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Full text of "Mission field, a monthly record of the proceedings of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts"



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THE ROOK PERCE, GASP]$ (see page 147) .... Frontispiece. 

A FIJIAN WARRIOR ..... ... Title-page. 













BASUTO HERDSMAN ........... i45 

BASUTO WOMAN ........ . . 146 



MISSION CHAPEL, TOKIO ......... 213 



YALE, BRITISH COLUMBIA ..... . . . .274 



JAPANESE DAIMIO ...... .... 307 

VIEW ON SOURIS RIVER . . . . . . . . . 326 






JANUARY 1, 1885. 



N" writing an account of the work done during the 
past year, I propose to divide it under the following 
heads : 

I. Direct Missionary work to the heathen. 
II. Development and improvement of native congregations. 

III. Education. 

IV. Training of a native pastorate and native catechists. 
Y. Printing press and publications. 

VI. Needs. 

Under the first heading, viz., Direct Missionary Work, I have 
to report that a much stronger feeling of affection towards the 
Church is apparent among the people than has hitherto been 



shown, which has given rise to a much greater Missionary spirit 
amongst them. This, however, is only confined to their own 
immediate neighbourhood, and I am afraid it will be a long 
time before we can induce men unless paid a regular salary 
to leave their native hills on the east of Toungoo to take up 
work amongst the Sgau Karen tribes of the Yoma range ; all 
of whom, with the exception of about four villages, are still 
without the truths of the Gospel. Those Sgau Karens who 
joined us about three years ago are remaining true to the faith, 
and in their intercourse with other villages, do what they can to 
induce their neighbours to become Christians ; but we do not 
see our way at present to educate any of these Sgau Christians 
to become teachers to their own tribe, as they are very fearful 
of the town and none can be persuaded to stay here, so attached 
are they to their own native wilds. So that all the catechists 
necessary for extending the work in this direction must be 
obtained from the eastern or watershed range among the Pakoo 
and Bway tribes, and these, as I have said before, cannot 
be persuaded to take up work in that direction unless they 
receive some remuneration. This is chiefly on account of the 
different style of living, and especially of cooking the curry the 
native herbs obtainable on the different hills vary very much ; 
and further, the converts always expect that a catechist shall be 
given them for nothing, and gradually they are trained to under 
stand that they ought to assist in maintaining him, and are 
willing to do so when they come to appreciate the benefits 
of Christian teaching which at first they are by no means 
ready to do. 

The western Yomas are about sixty miles west of Toungoo, 
so that a Pakoo Karen sent as a Missionary from the Pakoo 
district to work among the Sgaus on the Yoma range would 
be about 100 miles away from his native country, as he chooses 
to call that piece of land cultivated by his clan. So that there 
is some spirit of self-denial among them, and further, they 
are willing to go and work among the Sgaus on a monthly 
salary of less than that which a coolie gets, which says a great 
deal for them. 

I wish very much to increase the staff of catechists on the 


Western Yomas ; and, as it is a field which we opened three years 
ago only, and there are many villages hoping to receive catechists 
from us now, I would suggest that a separate grant be set 
apart for it. It is sure to increase with men and money and 
repay work bestowed upon it. And if I might venture to 
suggest, I would urge the expediency of attacking this range 
of hills from both sides, and for the extension of the work 
among these Karens, starting a Mission at Thayet My oh or 
Prome. Our four villages on the Yoma range lie on the direct 
road to Prome, and are in the charge of the Rev. Shway Gnyo, 
a Karen deacon, for the present. Among the Manai Pwah 
Karens, a tribe lying between Toungoo and Shwaygyeen, Mr. 
Hackney has been working for the last six months, and has 
succeeded in opening a Mission station at Kaupoloh, a very 
large village, but split up into several smaller communities, 
each of which have to be for the present treated individually, 
though at no distant period we hope to get the whole village 
together in one single community. The work in this direction, 
i.e. south-east of Toungoo, is thus growing, and, we hope, points 
hopefully to that future when a sister Mission may be opened 
at Shwaygyeen and may work up northwards to assist us at 
Toungoo. The next point of the compass where Missionary 
effort is being pushed is due east of Toungoo, where we have 
two districts or parishes both hopefully working for this object 
under the charge respectively of Rev. Tarynah and Rev. 
Martway. The native pastorate of the former extends from 
Borglay to the foot of Mount Nat Toung ; he is trying very 
vigorously to gain the Saukee tribe of Karens to Christianity, 
and has been very successful among those who are living in the 
village of Thelepwah, and this year has had quite a large 
number of baptisms. Martway s district is situated somewhat 
to the north of Tarynah s, but he, too, is pushing to the east, 
and has been able to open two new Mission stations among 
the Prah Karens, and has sent two young men who were 
in our school to act as elementary school teachers, and to 
conduct service there. In his report on this part of his work, 
he says: "I find my district very much increased by Mis 
sionary labour, but I find a very great difficulty with the old 

B 2 


villages that came over with Mrs. Mason, and am hoping that I 
may be released from having charge of them, and, that at some 
future time some strong young man may be appointed who will 
be able to do better than I have done, and should this be 
entertained, as I trust it will, I shall then be able to devote my 
entire energies to the Prah Karens, who are all well disposed to 
our Church." As a temporary measure, I hope to take over 
charge of those villages which Martway expresses a difficulty 
about, and, thus arranged, Martway would be available for 
work further east towards the frontier, among the people to 
whom he is desirous to devgte his whole energies. In the 
Kannie district no effort has been made towards Missionary 
progress, but the death of the able head catechist, Mootee, who 
was training for holy orders^ and would have been ordained 
this year with two others, has thrown back much of the work in 
this district or parish, notwithstanding the great exertions of 
Temeh, the schoolmaster and sub-deacon, who is occupying the 
post of temporary charge (the only fit candidate for deacon s 
orders) with great credit, and deserves all praise for the 
admirable way he is carrying on the work. I am now writing 
to the chief commissioner through the deputy-commissioner 
to ask that he may be made a marriage registrar as Mootee 
was, and I feel that this district wants one badly. In the 
Ko Oon district Shway Beh is in charge as head catechist, 
and was accepted by the Bishop for deacon s orders. He 
has been very zealous this year and had quite a number 
of candidates ready for baptism upon my visiting his district 
in April and May last. They had been carefully prepared, 
and I believe were thoroughly persuaded in their belief, and 
from their demeanour I should judge were earnestly accepting 
Christ as their Saviour and Lord. It was a blessed privilege to 
me to baptise them, and a more solemn set of baptismal 
services I have never held. Laus Deo ! 

Shway Beh has opened a new station at Teleperlee, and 
we hope to be able to have the opportunity of receiving many 
others into Christ s fold during the coming year. May God 
grant us both the means and the power, as well as the 
opportunity of thus extending His kingdom. 


II. Development and Improvement of Native Congregations. 
The improvement of Christian congregations is the Missionary s 
hardest work, and, strange to say, this is what is most expected 
by outsiders. A native, of whatever tribe he may be, if he 
becomes a Christian, is expected, even by unscrupulous 
Europeans, to be perfect ; but when an Apostle has to tell of 
weeping for backsliders, and of dread for Judaisers and im 
morality among his Corinthian converts, and many instances of 
converts not being satisfactory ; we Missionaries in modern 
times cannot expect to build up this native ten-year-old Church 
without our share of sorrow and pain, at want of progress in 
development, slowness on the part of the people to help them 
selves, cases of misconduct, and even crime among church 
members ; all these have to be dealt with promptly but lovingly. 
I have this year to report a hopeful decrease in the sin of 
intemperance among the people, though it has still to be fought 
against ; this is due to the formation of new branches of the 
Church of England Temperance Society among the natives ; 1 
am trying to get a branch formed in every village. I have 
drawn up a set of rules based on those of the C.E.T.S., but 
adapted to Karens, and have every hope of pushing it more 
vigorously after the rains are over. I am glad to tell of greater 
reverence at Divine service, and in many districts of a more 
careful and, I hope, more worthy reception of the Holy 

The formation of small committees in each village, and of 
larger committees for each circle or parish has been successfully 
carried out, though the suggestion of communicants voting with 
voting papers or tickets had to be abandoned entirely, and the 
usual mode of show of hands adopted. The next move will be 
to draw up definite instructions as to what these committees are 
to do ; as in some instances difficulties might arise as to their 
powers, and in the hands of one or two pushing men, somewhat 
ambitious, as Karens are preeminently, might be fraught 
with difficulties. I hope shortly to submit to the Bishop for 
approval some suggestions as to the work the committees are 
to do, defining what power they have and have not, and I hope 
that this, if definitely arranged, may prevent any mistakes. 



When the committees were elected, I gave them my advice as 
to what they were to do and what was expected of them, and 
now I am thankful to report that, so far, they have been working 
well, and render great assistance to the catechists, especially as 
regards the schools and obtaining the annual statistics, &c., &c., 
with the exception of Mart way s district, a district that is in 
this way the most backward. Another item that calls for con 
gratulation is the desire on the part of some of the better 
congregations to have more permanent and better arranged 
chapels of wood in place of bamboo, which I have already 
intimated in a previous report. And further, a greater 
desire to have the services better rendered instanced in many 
villages by the selection of the best singers to form a 
choir ; and by the expressed desire of many to learn music 
theoretically. In response to this latter, I am now publishing in 
the Pole Star, a series of lessons from Curwen s book, in Tonic 
Sol Fa, to form the basis of musical instruction for the hill 
schools, and eventually we hope to train one or two of our boys 
thoroughly in music, and thus lead the way to better church 
singing. On the other hand, I have to report that there has 
been for years a growing tendency to be absent from the daily 
services, and to be present at the Sunday services only, which is 
much to be deprecated, but it is to be hoped that the newly- 
appointed committees will, and I have every reason to believe 
they will, take up this matter and try and remedy it. 

III. Education. Town Schools. (A) Ancjlo- Vernacular School. 
This school trains up to the Middle School standard, and has 
been doing good work in the cause of education among the 
Burmese and natives of India in the town, and has fully passed 
one pupil for the Middle examination this year, four others 
passed in all except one subject. The missionary character 
of the school has been kept up this year, and I can report one 
baptism among the pupils. (B) Karen Vernacular School. 
This year we have seventy pupils in this school, and it is 
making very fair progress under the charge of Darken, the 
Karen head-master. Colonel Hughes, our deputy commissioner, 
paid a visit to our schools and expressed himself well satisfied 

M j l r?.S dl ] THEY SANG A NEW SONG. 7 

at what he saw, and seemed especially pleased at the way the 
Karens of the Vernacular School read Burmese. This latter 
school is a boarding-school, and Christians only are admitted. 
We hope to have a much larger grant for the school this year 
at the examination, so as to carry on the school more 
successfully. In this school, besides the ordinary Scripture 
teaching, from 9 A.M. to 10 A.M., there are classes held for 
confirmation candidates on Saturday afternoons, and Sunday- 
school is held every Sunday afternoon for an hour, from 3 P.M. 
to 4 P.M. Singing classes are held every evening after service, 
and on Saturday mornings I take two classes in singing from 
note, besides the ordinary choir practice for the Sunday services. 
A friend who was present at one of our services seemed very 
pleased with the singing, and was surprised the Karens could 
sing so well, (c) Girls School. We have just made another 
step in the right direction and opened a Karen Girls School. 
We have started this year with nine girls, this is a small number, 
and it is to be accounted for by the great timidity of the 
Karens ; but next year will no doubt see a much greater im 
provement in the number on the rolls. Karens never take to 
anything at first, and like to know all about it, and are very 
long in comprehending anything that is beneficial to them. 
(D) Hill and Jungle Schools. Another addition to our Missionary 
organisation has been the opening of central schools in various 
districts, with some fairly trained masters. It is encouraging to 
feel that out of eight schools started since February last, seven 
are working steadily on. 

IV. The Training of Catechists. After careful consideration of 
this subject, I felt it our bounden duty to try and train catechists 
to fill up our new Mission stations, as they increase very rapidly, 
and especially is it so at the present time, when Missionary effort 
on the part of the people themselves is being brought into play, 
and five new Mission stations have been opened during the 
year ; and there is a hopeful prospect of fresh ones being added 
to the number at no distant period. The training of young 
men for catechists, therefore, I felt ought seriously to occupy 
our attention, and after some thought upon the subject, I 


Jan. 1, 1885. 

decided to write and lay the whole matter before the Bishop, 
and his Lordship acceded to my request, and agreed to apply 
for ten scholarships for ten young men, four in Rangoon 
and six at Toungoo. I received seven of them on S. Peter s 
Day, and two more were received on S. James s Day after a 
short probation. These young men will be trained during the 
rains chiefly in theology, but attention will also be given to 
higher arithmetic, Burmese, and geography, and we hope that 
in a few years they may be able to take creditable places among 
our staff of catechists. Four hours a day is devoted to Church 
history, pastoral theology, Prayer Book and Scripture, Old and 
Xew Testaments ; it is hoped that they may be able to be of 
assistance to the native clergy during their vacations, and it is 
intended that they shall take up any work that they may be 
called upon to do and go wherever they may be sent. The 
best among these young men we hope to send for further 
training to Rangoon, which will entitle them when their training 
is over, to be placed, if deemed fit, among the first grade of 
catechists, into whose hands the more difficult or more important 
villages will be placed. 

V. Printing Press and Publications. During the year the 
following works have been published at the Mission Press : 
(1) The Book of Common Prayer in Sgau Karen ; (2) Parts of 
the Book of Common Prayer and Holy Communion in Bway 
Karen ; (3) First Karen Reading Book, arranged for jungle 
schools. We hope to be able to bring out a new addition to 
Karen Hymn Book before Christmas, and a Karen-Burmese 
Reading Book to assist Karens in reading and pronouncing 
Burmese, we hope to have in hand shortly. The Karen monthly 
newspaper, the Pole Star, is successful as an instrument in 
teaching the people. 

VI. Needs. (I) We have still Rs. 1,300 to pay before our build 
ings (still requiring Rs. 1,000 to comptete them properly) are free 
from debt; thus for this object Rs. 2,300 or about 200 is re 
quired. (2) The half payment of the native pastorate. The native 
Christians subscribe the other half. At present we have four 


clergymen, and their number will shortly, we hope, be increased 
by a fifth. Thus five clergymen at Rs. 300 a year will be 
Rs. 1,500, and half of this conies from the native offerings, 
besides which, we desire to endow one or two parishes, and 
thus relieve the general fund from a heavy annual drain. The 
S.P.G. promises grants to meet what is collected for the 
endowment of pastorates, and we have now started a fund 
for this object. This will not interfere with the people s con 
tributing to their pastor s salary, as they will still be expected 
to contribute half. (3) We are sadly in need of good 
premises for carrying on our Girls School, the present establish 
ment we have on lease only. The Government of India is ready 
to pay half of the cost of building, if a similar amount can be 
provided by the Missionaries. About Rs. 10,000, or 900, will 
be required for this, and half of this, 450, must come from 
other sources. (4) We wish to build a small church in the 
town of Toungoo for the use of the scholars (the present 
practice of having daily service in the schoolroom is far from 
satisfactory). This church would also be used by the Christians 
in the town of Toungoo both Burmese and Tamils ; there 
would be five services on Sunday and two services daily in it, all 
of which have to be conducted at present in the schoolroom. 
We hope to arrange this little church with a kind of atrium or 
open ambulatory where lectures may be given to any who may 
have resort thither ; and thus make it a Missionary centre. 




>N the year 1883 the Society had the religious aspect 
of the construction of the Panama Canal brought 
under its notice by the Bishop of Jamaica. 
Thousands of British subjects are engaged in 
connection with the works, where there was no one to minister 
to them. As far as Episcopal supervision is concerned, the 
Northern end of the Canal (i.e. that approached from the east) 
would look to the Bishop of Jamaica, and the Southern to 
the Bishop of the Falkland Islands. 

The Society, in view of this sudden need for spiritual 
ministrations, resolved to assist the Bishop of Jamaica in the 

Mission Field, 
Jan. 1, 1885. 



work he has under 
taken by a new an 
imal grant of 200 
towards the payment 
of a chaplain. 

This grant was for 
the year 1884, and 
in making the grants 
for 1885 the Society 
has continued it. 

In November 1883 
the Bishop sent to 
Colon the Rev. E. B. 
Key, the Rev. S. 
Kerr, and a catech- 
ist. The first-named 
clergyman was sent 
temporarily to or 
ganise the work, and 
shortly afterwards re 
turned to Jamaica. 

Two of our illus 
trations show the 
pretty church at Co 
lon, the principal 
place of operations. 
It is here that the 
northern end of the 
canal is to enter the 
Caribbean Sea, and 
this, therefore, is the 
first point on the 
Atlantic side. The 
church was built se 
veral years ago, and 
is now most useful, 
for the returns, which 
we print below, show 
an average attend- 


T Mission! Field, 
L Jan. 1, 1885. 

ance of five hundred persons on Sundays. Our third illustration 
is a view of a place called Gatun, where Mr. Kerr has already 
held service twice, and in the neighbourhood of which it appears 
likely that there will be much more for him to do. It is a view 
in which the habitations and the scenery are characteristic of 
its locality, as is the view from the sea of the general aspect of 
the town of Colon. 

Mr. Kerr s report on his first half-year s work states that 

"There are over 15,000 Jamaicans and others from St. Lucia, St. 
Thomas, Barbados, Martinique, and other colonies, besides Europeans and 
Americans, labouring on the different sections of the Canal Company, 
numbers of whom are either communicants or followers of the Church of 
England ; but many are labouring so far apart that it is difficult to reach 
them all by visits. We have, nevertheless, thus far been able to make 
regular visits, at intervals, to the different sections named in my statistics. 
I have recently received solicitations from Paraiso, Emperado, Tavanillo, 
and Bogio, to give regular visits at these sections, but have not been able 
to make arrangements for doing so. 

"Last week, while jumping on the train at Gatun, a gentleman came up 
and told me that he had one hundred men under his direction, about three 
miles from the train station, and they were preparing a small place for 
divine service, of which he will inform me when completed. I hope to 
hear from him shortly." 

In addition to the services held by the catechist, Mr. Kerr 
gives the following statement of his own work during the six 
months : 

! No. of Public 


Average Atten 
dance on 
Public Worship. 

No. of Commu 

No. of Non- 

No. of Candidates 
for Confirmation. 











Colon .... 46 
















Monkey Hill 32 
Gatun . .... 

Bas Obispo 23 
Matachin 8 





Panama 12 






Total 132 







The amount of money raised by offertories, subscriptions, 
&c., at the several Missions during the same period is $1338.50. 

Mission Field, 
Jan. 1, 1885. 



The record of the average attendance on public worship, as 
well as the other figures, show how urgently a chaplain was 
needed. Certainly the Society s grant would seem to be well spent 
in helping to 
provide for 
these mem 
bers of the 
Church of 
England. It 
would have 
been matter 
for grave re- 
proach had 
they been left 
uncared for. 

The Soci 
ety may well 
take this case 
as an exam 
ple though 
on a rather 
small scale 
of the elas 
ticity of its 
system. It is 
worth noting 
how advanta 
geous a thing 
it is for the 
Church to 
have such an 
ready (so far 
as means are 
placed at its 
disposal) to- 

render assistance in work in all parts of the world, as needs 




IT is the opinion of many persons that Missionaries 
ought to be altogether free from domestic cares, 
in order that they may give all their attention, and 
all their strength, to the great work of their lives. 
Unmarried men only, in the idea of some, are 
fitted to "endure" such "hardness" as to render them capable 
of carrying on properly the arduous labours of Mission life. 
But there are other people who look upon a wife as almost a 
necessary companion for a Missionary. Such persons feel that 
it is not good for a man to be alone in his toils : he needs, they 
say, all the comfort that he can get : the cheering influence of 
a good wife is an absolute necessity to him, for the due per 
formance of his work. And it is further maintained that the 
pattern of Christian domestic life is very helpful towards turning 
the heathen from the degraded state in which they live, without 
the sanctifying influence of holy matrimony. 

The truth lies between these two notions. We want Christian 
brotherhoods ; we want the bachelor Missionary to give himself 
entirely to the great work to which he has been called, with no 
distracting care for wife or family. But we want also the 
married man, whose wife is not only a bright example of a 
"godly matron," but who is also of great practical use in the 
Mission station ministering to the varied wants of the women, 
helping in the education of children, and showing the lustre of 
female grace and virtue to those around her. 

There is, however, this great difficulty which besets the 
married Missionary How is his family to be educated ? 

M JaH,?885 dl ] THE MissiONARTEs CAEES. 15 

All parents know the pressing anxieties which they must 
have as soon as the question of education enters their homes. 

But our Missionaries we send them out, with means barely 
sufficient for their support, to far-off lands where the necessaries 
of life are often very dear. They toil under a burning sun, or 
in the chilly regions of the north. Africa, India, Newfound 
land, North America, are regions to which many of them must 
go as well as to the more genial climate of Australasia. 

If they are married and have families, how are their dear 
children to be educated ? Surely the anxieties of parents are 
tenfold intensified when there is a compulsory separation from 
their children ; and to Missionaries generally there must be 
this separation. There are, indeed, many excellent schools in 
some of our colonies ; but even in these cases there is often a 
difficulty as to the expenses of education. In very many of 
the stations to which we send our Missionaries there are no 
suitable schools within a reasonable reach ; and in not a few of 
our Missions the climate is altogether unsuited for children of 
Europeans in fact, is deadly for them. 

But further, it is often the case that some of our best and 
ablest Missionaries have been cut off by the hand of death in 
the midst of their labours, without having had the power of 
making any provision for their families. 

Even when suitable schools have been found for children of 
Missionaries, it is needful that their holidays should be provided 
for. It is not good even in cases in which it may be possible 
for children to spend their holidays at school ; mind and body 
alike require occasional change of air and scene. 

The above considerations have weighed heavily on the minds 
of some of the members of S.P.G., and remedies have been 
sought, and to some extent obtained. 

In 1877 a pressing case was brought before the members of 
the Society at a monthly meeting. One of its Missionaries was 
drowned while passing, in the course of his duty, from one 
island to another in the diocese of Nassau. He left behind 
him a widow and two little boys, totally unprovided for. A 
private individual made a contribution towards the maintenance 
for a time of the widow and orphans ; the Society supplemented 


his donation with a grant. Upon this the bereaved family 
returned to England. 

But it was felt by some who heard the sad tale that there 
ought to be a regular provision for cases like this, and that the 
provision should be sufficient to help in the education of all the 
children of Missionaries who, from their position and circum 
stances, needed such help. 

A small special committee was formed to consider this matter, 
and it soon resulted in the formation of the "MISSIONARIES 

An honorary secretary was appointed for this special fund, 
whose duty it has been not only to bring before the special 
committee all applications for help in the education of children 
of Missionaries, but also to be the means of communication 
between those generous persons engaged in education who offer 
to educate children of Missionaries freely, or on reduced terms, 
and the Missionaries needing education for their children ; and 
to afford advice and assistance generally to Missionaries with 
respect to suitable schools, and further to make arrangements 
(as far as practicable) in regard to holiday homes for the children 
requiring them. 

This work has, to a great extent, prospered, and is prospering. 
But it needs much increased assistance to render it more 
effective, and to enable it to become permanent. 

Since the formation of the fund, upwards of 800 have been 
paid (in various amounts) towards the education of Missionaries 
children, several of them being orphans. About twenty-five 
families and thirty-six children have benefited by this assistance. 

Holiday homes have been given to a large number of children, 
many of them belonging to C.M.S. Missionaries, as well as those 
of S.P.G. And in several instances this boon has been extended 
to students of various Missionary colleges. 

By this means not only have Missionaries been largely helped 
and comforted, but also a Missionary spirit has been propagated 
in the holiday homes, as well as in the schools in which the 
children have been placed. 

Very grateful letters have been received from Missionaries 
in various parts of the world for the assistance afforded to them 


through this fund, and the educational agency (so to speak) 
connected with it. 

It is hoped that as the benefits of the fund in helping on the 
work of Foreign and Colonial Missions become more known, 
all those who take interest in these Missions will endeavour to 
afford some assistance to the fund. 

It is suggested that a little addition to the usual subscription 
to S.P.G. might be made by nearly every subscriber at the time 
of paying their subscriptions, for this special object. It is 
hoped also that there may be some further offers of homes for the 
holidays, from persons having abundant means and large houses. 

If sufficient help is given to this fund, it may in time set the 
General Fund of S.P.G. entirely free from any claim upon it 
for the support of children of Missionaries. Then those who 
wish to give only for the Missionary cause may be assured that 
none of their money will be spent upon the education of 
children; and those who feel special interest in Missionaries 
themselves and their families, may take comfort in helping them 
through this particular channel. 

It is much to be desired that the sum of money now in 
vested belonging to this fund, which now amounts only to 
483 6s. 8d. (yielding 14 10s. a year) may soon be raised to 
at least a thousand pounds, and that the annual subscriptions^ 
which now amount to considerably under 100, may be raised 
to at least five hundred. 

All subscriptions and donations to this fund may be paid 
through the office of S.P.G., or they may be sent to the Rev. 
J. Frewen Moor (Ampfield Vicarage, near Romney), who con 
tinues to receive contributions, however small, and endeavours 
to assist Missionaries in the selection of schools for their 
children, and in finding homes for them in the holidays ; who 
also will be thankful for any offers of holiday homes, or of free 
or assisted education for the children of Missionaries. 




UR new church (72 x 18), built of burnt brick, and 
roof of corrugated iron, was finished last year. 
Both the European and Christian natives have 
attended the Sunday services very well, but I am 
sorry to say the red Kaffirs have fallen off in their attendance. 
This is owing to beer parties, but I hope in a few months, when 
corn is not so plentiful, they will again attend our services. 
Some of the red women, who used to be regular attendants, 
have been stopped by their husbands, fearing they may give up 
heathen customs and become Christians. Ten days ago a native 
woman living five miles off ran here for protection. It appears 
she annoyed her husband, so to punish her, he made her paint 
herself with ochre. I sent for the husband, and asked for an 
explanation. He said he was very sorry, and hoped his wife 
would forgive him. On an average about two hundred natives 
attend the Sunday service, and about fifteen Europeans. We 
had a harvest thanksgiving in July ; every person living on the 
station gave either mealies or Kaffir corn. The east end of our 
church was decorated with Kaffir corn, and looked very nice. 
We also had a harvest thanksgiving at two of the out-stations, 
where the chiefs and people have given very well. 

Twenty of the Christian women have been relaying our 
church floor ; it has taken them five days to do it, and of course 
they will not be paid for it. It is surprising how level and 
nice it is. 

Moses Naker, the native catechist, has built himself a good 
brick house, and has also inclosed his wheat lands. Now that there 
is an assistant teacher here, I hope Moses Naker will be of more 

Miasioit Fi 
Jan. 1, 18 



use to me at the out-stations. We have eight preachers, who visit 
the heathen kraals on Sundays, and also are of great use to me 
on the station. Our school is well attended by both boys and 
girls ; four of the first-class boys are at present at school at 
St. Mark s, and I hope they will some day be of use to. us in 
the Mission field. One of them is head of the first class at 
St. Mark s, and another first in the second class. The sewing 


class is satisfactory, and is held twice a week ; many of the 
children who could not thread a needle eighteen months ago 
are now good sewers. 

At the Sunday school there is a very fair attendance. If 
I had some coloured Bible pictures, they would not only 
be useful for Sunday school, but also at the red Kaffir 

C 2 

20 ST. JOHN S, KAFFRARIA. [ Mi88ion Field> 

1, 1885. 

kraals. The teachers have asked me in future to hold their 
quarterly meetings in Fingoland ; I hope when our new 
church at Dondo s is finished, to hold our meetings there, 
as St. Stephen s is so very central. These teachers meetings do 
a very great deal of good it is a real working branch of the 
Society for Propagating the Gospel. It is impossible to restrain 
enthusiasm, as one after another rises to tell of Christ among 
the heathen. I am longing for the boxes of clothing so kindly 
sent by the Ladies Association, which will be here in a few 
days. What should we do without this great help ? In these 
times of general want of money, help of any kind is more than 
ever valuable. 

Five miles east of St. Alban s is my first out-station, on the 
Umgwali River, in the centre of a large heathen population. 
The Christians living here are looked after by a preacher from 
St. Alban s, who holds Sunday services for them. The com 
municants, numbering seven, come here once a month for Holy 
Communion. I began a school here last year; unfortunately 
we have lost the Government grant through bad attendance. 
However, the school is being kept up by a native girl trained 
by Mrs. Waters, about sixteen children attending. As usual, 
the red Kaffirs are suspicious of us, but I hope before long not 
only to persuade them to send their children to school, but 
come themselves to church. A Fingo Christian is building a 
shop for himself ; he is a very industrious man, and will, I doubt 
not, do well. A native shoemaker is also living here, who now 
and then gets a little work. I must now leave Tembuland 
Proper and go into Emigrant Tembuland and Fingoland, which 
lie west of St. Alban s. 

QITEI. The teacher here, named Matthew, built himself a 
good stone dwelling-house last year ; he gave up his house as a 
schoolroom. He was offered a situation and promised 60 a 
year ; this he refused, as he preferred teaching for 20 a year. 
I am sorry to say, owing to the red Tembus not sending their 
children to school, we have lost the Government grant ; the 
Christian children now attend a school two miles off. 

NGWAEB. Here the work is very encouraging ; the school is 
attended by over thirty children, and I hope double this number 


will attend next year. The headman has built a school hut, 
and pays half the teacher s salary ; he is very anxious to build 
a stone church, and have a good teacher. At present we have 
no money, and so must have patience. The Resident Magis 
trate, C. J. Levey, Esq., is pushing on education among the 
Tembus, and is of great help to the Missionaries. 

ST. BARTS, LOWER NEORA. Here there are a number of 
Christians from Eringubell s old country ; the school hut has 
been built partly by these people. Their school has a Govern 
ment grant. Their Missionary built their church where they 
formerly lived, and seems to have done far too much for them, 
as they have an idea they should have a great deal done for 
them by the Missionary. They have been most unfortunate 
with their cattle and crops in fact, have lost all their mealies 
and corn. 

DAMAN S LOCATION. This out-station among the Fingoes is 
growing very rapidly ; the Christian adults now number forty, 
and are looked after by a preacher from St. Thomas s. Although 
they have also lost their crops and cattle, they are determined 
to build themselves a church. At present they hold their 
services in a hut. 

ST. THOMAS S, KWABABA. Here one finds on every side 
signs of progress, lands inclosed by sod walls, good square 
buildings containing two or three rooms, large stone kraals, and 
good fruit and wheat lands. The stone church built by these 
people two years ago, and paid for by themselves, they now 
wish to enlarge. They have come forward like men, and have 
promised to support their teacher entirely, and also pay half 
their preacher s salary. They have bought a bell and a clock. 
About two hundred native Christians live here. The Fingo 
tribes are our great hope ; through the exertions made by 
Missionaries they have been freed from slavery a state in 
which they had to wear clothing made from grass. It is through 
the zeal of Christian Missionaries that they are now a great 
people, and many of them are beginning to feel that it is their 
bounden duty to support Missionaries. 

GGOGGORU. The Firigo Christians here finished their stone 
church two months ago, which they intend paying for them- 


n Field, 
I, 1883. 

selves. I have helped them with door and windows. Sixty 
Christians live here. I will write more about this station next 

XUUSE. Here there are about seventy Christians, but very 
badly off. The headman has made them a present of a very 
nice hut for services. As the Wesleyan school is near at hand, 
the children are able to attend school. These people will keep 
up their services, but will have to walk to Ggoggoru, a distance 
of five miles. This is a new out-station, and I hope before 
many years will be as flourishing as St. Thomas s. 

ST. STEPHEN S (DONDO S LOCATION). A very nice stone 
church is being built here (in the centre of the Hlubi tribe, and 
will also be very central for the Europeans), and will probably 
be finished some time in October. This building will cost 150. 
The Europeans and natives will, I hope, subscribe 100, and 
I fear will not give more, as trade is very dull just now. 
Besides this, we shall require about 30 for the fitting up 
of the interior of the church, and shall be very thankful 
for any help. We are also in want of a bell, and a 
large church Bible and Prayer Book. An English ser 
vice is held here once a month ; on an average about fifteen 
Europeans attend when the church is finished I hope to have 
double. At present we hold the services in a Kaffir hut, which 
only holds half the native congregation ; there are about sixty 
communicants here. I heard some time ago (at St. Stephen s) 
that a heathen man who had a Christian family forced his three 
daughters to give up Christianity and go back to Red Clay, as 
he said they were getting old, and would never marry if they 
continued Christians. Strange to say, these girls had not gone 
back to Red Clay more than one month before they were taken 
ill, and all died. 


WE would renew the request in our last number, and ask 
all our readers to second the efforts which have been 
made on a rather large scale to increase the circulation of this 
Magazine. It is of course desirable that as many new sub 
scribers as possible should begin the Magazine at the New 


T is not too much to say that the great need of the -Mis 
sionary cause is increased Missionary zeal at home. Oppor 
tunities and openings are found in plenty abroad, but the Church 
at home scarcely finds sufficient means to supply crying needs, 
to maintain existing work, or to prevent successes from being 
thrown away. 


S we said last month, sympathy, prayers, and material help 
. cannot be expected without knowledge. The more 
people know of what the Society is doing, the more heartily 
they will surely help it. May we not therefore earnestly ask 
our friends to bring this means of spreading information under 
the notice of as many people as they can ? Specimen copies 
will gladly be sent on application, 

rilHE Church in India has met with a great loss by the death 
JL of the Rev. Charles Egbert Rennet, D.D., Principal of 
the Theological College, Sullivan s Gardens, Madras. Dr. 
Kennet, who was a Student of Bishop s College, Calcutta, was 
ordained in Madras in 1851. He was appointed in 1878 
Principal of the Society s College at Sullivan s Gardens, where 


his learning and perseverance soon bore fruit, which in 
recent years has been specially manifested by the Students 
becoming Candidates in the English Universities Preliminary 
Examination for Holy Orders. The successes which they have 
achieved, and the high level of their attainments generally, have 
been remarkable, and have received cordial recognition at the 
hands of the examiners. For instance, in the year 1883 
Professor Westcott wrote praising the work of all the Sullivan s 
Gardens Candidates, and said that one of them was among the 
first few of the whole 123 men. He asked that his congratu 
lations might be transmitted to Dr. Kennet, and expressed his 
conviction that the Principal s labour was evidently bearing 
permanent fruit. 

Dr. Kennet was author of many important books, bearing 
on Missions, Church Order, and the Pastoral Office. Through 
these, and still more through the native clergy, whom he has 
taught and trained so well, the memory of his life s work 
will be long retained and honoured. 

Y71RIENDS in many parts of the country will be interested 

in hearing that the Rev. J. B. Gribble sailed from 

Gravesend on December 4th for Australia, to return to his 

wonderful work at Warangesda, which he described in the 

Mission Field for July. 

River, Berbice, gives its name to the Indian 
Mission which is under the Rev. C. D. Dance. Mr. 
Dance describes a visit to an out-station at Orealla, and in 
doing so mentions an instance of the spirit in which the Indian 
converts treat the Mission work : 

" Our Mission boat, which was in a dilapidated and perilous state, was 
patched and strengthened to enable me to undertake the trip. Mr. Farrier, 
the catechist, sent for a boat-builder from Georgetown, who came up and is 
now engaged in building a new and substantial boat ; he is to be paid $120 for 
his labour. The crooks are of Mora hardwood, and the planking of silver- 
balli. The whole expense will devolve on the Indians of the Orealla 
Mission. They are cutting and squaring timber to meet the expenses. 
We have six silverballi timbers at Plantation Eliza and Mary, to be sawn 
up into boards." 


"DEPORTING at Michaelmas on the Mission of St. Paul s, 
JL\J in the diocese of Zululand, the Rev. S. M. Samuelson 
says : 

" God has now safely brought us through this quarter. I have had much 
to do, in order to put my poor houses into a decent state from the damage 
they had taken by the Sutu party. 

" When Mr. Swinney was here on July 23rd, and had seen the state of 
his house at Kwa Magwaza, he told me that I might go up and take from 
his ruined house anything I could make use of. Consequently I started in 
my waggon on August 5th, and arrived at Kwa Magwaza in the evening. 
Here I found an impi from the Imkanhla, who used threatening language, 
so I left again the next day. 

" I shall not attempt to describe the painful destruction I saw there, but 
I succeeded in picking up in Swinney s house eight church seats and a 
prayer-desk. These I have put into my schoolroom, and also made an 
altar-table, so it looks now quite church-like. 

" I had to send many times over into the Reserve to call my Christians 
and catechumens back. They were afraid to return, hearing all sorts of 
rumours over there. At length most of them returned on August 28th 
about ten are still left behind so we have had regularly Divine services 
and a small school since that time. Small parties of the Sutu impi have 
called on me very often since my return, but always treated me most 
friendly. I have of course had to be very careful, so as not to side with 
any party. 

" Sometimes it has seemed as if the fighting was coming unpleasantly 
near to the station. Thus on September 7th it was well known that Usi- 
bebu and his people, having been driven out of his own country by the 
Sutu and Boers, was encamped about ten miles from the station, and the 
Sutu were coming down to attack him. Fortunately for this part of the 
country, Usibebu and his people crossed into the Reserve, and got a place 
to live on." 

SWAZILAND does not appear to have suffered much from 
the disturbance in the neighbouring districts. At any 
rate, the Rev. Joel Jackson was able to write : 

"Whilst things have been in such a terrible state in Zululand, we 
have enjoyed peace and quiet in these parts. The Amaswazi have been 
asked more than once to take part in the Zulu struggle, but have 
refused to join either party. We have been quite secure, and have had 
nothing to fear. The king and chief men are always kind to me, and no 
one tries to give the least trouble. I often think of my neighbours, and 
wish they could feel as safe as myself ; but their belief in witchcraft makes 
them to be in constant fear. In the first place, they live in fear of witches 
who may at any time, as they think, send them sickness and death. And in 

26 NOTES or THE MONTH. K. " Fi e l d 

the next place, they are in constant dread lest the} 7 themselves should be 
charged with being witches, and thus be killed at any time." 

A horrible example of the effect of this superstition 
follows : 

"The king has been in great trouble lately. One of his wives died, and 
another was sick for some time. The witch doctors were consulted as 
usual, and one of his chief wives was fixed upon as the culprit who 
had caused the sickness. She and her father s house were all destroyed, 
and most of them mutilated in a manner too horrible to be related." 

It is among a people with such practices that the Mission is 
working and gradually increasing. 

IN the November Mission Field the Rev. W. H. Bray gave a 
most valuable account of his visit to the Assam Mission. 
The Rev. S. Endle, the head of that Mission, has since sent an 
interesting report of his work, describing his methods and the 
circumstances much as Mr. Bray has done. We do not there 
fore print it in full, but the following description of the begin 
ning of a Theological Class, and of the ends which it is hoped 
to fulfil, is of too great interest to be omitted : 

"One of the great needs of the Mission hitherto has been a want of 
properly-trained native assistants. Some attempt has been made to supply 
this want during the past twelve months by the establishment of a theo 
logical class at Tezpore, where regular and systematic instruction in 
Christian doctrine is given day by day. Only three pupils attend this 
class at present, but I hope to add to their number materially during the 
coming year ; and when such candidates are properly trained, to station 
them two and two at suitable points on the Bhutan frontier, where they 
will do what they can to bring home the truths of Christianity to the minds 
and hearts of their countrymen. The pupils of this class have during the 
past year read carefully with me, in Assamese, portions of the Book of 
Common Prayer, with Scriptural proof, e.g. the morning and evening 
service, the collects, part of the catechism, Bible history (Old and New 
Testaments), Church history, and with special teaching on the parables 
which offer a groundwork and form of teaching (figurative) particularly 
adapted to the capacity and mental teaching of those to whcm they will 
be sent to minister. I look with some hopefulness to the work of 
this theological class, for from among the more promising of its pupils we 
may perhaps be able hereafter to select promising candidates to supply what 
is THE great want of our Missions an earnest, self-denying, native 


ON" St. Michael s Day it has been the custom for two or 
three years past at Herschel Mission, in the diocese of 
Grahamstown, for the Christians from the whole Mission to 
assemble at the home-station. The Rev. S. W. Cox thus 
describes the scene last Michaelmas : 

" They assembled on Sunday, the 28th, when eighteen persons were ad 
mitted into the Church by holy baptism fifteen adults and three children. 
A procession was formed at our pretty new church, which wended its way 
to the font in the bed of the rivulet which flows past the Mission. On the 
bank stands a large wooden cross, given by Bishop Merriman after his last 
visit in;i881, when he witnessed a baptism of some adults in this font, 
The catechumens knelt one by one, and water was poured over the head of 
each. The bitterly cold weather did not allow of immersion. The pro 
cession again returned to the church, singing as before. 

"The Holy Communion was celebrated at 11.30, when there were fifty- 
seven communicants, thirty communicating for the first time." 

There are seventy communicants in the Mission, which is 
now just six years old. Since the opening of the Mission there 
have been 195 baptisms, of whom sixty-eight were baptised 
during the first nine months of 1884. 

AT Beaconsfield, in the diocese of Bloemfontein, a great 
plague has broken out, and the general work of the 
Mission has suffered, though it has offered the Church an 
opportunity for useful work. It was still raging at Michaelmas, 
when Canon Gaul wrote, and says that it is 

"Called by most medical men small-pox, but by one or two equally 
eminent men is said to be an acute form of pemphigus. Whatever it may 
be, it is most loathsome, and has carried off (even in these high and healthy 
latitudes) some 25 per cent, of those attacked. At present we have two 
lazarettos. In the one some 250 natives are housed and watched over by 
a staff of white and coloured men under a medical officer, and at the other 
the numbers have varied from 40 150, white and coloured. Here we have 
been able to secure the services of two of our Church nurses, working in 
connection with the Diocesan Sisterhood. One of them, Miss Sutton, is 
from Croydon, and the other, Miss Davis, is from St. Peter s, Vauxhall. A 
third worker, Miss Madden (of Dublin), had to be recalled through ill- 
health. The devotion, courage, and brightness of these faithful servants of 
Christ deserves mention. I should like also to say that many others from 
the hospital volunteered to go to this uninviting sphere, but we had to 
decline, as the hospital staff must be kept up. The clergy have gone out 

28 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M j j . ?,5 dl 

regularly for ministrations, and we may thank God that in this Valley of 
the Shadow of Death many a one has been helped, and the Church has 
stood between the dead and the living in her intercessory office." 

IN the November Mission Field we printed an interesting 
letter from the Rev. A. G. S. Gibson, of the diocese of 
St. John s, Kaffraria. We are now glad to hear from him of 
the completion of the church, which he spoke of at the central 
station of Ncolosi. It holds easily 200 people, and could in 
an emergency accommodate a hundred more : 

" The church was opened on September 7th, at 8.30 A.M. In spite of the 
early hour, some 200 people were present, almost all being Christian 
natives. The procession comprised all the preachers of this district, twelve 
in number), two or three friends, and three clergy, besides the Bishop. 
After the singing of two psalms (in addition to the processional hymn), 
Bishop Key offered up special prayers by the altar and the font, then de 
claring the building open, to the glory of God and in memory of St. 
Cuthbert, for public worship, in the Name of the Trinity. Choral com 
munion service was then proceeded with, the sermon being preached by 
the Coadjutor-Bishop, between sixty and seventy communicating. The few 
white people in the neighbourhood (about fifteen in all) were present." 

ON October 18th, 1884, the beautiful new Chapel of Trinity 
College, Toronto, was consecrated by the Bishop of 
Toronto, the Bishops of Ontario and Niagara and a large 
number of clergy taking part in the service. 

Its erection is largely due at the present time to the generous 
gift of 10,000 by Messrs. J. and E. Henderson, of Toronto, and 
their family. 

" It is situated on the terrace, a little south of the south-eastern corner of 
the old buildings, and connected with them by a covered way or cloister 
leading into the ante-chapel or porch. Above this is a gallery for strangers 
The extreme length of the whole is 103 feet, by a width of 40 feet. The 
style of architecture is late decorated. Outside it is plain, but solid and 
heavy, the inside being of red brick, with flat-cut stone bands. The ante- 
chapel is separated from the chapel by a hardwood screen, which will be 
provided with carved gates. The roof is open-timbered with carved 
corbels, that over the sanctuary being of a domical form in plaster, the 
intention being eventually to decorate it. The sanctuary floor will be laid 
in tiles upon brick vaulting, but only a part of them are down at present. 
The sanctuary steps are of polished Queenstown limestone, and those to 
the altar, which is seven steps above the floor, being of black Arnprior 
marble. The sedilia and credence-table are of carved Ohio stone, with 
marble shafts and bases, and carved caps. The reredos will be of Bath 

M JanTf8 8 1 d> ] NOTES or THE MONTH. 29 

stone, with marble shafts. The sanctuary apex has nine windows, those 
now in being only temporary. It is hoped that these, of rolled cathedral 
glass, will be presented, the subjects of all having been chosen. The 
central one has already been given, as a memorial of Bishop Strachan. 
The main portion of the building has six windows. The organ, costing 
$1,150, which is an offering from the resident undergraduates and graduates, 
is in a chamber on the south side, the pipes appearing under two arches. 
It is a fine instrument of two manuals, built by Lye and Sons. The present 
seats and stalls are only temporary, the intention being to have all of an 
elaborate character in carved wood." 

The sermon was preached by the Bishop of Ontario. A 
large assemblage, including the Lieutenant-Governor, were 
present at the service, and at the luncheon which took place 
in the afternoon. Speeches were made expressive of warm 
attachment and respect for this great college, and of the 
remarkable progress which it has made under the able head 
ship of Provost Body. 

IN remitting the amount of the collections made in the 
diocese of Christ Church, New Zealand, during the year, 
to the Society, the Bishop refers to the "Cathedral Union," by 
the rules of which provision is made for the care of immigrants 
and strangers on their first arrival. The Bishop alludes to the 
importance of furnishing emigrants with commendatory letters. 

STATISTICS of the Chota Nagpore Mission for the year 
ending at Michaelmas have just been received from the 
Rev. J. C. Whitley. They are worthy of being noticed with 
thankful appreciation. In this one Mission, work is carried on 
in more than four hundred villages, spread over an area of some 
1,600 square miles ; and there are no less than 12,482 baptised 
Christians, of whom 5,985 are communicants. The work during 
the past twelve months may be judged of by the following 
figures: 1,1 37 persons were confirmed, 472 children of Christians 
and 268 converts were baptised, while at the end of the year, 477 
unbaptised persons were under Christian instruction. Figures 
are of course not the only guide, and work of the best character 
may be going on where the numbers of the converts are small. 
But in the Chota Nagpore Mission largeness is accompanied by 
genuine thoroughness. Such a fact as the existence of this 


Mission, with its numerous congregations of 12,482 people, 
raised to the standard of Christian life from the condition of 
almost the lowest race in India, is in itself a witness of the 
power of Christianity, and a vindication of Missionary effort. 

ON November 10th the Bishop of British Guiana completed 
a visitation to the Mission stations in the Potaro and 
Upper Demerara rivers. 

It was no ordinary expedition the Bishop undertook, and 
many of his intimate friends were apprehensive lest the fatigues 
of the long tedious journeys against the rapid current of the 
Essequibo by day, and the unavoidable exposure, in sleeping 
in a hammock, slung wherever most convenient, at night, would 
tell upon a constitution, hardy and powerful, it is true, but 
feeling the weight of more than seventy years. 

" At the Potaro Mission, the Indians welcomed him most cordially, and 
he was intensely gratified to find all the surroundings in every way so 
promising for the development of a large and important station. On the 
Curiebrong, which flows into the Potaro, there is room for a station, and 
probably one will be opened in due course ; but the most central spot, and 
the most convenient to the greatest number of Indians in the Potaro 
district, is the station to which the Bishop s visit was paid. After a week 
spent amongst the people, baptising, confirming, and administering Holy 
Communion, the Bishop and his party turned their boats heads towards the 
mouth of the Potaro, and at a spot on the right bank of the Essequibo, a 
short distance below the juncture of the Potaro, they landed to make the 
journey overland to the Demerara. 

" The walk is about fifteen miles long, up hill, down dale, amongst stumps 
of trees, over fallen branches and other obstacles ; but fatiguing although 
it must have been, even to the younger members of the party, the Bishop 
accomplished it as if it was nothing extraordinary. Once in the Demerara, 
he was amongst places and faces quite familiar to him on his many visitations, 
and, calling at one station after another, fulfilling his episcopal labours, he 
gradually made his journey back to Georgetown." 

Next month we propose to print a full account of this most 
interesting expedition. 

AT the Rupertsland Provincial Synod in August, 1883, which 
decreed the erection of the See of Assiniboia, resolu 
tions were also passed as to the desirability of forming two 
other dioceses in the province, and the formation of one by 
which the huge diocese of Athabasca should be divided was 

Mission Field,"] 
5. \ 


definitely agreed upon. The arrangements have been completed, 
and the Rev. R. Young, C.M.S. Missionary at Red River, was 
consecrated Bishop of the Southern portion of Athabasca at 
St. John s Cathedral, Winnipeg, on October 18th. His See is 
to be styled "Athabasca," while Bishop Bompas, hitherto called 
Bishop of Athabasca, is to take a new title for his northern 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
December 19th, at 2 P.M., the Rev. lierdmore Compton in the Chair. There 
were also present F. Calvert, Esq., Q C., and the Master of the Charterhouse, 
Vice-President, and forty-six other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
November 30th : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January NOT., 18F4. 


Donations, and 


Rents, &c. 



















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of November in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-l 
tions . . 

30 646 











Dividends, Rents, &e. . 

3 827 

3 682 



3 780 


43 578 

40 994 

43 221 

43 085 

41 955 

3. It was announced that the Standing Committee would propose at the 
meeting in January, for re-election in February, General Tremenheere, 
C.B., and the Hon. and Rev. E. C. Glyn, and for election H. W. Saunders, 
Esq., Q.C., C. M. Clode, Esq., C. Churchill, Esq., Archdeacon Gifford, and 
the Rev. J. W. Ayre. 

4. On the recommendation of the Board of Examiners and the Standing 
Committee, the Rev. John Robert Edwards, B.A., of Jesus College, Oxford, 
was accepted for Missionary work in the diocese of Maritzburg, the Rev. 
Alfred Taylor for Missionary work in the diocese of Quebec, Mr. W. T. E. 
Saywell for work in the diocese of Guiana, and Mr. Alfred John Reid, Mr. 


Frederick William Samwell, and Mr. Thomas James Stiles, Students of St. 
Augustine s College, Canterbury, for Missionary work in the dioceses of 
Fredericton, Adelaide, and Ontario, respectively. 

5. On behalf of the Eight Hon. J. G. Hubbard, notice was given by 
J. W. B. Riddell, Esq., of the following resolution proposed to be moved at 
the meeting in January : 

(1) " That the success of the Missionary work of the Church of England must 
greatly depend upon the co-operation of the S.P.G as effecting economy in 
administration, and attracting confidence and support by the evidence of harmony 
in principle and action. 

(2) "That Special Funds, instituted through personal interest in particular 
agencies or fields of Missionary labour, ought to be cordially encouraged as 
largely increasing the aggregate means devoted to evangelisation. 

(3) "That the S.P.G., having in 1882 closed the accounts of 156 Special 
Funds, the Board are of opinion that the Society should no longer delay to 
welcome back to the shelter and assistance which it can afford, every Special 
Missionary Fund of adequate importance and legitimate purpose, and undertake 
the transmission of the Funds entrusted to it upon the distinct stipulation that 
the recipients shall furnish clear and complete statements of the application of 
the Funds for the satisfaction of the Society and of the donors. 

(4) " That this meeting regrets that the Executive of the S.P.G. should have 
made no advance towards remedying the inconvenience caused by their rejection 
of important Missionary Funds, driven by their exclusion to form a " Central 
Agency for Foreign Missions," and it especially laments that officials of the 
Society should have, in their comments on Special Funds, deprecated their 
existence, and have censured those who supported them." 

6. The Lord Bishop of Eiverina addressed the Society. 

7. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in October were elected into 
the Corporation. The following were proposed for election at the meeting 
in February : 

The Rev. Canon Edward Hawkins, Llandaff ; Rev. James H. Welsh, D.D., 
St. Stephen s Rectory, Dublin ; Rev. Robert Walsh, Malahide, Co. Dublin ; Rev. 
Canon Alfred Hamilton, Tancy, Dundrum, Co. Dublin ; Ven. F. C. Hamilton, 
St. Michael s, Limerick ; Rev. F. B. Mollan, Kilmoganny, Callan, Co. Kilkenny ; 
Rev. Chancellor W. A. Hayes, Dromore ; Very Rev. T. Bunbury, The Deanery, 
Limerick ; Rev. H. W. Lett, Moyntaghs, Lurgan ; Ven. H. Stewart, Seapatrick, 
Bambridge, Co. Down ; Rev. E. B. Ryan, Ballyculter, Strangford, Co. Down ; 
Rev. J. L. M. Sc>tt, Portaferry, Co. Down ; Rev. B. Moffett, Carrickmacross, 
Co. Monaghan ; Rev. H. Collings, Camden Lodge, Bowes Park, Wood Green ; 
Rev. C. Dyson, Barlow, Chesterfield ; Rev. C. B. Ward, St James , Glossop ; 
Rev. J. 0. Knowles, Glossop ; Rev. C. R. Molineux, St. James , Derby ; Rev. 
H. W. Carson, Bray, Co Dublin ; George Schoales, Esq. , Bray, Co. Dublin ; Rev. 
H. B. Carter, Cookstown, Co. Tyrone; Rev. A. G. Ryder, D.D., St. Mary s, 
Donnybrook, Dublin ; Rev. W. S. Large, Pelham Lodge, Bray, Co. Dublin ; 
Rev. F. Drummond Hay, Rolleston, Newark ; Rev. R. D. Harries, Hareby, 
Lincoln ; Rev. H. Fiennes Clinton, Cromwell, Newark ; Rev. J. R. Drake, 
Sutton-upon-Trent, Newark ; William Huskinson, Esq., Epperstone, Notting 
ham ; Rev. W. H. Lowder, St. George s, Hyde, Manchester ; Rev. L^wis Richards, 
Dungannon, Co Tyrone ; Rev. C. L. Garnett, Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone ; Rev. 
B. N. White, Spunnur, Loughgall, Armagh ; Rev. J. J. Jackson, Ballinderry, 
Moneymore, Co. Tyrone ; Rev. Ben]. Wade, Mullaghmore, Castle Caulfield, 
Co. Tyrone; Rev. L. Robert Flood, Merrow, Guild f or d ; Rev. F. C. Alderson, 
Holdenby, Northampton ; Wilfrid S. De Winter, Esq. , Brecon Old Bank, 
Haverfordwest ; Rev. G. F. Hooter, Maghull, Liverpool ; Rev. N. Mitchell, 
Pemberton, Wigan ; Rev. C. de B. Winslow, Blundellsands, Liverpool ; Rev. J. C. 
Pigot, St. Helen s, Lanes. ; Rev. R. Walmsley, St. Elizabeth s Haigh, Wigan ; 
Rev. F. M. Gregory, St. Michael s, Southampton; Rev. Arthur Izard, St. 
Augustine s, Wiabeach. 



FEBRUARY 2, 1885. 



LEFT, as I believe I have already told you was my 
intention, for the Missions on the Essequibo, 
Potaro, and Demerara rivers, early in October. 
After visiting the stations on the Lower Essequibo 
River, concluding with a confirmation at Bartica 
Grove, I started for the upper part of the Potaro on Monday 
the 13th, attended by the Rev. W. Heard, and my son and 

We left the Grove in three well-manned bateaus, and arrived 
at our Mission on the Potaro on Saturday the 18th. On our 
way thither we paused to take a good view of the rapid on 
the Essequibo River, where, unhappily, Mr. Pierce, with the 
larger portion of his family, met with a watery grave in 1881. 
We had with us the Indian youth who was actually steering the 
boat, assisted by Mr. Pierce himself, and who pointed out to us 
the very spot where the sad accident occurred, with all the 
attendant circumstances still fresh in his memory. 

We were preceded (by another route) by the Rev. W. Gwyther, 
and an admirable woodcutter, Mr. Couchman, who was in every 


way most valuable to us, especially from his knowledge of more 
than one of the Indian languages. 

On Sunday, the 19th, our work began at the Potaro Mission, 
named by Mr. Pierce "the Mission of St. Michael and All 
Angels for the Potaro and Curiebrong Rivers" a name too 
deeply engraven on the Mission, as it was on the Feast of 
St. Michael and All Angels that he met his sad fate in 1881. 

Mr. Heard and my son, with Mr. Couchman, started early on 
Monday, the 20th, for the Kaiteur Falls, but I remained to 
attend, with Mr. Gwyther and our catechist, Mr. Lobertz, to the 
duties requiring our care. The numbers on the Mission at one 
time or another during our stay amounted to about 700. Very 
many who started from their homes to join the great gathering, 
and who came from afar, were arrested in their passage above 
the Kaiteur Falls, as they could not procure wood-stems to 
carry them down the stream from the foot of these magnificent 

What with services, teaching, confirming, &c., we were well 
occupied for ten days, including two Sundays. To meet the 
requirements of the people we had three confirmations and 
four celebrations of Holy Communion. 

With hearts full of joy and comforting reflection for all we 
had seen and done during our stay at this Mission, we took our 
departure on Monday, the 27th, from the junction of the Potaro 
and the Essequibo rivers, to the Coomapara path. This is 
an Indian path through the forest, about sixteen miles long, 
between the Essequibo and Upper Demerara rivers. You will 
be glad to hear that I accomplished my walk not a very smooth 
one very pleasantly, our route lying through the finest forest 
that I have ever seen. It was a picturesque company, with 
ourselves and some twenty or thirty Indians carrying the 
necessary impedimenta in most cleverly-arranged packages from 
one river to the other. 

We reached the great Falls of the Upper Demerara River by 
a forced march and quick despatch of boats, which were waiting 
for us as we emerged from the forest, with no inconvenience 
beyond a little fatigue, late on the evening of the 29th ; and 
here I lingered with Mr. Gwyther, my son (who had rejoined 

Mission Field,"! TTI TT ^ 

Feb. 2, 1885. J JliNEYUDAH. 35 

us) making his way down to Georgetown soon after our 
arrival at Eneyudah (Haunt of Evil Spirits), the spot upon 
which our promising Mission stands, below the great Falls of 
the Demerara River, and where about 400 Indians were 
assembled to welcome us. 

This is the spot which should, I think, be the headquarters 
of the higher Mission on the Demerara, Essequibo, Potaro, 
and Curiebrong rivers, with catechists, and with two other posts 
besides those already located on the Potaro and Demerara 
rivers, viz. at Waraputa, on the Upper Essequibo, and on the 

The importance of these Missionary centres in the interior 
of our colony may, I believe, be best shown by giving the 
number of baptisms which have taken place of adults and 
children, which amounts to 1,596 for the last four years at the 
Potaro Mission, and to 1,255 for a somewhat longer period at 
Eneyudah, on the Upper Demerara River, making a total 
of 2,851. 

If these people, which are being added to year after year, 
cannot be watched over, it would perhaps have been better if 
they had never been admitted into Christ s Church. This great 
and essential work we must strive to carry out in its entirety, 
but it is not easy to find the proper instruments and the means. 
God, we hope and pray, will raise up instruments wherewith to 
complete what we have begun, and at the same time put it 
into the hearts of some to help us with their offerings. 

I held other confirmations, and there were celebrations of 
the Holy Communion at Eneyudah, Malali (the first Demerara 
River rapids), and at Muritaro. Many Indians children and 
adults were baptised, and several couples were married at the 
respective Missions by the Rev. M. Gwyther, to whom it is my 
duty to accord praise for his zeal, and especially for his dili 
gence in studying the language, viz. the Accowois, through 
which the larger portion of the people can be reached, and 
which chiefly comprise Accowois, Paramanas, Macusis and Are- 
cunas. At our northern Missions on the Pomeroon, Moruca, 
and Waiiki rivers, are chiefly found Arrowaks, Caribs, Waraus, 
and Accowois. 

I) 2 


I trust that this very slight sketch will give you some idea of 
what we have lately been doing, 1 and at the same time show 
that the work which has been growing from year to year de 
serves all the labour we can bestow upon it. Speaking for 
myself, I cannot be too thankful for the measure of strength 
which has been given to me for so many years, and which has 
been extended to me during my late travels, made as easy as 
possible by the care bestowed upon me by those who were my 
fellow-travellers. To me it is an exceeding comfort to feel that 
I have been permitted to visit the entire Missionary ground 
connected with all our rivers, which is at all likely to be 
occupied for some years to come this last journey having com 
pleted what I have for some time fondly desired to accomplish. 
I have learned for myself what are the difficulties, trials, and 
perhaps dangers, attending distant Missionary operations in this 
land, and this increased knowledge will, as I hope, be found 
useful to myself and those who may look to me for counsel 
and guidance during the remaining days of my pastorate. 

1 Between October 12th and November 23rd the Bishop confirmed 470 persons 
in the several stations. 






LEFT Prince Albert on Tuesday, September 16th, 
accompanied by Mrs. McLean. Our first desti 
nation was Winnipeg, where I had to attend the 
Provincial Synod. The journey embraced 260 
miles of prairie travelling between Prince Albert and Qu Appelle, 


the nearest station on the Canada Pacific Railway. We travelled 
in the usual way by hired teams, camping in a tent every night, 
the journey occupying seven days. At Qu Appelle we reached 
the railway, and thence went to Winnipeg, a distance of 323 


miles. We were the guests of the Bishop of Rupertsland while 
in Winnipeg. You will receive from him full details of the 
proceedings of the Provincial Synod. 

On Monday, October 6th, we left Winnipeg en route for 
Calgary. The railway runs straight through the dioceses of 
Rupertsland and Assiniboia for about 660 miles before it reaches 
my diocese, which it strikes in the Alberta district, soon after 
passing Medicine Hat. As yet the Alberta district of my 
diocese is the only part where there is any railway communi 
cation. The Canadian Pacific cuts Alberta in an oblique 
direction, running north-west to the Rocky Mountains. 

On Wednesday, October 8th, we reached Calgary at 1 P.M., 
a distance of 838 miles from Winnipeg. We were most kindly 
received by your Missionary, the Rev. E. Paske Smith, M.A., 
and were hospitably entertained by him and Mrs. Smith during 
our stay. 

Our first business was to visit the church. It is named the 
"Church of the Redeemer," and was opened for service on 3rd 
August last. It is very neat and churchly in its architecture, 
cruciform, with suitable chancel and vestry, high-pitched roof 
and narrow windows. It is seated at present for 120, but will 
hold eventually 200 people. The cost up to this time is $ 2,300, 
of which $500 remained to be paid. My first thought was how 
to be helpful in the payment of the debt. The S.P.C.K. had 
made a grant of 30 sterling, equal to $144, which, however, 
they would only pay when I could certify the church free from 
debt. I at once advanced this sum as a loan from myself, and 
gave a grant of $156 from funds placed at my disposal by the 
Canadian Mission Board, so as to make up a nett sum of $300. 
I then asked Mr. Smith to circulate printed notices that I would 
preach both morning and evening in behalf of the church fund 
on Sunday, the 1 2th, and that I would hold an ordination in the 
church on the occasion. The candidate was a C.M.S. Missionary 
at Blackfoot Crossing, in deacon s orders, whom I had arranged 
to meet me at Calgary for ordination as priest. I then arranged 
that Mr. Smith should conduct the examination while I spent 
the intervening three days in visiting the Rocky Mountains 


On Thursday, October 9th, I left Calgary with Mrs. McLean 
by rail. We proposed travelling to Laggan, a station 955 miles 
from Winnipeg, and sixty miles within the range of the Rocky 
Mountains, and within seven miles of the borders of British 
Columbia the extreme point of my diocese on the west. 

There was no regular passenger train going that day, but 
time was too precious for delay, so we took our passage in a 
common freight train. The mail conductor kindly invited us 
to sit in the mail car attached to the train. About 4 P.M. we 
passed a large flock of sheep on the banks of Bow River. 
They are part of ten thousand brought into this locality from 
Montana this year. The breeding of sheep is a new, and likely 
to prove a very profitable industry in this part of the country. 
At 5.40 P.M. we entered the "Gap," or beginning of the Rocky 
Mountain range. The mountains were very lofty, and presented 
a magnificent spectacle as we advanced their rugged masses of 
granite, partly covered with snow, seemed to tower beyond the 
clouds. By half-past 6 P.M. the valley had become much 
narrower. Some of the mountains were almost entirely masses 
of rock, others were partly covered with fir-trees, with masses 
of snow imbedded in the hollows. 

At 7 P.M. we stopped at a station for supper. The mail car 
could not come to the platform, so Mrs. McLean could not get 
out of it. I let myself down with the conductor, and went to 
the supper-room and brought her some food. In the course of 
the evening we came upon snow about eighteen inches deep, 
and this continued all the way to Laggan. About a mile from 
the station the train stopped near the residence of Mr. Ross, 
the Superintendent of Construction on this part of the line. 
The conductor had special orders to do this, as we were to be 
the guests of Mr. Ross. We were most hospitably received by 
a member of his family in his absence. 

On the following day we were driven in a sleigh to Laggan. 
The track lay through a beautiful valley, bounded on either side 
by the lofty mountains. One of these is over a mile in height 
from the ground. Its summit is always covered with snow, 
which at one part is 600 feet deep, as found by actual measure 
ment. The scenery was magnificent. The jagged masses of 


granite ; the dark pine-trees ; the pure white snow ; the tops 
of the mountains lost in the clouds ; the rays of the sun now 
breaking through the clouds, and lighting up the scene with a 
flood of brilliant light, now obscured by some more than usually 
dense mass of dark vapour that threw its chilling shadow over 
the whole panorama all combined to form a picture of sur 
passing grandeur and beauty. 

Laggan is a small village. Like all the stations west of 
Calgary, it has very few inhabitants but those employed by the 
railway company in the working of the line. In another year 
or two I have no doubt each of these will be a centre of popu 
lation. The Rocky Mountains district abounds in minerals and 
timber, and the bringing of these to the market will by and by 
afford employment to large numbers of people. 

We left Laggan on the morning of the llth at 6 o clock, on 
our return journey to Calgary, which we reached in the after 
noon of the same day. I spent the evening reading over the 
papers of the candidate for priest s orders (the Rev. T. W. 
Tims). Mr. Smith had drawn out the questions carefully, and 
I was very well satisfied with the candidate s replies. 

Sunday, October 12th. Service was held at 11 A.M. in the 
Church of the Redeemer, Calgary. The service was conducted 
by the Rev. E. Paske Smith, M.A., assisted by the Rev. 
S. Trivett, C.M.S. Missionary at the Blood Reserve, near Fort 
Macleod. I preached from Joshua, ch. i. ver. 8. The candi 
date was presented by Mr. Smith. The church was well filled. 
In the evening I preached again from 2 Corinth, iv. 18. In 
both sermons I made an appeal in aid of the debt of the 
church. The offertory at both services combined amounted to 
$75, or over 15 sterling a very large offertory for a new 
community in such a country as this. 

I am gratified at the progress made in this Mission. Mr. 
Smith has worked earnestly, and has done a good work. His 
wife is also a most energetic Church worker. Calgary is 
scarcely second to Prince Albert as an important centre in the 
diocese, and it is highly satisfactory to have so promising a 
Mission in the hands of a competent man. 

The people have acted with sound Church feeling in the 


matter of building the church. The building has cost about 
500 sterling, of which 60 has been paid through me, 70 
collected by Mr. Smith in England, and the balance, 370, by 
the people themselves. Mr. Smith s letter will show you that 
since my visit he has collected the balance of the debt. 1 
received his letter only this morning, so that I am able to send 
the necessary certificate to the S.P.C.K to claim their grant of 
30 to reimburse myself for advancing it. 

The offertory at the Church of the Redeemer averages 
$11 per Sunday. The pews are free. The average attendance 
is from fifty to sixty on Sunday morning, and seventy to eighty 
in the evening. The number of Mounted Police at present in 
Calgary is seventy. Of these about fifty are Churchmen. 

The heavy outlay on church-building has prevented the 
people giving anything for the first year towards Mr. Smith s 
salary ; but one of their number, Mr. King, not only con 
tributed $300 towards the building, but has also given Mr. 
Smith the use of a dwelling-house rent free. 

The country round Calgary has several centres of population 
where a travelling Missionary would be very useful. For the 
present, Mr. Smith visits them occasionally, and I have promised 
him 25, to cover travelling expenses, from S.P.G. funds for 
one year, commencing September 25th, 1884. 

These centres are 

1. Red Deer Settlement, about 100 miles north of Calgary ; 
about seventy people, with no Missionary of any denomination 
a fair proportion of Church people. This settlement is expected 
to increase rapidly, from the great fertility of the soil. 

2. High River Settlement, forty miles south of Calgary. 
Here there are forty families, and forty more families at Sheep 
Creek, in the neighbourhood, or seven miles from High River 
making in all eighty families, representing between 300 and 
400 people. 

3. Pine Creek and Fish Creek. Fish Creek is eight miles 
from Calgary, and Pine Creek about five miles farther. Within 
this district there are nearly forty families, and it is currently 
reported that 300 families are preparing to come in next spring. 

A travelling Missionary might spend a Sunday each month 



rMissloii Field, 
t Feb. 2, 1885. 

at each of the above three centres, and the fourth Sunday 
might be given to Laggan. 

We left Calgary on October 13th for Gleichen, a station on 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, near the Blackfoot Crossing, 
where the Church Missionary Society has a Mission to the 

Blackfoot Indians, under the charge of the Rev. J. W. Tims 
(ordained priest at Calgary). I inspected this Mission, and 
sent a report to the C.M.S. 

Meanwhile a telegram reached me from the Bishop of 
Rupertsland, asking me to return to Winnipeg to take part 

Mission Field,"! 
Feb. 2, 1885. J 



in the consecration of the new Bishop of Athabasca. This 
consecration was to have taken place at the Provincial Synod, 
but the Bishop-nominate was delayed in a journey through his 
diocese, and could not reach Winnipeg in time. The con 
secration took place in St. John s Cathedral on St. Luke s 

Day, October 18th, the consecrators being the Metropolitan 
Bishop of Rupertsland, the Bishop of Assiniboia, and myself. 
An account of the consecration will have been sent you by the 

We left Qu Appelle in our waggon on October 22nd. It was 



PMission Field, 
L i- eb. 2, J885. 

very late in the season, and past experience made me appre 
hensive of a storm. 

On Sunday morning, October 
26th, while we were camped in 
the middle of a great treeless 
plain, called the Salt Plain, a 
severe snowstorm came upon us. 
Fortunately we were within 
seven miles of the mail station 
a solitary "shanty" near the 
middle of the plain. Here we 
took refuge and spent the day. 
I held a service in the afternoon 
with thirteen people travellers 
who had sought refuge like 

On the following day the 
weather was clear, and we set 
off, our horses finding it hard 
work to draw the waggons 
through the snow. The weather 
was very cold. Our only pro 
tection at night was a tent, our 
bed being a few buffalo robes 
and blankets spread on the 
ground, with the snow partly 
cleared away. We had to pass 
four nights in this way before 
we reached home. My only 
apprehension was that the cold 
and exposure might be too much 
for Mrs. McLean s strength, but 
I am thankful to say that she 
passed through the ordeal un 

When we reached the South 
Branch of the Saskatchewan we 
found the river covered with broken ice, carried down with 


great rapidity by the rapid stream. The ferry had stopped 
running, and a large number of freighters were camped on the 
bank, waiting either for the river to freeze over or for the 
weather to moderate, so as to allow the ferry again to run. 
After a short consultation, I decided to leave our waggons in 
camp, and to hire a boat to take Mrs. McLean and myself 
across, with our personal baggage, that we might get home 
without delay. 

It was rather a hazardous voyage, but it was accomplished 
safely. Two French half-breeds rowed us across by starting so 
as to allow the boat to drift along with the floating ice, while 
they poled and rowed it diagonally across the river. Several 
times we were quite inclosed by the drifting ice, which crunched 
against the boat with a sound that was suggestive of anything 
but comfort. At last, however, we reached the other side in 
safety. It was nearly dark by this time, so there was nothing 
to be done but find a refuge for the night. This we did in 
the " shanty " of a French half-breed, and in the morning we 
started in a hired sleigh for Prince Albert a distance of 
fifty miles. The day was very stormy. About half-way we 
were gladdened by meeting our eldest son, who was on the way 
to convey us home with our own horses and sleigh. We reached 
home late at night, and found all well. Laus Deo ! 



VENTURE to address you upon a subject to which, in 
my judgment, ycur attention cannot hitherto have been 
adequately directed. I refer to the large number of British 
subjects scattered throughout Europe in small colonies ; not 
a few of whom are ministered to by Church of England 
chaplains with incomes so insufficient that they become hampered by 
worldly cares, which are greatly to the detriment of their usefulness. 

Although I am now only speaking of the chaplaincies which have been 
placed under myself in Northern and Central Europe, yet I doubt not the 
same state of things must exist in Southern Europe also ; and, therefore, 
I beg you to give this subject your very best consideration. 

I believe I am right when I say that, according to the allotment of 
your annual grants, the total sum assigned to Europe (North, Central, and 
South) amounts but to .200, notwithstanding that you possess an annual 
revenue of about ,100,000. I respectfully submit that this sum is utterly 
disproportioned, not only to the necessities of the case, but to the sums of 
money which are allotted to other quarters of the world ; and that the grave 
question, as to whether this ,200 per annum should not be largely aug 
mented, ought at once to be debated and determined. 

I am sensible of the difficulties which surround this proposal. 

It may be urged that " The income of the Society is already pledged 
to annual grants for the colonies and for heathen lands, from which it is 
impossible to recede." 

I admit it. Nor would I desire to take away one penny from such 
grants ; for I too well remember how invaluable were my own, while 
superintending your Missions in British Burma, as Bishop of Rangoon. 
But is there no alternative ? May I not suggest that, without any dimi 
nution of these Missionary supplies, you might take the opportunity (as 
colonial grants are from time to time withdrawn) of placing certain accre 
tions therefrom to the credit of British wants in Europe, instead of allowing 
those wants to be left out of view, and bestowing all such accretions of 
income upon other quarters of the world 1 

Or, again, it may be urged that " Many members of the Society would 
oppose such a course, upon the ground of British residents in European 
countries being better able to provide for their own Church wants than heathen 
converts in Missionary countries." 


I know there is a widespread feeling of this kind ; and the allegation 
would be valid, if all our Continental Chaplaincies were confined to rich 
communities of British residents, or to spots where wealthy tourists con 
gregate for a few months during special seasons of the year. My appeal to 
you, however, has nothing to do with such places. It is wholly confined to 
^hose permanent chaplaincies in which our countrymen are few and poor, 
and where they live as settlers from year to year, almost entirely dependent 
for their Church privileges upon what is provided for them by ourselves. 

The extent to which this state of things exists is little understood in 
England ; and on that account it can never be too frequently or publicly 
brought forward. Were it properly insisted upon, none of your con 
stituents would urge the objection. If such objectors could but visit places 
like Elberfeld or Rummelsberg, where there are scarcely any British resi 
dents except artisans or seaport towns like St. Malo, or Dunkirk, where 
the British population is chiefly made up of sailors, and their uninfluential 
compeers ; or cities like Leipzig, Frankfort, and even Berlin, which, though 
large, have but few English residents beyond those who are inter-married 
with Germans, together with poor governesses, and students of music, 
painting, and medicine ; or a variety of other places in which there are 
merely schools for English children whose parents pay nothing to the 
support of the chaplains, together with a few families having small incomes 
who only seek the Continent for economy, and for cheap foreign education. 
If your objectors could only survey for themselves such colonies as these, 
they would soon cease their talk about communities of that kind supporting 
their own chaplaincies. It cannot be done. The consequence is, that, 
unless our chaplains in such places possess independent incomes, they are 
obliged to take pupils, and sometimes to go from house to house giving 
private lessons, at the expense of their pastoral functions ; and afterwards, 
when pupils fail, they naturally drift either into debt or despair. 

Under these circumstances, shall it be said that a Society like ours has 
no responsibility ] How can that be, when the very constitution of its 
charter practically commits to its charge the spiritual oversight of all our 
fellow-countrymen scattered abroad in British factories and colonies ] 
I grant that our settlers in Europe do not come under the title of colonists 
in the technical sense of the term, i.e. they do not live on ground which is 
British territory. But it would surely be a most illiberal and ungenerous 
interpretation of the word to exclude them from your fullest sympathy and 
assistance, when the State grants these things to them through her Majesty s 
ambassadors and consuls. Surely, if the mother country thus looks after their 
temporal interests, we are bound, by even higher considerations, to look 
after their spiritual and eternal welfare. 

Then what about the means for meeting this responsibility ? 

About the beginning of next year you will be taking steps for a 
reapportionment of grants among your various fields of labour. Let 
me express a hope that, between this time and that, you will have been 
able to devise some method of granting to our great European field, if not 
immediately, yet ultimately, the sum of 1,000 per annum. I cannot but 


believe that, if you would consent to print this Appeal, and allow it to be 
circulated by post with your monthly magazine and other papers, it would 
be one step, at least, toward bringing in additional contributions to your 
Continental Fund. Something must really be done. Otherwise you will 
never secure or retain chaplains of sufficient standing to represent the 
Church of England throughout Europe as it ought to be represented. Nay, 
more. You may possibly lose some of the best chaplains you have ; and 
even have, in certain places, the light of your candlestick extinguished, 
perhaps never to be relighted. Already Aix-la-Chapelle has sunk into a 
mere summer station, because the chaplain feels unable to reside there 
among its few winter English inhabitants free from liability to debt. At 
Dantzig the chaplaincy has been vacated with no prospect of its continuance ; 
since, unaided by external help, it can only produce an income of .30 a 
year. In Karlsruhe, where there are fifty young people and thirty adults 
belonging to us, the chaplain writes to me saying that he will not be able 
to hold out much longer, seeing he only clears about 45 per annum, 

I cannot think that you will leave these poor sheep in the wilderness, 
without making a strong effort to assist them. "We must not let them drift 
away from the Church of their fathers through any wilful negligence, or 

In conclusion, allow me to say that, while I have full confidence in your 
willingness to listen to this appeal, I tremble lest you should fail to see 
how it presses upon your immediate attention. I therefore beseech you to 
make no delay in dealing with it. And may our Gracious Master guide 
you by His sovereign wisdom and power into some practical course of 
activity which shall alike meet all our past shortcomings, and abound to 
His own honour and glory. 

Jit ffltm0riam 

[NOTE. Last month we briefly noticed the lamented death of 
Dr. Kennet. The following article, which is from the 
Madras Mail, contains a fitting tribute to his memory, and 
testimony to the value of his work.] 

|Y the death of the Rev. Charles Egbert Kennet, the 
Anglican Church in South India has lost an able 
theologian, and an universally respected clergyman. 
He was the son of Charles Kennet, a clerk in the 
Treasury Office at Madras, well known formerly as Secretary of 
the Civil Orphan Asylums. His mother, and some other near 
relations, were members of the Roman Catholic Church, and 
like another well-known clergyman of this diocese, Dr. Kennet 
was in his youth brought up as a Roman Catholic. At the age 
of sixteen, or so, he joined the English Church, an event which 
he celebrated by his first literary effort, a small publication 
concerning the Church of Rome. He showed in early youth a 
love of books, and study, and in early manhood earned the name 
of " Pundit " from one who prophesied that he would one day fill 
the office in which in fact he died. He was educated first at 
Bishop Corrie s School, Madras. From thence he went to 
Bishop s College, Calcutta. In both of these institutions the 
education was of a high order. Lads were not crammed for 
constantly recurring examinations, but had time to master the 
subjects they studied. Dr. Kennet profited by the training he 
received, and acquired a thorough grasp of everything he was 
taught. He was thus a scholar in the true sense of the word. 
In 1847 he joined the S.P.G. in Madras, and worked in con 
nection with that Society, with a short interval between 1865 
and 1868, till the day of his death. In 1848 he passed both the 


examinations in Tamil required by the Society, and in 1849 was 
appointed catechist at Mudalur, in the Tinnevelly district, now 
the headquarters of a flourishing Mission. On February 2nd, 
1851, he was admitted to Deacon s Orders at Palamcottah, by 
the late Bishop Dealtry, and was appointed at the same time 
Assistant-Missionary at Mudalur. On July 25th, 1853, he was 
admitted to Priest s Orders at Courtallum, by Bishop Dealtry, 
and appointed Missionary in charge of Mudalur. In 1855 he was 
appointed to act for Dr. (now Bishop) Caldwell, at Edeyengoody. 
From 1857 to 1865 he had charge of Christianagram, with the 
exception of a furlough spent in England from March, 1860, to 
August, 1861. In 1865 he was compelled to leave Tinnevelly 
owing to his wife s health. He settled in Madras, and for a 
time his connection with the S.P.G. was discontinued. He was 
appointed Secretary of the S.P.C.K., a post which he held till 
1878. But he felt, while at the S.P.C.K. office, the need of 
more direct clerical work, and the S.P.G. were only too glad to 
utilise his valuable services, given without remuneration, at 
St. John s, Egmore. 

In 1872 began his connection with the Theological College, 
Sullivan s Gardens, when he was appointed Divinity Lecturer 
under the late Rev. A. R. Symonds. In 1875 he again went to 
England on eight months leave, and to the end of his life he 
looked back with the greatest pleasure to that visit, and on the 
formation of friendships with the Rev. W. T. Bullock, the Rev. 
H. W. Tucker (the late and present Secretaries of the S.P.G.), 
and with many others. In October, 1878, he was appointed 
Principal of the Theological College, a post for which all who 
knew him considered that he was eminently fitted, and one 
which was peculiarly congenial to his feelings. 

He was by common consent accepted as the best theologian, 
in a technical sense, in this diocese. He was exceedingly well 
read in the writings of the early Christian Fathers, and equally 
familiar with the works of the most eminent Anglican divines. 
On all recondite questions, on Church history, canon law, or 
theology, the usual custom was to "ask Kennet," who from 
some corner of his well-selected library, or his well-stored 
memory, could nearly always throw light upon the subject 

* f Feb2, S d> ] CHARLES EGBERT KENNET, D.D. 51 

placed before him. In this respect his knowledge was often 
marvellous. The study of his life was that of theology, and 
probably he had in that department no equal in India. Until 
very recently he used, at the monthly clerical meetings of the 
Madras clergy, to open the debate, or expound some portion of 
Scripture, and whether others agreed with his views and 
opinions or not, they always listened to something well worth 
hearing. It was a fitting close to so studious a life that the 
last years of it should be spent in imparting to the young native 
theological students of Sullivan s Gardens somewhat of that 
store of learning which he had himself so diligently acquired- 
How well the work of teaching theology there was done may 
be concluded from the fact that year after year some of Dr. 
Rennet s native pupils passed the Cambridge Voluntary Theo 
logical Examination. He recognised, as those most intimate 
with the needs of the native Church now do, how important it 
is that a body of well-educated clergy should be provided for it. 
He did, and did well, his part to further so good an end. The 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel will find it exceed 
ingly difficult to secure a suitable successor to him in the 
Principalship of the local Theological College. Dr. Kennet was 
a High Churchman, and a very consistent one. He did not 
simply adopt opinions, but founded them on patient study, and 
thoughtful investigation. The result was that he was steady, 
and recent developments in ritualism had no charm for him. 

It might well have been anticipated that his life would have 
been lengthened out for several years more, but between two 
and three years ago he was struck down by paralysis. In three 
months he was again at his work, and even to the last his 
power seemed not to be diminished so long as he was giving his 
lectures. One of his oldest friends said to him some time ago : 
"You have earned your laurels, why not rest?" But he felt 
that he could not give up his dearly-loved work, and the only 
message that he lately sent by one gone to England was : Tell 
the Secretary at home that I will never be retired, I will die in 
harness." And he died as he had wished to die. On Saturday 
(Nov. 22) he had been in his garden looking at the injury done by 
the late cyclone. He came in, and complained of illness. It was 

E 2 


thought at first that he had had a touch of the sun, but it was 
soon found that he had had another seizure. On Monday the 
doctors thought that he might rally, but he himself said that 
his work was over. On Tuesday night worse symptoms came 
on, and it was clear that the end was drawing nigh. On 
Wednesday, after receiving the Holy Communion at the hands 
of the Archdeacon, he became unconscious, and continued sa 
more or less till Friday, November 28th, when this good man, 
who had faithfully done a good work, passed away to his rest. 

We should add to the above testimony that of the Bishop of 
Madras, in a letter to the Society s Acting Secretary in Madras : 

"I have received your telegram announcing the death of our valued 
brother, Dr. Kennet. I have lost a very affectionate and instructive friend, 
and all the diocese has lost one of its most distinguished ornaments a 
clergyman of eminent learning, devoutness, and large-heartedness. 

" The Theological College especially has suffered such a ]oss as cannot be 
adequately repaired for several years to come. But we must pray that God 
will raise up a duly-qualified man to occupy the vacant principalship ; and 
the Society at home must be earnestly requested to search and send out 
such a man." 

The words of an old friend, the Rev. G. U. Pope (formerly 
Warden of Bishop Cotton School, Bangalore, Madras, and 
now the Society s Organising Secretary for the diocese of Man 
chester) should be preserved: 

" He was full of a gracious humility, often quite embarrassing to those 
who were brought into connection with him. From Professor Street he 
acquired a profound love for Catholic truth, and seldom is one to be found 
who so simply, as by intuition, holds all Catholic doctrine without any tinge 
of un-English theology, as he did. Truly evangelical, large-hearted, candid, 
tenderly conscientious, mighty in the Holy Scriptures and in Patristic and 
old Anglican Divinity, he yet read and weighed most of our noteworthy 
modern productions. 

" The last evening I was in India we knelt in the College chapel and 
commended each other to God ; and so I shall see him always, till, if God 
please, we meet and mingle our praises in the temple within the veil. 

of % glxmlb. 

IN the Universities Preliminary Examinations of Candidates 
for Holy Orders, Students of St. Augustine s College, 
Canterbury, always distinguish themselves. 

This was especially the case in the examination held last 
October. Of five Augustinian candidates, three were placed 
in the first class, and among the whole number of fifty-nine 
successful candidates, the first place of all, in no less than three 
out of the eight subjects of the examination, was obtained by 

little outward change is visible in the Missionary 
V work of the Ladies Association, because at the beginning 
of the year 1884 the state of the finances did not warrant the 
enlargement of existing Missions or the commencement of new 
ones ; and at its close, the Committee are unable to record 
any considerable increase in the funds at their disposal. The 
subscriptions and donations received up to the close of their 
financial year amounted to 5,837. The expenditure during 
the same time was 6,287. The total receipts include a sum 
of 909, which is a Special Fund entrusted to the Association 
for the support of 230 female scholars in various Mission 
schools, and therefore not available for the general purposes of 
the Association, or for its chief object, which is the maintenance 
of female teachers. 

The financial difficulties indicated by the above statement 
are now causing serious anxiety to the Committee. For three 
years the expenditure has been in excess of the receipts, and 


the balance in hand at the beginning of each year is conse 
quently steadily diminishing. It is evident that unless a suffi 
cient sum in new subscriptions and donations comes in during 
the months of January and February, before the estimates are 
made out, not only can no new work be undertaken, but the 
Committee will be compelled to revise the old grants, and 
cut down the present outlay considerably. 

The Zenana Missions at Bombay, Ahmednagar, Kolapore, 
Dapoli, Calcutta, Cawnpore, Delhi, Roorkee, Madras, and 
Tanjore have prospered during the year, the pupils under 
instruction being about 2,000. In addition to the pupils in the 
zenanas and in the schools connected with the Zenana Missions, 
about 1,250 girls are being taught in the schools connected 
with the Ladies Association in Burma, Japan, Madras, Mada 
gascar, and South Africa, and 180 are maintained and educated 
in S.P.G. schools at the expense of members of the Association. 
Four fresh workers (one of them honorary) have gone out this 
year to reinforce the Missions at Kolapore, Cawnpore, and 
Roorkee, and Miss Alice Hoar, at the expiration of her furlough, 
has returned to her work in Japan. There are now 145 teachers 
on the list of the Association. Two hundred and fifty English 
Working Parties have contributed a large quantity of work and 
native clothing, and the Association has thus been enabled to 
despatch forty large and valuable boxes in the course of the 
year to India and South Africa. 

The first four volumes of The Grain of Mustard Seed may 
now be had bound in cloth, each for eighteenpence. Every 
member of the Ladies Association is requested to promote the 
circulation of this magazine, which contains full information 
and letters from the Missions and schools abroad, lists of sub 
scriptions and parcels, and original articles on Mission work 
and other subjects of interest. 

