He was ordained and licensed as Assistant Pastor, S.P.G., 
of St. Stephen s Church. Blackett was ordained priest at the same 
time ; the service was in the Mission Church, and the whole in Urdu 
except the Bishop s words at the laying on of hands for the priest. 
The sermon was preached by Mr. Shirreff, an Oxford man, Principal 
of St. John s Theological College, of the C.M.S. at Lahore, where 
Munshi Asad AH has been trained. The service, though it was very 
long, and the day one of the hottest, gave great pleasure to our 
people, and it will greatly serve to make them realise that he has 



*Aug.",?S d> ] Ordination of a Convert. 241 

been set apart for God s work among them. I hope to send you 
a copy of the whole of the Bishop s visitation record next mail, but 
I will now quote what he says about Munshi Asad Ali s examination. 
" On the 2ist and 22nd the ordination papers were set and ex 
amined, with a viva voce examination in Hebrew Psalms, and Greek 
Testament .... The native candidate, Asad Ali, had made praise 
worthy exertion, and the results of the examination were creditable 
to him in every way." The Bishop, in sp*ite of the heat of the 
weather, gave us a fortnight s visit, spent partly in two of the branch 
Missions. He came in the morning of Whitsun-eve ; in the evening 
we had a fairly good festival service singing an Urdu translation of 
Onward Christian Soldiers," as the choir and clergy entered the 
church, with special reference to the candidates for baptism. I 
baptised thirteen, most of whom are adults, and gave them a short 
address as the Bishop had too much heavy work before him to 
do so. 

" There have been seventy-one baptisms, including the above, since 
October ist, mostly from among the heathen. These were from widely 
scattered places, some baptised at Baolee, a village thirty miles to the 
north, others at Rohtuck, a large town forty-five miles off in our 
western district, and some from a country town eleven miles to the 
south. All these three places are worked in by my colleagues from 
Cambridge. 

" I am going to tell you briefly about our Mission organisation, both 
in the distribution of the work and in the government of the whole. 
. . . And now for the position of our little attacking force. The whole 
of the Mission both in its original S.P.G. and later Cambridge sides 
is entirely welded into one body. This meets as the Mission council, 
of which all are members, including, of course, Lala Tarachand 
(but not native pastors,) with me as chairman. The whole of the 
work among the men i.e., excluding the Zananah and medical work 
is legislated for by this council ; everything, whether the manage 
ment of existing plans, or the development of new ones, is brought 
before it. A certain amount of authority inevitably centres in whoever 
is the recognised general head, for the reins must be held by some 
one, and in the presence of such a large body of native workers a 
strong executive is sometimes needed. I am convinced, however, 
that the exercise of rational influence, and working through the zeal 
and talent of others, is far better than authority cand acting auto 
cratically in a sense of one s ex offitio position. For in these days 



242 Letter from Rev. R. R. Winter. K?,S? 

when men look to what a man is, and not to what he is called, 
the time for ex officio-ism is gone. Alongside of this principle of 
constitutional government by the whole Council, there was un 
doubtedly another side of human nature to be utilised, i.e., the desire 
of each man, or set of men, to have such work as they can feel to 
be their own ; to effect this, e.g., one man, helped by others, takes 
full charge of St. Stephen s High School, and its branches ; another 
will have the duty of training native teachers; another has the 
boarding-school ; others have certain parishes and Mission districts. 
In the ordinary routine management of his own department, each 
man acts on his own authority, but in matters of principle, and 
involving important changes, he will act on the united advice of the 
Council. This may often invoke a great deal of self-repression, and 
it prevents any one of us running off at a tangent, and acting 
separately on his own lines ; yet I do think we all feel that each of 
us has all the independence of action a man can wish for, while at 
the same time the unity both of principle and of work is maintained. 

" You must not for a moment think that our being thus welded 
together is the work of one of us more than of another. I feel that 
all eight of us have acted together in one mind, and I do most 
earnestly believe we have the continual guidance of that Holy Spirit, 
Whom we invoke before all our discussions. 

" Under God s help, my aim is always to help each wheel, in this 
by no means uncomplicated machinery, to run easily on its own pivot, 
to be equally happy when it touches the cogs of another wheel ; in 
this way all will go on much the same, whether I am here or no, 
after a while and one becomes, what one ought to, a person of 
very little consequence. At the same time, a rein-holder will always, 
as a matter of human wisdom, be needed, though the horses may 
never feel the bit. A certain amount of special influence is allowed 
by my Cambridge colleagues to their senior not of course in the 
council, but in their internal arrangements in such part of the 
common work for which they are specially responsible. I have no 
reason to believe that this in any way injures that principle of unity, 
for which I have always earnestly contended ; and I don t believe 
there is another body of eight colleagues, who pull so heartily 
together, and so wholly without jealousy. 

" Will you all pray for us ? " 



Rangoon. 243 



RANGOON. 

THE CHURCH AT MANDALAY. 

THE following letter, written at the beginning of the year from 
Prome by Dr. Marks, will be read with interest by those of 
our readers who are remembering in their prayers the Christian 
community in Mandalay, and the work so lately flourishing there : 

"After the return to Rangoon of the Rev. J. A. Colbeck, I felt very 
anxious with regard to the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ at Mandalay. 
You will remember that the church was built for me, and under my super 
intendence, by the late King, the Mindom Min, 7 and that it contains 
among other gifts the beautiful font, the present of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, and that this was left in the church. Upon the accession of 
the present King, Theebau, who was for a long time one of my pupils, I 
was very anxious to go to Mandalay, believing that my personal influence 
with him would restrain him from those sins and vices in which he has 
since so miserably indulged. But the Resident, Mr. Shaw, represented 
to the Chief Commissioner, Mr. Aitchison, that my visit to Mandalay 
might interfere with his (Mr. Shaw s) influence, and therefore Mr. 
Aitchison requested me as a personal favour not to go, and I at once 
consented to be guided by his wishes. But after the withdrawal of Mr. 
St. Barbe and Mr. Colbeck, this objection no longer held, and Mr. 
Aitchison entirely withdrew it. I therefore resolved to go to Mandalay for 
a few days to show that the Church of England had not abandoned the 
church and Mission premises, and that our occupancy does not necessarily 
follow that of the Political Residency. If I saw any danger of desecra 
tion I resolved to bring away the altar and font, and if there appeared to 
be none, to leave a catechist in charge till better times. I felt it right 
that my visit should be public and open, and therefore a month ago I 
wrote to the King and Prime Minister a short note, simply saying that as 
there was no clergyman at present in the church built by the late king, 
I would go up to Mandalay for a few days at the end of the month. I 
received no reply, and doubting whether the letter had reached, I 
telegraphed on the 27th ult. to the Kinwoon (or Thanatwoon) Mingyee, 
the Prime Minister, ( Leaving Friday. 7 On the 29th he replied by wire 
1 Postpone departure. 7 On that day I received private information from 
some of my boys that a Mandalay spy, named Momg Goon, had sent 
word to the Court that I was going as a spy of the British Government. 
I therefore telegraphed again, My visit simply clerical, utterly unpolitical, 7 
and then in reply to the Mingyee s message, Cannot postpone. Must 
return for college opening fifteenth reply Prome. 7 Yesterday, on my 
arrival here at 5.30 P.M., I found the following telegram from the Prime 
Minister, l Cannot at present give you permission to have interview with 
King, whether on political or clerical business. 7 As I had not sought 
such an interview, and, in fact, after all the late massacres did not desire 
it, I replied, Unless you positively forbid I proceed on Friday hence to 
Mandalay. 7 On my return from church (as Chaplain of the Irrawaddy 
stations, I am minister of this place), I received the following telegram 
which had been despatched from Mandalay at 10.45 that day eight 
hours before my telegram was sent from here. ( Notwithstanding my 



$44 A Journey in the Indian Rains. [^Sj.2, IS? 

having repeatedly informed you by telegraph, cannot give permission to 
your coming to Mandalay at present ; should you persist in coming, 
orders have been issued to prevent your crossing boundary. 

" I will ask you to notice that no repeated information was given me, 
and that the first intimation that I should not be allowed to go to Burmese 
territory was conveyed in the threat contained in the last telegram. 

" The Mingyee was the leader of the last Burmese embassy to England, 
and was a great friend of mine. But he was the instigator of all the 
massacres, and the inciter of the King to all his vices. 

" The Viceroy has refused to receive the embassy which has for a long 
time been at Thayetmyo, until the Burmese Government apologises and 
promises amenities to our Resident in future. Moreover, just now the 
Burmese steamer is ordered to leave British territory as the ambassadors 
people are found to be intriguing. 

" My mission was entirely personal. I took privilege leave, and did 
not ask the Society or Government to pay my expenses. But I do not 
for a moment think of going on. It would be useless even if successful." 



A JOURNEY IN THE INDIAN RAINS. 

BY THE REV. H. F. BLACKETT, OF THE CAMBRIDGE MISSION TO 
DELHI IN CONNECTION WITH S.P.G. 

ABOUT ten years ago a catechist, now in the employment of the 
Delhi Mission, but at that time working under the C.M.S. at 
Meerut, visited a village called Baolee, about thirty-five miles from 
both Delhi and Meertit. There he preached to the chamars, and 
sang them some native hymns. After the lapse of eight years he 
went there again, and found that they had remembered the hymns. 
He then taught some of them the Commandments, the Creed, and 
the Lord s Prayer. On visiting them again this year he found that 
they had built a small room in which they met regularly for service, 
repeating the little that they knew, and a considerable number 
wished to be baptised. Accordingly two of them came to Delhi, 
and after a few days more instruction were duly baptised, and 
returned home expressing themselves pleased at what they had heard 
and seen, and without asking for any help towards their expenses. 
It seemed desirable to visit the place ; but Baolee is thirty-five miles 
from Delhi, and the time of the year (July) made travelling difficult, 
but the village fortunately lay near the Eastern Jumna Canal, along the 
banks of which is a carriage road, with a bungalow every twelve miles 
for the use of the canal engineer. Leave to use the bungalows was 
obtained, and a messenger was despatched to inform the people of our 
coming. We had to take with us provisions and necessaries of all 



" ] Difficulties of Travel 245 

sorts, for we could not calculate on finding anything anywhere. All 
these were stowed away in the tumtum, a low cart with a thick cover, 
and early one morning Bickersteth and I started, with the catechist 
Baghwan Das on a pony. Passing the crowds of Hindus bathing in 
the sacred waters of the Jumna, we arrived at the bridge ; this is a 
fine structure half a mile long, with the railway above and the road 
way below, but it is very narrow, and the traffic can only go one way 
at a time, and unfortunately when we arrived it was coming towards 
us. They signalled to the other end to stop the tide, but it takes a 
long time for donkeys and buffaloes to achieve half a mile. At last, 
however, we reached the other side, and found ourselves in the most 
sacred ground in India between the Jumna and the Ganges. 

Our way lay along the bank of a canal, but the late rains had 
made the road very bad, and there was the canal on one side and a 
ditch on the other. The flies, too, were so troublesome, that the 
horse once nearly took us all over into the canal, and then a trace 
broke, which we mended with a hammock lashing. As we passed 
a small rest-house we were informed that a little further on the road 
was impassable, but we determined to look the difficulty in the face, 
which we did, and there was a chasm fifteen feet wide and eight feet 
deep. We managed to get round through jungle, ditches, and fields, 
and so arrived at our first bungalow, twelve miles from Delhi. It 
had three rooms, and the furniture consisted of a table, two chairs, 
three ants nests, two lizards and divers spiders ; and for the intel 
lectual improvement of the wayfarer there were four vols. of Tinsley 
with half the cover and the first twenty pages usually missing. 
Baghwan Das was much impressed by our producing not only cooking 
utensils, but a fire also from our bags, in the shape of a " Rob Roy 
mimic kitchener." After breakfast we placed the meat on a shelf, 
and rested. By dinner-time the ants had found it out, as they found 
out everything edible, and when I went for it again it was a black 
moving mass. However, after the trespassers had been shaken off, 
it was none the worse. After dinner we called the groom to wash 
up the plates, but he begged to be excused ; he would loste caste by 
doing so, as we had been eating meat, and he was greatly relieved 
when we called in a boy. Then ensued a friendly dispute with the 
man in charge of the house, a Brahman, about the milk, for which 
he would take no payment. We continued our journey, and very 
pretty it was. The canal here was bordered on both sides with 
trees fresh with the rains, and the banks were covered with grass. 



246 A Journey in the Indian Rains. [ 3 2jJ%5? f 

Occasionally we started a troop of monkeys, the little ones clinging 
to their mothers backs ; peacocks screamed at us, blue jays, 
brilliantly-coloured kingfishers, and many other birds abounded ; we 
also saw some big cranes. We reached the rest-bungalow at twilight, 
and sustained continuous and energetic attacks of mpsquitos, which 
abound near water. Early next morning we started again and 
reached Barot, the post-town of the village of Baolee, at ten, and to 
our surprise saw an English bungalow by the canal, almost opposite 
ours. We remained indoors till the evening. We then went out 
with Baghwan Das into the town, about half a mile off. It is quite 
a native town, and yet has its Government dispensary and school, 
and the streets, most of which were at least eighty-eight feet wide, 
were very clean. We proceeded to the chief bazaar, and stood there 
by a tree in front of a number of people selling various articles, and 
Baghwan Das began to read a passage from Scripture. A crowd 
quickly gathered ; it was an unusual sight to see two Englishmen 
together in that remote place, no one ever visiting the town, except 
the canal engineer, the Deputy-Commissioner, and School-Inspector, 
once a year ; and in all probability the Gospel had never been preached 
there by English Missionaries before. The people were very atten 
tive, and one or two asked questions. They were nearly all Hindus, 
and their speech contained so much Hindee that I could not under 
stand them. During the preaching an elephant came by the second 
I have seen in India in eleven months and as the bell round his 
neck made a noise and interrupted the preaching, they turned down 
a side street and came round again up a lane, contriving to scatter 
the outskirts of the congregation one of the riders, however, nearly 
parting company with his turban as they passed under the tree. The 
people almost invariably listen very attentively, and if any one makes 
a disturbance they stop him at once ; but as soon as any one ad 
dresses the preacher and opens a discussion, they all close in and 
listen with redoubled attention. The preaching being over, we went 
out by another way through the low caste quarter of the town, and 
as we went some chamars came up, and asked us whether the preach 
ing was for them also. "By all means," we said; "it is for all 
men." They asked us to stop and talk to them, and we accordingly 
sat down on a charpoy, a useful and simple piece of furniture, serving 
as bed, chair, table, work-bench, and so forth ; and all our congre 
gation some 150 in number chamars and sweepers sat around us, 
and Bickersteth told them the same old story of the Saviour. They 



Seed by the Wayside. 247 

were very much pleased, though they doubtless took in little enough 
of its real meaning, and asked to have regular teachers ; this, of 
course, we could not promise them. 

The next morning we drove over to our real destination, the 
village of Baolee, about three miles off. Unfortunately, our messenger 
had not arrived we had, in fact, caught him up on the journey 
and many of the people whom we had come to see were away at 
work in the fields in another village. We were warmly welcomed by 
those whom Bickersteth had baptised at Delhi, and we were con 
ducted to the little prayer-room built of mud and thatch, in front of 
which we sat down. We held a short service, and heard some other 
candidates repeat the Commandments and Lord s Prayer, and then 
left. On our return home we called at the bungalow opposite, and 
found it inhabited by an English gentleman, a landowner who lived 
there with his wife and children. It was a pleasant surprise to find 
an English family, with blue-eyed and golden-haired little girls, in 
such a remote place. In the evening we again went to the town of 
Barot, and stood in the same bazaar as the day before, but in a 
different place ; behind us was a well, from which women were 
drawing water; at one side were carriers with jars of holy Ganges 
water, brought from the great fair of Hurdwar to be sold to pious 
Hindus for giving to Brahmins, and thereby acquiring merit. With 
these surroundings Baghwan Das read the passage about our Lord s 
conversation with the woman at the well of Samaria, and the Water 
of Life. W T e had a larger congregation than before. 

The next day we drove over to Baolee early in the morning, and 
found our friends collected in large numbers ; we must have had a 
congregation of some 200 persons, chamars and sweepers, though 
many of the real inquirers were still away. Baghwan Das, who is a 
musician, procured an instrument characterised, like most things in 
this country, by great simplicity ; it consisted of a piece of bamboo, 
with half a gourd stuck on at one end, this latter being covered with 
skin ; two brass wires were stretched from this to the other end of the 
bamboo, where they were fastened to pegs, the instrument being some 
thing like a guitar. He picked up a broken piece of tile, and stuck it 
under the strings on the skin for a bridge, and tuned the instrument ; 
but finding it out of order he laid it aside, and sang a Hindi hymn 
unaccompanied, to the great delight of the people, who are all fond 
of music, though their ideas of it do not exactly coincide with ours. 
We then had a short service, consisting of the Confession, Lord s 



248 A Journey in the Indian Rains. [ 

Prayer, Creed, and one or two collects : then another hymn by 
Baghwan Das, and an address. Service over they brought us some 
milk in large brass bowls, one of which had just been cleaned on its 
way by a man with the corner of his garment I use the singular 
advisedly, and the other by a woman with her thumb. However, 
they were both really clean, and the milk was excellent, though we 
only just managed to prevent them spoiling it by putting a lot of 
sugar into it. There was not much left when we had done, and our 
hosts were highly pleased at our appreciation of their simple hos 
pitality. We then adjourned to see one of the lately baptised, who 
was ill. The whole posse comitatus accompanied us, and endeavoured 
to squeeze into the little hut and narrow passage leading to it, and 
one man inserted himself through the window. Bickersteth took 
out some quinine, and proceeded to explain to the invalid who had 
fever, how it was to be used in his absence ; but when the man 
innocently asked whether he was to cook the quinine, it seemed 
advisable to administer a dose on the spot, exempli gratia. This 
was accordingly done, to the immense admiration of the invalid s 
friends and relations, who were greatly struck by the " Padri Sahib s " 
cleverness, and amused at the man s faces as he drank the bitter 
potion ; but he felt himself to be a hero, and was pleased. So 
struck were the people at the triumph of the healing art that a man 
came up and asked what he should do for a rheumatic leg. Bickersteth 
promptly advised him to rub it with the plain hand. Then a man 
brought a very dirty child, saying that it was ill, which, indeed, was not 
to be wondered at, and wished for advice on the matter ; Bickersteth 
gravely recommended him to get some hot water, put the child in, 
and give it a thorough good washing. I am afraid the man was 
rather disappointed, like Naaman, at the simplicity of the remedy ; 
but if novelty is an element of success in a prescription, this con 
tained it in an eminent degree. Baghwan Das also began to dis 
tribute some " universal pills," which he administered indiscriminately 
two at a time for any illness, from a headache to a broken leg 
these make him independent of doctors, and render a medical diag 
nosis a mere superfluity. To one man, however, who alleged him 
self to be a martyr to " internal heat," he refused assistance. Finally 
we took leave of our people. They were very much pleased at our 
visit, and we were pleased at their apparent earnestness, for they had 
put themselves to considerable inconvenience, and had asked for 
nothing. Some of them accompanied us to our carriage, along a 



Madras. 249 

p t ath which led through places rivalling Cologne in their odours. 

Reaching the canal bungalow we breakfasted with the W s, 

and I was amused with the little girls description of pictures a 
North American Indian and a ragged Irishman were turned into 
Faqeers. 

In the evening, as soon as it was cool enough to travel, we started 
on our return journey, and accomplished the first stage. In the 
morning we were off before six, and drove double stages, to the 
astonishment of the pony "Bessie," who whinnied for the other 
horse at the end of six miles exactly ; and so, after accomplishing 
twenty-four miles, we reached Delhi at eleven. We regretted that 
we had not been able to do more real Missionary work, but it is 
unsafe to be out except in the morning and evening, and we had to 
rest satisfied with visiting our friends to encourage them, and to show 
our interest in them ; and we hoped that we had at least introduced 
ourselves, and left some seed to spring up into good fruit by the 
blessing of Him Who alone can give the increase. 



MADRAS. 

A PROPOSED EPISCOPAL TOUR. RECENT ACCESSIONS. 

A SERIES of very successful meetings, devotional and practical, 
was held at Palamcottah, at the end of January, when 
the following sketch of an intended tour was communicated to 
the Church Council by Bishop Caldwell. 

" I hope to set out immediately on a long tour amongst the Missions. 
There are some points of great importance which I wish this year to 
inquire into, and I shall need much wisdom and grace to enable me to 
conduct the inquiries aright, and arrive at just conclusions. I wish 
to see what work is being done by each of the teachers paid out of the 
Special Fund, and what proportion of the fund, if any, may be given up 
next year, especially in the older district. I wish to see how the new 
people that joined us in such numbers have been instructed in the rudi 
ments of Christianity, and how much they know ; how many of them 
have been prepared for baptism, confirmation, and the Holy Communion ; 
what efforts are being made to teach them to evangelise others ; what 
organisations have been set on foot to teach them from the beginning to 
support their own teachers. I am anxious to see how the newly-ordained 
native clergy are carrying on their work in what methods, in what spirit, 
and with what results. Above all, I wish, as far as possible, to ascertain 

NO. CCXCVI. S 



2 50 Madras. [ J 5S Sw! 1> 

what progress real conversions, real piety, real devotedness to God and 
love to Christ, appear to have made amongst the people under our care 
new and old, but especially amongst the new people. I wish also to see 
everywhere what progress education has made amongst the masses in the 
villages, especially female education ; and wherever I go, I hope to con 
tribute to the promotion of evangelistic work, for which purpose I intend 
to take with me three of my evangelistic assistants. In the course of 
this tour, I hope to gain such information with regard to every depart 
ment of work as will help me to form a right judgment as to the particulars, 
if any, in which the organisation of our Mission system, and of the 
native Church, is capable of being improved." 

Bishop Caldwell also brought forward a tabulated statement, which 
we append, of the accessions to the Christian Church during the latter 
half of last year. 

ACCESSIONS FROM ist JULY TO 3ist DECEMBER 1879. 



District. 


Number of souls. 


Edeyengoody 


i So 


Radhapuram 


165 


Mudalur 


152 


Christianagram ... 


105 


Nazareth 


85 


Sawyerpuram 


45 


Pudukotei 


36 


Puticorin 


70 


Puthiamputhur 


122 


Kulatur ... 


97 


Senthalei 


84 


Pral 


54 


Nagalapuram 


... 602 



Total ...... i,797 



EVANGELISTIC WORK IN THE RADHAPURAM DISTRICT. 

BY A CATECHIST. 

THIS is the second district in which I have worked as assistant 
to the Rev. J. A. Sharrock, in special Evangelistic work. We com 
menced our work here from the ist of September. One of the 
local agents went about with us till the middle of October ; there 
was also with us this time Pitch eimuttu, catechist, assistant to the 
Right Rev. Bishop Caldwell in Evangelistic work. Having some 
knowledge of Hinduism, and being a little versed in Tamil poetry, 
he is well able to address educated Hindus on the errors of Hindu 
ism, and was a great help in our work. Bishop Caldwell had very 
kindly sent to Mr. Sharrock four good singing boys from the board- 







2, 



Method of Work. 251 



ing school at Edeyengoody, who proved a very good help all along, 
as it was the singing especially that collected the people in our street 
preachings. The Rev. V. Gnanamuttu, the present native clergy 
man of Radhapuram, went about with us, except very few days, as 
long as Mr. Sharrock was with us, and rendered every help to enable 
us to carry on our work in the district. He had made a very nice 
banner with the words, " How beautiful are the feet of Him that 
publisheth the glad tidings of peace," on it, which was taken about 
in our itinerations, from place to place, before Mr. Sharrock. 
Our work may be said to consist of three parts : 

(1) Preaching the Word of God to individuals; 

(2) Sowing the seed of life broadcast, or street preaching ; and 

(3) Watering the seed sown, so as to produce results. 

The first part of our work we generally did in the day-time, when 
we visited people in their houses or in the streets. Where people 
allowed us a free access, the women also heard what we spoke to the 
men. One important feature in this part of our work w,as that it 
was such as to reach the people s minds, so that they were able to 
freely speak their feelings. 

The second part of our work was generally in the evenings, after 
6 P.M. It consisted of saying a few prayers suited to our Mission, 
reading a portion of Scripture, bearing upon idolatry, or other such 
subjects, as Psalm cxv., Acts xvii. 22-32, c., and a few addresses. 
Now and then a small church bell was taken about with us to be 
rung so as to collect the people. But mostly the singing of the 
boys did that for us. There were a few selected good lyrics that 
were well sung by the boys. The people would generally have been 
assembled before we commenced our meetings, which were always 
held in such central places as to attract a good audience. The 
Rev. J. A. Sharrock, our zealous itinerating Missionary, always 
(except whenever he was prevented by illness) gave an opening 
address in Tamil, full of life and vigour so as to reach the very hearts 
of his hearers. Although he has not yet been two years in the country, 
and now devotes only a very short time daily to his Tamil studies, 
still, to his great credit, he is able to address people very well in 
Tamil, and even to change his addresses to suit different places and 
people. He surprised his hearers not a little before setting out on 
this tour, when taking i Cor. vi. 19, 20 (parts) as his text. He 
preached a very good sermon in Tamil in the Edeyengoody church, 
on the 3ist of August; with only his English notes before him. In 

S 2 



t f <> /l-//7//f/70 f Mission Field, 

252 maaras. \_ Aug 2> iso. 

our meetings his addresses were followed by t\vo others, sometimes 
by myself and sometimes by Pitcheimuttu. The Rev. V. Gnana- 
muttu also gave sometimes very good addresses in our meetings. 
Besides being earnest in his addresses, he has the gift of placing 
Christian truths before his hearers in a very pleasant manner and 
style. One great advantage of our street preachings is that there we 
reach very many people whom we could not otherwise reach, as 
many women and children also come and hear us. The attendance 
at our meetings has varied from 40 to 350. As we were anxious 
to go preaching once through the district before the rain should set 
in by the beginning of November, we were not able to spend more 
than a day in any place. And so the third part of our work was 
kept for a later period. 

Our plan of work was to choose a station central to a few villages, 
within four or five miles from it, and from that to work round. 

We commened our work in Koodankulam, and spent from 
September 2-11 there and in five adjacent heathen villages. 
Koodankulam is the head station of this extensive district, with its 
very fine church and a good parsonage, both built by the Rev. D. 
Samuel, the former clergyman of the district. The Rev. V. 
Gnanamuttu is at present in charge of the district. Notwithstanding 
the 550 souls in Koodankulam, the greater part of the inhabitants 
are still heathen. The chief inhabitants are Vellalars and Shanaars. 
In it alone there are more than fifteen heathen temples. I mention 
here a small incident, which will give some idea of the gross 
superstition of the heathens, even in this important Mission station. 
An influential heathen man of this village had a small idol made of 
clay, by a potter. Thinking his children may handle it irreverently, 
he hid it in a heap of straw in his yard. After a few days one of his 
children was ill, and, daily becoming worse, was about to die. The 
father thought the illness sent by his god, but could not make out 
what made Him to afflict his child thus. But at last it struck the 
father, when the child seemed to be suffocated, that his having put 
his god in the straw so as to suffocate him was the cause of his 
child s suffocation, whereupon he went and brought his idol back 
into his house. When the child got better after some days proper 
medicines being given he was confirmed in his idea. Thus great 
darkness exists side by side with the light of the Gospel. 

On the evening of the 6th, Mr. J. H. Bullivant, a new Missionary, 
arrived at Koodankulam as the guest of Mr. Sharrock. Both Mr. 



^fg ", Sff ] Medical Missions. 253 

Sharrock and Mr. Bullivant were very well received by the Christians 
of the place. In our meeting at Vizaapathy, Mr. Bullivant addressed 
a good audience of Vellalars and others, in English, and his address 
was interpreted. 

Before leaving Koodankulam, I had the pleasure of having brought 
back one soul into the Church. A young man, a relation of mine, 
was a Christian from his boyhood, but afterwards he became an 
apostate. I spoke to him very much, and succeeded to take him 
with me to the Sunday and week-day services while I was there. I 
am happy he is steady now also. 

We spent September 11-20 in the Radhapuram circle, working 
in five different places, including Radhapuram. It is in the centre 
of this district, and has about 250 houses in it, of the Vellalar and 
other castes, and is one of the strongholds of heathenism in those 
parts. It is also the station of a sub-magistrate, a sub-registrar, and 
a police inspector. The Mission has had here an Anglo-Vernacular 
school for a long time, and had some time ago opened a dispensary. 
A girls school is soon about to be opened. Mr. S. Daniel, the 
present Anglo-Vernacular schoolmaster, and Mr. A. Joseph, the 
dresser, in charge of the dispensary, are doing capital work there, 
and the two establishments exercise a great influence for good in the 
place. Many of the schoolboys are favourably disposed, and but 
for their parents would easily become Christians. Most of them do 
not worship in the heathen temple, but attend the Christian services. 
It was a very pleasant sight for us to see many young heathen boys 
and girls singing our Christian lyrics. They have not learnt many 
of them by heart. At first, when I saw heathen children singing 
Christian lyrics, I thought whether it would not be giving them an 
undue familiarity with Christian truths. But the good that even 
this was doing in secret was manifest. I was very pleased to hear 
from the schoolmaster of a heathen schoolboy being affected with 
one of our Christian lyrics. The boy was singing by himself a 
Tamil penitential lyric (O Lord, I am a sinner). But all of a 
sudden tears ran down from his eyes, and the boy went on crying, 
unable to contain himself. It was ascertained by the schoolmaster 
afterwards that the singing of the lyric was the cause of this, as the 
boy mentioned it. 

The many heathen patients that are daily treated in the dispensary 
have a short and suitable address given them before it is opened, and 
themselves, though heathens, testify to the good effects of Christianity 



254 Madras. ^ mmion Field - 



2, 1S80. 



and Christian Missions. Thus the work of the Mission here is 
progressing surely, though slowly. One would not have formerly 
dreamt of a congregation here, but now there is a small one of four 
families, including the police inspector s, besides the three of the 
Mission agency. The first day we had our meeting here in the 
schoolroom, which was well crowded, all the school children also 
being present. The next day we so far succeeded as to have our 
meeting in the village in one of the principal streets, through which 
the terrible car is drawn at important heathen festivals. There was 
a great crowd, ar.d the impression made was very favourable. The 
next morning (i 4th), being Sunday, at Mr. Sharrock s request there 
was an early celebration by Mr. Gnanamuttu for the itinerating party. 
In the evening there was a meeting for the school children, in which, 
Mr. Sharrock not being well enough, I spoke to them on the great 
importance of early practices and impressions, especially of early 
religion. The next two days Mr. Bullivant gave two earnest addresses 
at Paramesvaripuram and Seelathikulam, which were interpreted. 

After Mr. Bullivant left Mr. Sharrock, Mr. Norman, another new 
Missionary, came and joined him at Maruthappapuram, in which 
place we were from the 2oth to the 27111. After working from thence 
in five different villages, we went to Avererkulam, and from thence 
we worked in seven villages, from September 28th to October 4th. 
The Rev. S. Christian is newly stationed at Avererkulam, that he 
may work chiefly among the many heathens of the place, The last 
day we worked at Avererkulam, Mr. Norman gave a very good 
address in English, and I interpreted for him. From thence we 
moved on to Jacobpuram, which was the station of the former native 
pastor, the Rev. S. Joseph, who is now among the new people at 
Nagalapuram. Both Mr. Sharrock and Mr. Norman were heartily 
welcomed by the Christians. The state of this congregation is very 
satisfactory in everything. All the souls in the thirty families of the 
village are Christian, and they have greatly aided in enlarging their 
church. The church here has the richest fund of its own in the 
district, the people giving very freely to it. I was very happy to find a 
fellow-student and friend of mine, now a member of the congre 
gation, taking the lead in every good thing. As long as we were 
there, we enjoyed the church services very much. The attendance 
of the people at church was very good. At important services the 
young men, about eight of them, together with some men, formed 
themselves into a procession with the school children, both boys and 



S ] The Day Dawning. 2 5 5 



girls, all in very clean clothes, and came singing into the church from 
the main street of the village. To every village in which we worked 
six of the young men, who are voluntary evangelisers, went with us and 
helped us in singing with our boys. The earnestness with which 
some of them have been preaching the Gospel in many neighbouring 
villages, especially to their heathen relations, is very commendable, 
and is a great credit to the congregation of Jacobpuram. The 
greater part of the time we were here Mr. Sharrock was ill of fever, 
and Mr. Norman very kindly gave a few addresses in the five villages 
in which we worked from hence. The great self-denial shown 
throughout this, our evangelistic tour, by our itinerating Missionary, 
for the furtherance of the Kingdom of God in this dark heathen land 
of ours, notwithstanding his frequent illnesses, was very exemplary to 
us who worked under him. It was always a great grief to him when 
ever he was so ill as to have to be kept in from his good work, and 
any day he was not actually ill he would rush out to his labour. 

After a short break in our work for a few days towards the latter 
part of October, on account of the rain, we continued our work from 
the beginning of November. Mr. Sharrock did not go with us this 
time, as he was ill. That he might not do permanent harm to him 
self, he was advised to keep quiet a little, and be under medical 
treatment. Pitcheimuttu and myself set out again on the 3rd of 
November to go working through the district once again. Besides 
preaching the Gospel in the three new circles of Pannei, Ramalinga- 
puram, and Sythambarapuram, in twenty-six villages, our chief work 
this time was to work over the seed once sown, as I said before. 
We visited almost all the villages in which we had worked before. 
For the first three weeks Patcheimuttu worked with me, and the next 
three weeks he had to be away. 

From first to last in our work in this district, we were happy to 
observe how gradually and slowly, though surely, the thick clouds of 
heathen darkness are disappearing before the light of the Gospel. 
Almost everywhere people gave us a good hearing, and listened to 
what we had to say to them about Christianity. They feel and 
express that it is the only religion from God fitted to do good to man 
and to make man good. Faith in idols has in very many instances 
ceased, and I have myself heard the propriety of offering to devils 
disputed among the heathens themselves. In many places we see 
offering to devils is gradually ceasing. Most small heathen temples 
are in ruins, and not repaired for years together. People appreciate 



256 Madras. [SSM8F 

the work of the Mission in most places. They ask for Mission 
schools, and promise to send even their girls regularly to school. 
The lessons taught by the late famine relief by English generosity 
are still fresh in many minds. Extreme caste prejudices are disap 
pearing. In many places where misunderstanding existed about 
Christianity, we have left very favourable impressions behind. In 
some places even women have testified to the superiority of 
Christianity. Roman Catholics have said their priests do not give 
them such simple preaching of the Gospel as our Missionaries do. 
Among other reasons for people not being Christian are such as that 
caste people are not generally so ; that they feel shy to go and kneel 
with Christians, &c. When people join, they do so in numbers. All 
these things show that the Kingdom of God is nigh at hand, and it 
is therefore the duty of every loving soul that has at heart the 
furtherance of the Kingdom of God to pray more earnestly than 
ever that His Kingdom would come, and that He Himself would 
come among us and with great might succour us. 

