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OR '^-'''n'f . 


ENLARGED: g l'§ 

From Mat to August, inclusivt, ^ ~ d 

M.DCCC,^,X. ^l^ 

2 > 
With an APPENDIXaSi ' 


<* Fame is iIm tpvr that the dear t»trit doth niie j{ 

(That last infirmUy of noble miod) 
To ecora delights and live laborious days/* MiltOK. 



Sold by Beckbt and Portbr, Booksellers, in Pall ?kfall. 




StraMB tad Tf ettoff» 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


T A B L E; : • 

OF THE , , ' ,/ 

Titles^ Authors* Names^ &c of the Pub- 
lications reviewed in this Volume. 

N. B. For REMARKABLE PASSAGES ill the Critimmt and 
Extracts^ see the I N D £ X, at the End of t^ Volume. 

f^y For the Names, also» of the Anthors of new Disfcrtationt^ 
or other carioas Papers, published in the Miiioirs aad 
Transactions of the Scienti^c Acaobmibs at Home or 
on the Continents and also for the Titles of those Dissertations* 
Sec. of which Accoants are given in the Review, — tee the 
Ifuiix, printed at the £q<1 of each Volome. 

yaSRJDGMENT, aotlytictl, of 
Locke on Homan Undentaadiag, 
Page 107 
Account of Jamai cfly 049 

j9idr§%i to the Clergy m Irelandy 98 
jSdmonitioB to a professed Cbrittiany 

Mmce to HasJ^andmeny , 217 

AfnrSf, Public, Reflections 00, 3}t 
— — , Foreign, See Ftrmgu, 
jtgrieyhure^ Arc. Letters and Paf^ oa. 

Vol. XU 

Pnrsnits of. 



Apology (m the Duke of York, 3 30 
Arrumaiif new, tor t^e Exlitoi't of 
God, 96 

A(X*h ETCOings at SoutbiU, i%^ 

Aticmbly at Newport, Petition totp 

Atcheim on American E^icroachmcnts, 


Athanspaw Crtedr Sermon 00^ 2it 

Attempt to elucidate the CUdfri in 

Council, 77 

AtixanJrum Scbnl, 
Awurica, Poetical Picture of, 
Ametk^m Encroacltneots, 
Antutb of Great BritMo* 

BariUj on Mosc«lar Kod^o, 409 

Batb-Sociitfi LeMtfs and Papers W 

Vol. XI. .7 

'80ttlt of Maida, • P«em» ifttS 

A % M*ium\$ 






SMum*% Hiitorj of FeAdon, e^acbuled, 

ftjlfieU** Glcasiiigs from ZlmmtttnM, 

r a»9 

Siaismf^t Chronolo^cal Register of both 

Houiei of Parliamenty ' loS 

Btddoet*t good Ad f ice to Husbandmen, 

BW^ki't S^nnont, 43) 

Wi9gUy on a Chrit^an L'fc, ^ 43* 

Blacket^% TimeS) an Ode, ' iCO 

Motub, Rev. Abraham > Enay on the 
Life off. XoS 

BrmtU^on the Law of Diitreneiy ir| 
Brantbft Sermon on Lindieyy 336 

^r#*»> View of Poland, 511 

^i;^*f Appeal to the P«bliC| toS 

Ccmwureial Cedi of France, ■ 449 

^Omyn on the Law of Contractt, zis 

C00o/^ on Telegraphic Communication* 


C9«xf iavffMr of EngUnd, View of, %^^ 

Contrgcti, Treatise on the Law of, 


Co0k on the Eviikoce of the Resurrcc* 
tion, 20 1 

*^* CorrespMiiitKt with tbt Rtviiwert^ 
in iia, 224» 447'44S« 

Cmrce/Usf Marchioneti de. Lift of«i. 


C^Mi^*! Faniier*8 Pocket-book^ 214 

Cursory Vrew of Pruisia, 351 

Custanceon the Constitution of Eng- 
land, 266 

CmtaiU9ut DUtsseif Dtscripiion of. 
No. IV. 416 

Cutttr, in Five Lectures, 105 

Cati^mu in Italy by Bonaparte^ hUto- 
rieaf View of, 459 

CmpUlt% Reports of Nlii Print Cases, 


■ ■»*s (Tho.); Gertrude of Wyo 

roing, 239 

CmUeriuty, Abp, of,' Address to, 93 

Cmrktm, Capt,, Memoirs of, 53 

CstbtSOf Irish, Inquiry into vulgar 

Opinions on, S7. See Grattan. 
Chapman, Dr., Life of, 317 

Charttr'Htuttf Historic4l Account of, 

Cbemital Phibttphy, by Fonrcroy, 443 
ChtU di Fsaattmes, loo 

Christ, Divinity of, Reflections on, 

*--— , iUiuifectioA of. Evidence of, 

ChristU Hospital, Lett^ on, 
Chriitisn, professed. Admonition 







* Life, Econonvof, 

Chritiismff* on the Evidenc^es of, 

J ■ , historical View of, 
Ciroml^, British^ 
CAurr^, Established, Oljections to. 
Church Tard, and other Poemr, ]0i 
Char1u^% Fut Sermon, 21 f 

•— ^'i Sermon oa the Athanasian 
Creed, ih. 

Ckrgy in Ireland, Addicsi to, 9S 

CUncat Bloentim^ 4a 6 

C^khitrp 00 the Jewiah Eiocjii*, 435 
CiNdSr dlr CSsMwrcf, . 449 

Caj^*s Lccturea oa $criftaic*F«cu, 

CMMfy • mock Newspaper, %i% 

D*J^uiIa^% History of the Reign of 

Gustavut III. . 512 

Dallas^ Koights, Talcf, 3»S 

Davis, Mr., Sermon on, 924 

De Lille^s Prem 0.1 the Three Kingdoms 

of Nature, 4^ 

DelwQttb, a Novel, . 2x0 

Denmark, English Attack on, poHfical 

Survey o^ 420 

DismowTt Translstion of Fooicroy, 

Devon, History of. Chap. II. 93 

Dictionary t Medical, See Farr, bee 

Disease, eruptive, new Observations 

on, 208 

Distresses, Treatise on the Law of, 

Dytr on antient Names of Rivers, 



\PfoMMry of a Christian Lift, ^ 432 
■ « , Political, Sketches on, 446 
Bloquence of the British Sen are, . 166 
BUom^ Translation < f Hesiod, 19 

inJUleTt Natural Theology, 434 

"^Enilish Mufkal Reposi.ory, 100 

Essays by W. and T. LudTam, 154 
Bvani\ Sermon on educating tho Poor, 


— *s Dit:o on the Conversion of the 

Jews, = i^. 

Evts't (Mrs.) Scripture made easy, 21c 




gvinhgt it Sootbilt, i»9 

Emchtmuir^Mtitt^ E^iwne of, mi 1 
Jx(u/vi, Jewish, on the Creiiibihty of. 

Exptkim of tbe New TcftaoieDt, 366 
MxpifrtMUtarj Letttr to Dr. Moieley, 

Ejtf Hamaa, Essays on, 47 

FsInntrU Diicoor«e t Oxfort, 
farmer't Pocket-book, 
Eemelit^ History o^ concluded^ 
Fltw^ 00 the Abi^liiioa of 


49 S 




l2<nittf. Treatise on, 5^ 

HttiW, Traoslaiion of; 19 

BiwUtTs Scrmoftt, Vol. UK 3^3 

Bigbmori. Mr., Answer to, 44* 

HiSfrkal Jcfunf of Chaiter-Hoose, 

JKifor;. See P»twbeh, Fm, Anttls^ 

Ilprst EccJtnfiStk^, 

BumtM** Views of Nitore on 

Humpkpyts, Rtv. Mr., Sermon 

Mush^ndrnm^ g'»od Advice to, 
fiutiW'^Hora Ecclislcitka, 







Fhmers »t Court, 

Ftlhstone, Lord, Letter to, 

JFflor's TransUtioB of Mabon on Vene- 
real Infection, *^9 

Foreign Affairs of G/eet Britain, Survey 
of, ^*3 

FourcTO^'t Chemicil Philosophy, trans- 
late", 443 

Fcx's Hiitoiic*! Woik, Obsjfvauons or, 
»»5« 399 

Gardiner I Sultana, a Tragedy, 43^ 
Gertrude of W)oroinf, a 39 

Gibb9n\ Historical View of Ch.isiia- 
niiy, 4J4 

C7fjVs Monument of Paieiftl Affec- 
tion, »<^3 
Glasgow. Pscccedings at, 33 3 
Gkamnn from Zimmsrman, 2 1 9 
(rw/, new Argumenc for the Existence 
or, 96 
Gm^i Anniversary Oration, 109 
Grattan"^ Motion on the Irish Ca holies. 
Speech which ooght to have been 
spoken on, 4*1 
Great Brita'w, Annals of, 35© 
Greeawieb, « Poem, , , ^ . *°* 
Cwrflowf UK, History of the Reign ot, 


Haxliti*s EJoqoence of the Senate, 166 
Beathem-H^i^nbifp on the Origin of, 

Hebrew Roo^Jj Dissertation 00, *•» 
fl«/^W 00 the E#g''»*^ Attack on 

Denirark, , / .1. ^^^J 

Binderkk"* Addiesf to the Abp. ot 

Cumcfbory, 9S 

1 and J 

?a(ksont Fsr.-Sermon, 
amaka. Account cf, 
James IL, Memoir cf the 



Reign u^, 


?*/• Memoirs o* Winter, 195 

erm'miham\ ASexandnao School, 3*1 
ervis't Sermon, 33 S 

eivSf Conversion cf, Sctoh on, IC9 
Jj/f^, a«ncv*ii^n of, a Poem, 3*4 

Inirigues of the C^accn o* Spatr., 107 

7flaM ou tr.e Lite tf Abtaoam Booib, 
^ ic8 

Jrelaftd, CathoHci of, %te^ Catbolks. 

, Clergy « f , See Clergy, 

holy. Campaigns in, by Bonaptrte, his- 

lutic-l View of, 4 59 

JuUa of England, 3'9 

Kendrkkf See Msrni. 

K^nrLk*9 Expos tion of the N. Trs^a- 

ment, 3^^ 

Kt-igbts, Taki, 3'* 

LadUt* Petition for a Winter Assimbly, 

La Barp^* Works of Racine, VoJs. V. 

VI. and VII. , 4S3 

X;i«B^*s Adventures of USys^et, 105 

hmreactU Treatise on Hernia, 50 

Leekle on the Forc-gn Aff^iis of Great 

Britain, ^ »^3 

Lectures 00 Scripture-Facts, 34- 

— — on Enghsh Poet?, »3» 




lectures on the Liturgy, 4)0 

Letter^ Expostolttor^^ to Dr. Moseley, 


Letters and Papers by the Bath •Society, 

VpUXL 7 

II from a Member orTarliament, 

I > of the Baron de Viom^oil* 

Life of the March iof} est de Coorcellet* 

hignet Prince de. Select Worki of, 

LinJt^f Mr , Sermon on» 336 

Litt/e Odes to Great Folk8| 99 

Litmrgy, Lectures on, 430 

Locke on Human Uoderttandiog, Abridg* 

ment of, 107 

Lonsdale, Lord, his Memoir of the Reign 

of James IL ii) 

Ludlam^ £aiiys, 154 


MacgilPs Travels in Turkey, &c. i 
Mabon on Venereal Infection, 209 

Man of Sin, on the Lpnguage of St. 

Paul respecting, sii 

— of Sorrow; 310 

Mandeville Castitf 321 

Mayfie^s filler Gun, a Pi em, 39 

Medical Dictionary, See Parr^ See 

Morris* 1 

Medicine^ Moderoi 44s 

Mellith, Mr., Letter to, 107 

Member of Parliament, Letters from, 

ikCewMri of Captain Csr^etcn, 53 

Mtlls'n Translation of Ovid's Metam r- 
phoset, 14S 

Mtlner on vulgar Opinijni concerning 
Irisli Catholics, 87 

Mmsfrelp a Poetr, Bovk lU. 214 

Modern Medicine, 44ft 

Monument of Parental AfFedion, 103 
Morris and Xinri/fwil— Edinburgh Medi- 
cal Dictionary, 180 
Aforroff's Visitation Sermon, ill 
Moselfff^ on the Report on Vaccination, 
. ' 440 
■ ' Letter to, ib, 
Murray^ Answer to Higbmr-re, $b, 
Muicular Motion of the Human Body, 

Musical Reposttory, . 100 

Mysterious IVanderer, 3»I 

Nature, Three KUigdomt of, aPoem^ 

» Vicirs of, on the Oroondiko^ 

"N^al DiscoMTsa, ^^'^ 

Necessity for universal Toleration, 4^5 
New Argument for the Bxistence of 
God, . ^^ 

~- Whole Doty of Prayer, sis 

NieboUon^t Sermctn against Witchcraft^ 


Nisbett on the Evidences of Christian ity, - 

— on the M»n of Sin, & n 

Nisi Prims Cktts, Reports of, 21 j 

Norris't Julia of England, 319 

Notice to the Reader ^ 356, 44S 

Nubilia in Search of a Hoehand, 999 

Natural Theology, 


Objections, popular, to the Established 

Church, gj 

Observations on thf Brumal Retreat of 

the Swallow, |o« 

Odes^ Little, to Gr6at Folks, 99 

Orders in Council, beneficial to Great 

Britain, ^ ^0 

■ » Attempt to elucidate, 77 

Organ, Proceedings icl»tive to the Use 

of, at Glasgow, 333 

Organic Remains of a former World, 

Vol. 11. 35i 

Oroonoko, Views of Nature on that River, 


Ovid*9 Metamorphoses, Tranilatioo of, 


Parkinson^* Orgahic Remains of ^ fbrm^ 

World, Vol IL 39A 

ParUiment, both Houses of, chronolo- 

gical Register of, loS 

Ptfir's London Medical Dictionary, 180 
Par^opex de Blots, 38a 

Pearson*i Sermon on the Sacrament, 

Pelagian Heresy, DisserUtion 00, 98 
PercivaVs Works, 45 

Pern on an Erdptive Disease, 108 

Phiksopbical Transactions of the Royal 

Society, Part' II. for 1808 « 270 

Picture, Poetical, of America, 346 

Piper i Sermon, 335 

Pirie on the Hebrew Roots, si8 

Poems. See Mcyne, Blacket, Woodlet, 

Sansm, Stevmrt^ Scott, Campbell^ De 






ftat, EogHsiiy Lectoiet oa» i)S 

PtetiMl Picture of Anwma, 316 

F§igBd, View of» 52s 

, Letters OD» M3 

f^it'iUl SktUbit «f the Spaiiith BjBput, 

^— — Economy, Sketches 011, 446 
Tthvbelit Hiitory of Devoo» Chap. II. 

ftpular Objectlonf to the Ettahlithcd 

Chttrcb, 97 

Fiyyer, New Whole Duty of, 211 

FrU9n Locnbratioos, 106 

Fnfiat^t Works of the PriBce it 

Ligne, 53S 

Pnssia^ cursory View of, 351 

FsalmSf Selection of« 99 

■ f in French, 100 

Purtkits of AgricolQiief 327 

RaetM€*$ MMnpIete "Workf, Vols. V« VL 
andVjI. 481 

Rm oa Clericsl Elocotion, 416 

iitvi't Mysterious Wanderer, 321 

— *s (Mrt.) Fioneri at Court, 439 
Rijlecti9tts on Chri»t*s Divinity, &c« 97 
— on Public Affairs, ^ji 

Renovation of India, a Poco*, 324 

Revtrrection^ a Poena, 174 

■ of Christ, lUttsiraiioD of the 

Evidence t>f, 261 

Rivers, on antient Names of, 186 

Rogers'^ Lectures 00 the Liturgy, 


JuM*i Observations on Fox*s Historical 

Work, «25, 399 

— -'•' (W. S.) Partenopex de Blois, 


^tf/^0rir/yi Philosophical Traasactioas 

of, Part 11. for iSoS, 270 

Rider* % Sermon on Calvinistic Doctrines, 


SflibsR— A^Ai, Evenings at Soothill, 

S4ssoiB*s Greenwich, a Poem, lot 

S€ae% Battle of Maid a, a Poem, 2 1 6 
Ser^ture- Facts, Lectures on, 34 

— made easy, 211 

■ " ■■ Veisions, Uc» ai6 

Selection of Psalms, 99 

Senate, British, £loqi>ence of, 166 

Seritui Admonition to a professed Christ- 
ian, 322 

^^ravM at t Covntry Cbureh, 224 

Sermns, Collective, $ec Bapm^ BiW' 
lift, Bidkko. 

f Single, 109*1 II, 220.124, 

134-n^. 434- 
$bawU Central Zoology, Vo!. VII. 

SheguU^ Lord, oa the Ordcn in C<«acil, 


SU/tt^, Sir P« Memoir! of, 337 

Si/lor GuUf a Puem, 29 

Skitcb of the Li/e of Dr. Chapmto, 

Sketebn oa Political Economy, 446 
Skurrfi Sermon on Davi<, 224 

SoutbwwPt Deiworth, a Novel, 220 
Spsht Queen cf, lotrigoes of, io7 

Spanish Mw^in, Political Sketches of* 

Spoetb which ought to have been apoken, 

Sponee't WeMiog Day, 321 

Stattwemt Qi Proceediagi at Glaagowy 

StiwartU Resurrection, • Poem, 174 
StHkdalt^t Lecttties on Engiith Poets, 

Snbttanet of a Speech which ought to 

have bern spoken, 443 

Sultana, a Tr<igedy, 436 

Sunday Scholar's fitst Book, 97 

^«i<nr, a Novel, 319 

Swallow, Observation! on the Bium^l 

Retiea: of, 103^ 
Sweden, See Outtavut, 

Tableau Histori^ug dei Cam^agnes en Itatte^ 

7ele£rafbic Communication, Treatue 9'^, 

Testament, New, Expositibn of, 366 
Theology. Natural, 434 

Thomas on the Origin of Heathen 
Worthip, 96 

Times, an Ode, 100 

7V»8ey*s Letter to Lord Folkestone, 

Tithe, Abolitioaof, recommended, 332 
Toleration, universal. Necessity for, 

Travels^ See MacgtO* 
Turkey, &c. Travels in, , t 

TurnerU Epitome' of Exchequer Practice, 

Ttain Sitter s,- 321 




Vaeehmt'^ff Stc Moaleyt Litter ^ Murray* 

Vtmreal JnfeetUn^ Reieaicbes on, 409 

^/ewof Pro'tia, 3 5? 

tnom/nilj Baron de, Letters of, 5^3 

Wys$ett Adventures of, . J05 

Vwitti't Modern Medicine^ 44^ 

Jf^tUlamsttn thePclagtan Here'y^ 9S 

HlHter, Rev* Corn.y Memoirs of, 195 
— -'s (Rev. Rob.) Sermon on Hum- 

phryes, mzo 

Hltebcaft, Sermon againstt 434 

I^<W/fy's Church -Yard, loi 

Worldt former. Organic Rema* na «>f. 

Vol. IJ. 39s 

Worihip, Heathen^ on the Grig o of, 



Waltlman^t Letter to th« Governors of 

Christ's Hospital, TO7 

H^ardrop'% Hssajw on (he Human £ie, 

• 47 
H^arttig% Srriptare Versions, »i6 

H^arrtn*t Letter to Mtllith, 107 

Wedding Day^ 321 

Whittaker*% British Chronologv, 106 

Wtttan on Cutaneoti» Diivasct, No. IV. 
' 416 

tVI, Duke of, Apologj for^ J30 

Zimmerman, Gleanings from* 219 

Zcologvt General, Vol. VIL 1*7 

Z9ucbi% Memoirs of Sir P. Sidney, 3^7 

ERRATA in Volume LIX. 

Page 3. L r4* from bott. put only a comma after < tender* 
1%. I. 14. from bott. put a comma after * f>ow** 
19. I. 8. from botf. dtle the comma after *farts^ 
29. 1. 15. put a comma after * epithet,* 

40. 1. 6* from botf. put a colon after ' b'lxtorj* an^) t comma after 

* but: 

41. 1. 93. put a turned conrtma after* Israe/Ue's: 
6i' I. 14 and 15. dele the words * and fons»rt»* 

65, 1. 15. frorab)tt< for * not pursue,* r, tiot to pursue, 
98. J. 47. dele the comma afier * pamphlet: 

too. 1. f . for * Psaumees, r. Psaumes, and add the word tln^, 

ic8- 1 l8. p'lt.a terujcolon after * tf^e.' ' , 

no. J. last, dele the comma after ' Jlrttclei: 

I77. I. penult, for * occurs* r. occurs, 

179. 1,17. dele the comma a^tir < y^^en^/w.' 

214. the price of Art. 27. should be tf. 

919. 1.7. dele * He.* 

299. I. 1 5, read * In science than on tbs extent.* 

^ji. I. 5. remote the ccmma from • occupies* to * explains: 

430. Art. 13. 1. 5. for '//>• 340, atout, read *• about pp* 340/ 




For MAY, 1809. 

Art I. Travels in Turkey f Italy ^ and Rwsta^ dnring the Yean 
1803, 1^04, 1805, and 1806, with an Account of some of the 
Greek Islandit. By Thomag Macgill. Crown 8vo. 2 Volt. 98. 
Boards. Murray. i8c8. 

/"Commercial pursuits having led Mr. Macgill to visit the 
^ shores of the Mediterranean, he very naturally com- 
municated to his friends, in a series of letters, all those par- 
ticulars which struck him as worthy of remark : but we are 
also told, in the hackneyed style, that he had no thoughts of 
publishing these epistolary details till, on his return, he found 
the importunities of his correspondent6 too urgent to be re- 
sisted. We cannot very highly commend his discretion in 
yielding to these suggestions ; since we are forced to avow ^ 
our opinion that he is not gifted with the accomplishments 
of an interesting writer. His materials are meagre ; his style is 
insipid, and not always correct, nor free from Scotticisms 5 and 
his historical accuracy is often questionable. As few books of 
travels, however, can be altogether without amusement and in- 
struction, some useful information has certainly been collected 
by Mr. M., chiefly of a comrtiercial nature 5 and his performance 
has been introduced into the world without pomp or preten- 
tion. Though it is disfigured by occasional patches of bad 
fine-writing, and by some aukward endeavours at vivacity and 
htmiour, yet it is, on the whole, creditably exempt from 
those fantastic impertinences which deform the pages of most 
modem tourists. 

His first letter is dated from Venice, which he visited irt 
the Spring of 1804, and of which he gives a d^lorable 
tnd heart-breaking picture. After having bewailed th« 
degradation and beggary which the revolution brought on the 
dastardly and worthless nobility of this republic, he makes an 
excursion to Ancona^ where the most remarkable occurrence 
is at horse-race after the Italian fashion. The horses, he says, 
as so many other travellers have said before him, are still 

VoL.'Lix. B made 

Digitized by V:*,OOQ IC 

^ MacgillV Travels in Turhjf isfc, 

made to run without riders, and' are urged forwards by little 
balls with sharp points hung at their sides, and by pieces 
of tin-foil fastened to ibeir hinder parts. This method of 
conducting the sport would, no doubt, be received with 
merciless derision at Newnjarket : but the scheifie for 
deciding the race, by a slight string coloured with red lead^ 
•tretched across at the winning post, alid which inevitably 
leaves a mark on the chest of the victor, deserves, for its 
certainty and impartiality, the serious consideration of the 
Jogkey-Club itself. 

From Venice, Mr. M. proceeds to Trieste, on his voyage 
towards Smyrna, all vessels outward bound from Venice 
being: obliged to touch at Trieste ; an absurd and oppressive 
regulation, by virhich one place is sacrificed to the prosperity 
of another, and individuals are wantonly exposed to great in- 
convenience and hardship* The only islands of the Archipe- 
l^o described by Mr. M. are Zia and Scio 5 and the picture 
of the former is deplorable enough. Filth and indolence, 
depopulation and povert]^ are its general features. The con- 
dition of Scio, however, furnishes a more gratifying spectacle* 
Its trade is stiU €onsi4erable ; its inhabitants are acute, enter- 
prizing, and industrious ; and both men and women arc still 
remarkable fpr the beauty and elegance of tlieir persons. Mr. 
M.'s statement is erroneous when he says that the Roman . 
catholic is the prevailing religion of Scio. Of the popular 
tion of the capital, nearly four fifths are Greek schismatics j 
and of the remainder the greater part are Turks. See Olivier'* 
Travels. ^ 

Mr. Macgill reaches Smyrna, without any farther accident, 
except a little fit of fine writing, ixi which he talks about the 
* i;iotes of philomel,' — * distant waterfalls' — < whisspering breezes,* 
&C. &c. (p. 62, 63.) — Of Smyrna, his description is in- 
teresting : but we hkve top much detail about the naval fete, 
excursions on the water, and fishing parties, of which Mr. M* . 
he^fd or partook while he was at that city*. On the subject of 
antiquities, he is not very copious : but he tells us that he was; 
fihewu the very grotto in wluch Homer wrote the Iliad, and 
the site of a school which the poet is religiously believed to • 
have kept there. Mr. M. should have known that it is dis- 
creditable to the gravity and judgment of a traveller, to retail 
these despicable impostures, 

A visit to Ephesus extorts from the writer the following 
remark, of which we knpw not whether the patlioa or, the^ 

* lo/spea^iDg here of an entertammgit on board tkf.Bi^a^l ma%^ 
«f ^ar, the a>ithor csdU tluj ij^ip the Bracfot. ^ 

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MacgilPi Travels in Turiej^ (sTe. S 

wisdom be most admirable : — *the city of Ephedus, fbrm^rfy 
so celebrated, has now no other ioast, than that of being cote 
of the most miserable of Turkish villj^ges. No traces are to be 
seen of t)emetrhis the silversmith, nor any of his fellows whl3 
served the Great Diana of the Ephcsians with shrines :'• Vol. f . 
p. 154. A little farther on, we fairly catch Mr, Macgill 
moralising, and he concludes his account of the ptesent 
wretchedness of the place with the original and impressive 
reflection — ** Sic transit gloria mundi /" — 

The author's excursions to the Black Sea furnish him 
with some important information ; and his visit to Odessa, in 
particular, must have been highly interesting. This city, at 
the period of his excursion, in July 1805, had scarcely existed 
four years : but its population was then ten thousand, and 
was daily increasing ; and in every other respect it exhibited 
the appearance of a » most prosperous and valuable colony. 
In his account of die settlement of Taganrock, Mr. M. is 
guilty of an unpardonable erfor in representing it as situated 
nearly at the mouths of the Don and the Volga. He might 
as well have said that Bristol was situated at die moudis of 
the Seve!Ti and the Shannon. Taganrock is at the mouth of 
the river Mius, which falls into the Sea of Azoph considei^ 
ably to the westward of the Don. The Volga falls not into 
the Euxine^ but the Caspian. 

Constantinople was twice visited by^ Mr. M., and occupied 
a large portion of his attention. We remarked that in this 
part of his work, as in many others, he seems disponed, in 
opposition to most travellers, to speak a good word for the 
Mussulmans, and to palliate >many of the defects which are 
supposed to belotig to dieir character. According to his re- 
presentation, they M'e generous, humane, and charitable; 
l^der 5 almost to infirmity, to the brute creation ; and so in- 
dulgent in their treatment of slaves, that they positively dis- 
credit the existence of any country in which slaves are driven 
like cattle by the cart-whip, and fed with a stinking herring. 
To jealousy they are strangers 5 only that * on the detection of 
an amotir with an infidel, the woman is tied into a sack,' and 
thrown into the sea, and the lover beheaded.* To be sure, 
these generous and humane servants of Alia are apt to be 
< vindictive and brutal,* — ^but dien * bad men are to be found 
in ev^ry country.* — As fot dieir contempt of christians, and 
their" persuasion that the life of an infidel is about as valuable 
as that of a dog, Mr. M, thinks diat these ideas must be at- 
tributed to thek having constantly in their eyes the subtle Jev^ 
and die perfidious Greek. < Now that £\n^j^ii|i|Come to bd 

B^ 2 J^^^Bk. he^et 

4 MacgiHV Travels in Turkey, {5V. 

better known amongst them, they speak of our heroes with 
rapture and our merchants as men of faith !' 

Of the Turkish women, Mr. M. writes as if he had opf- 
pOFtunities of unrestrained conversation with them, which 
we all know to have been impossible. By what means can 
he have ascertained that these ladies *have not the same free- 
dom of speech which is allowed to females in other countries ?' 
(Vol.1, p. 49.)-: — Or whence did he derive his information 
that the bath is used by them to an excess which relaxes th,e 
solids, and gives their flesh the appearance of falling from 
their tones ? (Vol. 2. p. 108.) Lady M. W. Montague had op- 
portunities of becoming acquainted with the habits of Turkish 
females which Mr. M. could not obtain ; and every one who 
recollects her glowing description of the beauty, which she 
beheld in the baths at Adrianople, will reject at once the 
rash statements of Mr. Macgill. The bath, says her Ladyship, 
" is the woman's Cofiee House, where all the news of the 
town is told, scandal invented,*' &c.; and in many other pas- 
sages of her letters, she celebrates Turkey as the country of all 
others in which the women enjoy ,the most substantial liberty 
of speech and action. The judgment of a woman on such 
a point is, surely, decisive. — Their immoderate use %£ the 
bath is negatived by the same testimony, which represents them 
as resorting to it about once in a week, and remaining there 
four or five hours without injury 5 and we are aware of no 
reason for supposing any alteration in their customs since that, 
time.-— The beauty of tlielr teeth is attributed by Mr. M. to 
the simplicity of their diet : but here again he is at variance 
with the authority of the same lady, who was twice enter- 
tained in the harem with a profusion and variety of meats,, 
prepared with every refinement of cookery. A more probable 
cause is their abstinence from fermented liquors. — ^It is almost 
superfluous to add that the statements of Lady M. W. Mon- 
tague are ably vindicated and fully confirmed by Mr. Thornton, 
in his account of the present state of Turkey ; a work of which 
the authority rests on the solid foundation of ij^ years' resi-- 
denc$ in Constantinople and the Turkish Provinces. See 
Monthly Review for November, 1807. 
, Thg most amusing letter in these volumes, is that which 
describes the audience of the English Ainbassadof, Mr., 
Arbuthnot,, at the court of Constantinople in the year i86d.. 
It is too long to be transcribed here : but we recommend it to^ 
the attentipn of the. reader, on the faith of Mr. M.'s assertiori' 
that he was present during the whole ceremony ; which ex-, 
habits a veryxurious picture of the solemn ignorapce and the 
childJA vanity of this strange people. • ' - ** 

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MacgUF/ Travels in Turiej^ Isfc $ 

;^ In letter joth are noticed some of the improvements pro- 
jected and in part executed by Selim III. ; a prince who ap- 
pears to have been more humane and enlightened than most 
of his predecessors. The abolition of the Janizaries, and the 
substitution of an army raised and trained according to the 
European system, formed tlie fatal project which occasioned 
his deposition, and has since terminated in the overthrow 
of a man of still sterner energies, the Vizir Mustapha Bair- 
actar. — Of the new troops raised in the prosecution of this 
scheme, we should be led to form a very unpromising idea, if 
we could rely with safety on the correctness of ' an anecdote 
related by Mr. Macgill. In one of his rambles, he tells us that h% 
was taken by an Army-Surgeon into a small coflec-house, where 
he was served with coffee and pipes by a person who turned out 
to be the first Major of these celebrated new troops (Vol. 2. 
p. 104.) We scarcely know how to credit this representation : but, 
if true, it shews what little progress had been made in the for- 
mation of a force according to the European system ; which 
devotes a particular order of men to the military service of the 
state, and which considers all commercial occupations, especi- 
ally those of a low and degrading nature, as utterly incompatible 
with the profession of arms. In America, indeed, the case is 
otherwise, which may easily be explained from the peculiar 
circumstances of that country. The army is there scarcely 
contemplated as a distinct order of the state, and the constant 
and pressing demand for industry and capital suffers no man 
to remain long in an unproductive occupation. For this 
reason, we hear of American Colonels and Majors who re- 
gularly follow the occupations of farming and innkeeping :— 
but it is scarcely credible that an European government, model- 
ling its forces after a reformed plan, should suffer its field- 
officers to stoop to the degrading employment and sordid emo- 
luments of the publican. 

Constantinople has been so repeatedly described, that Mr, 
M.'s delineation, even if more ably /executed, could furnish 
but little novelty or entertainment, in his account of that - 
(celebrated relicjue of antiquity, the twisted column of three 
brazen serpents, which has stood in the Hippodrome, or 
Atmeidan, ever since the time of Constantine, he represents it 
ta have lost all its three heads by the stroke of Mohammed's 
battle-axe. We ate led from this circumstance to suspect 
that Mr. M. never took the pains of examining this pillar, 
sfince the battle-axe of Mohammed, according to the imiform 
account pf all odier traveller^, has shattered only the under 
]a\v of pne of the$e monsters. Thi^ gircun^stance is pe^li^ps, 
' * . B3 pf 

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of n© grtat unpomn«(*, except tfaait it occaskmd torn* (icmbi of 
the general accuf^y and driligenee of the present itaveller. 

The un^ocessful attack no^ long since made by a Briti8!h 
flcit^ on Coi|stantint^le readers it int^resdng, 3& affording 
maljeia^ls for judging of the accounts of th^t afeir, to peruse 
Mr* Maegill's statement respecting the miKtary strength of the 
Dardanelles. An otder, 1^ says, had arrived from die Porte, 
a short time before, not to allow staangers \p visit the forti- 
fioi^ions : but he proceedst to remark tha^ 

*The fort on the Aaigtic side is buik quftc close to tine water's e3gc, 
snd has mounted on that side of it several guns of an astonfshing car 
libre- Some' of the granite shot lying^aboqt ^be fortress are not lea^ 
t)i|H» tea feet and a half in diameter, ami ire said to weigh frorn eight 
' to ten cwt. Round the fortress is a ditch, but without water, and 
iffuU it would pot take a man above the middle. To t|ie south of 
the fort is a small mound battery of six or eight brass gun* of consi-* 
derable length, but of no uncommon cajibre. Qn the top pf the 
fqrt are planted many long^ swivels, carrying a ball of about half ^ 
pound. On' the European side of the channel, and immcdiatdy op- 
posite to the Pardanelles, is built another fort of the same kind, but. 
apparently df better construction, and on a rising ground. The (trst 
Imttery is^ closer to the water ^ the second of an oval shape, i& visibly 
firooa the opposite shore* In this, as in all other Turkish fortres>es« 
there is. a mixture of guns of very large calibre. In the lower castle 
of Smyroa there are several, into which, whea on fishing parties, j^ 
bave more than once crept to avoid a shower. 

* To force the passage of the Dardanelles must be an under- 
taking truly formidable. , From the lower castles on both sides of th^ 
Hellespont, little danger is to be appr<betidt:d. a$ ships can steer to^ 
lembly ckar of them ; but the fire from thos^ at the Dardanelles, 
where the channel becomes narrow, and the current remarkably stroifg, 
BEkust' be very destructive. It would, however, be no di^ult matter 
to ^torm the castle on either side, particularly that on the Asiatic, 
which has few or no guns toward the land ; and that on the Euro- 
pean is commanded by neighbouring heights. One or both of thenri^ 
being taK<sp, the passage would then be of no difficulty, and without 
that, no commander of moderate force would think of attempting it» 
unless be wished his fleet to be destroyed, as with a tolerable breeze,' 
even. of southerly wind, a vessel moves so very slowly, that every shot 
irom these- castles must tell. This point gained, Constantinopfi^ 
Kcs aib the mercy of every etten/iy, without fort or gun to defend it, ' 
if we except a few sahitiag batterics'^-ofie at Tophapa, one at the 
arsenal^ and a few scattered guns at the Seraglio Pointy of various* 
lengths and calibres, placed there for the same purpose, v?itbout any 
kind of cmbraznres or works to cover ti^em. . ^ , 

^ The population of the Dardanelles is computed to be. betweei^ 
twenty or thirty thousand souls, which, however,^ appears to me an 
exaggeration. It is true, a great proportion is composed of Jews» 
who huddle together six or eight famihes in the same houie;' ' ' - 

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* Baik Society — Letters and Papers, Vol XL J 

The remaining particulars, most worthy of notice in these 
volumesj.^re a description of Odessa*, by a commercial gen- 
tleman named Sievrac > a velry minute account of the in\port 
and export trade of Smyrna ; a table of duties paid by the 
British,, on goods exported from and imported into die Ottoman 
Empire ; and a prospectus of the commerce of tobacco in 
Macedonia, by Mr. F. Cham aud, consul to the British Levsmt 
company, at Salonica :— dejails, no doubt, of higl\ importance 
and utility to mercantile readers. Mr. Macgill offers also 
many intelligent practical observations relative to the trade of 
the Mediterranean 5 and he is decidedly of opinion that our 
frpmmeree in those regions, with Constantinople especially^ 
might, be greatly improved and extended, by a little' more 
enterprize on the part of our merchants, somewhat more zeal 
and intelligence in their factors, and a great deal more honesty 
in the brokers employed by them. (N. B. These brokers 
^te all Jews.) 

We have perhaps been led to notice this work at greater 
length than it may appear to demand, by the interest with 
which the Ottoman Empire is nejcessarily contemplated* in 
these eventful times. Already the legions of France begin to 
flream on the spoils of the Seraglio ; and the present genera- 
tion may, probably, see the day in which the Myalls of St* 
Sophia shall again echo to the voice of christian devotion. It 
is precisely on this account, that all details relative to the^e 
people become mqre than ever curious and attractive. We 
are thankful for any memorial, however triifing and minute^ 
respecting a nation which may soon pass away from th^ 
theatre, of Europe, and cease to deform the face of Chris- 
tendom by a barbarous superstitipn, and by a degrading, igno^ 
rant, and brutal despotism. 

Art. II. LfHers and Papers on /fgrtcvhttref Planting, 2ic. selected 
from the C ^rrcspondencc of the Bath and West . of England 
Society, for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts, Marvifac- 
turfs, and Commerce. Vol XI. Svo, pp. 333. 78, 6d. Board*. 
Wilkie and Go. 1807. 

i^K comparing the statements given in the preface to the 
^^ present volume, with those which were offered to out 
notice in diat of the preceding, (see M. R*. Vol. 5a. N. S. 
p. 412.) we are happy to find that this respectable society 

* Wc may refer our readers, for ample accounts of this city, tq 
Otn* jfoih VoL N.S. page 343. and 55th Volume, pag*e 442. 

B4 (to 

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8 Sstb Society — Letters and Papers^ Vol XL ^ 

j[to use. the market phrase) looh up, and that the secretary is 
authorized to report it to be in a* nourishing condition, though 
its premiums and bounties have been dispensed with liberality, 
and its regular income depends on a small subscription from 
each individual. As the literary and scientilic treasure of the 
society consists in its numerous enlightened members arid cbr- 
xespondents, it is not without deep regret tha't the operations 
of the scythe of time are recorded, and that a proper tribute 
is offered to the mempry of those* who are removed from the 
field of sublunary exertion. The present secretary, however, 
seems disposed to represent the activity of this society rather 
beyond its fair pretensions, when he informs us that a volume 
of communications has, with ^ few exceptions, been published 
at the stated period of two years j because, as the Society has 
now existed thirty years, and only elevea volumes have been 
sent from the press, it would be nearer the fact to describe its 
period of gestation to be three than two years : — but, whe- 
ther this point be calculated with accuracy or not, it is satisfac- 
tory to observe the solicitude which the Society has displayed to 
avoid disappointing expectation ; and we pardon the absence of 
tlie usual arrangement in this Volume, on account of the zeal 
and promptitude which its committee of superintendence has 
evinced. The papers are not classed under distinct heads, and 
we shall review them in the order in which they occur. 

JEssay on tie best method of inclosingy dividifigy and cultivating 
Waste Lands. By J. Billingsley, Esq. of Ashwick-Grove. 
—To thi^ essay, o<icupying 93 pages, was assigned the reward 
of the Bedfordean Medal, in 1806, and it is certainly intitled 
to the honour with which it was distinguished. Mr. B.'s 
remarks, directions, 'and calculations are the result of long and 
extensive experience ; and persons employed in the inclosure 
and cultivation of wastes may profit by a perusal of this sensi- 
ble and methodical paper. The author endeavours to obviate 
the principal objections which have been urged against in- 
closing i and, under dktinct heads, he treats of i. Inclosing and 
dividing^; 2. of Farm buildings , 3. of Cultivating and manuring, 
4. of Cropping and Harvesting, and 5. ^ Succeeding Management, 
By inclosing ne means the outside bounds of a new inclosure ; 
and by dividing, raising interior fences : he is led therefore, 
under the first head of his subject, to treat of the several kinds 
of fences, the method of makmg them, and the expenc^. 
Stone fences, guard fences, and live fences, are discussed ; and 
the operations of plaijtipg Quick, or white thorn, which 
makes the best live hedges, from the sowing of the haws to 
the plashing of the hedge, are minutely detailed. Since it has 
^een lately recommended as an expeditious mode of rjiising 


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Both ioclity^^Lettiff and Paf^rs^ Ful. XL 9 

^ick in nurseries, to" cut off the tap-roots of thcf young qiudc^ 
and re-plant them in beds with a setting-stick, it is proper to 
•record the remark of this experienced agriculturist on this 
practice. He informs us that ^plants so raised are not $0 
well rooted j nor do they, when transplanted, grow so vigor- 
ously^ as those raised from the berries/ 

Aware of the advantages which resiJt from the shelter 
obtained from trees, especially when judiciously disposed to 
break off cold winds and to retain the warm atmosphere, Mr. 
B. advises the plantation of them in the subdividing hedges, 
as well as belts and plantation in masses ; and though, in 
genera], his advice follows the old maxim, << If you want a 
large tree, plant a small one,** he affords directions for remov- 
ing trees of a considerable size, for the purpose of immediate 
shelter or ornament. His. rule is as follows : 

* A year before the time of ^ranflplantiag, let a trench be dug 
round the tree, at a moderate distance, and so as to amputate the 
roots near the extremities, leaving a lar}^ ball about the stump; 
then fill the trench ag^tn with fresh mould, if it can be got ; if not, 
with the same which had before been taken out. In this state let 
the tree remain till the succeeding year ; by which time, a moltipK- 
city of young fibres wiH have issued from the old amputated root*. 
These may be considered as so many fresh mouths, ready to receive 
jiouriiihment, without that check, which generally accompanies the 
transplanting of trees in the common way. 

* The principal branches must be shortened, and the hole prepared 
for the reception of the tree. 

^ After a severe frost, when the earth sticks to the roots in a firm 
lamp^ let the tree be removed ; and care be taken that the hole which 
is to receive it be perfectly thawed, and of sufficient dimensions to ad- 
mit the whole of the roots, and that the earth with which it ii filled 
l>e of good quality and rather moist. Noihiog more it necessary 
than to support the tree with stout stakes, and to cover the roots 
with loose stones.* ' 

Perhaps the hints which Mr. B. has suggested on the con- 
structioi^f Interior Fences, and on the size and shape of in- 
closures, will not be less acceptable : 

* In marking out the course of the division fences, care should be 
taken to place them in the direction of the prevailing winds. This 
position will render them less liable to injury from storms and tem- 
pests ; for the current of air will follow the direction of the hedge, 
aQd do less damage than when the nipping blast attacks it in the 

* Experience has taught me, that a hedge so placed will come t« 
maturity many years sooner than one in a different direction. The 

, remark, therefore, is important; and the practice cannot be too 
-> fttoBgly enforced. But it must be admitted, that hedges in this di- 


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.Kcti«i, thoi^ll tlicy cottw qtiJck^ to ftSftJtft)^, will not 4b ^ftertua% 
riifiter the land ia the fumrfe progrtfst of occupatkm. 

* Sfiould the iflcloftvre be of coostderaye extent^ and maiiy y-ears rt'm 
quired to cultivate the wA^/ir» these fencea may be ntade progreiaivelyy 
so as to keep pace with the cultivation of the land-, 

* The first part to be tilled should be that near the home^sted.; 
and here th^ inclosuics should be small. As you extend, they may 
be larger ; and if the §oil arid other circumstances be favourable to 
*hecp and corn husbandry, fields of twenty, thirty, or even forty 
ilcrcs, may not be too large. But if gra^rs be the prevailing ob» 
ject, iheyjcawnot v^ell be tob sfftall, r^gafd being had to the.gcneri^l 
itz^ of the fiaf m. * ; . 

f. Before the division fences dr^ madct let the land be ploughed, 
manured, and prepared for the iir!«t crop \ and then Ut the fields bfe 
^ marked out in an ohlQng form : this is more convenient to the occu- 
pier than a sauare : crops hurdled off, and fed on the land, can with 
more oeconomy be copsumtd. This oblong shape is also the most fa^ 
vourabie to an easy connection by gates^* 

The second division, which consists of estimates of farm-* 
houses ai^d appurtenances, conveys information of no very ac^ 
curate kin(Jj l^ecause building-materials and the wages of 
workmen have, advanced siace i8oa:} even. more than Mn B^ 

Under the third head, many judicious rules will be fouhd 
r^sp^ing the preparation of waste lands for culture, the rota^ 
tion of crops,, the ^xpence, profit j &c. The result of thfe 
whole is summed up in these directions : 

f Let the prudent former h^ve no more com than is necessj^r^ tp 
renovate his old pastures, and Supply the farm-yard with straw. 

* Let him mow as little ground as possible : keep no winter stoclj: 
^ on his newly-sown artificial graSfies ; but in summer keep oti all hift 

pastures, and oii his vetches, as many cattle and sheep, a^ vfiU eai^ 
up the vetches clean, and keep the pastures shoit and^ sweet. 

< In his yards, let him make as much dung as possibly he can-** 
and this may be increase^} in «unnmer, by driving all his fatting cattle 
by day into the yards, and feeding them with cut vetches. 

* Apply his dung to his fallows for turnips, ^c.»&c. and manure 
his grass with a compost of lime, arnd earth, &c. 

^ Let him, be particularly attentive to the preparation of \C\i land 
for the fallow crojps of vetches and turnipf. On thti every thils^ 

It is the ctecided opinion of Mr. B. ^tftat by ^ judicidtii 
system of croppitig, and a spirited and unremitting attentloa 
to every accessible aid, in the way of manuring, the ar^le 
land of'^fliis kingdom riiight be made nearhf doubly as productive 
as it is at present.' Now^ some persons wc^ld be disponed to 
ast whetl^r, on this view cf the matterj? it wduU not be lest 


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Satb ioeiety^Lettifs and FsperSf Vd. XL ft 

expensiTe to ^ impcorer, and mOfe ^vantageoui ft^ di6 
kingdom, to bestow on the old indosur^ ail the inmror ementt 
flf winch they are capabU, than to difivBe our laboor and 
manure over our present commons ? A greediness in oc* 
cupying and apptopriiiting that which usually obtains the 
ttame of was<^ land is, perhaps, more frequently the motire to 
Jnclosure thah piAlic spirit j and it is a melancholy fact that 
the price of grain, and of provisions in general, has increased 
in proportion as Inclosures have multiplied, though these 
measures are recommended as tending to produce 2 contrary 
effect. The question is not so easily decided^ in a poHtical 
point' of Tiew, as Mr.B. supposes, and it ought to be o6ntcm-» 
phted in ail its bearings. 

Among the Miscellaneous Observations with which thi# 
paper concludes, se/eral useful particulars are specific on th^ 
subjects of capital, s^lf-attendance, letting work by the tasii 
as it is called, in preference to hiring by the day, bailiflF, shep. 
herd, harvrstingy roads, reservoirs of water on elevated situu- 
tions, keeping of accounts, &c. From this mass of matter 
we are tempted to make one extract, because we are of opinion 
that the practice which it recommends ought to be extended : 

* Harvesilng. — It is the pi act ice in the Donhcm parts of the 
county, and an tf cellent practice it is, to bind not only the wheat, iut 
iiiso the httrify aud oati into r hemes ^ and to mow ft in the £eld. 

' Every day** cutting of wheat is secured in the eveniqg •, and the 
com can be put together • day or two sooner, than in the method 
usually practised ; besides, if the mows be opened^ and pat into hyle 
or shocks early in the mornine of the day when they are to be hauled 
into the large mow, they will in three or four hours be thoroughly 
jdry. ' These small mows (proviticially called wean mows) are couica) 
in their form, about 10 feet high, and contain about half a waggon* 
load. They are begun by an upright sheaf, surrounded by other 
sheaves obliquely placed, till the foundation is formed ; after which 
thty are raised to the height stated, lessening towards the top, and 
eovered with an inverted sheaf. The principal attention necessary is 
to see that they are not made large, and that the middle of the mow is 
.in the whole progi*ess of its elevation kept much higher than the owt^ 
fide. The men it| many parts of the county of Somerset arc pecu-* 
liarly dexterous in this work, and the mows frequently rertisin five ot* 
six weeks in the field without any damage. The cost of shea6ng^ 
mowing does not exceed 3s. 6d per acre, aad the piacticc is worthy 
the attention of other counties.' 

On Oak Timber J by Mr. Thomas Davis. — ^Thc infi)rmadatt 
Included in this paper is given in the shape of an^Twers tai 

' : l-r^ 

* * It has been the custom lately to cut the wheat a week at iei^pt 
before It is thoroughly ripe,, and by so doin^, the cok>ar and value 
ff the grain is much improved.? 

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I % Batik Socicty^^Letfcrs and Paptrs^ ' Vbi, XL 

certain questions, which werd circulated by the cemmissioner$ 
of Naval Revision, respecting the state of Oak-Timber. The 
account h^re afforded is clear, if it be not satisfactory, and 
manifests no inconsiderable knowlege of th^ subject. It is 
stated by the writer that the quantity of large oak-timber fit 
for the navy is certainly decreased, as well as the use of oak 
for country-purposes ; ^ — that, though the price of oak has 
advanced between the years 1763 and 1896 fron>45S. to lool. 
per ton, this advance is not equal to that which cheese, butter, 
and many other productions of land; have experienced during 
the same period \ — that, notwithstanding the present high 
price of oak, it is less profitable to the planter tlian any other 
kind of timber^ — ^that therefore few plantations of this tree are 
inade^ — that it has not been the interest of the proprietors of 
woods to allow trees to obtain their full growth ; — ^and that 
the only means of postponing the cutting of oak, till it attains 
sufficient size for naval purposes, is the offer of such price* 
for large timber, as no individual can afford to give for 
country-purposes. Mr. D. is very solicitous of throwing the 
monopoly of large oak-timber into the hands of .Government, 
and he urges that a considerable advance of price is necessary 

. to insure the preservation of this timber in general. 

On the Btight in Wheats by the same. — ^We cannot affix so 
much value to this paper as to the preceding, though it come<^ 
from the same source. As a good practical general rule, it 
may be admitted that any cause, which tends to weaien the 
wheat plant, will pre-dispose it to receive blight : but Mr. D. 
has given an instance in which he attributes blight to the 
plant being too vigorous and rapid in its growth. On the 
vrhole, he has left uie subject just where he fpund it. 

On supplying the Poor nvith Milk, By the same.— In a neat 
and perspicuous manner, die project of assigning large portionj^ 

. cither of meadow or arable land to the poor whose extra ■ 
labour can be adequate only, to the culture of a giarden, is 
here exposed ; and it is clearly shewn that the labourer is 
more regularly and effectually benefited by small portions 
of manured land, lett to him at a small price for the 
grovfth of potatoes, and by milk supplied daily to him on the 
same terms. The experiment, tried in the populous village of, 
Homingsham, under the direction of the Marquis and Mar- 
chioness of Bath, is one instance of the beneficial effects of 

r such a plan for supplying the poor^ and it is capable <?( fe^lJ^g 
extended. -- 

Mr. Lewin Tugwell presents us with an essay on Slafir^^r^ 
and on other matters, he should have added, — for besjd^s hiS| 
professed subject he indulges himself with a philippip ^gains^ 


• ■ ^ Digitized by VjOUV It: 

Bath Society — LeHers and Papers^ Vol. XL 13 

thatchingy boasts of his agricultural inventions, and puts him- 
self in a hostile attitude against certain critics. As, however, 
he does not " shake his gory locks at us^" we shall give our- 
selves no concern, but proceed to state that this paper is a 
sttppleraent to one on the same subject in the preceding 
volume \ that the mpde of roofing and covering with slate, 
Tecommended by this gentleman, is fully detailed and illus- 
trated by a plate ; that it appears to possess advantages over 
the common practice j - and that the hints respecting the 
cutting, squaring, and classing of slates according to particular 
sizes at the quarry, are too judicious (we should think) not to 
enforce attention. 

An Account of the Manufacture of two Pieces of Navy^Blue 
Broad Cloth y for the Premium of the Society ; with the Report of 
the Committee ; and a Letter from Dr. Parry, containing furthier 
Observations on his WooL — ^T^o pieces of superfine navy-blue- 
cloth were manufactured by Samuel Yeats and Son,- one of 
Vool grown in England by Dr. Parry, on his Merino Ryeland 
sheep, and the other of prime Leonesa Spanish wool, of the 
Coronet pile : the process in both instances was the same ; and 
the result was that 41 lb. 8oz. of Dr. Parry's clean washed 
wool made 26 yards, and 12 nails of cloth; while 441b. of 
the Spanish wool made 27 yards, 6 nails. The manufacturers 

'From this stPtement it appears, that 41 lb. 8oz. of British wool . 
have tnade^ within ten nails, as much cloth as 44 lb. of Spanish 
wool ; but the Spanish dotli is the stoutest. Thty have neither of. 
them undergone any state of the press. The colour of the wool for 
both the cloths was directed to be exactly the same, but the British 
18 darker than the Spanish. But though this may please the t^e, 
better^ the darker colour will not handle so soft as the lighter shade 
of blue. ^ . 

* Although perhaps we may be deviating from our sphere in pro- ' 
notinring which is the finest of the two cloths, yet we feel so fully 
persuaded that we are only anticipating the decision of the Commit* 
tee, that we do not scruple to say, that in our opinion as manufac- 
turers, the cloth made with the British wool, and m^irked in Dr, 
Parry's naoie, is decidedly of the finest quality/ 

At the annual meeting in 1801, the Committee appointed to 
examine cloth and wooji substantiate this account, and con- 
clude their report by oflFering it as their decided opinion *that 
Dr. Parry had, by his zeal, diligence, perseverance, and ac- 
tivity, accomplished the grand object of producing in the 
climate and soil of Britain wool equal to that usually imported 
from Spain ; and that in so doing he merited die warmest 
tlianks of the country/ To comphte the r^ort, it is proper 

"^ -to 

14 - Bath Society-^Letfers and Papers^ Vol. XL 

to subjoin die following ex|danation, copied from Dr. Parry's 
letter : ' 

* The wool of the doth made by Messrs Yeats and son, of Qlo- 
cc&tershire, in comparison with that from the Refina wool of the 
celebrated Coronet pile from Spain, consisted of ewes* fleeces from 
my flock, which is descended from Ryeland ewes, crossed with the . 
rams of the King, and Lord Somerville, to the fourth generation. 

* The British cloth would have been much finer, but from the 
vnakilfiilness of the wool-sorter, who, notwith&tanding he had hi# 
choice of a great many better fleeces, admitted several of a coarser 
kind, which not only deteriorated the cloth, but greatly increa<ied 
the relative proportion of the inferior sorts of wool. It will be easy 
to a(>yi4te a similar defect on any futijrc occasion. 

* I beg leave further to btate to the Society,, that the sh<»ep pro- 
ducing these fleeces were kept in excellent order for a foil twelvemonth 
before shearing, having been fed in the respective seasons, not only 
with grass and hay, but with vetches, clover, cabbages, potatoes^ 
linseed, and oil-cake/ 

This exj^eriment is not more flattering to Pr. P. than satis^ 
factory to the country ; and we should be happy to hear of 
its repetition on a large scale, so that reviewers as well a$ ' 
sailors may be supplied with a blue pair of pantaloons* 
Hitherto we have longed in vain to be all Englishy in our 
best chthes. ' 

An Account of sundry Proceedings in the Society y relative to art 
iMperimeHtal Farm. By Mr. Matthews. -7— Desirable as the 
objects proposed by Mr. M. in his plan of an experimental, 
farm may be, w« are of opinion that it is clogged with toa / 
many difficulties to be ever realized. Instead of expecting to 
find a volxune of practical knowlege in a single farm, is it not 
better to compile it from detached leaves contributed by several . 
intelligent, spirited, and persevering agricultural experimental 
lists ? Why not request every farmer of the Society to con- 
vert the land which he occupies, as far as he possibly can with 
CQQvem^^> into aa experimental farm, and annually to. state 
the result ? 

. 'Account of the Wheat Mothy or Virginia Fly ; as if aff eared im 
France in th^ year 1755 5 and ^vhich damaged tie Graif$ in thef 
Totunshif (f Lower Dublin in the Harvest of 1802, 1803, ant 
1804. , Commimicated by Mr. Matthews^: — ^In thia repuWica* 
tiQ% the nature>Vavages, and mode of destroying this pemici- > 
ous hisect axe described. 

An Inquiry whether the pure Merino'bread of Shefip is now 
necessary in order to maintain the Growth of superfine Wool im 
Great: MritatM. By Dr. Parry.— Every discussion conducted 
bf a senUeman. of Dr. Parry's correct and philosophising mind 
i&il9t be interesting | and when patient experience is a^ed to 
5 scientific 

Digitized by VjOUV IC 

Bath Society — Letters and Papers^ Vol. XL ^ 15 

scientific acumen, as in the memoir before us, it is impossftle to 
read without impcovement. After having reasoned from analogy 
by taking a general view of races or breeds of animals, the Dr. 
comes to the specific object of inquiry ; and in Opposition to 
those who have contended * that no cross-breed of sheep, 
however finely woolled, produced by any English ewes by the 
Merino-race, can, by breeding in and in, maintain the ulti- 
mate fineness of the fleece, without having recourse, from 
time to time, to new crosses of the pure breed,' and * that 
fine Wool can with difficulty be preserved in Great Britain,' 
Dr. P. undertakes to demonstrate that new crosses of the pure 
breed are no more necessary to preserve the fineness of the 
wool of sheep, than new crosses with Arabian stallions' are 
requisite to perpetuate the qualities of our race-horses ; and 
that the history of the Spanish Merino - breed, as well as 
recent experience with sheep of this race in various climates, 
must remove every doubt of the possibility of maintaining, with 
proper attention, all their valuable qualities in this island. 
We wish that our limits would allow us to make •several ex- 
tracts from this luminous essay : but we can do no more than 
transcribe its conclusion : 


' On the whoIe> I think Vthat experience authorizes ua in laying 
down the following important maxin^s : That where any race of ani- 
mals, ID any country, has during 3 or 4 descents maintained certain 
valuable qiiah'ti'^9, proper care uniformly directed to nutrition and 
breeding from the same stock, will deliver them down unimpaired to 
the latest gtncrJEitions ; and thercfoVe, 2dly, That under such cir- 
cumstaoces, those animals are best for breeding, which possess those 
qualities in the highest degree, however they may be denominated, 
or from wliat Country soever they nwiy be derived.* 

To this paper, Dr. P. has subjoined Tables of the-FemaU, 
Descendants frcm 100 shearling Ewes during 20 Tears, which 
will be useful to breeders of sneep. 

In the former volume, Mr. Matthews, duly considering the 
state of the times, obliged the public with observations on 
Family Wine Making, to which a letter on the same subject 
vas affixed ,hy the late Dr. Anderson. A kind of supplement 
is now furnished by Mr. M. : but he is so far from concurring 
with Dr. A. in the reprobation of spirits, that we find brandy 
an tn^Fediait in his family mixture. The following is 
given as: " , 

« jin useful Redpefor making Famify Wiiu. 
* Take, "Black Currants, 
Red ditto. 
White ditto, 

Ripe Cherries, (Black Hearts are the best) 
Raspberries, •-* ••each atM|g|j||Lor nearly iiir 


t6 ' Bath &octet^--Lettets and PaperSy Vol. XL 

equal quantity : if the black currants be the most abundant, so much 
tfce better. — ^To 4lb. of the mixed fruit, well bnmed, put one gallon 
of clear sbft water : eteep 3 days and nights, in open vessels, fre- 
quently stirring »p the mass : then strain through a hair sieve. The 
remaining pulp press to dryness. Put both liquid* together, and t^ 
each gallon of the whole put jlb. good, rich, moist sugar, of a bright 
yellowish appearance. — Let the whole stand again 3 days and nip:ht8, 
frequently stirring up as before, after skimming off the top. Then 
tun it into casks, and lee it remain, full and purging at the bung^ 
bole, about 2 weeks. Lastly, to every 9 gallons put one quart o^ 
good brandy, and bung down. does not soon drop iinc, a' 
steeping of isinglass may be introduced, and stirred into the liquid, in 
the proportion of about half an ounce to 9 gallons. 

* N B. Gooseberries, especially the lar>{tst, rich -flavoured, in» 
be used in the mixture to great advantage ; but it has been found the 
best way to prepare, theitj separately, by more powerful bruising, or 
..pounding, iso-aa to form the proper comiistence in pulp; by putting; 
aix quarts of fruit to one gallon of water, pouring on the water at 
twice; the smaller quantity at night, and the larger the next morn- 
ing. — This process, finished as aforesaid, will make excellent wine, 
unmixed ; but this fluid, added to the former mixture, will some- 
times improve the compound.' 

Several hogsheads of wine have been thus manufactured by 
Mr. M , which was pronounced to be of excellent quality. 

An Inquiry info the Causes of the Decay of Wood^ and the Means 
(f preventing it. By Dr. Parry. — Adverting to the extreme du- 
rability of wood, when preserved from the united action of air 
and moisture, and to its rapid decay when left in contact with 
air. and water, this ingenious inquirer discusses what may be • 
termed the theory of rot in timber, whether exposed to the open 
air and to the wetting of dews and rains, or to damps in close 
siti^^tion$, where the disease commonly termed dry rot appears. 
Having explained in the clearest manner the way in which gir 
and water operate in the decomposition of wood, he next endea- 
TOUTS to prescribe a preventive remedy, in both cases. The in- 
sufiiciency of common oil-paint to preserve wooden fences, 
weather-boarding, &c. induced Dr. P. to make various expe- 
riments to obtain 9 more eflfectual covering ; and he recom- 
mends, the following composition, . which he has himself tried 
with great success : 

^ Take 1 2 ounces of rosin^ aid 8 ounces of roll brimstoiie, eack 
coarsely powdered, and 3 gallons of train-oil. Heat them slowly, 
gradually adding 4 ounces of bees*, wax, cut in small bits. Fre* 
quently stir the liquor, which, as soon as the solid ingredients are 
dissolved, will be fit for use. What remains unused will become 
solid on cooling, and may be re-melted on subsequent occasions. 

< It is necessary to mentiei^ that compositions made of liot oil 

dxould for the sake of security be heated in metallic or. glazed earthen 

' 10 . ' vessel* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Bath Society— Litters and Paper Sy Vol. XL I? 

tessel^ mthe open tir. ' For wfccncw Oil it brought to the boiling 
point, or 6oo" of Fahrenheit's thermometer, the vapour iroiliediateljr ' 
catches fire, ahhough not in contact with any flame ; a»d though ^ 
lower degree of temperature than that of boiling should be used ia. 
this process, it is not always practicable either exactly to regulate 
the l^at, or to prevent the overflowing of the materials, in either of 
which cases, were the meUing performed in a house, the most fatal 
accidents might follow/. 

Of the dry rot, this theory is given : « It is a more or less 
rapid decomposition of the substance of wood, from moisture 
deposited on it by condensation, to the action of which it is 
more disposed in certain situations than in others ; and that 
this moisture operates most quickly on wood which most 
abounds with the saccharine or fermeutible principles of th^ 
sap/ It is added that in all cases this evil < may be infal- 
libly prevented, where it is practicable to cover the surface of 
the wood, properly dried, with a varnish which is impenetrable 
and indestructible oy water/ The circumstance of having wood 
properly dried, or seasoned, as it is called, is of great importance; 
because timber which is painted before its saccharine mois- 
ture, or sap, is exhaled, is often destroyed by dry rot. — At all 
times, the discussion of such a subject by an enlightened 
writer must be important : but, when so necessary an article 
as timber is becoming scarce and dear, the inquiry here insti- 
tuted merits particular attention j and we therefore recommend 
this paper to general perusal. 

On the Cultivation of the Poppy for extracting Oil. By Dr. Cegan. 
— The basis of this communication is a letter fromEbenezer Hol- 
lich, Esq. of Wittlesford Lodge, Cambridgeshire, in which tMs 
gentleman states that 3! bushels of poppy seed (weighing icw^. « 
2 qrs.) produced 6 gallons albs, of oil (7* lbs. to a gallon), antf 
3 qrs. 25 lbs. of cake. He denies, however, the assertion made 
by Dr. C. in a former paper on this subject, (see Vol. x. p. 335;) 
that poppy oil is equal to olive oil. It is added by Dr. C, * that 
since the article in the preceding volume was written, he' had 
received information from a friend, that the poppy oil is used 
in France and other places, in the counting-houses of mer- 
chants, in prieference to any other. It it said to give' a more 
vivid light, and to be much freer from fuliginous vapoiirs/ 

Mr. H. found it difficult to harvest the peppy without a great 
waste of the seed, on account of the holes in uie dried pogpy- 
head or pod. 

An Experiment on Soap'Sads as a Manure, by Mr. G. Irwin, 
with Remarks by the Rev. T. Falconer. — Soap-suds were hera- 
found very invigorating as manure for poor land 5 and they 
are also recoifettiended as a wash for fruit-trees, to. protect 
them against the la^rages of Insects. 
Rev. Mat, 1809. C roAal(> 

^ Digitized by VjOOQIv: 

1^ Saih Society — Lefters and PdferSi Vil. XL ' 

A Communication relative to the Advantages derived from » 
Friendly Society at Hormngshamt en account of its Benefits being 
entended to Lying-in Wotncn. ^By Mn Thomas Davis*.— From 
this letter, which was accidentally omitted vc\ the former vo- 
lume, we learn that the Friendly Society in Ae parish of Hor- 
ningsham, which contains about 200 familie^ by advancihg to 
eadi of its members a bounty of 15 s, for every child bom in 
lawful wedlock, administered to the comfort of hpng-in 
yomen, and became the means of preserving their oireprin^* 
As the p^trticulars can be easily given, we should be inexcusible 
if we omitted them : 

* The number of tnembe^ of the Soc^ty have been, en an avenge 
'••f the last ten ycir», ^^4. 

' The number of children for which bounties have been paid, m 
^o years, 1794 to 1803, have been as follows : 

198 paid f(%r at the birth. 

176 paid for at the end of a fortmght* 

.Sa.tbat»aa only died within the fortnight* And upon exa* 
"mmihg the parish register, it appears thac only 7 have died since. 
^ ^ It fellows that 169 out of 19.1 children bom are Hying at th» 
mtp and that the diminution by deaths has been very little more than 
•ne-sixtb, of ati the children born. Whereas so writer, on the sub* 
^et has ever Calculated on the loss of less than one-third within two' 
" ytars after birth, and some have reckoned nearly one half.* 

* Ckpmefi Anddysis of^ SoUs, &c. By C» Boyd— rWe arc re- 
^mindiedr in the preface, that the information which this memoir 
eonveys ts perfectly novel in the annals of, the Society. ThJe 
establishment of a Labqratpcy, and the Ubeipal offer of tjie bte 
' Dr. Archer to read lecture^ at .Bath, gratuitously, on che- 
, jnistry as connected wi^ agricultm'e,'are also "mentioned. Mr. 
' Boyd is Dr. ArcbeT*8 successor, and, this paper contains the re- 
sult of several experiments* After some introductory observa- 
tiienSf. ici whicji the mode of analysing^ earths and soils is 
jninvtely e^plaine^» he proceeds to detail the results of 
expexun^ts made witl> Chalk, bluish grey Lime-stone, Bastacd 
Chalk, FuUerVEarth, Bastard Do., Gypsum, or Native Sul- 
phet of Lime^ Lead Slags from Meiidip, a productive soU^ 
frcun the ,neijthbourhood of Bristol, &c. This paper is 
creditable to Mr. B. as an analyzer. 

The Correspondence relative to a very' fertile Piece of Land at 
JfTantage, in Berksiire, provea.v«7 little, and WaS scarcely 
word^y of publication. We say no^ however, the same of the 

* The loss which the Society has susUincd by the death of tikb 
vahiablc member is lamented in the preftce» Mtd in the imrracit 
icnns t^ the Secretary at the coadosion of this paper. ^ t 

2 aorticJe 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

tltonV TramktUn tf Heslod. 19 

ttdck which i<dlgW9j containing Additkn^ Observatkm en 
crossing of Animals^ hj Dr. Parry.— Farthep to iflustrate the 
doctrine urged in a former paper, * that by crossing to 1 
certain extent, we may either fully arrive at the standard and 
fixed qualities of the original male, or mar establish a new 
variety of animals, as permanent as any which now exists,* 
Dr. P. examines the principle of pure original breeds, for 
which some persons are so atrenuous, and shews the absurdity 
which it involves. 

The concluding article contains a list of premiums an^ 

It will be seen ffom the foregoing abstract, that, though 
this volume does not embrace so great a variety of subjects 
as some of its predecessors, it is enriched by communications 
of no inconsiderable merit; and that, if it cannot vie in the 
department of Mechanics with the Transactions of the Society 
for Arts, &c. London, its papers in other branches afford u» 
some recompense. 

Art. III. 7^ Rmdms tf Haiod iie Atcriwtt translated from ihf 
Greek into Enp^lish Vert^e : with a preliminary Di«ser|ation^ and 
Kotcs. By Charles Abraham Elton, iimo. >p. 397. lit. 
Boards. Longman and Co. 1809. 

1 \rE have here the first complete translation of the remains 
^^ attributed to Hesiod. The quaint and ragged 'version 
of George Chapman comprehends only the Works and Days, 
or, as he cails tn6m, the Georgics : it was published in 161S, k 
now scarcely to be procured, and is more Isicely to repel than to 
invite d^ curiosity of the modem English #eader« The 
translation by Thomas Cooke includes the Works and DaySp 
andtteTheogony, but omits the Shield of Hercujea i k wat 
first published in 17^8 in 4to, is now to be found in the 
. secopd volume of Dr. Anderson's collection of poetical traiit* 
.lations, and has lately been printed by Mr. Inee in^ hta col^ 
lection of translations, announced in our number for Marali 
last. Article XI. p-3i5* Cooke's perfonn^mce^ as we liien 
tenuvked, is often careless and inelegant, and ia defective in 
accuracy and fidelity : but in many parts, it has. very 
uncommon poetical merit, and unquestionably deserves a 
much higher character , than Mr. Elton has beeii pleased to 
bestow on it, when he describes it as * a very dovenly perform* 
ance, possessing little beyond the accidental merit of filling a 
blank in <>ur^terature.'^ (Pref^ce^ iL) 

, A new and copiplete version of Hesiod was, nevertheless^ a 
£ur object of |i^i;ary epterprize : but the undertaking ptf- 

C % A#nt« 

Digitized by VjOOV It: 

2o EltonV Translation of Hcsiod. 

86nt8 no very alluring retv^ard to poetical ambition^ since thii 
remains of the Bard of Ascrk ai'e but scanty, and ate Hot Kfeely 
to afford fnuch gratification to the t^ste of any readers except 
professed scholars or antiquaries. With the exception of tU'0 
pr thfee splendid passages, the Tlieogony is nearly as interest** 
ing as a calendar of saints, or a pocket-peerage* in ^the 
poeih intitled the Works arid Days, we find more of rejgulaf 
combination, and uniform execution ; yet still a collection of 
lessons for the conduct of life, and a series of directions for 
the labours of agriculture, can scarcely be very attractive, 
unless recommended by the highest graces of diction, and 
the most refined artifices of composition. The curious relique 
called the Shield pf Hercules, also generally ascribed to 
H^^icfd, is for the most part a bloated rhapsody 5 and those 
who have become familiar with Homeric imagery will bring 
to the perusal of it fancies already gorged with scenes of 
brutal violence and impossible valour, and will turn away from 
vthe adventures of a bullying Hero, or the ariiours of an adul- 
terous divinity. 

Of these disadvantages^ Mr. Elton appears to have been 
sufiiciently sensible : 

! Tbf remains of this anjcicnt poet,* he justly observes, * are chiefi]^ 
interesting as curious memorials of the legendary fables of the Greeks, 
. of their sy&ttrm of ethics, arid of the rude arts and manners of a rt:« 
mote age., A translation of Hesiod is perhaps little calculated ta 
•become popular, but it should not be judged by the same poetical 
staiuiard as .a translation of the metamorphoses ;of Ovid, or the > 
Georgtcs of Virgi). I am well convinced that from the very nature 
of the work, malignity might extract food for its gratification, but 
from candour I expect that^ be my own deficieriCiVs what they may, I 
shall not be considered responsible for those of my author.' 