MOULMEIN was the first scene of Church of England 
Mission work in Burma. Begun in 1858, a considerable 
staff was at first employed in planting it, but for various 
reasons, including the demand for workers in other Missions in 

M Fe 8 b! 2?i^5. d> ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 55 

the diocese, these active efforts were interrupted, and the only 
resident agent was a Tamil catechist who worked under the 
supervision of the station chaplain. 

In November 1879, however, the Rev. James A. Colbeck was 
sent there, and has remained there ever since, being now sup 
ported by having his brother, the Rev. John A. Colbeck, as a 
colleague. After great efforts the church was finished and con 
secrated on May 23rd, 1882, a memorable day to the Mission, 
and wonderful progress has been made with other buildings. 

Mr. Colbeck now relates how in August last they rejoiced, 

" To be able to move entirely from our old hired buildings to our own 
estate, where we now have church, clergy-house, boys school and girls 
school, all occupied and usable, though not all complete, but getting more 
and more into order every day." 

With regard to work amongst the Buddhists around them, he 

" I feel that much more ought to have been done, and, by God s help, much 
more shall be done in direct Missionary effort outside the schools. We have 
had two or three catechists, and though not of a very highly trained class, their 
influence has been immediately seen in the gathering together of inquirers, 
or hearers, who, perhaps naturally go to them, being Burmans, much sooner 
than they will come to us Englishmen, even apart from the question of 
understanding our preaching. I am sorry to say that we have not had 
Mission workers of this class on our Burmese side for eighteen months ; 
we know the value of this agency, and are trying to supply it, and honestly 
believe that the prospect of a local supply is better now." 

SEVERAL items of great interest are contained in a note 
from the Bishop of Rangoon, sent with the annual 
statistical statement of the work in his diocese, which we are 
glad to see shows considerable advance : 

lf A new Mission station Poozoondoung appears for the first time in 
the list of S.P.G. districts. The Kev. C. T. Bickard has been placed in 
charge. As soon as we can we shall build a church, a schoolroom, and a 
house. We have got about Bs. 800 towards the Bs. 20,000 required. Your 
school at Henzada has been placed under a European master, and already 
there are signs of improvement. 

" Mr. Colbeck has moved into the new Mission-house ; only the school 
remains to be finished, and then, thanks to the indefatigable energy of 
Mr. Colbeck, the Society will possess a fine Mission station at Moulmein. 


The machinery will be complete may God grant that it may lead to a 
large, living Church. 

" The Kemmendine Training Institution has been in full operation during 
the year. There are five students ; two of the Burman students have not 
turned out well. Our most serious defect is the want of trained catechists 
and teachers. This we look to the Institution to supply in due time. 
Thanks to the very liberal grants of the S.P.G. and S.P.C.K., the premises 
are now entirely free from debt. St. John s College has been quite full 
during the year. I had the pleasure of confirming forty-six candidates in 
October, of whom seventeen were students." 

A PASSAGE in a Report from the Rev. Thomas Cook 
JTJL. illustrates the severity of the winter in North- West 
Canada, and the dangers of travelling in the snow : 

" On one occasion I had to go and bury a child, about eight miles off, on a 
very stormy day. on a bleak prairie, with a strong north wind, and snow 
falling fast. I was just able to see the road before me. For the first time 
in all my long and tedious tramps during my Missionary life along the 
north and the south branches of the Saskatchewan and the Muskacoo 
country of Cumberland, and the Pas Moose Lake, and my voyaging down 
to the Hudson s Bay, carrying 200 cwt. on my back over the Grand Rapid, 
&c., &c. I never felt like giving up so nearly as on that day. I was all 
right, went briskly plunging through drifts, &c., when suddenly, in leSvS 
than five minutes, my strength was gone I hardly knew how to put one 
leg before the other. Fortunately and providentially, a house appeared 
before me about a mile out of my way. My only chance was to reach it, 
and I tried standing a few minutes now and again, just to breathe freely 
and gather strength. During this effort to reach the City of Refuge, the 
cold was finding its way through all my limbs, depriving me of feeling. 
I succeeded, and was received with much kindness by the inmates, who 
knew me well. A spread was got ready, to which I did ample justice, and 
after a little rest I was like myself again. The old lady of the house 
would not hear of my going away again, but I insisted ; so she got her 
son Sandy to hitch the pony. In the meantime she got two of the heavy 
quilts from the bed, and turning my back to the wind, wrapped me up 
well ; she bade her Sandy to drive me to a place of safety, where I would 
have to take another direction for Westbourne. 

ONE of the extensive Missions in the diocese of Algoma is 
that of Gore Bay. The Rev. W. Macaulay Tooke is 
able to tell of some points of progress, while at the same time 


he shows how impossible it is for one clergyman to take charge 
of such a large area : 

" I am happy to say that our church of All Saints at Gore Bay is free 
of debt, the 50 needed to clear it being furnished from the Bishop s 
Building Fund, and is now consecrated. 

" In Busper a fresh start has been made, and there is little doubt but that 
the building will be sufficiently advanced this season to admit of services 
being held in it this winter. This will make the third church building in 
the Mission. 

" The need of an additional Missionary in these parts is very urgent, as 
the work has grown quite beyond my unaided efforts. Busper, where a 
church is building, lies too far off to be properly worked, the distance being 
twenty-five miles by land, and thirty miles by water, except in winter, 
when a short cut over the ice can be made, reducing the distance to some 
fifteen miles. Eighteen miles beyond Busper there is the settlement called 
Silver Water ; and about the same distance further on, another settlement, 
called Meldum Bay. These places have just been visited by the Bishop, 
and services held, after which Church matters were discussed. The people 
were very earnest in expressing their desire for the Church s ministrations, 
and $150 a year was guaranteed towards the support of a Missionary. This 
is a liberal sum when the number and circumstances of the people are con 
sidered. I might say that I hold services regularly in Busper during the 
winter, with an occasional service in the summer. The other two places 1 
can only reach about once or twice a year." 

MONO some other interesting notes on his work in the 
Banting Mission in Sarawak, the Rev. J. Perham men 
tions a very suggestive incident which at once illustrates the 
difficulty of work among the Dyaks, and shows how the grace 
which was given to these members of the race at their baptism 
years ago was not bestowed in vain : 

" I am getting a chapel built at the mouth of the Lingga, which is the 
Banting river. A house of about 150 Dyaks is settled there, a few of whom 
were baptised in years gone by, when they lived here. In the interval they 
have migrated from place to place, and have seldom been able to attend 
any place of worship. They are now helping to make a prayer-house for 

ON the night of Thursday, October 16th ; a disastrous storm 
broke over the zemindary and town of Ramnad. It 
lasted for about nine hours, during which torrents of rain fell. 

58 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M F :K f^ d> 

The various tanks scattered over the country have in many 
cases burst their bunds, and very serious damage both to houses 
and lands has been the consequence. Postal communication 
with Madura was cut off for three days. 

The Society s Mission, which extends over an area of 1,600 
square miles, has sustained losses which cannot be estimated at 
under Rs. 2,000 (200). Only a few cases are mentioned 
below : 

Building. Damage done. Rs. 

Eamnad Christ Church ...Tiles moved, leaking. 50 

Schools and Porch... Tiles and thatch fallen. 25 

Sick Room ...One wall fallen. 25 

Mutthupettah Prayer shed ...Roof fallen, posts broken. 20 

Atthiacherpnram Agent s house ...Walls fallen, roof unsafe. 15 

Satthamangalam Church ...Roof off : walls down. 100 

Rajasingainangalam Five houses washed away, and hospital walls 

broken, and Church and School walls cracked. 500 

Varavani School ...Roof and wall down. 25 

Devipatam Church ...Walls and part of roof. 12 

House ...Walls and part of roof. 25 

,, Catechist s house ...Shed thrown down. 10 

Kelanikudy Church ...Roof and part of wall. 15 

Sambei Church ...Wall all down. 25 

Kelanjani Church ... Roof, and all the walls do wn. 50 

House ...Part of roof. 15 

Setthidal Agent s house ...Roof and wall down. 15 

In every direction the houses of the agents have been either destroyed or 

WE regret to have to record the death of the first Bishop 
of the diocese of Niagara, which has been briefly 
announced. The Right Rev. T. B. Fuller, D.D., was consecrated 
Bishop of Niagara in 1875. 

His lordship in early life took a prominent part in originating 
and developing the Synodal System in Canada. During the 
nine years of his episcopate he successfully organised the 
various parts of the new diocese. His death took place on 
December 17th, 1884, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 
He warmly advocated the claims of the Society both in England 
and in Canada. 


AT the last distribution of grants the Society voted 200 as 
a new grant for a Missionary at Cassiar and the Stickine 
River, in the diocese of Caledonia, and also a single sum of 
50 towards the cost of a house for him. The Rev. Harold 
Sheldon, the Missionary, writing on October 23rd, 1884, to 
describe the state of the Mission, says 

" The new gold field up the Skeena, eighty miles from here, has been 
proved to be a success, and therefore there will be a rush of men here in 
the spring. There are a number of men wintering here, but this year they 
are very poor, as they have only been able to get the necessary plant and 
their claims open ready for next year. There is no difficulty in getting 
most of them to attend the Church services, but owing to the wandering 
life they have led, and the lack of religious influence, they have, many of 
them, drifted into infidelity and indifference. There are now seven com 
municants, and very shortly there will be four more confirmed a man 
and his wife and two boys. It is but the day of small things at present, 
but, thank God, there seems to be an awakening to better things .... 
I am the first priest of our Church, or, indeed, minister of any kind 
whose work has been amongst the white population." 

SOME changes have recently taken place in the diocesan 
nomenclature of the Province of Rupertsland. In 
addition to the change in consequence of the diocese of Atha 
basca, the title of Bishop Anson s see is altered. Qu Appelle 
is the name now substituted for Assiniboia. 

BISHOP CALDWELL, we are thankful to hear, arrived at 
Madras with his party all well, on December 8th, after a 
somewhat rough voyage. 

ONE of the two native clergymen in the diocese of Madras 
upon whom the Archbishop of Canterbury recently con 
ferred the degree of B.D. on the request of the Bishop of 
Madras, was the Rev. D. Samuel, who is one of the Missionaries 
at the Society s station at Tuticorin. Mr. Samuel has written 
to express his gratitude for the degree, and for the Society s 
taking care that the necessary costs were discharged. 


FROM Domingia, on the Rio Pongo, the Rev. P. H. Doughlin 
sends a copy of the New Testament in Susu, which great 
work has just been completed. Mr. Doughlin says that he is 
now very busy preparing a re-translation of the Prayer Book 
for the press. 

WE are very glad to hear from the Rev. F. J. J. Smith, 
who volunteered last year for work in North China, 
that he has reached Chefoo safely after nearly a week s delay at 
San Francisco, and five days at Yokohama. He writes that 
he has already begun his lessons in the Chinese language. 

AFTER his furlough in England last year the Rev. A. C. 
Shaw has returned to Japan. We are glad to hear that 
he reached Tokio safely in November. He writes on the 
28th : 

"The work lias been going on fairly well during my absence. The 
military conscription has been the means of depriving me at any rate for 
a time of two very promising young men whom I had been at great pains 
in training. It is a great hardship. 

" An immense change has taken place in the attitude of public opinion 
towards Christianity since I left, and it seems likely to become almost a 
popular religion. There is of course a danger in this." 


Reports have been received from the Rev. W. M. Bone, B. C. Choudhury, D. H. G. Dunne, 
R. Dutt, S. Endle, H. J. Harrison, J. R. Hill, A. Logsdail, P. M. Mukerjea and H. H. Sandel 
of the Diocese of Calcutta; Tara Cliand of Lahore ; M. J. Bywater, C. W. Fowler, W II 
Gomes. W. Howell, J. Perham and J. L. Zehnder of Singapore; W. Brereton of North china 
Atkinson, J. Baker, G. F. Gresley, K. G. Nichol and W. P. G. Soheirhout of Capetown ; 
E. Y. Brookes and C. Taberer of Grahamxtown ; S Adonis and A. G. S. Gibson of St John s 
W. Greenstock, W. A. Illing, B. Markham, E. H. Shears, T. Taylor and J. W. Ward of Maritz- 
burg ; E. W. Stenson and J. Widdicombe of Bloemfontein ; A. M. Hewlett of Madagascar ; 
G. N. Wood of Sydney ; H. H. Brown of Auckland; A. J. Creswell. G. Scholield and J. H 
Talbot of Fredericton ; T. L. Ball, W. C. Bernard, J. B. Debbage and J. W. Thompson of 
Quebec ; A. Jamieson of Huron; W. Anderson, E. G. Sutton and T. A. Young of Montreal; 
L. Shepherd of Eupertsland; R. Inkster of SaslcatcJiewan, and M. J. M. Cooper of Nassau. 


THE Monthty Meeting of the Society was held at the Westminster Palace Hotel on 
Friday, January 16th, at 2 P.M., His Grace, the President, in the Chair. There 
were also present the Bishop of Lichfield, the Bishop of Colchester, the Bishop 
of Antigua, the Bishop of Maritzburg, Bishop Perry, Bishop Alford, Bishop 
Staley, the Eight Hon. J. G. Hubbard, M.P., the Dean of Windsor, the Rev. 
B. Compton, the Kev. Canon Bailey, the Kev. Canon Gregory, the Rev. Canon 
Cadman, Vice- Presidents, and about 400 other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The following Resolution on the decease of the Bishop of London was 
adopted unanimously : 

" Resolved, that the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts- 
is bound by every consideration of duty and respect, to place on record its high 
appreciation of the life and character of the late Bishop of London. When 
Rector of St. James s, Westminster, he was a Member of the Standing Com 
mittee and of the Board of Examiners, and in later years the Society has had 
occasion to entertain sentiments of gratitude for his sympathy in its work, for his 
ready co-operation in its great designs, and for his frequent public testimony to the 
importance of its Missionary operations, and to its consequent claims on the support 
of all members of our Church." 

3. On behalf of the Standing Committee, General Tremenheere, C.B., 
and the Hon. and Rev. E. C. Glyn, were proposed for re-election, and the 


Dean of Gloucester, Archdeacon Gifford, the Rev. J. W. Ayre, H. W. 
Saunders, Esq., Q.C., C. M. Clode, Esq., and C. Churchill, Esq., for election 
as Members of the Standing Committee at the next meeting. 

4. The Right Hon. J. G. Hubbard, M.P., brought forward the Resolution 
of which he had given notice, as follows : 

(1) " That the success of the Missionary work of the Church of England must 
greatly depend upon the co-operation of the S. P.G. as effecting economy in 
administration, and attracting confidence and support by the evidence of harmony 
in principle and action. 

(2) "That Special Funds, instituted through personal interest in particular 
agencies or fields of Missionary labour, ought to be cordially encouraged as 
largely increasing the aggregate means devoted to evangelisation. 

(3) "That the S.P.G., having in 1882 closed the accounts of 156 Special 
Funds, the Board are of opinion that the Society should no longer delay to 
welcome back to the shelter and assistance which it can afford, every Special 
Missionary Fund of adequate importance and legitimate purpose, and undertake 
the transmission of the Funds entrusted to it upon the distinct stipulation that 
the recipients shall furnish clear and complete statements of the application of 
the Funds for the satisfaction of the Society and of the donors. 

(4) " That this meeting regrets that the Executive of the S.P.G. should have 
made no advance towards remedying the inconvenience caused by their rejection 
of important Missionary Funds, driven by their exclusion to form a Central 
Agency for Foreign Missions, and it especially laments that officials of the 
Society should have, in their comments on Special Funds, deprecated their 
existence, and have censured those who supported them." 

The following Report of the Standing Committee on Mr. Hubbard s 
Resolution was laid before the meeting ; 

"The Standing Committee cordially welcome the principles embodied in the 
first and second resolutions proposed by Mr. Hubbard. 

" They gladly recognise that the assistance of Special Funds is essential to 
enable many of those who are toiling in the Missionary field to accomplish what 
is desirable for the furtherance of the work on which they are engaged. 

The Society endeavours to carry out these principles by cordially encouraging 
Special Funds maintained through personal interest in particular fields of Mis 
sionary labour. As there appears still to exist some misapprehension on the 
subject, the Standing Committee desire to call attention to the fact that the 
number of the Special Funds l upon the Society s Books is at this moment no 
less than 160 ; the sole difference between the former system and that now adopted 
being that the Society now accepts the responsibility of administering these funds 
for the benefit, in each case, of the diocese or Mission specified by the donors. 
Those who wished to administer their Special Funds independently of the 
Society withdrew them from the Society s books aftei the resolution of 1882. 
Those who wished to avail themselves of the Society s experience in their ad 
ministration, retained their funds upon its books, and new Special Funds have 
since been opened on the same conditions. For all these the Society holds itself 
responsible to the donors and to the Church at large. 

"With regard to the remaining resolutions proposed by Mr. Hubbard, the 
Standing Committee would ask the attention of the Society to the following 
facts : 

"The system now in force is the same as that which was in operation for 153 
years, up to the year 1857. 

" In that year the Society began to conduct business as a forwarding agency 
for persons who wished that it should receive and transmit money for Missionary 

1 The exact title of the Society s Special Funds is" Special Funds opened with the sanction 
of the Standing Committee and administered at the discretion of the Society for the benefit in 
each case of the Diocese or Mission specified by the donors." See Report for 1883, p. 7. 


purposes, with no more knowledge or control over the application thereof than 
would be possessed by an ordinary banker. 

"It now appears to be extremely doubtful whether the Society s action in 
receiving such funds without accepting responsibility for their administration, 
was not, as a matter of fact, contrary to the letter and spirit of its Charter. 1 

"Moreover, in practice many inconveniences were found to result from the 
experiment, which was patiently made and not hastily abandoned. It was found 
that a very general misapprehension existed as to the administration of such 
funds, and that the Society was generally supposed to give the weight of its 
authority and sanction to an administration for which it was not responsible, and 
of which it knew nothing. 

"Accordingly, in 1882, the Standing Committee felt themselves compelled to 
appoint a large Special Committee to consider the whole subject. This Committee 
came to the conclusion that it was necessary for the Society to recur to the 
original system, which was undoubtedly the one exclusively contemplated by the 

"The whole question turns upon the responsible administration of Special 
Funds, and the Standing Committee cannot reverse a deliberate decision arrived 
at with much labour so lately as 1882. Taking their stand upon the plain words 
of the Charter, the Standing Committee feel themselves compelled to decline to 
receive moneys without having the management and disposition thereof, 
either as generally applicable to the whole Mission field, or as specially applicable 
to particular fields of Missionary labour. 

" With respect to the suggestion contained in Mr. Hubbard s third resolution, 
the Standing Committee cannot do better than refer to the following clause in the 
report of the Sub-Committee on the relation of the Society to Special Funds. 

"Speaking of the system of Special Funds before the alteration of 1882, it 
says in Clause 9, It has been suggested that some disadvantages of the present 
system might be avoided were the Society to require each Special Fund to render 
annually a duly audited account of its receipts and expenditure. But such a 
precaution, while it might possibly be regarded as an undue reflection upon the 
management of the Special Fund, would, in the judgment of your Sub-Committee, 
merely result in a fallacious appearance of responsibility on the Society s part, 
without giving any actual security as to the receipts or expenditure of money 
over which the Society would possess no real control. 

"On the above grounds the Standing Committee cannot recommend the Board 
to accept Mr. Hubbard s resolutions." 

Canon Furse moved as an amendment to omit the third clause of Mr. 
Hubbard s resolution, and for the fourth to substitute the words : 

" That this meeting especially laments that the Secretary of the Society should 
have, in his comments on Special Funds, read by him at the Church Congress in 
Carlisle, on October 2nd, 1884, deprecated their existence, and have censured 
those who supported them." 

This amendment was afterwards, by permission, withdrawn. 

Bishop Perry moved, and the Bishop of Colchester seconded as an 
amendment, that the first and second clauses of Mr. Hubbard s Resolution 
be adopted, and that the third and fourth clauses be rejected. 

The question first put to the meeting was that clauses three and four be 
rejected, which was carried first by acclamation, and then on a show of 
hands. The further question was then put as to clauses one and two, which 
were agreed to. 

1 The object of the original Charter is " to erect and settle a Corporacon for the receiving, 
manageing, and disposeing of the Charity of our Loveing Subjects." 

See also Clause 14 of the Charter :- "And Our further Will and Pleasure is. That the said 
Society shall Yearely and every Yeare give an account in Writing to our Lord Chancellor, or 
Lord Keeper of the Great Seale of England for the Time being, the Lord Cheife Justice of the 
King s Bench, and the Lord Cheife Justice of the Common Pleas, or any two of them, of the 
severall Summe or Summes of Money by them received and laid out by vertue of these Presents 
or any Authority hereby given, and of the Management and Disposicon of the Revenues and 
Charityes aforesaid." 

64 MONTHLY MEETING. [% 10 ?fraJ d 

5 On the recommendation of the Standing Committee and the Bishop 
of Assmiboia, the Eev. T. Dickinson was placed on the Society s list for 
work in the diocese of Assiniboia. 

6. All the candidates _ proposed in November were elected into the 
Corporation. The following were proposed for election in March : 

nmshannon, Co. Cork; Eev. Alexander Irwin, Timoleague, Co Cork Eev 
1 recentor T. Moore LL.D Middleton, Co. Cork ; Eev. L. C. Nash Bal vmartK 
Lallmhassig, Co Cork ; Eev J L . Porter, St. Peter s, Ballymodan, Bandon 
Co. Cork ; Eev. John Jebb Sargmt, Ballyhea, Charlesville, Co Cork Horace 
Payne ToM^hendEsqDerry, Eosscarbery, Co. Cork; Eev. j. Hunt , D D ? 
Ottord Sevenoaks; Eev. W. H. Curtler, Bevere, Worcester ; Eev H HetherWton 
West Bradenham, Thetford; Eev. H. M. C. Price, N^, ^nthSn ; 

> P M" n 61 ^ Cha P lam to the Foi ces ) Portsdown Hill, Cosham, Hants 
Kev. G. Murray Gawne BeFnerston, Attleborough ; H. E. Bennett, Esq , Spark- 
ford, Somerset ; Eev. J. McGill, Stoke Ferry, Brandon ; Eev. Wilfred A Boyce 
Ecchmswell Newbury; Eev. E. F. Maynard, Catherington, Horndean ; Ee^ c 
Kduy , Bi-amley Basmgstoke ; Eev. H T. Hughes, Emery Down, Lyndhurst; 
Rev C E, Tompkms St. Peter s, Southsea ; Eev. H. E. Nixon, Oxton, Birken- 
bead; Eev. E, E. Trye Leckhampton, Cheltenham ; Eev. F. E, Lawson, Per- 
shore; Eev W Yates, Worleston, Nantwich ; Eev. A. P. Woodhouse St 
Matthews Snemton, Nottingham ; Major E. S. B. Lockyer, E.H.A., Westcote 

arton, Steeple Aston ; Eev James Acheson, 5, Grey Friais, Chester ; Very Eev 
he Dean of Winchester; Eev. Edmund Fowle, Amesbury House, Bfofey 
Kent; Eev. A. S. Porter, Claines, Worcester ; Eev. H. H. Woodward, Cathedral 
AVorcester; Eev. L. E. Owen Farndon, Chester; Eev. D. Shaw Saighton, 
Chester Eev. G. S. Earn, St. Peter s, Bournemouth ; Eev. W. H. Purton St 
Clements, Bournemouth ; Eev ^ E. B. Brackenbury, Sangreen, Bournemouth ; 

V T^ T Tlf T?" M B " i VeSt Chevin ^ Bournemouth ; J. G. Douglas, Esq. 
M.D., Tantallon, Bournemouth. 

7 On the motion of F. Calvert, Esq, Q.C., seconded by Sir Walter 
K. ^arciiihar, Bart, a hearty vote of thanks to his Grace the President 
lor presiding on this occasion was carried unanimously. 



MARCH 2, 1885. 



plESE people really are learning self-help very well. 
I told you in my last that Kawachi had married 
the sewing teacher. A few days ago he sent me 
a polite message, that as he had a little money of 
his own, he did not wish to take any more money 
for his wife, but she would still go on teaching sewing. My 
other wedding was duly celebrated at Ushigome Church, on 
October 2nd. The ceremony was performed by myself, assisted 
by the Rev. E. R Woodman, of the American Church Mission, 
with whom also Wake is working. Mrs. Wake was for some 
years one of the Mission scholars. I really wish those who 
guarantee money for these special funds would be more con 
scientious in sending it. I have had to send back Ura, the other 
girl who was on a scholarship, to a not very satisfactory home, 
because no money was sent ; and as for those Bonin children, 
one trembles to think what will become of four or five half- 
educated, half-civilised girls of fifteen to seventeen. 


The church near Kiyobashi, from which Mr. Wright had 
great hopes, has certainly been successful in some ways ; but 
being just on the street, it is far too noisy for such services as 
the Holy Communion. Most of the Christians, too, live too 
far off to be able to come very regularly ; and partly, perhaps, 
owing to this, they hold Bible classes in their houses. From 
one house I have hopes of nearly ten baptisms, as the outcome 
of one Bible class. 

The night preaching is, however, well attended, and some 
recent cases deserve, I think, more than passing mention. 

On the first Sunday after Easter I preached from the text, 
"And now, Lord, what is my hope?" I noticed a fellow in 
gorgeous uniform standing in the porch, listening. He was one 
of the Emperor s bandsmen. The idea of a Christian having 
a hope was quite new to him ; I had a long talk with him after 
wards, and gave him some books, but have not seen him since. 
Often these people will pay but little attention to the sermon, 
but read a Prayer-book or hymn-book, if one is lying before them. 
Once a man had been evidently very much puzzled by a book 
he took up. I asked him, when service was over, whether I 
could explain anything to him. He said he could not quite 
understand the first page of the Prayer-book. It was the table 
how to find Easter ! No wonder he could not understand. 

The first Wednesday night after Mr. Lloyd came, Shimada 
was away preaching in the country, so I took the whole service. 
A man who strolled in, said he understood my sermon, which 
was on the lesson (St. Mark ii.), but what struck him most was 
the Litany. He was wonderfully impressed with the way in 
which we there pray "for almost everything we can enumerate. 
But by far the most interesting case I have had was one Sunday 
night, soon after Trinity Sunday. If I remember rightly, 
Shimada was preaching from the first beatitude. A man who 
strolled in seemed very much interested in the sermon, and 
stopped afterwards to have a talk. He was from Nagasaki, 
and was going across to America to study farming, I think and 
that one sermon converted him. He came for several days to 
Shimada, to be instructed more perfectly in "the way." He 
knew but little, he said, of Christianity before. Being only a 

Miesion Pield.1 
Mar. 2, 18&5. J 



fortnight before his ship went, I was of course unable to baptise 
him, for of course I cannot tell what may have been, or even is 
now, in the background. He gave me a handsome piece of 

lacquer before he went. I do not like taking presents like that 
but I returned him the compliment with a Bible and a Japanese 
"kakimono," or hanging picture of the fifth chapter of St. 

F 2 


Matthew. On looking at it he caught his text (v. 3) at once. 
It was the idea of the kingdom of heaven which so struck him. 

Well, he went off, and I wondered whether his was a weather 
cock conversion, or whether there was anything real in it. Two 
or three steamers arrived from San Francisco, and by last mail 
I heard from my man a very nice letter to me, and one to 
Shimada. I had given him a letter of introduction to all the 
American clergy. He had gone to Vancouver s Island. I 
shall write to him next mail, and, if I have time, also to the 
Bishop of New Westminster. Of coarse I cannot tell how 
much there may have been behind this, but, all the facts before 
me, I honestly believe it was a genuine case of conversion. 

These last few nights nobody but Christians have come in the 
evening, so we have had no preaching ; but the fact remains, 
that some part of the Gospel is preached regularly twice a 
week, and a number, varying from none to fifty or sixty, hear. 
Many hear and go away ; but it must have some effect on 
them, the knowledge of Christianity is spreading so fast. 

At the same time, I am sorry to say I have not been able to 
keep this work up without losses in other ways. One is, I 
ought really to have had more time at the language. I am not 
certain whether I should have felt it my duty to have taken over 
this Mission at all, had I known what was coming. I offered, 
however, to do so as a temporary matter with the obvious 
result that here I am still, and I know what this means. I am 
stereotyping myself into a thoroughly second-rate knowledge 
of the language. I have to make what I do know go so far. 
However, as we do not come out here only to learn the language, 
and as my work, such as it is, has been evidently very much 
blessed, and (humanly speaking) successful, I see no great 
cause for regret that I am no great orator. 

You will be glad to hear that the Old Testament is translated, 
with the exception of Psalms, Isaiah, Job, and a few lesser 
books, such as Canticles, Esther, and some of the minor 
prophets ; so we are almost always now able to have a first 
lesson, and generally according to the lectionary. Ezekiel is 
just out, and we had it first time last Sunday. Dr. Yerbeck 
wishes to postpone the publication of Psalms till the revised 


Old Testament is out, so that all doubtful points can be settled 
harmoniously with that version. 

Our unhappy divisions are of course represented in Japan as 
well as other places, and the idea naturally occurs to these 
people here that we are all as much at dagger s drawn with 
each other as the various Buddhist sects. Now in Japan there 
are eight sects of Buddhists, and they are far more sub-divided 
and opposed to each other in teaching than any two sects which 
profess and call themselves Christians. 

To correct this idea as far as possible, Dr. Hada, a physician 
in the C.M.S. Church, got up a big " enzetsu kwai," or lecture 
meeting. The biggest theatre in Tokio was rented, and, as far 
as possible, each of our " divisions" was represented; 4,000 
persons listened attentively for each of two days, many being 
unable to gain admission. Our Church was represented by the 
Rev. Masakadzu Tai, who preached on "I am not ashamed of 
the Gospel of Christ." I have heard several competent persons 
say that his sermon was one of the best, if not the best, given. 

I should say, perhaps, that the relationship at present between 
the various Churches is probably as satisfactory and as great 
a cause for thankfulness as can well be imagined, i.e. all Episco 
palians work together as such, though three societies ; yet on 
common ground we do work as far as we can also with others. 
The danger there was at one time of all denominations forming 
one conglomerate mass, has, I believe, quite passed off. I have 
no fear whatever of any of our Christians leaving our Church, 
although at any rate my part of the work is rapidly becoming 
self-supporting. It is, of course, one of our greatest difficulties, 
and all I can say is, that all things considered, probably nothing 
better can be devised than the present status. I may add that 
I know that we gain by it. 



JHE following paper will be read as it clearly was 
written with very mixed feelings. We leave the 
description of the scene as it stands in Mr. Lefroy s 
words. It needs no comment to heighten it. We 
reprint the account simply as a record of an ordeal for 
Christian steadfastness, to which in several respects it would 
be difficult to find an historic parallel : 

There are obviously two ways in which individual converts to Christian 
ity and it is with such alone that we have at present to do in this country 
may be dealt with as regards their future place of abode and manner of 
living, the one being to leave them in their own surroundings, and, as far 
as possible among their own people, in the hope that they may be a witness 
to guide others from among them into the truth, the other being to separate 
them off almost or altogether from their old associations and gather them 
together into a knot by themselves. The latter policy is usually known as 
that of segregation ; to the former, perhaps because it is so perfectly obvious 
and simple, no special name that I know of can be given. It 18 not diffi 
cult to account for the fact that the segregation policy is that which has, 
in greater or less degree, been followed by far the greater number of 
Missions. In the first place the caste prejudices of Hindoos, and to an 
almost equal extent the bitterness of Mohammedans, make it quite im 
possible for a convert, if living, as so many of them do, in a kind of clan 
fashion, two or three generations and all degrees of relations massed together 
in one house, to continue his old position among them as though nothing 
had happened. He must, whether he wishes it or no, go out from among 
them and set up for himself. But this, to mention no other difficulty, means 
of course greatly increased expense which he is very frequently not able to 
undertake. What then more natural than that he should take refuge in the 
Mission Compound, where he can usually find, not only a house sufficient 
for his wants, and not seldom free of rent, but also a Christian atmosphere and 
congenial companionship, secured from the taunts and insults to which he 
would certainly be, for some considerable time at least, exposed if living in the 
open Bdzar. Add to this the natural hope on the part of the Missionaries 
that by bringing Christians together into a purer air, away from their old 

M Mar. 2 ? SSt ] SEGREGATION. 7 1 

and so often debasing surroundings, a higher standard and tone of Christian 
thought and life may be evoked, many, it may be, feeble sparks combining 
to form a really vigorous and active flame, and it will not seem strange that 
this is the policy which, whether in the form of a Christian village entirely 
distinct from all surrounding habitations, or in the modified form of a 
Mission Compound in the city, of size sufficient to afford shelter to as many 
as are at present likely to need its refuge, has been most commonly followed. 
Now, while on the one hand, it is hard not to think that the plan of leaving 
them to be a light to their own world, where more than elsewhere their 
influence and testimony ought to make -itself most powerfully felt, is really 
the truest and highest, it is also certain that the segregation plan is by no 
means an entire success, tending, as it so constantly does, to foster a more or 
less exotic life, and, above all, to put the converts at once into a position of 
immediate dependence on the Mission and Mission support, and in too 
many cases to substitute a very living faith in it and the depth of its purse 
and the compassion of the stringholders for any more real and worthy 
reliance on the great Giver of all. How far I am guilty ol treason in 
saying this I do not know, for nothing is so apt to attract the attention and 
please the sentiments of friendly visitors to Missions as the little Christian 
village with its church, its pastor s house, its schools, and so much that brings 
back all that is best and dearest to us at home. Nevertheless, I believe that 
though in one or two cases under exceptionally wise and careful direction 
such villages have thriven, yet in many cases the dangers of which I have 
spoken have made themselves felt, and most strongly by those who have 
most to do with them, and have the greatest opportunity of seeing how 
they affect character. Whether it was the general theory or the experience 
of other Missions which had most weight with Mr. Winter in forming his 
decision, I cannot say, but, from whichever cause probably from both he 
had in the case of these poor Chamar Christians wholly abstained from any 
thing approaching to a segregation policy, and had left them entirely among 
their own people to be a light to them. This, I may remark in passing, 
was possible, partly because of the imperfect Christianity of too many of 
these converts, partly from the fact that they do not mass together in one 
large home, in the way I have above referred to as common among the 
higher and wealthier classes, but live for the most part each in a most 
diminutive house of his own, but still more because of the lowness of their 
caste, which cannot afford to indulge in the distinctions and prejudices 
in which the higher Hindoo so mightily delights. In the highest classes a 
man will often refuse, as I have been credibly informed by my own Munshi, 
on religious scruples, to eat food with his brother, should there have occurred 
anything approaching to " incompatibility of temper " between them. In 
Mr. Winter s position we, on entering the work, most heartily concurred, 
believing it to be in every way the highest and wisest line. But during the 
last two years this conviction, chiefly under the teaching of sad experience, 
has been considerably modifying itself in, I believe, the minds of all of us. 
For while we still maintain that in theory, and given sufficiently powerful 
material for the experiment, this plan is far the best, yet we have been 

>-Cy TlT?T TIT fMigsioii Field, 

/ 4 JJJiLHl. [ Mar. 2. J885. 

forced to recognise tliat while even a very weakly flame, a farthing dip if 
I may be allowed an expression which has been already used in this con 
nection may shed around it a light faint indeed, and yet amidst the sur 
rounding blackness of darkness by no means to be despised, on the other 
hand it rims especially if exposed to a raging storm a very considerable 
risk of being entirely quenched. And this is what it seemed to me was 
happening, and that our poor people, starting from but a very low tone of 
Christianity themselves, so far from being able to influence, were quite 
unable to resist the mass of heathenism in the midst of which they lived, 
and that till they were freed from this contact and brought by some means 
or other into a purer air, there was but little chance of their attaining any 
true manhood in Christ. This view was most fully borne out by the testi 
mony of those among themselves in whom any real strivings after a higher, 
truer life were beginning to make themselves felt : they always begged us to 
eparate them off from their neighbours, and give them a place to them 
selves, representing that till this was done they felt their utter impotence 
to make any head against the evil around them. Influenced, then, by these 
considerations, we determined, after much hesitation and deliberation, to 
try the experiment of a modified form of segregation, not taking them 
away from their trade or out of the city into a wholly distinct village, but 
settling a few of the more earnestly-disposed amongst them in a little 
square of houses apart by themselves, but at the same time in the midst of 
the dwellings of their old caste-fellows. Here they would be free to carry 
on their own trade under precisely the old conditions, and while they 
would be exempt from the actual intrusion into their midst of idolatry or 
any other abomination from which they honestly wished to escape, they 
would at the same time be so situated that their whole life and tone would 
be known, and if indeed it did rise to a higher standard, very speedily 
make itself felt on their neighbours. Several reasons seemed to point to 
Daryaganj, a district of the city, as the name imports, on the river bank, 
as a suitable spot for this which we felt to be a most weighty experiment, 
involving as it did in great measure the abandonment of a theory to which 
we have hitherto held tenaciously. Accordingly a little square containing 
eight houses was built, and these were let to any Christians who professed 
that they wished to strive after a nearer approximation to the life to which 
their baptismal vow had pledged them, and were ready, in token thereof, to 
accept the following simple conditions which were indeed involved in the 
very idea of the place, viz : 

(1) To observe Sunday as a day of rest. 

; (2) To use Christian rites exclusively at times of birth, marriage, and 

(3) To abstain from the use of charas. 1 

1 Charas, I should explain, is a drug, very similar in its properties and action to opium, 
much used, and almost always with a degrading effect, by many of the members of this caste, 
and, so far as I have been able to ascertain, in a rather special degree among the Chamars of 
Daryagan.j. It is used chiefly for smoking in the huqqa or large pipe. Considering that they 
themselves regard the use of it as a low and debasing custom, accompanied with almost certain 
moral degradation, we thought it especially desirable to resist its introduction even in the 
smallest quantities from the first. 


On these terms two or three men were forthcoming at once, one in 
especial who had already at a meeting of our little local congregation some 
time before subscribed to these rules preparatory to being elected chaudri, 
or head-man (a functionary answering somewhat to a very unmistakable 
churchwarden) of our district, and in the course of a month or two all the 
other houses were filled with men, differing a good deal, so far as I could 
judge, in the earnestness of their Christianity, but all, I hope and believe, 
urged by at least some stimulus of pure motive. For a time things went 
on happily enough, and we had every reason to congratulate ourselves, in a 
preliminary kind of way, on the success of our experiment, but it was not 
long before troubles began to crop up, and these really arose necessarily 
from the position in which these men now found themselves placed. On 
the one hand they had advanced so far as to commit themselves definitely 
in some respects, at least, to a Christian manner of life. On the other, 
they had not yet made that open and final severance from their old caste 
which would free them from its claims and secure them from the temptation 
of being invited to share in its festivals and rites. The natural outcome 
was a continual bickering between the different families as to what was and 
what was not consistent with their new and more distinctly Christian atti 
tude, each member being inclined to be very liberal in the concessions 
which he made to himself, and the favour with which he regarded the in 
vitations of his own old friends, but very much the reverse where his 
neighbour was concerned, and this quarrelling increased so much as to 
threaten the very life of the little community. I went to see them one 
day preparatory to leaving Delhi for a few days work in the district, and 
things looked so bad that I left them with a sad heart, thinking it only too 
likely that before I returned they would have completely broken up and 
gone off again to their old life. But by the grace of God it was not so, but 
rather this fighting, resulting legitimately, as one may almost say it did, 
from their equivocal and undecided position, proved the means of bringing 
them forward another step in the right direction of decision for Christ. 
The night after I left, as they were talking together, somebody, I know not 
who, recognising the true cause of their troubles, suggested that instead 
of falling back into their old position, and so, to put it on no higher ground, 
bringing on themselves the ridicule of all Christians and Chamars alike 
they should take another step forward and definitely break off connection 
with their old brotherhood. It was obviously the true and the only true 
solution of the difficulty, but to act upon it required a degree of deter 
mination and courage, of which there had been previously but little trace 
among them. For of course the step would involve the loss of whatever 
position they had hitherto held among their caste fellows. It is true that 
this was at all considerable only in the case of one man, the chaudri or 
head-man, to whom I have already referred, and who held a similar position 
amongst a small section of the Daryaganj Chamars. The honour had been 
purchased by his grandfather, as such honours mostly are among these 
people, at the expense of a feast involving an outlay of some six or seven 
hundred rupees, after which the dignity passes on from father to son, and 

h A T^TTTTTT [Mission Field. 

/ 4 UKLdHl. I Mar. 2, 1885. 

is regarded as a very real and very important part of the family property. 
To voluntarily relinquish this would, of course, cost any man an effort, but 
even in the case of the others, who held a merely subordinate position of 
full membership in the caste, it must have seemed a somewhat formidable 
proposal to convene a meeting of all the older and most respected members 
of their community, to whom they had always been accustomed to defer, 
and whose collective opinion was final in all internal disputes affecting 
members of the caste, and then standing up before them renounce publicly 
all further allegiance or connection. This is the way, and the only recog 
nised way, in which such severance can be effected. You will not, there 
fore, be surprised that the proposal to take this step met with but faint 
approval at the time, and was followed by several days of anxious and con 
flicting counsels. Rather I think one has reason to be thankfully surprised, 
and to trace the direct working of the Holy Spirit in the fact that the higher 
view did ultimately prevail, and our tenants settled to convoke such a 
meeting as that I have described, and then and there to terminate connection 
with their old caste, and break the bands which they felt were tying them 
down to the lower life. It was a curious, and, viewed in the result, a happy 
coincidence that during these very days not only was I absent from the district 
but the catechist also for special reasons was unable to be with them as 
much as usual. For, while it might naturally have been anticipated that 
this absence, at such a critical juncture, of the guidance and support upon 
which they are accustomed to rely, would have had a prejudicial influence 
on the decision ; on the other hand, when it proved otherwise, this very fact 
lent a spontaneity and reality to their conduct which would have been in 
part, at least, lacking had it seemed to be merely the result of our instigation 
and exhortation, while it also materially contributed to strengthen their 
own firmness of attitude and determination to go through with the course 
they had of their own free will resolved upon. I need not tell you how 
happy I was, how deeply thankful to Him from Whom all holy desires and 
all just counsels, as well as all good works proceed, when I found the turn 
which things had taken. It was determined to call the important meeting 
as soon as possible within a week of my return. Messengers were sent 
round the whole city and suburbs to convoke those whose attendance was 
required. The method of summoning such meetings, or " Panchayats," is 
well recognised, forming as they do the continual court of appeal in all 
classes and castes of the Hindoos throughout this country in all those 
matters which are decided by internal arbitration, and not by resort to the 
of course, superior, but, so to speak, foreign, and far less heartily obeyed 
authority of the English courts. They are attended not, I need scarcely 
say, by the whole male population, who, numbering, for instance, in the 
special caste of which I am speaking, some ten or twelve thousand would 
form a quite unmanageable body, but by the heads of the numerous little 
clans or boroughs into which, by a wholly natural and spontaneous principle 
of organisation, each of the larger castes has got broken up. In the case 
of the Chamars, even these heads are too numerous to be often brought 
together to one spot, and so they have formed themselves into three main 


divisions, called in Urdu Baw&ni, i.e. fifty-two villages or clans, indicating 
the original number of representatives in each, though in course of time 
these, too, have been largely modified. Each division constitutes an amply 
sufficient tribunal for any ordinary disputes which its members may bring 
before it, though in cases of very exceptional magnitude the three occasion 
ally coalesce and form one supreme court. In the present case it was only 
the particular Bawani to which our people belonged that was summoned, 
consisting of some 250 representatives. The time of meeting, the invariable 
and only possible time as we were assured, may strike you as ii, certainly 
did us, who were expected to attend, as remarkable, if not inconvenient 
being midnight though indeed high precedent maybe adduced in our own 
land for the conduct of deliberations at such an hour. It was significant 
that the convocation was strenuously opposed, by fair and unfair means 
alike, by some of the Christians of the district, who looked upon the pro 
posed step with anything but approval, since they saw well enough how 
closely they were themselves concerned in the principle involved, and how 
certainly, if it were accepted, it would mean for them also, sooner or later, 
the necessity of choosing between their two lives, Christian and Chamar, 
definitely abandoning the one and pursuing the other. And indeed this 
was a point of view which we had ourselves by no means overlooked, but 
which we had most anxiously considered before finally sanctioning the 
proposal of the Daryaganj men. For while the main body of the Chamars 
are perfectly ready to continue on terms of friendship and brotherhood 
with those of their number who have received baptism, so long as these are 
practically content to merge their Christianity in their Chamdrship, on 
the other hand we knew it was highly probable that any move, such as 
that now contemplated, in the direction of making a definitely fresh start 
and disowning allegiance to the old brotherhood as such, would most 
probably be responded to on the part of the latter by a general call to all, 
whether originally engaged in this movement or not, to declare themselves 
openly the one thing or the other, accompanied by the exclusion of all who 
stood firm to their Christianity from the piivileges of their caste. And, 
with the exception of these few men, who were proposing of their own 
free will to occupy this position, there were but few of whom we seemed, at 
present, to have ground for hope that they could sustain such a test, while 
there was of course always the hope that by letting things go on quietly 
in their accustomed course without hurrying on the moment of final 
decision, others might gradually advance to the point from which it would 
be easier for them to go on than draw back. On the other hand, we 
did not know that any such retaliatory move would be taken, and in 
any case we felt that in our present position of extreme weakness or 
half-heartedness any movement towards strength must be for good, how 
ever much it might seem at the moment to cost. It was in this con 
viction that we determined to go through with the proposed meeting. And 
certainly it was one, the memory of which will stay by many of us, I think, 
for long. We got down to the spot (I forget whether I have said that the 
Daryaganj Christian jBas^was the chosen place of convocation) just before 



fMission Field, 
L Mar. 2, 1885 

midnight, the Mission clergy being present in force, with the exception of 
Haig and Wright, who had but recently reached the country, and who, 
their acquaintance with the language being at the time confined to some 
valuable rudiments, which did not include the more delicate idioms of the 
common tongue, felt strongly the rival and surely, I may say, at such an 
hour, legitimate claims of the couch. There was no moon, and the little 
courtyard was lighted only by "glims" of the very feeblest nature, so it 
took us some time to ascertain the exact position of affairs. We then 
found that some 200 of the Chamars had already arrived and were sitting 
together, while the Christians these consisting chiefly of the families of 
the Basti, the catechists, readers, &c., of the Mission and a few other of 
the more earnestly disposed Christians from other districts were massed 


together a little apart. We found of course, and as all previous experience 
might have told us would be the case, that we were much too early, and 
that there were still various preliminaries to be got through before the 
business could begin in earnest. The first thing was to send and insist on 
the attendance of some few men, living chiefly, we were thankful to find, 
in the immediate neighbourhood, who had failed to present themselves, 
and we were amused and somewhat maliciously pleased to hear that these 
were, for the most part, those very Christians who had tried to frustrate 
the meeting altogether, but having failed in this had determined at any 
rate to keep clear of it themselves. Not a bit of it. Two or three brothers 
were despatched to the abode of each, and insisted, doubtless by most 
fraternal, but evidently by sufficiently cogent arguments, on the necessity 


of their attendance. They came in one by one sheepishly enough. Mean 
time we were getting the Christians better arranged together and trying to 
induce some of those who had taken their place among the Chamars to 
come out from among them and range themselves with those to whom by 
name they belonged. In some cases we were successful, in others not, and 
as might have been expected, the later conduct of each man was plainly 
foreshadowed in the response which they made to this preliminary invita 
tion. At last all were assembled, and we were hoping that we might 
proceed at once to business, as it was now past one a.m. ; but again we had 
a trial of patience, for it seemed that nothing in the way of formal deliber 
ation could be entered on till refreshments, consisting of some very simple 
kind of sherbet, had been served round to all assembled. Nothing is done 
in a hurry in this country, and the present proceeding was no exception to 
the rule. Suffice it, however, that by about 1.30, or perhaps a little later, 
the ball was really opened. The first move was on the part of our catechist, 
who gave a short resume of the events which had led to the present 
meeting, and thanked them for having all responded to the summons, and 
then called on our chaudri and the other men to do their part. This they 
did simply and well. Standing up they one after the other expressed their 
appreciation of the comfort which they had enjoyed, and the consideration 
they had met with in their old connection, but regretted that they had now 
reached a point in their new life as Christians which made it impossible 
for them to continue on the old terms of fellowship, and they therefore 
wished to say that for the future, while they were, and always would be, 
glad to reckon many individuals as personal friends, they would have 
nothing to do with the Chamar Brotherhood, as such ; they would not 
recognise its authority or attend its meetings. So far all went smoothly, 
and this declaration was even received with favour as an outspoken, frank 
confession which it well became them to make. But then a little point 
arose which showed that there was, to say the least, a strong undercurrent 
of opposition present, for our chaudri, on resigning the similar post of 
chaudri in his old caste (which, as I have previously said, he had held), 
was entitled by custom to nominate his successor strictly to nominate, 
the acceptance or rejection of his nomination being at the option of the 
meeting, and when in the exercise of this right he proceeded to nominate 
his nephew, who was not a Christian, the nomination was, after a very few 
moments of discussion, rejected with something very like contempt. 
Then there was a lull and we waited anxiously to see what turn things 
would take, for now that our part was done, and the object with which we 
had called the meeting was attained, it was just a question whether they 
would break up, leaving the step already taken to work its influence 
quietly and gradually, which was the course which we should, on the whole, 
have ourselves preferred, or whether they would proceed to the sifting of 
which I have spoken above. Before long it made itself very evident that 
the latter was their intention. It was very interesting to watch the way 
in which decisions were gradually matured among them and then found 
expression. The whole process was essentially natural, and I fancy that 

Tft TlT?T TIT PMtssien Field, 

/ O UH-LHI. [ Miir . 2> 1885 . 

on this occasion we enjoyed an insight into the real internal workings of 
the Panchayat system of the country, which does not fall to the lot of a 
great many Englishmen. As a rule, the presence of the latter, in the few 
cases where such presence is possible, gives an entirely forced and artificial 
character to the entire proceedings of the meeting, but here, under the 
influence of strong feelings, they plainly forgot us almost or altogether- 
sitting, as we were, quietly in the darkness and somewhat to one side and 
followed instinctively their wonted procedure. Silence would reign for a 
time, or silence only broken by the murmuring of low voices as all the 
heads clustered themselves together into little knots, usually round some 
one more or less prominent and central head, and discussed the matter in 
dispute, and as opinions took clearer shape the voices rose to louder utter 
ance, till the comparative silence was succeeded, first by a buzz, and then 
by something like a roar, as everybody, having found what he believed to 
be the true solution, hastened to convey it in no measured tones to his 
neighbour ; but then, out of the uproar, order once more evolved itself as 
some one of the more prominent personages, raising himself slightly on his 
hips or throwing himself forward on his knees (I need scarcely say that 
they were all squatting round on pieces of cloth and mats on the ground), 
addressed by name some other notable, and propounded his view of the 
right line of conduct to be pursued. It was very interesting, but I must 
not dwell on this now. As I said, we soon found that the general feeling 
of the meeting was strongly in favour of " sifting out the Christians," the 
process to be performed by setting a pot of Ganges water (which takes the 
place of our Bible in an oath) in the midst, and calling on all those who 
were supposed to be Christians to come forward and raise it to their fore 
heads in sign of worship, at the risk of being summarily ejected from the 
caste if they refused. One or two preliminary difficulties had first to be 
resolved. In the first place, it was a question who should call upon tin- 
Christians to stand forward, and as more than one member of considerable 
standing and personal or family influence among the Chamars was included 
in the number, it was a function from which most shrank. At first they 
tried to throw the odium of the active step on us by suggesting that we 
should now ascertain the real position of our converts by producing tin- 
register and reading out the names one by one, giving each the opportunity 
of declaring himself in the face of all a true man. It was cleverly put, 
but fully entering into, and sharing, their motive, we declined, merely 
pointing out that the meeting had been called in accordance with the 
expressed wish of certain prominent members of our congregation, that 
these had now said their say, and, while it was, of course, open to any other 
Christian to stand up and follow their example, and we should be only too 
rejoiced to see any do so, on the other hand we had no wish to subject 
our converts to any strain for which they were not prepared ; that in 
short, so far as we were concerned, the meeting was at an end, and any 
further step, if such was to be taken, must emanate from them. In the 
force of this they reluctantly acquiesced, and it was decided that each 
head-man of a district should call out one by one the names of those who 

M Mal7S dl ] THE GANGES WATER. 79 

lay within his jurisdiction. They next asked us to oblige them with a 
little Ganges water for the purpose of the test, to which we replied that 
the article being in no demand among us was unfortunately not to hand, 
and sorry as we were not to be able to oblige our quasi guests in any 
particular, yet in this one we must ask them to provide for themselves. 
And it was wonderful how rapidly such provision was made, considering 
that the Ganges lies at a distance of not less than forty miles as the crow 
flies. A boy lifting a pot disappeared, taking, by a curious coincidence, 
which I merely mention for what it is worth, the direction of the nearest 
well, and in an incredibly short space of time reappeared with the holy 
fluid. To a person sceptically disposed the incident might have presented 
difficulties. All we felt was that it was no concern of ours, and that so 
long as those for whose use it was intended were satisfied, we had no 
occasion to be anything else. And now all was ready, and after a few 
minutes of really very anxious suspense, for there was no question that a 
real crisis in the life of our little congregation had come, the calling out 
commenced. Designedly or otherwise, it happened that the first five names 
called were those of men of very weak character, low esteem, and poor 
position among both their old and their new caste-fellows, and it was with 
less surprise than sorrow that I (who knew them best) saw them one after 
the other step forward in obedience to the summons and raise the water to 
their heads. It was done rather amidst the jeers, half suppressed, than 
the real approval of the Chamars. On our part we made no sign, except 
that as each stepped forward I also advanced to the middle with a 
pencil and paper, and, as he lifted the water, wrote down the name as a 
formal recognition of his act. But this again was a process the reverse of 
speedy, and meantime there was a little bye-play going on near where we 
were sitting, of the deepest interest, and on the result of which turned the 
real success or failure, from our point of view, of this part of the meeting. 
Among the men who had taken their place from the first as Christians, 
there was a young fellow on whose line of conduct that of many others 
depended. He is a very well-to-do and active man, much respected by all, 
Christians and Chamars alike, a chaudri already in his own right, and with 
the prospect of a second chaudriship in reversion from his father. I knew 
him to be of high character, and also distinctly inclined towards Christianity ; 
but how far he would be prepared to stand firm on such an occasion as the 
present, at the possible loss of all his old caste privileges, which are .so 
highly valued, was, to say the least, a very open question. I say at the 
possible loss, for I ought to have said that when it was found how many, 
and how influential members of the meeting were involved in this matter, 
it was decided that the cutting them all off from caste-communion was too 
grave a step to be taken at once, and would have to be reserved for a united 
meeting of all the three sections of the Chamar brotherhood, to which I 
have alluded above. The present action was therefore confined to ascer 
taining who those were who, when it came to the point, valued their 
Christianity above their Chamarship, leaving the further question of the 
line to be pursued towards such for decision at a future and larger meeting ; 

80 DELHI. [ Missl " FiPld - 

Mar. 2, l!-8.3. 

but at the present there seemed every reason for thinking that such line 
would be hostile. Much, then, depended on him ; and while the case of 
the five men to whom I have already alluded was going forward fitfully and 
tediously, vigorous efforts were being made by his old associates to withdraw 
him from a position so compromising as that he at present occupied. I had 
myself sat down beside him for a few moments at an earlier stage of the 
proceeding, partly to try to encourage him to play the man, partly from an 
eager desire to know what his real intentions were ; and on the latter point 
I had been much reassured by his abrupt reply to a question by which I 
had sought to elicit this information : " What do you suppose I have sat 
down here for ? " But now we saw first an old friend come and engage him 
in earnest conversation, evidently urging him to go over to the rank of the 
Chamars ; and then, as he withdrew unsuccessful, his father himself got up 
and moved towards him. I could not resist the temptation of being present 
at the interview, and again slipped quietly into my previous place by his 
side. It was really a moment not to be soon forgotten. Both of them 
were men of strong wills, and showed it in their faces ; and, as the father 
stooped down and looked his son full in the face for a few moments, no 
word was exchanged. Then : " What are you doing here 1 " " In my 
place with the Christians." " Come with me at once." " I can t." " Take 
up the Ganges water." " Never." That was all ; and then, with a look of the 
deepest resentment, the father withdrew. To appreciate the effort this must 
have cost you should remember, in addition to what I have said above 
about his own personal position, how very strong the bonds of filial obedi 
ence in this country are, and how entirely, in return, the father looks to 
his son to keep up the fair name, and inherit the privileges of the house. 
Under these circumstances you will, I think, feel that it can have cost no 
slight effort to take the decided line this young fellow did, or rather that 
nothing short of the very real and present power of the Holy Spirit would 
have enabled him to quit himself so truly as a man. 

This was, as I have said, the turning-point of this latter part of the 
night s business. Even now they hesitated to call upon him openly, still 
hoping that if no final step was taken at once they would be able afterwards, 
by intimidation or persuasion, to win him over ; but against this policy of 
inaction those men who had already apostatised loudly and, in a sense, 
fairly clamoured, insisting that the others should be subjected to the same 
strain as that under which they had themselves given way. If, however, 
they hoped to see him follow their example they were mistaken, for when 
at last his name was called, he stood up, and very quietly and firmly said 
that while he had no wish to follow the lead of those who had proprio motu 
separated themselves from the Chamar Brotherhood, on the other hand he 
was before all else a Christian, and Christian he would be, whether this 
should bring upon him exclusion from the caste or not. You may imagine 
how happy and deeply thankful we were to hear such open, manly words. 
And behind him all the rest, who stood indeed in a position of semi-de 
pendence to him, being members of the clan, of which he was by his old 
right chaudri, stood firm. They were not indeed all called upon indi- 


vi dually, for the third or fourth man who was put on his feet, instead of 
pursuing the courteous and semi-regretful tone which the others had used, 
retaliated with such an attack on some of the abuses of the Chamar Brother 
hood, including especially some very pungent allusions to the laziness and 
covetousness of their head men, that they all begged him to be seated with 
all speed, assuring him that they had heard quite enough to prevent any 
possibility of mistake as to his meaning. He was in no hurry to comply with 
the request, and they, on the other hand, when he did so, resolved that 
it was needless to call on any others for an expression of opinion which 
had now declared itself, at least, sufficiently. And so at 7.30 A.M. the 
meeting broke up, and we adjourned, with all the Christians present, to 
our little chapel near by for a short service, to which the events of the 
preceding night lent, as you will readily believe, a very special solemnity 
and meaning. 

And now, just to sum up very shortly the position in which this night s 
work left us and our congregation. Five men had, under strong trial, it is 
true, but still openly and wilfully, denied their Lord ; occasion sufficient 
surely for deep sorrow and humility, and searchings of heart. On the other 
hand, eight families had definitely stood out and broken that bond which 
had weighted so heavily all their previous attempts at a Christian life, and 
stood forward, nominally at any rate, Christians, and Christians only. And 
besides these, there was another body, numbering some eight or nine heads 
of families, in more or less intermediate position, not at present breaking 
loose from their old caste, but on the other hand, pledged to do so rather 
than abandon their newer faith ; and in point of fact, the moral influence 
of the latter party, though their line of conduct has been distinctly less 
high, was, I believe, of considerably the greater weight amongst their 

And then as to later events. The very moderation of the Chamars in 
not pressing the question of immediate exclusion has prevented the results 
of the meeting being as clearly visible in the subsequent walk of those 
who declared themselves Christ s as it would otherwise have been. Nor 
may we disguise the operation of the natural law of reaction following, 
though I am thankful to say far from equalling, action, brought home to us 
as it is by the certain fact that the best of these men have not wholly clung 
fast to the position which they, for the time at least, genuinely occupied, 
but have let themselves be betrayed into actions inconsistent with a stronger 
faith. Yet, when all is said and done, I cannot believe but that a real 
point, a very real point, has b6en made, and that we have had, at any rate, 
unmistakable be they in the present individuals permanent or transient 
traces of the working of a Spirit not of this world, and the earnest of 
greater things to come. Wherefore we ask your prayers for them and us, 
and all who so sorely need them. 



E are labouring (writes the Bishop of Rupertsland 
on January 17th) under considerable financial 
troubles. Three years ago people came here from 
all parts, and land went up to fabulous prices. 
The bubble burst almost in a day. Very many of our people 
got into the excitement, and found themselves pledged for 
heavy pieces of land. Two years have passed, but things have 
not got to their natural course. We cannot sell our land, 
except at what we feel would be throwing it away. In a year 
or two things will probably right themselves ; but meanwhile 
we arc in danger of being utterly embarrassed. So it has been 
thought well that Archdeacon Pinkham, who wished to visit 
England, should try to raise what w r ould complete our endow 
ment, and so enable us to float till better times. 

" I inclose paper, which 1 am sending to some friends. 
"I hope the Archdeacon will have a pleasant visit to England 
for himself, and a profitable one for us. I know well the 
difficulties before him." 

The paper inclosed by the Bishop runs as follows : 

Archdeacon Pinkham, Financial Secretary of the diocese of 
Rupertsland, who has been in this country for over sixteen 
years, having until lately filled the office of Superintendent of 
the Protestant State Schools in this Province, a position which 
he resigned last year, to the great regret of the Government 
and people, being desirous of visiting England, has been in 
trusted with a mission of vital importance to the Church here. 

1. St. John s College, Winnipeg, is one of the colleges in 
the University of Manitoba, educating students in Arts and 
Theology, and having associated with it a grammar school 
called St. John s College School. 

It thus furnishes a full education to members of the Church 


of England and others availing themselves of its course of 
studies, and the attendance has been most gratifying, con 
sidering the small population and resources of the country. A 
considerable proportion of the clergy in this diocese, and several 
in the other dioceses of the Ecclesiastical Province of Ruperts- 
land, have been educated in it. 

There is also a Ladies School, which was undertaken mainly 
from the encouragement of the late Prebendary Wright, Hon. 
Secretary of the C.M.S., who aided the effort with the munificent 
sum of 2,000. 

St. John s College and its schools are at the present time 
under burdens imperatively forced on them by the growth of 
the country, the extension of education, and the advance of 
other institutions. And these burdens threaten serious em 
barrassment, owing to the inability of the Church here for the 
present to deal with them, from the financial pressure under 
which this country is lying a pressure due mainly to causes 
independent of the country. 

One of these causes is the reaction from a most unhealthy 
speculation in land here two or three years ago, leading to very 
excessive prices of land for a time, and, on the sudden fall of 
prices, to serious losses to many. A withdrawal of outside 
capital from investment in land followed, attended by a pres 
sure on a very large number of our residents who had purchased 
land, and by as undue a depreciation of land as there had been 
an over-valuation, from so much being forcibly thrown into the 
market in the absence of buyers. 

The other cause is the continued weakness of our great 
number of small settlements from the scattering of the in 
coming immigrants over such an extent of country through the 
extraordinary pushing forward of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

I do not know that I can better place before the public the 
position of the College and its Schools than by giving the 
following full extract from my address to the Diocesan Synod 
on October 29th last year : 

" Since last Synod, the new building of St. John s College has 
been erected. With the general structure we are well satisfied, 

G 2 


but the heating, draining, and plumbing have given us a good 
deal of trouble, and seem likely to cause both trouble and 
expense. We have felt severely the pressure of the times. 
There has always been, more or less, a burden of debt, from 
our growth, requiring from time to time additions to our 
buildings, for which we had no funds. This debt was reduced 
a few years ago, but the erection of a house for the deputy 
head master, and of additional rooms for matron and hospital, 
again raised it to about $17,000. Then the double brick-house 
for two masters cost $10,500. The erection of the new College, 
many additional expenses attending this, the interest on the 
debt, and an additional cost from occupying the new building 
in fuel, service, and the other expenses of a double establish 
ment, which we have reckoned at $4,000, have raised the debt 
to 55,000. We did not see our way clear, in face of the com 
mercial depression and difficulties of the past two years, to ask 
for further subscriptions, though many of the leading Church 
men of the diocese have not contributed, while about $12,000 
of the subscriptions promised have either not been paid or paid 
in land, which cannot be advantageously disposed of. The 
valuable field opposite the College, by the sale of which we had 
hoped to have removed our indebtedness, has, for the same 
reason, not been disposed of. The general endowment of the 
College has, since last Synod, risen from $7,250 to $15,000. 
The endowment for scholarships and special professorships 
amounts to $110,000, not including the dividends, as dean or 
canons, of the professors, who are members of the Chapter of 
St. John s Cathedral. As soon as the situation clearly showed 
itself at the end of the last academical year, and there was no 
immediate prospect of relief, the Council of the College took 
every possible measure for carrying the College through the 
present difficulty. A practicable reduction in the staff was made, 
the appointment of a mathematical and scientific master, much 
needed, was deferred, and residence in the new building aban 
doned for the present academical year. We hope in this way 
that very little addition will be made to the debt in the coming 
year, even if we should still fail to receive the promised sub 
scriptions. But the present arrangement can only be regarded 


as temporary. If we could erect a residence near the College 
for the deputy head master, and temporary class-rooms for the 
College School, probably the better way would be to have both 
the College and the College School in the new building. But 
we should then be crowded. In fact, it is clear that if pros 
perity shortly returns to the country, we shall require the 
College for the students, .and a new College School for the 
boys. We also urgently need a good mathematical scholar, 
able to teach higher mathematics, if required, and to take 
charge of the observatory, which we hope shortly to have 
established. For this observatory I received lately, through 
the kind gift of Mrs. and Miss Macallum, a set of very fine 
instruments. If we could raise 5,300, or about $26,500, the 
College would receive 1,700, or about $8,500 from the 
S.P.C.K. and S.P.G. This would raise our general endowment 
to 50,000, and would amply enable us to pay the interest on 
the debt, and secure the services of a .mathematical and 
scientific ; master. We could then wait for the removal of the 
debt. It would, indeed, be a great boon to the College, and, I 
may add, to the city, if this debt could be removed, without the 
sale of the field I have referred to, so that it might form per 
manently part of the College grounds grounds that I hope 
may one day, when funds will allow of the necessary expense, 
be not only a comfort and pride to the members of the College, 
but a pleasant resort to well-conducted citizens. The raising 
of the 5,300 to complete the College endowment should then, 
I think, be our first care. We had also difficulty with our 
Ladies School. There was a constantly increasing debt. The 
governors felt, therefore, that it had become, for the saving of 
the very valuable property, necessary to close the school until 
the country would be in a position to help them. But Mrs. 
Cowley, who had twice with such acceptance presided over the 
school, came to our relief, and is now conducting the school on 
her own responsibility. Still we have to pay the interest of 
the debt." 

It will, then, be the object of Archdeacon Pinkham (a) to 
raise 5 ; 300 so as to secure the grants ,of 1,700 from the 


Mission Fielfl, 
Mar. 2. 1885. 

Societies ; (b) to receive any aid towards the debt on the St. 
John s College Ladies School, which is 2,000, or towards the 
interest on it, which is 160. 

2. There is another object for which Archdeacon Pinkham 
will also gladly obtain assistance, and which is of great im 
portance at present to the diocese: 

The S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. each makes a grant of 500 to 
meet 1,500 raised towards our Clergy Endowment Fund from 
any sources. In other words, for every 1,000 that can be 
raised, 1,000 can be obtained from the two Societies. The 
S.P.G. will meet assistance lip to 2,500, and the S.P.C.K. up 
to 3,500. 

The grants from the S.P.C.K, both for the College Endow 
ment and the Clergy Endowment Fund, are limited to five years 
from the time of making the grant, and part of the time has 
already passed. This makes assistance still more necessary. 

The institutions in this diocese are very complete, and will do 
eminent service through our Church for this country, if they be 
carried through the present unexpected pressure. 

Your kind assistance iff asked towards the effort of Arch 
deacon Pinkham. R RUPERTSLAND. 

Subscriptions for any of these objects may be paid to Arch 
deacon Pinkham (address 19, Delahay Street, S.W.), either 
direct, or through the Clydesdale Bank, 30, Lombard Street, E.C., 
or to the Rev. C. Alfred Jones (Commissary for the Bishop of 
Rupertsland), 2, Little Dean s Yard, Westminster, S.W. 


To the Editor of the " MISSION FIELD." 

IR, Having received a letter from a son on the 
Australian station, whose ship was one of those 
recently engaged in hoisting our flag over a portion 
of New Guinea and adjacent islands, I send you 
some extracts from his accounts of the place and people, and 
of the work going on amongst them. 

Although not authorised so to use what was written privately, 
it does not seem to me there can be any objection to making 
the matter of Lieutenant Lowry s letter public, if you consider 
it of sufficient interest. It testifies very practically, I think, to 
the power and blessedness of Missionary work, and of Christian 
teaching and example. 

Let us hope, too, that it records about the closing chapters 
of the deplorable history of the slave-labour traffic in those 
southern seas and lands. 

Let me venture to add that, if it has not been given us of 
the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts to do the work here referred to, at least we can 
value and admire it in others, and taking fresh courage from 
the result do all that in us lies to press forward the cause, and 
in future to leave no island in those seas un supplied with her 
ministrations. What a testimony to the power of Christian 
living and teaching upon those who ten years ago were savage 
cannibals, was that of the Commodore just returned from New 
Guinea to Sydney, when he said, in presence of the Governor 
of New South Wales, that the work done for the natives of 
that island by Mr. and Mrs. Lawes and by Mr. Chalmers, was so 
noble in its beneficent influence that no words of his could 


exaggerate its praise! "An influence so great," added Com 
modore Erskine, " that he thought any crowned head might be 
proud to exercise it over any people ! " 


1st February, 1885. Lieut.- General. 

Nov. 22nd to 26th, 1884. 

After posting my last, we weighed from Port Moresby, where, 
however, I was fortunate enough to get on shore one afternoon 
when an examination was going on at the Mission school, and 
saw all the children. They seemed a most intelligent, bright 
set, and wonderfully well educated, especially in geography, 
which they quite enjoyed. On the 16th we anchored at Kere- 
punu, a very large village with 2,000 inhabitants, where we 
found all most friendly ; indeed, the south-eastern tribes which 
have been brought under Missionary influence seem to welcome 
men-of-war most warmly. I had a pleasant stroll through the 
village on Sunday P.M., but too late for the service held by the 
native teachers ; and as the latter could not speak English, I 
learnt but little of the Mission work that little was, however, 
exceptionally strong, a local English trader giving most striking 
testimony in its favour. We have been fortunate, too, in carry 
ing about with us Mr. Chalmers, the oldest Missionary in New 
Guinea a truly noble fellow of the Livingstone stamp. He 
knows every yard of these 500 miles of coast, roughing it in 
open boats, sleeping in any shelter, or in the open air, with only 
just the luggage he can carry, making long expeditions inland 
where no other white man s foot has ever trod, and trusting 
himself alone and unarmed amongst the wildest tribes, yet 
well-nigh worshipped by even cannibals. His is, indeed, a 
marvellous personal influence spread over such a vast extent of 
savagedom, and the wildest seem to brighten up at the sight of 
him. He is a stout, broad-built man, of about fifty, with hearty 
laugh and ready wit and good story for every one the delight 
of our mess and the hero of our lower deck, yet with a manly 


piety which carries great weight. Last Sunday he gave us a 
ten minutes sermon short, pithy, and to the point, full of 
quaint Scotch phrases, yet instinct with earnest pleading which 
touched alike officers and men. He sits with us yarning, 
smoking, and talking by the hour, with such a ready fund of 
anecdote, wit, and general information, that "all hands" vote 
him the best companion they have ever known, neither dress 
nor language showing aught but the rough explorer and well- 
read man of the world, till some remark brings forth a reply 
which shows what is the source of all his happiness and "the 
hope that is in him." 

The whole population of Kerepunu seemed to be in or about 
the water when we arrived, uttering shrill cries of wonder and 
delight at the size of the ship. We blew our steam syren, an 
instrument which makes a series of most unearthly noises of 
great power, intended for fog-signalling, and capable of won 
derful variations when skilfully played, .wailing and howling in 
a fashion no banshee could equal, and that can be heard for 
many miles. It was a sight to see those natives skeddadle out 
of the water, hiding behind houses and trees, and crying out 
as we were afterwards told that we had got the devil on 
board, and that he was trying to get after them, only we had 
tied him up ! 

Next day, when the Nelson came in, she flashed the electric 
light on them after dark, and this, they said, was the evil spirit s 
eye looking for them. They soon, however, recovered from the 
scare, and came off to us freely, bargaining keenly for anything 
we valued, and sticking to their price, yet trusting us implicitly 
if we took away anything to look at it. They never went back 
on a bargain, or failed to bring off anything ordered or paid for 
in advance ; so, on the whole, we were much struck with their 
honesty. When I landed I bought a quaint hair-comb from a 
native, and immediately every youngster ran off, and returned 
with combs of all sorts and sizes. It was the same with shells, 
plants, ferns, and flowers ; anything they thought we cared for 
was brought to us, and bargained for keenly. This is the only 
place in these seas where I have seen thoroughly savage tribes 
trading systematically one village taking yams, another fish, 


another birds of paradise, pigs, sago, cocoa-nuts, small orna 
ments, making trading voyages in their canoes for often a 
hundred miles, exchanging produce ; for money they have none ! 
The villages are built on raised piles, with platforms some five 
feet from the ground, the families each having a house to them 
selves, and the greatest affection being shown for the children, 
who nearly always seem to walk hand-in-hand with their parents, 
even the men carrying them in their arms when frightened. 

When the Nelson arrived "all hands" were landed, the flag 
hoisted, a Proclamation read and translated, cheers given, a 
salute and/m dejoie fired, and every one came off very hot and 
very sun-beaten. That P.M. I landed with my gun, bagging in 
an hour and a-half two duck and seven curlew a welcome 
addition to our mess fare. It was the cool of the evening and 
most pleasing walking, the excitement of four natives (who 
followed me) as each bird fell being most amusing. Their faith 
in the power of gun was most touching, for they often wanted 
me to fire at birds several hundred yards away, and in one case 
at a stork fully half a mile off! 

On leaving Kerepunu we were sent to Toulon Island to read 
the Proclamation, only staying a couple of hours, for which we 
were all sorry, as it is the prettiest part we have yet seen. All 
this eastern part of New Guinea is very beautiful, thickly 
wooded, with fine timber and splendid mountain ranges inland, 
from which many good streams run down to the sea, with very 
fertile land around the mouths all a great contrast to the 
scene about Port Moresby. From Toulon Island we went to 
South Cape, and had three very enjoyable days there, going 
through the flag ceremony again. About a dozen officers, with 
Mr. Chalmers, went up a mountain some six miles inland, and 
4,700 feet high. It was a stiff climb for this climate, but they 
managed it, slept on the top, planted a flag, and returned next 
day all very tired, but having thoroughly enjoyed the tramp, a 
crowd of natives carrying all the packages. Meanwhile I had 
some fair pigeon-shooting. 

From South Cape we were sent to return eighteen natives to 
their homes in Moresby Island. Their story is a sad, though 
all too frequent one, in the iniquitous labour trade. They had 


been enticed on board a labour vessel for, as they thought, three 
months, but really for three years or longer. After more than 
a year of bitter slavery on a sugar plantation they then ran 
away ; travelled one hundred miles to the coast ; stole two 
boats, and in these tiny crafts navigated 500 miles of open sea 
without chart or compass, feeding only on a few roots and cocoa- 
nuts, at last landing in Murray Island Mission station, on the 
New Guinea coast. 

The Queensland Government hearing their sad story, sent a 
schooner to take them on to their homes. We met her with 
them, and the Commodore, fearing trouble if such a weak craft 
went to a warlike and cannibal village with but a small number 
of the missing ones, sent them on with us to return home. The 
excitement of the poor fellows as we went east and the coast 
grew familiar to one another, was very touching. They spent 
the whole afternoon previous to arrival in combing and frizzling 
their huge mops of hair, painting their faces, and piling on 
anyhow any sort of European dress they could get hold -of, 
except boots. Some were in old marine s or sailor s clothes ; some 
in uniforms the seamen had ornamented for them with fantastic 
badges, good-conduct stripes galore and mighty proud they all 
were. Their collection of valuables given to them aboard the 
ships resembled poor children s collections of toys battered 
old dish-covers, pieces of wire, knife-blades, tin pots and boxes, 
any odd scraps of metal. 

When we anchored the captain took two of them in first, 
with fourteen men in the cutter, while I followed with a crew 
of five more in the galley, to assist if they proved hostile. 

They saw at once we came as friends, and when they recog 
nised their two comrades the excitement was unbounded. The 
whole population mustered on the beach to receive those whom 
they had so long mourned as dead, and the strangest scene now 
occurred. The chief stood in advance on the beach where they 
landed, and solemnly rubbed noses with the two men, who then 
sat down quietly apart from every one, the chief standing facing 
us, with hands clenched and lips compressed, the women mean 
while keeping up a sort of plaintive whimper. At last he ex 
claimed, " It s no use ! " and rushed to one of the returned men 


rubbed noses hard and clasped him by the neck, wailing loudly, 
but not shedding tears. This was the signal for the whole 
village to crowd round each in two groups or circles men, 
women, and children all trying to rub noses as hard as they 

This scene, which was repeated on a far larger scale when 
the other men landed, was, we were assured, indicative only of 
excitement and rejoicing. 

Three chiefs of neighbouring villages came off to the ships 
with us, and in their presence the captain read the Proclamation 
on the quarter-deck, explaining through Mr. Chalmers the 
meaning of the Act, and pointing out how they should act in 
case of future labour-trade outrages. 

They replied very nicely, somewhat in this fashion : " You 
have this day made many hearts in our district glad, by bringing 
back to us those we had long mourned as dead. We thank you 
and your chief. But there are yet many sad hearts among us, 
for twenty-two of our husbands, sons, and brothers, are yet 
prisoners far away. Will you do all you can to have them 
released ? " Alas ! with the escapees, scant knowledge of geo 
graphy and proper names, it is almost impossible to trace them. 

From Moresby Island we sailed to join the Commodore at 
Dimer Island, the Nelson then going to East Cape, and holding 
a similar function next morning, 

To-day we have repeated it at Testi Island. The flag has 
now been hoisted with much ceremony at nine different points 
along the coast of our Protectorate, each some fifty miles apart, 
the Proclamation being interpreted to the chiefs at several 
other places. In every case the chiefs of villages for twenty 
miles on either side of the central point were summoned to 
attend, -being brought sometimes in our own boats, or those of 
the Mission stations, or else in their own canoes ; so that all 
have been well informed of the change. 



[HE Bishop having lately returned from an episcopal 
visitation of some of the more distant parts of his 
diocese, and seeing the great need of increased 
Mission work in those regions stretching northward 
by the river Gatineau, has issued a pastoral to his clergy, 
asking them to call the attention of their congregations to the 
pressing wants of the dwellers in these lonely settlements ; and 
in order to awaken a wider interest for this portion of the 
great harvest field, the following little sketch of our Mission 
may give a clearer idea of the wants of that region to our 
English friends. When we see how ready the Church of Rome 
is to supply her people with spiritual ministrations, it ought to 
stir up the hearts of members of our Church to endeavour to 
show a like zeal in the care of souls. The places included in 
this Mission are River Desert and Maniwaki, at the junction 
of the Gatineau and Desert rivers, about ninety-five miles north 
of Ottawa, which is the nearest point for railway or steamer ; 
"Six Portages," twenty or twenty-five miles south on the 
Gatineau ; " Castor and Bascatong," twenty-two miles north of 
River Desert, and extending up the Gatineau forty miles, and, 
in another direction, north-west, twenty-two miles, and con 
taining depots of lumbering firms. The Mission is supposed 
to cover about ten townships. There is a very large number 
of Roman Catholics settled in these districts. Up to last July, 
when the Rev. H. Plaistead opened a Mission in this district, 
the only services (other than Roman Catholic) held at the Desert, 
were monthly services by a Presbyterian minister residing at 
Aylwin, forty miles south. During the summer a fortnightly 
service was held by a Presbyterian student ; at Six Portages, 
the same, with the addition of services by the Methodist 


minister from Aylwin. In Castor district, the Rev. W. P. 
Chambers, of Aylwin (Episcopalian), and the Presbyterian 
minister, have made, from time to time, Missionary journeys to 
the shanties. 

At the Desert is a Presbyterian church, but so inconveniently 
situated that it is seldom used. Services have been conducted 
in the little log school-house. At Six Portages there is a Union 
church, used now, however, only for Presbyterian services. In 
the Castor district there is neither church nor school. In all 
these districts there is a much larger Roman Catholic popu 
lation, well supplied with churches and priests, there being 
Roman Catholic Mission chapels at Six Portages, Castor, 
Priest s Mills, and at the Desert. There is a large and im 
posing stone church, with clergy house, three resident priests, 
convent (five teaching and visiting sisters). 

The work of the English Church in this distant part of the 
diocese of Montreal consists of the Mission begun by the Rev. 
H. Plaistead, who visited these three districts, and held ten 
services ; at one of which, held at the Desert, the Bishop was 
present, and preached in the school house, holding a Con 
firmation and administering the Holy Communion. Mr. 
Plaistead also held classes for teaching hymns and giving re 
ligious instruction, and paid fifty-eight house visits, altogether 
traversing 174 miles. He proposes in the future to hold 
weekly services alternately, morning and evening, at the 
Desert ; at Six Portages, fortnightly, alternating with Castor. 

A church and churchyard are (jreatly needed at the Desert ; 
now burials have to be in a ground twenty miles away, or else, 
as has been done, in any convenient spot in a field. A civilising 
influence is sadly needed ; the shanty men coming up to hire, 
and waiting about at the stopping-places, are exposed to great 
temptations to occupy their idle moments with whisky, and too 
often they succumb to these temptations, with most saddening 
consequences. If the Church is loyally, strongly, and at once 
planted in the midst of these settlements, it is hoped that with 
God s blessing on the work that we may look for good results, 
and that the Word of God may have froe course and be 

of % I 

AMOXG the Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Society 
will be found a Statement of the Income of the Society 
from all sources in 1884, with the corresponding figures for the 
previous year in parallel columns for purposes of comparison. 

The most important item is that of the Collections, Sub 
scriptions, and Donations to the General Fund. It is with 
much regret that we have to point to the serious decrease 
under this head of no less than 2,440 12s. Qd. We trust that 
the friends of the Society will lay the matter to heart, and that 
very strenuous efforts will be made during the current year to 
bring the amount under this head up to and beyond the level 
reached in 1883. 

WHILE we wisli to place this decrease most prominently 
before our readers, it is only right to mention two or 
three points in connection with the matter, in order to avoid 
causing discouragement, and that the case may be stated fairly. 

1. Large Donations are a most welcome though most fluctu 
ating source of income. In 1883 there were two Donations of 
1,000 each, and three of 500 each. These five Donations 
therefore amounted to 3,500. In 1884 there was only one 
Donation of 500, and none of any larger sum. Thus the 
decrease of 2,440 12s. Od. is more than accounted for by the 
3,000, the amount of the difference in the large Donations of 
the two years. 

2. The Society s Income under this head (Collections, Sub 
scriptions, and Donations for the General Fund) was in 1883 
the largest ever reached, as that for 1882 had been before it. 
The figures for five years are the following : 

1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 

71,027 75,120 78,832 79,894 77,443 


Thus the decrease is not from the receipts of an average 
year, but from the highest level yet attained. 

3. The whole of the Receipts are Income, and therefore the 
regret that the Society s General Fund has received less, may 
be somewhat tempered by the reflection that the amount 
given to the Society for its work is not diminished, when the 
Collections, Subscriptions, and Donations for the Special Funds 
are taken into account. 

The figures stand thus 

Collections, Subscriptions, and Donations (i.e., Receipts 
omitting Legacies, Dividends, Rents, &c.). 

1883. 1884. 

s. d. s . d. 

General Fund . . . 79,894 1 77,443 8 1 

Special Funds . . . 11,586 10 14,173 5 

Total 91,480 11 91,616 8 6 

4. We may simply mention that the gross receipts of the 
General Fund in 1884 are almost equal to those in 1883. This, 
however, is purely fortuitous, being due to an increase in 

WE have stated these facts, as it is only right and fair to 
state them, but we trust that whatever comfort our 
readers may derive from such considerations will not make 
them the less sensible of the plain, unwelcome fact that in 
comparing the year 1884 with the previous year there is a 
decrease of 2,440 12s. Od. in the amount of the Collections, 
Subscriptions, and Donations for the Society s General Fund. 

IT is urgently necessary that the receipts under this head 
should be not only restored to the level of 1883, but 
raised to at least 100,000 a year. 

THE Anniversary Sermon of the Society is to be preached 
in St. Paul s Cathedral by the Lord Bishop of Peter 
borough on June the 17th. The service, which will be a 
celebration of the Holy Communion, is to begin at 11 a.m. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury intends to be the Celebrant. 


THE Annual Public Meeting of the Society is to take place 
in St. James s Hall on Wednesday, June 3rd. His 
Grace the President is to take the chair. The list of speakers 
is not yet framed, but it is hoped that two of the Society s 
most eminent Indian Missionaries, the Rev. R. R. Winter of 
Delhi, and the Rev. J. C. Whitley of Chota Nagpore, will be 

THE See of Niagara vacant by the death of the Right Rev. 
T. B. Fuller has been filled by the election of the Rev. 
Charles Hamilton, Rector of St. Matthew s Church, Quebec. 

THE Rev. J. Bridger is to sail on April the 30th from 
Liverpool with a large party, including some little 
children, whom it is intended to place at a "home" to be 
opened at Sherbrook in May. 


Reports have been received from the Rev. Tara Chand, Y. K. Singh, and T. Williams of the 
Diocese of Lahore; P. A. Ellis, A. Gadney, C. Gilder, G. Ledgard, H. P. Lord, J. D. Lord, 
J. J. Priestley, and J. St. Diago of Bombay ; R. Belavendrum and W. R. Mesney of Singapore ; 
H. J. Foss, E. C. Hopper, and A. C. Shaw of Japan; B. C. Mortimer of Capetown ; S. W. Cox 
and A. J. Newton of Grahamstown; C. D. Tonkin and H. Waters of St. John s; J. Jackson 
and S. M. Samuelson of Zululand; D. Mzamo of Maritzburg ; D. G. Croghan and G. Mitchell 
of Bloemfontein ; H. Adams, C. Clulee, F. Dowling, A. Roberts, and C. P. Wood of Pretoria; 
E. O. MacMahon of Madagascar; W. B. Armstrong, A. J. Cresswell, C. P. Haningtou, S. J. 
Hanford, G. Schofield, H. M. Spike and J. H. Talbot of Fredericton ; W. J. Forsythe, J. Kemp, 
E. C. Parkin, and H. C. Stuart of Quebec ; R. Lonsdell and J. W. Pyke of Montreal ; H. Beer, 
A. W. H. Chowne, J. S. Cole, W. Cromptou, S. E. Knight, T. Lluyd, J. K. McMorine, A. 
Osborne, R. W. Plante and W. M. Tooke of Algoma; T. C. Coggs, T. Cook, H. J. Jephson and 
S. Mills of Bupertsland; T. W. Johnstone of Nova Scotia; G. H. Bishop, G. H. Chamberlain, 
E. Colley, J. Cunningham, J. Godden, J. C. Harvey, W. A. Haynes, H. C. Johnson, J. King- 
well, T. P. Quintin, H. H. Taylor, W. K. White and A. H. S. Winsorof Newfoundland; W. J. H. 
Banks and E. B. Kerr of Jamaica,, and C. G. Curtis, Missionary at Constantinople. 


THE Annual Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
February 20th, at 2 P.M., the Eev. Berdrnore Compton in the Chair. There 
were also present the Bishop of Antigua, the Bishop of Colchester, F. Calvert, 
Esq., Q.C., Sir C. P. Hobhouse, Bart., and Canon Cadman, Vice- Presidents, and 
about fifty other Members of the Society. 

1. Eead Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. Read a letter from the Eev. F. H. Fisher, thanking the Society on 
behalf of the family of the late Bishop of London for the Resolution on 
his lordship s decease, adopted at the last meeting. 



3. The Report of the Auditors was presented by C. J. Bunyon, Esq. 

4. The Eev. Prebendary Kempe presented the following Report of the 
Treasurers on the Society s Receipts for the past year : 

j. GENERAL FUND: s. d. 

Collections, Subscriptions, &c 77,443 8 1 

Legacies 9,250 1 9 

Dividends, Rents, &c 3,963 5 2 

90,656 15 

Collections, Subscriptions, &c. 14,173 5 
Dividends, Rents, &c. . . 5,210 1 

19,383 6 

Total Income 110,039 15 

The Treasurers have also received on account of Invested Funds, held 
by the Society as a Corporation for Specific Trusts during the year 1884, 
the sum of 1,496 18s. Sd. 