The three weeks between November 2oth and December 8th were 
very happy days to me in my work, as, with the special blessing of 
God, there was some success in my humble labour. I worked in 
Perungoody from November 22nd, and in the noon and afternoon of 
that day I met with some who seemed well disposed, and said they 
would become Christians in case some others would join them. I 
spoke to some others, also well disposed, and they together wished to 
become Christians. The next day being Sunday, I asked them to 
come to the service in the church at Vadakankulam, two miles off. 
According to their promise all the men came, and the service was 
altogether very pleasant to me. The congregation at Vadakankulam 
being now small, the men that had come for the first time for worship 
in a church formed the majority, and therefore I made the service 
altogether to suit them, and my address, as natural, was to the new 
comers. Thus that day I had the happiness to receive six families 
of twenty-three souls, who placed themselves under Christian in 
struction. They were quite taken with the service, and said how 
very different this worship of God was from their former devil- 
worship. I sent them away, giving them the necessary advice. On 
the yth December, when I was again at Perungoody among the new 
people, two more families of ten souls joined. The new people 
then promised me to erect a temporary prayer-house in their own 
land. 



1 2,5w d ] The Work in Trichinopoly. 257 

I close this account of my work with an earnest request to my 
readers for their prayers to God that He would bless our humble 
labours, and that He would hasten the fulfilment of His promise to 
pour out His Spirit upon all flesh. 



THE WORK IN TRICHINOPOLY. 

BY THE REV. J. L. WYATT. 

npRICHINOPOLY is both the name of the District or Col- 
JL lectorate, and the name of the principal town in it, as 
Tinnevelly is. Between this Collectorate and that of Tinnevelly 
the Collectorate of Madura intervenes, but the railway, which was 
constructed about five years ago, brings us within a few hours distance. 
We are about 240 miles north of our old Mission district of Ed ey en- 
goody. 

This District or Collectorate of Trichinopoly is about ninety miles 
long in its longest part, and about forty or fifty miles wide in its 
widest part ; in some places, however, it is very narrow. It com 
prises an area of about 3,600 square miles, and contains a population 
of about 1,200,000. The District or Collectorate is cut in two from 
east to west by the river Cauvery. It has a large branch the 
Coleroon which separates from the Cauvery in the district of 
Trichinopoly, about eleven miles north of the town of Trichinopoly, 
and for several miles flows nearly parallel with it, and then almost 
rejoins it. It has, however, been prevented from doing this by arti 
ficial means, and now the Coleroon runs off as a large river in a 
north-easterly direction to the ocean. The Cauvery continues its 
course almost due east, and is tapped on its way in such a number 
of places for irrigation purposes, that nearly all its water is used up 
before it reaches the sea. It fertilises thousands of acres of land, 
and none of its precious treasures runs to waste. The island formed 
by the separation and the rejoining of the two rivers is exceedingly 
fertile, full of cocoanut-palrns ; and in the middle of these is nestled 
the town of Srirungam, with a population of about 11,000, containing 
very large and richly-endowed temples of Vishnu ; it is one of the 
most sacred places of pilgrimages in the south. 

The Collectorate of Trichinopoly is very rich in the river valleys, 
but poor in other parts, and generally flat. There is one range of 



258 The Work in Trichinopoly. [ SStim" 

hills on the western boundary about 2,500 feet high, but they are too 
feverish to be used as a sanatorium by Europeans, or to be cultivated 
by natives. 

The S.P.G. is the only Church of England Society that has 
Missions in this Collectorate, and I fear one result of this isolation 
has been that the district has been much neglected. To the north 
of the rivers Cauvery and Coleroon there is only one Missionary, 
Mr. Kohlhoff, with a recent assistant, Mr. Taylor, in an area of 
about 2,300 square miles, and among a population of more than 
820,000. In the south of the Cauvery the only representative of the 
Society is myself, in an area which, though not so large as Mr. 
KohlhofY s, is still more than large enough for the energy of any 
one person an area of 1,200 square miles and a population of 
about 370,000. Tinnevelly is about 5,000 square miles, with a 
population of 1,700,000, and there are two Bishops and about eight 
European clergy, besides other Europeans who are preparing for 
ordination ; and there have been as many as twenty European 
Missionaries at one time working there. I make this comparison 
merely to show how much Trichinopoly has been neglected. I highly 
approve of the energetic way in which the field in Tinnevelly 
has been occupied and the work carried on. 

But if our Society has been slow and feeble here, the Roman 
Church has not. For the past 270 years it has been at work, and 
has reaped large harvests. There is a network of Missions extending 
all over the Collectorate, and many villages that I have now visited 
on my first tour are entirely inhabited by Roman Catholics. In the 
town of Trichinopoly, where there is a population of 73,000, they 
have a large establishment, consisting of a Bishop, several priests, a 
convent with European nuns, seminaries, and orphanages. A high 
wall surrounds the entire establishment, and the churches and other 
buildings inside give to the whole a very imposing appearance. They 
reckon the total number of adherents at more than 49,000, of whom 
about 10,000 are in the town of Trichinopoly itself. The total of all 
other Christians in the Collectorate is under 2,000. 

The Lutherans have a Mission here ; their followers are scattered 
about in various villages, but are not numerically strong, nor much 
increasing. The Wesleyans, too, have a few adherents in the town 
of Trichinopoly, and two or three schools for girls. 

The Mission to the south of the Cauvery, which we now look upon 
as ours, was begun by Schwartz in 1762. He and Klein, another 



B J3,S? r ] Schwartz in Trichinopoly. 259 

German Missionary, came from Tranquebar to Tanjore, first at the 
invitation of a Captain Berg, to administer the Lord s Supper to him 
and to other residents there ; and after that he came on to Trichi 
nopoly, where an English garrison was then stationed. Many of the 
officers were so rejoiced at the arrival of these Missionaries, and so 
willing to help them, that Schwartz, at the request of the S.P.C.K., 
consented to remain there. His own letter, written to the Danish 
Mission College soon after his determination, is so interesting that I 
copy it for perusal. He writes : 

" I have now been absent a considerable time from Tranquetar, and 
have lived in Trichinopoly and now and then in Tanjore. It would have 
been right to inform the College of all that I was doing, and I have often 
thought of it ; but the uncertainty of my position, and the hope of soon 
having something certain to say, has delayed me so long that I must now 
with shame ask forgiveness for my negligence, and promise in future to 
be more careful in my duty. 

" My dear brethren have made known by their letters that I have 
remained in the country with their consent thereto. At the beginning of 
my residence here (in Trichinopoly) I preached before a small native and 
Portuguese congregation. On week days I tried to instruct Hindus, 
Mohammedans, and Roman Catholics in the Gospel, and thought that I 
should very soon return to Tranquebar. Not long after the English 
Commandant requested me to conduct public worship for the English on 
Sundays. I asked counsel of the brethren, and they advised me to do it 
in gratitude for the protection which I enjoyed here, but to take care that 
the Portuguese and Tamil congregations were not neglected. A few 
months after a sorrowful event led to the erection of an English school. 
The powder manufactory here blew up, robbing many soldiers of their 
lives and many children of their fathers. The Commandant, Major 
Preston, set a collection on foot for the orphans, which amounted to 
300 pagodas ; this he gave into my hands, asking me to select a school 
master from amongst the old soldiers. I found one who had ability, but 
not sufficient perseverance, and I therefore determined to send the money 
and the children to Fabricius, in Madras. The English now marched 
upon Madura to take the place from the rebels. The siege lasted long, 
the number of the sick and wounded increased, and Major Preston often 
begged me to come to him for a time for the sake of the sick. 

" All the brethren gave their consent ; and I therefore went to the camp 
and remained there for two months. When Madura was given up to the 
English, the Nabob made a present to the army, of which (without any 
request on my part) 600 pagodas were given to me, which I dedicated to 
the Tamil congregation and school. A pious soldier had been wounded 
in the hand before Madura, which made him unfit for service. When I 
left the army and returned here to Trichinopoly, this man, whom I did 
not know before, was brought to me and recommended as a schoolmaster. 
I engaged him : not long after the Nabob gave 300 pagodas for the 
orphans, so that I now had 600 pagodas< for them, with which I supported 
the schoolmaster and four children. The other children only received 
instruction-books and paper. After the taking of Madura the army 
returned and remained for some weeks in Trichinopoly. Some of the 
officers remarked that the place where Divine worship was performed for 



260 The Work in Trichinopoly . FSflSSf 1 

the English was most unsuitable. This awoke the desire of building a 
church here, and a subscription was opened, which soon amounted to 
2,000 pagodas. The church was also to be used for the Tamil and 
Portuguese congregations. The Governor in Madras helped both by 
advice and deed. The Nabob, when his permission was asked, declared 
that he had nothing to say against the building of the church, but only 
wished that it should be outside the Fort, in which case he would give a 
good stone bungalow for it ; but the Commandant, feeling that such a 
place would make it almost useless to the garrison, determined on building 
it within the Fort. The foundation was laid on the I3th of March last 
year, and the upper vaulting which forms the roof was completed. The 
present Commandant, Colonel Wood, superintended the building, whilst 
I had the charge of the materials and accounts. It was finished in May, 
and consecrated at Whitsuntide. The school-house in which I live is to 
be enlarged and improved, by the consent of the Nabob. The service is 
conducted in this way : On Sunday morning, from 8 to 10, the Tamil 
Christians assemble ; at 10 o cl >ck the English, and at 4 the Portuguese. 
In the evening there is another prayer-meeting. I have as yet taken no 
pay for the slight service that I perform for the English, and do not intend 
to do so, as it leaves me the more free. On week-days I work in the 
congregation, and try to awaken the heathen by constant conversations ; 
both amongst them and the Roman Catholics traces of conviction are 
beginning to appear, which I trust that God will strengthen by His Holy 
Spirit into a real conversion. This year I have prepared two little bands 
of heathen for baptism, and have instructed two Portuguese women, who 
voluntarily left the Romish Church to join ours. In this way I have 
occupied myself here as a Royal Danish Missionary ; and, rejoicing as I 
do in having received a regular appointment from the King of Denmark, 
I should feel much grieved if any change were to take place ; and to do 
anything which would lead to such a change would be against my con 
science. Further, as there is now a spacious church here in Trichinopoly, 
and a Missionary has full freedom in publishing the Gospel ; as there is 
both a Tamil and a Portuguese congregation and school, and as the 
English, at least in all that belongs to the fort, have full power here, and 
will keep it, unless a more powerful enemy should drive them away, my 
poor opinion is that Trichinopoly is a very convenient place from which 
to make known the Gospel to the country people : added to which a 
Missionary stationed here might visit the congregation in Tanjore at least 
once a year. I wait now for orders as to whether I should remain here 
or return to Tranquebar ; but if the College should decide that a Danish 
Missionary ought to remain here, I should think it an advantage if an 
exchange could take place from time to time." 

Schwartz remained here till 1 7 69, and then left for a time, but returned 
occasionally till 1778, when he left it finally. His successor was a 
Mr. Pohle, who laboured here forty-one years. Then followed Mr. 
Rosen, till 1824. He afterwards went to Tinnevelly, and lived at 
Mudalur (a part of my former Mission). After him came Mr. 
Schreyvogel, who began as a Lutheran, but was admitted by Episcopal 
ordination into the English Church, and was employed by the S.P.G. 
in 1826. He died in 1840. Since that, others have laboured here, 
but at no time since the time of Schwartz does the Mission appear to 



262 The Work in Trichinopoly. 

have been in a very prosperous condition. At its best it seems 
never to have had more than 600 members. It has always been 
sadly deficient in the number of Missionaries working here. Where 
there ought to have been five or six with their boarding and day 
schools for boys and girls, seminaries for the training of catechists, 
schoolmasters and schoolmistresses, and all the various organisations 
which have held such an important place in the Missions of Tirine- 
velly, there has never been more than one European at the time. 

At present the one great feature of the Mission is the great S.P.G. 
High School, in the town of Trichinopoly. It is, indeed, a grand 
institution, the largest school in the whole of the Mofussil (the 
country as contrasted with the Presidency town) with 796 boys on 
the register. Mr. Pearce, a layman, is the Principal, and there are 
twenty-seven native assistants with him, but some of them are 
heathens. Scriptural instruction is given in the school daily, by the 
Christian teachers. Besides this school there is the church built by 
Schwartz, in 1767, called Christ s Church, but beyond this there is but 
little of a Missionary character to be seen. There were at one time 
a few village congregations in the district, but the members of them 
that have not died or relapsed into heathenism have been absorbed 
by the Roman or the Lutheran communions. 

The congregation of Christ Church in the Fort numbers about 
300 ; but even of these about one-third are the teachers in the High 
School with their families, most of whom have come from Tinnevelly. 
A native clergyman has been appointed to this charge, and there are 
besides only two catechists and two schoolmasters for the general 
work of the large town and district. 

You will see, therefore, that there is a large field to be undertaken, 
and a great work to be done, and to be done now under adverse 
circumstances. The forms of Christianity mostly known in the 
district are Romanism or Lutheranism. Elementary education for 
boys which, in Tinnevelly, is mostly in the hands of the Missions, 
is here carried on by the Hindus themselves. Schools for girls 
have hardly been begun. The Hindus show little or no desire to 
have their daughters educated. Unfortunately, too, we have no 
Mission premises for the Missionary, and no boarding-schools, and 
we are at present obliged to live in the cantonment, about two miles 
and a half away from our church, and a long way from any part 
of the town. This is the only place where there are houses for 
Europeans, and in the great heat, for which this place is proverbial 



!S d> ] 



Needs of Trithinopoly. 263 



(it is said that there are eight months of hot weather and four months 
of hotter), it is very tiring indeed to drive down to our church and 
back for our services, and to visit in the town. 

Christian England has been gladdened by hearing of the harvest 
of souls being reaped in Tinnevelly ; but it is well that it should 
bear in mind how the harvest became possible. It is in a great 
measure owing to the vigorous way in which that district has been 
worked by the Church of England for the last fifty years. In no 
other province in India has the Church of England been so well 
represented as in Tinnevelly. Before many native clergy were 
ordained, the S.P.G and C.M.S. had, as before stated, from seven 
teen to twenty European Missionaries labouring there at the same 
time. Many of these have been withdrawn now for the simple 
reason that the Native Church has made such strides that there are 
eighty-nine native clergy to help the present Missionaries. If the 
Church of England had taken up each province of India as it has 
taken up Tinnevelly, we should not, I venture to think, hear any more 
of the failure of Missions in India, or the small number of converts 
in different parts. Our Committee now wish to revive this old 
Mission ; but we can only hope to do it if we occupy the field with 
vigour. It is better to leave the work to others than attempt so 
great a work in a half hearted, desultory way. If we take Tinnevelly 
as an example of how a province should be worked, there should be 
ten European clergy in the district of Trichinopoly alone. 

But if we must be content with small beginnings, I will now 
mention some of the most urgent needs, in my opinion, of this 
portion of the district of Trichinopoly which has been entrusted 
to me. 

1. One European clergyman who would devote himself to religious 
teaching in the High School, during the hour devoted to religious 
instruction, conduct Sunday School there, and give lectures on 
religious subjects to the educated people of the town. Here is a 
wide and influential field for one man, and he could carry it on with 
out necessarily knowing a word of any Indian language. If he 
would learn Tamil, and Sanskrit, of course his influence would be 
the greater. 

2. Two Europeans to itinerate with native catechists or native 
clergy in the district, to preach, establish schools, &c. 

3. A house in the town of Trichinopoly to live in, with a large 
compound attached on which we can erect school buildings, e.g. 



ofiA Tn-hn<n I Mission Field, 

20 4 japan. [Aug. 2,100. 

boarding-schools for girls, and for boys, to be under our close super 
intendence. The girls will, we hope, be the daughters of respectable 
Christian parents, sent in from the town or from the villages. Some 
of them, we trust, will eventually become teachers, or, if not, will 
learn to take an interest in the welfare of the people among whom 
they live, as they do in Tinnevelly. Such a school for girls we know 
is much wanted. The boys also from the town and from the villages 
will be taught in the boarding-school till they are fit for the High 
School ; they will then be sent there daily for their secular instruction, 
and receive their religious instruction in the boarding-school, till 
they are fit to occupy some post in the Mission. The cost for such 
buildings will be about i,ooo/. 

4. Day schools for girls in various parts of the town. The cost of 
such schools will be about i2/. a year each pupil, as the salary of 
teachers will be higher here than they are in Tinnevelly. 

5. Some ladies to be Zenana teachers, to visit in the houses of the 
respectable families of the town : there is great room for this. 
We have access to some influential families already, and through 
these we shall be able to get to many others. A lady with a 
knowledge of medicine would be of great advantage. 



JAPAN. 

THE GREAT FIRE. ALARMING EARTHQUAKE. DISCUSSIONS. 

JAPAN continues to present a very promising field for Missionary 
operations, in which good and interesting work is done by 
our brethren. In a letter dated December 3rd, 1879, the 
Rev. W. B. Wright reported : 

"The work in the country is spreading wonderfully. Last month I 
preached at five new places. lida and the local Christians have esta 
blished a Chinese school, where the Bible is taught every day. Requests, 
too, come from regions beyond, which I have no time to attend to. 
Three men from the country are desirous of entering the training-school 
next year." 

His report for the quarter ending March 3ist, is well worthy of 
reproduction at full length : 

" In my last report I mentioned how mercifully we had been preserved 
in the awful fire which, on the 26th of December, burnt about 10,000 
houses. On that occasion the burning cinders, owing to the tremendous 
force of the storm which was blowing, lodged three times in crevices of 
the Mission-house ; but, owing to the carefulness of my servant man, 



Holy Discipline. 2 65 

a Christian, were put out. On the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6th, 
the Bishop of Yedo (Bishop Williams) held a confirmation for me at the 
Chapel of the Ascension, about five miles from here, when eleven Japanese 
received the laying on of hands. The eldest was a man aged eighty, the 
youngest a youth of fifteen. Two more were prevented by sickness one 
of them a blind man. The English service has been translated and 
published. Indeed, the services for Morning and Evening Prayer, 
Litany, Holy Communion, Public Baptism of infants and adults, Private 
Baptism, Church Catechism and Confirmation Service, are now all trans 
lated and printed. Furthermore, the Collects have been printed, and 
other services are under consideration. Since then the usual work has 
been carried on by me, viz. three Sunday services and one week-night 
preaching. In addition to this, I have taught the Evidences of Christianity 
every day in Bishop Williams s Divinity school. I have also made two 
visits (in January and March) to the province of Sagami. Or the 2ist 
of February, at i A.M., we were visited by the severest earthquake that 
has ever been experienced by foreigners resident here. The Japanese 
say there has been none like it since the celebrated one here in 1855. 
This last one, however, although a very alarming earthquake, was in its 
effects quite harmless compared with that of 1855. That one took place 
at night, too, and for some time after the ground all about was in motion. 
Thousands of people were killed. People have told me of their having 
seen those who had been caught by the hands or feet between pieces of 
wood, or in fissures, when trying to escape ; and the fires that ensued by 
the falling of the wooden houses were very destructive. It was followed, 
too, by a great tidal wave, which drowned many people. A gentleman 
who holds a high position under the Government of Japan, and is a 
friend of mine, told me that in 1855, when he was a lad at school in 
Tokio, he dreamed three times successively that he saw a large notice 
posted up, stating that many thousands of people had been killed in Tokio 
by some accident : and he told the schoolmaster, who laughed at him. 
However, he removed, and in a few days the awful earthquake and tidal 
wave occurring, that house fell in, and many of the inmates were killed. 
On the late occasion there were three shocks, the middle one lasting 
about one minute and a half. It is remarkable that while the houses all 
rattled and shook, and quivered fearfully, so that in Yokohama most of 
the chimneys of the foreign houses built on the heights fell down, those 
who happened to be out did not feel the shock at all. It extended over 
a hundred miles away to the west and south-west. There are awful 
accounts given of earthquakes in former times, the sides of mountains 
falling down, huge gaps opening, &c., c. Now of course there are all 
sorts of prognostications of another still more awful earthquake and a 
tidal wave. One result has been the formation of a Seismological Society 
here. On the 3ist of January my dear wife and daughter arrived back 
safely from England, and so now I am feeling more homelike, and have 
been rejoiced to hear of the interest people at home take in work so far 
away. 

" On Good Friday I gathered all my people who could come together 
at Ushigomi chapel ; after morning prayer I preached a sermon on the 
Passion, after which I restored to communion a woman who had been 
excommunicated for adultery about a year ago. On that occasion I 
assembled the Christians, and in their presence examined the woman, 
who, by the confession of her accomplice (a heathen) was found guilty 
(there being other testimony as well), and on her finally acknowledging 
her guilt, I took the verdict of the Christians, and sentenced her to 

NO. CCXCVI. T 



f Mission Field, 

. |_ Aug 2) 1880- 

suspension for a year. Since then her husband has taken her back, and 
she has been under discipline and instruction, on Sunday kneeling apart in 
the church and not joining in the psalms and hymns, or standing. On 
Good Friday I was obliged to extemporise a service, as the two Bishops 
(of Victoria and Yedo), when the matter was brought before the General 
Conference in May, 1878, had not seen their way yet to authorising a 
form for the Missionaries. So I followed the order of that authorised 
provisionally in Colombo diocese. First, I made a short address, then 
the woman came forward and read a confession, with request for restoration 
and promise of repentance. Then I called on her husband to signify his 
forgiveness, and asked for testimony ; this being given, we prayed for 
guidance and mercy. Then I took the verdict of the congregation by 
show of hands, and finally laying my hand on her head, pronounced the 
Absolution in the Visitation of the Sick. After this we had Meditations 
on the seven last words of Christ, with hymns and silent prayer from 
twelve to three. On Easter morning at Ichigaya chapel I administered 
Holy Baptism to one man, three married women and their five children ; 
twenty-five received Holy Communion. I was to have preached that 
evening in Mr. Shaw s church at an English service, but was unfortunately 
taken ill with dysentery, which laid me up for some days. Yesterday 
(April ist) I went to Yokohama and administered Holy Communion to 
eleven Japanese converts left in my charge by Rev. W. Garratt, late 
English chaplain at Yokohama, but now gone back to London. 

" On the 7th of January I went out to the country and visited Christians 
at the town of Fujisawa, and at the village of Ono, near Oyama (great 
mountain). I regret to say that the old farmer there, Yoshizawa, is not 
very satisfactory. He is a man of a good deal of influence, but I am afraid 
his religion is shallow ; and in consequence of that, and a feud of long 
standing, there is not much likelihood of much progress in Ono during his 
lifetime. There are six or seven baptised Christians in that village. I 
baptised the infant son of one of them on this occasion. I regret to say, 
however, that they do not keep the Lord s Day regularly. From thence 
the next day we went to Nakatsu, where I administered the Holy Com 
munion to four or five Christians. I went one evening across a mountain 
to preach at Kami Ogino by appointment, but when we arrived at the 
village mayor s we found he had been unexpectedly called away, so we 
had to return. On my return I found a young man named Shinozaki 
waiting to be made a catechumen, from a large village named Tana. He 
did not know I had arrived, but gladly put his seal to the covenant 
renouncing idols, c. We preached by invitation in the house of a rich 
man named Nakamura, and lent him the Gospel of St. Matthew. Also 
for the first time in a village about two miles away, called Kawairi, where 
about seventy people assembled. Then we preached at Tana in the 
house of Shinozaki, and so returned to Tokio. I went out again in March, 
round by Fujisawa and Ono to Nakatsu. lida had been staying in Ono 
for some days. He now moves about from village to village. We have 
arranged with one of the Ono Christians to become a Bible and tract 
colporteur. We had a long talk at Ono on Sunday morning with two 
village schoolmasters, who asked us to preach to them. They asked how 
they could pray to God, without knowing the foundations of belief in 
Him? After I had spoken about an hour on the Evidences of Deity, 
I requested one of them to state any difficulties that occurred to him. 
He said he believed in a Creator, but why did He allow man to fall into 
sin ? Why did He allow freedom towards evil? I said, Do you know 
why the Emperor lately made so many changes in the Government at 



M Aug i0 2, im. ] Unbelievers Doubts. 267 

Tokio ? No/ he said, but I suppose so and so. Well ! do you 
think he did wrongly, seeing that he had many facts and necessities 
before him that you know nothing of, and would not understand even if 
you knew them? No, he replied. Then/ I said, you must not 
expect to understand all that God does, with your limited capacity and 
knowledge. Even if you had the reasons before you, probably you could 
not understand them ; but suppose you married and had children, and 
taking those children, you warned them that in the outside world there 
were many bad influences which they must beware of, and then shutting 
them up in a beautiful chamber, gave them all kinds of food and toys 
and amusements, but locked the door so that they had no power of getting 
out, would that be right? No, he replied, that would be bad. 
But that is just what you want God to have done. As it is, in suffering 
man to fall through temptation, and not through sheer downright oppo 
sition, God broke man s fall, and gave him a chance of salvation. Then 
lida added, Suppose you shut up your children in a room where was a 
burning brazier (hibachi), and warned them not to touch the red charcoal, 
or they would be hurt. If they disobeyed you, would you be bad ? 
No/ replied he. Tell me/ he said, why God allows floods, earth 
quakes, famines and deserts ? Well/ I said, the late famine in China 
is a very good answer. Why did those Chinese cut down all their 
trees and not plant others ? Through that, the snows from the mountains 
melting, carried away the soil, and the rains did not come ; and then 
the people planted poppies, instead of sowing grain. So all these things 
have come through man s folly and disobedience to God s laws. This is 
a fair specimen of some of their doubts. They centre on the origin of 
evil, and the power of God. When we arrived at Nakatsu on Sunday 
evening (i4th) we had a nice little service. Three catechumens had been 
enrolled since my last visit, and there is a school where the Scriptures are 
explained every night. The next morning I administered Holy Com 
munion. That evening I preached at the village of Minowa ; six or seven 
came, among them the Buddhist Bozu. He was quite liberal ; said he 
believed in the Creator, and could not believe in transmigration of 
souls. 

" I preached on the three captives who were cast into the furnace for 
not worshipping the golden image. After the sermon I questioned the 

Sriest on the life of Sakhya Mouni. For a wonder he told me that Shaka 
apanese pronunciation) was born at Kabira. The Japanese generally 
say he was born in Ceylon. He did not, however, know where he died, 
or what he died of. This is not mentioned in the Japanese biographies. 
The two great popular doctrines of Japanese Buddhism are Ingwa 
(cause and effect) and umarikawari/ or rebirth. With regard to the latter, 
I always say that I go with them as to the present and the future, but that 
we have no evidence whatever as to rebirth from a previous condition of 
existence ; that, after all, the great necessity is to obtain new birth now 
out of the kingdom of darkness into that of light, so that finally we may 
be born into the future world in a state of happiness, but that they must not 
think souls enter other bodies by birth after death. I heard from the blind 
Christian at Fujisawa that he had a controversy on the subject with a 
priest of the Nichiren sect of Buddhists. The blind man said that of 
course if there was a soul of a dead man in every infant s body, as the 
number of men and so of souls was once very small, the souls would not 
be sufficient for the increase of population, unless the souls could be 
divided. And if this were done civilisation would not have advanced, 
as men s intellects would gradually decrease, as the souls became smaller 

T 2 



2 68 Gathering of Old Indians in London. f ?, 5$? 

and poorer. This silenced the priest, whatever may be thought of the 
idea. He said he would look into his books again. 

" On Tuesday the i6th, lida and I went with Saito to two villages right 
up in the mountains, some eight or ten miles from Nakatsu. These 
villages are named Aoyama and Nagatake (green mount and long water 
fall). We had to go over a pretty steep mountain pass ; when we arrived 
at Nagatake, the schoolmaster who with the mayor had invited us, said 
that in the meantime some opposition had arisen, and we could not have 
preaching, but he would go on to Aoyama to hear us. At Aoyama, un 
fortunately, it poured rain, and very few came. The schoolmaster is a 
Greek Christian, but cannot receive all their teaching as orthodox/ he 
says, so he left Father Nikolai s school and became a village school 
master. Some three years before he had come three times on Sunday to 
my preaching at Tokio. The next day we returned. On Thurday we 
went to Tana, where I preached at the house of Shinozaki from ten to 
twelve P.M. The next day we went to Tana Jiku, and that night went in 
torrents of rain to the house of the doctor, who with his pupils and 
patients gladly heard the Word. That night we returned to the inn up to 
our ankles in water. A furious wind with a deluge of rain blew all night, 
and shook our frail tenement, so that I feared to sleep. The next 
day I returned to Tokio. In the country there is still great bigotry and 
opposition, but the people certainly don t think so badly of Christianity 
as they used to. Still it is only pioneer work, and great results must not 
be expected for years. We are trying to plough the ground and sow seed, 
but the weeds of centuries are not yet plucked up. I am glad to say that 
the New Testament translation into Japanese has just been completed. 
None of the Old Testament is yet printed." 



GATHERING OF OLD INDIANS IN LONDON. 

WE think we may congratulate the Church in India upon the 
success which attended the gathering of old Indians in 
terested in her welfare and work, upon Tuesday, June i5th. The 
idea of the gathering first occurred to one or two of the Bengal 
chaplains now at home. There appeared, however, no possibility 
of managing it, through the want of a suitable place for the celebra 
tion of the services which it was thought essential should form a part 
of it ; but the Society came to the rescue by offering the use of 
the chapel, c., and then all the arrangements became extremely 
simple and easy. 

At the opening service at 11.30 A.M., which consisted of matins, 
sermon, and celebration of the Holy Communion, thirty-four clergy 
men and laymen were present, the Right Rev. the Bishop of Rangoon 
being the celebrant, and the Rev. Dr. Kay preacher. 

Dr. Kay s sermon will be found below. It was much appreciated, 
and quite struck the keynote of the object of the gathering, an 
aspiration that we might be privileged to be fellow-workers with 
GOD for the good of India. 



fsst 1 ] Gathering of Old Indians. 269 

The following special prayers were used both at the opening and 
concluding service : 

We beseech Thee, O Lord, to hear our prayers on behalf of all who 
are labouring in foreign lands for the spread of Thy Truth and the 
Establishment of Thy Kingdom (more especially on behalf of our brethren 
in India). Guide them in all difficulties, defend them in all dangers, 
endue them with courage, wisdom, and ghostly strength, and grant that in 
all their thoughts and words and works they may set forth Thy glory, and 
set forward the salvation of all men, through Jesus Christ, our Lord. 
Amen. 

O God, who hast made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell 
upon the face of the earth, and didst send Thy Blessed Son to preach 
peace to them that are afar off and them that are nigh, grant that all in 
India who have not the knowledge of Thy Truth may feel after Thee, and 
find Thee ; and hasten, O Heavenly Father, the fulfilment of Thy promise 
to pour out Thy Spirit upon all flesh, through Jesus Christ our Saviour. 
Amen. 

The service was over a little before 1.30 P.M., and an immediate 
adjournment was made to the Westminster Palace Hotel for luncheon. 

At the close of the discussion which ensued after the luncheon, it 
was resolved to form a Society of Indian Church Helpers, and to 
appoint a Committee representing, as far as possible, all the Indian 
dioceses; the Committee at present to consist of eight members, 
with power to add to their number, viz. General Maclagan, Colonel 
Gillilan, General Tremenheere, T. F. Punnett, Esq., Rev. E. Jacob, 
Rev. H. W. Crofton, Rev. J. Long, Rev. W. C. Bromehead, Secretary. 

The proceedings on June i5th were closed with a short service 
at 19, Delahay Street. An idea of what has been done since will 
be gathered from the following extract from the minutes of the 
Committee, which met for the first time on July i4th : 

I. The Secretary read the Minutes of the gathering on June i5th, 
which were signed by the Chairman. 

II. Read a letter from Dr. Kay, dated Great Leigh, Chelmsford, 
1 6th June, 1880, containing valuable suggestions as to the constitution 
and working of the Society. 

Upon this a discussion took place, and it was resolved : 

(1) That the name of the Society be " The Indian Church Aid 
Society." 

(2) That its object be to create and sustain among the English 
public generally, and especially among persons connected by property, 
residence, or otherwise, with India, an interest in the various depart 
ments of Church work in the several dioceses of the province of 
India and Ceylon. 



270 Gathering of Old Indians in London. [ M Aug:> Sso d> 

(3) That the Society endeavour to carry out this object by obtain 
ing from the Indian Bishops and other correspondents information 
about the progress and needs of the Indian Church, by circulating 
this information among old Indians and the public at home through 
occasional papers (or otherwise), and by receiving and forwarding 
contributions in aid of any branch of the Church s work in India. 
It shall, however, be distinctly understood that the action of the 
Society is in no way intended to interfere with the work of existing 
Church Societies, and agencies such as the S.P.G. and C.M.S., or 
the support now afforded by individuals thereto. 

(4) That subscribers be requested to specify the diocese to which 
they wish their donations to be appropriated, and if no special 
object be mentioned, that the money be remitted to the Bishop of 
the diocese to be assigned at his discretion. 

(5) That the general direction of the Society rest with a Com 
mittee elected at an annual meeting of the Society s friends and 
supporters, and that the Commissaries of the Indian Bishops be 
ex offitio members of the Committee. 

(6) That there be a religious and social gathering in London in 
May or June of each year of the Society s friends, and that arrange 
ments be made for the Holy Communion to be administered and a 
sermon preached on the occasion. 

It was determined to send the above, together with an account of 
the gathering on June i5th, to all the Indian Bishops, asking for their 
sanction and approval of the Society, and inviting them to favour 
the Committee with their counsel as to the best mode of interesting 
old Indians and the public in general therein ; and it was resolved 
that the Committee meet again in November to consider the Bishops 
replies, with a view to taking further action. 