What are the peculiar temptations which thiis work offers 
to theandolgence of malignity, we are at a loss to discover. 
•We, certainly, are engaged in no conspiracy to deprive Mr. 
Elton of the benefit o? die maxim, that the sins or the poet 
are not to \be visited on his translator. Tried by this fule> 
his performance will be found to possess great ndelity, and 
considerable spirit. Where he is animated and supported by 
liis original, he displays vigour of conception and felicity of 
language ;— he often* approaches the highest elevations of hi$ 
author, and generally succeeds in giving a faithful representa- 
tion of his manner as well "as his sentiments ; — ^he abstains with 
tolerable steadiness from disguising the faults of Hesiod, or exalt- 
ing his beauties 5 — ^and we discover, on the whole,»but very little 
in the version which may not be confidently sought in the 
•riginai ; though the distresses of rhime have been Qccasioii- 

■ \ allf 

Digitized by VjOOV IC 

jEIton V Tramlaiiim rf Hcsjo^. a I 

tf y rclicvcd.hy the admission of ^periluou^ 5ror4s,.?ind by 
the fabricaUon of one line fo;r the sake of another. 
. If, however, Mr. Elton has produced a more exact likeness 
of Hesiod than his predecessors conveyed to us, we greatly 
doubt whether his work will succeed in displacing the trans- 
lation which he so slightly values, Cooke,, with all* his inac- 
curacy and licentiousness, h?s a greater boldness and freedohi 
of execution than Mr, Elton. The pre§enf wprk unques- 
^onably contains numerous passages ^ore happily laboured 
than any which can be produced from the former : but th^ 
I fraction of poetry mustoe ascertained by ij^s general effect \ 
not by the splendour or beauty of parucujar p^rts^ The critic 
and the scholar will, possibly, give their approbation to the per- 
formance of Mr. Elton : but we are disposed to believe that 
the class of readers, for whose use translations :^re more par- 
ticularly designed, will adhere to Cooke with al} hiis imper^- 

The principal faults of this translator are an extravagant 
admiration of Miltonlc harmony and diction ; an inordinate 
passion for compound epithets ; and an occasional affectation 
x>f inverted construction, and obsolete phraseoldgy. These 
. defects communicate to his performance an unnatural and 
pedantic air. They are chiefly conspicuous in his versiop of 
the Theogony ^d the Shield j for which, as being of an epic 
character, he has unhappily chosen blank verse. No blank 
translation, that ^e recollect, has ever succeeded eminently, 
and the experiment dpesjnot ieem to be very happily repeated 
in ^the present instance. The Theogony, more particularly, 
from the nature of its subject, requires all the assistance of 
rlume to keep attention from slumbering j and whatever would 
be thus lost in exactness would be more than doubly gained 
in attraction. As long as it is the object of writing to pro- 
cure readers, ^o long must transhtors abjure all nc^es of 
emancipating themselves fr6m the bondage of rhim^. We 
must allow that for most of his compound epithetSy Mr. £« 
is indebted to his author \ and we are ready also to admit 
that the spirit of the original must- often b<e lost, if these 
characteristic adjuncts be suffered to fume away in the >un- 
meaning geiitnr^ty of ^^ hrctv^* — ^^ beauteausy ^^-^ ^^ graceful^* 
&c. Yet our language has not sufficient ductility ipr a 
profusion of these combinations ; and though they may oc-o 
casionally enrich and strengthen the composition, it oftea 
happens that they may either be advantageously suppressed 
or may be jnofe elegantly represented by a single* vrord, or 
a skiljful periphrasis. The punctuality, with which Mr. E. 
|}a$ preserved fhese compounds, is scrupulous to an ^xcess 
' C 3 that 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

2t iltOB^i iratutation tf Hesio^, 

^t may \^ retrenched ^thput injury ^ t&e origbutl, Irt 
the fcdk^dng instances, and In many more which we cannot 
transcribe, me words are yoled togedier by violence, — ^jug9 
ahemo^'i viz* cieek^UoMtipg — teau^'ikomtttg-'^roan'-jcattering 
— hwrnrr^ freezing — - self^wanderinz — whttf'gnasbing-m^ ihody^ 
devouritfg^-^morn'fiaining •^-^irite'Oevourer (fu^ipayos^ rendered 
by Cooke with much greater force and proprie^^, *« cfiritej tie 
flutton**)^^ &c. &c. &c» Besides these, Mr. l^ton has loaded 
Jiis translation with such epithets as aU^baugbty'm^UsuMe — 
^^aU^hiUittg''^^lojuenty^^tx.c^ &c. 

We. can find great room for improvement in Mr. E.'s ver^ 
sification. In its present state, it is often harsh and nigged, 
and sometimes lame and feeble. Among the defects of his 
blank verse, may be noticed his propensity to a very unmusi^ , 
<:al division of his lines at the end of the first foot, or third 
half foot ; pauses which are occasionally used by Milton for 
the ^ake of varie^f, and which we are oy no means desirouji 
of .seeing altogetner discarded : but the heroic harmony is 
greatly crippled and enervated by an indiscreet repetition of 

As Cooke's version is ik)w -so ' accessible, we shall not 
enter into a more particular comparison of its merits with 
'those of Mr. Elton, nor fill our pages by transcribing lone < 
extracts from each of them, but shall content ourselves with 
selectine a few specimens, which will exhibit to our reader^ 
some of the defects ^s well as excellencies of the bresent work. 
We cannot insert the whole of the battle oi the Titans ; 
tmt we select the following lines as exhibiting the pc^wers of 
the translator to great advantage, and falling very littie short 
pf the gran4ej^ 9? tiie original ; 

• Ner longer then did Jove 
Cufb his full pow^i b^t insunt in his somI 
There ^ew dilaud sureDgth» and it was fill'd 
With his. omnipoceiice. At once he loosed 
His whole of might, and pat forth all the Cod. 
The vaulted sky, the rpount Olympian, flashed 
V^ith his contmual presence ; for he pas^d ' 
Incessant forth* and scatterVl fires on fires. 
HurlM ficom his hardy fcrasp the lightnings lew, 
Iteiteiatcd swift the whirliag flash 
Cast sacred splendour,, amd the thnoderbok 
Tell : ro^"d arooad the iiurture-vieldiDg emh 
In conflagration* bx on every side 
Th* immensity of forests craekliog bbzM : 
Yea, the broad earth burn'd red, the streams that miji 
With ocean, and ibe deserts of the %tt. 
Round and ro^iod th^ Titan brood of Janb* 

;^ " j^oU'4 

. Digitized by VjOQQIC 

Elton V I^a/i^laA^tf ^ tki^p^ a J 

Roll'd tfe€ hot Jraponr on its fiery lur^c v . 
The liquid heat air*9 pure expaose dtvinc 
SafFasM : .the radiance keen ofqwWtrinft flaioe 
That shot from writhen lightDiogs» each dim or^ 
Strong though they were, jntolerd>Ie smote, 
' Aod scorchM thetr blaated viaion. Through the toM 
OF Erebus, the preternatural glare 
Spread, mtfigltng fire with darkncil* 9ot ta act 
Wkh hujoan eye, and hear with ear of mvOf 
Had been, as if midway the spacious heaven, 
Hurtling with earth, shockM-*-e 'en at netber etrth . 
Crash'd from the centre, and the wreck of heaven 
Fell ruining from high. So vast the din, 
When, Gods encountering Gods, the clang of arms 
Commingled, and the tumuft roar'd from heaven/ 

The conflict of Joire with Typhxus is alsio, vigorously ex- 
ecuted, but it presents similar images, and is too long for 

The description of winter, from the JTorki and Days, which 
has been rather flippantly ridiculed by Addisoh in his essaj 
on the Georgics of Virgil, is rendered by Mr. E. with consi- 
derable felicity ; though he has given to the picture an ele- 
gance and a finish for which it will be v^in to look in the rough 
canoQ-of Hesiod : 

* Beware the January month ; beware 
Those hurtful days, that k^renly piercing air 
Which flays the steers ; while frosts tlicir horron castf 
Congeal the ground and sharpen every blase. 
From Thracia's courser-teeming region sweeps 
The northern wind, and breathiug av/Jt^ deeps 
Heaves wide the troubled surge ; earth eohoii^g roflSS 
Fronfi the deep forests and the"sea4>«it sBorer. . . 
He from the mountain-top with shattering stroke - « 
Rends t)ie broa^d june, and many a branching oak 
Hurls 'thwart the glen : while sudden from on high 
With headlong fury rtlshing dowfn the sky, 
The whirlwind stoops to. e^rth, then derpeifing round 
bweHs the loud stotni, %nd ail the boutidlcss woods r|SQun2, 
Thebeaststheir cower inglails with trembling fold, 
^nd shitnk and shudder at the gnsty cold. 
Thick 18 the. hairy <pat^ t^e sbagpy skin. 
But that all chilling preath shall pierce within. 
Not his rough hide (;an flicn the ox avail, _ " 

The long'haic'd goat defencclesj^ feels the gale*; 
Yet vatnihe north- wiad*s rushing strcngtli to yonc^ 
The flock, with«shc;hering ^eeccs fenced around." 
The aged tnan inclines his. bowed &rrp, 
, But 'safe ihe. tender virgin frprxi the storm. 
She strange to lovely Veni|s' .mystic |oys ' 
yeneatb ihp mother's roof her h^prs Viii^jg. 

t4 EltonV Translaiu^ ^ Hcsipd* 

Around htr liiVhtly flows the tepid wayc, 
Af)d 8}iinin|^ dus in liquid fragrance lave 
Her yielding fimbs ; thus piudwM to repose 
In her soft chamber, whQe the tempest blows.' 

In tile subseqjjeot passage, the dirfptipns of the original ar^ 
faithfully preserved, and deliyered at once with elegance 
and .with true didactic* brevity and compression; while the? 
beautiful piece of natural painting at the end of it is happily 
copied ;' . . , . ^ . . ' . ? , 

* I warn thee, now around thy body cafet 
A tBiek defence and covering from the blast ? 
Let the soft cloak its woolly warmth bestow. 
The undcr-tunic to thy a«kle flow : 
On a scant warp, a woof abundant weave ; 
Thus warmly wovf n the mantling cloak receive : 
^ I^ shall thy h'mbs beneath its ample folfi 

t^th briatling hairs start shivering to the cold. V 
Shoe^ of a sUughter'd oif's lasting hide, 
Soft-lio'd with socks of wool, thy icct provide : 
And kid-skins 'gainst the rigid ieason sew 
With sinew of the bull, and sheltering throw 
Athwart thy shoulders when the rains impend 5 *l 

'- " And let a well-wroujght'cap thy head defehd, . > 

And screen thine ears, when drenching showers descend, jf 
Bleak is the morii, when l^lows the north from high 1 ' ' 
Oft when the dafimlight paints the starry sky, 
A misty cloud suspended hovers o'er ', 

The spacfout earth with fertilizing store, 
Drain'd from the living stream's : aloft in air 
The whirlinj^ vainds the buoyant vapour bear, 
ltc«olv*d at evt in rain or gusty cold 
As by the north the trouble^ rack is rollM.' 

We fear that the word rack in fhie last line is now alpipst 
obsolete, and that it' Ts necessary to inform many of our 
readers that it signifies a mass of clouds, as it appears when 
driven by the wind, " ' .*>.*.* ^^ 

ly^hc <;^eation of l^zndor;^, though ;n one or. two parts, peiv 
haps, rather moi'e highly coloured than the original, is on the 
Wnole characterijfed by elegance arid fidelity : * 

' Jove bade the crippled god his best bbey^ 
And niould vejth tempering water plastifc clay ^ 
With human nerve and human voice invest 
The limbs elastic and the Breathing breast; 
Fair as the blooming goddesses above, 
A virgin's IHceness with the looks of love. 
He bade Minerva teach the skill that sheds ^ 

A thousand colours in tht gliding threads: 
• He call'd the magic of love's golden queen ' 

To breathe arbond a witchery of mien : ** 

' And 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ekbnf/ TramUfiim ff Hesapdj j|| 

And eager pattion't never-tated flaqie» 
And cares of ^rsM that prey upon the frame | 
]^ade Hermes last endue with craft refin'd 
Of treacherous mannersy and a shameless mi^d. 

* He gives <iommand> th' inferior powers obcf ^ 
The crippled artist moulds the tempered clay X 
By Jove's design aro^e the hashful maid ; 
The cestus Pallas clasp'd, the robe array 'd; 
Ador'd Persuasion and the Graces youn^ 
Her taper'd limbs with golden jewels hung : 
Round her fair brow the lovelyrtressed Hours 
A garland twin'd of Spring's purpureal flo^ir'fai 
The whole attire Minerva's graceful art 
Disposed, adjusted, form'd to every part : 
And last the winged herald of the skies^ 
Slayer of Argus, gave delusive lies ; 
Insidious manners, hoheyrd speech instill'd. 
As he that rolls the deepening thunder wiU'4 ? 
n'hcn by the feathcrM messenger of Heav'a 
The name Pandora to the maid wai giv'A ; 
For all the gods conferred a gifted grac^ 
To crown this mischief of the mortal race. 
The Sire commands the winged herald beat 
* The finished nymph, th' inextricable snare: 
To Epimetheus was the present brought, 
Prometheus* warning vanished from his thought — ^ 
That he disdaiin eaqh ctSering from the skies. 
And straight restore, lest ill to man arise. 
But he receiv'd ; and conscious knew too h^te 
Th' insidious gift, an(| f<;h the cursp ^f fatf / 

We have some doubts of th^ propriety of the sense, aacribid 
in the nth Hoe of this extract to yvioxl^oug f/,t>^imaf. Why 
should this expression be supposed to point to the anxieties of 
dress, rather than to the tender solicitudes of passion^ which 
waste the body while they corrode the heart ?— We are aware, 
indeed, that, according to one etymology, yvioKo^o^ fAt^^i^d^u may 
signify' ah anxiety about the delicacy qt decoration of the Innbs; 
a sense which will certainly justify the translation. We pre- 
sume that Mr. Elton was resolved at all events not to be wrong, 
and therefore contrived to preserve both interpretations : 

* And cares of dress that/r^jr upon the frame,* 

In the ensuing passage, the execution is very unequal : ^ 

< For thrice ten thousand holy daemons rove 
The nurturing earth, the delegates of Jove : 
Hovering they glide to earth's e^^tremest bouqd, 
. A doud Serial yeils their forms around; \ 

Guardians oT man^ their glance alike surveys 
The upright judgments and th' unrig h^ 

^""^^^■^^^ virgin 

A Tirgin parejt JdHkK 2 froinr i4ie Itmip 
Of HcaVn her births » ^^mtra^lc Uitsg 
And glorioiw, to the pities on high. 
Whose mmsion w yow everijMtfng «ky . 
Drrvtri by despttcful^ wrong, she takct her ie»e 
In lowly grief at }•▼#•« eternal fceti 
•There ofthe soul uojojit her i^awtt ascend,. 
So rue the nations when their king! oflend f 
When uttering wOes and brooding thoi^hts of ill. 
They bend the laws and wrest them to thdf wiH; 
Bewace, O roonarchs ! ye that gifta devour, 
.Make- straight your jodgnieota now in timely hour; 
That crooked equity no ttiore be aecn, ' 
Erased, forgotten, as it ne'er had been !^ 

« Venerable tiing' in the Bth line of this extract is lame and 
feeble ; and the four concluding lin^ are but spiritless, espe-^ 
cially the la^t two, which express the meaning of Hesiod in a 
very aujcward and cumbrous manner.^ He merely enjoins So- 
vereigns to forget alfogethery i. e. to renounce y the practice of per- 
verting justice — cTKoXiaJj' St itnZv Imifayx^ ?or&c<&r. The whole 
of this*passage is im:omparabIy better rendered by Cooke. 

Our limits admit not of farther extr^ts ; nor can we enter 
intd a very minute examination of subordinate defects. We must, 
however, protest ag^nst such words as a*A«w/#vr, or itfffvcativey 
in a paasiye seinse. Rife is a favourite word witli Mr. Elton \ 
and wherever he has introduced it, we have always wished that 
it had been omitted. The temi • variegated! as applied to 
the, note of ^ bird^ is utterly inadmissible. We have detected 
«ko flosne meaaand vulgar expressions ; as, 

"* fiSi many works of eurrous craft, to aight^ 
Wondro^i, ht graved Tf4ER£ON.' 1. 7 73.^ p. 105, 

* the grievous fault, khe nohich 

JrrevQcalie is,^ L 1 z6. p. 207^ 

P. tb^^ )• 795> i$htm fftn^ is vendeeed by conmei incp-rufa^ 
tMf;*:ani«x]p)^sk)n .which $ur^ly has^xnore sound than meanli^. 
The original idgnifies the immutable designs, the imdecaying 
wisddm^ ofthe Deity. . ,\ * ^^ 

P. 230. l«.59pt Cf^dpfAciroi is inadmissibly represented by 
bender (f chariots \ a pliVase wliich will scarcely he^ the 
reader to tmy meaning, and certainlv not to that pf t]ie author. 

P. I5S# Hesiod teUs us plainly that ,<* the Gods have placed 
before Virtue die sweat of the brow."-rryhi8 bl^nt and down- 
right admonition is totally emasculated bf Mr. £ko% who has 
substituted for *< i^eaf the following laii^d aadai&cted pe^ 
riphrlsis; • . * 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

• tot TiftfX imOi m Mgh I tW <klh IMor^ 
Jhift fiMCtA tie J^tk9t4b'tjfi from tw^ R* <$<• 1*99^* 

it 18 amusing to remark di^ ^lUb^trrassihent of i triitslatof^ 
^hep he comes <m ground so completely occupied tbat no room 
bl^iorhim* The following passage^ expressive of the ausfiU 
CKNis or the unfavourable aspect of different days, is dius very 
fnroperly rendered by Copke : 

^ One cruel as a stepmother we find^ 

And ooe, as aa indulgent mother, kind/* 

Observe the aukward endeavours of his successor to avmd his 

' N§w as a stepmother the iiay we find 
Severe .* omJ aow at $e eL mother kind/ 

At pp. 215 and aaij Mr. Elton approaches so near to the he« 
xoic times of that same worthy peer Duke Theseus an4 
his Grecian chivalry^ that he cannot forbear to talk about 
JKmghts ! ! 

* There Was the Kmght of fair haired Danae born« 

Perseus.' The Shield, ▼. 297. 
« Next then were higkts, who painful effort made 

To win the priae ot coatesty and bard toiL' lb. v. 41 1, 

P.' 222. V. 435. 'Egean Sire* is surely a Very unraieamng 
and obscure representative of warfii !i6i rfij'ic^^sio—thfe *gis- 
wielding Jove. ^ 

in die preliminary dissertation, the authenticity of the 
remains ascribed to Hesiod is considered* The most question- 
able of these is the Shield of Hercules, of which Tanaquil 
Faber says that '** they who think it not of Hesiod, have a 
very supierficial acquaintance with Grecian poetry ^"^—>XrhiIe 
Joseph Scaliger talks of •< the author, whoever he may be, of 
the Shield, whi^ the critical world by a preposterous jtidg- 
inent have attribute to the Poet of Ascra."~Bfet^een these 
conflicting authorities, Kfr. Elton baS endeavoured to find a 
middle course. His conjecture is rational and ingenious, and 
we are greatly disposed to adopt it 

* It is extraordinary, (says he,) that to none of the critical com- 
mentators on Hesiod does the Idea qf a cento of fragments appear to 
have suggested itself. Yet the texture of the poem completely far 
veurs this hypothesis, which reconciles all difficult iet. Undouhtedly 
there are strong grounds for believing that it did not form a part of 
the Catalogue of Women in its present entire /brm. 

* In the scholium of the Aldiite edition ot n^M, it xs observed^ 
*< The beginning of the Shield as Far is the t50lh f eree" is said t^ 

.form a pth of the fourth Catalogue.'^ HfreUica isaa adtniiii^ 
'-- - ' th^t 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

that Ae^oMicf tbc SUeU did nor fohn t ptrt oflt $ aad, from tlif 
vftgoe mlnsep in tvUcb the tdmliait exprcMet.hi|McU> wc may be 
aUowrcd to conjfcturc that he migh^ possibly be mistaken as to the 
exact fiumber of lines. This portion in fact comprehends the meet* 
ing of ri^cules ^ith Cygnuf ; his arming for battle, and a partiaf 
detcrtptipn of the Shields circumstances which, it must be coo- 
ictsedy have very little relation to tht praises of Alcmena. > 

* I should be idtlined to consider the first 6fty«8ix lines only M 
belonging to the fourth Catalogue of Women. This portion, ending 
with the birth of- Hercules, is aukwardly coupled with the warlike 
a4vcntttre of Hercules in the grove of Apollo, by the lin^, 

' Who also slewCygnus, the magnanimous son of Mars.* 

This line is visibly the link of connection between the two fragmei>ts» 
and betrays the hand of the interpolator. Th^ succeeding passage^ aa 
fitr as verse I53> which inchxdea a short description of the Shield^ I 
conjecture to have formed a part of the Herogony ; and to have been 
Immediately followed by the 320th line, where he is represented as 
fitting the buckler to nis grasp, and ascending his chariot. Some 
few other passages, including the speech of Pallas to Hercules isnd ef 
Hercides to CygnuSy q|fiy, I think, be classed as genuine fragmentu ( 
but the whole * impertinent digression from line 154 to line ;20, 
which ii occupied with the sculptured emblazonment of the Shield, 
aud generally the similes at the close of the poem, I regard as intcr« 
polations. • 

, * Poisibly they may be ascribed to the hand of some rhapsodist, 
who, from having been accustomed to recite the poems of Homer, 
eould not easily adopt the style of Hesiod, but in hi^ attem|)t to 
patch up this forgery gave into Homeric imitation. X^c mixture of 
authenticity and impostiire Will explaiq the dpgmatism of opinion 
'which marks the contradictory decisions of the learned on this ouriQus 
question/ > 

In the notes at th^ conclusion of the volume, we meet with 
kfiming and good senses ; and as we never desire to see 
these qualities disfigured by affectation^ we wish that Mr, £. 
had forborne to talk of 'the generous and elegant gallantry 
of Homer !' — For the solution of the perpetual aenigma of 
the antient mythology, he resorts to the assistance of that 
mighty scholar Jacob Bryant, from whc^se Analysis he ha^ 

* • Wc may here apply the criticism of Vida : 

For why should Homer deck the gorgeous car^ 
When our raisM souls arc eager for the war ; 
Or dwell on ey'ry wheel, when loud alarms 
/ And Mars in tfiunder call the hosts to arms ? 

' PJtt'r translathu. 

It may be observed that the Shield of AchiUei only fills a pause in tb^ 
action of the poem, and it not Uierefore ep^ bo the tame otyection at 
the Shield of HcTQul?!.*^ ; 


Digitized by VjOU V IC 

Mayn^V SUkr Gutty a Pptm^ ^ 

transcribed copiously, and whose system he considers as at 
least preferable to any other that has yet been-promulgited* 

In note 41. p. 27a. Mr. I^ton contends that A^lrrif is used 
by Hesiod to signify the East wind j in contradiction to the 
generality of the commentators, who suppose it ta be either a 
name or an epithet of one of the westerly winds. As Hesiod 
has mentioned the three other winds, and as we have no 
reason for supposing that he should omit the East, we could 
wish that Mr. Elton's position should be established : but, in 
addition to the authority of Pliny and Aulus Gellius, he 
has against him that of Aristotle, who describes the A^yhn^ as 
a westerly wind, which blows, a»o^ ivi d^iy^^ ti^kmh fmm that 
part of the heaven in which the sun sets at the summer sols- 
tice ; and he farther says that by some it is, called Olympias, 
by others lapyx. if Afytrnf be an epithet it n^ay signify not 
only siviftj but serene ^ {alhusj) an epithet applied by Horace 
to the wind lapyx : Od« UI. 27. v. 29, 30 — *< et quid Mux 
peccet lapyx.*'— On the other h^indf it is proper to remark that 
d^ifou is interpreted, in Hesychius, by c» iTif<rioi, the winds 
which commenced regularly every year from the rising of the 
Dog-star,' and which are difFeremly .describe4 by different 
audiors ; some representing them as blowing from the N. W., 
and others from the N. E. — Besides, in a. note to the word 
oKii^div in Alberti's edition of Hesychius, an opinion is ii>- 
timated that Afyif»j is properly an Easterly wind, aVjjAiAJr^f 

At the end of the volume is an Appendix, containing a 
short biographical notice of George Chapman, with specimens 
of his version of " the Georgics of Hesiod." 

Art. IV. The Siller Gun. "A Poem, in Four Cantos : with Notes, 
and a Glossary. By John Mayne, Author of the Poem of " Gla8« 
gow/' 5cc. i2mo. pp* 153* 4s* Boards. Richardson. i8o8« 

THE siller gun, celebrated in this lively little poem, is a silver 
tube, about ten inches long, which was presented by James 
the Sixth to the town of Dumfries, to be annually carried off 
as a prize by the best marksman among the seven corporations 
of that antient borough. According to tradition, it wa$ mounted 
on a silver carriage, with silver wheels: but these, if they ever 
existed, haVe disappeared, and the weapon, in its present state, 
is likened to a penny whistle. The contest, on account of the 
trouble and expence attending it,, does not take place so often 
as its royal founder reqair^, and is probably for this reason 
the more considered ; when the festival is.appointed^ the 
' ... 5 birth- 


IktbAvf a the xeigmiig sov«i^%ii^i6 sdways diosem Mc 
. M^^fae has daicabfa !^ eddbmtion which was held on the 
fbiirth of June^ 1777 % the last pccaskni^ as far as he can leam» 
en wllich the dd custom w;^ observed. We have so great a 
regard for harmless old cus^tQSt the remains of those military 
p^islam^ which were instituted by our ancestors, and are 
bestdes-somudi interested in favour of this particular holiday fay 
the poem bafore iis^ that we sincerely hope that it may be 
soon teviired and.often sdemni^ed. 

As to the scaitity fable which serves as a basis for these fot^r 
txatm% it isnet^Ker mose nor less than that various corpora- 
tions of TiwBStm fired at a target^ which was hit by none of 
dMm except WilHam lA^Nish, the tajdor, to whom i;he 
silkr gun accordingly adjudged, as die trophy of tlie day^: 
|nit these meagre mater ials, wlu^ do not appear capable of 
commanding a ntoment's attention from any one residing more 
dum fiirejnileS'fi^m:Dumfdes, axe so well concealed by Mr. 
^May&e in die general bustle <^ tl^ scene, and so skilfully 
.mhigled widi desctiption, incident, and character^ that even we. 
^uthr&ns are traosfOdrted in im^igitiation to the ^ot, and cannot 
refram from joining in all the riotous joUity of the . day« 
The poet, howeveir, takes, in the first place, a retrospect of the 
anxtoos anticipatbn with which the future holiday waa 
expecte4> and the gniat preparatipns which preceded it : 

< F«r weeks before this f^te sac clever, 
■Tb^ fowk, were in a pcifect fever. 
Scouring gun-barrels i* the river— 

At marks practizing— 
Marchinf^ wi* drams and fifes forever— . ^ 

A' sodgerizing ! 

* And turning coats and mending breeks« 
New*8eating Inrhere the sark-taT! ikecks | 
(Nae matter tfao' the cloot that eeks 

I» black Of Uae;{) 
Aod darnings .wi^h a thousand steekt. 
The stockings too*' 

When the moroang arrives, the Srade^ march forth in 
|Toce9«<mto a field called the Craigs,. where the important 
Tiv^ i^erected ^ 

«.Wi* hats as black a$ony niven^ 
, Fresh as the rose, their beards new-shaven^ 
And a* thtir Sunday^s deeding having 

Sae ttimv aad i^ay, 
* Forth ca^ic our Trades, ^sooie ora laviog 
To viatc that dayV—v 



MayncV SiHir Gtm, a PHm* ^| 

* Andcc'er forSwiiform or«ur» 

Was «ic a group rcYtcw'id eUcwhcre I 
The shorty the tall.; fat fowk, and spare'; 

Side coat», and dockit ; 
Wigs, queiis, and clubs, and curly hatr } 

Kound hats, aod codtit ! 

* As to their guns — ^thae fell engines. 
Borrowed or begg'd, were of a' kinds 
For bloody war, or bad design^. 

Or shooting cuskies— 
Lang Sowltng^ieces, carabines» 
And blunder- busses 1' 

The blacksmiths led tjne van, ourchiog <^ tira .$Qd tff9k |! 
tiie Squaremeny or carpenters, followed ^ then caoie 1^ 
weavers ) after them the taylors>-**the souter/^ or cpUen— ^ 
die skinners, — a^nd ^tjleshers, or butchers. Lastly come their 
several' apptentices and journeymen, though they are not per* 
fitted tOt^aTe. in the compHttiom— ^Th« <3urionly and ^mU 
miration of all the> towu'^ people, and the tender itnfmrt tihtn 
by the fair sex in ijie exhibition of their huobands aad lovtny 
ixe £n^ represented : 

' As thro* the town their banners ffjr» 
Frae windows low, frae windows high, 
A* that couM find a nook to spy» 

Were les^g o*er ; 
The streets, stair-heads* and carts, forbye. 
Were a' uproar ! 

• To see his face whom ^he loo'd best, 
Hah^ wife was there araang the rest : 
And, while wi' joy her sides she prest, 

Like m.qpy m^e. 
Her exultation was exprest 

In words like thae : 

** Wou ! but It makes ane's heart loup light- 
To see auld fowif sae cleanly dtj^t ! 
E'en now our HMy^ seeios as< tight 

As whe|), lang syne. 
His looks were first the young delight 

And pride o' nainc !** 

* But on the meeker maiden's part, • % < 
Deep sighs alane her love impart 1 . . 

Deep tighf the langtiage o' the hearts 

Win afcreveaU 
A flame which a' the pow^rs^of art 

laTaiD^oi^iBealL' , ^ • • ' - '. 

|t, IAajw^s Siller Gun f a PoemV 

We should be delighted to transcribe the motley groupe of 
q^ectatorsy * the old ac^uauitanGes in swarms/ . 

• Where louder grew the busy hum 
Of friends rejoicing as they conae ;^ 

and their pleasing recollections of old times, thotigh disturbed 
by * now and then a silent tear 

• For friends depar ted| kindred dear, 
(Friends f 'u^ha *iosre aye the foremost htrtiY 

• Of bonny lasses, tight and clean, 

Buskit (dressed) to please their ain lad's een ;' 

and the children, who are brought to die shew because nd 
one is at home to take care of them, and who are pleasiri|;ly 
described, as 

• Wee things'g^gglfng in the arms 

O' their fond mithers i* 

but Ae important business of the meeting Calls us from the 
booths and gingerbread^talls to the field of noble emulation* 
—In apologizittg for the aukwardness and alarm of \ big Johil 
M^Ma€F/ wio was unable to manage his musket, the poet ii^j* 
troduces some noble stanzas : 

• Peace and gude-will had been sae lang 
The bdrthen o^ the people's sang, 

': Their arms like useless lumber hang^ f 

Till France, amain, ' ^ ' \ . ^ 

Decreed, wi' fell Invasion's fang, 
Our soil to stain ; 

* Then, ere our King cou'd gi'e commani. 

Up raise the Genius o' the kn^ ! ^ 

Dumfries, in mony a chosen band, 
* ^ " » , Enarm'd appears, 

Fit» in ae phalanx, to withstand 
A host o* spears ! 

• Nor was this fervour only here. 

It spread, like wild-fire, far and near 1 
Scotland, to ilka Virtue dear, k • 

Tho* aft inthrall'd, 
Scotland was never i* the rear 

WhorDaflgercatt'd! ' ' 

' At hame, afield, or far a^fa*. 
She bore the brunt in front of aM , 
The last to sheathe, the first to draw 

Her auld Claymore, 
For Liberty, her King, and Lawr^ 

Xad native shore \ 



MayneV SiUer Gun, a Punt* Y o- 

* Oh 1 in his King and Comitry't CauKs 
How blest is be wba nobly fa*8 i 

Bright Fame her gowden trumpet blavrSf 

And deathless Story 
Devotes his name, wi' load huzzas» 

To endless glory J' ♦ 

Tlie unsuccessful attempts of Wull Shanklin and others are 
also particuhrized ; tillj animated by the immortal name of 
Wallace, M^Nish sends his ball through the target. The 
following are perhaps the most interesting fruits of his Tictory: 

* Hi* winsome wife, wha lang had missed him, 
Press'd thro* the croud, caressM and kiss'd him: 
Ijess furthy dames, (wha' couM resist them ?) 

The ex^nple take ; 
And some held up his bairns^ and blessM them^ 
For daddy's sake!' 

Furthy is translated in the glossary free in hehaviour* 
Here we close our extracts ; though more than two cantos 
follow, in which the minstrelsy, the feast, the loves of the 
young, die fears and suspicions of the old, a dance and many 
songs, and (we are sorry to add) a boxing match and a riot, are 
most naturally recounted. Before the hnal separation of the 
assembly, universal harmony is restored, and all separate in 
perfect good humour with themselves and their companions. 

Mr. Mayne's notes are entertainuig : but his glossary,, which 
is very requisite for English readers, is rather too confined 
&an too ample. His language is indeed extremely racf i 
though lie has proved, by some verses introduced in a note^ 
&at he is capable of expressing the warmest feelings of Scot«» 
tish patriotism in pure English. They are addressed t9 the 
river Nith : 

• Hail, gentle stream I for ever dear 
Thy rudtst murmurs to mine car ! 
Tom from thy bank«, tho' far I roi^^ 
The slave of poverty and love, i 

Ne'er shall thy Bard, where'er he be» 
Without a sigh remember thee 1 

* In this place we may properly add the honourable anecdote 
felated by Mr. Mayne, in a note, respecting one of the companies 
of the Dumfries volunteers : 

' On a receQt occasion, one of the companies, herdsmen from 
Eskdale Moor, offered, in case of invasion, to march to Edinburght 
upwards of seventy miles distant, in one day, provided they were ai« 
lowed to put off their shoes aftd stoclungs V 

Kay. Mat, 1809. D f 

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w / ^ • 

For tWre niy in&nt years bci^ao^ 
lAnd thcro my happiest minutes ran ;. 
jAnd thrift, to Ibvc and fnendahip truey-* 
Tlic blossoms of affection grew !* • 

We wish that this address had been completed, and shaD 6e 
very happy to meet the author hereafter in the walks of 
English poetry/ 

Art. V. ' Lectures on Ser'tpture^Fdch* By the Rev. WiUiam Bengo^ 
CoUyer (naw D^D.) 8vo* pp. 594. i28. 'Bo?(tds. ^atcbard. 

Tr\i VINES often descant with satirfaction orr the plainness o^ 
^^ the Christian religion v assuring us, in the language o^ 
antient prophecy,, that " tbt nva^arin^ viaii shall not err therein.^ 
As far as this position respects the duty, of Christians, it is in-* 
disputable, since the commands and injunctions of our Sa- 
viour are delrvercd in the clearest and most inteUigi'ble lan- 
guage : bnt the assertion cannot he meant to apply, in these 
Aijs and in European coimteies, to the whole scheme and sys-i 
fern of Revelation, because the history and evidences* of our 
retigton ^e of an erudite nature, demanding a portioQ of le^unw 
kig and scientific retearch which cannot be expected to* belong 
tfO the general mass of mankind. Chttstianity, spring tng froia 
.and resting on the basis of Judaism^ carried us ba^ to the. most 
i^mote periods of time v and, besides an acquaintaiice with 
Asiatic language^ it requires in its defenders akoowleg&of- 
those aeras and dispensations which inchide ^e tr^^at intecest^s 
ing portions of thfe history of God's antient people. What an 
extensive field of inquiry is thus opened ! How are the first 
^^ of the^ world, and die annals and transactions of nations 
who have long, long ago, ceased to exist, forced as it "n^re ta 
re-appear before jus ! Iq^ this laborious retrosp&tion» darkness- 
and obscurity will often settie on the prospect r but> considering 
all circumstances^^ morp traces of light appqar, and more re- 
flected rays dart on the subject of Revelation, than persona^ 
who 2te-e unacquaioted with antient writers may he inclined to 
imagine. Since the eredibiUtv of the Bible rests on various 
hi sto r i c al fa ct s, k^ h a s f req u en lly been asked,, How sare the^ 
facts supported by the concurrent testtmcny of the earliest 
Heathen historian^?' Ijbw do saered and profane annaUsti 
accord ? ' . - 

Many Christian wrftfers have taken: up the pen to satisfy 
curious iaquirersQutifiese points ; and one in particular, thpUgn 
neither quoted nor nkm^ by lit. CoUyer in the volume before 
us, we mean Shuchford^ has>in 4 voluEmes, stated the cc^nneetioa 

• "^ ^- ' r • '^ irkJch 

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CoUycrV Lectures on Scripture^Faetf* 3 j 

^vhich subsists between sacred and profane history, fron^ the 
creation of the world to the dissolution of the Assyrian em- 
pire j while Lardner's Jewish and Heathen Testimonies perform^ 
this task as far as the Facts of tlie Gospel are concerned. 
Though, however, various learned men have anticipated the 
present lecturer, and have left him very little matter for- dis- 
covery, we are far from thinking that his undertaking was un- 
necessary; or that his attempt to familiarize his hearers and 
readers with jhe points of learning, which the evidences of 
our reCgion include, is to be censured as ostentatious pe- 
dantry. It Is true tliat the multitude must in a great* measure 
depend on him for the accuracy of his report : but, as he ap- 
peals to and produces, documepts, with traiisla.tions, they may 
from this work acquire additional reasons for looking with re^ 
tpect to the records of the Bible* 

From the preface, we learn that the design here fulfilled 
originated in a cursory conversation of the author with some 
friends ; who suggested to him that it would be*a desirable ob- 
ject, in order to counteract infidelity and corroborate faith^ 
* to produce a confirmation of the Facts recorded in the sacretJ 
\sTitings, from contemporary historians, so far as these coujcj 
oe obtained; and where tlie remoteness of scriptural narrations 
stretched beyond tlie cluronology of heathen compositions, to 
adduce such fragments 6f antiquity as time has spared U6, so 
far as tliey bear any relation to events transpiring at the ear- 
Kcst periods.' Revolving this hint in hb mind, and con* 
sideriiig the manner in which this ground had been previously 
occupied, It appeared to Dr. C. (as he teils us,) * that a worK 
was yet wanting- which might interweave foreign testimonies 
to the truth of Scripture-history with the discussion of the 
history itself, which might admit general and important Re- 
marks with a selected subject, and vhich might relieve the 
barrenness and langour of mere discussion, and of a series of 
extracts from heathen writers, by assuming tlie shape acd the 
af dour of pulpit and popular addresses/ 

So far Dr. Collyer is right, Kone of his predecessors have 
exhibited historical testimonies in so oratorical and embel- 
lished a manner.. When Dr. Shuckford undertook ^ to set 
the transactions of tlie earliest ages of the world in a clear 
light for the purpose of aiding his readers in forming a 
judgment of the truth and exactness of Scripture-history, by 
shewing how far the old fragments of the heathen writers 
a^ee with it, and how much better and more authentic the 
account is, which it gives gf things when they differ from 
it ;" he had no thought of interruptlug the grave progression 
. of the inquiry hy rhetorical fleurikhcs,. or 'ai iubj^ing IQ rq* 

Da ' 

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36 Colly €r'/ Licturei on Scripture-Facts, 

markft on history, chronolofgy, and geography, the captirating 
nppcndages of popular and practical sermons. The present 
lecturer, therefore, if he has not gone so fully and accurately 
into the^ investigation as some of his predecessors, had been more 
attentive to general effect, and to gain the heart as^.well as the 
conviction of common readers. We shall allow Dr. C. to 
give, in hit own language, the object and scope of his under- 
taking : 

. ' It will be prop^r^ in a frw wordSj to state the inninediate porpo^ 
of these lecturer, and the object of the plan which Laoa about to 
^u^gtst: It 18 simply to meet eeepticism on its own ground in re- 
lation to first principles.' Is it asserted that the facts recorded in 
this vDlune have no evidence ? We shall endeavour to prove that 
<hey -arc furnished with all the evidence which events so remote can 
kave, and which reason ought to require of time. Is it said that 
Chrisllan&jr is % modern luvet^tion ? On the contrary, if our pur* 
pose be established, it will appear as old as the creation. Is the 
authority of the Scriptures questioned ? We will produce other 
ecstimdi^iet. Is its history condemned as absurd ! We shall attempt 
to shew that k is perfectly rational; and that all evidences weighed, 
and aD circumstances considered, it is clear that events could not have 
takefl place otherwise than as they are recorded. Is it objected, that 
ft claims suppoirt from miracled ? It will follow from our representa- 
tions, if theyare made with the strength and clearness which we de- 
l!re» that 'such a kook« so- written, and so supported, could it be 
proved to be false, would be of itself a greater miracle than any which 
appears upon its pages. The facts which it records^ are the in^me* 
diate Subjects of ekaminat ion in the present course of lectures; and 
these will be considered in conntction with their history, and con- 
firmed by foreign and antient testimony, under the following arrange* 

mcnt : 

. t ' ■■ ■ •'■ 1 . . • ■ •■ . 

. *'l» The present lectutre, which. is merely introductory, will be an 
atUmpttaprovc the necessity of a divine levelation. ; - * 

a. The creation ; that the Mosaic account of it Is the only rational 
one which we have received : 

3. The Deluge: 

4, The d«t'ruction of Babef, the confusion of language, the dis* 
. persioh of Che people, and the origin of nations : ' . 

•y. The destruction of Sod&m and GoDrM>rrah : 
: 6. The Kistocy of Joseph ; which will bring us to the close of 
Genesis^ , - .^ ^ 

7. Intermediate lecture.; a scriptural representation of the hatuix 
and destination of man : 

8. The slavery and deliverance of Israel in Egypt : ... 

9. The jt>urney of tfii Israelites in the wild ernesi ; their estab- 
lishment in Canaan : and the circumstalnces attending these events : 

10. The governVnent of the Jews; including the theocracy. and 
monarchy, to the building of Solpmon's Temple ; with a confirmatioii 
oC^me subordinate fs^ts recorded in the Scriptures, 

II. The 

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CoUycr*/ Lectures on Script ur^-Fscts. 37 

' II. ThecaptiYtttesof Israeland Judahi zsu • • 

I J. The life, death, returrcctiop, and aicension of JciOl Chnitj 
proved a^ matters of fact : 

13. The character of the writm oF tUB Old and New T«ta* 
ncnt: r 

14. Coticludiog kctore — ^thc unsearchable Godi or, to attempt t# 
prove an analogy between the reUeion of nature and that of the Bible^ 
by shewing that the same obscwnty which overshjidaws revelation^ 
cqoally overspreads nature and prpvidrnce.* 

Each of these lectures must have occupied much mort 
time in the delivery than an ordinary senn9n j and wc should 
imagine that, from the preacher's digressive, deolamatory, 
and we may add poetic style, he would be a favourite with 
the admirers of pulpit oratory. We frequently meet with 
flourishes which are calculated not so much to strengthen -the 
argument, as to make an impression on tjie audience in favput 
of the preacher's nice feelings ^nd correct ta5»te. Thus, having 
mentioned the beauty of the visible creation, he cxclaimt to hi| 
hearers : 

* Let the friend of iwy choice be one who can reluh the majesty of 
nature; who, on the close of the day, from the summit of some lofty 
moon tain, will watch the rising cloud, and observe the evening spread 
her grey and dusky mantle over the features of the land<^cape, till 
they are lost and extinguished ; whose eye is fixed with dt light on - 
the stars as they break one by one through the increasing obscurityj 
and who. withdrawing from the world, and p^netiatiiig the forest'T 
can rejoice with the laaghing scenes aroUud him, and can reliAb te* 
tirement, nor envy the dissipation of life, as ht bears itt noise swel- 
ling on the gal^ of the evening. . The friend of God, aad the f 4« 
xnirer of nature, is the man whom I would choose as n>y companipn, 
and love as my own soul.' 

This apostrophe^ in the theatre, would be called a CJ^/- 
trap ; we know not what to term it in a sermon : but siich pa<* 
thetic touches are calculated u> procure for the preacher the 
reputation of being «* a ver^ fine manP 

In the first discourse. Dr. C. deduces the necessity of divine 
revelation, from a view of the superstitions and rites of .wor- 
ship among barbarous and among enlightened heathens, from 
their civil institutions and defective morals, and from their 
uncertain conjectures in relation to futurity. These subjects 
are strikingly discussed : but we were surprized that hQ should 
have omitted, in his picture of the immorality of paganism, the 
horrors and cruelties of the Amphitheatre. 

Some observations on the capacity and extent of Reason in- 
troduce the second lecture. Jt is admitted that reason^ is 
|iWe| by her genuine efforts, to deduce frqmjhe works of na* 

P 9 Jtt/^^ 

3* CJollyet^/ lectures on Scfipture-Factr^ 

£ire «thc immensity, the wisdom, and the liberality of God :' 
ut then, says the preacher, * ISThat ishs to me P* The weakr 
est of his audienee might have replied, ^^ a wise ai^ lib^ral^ 
creator and parent V' an answer* which would iiave gone a 
latest, w^ towards the solntbn of the subse^uisnt ifiiestions : 
bnt we fenall not meddle with points which are out of the re*. 
cord. The direct thesis to be argued is, Tie Mosaic ateount 
eftSe Creation'^ vjhichi it is here contended, is the, only rational 
mte vfhlci we have receiveel. Here mudi learning and philo- 
sophy come into play j and we should be happy if we could 
add that, by their combined aid, e^ery difficulty had heefl 
Tenipved* As far as the superiority of the Mosaic account 
Over other antient systems of cosmogony is concerned, Pr. C/8 
quotations establish his proposition; but the rational divine 
will prefer the prophet Isaiah's representation of the Almighty, 
—that ^^hefainteth notyneitber is miearyi' — to the anthropomor- 
phic notion of the repose of the Deity after six days' labour^ 
mentioned in the book of Genesis. The excellence of the 
Mosaic cosmogony consists in its laying the basis of religion by 
the acknowlegement of a Creator : but it must be conceded 
that the details are embarrassing. This lecturer objects tp the 
removal of one difficulty by substituting the new translation 
of << a vehement tuind^ overspread the surface of .the waters,'* 
for the old version, ." the Spirit of Cod moved^'* Bcf. ; observing 
that, by parting with the literal reading, Milton's . pq^tic^l 
idea {^^D^oe^Ae sathroodingi^ &c.) is lost : but we should luve 
imagined that an orthodox divine w^jxild have disrelished the^ 
gross idea of the incubation of the material abyss by the se- 
cond person of the Trinity, and wpuld even have preferred the 
Hindoo fancy of churning the ocean, to the impregnation of it 
by the Holy Spirit- 

Dr« C611yer admits that, on the subject of the. Deluge, it 
is tmpossUile to form any hypothesis that shaH be free from 
difficulty! but be endeavours to ascertain the fact by natural 
phenomena and by historical testimonies; and he is very 
angry with Dr. Geddes, on account of the unreserved manner 
in which that theok^ian offered his heterodox opinion. The 
lecturer endeavours to fix the attention of his audience and 
readers, by stating the dimensions of the Ark, which he cal- 
culates to have been 547 English feet long, 91 broad, and 54 
tlgh : but, when we consider that His BritSinnic Majesty'^s 
ship Hihernia, of 120 guns, measures from figure-head to taf- 
ferel only 241 feet, 53 in extreme bread^th, and 60 in depth, 
it is not easy to conceive (without supposing a miracle) how, 
the first Jpating machine that was ever constructed should 
have been more than tvrice the extent of one of our first-rate 


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CoUyerV Leiiurcs on Scripture-'FaHs* 

xaen t^f war> and that naval architecture should htve gone u. 
much greater lengths before the flood Aan at dl^ present day* 
We find^ in the n&x lecture, On the deetruction of BeM, 
&c. a great miscalculation respecting the duration of the de^ 
luge. • Dr. *C. says « that 365 days Noah Jtoaied m the surface 
"ffthe setters J Moses informs' us that the flood 4>egan on the 
17th iSay of thie second month, in the six hundredth year of 
Noah, and that on the 1 7th day of the seventh month, the 
ark rebjted on the mountains of Ararat, (see Gen vii. n. and 
viri. 4:) Before the waters were quite drained off, several 
months elapsed: but it is added, (Gen. viii, 13.) that in the 
six hundlred and first year of -Noah, in the first month and 
the first day of the month, the waters were dried «j>. It will 
not be easy to mate 365 days from the 17th day of the se- 
cond ihohth bf one ye^T, to the Jfirst day of the following year. 
The dispersion of nations naturally generates new languages. 
As, after the fall of the Roman empire, the Italian, French, 
Sjpanish, and Portuguese tong4ies sprang out of the Latin^ ean 
there be any good reason for imaginmg, with this writer, * that 
at the destrucstion of Babel new languages were framed by the. 
miraculous and immediate interposition of divine power ?* 
^ To ascertain the fact of the desiructim cf Sodom and Gomor* 
rak, Ac lecturer adduces the testimoay of heathen writers, 
and offers some judicious remarks on the necessity of distin- 
guishing truth, from fable when they are blended together ifx 
antient narratives : < . • 

' It It asserted by Tacitus, that the traces <jf the €re ^lehJch con- 
«ui&€<! thef^ cities were visrbk inhw 4ays. " At no great distance 
Are those fieids,wh«ch, astt ii ^aid, were formerly fruitful, and covered 
with great cities, till th'ey were consumed by lightning; the vestiges 
of which remain in the parched appeatance of the couotty, w'hiqh has 
lost its fertility.** • 

* 1[*he tfeatimony of Fhilo and of Plii>y accords with that of the 
fi.omah hlsDoriad. 

* Diodorus Sicujas describes the lake Asphaltites at b^ge, in twt) 
different parts of his work, and concludes his accoimt by sayiag, 
^'The region jrotfnd about buminrwith ire, exhales a stench so ior 
toleriabk, that the bodies of the inhabitants are diseaied, aad their 
lives contracted*^' 

' Stfabo, in wridng on the same subject, thus concludes : *' There 
are many iodications that 6re has been oyer t^ts country ;. for about 
Masada they shew rough and scorched rocjis, ahd caverns in many 
jtJaces taten in, and the earth reduced t^ aslies, and drops of pitch 
distiUirig froin the rocks, and hot streams > offenstre afar off, and ha- 
bitations overthrown ; vdiich nehders credible feome reports among 
l&e inhabitants, that there were formerly thirteen cities on that 8pot> 
the principal of which was Sodom, so extensive as to be sixty^ fur- 
Jom iji Oircumfcrcace: but that bv earthquakes , aM by aa eruption of 

p 4 LidflHI^ ^« 

40 ColIyerV Ledum dn ScriptunJ^adi. 

'ire, and hy hot and bituminous waterf* h became a lake at it ndvi^ 
&; thje rockf iMiere consumed, some of the citieft^ were swallowed up, 
tndvotbers abandoned bj tbose of the inbabitants who f/tft able to 

* Similar to this Is the language of Solimis. *' At m considerable 
distance from Jerusalem^ a frightful lake extends itself, which ban 
been struck by lightning, as is evident from the ground, black, and 
reduced to ashes." He goes on to relate the fable of the appka 
growing near it, which were said to appear fair to the eye, but t6 
contain only sooty ashes, and upon being touched, to exhale into 
smoke^ or to vanish into dust. The same fiction is mentioned also 
br Tacitus ; but vire must learn, in feceiving the testimony of an- 
cient histonans, to distinguish between truth and fable, to separate 
the former from the latter, with which it is often found overwhelmed, to 
discriminate between the fact and the legepd, to divide that which they , 
saw, from that which they admitted only from tradition, to make 
allowance for their credulity, and impartially to weigh the evidence 
which they produce. Moses is not answerable for the fondness 
whkh they discovered for the marvellous, nor for the fables which 
traction blended with Lis history. Neither is their account 
of that which they saw, to be rejected for the easy credit which 
they gave to that which they only heard, and heard from disputable au- 
thority". While the facts of the Mctsaic history are confirmed, bis 
superior purity, and consequently credibility, is established' 

When we come to thi historj of ^ Joseph ^ (the subject of 
the sixth lecture,) — a history surpassing in beauty arid genuine 
pathos every antient and modem tale, true or fictitious,- — ^and 
(passing over the 7th) to the slavery and deliverance of Israel 
in Egypty (the subject of the eighth, lecture,) we caii]\ot help 
lamenting the silence of Herodotus, who was a contemporary 
with Ezra, tespecting the hktory of the Jews j and who was 
not unacquainted with Palestine, had visited Egypt, and 
seems to have studied Egyptian history and antiquities. The 
pnly way to account for his having taken no notice of the 
most remarkable events of the Jewish people is by supposing 
thati as these events were disgraceful to the. Egyptians, their 
prieefts studiously concealed these portions of their annals 
from the prying eye^ of strangers^ The reader wilh suppose^ 
however, by one assertion made at p. 423. of Dr. C's yolumd, 
that < Herodotus records the taking of Jerusalem by flie King 
of Egypt'/ and by the reference at the bottom of the next 
page, tphb. ii. cap. 141, that this Greek writer. had copied 
6pme fragipents of Jewish history j but though Senacherii ia 
naxped, and it is true that in this pla^e yre jpaay trace the tradi- 
tion pf tl^e destruction of his army,yetthe city of Jerusalem is npt 
once mentioned." Indeed, the Greeks and Romans seem to 
hove held the Jews in so much contempt, that it is no matter 
of astonislimcnt that tl^e former slightly adverted to the afaif^ 
' . of 

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CoSyet'^r Lectures m Ser^t&e^PacO: ;4i 

of the latter^ and that their hisboHcal hottoes mf AenC iae 
concise and erroneous*. Manetho, as he is quoted by Jose- 
phus, Justin the epttomizer of Trogus Pompeiusy PHnjr, 
and Tacitus, may assign a reason for the departure of the 
Jews out of Egypt which is not creditable to that people : 
but, as the" fact jitself, which is a very singular one, is. ad- 
mitted, we may without fear leave it to the decision of 
sensible men, whether it be not more probable that the Jews 
eflFected their deliverance in the manner recorded in the Bible, 
than that a whole people .were expelled from a country in ^hich 
they were kept in bondage, on account of their being .afflicted 
with EiephafttiasiSf or leprosy. We are. sorry to find Dr. 
Collyer asserting that * both the miracles performed by 
Moses and those wrought by the magicians were real;' since 
it is a doctrine admitted by all theologians, that miracles are 
unquestionable testimonies of a divine mission j and this 
position must fall to the ground, if the Deity, for any pur- 
pose, patronized deceivers, or if Demons and their ageifts 
were permitted to work real miracles. Besides, why recur 
to so dangerous a principle, when the historian expressly 
declares that the magicians imitated, to a certain extent, the 
messenger of God "by their enchantments?" Instead of 
combating the lecturer, we shall refer him to Mr. Fanner's 
ingenious Essay on Mhracles. — ^In connection with this sub- 
ject, we must also enter our protest against the preacher's 
comment on the visit of Saul to the Witch of Endor, in 
a subsequent letture. He tells us that he believes that it 
was the spirit of Samuel that appeared : but we think that, 
if he will peruse Dr. Chandler's solution of this difficulty in 
his history of David, and will consider all the circumstuicea 
with attention, he will find reason to c^iange his^ opinion. 

We are presented with one of Dr. C's forced remarks in- 
his commentary on * the Journey of the Israelites, &c. : 

' Before they removed from this station [Kephidimj, they weie 
compelled to %ht with the Amalekttcs. Joshua went out to battle 
at the head of the army : Moses ascended the top of the hill, with 
the rod of God in his hand« probably to intercede for the interpo« 
sition of heaven. —Israel prevailed so long as his hands were elevated : 
but when through weariness he suffered them to drop, victory 
leaned to the side of A nralek. Aaron and Hur supported his arms 
till the sun went down, arid Aroalek was subdued. How lovely 

* We know that Major Rennel, in his Geographical System of 
Herodotus, remarks that the great city of Cadytis mentioned by the 
Greek historian is Jerusalem :' but we have no absolute proof of this 
conjecture : nor is it probable that the fall of Jerusalem should be 
the consequence of a victory gained in the plains of Magdolus> whidi 
was near the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. 


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4a CciLyeti J^^e^itm mi Serif^ 

St ftvmnal mityl Even Mmcs oeefli^d ailisfattte^ iMd iit^id caH 
MM thim]^ Ufe without it ? Let ut leahi^ tkit «rar hardens «re 
Ught^edt our peace prmnoteJ» and 6«r ^uoceit enniredy bf ipo- 
tual kindness* and by iwitual attention. And who can r^d th^ 
singularly beautiful narratioo» without being rcmioded of Jaus onr ^ 
M^iator, through whose intercession, and the lifting up of his- 
hatids, we have h^edom of access to God now, and shaB fiaalty be 
ibade more than conquerors, over all our enemies f* 

Tlie subjoined passage is more judicioiis^ »id adapted 
more immediately to tke purpose of diis course df lectures : « 

* The testimonies which we have adduced, confirm the Mosaic 
history as a <vboki rather than detached paris of it ; and surely when 
it is considered, as it bas bedd clearly prbved by Jo^ephus on the 
testimony of Mavbtjio, that the settlement of the Jews m Canaan, 
was, three hundred and ninety- three years before Danaus came to 
Aigos, whom the Grecians acknowledge thetr most ancient prince, 
and from whom they are frequently nanied ; and that it preceded 
the transactions of Troy, celebrated by their most ancient poet, a 
thousand years ; particular confirmations of such striking events as . 
the deluge, and a general acquiescence with the scripture record, it 
all that ought to oe, and all that can be expected from heathen 
^titers. They could not know any thing of these circumstances 
but by tradition. Osfneus himself lived but one thousand yeara 
More Christ; HE840.0 nine hundred; HoMea eight hundred and 
iifty, Orpheus himKlf, therefore, was only contemporary with 
Rehobpam, the >on of Solomon. The settlement in Canaan took 
place one thousand four hundred and twenty-seven years before tb'e 
birth of our Lord ; that 1%^ four hundred and twenty-seven years 
before Hcsiod ; and five hundred and seventy-seven years before the 
ci^A>tated Homen Is it a subject for wonder that obscurity should 
retf Upon ficts so ancient? We appeal to the imprejudiced— is it not 
•»atlBnr«|[%rwifdinary^ that h^z so remote fchould haVe evidences ^x$ 
stioisg and decisive ^ 

f*»S8irtg over the discourse on 'the Government ^f the Jev^s^ 
&c. we shall proceed to the tith (the last which irefers to ^ 
the tHd Testament), itiritled, the Captivities of Israel and 
Jiidah. Dr. C. ascertains the former to have taken place 
7ii"7ear8 before Christ, and the latter in the year 588, 
of 153 (not 134, see p. 455,) years from each other. On the 
disappearance of the ten tribes of Israel, after this latter event^ 
lie offers some sensible remarks j and we ate of opinion, with 
himi that they' ate irrecoverably Swallowed up ot amalga? 
mated with the nations to which they were sent. * There is 
no record (says the preacher) of their retuiin, there are no 
traces of their tribes, there is no evidence of tlieir existence. 
Those who maintain that they are yet in being, advance oidy 
anbypothesis incapable cf deixxmstration; and dieinost generU 


eonclusioh tipon the subject k, ^t beEere, lltM Aey arfe 
wholly Tost.' 

A reason is thus assigned for their sharing a different fate from 
the tribes of Judah : 

' Till ihc days of David the promi«es reipeetiiif the MeMiah 
were of general import^ that he should desctnd from Abraham. 
Bat then they btcame more explicit^ and it was declared that Chrigt 
should be of the house of David. To the family of David, thcrc- 
fore» the promise was restricted. So long as tliey adhered to, and 
were connected with, the house of David, which was also {he 
house of Jcsps, they «ere separated with their brethren from tli« 
rejt of mankind, and their existence waa secured : but when they 
voluntarily .resigned their interest in that house, and were severed 
fron^ the t«ro' tribes, they were dispersed and absorbed among the 
nations, and the few who returned fVom captivity lost their di^^tinc- 
tion : they returned ivith Judah and ^enjamin, and were swallowed 
up of their brethren.' 

The vast extent and grandeur of Babylon make, a figure in 
this lecture: but this picture of antient magnificence would 
be no novelty to pur readers. 

Respecting the lectures which treat on the facts mentioned 
in the gospel-rhistory, we must be concise, because we have 
alr^dy exceeded the limits which we purposed to assign lx> 
this article: but we cannot pass over two circumstances 
which occui: among the extratieous testimonieis to the life of 
pur Saviour 5 the first of which concerns a quotation from the 
Elder Pliny, and the second relates to the interpolated pass^pi^ 
in Josephus. Dr. CoUyer does not, as usual, refer us to the 
place in PUay's Natural History : but, taking the evid^i^e 
at second-haml, he states diat this author malM a xeport en 
the appearance of the luminous body, which shone in diie 
heavefts at die birth of Christ, and by which the Magi 
were conducted to him. Had the Dr. actually turned to . 
Pliny, lib. iL cap. 25, he would have been convinced tharthe 
remark of this Natural Historian, concerning the nature of 
pomets, is general, and has no reference to any particular, 
event. — ^In tne next places we think that the lecturer has been 
indiscreet in pressing into his service the supposed^ testimony 
of Josepbtis to the divine mission and character of Christ ;^. 
))ecau8e on the very face of it we recognize the marks of a moit 
clumsy forgery. It proves too much; since the historian, 
after having given- such evidence, must have professed himself 
a christian. Gardner's reasons for rejecting the paragraph 
aie sufBcient : >iz. " that it is not quoted, nor reierred to, 
i)y any christian writers before Eusebius \ ..that it is wanting 
in the copies of Josepbus which were seen bM||J^us in the 


44 jDoUyer*/ Lectures on Scripture^Fmts. 

ninth century ; that it is unsuitable to the. character Df Jose-* 
phus, and interrupts the course of the narration.'* (Works^ 
vol. vii. p. 120, et seq.) - These argumentar are stronger than 
those which are adduced by Dr. C. al p. ^20. in order to 
satisfy the reader that this is a genuine part of Josephus's textl 
For a specimen of die practical parts of these discourses, 'we I 
quote the sensible and animated conclusion of the 13th lecturei 
on die character of the writers of the ^. T. , 

' Wc detain you only to offer two concluding reinarirs respecting 
the best mode of reading the Bible to advantage. The^^/ aliall 
4'egard the allowances which should be madd in cpnsutting ihia 
sacred volume. Whoever has paid any, the least, attention to it, 
must recollect that there are allusions to customs which exist no 
longer ; and that its sublime and poetic parts are filled with fi^arca 
of speech not altogether familiar to u». We arc surrounded by 
imagery, an^ reading a language perfectly new — more bold and 
striking than these colder climes and tongues ftswally exhibit. Wbeu 
you take up the scriptures tinakc these several allowances. Remem- 
ber that you are reading the records of ages which have rolled away, 
and of nations, which have either long since perished, or which 
exist no longer in the same form. You should allow for the swellings 
metaphoric style of the East. 'Fheiir mode of expression is always 
bold and magnificent beyond the imagination of an Euritpean ; and 
the face of their country is also widely different. You must remem- 
ber the cvstoms then prevalent i, these change perpetually with the 
lapse of time ; and the manners of antiquity were 2ilto|^ether dis- 
tinct from those sanctioned by the fashion of the present day. Con- 
sider ^c eountrtei in which they lived. Every country has a mode of 
operation, and habits peculiar to itself. Recollect the pernni to 
nvhom they wrote : persons who were convefsartt with the metaphors 
'employed, and with the facts' recorded : person^ who were contem- 
.porarv with them, and who had the advantage of making appeals 
to thmgsand to evidences which exist no longer. And while you 
call thcM things to your memory, do not forget the dances which 
have taken place in all these particulars. 

' Our second remark shall relate to the spirit in which the 
Bible should be read. Consult it divested so far as possible of pre- 
judice» and with a sincere desire both^ to attain improvement, and 
to search out the truth. The investijjration which wc recommend 
lies equally between that inactivity which slumbers for ever over 
things acknowledged, and that impetuous temerity which relying 
upon its own powers disdains assistance, attempts a flight beyond 
the precincts of lawful subjects, and with licentious boUness pricw 
into those *^ secret things which belong to God.** Some 9oat for 
, ever on the surface of admitted truths, fearful to rise above the 
level over which they have hovered from the first moment of con, 
sciousnesa. These resemble those birds which feed upon the 
insects dancing on the water, who never rise into t|ie air, bi^t 
plways skim the surface of the lake^ on the borders of which they 



Dr. PercivalV Works. 45 

Tcctivcd life. Others, on bold, adventurous wing, rise into tfic 
trackleitt regions of niystery, till they sink from the pride of their 
elevation, perplexed ainl exluiusted. These, by aimiDg at too 
much, loae every thing. Because they have attempted ansuccc«s- 
fnUy to investigate that, which God has been pleased to put out 
of the reach of human comprehension, they will oot believe any 
thing — they embrace a system- of universal scepticism. So Noah's 
dove beheld on every side a boundless expansion of waters ; and 
whether she rose or 8unk» was equally bewildered, and found no 
rest for the sole of her foot. There is one point of difference, and 
that IS, that she returned to the ark; but those whom we have 
described, too often are found to turn despisers, who wondrr and 
perieh. But the Christian is bold in investigating at! that God 
has submitted tp his researches, attempts every thing leaning on Al- 
mighty energy, and relies^ with implicit confidence upon the written 
woid. So the eagle rises boldly into the air, keeping the sun ia 
view, and builds her nest upon a rock. 

' Wc would not have you» with the inactive and supine, always 
coast the shore : nor with the infidel venture futo the boundless 
ocean without pilot, or compass, or ballast, uraHchor: exposed equally to 
the quicksands, to the rocks, to the whirlpool, and tu tlie tempest: 
but we are desirous (hat, like the christian, you should boldly face and 
patiently endure the storm, with the Bible as your compass, Hope at • 
your anchor, Qed as your pilot, and Heaven as your country.' 

Dr. CoUyer having modestly expressed a wish to benefit by 
public criticism, we have endeavoured to render him some 
assistance in the notice which we have taken of his volume. 
Our object has been fairly to appreciate the value of hia 
work ; which, though defective in some parts, possesses no 
inconsiderable merit. To avoid the dryness of mere his- 
torical detail and comparison, he has been too liberal of de- 
clamation, and m som6 places exposes himself to the charge 
of egotism, bordering cm a vain display of oratorical talents : on 
die whole, however, his course of lectures is well calculated 
for general perusal, and will -serve _ to familiarize English 
readers with die historical evidences of revealed Teligidn. 

Art. VI. The Worh^ Literary , Morale and Phlhsophlcal, cf 
Thomas Percivalj M,D\ F R.S^^ ^c, i^c. To which arc prefi?e4 
Memoirs of his Life and Writings, and a Selection from his Litc^ 
rary Correspondence." 8vo. 2 Vols. iL is. Boards. Johnsons 

TITe are informed, in a prefixed advertisement, that the only 
^ ^ writings <rf Dr. Percival, which are now for th^ first time 
given to the public, are his inaugural dissertation, sOm«* ad- 
ditions to his medical ethics, a tribute to the memory of Mr. 
Bayley of Hope, and a selection from lu^^M^^ondence. 


45 Dr.PercjvaF/ IForh. 

Nearly one half of the first volume is occupied by an account 
of the life of the author, written by his son Dj. Edward 
Percml ; and probably, by many readers, it wUl not, be, 
deemed the losist interesting part. Beinj; also the principal 
new matter, it will be to this portion that we ^hall chiefly 
confine our remarks. 

The life of a man whose time waS fully occupied by profes- 
sional engagement does not admit of 'much variety of incident : 
but the present memoir is on several accounts deserving of our 
attention,-as displaying an example of great mental excellence, ^ 
Mid shewing how far a private individual, who is desirous of 
Tendering himself useful to the community, has it in his power 
to accomplish his object. Dr. Percival was indebted for the 
first part of his education to the car* of an elder sister, his 
parents having died while he was still in 'early childhood. 
After having gone through the regular routine of the gratn- 
mar-sckool of his native town, Warrington, he entered as a 
student at the Academy which was established at that place 
under the patronage of the Dissenters. It appears that his 
family were originally members of the church of England f 
and it is probable that it was owing to tlie sentiments which 
he embraced during this part of his education tJ^t he became 
a Dissenter, and during the remainder of his life continued 
attached to sectarian principles. On leading Warrington", he 
went to study medicine at Edinburgh ; and, having- attended 
the usual course of this university, he completed his education 
at Leyden. He married early, and settled in Klanchester, 
where he continued to practise, on a ver^' extensive scale, 
until the age of 64, when he died, after a short illness. 

Of the lew events which occurred to diversify' the unifonn 
tenor of professional duties, the principal are the ocqasion* 
on which Dr. Percival interested himself ' respecting tlie 
Kterary and charitable institutions of hts town and neighbonr- 
}iood> or in promoting the more extensive schemes of philan- 
thropy which concerned the public welfare. The manage- 
' xnent of tihe Warrington academ^y, and, after its decline^ of a 
simUar institution at Manchester, the philosophical society of 
thtt place, a college of arts which mttl^ attempted to be esta- 
Uishfdy ike erection of fever-wards and of a new Jaii, the 
aboUtion of the AjErica^ trade, and the application i^hich was 
made by the Dissenters for the repeal of the testJaws, are 
<A|em in -which Dr. Percival engaged with a degiee of 
amour ; atid whidi evinced that be had' a 'mind dive to 
e teiy impression of benevolence, and disposed to embrace 
-avery <^pwtmaity of activeexettion* in behalf of the ctu$e'of 
tntthi^ jusripei andUbetaUtyk 


Digitizied by VjOOQ IC 

. WaT<ii(ipV Essaff Qi^ihi Hum^n ^je. ,47 

Am a practtlioneT c^ medicinej the sxibject of thb memoir 

IiQjds a hi^ rank \ ^ligher, indeed^ that) it woiilcl be eatimate4 

from the pevusai qif his printed work$. His merit conaisled 

frincipaily in those iodividuai ^nd pergonal qualities, whic^ 

enabled him to excel in inTCStigating tiie cau&es of disease 

and in applying the appropriate- means of cure. He didnot 

]Nrofess to make di9a>verie$ in medicine, and his mind wat 

pf too correct a turn to be en^>loyed in forming hypotbese«» 

Nearly the same remarks may he made on his medical as 00 

his experimental writings \ were we to read them without 

any. reference to the peruKi at which they were wrkten^ w^ 

should undervalue the. meirit of the autnor : but we must 

remember that they were coaoposed in the in&mcy of tb? 

modem chemistry^ that Dr. Perclval had the sagi^rity t^ 

f^iscem the importance of the new doctrines, and that he waf 

doe of the first who patronised the rising genius of Priestley* 

The parts of the voiumes before us which will now be c<m* 

fidered as the most valuable, and those which will always 

remain so, are the <' Father's Instruction to his Children," and 

" the Medical Ethics-/' which works possess intrinsic excellence, 

unconnected with tim^s or circumstances* They r^Aect 

equal honour on the head and the heart of the au^thor* 

. We have been considerably gratified by the compositlou of 

this biographical sketch, independently of the merits of its 

fubject It is. well written, and ^Sati^ a just picture -of the 

^jiaracter of the deceased } and without fulsome declamation. 

It exhibits that degree of partiality, for which every reader 

naturally makes an allowance when he is perusiAg the life of 

such a man as Dr. Fercival, written bv one of ms children. 

We regret that the memoir is not published separately > it 

would meet with many purchasers who are alreadjr in pos^ 

session of the Doctor's works % and we should wish me recor 4 

of so much excellence to have the widest possible circulation. 

Art. VII, £sK^ on the MoriiJ jfnsfomf ef the Hwnan Eye. £y 
James Wardrop, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, dte* 
Ediaburgh. 8vo^ pp 159. and 7 plates. iL 4s. Boards. Murray* 

ALTirouGH so many treatises respecting die eye have. been 
written, we have been unprovided with a Vork that 
afforded a full account of the morbid ehanges^ which this organ 
experiences in lis different diseased coodstiims^ To supply 
this deficiency is the object of Mr. Wardrop, and aut .the- same 
time hehas undertaken to illustrate his ideas by the assistance 
of engfarings* Tk« present volume .Cttmains^; only a snadl 
*' ^ - petition 


4® WardropV Essays en the Unman Eye, 

{)ortion of die \rhole system^ and may be regarded as merely 
a specimen offered to the public ; if it meet wijth their ap^ 
probation, the author will be induced to prosecute his plan, 
and will describe tbe remaining diseases of the eyes, together 
with the appropriate treatment of them. 

Mr. Wardrop begins by some judicious preliminary ob- 
servations, in which he explains his ideas respecting the object 
which ought to be pursued by the anatomist, in his exposition 
•of the different morbid changes which the body experience. 
He grounds his remarks on the system of M. Bichat, who has 
80 ingeniously arranged under different beads the elementary 
parts of which the body is composed. These parts present 
not only different textures, but possess diff^ent functions ; 
and this difference is preserved -as well in disease as in tlie 
state of health. < Thus the serous membranes, which invent 
the lungs, the brain, the heart, the abdominal viscera, have 
one common character, when affected with any specific dis-- 
ease ; so also have the mucous membranes, whether we 
trace them in the mouth, the nose, the vagina, urethra, or 
covering the eye-ball \ and the same is observable of every 
Individual texture which enters into ^e cdmposition of our 
bodies.' > 

This similarity of physical structure, and of functions, gives 
rise to one principle which may be employed in the ciassifica- 
tioh 'of diseases ; they may be arranged according to Ae 
particular structure which they occupy, ^'hether mucous, 
serous, cellular, &c., and according to the functions which 
the organ perfonris : — but, besides the diseases that derive 
their character from the nature of the parts which they attack, 
' thAe are others, such as cancer and scrofula, which are pos- 
sessed of specific symptoins, and which affect indiscriminately 
all the different kinds of texture. From these considerations, 
Mr. Wardrop arranges the diseases of die eyes upder two 
general heads 5 first, those which belong to parts of a particular 
structure, and adly, those which possess a specific character : 

* Under the first class wiM bfe compr^ihended, the di9e.a8es of the 
Cornea, Iris, Aqueous, Vitreous, and Crystalline humours. Optic 
Nerve apd i^etina, ChbioM coat, Sclerotic coat. Conjunctiva and 
Cellular membrane. Tarsi and Palpebrz, Xacrymal -gland ' and 

* Under the second class will^ be included. Rheumatism, Cancer, 
Scrofula, Lues Venerea, Exanthematous Ophthalmia, &c/ 

< The diseases of the corner are all that are comprehended in 
this volume. 