5. Resolved that the surviving Vice-Presidents, not being ex-officio Vice- 
Presidents, be re-elected, and that the following be elected to the office of 
Vice-Presidents : 

Archbishop Trench, Bishop Wordsworth (late of Lincoln), the Bishop of 
Qu Appelle, Bishop Hannington (Eastern Equatorial Africa), the Bishop of (New) 
Athabasca, Bishop Hale (late of Brisbane), J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., and Mr. 
Justice Pearson. 

6. Resolved that the Bishops of the Church in the United States of 
America, in connection with the Church of England, be elected Honorary 
Associates of the Society for the ensuing year. 

7. Resolved that the Rev. J. E. Kempe, Henry Barnett, Esq., and 
A. A. D. L. Strickland, Esq., be re-elected Treasurers ; that C. J. Bunyon, 
Esq., Egerton Hubbard, Esq., and R. M. Harvey, Esq., be elected Auditors; 
that the Rev. H. W. Tucker be re-elected Secretary ; and W. F. Kemp, 
Esq., and the Rev. E. P. Sketchley, Assistant- Secretaries for the ensuing 
year ; and also that J. W. Ogle, Esq., M.D., the Society s Honorary Con 
sulting Physician, be requested to continue his valuable services. 

8. The Standing Committee nominated the Rev. Canon Gregory, the 
Rev. Dr. Currey, and the Rev. Berdniore Compton, as the three Vice- 
Presidents, one of whom shall; take the Chair at the Monthly Meetings of 
the Society during the ensuing year, in the absence of the President or of 
a Bishop holding an English See, in accordance with Bye-Law 5. 

9. General Tremenheere, C.B., and the Hon. and Rev. E. C. Glyn were 
declared re-elected, and the Bishop-designate of Exeter, Archdeacon 
Gifford, the Rev. J. W. Ayre, H. C. Saunders, Esq., Q.C., C. M. Clode, 
Esq., and C. Churchill, Esq., were declared elected members of the Stand 
ing Committee. 

10. The election of the following Diocesan and Provincial Representatives 
was reported : 

Diocese of Bath and Wells The Rev. Preb. Salmon and H. D. Skrine, Esq. ; 
Chester Lord Egerton of Tatton, and Hon. and Rev. W. T. Kenyon ; Chichester 
Rev. Canon Crosse and Rev. J. Goring; Canterbury S. Wreford, Esq., and 


Rev. F. H. Murray ; Ely Rev. Canon Churton, and Rev. C. J. Betham ; 
Exeter Dean of Exeter and the Right Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart., M.P. ; 
Gloucester and Bristol Rev. Canon Mather and J. Walker, Esq. ; Ripon C. H. 
Sale (vice T. Collins, Esq., deceased) ; Rochester Archdeacon Burney and Rev. R. R. 
Bristow ; Peterboro" Archdeacon Pownall and S.G. Stopford Sackville, Esq. ; South 
well Rev. Canon Hole and Archdeacon Balston ; St. David s Very Rev. James 
Allen and Archdeacon De Win too ; Winchester Sir W. R. Farquhar, Bart., and 
Rev. J. Frewen Moor ; Province of Armagh B. T. Balfour, Esq., D.L., Very 
Rev. Dean Smyly, J. R. Garstin, Esq., and Very Rev. Dean Reeves; Province of 
Dublin T. Cooke Trench, Esq., R. U. P. Fitzgerald, Esq., Ven. Archdeacon 
H. J. Jellett of Cloyne, and Ven. Archdeacon Scott of Dublin. 

11. Kesolved that the cordial thanks of the Society be offered to the 
Treasurers, Auditors, and Honorary Physician for their services during the 
year, and that the congratulations of the Society be offered to the Rev. 
G. L. Towers on >his preferment to the benefice of St. Margaret at Cliffe, 

12. Resolved that the cordial thanks of the Society be given to the 
following Deputations for the valuable assistance which they have rendered 
to the Society during the past year, by preaching sermons or addressing 
meetings : 

Rev. T. Abraham, Bishop of Albany, Rev. C. T. Ackland, Bishop of Algoma, 
Rev. G. Allan ; Ven. J. Baly, Rev. C. R. Baskett, Rev. Walter Beck, Rev. C. J 
Betham, Rev. E. B. Bhose, Rev. G. Billing, Rev. Dr. C. W. E. Body, Bishop of 
Bombay, Rev. S. E. Bourne, Rev. J. Burn-Murdoch ; Bishop Caldwell, Arch 
bishop of Canterbury. Earl of Carnarvon, Rev. J. Cave Browae, Rev. J. Clark, 
Rev. W. F. Clay, M.D., Bishop of Colchester, Rev, Astley Cooper, Rev. W. H. 
Cooper. Rev. W. R. Croxton ; Rev. W. Stewart Darling, Rev. J. Dentou, Rev. 
J. D Ombrain; Rev. C. C. Elcum ; Rev. F. W. T. Elliott, Rev. J. Ellis, Ven. 
W. Emery, Rev. Canon W. Howell Evans; Rev. E. J. Fessenden, Rev. W. 
Floyd, Bishop of Fond du Lac, Rev. Dr. Forrest ; Rev. J. H. Geare, Rev. J. W. 
Gedge, Rev. W. E. Glascott, Rev. F. C. Green, Rev. Canon Gregory, Rev. F. B. 
Gribbell, Rev. J. Gribble, Rev. J. B. Gribble ; Rev. A. W. Hadley, Rev. Dr. 
C. R. Hales, Rev. Marmaduke Hare, Rev. F. Hopkins, Rev. S. Coode Hore ; 
Rev. Blomfield Jackson ; Rev. D. W. Kidd ; Bishop of Lahore, Rev. W. Leeming, 
Rev. S. G. Lines, General R. W. Lowry, C.B. ; Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D., 
Bishop of Madras, Bishop of Maritzburg.; -Rev. T. P. Massiah, Rev. J. F. 
Messenger, Bishop of Minnesota, Bishop Mitclnnson, Rev. S. Morley ; Bishop of 
Nassau, Earl Nelsou, Bishop of Ohio ; Rev. J. Padfield, Rev. E. B. Penfold, 
Rev. Canon C. F. C. Pigott ; Rev. G. C. Reynell, Rev. A. W. L. Rivett, Bishop of 
Rochester, Right Rev. Dr. N. S. Rulison (Assistant- Bishop, Central Pennsylvania) ; 
Bishop of Saskatchewan, Rev. A. L. Scott, Rev. J. B. Sharp, Rev. A. C. Shaw, 
Rev. R. D. Shepherd, Rev. A. Smith, Rev. B. Chernocke Smith, Rev. F. J. J. 
Smith, Rev. R. H. Starr, Rev. J. Still, Rev. G. H. Swinny ; Rev. J. Taylor, 
Rev. J. H. Taylor, Sir Richard Temple, G. C.S.I., Bishop Titcomb, Rev. L. 
Tuttiett ; Rev. Canon W. E. White, Rev. T. Williams, Rev. T. W. Windley, 
Rev. A. Wright, Rev. H. P. Wright, Rev. C. E. York. 

13. On the recommendation of the Board of Examiners and the 
Standing Committee, the Rev. Walter Witten was placed on the Society s 
list of Missionaries in the diocese of Nassau. 

14. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, a title for 
holy orders was granted to Shway Beh, of the Toungoo Mission. 

15. Authority was given to affix the Corporate Seal to a certain Legacy 


16. A Kevised Copy of the Society s Kegulations was, in accordance with 
Bye-Law 32 laid on the table. 

17. The Ven. W. C. Pinkham, Archdeacon of Manitoba, addressed the 


18. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in December were 
elected into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election 
in April : 

Samuel P. Lindsay, Esq., Lindhouse, Blackrock, Co. Cork ; Rev. Canon A. Hill, 
Fermoy, Ireland ; Rev. Henry Fawcett, St. Thomas s, Bethnal Green, E. ; 
"VV. Jackson Cummins, Esq., M.D., 15, South Mall, Cork ; Rev. J. W. Pendle- 
ton, Oakworth, Keighley, Yorks ; John Perceval Bulmer, Esq., 5, Pittville 
Lawn, Cheltenham ; Rev. F. "W. Hall, Owston, Oakham ; Rev. T. H. Archer- 
Houblon, Wantage ; Rev. S. Hobson, Uppington, Wellington, Salop ; Rev. H. I). 
Murphy, St. George s Rectory, Belfast ; Rev. G. C. Smythe, Carmoney Glebe, Bel 
fast ; Rev. T. P. Morgan, Inver Rectory, Larne, Ireland ; Rev. Herbert Thomas 
Maitland, St. Saviour s, Walthamstow ; Rev. Rd. Massey, Wereham, Brandon, 
Norfolk ; Rev. W. F. Garstin, Randalstown, Co. Antrim ; J. H. Clutton, Esq. 
9, Whitehall Place, S.W. ; Rev. R. G. Garnett, Delamere, Northwich ; 
Rev. P. C. Robin, St. Saviour s, Oxton, Birkenhead ; Rev. F. Smith, Kilteimell, 
Courtown Harbour, Co. Wexford ; Rev. F. C. Hares, Raheny, Co. Dublin ; Rev. 
Henry Hogan, All Saints Clergy House, Phibsborough, Dublin ; Rev. P. D. 
La Touche, Paynestown, Beauparc, Co. Meath ; Rev. Canon Lewin Weldon, St. 
Bartholomew s, Clyde Road, Dublin ; Rev. Gabriel Mollan, Straffan, Co. Dublin ; 
Rev. Canon Ralph Sadleir, D.D., Castleknock, Co. Dublin ; Rev. E. Burton, 
Rathmichael, Loughluistown, Co. Dublin ; Rev. E. C. L. Dickson, Killeedy, 
Charleville, Co. Cork ; Rev. North Brunshill, Ahascragh, Ballinasloe ; Rev. 
Canon Pooler, Newtownards, Co. Down ; Rev. Thomas Barns, Clergy School, 
Leeds ; Rev. F. R. Walker, 36, Groombridge Road, South Hackney ; Rev. F. 
Cooper, Lea Marston, Birmingham ; Rev. R. H. Edwards, Ratby, Banbury ; 
Rev. H. Wilkinson, Burton Dassett, Leamington ; Edward Ferraby, Esq., 19, 
Lee Park, S.E. ; Rev. H. G. Bird, Yiewsley, Uxbridge ; Lord Somers, Clifford s 
Mesne, Newent, Glos ; Sir Thomas Crawley-Boevy, Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newn- 
harn. ; Rev. Richard Crawley-Boevy, Flaxley, Newnham ; Rev. Canon Chris. J. 
Jones, Westbury-ori-Severn ; Rev. E. Sankey, Gorsley, Newent, Glos; Rev. Reg. 
Horton, Dymock, Gloucester ; Rev. H. Miles, Huntley, Gloucester ; Rev. F. C. 
Guise, Longliope, Gloucester ; Rev. T. J. Puckle, Wrenthorpe, Wakefield ; Rev. 
F. R. Grenside, Mirfield, Normanton ; Rev. G. A. Blair, Christchurch, Skipton, 



APRIL 1, 1885. 



Y report for the past year embraces a time of 
great disturbance in Madagascar which would 
most unfavourably affect the growth of religion 
in any country. We have met with many 
hindrances to our work which we have not 
before experienced, and the progress of Christianity generally 
has no doubt received a severe check. One notable feature has 
appeared which was latent before the dislike of the mass of 
the people to the presence of the white man among them. 
This betrays itself even in the capital, but it is much more marked 
in the country districts ; and we feel the necessity of being 
careful where we stop for rest in our country journeys, and can 
no longer feel the same absolute security which we felt before 
in moving from station to station. But notwithstanding this, 



Missioii Field, 
Apr. 1, 1885. 

our work has grown very considerably, and there are not wanting 
symptoms that the growth is healthy and real. 

But on the other hand, as the desire for religious teaching 
increases, we have had many districts applying to us for teachers 
who had been affiliated to distant centres, but had come to feel 
the necessity of a Church school of their own. From this 
cause alone we have formed twelve new centres in Imerina. 
There is also a new and very satisfactory desire among our own 
people that their houses of prayer should be decent and comely 
buildings. They are beginning to take a pride in their churches, 
and they no longer look to us, as they used to do, to provide 
everything for them, but undertake for themselves a large pro 
portion of the work ; so that we are able to enlarge our 
operations without increasing our expenditure. 

There has also been a distinct advance during the past year 
in the direction of self-support. We have established a society, 
which the Malagasy call a "Church Wife," in Imerina, the 
object of which is to provide endowments for the native Church, 
and relieve the pressure on the Mission funds. As you will 
receive from the Secretary of this society a report of its work, 
it is not necessary that I should do more than allude to it as a 
most healthy symptom in our Mission, for it must always be 
remembered that we were the last in the field of Madagascar, 
that we have almost no rich persons in our congregations, and 
that the influence of the State has been very much against us. 

I do not think the numbers of our respective congregations 
in the capital have increased, but this is accounted for by the 
fact that new congregations have been formed ; at the same 
time, I am glad to be able to record that our services have very 
much improved, and that our influence steadily advances. And 
this is chiefly due to two causes : (1) to the fact that we have in 
Mr. Hewlett a skilful and unwearied precentor, who spares no 
pains to render our worship as beautiful and devotional as pos 
sible ; (2) to the efficiency of our male schools. We have in our 
principal boys school at Christ Church a young Malagasy who 
is a very good master, and his school, as a district school, is 
second to none ; while our high school is the most promising 
feature of our Mission at the capital. Your committee will 

M lpri,i885 d ] NEW CENTRES. 103 

remember that almost from the first I appealed to them for a 
first-rate master for this school, and that which we failed to 
secure where we might have expected it, has come to us ID 
another way. We have found in Mr. McMahon a first-rate 
schoolmaster, as well as an unwearied worker, and our high 
school is now certainly one of the best in the country ; and your 
committee will readily see that the high school is the core of 
our work. It is to this that the best boys of our district schools 
are advanced, and it is from this that the college will be almost 
entirely filled. 

I regret to say that I cannot at present speak in the same 
high terms of our girls school, but the low state of their women 
is perhaps the most discouraging feature in the history of the 
Malagasy, and their improvement and elevation is one of our 
most difficult problems, and one which requires no ordinary 
patience and devotion to solve. I believe that a sisterhood and 
a boarding school would effect much, as indeed is proved by the 
work of the Norwegians and the "Mes Soeurs" of the 

We have commenced the formation of a new centre at 
Ramainandro, where a good stone church and a parsonage- 
house are in course of erection. This is designed as a loving 
memorial of one gone to her rest. The natives, with the 
Queen s sanction, have testified to their appreciation of this 
work by giving the land, and from this place we shall have a 
starting-point from which we may reach the heathen in the far 
west. The cost of all this will be defrayed from private sources, 
and I hope before another year is over to place a resident 
Missionary there. I consider this to be at once a legitimate 
and most important development of our work. 

I turn now to our coast work, beginning with the most 
southern point which we have as yet been able to reach, 
Mahanoro. Since the announcement of the grant for Mahanoro, 
I have laboured hard to occupy it effectively, and so soon as we 
were quite sure that Mr. Gregory was on his way to Madagascar, 
and would take up the college after the long vacation, I arranged 
that Mr. G. H. Smith should go down to Mahanoro and com 
mence the work ; but, in anticipation of this, Miss Lawrence 

I 2 



"Mission Field, 
. Apr. 1, 1885. 

volunteered to go down and commence school-work, and she 
left the capital for this purpose in June. 

Mahanoro has therefore begun its career under the happiest 
possible auspices, and promises to be a most successful station. 
The Queen has shown her appreciation of our effort by giving 
us a very fine piece of ground, of which we have inclosed 
fifteen acres ; but there is a clause in our agreement which 
stipulates that no house shall be built or land occupied between 
us and the sea, so that our land has practically no limit, since it 
is taken from the bush. Here, too, we have very little of the 
odium theologicum to encounter, and if I could only be sure of 
retaining two such workers as Mr. Smith and Miss Lawrence, 
I should have as full confidence in the future as I have in the 

There are several important towns at no great distance from 
Mahanoro, and at one there are as many as 300 children 
awaiting us. These are all Betsimisaraka, and we are, happily, 
able to send them two Betsimisaraka teachers, so that we shall 
have peculiar advantages in dealing with a people who fear and 
dislike the Hova, and will not, except under compulsion, accept 
teachers from them. 

Proceeding north from Mahanoro, at a distance of twenty 
miles we come to Maintinandry, where we have placed a man 
from our high school ; but it is not possible to say anything at 
present about the work there, which has only just begun. 

Vatomandry is an important town a few hours further north, 
but we shall be unable to touch it at present. We come next 
to this place, Andovoranto, at which I am now staying. Mr. 
Jones has been here three years, and his work is just beginning 
to tell. For the first year the people would hardly look at him ; 
all through the second year he held faithfully to his post at the 
imminent peril of his life, and by his conduct, which fully 
deserves the term heroic, saved our property, and earned for 
himself the highest character for devotion and courage. He 
has twelve stations under his care, two of which, however, have 
been closed for the present on account of the war. In these 
there is an aggregate of 220 scholars and 385 worshippers, with 
fifty-three communicants ; but it must be remembered that 


practically there are only returns from eight of these stations, 
since two have been closed, and two have only just been com 
menced. There have been thirty-six baptisms, and an equal 
number of confirmees, and four burials. 

I have great hope that Mr. Jones s devotion will triumph, as it 
deserves, over all difficulties ; but he suffers very much from the 
climate, nor is there any station in our Mission in which so many 
hardships and deprivations of various kinds have to be 

Of our work on the coast north of Andovoranto nothing can be 
said. Tamatave is closed to us, with its surrounding stations. 
Foule Point is in ruins. The same may be said of Mahambo, 
Fenoarivo, &c., &c. Vohimare is also in the same condition. 
I am now on my way to Tamatave, at the Consul s request, to 
confer with him on various matters connected with our Mission. 

In looking back over the ten years that have elapsed since 
our arrival in Madagascar, there are several points which it is 
interesting to notice. It is confessed on all sides that the 
voluntary system does not succeed in Madagascar ; that a mis_ 
take has been made in placing too much power in the hands 
of the natives before they were fit for such responsibility. They 
are a quick and clever race, with an exceedingly high opinion of 
their own powers. 

One native only has been advanced to the priesthood, and in 
him I have full confidence. I hope that as time goes on we 
may have candidates for the ministry from among our own 
students, but I am free to confess that my experience will make 
me very slow to ordain natives in the future. We have had 
two notable failures among our deacons, and indeed the sense 
of responsibility is as yet too imperfectly developed to make it 
safe to allow them to incur the sacred obligations of the 

This reminds me that I have made as yet no mention of one 
of the most important branches of our work I mean the 
Theological College at Ambatsharanana. This has for the last 
two years been under the care of Mr. Smith, in Mr. Gregory s 
absence. The work, as your committee will remember, was a 
a good deal unsettled by the outbreak of hostilities, which 


rendered it necessary for a time to suspend the work at Amba- 
toharanana. We have, however, been able to keep up our 
complement of students, and I can speak very highly of the 
men who have gone out this year ; and it is satisfactory to be 
able to say that we have no less than five former students at 
work on the coast, three in and around Andovoranto, and two 
at Mahanoro. Of course we must expect occasional failures 
among these men, but I am glad to be able to say that in by far 
the greater majority of cases they fully justify the expectations 
which had been formed of them. Mr. Gregory suffered so 
much from fever on his return to Madagascar that I was for 
some weeks very anxious about him. I am thankful, however, to 
be able to say that he is now quite convalescent, and showing 
his accustomed vigour in his work. We are all very much 
pleased at welcoming so promising an addition to our party as 
Mr. and Mrs. Cory. 

It only remains that I should lay before your committee an 
appeal which has been made to us by the Bezanozano. This is 
a tribe who occupy the upper part of the Mangoro Plain, two 
days east of the capital. It is a populous district, about 
100 x 25 miles in extent. The people are entirely heathen 
and though there is a Hova chapel at a town on the high road 
to Tamatave, no work can be said to have been done among 
them, nor will they accept teachers from the Hova. Their 
appeal to us is remarkable, and proves that there is something 
stirring among them ; but it will not be possible to touch 
them without the addition of a new man to our staff. Is it too 
much to hope that your committee will meet the work which is 
volunteered for Ramainando by an increase in our grant, which 
will enable us to answer the appeals of the Bezanozano ? 

I think next year will see the termination of the quarrel with 
France, and that it will end in the opening out of Madagascar 
to foreigners. Then will follow a great influx from all the 
nationalities, attracted as well by the richness of the soil as by 
the mineral wealth of Madaascar. 



jEFORE asking the continuance, and, if at all pos 
sible, a slight increase, of the generous aid hitherto 
given to the Missionary Diocese of Algoma during 
the coming year, suffer me to thank you out of 
the depths of a very grateful heart for the substantial sym 
pathy extended to us through the year just past, and to say 
that it has enabled me to accomplish much that must, without 
it, have been left undone for the building up of the Church 
and Kingdom of Christ in the remote and thinly-peopled 
region in which our lot is cast. Four new Missions, set off 
from districts too large to be served by one clergyman, have 
been occupied ; three young men ordained to the diaconate, 
a fourth added to our staff, after ordination by the Bishop 
of Oxford, at my request, specially for the diocese of Algoma. 
Several new churches have been completed, and a general 
advance made in Church life and interest along the whole line 
of our Missionary field. The whole number of clergy in the 
diocese (supposing all the organised Missions occupied) would 
be twenty-two, an increase of seven since my consecration in 
1882. Three Missionaries have left us during the year, two 
(now in England) in consequence of bad health, the third 
drawn back to the diocese of Niagara by its greater attractions. 
Of the twenty-two Missionaries, thirteen have been generously 
aided by your Society. A word on each. 

(1) Eev. C. K. McMorine (Port Arthur) is one of our ablest 
and most indefatigable Missionaries. He has rebuilt his church 
(burnt down four years ago), completed another at Oliver, an 
out-station fifteen miles distant, and is making arrangements 
for yet a third at Fort William, on the Kaministiquin River, 

108 ALGOMA. ["AStFS? 

five miles from the Port. Port Arthur itself has grown so 
rapidly since the advent of the Canadian Pacific Railway that, 
should the same progress continue, the Church here may be 
expected to be all but self-supporting before very long. But of 
this 1 cannot speak confidently just yet, as elsewhere experience 
teaches us that abnormally rapid expansion is the precursor, 
frequently, of unlooked-for collapse. 

(2) Rev. G-. B. Cooke (Sault Ste. Marie] did good service, 
while with us, in recovering Church interests and sympathies, 
which had been almost irrecoverably lost in one congregation 
by untoward events in its previous history ; and also in main 
taining a Missionary spirit by meetings held at various points 
outside his proper field in one case sixty miles from home ; 
but I regret to say that the diocese of Niagara has once more 
got possession of him. Since his departure, early last October, 
his duties have been most faithfully discharged by the Rev. 
E. F. Wilson, of the Shingwauk Home, as far as his multiplied 
engagements would admit, and at great personal inconvenience 
and discomfort ; and I am constrained to ask the permission of 
the Committee to pay Mr. Wilson out of their grant what 
would have been paid to Mr. Cooke, for whatever period of time 
I may find it necessary to ask him to discharge Mr. Cook s duties. 

(3) Rev. H. Beer (St. Joseph s Island) occupies a field twelve 
miles by twenty-two miles, and works it admirably. Not only 
has he a strong hold on the members of the Church of England, 
but he is winning converts rapidly from the other communions 
around him. He has planted his out-stations so judiciously that 
the entire population of the island can have access to his 

(4) Rev. W. M. Tooke (Gore Bay, Manitoulin Island] has 
eight stations under his charge, some of them so difficult of 
access, even in summer, that he cannot well visit them more 
than once or twice in the year. His journeys, both by land 
and water, are attended with no little labour at times with 
considerable danger ; but no consideration of personal risk or 
discomfort deters him from the discharge of his duty. 

(5) Rev. J. S. Cole (Manitowaning, Manitoulin Island). The 
field for which Mr. Cole holds himself responsible is far beyond 

M A P s r?j885 d> j THE NEEDS IN DETAIL. 109 

the limit of his powers. I travelled it with him last summer, 
in a vehicle unutterably uncomfortable, and our roads in 
describably bad. At Providence Bay, thirty miles from Mani- 
towaning, we found no less than thirteen church families 
wholly uncared for. At "Old Woman s Lake" six more in the 
same sad plight, and so on, at various points we touched. 
Manitoulin Island needs another clergyman sorely to minister to 
these poor sheep who have been so long left without a shepherd. 
But I cannot provide the whole stipend for such clergyman. But 
for the heavy pressure on the Society just now, I would ask for 
50 for this purpose, and pledge myself to find the balance of 
the 120 usually paid to a deacon working under the direction 
of a presbyter. But I scarcely dare hope for this partial 
solution of the problem. 

(6) Eev. W. Crompton (Aspdin) still continues his efficient 
work, though in a field smaller than hitherto, the additional 
grant so kindly given by the Committee towards the organisation 
of four new Missions having enabled me to contract his territory 
to a measure more proportioned to the strength of one man. 

(7) Eev. A. W. H. Chowne (Rosseau). This Mission has sus 
tained a heavy loss by the destruction, by fire, of its principal 
hotel at Rosseau, the favourite summer resort for hundreds of 
tourists, and their consequent dispersion to other places of 
resort. Despite this, however, and other difficulties and draw 
backs, Mr. Chowne is a faithful, persevering worker. 

(8) Rev. W. B. Magnan (Burkes Falls) was ordained Deacon 
last June. He has charge of seven stations, forming one of 
the new Missions already alluded to, and finds his energies 
taxed to the utmost. He is about to rebuild the church burnt 
down at Burke s Falls last year, and to erect another at an 

(9) Eev. Thomas Llwyd (Huntsville) has been in his present 
Mission only five months, but within that time he has organised 
it thoroughly, and developed a spirit of self-help which promises 
well for the future. Huntsville bids fair to be an important 
centre of Missionary work, being one of the leading stations 
on the new railway now being built through Muskoka, to meet 
the Canadian Pacific at Callander. 

1 1 it AT nrvTV/r v fMissiou Field, 

ALGOMA. L Apr. 1, 1885. 

(10) Rev. R. W. Plant (Port Sydney] is only in his diaconate, 
but he is giving every indication of being able to purchase a 
good degree before long. His work is characterised by zeal, 
common sense, and a spirit of thorough loyalty to the Church s 
standards and formularies, especially in the public catechetical 
instruction of the children of his Mission. 

(11) Rev. S. E. Knight (Port Carling) is "in labours abun 
dant," greatly exercised because he cannot compass five services 
every Sunday. Here zeal now and then outruns judgment. 
Port Carling derives no little importance from the number of 
visitors sojourning, during the summer, on the islands in the 
immediate neighbourhood. Just now Mr. Knight and his 
family are prostrated by a local epidemic. 

(12) Rev. A. Osborne (Gravenhursf) is a recent and valuable 
acquisition to the diocese, of more than ordinary ability, and of 
no little experience in the training of candidates for Holy 
Orders. I propose appointing him Examining Chaplain for the 
eastern portion of the diocese. He occupies the Mission 
formerly served by the Rev. Thomas Llwyd. 

(13) Rev. E. S. Stulbs (Bracebriclge) has been compelled by 
ill-health to return to England, after a year s residence in the 
diocese. His loss will be very severely felt. For singleness of 
eye, and deep spirituality, he was second to none of the clergy 
round him. Mrs. Stubbs, like her husband, was animated by 
an intensely Missionary spirit, and she also is sorely missed, 
even among the railway navvies, in whose religious welfare she 
took a deep interest. As I despair of Mr. Stubbs return to 
Algoma, I shall fill the vacancy in Bracebridge at the earliest 
possible date. It is too important a centre to be left un 

Such is a brief resume of the various fields of Missionary 
labour subsidised by your Society during the past year. In 
every one of them the Church s highest well-being has made 
progress ; but in no one of them, gladly as I would welcome it, 
do I see any immediate prospect or possibility of such an 
increase in the local contribution to the clergyman s stipend as 
would admit of any diminution in the Society s grant. The 
people are too poor. With a large majority of them life is one 

M lpri, fss? ] THE MISSION BOAT. Ill 

long struggle for existence money is very scarce. In too many 
cases the farms are heavily mortgaged. 

Nor can the difficulty be solved by a reduction of the 
stipends. Even as it is, it is difficult sometimes impossible 
for the Missionaries to keep out of debt. Under all these 
circumstances, therefore, I am compelled to ask the Committee 
to renew their grant of 650 to the Diocese of Algoma, and, if 
the request be not an unreasonable one, to increase it by 50 
specially for the Island of Manitoulin. I know that the 
demands on the Society s funds are heavy, but I also know 
that the withdrawal of its aid from any one of the Missions 
enumerated above, must inevitably be followed by the aban 
donment of such Mission, and the consignment of the 
Church s children within its bounds to one of two dooms 
either (1) practical apostasy, or (2) the tender mercies of 


The grant of 100 so kindly made for the support of the 
Evangeline during the current year will be an invaluable aid in 
the accomplishment of my summer travelling, which is almost 
entirely by water, from island to island and station to station 
along the lake shore, on the mainland. Owing to the lateness 
of the date at which my boat reached Sault Ste. Marie from 
England last year, it was impossible to do more than visit, as I 
did, all the organised stations within reach ; but this coming 
summer (D.V.) I shall hope to be able to explore the coasts of 
the Georgian Bay, and, if possible, make my way, by French 
River, to Lake Nepissing, in the neighbourhood of which new 
settlements are in course of formation, as the necessary result 
of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which, it 
is expected, will traverse the entire length of the diocese by 
next summer. From the experience of last summer, I find 
that the annual cost of five months work, for fuel, wages, &c., 
will be not less than 200. If the Society will kindly renew 
their grant of 100 for the coming year, I will endeavour to 
secure the remainder by private subscription. 




I Mission Field, 
I. Apr. 1, 1885. 

During my visit to England last winter I was fortunate 
enough to obtain funds sufficient to entitle us to the fulfilment 
of the Society s conditional grant of 1,000 towards the en 
dowment of the diocese. The sum of 5,000 will thus be 
available, as the nucleus of a fund the interest of which will 
provide the stipend of the Bishop, and, in so far, will relieve 
the other, and already overburdened dioceses of this Eccle 
siastical Province of a portion at least of the heavy outlay now 
incurred in the maintenance of Algoma. But we need 10,000 
more for this purpose. Of this sum absolutely nothing can be 
obtained from the diocese itself. Its financial condition is too 
straitened to permit of my indulging the faintest hope of 
assistance from this quarter. Older Canada can do very little. 
Its resources are very limited, and the drain on them un 
ceasing. Small contributions may come in, but I can expect 
nothing more. This being so, will the S.P.G. be willing to 
entertain a proposition to grant further assistance, in the form 
of a second grant of 1,000, on the same conditions as before? 
The audacity of such a request finds its only justification in the 
extreme gravity of the situation occupied by Algoma, as a 
purely Missionary, and dependent diocese. 

Again thanking the Committee very gratefully for the 
generous and ready co-operation extended to my poor diocese 
in the past, and praying that God may put it into the hearts of 
multitudes of the sons and daughters of the Church to "devise 
liberal things " in aid of its God-given and world-wide work, 
I remain, Brethren, 

Yours faithfully, 




July, after the ordination of Mr. Williams, lately 
out from St. Augustine s, he and I started together 
to the southern end of the diocese, where he 
has gone to work under Mr. Coakes, spending a 
Sunday at Idutywa, and making a circuit towards the sea, 
visiting some of what were the late Archdeacon Waters most 
distant out-stations in Galekaland, and confirming at Willow- 
vale. The next Sunday we remained at Butterworth, Mr. 
Williams present home. There were two or three candidates 
for confirmation there also, and we had the sad duty of assisting 
at the funeral of Mrs. Hook, wife of the Chief Magistrate, and 
of her little boy. Passing through St. Mary s Xilinxa, where 
Mr. Coakes had a very interesting teachers meeting, we spent 
a day or two with Mr. Waters at St. Alban s, and from thence 
passed on to St. Mark s, where we introduced Mr. Coakes to 
the people as their future pastor. Here Mrs. Waters is still 
living with her second daughter, Mrs. Mitchell, whose husband 
has been for some years in charge of the native boys boarding- 
school, and the European congregation in the neighbourhood. 

From St. Mark s we went up north-east to the new district 
of Cala ; in the neighbourhood there is a township in course of 
formation, and here, too, we came into contact with quite a 
new feature of the diocese the land is being occupied by 
Europeans. A considerable tract has been forfeited by the 
rebellious Tembus, Pondomise, and Basutos, stretching under 
the Drakensberg right up to Natal, with very few breaks, which 
has been surveyed and sold to European farmers. The land 


averages five shillings an acre, or rather less, which is high 
considering the distance from a market ; it is rather curious the 
ominous influx of white competitors for ground coming down 
towards the coast instead of advancing inland ; many are 
Dutch, but there is a fair sprinkling of English. Gala is a 
beautiful spot a fine basin of very fertile land, and well 
watered. There are three of the late Archdeacon s most 
promising colonies of Fingoes up there ; they are placed most 
judiciously by the Magistrate to act as a buffer between the 
colonial farmer and the raw heathen Tembus ; as the Christians 
are not only honest themselves but intercept thieves and stolen 
stock on their way into Kaffirland. 

Here we had a meeting, to find out if the people were 
willing to subscribe for the support of a clergyman ; but it 
appeared that it was rather premature, as the Government, we 
were told, was uncertain whether the township would be finally 
settled there. 

Leaving on Monday, that day and the next I rode (now by 
myself, as Mr. Coakes took his course homewards down the 
river Tsomo) among farmers. Travelling in a newly-settled 
European district is much more lonely than among natives, as 
the villages of the latter throng every hill, and their cultivated 
lands fringe every stream, little or big ; but a great flock of 
sheep and a distant homestead, with lands of wheat or an 
orchard, marks the white farmer s vicinity. I spent the night 
at the house of our old friend Dr. Craister, and a very pleasant 
one it was. He lives on the Slange (Snake) River, practising 
chiefly among the Dutch. Leaving his hospitable roof after 
breakfast on the Tuesday, by mid-day I had left the tributaries 
of the Bashee and had passed into the Inxu basin, which 
flows into the Tsitsa, having gone round the sources of the 
Umtata, and found myself in part of my old district, now called 
Maclear. Here there is the curious Junga nkala, or Gatberg, 
as it is called in Dutch the mountain with a hole through its 
summit, the hole being formed by the vast rocks at the summit 
rising and apparently supporting one another, with an opening 
between them, though they really do not touch one another. 
This country is being rapidly filled with farmers ; the phases I 

Mission K.eiU, I 

Apr. 1, 1885. 



have seen the country pass through are remarkable. In 1865 
it was a wilderness, pathless ; herds of elands, hartebeeste, and 
gnus ran wild at their pleasure ; you could ride 150 miles 
without seeing a human habitation, or even a trace of man s 
handiwork. Mr. Gordon Dodd and myself travelled through 
the country in the year I have alluded to on our way to found 
St. Augustine s. Then in 1867 there came the first settlers; 
the ground had been totally the property of the Pondomise 
tribe, among whom Mr. Dodd and I worked for many years, 


but it was too cold being 3, 000 feet above the sea for their 
delicate constitutions, and their staple article of food, millet ; 
and it was generally used as summer grazing ground and 
hunting-grounds. The first to break the sod and foul the 
perfectly clear waters were some coloured half-caste farmers 
from the west, who originally intended to join Adam Kok, but 
stopped short here, and who asked our chief to allow them to 
settle, and to protect them. 

I remember warning Umditshwa to respect these people ; he 
had a great wish always to come under Government, and I told 


him that these were Government people, and here was an 
opportunity of showing his sincerity by treating them well. 
He took my advice, for his people never plundered them. And 
now these have passed away ; they were buried in the war of 
1880-81. All their flocks and! herds were swept off, and a new 
wave is passing over; white men with their better modes of 
farming, have bought the farms, and all is changed. 

However, as far as the Church is concerned, the change is 
for the better, for the farmers, under the guidance of Mr. 
Gibson, now in charge of St. Augustine s, have asked for a 
clergyman, and have raised about 150 a year for his salary. 
Who will offer for this work ? The climate is splendid ; it is 
cold in winter snow on the mountains, more or less, all the 
winter months. The welcome an earnest, active worker would 
find among these people would be most hearty ; he should be 
active, single, and a priest. He would be able to be useful 
from the very first, as English is the language spoken by all the 
members of our Church. Food and raiment, and plenty of 
work would be his remuneration. 

From there I passed down to Mr. Gibson s, down a valley I 
used to know so well, and found him very well and very glad to 
see me ; he lives about 1,000 feet below Maclear, and has a 
very wide native work, and should be relieved of the European 
work, if possible. And the next day home. 

After a rest of six weeks I was again in the saddle, and on 
my way to Kokstad, intending to pay a long-promised visit to 
Bishop Callaway. At Kokstad one chief object was to get 
some of Mr. Adkin s salary guaranteed by the people ; there 
I passed two very pleasant Sundays, and we have, I think, 
accomplished what we wished in the form of a guarantee. 
They already raise 60 a year house-rent for their clergyman, 
and have promised 100 towards his salary ; Kokstad is on a 
part of the same plateau as Maclear, and the climate is much 
the same. 

Two easy days ride brought me to Clydesdale, where the 
Bishop is staying until his new house at Bishopsdene is finished, 
I spent a very pleasant week there. Clydesdale is a very 
beautiful and thriving place, and every time I visit it I mark 





progress ; but here, as at St. Mark s and at all Mission centres, 
the real work is going on outside, in the little colonies of 
Christian people living with their catechist, or native deacon, 
occasionally visited by the priest in charge, who gives them 
the Sacraments, settles their disputes, and gives them advice in 
spiritual and temporal matters too. 

An out-station which I visited in company with Archdeacon 
Button pleased me very much; it is admirably chosen for 
agriculture, which is the great stand-by with these people. 
The land has been bought, and the people are either renting it 
or all buying allotments, I am not sure which, but in either 
case it settles them, and prevents that roving disposition which 
is rather the bane of the native. I met here one of the 
ubiquitous colonial Fingoes, a man whom I knew well as one of 
the late Archdeacon s people a hard-working man, with an 
excellent wife, whose hospitality I remember sharing years ago 
in company with Archdeacon Waters. He is, as you may 
suppose, rather a rolling stone ; but he says he is going to lay 
his bones here at Bisdale, as the place is called. 

We passed on across a corner of Natal, and slept at the 
village of Harding ; the next morning the Archdeacon left me, 
and I crossed into Pondoland alone, crossing by the same ford 
at which, ten years before, Archdeacon Waters, Mr. Gordon 
and myself had been detained for ten days by the flooded rivers, 
on our way to meet Bishop Callaway at Clydesdale. 

There was nothing remarkable in my ride through Pondoland ; 
all the people I met were very civil and obliging, and quite 
belied the character they receive, as rude and hostile to the 
white man ; but no people are more amenable than the Kaffirs 
to a kind word. I am wrong in saying there was nothing 
remarkable, for the rain was incessant ; it is ninety or a hundred 
miles to St. Andrew s, and it rained the whole way. My visit 
there was very interesting, as our readers will remember from 
Mr. Tonkin s letter in the last Quarterly Paper, that the Pondos 
have become of late deeply interested in education, and the 
chief, whom I visited, is really sending his boys to school, and, 
what is more, seems willing to pay for them. He has given 
Mr. Tonkin 40 a year, and he proposes to starve on this along 
with his boarders, for I can literally promise him nothing. 


I visited the chief, and found him ailing ; we had a talk with 
him and he brightened up a little, for he was not very bad. I 
did not see Umhlangazi, who is the leading man in Pondoland, 
and I am sorry. The position of matters is somewhat com 
plicated in Pondoland ; they have two grievances which they 
cannot get over one is the annexation of the Port of St. John, 
the other is our accepting Jojo and his tribe, who are their rebel 
subjects. It would be far better if they would accept their 
position, and spend their energies on the consolidation of then- 
own internal affairs, for good government is much required in 
Pondoland. The chiefs are aware of this, but it will require a 
man with a strong hand to effect a real change, and one who 
has some confidence in himself. For my own part I wish such 
an one would appear, for my experience of our own experiments 
in native government is not encouraging. 

But in spite of the anarchy and the low moral state of 
society which marks the Pondos, perhaps more than any tribe, 
[ believe that they are wishing for better things, that there is 
a stretching forward towards law and order if it could be 
attained. I judge from what I saw; but it seems to be a law 
that every step upward has to be made in bloodshed, and I 
fear there will be no exception here, and I repeat, I would 
rather our breech-loaders had no say in the matter. At the 
same time, if we had the means to strengthen the work there 
I believe now is the time. It sounds, perhaps, paradoxical to 
say so when the country is threatened with war, and I fear an 
intestine war is inevitable, but we ought to begin the lives 
of Missionaries have always been respected. I would risk no 
expensive buildings, but I should like to see a band of men 
living among them, winning their confidence, gaining a soul 
here and there, and waiting until the harvest is ripe. There 
are thousands who have never heard. Shall we stand looking 
on until it is too late ? 

I passed on to St. John s in company with Mr. Tonkin, and 
we had a celebration there. Mr. Stewart is of course much 
depressed, as he is one of those whose income has failed. Mrs. 
Oxland, so well known by all friends of our Mission, had already 
left for Durban, but I stayed at the house with her husband. 

K 2 


Apr. 1, 1885. 

Two days riding brought me home to Umtata after exactly a 
month s absence. 

In a few weeks I was summoned to be present at the 
benediction of two churches, the one at Umtentu, some twenty- 
eight miles distant, the other at Butterworth. The first is a 
small building, chiefly for the use of Europeans in the neigh 
bourhood, but not exclusively ; it is near the village of the 
paramount chief of the Tembus, Ngangelizwe, and he with a 
few of his people attended. 

Mr. Godwin, of St. James s Church, Umtata, went out with 
the main part of his choir, and the services were very hearty 
and devotional. There was an early celebration, and again a 
choral celebration at 11, prefaced by the Benediction Service. 

Mr. Godwin and I went on, the others returning, and we 
reached Butterworth the following day. The church there is 
small, but architecturally the best in the diocese. It was 
crowded on the day of the opening white people and natives 
in perhaps equal numbers. After the service we had a meeting 
outside the church, Captain Blyth taking the chair ; he has 
lately returned to his old district of the Transkei as chief 
magistrate. The old Fingo headman followed his lead and 
gave most liberally, and the collections after a couple of hours 
talk came to over 100. The opening was on a Saturday 
(November 15th) ; the Sunday services were equally well 
attended, and the whole was a decided success. The cost of 
the church is about 600 ; it is of hewn stone, and has a very 
nice roof ; the chancel is left, the arch is there, but is built up 
with rubble work. The east end is to be filled in with stained 
glass in memory of Archdeacon Waters. 

Our ride home of eighty miles was devoid of general interest. 
Some time before Mr. Gibson, of St. Augustine s, had arranged 
a week s work for me in his district. There was a confirmation 
at St. Cuthbert s, the name of his new church at Ncolosi, at 
the opening of which I was present, after my return from St. 
Mark s in September ; another at Gqaqala, another at Bokot- 
wana, afterwards postponed, a church meeting at Maclear, and 
last, but not least, was a long-standing sore feeling between 
the headman at Kambi and the Christians. 

Apr. 1, 1885. J 


The quarrel which the headman had repeatedly asked me to 
adjudicate has one remarkable feature, viz., the headman had 
built a chapel, and the priest in charge of the district refused 
to accept it. Of course there were reasons for this, but I will 
not attempt to go into particulars as the proceedings extended 
over two days, the sittings being five hours long. The result 
was that the clergy were pronounced quite innocent of any 
undue landgrabbing, of which they were accused ; the headman 
was told that it was quite within the parish priest s scope to 
refuse or accept a church, and he was advised to go up to Mr. 
Gibson again, taking the church with him, metaphorically, as 
a peace-offering. These Kaffir talks are the most trying part 
of Mission work ; the Kaffirs are nearly all born lawyers, and 
stick to their point through thick and thin. 

The other work was of a pleasanter nature. After the con 
firmation at St. Cuthbert s at 7 A.M. in the new church, we 
started to ride to Gqaqala ; the path led us up the Inxu valley, 
a wild rocky ravine under high mountains, which brought back 
many memories. It took us about four hours to get to Samuel s ; 
he is of the royal house of the Zizi tribe, and he and his people 
have come over to the Church from Wesleyanism, and now 
some of them had to be confirmed ; his kraal was in a neigh 
bourhood which I knew before. Once, in 1865, Mr. Dodd and I 
were travelling with Mr. Gordon, late of All Saints, in a 
waggon on our first journey to Pondomiseland, and we spent a 
Sunday by a small hill close to Samuel s present place, having 
most effectually lost our way. The country was then quite un 
inhabited ; it is just on the border of Maclear, which I have 
described above. The visit was very interesting. The people 
are new-comers they have arrived since I left St. Augustine s. 
I had a long talk that afternoon with Samuel in his hut, while 
Mr. Gibson was having a confirmation class. The confirmation 
was held outside the large hut used for Church services. There 
were seventeen candidates. Samuel is one of the best headmen 
in the Tsolo District, and work on his location is very en 



N" the morning of July 4th, 1884, passing through 
the midst of the bustle and baggage of a host of 
summer pleasure-seekers, we stepped on board the 
eastward-bound train at South Quebec, and soon 
found ourselves speeding away from the ancient capital en route 
for the distant land of Gaspe. 

Of the pleasure of that day s journey, as we swept on hour 
after hour through the country of the hcibitans, past innumer 
able villages and towns all of the same general type, with 
their clusters of whitewashed cottages nestling under the shadow 
of imposing churches and with the ever-widening waters of 
the magnificent St. Lawrence constantly in sight, it is not my 
purpose now to write. 

Suffice it to say that as evening approached we found our 
selves in the vicinity of Metis, where the railway turns abruptly 
southward away from the St. Lawrence coast. Plunging at 
once into the veritable wilderness, we lost daylight amid the 
wild rocks of Rimouski, and skirting in the darkness the limpid 
waters of the Metapedia, arrived at 10 P.M. at the town of 
Campbellton, on the Ristigouche River, the head of navigation 
for the great Baie des Chaleurs. 

Here we lost no time in exchanging our seats in the train for 
comfortable berths in the steamer Admiral, which was lying 
close by, preparing for an early start in the morning. 

We were now rather more than 300 miles from Quebec, and 
within 100 miles of our first Mission upon the Gaspe coast. 

Stretching far away eastward into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
between the River St. Lawrence on the north and the Baie des 

,85 dl ] THE END OF THE EARTH. 123 

Chaleurs on the south, lies the great peninsula of Gaspe, the 
extreme easterly point of the Province of Quebec south of the 
St. Lawrence. Its vast interior, the home of Cariboo and the 
land of Salmon, is yet, comparatively speaking, unexplored, and 
bids fair to be long unsettled. 

Its name Gaspt, which is of Indian origin, belongs properly to 
the extreme eastern point, and means "land s end" or "the end 
of the earth" 

The causes which have retarded the progress of Gaspe are 
various. But doubtless the chief cause is to be found in the 
nature and position of the region itself. Not by any means 
wholly barren, yet just wild and unproductive enough to be 
untempting to the settler who has heard of the almost fabu 
lous fertility of the West, it has remained the delight of 
the adventurous hunter and fisher, but a land largely shunned 
by those who aim at making for themselves a home by diligence 
and thrift. 

And yet the day must surely come when the vast tracts of 
fertile land at present covered with primeval forests and the 
facilities for commerce to say nothing of the value of the 
fisheries and the picturesque beauty of the country will receive 
the recognition they deserve, and make Gaspe a region no longer 
far off and forgotten, but a centre of busy life and prosperity. 

Several hundreds of miles intervene between the City of 
Quebec and the Gaspe district where our Missions lie. This 
interval is made up of a long stretch of purely French country 
and a weary waste of wilderness. In the whole of this long 
distance only one Mission of our Church that of Riviere du 
Loup is found. 

But, far removed and completely separated as it is from 
Quebec, Gaspe (I suppose because it is in a part of the Province 
of Quebec) is also a part of the diocese of Quebec. 

We are reminded of a tree whose roots after passing some 
distance underground send forth new shoots at a point remote 
from the parent stem. So the Church of this diocese, having 
its root in Quebec, yet reaches out by invisible feeders to 
nourish and develop the remote Missions of the Gulf. 

And yet, as I think of my revered companion in travel and 

124 GASPlL ratS?- 

recall the welcome he received, and the helpful words he spoke 
in that distant^corner of his extensive charge, I am reminded 
that our somewhat straggling diocese is bound together not 
merely by these [invisible and spiritual ties, but also by ties 
at once visible and personal. 

Here we are, then, at 5 o clock in the morning for some of 
us rose early to see the sights steaming down between the 
mountainous and densely-wooded banks of the Ristigouche 
towards the open Baie des Chaleurs. And on we sped all the 
morning, along the northern shore of the bay, admiring the 
varied beauty of the coast, and hearing from those who were 
wise, accounts of the condition and prospects of the different 
settlements we passed, and recollections of wonderful fishing 
exploits, notably of the killing of mighty salmon. 

But we were bent on other fishing ; so on we went till 100 
miles had been accomplished, and we dropped anchor in the 
harbour of the fishing town of Paspebiac. Paspebiac, strangely 
corrupted by the fishermen of the coast into Paspq/ac&, is the 
first Mission of our Church upon the coast. Here, therefore, 
we were to disembark. And in honour of his lordship s arrival 
every vessel in the little harbour was gay with bunting ; and the 
cannon of the Jersey Fishing Establishment stood ready to 
thunder out its roar of welcome, as we stepped into the well- 
manned boat, provided by the obliging "Agent," to convey us 
to the shore. All this despite the rain, which had begun to fall 
in torrents, and through which we at once drove to the parson 
age a mile and a-half away. 

Paspebiac, which with New Carlisle, three miles to the west, 
forms numerically the largest Mission on the coast, is self- 
supporting ; and is, therefore, according to our rule, a rectory. 
Here on the day after our arrival, which was Sunday, the Bishop 
held his first confirmation. The service was bright and hearty. 
The congregation numbered about 200, and thirty-five candi 
dates for confirmation were presented. The Bishop, according 
to the usual practice, gave two addresses. 

Paspebiac! "Land of JRest" we were told it meant, since 
here the Indians, in days gone by, were wont to rest on their 
long and weary way to Gaspe Point, Land s End. 

"JS lSff ] LAND OF REST. 125 

And a true place of rest it was to us, seeing as we did this 
Sunday the strength of the Church and the devotion of the 
people, and enjoying the peculiar peace of worship in God s 
own House with our brethren. 

One cheering note, all along the coast, is the absence of 
Protestant Sectarianism. Whatever their faults may be, our 
brethren of the Gaspe Missions do not go different ways on 
Sunday to worship God. They are content to remain in the 
old paths, and are therefore, in numbers at least, strong, while 
many, with far greater advantages are sadly weak through their 
unhappy divisions. 

In the evening of this first Sunday we had a second service 
in New Carlisle. It was quite as hearty and more largely 
attended than the morning service ; fifty-six candidates for 
confirmation were presented, making a total of ninety-one for 
the whole parish. Here we were joined by the Rev. Canon 
Du Vernet, of the Diocese of Montreal, who was seeking rest 
and change. 

The work of the Missionary, the Rev. Thomas Blaylock, has 
borne abundant fruit. But his arduous labours, coupled with 
serious family affliction, have told upon his strength. May 
God s blessing soon completely restore him. 

From Paspebiac to the next Mission of Shigawake is a 
distance of only twelve miles. We did the distance easily on 
the Monday morning, arriving in ample time for service. And 
most enjoyable was that morning drive, despite the lowery 
weather. To the right of us lay the wide waters of the Baie 
des Chaleurs, now laughing in a fitful sunshine, now frowning 
under the shadow of some passing cloud a striking picture of 
life and its vicissitudes while here and there the white-sailed 
fishing schooners, now in light and now in shade, flitted about 
like restless souls passing through joy and sorrow to their 
destined ports. 

Our service over at Shigawake, where the Missionary, Mr. 
Brown, presented to the Bishop twenty-four candidates for 
confirmation, we dined at the churchwarden s, and pressed on 
for an afternoon service at Port Daniel. 

My driver, one of the churchwardens of this Mission, told 

1 r0 Ci A OT>-TI rMiasion Field, 

1 26 UrASPE. L Apr. 1, 1885. 

me that he had never been "off the coast." He had originally 
followed the twofold calling of fisherman and farmer a very 
common combination here. But of late he had taken up the 
trade of " house-building," which he was now actively engaged 
in. A neighbour of his, without serving any apprenticeship, or 
even working for a single day under a master workman, had 
taken up the trade of carriage making. His first attempt had 
been a cart. Succeeding well in that, he had then set to work 
to imitate the more pretentious vehicle imported from the 
neighbouring province. Now he is the carriage maker of the 
coast, and a very substantial and comfortable trap he makes. 

I further gathered from my communicative friend some in 
teresting facts about the people and their houses. These latter 
were almost universally covered, walls and roof alike, with 
cedar shingles, and lined within with cedar boards instead of 
plaster. The churches were finished in the same way. 

As to the people, they were nearly all fishermen. Almost 
every man, woman, and child had something to do, directly or 
indirectly, with the fisheries. A terrible thing it is, therefore, 
for the fisheries to fail. 

He also gave me some insight into the art of " fish-making," 
describing graphically the method of curing the cod-fish, and 
pointing out the hurdles, or "flakes," as they were called, upon 
which the salted fish were spread to dry. 

Port Daniel, a beautiful little hamlet, with a harbour in 
closed on three sides by lofty hills, but exposed on the south 
east to the open sea, was to be our stopping-place that night. 
And most hospitably were we entertained there by Mrs. Lauder, 
a very old friend of the clergy. 

With justifiable pride this venerable and large-hearted Scotch 
lady looks back to the many warm welcomes she has given the 
Bishops of the present and the past. May she long be spared 
to welcome his lordship. Here we found the Rev. Dr. Roe, 
pleasantly settled for his holiday; and enjoyed the first-fruits of 
his rod and line in the form of a delicious sea-trout. 

Next morning we pushed on over the mountainous hills to 
the east of Port Daniel to Lause aux Gascons, the third and 
last outpost in the Mission of Shigawake. Lause aux Gascons 

I 8?S8? 1 ] LAUSE AUX GASCONS. 127 

is a little fishing hamlet lying close under Cape Macquereau. 
It has its little shingled church, and its little band of devout 
fisher-folk, whom we found ready and glad to avail themselves 
of the opportunity of grace and worship now offered to them 
by the Bishop s visit. I have rarely enjoyed a service more 
thoroughly than I did this Lause aux Gascons service. 

We spent the night here with the Actesons, the leading 
people of the place, and very comfortable they made us. The 
present Actesons are the children of an English sailor who was 
shipwrecked on this coast very many years ago. He was one 
of very few survivors, the crew being "merry and unprepared 
for duty" when the vessel struck. He never left the coast, 
but married and settled here. 

On the following day we returned to Port Daniel, hoping 
there to take the steamer Admiral, and so to pass on to the 
next Mission of Cape Cove, forty miles farther up the coast. 

In this we were disappointed. The weather had been 
gradually closing in and growing wild. Rain had been falling 
throughout our trip to Lause aux Gascons, and as we now 
descended the hills and re-entered the limits of Port Daniel 
the rain was falling in torrents, and an easterly gale was lashing 
the waters of the harbour into wildest fury. 

Those who were "wise" told us that the steamer "could not 
come in to-day." And if she did, no boat could possibly reach 
her in such weather. What was to be done ? A service had 
been appointed for the next morning at Cape Cove, forty miles 
away. It was now afternoon. Evidently the only plan open to 
us was to drive. But the roads were rough ; there were un- 
bridged rivers to cross ; the rain was falling in torrents, and it 
was growing cold. Would the Bishop feel equal to the task ? 

What a question! His lordship was the first to see the 
necessity, and to avow his readiness to be off. 

And here I am sure I shall be pardoned for saying that I 
consider few things more wholly admirable than the cheerful 
spirit in which the Bishop of Quebec meets the varied hard 
ships and irritations of a trip like this. 

Off we start in the pitiless rain and, without other incon 
venience than a thorough soaking, reach the hospitable Fishing 

128 GASPE. 

Establishment at Newport a little after 4 o clock. Here the 
kind agent, Mr. De Gouchy, fitted us out with fishermen s oil 
skin suits. And a great comfort did they presently prove 
to us. 

The worst part of the journey yet lay before us ; the darkness 
was coming on, and the rain was unabated. 

On we drove, and at dusk reached the first and most formidable 
river, the Pabos, where a strong swift tide was running, which 
made it necessary to double-man the scow which was to carry 
us and our horses over. After some delay, however very 
patiently borne, considering the fact that we were waiting in 
the soaking rain we reached the other side and plodded on. 
Two other rivers, the Little Pabos and the Grand, were in due 
course passed, and a little after 10 P.M. we drove up to the 
Grand River Fishing Establishment, and were most kindly and 
hospitably put up for the night by the agent, Mr. Skelton. 

The next morning, none the worse for our wetting, we had 
an easy drive of eight miles to Cape Cove, arriving in good 
time- for service. And a very enjoyable service it was. The 
handsome new church, with sittings for 300 people, was con 
secrated, and twenty-one candidates were confirmed. 

And yet the occasion was not without a touch of sadness, for 
the clergyman s household had been grievously afflicted in the 
past few months. Two of the grown-up children, a son and a 
daughter young people of singular promise had been carried 
off by consumption, and both had died away from home. 

A deep sorrow, therefore, overhung this family, showing only 
too touchingly through their forced brightness. Doubtless the 
visit and the sympathy of their Bishop was a great comfort to 

(To be continued. ) 


THE Convocations of Canterbury and York agreed in 1 884 
that the Day of Intercession for Missions should be held 
on any day in the week next before Advent, or in the first week 
of Advent, with preference for the eve of St. Andrew s Day. 

To this the assent of the Church of America, as well as of 
the Churches of Australia, South Africa, and other branches of 
the Anglican Communion has been obtained. 

UPON" this subject we earnestly hope that all minor 
differences will be silenced. The time chosen may or 
may not be the best in the j udgment of some individual Church 
men. But the question of the time is (however great its im 
portance) of infinitesimal weight compared to the great point 
of unanimity. 

Let us all, as with one will, make a strong supplication to 
the great Head of the Church, that we may not fail in doing 
that part of the extension of His kingdom, which His Provi 
dence clearly puts before us. 

LAST month we stated that the Rev. J. Bridger was to sail 
from Liverpool on April 30th for Canada. This was 
incorrect ; the date of his leaving is April 23rd. 

WE are glad to welcome in England the Bishop (Selwyn) 
of Melanesia, who reached England from his distant 
diocese last month. 

IN sending in the annual statement, the venerable Bishop of 
Guiana speaks of the Society s grants as "assistance 
which, as hitherto, has been of supreme importance in carrying 


out the Missionary work of the Church in this diocese, work 
which increases every year. 

" As regards the Missionary proceedings of the Church, in which for so 
many years the Society has taken so warm an interest, I believe I may 
report favourably. I can hardly be too thankful for the steady progress 
amongst the aborigines and our Chinese immigrants. The number pre 
sented for confirmation increases year by year, and so long as our Missions 
are faithfully served, so long I trust shall I be able to send home the same 
favourable report." 

Referring to the journey, of which a full account appeared in 
the February Mission Field, his lordship adds : 

" During no other year of my Episcopate have I been permitted to cover 
such a space in my travels, and all that I did was less hurriedly done than 
heretofore, by which I mean that I spent a longer time than I have ever 
yet been able to devote at all our stations, from the Corentyn to the 
Waiki a very considerable river, the occupation of which has yet to be 
determined, either as forming a part of our own Empire, or of the 
wretchedly-ponducted Venezuelan Republic." 

His lordship closes his cordial letter with a reference to 
"happy work going on in connection with the East Indian 
Immigrants in the Training Institution for Coolie Catechists," 
and with warm words of gratitude to the Society for its aid. 

ON" the death of the revered Dr. Kennet, the care of the 
Theological College at Sullivan s Gardens, Madras, was 
temporarily undertaken by one of the Government chaplains, 
the Rev. John Smithwhite. Almost immediately after the news 
of this arrangement reached England by letter, we heard by 
telegram that Mr. Smithwhite had died. We now hear that 
this sad event was due to cholera, to which both Mr. and Mrs. 
Smithwhite succumbed on February 14th. 

BY the resignation of the Right Rev. M. B. Hale the see of 
Brisbane had become vacant, and the nomination of his 
successor was placed by the electoral body in the hands of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. His Grace has chosen the Rev. 
William Thomas Thornhill Webber, M.A., Vicar of St. John 
the Evangelist, Holborn. 

M iprij885 dl ] MONTHLY MEETING. 131 

MR WEBBER was appointed in 1865 by Bishop Tait to 
his present charge, a district then about to be newly 
formed. Aided by a grant of 8,000 from the Bishop of 
London s Fund he has, during the twenty years, purchased 
sites for, and built church, clergy-house and schools, at a cost 
of 47,000. He is a member of the London School Board, 
and is well known in connection with the cause of education, 
and organisations for social work. 

THE diocese of Brisbane consists of the southern part of 
Queensland, being separated from the diocese of North 
Queensland by the 22nd parallel of latitude. It contains 
a population of 160,000, the number of clergy being thirty-two. 

THE Rev. M. J. Drinkwater, Antigua, West Indies, desires 
to thank the unknown friend who regularly sends him 
the Mission Field. 

ON February 8th the foundation was laid of the new church 
at Mundhu, in the Chota Nagpore Mission, which is to 
be built out of the bequest of a most warm friend of the 
Mission, the late General Dalton. 

THE Sermon at the Society s Annual Festival in Westminster 
Abbey will be preached by the Bishop of Lichfield. We 
have already announced that the Anniversary Sermon in St. 
Paul s is to be preached by the Bishop of Peterborough. 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
March 20th, at 2 P.M., the Eev. Berdmore Compton in the Chair. There were 
also present the Master of the Charterhouse, Vice-President, and thirty- seven 
other Members of the Society. 


1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

[ Misgion Field. 

Apr. 1, 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
February 28th : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January Feb., 1885. 

Donations, and 


Bents, &c. 




















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of February in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-l 
tions . ) 






Dividends, Rents, &c 













3. On the recommendation of the Standing Committee, a title to Holy 
Orders was granted to Samuel Gnanamutu, B.A., in the diocese of Madras. 

4. Authority was given to use the Corporate Seal for the purpose of 
transfer of stock. 

5. The Rev. C. G. Barlow, of the diocese of North Queensland, addressed 
the members. 

6. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in January were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in May : 

The Rev. J. F. Dixon-Stewart, Stanton St. Bernard, Salisbury ; Edward 
Theodore Dowson, Esq., Geldeston, Beccles ; Rev. E. Carlyon, Dibden, South 
ampton ; Rev. Lewis T. Lochee, Rectory, Barnes, S.W. ; Rev. W. Conyngham 
Greene, St. Werburgh s, Dublin ; Rev. T. Lucas Scott. St. George s, Temple 
Street, Dublin; Rev. W. Rynd, Brasted, Sevenoaks, Kent ; James Round, Esq., 
M.P., The Holly Trees, Colchester; Major J. H. Brooks, J.P., Flitwick Manor, 
Ampthill, Beds; Major G. W. Archer, R.E., Wilton House, Altrincham, 
Cheshire ; C. E. Harrison, Esq., 2nd Grenadier Guards ; Colonel Henry LeGuay 
Geary, R.A., Hanraki, Old Charlton ; E. Hughes, Esq., C.M.G. 



MAY 1, 1885. 



[HE village of Thelepwah invited the Conference to hold 
its meetings there this year. It is one of the frontier 
villages of British Burmah, about fifty to sixty miles 
due east of Tounghoo, at the foot of Mount Nat 
Toung, the highest peak in the province. The distance being 
great, and the road in some parts very steep and rugged, we 
had to allow a week and more for travelling, especially as Mrs. 
Salmon elected to form one of the party, and make her first 
trip to the hills then. 

Our route lay through Borglay, a district often described in 
accounts of this Mission. Our luggage went by boat as far as 
Pelewah, where we met it on the third day. Ready hands were 
not wanting to carry Mrs. Salmon up the steep hills, and to 
assist in every way. 

From Borglay we no longer slept in the jungle, gipsy-fashion, 
but took up our quarters in some one of the many Christian 
villages upon the route. Mr. and Mrs. Salmon went by the 
direct route through Nauthedey, but work called me now and 
then to villages to the right or left of the direct road, for 
settling disputes, and principally for the election of village 



committees, as a preliminary measure, before electing for the 
Paku Church a Church Council. 

The Lord Bishop of Rangoon, when presiding at the Beve Con 
ference of 1 884, proposed the election of such a Church Council, 
elected by communicant Karen members of the Church of 
England, with the Bishop as President, and the Missionary 
in charge Vice-President, and four catechists and laymen from 
each parish, clergy being, ex-officio, members. This, as proposed 
and carried, has been successfully carried out by me on the 
Beve side. The Paku side remained until this year, when the 
whole subject had to be brought before the Annual Conference. 
Meanwhile, as I say, the appointment of little committees had 
first to be looked to, and I was called to the right or left of the 
direct route to superintend their formation. 

When joining Mr. and Mrs. Salmon again at Mankuder, I found 
they had met with no mishap, and Mrs. Salmon was not much 
fatigued, though there was a very steep climb to the village, 
after passing the Kleh Loh River. Here there is an object 
of attraction and interest in the hot springs on the banks of the 
river. I think the mineral is sulphate of iron. I had break 
fast there, and boiled my eggs in a spring, in a spot about a 
yard from which the water of the Kleh Loh was rushing down 
over the rocks an icy torrent. 

We stayed on Sunday at Mankuder, and took part in some 
very hearty services in the chapel, and had a full Sunday school 
in the afternoon. 

Monday saw us arrive safely at the Conference village. The 
place, or Hall of Meeting, was built of bamboo, with leaves 
thrown over the top as a covering from the heat. A huge 
bamboo, about 100 feet high, with a white flag on the top, 
showed that the session was about to commence. The pro 
gramme of the proceedings will perhaps interest the reader, and 
it is inserted here : 

Wednesday, January *Jlh. 

1. Celebration at 7 A.M., with Conference sermon. 

2. Short matins at 10 A.M., after which preliminary meeting 
until 12 A.M. 


3. Meeting from 2 to 4 (President s address). 

4. Evensong at 6 P.M. 

Thursday, January. 8th. 

1. Celebration at 7 A.M. 

2. Matins at 10 A.M., after which reading reports of village 
congregations till 12 A.M. 

3. Meeting on resolutions selected by the Committee, 2 
to 4 P.M. 

4. Evensong at 6 P.M. 

Friday, January 9th. 

1. Celebration at 7 A.M. 

2. After matins, temperance meeting till 12 A. M. 

3. Meeting of Church workers, 2 to 4 P.M. 

4. Dismissal service at 6 P.M. 

Such was the programme, and the whole of the meetings 
were most successful and satisfactory. 

In the absence of the Lord Bishop, I, as priest in charge, 
was moved to the Chair, and the usual selection of officers 
followed. The subject of the Paku Karen Church Council was 
brought before the meeting, and passed unanimously. 

The President then drew attention to the increased effort there 
had been during the past year to open good primary schools for 
boys and girls, and to one great cause of thankfulness in the 
opening of a new girls school in Tounghoo. He reported that 
up to date the rolls of baptised Church members reported 
(excluding omissions and errors) amounted to 3,892, and the 
total, with catechumens, would be 4,405. 

Presbyter Tarywah reported that two new villages, Holoder 
and Ramadev, had erected churches, and requested lay helpers 
or catechists in his parish, but, owing to the prevalence of 
measles at the place of meeting, they had been unable to send 

The following day the annual returns and reports were read, 
and the annual offerings given amounted to over Rs. 700, nearly 
Us. 150 more than last year. 

L 2 


[ j 

The three Resolutions brought before the Conference were as 
follows : 

1. Tha.t the village which has no primary school be not 
entitled to any grant towards the support of their teacher. 

2. That there shall be committees in every village, the 
number to be determined by the size of the village. 

3. That drinking and brewing choung were not compatible 
with Christian life. 1 

The temperance meeting of the next day was a great success, 
and all the chiefs present, .as well as all the leading men, 
signed the pledge, that except for a religious purpose, or in case 
of extreme sickness, they would give up choung. The women 
present further promised not to brew any. 

The teachers meeting in the afternoon was very helpful, and 
every one seemed to have gained by the meeting. One good 
plan seemed to suggest itself, and that was that when 
the presbyter goes round his parish, the young catechists of 
each village in his charge should accompany him, as well for 
learning instruction from him as to give the people an oppor 
tunity of good services occasionally. At the end of the pro 
ceeding all rose and turned towards the altar and sung the 
JTe Dewn, and with the blessing departed. 

a, Karen is perfectly true at present, especially in that part. 

W. E. J. 



the year 1836 Mr. George Candy arrived in Bombay, 
expecting ordination with a view to his labouring 
as a Missionary to the Indo-British community in 
this Presidency. In a paper adopted by the 
Diocesan Committee of the S.P.G. some months later, setting 
forth the objects of the Mission, the importance of the work 
was described in these terms: "It is not easy too highly to 
estimate the important influence which the character of the 
Indo-British must exercise upon the native population. Living 
in close neighbourhood with them, and open to observation in 
all their intercourse and conduct with each other, and with the 
natives, the Indo-British are constant evidence and witness of 
Christianity. From them their Hindu and Mohammedan 
neighbours do necessarily gain whatever impressions they may 
have of the Christian system." 

The death of Bishop Corrie having delayed Mr. Candy s 
ordination, he worked for some time as an unpaid lay assistant. 
In that interval certain "influential individuals," who did not 
wish their names to be published, forwarded a gift of Rs. 4,500 
to the Rev. W. K. Fletcher, who then filled the office of 
Secretary to the Diocesan Committee of the S.P.G. , for the 
objects of the Mission, and promised to contribute largely to 
its expenses, expressing at the same time their anxiety to pro 
mote the welfare of the Indo-British population. This engage 
ment on their part encouraged the Diocesan Committee to 
present Mr. Candy with a title to Orders as " the first Missionary 


to the Indo-British " community. Mr. Candy was accordingly 
ordained by Bishop Carr on Trinity Sunday, 1838. 

The Rev. W. K. Fletcher, in reporting these facts to the 
Parent Society, mentions that, of the fund of Rs. 15,000 then 
available for the maintenance of Missionaries in this diocese, 
no less a sum than Rs. 7,000 was the bequest to the Diocesan 
Committee of an Indo-Briton, the late Charles Theodore 
Huntridge. He adds: "Regarding the influence of that class 
of the population to which Mr. Huntridge belonged, to be very 
important to the progress of pure religion among the natives of 
this part of India, the Committee, at the suggestion of several 
individuals of high rank, agreed to receive sums of money in 
trust for the maintenance of a Missionary exclusively for the 
Indo-British .... The Committee venture to hope for the 
full sanction of the Board to the operations now detailed, and 
earnestly recommend to their patronage the Indo-British 
Mission. Although the island of Bombay does not probably 
contain more than 2,000 of this class, yet they exist in very 
considerable numbers in all the large subordinate stations, and 
their influence on the native population is everywhere great." 

The Parent Society fully concurred in the foundation of the 
Indo-British Mission. 

A site near Sonapore was subsequently purchased, and a 
chapel and school-houses were built for the Mission, the former 
being opened for Divine Service in 1840, and the latter being 
finished in 1842. "Thus," to quote the words of the Diocesan 
Committee, "was laid the foundation of the Indo-British 

The Institution has ever since provided a home and education 
for the humbler class of English and Eurasian children, besides 
affording daily instruction, general and religious, to the children 
of families of slender means. The number of boarders at the 
present date is ninety-seven ; of these fifty-four are boys, and 
forty-three girls. Forty children are entirely supported from 
the School Funds. There are twenty day-scholars. The 
church is attended chiefly by the less affluent class of Christians. 
The position of the present buildings has, however, for some 
years past, become most unsuitable, owing to the growth of a 


crowded native town all round it. The schools are surrounded 
on all sides by lofty houses, which, besides being very close, 
overlook the rooms, and the noise of traffic is disturbing both 
to the Church services and the work of the schools. 

The great expense of moving to a better situation deterred 
for some time the Committee from entertaining the idea, and 
about three years ago they set on foot a subscription to repair 
the old buildings, and to add an extra story, which would have 
secured space that was urgently wanted. Adding to the present 
unsuitable buildings was, however, felt to be an unsatisfactory 
way of spending money, and His Excellency the Governor, when 
going over the premises at the annual meeting in 1882, was so 
impressed with this conviction, that he advised that an effort 
should be made to move the Institution, and promised the aid 
of Government. This aid has been most liberally accorded. 
The present site, on an open expanse, where nothing can be 
built except with the sanction of Government, and under 
strict sanitary supervision, has been given, and a grant of 
Rs. 56,000 promised towards the cost of the school buildings 
under Lord Canning s Minute, on the usual condition that it 
should be met by an equal amount raised from other quarters. 
The old schools accommodate 100 boarders ; the new, estimated 
to cost Rs. 112,000, will accommodate 140. Rs. 20,000 over 
and above the Government grant, and the proceeds of the sale 
of the present buildings, have to be raised by public sub 
scription. The new church, with 218 seats, will cost Rs. 30,000. 

The Committee have been encouraged in their work by the 
conviction that they have the sympathy of all who are interested 
in the training and welfare of the class for whom the Institution 
was established, and "whose future" to quote the words of 
the Right Rev. the Bishop of Bombay "forms so anxious a 
problem to the Government of this country." The site upon 
which the new buildings are to be erected abuts on the 
Market-road, and adjoins the School of Art compound. It has 
a frontage of 220 feet, and is 410 feet deep, the superficial 
area being about 10,000 square yards. The church will occupy 
a position near the road ; the school-buildings will occupy a 
position at the rear of the site. The style will be the domestic 



Gothic. There is to be a main building, with two ranges of 
out-offices attached. The main building forms three sides of a 
rectangle. The side facing west will be 172 feet long, and 
those facing south and north will each be 94^ feet long. The 
structure will consist of a ground floor and an upper floor, and 
the walls will be of sufficient thickness to allow of the addition 
of a second story, if required. The building is to be divided 
into two portions ; the southern section is to be set apart for 
the accommodation of the boys, and the northern section will 
be occupied by the girls. In the middle of the building, on the 
ground-floor, are quarters for the head master and head 
mistress, each set of quarters having a sitting-room, a dining- 
room, a bed-room, and a bath-room. On each side of these 
quarters there will be two class-rooms, one 25 ft. by 20 ft. 6 in., 
and the other 33 ft. 6 in. by 25 ft. In the north and south 
wings there will be dining-rooms, 40 ft. by 25 ft., and separate 
staircases for boys and girls. Verandahs, eight feet wide, are 
provided on the east, south, and west sides of the building to 
protect the rooms from the sun and rain. Two circular stair 
cases, three feet in diameter, are provided in the west verandah, 
to allow of direct communication with the dormitories. The 
first story will be utilised exclusively for sleeping accommodation, 
there being room for 134 beds, and quarters for matrons on 
both sides of the building. Each of these quarters consists of 
a sitting-room near the staircase, and a bed-room. The ground- 
floor of the building is to be two feet six inches above the 
level of the adjoining road. The height of the ground-floor 
walls is to be sixteen feet, and those of the first story also 
sixteen feet. The walls generally are to be built of rubble 
stone and lime masonry, faced with circular "random" stone. 
The dressings are to be in Porebunder stone. The whole when 
finished will present a very pleasing appearance, and will not 
compare unfavourably in point of architectural excellence with 
the many fine buildings by which it will be surrounded in years 
to come. We may add that the Committee of the Indo-British 
Institution in particular, and the public in general, are indebted 
for this excellent and useful design to Khan Bahadoor Mun- 
cherjee C. Murzban, Executive Engineer of the Presidency. 
The foundation-stone of the new school buildings was laid by 


the Earl of Dufferin, Viceroy-Designate of India, on Tuesday 
afternoon, December 9th. 

"On that day the Earl and Countess of Dufferin made 
their first public appearance since their arrival in India, in 
connection with a function which will cause the name of the 
new Governor-General to be most honourably associated with 
one of the chief of the many charitable institutions of Bombay. 
Lord Dufferin s kindly acceptance of the invitation to lay the 
foundation-stone of the new Indo-British Institution places the 
whole cause of benevolence under considerable indebtedness. 
It will materially facilitate the successful solution of a problem 
of some little difficulty, and it is to be hoped may inaugurate 
an era of greater prosperity for a foundation which provides a 
home and educational training of inestimable value to its in 
mates. Details have already been given of the building, which 
will enable the Institution to enlarge its sphere of usefulness, 
and to remove from a centre long since condemned as unsuitable 
for such a purpose, into a free and more wholesome atmosphere. 
Considerable preparations had been made for yesterday s cere 
mony. Across the esplanade, in the centre of which is the site 
of the building, carriage paths had been temporarily laid down 
from the Cruickshank-road, as well as from Boree-bunder. 
Along the former were lines of flags and borders of shrubs and 
flowers. Around the foundation-stone, seating accommodation 
had been provided for some hundreds of spectators, as well as 
for the Committee of the Institution, and the subscribers 
towards its support. A tripod of tall bamboo poles erected 
over the stone was draped in brightly-coloured cloth, and sus 
tained a canopy of bunting, with the royal standard floating 
from the apex. On a table near at hand were considerately 
placed the plans of the Institution to be created on that spot, 
the designs, which have been prepared by Khan Bahadoor 
M. C. Murzban, evoking a general admiration that should 
stimulate the generosity of the contributors. At the entrance 
to the inclosure a guard of honour was supplied by the sturdy 
cadets belonging to the Indo-British Institution, and an ex 
cellent choir was supplied by the girls and the remainder of the 
boys, who were marshalled to the right. At the entrance in the 
Cruickshank-road the distinguished party were met by the 

142 INDO-BRITISH MISSION, BOMBAY. [ M i R a 8 j?. F ^ dl 

Bishop of Bombay, as President of the Institution, and the 
members of the Committee. The Viceroy-elect took his seat 
on the dais fronting the memorial stone, the Countess of 
Dufferin being on the right and Sir James Fergusson to the left. 
Among those present were the Commander-in-Chief, and 
numerous distinguished personages. Bouquets were presented 
to the Earl and Countess, and to Sir James Fergusson, by the 
girls of the Institution. 

" The Rev. C. Gilder, Secretary of the Indo-British Institution, 
read an address to Lord DufFerin, and requested him to lay the 

" His Excellency having signified his acceptance of the in 
vitation, the Bishop of Bombay proceeded with the service, 
intoning the prayers, whilst the surpliced choir belonging to the 
Institution sang the responses. Lord DufFerin descended from 
the dais in order to perform his special function, Sir James 
Fergusson continuing by his side. A bottle containing the 
newspapers of the day was placed beneath the great block by 
Mr. Murzban, who handed to Lord DufFerin the implements 
necessary for the due performance of this critical portion of the 
ceremony. These included a silver trowel, an ivory mallet, and 
an elegant plummet and square of carved ivory, mounted with 
silver. As the pulleys lowered the stone to its place, Christ is 
made the sure foundation was sung by the choir. Then it was 
reverently laid with the words: In the faith of Jesus Christ 
we place this Head Stone in the foundation, in the Name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, that here true faith, the 
fear of God, and brotherly love may dwell, and that this place 
may be set apart for the instruction of the young, and for the 
honour of the name of the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
liveth and reigneth with the Father and the Holy Spirit, ever 
one God, world without end. Amen. 

"Lord DufFerin, in clear and distinct tones proclaimed, I 
declare this stone truly laid. On the face of the block, in 
gold letters, the following inscription is engraved : 

To the Glory of God. 

This Stone 

Was laid on the 9th December, 1884, 

By Frederick Temple, First Earl of DufFerin, K.P., G.C.B., G.C.M.G. P.O., 
Viceroy Designate of India. 

"i^.K-l SPEECHES. 143 

May 1, 

" Another hymn was sung while a collection was being made 
throughout the assembly, and Lord Dufferin having resumed his 
place on the dais, said at the conclusion : 

" My Lord, Ladies, and Gentlemen The admirable nature 
of the work upon which we have been engaged this afternoon 
is so apparent, the benefits of education are so well known 
to all who stand around me, that it would be superfluous for 
me to dwell upon that subject. All that I can do is to express 
my very great gratification on having been allowed the oppor 
tunity of taking part in so interesting a ceremonial. I trust 
that the Institution in which we are interested will long con 
tinue to flourish, and will prove a centre of light, morality, and 
goodness throughout the whole neighbourhood where it has 
been founded. In conclusion, my Lord, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 
allow me to say that instead of troubling you with any further 
words upon such a topic, I will ask permission to substitute for 
a speech a humble subscription. 

"His Excellency the Governor then rose and said : 
" My Lord I have been deputed by the friends of the Indo- 
British Schools to tender to your Excellency their heartfelt 
thanks for the great service and honour you have done their 
Institution by laying the first stone of the new building, and 
also for the kind words in which you have expressed your 
interest in their undertaking. My Lord, these schools have 
long been among the most admirable and popular institutions 
of Bombay, and it is only to be regretted that the fruits of 
that popularity have not been more abundant. For I believe 
that the means of the Committee have long been in such a 
chronically straitened condition that the comfort and well-being 
of the children have sometimes fallen short of what could be 
desired. This Government have thought the Institution well 
deserving of the valuable site which they have bestowed upon 
it, and I trust that the impulse given by your Excellency will 
be felt not only in increased sympathy but in more substantial 

"There was a burst of hearty cheering as the Viceregal party 
drove away, God save the Queen being played by the band of 
the 21st Native Infantry." 



^ASUTOLAND is still in a very unsatisfactory con 
dition, and the Government officials are powerless 
to restore law and order. In addition to this trial, 
the people are almost starving. The Rev. John 
Widdicombe, of St. Saviour s, Thlotse Heights, writes : 

"Last year s harvest, which was under the average through 
the drought, was nearly all destroyed by the rebels in November 
and March ; and were it not that good rains have fallen, abso 
lute starvation would be staring us all in the face. The problem 
now is how to keep body and soul together until February, 
when, please God, there will be some food forthcoming from 
the fields and gardens. I do what I can to feed the poor 
famishing school children who crowd round the porridge-pot 
at meal times, but my resources are so scanty that I can do 
absolutely nothing for the great mass of hungry faces that 
surround me." 

Nevertheless he has a cheering tale to tell of the Church s 
work : 

" I am thankful to say that eight new catechumens have been 
admitted, a larger number than we have ever before had at 
one time. The walls of our Mission house are rapidly rising, 
and if all goes well, I trust that the building may be completed 
by Easter." 

Small-pox imported from the Diamond Fields has, in addition 
to great want and suffering, been devastating Mafeting, in the 

Mission Field,"! QTVTATT T>/^v 1 A K 

May 1,1885.] foM ALL-POX. 145 

diocese of Bloemfontein, where the Rev. E. W. Stenson is 
Missionary : 

" Terribly stringent measures for the isolation of the infected 
were adopted by the chiefs, whole villages being tabooed, 
and the disease died out in some cases with the last inhabitant. 
Another course pursued was to send the sick, or those sus 
pected, to the mountains, where, in the caves, they had to let 
the disease run its course ; if their constitutions carried them 
through, well and good. The only attempt at attendance was 


some coarse food placed from time to time within some hun 
dreds of yards of the caves, well to windward. No wonder, 
therefore, that the disease was stamped out, but with a death- 
rate of fifty per cent. I did a good deal of vaccination at 
Mafeting, and elsewhere. The French Missionary, Dr. Casalis, 
was employed by the Government as district surgeon, and 
worked very hard, vaccinating thousands of heathen and 
Christians. I thank God that my Mission was spared we had 
not a case. 



: Mission Field, 
May 1, 18S5. 

"Again it has been a year of extreme want. Drought last 
year caused short crops of maize and millet, and these most 
necessary grains are this year quite one hundred per cent, dearer 
than they have ever been in Basutoland, and now the supply is 
exhausted. Consequently hunger is abroad in the land ; and 
the condition of the women and children, especially, is pitiable, 
at least in Central Basutoland. Our hope of relief is in the 
wheat crop now ripening, which will be available next month ; 
but ere that come, much suffering must be experienced. 


" In the Free State depression is universal, and much actual 
want felt, if not hunger. Business is almost at a standstill, 
and the unsettled state of Bechuanaland has a bad effect on the 
relations between Dutch and English. Altogether the outlook 
is gloomy, and as a matter of consequence these present wants 
and pressure, as well as the uncertainty of the immediate future, 
reacts on the temporal prosperity of Church work." 

Among the unbaptised adults under instruction Mr. Stenson 
numbers two wives of the paramount chief, Letsea. 



OF 1884. 

(Continued from page 128.) 

IT was blowing a gale when we entered Cape Cove, 
and the fishermen were complaining bitterly of 
the bad weather, for their boats had been drawn 
up for days, and their nets and lines unused. 
Sometimes in their anxiety for daily bread these 
fishermen grow very reckless of their lives. Two men I was 
told a father and his son left this very cove not long ago in 
the face of a threatened storm, and have never returned ; nor 
has any trace of them or their boat been found. The fisher 
man s life has its peculiar perils on this coast. Men are often 
called to meet danger in a sudden and terrible form. But they 
grow accustomed to the face of death ; and there is a wild 
fascination about the life they lead which makes them in 
different to ordinary peril. How much need there is that they 
should be taught rightly to estimate spiritual peril, and properly 
to value their immortal souls ! 

Perce, taking its name from the pierced rock which has made 
it famous, is served by the Rev. Mr. Lyster, the Missionary of 
Cape Cove. And a truly picturesque place it is. The rock, 
rising like a citadel at the entrance of the bay, commands the 
attention of the visitor at once. Rising abruptly from the 
water s edge to a height of one or two hundred feet, it is cut 
by the action of the waves into a strange and striking shape, 
and is completely perforated at the seaward end by an opening, 
whose arch is said to be at least forty or fifty feet in height. 

Composed of soft conglomerate, very rich and beautiful to 
look upon in the varying sunlight, but so friable as to offer little 
resistance to the force of tide and weather, this wonderful rock 



["Mission Field, 
L May 1, 1885. 

is slowly changing its grotesque form and being fashioned into 
something new. The whole coast line, in fact, being composed 
very largely of the same friable conglomerate, is constantly 
assuming new forms. It is indeed with no small risk that the 
eager sightseer walks along the velvet turf which fringes the 
overhanging cliffs. 

So is many a character undermined by evil influences, and 
ready to break down at any undue pressure. In short, if we 
will, we may see in these ever-changing shores a figure of that 
instability of character which makes many a man fickle and 
unreliable. For there are men so lacking in decision and stead 
fastness of opinion and of purpose, that they can hardly be said 
to have any moral shape at all, but are ever changing and 
presenting new aspects with the changing influences about 

Of all men, perhaps the fisherman is most liable to grow 
careless and easy-going, and to become thus the victim of cir 
cumstances. In religious as well as in secular matters there is, 
I fear, a very real danger of his forming the habit of waiting 
for weather and for tide. 

Perhaps it is significant that our Lord s earliest ministrations 
were given to the fishermen of Galilee. At any rate, these 
fishermen have a special claim upon us. 

After service at Perce, held in the neat little chapel built by 
grant from the Jersey firm, C. Robin & Co., and standing far 
up on a spur of the picturesque Mount Ste. Anne, overlooking 
the village, the rock, and the lovely bay, we stepped into the 
waggons awaiting us, and set forth on our way to the Mission 
of Malbaie. 

It had been our purpose to cross to Malbaie by boat. But 
since our arrival the fog had settled down completely upon the 
scene for the weather was yet unsettled and at the last 
moment w r e were thus compelled to take the road. And a 
rough wild road it was very bleak and even dangerous, I 
should say, in wintry weather, climbing tortuously, as it does, 
over the precipitous heights of Mount Ste. Anne, whose tower 
ing form is one of the most picturesque landmarks of the 

Mission Field 

Fission Field THE LAND OF FlSH. 149 

But the scenery was almost wholly a blank to us, enveloped 
as it was in a dense fog. This was a great disappointment ; 
but it was not without its lesson. Thus oftentimes in the 
course of this life do we meet with reverses at critical moments 
dark clouds enveloping us, narrowing our horizon, and trying 
our faith. 

We spent a day and a-half with the Rev. R Walters of 
Malbaie. And there I was further initiated into the mysteries 
of fish-making, and learned something of the unsavoury origin 
of cod-liver oil. 