Sermon by the REY. W. KAY, D.D., at the Gathering of Old Indians, 
Tuesday, June i$th, 1880. 

EPH. ii. 10. "Created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which GOD hath 
before ordained (marg. prepared), that we should walk in them." 

I. 

After Isaiah had seen in vision the judgments that were coming 
upon the earth, he remained calm in faith, saying, " Lord, Thou wilt 
ordain peace for us ; for Thou also hast wrought all our works in 
us." God s purposes regarding the advance of His Kingdom should 



Mission Field,] ^PniWn ? *7 T 

Aug. -2, 1880. J i^crmvn. 271 

in no way be interfered with, although the framework of the old world 
system appeared to be breaking in pieces. Empires built up by 
human skill by the military discipline of Assyria, or the commer 
cial enterprise of Tyre might be laid low in the dust ; but mean 
while there was a process going on, out of sight, in the hearts of 
God s people, the fruit of which was indestructible. The assurance 
of this gave confidence to the prophet s soul in that day of sorrow 
and gloom. 

So, too, it was with Paul. He knew that the time was come for 
" shaking not the earth only, but also the heavens." Now that 
Christ was seated at God s right hand, " Head over all things to the 
Church," all authority and power must needs be brought into sub 
jection unto Him. The deep-rooted systems of idolatry which the 
Prince of this world had established to be the pillars of his empire 
must be overthrown. Indeed, the work of destruction had already 
begun. Even the worshippers of the Ephesian Diana had been 
alarmed, lest "the Temple of the Great Goddess should be despised, 
and her magnificence should be destroyed." Still greater, we are 
sure, must the alarm have been which spread through the hosts of 
the invisible ranks of darkness. They had observed men, who were 
once the slaves of sin, rising up and shaking themselves free from 
the bonds of corrupt desires, and living sober, righteous, and godly 
lives. This was a strange fact that could not be overlooked. It was 
high time for them to set every engine in motion, to arrest the 
progress of this new and strange movement. 

Above all, it was necessary that a stop should be put to the labours 
of that seemingly supernatural being, Paul, So (God s all-wise 
Providence permitting it) commotions were raised, by which Paul 
was first of all driven from Ephesus, and before long confined by the 
chain of Roman law a prisoner during several years in succession. 

How then does the apostle view these circumstances ? He is kept 
in perfect peace, staying his mind undoubtedly on his God. The 
work he has been to accomplish is secure ; for it is God s work. 
The Ephesians had been chosen of God in Christ, before the founda 
tion of the world. They had been created in Christ Jesus to occupy 
a certain place in His great scheme, created unto good works, so that 
they should realise a divine ideal which had been traced out for them, 
and for which God had made provision, that they might walk in them. 
Neither for himself, therefore, nor for his converts need he be in any 
anxiety. God s gracious design should not miscarry as regarded 



272 Gathering of Old Indians in London. PSJa.iS? 

either himself or them. He, Paul, wearing his chain in the midst of 
Imperial Rome, was still filling up his appointed mission, and the 
Ephesians, if deprived of his help, were not the less able to accom 
plish God s will concerning them, since they were rooted and grounded 
in the love of Christ. God had created them " with a view to their 
performing good works," " to the praise of the glory of His grace," 
and His infinite wisdom had pre-ordained all needful ways and 
means, opportunities and facilities for carrying out His purposes, 
more especially as regards St. Paul himself. His detention at Rome 
did not hinder him from being employed in " good works." 

II. 

Who can tell how much even this single Epistle to the Ephesians 
has done for the edification of the Church of Christ during the last 
i, 800 years? Who can tell how many souls have been cheered and 
comforted, by the verse on which we are now meditating -by that 
verse, embodied as it is in one of our post-communion thanksgiving 
prayers? You remember the prayer, my dear friends. It begins 
with thanking God " for that He vouchsafes to feed us in those holy 
mysteries with the spiritual food of the most precious body and 
blood of His dear Son, our Saviour Jesus Christ, and assures us 
thereby that we are very members incorporate in the mystical body 
of His Son, which is the blessed company of all faithful people," 
after which it proceeds, " and we most humbly beseech Thee, O 
heavenly Father, so to assist us with Thy grace that we may continue 
in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works as Thou hast 
prepared for us to walk in" 

That surely is an animating and invigorating thought for all who 
have joined heartily in the Eucharistic service. 

We have drawn near the Saviour conscious of our shortcomings. 
We have once more received His absolution, sealed to us by the 
sacramental pledges. We have been again assured that we share in 
all the benefits of His infinitely efficacious sacrifice. In return we 
give ourselves up to His disposal, submitting ourselves wholly to His 
holy will and pleasure. 

But might not the thought steal in What after all can I do that is 
worthy of His unspeakable kindness? How can I prove myself 
Christ s disciple, by bringing forth much fruit that God may be 
glorified, in my narrow field of action, with my moderate abilities, in 
the face of so many obstacles how can I bring about anything that 






3 Aug i0 ?, im ] Sermon . 273 

shall tend to show forth the praises and excellence of God most 
High? 

All such despondent thoughts as these are excluded when we lay 
hold of the truth, that He who created us unto good works also 
furnishes us with openings and opportunities for performing them, 
that we, having all sufficiency in all things may abound unto every 
good work. If you have truly surrendered yourselves unto your God, 
as a living sacrifice, He will do in you that which is well-pleasing in 
His sight. He created you in Christ Jesus, unto good works ; He 
will not forsake the work of His hands. If you are truly zealous of 
good works, God will provide you with materials, instruments, and 
occasions, for fulfilling His good and perfect and acceptable will 
concerning you. If the very best that you do seem to you but poor 
and mean, yet, if it be what God has allotted you as your work, it 
has an intrinsic value in His sight, and shall at last redound to His 
honour and glory. 

III. 

The truth on which I have been dwelling is one that we, my dear 
friends, have reason to prize very highly. Small as our number is, 
we represent a large and varied amount of human experience. We 
take interest in questions which involve the welfare of hundreds of 
millions of our race. But the very breadth of our mental view may 
tend to weaken our practical energy. We see what mighty currents 
of secular activity are flowing around us on all sides. Nor is that all. 
We cannot but notice that men are looking with dismay, both in 
Europe and America, at the growth of lawless and godless opinions, 
which are showing themselves in varying forms, such as socialism 
and nihilism, scepticism and now again shameless and avowed 
atheism while beyond these, outside the pale of Christendom, there 
stands Mohammedanism brooding, in half despairing, half fanatical 
sullenness, and further off still are the latent forces of India and 
China, which may before long break forth and exercise a momentous 
influence in the future history of our race ; the temptation is strong 
to say, What can my individual efforts do when the masses to be 
operated upon are so overwhelming ? 

The Church s answer is, " Our hope is in the Lord our God, which 
made Heaven and Earth, who keepeth truth for ever. His wisdom 
ranges through all space and time. He perceives everything the 
vast and the minute. The same hand which arranged the forces of 
the solar system constructed the little wayside flower that looks up to 



274 Emigration. ElX 

you in its meekness of beauty. He foresaw of old your place in the 
Church of the nineteenth century, and He created you in Christ 
Jesus unto good works, for which He made provision that you might 
walk in them. You are not responsible for the general course of 
events in the world, but you are called to a diligent improvement 
of a certain specific amount of influence, be it small or great. If the 
days are evil, that is only a reason for deeper activity of mind. 
" See, then, that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, 
redeeming each present opportunity," as men who "understand 
what the will of the Lord is." Unquestionably God has created 
you with a view to good works, and has preordained the ways and 
means of your accomplishing them. He records them in His book 
of remembrance. If only you do your work in faith and love, it 
shall be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of 
Jesus Christ. 

Now the God of peace that brought again from the dead our Lord 
Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the 
everlasting covenant, make you perfect in every good work to do 
His will, working in you that which is well pleasing in His sight, 
through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



EMIGRATION. 

BY THE REV. JOHN BRIDGER, EMIGRANTS* CHAPLAIN AT LIVERPOOL. 

THE subject of Emigration is once again becoming an important 
matter, owing to the widespread distress at home among the 
agricultural classes. More especially is there a feeling of despondency 
creeping over the tenant farmers of England. And surely one 
cannot be surprised at this, as probably there is no other class of the 
community feeling the hardness of the times so severely as these 
farmers. I had, in my capacity as Emigrants Chaplain at Liverpool, 
met numbers of people leaving the old country owing to the fact, as 
they generally expressed it, of being unable to make both ends 
meet. But the great amount of distress prevailing was brought to 
my knowledge through some letters of mine on the subject of emi 
gration, which appeared in the daily papers. The letters I received 
on this subject could be counted by hundreds, and they nearly all 
told the same tale of suffering and hardship now being borne by so 



Mission Field,"! ^WliifPS nf SVv7 r> 1 C 

Aug. 2, 1880. J oeTZ zto ai ^>ca. 275 

many who were once in affluence. These poor people hailed with 
delight the prospect held out to them by my letters of being enabled 
again to recover themselves and do well in the world. I had strongly 
recommended them to emigrate to Canada, as I felt convinced, 
from a letter I had received from a brother clergyman in Manitoba, 
that that part of the world was the right one for our people to settle 
in. I soon gathered together a party of farmers and others, and 
determined to take the journey with them to Manitoba. I may add 
that most of the people going out with me had a little capital from 
ioo/. to 5oo/., or perhaps more. 

We left Liverpool on May 6th, by the Allan steamer Circassian. 
The ship was very full, over 1,000 passengers being on board. This 
is an immense, number ; but everything is so well arranged on this 
capital line that the discomfort of having so great a number in one 
vessel is reduced to a minimum. After leaving Ireland, we soon 
settled down to our ocean life. When I use the words " settled 
down," it must be understood that a good number settled down, 
but I am afraid that most of us at this time began to feel very 
unsettled. I was, however, able, with the assistance of a brother 
clergyman, to have three services on our first Sunday one in the 
saloon, and two among the emigrants. Several times during the 
week I went in the steerage, got the passengers together, sang a 
hymn and had a prayer, and it was touching to see how heartily 
these poor people would join in the singing. No doubt it brought 
home to many hearts the feeling in its strongest form that they were 
leaving " Home, kindred, fatherland, and all," behind. Many of 
them had been well brought up were Christians not only in name, 
but in deed and in truth. To these the short service was especially 
welcome. 

Before the next Sunday we had entered an immense field of ice. 
It was a grand sight, and worth the journey to see. We seemed to 
be living in the Arctic regions. Seals were disporting themselves 
around us, and it only wanted the short days to make us imagine 
that we were in winter quarters in close proximity to the north 
pole. 

Whitsunday 1880 will not soon be forgotten by those on board the 
good ship Circassian. The vessel was snugly if I may use the 
term in the ice ; everything was quiet, so that I anticipated a good 
service and attendance neither was I disappointed. The emigrants 
were invited to be present at the saloon service, and so many availed 



276 Emigration. t^S. 

themselves of the opportunity that room could not be found for all 
who wished to attend. The Venite, Te Deum, Jubilate, and hymns 
were all well sung, a lady passenger kindly and efficiently accom 
panying the " voluntary choir." It was not a difficult matter to bring 
home to the hearts of many of those present truths which perhaps 
would have but little interest for them on land. Our position was 
one well calculated to make an impression on the most indifferent. 
Never, I believe, has that grand hymn, " Eternal Father, strong to 
save," been sung with more real heartiness ; and when in the course 
of my address I spoke about the majesty of the Creator s work as 
seen all around us, and contrasted it with our quiet English homes 
and peaceful day of rest in the old country, where at this hour 
probably there were many fond, anxious, and loving hearts offering 
up prayers for our safety in the old parish churches we had left 
behind, the feelings of many a poor emigrant could not be restrained. 
I was thankful for the opportunity of speaking to such a number 
of human beings just starting afresh in a new land, and I endeavoured 
to use my opportunity in pressing home the necessity that if we 
wished to gladden the hearts of those near and dear ones we had 
left in England, it could only be done by our keeping in the paths of 
godliness, so that our meeting again hereafter may be assured to all 
Christians now sorrowing at home for us. 

The next day the captain, a most skilful sailor, determined to 
push to get into clear water, but to do this, great caution was necessary 
to prevent damage to the propeller. The captain and officers of the 
ship were equal to the occasion. Everything was beautifully managed. 
A start was made, and we went ahead slowly at first, but about noon 
en Monday we were leaving the ice behind. I may here mention 
that such is the strength of these noble ships that but little danger 
need be apprehended by being among the ice, and the novelty 
of one s position has a charm about it which must be felt to be 
appreciated. 

We reached Quebec early on Wednesday morning. My party was 
met by an agent of the line on which we- were to travel the greater 
part of our long inland journey of nearly 2,000 miles. The Minister 
of Agriculture, the Hon. J. H. Pope, had sent a letter to Quebec 
asking me to come on to Ottawa and see him. I did so, and received 
most kind attention and assistance from him and the Secretary, Mr. 
John Lowe. Mr. H. B. Small, of the same department, was also 
most kind to me. In fact, each of these gentlemen did his utmost 



sS ] Philadelphia Press. 277 

to make my journey a successful and pleasant one, and gave me 
letters of introduction to the different Government agents along our 
route of travel, telling them to render every assistance to me and my 
party. Unfortunately, some of our party were separated from the 
others, but having gone on to Winnipeg we heard that they were 
starting off for their land in good spirits. Those of the party who 
waited for me were met at Duluth, in Minnesota, by the Rev. L. O. 
Armstrong, who was to be the guide and adviser of the party with 
respect to the land on which the people could settle. We went on 
to the small, but rapidly increasing town of Emerson, in Manitoba, 
where we all remained for several days, most of the party making 
purchases to take with them to the place on which they intended to 
settle Emerson being the largest town near to the probable place 
of settlement. Here oxen, ploughs, waggons, and agricultural imple 
ments generally, were purchased. The waggons had covers affording 
a shelter by day, and tents were also carried in which to rest at night. 
These settlers would have a long journey of about 150 miles to go 
before reaching the land they intended to take up. I was sorry I 
could not go with them, but I had to get back to England as quickly 
as possible. I left them, however, in good hands. Mr. Armstrong, 
the clergyman who was to take the party through the country, was 
one who, we all felt, could be depended upon. He was kind and 
straightforward, giving the people going with him every information 
in his power. He was thoroughly acquainted with the country, and 
altogether was invaluable. Before I left, I had one or two good 
opportunities for seeing the land. I went to Winnipeg, and was 
kindly driven round the country by Mr. Ross. I was also driven 
out in the country about Emerson. This town, I may add here, is 
about sixty-three miles from Winnipeg. In my visits to the different 
places in Manitoba, but one kind of soil seemed to meet your view, 
and that was of the very richest kind. No one could imagine the 
marvellous richness of the land ; it must become, undoubtedly, the 
great wheat-growing country of the world. The people of the 
United States are not wont to speak in very high terms of the 
resources of their great rival Canada ; the following opinion should, 
therefore, have additional weight. It is from the Philadelphia 
Press : 

" The greatest wheat-growing region in the world is now being opened 
to settlement. The largest and most productive portion lies within the 
British province of Manitoba, in North America. It is sufficiently prolific, 



1 plissiun Field, 

i. [_ Aug< 2> 1880 

when fairly cultivated, to make England independent of the United 
States for breadstuff s, and to create a powerful rivalry elsewhere. The 
extent of this enormous and rich British territory is comparatively un 
known to the United States. It is estimated at 2,984,000 square miles, 
whilst the whole of the United States south of the international boundary 
contains 2,933,000. In the north-western prairies of Canada, wheat often 
produces forty to fifty bushels an acre, while in South Minnesota twenty 
bushels is the average crop ; in Wisconsin only fourteen, in Pennsylvania 
and Ohio fifteen. Within five years it is calculated that 4,000,000 acres 
of this fertile prairie land will be under wheat cultivation. This means 
an addition to the wheat products of the world of 100,000,000 bushels, 
being the amount exported last year from America. It is evident that 
our superiority as a grain-growing country is likely to be seriously 
threatened by the rich prairie lands of this North-Western British 
America, and it will make the mother country entirely independent of 
foreign supply." 

To those who, like the writer, know the country, these words do 
not exaggerate in the slightest degree the future of Manitoba and 
the North- West. Now is the time for men who enjoy the life of a 
settler to start off. Government will offer such advantages that 
(as a clerical friend living in Manitoba said to me a short time ago) 
"any man who can command about 2oo/. sterling, or even ioo/. on 
his arrival in Manitoba, has every earthly security of becoming 
well-off in five or ten years at the outside." Perhaps this is being 
over-sanguine, but I do not hesitate to say that a man with a small 
capital and with ordinary industry can become in easy circumstances 
in a very few years after his arrival in the country. Free grants ot 
land can at once be taken up. The following are the terms on 
which a settler can obtain land. 

Free grants are made to any male or female who is the head of a 
family, or to any male, not the head of a family, who has attained 
the age of eighteen years. 

The first block of 160 acres is given to every settler, either British 
subject or naturalised, on the single condition of three years residence 
on the land. Such residence is construed as being a " settlement " 
on the land, as indeed is reasonable, because some considerable 
portion of it must be brought under cultivation for sustenance, if for 
no other purpose; and when the first free grant has thus been 
" settled," the owner is entitled to the pre-emption of a further block 
of equal area at the price of $i (4$. i^d. sterling) per acre. But 
here is a further privilege to emigrants. If the settler in Manitoba 
will set out ten acres of trees the authorities being anxious to 
encourage forestry, alike for the greater salubrity of the climate and 
the profitableness of the timber he may secure a free grant of 160 



fast 1 ] Conditions of Land- Ten lire. 279 



2, as 






acres of land, and a period of six years is allowed for the planting 
of the stipulated quantity of trees. The land privileges in Manitoba 
may be epitomised in this way. The country is marked out into 
uniform blocks of one square mile each (640 acres), and it is 
assumed that these blocks will ultimately be taken up each by one 
farmer or family. For greater convenience the square-mile lot, 
called a " section," is divided into four parts, each being termed a 
"quarter section," The settler at once receives a free grant of a 
quarter section ; after he has been domiciled in this land for three 
years he may acquire the next contiguous quarter section on a 
deferred payment of $i per acre ; at any time within six years, if he 
should lay out ten acres with forest trees, he may secure a free grant 
of a third quarter section; and the fourth quarter section he may 
purchase at the statutory price of $i per acre. If the emigrant 
chooses to exercise his full privileges, therefore, he obtains 320 acres 
free and 320 acres at $T per acre, and thus becomes the absolute 
freeholder of a square mile of land. 

I have only to add that, with all these temporal advantages, the 
spiritual oversight of the settler will not be overlooked. To many, 
alas ! this is of little importance. They seek for wealth wealth to 
be obtained easily and care for nothing else. Like Lot, they are 
quite willing to pitch their tent towards a modern Sodom, if only 
their flocks and herds will increase. The duty of the Church is to 
prevent an ungodly colonisation. Our emigrants must be followed 
up and carefully attended. We lose too many from the fold through 
our colonists being neglected by the Church at home. I would 
earnestly ask the clergy in England to interest themselves in this 
subject of emigration. Year by year the number lost to the Church 
increases, because no one is told of the many Church people who 
leave our shores for a new country. For this reason I again appeal 
to those who may know of any that contemplate emigrating to see 
to it that every legitimate influence be brought to bear on the people 
leaving their old homes to induce them to settle in those parts of 
the world where their spiritual welfare will be considered. I shall at 
all times be only too pleased to give information and assistance to 
any who will ask for it. I have travelled through most parts of the 
great American Continent, and am thus enabled to speak from per 
sonal observation as to the advantages, temporal and spiritual, held 
out to the settler in that immense country. 

Would that some benevolent one would pay to the S.P.G. i,ooo/. 



280 Emigration. [ M i 

for the purpose of assisting the poor of our Church to emigrate 1 
Part of the above sum could be spent in buying land, which, together 
with the free grants, would enable one to take up a few thousand 
acres ; the remainder of the money could be spent in paying the 
passages, or assisting to do so, of those who are too poor to do 
much for themselves. Every week I am asked to help in this way 
those who are anxious to emigrate. Only this morning a letter 
reached me, seeking help to send out several young men who cannot 
find work at home. Already I have been enabled to form a nucleus 
for a Church colony. Several respectable farmers, as I have men 
tioned before, are settling down in a promising district in Manitoba. 
Many more would gladly go out and join them if means could be 
found. 

I must also add that, in my opinion, I know of nothing at the 
present time so practically philanthropic as the sending abroad of 
our poorer brethren to such a country as Manitoba. 

I hope to send out another party in the autumn or early spring, 
and will gladly communicate with any one desirous of joining. 

May I just say in conclusion that there is a wonderful increase 
this year in emigration from Liverpool. Will any of the kind readers 
of this magazine help me in my work of visiting the emigrant ships 
as they are leaving port ? I want old books, magazines, illustrated 
papers, &c., to give to the emigrant as he is leaving his native shores 
reading matter is greatly prized by him at such a time. The St. 
Andrew s Waterside Mission now employs in Liverpool two clergy 
men to see to this work and the kindred occupation of ministering 
to the sailors. Contributions are much needed, and I shall be 
pleased to afford to any desirous of knowing what this world-wide 
Society is doing, full particulars of its operations in Liverpool, 
London, and different parts of the world. 

J. BRIDGER, 

S.P.G. Emigrants Chaplain. 
St. Nicholas Church, Liverpool. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. F. H. T. Hoppner of the Diocese of Calcutta. 
Tara Chand of LaJiore; W. H. Gomes of Labuan, and W. Cowley of Antigua. 



Mission Field, 1 
Aug. -2, 1880. J 



28l 






MONTHLY MEETING. 

THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
]uly 16, 1880, Bishop daughter! in the Chair. There \vere also present the 
Bishop of Mauritius, Bishop Kestell-Cornish, Ven. Archdeacon Harrison, and the 
Master of the Charterhouse, Vice-presidents; Rev. B. Belcher, Ven. Archdeacon 
Blomfield, Rev. W. C. Bromehead, Rev. B. Compton, Rev. R. T. Davidson, 
Major-Gen. Davies, Sir W. Farquhar, Bart., Rev. J. W. Testing, T. Garfit. Esq., 
M.P., Col. Gillilan, Rev. J. Goring, Col. King, Gen. Lowry, Rev. J. F. Moor, 
Gen. Nicolls, Sir B. Robinson, Rev. Preb. Salmon, Rev. E. J. Sehvyn, Lieut. - 
Gen. Tremenheere, C.B., W. Trotter, Esq., Rev. R. T. West, Members of the 
Standing Committee; and the Revs.H.R.Blackett, W. Blunt, J. A. Boodle, J. Boodle, 
Esq., Rev. R. H. N. Browne, W. Calvert, F. J. Candy, Esq., T. Charrington, 
Esq., Rev. T. Darling, J. J. Elkington, C. C. Ferard, Esq., Rev. Dr. Finch, 
Lord Forbes, Rev. Canon Gee, C. D. Goldie, T. W. Herbert, A. C. King, Esq., 
Rev. H. H. Letchworth, T. O. Marshall, Admiral Robertson MacDonald, Rev. 
Canon Owen, E. B. Penfold, J. C. B. Riddell, Esq., Rev. E. Jordan, Rogers, 
W. F. Satchell, J. H. Snowden, C. R. Sowell, R. R. Watts, A. Wilson, and 
J. H. Worsley. 

1. Read Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of the Society s 
Income up to June 30, 1880 : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

I. GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. It. APPROPRIATED FUNDS, 
administered by the Society. III. SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the Society, but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 



January June, 1880. 


i. 

Subscriptions, 
Donations, and 
Collections. 


2. 

Legacies. 


3- 
Dividends, 
Kents, &c. 


Total 
RECEIPTS. 


Total 
PAYMENTS. 


I. GENERAL .... 




14.956 




5,200 




t,8s8 




22,014 




42,812 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


1,542 





i,936 


3^478 


4,164 


III. SPECIAL .... 
TOTALS . . 


17,683 





764 


18,447 


17,037 


34,181 


5,200 4,558 


43,939 


64,013 



B. Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of June in five 
consecutive years. 



I. GENERAL 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


I880. 


i. Subscriptions, c. . . . 
2. Legacies 


!3>274 

7.826 


ji3.7i7 

7,184 


14^50 

3,589 


i3,997 
3,76i 


l4,956 
5,200 
I 858 
















23,007 


22,941 


19,806 
10 868 


19,851 


22,014 
o .78 


III. SPECIAL 










1 8 4.47 








y, 4 






TOTALS .... 






^39 688 


/og 7 or 

















3. On the recommendation of the Board of the Examiners, Messrs. 
T. Rickard, J. P. Smitheman, S. T. Leathley, A. Logsdail. C. B. Jeaks, 

NO. CCXCVI. U 



2 8 2 Monthly Meeting. ["*; ST 

and J. A. Lindam, Students of St. Augustine s College, were accepted for 
Missionary work ; Mr. J. Cookson was accepted for Mission work in 
Gr-ihamstown ; and the Rev. W. }. Strickland for work in Maritzburg. 

4. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, a grant of 
3/. per month was made to Mr. Logsdail, to enable him to go to King s 
College, London, as Worsley Scholar ; and grants of 4O/. each were made 
to Messrs. Rickard and Smitheman, to enable them to continue their 
studies at St. Augustine s College, on the understanding that at the close 
of 1880 they proceed to whatever part of India the Society may see fit to 
send them. 

5. Leave was given to affix the Seal of the Society to a deed accepting 
the transfer to the Society of the Corpus of a Legacy. 

6. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, and with the 
approval of the Bishop of Liverpool, the Rev. J. Bridger was appointed 
Organising Secretary for the Diocese of Liverpool, vacant by the 
resignation of the Rev. H. Lomas, and also for the Diocese of Sodor 
and Man, subject to the approval of the Bishop of that Diocese. 

7. The Secretary, by the direction of the Standing Committee, laid 
upon the Table the following Report of the Special Committee on the 
Society s constitution, and announced that the Standing Committee 
recommended that the Report should be considered at the Annual 
Meeting, in February 1881. 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE SOCIETY. 

June i$th, 1880. 

THE Special Committee appointed at the Annual Meeting, held on 
February 2Oth, 1880, "to consider whether any, and, if any, what, changes 
should be made in the Constitution of the Society," beg leave to report 
as follows : 

(1) Your Committee have held a series of meetings, which have been very 
fully attended. 1 

In discussing the important and difficult subject committed to them by the 
Society, your Committee have endeavoured to go beyond the consideration of any 
recent events which may be conceived to have given rise to their appointment, 
and have looked rather to those essential changes which have taken place in the 
position of the Society since its original foundation, and which may have made 
some change in its constitution or practice necessary in order to adapt its machinery 
to existing conditions and circumstances. 

(2) The original conception of the Society appears to have been that of a cor 
poration of very limited magnitude, the members of which should meet monthly 
for the purpose of personally transacting all business connected with the great 
work for the furtherance of which the Charter of Incorporation was granted. 

1 The Members of the Committee were 

The Earl of Powis. *Rev. F. Bennett. | Rev. R. T. Davidson. 

Earl Nelson. Hugh Birley, Esq.. M.P. Rev. J. Goring. 

*The Bishop of Durham. I *Ven. Archdeacon Blomfield. I Rev. Canon Gregory. 
*The Bishop of Winchester. Rev. R. R. Bristow. C. Raikes, Esq., C.S.I. 

The Bishop of Carlisle. F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C. Rev. C H. Sale. 

The Bishop of Ely. Rev. E. Capel Cure. ! Rev. E. J. Selwyn. 

Sir Charles P. Hobhouse, Bart, j Rev. Dr. Currey. ! Rev. W. J. Stracey. 

Th -vse marked with a * were unable to be present at any of the meetings. 



283 

Nothing is said in the Charter as to the necessity for a Committee, it being 
apparently considered that the Secretary would act immediately under the directions 
of the Society. 

(3) The work of the Society has happily long outgrown the possibility of being 
managed in the manner above described, and the Society has a Bye-law by which 
it is ordered, "That there shall be a Standing Committee (three of whom shall 
be a quorum) to prepare matters for the consideration of the Society at its 
Monthly Meetings." This Standing Committee is now a most important part of 
the Society s practical machinery. 

(4) But in ad- Hti.jn to the growth of the work of the Society, concerning the 
advantage of which there can be no two opinions, another change has taken place, 
concerning which opinions may possibly differ, but which must be accepted by all 
as an accomplished fact. The Corporation, instead of being limited to a com 
paratively small number of members, the greater portion of whom might be 
expected personally to take a part in the Society s affairs, has now grown to such 
dimensions, and the residences of many members are so distant from London, that 
it is simply impossible that any considerable portion of the whole number of 
Incorporated Members should take part in the Society s Monthly Meetings. 
When your Committee state that the actual number of Incorporated Members, 
who have a chartered right to take a part in the Society s proceedings, exceeds 
4,500, residing in all parts of the United Kingdom, it will be seen that the 
carrying out of the provisions of the Charter in the manner which was originally 
contemplated, is absolutely impossible. 

(5) Your Committee have therefore considered carefully whether it is possible 
so to modify existing arrangements as to give the Incorporated Members as a Body 
more influence and consequently an increased interest in the Society s proceedings, 
without expecting the great mass of them to attend the Monthly Meetings per 
sonally. It is obvious that this end can only be accomplished by some system ot 
representation. In considering what this system should be, your Committee have 
endeavoured to follow as nearly as possible the lines indicated by the existing and 
past practice of the Society. 

(6) It will be remembered that the constitution of the Standing Committee was 
modified not very long ago by the enactment of the following Bye-law : 

" IX. a. That with a view to give the Members of the Society dispersed through 
out the country a more distinct voice in the management of the Society s affairs, 
and to encourage their interest in Missionary Work, the members resident in each 
diocese be at liberty to select, before the February meeting of the Corporation in 
each year, two of their own body, not being Vice-Presidents or paid officers of the 
Society, to represent them on the Standing Committee such election being subject 
to confirmation by the Society at its Annual Meeting ; and that each such diocesan 
election shall continue in force for a period of three years, unless a new election 
shall within that time take place. The election in each diocese shall be conducted 
by the Diocesan Secretary or Secretaries, in such manner as the Incorporated 
Members in that diocese shall determine." 

(7) The effect of this Bye-law, the working of which your Committee under 
stand to have been most satisfactory, has been to take a step in the direction of 
giving to the Standing Committee a representative character. Your Committee 
recommend that a further step should be taken in the same direction. According 
to Bye-law 5, in addition to certain official members, 1 "other members of the 
Standing Committee, not exceeding twenty-four in number, shall be elected by the 
Society out of its Incorporated Members." 

This election is made at the Annual Meeting of the Society in February, by 
those who may happen to be present at the meeting. Your Committee recommend 

1 The complete constitution of the Standing Committee is as follows : The President, Vice- 
Presidents (say 180), the Treasurers (3), the Secretary, 24 other members, whose election is regu 
lated by Bye-laws 5 9, and of whom 6 members are elected annually, and Diocesan Representa 
tives (at present 48 in number) elected under Bye-law IX.a. 



284 



Monthly Meeting. 



PMission Field, 
L Aug. 2, 1880. 



that the election should be made by means of a system of voting papers, so that 
the Standing Committee may be regarded as representative of the whole body of 
Incorporated Members, that is, of the whole Society. Your Committee think 
it unnecessary to enter into details, which can be easily arranged if the principle 
recommended be adopted. 

(8) Your Committee think that the Standing Committee, having been endowed 
with this enlarged representative character, should be expre>sly entrusted with a 
greater responsibility than that of simply preparing business for the Monthly 
Meetings of the Society. It is clear that practically much work must be done by 
the executive committee of any large body ; but your Committee think that there 
should be no doubt left as to the power of the Standing Committee to transact all 
such business as is not either by the Charter or by any Bye-law or Order of the 
Society reserved for the Monthly Meetings. Your Committee think it desirable 
that the quorum of the Standing Committee should be raised from three to ten. 
Your Committee therefore recommend 

That Bye-law 2 should be modified so as to stand thus : 

"That there shall be a Standing Committee (ten of whom shall be a 
quorum) x to prepare matters for the consideration of the Society at its 
Monthly, Quarterly, or Annual Meetings, and to transact all such 
business as is not either by the Charter or by any Bye-law or Order of 
the Society reserved for those meetings. " 

(9) Passing from the consideration of the Standing Committee, your Committee 
make the following recommendations concerning the meetings of the Society. 

They recommend that at the Annual Meeting a summary of the proceedings of 
the Society be presented for adoption in addition to the audited statement of 
accounts required by the Charter. 

For the more convenient conduct of the Monthly Meetings, they recommend 
that at the Annual Meeting three of the Vice- Presidents be nominated, one of 
whom shall take the chair at any Monthly Meeting in the absence of the President 
or of a Bishop holding an English see. 

(10) The next recommendation which your Committee have to report is one of 
a much graver character. They have arrived at it after much anxious discussion. 

It appears to your Committee that, following the principle enunciated in the 
fifth paragraph of this Report, they are bound to make provision for exceptional 
cases, and they cannot be too exceptional, in which questions are voted upon 
by those attending a meeting of the Society, that involve results so seriously 
affecting the best interests of the Society, not to say of the Church at large, 
that it is right to give the whole body of Incorporated Members the power of 

1 From the subjoined table it will be seen that during the twelve months ending April 30, 1880, 
there have been 26 meetings of the Standing Committee, attended by an average of over 21 
members, the highest number present at any meeting being 30 and the lowest 10. 



Meetin^ 
1879. A 



ig-s. 
VI ay 



June 
July 
Oct. 



Dec. 





No. 






No. 





present. 
25 


Meetings. 
1880. Jan. 8 




present,. 
16 




18 


,, i5 




19 




3 

21 


FA. i :: 




20 
22 




28 


,, 12 




22 




18 
18 






30 




J 7 


Mar. ii 




23 




10 


.. 18 




28 




13 


April 8 




21 




15 


,, 15 




18 




23 












25 


26 




552 




20 










23 


Average 21 


fc 





Monthly Meeting. 285 

expressing their opinion. Your Committee propose to give the members such 
power, but it is obvious that the provision by which this power is conferred should 
be accompanied with a security against abuse. They therefore propose a safe 
guard which, they believe, will be found abundantly sufficient, and which, they 
trust, will commend itself to the judgment of every member of the Society. 
Their recommendation is as follows : 

" It shall be in the power of any two members present at any meeting of the 
Society to propose that a poll of the whole Society be taken upon any specific 
question which has been voted upon at the meeting ; and in the event of such 
proposal receiving the support of one-third of those present at the meeting, a poll 
of the whole Society shall be taken by means of voting papers : provided that on 
subsequent reference to the President his consent shall have been obtained." 