After a description of the ^omea, the author process to 
treat separately on each o£ the diseases to which it Js subject;^ 

. ' I begin-* 



WardropV Essays m th Human Eye. 49 

. b^inning with mflaihmation* In consequence of the cooi^ ' 
plicated structure of the cornea^ it being covered externally by a 
aMicoa%.;ui4 Uned intemally by asierous membranei the inflam- 
mation of it is capable of atsaming three <fi9tinct modificatiionsj 
according as it derives its origin from one or the other of these 
parts or Scorn iixe substance of the cornea itself. Perhnps 
Mr. W^ may be diought to attempt a division more minute 
tban die facts v^l warrant, when he undertakes to form a 
diagnosis between the inffammation of the different parts of 
the cornea. He has, however, stated some circumstances 
diat appear to sanction his opinion ; and although in many, 
perhaps in all, <!ase8 of inflamed cornea, its different parts 
most be subject to disease, yet we think that his distinctions 
are not without foundation; 

The remaining diseases of die cornea then pass umdet 
review : but we snail merely give a list of thdr names, since 
it would lead us top* much into minute detail to attempt tQ 
follow the author 'through ail his descriptions.- Besides in- 
flammation of the cornea, its diseases are pterygium, flesh j 
excrescences, pustules, abcesses, .ulcers, wounds, foreign, 
bodies adhering to it, ossification, specks, staphyloma, altera^ 
tions in its shape, and effusions of blood between its lamellae 
Our professional readers will perceive that, although the list 
may appear long, it is not unnecessarily extended, since 
each of the diseases enumerated is acknowleged ta exists 
and to be sufficiently distinct to re<}uire a separate descrip* 

As to the general merits of thb work, they are cerCaiiily 
such as intitle it to commendation ; and since ^ey induce ui 
to form a Havourable opinion of the knowlege ana d>ilities of 
die author, we feel anxious that he riiouid complete- hie plaik 
The engravings^ are extremely beautiful, and appear highly 
characteristic. We must, however, disapprove the unnece$- 
larily expensive form in which the volume is printed. The 
nge for fine books we always deprecate '$ and when works of 
science, partkul^ly in the medical branch, «re ^ven in a 
tawdry dress, it becomes a. cause of very serious oonoertif 
thai die grand object of utility ihiOfvi^ be saexifictd* jto^ Mh 
ii^s of fa^on 6x vanity. ' 

Ilw» UUf 1 1»09* X ^ Ai* 

( 50 ) 

Art. VTII. A Treafue on Hernia ; being the Essay whicTi gaiiwi 
♦ the prize offered by the Royal Coiltge of Surjjfeons in the Year 
1806. lilusttated with plates. By W. Lawrchcc, Member of 
, that College^ &c« 8vo. 98. Boards. Callow. 

nPHis is a subject which, during the last few years, haa 
^ very particularly engaged the' attention of professional 
men ; several valuable treatises on the different kinds of 
hernia have been published ; and considerable improvements 
have been made both in the anatomy and the pathology of the 
disease. The object of Mr. Lawrence in this work is, how- 
fever, somewhat different from that of any of his predecessors. 
They have, for the most part, written with the view of an- 
nouncing some new ideas respecting the nature of the disease, 
or some anatomical discovery in the structure of the parts ; 
or they have given the result of their own experience con- 
fceming the operation of particular remedies. The plan which 
the present author adopts is rather to illustrate the opinions 
of odiers, than to bring forwards any which are original ;. and, 
in the practical part of his treatise, he aims mbre at drawing 
^ comparison between the authorities which have preceded 
him, and at endeavouring to reconcile their diff(^rences, than 
at laying down a line of conduct solely deduced from his own 
practice. ' • ' 

The design of Mr. L. will, yre apprehend, be generally ap- 
proved, and the execution of it is such as merits considerable 
commendation. The style is easy and perspicuous, the ana- 
tomical descriptions are particularly clear, and the histories of 
the complaint are comprehensive and characteristic, in con- 
Armation of our favourable judgment, we shall quote the 
account which Mr. Lawtence gives of the disease when it 
arrives at the state of strangulation : 

< In an incarcerated intestinal rupture, the tuniour, which was 
"before indolent, becomes painful ; |he pain is most acute at the 
strictured portion, and extends from that situation over the rest of 
•the swelHng and abdomen ; these parts becoming at the same time 
twoln ♦and tense. The evacuatiens per anum arc entirely sup* 
j>ressed, and nausea and vomiting ensue : all the contents of the 
.Btomach, and afterwards those, of the intestines, down t« the stric* 
ture, being rejected. These symptoms, which often lemit for a 
considerable period, arc accompanied by a proportionate derange- 
ment of the whole system. There is great anxiety and restlessness, 
with a small and hard pulse, and coldness of the extremities : after 
a time hiccough supervenes, the pulse becomes so small as to be 
hardly sensible, the respiration is weak, and the whole body is co- 
ircred by a cold and clammy sweat. Mortification now takes place ; 
it begins ia the coBtcats of tilkf ruptofc and extends (o ilie cc^il^in* 

• " \ 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

LawrenceV Treatise on Hernia* 5 1 

fng* and neighbouring parts. The degree and intensity of the 
Ijmptpms are moditied by various circumstances, as the age and 
strength of the patient, the nature of the strangulation^ 5cc. The 
duration of the complaint, from its first commencement, to the ter* 
mioation in mortification or death, is also extremely various.* 

Mr. L. properly remarks that the same train of symptoms 
will occasionally exist, when the omentum only is included 
in the stricture, and when no part of the intestine is protruded. 
Hence it follows that the disease originates rather from an 
inflammatory affection of the parts, than from a mechanical 
obstruction of the canaj ; a circumstance which, we think, 
has not always received sufficient attention, and which must in 
jsome measure influence our practice. 

The chapter on the treatment of strangulated hernia is well 
composed, and contains much useful information. It consists 
principally in appreciating the value of the different remedies 
which have been suggested, all of which rest on the authority 
of great names, and which are yet, in some respects^ incon- 
sistent with each other. The operation of taxis, (as it is called,) 
blood-letting, purgatives, the tobacco-glister, anti-spasmodics, 
and cold and warm applications, are each separately consi- 
dered ; and the general conclusions are, that too much time 
must not be spent over the attempts at manual reduction ; 
that bleeding is proper, or not, according to the peculiar nature 
of the case and constitution of the. patient ^ that cold applica- 
tions are sometimes serviceable, but that the tobacco-glister is 
the remedy most worthy of dependence ; and that, should 
this fail, the operation must be performed without delay. 

Mr. L.'s anatomical description of the different species of 
hemise is clearly laid down j all the observations that have 
been successively made on the parts are brought into one 
view J and the merit of the different discoveries is fairly at- 
tributed to their respective authors. This is a very interest- 
ing portion of the work, and displays to advantage both the 
anatomical skill of Mr. Lawrence and his acquaintance with 
the writings of those who have preceded him in this depart- 
ment of his profession. His observations are confessedly 
taken, for the most part, from the works of otliers, but some 
of them are original, and we find enough of this description' 
to prove that he is master of his subject. Of this kind are his 
remarks on the epigastric artery, its direction, the relation 
•which it bears to, the opening, and the probable effects of 
dividing it. A case is mentioned of an inguinal hernia in a 
female, on the inside of the epigastric artery, the only one an 
record. * ' 

^ a ^^^ We 

5 2 LawrenceV Treatise on Ifemia. ' 

We were much gratified by the perusal of the chapter, on 
«the treatment of hernia vmen dife intestine has mortified/ 
Under these critical and alarming circumstances, the operator 
finds^ himself placed in a situation in which he feels doubtful 
how to act, and yet has no time for dieliberation. When only 
a small, spot has become affected, the advice of Mr. Lawrence 
is to return it untouched into the abdomen j since the part 
will rem^ in contact with the external opening, and will 
adhere to it: so that, if the natural J)as§age be not restored^ 
Still tire heed not feat that the intestine will slip into any other 
situation. We think that the authbr argues very sensibly . 
dgainst the probability 6f the contents of the canal being dis« 
charged into the abdomen. — In the still more deplorable state 
of the patient, wheh a complete cylinder of the inestitie has 
become gan^nousi Mr. L. advises the same mediod of 
treatment, although in opposition to the opinion of^many of 
the ihost eminent surgeons. In our judgment he displays his 
good sense in ^ doing j the. mechanical expedients that have 
been devised have i^ways appeaired to us highly exceptionable ; 
and probably the gteatest part of them are merely inventions 
of Ae imagmation, ^hich have never been put' into practice. 

< After thus obkctiAg (wys Mr. L) to the various modes of 
treatment, which have been proposed for a mortified intestine^ it 
remains for me to mention the conduct which a surgeon should 
pursue in such a ease. This ii to dilate the ^stricture, and to leave 
the subseqt^ent progifiess of tht tare entirely to nature. The sloughs 
w9l be cast off ; the ends of the gut are retained by the adhettVe 
process in a state of appofitien to each other, the most favourable 
for their union | the wound Contracts, and often completely closes, 
so that the continQity of the ab'mentary canal is perfectly ra« 
established* The interference of art can only be prejudical in this 
process. It is diMcult for us to conceive, how the intestinal canal 
can become restored, .after cot^sfderable portions of it have perisK- 
ed : yet indubitable prodfs of this ^ct exist, and induce us to platie 
confidence in the resources of nature. Almost all the numerous in- 
stai^ces of recovery from mortifiied hernia, which arc recorded in the 
annals of sinrgery, rook place where the surgeon was contented to re- 
main a 4uiet spectator of the process, without interfering with anj 
artificial means of uniting the divided intestine. Perhaps, the only 
step* which would be justifiable, is that of making an Incision in the. 
sphacelated part ; this will promote the evacuation of the alimentary 
canal, and alfor/i considerable relief.' 

We have only farther to remark that Mr. Iiawrence's work 
is rendered more Valuable by the numerous and accnmte 
references with which it is furnished. 

" * ARiv 

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( S3 ) 

Art* IX, Mmeirs 9f OMabi Ge^rgi Carlomi, tft Engliab ofEccr» 
including AnecdoUs of the War in Spain under the Earl q£ 
Peterborough^ and many interesting Particulars relating to the 

. Manners ofthe Spaniards in .the Begiiining of the last Century. 

. Wntten by himself. 8vo. pp. 463 lis. Boards. Printed at 
Edinburgh^ for Constable and Co., and Murray* London. i8o8. 

ipEW memoirs more interestipg or iftore iu8tru<;tive to mi- 
+ -litary men have sippeared in this or any other country, 
than the$e details of the respectable Captain Carleton. They 
refer principally to trafisactio^s in which the author; who 
was unquestionably a person of accurate observation ^nd 
sound reflectbn^ had participated, and of which he was aa 
eye-witness, a circumstance that greatly enhances ' their 
value \ — and they particularly relate \o the exploits of the 
celebrated Earl of Peterborough fn $pain, during the war for 
the Spanish succession, a correct and simple nar|:ative of which 
is sufficient to inspire young minds with the most heroic 
sentio^ents. To those who have made choice of theprofes^ 
sion of arms, this narratiye points out the truts fo^d to martial 
fame \ and it furnishes the miost profitable 9uu4 instructive 
lessons, by means botli of similitude and contrast, to such of 
fhem as may be disposed to study the sublimer parts pf mi- 
litary science ; instead of wasting their time on an unprofit* 
able application to those triflipg mmutix, which cannot be • 
practised in the field or in the face of an enem^Ti but to which 
(he attention of officers of the present d^ is .so much directed. 
It must be allowed that seldom has ^f man ever surpassed 
the noble and generous Lord Peterborough in variety of con- 
trivance and stratagem; in fertility of resources both military and 
poEticalj in' celerity of movfement, in presence of mind, in bold- 
ness of enterprise, in promptitude and correctness of decisioui 
Jn prudence of arrangement, and in judgment in executing 
pleasures when once they had been adopted. His successes 
in $pain, when the circumstances in which he acted are fairly 
taken into consideration, appear not only wonderful but sucR 
as even exceed belief j and they must with justice make him 
be regarded as one of tho^e rare and extraordinary characters, 
which very seldom appear in the world, and are scarcely to 
be found even among the heroes of Plutarch. Though the 
service on which he was employed, namely thit of placing 
Charles of Auv^tria on the throne of Spain, was even more 
jomantic than \t was^ splendid, he would have infallibly ^uc« 
ceeded in the attempt, had he not been ar^-ested in the career 
of his atchievepaents by the influence of envy, fal^ and 
pialeyo^nt insinuations, and detestable court^ntj^ue : which 
^U^d Jhim to be superseded in his €0m|^HB|^penerai,« 

3 JH^^Hk ^^^ 

54 Memoirs of Captain George Carleton. 

who, like some of those with whom we have lately been 
blessed, was a steady thoroagh-bred parade officer ; who paid 
a decorous and formal attention to the customary rules of 
discipline, but who understood his profession merely as a 
trade, not as a science. Such a man was peculiarly improper 
to be employed in the field against the Duke of Berwick j 
who was distinguished by humanity, contrivance, magna- 
nimity, and genius ; and who was above being a slave to 
the common-place maxims of warfare. Of this truth, the' 
battle of Almanza in 1 707 was a melancholy proof. 
* The feats of Charles Earl of Peterborough, the principal 
character in these memoirs, were indeed of a nature nearly* 
unaccountable, and might have been regarded by people even 
less superstitious than the Spaniards as almost miraculous.* 
With a handful of men, he not only took the Fort of Mon- 
fouick, which had uniformly been regarded by the natives as 
impregnable, but also the strong and extensive city of Barce- 
lona, which in the ordinary course of warfare could not have 
been effectually invested by fewq[ than thirty thousand men. 
He afterward relieved this very city with a small force, in the 
face of a powerful and numerous ariny; whom he obliged to 
decamp precipitately, leaving their battering train of artillery, 
wd their ammunition, stores, and provisions, as well as their 
sick and wounded. With less than half the number of troopd, 
he compelled the Duke of Anjou to retire before him, and 
finally drove him out of Spain, at the head of a French army 
twenty-five thousand strong. He distinguished himself both 
as an AdmiraLand as a General. He took walled towns with 
dragoons 5 and he procured money for the Commander of the 
Portuguese troops from the bankers of Genok, without 
having it in his power to offer them security. He succeeded, 
by his wdnderful dexterity and skill, in gaining possession of 
Catalonia, and of the kingdoms, of Valencia, Arragon, and 
Majorca, together with part of Murcia and Castile j and he 
thus opened the way for the march of the Earl of Galway, 
(a blundering French refugee, who supplanted him in the 
command,) from Portugal to Madrid, without the least re^ 
sistance or molestation. Such indeed was the universality of 
his genius, that he was not less successful in conciliating the 
natives, than in carrying his daring and adventurous enters 
prises into execution. Like a truly wise and virtuous man, 
he on every occasion restrained the excesses of Ms troops ; 
respected the religion, the laws, and even the prejudices of th^ 
Spaniards ; and thus, though in their eyes he was a heretic, he 
became much more popular among them, than even the 
*C^^o% prince wbopa he was endeavoviring to place on theit 
J tbroWf 

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Memoirs tf Captain George Carleton. 55 

flirone; Swift^ in his Conduct of the Allies ^ speaks ofhim in these 
words : " The only General, who by a sferies of conduct and ' 
fortune? almost miraculous, had neatly put us into possession 
of Spain, was left wholly unsupported, exposed to the envy- 
of his rivals, disappointed by the caprices of a young un- 
experienced prince under the guidance of a rapacious German 
ministry, and at last called home in discontent." 

When the thanks of the House of Peers were returned to 
him in June 1710 — 11, for his services in Spain, the Lord 
Chancellor addressed him in the following words : " Had 
your Lordship's wise counsels, particularly your advice at the 
council of war in Valencia,^ been pursued in the following 
campaign, the fatal battle of Almanza and our great mis- 
fortunes, which have since happened in Spain, had been 
prevented, and the design upon Toulon might have happily 
succeeded." Besides his transcendent talents as a warrior and 
negotiator, this truly extraordinary man, to whom nature hs^l 
been prodigal, possessed literary acquirements greatly surpassing 
those that could reasonably have been expected in a perison 
of so much activity of lite. * His characteristic celerity in 
travelling is finely and emphatically described by Swift, in his 
Journal to Stella, 24th June, 1 7 1 1 . 

As to Captain Carleton himself, he observes in his dedica- 
tion that it was his fortune in his juvenile years Musas cum 
Marte commutare ; and that to prevent the small advantage 
which he had reaped from the change, after a series of long, 
severe, and dangerous services, from being imputed to a want 
of merit on his part, he had written these memoirs, and left 
the world to judge of his deserts. He very truly affirms that 
they are neither set forth by any fictitious stories, nor em- 
bellished with rhetorical flourishes, since plain truth is most be- 
coming the character of an old soldier. The simplicity and 
modesty, indeed, which r^ign diroughout them, sufficiently 
evince the truth of this declaration, and even give occasional 
dignity to his narratives of important events. He saw a 
variety of actions both by sea and land. After the Dutch 
war, which was proclaimed in 1672, he not only served 
under the command of the Prince of Orange while he was 
Generalissimo of the Dutch forces, but also during the whole 
of his reign as King of Great Britain. — He was born at 
Ewelme in Oxfordshire, and descended from an antient. ani 
honourable family 5 Lord Dudlcfy Carleton, who died secretary 
of state to Charles L being his great uncle; and in the same 
reign his father being employed as envoy at the court of 
Madrid, while his uncle Sir Dudley Carletonjjg^ambassador 
to tjie States of Holland. ^^^^^^^- 

£ 4 ^^^^^^Kg^gland 

5^ Mmmrs ^fCa^gin George jparieton. 

Eng^nd ^was ^asj treaty obliged to assist Fnmee aigimst 
the Dutch with 6000 troops^ and as soon a$ the DiHce of 
York (afterward Janaes IL) was declared Admiral of ^ 
English fleet) it was i^eckoned a mark of {|>irit in the young 
nobility , and gentry to attend him. The author 4>f these 
, memoirsii therefore, then about twenty years of a!ge> m imitation- 
of others entered himself as a volunteer oh board the Lmdon^ 
commanded hy Sir Edward Spragge, Vice* Admiral of the 
Red. He was «oon afterward present ^t the naval engage*- 
ment between the combined fleets of England and France and 
the Dutch in Sokbay, which took place on the 28th of May, 
and was ^obstinately contested from n!pe in the morning tilj 
ten at night. Of the combat he gives a very, clear and distinct 
account \ observing, howeVer, * that the French acted more 
as spectators than as parties, and seemed unwilling to be top 
much upon the offensive for fear of offending themselves/' 
If he Duke, having had fwo ships disabled under him, wen^ 
on board the London about four in the afternoon ; remaining 
in lier during the rest of the action, and till next morning, 
Aough De Ruyter directed his fire particularly at her, as if 
determined to blow her out of the water. Here Mr. Carleton 
had an opportunity of observing accurately and minytely hi$ 
Jloyal Highuess's conduct ; and he makes the. most uneq^ui- 
vocal and honourable mention of his courage ^nd intrepidity 
He states also two circumstances which are deserving oi 
notice. He says that our fleet, in sailing from the Nore tQ 
|oin that of the French, who were anchored at St. Helena 
under the conimand of Count d^Estr^e, had nearly been in- 
tercepted at the mouth of the River by De Ruyter, who had 
notice of our intentions \ and that ^ey lu^d a narrow escape 
. by means of a thick fos, which enabled them to pass Dover 
before he was aware of it. He likewise pbseryes that the 
Duke of York was in some measure and would haye been 
completely surprised by the Dutch Admiral, had there been 
only a moderate breeze ; adding ,that, although there was so 
Ettje air stirring that our Admirals could see the enemy's fleet 
making towards them long before it got near to thepfi, they 
found great difficulty in forming thieir ships into a line ci 
Rattle, s6 as to be in readiness to receive it. 

The few pbservations, which the author makes respecting 
the battle of Seneff,'betweeh the confederate army under th0 
Prince of Orange and that of the French comipanded by the 
Prince of Gonde, are_not only sensible and instructive, but 
•chew that a General, after having obtained an important ad- 
vantage, may suffer it to be snatched out of his hands by top 
much eagemesa and heat of temper. ;Mr. Carleton wa* iia thai 

^ "Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Mmi^s ttfXi^tfidn George CMkbn. j^f 

tetr«giianl, wUd& fatd beeo cut off by the French^ wlio fell 
fo phmdei^g 'the baggage ; «ni fajmng made iuft escape ta 
an eiiiiiiencey 

*• It was (he says) from that advantaf^eous situation, that I pre- 
fently discovered that the Imperialists, who led the ran, had now 
joined the m»n body. And, I confess, it was with an almett inex* 
pcesfible pieasnre, that I beheld, about three o'dock» with what in* 
trepid fury they fell upon the enemy. In short* both armies werr 
^OQiyersall}r eogaged» %xA with great obstinacy disputed the Ytctorr 
till eleven at night. At which time the French, being pretty wett 
surfeited, made thar retreat. Nevertheless, to secure xt hv a atn^* 
tagem, they left their lighted matches hangiofr in the beagcSf and 
waving with the air> to conceal it from the confederate army. 

' About two hours after, the confederate forces followed the ex- 
ample of their enemies, and drew off And though neither army had 
much reason to boast, yet, as the Prince of Orange ren»ined last in 
the field, and the French had lost what they befoce had gained, the 
glory of the day fell to the Prince of prange ; who, although but 
twenty-four years of age^ had the suffrage of friend and foe^ of hav- 
ing played the part of an old and experienced officer. 

* There were left that day on the field of battle, by a general com* 
potation, not less than eighteen thousand men on both sides, over and 
above those who died of their wounds : the loss being pretty equal, 
only the. French carried off most prisoners. Prince Waldeck waa 
shot through the arm, which I was near enough to be an eye-witness 
of; and ray much lamented friend. Sir Walter Vane, was carried off 
dead. A wound in the arm was all the mark of honour, that I aa yet 
eouM boas^ of, though our cannon in the defiles had sVun many near 

' The Prince of Cond^ (as we were nea^t day informed) lay al| 
that night under a hedge, wrapped in his cloak; and, either from 
^he mortification of being disappointed in his hopes of victory, or 
from a reflection of the disservice, which his own natural over-heat of 
temper had drawn upon him, was almost inconsolable many daya after. 
And thus ended the famous battle of SenefF» 

* But though common vogue has given it the name of a battle^ ia 
my weak opinion, it mu;ht rather deserve that,of a confused skirmi^ ;' 
9II things having been forcibly carried on without regularity, or even 
design enough to allow it any higher denomination : tor, as I have said 
before, notwithstanding I was advantageously stationed for observa- 
tion, I found it very often impossible to distinguish one party from 
another. And this was more remarkably evident on the part of the 
Prince of Orange, whose valour and vigour having led him into the 
middle of the enemy, aiid being then sensible of his error, by a pecu« 
liar presence of mind, gave the word of command in French, which 
he spoke perfectly well. But the French soldiers, who took him for 
one of their own generals, making answer, t^at their powder was all 
spent, it afiforded matter of instruction to him to persist in his attack } 
at the same time, that it jzave him a lesson of caution, to withdraw 
t(ims$If as 89on ^ he could^ to his own troops/^ 

■ -After 

58h Memiri of Ci^fain George Czrletorii 

After the peace of Nimeguen, w]iich' wa* concluded-in- 
i6j^i the regiment in which the author served was stationed 
en garrison-duty at the Grave for nearly four years, die soldiers 
being- mostly employed in working on the fortifications. It 
was there, he informs. us, and on that occasion, that he im- 
bibed the first rudiments of fortification j and the practical part 
-of the engineer-profession, which in his more advanced years 
were of great service to him^ • ' • , 

On the breaking out of Monmouth^s rebellion after the 
death of Charles II., the English and Scotch regiments in the 
Dutch service were ordered over to England, and encamped 
on Hounslow Heath. Mr. Carleton had ,not thus been long 
returned to his native land, when he received a commission 
from King James as a Lieutenant in a newly raised regiment, 
under the command of Colonel Tufton, brother to the Earl of 
Thanet* After James had abdicated the throne, and the Prince 
pf Orange had accepted t^je administration of affairs in this 
country, the author was employed with his regiment in 
Scotland, chiefly in the Highlands j during which service 
having distinguished himself, he was, in consequence of a 
recommendation mentioning some particulars of his conduct 
from Sir Thomas Levingston, (afterward Earl of Tiviot^) pro- 
moted to a company in Brigadier Tiffin's regiment lying in 
garrison at Portsmouth, to which place he immediately re-» 
paired* — ^About two months afterward, this regiment, among 
Biany others, was shipped off under the Duke of Leinster on a 
secret expedition •, the object of which, though unknown to 
the General himself 'till he opened his commission at sea^i 
having been intrusted to a female pQlifician on land^ was soon 
made known to the enemy ; a circumstance which rendered' 
it necessary to countermand their orders, before they reached 
the place of their destination. They were accordingly directe4 
to land at Ostend \ and not long after their landing,' the 
famous battle of Steenkirk was fought : of which, and of some 
remarkable circumstances attending it, Captain Carleton gives 
the following short and interesting account : 

* Soon after this, happened that memorable battle at Steenkirk, 
which, as very few at that time could ^\st into the reason of, and 
piistaken accounts of it have passed for authentic, 1 will mention 
Bomewhat more particularly ; the undertaking was bold, and, aa 
jnany thought, bolder than was consistent with the character of the 
wise undertaker. Nevertheless, the French having taken Namur, 
;and, as .the malecontents alleged, in the very $ight of a superior army, 
and nothing having been done by land of any moment, things werf 
blown into such a dangerous fermentation, by a malicious and lying 
spirit, that King William found himself under a necessity of attempU 
ing somnhipg tUfit might appease the oiurmurs of the people. He 


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Memoirs of Captain George Carleton# 5^ 

knew very well, thouglt spoke in the senate, that it waa not trwE^ 
tL t his forces at the sie^e of Namur exceeded those of Ihe eoemy^ 
no man could be more afflicted than he at the overflowin|]r of the Me<« 
haigne, from the continual rains, which obstructed the relief he had 
designed for that important pli\ce ; yet, since his malig^ers made aa 
ill Ui<e of these false topics, to insinuate that he had no mind to pat am 
end to the war, he was resolved to evince the contrary, by sliew- 
ing them that he was not afraid to venture his life for the better ob- 
taining what was so much desired 

* To that purpose, receiving intelligence that the Duke of Luxeitii* 
burg lay strongly encompassed at Steenkirk, near bnghien, (thougH. 
he was sensible he must pass through many defiles to engage him ; and 
that the many thickets between the two armies would frequently afford* 
him new difficulties,) he resolved there to attack him Our troopt 
at first were forced to hew out their passage for the horse ; and there 
was no one difficulty that his imagination had drawn, that was les« 
sened by experience; and yet so prt>8perous were his arms at the be- 
ginning, that our troops had made themselves masters of several pieces 
of the enemy's cannon But the farther he advanced, the ground 
growing straiter, so strait as not to admit his armies being drawn up 
in battalia, the troops behind could not give timely succour to those 
engaged, and the cannon we had taken was forcibly left behind, in 
order to mike a good retreat. The French had lost all their con* 
rage in the onset ; for though they had Coo fair an opportunity, they 
did not think fit to pursue it ; or, at least, did it very languidly. 
However, the malecontents at home, 1 remember, grew very well 
pleased after this ; for, so long as they had but a battle for their 
money, like true Engli hmen, lost or won, they were contented. 

* Several causes, I rem<.'mbcjs were assigned for this miscarriage* 
as they called it : some there were who were willing to lay it up6n 
the Dutch ; and allege a saying of one of their generals, who, re- 
ceiving orders to relieve some English and Scotch that were over- 
powered, was heard to say, ** Damn them, since they love fightings 
let them have their bellies full." But I should rather impute the 
disappointment to the great loss of so many of our bravest officers at 
the very first onset. General Mackay, Colonel Lanier, the Earl of 
Angus, with both his field-officers. Sir Robert Douglas, Colonel 
Hodges, and many others, falling, it was enough to put a very 
considerable army into confusion. I remember one p^ticular action 
of Sir Robert Douglas, that I should think myself to blame should I 
omit : seeing his colours on the other side the hedge, in the hands 
of the enemy, he leaped over, slew the officer that had them, and 
then threw them over the hedge to his company ; redeeming his co- 
lours at the expence of his life. Thus, the Scotch commander im- 
proved upon the Roman General ; for the brave Posthumius catt his 
standard in the middle of the enemy, for his soldiers to retrieve ; but 
Douglas retrieved his from the middle of the enemy, without any as« 
iistance, and cast it back to his soldiers to retain, after he had so 
bravely rescued it out of the hands of the enemy.' 

Captain C. next went with his corps to Dixmuyd, where 
b^ was for som^ time employed in fortifying that place 5 and 


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fo Mefmrs of Captain Uoorge Carleton. 

after he had broiigkt the injteaded works into a tolerably re* 
specta^e state^ me troops were ordered to re4mbark f <^r 
Engbnd. On ismding, they inarched to Ip8wiGh,,\had their 
winter-quarters in that town, and in the Spring went to London 
to do duty in the Tower. Hence the regiment was removed 
to Flanders 5 and Captain C.*s description of and remarks on 
the Prince of Vaudemont's retreat from Watergaem are well 
calculated for conveying useful military instruction : 

^ While King William was engaged in the gloWous and important 
licgc of Namur, Prince Vaudemont being posted at Watergaem, 
yriui about fifty battalions, and as many eqnadrdns^ the Mareschal 
Villeroy laid a design to attack biro witb the whole French army. . 
yhc Prince imagined no less, therefore be prepared accordingly, 
living ui orders to fortify our camp, as well as the little time we had 
for it lyould permit. Those orders were pursued ; nevertheless, I 
must confess, it was beyond the reach of my little reason to account 
for our so long stay in the sight of an army so much superior to ours. 
The Prince, in the whole, could hardly muster thirty thousand ; and 
Villeroy was known to value himself upon having one hundred thou- 
sand effective men. However, the Prince provisionally sent away aU 
our baggage that very morning to Ghent, and still made shew as if 
he resolved to defend himself to the last extremity, in our little en- 
trenchments. The eneciy on their side began to surround us ; and 
in their motions for that purppse, blew up little bags of gun-powder, 
\o give the readier notice how far they had accomplished it. 'An- 
other captain, with myself, being placed on the right with one hun* 
dr^d men, (where I found Monsieur Mpntal endeavouring, if possible, 
to gpt behind us,) I could easily observe, they had so far attained 
their aim of encompassing us, as to the very fashion of a horse's shoe. 
This made me fix my eyes so intently upon the advancing enemy, that 
I never minded what my friends were doing behind me ; though I 
afterwards found that they had been filing off so very artfully and 
pnivately, by that narrpw ppening of the horse shoe, t|iat when the> 
f nemy imagined us past a possibility of escape, our little army 4t 
pnce, and of a sudden, was ready to disappear. There was, a large 
Wood on the right pf our army, through which lay the road to 
Ghent, liot broader than to admit of more than four to march 
a- breast. Down this the Prince had slid his forces, except to that 
very small party which the captain and myself commanded, and 
which was designedly left to bring up the rear. Nor did we stir tiU 
Captain Collier, then aid de camp to his brother, now Earl of Port-^ 
more, came with the word of command for us to draw off. 

* When Villeroy was told of our retreat, he was much surprised* 
^s thinking it a thing utterly impossible However^ at last, being 
sensible of the truth of it, he gave orders for our rear tobe attacked; 
^nt wf kept firing from ditch to ditch, aod hedge to hedge, till 
pight came upon us ; and so our ittle army got clear of its gigantic 
cncnay with very incoasidcrable ^oss. However, the French failed 
^0t^ in th^ir customary w>y, ta (Xjpress the s^nse of their vexation at 

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Memms (f Cap^Mtn George Carletoiu 6l 

Um dfsappomtmenty with fire and sword in the neighbourhood round. 
Thus Prince Vauderoont acquired more glory by that retreat than an 
entire victory could have given him ; and it was not I confess, the 
least part of satisfaction in my life, that myself had a share of honour 
under him, to bring off the rear at that his glorious retreat at ArsceU* 

The author's account of the courteous, facetious, and of- 
ficious stranger who joined their train of artillery, on their 
march to Anderlech, shews how extremely jealous all people 
ought to be of such persons in time of war ^ and it is perhaps 
sufficient to ipske it appear that our government, at tne pre^ 
sent moment^ is not acting the wisest part in suffering thii 
eountryi under existing circumstances, to abound so much as 
it does with foreigners. 

After the death of King William, his successor* and 
consort Queen Anne adhered to his counsels and pursued hi^ 
measures. On the recommendation of Lord Cutts, who had 
distinguished himself at Yenlo, Ruremond, and Hochstet, ^d 
who on his arrival from Germany was a{>pointed General of all 
Her Majesty's forces in Ireland, the Earl of Peterborough 
carried Captain Carleton with him on his expedition to Spain* 
They first went to Lisbon ; and the Earl, after having ex- 
changed two regiments of foot there, with the Consent of 
Lord Galoway, received the Archduke of Austria and all who 
chose to follow him on board jhe fleet, and transported them 
at his own eipence to Barcelona, for which he never received 
any reimbursement or remimeration. On leaving Lisbon, he 
sailed to join the squadron under Sir Cloudsley Shovel, which 
he met at the appointed station ofl^ Tangier. Having formed 
this junction, he made the best of his way towards Gibraltar, 
where he staid no longer than to take two regiments on board 
out of that garrison, in lieu of two which were sent on shore 
out of the fleet ; and here he found the Prince of Hesse, whp 
. immediately took the resolution of accompanying the Archduke 
on that expedition. 

It was an unfortunate circumstance for both of these Prin6ef» 
as well as for the service, that thev accompanied the Earl of 
Peterborough ^ who, had it not been for the counteraction 
which he experienced from them, and by orders from home 
in consequence of senseless representations by Mr. Crow, 
(the Queen's agent in those parts,) in the prosecution of his 
own ^se measinres, and for the necessity under which he felt 
himself of most reluctantly carrying other plana into execution 
which he entirely disapproved, would have infallibly coni^- 
pleted the business on which he was sent, and have placed the 
Archduke on th6 throne of Spain. Eoiowing that King Philip 
and die Royal F^ily at Madrid had with them only a few 


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6z 'Memoir^ of Captain Oeorge Carfeton. 

liorse, barely sufficient for serving as guards, and those In a 
Bad condition, it was his intention, after having secured 
Valencia and the towns adjacent, (which were all ready to 
submit to and declare for King Charles,) to commence his 
inarch immediately for the metropolis-, on which march he could 
have been supplied not only with horses and mules in abun- 
dance, but also with the necessary carriages for his artillery, 
baggage, and ammunition. Sensible of there being no forces in 
the middle parts of Spain to oppose his progress, and that the 
principal part of their regular troops were in. the city of 
Barcelona and the remainder on the frontiers of Portugal, he 
perceived that he could immediately drive Philip out of his 
capital, and reduce him to the necessity of quitting Spain 
altogether, or of retiring either towards Portugal or Catalonia; in 
either of which last cases. Lord P. would have the open country 
at his command, and be enabled to prevent any communica- 
tion between bodies so far;^eparated from each other as the 
frontiers of Portugal and Barcelona. The Earl was obliged, 
however, to abandon this judicious plan of operations ; and, in 
i^ompliance with the repeated desires of the Archduke, the 
importunities of the Prince of Hesse, and his instructions from 
England, to proceed to the bay of Barcelona : though he 
knew that this city was not only fortified with bastions, but 
also sedured on the eastern side ^by a horn-work, and on the 
mrestOTW by a very strong fortress called Monjouick ; that it 
was a place of such extent that thirty thousand men would 
scarcely suffice for forming the lines of circumvallation j and 
tiiat it had actually resisted for many montlis an army of that 
force. On arriving there, he found that the boasted promises 
Qf assistance made by the Prince of Hesse, and the represen- 
tations by Mr. Crow of co-operation on the part of the 
Catalans, were fallacious and delusive. Independently of the 
sttength of the place,, its garrison was much more. numerous 
than the little army vnth which, he was required t6 attack it. 
'Under these circumstances, six seyeral councils of war rejected 
the siege as impracticable, and a species of madness ; the Dutch 
General in particular declaring, *^ that he would not obey even 
the commands of the Earl of Peterborough, if he should order 
die sacrifice of the troops under him in so unjustifiable a man- 
ner without the consent of a council of war." 

3uch was the perplexing situation of this nobleman 
before Barcelona : irripossibilities proposed j no expedients to 
he accepted ; the Archduke and tlie Prince of Hesje reproach- 
ing ; councils of war rejecting j and the Dutch General de- 
Lclaring that he would withhold the assistance of his troons. 
It was too late for him to say that he never woul4 have taken 
14 the 

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Memoirs of Cuptain George C^kioa. dj 

tKe Archduke on board, or given him the least hope of ascend- 
ing the Spanish throne, if he could have supposed it possible 
that he should not have been left at liberty to pursue his own 
designs according to his own judgment; and, far from being 
of diat stubborn and unmanageable turn of mind which gene- 
rally indicates ignorance, he was ever solicitous about the ho- 
nour of his country. Thpse difficulties, then, great as they 
were, instead of discouraging him, set every faculty of his 
mind at work \ and his natural sagacity suggested to him the 
only probable or even possible means of success. His inted- 
tions, however, he kept entirely unknown to his friends a$ 
well as his enemies; for he was as remarkable for secrecy, 
when necessary, as for other eminent qualities. 

If all circumstances, indeed, be taken into consideration, 
the attack and capture of Monjouick and Barcelona may justly ' 
be regarded as among the most singular atchievements re- 
corded in history ; and if any officer or other person, at all 
acquainted with the nature of military operations and the dif- 
ficulties attending them, will look at a plan of those places 
while he is reading the following truly interesting account of 
the taking of the former of them, which was soon followed 
by the surrender of the latter, he will be at a loss whether t«> 
admire most the boldness of the enterprize, or the judgment 
and ability with which it was conducted : 

* The Earl having made his proper dispositions, and ddiTcrcd 
out his orders, began his march in the evening, with twelve huiu 
dred foot and two hundred horse, which, or necessity, were t» 
pass by the quarters of the Prince of Hesse. That Prince, oa thcV 
appearaace, was told, that the Central was come to ^ak witk 
him ; and, being brought into his apartment, the Earl acquainted 
him, that he had at last resolved upon an attempt against the 
enemy ; adding, that now, if he pleased, he might be a judge of 
their behaviour, and see whether his officers and soldiers had de« 
jerved that character which he had so liberally given them. The 
Prince made answer^ that he had alwaytf been ready to take bk 
share ; but could hardly believe that troops marching that way 
could make any attempt against the enemy to satisfaction* Hov^ 
ever, without further discourse, he called for his horse. 

* Brigadier Stanhope and Mr. Methucn, (now Sir Paul,) were 
the General's particular fiiends, and those he most consulted, and 
most confided in } yet he never imparted this resolution of his to 
either of them ; for he was not wilhng to engage them in a desl^a 
so dangerous, and where there was so little hope of success ; iratber 
choosing to reserve them as persons n^ost capable of giving advice 
and assistance in the confusion, great enough already, which yet 
must have been greater, if any accident had happened to himself. 
And I have very good reason to believe, that tlie motive, which 
laaialy engaged the iiacl ui Peterbocow in this enterpriac* was to 


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<£4 Mmoirs efCt^m Owige Carleton. 

mtk^thtVrmtt of Hesse Mtl the' wofid/ that hts diSdtoiiee pro« 
cieedco fnnn fct^ coiuteni fot' the teoops coqHBitted ta his charge\ and 
iK>t for hit own person. On the other hand^ the great chmctcri 
of the two gentlenven just mentioned are so well known, that it wiB 
^sily gain credit, that the only way the General conid take to 
prevent their being of the party, was to conceal it from them, as he 
4id from aQ mankind, even from the Archduke himscIL And 
certainly there never was a more univcisal sui^prise, than when tlie 
firing was heard next mctrnii^ from Monjoutck. 

' Btjli I n6w proceed tq gWt an exact account of this great action} 
<tf which no person, that I have heard of, ever yet took upon him 
to deliver to posterity the glorious particulars ; and yet the conse* 
^laences and events, by what follows, will appear so great, and 90 
.very extraordinary, tlrat few> if any, bad they had it in their power« 
would have dented themselves the pleasure, or the world the satis- 
faction^ of knowing it. . 

« The troops, which . xharched all night along the foot of tht 
moulBtains, arrived two hours before day under the ntil of Monjooick, 
not a onarter of a mile from the outward works : for this reason, it 
was taken for granted, whatever the design was which the General 
bad proposed to himself, that it would be put in execution before 
day^light ; but the Earl of Peterborow was now pleased to inform 
the officers of the reasons why he chose to stay till the light appeared. 
He was of opim'on that any success would be impossible, unless the 
enemy came mto the outward ditch under the bastions of the second 
indosure ; but that if they had time allowed them to come thither, 
there being no pab'sadoes, our men, by leaping in upon them, after re- 
ceipt of their first fire, might drive them into the upper works ; and 
following them close, with some probability, might force them, 
under that confusion, into the inward fortifications. 

< Such were the General's reasons then and there given ; after 
which, having promised ample rewards to such as discharged their 
duty well, a lieutenant, with thirty men, was ordered to advance 
towards the bastion nearest the town ; and a captain, with fifty 
men, to support him. After the enemy's fire, they were to leap 
Into the ditch ; and their orders were to follow them close. If they 
retired into the upper works : nevertheless^ not pursue them farther, 
if they made into the inner fort ; but to endeavour to cover them- 
selves v^fthin the|^rge of the bastion. / 

* A lieutenant and a captain> with the like number of men, and 
the same orders, were commanded to a demi-bastion, at the extre* 
mity of the fort towards the west^ which was above musket-shot 
from the inward fortification. Towards this place the wall, which 
was cut into the rock, w4s not faced for about twenty yards ; and 
here our own men got up, where they found three pieces of cannon 
upon a platform, without any men to defend them. 

* Those appointed to the bastion .towards the town, were sua* 
tained by two hundred men ; with which the General and Pnncc ' 
went in person. The like number, under the directions of Colonel 
Southwell, were to sustain the attack towards the west ; and about 
five huadixd men were left under the ccaunaad of a Dn^ colonel^ 


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Memoirs ofCaptmn Ceotge CarUton* 6f 

wtiose orders were to aMist^ Where^ in \i% own jadfpnent, lie shoold 
tiunk most proper ; and these were drawn up between the two 
parties appointed to begin the assault. My lot was on the side 
where the Prince and Earl were in person ; and where we sustained 
the only loss from the first fire of the enemy. 

^ Our men, though quite exposed, and though the glacis was 
all escarped upon the live rock, went on with an undaunted courage ; 
and, immediately after the first fire of the enemy, all, that were 
not killed or wounded, leaped in, fel'tnel, amongst the enemy ; whof 
being thus boldly attacked, and seeing others pouring in upoa 
them, retired in great confusion; and some one way, some another, ran 
into the inward works. 

* There was a large port in the flank of the prindpal bastion^ 
towards the north east, and a covered way, through which the 
General and the Pnnce of Hesse followed the flying forces ; and by 
that means became possessed of it. Luckily enough, here lay a 
number of great stones in the gorge of the bastion, for thp use of 
the fortification ; with which we made a sort of breast- work, before 
the enemy recovered of their amaze, or made any considerable fife 
upon us from their inward fort which commanded the upper part 
of thsit bastion. 

* We were afterwards informed, that the commander of the 
citadel, expecting but one attack, had called off the men from the 
most distant and western part of the fort, to that side which was 
next the town ; upon which our men got into a demi-bastion in the 
most extreme part of the fortification. Here they got possession of 
three pieces of cannon, with hardly any opposition ; and had leisure 
to cast up a little entrenchment, and to make use of the guns they 
had taken to defend it. Under this situation, the enemy, whea 
drove into the inward fort, were exposed to our fire from those 
places we were possessed of, in case they offered to make any Bally, or 
other attempt against us. Thus, we every moment became better and 
better prepared against any effort of the garrison. And. as they could 
not pretend t« assail us without evident hazard, so nothing remained 
for us to do till we could bring up our artillery and mortars. Now 
it was that the General sent &r the thousand men under Brigadier 
Stanhope's command, which he had posted at a convent, half way 
between the town and Monjouick. 

* There was almost a total cessation of fire, the men on both 
sides being under cover. The General was in the upper part of the 
bastion ; the Prince of Hesse below, behind a little work at the 
point of the bastion, whence he could only see the heads of the 
enemy over the parapet of the inward fort. Soon after an accident 
happened which costnhat galhnt Prince his life. 

* The enemyhad lines of communication between Barcelona and 
Monjouick. The governor of the former, upon bearing the firing 
from the latter> immediately sent 'four hundred dragoons on Korse<* 
bafpl;, under orders, that two hundred dismounting should reinforce 
the garrison, and the other two hundred should letHrtt with their 
horses back to the town. ' 

• lUr. Mat. igOjp* F • Wham 

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6b' Mifhoirs of Cdjftain Gebt^e t arlfetbn. 

, * ^Wlicn. tliose two nundr^d dragoons Vi^cre accordingly got inta 
the laward jfort, unseen by any of our men, the Spaniards. Wavinj^ 
tlieir hat$ over their heads,' repeated over and over, PHva el 'tley^ 
Viva, l^fiisthe Prince ol HVsse unfortunately took for ai signal of 
their desire to surrender. Upon v^hich, wTth too much Warmth 
and precipitancy* calling to the soldiers following, " They sunender, 
thcy.surrender !" he advanced with near three hundred men, (who 
/oUawedliiiJxwit'hout any orders from ,th(pir General,) along the curtain 
which led to the ditch of the inward fort. The enemy 'suffered theih 
^ come mto tne ditch, and there surrounding them, took two 
hundred of them prisoners^ at the same time mating ^ discharge 
upon ihe rest, who wer? mnning back the way they cam.'e. • Thid 
§nng brought tht Ead of l^eterborow down frqm the upper part of 
^hc |)astion^ to see what was doing below. When he had just turneS 
tte point joftiic bastion, ^c saw the Prince of Hesse retiring, Svftli 
tiie,n)en that Had so /ash ly advanced* The Earl had exchanged a 
yery few W9rda with liim^ wljen, fr ^^m a second Bre^ that Prince 
jreijcjyed a sh^tin the great jartenr of the thigh, of w^hich he died 
immediately, ^aiKng down at the General's feet, who instanify gave 
orders to carry off the tody to the next convent. 
J. * AWost the same moment, an officer came taacquamt the '^.tA 
^f Pcfcrborpw, that a great body of horse and footy^ at least three 
4housan4| were ^ on ^heir march from Barcelona tovirards the fort. 
The d^tancc 18 near a liile, all uneven ground; so that the encrh'jr 
was citncr discoverable, or lidtto be seed, just as. they were march- 

' ^^g 9^' tjic hjUs, or in VHe vgllics. However, the Oeriefal directly 
jgot on horsebact, to take a, view of tTiose forces from the rising 
^po^nd witljout the fort, paving left dil the posts, which were al- 
ready |takcn, well 'secured witli the allotted numbers of officers and 
•oldicrs. f . , ^ _ 

* But Nthe cycnt . wifl demonstrate of what consequence the ab^ 
.•cncc or prcseiijCje of one rhan may prove on great occasions- N» 
sgoncr .was the Earl out of the fort,, the care of which he had left 
^VAder the command of the Lord Charlemont, (a person of known 

. merit and undoubted couragCi but somewhat t'oo'^exibl^ in hist'erh- 
pj?r,) whep a pan^ fear (though the Earl, as Ihave safd, was only 
gone to take a view of the etiemy,) seized ujjon the soldiery, which 
w^ a little topj easily copiplicd with hy the Lord Charlemont, thfca 
comnjanding officer., True it isj W 1 heard an officer, ready 
.enough to take siich adyantagesi urge to hiii^, that none 'of all tliosc 
.f<fM ^* WM Ibecome masters of, were tenable; th^t to 'olCfer at it 
W9i|14 I?? no bf t^er than wilfujly asicrifiping human lives to caprice 
mnd huniiour ; and just lijce a roan^s Jcapcki^g liis ^ead against stbae 
undlb, to^ try wl|ic^ )^as hardest. Jiving overheard this piece "of 
.^p«>oratory, aijid finding, $y the aiMwcr* that; U toprc- 

.vjifl, ^and tW 2^1 wasikelj to 'sjy* would, avail nothing, I clipped 
away^fis fastis I couId> to acquaint tie General' with the diti^r 
irop^iUng.^^. .^ . ' . s 

« As I piSed along, 1 todk'noticc, that^ the panic was.iipon the 

kcfcMc; the general rumoBmffirming, ihWwc 'ali6^l^d 'Be Ul^ut 

.... .... ^^ 

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pJTbjthe jtroQps that were (?oync out; of Bjarcclona, if yre did not 
immc^i^ely gain the JjiUs, or the liouseg possessed by the Mwjuc- 
Icts. Officers and ^soldiers, under thU prcvallinj^ terror, quitted 
ihcir -post* ; and in on^ united ^ody (the Lord Charlemont at th^i 
Jiead ot them) marph^^d, or rather hurned out of the fort ; and were 
cpmc JialfiF-^yay ^oyrn the hill before the Earl of Pcterborov cam4 
up to t|)ena 5 thougti, up my accjuatnti^g him with the shameful and 
tMrpnping accident> ^e made no stay ; fjut answering, \^'th a goo4 
deal at vehc^n<?c, " jQpij^d Oad* is it possible !" hastened back ai 
last Jbjc co^iJd. 

' \ pcvcf^ thought myself happier than in this piece of service tO 
iny country . X confess I coutd not but value it, a.S having bcch 
.therein mor^ tjian ^ h'tUc instrumental in the glorious Sucdesses' whicK 
#pc(;ee%4 » *»^^^ immediately upon this notice from me, the* Earl 
galloped up the hHl, and JiiJ^hting when he came to Lbrd Charle- 
mont, he toojt hii b^y pj^e out of bis hand ; and turttiog to the 
f^c^vi 9ncJ sqldieriJ, told the^, if they would not face about anfl 
(foillawilim, they sh9uld haye the scandal and eternal infamy' upon 
ihem, ^f .leaving inserted their posts, and aRandoned their General. 

* It m^ surprising to see wijth what alacrity and new courage thcv 
.iaced about, and followed, ^he Earl of Pete borow. In a moment 
,4»!ey iad forgot th^eir apprehensions ; and, wxtho^it doubt, had 
ibey^met >vit^ any ojyposiiion, they would have behaved themselvc* 
Wh the greatest bravery. But as ihesf mntrans were unj^erceived 
by the eneniy, all the posts were regained, and anew possessed* ih 
less than half an hour, without any Itisf ; though, had i)ur fgrcea 
marched hif muaket-fthot further, their rcireai woi^ld have bcea 
f erpeiBcdy^and all the success attendant oi^ thifi glorious attenipt m,u^ 
»a«e;been catircly blasted. 

^ Aqpfcfur incident ^iiich attenjied this happy enterprise was this': 
.jthe^two hundred men which fell into the hands of thc'taemy, by the 
^nbappypii^ take pf the Prince of H^sse, were carried directly into 
the town. ^fhc Maiquis of Rwburg, a lieuteiiant-general, who 
commanded the three thousand men which were marching from the 
town to the relief of the fort,' examined the prisoners as .they paaaod 
by ; and they all agreeing that the-Ocnerpl and the Prince of JJiesst 
were in person with the droops that made the attack pii Monjoqickp 
the MarquisTgaye immediate oiders to i; the town; talcif]^ it 
4ur gloated, that the main bpdy of the troops attended the Prince 
J9Ad fQeoeiiil ; .^and that some design therefore was on foot to intef- 
ijP^t bis return, in case he should venture too far. Thus^ the un« 
^wr^una^. loss of our ^wo hundred men turned to our advantage, m 
ijrtvcntii^ jhe advance of the enemy, which must have put the 
wEarlof ^erborow to inconceivabk difficuHiee. 

*^he/body. of one thousand, under Brigadier Stanhope, bejQg 
cpmetip to Monjokick; knd no interruption given us by the enemj^ 
Vmr affislrs were put into viery good order -on this 9idc.i while the 
^UDp on the other side was so.k^ftified, that -the enemy, during ttie 
;iir^, tiCTer made-one e^brt ai^iust it. In the mean time, the con^'-^ 
^a^oacjoa ji>etween the two camp4< was Sjecure enough; although our 
,4rop^arere.5^|jg^ tQ.|^,^^ous oiai^h ^n^^|||te^^the faillst 

Fa Jj^^^^Hlk wkeiw 

6S Memoirs of Captain George Catleton. . 

lirientvcr the General thoaght fit to rcKcvc those on duty em the 
mde of the attack, from those regiments encamped on the west side 
of Barcelona. 

/ The next day, after the Earl of Petcrborow had taken care 
to secure the first camp to the eastward of the town,?hc gave orders to 
the officers of the fleet to land the artillery and ammunition behind 
the fortress to the westward. Immediately open the landing whereof, 
two mortars were 5xed ; from both which we plied the fort of 
Monjouiok funously with our bombs. - But the third or fourth day, 
one of our shells fortunately lighting on their magazine of pbwder, 
blew it up $ and with it the governor, and many principal officers 
who ^ere at dinner with hirn. The blast, at the same instant, 
threw down a face of one of the smaller bastions ; which the vigi- 
lant Miquelecs, ready enough to take aH advantages, no sooner 
•aw,^ (for they were under tlie hill, Very near the place,) but they 
readily entered, while the enemy were under the utmost confusion. 
If the Earl, no less watchful than they, had not at the same mo* 
ment thrown himself in with some regular troops, and appeased 
ihe general disorder, in all probability the garrison had been put tt> 
the sword. However, the General's presence not only allayed the 
fury ^t the Miquelets, but kept his own tt-oops under strictest dh* 
cipline : so that, in a happy hour for the frighted garrison, the 
General gave officers and soldiers qnarter, mdking them priaonert 

Our limits, which we have already exceeded, will not 
permit us to detail the other various exploits of Lord Peter- 
borough in Spain ; particularly his compelling King Philip to 
quit his dominions, by relieving Barcelona with a handful of 
men, comparatively speaking, when it was besieged by the King 
and Mareshal deTess with an army of upwards of twenty-fire 
thousand men; and after they had^ with a loss of more than 
three thousand men, retaken Monjouick in twenty-three days, 
which Lord P. took (as we may say) in one hour. 
' Captain Carleton mentions an . almost unparalleled instance 
of public spirit in the Earl of Peterborough," as well as of ge- 
nerosity towards the very man who, unfortunately for the 
Cause in which they were embarked, had succeeded in under- 
mining -the EarPs authority and supplanting him in his com- 
mand. The clergy and magistrates of Huette, hearing that Lotd 
jPi suspected the inhabitaxlts of /having given intelligence tt> 
the enemy respecting his baggage, which had been plundered 
within a league 6f that place, and taken from the small guard 
which General "Windham had •appointe4 to escort it to the 
camp at Guadsdaxara, — ^and fearing that out of resentment he 
might lay their town in ashes,— offered his Lordship full satis- 
fiaction, and to pay in mofiey or dfcontado the amount of what 
he had lost : but he told them that ** he had just come from my 
X^rd Galway's camp at Chincon^ where he found that diey 
8 • - were 

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Mefmirs of Captajn George Cjiahton^ 69 

were in a likelihood of wantii^ bread ; and as he imagined 
it might be easier to them to raise the value in com than in 
ready mohey, if they would send to that value in com to Lord. 
Galway^s camp^ he would be satisfied." 

The author's relation (p. 2^26.) of the cruel and barbarous 
treatment, which a captain of the English Guards and his 
party of convalescents, going to join their battalion, expe- 
rienced from the . Spaniards in a villa not far from Campilio, 
is sufficient to fill every one who reads it with horror. — hi his 
account of the fatal battle of Almanza, he gives with much 
candour and simplicity a beautiful and interesting picture of 
the Duke of Berwick, both as a man and as a commander. By 
the representations of two Irish officers, who pretended to be 
deserters, and were properly instructed for , the purpose, the 
Duke m^ide the credulous Galway believe that t5ie Duke of 
Orleans was in full marcli to join him (Berwick) with twelve 
thousand men ; Galway therefore became eager to attack be-^ 
fore the junction should take place \ and the Duke of Ber^ 
wick was overjoyed to see him appear, a little after noon, 
^ith forces fatigued by a hard march of three long SpanisU 
leagues in the heat of tne day. Finding Galway ready to run 
headlong into the snare prepared for him, the Duke drew up 
his army in the form of a half moon, with three regiment* 
advanced to a convenient distance, in order to make up the 
centre, and conceal his dispositicm ixoax the enemy % whidi 
regiments were expressly ordered to retreat at the very first 
charge. This stratagem had nearly the same effect on the 
English, who attacked them, which Annibars contrivance 
produced on the Romans at the battle of Canhae : for our 
troops, seeing the others retire suddenly before them, pur- 
sued them after their then customary ;nanner with shouts and 
hallooings, till the Duke, observing that they had advanced 
far enough, ordered his right and left wings to close, and 
thus cut off from the rest of our army all those who had so 
eagerly followed the imaginary runaways. His native sympa.- 
thy, however, and goodness of disposition, would not suffer 
him to allow his troops to attack those who had retreated 
to the top of the hills under Major-General Shrimpton, and 
whom it was in his power to have destroyed^ and thus hst 
exhibited, in his own person, a striking verification of the noble 
maxim, ** that victory to generous minds is only an induce- 
ment to moderation." 

The few very concise observations, which the author makw 
respecting the recall of the Earl of Peterborough, are calcu- 
lated to • create indignation in every honest and generous 
breast \ and an. umversal sentiment ot regret will also be ex- 

F 3 cited. 

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ciied, feyffie reiectidn thit ifii ^ealou's, faithftfl/ 'fofl iiifel-* 
^gerit witer himself was so unwbtthUy passed by ^rthout rcf** 
ward for all his services. , 

These Memoirs were fitst published iti the year t^4i, ^ feW 
years before the cbmr/iencement ofotir hboursj and hairing 
Become scarce and little knowrf^ they have been properly re^ 
printed by an anonymous editor, who lias- duly executed his 
pfnce by prefixing seme introductory observations, ^nd a feV 
piogfaphical particulars of the emihen't herb V^ho is thepfificff 
i)al subject of them. tiesideS the useful military iristfiictioii 
which th^y afford, they contain thiich topographical and charatcV 
j£e.n§trc description ; together ^ with clear and distinct accounti 
of the manners, customs, and amuseiVientS bf the Spaniards i 
for all which particulars we must refer to the volume, perr 
suaded that a perusal of it will gratify the histori^ni the jpi:6fes^ 
sionalman, and the general feadetf 

A^t, X. T'Be Qrders tn Counfii, an J the j^\ner}can Emhargo, ieAe^ 

^ ifckd to the .pQlitical and commercial Jiitexeiti of Great Br'ttain^ By 

Lord {Sheffield* 8vo. pp-fi. 2«. G. and W. Nicol. 1809^ 

PoilTjCAL ecbhomists have loh^ complained. 6f the in:ipt!ir 
Stude of merchants tto form g^nferal views of trade, ahd of 
khe i^ribt-ance evinced by public men in cpmmerbial reguki- 
lioiis. We idknowlege die truth of tStieSe accusatioi>s \ but^ in 
icruiinizing Ihe sources of theise deficiencies^we shall find reason 
io qualify the severity of censure. In regard to fncarebants, it iq 
lihportant to observe, that the habits required for the J)r;kctiical 
[Hetail of business are altogether different fr6m those which 
W^ . Vxercised Tn the analysis of general principles; and tlie 
cotisieqtience is, that this class of our country Aien faH pe^e-r 
Wally into mistakes whenever they attempt to tread on specur 
i'ative ground. Such errors, however^ being cptnmitt^d out of 
"their torovincfe, ought tt) form no deductioli fr6m thei^r Yeptt- 
,^atiph m their projper spherfe. A smaller measXire of indul- 
^ehice fs perhaps due to those Statj^smeft Svho ffermit yiefiftseives 
to b6 governed by siriiflar pr^'udi^es^ ^hfe iAfeta|kes i^hicli 
they commitj ifi consequence hi *!^ereat\tife adyide, ;ari«e 
ihieflv frpm their 6wn intapacity t6 disijf^ish th^e Varkms 
qiiafm'ca^iohs which difi^rent purstiStV fikVfe 'fe 't^hdwcy tp 
form. It is the duty of the minister, w*h*f^ toiJi^^dteafiftg ^cdm- 
niercial fegtiktldn?:, to \app!y "tb tfe ^racitiC^l ifl^n for in- ^ 
* t<5rril'atiO'f^ 'on local ^ncl |)a*rtieuhr;'qufetibft« ^diYhect'^d- ^irilh ' 
ttiefe routine: bilt it 'is a gtoss Wi^l^VMieJMStefi to tesbft-io 
kim'fo5rWd#ceoiimeaafc6:e8%^|g^i^ Pwr^tlf*e ^rid 

5 * pther 

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I*ord Sheffield on the Orders in CounciL 7 1 

otjier false steps, which we see daily committed by our governors, 
we may account by adverting to the imperfect nature of their 
education, and the still more imperfect distribution of their 
official labours : but the apology is considerably weaker in their 
case than in that of the merchants, whose employment ne- 
cessarily creates a train of ideas unfavorable to general reflec* 

if censure, then, be due to the mistakes of men who are 
involved in a labyrinth of public business, how much more 
is it applicable to the ignorance of those whose *duty it is to 
become masters of the science of political economy, and who 
cannot' plead in extenuation the pressure of ministerial 
drudgery? In the members of our Board of Trade, we are 
intitled tq expect an intimate acquaintance with the princi- 
ples of commerce, and a promptitude in making them avail- 
able on all occasions to the public interest. The noble author 
of the present pamphlet, we are concerned to say, is very far 
from possessing these requisites. Five-and-twenty years, ha 
tells us, (p, 45.) have elapsed since he*began to publish on 
matters of mercantile policy 5 and yet we discover no proof t^f 
Jiis having even at present arrived at sound notions in regird 
to them. All his views are superficial j all his coui^sek are 
erroneous \ and when we consider the respectability of hi$ 
rank, and the blender knowlege of bur ministers in regard to 
commercial questions, it becomes a puWic duty to expose 
the mistakes into which his Lordship has fallen, and to warn 
bur rulers from being misled by them. 

. Lord Sheffield is no admirer of the present state of eloquence 
}n our national councils. He complains (p. 2.) that 

* The prevant<ig taste for diffusive declamation, which is now so 
frequently displiytd in speeches of three hours and upwards, (the 
whole matter of which might be much better stated in half an hour,) 
/endeis attendance on parliament a most severe duty; and essentially 
interferes with the dispatch of public business.* ^ 

To the truth of this observation we cordi^ly .subscribe \ 
but has his Loicdahip no sympathy with the unfortunate critic, 
who is forced* to §crutiniize the meaning of unconnected and 
indefinite phraseology, gnd, to wade through pamphlets de-? 
void of arrangement, ^nd of the land-mar)c$ of general prin- 
dplesi - 

Lord 'S. admits {p. 10.) that ou^ commerce has fallen olF 
xon^iderafaly in the year duripg which the Orders in Council 
•have operated: but he ascribes that diminution not to these 
.Orders, but' to aa^unfo^tiinate combination pf political circur 
. ift^iaces, whiph euabkd Bpnaparte to cqmp),§te (h^ exclusic 

72 Lord Sheffield on the Orders in CoundL 

of 6ur commerce from the Continent In the same paragraphj. 
however, he enlarges on the quantity of exports which unex«^ 
pectedly took place to Spaih, Portugal, Brazil, and Spanish 
America. The natural inference from these opposite state-* 
ments would be, that the rapid political changes of the year 
in question had produced a mixed effect on our commerce, 
tending in several respects to diminish and in others to in* 
crease it : — ^but the reader, who Joolcs to find this result disw 
tinctly presented to him by the noble author, will look in vain. 
The difference of effect is not pointed out; and the chain of 
reasoning is so aukwardly linked, that his Lordship appears 
to draw conclusions directly contrary to the nature of the 
facts. / 

The statement contained in the next page will be decisive 
of the measure of his Lordship's attainments in the opinion of 
all political economists. "VVe find hjm adopting the explode4 
doctrines of the mercfintile theory, in regard to the balance 
of trade, and pronouncing with all irpaginable gravity that itj 
is * the difference between import and export which lurnishes 
the only b^sis on which ^n estimate of the profit or loss to 
the country tan be founded.' Is, then, the internal wealthj^ 
created by the operation of industry pn the imported articles^ 
no addition to the national profit ? Or does the immense inter^ 
change by- bills of exchange, which can never be noticed in the 
Custom-House reports, (and these reports forpi his Lordship'3 
basis,) constitute no part of the balance of trade ? Js it not appa-. 
rent that both these considerations are of the first magnitude ? — 
of such magnitude, indeed, as to overthrow all clilculations of 
profit presented to us by the balance of our Custom-Housi 
transactions. Accordingly, for above thirty years, all intelli- 
gent reasoners have forborne to lay stress on this imaginary 
balanqfe ^ and it was with no small surprize that we observed 
Lord Sheffield renew the delusion in an age in which better 
doctrines ought to be familiar to us. The Custom-House re» 
turns «^re useful in giving an idea (although by no nleans' an 
exact one,) of the nature and value of our lawful exports and 
imports ; since they thus afford a basis for calculating the ex« 
tent of capital employed in foreign trade ; and, by taking on 
that capital the ordinary f^te of profit, we may compute (or^ 
rather guess) the amount of probable gain on our foreign 
commerce, in the same way as we would compute it on any 
branch of internal trafiic. Such are the conclusions to whicn 
we may arrive by a consideration, not of the difference bei- 
tween our exports and imports, but of the amounts on both 
sides. This difference, on which Lord S. so much relies^ ia^ 
pp Qlv^e whatever to the computation pf our annual profits^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Lord Sheffield m the Orders Iti CauncH* •^ 

lecause it will be greater or less according to the extent of 
our transactions with foreign countries through the invisible 
medium of bills of exchange; — and it will be greater or less als© 
according to our revenue laws, it being the custom of mer- 
chante to declare at the lowest the value of goods which pay 
ad valorem duty, and to magnify the worth of those which pay. 

It is a rule with ' us to endeavour to avoid, as much as may 
be possible, severity of animadversion towards a well-meaning 
writer, Iwwever injudicious. Most willingly would we ob- 
serve this maxim in the case of Lord Shetiield, to whom we 
give credit for the best intentions ; but, as we advance in the 
perusal of his tract, we find the tendency of his doctrines so 
prejudicial to the fundamental interests of his country, and 
his statements of facts so extremely erroneous, that we feel 
ourselves required to enter our protest against them in the most 
decisive tone. Let t^iose who deem our censure too severe 
compare the following reference to autliorities, and say what 
judgment they would themselves award. 

In treating of our colonial interests, his Lordship says (p% 
32.) ; * In fact the West India Islands have never been better 
supplied than they were during the last year, under the ope- 
ration of the American Embargo. The prices current evince 
that little or no inconvenience was experienced by them in 
consequence of that measure.' Here are two positive as- 
sertions; the one regarding quantity, — the other, price. First 
as to quantity: — ^had Lord Sheffield looked into the offidal 
returns, he would have seen cause for a very different decla- 
ration. These returns enable us to make a comparison of 
factual quantities between the last and preceding years. If we 
take for example the article of flour, we find imported into, 
Jamaica in the year before the Embargo, (nan^ely, from 30th 
September 1806, to 30th September 1807,) not fewer than 
id6,ooo bairels ; and in the succeeding year, under the ope- 
ration of the Embargo, only 49,000. Again, if we take the 
in^ortant arricle of staves, we find . that in the year before 
the Embargo, Jamaica received nine millions of staves, and 
in the year during which it operated, little more than three 
millions. A similar disproportion has taken place in regard • 
to other articles, with the exception of fish, the quantity of 
which is kept up by a bounty.— So much for his Lordship*s 
accuracy in the statement of quantities. Next, as to prices. 
The Jamaica lists for January last shew that red oak staves 
had been raised from 30!. currency, per thousand, fthe ordinary 
rate before the Embargo,) to 45 and 50I. ; flour trom 4 or 51. 
per barrel, to 9I. ; and >wiiite oak staves from 35 to 8oh Suoh 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

it the ciMidkion oF i market, Ui whkh the aufhpr $t^te^ w^h 
perfect confidence ^t little or no iocpnTen^^c^ was expe* 
«^ nenced i and such are t^c lo»^ to which the sugar planters 
will be exposed, if goremment adopt the -narrow policy 
of discouraging the .admiseion of starts from the United 
States I . 5 , 

Lord Shefl&eld seems to have been as imperfectly informed 
in regard to the views of his- ministerial friends as in other re-. 
apects. His pamphlet had scarcely issued froin the me^ 
when the Orders in Council were rescinded ; yet an evidept 
conviction prevailed in his Lordship's mind at the time of 
Vriting it, that these orders wfere intended- as a peym^nent 
measure during the war. Observe from the following sen^ 
tence (p. 2.) the self-complacency with which he views the opi-. 
nion of hiiinself und his friends, and the mixture of pity, ai^ 
surprize which he feels towards those who stjjl called in qvies^ 
tion the wisdom of these Orders : 

* That men should differ in probable rcsuIts^ 19 not Extraordinary ^ 
but that they should persbt in endeayours to uphold doctrines, witl^ 
whatever views they were first embraced — that they should coniiouc 
to hazard their credit as statesmen and politician8, a^ter it has bcea 
msceriasned by empertenee and incontesttbU prsof, that those doctrines ar^ 
trtomous, appears utterly incomprehensible.' 

The noble author exerts himself strenuously to depreciatet 
our commerce with the United States. He says, (p. 13.) 

< The apparent balance in our favour becomes nearly a non-entity, 
A trade with every country is certainly desirable ; inasmuch as an 
extensively general commerce with the world secures us from a state 
of dependance on any one individual nation. But ^hat advantages 
do we derive from an exportation, if we, are not paid for it ? Which, 
most assuredly, is much more frequently the case, in the course of 
our trade with the citizens of the American States, than with any 
4>ther country.* 

We agree that much greater imcertainty prevails in regard 
to payments from Ainerica, or from any underrStocked coun« 
try, than from a country like Holland, in which the interest 
01 jmopey is low, and the debtor has no temptaticHi to retain 
the funds of his creditor : — but the consequencj? is that, to 
cover this risk, the profits both of our manufacturers apd our 
exporters are much larger. The London merchant, who will 
execute an order for the continent of Europe at a commission 
of two per cent, will not ship to America for less than 
His Lordship may be perfectly satisfied that, were the An>eri- 
can business so losing a concern as he describes it^ our ex- 
porters^ for their own sake, would ^speedily discontinue it; No 


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hbfi SlkcKxHi ok the Ordtfs in CWfeU., )| 

titmbt^ Indeed more money is made by tm^jtt profitt^Ad prompt 
pa jnneift^ ihzn by large profits with long credks ; andy Imi 
hk Lordship cpnfi|ted him$el|' to this comparative esdmate^ ht 
^uM hare been wcfcome to oor assent : — but be is not m 
the habit of qualifying his censures ; and he despises the mo^ 
diiicatidns by iyfaich a ^lore cautious reasoner would temper hit 
^BOncJusions. . . . , 

One of the^incipal objects of this pamphlet, as our readers 
fjiay have already observed, is to recommend that our West 
India Colonies should be forced to take all their supplies of 
-Stores from this country, or British North America, to the 
exclusion of the United States. Accordingly, the author 
descants largely (p. 36.) on the resources and capabilities of 
iDiir North American provinces ; and, like other politicians of 
similar proficiency, he thinks that to confine our purchases 
within ourselves is the quickest way of amassing riches* 
Were they, however, to study the operation of capkal, and 
the genuine sources of the increase of wealth, they would 
jdisGover .that it is injurious to ourselves to give a forced acce- 
leration to the jprogress of any particular branch of trade j that 
the only sound policy for a country, which desires to trade 
widi the rest of ^ the world, is to buy wherever she can buy 
cheapen ; and that this unrestrained freedom will be found 
the most powerful of agents in promoting die rapjd increase 
pf her wealth. It is evidently detrimental to our sugar-colo- 
nites to ^e compelled to buy those stores from Canada, vvindti 
'^ey can obtain cheaper from the United States. It is detri- 
mental also to ourselves ; because, ,by retarding Ae augmen- 
tation of West India capital, it lessens their capacity of addiftg 
to the general we^hii of the empire, and of bearing a part of 
'ptir cowjmonbtirdens. In the long run, also, it would be detri- 
Tnental to otir North American colonies themselves, because 
it would give them a false and premature growth 5 which, 
niOiWfeyer flattering in appearance, will infaHibly make -die 
ultimate power and riches of a country less than they would 
We been if thitigs wfere left to their natural course. A 
'gfiadti^l and steady progress is to individuals the surest source 
bi comfort and fortune, and to liations the broadest foundation 
rf ]5oJitfcal strength. 

Jjord S. concludes (p. 45.) by raying that, in regard -to Grefet 
Britain and the United States, a treaty of commerce is mu- 
tuaUy unnecessary. In the particular application which he 
wishes to make of the want of a treaty> namely the ptevention 
of intercourse between our West India colonies and die United 
$tates, we have already said that we can by no means concur : 
-kflt to the expression, in % gener^d sense, we have no objec- 

' jii^fcti- tion. 

76 Lord Sheffield on the Orders in Councils 

tidn. By a general sense, we mean that either Britain and Ame- 
rica, or any other countries, may trade perfectly well together 
without any treaty of commerce. These treaties -are often 
framed for the purpose' of giving effect to speculatire notions 
of benefit arising from the encouragement of one branch of 
trade in preference to another j and taxes have been often im- 
posed more with a view to such regulations, than to their pro- 
ductive power, in the way of revenue. The effect of such 
Interferences is to give an involuntary direction to individual 
industry, or, in other words, to controul and thwart itj as 
well *a8 to lessen the progressive accumulj^tion of capital, by 
wich-holding it from several of the channels in which private 
ingenuity and enterprize would have embarked it. It follows, 
therefore, that the exchange of commodities, as well as the 
whole course of traffic, should be left to the choice of indi- 
viduals, and that government*regulation$ should, be imposed 
only with a view to revenue. 