We were now in the land of fish. It was fish, fish, every 
where. Even the soil was enriched with fish. The very 
potatoes and onions in the gardens were stimulated in their 
growth by the spreading 6f fine fat herrings between the rows. 

I learned here that a draught of fish is 225 pounds, and a 
quintal just half that weight. Also that each fishing-boat should 
take from sixty to one hundred draughts per season. But 
this season they were lamentably behind-hand. 

I learned, moreover, something of the relation in which the 
fishermen stand to the fishing establishments which buy their 
fish, and give them in exchange the necessaries of life ; how 
poor these fishermen often are ; how improvident in many 
cases ; and what sufferings they would undergo in " short 
years," were it not for the long credit the fish merchants allow 

How difficult must be the clergyman s task of teaching these 
easy-going, albeit good-hearted and honest folk, to be provident 
and thrifty both in their earthly and heavenly affairs ! 

In the Malbaie church we had one of our brightest services. 
There was a congregation of 300 people; eighty-three were 
confirmed. The music, joined in heartily by the congregation, 
was well and heartily led by Mr. Walters and the choir. Alto 
gether the service was inspiring; and at the close of the 
Bishop s earnest and most practical address, we all sang with a 
will the words of the closing hymn 

"Clear before us through the darkness 
Gleams and burns the guiding light ; 
Brother clasps the hand of brother, 
Stepping fearless through the night." 

150 GASPE. 

L May 1. 188a. 

From Malbaie we drove on up the beautiful Bay of Gaspe 
northwards, to the Missions of Sandy Beach and Gaspo Basin, 
100 miles from our starting-point, Paspebiac. Much pleasanter 
work was this driving to us than to the young Missionary, Mr. 
Forsyth, who came out from England last December, and, 
navigation being closed, was compelled to drive by sleigh the 
whole distance 200 miles from Campbellton, his nearest 
railway station. 

Mr. Forsyth met us at what is called the " tickle," that is, at 
the mouth of the St. John River, and drove us on to our desti 
nation, passing on the way his own Mission of Sandy Beach, 
so named from the long sand-bar here stretching out across, the 
Bay. Three miles beyond Sandy Beach lies Gaspe Basin 
harbour, perfectly land-locked, with deep water and good 
anchorage for vessels of any size. 

Here we found Mr. Richmond, the Missionary, awaiting us, 
and having crossed the ferry, were soon enjoying the comfort of 
his hospitable house. The beauty of Gaspe Basin deeply im 
pressed me. The great circle of mountainous hills ; the harbour, 
or basin, gleaming like a silver lake in the hollow at our feet ; 
the village nestling on the hill-side, with the belfry of the church 
peeping out above the trees ; while the swift sailing-boats, the 
trim schooners, and the steamer at the wharf, added just enough 
of the active human element all combined to make a picture 
not easily surpassed for beauty and completeness. 

Here, despite unfavourable weather, we passed a delight 
ful week, visiting the neighbouring outposts as time and weather 

One day was devoted to the visitation of Sandy Beach. 
And surely a confirmation service could scarcely be held under 
more depressing circumstances. Rain ! rain ! rain ! All night 
and all day it came down as though it had not rained before for 
months. It came in at the windows and down through the 
roof, until everything and everybody were thoroughly wet and 
uncomfortable. And yet through that pelting shower came not 
only the Bishop, cheerful as ever in spite of wet, but also a 
good congregation, among others many much -bedraggled youths 
and maidens, who had tramped a distance of several miles, 


seeking the Divine blessing through the appointed channel of 
confirmation. No small proof, I thought, of religious earnest 

Two other days were spent in visiting the Missions of Pen 
insula and Little Gaspe, on the northern side of Gaspe Bay, 
in both of which places churches have been built. Little Gaspe 
is especially interesting a weird place ; wild, rocky, and 
desolate, lying far out on the neck of land which terminates in 
the promontory of Cape Gaspe. Here a congregation of fifty 
devout people assembled to worship God, and listen to His 
Message from the Bishop s lips. 

Returning we had to wait for the Indian ferryman, John 
Lambert, who manages his boat with a dignity and gravity that 
would well befit an admiral. Very different he from his brother- 
in-law, Lewis, his mate, who wears a countenance made up of 
smiles and good-humour. Both men have faces of leather, and 
fierce bristly moustachios. They are tri-lingual, speaking not 
only Indian, but also after a fashion French and English. 
The last remnants of their race, living monuments of the past, 
they serve to remind us Christians that we must justify our 
presence in their hunting-grounds by the lives we live and the 
principles we act upon ! 

As we waited for this Lambert s boat there came streaming 
down the hill-side towards us a procession of nondescript 
vehicles laden with a party of shipwrecked immigrants who had 
been cast ashore in a fog at Fox River, fifteen miles away. 

These poor people, as we gathered from their conversation, 
had been saved by the courage of a young sailor, who, in their 
extremity, plunged into the breakers the wind blowing half a 
gale at the time and reached the shore with a line, by means 
of which a cable was presently stretched across the wild waters 
from the wreck, over which, by the aid of a basket, the poor 
creatures were in due course safely drawn. 

They had indeed come through great tribulation. But as 
they approached us on the shores of Gaspe Bay we overheard 
one of them exclaiming, "How lovely! This repays us for all 
our troubles." No doubt the man was sentimental ; but was 
there not yet a deep truth in what he said ? 

M 2 

I ",O HAQPW [Mission Field. 

UAfeFL. I May lf 18g6 

When we reach the land that is very far off and see the 
King in His beauty, then shall we indeed be compensated for 
all our troubles in this world of woe. And thus Gaspe 
Land s End may be to us a type of what shall be at the end 
of the world. For "the sufferings of this present time are 
not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be 
revealed in us." 

The whole of this coast region, though as yet it is little 
more than a fringe of settlement following the sea line round a 
vast unsettled wilderness ; though the people are chiefly poor 
fishermen, simple in habits, not wide in information or culture, 
easy-going, and by no means ablaze with that fiery ambition 
which impels men to great achievements this whole region is 
as happy, if not happier, than other and more favoured climes, 
where the accidents of mere outward circumstance are more 
regarded than the essentials of inward peace. 

Not easily forgotten was the service of ordination, held in 
the pretty church at Sandy Beach, whose tower looks out above 
the fir-trees over the waters of the Bay. Coming from every 
quarter from the Basin, from Peninsula and Little Gaspe, from 
the Barachois and Douglastown, the people flocked at the 
appointed hour, many of them walking or sailing long distances 
to witness the solemn ceremony. 

The hush when, the first hymn over, the Bishop s sermon 
began, telling of the responsibility resting alike on him to be 
ordained and them to whom he was to minister ; the searching 
questions put and answered ; the words of solemn warning 
addressed by the chief officer to him who sought the holy office 
of a priest in the Church of God ; and then the final act of 
ordination the laying of holy hands upon the bowed head ; 
and the sacred words, awful in their weight of meaning, setting 
apart here in this sequestered spot among the hills of Gaspe, 
amid the rustling fir-trees, and within hearing of the ceaseless 
murmur of the waves, one other human agent to be a life-long 
fisher of men and shepherd of God s sheep all combined to 
make the occasion one of the very deepest solemnity, long to 
be remembered by all present, especially by the good people of 
the coast, to whom it was as novel as it was impressive. 



ET us look at our position for a moment topographically. In 
the Delhi and South Panjab districts, worked by the S.P.G. 
and Cambridge Mission, we have before us a widely-spread 
tract of country, reaching north and south 125 miles, from 
Karnaul to Riwari, and east and west 110 miles, from Delhi 
to Hissar ; then situated centrally to the chord, but not to the circumference, 
we find dominating these many hundreds of thousands in all that con 
stitutes interest and importance, the old yet ever young city of Delhi, 
which rolls on to us from the past through many miles of ruins of tombs, 
mosques, and forts, that are typical of kings, invaders, fights, and blood 
shed, to the knives, scissors, and cotton goods which now flood our bazaars, 
and are highly typical of the somewhat commonplace present. 

Now what are we doing to bring a knowledge of the one life-giving 
religion home to the hearts of this vast mass of people ? To answer clearly 
what we are doing, it is best, though, perhaps, rather aggravating, to ask 
another question Why are we doing it ? This is rather like dashing 
oneself against a problem which at present is probably unsolvable. People 
are often talking of " the problem of the conversion of India," till one is 
rather sick of it ; I have done it any number of times during the twenty- 
five years of mainly useless letters I have written to the Society. A good 
seventy-five years before that it was talked of ; it was brought prominently 
forward when, seven years ago, the Delhi Mission underwent a kind of 
second birth or inoculation by the infusion into its old life of the fresher 
blood of Cambridge, yet somehow or other we do not seem to get much 
nearer the solving of it. The only present answer is, " work in trust and 
prayer," yet work must be on certain lines, and be done with a reason and 
an object, else its aim will be crooked though the bow be bent ever so 
tight. I am not going, in the face of elaborate treatises by great Oxford 
professors or retired governors of Indian provinces, to venture on a dis 
section of the "Indian mind," or that mysterious, unconnected, unfathom 
able, clueless thing, its " mode of thought," but simply to state the difficulty 
which comes most to the surface in our dealings with the people, from 
humble day-labourers to acute college students ; and this is, their intensely 
materialised views of life, and the weakness of the spiritual faculty, and of 
all that should be based on trust and not on sight. Practically the hearts 
of the people are wholly centred in the present, that is, the limit of their 

mTluTTTT ("Mission Field, 

JUELHI. L May 1, 18tf. 

aims for profit or pleasure, and teaching which aims at a higher future 
ideal seems hardly to find the latent capacity that is needed to lay hold of 
it. An abundance of acute argument is readily forthcoming, but it is the 
merest and most soul-depressing logomachy, a fighting over the superficial 
use of words, not over their inner teaching, and you feel it would be 
almost as fruitful to attempt to convert the cheap highly-glazed Manchester 
prints of the Delhi traders into the serviceable cotton garments they are 
supposed to represent, as to make spiritual thoughts find a home in hearts 
and minds that are wholly fixed on the balance between profit and loss. 
The spiritual faculty is there, but is well-nigh dead. 

This, you will say, is a discouraging outlook, and so, indeed, except to 
Christians it would be ; but still the facts which call it forth lie very much 
at the bottom of our present and past endeavours. I feel, therefore, that 
we must direct our efforts to whatever will leaven this great materialistic 
lump before us, and which will educate the hidden spiritual aspirations 
which are overlain, well-nigh like the baby in Solomon s trial, by the all 
too solid mass of worldly principle around them. 

To do this we must try to reach for after all it is little but tnjing that 
we can do the different and often strangely conflicting elements that con 
stitute the Indian body politic. I will almost at haphazard take one cf 
our means of approaching the adult part of the population the public 
preaching. This is carried on every week in five parts of the city. Our 
leader in this is Mr. Lefroy, who, with one or two catechists, preaches at 
two of the appointed stations^ and one or other of the Missionaries is 
generally present at one of the others. Our two best stations are, one at 
the west end of the Chandney Chauk, with a broad roadway in front of it 
leading up to the gate of the Fathpuii Masjid, the second largest mosque of 
Delhi, built with two others by the daughters of Aurunzebe ; the other in 
a wide open space to the west of the Jama Masjid, the Mohammedan 
"cathedral" of Delhi. At these places a crowd of fairly well-to-do, 
decently-dressed people collects round the preachers, and listens to a con 
nected address. The same people often come week by week, and many 
stop to the end of the discourse ; many, however, go away, and several who 
stop do not listen ; but these characteristics, in wish or fact, are, I believe, 
not unknown among well-trained listeners within even some of our 

My opinion, approaching after long experience to conviction, is that the 
present function of bazaar preaching is not so much to set before the people 
Christian doctrines, as to prepare them for them. Our main object now is 
to stir them up to some elementary knowledge of the difference between 
righteousness and sin ; of this they receive but scant instruction in home, 
mosque, or temple ; and our public preaching is nearly the only thing that 
brings holiness, as distinguished from ceremonial worship or caste duty, 
before the mass of the people. They are not yet in a position to appre 
ciate those spiritual truths of Christianity which can only be spiritually 

The same kind of preaching, only carried on in a more quiet and con- 

"fiS S. f ] ST. STEPHEN S COLLEGE. 155 

versational manner, goes on in the country districts. Mr. Carlyon is the 
one of us who has mostly freed himself from city ties, that he may have 
liberty for longer itinerations. I shall speak more fully of our village work 
later on, but in this respect it forms a very important part of our efforts to 
reach the adult population ; it has received a more lively impetus of late 
from a magic lantern with slides on Scripture subjects introduced by 
Mr. Martin, who by the light of his lantern, and the energetic life of his 
descriptions, has largely increased the numbers of the village audiences. 

May I now make a leap from these attempts to reach the grown up 
people, to a group of institutions that touch a higher class, and have more 
individual influence, i.e., St. Stephen s College, High School, and seven 
branch schools. There are only two salient points in the scheme aimed 
at, to which I can refer in this general sketch of our plan of operations. 
One is the important position which the college, properly so called, 
is assuming in Delhi. You doubtless know that the term "college" 
in India is used technically of a place of education that teaches up 
to the B.A. degree, as distinguished from " schools," which only pre 
pare boys for the matriculation or lower examinations. St. Stephen s 
is the only Christian college north of Agra, it is therefore of con 
siderable and rapidly increasing value, both by its teaching and by in 
tercourse with the teachers, in leavening the minds of several of the best 
educated young men of North India with Christian truth. I say " several," 
because there is a larger Government college at Lahore, where the system 
omits to train the moral or spiritual part of man, but which attracts to its, 
in this degree, limited scheme of instruction a larger number of pupils. 
The other point is at the other end of a pupil s career, i.e., the considerable 
number of young boys collected in our subsidiary branch schools, which, 
so to speak, tap the lay population at a number of widely-separated centres, 
in endeavours to give a higher tone of truth and morality to the rising 
generation. Work of this kind is bound to be fruit-bearing, but it is very 
unshowy ; it is long in bearing fruit, and when borne it can hardly be 
touched, for the slow improvement of a mass of boys from generation to 
generation is a thing not quickly realised, and least of all by those who 
are working the improvement. But for these schools some hundreds of 
young boys would be left to the unreligious schools of Government, or be 
left to drift about the streets, and add to the already large population of 
idle and dissipated blackguards. 

I will now ask you to go with me to the opposite end of the social scale 
and see our little schools for leather workers and day labourers of many 
sorts. There are twenty-live schools of this kind, of which nine are in 
Delhi, each placed among the people for whose children they are intended. 
Thanks to Mr. Carlyon s help the course of teaching has been much im 
proved of late, a definite, wholly vernacular standard being appointed for 
four classes, and the boys who pass through the whole may get a very fair 
education without being made unfit for their fathers trades. Several of 
the boys are Christians, and thus this system of teaching forms the pre 
paring ground for our central training school for readers and school 

1 ff T\TS>r TTT fMission Field, 

lOO UELHI. L May 1.1885. 

teachers under Mr. Carlyon s supervision. This is a boarding-school. 
They live with their native headmaster in Mr. Carlyon s compound, and 
attend the daily services in St. Stephen s. The second batch of four or 
five passed out last May, and as from time to time these young men, with 
their Christian wives, go out to country villages, I believe they will much 
improve the Christians among whom they are sent, and attract others to 
the Christian brotherhood. Difficulties, I need hardly say, often arise 
from temper, jealousy, and other human infirmities ; but the men are 
immeasurably superior to the class of teachers of five or six years ago. 

This leads me to speak of our city parishes, of which the little schools 
of which I have been writing form an important part. They number 
eight, as in former years, unless indeed the Cambridge Mission compound, 
with its very respectable number of fifty-seven Christians, may be said to 
form a ninth. My own work of this kind has been lessened, or rather, 
more concentrated, by my having been relieved of one of my former four 
parishes (such pluralism our Liberationist friends will say is another 
trumpet-call for disestablishment) by Mr. Maitland, and of another by 
Mr. Martin. This still leaves two to my care, and the charge of those 
in the Mission compound or scattered over the city. 

Speaking of this part of our work generally, I should say that our chief 
step in advance has been one backwards, i.e., to reduce our numbers either 
by formal excommunication, or to remove the names of those who have 
practically, if not avowedly, lapsed. Excommunication is, I need hardly 
say, resorted to only in very extreme cases for instance, when men have 
openly in a public meeting renounced Christianity, or by betrothing their 
children in non-Christian families have shown that they tend more towards 
their old brotherhoods than to the Christian Church. Our numbers of 
baptised persons are now reduced to 915, as against the very rough calcu 
lation last year of 1,024. The position is so far better, that we can now 
lay our hands on each of our present number, and know his exact position. 
An interesting paper has lately been printed by Mr. Lefroy, about his 
.work of this description in the most southern quarter of the city, so I will 
say no more about it. 

Our work outside the city partly combines the itinerations to which I 
liave before referred above, and partly is on the lines of our city parish 
system. Taking for various reasons some one central town, we place a 
headman there in charge of a circle of villages, primarily those in which 
there are Christians or a school, but with the further duty of preaching to 
the village population within his own district. 

During the past year a total of forty-one adults and fifty children were 
baptised ; none of the former need any comment. The services in St. 
Stephen s have gone on daily, with the help of the boys of the Christian 
Boarding School in the choir. Our largest Communion in the year was 
144 at two celebrations on Christmas Day. 

of % Htmrifc. 

WE are glad to learn that the Bishop of Peterborough s 
health has somewhat improved. His lordship has, how 
ever, been obliged to give up his intention of preaching the 
Annual Sermon in St. Paul s Cathedral. The preacher on that 
occasion will be the Lord Bishop of Ripon. 

TN addition to the speakers at the Society s Annual Public 
J- Meeting in St. James s Hall on June 3rd, whose names 
have been already announced the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and the Rev. R. R. Winter, of Delhi the Bishop of London, 
H. S. ISTorthcote, Esq., C.B., M.P., the Bishop of Brisbane 
(elect), and the Bishop (Selwyn) of Melanesia, have promised 
to address the meeting. 

A VERY interesting meeting on behalf of the Ladies 
-^- Association was held on the Festival of the Annunciation 
in the Jerusalem Chamber at Westminster. The Chair was 
taken by the Lord Bishop of Newcastle, and addresses were 
delivered by the Dean of Windsor, J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., 
the Rev. E. H. Bickersteth, and the Rev. George Billing. 

S~\N April I0th the Rev. George Billing, M.A., formerly the 
^^ Society s Secretary in Madras, sailed from England to 
undertake the duties of the Secretaryship in Calcutta. 

FROM British Guiana we regret to hear of the death of a 
promising young clergyman, the Rev. F. Critchley. Mr. 
Critchley, who was a student of St. Augustine s College, Can 
terbury, was approved for Missionary work in Guiana so 
recently as July, 1883. He succumbed to fever. 

THE Rev. W. H. Ullmann, who has had experience of 
Church work in Sydney as well as at home, left England 
on April 15th to take up the work at Port Darwin and the 
surrounding district in North Australia. This part of the 


continent has lately become prominent, and its settlement is 
likely to increase. Mr. Ullmann is not only deeply interested 
in Colonial work, but in Missions to the Chinese Coolies and 
the aborigines. It will be remembered that he contributed a 
preface to a book by the Rev. J. B. Gribble, of Warangesda, 
Black, lut Comely, on the subject of the Missions to the 
aborigines in Australia. 

WE have to make an announcement of the gravest import 
to the Colonial and Missionary dioceses of the Church, 
that the Society will be compelled to make serious reductions 
in its allotments of grants for next year. 

It is impossible to measure all that this will mean. In all 
quarters the grants are insufficient, and seem scarcely capable 
of reduction. On the other hand, pleas for increase are almost 
as urgent as those for the maintenance of the aid hitherto 
given. Some paragraphs which we print below give examples 
of the great straits of the several Missions for lack of means. 
Work in many parts presses for immediate expansion, lest 
opportunities be lost. The Telugu Missions, for instance, in 
the diocese of Madras, it is scarcely less than a crying shame 
to leave undeveloped in their present state of readiness to 
grow almost indefinitely. 

They, however, do not stand alone. The opportunity is in 
the present, whether we look to the Missions in Asia, Africa, or 
almost any part of the world. When, too, are we to begin many 
a new field that is waiting for the workers ? When are we to 
enter upon Corea, which the President spoke of last year at the 
Annual Meeting, or New Guinea, or the North Borneo Territory? 

Would that Churchmen would lay these things to heart ! It 
is supposed that the present year is likely to be one in which 
there will be much financial embarrassment in England, and 
consequently fewer people will be able to give out of their 
abundance. Is there not, therefore, the more need for earnest 
effort, and for large offerings out of self-denial. 

TjlMERSON, in the diocese of Rupertslarid, has felt the 
JL^ pressure of financial difficulties severely. The popu 
lation is now only about one-third of what it was two 


years ago. The Rev. S. Mills, the Missionary, reports on his 
work there, and at the out-stations in all directions, and the 
way in which the services are appreciated. At Dominion City, 
ten miles north, he has established a fortnightly service : 

" Congregation very good, some driving over the prairies a distance/of 
seven miles in order to attend. One family had not heard the Church 
service for nearly six years. The services there are held in the afternoon 
(I driving out after morning service in Emerson, and returning in time for 
the evening service). 

"The little Mission has prospered wonderfully, and a short time ago, 
having an opportunity of purchasing an empty Methodist church, we 
secured it, and two lots of land for $500. We have been able to pay, 
thanks to the generosity of our Bishop, the first instalment of $100. The 
balance we hope to pay off in four annual payments. Then, of course, 
we have to fit it inside, so that we may be able to know and feel where 
and in whose presence we are worshipping. The Metropolitan of liuperts- 
land preached the opening sermon in the little church. 

" I hope to procure a lay assistant, and, if successful, will have a service 
there every Sunday. 

" The Church people in the neighbourhood are very enthusiastic, but 
being for the most part new beginners, are not in a position to do ail that 
they would wish to do. 

"North-west of Emerson, distant six miles, is a district called the 
Marrais. That I visited during the summer, and held a service in a school- 
house. There was a large congregation, but our service seemed very strange 
and new to them. After the service I explained the service, telling them 
how the people were to take their part in praying to and praising the great 
Father of us all. I have been told that there are fourteen families out in 
that neighbourhood who are anxious to have the services of our Church, 
and who have offered to procure a room, if only I can go. 

"What am I to do? I have no horse, and cannot afford to get one. 
Every trip I take when I hire one costs $2.50 more than I can well afford. 
My Sundays are completely taken up, and yet every Sunday I feel that I 
am only doing half of what really ought to be done." 

WRITING in December, the Rev. S. Samuelson, of St. 
Paul s, Zululand, though expecting further troubles, 
was able to send a surprisingly cheering account of a respite : 

" We have often said the prayer to be used in time of war and tumults, 
and God. lias granted perfect peace and security to this station at least. I 
have found great comfort in the ninety-first Psalm since my return here. 

"I have been able to carry on the spiritual work uninterrupted, and 
often had my small church full. It cannot be denied that the heathens^ 
who have returned to their homes after the war, though they come occa 
sionally some regularly to service, seem rather hardened than softened 

NOTES OF THE MONTH. r M ji?5i di 

by their misfortunes. But this is more than counterbalanced by the 
number of relatives my Christians brought with them from the Reserve, 
and who are now living on the station." 

FN spite of all external trials of wars, drought, and famine, 
-*- the Rev. Charles Johnson, Missionary at St. Augustine s, 
Zululand, is able to report that 

"During the past year there have been fifty-two baptisms, thirty-six 
confirmations, one marriage, and seventeen burials." 

What a fearful view of part of the horrors of war is the 
following : 

" We have fifty-six refugees here with us who are entirely destitute ; with 
a very few exceptions they are all women, girls, or children, or very old 
men. M*st of them have lost their natural protectors during this last 
war, either father, brother, or husband." 

rnHE Rev. W. Brereton, of Peking, is able to report that 

-* "In spite of the hostile feelings against foreigners excited by 
rumours of war, we are at least holding our own in Peking, if not making 
some slight advances." 

There is, however, a strong anti-foreign feeling, but the 
animus is against the foreigners rather than against the religious 
teacher. The native agents of the Church are well received, 
and there is a growing recognition among the people of 
Christianity as a religious fact, imposing definite religious duties 
and usages. 

NEARLY all the reports from Capetown diocese tell the 
same tale of the difficulties occasioned by pecuniary 
depression in the colony. Nevertheless the effect of the 
Church s work grows. For instance, the Rev. C. F. Atkinson, 
who has recently been placed at Uniondale, where the Mission 
has bad a chequered past, and where he found a debt of 100, 
writes : 

" I felt that the first and best thing would be to increase the number and 
improve the character of the services. We therefore commenced early 
matins daily, evening service twice a week, and, at the present time, besides 
these, we have a weekly celebration of the holy sacrament, children s 
services, special addresses, classes, &c. These means of reviving the work 
have, I am thankful to say, succeeded beyond my expectations, and I think 
I may venture to say that the work looks more hopeful and encouraging 


than it has for some time past. We have now also a surpliced choir, and at 
the Bishop s visitation in September last, sixteen candidates presented 
themselves for confirmation, and the Bishop appeared well pleased with the 
general condition of the parish. 

" The parsonage was in a very bad state when I arrived and had at once 
to be repaired and cleansed. This increased our debt (of which I spoke 
before) to about .140. By various means this debt has now been nearly 
liquidated, but the condition of the colony is now so depressed that it is 
difficult even to raise the 25 or 30 still owing." 

ANOTHER Capetown clergyman, the Rev. Canon James 
Baker, of Kalk Bay, reports that his parish has secured 
excellent new school-buildings. 

Canon Baker was called upon to give evidence before a 
Committee of the House of Assembly on the subject of the 
increase of leprosy. He drew up a paper on the subject, 
which was published by the Government. On account of his 
researches in this and other branches of science, he has been 
elected a Fellow of the Linnsean Society of London. 

His time is much occupied in attending to cases of sickness 
among the poor. 

AT Papendorp, in the same diocese, the Rev. G. F. Gresley 
reports the building of a new Rectory House : 

" The foundation stone of which was laid in April of the present year 
(1884), and the building completed in August. The cost has been 800, 
of which about 600 has been raised. It is built as a memorial to the late 
Dr. Arnold, and is admirably suited to its purpose on ground adjoining the 
churchyard, in centre of the village." 

The Rev. Dr. Arnold, the famous Mohammedan Missionary, 
was Rector of Papendorp, at his death in December, 1881. 

REVOLUTION has been disturbing the scene of the works 
for the Panama Canal. The Rev. S. Kerr, the Society s 
Missionary there, has written to the Bishop of Jamaica an 
account of his recent work. We are indebted to his lordship 
for the following extracts : 

" On reaching Colon from Bas-Obispo on Monday morning, I found the 
town in a great commotion. Panama was in a state of revolution, portions 
of the rail were ripped up, the telegraph wire cut two miles on the line, 
The marines were called out from the U.S. steamer of war (Galena) to 

162 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M S?. f^ 

protect foreign interests. The revolutionists had gained possession of the 
town. A conflict is momently expected. The commodore of the U.S. 
steamer kindly offered me his protection in the case of need, and to bring 
my family on board whenever I felt disposed. 

"Yesterday the whole town was astir, removing from the quarters where 
the fight is expected to take place. Flags of all nationalities are floating, 
among them is seen my British ensign." 

Since we received this letter, the newspapers have announced 
that the town of Colon, or Aspinwall, has been burnt. 

EVERY step towards self-support in the infant Japanese 
Church is encouraging. The Rev. E. C. Hopper writes, 
in telling of a visit to a country church in January : 

"The Christians hnd collected about $10 towards re-roofing the church 
there. Nothing is, I think, so good a test of real solid faith as this, as a 
Missionary in China once said to me, If you want to convert a Chinaman, 
you must convert his pocket as well as his heart, and I expect the same 
rule holds good more or less all over the world." 

Of no less importance, surely, are the beginnings of the 
native ministry, and Mr. Hopper is able to report on the 
ordination of his native catechist, Yamagata, after passing 
"a very fair examination" in a wide range of theological 
subjects. In this case, too, the cheering element of self-help 
conies out, for a fair proportion of the new deacon s income is 
forthcoming from the native Churchmen. 

ST. MATTHIAS DAY was fixed for Yamagata s ordination, 
which Mr. Hopper thus describes : 

" Having got through all our preliminaries in the week before, so as to 
allow a short time for spiritual exercises, the service began at 10 a.m. in 
Little Ushigorae Church. Prayers were read by Messrs. Tai and Kanai, 
who, as you know, were ordained deacons two years ago, Mr. Shimada 
reading the first lesson, Mr. Tai the second. The sermon was preached by 
Rev. A. C. Shaw from Rev. iii., Hold fast that thou hast, that no man 
take away thy crown. Speaking chiefly of St. Matthias, Mr. Shaw dwelt 
on the warning, of ministry being taken away from unfaithful stewards 
and given to others. 

"I was archdeacon, and presented, and after the Bishop had said the 
litany, Mr. Lloyd took the first part of the Communion Service, Mr. 
Yamagata of course reading the gospel. 

"I can but think that Mr. Yamagata s ordination is an immense step in 
our work in Japan. It is only about twelve years since the first S.P.G. 


Missionaries arrived there, and at that time there were, I believe, some ten 
baptised Christians of all denominations in the whole country. Now we 
have in onr own Church three deacons as the nucleus of a Japanese 

Mr. Hopper himself is now on his way to seek much-needed 
rest in England. He hopes to reach this country in May. 

A REMITTANCE of 5 4s. 6d. from the parish of Crookham, 
JTJL near Farnham, deserves notice on account of the way in 
which it was raised. The Rev. W. G. Wickham in forwarding 
it, says : 

" It is the result of my asking the people in the parish to take Missionary 
boxes during Lent. I sent out forty boxes. The money was offered to 
God at the second celebration this morning (the first Sunday after Easter). 
You might like to know of this, as it is a plan that might do well, and .5 
is easily collected in this way, and many of the boxholders will have their 
boxes again to go on collecting. There are about 1,100 people in this 
country parish." 

FROM Tokio the Rev. A. Lloyd, who went from his English 
benefice to Japan last year, we have received some 
interesting notes. He has established a close connection 
between his school and a large and most important native 
school, under a Mr. Fukuyana, who is described as a "leader 
of Japanese thought. " 

" His school numbers over 300 scholars of all ages. He is the Editor of 
the J iji Shlmpo, which is certainly the leading newspaper in the capital. 
He has also translated many books into Japanese. For many years he haa 
been a bitter opponent of Christianity ; now he is favourably inclined to 
it, though he still occasionally gives the Missionaries a bit of his mind in 
his paper. 

"As I write, moreover, I am contemplating the possibility of teaching 
Christianity to some students in the University. They are well-educated 
English scholars, so that the language is no difficulty." 

Besides such extension of influence, Mr. Lloyd has various 
translation projects on foot, and sees openings for local ex 

"We have prospects of an immediate extension of our work. Some 
Christians belonging to the Church at Yokohama are forming themselves 
into a congregation, and are appealing to us for spiritual aid, which they 
cannot get from the English chaplain at Yokohama, who is ignorant of 

" At Mayebasln a large town about forty miles inland, connected with 
this by rail there is a proposal to start an English teacher." 


TMission Field. 
L May 1, 1886 


THE Monthly Meeting of "the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
April 17th, at 2 P.M., the Master of the Charterhouse in the Chair. There 
were also present thirty other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
March 31st : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January March, 1885. 


Donations, and 



Rents, &c. 




















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of March in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-1 
tions . . ./ 









1 456 


Dividends, Rents, &c 







10 543 

12 068 

9 536 

10 503 

8 716 

3. The Rev. J. C. Whitley, from Chota Nagpore, addressed the meeting. 

4. Notice was given of the following motion to be brought forward at 
the next meeting by the Rev. S. Arnott : 

"That the practice of submitting to the Board the schedule of Grants as 
drawn up by the Standing Committee be continued as it existed before the year 

5. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in February were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in June : 

Rev. F. M. Sparks, Crescent House, Billericay ; Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe 
Pypard, Wootton Bassett ; Rev. J. L. Robinson, Hamilton Villa, Hyde Road, 
Greenwich ; Rev. E. H. Morton, Rectory, Tooting, S.W. ; Rev. A. J. C. Allen, 
Cherry Hinton Vicarage, Cambridge ; Rev. S. L Estrange Malone, The Cathedral, 
"Worcester ; Rev. Herbert Hall Woodward, The Cathedral, Worcester ; Charles 
Richardson, Esq., 13, St. Julian s Road, Kilburn, N.W. ; Rev. G. J. Story, 
Rochester Villa, Lonsdale Road, Barnes, S.W. ; Rev. J. Haslock Potter, Holy 
Trinity, Upper Tooting, S.W. ; Rev. W. S. Wood, D.D., Higham, Rochester; 
Rev. A. L. Coates, The Precincts, Rochester ; Rev. C. Colson, Cuxtou, Rochester, 
and the Rev. E. C. Robinson, Catford, S. E. 



JUNE 1, 1885. 


HE following important document is the reply 
which the two Archbishops and the four Bishops 
who had been requested by "the Church Council 
in Natal" to "select and consecrate "a successor 
to Dr. Colenso, have returned to that body : 

REVEREND Sift, . LoNDON > ramua v 6tk > 1885 

We address to you, as "President of the Church 
Council in Natal," our answer to the request which you have 
forwarded to us from that body, that we "would select and 
consecrate a clergyman of the Church of England to be Bishop 
of Natal in succession to the late Bishop Colenso." 

We fully recognise the gravity of the circumstances which 
have led to the making this request, and the responsibility 
which rests upon ourselves in either acceding or declining to 
accede to it. 

The documents that you have laid before us show that the 
Queen has been advised by her Privy Council not to appoint 
any successor to the late Bishop of Natal by letters patent ; 
and that the appointment, if made at all, must be made in 
some other way. 




The delegation which the Council has conferred upon us 
supposes consequences to ensue which we are advised we have 
no legal competency to secure. 

It further appears to us that the consecration of a Bishop in 
succession to Bishop Colenso must necessarily perpetuate a 
state of things which partakes very nearly of the character of a 
schism, and which, in past years, whether avoidable or not, we 
have always regarded with profound anxiety and regret. 

If there is one thing more than another which the daughter 
churches of the Church of England in foreign lands require to 
possess, it is the Note of Unity. One in the Apostolic Faith, 
one in the Apostolic Order, one in all essential points of 
ecclesiastical discipline, using the same Book of Common 
Prayer, strengthened by the same Sacraments, building up all 
teaching on the same divine Word of God, surely no minor 
questions of property or temporal rights ought to separate 
those who on so many and such vital grounds are called upon 
to regard each other as brethren. 

Whether there be any defects or not in the organisation of 
the Church of the Province of South Africa a question upon 
which we do not feel it necessary to enter it must be re 
membered that that Church is in full spiritual communion with 
the Church of England, and accepts identically the same 
standards of faith, even if it does not feel bound to go for the 
interpretation of those standards, in case of need, to the same 
tribunals. Nor indeed has it any legal access to that tribunal, 
which, for the Church of England, is the Court of Final Appeal 
in Causes Ecclesiastical. 

You tell us that this reservation, based upon the terms of 
the third Proviso attached to the first Article of the Con 
stitution of the Church of South Africa, "has been declared 
by judicial decision to have separated that Church root and 
branch from the Church of England." Remembering the case 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Ireland, and what the 
XXXIVth Article seems to claim as the right of particular" 
Churches, we cannot consider that any such separation has 
been accomplished, or is contemplated. The Church of South 
Africa, for purposes of holding property, may not be as Chief 

f] THE PEOVISO. 167 

Justice Sir Henry de Villiers said it was not " a part of the 
Church of England," but it is at any rate in full spiritual com 
munion with the Church of England. It must be recollected 
that the judgment of the Lords of the Committee of the Privy 
Council (in the appeal of Merriman v. Williams), which asserted 
so strongly that the "divergence of the two Churches is present 
and actual," had reference solely to the devolution of rights of 
property, with regard to which lawyers, of course, interpret the 
language of a trust with the greatest possible strictness. But, 
in the present case, far higher interests and far more important 
issues are involved than any which can be connected with the 
mere title to property. No consideration for any amount of 
" valuable temporalities " would justify us in taking any step 
which would perpetuate a regretable and unnecessary separa 
tion, if by any possible course of conduct that separation could 
be healed. 

The Council not unnaturally desire to maintain " all identity 
with and submission to the Mother Church that is practicably 
possible in a Colony." The question is, "What is practicably 
possible ? " 

The third Proviso of the first Article of the Constitution of 
the Church of South Africa may or may not be wise ; but their 
lordships, in the judgment already referred to, expressly say : 
" Where the other Church is that of a colony possessing an 
independent legislature, there must be differences, as, for instance, 
in the appointment of bishops and in the erection of courts, 
such as necessarily result from the difference of political circum 
stances in which the Church of England and the other Church 
find themselves placed." 

If the " present and actual divergence " of the two Churches 
is so great as to affect the devolution of property, there is a 
legal mode of removing this difficulty, without any perpetuation 
of the breach of ecclesiastical unity, which all must deplore. 
The powerlessness of which the Council complains, to devote 
endowments, whether in money or buildings, to the purposes 
contemplated by their donors such purposes presumably being 
the promotion of the interests of religion in the colony of 
Natal could certainly be removed by legislative enactment, if 

N 2 



TMission Field, 
L June 1, 1885. 

not by some process much simpler and less costly than 

We have not yet been informed of the result of the Con 
ference that you tell us was proposed to be held between a 
Committee of the Church Council of Natal and a corresponding 
Committee of the Church of South Africa ; but we cannot help 
hoping that the Conference has been able to agree upon some 
plan for re- union, likely to be mutually acceptable. 

We have to consider, not only the immediate effect, but the 
possible, and the even probable, consequences of such action on 
our part as that to which you invite us ; and we cannot think 
that such a step would be conducive to the welfare of the 
Church of Christ in South Africa, by whatsoever designation it 
may be known, nor to the cause of peace, unity, and brother 
hood, in the Christian world. 

We are, Reverend Sir, with an earnest prayer that God may 
guide us all in this matter to what is best for His Church, your 
faithful brothers in Christ, 








| OR two consecutive years the Society has been in 
the happy position of being able to enlarge its 
grants to the several dioceses abroad, and we have 
been able to show in the Mission Meld in some 
detail the new work upon which the increased " spending 
power " of the Society enabled it to enter. 

This year, however, we have a very different tale to tell. A 
smaller sum is available for expenditure, no new work whatever 
can be entered on, all openings, opportunities, and entreaties 
have in stern necessity had to be treated as though they were 
not, and reductions to the extent of no less than 3,676 have 
been made on nineteen of the grants for different parts of the 

The extent to which some of the dioceses will be straitened 
by these reductions it is of course impossible for us to describe. 
From most of them had come urgent appeals for more ; how 
grievous will be the disappointment at finding that there is 
even less than before allotted to them ! 

The following table shows the reductions which have been 
made : 

Quebec . . > .- ,.,.-,, . . . 300 

Fredericton .. > . . . . . . . . . 350 

Nova Scotia ... . . ."". . . . 450 

Newfoundland (50 pension and 300 block grant) . 350 
Saskatchewan (160, of which 150 hitherto allowed to 
the Bishop is set free by the completion of the 

Bishopric Endowment Fund) . . . . . 160 

Honduras . . . 50 

Capetown . . . . .../". . . 400 
Grahamstown (40 Colonial Missions, and 60 Scholar 
ships) . . . . . . v ... 100 
Tristan d Acunlia . 100 


Calcutta (the saving in rent of Secretary s house 200 

and pensions 146) 346 

Lahore (Medical Missionary 60, Cambridge Missionaries 

Madras . . . . . . . . . 

Bombay . 

Assyrian Christians 

Sydney . . . . . . . . . 

North Queensland . . . . . . . - ; 

Norfolk Island . , % 

New Caledonia . 


A more painful task could hardly have been put before the 
Committee than that of weighing and judging as to the relative 
hardness of the reductions, and distributing the deficit of 
3,676 as harmlessly as possible. 

It is of course beyond our power and it is as certainly 
foreign to our wish to place before our readers any balancing 
of one diocese against another ; nor can we venture on ex 
plaining the considerations which have guided the Committee 
in their painful duty. 

A few of the reductions in the above list involved little or no 
hardship, as in that consequent upon the death of a pensioner 
in Newfoundland, the completion of the Endowment Fund 
in Saskatchewan, financial adjustments in Calcutta and Sydney, 
disuse of part of the grant in Lahore, or the departure of 
the Society s Missionary from New Caledonia ; and the with 
drawal of 50 from Norfolk Island has been remedied by a 
gift of that amount from a generous friend of the Society. 
These items, however, make up but a small part of the total, 
and we may say of the reductions as a whole that the Com 
mittee has made them only with grave regret and under the 
pressure of necessity. Even the recollection of the brave way 
in which Colonial dioceses have exerted themselves to meet 
previous reductions, can only slightly moderate regret for such 
curtailments as have had to be made this year. 

There is another aspect in which the Society s reduced 
" spending power " is to be regretted. Last year the Society 

885 d> ] THE APPLICATIONS. 171 

was able to take a sum of 2,952 belonging to a large number 
of Special Funds, and apply it (not in aid of the General Fund, 
but) by adding to it 3,572 from the General Fund, for new 
grants thus enabling the gifts of donors to Special Funds to 
be far more useful than they could have been unassisted. This 
year it was impossible to take any money from the General 
Fund for such a purpose, and the Committee has had to 
administer the amounts standing to the credit of the Special 
Funds simply, applying them to the objects of the respective 
funds, without being able to strengthen them from its General 

Our purpose in this paper as there are no new grants to 
t e ll of thus becomes almost a negative one. We have to 
place before our readers some account of the grants which 
have not been made, but which would doubtless have been 
made had funds been in hand for the purpose. 

In addition to the Annual Grants of the current year calling 
for renewal (amounting to 81,255), applications for increases 
estimated to amount to 11,380, and for special "single 
sum" grants of 6,620, were received. In other words, over 
21,000 additional would have been required to raise the 
sum (77,579) actually voted to the amount required for the 
year 1886. 

Taking the "single sums" asked for first, we find some cases 
of sees whose endowment is not complete, or even begun. A 
diocese in this condition is under great disadvantages, and the 
earliest efforts of benevolence towards it should be directed to 
remedying the absence or insufficiency of the provision for the 
chief pastor. 

It is well known how much the Society s grants (with those 
of the Colonial Bishoprics Council and the S.P.C.K.) have 
done towards calling out help for Colonial sees during their 
process of endowment. 

Algoma and Pretoria each asked for 1,000. Antigua 
diocese (which, as for many other things, so for his patient 
efforts to provide against the withdrawal of State aid at the 
next vacancy, by re-endowing the see for the benefit of posterity, 
owes so much to its venerated Bishop) asks for the modest sum 

172 THE SOCIETY S GRANTS FOR 1886. Ktti,38r 

of 500 towards the completion of the endowment. A new 
diocese is urgently needed on the West Coast of Africa, so that 
there may be a Bishop less remote than Sierra Leone to 
visit, and develop the interesting Missions on the Rio Pongo 
and the Isle de Los. 

The appeals for Annual Grants are far too numerous to be 
discussed at full length. 

Nearly every diocese shows reasons for desiring to enter 
upon larger expenditure so as to meet present requirements 
and opportunities. The South African dioceses make earnest 
appeals. The Bishop of Capetown, the grant to whose 
diocese is unfortunately reduced, asked for at least a tem 
porary increase so that a period of great distress might 
be tided over. In Grahamstown help is asked to assist 
in the establishment of six new European stations. In 
St. John s much help is wanted for native and Colonial 

In Maritzburg the Bishop wants to extend the work 
among Colonists, Natives, and Coolies ; and for the last 
alone wants no less than ten Missionary clergymen. The 
Bishop of Zululand pathetically asks as well he may, with 
all his trials, hardships and dangers "for all the aid 
the Society can give." Alas, that beyond renewing the 
grant it is none ! Bloemfontein and Pretoria have likewise 
their needs. 

These, however, are but specimens. Similar appeals come 
from all parts. The Bishop of Rupertsland, for instance, asks 
for a grant for seven new Missions ; and we need scarcely repeat 
what we have said so often of the dangers of delaying to supply 
newly-settled districts in Manitoba and the North- West with the 
ministrations of the Church. 

In Fiji more clergy are required for English-speaking people, 
and as Missionaries to the Coolies. 

The Bishop of Singapore asks for 100 per annum in aid of 
the salary of a Missionary Chaplain at Sandakan, in the new 
Colony of British North Borneo. Bombay and Madras call 
urgently for more Missionaries, and it is most painful to think 
of the fruitful Missions in those dioceses being ripe for large 

* ] EAST AND WEST. 173 

extension, which must be delayed simply because of the want 
of rupees. 

Japan is a like case. The way in which that marvellous land 
shows at the present time a receptivity for Western ideas, and 
its growing respect for Christianity, point to the present as the 
time for action. Japan is now so to speak plastic ; the wax 
is warm. Before long the national mind and spirit will have 
taken a shape that will, humanly speaking, be permanent. 
The alternative lies, to a great extent, in our hands, whether our 
pure religion is to be a chief factor in the national life of Japan, 
or not. 

We will conclude this brief survey of the appeals with a 
reference to two which do not come from a diocese. 

Corea is the great peninsula stretching from China towards 
Japan. At the last Annual Meeting the President spoke 
of its present and its future, its thirteen millions of people, 
and its being destined to be important to commerce. His 
Grace said that " it is quite certain that as soon as we 
can we must Christianise the country." When are we to 
begin ? 

The other appeal is in relation to work of a different kind to 
that in which the Society engages elsewhere, but as important 
perhaps as any. It is little known how numerous are the small 
communities of English people of slender means scattered over 
the Continent of Europe. In many the chaplains stipends 
derived from the offerings of the students, governesses, work 
men, and others, are quite inadequate. In many there is no 
chaplain a state of things of great gravity ; but there might 
well be one, were the Society able to make a small grant in aid 
of his stipend. 

We have made but an inadequate statement of the needs in 
all quarters of the globe which the Society is called upon to 
supply. We must let it speak for itself, and simply put it 
before the consciences of Churchmen, asking with all earnest 
ness, that in spite of all difficulties, in spite of the "hardness 
of the times," in spite of numerous claims of other kinds, the 
Church may rouse itself to enable the Society to do its great 



I Mission Field, 
L Juiie 1, 1885. 

The following Table shows the actual Grants for 1886 : 

Montreal .620 

Quebec 1,500 

Toronto (Pension) . . . . 32 

Huron (Rev. A. Jamieson) . 75 

Algoma 750 

Fredericton 1,250 

Nova Scotia 850 

Ditto, P. Edward s Island . 250 

Newfoundland 2,900 

Rupertsland 1,360 

Qu Appelle (including 400 

for Bishop s Income) . .1,200 

Saskatchewan 1,300 

Caledonia 200 

New Westminster .... 800 

Nassau 500 

Antigua 850 

Trinidad 100 

Guiana 770 

Jamaica (Panama) .... 200 

Windward Islands .... 200 

Sierra Leone 280 

Capetown (including College) 1,600 

Grahamstown, Colonial . . 360 

Ditto, Heathen .... 2,670 

St. John s 2,530 

Maritzburg . 2,125 

Zululand 600 

St. Helena . .275 

Bloemfontein 1,048 

Pretoria 900 

Mauritius 590 

Madagascar 3,500 

Calcutta, Bp. s Coll., Pensions 375 

Do. Missions 7,954 

Rangoon 4,075 

Lahore 2,475 

Ditto, Cambridge Mission . 680 

Madras 13,900 

Bombay 5,100 

Singapore, &c 


North China 1,150 

Japan 1,960 

Ditto for Bishop s Income . 500 

Adelaide Nrthrn. Territory 300 

North Queensland .... 100 

Perth 300 

Fiji 200 

Honolulu . 700 

t Constantinople 300 

Continental Chaplaincies . . 200 
; Education of Students . 185 




the eventful morning the sun rose on this town in 
its ordinary brilliance ; every face was beaming 
with joy, children happy in their mothers arms, 
and all as merry as the marriage bells. The sun 
went down, however, amid sorrow indescribable, for thousands 
of families were at that moment rendered helpless, ruined by a 
conflagration that destroyed not only the most valuable property 
in the town, but many lives ; and the prospects of those who 
were spared to see the coming day were blighted. 

It must be pretty well known that for the last few months 
the democratic party of the Colombian Republic, being dis 
satisfied with the rule of the reigning President of Bogota, 
commenced to wage war against the Government, taking 
possession of the several towns, cutting telegraph wires in 
every direction, ripping the rails of the P.R.R. Co., and seizing 
the personal estate of the most wealthy of the Government 

On the 14th of March last the rebels, headed by General 
Aizpuru, made a successful attack on Panama, and took pos 
session by force of arms. The Government there, being too 
weak to offer effectual resistance, summoned to its aid all 
the military and police who could be found residing in Colon. 
This town was thus left unprotected, and two days afterwards 
Prestan, a lawyer of some pretensions to learning, and who 
had previously engaged in revolutionary transactions, got up a 
band of rebels, and took charge of the town an act which was 
performed without loss of life, there being none to oppose the 
rebels. He claimed the position of military and civil chief 
in Colon, and all bowed at his shrine. His ranks were daily 
augmented from the lowest order of Colombians, Chilians, 
Greeks, Americans, and Jamaicans, who lived on the Isthmus. 


, 1885. 

Into these people s hands Prestan put rifles, and gave them all 
the power that the former police and military possessed. It 
was generally believed that the regulars from Panama would 
march into Colon shortly afterwards, when the rebels would 
throw down their arms, and seek refuge in the woods. But 
this hope was vain; for it appears that in Panama it was 
necessary to keep as many of the troops as could be collected, 
in order to prevent the capture of that town by Aizpuru, who 
had 1,700 men in waiting not far from Panama, and ready to 
attack it. 

Prestan, therefore, reigned supreme in Colon, issuing procla 
mations calculated to inspire foreigners with a hope of safety, 
letting them know in so many words that he had no intention 
to injure their interests, but simply to settle a question between 
himself and what he styled his Government. To verify his 
assertions, he proclaimed that all establishments should be 
closed at 7 P.M., which had previously remained open till mid 
night ; and established a strong urban guard that seemed to 
keep the town in even better order than the regulars had ever 
succeeded in maintaining. His headquarters were the Govern 
ment headquarters, around which he threw up a barricade 
against all comers. 

Day after day rolled by without the arrival of the troops 
from Panama. Meanwhile, every now and then there was a 
scare. Some false prophet announced that the troops were in 
proximity to the town, and this caused all shops and stores to 
be closed, business to be suspended, and people to cease 
walking in the streets. Of course business was always resumed 
on the discovery that no troops were near. 

I ought to state here that Prestan did not omit to make 
provision for supplying himself with the best arms and ammu 
nition that the age affords. He had actually succeeded in 
cutting a merchant here to send to the United States of 

o o 

America for the materiel, which arrived to order, with freight 
prepaid, on the s.s. Colon. It is reported that the same vessel 
had also arms on board for the Government, and that the 
revolutionists intended transporting theirs to Panama, where 
they were to fight, and compel the Government to surrender. 


Shortly after the arrival of the s.s. Colon, on the 30th ult., 
Prestan presented a bill of lading at the Pacific Mail Office, 
claiming a quantity of arms and ammunition consigned to him 
from New York. 

Captain Dow, who was in Panama, telegraphed the agent 
in Colon (Mr. Conner) not to deliver them. On Prestan s 
demand meeting a blunt refusal, this so irritated him that he 
ordered his soldiers to arrest Mr. Conner, and place him in 
the " Calaboose." He then marched a body of over 100 
men to the dock, and ordered every person to leave the 
premises. Prestan made several other applications to Mr. 
Burt (the general Superintendent of the Railroad Company), 
but was refused. On the rebels taking possession of the front 
street and Royal Mail Dock, the American flag was hoisted 
(reversed) from the Railroad Office, and the United States 
s. Galena sent a boat ashore containing two officers to find out 
what was wanted. On seeing this, Prestan sent two men to Pier 
No. 1 with orders to fire on the boat if they attempted to land. 
They, however, gave that pier a wide berth, and landed at 
the Canal Company s Pier No. 5, from whence they proceeded 
to the Pacific Mail Dock, and to the P.R.R. Co. s office without 

On the arrival of the train from Panama at 2.30 P.M. with 
Captain Dow on board, he was also arrested by Prestan, and 
the American Consul and first lieutenant of the United States 
s. Galena- shared the same fate, Mr. Wright, the American 
Consul, being thrust in with a revolver at his head. The town 
was then in a fever of excitement, for it was believed that the 
Galena would not brook such an insult to the Stars and Stripes 
as the incarceration of the American Consul in a prison that 
was neither as comfortable nor healthy as a pig sty. 

Prestan then informed Mr. Burt that he would slaughter the 
prisoners and burn the town, unless the arms were delivered to 
him. The Galena, then lying off the Canal Company s Office, 
got under weigh, and began steaming up to the Pier No. 1. 
Seeing this, Prestan sent thirty or forty men to the end of 
the pier with orders to prevent their landing ; but the ship 
dropped down to the Pacific Mail Dock, and anchored behind 


the s.s. Colon. At about 5 P.M. a portion of the arms was 

On a promise that Prestan would receive the arms, he 
liberated the prisoners ; but when he was told that he could 
not get the arms because the men would not work, he re-arrested 
Captain Dow and Mr. Conner. 

The marines were therefore expected to land, fighting to 
begin in the city, in the midst of unprotected women and help 
less children ! Shops were closed and houses shut up ; but 
before foot-passengers could reach their residences, the marines 
had come ashore, 100 in number and two guns, to protect 
property. They had taken up their position in proximity 
round the United States Consul s residence a position which 
gave them command of the revolutionary camp. Going to 
Monkey Hill early next morning, the rebels had a skirmish 
with the Government troops. The rebel party having been 
defeated, retreated to their stronghold, where they were re 
inforced, awaiting the advance of those who had vanquished 
them. The prisoners, taking advantage of their want of 
attention, escaped. They were not kept long in suspense, for 
at 8 o clock A.M. the troops showed themselves in the distance, 
followed the rebels into Colon, and a fight ensued which lasted 
until 12.30., when the ammunition of the rebels seems to have 
been spent. 

April 1st. Just at 7 P.M. I went to the freight house to see 
Mr. Way, the agent of the Royal Mail Steam Ship Company, to 
have my things secured. Finding it closed, I returned to make 
my way home, when hundreds of persons were running in every 
direction to some place of safety. I had not time to enter my 
gate, w r hen the rebel army had taken their stand across the 
street, with their carbines ready for action. In a minute they 
opened fire upon the Government army. The balls whistled 
through the balcony of my house, riddled chairs, curtains, and 
the side of the house ; but, providentially, none Centered the 
apartments where we were. The fight was kept up four hours 
and a half, incessantly, when the rebels were repulsed by the 
Government army. One of the rebels climbed up my balcony 
and began to fire upon those below, which excited my family 

a SSi,iSk d> ] FIRE AND DESOLATION. 179 

into a scare, fearing they would open fire upon the house. I, 
however, managed to get him away by soft words of counsel. 
An American citizen, who had succeeded in escaping the flying 
bullets by running across the road to the Cosmopolitan Hotel, 
was shot through at the door, having knocked for entrance ; but 
no one had the courage to open the door of the hotel. There 
the poor man groaned, calling upon God to have mercy on him. 
In ten minutes he expired. A Colombian woman was shot 
while running across to her home. 

About 10 o clock P.M. my wife came to the jalousy, and, 
discovering a dense volume of smoke, cried out, "The town is 
on fire." It turned out to be from the Calaboose, and the 
buildings in the rear. I burst open the doors, and my wife, 
two daughters and two sons, escaped to the house of the Canal 
Company, while I dragged two of their trunks down stairs, and 
returned to try and save some of my books. I succeeded in 
saving a few volumes. These were taken to the French Consul s 
house for safety ; but the flames soon reached that building, 
and all were consumed. 

The marines of the American s.s. Galena, seeing my effort in 
trying to save my wife s two trunks, came to my assistance, and 
took them in charge to a place of safety on the seashore. My 
heart leaped with pain to see my books, which I had been 
accumulating since 1853, the beginning of my ministerial 
career standard works to the value of over $800, to say 
nothing of written sermons and manuscripts destroyed by the 
flames in less than five minutes. All our clothing, house 
hold furniture, glassware, silverware, bedding, and everything 
else in the house were burnt. We had no time to take a 
cup of coffee before our escape, and nothing could be ob 
tained for my family until 9 o clock that night, when I took 
them to the American Hotel, and there obtained a cup of tea ; 
but our host informed us that we would get no more the next 
day, except we were satisfied to take what his boarders had left. 
After much fatigue in the burning sun during the day, our last 
resort was to Christ Church, which providentially remained 
untouched by the fire (with some others of the Railroad 
Company s houses), where we found over 600 persons men, 


women, and children, had taken refuge. In the vestry we 
remained for the night. 

The next day, after a search through the town of Christopher 
Columbus for a cup of coffee and a bit of bread for my family, 
a gentleman met me and kindly offered to send us a cup 
and a few small biscuits from the Washington House, which we 
accepted with gratitude. The next step was to try and get my 
family on board the British man-of-war steamer ; but not finding 
a boat on shore, the agent of the French Interoceanique Steam 
Ship Company gave me a card to the captain of the s.s. 
Martinique, requesting him to give my family and myself 
hospitality on board, placing at the same time a boat and crew 
at my disposition. Here we remained three and a half days, 
kindly treated by the captain, officers, and crew. After securing 
my family on board, I went in search of something to supply 
the starving people in the church. The captain of the American 
steamship Galena soon responded to my request, and sent a 
bag of biscuits to the church for their relief. 

April 4th. Taking a review of the scene after the fire, one 
would at once be horrified in seeing pigs, horses, cows, dogs, 
rats, cats, lying by hundreds roasted in the fire. Then among 
the ruins and in the streets were men, women, and helpless 
babes in their mothers arms, who had been burnt to death. 
Some had been too ill in bed to escape the fire. Thousands 
wandered about to find food, water, and a shelter, but in vain. 

Her Britannic Majesty s Vice-Consul advised me to take my 
family at once to Kingston, Jamaica. When I left Colon, 
hundreds were taking temporary lodging in Christ Church, 
while over 1,500 had already taken tickets for Jamaica on 
the steamers that were leaving Colon. 

The town is in ashes. Thousands are destitute and houseless, 
having lost clothing, money, and food. The dtftris was burning 
four days. 

April Sth, 1885. 



SUPPOSE by this time there is some understanding 
in England of the serious trouble in our North- 
West, called, I see by the Times some weeks ago, a 

There has been a rebellion by the French Half-breeds at 
Prince Albert, instigated and led by the old agitator here, 
Louis Riel. 

This by itself would have been comparatively a small matter, 
but the Heathen Indians throughout the districts of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan, forming the diocese of Saskatchewan, have 
shown great restlessness, and in two places have risen and 
committed great depredations, including several murders. 

The cause of this Half-breed rising has been the continued 
procrastination of the Government in settling squatting, and 
other claims, to serious individual loss and general incon 

The Indians have not this excuse. Their attitude is very 
unexpected. I suspect it is simply owing to their starving and 
wretched condition. The Government aid to them is doubtless 
a great help, but it is not enough to maintain them. Since the 
buffalo have gone those tribes can get little on the plains by 
hunting, and they are inexperienced at farming, and do not 
take to it. They have had a constant struggle for bare life, and 
are desperate. What food the Government has given them 
has been given in rather a humiliating way, doled out as to 
paupers ; and though that may be their description, yet the 
feeling of the tribe may be hard. 



What will be the effect on our Church work ? I daresay you 
may like to have my opinion on this. 

(1) DIOCESE OF SASKATCHEWAN. All the trouble is con 
fined to this diocese as far as the locality of the outbreaks. 


The Bishop himself and most of the clergy must have had a 

trying time, and their danger is by no means over, though a 

considerable body of militia has been sent forward from 

Manitoba and Eastern 

Canada. Their work must 

be disorganised. I do not 

see how there can be any 

crops put in this season 

at Prince Albert in time, 

unless the pacification of | 

the district takes place at 


Those of the clergy who 
are in any way depen 
dent on their people must 
to that extent suffer in 
their salary. But I fancy 
most of the clergy in this 
diocese are paid entirely 
by external grants. Still 
if nominally they do not 
suffer in the amount of 
their income, they must 
suffer from the advance 
of prices, and in some 
cases there may be loss 
of property. 

(2) DIOCESE OF Qu Ap- 
PELLE. In this diocese 
I fancy only in two or 
three cases do the people 
yet practically contribute, 
and in these I do not 
think the disturbance will 
lessen the former con 
tributions. Still there must be a confusion and unsettlement 
of the people, and the diocese will be temporarily hurt by a 
probable stoppage, to some degree, of immigration. 



(3) DIOCESE OF RUPERTSLAND. There does not seem at 
present any risk of trouble from any rising in this diocese, and 
we are hundreds of miles from the seat of the troubles. 

But pecuniarily we are to suffer seriously. Manitoba has 
shown great spirit in rising to put down the rebellion. Winnipeg 
itself has furnished three battalions of militia, of the strength 
severally of 350, 400, 450, besides fifty artillery and fifty 

Of this body of 1,300 men about 1,000 are citizens of 
Winnipeg, including not a few leading citizens. About 300 
come from six of the chief centres in Manitoba, and some 
separate companies have been formed ; but of the small force 
of 750 men now advancing on the rebels under General 
Middleton, only about 300 are from Eastern Canada. Major 
Boulton, of Russell, with fifty men, are with him ; the rest are 
from Winnipeg. 

Not a few farmers are in the field, instead of being on their 
farms. I believe a large proportion of the Manitoba Militia 
are Churchmen. I anticipate, therefore, an increased difficulty, 
first, in our parishes raising their contributions to their ministers 
salaries, and, secondly, in money being raised for our Home 
Mission Fund. 

In fact our Home Mission Fund is very straitened, like all 
our funds. The disastrous reaction from the boom of two or 
three years ago is not only not over, but the circle of its ruin is 
ever extending. But for this experience I should not have 
thought it possible that our unhealthy and false business could, 
without jany public calamity or cause in the country, have 
produced such disastrous results. Excepting the small Cathedral 
parish small as regards population, not area the churches in 
Winnipeg are all burdened with debt, contracted under other 
circumstances. They will contribute this year very little to the 
Home Mission Fund. They cannot. It is an effort to save 
themselves. Yet we have on our Mission Funds much heavier 
obligations than ever. 

I do not expect large aid from Canada small as that was 
last year about 270. I expect indeed less. So that I am 
afraid, unless the venerable Society can in our present circun;- 


stances accord us a continuance of a special grant for our 
difficulties, we shall incur a debt that will hamper us for a long 
time, besides having to give up some of our Missions. 

The unexpected turn of events has discouraged me greatly. 
I sometimes feel the burden of thinking over ways and means 
getting too much for me ; and I feel at present our laity cannot 
help. We are not alone in our difficulties. All interests, 
persons, parties alike, are suffering ; but that does not help 

And yet one always hopes for a great change. The present 
depression seems so unreasonable. But capital has got a fright 
from us, and it is apparently not so easily wooed back. I hope 
Archdeacon Pinkham is being encouraged. But the times are 
hard here as in England only very many in England have 
independent means. There are not these in this new country. 



Saturday, April 18th, the Principal s Lodge and the Mission 
House were totally destroyed by fire. A careless workman 
left a spark in the shingles at the top of the Principal s 
Lodge, and owing to the recent long drought, the inflammable 
nature of the materials and the high wind, in a few minutes 
the whole of that portion of the roof was in flames. This was about 11 
o clock. The College great bell was rung, and quickly some 200 people, 
mostly labourers, were on the spot. The people worked hard and with a 
will, and in less than half an hour almost everything of any value was 
carried or thrown out, and deposited to the windward of the burning mass. 
Meanwhile, a fierce struggle was maintained with .the flames ; strings of 
women and girls with unwearied zeal brought water from the lake, but 
the impossibility of getting at the fire in the roof, through lack of appli 
ances, soon made it clear that the building was doomed, so attention was 
directed mainly to saving the more valuable fittings. It was a remarkable 
scene. From all the windows people were tossing out books, beds, chairs? 
and furniture of all kinds, while others were striving to catch them. Some 
men were wrenching off windows and mahogany doors, and dragging them 
out upon the lawn. Some few with saws were cutting down as much as 
possible of the handsome carved staircase designed by Bishop Rawle, and 
bearing the names and dates of the various Presidents and Principals, while 
others on the landing kept the flames at bay for a few minutes. Several 
men on the Mission House roof, which lies directly to leeward, were 
drenching the shingles with water, in the vain hope of saving that part. 
Many were pouring water as fast as it could be fetched over the basement 
floors, and very much is owed to the energetic work of several of the 
neighbouring managers. All this time the dismal tolling of the great bell 
continued, as it were the funeral knell of the ancient house. It soon 
became dangerous to remain anywhere near the burning buildings. The 
lead from the window weights above began to drip, and one or two people 
were slightly scalded by the molten metal. By 1 o clock the flames and 
fierce heat forced every one to keep at a distance, not, however, till the 
gallery behind the house, just bursting into flames, was torn down and 
dragged away. Burning embers, carried by the wind, frequently set fire 
to the roofs of the stables and outhouses, but were promptly quenched. 
At last, wet blankets were spread over the most exposed parts, and so the 


sparks which kept falling were extinguished. About 2 o clock, many of 
the spectators and assistants were drawn away by the report of fire in that 
part of the College Estate which lies to leeward of the College. It was 
only too true. The conflagration was now at its height. The interior 
of the Mission House, and the greater part of the Principal s Lodge, were 
a roaring mass of flame, above the noise of which could be heard the 
crackling of the fire as it swept through the cane-fields. One labourer s 
house was quite destroyed, others slightly injured, but as many were at 
hand to help, and the dwellings are at a considerable distance apart, the 
mischief done was limited. The wind throughout was high, and some idea 
may be formed of the rapidity with which the fire was carried along, by 
the fact that a team with a load of canes was so quickly pursued by the 
flames that the animals, though not destroyed, were much burnt, and the 
cart and canes remain in the field a blackened mass. Between 2 and 4 
o clock strenuous efforts continued to be made to save the drawing-room 
floor and the portico. By 4 o clock, most of the fine old beams had fallen 
to the basement, and the whole was burning to the foundations. From this 
time the fire began to burn itself out. The arrival of the fire-brigade by 
the evening train removed a great anxiety, as they speedily cut down and 
extinguished the main relics of the conflagration, the sparks from which 
would have otherwise caused fresh mischief during the night. At the date 
of writing this (Monday, noon) the fire still smoulders in several places, 
and watch has to be kept to guard against sparks from still living embers, 
some of which burst into flames on Sunday night after the departure of the 
firemen. Nothing remains but the stone walls, the handsome old portico, 
a portion of the floor in the lower room most to windward, and a few beams 
of the old Barbados forest timber which, though charred, still keep their 
places. Many of the window lintels have fallen, and cracks are visible in 
the walls, though it cannot be known yet whether the damage is so serious 
as to necessitate entire rebuilding. The material damage is partly covered 
by insurance, but the work of the College will, for a time, be seriously 
hampered ; while the two departments of Mission House and Training 
School are at a complete standstill, and the Principal is homeless. 


The Principal s Lodge at Codrington College is one of the historical 
houses of the West Indies. It stands now, with its 3 ft. wall of stone, 
with their handsome corniced windows, a shell. Only the porch and bal 
cony are intact. The house on the outside shows a front of at least 200 
years old, a house built while Barbados was still damp and chill (before its 
woods were cleared away), as was shown by the fire-places formerly existing 
in each room, and the chimney-stack at each end. And it was inseparably 
connected with an honoured name it was the house of the gallant and 
scholarly Governor of the Leeward Islands in the time of William III. ; 
the soldier of Namur and Guadaloupe, who, as an old Oxford Fellow, re 
sumed his love of letters and thoughts, by retiring, at the age of forty, to 
the study of Theology and Metaphysics Colonel Christopher Codrington, 


founder of the College which bears his name, and of the famous 
Library at his own College of All Souls, Oxford. He died "in this 
his mansion" in 1710. After his unparalleled bequest (to the newly- 
formed Society for the Propagation of the Gospel) for the pur 
pose of founding this College, the house became the nucleus, and the 
College buildings were erected to the windward. For nearly 100 years 
they were used as a foundation-school, since 1830 as a College proper. 
During these periods the house was occupied by the successive Presidents, 
or Principals, amongst whom were Bishop Hinds, of Norwich ; Mr. Pinder, 
the first Principal ; Bishop Rawle, of Trinidad, who lived here seventeen 
years ; and Archdeacon Webb, who was at the head for twenty years. Last 
October, the present Principal, Mr. Caldecott, Fellow of St. John s College, 
Cambridge, came direct from Cambridge, and now, just as the conditions 
of work were being grasped, and plans of progress formed, he finds himself 
without all those conveniences especially desirable at such a stage. 

The house had a fagade of two stories, of somewhat Doric character, with 
six stately windows and a doorway on the first floor, ornamented with stone 
cornices and jambs in low relief; the middle one, with its special cornice, 
gave a centre to the line. The ground-floor showed four windows, the 
centre of the line being occupied by a portico, which was the characteristic 
feature of the design, and which is so fortunately preserved. This portico 
is a row of four massive stone piers, square, upon the front faces of which 
are rounded pilasters in about half relief, with curious ball capitals upon 
ordinary abaci. These support an architrave, and the whole has of late 
years been finished with a balustrade of wood, with a line of four vases. 
The proportions of the building were disguised and disfigured by the very 
high-pitched roof ; in this the mischief began, and it will be only equitable 
for this feature never to re-appear. The shell of the building already shows 
how a fine front has been almost spoiled by the incongruity. The proper 
finish is, doubtless, a flatter roof and a stone balustrade giving a level sky line. 
The sea front had similar windows, but presented no feature calling for 

The interior plan of the house had been at least three times changed : of 
late years it included an entrance hall, with handsome mahogany doors, 
and a staircase with a notable balustrade, composed of square-cut posts 
with large round knobs and balusters between. On the panels of the posts 
were inscribed the names of the principal officials of the College in days 
gone by, and the mottoes of the Society and the College were carved along 
a kind of frieze, below the balusters. The staircase, though not old, was 
an interesting feature of the house, having been added by Bishop Rawle 
from his own design, and partly by his own handiwork ; several of the 
posts, however, were rescued, and doubtless will find a place again. The 
doors of some of the bedrooms were in Jacobean style, being original to 
the house, and a similar set have been found in an English abbey-mansion 
built about the same period. The efforts to save these proved ineffectual. 
The house was not quite successfully arranged internally, and hardly gave 
the accommodation promised by the exterior. 


The Mission House was a building of the simplest character erected over 
the storerooms to the leeward of the Lodge. Its disappearance can hardly 
be regretted, architecturally, speaking, though its convenience to the island 
has been great, and, indeed, a chief difficulty resulting from the disaster is 
to know how to proceed with the Mission Students, and the scholars in 
training for elementary schoolmasters, whose quarters have therewith 
ceased to exist. 

To lovers of what is old and so intimately associated with the history of 
the West Indies, the loss of this house is severe. True, its massive beams 
and cedar floors have been from time to time replaced by lighter wood, but 
our West Indian Islands have few houses equal to it in antiquity and 
general stateliness. Untouched by the hurricane of 1831, except as to the 
roof, it had suffered so severely in the hurricane of 1780, that even then it 
was said that very little besides the walls was left standing. It is much to 
be hoped that the walls are not irreparably injured now, and that the re 
construction of the interior may be sufficient. If so, regrets will be much 
lightened, and we may feel as we look upon its old grey front, that it is 
still the house of Codrington, in spite of hurricane and flame. 

llotts of % 

Society has received two offers from valued friends 
JL and former benefactors. The first is of 1,000 for its 
General Fund, to be spread over the next two or three years, 
in the hope that " certain others would do the same." The 
second is of an annual gift of 50 for a period not exceeding 
ten years, in aid of a special effort for the Corea, provided 
thirty-nine others would guarantee a like amount, and to raise 
a fund of 2,000 per annum to meet the appeal made to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury by the Bishops in China for that 
newly-opened country. 

The Society ventures to make these offers known in the hope 
that others may be " provoked to good works," and to follow 
the example thus set. 

IN the article on the Society s Grants for 1886, in our present 
number, there are some statements bearing on the object 
of each of these offers. May the publicity which has been 
given to them not be without good result ! 


fTlHE arrangements for the Anniversary will be found on the 
JL last page of the cover. 

The Annual Sermon in St. Paul s Cathedral on June 17th is 
to be preached by the Lord Bishop of Ripon, and that at the 
Annual Festival in Westminster Abbey, on June 19th, by the 
Lord Bishop of Lichfield. 

WE would say one word more about the Meeting in St. 
James s Hall on June 3rd. The occasion is one that 
should be made much of. The list of speakers is in itself 
enough to show its importance, and to foreshadow its interest. 
There must be many more hundreds of Churchmen and Church- 
women in and near London than St. James s Hall can hold 
who if they but realised what the meeting meant would not 
miss it on any account. It is largely advertised, but advertise 
ments are easily overlooked. May we not ask the clergy, local 
secretaries and treasurers, and others interested, to make it as 
widely known as possible? 

riTlHE arrangements for the Summer Chaplaincies are com- 
-L plete, and eighty-two clergymen have been licensed to 
the thirty-eight chaplaincies which the Society provides for ; 
fifty-one of them being appointed to twenty-three chaplaincies 
in Switzerland. The financial arrangements for these chaplain 
cies are, of course, quite independent of the Society s General 
Fund. The " Continental Chaplaincies " Special Fund is in 
need of enlarged support. In 1884 there were net losses to 
the Fund at nineteen Summer Chaplaincies amounting to 
102. There were many other heavy expenses (e.g. 59 for 
altar vessels, books, freight, &c.), and the net loss on the 
whole year was 146. The want of funds hinders the Society s 
work on the Continent most seriously. 

IT may be as well to repeat what we said in the April 
Mission Field about the Day of Intercession for Foreign 

The Convocations of Canterbury and York agreed in 1884 
that the Day of Intercession should be held on any day in the 

*jS?,S d> ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 191 

week next before, or in the first week of, Advent, WITH PEE- 


assent of the Church of America, as well as of the Churches 
of Australia, South Africa, and other branches of the Anglican 
Communion, has been obtained. 

ST. BARNABAS S DAY (June llth) is definitely settled 
on for the Consecration of the Rev. W. T. T. Webber as 
Bishop of Brisbane. 

NEAR Calgary the Bishop of Saskatchewan is anxious to 
open a new Mission in an important district. He 

" Will you kindly try to get a really good man young, unmarried, if 
possible ; a Graduate ~by all means a sound, earnest Churchman ; a man 
not afraid of work, and who does not esteem personal comfort as a sine 
qu&non when Church work has to be done. The sphere here is a great 
and noble one to a real Church worker but my diocese is no place for a 
man without energy and without faith in the mission both of himself 
and the Church. Everything depends, under God, on the quality of the 
man in a new country like this one." 

A NOTHER vacancy is in the diocese of Guiana, which is 
-OL. caused by Mr. Critchley s early and regretted death. 

The Bishop is anxious, if possible, to obtain a Graduate for 
this vacancy. The salary given during the diaconate is 200 
per annum, to be increased by 50 on ordination to the 

BY the decease of the Rev. George Currey, D.D., Master of 
the Charterhouse, the Society has lost an old and steady 
supporter and counsellor. Few members of the Standing 
Committee were more regular in their attendance than Dr. 
Currey ; to small matters of detail he was ever ready to give 
time and care, and in the discussions of the whole body on 
large matters of principle, his calm judgment and sound common 
sense were ever recognised and valued by his colleagues. A 
man of great learning and scholarship, his simplicity, modesty, 
and kindness of heart were his conspicuous characteristics. 


Placed in an office which gives to its holder a learned leisure, 
he freely devoted time and thought to a variety of Church 
works. Not only the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, but the Colonial Bishoprics Council, the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, and, above all, the Clergy 
Orphan Corporation where he took an individual interest in 
every poor fatherless child have lost in him a warm friend 
and a valued adviser. 

THE Diocesan Synod of Jamaica passed the following 
Resolution on March 2nd : 

"That the thanks of this Synod be offered to the Society for the Propa 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts for the interest they have taken in 
the spiritual welfare of labourers migrating from this and other West 
Indian islands, in liberal assistance towards providing the ministrations of 
the Church for those who have sought employment on the Isthmus of 

PAIN at hearing of the illness of the Rev. P. H. Douglin 
of Domingia, Rio Pongo, and of the distressing loss he 
has sustained will be almost balanced by the account of the 
brave way in which he is setting himself to do his work over 
again : 

"You will be sorry to hear that while I was prostrated by the severest 
attack of illness I ever had, thieves entered the Mission House and 
plundered me fearfully. They swept away all my wearing apparel, and a 
long list of other things. As they took both my cassocks, and only short 
surplices are about the place, I am rather queer-looking. Although the 
pecuniary loss is very heavy on me, what I regret most of all is that a 
batch of my Susu work has been carried off. The Prayer Book was ready 
for the press up to 3rd Sunday in Advent, and the clean copy and the first 
draft, extending up to All Saints Day, have been carried off. My dictionary 
has been carried away, and several other things, including the Hymns. I 
had a very nice collection of myths, fables, anecdotes, and folk-lore, and 
both the manuscripts have been carried off. 

" I never grieve over spilled milk. I have set about reproducing. I 
have already got up to J in the matter of the dictionary ; and, if it is 
God s will, I shall complete it, and the other work as well. I long to see 
the Susu take its place among the written languages of the world. 

" Of course it is a loss of time to me, to have to do over again what I had 
already done. I had begun Arabic and Fallah. I have begun Fallah by 
jotting down every word I know, as fast as I acquire it. Of course I 
cannot be certain that I have got the right form of the word until I have 
learned to converse freely ; but that would not take a long time." 

M junei,f8S5 d> ] NOTES or THE MONTH. 193 

IT may well be thought that the building of a church for the 
numerous English people who visit Rome should have 
been a comparatively easy matter, as far as the raising money is 
concerned. There have, however, been many things to make it 
an arduous task. Foundations in Rome are terribly costly, 
and no less than 6,000 had to be spent in this case, before 
the superstructure could be begun. It is said that English 
people, as a rule, make a shorter stay in Rome than they used 
to, and the number of wealthy residents directly interested in 
the erection of a church is smaller. Then it was felt, and not 
without reason, that in Rome of all cities on the Continent 
the Church of England should have a structure of which it 
need not be ashamed. The Standing Committee, with great 
regret, had to reply to the request referred to in the following 
letter that they were quite unable to do as they were desired. 
They ventured, however, to ask the Bishop of Gibraltar whether 
he would again issue an Appeal for the church. His Lordship 
very kindly complied, and wrote the following, which has 
appeared in several newspapers : 

"Sir, May I once more appeal through the Times for funds to complete 
the English church in the Via Babuino at Eome. ,5,000 are wanted to 
finish the work. A memorial has been addressed to the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, the patron of the chaplaincy, by Her Majesty s 
Ambassador, and other influential persons at Home, praying the Society to 
make a loan of this amount. As, however, no funds are at the disposal of 
the Society which can be so appropriated, the Standing Committee, 
though feeling the urgency of the need, have been obliged to say, with 
great reluctance, that they cannot accede to the request. They wish me 
again to put forth an Appeal to English Churchmen for aid in furtherance 
of this national enterprise. Most earnestly I hope that benevolent persons 
may come forward to lend, if they cannot afford to give, the requisite 

"Communications on the subject may be sent to the Secretary of the 
S.P.G., 19, Delahay Street, Westminster. 

" Believe me to be 

" Your Obedient Servant, 

(Signed) " C. W. GIBRALTAR. 
April 20th. " 

We need scarcely add that we most cordially commend the 
Bishop s words to our readers sympathies. 

194 NOTES or THE MONTH. [*uK,SS d> 

IN February last the Bishop of Grahamstown consecrated a 
new stone church, which cost 1,400, at Dordrecht, in that 
diocese. Its completion is a source of thankfulness to the 
Rev. E. T. Brookes, who has been stationed there upwards of 
five years. He mentions that the greater part of the money 
has been raised in the district. 

AFTER more than seven years of laborious work as 
Principal of Bishop s College, Lennoxville, Quebec, the 
Rev. J. A. Lobley, finding the strain beginning to tell on him, 
has decided on resigning his office. 

"During the seven years, ending June, 1884, nineteen students have 
completed their Divinity course here, and have taken Holy Orders, of 
whom six are now working in the diocese of Quebec, four in the diocese of 
Montreal, two in the diocese of Ontario, two in the diocese of Toronto, one 
in the diocese of Niagara, one in the diocese of British Guiana, one is in 
Colorado and one in Ireland, and one has gone to rest. During the same 
period thirty-eight students have taken the degree of B.A., four of them 
with honours, of whom fifteen have taken Holy Orders, and six are candi 
dates for Holy Orders. The others have, for the most part, left us, after 
their degree, to become Students in Law, or Medicine, or Teachers. 

" During the same time the chapel has been enlarged, and an organ has 
been placed in it, and two new special endowments have been raised the 
Harrold Fund ($25,000), to relieve the general endowment by providing 
the stipend of the Professor of Divinity, and the Principal s Endowment 
Fund ($10,000), to provide an addition to the Principal s salary. The 
formation of these endowments is due principally to the liberality of Mr. 
Kobert Hamilton, of Quebec (brother of the Bishop-Elect of Niagara), 
and the exertions of our Professor of Divinity, the Rev. Henry Eoe, D.D. : 

T71ROM Undup and Dan, in Sarawak, the Rev. William 
J- Howell sends notes of his journeys, of baptisms of adults, 
of building new prayer-houses, and especially of the opening of 
two new Missions in his district among the Dan tribe. 

"During the latter half of the year (1884) the progress of the Gospel 
has been very much hindered at the Upper Missions in the Undup, 
owing to the upper tribes of the Batang Zupar threatening to make raids 
upon the Undups living at the frontier. We ourselves even run the risk 
of our lives, and are obliged to arm ourselves at our journeys, on account 
of the head-hunters lurking about to attack any small company that 
chance to pass their way." 

Mission Field,"] 
June 1, 1885. _ 



AN interesting pamphlet has lately been published (Triibner 
and Co., Royal Asiatic Society s Transactions) by the 
learned Tamil scholar and grammarian, the Rev. Dr. G. U. Pope, 
who is now the Society s Organising Secretary for the diocese of 
Manchester, and who was for many years in Madras. Its title 
is, On the Study of the South Indian Vernaculars, and its object 
is to interest English people in them, especially in Tamil. 

" The Tamil language is spoken by from ten to fifteen millions of our 
fellow-subjects, who are the inhabitants of the Southern Karnatic, com 
prising ten Collectorates, about one-half of the Madras Presidency. There 
are several languages of South India which are closely allied to it, the 
offspring of a common parent. The principal of these are the Tamil, the 
Telugu, the Kanarese, and the Malayalim, the Tamil being by far the most 
cultivated and copious of the group. 

" Now the Tamilians have a literature which is, in some respects, unique 
in the East. And I am not speaking here merely of translations or adap 
tations from the Sanskrit, of which there are very many in Tamil, as in all 
other Indian languages ; but of works which are the outcome of the genius 
of the people themselves, and are as thoroughly Tamilian as Shakespere is 
English. They possess an extensive and interesting literature, which is 
not only independent of Sanskrit, but opposed to its influence. Its authors 
cordially disliked Brahmanism and Brahmans, and have striven, with con 
siderable success, to found a literature which should rather be the rival of 
that composed in the great northern language than its offspring." 

Dr. Pope gives a selection of passages from Tamil literature, 
which are instructive as to the tone of mind and the habits of 
the race. 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
May 15th, at 2 P.M., the Rev. B. Compton in the Chair. There were also 
present the Bishop of Antigua, the Bishop of Colchester, Canon Gregory, Vice 
Presidents ; and forty-eight other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
April 30th : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

January April, 1885. 


Donations, and 


Rents, &c. 






















: Mission Field 
June 1, 1885. 

B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of April in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-1 
tions j 






Legacies . . 



1 858 

5 776 


Dividends Rents &c 


1 799 

1 491 

1 387 



13 566 

15 457 

12 707 

17 315 

11 052 

3. The following Minute on the death of the Rev. Dr. Currey was 
unanimously adopted, and a copy of it was ordered to be sent to the 
family of the deceased : 

"The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at the first meeting since the 
decease of the Master of the Charterhouse, desires to record its sense of the value 
of the late Dr. Carrey s high character and example of life, and of the loss- 
which the Society, in common with the whole Church, has sustained. It recalls 
his regular and conscientious attendance at the meetings of the Society and of 
the Standing Committee, the care which he devoted to the smallest matters of 
detail, and the wisdom and judgment which he brought to bear on questions of 
important policy. Elected a Member of the Society in 1850, he became a 
Member of the Standing Committee in 1865, and a Vice-President in 1875 ; and 
it is a subject of thankfulness to the Society that in spite of bodily infirmity, 
which he bore with much patience and cheerfulness, he was enabled to take a full 
share in the concerns of the Society up to the end of an honourable and 
honoured life." 

4. Power was given to use the Corporate Seal for the purpose of transfer 
of Stock. 

5. The Rev. S. Arnott brought forward the motion of which he had 
given notice, which on a division was lost. 

6. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in March were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in July : 

The Eev. C. Hylton Stewart, The Precentory, Chester; Eev. J. C. Harris, 
Marbury, Whitchurch, Salop ; Rev. C. G. Williamson, 6, Chandos Street, 
Cavendish Square, W. ; Rev. R. Lingen Burton, Abbey House, Shrewsbury ; 
Rev. J. E. Sewell ( Warden], New College, Oxford ; Rev. H. C. Floud, Froyle, 
Alton, Hants ; Rev. Francis Whyley, Alton, Hants ; Rev. Benjamin Pidcock, 
Easton, Winchester ; Rev. J. Heberden, Hinton Amner, Alresford, Hants, and 
Rev. C. R. Conybeare, Itchen Stoke, Alresford, Hants. 


Reports have been received from the Rev. A. G. S. Gibson and T. W. Green of the Diocese of 
St. John s; S. M. Samuelson of Zululand; G. Mitchell of Bloemfontein ; C. P. Hanington of 
Fredericton; T. P. Quintin of Newfoundland; H. S. Crispin of Nassau, and F. H. Barnett, 
B. N. Branch, A. A. Humphreys and H. R. Semper of Antigua. 



JULY 1, 1885. 


[T is with great thankfulness that we record the 
annual meeting on Wednesday, June 3rd, in 
St. James s Hall. It was in every sense a good 
one. The attendance was far above the average, 
and the speeches and the interest they excited 
were remarkable. 

. The Archbishop of Canterbury was in the Chair, and when 
his Grace had to leave the meeting the Earl of Belmore 

Among those present were the Bishops of London, Antigua, 
Melanesia, Pretoria, Brisbane (elect), Bishops Tufnell and 
Perry, Sir R. Temple, Bart., G. C.S.I., Canons Cadman, Gregory, 
Furse, and Capel-Cure, Generals Maclagan, ISTicolls, Lowry, C.B., 
Sawyer, Tremenheere, C.B., and SirR. Wilbraham, K.C.B., Rev. 
B. Edwards, Rev. B. Compton, Rev. J. W. Ayre, Rev. Dr. 
Forrest, Rev. W. Panckridge, F. H. Dickinson, Esq., J. A. 
Shaw Stewart, Esq. 

After Prayers a brief Summary of the Report for the year 
was read by the Secretary. 