(n) It appears that the question of membership at present involves two im 
portant practical difficulties. 

Bye-law 10 provides that any person shall be eligible for election who " shall 
have subscribed to the General Fund of the Society not less than one guinea per 
annum during each of the two years preceding the first clay of January of the 
year in which the recommendation shall be made." But when a member has once 
been incorporated, there is, on the one hand, no obligation upon him to continue 
his subscription (and many members have not, as a matter of fact, after election, 
continued to subscribe), and there is, on the other hand, practically no process 
by which he can cease to be a member, not even though he may have ceased to 
be a member of the Church of England. 

Your Committee therefore, following the principles laid down in Bye-law 10, 
recommend as follows : 

A. That in future the following be the qualifications for membership : 

1. Membership of the Church of England. 

2. Either (a) annual subscription of not less than one guinea to the General 
Fund of the Society two such subscriptions at least to have been paid before the 
subscriber is eligible, as provided by the existing Bye-law ; or (b] a donation of 
ten guineas or upwards in a single payment ; or (c) to be an incumbent of a 
parish, or a curate in charge, who shall have in his parish an Association in aid of 
the Society, or an annual collection, and who remits to the General Fund of the 
Society not less than two guineas annually ; or (d) recommendation by the 
Standing Committee, on the ground of important services rendered to the Society 
at home or abroad. 

B. That any member hereafter elected shall forfeit his membership if he shall 
cease to satisfy the qualifications laid down by the rules of the Society. 

C. That provision be made for the voluntary resignation of any Incorporated 
Member. 

(12) Your Committee are further of opinion that it would be well in the event 
of a Supplemental Charter being obtained by the Society that it should contain, 
in addition to such matters as have already been recommended and as cannot be 
effected otherwise, the following : 

(A) A clause for the abolition of oath or declaration. (See paragraph 7 of 
Charter as follows : 

" And that the said President and Vice-Presidents, and all Officers then elected, 
shall, before they act in their respective Offices, take an Oath to be to them 
administered by the President, or in his Absence by one of the Vice-Presidents 
of the Yeare proceeding, who are hereby authorized to administer the same, for 
the faithfull and due Execucon of their respective Offices and Places dureing the 
said Year.") 



286 Monthly Meeting. FEfSB? 1 

(B) The following clauses respecting property, of which the Society has on a 
former occasion expressed its approval : 

Tenure of Land. ( rt ) " fc shall be lawful for the said Society for the 

NoTE-The Crown would Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts and their 
probably not object to successors to purchase, have, hold, take, and enjoy manors, 
withdraw absolutely the messuages, lands, tenements, rents, advowsons, liberties, 
oAhe^anSr toTe^held 1 !) 6 P rivile S es jurisdictions, franchises, and other heredita- 
the* Society; but if ft did 7 rnents of any nature, tenure, or value, for any estate, term, 
the alternative clause be- or interest therein respectively, and whether or not the 
low in italics is suggested, same or any of them shall exceed the clear yearly value 
Power to sell, exchange, of 2,OCO/." 

lease, &>c. ["But so nevertheless that such of the said hereditaments 

as shall be held for an estate as of fee simple, together with 

such of the said hereditaments as shall be held for any term exceeding 500 years, 
shall not at any one time exceed in yearly value the sum of io,ooo/."J 

(b) "It shall be lawful for the said Society, for the purposes thereof, from 
time to time in their discretion to make sale or partition of, and to exchange, en 
franchise, mortgage, demise, or otherwise deal with all or any part of the manors, 
messuages, lands, advowsons, hereditaments, and property of or to which they 
shall for the time being be seised or entitled, and to accept surrenders of any term 
of years or other interests therein, and to dedicate any parts thereof to the public 
for roads, streets, sewers, drains, sites for churches or schools, or other like 
objects, and to sell, demise, take in exchange, and otherwise deal with any land 
and the minerals thereunder either together or separately, and to make or join in 
making any roads, drains, or sewers, and to lay out any of their land for building 
purposes ; and the said Society may sell as aforesaid, either by public auction or 
private contract, and either in consideration of any price or sum to be paid or 
secured, or of a rent-charge, or fee farm rent, and may in every case execute the 
powers aforesaid for such price or consideration with such payments for equality of 
exchange or partition at i-uch rent--, under such conditions and stipulations as to 
title or evidence, or commencement of title or otherwise, with and under such 
covenants and upon such terms in all respects as the said Society shall see fit. In 
particular the said Society may from time to time grant building, improving, or 
repairing leases of the same lands and hereditaments, or any of them, for any 
lives, renewable or not, or for any term of years in possession, and may enter into 
contracts for granting such leases at a future time, at such yearly rents and under 
such covenants and conditions as the said Society shall deem fit : and either with 
or without taking a fine or premium for any lease ; and such rents may be so 
reserved as to increase from time to time, and may be apportioned amongst the 
hereditaments compri>ed in any contract in such manner as the said Society shall 
see fit, and generally such leases may be granted and such contracts be made upon 
such terms and conditions in all respects as the said Society shall deem reasonable 
and approve." 

(c) A Clause giving the power of arranging by Bye-law the times of holding 
the Meetings of the Society. 

(13) Your Committee, having now suggested those changes which seem to them 
necessary or desirable, come to the question of the necessity of a Supplemental 
Charter. They have thought it right, in discharge of the dutyc mrrrtted to them, 
to submit their recommendations to Counsel, in order that the Society might have 
adequate guidance in determining the course which should be taken. 

The case was drafted by the Society s Solicitors, and after approval by 
F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., one of your Committee, was submitted to Sir John 
Holker and Edward W. Stock, Esq. ; the opinion can be seen in full, but your 
Committee believe that for the purpose of this Report it will be sufficient to quote 
the concluding paragraph, which is as follows : 

"The result is that in our opinion the recommendations of paragraphs (8) 
and (9) can be effected without further powers granted to the Society, but, that 



"SSflSSH Monthly Meeting. 287 

in order to adopt and give effect to the rest of such recommendations, new powers 
should be obtained from the Crown, and in case of application being made for 
such further powers, we are of opinion that there is no reason why such powers 
should not be granted by Supplemental Charter, enlarging and modifying that of 
King William III." 

(14) It is clear that the carrying into effect the recommendations of paragraphs 
(8) and (9) would not in itself be sufficient ; and your Committee have no hesi 
tation therefore in recommending that the necessary steps be taken for procuring 
a Supplemental Charter for the purpose of giving effect to their recommendations, 
or to such of them as the Society shall approve. 

(15) Your Committee desire to lay special emphasis upon the phrase Supple 
mental Charter. They have no desire to obliterate the Charter under which the 
Society has existed so long, and for which they feel great reverence. It would 
not be difficult to specify points in which it is antique, and arrangements which 
would certainly not have been introduced into a Charter granted by Queen 
Victoria ; but they shrink from any recommendation which would have the effect 
of modernising that which is old and venerable. 

(16) Before concluding their Report, your Committee think it right to notice a 
suggestion which was made in the course of their discussions, and upon which 
the opinions of the members were nearly evenly balanced. It was suggested that 
it would be advantageous to the Society that the Archbishop of Canterbury should 
be ejc-officio President of the Society, and that the Archbishop of York and 
the Bishops holding English Sees should be ex-officio Vice-Presidents. Your 
Committee have on the whole declined to make this recommendation, while they 
do not deny that much may be said in its favour. 

(17) Finally your Committee have the satisfaction of assuring the Society that 
the recommendations contained in this their Report have been adopted with 
remarkable unanimity. 

HARVEY CARLISLE, 
Chairman. 



In furtherance of the recommendations contained in this Report, the 
following Resolutions are suggested for adoption by the Society : 

I. That the twenty-four Members of the Standing Committee, men 
tioned in Bye-law 5, be elected by a system of voting papers. 

II. That the Standing Committee, besides preparing business for the 
Monthly Meetings, have power to transact all such business as is not, 
either by the Charter, or by any Bye-law or Order of the Society, 
reserved for those meetings. 

III. That three of the Vice-Presidents of the Society be nominated at 
the Annual Meeting, one of whom shall take the Chair at any Monthly 
Meeting in the absence of the President or of a Bishop holding an 
English See. 

IV. That on the proposal of two members present at any Meeting, any 
question that may have been voted upon at that Meeting may be sub 
mitted to a poll of the whole Society by means of voting papers, provided 
that the proposal receive the support of one-third of the members present 
at the Meeting, and the subsequent consent of the President. 

V. That in future the following be the qualifications for membership : 
i. Membership of the Church of England. 2. Either (a) an annual 



288 Monthly Meeting. KS i7l df 

subscription of not less than one guinea to the General Fund of the Society 
two such subscriptions at least to have been paid before the subscriber 
is eligible, as provided by the existing Bye-law ; or (&} a donation of ten 
guineas or upwards in a single payment ; or (c) to be an incumbent of a 
parish, or a curate in charge, who shall have in his parish an Association 
in aid of the Society, or an annual collection, and who remits to the 
General Fund of the Society not less than two guineas annually ; or 
(d] recommendation by the Standing Committee, on the ground of 
important services rendered to the Society at home or abroad. 

VI. That in future members ceasing to fulfil the qualifications of mem 
bership shall forfeit the same. 

VII. That provision be made for the resignation of membership. 

VIII. That the Oath or Declaration of Office be abolished. 

IX. That the powers of the Society to purchase, hold, or otherwise 
deal with lands and the like, be extended. 

X. That the times of holding Meetings of the Society be regulated by 
Bye-laws. 

XI. That a summary of the Proceedings of the Society be presented 
for adoption at the Annual Meeting. 

XII. That steps betaken for obtaining a Supplemental Charter for the 
purpose of putting in operation the Resolutions now adopted by the 
Society. 

XIII. That the carrying out of the preceding Resolutions be entrusted 
to the Standing Committee. 

H. C. 



8. Leave was given to the Standing Committee to transact business of 
importance during the recess. 

9. The Bishop of Mauritius and Bishop Kestell-Cornisb took leave of 
the Society, in view of their speedy return to their respective Dioceses. 

10. The Secretary announced that the Rev. R. Wahl, having bee a 
selected for the purpose by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, 
had left England for work amongst the Nestorian Christians. 

IT. All the Candidates proposed for election in May, were elected into 
the Corporation. 

12. The following Candidates were proposed for election in November: 

The Rev. E. J. Reeve, St. Peter s, Stockport ; Rev. Joseph Henry, D.D., 
18, Longford Terrace, Monkstown, Ireland ; Major H. Smalley, R.E., 14, St. 
James s Square, S.W. ; Samuel Veasey, Esq., Baldock ; Rev. G. E. Egerton 
Warburton, Warburton, Warrington ; Rev. W. Lees, Sidlow Bridge, Reigate ; 
Rev. Arthur Guest, Lower Peover, Knutsford ; Rev. C. L. Dundas, Charlton 
Kings, Cheltenham ; Rev. R. N. Milford, East Knoyle, Hindon, Wilts ; Rev. 
W. H. Barlee, Billinghurst, Horsham. 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



foifr w i\t foorl^. &t mb is fyt W&atb of 




SEPTEMBER i, 1880. 

CAPETOWN. 

BISHOP JONES VISITATION. 

|HE energetic Metropolitan was once more on a visitation 
tour when he last wrote to the Society. His letter, which 
was dated from Beaufort on the i4th May, contained 
much encouraging information, from which we select the following 
as giving a general idea of the results of his journey, and of the 
outlook in the diocese : 

" I have visited the parishes of Paarl, Ceres. Victoria West, Prince 
Albert, and Oudtshoorn, and am now at Beaufort, whence I go to 
Fraserburg, and so home again. It is a tedious journey, the dis 
tances in this part of the diocese being so great. At Oudtshoorn I 
consecrated a pretty and well-built chancel. It is a thorough 
English village church now. The Mission work at Paarl, under 
Mr. Curlewis, as well as that at Klein Drakenstein, under the 
catechist Mr. Jenkins, are strong, flourishing, and thorough. I am 
glad to say the English congregation at Upper Paarl, under Mr. 
Clark, is steadily increasing. A movement is now on foot there 
and very necessary it is for enlarging the church. The work 
goes quietly on at Ceres, not making any rapid growth, but it is 

NO. ccxcvii. x 



290 Grahamstown. 

satisfactory, and the people united and doing their best. At Victoria 
the work is still, as it always has been, very small ; but I confirmed 
ten candidates, the largest number I ever had there at one time. 
The Synod meets next month on the Feast of St. Peter, the anni 
versary of Bishop Gray s consecration. I am a little anxious about 
it; but I have no reason to be otherwise than hopeful." 



GRAHAMSTOWN, 

THE KAFFIR INSTITUTION. WORK IN THE RURAL DISTRICTS. 

THE report of the Kaffir Institution at Grahamstown, furnished 
to the Missionary Conference last year, presents so many 
features of interest and encouragement that no apology is needed 
for transferring the greater part of it to our pages. 

" The number of names upon the books during the past year have been 
forty-one, viz. : 6 Kaffirs, 19 Fingoes, 12 Basutos, 2 Bathlapings, i Moro- 
long, i Matabele. 

"At the present time there are thirty-one resident, four having left 
during the quarter just closed. The numbers from one cause and 
another have not increased as was hoped last year. The long-continued 
drought, which so greatly impoverished the natives, and the great 
.distance Grahamstown is from the chief Church Missions, and from the 
Transkeian Fingo Locations, are probably the chief causes of the small- 
ness of the numbers sent here for education. The payment of school 
fees, amounting to from 5/. to 6/. per annum, is insisted on, and as a 
general rule these amounts are readily paid, although during 1877 and 
1878 the amount of arrears was considerable, owing, no doubt, to the 
hard times. ^72 19^. is the actual amount received during the year, but 
about 307. arrears has since been paid up, and about the like amount 
promised shortly. There can be no doubt whatever that a very large 
proportion of the natives are well able to pay the small sum asked, and 
that there is no better way of teaching them the true value of education 
.than by insisting upon their paying for it. 

"NATIVE THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS. 

" On Mid-Lent Sunday the Bishop ordained to the diaconate in St. 
Philip s Church, Grahamstown, the two theological students who for the 
past three years had been under the care of the theological tutor, the 
Rev. Chancellor Espin. Both of them had in every way given the 
highest satisfaction to the Institution authorities during their time of 
probation. The Rev. William Philip still remains at the Institution, as 
Assistant Master, and since the resignation of the late Second Master, 
Mr. J. T. Pocock. at the end of last year, he has most ably and con 
scientiously carried on the work of the Institution, whenever the Prin 
cipal has been absent on duty. The Rev. Daniel Malgas left immediately 



So? ] Kaffir Institution. 2 9 1 

after his ordination to assist the Rev. A. Maggs at St. Luke s Mission, 
Newlands. 

" Barnabas Mzileni, the only student at present in residence, arrived 
at the beginning of 1879, an< ^ tne S.P.C.K. has promised a grant towards 
his maintenance. 

" Good use has been made of our small theological library, not only 
by the native students, but also by some of the clergy of the diocese. 
During the past year a few more standard works have been added. 

" A great number of copies of the S.P.C.K. Plain Commentary on the 
Old and New Testament have been sold to natives at cost price, and are 
still in demand. 

"A supply of Kaffir Prayer-books has been lately received at the 
Institution, and can be obtained at the following prices : single copy is., 
or los. per doz. 

" GOVERNMENT EXAMINATION. 

" The school was inspected and examined by the Government In 
spector about a year since, and he was able to report very favourably 
of it. 

" There was only one candidate for the Government Examination for 
Elementary Teacher s Certificate last September Philip Tshacila, from 
All Saints Mission, Transkei who obtained a certificate with honours, 
standing 66 in the Honour List. (Eight lads have been examined during 
the past week, but with what result is not yet known.) 

"The four lads who passed in September, 1877, have all been employed 
as schoolmasters one on the Herschel Mission (Provisional certificate), 
and the other three in the Bloemfontein dio:ese. 

"NIGHT SCHOOL. 

"The night-school for the apprentices and lower boys in the school is 
still carried on, and considerable progress has been made since last year 
"by some of the Basuto apprentices. Several servants in the neighbour 
hood avail themselves of this school. 

" On the whole I am able to report that a good deal of honest work 
has been clone by the boys, especially by some of those who were pre 
paring for the Government Examination, and who have worked most 
diligently out of school hours. 

" It is with the greatest regret that I have to note that at Easter it was 
necessary to flog and expel from the Institution six boys who had been 
guilty of gross immorality during the Easter holidays. Since that time 
the conduct of the boys, especially during the past quarter, has been all 
that could be desired. 

"The lady-matron from England retired from her work, after a year s 
trial, and since then her duties have been carried on as before her 
arrival. 

"INDUSTRIAL WORK. 

The Carpenter^ Shop. There have been only six apprentices during 
the year, and of these two left in March. The other four have made 
considerable progress in their trade, under the very able instruction of 
Mr. Thomas Card, who took over the work on November i8th, 1878. 
Although it has been widely made known that more apprentices could be 
received here, no applications have been made for admission. There 
seems to be an objection on the part of many lads to be apprenticed for 
so long a period as four years, but very little would be learnt by them in 

X 2 



Grahamstown. 



L Mission Field, 
Sept, 1, 1810 , 




. S5 



? ] Ka ffi r Institution. 293 



a shorter period certainly not enough to enable them to gain an honest 
livelihood by their trade. 

" The gross amount of work done during the year by the instructor and 
apprentices amounts to about yoo/. The work has been of various kinds, 
including many branches of the trade doors, windows, verandahs, a 
large plank and iron dining hall, painting and general repairs of the 
schoolroom and dormitories, dining-tables, fencing, &c. &c. For the 
present many orders have been obliged to be refused, as the entire staff 
will be required to complete the carpentry work of the proposed additions 
to the Institution buildings. 

"The special grant of 2OO/. per annum from the S.P.G. ceases next 
year, 1880. It is hoped that a smaller grant of say 5o/. per annum will 
be continued, as the work is hardly self-supporting yet, but it is hoped 
will soon become so. 

" The Gardens. The two hours manual labour from 2 till 4 P.M. daily 
have been carried on with great success. Many of the lads have become 
first-rate hands in using the spade, and notwithstanding that the drought 
continued during the first six months of the year for which our report is 
given, 767. 2-s 1 . jd. was received for produce sold, chiefly potatoes, for 
which a ready sale has been found. The new lands, purchased in 1877, 
have been well worked, and an enormous crop of potatoes was yielded, 
a great part of which is still for sale. Of course with the return of good 
seasons, and plenty, the produce is not likely to yield so large a sum 
during the current year. 

" The Fowl Yard. The sale of eggs and poultry amounted to i2/. Ss. 6d. 

" The Printing Press. Since the departure of Mr. J. T. Pocock, who 
undertook the care of the printing press, we have been unable to make 
use of it. With so many presses at work in the town, it does not seem 
advisable at present to start printing as a separate branch of industry. 

" INSTITUTION PROPERTIES. 

"No further additions have been made to the property of the Institu 
tion. But since the last conference the house in Constitution Street has 
been put in thorough repair, considerable alterations and improvements 
have been made a new dining-room, pantry, and kitchen having been 
added. The whole of the rooms have been ceiled with boards, repainted 
and papered, new fencing erected, and drains laid down at the cost of 
about 3oo/. It is now let for 8o/. per annum. ,^100 of the debt upon the 
Institution has lately been paid off, and it was hoped that it would have 
been reduced still more, but it has become necessary to use the money 
in making additions to the dwelling-house, which will be greatly improved 
thereby. The liabilities at present amount to 1,3607. js. $d., viz. : 

f Mortgages ...... "1,000 o o 

Loan from Chapel Fund ... 310 7 5 
Loan without Interest ... 50 o o 

All transfer dues, &c., upon the properties have been paid, but on two 
the transfers have not been completed, owing to the mislaying of some 
of the diagrams. 

" The chapel fund now amounts to 507 /. 13^. jd. It was purposed to 
have laid the foundation-stone of the much-wanted chapel this year, but 
its building has been deferred for a few months, owing to the absence of 
the architect in England. It is estimated that at least i,ooo/. will be 
required to build this House of God. J 



294 Grahamstown. PSftSS! 

"The premiums for insurance of the Institution properties will for 
the future be made a charge upon the funds of the Institution. The 
town and divisional rates and house duty form a large item of expenditure, 
as since the passing of the new Municipal Act the buildings are no 
longer free. The total rates for the past year upon our properties 
amounted to 37/. Js. lod. 

"In conclusion I would wish to place on record the valuable assistance 
I received during five and a half years from Mr. J. T. Pocock, my late 
second master, from whom we parted last year with, I hope, mutual 
regret. Many that were taught by him here will, I feel sure, ever re 
member his labour in their behalf. We wish him every success in his 
new sphere of life." 

The Rev. R. J. Mullins, the Principal of the Institution and 
writer of the above, has supplemented it in a letter by the following : 

" Before the outbreak of the war with the Galekas and Gaikas in 
October, 1877, our numbers were over fifty. There were natives here 
from all the tribes surrounding the colony, and there seemed every reason 
to believe that the numbers would still further increase. However, the 
war broke out, and many of the lads did not return from their Christmas 
holidays. Many left altogether, because their parents could no longer 
afford to send them to school, and the drought which set in just at the 
same time was also a great hindrance. The number during 1878 was 
only thirty-six, and during 1879 it fell to thirty. We have ample accom 
modation here for sixty, so that it is rather disheartening to see the 
schoolroom so empty. There are, however, other reasons besides war and 
drought to account for the smallness of our numbers. 

"When we began the Institution in 1860, there were only two other 
such schools on the frontier ( ? Nicholtown), belonging to the Wesleyans, 
and Lovedale, Free Church. But now there are so many of a like nature 
close to the very doors of the natives, and Grahamstown is so distant 
from the Mission field, that naturally they prefer a school nearer home. 
The Free Church has opened a vigorous branch-school in the Transkei, 
the Wesleyans a most successful one at Canterbury, also in the Transkei. 
At Newlands Mr. Maggs has a capital boarding-school. There is 
another at St. Mark s, under Archdeacon Waters, and Mr. Taberer is 
just going to start one at St. Matthew s. 

; Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that my numbers have 
decreased. Still, whilst the supply has greatly ceased from Kaffraria, a 
new source has been opened within the colony. I have lately received 
several lads from the western part of the diocese ; and there are here now 
seven boys from Graaff Reinet,two from Somerset, five from Port Elizabeth, 
and six from the Peddie district. Four Morolongs have been sent to me 
from Bloemfontein. Our present number is thirty, and now that war 
seems to be over, and the copious rains have removed all fear of drought., 
I hope that matters will take a turn for the better. 

"At the last Government Examination three of the lads obtained the 
certificate, and two a provisional certificate for two years. I hope next 
September that I shall have four to pass two in the honour list, and two 
pass. These examinations are useful in one way, but a hindrance in 
another. They are useful in that they give the boys a standard to work 
up to, a hindrance in that we are obliged to keep them very much at 
work upon the subjects they have to be examined in, to the exclusion of 



"aSSt S ] Kaffir Institution. 295 

much that would be most useful to them as native catechists. The 
Government very properly require a fair knowledge of English. The 
papers have to be answered in English, and Kaffir and Basuto are only 
optional subjects. Of course the Europeans have a great advantage over 
the natives. Had they to do their papers in Kaffir not many would pass, 
I fear. It is very hard work teaching a native the mysteries of MorelPs 
English Grammar, and that fearful book, Morrison s School Management. 

"The Rev. William Philip, the Kaffir deacon, who has been with me 
over ten years, and was educated here, is most useful to me in everyway, 
and in my absence carries on the work of the Institution right well. 

" Our day is thus divided : 

" Matins, 7 ; and after that Scripture lesson till 8. 

"8.15 Breakfast. 

"9 to i School. 

" i to 2 Dinner. 

11 2 to 4 Manual labour in the garden. 

"4 to 6 Recreation. 

"6 Tea. 

"6.45 to 8.30 Evening preparation. 

" The apprentices hours are 

Wfoter 1 " 7 to 5 } With an hour for breakfast and dinner - 
" Some two or three have made very fair progress in their trade, but 
the time at first fixed three years only is a great deal too short for them 
to learn a trade like carpentry fully. They are all now thoroughly repair 
ing the Institution buildings, which have not been touched since they were 
erected in 1873. I have a most excellent carpenter, who takes the 
greatest pains with the lads, and will not pass over slovenly work. 
Several of my lads have found employment in the Government service as 
constables and interpreters but like all natives, they are fond of change, 
and like wandering from one employment to another. 

"A great effort is being made now to teach the natives to become self- 
supporting as regards their own clergy. We have a Native Ministry Fund, 
and though only in its infancy yet, many of the native congregations 
send down very fair sums quarterly to it. We made a very great mis 
take years ago in not insisting upon regular contributions from all con 
verts. We are sadly wanting in our Church in a system for the regular 
collection of small offerings towards the ministry. At home we are en 
dowed, and have not yet learnt the art of teaching people to give regularly. 
This is the case not only with the natives, but more particularly with the 
Europeans. I don t know how they imagine a parson lives. I wish they 
would only inquire. They have an idea that if they provide loo/, per 
annum the Bishop ought to be able to provide a first-rate man for them, 
and he is expected to pay perhaps 5o/. for his house, keep a horse, and 
contribute most liberally to all charities. However, matters are at last 
upon the mend, and it is time they were." 

That Mr. Mullins time on week-days is well employed, the above 
makes manifest. Nor is Sunday a day of rest with him, as will be 
seen from his graphic account of the work going on in the rural 
districts of the diocese : 

" In October, 1869, I offered to assist the late Rev. G. Thompson, the 
curate of the Grahamstown rural districts, and it was agreed that I 



296 Grahamstown. fiStiJm 

should visit Fort Brown once a month, distant about eighteen miles. 
In 1870 I took over two more stations and farmhouses, in the neighbour 
hood of Hilton and Manley s Flat. Good Mr. Thompson was called to 
his rest in June, 1874^ after twenty-five years incessant labour amongst 
the farmers and villages around Grahamstown. The fruit of his work is 
now being reaped, and will be for many generations to come. Upon my 
return from England in 1875 * again took up my old stations, and also 
some others which had been regularly visited by Mr. Thompson. 

" I was able to visit them only once a month myself, but the Grahams- 
town clergy have kindly helped me to keep a fortnightly service going at 
one of the nearest stations. The inclosed programme will show how the 
Sunday work is arranged. 

" i si Sunday in the month. St. Peter s Church, Hilton, distant twelve 
miles from town. This church has been open now three years. It is 
built in memory of the Rev. George Thompson, by subscriptions from 
various friends; but the majority of the money (over cpo/. ) has been 
provided by three or four farmers in the immediate neighbourhood. It 
stands upon the rising ground, about a quarter of a mile from Hilton 
farm house. The ground was given by the owners of Hilton. The 
church is Norman, and will, when fitted up, seat about 100. The average 
congregation is about fifty ; sometimes as many as seventy. This is the 
station that is visited on the third Sunday in the month by one of the 
Grahamstown clergy. The church is built of stone, pointed inside and 
out ; floor, cement ; roof, timber and thatch. We hope shortly to ceil the 
church, as the thatch is bad for sound. The chancel is already fitted up, 
a most handsome altar-cloth having been presented by Miss Couplestone, 
of the Bloemfontein Sisters. The windows are stained. Altogether 
it is one of the most complete tittle churches in the diocese. S. Street, 
Esq., of Grahamstown, was the architect. There were fifty-five com 
municants last year, and there are seventy-six upon the list. Many of 
these, however, are passers-by, or visitors. The offertory collections for 
the year ending Easter, 1872, were I9/. us. 2d., and increased to 
72/. 17^. ^d. Easter, 1879. This year the amount is 77/. 6s. yd. 

"The farmers in the neighbourhood are some of the most intelligent in 
the colony, and have contributed generously to the Church Building 
Fund, and also to Diocesan Funds, as you will see by inclosed memo. 

" The Holy Communion is celebrated here upon the first Sunday in 
the month, and the greater festivals. 

" On Good Friday I had a congregation of thirty-five, and on Easter 
Day, Canon Espin, who took the service, had twenty-three communicants. 
There would have been more, only the deluge of rain we had on Easter 
Eve prevented many from travelling so great a distance. Many who 
attend regularly have either to leave home at five in the morning, or on 
Saturday night. 

" Directly service is over here I ride on to Highlands, about ten miles 
in a south-westerly direction. There we hold service at present in the 
waiting-room of the railway station. The congregation are hoping, 
however, speedily to erect a small chapel, that they may have a place of 
their own ; and C. H. Hubly, Esq., the Civil Commissioner of Grahams- 
town, has promised the land upon which to erect it, as the most con 
venient spot will be a corner of his farm. The congregation here con 
sists almost entirely now of farmers from the neighbourhood. As it is 
held at three in the afternoon not a very convenient hour for people 
living at a distance the numbers vary much. On a fine afternoon as 
many as thirty attend if the weather is threatening, about fifteen. Still 



Si,i88o d ] Work in the Rural Districts. 297 

they are most thankful for my visits, and last year presented me with a 
purse containing over 8/., in token of their sympathy with me in a great 
family loss I then sustained. I held the first service here September 3rd, 
1876. Mr. Thompson used to have a service in the neighbourhood in 
the morning, but working as I am, single-handed, I cannot afford a 
morning. After service, a ride of about sixteen miles across open 
country brings me back to town, for I cannot make use of the railway. 

" 2nd Sunday in the month. Middleton Carlisle Brodyn, on the Fish 
River, is the station I visit on this Sunday. It is distant thirty-two 
miles from town, and of course I have to ride there on Saturday evening. 
This again is the revival of a service held in the neighbourhood for many 
years by Mr. Thompson. During a protracted drought many farmers 
had to more away with their stock, but now they have taken up a new 
employment ostrich farming with very great success ; and on Septem 
ber 30th, 1877, I visited them again for the first time. The building in 
which Mr. Thompson held service has been pulled down, but Mr. J. O. 
Norton, of Middleton, kindly placed his house at our disposal. The 
congregation averages about thirty. The farms here are very large, and 
those attending have to drive long distances over most fearful roads. 
The nearest farm to Middleton is about six miles, but some travel as 
much as sixteen to be present at service. At present the service is held 
in Mr. Norton s dining-room ; but those attending have already subscribed 
about 4oo/. towards the building of a church, and I hope to-morrow when 
I go there to hear that they are ready to begin work. As I have made 
it a rule in my ministering not to celebrate the Holy Communion publicly 
in private houses, I can give no list of communicants. I am glad to say, 
however, that many of this congregation are communicants at St. Peter s, 
Hilton, which is about twenty miles distant. There are very large 
families of children growing up in this neighbourhood, and I am very 
glad that they should have Church ministrations amongst them. Directly 
the church is built I intend to organise a Sunday-school amongst them. 
The great difficulty of carrying this out is the distance people have to 
travel. Say a farmer lives twelve miles distant ; he must then leave 
home at 9 A.M., to be in time for service at n for you cannot drive or 
ride over these roads more than six miles an hour, with any comfort. 
Say service is over at i ; two hours drive brings it to 3 P.M. If they 
remain to Sunday-school it makes it later still, and all the stock and farm 
duties have to be attended to. 

" Directly after dinner I have to leave for town a six hours ride one 
half of it generally in the dark. 

" I make it a rule, if possible, to reach home Sunday evening, so that 
I may begin work on Monday at 9 A.M. Sometimes, however, especially 
in the winter months, this is impossible ; but I am always welcome at 
any of the farms lying half-way to town. Once or twice on very dark 
nights I have completely gone astray ; but my old steed Van Tromp, 
who does all my work, now knows the roads so well that he will bring me 
safely home on the darkest night. Unfortunately he is getting old and 
stiff, and I fear I shall have to replace him with a new steed ; and all the 
farmers tell me I shall not find his like in a hurry. It is wonderful 
how fond one becomes of the horse that is your companion over 
so many miles of country, and generally your sole companion. Last 
year out of the 2,324 miles I had to ride on Sunday duty, he carried 
me 2,260. 

" yd Sunday in the month. St. Peter s, Sidbury. The village of Sid- 
bury lies to the west of Grahamstown, on the old road to Port Elizabeth. 



298 Grahamstw-w. [ST, SSf* 

The distance is as near as possible thirty miles. It was originally one 
of the Government Chaplaincies, and even now a clergyman draws 2OO/. 
as Government Chaplain for Sidbury ; but he has not been near the 
place for years, and lives some twenty-five or more miles distant, at a 
place called Alexandria. The village consists of eight cottages (including 
two parsonages), a Wesleyan chapel and the church. The church is a 
large plain stone building, roofed with slate ; large square windows, and 
of anything but ecclesiastical architecture. It is, however, most sub 
stantially built, and we have now greatly improved the interior. This 
station for many years \vas visited by Mr. Thompson twice a month. I 
took service there for the first time in October, 1875, ar >d have continued 
a monthly visit regularly ever since, keeping also Christmas Day and 
Easter Day. My work here is most encouraging. The congregation 
averages from sixty to seventy ; many of the Wesleyans attend this, 
service. 