In taking leave of Lord Sheffield, we repeat with ^pleasure 
our conviction that his motives are not only pure but patrio- 
tic J his style also is good \ and his acquaintance with local 
and particular circumstances is very considerable : but he 
ia extremely deficient in accuracy of statement, and in know* 
lege of general principles. 

With respect to the (Orders in Council, we regard it ^% 
unnecessary now to enter into any discussion of their expe- 
diency as a measure of policy. We early expressed our regret 
at their enactment, and their abrogation is the best proof that 
our disscQt was not unfounded : but we have no desire to 
take credit for foresight, on our own part, or to tax those who 
differed from us with inconsistency, ' Ministers have done 
right at last in rescinding them ; and those, whose principal 
object is the public good, will rejoice at the benefit likely to 
result frorii cancelling these extraordinary decrees, without 
expatiating on the bad judgment which suggested them. En- 
deavouring therefore to forget the past, let us be contented 
with deprecating j(ny recurrence to similar measures 5 and 
with explaining the hazard of placing any dependence, in^ 
questions of commerce, on the advice of such erring coun- 
tellors as the noble auliior o£ the present tract. 


y Google. 


, ( 77 ) 

Art. XI.. An Anern^ to tlud^t the pemichut Omteqnences ^n 
Deviation from the Principks of the Orders in Comuii. 8yo. pp. 76. 
28. 6d. Tipper. 1809. 

IE revocation of the Orders In Council renders it unneces- 
sary now to enter into any inquiry in regard to their poli- 
tical operation, and \ee find nothing in this pamphlet that merits 
notice at length. Indeed, the only striking circumstance sug- 
gested to us by a perusal of it is the contradiction in the views 
of the advocates of these Orders. The United States are 
the great object of Lord Sheffield's • dislike, while the present 
author argues for giving free scope to American traffic, but 
maintains vehemently the impolicy of continuing to import 
the commodities of our continental opponents. 
. Were this writer to publish a tract on any mercantile 
object with which he is conversant, and to confine himself 
to a plain statement of circumstances within his knowle^, 
his production might be serviceable, since he is by no means 
deficient in an acquaintance with facts : but his mind is in 
a most unfit state for a train of reasoning. It is a mere taiuh 
rasa in regard to political economy 5 and in respect to 
taxation, he falls (page 34.) into the common error of suppos- 
ing that the duty, paid on any particular commodity, is yielded 
by tliat commodity, and dependent for Its duration on the. 
contmued use of die article in question : without perceiving 
that it is taken out of the pocket of the consumer, and that, 
were die article disused, it would be no difficult matter to 
levy a correspondent duty from the same persons in a different 
shape. In regard to politics, we can scarcely judge more 
favourably of the author's penetration, when he tells us 
(page 51.) that to prevent the Dutch from shipping goods to 
this country would be an effectual way to stimulate tliem to 
resist the French. Bonaparte does not hold his dependent 
states by such silken cords. 

We present our readers with two extracts, both of which 
are calculated to shew the unfavourable admissions which tlie 
advocates of these orders are compelled to make. Much ha$ 
been said of the amount of our goods which continue to find 
their way . to the Continent, notwithstanding Bonaparte's 
regulations : but the present writer acknowleges (page 9.) that 

'* From the total amount of these exports must be deducted the 
freights out, which go into the pockets of the continental ship- 
owners, a share for captures at sea, seizures in port, confiscattbn at 
landing, and all the risks attending the goods every mile they proceed 
into the interior ; what remains is barely sufficient to cover the first 
cost in the British market. Some persons are m isled by the high 
pncci of British goods on the Continent : tbe^|j^||||2^ct that 


7? Attempt to elucidate jH^e Orders rn Counctt. 

liiote fnctt ^ not come into our pocketc^ tfasit the goods muat ^ 
•amg^lcd jot that all tb* itcm« stated are ao many deductions froi» 
the said high prices, and that the residue is totaify inadequate t^ the 
j>ayment of the many jderaands upon us from the Continent. 

* Besides, the exportations from hence must be expected to dinji- 
nish every year as iong as affair* coqtii\ue in their present ttaste ; and 
at present we have no reason to hope ior any relaxation in the mcai 
auresof o«ti- foe. The consumpiintn of every J^itish article dicntfHsiiief 
perceptibly, and their high prices pirt them bcgrojid the reach of 
die flitkidling and lower classes, w^o substiruce other things ; but 
where that is impossible, do without thejp altoge^tlvcr. In Holland:, 
l<»r instance, native tobacco, which two years aeo w^s detested even 
hy the lowest rabble, is now generally used. For coffee, necessity 
has substituted roasted xjt, horse-beans, and eeveral sorts of driea 
and prepared roots. Indigo is almost entirely in disuse ; in Saxony 
and other parts of Germany, where blue cloth, was formerly much 
worn, they have laid the practice of dyin^ tfiis colour total! jaside.' 

latbe next passage, {page 70.) the author, treating of thp^ 
American trade with the continent, expresses an opft^on 
iFery diffesent from xhose of other ^pologisi;;$ for the Qrders iu 

* A somewhat intimate acquaintance with several foreign nationa 
and their habits emboldens me to hazard ad opinion that to force th^ 
Contiiient by preventing imports, n .ii% chimerical as fpr Boniparte tP 
•attempt to overcome us by preventing exports. The distresses occa<* 
•loned by the deprivation of so many articles of luxury and necessity* 
are undoubtedly great ; but then the continental nations also keep 
their money in their pockets, which they otherwise would have had 
to pay for them, and this considerably softens the evil. We do not 
perceive that any good can result from preventing theintrpductipn ok 
tobacco, rice, staves, jwheat, <flour, ikc, into continental 'Europe ; 
on the contrary, the remittances for these articles would be essential^, 
beneficial to the exchange, and would rcdiice the^riccs df the rayr 
^materials which we procure from the Continent* This is so interest 
hig a consideration, that we anxiously hope to see .another es^y from 
the able pen ^of' Mr. A.. Baring px of some other writer, master jof tKe 
subject, elucidating minutely the effects of the measures of i Hh No-» 
Tember. We cannot help thinking . that a truly conciliating tiMe 
would be met by Ametica with gratitude, and woald not lessen, our 
dignity and consequence, either with them..or.MUth the wotid: x\^ 
Americans have doubtless been muchtniscepretcfited in thi^ountrj/ 

Ih any future puhlications^ this author wijl do w^U to avoid 
$uch vulgar illustrations as occur in page '^9^ j •nd-to-auper- " 
intend the printing, which in the present case .is the jnoit 
fifty;<;Mrate, tJUt weBave ^seeo, for a ,^{>o«idpnib^ time* 



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{ 79 ) - 

Art X^r. jf TrcaVse en Tthgraphk - Commumcathm by Day and 
Nigfji, tomaval, it!rf!t&r\r, and oomtnenial Purpowet On ncMr 
Pnncfples:) Ilh)?<M*^d with Engtuvhtjrs ai^l cciourcd Fli^; by 
^Wich krt ttefr\\>Utii^ ihc difF<;rcnt Methods of woH^iogr by regdhur 
afld €ompo\i!id Nu^herA, Also is added a numerical inflected jpic* 
donavy of the Etigiish Language, calculated for Coamiuaication 
on any Subject, and adapted to any numerical Code. By Josepk 
Con oily. Crown 8vo'. J5 s. Boards. Wiachesttr and Soiu 

MB., ConoHy ihforitis us that his principal object, in of- 
ferhig this . treatise to the pablic, is to comprise' ia 
one the different naval codes of signals that are now in use | 
to disencutttber the quarter-deck or poop of colour-chests % 
iHjid to introduce into telegraphing and signalling more econo* 
!ny, simplicity, scope, and certainty than are to be found intt© 
plans hitherto Proposed. He allows that his language has l^si 
tnruditioa than -mat of others, but asserts that it isljetter cakcikte^ 
for tronveying instruction to the generality of sitch men as 
faye chosen the honourable profession of a soldier or a sailor, 
and are desirous of qualifying themsehres in every requisite 
for serving -flieir country either at h6me or abroad. He then 
proceeds directly to hi^ subject, without attempting to describe 
the different degrees of improvement in which the art of 
•making c^miiriunications by means of sign^ds existed at difi- 
fetent times, to ascertain their origin, or to trace the use of 
-diem, as some writers have endeavoured to do, even ];>ack to 
Noah's dove. 

We cannot, however, help observing that neither the 
methods proposed by him and by othqr writers of the pre- 
sent (lay, nor that which is practised by the Admiralty, arp 
nearly so simple and so little liable to error as that which 
Peiybiu« describes as exisring among the antients. Thtt 
system attempted no unionv or combination of the numerical 
. '#ith die alphabetical method ; whereas in that which. is used 
by the Admiralty, these two methods are blended together: 
a circumstance that destroys the simplicity of telegraphing, 
and must infallibly on some occasions give rise to confusion 
iwrd mistakes. At the ^ame time, we must, in justice to Mr« 
Conolly,. allow that his plans appear to us to be more simple, 
and more distinct, than those which we feave seen proposed 
by modern writers. 

M^\ G. first gives wlwtt he calls a Naval Code withr a numeric 
cal flag-table; consisting of eix flags and two pendants ; then 
a portable military and commercial telegraph, with a descrip- 
tion of it and of the. mode of placing it, together with an alphabe- 
tical table, and a table for numerical digna!sj^|^n|^|ingular 


9o ConoIIy^x Treatise oftTeUgraphic Commumcatipnym 

telegrapb-house for night and. day^ with a description j iheit 
;iumerical and alphabetical house-signals; then telegraph 
touae-pendants ; next a night telegiTaph with a night tele- 
graph-table ; then a numerical and alphabetical fixed tele- 
graph, with an alphabetical table ) then a portable night-tele- 
graph with a portable night-alphabet ; next a few observa- 
tions on ships' night-signals ; and lastly a numerical inflected 

For his naval code, the author makes use of six flags, and 
two pendants, one red and the other white. The two sides 
of the first flag represent i and 2 ; those of the second, 
3 and 4 ; those of the third, 5 and 6 ; those of the fourth,. 
7 and 8 ; those of the fifth, 9 and o ; and those of the sixth, 
when combined with others, the substitute and extra-substi- 
tutq. When the sides of this last flag are used by them- 
jelves, without any other flag or flags, they denote Interro^ 
gativem^ Affirmative ; and the side of the fifth .flag, which 
represents o, or the cypher, when used by itself denotes Nega-- 
five. This, widi the substitute and extra-substitute, he calls 
the three auxiliary flags in their combinations with otihers. 

The following are his directions relative to the flags and 
pendants : ... 

« Contrast six flagt and two pendants according to fancy, in such 
manner, that one fkg or pendant cannot be mistaken for another, 
and be careful that such flags are so contrasted that they ipay be 9a 
readily distinguished in black and white, as if t^hey were contrasted 
for near inspection, by red; blue, green, or yellow. 

* The above recommendation is. given from expcnmental proof, that 
colour cannot be distinguished at a distance of four leagues. 

' * The flags should be^six feet by nine, and the pendants three feet 
hj eighteen, verging from the base of three feet to a point. 

* It wilT be necessary to place fcight sheaves in each top-gallant or 
flagstaff truck, that the halyard of each flag and pendant may be 8c« 
parately rove and bent to the toggles of each flag and pendant. 

* The halyards will not reach below the Tops, where the signals 
* ttiay be at all times ready bent, for hoisting to that mast head, which 

can be best seen. 

* The signals are contained in a painted cartvas bag, which may be 
readily closed or opened, to hoist out a signal from the other flags. 

* The topmen will take care to hoist the flags at proper dis- 
tances from each other, which may be averaged at half a fathom. 

* In blowing weather, when the voice cannot be heard from deck 
m the top V the signal of&cer will be furnished 'with seven 8(|uare 
boards or pieces of canvas, with • the numbers from i to 9 pamted 

' white on a black ground : if No. i, its opposite side will exhibit 
No. 1, and so on to S, or substitute ; Ex, or extra substitu^J R* 
^ %t red pendant j W, or white pendant.* 

^, Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Cbnolly*/ Treatise on Telegraphic Communicatiofts. 8t 

t'oT this code, Mr. C. makes a division of numbers which 
%re cannot but totally disapprove; since he divides them into 
regular and compound numbers, departing entirely from' th6 
just, correct, and generally received notion of CQmpound or 
composite number. A deviation from Approved and legitimate 
definitions ought never to be lightly, attempted, since it must 
always iend to create confusion and error ; and the present 
case offers no necessity for it. He calls those regular numbers^ 
that ' require no assistance in their composition from the 
auxiliary flags ;' and those compound numbers, * which are formed 
by the three auxiliary flags, viz. the cipher, substitute, , and 
eitra-substitute/ He had much better have made' his division 
in numbers that can be expressed according to this code 
without the auxiliary flags, and into those which cannot, than 
hare endeavoured to give a notion of compound numbers totally 
different from the true and universally received idea. 

A number consisting of two or three digits, or of two 
digits and the cipher, is expressed by placing the flags denot- 
ing those digits, or those digits and the cipher, in order under 
one another. 

The substitute flag, placed under that which represents 
any one of the nine digits, repeats that digit, or gives it in 
the place of tens as well as units. Thus die substitute flkg 
placed under those representing i, 2, 3, 4, &c. denotes 11, 
22, 33, 44, &c. respectively. ^ 

As Mr. C. supposes each numeral flag to express by meani 
' of its two sides two digits or numbers, he makes the substitute 
flag, placed over the side representing the first of these, 
repeat it with one added in the place of units ; and, over the 
side representing the second of diese numbers, repeat it with 
one less in the place of units. Thus the substitute placed 
oveT the flag No. i. with its side presented which ♦means i, 
denotes 12, or 11 + i 5 and, over it with the side presented 
which expresses 2, it denotes 21, or 22 — 1 ; and so on. • 

The flag representing the cipher, or o, placed over 01^ 
'above that which represents any digit, denotes a number 
composed of that digit both in the place of units and in that 
of hundreds, with o in the place of tens ; as for instance 
>oi, 202, 303, &c. respectively, if the cipher-flag be placed 
ovet the numeral flags representing 1, 2, 3, &c. 

The extra-ftubstitttte flag placed above the cipher, and botli 
abQve a numeral flag, denote a number with o in the plade o( 
tens; the digit represented by 'the side of the numeral fi^g * 
which is exhibited, in the. place of hundreds, and the digit 
represented by its pth^r sid^ in the place of units* Thus if 
Ewt^Mat, x8op. ' G ' they' 


•S^ - CortoUyV Treatise on Telegraphic ComtnunicattofiS. . 

they be placed orer flag No. 2. with the side presented that 
nieans 3, (and the other side denoting 4 of course out of 
view,) they denote 304 : but if over that flag virith the side 
exhibited tliat repfesents 4, they denote 403. ' ^ ^ 

^ The extra-substitute placed- under any. numeral flag repeats 
the digit represented ^by that flag twice, of gives a number 
consisting of that digit in the three places of units, tens, and 

The extra-substitute placed over a numeral flag denotes a 
number which has the digit represented by the side of that 
flag which is exhibited to view, in the places of tens and 
hundreds ; with the digit represented by its other side, that i^ 
out of view, in the place of units. Thus^ placed over flag 
' No. 2. with the side exhibited that represents 3, . it denotes 
334 : but, placed over it with the side exhibited whidi re-^ 
presents 4, it denotes 443. 

Any number consisting of three figures, with the digit re- 
pfesiented by one side of a numeral flag in the place both of 
units. and hundreds, and the digit represented by its other side 
in ^he place of tens, is denoted by placing the substitute over 
the cipher, and both over the numeral fl^ag. 

The cipher placed above the substitute, and both over a 
numeral flag, denote a number consisting of three figij^es, that 
has the digit represented by the side exhibited in the place of 
hundreds, and the digit represented by its other side in the 
place both of tens and units! 

The cipher placeil over two numeral flags indicates, that the 
digit, represented by tho uppeimost .of these flags, is to be 
both in die place of hundreds and in that of units, with the 
digit represented by the lowertnost, in the place of tens. 

The extra-substitute placed over two numeral flags denotes 
a number, which has the digit represented by the side of the 
uppermost flag that is exhibited, in the place of hundreds ; 
and the digit represented by its other side in the place of 
Mnits, with that which is expressed by the lowermost flag in 
tibeplace of tens^ 

The extra-substitute placed under two numeral flags dehptcs 
-a number, which has the digit represented by the uppermost 
of these flags in the place of hundreds 5 that which i$ expres- 
sed by the exhibited side of the lowermost of these two 
numeral flags, in the place of tensj and thatwhidx is repre»/ 
sented by its other side, in the place of units. 

We have been the more particular in our .elucidation tf 
these combinations, because much obscurity arid an inaccwracy 
of /diction prevail in Mr. Conolly's exemplific?itions mi il- 


' - X^ojQollyV Treatise on Telegmphtc Coinnmnlcations* Sj 

lustrations of rfiem. . We observe also some mistakes in what 
he calls his table of compound numbers \ and he improperly 
gives to o the appellation of the tenth cipher.^^'Vfe shall quote 
his own description of the use of pendants, of alphabetical 
signals, of the manner of hoisting and lowering signals, and w 
auriliary signals : ~ 

' Of the Use of Pendants. 

* On the Six flag prii>ciple two pendants are sufficient to add IO>COO 
to the flag numbers, which reach numerically to 990 : it is the highest 
pumber that can oe exhibited by three flags ; and ror this plain rea* 
son, we kn^w no figure of more numerical value thin the cipher ^» 

* The first pendant is Red. 

* The second pendant i«' White. 

* The Red pendant placed above any number^ or numbers, adds 
looo to such dumber or numbers; as, over No. x, looi ; — 9, 10^ ; 

< The Red pendant placed below any number or numbers adSs 20OO 
to such nnmber or numbers. 

* The White pendant placed above any number oV numbers, adds 
3000 to such number pr numbers. 

' The White pendant placed below any number or numbers^ adds 
4000 to such number or numbers. * 

' The Red pendant placed immediately abov^ the White pendant, 
and both above any number or Humbers» adds 5000 to such number 
. or numbers. - . . , 

* The Red pendant placed . below any number or numbers, the 
White pendant being under the Red, adds 6000 to such number or 

* The White pendant placed above ^hc Red pendant, and both 
over any number or numbers^ adds 7000 to such number or nuoa* 

' The White pendant next to, and below any number or num* 
beri, the Red pendant being under, adds 800 3 to such number pc 

^ The Red pendant placed above any number or numbers, and 
the White pendant below the same number or numbers, at the same 
time, adds 9000 to such number or numbers.' 

* The White pendant above any nuniberor numbeis, and the Red 
below the same number or numbers^ adds 10,000 to sa(^ nunober or 
Bunnbers; consequently the fiagnaoib^r 999 added to ip«oOQ^ 
amouac 1010,999. 

^* Ou Alphabetical Sigvals. 

* TajLe the ngmhers from lo to 34, and plsce the Rc4 paidant^ 
between the two fl^igSr which 4e«ote any of those numbers, Thf 
numbers wiU tbeas^ify ia rotation the letters of the Alphabet^ 9$ 


84 ConollyV Tmftise on Tekgraphit Communlcatums. 



























U , 






I ■' 



. '9 





' L 





^ On hoisting and towsRiNd $tcnals. 
« WKcn both ends of the halyard are bent to the toggles of a flag, 
it furnishes in itself, both halyard and downhdiil to the flag. If you 
hoist on one part of the halyard, and exhibit No i> by hauling 
down, and hoisting on^the ojiposite part, you will exhibit Nd. 2 ; in 
like manner the other flags are reversed or capsised. 

* If any one flag is to he capsised for -a following number, haul 
down of all, and hoist it, in the proper position with the other fl&gs. 

' It the flags which are up, will answer for the following signal, 
without any flag being capsised, the transposition is performed ac- 
cording to the second rule of regular numbers. ^ 

^ The signals are hoisted by one or five halyards in the hand at jonc 
time, which require less force than three flags on one halyard. 

* When your signal is answered, haul down the signal to acknow- 
ledge the same, or dip the signalis in the act of transposition^ which 
will answer the same purpose. 

« On AuxiLiAiiY Signals. _^ , 
' The indefinite article A , ia cfignified by the Red pendant singly, 

* The definite article The, \% signified by the White pendant 

< The pronoun I, is signified by the Red pendant over the Wiite. 

* The first person plural, or We, is denoted by the White pendant 
ovierthe Red. 

* The singular pronouns of the » third person are denoted as foU 
lows : 

^ He— The Red pendant over the cipher. 
, * SHE~The Red peridant under the dpher. 
*.It — The White pendant over the cipher. 

* The conjunction And is signified by placing the White pendant 
upder the cipher, 

' •Your — Thfe Red pendant cv^r the substitute. 
' His-^Thc Red pendant below the substitute. 

* Him — Th% White pendant above the sobstitntc. 

*, Her— The White pendant below the substitute. ' - 

* That — The Red pendant over the ex- substitute. 

* Mt— The Red pendant undei the ex-substitute. 

' Their 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Coiioiiys Treaikeln Telegraphic Communications. 85 

* Their — The White pendant over the ex-substitutc. 

* Our— 'The White pendant under the ex-substitute. * » 

' The pronominal adjectives. One, None, Some, This, That, 
Any, Other, may be denoted by the remaining changes of the auxi- 
lianes, viz. 

' I St. The Red pendant over the White pendant, and both over 
the cipher, is an additional change or signal. 

* 2d. When placed under the cipher. 

' 5d, When the White pendant is over the I^ed pendant, and both 
over the cipher. 

' 4th. The White pendant over the Red, and both below the ci- 

* 5th. The Red pendant above, and the White pendant below the 

* 6th: The White pendant above, and the p.ed pendant below the 

* The same addition can be made, with the substitute 6, and with 
the ex-substitute 6. Total, 34 changes. 

' * The tv^o flags, cipher and substitute together, with the pendants* 
add 4o'change8,on the same pnnciple. 

* The auxiliary numbers are left. open for concerted words, which 
will be arranged according to circumstances. 

* The Dictionary will furnish any current word ; therefor^ the ex- 
amples of matter may be expunged, and the numbers applied in a dif- 
ferent manner^ by taking the first ten changes for a Numerical table, 
to denote the ship numbers, and the remaining twenty-four ntimbers, 
for alphabetical signals. ^This plan, in my opinion, is preferable to the 
former ; but choice is left open.* 

We are sorry to be under the necessity of remarking that 
this code, though, ingenious, appears to us to want simplicity ; 
and that, therefore those who use it may not always steer 
clear of error and confusion. Mr. C.'s portable military and 
commercial telegraph is the part of his performance which we 

S refer. It appears to have been tried from jShpoter's hill to ^ 
Jew Cross telegraph, before a comnwttee of General and 
Field Officers, who allowed that it possessed the great advant- 
ages of portability and simplicity in its operations. For a 
description of it, of the portable signals employed in working 
it, and the placing of it, &c. we must refer to the volume, and 
content ourselves with inserting a few general remarks of the 
author respecting it : 

^ The signals may be worked without being perceived by an ene- 
my, as they are equally distinguished against a hill ; the officer may 
look out above, and give directions to the telegraphic party below 
him on the hither side of the hill. 

* In case of invasion^ the volunteer associations may cbmmuoicate 
ip any direction through the United Kingdom^ where the present 
£f ed telegraph cannot operate. 

G i ' Asiogle 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

%6 CoilolIy*jr Treatise on Tekgrapmc- Communkatiom, 

* A single tclcgrapti is sufficient, but it is recbmmended, that tlirc c 
^replaced in line ; the Syllable will then be given at once. 

^ At fixed stations a sufficient number of these telegraphs may be 
j>laced that the word ftiay be giyen at once, which ho other tele- 
graphs will admit of. ^ . . 

* Through single intervals, one telegraph can communicate with 
great celerity, by l^ooking on the three flags, or a syllable at a time. 

* Suppose the word ARM. — M is placed under R, and A over R. 
Wbeii hoisted together, the letter A will be acknowledged first. 

- When answered,' dip the signals, to acknowledge the same, and ufi* 
Jiobk the two upper rings of A ; then hoist the other flags which re- 
Ih^ln in the .'hook?| <^nd follow the same rule, hoisting the pendant 
With the kst letter of the word. ^ 

* The flags are tak/en off as they are answered, and arranged for 
the rtext syllable of the word, or following wprd. ' 

* As'an alphabetical flag differ^ on its sides, the opposite of the 
iymbol A> being in the same positioi), black on a white ground, de- 

; £, it will be a satisfactory ahswier, jvvhen you desire the letter 
b^ passed along the line, to see the letter E ex 

A fo D^ passed along the line, to see the letter % exhibited to you: 
jtblE bact of your signal will convince you in 3n instant, that it is the 
$dme figure before and behind with thf opposite signal. 

* At single intervals, such as across lakes and rivers, from house ^ 
to hous? : or from the Platforin at Portsmouth to the pep6t in the 
Isle of Wight, direct^ without an ip teryening ship to repeat the 
signals, this telegraph may be used to great civil and military ad* 

* In ^n enemy *8 country, the signals can be ijiade from military 
cloathing, and the machine furnished by serjeant'^B pikes, or poles,, 
irxth two small blocks sefzed on -the arms. 

* Whei> thjc complete jjpparat^is is. made by 
w31 cost the public' about two poupd§. If /made in India, five $hiU 

liogs. '; .■ '^ \ ' ^ , ' ^ 

* In a commercial point of view, this telegraph can be used to im- " 
mediate advantage over the river Mersey, and at particular points, 
li*om the mouth of the Thames to London (dr by perraissioir) from 
London to Birmingham. 

* When a number is exhibited by any telegraph herein described, it 
trIU signify a reference Xo the word, exactly opposite the same num* 
l)^r> in the inflected dictionary. 

•* Shoula the word be ^ verb, tl>at inflexion will bi? selected fron^ 
the li^e, to agree in nmnber, person, tense, and mood, with the 
former part of the sentence. 

* Any other flexible part of speech, the inflection will be selected to 
accord graiimatically with the sentence. ^ . » 

f It IS believed that the following dictionary will furnish a pleasing 
tnd profitable amusement to the young officer, when at anchor, or ia 
taking surveys of the coast ; while he is exercising himself in makings 
and answering signals, he will be acquiring a grammatical knowledge 
joi his own langirage^ 

* dcnerals or Admirals who command expeditions, can t|se the- 
^jutfiblji telegraph to great adv^n^e by communicating in the^most 

■'- ^_ ^u|pprehcn8i|c 

^ Digitized by VjOOV IV:: 

•MUner on vulgar Opinions of the Irish Catholics. i^ 

fQmprehenwvc manner, direct to the shore, or from the shore to the 
shipping, without the assi^Unce of boats. 

* The apparatus can be erected in two minutes, and struck in half 
a miiHitt. 

' In an engagement on shore, orders can be issued to any extent 
of the Hnc, without delay, or fatigue of hordes. 

* A tfag seven feet square, is «ufficieat to communicate through an 
interval of twelve miles. . 

* The stated distance, and size of the flag, have bjccb determined 
/through the six guinea contract telescopes* 

< When the interval is greater, ih^ flag can be cnlaiyed to answer 
the diit^rfcc. It is now proving from Guernsey to jersey, by the 
officer who wrote the official report to bis His Royal Highness th« 
Commander in Chief, on the proof given at Plymouth before the 
Admirals and Committee. 

* The signals will not clash with any other estabKihed signals. 

* They arc equally distinguished on the le^l ; on the sidf of t 
bill ; or on its FuVnmit ; and more discernable in any situation thart 
flying signals, as they are fully displayed tu any wind to the intended 
point, and parallel to the opposite station. 

« When flying signals are blown in the line of communication (or 
edge, on J the^flag^ are nearly invisible, and verge to proportionate 
obscurity, as they are blown from a parallel direction. 

* The principle has been repeatedly proved at home, qnd has an^ 
swered every statement in this treatise : 'nothing but its g^est sim. 
plicity, and economy, can consign it over to contempt and obliviop.' 

Mr.Conol!y'sinflecteddictionaryistolerablycopious> containing 
words expressed numerically as far as the numberi0935, and one 
number frequently expresses ^ot onlv the mflections of a verb, 
but also other words connected with it. For instance, op- 
posite to die number 1273 stands * Charm-r-fd^jng-er^tng/y/ 
to shew that charm^ charms^ charmed^ charming^ charmer^ 
charmingly^ are all denoted by the same letter j and scarcely 
any confusion or ambiguity can be thus occasioned, because 
the context readily proves what inflection or word is in- 
tended. We cannot but think, however, that, a numerical 
dictionary composed of entire sentences would be greatly- 
preferable, and would render telegraphing n^uch more ^xpedi- 
tious than it is at present^ 

Ait. XIII. An Inquiry into certain vulgar Opinions cpncerning tie 

. Catholic Inhabitants and th$ Antiquities of Ireland. In a iSeries of 

Letters from thence addressed^ to a Protestant (ientleman in 

England. By the Reverend T. Mjlner, D. D. f.S. A. &c, 8vo* 

PP* 277. 5s. Boards. Bobker. 1808. 

THE respectable size of this volume, the variety of Its con*, 
(en^i and its confident tone, would ha^^^iBB^^us to 

&8 Milner on vulgar Opinions eftbe Irish Ciftholich 

regard it as the result of at least six months' peregrin^ofl, had 
not the author chronologically marked the steps of his flying 
visit. This ill judged ingenuousness, however, (perhaps the 
only instance of it with which the work is chargeable,) |)rej? 
Vented that ilWsion without which no reflecting person would 

S)lace any reliance on these lucubrations. T^e Writer's 
etter, on his landing in Ireland, bears date the twenty-seventh 
of June 1^07 ; and his farewell epistJe, which he dispatches 
at the moment of his embarkation for Englan<i, is dated o» 
^e twelfth of August of the same year : so that the volume is- 
an account of a si^ weeks* tour, while it affects to impart a 
ihass of information which a person who was jealous of his 
credit and fnme would scarcely undertake to accuryiu- « 
- late in as many months. A reader can hardly refrain frpm 
suspecting that the materials of these letters liad been deter- 
inined, and, in a d^^ree, digested before the ^xc^x Apostolic'i; 
fi'eparture ; and that the visit to Ireland 'was only made ia 
order to warrant an imposing title page. The order to which^ 
we have been informed, the right reverend Letter^writer be- 
iirigs, has allowed of freedoms being taken with facts 5 ^nd that 
the author does not regard this indulgence of his order as 
useless, the letters before us, as well as his conduct to some 
of our eminent statesmen, and his subsequent expUnation of 
that conduct, leave us not much room to entertain a doubt.— 
We hope that the Protestant Gentleman^ to whom these 
epistles are addressed, is abundantly distinguished by liberality 
and' forbearance' J since the catholic prelate has put diesd 
qualities ifuUy to the trial,* by unsparingly dealing out reflections 
"w^hich must offend and disgust the most cgndid persons whg 
valiie protestantism. 

If perfect confidence can be placed in the right reverend 
tourist, the Irish poof are mope moral arid religions than our 
Qwn 5 the catholic priests have the advantage in profes- 
sional qualifications over our parocliial clergy j and th^ 
prelates of the same comn)ui|ioa shame the protestant bishops, 
and emulate the.antient fathers of the church. We should feel 
truly happy if the dignified author had better vouchers for ^se 
bold assertions, than he was able ^o furnish,^ and could prov^ . 
the readiness of the Irish catholic prelates to submit the appbint- 
'ment of theii* successors to a royal veto. As to his intercourse 
with the peasants, it appears to have been limited to casual con- 
versations which he held with them, while humanely walking 
up the hills which intervened in ^he course of his tour, in 
order to ease the horses by which his chaise was drawn. We 
also fear t}>at the attention which he paid to the dignities of his 
pmmuaioQ'aUow^dlum little time for appreciating the merits 

- ■ . ef 

■ ,v Digitized by CjOOQIC 

, Milher en vulgar Opikhns of the Irish Catholics, flp 

Df the parish priests. In the midst of this account of liring 
manners, he plunges all at once into the darkness of re- 
mote antiquity, carryiiig us back to the days of good old 
St. Patrick ; and we are required to believe in his mission/ and 
to admit that he taught the tenets arid usages of the present 
Roman church, on pain of being declared to be incoiiigible 
blockheads and heretics. In the observations which the 
tourist is pleased to make on the lights ind ornaments of the 
Reformation, he always speaks as if ex cat he dray and shews as 
little regyd to accuracy as deference to public opinion. In 
the same style he vindicates all the tenets and usages of his 
church; and an Italian ecclesiastic, subject to the tribunal of the 
Inquisition, or under the immediate eye of the Pope,' oould not 
write with more dictatorial and arrogant bigotry. His volume 
may gratify the Romish zealot, but it will disgust men of 
enlarged views and liberal notions, whatever may be their 
religious persuasions ; and it will not advance that harmony 
and good-will among christians of all denominarions, to which 
idle catholics must stand indebted for their restoration to civil 
rights ; — a restoration for which, we scarcely need declare, while 
animadverting on a publication which has a strong tendency to 
fetard that paramount object, we have long been zealous and 
steady advocates. 

The fpllowing passage, however, deserves public attentioit, 
and does not fall witliin tlie description of those of which we 
(complatin ; i 

' The Irish Catholics are, and always have been, remarkable for 
love and respect, towards their clergy. I have observed it, with plea- 
sure, in the opulent and noble as well as in the lowly and the in- 
digent. But then, to speak the truth, the clergy, in general, sup- 
port the credit of their station, and perform their duty^ which, m 
fact, is to render themselves worthy of such treatment. It is im- 
possible. Sir, for you to form a judgment of the labours of a vigil- 
ant priest in Ireland, who has to attend, perhaps, five thousand 
parishioners, spread over a district of probably nine or ten miles ia 
circumference, unless you were acquainted with all the several duties 
of our ministry : still you may easily conceive that the wHolc life of. 
such a pastor must be devoted to them. The first of these is to 
wait oa the sick. Every priest then must be at all times ready to 
attend to each sick person in his parish, however poor and abject, 
and however loathsome and infectious the disorder may be under 
which the patient labours He must be ready to set off in all 
weathers, and at all hours of the night as well as of the day, to 
administer the comforts and benefits of our religion m question : and 
it is a fact that very few Catholics die without suqh consolation and 
assistance. In a word, the people who are accustomed to call their 
pricst'by the endearing name oi father, know and feel that they have 
i true father in him, one who is ready to render thgeyBlt^v service 

po Mllncr oti vulgar Opinidns of the Irish Catholics. 

in his pow^r, teftiporal as well as eternal, and .to face 'death itself. 14 
the discharge of his firpiritual duties towards them. No wonder then 
they should experience the reverence and affection of children to-, 
wards him.— It appeals that certain members of t)}e legislatuFC -arc 
determined upon obliging the' established clergy of Ireland to reside 
on their benefices, and to read praytrs in their empty churches, with 
Ahc view of bringing, over the people to their religion. Depend upop 
it, Sir, the catholic c-ergy laugh at this proposal. They say : *' Wc 
shall be glad if the dignitaries were to come amongst us, because then 
our poor people would get rid of the tithe-proctors. On the other 
hapd» unless these gentlemen should take more pains and shew more 
disinterestedness than we ^o ; unless they should be willing to naeet^ 
us in the smoaky and poisonous cabin, no less than in controversial 
debate, our congregations wilP never be the thinner for their prq* 
sence." * ^ ' 

Surely an expression might have been found more becom«- 
ing the subject, than the one Which we h^ve put m italics. 
It Would haye better suited a Voltaire or a Gibbon than a 
catholic prelate. 

. We are^ enemies to the bigotry of both parties, and conse- 
quently do not very seriously resent this author's treatment of 
a virulent adversary of his cause, who lately filled a high 
station in the sister-island : ^ 

* The good understanding and natural, union between the catho* 
lie clergy and feity of Ireland, has happily been such^ as, to baffle 
those attempts of a learned Lord, the old and unrelenting enemy of 
tl^ catholic namej which heretofore had too much success amimgst 
us Catholics of England. Accordingly he reproaches, in severe 
terms, the catholic nobility and gentry of Ireland wjth being less 
enlightened, less liberal, and less I know not what, than Catholics 
of the same rank in England*. Happily the Irish arc not disposed 
to be guided by this nobleman in any matter whatever regarding 
their religion. And, thank God! the English likewise have lately 
so behaved themselves, as to merit bis equal censure, if, what wc are 
told is true, that he has pronounced " the English Catholics (all, 
except a few) to be as bad as the Irishf •" You will" be surprised, 
Sir, that I should describe a personage who is supposed to have 
procured for us the important advantages of the law of 1791, as 
*^ the old artd unrelenting tnemy of the catholic name." To this I 
answer, first, that the jict of Parliament made Mr.>M.y not Mt\ M. 
the Jet of Parliament. : i he important change which had just taken 
place in France, where .Catholics, and Catholics alone, were slaugh- 
tered in thousands by the implacable enemies of England, the in- 
creasing liberality and political wisd(;m of the nation, joined to its . 

■■ M • ' » '* ; ' ^ — 

« * See the printed Correspotidencc between Lord Redesdale and 
the Earl of Fin gal. 

• t See the Report of the late Speeches in the House of Lords 
oa^the affairs of Ireland.* 


Digitized by VjQOQIC 

I^Iilner on vulgar Opinions of the Irish Catholics, "91 

experience of the spirit of tbcir enemies in the riot* of 1780, im-^ 
pen'onsly called for the relaxation of the penal laws, and things were 
already in such a train for the success of the bill, previously to its 
being put into the hands of Mr. M. that any Tea and Nay man in 
either house could have carried it with as much ease as he did. 
Secondly, 1 say, that however most Catholics, on both side^^of the 
ehaodel, hdve changed their opinion concerning this nobleman^ I 
never have bad occasion to change mine. I lieard his speech in 
March 1 791, and I heard that which he delivered in May 1805 i^^ 
say nothing of his speeches, publications, and conduct at other 
times), and I assure yob. Sir, I relisHcd the latter speech better 
than I did the former, on the principle which makes every sensible 
roan prefer an open enemy to a false friend. His object was the 
same on both occasions, to divide the Catholics into two partiest 
. and particularly to set the laity agaipst the clergy, for their mutual 
dcatruction. He was far, however, from having the same means of 
success, after he had thrown asi^e the visor as when he wore it. 
The advice which Lord R. gives the Catholics to join with him in 
pulh'ng down their clergy, reminds us of the proposed treaty be- 
tween the wolves and the sheep. ** Nothing would be n.ore caiy,** 
said the wojves, «* than to keep peace wkh you, good shetp, i*" you 
would but turn out of your service those iU*bred barking dogs ^ 
yours.** ' 

Justice and ' toleration are beholden to the auth9r'' f6r hiy 
few spirited, manly, and efficient sentences which repell the 
diarge brought against the catholics of disregarding paths j 

• I know a respectable per8o1^ who ha's repeatedly and publicly 
declared, that •* the Irish ar^ taught to believe there \< no guilt in 
perjury, and that priests attend at the doors of the courts in Iretand 
to absolve perjured witnesses as they return from them.'* Good 
Gdd ! when will these anti-catholic calumniators become so far 
rational, as to see that this particular aceusatioa stands refuted and 
icouted by the actual visible situation of the party accused ! When 
will they ^pquIVe sense enough to see that Catholics have no o(Jca- 
sion to petition parliament for a redress of their grievances, bnt that 
they have at all times a remedy for them in their own hands, if 
they could but reconcile it to their consciences to take af false oath. 
Surely these Papists could procure some priest, either for love or 
money, to absolve them ! or, what would be betcer, they might* 
procure a general dispensation from the Pope for a little occasional 
perjury, which other people commit without any dispensation what- 
soever ! They would thus obtain a great deal of wealth, influence, 
and power, which they might afterwards employ for the benefit of 
theChurph, as well as for their own ; and what would be mojre 
valuable to thpm than all this by swearing oontrary to their own 
conviction, they would vindicate their characters irom the foul 

charge of perjury^ and pass for honest men 1 But, Sir, to be 

serious, I be^ you will observe that the test oaths against Catholic* 
liave completely answered their purposes in keeping them out of 
parliament, btcneficest and places^ and in subjecting them to a thou- 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 


i^Z ' "Milner mt vylgdr Opimms of the Irish CaAQlics, 

. sanrl inconTenient afnd grinding laws. This incont«stibk «nd' ihm^ 
k)g fa^t wi]l for ever demonstrate the reh'gion v^i'eh Catholics atckch 
to t(he obHgation of oath^, and that their Church does not* furnish 
them with any ^remedy for escaping from it. This incontestible 
shining, fact wiU for ever confute and put co^VHame the calumnies of 
their enemies, many ^f whom are well known to have never refused 
an adva^itage which could be gotten by Bwexring. 1 hav6 mentioned 
t'j you, Sir, that the test oaths, invented to keep Popery out df 
the state, have completely answered their purpose : but have those 
other oaths been equally efFcctual, which have been devised by the 
fcgislatare to exclude heterodoxy from the established Church ? or 
corruption from parliament ? or «nr)uggling from commerce ? You 
»re aware, Sir, what details I could furnish upon each of these 
heads : but I spare you the relation, on the condition tjiat you 
never join the daring calumniators .who have* the front to reproack 
Catholics with the practice of perjury !' 

We are wholly ignorant of the author's allusion in the 
following passage ; we hope that his fears are without. founda- 
iion ; and we trust t]iat our active and vigorous mmi^try' will 
be able to maintain their -popularity, by the* display of bustle 
less fatal and pemigious : 

♦This, however, my dear. Friend, and all your other grievances 
' j)ul together, ^re a mere trifle, compared with the wide wasting, 
exterminating persecution, with which you are threatened by a man 
who, from his connections, is supposed to be one of the most power- 
ful men in the empire, and who lately filled one of the first situa- 
, tions in you^island. Yes, if the legislature could be persuaded to 
follow up, and the public t6 approve of the plans of the nobleman I 
allude to, Ireland would become, in the reign of George 111. a 
scene of more horrible carnage than it was in those of Elizabeth and 
' Oliver Cromwell. What he professedly aims at, is the new-model- 
hng of your unchangeable form of ecclesiastical government. He is 
bent upon tlje annihilation of all Catholic Metropolitans, Bishops, 
and even Parish Priests ; for no other reason, thaa because the state 
*bas chosen to adopt this same apostolical form of government for the 
' [Established Church. Following up this rule, he will equally 
Ibrbid the use of our Missal and Breviary^ because the Cpmmoo 
Prayer Book is almost entirely taken out of them. Again^ he i^ 
presoived/ upon dei)riving the Catholic Church of the essent^il an4 
inalienable right of every society, that of excluding atrocious and re- 
fractory offenders from its communion^ But to make an end of 
thtS' matter ; it is imppssible the learned author of the present system 
«houid be ignorant, that the innovations which he here proposes g^ 
to far greater lengths of schism th?in those contained in the famous 
the French national assembly ; the enforcing of which coostitution 
caused the murdet* of 24^000 clergymen, and the banishment of 
64,000 others, independently of lay sufferers, without accomplish- 
ing its objea : aOr has this personage any reason to suppose that the 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

PolwheleV History of DevomhJrr, 93 

CatliolJc Btflhops and Priests, and Laity of Ireland, if calkd upoa 
to suffer the extremity of the law in defence of tbetr relij^on, would 
shew less firmness than their brethren in France have doue.' 

Though we are aware of the arts of the school to wHch 
the author belongs, we do not believe that he is practising 
fnesse in thiis addressing a Catholic correspondent at Waterford: 

« Whilst I exhort you to be faithful to yoar sovereign, let 
me n6t forget to admonish you of the fidelity you owe to your 
God. You will gather from what I have already said, that I coo-» 
sider your approaching emancipation as an event which is liketjr 
to be trying to your religious constancy and piety. To speak thii 
truth, I think, I see that the very prospect of this change makes m 
few individuals affect, an air of latitudinariaoiRm totally inconsistent 
with the tenets of catholicity, and disposes them, in particular, t^ 
barter away the inalienahk spiritual rights of the Church for tluir 
own temporal advantage. This system of indemnification, at the 
expense of the Church, has been acted upon to a great extent of late 
upon the continent of Europe. But then they were only temporal 
possessions which werfe thus disposed- of : ^vherea3, m the instance 
to which I allude, the vital interests of Christ's spiritual kingdom 
have beeu held up to sale by those who never had or can have ft 
r^bt to dispose of them.* 

The emancipation of the catholics would doubtless very 
much reduce the power a;nd consideration of their clergy, a$ 
well as diminish the numbers of the laity. 

Art. XIV, Tkt History of Devonshire, Chapter. IL by the Rev, 
Richard PolwhHe. Folio. Sewed. Cad ell and Davics. 

Tf this author subjects himself to censure for his piece-meal 
^ and dilatory publiqations, we may not perhaps hold our- 
selves entirely excuseable in having delayed to notice the ad- 
dition to his History of Devonshire, which has now been 
longer before the public than we were altogether aware : 
but we have been expecting to receive some fcrther 
portion of the work. The 177 pages, which were origin- 
ally sent forth, are here extended to 329 ; of which the 
Roman British period and that of the Saxons and Norraana 
constitute a considerable part : the chapters that follow pro-^ 
ceeding from Edward the First to Charles the First, and thence 
to the Revolution. Each peripd contains eleven sections, under 
the heads of. Civil and Military Transactions : Civil and Military 
Constkiition : Religion : Architecture : Agriculture : Mining : 
M^mfactures : Commerce : Inhabitants : Population j and 
Manners. These s^tions, as may be easily conjectured, are of 
terjr mequal lengths } 9ome of them are indeed e^Hg^l^hort ; 

94 PolDfkcleV Hist^ of I>€vonshire. 

as a proof of which, and at Ae same time as a specimen of Aef 
writer'6 manner, let the reader take the last : 

• The delioeation of provincial characters is commonly fanciful ; 
vt^K^re an attempt is made to diecrinMoate the manners of one couaty 
from ^Bother* In the prescni race of genthemen in the ob8CUi:e 
parts of Devon (particularly l>5 W. W.), we sec wh^t our forc- 
zathers were, throughout tire couttty, at the commencement of this 
period (Charles I. '&c»)— We fte^ hospitalityy with n<^ great degree 
of politeness, a tenactousness of - real or imaginary ri^htS) .an in- 
tentperate ardodr in the pursuits of the fields and a di^sitioo to 
tyrannize over " the caitiffs who kill game." It is far otherwise 
in the county in general, where the polished gentleman more frc- 
4|uently occurs than any where else throughout the Island, — •' T« catch 
the manners Hvfhg as they rise" in the different towns, of JDevon- 
•hire» would be a pursuit more invidious than useful.' 

In discussing the period of the rebellion, the author properly 
expresses himself as * ever an enefny to usurpation ;' yet true 
friends to the peace, liberty, and cpmfort of human society 

- may have some doubt, whether he maintains all that respect 
which is due to blessings so important and essential, and which 
truth and rectitude seem to require. 

Concerning Agriculture, we find it observed: — ^At the com- 
mencement of the present period, the western counties wete 
very deficient in ^e art of husbandry } they seem to have 
withdrawn their dare from the vegetable to the miheral pro- 
ductions of nature. But, within the last fifty years," the spirit 
of agrictdtural improvement hath stimulated the gentlemen of 
the- west to the most laudable txertions,, and I have little 
doubt but the Bath-society will be imitated by Devon and 
Cornwall, not only in zeal anjd perseverance, but in. sound 
judgment and inventive sagacity.* Beneficial improvements, 

^ national or personal, are truly valuable: but a watchful eye 
is requisite, lest individuals should be injured and oppressed ^by 
that which in some respects may carry the aspect of alrheliora* 
tipn. — Relative to Literature, we read : 

* T^e tradesmen of the towns^ however low their occupation, and 
even our honest yeoqnen in the country', think it necessary to send 

' their boys and girls to grammar and boarding schools, — all aspir- 
ing beyond their proper sphere. Though such a number of gram-, 
0iar schools ^re instituted in our' petty towns, though almost half 
our village curates are announcing, in pompous advertisetnents, their 
systems of private educalion> and though our public nurseries for 
forwarding the gi>t>wth of females are every day increasing around 
u^ ; yet the principal seminaries (particularly the two rival aohocJs 
#f Exeter and Tiverton, (hat used tofise or fall alternately) are at. 
the preseot moment unusually fuU^-^a sufficient proof of the above 
obsenrAtion. The old est^Ushed boarding>-8chool« continue tc^ 
^ flouriib 

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^oNTHLT Catalogue, Re/igkus* 95 

ficwsh, notwithstanding the van'oii? impfovcm^nto on educattoa 
ffiat reizc the attention of superficial peopk. This is not to be 
attributed so much to our incVeasing^ popuhation, as to the ill judged 
ambition of parents, whose Fiiuaiion in Irfc will not authorize their 
ffcws. The mechanic, who k taught the elements of the Latin 
tongue, often acquires a taste that ill accords with his futtkc des- 
tination, and forms wishes that are subversive of his happiness; whilst 
the yeoman's daughter, who might have been useful to her parents 
at home, or a valuable servant abroad, imbibes with her French the 
seeds of vanity, and treasures up, with increasing aVidity, the 
lessons of prostitution.* 

Several, remarks and relations that Would be acceptable 
might be drawji from these pages, which in their unconnected 
state seem to hav^ rather an aukward appearance/ We hope - 
that Mr. Polwhele will continue his History with more punc- 
tuality and dispatch tlian it has hitherto evinced. 


For MAY, 1809- v, ' 


Art. 15. jffi Address to the jfrchllshop of Canterbury^ on the Pro^ 
pr'uty and Usefulness of Sunday E^vemng Lectures, By^ the Rev, 
George Hertderick. 4to. is. Rivingtons. 1 fo8. 
"H^tLL may the Clergy of the Established Church avow their 
alarm at the rapid progress of Methodism ; but it is not welt 
nor decorous in them to express the faintest desire of abridging the 
liberty affotded by the Toleration act ; or even to hint^ iu a distant 
way, as does Mr. H.) that < any new measures^adopted by the 
Legislature would be deemed intolerant and persecuting.* It is a 
hard case, indeed^ if the great body of' the English clergy, well 
educated, affluent, and patronized, caifnot be a match for a number 
of poor, illiterate, and obscure itinerants, without calling in the 
arm of the civil magistrate. Against such an interference, wjc hold 
uj) our hundred hands ; and we iiitreat the Clergy, whose cause 
we espouse, to depend in this warfare on their own talents, zeal, and 
assiduity, We could wish that the whole body, like their respect- 
able brother Dr. Ingram, saw the matter in its true light ; and were 
prepared to own that the fomes maii, as the physicians Would say, 
eiists in some injudicious expressions in certain books which aie 
cited as authorities, and which; as long as these phrases are sanc- 
tioned, will give the Calvinistic orator an advantage over the rational 
Divine. The enlightened preacher in the Establishment should not 
wait for^these changes before he takes the field, but should bear 
his protest against tenets which arc clearly unscriptural, and cndea- 
vour to counteract the arts of proselytiam by "Mich measures as the 
itat^ of society and the times require* - 

$€ MokthltCatalogu£j iZe%^/. 

Mr. Henderick is of opinion, tfnd'not without reasdn, that Sunday 
Evening L^ctur^ have greatly contributed to the cause of Me- 
thodism ; iM^d he pFDposefrChatsHnitar Lectures should be established 
ty the Church, in all large towns and populous villages. We ^are 
not partial to any camHeiigh^ assemhlmg of this kind ; yet we ar« 
f«»dy to adoEiit, with Mr. H., that multitudes of the lowir classes 
know not how to fill up their time on the Sunday evening, and find' 
more satisfaction &t the Lecture than in their dwn uncomfort* 
able habitations; while it 'affords to others the only opportunity 
which they possess for hearing a sermon. Late dinners, it may also 
be tirged, prevent attendance on ,the Aftefnoon Service. If Evening 
Lectures^ however, are appointed, in order to check the growth of Sec- 
taries, popular preaching must be introduced, and not the * reaJmg^oi 
a- sermon from some approved author.' In some' places, Ciiaj^eU 
ffhould be buik for the purpose 5 since large, Gothic^churches are 
BOt fit to be opened to the populace by candlelight. ^ 

Art. 16. A neku jdrgument for ihe Existence of God.. Crown 8vo. 
pp.68. Boards. Longman and Co, ,1808. 
Is this author a quizzing philosopher or an atheist m disguise ? 
His doctrines are that the non-existence of matter is an irresistible 
proof of th^ existence of God ; that the universe is an universe of 
effects ; that the cause rs out of sight ; that the Deity produces all 
, those effects immediately by himself, which excite in jUs the idea of 
an external world ; and tliat no one wauy have doubted the exist- 
CHce of, God, if he had not beUeved in the existence of an extei'nal 
world. After such dogmata, it is ridiculous to talk of the opera- 
tiops of Nature z but, as the author means' to be ludicrous, why- 
should we be serious, arid to his shaddws oppose sblid argument ? 

Art. 17. A View of the Origin^. Progress and Diversity of Heathen 
/Forj^]^, antecedently to the Christian Revelation. By T. 
Thomas, oT Wareham. 8vo, pp. 126. 43. Boards. Bicker* 
ftaffl i8oa. ; . • ' '^ ^ 

What commendable motive could have induced the publjcatioir 
6i this essjiy, we are at a loss \o conjecture. Mr.. Thomas, in our 
opjaion, has given, no new views of ethnic idolatry, nor has proposed 
any^aaiisfactocy. explanation of the most difficult circumstance in 
' aotient ^worsliip, viz- the offering of victims by fire to the Deity, 
cither as.eucharistic or piacular sacrifices. The different objects of 
idolatry have been often pointed dut, such as the heavenly bodies, 
the parts and powers of nature,' demons, and deified men ; and we ac- 
quire little knowlege from such imperfect and declamatory discussions 
as these pages contain. It is not of much importance whether 
idolatry was first systematized in Egypt or in Chaldea; npr are we 
jgreatly interested now in tracing its absurd and disgusting rites. 

* Reading is never felt to be eloquence. The Clergy should 
leai'n to preach without notes ; and why cannot they adopt this 
species of oratory as well as the Members of the Legislature^ or the 
Geutlemeiji of the Bar i Let them not yield to. illiterate teachers in 
this respect. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

We imt<f li<mrcTer> ^Uh tUt writer in \S% piftbe of the books <^ tka 
Qld Tcaament i wbich ekvtte ^cnisdvcs abot e all the literary aod 
philoiophical productioog of tke, Greekt i^d JlomaiM^ hf^ tbeir 
latlimt and uoiform iocukatugR «f the. apirituaUty and luiity of 
Codj aa4 by their pointed ^oodevmatioti of all worahi]) flurtciod to 
inferior objects : but, yrhtk we cordisUy pubacribe to ^bia provifaKiit 
cbaracteriatic of the Jewish writiAgSj we ^cannot allow that Honer 
haul aay knowle^e 9f thei9» skice hit Pantheon and rabUe of 
<l^iea.^^ iocosnpi^bk wil;h.the doctrine and wor&htpof Jehovdt 
of^ Uoii^i Zioju * Mosesi iiuleed, staodii ak>«e; (as Mr. T. rflfaiark«») 
aipo^g the omst eoMnfot m«i in the most celcbtated empircS)' wmi 
we were surprized !to find it conjectured that Parnassus was bo^^ 
rpwc;d f^om Moupit Zioa ;^-^thi^ the dialogue between A^iflea mid 
h^ii hipise. ocigiHatcvdIiQithe hidtofy, of ^Balaam and bis ass ;-«thaef 
Jpve's qfi^io of gold ia only Jacob's ladder a iittle mctamor[^sed r^ 
that Jupiter's presidency over the clement of hght, as described ia 
Homer, arose from the comMDaud in Genesis* '* Let there be light 
aod there was light |"-^aud that the *' ,wind-footed" Iris is.rcprc* 
srnted ^8 the bes^rer of Jove'a orders in allusion to the fact recor^d 
by Moses, that ^' Gpd made a wind to pass over the earth, and the 
waters were assnaged.^' On such evidence, we cannot believe that 
Homer was acquamted with the Jewish lawgiver. 

An. r8. Popukr (Hjectlons to the Eitahiishid Churchy stated in a 
Letter to onr Neighbours. i2mo* 6d. Burditt. 
Compbining that Dissenters from the Established Church are 
treated ifliberally and contemptuously, the author of this little 
pamphlet stands forwards to redeem < the characters and understand- 
ings of his brethrep, and adverts to the most disputable parts of 
the' Est^lishcd System in justification of a 'separation trom it. 
Nothing hew is advanced, but the objections are lu-ged in a popular 

Art. 19. RefiectUns ^ a LaymMu m ^ Dhnnhy of Cbr$t$^ihe 
Unity of the Dfkyt amd the Doetrhe of ihe'Triiu^. itvao* la^ 
Payne. 1808. 
Can it he supposed that these very difibsolt points oaa be treated 

to the satisfaction of any serious inquirer> in* the narrow compass of 

27 duodecimo pages^ loosely printed ? How vain must thta 

iJayoan be ! 

Art. 20. The Sunday Scholar*! fttst Booh, Being all that is judged 
necelsf^ry as a Preparative" for beginm'ng the Testament in Sunday 
Schools. i6mo. pp^ ;5. Eddowes, Shrewsbury. iBo9. 
This little work is properly adapted for those useful ^nstitOtloQS, 
lor whiclT it is designed ; and> although shorty ft is very compre- 
hensive. The author professes to teach in a small compass the 
elements of reading ; to tn»presa strongly on youthful minds the 
sentioKnts of piety towards God and love to their fellow, creatures ; 
and to enforce the necessity of performing their duty in this world, 
and loojung for a recompense in the world to come. For all these 
important purposes, it is, .constderiagjts extent, well calculated, 
and deserves to be put into the hands of young pena|aja||^^ 
Jl£v. May. 1S09. H J^^^^^^m^^ 


Att^ If. jf DmmaiSwmfhe Pilagim Heresy 9 m two Parti ;ttie 
' first, codta^ing an Historical Sketch of its Rise and Progress to' 
• tK€ Synod of Brcti j aw! the second; its pernicious Doctrines, 
' trt^ their Confutation. By the Rev. John Willtanw, Rjtctor of 
I'Mkntniel, Radnorshire, and Master of Ystradmeirig School. 8to« 

pp. iif. ' ;^«« Boatds. RiVingtons. »8b8i * 

'^Thesubfect'of khis traot embraces a remote am) obscure' t>ertod 
of history. Pclagius^wbo has been so often mentiotked by ecclesi- 
astical writers on aceoiins of his heretical opinions, is strppoaed to 
hoa^reU^ent bom ibont tli« middle of the fourth ecnt'ury. He wa* « ' 
nsitfve' of Britain, andV it is coiijecture4» of that part which is> now' 
omd Wales : but he resided a xronsfderable time at Rome, whence ht 
removed to Africa, and there it is imagined he died* His opinioikSy 
bowever, did not llie -.with him, but continued to gatfi ground i« 
Bri^aio, to.the vciatioa of tbe Clergy, who exerted every effort to. 
suppress them $ this, however, they were not .able to effect ; a«d at 
lengthy in the year 5199 it was judged necessary to summon a synod 
oi the, bishops, presbyters, and principal laity for that purpose. 
T)ke meeting was holden near the banks of the river Teivy in Car-^- 
denshire, at a place called Llandewi Brevi ;. and at this synod 
Bd^lianism was unanimonsly condemned, and several canons were 
drawn up against it. '- To this censure, tlic eloquence a«d the- 
,. ^cjght pf character of David, who was afterward canpi\iaed,^esscni; 
tiat^r contributed. The arguments employed at the synod, as the 
present author say^, have been lost, owmg to the destructivenesa^of 
time, or the negligence of our ancestors ; and therefore the second - 
part o( the present pamphlet, ia occupied in supplyinc^ the deficieocyt 
apd combating the doctrines, 

th the appendix, is a curious History of the Church at Llandewi 
j^revi ; and also a poem of some length in praise of St. David, in 
the origiiSal Wefeh, with an English translation. ^ 

Aaanjnquiry into Welsh ecclesiastical history, the worklxrforc us 
ooM^s many curious particulars, which will be found pecnliarlr 
if^eresjtiog -to such* at wish to be acquainted with the antient ecclesi- 
astical records of the country. Considerable pains ieeifi to have 
beoi.takefi in eoUedtitig the materials, accompanied also by an iap« 
peaeaiMfe.of haste in the composition. A premium was aiyarded for' 
thasdiaiBCStationby^the society for. promoting Christian Knbwicge 
and Church Union in the Diocese of St. Davids, and it was printed 
atJtheir expence. 

Art. tt. An AUresst$ the Clergy of the United Church in frehm4t^ 

on the present Crisis. By an aged Minister of ^the (^spel. 8vq. 

I'amphletj Dublin. 1809. _ - - 

With the flattering persuasion that he is ** such a one as Paul the 

aged," this clergyman assumes the office of apostolical! y addressing 

his brethren ; and as far as the recommendation to preachei^ of 

enforcing good doctnne by suitable examples is concerned, his ex- 

hortauon is not unworthy of an aged minister of the Gospel : but, 

wh^n he adverts to the circumstances of the present crisis, he nuher 

betrays his fears than exertshis reasoning powers ; apd.he vents his 

dislike of Komaaists and of i'rotestaut Sectaries, iastcad of cndcavoiir- 

J Digitized by VjOOQIC 

MoKTHLt Catalogue, Poetry. 99 

iftg to ticutralitce that cfFervcsc^ncc ofrdiigtous partiei wliich prtiniilA. 
iH Ireland; Tlus cler^oian would remote none of tie M teukt* 
maris f would yield to no nTveUies, would come to no terms wkh 
•• seducing spirits** and with «* reprihdtes concetnmg tie/aiib" 
Can such an address be politic I What good can it effect )• ' ^ 

^ POETEr. 

Art. 2 J. Ul/Ie Ofks to Great Folks ; with a dedicatory D^hf- 
rambicto Sir R<>cb«-Td Ph-]]«p<, Kmght. By Pindar Minimus* 

- Witi% Notes cridcal and explanatory, by Sextus Scriblerui* 
8«o. 4s. Boards. Oddf; 

^ Wc abckiild: be sorry to discouraf!^ ths taie of playful satire in 
politics '3 let writers of all parties exhaust the quivers of plcadantrf 
on tlmr ^ opponents : but let them not at random load each othet 
with indi^c^minate and uoappropriate. ridicule, it were ea^y to 
produce a couplet describing Aristotle as an ideot, and Newton as l| 
drivelkr : but what should we tliink of such rhimes ? Draw cati« 
catures» .aad welcome, but preserve some faint likeness ; deal in the 
liidicfOttS^ but do not outrage all probability. Neither should. 
aU decorum be violated by indulging in personal abuse and ribaldry*, 
Instigated by party rage, which scorns to be controlled by good man* 
ners or good humour, Findar Minimus throws about his dirt with a 
vengeance, and from his scavenger's cart bespatters all the Grett* 
Folks who are not of his party. The genius which he displays 
therefore, and the portion is not inconsideraUe, is so idloyed br 
scurrility and coarse wit, that before the smile can be farmed it i% 
suppressed by disgust. 

Art. 24. A Selection of Psalms^ adapted to the Service of a paro« 
chial Church. From various Authors. i2mo* Xs. Crosby 
and Co. • , , 

Stcmhold and Hopkins ought no doubt to be laid 4^q the shelf ^ . 
and it U not a little surptising, after so many episcopal hiitSf/. 
delivered io charges, for the improvement of psalmodyi that these 
very unpoctical gentlemen (or we might have said, these itsm-drtm • 
rhimersY should retain their station in any one parochial church. In 
the fashionable chapejs^ at the west*end of' the town, Selections 
of Psalms and Hyms are used with universal approbation x and no ' 
sdid objection can exist, to prevent country churches from profiting 
by flirts example. The little manual of metrical psalmody before, us 
is Well suited to the purpose for which it was intended, and may 
Moreover be introduced as a school book ; a purpose to which the 
Version of Sternhold and Hopkins coul^ never be applied, since we 
could Slot think of teaching children the bald rhim^s of those 
writers. Some judicious observations occur in the preface to this little 
volume, which isofi«red at a low price, and may be enlarged ; though 
it is not necessary that Collections of Psalms should be very copious, 
especially- *s no opportunity is offered in the established church for 
adlpting psalms and hymns to the subjects of discourses. 

The selections are made from Merrick, Tatcand Brady^ Watt^, 
Hawk e8Worth,^Ad(H0on, Bishop Kenn, Pope, Browne, Cottle^ &c* 

H a Art* 

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Aft*t5k' Ch^p^ d^ Psaumeftf des msiJ/euresTriActums Trangmjesg 

" a fUioge^ <k P£§fis4 .Con/ormfsU dc ^/. Margin Organ. Jimo. it. 

i Bo6«ey* 

St. MartioOripar^ io St. MartiVs L^nc. Cannoa Street, U the 

only prol^Mt church la the M^tropolts in which the service of the 

EttaUithroent is performed in the French language ; and the 

minister of this church, in cooformity tp the recommendation of the 

Biih(^of London, to his clergy, to attend to the improvement of 

psalm-siuging, has here fumlahcd a colkctiou of psalms, for the nH>st 

eit translations, of thpse which have been transmitted to us by 
rfvid and other "sweet singers of Israel,** together with tunes adapted 
to the diBPercnt metres. The author Hatters himself that, by this 
compilation^ he has contributed to the improvement as well aa hi- 
creased the attractions of public worship ; that young persons- be< 
longing to his church will commit some of them to memory; and that 
the instructors, 6f English youth in the French tongue wiU be in- 
duced to bring their pupils occasionally to St.Martin O^rs, in orderto 
familiarize them with the English ritual in the French language. 
l^That kind of French devotional poetry this coHeotion is imended 
to supplant we know not, and therefore we cannot deeid« on iti 
cbmparative merit : we can only say that it seems not itt adtapted to 
the purpose for which it is intended. \ ' ■ 

Art. 26. EMfRih Mmk^iI RfiPQikory ; a choice Collection of esteem- 

^•d English Songs, a<kipted for. the Voice> Violin, anj jGerfnaa 

^Flole. iimow fs. 6d. Boards<t Crost^y and Co. iSo^. 

; A hundred tong^ are b^re .fleeted, op the subjects of love and 

war, the dangers of the sea, the joys of thehottle and the chasc^ &c. 

&c. tnany of which are old standards in the vocal miscellany, and 

some are of modern birth. The coliectioo is not on the whole 

badly formed/ and these compositions are properly excluded which 

trench on the boundaries of decorum. The aadition of the music in 

adore wtU be tcry acceptable te persons who practise on the violin or 

the flute. 

Art. ti* The Ttnm : an Ode at the Commencement of the Year 
1809. By Joseph Blacket. 8vo. is. Goddard. 
. As the effort of * an unlettered and sclf-tutorcd ybuth,' this ode 
claims from us praise of no frigid cast. The kindred spirits of 
Liberty and Poetry are here combined ; and we need only copy 
tbe last stanza^ to prove that Mr. B/s genius blossoms with some 
promise : ' , 

* Burn on, fair Sun, in splendor bright, 
And on HisPANiA'a rocky shore, 
Attend the Patriots to the ^ght. 

Nor set, till Ve n g b a n c b cries aloud, 
•• AmbilioH festers in bis gory shroud, 
'* To tyrannize and subjugate no more.'* 
Yes, yes, blaze on— and through the gallant bands 
piffuse heroic heav*n-directed fire ; 
Inspirie the bosoms of the ju4 and brave , 

, With love of liUerty and haiiow'd ire, 

... ' , That 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ^ 

MtmTHLY Catalpgue, BoHr^. ioi 

That witk united hearts and hands '^ 

They itrtiy, from Gallia's frontteis brow. 
The lauTcIs'tear — lay her proud eagle low. 
Then, till the fabric of tHfc WoRLb 
.Be all in Conflagration hurled. 
Alike subdufc the ttrant and abhor the slaV&.* 
In the preceding strophes, the ^)oet endeavours to tnfmatc hii 
countrynttn warihly to esprtufie the cause of the SpanisO-ds against 
tbcir cruel invaders. — Ati additional specimen of the powers of thif 
young Bard has just readied us, winch is printed only for private 
arcufation. We shall be glad to find that talents, Ifkc tfcose srkich 
are here opened jto view, atie Warmly encouraged to Emerge from 
their present lowly retreat. 

Art. ^8.' The Cburcb^Tar4 : and other forms. By 'George 
Woodley. Crown 8vo. pp. 155. 6b. Boardb, Tipper. 
180&, . . ... . . 

f'rom Gray's elegy, Hamlet's conversation witli the gravc-diggers> 
and some of Addison's more sieiious essays iu the Speotator> Mr. 
Woodley has compiled his poen\oii a church yard, which deservedly^ 
occupies the front of his collection, and proves him to be blessed 
with a pious aod huroaoe mind. In his noctu/nal walk, he stumbk 
ot) a skull, and, like the Danish pnnce» is naturally led to specula. | 
•• what shoulders bore this ghas|:ly emblem of mortality :" like lii.m, 
too, he dwells on the probability of its having helongr d to a be4(i(y 
or a bari^ei" ; and we discern some ingenuity in his mod^ or stating 
the latter coi<jecture : 

* Haply som^ cunning counsellor once bore- 
This em^y shelly One, skilful to arrest ^ 

Impending judgment ; and, witl^sutitle quirk 
Of legal nicety, to draw the line 
<)f Wght and wrong \ or, with judicial skill, 
To trace distinction where no difPrertce lay. . 
But say, O pleader ! when the wrft of death 
'Gainst thee went forth, did nil ihV- ait lavail f 
Alas ! unlike the tedious course of law, . ^ ' 

His process took a Summary effect ! 
No bail for thee might stand ; no plea be urged ; 
Nor order of imparlance be allowed I 
All, all were vain ! Mute is the rattling tongue. 
Which once could agitate the awful bench. 
And set the drowsy pannel in a roar !' 
The following description is natural. The poet has just turned 
froip contemplating the burying place allotted to a suicide : 
' Whilst, pensive, on the horrid a'ct I musii, * 
Methinks <ach. object that surrounds me, wears ' 

A deeper vesture of Solemnity. 
A darjier tint has overspread the sky, 
And sheds reflected horror on the earth ! 
'Tis midnight. Universal silence reigns I 
All nature in such heavy slumber li^s 
As tho' ^would 'wake no more, N6 so.T:.Tr.^«us^he ^rd 

m . jflflll^Tbro' 

10^ Mokthlt'CatilocOTi PoHff* 

Thro' all tbc ample landscape. Not i leaf, 

Descending slowly on the drowsy" air. 

Attracts th' attention of the, eye or ear. ^ . . 

Thc.Bigljtingak hath ceased her Qiellow note» . 

And siuks into the general repose.' 
' So Jg^^at the stillness^ that, against my side, ^ • 
. ' Plainly I hear my bosom's tenant beat, 

In due and measured pace^ the march of time! -^ 
^ Whilst all creation else is wraf^ in sleep, v 

1 oi^ly* at this dread, this solemn hour, ' » 

Remain awake, and fondly linger here ;. 
, And greater pleasure, niore refined delight, , > . 

''More chastened joy, regales my happy soul, ; 

, As greater horror wrapsj the dreary sceqe V ;• 
Mr. Woodltry's smaller poeqas do not demand particular motfce. 
The coropo8it4on of them is generally correct, though we encounter 
one verse in which a common word receives a most extraordinary 
ncci^t : ^ 

i ' Recoiling N[ature shudders to survey thee 
(4 redundancy against which we must protest, en passant,) 

And shakes, involuntarily f the hand.'* P. 40. ' 
At such poetry, \ve will add in prose that we shake, involtrntatifyp 

Aft* Z^' Greenwich 9 a Poem descriptive and historical. , By 

Jam^ Sansom. 8v6. p^* 95* Printed by Subscripvon for the 

Author. 1808. \ 

Mr. Sansom's ppem may be properly regarded as a guide to the scenes . 

described in it, and in that point of view would be of considerable 

service to a Slrangir m Greenwich ^ Sublime poetry would have been 

here mt^pliaced ; and It Vrould perhaps be upreasonable to expect 

very harmonious numbers, or a style highly polished : but the 

writer's execution is fully eq^ual to his modest pretentions. Wc 

wtU give our readers some notion of the versification by two short ex- 

tracts,*-i>one relating to the boisterous festivities of £aster-fair, the 

other describing the statue of George the Second at the Hospital ; . 

< Now festive Easter wakes the vernal dawn, . ^^ 
Apd noisy Revelry invjides each lawn. 