The Archbishop of Canterbury, who on rising was warmly 
greeted, spoke as follows : 

In the Report which has been presented to this Meeting, if 
all is not exactly as I could wish, yet we have a record of con 
tinual progress. It must be a matter of great regret that the 
Society is obliged to reduce its grants to the amount of 4,000 
a year. Yet the assurance that there are more subscribers this 
year than before, and the clear way in which we can perceive 
that large donations, which must always be irregular, have in 
the past year been almost a blank, may comfort us with the as 
surance that such a depression can only be temporary, and we 
trust that it may not only be passed, but that the former state 
of the finances in this particular may be exceeded. We have 
the satisfaction of knowing that in the total our income is 
larger than it has been hitherto. Surely the good hand of God 
has been with this and with the other great Missionary societies 
during the last few years more markedly even than in the past. 
If we look at Missions since they first began, we shall perceive 
that they have passed througli three very great phases. For 
several centuries after the Apostolic Age the Missions of the 
Church could scarcely be called Missions of the Church : they 
were almost entirely the work of very great men, who went out 
with very few companions, prepared to dare any danger or any 
form of death. But not only so, for there were men who had 
great ideas as to the civilisation of the world, the unification of 
mankind, the building up of great peoples, and, towering above 
all, a great Church. When we think how an important country 
like Armenia, then one of the most flourishing in the world, 
was converted quickly under the influence of one man Gregory 
the Enlightener, as he is still gratefully called ; how Churches 
that have almost passed away, because the countries in which 
they lived have become poor, and the inhabitants have moved 
away, or for many reasons have lost themselves, were founded 
by individuals ; countries so great as Ethiopia or Abyssinia 
then were being converted by two brothers ; how the north of 
Europe was permeated by the Bible of Ulfilas ; how St. Patrick 

M jSly?,5b e i d> ] THREE ERAS OF MISSIONS. 199 

converted Ireland ; or how, most marvellous of all ! St. Martin 
converted Gaul when we think of these things, we see that 
they belong to a personal era. We were, in a time when the 
work of Christ was being carried on by great apostles, raised 
up here and there, as it were, almost visibly by the personal 
influence of our Lord Himself. There was in no case any en 
couragement to begin : but, thank God, there was no case in 
which results were not achieved which to us at the present 
day would be simply astounding. When it was seen what 
great things were done, how tribes were tamed ami converted, 
how all the arts of life began under the influence of these men, 
there came a strange era, a very great era, and in s<mie respects 
a very sad one. There came an era in which -Governments 
thought it their business to propagate Christianity ; and when 
they became possessed with that idea they were, of course, sure 
to use all the means known to Governments. Charles the Great 
baptized whole tribes with the choice between the river and 
the sword. We shall never be able no Christian will ever be 
able to comprehend again the great careers of such men as 
St. Henry, or even St. Stephen of Hungary ; and when we 
think of the Teutonic knights carrying on for fifty years a 
resolute campaign, dying themselves and making many others 
die to give the Gospel to what is now Prussia, we feel that if it 
were not redeemed by the lives of such men as the St. John 
of the Middle Ages, Amscar who refused to work anything 
whatsoever except by love, and yet converted whole countries, 
or of Cyril and Methodius, who worked in Bulgaria and the 
south of Russia, and whose motto, wonderful for us to think of 
at this moment, was "The Word of God in the common speech 
of men " the translation of the Bible and the putting of it 
into the hands of those whom they taught if it were not, I 
say, for such brilliant lights as those, we might wonder whether 
Christianity in its propagation at that period was very greatly 
distinguished from the propagation of Mohammedanism. But, 
on the other hand, we must remember that where there was so 
much violence everything was violent, and these most violent 
periods were chequered with the lives of the most perfect 

P 2 


and most saintly men, and it was through them, and not 
through force, that the word of God prevailed. Well, the 
personal era of Missions had passed away being absorbed 
in the era which we may call the Governmental era, and then 
about the fifteenth or sixteenth century Governments began to 
lose all power to effect anything. They failed with the Moors 
in Spain. They failed with the Jews. The Huguenots were 
entirely irreclaimable ; and England and Switzerland and Ger 
many insisted absolutely upon having superstitions reformed 
away and the old Church restored. Now, the fact is, that a 
new era had begun in this respect, that Missionary work had 
passed away from persons and from Governments, and had 
come into the hands of societies. The Reformation itself was 
really the work of great societies of reformers, and you sec 
also that from that same era you have to date the great 
societies the great companies which undertook the trade of 
the world. And then arose the great Society of Jesus with its 
Missionary work ; and from that time till now Missionary enter 
prise has belonged to these associations. The Reformation itself, 
the Jesuits, the Church Missionary Society, the Propaganda, 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Wesleyan 
Societies, and so on, we owe to that particular era. Before 
then there was none, and since they began they had effected 
everything. Now we have still to notice how the scene is 
traversed by the figures of great men doing great things, 
especially such men as are assisted and dominated by the great 
idea of the Church. To them every surrounding incident, even 
the societies which equip them, become almost nothing. They 
seem to stand close by the Lord and by His bride. Yet, 
again, we have to notice these two remarkable phenomena in 
the Missions of the present and the three last centuries, that 
they are still not being conducted by the Church, but by small 
societies I mean small comparatively formed within the 
bosom of the Church, but not by the Church herself. Then, 
while Governments of old thought the Missionary spirit their 
only power, and while the Governments of to-day admit that 
there is no power so beneficial to the knowledge of language, 

M juiyT, f? ] THE EBA OF SOCIETIES. 201 

to the promotion even of trade, and above all to the civilization 
and moral order and loyalty and good government of peoples, 
the Missionary societies still carry on their work without the 
smallest support from Governments, and I think we must long 
trust that they will do so. In the year 1799 there were seven 
Missionary societies connected with these islands. At the pre 
sent moment there are seventy. In 1799, 50,000 a year was 
the outside of what was raised for Missionary purposes in 
England. At the present moment the amount is 1,000,000. 
In the year 1701 there were twenty clergymen of the English 
Church engaged in work in the foreign possessions of this 
kingdom, or in those countries which had been peopled by us. 
At the present moment there are 140 bishops, above 5,000 
clergy, and, of course, millions of believers. All this in so 
short a time, and all of it by the work of societies ! Now, are 
we come to a final stage 1 That, I think, it is impossible to 
say. The personal stage is passed. The Governmental stage 
is passed. The societies are in their full vigour ; and we may 
or may not be mistaken in thinking that there are symptoms 
of a time when the work will pass into the hands x>f the whole 
Church itself. For instance, there a-re such symptoms as this, 
that the Church of the United States has no Missionary society 
at all, the Church itself being the Society. We have to take 
into consideration that as we advance there appear more and 
more interesting and remarkable fields which lie outside the 
operation of the societies. For instance, at the present moment 
we have such problems as the Church of Egypt, the Copts, a 
most interesting, clever, industrious body of Christians, quite 
aware that there are great superstitions in their Church and 
yet exceedingly attached to it a position very much like that 
of many people in England just before the Reformation. The 
societies cannot touch such a Church. You have also the great 
country of Malabar with two or three churches churches dating 
back to the most primaeval times, and you have the Church of 
Assyria, about which we spoke here last year, and I hoped to 
be able at this time to announce some more progress made. 
The only progress that has been made is in the earnestness 


, . 

put into the petitions which come to us for help. It has been 
unfortunately necessary that this Society should cut off what 
did not so immediately belong to its proper sphere of opera 
tions, and thus the assistance to the Church of Assyria or 
Chaldea has suffered ; but I hope that that only means that I 
shall be able to appeal before long for some little help : it is not 
much that is wanted for the Church of Assyria by itself. At 
the present moment, however, I am only speaking of the great 
fields which appear to be outside the reach and purview of 
our societies. Then again we have the enormous phenomena 
of the native churches. It will be impossible presently, not 
only for the Missionaries on the spot, but for the Societies here, 
to govern the native churches. While we speak of the way in 
which the Societies have increased in the last century, every 
thing around us portends that there will be a similar increase in 
nations during the next century. There are many nations 
which are just about to be born. Peoples who are no peoples 
at all now are so hastening on under the influence of Europe, 
and especially of England, that there are whole nations and 
whole churches really ready to be born in a day. This is a 
great problem, about which people ought to think, and to ask 
themselves what we shall do in the day when these vast changes 
come. But our business at present is not with the future ; 
only we should prepare ourselves to think about the future. 
As for the present moment, in the name of humanity, in the 
name of crushed, beaten-down, oppressed humanity, in the 
name of yearning humanity, in the name of powerful, able 
humanity, which is tending back towards paradise and far 
beyond paradise, tending towards heaven itself, in the name of 
all those who have no such yearnings or aspirations, and in the 
sight of all the great peoples and tribes and churches forming 
under our very eyes Christian crystals forming in some chemical 
fluid I ask, can there be for the present any duty more incum 
bent upon Christians over the whole world than to support 
these Societies ? Can there be anything more important than 
that all the Societies should provoke each other to love and 
good works ? I feel very jealous for this old Society of ours, 

M jutii n , K dt ] THE DAY OF INTERCESSION. 203 

which is so bound up with all the past history of the English 
Church, which has had such noble men to support it, such 
devoted lovers and devoted workers both here and abroad. I 
am very jealous for this Society lest it should seem to be in 
any way limiting or crippling its operations. I perceive that 
the Church of England raises 500,000 a year for Missions, and 
that all the bodies of Nonconformists put together I am 
speaking in both cases with reference to the British Isles raise 
550,000. Now, I am very eager that this present year the 
Church should clear that additional 50,000. It is no question 
of rivalry. I think that while all those Nonconformist Societies 
are our brethren, united in one common faith, striving for one 
common object, working in Christ s name, and thinking good 
of all men, they would desire this thing also The aim of the 
Societies ought to be mutual provocation to love and good 
works, and the Church of England ought to make her contribu 
tions equal to those of other Churches, but particularly in 
spiritual matters. Especially ought we to lay to heart that 
this is no mere contest of s. d. We must lay to heart that 
gifts are but an index of feeling. Now that the Intercession 
Day has been moved back to the old day, which has been found 
to suit so much better the customs and habits of English society, 
I do trust that both the existence of that day and the change 
that has been made in deference to so many requests will be 
marked by very full churches, churches open all day, and a great 
deal of private prayer. We know that the year when this day 
first began the Churches of England all over the world received 
a great accession of devoted men. God grant that we, while 
we show what we are in material w r ays, may take great care that 
in the secrecy of our own hearts and among the congregations 
of our churches there shall rise up a spiritual intercession to God, 
as one great united sacrifice to Him for the benefit, for the 
help, for the salvation of those who as yet know Him not. 
And if the Day of Intercession is to be a great day, then at 
every footstool, in every closet, in every church there ought to 
be some commemoration of Missions ; and we ought in all 
places to keep alive the memory of our great Missionaries. It is 


through these minglings of human and divine that the sa va- 
tion of mankind is to be wrought out, for Jesus was both man 
and God. With prayer to the God-man always in our hearts 
we shall bring God close to man. We must remember what it 
is for which we exist the Church itself and all the branches 
of the Church. I read the other day in a Birmingham paper 
that the great hope for the Soudan was the regenerating influ 
ence of a great trading company. Now, if we anywhere, in 
the Church, at a meeting like this were to say, and were 
reported in the newspapers as having said it, that the great 
hope for the Soudan, or any other tract of country, was in the 
regenerating influence of a great Church, the mass of mankind 
would think very much that we were hypocrites, or we were 
dreaming. But we must remember where the w r ord "regenerat 
ing " comes from. When men of the world talk, and talk truly, 
of the regenerating influence of a great trading company, where 
do they get the word from ? Is it not from Christ s coming to 
give a new birth to the world, and did He not commit to His 
Church the regeneration of the world ? We must be much 
bolder to speak out and say we believe that the Gospel is the 
power of God. If we are bold let us speak it plainly. Let us 
pray as if we believed it, and let us live and work as if we 
believed it. Then it will be the power of God. Now, I am 
sure I have detained you too long, especially to-day, when 
really the office of chairman might have been reduced to nothing. 
You have before you, and ready to address you, such a company ! 
Here, on my left hand is a living speech. I do not know whether 
the patriarch of the English Clergy, the Rev. Bartholomew 
Edwards, who is in his ninety-seventh year, intends to address 
you, but he has come from Norfolk to look you in the face and to 
express by his presence his conviction of what this Society is and 
ought to be. I am sure, however, that you will hear some eloquent 
and fatherly and noble words from your new Bishop, to whom I 
myself and every one who has ever been brought within the 
reach of his great influence owe so much, and to whom we 
know we owe so much, and by God s blessing this great 
metropolis and all England will presently know some little of 


what it owes to him. Then we have beside him the Bishop of 
Melanesia, whose very name brings the needs of man before us, 
and the devotion of man to supply those needs one who in 
work and counsel is treading worthily in the steps of him whose 
name will be for ever a watchword of England. We have also 
the Bishop of Brisbane. I count it to him as a very great 
honour to have been a most worthy and devoted member of the 
London School Board. His work in the future will still be that 
of a great educator, and will also be practically a Missionary 
work, although in a settled English country. Then, again, you 
have Mr. Winter, who belongs to the great Mission of Delhi, 
that Mission to which I look with most intense interest, because 
it seems to take the place of a work that was done in the most 
interesting of all centuries, when the great jurisconsults and the 
learned men of Italy and Africa were made Christians. So now 
this Delhi Mission is working amongst the most cultivated, the 
most elegant, the most philosophical people of the world, and 
working with great results. And then you have from Ontario 
the representative of a daughter Church, rapidly growing up to 
be the rival of her mother. You have Mr. Fessenden, who 
reminds us of what the Secretary said when he spoke of new 
Churches, which were growing so great as to be even anxious 
to repay what they had received. 

Referring to the President s speech, the Bishop of London, 
who next addressed the meeting, said : 

I have not often had the opportunity of hearing a great work sketched 
out in so masterly a manner, and I am afraid to say very much myself lest 
I might mar the effect of this masterly and extraordinary and forcible 
speech just made. At the same time I do not wish it to be supposed that 
I lack interest in the work of this great Society. Just now, it is true, my 
mind is much more taken up with London than with the whole of the rest 
of the world put together. You will not wonder that I am thinking chiefly 
about large metropolitan populations who need Missionaries almost as much 
as the heathen do, about great districts with very few churches, and, more 
than anything else, about clergymen who are so overwhelmed by their work, 
that I cannot understand how they are able to persevere. I cannot help 
these things being just at present nearer to my heart than even the great 
task of converting the heathen, or the great work of forming and developing 
new Churches in places where heathen were mingled with civilised peoples, 


a w^rk in which this Society had been already so successful. It is certainly 
no lack of interest that inclines me to speak briefly on this occasion, 
because while I feel that the work at home is of such overwhelming im 
portance, yet I feel also that nothing can be a greater mistake than to 
suppose that in the long run any great Christian duty is inconsistent with 
any other duty, which God at the same time has called men to fulfil. I 
am quite confident that the more the appeal is pushed on behalf of such a 
Society as this, the more will men s hearts be ready to answer to other 
appeals. At any moment it might be true that if people asked for one 
thing they might get more, but if they asked for two they might find that 
they had simply divided the more, without getting sufficient for the needs 
of either object. That, however, was a difficulty sure to correct itself in 
course of time. If only men s hearts can be reached, it is quite certain 
that the increase in the number of those who are willing to contribute very 
soon overtakes any loss which may have been sustained, because the Id 
contributors have been called upon to pay double. It is quite certain that 
there is a very large number of people indeed who at present stand aside 
from Christian work, but who may be induced to take their part if 
properly addressed. It is- impossible not to see that whatever Christians 
may be doing, at any rate, in England, they have not succeeded in getting 
anything like a reasonable proportion of those who call themselves 
Christian to subscribe to any of God s work. Vast numbers are still quite 
deaf to any appeal made to them on behalf of the work of Christ. These, 
if they will but help, will unquestionably be able not only to carry on the 
work of this Society to its fullest extent not only to subscribe the 
additional 50,000 a year which his Grace has asked for not only to do 
all that is needed in the diocese of London but to do twenty times as 
much as has yet been done ; and it is not by stinting the demand, or by 
acknowledging the penuriousness of men, and speaking as if it were a 
thing that cannot be moved, nor by talking as if there were no resource in 
the generosity of Christian hearts which has not yet been reached ; it is 
not in this way that God s workers will succeed. On the contrary, the 
more you appeal, if only the appeal is in the Lord s name, the more suc 
cessful will you be. I am confident that, however earnest any of these 
Societies may be in calling upon all men to help them in their work, so 
far from injuring they will aid those who are labouring in the same cause, 
and however much may be poured into the coffers of the different Mis 
sionary Associations, the work that has to be done is more than enough for 
all of them. Do not think of rivalling other Societies, but provoke them 
to do more, and the more they do the more will others do. I rejoice that 
the Society has not merely done its part in spreading the knowledge of the 
truth, but has performed a still more important work in planting Churches 
which are capable of maintaining themselves, and which before long will 
assuredly take a very large share in Mission work. There are now twenty- 
two Churches, with their own Bishops, not one of which is supported by 
the Society Churches which are altogether independent and pay their own 


way ; and in a little while there will be hundreds of dioceses not asking 
them for a penny, but, on the contrary, coming to them and saying, " Here 
is our contribution to the great Mission work, we will share with you in 
what you are doing ; we will not forget to what it is that we owe our own 
existence as Churches ; " and the result will be that the work will be pushed 
forward more than it has ever been before. I do not think the day is far 
distant when the Colonial and other Churches will be seen taking part in 
the work of the Society ; and to my mind there is nowhere else so marked, 
so important, so clear a proof of the Divine blessing, as that wherever we 
have gone as a Society we have succeeded in planting branches of the 
Church which are capable of maintaining themselves, and to which by 
and by we may look for help in continuing their labours. 

The Rev. R. R. Winter, Missionary of Delhi, said : 

I wish to speak of the mission of the Church, and of the Society at 
Delhi. I will ask you to consider for a moment what is the best mode of 
reaching the people. There is a special moral disease eating out the 
spiritual life of the nation, and I have studied it as a physician might 
study a disease of the body. After residing for a considerable time among 
the people of Delhi and Northern India, I have been struck with the fact 
that the great difficulty is not so much a false religion, though of course 
that lies at the root of the evil, and not so much idolatry, as it is the 
separation of religion from life. The people imagine that life is one thing 
and religion another that the two go in parallel lines, but that the one 
does not in any sense touch or influence the other. "What is the result ? 
An intensely materialistic way of looking at the duties of life a kind of 
hidden Manichseanism. The people fancy that religion has nothing to do 
with ordinary or domestic life, that it is a thing not to be exercised by men 
who are living with their families, but by men who go to remote parts and 
live as ascetics. The terrible effect of this notion that life is not concerned 
with religion is that it makes men unfaithful and untrue, and hence they 
are unable to discern strictly between right and wrong ; another result is 
that they cannot distinguish between what is dogmatically true in religious 
teaching and what is dogmatically false. The whole mind has become 
demoralised, and there is no foundation on which to build. There must 
be a sympathetic way of dealing with these people ; we must try and find 
out what is true in their system as well as what is false what is good in 
their lives as well as what is evil and we must endeavour to imitate the 
physician who makes use of any strength in a man s nature to cast out a 
disease. If any parts of the native system borders upon Christianity, we 
must not condone what is evil, but utilise those parts in casting out the evil 
spirit of separating religion from life. As regards the parochial ways of 
reaching the people, let us plant right principles amongst them. The 
great empires and kingdoms which Christianity has won for Christ are not 
the outer kingdoms of the world, but the kingdoms of right principle ; and 

208 THE ANNUAL PUBLIC MEE nxc. [^T, gg a - 

if we wish to teach these people to discriminate between right and wrong, 
we must implant right principles in them, and also have right principles 
in dealing with them. How are we to do this ? I will not underrate the 
importance of visiting from village to village or from town to town, or of 
heralding the gospel in the streets, but I attach great value to the work of 
the Cambridge Brotherhood in trying to reach the people from first to last, 
from young boys to young men, by educational influences. I believe the 
great secret of the future elevation and future conversion of the people of 
India is education on the basis of theological teaching. A most interesting 
College was opened at Delhi three or four years ago, for educating young 
men in that city and its neighbourhood, the Principal being a member of 
the Cambridge Brotherhood. All the educational work in that College is 
carried on amongst the highest class of the people. The College having begun 
with four or five pupils, there were when I left India about forty pupils, 
and I hope that before long there will be a hundred young men Hindus 
and Mohammedans thus brought within Christian influence in the city of 

After describing educational work among the lowest class of the people, 
the speaker alluded to the educational movement among women and girls, 
and expressed a hope that at least one lady of suitable attainments and 
of independent means might be induced to go out to Delhi to take the 
superintendence of that movement. 

The hymn "Thou Whose Almighty Word," was then sung, and the 
collection was made ; after which the Primate was compelled by another 
engagement to vacate the chair, in which he was succeeded by the Earl 
of Belmore. 

The Rev. E. J. Fessenden, Vicar of Chippawa, Ontario, 
said : 

I wish to speak of the Church work in the Western Dominions of the 
Empire. It was there that the Society first awoke the ancient Missionary 
spirit of the Church of England. It is not foreign work, but home work, 
that is carried on there. Canada is not "foreign" to England at least 
nothing that concerns England is foreign to Canada and further, it is 
home work, because those to whom it ministers in Canada are members 
of the Church of England, and because that Church, being the National 
Church, is bound to see that those who go out as emigrants are not left 
without the ordinances of religion. I can now understand what it is 
for an Englishman to bid "good-bye" to his native land, and many who 
have done that have learnt in the Dominion deeply to value that which 
they had neglected at home. If you will only send the services of 
your Church to emigrants while their hearts are still tender through the 
recollection? of home, and their consciences are perhaps reproving them, 
the result will be what we must all desire to see. It may be said that the 
Canadian Church should provide the ministrations of religion for those 
who go out. The Canadian Church is doing all it can. It -^s organised 


If into a Missionary Society. We have our Mission societies in every 
sh ; and the working people band themselves together in Mission 
8 eties called " Thirty-nine Hours Societies," in which each man and 
v aan promises to work specially for thirty-nine hours in every month, and 
to give the proceeds to the Church of Canada. What is contributed amounts, 
in fact, to half a sovereign per head for all the members of the Church, 
and if the members of the Church at home will give the same amount, 
one result will be that the Society s Mission fund will rise to millions. 

After speaking of the great benefit conferred on the Canadian Church 
by the Episcopate of Bishop Anson, Mr. Fessenden remarked in conclusion 
that he considered that Society the best and most powerful Church Defence 
Association that the Church could possibly 

The Bishop (elect) of Brisbane said : 

No policy can be worse than that of starving a colony at the outset in 
planting a Church that is, before the organisation of the Church is sufn- 
ciently consolidated to allow of its running well alone. Colonies have 
been cut off from the aid of the Society simply because it has no funds 
with which to aid them ; and in the future that evil ought to be more 
carefully guarded against. So far as I have been able to learn from recent 
visitors to England from Australia, it is clear that the Diocese of Brisbane 
has been allowed to run alone far too soon, and at this moment education 
is secular, and it would not have been secular had the influence exercised 
by the Church been what it ought to have been. Again, I am told that 
there is a large gaol at the mouth of the Brisbane river with no chaplain 
provided for it. There prisoners are huddled together with no religious 
influence to raise them ; and they have no business to shut men up with 
nothing that tends to make their lives brighter and better. 

The Bishop of Melanesia, after expressing the great pleasure 
which he felt in speaking in the presence of a former governor 
of Norfolk Island (the Earl of Belmore), referred to the death 
of one of the oldest Missionaries of the Society, the Rev. George 
Nobbs, first of Pitcairn Island and afterwards of Norfolk 
Island, remarking that his end was very peaceful, that he loved 
his people, and that his work amongst them was, as he himself 
could testify, greatly blessed. 

Turning to his own diocesan work, he remarked that when the 
news of Bishop Patteson s death came to England the Society raised 
a fund which was partly devoted to the stipend of the Bishop and 
partly to the providing him with the present ship ; and, to give an idea 
of how well that ship had turned out, he might state that last year, 
having left Auckland in March, she got home at the end of December ; 



TMlssion Field, 
L July 1, 1886. 

and she then stayed just two days in port to receive a coat of paint. In 
speaking of the expenditure of money for the building of a church in 
Norfolk Island, the Bishop described the structure as one of considerable 
artintic beauty, and he stated that at one of the services the Prayers 
were read by a native deacon from the Solomon Islands, the Lessons 
were read by a native of one of the Southern Islands, the organ was played 
by a Melanesian scholar, and the blessing was given by a Colonial Bishop 
who was born in New Zealand. He afterwards stated that just before 
leaving he consecrated four churches at Bank s Island, which were entirely 
designed arid built by the people themselves ; and he concluded by de 
scribing a scene in which complete friendship and harmony were esta 
blished between himself and the natives at the place were Bishop Patteson 
was murdered, a cross having been placed on the island. 


On the motion of Sir Richard Wilbraham, seconded by 
General Tremenheere, a vote of thanks was passed to the 
Primate and the Earl of Behnore for presiding, and the 
Bishop of Antigua then closed the proceedings with the 




HAVE great pleasure in writing you my quarterly 
report of work for the current quarter. As you 
will doubtless have heard from other sources, we 
have had an ordination in connection with our 
Yamagata was ordained by Bishop Williams on 
February 24th, at Ushigome Church, thus making the first 
native deacon in connection with the English Missions in 

Hopper left here on March 2nd for San Francisco. He was 
looking very ill before he left, and so was his wife. I hope 
their holiday will be for their good. 

Since he left I have been taking steps to take more complete 
charge of the Mission. Hitherto the Shiba Mission and the 
other Missions have been quite distinct. I am in hopes that 
henceforth the two Missions will be a little more united, and 
that by joining our strength we shall be able to make more 

The financial part of the Missions we have already com 
pletely joined, and in future Mr. Shaw will be Treasurer for 
the whole Mission, and whatever is wanted for the Mission 
will be drawn through him. This will, I hope, ensure more 
economy and efficacy. 

As I said in my last letter, I have been developing edu 
cational work. The school which Shimada and I were carrying 
on at Kiyobashi I have transferred to Shiba, where I have 
started a boarding-school, which has hitherto done pretty well. 

212 TOKIO, JAPAN. [lu ST.SS 1 

Some repairs were wanted in the school-buildings, and at the 
commencement there had to be an outlay in books, salaries, 
&c. But now the school is fairly established, and I think there 
will be no fear of its not being completely self supporting. 
Shaw and I both teach in it, and we employ seven Japanese 
teachers, whose salaries are all paid out of the fees. The 
boarding-house is in charge of a yojing man named Kimura. 
He has been a Christian for several years, having been baptised 
by Mr. Warren, of the C.M.S., at Osaka. In addition to this 
work I occasionally employ him for preaching purposes. I 
think I shall be able to do something with him. Shaw is giving 
him religious instruction. The native name of the school is 
Holy Church School." My private English name for it is 
" Peterhouse," after my own college. 

In addition to this work I teach myself in several centres. 
Here I can tabulate my work so as to let you see what I am 


(i) Keiogijiku ... . . . ... 180 

(ii) Azabu 25 

(ill) University ... ... ... 7 

(iv) Naval Hospital 20 

(i) Is a large private school belonging to a Mr. Fukuzawa, 
who is also a newspaper editor of prominence in Japan. His 
paper is very widely read amongst the upper classes. The 
students here are very ardent politicians. They were very anxious 
to know whether at the English universities any of the graduates 
belong to the Liberal party. I told them that Mr. Gladstone 
was a personage whose Liberalism no one could deny, and that 
he was a very distinguished graduate of Oxford. Their opinion 
of the English universities has increased ; and since I have told 
them that even amongst the English clergy Liberals are to be 
found, they are beginning to think that Christianity is no such 
bad institution after all I But there is no searching after God 
amongst them. 

(ii) At Azabu I have an evening class. At first I held this 
class in a room in a disused house at the back of mine, which 

Mission Field, 
July 1, 1885. 



I also use for preaching. But latterly I have found it more 
convenient to teach in my own house. The pupils who come to 
me here are of a better class. Some are officers in the army, 
some are naval cadets, and some are masters at the Keiogijiku, 

who come to me out of hours for additional instruction in 
English. Here I have reason to be very thankful that in one 
or two instances there seems to be a desire for better things 
amongst them. Three or four of these have asked me to lend 

214 TOKIO, JAPAN. f Sg^IBf 1 

them religious books, and have questioned me a good deal 
about Christianity. They have also begun to come with con 
siderable regularity to the services at Shiba. 

(iii) At the University I have a private class of medical 
students. There are only seven pupils, but they are all of a 
good class, and extremely intelligent. They are, however, very 
bitterly opposed to the faith. They look upon it with con 
tempt, and say that no educated European even is a Christian. 
1 am doing my best to make them respect Christianity. 

When we received the news of Professor Fawcett s death 
they were very much affected by it so much so, that they 
requested me to suspend my ordinary lesson in order to give 
them a lecture upon his life and work. They have a great 
respect for a life given up to good works, especially when it is 
in the face of difficulties such as Prof. Fawcett had to contend 
with. I do not despair of these men in the long run. 

(iv) At the Naval Hospital I am to begin a private class for 
the surgeons next month. I cannot of course say anything 
about them yet. 

From this you will see that I am very busy indeed I have 
to keep my nose very close to the grindstone. You will also 
see what a boon another man would be to us. 

With all this work in hand, you will see that I do not get 
much time for study. But all day long I am mixing up with 
Japanese, and have to use the language, so that I have got a 
tolerable facility in the use of the colloquial, and am able to 
preach 1 in Japanese sufficiently well to be understood. During 
the Holy Week Yamagata and I are to pay a visit to Nakatsa, 
and shall preach at two or three places, if opportunity is given 
us. I am looking forward with great eagerness to my first 
evangelistic tour. 

1 Mr. Lloyd only left England on May 24th, last year. 


Thursday, May 7th, a very large gathering of the 
Churchpeople of Nassau assembled to hear a few 
parting words from Bishop Cramer-Roberts and 
to wish him good-bye. 

At eight o clock the meeting was opened with prayer by the 
Rev. R. Swann, and afterwards an address from the Diocesan 
Council, which we publish below, with the Bishop s reply 
thereto, was presented and received. This formal part of the 
meeting being over, the Bishop spoke to the people words of 
affection, comfort, and advice, urging them to unity, peace, and 
devotion to the cause of Christ. In allusion to some of the 
pleasant work of his Episcopate, he feelingly referred to the 
fact that nearly three thousand persons had been admitted to 
full membership of the Church by the rite of confirmation ; 
and then he counselled them to be steadfast in the faith, and 
zealous in devotion. The fervour and earnestness of his words 
appeared to be fully appreciated by every person in the large 
audience present. At the close he pronounced the Benediction 
and bade them farewell. The Bishop will be very much missed 
in Nassau, not only among the people of the Church, but by 
the community at large. 
To the Right Reverend Francis Alexander Randal, Lord Bishop of Nassau. 


WE, the members of the Diocesan Council, cannot allow your Lord 
ship s visible connection with this Diocese to cease without tendering to 
you, on this the eve of your departure, an affectionate though sorrowful 

It is needless for us again to fefer to the domestic circumstances which 
have made your Lordship s resignation of this See a matter of imperative 
necessity. While acknowledging the all-wise hand of God in this, as in 
other mysterious dispensations of His providence, we cannot but express 
our sorrow that an episcopate which has been abundantly blessed should 
have come to so early a termination. 

Q 2 


Your Lordship may rest assured that whether as members of the Diocesan 
Council, or as individuals, we shall always look back upon your sojourn 
among us with feelings of gratitude to God, and of regard towards yourself. 
Since your arrival among us in 1878, the Diocese has enjoyed a profound 
and uninterrupted peace ; not we believe, that peace which arises from 
indifference and inactivity, but a harmony in co-operation which has made 
its effect felt in the advancement of true religion amongst us. 

We feel that your Lordship has yourself largely conduced to this happy 
union through the kind and considerate sympathy with which your dealings 
with us have been characterised, whether in official or in private relations. 

It must be a source of gratification to your Lordship that in spite of the 
difficulties which the Diocese anticipated as the result of disendowment, 
you leave a larger number of clergymen in the Diocese at your departure 
than you found on your arrival. There has also been a considerable 
increase in the number of stations, of communicants, of Sunday and daily 
scholars, and in the funded property of the Diocese. We fully acknowledge 
that during your Lordship s tenure of office the hand of God has con 
stantly been upon us for good, in spite of our ingratitude and shortcomings. 

Who and what our future Chief Pastor may be we know not. Our 
Divine Master who has been so good to us in the past, will not forsake us 
in the future. We reckon upon your continued prayers and active sym 
pathy, that one may be appointed who shall be pleasing to God in holiness 
of life, and profitable to us in watchfulness and zeal. 

We tender to your Lordship our most heartfelt thanks for every spiritual 
privilege which as our Bishop you have been the means of conveying to 
us, and trust that we shall not prove ourselves unworthy of what we have 

Finally we desire for ourselves and for those whom as a Council we 
represent, to convey to your Lordship a heartfelt farewell. We shall not 
forget each other, and our prayers and sympathies will not cease, though 
we may be far apart. 

We ask your constant intercessions for us, and believe that we shall not 

ask in vain. 

We remain, my Lord, 

Affectionately yours in Christ, 

(Here follow the names.} 

The Bishop s reply was as follows : 

My Reverend Brethren and Lay Members of the Diocesan Council: 
Most cordially do I thank you for the affectionate address of farewell 
which you have so kindly presented to me on the eve of my leaving this 
Diocese. I can only say I wish it were in my power to reverse my decision, 
and retain my office of Bishop of Nassau, instead of being compelled to 
relinquish it ; but causes beyond human control make this impossible, and 
so my personal connection with this Diocese must, I regret to say, in a few 
days cease. 

You have referred to my Episcopate in terms far beyond what I deserve. 

"Sftiptt His REPLY TO THE ADDEESS. 217 

During the time I have presided over the Church in this Diocese, now 
nearly seven years, I have in no single instance done more than what wa.s 
my duty to do ; indeed in some instances I am painfully sensible of having 
failed to reach that standard which should guide us in the discharge of the 
duties to which in God s providence we may be called. Whatever I have 
been able to do for the well-being of the Church in the Bahamas, and to 
which you have alluded in touching terms, must be attributed to God s 
goodness, and the hearty co-operation I have invariably met with from the 
members of the Diocesan Council. 

You have referred to the fact that I am leaving the Diocese with a larger 
number of clergymen than what I found on my arrival in 1878, and that 
the Church s work has extended itself in a very marked way during the 
term of my Episcopate in the face of difficulties which seemed threatening. 
I cannot allow myself to take all the credit of this. Had I not had the 
active and warm support of the members of the Council to back up many 
of the schemes I set on foot, much that has been done for the benefit of 
the Church would of necessity have been left undone. My applications 
for grants of money for augmenting the stipends of clergymen, or for 
carrying on the Church s organisations, were as a rule readily and sub 
stantially responded to. If I have been in any way instrumental in estab 
lishing unity and harmony in the Diocese, I thank God for having blessed 
my efforts in effecting what from the very first I aimed at. Without unity 
the Church s work can never prosper as it should. And I am convinced, 
my Reverend Brethren, and Lay members of the Diocesan Council, that 
you will ever do your part in the future to increase that spirit in your 
midst, which will prove a tower of strength to the Church. 

With much that is sad to me at this time of parting with so many who 
have proved their friendship towards me by sharing my joys and sorrows, 
I rejoice to think that though in person I shall be absent from the Diocese, 
yet at your request I shall for a time at least continue your Bishop. Our 
connection with each other will not be permanently severed when I leave 
the Bahamas. You may rely upon my continued sympathy with you 
wherever my future lot may be cast. And you may depend upon my in 
tercessions for the Church collectively, and for each individual member of 
her, in this part of God s vineyard. Neither shall I cease to pray that God 
will raise up a man after His own heart, to rule His Church in the Bahamas ; 
one who will fill the high office of Bishop of this Diocese more worthily 
than I have done. 

In bidding you, my Reverend Brethren and Lay members of the Diocesan 
Council, farewell, I pray that the Divine Blessing may rest upon all your 
labours for the extension of Christ s Kingdom in these islands, and that 
your spiritual lives may be sanctified through the operations of the Holy 
Ghost, and that you may be reckoned here among those who having 
laboured for Christ shall be rewarded by Him hereafter. 

I remain your affectionate friend, 
and Father in God, 


of % pmttfr. 

A WONDERFUL sermon was preached before the Society 
--LX. on Wednesday, June 17th, in St. Paul s Cathedral, by 
the Lord Bishop of Ripon (Dr. Boyd Carpenter). 

The Service was a Celebration of the Holy Communion, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury being the celebrant. There were 
also present the Bishops of Winchester, Antigua, Nassau, 
Victoria, and Brisbane. 

The text was from the words, "The God that answereth by 
fire, let him be God" (l Kings xviii. 24), and the preacher, 
illustrating his subject by the exhibition of the operation of a 
like law in the highest achievements of art, politics, and 
philosophy, claimed that (as on Carmel) it was not the sacrifice 
that was the real test, it was the fire, whether of genius, 
patriotism, or enthusiasm, that descended upon it. We regret 
that we are unable to report the sermon at full length, and to 
show how the Bishop spoke of the fire in the Religious sphere, 
and of Missionary zeal. 

AT Westminster Abbey, on Friday, June 19th, the Lord 
Bishop of Lichfield preached a most earnest sermon, on 
the occasion of the Society s Annual Festival. Preaching from 
the text, "Known unto God are all his works from the begin 
ning of the world" (Acts xv. 18), the Bishop developed his 
subject in a thoughtful and even philosophical manner. He 
deplored the apathy of many in the Missionary cause. 

The Society is indeed to be congratulated on its anniversary 
services and meeting. 

WE print in the present number a report of the remarkable 
address of the President at the Annual Public Meeting, 
as well as of the other speeches on that occasion. His Grace s 

M juiyij88 e 5 dl ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 219 

historical review of the phases of Missionary work in the various 
ages of the Church led him to speak of the personal and 
governmental methods, and the present system of societies, 
when he added words which not only warmed the hearts of the 
large assembly in St. James s Hall, but which will encourage 
many who can only read them : 

" I feel very jealous for this old Society of ours, which is so bound up 
with all the past history of the English Church, which has had such noble 
men to support it, such devoted lovers and devoted workers both here and 
abroad. I am very jealous for this Society lest it should seem to be in any 
way limiting or crippling its operations." 

ON St. Philip and St. James s Day (May 1st) the Rev. Charles 
Hamilton was consecrated Bishop of Niagara at Frederic - 
ton, by the Bishop of Fredericton (Metropolitan), the Bishops 
of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Maine (U.S.), and the Coadjutor- 
Bishop of Fredericton. 

ON St. Barnabas Day (June llth) the Rev. William Thomas 
Thornhill Webber, D.D., was consecrated in St. Paul s 
Cathedral Bishop of Brisbane. The Consecrating Prelates 
were the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London, 
Carlisle, and Bedford, and Bishops Tufnell and Mitchinson. 
The preacher was the Rev. J. W. Shepherd. 

College, Cambridge (22nd Wrangler), has been ap 
pointed Vice Principal of the Society s College at Trichinopoly. 

BISHOP CALDWELL is anxious to have Caldwell College, 
Tuticorin, Tinnevelly, raised to the rank of a First 
Class College under the University of Madras, so that it 
might be authorised to teach up to the B.A. degree. The 
only difficulty in the way was that this would involve the 
necessity of obtaining an additional Professor from Europe, 
and this would entail a large additional expenditure. This 
difficulty has now been removed by the liberality of the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which has pro 
vided a salary of 250 a year for six years, and this sum 

220 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [^fftSSf 1 

will be increased by a grant of one-third of the amount 
from Government to a Graduate of any of the Universities. 
The person appointed to this post will act as Assistant to the 
Principal, and will be required to teach the higher Mathematics 
and Physical science. He will have passage-money and a 
free house. This will not appear a very tempting offer from 
a pecuniary point of view, but a clergyman or a Missionary- 
minded layman, who is ready and willing to work for God 
and to look to Him for recompense, will find many oppor 
tunities of making himself exceedingly useful both in the 
College itself, which is essentially a Christian and Missionary 
College, and in the Tinnevelly Mission. It is desirable that an 
appointment should be made without delay, so that the per 
son appointed should be able to arrive and commence work by 
the 1st of January, 1886. Applications may be made to the 
Secretary, S.P.G., 19, Delahay Street, Westminster. 

SHERBROOKE (Quebec) is the place which has been 
chosen for the Home for Little Girls who are taken to 
Canada in connection with the Church of England Waifs and 
Strays Society. The Rev. J. Bridger, of Liverpool, has returned 
to England after accompanying the first party of children. 
The Home was formally inaugurated on Thursday, May 28th. 
The people in Sherbrooke have taken the greatest interest in 

the scheme. 

RUNSWICK is a place for which the Society is anxious 
to find a permanent chaplain. One was sent there two or 
three years ago, and remained for twelve months. The numbers 
of the congregation were small, and the amount forthcoming 
for the chaplain quite inadequate. Recently, however, the 
Society s chaplain at Leipsic went by arrangement to hold a 
service on a Sunday at Brunswick, and found a congregation of 
a hundred English-speaking people, of whom twenty-five com 

Such a flock should not be left without a shepherd. Is there 
no English clergyman to whom the prospect of a very small 
remuneration would not be of much importance, and who would 
be willing to offer himself for this work ? 


WE have to record the death of the Rev. Krishna Mohan 
Banerjea, for many years connected with the Society s 
work in the Diocese of Calcutta. He was by birth a Jculin 
Brahman, that is, of the first order of Brahmanical families. 
When quite a boy, and at a time when the pride and prejudice 
of Hindus, Brahmans especially, were strong against foreign 
learning, he applied himself to the study of English, first under 
David Hare, an eccentric philanthropist, and afterwards at a 
Missionary Institution at Calcutta. His Hindu faith he had 
abandoned, probably before joining the latter, when he and 
some of his companions renounced, or at least broke, their 
caste. Whilst his religious views were thus unsettled, the public 
lectures and arguments of the late Dr. Duff led him first to 
consider and then to embrace the Christian faith. He was 
eventually baptised by Archdeacon Dealtry, in the Old or 
Mission Church, Calcutta. This was a great event. The 
baptism of a high-caste Brahman had been, up to that time, a 
thing unknown. The baptism of Banerjea caused, consequently, 
a great sensation, especially among the native community. 
Among Christians great hopes were founded upon it. 

After a somewhat brief period of study and probation, he 
was ordained in 1839 by Bishop Wilson, and appointed minister 
of Christ Church, Cornwallis Square. Whilst pastor of the 
native congregation there, and in charge of a school maintained 
by the S.P.C.K., he was extensively engaged in literary work, 
making and publishing translations into the vernacular from 
standard English authors. His ability as a translator led to his 
becoming connected with Bishop s College, Calcutta, to which 
he was attached in 1852 as junior professor, a position which he 
held for fifteen years. During this time, besides superintending 
the press and other college duties, he assisted in the revision 
of the Book of Common Prayer in Bengali, as far as completed, 
and produced a tentative version of the Epistles and Gospels 
which, however, never came into use. He also translated the 
Psalter into Bengali, from a literal English rendering made for 
the purpose by Dr. Kay, and this, after a careful revision by a 
committee of the College Syndicate and Missionaries, was 
sanctioned by the Bishop for use in churches. In 1861 he 


published, with the help of the S.P.C.K., his most important 
work, Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy, a very learned and able 

In 1867 he retired on a pension from Bishop s College, and 
from his active connection with the Society. From that time 
he did not undertake any regular Church work. He acted from 
time to time as Examining Chaplain to the Bishop for native 
candidates for Holy Orders, and occasionally preached and gave 
lectures. He had for many years previously been a member of 
the Board of Examiners of the College of Fort William, a 
Government appointment which he retained to the time of his 
death. He was also a constant examiner in the vernaculars 
for the Calcutta University, with which he was long connected, 
and from which he received the honorary degree of D.L. 

His influence with the native community, both Christian and 
Hindu, was very great, and his attainments gained him the 
acquaintance and regard of a large number of Europeans. He 
has died full of days, after occupying for fifty years a very 
prominent position in Calcutta and the neighbourhood. 

AMONG several legacies received lately one seems to call 
for mention not for its amount so much as because of 
the honoured memory of the testator. It is pleasant to think 
of the Society as ranking as an heir to the extent of 500 
to the revered Christopher, Bishop of Lincoln. 

IN the Journals of the Society for the eighteenth century 
are to be found the earliest historical records of the 
Church in America, Canada, and the West Indies. 

In these days, when whatever is antique possesses a value of 
its own, the American Church and people are more than ever 
anxious to trace their pedigree direct from the mother country. 
The increasing number of References made to the Society for 
the evidence, which its records alone can supply, of early Church 
life in the United States, have suggested the idea of printing, 
verbatim et literatim, the Society s MS. Journals from the date 
of its Incorporation 1701 to 1800 and thus of reproducing 
in an authentic form the annals of a period in which the 

M ju 8 iy?.S!k dl ] NOTES or THE MONTH. 223 

Churches of England and America were in that constant and 
friendly communication which the relations of parent and 
child naturally produce alike in societies and in families. 

It has been found, too, that incidentally the lives and 
histories of individuals are interspersed with official records in 
these Journals, and hence there have arisen frequent demands 
for the evidence to be gained from them on the history of 
families and individuals during the last century. 

An estimate has been taken, whence it appears that these 
Journals would fill Five Volumes of about 700 pages each, 
at a cost of 6 6s. for the set (or if as many as 500 copies are 
ordered, 5 5s.). It is obvious that the Society would not be 
justified in incurring this outlay at its own cost, and also that 
the success of the venture must depend upon the number of 
Subscribers who are likely to contribute to the expenditure 
which it will involve. 

Communications on the subject should be addressed to the 

QUEEN EMMA S death at Honolulu on April the 25th has 
caused the greatest sorrow in the islands, while in 
England there have been warm tributes to her memory, and 
affectionate regrets at her passing away. Her death is a great 
loss to the Christian influence in Honolulu. 

The love which was borne to her by the natives was of a very 
remarkable strength and tenderness, and she has been mourned 
by them with deep grief. 

HER death was due to apoplexy ; and though she had 
received some attacks last year, the suddenness of the 
last attack produced a great shock. 

The body rests in the mausoleum with that of her husband 
Kamehameha IV., and nearly all of the Kamehamehas. 

IT appears from the newspapers that actual fighting is over 
in North-West Canada. The letters of the Bishop of 
Rupertsland and others give us a view of the effects of the 
disturbance little or no brighter than that which we printed last 


month. The following is from the Bishop of Saskatchewan, 
and is dated 16th May : 

" You will have read in the newspapers about the rebellion in our North- 
West. It broke out on March 19th. Riel established himself at Batoche s 
Crossing, about fifty miles from Prince Albert, and between us and 
Winnipeg. The telegraph wires were cut and our mail stopped, so that 
until to-day we have been without means of communication. We have 
been in great danger of our lives for nearly two months. 

" The people have been crowded together in the town of Prince Albert, 
where a stockade was erected to protect the women and children. Our 
volunteers and police have kept guard day and night. We have been in 
constant apprehension of an attack, but in God s goodness it has been 
averted. We had to sleep without undressing, ready at any moment to 
leave our rooms and go behind the entrenchments. I have been in the 
town with my family for nearly eight weeks, the College and my residence 
being three miles out of town. Our Mission chapel in the town was used 
as a dwelling for refugees , but I have held service in the open air nearly 
every Sunday, and several of our clergy have had regular services in houses 
and stores. Six of our clergy have had to take refuge here. 

"I write in great haste; our first mail came in a few days ago. Our 
troops have defeated Riel and captured him, and broken up his camp, 
killing and capturing a great many rebels but the Indians are in arms in 
many parts of the country, and have yet to be subdued. 

"A mail leaves this place early to-morrow. I have a great many short 
letters to write ; I shall have a great deal to write to you as soon as matters 
are settled. More vigorous efforts must be made on behalf of the Indian*. 
It-is only the Gospel of Christ that will make them safe neighbours, to 
take even the lowest view of the subject." 

AT the close of an address to the boys of Uppingham 
School, by the Rev. R. R. Winter, on June 10th, an 
electric bell, an electro-motor, and a pair of telephones, made 
by some of the boys themselves in the school workshops, were 
presented to him for use in the scientific teaching of the High 
School and College at Delhi, and in token of their interest in 
fellow-students in India. 

THE Church of the United States is to be congratulated on 
the consecration of its finest church. The "Cathedral 
of the Incarnation," Long Island, was opened for Divine 
service on April 9th, 1885, and consecrated in June. It is the 
gift of Mrs. Alexander T. Stewart, in memory of her husband. 

juiyi.S J NOTES OF THE MONTH. 225 

She has also erected a handsome see house, and a large high- 
class boys school to accommodate 500 boys. 
The Cathedral is highly decorated Gothic. 

" The walls everywhere show exquisite tracery, sculpture, and carvings. 
Every pinnacle of the aisle, wall and clerestory is flanked with gargoyles, 
every gable is copiously crocketed, the offsets are intricately modelled, and 
the capitals are carved in natural foliage. Everywhere the eye turns it 
meets the signs of artistic beauty, and a proof that this house of God was 
to be, at any sacrifice, without blemish or spot. Not less than sixty 
miniature spires rise from different parts of the building, and it fairly 
bristles with points. The length of the cathedral is 188 feet, the transepts 
being 65 feet and the nave 60 feet, while the height from the foundation to 
the apex of the nave is 53 feet. The spire rises 137 feet above the nave, 
making its whole height 210 6 feet." 

A chapter-house and cloister, a large high-class girls school, 
and a Divinity school, form part of this plan of munificent 

WRITING in March, the Rev. S. M. Samuelson, of St. 
Paul s Mission, Zululand, describes his daily work in 
church and school, the progress of his catechumens, and his 
addresses at the kraals. The action of the Boers has, how 
ever, threatened the very existence of the Mission, though the 
danger seems to have passed : 

U 0n the 10th of January I was made very sorry by a number of Boers, 
who were down here surveying all the country and laying out farms of 
4,000 acres each. I went and remonstrated with them about Kwa-Magwaza 
and this station, but they told me distinctly that no station would be left 
to the Mission, as they recognise no Society. 

" An individual Missionary might get a small grant, they said, by apply 
ing to their Committee, and by becoming a Boer burgher. 

" Since then several parties of Boers have called here on their way to and 
from the coast, and they have informed me that their Committee had at last 
decided to let the stations remain in the possession of the Mission, and to 
give them a grant of 4,000 acres each, equal to their own farms. The 
stations are to be beaconed out in May next, if nothing happens to prevent 
it. But now the Zulus are very dissatisfied with the Boers for having 
taken the whole country, and they are gathered together up country, and 
may perhaps give the Boers some trouble. 

" From the papers it seems that it is now the intention of England to 
annex Zululand when Bechuanaland is settled, but we fear she will wait 
till the country is depopulated. 

226 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ 1 SS?,SS dl 

" Having had many talks with the Bishop about reclaiming Kwa-Mag- 
waza, and Robertson having refused to return there, the Bishop has gone to 
reside there himself for some time. Next month I shall have to pass 
there myself on my way to Isandhlwana for the Synod. 

" Mrs. Samuelson and family have been living in Natal since last June, 
but I am now sending down the waggon to fetch them up, hoping that 
nothing may occur to frighten us away again. 

" Since the English-Zulu war, in 1879, we have had to live in our waggon 
house, but when we get a Government in the country, I intend to apply for 
a grant to put up a better house, and trust I shall not be refused." 

"TTERY brightly and hopefully the Rev. E. W. Stenson was 
V able to write in March last of his Mission in Basutoland. 
In the May Mission Field there was a letter from him telling 
of famine and a dreadful small-pox visitation. Now he has 
much happier things to tell of, such as a joyous service at 
Mafeteng, on Low Sunday, when an adult catechumen was 
baptised, and on the following Sunday a celebration at "the 
great place " of the paramount chief, Letsea, when there were 
forty communicants, followed by the baptism of twenty-six 
adults and two children. On the same occasion 

" Two adults, already baptised, were received into the Church. One of 
these is a young man, son to the great chief Sechele, who rules a large 
tribe in the interior, some 700 miles distant. This lad wishes to go to 
school at Zonnebloem, as does his father that he should go, and I have 
promised to help him to carry out his wishes. At present he is a visitor at 
Letsea s place. 

" I have forty-two children in Sunday School at Letsea s, but the day 
schools at Mafeteng and Mohales Hoek are still closed for want of means." 

The following record of a heathen s gift and request is very 
striking and touching : 

" Letsea s second son, Bereng, a heathen, has built the small chapel at the 
great place, at his own expense, for love of his mother, who is one of our 
converts. He has also promised to build a larger church at his own place, 
some fifteen miles distant, if I will promise to send him a schoolmaster and 
catechist, and visit him periodically. I have promised to do so as soon as 
means allow of my helping him, as he calls it." 

Mr. Stenson adds a very noteworthy fact with regard to his 
native Mission agents, viz. that they are " bravely working 
gratuitously " until he can find funds to assist them : 


" They have proved their loyalty and self-devotion very fully during the 
past year, in which I was only able to devote .10 to the support of three 
hard-working native catechists, in a time of severe want." 

ON Tuesday, June 9th, the Annual Meeting of the Capetown 
Association was held in the large vestry of St. Peter s, 
Eaton Square, Lord Nelson being in the Chair. 

His Lordship, in common with other speakers and the printed 
Report of the Association, urged the needs of the Capetown 
diocese, and spoke of its special difficulties, warning against 
the tendency for "new and more popular Missions" to lead 
people to forget old work. 

In such a caution the Society can sympathetically join. Good 
work generally requires increased aid as it grows, and its very 
success adds to its requirements. 

ACTING under a Commission from the Bishop of Tasmania, 
the Bishops of Lichfield and Bedford, the Dean of 
Windsor, the Rev. F. H. Cox (late Dean of Hobart), and 
W. F. Kemp, Esq., have appointed the Rev. Charles Leslie 
Dundas to the Deanery of Hobart. Mr. Dundas was a scholar 
of Brasenose College, Oxford, was placed in the first class 
both in Moderations and in the Theological School. He was 
Denyer and Johnson University Scholar, and obtained the Hall 
Senior Greek Testament Prize. He was elected Fellow of 
Jesus College in 1873, and was for some years Vicar of 
Charlton Kings, near Cheltenham. Mr. Dundas proposes to 
sail in August, and is anxious to take with him a well-qualified 
clergyman to act as Curate of St. David s Church and Minor 
Canon of the Cathedral. 

THE Rev. Dr. Pope, the Society s Organising Secretary for 
the diocese of Manchester, has been elected to the 
Chair of Teacher of Telugu in the University of Oxford. 



Mission Field, 
. July 1, 1685 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
June 19th, at 2 P.M., Lord Robartes in the Chair. There were also present 
thirty-four other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
May 31st : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January May, 1885. 


Donations, and 


Bents, &c. 




















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of May in five consecutive years. 

Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-1 
tions j 


Dividends, Rents, &c 


















16,969 18,920 



3. Read letter, dated 25th May, from the Rev. T. W. Gibson, acknow 
ledging, on behalf of the family of the late Rev. Dr. Currey, the Society s 
resolution upon his decease. 

4. Authority was given to use the Corporate Seal for the purpose of 
transfer of Stock. 

5. The Rev. W. Brereton, of Pekin (North China), and the Rev. 
W. Crompton, of Muskoka (Algoma), addressed the members. 

6. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in April were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
October : 

The Rev. W. A. Crawford, Shalden, Alton ; Rev. T. D. Platt, Holy Trinity, 
Portsea ; Rev. J. 0. M. West, Wherwell, Andover ; Rev. D. S. Boutflower, 4, 
Summerhill East, Bishop Wearmouth ; Rev. C. D. Stocks, Crondall, Farnham ; 
Rev. T. H. Bush, Christchurch, Hants ; Rev. S. E. Davies, Broadwindsor, 
Bridport ; Rev. Simmer Wilson, Preston Candover, Basingstoke ; Rev. H. B. 
Dunlop, Netley S. Matthew, Totton, Hants ; Rev. E. S. Prideaux-Brune, Rowner, 
Fareham, Hants; Rev. C. E. Escreet, 5, Stansfield Road, Brixton, S.W. ; W. H. 
Slade, Esq., 24, The Grove, Brixton, S.W. ; Rev. F. C. Littler, S. John s, 
Woking ; Rev r J. M. Sandham, Waltham, Pulborough ; Rev. R. Ferguson, 
Durley, Bishop s Waltham ; Rev. Richard Lee, Christ s Hospital, B.C. ; Rev. K. 
M. Pughe, Irton, Carnforth ; Rev. J. H. Moore-Stevens, Sheepwash, Highampton, 
Devon ; Rev. J. H. Raven, Fauconberge School, Beccles, and Rev. J. C. Buckley, 
S. Luke s, Victoria Docks, E. 



AUGUST 1, 1885. 



(By the Rev. C. H. Chard, from the " RANGOON CHURCH NEWS "). 

ORT Blair has at last become the headquarters of a 
Church of England Mission, and the Bishop came 
for the special purpose of establishing Mr. Nodder, 
of St. Augustine s College, Canterbury, as the first 
Missionary of the Andaman and Nicobar Mission. The Bishop, 
in conjunction with our excellent Chief Commissioner, Colonel 
Cadell, V.C., who yields to none in anxious care for the best 
interests of the aboriginal tribes who live under his rule, chose 
two possible sites for the Mission, but left the final selection of 
the more suitable of these to a future occasion. Meanwhile 
Mr. Nodder has temporarily settled down at Haddo, and com 
menced work with seven boys from the Andaman Orphanage 
and two lads from Car Nicobar. Your readers can hardly be 
expected to realise the full significance of this event. These 
island groups are known to most people, if at all, but as British 
penal settlements. Very few think of the Andamans as the 



abode of degraded fellow human beings whom all religious 
societies have hitherto ignored ; or know that in the Nicobars 
heathenism has beaten back the Christian Church, and remained 
sole master of the field. Yet this is so. Now for the first 
time the Andamanese as a race are to have the Gospel preached 
to them, and the campaign in the Nicobars is to be re 
commenced. These are brave words ; they perhaps will seem 
absurdly so when we add that to accomplish this but one 
Missionary can at present be spared a cause neither for 


wonder nor reproach. Other Mission fields are densely peopled 
by ignorant millions, here they are few and scattered ; and in 
the case of the Andamanese are rapidly dying out. Both the 
men and the money are wanted for richer fields of enterprise. 
In pathetic interest, however, there are few Missions which can 
compete with this. Perhaps it would interest your readers if I 
gave a brief account of the Andaman and Nicobar Mission. 
I need not say that although both of these groups of islands 
have been combined into one sphere of Missionary operation 


by the Bishop, and taken spiritual possession of by him in the 
name of the Church of England, their inhabitants are united 
by nothing but the tie of a common humanity. The Andaman- 
ese are Negritos, the Nicobarese are essentially Malay. The 
Ten Degree Channel, which intervenes between these two 
groups of islands, has proved an insuperable bar to mutual 
intercourse. The two races are allied neither in race, language, 
nor religion. 

The Andamans became a penal settlement after the Mutiny 
in 1858, and from the earliest years of the British occupation 
local efforts have been made for the civilisation of the aborigines. 
The first Chaplain of Port Blair, Mr. Corbyn, was placed in 
charge of the Andamanese, and he seems to have taken the 
liveliest interest in them. But it was not till the Chief Com- 
missionership of Colonel (now General) Man that any definite 
steps were taken to raise these poor creatures in the scale of 
humanity. During his time two lines of action were adopted. 
He himself established a Home near the British settlements, 
to whose shelter and civilising influences the Andamanese were 
to be .attracted, and also an Orphanage, where their orphan 
children were to be brought up in a Christian way, and weaned 
from the wild jungle life of their parents : and his son-in-law, 
then Lieutenant (now Colonel) Laughton, "whose praise is in all 
the churches," in conjunction with the Chaplain of Port Blair, 
formed a local Missionary Society, having chiefly in view the 
direct evangelisation of the Andamanese. About Rs. 5,000 or 
Rs. 6,000 were raised and placed in the hands of the Bishop of 
Calcutta for the furtherance of this object, and every effort was 
made to find a Missionary to begin work amongst these poor 
people unfortunately without success. This was about twenty 
years ago. The money has lain in the Bank of Bengal, and the 
project for the conversion of these denizens of the jungle has 
been awaiting happier times. The Chaplain and other residents 
here have from time to time urged it upon Bishops and Societies, 
but without avail. Individual baptisms there have been, and 
our Bishop at his first visitation confirmed two Andamanese 
girls ; but with the exception of the Home and the Orphanage, 
no direct effort has been made to civilise these people as a 

R 2 



n Field, 
1, 1885. 

whole. But whilst the Church has delayed, the people have 
been dying. Disease has appeared amongst them, and the 
whole race threatens speedy extinction ; there are now only 
a few thousands left. Christ has bequeathed the solemn charge 
to His Church to preach the Gospel to every nation, and we 
may rejoice that at length, after all these years of delay, 
that command is .now to be obeyed, to the endless blessing, 
as we trust, of these few poor sheep which still remain to the 
Good Shepherd in these islands. 


With reference to their religious views, I learn from an 
exceedingly interesting brochure on The Aboriginal Inhabitants 
of the Andaman Islands, published by Mr. E. H. Man, who for 
many years has been a deep student of all things relating to 
the Andamanese, that they believe in a Great Being (Puluga), 
the author of all good, and in three chief Evil Beings, and a 
multitude of inferior ones. Puluga lives in a large stone house 
in the sky, with a wife whom he created for himself. She is 
green in appearance, and has two names, "Mother Fresh- water 
Shrimp," and "Mother Eel." By her Puluga has a large family, 

"S.i,!885 d> ] THE ABORIGINAL RELIGION. 233 

all, except the eldest, being girls, who are black, and are occu 
pied with their mother in throwing fish and prawns into the 
stream and sea for the use of the inhabitants of the world. 
Puluga s only son is a good spirit of superior rank, associated 
with his father, whose orders he conveys to the inferior spirits. 
Puluga is said to eat and drink, and, during the dry months of 
the year, to pass much of his time in sleep, as is proved by his 
voice (thunder) being rarely heard at that season. He is the 
source whence men derive all their supplies of animals, birds, 
and turtles. When men anger him he comes out of his house 
and blows, and growls, and hurls burning faggots at them in 
other words, visits their offences with violent thunderstorms and 
heavy squalls. Quite independent of him are the three great 
spirits of Evil. Of these one is the Evil Spirit of the Woods, 
who with his noxious progeny roam the jungles with lighted 
torches. The second lives solitary in ant-hills, and the third is the 
Evil Spirit of the Sea, living in its depths, and devouring all 
victims who fall prey to his net or spear. Besides these there 
are numerous evil spirits of less power, who are much dreaded. 

At death the disembodied spirit passes to the region beneath 
the world, which is regarded as flat, which is but dimly lighted 
by the Sun and the Moon, when they retire to rest there after 
running their diurnal and nocturnal course. In this region 
some are happy, but others are punished by bitter cold who 
have committed deeds of wrong here on earth, yet not eternally. 
Their punishment is remedial, and they, as well as the good, 
will be restored to their bodies at last and live again on earth 
under the same conditions as before. 

Some of their legends appear to carry the doctrine of the 
transmigration of souls, as certain of their ancestors are said 
to have vanished from earth in the form of various kinds of 
animals and fish. The spirits of those not thus transformed, 
even while living in the under world, are believed to be con 
scious to some extent of what transpires in the world which 
they once inhabited, and to be able to promote the welfare of 
those who bear them in mind. They have no form of ancestor 
worship, however, nor indeed of any worship whatsoever. No 
religious rites are to be found amongst them of any sort. 


The Nicobar Mission is surely one of the saddest chapters in 

the history of Christian enterprise. It is, however, but little 

known, albeit the first Protestant Missionaries who ever came 

to India came out with a view to Christianise the Nicobars. It 

is to the Church of Rome that belongs the honour of making 

the first attempt to plant the Cross on these beautiful islands. 

And a strangely noble attempt it was, notwithstanding its 

failure. What there is known of it is only to be gathered from 

the Lettrcs edifiantes et curieuses. There is a letter from Pere 

Faure, of the Society of Jesus, dated January 17th, 1711, to 

Pere de la Boesse, of the same Society, the writer states, that he 

had arrived at Pondicherry, and had pressed the Superior to 

allow him to devote himself to the conversion of the Nicobar- 

ese that he had consequently been chosen with Pere Bonnet 

"pour mettre la premiere main a une si bonne ceuvre." They 

started in the Lys Brillac. When the Nicobars were sighted 

this devoted servant of the Lord writes : " How happy shall I be, 

reverend father, if, when you receive my letter, I have already 

been deemed worthy to suifer something for Jesus Christ ! But 

you know me too well not to be persuaded that an equal grace 

is reserved for others who deserve it more than I." As they 

drew near land (it was somewhere on the coast of the Great 

Nicobar) the boat was lowered to put the good fathers ashore. 

The ship s company gathered round to see them depart, and, as 

we learn from an eye-witness, were astonished to see with what 

joy the two Missionaries went to give themselves up to the 

mercy of such a savage people, in islands so little known, and 

totally without the necessaries of life. For a long time the 

officer in command of the boat failed to find a landing-place, 

and would have turned back again to the ship ; but the fathers 

implored him not to lose courage, and at length an opening in 

the reef was found, and the Missionaries were set ashore, and all 

their furniture, which consisted of a little box containing their 

chapelk and a sack of rice, which had been presented to 

them on board. No sooner had they landed, than, kneeling 

down, they offered up their prayers and kissed the ground to 

take possession of it in the name of Jesus Christ. And then, 

picking up their chapelle and the bag of rice, they forced their 

? 1 ] THE NICOBAES. 235 

way into the jungles, and were lost to sight. Of their fate 
nothing certain is known. The natives say that after about three 
years they died at the Great Nicobar of dysentery ; according 
to another account, they were killed at Camorta. Of their 
devotion and labour no result seems to have remained, unless 
perchance some vague trace can be detected in a tradition of 
the Creation, in some points singularly like the Biblical account 
which Mr. de RoepstorfF found prevailing amongst the natives 
of the Great Nicobar. A poor result, one would say, of so 
much loving self-sacrifice. 

From 1711 to 1768 is a blank in the history of Christian 
enterprise in these islands, when another effort, nobler still, was 
made to win these lands for Christ. For several years previous 
to 1768 the Nicobars had been in the possession of Denmark, 
and it was from the headquarters of the Danish-Indian Govern 
ment at Tranquebar that the Moravian Brethren issued forth 
in one long procession of martyr spirits to battle in vain with 
the deadly climate and the dark heathenism of these islands. 
For nineteen years to 1787 they bravely held their ground 
through trials and sufferings innumerable. During that com 
paratively short period no less than twenty-four of these truly 
noble men laid down their lives in the sacred cause of their 
Divine Master. One survivor, Johan Gottfred Haensel, at the 
age of sixty-three, wrote an account of his brethren s life of 
love and labour at the Nicobars. Sickness, want of medicine, 
the necessity of supporting themselves by sending home rare 
shells, only to be found by infinite labour and exposure by day 
and night, the visits of Malay pirates, the great distance from 
headquarters at Tranquebar, the utter indifference of the 
natives to the Gospel, the difficulty in mastering the language 
these were but a few of the ills which fell continually to their 
lot. It was felt they were fighting a losing battle, the sacrifice 
of life was too costly ; and in 1787, when the devoted band had, 
as on several occasions before, become reduced by death to one, it 
was determined to abandon the Mission. The painful task of 
making the final arrangements was left to the brother men 
tioned above, J. G. Haensel. " Words," he writes, "cannot 
express the painful sensations which crowded into my mind 


L Aug. 1, 

while I was thus executing the task committed to me ... I 
remembered the numberless prayers, tears, and sighs offered up 
by so many servants of Jesus, and by our congregations in 
Europe, for the conversion of the poor heathen here ; and when 
I beheld our burying-ground, where eleven of my brethren had 
their resting-place, as seed sown in a barren land (thirteen also 
had died on arrival at Tranquebar), I burst into tears and 
exclaimed, Surely all this cannot have been done in vain! 
Often did I visit this place, and sat down and wept at their 
graves." After nearly one hundred years that spot has lost none 
of its sad pathetic interest. The very site of their Mission is 
overgrown by the triumphant jungle ; an old well, and a few 
scattered bricks, the dSbris of the Moravian Mission House, 
are all that remains of the Moravian Mission. The evil climate, 
the jungle, and the dark superstitions of the Nicobar natives 
have hitherto won in the struggle with the Cross of Christ. A 
Roman Catholic Missionary, an Italian, from Rangoon, made 
an attempt about the year 1807 to evangelise Car Mcobar. 
It proved, however, abortive. He soon left the island, and 
with him Christian enterprise in these regions ceased. I fear 
you cannot spare me space to tell how of late years light has 
begun to break again upon these dark but lovely forest-clad 
islands. But I trust what I have written will at least help your 
readers to understand the significance of the Bishop s late 
action, when at length, after months of anxious waiting, 
inquiry, and correspondence, he has been able to establish, 
we trust on a permanent footing, the Andaman and Nicobar 


|N all parts of England last year many people heard 
the Rev. J. B. Gribble, of Warangesda, tell his 
wonderful story of that Mission to the aborigines 
of Australia. Its touching interest will make many 
welcome gladly the following letters, written soon after his 
return, and telling of the opening before him for fresh work in 
Western Australia. 

The first letter is dated April 3rd : 

"Having fairly got into harness once more, I avail myself of a few 
moments to pen you a few lines to let you know how things are going on 
with me. The voyage out was, on the whole, very favourable. Miss 
Hurst proved herself a good sailor, and did a great deal for the Master 
amongst the crew and the brave sons of old England who were on their 
way to the Soudan. Some, I have cause to believe, were led to trust in 
Christ as their own Saviour. 

" On reaching Sydney Harbour my dear wife and daughter were on a 
boat far down the bay to meet me. I need not tell you, I am sure, that 
the meeting was a joyous one. 

" After remaining about a week in Sydney, we started for our far-away 
home. On the way we passed the scene of the terrible railway disaster, 
caused by a mighty flood which carried away a large embankment, and the 
through mail train from Melbourne to Sydney plunged headlong into the 
foaming waters. The train, as may be supposed, was wrecked, while 
numbers of the passengers were killed by contact with wreckage, or found a 
watery grave. This accident caused a great sensation throughout the 
country. As the dreadful affair had only happened four days before our 
homeward journey, we had to walk some distance to get to the train 
awaiting for us on the other side of the beach. 

" I am glad to say that, through the mercy of God, we reached the end 
of our railway journey in safety, although the country in places was very 
much flooded, and consequently the permanent way very insecure. 

U 0n reaching the Murrumbidgee River, about three miles below Waran 
gesda, to my surprise I discovered, drawn up on the opposite bank, about 
100 of my dear Mission people, who were headed by a very pretty banner 
inscribed with the one word, Welcome? As Mrs. Gribble, Miss Hurst, 
Amy and I were being pulled across the stream, the blacks struck up 


their favourite hymns, Gathered Home, and Blest be the tie that binds 
Our hearts in Christian love. I can assure you that I felt my heart 
deeply touched by such expressions of attachment and gratitude. On 
reaching the landing-place I was besieged by a crowd who sought most 
eagerly to grasp my hand, and bid me welcome home. After embracing 
and kissing my own dear white lambs, I must confess that I could not 
refrain from kissing the dear little black lambs that clustered round me. 
And I thought of that meeting yonder, when, after the labours of this 
world, as we enter into our eternal rest, we shall receive the hearty wel 
comes of those whom we have turned from darkness to light, some from 
home fields and some from the far-away fields of heathenism. Truly such 
a welcome to the home of heaven may well stimulate us to work while it 
is called to-day. 

" In celebration of my home-coming it was arranged that a grand pic-nic 
should be held three days after my arrival. But, alas ! on the very day 
set apart for the purpose, poor Ledger, one of my assistants was suddenly 
called home to God. He died of apoplexy. He was a most earnest 
Christian, and had served God faithfully amongst the blacks here more than 
two years. 

11 Instead of a scene of rejoicing, we had that day a scene of mourning. 
Instead of his cheerful face and kindly aid, we had his silent corpse and 
rough bush coffin to gaze at. Instead of our anticipated pic-nic and pro 
cession, we had a mournful procession to his grave on the hillside behind 
our Mission village. And there, amidst the remains of the dear blacks 
whom he so much Joved, and whom in his own simple way he sought to 
lead to Christ, lies the dust of Robert Ledger, our brother and fellow- 
worker, the first of our Mission staff to fall before the reaper death. 

" During my absence a severe drought prevailed in this part of the country. 
Our workers had, consequently, a very hard time of it nothing would 
grow, while sheep, cattle, and horses were reduced to mere skeletons. The 
Mission station presented a rather melancholy appearance. But I am glad 
to say that splendid rains have fallen since my return, and now, in so short 
a time, the whole aspect of the country is changed. 

"After adjusting various matters relating to the general work of the 
Mission, I turned my special attention to fencing, building, and cultivation 5 
and at the present time Warangesda presents quite a busy scene. 

" The church furniture, which the sisters presented me with on the eve 
of my departure from England, has made our Mission church quite pre 
sentable, while the convenience to myself is very great. 

"The Bishop of Riverina has been duly installed. He will reside at 
Hay, one of the principal towns in this part of New South Wales. 

" He has not paid us a visit yet, but we are expecting him shortly. The 
Bishop of Perth, Western Australia, is still in communication with me, 
re commencement of Mission work in the interior of that colony, where 
there are tens of thousands still in utter ignorance of the Gospel. He is 
most anxious to make a start, but as yet he has not succeeded in securing 
a suitable man. 


44 If God spares my life and my health is preserved, there is little doubt 
but that I shall place myself at the disposal of Bishop Parry." 

A month later (on May 5th) he speaks of his having referred 
to the proposal that he should found a new Mission under the 
Bishop of Perth, and says : 

" I have now to tell you that it is all arranged for me to undertake such 
work, and I shall (D.V.) leave here early in July, with my family, for Perth. 
Mrs. Gribble and the children will remain in Perth for at least a year, 
until I get the station formed. The scene of operations will be on the 
Gascoyne River, about a hundred miles inland from Shark s Bay. The 
natives there are, I am led to understand, very wild, and some of them 
even savage. But they are very numerous, and have not been so dreadfully 
injured by the white man s vices as they have been in the eastern colonies, 
therefore the prospect is very hopeful. We shall get amongst them with 
the Holy Gospel before the white settler hardens them against its blessed 
influences. Bishop Parry is sanguine of success, and for my own part I 
shall go as I came here, trusting solely in the Lord of the harvest to help 
me to gather in the sheaves which are there ready for the reapers. Mr. 
Rushton, one of my young Missionaries here, has been accepted by Bishop 
Parry as my assistant. Bishop Linton has been here recently, and was 
much pleased with the place." 

The diocese of Perth has an honourable record of good work 
among the Aborigines. Its first Bishop, Dr. Hale, both when 
in the diocese of Adelaide, and after his going to the diocese of 
Perth, to which see he was consecrated in 1857, has always 
been prominent as a worker for the civilisation and conversion 
of the natives of Australia. 

His successor, Dr. Parry, who has been Bishop of Perth 
since Dr. Hale s translation in 1875 to the see of Brisbane, has 
manfully carried on and developed the work. 


I HE Bishop of Gibraltar has recently addressed an 
important memorandum to the Standing Committee. 
The following extracts from it we commend to 
the attention of our readers : 

On several occasions I have expressed my strong desire that your So 
ciety should greatly extend its operations on the Continent. The number 
of our countrymen who settle abroad for purposes of trade, for health, for 
economy, for education, has greatly increased during late years. On the 
other hand the means of supplying such persons with the privileges of our 
Church have been largely diminished by the recent withdrawal of the 
Parliamentary grants hitherto made towards the maintenance of chaplain 
cies in places to which British Consuls are appointed. The wants of the 
congregations under my charge are not, indeed, so great as the wants of the 
congregations in central and northern Europe are represented as being by 
Bishop Titcomb in the memorandum supplied by him to your Society, and 
published in your last Report. This is due to the fact that the English 
congregations of the Southern Diocese have possessed systematic episcopal 
supervision for forty years, and consequently chaplaincies are now estab 
lished at all places where they are needed and can be supported. We have 
also a Diocesan Spiritual Aid Fund, which helps to provide for the re 
ligious wants of English communities, unable from their limited number 
or means to maintain a chaplaincy without assistance, and also supplies 
British sailors in the Mediterranean and neighbouring seas with chaplains, 
lay-helpers, sailors homes and institutes. Through the agency of 
committees at Cannes, Algiers and Nice, by offertories from churches of 
the Diocese, and by help of contributions from friends among the mer 
chants at Liverpool, the sum of ,1,563 was raised for these objects during 
the season before last, and 1,453 during last season. The need of 
the work which this fund supports may be estimated by the fact 
that about 63,000 British sailors annually visit Bilbao, 19,000 Genoa, 
17,000 Marseilles, 10,000 Odessa, 8,000 the Lower Danube. But it 
should be noticed that continual effort year by year is required to 
raise the money which the Diocesan Fund dispenses : and that owing to 
the inadequate income, which after all our endeavours we are able to offer, 
the chaplains are repeatedly resigning their posts. At places like Odessa, 
Corfu, Leghorn, Sulina, and Galatz, a constant struggle is needed to main 
tain the chaplaincies. These frequent changes, which are very prejudicial 
to the interests of the congregations, and this yearly struggle to save the 


chaplaincies from extinction, might be avoided if your Society would give 
larger and more vigorous aid. Whether your Society possesses funds which 
it would be justified in using for the purpose of extending its operations 
on the Continent is a question on which I can give no opinion. There can 
be no doubt that in taking new work in hand, your Society would be 
acting consistently with the terms of its charter, and returning to a field of 
its earliest labours. 

The supply of services for tourists during their summer holiday, no 
doubt, is a part of the continental work, and the part probably which has 
given the Secretary of the Continental Committee most trouble : but it 
is the part which is of least importance. The part which, in my judgment, 
is of pressing importance, the part which solely needs your aid, the part 
which I pray you to take more energetically in hand, is provision for per 
manent British settlers abroad British traders, governesses, ladies married 
to foreigners, artisans, miners, spread in small groups over Europe and 
British sailors in foreign sea-port towns, often left as sheep without a shep 
herd. Your diocesan representatives in England might promote very 
largely the efficiency of your continental work by communicating to the 
Standing Committee through its Secretary the names of clergymen willing 
and qualified to undertake ministerial duty abroad, either temporary or 
permanent. If it be difficult to raise adequate funds for this branch of our 
Church s work, it is far more difficult at present to find suitable men, espe 
cially for the permanent chaplaincies. But suitable men would, I believe, 
offer their services, if it were generally known that their services were 
needed, and in what quarter they ought to apply. 

As an example of the small British colonies scattered over Europe, I 
may name Hughesoffka, which, though outside the limits of my diocese, I 
ventured to visit last spring. This place, situated some eighty miles north 
of Taganrog, is the centre of great coal and iron works. Besides Russian 
workmen there are here about 300 of our countrymen, English and Welsh, 
of whom no less than 130 are children. Though this colony has been 
settled at Hughesoffka for ten years, there is neither a clergyman at the 
place to provide for their religious wants, nor an English school for the 
instruction of their children. The chaplain of the English church at 
Odessa, in the ministerial tour which he makes annually to the little 
English communities on the shores of the Black Sea, and the Sea of Azov, 
promises to include Hughesoffka, until funds can be raised to establish a 
permanent chaplaincy at the place. 

As I was sailing last spring from Odessa to Sebastopol, I came across a 
Lutheran clergyman, who, on finding that I was visiting the little groups 
of British settlers in South-eastern Russia, contrasted the care shown by 
the Church of England for her children, with the indifference shown by 
the Church of his own country. "At Tiflis, where you are going," he 
said, "there cannot be more than a dozen Englishmen, all told, whilst 
Germans may be counted by hundreds. And yet whilst our Church 
leaves these hundreds without any minister of religion, your Church 
sends to this handful of her children one of her chief pastors. The Church 

242 GIBRALTAR. ["!S?i.SSlf 

of England sets us a good example, which I shall report on returning 
home, and which, I trust, my Church may be stirred to imitate." 

It is mainly to little isolated British communities such as this that I 
am anxious to see your Society extending its sympathy and aid. They 
are too small and too poor to provide without assistance for their own re 
ligious wants. If you would prevent them from drifting into indifference, 
and keep them true to the Church of their fathers, you should lend 
them a helping hand. 

There are more than eighty chaplaincies on the Society s 
list, a quarter of them being permanent chaplaincies. 

In addition to these there are a few not on its list to 
which the Society has made grants on the score of work among 
British sailors, artisans, and other people of poor condition, at 
such places as Havre, Marseilles, and Odessa. 

The Society has further to meet many expenses, besides the 
remuneration of the chaplains. It provides vessels for the 
Holy Communion, books and other requisites for Divine 
Service. It has in some cases to pay fire insurance for the 
churches vested in the Society, and has from time to time to 
bear legal expenses in connection with the acceptance of the 
trusteeship of churches and sites on the Continent, in addition 
to many minor expenses and contingencies. 

The Society, with this varied and important work before 
them, find themselves with its Continental Chaplaincies Fund 
completely exhausted. 

Many pressing applications have recently been refused by the 
Committee for lack of funds, and it is necessary therefore for 
an appeal to be made to those who recognise the importance of 
providing the ministrations of the Church for English Church- 
people on the Continent, for help both to maintain the existing 
work, and to develop it in the numerous directions where 
extension is required. 



AM glad to be able to tell you that I am sending 
home Mr. Johnson for a six months holiday, and 
that there is fair prospect of my being able to 
get away next year myself. If any settlement at 
all takes place to render it possible I must do so, and shall try 
to be in England in April. It is, however, too soon to speak 
decidedly about this. 

Mr. Johnson is still in Deacon s Orders only. He has had 
much to hinder his reading, but he has improved very much 
indeed not only in theological knowledge, but in tone and 
spirit. He is very valuable to me, especially for Zulu revision, 
as he is not deep in old grooves, and knows the language 
" instinctively," which is what I need to fill up what is 
wanting in myself. He must return immediately after 

For the rest I am still in the same whirlpool of trouble and 
anxiety, with an overshare of the toil of travelling. I have not 
yet spent one whole month at home this year, and now, just as 
I had planned to spend one, I am hunted out again by bad 
news of what the Colensoites have succeeded in doing to stop 
our further progress at Kwamagwaza, claiming it as their estate 
on the strength of an arrangement made with Mpande in 

Have you heard that when I was told in February that the 
Boers had changed their minds, and instead of appropriating 
the Mission stations would call back the Missionaries, I decided 
to occupy Kwamagwaza myself at once ? I could not think of 



taking Mrs. McKenzie, but went myself with my pupil Wallis 
and another. We roughly restored one building which still had 
its iron roof, and there we have lived all in the one room. I was 
anxious to occupy before the Boers came to take their farms, 
that it might be plain I wished to trust myself to the Zulu 
people. I was sure of the goodwill of Usiteka the prince, and 
the nearest great chief, but I was not so sure of Dinuzulu and 
the rest of the party. I sent up to them when I went to 
Kwamagwaza, and received an evasive reply, but not a direct 
word against. So I held on. I had to return here for Synod 
in April. When I got back to Kwamagwaza I found that a 
messenger had come down from Dinuzulu with a word which 
troubled me, though it was merely this: "What was reported 
to the Bishop as our reply when he sent Martyn to tell us he 
was going to Kwamagwaza?" I was going down to Mr. 
Samuelson, and talked it all over with him and his native 
Christians. Mr. Samuelson was very unwilling to fall in with 
my plan that he should go with me at once to Dinuzulu. It 
would have been a somewhat rough journey to be sure, but 
nothing worse than I am now pretty well accustomed to. But 
I am younger and more active than he. We decided to send a 
very full account of everything to Usiteka, with instructions 
that our representatives were to tell him, and get a man from him 
to accompany them to Dinuzulu. He sent word back that he 
was quite satisfied that we were to go on building, and should 
be protected that our people were not to go on he himself 
would send to Dinuzulu. I came away quite happy, feeling 
sure that even if fighting began between Zulus and Boers, those 
left at Kwamagwaza would be all right. But Wallis rode in 
last night, and brings word that a force of sixty or seventy 
armed men came to them Avith word from Dinuzulu to me and 
to the Boer official who has lived since October last in one of 
our houses, that we were to clear out, for that Dinuzulu gave 
the place to a representative of the Colenso faction (a native) who 
was present with them. So I must start at once to-morrow to 
find the Zulu chiefs, and expostulate with them on what is really 
a monstrous iniquity, to which they have been stirred up by the 
Colenso party, and to the Boer authorities, too, to know what 

Aug. 1, 1885. J 


they intend to do. So far as I can read the absolute disregard 
of the Boer authority, the Zulus mean fighting. The Resident 
Commissioner in the Reserve, who has long known all the 
circumstances, has told me that in his judgment the Colenso 
claim is simply ridiculous, and could not stand for a moment 
in any court, British or Boer. 

Other matters as usual. Samuelson holding on it is not 
a time for activity. His wife and daughter have returned. 
Jackson is wanting to build a school-church, and we can see 
at present about half the needful money. The country schools 
in this district are, I am thankful to say, really taking root. 
Next quarter I shall have to pay four teachers. 

I have bought a small press, with type, &c., and an iron 
house to put it in. Unfortunately the type has arrived here in 
very great confusion, and has to be sorted, which is a long job. 

I am about to print (out in Natal) a small edition of a version 
of Morning and Evening Prayer, Litany and Holy Communion, 
revised by our great authorities. We are in great need of it, 
and I do not consider it ready yet to offer to the S.P.C.K. and 
ask them to print for us. 

You will see from what I have said what a sad thing I take 
it to be that the Colensoites should force me out of the good 
will of the Zulu people, and compel me, perhaps, to fall back 
upon the Boer authority, which I have been so careful not to 
regard as in any way needful. 

You will see also now, what I have always felt, that this 
whole Mission has been made to rest far too much upon 

Mr. M and Mr. N" , and far too little upon the Church. 

Also that the influence of chiefs, though perhaps now on its last 
legs, is still powerful, and still opposed to Christianity. Also that 
among a savage people such as this enslaved by its chiefs 
it is so difficult to make headway against the wishes of the 
chiefs, that it is a sad problem whether lives and money ought 
not to be spent elsewhere instead. Of course I do not mean 
to say that there ought to be any thought of withdrawing from 
what has been taken in hand, but I do think a warning may 
well be taken for the future. How different are our relations 
with Hlubi. 



As supplemental to the above, we are able to give extracts 
from a later letter (dated June 12th), in which his lordship 
writes to acknowledge a sum of 16 which the Society sent 
him from some of its Special Funds : 

"I beg to acknowledge very gratefully the receipt of Bill forms for .16. 
Of this .14 will go to the refugees from Kwamagwaza, who are beginning 
now to settle in the Reserve, a few miles west of the place where Mr. 
Jackson was some time before the war. Mr. Robertson is already there, 
and I have an opportunity of sending the money to him on Monday. I 
shall tell him that it is given for the purpose of helping the poorer 
Christians to move their food and their few goods, and that an account in 
detail of the manner in which it is expended must be sent in to me. The 
2 for Isandhlwana I shall devote to the Press, the firstfruits of which I 
send you a copy of. It is a small press which had been given to Mr. 
Swinny, but had never been unpacked by him. It is not new, and the 
worse for lying two years in a warehouse in Durban. When he left I 
bought it for 15 on spec ; and I am glad to find that, in spite of rust and 
rats, and broken case, and the consequent confusion (type was dropping out 
of the boxes when they reached me), we shall still be able to do small 
work pretty well. I set up all this type myself. 

" I am particularly thankful that our grant has not been reduced for 
next year. When I saw the paragraph in the Mission Field, and then the 
statistics in the Report, I tried to school my mind to what seemed in 
evitable, and yet most distressing, in the face of my efforts to establish 
these out-station schools, and of the drain upon an empty purse which 
this new Mission station at Kwamagwaza will be five new stations 
forced upon me in five years. 

"I am hoping to retain Kwamagwaza in my hands, ruined as it is, and 
difficult as it is to know what to do for living agents able and fit to go there. 
But Mr. Grant is using his political influence with the Zulu chiefs 
principally Magamana, the worst and cleverest to get us turned out, and 
himself or some Colensoite put in ; and all on the ground that because 
King Mpande gave it in 1859 to Bishop Colenso, it is now the private 
property of Mrs. and Miss H. Colenso. It is a wicked conspiracy, which 
must fail in the long run, but meanwhile causes us, and of course most of 
all to me personally, a world of extra trouble and annoyance." 



(Sequel to the Visitation of Gaspe, described in the MISSION FIELD for 
April and May.) 

AKING the steamer Heaver, which leaves Gaspe 
Basin once a month, and Picton, N.S., once a 
week, we left Gaspe on a bright Wednesday 
afternoon, and found ourselves early next morning 
in sight of the Magdalens. 
On the left, stretching far away to the north-east, lay the low, 
reddish grey shores of the main group. To the right, rising 
abruptly from the water s edge shoreless, devoid of verdure, 
silent, solitary, and threatening, stood the rock called Dead 
Man s Island, no unsuitable type of a godless, blasted life, 
lifting itself, bald and unbeautiful, from a wild sea of iniquity. 
A raw east wind had been rising all the morning, and in a 
pelting rain-storm we were literally cast ashore by the heaving 
flood of white-crested surf, which fringed and broke upon the 
rocky beach of Grindstone Island. 