" My excellent churchwarden, Cuthbert Rippon, Esq., one of the salt 
of the earth, reads services on the first Sunday in the month. The 
Wesleyans hold service in their chapel on the second and last Sunda>s, 
and I visit on the third. The people here have great distances to come, 
but are most regular and punctual in attendance. Easter Eve I rode 
clown, but when within six miles of Sidbury was obliged to take refuge 
for the night at one of the farms, as it came on to pour in torrents. The 
drought has just broken up, and we are getting more than enough rain. 
Fortunately it cleared on Easter Day only occasional showers, but the 
roads were running streams. Many of the more distant among the con 
gregation were unable to attend service. Still over sixty were present, 
and I am glad to say there were twenty-six communicants. There are on 
the roll forty-nine communicants, about twenty being most regular in 
their attendance. Others, from their distance from the church, or from 
what cause or another, are not so regular. In the afternoon (Easter Day) 
we had evensong at three, and I spoke a few words to the children 
present. There was a congregation of fifty-five, many having remained 
to attend the afternoon service. Generally I have to start directly after 
morning service, in order to reach home (thirty miles) that night. From 
Easter 1876 till November last year, however, I had another station 
Alicedale. This is a railway junction, where the branch line turns off to 
Grahamstown, from the main line between Port Elizabeth to Cradock. 
In 1875 the construction was begun. When I first visited the place in. 
1876 there were two or three wooden huts- -one stone Government store 
(in which we held service), and numerous tents. From month to month., 
however, the place grew wooden huts being erected in all quarters ; 
some have disappeared, others still standing. The chief engineer, Mr. 
Mason, entered very kindly into ah my plans and wishes, and I estab 
lished a monthly service on my Sidbury Sunday at 5 P.M., Alicedale 
being about twelve miles from Sidbury ; and latterly we have had a cele 
bration of the Holy Communion at 8 A.M. on the Monday morning. The 
congregation here was never very large, and I never had any time to 
visit the residents and become personally acquainted with them, as I had 
thirty-four miles ride to town on the Monday over very bad roads. 
However, it kept the Church alive there, and now the railway is opened 
the Rev. W. Impey is enabled to visit it regularly every month, and spend 
two nights there. 

" For the past three years we have used a large wooden room for 
service, and I was also able to obtain a grant from the Government 
towards a school. The scholars are not numerous but they are better 



sSttSS! ] Work in the Rural Districts. 299 

in school than running idle about a railway camp. However, this has 
now ceased to be under my charge. 

" Arth Sunday in the month. Fort Brown. This is my oldest out- 
station. I first visited it in October, 1869. It is one of the old military 
posts on the main road to Fort Beaufort, and is on the banks of the 
Great Fish River, where there is a bridge. When I first visited it, and 
for some years after, it was garrisoned by an officer and part of a troop 
of the Frontier Mounted Police ; but these have been removed else 
where, and the attendants are the neighbouring farmers only. The con 
gregation has dwindled down to sixteen or twenty. The majority of the 
fanners in that neighbourhood are Dutch. The greater part of the 
congregation consists of the family of Mr. Arthur Douglass, one of our 
most energetic Ostrich farmers, and also a great benefactor to the Church. 
His farm is about seven miles from the Fort, and I have been medi 
tating removing the service there, as I believe it would be nearer to- 
several other English farms ; but as for several reasons the immediate 
inhabitants of Fort Brown would be unable to attend, I at present defer 
making any alteration. Fort Brown is only eighteen miles from town, 
so that I am able to ride there and back in the same day, easily. 

"5/7* Simday in the month. Mauley s Flat. When five Sundays 
occur in a month I visit a place about nine miles from town to the 
south-east. There I built a small chapel-schoolroom, to contain about 
fifty, some years ago, but soon afterwards the Wesleyans restored a chapel 
a mile off, that had been destroyed in the war, and as the majority of the 
folk in that part are Wesleyans, the Church congregation gradually fell 
off. At the beginning of last year (1879) therefore, I placed Middleton 
with its large congregation as the station to be visited on the 2nd 
Sunday, and only go to Manley s Flat once a quarter. 

"About a mile or so beyond my school-chapel, Manley s Flat, lives a 
very respectable Fingo, named Sam, who carries on a native service in 
his own kraal. Whenever I visit the Flats, therefore, I take an after 
noon service at Sam s, at 2 P.M., and there are generally from sixteen to 
twenty people present. I inclose herewith the Annual Statement for 
Hilton and the Rural Districts, and also for Sidbury, for 1879 that for 
the past year not being printed yet. 

"We have for years at these stations always had a collection for 
S.P.G., for I tell the people, year by year, it is owing to my receiving a 
stipend, as Missionary, that I am able to visit them on the Sundays. In 
fact, altogether, from the several congregations a very respectable sum is 
raised for diocesan and extra-parochial purposes. I should be very glad 
to see a resident clergyman at Sidbury. It is an important centre, but 
very poor. The farmers in that quarter are amongst the poorest in my 
district. I fear, therefore,. unless Sidbury is tacked on to some other 
station, or village, it will never possess a clergyman of its own again. 
The situation is dull and dreary, although there are some lovely spots 
and delightful scenery within walking distance. It is a part that would 
well suit a middle-aged man, fond of riding, and reading, and to whom a 
stipend was no object. Should you know such a one ready to work pro 
Deo, please tell him of Sidbury, and save me my sixty miles ride per 
month. I shall, I hope, continue my visits there till I can hand over my 
congregation to such a man, for I should be sorry to see it crumble away 
again. In October last the congregation of Sidbury presented me with 
a most warm and sympathizing address, and a present of 2i/., to show 
their sympathy. Such spontaneous acts are very cheering to us. I 
most thankfully report that my health is very good, and, save a six weeks 



300 Maritzburg and Zululand. 

cold, in September, 1878, I have not been obliged to miss but about two 
appointments, whatever the weather might be. It is only by being 
regular and punctual that such services can be maintained. People who 
have driven ten or twelve miles to service feel naturally aggrieved if the 
parson does not turn up. 

"At Sidbury, Easter, 1879, the parishioners presented Mr. C. Rippon, 
the churchwarden, with a handsomely-bound copy of Wordsworth s 
Commentary, as an expression of their gratitude to him for regularly 
reading divine service upon the first Sunday in the month. I can only 
add, that in addition to my school work, I have, in the evening, to work 
at the Diocese and Mission accounts and correspondence, being sole 
Diocesan and Missionary secretary. Lately the Board has also made me 
treasurer of nearly all the diocesan funds, and this is a very great help to 
me in my work, as before I had to run after various treasurers for 
accounts, and they were seldom free to give them in when wanted. 

" I am glad to report that our diocesan funds seem inclined to improve 
at last, and have, since the Synod, taken a decided turn for the good." 



MARITZBURG AND ZULULAND. 

A SAD BEREAVEMENT. THE SPRINGVALE MISSION. PROGRESS AT 

ISANDHLWANA. 

WE had already marked for insertion in this number of our 
magazine a letter written at the beginning of the year by 
the Rev. William Greenstock, of Springvale, which we believed 
would be acceptable to our readers, when the sad news reached us 
of the subsequent death of Mrs. Greenstock. The circumstance 
adds a sorrowful interest to the narrative of our Missionary s return 
to his work. The poor lady had but just joined her husband 
at Springvale with their children, after a journey of great anxiety 
and fatigue, when she took a chill in visiting a sick child ; upon 
which paralysis supervened, the consequence, no doubt, of all 
she had recently undergone; and she passed away on the 2ist 
of April. Those who know the bitterness of domestic trials, even 
amid the alleviations of life in happy England, will not need to be 
asked for sympathy and prayers on behalf of those to whose grief 
is added the manifold hardship of Missionary exile. 
The following is the letter of Mr. Greenstock : 

" My second trip to South Africa was a great contrast to my first ac 
quaintance with the ocean when, a quarter of a century ago, I sailed with 
Bishop Armstrong to his distant diocese. A voyage which was then 
really formidable, at all events to me, from its delays and discomforts, is 
now expeditious and pleasant . But having to leave my family in England, 






d> ] Mr. GreenstocKs Voyage to Natal. 301 

it was with a heavy heart that I started from London on the evening of 
October 2nd, and went on board Donald Currie s steamer the Dunrobin 
Castle at Dartmouth next day. The steamer was crowded with first, 
second, and third class passengers. I was fortunate in the companions 
of my cabin, one of whom had a letter of introduction to me from a 
friend of Missions. On the first Sunday the captain read prayers in the 
forenoon, and I held service in the evening ; but on the other Sundays I 
conducted both services. I preached twice, and celebrated the Holy 
Communion once (in the early morning). There were four communicants. 
Every morning, weather permitting, we had prayers on the quarter-deck. 
This service was much appreciated by a few. There was a Moravian 
Missionary on board, and two Roman Catholic clergymen the one Irish, 
the other French. The latter was well up in the history of the Anglican 
orders. The officers exerted themselves for the amusement of the pas 
sengers in the way of concerts, plays, and games ; and one evening a 
Cape magistrate and myself gave lectures on our South African expe 
riences. Sunday the 26th found us in Capetown, and I had the pleasure 
of taking part in the Cathedral service, and renewing my acquaintance 
with the Dean, Canon Lightfoot, and Mr. Bindley, the Precentor. Cape 
town seemed the one tranquil spot in the South African Church. Un 
fortunately the Bishop, whom I have never met, was away on visitation. 
Though the time was short I managed to see the Governor and Lady 
Frere. Deeply do I regret that so good a friend as Sir Bartle Frere has 
no longer in his care the government of Natal. 

" On Monday afternoon the Natal passengers were transferred to the 
Lapland. The voyage along the coast was exceptionally good. The sea 
was as smooth as a river, and the moonlight gave the scenery at night a 
wondrous charm. In Algoa Bay we remained only twenty minutes. 
Sorry I was not to see my many Port Elizabeth friends, and especially 
grieved to miss Daniel Mzamo, the native deacon of St. Stephen s. But 
fair as our coasting had been, a different experience awaited us at the 
Natal anchorage on October 3ist. A south-easter Avas on, and prevented 
our landing ; and a tremendous sea broke over our bows, nearly washing 
a passenger overboard, and flooding the saloon. Next day the wind had 
changed, and blowing off the shore made landing possible, and we were 
taken in a steam-tug over the bar into the beautiful bay. It was a striking 
scene. All Saints Day is a public holiday in Natal, and boat-loads of 
people were crossing from the Point to the Bluff on pleasure bent. But 
there were features reminding one of the stern realities of war, through 
which the colony had so recently passed. A regiment of sunburnt soldiers 
was embarking and leaving Natal, doubtless with little regret. A fresh 
breeze gave life and motion to everything except our tug, for that stuck on a 
sandbank, and we had to be transferred to boats to reach the quay, where a 
sharp look-out had to be kept for the luggage that came ashore in uncertain 
detachments. The Customs officers were obliging, and facilitated matters 
as much as they could. My things were got at last to the station, and I 
went on by rail to Durban. My reminiscences of the climate were any 
thing but pleasant, and led me to get away from the sandy sun-baked 
town as soon as possible ; so I determined to spend the Sunday in Pine- 
town. The train started almost to the second. I could hardly believe 
such punctuality possible in a country whose national anthem is said to 
be Wait for the Waggon. Such a winding railroad I never saw before. 
The ascent from the coast being by a succession of steppes, a direct line 
is of course out of the question ; but this does not entirely explain the 
strange ^meandering. At present one hears the railway spoken of as a 



302 Maritzburg and Zululand. [SS?i,28? 

mere toy, though some expect great things from it when the coal district 
is tapped. During and since the war the small portion of the line already 
completed has been extremely useful for the transport of troops and stores. 
Pinetown presented a different appearance to its quiet dulness of 1875, 
the white tents of the military camp showing well in the beautiful land 
scape. Right glad to have escaped from Durban, I Avas pleased to have 
a quiet Sunday and visit the aged and faithful clergyman, Mr. Walton, 
giving him what help I could. He has a small school for natives, which 
is a good specimen of what may be done by colonial clergy for the 
coloured people. The railway extending at present only to Botha s Hill, the 
rest of the journey to Maritzburg was performed in an omnibus. I reached 
the capital on the Monday evening, and was sent to the Presbyterian 
minister s house by mistake, as I was supposed to be a Scotch Evangelist 
who was expected the same day. The Bishop was absent on visitation in 
Alfredia, but I soon found myself hospitably received by Archdeacon 
Usherwood. By great good fortune Mr. Johnson, the catechist in charge 
of Springvale, was in Maritzburg, on his way from Isandhlwana, where he 
had been prospecting for a Mission, and I was able to go on next day 
in his trap. The journey from Maritzburg to Springvale took two days 
Richmond being the stopping-place on the Tuesday night. It is a pretty 
village, but absurdly small for such a name and position. The Diocesan 
College for Girls is delightfully and healthily situated, and it is a pity that 
it has not been more successful financially. Richmond has a nice little 
church, and a very energetic clergyman. The River Umkomazi is the 
boundary between his parish and that of Springvale. In crossing it one 
was made sensible of being in the midst of heathendom. A large number 
of bridles were being carried across by natives. These had been stolen 
from a white man s waggon, and recovered through the agency of a seer, 
who is quite an institution amongst the Natal natives. Marvellous stories 
are told of the success of such diviners in discovering stolen property, 
and they are often applied to by Europeans. The seer s consultation fee 
is said to be one shilling (strikingly similar to the fourth part of a shekel 
of silver ), though the applicant may give as much more as he likes. 
The bridles had been found, in accordance with the divination, in the hut 
of a road-party. The scenery of the Umkomazi valley is of the grandest 
description ; but it was impossible to enjoy it properly on account of 
the great heat. It was a weary day, getting to Springvale as it lies off 
the line of traffic the road leading to it is little attended to, and the last 
climb has the evil pre-eminence of being called Satan s Hill. However, 
the Mission was reached at last on the evening of November 5th thirty- 
three days from the date of my leaving Dartmouth. It was a great change 
from the damp and cold of the English climate. Fire-flies flitting here 
and there through the night-air told of the different conditions into which 
one had been so quickly transported. 

" Springvale is so called, not from the abundance, but the scarcity of 
water. It means that there is no perennially flowing river, dependence 
having to be placed on springs, and this is a great drawback in a country 
subject to droughts several years in succession. Irrigation is an impossi 
bility here except at a vast expense. The parsonage-house is a very good 
one, but too low in its situation, a constant fault in European building. 
The heat is at times intense, whereas on the hill, or even a few hundred 
yards up the slope, there will be a refreshing breeze. There are a great 
many straggling buildings, a good deal out of repair. A stone church is 
in progress, but it has got no higher than the window-sills. A room, thirty- 
six by eighteen, is used as a school and chapel, and has done duty in this 



Mission Field,! 
Sept. 1, 1880. J 



Springvale Mission. 



33 



way for twenty years. In front of this building is preserved the mimosa 
(thorn-tree) under which Bishop Callaway first preached. The Mission 
estate is three thousand acres part of this was a grant from Government, 
and part the gift of Bishop Callaway. The natives who live on this land 
are the residuum after the best have been drafted off to Kaffraria and 
Griqualand East. 

"The heathen element is very strong, and the Christian population 
have had great difficulties to contend with in their surroundings, and it is 
not to be wondered at if they have fallen off from a former higher 
standard. Beer drinkings are a great evil. A man has a brew from 
Kafir-corn, and the whole of his neighbours flock to have a share, invited 
or uninvited. Quarrels soon arise, and often end in a free fight. A 
dispute or debate, is most exciting. To give effect to an argument they 
have a way of striking one finger against another, with a loud report, an 




MISSION HJUjE, 3?RINV\LE. 



accomplishment that would create a great sensation were it introduced 
into English oratory. The fear of witchcraft weighs like a heavy burden 
on their minds. It may be remembered that when the Deacon, Umpen- 
gula, died, the people were with difficulty restrained from killing a man 
who was suspected of having bewitched (or poisoned) him. And now 
there is constant ill-will between neighbours on what we should think 
truly absurd grounds for instance, if a person after walking by another s 
house turns back without any apparent reason he will be suspected of 
exerting an evil influence. The natives having been originally permitted 
to squat and cultivate without payment there has been great difficulty in 
getting them to contribute something towards the support of the Mission. 
Mr. Jenkinson very properly insisted on this in the case of new tenants, 
but they do not take kindly to it, and it will be a fruitful source of trouble. 



3 04 Maritzburg and Zululand. ; ; 

Polygamy is common, and is an evil with which I was very soon brought 
face to face. I had to declare my determination not to permit it for the 
future, but a number of men were equally explicit in declaring their in 
tention of taking other wives as they put it, to have many children to 
go to school and to fight for the Government. 

"The Mission is governed by a code of rules drawn up in 1875. To 
assist the Missionary in maintaining order there were to be meetings 01 
the Ibandla, or elders of the Mission, both Christian and heathen, in 
council, whenever required through any complaint having been brought 
by neighbour against neighbour. These meetings are stormy scenes 
sometimes, and I dispense with them as much as possible. Three head 
men were appointed one as the head of the council, another to look 
after the gardens, and the third acted as a policeman. But quis custodiet 
custodes ? I have found it necessary to dismiss one of them for setting 
a bad example in drinking habits. 

" There is no Church Council of a purely spiritual character, but this will 
be formed in time, and it is hoped that they will come to regard religion 
as a matter independent of residence on a station. The Communicants, 
during November and December, averaged seventeen. The celebration 
is sometimes early, sometimes in the forenoon, and every Sunday when I 
am at home. The other Sunday services are Matins and Evensong, each 
with an address. The attendance at the forenoon service is from fifty to 
sixty. On Christmas Day, one hundred and fifty of all ages were present. 
The daily morning service, at seven o clock, is attended by fifteen to 
twenty adults. Their behaviour during service is good, and the responses 
are congregational. The Litany is used on Wednesdays and Fridays on 
other days Matins. There is an English service every evening. 

"Miss Fox, quietly and perseveringly teaches the girls of the day- 
school, and holds an evening school as well. It is a great thing that there 
is no prejudice here against the education of girls. The boys are taught 
by two native men, one of whom has a fair knowledge of English. He 
was educated at Zonnebloem. There is little enthusiasm among the 
people for learning, and it is rare to find a grown-up person who can read 
Zulu with fluency. There are seventy-five children on the books the 
average attendance is twenty-seven. 

" There is an out-station, called St. Elmo s, on a private farm, where 
a man named Friday is teacher, He seems an excellent person as to 
disposition his literary power is small or undeveloped. He acts as 
Reader at Springvale, in my absence. His difficulties at St. Elmo s are 
immense. The people there are utterly averse to allowing their daughters 
to be taught (though they have no objection to their attending service on 
Sundays), and they put every obstacle in the way of the boys coming to 
school. Still Friday s influence must in time work a change, and I am 
by no means in despair about St. Elmo s. The principal European 
settlement of this district is at the Ixopo or Ikopo. That is the seat of 
magistracy. The Wesleyans are before us there in systematic endea 
vours to supply the spiritual needs of the people, and they have built a 
chapel. We are late in the field, but if we could only station a Reader 
there to keep up regular services we might recover lost ground. With 
many it is the English Church or nothing. A white man said to me, If 
we cannot have the English Church we sink back into a cold natural 
religion. I go to the Ixopo once in three weeks or a month, and there 
are indications that the visits of a clergyman are appreciated. 

" Among the events of these two months, I may mention the visit of 
the Bishop, soon after my arrival, when his lordship inducted me into the 



g> d> ] Bloemfontein. 305 

charge of the Mission before the people. It was a happy thing that 
there was this visible delegation of the pastorate, and the effect on the 
people was excellent. On December 9th there was a Thanksgiving for 
the restoration of peace to the colony. A collection of i/. was made for 
the Church and Mission about to be established at Isandhlwana." 

From Bishop Macrorie we have farther news of the commence 
ment of the Isandhlwana Mission. He wrote on the 3rd of May : 

" I am thankful to say that Mr. Johnson has already erected three 
h u t s one for himself and his wife, one for Mr. Ransom, and one 
for native servants and cooking purposes. He has also constructed 
two tents, one for school and services, and the other for a dining- 
room. And he is engaged in building of stone a house and school- 
chapel. His congregations of Zulus on Sundays have been very 
encouraging, and the Zulus come in groups every day to talk to him 
and ask him questions. Hlubi and his tribe of Basutos have not 
completed their removal to their new district, as the crops in the 
old country have not yet been gathered in ; therefore, meanwhile the 
Zulu population absorb all Mr. Johnson s attention. I hope in a few 
days to hear that Mr. Ransom has reached Isandhlwana from 
Utrecht, where, since his recovery, he has been engaged in winding 
up Mr. Alington s affairs." 



BLOEMFONTEIN. 

BISHOP S VISIT TO BASUTOLAND. NEED OF CLERGY. BISHOPRIC 

ENDOWMENT FUND. ZULU CONVERTS. WORK AT PHOKOANE. 

THANKS to the interesting Quarterly Paper (July) of the Bloem 
fontein Mission we are enabled to lay before our readers the 
following extract from a letter of the Bishop, addressed to the friends 
of the Mission, with an account of his Lordship s visit to Basuto- 
land : 

"BISHOP S LODGE, BLOEMFONTEIN, 

"June lotfi, 1880. 

" Since my last letter was written I have been able to pay my long- 
delayed visit to St. Augustine s, Modderpoort, and our North Basutoland 
Missions, as well as dedicate the new church of St. Cyprian s at Kimber- 
ley. Canon Crisp, who accompanied me on my Basutoland journey, has 
sent some description of the present circumstances of the places and 
work which we visited in the course of it. We have very much to be 
thankful for in seeing what God has wrought, and we have been also 
most strongly impressed by coming face to face with the great fields for 

NO. CCXCVII. Y 



3 o6 Bloemfontein. 

loving energy and enterprise, as well as for that patience of hope which 
is the best test of the true devotion of the Church to her Lord. 

" There are no grander fields for Mission work than where our clergy 
are labouring in Basutoland, with thousands and tens of thousands of 
heathens around them, in a glorious country, and withal a bracing 
climate, but nowhere where the special grace of patient hope and con 
tinuance in quiet, enduring, faithful testimony to the Truth of the Gospel 
of the Kingdom is more necessary both for the few who labour in the 
work, as well as for those without whose aid they could not remain. The 
harvest will surely come, but the breaking of fallow ground and the 
sowing time may last through even more than one generation. I must 
urge you to be prepared for this trial of your faith, and at the same time 
ask you to pray that our Lord may send more labourers into that region 
duly furnished with what the campaign requires, as well as supply what 
is lacking to those who have already planted the standard of the Cross 
there. 

" We have been made somewhat anxious for the fortunes of our Mission 
work at Thaba Nchu. A dispute has arisen on the question of succession 
to the chieftaincy lately held by Moroko, who died about two months ago. 
We are hoping that a peaceful settlement will be arrived at. 

" You will have heard of the great loss to our diocesan staff of clergy 
through the summons addressed to Archdeacon McKenzie, both from 
Bishops in England as well as of our province, to take charge of the 
Mackenzie Mission to Zululand. 1 We have here offered many prayers of 
late for that portion of the mission-field needing a leader faithful, brave, 
and experienced, but we little thought that God would answer us in a way 
to cause such grief and apparent weakness of our own cause, giving at 
the same time joy and confidence through our knowledge that the 
Church s interests will be in such good hands. The Archdeacon and Mrs. 
McKenzie will carry our hearts best wishes and affectionate blessing with 
them to the new home, not so very remote from us. 

"But his departure creates a wide gap, which it will need broad 
shoulders and a strong heart to fill again. 

" Not alone at Harrismith for the archdeaconry, but here at Bloemfon 
tein, at Ficksberg, Bethulie, and more especially at Kimberley, as well as 
elsewhere, clergy of devotion and some power are needed. Our Lord 
can send them if it be His will. Will you commend this special need 
of ours to His mighty love and sympathy ? 

" One vacancy at least is caused through our inability to provide a 
grant large enough to supplement local effort sufficiently for the support 
of the clergyman and his wife, though they are willing to live in the 
simplest way. It will be sad to see our cords straitened instead of 
being lengthened as they might be. This is why I must so urgently 
commend to you our Clergy Sustentation Fund. The whole of the S.P.G. 
grant, which amounts to 950/1, exclusive of 22$?. for the Bishop, is de 
voted to the maintenance of our clergy engaged in native work. When 
the Bishopric Endowment Fund reaches io,ooo/., the interest upon which 
capital will provide the Bishop s income, I purpose to apply to the 
Venerable Society to continue to grant us the 225/. which they now con 
tribute towards my income, on the condition that it be employed in 
strengthening and forwarding our work among the native races. I 
mention this now that you may have an additional reason for your earnest 
efforts towards completing the endowment, in the hope that thus you are 
working to effect a double good. 

(i) See Mission Ficld t July, p. 226. 



Sf ] Bishop s Visit to Basutoland. 307 

" In my own home I have had anxiety of late in the illness of my two 
lads. Cyprian especially has been dangerously ill, but God has mercifully 
brought him back to convalescence and in a few weeks I hope he will 
be quite well again. 

" Politically and ecclesiastically, as far as the whole province of South 
Africa is concerned, we are passing through anxious times, and I do very 
earnestly ask your prayers for our own diocese and for the Church of 
the province that all things may be overruled to the glory of God." 

THE BISHOP S VISIT TO BASUTOLAND. 
By the Fev. Canon Crisp. 

"THE Bishop left Bloenifontein on Wednesday, April 2ist, for a visit 
to Modderpoort and to the northern stations in Basutoland, kindly taking 
me with him for some needed rest and change. Father Douglas, who 
had come to Bloemfontein to set Brother John so far on his homeward 
journey, was also our companion as far as St. Augustine s. We travelled 
in a hooded cart with four mules. Our first day s journey brought us to 
Thaba Nchu, which we did not reach till 10 P.M., having been delayed on 
the way by heavy rain, the fag-end of the storm which, as we have since 
learnt, proved so disastrous to our windows in Bloemfontein. Leaving 
Thaba Nchu early the next morning, we reached St. Augustine s at sun 
set, and after a good night s rest set out again to cross the Caledon and 
thus enter Basutoland. Father Douglas rode with us to see us safely 
through the river, taking us on the way to visit a farmhouse, one of the 
many at which periodical services are held by the Brotherhood. We 
found the Caledon easy to cross, though our mules had a stiff pull up its 
steep, sandy banks, and then went forward to find our way as best we 
could among the hills and valleys of Basutoland. We were to sleep that 
night at Advanced Post, one of the six magisterial stations, from which 
the country is governed. Just before we reached this place, one of the 
most glorious views I have ever seen burst suddenly upon us. We had 
been making our way first along a valley skirted with corn lands, and* 
then had been gradually toiling up a steep ascent. At its summit we 
found ourselves looking down upon a wide basin formed by noble hills, 
their green-coated sides relieved with huge boulders, and streaks of white 
sandstone. The smoke from the evening fires was curling up from many 
native villages below. In the background, the setting sun had tinted the 
beautiful peaks of the Maluti Mountains with indigo and crimson, and 
over these an almost full moon had risen. Mr. Charles Bell, the magis 
trate, welcomed us most heartily. He had been recently married, and 
this to an old friend of ours, a lady who was one of the first of those 
educated at the Home. It was very pleasant indeed to meet them in their 
home, and also to meet Mr, Hatchard, Mr. Bell s clerk, a son of the late 
Bishop of Mauritius. Next day, Saturday, we went on our way to 
Thlotse heights, which we reached after a drive of some thirty miles, and 
where we found Mr. Widdicombe, with Mr. and Miss Champernowne 
and Mr. Reading, all on the look out for us. Thlotse is such a charming 
station. It also is the seat of a magistracy, and is situate on a plain at 
the top of a hill, some sixty feet above the plain. On the east one gets 
a grand view of the Maluti, with their picturesque peaks and constant 
variations of light and shade. In the valley below, the Thlotse River 
runs amid fields of maize and millet to its junction with the Caledon. 
about half a mile off. Mr. Widdicombe s School Chapel of St. Saviour s,, 

Y 2 



3 o8 Bloemfontdn. [^tlS 1 

at the south-eastern corner of the oblong piece of ground allotted to the 
Mission, looks into his garden, which, though little more than three 
years old, abounds with young trees, choice roses, and other flowers and 
shrubs. At the opposite corner are the six huts, with the one-roomed 
cottage, the mission premises, which are familiar to many. The bell 
rang for Evensong soon after we arrived. It was sung very heartily by 
the native choir in Sesuto, and when it was over we adjourned to Mr. 
Champernowne s compound for supper, Mr. Widdicombe staying behind 
to prepare the Christians for the morrow s communion. And here let me 
break off my story to tell you what Mr. Campernowne s compound 
includes, or rather what we hope it very soon will include. Almost from 
the first Mr. Widdicombe has felt the great need of establishing a native 
college for lads. The mixed Mission school, which Mr. Reading is carry 
ing on with most praiseworthy patience and skill, is giving a good 
elementary education to boys and girls. It receives a government grant, 
and has been encouraged by the favourable criticisms of the Government 
Inspector. But a step further is needed. The Basuto do not live in 
large settlements like the Becoana, but are scattered in little villages, with 
here and there a most prominent centre. The first thing then for a 
native missionary to do, after a firm settlement on his station has been 
effected, is to provide for the training of such Christian lads as his 
Mission school may have shown him to possess sufficient ability and good 
-conduct to be in the future schoolmasters and catechists in these different 
centres. Such outside Mission work is already pressing upon St. 
Saviour s. There are several important villages in its neighbourhood 
where teachers would be welcomed, if only men of sufficient virtue and 
attainments could be found to take up the work. Their support would 
not be difficult to provide, since the Government will at once give a grant 
to any one who, having passed its examination, is appointed to a village 
school. It has been determined therefore to found a training school at 
Thlotse, and Mr. Champernowne has undertaken the management of it 
under Mr. Widdicombe s direction. A beginning has been already made. 
-Government has very readily granted a sufficient space of ground, about 
five minutes walk from St. Saviour s. This Mr. Champernowne has 
inclosed, and within this are the five little huts which serve as residences 
and store-rooms for himself and his sister. But more than this, the 
entire foundations of the permanent school building have already been 
laid. It is proposed at present only to build the middle third of the 
building, completing the remainder as need may require, and funds 
enable. It is to be built throughout of sandstone, an excellent quarry 
of which is within easy reach. The cost of the part now to be built will 
be about 6507. This Mr. Champernowne sees his way to procure, but it 
remains now for us to try to make provision for the carrying on of the 
work. It will be necessary to provide a stipend of 2Oo/. per annum for 
the principal, and this, it is hoped, will be obtained from the Venerable 
Societies S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. It is calculated that each student will cost 
20/. yearly. Government aid may ultimately be forthcoming towards 
this, but it would be a great help if six scholarships could, independently 
of this, be secu red. It is intended to throw the college open to all native 
Christian lads in communion with the church, between the ages of sixteen 
and twenty-one, who can pass the preliminary examination. It will thus 
be within the reach of our lads from Thaba Nchu, Bloemfontein, Becoana- 
land, &c., as well as those in Basutoland itself. Hitherto we have had no 
such institution. We have been obliged to send our lads to the Kafir 
Institution at Grahamstown. This, through the kindness of the principal, 



pl?l!m ] Bishop s Visit to JBastttoland. 309 

the Rev. R. J. Mullins, has been always open to us, but it has entailed a 
long and expensive journey, and an entire absence of three or four years 
from the diocese and its associations which we are anxious to avoid. 
The first aim of the Thlotse Institution will be to give a careful Christian 
education, including such secular subjects as will fit the students for 
school work, but it is also hoped from time to time there will be drafted 
from it young men with a distinct vocation for Holy Orders, who may 
receive further training at our St. Cyprian s Theological College. 

" And now back again to my story. On Sunday morning (4th after 
Easter) the Bishop celebrated the Holy Communion in the little Mission 
chapel. The service was choral, and one feature in it was very delightful : 
both Europeans and natives joined in it as one people. The service was 
in English, except the Gospel and the Confession, which were read in 
both languages, while the hymns used were Sesuto, but the little dark- 
skinned choristers were quite au fait with the English parts, and sang 
out the Kyrie, or said the Creed, as well as if they had been in Sesuto. 
At 9.30 a short form of Matins was sung in Sesuto, after which the 
Bishop preached to the people by means of Benjamin, the interpreter. 
There were ninety people at this service, and since the little Mission 
chapel only seats sixty, you may conceive how closely they were packed. 
Indeed, the whole country around the station is densely crowded. It is 
reckoned that on the heights alone there are more than 1,000 people, and 
in the district upwards of 22,000, and these, with few exceptions, are 
heathens. The work is indeed an uphill one, needing the utmost patience 
and courage. Secure under British protection from war, the tribe has 
been largely recruited by natives who in more unsettled times had taken 
refuge in the colony. During the last few years a sufficient rainfall has 
given them good harvests, while in the Free State the crops have been 
destroyed by drought. They have thus had a ready market for their 
corn, and they have grown rich in oxen. In all parts through which we 
passed we were struck by the excessive number of cattle which were 
grazing on what are now said to be the insufficient pastures. Inertness 
has succeeded, and it is said to be very difficult to induce the people to 
undertake settled labour, while beer drinking and dancing abound. I do 
not mean that the Basuto do no work. The vast amount of corn raised 
by them is the fruit of real toil, and the care of their cattle is no light 
labour, but that they seem satisfied with their old lines, and do not show 
much desire to strike out into more civilised ways, or to undertake steady 
on and on work. This state of having fulness of bread and a heathen 
life naturally makes it the more difficult a task to rouse in them an 
appreciation for a new teaching. In the southern parts, near Mohali s 
Hoek, the harvest has failed, and great scarcity threatened. All that can 
be done at present is a quiet laying of foundations, and this is what is 
being done in a very thorough way at St. Saviour s. The natives are 
being regularly visited at their villages ; the schools are punctually 
assembled and most diligently taught ; classes for the instruction of the 
converts are held ; translations are being prepared ; the daily services 
are carefully rendered ; and in this way, while the life of the church is 
brought constantly before the people, an earnest preparation is being 
made for the future. 

"The Sesuto service was followed at 10.30 by English Matins, with the 
Litany, and a sermon from the Bishop. The European work at Thlotse 
is a very striking and admirable one. The large trade in grain has 
attracted many traders, and these, with the Government officials, form a 
considerable community. Many of the first-named were, before their 



3 io Bloemfontein. 

residence in Basutoland, members of one or another form of dissent. 
The patient work of the Church among them is bringing these one by 
one within her fold. One marks at Thlotse, with great thankfulness, an 
absence of that lethargy which too often characterises Churchmen living 
in scattered numbers. It is most cheering to see the European members 
of the congregation riding in from distances of ten and twelve miles to 
the Sunday services. 

" In the afternoon, Evensong was sung in Sesuto, and a Sermon 
preached especially to the Christians. English Evensong, with a Sermon, 
closed a busy, happy day. 