With Frolic band in hand, when all around," 
IJpsctmly Gambol shakes th* afirightcd ground. 
Vulgar Intrusion taints the breath of Spring, 
To distant shades the feathered songsters wing. 
The sober Virtues sjiun the altered place, . * . >> • 

\irhere giggling Sport displays his ale-flush'd face.^ r s^, 
Tb« Kcond passage is inferior to the general style, but It la 
Aoaint, characteristic, and amusing : 

< His form in the great square majestic rose, 
Scvlptor'd in marble, won from Mion^s foes. 
O glorioiift trQphy ! noblest work of Art ! — 

Which stakes with conscious pride each Briton^s heart ; 
On which the veterans oft with rapture look, 
Ab4 tcU their friends, <* the pt ize was won by Ropke,'^ 
/ While 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

. MOMTHLT CiTlLOGUt, MiscillMmoui. to) 

WMc they recount the battle** varied ragei > 
Aod of their youthfol dec«l» exult in age.' 
A Tery afFectboate addieat, apparently to the author's wtfe^ in- 
troduces the Tolume» ' ^ 


Art. 30. 4>emfs frmn m Member of PdtRmneni to ifit Friend in the 
Country. Letter I. Svo. 2i. 6d. Ridgwiy. iSpo. 
The object of this lettetw«^riter it to repress our rage /or cob* 
tioenial expeditfonfy aod to condemn the system* which Ministers 
bavc adopicdy of acting by a British sr^y in Spain, directed by the 
wishes of the Spanish ^ntas. By such a plan» it is contended^ 
neither the British anus oould acquire any glory nor Spain reap 
airy benefit. The Govermnent is chargred with having kept back from_ 
Qtike ^owiege of Cnrts; and of having lavished the resources 6f 
tbe-coontry in conflicts v^'th the encnoy on the peninsula, wfthout 
having weighed and provided for all the circumstances of thii» waV*'' 
fire. They are also accused of' having taken falbC views of thf 
whole subject: bot, as only part of the inquiry is before us, 'we 
can do nojBore at present than hint at the prominent ideais of this ' 


Art. 31, Dhiervations ok the Brumal Retreat of the SwflJh^l ^ 
which fs annexed a copious Index to many passage^ relating to 
this Bird, in ancient and mod<:rn Authors. fiy^PhilocJbelidoUtf 

»vo. IS. 6d. W. Phillrpa. * \ ' ,, , 

It is not a little astonishing that the question should still b^ uur 
decided by Natutalists, whether the Swallow Sip, or- be not a bird 
of passage. Authorities are strong in favour of its migration ;. a^d. 
authorities equally weighty pronounce its winter state to be that^of , 
torpor. The present wnter, though a decided advocate for the 
fonncr opinion, fails not to givt evidence on both sides j and hif. 
index of reference is so truly copious> that no.on^ can dopbt of h.ii. 
having allotted great attention to the subject. The few instances of 
flight, which ^ he notices, are not enough to prove the ou^ration 
of all the swallows of G rear Britain to a warmer cli^s^te ; nor hav< 
the birds been found in a torpid state in sufficient miipbcrs t0 
establish the contrary principle. If, however, they m,ade« their 
Brumal retreat to warmer climates, it seems strange that they should 
return to us <in the Spring even before all the effects of wiiiter hive 
ceased, and when our atmosphere cannot furnish so many insects at 
that which they have left. , -» 


Art. ^2. A Monument ofpmrental Affection fo a dear etnd mdy Son* 
(By the Rev. Joshua Gilpin, of Wrocfewardincy Salop.) lamo* 
3s. 6d. J^oards^ Hatchard, &c. iHo^ 

ladolgence must be readily conceded to an author who Irrites 
under the, effecting circumstance of the loss of « mokt' proltoising 
aad./oaly ichiid^ at the early age of I8 $ aod therefore we fed 

H 4 extreme 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

104 Monthly CATAhoavi^ MisiiHanHm. 

extreme reluctanpe to touch this mdatti^ent with the fanj^ imger 
of criticism. Yet we caooot refrain from obtenriog that christian 
i^th, and the aoothiog hand of timey iB%ht have been expected 
to far to have abated the violence of griefs ^at to hafi restourd Mr. 
Gilpin, after the la^ of two yeart, to that s^te of .miod which 
expresses its sensations -with cahnneis^ and discretion; We are 
•6ny that, wfiile in this vohrase he endeavoura to i^U^iay th^ 
singular talentn and atudniMnts of! his departed. son, he has not 
been su&ie»tly^ruMrded tahts ineyK>d ot cshibking them* ^To 
that **^ sonow' which waoiom in fnlloest'' we do not object : but 
it should have bounds in the dtsylay.of it» Joshua RowUy Gilpui, 
the object of this memoirt was od doubt i very aromiiin^ youth } 
but, by the partial father^a aocounti at »> very eAiiy iage ^ attain- 
meats, both in science and literatiu'e, ware aknost unpreoedeated ; 
and his knowlege of idigion was sd laatuted thatht^ frtqueatly 
found himself associated with aagcitc spirits*' The very passages 
of scripture which re£ar to our Saviour are applied to %hk young 
msn. He is aOt only represented as ** incfeasmg in wisdom and 
stature, and in fisvour with Crod andinan/' but in composure under 
his suffintnes to be '* as a ^eep before her shearers, dumb and dot 
ooehing his mouth.'' We are told by the mournful pasent .that 
his son vras fond of. reading ^lUiu^i ^rm to the llnconverted^ 
though, it is added, ' it is not to be ^supposed that AUeine could 
O^mmunicati to, niy sou any thing absmutely new on the grand 
Sttl^ect, of conversion.' As dates are wanting, we cannot minutely 
trace his literary progress, and compare him with other mstatrces 
of premature genius (See Mr. Maltby's Memoir, M. R. vol.h*. N« S. ^ 
p. t !(!.)• hut he may be quoted as another example which proved how 
little such phsenomena are to be desired. When the mibd grows fastef 
than the body« the latter soon feels the effect ; and thifr circum- 
stance should operate a^ a lesson to parents, to be MbVe Solicitous 
in strengthening the constitutions of their children, thsn in ex- 
hibiting^ them as prodigies of genius. Mr. O. draws to inference of 
this sort \ though he h^s protracted his narrative to a great Jength. 

Possessing a mind imbued with piet^, the author is yet too fond of 
di^laying it. Speaking of the visitation (a comphi?ht in 'the 
kings, terminating in consumptibn,) by which he was deprived of 
his son, he says : * No terrific messenger vras serrt to force away 
our dariing child \ but angds catne on that cotAmistfion : -^ no 
poisoned shafts were pCTtnitted to fly abroad ; but a gbldtn aitow 
dipped in love insensibly performed its work: tieith^ ^niy not 
tmr^kpmte^MrJire, vttxt allovred to disturb us witfi theft tremen* 
dous exhibitions ;-^but> through all the mitigated visharbn, n stttt^ 
iwujl voice was heard, proclaiming peace before us.^ His last yisit 
is thus described: * I hastened to embrace, my Joshua before ha 
should go forth to meet his I^td«' Mr. O. depicli hitf wtfe with 
. equal enthusiasm : 'Every object around as wte noir p]ea«l»tly . 
noticed,, and happily improved*— she pointed out the pe^idiaritka 
of some curious plant ; she exhibited the minute forai^of some 
shining insect & she commended the song of tome feathtod tvaiUer; 
or she admired the grandeur of some flying clottd:«***ittll imtiag 



Monthly CataloguEi JMisceilaneoui, 105 

iti iipw^t^i till 9ht had fixed ottr thonghtSy where she deh'gfird tc^ 
occupy her own, among the unfading nowers a^d immortal hum o£ 
the garden of God/ . . 

Art. $3. Thi CufUn m five Lectufet, upon the Art and Prstctice 
of cattitig Friendi, Acqnaidtancesytnd Relationtf. ismo. pp. 104.. 
and six FhiHfV.' 58. Boards. Carpenter. 1808. 
Up«t|ra in fiafthioMbU life wtfgh the /ti&imm tnd th« turpe in 
feaU» of their Ovr«i ; in^stalet whh which persons in the lower classes 
are tmt supposed to be acquainted. In die estimation of these gentty » 
porertjr ia more hideous than vice, and wealth and rank are more 
Deadieotis than virtue. Hence the recomttendations to act^uaintaUce 
6cnft ^eir iniuen^e fram fa^iooy not fro^u morality $ and if such^an 
antiquated principle as the latter is likely*. at any time» to be trbu- 
hiestmiei th^y soon learn to subdue it. What lady or gentleman, w^o 
has t>btaine<i the felicity ofkeepmg^^r(?ifi^fr^i would recognize anf 
•Id frkrid Who is no longer rich nor useful^ an intimate acquaintance^ 
h low life» or a relation who has the unparddnabte fault of being 
poor f Such reptfWs must be kept at a distance ; apd if they presume 
00 claiming the privileges ofiriend^ip/ they must be ait* How this 
operation is to be performed, the lecturer before us has explained 
with as much humour as the subject will admit ; and he hii illust^ted 
hih rules with designs which have gteat character in theiA. His Cut" 
l«r is meant to be cutimg : but those whom he intends to cut k^ovi^ 
better than to cut such a man as the Cutter himself. 

Art. 34* Tic Mventurci a/* Vlystcs* By Charles Lamb. liraoi 
pp. 20 1. 4s. Godwin^ iSo8* 
The adventures of NUlysscs, related in prose, without the^ctrcuoi- 
lociitions, repetitionsy and unnecessary episodes which occur in th« 
Odyssey, cannot fail to make a very entertaining and marvellous 
itory. They are capable, however, of doing much mofe | sinc^ t&« 
circumsuoces immediately preceding the catastrophe are of the most 
affecting nature^i and abound with those delicate traits which are 
not more powerful in surprising the feelings, than in improving the 
virtuous propensities^ of. the youthful mind. Mr! Lart)b has beeQ 
much too sparing of these particulars ; and his omissidn of his 
hero's interview wtth ,the old Laertes, and more especially of his 
recogmition by £ucycle^> appears to us highly injudicious. •^Tbo 

-language here employed is also liable to censure ; and, perhaps on 
i^:Ou^ of the author's having borrowed too largely frotn Chap- 
fttlayobsbleta translation, he is occasionally harsh and obscUr^, 'ana 
aometinaali borders on vulgarity. * A man, whose return the gods 

. htv^tet fkctK facfi e^^st* — ^ In God*t name^ old father y if yduTsave 
fHM W^, trtaic tie most on' t* (|>. 143.) — ^ They you speak ofare^ibund 
mds^itdffidf ss powers that not only exceed human, but beat* the 

• chM^ Sway among the god& ihemsel^jes* (p." j6jj. — This: is a 
sMple 0f /{^^^ology which we are not anxious to hear in' the mouths 

V mJJk^ Hung geneiation. Xo * hear me in exptclatiofi* ttibrc properly 

". Mi^^M^exfect hinc^ .than tQ prpduce expectation in him, as it is 
MMMiscid i^*'i59<*} ; 9ii<i Ulysses is mentioned as intending to taste 

^ the 

io<y MoNfHir Catalogue, 3i//rf/Ai/!f^w/^ 

the cup of ven^ance himself^ when he was preparing it to be tested 
by the suitors, (p. i6i.) &c &c. 

Art. 55. Prison Lueuhraiions\ or. Letters from that welUkitnwn 
Cita^rl, ElleitborOuj?h Ca$iU,-gt.Xredrg^'8 Fields/ to a Friend 
in the Country^ succinctly describing the interi?>r of that For- 
tressy ks Rules^:U<»age8, and Comforts. Interspersed, with Anec- 
dotes ani) Characters of its Inhabilants* and senons Reflections 
on iBanknipt 'Laws and Insolvent Acts, and on the Humanity^ 
sound Policy, and moral Justice of indiscriminate and unb'mited 
ImpriRoament for Debt, uoder the Law of Esyglimd* contrasted 
. with the. Usage of other Nations. By a Veteran. Dedicated 
to the ^arl of Mosra. ismo. ppy. 144. 3s. 6d. sewed. Cradpck 
•ndjoy. 1808. 

This Ipag title-page is a sufficiently correct syllabus of the con* 
iemsof the work; which, it will at once be perceived, is not devoid 
of either curiosity or importance. The autW's picture of the in* 
sidt of the Kiog*s Bench prison,— which * has been generally termed 
by the marry paupers, its inhabitants, the eouH, easiU, hfi^e» or col* 
A^#i of the presiding chief justice/^is sketched with spirit and hu-^ 
mourf and o^any of his reflections on the existing laws of debtortnd ' 
creditor tertainly deserve serious consideration. We are disposed ta 
bopf that the extreme difHculty, of distinguishing, in many. cases, the 
fraudulent from the unfortunate debtor, ^nd a natural unwiUin^g^nesa 
to iattrfere for the purpose of depriving creditors of their only re- 
maining chance of compensation for a civil loss, have alone deterred 
tba bgisktute from a permanent and effectual reform of that op- 
pressive code: but the^ obstacles surely are not insurmountable.—- 
To ihe present state of things, the following remarks are, we fear, but 
to0 justly applicable :^ 

*■ I know not, correctly, . whether impnsoriment for debt veaa ori- 
jriaaNy intended by the legislature for the same avowed purpose as 
iniprisonment for 6ther crimes ; namely, to correct the morals and 
f c^rm 4be manners of those consigned to incarceration ; certato, I 
bcUese it '^ that both have pretty much the same effect ; nam^» 
to «oitf rm thtf sidous habfU ; to explode the Fcmarning moftls ; to 
ruin the characters, and preclude the future livelihood of nineteen 
prisoners in every twenty, apd to change habits of industry, sobriety, 
decency, and decorum^ into idleness, drunkenness, fihh, and a de* 
spending indifference to all character.' 

' ■, '' 

Art* S^ British Chronology : or a Catalogue of Mpnarchs« from 
the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Conquest of William, Duke 
of Normandy : to which are added Chronological Tables of Eng- 
lish History, from the Conquest to the present Reign ; catculatol 
to afford Assistance to young Students of either Sex, who are de« 
siroos of attaining a Knowlege of the Annals of their Countt^r. 
By the Rev. George Whit taker, A. M. Master of the Gram- 
mar School in Southampton. i2mo. pp. 79.. . is. 6d. Law» 

AU attempts similar to the present claipoi, ^i^CQqragcmcnt. j^ tl^ 


y Google 

, MOMTHLT CATAlOCUiPf JI/«/^/y<i«i0»f« X07 

«iiBltuce of a work of this kind it u not tuy to err ; but to cowej 
It in proper language and apposite tcrroi is no ordinary task* We can* 
Bot compliment Mr. Whittakcr on his success in this respect ; whose 
^re affords an. additional instaacie of the difficulty of SHCceediog 
ui the composition of elementary tracts* CTcn of the most iiQprctea<t 
iag kind. . , , 

Art. :?7. Chris? s Hot&kal and the Parisb of EJmonion. A Utter 
ik WiiUam iJiflr*&, Eiq. M. P. on a late. Dispute in the Parish of 
Edmorrton, and on the alleged Abuses in Christ's HospItaL By 
the Rev. Dawson Warren, A. M. Vicafof Edmonton. ' Svo. pp.48. 
18.^. Richardson 
Aft. 38. Later to the Govemore of Chru^e Hosjfitoi^ being a Re* 
fatation of the Invectives and Misrepresentations contained in 4 
Letter from the Rev, Dawson Warren, Vicar of Edmonton, to 
WiUiamMellUhjEsq.MP. By Robert Waithman. 8fo. pp. 54i 
X8. 6d. Sherwood and Co. 

i*he parochial altercation has so little connection with the suljc«t 
in dispute, -respecting the propriety of Mr. Warren's chfld bring 
admitted into Christ's Hospital, i. e. to the Blue-Coat School, thae 
it seems to h^ introduced only for the purpose of gratifyiog feeliaga 
which should in prudence be suppressed when appeals are- made to 
iht publicv The layman, however, has a most decided^ adfaotag« 
over the clergyman in this argument ; since it 1& evident that the. sua 
of a man possessing an income of 1200I. or even of Bool, pe^r anniumt 
cannot be intitled to the benefits of a charity, whicfr is appropriated 
to the education and maintenance of the children of <^ 4istresfed men 
and of poor widows." Mr. Warren, in c;pBsequeBCC of his c«y 
comfortable ciVcumsUnces, makes out a very w^ak case in hitl^tter 
to Mr. Melltsh ; and Mr. Waithman repays him ia kind. for all the 
improper acrimony which he suffered to flow from his pen. .Tfiis 
lastrmciitioned gentleman has not only succeeded in oarrymgv htir 
point against the Vicar of Edmonton, (whose son is, we undierscamlt 
withdrawn frotn the Charity,) but he has effected much paWiq good* 
by calling the attention of the Governors of Christ's Hospilt^(i most 
noble institution) to a con8ideration:of their duty, in «eleei^£r proper • 
object^, and in . preventing thjs provision for the poor fvoiii btii^ 
pcmrted, through interest or abuse, to the service of thosaj»fhQ> do 
not want it. v^ .>- 

Art. JO. An andyttcal Ahridgment of Loche^s Essay concetfuitg tfti^ 
mn,Underttaf^l^ izmo. pp.307- 5*-W- B<»r<h* Imsxu. 

l§0». , ^. ,' - ' ^ ; 

■ Tps appears to be a judicious and very cremtable pertormantt s^ 
wdlisdculated to ex^pcute the true office of ^ aa abridgment,*' 
co^nicndingt not superseding, the study of the larger ^orffcri It 
will probably be found useful in assisting the memory of<atiide«to jai 
our Uniwiirie^* -../... , . . '.!' '^'^ 

Artw-40. The^Jhtrigsus of the ^eeh of Spam with the Prince ofP^ifii 
smd others. Written by a Spaniah Nobjicroau and Patriot. . SVp, 
fei'Bwds; Ben and Decamp. ' " „,i. 


I09 MORTBLT ClTAteCVE, MutiKMiim. 

Tb« Uvtti 6f pffiitte tdm^nl WiD b« dtiaptM>^t<d in thk pronto- 

' tkm t vhfch Kfcilei, or nkhtt flttempu to reme, « terka of pdhicd 

matittuirrea: btit which it « MMt ttdtoui. tiAihterettiiigr £ibrioBCioii» 

ushered iMo the world ^id& k ciCdipcMiy lii^ Md wMkOUt a tinglt 

aMkoriljr for its aUeg«tk>Mi - / 

Art. 41. ^11 £f/Ajf on ibe Life and Wrtiings of Mr, Mrabam Batii, 
hte Castor 6f the BaptlitCliureh tn Litue Pre8CMt4Strcet« Goo4- 
man'ft Fkldi) Loddon. By WilKam Joael. t^^ow pp« 14). 48. 
Button* i3o8* 

Withm a L'ttked circlei thi§ fnetnoir may be fomid *' conifoitable 
and edifyine:'' but to the pubh'c at large it #itt amear a heivyand 
filiated performance. Recording to this reportt Mr. Bo6th Was a 
ftarof the firs^ .magnitude both in the litenury and the th^o)Qg^^ 
world : but the biographer will probably not be able to excite that 
general admiration of hts hero which he himself has conceived; We 
think no mofc highly of Mr. Booth than of otlicr men, on being in- 
formed that ' he had a solemn and abiding concern for his s6\A at 
eleven year? of age/ nor can we applaud Mr- Jones's judgrfient when 
he* asserts that * this youth soon became a soiiJ and good preacher/ 
when it is manifest that at this ume he had received scarcely any 
education, and that his sentiments were, not then established. BV 
dint of application) however, at a subsequent period, Mr. B. cul- 
tivated his miod ; and, though not intitled to that conspicuous Aich^ 
in the Temple of Fame which his biographer would assign to him, 
he certainly ha*^ merit as a theological controversialist : but his sen- 
timents were not of the most expended description. As a strenuous 
antipaedohaptist, he will, be chiefly remembered. On his piety, Mr. 
Jones passes the highest eulogy ; telling us that, towards the con- 
clusion of life, ' they found him in sweet enjoyment of the Lor4*4 
presence, and Satan JLCpt at a distance from him/ Should some 
persons be disposed to smile at su^h expressions, Others will perceive 
^in them "^ savour of grace /* and for the latter the wriungs of Mr. 
Booth arc mostly emulated* .Mr. B. died January 27th i866| 
aged 72. . 

A portrait is prei(ixed> which is by no means prepossessing. 

Art. 4^. ^ Chrcnoloikid R^ihier 0/ htk ffoutit 0/ iie JSritisi 
ParlidttteHt, from the Uni<}n in ^708 to the third I^HiitflK'ttt of 
the United Kingdom of Great Bntain and Ireland, in 1607, By 
RobM Beatson, LL.D. 5 VoU. 8vo. il. 1 it. 6d. Boards 
LcHigmin and Co. 
The contents of these volumes are thus set forth by the author : 

< I. A List, of all the Parliaments, with the scvend Akerationt 
which have happened by Deaths, Preferments, and undue £kctions» 
from the Union in 1 708, to the First Session of the Thinl Parliai* 
nent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 

< II. An Alphabetical List of all the Counties, Cities, and 
Botoughs, shewing the Time they first be^n to send Mmbtn, 
and their Rights of Election, as decided by ttie Hotise. 

< III. An Account of all the controverted Ekctkii^ witkthe 

I icver^ 

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MoMTHtT CatalogvIi Siftgic SirnuHTf/ ^09 

«6veif)l PetcrmiDations cooccfiuog thfim^^ from the ^tb oF £li«a- 
iKth^ tQ the present Time. • . ., 

' tV, A« Alj^hpbetiod Lu( of aS tbe l^ltmbrt, nod their Coun-< 
try Seats, shewing the several Codnties» Cipetji or fiorough^ which 
tlicyJ)Averepre«ente<t . . , , 

• y. An Abhahetkal Li«t of pctIti9P9n^ 

' ' y I, The Heads of the Statutes now la Forcei <ottceraiag 
Elections. J . 

♦ VH. A List of the Peers of I^ngjlaud, whp hw si^t.m Par- 
Ijaoieo^. from the Unlga with Scotland J" i7cH» to i^oq* 

* * yUU A List of Scots Pccjs, who havebcca fcturned to all the 
Parli^iQaeats aince. (he Uoion. 

* "IX- A List of the Irish Pecr^ who have been returned to the 
ynited parliament of Grtat Britaia and Ireland, 8iace the Union in 

TThis. laborious performance displays^ the characteristic diligence. 
and fideh'tj of Dr. Beatson. In a detail so extensive and conaplt- 
ca(edf however* it was impossible wholly to avoid mistakes^ and 
we have accordingly detected several : but they are such as admk 
of easy correction ; and the volumes, on xk\c wholci will form a 
valuable addition to the poh'tIcian*s library. The account of the 
/Various rights of election, and the heads of the statutes by which. 
they are governed, very prqperly £nd room in these volumesy and 
are drawn up with laudable conciseriess. 

Art. 43. , 7%e Tmporiance of educating ihe Poor : preached July the 
i7th, i8o8» at the Black Friars, Canterbury, in Behalf of the 
Royal Free-school, recently established in that City, By John* 
OEvans, A.M. 8vo. is. Sherwood and Co. 

We have here a rational and impressive defence of well intended 
and well-regulated labours for the instruction of the lower classes of 

* mankind. This Royal Free-sohool, we are informed, contain* 
about three hundred boys, and nearly one hundred girls ; and the 
author sayA ' that it was with no small pleasure he witnessed 
the great good order and' atteniwm which prevailed among them.* 
The subject, of the discourse i« also recommf-ndcd to attention, by 
a letter from SjrRtchfnd Phillips, late one of the Sheriffs of Lon- 
doD>' td George Cumberland, Esq ; by which it appears that in the 
number of 152 criminals in Newgate, * 25 signed their names 
\v\ a fmr hand, 26. in a bad and partly illegible hand, and the re- 
maim'ng tor were marktmen, or person^ who bign with a cross.* It 
IB farther obsiCTVed.that, .havjng * been present at the dTstribiuion pf 

. bibles, testa mentft^ and other religious books, the SheriJ}" found a 
great indiffarefice amcyng the criminals about the receipt of them.* Fe>^ 
could read with facility, more than half could not read at allj arid 
a';larg€ mejofity were altogether insensible to the uses of such pre- 

. senta. Th? se are surely strong facts to inforce the necessity of rpore 

, general instrjii^tioa, and to prove that a culpable negligence some- 
where exjia||(.ion the subject of mural arid religious education. 

Art-" 4 4 T^f Conversion of God^s ancunt People, the jfews : An 
Address delivered at Worship -street. Out. 2, 1808, upon -the 


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t lo Mo«TftLY CatAloci;*, Single Set^mnf. ^ 

Bapti«mby Immcr8ii6!j,#f Mr, Isaac Littletcr, one of the IsracUtish, 
Nation, on hit Profession of Chnstianity. To' which is prefixed 
an Account of his CohTersion. By John Evansi A.M. 8vo. 
jt: Sherwood and Co. ■ 

The ttiost curious part of this.pubb'cation» viz. the account of 
die Tccent tenTcndon of one of the tsraelitish natiW to the pro* 
fetsion of Chrinianity» is very short* and, as no co'nfession bf faith- 
is added» very unsatisfactory. Mr. Evans states that his sermon,' 
on *• the Propriety cf the ttms of Christ^ s appearance** (sec our No.. 
for Feb. last p. 223.) was a pnucipal means of cflFecting this im-* 
portant event ; and he intimates that the doctrine so prevalent aniong 
Christians, of a plurality of persont in the Godhead^ is the' great stumb-* 
ling;bIock of the Jews. — The address or sermon on Rom. xi. 1. 
discusses the antient and present state of the Jews* atid oSers a very 
neat and. impattial examination of those questions respecting them,' 
which ^re 9t present matters of debate among Christians. Thougli 
the preacher himself has no doubt of the re-possession of Palestine 
ty th^ Jews, he fairly produces: the great authorities which militate, 
against, this supposition ; and he Viberally exhorts Christiabs to treat 
tfc Jews as our elder brethren, and to throw no obstacles in the 
way of their conversion by an unscriptural faith, or by an uncharita- 
ble conduct. .: 

As amusing addenda to this discourse; Mr. E. has subjoined brief 
accounts of a Roman coin struck on the taking of Jerusaleo), and' 
of the arch of Tips. . The latter, we believe, is not very correct *: 
but tlie. incorrectness baa no reference to the point for which this 
monument of antiquity is quoted. 

Art.45« OntbcPropruty ^preaching the Calvmittk DoctrmeSf and 
the \dushoritus for that Practice : preached at Leicester, May 26, 
iBoy, at the Visitation of the Kev. Atchdeacon Bumaby. By 
the Hon. and Rev H* Ryder, .A.M. Rector of Lutterworth. ' 
^vot- IS. 6d. Payne. 

It may be pre^med that specimetis of true gospel-predching 
could be easily collected in abundance froqi the preaching of Christ 
and hts first apostles : but, according to the Hon. and Rev* Divine 
4>efore^os, neither the sermon on the mount nor that. of Peter on 
the day of Pentecost, npr the discourses of Paul and, Stephen, nor 
lhcEj)istles of Paiil to the Churches, will supply u& with proper mo- 
dels ; and wc must restrict our attention to the Apostle's directions 
to his first bishops, in order to obtain a practical rule of preaching. 
Ncverj iir our opiffi6n^"was a niore weat and unfounded remark.. 
What! did Christ execute his work so imperfectly on earth, as not 
tp d^sic^c the prominent doctrines of his rdigion ? Does his me- 
thod. pf preaching furnish no precedent adequate for his disciples ; 
aiy^f^eyen Peter to be nd-guidc to the modern evangelical preacher ? . 
WiUji authorities are fiot favourable to their purpose, disputants thus 
cont^yt to tei.them aside. — Mr. Ryder, however, if he be not suf.. . 
ficiei^^lyc. captivated with the pure morality of our Saviour's du- 
cours^i to regard them as the lit test patterns of evangelical preach- , 
ingr would aot.^o far deviate from them as 16 annihilate morality by 
the introduction, of the doctnnts oP election and reprobation, la 
ahort. wlien Christ and his" Apostles «do not come up to the AuIqIc}!, 
^ -^ of 

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of onrcharch, wcare not tb suppose them to be pf^t>per examples for 
Qt J and when the Calvinistic Methodists ^n beyond the^ Articles, wc 
arc to regard them as not cvangeUcal. — Discourses of this sort evince 
die alarm which some of the clergy have'taken, and with great reason^ 
at iht rapid increase of the Methodists : but such half-measuret as 
have been hitherto advised will be ineffectual. Theology, as weU n*^' 
philosophy, is studied with more accuracy now than in the reign of 
James I. ; and before men of sense can take the field against eatha-> ' 
tiastSy they should have their fetters knocked off. 

Art. 46. On the SacrametU rfiht LortTs Supper. By Edward Pear- 
son» D.D. Master of Sidney-Sussex CoUege, Cambridge, iamo. 
6d. Hatchard. . 

Dr. Pearson endeavours, in this plain and practical discoarse, to 
explain the nature of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, to state 
the advantages of this rite, and to combat the usual objectioof 
Ufged against receiving it. The passage which he has selected for 
his text (x Cor. xi. 26, &c.) represents that ceremony merdy aa 
a memorial I and the words of Christ at the original institution (see 
the Gospels,) place it in this single point of view. The Commu* 
nion Office is to the saine purpose ; and perhaps Dr. P. would have 
acted prudently, if he had not introduced those words in the Cate- 
chism which express the doctrine of transubstantiation, after the Church 
had wisely abandoned it. His remarks on the importance of this or- 
dinance as one of the appointed means of promoting religion in the 
soul, and his modc^ of refutioz the arguments em|uoyed by those 
who absent themselves from the Lord's Table, are judicious, and 
calculated to impress every serious reader. 

Art. 47., .Preached in the Parish Church of St. Paul, Bedford^ 

before the Rev. Dr. Shepherd, Archdeacon, at the annual Visif 

tation of the Clergy, held May 12, 1808. By the Rev. Joshua 

Morton, Vicar of Risely. - 4to« is. Rivingtons. 

If Mr. Morton has here displayed his attachment to onhodoxf 

and his detestation - of heresy, he hat not placed his charity in a 

very brilliant light, by asserting that ' in every circle of the revlvert 

of ancient heresy tkereisan obvious dereliction of that strict morality 

which the religion of Christ has imposed on all its disciples.' O fye 1 

fye ! Mr. Morton. Such an assertion will reflect no credit on the. 

orthodoxy of the county of Bedford, which this preacher undertakef 

to proclaim. 

We have perused with great attention the polite but iot\^ letter 
addressed to us by Mr. Grant, author of the " Institutes of Latin 
Grammar," reviewed in our number for March, last. His objections^ 
to our remarks on the subjunctive mood are very able, and eiabo«* 
rately stated : but we must confess that they have not had the efct^' 
of changing our views of the suKject. The inquiry is ih^crestioi^ 
and important, and worthy of ^ more extended pursuit ttein il con- 
sistent with the limits of a literary journal ; while at the sarnie time 
its subthrty is such as to render e difference of opinion aoA^g the 
Ao^l diligent gr^rmmariaaa extremely pardonable. 

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We very wiUingly admit that* m some departmeiUi df hb warky . 
M^f Grant i% considerably niore ample than the Port Royah ^^ vc 
have allowed bis method to be incomparabry b^t^r ; lor which 
reasons we stated tbat» althoiigh the Inttitutet were not intltlcd to 
superKde the P.R*, they mi^ht be considered as forming a most useful 
apd respectable auxihary to It. 

We meant to convey no censure on Mr. G* by our observations 
on the objectionable manner of expressing certain rules of grammar. 
Cer^aioV be has only followed the example of his'piedeeessors; 
and we merely seized the opportunity, afforded by his 'work, of 
protestihg generally against a systtm by which, we are convinced, 
the ae^uisttion of the elements of aay language must be grCfitly 
embarrassed and retarded* 

The " Switches of . Character** will not be pvertooked, but our 3]t*, 
tfntion to that production has been unavoidably delayed* in common 
witK many others of the same class. 

^Constant Reader reminds us that the late Lord Jlenyon was 
Master of the RoUs, and not Attorney- General, at the time of the 
Wcstminatcr Scrutiny, to bis conduct respecting which we alluded 
in our last No. p. 41 ^. Wt have searched into this little matter of 
chronology, and ^find that our correspondent is right. The ap- 
pointment of (then) Mr. Kenyon to the Rolls had taken place just 
at the period in question : but, as our Corutant Reader adds, the 
mistake is worth notice only because • one of the finest parte of Mr. 
Foxes' unrivalled spee^h^ on that occasion« is the contrast drawn and 
dwelt upon by him between the petulance and partiality exhibited 
by hia formal antagonift* and tbe grave equanimity that we have a 
right to expect from the abstract character of a judge.* 

We shall, in a short time, attend to the puUicatioii mentioned by 
Semo^9 as far as our duty requirea, and our limited acqiiiaitttance with 
tike particular circumstances will warrant. 
^ ii-ii «iiii« 

Mr. Lindley Murray requests us to -state that he bad no concern 
in either the de»i|rn or the execution of the Leisotu/or Toung Persons 
m humhk UJe, nventioned in our Number for April, and which we 
•on^cturaliy imputjrd to him ; and that h^ fhould deem' himself 
culpable if, by his silence, he attracted to himself the credit whi<lh is 
iiL ihiA instance due to another t>eraoJi. 

H. D. 16 received : but we cannot obey injtmcttons a& to the extent 
of the notice which -we shall take of any work, 

Mr/ Hutton's waxk will probably appear in our next Number* 

•^» The Appendix to Vol. 58. of the M. R. is publishjcd with 
this Number, and contains analyses of a variety of Forhoh Pva- 
i^iCATiONS. as usual, together With tUe General Title, Table of Con* 
tentt, an^ Index^ for the Volume.' 


y Google 

.THE > /' ' 


For JUNE, 1809. 

AKt. I. Memoir of the Reign of James IL By John' LqrA 
Viscount LoD8dak> 410. pp. 64. Printtd at York by WiImq 

and Spence. Not published. i8o8. 

Tt is truly and judiciously observed in the preface affixed to 
-■' the terf interesting Memoir before us, that * the stock of 
historical knowlege has been of late years considerably aug** 
mented by learned and ingenious men, from sources of prfratef 
information. They have carefully selected many interesting; 
particulars from the letters and authentic documents of several- 
distinguished individuals, whose characters and- ^eminent- 
services are deeply interwoven with the political history -of 
this country. Of the importance of such materials to ensWe 
us to form a Jiisjt and , accurate estimate of great events aricF 
of their causes, no doubt can be entertained.' We trust tihat^ 
^he justice of this sentiment, a strong conviction ofwhich^ 
has tempted us to take this public notice of a work Which is-' 
destined only for private. circulation, will not merely fiitnishr 
our excuse for this .liberty, but will also induce the noble- 
proprietor of the original paper to render it as accessible as' 
it will certainly be found valuable, to all who for their own- 
instruction, or for that of others, shall devote their attention to-' 
the most important portion of English history. 

The Meiiioir itself is introduced by twenty-s^eri pages of pre- 
face, describing^ t;he life and character of Jbhn L6i*d Viscount^ 
Lonsdale. We learn that he was bom in 1655, at Hackthorp' 
Hall, in the parish of Lowther in the county of Westmore- 
land, and Was the thirty-first knight in his family, in an almost 
direct line. His mother having died when he was not abav«^ 
six years old, and his father soon afterward, his early educa- 
tion appears to have been in some degree neglected. ^ Before 
he had attained the age of fifteen years, he was admitl;ed of 
Queen's College, Oxford, from whence, after a short stay of 
a year and' a hdf,^ he was sent to travel. But his contineiltai 
tour extended no farther than to the city of^|^j^^n the 

Vol. lix. I 

tl4 Xm/ LeasdtleV Mitnoir rfthe Rtign ^f James It. 

LoWe» iStiit whole ^time of hU being abrotd not exceeding 
eighteen months, twelve c^ whidi were spent at Sens/ 

The rtrj sensible observation made by Sir John Lowther on the 
iUte of English diplomacy is unfortunately as applicable to the 
Resent times a^ to those in v^ch it was written* ^To that 
negligence are we giin^rn, (he says) that it is not so much as 
tbottgnt of to educate any in qualifications for foreign ministry 
^r embassy \ «o that in reality, we are the scorn and contempt ^ 
of all the courts of Europe, having scarce any body that under- 
stands any thing relating to our own, or the common interest 
of princes ; iiisomuch, that at this time the King is obliged to , 
etnploy the cliaplain of the I&te envoy in Sweden, and one 
taken ;for charity, from a tavern bar, in Germany. In 
Denmatk, I think, he hath none, nor in Italy, nor Switzer- 
land,- unless a French refugee.* p. viii. 

In ^^ISi Sir John was elected one of the knights for 
the county of Westmoreland, and continued its representative 
in parliament^ is. long as he remained a commoner. He ap- 
pears to have been faithfully attached to the proteistant interest, 
and to have supported all the measures of the Whig-party. 
During the reign of James, he watched the rash and precipitate 
measures of mat infatuated monarch with perpetual anxiety 
and^larm;. and at length, having joined in soliciting the as- 
sistance of William and inviting him to England, he became 
a member of the convention-parliament. * He had previously 
vecured the city of Carlisle, and influenced the two counties 
of Westmoreland and Cumberland to declare themselves in 
favour of the Prince.'— On the accession of William, he wiis 
appointed a privy counsellor, and vice chamberlain of the 
liouseholdj and in i689> he was made Lord Lieutenant of 
the two counties above mentioned. He afterward successively 
served the offices of first lord commissioner of the trea&ury, 
and lord privy seal j in which latter situation he rcfceived a 
m<fst gracious and friendly letter* from his sovereign, dispens- 
ing with his attendance at the council board, in consideration 
OTthe infirm state of his health : but earnestly desiring'him not to 
think of quitting the public service at a time when Hfs Majesty 
had mote occasion for him than ever. He had previously, in 

^ Of this letter*, an engraved fac simile; is here inserted. It bears 
date, Hampton Court, May 23,i7oo,.«id is written in French. 
It affords an example of minute attention to style which might not 

nd jamais is wnttcn over by the word foinif apparently to avoid 



Lm-d housdsde^i Memoir tiftht Rngnff- l«mts. IL 115 

die year 1696, Wen created Viscount jUmsdalc and Bvon 
liowther. Itr July 1700, he ^ais appointed one of the Lordt 
of the Regency, ^ but <ni the tenth day of that month )xt 
departed this life at the age of forty-five years ;, so short was 
the time allotted to him by Providenc^/ He seems to have 
justly merited the character of a pious, bgieyolent, honest, and, 
enlightened man \ and he has the honour not only of having 
contributed* to the Revolution, but also of being one of th« 
best historians of the reign which produced it* 

It was on the sixteenth of September in the eventful yeajf 
1688, that he began to execute a design which he had formed^ 
« by God's permission more exactlie hereafter to sett down 
what should happen not only to himself, but also such other 
public occurrences, both at home and abroad, as should appear 
most worthy of observation/ He commences with the deatH 
of Charles, and proceeds to give a rapid, but very accurate^ 
sketch of the circumstances which attended the accession of 
James ; as the unpopularity into which the Whigs had fallens 
< the Popbh plot of a long time discredited,' the affection that 
men were inclined to bear towards the person of their new 
monarch, the confidence reposed in his promises, and the 
satisfaction excited by his addresses both to the privy council 
and to the first parliament assembled in his reign. He doesnot,^ 
indeed, examine the whole of James's conduct with that severity 
and care which have been employed by our late illustrious 
patriot, in detecting the latent views of that monarch's weak, 
violent, and despotic character : but the plain facts recorded 
by him, which fell beneath his personal observation, enable us 
to throw a strong additional light on one of the most import* 
ant passages in Mr, Fox's history. The readers of that wotk 
must remember his exposure of Mr. Hume's misrepresenta«> 
tion, in intimating that the grant of revenue was contested 
with spirit in the House of Commons, and gave occasion, to a 
considerable debate, whereas the grant was not only voted 
unanimously, but passed without animadversioq. " The only 
speech made upon the occasion (says Fox) seems to have ^been 
that of Mr. Seymour, who, though of the Tory party, was a 
strenuous opposer of the Exclusion bill, and has the merit of 
having stood forward singly, to remind the House of what 
they owed to themselves and their constituents." He then 
mentions the censure passed by this gentleman on the inter- 
ference of Government with the boroughs by prescription j 
and he afterward remarks that this npisrepresentation is of 
no small importance, as tending to inspire a much higher icfea 
of the enlightened views and the patriotic spirit of this Hous^ 
ef Commons, than they really deserved. 

I a Kow,^ 

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li6 Lord LoiisdaleV Memoir of the Reign of James it. 

Now, though Mr. Hume is clearfy convicted of a very 
gross perversion of the fact, Seymour did not stand single in 
support of the constitution. He might, indeed, be the only 
man who brought forv^ards the subject on the first day of the 
Session, as Bumpt has stated ; and it is possible that he was 
iiot seconded T)ecause, as a known Tory, he might be in some 
degree distrusted by that popular party which was otherwise 
disposed to complain of the outrage denounced by him. The 
following extract froni the memoir before us will prove that 
the subject was taken up on the most enlarged and, liberal 
principles, and discontinued merely through a manoeuvre of 
flie Court : 

♦* And this 18 to be observcdr that not onh'e at this juncture, but 
to all new Kings, parHaments have been ever fFavourable. But yett 
there were some men, not altogether so transported . with this new 
taradi^e, 96 not to fForesee danger in some things done alreaJie, and 
fti some things then proposed. The first of these was, ^he destroy- 
ing the ancient method of elections in burroughs by prescription ; 
by obliging them to accept charters w^i* vested the power of elec- 
tion in some particular people named ffor the purpose. This 
seemed to strike at the root of the government ; ffor tis manifest the 
hous of commons will retain nothing but the name, the vertue will 
be gone when the King shall have the power of nominating all the 
^itiezens and burgesses., I therefore was one of those that wad 
desirous to have the ancient custome re-established ; thinking, that 
Ve were chosen to sitt there to no purpose if we tamelie suffered 
such an alteration in the ffundamentals of the government, without 
endeavouring any reparation of so materiall an alteration. I ffound 
many as much concerned and troubled as myself att the prospect of 
the danger^ but none that were willing to move it in the housw' 
But it bdng offiered me by my Lord Willoughbie, eldest son ta 
nay Lord Lindsey, and. by his brother, and by S*^ Richard Middlc-> 
ton, of Chirk Castle, and others, all men of great estates, that if I 
would nK)ve it, they would second it, I undertook the thing, and the 
day appointed ffor our design being taken up till after twelve o'clock 
leirith other debates, I did, notwithstanding, (that I might not seem 
to ffail those I had promised) according to the rules of the hou» 
that no new motibn shall be made after that hower, without leav, 
inform S' John Trevor, now Master of the Rolls, and then speaker^ 
that I had a motion to make, but being then unseasonable, I did 
desire he would appoint another day fot it. He who had intel- 
ligence of. pur design^ thought there was no likelier way both t» 
judge of "the temper of the hous, and to evade the danger of its 
taking effect, than by letting us tlien enter into the debate, and so 
adjourning it to another day. Accordingly he bid me goe on j I 
therefore spoke to this effect ; that we were now happie in a prince, 
whose experience and reputation wis like to carrie the honour and 
^orte of this kingdome higher than ante of his ancestors ; that wd 
had reason to hope ffrom so magnanimous a Kia^ that the Ffreneh 


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L^rd LonsdakV Memoir of the Ifieign of Jzmes 11. 117 

Jung, who was looked upon as the terrour of the nations, would now 
no more be thought formidable, but that the shaken powers of 
Europe would own (q. owe) their securitie and protection to the 
irertue of our prince, no less considerable in himself, than powerful in 
the aSections of his people, which was a circumstaoce that was of 
itself sufRcient to make anie King of England bear a considerable ffi- 
grure in the world ; that the parliament in settling the revenue had 
showed so much their dutie and affection to his Maj% and he had on 
his part given them so good and repeatcfd assurances of protecting and 
securing the government, that I hoped that in the ipotion I w'as 
going to make, we should neither incur his displeasure nor ffail of 
success, 'speciallie since the alteration of elections in burroughs by- 
prescription, hj obliging them to take charters, was a businesse that * 
took its originall under his brother's reign, but was a matter of that 
importance, that it shaked the very constitutions of parliament ; that 
it was a disseising of the subject of his ffreehold without a tryall, and 
was a matter that in its own nature and its consequences, was of the 
greatest importance, and proper for the consideration of th^ whole 
hous. I did therefore desire that the hous would name a committee 
to consider of a proper way of applieing to the King for a remedy ffor 
K> great a grievance. 

* This speech was heard very fifivourablie by the hous, and was 
seconded by S' Richard Middleton, my Lord Willoughbic, and 
others ; but the day being late, the debate was adjourned till two 
days after, att which time 'twas thought fitt to evade the businesse 
by the King's sending for the hous upon another occasion, which 
took up their time for that day, so that the debate was never re- 
sumed ; nndi/it had. In probabilUte tomeihtng considerable would have 
l^een done in //, the hqus seemed so well inclined and so zealous in that 
matter.'^ , , 

If the Goncealment of an important fact, by a person inrho un- 
dertakes to tell the whole truth, may properly be styled a mis- 
representation, Hume has, in our opinion, been guilty of one 
still less excusable, in suppressing all mention of the abomin- 
able act ** for the preservation of the king's person and govern- 
ment.'' That such a bill should ever have passed through any 
House of Commons is a deep disgrace on that body : but that 
it received a warm opp(:(sition there, was effectually mutilated 
in a committee, and finally rejected by the Lords, will prove 
that the principles of whiggism, being once received and under- 
stood, did not allow those who professed them tamely to- ac- 
quiesce 'in the proposed violation of natural rights. It is true 
tiiat the arguments stated by Sir John Lowther relate to " the 
general danger of making words treasonable •," while at the 
same time they strongly expose " the cryiiig injustice of the 
clause, which subjected a man to the pains of treason, merely 
for delivering his opinion on a. controverted fact, though he 
should do no acf in consequence of such opinion." The ge- 
|}^ral doctrine was inseparable from the particular case ; 

1 3 ^ The 

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1 18 Lord Lonsdale^/ Memoir 9ft^ Reign ofjzrtiti H, 

* The second thinp wherein they seemed jto use caution w«8 m 1 
bill brought into the house for the preBcrvation of the ivifig's person, 
the mtanine of which was to make words treason. Against which 
It was objected that the wisdom of our ancestors had always been 

• testified in their caution In not admitting any such precedent • that 
words were easily misconstrued, and easily misunderstood : that be<* 
fore the statute of Edward the 1 hfrd, it was become a difficult mat- 
ter to say what was treason & what was not ; that therefore that act 
was mad e^ and was thought a sufficient .'eciTitie against all treasons, 
8c had wtll provided for the safety of the King's person & his go- 
^ernme'nt, 8c had amply enough enumerated the, severall sor^ of 
treMons ; 8c that if there were anie extraordinarie case happened, 
there was a power lodged in the pa-liament by that statute 16 judge 
of it. That it would only tend to the encouraging of perjury, when 
jfrieur either through corruption or revenge, might so ec^sily do mis- 
chief, £c be so hardly proved perjured. To this 'twas answered, 
that men ipight as easilie swear to facts that were never done, as to 
words that ^erc never spoke. To which it was replied, that that 

^appeared otherways in holic wrilt in the case of our taviour, against 
Whom the fTils witnesses said, that he had said he would destroy the 
temple, & in fh/ee days would build it up again, whereas the words 
he spake were. Destroy this temple & in thfee days I will rais it up 
agail^ Where the mistake of the temple fFor this temple, ffor he 
spoke of the temple of his bodie, and the word buHd instead of the 
word rais, made the critne according to the Jewibh law. By which 
'twas plain that every t^ech not fit ed to the capacitie of the hearers 

~ might easily ^e sithject to a eriminai construction, that private conversation 
'would become sits fee ted, ^ /here/ore that the law did wisely provide that 
ihere should he an^ Oveut act to make a treason, which is the 
highest punishment in the law. Att last, because they would not 

-^otaOre Inject a matter that had but the pretencc^ of securing the 

' Kind's person, thi^y referred it to |i committee to draw up some pro- 
"vtsoes to t^e bill, that might secur^ the subject as much as could be. 

j. was one of that coiiimittee, an4 there were two -provisoes agreed 

•upon. The one w^s, that no preach/ng or, teaching against the er- 
rou'rs of Rortje in defence of the Protestant religion should be cori- 
atrued to be within th^t act. The second was, that all informations 

within that stattrffe should be hiadc within forty-eight howecs. With 
these two'provfsoes^the force of it uas so iputiUted, that it wais not 

■•thought 'worth having ; an\i so it fjied.' ' , ,. 

Although these extracts disagree with Mr. Fox's ojiinioh 

; that the first parliament of James's- reign was marked by an 

indiscriminate servility of acquiescehce, and- an entire abjurafcioji, 

of constitutional privileges, yet they jhaye a strgng tendency to 

confirm his leading and mor# important doctrine, viz. that the 

. Revolution was produceci by James's violation of the laws and 

' liberties of England, rather t^aii by his projects in favour of 

popery j since th^y prove that a respectable bodypf men con- 

tinued^^ven mth$se badtimes^ staunch to thfe true^Whig prin- 


• Digitizectby.CjOOQlC ' 

"Lord LontdaleV Menmr of tie Riign ^lamet IL X X9 

ciples: which they as prudently awaited as they aiiolully 
employed the first effectual opportunity of restoring to lba( 
just preponderance. 

The account of Monmouth's attempt is edncise and ^tritedf 
and the following particulars will be found interesting : 

' Mjr Lord Gray's t:6nduct tn all this businette garc the cento* 
rious world Icav to say that he betrayed him^ and that ke triumphed 
ia the revenue ffor private injuries received in his fFainilic : ffor be* 
/i^de8 the ffailure of hors under his coaduct, he, after their b^QC 
taken, seemed rather pleased than fFearful : hn» talk was of houiw 
and hunting, and when the Duke att Mr. Ghivtnck's complained of 
a cold he had gott, he in a scoif told him his uncle hid a cure to be 
appihVd in a few days. This condact, added to his iFormer escape x 
Out of the hands of a messenger in a hackney coach/ made the world 
almost assured of what they suspected "; and I have been informed 
that one Major Holmes discerned the thing so plainlie, that ' he told 
the Duke three days before the battle at Sedgemore, that my Lotd 
Gray was certainlie either a coward or a knave ; that, if he would 
give him leav, be would secure him, without which he despaired ot 
successe. The Duke made answer that 'twas then too late. The 
conrag^e of this Major was remarkable : he had his arm broke in the 
battle, was brought up to London, had his life offered him by the 
King, if he woal(i promise to h*ve quietlie, and endeavour no dtt* 
turbanee. His answer was, that his principles had ever been repub* 
licarian, srs thinking that fform of government best for this natioai 
that he was still o( that mind ; that he was now an old man, and hie 
life as little worth asking as 'twas worth hk Majestie's giving ; and 
'twas indifferent, to him whether his Majestie p^irdoned him or not. 
He was therefore sent into the countrie and hanged, whittit^my Lord 
Gray had his pardpn, and became an evidence against several!. Be* 
sides those that were killed in the ffieldi there were about scvcQ bus* 
dred sentenced to death and executed, insomuch that all the high* 
ways of that countrie were no longer to bt travailed, whilst the bar* 
rour of so many quarters of men and the offensive stench of theils 
lasted, of which Dr. Ken, the Bishop of that DioceSie, writ a most 

{atheticall letter to his Majestic,— ^^ George Jeoffrey, then Chief 
ustice and now Lord Chancellor* brfng the principall Judge seal 
into that countrie to trie them.* 

The noble author then recites the repeated viofetions of 
the law by ^e promotion oi^ catholics ; the trial of Sk £d|^ard 
Jiales for accepting an office without taking the oa^ and 
test, in which all the judges, excepting Street, g^vc Aar 
opmion that the King migl^ dispense with th$ law| the 
encampment of the army on Hounslow Heath j and James's 
resolution to try the tefhiper of the ensuing p^M^liament;, by 
proposing certain queries, relating to the penal laws, to all 
cand dates at elections. The conduct qi tpe author on this 
occasion does so much bpnour to hU priuqi p 


X 20 Lord LoBsdaleV Memoir tfthe Rtign of James Ht ^ 

tioB^ and his firmnessi that we have great pleasure- in descriln - 
hif^ it in his own words ; , * ' , 

* The KiDjiry to shew hw rcRolution'to have this matter take effect, 
imtf^ oul a declaration ffor libcrtie of conscience, and orders three 
questions to be stated^ which were to be carried down into ail the 
counties of England by the Lord Lievtenants*. ^nd tendered to all 
the Justices of Peace and Deputie LieVtenants, with a dedaratiot) 
in the Gaa". att the same time, that he would displace all those that 
refused to coviplie with his deaire ; notwithstanding w*^'* the answers 
were univcrsallie opposite to what was expected. The questions wcfe 
to this effect : 

1*. «' Whether, if you be chofen a member of partiament ffor th^ 
couu ie or ante bunrough thereof will you be ffor taking away the 
penall laws and teft ;" 

t% ** Whether will you give your vote and interest ffor such as will 
be ffor taking away the penall laws and test ?" 

3: *< Whtther will you support the King's declaration by livcing 
t>eftceablie with mep of all perswasions, as a good Christian ought tq 

' These questions were brought into this countie, by my X,^ Presr 
too, L^rd* Lieutenant for these two counties. And the gentlemen 
♦were summoned to meet thim at Penreth. A day or two before the 
tilne. appointed^ 8' Danlrll Fflt-ming came hither, Slnd desired to 
;knew my opinion, about an answer to them. I showed him my 
thoughts^ w^* he was pleased to apprpve, and my answer w'as so uni* 
irer»allie liked, that, exceptingby two orthree att most, it was given 
¥erb4trm by all the gentlemen that did not complie with the questions^ 

• 'Whioh were about 17 or j8 ; it was to this effect : 

I, ** If I be chosen a member of parliament (Fof this pountie Q|r. 

• tuy bor<^ugh thereof, I think myself obliged to refer my opinion con* 
ecrning ihi ta: \ng away the penall laws and tests to the reasons that 
ahall ari«e from the debate of the hous 

«. *• If I give my vote to ani* to serv in parliatnent, it shall be to 
f»uch hottest and loyall gvntkmeo as I think will ffaithfullie serv the 
i King and established gOvertiment. 

3**1 will live peaceablic with men of all petswasior^s, as a good 
Christian ought to doe.'' 

We pass over the erection of the court of ecclesiastical 
^ comniissioii, the case of Magdalen College, and the admis*' 

«ion of the Pope's nuncio, for the sake of giving a more ample; 

and <kt«iled relation of the great and memorable case of the 
'* Seven Bishops, in the very words of this distinguished patriot, 

■whose share in advising them* affords a striking examplfe of 

Jnrudence and moderation. 

* The King did agt^in putt fforth his declaralion ffor Hbertic of 
conscience,' wiih an order It should be read two Sundays together in 
all the parish churches of England. Upon this the clergy of London 
took the matter into serious consideration and weighed the reasons 
for a9d agaittst it. 7hey found BotbiDg. to make ^hem-con^ie, 

' • - : * "'■'.' but 

• . ' Digitized by'CjOOQlC 

tori LdnsdaleV Memoir rf the Rmgn (f James It. \%t 

bat the apprehensions of incurring the King's displeasvire, A: the In* 
conveniences that might ensue thereupon. But on the other si4e 
they said* that the reading of it was as much as in them lay, a dis^ 
missing their congregations : a teaching, or att least an imph'catioii 
that the religion they had so long taught had no real uieritt above 
others. But what was most cf all, and upon which th^y grounded 
thtir rcfusall, was that the declaration was declared illegall in 
Charles the Second's time in parliament more than once, & agaia 
even in this King's time ; and that it noas ffounded upon tueb a dtt* 
fencing powery at might att once overturn all tanot^ at weJ civil as iccle^ 
siasticalL They fiFurther considered, . that if they consented to the 
reading this declaration,- they should loos their interest k reputation 
with the nobilitie & gentric; of the nation, so many of which had lost 
offices of honour & proffitt fTor the sake of religion & the laws, which 
they by this action would seem to abandon ; that in vain they had 
writt so many excellent things in defence of the Church ot England, 
if when it came to action., they durst not justifie; what they had writt: 
that if they should complie in this, somfthing wors would certainlic 
be imposed upon them, to ruin them, 8c having lost their reputation, 
they should tall unpitied ; that they could never take an opportunitie 
of refusing upon a point more popular, or more justifiable ; that 
their consenting to this made their condition as precarious as that pf 
anie other Dissenters, who having no legall establishment were £Forced 
to iSy to the declaration for protection ; that having once putt them* 
selves upon th^ levell with them thejt easilie foresaw how they 8lu3ul<l 
be treated. I was then att London, when one of the best Sc chief 
of the clergy communicated to me these thoughts, and their resolu* 
.tions of applying to the King. I asked him whether they were una* 
Dimous? he answered me i hey were : 8c ffurther asking my advice la 
it, I desired to know in what manner they designed to appl it them- 
selves to the King. He anf^wered, he thought tne Bishops would doe 
it. If not, the clergy of London were rcadie to doc it in a bodic | 
ic that some one of them would make a speech, setting forth their 
reasons, and that they could not do it Jn conscience. 1 tuld hi;Q that 
since they had taken up a resolution of so great importance, two 
things ooghc to be industriouslie provided against : ffirst* that no« 
thing in whftt they did should have a fface of rigour towards the 
Dissenters. If their not reading the declaration should seem to have 
that ffor its reason, it would neither hav its due operation with the 
nobilitie & gentrie, nor would preserv the Dissenters in the neutr^. 
litie.they seemed to affect. Secondlle, that they oug^ht tp coubider 
well what they resolved to say, and deliver ic in writing ; for that 
words were liable to b^ misunderstood 8c misconstrued : that the 
matter was of a nature that was so little grate^ull, that they could 
hardlie hope to have ffavour in the interpretation of what they said. 
He seemed to agree to my opinion. And no dout^t both their own 
& other people's judgm'^ with whom they consulted was the saoiet 
since thty pursued that councill so cxactlie. Ffor the Friday before 
it should have been read in the churches^ six BNhops who were then 
in town, waited upon his Majestic, witli a paper writt by the Arch- 
(>ishop of Cautcrburic's own handy setting forth th at it w as not out 

-^•"^■^ of 

125- Lord Lonsdale*/ Memoir of the Reign oJ[Htot% II. 

of anie disrespect to his Majestie» o^ dne tendernesse towards Dis* 
fenlcrs, that they were againstr reading his Majestic's declaration; 
hutffor that it was founded on such a dispensing to^r as might set aside 
all iaws, Ut which had been declared illegal in several par liamenii* 
Whilst the ffirst pan was a reading, his Majestic seemed well pleased* 
but when they touched so hbme ifpon the dispencing power tic ex- 
pressed a great resentment att it. He told them 'twas a blowing the 
trumpett for rebellion ; but that he would prevent them. There- 
upon Sir Jonathan Tralawnie, Bishop of Bristol, ffell upon his knec8» 
& told his Majestie that his life and {Fortune had ever been attliis 
Majestie's^scrvice, & ever should be where his conscience gave leav. The 
King told him he w<* be obeyed ; but withall, in a milder manner att 
parting, said, that if he' changed his resolution, they should hear 
from him tl>t next day. The declaration therefore was not J'ead in 
above five or six churches within the cities of London aiid W^st^ 
minster, & the suburbs, 8c the ea^ample was prevalent through the 
nation, ^bout a fFortpight after, the Archbishop and his six 
brethren were summoned to appear before* the King in council]*, 
whither when they came, after some questions a»ked, they were or- 
dered to ffind sureties, to answer an infonnation to be exhibited 
against them in the King's Bench. To this they pleaded the privi- 
Icdgc of xpcerage. Upon which they were all seven se>vt to the 
Tower, where they staid not long ere by Habeas Corpus th^ were 
brought to the King's Bench and bailed, the Archbishop iq 500L 
and the rest in 2ocl. bond^^nd in Trinitie Term they were tryed 
;iipon the information. The King's councill did not suffictentlie. 
. prove the paper to be delivered, nor that that was the Archbishop's 
band. However, the Lord Chief Justice Wright, upon the evi* 
dence as it stood, was beginning to siimme it up to the Jurie, whcQ 
Mr: Ffinch, of councill Sor the Bishops stood up, with a design to 
have Jjaid something, hut perceiving my L** was begun to direct the 
Jurie, would have sitt doWn again, which the Chief Justice would 
not suffer, saying, that it shpuld never be objected that the Bishop's 
councill could not be heard ; and urging him to say what he was 
goeiog to qfiove, he answered, «* My jLord, the matter in the in- 
carnation not being proved, they must of nccessitie ffind flFor us." 
Upon which it being again argued whether the delivene of the papef 
was proved, or whether that was the Archbishop's hand, the King's 
councill. that they might i}ot be defective in a point so materially 
sent to Whitehall ffbr my Lord Sunderland, to prove the dcUvcrie of 
tbe paper. But when he came, all he could say was, that he carried 
them to the King, & when they were alone, he left .them. That 
that was the paper which the King gave himi & which he told httn 
he received from them : this was thought tio direct proof. But this 
introduced another long argument, whether the matter contained in 
the paper tpade it a b'bell, as was set forth m the infdrmation. Upon 
which, the Bishop's councill, but especiallie Sargeant P^mberton, 
argued with great learning and vigour against the dispencine power« 
setting fforth, as was said, TfFor Uie jtryall not being printed we hid 
onelie uncertain reports of those arguments,) that in vain did parlior 
ments s^semble and enact laws^ if they Wuld be diipcQced withVor , 


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Lord LcmsdaleV Mtmmr of tUi Reign of J^une» IL i 23 . 

'abrogated att pleasure ; that the blood that had been spent ffbr gain* 
tug the great charter of England, and the multitude ot confirmationt 

. it nad had> were ^o no purpose, if the King» inrhen he pleased, could 
avoid it. They quoted and produced the joumalls and records of 
parliament, that the matters contained in the petition concerning the 
declaration in parliament, were true> and produced more to the same 
effect ; they said 'twas against all reason to affirm, that any power ' 
could abrogate a l^w, but that that made it $ that the laws were the 
King's laws, but th^y were ffor the use off his people, as the high- 
ways were called the King's way?, but they were for the gcnerall 
and publick use of his subjects. Upon these and more arguments, 
•trenuouslie urged, J'ldge Powell said he knew no sucfi dispencmg 
power Judge Hollo Way said, he conceived it no libcU. The Chief 
Justice was doubtfull ; onh'e Judge Allibone, who was a Roman 
Catholick^ said it was a libelL The Jury, the next morning, brought 
in their verdict not guiUte ; which word was no sooner pronounced by 
the fforeman, but there arose a shout and a noise, so loiid and so 
continuing, that theMfke thing had before been never b^ard. . It 
went out of the hall, which was crowded with people, and was taken 
tip by the watermen^ and in a moment, like a train of gun-powder 
sett on fire, went both up and down the river, and along the streets, 
to thct astonishment even of those that contributed to it. The 
Bishops did all they could to hinder the acclamations of the people, 
least that also should be objected as a crime, but in vain. People* 
that upon other occasions had perhapps^ but little religion, and less 
veneration for that office, did not ffail to ffall upon their knees and 
%o ask their blessing. * And what was admirable, there was veric 
Cew villages throughout all England, where there was not bonefires, 
rejoicings, and ringing ofbells the verie night that the post brought 
them the news : for 'twas certain that their could be no correspond- 
ence ffor any such thing, and yett they all agreed in that sort of ex- 
pression of their joy Directions were given to the Judges in^heir 
circuits to punish the nocers : but no juries would ffind the bills ; nor 
wa3 it likelie, the multitude of offenders was too great.' 

The second division* of this history, or journal, is dated 
September the 24th, 1688. It takes a very comprehensive 
and statesmanlike review of the affairs of Europe ; introduced 
indeed by some singular speculations on the physical or as- 
trological effects of comets and earthquakes, which then as* 
tonished mankind; and^ followed by a description of the alafm 
excited in the mind of James by the probability of an invasion 
from Holland. He withdrew his former measures, with a 
precipitancy which marked his fear and agitation, and with a 
degree of wavering imbecillity which destroyed all confidence 
in the stability of- his resolutions. To the. conciliatory mea- 
ssures adopted in this emergency, which are enumerated by - 
Hume, we may add, from the work before us, that James is* 
sued < a declaration that he only desired of the parliament^ ' 
Jliat was to-meet, in November, that -they would repeal such ' 

* clauses 

Digitized by VjOOQIC « 

1^4 -^^ Lons4aleV Memoir oftl^ R<ig>^ 2^ James 11. 

clauses in the acts of uniformity, that punished such, persona 
as not being promoted to any spiritual preferment, did exercise 
their religion, contrary to the tenor of the said acts •, and thsit 

. be was willing the^ Roman catholics should continue incapable 
of sitting in the House of Commons.' He also published in 
the gazette, at short intervals, two general pardons, which 
were inconsistent with each other, inasmuch as diflFerent 
descriptions of persons were excepted from the benefit of each ; 
and it is observed in a note by the author, that * tis said 
neither of these pardons are to be found on record.' These 
and the odier violent measures of retractation, with respect to 
the Bishops, the court of ecclesiastical commission, Magdalen 
College, &c., are here very well described to have t^ken place, 
^ to the surprise of the people of England that .had been 
restored, and to the offence of thpse that had complied with 
the king.' 

The narrative then proceeds under the general date of 
October ; and the next portion of it, which appears to hjive 
been composed oh the a 2d of that month, relates wholly to 
the King's anxiety to remove all doubts as to. the birth of the 
young prince. The Queen dowager declared what she knew^ 
and a great many affidavits were produced both in coimcil and 
in chancery. ^ 'Twas reckoned a great unhappinesse, that the 
matter was not made so plain and demonstrated before, that 
it should need no proofs now, this being of the number of 
those, things, which are much better prevented than cured ^ 

. and 'twas s^id^hat the malicious talk ^people ivas as. laud before 
the birth as after j which might have been a sufjicient caution to 
have prevented anie advantage*, yt the prince of Orange could 
pretend to, by the conduct of that business, ffbr if there had 
been some persons substituted on the betalf of the Prince 
of Orange and the Princesse of Denmark, who was absent att 
the bath when the Prince was bom, it had no dciubt been 
more convincing to them, than the depositions mad6 were to 
the people.* This clear, simple, and reasonable statement must 
pipve, to the satisfaction of every unprejudiced mind, that* the 
strongest igrounds for doubt and suspicion were furnished by 
the conduct of the King ; and that the report of the illegitii 
macy of the child was not a calumny deliberately invented^ as 
Hume declares, for party purposes, but a belief honestly, 
sincerely, and not very unwisely entertained. The observa- 
tion triumphantly produced by that historian in favour of the 
opposite hypothesis, viz. that the same fiction had been at- 
tempted and had failed when the Queen was before preg-« 
jiant, seems to us to supply two strong arguments against 
' him \ for> in the first place, it is extremely improbable that 

• Digitized by Google 

I Xm/ JiOnsdaJe*s Metn$tr <ffthe Reign f>f James 11. 1 2 j- 

Ae same party should revive the same story which had once 

. been completely baffled, without new evidence of its truth ;, 
and moreover it must have appeared quite impossible that the 
Kmg's knowlege of the rumors, which had existed in the 
former case,. Aould not have induced him most scrupulously 
to guard against their renewal at this critical period, by demgn^, 
iiratirjg (as Sir John expresses it) all the necessary facts to every , 
person who was interested in them *. 

To the last division of this Memoir, we have the date of the 29 th 
of October, but it is continued to the landing of William on the 
fourth of November. The composure, with which the, patri- 

j otic knight describes the important scenes that were acting, 
and discusses curious general subjects, is admirable, consider- 
ing that at this very period he had been one of those who 
united in the invitation to our great deliverer.^ RJotives of , 

I discretion probably prevented him from giving the least hint 
of this circumstance, in a paper which the jealousy of govem- 

I ment might have seized in that time of trouble and dismay ; 
yet still it is wonderful to find him calmly reasoning on 
* certain phenomenas in the aer of clouds, that turned into^ 
ffire, and wHich dividing, mett again with that swiftnesse,^ 
which is naturall to that element.' His observations, however,, 
though tinctured in some degree with the prejudices of tlie 
age, are so sensible and philosophical, that they cannot even, 
now be read without interest and approbation : 

' That they appeared like armies flighting or musketts as they, 
imagined, I supposed to be rather such iTormationa as are apt to be 
in the minds of timorous and superstitious mankind, in times of pub- 
liek ffcars, than anie real ffigai*e8 those meteors have ; the appear- 
ances of which- atre not very unfrequent. The philosophers g;{wc no 
very satisfactorie account in their [ghessing about these matters, & 
yett what they say hath as good a ffoundation as the divines, who 

• Smollet, in his strange opening of the reign of William, where 
he enumerates the circumstances which produced dissatisfaction 
among, the people, classes together, as wilful delusions and de- 
tected calumnies, the reports of a secret treaty with France,' and of" 
the introduction of a supposititious child. Since the fgrmer of these 
I clHHrgcB may be now raiiked among the best authenticated facts ia 
BagHsh histtny, (though, at the -time of Smollet's writing, it was 
nili8cqpti(>le of itirect proof,) it is surely not unreasonable totgive. 
credit to the sincerity of the suspicions professed in the latter in*' 
ttance, which, though unconfirmed by positive testimony, w^rc 
strongly supported by probabilities, and might by proper care have 
been entirely prevented. Dalrymple's argument, that the King 
could n«t have wished to exclude from the succession his daughters, 
who had neve^ injured him, is too shallow to require a formal an- 
Mrcr* ' . 

1X6 ' Lord LonsdaleV Mmoir of the Xmgm tf James IL 

would kkV9t them extrtordtnarie indicttionf of QiA Almigfctie't 
anger ; which term, how far it if apph'cable to the puHtic of \{\% 
natnre, I $hal] not determine. But wherever such accidents are made* 
use of more to magnifie the authontie of the Church, ^an to enforce 
tDorah*tie» 'tia, no donbt» a crime.* - , 

The remainder of the papir is occupied by the landing of 
t!he Prince of Orange, in spite of the adverse circumstances 
which reper.tedly threatened his expedition with destmctiori; 
and by the cordial welcome with which all ranks of men received 
him. Unfortunately, the narrative terminates at this interesting 
crisis : whether the author was prevented from proceeding in 
it by the active duties of office, or whether it was continued, 
but afterward lost, we are tiot told, and possibly the fact can- 
not now be ascertained. It appears, however, from some ex- 
pjessions in the preface, that various letters and papers of thi$ 
distinguished character are still extant \ and we cannot ^ily 
resign the hope that thef may furnish some illustration erf the 
important events which followect the landing of AVilliam, and 
accompanied the settlement of the crown. Should this 
happily be the case, we are confident that such valuable do- 
cuments ^ill not be withholden from the public 5 and such an 
example of u^^ul liberality cannot fail to operate on other 
noble families, who are possessed of similar means of throwing 
light on that great event, which has been unaccountably more 
neglected than any other, in our history. 

In that posthumous work which must necessarily direct 
public attention to the circumstances that led to the establish- 
ment of our present constitution, Mr. Fox has bequeathed an 
ihestimable legacy to his country. The inquiry instituted by 
him must and will proceed. Every step of it will give us cause 
to lament that the general opinion has so long been yielded 
to that polished writer who, under the guise of a calm and dis* 
passionate historian, has been the most successful of'party-com- 
batants : but the result of it must inevitably restote the old prin- 
ciples and spirit, to which this country was long indebted for 
her happiness and glory \ — ^the rational principles of, reciprocal 
duties between the ruler and the people; — and the firm but 
temperate spirit ^ which, while it adores the country in which 
those principles are respected, is ready to assert them, even to 
the bst extremity, against any power that may dare to violate- 
or invade them. 

y Google 

( 127- ) 

AiT. II. General Zoology^ or Systematic Natnral HIatoiry, bf 
George Shaw, M D. F.R-.S., &c.- With Plates from the fir»t 
Authonties and moat select Specimens, engraved principally 'by 
Mrs. Grfffiih. Vol.VIl. (Birds). In Two Parts. 8vo? pp 520. 
and 73 Plates.^ 2I. lis. 6d. Boards. Kearsley. 1809. 

/^N resuming our examination of this f ery respectable system 
^ (fi Zoology, we are pleased to observe that the feathered 
tribes have occupied* a much larger portion of the author's 
attention than, the insects. In pursuance of his original 
design, he follows the Linnean arrangement, but with such 
occasional alterations and transpositions as the present improved 
state of ornithology seemed to require. Though, however, the 
preliminary notices and definitions are expressed with ac- 
curacy and neatnesis, and may, to a certain extent, be very 
serviceable in an elementary point of view, they^ are by no^ 
means sufficiently copious to supersede the use of more 
detailed introductions. No candid reader could have taxed 
the author with prolixity, if -he had indulged in a few sen-. 
tences oh the adaptation of the structure of Birds to their 
modes of life; on their age, diseases, and migratbnsj or 
on the still more seducing topics of their |>aTental tender- 
ness, nidification, and song. The discussion of these general 
physiological views might have been advantageously followed 
by a short sketch of the liistory of ornithology, and of the 
writers who have most eminently contributed to its advance- 

Dr. Shaw properly excludes from his definition of a Bird the 
power of flighty because the Ostrich, the Cassowary, and some 
others, do not possess it. His principal orders are, i.Acci' 
pitresy or Falcons^ inclucJing the Birds of prey, as Vultures, 
Eagles, Hawks, and Owls ; 2d. Picay or Piesy comprehending 
all of the Crow and Jay kind, Parrots, Woodpeckers, King- , 
fishers,' &c.; :3d. Passeresy comprising the Pigeons, Thrushes, 
Larks, and Finches ; 4th, Gallinay or such as are more or less 
allied t6 .our common domestic fowl ; as the Pheasant and 
Partridge families. Peacock, Turkey, and several others ; 5th, 
Gralia, or Wadersy as Herons, Curlews, Plovers, and all those 
tribes which have lengthened legs, and chiefly haunt watery 
situations ; and, 6th. Anseresy ou the Web-footed species, as 
Swans, Geese, Ducks, Gulls, Penguins, and many otliers. •- 

The genus Vulture appears in front of the first division, 
and its first and most remarkable species is the Condor. 
Every ornithologist is aware of the discordant and exaggerated 
descriptions which have been exhibited of tliia enormous Bird j 
which, arnong various lother feats of provvess, is said to have 
lifted up an elephant high enough in the air to j}e killed by its 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

laS Shaw'^ General Zoology^ VoL Vlt 

fen. The account here inserted is, in all respectsi^ temperate ani 
Judicious, and contains not only the correction of certain mis- 
statements which had obtained the sanction of the first au- 
thorities, but some additional and important notices, extracted 
• from the observations of Humboldt. According to this in-' 
trepid traveller, the Condor usually resides among lofty rocks, 
in the region of the Andes, on the verge of perpetual snow. 
"When seated on the point of a rock, and viewed from below, 
especially when contrasted with the clear sky, it appears con- 
siderably larger .thah it really is. It feeds on both dead and 
living animals, and, will perceive the scent of its prey at a 
great dikance. Two Birds will seize on a heifer, and begin 
their work of destruction by^ picking* the eyes and tearing out 
the tonguCf 

* A method of taking Condors alive is often practised in Peru and 
Quito, and is as follows, viz. a cow or horse is killed ; and in a little 
time the scent of the carcase attracts the Condors, which arc sud- 
denly seen in numbers in places where no one would suppose they 
existed. They always begin with the eyes and tongue, and then 
proceed to devour the intestines, &c. When they are well sated, 
they ar^ too heavy and indolent to fly, and the Indians take them 
easily with nooses. When thus taken alive, the Condor is dull and 
timid for the first hour, and then becomes extremely ferocious*. 
Monsieur Humboldt had one in his possession for sonic days^ which 
it was dangerous to approach. The Condor is extremely tenacious 
of life, and will survive for a long-time such wounds as might be sup- 

, posed to prove immediately fatal ; and such is the fulness of its plu- 
mage that it has the power of resisting of repelling the force of a ball- 

. fired at it from a gun. This indeed is not peculiar to the Condor, 
but has been observed In some other well-feathered and thick-skinned 
birds, particularly those of the order jinseresJ 

Dr. Latham, several ye^rs ago, intimated his regret at the 
very imperfect extrication of the Vulture tribe. The varieties 
induced among individuals, Ijy age, climate, confinemyent, and 
other circumstances, and the few opportunities which are pre- 
sented to skilful ornithologists for examining most of the spe- 
cies in t^eir native state, must unavoidably impede an accurate 
distribution of the genus. We cannot, therefore, presume 
either to countenance or reject the ftomenclature of the present 
author* In most cases, however, his usual temperance and 
discretion appear to have guided him in his deviations from the 
arrangement of his predecessors. , 

The Californian Vulture, lately introduced to our acquaint- 

(ance, is rather minutely described : but we are still left in the 
dark with regard to its manners and habits. — ^The bearded 
species, by the help of Edwards and Bruce, forms a much 

inof e entertaining article, but somewhat too long for our in- 
S sertioni 

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ShaVj Genirai Zdfohgy, FoL VII. lap 

serdon. « There is little doubt/ observes Dr. Shaw, « but that 
thi^ tpe'cies is twice particularized in the Gmelinian edition of 
the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus, under the liames of Vulturbai^ 
katus and Vultur barbarus. In this the author has followed the 
example of some preceding writers, who have unnecessarily 
divided the casual varieties of this bird into distinct species. 
Mr. Latham in his Index Omithologicus has followed Gmelin in 
this separation of characters, but in the second supplement to 
his, Synopsis of Birds he has very pyopetly united them imder 
the name of the Bearded vulture. 