Among the strong and skilful hands stretched out to secure 
our little boat, none were stronger or more skilful than those of 
the faithful Missionary, Mr. Chambers, who for the past nine 
years has resided, and diligently prosecuted his Master s work, 
in this remote corner of the great vineyard. To him the coming 
of the Bishop was evidently an event of special joy. 

Completely excluded as he is by his isolated situation, from 
all clerical intercourse whatsoever during the three years which 
elapse between successive Episcopal visits, it would indeed be 
most unnatural if he did not always hail with gladness the 
prospect of a visit from the Bishop. 

S 2 


But yet for him the visitations of the Bishop of Quebec 
must doubtless have an especial value, knowing as he does by 
repeated experience, how to appreciate his lordship s "calm 
wisdom" and strength in counsel." 

We may well believe that, in spite of wind and weather, there 
was an unusual brightness in Mr. Chambers heart, as he grasped 
his Bishop s hand in welcome on that memorably wet and 
gloomy Thursday of our landing. 

We landed below Cape Meule, a conical promontory of sand 
stone, from which Grindstone Island takes its name. And 
exactly twelve days after there stood a solitary figure on the 
summit of that cape, waving to us a signal of farewell as we 
steamed away upon our homeward journey. 

Let us hope that our coming had cheered that solitary 
worker, and fanned into a brighter flame the divine fire in his 

Ah, how much of the fire of God s grace does every Mis 
sionary need to cheer him in his moments of despondency, and 
to give the spur to his flagging zeal ! 

The Magdalen Islands, lying as they do near the middle of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, almost directly in the course of 
ocean vessels passing in and out, have been fatal to many a 
goodly ship and hapless crew. Vestiges of wrecks are still, in 
spring and autumn, quite plentiful upon the beach. And in 
the houses of the fishermen some piece of furniture, or polished 
door, or article of domestic convenience, strangely out of 
keeping with its present surroundings, has its tale of woe for 
the imaginative mind. 

Not a few of the present inhabitants of the Islands are men 
who have suffered shipwreck and have settled there. One 
man we heard of, who a few months before our visit had 
been cast ashore, half-clad, upon a piercing wintry day in spring, 
and finding himself seven miles from any human habitation, had 
nearly perished from cold and exhaustion. All his comrades 
did actually perish. 

Another man we met who some years since was similarly 
cast away in autumn, and being exposed five days to cold and 
weather, was so terribly frozen that his life was saved only by 

S? 1 ] THE PEOPLE. 249 

the sacrifice of both his legs. It is no wonder that having 
passed through such ordeals men are often disposed to remain 
where Providence has cast them. Yet the Islands are not 
considered particularly dangerous now. Of course they have 
their proportion of wrecks like other places. But they have 
been largely reclaimed, like the saint whose name they bear, 
and their very vices have in a sense been turned to virtues by 
the establishment of warning lights and whistles on dangerous 

In summer certainly the Islands have a peculiar charm and 
interest of their own. Their curious wave-cut cliffs of ruddy 
sandstone ; their gleaming beaches of drifting sand ; their bright 
fresh fields dotted over with the cottages of fishermen, and here 
and there a church ; their fleets of countless fishing-boats and 
schooners ; their hills half covered with dark patches of stunted 
fir all these features together form a picture pleasant indeed 
to look upon. And yet we have to add the sea, flowing 
everywhere about and among the points and beaches the 
ever-changing, never-resting sea, supplying all the richness and 
variety and mystery that belong to life. 

The population of the Islands is about 4,400. Of these 
only some 400 are connected with our Mission, The others are 
Romanists. The inhabitants are almost wholly fishermen, 
although many of them do a little farming at their leisure. 
The seal, the mackerel, and the lobster fisheries are the most 
important. Altogether, the people generally manage to gain a 
fair living, though they are subject to the usual uncertainties of 
their calling. They seem to be a quiet, peaceable people, dis 
posed to receive into willing hearts their Bishop s plain and 
practical advice. Their faults are probably negative rather than 
positive. And it is perhaps difficult to arouse them to proper 
spiritual action. 

The Mission of the Magdalen Islands covers an area of about 
forty-five miles in length by thirteen miles in width. Of the 
seven inhabited islands, Amherst is the largest, being some 
thirteen miles long by three or four miles wide. It forms the 
south-west extremity of the group, and is continuously con 
nected, by means of sand-beaches, with Grindstone Island in 


the centre, and Grosse Isle at the extreme north-east. Thus an 
uninterrupted roadway is afforded, some thirty-five miles in 
length, of which the Missionary may avail himself when the 
weather is too wild for his boat. 

But the shifting sand makes a precarious road at best, and 
we considered ourselves extremely fortunate in being able to 
sail, instead of having to ride or drive between these points. 

Between Grindstone Island and Grosse Isle, a distance of 
twenty miles, the navigation is at all times safe for the smallest 
boats, a double sand-beach stretching the entire distance, and 
inclosing a sheltered lagoon, nowhere more than two or three 
miles wide. 

Up this lagoon, before a favourable wind, we made our way 
in the little Mission boat on the second morning after our 
arrival in the Islands. The trip was short and delightful, 
taking only three hours. And early in the afternoon we landed 
and made our way to the little settlement on Grosse Isle. It 
was a wild and picturesque spot ; and though the people are poor, 
afforded the Bishop, what he perhaps considered better than 
suitable shelter and entertainment, a hearty welcome and a glad 
hearing. Here a pretty new church was awaiting consecration ; 
and on the morrow, which was Sunday, a large congregation 
much larger than one would expect to see in such a place 
joined heartily in the various services of the day, whereby the 
Bishop solemnly set apart for ever not merely the material 
edifice to be exclusively God s holy House of Prayer, but also a 
number of human souls to be henceforth, in very truth, so many 
living temples of the Holy Ghost. 

Very simple were those services, yet very solemn and impres 
sive. The music was entirely vocal. There is no instrument in 
the church. Perhaps the voices were not always true in time 
and tune, yet, as a tribute of praise, those simple sounds may 
have been as acceptable in heaven as the splendidly accurate 
singing of many a cultured but self-satisfied choir. 

Before leaving Grosse Isle we climbed to the top of a pre 
cipitous cliff which faces northwards, and, looking out over the 
expanse of waters, saw, a little to the left, the dark line of 
Bryon Island, nine miles off an outpost of the Church not to 

^n.K ] GKOSSE ISLE. 25 1 

be visited this time, as Mr. Chambers had arranged for the 
people living there to meet the Bishop at Grosse Isle. To the 
right of Bryon Island, just on the verge of the horizon, was 
pointed out a hardly-discoverable speck of grey, which we were 
told were the Bird Rocks. These rocks are too bleak and bare 
for habitation, containing in all only two or three acres of soil. 
The only person living there is the lighthouse-keeper, a French 
Romanist, whose sole duty is to keep his lamp trimmed and 
his light burning. 

We did not visit this man ; but I was deeply impressed with 
the thought of his lonely life on that desolate rock, nearly 200 
feet above the sea, with the gulf yawning about him on every 
side his only means of safe descent a windlass, arranged to 
lift up stores and visitors to his lighthouse, and his one duty 
that of letting his light shine over the troubled waters for the 
guidance of his fellow-men. It all seemed so strangely typical. 

Returning from Grosse Isle, we had experience of head-winds, 
which so hindered us as to keep us out the whole day, beating 
back over the twenty miles which we had made in three hours 
two days before. 

It was not unpleasant on that fresh summer day, but one 
could well imagine that in the keen blasts of an autumnal storm, 
or the frost of early winter, it might become a bitter ordeal to 
be out all those hours in an open boat, beating against wind 
and tide. 

Indeed it is not always as pleasant as we found it upon this 
occasion, even in summer. Many a trying experience has our 
Bishop had upon this same lagoon, or along its sandy shores. 

Back we came then, in spite of head-wind, to Grindstone 
Island, the headquarters of the Mission, where the clergyman 
lives. Here we found Mrs. Chambers awaiting us, in nowise 
disturbed by our delay, for she seems to have a vivid sense of 
the Divine protection. 

On the next day we set off in the Mission-boat for Entry 
Island, which lies about ten miles out to sea towards the south 
east. We started with a fair wind, and hoped to make the 
Island early in the day. But after an hour the breeze died 
away, and left us hopelessly becalmed. The boat was too 


heavy for rowing, and we were about to resign ourselves to our 
lot, and give up the voyage for that day, when the steam- 
packet appeared upon the scene, and put an end to our 
despondency by taking us in tow. It was a delightful after 
noon, sunny and balmy and still ; and as we careered along 
behind the accommodating Beaver, we most heartily enjoyed 
the situation. Captain Le Maitre seemed very glad to be of 
service to the Bishop, and even went out of his way to drop us 
as near as possible to our proper destination. It was quite 
dark when we "let go" the rope which connected us with the 
steamer, and took the oars to pull in to the shore of Entry 
Island. At 10 o clock we reached the lighthouse, where we 
found lodging for the night. 

Entry Island is a veritable gem of the sea. Its richly varied 
cliffs rise abruptly from the water s edge to a great height, while 
back from their brink an emerald carpet of thick, fresh turf 
rolls upward to the very summit of a dome-like hill, some 580 
feet above the sea. On the south-west there is a good beach, 
and a gentle slope, giving easy access to the interior. 

It is a fertile island, but very small. There are said to be 
only sixty-five inhabitants, all told. It was pleasant to find 
that the people all belonged to our Mission. 

On the morning after our arrival we had, I believe, at our 
early service, every soul upon the island except perhaps a 
transient French fisherman or two. We had, in addition to 
morning prayers, two Baptisms and a Confirmation, with two 
addresses from the Bishop. 

The only place at our disposal to hold the service in was an 
old house through whose walls and roof the light of heaven 
entered. Very glad and thankful were the people here to meet 
once more their chief pastor ; and much, I gathered, did they 
need his good and practical advice. They sadly need a school. 
Indeed, all through the Mission there is a lack of proper 
instruction amongst our people. 

That evening with a fair breeze we returned to Grindstone 
Island, and once more took up our quarters at the parsonage. 
The next day was devoted to the visitation of Amherst, the 
most populous of the Islands, but almost wholly French. The 

M 5i,i88 e l dl ] GRINDSTONE ISLAND. 253 

distance from Grindstone to Amherst is about ten miles, and, 
thanks to the continued fair weather, we had a most thoroughly 
enjoyable trip. 

Here we have a neat, well-appointed church, but unfortunately 
very few people. The pressure of the French population seems 
to be slowly driving our people away. The prospects of growth 
and progress here are therefore not good. It was not surprising 
that the congregation was small, and the service comparatively 
dull ; yet it was disappointing to find so few people in a place 
where there is so excellent a church, and in a place, too, which 
is the metropolis of the Islands.. 

Returning from Amherst on the Friday, having done ninety 
miles of boating within the week, and ministered to nearly all 
the scattered sheep in the outlying posts of this disjointed 
Mission, the Bishop prepared to pass the second Sunday at the 
headquarters of the Mission, Grindstone Island. Here stands 
not only the parsonage but the principal church a building 
capable of seating 150 people. It is neatly and comfortably 
finished, and prettily situated upon the hillside, about half a 
mile from the shore. 

Sunday came a bright and beautiful day and at the 
appointed hour we enter the well-filled church. Not easily 
should that scene be forgotten. Outside the warm sunshine ; 
the wide, bright sea ; the whispering fir-trees ; the quiet hill 
side graveyard, with its fresh-turned earth and rude inscrip 
tions, bearing witness to some cast-up mariner finding there 
his final rest ; and, above all, the little white-walled church, 
rising amid the emblems of mortality to bear its better witness 
to the life immortal. Inside the simply-appointed sanctuary ; 
the reverent worshippers, mostly fisher people ; the familiar 
symbols of our solemn ritual ; the white-robed forms of the 
Bishop and his clergy, God s duly authorised ambassadors to 
men ; and the group of newly-pledged disciples seeking in the 
appointed way the covenanted grace of God ; while over all 
there fell a hush and awe which spoke of the nearness of 
heavenly things and of the joy of that spiritual communion which 
is independent of race and clime, and which outlives mortality 
itself. One at least will not readily forget that scene. 


Plainly did the Bishop state the truth to us there. It is not 
our dwelling in the world, but the world dwelling in us, that 
shuts out heavenly things. Even in the wilderness and " the 
far off islands of the sea" the world may find and overcome 
us. Here, as elsewhere, the only and the essential talisman is 
the grace of God. That bright and happy Sunday should be a 
day of blessed memory to many. 

Two days later, as we steamed away from the shores of the 
island and answered the farewell signal waved to us by Mr. 
Chambers from Cape Meule, I thought with gratitude of the 
devoted example of this faithful Missionary. For nine long 
years he has lived and laboured there, and now for his family s 
sake and for his own relief he would fain take up some post 
less arduous. But so strong is his faith in the providence of 
God, and so much of God s grace is given him for the per 
formance of his duty, that he says : "I dare not go away ; God 
put me here, and when He thinks it best He will remove me. 
Till then I must remain." 

Thus ended this visitation of the "Gulf Missions" of the 
diocese of Quebec a part of his duty which the Bishop refers 
to as "all pleasure;" and that despite its fatigues and its 
hardships, its constant travelling over all sorts of roads and in 
all kinds of weather, its occasional exposure to peril, and its 
constant demand for sermons and addresses suited to the very 
varying necessities and circumstances of the people addressed. 

And indeed, compared with the more arduous visitation of 
the barren Labrador coast, which also falls triennially to the 
lot of the Bishop of Quebec, the trip which I have now been 
describing must certainly be what I speaking without any 
reservation found it to be this summer, " all pleasure." 


IT is with great regret that we record the death of the Right 
Rev. A. W. Poole, Bishop of the Church of England in 
Japan, which took place at Shrewsbury on July 14th. Bishop 
Poole s health had been long a cause of great anxiety, and his 
brief episcopate, which had so much of bright promise in other 
respects, has been saddened by the fears, which have all too 
soon their sad realisation. 

ST. PETER S DAY has for many years been observed in a 
large number of churches in and near London with 
Celebrations of the Holy Communion in connection with the 

Fifty-one churches were added to the list this year. 

SIX Augustinian Students were candidates in the last 
Universities Preliminary Examination for Holy Orders. 
Two of them were placed among the select nine of the first 
class, three in the second, and one in the third. 

The position of one of those placed in the first class was a 
very remarkable one. There were seventy-six successful candi 
dates, and eight subjects for examination. The first place in 
no less than four of these subjects was gained by Mr. W. H. 
Barnes, of St. Augustine s College, Canterbury. 

THE Rev. Dr. Ring, Chaplain of the Royal Naval Hospital 
at Haslar, has been appointed to the Society s Chaplaincy 
at Caen. 


!ROM the Rev. T. W. Green, of All Saints, Kalinyanga, 
Kaffraria, come most interesting notes of his various out- 
stations and certain aspects of his work. 

For instance, speaking of a place called Ggaka, he writes : 

" A headman and some other adults men and women of the hitherto 
unwilling Maqwati have been baptised. One of the present catechumens 
is a very eager man, and has already learnt to read his own language, and 
promises to be one of the most satisfactory recipients of Holy Baptism 
that I have had. Wives and families of men already baptised will be 
probably admitted next year. The people are hinting about making a 
large church-hut for themselves. The services at present are held in the 
evangelists hut. 

And again of the out-station Emkanzi : 

" Some adults were baptised during the past months. The school grant 
from the Government was lost by the negligence of the teacher ; but the 
people have re-opened the school, and hired another teacher. One of the 
chiefs wives was baptised lately, and one of his daughters has become a 
communicant. These people are Fingoes." 

He adds some interesting anecdotes. The following is 
significant : 

"A native heathen asked me to take care of some wheat-seed till sowing 
time, as he might be tempted to eat it in this hunger-time. His answer to 
my question, if he was not afraid I might be tempted, and eat it, was No ; 
Missionaries are not like other people. " 

AT St. George s Church, Penang, two adults, Hindus of 
Madras, were baptised on the 1st of January. One of 
the two had been for three years an inquirer after the truth in 
Penang. The other had more recently arrived in Penang from 
Madras, where he had been influenced by various forms of 

The Penang Times thus speaks of him : 

" Through the instrumentality of the friends of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, he boldly made up his mind to prepare himself 
for baptism. He was examined for a time, and then put on trial, and was 
reminded of all the privileges of his caste, of which he would be deprived 
by becoming a Christian. On New Year s Eve, in the presence of a mixed 
assembly of Christians and Hindus (the latter tried to dissuade him from 
his resolve), he made a very interesting statement cf his conversion, as did 
the other ; and both having expressed their desire to be baptised in the 

* l lufl ?885 d> ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 257 

Catholic Church of England being influenced by no other motive but 
that of conviction the rite was performed by the Bishop, assisted by the 
Rev. R. Balavendrum, after the second lesson during Matins. Through 
their godparents, Manikum Moodelly was christened Nathaniel, and 
Rootherapa Chetty, Andrew." 

IN a Report Mr. Balavendrum speaks of the increased 
respect with which his public preaching, on the occasion 
of a great Hindu anniversary, is received : 

" At the close of January the Hindus anniversary was celebrated at the 
foot of the hill as usual, the people of all denominations who assembled 
there were innumerable the Hindus to worship their heathen god, 
Thaudayathapawny, the others gathered for curiosity sake. For three 
days the Mission agents and myself, as well as the new converts, went 
there, stood amongst them, preached the Truth of Christianity by show 
ing the absurdities of Hinduism, as well as distributing and selling 
the Scripture portions and religious tracts largely. I had no interruption 
whatever this time, as I had in former years. The Truth is admitted, but 
the prejudices, pomps, and vanities of this wicked world are obstacles to 
the Truth." 

WRITING on the 1st of June from Sarawak, the Bishop 
of Singapore says that he had then just returned from 
a visit to the Krian Mission, where he baptised Tarung, the 
headman of the river. The Bishop adds that 

" He is a man of great influence, and Mr. By water, who is in charge of 
the Mission, expects that his influence will lead a great many others to 
seek for instruction in Christianity." 

The Bishop ordained Mr. F. W. Leggatt a Deacon on 
Trinity Sunday. Mr. Leggatt had made good progress in the 
Sea Dyak language. 

THE Rev. A. A. Dorrell, of St. Andrew s, Newlands, has 
been working in the diocese of Capetown for sixteen 
years. For seven years he was at Uniondale, 

" With the charge of Willowmore, a village on the Karroo side, about 
thirty miles distant, where monthly services were held in the Magistrate s 
court room very often in the absence of a church the only available 
place in the smaller villages. The church in Uniondale was completed 
before my departure, free from debt, and a building partially erected at 


Willowmore. This has now been completed, and a resident priest appointed 

" In April last year I proceeded to England, in company with my 
wife, securing six months leave after sixteen years work in the diocese. 
During my absence, the Rev. D. Elliot Young, Chaplain to the Bishop, 
and All Saints School, Wynberg, took the entire charge of the parish 
without any remuneration whatever. Not by any means a strong man, 
he worked indefatigably, and the financial condition of the parish 
a healthy sign was never more prosperous than it was on my return. The 
late Diocesan Synod raised the parochial assessment to .80. I am in hopes 
it may be kept up regularly, though I have serious misgivings at times to 
the contrary. Our offertories for the past financial year amounted to 
,112 Os. 7^7., not at all an inconsiderable sum for a small, poor community. 

"A movement is now on foot for petitioning the Colonial Parliament for 
a readjustment of the annual grant allowed for educational purposes. It 
lias been found that schools for the education of the poorer classes receive 
only nineteen per cent, of the annual Government grant. Yet they have 
29 142 children on their books, whereas those schools for the education of 
children whose parents are in a position to afford higher fees are in receipt 
of forty per cent, of the grant, and have only 9,880 children on their books. 
The grant is therefore manifestly unfair, being so unequally dispensed." 

rriHE Lahore Church Gazette has received the following 
JL translation of a proclamation that has been issued to the 
Mussulman population of Lahore. It bears remarkable testi 
mony to the efficacy of the work done in Zenana Schools : 

Education of Women. 

" In the name of God the merciful and gracious." 
" Oh Believers, save yourselves and your families from the 
fires of Hell." 

Oh, Beaders, a thing is taking place which deserves your attention, and 
which you will not find it difficult to check, Females need such education 
as is necessary to save them from the fires of Hell. The Quran and the 
traditions teach this necessity, and two great philosophers say, " Home is 
the best school ; " but to make it so, women must be taught. We are doing 
nothing, but are trying to destroy our children. Although we are able to 
teach our own girls, yet wherever you go you find Zenana Mission Schools 
filled with our daughters. There is no alley or house where the effect of 
these schools is not felt. There are few of our women who did not in their 
childhood learn and sing in the presence of their teachers such hymns as 
" He to Isa, Isa bol " (" Take the name of Jesus "), and few of our girls who 
have not read the Gospels. They know Christianity and the objections to 
Islam, and whose faith has not been shaken ? The freedom which Christian 

M Aut n i F i8 e 85. ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 259 

women possess is influencing all our women. They being ignorant of the 
excellencies of their own religion, and being taught that those things in 
Islam which are really good are not really good, will never esteem their 
own religion. 

Umar, one of Muhammad s four bosom friends, was fond of reading the 
books of Moses and the Gospels, but Muhammad forbade him, saying, 
"These may lead you in the wrong way." How much more danger, then, 
is there in our little daughters reading them ! 

There are multitudes of Missionaries in the land whose object is to 
destroy your religion. They see that the condition of a country depends 
on the condition of the women, and therefore they send women to teach 
ours to work and read, and at the same time to sow the seeds of hatred to 

Christian women teach Muhammadan women that they should have the 
liberty which they possess, and the Muhammadan teachers in these schools, 
who are only nominal Muhammadans, by pretending to teach the Quran 
draw our daughters into these schools, and then teach them the Gospel and 
hymns. For a little while they may teach the Quran, but when the 
Missionary lady comes in they hide it under a mat, or throw it into some 
unclean place, into which, if a man had thrown it, he might have been sent 
to prison. And as long as the lady is present they teach Christianity and 
expose Muhammadanism. Can we be pleased with such instruction as 
this ? Oh, Believers, why not_teach your children Christianity, instead of 
your own religion ? 

How far has this religion influenced our women ? So far has the love of 
liberty extended among our daughters and daughters-in-law, that they get 
into carriages with these teachers, go to the Shalamar garden, bathe in the 
tank, sit at table and eat, and then make a quantity of tea disappear. 

At Ludhiana, Am ri tsar, Lahore, Sialkot, and other places, how many 
converts have the Missionaries made in the surrounding country ! At 
Ludhiana two Afghan princesses have become Christians, and have been 
sent to Mussoorie. Sometimes we hear that a daughter of a lambardar has 
become a Christian, and then that a Muhammadan woman has married a 
black Karani. We certainly hear such things, but they produce no effect 
on us. Oh, Believers, if you have any love for your religion, any respect 
for your ancestors, think how this thing may be stopped. 

Give your money, establish your own schools, where your daughters can 
be taught what is necessary for them to know. 


Ecports have been received from the Rev. D. J. Flynn of the Diocese of Calcutta; 
R. Balavendrum, W. Howell and J. Perham of Singapore ; M. Greenwood of North China; 
C. rer of Grahamstown ; C. Clulee, F. Bowling and H. Sadler ot Pretoria; S. B. Knk ht, 
T. Lluyd, W. B. Magnan and A. Osborne ofAlgoma; W. Newton of Saskatchewan, and W. How 
of Newfoundland. 


TMission Field, 
I Au 8 . 1, 1885. 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
July 17th, at 2 P.M., Rev. B. Compton in the Chair. There were also present 
twenty-seven other Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
June 30th : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January June, 1885. 


Donations, and 



Bents, &c. 





















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of June in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-j 
tions | 

Legacies ... 






Dividends Rents &c. . . 







20 221 


20 503 

22 786 


3. Authority was given to affix the Corporate Seal to certain Powers of 

4. The Rev. W. W. Elwes from Madras, and the Rev. H. C. M. Watson 
from New Zealand, addressed the members. 

5. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in May were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
November : 

The Rev. Alex. S. Bennett, S. Stephen s, Bournemouth ; Rev. G. E. Tatham, 
S. Paul s, East Moulsey, Kingston-on-Thames ; Rev. J. Richardson, Vicarage, 
Barking ; Rev. John Milner, Middletoii-in-Teesdale, Darlington ; Sir Charles 
Turner, 4, Cornwall Gardens, S.W. ; Rev. G. H. Fell, D.D., East Worldham, 
Alton ; Rev. C. G. Townley, Troutbeck, Windermere ; Rev. J. Ashburner, 
Blawith. Ulverston ; Rev. Jesse Gregson, Rusland, Ulverston, and Rev. "W. P. 
Dawe, Sutterthwaite, Ulverston. 



&ETEMBER 1, 1885. 



AST year I had occasion to remark the lax views 
and practice which prevailed with regard to 
marriage especially among the low-caste Christians 
of the Yediarpuram and Combaconum districts. 
I am glad to say that some little improvement has been made 
in the matter. In several villages the congregations were in 
duced to out-caste those who were living in sin, and use their 
influence to compel the parties to get married, or, where 
that was impossible, to separate from each other. This year 
a new difficulty has presented itself in connection with mar 
riages. When visiting Aneycadu I found that three marriages 
were on the point of taking place, and a fourth was arranged, 
and that each was a mixed marriage. In the first three ca^es 
young men belonging to our Mission were to marry girls 
belonging to the Lutheran Mission, and in the fourth ca?e the 
daughter of one of the College masters was to be married to a 
Lutheran bridegroom. To complete the matter, I was informed 
that it was proposed to give one of the best girls in the Girls 



Boarding School, who comes from this village a girl who 
failed in the middle school examination this year, but who 
ought to have passed in the first class to an uneducated 
Lutheran youth in a village where there are no Christians 
belonging to our Mission. On inquiring a little more closely 
into the state of affairs, I found that scarcely one of the women 
of our congregation in this village had been brought up in our 
Mission ; some had come from Lutheran families, some from 
Roman Catholic families, some from Wesleyans, and some from 
heathenism. None of them were women of any education, 
and probably few, if any, had received any definite instruction 
on joining our Church and these are the mothers of our 
congregation ! Under such circumstances it is scarcely sur 
prising that our people have so little regard for Church prin 
ciples, and grow up such indifferent Christians. 

In Aneycadu it seems almost to have become the rule that 
our girls should marry Lutheran husbands and become 
Lutherans ; and our young men marry Lutheran brides ; so a 
beautiful intermixture of the two congregations is kept up- 
very profitable to the Lutherans, and convenient to our people 
when they are subjected to any unpleasant discipline, as in the 
case of the fourth marriage above mentioned. In this case a 
small girl of twelve years of age, and small for her age, was to be 
married to her mother s brother. The mother being a Lutheran 
girl who had joined our Church on her marriage, saw nothing 
irregular in the marriage, either with regard to age or relation 
ship, and the marriage was performed in the Lutheran church 
without any objection. It is difficult under such circumstances 
to put a stop to such customs all at once, especially as the 
number of our Christians is limited ; but I have let people 
understand my strong disapproval of these mixed marriages, 
where they can reasonably be avoided. Unfortunately marriages 
with Lutherans are not the worst form of mixed marriages ; 
sometimes there are cases where our people wish to marry 
their children to heathen relatives, on some family grounds. A 
bad case of this kind occurred lately in the village of Aromun- 
damputty, near Boodalore. In this village there was formerly 
a fair Christian congregation, but some years ago they lapsed, 


and only two families have remained firm. A boy belonging to 
one of these families has been reading for some time in the 
boarding-school, and got as far as the matriculation class. His 
father wished him then to be married, and to settle down in his 
village to look after their lands. What was my surprise, how 
ever, when the father came to me the other day and, after in 
forming me of this, told me that he had selected as a bride for 
his son one of the girls in his village, who was unfortunately a 
heathen. He hoped I would allow the marriage to take 
place, and after that he would allow her to be placed in the 
boarding-school for six months, in order that she might be 
"converted," He was much surprised when he found that I 
did not approve of his plan of conversion. He said the old 
Missionaries had encouraged this kind of marriage, because a 
soul was thus converted, and he hoped also it would be the 
means of bringing many of the other people in the village to 
Christianity. He seemed to forget that if he and his family 
had not been able to convert or regain any of his apostate 
relatives and heathen neighbours to Christianity, his son, with a 
christen ed-heathen wife, would be likely to have still less in 
fluence, and would more certainly himself have to give in to her 
influence, backed up as she would be by her heathen relatives. 
As for taking the girl into the boarding-school and converting" 
her, I told him I should be glad to do the first, and we would 
do what we could to bring about the second, but it would be on 
condition that she should afterwards be married to any one 
else, but not to his son ; that his son s only chance of influencing 
his neighbours for good would be if he had a good Christian 
girl as his wife, and, fortunately, such girls were to be had, even 
in his own caste. But, as I suspected, it is not merely a 
question of caste, but of family ; he does not like to marry his 
son out of his own family, and is ready to sacrifice his 
Christianity and his son s welfare, rather than break up the 
family and break off from his apostate relatives. 

Here indeed is the explanation of a good deal that is 
unsatisfactory in the Christianity of Tanjore Christians. They 
have never come out from among their heathen connections ; 
rather have strengthened and kept these up by this custom, 

T 2 


recommended, I am told, by old Missionaries, to "convert" a 
girl O f course one of their own relatives and marry her. 
This of course means a heathen mother-in-law, and a heathen 
mother-in-law means more or less of heathen ceremonies intro 
duced into the house in connection with important family 
events, and a corresponding combination in the religious edu 
cation of the children. And then caste has to be maintained, 
even by those who know that it is an unchristian institution, 
"for the sake of their women," and to avoid breaking off from 
their heathen relatives. As in many other things, its long 
standing, its having been allowed or even encouraged by old 
Missionaries, and its being at the present time allowed by the 
Romans and the Lutherans, makes it very difficult to deal 
with this question now. I trust, however, that the spread of 
education, and especially amongst the women of our congre 
gation, and the children being more carefully instructed in 
Church principles, and brought up under Church discipline will, 
in course of time, improve matters. It will be a happy day for 
the Church in India when our Christians realise that they now 
belong to a new caste the Christian caste, or Church of 
Christ and hold as tenaciously to the rules and doctrines of 
their Christianity and to each other, as they now do to their 
heathen caste and family life. 



URING the past year I am glad to say that I have 
been free to get out much more than in previous 
years. First of all, last spring we went in greater 
force to two of the principal Melas at Goorgaon, 
held in honour of Sitila, or Masani, the goddess of small-pox. 
This matter requires a paragraph to itself, as showing the 
marvellous superstition rather than idolatry of the Hindus. 

The worship of Masani is a most prevalent one in the villages, 
but, strange to say, it is not regularly countenanced by the 
Brahmans. They have instructed the people that the goddess 
only cares for porridge and other plain offerings, and that these 
ought to be given to the lowest castes in the villages the 
chamars and sweepers. Further, they say that she likes filth, 
and so (though I will not vouch for this being the direct con 
sequence of their teaching) her shrine is always to be found in 
the open space where the cattle are assembled every morning 
before being driven out to graze. As it is generally only about 
three feet square and three feet six inches high, with a niche for 
offerings, and unguarded, you may imagine that it soon gets 
filthily dirty and damaged, but the Hindus never seem to mind 

Every Monday some offerings are made at her shrine, but in 
the Hindu month of Phdgun all the villagers bestir themselves 
who have any young children about whom they are anxious, and 
visit one or other of the more famous shrines dedicated to her. 
The Goorgaon one is the most famous in these parts, and the 
landowners of the village make a very good thing out of the 
superstition of their fellow-countrymen. They let out the 


proceeds of the offerings themselves, as in this case they are 
too valuable to be given to the lowest castes, and last year they 
obtained Rs. 17,000 for them. The contractors, who may be 
of any caste, then go about their work in the most keen, 
businesslike manner. Two men are appointed to sit within the 
shrine, which in this case is about ten feet square inside, with 
three porches, one in front and two at the sides, and pile up as 
fast as they can, or pass into a back chamber, the offerings that 
are cast down by crowds that stream through the shrine. A 
small idol is placed in the middle of the back wall, but very 
little attention is paid to it, as the offerers are always most 
anxious to reach and ring a bell that is hung up in the centre. 
I went and stood in front of the middle porch for a few minutes, 
and through the officious assistance of the police had the shrine 
cleared so that I might see the idol ; but when I told them to 
allow the people to go through as usual, I was witness to a 
thorough bear-garden. Of reverence there was not the slightest 
pretence, and if one had not the knowledge of how far the 
people were blinded in their superstition, one would have 
laughed at the good-humoured way in which they did all the 
pushing and shoving. 

Animals are offered up at this shrine, but as it is not proper to 
kill them, sub-contractors ease the labour of the people by 
lending again and again sheep and goats, cocks and hens, for a 
small consideration. Around the shrine are other most hideous 
idols, made for the occasion out of earth, or an old Birmingham 
doll, whose possessors clamour for an offering, whilst outside 
the cordon drawn round the shrine are plenty of Mohammedan 
water-carriers ready to sprinkle Ganges (!) water out of their 
leather skins, or wave peacock feathers over the children for 
whose sakes the pilgrimage has been undertaken. About 300 
yards off is another shrine of a lower kind, which is, however, 
constantly frequented, where the chief offering appears to be a 
piece of the ear of a small sucking-pig ; so you may imagine 
the noise at this one also. Altogether the affair is the most 
barefaced swindle, and yet the people cannot be induced to 
give it up. When you ask the people whether they know what 
becomes of their offerings, they often say that the Government 


takes them all ; and if you tell them how they are being swindled, 
they will only reply: " We have given our offerings to Masani, 
and at her shrine," and that it does not matter to them in the 
slightest what becomes of them ! A hopeless condition of 
affairs, you will probably say, but I trust that as vaccination 
spreads and Government is trying in every way to enforce it 
the people will gradually wake up to a sense of their foolishness. 
As regards ourselves, this year I have confined myself to speaking 
about the rite in the villages, as I was not much encouraged by 
our preachings at the fair itself last year. The people come in 
late on Sunday nights, and are off again on the Monday night ; 
and what with making their offerings, cooking food, and taking 
rest after their night s march, they have but little time or care 
to listen to the Word of God. 

The other fair Lefroy and myself went to in October last on 
the banks of the Ganges was a much more really religious 
Mela, and as it lasted longer we had many opportunities of 
preaching. The place, Gurmuktesur, about sixty miles from 
Delhi, is the nearest point of the Ganges from Delhi, but it 
was chosen on that account, as it is a fair frequented by people 
from the north as well as the south. Government generally 
calculates on about 200,000 people being present on the chief 
day, and lay out the bazaar accordingly with fine open thorough 
fares, and very fair sanitary arrangements. This year, on 
account of cholera having made its appearance in two or three 
villages in the district, Government had sent criers far and wide 
to advise people not to go. On this account the fair was much 
smaller than usual, though I should imagine more than 40,000 
were there. We arrived on Thursday, October 30th, and found 
our camping-ground very damp indeed, on account of the late 
and heavy rains in September ; but by a few strips of reed- 
matting, which was being sold very cheaply, we managed to 
make our tent habitable. In front of us were the other two 
small tents we had brought, in which were two catechists, a 
colporteur and helper, and four Christians of Lefroy s congre 
gation, who had urged us to go, and offered to pay their own 
expenses if allowed to come and sing an offer which we were 
only too ready to accept. The fair began to fill quickly on 


Friday, and on Saturday we could get a crowd of listeners at 
any time or anywhere in the bazaar. Sunday, however, was the 
hardest day, as after our own service at 7.30 A.M. we went 
out till 10 A.M. Then we came in for a common meal on 
real Hindustani fare, and afterwards stayed out, with a very 
short interval of rest, till 6 P.M., when it began to get dark. 
In the evening I went out again to see the people launch 
thousands of little lamps on the river in honour of their 
ancestors. These common " Chiraghs," as we call them, are 
made by pouring some oil into a very small earthenware saucer, 
and using as a wick an inch or so of loosely-twisted cotton. 
Two or three short pieces of bamboo, fastened together with 
straw over them, formed the usual raft on this occasion, and 
though many lamps went out very soon, the majority sailed 
down a long distance, making the scene most picturesque. 
Then about 3 A.M. the next morning I was awakened by a most 
weird dirge, which gradually spread through the whole crowd. 
This was caused by the women commencing to wail for the 
dead, but it was a purely formal matter. At last, when some 
who had taken shelter under the outer flaps of my tent com 
menced, I thought it time to interfere, and immediately the 
men stopped them, and about five minutes afterwards they all 
burst out laughing at something else. From that early hour 
the real bathing commenced, and the exodus from the Mela. 
I stayed till noon, and, in spite of the bustle, gained two or 
three attentive audiences, and had an especially interesting talk 
with a sad-looking man, whom I met again some weeks afterwards 
as a leader and keen debater in his own village in the Rohtak 
District. Lefroy had to leave on the Friday, and as we were 
anxious about the unanimity of our little band, I agreed to 
march back with them. On account of the heat and dust, as 
well as want of practice, and bad boots, I soon got blistered 
feet, which troubled me very much ; but the walk on the 
whole did me good, and I was enabled to keep them all happy, 
in spite of the difficulties of the road. 



[HE town of Marthinus-Wessel-Stroom, or M. W. 
Stroom, has recently been enlivened by a visit 
from KingDinizulu, Dabulamanzi, and other chiefs, 
with their followers. They remained here about 
ten days. During their stay they were kind 
enough, at the request of the Landdrost and others, to perform 
some of their war-dances, and go through imitation fights, 
showing how "fields were won" or rather, showing how poor 
heathen man can not only slay his fellow-man in battle, but can 
gloat over his deeds of disgusting brutality, and inhuman 
butchery afterwards, without remorse ; glorying in reproducing, 
in terribly earnest acting, the repeated stabbing, and other 
choice ferocious features of the foul scenes of blood in which 
he has played so fearful a part. The old Adam was indeed 
powerfully exhibited in those heathen death-dances performed 
here the other day before a Christian community of both sexes. 
One man had on his person the scars of nineteen wounds. He 
was one of Dabulamanzi s men. That chief called the attention 
of the Landdrost to him, telling him how many men this man 
had killed, and that he had received nineteen bullet wounds, 
and making the man show the scars of his wounds. He re 
marked at the same time to the Landdrost that his men could 
fight; that they had fought; and that it appeared to him that 
they would have to fight again. The object of their visit to 
M. W. Stroom was to make certain representations to the 
Landdrost, who was a party to the first agreement between 
Dinizulu and the Boers ; concerning their present grievances 
Dinizulu s wrongs were charged by him against the Boers ex 
clusively. Cham s troubles have a wider significance. His 
case is, I think, a hard one. He is a brother of the late 
Cetywayo. For a Kaffir chief, he is an intelligent, liberal- 



minded ruler much in advance of his people and the times. 
During the Zulu war he espoused the cause of the English, and 
his men did good service at the battles of Slobane and Kam- 
bula, under General Wood. The sides of Slobane are still 
strewn with their bleaching bones. At the end of the war 
Cham s services were rewarded by the British Government with 
a gift of about 60,000 acres of land, on which, under his 
temperate sway, his people throve and multiplied, till the 
Maqualisines, instigated by the Boers, began to make raids 
upon them. Cham at first forbade his people to retaliate ; but 
this forbearance the Maqualisines mistook for cowardice, and 
organised a system for the perpetration of cattle-raids and 
murders, wholesale ; which, with the assistance of Transvaal 
Kaffirs, they soon brought into operation. Ohani s people, now 
threatened with extermination, were obliged in self-defence to 
retaliate. The keen intelligence of Oham, and the devotion of 
his men, enabled him to utterly rout his enemies, though inferior 
to them in numbers. He drove the most troublesome of his 
foes across the Transvaal line ; but the Boers assisted them to 
renew their aggressions, which they carried on till Oham was 
reduced to very severe straits his people harassed incessantly, 
unable to plough, or crop their lands ; starvation staring them 
in the face. In these extremities the Boers offered peace on 
the condition that he acknowledged Dinizulu as the King of 
Zululand. Refusing peace on that condition, notwithstanding 
his sorry plight, he was induced, by much importunate per 
suasion, to sign a paper, which, he was told, was a treaty of 
peace and alliance between Dinizulu and himself; but which 
was really an acknowledgment of the former as King of Zulu- 
land. Such afterwards proved to be the case. 

The Boers commenced their nefarious campaign in Zululand 
by setting up a puppet in the person of the youth Dinizulu, 
whom they crowned, having received from him a promise of 
fifteen head of cattle per Boer, together with five farms for the 
Boer leaders engaged on his behalf to be paid when his regal 
status was acquired and secured to him by their intervention and 
disinterested help. Some fighting took place, in which the Boers 
undoubtedly turned the fortune of war against Dinizulu s 

M ;p?.?8s e 5 d> ] OHAM S GRIEVANCES. 2/1 

enemies, being simply far too good shots to expect the Zulus to 
stand against them ; but in return for these good offices they 
demanded twenty farms, in addition to the five they had bar 
gained for, and been promised. Objections to this increased 
demand having been raised on behalf of Dinizulu, there arose a 
raging " storm in a teapot " between the Boers and the Kaffirs ; 
the former steadfastly adhering to their new requisition, till at 
length Dinizulu, being unable to fight them, had to succumb, 
and to yield not merely to that extent of extortion, but finally 
to the last of the progressive terms insisted on by his 
insatiable allies, who in the course of a few months raised 
their demands to 50, 100, 200, 400, and, lastly, 800 farms, the 
smallest consisting of 1,000 moyen, or 2,000 + -- acres, to 
which they are now helping themselves! The whole of Zulu- 
land (excepting the Reserve), including Oham s entire territory, 
has been cut up into farms, and allotted to these worthies. 
Some of the farms have already been sold ; among others that 
of Oham, on which his kraals stood. This chief still maintains 
that he can acknowledge no other sovereignty or suzerainty than 
that of Queen Victoria. He considers himself as much a 
vassal or subject of the Queen as any Kaffir living in Natal. 

His people are now dying from starvation ; the Boers having 
brought about this state of things by intrigues in Zululand 
setting tribe against tribe. 

Taking the case of Oham as it stands, the bare statement oi 
it is, I think, a plea on that chiefs behalf. Doubtless the story 
of his wrongs has reached the ear of the British Government 
through Sir Henry Bulwer ; but without reference to politics, 
an unvarnished account of them from an original and reliable 
source may interest, and so prove the means of interesting, on 
this unfortunate heathen prince s behalf, those who have at 
heart the spread of the Gospel of the Kingdom. 



(From the New Westminster "CHURCHMAN S GAZETTE.") 

I HE Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe made their first 
, journey up country somewhat earlier this season 
than usual, to allow of their visitors, Mr. and 
Mrs. Pelly, accompanying them before Mrs. and 
Miss Pelly leave the country in June for 
Australia. The Bishop s buckboard not being 
large enough to accommodate so large a party with necessary 
luggage, he was fortunate enough to be able to hire from Mr. 
Townsend, of New Westminster, a light commodious easy 
stage, roomy enough for three persons on each of the two seats. 
Mrs. Sillitoe s experience guided her well as to what would be 
needed, and amongst other things a tent was taken, as there 
were places in which it might be difficult to get three bedrooms. 
After all the numerous business arrangements had been made 
by the Bishop for an absence from home of nearly two months, 
on Friday, April 17th, the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe drove to 
Port Moody to place the stage and horses on the train timed to 
leave at 6 A.M. on the following morning, whilst Mr,, Mrs. and 
Miss Pelly, accompanied by the Rev. C. Crowther, went by the 
Princess Louise to Port Hammond, hoping thus not to have to 
commence their railway journey till 8 A.M. next day. Vain 
hope ! for orders came down from headquarters that the train 
should leave Port Moody at 3 A.M., and soon after 4 the 
Bishop s voice was heard calling on his relations to "hurry up," 
or they would get no breakfast. Fain would they have lain 
longer, and would have done so, had they known that at 
Nicomin, a few stations on, an excellent, substantial breakfast 
awaited them. On the Friday evening the Rev. A. Shildrich 

M sepi. FiS 1 ] THE INDIAN CHUECH. 273 

arrived from Spallumcheen, his present cure, en route for 
Victoria, where, on April 25th, he was married to Miss Innes, 
of Esquimalt. As Mr. Shildrich had had charge of Maple 
Ridge Parish he was pleased to accompany Mr. Crowther and 
the travellers to St. John s, Maple Ridge, where Evensong was 
said at 9 P.M. Mr. Crowther faithfully follows the Church s 
rule in saying Matins and Evensong daily in the churches of 
which he has the care, whenever he is staying in them. 

The journey to Yale, whilst affording a very novel experience 
to visitors from the old country, with its snow-clad mountains, 
which had evidently just had a fresh covering of snow, is so 
well known to your readers that any description would be 
superfluous. At Yale the party separated, the Bishop and his 
wife being hospitably entertained by Mr. Harvey, Mrs. and 
Miss Pelly being welcomed by the All Hallow s Sisters at 
the Mission Home, and Mr. Pelly finding clean, comfortable 
quarters at the hostelry of Mr. and Mrs. Clare, 

The following day (Sunday, April 19th) the Bishop had an 
early celebration at the nicely-kept church of St. John s, Yale, 
the number of communicants being fewer than might have been 
expected. The Bishop preached after Matins and Evensong, 
and also at 4 o clock at the Indian church, the Missionary 
saying the prayers in Indian, the Indians responding loudly 
and devoutly. Both churches were tastefully decorated for 
Easter, the flowers having been renewed from time to time. 
The pure white flowers of the "dogwood," which grows freely 
hereabout, are very appropriate for Easter decoration, and 
mosses and lichens abound also. The three Sisters of the 
community of All Hallows, Ditchingham, are doing, in a quiet 
unobtrusive way, very excellent work amongst the Indian 
women and female children ; their school for these continues to 
increase. They have a few pupils from the white population, 
and would have many more had they accommodation, though 
they require a moderate remuneration, whilst the State schools 
are quite free of expense. The garden of the Mission house 
was well kept and irrigated by the Sisters and their pupils, 
and is said to be very productive. The Missionary being 
only in Deacon s orders, is assisted by the Rev. R. Small, the 



1 Mission Field, 
L Sep. 1, 1885. 


^tl ] CHINESE LABOUR. 2/5 

Rev. A. Edwardes, and the Bishop, who come to Yale from 
time to time for celebrations of the Holy Communion. 

Monday, the 20th, was occupied by the Bishop in work ; and 
it was not till the following day, that, having ascertained that 
there would be no train on the track which runs parallel with 
and close to the waggon road crossing it very frequently on 
the level, he was able to start on his drive. Before leaving 
Yale allusion must be made to Chinese labour there, of a very 
interesting character. A small plot of ground about half an 
acre of a most unpromising appearance, was acquired by a 
Chinaman near Yale Creek, and water for irrigation being 
brought by means of a small flume, was cultivated as a market- 
garden, the boulders being piled into heaps, and these, with 
such stumps as were not removed, used as supports for peas 
and beans ; every inch of the garden was cropped : there was 
still a good supply of celery, carefully stored in wooden 
trenches, protected through the winter from frost, which now 
sells at a high price. This man had cleared a profit of $800 
during last season for his labour. Another plot of ground in a 
different part of the town was as successfully cultivated. The 
outcry against Chinese labour in British Columbia is, to the 
writer, quite unaccountable. What this province would have 
done, and what it would now do, without Chinese labour, I 
cannot conceive. If not equal to good servants from the old 
country, yet they are the only ones from east to west to be had, 
and many of them are really excellent, honest servants, in 
dustrious and economical. All those connected with the rail 
road works say it would have been impossible to construct the 
railroad without Chinese labour. These men work continuously 
and efficiently ; the white man too often when pay-day comes 
round absents himself for more or fewer days, according to the 
time required to waste all his earnings in drunken orgies and 
gambling. Gambling, however, is the curse also of the Chinese, 
and it often happens that their hard-won earnings are carried 
off by the keen Chinese swindler, who makes gambling a 
lucrative profession. 

Travellers afflicted with nerves and unaccustomed to risks by 
land and flood, are recommended not to travel on the mainland 



Mission FieM, 
Sei. 1, 1885. 


"!p M 1?i!S ld ] SLIDES AND WASH-OUTS. 277 

of British Columbia, either by rail or waggon road. For the 
information of our readers in the "old country," we may explain 
that the railroad is carried on trestles over wide ravines and at 
an immense height, which makes the woodwork appear more 
slender than it really is ; the bridge is no broader than absolutely 
necessary for the single line of rails ; at other places the road is 
carried round perpendicular rocks on a narrow shelf quarried 
out of the rock, and a stone dropped from the carriage window 
would fall hundreds of feet into the rushing torrent of the 
Fraser river. On the waggon road there are the perils of slides 
and wash-outs, which are also not infrequent on the railroad. 
For our English readers we must also explain that a " slide " is a 
fall of stones or earth on to the track, and a "wash-out" is 
when heavy rains or freshets wash away the road partly or 
wholly. These occur mostly in winter or early spring. On the 
railroad, of course, immediate attention is given to the repair, 
but it may be some months before the "road-gang" reaches the 
part of the waggon road which has come to grief. Several 
places were traversed where there was only just sufficient space 
to carry the stage, and at one place the entire road was gone, 
but it was, fortunately, where a dttour could be made through 

There are not often accidents of a serious nature ; the 
Bishop is a careful driver, and his numerous journeys up 
country have given him experience. Boston Bar, which in 
gold-mining days, and subsequently during the construction of 
the railroad, has been a place of great stir, was the first day s 
halting-place. On this occasion there were no other guests than 
the Bishop and his party : a great contrast to a former occasion 
when he and Mrs. Sillitoe stayed there, when they were 
separated by a thin wooden partition from the bar-room, in 
which for three days and nights after receipt of their pay rail 
road navvies played poker and carried on their drunken orgies. 
The Bishop in the evening went to visit the Boston Bar Indians, 
and found them at work building the little rough church, and 
he was able to instruct them regarding the form of the altar, 
the top of which they supposed should slope like a desk. 
Hearing of a sick woman at the farthest extremity of the 



settlement, he went to visit her, thus causing the evening meal 
to be somewhat late. 

Very heavy rain throughout the night laid the dust and con 
duced to a pleasant drive, on Wednesday, 22nd, of seventeen 
miles to St. Paul s Mission Home, formerly known as the Forty- 
two mile House, a great resort of miners in early days on their 
way up to Cariboo. A large number of Indians having been ap 
prised of the expected visit of the Bishop, had gathered from 
some distance, and were encamped round about, and their horses 
were scattered over the adjoining hills. There were several 
candidates for baptism and confirmation, and as the Bishop 
desired to examine these and to give them some teaching and 
counsel, it was arranged that the services should take place the 
following morning. The Bishop was occupied with his Indian 
flock all the afternoon and till late at night, interrupted by an 
alarm of fire. A coal oil-lamp in the kitchen adjoining burst, 
and the room was in a moment in a mass of flames, which 
caught the roof. A plentiful stream of water from a creek 
flowing close to the kitchen door, and many hands being avail 
able, the roof was deluged with water, and in a few minutes 
the danger had passed. For a few seconds it seemed inevitable 
that the whole building must have been burnt to the ground. 
The accommodation of the Mission House being insufficient for 
so large a party in addition to the pupils and other ordinary 
residents, the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe encamped under canvas 
in a meadow near at hand. A cold wind blew strongly all night, 
and their quarters were somewhat cold. St. Paul s Mission 
House has the merit of excellent ventilation, and windows are 
scarcely needed, as sufficient light enters between the boards 
somewhat inconvenient when the thermometer is twenty to 
thirty degrees below zero. 

There was the usual hand-shaking, the Indians, 154 in number, 
filing past the Bishop and the other members of his party. 
Evensong was said in the open air by Mr. Small, the Indians 
joining in at the Lord s Prayer, and responding heartily. After 
this it was a pretty sight to see them gathered round their 
camp-fires preparing their evening meal, finally to hear them 
chant their evening prayer before lying down to sleep. At 


6.30 A.M. the following morning services commenced with the 
baptism of seven adults and three children The usual questions 
were put to each candidate by the Bishop through the interpreter, 
Michele, the Bishop explaining plainly and clearly what was 
the nature of their undertaking. There was in all an appearance 
of great earnestness and appreciation of the solemnity of 
the vow. The confirmation of eight adults followed, and finally 
a celebration of the Holy Eucharist, at which the Indians were 
not invited to communicate, as it is found expedient that before 
communicating each Indian shall be examined carefully, and for 
this there had been no opportunity on the present occasion. 
Then came breakfast, and the Bishop and his party were again 
en route by 10 A.M. on Thursday, 23rd April, for Lytton, where, 
after many hours delay in consequence of the lateness of the 
train, carriage and horses and the whole party were placed 
on the train for Van Home, arriving there at 3 A.M. They 
were here met by Walter Holmes, who during the railway con 
struction was the subject of a very perilous adventure in the Black 
Canyon of the Fraser, of which the Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe 
were spectators ; he now runs the ferry across Kamloops Lake 
to Savona. He rowed us across to the hotel, carriage and 
horses and luggage being left in charge of the very obliging 
agent of the C.P.R at Van Home. It deserves record that 
Walter Holmes, though still having his pile to make, firmly 
refused to take any remuneration for ferrying us across, though 
he had been awaiting the arrival of the train many hours, and 
in fact was engaged in our service the whole night. Friday was 
allowed by the Bishop for rest after the fatigues of the pre 
ceding day. Early on Saturday the Bishop and his attendants 
were early afloat in a small steamer for Kamloops, where, in 
consequence of a very long stoppage to take cargo, they did 
not arrive till after dark. Here the Bishop, having undertaken 
to provide the services for the Rev. D. Horlock, who was absent 
in Victoria, was to make some stay, and most hospitably was 
the whole party entertained in Mr. Horlock s house. The 
Bishop s plans were somewhat altered by finding that a much- 
desired visit to Farewell, a new town springing up at the 
second crossing by the railway of the Columbia river, was 

u 2 


practicable ; and he and Mrs. Sillitoe, having exchanged the 
stage and horses for a lighter blackboard and horses, embarked 
on the steamer Peerless on May 1st for Eagle Pass, hoping to 
reach Farewell on Sunday, the 3rd, so as to hold a service for 
the people there, said to number 500, chiefly occupied on work 
of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. 

Kamloops, despite the salubrity and pleasantness of its 
atmosphere, is not a place to be chosen as a residence, except 
by those who have definite duties calling them there. The 
cost of living is very great, most of the necessaries of life being 
brought from Canada or the United States. A set of shoes for 
your horse costs $6. A carpenter s wages is $5 a day, and all 
else in proportion. It would seem as though the clergy on their 
small stipends must starve, but for the liberality shown towards 
them in making to them reduced charges. The river flowing 
clearly and peacefully in front of the town is full of beauty, and 
so would be the rolling hills extending for many miles at the 
back of the town, if only sufficient rain Avould fall to transform 
their colour from a dull brown to green. Irrigation does not 
seem impossible by making a solid embankment across the 
numerous creeks, now dry, but which carry down a large body 
of water to the river at times ; if only the alkali with which 
the water is saturated be not injurious to vegetation. At least 
the water could be made use of for the protection of the town 
in case of fire. At present, though there is a hook and ladder 
company, there is no fire engine, and it would be very difficult 
to bring up from the river in buckets sufficient water to produce 
any effect on a burning house ; and the probabilities are that 
the whole town would be destroyed. The services of the 
Church in Kamloops are conducted with every possible rever 
ence in a building lent to the Church Committee, and fitted up 
with due regard to ecclesiastical order. There is a kindly 
feeling towards the rector, the Rev. D. Horlock, and his parish 
ioners heartily co-operate with him in doing what is for the 
good of the Church. 



S so much attention has lately been drawn, and so 
much said and written concerning this province, 
or at least that part of it which comprises 
Vancouver Island, and the valleys of the Thompson 
Fraser Rivers in the southern part of the mainland of 
British Columbia as far north as Cariboo, perhaps it is not 
unlikely that some account of this less known, less fruitful, and 
extreme northern portion of the province may prove interesting 
to you. 

Of course it must be understood that this is not intended to 
be an account of the resources of the country in general, for it 
merely contains such observations as I was enabled to make for 
myself, and such facts as came under my notice during the 
summer and winter of the year 1883, when I visited this 
extreme northern portion of Cassiar. 

Cassiar, next to Cariboo, has been the best gold-field in the 
province, but so far as is at present known, it has long since 
passed the zenith of its prosperity, and as the mines were the 
only inducement to draw people into the Stakeen country, the 
white population is extremely meagre, and decreases every 
year. What few men remain are scattered over a large area of 
country. Some few years since there was a large amount of 
gold taken out of the streams (known in miners language as 
creeks and gulches) of this district, when, of course, the place 
was lively enough, and professional gamblers and saloon-keepers 
reaped a golden harvest, but in 1883 the yield of gold was only 
from $4 to $5, or \ oz. per day, and this amount is steadily 
Consequently the men who remain in the Stakeen 


country are very poor, owing to consequences which will shortly 
become plain to you. 

There are three different kinds of diggings carried on here, 

1. Placer, or surface diggings, which vary in depth from 

a few inches to twenty feet, until the bedrock is 

2. Hydraulic diggings. These are worked by hydraulic 

power. The water is conveyed in canvas or india- 
rubber hose, the stream of which being forced through 
a small nozzle, is played upon the hill-side with such 
a force as quickly cuts away the bank of gravel so as 
to enable the miner to reach the bedrock. 

3. Deep diggings. These are divided into two kinds, viz. 
() Drifting diggings, or a shaft sunk into the earth. 

(6) Tunnelling, which, as its name implies, is a shaft run 
into the mountain side, frequently to a distance of 
five or six hundred yards. 

The two kinds of diggings which I mentioned first, viz., placer 
and hydraulic, can only be carried on for, at the most, five 
months in the year, owing to the severity of the winter, which 
lasts seven months. Deep diggings, being underground, can be 
worked all the year through, the earth which is brought out of 
the tunnels during the winter months being kept until the 
summer, when it is all washed at once. The method of washing 
is as follows : The earth, in which the gold is deposited, is put 
into a long wooden flume and a stream of water turned upon it. 
The flume has pieces of wood called "riffles" placed along the 
bottom, and the earth, which is lightest, is washed away, leaving 
the gold deposited in the crevices between the riffles. 

There were, in 1883, 250 miners in this district, one half of 
whom were white men of all nationalities, and the remainder 
Chinese. But, as I remarked before, the white population has 
steadily decreased until now there are only between seventy 
and eighty scattered over an immense area of country. I was 
told by Mr. Grant, M.P.P. for Cassiar, that the total output of 
gold for that season was about $115,000, thus giving an average 

M sep.T,i F 88 e 5 d ] SCENERY OF THE STAKEEN. 283 

of $460 per man. The Chinese generally take claims which have 
been abandoned by the white miners either as no good or 
worked out, and they invariably make them pay, but as they 
are very careful miners, and contented if they only make $2 a 
day, and withal, live very frugally, it is scarcely any wonder they 
manage to do so. 

The journey into these mines is, in fine weather, full of 
interest. I went from Metlakatla to Fort Wrangel, Alaska, in 
H.M.S. Mutine. Then came the journey up the Stakeen River. 
This part of the journey takes from eight to ten days, according 
as the wind blows. The Stakeen is a very rapid river, full of 
eddies and cross currents. In some places it is so very shallow 
that the canoe has to be propelled with poles in order to 
prevent it getting aground, while in others it is so deep, and 
the current so rapid, that the Indians are sometimes compelled 
to paddle for more than an hour to make twenty yards progress. 
There is a fall of 950 feet in the 150 miles from Glenora 
Landing to the mouth of the river, and some idea of the 
swiftness of the current may be formed when I say that though 
the journey from Wrangel to Glenora takes, as I have before 
stated, from eight to ten days, the return journey may be 
accomplished in eighteen hours. 

The scenery along the banks of the Stakeen is, in some 
places, unrivalled, and the tourist has not seen the most 
interesting part of British Columbia until he has made a trip 
up this river. About thirty-eight miles from the mouth is an 
immense glacier, eight miles long, and stretching back for, at 
least, sixty miles. During the Russian occupation of Alaska, 
before its purchase by the United States Government, two 
young Russian officers started upon an exploration tour, but 
they never returned to tell their tale. It is supposed they 
perished in some fissure, or were frozen to death. At its base, 
side by side, run two streams, one of boiling and the other of 
ice cold water. The Indians have a tradition that, at one time, 
the glacier extended across the river, but there is not the 
slightest trace of it on the opposite bank, and I suppose the 
tradition is unreliable. As it is, it travels nearer to the river 
every year, ploughing up the earth as it moves along. Eight 


or ten miles further on is another immense mountain, the peak 
of which is covered with ice, but, grand as this is, it sinks into 
insignificance by the side of the great glacier. About thirty 
miles further is another glacier called the "mud glacier." This 
travels six inches every day. Ten miles further is a canon 
about a mile long, through which the water passes in perfect 
silence. The high walls on either side and the swift current 
give one a creeping kind of feeling as one is going through in 
a canoe about half an inch thick, which, if it happened to touch 
the wall on either side would most certainly be dashed to pieces. 
At the upper end of the canon the character of the country 
completely changes. About sixty-four miles further, and we 
arrive at Glenora Landing, which is a settlement of eight or ten 
white men. Glenora is a port of entry, with a custom-house 
officer stationed there. From Glenora the journey into the 
mines is made over a moderately good mountain trail. There 
is no waggon road, and all freight has to be packed upon mule 
back as far as the head of Dease Lake, when water travelling 
is resumed once more. Twelve miles from Glenora is another 
small settlement called Telegraph Creek. The reason of its 
being named thus is as follows : When the first Atlantic cable 
became useless, and it was thought impossible to carry out the 
idea of a submarine cable, it was decided to carry a line over 
land as much as possible. At the beginning of the winter of 
1865 6 the exploration party had reached this point and gone 
into camp for the winter, when they received the news that the 
second cable had been successfully laid, and consequently, the 
overland line would not be required. 

From Telegraph Creek we travel along the trail for the 
distance of fourteen miles, when the way leads us over an 
immense lava bed, but from whence it was deposited there I 
have been unable to find out, as the accounts are various. There 
are traces of it as far north as Mount St. Elias, and the Bishop 
tells me that the Nass River also flows over a bed of lava, 
which I take to be a portion of the same bed. Forty-nine miles 
further, and we arrive at the head of Dease Lake. It is a beautiful 
sheet of water twenty-four miles long by about three-quarters of 
a mile broad. Its altitude is 2,750 feet above the level of the sea, 

^v.tS d ] GOLD DIGGINGS. 285 

and it is in the 59 north latitude, and situated on the Arctic 
watershed. The winter is intensely cold, the thermometer, as 
a rule, falling down to 47 below zero (Fahr.). The winter I 
was there, on Christmas Day, the thermometer registered 56 
below zero, and in 1880 it fell down as low as 76 below zero, 
and men fired quicksilver from their rifles. Laketon, or, as it 
is sometimes called, Deasetown, is situated about sixteen miles 
down the lake on the north bank. A few years since the place 
was full of life, but it has shared the fate of other mining camps 
which have been worked out, and this year I am told there are 
only fifteen men there. Eight miles further down, at the foot 
of the lake, is Thibert s Creek. About five miles up the creek is 
another mining camp where there are about thirty men located. 
Thibert s Creek takes its name from Mr. Henry Thibert, a 
French Canadian, who was the first to discover gold in this 
district. This creek is now a most desolate-looking spot. 
Seventy-five miles further, down the Dease River, which is a 
chain of small lakes joined together, and running through most 
exquisite mountain scenery, we come to McDame s Creek. 
This is, at present, the largest camp, there being seventy-five 
men there. Gold is found along the banks of all the streams 
and the Deloore and Ukon Rivers, but not in paying quantities, 
not at least in British territory. Prospecting parties go out 
from time to time, but owing to their poverty they are not able 
to remain out long enough to make a thorough prospect. 
Auriferous deposits are found extending north from Glenora 
for a distance of 300 miles, and from east to west for about 
100 miles. 

By the middle of December all the lakes, rivers, and creeks 
are frozen over, and the travelling is all done either upon snow- 
shoes or dog sleighs. Some of the dogs are splendid animals, 
and can draw as much as 400 Ibs. over a hardly-frozen trail. 
Though the winters are so very cold yet they are most pleasant, 
as the atmosphere is so very dry. 

The rivers and lakes abound with fish, and the mountains 
with caribow, moose, mountain sheep, rabbits, grouse, and 
ptarmigan. There are also wild ducks and geese in the spring 
and autumn. The fur-bearing animals in this district are the 


bear, beaver, marten, mink, fox silver grey and red and cross 
wolf, lynx, and ermine. 

There is no land fit for agricultural purposes, but various 
kinds of vegetables are cultivated with moderate success ; but 
the season being so short, and, owing to severe night frosts, the 
chance of bringing vegetables to perfection is very uncertain. 

On December 31st I left Laketon and walked the whole 
distance to the mouth of the Stakeen River. The journey was 
not an unpleasant one on the whole, though some days it was 
so cold that we were unable to wash ourselves. We could only 
travel six hours a day, as darkness came on between three and 
four o clock, when we had to have our camp made and fire lit. 
I arrived at Wrangel on January 26th, and on the 28th set off 
to Metlakatla in a canoe. I arrived there on February 6th, and 
was very glad of a rest. Since February 16th r 1884, I have 
been working at the mouth of the Skeena River, and at this 
place (Port Essington) we have succeeded in building a Church 
and a Parsonage house. The Church is well filled with both 
white men and Indians. 

The following is an account of the work from Easter Day, 
1884, to the second Sunday after Trinity, 1885. I may remark 
that I only received my Priest s orders on St. Bartholomew s 
Day, 1884, and it was the Sunday after that day upon which 
we had our first celebration of holy communion. Marriages 2 ; 
baptisms, adults 3, infants 6 total, 9 ; confirmation of five 
persons ; communions made, 241 ; number of celebrations, 44. 
There has been one death. 



HINDU preacher s recent conversion and baptism 
at S. Thome, Madras, furnishes many points of 
more than ordinary interest. 

The following is the narrative of the Rev. S. 

Theophilus, native clergyman at the Society s Mission at 

S. Thome : 

"A preacher of the Hindu Vedas embraced Christianity on Trinity 
Sunday. He was a student in the Hindu Theological School at Srirungam, 
near Trichinopoly, for eight years, after which he received ordination ac 
cording to the Vaishnuvite rite, from the high priest of Srirungam. He 
then, having received a call from the Vaishnuvite Hindus of Mylapore, 
came down to Madras, and for three years was engaged in giving them 
weekly lectures on Hindu Philosophy and Religion at Mylapore, and in 
other parts of Madras. 

"Among the Hindus there are two kinds of priests. One class are the 
preaching priests, and the other the officiating priests. The relation of the 
former to the latter is very much similar to that of the prophets of 
old to the Jewish priests. The Hindu preaching priests are called Geers, 
which word means the same as sires, elderly men, or the great. The 
preaching priests, or Geers, as they are called, are considered as the mouth 
piece of the Deity. They are the teachers and expounders of the Vedas- 
They could do the functions- of the officiating priests, but the latter could 
not do the office of the former. Every temple has its own officiating 
priests, but I am told that there are not more than about thirty of the 
preaching order in Southern India. These have the power of ordaining 
others, and are held in high estimation. The man who received baptism 
on Trinity Sunday is one of this order. I believe he is very clever in 
Sanskrit ; he knows Tamil and Telugu. 

" He came to me last year in the month of May, and desired me to let 
him know the principles of the Christian religion ; he wished to get 
some accurate knowledge of its doctrines. Having been pleased with 
the discussion on the first interview, he expressed a wish to see me often. 
He moreover said that during his careful study of the Vedas he found 
many fallacies in them, and that he had no confidence in them. I told 


him that he could come to me daily, except on Sundays, between 12 noon 
and 3 P.M. He regularly came to me for a little more than four months, 
and I am thankful to say that through the aid of the Holy Spirit, I was 
enabled to convince him of the truth and sublimity of the Christian 

"About the middle of September last he told me that he was de 
termined to become a Christian ; upon which I gave him some further 
instruction according to the order of the Church Catechism. He then 
consulted me what he might do for his livelihood after becoming a 
Christian ; for he became a devotee when he was seventeen years of age, 
and learnt no other profession, and wished he could be engaged in 
preaching work, which work, he said, would be a pleasure to him, after 
studying the Scripture for some time ; and asked me if I could 
take such measures to make him fit for such a work. I told him that I 
would do what I could for him, and that it was the Holy Spirit who makes 
us fit to do His work, and that his wish would be realised if he had a 
sincere and ardent desire. I took him to the late Rev. Dr. Kennet, who had 
a long conversation with him ; I took him also to the "Rev. Mr. Elwes. Dr. 
Kennet and Mr. Elwes, upon consulting together, thought that he would 
be a useful instrument to preach the Gospel to the heathen, especially to 
the educated classes, after studying some Christian Theology for about six 
months. Dr. Kennet advised me to teach him General Scripture History, 
Dr. Bower s " Pearson on the Creed," and Butler s " Analogy " in Tamil, 
during the six months ; and that he himself would try to improve after 

" Arrangements for baptism were made on the first Sunday in October 
last ; but just four days before that time a certain influential Hindu at 
Mylapore, coming to hear that he was seen to visit the house of a 
Christian clergyman (meaning me), conveyed the news to some others of 
the community, who managed to have his library removed into the Temple 
at Mylapore (up to that time he had his lodging outside the temple, but 
only his food he had in. the temple). He himself was asked to live in the 
temple. As his movements were then carefully watched, he could not 
come to me as before, but held communication with me by local post. He 
was reluctant to leave his books behind. They were valuable books 
Treatises on Hindu Philosophy and Religion, chiefly in Sanskrit. Some of 
the religious books are sold only to non-secular orthodox Hindus. Several 
books were in Tamil and Telugu also. I also wished very much to have 
those books, as he, or I through his help, could edit a work pointing out 
clearly the defects of the Hindu faith, and contrasting them with the 
teachings of the Bible. He tried several plans to bring them out, but 
could not. They were his own books. He held communication with me 
from Mylapore through letters by post for about six weeks, after which, 
fearing to come to me, he desired me to meet him at the beach near 
the icehouse at dusk, on a fixed day. He was not afraid of becoming 
a Christian, or of making known his intention boldly ; but all his 
anxiety was for the books. He wished he could bring them away, 

M se s p.ij885 d| ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 289 

if possible. For the last six or seven months we met at the beach 
near the icehouse regularly once a week. Finding his efforts to bring 
the books out vain, he came away to me on the Saturday before Trinity 
Sunday with only about twenty books. 

" As he was fully prepared for baptism, I baptised him on Trinity Sunday, 
The Eev. D. S. Bakianadan, of Sullivan s Gardens, the S. Thome Hospital 
Assistant, Mr. Abraham and his wife, were his godparents. His old name 
was Parakala Ramanuja Yakanji. His present name is Paul Ignatius Deva- 
dasen. The Hindus are not aware of his conversion as yet, because a few 
days ago he received a call from the Hindu community at Vellore, inviting 
him to give them a course of lectures on a certain subject. Just about the 
time he was to have started he came away to me. The Hindus here 
probably are under the impression that he has- gone to Vellore ; but he is 
now preparing a letter, mentioning to them that he is now a Christian, 
and his arguments- for leaving Hinduism and embracing. Christianity. He 
is a man well known to the Hindus. The knowledge of his conversion 
will cause a sensation. 

" As was originally arranged by Dr. Kennet and the Rev. Mr. Elwes, I 
have asked the M.D.C. to allow him a scholarship for six months, asking 
them at the same time to appoint some clergymen to examine him after six 
months, and report ; after which, that the Committee may do what seems 
good to them." 

rf % 

HARVEST thankofFerings are each year asked for by the 
Society. Never is the request a mere matter of 
routine. Certainly this year the necessity for such an appeal 
is unusually strong. With its ever-increasing claims, and with 
its grants practically at a minimum, the Society has to face 
the fluctuations of national prosperity, which affect all charitable 

IT will be remembered that last spring, in making the grants 
for 1886, reductions to the extent of 3,676 were 
made, involving in many cases great hardship. The seven 
dioceses of South Africa call urgently for increased grants. 
The needs of North- West Canada are ever growing. Fiji, 
Singapore, Japan, and the Indian dioceses, want more Mission 
aries for existing opportunities, and the lack of spiritual pro- 

290 NOTES or THE MONTH. K5S3? 

vision for many English settlements on the Continent of Europe 
has been exposed by the Bishop of Gibraltar and Bishop 
Titcomb ; while in various parts of the world new fields are 
showing white, and would make the eye lighten and the heart 
beat high at the prospect of approaching harvest, but for the 
recollection that no means are ready for gathering it in. 

DEATH has taken to his rest one whose work in the 
Missionary field has been crowned with perhaps as 
complete success as any labourer is permitted to see with his 
own eyes the Rev. Andrew Jamieson, who went to Walpole 
Island in 1845, and has remained there ever since, until his 
death on June the 24th last. 

Walpole Island is on the Lake St. Clair, which links Lake 
Huron to Lake Erie, and though close to many large and 
prosperous places in the flourishing province of Ontario, and 
but twenty miles from Detroit, in the United States, it is 
wholly inhabited by native Indians. None were Christians 
when Mr. Jamieson went there, and the result of his work 
perhaps can scarcely be better described than it is in a letter 
addressed by his Bishop to the Society in 1881 : 

"It was in 1845 that the late Bishop Strachan, first Bishop of Toronto, 
sent the Rev. Mr. Jamieson to take charge of the Walpole Island Mission. 
At that period the Mission was looked upon as full of trials and diffi 
culties, with very little hope of succeeding, as other denominations were 
on the point of entering the field and taking possession of it. Your 
Missionary, however, full of faith and zeal, commenced his labours in the 
island on the 17th of June, 1845, relying upon the gracious promise of 
the Master, Lo, I am with you alway. The Indians at that period in 
the island were all pagans, and wedded to their old superstitions ; they 
lived in bark-wigwams, and with the exception of small patches of Indian 
corn, very rudely cultivated, paid no attention to the tilling of the soil. 
They lived chiefly by fishing and hunting. They were poor and indolent, 
and like other savages, exerted themselves only when impelled by hunger. 
All this has been happily changed ; the bark-wigwam has disappeared, 
and they live in substantially-built log-houses ; they have given up their 
wandering habits, and remain in the island, cultivating their small farms, 
and that with the modern implements of husbandry. The intemperance 
and indolence of the olden time have disappeared, and the Indians are 
for the most part quiet, orderly, and industrious in their habits. The 

M sepi,S d> ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 291 

great majority of them have been converted to Christianity, and many of 
them, I am thankful to say, from what I can learn, are not only regular 
in their attendance upon the ordinances of the Church, but consistent 
followers of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

" Your Missionary had much to contend against in the early days of 
his labours among these Indians, but now, what has God wrought 1 He 
is universally beloved and esteemed for his faithful and uncompromising 
perseverance to do good to all those to whom he is commissioned to 
preach the glad tidings of salvation. The flower of his days and strength 
he has cheerfully spent among these Indians, who look up to him with 
reverence and affection ; and he is determined, as long as God shall 
supply him with strength and grace, to spend and be spent among his 

WE would venture to call our readers special attention to 
the Bishop of Gibraltar s memorandum in our last 
issue, as well as that by Bishop Titcomb, which we printed 
some months ago, and which appeared in the Society s Annual 
Report. The needs of the Society s Continental Chaplaincies 
Fund are most urgent. It is inadequate for even the existing 
work, and is at the present moment absolutely exhausted. As 
the Bishops letters show, it is most necessary that the Society s 
work on the Continent should be extended, so as to meet the 
pressing spiritual needs of the large numbers of English people 
abroad who are unable to provide for the ministrations of the 
Church without assistance. 

BISHOP KELLY, late of Newfoundland, has, we are glad 
to hear, been elected Bishop-coadjutor, cum jure suc- 
cessionis, to the Bishop of Moray, Ross, and Caithness. 

THE Rev. Reginald Henry Dyke Acland-Troyte, M.A., 
Trinity College, Oxford, and lately Yicar of Winter- 
bourn Down, near Bristol, has been appointed to the Society s 
Chaplaincy of St. Andrew s, Pau. 

dalen College, Cambridge, has been appointed Vice- 
Principal of the Society s College at Trichinopoly, which is 



TMissiou Field, 
L Sep. 1. 1885. 

affiliated to the University of Madras. Mr. Williams took a 
Wrangler s degree, and other honours in the University. He 
is to leave England in October. 

MR. A. C. LAUGHLIN, of St. Augustine s College, Canter 
bury, is to leave in October for the diocese of Bombay. 
Mr. Laughlin has studied Medicine at King s College, London, 
and will be able to use his knowledge in a field where medical 
work has already proved a valuable auxiliary to the Missions. 

Tin HE Rev. J. Taylor, who has been for a short time in 
-L England on sick leave, sails on October the 3rd for his 
work in the Ahmednagar Missions in the same diocese. 

Societies Jfnzame for 1885. 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS. 

January July, 1885. 


Donations, and 



Rents, Ac. 




















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of July in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-l 
tions I 























OCTOBER 1, 1885. 



SHOULD like to follow up the deeply interesting 
paper of Mr. Chard s, which appeared in the last 
issue of the Rangoon Church News, by giving some 
account of the religious views, such as they are, 
and superstitions of the poor and lowly races amongst whom 
the Missionary will have to labour. 

The Nicobarese have some dim, ill-defined notion of a superior 
Being, though they have no word in their language to represent 
God. The word they use signifies " up there " "above," and 
conveys no idea of life or personality. In their island homes 
nature lavishes upon them abundance of food, requiring but 
little labour, and this they regard as the gift of some beneficent 
being. They notice the effect of the moon upon the tides and 
the weather, and they think that the "Dew she ol kahce" the 
good Spirit dwells in the moon, and fancy they can even trace 
his lineaments as he gazes upon the earth. In their votive 
plates they sometimes represent the "giver of all" in human 
form, dressed in a skirt made of grasses. They consider this 


294 THE MISSION TO THE NICOBARS. [ M o c 8 t io ? 

L Oct. i. 

being is kind and good, and has no wish to hurt them. They 
offer no worship to him, nor have they any idols to remind them 
of him. 

But though they are thus indifferent to the service of the 
one who they believe to befriend them, a large portion of the 
time and thoughts of man, woman, and child, are devoted to 
conciliating the evil one and disembodied spirits. I know of no 
race whose lives are rendered so continuously and utterly 
miserable by their beliefs as those of the Nicobarese. They 
live in constant dread and abject terror of the unseen world. 
They spend their little fortune and are kept in poverty by the 
lavish bribes they offer to the spirits which they suppose to be 
ready to pounce down and "eat the life out of them." These 
are the cause of pain and sickness, of death, and misfortune of 
every kind. Strange to say, these vindictive and destructive 
spirits are the souls of father, mother, and other near rela 
tives who, during life, loved them with a passionate love. 
The idea seems to be that the soul in its disembodied state is 
utterly miserable, and that it is for ever trying to become again 
incarnate, and enjoy once more its canoes, and cocoa-nuts, and 

As the Hindus impoverish themselves for years by the ex 
travagant expenses at their marriage feasts, the Nicobarese do 
the same by the cost of their repeated death-feasts. These are 
three in number first, on the death of an individual ; second, 
three months after the death ; third, three years after the 
death. As may be imagined, before the mourning for the 
death of one is completed, oftentimes the mourning for the 
death of another has to be commenced, so that in large families 
the mourning festivals are almost continuous through life. 

As soon as a person dies, the friends are informed, and 
invitations are sent out by strips of rattan knotted, each knot 
representing one day. The name of the deceased is never 
again mentioned ; he is called son, or elder brother, or some 
other appropriate periphrastic term. This curious custom has a 
serious effect upon the stability of the language ; for if the 
dead man s name is "Fowl," that word cannot again be men 
tioned, and another word must be invented for the bird known 

M oct.T, S? ] DEATH FEASTS. 295 

by that name. The friends, in answer to the summons, flock in 
with presents of betel, spears, cloth, &c. The body is washed 
five times, and then wrapped in the new cloth thus collected. It 
is placed on the death-plank, over which there is a sheet of 
wild betel bark. On the bark are several layers of cloth, the 
more the better, for it is hoped in amongst these the spirit will 
hide, and so be removed with the body from the house. Some 
of the women sitting around, and placing their elbows on the 
body, cry aloud, whilst others are busy making a feast, consisting 
of pandanus paste, rice, cocoa-nuts, plantains, pine-apples, &c., 
which, with rum and toddy, are placed near the head, and 
remain there until the body is removed, when the viands are 
thrown out for the dogs and pigs. All being ready, the body 
is removed to the grave, which is invariably behind and very 
near to the houses. In and upon the grave are placed all the 
moveable property of the deceased his paddles, spears, cloth, 
boxes, &c. The mourners return to the house, and preserve 
silence for some time. There are, as in polite society, stages of 
mourning, a "deep" form, in which the mourners abstain from 
feasts, drinking, dancing, &c., for a given time, and a "mild" 
form, in which there is abstinence from these on visiting the 
house of the deceased. 

Three days after burial, a cooked fowl, pork, rice, and pan 
danus paste are placed on the grave. 

The second death-feast takes place three months after. 
Cages are made, in each of which is a pig ; friends meet and 
mourn, toddy and rum are drunk. On the following day the 
pigs are killed, and new calico is torn up into strips. The 
branches of a certain tree, to them a magic tree, are hung up 
in the house. The spirits of the departed delight to linger in 
this tree, and it is hoped that any stray spirit may be coaxed 
into the suspended branches, rather than lurk about the house. 
At all the feasts the manloene the witch doctor and priest 
is very busy. He has one fee intoxicating drink ; and as long 
as the fee holds out, he is very clever in discovering spirits. No 
one else sees them, feels them, hears them ; but it is a great 
satisfaction to them to know that the manloene can discover 
and master them. At sunset the women visit the grave, and 

x 2 


Oct. 1, 1885. 

decorate it with wreaths made from the tender leaves of the 
sago and cocoa palm, and with the torn strips of calico ; after 
which they return to the house and partake of the feast. 
During the night the priests sing and the women cry ; and the 
singing, crying, and feasting go on for days, according to the 
means of the householder. 

But the chief and most costly is the third and last death- 
feast, which takes place three years after burial. This is called 
the feast of Koroak, that is, the Feast of Gongs. For months 
before the women are busy in sewing the narrow strips of 
Turkey red cloth worn by men, and the short blue skirts worn 
by women. These are hung up in the house, until the whole 
room, sides, and roof are covered. As the day approaches, the 
knotted rattan invitations are sent out ; a portico made of young 
cocoa-nuts is at the entrance, and on ascending the ladder and 
entering the room you see hundreds and hundreds of yards of 
calico, as well as handkerchiefs torn in strips. In front of the 
door two rudely-carved human figures ; between these a triangle 
of wood, about four feet from the apex to the base, with 
horizontal lathes of wood, upon which are suspended a large 
number of silver and electroplated spoons. The two luxuries 
which the opulent Nicobarese indulge in are tall hats and 
spoons. In our head man s house, he showed me ten or twelve 
tall hats, some of them so antique in shape, that it must be 
nearly time for them to come into fashion again. As for the 
spoons, they were of all sizes teaspoons, dessert-spoons, table 
spoons they were of great variety as to shape ; some had 
crests on them, and I doubt not many of them had been 
obtained in the savage attacks which used to be made on vessels 
wrecked on these islands. The spoons answer a twofold pur 
pose : first, they are used for personal adornment. I saw a 
young woman naked to the waist, with a necklet made of cane, 
about half a yard in diameter, on which there were a large 
number of spoons tied, and having as the centre pendant an 
electroplated soup-ladle. Spoons are also used to frighten away 
evil spirits, as suspended on the triangle they knocked against 
each other when moved by the hand or wind. 

As the feast begins, the spoons are rattled, the gongs struck, 


the cocoa-nuts used for holding water are smashed, glass and 
earthenware are dashed to the ground, the people cry aloud, 
and the spirits become alarmed and slink away. The pigs are 
killed, there is a feast in the morning, all sleep during the day, 
and at night more feasting, with dancing. The host distributes 
the skirts and strips ; all smear themselves with red ochre and 
lard, and they drink freely of rum or toddy. On the following 
day there is canoe racing, and in the evening the chief ceremony, 
the exhuming of the skull, is performed. I was present on one 
occasion both on the day of preparation and on the following 
day. All the household property of the deceased was still 
rotting on the grave boxes, cooking utensils, clothes, spears, 
oars, &c. They caught a little pig, and, feeling for the heart, 
ran a sharp pointed stick into it. Within one minute it was 
being roasted. This was intended for the spirit. Mr. de 
Roepstorff told me they always give the poorest and skinniest 
of pigs to the spirit. I thought of the threepenny pieces in 
the offertory bags at home. The men were smeared with red 
ochre, and the women with saffron. The latter were engaged 
in cooking pork in large chatties over blazing flames, which 
lighted up the scene and made all weird-like. Our hearts 
yearned for the poor ignorant savages, so earnest in their desire 
to appease the spirits. Our little party sang, " Sun of my 
Soul," and "Abide with Me"; the women left their cooking 
and the men ceased their howling, and gathered around us in 
silent wonder. In their sad hour of mourning, hopeless deso 
lation only was in their souls. They knew nought of the 
"sure and certain hope "which animates the Christian when 
looking into the tomb. 

On the following day we returned, and I witnessed one of 
the saddest scenes I ever saw. There were about eighty 
present. The men and women were smeared as before ; some 
of the latter had cane collars, to which spoons were attached. 
The noise was almost diabolical ; all were much excited. I saw 
seven skulls exhumed. On being dug up, the nearest female 
relative receives the skull, washes it in cocoa-nut milk until it 
is quite clean, then rubs saffron on it. The lower jaw is kept 
in its place by strips of new cloth wound round the head ; and 


then, in a slow and solemn procession, it is carried into the 
house. I saw many marks of affection, tears falling silently 
upon the skull, arms pressing it closely to the bosom. One 
young woman took the lighted cigarette from her lips, and 
placed it in the jaws. Poor thing ! she wanted to give pleasure 
to the dead. During the process of disinterment it threatened 
to rain ; the manloene was called, and being duly primed with 
rum, he ordered it not to rain. The clouds passed away. 
Under the house were fourteen pigs decorated with silver and 
other ornaments, which were to be slaughtered the following 
morning, when the skulls would be again buried, and a large 
quantity of torn calico placed on the head-stick at the top of 
the grave. 

Much of the information given above I got from notes fur 
nished to me by the late Mr. de Roepstorff, who loved these 
people so well. 

NOTE. Our readers will remember that the Nicobar and 
Andaman Islands form one Mission, to which Mr. J. H. Nodder 
has gone as the Society s Missionary. Mr. Chard s paper, to 
which the Bishop refers, was printed in the Mission Field for 


AHANORO, the scene of a memorable French 
bombardment last year, is the seaport town in 
Madagascar to which the Society had deter 
mined, just before the outbreak of hostilities, 
to send a Mission. This ground had previously 
been quite unoccupied by any Missionary operations, and the 
remarkable success which has so far attended but a few months 
work is at least an evidence of the wisdom with which the 
workers in Madagascar recognised this as a place to be occupied 
without delay, and we may hope an earnest of still larger 
growth ere long. 

Writing at Midsummer, scarcely a year after the first begin 
nings at Mahanoro, the Rev. G. H. Smith refers to a letter 
which he had addressed to the Society three months before, 
in which he had spoken of the astonishing success of the 
Mission at first. He says that continued and steady progress 
shows that that success was not due to the attraction of 
novelty : 

"The numbers in the schools have kept steadily increasing 
and the progress of the children is very satisfactory on the 
whole. On Sunday afternoons a special class is held for adults 
who are preparing for holy baptism and confirmation, and the 
numbers average seven at present ; I hope soon to have 
additional candidates, for the adults are beginning to attend 
the Church services in greater numbers, in spite of the in 
sufficient accommodation. Besides these, I hold special classes 
for the school-children on weekdays, at which there are twenty- 
four girls and eleven boys preparing for baptism ; the earnest 
ness and steadiness of many of these is most encouraging. 


"We greatly want a good large church to enable us to make 
the Church services not only decent and in order (a difficult 
matter at present), but more attractive ; a new assistant 
teacher, who is a fair musician, has lately come down from 
the capital, and with a suitable building we might hope to give 
the Betsimisaraka in and round Mahanoro a better idea of 
what is meant by Christian worship. 

"We must look to the schools for our foundation and hope 
for our work in the future. Miss Lawrence has now nearly 
100 girls in regular attendance, and the boys average between 
fifty and sixty ; of the latter we have over ninety names on the 
books, but it is a difficult matter to get them to school, the 
parents in most cases being to blame. We owe much to the 
Governor for his energy in having the children brought up to 
school, and defaulters found and restored. It must always be 
remembered that by far the larger number of the children live 
at a distance, some as much as a day s journey off, and come 
up from Sunday till Friday. 