" Monday morning was spent talking over Mission plans and paying 
visits. In the afternoon, at Evensong, the Confirmation was held. The 
candidates were nineteen in number, eleven Europeans and eight natives. 
One service sufficed for all ; for through the school, the police camp, &c., 
there is a pretty general knowledge of English on the station, and the 
prejudice as to colour seems not to exists at Thlotse. The service was a 
very hearty one, the little chapel being crowded to the doors. The need 
of a larger and permanent church is day by day becoming more evident, 
and it is proposed as soon as possible to build one of stone, large enough 
to seat 250 people. It is estimated that this will cost i,5oo/., for labour, 
wood, &c., are very expensive matters. Mr. Widdicombe has already 
begun to put by for this purpose. I am sure his people, who have lately 
subscribed largely to pay off a debt upon the existing buildings, will do 
their utmost to help ; but much aid from other sources will be required 
before such an undertaking can be commenced. On Tuesday, the Bishop, 
Mr. Champernowne, and I started on horseback (the Bishop s robes 
being carried in a pack on a spare horse) for Sekubu, which is about 
twenty-five miles from Thlotse. We had a charming ride among the 
mountains, winding round by most circuitous paths to avoid the deep 
gullies and rocky places. On our way we called at two places, at both 
of which the Bishop had hoped to confirm, but in each case he was pre 
vented by the illness of the candidates. Mr. Woodman and his sister 
met us on horseback about an hour s ride from the station. This lies 
quite close to Maluti Mountains, as the sun was setting as we reached it, 
we had a glorious view of these in their most beautiful clothing. Sekubu 
is quite in the wilds, away from Europeans. Just above this station are 
many native villages, and the hills around swarm with people. From a 
hill behind the church one looks down upon a magnificent valley, with the 
Maluti for its immediate background, and can see village after village 
nestling like bird s nests to its rugged sides. A more glorious spot for 
downright Mission work cannot be conceived, though maybe years of 
patient sowing must pass before a sign of harvest is seen. The people 
seem very hearty and kind to Mr. Woodman, while Miss Woodman no 
sooner showed herself in the village than she was seized upon by a crowd 
of children who escorted her till we left, each chattering away and trying 
to gain her attention. One little girl, whose clothing certainly was a 
mere hint at what might be done, demonstrated with considerable gesticu 
lation that life was only a burden to her till she had a dress the exact 
counterpart of Miss Woodman s own. The Mission station itself has 
the same surroundings as Thlotse, with this exception, that the muni 
ficence of its founder has provided it with a substantial, though small, 
stone church, perhaps the most solid structure the Diocese possesses, and 
a schoolroom built of the same material. There are the six round huts, 
looking into the garden, and beyond it upon a lovely view of hill and 
plain, and these serve for sitting and bedrooms, store-house, kitchen, c. 



fslpt.i, im* ] Bishop s Visit to Basutoland. 3 1 1 

In the afternoon the natives came down to the hills to greet the Bishop. 
A short service was held in the church, when the Bishop spoke to them 
of the kingdom of God, thanking them for the kind way in which they 
had received Mr. Woodman, and urging them to let him guide them into 
life and light. Just before sunset a waggon arrived bringing two young 

firls, the daughters of the mason who had built the church, for Con- 
rmation. So at Evensong the Bishop confirmed these, and with them a 
native lad, who, having been baptised at S. Patrick s, Bloemfontein, had 
returned to his people, and had found his way to Sekubu. We spent the 
rest of the evening very delightfully. Three friends, traders from the 
nearest stores, had ridden over to meet the Bishop. They were ex 
ceedingly intelligent and well-informed, and entertained us, one with 
descriptions of Australia, where he had at one time lived, another by his 
researches into Sesuto, which he has taken up very earnestly, and so on. 

" On the Thursday morning we left to return to Thlotse, dining on our 
way at a store, the manager of which by his constant kindness has been 
quite a father to the Mission, and who has become the first churchwarden 
at S. Saviour s. The first thing we saw as we neared the station was Mr. 
Widdicombe in his shirt sleeves, with one or two of his boys, working 
away in his garden, which is a model of neatness, and does much to 
supply the Mission with food. That evening a tea meeting for the 
Europeans was held in the schoolroom, which joins on to the chapel. It 
was exceedingly pleasant to see the unity which prevails among the 
people, and the kind way in which each set to work to entertain the 
other. Next day the natives had their tea in the same place, which was 
provided for them by Mrs. Bell, the wife of the magistrate, Major Bell. 
Mrs. Bell has from the first taken a most lively interest in the Mission, 
and even before its establishment did her utmost towards teaching the 
natives around her. 

le I have spoken of the Mission garden ; but there is another little garden 
\vithout a mention of which no notice of Thlotse would be complete. 
Half way between S. Saviour s and Mr. Champernowne s is the inclosure 
of the two graves which mark the resting-place of the dear ones whose 
memory seems to cast a constant blessing over the Mission and all its 
surroundings. There lies the dear, pure-minded lad whose brave young 
heart was such a blessing to the Priest he served in the very first days of 
the work, and whose name even now brings a glad look into the face of 
every native who knew and loved him. And by his side lies the gentle 
lady, taken away ere her first year had come to an end, but not before 
her influence had been felt on all around, and the native women had 
come to look upon her as a mother. A travelling stonemason has cut 
two tombstones, and Mr. Grimsley has carved the names on them, with 
the dates Nov. 9, 1877, and Nov. 9, 1878. There is only a sod-wall 
round them as yet, but my brother is saving up money to replace this 
with stone. Nor should I forget to speak of Mr. Widdicombe s little 
girl, whom Mrs. Bell has taken charge of from the first, and who is 
growing so very like her mother. 

" On Saturday the Bishop left Basutoland for Ficksburg, the border 
town of the Free State, only about fifteen miles from Thlotse. Here 
Father Douglas met his Lordship, to consult with him and with the 
parishioners as to the purchase of a house for a parsonage. Canon 
Beckett has for years held periodical services at Ficksburg, though the 
village is some thirty-six miles from S. Augustine s. A few years since a 
little church was secured by his exertions, and now it is proposed to 
place a clergyman in charge of the district, towards whose support the 



->,,, TtJnpitjfnwffin TMission Field, 

312 Jiioemjoniein. |_ Sept 1( Ib80 

people guarantee I5O/. per annum. After the afternoon service on Sunday 
a meeting was held, at which it was determined to buy a house, which 
had been recently built, for the sum of 3$o/. A strong wish was ex 
pressed by some of the Church people who live at a distance from the 
village that a boarding-school might be established, to which they might 
send their children, and that the clergyman who might come to them 
might be able to undertake this. The Bishop, however, decided that the 
work of the district was more than sufficient for the fullest energies of a 
clergyman, and advised them to wait till a year s experience of the wants 
of the place should enable him to encourage another helper to undertake 
the school. 

"We left Ficksburg on Monday, and reached S. Augustine s before 
sunset, having called on our way at two more farm-houses, where services 
are held by the Community. Here we are to stay this week. A more 
enjoyable place for rest could not be conceived. Beautiful as many of 
the places we have visited have been, no one of them has eclipsed this ; 
and the quiet order and harmony of the Community are a great refresh 
ment. Father Douglas seems very happy with his three postulants, two 
of whom are in Deacon s orders, and it is very beautiful to note the 
quiet thankfulness with which Canon Beckett looks on upon the realisation 
of that for which he has so long and patiently waited. On Ascension 
Day two Confirmations were held in the chapel, at which ten Europeans 
and six natives were confirmed. This afternoon (Friday) the Bishop has 
gone to Ladybrand, a town only six miles off, where there is a small 
church, served every Sunday by the Community. His Lordship is to 
confirm there, and to-morrow he is to confirm an invalid on the adjoining 
farm, who is unable to come to him. In the afternoon he is again to 
cross the Caledon, to spend Sunday at Maseru, the principal magistracy 
in Basutoland, which is about twenty-five miles from here. At this place 
also Canon Beckett has for years held monthly services, and now pre 
parations are being made for the building of a stone church, which will 
cost about 5oo/. , and for placing a clergyman there who will take charge 
of the district. This paper will have to be posted there, so I can only 
add the Bishop s plan for his return. This is to leave Maseru on Tuesday, 
sleeping that night here at S. Augustine s, and on Wednesday at Thaba - 
Nchu, and so reaching Bloemfontein on Thursday, May 14, in time to 
keep Whitsuntide at home." 

STRIKING CASES OF CONVERSION. DIFFICULTIES AND ENCOURAGE 
MENTS AT PHOKOANE. 

The particulars of apparently real conversions are always full of 
interest to workers in the Missionary cause both abroad and at 
home, so that we doubt not some passages, containing such details, 
from the correspondence with the Society of the Rev. John 
Widdicombe, Rector of St. Saviour s, Thlotse Heights, will be found 
more than usually pleasant reading. 

" April i6th, 1880. 

" We have had very bright and hearty Easter services. On Palm 
Sunday I received two very promising young men, Pitso and Mokhat- 
lazela both Zulus as catechumens. Pitso has lived here for the last 
seven years, and is respected by every one for his uprightness, industry, 



Mission Field.! 7iiJi/ CntlVPrf? -? T 1 

Sept. 1, 1880. J MIU U0WZWW. 313 

and sobriety. He has long been wishing to become a Christian. He 
came to me first about two years ago, saying that his heart told him that 
the religion of the Lord Jesus Christ was the only true one, and that he 
wished to leave off the heathen mekhoa (customs) of his fathers and be 
baptised. His father, however, stoutly opposed his wishes, and prevailed 
upon him to withdraw himself from our influence, and for a time he 
went back to his kraal, and I almost began to fear that we had lost him. 
But, to my joy, he came to me again about three months ago, and told 
me that he had at last fully made up his mind to become a Christian. 
He said that his heart was sore, and that he felt he should never be 
happy as long as he remained outside the fold of Christ. He had told 
his father that he wished to become the child of the l M arena (Lord 
Jesus), and at last the old man had given his consent. He seemed so 
earnest and decided, that after two or three further conversations with 
him I admitted him a catechumen. 

" The case of the other convert, Mokhatlazela, is a somewhat striking 
one. He and some other Zulus came down here just before the com 
mencement of the Zulu war with a secret message to Letsea, the para 
mount chief of the Basutos ; and the authorities having received private 
information of the nature of the embassy, detained the whole party as 
prisoners of war. They were, it is needless to say, most kindly treated, 
and were all liberated just before the capture of their king, the closing 
scene, as you will remember, of the Zulu campaign. They all turned 
home to Zululand, except Mokhatlazela, who preferred staying here and 
taking service under Major Bell, the Resident Magistrate of the district. 
He had already struck up a friendship with some of our Christians, nearly 
half of whom are Zulus, and on recovering his freedom immediately 
began to come to our Motsegase service. Every one noticed and talked 
about the wild Zulu/ who was * got up in the most picturesque manner 
possible, with ostrich plumes, tiger-cat tails, &c., &c., after the manner of 
his countrymen ; and I wondered whether he would ever become a con 
vert. After a little time he began to dress more soberly, and to pay more 
attention to the service ; and at last one morning, about six weeks ago, 
he came running up to me in the most eager way, saying that he wished 
to become a Christian. I asked him how long he had had such a thought, 
and he said that it was for several moons past. He felt it there, 
pointing to his heart. He had heard the words spoken in the church, 
and his heart told him they were true words, and that the Lord Jesus 
Christ was the true King of men. Now he wished to become His child. 
Then we had several nice talks together, and I found him to be so 
thoroughly in earnest that I admitted him a catechumen, together with 
his friend Pitso, on Palm Sunday. 

" Some little time ago Major Bell told me the following story about 
him. Soon after his liberation from prison he had to take charge of some 
oxen on a waggon journey. One day the oxen ran away, and Mokhat 
lazela, after searching for them in vain for hours, at last began to give up 
the chase in despair, the country being quite new to him. Then he got 
into a terrible fright. He thought that if the animals were not recovered 
he would be blamed for their loss, and would perhaps be put into prison 
again. So he knelt down in the veld, and asked the Lord Jesus to send 
back the oxen to him. The oxen, however, did not appear, and he at 
/ length returned to the waggon with a heavy heart and fallen countenance, 
fearing what would await him, when on coming up to the waggon, he 
found to his delight and surprise that the animals had returned of their 
own accord before him by another way. He was very overjoyed, and 



3 i4 Bloemfontein. LSTS! 

told his mistress that he had prayed to Jesus to send them back. I 
suppose that this was the first time in his life that he had ever knelt down 
and said a prayer. He is simplicity itself, and very affectionate, and 
when duly tamed by the power of the Gospel, will, I trust, make a good 
and earnest Christian." 

Much good work is going on at St. Michael s-in-the-Hill, 
Phokoane, in the midst of many difficulties, which Mr. Bevan s 
letter from that spot of April last, enables us more intelligently 
to appreciate. The observations at its end on the training ot 
promising converts are also well worthy of consideration. 

" i. Since my last report, on September 30, 1879, the Mission work has 
gone on here without interruption, except during myjourney to the Synod 
at Bloemfontein, which took nearly a month ; but the time spent upon this 
journey was by no means lost, for I came back thoroughly refreshed, and 
much more fit for my duty. It was the greatest comfort to me to find that 
the Bishop and all my fellow-clergymen were in sympathy with the work, 
and desired it to be carried on under whatever difficulties may arise. 

" 2. Our position politically remains as uncertain as ever. It is not 
decided whether we are in the Transvaal or in Griqualand West ; or 
whether we shall be allowed to remain here, or are to be driven out by the 
Boers. I have repeatedly applied to the Government at Kimberley, and 
have invariably been answered with the greatest courtesy that the Land 
Commission is going to sit in a fortnight, and settle everything definitely. 
This has been the state of things for a whole year, while the Boers go on 
continually encroaching more and more, and driving the natives from one 
fountain after another. Under these circumstances, I cannot build a 
church or a school, but am obliged to go on living in a most uncomfort 
able way. This is a serious hindrance, and I am by no means satisfied 
to sit still and let things take their course ; but I am at a loss what fresh 
steps to take towards procuring a settled place for the people and myself. 

" 3. The miserable hovel which serves us for a church is excessively 
crowded on Sundays, and is quite unsuitable for the reverent performance 
of Divine service. The thatched roof is a good protection against the 
sun, but none at all iagainst rain. 

" 5. There were fifty communicants on Christmas Day, and the same 
number on Easter Day ; on ordinary Sundays there are about twelve. 
Every one is advised to communicate at least once a month, and most of 
the communicants are fairly regular in their attendance at the Lord s 
Table. A few communicate nearly every Sunday. 

" 6. The eleven neophytes, who were baptised last Whitsun Day, have 
all of them continued faithful, and have been commendably attentive to 
all their religious duties. Most of them are young men and women, and 
they give us good hope for the future. 

t( 7. Twelve catechumens have been received during the last six months, 
and are all doing well. 

" Twenty-two adults were baptised on Easter Eve, and a few more, who 
for various reasons were not prepared to receive Holy Baptism then will 
be baptised on Whitsun Eve. The catechumens have been remarkably 
diligent in attending the instruction provided for them. I have never had 
such a satisfactory catechumen class since I have been at work as a 



Mission Field,! Phnbnn n? 1 T C 

sept, i, 1880. J rnoKoam. 315 

Missionary. Of course I do not mean that they have all been equally atten 
tive; but the less painstaking ones have been few in proportion to the others. 
One lamentable fall has occurred in the case of a young married man, 
who had received a good secular education in his boyhood, and was of 
much service to his fellow-catechumens in helping them to learn the 
catechism. About a month before Easter he was discovered in the com- 
mision of deadly sin ; and it proved that he had been for some time 
concealing his wickedness under a cloak of piety. It is a very sad case, 
but not a hopeless one. He knows that the door of repentance is open 
to him, and I trust he may yet enter it. His wife is preparing for baptism 
at Whitsuntide. 

" One of the most satisfactory circumstances in connection with our 
catechumens is, that in several instances husband and wife have together 
bowed their necks to bear the yoke of Christ. This is always highly to 
be desired, and where either partner remains unconverted, I constantly 
remind the one who is already a Christian of the duty of remitting no 
effort of prayer, of influence, and of persuasion to obtain the conversion 
of the other. 

" 8. Peter Gaserone, the schoolmaster, is an excellent young man : 
very intelligent and devoted to his work ; and at the same time, humble 
and teachable. I give him every day a lesson either in Scripture or in 
Christian doctrine, besides teaching him writing and singing. He has a 
great influence for good, and the progress of the Mission is in great 
measure due to him. I might say, that if it were not for him, this con 
gregation would hardly be in existence to-day ; for it was he who in the 
time of war kept it together, and for a long time prevented it from dis 
persing ; and after it had broken up, it was he who as soon as possible 
brought the people back to their church and homes. Any one who did 
not know the circumstances and character of the people might say to me, 
1 why do you not take such a man thoroughly in hand, and give him a 
complete theological training, with a view of his taking Holy Orders 
eventually ? After ten years experience, I am obliged to answer that I 
am afraid to press him ; it would be the easist thing in the world by 
teaching him too much either to make him conceited and wayward ; or to 
puff him up with spiritual pride,, leading to some dreadful fall; or to over 
burden him with too much work, and so disgust him, that he would throw 
it up altogether ; or to cause his death by overtaxing the brain. After 
observing many instances of each of these dangers, I find that the only 
safe way to deal with an intelligent and devout convert is to give him 
plenty of liberty ; to let him learn when he likes, and be idle when he 
likes ; and to encourage him in going on with the occupations to which 
he has been used from a child. The change from his old life to civilisa 
tion and Christianity is a very severe strain upon the whole powers of 
the man, physical, moral, and spiritual ; and it needs the most watchful 
and judicious care to prevent him from failing in one or other of these 
departments. I have spoilt several promising youths in past years by ex 
pecting too much of them, and urging them beyond their powers ; and 
now I see that the elevation and improvement of the whole man must be 
a very gradual work indeed, and that one must go to work with a great 
deal of prudence and patience to effect it." 



3 i 6 Pretoria. flfi&SS 



PRETORIA. 

VARIED LABOURS OF THE BISHOP. GENERALLY SATISFACTORY 
RESULTS. WANT OF CLERGY. 

OUR readers are already aware that Bishop Bousfield has been 
obliged, for lack of help, to spend much time lately in the 
ordinary duties of a parish priest at Pretoria, rather than in those of 
a more episcopal character. At the same time he has been acting 
as both military and hospital chaplain. In April last he wrote : 

"At first I had church-parade in camp, but to my great joy the 
adjutant of the garrison suggested, in their own interest and for the 
comfort of the troops, that they should come to church ; and this 
arrangement preserved in existence our wasting early Morning 
Prayer, and gave us at it a good congregation. It gives me extra 
work, as I always preach at it, and take the prayers also myself; 
but it is a most pleasant congregation, all men, and the number of 
both officers and men who attend service in the evening of their free 
will is so great, that I am happy in the thought that the home-thrust 
and straight hits of the early service are neither offensive nor un 
profitable. The number of sick since the campaign ended has 
made that work, and the attendance at funerals, very heavy ; but 
this has been eased by many tokens of hopeful interest, and the 
increased opportunity of introducing decorum and devotion in our 
funeral services. I have also held a service for convalescents on 
Friday evenings, and with the help of a chaplain of the 2ist, whom 
I have once already mentioned as holding services at Heidelburg, I 
have had a Sunday service also in the wards. I have thus usually 
preached four times and catechised once on a Sunday. 

" I have done my utmost also to visit the people in their houses, 
and so make way for what I desire in the next curate of Pretoria, 
"the house-going parson," who shall make "a Churchgoing people." 
I may report favourably of our increased congregations and com 
municants, and offertories also. The church is fairly attended on 
Sunday mornings, and well filled at night. On Sunday last we had 
twenty-eight communicants (fourteen making their first communion) 
at the nine o clock service, and seventeen at eleven. Our offertories 
have also greatly increased, averaging for the quarter 7/. IGJ-. a 
Sunday. Thus have I been pursuing the quiet, even tenor of my 



i, 3$? 



Temporalities and Spiritualities. " 317 



way as a parish priest again, in the spiritual parts of the office, and 
in addition I have been much too much, to my own mind and 
pleasure engaged in the Table serving of ecclesiastical improve 
ments ; but the old adage, If you want a thing done, do it yourself/ 
is ten times more true than usual in this diocese. And so our 
Church Building Improvement has given me many a walk and 
ride, and taken many an hour of ecclesiastical pottering which my 
soul abhors ; but the result has been that the plastering of the 
church has been taken in hand, new seats put in, a chancel with 
platforms to seat choir and clergy, and to accommodate the priest, 
with assistant and Gospeller, and the modest throne of the Bishop 
duly arranged. And better far, the burial-ground, which has been 
hitherto a disgrace to our race and civilisation and Christianity, is 
now decently inclosed ; and I hope soon to see hedges planted and 
dedicated to its holy use, if, as I fear, the laws of the colony, in their 
confusion, stand in the way of the consecration of a freehold." 

Additional information from the Bishop has reached us in another 
form, which makes the narrative of his labours for the first quarter 
of the year very complete. 

" During Lent we had, in addition to all other daily services, a musical 
Litany, and sermon at 8.0 P.M. ; better attended this year than last. 
Throughout the quarter I have tried to visit the people, and am now 
riding out once a week to hold services at farms around Pretoria. 

" Our congregations in Pretoria have increased. On Sunday evenings 
we are always full. Our communicants increase also ; and the offertory 
for the quarter was 98^. 4-s. iirf. for all which we thank God ! 

" We have been put about a good deal by workmen in the church, 
which is at last plastered, and the windows completed. Soon I hope to 
have the chancel floors laid, and then we shall want 200^. for the floor of 
the nave. Then will come the vestries, a porch, a new bell or two : then 
I should like an external improvement in the way of fencing and planting. 
But oh ! what time all takes here ! 

" I must not forget to add that we have secured the land eastward of 
the present church, whereby our present building may be regarded as a 
^w-cathedral no longer, but what is, will be able to be used as long as it 
will last ; and additions can be made to it to almost any extent ever likely 
to be required, as we have now a considerable plot lying together in a 
square block, and two smaller plots close at hand, on which I hope in 
time to see our schools erected, and a house or houses for our clergy. 
A little range of prophets chambers/ and a large room for an elemen 
tary school, I shall commence as soon as I have ioo/., or 5oo/. Money 
now is worth far more than double what it will be in a few years time. 
Wisely spent in buildings and land, a good foundation for the temporali 
ties of the Church might readily be laid. 

"And for the spiritualities, more of prayer, and of love, and of a 
sound mind : more to lay foundations firmly and wisely now, might win 



- T Q 7Vv//7 W/7 f Mission Field, 

3 x 5 * ; eioria. [ Sept lf 1880- 

a conquest and a crown, and be ready for the harvest, which will be to be 
gathered if this land fill up. 

"Among these pastoral labours as curate of Pretoria, my episcopal 
duties have not wholly failed. I have made journeys to Heidelburg and 
Middelburg, besides attending to the business which can be conducted by 
correspondence. This has included papers of questions after the fashion 
of mild and elementary visitation articles in England, and their tabulation 
for future use. I have held one confirmation for soldiers in Pretoria, and 
this quarter one for the parish. I am planning now for a round of 
visitation after Trinity Sunday. 

" And now for an account in detail of the several places already, I 
trust, becoming known to my readers, and finding a place in their 
prayers. This time all must again be from my own pen, though I hope 
soon to get others to join me in writing. 

" From Potchefstroom I have no good news to report, and I am 
anxious to revisit it in the hope of setting in order many things want 
ing there. But of it I have one good account to give. Mr. Reid, of 
Great Queen Street, London, has paid 1507. off the debt on the church, 
thus reducing it to about 75/. 

" From Lydenburg a like piece of good news has come. Mr. Thome 
has, by donations and a sale, reduced the debt on the church to 250^, 
which we have now ten months to pay. My plan of visiting this place 
for six weeks, and giving Mr. Thorne a much-needed and well-earned 
holiday, has failed through my Pretoria duties, and I fear he is suffering 
severely from the want of it. There seems a prospect of revived activity 
at the Gold Fields, which makes me still more anxious to visit these 
parts again. 

" Zeerust seems likely to give me fresh anxiety. On some disagreement 
Mr. Sadler has left, and I must needs go to investigate and make 
arrangements the latter not easy, with no man to put in Mr. Sadler s 
place. 

" Until I can visit Zeerust I have sent Mr. Sadler to Middelburg to 
commence regular work, which I hope may prove lasting and profitable. 
There seems a good and earnest spirit prevailing there. 

"At Rustenburg, Mr. Richardson seems steadily pursuing the quiet 
hard-working way he has so long followed. 

" Heidelburg remains in much the same state ; nothing doing about 
building the church, and I fear nothing likely to be done, until I can settle 
a clergyman there. The officer whom I last reported as holding service 
has been removed to Pretoria, and so only a monthly service is now 
possible. 

" At Standerton, Mr. Spratt has been settled for the quarter. He is 
using a tent as temporary church, and has the difficulties of a start in 
a small place to contend with. 

" At Wakkerstroom there is still hope of a church being commenced ; 
but, alas ! Mr. Ransome will soon, I fear, be removed from his present 
post, and then this place and Utrecht are without a clergyman. 

" And so once more I close with the old cry for men. For lack of them 
all stands still and my work fails. O Lord of the harvest, send forth, 
labourers into Thy harvest ! " 



Mission Field,"] C fittvnJ Afrirn i T r 

sept, i, 1880. j Central sijnca. 319 



CENTRAL AFRICA. 

ENCOURAGEMENTS. 

THE following comes from Magila, being communicated by 
Archdeacon Farler in March last, and will, we are sure, give 
much pleasure to all readers of the Mission Field : 

"Everything is going on well in our Mission; my first convert, who 
was a young Mohammedan, shows such signs of a vocation for Holy 
Orders that I intend to present him to the Bishop to be made reader, 
as a step towards a native ministry. He is good and holy in his life, 
and at the same time manly and full of vigour. He has been working 
hard to learn to read and write, and now every Sunday he preaches the 
Gospel to his fellow-countrymen. On Sundays our congregations are so 
large that I am obliged to put all the Christian children in the chancel, 
and many more to sit upon the altar steps. Both old and young love the 
services. The other day, when I went down to the river for a swim, I 
came upon a small boy sitting upon a rock in the middle of the river, 
singing with all his might in a clear, sweet, treble voice, and in good 
time, Just as I am, without one plea. I cannot describe my feelings ; 
it was like a spring of water in a thirsty land. The chiefs are putting 
down heathen dances on Sunday, and the Sunday school is full of men 
and boys. I am trying now to convert the great chief Mdre ; his son is 
already a catechumen. The Mohammedans do all they can to hinder the 
work, and they are our only active opponents. But while they are 
making no headway, we are steadily advancing. A wild-looking party 
came down from the mountains to inquire of me what luck they would 
have in their war. I replied that God only knew the future. The chief 
then turned to the others and said, I told you so ; I knew the white 
man would say, " God only knows." I then spoke earnestly to him of 
God s love and goodness. The head chief of this country came and 
asked me in the name of all the people if I would offer prayers to God 
for rain, as their witch offerings and sacrifices had been of no avail. I 
of course promised to do so, but suggested that he should publicly humble 
himself before God and become a catechumen. This he promised to do. 
The natives (heathens) are going about breaking the earth with the 
pestles of their cornmortars, crying, We repent. This is on account 
of the drought which they fear will dry up their maize. They are laughing 
and grinning, and show no outward signs of repentance. The idea of 
repentance springs from our preaching." 

Cheering news have also been received from Bishop Steere, who,, 
writing on 3oth June, says : 

"We are hoping on Mr. Maples return to be able greatly to extend our 
work in the direction of the Nyassa lake. Mr. Clarke, who has just come 
down from Masasi on his way home, reports all well, and the work growing 



320 Sierra Leone. rMission Field - 



L Sept 1, 1830. 



and prospering. I have just received a sort of first fruits of my trip in 
the Zaramo country last Christmas. I talked with several young men about 
coming down to be taught, but there were many difficulties in the way. 
Yesterday one of them appeared here, and nothing would content him 
but to go straight off to Kinngani and put himself to school at once. 
May his countrymen do likewise." 



SIERRA LEONE. 
REPORT OF THE REV. D. BROWN, OF FARRINGIA, 

JUNE : STEADY PROGRESS. DEATH OF MRS. LIGHTBURN, THE 

LADY CHIEF OF FARRINGIA. 

THE Lord s work here continues encouraging; there is steady 
progress being made, and every portion of the work is being 
developed. 

Church-going is getting a firmer hold on the people, and Sunday 
working in their farms has died off more this half year than in the 
past. Many who are not even catechumens now and then join us in 
our worship. 

But we are still without a house set apart for worship, which thing 
has never ceased to be a cause of much anxiety and trouble to me. 

The catechumens class seems to be at a standstill just now. 
There has been no addition to the number. The mode of life 
required of their Christian brethren seems to discourage many who 
would have joined the religion simply as a society in life, or who had 
expected to be as free in their worldly indulgences as Mohammedan 
ism allows. But with those we have already had there is encourage 
ment enough ; their way of life now is different from what it was 
before. During the past half year there have been on the whole 
twenty baptisms. Besides these there was one private baptism of 
an old weak woman in her house, who is hardly able to go out or 
walk alone even in the house. 

Out of my Confirmation candidates class I had the happiness to 
present twelve, whom the Bishop of Sierra Leone laid hands on at 
his last visit in February, after the ordination at Fallangia. The 
Bishop came up at a time when the much-talked-of war matter was 



Mission Field, 
Sept. 1, 1880. 



] Progress at Farringia. 321 



being settled with a view to peace (which, I regret to say, was not 
obtained), and I could hardly find a place to assemble the people 
for worship, so that I had to shift from piazza to piazza till I got 
the old la dy, Mrs. Lightburn s. And even though this had been 
had, and all the benches arranged for service, yet we had the 
necessity to disarrange and put them aside, in order to give place 
for the reception of King Tom, of Locata, a powerful friend of 
Farringia, who was just then entering into the town with his country 
musicians and dancers. We had to wait till the reception was over 
before we turned to and rearranged the benches, &c. for service. A 
house set apart for the worship of God would have saved us all this 
trouble. 

The Bishop addressed them from " Daniel purposed in his heart 
that he would not defile himself," and confirmed the candidates. 
He, together with Mr. Douglin and myself, went up to see the 
building ; he liked the spot chosen, but regarded the building as not 
substantial. 

Some of those who were then confirmed are now communicants ; 
the others are afraid to become communicants till they are older. 
My communicants class here is very interesting one of the brightest 
spots in Missionary working here. The members are the most 
sincere and consistent, and do not join in those of their country 
customs that are contrary to the teachings of the Gospel. They are 
mostly females, and number ten. 

The school work still continues encouraging, and the scholars are 
giving satisfaction. 

I have been, in a measure, relieved of the burden of the school 
work by the assistance of Mr. Jeremiah Buckle, provided by the 
Bishop of Sierra Leone ; and with his help I hope to see much light 
of religion and civilization from this school diffused around the places 
about Farringia. 

But what is most encouraging in this education matter is that we 
are now already on the ladder of victory. I do remember Sunday, 
the 3rd of May, with the deepest thankfulness and pleasure, as the 
day when I succeeded in opening a Sunday school at Farringia, free 
to all classes, with the consent of the Lightburns, three of whom are 
regular teachers. There are seven classes in the school. All the 
adults (domestics) are just beginning to learn the alphabet, except 
two or three who had been learning in private while the prohibition 
was in force. I divide the Sunday school hours into two parts, 
NO. ccxcvn. z 



322 Sierra Leone. 

devoting the greater portion to reading, and the other to teaching 
Bible stories. May God not only continue this, but also extend our 
means of usefulness by opening another way for us to educate all in 
the day and night schools as well. 

On the night of the i4th of April, the old Lady Chief, Mrs. Light- 
burn, breathed her last. The news was not communicated till the 
next morning, when one of the largest cannons that are being used for 
the protection of the town was fired, and all her people present at once 
shouted in tears. This was no ordinary news in the Rio Pongo and 
around. The infirmities of old age that pressed upon her almost 
immediately after her baptism, and my entering into Farringia pre - 
vented her from attending the means of grace provided for in her 
town ; nor had I frequent opportunities of seeing her and speaking 
a word for her soul s health, much as I did wish it ; so that, as may 
be expected, she was not fully grounded in the faith in which she 
died. Yet it is enough that she died in the faith, and I doubt not 
but that the merciful Rather into whose hands we commended her 
soul will graciously accept her offering of herself, though at the 
eleventh hour of her day. Her baptism 1 has been the means of 
extending God s kingdom here, and inclosing many sheep and lambs 
in the fold of Christ; and though she has not herself lived and 
experienced on earth the blessedness of our holy religion, yet she 
has handed down to posterity the embracing of the religion and its 
ministers. 

In former days the death and burial of Mrs. Lightburn would have 
been far different from what it really was, and all because she had 
embraced Christianity before she died. The usual saraxa, or offering 
to the dead, would have been offered ; but from a very strong regard 
to the Christianity into which she was baptised, not all the solicit 
ations of her heathen relatives, friends, and neighbours, could make 
Mr. Lightburn, her successor, offer the usual offerings. I have only 
to state this fact, and our friends will see what hold the Missionary 
has had at Farringia. Let us " thank God, and take courage." 

Three months earlier we had the painful duty of committing the 
body of Mrs. Lightburn s eldest daughter, Mrs. Emerson, to the 
ground. She was a very consistent Christian, and left the Church 
Militant with which she died in full communion to join the Church 
Triumphant. 

(i) See Mission Field, June, 1879, p. 273. 



Review - 



$ je fa i * to, 

Personal Recollections of British Burma, and its Church Mission 
Work in 1878-79. By the Right Rev. J. H. TITCOMB, D.D., 
First Bishop of Rangoon. (Wells Gardner, Darton & Co., for 
S.P.G.) 

THIS little work can hardly fail to interest many in British 
Burma who have previously thought but little of that de 
pendency of the Empire, and at the same time to impress all who 
read it with the reality and importance of the Church work going on 
therein. Coming just at a time when the public mind has been 
much excited by the possibility of another Burmese war, in con 
sequence of the mad inhumanity of King Thee-baw, we may well 
hope that these Personal Recollections will be read by a large 
number to whom merely Missionary records possess in themselves 
but little attraction. It is indeed chiefly a record of Missionary 
labour, but interwoven therewith is so much of geographical, his 
torical, and social interest, that it may almost take its place with 
those narratives of ordinary travel and adventure for which there is 
in the present day so intelligent a demand. Its length will weary 
no one ; its style is easy and readable ; while many excellent illus 
trations and a useful map add to its attractiveness. The work of 
Dr. Titcomb is traced from his first call to the Episcopate of Ran 
goon to the time when those heavy family afflictions which have 
awakened deep sympathy in the hearts of all who knew him seemed 
imperatively to demand his temporary absence from his diocese. To 
supporters of the S.P.G. the Burmese field is one peculiarly their 
own ; since no other Church Society has any share in what has been 
accomplished there. How much has been accomplished, how much 
attempted, our readers already know to a great extent from our 
pages ; but the continuous narrative of an eye-witness, fellow- 
labourer, and overseer, of two years progress, will naturally add 
much to their information, while showing many matters in a new and 
clearer light. We trust the objects with which the Bishop has 
published his interesting Recollections will be amply realised. 
These are " to create sympathy with him in his labours ; to extend 
information concerning a remote portion of the Indian Empire ; and 
to advance the Kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ." 