^ The Count de Buffon> apparently misled by the general 
accounts of its size and manners, erroneously supposes tms bird 
to be the same with the Condor, which he therefore imagines 
to be common both to the old and new world.* 

Vultur Serpentarius of Latham thus figures as a separate 
genus : 

' Generic Character. 

Rostrum vulturuium. 
Lingua acuminata. 
Pedes longiuimi. 

' Beak vulturiflc. 
Tongue pointed. 
Legs very long 


Serpentarius Africanus. S. cinereus, occipik cristaio, cauda XMneata, 

rectrkihus mediis elongc^. 
A»h-coloured Snake-Eater, with the hiad-hcad crested, the tail 

cuneated, and the middle tail-feathers lengthened. 
Sagittarius. Vosmaer moncgr: tab.S. 
Secretary or Sagittarius. PhiL Trans. 6l. p. 175. 
The Snake-Eater. Memoirs of G, Edwards, p. 34, 
Secretaire. Sonnerat Voy* p. 87. /. 50. 
Vultur Serpentarius. Lath. Ind. orn. 
Secretary Vulture. Lath^ syn. 

Falco Serpentarius. Lin. Gmeh Miller IlL Nat. Hist. pU 28* 
Vultur Serpentaiius. CtmeTta Physica. t. 28. 

' The bird which constitutes the present genus is so much allied 
ia its principal characters to the Vulture tribe, that it has been asso- 
ciated with those birds by one of the first ornithologists qf the present 
age. , It has indeed been more generally considered as beloaging to 
the genus Falco, and has auxordingly been so^laced in the Gmeliniaa 
edition of the Systema Natufs of Linnaeus. The peculiarity of its 
appearance however is sufficient to justify its being considered at 
furmiag a separate g^nus, allied both to that ofA^ultur and Falco^ but 
Boost nearly to the former. 

'' This bird/ (says the judicious fidwardflj is of a new ^enus, and 
the only species oCtt hitherto come to my knowledge, ft is about 
tk|e bigness of Jthe Heron and Crane kiad, except that the neck is a 
little tonger. On £r8t view^ I judged it to be no wader in the 
w^ter» for though the kgft »rc as long^ pr l«oger thap in He rons^ kt> 

;|l^T. JvNB, igo9* K yet 

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Ijo ShawV Gifieral Zoology, Vol. VIL 

jtt ther are feathered down to the knees, which we .do not find m 
birds who wade in shallow waters to seek their food : the toes of 
this bird are also much shorter than ther are in Herons ; so that I . 
think it must be placed amongst land birds. The bill is exactly like 
those of Hawks and other birds of prey ; which is the qnly instance , 
I have discovered in any of the long legged kind of birds : the talons 
or claws are smaU, and unfit for a bird of prey, and the eyes are of 9 
dark colour, placed in the spaces covered with a l>are skin of an 
orange^colour, on each side the head " 

« The Count de Boffon places it in company with the Herons^ . 
the Jabiru, the Palamedea, and the rest of the larger j?ind of waders, 
and the ingenious Monsieur Sonnini follows the same arrangement. 

* The most accurate description of the Snake-Eater is that of 
Monsieur Levaillant, who, during his African travels, had the op- 
portunity of contemplating it in its native region^. Its size, he in- 
lorms us, is somewhat inferior to that of a Stork, the beak strong, 
and curved like that of an Eagle ; the base of the bcak^ and the eyes, 
are surrounded by a bare orange-coloured skin : the mouth is wide, 
the gape or opening pasdinrg beypnd the eyes : which are grey, and 
ornamented by black brows : on the back of the head is a pendent 
crest, formed of ten feathers, the lowest of which are the longest i 
the legs are very long, and the tail is composed of feathers which 
lengthen on each 'side, the two middle ones being twice the length of 
the rest. The colour of the bird in its perfect plumage is a blucish 
grey on the head, ntck, breast and back : the coverts of the wings- 
are of the same colour, but clouded with rufous brown, and the quill* 
feathers are black : the throat and breast are white ; the inferior tail- 
coverts very pale rufous ; the lower belly black, mixed or streaked 
with rufous ; the thighs black, very finely streaked with brown : the 
tail-feathers arc partly black, but become more grey as they lengthen, 
and are tipped with white : the two middlc-feathcrs are of a blueish 
grey, clouded with brown towards the end, which is white with a 
black spot. The female differs from the male by its grey colour, leas 
clouded with brown ; by its shorter crest ; by the feathers on the 
belly and thighs being more varied ; and lastly, by the two middle 
tail-feathers, which are shorter than in the male. The skin of the 
thfoat and neck of this bird are capable of great extension, and the 
shoulders are each armed with three strong, rounded, bony protube- 
rances, which enable it to wage successful vizr against snakes, which 
k constantly persecutes. It also feeds on young tortoises, lizards, ' 
&c. and occasionally on locusts and other insects. In the ciaw of 
one examined by Monsieur Levaillant were found twenty-one young 
tortoises, several of which were nearly two inches in diameter ; three 
snakes of the length of a man's a4-m, and an inch thick ; and eleven 
lizards of seven or eight inches in length ; and in the stomach, which * 
was very large, was a ball of the size of a goose-egg, formed entirely ' 
of the vertebrc of snakes and lizards, the scales of tortoises, the wiog-^ 
shells of various beetles, and the wings and legs of locusts. 

^ * The Snake-eater is an inhabitant of dry open plains iar the lowct ' 
parts of Africa. It is found ahoutthe Cape of Good liope^ and tn the ' 
CQtfOtirj of the paiires and Namaqaas. Being aj^asoat alvi^^ obliged to*^ 

.-. ; . , 7 - -v^''^ *S-'-i. '^ 

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Shaw*x Gefieral Zoology^ Vol. Fit tj* 

wn in purtuit of its prey, it makts but little U99 of its ©ower ol 
flight. It frequently kills, or at least totally disaUci a snake with » 
single stroke of its wing, by breakiDg the Tertebrsc. In iu natural 
state it is extremely wild, and very difficultly approached. The male 
and female rarely quit each other. Those which frequent the neigh*^ 
bourhood of the Capcconstruct a very large nest or eyry on the top 
of some high thicket, and line it wiih wool and feathers; but to* 
wards the region of terra de Natal they build on lofty trees. Tbt 
eggs are two or three in number, white, with reddish specks, and 
about the size of goose eggs. 

' When the Snake-eater is taken youn^, it may be easily tamed^ 
and may be kept with poultry in the farm-yard, where it is service- 
able m destroying rats and vanous other noxious animals. It may be 
fed with meat, either raw or dressed, and will readily eat fish. If 
kept tpo long fasting, it is apt to seize on small chickens and dock* 
lings, whieh it swhUows whole, in their feathers. It is not however 
of a malignant disposition, and is generally observed to interpose it« 
authority in appeasing the quarrels that happen among the other 

It IS impossible for us to follow the author through his 
exposition of the numerous family of falcons, many of the 
species of which are still unsettled. We may observe, how- 
ever, that he has niade a liberal and judicious use of the 
recent additions by Levaillant, Daudin, Sonnini, and others ; 
and that, though many of the articles are dismissed with dry 
or uninteresting brevity, others are detailed with more minute- 
j ness and more pleasing effect His accounts of the Kite^ and 
of the Dwarf Hawk may suffice as samples : 

! * The Kite is so common in England as to supersede the necessity 
! of any very particular description of its figure and manners. Its ge- 
neral length is something more than two feet, and its breadth five 
i feet: the bill is two inches long, and very much bent or hooked at 
I the end ; the cere yellow, and the irides straw-coloured ; the whole 
! upper part of the body is ferruginous brown, the edges of the fea- 
thers brighter or yellower than the middle : the tail bright ferrugi- 
; nous : .the edges both of wings and tail dusky or blackish ; the head 
i and neck are pale ash-colour, or whitish, the feathers being of a nar- 
row or slender form on those parts, and each marked down the shaft 
i by a dark streak : the under parts of the body are y^ellpw-ferruginous, 
; with longitudinal dusky spots : the legs yellow, and the claws strong 
I and brpwn : the tail is forked, by which mark it is at once distia« 

gaished from every other British Bird of prey. 
j • No one can he unacquainted with the elegant appearance of this 
I bird while sailing aloft in its circling flight, and maintaining its equir 
h'brium by a slight exertion of its pinions at distant intervals, During 
these wandeiings it is meditating its prey beneath, and occasionally 
defcends from its aerial height in order to seize some birdj ^ 
aimmd -wkfcin its view. It principally preys on your 
I dook t ygotliiigt, &e. and is is consequence proscribed ) 

and occasionally 
me bird^j^iher 

tif% Shaw*/ General Zoohgf^ Vol. Fit 

^ce of every village ia the country. Were it not for these depir^^ 
iio«s» ttf appearance would be welcomed as the harbinger of clear skicf 
and fine weather; for it ia in 8uch that it makes its principal excursions. 
it breeds in large forests^ and wooded hilly countries;, and its nest ft 
^■id to be composed of stick and twigs^ and lined with a kind of mis- 
ceUaneous assortment of wool, pfeces of rope, fragments of flannel, 

faper, or any other articles which it happens to find on the ground, 
t lays two, and sometirres three tgg^^ which are white, roundish, 
snd marked with dull yeltow spots. 

* In the days of King Henry the Eighth, as appears from th^ ob- 
ienrations of the eelebrated Clustus, (L'Ecluse) the British mctit)- 
poHs Itself swarmed with Kites^ which were attracted by the variouf 
Jiinde of offals thrown into the streets, and were so fearWss as to take 
their prey in the midst of the greatest crowdc^it being forbidden te kill 
them. Thus the Kite was as much reverenced in the streets of Lon- 
don in those times as the Vulture is at present in those of Grand 
Cairo or Alexandria. The descent of a Kite at the present day( in 
Cheapside, or Charing-cross, would probably attract as sudden a 
crowd as any other unexpected phenomenon, and would doubtlcst 
be recorded in the public prints as an event of singular curiosity.' — 

* Falco Minullus. F.fuscus^ lubtut aibus^ pectore ttrih descettdctUilnUf 

aldomine Jasc'tls trans^yersis fuscis. 
Brown Hawk, white bdneath, the breast marked by descending brown 

streaks, the abdomen by transverse brown bars. 
Falco Minullus. F.fuscuSf subtus alhusy fee tore strt'u abdomtne fasciis 

fusch. Lath, in J. orn. sutpL 
Le Minule. LevalU: oh, pf. 34. Dwarf Hawk. Lath. tuppL t. 

* Smaller than a Merlin : upper parts brown, the tail crossed by 
a few deeper bars: under parts white, marked on the throat and 
brealst by oblong bfown spots, and on the belly and thighs by nar- 
j&n transverse bars. This small Hawk is ^ native of the interior of 
Africa, where it was observed by Monsieur Lcvaillant, who describes 
it as of a highly bold and spirited nature, preying on smaU birds, and 
occasionally driving away frgm its haunts even the larger birds of its 
own genus, as well a^ Shrikes, &c. It builds on trees, forming its 
nest of small twigs, intermixed with moss and leaves externally, and 
lining it with wool and feathers ; the ^gg% are five in number, spotted 
with brown near each end. 1 he female bird is nearly twice the sixc 
of the male. Monsieur Levaillant relates a singular instance of the 
audacity of this speeies. He was sitting at a table, engaged in pre- 
paring some birds lately killed ; when one of these Hawks suddenly 
stooped, and seized one of the pewly stuffed specimens, and flying 
with it to a neighbouring tree, 'began to plume and tear it open, but 
finding nothing but moss and cotton, seemed indignant at the disap- 
pointnnent, and, after tearing in pieces the skin, at length contented 
Itself with devouring the head^ the only part which remained in its 
natural at ate.' 

When discoursing' of the Peregrine ^alcan^ Dr. Shaw takes 
occasion to diversify . and enliven his narrative by some his- 
torical notices of the once mupb cultivated diversion of 
'Iconry. ^ t if 



'^S)^2i^s General Zcohgjj Vol. VtL l^ 

If the enwiHg remarks on the Chantmg 2nd Laughing 
falcons should detract from our love of the marvellous, they 
are not, on that account, less consistent with truth : ' " 

' Among the ferocious Falcon tribe» we could hardly expect to 
meet with a songster ; the voice of the general race of birds pf prey 
being peculiarly harsh and disagreeable. Tram the title, hpwcvcr, 
"by which Monsieur Levaillant has distinguished the present species^ 
we niight be led to suppose that a Falcon existed which to great ele- 
gance of plumage united a musical voice ; since it sings, according to 
this author^ for hours togeth;;r, while perched on the summit of % 
tree, near the nest of its faithful mate, which it never quits through- 
out the whole year ; and, like the nightingale of Europe, is heard 
during the early dawn of day, or in the dusk of t^ie evening, and not 
unfrequently during the greatest part 'of the night: Monsieur SonninI 
howe^vc^ very properly observes that by this description we must not 
suppose its song to resemble that of the nightingale ; Monsieur Le- 
vaillant meaning only, that the bird, like the nightingale, rxerts iti 
yo\<x during the silence of the night ; and that its incessantly re- 
peated cries may be considered as ii\ some degree clearer or more mu- 
«ical than those of its raucous and shrieking congeners. 
. * When disturbed, it utters a laughing sound. This, however, it 
observed by Monsieur Sonnini to be no very distiuctiv^ character^ 
iince many of the Falcon tribe occasionally utter a shrill and quickly 
repeated cry, which, by a little aggravation, might be termed a 

Jn addition to the two ordinary sections of OwlSf tMunely 
the Horned and Smooth^headedy Dr. Shaw iix$titutes a third, 
which he denominates Accipitrine^ including .those specie* 
whose more slender habit, greater length of tail, and occa- 
sional flight in the day, assimilate them more closely than the 
rest ofvtheir congeners to some of the Hawk tribe. Under. 
jthis division are comprized Strix Ulu/ay — ^Caspia, — Canadmsisf 
— Hudsoniay — Uralensisy — Africana^-^-^lJisuellay arid — Lin^fatfim 
With the view of avoiding the ambiguity and confasion which 
have arisen from separating the Brown and Tawny Owl into 
two species, the author adopts the epithet Sylvatica, or TFood 
OW, since it seems to be the only British species which i$ 
more particularly found in woody than in different situations.—^ 
Few other alterations of sufl&cient importance to be noticed 
occur in this part of the volume : '> — but we cannot refraht 
from transcribing the following statement of hasty and un- 
founded criticism, on the part of a celebrated French na- 
^ralist: . 

* The Count de Buffon, erroneously supposing a figure of this 
species [^Strix Bra^hyotos'} in the folio edition of the Briti&h Zoology 
to be. intended for a very different bird, expresses' himself On the 
subject of that work in general, and of the descriptovu aiad figure of ' 
this species in parwcular, with a degree of indecorous criticism bor- 

K 3 ^^^^^^^dering 

^^ rvShaw^f G/fHeralZoology, Pol. VIL 

Bering on rUdc invective. He complams indeed with «ome degree of 
|u>tice that the figures representing not only* this bird, but the former, 
or Long- Eared Ov.l, are ill executed, and convey a wrong idea of 
the. lengthened feathers or cars, which in these figures have a thick 
and fleshy, rather than feathery appearance ; but the remaining part 
of his criticism must be allowed to recoil on himself, and is entirely 
owing to his not having perceived that the bird then first mentioned 
by Mr, Pennant was, in reality, a species before undistinguished by 
naturalists, or confounded with some other birds of ihis genus. 

* Mr. Pennant, in his •* Literary Life," hints at tjiis circumstance, 
tnd imputes the Count's freedom of expression to a comparison made 
in the British Zoology between the freet^inking Frenchman and our 
own illustrious countryman Ray, much to the advantage of (he latter. 
Mr. Pennant also, in his catalogue of the work entitled Planches £H' 
lumlneesy published as a companion to the Histoire Naturelle des Oiseauiq 
of Buffon, retaliates, in his own peculiar vein of humour, on the 
Count de Buffon, for the palpable injustice and falsehood of his cri- 
ticisms, and takes ample, but very polite revenge, on his erring an- 

Under Strtx Scaps^ we are presented with the substance 
of 3ome curious observations by Spallanzani : but the parti- 
culars are little susceptible of abridgment. 

The mejre enumeration of Shrikes appears to be tolerably 
complete : but the descriptions of many of the exotic species 
are extremely scanty, owing principally to a want of authentic 
mformation. From considerations of their geheral form and 
tbe structure of their feet, our learned zoologist has removed 
the whole family to the order of Pica-, The conformation 
of their bill, however, and their predacious habits, might be 
ureed in favour of the more . ordinary arrangementi The 
hapit of transfixing and hanging up their prey is, perhaps, 
peculiar to this race of Birds, and is very observable in die 
Colhured species, or Lanius Collaris, 

* When this bird,' says Lcvaillant, * sees a locust, a mantis^ or a 
iimall bird, it springs upon it, and iipmcdiately carries it off, in ordeir 

' to impale it on a thorn, and is so dextrous in thi^ operation that the 
thorn always passes through the head of the bird or insect thus 'trans- 
fixed. If ft cannot find a thorn, it iixes the head of the animal be- 
tween a division of two small branches, and this with as much ad* 
^igc^ as if performed by humJin means. — We need only watch thia 
Shrike for a single minute in order to witness its ravages ; atid if we 
take the pains te examine the spot it frequentS| we are sure to find on 
every bush and tree the victims which it has transfixed, the major 

§art of which are often so dried as to be unfit for his food; a proof 
f his 'singularly destructive instinct;* 

Without deciding the alleged identity of the Jocose Shriki 

and the Bulbul^ it seems to be ascertained of the former that 

. . . -. < 

• It 


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ShawV General Zoology, Vol. FIL 1 35 

' It is often taught to fight hj the natlrea of Bengal, one beihg 
held op opposite to another on the hand of a man to whose finger the 
bird is fastened by a string, sufficiently long to enable it to fly and 
. peck at its adversary. It is said to be of a remarkably docile dibpoti- 
tion, and is sometimes carried by the young Indians in order to exe* 
cute little commissions of gallantry ; and» at a signal given bv tfic 
lover, will seize and carry off with much dexterity the small gold or- 
nament usually worn on the head of a young Indian lady, and convey 
it to its master. It will also, with admirable celerity, follow the 
descent of a ring purposely thrown down a deep well^ catching it in 
its fall, and returning it to its owner. The Persian poets represent 
the Bulhul as enamoured of the rose, and grieved or angry at seeing 
it rudely cropped. Whatever may be said by poets and unscientific 
observers, Mr. Pennant has not scrupled to declare his opinion^ that 
the natural note of this bird is harsh and unmelodious. If this \fC 
the case» the music of the Bulbul may be considered as nearly allied 
to the celebrated song of the Swan, so often recorded in the flights of 
poetic fiction.' 

Of the genus Corvttsj it is properly observed that its estaK- 
ITshed characters should be recSved with a considerable degree 
of limitation, because many of the recent additions are very 
imperfectly known. We had, however, looked for a larger fund 
of entertainment in th^ history of some of the domestic 
species than will be found in the work before us. The 
Hooded and the Carrion Crow, in particular,' are treated in* a 
very cursory manner. — The article Raven is somewhat en- 
livened by the mention of a ludicrous mistranslation : 

' Monsieur Montbeillard, whose knowledge of the English lan- 
guage was, probably, not very correct, after mentioning the natural 
ill scent of the Raven in consequence of its general habit of feeding 
on carrion, observes, in a note, that the ** authora of the British 
Zoology alone assert that the Raven has an agreeable smell, which/' 
he adds, '* is difficult to believe of a bird that feeds on carrioi^." 0a 
lurning, however, to the British Zoology, I find that Mr. Pennant 
speaking of Ravens, observes, what every one knows to be true, that 
" their scent is remarkably good.*' It must be confessed, therefore,' 
that the above observation of Monsieur Moutbeillard affords an admi» 
rable instance of criiical acumen ! ! i' 

The scientific elucidation of the beautiful genus Coraciai^ 
whicl^ includes the Rollers, is necessarily imm^iture, from the 
want of a long and accjurate acquaintance with the respective 
Pirds, in all their stages of growth, and in their native regions; 
the conuQon or garrulous species being the only one that oc« 
curs in Europe, 

A few of the Orioles^ particularly die GoldeH and the Red 
fhoulderedy form very articles r but the others aVe 
fligh|ly passed in review, and often dispatched with no farther 

K 4 illustration 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

13^ Shaw*/ GMifMl ZooUgjy Vol. riL 

illustration than a bare statement of their descriptive cha<« 

Among the Grakles^ the most prominent article is the Tristisj 
or Parddisea Tristis Lin. In transferring • it to another station 
in the system, Dr. S. was ptobably swayed by a striking af- 
finity of general habits. At all events, he has contrived to 
furnish us with some curious particulars relative to its history : 

^ This bird is a native of India and the Philippine islands, and is 
faid to be of a very voracious nature, feeding both on animal and 
vegetable food, and is particularly fond of locusts and grasshoppers. 
On this head the Count de Buffon relates a curious anecdote. The 
island of Bourbon, where these birds were unknown, was overrun 
with locuns, which had unfortunately been introduced from Mada- 
gascar ; their eggs having bee>: imported in the soil with some plants 
which were brought from that island. In consequence of this, Mons. 
Deforges Boucher^ Governor-General of the isle of Bourbon, and 
Mons. de Poivre, the Intendant, perceiving the desolation which was 
taking place, deliberated seriously on the means of extirpating th^ 
noxiouf insects ; and for that purpose caused to be Introduced into 
this island several pair of the Paradise Grakle from India. This 
plan promised to succeed ; but unfortunately some of the colonists, 
observing the birds eagerly thrusting their bills into the earth of the 
new sown fields, imagined that they were in quest of the grain, and 
repotted that the birds, instead of proving beneficial, would, on the 
contrary, be highly detrimental to the country. The cause was con- 
sidered in form. On the part of the birds it was argued, that they 
raked in the new-ploughed grounds not for the sake of the grain, 
but the insects ; and were therefore bencficiaL They were however - 
proscribed by the council ; and in* the space of two hours after the 
sentence was pronounced against them, not a Grakle was tol>e found 
in the island. This prompt execution was however followed by a 
speedy repentance : the locusts gained the ascendancy, and the 
people, who only view the present, regretted the loss of the Paradi&e 
Grakles. Mons. de Mor^vc, consulting the inclinations of the 
settlers, procured three or four of these birds eight years after their 
proscription. They were received with transports of joy. Their 
preservation and breeding were made a state affair ^ the lawis held out 
protection to them, and the physicians on their part declared their 
flesh to be unwholesome. After so many powerful expedients for 
their welfare, the desired effect was produced : the Grakles multi- 
plied, and the locifsts were destroyed. But, an opposite iaconvc- 
nience has since arisen. The birds, supported no longer by insects, 
have had recourse to fruits, and have fed on the mulberries, grapes, 
and dates : they have even scratched up the grains of wheat, nee, 
maize, and beans : they have rifled the pigeon^houses, and preyed on 
the young ; and thus, after freeing the settlers from the locusts, thef 
have themselves become a n)ore formidable scourge.^ This however 
is perhaps an exaggeration ; since Mr. Latham in his second supple- 
ment observes^ on the subject pf this biid, that Mons. Duplessio^ 



ShaVj General Zoolog}^ Vol. VIL 137 

. wbo had resided many years in the isle of Bourbon, had given hk 
opiDion that the Paradise Grakle might be advantageously introduced 
Into that part of Spain nearest the coasts of AAn'ca for a similar pur- 
pose, and added, that, so far from its having become a nuisance ia 
the isle of Bourbon, the laws for its preservation- were still in force. - 
* This bird, according to Buffon, is of the same lively and inai- 
tative disposition with the Indian Grakle, and when young, is 
fsuly taught to speak. If kept in the poultry-yard, it spontaneously 
mimics the cries of all the domestic animals, hens, cocks, geese, dogs, 
sheep, &c. and this chattering is accompanied by many singula^ gct- 

In his illustration of the Paradise Birdsy which closes the 
present volume, the author appears in his most advantageous 
colours, since description is certainly his ^rf^ ; and thesa 
singular ornaments of the feathered race afford ample and 
diversified scope for the exercise and display of his talent^. 
The Major J Magnificay Superbay and Regiay are obviously de- 
picted by the hand of a master. As our report, however, has 
already extended beyond the length whicK we meant to have 
assigned to it, we are under the necessity of referring our 
readers to the work itself. 

The typography and embellishments of this seventh volume 
correspond with those of the preceding ; and we understand 
that the eighth is already announced for publication. It may 
be proper, also, to oberve that the " style continues to be 
characterized by a precision and an elegance which are too 
often wanting in didactic compositions. On a few occasions, 
however, it still partakes of a certain degree of stiffness, or 
rather stateHness of phraseology ; which, nevertheless, seems 
to be gradually gearing away in the progress of the work ; 
while, on the contrary, we have sometimes remarked a loose- 
ness of structure, in a period, which savours rather strongly of 
Negligence, as at page 213. * But if the Greeks/ &c. A few 
grammatical inaccuracies might likewise be noticed : tjiui 
scarce occurs for scarcely j — leaving them to devour at leisurey for 
to be devoured \ — it builds its nest on trees y employing for their 
construction; — I have preferred ranging them under this tribe than 
amongy &c., but the missing rather may be borrowed from 
page 347, where we fin^, this however y being rather otving t9 
the abrasion of that part during the exertions of striking it into the 
ground in quest of foody RATHER than to anp &c. 

We shall take an early opportunity of paying our respects 
to two volumes of Tioological Lectures , just published by the 
same author. 


( »38 ) 

Art. Ill, Lectures on the truly tr.itnent Engttsh Poetu By Fercival 
Stockdalc. 8vo. 2 Vols. il. is. JBo^rds. Lougman aud Co. 

T^R. Johnson's critical Lives of our Poets have formed a 
-^-^ standard of public opinion, which, though contested on 
some points, acquires additional authority from its duration. 

• Boldly yet modestly to expose the hypercriticisms and errors, 
which may be detected in this code of national taste, would 

* be an useful though a daring plan : but to direct against it a 
series of coarse attacks, distinguishefd both by violence arid 
levity, must be equally inconsistent with the interest of literature, 
and with the reverence which we owe to the manes of the 
illustrious dead. The judgnxent of Dr. Johnson was, indeed^ 
rather sagacious than delicate ; his criticisms demonstrate more 
good sense than feeling 5 and his preference of Blackmore is 
scarcely consistent Avith true poetic taste. Yet his volumes 
contain so many valuable and excellent remarks, on man as 
well as on books, and they convey such a mass of informatipn 
imder an agreeable fbrni, that they are justly intitled to tjxe 
pre-eminence which they have acquired in our JiteratUre j and 
their dictates, if not always to be implicitly followed, ought 
surely to be questioned with calm and respectful considera^ 

From the motfeo of the present work, we inf^r that Mr. 
Stockdale intends t,o review and correct those decisions of 
Dr. Johnson which he conceives to be erroneous : 

• Johnson, with admiration oft 1 see 
The Critick and the Bard conjoined in thcc ; 
But prejudices, too» as oft I find, 
Corrupt, debase, mislead thy noble mind. 
Hence, against thee, I seize the cause of truth j 
A cause that I adored, from yearly youth. 
Oh ! may her voice inspire my latest breath 1 
And soothe reflexion in the hour of death I' 

Whatever may be thought of the design, we cannot comir 
^lend the poetry of these lines ; the third of A^hich is one 
pi the tamest that wc have ever seen. Gladly, indeed, woiild 
we have warmed the author's declining age with that appror? 
bation for which he expresses a laudable desire, in his preface : 
but though we have discovered in his volumes some judicious 
observations, and occasionally some acute criticisms, they- 
do not form a sufficient part of the lectures to demand un^ 
qualified praise. The dissertations have not the regularity 
and connection which a work of this nature demands ; for 
even Lectures - ou^t to be regular compositions. On the 

"" contrary, 

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StockdaleVX«f/tirftf 90 English Poets. Ijjr 

contrary, wei are offended with abruptness of transition, ot 
rhapsodical declamation, where we should have expected 
sober sense and temperate judgment. In the first lecture, 
Mr. S. introduces his remarks on Spenser, very unexpect- 
edly, with observations on writers of sermons ; and still more 
strangely does he complain, that * the foolish and extravagant 
prejudices in favour of Dr.. Blai^r have absolutely prevailed 
with our modish ladies and gentlemen, to read sermons! — 
This [he adds] is one of the many instances of the depraved 
and wretched taste of the present times/ (p. 5. note.) 

This is certainly the most extraordinary charge that hat 
been made against the taste of the age j and if the' author 
intended merely to censure the preference of Blair to Tillot- 
son, it is still very unjust. At no period, during the last 
seventy years, has the study of our older writers of every clas^ 
been so prevalent as in the present timej and with respect to 
writers of sermons. Dr. Blair's own lectures are eminently 
calculated to promote the celebrity of those authors who 
flourished in the beginning of the last century. If his ser- 
mons have been in any instance over-rated, at least they 
contain nothing offensive to the most fastidious taste j whil^ 
their great simplicity, and want of elevation and ornament, 
must ever preclude them from rivalling the works of oujr 
standard wi:iters. 

In vain should we search for a correct idea gf Spenser's 
poetical character, amid the flowery mazes of Mr. Stockdale*$ 
declamation. The reader may take the following sample of 
this style of criticism : 

' What has raised Spenser to such pre-eminence aniong the tons 
of the muses ? what hath given him so distinguishtd, and so durably 
a fame ? In the first place* all his fauhs, as hath before been ob* 
served, are partly to be ascribed to the barbarous age in which he 
lived. Then^ his excellences are so many, and so glorious, that 
though his judgment, and taste are very defective;— on account of 
those excellences, he deserves what he has acquired^ the title of a 
great poet. When I sit down to read Spenser (I presume not td 
dtUrmne with what preparation of the mind he should be read by 
others) I never think of tracing his allegory ; I only wish to imbib^ 
the animated, and glowing page before. me. That page acts upon 
ine like the wand of a magician ; or like the beverage of Lethe, i 
forget this low, clouded world ; and am transported to the bright^ 
blooming, and variegated regions of imagination. His dtr8cnptidn$ 
are presented with such insinuating eloquence, and with such a forces 
of coburing, that even his figures of a grotesque wildness must please 
those who are- most pleased with chaster beauties. You. enjoy flow- 
i»g, and mellifluous numbers ; notwithstanding the restraint of their 
lothick laws ; — t}u>se aua^ert which tuned the lyre ofJQjjden ; you 

' 140 StockdJalcV Lectures on Engtlsb ^oeU. 

«ew pictures di^wn by thcTiand of a tnaster endowed with contrifttei 
talents $ the mild, and' beaming skies of Claude Lorraine ; — the rude 
and tangled precipices of Salvator Ros. And although his heroes 
are the heroes of chivalry, and romance ; you arc often entertained, 
and interested with striking examples of the the real nature of man ; 
of t»hat comes home to social, and domestick life^ His poems 
abound with useful, and excellent moral maxims, and observations. 
All the pasfiiojis of tljie human breast he exhibits, with their charac- 
teristic features, and emotions ; particularly the most uuiversally a^ 
tive» and powerful of our passions, love. 

' * It is rewarked by the best criticks on our authour, that he is pe- 
culiarly happy in the plaintive, and pathttick strain. The truth of 
this observation is evinced by many passages in the Faerie Queen, and 
in those of his smaller poems which are expressly elegiac. The life of 
Spenser was poetically unfortunate ; the mind of a poet has the moat 
exquisite sensibility ; therefore we need not wonder that he charm- 
ingly dissolved in harmonious woe.* 

For this strain, however, Mr. S, has npt only an apology 
but a boast : 

* Let a poet be enthusiastick ; and tf bis critick is worthy of 
Iunn»./6^ will be enthusiastick too, Enthusiasm, and admiration^ in 
great minds, are so far from being hostile to argumdat, and truth, 
that they befriend ; they impell; they invigorate; they complete 
'both. ** Peace to those gloomy rcasoners," says Rousseau, some- 

» where,-^ " they never yet made one man virtuous.*' And peace 
^permit me to say) to those dry, metaphysical criticks ; they never 

. jrel gave any. sensible information to one disciple j they never yet 
lUitstrated 9ne 6ne auihour.' 

' This species of lover's praise,, we cqnceive, will not prove 
Tery interesting to the gentle reader who is seeking for infor- 
tnation in sober sadness. 

Mr. S., we observe, is an advocate for the stanza of Spenser, 
though he admits that it is • cumbrous and oppressive j' in 
vhicn predilection he will probably have few concurrents. 
It is ever to be regretted that a poet, who was so completely 
master of the melodies of our" language, should have clogged 
lus powers with such a tiresom^ and laborious form of verse. 

On the character of Shakspeare, which is here next under- 
taken, we are not surprized to meet only with encomiums 
which haiFe often been bestowed before. Mr. Stockdale has 
entered into some discussions respecting the share which the 
fl^reat dramatist really took in some of the plays that are* doubt- 
fuUv imputed to him : but, since he rests his decisions merely 
on his own feelings, we are not much benefited by him. He 
thinks that Shakspeare wrote * very little, if any thing at all 
in Lovis JLakur lostJ-^liere^ we believe, he stands single in 
his opinion. The coniic di^ogue of that play is rich in 

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Shakspeare's peculiar wit; and 'had Mr. S« forgotten dsc 
inimitable character of Biron ? 

*' His eye begot occasion for bi« wit," &c. 

Some censure is thrown on the critical Editors and Emendators 
of Shakspeare, particularly on Mr. Malone ; a subject of 
which the public have long since had quite enough. 

Milton is this critic's next object, and isince he has pro- 
fessed the most strenjuous exertion of mind to cliaracteriit 
the divine Bard, we shall extract what peculiarly belongs to 
Mr. Stockdale, in proof of Milton's itMimityi and of his supe- 
riority to Shakspeare : 

* The subject of my present Lecture ; our first of all poets ; ex- • 
celled in the elegant, and the pathcttCf as well at{ in the subline. 
Eut as the sublime was, perhap*, hig leadinj? characteristick, (un- 
doubtedly it ivaSf in his truly divine poem of Paradise Lost,) I shaH 
endeavour to give a comprehen3ive, but dear idea, or deBuition, of 
that capital species of willing. To write, then, with sublimity, is to 
chuse the greatest ; the most splendid ; or the most awful existing, 
or imaginable objects ; and to express, or display them, with a cor- 
responding propriety, force, and majesty of language. Tims' to 
chase, and thus to express what we have chosen, demands, with a 
most masterly judgement, the utmost fofce^ ardour, and unbounded 
expansion of genius ; or, in other words, the rarest poetical endow- 
ments. I should hope that it would not be very difficult to prove» 
that these endowments were in a superem'inent degree, bestowed cm 
Milton, by nature ; and by a long course of intense application; 
which was only less astonishing tlvan his genius ; and witliout which, 
whatever the idle, and the vain may fancy, nothing great can be at- 

' If it shall evidently appear that Mlhon is thus transccndcntly 
tiiblime, Shakespeare muse undoubtedly yield to 6im the first place, 
in the rank "of great poets. This precedence cannot be denied to the 
latter; however true it is, that an epick, and dtamatick poet, on ac- 
count of their different plans, and objects, cannot be minutely, and 
accurately compared. 1 am not yet as old aa Nestor ; nor do I wish ^ 
to reach hh age ; therefore; ifj in the course of these Lecture**, I 
thoXjld have occasion particularly to mention myself, i/uii noemion 
never shall be made but when it is necessarily connected with more 
impoTtant objects; with objects, which nuiy aJford some useful la- ^ 
formation ; or some enicruim^nt, to those who hear me. When '■ 
Goldsmith's Deserted Village came out, I wrote, and published some 
observations on that elegant poem. In tho&e observations, wheii my 
judgement was not so mature as, I should hope, it is, now ; I men^ .' 
tioned the sublimfty of Shakespeare. Dr. Johnson, in conversing '. 
with me, after he had read those remarks, told me, that stiUfttiityo 
was 60 far from being a characteristick of Shakespeare, that he could^ 
not recollect one sublime passage in that gteat poet« Here, (:ertaiaiy^« j 
either his memory, or his judgement £ill^ him. Shakespeare, how*j 
ever, if noty io a distinguidimg ooaQner, mspired with tLt sublmie'; 
U nor 

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Bor WM It so requitite for hUt Walk> variotiSi and magnificent thobgti 
It f/9 ai» for the stupendous, the boundless range of Milton. Milton^ 
therefore, is superiour to Shakespeare ; because he displays the more 
rare, and august talents of the human mind. Let Shakespeare have 
all oMr just ; qur well-merited admiratiou ; but idolatry is erroneous 
excess : to prefer any authour to Shakespeare, n a kind of profane- 
ness to the' glorious prejudice of an English ear : as many rery libe- « 
s ral» and exctflcnt cr.'ticks will suffer no superiour to Homer; no cowi" 
petUor with bim ; from their prejudices iir favour of antiquity, and of 
Greek ; prejudices inglorious, and ignoble.' 

Thus unsatisfactory atid superficial are all the critual re- 
marks which have yet occured to us. — ^We cannot deny that 
Mr. S. possesses a flow of well sounding words, but this is 
only the dress of thought^ and the body and soul of criticism 
are wanting. 

The author's logical demonstration of the superiority of 
Milton's genius to diat of all other poets, from the authority 
of Johnson and Addison, is complete in its terms, but iir 
eflF^t surely a little puerile. The latter has asserted that 
Paganism could not have produced so noble a subject as that 
of the Paradise Lost \ and he afterward declares that the 
poetical execution of Milton is always equal to his subject. 
Hence Mr. S. regularly infers that the poetical execution of 
every antient author must be less noble than that of Milton, 
Q. E. D, — Again, Johnson pronounces that "before the great- 
ness displayed in Milton'3 poem all other greatness shrinks 
away." He admits also that " this mighty ipoethzs performed 
the task" which he undertook. £rgOf he has performed a 
greater task than any other poet. £rgOy he is the greatest of 
poets, Q. E. D.— Many pages are consumed in this trifling* 
demonstration, and the disputant derives no small satisfaction 
from its success. ' 

Some of Johnson's inconsistencies, in speaking of the style . 
of Milton, are properly, though' too laboriously, exposed : but 
it is rather unfair to extend hi^ censure of the sixth book, 
as "the favourite of children/' to the whole poem (p. 143), 
by the present author's own assertion that < Dr. Johnson 
mightj with as little hesitation, have extended the same con- 
temptuous language to the whole poem.* Indeed, contemptu- 
ous language IS always to be avoided, as disgraceful to the 
person eniploying it ^ and if Johnson is iniquitously severe on 
Milton, ^which we do not deny,) it is an example which 
otight rattier to have deterred than encouraged Mr. Stockdale. 
After having applied the epithets 'feeble and confused' to a 
criticism of the great biographer, we should have thought that 
Mr. S. migltt have spared the still more furious accusations of 


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StockdaleV Lectuns on English Po$ts^ l^j 

dsurdity and illiherality ; and it is not quite seemly in this" 
gentleman to call the Doctor an ass^ by the facetious remark' 
that the bridge of sin an^ death has become a pons asinorum. 
Why asimrum ? Why the plural word ? — Johnson is again 
pronounced to be absurd at p. 167, and most absurd and grossly 
absurd at p. 177, where his absurdity is also styled doubly 
^rofs ; ridiculously absurd, at p. 1 79 ; petulant and unjust at p. 
192; absurd again at pp. '196 and 198; and at p. 207, the 
Doctor is compelled twice to submit to the lie direct from 
his heated opponent;; When Mr. Stockdale, who lays claim 
to the merit of strict impartiality, and who abjures all rancor 
and prejudice, has reckoned up these invectives, which form 
but a small part of his " insectatioy^ he may perhaps admit a 
doubt of the justice of the claim so modestly advanced by 
him in these words : * This honesty this^/r freedom (without 
any partiality to myself I spe^k it) certainly deserves the esteem 
and encouragement of the public' - We own that such attacks 
appear to us less like the respectable candor of a modem 
English judge, than the virulence of Jeffries towards some 
unfortunate presbyterian \ and we may add that the poor 
sectarians had not a worse chance with that orthodox ma- 
gistral!!, than a Bishop has with Mr. Stockdale. All oppor- 
tunities are taken of sneering at the episcopal character : but 
the following lively remarks on Bishop Burnet will be ac- 
cepted as a sufficient san;iple : < The fool Burnet, (God forgive 
me for the profane misnomer ; for calling a Bishop a fool!)' 
p. 212. * The poison of this religious empirick,' p. 387. 
* that vindictive Caiaphas," ib. 

Agreeing, as we do> with this lecturer, in his views on the 
topic of rhyme and blank verse, we are compelled to state 
that his observations in support of his opinion are extremely 
vague and unsatisfactory. His general doctrines on the sub- 
ject of versification are, however, extremely opposite to 
our own; since he apologizes for occasional faults in the 
metre of Shakspearfe and of Milton, by observing that < our 
English verse was in a rude state when Shakspeare and when 
Milton wrote ; nor shall we ever be able, through the works^ 
of these two very great poets,' to reduce many lines of the ' 
former, and several of the latter, to legitimate measure, and 
consequently to agreeable harmony, whatever torture we may 
apply to pronunciation.' 'This is said in allusion to Mr. 
Malone's industry in shewing * the different -pronunciation of 
8ef%ral words, in the d&ys of Shakspeare, and in our times, tio 
give a proper number of properly accented syllables 40 the 
verse^j* and it is asserted that * his attention i<?rtf is almost 
tl»owa^ away** Notwithstanding this oracular 

144 StcxMilt^s LecfurH an EnglUhPoUsi 

«re not ashamed to acknowlege that no Ehglidi wiiter vppem 
to us to possess so perfect a command of metrical hannoi^^ 
eren according to our present ideas, as this very Shakspeare. 
"Without appealing to any considerable number of the ifkiote 
exquisite passages in support of our proposition, (as Henry th^ 
Fourth's address to sleep, the adieux of Mortimer and his bride, 
Cxsario's embassy of love to Olivia, Hamlet's speech to the 
Ghost and his reflections after its departure, anid the entire 
characters of Romeo tnd Juliet,) we are satisfied that our 
readers will he convinced by the most cursory view of aaiy 
one of Shakspeare's tragedies, that this great poet<.was per- 
fectly conversant with all the principles on which depends the 
structure of English verse. If this opinion be correct, Mr. 
MUone's industry is not improperly consumed, but well and 
tastefully employed, in accounting for particular deviations by 
the varieties of our very fluctuating pronunciation, or the cot- 
ruptions of a singularly confused and long neglected tknt. 

Mr. Stockdale will suspect that we are impelled by a de- 
termined spirit of contradiction, (which is entirely foreign to 
our thoughts,) when, in direct opposition to another <rf his 
doctrines above quoted, we declare our admiration of Mihon's 
verse to be inferior only to that which we have expressed for 
the verse of Shakspeare. We admit, however, that hiany 
lines in the epic poem are obviously faulty, and cannot be 
remedied by any palliation which we Can offer. It b possi- 
ble that Milton's musical science^ and the extreme delicacy of 
his ear, might tempt him into experiments which are wholly 
thrown away on the majority of his readers. Thiis quastion 
cannot be discussed with particularity : but on a point of 
no «mall consequence to the full enjoyment of English poetry, 
we cannot forbear to express our entire dissent from a judg- 
ment which appears to us So completely erroneous, as that 

* verse was in a itude state when Shakspeare, and when Mik<m 

Rhyming verse, at least rhyming couplets, undoubtedly at 
those times fell extremely short of the force and elpquenccf 
which they afterward attained : but we are even here com- 
pelled to' pause before we can acquiesce in wliat the lecturer 

* ventures to assert respecting the superiority of Pope to 
Dryden in harmony.' To our ear, the regularity, the precision, , 
arid the terseness of ^ the former have scarcely compensated the 
imfettered freedpm, and the exuberant richness, which distin- 
guish the flowing verses of our English Timotheus. Thcte 
two great poets bear to each other a, relation very similar to 
that of.Xucretius ^nd Virgil. The metrical, lii^ was in botk. 
imtances brought nearer tp perfection .by thi^ two l^er writ^ i , 

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StOckdaleV Lfctuns on Eftglish PoetL X4J 

hfxt the Mgli poKsh, which only chastened and improved xht 
finer gfnictttre of Latin hexameters, v(ras peculiarly unfavourr 
d>le to that variety which constantly recurring rhymes have a 
natural tendency to diminish, but vAich is absolutely essential 
to the beauty of every sort of verse. 

We are truly happy to bear honourable testimony to th^ 
fhree lectures on Jjryden, from which we could wish to^ 
expunge the attacks on Johnson, but which contain many just 
observations, and many entertaining extracts. Our opinions 
entirely coincide with those of the author in favour of triplets 
and Alexandrines ; and we are glad to meet with an admirer 
of Dryden bold enough in these fastidious times to concede 
any merit to his comedies, which have been so often con- 
demned unread. In spite of their numerous and great defects, 
.they certainly abound. with wit, whim, and character. — ^The 
personal qualities of Dryden aire justly and warmly extolled 
by Mr. Stockdale ^ who has also offered a defence of the poet's 
sincerity in his conversion to the catholic faith, which is at 
4east mc/re ingenious and plausible than that on which we 
animadverted in our Review for February*. 

In proportion to the enthusiastic admiration professed by 
Mr. Stockdale for the genius of Pope, is the spleen with whicn 
he visits the frugal praises bestowed on this poet by that * duH' . 
pedant,' « transitory critick,' 'mechanical critick,' publishing < stu- 
pid and illiberal remarks,' Dr.Warton; whom he. accuses rather 
strangely of * want of generosity as an EfigUshmany ior sinking 
his own countryman Pope to the level of Boileau. Mr. 
Stockdale's contempt of French poetry, and his persuasion that 
a Frenchman cannot either understand or feel what true 
poetry is, repeatedly break forth in these lectures, and ttcr 
where more conspicuously than in the following passage ; of 
which we should be rather puzzled to explain the connection 
with those which precede and those which follow it : 

* A French poet would have completely tricked out tlie^ ptTsonffied 
Deatht of Milton ; he would probably havt made hiin a pe/ii mak^ ;. 
he would probably have dwindled him to a Ftenchman. He would 
have had a head, 1 will answer for it; such a head as it would have^ 
been ; perhaps IfUn /rhSe, et lien pouJrh . But how does the pencil 
of Milton paint ; a pencil thaf seems to be actuated by the soul of a- 

On the publication of Warton's , Essay, Mr. Stockdale . 
(h seems) hoiio\ired it with an answer; and he informs us 
twice that Dr. Johnson promised to compliment this answer 

* See the article o« Scott's Life of firydcn, M. R, Vol. IviU 
Tktt. JihE, x8o9« L jo 

' s 

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146 StockdaleV Lecture^ $n Englhi PoeU. 

in his intended Lives of the Poets, but broke his word. - The 
wounded pride of authorship appears, however, to have been 
amjJly propitiated by the Doctor's vigorous eulogies on the 
Olustrious subject of Mr. S.'s two lectures. Large passages 
from the Life of Pope are here transcribed : but still die 
author's thirst of praise for his favourite bard is left unsatiated. 
Johnson, we find, was not sufficiently alive to the beauties of 
Pope*s early stanzas on solitude, or the metaphysical value 
of the Essay on Man; he should not have called Hc^ Rape of 
the Loch the first of Pope's works, because then the Eloisa 
can only be the second ; his objections to the doctrine of a 
ruling passion are very weak and futile 5 and he is styled * a 
Herod oijurf for his comments on the unfortunate lady.^ His 
praise of the * Ovidian ^races^ displayed in Pope's Iliad and 
Odyssey is injurious to the translator, because it intimates a 
demiiency in * the more magnificent graces ;' his mind' was 
^darkened with its early habits of thinking,' when he con- 
sidered some part of the sublimity of Homer as lost in the 
translation ; and « he treats the epitaphs in a very captious 
hypercritical manner.' The present critic offers a commen- 
tary on some of the epitaphs, seemingly in opposition to that 
of hi^ predecessor. We expect the thanks of our readers for 
quoting his observation on these lines in Dorset's epitaph * 

*• The scourge of pride, tlipugh sanctified or great. 
Of fop» in learning, and of knaves in state." 

• •*■ Of this couplet," (says Johnson) " the second line is not what is 
intended, an illiistratron of the fonner. Pride, in the great, is, indted. 
weUeYKHigh connected with knaves in state ; though knave is a word 
rather Coo kidfcrpus and h'gHt \ but the notion o^ sakctified priJe will 
not Wad the thoughts tp/J;^/ in karnmg."-^! think that this couplet, 
tpQ, may be defended without elaborate reasoning ; and withbut the 
uncaodid sjpirit of opposition. The second line appears to me to be 
ain evident illustration of the former. Most of the fops in learning 
have been in the priesthood : the learned men of that class have- often 
been pedants-; but a priest, especially a powerful dignitary, is sancti- 
fierf by hii effice. If he is, therefore, a pedant ; as it is probable that 
he nmy be ; and a^ every pedant is a iiterary fop ; such a dignitary 
may, with propnety be termed a sanctified fop in learning. My poeti- 
cal taste ia not so squeanrosh as to have any objection to the word 
husyet its it is here applied.* . ' 

This critique proves that the author ©fit has caught Ae«nan- - 
ner and spirit of tlie mind which^ he so mugfa adm^ires, and 
iff indispulably the best of all* tHe imitations of 5crlbletus.. .. 

* Pope is again introduced in tHe lectures cai Young, qT 
iii4uch the former miy indeed, almost be called the new). 
Many pttge^ ase ^d^vQi^: to ^ vindication of him froqi some^ 

. - ~ teflect^fr 

• Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

StockdaleV Lectures on English Poets, - t47 

reiflections in Young's ^< Conjectures on original Composition,** 
which were certainly not very honourable to their author, 
vho stands not high ii;i Mr. Stockdale's good graces. That 
gentleman takes occasion to quarrel with the opinions maiil- 
tained by Dr. Vicesimus Knox, < the compilers of the Uni- 
versal Museum, and Complete Magazine for May, 1765,* 
the writers of the Biographia Britannica, and Mr. Croft, who 
furnished Dr. Johnson with the life of Young, but who is here 
accused of advancing * odd, vague, and timid remarks,' and of 
possessing < a very poor poetical taste.' 

The merits of Thomson are next discussed, and very libe- 
rally praised. ' Johnson's complaint of that poet's want of me- 
thod is dismissed with less reply than Mr. S. usually* bestows 
, on his objections, viz. with the character of * absolute nonsense.* 
The censure passed by the Same critic on the poet's exuber- 
ance, and his habit of dwelling too long on one subject, is 
thus repelled ; on^ his immediate subject < he never dwells too 
long for me* (vol. ii. p. 97*) ; and afterward at p. 114, *I 
should be sorry to lose a single expression of that most 
amiable, immortal poet. There is not a feeble, not a super- 
fluous word, in the Seasons 5 not a word, which does not 
contribute to inform the mind, to enrich the fancy, or to im- 
prove the heart.' If this be true, the style oi Thomsoi\ is 
superior to that of' all author^ antient and modem. Mr* 
iStockdale is laudably anxious to do justice 'to the moral cha- 
racter of tliis amiable man, apd* relates an anecdote highly 
bonouxable to his benevolence of heart, and to the affection 
cherished by him through life for his early friends. 

In the six lectures, occupying four hundred pages, M^hich 
ire (levoted to tlie name ot Chatter ton, Mr. Stockdale has 
the pleasure of combating the opinions of Walpole, Bryant, 
TyrvvJiitt, an4 Gregory. The works of those critics on this 
interesting subject furnish ample materials for his censure, 
and no slight excuse for his scorn and indignation: but, while 
his animated strictures are pursuing the writings and the me- 
mdries'of these cold-blooded authors, the genius of the im- 
mortal young poet is not appreciatied with much force or. 
discriminatfon ; and his deatn is justified on principle$ not 
perhaps qiiite consistent with the doctrines that ought to be 
prpmulgated by a christian divine. We may here also remark 
that, the Reverend Mr. Stockdale's unqualified . panegyrics on 
Rousseau have surprised us more/ than ouce in the perusal of 
these voLumes. 

-ThfitwQ closing, lectures are, devoted to Gray $ whom 
♦ Mr. Stockdiale defends from . Johnsqn's hy|^rcriti<:al sarcasms 
^d cqU complimei^ts, muclvin ti^o same mano er as etery 

h % .^dBku reader 

148 Mills'/ Transfaffon ofOvid^s Metamorph$ser. 

reader of poetical feeling has, to his own mind zi least, de-r 
fended him as often as he has perused ." the Lives of th6 Poets." 
Mr. S.*s observations* on the poet's disagreement with Mr. 
Walpole are the most novel, and the best intitled to attention, 
of any in these two lectui'es. ^ 

We -cannot conclude withbut protesting against this writer's 
excessive partiality to the semicolon in punctuation, which 
makes some of his sentences pedantic, and some incompre- 
hensible. We also dislike his title. Johnson professes to 
give an account of the more eminent English poets ; and Mr. 
Stockdde, offended at the mean pretensions of many who are 
admitted into this assemblage, atinounces the resolution to 
aonfine himself to those who are truly eminent : but, with 
whatever scrupulousness the list may be reduced, why has he 
excluded Otway, Rowe, Akenside, Collins, and Goldsmith ? 

Art* IV. The two first Boohs of Ovid^s Metamorphoses* At- 
tempted in English Verse. By W. Mills, late a Scholar, now an 
Assistajitj in Duntingford Grammar SchooL izmo. pp. iij. 
5s. Boards. Black and Co. 1808. 

1^ jeviewing a translation of the Metamorphoses in blank- 
Verse, which proceeded from die pen of Mr. Howard *, 
we took occasion to observe that the English public was 
certainly in wailt of a new version of that excentric poem, 
but that we coold hatdly expect to see this task executed 
wirfi success in any measure, except that of the heroic couplet, 
which indeed' appeared to us peculiarly adapted to the under- 
tftkiijg; These are the two) remarks, we presume, wjiich 
more immediately stimulated the exertions of Mr. Mills ; 
who informs us, in an 'advertisement, that his present attempt 
was. suggested by that article in our Review. We by no 
raean^ regret either that the hint was thrown out by us, or 
that it has been taken by Mr. Mills : but the circumstances 
above mentioned seem to make it proper that we should state, 
to a (Jertain degree in detail, and with perfect fi'ankness, the 
opinion which we have taken some pains ft> form. 

The advertisement announces, in a style at once manly 
and modest, 'that a « principal motive of the present publica- 
tion was to ascertain whether the translator may be likely to 
employ himself usefully and successfully, as he advances in 
age and experience, on the Latin or Greek poets j' — and, in 
order to deprecate the severity of criticism, it ia added that 
tliis is the first attempt oi an author only twenty years- of. age, 

' 'r — >'■ . ■ ■ ' ■ *.«_^ 11- _^ 

* Seethe- M^iUy Hsvievir for Dcctnabcr 180J, p. 436. 

: i' ' and 


MillsV Translation 5/" Ovid*/ Metamorphoses. 149 

and that It was begun and finished between January and Juljr, 
in the shoiJt intervals of leisure allowed in his employment 
of assistant at the academy to which he belongs. Under 
these disadvantages, perhaps it was imprudent to hasten the 
appeyance of a wqrk which can» owe no attraction to tem- 
porary causes, and which might have had an equal chance of 
success at the distance of a year or two from its composi- 
tion. It would appear preposterous to cdntend that a period 
of five months is insufEciqit for executing a translation of two 
books of Ovid : yet the value of time to a poet is not to be / 
estimated by the number of lin^ which can be composed in ^ 
certain space,^ but by those opportunities which are afforded 
only by delay, of bringing a cool judgment and the spirit of 
impartial correction to the first hasty effusions of a mind na- 
turally heated by its task. The muse, on consideration, wiH 
be able to distinguish between that which really deserts het 
approbation, and that which owed its charm to novelty alone ; 
like the child in Horace, 

" Quod cupide petiity mature plena reliquit j" 

and a poem will often owe more of its general efect to di6 
prudent rejection of such passages as good taste condemns, 
than to the most brilliant exhibition of occasional beauties 
that are inconsistent with the prevailing style of the per- 
formance. . ' 
Perhaps we cainnot examine this work more effectually, tihati 
by laying before our readers a few detached portioiis of it, 
with our remarks on those parts which call for observaticm. 
We begin with the exordiunu 

« Bodies I sing, transformed by power divine ! — 
Yc gods'! who changed them, —aid my bold design ; 
Propitious guide me on my lengthened way 
Prom early chaos to the present day. 

* Ere earth appeared, or ambient oceans flowed^ 
'Or starry skies o'er all incumbent gk>wcd, 
One form unvaried nature's surface wore, 
• And Chaos called ;— a rude misshapen store ; 

An inert mass of undigested clay. 
Where embryo elements discordant lay ; 
The world as yet no solar influence shared, 
^^^To warning (waning) moon her monthly horns rcpafrcd, . 
^^i> aether launched no earth her coursfc had run, * 
Pois'd by her native weight around the sun ; 
Her. lengthened scores by nature's beauties graced. 
With azure arms, no giant sea embraced j 
But ere to each the proper bounds were f 
Eart^ air, and ocean lay confuiedlj' miTj 
L 3 

No foQtipg firip earth's yielding surface gave. 
No venturous seaman braved the pathless wavt ; 
But sbapele,6s matter undistinguished lay. 
And awful Darkness held her silent sway : 
.Extremes in close-pent opposition fought. 
Heat mix^d with cold, and moisture with the drought, 
Hard with the soft v^as joined, incongruous state ! 
And lightest matter with metallic weight: 
vjThe God of nature bade this discord cease. 
This elemental war, and all was peace. 

flarth, air and ocean, at his dread command, 
ever^ dispersed, and take the appointed stand ; 
And ordered from the darkling mass to roll. 
He fixed is rank and harmony the whole.* 

The general subject is opened in the first four 'lines with 
pe^tness and simplicity ; and they are also unexceptionably 
fakhful ta the original : unless some stickler for the extreme 
accuracy of version, as hypercritical as ourselves, should object 
to a slight and i^warranted tautology in the double assertion 
that the bodies were transformed ky power divine^ and that 
the gods changed them, — In the 8th line, we are at a loss to 
discover the grammatical construction of chaos called ; and we 
do not approve of store^, or clay^ as a desci^ption of the in^rt 
(not inert) linarranged and undistinguished mass, which preceded 
the birth of nature. The 7tli couplet is very good in itself, 
but Ovid was no disciple of the Copemican philosophy ; and, 
according to his system, instead of travelling round the sun, 

— '* Circumfuso pendebat in acre tellus 
Ponderihut Rbrataiuts-^^ 

The remaining parts of the description appear to us free, 
correct, and spirited. 

The golden age has always been thq favourite subject for a 
prial of the powers of youthful genius : 

« With native worth the rising world began. 
And faith unsullied reigned 'twixt man and man,' &c* 

but Mr. MilU?s representation of the moral excellence which 
prevailed in th^it favoured tima is less happy than, bis picture 
of the beauty and fertility of tlie material world : 

f The earth unharrassed gave her plenteous store, ^ 
-And man content^ nor asked, nor wished for more. 

f Soft balmy Z^phy^s warmed the flowers to birth. 
And spring eternal brooded o'^r the ea^rth : 
Np fallowed lands their wasted strength recruit, 
But flowers successive ripeu into fruit. 
Whilf o'er the hills the waving harvests rise. 
Springing spontaneous to the admiring eyes: '" 

^'^- /■ ' ■ * "^ ■ -v^w? 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

MUlsV Translation jfOvidV Metamtrphous* l$i 

While from the oaks the Golden Honey glowedf 
And streams of milk and hearcnly nectar flowed.* 

The only fault in these couplets, the first three of which 
•jire beautiful, is the confusion so frequently occurring between 
the past and the present tense. 

The most striking peculiarity, that has been generally sup- 
j>osed to characterise the genius^of Ovid, is the propensity tb 
expand. every subject that he touches, to place his descrip- 
tions in all tne various lights which they are capable^ of re- 
ceiving, and entirely to exhaust the common-place-book of 
its contents, under each particular head that falls within the 
scope of his design. , This quality, when unseasonably in- 
dulged, destroys all the illusion of sentiment and passion : but, 
x>n the other hand, when it is judiciously displayed, and kept 
ip due subordination to the ruling purpose of tne poem, how 
rich .a variety of description, how copious a stream of reflec-^ 
tioa, do we find resulting from it ! For another quality, 
however, of a directly opposite kind, and which has been less 
frequently observed, this great poet has always appeared to 
us to be at least equally conspicuous. We allude to an ex- 
traordinary compression of thought ; in which he almost rivals 
Tacitus himself, and^ which has procured for him the honour 
of being quoted perhaps as often for his moral maxims, as 
the great philosophic historian. It would be difficult to 
enumerate the multitude of Jines whiph have passed from his 
writings ipto proverbs, and are now become so familiar that 
men have forgotten from what source ^ey \jrere derived. The 
study to imitate these two qualities must be highly favourT 
able to freedom and terseness of composition, as well as 
to the perfect developement of poetic ideas i but, in his 
attempts to represent the latter, Mr. Mills has been either 
careless or li^nfortunate. Whp can recognize the magnificent; 
declaration of the Pagan, that " God created man ^fter his 
own image,'* 

" Os bomint suhllms deiit^ Cdlumqm tueri 

yussit, k^ erectos a4 sid^ra tollere vuitus/* ^ 

in j|uch lines as these-^rrf 

* Nor ^ro/i^ like beasts he moulded godlike man. 
Erect he bad him heav'n's whsole concave scan .^ 

The other classes of created beings are, however^ sketched witl^ 
elegance : 

• To every part its hal?itants he gave, 
Beastly to the earth, and fishes to the wave, 
Yhrough yielding air the feathered sqn^stcrt flyi 
Alid sts^rs and deities assume the sky.'* 

I. 4 Th« 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The enmneriktion is indeed transposed, but the chwg» is judi* 
cious, and produces a spirited effect. 

Few pf our classical readers cacn have forgotten the fine lineSy 
ui which Jupiter declares that his resolution to inflict the last 
punishment on guilty man had beea deferred till all hopes o( 
I'fiforraation had failed. They display as m,uch dignity m the 
expression as vigour in the thought : 

'I Cuncta prius tentata : sed imme^ahlk vulnus 
JSnse reddcntfunif ne part stncera trahaturV 

How kmentably inadequate is the vulgar metaphor adopted in 
tile translation ! ' 

• Each milder method has before been tried, 
But, lest the infection seize the sounder part, 
'Tis best to probe iht evil to the heart. * 

The deluge itself is, however, very well described ; and Mr. 
Mills has done complete justice not only to his author's aom« 
prehensive image of the general desolation, but al^o to the 
particular examples on which he afterward dilates : 

** Jamque mare et tellus nullum dis crimen hahebant* 
Omnia pontus erani^ Deerant quoque Httora ponto.*' •' 

' The earth and ocean no distwQfi«n bore; 
All now was st a, and sea without a sUore. 
The wretched native, as the waters rise, 
, In vain for safety to. the mountain flies; 
Another sits upon his boat's high prow. 
And plies his oar, where late he drove his plough ; 
Sails o*er his cottage, and with wonder sees 
The fish entangled io the lofty trees : . 

Here rytsr the vines, perchance, the vettel past. 
Or. in a verdant mead its anchor cast; 
Whc^e lit? secure tfie deader she goats fed, 
J^ow sea calves wallow on their grassy bed. 
The Nereids wondering s^c thipir lengtl^ened rexgn^ 
Groves, towns, and houses whelmM beneath the i^ain r. 
Among the trees the unwieldy Dolphins rdde^ 
Basked on the bblighs, and lashed th« bending ntHXHl* 

We do not deem it necessary to pursue our iscrutiny much, 
farther ; but we are sorry to observe that the execution of the 
second book is^ not e«|jaal to that of the fir^t, and is ^ven more 
remarkable fbr haste and negligence. Apollo's aflfecting r«w 
vffm^^^f^h'^ with hia soA are> in the translation, feeble ani 
trite : 

<' Try it who vrill, tjier^*-* opt a Gx>d but I 

Can guidq tl^h^rBing chariot, U^rqugh tbq sisyi: 
The ^tliRi94e«:er*« le^^ whose poten<:e deals arou^ 
His vengeful bol(H with 9 ^crrifi<; ^i|i|4i 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Thtn wi)ofa w^ know none greater in the sky, 
Would shrink unequal to a task so high ;' 

and , 

* My careful love must proof enough appear* 

is a line very uaworthy of the origmal, 

** Pignora-^erta pttiSi do pignora certa tmenJp,** 5cc. 

We jBUSt also particularly object to t}ie use of Phaeton as 
a dissyllable, which is as grating a sound to the classical ear 
as the writer's orthography, fhatoth is unpleasing even to m 
fashionable eye. 

The rhymes in this little volume are not strictly correct ; and 
it may be proper to remark that the changes of pronuncia- 
tioir, which have taken place since the days of Pope, have 
made that most accomplished versifier cease to be an authority 
for the employment of words as rhymes. This disadvantage . 
b inseparable from the nature of rhyme, and it unfortunately 
operates most in respect to the phrases which are in most 
ordmary use. Such an apology cannot be mad^ for the fol- 
lowing couplet, whicl^ offends equally agsdnst the correct 
pronunciation of both the English and the I^tin languages : 

* Of these the right Pandrho then possessty 
The left A^jlauros. Herse in the midst* 

No good purpose will be answered by our entering more 
at latge into the proof that this transl-^tion has been executed 
without that regard to accuracy and polish, which the public 
have a right to expect from all literary candidates for their 
favour : but, though often languid and uncouth, it is in many 
instances nervous and animated, elegant and faithful. In a 
wdrd, it clearly evinces that Mr. Mills is quite equal to the 
execution of the task of rendering Ovid' into English poetry, 
though in itself the present is far from being such an execution.' 
Our favourable . estimate of his powers has induced us, in 
conjunction with other motives, to express ourselves v(rithout 
reserve in respect to his performance ; and we will conclude 
\ntfc offering him one piece of advice, which may possibly 
be found useful to his reputation. If he determines on com* 
^pleting the work of which he has thus given a specimen, let 
him entirely lay aside all that he has now composed, and 
re-write the whole. We foresee little danger of the happier 
passages escaping his recollection ; and even if they should 
do so at the ^moment of composition, they might easily be 
transplanted aiterward from the old version imo the new : 
but labour bestowed on amending what is radicallvdefective 

'* will- 

1^4 Essays by W. and T. Ludlam, 

will not only be wasted, where it is applied, but will also throw 
ao air of restraint over the whole, which must be equally destruc- 
tive to the freedom of its effect Ind the uniformity.ot its style* 

Art. V. Essays t Scriptural Moral f and Logicalt^drngntd^ to 
promote aiv AttcDtlon t6 Clcarntss of Ideas, Precision of Ex- 
pressien, and Accuracy of Reasoning, upon these important 

• Subjects. By W. and T. Ludlam. a Volumea. . ^v^. • i(j%; 
. boards, Wilkie and ^lobuison. 

BT referring to. our former volumes*^ we find that four 
, of the Essays here presented to us, viz : on Scripture 
Metaphors^ l}ivine Justice^ Divine Mercy^ and the Doctrine 
nf Saitsfactiony were published in 1785 ; that two essays, on 
JtestiJUation and the Influence of the Holy Spirit y followed in 
1788, by William Ludlam, Rector of Goekfield, Suffolk ; . 
and that, a few months after this last-mentioned publicalion^ 
the learned world* was deprived of this excellent manf. , /^jc. 
discover, also, in the New Series, Vol. 23. p. 13 a. of oup 
voluminous work, that in 1797 Thomas Ludlam, Rector of • 
Foston, Leicestershire, printed his Four Essays, on the ordinary- 
4ind extraordinary ^rations of the Holy Spirit^ on the applica^^ 
tion of experience to Religion^ on JEnthusiasm, and on Fanaticism^ 
to which was prefixed a dissertation on die Natuire of clear 
Ideas, and the Advantage of distinct ^ Knowlege. Our 29th 
Vol. N. S. p. 379, moreover, reminds us that the s^me 
author, in 1 798, furnished us with Six Essays on theological 
subjects, viz. On the nvord ^ruthy as used in the Scriptures 
if the N.T.y on the Nature of Revelation ; on the phrase^ Gal. iii. 
13, Christ h^ng made a Curse for us ; on the Nature of the 
Divine Seingy as discoverable from his Works or his Word'y on 
the Nature of Human Authorityy considered as a proof of the 
Truth (f Opiniony containing Remarks on Dr, Knox\s Christian 
Philosophy ; and on the Effects of the Fall : to Which were 
added two essays on moral subjects ; viz. .on the Difference 
between the Powers and Dispositions of the Human Mind ; and 
en the Mature and Grounds of Moral Obligation; in which Dr. 
Paley^s Notion' of the Moral Sensey advanced in his Lectures on 
Moralityy is fully considered* These references have enabled 
us to distinguish the old from the new matter contained in 
the volumes now before us : but the general reader, .who has 
not the advantage which we possess in this respect, would be 

* M. R. Viol. 74. p. 15. and Vol. 79. p. 185^ 

/ . f He was known as a mathematician, aa well as 9 (iiyin^ ; bul w^ 
Ijavc^not in this place referred tOr his mathematical tracts* 


Digitized by 


Essays J^y W. and T. Ludlam- t$$ 

unable to make the discovery ; ;and the Editor has^ in oar 
opinion, been very blameably deficient, in not prefixing any? 
explanatory introduction containing that information to which 
the pi*blic are intitled. We are farther Jeft to conclude, from 
the circumstance of an Editor making his appearance on this 
occasion, * that Mr. T. Ludlam has aJso paid the. debt of 
nature : but with respect to all thes^ points, we must re- 

feat, this Editor has very imperfectly discharged his duty, 
Necessary information ought not to be withholden ; and, 
when new and old matter is blended, it is a delusion of the 
public which is little better than swindling to suppress all 
intimation of 'the fact. We trust that this hint will be re-r 
garded. Such Sins of Omission, at the present day, are too 
cpmmon. ^ 

These two volumes contain ten Essays by Mr. William' 
Ludlam, the first six of which are re-publications; andthirty-two 
Essays by Mr.Thomas Ludlam, twelve of which have formerly 
appeared : but whether they have undergone any revisioi^ 
or alteration, we have not now the means of ascertaining. 
To each volume an appendix is subjoined, consisting of several 
papery. ' Of the matter which appears to be new to us, we shall 
now proceed to take Some notice, and first of the posthumous 
works of Mr. William Ludlam 5 whose Vllth Essay relates 
to the title « Only-Begotten," given in scripture to Christ^ It 
Biay be inferred from a short note the editor to 
Essay Vlllth, Vol. I. p. 205, that No. VIL had been published' 
by the author himself : but, if he died soon after the printing 
of the two Essays mentioned by us in M. R. Vol. 79. p. 185, 
how could this have happened, unless it was added as an 
Appendix to a second edition of the Two Essays ? At all 
events, to us it is new : but, had we never 8<een it, we should 
have sustained no loss, since the term " OfJy^Begotteti^* which 
only occurs in John's Gospel, receives no satisfactory illustrar 

We are presented in the Vlllth Essay, on the history of Cor*- 
neliufj with some remarks tending to reconcile the doctrine 
oi merit with that of acceptance by the Fatlier through Christ. 
The Subject is not, in our opinion, relieved from its difficulties 
because Mr. Ludlam does not on either point entertain clear 
apprehensions. Virtue is no more to be considered as a 
demand on the Deity, than the sufferings of Christ are to be 
regarded as a complete liquidation of the sinner's debt. 
Obedience to the will of God must be pleasing to God, and 
<fthat which he delights in must be happy." Here the 
foundation of virtuous hope towards God is clearly expres- 
sed; ai^d, as Gonieiius was a man of uQaffec^|te|k^ and^ 

Ijtf ' Msisys ly W. and T, jLndlam. 

benevolence, the Deity contemplated him yitritit comj^bcency: 
in this view, < there ig (is the writer observes) $uch a thing 
as merit and dinurH coostitating moral character, in the sight 
of God as well as n^n ;' anid on this ground the favour 
conferred on Cornelius is to be explained. 