" I lately held a short examination of both schools through 
out, and found many instances of children being able to read 
fairly in some cases well who had no idea of a letter of the 
alphabet when our schools were first opened. At the catechising, 
which is given regularly at Evensong on Sundays, the children 
answer intelligently and with evident interest. 

"It has so far been impossible, from want both of time and 
funds, to do much towards taking up the work in the country 
round, but the work waiting for us . is overwhelming. Ambodi- 
harina, about three hours south of this place, goes on well 
under John Shirley. I spent last Sunday there, and was much 
pleased with the heartiness of the services and the good order. 
The school now numbers over 100, and we have been obliged 
to appoint an assistant-teacher. Nearly twenty grown-up 
people, exclusive of the school, attended the services, which is 
a great increase. I baptised five of the school (one cannot say 
children, for two of the five were man and wife), one woman, 
wife of the assistant teacher, and admitted four into the Church. 
It was, I believe, the first time (within the memory of the present 
generation, at any rate), that the holy sacrament of baptism 

M octi,i885 d> ] NON NOBIS, DOMINE. 301 

had been administered there, and the service was watched with 
genuine interest, and seemed to impress deeply some of those 

"The following day we visited another large village on the 
coast, about three hours south again, called Andranotoara, from 
which we had had several requests for a teacher. We wrote 
down on the spot the names of twenty children, and were 
assured that when the teacher came there would be nearly 150. 
I hope very soon to place there Abel, the young Betsimisaraka 
who accompanied the Bishop in his tour round the north of 
the island, and had been educated at the High School until he 
followed me down here ; we hope he may do much among his 
own people. 

"It is now scarcely a year since the first beginnings were 
made in Mahanoro, and the progress is wonderful when we 
consider that by the time the year is completed we shall have 
nearly 400 children under instruction, congregations of rather 
over that number, some eighty or ninety preparing for baptism 
or confirmation, and that all this has been brought about in a 
country distracted by war, with the majority of the inhabitants 
of the coast villages taking refuge in the forests to the west, 
while for nearly six months the work was carried on, one may 
say, under the guns of a French man-of-war. Surely we may 
say, This is the Lord s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes. 
Yet what has been done is a mere drop in the ocean to what 
remains ready to our hands. North, south, and west, there is 
an enormous and populous district utterly unprovided for, and 
many villages already earnestly looking for us, but we cannot 
help them without more men, more money, more everything." 


E have received a copy of the important Charge 
which the Bishop of Zululand delivered to his 
synod in the Memorial Church of St. Vincent, 
Isandhlwana, in April last. The Bishop refers to 
recent changes in the staff of the Mission, and the insufficient 
means at its disposal, and devotes the greater part of his 
remarks to two practical points the principles to be observed 
in translation work, and the relative merits of the station 
system, or of more diffusive evangelisation. 

We append a few extracts from the Charge, or rather the 
opening and the concluding portions of it, for justice would not 
be done to the Bishop s arguments by making extracts from them. 
The first passage gives a general view of the state of the 
diocese, whilst the second gives the Bishop s summing-up of 
the question he has propounded as to the best method of 
Missionary work : 

" Once more I am thankful to be able to bid you welcome in the name 
of the Lord. In 1883 I was doubtful up to the moment of your arrival 
whether the state of the country would allow of your coming. I have 
been in fear and doubt again. Two troublous years have passed since we 
last met in synod, and we can but hope that we are near the crisis now. 
All seem convinced that some further changes must take place, and 
some better settlement must be made. God grant it ; for any government 
is better than none ; and though we may well wish for one government 
rather than another, yet the Church of Christ is in the world, yet not of 
the world. Its sphere of work is different for the most part from that of 
the secular power. Happy indeed both for State and Church when Church 
and State work hand in hand for objects common to both, such as the 
education of children, and the care of the sick ; but whether or not 
kings will be nursing fathers to the Church, and queens her nursing 
mothers, the Church can exist and extend itself under any form of 
government which can ensure peace and protection. Its members can be 
loyal subjects of any power which does not command that which is un- 
Christian ; and, even at the worst, they can suffer and die, or else (as our 
Lord said) when persecuted in one city they can flee into another. We 
have not been called to resist unto blood, striving against sin, suffering 
for righteousness sake, bearing witness to the truth. The most we can say 
is that some of us have been forced to flee for fear of attack from those 
who coveted our possessions, and who found themselves in a position to 
take revenge for supposed injuries in the past. Loss and hardship have 


resulted, of course. I am sure we have all grieved for the homeless, and 
have felt the more sad because the extent of the necessity rendered vain 
any hope of giving effectual relief. And yet there has been cause for much 
thankfulness ; for when no life is lost, when cattle are saved, and the first 
crisis of starvation is past, we may well thank God for past mercies. Our 
sympathies and prayers are, however, still needed for those who have lost 
relatives and friends, and cattle too, by sickness, in consequence, probably, 
of the less healthy climate of the place of their temporary sojourn, and 
who have now to begin again and make a new home. 

" The state of exile of so many of our people, and the general sense of 
uncertainty and insecurity, has seriously interfered with the progress of 
our work ; yet in the past year seventy have been baptised as adults, and 
ninety-seven as infants; 119 have been confirmed; and at the end of 
the year we had upon the roll 770 baptised, of which 173 are com 
municants. Fifty-seven were admitted as catechumens ; and this includes 
none from Kwamagwaza, where a large number were baptised in March, 
not two months before all ordinary work was brought to a standstill by 
the enforced flight into the Reserve. Only thirty-one have died. 


"Wherever there can be but one Missionary at a station, it seems 
to me probable that he ought to keep his household as small as he can, 
cultivating only so much land as will supply what a European needs and 
cannot buy, as fresh vegetables and fruit, and keeping only so many cattle 
as he must have for his waggon, for milk and butter, and for occasional 
slaughter. He might even perhaps for a small payment make over the 
care of these to one of his nearer neighbours, whose own cattle are pretty 
sure to be herded carefully. The Missionary cannot of course hold school 
on the place every day in the week. He would be too closely tied to 
home. Three days in the week, with evening school, would be quite 
sufficient. On two days he might ride out in the morning some ten or 
twelve miles to some kraal where the headman is well disposed. He 
would teach children, speak to inquirers, and, if possible, pray with a few ; 
and then spend the afternoon in like manner at another kraal at some little 
distance to the right or left, and ride home in the evening thankful that 
he has been able to sow a little seed over so wide a tract of country, making 
himself and his message known to many who would never have come to 
his school at home. On another day in the week two more centres might 
be taken up. On Sunday, if he have no native able to act as reader or 
catechist at home, and none fit to go forth for an evangelistic service at the 
kraals, I believe he had better drop one of the services on the station and 
go forth himself to some kraal, where he is expected, and a congregation 
can be gathered, and deliver the Lord s message on the Lord s Day, now so 
generally known, and in many districts kept already by abstaining from 
labour in the gardens. He must give up any thought of holding Sunday 
school on the station ; but he will be the more careful to give sound religious 
instruction during the week, in which he is hindered by no codes or regu 
lations. It will be said that such a life involves much bodily exertion, 
and that it involves also the possession of a good horse. How far would 


not the change of scene and air be beneficial to health 1 Most of us have 
horses of some kind ; and, after all, the distances to be covered must depend 
upon circumstances. The principle I wish to plead for is that each Mis 
sionary shall have some outlying places at which he attends regularly each 
week, or fortnight, or month, for the acknowledged purpose of exercising 
his office. Until this is more generally done, I do not think we can expect 
onr leaven to leaven the whole lump. And I know it may be said that 
such teaching will be very slight not enough to do any good. Not 
enough, I agree, to do so much good as we might hope to do those whom 
we teach daily and watch over hourly, whom we are able to pray with and 
preach to frequently. But to say no good would result would be to lose 
sight of the promise, Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou shalt find 
it after many days. It may not be till we stand in our lot that we shall 
be astonished and gladdened by the brightness of the crown appointed for 
such as turn many to righteousness. Eemember that St. John the Baptist 
was already dead when the Lord Jesus visited the place where he had 
preached, and the people said, John did no miracle, but all things that 
John spake of this Man were true. And many believed on Him there. 

" Finally, brethren, I would say one thing more, needful at all times and 
in all places, but I think peculiarly so now in our perplexity and weakness. 
Lee us see to it that we do not lose our faith in the power of the Word. 
Great and powerful is the preaching of the Christian life, and nowhere, I 
am sure, is that preaching more needed, or proportionately more effectual, 
than in Zululand and Swaziland. But we may not trust to this. Now as 
ever, here as elsewhere, it pleases God by the foolishness of preaching to 
save them that believe. And here is the encouragement. * Not by might 
ncr by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts or as St. Paul 
says, not with enticing words of man s wisdom, but as the Holy Ghost 
teacheth. Not always, or ever, in the best of Zulu Demosthenes the 
orator would have called the Greek of St. Peter and St. Paul, and of the 
Lord himself, simply barbarous ; not with the learning of accomplished 
scholars we have not all sat at the feet of Gamaliel ; not with natural 
eloquence like Apollo s ; not to crowded congregations like some of our 
brethren at home ; not to eager listeners and anxious inquirers, as in some 
other parts of the Mission field, but to the twenty or the thirty, perhaps 
only the two or the three, and those sensual, idle, careless, of the earth 
earthy still let us try to unfold the blessings of Christ s Gospel ; still tell 
of the need of man, and try to make men feel it ; still make known the 
name of Jesus the Saviour ; still tell, call, invite, urge, warn, whether 
men will hear or whether they will forbear. It cannot be that alone of all 
the earth the Zulu heart is impervious to the truth and love of God. It 
shall not be labour lost. Tor, first of all, if we have done our part faith 
fully, we may take to ourselves the word spoken to the prophet : But thou 
hast delivered thy soul. And it may be that greater joy will be given to us ; 
not merely the answer of a good conscience, when duty has been done, 
though with no evident result, but we may be sharers in the promise made 
to Timothy : In so doing thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear 
thee. Amen." 



HAVE much pleasure in writing you an account 
of work and progress during the current quarter. 

I will begin with what is furthest off, and 
gradually come nearer home. 

Three visits have been paid to Nakatsu during the current 
quarter. Yamagata and I went first, and spent Palm Sunday 
there. We spent three or four days there, and had more 
opportunities for preaching than we could find time for. At 
the end of April Mr. Shaw and Yamagata went again and 
preached several times, and later on Miss Hoare went with a 
Japanese woman, and had one or two women s meetings. I 
am thinking of spending a portion of my summer holidays 
there. It is a beautiful place, and I think much good can be 
done there, especially if I can get a few good Japanese to 
accompany me. 

At Ushigome there has been some progress. On Ascension 
Day I baptised a man, named Yasu, whom Yamagata had 
prepared. Next Sunday or the Sunday after I hope to have 
the privilege of baptising two more candidates. There are 
also some candidates for confirmation, for whom we are making 
arrangements with Bishop Williams. Yamagata is a very 
worthy man, and I think Ushigome will do well under his 

At Kiyobashi we have had no accessions. I feel somewhat 
anxious about this station. The church is situated in a slum, 
with a thick population all around it. It is a splendid position 
for preaching, but at the present we lack the right man. 
Shimada is a really good man, with the gifts of a theological 

Mission Field, 


professor ; but he is a pedant, and uses so much Chinese that 
people cannot understand him. The other day he translated a 
tract for me, and in doing so used such out-of-the-way words 
that even some good scholars to whom I showed the tract 
said they had to think several times before they could puzzle 
out the Chinese ideographs. Yamagata does his best to help 
here, but it is a long distance for him to come ; and when 


the Ushigome work develops he will find his time fully occu 
pied. Of course we don t always know what is for the best, 
but, humanly speaking, what we want for the Kiyobashi Mission 
is a man with ready wit and a great flow of ordinary colloquial 
Japanese. Perhaps in God s good time the man will come. 
However, in Shimada s own way, as I said before, lie is a good 
man. He is the scholar of the Episcopal Church. He knows 
enough to read intelligently English, French, German, Greek, 
and Latin. In one instance that has come to my knowledge 

Mission Field / 
Oct. 18S5. 



he has been extremely useful ; only, at present, he is a square 
man in a round hole. 

Through the instrumentality of one of the members of the 
congregation, we have been invited by a rich money-changer 
near Nihombashi (the London Bridge of Tokio) to preach on 


Saturday evenings to his employes so that even here, if we 
have not gained any actual accessions, we have at least had 
doors opened for us to bear the testimony. 

I now come to what has been essentially my own work. I 
have been teaching as before. I trust that by this time I do 
not need to make any apology for it. 

308 WORK AT TOKIO. [ J oS$5B? < 

I have been trying to consolidate my work as far as possible. 
At Shiba school I am not teaching at present. As the weather 
became hotter the attendance at the afternoon school dwindled ; 
and at last it seemed advisable to close in the afternoon, and 
teach in the evening. This clashed with my Azabu work, so I 
gave up Shiba very reluctantly. 

In the meantime my Azabu teaching has increased very con 
siderably. It has quite outgrown my house, and I have been 
obliged to hire an additional house (ten dollars a month, paid 
out of the fees) in which to carry on my work. We have now 
turned this into a kind of Young Man s Christian Association, 
and through the kindness of some friends here especially 
Mrs. Longford, of the British Consulate, and Mr. Eastlake, an 
American gentleman who is churchwarden and organist to our 
English congregation at Shiba I have been able to have a 
reading-room and library for the benefit of the members. In 
the evenings we have classes, as follows : 

Monday Reading. 

Tuesday English Composition. 

Wednesday Social evening (" Proverbs," and other games). 

Thursday Lectures on "English Literature," by Mr. 


Friday E\\)\Q Class. "St. John s Gospel." 
Sunday (afternoon and evening when possible) Bible 

Class and Japanese preaching. 

The house is situated quite close to the Kei-o-gijiku, the 
large native school which I have already mentioned. Indeed it 
is the property of Mr. Fukuzawa, the principal of the establish 
ment. I have hired it under the express condition that I ain to 
use it for Christian teaching. Last week we opened it for 
preaching. I commenced with a magic-lantern lecture on 
"Joseph"; then Yamagata spoke on the "Treasure in 
Heaven ; " and Shaw closed with a few words. At the close we 
were much pleased to hear one of the managers of the Kei-o- 
gijiku speak and advise his pupils to give careful attention to 
Christianity, as being a subject worthy of every man s interest 
and attention. Educated Japanese do not generally take so 
favourable a view of Christianity. 


The club or association we have formed we have called the 
" Polygon Institute," and have adopted as our motto the text 
"That the man of God maybe perfect, thoroughly furnished 
unto all good works." The members have chosen one of their 
own number to live in the house and take charge of it Mr. 
Kawa Shima, a captain in the Japanese army, holding a position 
in the quartermaster s department, which allows him to live in 
the town. He is a very earnest inquirer, and was first in 
fluenced for good by Shimada. 

I also keep a study in the house, so that I can be more 
accessible to inquirers ; also I have parted with the last of my 
books to float a library for the Polygon Institute. 

One direct advantage I have already obtained from this 
institution, and that is in the way of translation. I have com 
posed several tracts, and the members have most kindly trans 
lated them, and more, circulated them for me. I append a list 
of the tracts which I have already written and published. 

1. At the Threshold. This I have printed in English, and 

circulated amongst my scholars. I have been asked 
to have it translated, and possibly shall do so. 

2. The First Principles of the Doctrine of Christ. 

3. The Office and Work of the Holy Spirit. 

4. The True Buddhist. 

5. Filial Piety. 

6. The Canary Birds. This is a translation of an article 

by Miss Wordsworth, in the Banner of Faith. 

I have two more tracts in progress, and am also contem 
plating articles to the vernacular press. So I am making my 
pupils slave for me ! 

I think that perhaps you will be interested with an account of a 
native Japanese school, such as the Kei-o-gijiku, at which I teach. 
This is really a very typical school. It is the largest private, 
i.e. non-governmental, school in Japan, and numbers about 500 
scholars in all. Its principal, Mr. Fukuzawa, is a very daring 
innovator, but has the general merit of being successful in his 
innovations. The school has a beautiful position on the top 




f Mission Field, 
L Oct. 1. 1885. 

of a hill, with a good view of the sea on one hand, and of 
the distant ranges of Oyama and Mount Fuji on the other 

From the appended List of Work you will see that the 
curriculum is wide almost too wide for our English notions 
of education. With a view to testing the thoroughness 
of the work, I am suggesting to the authorities to have a 
centre of the Cambridge Local Examinations at Tokio. I 
think it could be managed, and would, I think, have a good 




Law and Philosophy. 


( Geology 
\ Zoology 

Parry s World History 

Political Economy {JJwcett 



( Botany 
1 Nat. Phil. 

Quackenbos* Hist. United States 
History of England 

Elementary Law 
fLogic Mill 
\ International Law 



Universal History 

Mental and Moral Philosophy 







Gnizot s Hist. Civilisation 

Arithmetic, Algebra 






Macaulay s Essays 

Arithmetic, Geometry 


I Dictation 


Mill on Liberty 

Arithmetic, Geometry 




Mill Repres. Government 

Book-keeping, Trigonometry 



This requires about a five years course. 

I had intended writing you an account of our native Church 
Missionary Society, but I have unfortunately got a bad eye, 
which prevents my writing more this quarter. 




[HE Missionary periodicals have of late been singularly 
destitute of reference to the work of the Church in 
this diocese. The fault is our own, and the loss is 
our own, for I think it has been abundantly proved 
that a practical interest in Mission work, whether at home or 
abroad, is developed in proportion to the knowledge of the 
work which is imparted. 

First must be mentioned the sad but stern necessity which 
has compelled our dear Bishop to announce to the Diocesan 
Council his intention of resigning the see. The ill-health of his 
wife, who is forbidden by her physicians to return to Nassau, has 
left the Bishop no choice in the matter. He carries with him 
the respect, affection, and sympathy of all classes. His episco 
pate has indeed been deeply imprinted with the Cross. Since 
his last return from England, in November last, the Bishop 
has worked with unremitting zeal, visiting nearly the entire 
diocese, organising, developing, and abundantly proving what 
results might have been attained had he been able to remain. 
His departure is a great misfortune, not only as removing a 
good man, but also because the Bishop had become acclimatised, 
familiar with our needs and circumstances, and well known 
to all. The earnest and constant prayers of all are needed 
that his successor may be speedily appointed, and that he 
may be a man well suited to the difficult, intricate, and 
laborious duties which will devolve upon him. 

In a single article it is impossible to do more than briefly 
touch upon the more salient features of our work. Your 
readers will perhaps know that the diocese of Nassau consists 
of a very large cluster of islands extending along a stretch of 
450 miles, and separated from each other by wide expanses of 
sea, which is the only highway from place to place. There are 

Y 2 

312 CHURCH WORK IN NASSAU. [ M oST, 5S. d - 

nominally eighteen parishes, of which five, with five clergymen, 
are in New Providence, the principal and most populous island 
of the group. The Disestablishment Act of 1869 prospectively 
withdrew all salaries paid by the Government, which at that 
time amounted in the aggregate to about 2,300 per annum. 
Since that time only two of our stipendiary clergy have been 
removed, and now the Bishop will leave behind him fourteen 
priests and two deacons, of whom eight receive their salaries 
from the Government, and eight from diocesan funds. One 
special reason why a new Bishop should be appointed with all 
possible speed is that several of our clergymen are young, 
inexperienced, and alone in their large and distant parishes. 
They need a guiding hand, frequent visits, and a sympathising 
chief pastor. 

The work in Nassau itself goes on evenly from month to month. 
These metropolitan parishes are organised and administered 
very much like parishes in England, and their work can scarcely 
be regarded as possessing any Missionary features. In what we 
term the "out islands" the work is very different, and as 
thoroughly Missionary as anywhere else. Some parishes consist 
of an island a hundred miles long, containing many stations, 
each of which is worked by a local catechist, who is unpaid ; 
others consist of a group of islets, which can be visited by the 
clergymen only in the face of great difficulties, exposure, and 
privations. However, our island priests stick manfully to their 
work often glory in their isolation, laugh over their coarse and 
meagre diet, and altogether shame the comparative luxury of 
those of us who live amid the fleshpots of Nassau. 

Some of our clergymen have been with us many years, and 
some are rapidly waxing prematurely old and infirm. Mr. 
Philpot, whose legal parish is one-third of the diocese, finds it 
increasingly difficult to visit round his 600 miles of coast line 
in a parish extending over three degrees of latitude. Mr. 
Stromborn, too, though not yet seventy, is becoming unfit for 
rough travelling and exposure to the scorching sun. A very 
interesting work has lately been developed at San Salvador by 
Mr. Matthews, who was sent here at the close of last year. 
This island, generally known as Cat Island, possesses a 


population of nearly 4,500. All are black. The bulk of the 
people are grossly immoral, superstitious, and ignorant. 
Native anabaptist teachers and obeah men had hitherto ex 
ercised almost entire sway, while the Church had scarcely 
made a mark. Mr. Matthews unremitting labours, active 
sympathy, and genial manners, have gained him an almost 
mesmeric influence over these people, of whom we had long 
despaired. In four months he has baptised 150 children and 
adults, presented 204 for confirmation and communion, opened 
up a few new stations, received many of the most influential 
Baptists into the Church, and made himself to be as idolised 
through the length and breadth of the island as is safe for a 
man to be. If he can maintain his strength and activity, there 
seems little doubt that in a few years the Church will be well- 
nigh supreme in that island. 

Mr. Crispin s island of Eleuthera is very different in character. 
Whereas Cat Island is black, and therefore Anabaptist, Eleu 
thera is chiefly white, and therefore Methodist. His work is 
very trying and disappointing, though gleams of sunshine some 
times break through the clouds which envelop the Church s 
work. The strength of the Methodists is that they cover only 
as much ground as they believe they can permanently occupy. 
In consequence, while the Church suffers from interregnums 
extending sometimes over several years, the Methodists never 
abandon an island for the briefest period. Churchmen weak in 
the faith become impatient and discouraged at being left at 
times with scarcely any hope of ever having a clergyman of 
their own again, and in time yield to the attractions of a per 
manent ministry, a substantial and well-found meeting-house, 
and to the esprit de corps which in these parts welds Methodists 
together in matters not only religious, but social, commercial 
and political, as well. 

Mr. Page, of Exuma, is doing a good and steady work. 
His island was, also, a stronghold of the anabaptists ; but 
eleven years of unremitting toil have resulted in the Church 
being firmly planted from end to end of the parish. Just now 
he is much gladdened by the completion of a pretty and 
substantial church at his head station. It had been first the 

314 CHURCH WORK IN NASSAU. [ M <S! i n 5 d 

L Oct. 1, 188S. 

dream, then the anxiety of years. He has also completed a 
roomy and pretty parsonage. 

The work at Long Island is a most interesting and en 
couraging sphere for a man who is not frightened by hard 
work, and rough living and lodging. There are ten stations, 
470 communicants, and about 250 Sunday scholars. 

Another clergyman, Mr. Cooper, is now at the same table 
with me, writing his examination papers for Priest s Orders, 
to which he is to be admitted on Sunday next, together with 
Mr. Head, deacon in charge of Watling s Island and Rum Cay. 
Mr. Cooper is a black man, a native of Grand Bahama, 
but his saintly mother, who is over eighty, now lives in Nassau, 
where, in spite of age and infirmities, she is an active Guild 
Mother in my parish, and a most wholesome influence for good 
to all with whom she comes in contact. Mr. Cooper was for 
several years under my instruction, and was ordained deacon 
in 18/9. He has charge of the large island of Andros, where 
there are under his supervision ten stations, over 300 com 
municants, 290 Sunday scholars, and 295 day scholars. So far 
as I have yet looked over them, his examination papers are very 
creditable. Some Nassau parishes presented his Mission last 
year with a sailing-boat, the Red Cross, very necessary for 
travelling up and down his hundred miles of shore. I trust 
that when ordained priest he will use it well. 

Mr. Head, the other candidate for next Sunday s Ordination, 
is an Englishman who came into the diocese at the end of 18H2. 
He has charge of St. Christopher s parish, embracing the two 
islands of Watling s (his residence) and Rum Cay. His work 
has been much blessed. Those islands, also, were strongholds 
of dissent but a few weeks ago the Bishop confirmed sixty- 
one (forty-six from Watling s Island, and fifteen from Rum Cay), 
a parsonage has been built, and a large stone church is making 
progress. Mr. Head s is an interesting case. He came out for 
three years on the strength of 100 a-year of his salary being 
guaranteed for that time by an anonymous benefactor. The 
three years come to an end in December next, and the diocese 
has no means in view for continuing to support him. It seems 
a great pity to lose a man who has laboured well, and to close 


a work which has been so abundantly blessed. But what can 
we do? I think that Watling s Island, now acknowledged by 
all, including the Admiralty, to be Columbus first landing-place 
in this western world (the true "San Salvador"), ought to be 
marked in some special manner. And how could the sacred 
spot where the Cross was first planted in the New World, and 
the Holy Communion was first celebrated, be more appropriately 
hallowed than by the building of a suitable church, and the 
maintenance of a priest to serve at its altar. It seems to be a 
matter in which the whole of Christendom might interest itself. 
I wonder the Roman Catholics have not occupied the spot long 
ago. Every day we pass in Nassau the statue of Columbus, 
with the date 1492 inscribed upon its base ; and yet we fear we 
shall approach the year with the scene of his arrival well-nigh 
unmarked, the church incomplete, and the island deprived of 
the only clergyman it has ever had, for the want, not of a 
willing man, but of 150 to maintain him. The Imperial 
Government is about to expend thousands upon a lighthouse at 
Watling s to shed its kindly light upon passing vessels ; two, if 
not three, lightkeepers will be maintained in constant attend 
ance. Ought not the Church, equally with the commercial 
world, to erect her lighthouse where Christ,, the Light of the 
world, may shed His bright beams upon those poor ignorant 
inhabitants whom Columbus s discoveries alone brought to these 
islands, and maintain one spiritual lightkeeper to keep the lamp 
of the faith burning amid the darkness of superstition, ignor 
ance, and sin. Mr. Head tells me that whereas on a previous 
visit of the Bishop to Watling s there was no celebration 
because there were none to communicate, in March this year 
there were no less than fifty-nine who received the Blessed 
Sacrament at his visit. Ought such a work to be abandoned 
for want of a small stipend? 

I might speak of large islands with their hundreds of com 
municants and scholars where there is no clergyman, but space 
forbids. They are, indeed, gladdened when every two or three 
years some kind priest can effect a landing, and impart to them 
the bread of life. I was at a station recently where there had 
been no celebration for five years, and yet all the settlers were 


Churchmen, and thirty were communicants. Until recently 
Watling s Island, referred to above, had had no communion for 
seven years. The Church yacht, The Message of Peace, has been of 
great use in taking Nassau clergymen around some of these 
pastorless islands at times when the Bishop has not required 
her. There need be no limit to the usefulness of this valuable 
ship. I should like to see her always on the move ; of course 
the only obstacle is the expense. Apart from wear and tear, 
captain s yearly salary, and expenses in the cabin, it requires 
nearly 1 a day to provide her with a crew and their rations. 
After a very few short voyages the yacht fund is exhausted, and 
she has to lie useless in the harbour till means can again be 

It is a pleasure to learn that the Easter Communions this 
year have in nearly every parish been largely in excess of pre 
vious years ; and now, with three new priests and two deacons 
within five months, we ought indeed to " thank God and take 

The Bishop of Nassau has sent us some earnest words about 
the case of St. Christopher s, referred to above : 

" Rather more than three years ago I received an anonymous gift of 300 
towards the support of a resident clergyman in the parish of St. Christopher, 
Rum Cay and Watling s Island. Not without some difficulty a gentleman 
was found willing to enter upon the charge, and in 1883 I ordained Mr. 
H. J. Head deacon for the parish of St. Christopher. Mr. Head s stipend 
is made up of 100 per annum, taken from the anonymous gift, and an 
annual grant of 50 made by the Diocesan Council from the Clergy 
Sustentation Fund. The former will be exhausted at the close of the 
present year, and the Clergy Sustentation Fund is taxed to its utmost limit, 
and could not possibly supply the required 100 per annum. Unless, 
therefore, help is forthcoming from other sources, the clergyman must be 
withdrawn, and the Church work in St. Christopher s parish, now, under 
God s blessing, in such a flourishing state, must come to a standstill. 

" Shortly before Mr. Head entered upon the charge, I visited both Rum 
Cay and Watling s Island which were served then by the rector of St. 
Paul s, Long Island, some fifty miles distant, and usually a rough sea to 
be crossed. At that visit I found no candidates for confirmation, no com 
municants, and only about a dozen professing Church people on Watling s ; 
whilst the fabric of the church was in a most deplorable, not to say unsafe, 
condition, for the performance of Divine worship. At Rum. Cay things 

"SStSf 1 ] ST. CHRISTOPHER S. 317 

were only a shade better. Thank God, a great change has taken place, the 
result, no doubt to a great extent, of a resident clergyman s work. At my 
visit to these islands last March I found at Watling s the old church 
had been repaired externally, and greatly improved internally, the 
services heartily rendered, the church crowded with a devout and earnest 
congregation. Forty-six persons were presented for confirmation, whilst I 
administered Holy Communion to fifty-nine. Besides all this, a parsonage- 
house has been built, and I was asked to lay the corner-stone of a new 
church, which is now being erected, slowly, I fear, from want of funds. 
At Rum Cay fifteen persons were confirmed, and thirty-eight received Holy 

" It is saddening to think that all this good work nray be brought to an 
untimely end from lack of funds to provide an income for a resident 

" I appeal, therefore, to all who have the welfare of the Church of 
Christ at heart, and who want to assist in building up the Kingdom of their 
dear Lord, and are blest with the means of helping in this glorious work, to 
come to the rescue and aid us in our difficulty. 

" A select committee was appointed by the Synod in Nassau to consider 
and report upon the prospect and probability of the Rev. H. J. Head, who 
was admitted by me to the priesthood last April, being retained in his 
present office as priest in charge of St. Christopher s. The report of that 
Committee is to the effect that unless some generous individual or Society 
undertake to provide 100, or nearly .100, per annum towards Mr. Head s 
stipend, the parish must be deprived of the services of a resident priest, 
and be content with the chance visit of a neighbouring clergyman, which 
simply means the undoing of the work of the past three years. 

" The case, I think, speaks for itself. I will therefore only add that as I 
am compelled, from circumstances beyond human control, to resign the 
Bishopric of Nassau, I should rejoice, before my connection with the 
diocese is wholly severed, to know that there is a likelihood of the Church s 
work continuing to grow in the parish of St. Christopher, through the 
ministration of a resident clergyman. 

"May God put it into the hearts of some who read this paper to con 
tribute of their substance towards what is indeed an important work, and 
pressing need ! 

"All contributions for this object can be forwarded to my Commissary, 
the Rev. A. Thursby Pelham, Cound Rectory, Shrewsbury, marked * For 
the Stipend of the Clergyman of St. Christopher s, Rum Cay and Watling s 
Island? " 



Y dear Christian Friends, and Boys, Now that the 
distribution of prizes is finished, it devolves upon 
me to say a few words to you. The first part of 
the Report was rather gloomy when it spoke about 
the numbers, which seem to have fallen during this year from 471 
to 442. But there seem to have been serious causes for this 
decrease small-pox, cholera, the increase of fees, and then the 
rise of another institution. I think that this school has 
deserved well of the boys and families in this neighbourhood. 
It has been working steadily on, and this is the twenty-first 
Annual Report that we have heard read this evening, and 1 
am sure there is not a harder working Principal among the 
schools of Vepery or the neighbourhood than the Principal of 
this institution. He has also told us this evening that his 
staff" of Masters have all co-operated with him heartily and 
self-denyingly. I think, therefore, that we may say there are 
great attractions in this school. I hope the boys in future 
will show that they really are attracted to this school; not 
merely that the school is attractive temporarily, but that the 
boys have learned to be attached to it, and that they owe some 
thing to it and are not likely readily to leave it. The parents 
of the boys themselves can judge more or less whether their 
boys are making progress in the school whether they show 
more intelligence whether they are better behaved when they 
come home ; for it is one of the great objects of our Christian 
schools in this land not only to fill the head and improve the 
intellect, but also to impart, as far as they have opportunity, 
better lives and a better character to those who place them 
selves under their instruction. I was very glad to hear so good 
a report of the examination in Scripture subjects. It is very 
creditable indeed to this school and to the Masters. I hope 

i8$. dl ] BISHOP S ADDEESS. 319 

this institution will long continue to put religious instruction in 
its right place. We know that in every Mission school where 
there is any help obtained from Government, there is a strong 
pull in the way of secular education, and it is very hard so to 
keep aloof or to resist in some measure being engrossed in the 
secular education which Government requires, as to give a 
reasonable time to education on Scripture subjects. But every 
Christian-minded Master will feel that it is his duty to try his 
utmost to maintain for the Scripture subject its right place, and 
not allow it to be encroached upon by secular subjects, not even 
when Government examinations are approaching. What is the 
use of our having Christian schools in this land unless we have 
some opportunity of imparting that knowledge which we believe 
to be the very highest and most important of all knowledge 
the way of eternal life which God has revealed to us in His 
Son ? We are persuaded that the knowledge of Christ and of 
His great salvation has power to raise man to raise him from 
a state of degradation to the highest state that he can attain 
here on earth. We maintain that man never has been raised to 
so high a state, morally, religiously, or socially, as Christianity 
has raised those who truly and heartily profess it and follow its 
teachings, and we look forward to Christianity doing for this 
land of India what it has done for other lands. We acknow 
ledge that in the best of Christian lands it has not accomplished 
half the work we desire to see it doing. Multitudes, though 
they hear and know the Gospel, yet remain hardened against it, 
spiritually blind, uninfluenced by its hallowing truths. Still 
that does not shake our confidence in the truth of Christianity ; 
nor our belief in its power to bring out of darkness into light, 
and from under the dominion of evil into the kingdom o f God, 
which is a kingdom of holiness and Christian love and peace. 
I think from what we have heard, we may fairly conclude 
that the results of the examinations which have been 
announced in this Report are highly creditable to this 
school, and such as the Principal and his Assistants may be 
very thankful for. Allusion was made to the expenses, and 
special allusion to the assistance derived from the Madras 
Diocesan Committee of the S.P.G., and the Principal has 


triumphantly and quite justly pointed out how, in the past year, 
the school has been maintained at a lower cost to the Madras 
Diocesan Committee, than for several years past. He probably 
would like the sum to be rather higher, so that he may do more 
for the school, and I should be exceedingly glad of it if a 
larger sum could be given ; but the funds of the Propagation 
Society administered by the Committee here in Madras are not 
sufficient, and it is exceedingly difficult to do all the work that 
these funds are intended to do. In fact it is simply impossible. 
There is a very good work carried on by the Missionaries in the 
districts, and also by the native clergy and by catechists scat 
tered throughout the whole of the diocese of Madras, from 
Secunderabad in the north to Edeyengoody, near Cape Comorin, 
in the south ; and it is surprising how quickly the whole thirteen 
thousand pounds which the Propagation Society generously 
places every year at the disposal of this Committee, is dis 
tributed in various channels over the different districts where 
the Society is working. In some of the districts it puts its 
money in the block grant, in which event there is a District 
Committee for the most part presided over by a Missionary, 
but consisting almost entirely of native clergy and laity, 
and these District Committees manage the financial affairs 
of the several churches and schools in their districts, relieving 
the Diocesan Committee of some labour, but receiving a con 
siderable sum of money. This mode of distributing the 
money I believe to be a very beneficial arrangement for the 
advancement of the native Church, that they may gradually 
learn to depend on themselves more and more for the upkeep 
of their own churches, and in due time to carry out the neces 
sary evangelical work which for generations to come must be 
carried on in this land. For God does not work the conversion 
of a nation, and particularly such a number of nations as India 
is composed of, in a day. Christ has committed the work of 
evangelisation to His people, and His people, under His guid 
ance, and with the help of His Holy Spirit, and with such 
instruments as He provides, carry on the work, step by step, 
each in his own sphere looking for God s blessing and expecting 
that in God s own time the knowledge of the truth shall reach 

*<>%* ] BISHOP S ADDRESS 321 

every town in India, every village, and every househould, and 
every ear shall hear the TV ay of salvation through Jesus Christ. 
Thus, through these various calls upon* the Society s allowance 
which the Committee receives, it is extremely difficult to make 
ends meet, and we therefore look to schools to be in a great 
measure self-supporting. The fees have been increased. The 
Government grant continues, though not so large, but the 
Committee hopes to be burdened as little as possible by the 
large schools that look to it for guidance and help. Sometimes 
a school makes a demand on the Committee which it is very 
reluctant to meet because of the large sum required. At the 
same time it is exceedingly important that none of our Christian 
schools should be abandoned. We look to these schools in 
India as one great means of making known the Gospel of Christ. 
What would it be if there were not these schools in India? 
Education is already spreading. Ah ! yes, there is an earnest 
desire for education throughout India, and the natives of India 
will find education somewhere ; and if we, Christians, are per 
suaded that we have the Word of Life, is it right that we should 
leave the youth of India to be brought up in ignorance of the 
truth, and in the neglect of religious instruction altogether ? It 
would be the greatest neglect of our duty as Christians if we 
allow the children and the young men and the girls and 
young women of India to grow up without making some great 
and strong and well-considered effort to imbue their minds, 
while they are still young, with something better than the 
traditions they have inherited from their forefathers than that 
awful blank of no religion at all which leads to grievous irreli- 
gion and immorality. Shall we not make the very best effort 
we can to impart the knowledge of the truth to them i 
Be thankful for a cheering prospect, and especially that God 
has given to you the heart, the desire to serve Him and 
to make His name known in the sphere in which He has 
placed you, and be sure that where work is undertaken in the 
spirit which some of the closing words of the Report described, 
your work will not be in vain, but God will cause His work to 
prosper in your hand. 

ffoits of % 

"T1TTE would again remind our readers of the time which is 
V V fixed for the Day of Intercession. The Convocations 
of Canterbury and York, with the concurrence of the American 
and Colonial Churches, have fixed the week before or after 
Advent Sunday, with preference for the EYE OF ST. ANDREW S 

This year the day coincides with Advent Sunday. Unanimity 
will be a great means for making the Intercession powerful. 

HONOUR for faithful courage is due to the Rev. Canon 
George McKay, one of the Society s Missionaries in the 
diocese of Saskatchewan. 

The Bishop writes on 26th August : 

"Canon George McKay resigned his Mission soon after the rebellion 
broke out, and joined Major-General Strange s force as chaplain and 
interpreter. I enclose copy of a letter sent to me by the General, in which 
he writes in the highest terms of Canon McKay s loyal, brave, faithful 

The following is the General s letter : 


" I THINK it only my duty to bring to your notice the self-devotion 
and gallantry of a canon of our Church, the Rev. Canon McKay. In the 
first instance he acted as interpreter, and subsequently volunteered for the 
dangerous task of alone seeking Big Bear s camp, with a hope of tracing 
the unfortunate ladies in captivity. He never desisted from his self- 
impoped task, going in advance of our most advanced scouts. He attempted 
to open a parley with a flag of truce, during the action at Loon Lake, 
under a heavy fire. He subsequently penetrated into the Cree camp at 
Lac des Isles, with the hope of rescuing the ladies, who had, however, 
been previously sent in. His loyal gallantry, combined with a modesty 
well becoming his sacred office, have been the admiration of the whole 
force. Such an example among rough soldiers cannot but produce a good 
effect, and reflects additional honour on the clergy of our grand old national 
Church, which contains so many ornaments of heroism of different kinds. 
I beg respectfully to hope that you will not forget the services rendered by 

M oSi,SS dl ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 323 

Canon McKay, and that you will accept mj thanks for the services rendered 
to his Queen and country by the soldier priest. It reflects credit on all 
denominations of Christians, that the clergy of all denominations have 
come forward to render services according to their various capacities, none 
more nobly than a Canon of the Church of England. The Kev. J. 
McDougall, of Morley, Methodist, and the Eev. Father Prevost, Eoman 
Catholic, the Kev. W. Mackenzie, Presbyterian, have none of them shrunk 
from danger or hardship. You as a Bishop, of what we proudly believe to 
be the widest of Churches, will .rejoice with me that the evil of war has 
brought forth qualities not supposed to be so common among ecclesiastics. 
" I have the honour to be, my Lord, 
" Your obedient servant, 


"CAMP, BEAVER RIVER, "Major-Gen. Commanding Alberta 

June 2Uh, 1885." Field Force. 

THE Rev. E. H. Bickersteth, who was compelled last year 
by his medical advisers to give up all idea of returning 
to his work at Delhi, has determined to make another effort to 
resume it, and with that view has resigned the valuable benefice 
of Framlingham, which he has held for less than a year. 

PRESTAN, whose revolt at Colon, or Aspinwall, was so 
graphically described in the June Mission Field, has, we 
hear, been taken, and executed. 

ON Trinity Sunday the Rev. C. P. Cory, B A., who went 
from England last year, was raised to the priesthood by 
the Bishop of Madagascar. 

A LETTER from the Bishop of North Queensland is always 
cheering. Even the conversion of an annual grant of 
200 to 100 but moves him to write in these cordial terms : 

"This diocese lies under siich lasting obligation to the S.P.G., that any 
reduction or withdrawal of the grant ought not to cause feeling other than 
of thankful remembrance of past maintenance. Still I am glad that ,100 
is continued for clerical passage-money. We can now fairly support our 
clergy after they have arrived and settled on their districts. My urgent 
need is more men. The Mission chaplaincy, Normanton, and the Herbert 
River, are now vacant. Other places are coming into importance." 

The Bishop does not give us more detailed information about 
these vacancies. Possibly we may hear more about them 
before long. 



f Mission Field 
L Oct. 1, 1885. 


MR. CHARLES RAIKES, C.S.I., who died at Eastbourne on September 16th, 
was among the best known of the supporters and advocates of the Society. 
On his return from India, some twenty-five years ago, until failing health forbade 
the exertion, he was always ready to place himself at the Society s disposal as an 
advocate of its claims and a witness of the work which it has been allowed to 
accomplish. His modest but evident piety and high spiritual tone gave to his 
addresses an uncommon value, and it were well for the Church both in England 
and in India, if more laymen, possessing similar experience, would tell to people 
at home the needs, the difficulties, and the hopes of Christian Missions in India. 


Reports have been received from the Rev. H. C. Carlyon, Tara Chand and T. Williams of the 
Diocese of Lahore ; A. Salmon of Rangoon; F. D. Eclresinghe, F. Mendis, G. H. Pinchin, 
C. Senanayake and A. Vethecan of Colombo; S. W. Cox and W. H. Tnrpin of Grahamstown ; 
A. G. S. Gibson of St. John s ; J. Jackson and S. M. Samuelson of Zululand; D. G. Croghan, 
G. Mitchell and J. Widdicombe of Bloemfontein ; H. Adams, F. Bowling, J. P. Richardson, 
A. Roberts, H. Sadler arid C. P. Wood of Pretoria ; J. Coles and G. H. Smith of Madagascar ; 
R. J. French of Mauritius; H. H. Browne of Auckland; A. Osborne of Algoma, and C. G. 
Curtis, Missionary at Constantinople. 

Storittg s Jfuarira fax 1885. 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January August, 1885. 


Donations, and 


Rents, &c. 





















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of August in jive consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-| 
tions / 
























NOVEMBER 2, 1885. 



RETHREN, beloved in the Lord : 

As it is just a year since, in the Providence of 
God, I was called to the oversight of this diocese, 
I think that the time has arrived for me to place 
before you in a manner that shall reach a larger number than 
are reached by an Address at the Synod, some information 
concerning the present position of the work of the Church in 
the diocese, its prospects, and its wants. 

I feel, and I trust I am only in this interpreting the feelings 
of many others, indeed of all who have at heart a real desire for 
the welfare of our Church, that every member should take an 
interest not only in the congregation or parish in which he 
happens to be placed, but as far as possible in the whole body. 
The Church, indeed, will never prosper as it ought until this is 
the case. We want, above all, more union and brotherly love 
and wider sympathies. We want to realise more profoundly 
that the diocese, and not the congregation, is the unit of the 
Church s Divine system. Through the diocese we are united 



MiBBion Field, 

with the whole body of the Church Universal throughout the 
world. The advantages of having such a large field of unity 
are many. Chiefly it enables the strong to help the weak, and 
the rich the poor, as members of one Body in which if one 
portion suffers all suffer with it. It also, however, enables 

those who from some cause or another may be in adversity to 
rejoice as they look beyond their own small circle, and hear of 
the prosperity that has been vouchsafed to the Church in 
other parts, and in which they feel that they, as members of 
the same Body, are privileged to have a share. 

Mission Field, 
Nov. 2, 1885. , 



It is good for us, therefore, to know what is going on among 
our brethren. It helps us to take an interest in the general 
work ; it encourages us in the task that lies more immediately 
about our own path ; it stirs us up to godly emulation. 

It is with this purpose, and with the earnest hope that it may 
be thus blessed by God, to the awakening of a more active 

L * 

interest in the work of our Church amongst its members, that I 
have determined to address to you this Pastoral. 

Let us first see how God has blessed our work. This time 
last year there were in this diocese, which, as most of you know, 

z 2 


is coterminous with the district of Assiniboia (450 miles in 
length by 200 miles in width), three priegts and one deacon. 
There are now, besides myself, nine priests and three deacons, 
and another priest and a layman (the latter to take charge 
of an Indian school) are on their way out from England. 

Of buildings there were, at the same time, two school-rooms 
used as churches, and two parsonages. There are now, besides 
the above, two duly consecrated churches and one portion of a 
church sufficient for the present requirements of the place in 
which it is situated, and two more houses for the clergy. Five 
more churches are already in progress and will be finished, 
I trust, before the end of the summer. 

The clergy are situated at Moosomin, Fort Pelly (Indian 
school and Mission), Kinbrae (for York and Montreal colonies, 
and all the country north of the Qu Appelle), Grenfell, 
Qu Appelle, the Fort, Regina, Moosejaw, and Medicine Hat. 
The priest who is coming from England will be stationed at 
Moose Mountains, where a log church has been built and 
consecrated, and will have charge of the whole country south 
of the little Pipestone to the frontier (about seventy miles). 

For all this increase we must offer our most earnest and 
heartfelt thanksgiving to God. To Him alone be all the 
glory. Under Him we are chiefly indebted for the possibility 
of this work being done to the very great liberality of the 
help that we have received from England. 

I was enabled while in England during the winter of 1883-4 
to collect about 2,500, and about 400 in subscriptions for 
five years. Of this capital sum, 1,450 was paid over to the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 
That Society voted 1,000 for the endowment of the Bishopric, 
to be paid in proportional instalments towards an endowment 
of 10,000, and it also promised 400 a year for the 
income of the Bishop till the endowment has been completed. 
This income, as I stated in my Charge to the Synod last year, 
" 1 regard as simply so much added by the Society to the 
common fund, out of which all expenses of the Church work 
in this diocese are to be paid, at least till the increase of the 
wealth in the diocese renders voluntary work on the part of 


the clergy unnecessary that is, till the diocese does not 
require help from England." 

As I then also stated, the clergy and laymen who came out 
with me, and those who have joined the work since, "have come 
without stipends, receiving only out of the common fund what 
is necessary for their maintenance and for carrying on the 

The S.P.G. also voted 800 for the maintenance of the 
clergy to the end of 1885. 

The same Society also voted 500 for the erection of 
buildings in the diocese, and the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge has given a similar grant of 500 for 

The S.P.G. has also since given 132 14s. 7d. out of a 
special fund for work among the Indians. 

The Colonial Bishoprics Fund, and the S.P.C.K. both also 
voted 2,000 towards the endowment of the See. These 
grants, however, will lapse at the end of 1889 if the further 
sum of 5,000 needed to make up the endowment to 10,000 
is not secured by that time. They, like the S.P.G. grant, are 
given in proportional instalments to meet any sums that are 

Upwards of 3,000 have been subscribed, chiefly in the last 
four months, and by two most munificent donors of 1,000 and 
1,500 (the latter anonymous, given in the offertory at St. 
Paul s Cathedral, on St. John Baptist s Day) for the Church 
Farm, which is to be a temporary home and place of instruction 
in agriculture for young men coming out to settle, and also a 
college for the preparation of candidates for Holy Orders. 

We have also received, in the last twelve months, $980 from 
the Church in Eastern Canada. 

The grants for buildings from the Societies in England are 
distributed by the Executive Committee of the Synod, one- 
fifth of the cost price of building churches or parsonages, up 
to f 1,000, being given as a grant, and one-fifth in addition, if 
needed, as a loan. 

The Synod has met twice during these twelve months, and at 
the last Session in June passed a Constitution and Canons for 


the government of the diocese. A copy of this Constitution, 
&c., can be obtained by any member of the Church desiring 
one, from the Rev. H. H. Smith, Regina. 

An Act has also been passed by the Dominion Parliament 
incorporating the Synod, and thereby enabling it to hold 

So much for the past. We have much reason to thank God, 
and to take courage. "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us! 

We must now look on to the future. 

A great amount has been done for us. We must now very 
earnestly try what we can do to obtain a larger measure of 
self-support among ourselves. For the first year, and in 
planting the work, I had no hesitation in trusting almost 
entirely for support to England, but now that this has been 
done so generously for us we must endeavour to devise some 
method whereby we may at least gradually take the respon 
sibility of the support of the work on ourselves. 

Let me again repeat what I said at the Synod last year, that 
" moral wrong is done l>y any one, who depends on the charity of 
others, even in spiritual matters, more than is absolutely 

We must remember that many of those who support our 
Missionary Societies in England, such as the S.P.G., from 
which we receive such large grants, and many of those who are 
contributing to our own Special Fund, do so for the love of 
Christ and of the work, at very great self-sacrifice to them 
selves, and out of very slender means. It is not only the rich 
who contribute out of their abundance, but many of the 
poorest (and we boast that we have no really poor here) give 
out of their poverty. Since I have been here I have heard of 
more than one instance of very special self-denial in aid of our 
work of a servant girl who gave the one bit of jewellery that 
she possessed that it might be sold, and the proceeds given to 
our fund, and of a governess who when scarcely able, through 
ill-health, to continue at her laborious work, was sustained and 
encouraged, as she said, by the thought of the "box" in which 
part of the proceeds of her work was to be placed. These are 
but samples of what many are doing to help the work of Christ 

Mission Field/ 
. Nov. 2, 1885. . 



in such countries as ours. We may well thank God for such 
evidences of zeal and devotion, as they must bring down a 
blessing on the work that is thus helped. But they bring 
with them also a terrible responsibility to those who are the 
recipients of such help. If people for whose sake this is done 

depend upon it too much, must it not amount, in the sight of 
God, to "defrauding the poor" ? I speak strongly, for I feel 
strongly in this matter. 

The Mother Church has undoubtedly a responsibility towards 
those children of hers who go forth to seek their fortunes in 


countries where as yet there is no provision for the maintenance 
of the Ordinances of religion, but those children have as great 
a responsibility to do what they can to provide for themselves 
in spiritual things as in temporal, and it is very easy for them, 
especially when they have been trained in a home where all 
the means of grace have been freely provided for them by the 
piety of former generations, to shift their share of that 
responsibility unduly on that mother. And the longer people 
accustom themselves to a state of dependence, the more surely 
will the habit grow. Its evil effects have been seen in some of 
our older colonies. While, therefore, I know that from the 
youth of the settlements in this district, and from the very wide 
area over which many of our people, who ought to be ministered 
to, are scattered, it is impossible that we should be anything 
like self-supporting at present, nor would the Church in 
England expect it for some time, we ought, I think, to begin at 
once, and adopt some method which will ensure as far as possible 
an increasing measure of self-support with the increase of 
population and prosperity in the country, and, above all, en 
courage the habit of giving as a necessary part of our religious 

Every member of our Church should give a DEFINITE PAET 
of his or her income. Even children should be taught this 
great principle of giving to God out of what is given to them 
for their amusement or their private use, as a privilege and a 
pleasure. And as we look to God s Word for guidance we find 
that He required a tenth of their income from His people, the 
children of Israel. Christians who are not under the law, but 
under grace, should have a higher standard for the measure of 
their gifts to God rather than a lower. They should certainly 
not be content with less. If every member of our Church, 
then, made even this the standard of his dues to God s service, 
at once, the resources of the Church would grow, as they ought 
to grow, with the wealth of the country. Many have thus 
tithed their income, and they have found that they were able to 
give far more than they thought before they could afford, and, 
moreover, they have found also that God wonderfully blesses 
such systematic regular giving. I heard lately of a merchant 


who began this principle when he had only a few hundred 
dollars to tithe. His tithe is now many thousands, but he goes 
on paying it as regularly as when he began with the few dollars. 
He has seen no cause to regret the principle on which he began. 
When we accustom ourselves to reckon one-tenth of our income 
as God s own, not ours, we do not feel the loss of it. It is 
as though we never possessed it. And yet it is voluntarily given 
to the Lord, and what we lend to Him is in the safest treasury. 

Who will begin ? 

The clergyman of each district will be ready and glad to 
receive the names of any persons who may desire to enrol their 
names as tithe-givers. A definite promise made to some one 
else sometimes helps to give permanence to good resolutions. 

But whether you resolve, my brethren, to give this proportion 
of your income or not some definite proportion every one must 
devote, who would give "according as God has prospered him" 
realise, I earnestly ask you, the great need there is for your 
utmost liberality if the Church is to be what she ought to be 
in the future of this country, and resolve that, as far as you are 
each able, the Church of this diocese shall be known as one 
that is jealous for the honour of being, as far as possible, self- 

Already we need two or three more clergy, but it is im 
possible to obtain them until more is done in the districts at 
present served by clergy for their maintenance. 

The wide area over which people are scattered in this country 
makes organisation somewhat difficult, but still some kind of 
organisation is absolutely necessary if success, especially in 
financial matters, is to be obtained. I venture, therefore, to 
suggest the following scheme : 

1. That in every place or district where services are regularly 
held, a Finance Committee should be elected. This Committee 
might be the churchwardens and vestrymen, or it might be 
specially elected. 

2. That it should be the duty of the members of such Com 
mittee to canvass all persons who avail themselves of the 
services of the Church, and obtain from them promises of sub 
scriptions, quarterly or monthly, which the members to whom 

334 DIOCESE OF QU APPELLE. [ M Ko? n 2 .!?i d> 

they are promised should also collect. One of the members of 
the Committee should be elected treasurer, and to him the 
collectors should regularly forward the list of subscribers and 
the amount collected. 

This is already partially done in some places. It should be 
done everywhere. 

N.B. As it is well that all offerings to God should be visibly 
and solemnly presented to Him, it would be well if these sub 
scriptions, when received, were presented by the treasurer 
through the offertory at the time of Divine service, but care 
should be taken that they be distinguished from the other 

3. One half of the funds thus collected should be paid 
quarterly to the Diocesan Fund, and the other half retained 
towards the expenses of the clergyman in the district in which 
it is collected. The ordinary offertory would be for the ex 
penses of the services, or any special purpose for which notice 
would be given. 

KB. The Diocesan Fund will be managed by the Executive 
Committee of the Synod, which will also have the disposal of 
the sums granted by the English Societies. And a statement 
will be published after the annual meeting of the Synod of the 
amounts thus received made up to the previous Easter. It 
must be remembered that in all cases at present, and probably 
for some time, the Diocesan Fund will have to pay back to 
the district much more than the half of the subscriptions it 
will thus receive, but this apportionment will help to keep alive 
a sense of the unity of the diocese, of the importance of which 
I spoke at the beginning, and in course of time the richer 
places would largely help the poorer. 

The following facts may help to a more clear understanding 
of the amount needed in any district : 

1. A clergyman in this country, who must keep a horse to 
get from one station to another, and to visit people in the 
neighbourhood as he ought to do, can scarcely be expected to 
live on less than $1,000 a year. 

2. This, supposing he holds two services every Sunday, 
means a necessary expenditure of about $10 for each such 


service, besides any incidental expenses that there may be in 
connection with the service. 

3. From the above, each place can easily calculate what its 
share in the general expenditure comes to, according to the 
number of services given to it, and therefore how much out of 
that it will contribute, and for how much it will be indebted to 

I am convinced that there are many who do not give as much 
as they otherwise would, because they do not as yet realise 
the need. It is for this reason that I have tried to put the 
expenditure before you in as plain a manner as possible. 

There is one other matter about which I desire to say a few 

An association for union in prayer and work with the Church 
in this diocese has been formed in England. The rules of the 
association are : 

1. To make intercession by using the prayer of the association 
at least once a week ; and by commending the work to God, 
from time to time, in Holy Communion. 

2. To give help by some gift or labour of love, and advance 
the Church s work in this district, as opportunity offers, and 
other just claims admit. 

I am sure we ought to be deeply thankful to know that there 
are over 500 who have enrolled themselves in this association, 
and whose prayers, therefore, are week by week ascending to 
the Throne on our behalf. A work thus upborne by the inter 
cessions of faithful souls must be blessed of God. There can 
be no greater comfort and help than to know that we have such 

Do you, however, yourselves, my brethren, intercede for the 
work that is being done amongst you, as earnestly and as 
definitely as you might do ? 

Some of you may remember that the first message I delivered 
to you was this : " Ye that make mention of the Lord, keep not 
silence, and give Him no rest, till He establish, and till He make 
Jerusalem a praise in the earth." My first request to you was 
that you should make the welfare of your Church a special and 
definite subject in your prayers. 


Perhaps it may help some of you in this if we had an asso 
ciation for special intercessory prayer in this diocese, and used 
the same prayer that is said in England. I have, therefore, had 
that prayer reprinted as adapted to our use, and any of the 
clergy will be glad to give a copy, and to enrol as an associate 
any one who will promise to use it. I think people here ought 
to promise to use it at least three times a week. 

And now, brethren, beloved in the Lord, I commend you to 
God, and to the power of His grace. May He stablish, 
strengthen, settle you, and make you to be given to every good 
word and work, so that when the Lord shall return He may 
find in you a people bringing forth much fruit to the honour 
and glory of His Holy Name. 

Your servant for Christ s sake, 


Bishop of Qu Appelle. 
Feast of 8. James Ap. <D M., 1885. 



FTER leaving Kodaikanab on the Pulney Hills on the llth 
July, with Mrs. Caldwell, we. stayed two days in Madura 
on our way to Ramnad. On the 13th we went to see 
Mr. Perianaygam, the native clergyman of Madura, who 
was suffering from paralysis, and seemed very near his end. 
We had known him from his boyhood, and we were glad to find that his 
quiet, peaceful, useful life was so highly appreciated by every one. 1 

The transit journey from Madura to Parambugucli was the roughest and 
most trying we have ever made, but expecting something of the kind, we 
had arranged to spend the 15th quietly at Parambugudi. Parambugudi is 
one of the five districts into which the Ramnad Mission is divided. We 
had various opportunities for conversation with the European Missionaries 
whom we met there, also with Mr. Gnanapragasam, the native clergyman 
of the circle, and Mr. Joseph Gnanaolivoo of Ramnad, whom I had asked 
to act as my native chaplain during my tour. My only public duty was 
to visit in the evening the new church which Mr. Relton has commenced 
to build in this place out of funds provided by an anonymous lady in 
England. Funds have thus been contributed for the erection of three good 
churches in the Ramnad Mission. This one has made the least progress 
of the three, owing to its having been so recently commenced. It will be 
a handsome church when completed, and will be more visible to Europeans 
than the other two. Mr. Gnanapragasam, the clergyman of the place, is 
a brother of Mr. Samuel of Tuticorin, and Mr. Pakyam of Radapuram. 

On the 16th my work commenced with a brief Tamil service outside the 
travellers bungalow, for the Christians of the neighbourhood, when I 
preached to them from the twenty-third Psalm. Present, men 65, women 
61, children 82 ; in all 208. This was followed by a meeting of the agents 
and native clergy, the Missionaries being present. Five agents were 
present, each of whom was asked questions concerning his work and its 
results. On this occasion, and on all similar occasions, I made special 
inquiries about the progress of Christian piety amongst the members of 
the congregations and the progress of the work of evangelisation. If in 
any case the answers I received seemed unsatisfactory, this gave me an 
opportunity of explaining to them what seemed to me to be defective. 

In the evening I delivered a lecture to the educated Hindus of the 
place. Not expecting so many English-speaking natives to be present, I 

[ x Mr. Periaraygam died on August 14th.] 

338 RAMNAD MISSION. [ l g ? l S d 

gave my lecture in Tamil, but I was surprised to find 97 educated Hindus 
present connected with the district munsifFs court, the sub -magistrate s 
cutchery, &c. Others present, 175 ; in all 272. Subject, " Indian Unity, 
how it may best be promoted : Political Unity exists ; the grand desi 
deratum now is Religious Unity." 

17th. Went early in the morning to a place called Pogalur, some ten 
miles from Eamnad, where we were to spend the heat of the day in a tent, 
and go on to Ramnad in the evening. Towards the evening we entered 
Ramnad, where there was a brief thanksgiving service in church. Present, 
102, 93, 217 = 412. This was followed by a torchlight procession through 
the town, with music and native lyrics, preceded by the palace elephant, 
one of the largest of its kind I have seen. 

18th. Received visits, conversed with a relapsed Brahman convert, 
baptized in Palamcottah. 

19th, Sunday, Forenoon. Confirmation in Christ Church, Ramnad. 
Confirmed, men 82, women 55 ; Europeans, men 2, women 1 ; in all 140. 
General congregation, 206, 158, 161 = 525. Confirmed from the boarding- 
school, boys 44, girls 24. Number of girls in school smaller than that of 
boys. People from Parambugudi confirmed, men 19, women 14. First 
address, " Confirmation considered as enlistment in Christ s army ; " second 
address, " Means for preservation of grace received." 

Evening. English service. Preached from S. John i. 6, " The Christianas 

20th, Forenoon. Examination of boarding-schools in religious know 
ledge. These schools are under a head master, with seven assistant 
masters, two mistresses, and a matron. Pupils, boys 123, girls 67 ; in all 
190. Six standards : examined the two middle standards, the fourth, and 
third, regarding these standards as fair specimens of the teaching of the 
schools in general. Took the third standard in the call of Abraham, the 
fourth in the latter half of St. Luke. Both classes did well, especially the 
fourth. Memoriter lessons good. 

Afternoon. Meeting with masters and mistresses. Present, 7 masters, 
1 absent, and 3 mistresses, including matron. Spoke to them from the 
nineteenth Psalm, dwelling especially on "the testimony of the Lord 
making w^ise the simple," with illustrations. 

Evening. Dedication of the Cemetery. A legal consecration of the 
Cemetery was impossible. All that could be done was to sing some 
appropriate Psalms in procession round the Cemetery, with the reading 
of some appropriate Collects. Present, 47, 25, 63 = 135. 

21st. Centenary of the S.P.G. High School in Ramnad. This school 
was founded by Schwartz and Mr. Sulivan, Resident of Tanjore in 1785. 
The head master of the school is S. A. Shutie, Esq., B.A., with three 
assistants, one of whom is a European. There is also a Tamil moonshi and 
gymnastic instructor. An interesting history of the school, prepared by 
Mr. Relton, was read by him at the centenary meeting. After this Mr. 
Shutie read the report for the year. An address in the vernacular on 
the history of the school was then given by the son-in-law of the late 


zemindar. The minors, who are being educated _in Madras, were not 
present. In consequence of the centenary meeting I had not an oppor 
tunity of examining the school in religious knowledge. The numbers 
present were, Europeans 28, educated natives 136, other natives 280, 
school boys, including high school and boarding-schools, and also the 
Latham Road school, 180. To the same audience I delivered a lecture in 
English, the subject the same as that of my Tamil lecture at Parambugudi, 
but more fully worked out. 

22nd. Visited the various buildings in the Mission compound. The 
best of these were the printing-press and the girls boarding-school. These, 
together with the Mission bungalow, were the only buildings that had 
not suffered from the rains and floods of the cyclone of October 1884. 
The rest of the buildings, though commodious, seemed very frail, and will 
soon have to be rebuilt. The whole country around lies very low, being 
little raised above the sea, and is therefore peculiarly liable to suffer from 
the effect of floods. 

Visits from leading members of the Eamnad native congregation, 
headed by the Christian Tahsildar of the town of Eamnad. They were 
interested in the sustentation of the Mission and the establishment of 
endowment funds, but were too anxious, as it appeared to me, to get aid 
from without. I had also a visit from a native convert with a peculiar 
history. In the evening called on various persons in the town. 

23rd. Meeting with the agents of the Eamnad town district, including 
certain villages in the neighbourhood. This district is under the care of 
the Eev. Joseph Gnanaolivoo. The Eev. G. Paranjodi works in the same 
district under the special supervision of Mr. Eelton. The agents present 
were 1 M.D.C. catechist, 4 ordinary catechists, 3 mixed agents, 3 masters, 
3 mistresses, 2 bible-women. As on all similar occasions, I questioned 
each and all respecting their work and their estimate of the progress of 
Christian piety amongst their people, also respecting the progress of 
evangelistic work. Eesults seemed satisfactory. 

Evening. A visit was made by Mrs. Caldwell to the Hindu girls 
school ; 38 Hindu and 2 Christian children present. The mistress has 
seen good results from the school, especially amongst the parents. Mrs. 
Caldwell visited also the two ranis in the palace. 

24th, DEVIPATAM. Arrived in this place in the morning from Eamnad. 
The congregation here and the district owe much to the kindness and zeal 
of J. G. Eiedy, Esq., emigration agent, who has enlarged and almost rebuilt 
the Mission church in the place. It is very nicely finished, and may be 
taken as a model of an Indian village church. We have also much reason 
to thank Mr. Eiedy for his hospitality, and for the arrangements he so 
kindly made for enabling us to get to Paumban and back again to this 
place by an emigrant ship, thereby saving us from a long tedious land 
journey to the point of land opposite Paumban. The church was, on this 
occasion, formally opened or dedicated to divine worship by the use of 
some of the appointed prayers. I preached on this occasion from 1 Cor. 
iii. 14. Present, 27, 30, 25 = 82, of whom 8 were Europeans. 


25th, PAUMBAN. Arrived in Paumban in the morning, where we were 
hospitably entertained during our stay by Captain James, master-attendant, 
and Mrs. James. Congratulatory meeting in schoolroom, nearly 200 
persons present, including non-Christians. Confirmation on Sunday the 
26th at 9 A.M. Confirmed, males 10, females 11 = 21. This number 
includes one European man. First address, " Recapitulation of Baptismal 
Vows ; " second address as usual. General congregation, in all 102. 
Evening service in English, with sermon. Europeans 7, natives 7. 

27th. Morning. Meeting with agents : present, Rev. A. Vedakan, cate- 
chist, 1 schoolmaster, 3 Christians and 3 Hindus, 2 schoolmistresses, 1 
absent. Asked the usual questions, answers on the whole satisfactory. 

Afternoon. Examination of schools, including Anglo- Vernacular school 
and Primary school. Children in school 73. Christian lessons are taught 
in all classes, answering good. Masters say that some of the children evince 
good feelings. Lecture in the evening in English ; subject same as before, 
but abbreviated. Present, educated natives 60, school children 25. Left 
Paumban for Devipatam, ? as ;before in Mr. Riedy s emigrant ship, on the 
afternoon of the 28th, reached Devipatam the same night, and arrived at 
Rajasingamangalam on the night of the 29th. 

Rajasingamangalam district, including Varagani and Kilanjunai. Rev. 
Joseph Gnanaolivoo is in spiritual charge of these districts, in addition to 
the charge of the home district of Ramnad, assisted at Kilanjunai by the 
newly ordained deacon, the Rev. Samuel Vedamuttu. 

30th. Morning. Inspection of dispensary ; quite satisfied with what I 


Forenoon. Examination of primary school. Four standards besides 
preparatory class. Present 30, of whom 12 were Hindus and 18 Moham 
medans. The chief inhabitants of the place are Mohammedans. Scripture 
lessons the same for all four standards. Asked questions about the history 
of Christ. The lowest class were asked questions about God and His 
providential care. Answering very good. One boy, a Mohammedan, the 
oldest in the school, reads the Bible regularly at home, as also does his 
father. They read it in Tamil, which they called "the Cooly language, 
that being the name by which it was called in the West Indies, where they 
had been for many years. I was informed that both father and son would 
willingly become Christians were it not for their relations. 

Visits of agents and people of both the districts of Rajasingamangalam 
and Varagani, including Karanjunai. At my request some of the principal 
members of the congregation were present whilst I asked the agents about 
their work Present, Mr. Joseph Gnanaolivoo, Mr. Samuel Vedamuttu, 
together with 1 M.D.C. catechist, also 7 catechists and 2 schoolmasters 
belonging to the Rajasingamangalam districts, with 6 head men from six 
villages. In questioning the agents of these districts, as of all others, 
respecting the number of people in their respective villages who appeared 
to them to be sincerely pious and devout, I always asked them on what 
grounds they founded their estimates. The reasons they assigned were 
generally more or less satisfactory, and where in any case they seemed to 


be unsatisfactory, this gave me an opportunity of explaining to them in 
what particulars their estimate was defective, and this I hoped would have 
a reflex influence for good on the agents themselves. Generally speaking, 
voluntary evangelistic work among men seemed at a very low ebb, and this 
kind of work by women for women seemed still to be in abeyance 

31st. Confirmation of candidates from both districts ; males 23, females 
23 = 46. This number included 4, 14 = 18, from Eajasingamangalam 
district, and 19, 9 = 28, from Varagani. General congregation, including 
the confirmed, 42, 47, 36 = 125. First address, " The Confirmed are to be 
witnesses for Christ, His love, His salvation, His spiritual gifts ; " second 
address as usual. 

1st. Aug. Evening. Went to Kalanjunai. Interview with the principal 
people of the place, viz., 100 Christians and 50 non- Christians. All in 
great distress through the failure of their crops, in consequence of the 
destruction caused by the great cyclone in October 1884. Full of anxiety 
also on account of the failure of rain up to that time, though in expectation 
of rain they had sowed their fields ten days before. Exhorted them to 
prove to their heathen neighbours the value of their religion by their 
patience and faith during this trial. 

2nd, Sunday. Early celebration of Holy Communion in temporary 
church, communicants 52. After this inspected the new church which is 
being here erected by funds raised, as I understand, by Bishop Wilkinson. 
The walls are up, and everything is ready for the roof to be put on when 
the materials arrive. This will be a very fine church when completed ; the 
most handsome, I think, of the three new ones. The church which it 
replaces was built of sun-baked bricks, and was swept away by the cyclone, 
but this one is of burnt bricks. Much delay has been caused by the 
difficulty experienced hitherto in getting roofing materials from the western 

It had been arranged that in the afternoon there should be a great open 
air service in an open space in the centre of the village, and great numbers 
of people were expected to be present, but this was prevented by an 
occurrence which was a great relief to the minds of the people in the place 
and neighbourhood. This was a sudden extremely heavy downpour of 
rain, which flooded every street, and rendered it quite impossible for 
people to sit or even to stand. I need not say that the poor people were 
most thankful to find that God had not left Himself without a witness in 
sending rain from heaven, and so assuring them that their hearts would be 
filled with food and gladness. Returned to Ramnad that night. 

4th, RAMNAD. Evening service in Tamil in the town church, with 
a sermon from St. Matt, v., 14 16 ; subject, the different kinds of lights 
and the causes of their difference. 82, 74, 113 = 269. 

5th. Visit in the afternoon to a place called Atyatchapuram (Bishop- 
town), where the people, though belonging to a poor class, have made a 
nice village for themselves amongst the palmyras, vying with the neatest 
village in Tinnevelly, and have also erected a nice little church. I 



preached to tliem from St. Luke xiv., 32, " Fear not, little flock." Present, 
32, 29, 34 = 95. Went on the same night by the sandiest of all sandy roads 
to Kilakarai, which we did not reach without great difficulty till nearly 
eleven o clock, after which only we had any dinner. 

KILAKARA.I. Arrived at this place from Atyatchapuram on the night of 
August 5th. Met by about 700 people, many of them Mohammedans, 
headed by Mr. Masilamani, the native customs officer, a son of a late 
native clergyman, who was very useful to us in various ways. This 
district is in spiritual things under Mr. Vickers, as far as is consistent 
with his being only in deacon s orders. It is the special sphere of Mr. 
Gnanayutham s labours. The tent was pitched in a very umbrageous tope. 
The only disadvantage was that the roads and streets were so sandy that it 
took twenty minutes to get from the tent to the church. 

6th. Examination on religious knowledge of a recently established 
school. Present, 24 out of 35. All four standards had been taught the 
same scripture lessons, viz., the first nine chapters of Genesis. Answering 
very good. 

Visit of agents and people, address and reply. Present 135. 

7th. Confirmation at 9 a.m. ; confirmed males 19, females 20 = 39. 

First Address, " The Holy Spirit s descent like rain ; " second Address as 
usual. General congregation, including the confirmed, 48, 52, 25=125. 
Some candidates had been prevented from being present by causes beyond 
control. I determined therefore to hold a special confirmation for them in 
the evening. On this second occasion confirmed males 14, females 2 = 16. 

Brief special addresses. 

The services were held this day for the first time in the new church 
which is being erected in this place. It is one of the three good churches 
worthy of the name, which are being erected in three different districts in 
the Ramnad Mission. Of the three, this church is the nearest completion. 
It is ready for the roof to be put on, and a temporary screen of leaves over 
the open roof rendered it possible to hold the Confirmation and other services 
in it. The native customs officer was the largest local donor, but I under 
stood that the largest amount of the sum raised had been from funds 
supplied by the Rev. S. J. Eales, late Warden of the Missionary College at 
Warminster. Some delay has been caused by the non-arrival of some roofing 

8th. Meeting of agents. Present, Rev. P. Gnanayutham, Mr. Sadanandam, 
M.D.C. catechist, catechists 8 (1 absent), 3 mixed agents (1 absent), 3 masters, 
1 mistress absent. Present in all 17. Congregations in 33 villages. 

Inquired into the work of each person, whether school work or congre 
gational, with special reference, as elsewhere, to the development of signs 
of Christian piety, and the progress of evangelistic work ; finished by an 
Address on the necessity of waiting patiently for God s time of granting 
visible fruits. A good deal of evangelistic work seemed to be doing 
in this district by the people themselves. Saw with pleasure amongst the 
agents two men whom I had met every time I visited the neighbourhood. 
No women as yet have volunteered to do evangelistic work. 

M No s v! 2 n i F 88 e 5 dl ] MEETING OF THE NATIVE CLERGY. 343 

Evening. Attended church and heard Mr. Vickers read prayers and 
preach in Tamil. 

9th, Sunday. Morning. Sermon by Mr. Gnanayutham. 

10th, K AD ALADL Arrived here in the morning on our way to Nagala- 
puram, spent the day in the tent. Afternoon. Received a deputation of 
people belonging to congregations in the neighbourhood ; 42 persons had 
come from 5 places. This was an interesting close to the work of our 
Ramnad tour. 

various portions of the Mission and made such local inquiries as I could, I 
thought it desirable to assemble all the clergy for a general conference in 
Ramnad. Six present, together with 2 European Missionaries. 

They all agreed in believing that since my first visit to the district, eight 
years ago, and especially since my visit in 1880, five years ago, there had 
been a decided improvement in the general condition of things in the 
district. In one particular only an exception had to be made. There had 
been a falling off in numbers some years ago in some parts of the district, 
especially amongst people who had once been Roman Catholics, but with 
that exception everything appeared to have made satisfactory progress. 
Education, discipline, organization, the number of the communicants, in 
all these particulars progress was apparent, and I could myself testify to the 
reality of this progress from what I observed in my visits to the various 
pastorates. The boarding schools had made much progress. A printing 
press had been instituted and was in full activity ; also an industrial 
school. I endeavoured to ascertain by inquiry of every native clergyman 
and every catechist whether he was endeavouring to impress his people 
with the necessity for real spiritual religion, and was generally quite 
satisfied with the answers I received. They were able to assure me that an 
encouraging, if not a large, proportion of the Christians under their care 
appeared to them to be Christians indeed. I was also anxious to ascertain 
what was being done for the organization of voluntary evangelistic work 
amongst the people of the various congregations. The amount of work 
done in this way by the people themselves seemed certainly very small, but 
I earnestly recommended all, both clergy and agents, to set themselves to 
the removal of this defect in future by stirring up their people to every 
kind of Christian work. The native clergy and agents seemed to devote 
themselves very steadily to this work, setting apart one day every week to 
evangelization, and taking with them where they found it possible, some 
people belonging to the congregations to teach them to take a personal 
interest in this work, and how to carry it on. I was especially anxious to 
see this work making progress in the various congregations, because I felt 
convinced that if the people generally came to be content with being 
Christians themselves without any effort to spread Christianity amongst 
their neighbours, they would be very apt to sink into a state of spiritual 
indifference, or even in time to allow themselves one by one to be 
swallowed up in the heathenism by which they continued to be 

A A 2 


I cannot conclude without expressing my satisfaction with what I saw of 
the work of the native clergy in general. I found six employed in various 
departments of work in different portions of the Mission, all working 
usefully in their spheres, according to their opportunities and abilities. 
There are two, however, who seemed to me to deserve a separate mention. 
One of these is Mr. Gnanayutham of Kilakarai, one of the most indefatig 
able Mission workers I have met with ; the other is Mr. Joseph Gnanaolivoo 
of Ramnad, one of the ablest native clergymen in the country, and as 
judicious as he is able. I was very much obliged to him for kindly acting 
as my native chaplain throughout my tour, except at Paumban. 

I was glad to meet two European Missionaries, 1 Mr. Relton and Mr. 
Vickers, each of whom enabled me to combine, in a peculiarly pleasant 
way, the present with the past. Mr. A. Brotherton Vickers is a grandson 
of the late Mr. Brotherton, one of the oldest and worthiest of my Indian 
friends. He is at present only in deacon s orders, and acts as assistant to 
Mr. Relton, but judging from the lively interest he takes in every person 
and thing around him, I have no doubt that he will become in time a very 
useful Missionary. I was especially glad to meet in Mr. Relton, the 
Missionary in charge, the son of an old and highly valued English friend, 
the vicar of Baling, the earnest and devoted son of an earnest and devoted 
father. The more I saw of his work the more highly I appreciated it. We 
were also much indebted to him for the kindness and considerateness with 
which he arranged our various journeys and provided in every way that 
was possible for our comfort. 

When I last visited Ramnad five years ago, it was my impression that 
that would prove to be my last visit ; but now, five years later, and when 
five years older, I have been permitted to visit this interesting and 
important field of labour again. Considering the degree in which I have 
suffered in health in various ways, most of the time that has elapsed since 
I returned to India, the strength with which I have been favoured through - 
o ut this tour seems to me simply wonderful. There is a promise in one of 
the Psalms of " bringing forth fruit in old age." I trust I may hope that 
the fulfilment of a portion of this promise may fall to my lot. However 
this may be, I hope and pray that God may grant that whatever has been 
said or done by me or by others on this occasion for Him and in His name 
may be followed by His blessing. 

The Rev. W. Relton has within the last few weeks been appointed to the important position 
of Secretary to the Madras Diocesan Committee of the Society. 



jT would be much easier and pleasanter to write my 
report, could I record native baptisms, con 
firmations, and communicants. But here in this 
advanced post it is a work of aggression of 
breaking up new soil of sowing the Divine seed in faith, 
knowing that it shall not return void, but shall accomplish 
that whereunto it was sent, and that in God s own good time 
it shall take root and bear fruit. 

Like as we meet with instances in this remote part of the 
colony, of natives testifying at their homes to the light they 
have received while working in the towns, so what they hear 
at their homes may prepare the way for their seeking further 
instruction, when, away from the bad influences of their 
homes, they come in contact with better surroundings, and 
with the regular services and schools of the towns and stations. 
There they are employed, and cannot follow the pursuits of 
home life ; and if they are amongst civilised vices, they are 
also surrounded by good examples and influences. Here it 
is the reverse ; they have nothing to do but to follow their 
depraved inclinations. 

And even were there no such encouraging thoughts, we 
have the command to preach the Gospel to every creature. 
I have not regular, periodical service at any kraal, though I 
have more frequent services at the principal kraals. Up to the 
present, I have had service at twelve different kraals, besides 
visiting many more. Generally the services are well attended, 
varying from about twelve to sixty. When there is a beer-party 
or a dance in the neighbourhood, and I do not find a congre 
gation, I visit the surrounding kraals, addressing a few words 
to each. I have had English service at five different parts of 
the district, and on my return from Synod I have arranged to 
have service at a sixth. 

346 MARITZBUKG. rMissiou Field> 

Nov. 2, 1885 

At the court-house here I have monthly service, the other 
Sundays being filled up by the magistrate. At the other five 
places the service is quarterly. The attendance is from about 
twelve to twenty-five. I think the largest number of com 
municants at one time has been nine. The furthest service is 
distant about twenty miles. There are about 120 Europeans, 
all ages, in the district, and about 17,000 natives. 

I have not succeeded yet in getting up a school. The only 
way that I can do so for the native children at the kraals will 
be by placing a native teacher amongst them. There is a con 
verted native whom I have in view across the river, some 
four miles from us ; but he is not fully instructed for baptism 
yet, nor quite competent to teach in school. What instruction 
he has received has been at a Mission station near town. Here 
at his home he is alone, and has to herd the horses and cattle, 
and so far has not found it possible to come to me for further 
instruction. Some Christian natives, who have purchased land 
about twelve miles from here, and who are connected with one 
of my former pupils (now teacher in one of the principal 
native schools in the colony), have communicated with me with 
reference to the education of some of their children. I am 
not able to undertake this at present, until we are settled 
ourselves, and until I can put up some building for their 
accommodation. Still I have this in view. 

The convert I alluded to returned home about three months 
ago. I have seen him several times. He appears an intelligent, 
earnest, plodding fellow. He can read in his Testament fairly 
well. I gave him a lesson book, to try and teach the children 
near him. He has only been at home on one occasion when I 
have had service in his neighbourhood. He was present at 
that service, and I was much gratified with his sincerity and 
boldness in his profession. To my great surprise, at the conclu 
sion of the service, when the last word was scarcely out of my 
mouth, he burst forth into a most fervent extempore prayer. 

Though I should say there is no doubt about the reality of 
his conversion, as far as I can see there is no sign of any 
amongst those around him following his steps. A few Sundays 
ago, when I went to have service in his direction, I found that 

M Nov io 2,r88 e 5 d ] IDLE LIVES OF THE NATIVES. 347 

the natives around had dispersed some to a- beer-party, others 
to a dance, while some of the women and children had gone 
to their fields a long way off in the valley to fetch food, or 
reap so instead of having service, I visited five of the 
surrounding kraals. This man s kraal was one of them. Some 
women were assembled there. One of the questions they 
asked me was, Would they, if they became Christians, cease to 
be oppressed? I inquired what oppression they referred to. 
They answered, The hut-tax and dog-tax ! 

This trifling tax they find a grievance. Why? Because 
their life is spent in idleness, beer-drinking, and sensuality. 

Often where I have service the men ask if they can discuss 
afterwards the subject of my sermon. It almost always results 
in a full admission of the truth of what I have said, and of 
their belief in God, but also of their inability to change their 
lives, and an excuse, in their not being worse than white 
people, for there are bad white people as well as bad Kaffirs, 
and good Kaffirs as well as good white people. They will 
listen to reasoning and explanation, and be convinced, but 
there it seems to end. 

At one kraal where I had service lately, there is a relapsed 
catechumen married to a Christian woman. The man was 
refused baptism because he would not forego his right to take 
his deceased brother s wife, in addition to the one he had. And 
I am sad to say he still persists in this course, though he 
knows full well the sin he is committing, and feels the trouble 
of conscience. 

There are some Christian natives from a Mission station 
located on a farm they have purchased on the River Umkom- 
azana, one of the tributaries or sources of the Umdomauzi, 
some twenty miles higher up the river than this. I have 
not managed yet to pay them a visit. There is also a Christian 
native belonging to the American Mission engaged in Mission 
work about fourteen miles from here towards the Berg, or 
west boundary of this district. 

So it will be seen that from the migration of these Christian 
natives from Wesleyan and American stations, the Gospel is 
being proclaimed in the remotest parts of the colony. 

of % itetk. 

"T TTE must again urge upon all our readers the importance 
V T of the approaching Day of Intercession. Forms of 
prayer have as usual been prepared. To the Special Service 
the following words have been prefixed by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury : 

" The increase has been manifest which has followed the Church s united 
Acts of solemn Intercession before God on behalf of Missions. Yet the 
vastness of the work is far beyond the efforts which hitherto we have been 
able to make. 

" All Churches in communion with us have agreed together to observe 
the same season of Intercession throughout the world. 

" It is earnestly desired, therefore, that all hindrances may now be over 
come, and that every parish may be enabled devoutly to seek the blessing 
of God upon His Harvest, and all minds be stirred to fresh zeal for His 

" The Day of Intercession now appointed is : Any day either in the 
week next before Advent, or in the First Week of Advent ; with preference 
for the Eve of St. Andrew s Day. 

"The following Service is sanctioned for use at Morning and Evening 
Prayer, and in the Holy Communion. 

" October, 1885." " EDW. CANTUAR. 


HE recently established Calcutta Diocesan Council has 
appointed, as a Committee to itself, a Board of Missions, 
whose functions are thus described in its second rule : 

" The functions of the Board are to act on behalf of the Diocesan Council 
for the promotion of Mission work in the diocese generally, by raising 
funds, and by administering such sums as may be entrusted to it. The 
Board will, as it sees fit, originate plans for Mission work in new fields, 
but will take no direct action towards the launching of such new schemes 
without previous reference to the Council, and so far and so long as may 
be necessary it will exercise control over such Missions. It will further 
seek opportunities of making itself acquainted with all Mission work going 
on in the diocese, whether in connection with the Board or not, and will 
take counsel with others on any matters affecting Mission operations. 
Where grants have been made, it will exercise such control as may be 

M N2j88 e 5 d> ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 349 

necessary to secure the proper application of the funds, and be helpful to 
those working the Missions." 

With this new organization the Society has co-operated, and 
has entrusted the Diocesan Council with the administration 
of its grants. That body has adopted special rules for this 
purpose, by the first of which it is declared that, 

" The Board is a Committee of the Diocesan Council elected and ap 
proved by the Council for the administration of the S.P.G. grant, which 
was entrusted to the Diocesan Council by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel by the resolutions of the Standing Committee, dated 
March 19th, 1885." 

The rules appear simple and workable, and are wisely framed 
so as to cause as little practical change by the alteration of 
system as possible. One arrangement of a personal character 
naturally promises to promote harmonious action. The Society s 
Secretary and representative in Calcutta, the Rev. G. Billing, 
has been appointed Secretary to the new Board. The Bishop 
has appointed Mr. Billing to be one of his lordship s honorary 

IT is with great regret that we record the death, on 
September 20th, of the Rev. Herbert Field Blackett. 
Mr. Blackett, who was a scholar of St. John s College, 
Cambridge, offered himself for Missionary work at Delhi, and 
went there as one of the Cambridge Missionaries in connection 
with the Society on taking his degree in 1877- His good work 
was, however, shortened by the failure of his health. Being 
forbidden to return to India, he was appointed last year the 
Society s Organizing Secretary for the dioceses of Ely and 
Peterborough. During the short time that he held this office 
he was widely respected, and by his energy and force of 
character did not a little to advance the Society s cause in the 
two dioceses. The somewhat sudden illness to which he 
succumbed was a return of the fever from which he had 
suffered in India. 

GREAT interest attaches to the recently-issued Pastoral 
of the Bishop for Northern and Central Europe (Bishop 
Titcomb). It is a thick pamphlet of fifty-eight pages (pub 
lished by Rivington s), full of valuable information about the 

350 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M C io 2 SS d> 

L Nov. 2, 1885. 

chaplaincies, and wise and cordial words of counsel and en 
couragement for the chaplains and their flocks. The tables in 
the appendices present, in a clear shape, information of great 
importance which has never been got together before. 

A passage on the position of the Episcopate among the 
Foreign Churches of the Continent is noticeable, standing as it 
rightly does in the forefront of what may be called the Bishop s 
first formal public utterance : 

" An impression prevails among a limited number of very scrupulous- 
minded Churchmen that the exercise of episcopal supervision over English 
congregations on the Continent is an interference with the rights and 
privileges of foreign Churches. If it were so, my position would be 
painful. I shall, therefore, say a few words at the commencement of my 
Pastoral, by way of showing that this opinion is not only unnecessarily 
sensitive, but absolutely baseless and visionary. 