324 



Reports Received. 



Mission Field, 
Sept. 1, Ifc80. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. F. H. T. Hoppner of the Diocese of Calcutta; 
Tara Chand of Lahore; W. H. Gomes of Labuan ; M. Greenwood of North China ; ,b. W. 
Cox olGrahamst*; W. A.. Illing of Maritzburg ; J. C. Lambert and H. Wh.tehead of 
St. Helena; J. McCleverty of Brisbane; W. Jones of Montreal; W. King of Quebec; W. M. 
Tooke of Algoma; J. Hewitt of Newfoundland; G. Ditcham and J. B. Good of New West 
minster; W. Cowley of Antigua, and C. G. Curtis, Missionary at Constantinople. 



* nc0me far 1880. 



A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

T -GENERAL FUND, at the disposal of the Society. IK-APPROPRIATED FUNDS, 
administered by the Society. III.-SPECIAL FUNDS, not administered by the bociety, but 
transmitted direct to the persons named by the Donors. 



- 


i. 


2. 


3- 


Total 


Total 


January July, 1880. 


Subscriptions, 
Donations, and 
Collections. 


Legacies. 


Dividends, 
Kents, &c. 


BECEIPTS. 


PAYMENTS. 




& 














I. GENERAL .... 


18,963 


6,988 


2.865 


28,816 


47,230 


II. APPROPRIATED . . 


1,742 





2,876 


4,618 


6,242 


III. SPECIAL .... 


20,628 





1,093 


21,721 


20,938 


TOTALS . . 


4i>333 


6.988 


6,834 


55>i55 


74,410 



B. Comparative Amount of Receipts at the end of Jidy in five 

consecutive years. 



I 

n 
in 


GENERAL 
i. Subscriptions, &c. . . . 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


15,864 
9,326 
2,896 


16,311 
7<344 
3,156 


4,230 
3,270 


17,769 
6,028 

3,i79 


18,963 

6,988 
2,865 


3. Dividends 


28,086 
4,899 
2i,457 


26,811 

5,229 
14,955 


24,699 
13,^83 


26,976 


28,816 
4,618 
21,721 




TOTALS 


54,44 2 


46,995 


49,407 


51,712 


55,i55 



THE 

MISSION FIELD 



falb u % foorlfr. Cjje mb ig % S&orfc of $0&. 




OCTOBER i, 1880 



ALGOMA. 

THE NEEPIGON INDIANS. ILLNESS OF THE REV. E. F. WILSON. THE 
SHINGWAUK HOME. 

|E trust that none of our readers have forgotten the Indians 
of Lake Neepigon, who have for more than thirty years 
been anxiously looking for a Missionary to come and live 
among them. The Algoma Missionary News gives us further in 
formation concerning them, which shows their wish to be as strong 
as ever for the means of light and grace. The difficulties in the 
way of gratifying them have not yet been overcome. The Rev. E. 
F. Wilson was to have paid them a visit, and might perhaps have 
remained with them, could any one be found to take his place as 
head of the Shingwauk Home ; but all plans of the kind are now 
put on one side owing to Mr. Wilson s very severe illness, which has 
obliged him to return to England. The passage we refer to is the 
following : 

" On the third of June, our general routine work here was most 
pleasantly varied by the arrival of Oshkapukeda and his son the father 
of that boy from Lake Neepigon, who was adopted by our Bishop, com 
mitted to our care to be instructed in the Shingwauk Home, converted to 
Christianity, baptised and quickened, most powerfully, by the Holy Spirit, 
into a deep spiritual life in Christ, and now he * is not, for God took him. 
But we feel sure, by God s wise ordering, that the death, in the faith of 
NO. CCXCVIII. A A 



326 Algoma. 

Christ, of the boy, will yet be the life of his tribe, and also of a great 
many more besides. 

tl Oshkapukeda, even in a more tangible form than the vision of the 
man of Macedonia, most earnestly besought us that the blessings of 
Christianity might be extended to his people, who are still sitting in 
Pagan darkness. He wished, he said, his people to be English, not 
Roman Christians. He told us how Sir John Colborne had promised the 
Chief his father now thirty-three years ago that a Missionary of our 
Church should be sent to teach them the good and the right way, that 
they had patiently waited, and waited, relying on the fulfilment of the 
promise of the big white chief. Two years ago, he told us, they were 
cheered by a visit from the big black coat, (our Bishop) and Mr. Wilson ; 
and by the Bishop alone last year, that Mr. Wilson had promised to come 
again among them this summer and commence a school, and now he had 
come down to claim a fulfilment of that promise, and found on his arrival 
that Mr. Wilson was very sick and had gone away. 

" Never shall we forget the sparkling eye, the animated countenance of 
Oshkapukeda as he earnestly, fervently and eloquently, in his own 
language, urged the claim of his people upon us : there was no overdrawing, 
no holding out inducements of large numbers to be gained, no colouring, 
but a plain, simple, touching story of a heart stirred, and a wish to be 
taught the truth as it is in Jesus, the One who has been the dearest friend 
and Saviour of his dying boy. 

" The Bishop, most kindly, and most fatherly, promised to do what he 
could for their spiritual necessities, and entertained them here and at 
Garden River for nearly three weeks, during which time they were under 
religious instruction. Our difficulties in forming and carrying on a 
Mission among these Indians are great, for they are all migratory and 
depend wholly upon fishing and hunting for their subsistance ; then, not 
withstanding our constant appeal, no clergymen has offered to head the 
Mission. The Bishop s chaplain, a catechist, school master, and a 
carpenter, both late pupils of the Shingwauk Home, are to start by the 
first boat which calls at Red Rock in July, at which place they will take 
a canoe and visit from camp to camp these scattered pagans, and en 
deavour to induce them to band together for the winter, at some central, 
good fishing and hunting spot, in order that we may construct a log hut 
for teaching in, and thus commence a Mission among them. If this plan 
is not found practicable then they must be followed from place to place 
during the winter. The earnest, fervent prayers of all our subscribers, 
for the success of this part of God s Mission work, are most earnestly 
solicited." 

Writing from his sick bed, Mr. Wilson gives us a sketch of the 
history of the Shingwauk Home, which will prove interesting to 
many in whose ears the name is familiar : 

" The old chief Shingwauk was working in the bush, preparing bark 
troughs for the next sugar making, when like an arrow there came into his 
breast the thought, I will go to the great towns of the pale faces and ask 
them to give money to build for our children and grandchildren a big 
teaching wigwam, so that our race may not perish from the earth. That 
was the beginning under God of the Shingwauk Home. Next year Chief 
Buhkwujjinene went to England with me to collect money to build the 
big teaching wigwam, $800 was collected, the first home built, then 
came the fire and laid it in ashes, six days after the opening. That 



M Newfoundland. 327 

calamity under God proved to be the building of our work. $12,000 
were subscribed, all employed in the new buildings. God gave the money, 
I did not collect it. Thus has our work been carried on. The Church 
Mission Society gave up supporting me when I elected to remain at 
Garden River instead of going to Manitoba ; but God had another 
fountain close at hand ; an anonymous letter brought promise of ioo/. 
per annum if I would remain at Garden River, and that decided me. 
So too has it been with our Wawanosh Home. We have had discourage 
ments and difficulties. At one time we were on the point of giving it up 
for the want of funds but we cried to God, and while we were crying 
God heard us, and put it in the heart of one of His servants to send us 
$250 the very amount we wanted at the time to make good our deficiency. 

" And now God has sent upon me this illness, and our Boys Home is 
for the present closed. But it. is all for some wise purpose, and by and 
by, if we will but patiently wait, we shall see the meaning of it. 

"All seemed to us to be going on so satisfactorily, the boys made such 
good progress, tradesmen who employed the boys speak so well of them 
and above all there seemed to be a religious movement going on among 
the boys, many of them have, as we hope, truly given their hearts to the 
Saviour, and commenced in good earnest the hard but sweet Christian 
walk. Then there were plans to make for the summer, a crew of boys 
had hardly been appointed, there was to have been a canoe journey to 
Lake Neepigon, to those poor pagan Indians who had been for thirty 
years waiting for a Missionary, we were going to take tools, and nails, 
and glass, and the requisites for erecting a log school house in that wild 
far off region." 

The Bishop has been much cheered by the promise made by a 
lady, through the Society, of 5o/. a year during her lifetime, for use in 
the diocese of Algoma, which he proposes to use towards the pro 
vision of a Missionary on the Great Manitoulin Island, where one 
has long been greatly needed, and the people are willing to con 
tribute to his support, 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 

EPISCOPAL VISITATION OF BERMUDA. 

BISHOP JONES has been spending the greater part of the early 
months of the year in Bermuda, which has placed itself under 
his supervision. He returned to St. John s in the middle of May, 
having helrl eleven confirmations, at which 557 candidates were pre 
sented, ordained two deacons for work in the island, and admitted 
the Rev. Charles Baker, to the priesthood, consecrated burial 
grounds, and the new chancel of St. James s Church, Sandys, a 
work which in every way does credit to those who have carried it 
out. The visit is likely to give a considerable stimulus to Church 
life in Bermuda. 

A A 2 



328 Saskatchewan. M 



L Oct. i, 



SASKATCHEWAN. 

EFFORTS AMONG THE INDIANS. DEEP SNOW. EMMANUEL COLLEGE. 
ORDINATIONS. 



work among the Indians scattered through this diocese is 
JL second in interest to none in any part of the Mission Field. 
Elsewhere we give an account of the Sioux tribes, perhaps the most 
to be pitied of all, by Mr. J. O. Flett, who, as a layman, has been 
actively engaged among them, making vigorous efforts to master their 
tongue, and who is convinced that a wide door is now open for the 
accomplishment of good among them, if efforts be increased. 

During the autumn of last year the Rev. G. McKay was for two 
months in camp with another tribe, the North Piegans, of whom he 
writes : 

" They are a tribe comprising 800 souls. They are somewhat more 
intelligent than either the Blackfeet or Bloods, owing, no doubt, to their 
having mixed more than their fellow- Indians with the Americans. 

" I had thought of remaining with them for the winter months, so as to 
organise a school amongst them. The party that I have laboured with 
are desirous of settling down and farming. 

" I induced them to fence in a piece of land of about twenty acres, 
which I trust we shall have under crop next spring. 

" Mr. Dewdney, the Indian Commissioner, expressed himself as being 
very glad that I had attempted to get them to work, and has promised to 
help me in any way he can. He also told me to rely on $100 at least 
towards my school. I have the logs cut for the building, and would have 
built this fall, but owing to the lack of buffalo the Indians have been 
obliged to leave their reserve, and go where buffalo are to be had. I 
have consequently come down to McLeod for the winter." 

Much inconvenience has been occasioned to the Missionaries by 
the enormous fall of snow during last winter. In April last the 
Bishop was without many letters he had been long expecting, they 
having probably been left behind on the prairies. He says, ft Just 
fancy bringing the mail bags over six hundred miles of trackless 
snow." 

The Training College in which his lordship takes so great an 
interest has been named " Emmanuel." Of two of its students the 
supporters of the Society will be glad to have the information below, 
extracted from the Bishop s last letter. From such men we may 
expect much. 

" The ordination of Mr. E. Matheson and Mr. Robert Inkster, Theo 
logical Students of Emmanuel College, took place at St. Mary s Church 
here on Sunday, 2nd May. Mr. Matheson will remain in deacon s 



The Sioux Indians. 329 

orders for two years, as S.P.G. Missionary at Prince Albert. He will 
continue to be a Theological Student of the College in preparation for 
priest s orders. He is twenty-five years of age. His abilities are of a 
high order, and he is a man of sound and solid religious character. He 
has worked very hard in the double position of catechist and student. 
He has already provided himself with a horse and buggy, and I am con 
fident he will prove an active visitor among the people. 

"The Rev. R. Inkster is a man of forty-four years of age a half 
breed that is, he is partly of English, partly of Indian blood. He was 
brought up in the Church, and confirmed by Bishop Anderson. A good 
many years ago he moved westward to a place near the Rocky Mountains. 
At that time there was no Church of England Mission within a thousand 
miles at least on this side the Rocky Mountains, He joined the 
Methodists therefore. They soon discovered his ability, and employed 
him as a preacher both in English and Cree. When the diocese of 
Saskatchewan was organised, and I arrived at Prince Albert, he came to 
me and offered his services in any capacity I could employ him in. He 
told me that he had turned Methodist from sheer necessity, and that he 
loved the Church and wished to be again within her fold. I gave him 
employment as a schoolmaster, while he added something to his income 
by working as a carpenter. For two years he studied the elements of 
Theology under the Rev. Rural Dean Forneret, who was S.P.G. Mis 
sionary here for that time. When the Training College was opened here 
last year I admitted him as a student, and he has acquitted himself to my 
entire satisfaction. He bears the character of an honest, upright man 
exemplary in all the relations of life. He has a large family. His wife 
and children bear an excellent name. He worked very hard during the 
winter. I could only help him by employing him as a catechist at a very 
small salary, so that he had to work at his trade for some hours every 
day. Yet he studied manfully, often sitting up till two o clock A.M. at his 
books. He has made most creditable progress at his studies. He is 
really a forcible preacher both in English and in Cree, and is, I believe, 
sincerely anxious to be useful as a Missionary. I have licensed him as 
S.P.G. Missionary at Saddle Lake, in the Edmonton district. The 
Mission is an Indian one, and forms a very promising field. He will 
(D.V.) leave Prince Albert on June 7th, and hopes to hold his first services 
at Saddle Lake on Sunday, June 27th." 



THE SIOUX INDIANS. 
By J. C. FLETT, S.P.G. Catechist and Tutor. 

THERE is an undercurrent of similarity in character and dis 
position running through all the Indian tribes of the North 
American prairies, with more or less superstition and fierceness, ac 
cording to the nature of their external surroundings. The Dakota, 
or Sioux tribe, has long stood prominently forward as one of the 
bravest and most warlike nations, and in the days of their prosperity 
their very name was sufficient to strike terror into the hearts of their 
enemies. In 1852 the tribe was supposed to number 25,000; the 
probability now is that their entire strength does not nearly come up 



330 Saskatchewan. [^S S d 

to half that number. Their name, the Dakotas say, means " leagued," 
or "allied," and they sometimes speak of themselves as " Ocete 
Sakowin," the "Seven Council Fires," as the nation is composed of 
seven principal bands 

1. Mdewakan Tonwans, Village of the Spirit Lake. 

2. Wahkpekutes, Village in the Leaves. 

3. Wahpekutes, Leaf Shooters. 

3. Sisitonwan, Village of the Marsh. 

5. Thanktonwans, Village at the End. 

6. Thanktonwauna. 

7. Titonwans, Village of the Prairie. 

The last, by far the most powerful, is again subdivided into seven 
tribes. They occupied under the United States Government a 
reservation round the Black Hills, on the western side of the 
Missouri River, but within the last two years they have been expelled 
by force from their reserve; and under " Tatanke Eutake," " Sitting 
Bull," a chief famous in the history of Indian warfare, they have 
been compelled to take refuge on British soil, driven from their 
homes and country, which they had been led to believe by the most 
solemn promises to consider as their own, to take shelter as refugees 
on an alien soil ; the graves of their fathers desecrated by the plough 
share of strangers, need we wonder if they resort to deeds of ven 
geance and bloodshed, so congenial to their nature? The great 
injustice that has been meted out to the Indians by the North 
American Republic leaves a dark stain on the history of the Anglo- 
Saxon family, which it is to be hoped may yet be partially wiped out 
by the exertions made on behalf of these Indians, at this, the most 
fitting season, the darkest hour of their misfortune. From many a 
lonely spot, from many a sequestered valley, the blood of the 
murdered Indian will rise in judgment against the tyranny which has 
been shown. The division of the Sioux tribe, numbering about 
yoo, 1 at present living in our midst, is composed of parts of several 
tribes, a good part of them being descendants of those who were 
concerned in the Sioux massacre of Minnesota in 1862. Their 
lives have been prolonged during the winter by the charity of the 
members of this settlement I say prolonged, as their living has 
indeed been precarious. 

In large cities masses of the population are accustomed to 
privation and suffering from the earliest period of their lives ; it is 

( J ) The number, given approximately, includes those in this settlement and neighbourhood. 



"offS i F 88o ldl ] The Sioux Indians. 331 

the perennial state of their existence. But these Indians are sud 
denly brought face to face with the horrors of starvation. While the 
buffalo roamed in large herds over the prairies of the West they 
provided food, shelter, and clothing for the scattered tribes ; but 
now that the buffalo is almost exterminated, these Indians are 
reduced suddenly to a situation without parallel in their traditions 
a situation which it was impossible for them to foresee in the palmy 
days of their prosperity. With all the privations that these poor 
Indians have been forced to undergo, [ know of no instance where 
they have been tempted to acts of dishonesty, a fact which testifies 
amply to the innate rectitude of their natural disposition. 

Night and day there rises up to Heaven the piteous unending tale 
of suffering humanity. Happy is it for us, perhaps, that an absorbing 
selfishness or anxiety in our own pursuits deafens us to the swelling 
and most lamentable chorus. But because it is necessary, to a 
certain extent, to acquiesce in that law of the universe which dooms 
these human beings to affliction and pain, we are not free from all 
responsibility. Nay, Providence has laid upon us the responsibility 
of having them in our midst, thus pointing to the duty arising out 
of the situation. 

The Dakota language itself is simple ; it has, nevertheless, been a 
barrier in the way of our not having accomplished as much as we 
desired. As these Sioux Indians have only been two years in this 
place, no one can be found sufficiently acquainted with the language 
for the purpose of interpreting ; so that, as the first necessary pre 
liminary, I have devoted myself, with some success, rather to the 
study of the language. 

In regard to their religion, the Dakotas have " gods many," who 
are supposed to exercise a special supervision over all their affairs. 
Each man, however, has his own particular god a spiritual existence 
inhabiting some animal with which he believes himself to be in direct 
communion. They believe in a good and evil spirit, the evil spirit 
being more an object of fear, and therefore of greater veneration, 
During the year they have several ceremonial feasts, but there 
is one feast above all which is deemed by them to be of importance ; 
and it is certainly peculiar. It consists of the offering of a white dog 
as a propitiatory sacrifice. No one can witness the religious cere 
monies of this people without being impressed with the fact that 
what St. Paul said to the Athenians is true, to a great extent, of the 
Dakotas, (t Kara TrdvTa to? 



332 New Westminster. 

In common with all the tribes of this continent, the Sioux Indians 
have some simple idea of the hereafter, gauged by their own im 
perfect ideas of felicity; and the poet has well expressed the 
beautiful simplicity of their conceptions of futurity 

" Lo, the poor Indian, whose untutored mind 
Sees God in clouds, or hears Him in the wind ; 
His soul proud science never taught to stray 
Far as the solar walk or milky way. 
Yet simpler nature to his hope has given 
Beyond the cloud-capp d hills a humbler heaven. 
To be content s his natural desire ; 
He asks no angel s wing, no seraph s fire, 
But thinks admitted to that equal sky 
His faithful dog shall bear him company." 

Situated as we are in the advanced guard of civilization, we are 
necessarily brought face to face with the Indian in his natural state. 
Modern civilization, on the one hand, making gigantic strides ; the 
Indian, on the other, dressed in the paraphernalia of feathers and 
paint, the present and the past side by side in vivid juxtaposition. 
From the face of this continent these races are gradually passing 
away; they must inevitably succumb to the law of nature, the 
" survival of the fittest. Soon their very existence will be buried 
in the debris of the past. There is apparently no barrier to check 
the onward progress of their decay. To look at it from a philan 
thropic point of view, the position of these poor refugees is indeed 
gloomy ; there is no golden ray of Christian light and hope to relieve 
the dark picture of adversity, existing on the charity of strangers, 
exiles from the land of their birth, wanderers from the " rest which 
remaineth." 



NEW WESTMINSTER. 

THE BISHOP S ARRIVAL. - HARDSHIPS ON THE WAY. FIRST IM 
PRESSIONS. VISITATION OF THE DIOCESE. INTENSE COLD. - 
PROGRESS AND NEW OPENINGS. 

IT gives us very great happiness to record the safe arrival of 
Bishop Sillitoe in his diocese, after a journey by no means 
unadventurous, as the extracts printed below from two of his own 
letters will clearly show. The first is dated May nth, and was 
despatched immediately upon reaching Quebec : 

" I must write you a few lines to post on our arrival. We ought to 
have been in Quebec already, but, as you will probably have heard or 



M cS i, S d> ] Arrival of the Bishop. 333 

read, we have been in the ice, and although we are now free again, 
happily, it has occasioned us at least four days delay. 

" We had a capital passage at the beginning, barring head winds, but 
these we did not much mind, as they kept the weather clear. We found 
plenty of sea when we got away from the coast of Ireland, and it some 
what impaired our appetites for a while, though not seriously, and by 
Monday we had got our sea-legs on, and were enjoying ourselves 
thoroughly. 

"It was awfully cold, however, and got colder every day. We expected 
ice, because we had heard, before leaving Liverpool, that the Polynesian, 
which started a fortnight before us, was hung up in the ice somewhere off 
Cape Breton. So on Thursday morning we were not surprised to meet 
great fields of it, which we had to circumvent. 

" There were hundreds of acres of it, ten and fifteen feet thick, standing 
up three or four feet out of the water. Later in the day we sighted a lot of 
icebergs, some little ones, with smooth round tops, like hillocks, and 
others enormous ones, with straight up cliff-like sides. One was fully 
two miles long, and at least two hundred feet high. We could of course 
easily keep out of their way by daylight, but towards evening the wind 
changed, and brought down a dense fog, and we had a miserable and 
anxious night, crawling along at a snail s pace, and blowing the steam horn 
every minute, not to frighten the bergs, but to warn other vessels in our 
track. Friday broke clear again, and in the afternoon we sighted 
Newfoundland. 

" In spite of the fog we were still well within our time, but on Saturday, 
about mid-day, when we were just abreast of Cape Ray, we found our 
progress barred by a wall of ice extending right across the entrance to 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The captain sent the boat ashore to the 
telegraph station to ask for instructions, but getting no reply in two 
hours, he determined to attempt to force a way. 

" By this time the Moravian, which started a week before us, had 
joined company, having tried to get in, and failing, had run down to 
Halifax with the mails, and was now making a second attempt. We got 
into the ice about half a mile, driving at it hammer and tongs ; it was 
some twenty feet deep, but fortunately rather rotten, and the Sarmatiau 
is (also fortunately) rather strong. 

" However, the captain s valour was well tempered with discretion, and 
remembering that his vessel had not been built for a ram, he thought he 
would not smash it up all at once, but leave something to do on the 
morrow. The captain of the Moravian being similarly minded, we 
passed a quiet night in the ice together, as motionless as if we had been 
moored off Westminster Bridge. Sunday morning early we began ripping 
and tearing again, and did rather better so far as breaking the ice was 
concerned, though I expected every minute the ship would go from under 
us, and leave us pic-nicing on the ice. At last the captain and chief 
engineer acknowledged themselves beaten, and told us we had better 
make up our minds to wait, as our forerunners had had to do. 

"I think we were all rather relieved, and embraced the opportunity of 
keeping the sabbath properly. We had two Bishops aboard and two 
other clergymen, so we had plenty of staff. 

" We had a celebration of Holy Communion, and then morning service 
and sermon in the saloon ; and in the afternoon a Mission service on 
deck for the emigrants. 

" The scene all round was most interesting and beautiful. A lovely 
clear day, and warm sun, although the thermometer was only 38. 



334 New Westminster. [ KtSo* 

" Ice all round, as far as the eye could reach, of all shapes and sizes, 
pyramids, and pinnacles, and blocks as big as houses. We might have 
been in the Arctic sea from the appearance of things. To add, too, to 
the interest, on getting further into the ice we had fallen in with three or 
four other large steamers from Liverpool and Glasgow, and any number of 
sailing vessels. About five in the afternoon the captain got the crew out 
on to the ice, trying to break it up and clear the screw, and by 6.30 we were 
off again; but it was fearful work. The ship ground through huge 
masses of ice, or forced them up on end, or ran up on to them herself, 
and broke them by her sheer weight : but it was terribly anxious work, 
and the thoughtful ones amongst us couldn t help reflecting what might 
be the result of a single plate stove in. There were 1,200 of us on board, 
and only eight boats, which could not altogether have carried a third of 
us. At length, about half-past nine, the captain announced that he was 
going to stop the ship for the night, and so we were able to turn in once 
more without fear and trembling. 

" On Monday morning at daylight we found the ship almost surrounded 
by seals, gaping and staring at us, and evidently wondering at our rash 
intrusion. 

" At 4.30 we started ; and after about another hour s ploughing there 
appeared a dark blue line between the ice horizon and the sky, which told 
us of clear water once more, and soon after six we emerged from our 
difficulties, and steamed off at the rate of thirteen knots into the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence. During four days we have steamed through 140 miles of 
ice, of which the last sixty were through a dense pack, frequently twenty 
feet thick. 

" The captain s pluck and good judgment cannot be too highly com 
mended. He was called upon suddenly to take command of the Sar- 
matian on account of the illness of Captain Aird, and it must have 
added to his anxieties that he was a stranger to the ship, and to her 
officers and crew. Moreover, the fact of overtaking vessels that had 
started a week and a fortnight before him would amply have justified him 
in the exercise of over-caution, and would have excused any delay. 
Nevertheless he felt that if any vessel ought to get through, it was the 
Sarmattan, and her captain will be gratified to hear that the credit of his 
good ship has not suffered in the hands of Captain McDougall." 

The Bishop s troubles were not ended with his Atlantic voyage. 
On June 22nd he wrote from his own diocese: 

" Soon after landing I got an attack of dysentery, and though I struggled 
on by short stages, we had to make halts four or five times en route 
through Eastern Canada. We reached St. Francisco on the 8th, and left 
again on the loth ; but strong head winds and feeble engines, and a boat 
built on the lines of a dredging machine, made a long voyage of it, and 
only brought us into the harbour of Victoria between i and 2 A.M. on the 
morning of the I5th. A boat went on that same morning to New West 
minster, but we wished to see a little of Victoria, and so waited for the 
next one, which landed us here soon after midday on the i8th. 

"The Archdeacon of Columbia, and all the clergy of the city and 
neighbourhood (two in all, including the Archdeacon ! ) received us on 
landing, and escorted us to the church, in which a special service of 
thanksgiving was held, theTcongregation numbering from thirty to forty, 
which was large, considering the hour, and the fact that the mail was 
just in. 



Visitation of the Diocese. 335 

"On Sunday we had a special celebration of Holy Communion at 
8 A.M., at which eighteen communicated ; and on Sunday there were 
good congregations morning and evening, the church at night being quite 
full. The church, as a building, does credit to the enterprise of the 
people. It is built of stone (and it is the only stone church in the 
colony), and consists of chancel of two bays, and two bays of nave and 
north aisle, with a small south transept. 

" The church is very well furnished, a handsome brass lectern being 
specially conspicuous, and there is an air of order and decency pervading 
the services generally which is not always to be met with at home. 

"Externally the church is greatly disfigured by an excrescence in the 
shape of a rough wooden tower, erected for the peal of bells presented 
by Lady Burdett-Coutts. The bells no longer hang there, because the 
tower was declared to be insufficiently substantial, and it seems to answer 
no better purpose now than the old black patch of powder days, 
heightening the beauty of the rest of the building by contrast. It is 
evidently insecure, and we may be able, I hope, on this ground to stimu 
late the activity of the people in the direction of replacing it with stone. 
I am going round the outlying districts this week and next, and then on 
to Yale, which is, at the present moment, the centre of energy in the 
colony." 

"August \6th, 1880. 

"I have now visited all the Fraser River Settlements and Burrard 
Inlet, and am in a position to give you full information of the actual 
condition of things at the present date. 

" I should like to begin by saying that I propose to myself, in every 
report it may be my duty and my pleasure to make to the Society, to 
avoid everything of the character of high Missionary colouring, all sen 
sational pictures of spiritual starvation, and glowing descriptions of 
either heathen or colonial voracity for Christian knowledge. 

"I will endeavour to tell, in every instance, an unvarnished story of 
what is being done, and what is required to be done, in my humble 
opinion, and then leave the matter in your hands, convinced of two 
things first, that the officers of the Society know more about the ad 
ministration of its funds than I can do ; and, secondly, that the Society 
is quite as earnest about the propagation of the Gospel as I can be. 

" NEW WESTMINSTER. It is pleasanter to turn from the Church itself 
to the services held in it. These include daily Evensong, weekly and 
Saint s Day Celebrations, as well as the usual Sunday services. They 
are all fairly well attended, hearty, and decorous, and certainly above the 
average of English country parishes. The Church is served only by 
Archdeacon Woods, the Rector, with the single exception of one Sunday 
service a fortnight, when he has the assistance of the Rev. C. R. Baskett. 

" There is a Sunday-school attached to the church, with an average 
attendance of about sixty scholars. 

" Besides the Church Services the Archdeacon visits the Penitentiary 
once weekly. 

"The offertory amounts to about ten dollars or 2/. weekly, besides 
which pew rents are collected, though I hope soon to see these abolished. 
The Church population is not large, but I don t think they have given in 
the past as much support to their Church as was reasonably to have been 
expected of them, and I told them so at a gathering that was held during 
the week of our arrival. In justice to them it must be said that the 
people have been suffering under years of disappointment and depression, 



336 New Westminster. 

from which they are only just beginning to emerge ; and, moreover, the 
school in which most of them were trained was not one in which giving 
cheerfully was taught as a first principle of religious worship. Further, still, 
they have been somewhat spoiled by endowments and the injudicious (I 
speak humbly) application of help from without. I feel very strongly that no 
grants should be made except to meet local contributions, with due regard, 
of course, to the varying circumstances of places ; and on an under 
standing that, as settlements increased, the grants should be gradually 
reduced. If this principle had been acted upon here, we should not be so 
badly off as we are in respect of Mr. Baskett and Mr. Ditcham, whom I 
now have almost wholly to support out of funds I raised for new clergy, 
because no pressure was ever put upon their congregations, and they have 
seen no reason for taxing themselves so long as a clergyman was pro 
vided for them gratuitously. There are a few Indians and Chinese in 
New Westminster, for whom, I regret to say, our Church makes no 
provision whatever. 

"SAPPERTON, ST. MARY S. Sapperton is a village about one mile 
and a half from New Westminster, and quite distinct from it municipally 
and ecclesiastically. The Church Cemetery, the Lunatic Asylum, and 
the Penitentiary are all there, as well as the old Archdeaconry House, as 
it is called, which I have now decided to make my residence. A word, 
first, about this house. It was built mostly with money borrowed from 
the Archdeaconry of Columbia Fund, and this money has never been 
repaid; and until 4oo/. is forthcoming for purpose of repayment, the 
house will not be free, nor the Bishop s tenure of it secure. Besides 
which, so dilapidated is the condition of the house that the estimate of 
necessary repairs amounts to 23O/., which comes rather heavily upon one 
at first starting. There is, however, no other house suitable and available, 
so it is Hobson s choice with us. 

" St. Mary s Church stands in the grounds of the Archdeaconry House, 
and is a model of what all wooden churches might be, and ought to be. 
It was designed and built by the sappers who came out on the original 
survey expedition under Colonel Moody. It was the fashionable church 
of those days. Government House stood near ; officials and the staff 
had their residences round about ; an English tone pervaded the little 
society ; and they took pride in the church they had built for themselves, 
and in its services. It consists simply of a nave and chancel lined 
throughout with cedar wood in panels, with a well designed and beautiful 
open roof. 

"A service is held here every Friday evening, and on alternate Sundays, 
morning and afternoon, by Mr. Baskett. On the other Sundays he takes 
duty at Burrard Inlet, and St. Mary s remains closed. I hope to relieve 
Mr. Baskett of the work here as soon as I get into my house, and to take 
the services myself while I am at home ; and I should be glad to find 
a young man who would come and read with me for Holy Orders, and, in 
exchange for board and instruction, would undertake the parochial 
visiting, the Sunday-school, and the Church Services in my absence. 

" TRENANT. This is a settlement on the Fraser, about twelve miles 
below New Westminster. Services used formerly to be supplied here, 
but they were given up. 

" I went down from New Westminster on June 24th, accompanied by 
Mr. Baskett. We left here at 5 A.M., and reached the landing at Trenant 
in about an hour. After breakfast with Mr. W T illiam Ladner, an enter 
prising Cornishman, who combines the somewhat dissimilar trades of farm 
ing and the canning of salmon, we went across a rather wide slough/ on a 



M o"!i! So 3 ] Trenant: a Salmon Cannery. 337 

very narrow plank to the cannery buildings. (A slough is a branch of 
the river that has broken away, in a self-willed manner, on its own account, 
from the main stream, but, after sundry wanderings, mends its ways, and 
returns like a prodigal to its father s bosom.) 

" The cannery was occupied by Chinamen engaged in making cans for 
the salmon that, it is hoped, will arrive in August. 1 The whole of the 
can-making is done by hand machines, and the division of labour is very 
remarkable, each can passing through a dozen pairs of hands in process 
of manufacture. All is done, however, with the utmost regularity, without 
confusion, and in perfect silence, one of John s estimable characteristics 
being not to talk over his work. Some idea may be formed of the extent 
of this trade from the fact that at this cannery alone they were making 
192,000 cans, which they expected to fill in the August run of fish. The 
salmon are caught by Indians with nets. On being brought to the can 
nery, they are cleaned, and then chopped by a sort of guillotine of many 
blades into pieces the length of a can. The cans are then filled, and 
piled on a trolly, which is run into a huge boiler, and the door being shut 
steam is applied through coils of iron tubing, ; and when it is known that 
this cooking process is prolonged through nearly three hours, no one need 
be afraid of eating their salmon underdone. 