To those persons who would exclude all conversation but 
that which is termed pious, we recommend the IXth Essay, on 
ReHgiws CoTtwrsation j in which the absurdity of the practice* 
which the author calls < spouting texts ami gospel gossiping^ is 
properly exposed. As to what is styled,. in the language of 
Methodism, the relating of experipficesy fears that, so 
far from its being productive of good, it is a species of con- 
versation which will in the end produce nothing but habitual 
hypocrisy towards God, and spiritual pride towards man. 
The mixed state of general society, the nature of religion, and 
the necessity of relaxation, preclude the introduction of the 
most serious of subjects on all occasions j- yet undoubtedly 
cases occur' in which religious conversation may be profitable. 
Some of these are here mentioned, and we must applaud Mr. 
L.'s remarks, on account of their nice discrimination. 

Tp the Clergy, Mr. William Ludlam's last or Xth Essay, 
On the doctrine of the Churchy will be interesting. Thjs 
liberal writer combats the position << that to judge what are 
the Doctrines of the Church of Efiglandy we must have recourse 
to fivhat is called J the Original Constitution, and not learn it 
from the opinion of the present Al embers J^ Here we shall allow 
the author to argue in his own way : 

<■ They who subscribe the articles, \^ they beh'eve them in their 
generafly received sense, are as far from dishonesty, as he h from 
lying, who, calHng himself your humble servant, should decline 
carrying yjotir portmanteau. 

* We judge by a similar rule with respect to the constitution of the 
state : the generally received opinions of the p^reat lawyers is the 
standard of what i^ common law at this day. Nor is there any rea- 
-ton why the generally received cfjpimons of learned churchmen should 
not also be the standard of what church doctrine is at this day. 'I 
see no difference between ecclesiastical and civil society. I consider 
the Church of England as a temporal society — a sodety of buman^ 
HOT of divine institution. The church of Chri&t is indted a spiritual 
body ; but the church of Christ has no other articles, except tlie 
scriptures.' — , ^ 

' It -is now many years since general warrants were issued fire- 
quemly, and obedience was always paid to them ; such warrants being 
at that time held vALiii^byihegrcat lawyers ; this,ttlien, was zttbaf 
time LAW> and disohcdieirc^ to such warrants ainfnL The courts of 
law have now given another determination : common law has under* 
^goae dhc more change ; and disobedieace is hot kow siafui. You 

6 may 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 

Essays iy W. tfiwf T. Lndlam. ij^ 

Hay obey if yro please : and you may underttaod the arUcle tn its. 
prkQtti^e s^aae if you please^ 

* But iH thjfi instance, you will say, aybriM/ decision has changed 
the law. There are innumerable instances, where costomi not only 
acctdaUally hut fraudulertily introducjtd, has changed the law. Thps : 
—a recovery is a sham law-suit : it was originally a iricki^h one, de- 
vised by some crafty lawyer to defeat an entail. Time and custom 
have purged away the roguery, and it is become an honest transaction; 
it has been sanctioned by the constant allowance of the judges. This; 
indeed, has made a change in the -common law. Entails, in the 
cases, where you can now suffer a recovery, are in fact forbicjden by 
law; that they are forbidden is plain/ for the legerdt* main of a rcco^ 
very makes them void'*. Just in* the same way interpretations of 
articles, originally bold, perhaps forced, may, by being received, and 
generally admitted, become the church*^ sense of those articles. 

* You will say, perhaps, this Is a conteihptible church, and auch 
arc useless articles, if their sense can thus vary ; but is civil govern- 
ment contemptible, or the law of the land useless, which varies full 
as much as church articles ? 

' To be Hire, to say this is to maintain that thwe is a considerable 
latitodc in the sense w4iich may fairly be put upon the articles ; and 
no method of interpretation can be devised which will nut adroit of 
some. If such, or a greater latitude is allowed by the governors of 
the church., they who subscribe under that allowed liberty cannot be 
blamed if they make use of it. Whether it be proper to allow thaC| 
or any liberty at all. Is a very different consideration.' — 

' Did not A L I, the first reformers, and all the churchmen of their 
days, believe that Cliri^t descended personally into hell, that is, into 
the place of the damned ? If we are to recur to the original constitu* 
tloD of the church, this is the 8ense,-the only sense of the article : 
it is that which was held by the most eminent, the most pious ofthet 
reformers. But is ihcrfc either a Bishop or a Methodist that holds \t 
now ? No one now believes it means any more than that the huma« 
soul of Christ was by death separated from his body, and remaliied till 
his resurrection in the place or state of unclothed spirits. While the 
local descent into heU was the only interpretation of the article, arid 
no other heard of> whoever subscribed must subscribe in that sensQ 
only. But a subscriber now is undoubtedly at liberty to believe and 
maintain either opinion. No one \^ill «ay that the article may r>ot beii^ 
subscribed in the primif<ve significatipn (yet if there is any doubt, it 
is here) ; and that it may be understood as ai«l, learned men do new 
understand it, will hardly be denied.' 

* * This TRICK was originally connived at by the judges for very 
wise purposes, viz. to check the holding. of lands in mortmain, and 
thereby to enlarge civil liberty, in an age when it was impossible to 
obtain z formal law to prevent this evil> on account of the temper;* 
tfiat is, the religious folly of the titaes $ fer viokia religious^ zeal has 
always beea-^ tainted with fpUy, or something worse^ from those to > 
the pr^Cflt day^.* 


t5S £ssayi by V^» and T. Ludlam. 

I This reasonable liberty, as Mr. L. calls it, now enjoyed by 
subscribers in the assent which they give to th^ doctrines 
contained in the Articles, he seqms to prefer to alterations : 
but, as this liberty is rather supposed than expressed, the 
latitude of interpretation here advocated cannot be strictly 
termed the doctrine of the Church. Actual emendation, if 
it could be quietly and safely effected, would be preferable to 
the ungracious ingenuity of giving new senses to old Articles. 

Of the nine essays of Mr. Thomas Ludlam which occ/t 
iirthe first voiimie, the Vth on the Nature of Revelatimy and 
the Vllth on the Nature of the Divine Beings &c. have kx- 
merly been noticed by us ; of the rest we shall speak in their 

In the first, on the Nature of clear Ideas and the Advantages 
of distinct inowlegej the faculties and operations of flie mind 
m collecting and combining ideas are 'considered ; next the 
use of words as the materials and foundation of our knowlege ; 
and lastly, the errors whjch arise from combining inconsistent 
or incongruous ideas, and from employing those arbitrary signs^ 
called words, without precision, including more or fewer, 
and sometimes different ideas under the same word. An 
instance is adduced, in a note, of an union of terms^ot less 
completely inconsistent with one another than hot cMnessy yet 
it has the sanction of orthodoxy ; so much fonder are some 
inen of sound than of sense in religion : 

' * Joseph Milner's definition of Justification IS fiffm/^/Zr^i^Zr, because 
he joins inconsistent idczi. •* By the doctrine of justification,"- be 
tsjs (see a pamphlet entitled *' Some remarkable passages m^lvQ Life 
of William Howard," p. 43.) '*' is naeant, the pjirticular method kid 
down in scripture of honourably acquittiKg sinfui nicn before their 
God, THROubH the aionement 2LQd righleoutmss of Jesus Christ." He 
joins here two ideas which are utterly inconsistent ; ior^ sinful men, so 
far from being honourably acquitted, cannot be acquitted at all to 
be acquitted, a man roust be innocent. Nor can an innobexit man be 
acquitted upon account of, for the sake of, or through, the doings or 
tfnffcf ings of another. It is upon account of bis own innocence only, 
and upon no other account whatsoever, that a man can ht hottourably 
acquitted. In htiman courts, indeed, men are som^imes acqiiitted 
for want of evidence to convict them, although there is no doubt of 
th^r guilt ; but jf/^ acquittance is never reckoned ^(Mi6ur^/r. Tiiat 
acquittance ahne is honourable where ^here is no suspicion of guilt. A 
man who is found guilty — a sinful man— may be pardoned for the 
sake of another ; but this is not an acquittal, mi|ch less' an honoiirahU 

It is very desiroaMe thlt the same cleam^ss^ of ide»s and 
precision of e;xpression, which prevail in the Sciences, shoi^d 
he extended to Religion j and this object the author e.hdea- 
' ' vours 


Eisays hy W. and T« LU(Uam» . i ^^ 

voucs tx> achieve in the lid Eseay, on the proper'^ mode of oi^ 
tMningy as far as is practicMe^ an unity of Opinion amon^ 
Christians : but the very discussion proves how hopeless is the 
task of attempting to make all mankind think alike, excepting 
on pqints which admit of strict mathematical demonsdration. 
While ideas are differently excited and arranged, and the same 
words convey different meanings to different persons^ it is in 
vain to expect uniformity of opinion. 

. The ind and iVth Essays, on the proper mode of attaining an 
exact kno'Oflege ofXihristianityy with a practical illustration^ form a 
^d of supplement to the foregoing, and are intended to shew 
how necessary it is, in order to obtain an accurate knowlege 
of the Scriptures,, to acquire a precise idea of the terms em- 
ployed by the sacred writers. We have often hirfted at this 
desideratum; and if controversialists, before they disputed 
about doctrines, would first define in clear terms the exact 
sense in which they use their favourite expressions, theology 
would be a science of less confusion than it is at present. 

To explain Yi6f meaning, use, and importance of Natural Re^ 
iigion, as forming the only possible proof of the divinity of trans'- 
mined Revelation, is the object of the author in his Vlth 
Essay. « By religion in its most general signification, is 
meaflt knowlege* respecting God •,' and it is contended that 
the evidence of Revelation cannot. be satisfactory without 
that assurance of the veracity of the Divine Being which is col- 
lected by reason from his works. The result of, the argument 
k * that such knpwlege of God as can alone be collected from 
his works, by deductions of reason drawn from the informa- 
tion of our several senses, (whether you chuse to call this 
knowlege the light of reason, the light, tlie law, the reli- 
gion of nature,) is absolutely necessary to establish the •truth 
of Christianity.' 

Whoever has adverted to the foolish rites, absurd opinions, 
and unprofitable austerities which Superstition has enjoined, 
(and who can peruse the pages of what is called the history 
of Religion . without adverting to them ?) will consider the 
subject of the Vlllth Essay, x>n the proper ground of our Affec^ 
tions towards God, to be generally worthy of attention. In-» 
deed, Christians often require a lecture to keep their piety 
and devotion within "the bounds of ** reasonable service :** 
but we are sorry to add that the paper before us is too con- 
cise to answer this purpose. It contains an imperfect dis- 
cussion of the important question which it proposes. < 

The IXth Essay, the last in Vol. L is of greater extent. 
k is intitled,^ on ' the Nature of and Reason for Social Union 
am^n^^Maniindi^^At^mtig on the superior degrees of excel- 

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f 6a EffBjf ifW.4rmni ItttHfm^ 

lence^ tnd Ae greater extent, ^ attninmeDtft leq^lred by 
man vhen united in society than ^en in the smrage and 
solitary state, Mr. L* just^ infers diat the constitutioit ,oi 
Imman nature points to social union as the indisputable in« 
tention of Providence j and he lays down the principles en 
which this union, both in civil and religious bodiea^ ought to 
bo regulated. Society he de&nes to he * an* union of men 
for the purpose of obtaining such advantages, as can neither 
be obtained nor secured without it ; dvtJ society for the ac- 
quiaition of ciiil, and religious society for the acquisition of 
religious, advantage*.* His ideas of the nature of ciril and 
ecclesiastical governments are thus e^ipiained : 

* The ^^rtfr^/ purposes o^ any society nfitist be ascertained by the 
general voice of all tlic membtrs of n. They unite for the attain-- 
mcnt of certain erds. But the particular mearit most proper for at- 
"tainmg ^^t ends, itii^t be left to the choice -^f those pcrsoos to* 
whom the po*vcr of judging and acting has been delcjfated by the- 
body at large; fof^thebody at large, from their multitudcv are in- 
competent to decide upon the various matters which may concern ihc 
general intere?*. In, civil society, thc^e purposes arc the security of 
men*^ persons and property ; and the means by which these purposes 
arc to be attained. a»c the various yorai/ of civil government. In re- 
ligious societies (at \<i^\ those professing Christianity), the purpose 
of union we may suppose to be, the purity <if the doctrine to be re- 
ceivedj the propriety of the wors^hip to be used, and the expediency 
of the discipline to. 1 c exercised. Those doctrines <^\\\ be esteemed 
piire^ that worship proper, and that discipline expedient whidi the 
wenjbtniof^iwrjf church cheof^ to adopt : for every church must of 
necessity think lu^owo profession of religion to be the right: aiTd,^ 
there neither is, nor can be, an infallible judge of controversy,, each 
diurch mqst be left, by all otlters, to tnjoy its own profession. Bat 
the nifJe by which eai*h chuich is to be preserved m that purity pf 
doctrine, and in the use of that wo.'iship and discipline, which such 
chuVch Bjippoves,- must be left to those persons, who, in every it\U 
gions; a» w^ll as i^i all other sccietietf, are, and must be appointed to 
judge* for the whole: for, witlwut such appointment^ no society 
can 0ver be formed gr contimied, or can obtain the ends designed by 
such .union. Perhaps, it will be asked, ** Wh^t, then, is there no' 
/ru^, no real church of Christ.?" The answer in this case, asjn many 
similar pnjc?f is, thal.every church formed by hottest men, .by nieu who 
wncercly desire and endeavour to find out the truth, Ar^i. from every, 
hias of passion, prejudice, or tt^or/d/y motives y is the true ^hurch, 
and. will be found so to be, when he, who alone knows w^ii/ the trifc 
church is (John x. 14, 27.), shall come to make* the dfecrimiriation.* 

It is the object of this writer to evince the reasoaableoess ofc 
Toleration, while he contends for a national establishment •: tftlt, 
though he manifests, a very , liberal turn of naind, his axffJ^- 
ments do not uniformly harmouize^^ since reUgiojus liberty mmt. 


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he pA^ ^mitsaied whSkh ptlttSesd hs^^JSMcf M^on^-t^ 
4igidii$'teists, and the magtstrale it made tint adie judge of tfcr 
nimre of that fakh to whii:h he deems-it fit to aurard itm 
pkx^tude of civil privil^s. What speiHilativ^ dioctritt^ ^^tm 
be $aid' to he < incansUteat with the ends of tml govemaieiiK^ 
If there be anything so politically vicious in the doct1rii(cili>f 
sec^cfs; ih6j ought not to be totarated : but if on die odier 
hand they are bkmd and innocent, as far at eivil obedienee jU 
coneernedy can any suffitiem reason be assigned for makittg 
them the ground of civil exonnmum^atiott, espai^aUy whim 
the national charch can be amply secured and elevated 'by thf 
honours and emoluments .which distinguish it ?; The tiftie^ 
perhaps, is not far distant, when it will be found diat Sociil 
Union is most, effectually promoted by removing the idea thai 
we must think alike in religion, in order to be alike interesteA 
in the prosperity of our Sovereign aad the welfare of our 
country. ' 

Remarks <m Mr. Robinson's ChristiaH Sptim unfMedg on 
Mr. Parry's Inquiry into the nature and ^ttnt if ike Inspiroitmm 
tfthe Apostles J on Mr. Locke's Paraphrase and Notes on tl^ 
Epistles to the Romans^ on Mr. Willat's Assize sermon, against 
the Religion of Nature ; on the Advertisement prefixed to the 
third edition of the Confessional ; and on Mr. John Newton's* 
Expository Discourses ; form the contents of the Appendix tO 
the first volume: throughout the whole of which, Mr.T. 
Ludlam endeavours to promote that clearness of apprehension 
and that accurate exhibition of ideas in the use <^ words, which 
are so necessary to the advancement of truth, and owing 
to the want of which so much fruitless controversy is inceft- . 
santly promoted and extended. As * the meaning of mspired 
writings cannot, Without a miracle, be ascertained any iiher 
way than. as the meaning of all other writings is, mat 19 
by human judgmenty he exposes the weakness of those en«» 
thusiasts who pretend to discard the use of human reason % at 
well as the mistaken zeal of those advocates of Christiankyt 
who suppose that they elevate Revelation by undervaluing 
Natural Religion. It appears to have been the object oi Mr^ 
L. to promote religious inquiry with the same ptecisioi: and ac<< 
curacy which obuin in philosophical discussion ; and it it 
sincerelyto be wished that this object could be attained. - 

Though we have already noticed the Xth Essay, with 
whidi Voh II. conMnences, it may not be amiss to recall th^ 
attention of our readers to Mr. Ludlam's remark on Gal. iii. 1 2^ 
>^hich the *< Evangelical I^reachef s" <juote in support of thel 
<ioctHne of Siibstitudon. The apostle here < alludes plainly 
«>d» manner in whdch Christ vras p^ to dcath^jjg^jg^the 
• Hsv. June, 1809. M 

•Mrf ift- iMch tt» ^Afidi b^ kft ^c^, or ht^ ft hepme 
tfttiikble feir'Ai liMghr^Aies^ of rinners. ile safY nodinig 
tdiom tte'iM^f^ ItS'^Mifi^ ; iibotit any tranihtioii of guilty 
mUf c^mnmieatiMi <^ punUhment^ any standing ia our law- 
•Ibrcfy matters 'tkfter utterly impoMUiIe, or uttedy uniiitel* 

4l eom^ftited &af < ^flferings arising out of d^ ovder of nature 
|M« LulDB^iiy are 1fio marks ^ God's disposition towards 
A* fmffiere#s» and Vi^'ch' less are to be considered ^ purmh^ 

. iEssays Xlf. Xrtl. XIV. and XV. are those which were first 

finished* in iP^py.^ 

-^- A pliiloscpbicai ^rtew is taken tfthe evidence arising Jrvm 

Vkperieneeym the\XVIth Essay, whidi ought to haye imme^ 

diately foUow^ed or have been subjoined as sm appendii to 

Essay XIV. 

- ''M(iSapprf!he^^ns bn the subject of Faith exdte 'die author 

toattempt die correction of them in the Vllth Essay. After 

fcaving explaiiied die different senses in which this word i> 

Used in d«e M.T., Mr. L. adds : 

• When dmnes afBrm thst faith is the gift of God ; if they: annex 

the x^nnr^idea to the word Faith as St. Luke does^ Acts vi: 7.,aR^ 

St. l^au)> Rom. x. 8. and PhHip. \, 27. where it means the Gospel, 

theafirmBtion is true ; and .the truth of it may he proved from aTim. 

1. 9. and Titus ii. 3, 4. But if they mcin that the beh'ef, and per- 

tufnioh of the truth of the gospel in these days, is in consequence of 

tlUJinitnfdiate^ vtA theirfore miraculous influence of God (what Dr. 

DoddrkigecaHsa ditihs agbncy) vouchsafed to /tffif persons, ma6nol 

IP others; and like the faith produced by iospiratwn, not the effects of 

lational argument^ hut of sudden and sopematoral conviction, which 

as the only precise meaning of faith, being the gift of God* when \pf 

raith wemean belief; it is impossible to shew that faith in this sensb 

~ IS his gift.' Because the only text ever quoted to establish this opi- 

iiiofl, viz. Eph. ii. 8. cannot possibly be used by any persons, who 

attend to the construction of the vrords : for the whole analogy of 

' Cbi^ original language must be set at nought, and the meaning ot the 

' Gteiek tingue rendered utterly ttncertam» before this sense cati b« 

^ farted from the verse in questioa s and this opmion wholly «&0«^«r the 

Deqning of ihe word fakh s for if we understimd by ^h, a firds hc^ 

Hef in» and weU-^roanded persuasion of the {^enerai tmth^of christii^ 

vityr fottsded upon that evidence which God his given fqt hf then 

. this faith ear^noiht restrained to any particular persoi^i bec^se Ht^ 

evidence is open to all whererer the gospel is Knowp. It Jpnay 9J90 

be fiuther observed, that thi^ opinion renders the distinction ^betweeif 

{heordinarjr aqd c&traordiaary gifts of the Holj S^^ perfectly nt^w 

* ftrtoiy.^ ^\' ' - ". " . 

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. Equal toccess does aot teem to be gained iB die XvUlth 
Essay, on the Nature^ use, and cparaiions rf tie Moral Senst^ 
IWe shall not offer on it any detailed, remarks, but proceed 
to the long essay (XIX.) on^St.FauFs Episile to the Romans i 
the design of whach M^as, as Mr. L. states, to prevail on the 
Jews to quit the dispensation of Moses and to embrace that of 
Christ, and to reconcile them to the admission of tibe Gentiles 
to wh^t the Jews esteemed as their peculiar and exclusive 
privilege. By discriminating between liters* and metaphori* 
cal terms, and weighing the precise meaning of phrases, the 
author endeavours to render intelligible some of die most 
difficult passages in this epistle : but his comments are too 
much protracted for transcription, and we must refer the 
reader to the work. — ^In Essay XX. on Repentance^ after having 
defined this disposition to be ^ an uneasiness of mind which 
men feel upon account of such actions, intentions, passions^ 
or desires, as appear from the informations of the moral sens« 
(the conscience which God has implanted in our nature) to 
be mrongy and observed that the natural effect of this un-. 
easiness is a desire that such faulty conduct should not be 
repeated, the writer proceeds to comment on 2 Cor. vii. 8 : 
but, in our judgment, his definition is defective and his gloss 
erroneous. By repentance^ in this passage, tibe apostle must 
include the idea of amendment ^ ^since otherwise it could not b« 
** repentMnce not to be repented of.^ 

We see nothing in the Essay (XXI.) on the Nature of human 
Depravity^ and of the remedy for it revealed in the Gospel, which 
intitles it to publication ; since we do not need to be infonoied 
that while the nature of the members .continues, die war in 
them cannot cease 1 and that we cannot be delivered froi^ 
the influence of the body till we are out' of llie body, or till 
** this corruptible puts on incorruption.** 

The five essays which nett follow have appeared m, a 
former p ublica tion. 

Essay XXVII. on the Nature and Purpose of that Assimt 

^hich h implied by subscribing to Articles of fLeligi0jf is isKeiMlecl 

ip^ shew that,, as no , mz^m/ connection subsists between 

ideas, and wox;4<> no n^ivm/preic^on can attend tiie ^jpiifitft* 

t^ of w(M^s % and mmeover, smce the application a|id extent 

iof jgiefiaph^vs are subject to no rules, and since through these 

i^|>tesei^ knewlege of religion is in some measure coxlvey« 

ed, that « fttriformity of tjpinion is as unattainable as upifpft 

Iftitjr rf faces, or 'equdity of stature, and that arficlqs of re^ 

fegion can oiily be articles of peace.' , It is, however, obyipui 

to at^k, if iiiliformity qF opinipr\ be impossible, why shouid wt 

|Mke the tain atteqij^t i . It kt well ii articles siUbj^^sibed aritk 

,/ Hi % di&rent 

- • i 

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i 9| fimyi by W. and T« Ludbm. 

4^rent sefiscs aftted %6 ^em by (9ie subscribers prove 
articFes of peace : but the more natural effect is the promo-; 
tion of controversy and discord. Ought they not rather ta 
be called Articles of Ineflkiency ? 

The abject of Essay XXVIIL, on the wiginal Evidence of 
Christianity, is to prove that information respecting super- 
natural matten can be received only in a supernatural manner 
by the persons inspired ; and therefore < the extraordinary 
powers of the Holy Spirit were vouchsafed to thp apostles, 
to enable them to bear their testimony, not to the reality of 
facts, which were c^jects of sense, but to the truth of the 
gospel doctrines, which were n^ ; viz. that these doctrines were 
really revealed to them.' 

Some correct observations next occur in Essay XXIX. on 
the Communication of Knowlege, which includes a view of the 
origin and use of language.. It is not more clear from the 
various faculties of the human frame that we were intended to 
acquire a variety of knowlege, than it is from the structure of 
the organs of speech, by which we arc qualified to make an 
endless variety of articuhite sounds, that it was the intention of 
out Creator tnat we should convey this knowlege to each other. 
The connection, however, between ideas and words, whether 
articulated or written, being merely arbitrary, and bearing no 
Necessary relation to each odier, language must be imperfect j 
and a soufce of incessant error, unless great care be employed 
m the use of words, which are the signs of ideas. This posi- 
tion is illustnited and a{^ed to ceitatn scripture-comments. 

'Hxi lu, in die XXXth Essay, on the Nature and Use of Ah^ 
stradidias, distinguishes between the original perception of an 
external chytct by tl^ senses, and an idea, which is the effect 
|xrodttced on the mind by the original perception ; observing 

* Thouffh the miad has little or no power over its original^ or 
iratumittea.^rcepiions, it has great power over us own ideas : and 
thpufh ft cannot en^ate an idea, originally, from itself, independent 
6f tf£ aCttoas of e^itenial objects ; yet just as men cannot create mac* 
teat, but can only alt^r ike form ami size of that which is created y 
can separate it, or join it tc^ether in varknit ways ; s* they can also 
npdtfy their ideas I eao by QempaKtng tbein discern: the diffenenccr 
) between them ; can separate from each <Hher sach as hate been #i^« 
getUd together 9 as U were Ja company : and Q^xi. eomimt (c^l^r, tnch 
as have.oeeh su^etted separately^. But these ideas /^modified,, nci*- 
Cher are, nor can be suggested to the, mind by external objects* 
through the immediate action of the senses ; they owe tlicir origin 
to the voluntary operations of the hitc4lectual4>ower9^ yet these idcaii 
tlius4ttodtfied are capable of various relations ( and while the ideas yt* 
msuk UBcfaaogcd^ these selatiiitt«'l:diuJQ ujii^cn^k. * Matter tiiiAtf 

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Essdjis ByW.amn. LudlataL* iSj 

caf)» and often does 9dnut of changes^ wbiah nay. not be perceptible 
at the time they take place, though discofcrable s^terwar^s, but wf 
ideas admit of no imperceptible changes. When then we sekci cer- 
tain ideas from amongst others, for our contemplation and considera- 
tion } and remove from our attention certain other ideas which .wew 
received along with them, the ideas so selected are called abstract^ 
i. e. abstracted ideas, that is, ideas taken from such as accompanied 
them when ^^cy entered into the mind/ 

He fartber remurks that, a« * abstract terras ^re nodiing 
but an invention to assist human language, these terms must 
never be used as if they were expressive of objects really 
existing.* Exemplifications of a Aeological nature are given, 
to illustrate the necessity of peculiar circumsp^tion in the 
use of abstract terms. 

We are preseuted in Essay XXXI. with a clear explana* 
tion of the Difference between Mathematical and Moral Prtxff 
whidt merits the attention of those vrko expect as complete % 
demonstration (which is quite impossible) in the latter in- 
stance ^ in the former. The view jsrhich Mr. L. presents is 
correct, and we should be happy to exhibit a specimen : but 
w^e have no space for farther extracts. 

The last Essay, which is very concise, on the proper manner 
ef reconciling apparent Contradictions in Scripture^ contains this 
general rule : < When two texts of Scriptuiie seenr to co»- 
tradict each other, the proper way of removing such difficulty 
is, not by attempting to explain such texts, which at best is 
but a ijaere human expo^tion of divine revelation ; but to 
pieduee some other text, which clearly reconciles the aleem- 
ingly inconsistent passages.' Thus Heb. ii, ^, is introdueed to 
reconcile Phil. ii. 12. with Titus, iii. 4, 5. 

It is observed by the Editor that the first two papers i^ 
the Appendix to Vol. II. ^ may seem to be matters of private 
concern ;' and in fact they contain remarks on Mr. Overton's 
Apology, and on jhe Reflections cast by Dr. Miiner on the 
Rev. W. and T. I^iiidlam. The oth^r two papers include a 
indication and illustration of Mr. Locke, in consoquente of 
several strictures on him by modem writers t but we shall not 
enter^into thejse discussions. 

We think that it will be evident, from the rapid glances whidx 
we have taken of the series of essays befpre us, that the authors 
of th^m may not improperly b^ termed careful inquirers after 
truth. Though their opponents have sneeringly ter|ne4 them 
* mathematical divines/ yet, for the accuracy ^ud prijci^ion 
which they endeavoured to intrcfduce into thecdegical dis- 
cussion, they are intitled to thanks ratlier than saroasmt. We 
fdo not, it» some points, agree with them, and we rtiink dut 
-•eyeral of theit essays want that finLshirig which is neces* 

M 3 sary 

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t€6 Hazlittf/ Etcquen^ $f Hi British Senate. 

;tsaj to impfeas on ihe reader a full conception of the point 
at: issue : but, on the whole, Aeir mode of arguine has a 
tendency to make us think and express ourselves wim more 
•jphilosophical correctness, than generally obtains among writers 
on religious subjects. In the several essays comprized in these 
volumes, the assertions of many writers are controverted i 
but we should have been driven to a much greater length 
than we could albw, if we had adverted to the publications* 
and quoted the passages which have provoked the strictures 
of these reverend gentlemen. The mode which we have 
pursued will, we hope, be sufficient to give our readers an 
insight into the contents of the volumes, and enable them 
to judge of the merit of the authors iis theological reasoiiers^ 

Art VI. The Eloquence of the Bntish Senate \ bcfng a Selection of 
the best Speeches of the moat distinj^uished Parliamentary Speakersii 
from the Beginning of the Reign of Charles I. to the present Time. 
With Notes, biographical, critical; and explanatory. By WlUiati^ 

' Hazlitt. a Vols. 8vo. il. is. Boards. Murray* 1808. 

.'T'HESE volumes will scarcely fail to attract the notice of 
> •■• persons of a political turn of mind, who cannot sit down 
^ a perusal of them without being gratified and instructed^ 
In the first of them, the reader .will recogni:^e that ardent 
spirit.of liberty, that temper of resistance to all the efforts of 
arbitrary power, and that undaunted firmness and manly in- 
tegrity, which distinguish the oratory of that period; and 
wnich eive a nerve and a strength to the senatorial style, the 
want of which is not compensated by the richer variety and 
lligher polish of that of times more near our own. 
\In a prefatory advertisement, the editor states the object and 
nature of these volumes, and observes that 

* Our politicians are almost as short-lived a race as our playeri, 
*' who strut and fret their hour upon the stage, an^ then are heard no 
pore." The event, and the ^lero of the moment, engross ail oui*at- 
•ieotioni and in the vtuiness of our. present views, we entirely overlook 
the past. Those celebrated men of the laist age, the Walpoles^ the 
jRakeneyi, the Pelhams, the Harleys, the Tf^wn^hends, and the 
Norths, who filled the columns of the news-papei-s with their speeches, 
and every pot-house with their fame, who were the mouth-pieces bf 
their party, nothing but perpetual ^raoke and bounce, incessant vol- 
ley without let or intermission who were the wjjdom of the wise, 
and the strength of the strong, wln^wc praises were inscribed on every 
window-shutter,' or brick-WHll, or floated through the busy air, up- 
borne by the shouts and huzzas of a giddy multitude,— <iU of them 
•are now ailent and forgotten ; all that remain^ of them lis copstgned 
to oblivion in the musty records of Farliam^at;^ or Uves ^dj^ in the 
'■''■• ' '; "■'■ -•■''.'' ■••• 'shadow 

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lMaD^,«£vft bamc. I wiAtd tferefcre tD br inf tliieti: on '^«^>^ 

^ce mor^ and 4ra|r theoi out of thU' obKim^V ft-om ^wlHclik^iV |s 

now ixnpoisible to redeem ihchr filhw-BBfOn. ll^aft 4Hieat7'tlU.IJt^4 

made the monumental pile of octaxos and fiolioiy '* wherein I^.^IMT 

tliem quietly inurned, open its ponderout iiA marble javs*'' aiyi 

** set the impriaoaed wranglers free again.** It is posa&le -that soinc 

of Alt numcrout race of orators, whd have sprung up ^jthin the 

latt ten years, to whom I should certainly have first paid 'mjr'ccrm^# 

mentSy may not be satiftfied with the space aflo^ted- them (n theile 

.vohimet. Bat I cannot help it. My object was to revtte what HfM 

forgotten, and embody what was permanent ; and nst to echaithle 

loquacious babbUngs of these accomi^ished persons^ who, if all i)ieir 

words were written in a boolt, the world wotitd' riot contain' them. 

besides, b'ving speakers may, and arc m the habit of prfhtlng th^fr* 

own speeches Or evei^ if thb were not tli^e case,' thite is ho daugtf, 

wbile they have breath and lungs left, that they wjH ever suffer the 

public to be at a loss for daily specimens of ^heir pplished eloi^uence 

and profoutkl wisdom.* ' . 

' ♦"•«<. ■*'.*, •■ 'It 

He also informs as that he- has «fiiksr<tei<e(l'itd mtlcie f^^ 

* A history of the. prpgpess of 4,he language, of. the state ojf parMi 
at different periods^ of the most intere^MPg deb^ate^ and iq al^^, aa 
abridged, parliamentary history forythe^tlme^ tq make itaenrea^g 
common-place book of all the prtnoipfaL tppi^,^of tbe^^i^, ,a,pd ,^cmf 
of the different questional that may 'be,bro4ghtr io^ dispvm» iU9<i>9 
give the speeches of men who were pot ockbrated. jEi^, tbeif <ifli^ 
quence but for other things^ as Cromwell, for cxi^plc,) Jf, . tHeiqj^ 
^re, any one expects to find ^haig but eloquent speechp in thqae 
volumes, he will certainly be disappoint^* A verM small volume^ 
indeed, would contain all the recorded et^<|^t|kce of 'l)pth,hottsea of 

While we agr^cf with Mr. HazHtt fin thinking ihii the 
notes and criticisms, which accompany thie speeches, are too 
long and too frequent for a compHation of this nature, we must 
add our wish tlu^ tbes^ were the ^ctaif oh^coorta tp wKch 
they were liable. The xfritunsms, indeed, 4nre 4f( Jtbe b<^dMi 
l^ind; smd it would seem that their audior is more «ttxk>tts 
|hat his xibservations should excite sensation,, than^ tha^. tl^ey 
should produce conVictipn. flis daring has in sfrnie ins^auq^ 
Struck out felicities, buf, as .is usually U)^ €ase|( ,1^ ndoreb^Ttr 
quently induced extra;fagaiicies. . The' ^s^eotol) {tii^msitef 1^ 
i,critk are ao^ wanting in this writer ^ aiid he'^&|)peibrS':t» 
offend imore from ^ w^t of temptc ^and^of ta strobg of a 'priM 
perly 'directed moral aeftse, thanfit^i atieficiencrc^llfflttjf 
or judgment, df both of which the work tefore^ u^' fUrffisHei 
striking occasional proofs: biit'Mk feelings jSeei^* W^^^ 
undergone np c&scipune ^ caution Ti^' d|)pear$ to 4i94am| Tt 

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9f^» hutt Ikde tp jttdge pcreniptcmly; an4 lie doM-oot 
*td'cteny that he has po very liTely anuety that his dtciaions 
;^^uld be clear of injustice. In ahnost all his critiques, ability 
tpid harshness, discriminatioh and temerity, -are intermixed in 
various proportions. ' \ 

The modem reader will be amused with the view of ecQ- 
,fiomicaI reforms which was entertained by that great oracle 
.of the law> Sir £dw;ard Coke/ The editor observes that the 
. Jeamed sage, as was customary witil him, begins his speech with 
*}atin quotations : 

* Jfeccwias afictaiat itiwnciMfit\ H improvida. The two last, he 
•aidj break all ikvn and orders, abd must be suppliM : but if their 
necessities came by wantonness* then m> such cause to give. Ntu* 
tralitas nee amtcos fariif nee intwieos wHit. Commune periculuntt com* 
mune autnimm* No king can subsist m an honourable estate without 
three' abilities ; First, To be able to maintain himself against su'Hden 
Invations. Secondly, To aid his allies and confederatts. Thirdly, 
(To i^sptrd hit yrgll " < k f tt ' wu g aervaittSi But he urged, "Hicre was a 
leak in the gOTcmmcnt, of which leak such as these were the catises : 
frauds in the cns^ouis ; treaty about ike Spanish match ; new in?ented 
offices with large fees ; old unprofitable offices, which the king might 
justly takeaway with htw^ love of bis people, and his own honoor ; 
the presid^ntshrpi of York and Wales; multiplicity of offices in one 
^an ; every officer to live cmHiis own office ; the king's household, 
out of ordeV ; new tables kept there made the leakage the greater ; 
^RUhintary anumties or pensions, which ought to be stopped till the 
king was out uf debt, and able to pay them. Ii) the 4th of 
Henry IV. no man was to beg of the king tiW he was out of debt. 
Lastly, that all unnecessary charges, costly dret> apparel, buildings, 
(fee. Increase still the leakage- 

* ^o apply some paeans for remedy, the multiplicity of forests 
gbd paH^s, nowa'gf^at charge to the king, might be drawn into a 

{reat benefit to h*nn ; th^t understand jiig officerl^be employed in th^ 
ing^f house tq reduce it to \\% ancient form/ 

r We give the observations on Sir Joha* Elliott's ^peecfa^ as 
betog in the author's best manner^ They are just^^ and well 
fxpresaed ; ^ 

f The .folipwing is a nobTc instance of parliamentary eloquence : 
fir ^e~ strength imd closeness bf the. reasoning, for the clearness of 
t^e^deca^,' ffrnhe^tiarnestncssof the siBe, iris admlribfi^: ft ip some 
adaors'rtitfiiliil one %trongly of the clear^ plaiW, convincing, irresistibte 
8ppcahM)f[Demotthenes to his hearerir. There fs d# affeetatibn of 
arttf^n^ ttudjfd: ornaikient, fie dispkiy of fancied superiofity ; his whole 
bfart aad)SouKarc In his si^ject, he is fi|ll of it.: his mind seems as 
ft f ^^,^fl ^*'''9""^ *''d ^cnctrat^ every parjt of it 5 nothing divert^ 

him froViy hlis, purpose, or mtcrruptai the course pf his reasoning fora 
$ioiheiiU The force and c$>bnection of his i^^ ^^'^^ Y^^fid?^?^^ ^P^ 


Hazfitf X ERquence efthe BfUUh Senain i6g 

ha cxpressfom^ aird 1ie conWiK^ea others, bcctase he it thoroughly 
•impmied with the truth of hi^ oven opiniont.' 

We shall also extract a few passages from the speech to 
which these remarks are prefixed^ in order to shew that they 
are well applied : 

* ' We sit here at the grett council of the kin^, and in that capa- 
city, it 13 our duty ta take ioto consideration the ftate and affairs of 
the kingdom ; and, when there is occision, to give a true represent- 
ation of them by way of counsel and advice, with what we coaceiYC 
necessary or' expedient for them. 

* In this consideration I confest many a tad thought hath affright-* 
ed me, and that not only in respect of our dangers ftom abroad* which 
yet i know are great, as they have beea often preit and dilated to 
us ; but in respect of Our disorders here at home, which do inforcc 
those dangers, and by which they are occasioned : for I believe I shaU 
make it clear unto you, that both at first, the cause of these dangers 
"Were our disorders, and our disorders now are yet our greatest dan- 
gers ; and not so much the potency of our tnemie8« as the wcakneaa 
of ourselves dots threaten us: and that saying of the father may be 
as^med by us, non tarn potenth* sue qmm mgHgtntla nostra. Our want 
of true devotion vo heaven, our insincerity and doubling in reh'gioo, 
our want of councils, our precipitate actions, the insufficiency or 
•^unfaithfulness of our generals abroad, the igl^orance or comiptioB of 
our ministers at home, the impoverishing of the sovereign, the op- 
pression and depre8siof\ of the subject, the exhausting of our trea- 
sures, the waste of our provisions, consumption dF our ^ips, destruc- 
tion of our jTien^ these make the adv^tagc to our enemies, not the 
reputation of theirarms ; and if in the^e there be not rclormatioo, we 
jieed no foes abroad ; time itself will ruin us.* 

In another part of the speech. Sir John Elliott insists on the 
want of councils under which the nation laboured, which he 
calls • 

* That great disorder in a state, with which there can|iot be sta- 
bility. If effects may shew their causes, as they are often a perfect 
demonstration of them, our misfortunes, our disasters serve to prove 
it, and the consequences they draw with them. If reason be allowed 
ID this dark age, the judgment of dependencies and foresight of con- 
tingencies in affairs do confirm it ; for if we view ourselves at home, 
are we in strength, are wo in reputation equal to our ancestor^ f H 
we view ourselves abroad, are our friends as many, are our enemies 
1)0 more? Do our friends retain their safety and possessions? D6 
aot, our enemies enlarge themselves, apd gain from tkem and tis I 
To what counsel owe we the loss of the Palatinate, where wc sacrf. 
ficed both' our honour and our men sent thither, -stbpping thoite 
ffrcater powers appointed for that service, by which it m^ht haavt 
Dccn defensible. What counsel gave direction to the htc action, 
whose wounds are yet bleeding ; 1 mean the expedition To Rhee^ df 
which there is yet so sad a memory ip all men ? what d^g.n for uJt 


lir ad.vtntage td our sute ccfuld' that Import ! Yon know' the ^ 
ti your ancestors, and >he {""aetioe of tkeir tMiief»^how they pns 
MrT€ii their -itffetks : we all koo^y ,and have asii^ich cause to^iuihr 
^they had,, the greatness and Ambition of that kingdom, which tl^c 
old world could not satisfy. Against thfs greatness and ambition, 
we likewise know the proc<fedings of^hat princess, that never to be 
forgotten, excellent queen, filiiiabeth, whose nanet without admi^ 
ration, failsnot into mention even with her envies; you know how 
•he advanced hers^f and how she advanced the nation in glory and 
'in state ; how she depressed our enemies, and how she upheld her 
friends ; how she enjoyed a full Recurity, and made them our scorn, 
who now are made oar terrbr !'i-r 

* For the^oppression of the subject, which, as I remember, is the 
next particular I proposed, it needs n» demonstration ; the whole 
kingdom is a proof; and for the exhausting of our treasures, tha^ 
very oppression speaks it. Whit waste of our provisioni>, what con<# 
sumption of our ships, what destruction of our m<n have been, wi|« 
otss that journey to Argiers—witness that with Mans^eld — witnia|^ 
that to Cadtz«— witness the next — witness that to Rhee — witness the 
last (I pray God we may never have more such witnesses) ; witnei^ 
likewise the Palatinate*— witness Denniark — witness the Turks — wit*. 
«e«s the Dunkirkers— witness all. What losses we have sustained i 
how wfc are impaired in munition, in ships, in men ! , . 

< It is beyond contradiction, that we were never so much weakened, 
nor ever htid lesf hope how to b^ restored. 

< These, Mr. Speaker, are our dangers ; these are they which do 
threaten us ; and these are like the Trojan horse broaght in cunningly 
to surprise us. In these do lurk the strongest of our enemies, re^y 
to issue on us, and if we do not speedily expel them, these are thjc 
signs, these the invitations to others ;-^tbese will so prepare their eu* 
trance, th^t we. ^hall have no means left of refuge or defence ; for if . 
we have these enemies at home, how can we strive with thosethat are 
Abroad \ if we be free fi^om these, no other can impeach us ; our an- 
<;ienrt £ng)ish virtue, b'ke the old Spartan valour, cleared from these 
disorders, our being in sincerity of religion and once made friends 
with heaven ; having maturity of cogncils* sufficiency of general^ 
incorruptioa of officers, opulency in ^he king, liberty in the peopU, 
repletion in treasure, plenty of provisions, reparation of ships, pre- 
servation of meih-»our apcient English virtue, I say, thus tectined, 
will secure U8;^and unless there be a speedy reforimition in these, I 
iknow not what hopes or expectations we can have. 

' These a^e the. things^ sir, I shall desire to have ta^en into ctm« 
•^deration ; that as we are the great couticil of the kingdom, au& 
.»<Jiav« the apprchen^sion of these dangers, we may truly represent ihcA 
^vntQ^he king ; whereunto 1 conceive we are bound by a treble o^bB- " 
^tion, of duly to Cod, of ili^ty to his Majesty, and of duty to our 
.cimntry. V . . . 

* And therefore I wish it ma^ so stand with the wisdons and Jud|^ 
jucnt of the house, that they may be drawn into the body of a re- 
jnonstrance, and in all hufnility expressed, with a prayer unto Us 
•Jlajcsty, that for the safety of himself, for the safety oFthe km|(- 



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IhzEtfj SHquence ofih British SiBoie. fjt 

iotn^ «nd for tkt safety of religion, he will be plmted to ghre m 
time to make peifect inqatsitton t hereof « or to take them iDto hit 
own wisdom, and there give them such timely reformatioD at the no* 
cessity and justice of the case fioth import. 

* And thus, sir, with a large affection and loyalty to his Majestr* 
and with a firm duty and service to my country, I have suddenly 
(and it may be with some disorder) expressed the weak apprehen« 
•ions I liave, wherein,i if I have erred, I humbly crave yotir p»doa^ 
mod so submit myself to the censure of the house*' 

A passage which introduces the speeches oY Lord Someif 
jippears to us to be temperate, just, and sensible : 

• John, Lord Somers, was bom 1652, and died 171*0. He was 
.member for Worcester in the convention parliament, where he wat 
appointed to manage the conference with the lords, on the abdtca* 
Hon of king James, and in 1697 ^^* made lord chanccMor, H^ 
was one of the principal persons employed in bringing about the re* 
^olotion. From this and the following .speeches two things ap^ 
pear to me tolerably clear, in opposition to the theories both of Mr; 
Burke and Dr. Price on the subject ; that the great constitutional 
^aders who were concerned in producing this event, believed firttt 
that the hereditary nghc to the crown was not Absolute, but condi- 
tional ; Or that there was an original fundamental compact betvreen 
the king and people, the terms of which the former was bound to 
•fulfil to make good his title ; secondly, that so long as these condi- 
tions were complied with, the people were bound to maintain their 
allegiance to the lawful succeisor, and not left at liberty to choose 
whom they pleased, having no other law to govern them iii their 
|:hoice than their own will, or fancy, or sense of convenience. There 
was indeed an estate' of inheritance, but then this was tied down and 
limited by certain conditions, whicK, if not adhered tO) the estate 
became lapsed and forfeited. There was no question, as the case stood, 
eithfr or sovereign absolute power, or of natural rights : the rights 
and duties of both parties were defined and circumscribed by a coo* 
Stitution and order of things already established, and whjch could not 
be infringed on either side with impunity ; that is, they were exacUf 
in the state of all contracting parties, neither of them independenty 
but each having a check or control over the other ; the one had no 
jight to enforce his claim if he did^ot perform what was in the agrW' 
mntf and the other party,, so long as this was done, cQuld not be of' 
their bargain. The king could not therefore be said to bold hw 
crown «• in contempt of the people," for both were equally respon- 
sible and bound to one another, and both stood equally in awe of Ofife 
another, or of the /^«c;.. £ut in case of any difference on this head» 
the right to decide most of course belong to those who bad the poweri 
for by the very nature of' the thing there is nothing to restraip tboit 
who have power in their hands from exercising it, but the sensi^ of right 
*nd wrong ; and where they think they have a right to act, what is 
ihere to hinder them from acting in vindication of^ what . they con* 
ceive to be their right ? I am not here eni^eving into the abstract 
question of goTcromentj nor do I pretend to say tha|^d^^|he triie 

I j2 HazUttV Eloquinc'e of tie Bfitzsh SenHti. 

\xsir and coiistitution of England ;' I am only 'stating wfcat wat un« 
derstood to be^ so hj the prime movers and abettors of the revolution 

Conceit and petulance, arising out of reprehensible ignor- 
ance, no where appear more offensive than in the editor's 
observations on Lord Hardwicke : 

* Philip Yorkc, (afterwards carl' of Hardwicke,) was bom i6po, 
died 1764.. He was brought into parliament for Lewes In Sussex itt 
171?. In 1736, he was made lord chancellor, which situation he 
held for twenty years. He is said to have been a great lawyer. If 
so, a great lawyer may be a very little man. There is in his speech 
9k petitenestf an insignificant subtlety, an affected originality, a trifling 
formality, which any one, not accustomed to the laborious fooleries 
and idle distinctions of the law, would be ashamed of.. /All those of 
bis speeches that I have read are in the same minute stile of special- 
pleading, accompanied with the same apologies for the surprize which 
must be occasioned by his microscopical discoveries and methodical 

A better temper prevails in the following sketch : . 

* The honourable C. J. Fox was born Jan. 13, 1748. He Wat 
educated first at Eton and afterwards at Hertford College, Oxford. 
He was returned to Parliament for Midhurst in 1768. He was at 
first on the side of ministry, but declared himself on the side of op- 
position on the dispute with America. He became secretary fof 
foreign affairs in 17^2, and again in 1806, when it was too late for 
his country and himself. He died September tSc6. Of this great 
man I shall speak more at large when I come to his later speeches. 
The following boyish rhapsody, on a question relating to the Low** 
ther estate, is remarkable only for its contrast to the speeches which 
he made afterwards — for its affectation and bluster and imbecility. 
it may be easily believed, as it is reported of him", that at the 
time he made this and other speeches like it, he wore red heels and 
blue powder, and was distinguished as the greatest coxcomb in £urope« 
He was not then the same figure that I afterwards beheld in the 
liouvre, with hairs grown grey in the service of the public, with n 
Ace pale and furrowed with thought, doing honour to the English 
icharactcr as its best representative, conciliating by his frank, simple, 
unaffected manners, the affection and esteem of strangcnb *nd wan- 
dering carelessly and unconsciously among those courts and pakiceift 
whose profound policy and deep-laid machinations he ^lone, by his 
^wisdom and the generous openness of his nature* was able to resist. 
His first acquaintance with Burke seems to have been the ara of hit 
mafihood ; or rather, it was then that he first learned to know htm^ 
wlf, aad found his true level. A man in himself is always the 'tame» 
though hf may not always appear to be so.* 

As ^ favourable specimen of the author's critical powers, 
i^e subjoin a quotation from his elaborate account of Mn 
Burke's , merits as a^speaker and an author, r— Referring to 
his views of politics, Mr. H. says : " . . 

' The 

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HajfUtt*/ Eloquence of the British Senate^ 17J 

* The simple due to all his reasonings on this subject is, I think, 
as foflowii : He did not agree with some writers, that that mode of 
government is necessarily the best which is the cheapest. He 8a>Y ia 
the construction of society other principles at work, and other capa* 
cities of fulfiUing the desires, and perfecting the nature of man, bc- 
aidcs those of securing the equal enjoyment of the means of animal 
life, and doing this at as little cxpence as possible. He thought that 
the wants and happiness of man were not to be provided for, as wc 
provide for those of k herd of cattle^ merely by attending to ihcir 
physical necessities. He thought more nobly of his fellows He 
knew that man had affections and passions and powers of imagina* 
tion, as well as hunger and thirst and the sense of heat and cold. 
He took his idea of political society from the pattern of private life, 
wishing, as be himself expresses it, to incorporate the domestic 
charities with the orders of the state, and to blend them together. 
He strove to establish an analogy between the compact that binds to- 
gether the community at large, and that which binds together the 
several families that compose it. He knew that the rules that form 
the basis of private morality are not founded in reason, that is, in the 
abstract properties of those things which arc the subjects of them, but 
in the nature of man, and his capacity of being affected by certain 
thihgs from habits from imagination, and sentiment, as well as from 

* Thus, the reason why a mao ought to be attached to his wife and 
children is not, surely, that they are better than others, (for in this 
Case everyone else ought to be of the sameopimon) but because he 
must be chiefly interested in those things which are nearest to him, and 
with which he is best acquainted, since his undcrbtanding cannot reach 
equally to every thing ; because he must be most attached to those 
objects which he has known the longest, and virhich by their situa* 
tion, have actually affected him the most, not those which in them* 
sdvea ace the mast affecting, whether they have ever made any im* 
pression on him or no ; that is, because he is by His nature the creature 
of habit and feeling, and because it is reasonable that he should act 
in coftformity to his nature. He was therefore right in saying that 
' it is no objection to an institution, that it is founded in frejudice, but 
the contrary, if that prejudice is natural and right ; that is, if it arises 
fr6m those circumstances which are properly subjects of feeling and 
association, not from any defect or pet version of the understanding 
in those tl\|ngs which fall properly under its jurisdiction. On this 
profound maxim he took his stand. Thus he contended, that the 
prejudice in favour of fx>bilky was natural and proper, and fit to be 
encouraged by the positive institutions of eocicty ; not ou account 
of the real or personal merit of the individualf;, but because such an ' 
inatitution has a tendency to enlarge and raise the mind, to keep alive 
^e- tBemary of past greatness, to connect the different ages of the 
^vroxid together, to carryback the imagiaatioa over a long tract of 
^me, and fee4 it with the contemplation of remote events s because it 
i^ oatfiral to think highly of that which inspires us wiih higk, 
jtlioughts^ which has been connected for many generations with splen- 
dour, and affluence, and dignity, and power, and pcrm^enec.'He* 
3 ' also 

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1^4 Stewart!r R$ntmctimyB Pum. 

also eoftceived, that by transferring the respect frooa^tbe pemo €o«ttie 
thing> and thus rendering it steady and permanentt the miiid would 
be habitually fo^ed to sentiments of deference, . attachxneoty and 
fealty, to whatever else demanded its riespect ; that it would be led 
to fix its view on what was elevated and lofty, and be weaned froca 
that low and narrow jealousy which never willingly or heartily adoiita 
of any superiority in otheNi* and is glad' of every opportunity to bring' 
down all excellence to a level with its own miserable standard. No* 
bility did not therefore exist to the prejudice of the other orders o£ 
the state, but by, and for them. The inequality of the different 
orders of society did not destroy the unity and harmony of the whole. 
The health and well-being of the mor^l world was to be promoted 
by the same means as the beauty x of the natural world ; by conts^st, 
by change, by light and shade, by variety of parts, by order and 
proportion. To thbk of reducing all mankind to the same insipid 
kfely seemed to htm the same absurdity $i8 to destroy the inequalitiea 
of surface in a country, for the benefit of agriculture and commerce. 
In short, he believed that the interests of men in society should be 
consulted, and their several stations and employments assigned, with 
« view to their, nature, not as physical but as moral beings, so as to 
nourtsli their hopes, to lift their imagination, to enliven their faocy^ 
%.o rouse their activity, to strengthen their virtue, and to furnish the 
greatest number of objects of pursuit and means of enjoyment tobe-r 
ings constituted as oian is, consistently with the order and stabih'ty of 
the whole.' 

From the editor's subsequent account of Burke and Fox, we 
could select some striking passages : but highly as we regard the 
talents and attainments of the former, we think that they are 
here considerably over-rated. While Mr. Hazlitt ably and cotr 
rectly describes Burke's pre-eminence as a reasoner, he gives his 
«mcti6n to » description of that orator which is totally incan* 
sistent with the effects which he produced, and with the ad- 
mission which Mr. H. had himself before made« We mu$t^ 
however, now. take leave of these profitable and amusmjr - , 
volumes. The selections made in them are as creditable to 
the editor's judgment, as the observations which accomjp^l^ 
them are indicative of his abilities. 

Art. VII. The Resurrection, a Poem. By John Stewart, Eb<^ 
Author of ••The Pleasures of Love/*^ i2mo. pp. ft5j; ^u 
Boards. Longman and Co. i8o^. 

IT has be«i often remarked that poettry is not the tsMle-0f 
the present -age ; a refiection which, thotigh itileiideil M 
fell onYhe times, bears heaviest on the poets, since, if a genenA 
disrelish of poetry be excited, to what cause* can we attribute 
it but to the multitude of indififerent compositions i^hicVfi^ 
^ 10 published 

Digitized by VjQOQlC 

M^EAed mSm tluf, title ? Whattfe^ is truly eiceUent will 
le sore of obtaining praise. When, howtTer, the quantity 
of indifferent productions, in aily department of literature, 
vastly exceeds that of the good, it ^becomes a dead inreight in 
die market; and those persons to whom these commodities 
belong endeavour to console themselves under a heavy sale» 
by inveighing against the bad taste of their contemporaries. 

We have sometimes been accused of ill-nature, and even of a 
want of judgment, because we have 'not approved the trash 
whidi 1ms been obtruded on us tinder the naoie ot verse f 
and ^perhaps in the present instance Mr. Stewart will be in- 
clined to arraign our taste, because we cannot extend Aat kind 
of commendation to his work which he may consider it as 
mtitled to receive. He talks of < the daring ardor of hi* 
verse ;' we shall only talk of his daring ; for he has ventured 
on a subject to which his powers are certainly unequal. 
Doubtless he means well, his thoughts are generally good, 
and occasionally they are expressed with felicity: but, as a 
iR^ole, his production is defective; tnagnis excidit auns. In 
the first four books, much extraneous and far-fetched matter 
is introduced ; and we do not arrive at the professed subject 
of the poem till we encounter the fifth book. To a consider- 
able portion of the verse. Redemption would have been a better 
title ' than Resurrection^ since the life and ministry of our 
Saviour are very fully displayed. Mr. S., however, does not 
confine himself to scripture-history. His epic net is spred to 
catch fish of all kinds. A glance at the several arguments 
^would conArm this remark: but we shall copy only^that of 
the second booh, to shew how much prefatory matter is in* 
troduced : 

f The proposed atonement of Christ having been announced, the 
Second Book introduces the departure of the angel Gabriel to pre- 
pare for the incarnation — Of his descent, and appearance to 2^9ha- 
, ra»h at the altar of incense. — Of his visit to Mary. 

* Of midnight, and the appearance of the angels to the shepherds. 
-^Of the adoration of the wise men. -^ Of visions. — Jacob's ladder.— 
Of the influence and effect of dreams.— Calph urn ia.— Of Joseph's 

* Of Hcrod.---Matsacre.of the innocents. — Of the Saviour's return 
to Galilee.— Offering up at the temple.— >Of Simeon. 

> * Of the baptism gf Christ at Judea.— His triumph over Satan.'-* 
\ Miracles at CaBt.-»-Bethctda.«^iloam.:^Raising of Jaintt' dafughter. 
•^Miracle of the loaves md fishcs.-^Christ waSu oa the sea.<— Re« 
\ bokes the storm. 

* Of the Saviour's doctrine, and the happy consequences ensured. 
Vy iti adoption.— Its inefficacy on tin wid^edBCSS and obduracy of 
the Jewish nation. 


«.Of the hit Mipper.*^Joi»$.teiiiptcA— <3iri«ftj 'fdir^.Ui W^ 
vcn.— He passes Ce^ron — M^Aiqt of Olives. — Chnst^s Trjal«.«--Hirf 
Agony — Appearanci? of the Angd. — Chnsi*^ Resignation.^ Be* 
trayed by Judas. 

• The Saviour 8co«rged.-r- Of his suffering*.— Of his DcatJi*— « 
Shpck of the earthquake. — Partial resurrection. — Convdrtion of the 
Roman soldltry.— Calvary.' 

Might not the poet, with equal propriety, have begun at 
G«Mdi$ and gone through the Old Testament i— 5o much 
for judgment. Now for execution. Here Mr. S.| we are 
sorry to say, displays little ardor § and sacred histQ^ry gain» 
no additional attractions from his Te;r$e. His «pithei9 aie.often 
unhappy 5 and that which we have marked in italics^ in'the 
following extract, is a glaring instance of the- kind^ while the 
whole passage will prove the justness of our crhicfem :• ' 

« T^c Saviour's breast now all his trials fill. 
As he prepares to meet th* Almighty will. 
Now Satan riots in Iscariot's breast, 
Ut*ges his guilty and spars bim to the test, v 

Till, won by lucre, swift he ukcs his way, . : ^ 

The Master, God* and Saviour to'betray.— «r - 
Then; si|pper ended, Jesus raised his eyes 
Earnest on hcav'n, and pierced the highest skies : . 
•« .0 Father I now is come the trying hour. 
To show thy glory, and to prove ;iiy power ; • 
O let the itrtadi of' life unfailing flow » 

J'or all who s^ck salvation's path below ! 
Show all that glory which fot me you made • ' 

•Ere the foundations of the world were laid ;^— / ^ 

- And grant, O Father ! those thy mercies give, / 
May sefe my glory, and with me may live.*' ; 
ThcUj rising pensive, ov^ Cedron's brook 
The much-loved way the anxious Saviour took ; 
His cho'sen few to Olivet he leads ; 
Serenely mild the Paschal Lamb prectdts. 
Whose sprinkled blood shall bid the wrath to cease. 
And sooth the burning of our God to peace ! 
O'er midnight's reign impervious shades* prevail, ' 
And not an echo marmur'd to a ^alc % : ^. . 

Arrived, their steps apait Messiah led, 
J^tk^% deep opprest with mortal anguish, said, 
^^ Even to death, the sins of mankind roll 
Their leaden bur(|ien o*er my troubled soul ;— • 
Tarry ye here, and pray.*'— —He onward goes. 
And b^t t<r earth ia^^ray'r mor^ fervid glows: * , *^ 

** Now, O my Father 1 if thou wilt, I pray ' , . . 

Thia bitter cup from me miay pass away ; ^ . 
But not my wil|, but thine:,'?-^An ^ngel>ear 
.§ttU»d4 to uphold J— his fainting spirits chipc^. ' . .-* . 


Digitized by KjOO^ IC 


' IXTbfle wim to itrug^lc on his hoXjhrQto : ^ ""^ 
The drops of agony, in bloody^ow — [ 

. Assuyed—resigQ d, he novr up^-rises calmf : . 

And o'er his heart reijeives celestial balm.--* j 

Wheft lo ! apostate Judas, with- a kisa 
Betrays the Lf>rd of ^fory and of bliss I 
Sees by the ruffian-crew his malice bred 
His Master mild to persecution led,— 
Him/ who had bade his hopes to heaven aspire^ 
A«d fed with bread of life each pure desire 1 
But envy soon removed each virtuous guest, 
Bade Beliai'sv^y despotic in his breast, 
Ahd gave the lust of gold dominion o*er the rest. [ 
Lo { where the trickling drops of blood puk-sue 
The tliirtty theng ; for man's salvation due ! 
Lo ! where the Lord of life, derided, stands^ 
Crown'd with the platted thorns by impious bands ( ' 
X*o ! — where th6 God of Nature yields his breath. 
And seals redemption by a lingering death ; 
While heav'n's grand orb disdains its wonted lighty 
And curtains noon-day with the paU of night !-^ 
Rent is the veil, — ^the yawning tombs resign ' 
Thei'r startled dead^ and own the shock divine ) 
While, prone to earth, the guardian solditrs fall^ 
And «« God,"— and «• Nature's God,'' --converted call/ 
We havife elsewhere ^ivanJerzng rocks^ (p. 1 5 .), * speakless glory' 
i$, 26.), ' livid iorvdy for living (p. 31.), ^Jlickering spear' (p.^jp.)? 

* redrtlW (p. 73.), for blood; ^ fairy trees' (p. 83.), * rushingvr^ 
(p. 91.), * echo-startled ball (p. io2.), * crackling cordage r4>ar/ 
(P- 430> &^- S^^^h cpuplejs 9$ the following manifest no 

* danng ardor of verse :' 

• But face to face, the Great First Cause to sec 
Through all the endless age« that shall he* (p. 73.) 

• Beyond the planets' range may soar to be, 

And paths uopierced by mortal ken to 6ce.' (p. 74.) 

• And scprn'd to. sell eternity of bliss 

For a frail world of vanity like this.* (p. 65.^ 

Mr. S- frequently avails himself of the propp5ltiou tOy in 
ord«r to help out the la^t foot Qf his Jiines^ . Jn ^ sinj^le. p^^ 
{118.) we have 

• Would seek admission to our world /^'gaia^ 

and \ / ' 

• The mighty, doors. Invisible <o steer.' . • 
May we not also ask what ^teeri^^' a dcor*mezns f 

Something like imagination i« atteni^ed in tMe fourth boc4c> 
on the intermediate state y into which the poet is conducted by 
m aogel : but nothing except hackneyed imag&s occut^ ^nd W9 
are not sorry when t3he angdi qtjits hixji. 

When Mr. S. arrives at his professed subject in flie last 
book, his ytrse assumes more than nsuat energy ; and we 
tl^all give a specimen from this best part of the poem, though 
fven here we are offended by many tame cpupkts ,:, 

* Hark f in deep tone the (>urstiag thunders roil> 
Rock the high sky and ret)4*the echoing pole ;t** 
Hark \ to the awful blast th' Archangels sound. 
When the la«t trumpet shakes the world aroand : — 
*• Thou waning Earth f resign each mouldcr'd form 5 ' 
Wake, sleeper, wake, nor f«ir creation's storm I 
Ye ocean-waves I where'er ypur UMo^s sw€^|), 
Yi^ld the long dead from all your oozy deep. 
Disgorge your victinw, everv corse restore. 
Death has expired^ and time shall be no more !" 
Swift throBgh the lucid fields the Seraphs fly, 

' Unbar th^ tombs, and, lo ? disclosed they lie;—' ' 
The marble cerements burst— in glad surprise. 
Ope from long sleep the death-extinguish'd eyeSf 
And view, in chasten'd }oy, and new amaiJC, 
O'er ether's vast unnumber'^d visions blaze. ^ 

< Now the wide earth, from aH her loneliest shores^ 
Wafccf ages past, the earliest dead restores ; 
Fires every eye and sinews every hand. 
From burning Sego to the Scythian land> 
"From nameless dimes the countless myriads motCy ' - 

To meet the 'awful Majesty above F ' 
There, the dark colours of the torrid 2one^ 
There> every. shade th^ frigid regions own. 
Obey alike the mighty trumpet's call, 
And their same judge the one great Lord of all t 
There too the sea, o'er all her trembling bed. 
Sees vital vigour nerve the scattered dead ; 
TKoufgh the bleached bones in rudt confusion layji 
Ten thousand fathoms '^neath her briuy way. 
Each shall know each, and every limb retain 
Its long-lost pride of symmetry, again, * 

What lovely form, from yonder opening tomb^ 
Rises to life, iu beauty's fairest bloom I 
Close on her bosom smiles an infant fair, 
^ .. That Seerhs impatient for the paths of air ; . * 

One snowy arm the riven stone divides, — ; 

Swift through the. chink the rosy cherub gli&s t 
One gentle arip the eager boy restrains^ 
Who, just released, the buoyant azure gains ; . 
And on his cheek while beam^ of triumph glow, ^ ^ 

And from her eyes while dtwS of rapture flow, 
Att>und the hean hope's tivid spletldours play^ 
•And charm their spirits to the reahns of day.^ four winds of heaven, ^ide o'er4hciifc|' -^ 

On nimble plumes the floating Cherubs fly j 
, , • ' licralds of God I in splendid phalanx stccTf . - 
' " ' ' . ' . ' ■ * * T# 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Stewztt^slRetArecAon, a Poem. t*]p 

To urge the tardy, ?nd^ ^c j wt tQ rfx^of ^ • r T T • */ . \ < /. 
'Midaif atarry spheres tg ;»il«, wltE grwrdiap cfu:Ci ^ ^ i/ ' 
The. ttotried voyage thrqi^h the deep 9faj»'^if<rn ,,B ^ I 
Now o'er the virtuoii^ breast ncvr pjeasvrjg^ifesjsi ; ^ 

Acd all tf)e soul ccleaUfd jtransport fef:ls j ;«j ji.,,,-. y 
Wear^and aiore ^^aa it^Iwa with iond.surptijif, . ; 
tJnnumber'd wofJdf an lQng.8i^Cp?8sioq.ijise4(, ... .; 
ScM tlw -blue faulLwithrthrongin^ miUToni shine, - ^ 
-And every orb its rival dead resign ; 

Thic flamiag mvft nwmm^ -i^eath the bfa^e;' : ,., 
Why Sirlsaac NewWfi'rshoiiM be the fitsii fitfofts of the 
ResurrectSbn, we camiot tmderstand : buty rfter the above 
general account, the philo^oj^hdr taik'eS'the Wad' itf thfe follow-. 
ing couplet.: '^ ' .-/ " 

« Sec I o'er his brow while famhent glories play ; * 
Imnjgr^alNewtQo feck. tbe^ vital ray.* ' .,^' J: :j ui 
In the eoiiduston, the autlior pj%)fe$8«ea hiife*0b}<«|(i^ih^^ 
been* toinsjiiTe'to virtue^-^ \ / H- m -r^Si <:♦ ;. *, 

«• i^-nd Avake t* light t^ Mfnded v^rld brtSwM J^^doH \ . 
'and, actuated by so b^eiiey^eht a'de$ign,;'M certainly rfiay 
lay claim to some indulgence : but we' cannot? 'Excuse' our- 
selves from gently. reminding; iim that ^a^siag^ of^ ^ripture 
exhibited in iiisipid and nerveless rhimes ic»n ^acK the 
mind with n© augmentedyen^rgy, and that thia kind of lU^ 
tary dawdling hasj not the fihadow ©f a title to the name.k>f 
poetry. By. the notes, -a^respectable appendix, is formed, and 
we should not be iurpiiaed ^ if readers in gieneral preferred 
Mr. S.'s prose to his verse,; si«ce these illustrations are credi- 
table to his reading, his taste, and his f eeling3.-^In one of therii^ 
he quotes from Zimmerman a pleasing little anecdote^ refer* • 
i3ng to the emblematical use of that beautiful Sower, the Roses 

' Roses were the fairest ofFermg a lover could make his mistress^ 
and its beauties tiniversaUy assimilated to her9.^-^* What fashionable 
Wcr (says the author on Solitude^ ever painted his passion for a 
lovely mistress with such laconic tenderness and effect as the village 
chorister of Hanover did, on the death of a young and beautiful 
country-girl with whom he was enamoured, when, after erecting ia 
the ccmetry of the cathedral a sepuldiral stone to her memory, h^ 
carved, in an artless manner, the figure of a blooming rose on its 
front, and inscribed beneath it these words, *« C'w/ aimi qU^elleJut.^* 

The idea was delicate and feeling : but unfortunately the cold 
and cdlourless stone>. in ivhich the device Was wrought^ was 
niore emblematical of the departed than of the animated beau- 
ty; and the words niight rather haVe been " Ctst aimi qu'elh 

N a , 

^J.i ' -if t*3r f: 1 

Art. VIII. The'tdn^nMe^af Oi^'mary ; Indading tinder clis-» 
tinct Heais* cVcHr Brartch df Me<licine, yisJ. Anatomy, Physio- 
logy, and JPktltolbgy, the Practlcif of Physic and Surgery, Thc- 
rapeutiq^r,' atfd'Materm Medica ; with Whatever relate* to Medicine 
in Natural Phibp^ophy, Cheinirtry, ^d Natudll History. By 
BartholorftiB^f^ Part- , M.D F.R.S; Lend? and fedin., and Senior 
Physician to. the Devon and Exeticf Hbspital. 2 Vols. 4to. and 
I of Plates. 4I. 168 Boards. Johnson, &c.'**'^ilB^*. 

Aj^T. IX. The Ediniurgh B^iSfOi ahi^ Mysis^t^Gidhnafyf con- 
taining an "Biplanation of thfe T^htofrdf Art in Attatomy^ Physio- 
t'iogY, B^olojgY, Therapcirfics'^tifgftyj Midwifery^ Pbarliia6y, 
<;, Materia Medica, Botai^, Chemistry^ Natund Hisitory* &c. ^c* 
,. .as empif^ed^ ip' the pesent^ improved State of Medical Science ; 
an^ also, a copious Account of Diseases and their Treatmentf 
agreeably to the Doctrines of CuUep, Monto, Hunter, Fordyce, 
Grcffory, D6iham, SaundeVs, Home, and other rabdern Teachers 
in Edinburgh and London. To which is added, a copious Glos- 
i ^^Mry of ^feib^te Term^ cdUmlatcd to assist those whoiitrc^ Occa- 
sion to refer to the Writings of the Ancients. With maay Pbtes. 
By It<^>crt Morris, M.D.> James J^^rick, Surgeon, E.L.S.,, 
and others. 4to. 2 Vols. 41.41. Bo>ard8. Bell and Bradfute, 
^^ Edinburgh; t)st^ll, London. 1807. 

TK^^E'mmhnty'm the form abji, object of these two work^i 
-:A" and l&e circumstance of their being published within a 
fi^f^' distance of time from each ether, naturally suggest the 
Ideaof i^titutiiig a colnparison between them, and on this 
account we have placed them imder one article. With respect 
to -the manner in which they are ushered into the world, we 
«ee no obvious reason for giving a preference to either of 
4Jiem' above the other j thev bota appear under the sanction 
<>£ creditable names, ^nd they i^re both sent out in a respect- 
able- form, as far as the size of the volumes and their tjrpo-' 
grs^ical ^xQCUtipn are, concerned., The editor of th^ London 
Dietionary, however^ is somewhat more ample in his professions 
of originality, and claims to himself a degree of scientific con- 
sequence which may perhaps operate rather to the disadvan- 
tage of the work, by extravagantly raising the expectations of 

. the reader. With these impressions on qur minds, we 
entered on a more minute examination of the merits of the 
two pejrformances J and in order to form a just estimate, we 

' <jqmpar^(l together 4 number of individual articles, the result 
of which we shall lay before our readers. 

♦ At! edition of this London Dictionary appeared in th? year 
i6a7, rbut was called in, and supplanted by. the present. 