" My arguments are grounded upon three plain and simple facts, each of 
which is indubitable and unanswerable, (a) This Episcopate can in no sense 
be called territorial. I make no pretensions to be the Bishop of a foreign 
diocese. There is, consequently, no invasion of authority over ground 
claimed by foreign Bishops ; and it is simply an unmeaning use of words 
to call me a usurper of the rights and privileges of others. (6) There is 
nothing aggressive, even in spirit, belonging to this Episcopate. If the Bishop 
of London had commissioned me to go through your chaplaincies as a 
propagandist on behalf of the Church of England, the allegation now con 
tended against would be fair. But every one knows that this is not the 
case. So far from it, I always caution you to avoid proselytism ; for, while 
we receive the rights of liberty in foreign nations, nothing could be more 
improper than to use them for that purpose. You live as English com 
munities in different countries, and naturally desire to worship after the 
manner of your fathers, according to the rites and discipline of your own 
Church. Beyond that, you have 110 ecclesiastical standing-ground ; and the 
moment you become aggressive by attempting to persuade either Roman 
Catholics, or Lutherans, or members of the Greek Church to join our own 
body that moment the raison d etre of your Church life in those countries 
becomes lost, (c) If an English Bishop were not to exercise this supervision 
over you, it is quite certain that no foreign Bishop would attempt the task. 
Who could conceive such an idea ? It therefore comes to this : that if the 
Church in England does not supply the supervision, she must leave her 
scattered children neglected and uncared for. To say, then, that under 
such circumstances we are interfering with the privileges of foreign 
Churches, seems to be making a statement which those Churches them 
selves would be the very first to disavow." 

We would refer all interested in the work of the Church of 
England on the Continent to the Pastoral itself for the modest 

^ov.^Jssf] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 351 

accounts of the Bishop s wonderful travelling in the perform 
ance of his work, and the various matters of importance about 
which he speaks. 

FROM a letter of the 18th of August by the Bishop of 
Maritzburg, we take a few notes. The Rev. J. W. H. 
Banks, whom he mentions, has but lately gone to the diocese, 
having previously been at work in British Honduras. Arch 
deacon Usherwood is coming to England : 

" I am thankful to say that Mr. Banks has made a capital beginning at 
Stanger, the seat of the magistracy nearest Zululand, in the parish of 
Nonoti, where I have long wished to place a clergyman. He has been 
warmly welcomed, coming at a most opportune moment when the Wesleyan 
minister was just leaving the place, and he is working with zeal and tact. 
Archdeacon Fitzpatrick, too, has made a most favourable impression at 
Estcourt, where, with the newly-ordained deacon, Mr. J. Strickland, a 
brother of his predecessor, he will, I hope, be enabled to do a good work 
in that enormous parish. 

"You will probably have heard that Mr. Whittington has resigned 
Durban on account of an utter breakdown in health. I am hoping that 
the expected mail will bring me the intelligence that Mr. Carlyon is 
coming to take his place. 

"I have confirmed 150 persons since my return, and am starting this 
week to confirm at Kichinond and Springvale, and after consecrating the 
church at Ixopo to hold a confirmation at Verulam. The ordination on 
Trinity Sunday added three priests and two deacons to our ranks, but this 
does not make up, even in numbers, for those I have lost lately ; and it is 
impossible to estimate the loss which Archdeacon Usherwood will be to the 

CANON CRISP, of Thaba Nchu, writing on July 30th from 
Bloemfontein, where he is staying during the illness of 
the Archdeacon, says that he is hard at work there preparing 
for the press a new edition of the Prayer Book, which is to be 
published by the S.P.C.K. : 

" To-morrow I hope to receive from Thaba Nchu the proof of the last 
sheet of our Serolong version of the New Testament, a task which, begun 
in February, 1884, I have just completed though small-pox, the raid of 
last year, and the constant scares which have been our normal state since, 
have seriously interrupted it. 

" At Thaba Nchu things are, I hope, gradually becoming more settled, 
but it will be a long long time before all is well with us. The Free State 
Government has dealt honourably with the Barolong as to land, and has 
recognised every right which could be proved." 

352 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M Cv.T 5S? 1 

ST. MARY S Church, Pilgrim s Rest, in the diocese of Pre 
toria, has been happily completed, and the Rev. Frank 
Dowling, the Missionary, speaks warmly of the valuable services 
rendered by the building committee, and of the way in which the 
members of his flock have worked with him in bringing the 
undertaking to its completion. 

THE Bishop of Tasmania has at present vacancies in his 
diocese for three or four well-qualified clergy. The 
stipends offered are from 150 to 200 per annum. The 
Bishop makes an especial point of their being "able to ride," 
and he adds : "I can honestly say, that work in the bush is 
attractive and exhilarating. If they would come out only for 
five years, it would be a real boon and relief to me." 

ST. THOMAS S College, Colombo, under the efficient Prin- 
cipalship of the Rev. E. F. Miller, is doing work to the 
character of which there is abundant testimony : 

" The work in the Collegiate School has been carried on not unsuccess 
fully, as the various examination lists show. Fourteen out of sixteen 
candidates passed the Cambridge Local Examinations, six out of ten can 
didates passed the Calcutta Entrance Examination, and our one candidate 
for the Calcutta First in Arts Examination was successful." 

AT St. Saviour s Mission, Thlotse Heights, in the diocese of 
Bloemfontein, the Easter Festival, writes the Rev. John 

" Was gladdened by the baptism of four adults all converts from 
heathenism, and all, as far as man can judge, in earnest in their profession 
of our most holy faith. 

" During the quarter we have removed into our new Mission House, 
which proves to be a very comfortable dwelling after our eight years 
sojourn in poor little round huts." 

FROM Constantinople the Rev. Canon Curtis, the Society s 
Missionary, sends notes on points of interest in his work. 
A society, or guild, which he has lately set on foot, in accord 
ance with plans which he has had in view for many years, 
appears to have a great possibility of usefulness before it in 


such a place as Constantinople. It is called the Christ Church 
Guild :- 

" A few members of the congregation have conferred together to consider 
questions regarding Bible difficulties, Church ritual, method of discussion 
with strangers and objectors, Church History, general and special, &c. I 
have always hoped that members of our congregation who, in daily contact 
with unbelievers, are drawn into dispute, would study the best ways of 
answering inquirers and gainsayers, and at the same time give to the rest 
of us the benefit of their actual experience. One way that I have adopted 
is to invite questions, and then at the next meeting to answer the questions 
in writing, reading out my replies in the hearing of all and handing the 
MS. to the inquirer. Komanists, Mohammedans, Protestant Dissenters, 
having certain cut and dried objections to the Truth as we hold it, the 
careful study of what has been said will prepare us for what will be said 

TT1ROM the Bishop of Madras the Society has learnt the loss 
J- it has sustained by the death of the Rev. Dr. Bower. 
We cannot place on record a more fitting testimony to his 
worth than is expressed in the Bishop s words : 

" The death of Dr. Kennet has soon been followed by that of his fellow- 
labourer, Dr. Bower, who died on the 2nd Sept. at his son s house at 
Palamcotta, whither he had gone several weeks ago for a change. He had 
been sinking for the last few months. You know that he has been one of 
the most laborious, learned, and highly respected of our Eurasian clergy. 
He was an excellent Tamil scholar, had studied the other Dravidian lan 
guages, and Sanskrit, and was well acquainted with Hindu philosophies, 
myths, religious theories, and customs. He was also a man of very kindly 
disposition, always ready to help in any work, a fluent Tamil speaker, 
winning attention and amusing by his lively illustrations, stories, quota 
tions, proverbs. He was free from the false pride which is so common 
among Eurasians. Not only was he a credit to the S.P.G., but the 
S.P.C.K. and the Bible Society were largely benefited by his labours, paid 
and unpaid. He was the chief reviser of the Tamil version of the Bible, 
edited in 1871, and did much in connection with our S.P.C.K. press in editing 
and correcting vernacular works. His death is a great loss to me and to 
the diocese." 

MR. NODDER, who has recently gone to begin the work 
of the Society s Mission to the Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands is, we are glad to hear, making good progress with the 
Andamanese language, and is now able to talk with his pupils 
on ordinary subjects. He has seven Andamanese and two 
Nicobarese boys studying English, and with the help of the 

354 NOTES OF THE MONTH. r M c!, 

L Nov. 2, 1885. 

catechist, recently appointed to the Mission, he will no doubt 
be enabled to make greater progress in school work. 

LIVERPOOL has had a most successful anniversary. On 
Monday, October 12th, the Mayor, D. Radcliffe, Esq., 
entertained 160 of the friends of the Society at a tea banquet 
in the Town Hall, between the afternoon and evening meetings. 
At the former the Lord Bishop of the diocese presided, and 
also spoke in the evening, when the Mayor was in the Chair. 
His worship was able to inform the meeting that 

" The Sunday s collection at the various churches considerably exceeded 
the amount of money collected for the same purpose at the same period of 
last year. At Mossley-hill the sum of 78 was collected, and at St. 
Margaret s, Prince s-road, the large sum of 121. This must be exceedingly 
gratifying to the friends of the Society, and showed the deep interest which 
was taken in the work being done." 

The Bishop in concluding his address, and referring to 
emigration, said : 

" I believe that colonisation well managed is a grand help to the State 
and the nation, but if England sends her sons and daughters out to the 
colonies, she ought to send with them, or immediately afterwards, the 
"Word of God, the Gospel of Christ, and to provide something for the soul 
as well as the body. The colonists love the mother country, and if 
England only did her duty by her children she would never want in the 
time of need should her enemies attack her. If we really desire to help 
the colonies we ought to give readily and gladly to the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel." 

The meetings were also addressed by the Rev. R. R. Winter, 
of Delhi, the Rev. C. G. Barlow, of Queensland, and the Rev. 
Dr. Forrest, whose eloquent speech contained the following 
passage : 

" There were some people who thought that divisions were good in things 
religious just as other people contended that competition was good for 
trade. Competition often led to sharp practice and dishonesty, but eternity 
alone would tell what irreparable injury unnecessary divisions and party 
strife had inflicted upon religion. They thankfully acknowledged that a 
great deal was being done in modern times towards a real and more sub 
stantial unity, more especially in the work of spreading the Gospel. The 
Society was supposed by many people to be identified with one particular 
party in the Church, but being a member of the Committee he could say 
that he never heard of a resolution being carried which would not com 
mand the cordial assent of every moderate man in the Church of England." 


A CLERGYMAN in Cornwall has labelled some of his 
bee-hives "S.P.G.," having devoted the bees earnings 
to the Society. He is accordingly offering for sale a crate of 
twenty-one one-pound sections of clover honey at Is., and 
about 12 Ibs. of extracted honey at Wd., with 2d. extra for 
1 Ib. or 4 Ib. bottles. He asks us to find purchasers. 

THE Bishop of Guiana reports an interesting gift from one 
of the landowners in his diocese : 

" Only yesterday did I proceed by invitation of the representative of the 
owner of a property about thirty-two miles from Georgetown, situated at 
the month of one of our creeks, or rivers, upon which a church has been 
erected of most solid materials, and of excellent proportion and design, by 
the proprietor, Mr. McConnell, at present residing in Holland Park. 

" The church stands in a nice block of land of about five acres, which 
has been well drained, and everything within and without tells us that the 
gift is intended to be of enduring benefit to the Church in the district, as 
well as an honour to the diocese. 

" Besides the material fabric, with all that is required for the propriety 
and solemnity of religious worship, including a very chaste font, com 
munion vessels, and even a small organ, &c., Mr. McConnell proposes assign 
ing ,200 per annum, and possibly more, as an endowment, when a suitable 
addition to that sum can be raised elsewhere. We therefore can depend 
upon an income for the clergyman of ,250 per annum, with a small, but 
very suitable residence, until the parsonage is built. It is my wish that 
Mr. McConnell should himself nominate a clergyman, and I have recom 
mended him to take counsel with the rector of the church he attends in 
London adding that my friend Prebendary Tucker will, I am sure, readily 
give whatever aid may be in his power in finding an earnest young man. 

" We want a really able and devoted young man, for a great Missionary 
work may be carried out in connection with the Church in this new district, 
and I shall be more than thankful if one can be induced to come to us 
either from Oxford or Cambridge. I lay great stress upon this, and it will 
rejoice my heart to welcome such an one. 

" I am going through the visitation of my diocese with comparative ease 
to myself, but the shadows must soon be lengthening out, and I cannot 
hope nor expect to be as I am very much longer ; but so long as I can work 
I am most desirous to be engaged in laying the foundations of the Church 
deep and sure, and I crave such assistance as you can afford to Mr. 
McConnell in furthering the completion of his gift." 
The name of the place is Cane Grove, Mahaica. 


Reports have been received from the Rev. R. Balavendrum and W. H. Gomes of the Diocese 
of Singapore; T. A. Young of Montreal; W. Newton of Saskatchewan, and H. S. Crispin of 


Mission Field, 

L Mission 
Nov. 2, 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
October 16th, at 2 P.M., the Bishop of Colchester in the Chair. There were 
also present the Bishop of Antigua, the Rev. J. E. Kempe, and thirty other 
Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
September 30th : 

$iuoim for 1885. 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS 

January Sept., 1885. 


Donations, and 


Bents, Ac. 



















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of September in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions, Donations, and Collec-1 
tions ... ./ 




22, 630 


Legacies .... . 






Dividends Rents &c. . ... 





TOTALS . . . . . . 






3. The Rev. A. Mackintosh, from Honolulu, addressed the Society. 

4. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in June were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
December : 

The Rev. C. H. Lowry, Kirby Ireleth, Broughton-in-Furness ; Professor 
Monier Williams, Balliol College, Oxford ; Rev. S. Coode Hore, 264, Dalston 
Lane, E. ; Rev. Reginald Shutte, S. Michael s, Portsmouth ; Rev. G. Jones, 
Dummer, Basingstoke ; Rev. Frank Lethbridge Farmer, Millbrook, Staleybridge ; 
Rev. A. Newman, Axminster ; Rev. H. C. Grant, Chilbolton, Stockbridge, 
Hants ; Rev. A. W. Cooke, Brighton, Alresford, Hants ; Rev. C. R. Baskett, 
Morecombe Lake, Charmouth ; George William Bell, Esq., 114, Chancery Lane, 
E.G. ; E. Glover, Esq., Hadleigh Park Road West, Birkenhead ; and Rev. 
C. J. Ball, Chaplain of Lincoln s Inn, W.C. 



DECEMBER 1, 1885. 



(HE beginning of this quarter found our catechists at 
Hardwar, and as soon as Good Friday and Easter 
were over, on April 6th I also went there to assist 
them in preaching to large crowds of Hindu pil 
grims who had assembled there to celebrate the "Half Kumbh " 
fair, which occurs every six years, in anticipation or succession 
of the " Great Kumbh " fair, which takes place every twelve 
years, and of which an account was given six years ago, in 
April, 1879. 1 As there was another large fair this year, from 
the beginning to the middle of March, called the " Maha 
Barni" fair, as mentioned in my last quarterly report, where 
there were assembled between 200,000 and 300,000 people ; 
the "Half Kumbh" had only about or a little more than 
120,000. Still, more than enough for us to reach with the 
Gospel. The catechists, who were joined by two other catechists 
from Dehra Dun, had already preached for a week when I 
arrived, and we had then another week of hard labour. But I 
am happy to say that from beginning to end we had very large, 

1 See Mission Field for November, 1879. 

sion Field, 

358 ROORKEE. [ M Detl,1885. 

quiet crowds to listen to our preaching and argue with us ; and 
I am quite confident that the Word will not return void, but many 
are convinced and become convinced THAT THIS IS THE TRUTH 
which we bring them. Still, if we think that we can do it, and 
that we can accomplish it, then we are mistaken. Idolatry, though 
shaken a good deal already, and lightly esteemed by many of 
the Hindus themselves, is still so firm that no human skill, no 
human wisdom, and no argument of the most learned can shake 
and uproot it. This was experienced by the two Dehra Dun 
catechists who have been living in the Punjab, and came for 
the first time to Hardwar. One of them said, " Oho ! I know 
that Hinduism is strong, but so I have never witnessed it. It 
is just as if Satan himself was leading them on to the bathing 
ghaut, and was inspiring them, so eagerly bent are they upon 
the bathing in the Ganges. Such enthusiasm I never saw. If 
Jesus Himself does not show wonders from heaven, then we 
shall never be able to do anything effectively," &c. 

This was the first impression of an educated native Christian 
who has studied in the Lahore Divinity School. But then, 
thank God, the Lord is with us and helps us, and He brings the 
Word home to their hearts, that they believe and are saved. 
We know that many would like to shake off Hinduism, with all 
its idolatrous customs, at once, if they only saw their way clear 
to get their livelihood ; but as on becoming Christians they are 
thrown out of their social position, and are deprived of their 
means of subsistence altogether, they naturally hesitate. 

Still that the Word takes deep hold of their hearts, and that 
they venture then t.o come out Hindus as well as Moham 
medans we have often seen and witnessed, and that of late 

On Whit Sunday we were privileged to admit seven souls 
into the Church of Christ by Holy Baptism, namely, a Moham 
medan family of the Punjab the man 50 years old, his wife 40, 
three sons of 26, 17, and 13 years respectively, a daughter of 10 
years, and the wife of the eldest son of about 17 years all 
very nice and earnest people. They had come to Meerut, 
where they were instructed for five months by the native pastor 
of the C.M.S., and were tried in every way, and found faithful 


and true. But as they found it very difficult to earn their 
livelihood at Meerut, and as the opposition on account of the 
Mohammedans would have been very great, the native pastor 
there sent them to Roorkee, and asked us to look after them. 
We did so ; and when after further trial we found that they 
had no other object in view than their salvation, and that they 
were well advanced in the Christian religion, we admitted them 
on Whit Sunday. They are of the highest Mohammedan order, 
namely "Syeds," and are well read both in Urdu and Persian, 
and also a good deal in Arabic. They try very hard to earn 
their bread. The eldest son, who is able to take a high post as 
Persian writer, or as a jamadar in the police, or elsewhere, and 
earn a good salary, is not ashamed to work hard as a tailor, 
which profession he has also learned, to earn his bread and give 
also to his parents, till he can find something better. And 
since they were baptised they have had to suffer a good deal of 
persecution from the Mohammedans. They are threatened 
almost daily ; and one day when the father and his second son 
had been to see me, and had received some instruction, on going 
home again, when passing the canal bridge, the son went 
down to the canal to drink water, and whilst the father was 
waiting for him on the bridge, he was accosted by six passing 
Mohammedans in the following manner: Have you become a 
Rirani?" ("Rirani" means in reality an East Indian of mixed 
blood.) He answered: "No, I have not become a Rirani ; I 
have become a Christian." They: "What book taught you to 
become an infidel?" He: "This book" (pointing to the New 
Testament he held in his hand) "has taught me the truth, and 
has showed me the way of salvation." Then one of them said a 
word which he did not understand, but which he thought must 
have meant "Knock him down! " for one of them rushed upon 
him, snatched the book from his hand, and gave him a knock 
with the same in his side, that he fell down to the ground, and 
the New Testament a distance away. And then he got four or 
five knocks more, till a Hindu who passed said, "Why do you 
beat him ? What harm has he done you \ " Then they left 
him, and went away as fast as they could. The poor man had 
to be helped up and brought home, and could not get up from 

B B 2 

360 ROORKEE. [ M jS!?.5i d ; 

his bed for several days. This was in the broad daylight, 
between one and two o clock in the afternoon. And although 
a policeman is supposed to be on the bridge always, yet no 
policeman was to be seen or heard of in all the direction. But 
the poor man was glad that he had been counted worthy to 
suffer for Christ s sake. Then, on the other hand, he has also 
great joy. Many of the people, both Hindus and Moham 
medans, come to his house and ask what induced him and his 
family to become Christians, and to leave everything ? And he 
has then good opportunities to explain it to them, and to read 
to them the Word of God. And as he knows a good deal of 
medicine, the people call him to their houses in cases of 
sickness, and he has gained already the confidence of many. 

On Trinity Sunday another young Mohammedan, who was 
mentioned in my report of the 31st December last, having 
come as an inquirer from a small Mohammedan fair, and who 
had since been under instruction, was baptised and admitted 
into the Church. He is 26 years of age, and was fully con 
vinced of the truth, and urged to be baptised now. He is the 
son of a good family in this (the Saharunpore) district, and we 
trust that nothing but true conviction has brought him to 
decide with us. 

We commend all these souls to the prayers of the Church 
that they may remain firm and grow in grace, and become orna 
ments to the Christian name. 

On April 21st I went to the Christian villages ; first along 
the railway works to Luksar, Kharanja, and Mundikheir, where 
a number of our Christians are employed ; and then to Ranj it- 
pore, Bhagpore, and Shahpore, to hold Divine Service with 
them and baptise children. 

On Thursday, April 23rd, I had Divine Service with the 
Christians at Shahpore, in the school-house, as is usual on such 
visits. Service commenced at 10.30 in the morning, and was 
over by 12 o clock. Just when we were rising to go out, a very 
sad and frightful occurrence took place. One of the Christians, 
lifting up his eyes, called out, " Fire ! " And what did we see ? 
At a distance smoke arose, and the flame burst out a house 
was on fire ! The Christians all rushed to their houses, which 

Mission Field,"] A TTTT>T? Of! 

Dec. 1,1885. J A JF IRE. ,j()l 

were in front of the school, to take out their things. As the 
wind bore in another direction, I hoped that the Christians 
houses, and consequently those of the heathens and Moham 
medans who lived on the other side of the school, would 
escape. But scarcely were ten minutes passed when one 
of the Christians houses caught fire. The catechist who was 
with me, and I, then rushed into the school to take out tables, 
chairs, benches, books, &c., and our own things, as that is also 
the room for us to put up in, and carried them into the field. 
And no sooner had we done so in less than ten minutes 
certainly the fire was upon us. And in less than half an hour 
more the whole village of about 275 houses, or huts, had 
disappeared from the spot, and heaps of smouldering ashes 
were lying there instead! And a scene of lamentation and 
crying was before us : women and children were standing or 
lying about deploring their loss, or beating their heads ; and 
men looking aghast and contemplating what should now be 
done, as that frightful element had devoured their many days 
and weeks , or perhaps years earnings, in a moment. The 
Christians and those on the other side of the school had saved 
at least something, as their clothes and beds, and other little 
things, although all their wheat, which had just been cut and 
brought in from the field, was also burned ; but those who were 
living near where the fire came out saved scarcely their bare 
lives, so rapid was the fire. It was just as if rocket after 
rocket was struck, and so house after house went up in rapid 
succession, because a high wind was blowing, and the heat was 
intense, it being already in the hot season, and the houses all of 
straw walls, as well as the roofs. 



!>EDDIE is a district in the diocese of Grahamstown, 
where the Mission under the immediate charge of 
a Mr. J. Pattison, a catechist who is to be ordained 
deacon in a few months time, is part of the 
pastoral charge of the Rev. W. H. Turpin, of St. Philip s. We 
have received from Mr. Turpin an account of the opening of 
the new church at Peddie, which he has accompanied by a 
fuller narrative from Mr. Pattison. 

From the latter we take a most interesting description of the 
way in which the native converts have surmounted difficulties, 
and bravely thrown themselves into the work of church 
building : 

"The work has gone on fairly well, considering the bad state of the 
country, and people. The work has been hindered, owing to the young 
people belonging to the choir and Sunday school having gone away to work 
in the towns. However, the services and Sunday school have gone on 
without any interruption from lack of voices to sing. 

" Moreover, the old men, in spite of the poverty among them, came to 
the work of building the little church until it was finished, and ready to 
be opened. 

" I cannot speak too highly of them, for they were never absent, and 
while at work they would work hard. One man, I must mention, gave 
ninety days free labour, and all the others came between fifty days and 
ninety days. I had no difficulty in getting them to come early or to remain 
late, and if they are as diligent in working out their own salvation as they 
have been at the church, I think that they will not be found wanting." 

The church was opened by the Bishop of the diocese, who 
held a Confirmation. 

" Ten persons were confirmed, and I trust they will continue to be His 
for ever, and daily increase in His Holy Spirit more and more, until they 
come to His everlasting kingdom. After the Confirmation service followed 


the Holy Eucharist, when fifty persons communicated. It was a most 
solemn service, and great reverence and godly fear was upon all. Some 
were receiving for the first time, and one could tell by their faces and 
manner that they felt the solemnity of the service. Many, I feel sure 
prayed that they might receive the necessary strength to fight the good 
fight of faith." 

On the afternoon of the same day a very interesting gathering 
took place, at which Mr. Pattison made a statement of the 
history of the erection of the church : 

" On the second day after the destruction (by a gale of wind and hail) of 
the late little church, the men and myself had a meeting among the ruins 
of the old church, which the people had built themselves. I proposed 
that we should build our new church of brick (as the late one was of 
wattle and daub, which looked well), and no man stood with me, for they 
said, Who will make the brick ? where is the mason 1 and where is the 
money ? We are too poor to give cattle to pay the labourers. It was a 
thing impossible in their minds at that time. I said at once, I will find 
the mason, and God will send us money, and I will show you how to make 
brick, and if they would do that I would ask no more. After a great 
deal of talk they agreed to begin at once. So that very day the work 
began, and went on well for ten days, when none came, through some mis 
understanding among themselves. For three months the work stood, 
chiefly from want of water. When we had rain again the work went on, 
until the 24,000 bricks were made. Now we began the work of building ; 
the mason was found, and in a short time the walls were up. The carpenter 
was found, who piit up the woodwork and iron. The people next, with 
the help of the mason, plastered the inside and outside, and lastly white 
washed it throughout. 

" I next called the women together, and between them they soon put the 
floor in order (which was an ant-heap hammered hard with stones). I men 
tioned also the great assistance given by Mr. Turpin, the superintending 
priest of the Mission, who kindly undertook to raise the money for iron 
and wood, which was nearly the 60 which we required. Again I men 
tioned the help given by Mr. John Bartholomew, the store-keeper, near the 
Mission. He lent me any tools such as spades, picks, &c. 1 required for 
the work. 

" When I had given this statement, John Mzamo, the native catechist, 
addressed the congregation, and this is a summary of what he said : 

" When Mr. Pattison told me that he wished to begin the new church, 
I said at once, you cannot ; the people are too poor, and where can so large 
a sum of money be got? He told me his plans, but I only shook my 
head. The next time I went to the Home Station I saw they were making 
brick, but even then I doubted when I saw some of the principal men 
had not joined the work. I again visited the Mission, and saw the fire in 
the kiln. Now I thought something might be done. Now to-day I see 


nion Field 

!C . i.asss. 

and confess that I was blind, as we are all witnesses that what was then 
impossible in our minds was possible by faith in God. This day, and 
what has been said, reminds me of a story told by our fathers. When the 
Fingoes lived far away up country there was in a certain village a lame 
man and a blind man. Now it came to pass that the Zulus came against 
that village, and the Fingoes had to flee, leaving behind them the lame and 
blind men. The Zulus were merciful to these two men, and did them no 
hurt, only taking away what they thought would be useful. After a while 
the lame man said to the blind man, " Why do we stay here ? there is no 
food left us ; we shall die if we remain here." "How can we go?" said 
the blind man. "You cannot go, because you are lame; I cannot go, 
because I am blind." " Stop," said the lame man, "if I get on your back 
I can show the way to you, and in that manner we may find food, and 
probably our friends." So it was agreed, and away they went. After 
travelling a long way, and they were very hungry, the lame man said, " I 
see the eagles far away in the distance." "Then/ said the blind man, 
" there must be some dead or wounded animal there ; we can live on that 
for a while." The lame man said, " As I saw the eagles first, I must have 
the first claim." " No," said the other, " that is not fair. I carried you, 
and ought to have the first claim." So they could not agree, and sat down, 
the one unwilling to show the way, and the other unwilling to carry the other. 
After a while one said, " While we are talking here the eagles may be 
eating all. Let us agree to share the spoil equally." So they moved on, 
and found not only the food, but also their friends. This was the case 
with us. We were the blind man, Mr. Pattison the lame man. He saw 
the way, and we had the strength to follow that way, and while we all 
united equally to do each our own part, the work was done ; and now we 
are thankful for the reward. Let us continue to do this always. " 



|HE action taken by Umditshwa in sending his 
" great son " Umtshazi and five other boys, to Ncolosi 
to be educated seems likely to produce a good 
effect among the Pondomisi at large, and the result 
thus far, as concerns the boys themselves, is very satisfactory. 

The boys live in a hut by themselves, in which also they have 
their meals. Their mode of life is, in some respects, Kaffir, i.e. 
they sleep on mats, not mattresses or bedsteads, and their two 
staple meals are composed of mealies, or Kaffir corn, and 
amasi ; in the middle of the day something is sent them from 
my own table bread, vegetables, sometimes tea or meat. The 
aim in the matter of living generally is to keep their tastes 

All the morning the boys are in school. In the afternoons 
and evenings they are free to do what they like, after manual 
work. Their spare time they spend, partly in re-conning 
lessons, talking, washing their shirts and themselves in the 
Ncolosi stream, and playing games of their own, the two 
favourites being a kind of single-stick, and something which 
recalls very much " Aunt Sally." On Friday they are allowed 
to go home till Sunday, the Great Place being quite near 
enough to allow of this. 

Of the general character of the boys (who, it must be 
remembered, are entirely heathen, and hitherto utterly un 
trained) I can hardly speak too highly. In five months I have 


[Mission Field, 

really had no complaint to make of them. The features that 
have struck me most have been their diligence (and corre 
sponding progress) in work, their willingness, obedience, and 
honesty. Umtshazi, by reason of his position, acts practically 
as a sort of monitor, and has faithfully reported (without ever 
being instructed to do so) anything that he has thought wrong 
either in himself or the others ; matters which I could not have 
discovered of myself. Two of them, Sokotyo and Umtshazi, 
have made such progress in their work that, at the examination 
at the end of June, I was obliged to give them both prizes. 


For a considerable time now one of Tami s sons (he is a petty 
chief) has been coming to me as a day-boy. There was hardly 
enough room in the hut for me to take him as a boarder at 
present, but I have promised to do so after the winter holidays. 
At the same time Umdunyelwa (a petty chief some ten miles 
away) will send me one of his sons. This will make seven 
Pondomisi boarders, all of what may be termed the aristocracy, 
consequently I am now building for them at the back of the 

When the school reopens, Mnqubumntwana, a Pondomisi 

Mission Field,! Q/rorvrvT O 

Dec. 1,1885. J SCHOOLS. 

policeman in the service of the R.M., will also send me one of 
his sons ; he, however, will board with the teacher, Robert 

Umdunyelwa has applied for a day school in his own heathen 
location. If I can find the funds, I hope to open one there 
next month, but the hypothesis is a very large one. 

If the Church is unable to take advantage of this opening 
among the Pondomisi it will be a matter of very great regret. 

In a later letter Mr. Gibson adds : 

" The neighbouring chief, Mtengwane, also called me in, and at a meeting 

^of his people gave a large grant of land in his location to the Church. 

I have since that date been enabled to appoint a resident white catechist to 

this work, a gentleman of the name of Mr. Williams, well conversant with 

the natives and proficient in their language. 

" I also paid visits to various white people at different places, from 
Mount Fletcher to ten miles beyond Ugie, a base of sixty miles, the 
farthest points being respectively about eighty and fifty miles from here 
preparing candidates for confirmation. I farther went to see Bikwe, and 
found him evidently contemplating an application for church and school, 
but not yet fully prepared for it : his people are heathens. 

" On August 31st seven of my boys arrived two white and five Pondo 
misi, the latter a day before they were due. Since that time one of the 
latter has had to leave me, owing to his people having been smelt out ; and, 
on the other hand, four others have come. I am very glad to be able to say 
also that some Pondomisi from outside the Mission are beginning to come 
to the Sunday services ; chiefly such as have already been brought in 
contact with Christianity elsewhere, and only recently returned here. 

" During the past month I have been a good deal occupied in translating 
a number of prayers into Kaffir, for the use of my people, and also in 
preparing a book of sermon-sketches for my preachers. I am convinced 
that such a work is urgently needed." 



:HE Church s work at Kimberley, South Africa, has 
been carried on under varying, and, at times, 
romantic circumstances, by a succession of devoted 
clergy. The Revs. J. Rickards, F. W. Doxat, 
C. B. Maude, W. A. B. Boston, and W. F. J. Hanbury have all 
spent and sacrificed no inconsiderable portion of their natural 
strength amidst the uncongenial conditions of life of these 
diamond diggings. Nearly every priest who has laboured here 
has been stricken down (in some cases twice and thrice) by 
fever. Messrs. Maude, Doxat, and Hanbury indeed were 
simply ordered home by the doctors to save their lives. It 
would be well if some of the light-hearted critics in their snug 
security at home could be made to realise that at least some 
" re turned empties" went out full of physical strength, and in 
the prime of life find themselves too often emptied of their 
vigour, and invalided home, and pretty certain to receive an 
ungracious welcome. 

I state this quite deliberately. This feeling, I know, rankles 
in [many hearts, and, I believe, is one reason why many men 
hesitate to come out to colonial life who would be quite willing 
to give a few years to Mission work, if only they didn t hear a 
sort of threat thundered at them in the air, of course and 
seeming to say, "Don t you ever dare to set foot on your native 
land again, if you once go out." 

My predecessors in this cure have been all hard-working, 
self-denying men, and so I have but entered into other men s 


The organisation at present is as follows : 

(1) Clergy. The rector, with Revs. J. T. Darragh, B.D., and 
W. Griffiths as assistant priests. 

(2) Buildings. (a) St. Cyprians Church An iron and wood 
structure, which from the frightful price of carriage, and its 
semi-destruction once by a hurricane, has cost 7,000 holding 
600 people, (b) St. Augustine s Mission Church, holding 150. 
(c) St. Cyprian s Boys School. (d) St. Augustine s School. 
(e) St. Cyprians Mission School. (f) The fiectory. (g) A 
Clergy House. 

Offertories. These are our only means of support. A sovereign 
here equals about 7s. at home in purchasing power. The 
average weekly offertory in St. Cyprian s Church is 22, and our 
weekly expenses about 25. The balance has to be raised by 
special efforts. My income of 600 (= 200 at home) will, I 
fear, have to be reduced shortly, as times are bad. If I can 
exist on this reduced sum, of course it must be done ; other 
wise, one of my assistants must go, which will lead to a terrible 
weakening of the work, for I am not only rector of Kimberley, 
with its thousands, and its heat and dust and trying conditions, 
but also rural dean of Griqualand West, and now of Bechuana- 
land. And for this reason, a year ago I urged strongly upon 
the Society my appeal for 200 a year for the two branches of 
half-caste work and itinerating, if the work is to develop at all. 

I am advised again and again thus : "Don t worry yourself 
with the district work throw it up, and stick to the parish. 
Leave it to the Wesleyans, or any one, if the diocese or the 
S.P.G. can t send help." 

However, by careful arrangement I am able to visit most 
places in this huge tract about three times a year, and if the 
Society could but realise the delight of the few scattered 
Churchpeople, they would feel doubly repaid for their anxieties 
and their hard work at home on our behalf. Honestly, I believe 
a few hundreds spent for a few years in these new tracts of 
country would save thousands afterwards. For there is a large 
number of colonists who are practically unattached, who commit 
themselves to the first English religious body that ministers to 

370 BLOEMFGNTEIK [^t "?^ 

them; and, if the Church comes first, their early prejudices 
vanish, and they become, instead of opponents, strong adherents. 

Then there is our half-caste coloured work, which grows and 
grows, and for which we need another priest. In some ways it 
works in with our European work, but in others it is quite 
distinct ; e.g. in school work, in confirmation classes, &c. They 
have (D.G.) the same font and the same altar, but their character 
demands special agencies for evangelising, &c. 

We have just built the first part of a new school for this 
class, and for poor white children. This is our opening week s 
work, and there are eighty-three In attendance. God has 
signally blessed the Society s grant given to me for Beaeonsfield 
parish three years ago. I pray the Society to follow up a proved 
success, and give to this much larger parish (embracing the 
Cape mixed race Hindus, Malays, and poor Europeans of all 
sorts the aid so much needed, and with suck vast promise of 

With regard to our district work, services have been held 
from time to time at Douglas, Griquatown, Daniel s Knil 
(kuil = den), Boetsap (where we have a regularly organised 
Mission school), Vryberg, and at various farm-houses en route. 
At Douglas I have had as many as twenty communicants 
(some of whom travelled thirty miles to the service). Last 
week I baptised a child in St. Cyprian s that had been brought 
seventy miles, and on Saturday I married a couple who had 
travelled 180 miles for the purpose. I start on Monday for the 
north. Baptisms await me all along my road ; and at Boetsap 
there are, besides, about thirty candidates for holy baptism, 
who have been under the instruction of the catechist for a 
year, consisting of Barolongs, Griquas, &e. If only some of our 
good friends at home would realise what distances mean in a 
colony (for distance is annihilated at home), and then remember 
how difficult it is to get away from a town parish even in 
England (with all its friendly and brotherly help from neigh 
bouring parishes) they would, I am sure, feel that men and 
means ought to be provided, at least for a time, to every new 
district opened out to the Gospel by war or commerce. 



;HE duty of the Church to make an especial effort 
to Christianise the native tribes of this colony, 
and to counteract in some measure the evils 
which the contact with civilisation invariably 
brings upon the native races, is plain and im 
perative. The North-west affords a new and hitherto untried 
field in this direction, and in any effort to establish a Mission 
in that part of the country, there would be less to undo than in 
those older districts where habits of vice and intemperance 
have already so effectually done their work. 

What has already been accomplished in South Australia at 
Poonindie and Point Macleay, and in this colony by the Roman 
Catholic Mission at NewNorcia, is sufficient proof that Missions 
to the aborigines are not without results when conducted by 
men who are willing to devote their lives to the work. In New 
South Wales and Victoria, it seems as if only of late years has 
any real . effort been made to save the small remnant that 
remains of those who once peopled the early settled districts, 
In Western Australia we have a vast unsettled country in which 
the native tribes are still numerous ; and a vigorous effort made 
now before it is too late, might produce results whicli have* been 
hitherto unattained. 

From the first the Bishop has contemplated the establish 
ment of a Mission station in the northern part of this diocese, 
and in the latter part of 1877 the Rev. Mr. Nicolay, at the 
Bishop s request, proceeded to the Upper Murchison to ascer 
tain whether a suitable locality could be found there for this 


purpose. Mr. Nicolay s interesting report was laid before the 
Synod of 1878, and received the full approval of the Committee 
to which it was referred. As the result of this movement a 
reserve was granted by Government on the Upper Murchison, 
and subsequently on the Gascoyne for this purpose, and 
conditional grants promised from the Church Societies at 
home ; but hitherto the commencement of the work has been 
delayed chiefly from the difficulty found in obtaining a clergy 
man sufficiently experienced in the habits and customs of the 
natives to take charge of the Mission. At a recent meeting of 
the Special Committee on Missions, letters were read from the 
Rev. Mr. Gribble, of the Warangesda Mission of New South 
Wales, offering his services to establish a station on the Gas 
coyne. Mr. Gribble has lately returned from a visit to England, 
where under the patronage of the S.P.G. he has been en 
deavouring to raise funds for the work in New South Wales, 
and awaken an interest generally in Missions to the aboriginal 
natives of Australia. Whilst in England he published a small 
book entitled Black, but Comely, giving an account of the 
establishment of the Warangesda Mission, with particulars 
of the work amongst the natives in other dioceses, which, he 
says, has helped much to promote an interest in the subject in 
that country. 

On his return to Warangesda Mr. Gribble seems to have 
found the work so far advanced that he could safely leave it in 
other hands, and is now desirous of extending his labours by 
seeking employment in this diocese, which offers a wider field 
for his energies. Mr. Gribble is evidently a man of indomitable 
courage, and has succeeded in establishing a station in New 
South Wales in the face of many difficulties, and we are glad to 
hear that the Bishop has already conditionally accepted his 
services. The Committee, however, recommended that, before 
finally removing with his family to this diocese, he should make 
a preliminary visit of inspection to the Gascoyne, when, after 
spending a few months amongst the natives, he would be in a 
better position to form an opinion of the requirements of the 
work, and the equipment- necessary for the formation of a 

1 S?l5? > ] PERTH DIOCESE. 373 

We heartily wish success to this first attempt of the Church 
in this diocese to do what is our evident duty, notwithstanding 
the prevalent opinion that no efforts to better the condition of 
the natives are likely to be successful : and we earnestly hope 
that this beginning may be followed by others of a like nature. 
Mr. Gribble, at any rate, is an enthusiast in the cause, and 
undertakings requiring so much self-devotion can be carried out 
only by enthusiasts. His scheme embraces a chain of Mission 
stations which shall eventually intersect the whole continent of 
Australia from north to south and from east to west. It is wel 1 
to set before us a grand ideal, even if we fall far short of its 
accomplishment. We trust that something of this spirit may 
possess all who have the power to help in this great and neces 
sary work for Christ s sake, and that when men are found who 
are willing to devote their lives to its accomplishment, they may 
receive that prompt and earnest support without which both 
this and every other undertaking must languish. 

NOTE. The principal part of the story of Black, lut Comely, 
was re-printed from the Mission Field for July, 1884. It 
records many evidences of the blessing and providential 
guidance Avhich have been given to the Warangesda Mission. 

Perhaps the rapidity with which it acquired stability is as 
noticeable as any feature. Mr. Gribble only went to Warangesda 
in 1880 ; in 1884 he was in England, and almost immediately 
after his return he finds the work so far matured that he is able 
to leave Warangesda to engage in work in the diocese of Perth, 
upon which we trust the Divine Blessing will be no less signally 
bestowed. Many prayers in England will aid him, and deep 
interest aAvaits news of his progress. 

NO. CCCLX. c c 



HE time and attention of our Mission agents is 
about equally divided between the pastoral and 
evangelistic work. In this densely populated 
country the pastoral so overlaps the evangelistic 
work that as we extend the one the other grows with it. 
During the past quarter three native deacons, three catechists, 
and myself, have been engaged in the Indian Mission work, both 
Tamil and Telugu. The centre of the work is St. Mary s Mission 
Church, where are held twenty-four services monthly in the 
two languages, with a weekly attendance of about 240. To 
these services inquirers often come and sit behind, and behave 
becomingly. The grounds around the church are nicely wooded, 
and here may often be seen Tamil and Telugu Indians learning 
catechism and texts of Scripture, or singing Christian hymns, 
or holding conversations on matters connected with our Vathum 
or Scriptures. 

There is a celebration of Holy Communion on alternate 
Sundays, with a monthly attendance of about fifty, and also 
Saints Days services, in both languages. Two Missionary 
meetings, one in each language, are held monthly, with an 
attendance of about seventy ; and also two Mothers Meetings, 
with an attendance of about thirty. The annual meeting of the 
Telugu Mothers Society showed an attendance of fifty. The 
Tamils have had several tea meetings in the houses of different 
members of the Church. At these meetings, always held in 
the evening when work is over, addresses are given, generally 
bearing on the moral side of Christianity. At these meetings 
the singing of Christian lyrics to native tunes is a great feature. 
The Telugus, too, are equally fond of their lyrics ; but in a 

? 1 ] TELUGU WORK. 375 

service held on the 20th day of June the congregation, number 
ing sixty, sang joyously by heart "God Save the Queen" in 
Telugu, which they thought the more of for being translated 
into Telugu by one of their own number. Both congregations 
now use their own lyrics, as well as hymns written in English 
metre to be sung to English tunes. 

The number of candidates being prepared for Confirmation 
is about forty for both congregations. 

The Telugu work is steadily increasing. At Roche Bois the 
Telugus have made a request of Mr. Alphonse to have a regular 
service maintained in their midst. One Joseph Soobayah and 
his wife, who were baptised some months ago, do much to 
further the work among their own people. The Telugus in the 
district of Souillac made a request that a catechist should be 
sent to them to teach them, and they also asked that Mr. 
Alphonse should go down and visit them now and then, and 
hold meetings among them. I am happy to state that we are 
about to locate a new catechist there, and Mr. Alphonse will 
pay a quarterly visit to these parts, where he has before been 
so well received. 

I think the Scriptures are well circulated among the heathen 
Indians. I think, too, their own books are much oftener read 
aloud than they used to be. It is now quite common to hear 
an Indian reading the Ramayanam to others around him. The 
favourite argument they use against us is to say, "Your 
Christianity has not been long in the world, but our religion is 
ages old. Vishnu is our god ; it is he only who can give us 
paradise ; he only took the ten incarnations ; we must believe 
in him, and not in your Christ." Our argument is that 
Christianity alone quickens the soul of man to the sense of sin 
and the need of holiness of life to prepare man for heaven, and 
that the slokams recounting the acts of Vishnu and other gods, 
to whom adultery, theft, and lies are attributed, can in no way 
tend to raise man s mind above carnal things and make him 
meet for a higher and better life. 

Mr. Stephen, the Tamil native deacon, is well received by the 
shop-keeping class in town, and is bringing some of them to 
think of Christianity. A few of these people are Christians 

C C 2 


whose fathers had joined the Lutheran Mission in Tanjore, 
South India. They are observers of caste, and always hold 
themselves aloof from our Holy Communion service ; but they 
will come to other services, and like us to go to their meetings, 
when we get a very fair attendance. 

Besides the regular visiting of Christians and preaching to 
heathens among the servant, labourer, and artisan classes, there 
is a deal of work to be done in the Central Prison, the civil 
and prison hospitals, the immigration and vagrant depots, and 
in the various camps, where Indians are gathered in great 
numbers for employment in large works. 

I think the two deacons in town are working well. The 
Rev. John Baptiste is at Souillac, and working as well as his 
advanced age will allow him to do. He is to have a catechist 
to help him in visiting the more distant villages. His parsonage 
is close to the S.P.G. chapel of St. Luke s, where, besides 
Tamil service by Mr. John Baptiste, English and French 
services are held by the ministers. I am very pleased with the 
work of our catechist, Manuel Thomas, at Moka. During the 
past three months I have baptised five adults, and on one 
occasion I had a congregation of seventy-three, with fifteen 
communicants. This catechist may in time become a native 
pastor. The number of our native deacons is gradually 

The Black River Mission Creole work will be reported on by 
the Ven. Archdeacon Matthews, who has kindly undertaken to 
superintend it, as it forms part of his large parish. In this 
connection I am sorry to have to report the death of the Rev. 
A. Desveaux, the S.P.G. Creole minister of Bambous, where the 
S.P.G. has a chapel St. Peter s. He had long been in failing 
health. He worked well, in spite of continual weakness, which 
is a harder thing to do than to work in the full glow of health 
and strength. Rest came to him at length, and to one so weary 
was not unwelcome. R.I P. 

With regard to the work in Seychelles, which the S.P.G. 
assists by a grant, I beg to give you the following extracts from 
a letter I received in April from the Rev. H. D. Bus well, who 
went there on commission for the Bishop : 

"jS^S? ] SEYCHELLES. 377 

" I paid a visit to Praslin and La Digue, and think I ought to tell you, 
as Secretary of the S.P.G., how very much pleasure the trip afforded me. 
Indeed, if the opportunity occurs, I shall seek a second benefit. I tried 
to visit every nook and corner of Praslin, as it is the one island of the 
diocese of which it may be truly said the Church of England is in pos 
session. At Grand Anse there were 230 persons present at church on 
Sunday morning, many of whom walked several miles, as they usually do, to 
be present. One old woman between sixty and seventy years of age told me she 
left home at two o clock in the morning to be present at the service. There 
were sixty-five communicants, with all of whom private conversation was 
had beforehand. I had several small services at out-posts, and at two of 
them I administered the Holy Communion. The places were by no 
means easy of access, but I was amply repaid for my pains by the warmth 
of the people. The schools, of course, were thinly attended, and in results 
not equal to Mauritius schools, although much in advance of what they 
were six years ago. Good teachers are required. Let me assure you thai 
the S.P.G. contribution towards the work in Praslin is an admirable 

Our two Indian schools in town are doing well, with a daily 
attendance of over seventy. 

NOTE. The Society s Grant to the diocese of Mauritius is at 
the rate of 590 per annum, in addition to which there was 
voted for the year 1884 a sum of 300 for the establishment of 
simple Indian Christian schools. 

This grant has been extremely useful, for the great difficulty 
which the Church in Mauritius has to labour under is the fact 
that she is in the presence of a Roman Catholic majority, which 
makes its preponderating influence to be largely felt in the 
sphere of education. Again, on the other hand, the great 
opening and opportunity for the Church s work in Mauritius is 
among the thousands of Coolie immigrants from India. The 
Church s Indian schools are, therefore, most important. 



|,URING the past six months my time has been 
occupied with (1) the high school and boys school 
in Antananarivo ; (2) my duty at Christ Church in 
Antananarivo ; (3) duty in seven district churches 
near Antananarivo ; (4) duty in the Isaha and Vakinaukaratra 
districts west of Imerina, and in examining the schools con. 
nected with these churches; (5) in taking charge of the 
printing office, building churches, &c. 

1. HIGH SCHOOL. During the past six months eight scholars 
have been sent out from this school, four as teachers in the 
Mission schools, of which Rabenjamina (the senior prefect in 
the school for the past year and a-half) has been made a tutor 
in the high school ; two others are starting to the coast as 
teachers, of which one, Rajorlina, is a slave and one of our 
most promising young men. Three others have gone into 
Government service, and one has passed a very satisfactory 
examination at the Analakely Hospital, and enters as a medical 
student. There are now forty-two scholars in the school, and 
fifteen probationers, making a total of fifty-seven. There will 
be an entrance examination at the beginning of next term 
(August 10th). This is the fourth day of the half-yearly 
examination in the school, so that I cannot say much about the 
progress of the school in this report, but will send the marks of 
the examination in my next. The attendance during the past 
six months has been much steadier than it was last year, the 
school parades having been arranged for Saturdays only, and I 
believe the school is fairly efficient in the Government require 
ments for the scholar regiments, though of course we as 
Europeans have nothing whatever to do with this. 

M oe 8 ci.w85 d ] EDUCATION ON A PROPER BASIS. 379 

The school building is almost finished, and the high school 
is no longer held in a shed. 

At the beginning of last term I gave notice that no more 
assistance would be given to scholars ; this, from a native point 
of view, is quite a revolutionary step, and it will keep many 
away from the school who cannot afford to keep themselves at 
school, while it will make the school rather unpopular, as all 
the better schools of whatever denomination give assistance to 
scholars ; but it will have the effect of raising the standard of 
the scholars and putting education on its proper basis a very 
necessary thing for the Malagasy, who have begun to think 
that they ought to be sought after and bought to be scholars 
and Christians. 

BOYS SCHOOL. I have just finished examining the school, 
and am glad to say that it has made very fair progress during 
the past six months ; this school is especially useful, as the 
scholars leaving the high school to become teachers spend 
a few months here, and learn how to conduct their future 

2. DUTY AT CHRIST CHURCH. I take my share in the 
daily services, and the two schools mentioned above attend 
this church ; also I take my turn in preaching and celebra 
tions here. 

part of my Sundays are spent in the country stations, where I 
hold singing classes and communicants classes during the week 
days. I generally visit two different stations every Sunday. 
During the past six months I have baptised thirteen in these 
seven stations, and have celebrated eighteen times, with 635 
communicants. There are classes for Baptism and Confirmation 
in each church. 

The stations are (i.) Ankadifotsy and (ii.) Isaoncirana, in the 
suburbs of Antananarivo ; (iii.) Anosijato ; (iv.) Anjanamano- 
rovola ; (v.) Malaza ; (vi.) Androhibe ; (vii.) Morarano, all to 
the south and west of the city. 

The offertory for S.P.G. in these churches on the Day of 
Intercession for Missions was 1 3s. 4d., and each church has 
commenced a fund for self-support. 



There are fourteen churches in these two districts. I have 
visited them four times during the past six months, and have 
baptised 126 persons, one-half of whom are adults ; fifty-one 
have been confirmed since March in the two districts. I have 
celebrated Holy Communion twelve times, with 336 com 

There are quarterly meetings in each district, and monthly 
classes for teachers, which are taken by the two college students, 
Raboanary in charge of the Isaha district, and Rajorlina in 
charge of the Valdnaukaratra district. 


There has been considerable progress made in both districts 
during the past half year. 

5. SCHOOLS. I have examined 665 scholars during the last 
two months. There has been marked progress since last year 
in almost every school. 

6. PRINTING. I send by this mail some books which we 
have put out from our press, viz. the Malagasy Prayer-book, 
Psalter, and Hymn-book. 

An eucharistic manual, and the first part of Theophilus 
Anglicanus, Browne on the Articles, and Pearson on the Creed 
are still in hand. I am superintending seven churches being 
erected in the country, and some others which are being en 
larged, and some school houses ; in each case the natives are 
doing more than they have hitherto, and the lesson which we 
gave to the country stations by stopping the two oldest for some 
months, owing to their slackness at the end of last year, and 
insisting on their doing something for their teachers before we 
received them again, has had a good effect, and I trust that 
before many months each church will do something towards its 

of % 

OME of our readers may have joined in a Day of 
Intercession for this year before our present number 
reaches their eyes. It is right, however, that we 
should reprint the very important document on the 
subject of the season for Intercession for Foreign Missions which 
has been issued by the two Archbishops of Canterbury and York. 
It has already appeared in several newspapers, and been widely 
circulated, but it should also find a place in the Mission Field. 

We desire to express our anxiety that the season for general Intercession 
for Missions having been finally agreed upon with all the Churches of the 
Anglican Communion should be observed as widely and earnestly as 
possible in all our Parishes. 

There is a deep and just conviction that this Intercession has been 
answered by many marks of blessing, and especially in the raising up of 
men devoted to spread the knowledge of Christ. 

It would be much to be lamented if the changes of the date, which were 
thought advisable, should be found to have produced any languor as to its 
united observance. 

The day now recommended " in preference " to others is " the eve of 
St. Andrew s Day," not being a Sunday. In this year it is Advent 
Sunday. Much of the spirit and force of the observance depends upon 
the sense of unity which the special day and its services awaken. We 
accordingly recommend that Saturday, November 28th, should be kept 
with special services as heretofore in a still more united and general 
manner than was possible while the date was still under consideration. 

Should the Saturday be an inconvenient day in some parishes, we hope 
that Friday, the 27th, may be observed there. But we would point out 
that in order to give fullest opportunities, the fortnight from the Sunday 
before Advent to the Second Sunday has been noted as suitable for the use 
of the Service. 

The aspect of Missionary work is everywhere cheering. Hindrances 
daily lessen, and much progress has been made everywhere in spite of 
them. Every step of Mission progress is now felt, even by cold witnesses, 
to be a step in civilisation. We ought to pray for unitedness in the spirit 
with which all the work is done, and for fresh gifts of zeal and wisdom. 


The right development of native churches grows every year a greater and 
more pressing question ; the maintenance of the primitive Churches of the 
East, whose very existence is imperilled by lack of education and of inde 
pendence ; the keeping pace with the vast outspread of our own popula 
tions over new lands, and our relations with the great cultivated races of 
the old world, as well as our influence over uncivilised and semi-barbarous 
tribes, are all matters of fresh and increasing interest matters in which 
we need the fullest Divine guidance as well as willingness and zeal. 

We ask the parochial clergy of both Provinces to give to their flocks the 
opportunity of united intercession, and to bring before them the duty and 
blessing of advancing by prayer, by gifts, by personal labour and mutual 
association, the Kingdom of God on earth. 



AT the end of the year we must as usual appeal to our 
readers to increase their own numbers. There can be 
no doubt that it is of great importance that this should be 
done. To increase the number of those who month by month 
read of what the Society is doing must certainly help forward 
the great Missionary cause. 

BOUND copies of the Mission Field for the year 1885 can 
be obtained for three shillings apiece, or cases for binding 
the twelve numbers for eightpence. 

BISHOP CALDWELL has for some time been anxious to 
have Caldwell College, Tuticorin, Tinnevelly, raised to the 
rank of a first-class college under the University of Madras, 
so that it might be authorised to teach up to the B.A. degree. 
This has now been done. The only difficulty in the way was 
that this would involve the necessity of obtaining an additional 
professor from Europe, and this would entail a large additional 
expenditure. This difficulty has now been removed by the 
liberality of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
which has provided a salary of 250 a year for six years, and 
this sum will be increased by a grant of one-third of the amount 
from Government to a graduate of any of the universities. 
The person appointed to this post will act as assistant to the 

? 1 ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 383 

principal, and will be required to teach the higher mathematics 
and physical science. He will have passage-money and a 
free house. This will not appear a very tempting offer from a 
pecuniary point of view, but a clergyman or a missionary 
minded layman, who is ready and willing to work for God and 
to look to Him for recompense, will find many opportunities of 
making himself exceedingly useful both in the College itself, 
which is essentially a Christian and Missionary College, and in 
the Tinnevelly Mission. It is desirable that an appointment 
should be made without delay, so that the person appointed 
should be able to arrive and commence work by the 1st of 
January, 1886. Applications may be made to the Secretary, 
S.P.G., 19, Delahay Street, Westminster. 

The Bishop has since written to say that the salary will be 
at the rate of 500 per annum, and adds that a schoolmaster 
of the first grade will be placed on the same footing as a 

THE Rev. E. Bickersteth has been chosen by the Arch 
bishop of Canterbury to be the Bishop of the English 
Church in Japan, in succession to the late Bishop Poole. Two 
months ago we mentioned that Mr. Bickersteth, who was 
compelled last year by his medical advisers to give up all 
idea of returning to his work at Delhi, had determined to make 
another effort to resume it, and with that view had resigned 
the valuable benefice of Framlingham. Mr. Bickersteth will 
thus carry out his desire to return to Missionary work, though 
in a different sphere, and in a climate which it is to be hoped 
may suit his constitution better than that of Delhi. 

ON the 1st of September the Cathedral of St. John the 
Baptist, at St. John s, Newfoundland, was consecrated 
by the Bishop of the diocese. The nave was finished during 
Bishop Feild s Episcopate, being consecrated in 1850. The 
completion of the Cathedral has been entered upon as a 
memorial of Bishop Feild. 

384 NOTES OF THE MONTH. f MiS8io " FieU1 - 

Deo. 1, 188f>. 

T])c Bishop of Nova Scotia preached both in the morning 
and in the evening. 

The Cathedral is of large dimensions, and noble in its pro 
portions. The nave is 96 ft. 4 in. long, and the choir and 
tower 87 ft. 6 in., thus making the total length more than 
180 ft. The width of the choir is 58 ft., and that of the 
transepts 99 ft. 7 in. The highest part of the vaulted roof 
is 60 ft. 4 in. It is built entirely of stone. 

A CLERGYMAN is required for the combined Chaplaincy 
-\~ of Sulina and Galatz. The Bishop of Gibraltar thus 
describes it : 

" There is a pretty little church at Sulina. The chaplain must divide 
his time between Galatz and Sulina. His work will be chiefly among the 
British sailors, who in large numbers frequent the ports of the lower 

His lordship computes that the chaplain s stipend will be 
225 per annum, and adds that he will have free passage 
between Galatz and Sulina. 

VACANCIES in two Organising Secretaryships have been 
filled up by the appointment of the Rev. J. A. Lobley 
for the dioceses of Ely and Peterborough, in succession to the 
late Rev. H. Field Blackett, and of the Rev. Canon Dart for 
the diocese of Manchester, in succession to the Rev. Dr. G. U. 
Pope, who is entering upon his professorial duties at Oxford. 

MR. LOBLEY was formerly a Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, having been Eighth Wrangler. He was 
also in the Second Class in the Classical Tripos, and ob 
tained the Maitland University Prize in 1870. After holding 
some English preferment, he went to Canada in 1873, when 
he was appointed Principal of the Theological College at 
Montreal ; from 1877 to the present year he has held the 
high office of Principal of the University of Bishop s College, 
Lennoxville. The fruits of his seven years rule were briefly 
recorded in the Mission Field for June last. 


The Rev. John Dart, D.C.L. Oxford, after being Vice- 
Principal of St. Peter s College, Peterborough, obtained ex 
perience of the Church s work abroad in two widely different 
directions. He was first the Warden of St. Thomas s College, 
Colombo, and since 1876 has been President of the University 
of Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

A HARVEST without reapers is waiting at Toungoo, in 
British Burma. The Rev. A. Salmon, whose work there 
is mainly among the Karens, says 

" There is a splendid opening here for a Missionary to the Burmese. 
The ground has been broken by the ten years steady and earnest work of 
the Rev. J. Kristna, and the fields, to all human appearance, seem ripe 
ready to harvest. If three Missionaries are denied us for the Karens, is it 
too much to expect two for the Karens and one for the Burmese ? " 

rriHE Rev. R. J. Mullins mentions in a letter an ordination 
J- of four deacons by the Bishop of Grahamstown. One of 
these was one of Mr. Mullins Kaffir pupils. He was second of 
the four in the examination, the others being Europeans. 

IN a notification addressed to his diocese by the Bishop of 
Guiana, his lordship speaks of the Society in warm and 
grateful terms : 

" This diocese has been for nearly sixty years a debtor to the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Our native Indian races 
have been and still are largely dependent upon the support received from 
it, and the Mission in connection with the immigrants from the East Indies 
and China are in receipt of considerable aid every year, and the time 
has come, as the Bishop believes, for a special recognition of the un 
grudging aid so long afforded. 

" It is under these circumstances that the Bishop ventures to urge his 
brethren, as strongly as he can, to divert the offerings which may be given 
from the usual channels, and to give them instead to some great object out 
side the parish or district ; and he can think of none which has greater 
claims than the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel." 


T a time when so much attention is directed towards the 
capital of King Thee Baw, it may interest our readers 
if we briefly enumerate the principal events of the Society s 
connection with Mandalay. 


On October 8th, 1863, the Rev. J. E. Marks first reached 
Mandalay. On the llth of that month he had an interview 
with the king, who gave him full permission to work as a 
Christian Missionary, and promised to build a church and a 
school, and to give land for a cemetery, entirely at his own 
charges, declining proffered assistance. In October, 1872, the 
church was finished, and on July 31st, 1873, it was consecrated 
by the Bishop of Calcutta. It contained the font, the gift of 
Her Majesty Queen Victoria. In 1878 the king died, and was 
succeeded by Thee Baw ; and in October, 1879, the Rev. James 
Colbeck, who had rescued some refugees and who had long been 
in great danger, at last was compelled by the British authorities 
to leave Mandalay, on the ground that even if he were justified 
in risking his own life, he should not compromise the British 
Government by remaining. 

THE Rev. C. G. Barlow, who during the last few months has 
been pleading the Society s cause in various parts of 
England with marked success, is returning to his work in 
North Queensland. He sails in the Merkara on December 14th. 
In addition to two clergy who have preceded him, he will be 
accompanied by another, and also by a theological student. 
After his return to North Queensland he will always be happy 
to hear from any clergy anxious to join the Bishop in his work. 

fTIHE English Church of All Saints , Leipzig, was solemnly 
-L dedicated by Bishop Titcomb on Sunday, November 8th. 
The church is built upon a site that was given, in the German 
Gothic style, at a cost of upwards of 4,000, and is capable of 
seating some 500 people. As regards the exterior, a spire is 
still wanted, which will of course add materially to the ap 
pearance. The church has a very bright look inside, and the 
altar is well raised above the body of the church. The short 
Consecration service took place after Morning Prayer on 
Sunday (there had been a Celebration earlier in the day). The 
Bishop gave most eloquent and fatherly addresses, both in the 
morning and evening, from the text, "Behold, I have set before 
thee an open door, and no man can shut it " (Rev. iii. 8J. There 

5 dl ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 387 

can be no doubt that the Rev. L. R. Tuttiett is doing good work 
in the English colony in Leipzig. There was a conversazione on 
Monday evening under the immediate patronage of the Bishop 
and Baron Tauchnitz, the British Consul. 

THE volume of the Gospel Missionary for 1885 is now 
ready. It may be bought in a stiff illustrated cover for 
ninepence, and separate covers for binding may be had for 
twopence. It contains ninety-two pages, with numerous illus 
trations, and forms an attractive Sunday School Prize or 
Christmas Gift. 

WE understand that the Bishopric of Bloemfontein has 
been offered to the Rev. George Wyndham Hamilton 
Knight-Bruce, M. A.., Merton College, Oxford, Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Bedford, Curate-in-charge of St. Andrew s, Bethnal 
Green, and formerly Vicar of St. George s, Everton, Liverpool. 

WE learn from Madagascar that Mahanoro has been 
bombarded by the French, who threw 375 shells and 
burnt over fifty houses. It was only in the Mission Field for 
October that we described the wonderful success of the opening 
of the Mission there. 

JUDGING from the number of publications for the Day of 
Intercession which have been purchased, it would appear 
that the observance of the day this year is very considerably 
larger than it has been for many years. 



Reports have been received from the Rev. T. Williams of the Diocese of Lahore; 8. M. 
Samnelson of Zululand; W. H. R. Bevan and W. T. Gaul of Bloemfontein; A. M. Hewlett 
and G. Kestell Cornish of Madagascar ; T. P. Quintin of Newfoundland, and H. S. Crispin of 


: Mission Pield, 
Dec. 1, 1885. 


THE Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19, Delahay Street, on Friday, 
November 20th, at 2 P.M., the Rev. B. Compton in the Chair. There were 
also present the Bishop of Melanesia, and twenty-four other Members of the 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Accounts up to 
October 31st : 

A. Monthly Abstract of RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS, 

January Oct., 1885. 

1. I 2. 

Subscriptions, ; 
Donations, and Legacies. 


Rents, &c. 





















B. Comparative Amount of Receipts for the General Fund at the end 
of October in five consecutive years. 






Subscriptions., Donations, and Collec-l 
tions . ) 






Legacies .... 






Dividends Rents &c. 












3. Power was given to affix the Corporate Seal to certain transfers of 

4. The Rev. C. Taberer, from Grahamstown, addressed the Society. 

5. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in July were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
January : 

The Eev. Arnold Letchworth, St. John the Evangelist, Kingston ; Rev. John 
Sharpe, Elmley Lovett, Worcester ; Rev. Hugh P. Currie, Missionary College, 
Dorchester, Wallingford, Oxon. ; Rev. Darwall Stone ; Rev. F. F. Lambert, 
Clothall Rectory, Baldock ; Rev. J. A. Butt, Weston Rectory, Stevenage ; Eev. 
J. R. Izat Wroxton, Banbury ; Rev. A. Highton, Great Bourton, Banbury, and 
Rev. H. Jones, Weston-on-the-Green, Bicester. 



Algoma, 107. 

Andaman Islands, The, 229. 

Annual Public Meeting, The Society s, 197. 

Australia, The Aborigines of, 237, 3H. 

Barbados, 186. 

Bloemfontein, 144, 308. 

Bombay, 187. 

Burma, 1, 133. 

Calcutta, 357. 

Cassiar, 281. 

Codrington College, 188. 

Continental Chaplaincies, 46. 

Day of Intercession, 

Delhi, 70, 153, 265. 

Education of Missionaries Children, 14. 

Finance in Manitoba, 82. 

Gaspe, 122, 146. 

Gatineau, 92. 

Gibraltar, Memorandum by Bishop of, 240. 

Grahamstown, 362. 

Grants for 1886, The Society s, 169. 

Guiana, 33. 

Indo-British Mission, Bombay, 137. 

Japan, 65, 211, 305. 

Kaffirs and Boers, 269. 

Kennet, Death of the Rev. Dr., 49 

Madagascar, 102, 299, 3.78. 

Madras, 49, 261, 287, 318, 337. 

Magdalen Islands, The, 247. 

Maritzburg, 345. 

Marriage Questions in Tanjore, 261. 

Mauritius, 374. 

Mission to a Degraded Race, A New, 229. 

Montreal, 93. 

Nassau, 215, 311. 

Natal, 165. 

New Caledonia, 281 

New Guinea, 87. 

New Westminster, 272. 

Nicobars, Mission to the, 293. 

Our Latest Protectorate, 87. 

Paku Church Conference, 133. 

Panama, 10, 175. 

Perth, 371. 

Pretoria, 269. 

Qu Appelle, 325. 

Quebec, 122, 146, 247. 

Ramnad, 337. 

Rangoon, 1, 133, 229, 293. 

Rebellion in North- West Canada, 181. 

Religious Fairs at Delhi, 265. 

Revolution in. Panama, 175. 

Roorkee, 357. 

Rupertsland, 82, 181. 

Saskatchewan, 37. 

St. John s, Kaffraria, 18, 113, 365. 

Titcomb, Memorandum by Bishop, 46. 

Tokio, 65, 211, 305. 

Vepery, 318. 

Warangesda, 237. 

Zululand, 243, 302. 


Alberta, 38. 

Algoma, 56, 107, 171. 

Andaman Islands, The, 229, 353. 

Anniversary Sermon, The, 96, 181, 190, 218. 

Annual Festival, 131. 

Annual Meeting, The, 97. 

Annual Public Meeting, The, 97, 190, 198, 218. 

Aspinwall, 10. 

Assam, 26. 

Assiniboia, 30. 59. 

Assyrian Christians, 170. 

Athabasca, 43, 59, 98. 

Atkinson, Rev. C. F., 160. 

Australia, 130, 157, 170, 191, 209, 219, 237, 871. 

Ayre, Rev. J. W., 31, 62, 98. 

Baker, Canon J., 161. 

Balavendrum, Rev. R., 257. 

Banerjea, Death of the Rev. K. M., 221. 

Banks, Rev. J. W. H., 351. 

Banting Mission, 157. 

Barbados. 186. 

Barlow, Rev. C. G., 132, 354. 

Barnes, Mr. W. H., 255. 

Basutoland, 144, 226. 


Beacon sfield, 27. 

Beer, Rev. H., 108. 

Belmore, The Earl of, 197, 208. 

Bickersteth, Rev. E., 157, 323, 383. 

Billing, Rev. G., 157. 

Blackett, Rev. H. Field, 349. 

Blake, Rev. W. H., 261. 

Blaylock, Rev. T., 125. 

Bloemfontein, 27, 144, 172, 226, 352, 368, 837. 

Body, Provost, 29 

Bombay, 137, 170, 292. 

Bompas, Bishop, 31. 

Bower, Rev. Dr., 353. 

Bray, Rev. W. H., 26. 

Brereton, Rev. W., 160, 228. 

Bridger, Rev. J., 97, 129, 220. 

Brisbane, The Bishop of, 130, 157, 191, 205. 

209, 219. 

Brookes, Rev. E. T., 194. 
Brunswick, 220. 
Burma, 1, 54, 133. 
Bywater, Rev. M. J., 257. 
Caen, 255. 
Calcutta Diocese, 29, 131, 164,170, 221, 348, 357. 

D D 



Caldecott, Rev. A., 188. 

Caldwell, Bishop, 59, 219, 337, 382. 

Caledonia Diocese, 59. 

Calgary, 38, 191. 

Callaway, Bishop, 116. 

Canadian Winter, 44, 56. 

Canterbury, The Archbishop of, 59, 61, 96, 97, 

157, 168, 197, 218, 219, 381. 
Capetown Diocese, 160, 161, 169, 172, 227, 257. 
Carlyon, Eev. H. C., 264. 
Cassiar, 59, 281, 
Chamar Christians at Delhi, 71. 
Chard, Rev. C. H., 229. 
Chefoo, 60. 
China, 60, 160, 228. 
Chinese in Australia, 158 ; in America, 275, 


Chota Nagpore, 29, 131, 164. 
Chowne, Rev. A. W. H., 109. 
Christ Church, Bishop of, 29. 
Churchill, C. Esq., 31, 62, 98. 
Clode, C. M. Esq., 31, 62, 98. 
Clydesdale, 117. 
Coakes, Rev. E. L., 113. 
Codrington College, 186. 
Colbeck, Rev. J. A., 55. 
Cole, Rev. J. S., 108. 
Colombo, 352. 
Colon, 10, 161, 175. 
Columbus s Landing Place, 315. 
Consecrations of Bishops : Athabasca, 31, 

43 ; Niagara, 219 ; Brisbane, 219. 
Constantinople, 352. 
Continental Chaplaincies, 46, 173, 190, 193, 

220, 240, 255, 291, 349, 384, 386. 
Conversion, Special cases of; in Sarawak, 

257 ; at Madras, 287 ; in Maritzburg, 346 ; 

in Japan, 66, 305 ; in Kaffraria, 256 ; at 

Delhi, 79 ; in Basutoland, 226 ; at Penang, 

256 ; at Roorkee, 358. 
Cook, Rev. T., 56. 
Cooke, Rev. G. B., 108. 
Converts, Segregation of Delhi, 71. 
Corea, 173, 189. 
Corentyn River, 24. 
Cory, Rev. C. P., 323. 
Cox, Rev. S. W., 27. 
Crisp, Canon, 351. 

Critchley, Death of the Rev. F., 157, 191. 
Crompton, Rev. W., 109. 
Crookham Remittance, 163. 
Currey, Death of the Rev. Dr., 191, 196, 228. 
Curtis, Rev. Canon, 352. 
Dalton, the late General, 131. 
Dance, Rev. C. D., 24. 
Dart, Rev. Canon, 385. 
Day of Intercession, The, 129, 190, 203, 322, 

348, 381, 387. 
Deaths : Dr. C. E. Kennet, 23, 49 ; Bishop of 

Niagara, 58; Bishop of London, 61, 97; 

Rev. J. Smithwhite, 130 ; Rev. F. Critchley, 

157 ; Rev. Dr. Currey, 191, 196 ; Rev. K. M. 

Banerjea, 221 ; Bishop of Lincoln, 222 ; 

Queen Emma, 223 ; Bishop Poole, 255 ; 

Rev. A. Jamieson, 290 ; C. Raikes, Esq., 

C.S.I., 324; Rev. H. Field Blaekett, 349; 

Rev. Dr. Bower, 353. 
Delhi, 70, 153, 170, 205, 207, 224, 259, 265, 323, 


Dickinson, Rev. T., 64. 
Diocesan Representatives, 98. 
Domingia, 60. 
Dordrecht, 194. 
Dorrell, Rev. A. A., 257. 
Doughlin, Rev. P. H., 60, 192. t 
Dowling, Rev. F., 352. 
Drinkwater, Rev. M. J., 131. 
Dufferin, The Earl of, 141. 

Dundas, Dean, 227. 

Education of Missionaries Children, 14 

Edwards, Rev. B.. 204. 

Elwes, Rev. W. W., 260. 

Emerson, 158. 

Emigration, 29, 97, 129, 220, 354. 

Emma, Death of Queen, 223. 

Endle, Rev. S., 26. 

Eneyudah. 35. 

Europe, 46, 173, 190. 193, 220, 240, 255, 291 
349, 352, 384, 386. 

Exeter, The Bishop of, 62, 98. 

Fessenden, Rev. E. J., 208. 

Fiji, 170, 172. 

Finance in Manitoba, 82. 

Fingoes, 21. 

Fire at Codrington College, 186 

Fisher, Rev. F. H., 97. 

Fredericton, 169. 

French, Rev. R. J., 374. 

Fuller, Death of Bishop, 58. 

Galatz and Sulina, 384. 

Gallant conduct of Canon McKay, 322 

Ganges Water, A Test, 79. 

Gaspe, 122, 147. 

Gatineau, 93, 

Gatun, 13. 

Gaul, Canon, 27, 368. 

Generosity of a Demerara Proprietor, 355. 

Gibraltar, The Bishop of, 193. 240, 291, 384. 

Gibson, Rev. A. G. S., 28, 116, 120, 365 

Gifford, Archdeacon, 31, 62, 98. 

Glyn, Hon. and Rev. E. C., 31, 61, 98. 

Gnanamuttn, Rev. S., 132. 

Gore Bay, 56. 

" Gospel Missionary," The, 387. 

Grahamstown, 27, 169, 172, 104, 362, 385, 3S8. 

Grants, The Society s, 158, 164, 169, 189, 198, 
289, 323. 

Green, Rev. T. W., 256. 

Gregory, Rev. F. A., 103. 

Gresley, Rev. G. F., 161. 

Gribble, Rev. J. B., 24, 237, 371. 

Growth in Grahamstown, 27 ; in Kaffraria, 
29 ; in Madagascar, 103, 301 : in Bloem- 
fontein, 144 ; in Capetown, 160 ; in Japan, 
162 ; in Sarawak, 194 ; in Melanesia, 210 ; in 
Qu Appelle, 328 ; of Bishop s College, 
Lennoxville, 194. 

Guiana, 24, 30, 33, 129, 157, 191, 355, 385. 

Gwyther, Rev. W., 33. 

Hale, Bishop, 98, 130, 239. 

Hamilton, Bishop, 96, 219. 

Hannington, Bishop, 98. 

Harvest Offerings, 289. 

Heard, Rev. W., 33. 

Heathen Superstition, 26. 

Heathen s Gift, A, 226. 

Henderson, Gift of Messrs. J. and E., 28. 

Hewlett, Rev. A. M., 102. 

Honduras, 169. 

Honey for Sale, 355. 

Honolulu, 223, 355. 

Hopper, Rev. E. C., 65, 162. 

Hoppner, Rev. F. H. T., 357. 

Howell, Rev. W., 194. 

Hubbard, Rt. Hon. J. G., 32, 62. 

Hughesoffka, 241. 

Indians in Gaspe, 151. 

Indians in the North-West, 181, 224, 322. 

Indians of Columbia, 272. 

Indians of Walpole Island, 290. 

Indo-British Mission, Bombay, 137. 

Intercession, The Day of, 129, 190, 203, 322, 
348, 381, 387." 

Ireland, 199. 

Jackson, Rev. J., 25. 

Jackson, Death of Bishop J., 61 



Jamaica, Diocese, 11, 161, 175, 192. 

Jamieson, Rev. A., 290. 

Japan, 60, 65, 162, 163, 173, 211, 255, 305, 383. 

Johnson, Rev. C., 160, 243. 

Jones, Rev. Wordsworth B., 1, 133. 

Journals, The Society s, 222. 

Kaffraria, 18, 28, 113, 256, 365. 

Kaiteur Falls, 34. 

Kalk Bay, 161. 

Kamloops, 279. 

Karens, The, 2, 53, 133. 

Kelly, Bishop, 291. 

Kemmendine Training Institution. 56 

Kennet, The late Rev. Dr., 23, 49 ISO 

Kerr, Rev. S., 11, 161, 175. 

Key, Bishop, 28, 113. 

Key, Rev. E. B., 11. 

Knight, Rev. S. E., 110. 

Knight-Bruce, Rev. G. W. H., 387. 

Kwamagwaza, 25, 225, 243, 246. 

Labour Traffic Outrages, 91. 

Ladies Association, The, 53, 157. 

Lahore Diocese, 70, 153, 170, 205, 207, 224, 259 

265, 323, 349. 
Laughlin, Mr. A. C., 292. 
Lawrence, Miss, 103. 
Lefroy, Rev. G. A., 70. 
Leggatt, Rev. F. W., 257. 
Leipzig, 386. 

Lennoxville, Bishop s College, 194. 
Leprosy at the Cape, 161. 
Letsea, The Chief, 146. 
Lichfield, The Bishop of, 131, 190, 218. 
Lincoln, Bishop Wordsworth of, 222 
Liverpool Anniversary, The, 354. 
Lloyd, Rev. A., 66, 163, 211, 305. 
Llwyd, Rev. T., 109. 
Lobley, Rev. J. A., 194, 384. 
London, Death of the Bishop (Jackson) of, 

London, The Bishop of, 157, 204. 

Long Island Cathedral, 224. 

Lowry, General, 87. 

Lowry, Lieutenant, 88. 

Mackintosh, Rev. A., 356. 

McKay, Rev. Canon G., 322. 

McMahon, Rev. E. O., 103, 378 

McMorine, Rev. C. K., 107. 

Madagascar, 101, 299, 323, 378, 387. 

Madras, 23, 49, 57, 59, 130, 132, 158, 170 195 

219, 260, 261, 287, 291, 318, 337, 353. 
Mafeting, 145. 

Magdalen Islands, The, 246. 
Magnan, Rev. W. B., 109. 
Mahanoro, 103, 299, 387. 
Mandalay, 385. 

Maritzburg Diocese, 165, 172, 345, 351. 
Markham, Rev. A., 345. 
Marks, Rev J. E., 386. 
Marriage Questions at Tanjore, 
Mauritius, 374. 
Medical Work, 27, 145. 
Melanesia, Bishop of, 129, 205, 209. 
Midnight Meeting of Clans at Delhi 75 
Miller, Rev. E. F., 
Mills, Rev. S., 159. 
Mindhu, 131. 

Missionaries Children s Education, 14. 
Missionary Boat, The Algoma, 111. 
Missionary Boxes, 163. 
"Mission Field," Circulation of the, 23, 382. 
Missions, Three Eras of, 198. 
Monthly Meeting, 31, 61, 131, 164, 195, 228 

260, 355, 388. 
Montreal, 93. 
Moulmein, 54. 
Mullins, Rev. R. J., 385. 
Mussulman Dread of Zenanas, 258. 

Mussulman Persecution, 359. 

Nassau, 99, 215, 311. 

Nassau, Resignation of the Bishop of, 215 

Natal, The Church in, 165. 

Native Agents, 3, 7, 18, 65, 105, 343. 

Native Churches, 5, 18, 35, 134, 162, 223, 273, 
337, 362. 

Native Ministry, 9, 26, 59, 99, 105 132 162 
211, 221, 366. 

Ncolosi, 28. 

Needs of Algoma, The, 111. 

Nelson, Lord, 227. 

New Caledonia, 170, 281. 

New Guinea, 87. 

New Westminster, 272. 

New Work, 55, 59, 103, 107, 163, 299 

New Zealand, 29, 260. 
Newcastle, the Bishop of, 157. 

Newfoundland, 169, 170, 383. 

Newfoundland, 291..* 

Niagara, 97, 219. 

Niagara, Death of the Bishop of, 58 

Nicobars, The, 234, 293. 

Nobbs, The late Rev. G., 209. 

Nodder, Mr. J. H. M., 229, 298, 353. 

Norfolk Island, 170, 209. 

North Borneo, 172. 

North China, 60, 160, 228. 

North Queensland, 132, 170, 323, 354, 386 

Nova Scotia, 169. 

Ogle, J. W. Esq., M.D., 98, 99. 

Ontario, 29, 208. 

Opportunities, 41, 57, 60, 87, 94, 104, 106, 116 

158, 159, 163, 172, 173, 224, 315. 
Organising Secretaries, 227, 349, 384. 
Osborne, Rev. A., 110. 
Our Latest Protectorate, 87. 
Panama, The Mission at, 11, 161, 175, 192 323 
Papendorp, 161. 
Parry, Bishop, 239. 
Peking, 160. 
Penang, 256. 
Perce, The Rock, 147. 
Pertain, Rev. J., 57. 
Perth Diocese, 239, 371. 
Peterborough, The Bishop of. 96, 131, 157 
Peter s Day, St., 255. 
Pilgrim s Rest, 852. 
Pinkham, Archdeacon, 82, 100. 
Plaistead, Rev. H., 93. 
Plant. Rev. R. W., 110. 
Pondoland, 117. 
Pongas Mission, 60, 172, 192. 
Poole, Bishop, 255. 
Poozoondoung, 55. 
Pope, Rev. Dr. G. U., 195, 227. 
Port Darwin, 157. 
Potaro Mission, The, 30, 33. 
Prestan, the Panama Rebel, 177, 323. 
Pretoria, 171, 269, 352. 
Prince Albert, 37. 
Qu Appelle Diocese, 30, 59, 60, 98, 181, 183, 

Quebec Diocese, 122, 147, 169, 194, 220, 246 


Queen Emma s Death, 223. 
Raikes, C. Esq., C.S.I., 324. 
Ramnad, 57, 337. 

Rangoon, 1, 54, 55, 99, 133, 229, 293, 353, 385. 
Rebellion in North-West Canada, 181, 223, 322 
Religions Fairs in India, 265, 357. 
Relton, Rev. E. W., 344. 
Remnants of the Indians in East Canada 151 
Reports Received, 61, 97, 196, 259, 324, 355 


Rickard, Rev. C. T., 55. 
Ring, Rev. Dr., 255. 
Ripon, The Bishop of, 190, 218. 



Riverina, The Bishop of, 32, 238. 

Rocky Mountains, The, 39. 

Rome, The English Church in, 193. 

Roorkee, 357. 

Rupertsland, 56, 83, 158, 181, 223. 

Rupertsland, Provincial Synod, 30, 43, 59. 

Sadler, Rev. H., 269. 

Salmon, Rev. A., 133, 385. 

Samuel, Rev. D., 59. 

Samuelson, Rev. S. M., 25, 159, 225. 

Sarawak, 57, 194, 257. 

Saskatchewan, 37, 169, 181, 191, 224, 822. 

Saunders, H. W. Esq., Q.C., 31, 62, 98. 

Self-help in Native Churches in Kaffraria, 18, 

21 ; in Guiana, 24 ; in Japan, 65, 162 ; in 

Basutoland, 226 ; in Grahamstown, 362 ; in 

Madagascar, 379. 
Self-help inQu Appelle, 331. 
Selwyn, Bishop, 129, 157. 
Seychelles, 376. 
Shaw, Rev. A. C., 60, 162, 211. 
Sheldon, Rev. A. H., 59, 281. 
Sh erbrook Home, 97. 
Sherbrooke, 220. 
Shimada, 66, 162, 211. 
Shway Bey, Rev., 99. 
Sierra Leone, 60, 172, 192. 
Singapore Diocese, 57, 172, 194, 256 
Small-pox in Basutoland, 145. 
Smith, Rev. E. Paske, 38. 
Smith, Rev. F. J. J., 60. 
Smith, Rev. G. H., 103, 299. 
Smith white, Death of the Rev. J., 130. 
Societies for Missions, 200. 
Society s Income, The, 31, 98, 132, 164, 195, 

228, 292, 324, 355, 388. 
Society s Income, Notes on the, 94, 173. 
South Indian Vernaculars, 195. 
Special Funds, 62, 65. 
St. Alban s Mission, 18. 
St. Augustine s College, Canterbury, 53, 255, 


St. Augustine s, Zululand, 160. 
St. Christopher s, Needs of, 316. 
St John s, Kaffraria, 18, 28, 113, 256, 365. 
St. Paul s, Zululand, 25, 159, 225. 
Standing Committee, 31. 
Stenson, Rev. E. W., 145, 226. 
Stickine River, 59. 
Storm at Ramnad, 57. 
Stubbs, Rev. E, S., 110. 
Superstition in the Andamans, 232, at Delhi, 

79, 266 ; in the Transvaal, 269 ; in the 

Nicobars, 295. 

Susu, The New Testament in, 60. 

Swaziland, 25. 

Sydney, 170. 

Taberer, Rev. C., 388. 

Tamil Literature, 195. 

Tanjore, 261. 

Tasmania, 227, 352. 

Taylor, Rev. J., 292. 

Thaba Nchu, 351. 

Theophilus, Rev. S., 287. 

Thlotse Heights, 144, 352. 

Titcomb, Bishop, 46, 349. 

Tokio, 60, 65, 163, 211, 305. 

Tonkin, Rev. C. D., 118. 

Tooke, Rev. W. M. , 56, 108. 

Toronto, Trinity College, 28. 

Toungoo, 2, 99, 385. 

Translation work ; Karen, 8 ; Susu, 00, 192 ; 

Japanese, 68, 163, 309, ; Fallah, 192 ; Bengali, 

221 ; Zulu, 245 ; Serolong, 351 ; Tamil, 863 ; 

Malagasy, 380. 

Tremenheere, General, 31, 61, 98. 
Trichinopoly, 219, 291. 
Tristan d Acunha, 169. 
Turpin, Rev. W. H., 362. 
Tuticorin, 59, 219, 382. 
Ullmann, Rev. W. H., 157. 
Undup, 194. 
Uniondale, 160. 

United States Church, 65, 69, 98, 222, 225. 
Uppingham School, Gift by the Boys, 224, 
Usherwood, Archdeacon, 351. 
Vacancies, 116, 191, 352, 355, 384. 
Vepery High School, 318. 
Wakefield, Rev. C. D., 311. 
Walpole Island, 290. 
Warangesda, 24, 237. 
Waters, Rev. H., 18. 
Watson, Rev. H. C. M., 260. 
Webber, Bishop, 130, 191, 205, 209, 219. 
Whitley, Rev. J. C., 29, 97, 164. 
Widdicomb, Rev. J., 144, 352. 
Wickham, Rev. W.G., 163. 
Williams, Mr. H. A., 219, 291. 
Williams, Rev. T. A., 113. 
Wilson, Rev. E. F., 106. 
Windsor, the Dean of, 157. 
Winnipeg, 38, 82. 
Winter, Kev. R. R., 97, 153, 157, 205, 207, 224, 


Yale, 274. 

Yamagata, Rev. M., 162, 211, 305. 
Zenana work, 54, 258. 
Zululand, 25, 159, 160, 172, 225, 248, 802.