" The whole business, from the manufacture of the cans to the packing 
of them, occupies only about six weeks, so that a man must needs com 
bine some other calling with it. 

" The two brothers Ladner, who are the principal partners in the 
cannery, have a farm each besides, and, finding us horses, they took us 
first over their own farms, and then through the settlement. 

"The whole of this land was at one time subject to inundation at high 
tides, but dykes and floodgates now control the river, and have converted 
a foe into a useful friend. So prolific is the soil that Mr. Ladner is able 
to boast of cauliflowers weighing 26 Ibs., and of having gathered onions at 
the rate of 24 tons per acre. 

" Although the neighbourhood is flat, the prairie, as it is called, is not 
the boundless prairie here, for the whole horizon is mountain, and not 
so far off, either, but its beauties are very conspicuous. Mount Baker 
itself, the monarch of the Pacific coast, appears within an easy walk, 
though his summit of 15,000 feet is sixty miles away. 

" In the afternoon we took boat on the river, and visited a cannery 
lower down, bringing back with us a large party to attend the service 
announced for the evening. We held this in the public school, there being 
no church (nor indeed any place of worship whatever) in the district. 
There had been no service here for three years, and it was very cheering 
and a little pathetic to see the people turning up as the hour approached 
by all manners of conveyances, some by boat on the river, some by 
boat on the slough, some in waggons, some on horseback, and of course 
many on foot. Altogether sixty-eight assembled. We had Evensong, 
and I preached. After the service we held a meeting, and a committee 
was formed for the purpose of raising a guarantee fund towards the 
stipend of a clergyman. I told them I thought they could raise 8o/. if 
they tried, and that if they did, I would undertake to provide an equal 
sum, and find them a clergyman. I have since heard from them that 6o/. 
has been promised, and that more will probably be forthcoming, and that 
they are also prepared to undertake, by degrees, the erection of church 
and parsonage, and they offer sites. 

(i) As it turns out they have not come, and most of the canneries are already " shut down, 
with only half the usual supply. August ijth. 



33 8 New Westminster. [ M o*fi* Xt 4 

" I think, therefore, that I am justified now in recommending this 
Mission to the notice of the Society, and in making an urgent appeal for 
a grant, at as early a date as possible, of 8o/. to meet the local con 
tribution. I am in communication with a gentleman in Canada (not yet 
in holy orders), whom, if he comes, I propose placing here at once, 
otherwise I shall be obliged by your making a selection for me ; and I 
hope it may not be impossible for you to make a supplementary grant to 
meet this emergency. The people deserve support, and to be shown how 
willing the Church is to help those who are willing to help themselves. 
There is a settlement ten miles off, called Serpentine, which could be 
served from here, besides a well-disposed tribe of Indians. 

" NORTH ARM AND BURRARD INLET. I chartered a small steamer 
on June 3oth for a visit to the North Ann of the Fraser. We called first 
at a logging camp, where we were hospitably entertained. About thirty 
men, all whites, are employed. The work consists of felling timber up 
in the forest, which, being stripped of its bark and sawn into lengths of 
about twenty-five feet, is dragged by mules or oxen down a specially con 
structed road to the river, where a number of logs are roped together in 
form of a raft, technically called a boom, and towed away to a saw-mill. 

"The road is constructed of logs laid crossways about three paces 
apart, called * skids/ with smaller logs between to form what is termed 
bridging. In the centre of the skids a hollow is scooped out in which 
the log is dragged along, a boy preceding the team with a can of oil to 
keep the way greased. 

" This oil presents irresistible attractions to bears, who watch the pas 
sage of a team, and then regale themselves on what the friction has 
left of the savoury delicacy. The oil is extracted from a fish called the 
Oolachan, which abounds in these waters at certain seasons, and is of 
such oleaginous character as to burn like a candle after being dried in 
the sun. 

" The sagacity of an ox-team has to be seen to be appreciated. They 
seem to understand the most complicated of difficulties, and are managed 
with as much ease as a circus horse. And so attached to their work do 
they become, and so interested in it, that a superannuated ox has been 
known to follow his old team up and down as a pleasant recreation for 
his declining years. 

"A teamster s office is no sinecure, it is true, but his stipend is by 
no means contemptible. He receives from seventy-five to one hundred 
dollars a month, and his board altogether equivalent to about 28o/. 
per annum, more than seventy-five per cent, better than the average 
stipend of the Missionary of the Church of England. 

" We visited after this nearly a dozen farmsteads along the river, and 
towards evening began to gather up the people on board our steamer 
to convey them to the school-house, where we were going to hold 
service. 

" We had a congregation of nearly fifty in all, but . only a small pro 
portion are Church people. Mr. Baskett has held a service here one 
Sunday in three months, but in the same building both Methodists and 
Presbyterians hold services more frequently, and the people attend them 
all with equal readiness. I propose relieving Mr. Baskett (as I have 
already said) of the duty at St. Mary s Sapperton, and giving him charge 
of this district, along with Burrard Inlet. They might then have more 
frequent Sunday services, and at least one regularly in every week, and 
pastoral visitation as well. 

" There is no imperative call yet for a church, but there is great need 



Mission Field, 
Oct. 1, 



If-] Burrard Inlet. 339 



of a burial-ground, for the people are ten miles from one in any direction, 
with no better means of communication than a canoe on the river, or a 
trail through the forest ; and if a burial-ground were provided for them, 
it would be better to erect a small church or chapel upon it ; consecrating 
a portion of the ground, but leaving the chapel unconsecrated, and per 
mitting the use of it, when desired, to Methodists or Presbyterians. 
There is a risk, I am well aware, of offending some friends by such a 
proposition as this, but we have to deal with questions here according to 
our circumstances, and we must not be hastily blamed if, in questions 
involving no essential principle, we use a liberty to gain a little Christian 
union and concord. 

"The service was joined in with some heartiness, but we laboured 
under two difficulties, one being the absence of light, and the other the 
presence of mosquitoes. Our instrument of music was a violin, played by 
a young farmer who acts as lay reader for us sometimes. 

"The congregation dispersed in boats and canoes, and then our 
steamer took us on board again and landed us at New Westminster, about 
one hour after midnight. 

" July 2nd, I started by stage for Burrard Inlet, Mr. Baskett once more 
officiating as Chaplain. Two hours drive took us to Hastings, on the 
south side of the Inlet, a cluster of cottages with a little i-.in, but expect 
ing to grow in importance when the railway comes through. All Burrard 
Inlet will become important then, and Hastings may outrival New West 
minster itself; but the actual terminus is not yet decided on, and Hastings 
may quite likely be doomed to disappointment. Three miles lower down 
the Inlet is Granville, whose hopes, in my opinion, rest upon a much 
surer foundation, for there is not only a better approach for the line, but 
also a better anchorage for ships. The Inlet generally may be compared 
with Milford Haven, though more extensive, and far_, better sheltered. 
On the north side of the Inlet is but one place with any population, called 
Moodyville, or Moody s ; and this consists really of a logging camp and 
saw mill, for every one in the place belongs to one or the other, and the 
proprietors of both keep the only store on the settlement. To their 
honour be it said, they sell no liquor, nor allow any to be sold in the town ; 
and those who will have it must fetch it across from the inn at Hastings. 

" Mr. Baskett provides one service each at Granville and Moodyvilie, 
on the Sundays he is not at Sapperton, in both places using rooms 
occupied by Nonconformist ministers at other times ; and since these 
rooms are gratuitously placed at our disposal, and there are literally no 
others available, we can scarcely be accused of worse than making the 
best of our opportunities. 

" With regard to Moodyville, I think it would be unwise to spend 
money in building on account of the uncertain future of the place. 
When the timber fails, both camp and mill will be removed, and the whole 
population will follow them. With Granville it is different. Its position 
guarantees its permanency, and if chosen as the terminus of the railway, 
it will become the most important city on the mainland. 

" My idea then, is, to place Mr. Baskett in charge of the district com 
prising North Arm and the Inlet, and to relieve him of all duty at 
Sapperton and New Westminster. He will then be able to supply 
regular services at Granville, and occasional ones at the other two settle 
ments, and will have quite as much as is possible for one man to do. 
But here again help will be needed, and help is deserved. It is very 
difficult to get people to guarantee subscriptions when we can only offer 
them irregular services, and so it is not easy to assess the local contribu- 



340 New Westminster. 

tions in this case, but if the Society would give me 5o/. on condition that 
5o/. was locally raised to meet it, I would be responsible for the rest of 
the stipend. 

"The Society must understand clearly -that no abandonment of work 
is involved in Mr. Baskett s removal, but rather a considerable increase 
of it. At present he roves about from one district to another, districts 
totally disconnected ; and not only is much time wasted, but also his 
influence with the people and their interest in him are seriously impaired 
by long and frequent absences. 

" YALE. I have no need to write much about Yale. The work there 
is being organised, and with Mr. Blanchard s arrival will, I hope, 
go ahead. 

" We left here for Yale on July 7th, and arrived the next day. I have 
not time, even if I had the power, to describe the glories of the Fraser. 
Perhaps I will endeavour to do so some day for the benefit of the readers 
of Mission Field. I will only stop to say that there are localities here to 
satisfy the keenest appetite for Nature s wonders, when even Switzerland 
and the Rhine have been exhausted of their attractions. 

At the Mission House we received a warm welcome from Mr. Good, 
and Mr. Sheldon ; the latter of whom we had not seen since we parted 
with him at Quebec. After a Sunday spent together, Mr. Good went off 
to Lytton while I officiated in his stead the two following weeks. The 
railway works have made Yale the liveliest place in the province. A year 
ago there were scarcely fifty white people resident ; now there are nearly 
2,000, including Chinamen. 

" Nothing could have been more fortunate than the decision arrived 
at last year to appoint another man here to supplement Mr. Good s work, 
and I am most thankful too for the good Providence that put Mr. Sheldon 
and Mr. Whiteway in the mind to volunteer for the work. Mr. Sheldon 
has already made his influence felt to a very marked degree, especially on 
the young men in the railway offices and new stores ; and he has just 
received an invitation from the contractors to take charge of a hospital 
about to be opened for the benefit of their employe s near Lytton. 

u While thus applying his medical experience to the relief of the body, 
he does not forget that the work he volunteered for is to minister to souls 
diseased. He has been assisting Mr. Good in the services of the Church, 
and addressing the men in the lodging-houses ; and I propose now to 
license him as a lay-reader in the district to which he is going. 

" Mr. Good is, I am glad to say, persuaded that Yale is not his most 
convenient headquarters, and is quite ready to transfer his white re 
sponsibilities to Mr. Blanchard. Until, however, the latter is in priest s 
orders, it will be necessary to retain Mr. Good at Yale, but I am not 
sorry for this, inasmuch as there is Indian work enough in the district 
fully to occupy his time. 

" I come now to a matter of urgency and importance, the question, 
viz., of dealing with the Chinese labourers employed on the railway. 
They are at present estimated at 1,200, and their number is expected to 
be increased next spring. I feel a heavy responsibility regarding them, 
but I am powerless. Their knowledge of English is far too limited for 
religious instruction, and no one of us knows a word of Chinese. I have 
thought whether it might be possible to send us some one destined 
ultimately for China who could very profitably spend a year or two 
amongst us studying the Chinese character, and familiarising himself 
with the language, [and then pass on to the field intended for him ? Or 
whether you would allow some one on his way to China to visit this 



Chilliwhack. 



341 



country ^;z route, and rep rt to you on the subject ? In either case the 
matter is urgent, for the men are here now, and the length of their sojourn 
is limited. 

" Of the disposition of the Chinese to receive Christian truth, I have 
lately had a remarkable example in a family recently arrived from Hong- 
Kong, and who brought with them strict injunctions from the Chief 
Pastor of a German Mission there to ally themselves with no Christian 
body but the Church of England ; an injunction they have faithfully 
observed by putting themselves under our charge immediately on their 
arrival. They know no English, but by means of German I hope to be 
able to hold communication with them. 

" CHILLIWHACK. We went down to Chilliwhack by canoe from Yale 
on July 3ist. The distance is about forty-six miles, and we accomplished 
it in less than six hours, thanks to a strong current and three sturdy 
Indian paddlers. This is entirely an agricultural district, and the farmers 
are fairly prosperous, though, farmer-like, they do not readily own it. In 
spite, however, of their prosperity, their contributions for Church purposes 
have sunk this year to zero, owing, I am convinced, to the foolish principle 
of full stipend grants. If the Society s grant for this district had been 
given to meet a proportionate local contribution, it need not have been so 
large ; it might have been spread over a greater number of years ; we 
might have still been enjoying it, and Mr. Ditcham would have been a 
richer man. 

" His congregation contributed during the first six months of this year 
the sum of fifteen dollars, or just 3/., for his stipend. 

" I called a meeting of Churchmen, and formed a committee, to obtain 
guarantees of subscriptions. I told them that they musb provide at least 
half the stipend, i.e. 75/., and that I would be then responsible for a like 
sum. It is right to say that last year they raised a sum of 4o/. for a 
parsonage, besides io/. given in kind, and in work, while 12 /. was raised 
by offertories for stipend, and 4/. given in kind. Mr. Ditcham con 
sequently received for stipend, in 1879, the sum of n6/. ! He needs yet 
a sum of 43/. to complete his house, which will have cost, when complete, 
the not extravagant sum of 93/. 

" He lives what appears a very lonely life, but he does not admit that 
it is so. He is very cheerful under it, at all events, and with a little 
friendly counsel and sympathy will make an efficient and hard-working 
parish priest. Perhaps if you publish this, some kindly heart will be 
moved to send the balance necessary to complete his little bachelor home, 
and to provide his home with a few little English comforts. He would be 
thankful too for altar ornaments for his church. , . 

" We were there a Sunday, and had three services, two for whites and 
one for Indians. The next day we had a children s service, and one for 
Indians, in the morning, and in the afternoon an examination of cate 
chumens and Holy Baptism. 

" In my next report I hope to give you an account of a journey half 
way to the Rocky Mountains, returning by Kamloops and Lytton. We 
are to start (D.V.) (Mrs. Sillitoe accompanying me) the first week in 
September, and the journey will occupy about six weeks." 

It will be seen that no time has been lost in setting about episcopal 
work, our readers interest in which will be increased, we think, if 
we append the Bishop s graphic description of the central scene of 
his labours. 

NO. CCXCVIII. B B 



342 New Westminster. [*(??, 3? ; 

"This is really a very lovely place, though of course we have the 
advantage of the first fresh brilliancy of summer to heighten its natural 
beauty ; but the whole situation is well chosen and picturesque. The 
ground rises suddenly from the river on both banks, so that in the town 
the houses stand one above another ; every one has a view, and indeed a 
view more or less panoramic, since abundance of space has given nearly 
every house a garden. The opposite bank of the stream is covered with 
pine forest, rising suddenly to about one hundred feet above the stream, 
and over this ridge from the higher parts of the town is seen the snowy 
range of Mount Baker, nearly seventy miles away to the south-east. 
Down the river to our right, about a mile distant, two fir-clad islands 
divide the stream into three great arms, and form a basin just above them 
fully two miles wide, across which we look over to the mountains of 
Vancouver ; while up stream, to our left, the view is bounded by the 
mountains of the Cascade range, thirty miles off, and still at midsummer 
largely covered with snow." 

Frost and ice have occasioned even greater hardships to his 
lordship s clergy resident on the mainland, than to himself on his 
journey to join them. Both Mr. Good and Mr. Ditcham familiar 
names in these pages speak of an intensely severe winter, probably 
one such as has not been before experienced in living memory. 
Both also speak of an eager expectation of the Bishop s appearance 
existing among both European immigrants and native Indians. 

Mr. Ditcham s letter is dated from Chilli whack, April nth; in it 
he says : 

" Church services in my district have not been very agreeable during the 
winter, owing to the extreme cold and our having no stove to warm the 
church ; but I am happy to say I have had services either at Chilliwhack 
or Ferny Coombe. It was too severe a crucifying of the flesh to remain 
in my house with the thermometer registering six below zero. This 
amount of cold would not be felt were it not for the piercing north wind 
that invariably accompanies it in this lower country, I left my unfinished 
parsonage where the cold was so intense even in bed that I had to 
smother myself almost to keep warm, or to keep my nose from freezing 
to the blankets and went to Ferny Coombe and stayed with Mrs. Agassiz 
for nearly a month. It has been so cold that the river was frozen over for 
three months, and so thick was the ice that a band of cattle, seventy 
head, was driven over on its way to Victoria. In Yale the snow was six 
feet deep. Three feet have melted and three remain. Even last Sunday, 
April 4th, it snowed hard all day here. I walked fifteen miles through it 
to take service in the evening at Ferny Coombe. 

" I have to report that the Indians are taking greater interest in our 
services, and that seven new faces have shown themselves during last 
quarter. Many more say they would attend if they could feel that they 
would not be deprived of a teacher again, as when Mr. Holms was taken 
from them. I think when they see the Bishop, and can hear from him 
that they will be cared for, we shall have a great increase to our Indian 
congregation. Sunday after Sunday they inquire anxiously concerning 
the Bishop s coming. Mr. Good told them to-day that his lordship would be 
with us in two moons. A good, earnest, loving bishop, and such we hear 



Mission Field,-] VnJf in 

out. i,i88o. J xcue. 343 

our bishop is, will be a tower of strength to our Church out here, and we 
all long to see him actually at work amongst us." 

The Rev. J. B. Good, who has just added to his other completed 
works in the way of translation a vocabulary and grammar of the 
Nitlakapamuk, or Thompson Indian, tongue, and some of the 
occasional offices of the Prayer Book, tells of a new and most 
important opening for Missionary labour awaiting the superinten 
dence of Dr. Sillitoe, in connection with the new line of railway 
which has Yale for its starting point. How overwhelming are the 
calls, how vast the fields for Christian activity, for those who have 
ears to hear and eyes to see ! Mr. Good s report for the quarter 
ending June 3oth contains the following passages : 

" Bright and cheering prospects of extended usefulness, and enlarged 
opportunity of making the Church we represent a blessing to the now 
ever increasing multitudes of various nationalities that are being attracted 
by railway construction to cast in their lot in the district under our charge, 
make one tremble lest we should prove unequal to the call on all our 
powers to be up and doing, that nothing be lost. 7 

" The arrival of a bishop for the mainland, who already has made the 
most favourable impression upon all with whom he has come in contact, 
and who brings with him helpers and means for Carrying on the wofk of 
the Church, is an event fraught with the happiest consequence to ail our 
interests, and we shall have in him a leader and director whom it will be 
a pleasure to follow, marked, as I feel sure his path will be, with the pro 
gress and solid growth of religion and piety throughout his episcopal 
jurisdiction. 

"Concentrated at Yale, and its immediate neighbourhood, over one 
thousand of Chinese employes, and almost an equal number of European 
labourers and overseers, are at work upon the Yale and Savonnah Canadian 
Pacific Railroad. It is calculated that in two months from now these 
numbers will be doubled, and the force will be scattered in various sections 
along the whole line of construction. It must be understood also that 
this projected route, now in the hands of the contractor, follows for the 
most part the Grand Trunk Road of the upper country, along which the 
great body of our Native Thompson tribe of Indians have their habita 
tions. 

t " Contact, therefore, close and constant, between the railway employes 
and our Indian converts must inevitably ensue, and it is for us to see 
that this intercourse and communication be as little harmful as possible 
to our weak brethren, who look to us for protection and moral support in 
all their troubles and discouragements. I am above measure thankful to 
report that thus far the conduct of our Indian congregation, whether as 
it affects their temporal or spiritual concerns, has been marked by great 
steadfastness and patient continuance in well-doing. What it may be 
under the new and complicated condition of their surroundings time 
will tell. 

"The white congregation at Yale has increased so of late thit our 
church will have to be enlarged to twice its present size to accommodate 
the crowds flocking to the house of prayer. Lately, too, all the saloons 

B B 2 



344 Jamaica. [Wt5T 

have been compelled to close all Sunday which will prove of great 
service to us, and remove a great source of temptation to Sunday 
desecration out of our midst. 

" The Indian Church is equally well attended, and I am much cheered 
by the attention they bestow on the things which belong to their peace. 
There are also many quiet inquiring Chinamen who have only to be 
carefully shepherded to induce them to * wait on our ministry. Bishop 
Sillitoe will arrive at Yale this week, and his report will afford the 
Society the best test of whether these things are so or not as herein 
stated. 

" I shall take advantage of his stay at Yale to go myself on a hundred 
miles pastoral journey as far as where the Buonaparte empties into the 
Thompson spending one Sunday in the neighbourhood of Cache Creed, 
and the next at Lytton. 

" The Bishop will not himself see Lytton till September, and it will be 
my business to prepare our Indian flock for his lordship s visitation. 
Every Indian settlement bears witness to the increased industry and 
spirit of improvement which now pervades the entire community. Old 
scenes and feelings are passing away and all is becoming new. May it 
increasingly appear that all this pleasing change is wrought of God." 



JAMAICA. 

RESIGNATION OF BISHOP TOZER. - ELECTION OF A SUCCESSOR. 
HURRICANE IN JAMAICA : CHURCHES DESTROYED. EPISCOPAL VISIT 
TO BRITISH HONDURAS : GREAT SPIRITUAL NEED. 

BISHOP TOZER S episcopate in Jamaica has been a brief one. 
As was feared by many of his friends, the climate and work 
of such a diocese has proved too much for a constitution previously 
undermined by arduous work in a tropical climate. The disappoint 
ment must have been great, but medical orders were peremptory, 
and on April 25th, the day after his formal resignation, the Bishop 
left Jamaica for England. 

No time has been lost in filling up the appointment. A Special 
Synod, described as " the largest gathering of Clergy and of Lay 
representatives ever seen in Jamaica," assembled on July i5th, when 
three proposals were brought forward, viz. (i) that the choice of a 
Bishop be placed, as it was last year, in the hands of the English 
Committee of Reference; (2) that the Rev. C. F. Douet be 
appointed Bishop; (3) that the Rev. Enos Nuttall, Incumbent of 
St. George s, Kingston, be appointed Bishop. On the following day 
the voting took place, when Mr. Nuttall was declared duly elected, 
the election subsequently receiving the almost "entire concurrence 
of the Synod." 



H o"ct!i. 55! 1 ] Destructive Hurricane. 345 

A destructive hurricane which has swept over the island has 
caused the issue of the following appeal by the Bishop-elect, who 
is now in England : 

" Brief telegrams of a general nature reached England on 26th August 
of a disastrous hurricane which passed over the eastern and central parts 
of Jamaica on the night of the i8th and the morning of the iQth of that 
month. Details have since been received from different sources by the 
mail of the I3th inst., and these give a very sad account of serious loss 
of property, though happily unaccompanied with much loss of life. But 
the destruction of churches, schools, public buildings, and crops, and 
last, but not least, of houses chiefly the cottages of the peasantry has 
been, comparatively speaking, immense ; and the sum of actual money 
worth of all these losses must not be looked at from an English point of 
view it must be judged by the standard which a poor struggling com 
munity exacts for the measurement of its sufferings, when so considerable 
an amount of its means, prospective and accumulated, are swept away 
or diminished in value. The peasantry of the country, especially in that 
part where the storm seems to have raged with the most destructive 
violence, depend largely on the cultivation of their small holdings for 
their sustenance, and for providing education and religious teaching. 
Nearly all the peasantry are freeholders, and though the effect of this 
mode of settlement has been to limit the labour-market, on which the 
large plantations depend for means of being carried on, yet as far as the 
humbler classes themselves are concerned, it has been highly beneficial. 
Property slowly acquired by their own energy, industry, and thrift, has 
had an educational power on the mind and a formative influence on the 
character of the people, which those who have laboured among them as 
teachers gladly acknowledge. 

" There is now no Established Church in Jamaica, only a disendowed 
one, with a small remnant of State-paid clergymen, who are rapidly 
diminishing in number, and having their places taken by a ministry 
entirely supported by the voluntary contributions of the members of the 
Church ; and besides this large and not uninfluential Disestablished 
Church thus maintained, there are numerous Nonconformist commu 
nities which derive their support chiefly from the liberality of their 
people. It is necessary to bear fully in mind how much is done towards 
the payment of the clergy by the humbler classes, who constitute in the 
country parts the vast proportion of the congregations, and whose 
prosperity is therefore so important an element in the efficiency of all 
that machinery which is connected with a well-administered cure. The 
ruin which has descended with such terrible swiftness on this un 
happy part of the island is described with a particularity and abruptness 
in the local papers which compel attention ; and we cannot doubt will 
excite sympathy and compassion in the hearts of the readers of the Mission 
Field. These papers have gained their information from eye-witnesses 
and sufferers, and little room for doubt is left on the mind of the correct 
ness of these tidings, when we compare them with many private letters 
which have been received from thoroughly trustworthy persons. When 
large, solidly-built churches have been thrown down by the force of the 
hurricane, we might, without any further relation, be sure that cottages, 
however comfortable and sufficient for ordinary weather, would be swept 
away in great numbers and so it has been. At least seventeen churches of 
the Church of England (not to speak of smaller places of worship), with 



1 Afi ty/jm/ji s/j FMission Field, 

340 



Oct lf 1880 

schoolrooms and parsonages, have been either totally wrecked or seriously 
damaged ; and in addition to these, we gather that very many chapels 
and school-houses of the Wesleyans, Baptists, and other Noncomformist 
bodies have been involved in a like ruin. In face of such distress, the 
eyes of the sufferers naturally turn to what they fondly term the Mother 
Country. Their Church is called by her name, and is loyal to her doctrine 
and her ritual ; and in its stricken and impoverished state stricken 
suddenly, yet not blindly and capriciously, but, as we believe, by a wise 
and loving Father with disciplinary purpose, though with a sanctifying 
seventy this child of the Missionary zeal and love of the English 
Church naturally turns to her as the fittest means through which the 
relief which she prays for from her Heavenly Master may be sent. She 
needs help to rebuild the fallen churches and to support those of the 
clergy who are in the ravaged districts, till the people once more regain 
the power of supporting their church. 

"A special account has been opened at the Society s office, called 
The Jamaica Church Relief Fund/ to which donations to meet losses 
by the hurricane may be sent." 

We have again and again referred in these pages to the condition 
of Church matters in British Honduras. Bishop Tozer, who visited 
the colony while Bishop of Jamaica, has described in the following 
letter the impressions received by him on the occasion. The picture 
presented by the combined accounts of the Bishop and the Rev. 
J. H. Geare is indeed saddening, and might well stir the hearts of 
English Churchmen to some especial effort to endeavour to remove 
the stigma, for it is nothing else, which attaches to our religion in 
those parts. The present, moreover, would seem to be a favourable 
time for such an effort, since the present Governor is thoroughly 
well disposed, and several small movements appear to have been 
lately set on foot among the colonists themselves, which, with ex 
ternal aid, might greatly develop, and serve as patterns to earnest 
men in other places in the colony. 

The Bishop writes as follows : 

"KING S HOUSE, SPANISH TOWN, JAMAICA, 
"March ist, 1880. 

" I have just returned to Jamaica from British Honduras, which has 
organised itself on the base of a separate diocese, and elected me the 
Bishop much as the Windward Islands have formed themselves into an 
independent see and elected as Bishop, Ur. Mitchinson of Barbados. 

"The arrangement has been in both cases rendered necessary by the 
civil circumstances of the two colonies of British Honduras and the 
Windward Islands. I find that you give ioo/. in aid of the stipend of 
the Rev. J. H. Geare, Rector of St. Mary s, at Belize. Hence you are 
entitled to hear in what sort of condition I found the church in this little 
British colony. But first let me point out the peculiar position which 
British Honduras occupies in Central America. It is a kind of island 
in the midst of various small semi-Spanish republics ; and politically it is 



Oct. 



British Honduras. 347 



doing a good work, in showing an example of excellent government in a 
part of the world where government of any kind would appear to be 
almost an impossibility. 

" The ecclesiastical condition of things in Central America is very 
much what is to be found in Mexico, and in South America generally ; 
and hence it becomes a matter of very great interest and importance that 
the English Church should be well represented in the only place where 
English influence is supreme in this part of the continent. I am sending 
you with this a copy of an almanack for the current year, which the 
colony, very much to its credit, has put forth. In it you will see 
just where we stand in relation to various other religious bodies, both 
Roman Catholic and Protestant ; and I am sure you will agree with me 
that nothing can be more discreditable to us, as the Church which has been 
maintained in the colony ever since 1794. It would seem that we have 
never attempted to do more than what was done under the established 
condition of the Church, and that was to maintain two clergymen for the 
two churches in the town of Belize. 

" On my arrival I found that the Incumbent of St. John s Church had 
left. In consequence of this the whole work of the Church, as well in 
Belize as in all other parts of the colony, falls on the unassisted shoulders 
of your most excellent and devoted Missionary, Mr. Geare. I cannot 
speak in sufficiently high terms of his earnest efforts to keep the Church 
alive, or of the perfectly marvellous way in which he has managed to 
uphold our Lord s cause, amidst most difficult and depressing circum 
stances. I found in his own church a large and devout and well- 
instructed congregation, all of whom are being trained in churchly ways, 
and have already learnt to like and take a part in reverent and solemn 
services. And he has certainly done what he could in the other parish, 
where the influence of the Church has been reduced almost to zero. He 
has in the present Governor, and Mrs. Barlee, helpers in all good things, 
who never fail him, and who repeatedly expressed to me their keen 
appreciation of his zeal and goodness. 

" The Sunday before my return to Jamaica I held a confirmation in St. 
John s Church, which was crowded on the occasion. The candidates, 
seventeen in number, were all from the other parish. During my visit 1 
went to Corosal, a town of almost equal size to Belize, where we are doing 
nothing, and have never attempted any work. There are, however, 
barracks there, and several English officers always quartered in them, 
and the men are marched regularly on Sunday mornings to a 
Wesleyan chapel. Many of the officers, and their wives, entreated me 
to do something in their behalf, if only to appoint a schoolmaster who 
might hold a lay service for them. From Corosal I proceeded up the 
Belize River to Orange Walk, which is not far from the Yucatan frontier. 
The only mode of travelling was in an open row-boat, and it was a pull 
of more than forty miles. I found at this village, where some years ago a 
frightful Indian raid had been made, two forts ; one was occupied by the 
soldiers of our West Indian 2nd Regiment, with their officers, and the 
other was the head-quarters of a strong police force, as well as the resi 
dence of the local magistrate, A Roman chapel, served by an Italian 
priest, to which a school is attached, is all the provision that exists either 
for worship or education. Very strong remonstrances have been forwarded 
again and again by the people of Orange Walk to my predecessor, Bishop 
Courtenay, and he feels deeply the necessity of doing something for the 
place. I spent a Sunday in this remote and isolated place, and held three 
services, to the evident joy of the people, who filled, and more than filled, 



- A Q ^nttiniffi f Mission Field, 

340 Jamaica. L Oct. i, isao. 

the court-house, which was kindly placed at my disposal. I also held 
two baptismal services for several children who had been born since 
Bishop Courtenay s last visit. During the Sunday afternoon I held a 
meeting of the more substantial storekeepers who had some months ago 
been in correspondence with the late Bishop. Their desire is primarily 
for a school, and they suggest that the master might conduct services on 
Sunday, under the Bishop s licence, and possibly be allowed to baptise, 
and certainly to bury the dead. Nothing could be more reasonable than 
the demand of these persons, of whom two pledged themselves to subscribe 
20/. a year each, three others io/., and others smaller sums. Altogether 
they saw their way to a sum not far short of $800. And the magistrate, 
Mr. Grey-Wilson, assured me that I might depend on the engagements 
of these men being faithfully carried out. I am sure we ought to enter 
tain this most touching call upon us, but with the charge of such a diocese 
as Jamaica upon me, which seems itself to need almost everything, I 
hope that your Society will try and undertake the labouring oar, and not 
rely too much on so overburdened a man as I am. I should mention 
that the direct connection between Jamaica and British Honduras ceases 
this month, on account of the postal subsidy being given to steamers 
which are to carry the mails by way of New Orleans. Thus I cannot go 
to them, nor can they come to me, except by a very long and expensive 
detour. Clearly the proper thing for Belize is to get a bishop of her own, 
and if a precedent were wanted for creating a diocese, which has, or had, 
but one clergyman in it, I may instance that of Moosonee, which was 
formed into a separate diocese, at the instance of the present Archbishop, 
on account of its extreme isolation. If a bishop could be found to take 
the vacant rectory of St. John, with its excellent parsonage-house, then I 
think you would set machinery at work which would very shortly change 
the whole condition of things in British Honduras, but otherwise, I fear 
it will remain at its present most deplorably dead level. About 140 miles 
south of Belize there is springing up a colony, and I found that an 
excellent young man, whose brother is a clergyman in England, had 
already exerted himself in building a small church, and he came up to 
Belize to consult me as to how services could be maintained in it. At a 
solemn service I appointed this gentleman, and another, as lay-readers of 
the diocese, and I mean, at my next visit, to go to this settlement, and 
consecrate the church, and surrounding burial-ground. All this will show 
you how many openings there are for the legitimate work of the Church 
among our own people in British Honduras, but in addition to this there 
is a great call upon us to do something for the large Indian and Carib 
population that may be found wherever you go, and who have no oppor 
tunity, as things are, of ever being brought within the outer circle of 
Christianity, Evidently the only plan suitable for the case is the appoint 
ment of a bishop for the colony. 

" But it is time for me to bring this long letter to a close. Before doing 
so, however, I must again plead for the poor people at Orange Walk. 
Might it not be possible, in view of the very liberal contributions of the 
people, to find a man for them ? And I would suggest that he be, if not 
in holy orders, at least such an one as might come here for the purpose 
of being ordained deacon, and then sent forward to Orange Walk. With 
regard to his maintenance, would it be impossible for you to guarantee 
him a certain salary for a year or two, until we see how the subscriptions 
come in from Orange Walk itself, or you might guarantee me against loss, 
say to a certain amount ? But whoever is sent up there should be prepared 
to give his best energies to his school during the week. 



M British Guiana. 349 

" I forgot to add that the people guarantee to provide a house, such as 
they themselves live in, excellently suited for the climate." 

Mr. Geare s letter of March 3ist is in the same strain, but we are 
glad to see from his description of his church at Easter that he is 
not altogether without sources of encouragement in the midst of so 
much that is utterly depressing. 

"You will see that I am still working on i