\* " * ' ■ " 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

The Ldfidon akdthi JBSfOi^ Medii^ lAfkik^i. iSl 

iW"e begki With the afticle ftMs in thd London 'Dictionary; 
After some general remarks on the pathognomonic symptoms^ 
•we hate a good r^ort of the mtthodln irhich the disease 
niakes its attadc, and the hiitory of a tingk paroxysm is 
detailed in a clear -and characteristic manner. Some observo-^ 
tions on the different theories of fever then follow^ beginning 
with the doctrines of the antleifts, proceeding to thote of 
Boerhaave, Hoffmann, and Stahl, and concluding i>y a detail 
of the opinions of CuUen and Darwin. This1ii*Jt6ri^ sketch 
is in general well executed j ^ough with respect to the l^st 
author it is imperfect, in 'not noticing the important ageac-y 
^^di the principle of association is supposed to have in hu 
theory. The Brunonian doctrine is omitted. The writer 
afterward gives his own opinion on the iJicory of -fever ; which 
is thatjt depisnds on simple debility) that this debility prevails 
during the whple course pF the disease, that there is properly 
no re-actipn, and that what has been referred to this cause is 
owing to a want of a due balance between the muscular and 
the nervous system. Contagion and marsh effluvia are regarded 
as the only refiftote causesrof fever, and the author appears to 
consider all the different species of the disease as essentially 
similar. He believes in the existence of the critical days, and 
forms his prognosis principally on the degree in which the 
nervous system is affected^ Tne disejise, it is said, may Sonne- 
times be altogether extinguished by evacuations, or the ap- 
plication of cold ^ when it has. taken place, the indicitioni 
are, to lessen the heat, to restore the balance of the circula- 
tion, arid to support the strength. The writer makes no 
mention of the cold affusion, speaks highly of the beneficial 
effects of purgatives, and is partial to the use of camphor. 
Bleeding, he admits, may relieve topicaj congestion : but he 
Seems to consider it, even in the fever of America, rather as ^ 
vpiece of fortunaite temerity, than as a practice which can be 
established on any scientific principles. He is not fond of 
bark, and is moderate in his use of wine. He concludes, as 
is-his usual custom, with giving a list of references, which in 
this case is incomplete arid ill-selected. — ^The article, on the 
whole, is respectably written, and exhfcits a greater air of 
originality than might have been expected in a work of this 

As a continuation of the same subject, we perused the 
article Contagion^ under which we foimd a good account of 
the acid^fumigations \ and under the word Cold, the medical 
effects of this agent are stated with tolerable accuracy : but 
here we were still rhore stlrprized than on the former occasion, 
to find only a very slight mentiQn of Dr. Currie or ^ his 

N 3 jttm^^cftx^:' 

of mere acciitenttj -.,,.; *. . 

In the. JBdinburgh' Dictionary, ^e article Fiver is extended 
to a coQ9i4^able length,, but itiNv^iU be fbupd on examtaatioQ 
to be very inoch inferiority. tb^<)f thp London:. Dictionary. 
It la in fact potbing oiorf th$n a dull abstract of tHe first five 
diapter» o£CuU$n'«; practice. Each paragraph is given sub- 
stantially, an<l ^on\etim$s almost literally ; we find no devia^ 
tioB from :tis. authority } ajid^ the writer does not intimate 
that any aJteratidn in theory,, or improvement in practice, has 
taken place since; the publication Qf .the " First Lines." For 
thfe tres^tm^nt, ^l^e are referr^ to the different species of fever. 
On turning to Typhus^ we find ' a^.v^ry meagre and inadequate 
account of- the management of tfiis disease. We are indeed 
stiformed ihat, urid^rthe vreviB CM Affusion ^ we shall meet 
with < some interesting observations on the theory of the 
contagious typhus/ but we searched in vain for them. We 
hare, however, a fair account of Dr. Currie's practice and 
observations. Under the article FumigattQn^ nQthing is said 
of any process except that of Dr. Smyth \ nor do we find any 
mention of the muriatic vapor, or of the experiments of the 
trench chemists. Cold is treated more at length than in the 
London Dictionary, but it is rather a general than a medical 

As an exemplification in the surgical department, we men- 
tion the article Aneurism*, In the London Dictionary, we find 
a correct account of the formation of the disease, of its different 
^lecieS) and of their symptoms, but the view of the treat* 
tnent is indifferently executed.. The. general principle, on 
which the improvement of Mr. Hunter was founded, is not 
stated ; we have a scanty description of what is called * the 

, operation for aneurism in the humoral artery /.and only a 
elight intimation that the same . process may be employed 

, in the popliteal aneurism. — ^The corresponding article in thi 
Edinburgh Dictionary is much more ample and satisfactory; 
and it gives a full and clear view of the modem improve- 
ments that have b^en introduced into the operation, by 
Hunter in the first instance, and since his time by Abcr- 
nethy, ^11, and others. 

In the article Cataracty we think that the London Dictionary 
has the advantage ; the account which it gives is, on the 
whole, satisfactory and well digested : while (he Edinburgh 
editor has done little more than introduce long abstracts and* 
ijuotations from the writings of Pott. ' 

With regard to the physi6logy of the two wQrk», we may 
Instance what is<^aid respecting An^l HeaU. We were ftr 

, ' . some- 

. Digitized by VjOOQte 

,ne LdmUn and the BMnksrgi MedM jXtiknarUt. 1 83 

fOfBe dme searching for tliis subject ia. the. Lbndon Dictiom 
ary, and at length we fcund it placed under Galidkm intfrmim. 
The snbstance of the infermation is howler valuable, and if 
exhibits a correct idea of the present state of opinions on this 
point; some farther information may aUo be obtained from 
the article Calgric. In the Edinburgh Dictionary, the Subject 
of Calorfc is treated more at length, out a large part of what 
is said is entirely foreign to mei^cine \ and the article Anmd 
-Heat consists principally oi some-vague and trifling objections 
^ the hypothesis that is -d^iired irom the decomposition of 
die air by respiration, founded, as we are informed, 6n th« 
iBXperiments and opinions of- a Mr Tupper. 

On the subject of Materia Medicay we shall particularize 
the article Columbo, which we are induced, on account of its 
brevity, to quote from each of the works; at the same time 
observing that it affords a favourably specimen 9f the Edin* 
burgh performance : 

London Dicti$nary. 


tugufsc language, raijs Je Motamlique. 

• It 18 produced in A$ta, from whtncc it was tranflplanted to Co- 
lumbo, a town in the island of Ceyloq, and from whence ail the East 
Indies are supplied with it. 

• The pla&t is not known \ but from a note "in Commerson^s Her- 
bal, It appears orobable that it is a species of the memspermum, which he 
styled palmatedy not known to Linnsus. It i«» bristled with hair, ha« 
leaves with five lobes, often palinated ; the base at the heart and the 
lobes are often sharp poinrcd. 

• It is brought into Europe in circular pieces of different sizes, 
lome of which are three inches diameter ; its sides are povered with a 
thick wrinkltd bark, of a dark brown hue externally ; when cut 
transversely, they exhibit a large central' disk, with brown streaks, 
and yellow point«. The root consists of three laminae; viz. the cor- 
tical, which in the larger pieces is a quart j?r of an inch thick ; the lig- 
neous, which is about halt an inch ; and the medullary, which' forms 

*the middle, and is near an inch in diameter. This last is softer than 
the other parts, and, when chewed, seems to be very mucilaginous. 
Many small fibres run longitudinally through it. The cortical and 
ligneous parts are divided by a circular black line. , 

* It haih an aromatic smell, but is disagreeably bitter, and slightly 
pungent to the taste, i^ supposed to be almost a specific in the cholera 
morbus, nausea, vomiting, diairhcea, bilious fever, indigestion, and 
most other disorders of the stDmach and bowels. It is slightly seda- 
tive, corroborant, and antiseptic The bark resists the putrefaction 
of animal flt&h ; and tht root exceeds it in [.reserving the fifle from 
putridity, or in correcting' the putrescency which has already com- 
menced. As it is not heating, it n\^y be used in hectic Fevers A 
*tincture of this root in brandy is a very uj»tfu remedy for moderating 
the retchings ddriflg the first tionths of pregnancy. Dr' CiiUca ba/« 

N 4 ' ' ' ^ 



I $4 TJtf Lifkiik and i^ Mdinhurgk Me^icat Diifl^fie^. 

Um Si strong and kgjPtcMc hktgr, and be hki «mpl6y«^ it 'ill wnf 
instances pf dyspepsia with ;^reat adtaataga^ In (peeking Yomttrag 
it haa frequcqtJy succeeded i but be baa found it to fail evca wbere 
tlicrc seemed to be a redundancy of bile ; nor, in correcting the acn»» 
Jnoi>y and putr^8c«acy of the bile, has it appeared more powerful tbaa 
father bitters , ' * , ' 

* * It niay be giveri in powder frOm ten griint to two drams, but 
the tomtnon dose 19 from fifteen to thirty ^ains, every three or fouf 
hours I and in bilious casea it should be joined with an equal part of 
iritriolated kali. The powder has been applied to ulcers, which, hy 
common remedies, cannot be brought - to a healing state ) and Mr. 
Hpmf tljinj^s it pext'in efficaoy, forthia purpoie, to rhubarb > nay> 
when rbubarbj begins to lose its eStc^, columbo will frequently renew 
the healinfir process, and ultimately be suceessfpl. 

* pistiljcd with spintf it sends ovet little of its taste or smell ; b«t 
the ^Jitract, made by evaporating its decoction in rectified spirit of 
'^ntf h better than tlie root itself in powder : about two-thirds of this 
Toot is obtained in the spirituous extract; 

* The London college order the following preparation of the TiNtf- 
1*tfR5 OF coLUMBo: Tajce of columbo-root, powdered, two ounces 
and a half ; proof-spirits of wine^ two pints i digest for eight, days^ 
and strain i pine or tjvo dramS) or more, may be taken repeatedly in 
thint^ater, or in an infusion of orange-peal : the last renders it.^l)^ 
jnost grateful. It powerfully and speedijy relieves those colic pains 
tvhich arise from flatulence or indigestion, 

* The EXTRACT OF coluMboroot is made by digesting twelve 
Ouncci of columbotPOpt in powder four days, in three pints of recti- 
fied spirit of wine. After filtering this , tincture, the residuum is 
boiled repeatedly in different wattrs, until it yields little or no taste 
to the liquor*. T))e. decoction is then strained and evapprated until 
six pints only femain : this is evaporated«in a vapour«-bath ; and^ when 
nearly finished, the tinctpr^ is added^ and the whole reduced to the 
consistence of a pilL 

* Sec Cullen's Mat. Med^, Percival's Jlssays, Medical and Experl- 
lijent^l, yol. j. c^. it Notes to Sydenham by Walljs, vol. iv. p. 221.* 

Edinburgh Dictionary, 

♦ COI^tyMBA ; otherwise named* by different writers, Cqlumlq^ 

Ctihmha$ pr Cphmh- T|ip root so called has only of late years b^cn 

introduced ipto the materia mcdica. The natural history of it is pot 

j^et Well knbi^'Ti ; but the plant whicji affords it, {s said^ by Wilde- 

jiav^^o b^ 9 species of Brj^onia- This root, we are told, comes to us 

from C^lutfibo, a tpivo in Ceylon, 119 circul^t- piecies, wh'ch arc from 

half an inch or ap inch tp three iQche^ in diameter ; and divided into 

Jruti^ Virhicb ip^asi^re from.^wo in<;he? tO one quarter pi |m inch. 

From liiore jrepeh^ ajsppunfs, fiowcver, w^ l?arn,, that it is produced 

^n Africa/ ib the jiotjpiry pf^bc Caffrei^ ^n^ that it forms an imjjort- 

iinj; article pf tpmo^er?;^ ^ith thf j^prjugUese, at Mosambiqup, in the 

province of f r^itquebir. Tjie sides of thfi" rpo^ are <;ovef-ed with a 

^hick ^prrugdud bark, of a dark bfo^n hue on its extprpa! surface^ 

'fc«t iJHf rijally of a light yellow colour; From Dr. Ptrcival'a expert 

\ ■ meiiti 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

The London and the MdiHkufgh Medical Dictimaries. I S^ 

mcirts on this root, it appears, that rectified spirit of wine -extracts 
its virtues in the greatest perfection. The watery infiision is more 
perishable than that of other bitters. An ounce of the powdered root, 
half .an ounce of orange peel, two ounces ofbrandy> and 14 ounces 
of water, macerated 12 hours without heat, and then filtered through 
paper, afford a sufficiently strong and tolerably pleasant infusion* 
The extract made first by spirit and then with water, and reduced by 
evaporation to a pilular consistence^ is found to be equal if not supc. 
rior in efficacy to the powder. As an antiseptic, Columbo«root. is 
inferior tO: the bark 5 but as a corrector of putrid bile, it is much su* 
perior to the barley whence also it is prokuible, that it would be of 
service in the West India yellow fever. It also restrains alimentary 
fermentation, without impairing digestion ; in which property it re* 
sembles mustard. It does riot appear to have the least heating qua- 
lity ; and therefore may be used in phthisis pulmonalis, and in hectic 
cases, 10 'strengthen digestion- It occasions no disturbance, ind 
agrees very wel) with a milk diet, as it abates flatulence, and is indis* 
posed to acidity. The London, Edinburgh,* and Dublin Colleges 
4ireet a tioctureof the Colopn bo-root. 

* T'tnetura CofumBs* Lond. 

Tak^ 6f Colombo; in poWder, two ounces and an half; 
Proof spirit of wine, two pints. 

Digest them for eight days, and strain the tincture. 

* The virtues of the columbo are possessed in a great degree by this 
menstruum^ so as to render it a medicine of much effect ; and it may 
be depended upon where the root is useful : but the root itself in 
powder, is more eligible, where no circumstances occur to prohibit 
Its e^^hibition/ 

Our general conclusion respecting the merits of thesfe 
compilations is, on the whole, in favour of the London 
Dictionary ; it seems to possess more originality 5 it is less 
made up by quotations 5 and the information is compressed 
mto a smaller bulk. These remarks, however, principally 
apply to the medical articles, which appear to us to be the 
worst parts of the Edinburgh, and the best parts of the 
London performance : but, as these are the most important, 
they may fairly be considered as giving a character to the 
whole. The references in the London Dictiouary, although 
often ill selected and imperfect, certainly impart to it an ad- 
ditional value : but, on the other hand, yie thinjc that the 
Edinburgh gentleinen have been more judicious in the selection 
of their articles ; the. London contains a great numbet of 
wdrds that are totally obselete, and which are much better 
placed in a separate ind^x, ^s has beeh done by thjd Edjpburgh 
ieditors. Viewed generally, bothth6 works are respectable in 
their ^^^fj^and^uperior to aiiy similar publication which- w6 
befpjre possessed. , 


Urt. X. jt Rhtnrattdn of the Ancient tijocfes of kf stowing Thames on th^ 
RivirSf Htltsi tallies ^ Plains, and Siit/emen/s of Britain ; recorded m 
no Author. Exemplified In the Derivations of Roman-biitish, and 
later Denominations of Districts, Nnines^of the- principal Towns, 
' and Appellations of the Features of Nature. ^From which nearly 
• all thfc Expl Anal ions given to these Terms, by Verstegan^ Skinner, 
Vallancey, Bryant, Boilase, Whitaker, Pryce, Macpherson, and 
other Etymologists, are shewn to be unfounded. To this Treatise 
are prefixed, the Principles by which Names were originally form-* 
t&^ from their primitive Gaeh'c Roots. By G. Dyer. JJvo. 
pp.314 7s. Boards. Johnson, 5cc» 

THE ample detail contained in this title page sufficiently 
announces the object of the ingenious, learned, and in 
many of its parts entertaining volume tq wJiich it is prefixed. 
In his introductory observations, the vvK)rthy author infonns 
,«$ tiat, durnig liis attempts to explore the etymologies of a 
few rivers and tovt-ns in the vicinity of Ex«ter, he ^tisfied 
himself * that the names of rivers, and nearly all those of 
towns on streams, meant, at least partly, water or ftr'eam ; and 
that all the common and known denofninations for these, 
were insuiHcient to give peculiar and discriminative appella- 
tions to the streams of Great Britain only.' He adds, however, 
that *. although the names for streams and hills M^ere thus 
infinitely multiplied, or rather varied, he, perceived from 
repeatec^ examination, that they were derived from the same 
original tongue.* He was thus induced to collect * all the 
Gaelic liaines of wiiter, stream, &c. to discover such as might 
fcbve been ;the common and original ones ; and in this in- 
quiry he was perfectly gratiified by a full discovery of these pri- 
mitive terms. In chapter* the first arc selected words, varied as 
the reader will there find tliem, which compose the roots of all 
the. rivers in Britain and Europe, if not in the greatest part 
of the world.' , , 

Mr. Dyer next set himself down to the laboriotrs task of 
analyzing ^e composition of the terms which he was ex- 
amining, according to the principles that are supposed to have 
i>revailed in the formation of languages generally. Proceed- 
ing in diis course, he says : - 

■ • Time, application, and the reason o'f things, produced the fol- 
lowing fystcm of ctymolog}', the author hopes, equally simple and 
tatisfactory. It refers the reader to the language of bur aboiiglnal 
•nccsto/s, for the roots of appeUattons evidently given by them ; and 
the proposed roots b«ve a visible connection with the terms which 
they illustrate. Hence in the names of rivers, towns on streapfis^ &;«. 
the airthoir finds the original words which bestowed the denomioatian, 
given -in tarns anciently signifying watcr^ Hream, hill, &c^ joined 
& oftcnr 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Pyer ffi th^ antient Modes tfhesUwitig NamiSf tfc. 1S7 

oftentimes with tome diacrtreiMting itijifks indicative of their connjMi- 
mist magnitude ; aad in many cat e» dcacribing and actually paintiBfp 

their rtiative situationa.' % 

Mr. H. Lliuyd*3 conjecture, in regard to the application of 
prefixes, has been generally- considered as well founded. It 
doubtless holds good as applied to the more antient dialects 
of this country j and l^r. Dyer, we conceive, is intitled to the 
benefit of it in support of his ingemous system.— Though we 
highly approve the present attempt to throw light on subjects 
which we may perhaps Jiterally say have been hitherto involv- 
ed in Cimmerian daiTcness, and though we admit that Mr. 
Dyer has been judicious and skilful as well as indefatigable m 
his labours, still we should not act fairly by the public, if we 
dissembled tlie scepticism which we feel with respect to hig 
discoveries. Whether we are unreasonable in indulging this 
doubt, we shall enable our readers to be arbiters, by su^huu 
ting to them a few specimerts of the author's derivations : 

* The river Colly is said to imply the ha%el brook, from coU the 
fiazel or out tree, and y water. To every thmg upon earth have 
ttreama btcn re? erred for names. In the Culm we wer^e CQBveyed to 
heaven ! But y in Colly implies not water, but is Gaelic for shallow^ 
Idw, Rule ; and Col has been shewn to mean stream : hence Coily is 
tV shallow or little stream. 

*. T or / are also diminutives in our own language, though not ob* 
srvtd by grammarians: for we may say yohnny for Httlc John ; Tommy 
for little Tom, &^. And it should, be observed that the final conso- 
feant is doubled to form the diminutifc ending ; and to shorten the 
sound of the vowel.*— 

' The river Tamer, formerly Tamar, is derived from Tarn Gaelic 
for stream, as has already been shewn, and ar great, or err border. 
Mr. Baxter, and others, derive it from Tamerav, the gentle river, 
though it is acknowledged to be rapid and even violent in tnany 
parts.' — 

* The Severn is denved by Makolm in his antiquities, as well aa by 
^veral other writers, from sah Gaelic for strong, or from saM ragtng» 
and rian the sea. But the construction of Mr. Malcolm's own Ian* 
guage, the Gaelic, demands in old names, that the substantive should 
precede the adjective. Now sahy saVf or sev is water or stream, and 
rian the little sea ; and hence the little sea stream would be a tranda- 
tionoiViohmy^s Sairiana. In like manner might the Tamisia mean 
the little sea, from Tamh the sea, and ts a diminutive. Thus also as 
4Mn&, avj oVf and ob may be considered the sea, the Cby would 
mean the little sea; and be so named to shew the vast size of the 
mouth of its. stream,. as well as of the stream itself. 

* General VaUancey derives the Severn from '< sab a division, and 
rann a word of the same meaning:" ** Hence, says he, the Severn 
a boundary river." 'But two divisions imply not one stream. 

* The Romans, from whom Ptolemy received the name in hit 
|eography^ htinized the u and v of the Britons by^^l^H^s i^« 

fW Dyc« Oil the antiiPti Moie^ (^ bestowing if dn^}^ C^* 

stances, to w^hidh our authors hvt not attcnckd.— Hence the stream 
might originally be pronoonced or written Savrian or Saurian. . The 
f, in latinizing, sometimes inserted, by these people, wag by the an- 
cient Britons omnttd. Thus a river in Ireland was named Sauranus 
pr Sauran ; and the Severn too was most likely, from what follows, 
so named by the ancient inhabitants of the country. 

* The Welch, after the lime of the Romans, changed the Irish x 
into hf and called this stream Havren ; in which name the i inserttrd 
by the conquerors of the Britons, is suppressed. It appears there- 
fore that the rivers in the time of the Romans, might, by the natives, 
be written or pronounced Savran ox Sauran, At what time, or by 
what steps, it became Savernt we need not enquire ; but it is plaia 
that the r in Savran was transposed to form Savarn ; and firom the 
mutability of a to e, the name became finally Severn, 

* In many words a transposition of liquid or other letters hath, from 
various'circumstances, taken place: thus ^ry/i, Welsh for hilliock, is 
in Armoric Ifern. The English word criep was formerly written, and 
now is at some places pronounced jyr^/. The atp or sisptrn-tree Wa4 
written aepSf as still pronounced. A' variety of other itistances Way 
ht found in Lhuyd's archxlogia, which prove that Savran may have 
become Severn, irom the mutation of vowels, and transpositloa of 
ther.. . . ^ 

* ^Having followed this name from Sahriana to Severn, through the 
necessary steps, I shall britfly state, that, independently of the 
ancient name, the reason of its spelling may be thus, much more 
concisely, shewn : Sev \& stream ; ^nd an^ or its synonyme aun changed 
to orif, means great ; and the Sevarn^ now Severn^ means the great' 
it re am.* 

' Street. — ^The word street is said, by Mr. Whitaker and others, ti 
come from the Latin stratum^ a paved way : but I perceive no reason 
for supposing that strrst^ which is a name given to many of our lanes 
never paved, should have been jrenerally derived from the Roman l^i' 
cuage. In the Gaejic, sir aid or strait is a street or lane; and 
from this I conceive our word street is derived. In like manner stream 
and siring were derived perhaps originally from the Gaelic sneamh an4 

It 15 out of our power to enter into the disquisitions t<$ 
which the perusal of this work would tempt us : but we 
recommend it to the lovers of etymology j who, if they add 
to their favourite pursuit. an acquaintance with tlie ar^tient 
dialects of the country, will derive much gratification fropi a 
volume which, though we m^^st confess that it has not be^n 
•entirely convincing to pur minds, displays considerable talents^ 
acquirements, and research* 

y Google 

•s ( -189 •) •-^, ' : 

AftT. XT; Afx<** 5 ^'''^ Evemngs of SouthlJ!^ Book I By Nicholat 
Salmon, Author of ^mmaUi Latlnitatis, and other philolugfcal 
Works. 8vo. j)p. 171. 5*. Boards. Madman. 

^''His gentleman pursues the track which was opened to - 
-*• English philologists by Mr. Home Tooke j and though he 
is on the .whole a respectful disciple, he ventures to criticise 
Ws master. He communicates his information in the form 
of a dialogue between himself and the particle BT'^ and it is 
the object of this first part of the work to rescue that word 
from the insignificance to which it had been reduced in the 
Diversions of Purleyy where its meariing is asserted to be the 
same with that of its supposed Saxon root JJ/VA.— We shall 
adduce a few passages, without much comment. 
. In answer to the interrogatory of the particle, ' what do yoU 
mean to &ay on my account, in opposition to Mr. Tooke ?* the 
writer answers : 

* Imfan, contrary to his assertions, to prove that, in very many cir- 
cumstances, you derive your name from words which do not merely 
denote existence, but whjch actually signify operating^ creaiittgp mai* 
tn9, forming, influencing, or the like ; that you apprar as 2i forerunner^ 
to whoever or whatever it causing^ has been causing, or 'wili he coMting 
any thing to happen ; that consequently, on many occasions, you aef 
as 2i forerunner to Go</ himself, the Creator of all things, I niean to 
prove that you, and your relatives, whether here or abroad, have al- 
ways been, and will ever be, the forerunners of those jthat have per- 
formed, or shall perform, such actions as are reputed the most glo- 
nous : but, at the same time, from my wish to be strictly just, I 
miist add that you, and your relatives, may be found to be \\\^ forerun* 
ners of those that perform the basest actions. 

' B. — You seem indeed to know us thoroughly, by givjpg it to be 
noderstood that eabh of our names is equal to these indefinite expres* 
sions *tt)hoi or what , does (did, or will do), whb^ or what^ causes (didi, 
or will cause) to happen or to be done. Much more meaning, theft. Is 
attached to mine, and to each of my relations' names than Mr. H. 
Took has asserted. 

* S. — I have tried, beyond any man perhaps, to knowyqu thorough- 
ly, my dear little ^y, having reason to think that this knowledge would 
Uad me 16 the object I had in view ; and indeed, I fpund that each 
name of your relatives may also announce a being equal to either who 
operkes any thing, or, who cooperates to any thing. la short, you, 
a3 well as your relatives, have always an active injluence. By each of, 
your names, one should understand as much as Operator or Co^operaiar, 
since you arc the very souU spirit, and director, in many of the events 
which take place, may take place, or have taken pUce. I hope that 
this definition of your worth, my dear little By, is agreeable to you; 
and that your relatives will not have reason to compUin of me, if I / 
often make them apptat as possessing the very powers which I ascrlb^^ 
to you. .o^H^k. 

tg^ SaimonV Af)^i^ ^ Bv^ttngs ofSauthiB. 

* A-««NO) certamfy. , But I do utit always ap|)ear as thd ^penAwt 
^or the Co't)perator t9t what is represented as a situation or condition* 

♦ ^••.— I know that you do not, Yotir ancestors were usclul to man* 
kind iA many ways. When they shared their powers amon^ their 
Imu«, the portions were not precisely equal ; hence, this offspring 
lua been put in possession of certain rights which another offspring 
was not to enjoy, and so forth : the point is to ascertain the several 
powci^ devolved to each descendant. This is a subject into wbich I 
do not chuse now to enter fully. I shall confine myself to suggest, 
that in " I may be, by you, raised to a degree of iroporta,ncc in the 
Republic of Letters,** I and every body else, will consider YOU as 
the individual who may Cause me to obtain, in the Republic of 
liCftters, a degree of importance-j consequently, you WiH probably 
be the opsitAToR of that situation of mine : that in •• I am now fit- 
ting BY YOU," nobody can see/in yov, the operator of my situatioUf 
9a to Sittings that in « /saw him insulted in a BY-STREFTr" no 
heaVer^ or speaker, will suppose that the street caused my seeing hfm 
Insulted: that in •* He is younger than you by Foyn ybars/' four 
years indeed cause him to be younger than you, but denote, at the 
tame tfmc, a sort of difference between two individuals considered 
each in hi« present state ? one of them is younger, the other is older jj 
andyoUj my dear little By, are the forerunner announcing the ciiterioii 
whereby the difference (between their age) is declared to be foui* 
yonm. Such, and different other, powers, belonging to, you, shall 
be fully accounted for hereafter. 

* jB.— You have been told, I suppose, and you have yourself ob- 
senrdd, that, in my travels, my name has undergone many changes? 

* 5.*— Yes, yes ; my dear little By^ alias j&<f, alias Bu alias "Bigi aliaa 
j5*f, &c. I am well acquainted with your metamorphoses. The old 
Saxons mentioned you in all those naraes ; the Goths in those of Bi 
itod Be ; the Dutch call you By^ and sometimes Btj, using you how* 
ever merely to denote proximity ; the Germans call you Bey^ using" 
you sometimes as the English do before or in the presence o/* (whence a 
sort of proximity), sometimes as the English do by, iii forms of ad' 

Jurmg or obtesting f See* 

The particle agaij;i asks him what are the principks whidl- 
Ile has laid down, to serve as guides in his researches 6<m4 
cerning him and his relatives : 

* 5. —After having examined attentively a few examples, whercm 
the verb was introduced passively, and rtiy little By was prefixed to the 
Agent, I said within myself: By must have in his name the real 
force of j^gentj Operator^ or some wprd conveying the like sfgnifici- 
tfon 5 if not, By must be equal to such a noun as jvw/, too/, instru* 
menty cmue, channel^ cri/erion, any manner or means employed to causi 
any event to tflhe place ^ all which, not unlike the French dme^ imtr^ 
tnent, artisan, cause, vote, moyen or maniere^ are used figuratively in- 
•tead of Agent, Operator^ Co-operator^ a»d thus are made to appcat* ai 
pausing or having caused some event to happen ; and indeed those 
vrords hnply an active power » an active person^ a certain influence^ at^ 
ctHdantpi^ert'ox the like, NoW^ said I also to myself, it is im- 




possible for any word to hav« tfac force o( (^erafar, wMiovt being 
t^ offspring of some word Implying such sn actiofi as may • effect ji 
situation in regard to some mdlvklual considered vs the patfeift 
(because of recefring the forc^ 6f the^acribn) ; a«d being fMf 
persuaded of this impossibility, I began my researcbea : they h«ve 
jproved successfnl, and I shall be partly repaid lor my trouble, i£ . 
their utility become acknowledged. . ^ 

* B, — I am particularly glad that you hate (rot been -disappointed in 
your researches. What a light they will throw upon: bngnage f 
Man will no longer be littering, like a parrot, wordd the mcaoiiig 
of which he did not know. Do tell me how far you mean toex^ 
tend the notions of Operator and Co-operator ? 

*S. — Whoever, or whatever (does anything mentioncd^or causes that 
thing to be as it is mentioned, is the Operator or Jgent^ in regard t9 
the same. Hence, whcfn any person states an action, an e^at^ a 
situation or condition, as having happened, or to happen ; who*> 
ever, or whatever, has had, or will have, the power of effecting the 
«ime, has been, or will be, the Operaiw or Agent. Nor is it pocsibk 
for any position whatever to prevent the name, or the represeatatttc 
of the name, from its being still tlie Operator or Jgera. 

* B. — But there may be several individuals mentioned as hwifig 
effected the action^ the' event, the situation, or condition which isex*> 
pressed in a sentence. 

' S, — All those individuals, whether animate or inanimate, arc th«a 
Co-operators ; each, taken singly, is a Co operator. Now, the word 
Co.(^erator is applicable to any assoeiate, any aimtant, any director, 
padey criterion, any instrument^ any means, any cause^ any motive, jany 
ivay or channel, any manner, any measure pursued, m short, to any iii>- 
animate thing that can have some influence ; all those are Co^efera^ 
tors, in spite of any position whatever given thenv in the senteocCy . 
provided they appear to have concurred in producing the effect 
described, as happening now, to have happened, or to happen ia 
tome future time.* 

The personified By observes to the author that we have lost 
light of the meaning of ail the prepositions, and that th^ 
consequence of this is, 

* That the real power of each cannot now, without difficulty, be 
ascertained : besides, though a word, used as a preposition^ may be 
traced to its origin ^n one instance, it does not follow that, in other 
instances, that word must have had the same origin ; other words 
may have been formed or contracted into this one ; hence, diSer* 
ences in origin^ as wefl as in meaning, existing in a word, though 
always written and pronounced in an uniform manner, or very 
iiearly. Caa you account for that circumstance ? I mean, can yoU 
lay how the real meaning of each pretended preposition came to be 
lost sight of i^ 

* S. — By the negligence of Grammarians and Compilers of Die- 
tioniries. Insteadio^fi^oductng examples which formed complete Sen<^ 
tcoecs (as in Dr. /ohnson'a Dictionary}^ whereia one micrht have 


dificovetcd (though Dr. Jobnaon d}<i not) the real forc^ and copii 
«equcnt]y the mduiing of the pretended preposition, they pvrhaps 
at firgt, for the take of saving a litUe expense in paper, contented 
themselires with adducing parts of a sentence, the tesolucion of cv^rf 
one of which may have been <;lear to them : but, frequently, a part 
c»f a sentence can be understood only by means of another part, or 
aomc other parts, of the same ; and, I am afraid a great deal of time 
will elapse before the mischief they have thus done can be repaired. 
I repeat it ; they ought to have compared together several whole 
sentences, so framed as to point out the variations of meaning in eadh 
pretended preposition, and to enable one to reduce all such words to 
distinct classes. 

* When I read in such works, angry ai ox for a thing, angry 'onib 

a person, to complain ofz. thing, to camplain of% pcrfon, to be surprise4 

of ox ai a thing, to be surprised hy a person j a man of noble birth, a 

man {feseendedjfom' nohlt parents, ^. 1 cannot but think that t)ie 

anthorshave been led to attach to the pretended preposition the meani- 

ing which some particular preceding word conveys, or to btlieve that 

aome particular preceding word requires of itself such prepOsitioiv 

' Now, finding that this particular preceding word would now and 

then suffer another sort of preposition to follow, they have looked 

«pon this as an exception to their rule : by degrees, their exceptions 

have been as numerous as the instances which agreed with their rule, 

' and a sort of labyrinth has been formed at last,' from which even such 

a ball of thread, as Ariadne gave, of okl, to Theseus, could hardly 

extricate any one who entered it. I must repeat it once more ; there. 

is no possibility to perceive the use and force of those words which 

have been called prepositbns, but by forming a senes of such com*> 

plete sentences as may contain the necessary circumstances, and tak» 

ing care that every possible combination of those words with otbcr^ 

})C introduced as an example.' 

The preposition agairi asks : 

f Whence do you derive your fiiend By, when he stands as a fore- 
•runner, to announce what is conveyed by the words Operator, Co-ope' 

*S. — 1 might have said at once (but I reserve presenting the deriva* 
tion at large, till we are come to the latter part) that the primitive 
meaning of your name was way, road, course, and the like ; that you 
had 'been serviceable to mankiiwi to such a degree as to deserve that 
.your name should be raised to some dignity : in consequence, it wa» 
agreed that' the meaning of ivay should be extended not only \jo that 
of *uihid> iway, or the manner ho^, thfngs com9 to pass, but even to 
that of Operator, the highest quality that can be conferred on any in-" 
dividual* You do not scorn, for all that, to appear often in yoirr pri- 
.mitive state, for which^compliawce you are the more to be respected t 
but still there are attached to your name other notions which require 
that. I should examine some expressions in the Gothic and old Saxoo 
languages, in order to ascertain precisely every one of the functions 
you have been allotted to perform. In this examination, I sh»ll point 
wont how. the high function of operator might be said to be io^pl^ in 

/ those 

digitized by Google 

iSalmonV AfX^I, or' Evenings ofSoUthilf. 193 

tnoac.ttcpressibns of antiquity. Began f in old SaXon, meant what 
the Latin6 expressed by o?erari (to work), exercere, colere^ excobri^ 
kcolere, pframbulare (to travel about), tlectere (to l^cnd, to 
bow), iieXtctere, inJUctere, cUrvdri^ rciorquercy declimare (totepa 
to a different way, to bend one's course to, to avoid, to decline)^ 
iBveriere^ rrc^dere^ fugtre^ t^^itltr;t^ servire, procamlerct observare* 
instead of this Began, we find the old Saxons used also Beagianf 
Biegany Bigofh Btge^ny Bugan, Bygan ; and t^e Goth» Blugan^ Bu- 
gan (whence Ga-bugari, aud the Anglo ^3^xon Ge-lugan, as well at 
VeMgan). ' Hence By for Byg may have been formed from bygan, to 
express a sort oi agent, equal to Operator or Co-operator % sb,B» mar 
have been formed from Beg or Began^ as Bi or Big from Bigan, ana 
even Bit ; for g^ in Anglc-Saxop, used to be often pronoqnccd as if 
it werif i or^r^ and in the modern languages, was accordingly changed 
cither in|o i, ^\ ory,* 

In a subsequent part,- the atithor observes : 

' I recollect that I have to account for By so used as to denote 
wjy, course, range^ roaJf or the like. — I suspect that Byj employed 
as a word equal to wjy, is in the very predicament wheiein the an- 
cient French noun parage has been a long time. — This word parage 
originally was used to express range^ course, place of resort, tvay^road, 
passage* and was applied figuratively so as to become equal to Imeage, 
extraction, family ^ birth, issue. In time> it became confined to denote 
road or tract for ships (as a station^ place to ride in or come to). Yet, 
I take the French noun parage to come from the Spanish parage or 
parajcf which is still used to cxt^tcsb place of resort, ranges course, *way% 
road, part^ place. In German, Bay expresses th<e same with tnq 
French Maiej&i\d the English Bay^ when said of a road or tract for 
shipping, or of a certain portion of land in which the sea has cut its 
way, and formed a sort of nooh, or cove : in Dutch, Baai means bay. 
— in German, bahn means way, road; and so does the Dutch baani 
the Gernuin verb bahnen means to cut anvay ; and, in Dutch, the verb 
baanen means /• phpart a nx*ay, to make level. From whatever verb 
these words Bay, Baai, Bate, did come, is immaterial, since their 
signification is settled ; nor can it be denied but that they may easily 
kave b^ome By. Again, the Old Saxon noun byge (translated iui* 
gu!us, sinus, ancon), as well as the noun byht (translated /zn^t/Zv/, vel 
mus, in quo concurrunt limites regionum), come from the Old Saxon 
hgan, which verb served 10 form, or was formed from, the Gerniaa 
ieugen or biegen, the Dutch correspondent of which is buygenc in, 
German, from heugen, arose the nouns hug and beuge {9. bent or bend,, 
m bending), hogen (a bow), bucht and bugt (bay, creek), and busen,^ 
(bay, gulf) : in Dutch, fxovfk baygen, arose not only buys (a jiOVLU 
"equal to channel, cokduit, pip^, or the like), but boog (a bow, just. at 
the German iogen from heugen)., and bogt (a bent or bend, a turnings 
a winding). .The latter ^0^ gives reason to infer that the Germaa 
^t^i or httthi must haVe also meant a bent or bendj a turning, a nvimUngt 
mnd-secondaVily h 'dmy or pcuh^ 2^ passage^ a road, &c. ; ta infer aUa 
Ibat t)te Anglo-Saxon b^ht (formed from the verb fygan) miis t h ave 
tncant origihaH^ nearly the same with the Dutch bop, 
HiV. JuMfi, iSo9« O 

J94 Salmon*/ Af x«^» or Evenings efSauthilU 

ti^nnbugit of hcbt •(tl>at is, not only a: kenf or iend^ a turm^g^z wifut* 
ittg, hut a way or path f 2i passage y a r^j^, &c.)— But, the word natg^ 
taving been subsequently formed (to express wojr, «^, passagCy m 
short, the Latin vm, as to Old Saxon, German, and Dutch), the 
bther words Have been confined to express riW for shipping, ineroaeif 
"ment (of the se^) forming a sort of way^ m the form of a nooi, cove^ 
creek, &c.* 

Having accounted on his own principles for, the force of 
this preposition in the several examples introduced by Dr, 
Johnson to illustrate its meaning, Mr, Salmon gives a string of 
etymologies which, although somewhat abruptly introduced, 
display much vivacity and ingenuity, as well as learning. 

The observations of the author on the effect of certain pre- 
positions, used as prefixes in compound words, fotm an in* 
teresting part of the work^ Under this head, he states that 

* FoTj used sometimes in English as a negative prelix> comes 
from the Anglo-Saxon adjective /«irr, equal to the Latin adjectives 
eassus^ vacuust mprovtsus. — Now cassus (unprofitable, vain^ uselesj^ 
idle, improper, or, not to the purpose), being considered a« used 
adverbially ^(unprofitably, vainly, uselessly, idly, improperly^ «r^ not 
to the purpose), will become equal to far used as a sort of negative 

J article : as ip " I forget my lessons/* i.e.. I get my lessons unprth- 
iahly or uselessly ; and in '* He will/orswear himself," i. c. He will 
s^ear himself idly or tniproperly or not to the purpose he should, &c. — 
III German and in Dutch, the negative Anglo-Saxon far has been 
changed into wr ; thus v^rgessen in Gernian, and vr>*geeten in Dutch^- 
express the same with the English toforgttJ 

Mr. S. closes his tratt with remarking that 

• Next to the notion of operator or co-operator^ there is none tliaC 
returns more frequently into speech than that of /ow^/xor ; and that 
tiot'ion extends much further than many people arq^ aware of. Evcrj* 
hiorinent we arc asking^ the question w^^j^ .^—Whatever a man may 
dispose of, as lie pleases, is a possession quite real in regard t^ him : 
whatever he thinks he may dispose of he alsa views as a posscssiony 
however precarious this may be.— A man goes even so far as to coa- 
sider Hke a possession any person he commands or employs, all he 
totifches, all he does, all he says, all he occupies himself with.— What 
i say IB so true, that, in presenting, with a noun, those action^, oc« 
cupations, &c. he gives to that «oun, or at least h^ may gtye it, one 
of the possessive a^ectives in lieu of its'articte t hence it is that your 
button is not only for the action ofyotty the acticm tohich yoii are perform*- 
hg or tvhichyou have performeJ \ but also for the action which you then'* 
tioH or which you hanye mentioned e hence, likewise, my man is not 
only for fheman of me or 4ehnging to mcy the man I have^ ^Q- i but for 
the mah of whom IspeaSf 6r have spoken^ 8cc: so likewise >^// Sookf is 
not only for -the Book he has, the hook of him or belonging to Bim^ &c. bnt 
far the hook he is mating or has made. Sec. &c.— ^Ihcse exaniples'wilt 
he saScicnt for any one to conceive that the idea of p bsscssioa may 

4 .be 


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Jiy V Memoirs ef "WinterZ 195 

be extended to a vast number of^crrcumstances ; ctpecally if here* 
fleets that T^tanimate things arc very frequently personified, and con". 
Bcquenlly susceptible of appearing each in the character of a fossasor. 
But "how imperceptibly the notion q{ ^rator changes into 'hat of 
fossessor^ may be conceived by this instance : " the action which ^rt/ 
liave performed.'* or ** the action which has been perforit^ed h^ jw,** 
therein the wordjf<7ir represents the opetatof^; while in "yowr action," 
the word your is generally understood to be z possesshe df(jfcthe equal 
to belonging lo^ you, and *^ your action^^ is consideivd as " the attion be* 
longing to you :^' and yet ** your action^ * is often said for ** the actioa 
*u^u,h you have performed. ' ' 

This work is of a tiiore metaphysical cast than that of Mr. 
Home Tooke : but the hypotheses which it hazards, though 
sprightly, do not bespeak that acumen, that wariness, that' 
patience of research, and that mature reflection, whicK will 
render the Diversions of Purley coeval with the language in 
whicb they are ivritten. As Mr. Salmon 'states that he is a 
Frenchman, we are surprized that he did not make more fre- 
quent references to his countrymen Gebelin and La Brosse, 
who first traced the course in which Mr. Home Tooke has 
shewn himself so worthy to follow. 

- ^ . - ■ - ^ ■ ^ - -. ^ ^ , 1. , J - .. ■ 

Art. XI I, Memoirs of the Life and Character of the late'Js ever end 
Cxir^elius Winter, .Compiled and composed by Wijliam Jay/ 8vo. 
pp.478. 9s. Boards. Williams and Smith, &c. ifcc8. 

rr^o apply the cold and rigid strictures of criticism to the. 
-*- effusions of grateful and ardent friendship, over the ashes 
of departed piety and worth, is one of the most ungrateful 
tasks which can possibly be imposed on a Reviewer. No- 
thing but imperious duty should force us to such an employ- 
ment of our pens : but, since it is our province in all cases 
to weigh and discrinainate, in appreciating the merits of an 
eminent character, we must guard agdnst being seduced by 
the eulogist ipta unauthorized admiration. Without hesita- 
tion, we can subscribe to those remarks on the utility of 
Biography, which Mr. Jay has copied into his preface from 
one of th^ papers in the Rambler ; .as* well as to the majority 
of those observations which occur, at the end of the work, on 
the advantage that may be derived from the contemplation of 
such an example as. the object of his memoir presents. At the 
same time, however, we cannot refrain from suspecting that, 
in the manner in which tliis character of Cornelius Winter is 
drav/n and held up almost to adoration, it will teild to mis- 
chief among low conceited mechanics ; who may fancy them- 
selves qualified, with a little smattering of the scriptures, to 

O 2 commence 


tif^ Safs Metmri rf VTinbtfl 

commencd preachers^ and may in con«eqtifnee quit Ao^ 
ttrorkman's benches to which diey mav be well adapted^ 
and exchange them foir the pulpit, to wnich they cannot so 
^sily be made adequate. The prudent p|irt of mankind wills, 
Join with us in believing that it is not wist to encourage, 
persons, in the lowly .class in which G>melius Winter was*. 
9om, andv with the poo¥ atuinments which were his. portions^ 
¥y imagine that they are called to preach the Gospel. Though, 
by industry and perseTerance, he at kst qualified himself, tO) 
* certain degree, for teaching others, he must for many year» 
have been miserably deficient in scriptural learning;. Surely 
such forwardness, such premature rushing into the ministry,, 
ought to be censured as the effect of vanity lurking under the^ 
mask of piety, of self-deception, or of ^^viealfor Gcd njuhich U, 
not accoratne to^ tnonvJedgey* rather than obtam the praise of 
reflecting christians, j^e apprentices and journeymen to be 
encouraged * to wait the intimations of the will of God/ to* 
assume the high* office of public instruction ? Mr. Jay dbes^, . 
' not seem to be aware that the commencement of Mr. Winter*^, 
ministerial career is open to objection; and that some readers- 
will suspect that the part which Mr. W-^ took with the Dis- 
senters was the result of his being refused. ordinatton< by the 
^ Bishop of London. After his disappointment, he could thus 
write : * I know I was called to preach the Gospel, but I do 
not know that I was called to read prayers -i* but rf he did hot 
know that he was called to read prayers,, why did he request 
episcopal ordination ? Did he here omit * to wait for the in- 
timations of the will of God,* or are we to. consider the re- 
fosal of the Bishop to be the conveyance of these intimations ? 
—The great and increasing prevalence of Methodism, at the 
present day, induces us to take a more copious and more 
j minute notice of the opinions and relations of the niemoir 
before us, than we should otherwise feel ourselves required to 
bestow on them* 

ft is impossible for. us to peruse this volume without feeling 
esteem for Mr.^Wfnter as a very exemplary, religious, and 
moral character: but we must not pass without a comment * 
Aat pious' delirititn, by which he seems to have conceived 
himself to exist ih the age of the apostles, when extraordinary^ 
^iritual gifts blessed the church. Be has ttfnes (f refrtslmg 
from the presence", of the Lord^ and his soul is at partictilar 
seasons set at liherty, while at others he is * sapless in his own 
mind.' Whatever may have been the ardour of this divine** 
piety, the purity of liis heart, arid the scope of his benevo- 
lence, we cannot permit the Biographer triumphantly to ad- 
vice these circumstances as proofs of th^ exclusi'Wfra<mntage» 
' of 

Digitized by CjOOQIC * 

Jay*/ MeindiritfVf^mt^t^ ip7 

df swp^gtSiit nligionj by which we are to tinderstand Hvt 
Cakitiistic system. i£ tne example of such a man as Cor- 
ndius Winter demonst^rates the "beneficial influence of habi* 
*tual devotion and meditation oh the scriptures, hib laudable 
induct is no evidence of the superior efficacy of his creeds 
pr. James Foster 'and Mr. Theophilus Lindsey were as 
upright, as amiable, as spiritually minded, 9nd as ready tQ 
jbllow the dictates ^ a pure conscience, as the subject of Mn 
lay's memoir; and if a good life manifests soundness in th« 
fiith, the truth of every creed may be established by par- 
ticular instances of its effects. We must enter* our caveat 
4igainst such a conclusion. Professors are rendered virtuous 
and hc^, not by .the efficacy of disputed tenets, .but by the 
-operations of those common principles which constitute tliip 
foundation of practical religion. Excellent characters may be 
found in all churches 5 and, as they derive their excellence 
from the same divine source, their lives, when properly 
ftudied, may become generally useful. 

Cornelius Winter, according to the account written Vf 
himself in Pa^t I. of this work, was born October 9, 1 742^ in 
Gray's-Inn-Lane, and was descended of low parents, his 
father beitig by trade a shoe-maker. They died soon after 
his birth, arid left him to the care of poor relatives, whp 
neglected him, and suffered him to wander about the streets, 
spending his time in idleness and childish dissipation. When he 
was turned of eight years of age, he was admitted into tht 
•charity-school of St. Andrew, Holbom : but the sister on 
whom he depended for subsistence failed in her resources, and 
Afe poor boy was obliged to go to the work-house. Thus 
circumscribed were his opportunities of instruction ; and whejj 
he had merely learned to write at the charity-school, his educflr 
iion closed* He W2is then taken to the work-shop of a lejatiow 
who was a water-gilder, to whom be was apprenticed, and to 
whose family he became an errand-boy and dtldge 5 a situation 
in which he remained till he was twenty- one years of age. 
During all this period, he derived much pleasure from hear- 
ing the preachei*8 of the church, and Sunday was on this ^&- 
count a day of delight. From the church, however,, he wen^ 
to the Tabernacle ; where, as he informs uSj Mtei; a disj- 
course by Mr* Whitefield, (April 9. 1760.) « $he scales fljf 
ignorance fell from his eyes.^ sAn aicq^^ai^tance. with thi# 
celebrated methodisric teacher soon commeaced> and ,Come» 
lims shortly became one of his preachers. He wa^ mus ad» 
initted to great intimacy with Whitefield, and acquired ^ 
knowiese^his priviftte charactetj of which weaj^||^jg|ied 
indithMrice^di: * 

o J ; 

I98. JayV Memotirs tf, Winter.. 

< He U8e4 too much seventy to young peopiei aUd required, toit 
xnuch from them He connected circumstances too humiliating -w^ 
public services, in a young man with whom he could ufce Ubcrty j 
urging thiat it was necessary as a curb to the vanity of human nature* 
and referred to the young Roman orators, who after being exalted 
by applauses, were sent upon the inost trifling errands. His maxim 
was, if you love me you will serve me disinterestedly : hence he settled 
BO certain income, or a very slender one upon his depertdents, many 
of whon? were sycophants, and while they professed to serve him, 
under-handedly served themselves effectually. Under this defect hit 
charily in Georgia was materially injured ; owing to the wrosg con* 
duct of some who insinuated then) selves into his favour by hunoouring 
his weakness, and letting him act and speak unthput contradictipn. 
He was impatitnit of contradiction : but this is a fault to be charge^ 
upon almost all great people. I could mention some. He was not 
happy in his wife, but I fear some who had not all the religiofa they 
professed contributed to his infelicity. He did not intentionally 
make his wife unhappy. He always preserved great decency and de- 
corum in his conduct towards her. Her death set his mindmueh at 
liberty. She certainly did not behave in all respects as she ought, 
^he could be under no temptation from hi§ conduct towards the sex, 
for he was a very puie man, a strict example of the chastity he incuU 
cated upon others. No time was to be wasted ; and his expectations 
generally went before the ability of his servants to perform his conv^ 
mands. He was very exact to the time appointed for his stated 
meals ; a few minutes delay would be considered a great fault. He 
was* irritable, but soon appeased Not patient enough one day to 
receive a reason for his being disappointed under a particular occur- 
rence, he hurt the mind of one who was studious to please ; he dis- 
covered it by the tears it occasioned, and on reflection, be himself 
burst into tears^ saying, <* I shall live to be a poor peevish old roaa» 
and e.v€ry body will be tired of me." He frequently broke the force 
of his passion by saying, ** how could you do so, X would not have 
served you so**' He never commanded haughtily, and always took care 
to applaud when ^ person did right. He never indulged parties at his 
table $ a select few might now and then breakfast with him, dine with 
him on a Sunday, or sup with him on a Wednesday night. In the 
latter indulgence 'jlk was scrupulously exact to break up in time. In 
' the height of a conversation I have known him abruptly say, ** But 
we forget ourselves," artd rising from his spat, and advancing to the 
door, add " Conip, gentlemen, it is time for all good folks to be at 
Jiome.". Whether only by himself, or having but a ^cond, hi* table 
mpst have been spread elegaiitly, though it, produced but a loaf and 
9 cheese. He was unjustly charged with being given to appetite. His 
table was never spread with variety. A cow heel was his favourite dish» 
and I haVe known him cheeffully say, '* Hovv surprised would the 
world be, \^ ihey were to peep upon Doctor Squintum, and see a cow 
.heel only upon his table/* He was neat to the extreme in his persoii 
^nd every thiqg j^boyt him. Not a paper must have been out di place, 
or put ujp irregularly. ;^ac}| part of the furniture must have been Hkcr 
wise in its place before we retreated to rest, ^e Mi4 he did not 


' Digitized by 


Jay*/ Memoirs of Winter. I99 

tlinik he should die easy, if he thought his gloves were out of their 
pkce. There was no rest after four in the merning, nor sitting up 
sfter ten in the evening. He never made a purchase but he paid the ^ 
iponcy immediately; for small articles the money was taken in the* 
liand. He was truly generous, and seldom denied relief. More was 
expected from him than was meet. He was tenacious in his friend- 
ship, and when the transition of providence moved from prosperity to 
adversity, he moved with it to abide b^y his friend. He felt sensibly 
when he was deserted, and would remark, '* The world and the' 
•hurch Ting changes." , Disappointed by many, he had not sufficient 
confidence in mankind; and from hence I beh'eve it was, he dreaded 
the thought of outliving his usefulness. -He often dined among hit 
friends, usually connected a comprehensive prayer with his thanks-r 
giving when the table was dismissed, in which he noticed particular 
cases relative to the family, and never protracted his visit long after 
dinner* He appeared often tired of popularity ; and said, he almost ' 
eirvied the man who could take his choice of food at an eatjng house, 
and pass unnoticed. He apprehended he should not glorify God in 
his death by any remarkable testimony, and was desirous to die sud*' 

This delineation is perhaps tolerably exact, and will be ac^ 
ceptable to many of our readers : but it must not divert our 
attention from the painter of the portrait, whose qualifications 
for the important office which he assumed must have been very 
scanty, since he confesses that he had * met with no exposi- 
tory help 5* and it must have required no small portion of as- 
surance to undertake the explanation of texts o( scripture^ 
publicly, though Mr. Winter wishes to have it supposed that 
he was of * a timid turn of mind.* Taking it for granted 
that he was industrious in the improvement of himself, still he 
must have known that the situation of a water-gilder's ap- 
prentice afforded no means for the attainment of tJie requisite 
knowlege*: yet he had not long exercised the preaching-talent 
before he solicited to be consecrated* to the sacred office ; and 
when Mr. Whitefield offered to take him to Georgia, he 
modestly replied that he < did not Jitid freedom to go without 
ordination.' He consented, however, at last, to accompany 
his friend across the Atlantic, without this ceremony ; under- 
took, on his arrival in Georgia, to become a minister for the 
instruction of negroes on. a certain estate, a stipend having 
been left by the former proprietor for this purpose ; was no- 
minated to this office by the executors ^ and Returned to 

• Perhaps, however, this remark should be qualified, since these 
lowly theologues really arc not aware of the extent of learning and 
research which their office demands. Indeed, generally hpaking^ 
those only jyho Jj^aowsotmeAjng are convinced of their own*ignor- 

' 9t^^* V ..... . : ' 

^ 4 ^ ' .. England 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^(•o- Jay*/ Memoirs cf Wntoc* 

Xnglaod with various recomm^ndationt to tlie Kslu^ <f 
Lcmdon for ordination, the will of the deceased having eii- 
joined that the religious instructor of his negroes should be 8 
clergyman. As this situation must have appeared lucrative to, 
sa^ch a person as Mr. Winter^ he unqiiestionably was solicitous^ 
to be confirmed in his appointment : but, ordination having 
been refused by the Bishop of London, his return to America 
was precluded, and he recommenced itinerant preaching in hit 
^wn country. From this* state he passed to that of a station- 
ary minister j took the charge of a particular congregation ^ 
married 5 and united to the occupation of preacher, the 
more laborious duty of tutor, in educating young men for 
' the ministry. 

The astonishmeftt of the reader must be excited by thil 
last circumstance. How, it will be asked, could Mr. W^ 
venture on such* a project ? — ^To what an extent he was 
qualified, we haye no opportunity of ascertaining It is said 
that, being fond of retirement, and sedulous in the improvei^ 
ment of his time, he had cultivated his mind to an extraor- 
dinary degree ; and, though no critical ' remarks occur to^ 
evince superior acquirements, intimatbns are given of his know-, 
lege of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. His pupils (of wh<Mn Mr Jay 
was one) seem to have entertained the greatest respect for him, 
and to have been pleased with his mode of instruction. Per-. 
^ h^psi'hoivever, he may be said to have less taught than inspired 
them; and it maybe conceived that his pious, regular,.industricus,. 
and benevplent life conveyed a more valuable lesson than his' 
professed lectures; To substantiate the high praise which isr 
bestowed dn him, as a tutor of the first orrfer, Mr. Jay ought - 
to have presented some specimen of his lectures. ; which, it 
is to be hoped, would have been more creditable to him* thaii( 
scraps from a methodistic diary, or any of tlie letters by which 
this publication is occupied. From the style, however, of thosp. 
parts which are Mr. Winter's own composition, it is manifes^ 
that his mind was in a degree cultivated, and that he had at--^ 
tained some of that' correctness of thought, though riot all that 
correctness of expression, which are indicative of. a Uter^ 
man : but it no where appears that, , as a scriptur^ . critic, < he 
penetrated beneath the surface of the English translation, or 
that his Greek and Hebrew helped him to enlarge lus con^ 
ceptiohs ; since those views of religion, which presented them* 
selves soon after he quitted the work-shop in Bunhill-Row, 
continued with him to his grave. If Mr. Jay should be in« 
duced to Resent to the public a supplemental volume, we 
hope that he will afford us some specimens of Mr. Winter** 
lectures as a tutor, during bis residence in the vicinity of 
Jtarlborough. Circum. 

Digitized by VjQOQ IC 

hifs Mcmosrs of Winter. SOI 

» (Sftuiiistanees oec^urih? in liis congr^tion at this tomu 
f0 embitter his situation, he consulted, wnat in thii nsffnitm 
is termed, ' the leadings of Providence^ and removed thence to 
-Jake the chsrrge of a congregation at Painswick. From thi« 
place, the letters in which Mr. Winter gives an account of 
himself ar^ datei, ^nd in the last of these he state$ that he 
iras within two months of entering his 58th year. 
" In the* second part, Mr. Jay continues the narrative ;^ reUtinff 
the circumstances of his friend's, sickness and death,, and 
entering at length into distinct views of his character as 4 
jonan of talents, a tutor, a minister, sji author, and a christian; 
Instead of following Mr. Jay through the details of the latter 
end of this good man, who did not reach his 66th year, we 
^"sSi transcribe the delineation which is givfen of him in point 
pf talents ; 

'He was not posscAsed of first-rate natural chdownientt : but k 
if equally certain that \xt claimed a considerable degree of mental 
sQperiority. His apprehension was quick, his judgment was accu- 
rate ; atid his imagination, though not vigorous and bold, was fertile 
and ready, No one cou)d more nicely or instantaneously discrimi- 
patethc defects or excellences of a perfoVmanee ; but bis candour and 
i«'lfdrfidenccg€ueraliy repressed the declaration of his sentiments. 
If genius be used in a limited and rather toodem sense of the word 
|M denoting peculiarity and individuality of theujBfht and expressioQ^ 
Mr. Winter had a considerable claim to it. He always lamented the 
»ant of memory. It might be supposed that a man must be certainly 
conscious whether he iff really deficient in this faculty or habit. Yet 
1 am persuaded the comp'alnt is too general, and helps much to pro- 
duce the effect it bewails. The memory like a friend loves to be 
trusted; and retards confidence. No man will be tatiiified who 
pleasures- hit power of retention by his with<:»; and the memory 
>ihould not he censured because it does not lodge every thing it meets 
with, and which would produce superfluity and confusion. The 
goodness of it very much coi^sjsts in an instiociive property by which 
k throws off what is needless and unsuitable, and applies only what k 
pertinent aiid necessary. And this was the case,. at lea«t in a g^eak 
degree, with Mr. Winter : whether writing or^pea)|ing he never sccm^ 
fd at a b89 for what the occasion required either to confirm or illut* 
irate hii subject. 

^ With regard to his learning* it has already appeared that he was 
destitute of a classical education, and began hu» ministry under.very 
great disadvantages, ^though this could not hs considered as his fault ^y 
he £elt it as his affiiction ; and neyer resembled those who depreciatQ 
vhat they do not possess, and are not willing to acquire. NcVer did 

* His want of requisite learning was certainly not his fault t but 
to engage io an undertaking for which he was ver^ unfit is a trait in 
a character which ought oot to be mcaiioocd with commeadattoA« 

toe J^s Memoirs tf Winter. 

a jRui more value erudition in all itt various brandies, SQd^fori&its 
kgjlUBialf {Mirposes ; never did a maa stnve roore patiently and' labo« 
riously to gain litierature. And his acquisitions considered io cont 
necpon with his circunnstances were eminent. He had more than % 
con^)ttent knowledge of the original languages^ and read the scrip- 
tures in them. He well understood the Latin tongue^ and made 
proficiency in the French. His acquaiiitance with gehcral seiencci 
though not profound » was extensive. He knew no luxury so great 
la a Dook : his reading was constant and diversified.' 

Mr, Jay's description of Mr. Winter's practice as a tutor 
18 more creditable to the temper and disposition than to the 

{'udgment of the deceased. To form young men for the ministry 
>y conversation and reading, without a prescribed course of 
study, syllabus, or a series of lectures, and to engage hi$ 
students, to preach very early, are' precedents which ought not 
to be followed, unless we would encourage ignorance and 
forwardness in candidates for the sacred office. 
* From the third part, containing the miserable fragments of 
ii diary, and some' specimens of Mr. Winter's epistolary style^we 
shall offer no extracts, wishing rather to draw the attention 
of the reader to the general practical remarks with which Mr. 
Jay concludes his memoir. After the life and character 
which he had been delineating, he is justified in calling us 
to reflect on the progress which may be made under the 
greatest disadvantages ; on the impression which may be 
effected by constant and consistent goodness ; and on the 
good which may be done by small resources. On the last of 
these hints, he justly observes that 

• The poor and miserable have seldom been much indebted to the 
rich and great. In general the demands of those in the higher circles 
of life are equal to their supplies : for they have not only the reqai-^ 
sitions of necessity, and convenience, anddecencytosatisfyjbiit those 
of pride, and luxury and folly. An allowed distinction above the 
vulgar will not content them : they must be costly, and vie with 
each other in the splendor of appearance. Atid hence, whatever be 
their income, they have little to spare for benevole/it purposes. Nor 
€xn It be supposed that their- mode of life will allow them to be very 
familiar with scenes of indigence and distress. They will psss by on 
the other side, rather than approach the wounded traveller ; the la- 
psentable' tale of woe must not mingle with their music ; their feelings 
cannot bear to be shocked. " Theys^nd forth their little ones like t 
flock, and their children dance. They take the timbrel and harp, 
and rejoice at the sound of the organ. They spend their days in 
wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave.** 

' But others do good arid communicate without affluence. By 
small eontributionst often repeated, by applications to those who are 
HKMre ready to ^w^t than to do alms ; by the force of example reproaclM: 
ing and stimulating others i by self-denial, by economy, bycomriv* 


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HuttoriV 'Ror£ £cclesiajticd^ Tol. L ^63 

aoce ; bv ntimberless and qamekss personal attentions where nothing of 
a pecuniary nature is conferred ; they are even rich in good works. 
It would be surprizing to those, whose " Strength is to sit stilV oould 
they see what may be done by a single individual zealously disposed^ 
and wisely employed. 1 fear wc do not sufficienlly make this business 
•ur object ; for there is much truth in the remark of Richard Baxter^ 
that our success commonly bears a much more exact proportion to 
our design, our desire, and our hope« than we are apt to imagine. 
Let this thought be enthroned in the mind. Let it influence mint* 
ster8» parents, and individuals who are concerned to serve their gene* 
ration according to the will of God. Let us lay it down as a pria« 
eiple that no good effort is entirely useless. I^et us never be discoa- 
raged, beca ise we do not command an amplitude of means, bat in* 
stead of bewailing what is impossible, let us labour to effect what is 
practicable. Let us never excuse our negligence, by accusing our 
stations — but remember thiit the ways of doinfi^ good are infinitely va- 
rious ; that they ^e foun'd in every period of hfe, in every ration, 
in every condition, in every circuhistance : that the luxury ot doing 
good IS so great, that the Father of mercies has not confined it to a 
few ; all may taste it ; all cannot be liberal, but all oiay be kind ; all 
cannot be generous, but all may be useful.' 

The general composition of this memoir will add to the repu- 
tation of Mr Jay as an author. He has written the whole con 
amorey animated by the inspiring sentiments of esteem and 
gratitude. While Mr. ,, Rowland Hill quaintly^ expresses his 
high opinion of Cornelius Winter, by affirming that " he 
would make the very worst devil of any man on earth," the 
biographer ascribes to him " every virtue under heaven.** • 

Art. XIIL Hor£ Eeckstastica. Practical Essays, iu a SerieS;oF 
Reflections, on Documents of the United Church. By the Rev. 

James H^rriman Hutton. Vol. I. i2mo. pp. 194. 4s. 
loards. Riviogtons. 

/Clergymen are naturally solicitous to defend the Scriptures 
^ against infidels, and to exhibit in the l>est point of view 
the system to which they are attached. When such un- 
dertakings are prose/cuted with fair investigation and a liberal 
temper, they will never offend, though they may not always 
convince the critic. In the Essays before us, Mr. Hutton 
professes not to aim at Proselytism, and therefore he ap- 
pears not in th^ character of a polemic or theological com- 
batant 5 confining his endeavours to a diffusion of the gerxuine 
spirit of the Established Church, throughout the circle and 
society of her friends. For this purpose, obs)Drvation» are 
inade oh the 39 articles, on the Attributes of the Supreme 
feing^ on Reveled Religion, and on the Can^g|fl||^crip- 


tuws of the O. T. When the si^je o£ this volume and the^ 
nature of its contents are jconsidered, we need iK)t add that 
flie author is not prolix : but we cannot protect him from the 
opposite charge of being often more concise dian satisfactory* 
In truth, though we applaud the motive and the spirit in whidt 
these Essays are written, and the mildness w;th which tfie' 
author prosecutes his discussions, we cannot allow that he has 
eminently iucceeded in illustrating those cUfficult points which 
unavoidsu^ty fall in his way. tiis remarks on the three creeds 
are very short j .and his only recommendation of that which is 
ascribed (erroneously) to St. Athanasius is, that it < contains 
an epitome of the doctrine of the four' first councils :* but we 
conceive that the respect in whiqh these councils are held, alt 
the |>resent day, by the members of the Established Churcbi 
is very faint, and that the appeal to Scripture, as the basis of 
faith, is more generally adopted. 

^ On part of the 17th article, Mr. H. makes these liberal 
comments : . 

« God, in harmony with hw ctemal purpose of mnltiplyur^ - 
happipe^t apd good, bath ever chosen Cinttiaat to be hts. ' p^pk of 
inheritance.* We understand by. the expression, persom^ ho^wever 
dispersed^ who, from the faJl of man to the present ihne^ J^ave embraced 
a promise ;— former !y^ of a Messiah who ^wSs to come into the world ^-^ 
sineif concerning the seme Messiah ^ *i0ho absolutely did come. It is to^ 
plain to bof disputed^ that the profession of«uch a truth is, of itself, 
M imperkMis ctX\ to act up to the morals of it. When people do bo^ 
in a ttead)C*.«a'foii$ raaptier> it is v\q hazardous presumpttoti that thejr 
arc * chosen in Christ out of mankind :* Nay, we even say of such» 
that God hath so chosen th^tn before the foundatlbn of the ^osorld ; for 
*t purpose to which time^ and seasons. may well be made subservient 
— 'that they should be holy and without blame before him in love' -^ 
offering to nira their first a u ties, and regarding each other with the 
heart and hand and countenance of affection. This is about as far 
8S w^ can enter into the subject with propriety ; and d we wade but 
f little further we presently get out of our idepth. 

« Cranmer's dpctriBe in another place induces us to adopt l\Ak 
large and liberal sense of the article, without minding a partial and 
particblar designation.. " pod is naturally good ; and willeth all men 
to be saved ; and careth for them ; and provideth all things by which 
they may be sivcd ; except by their own malice they will be evil, «nd 
^ by righteous judgment of God, perish and be lost/' So JLati* 
mer in one of his sermon» •; '' God will have all mea to be saved. He 
tfxceptji Qot Ei^glishnpen here, npr yet expressly nameth them ; and 
yet I am as sure that the realm of England is allowed to bear God^ 
word, as though ckrist had said a thousand times, <' Go, preach tp 
Englishmen,-"! will that Englishmen be saved." 

< I^othing has more the appearance of a narrow and partial ap« 
pomtment, than the case of Esau and Jacob. We may watch the 
ajcncral aspect of it. * |acob have I lof ed^Esaa I have hated ;*-^ 


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tint II, I htm ^trrfdibi onetcfbe ^Aer. But how |ireFcntd htm f 
<^Two mUiint are ia thy womb,' said the onde to Rebecca, * aad: 
the one people ^aU \t stronger than t^e other p«eple«',^ The will of. 
tbegfcat Disposer was, that Messiah should be in the line of Jaoob'a 
descendant 8^ not of Esau's : but the fact is, that the elder, EsaUf. 
never did personally serve the younger, Jacob ; only the Edomites^ 
Esau's, posterity, were subjected to David, the descendaint of Jacob/ 
There was no divine reprobation of the person of Esau. *• No doubt 
Esau was reconciled to his brother, and joined himself to the true 
Church, that'he might be. partaker of the, spiritual promise by grace, 
it is Kkcly that Esau was saved at last.** , 

* <^onteBiplating the Almighty as a moral ||ovtraor» an Muable^ 
being, and • of great counsel;* we are assured that his purpai^ea ori-^ 
gioate in mercy> that they are conducted \u wisdom, and that they 
vespect the improvement, the virtue, the perfection of those to whom 
they apply. Can we then think that a written law, inviting all men 
who me^t with it to court the protection and favour of God by a life 
©f piety, justice, benevolence, and sober habits ; is yet thrown away ' 
ttpon those who are nof fore-ordained to comply with it f The ar- 
ticle gtves no countenance to such a supposition. If any. one will- 
honestly look into his heart, and examine it With the same accuracy 
as he- would an account, for instance, or any other -conceni ; and ir 
the answer be on the side of piety and justice, as before ; then it were 
idk to talk of an old reckoning, nobody knows where or of what 
description, standing in force against him, and reversing a computa- 
tion founded on authority and prescribed by rule.* 

Nothmg is more certain thaa that the Invitationa and Ex- 
hortations of God's word carry in tiiem a dedaration^ ©r 
proof, of the capability of man's- compliance with them $ fof 
it would be a iibel on the Deity to suppose that he shotUd, in sr 
rcTelation fix)m heaven, haye addressed gracious offers to ali 
men, when he knew that only a very few would havef the" 
power or means of complying with them. Questions arisin^p 
from the doctrine of the Foreknowlege of God .m^y puzzla 
W: but so will others, respecting, his Infinity, ' Etermty, &c-» 
The author, however, wisely avoids getting out of iiis depth : 

* We acquiesce, therefore, in this view of the awful subject, namely, 
Thatjust, gertcrousi temperate Theists, ai-e predestinated to futtir€ 
glofy, and that those of an bpposite class are not so predestinatcdi 
Moreover that all personJ^ who are acquainted with religion, have 
their duties, with motives atid rewards, plainly set before them,' in 
A^ ^at they may be complied with. This is all that ts neceseary. 
The subject here has its h'mits* There is an anecdote of ll)ean Swilt^ 
that, in lieu of trying at a hopeless proposition, he wcvid present ' 
his reader with a ««V/p hiatttr^ assuring him that this was the best ac* 
count of the matter that he could alford. One is struck with the hu- 
mour and ingenuity so conspicuous in this excraordioary writer : ^ut 
the tei^ment is of the greatest weight ; an admirable satirk against the 
fciofot who pretends, and the I^gmatist who d*t€idei.* 

W6r VLvmti!sM9rdEc^isiasih^^:Vidi Ir 

' F<fr the*^ pufpofee df ajOatrattag the zyth ^Mftti^^V Mc jfl*: 
refers to the 29th CancMiy which prohibits a parent from bei% 
sponsor for his own chiW : addmg 

« It 18 thus that a distinction is taught between' the Natural wd- 
Sptrituil Births. Baptism is a new^ relationship between the child 
aYid God, a heavenly parent. The earthly parents are not " urged 
to be present." As a pledge for the steadiness of those who unde]r- 
take for the child, it is expected that they have received " the holy 
communion." ' 

Ought things to be 'thus ? Is a christian parent an im- 
pjfdper sponsor in thfe rite of Baptism ? Can amy individuals 
ie so much interested, generally speaking, for the spir!tual 
welfare of a child, or be so instrumental to his spiritual re^ 
generation, as his natural parents ? Yet earthly parents ar^ 
not urged to be present zt tlie Baptism of their own child.— In 
our judgment, this subject, which is of no slight importance, 
requires more consideration than the present writer seems -to 
have employed on ft. ' 

We received some pleasure from the Essay on the Attri^' 
. hutes of the Supreme Beings and fiallowed the author with satis- 
faction through his demonstration of the Self -Existence, 
Unity, Spirituality, Omnipresence, Onnisciehce, Omnipo- 
tence, and BenfeVolence of the Deity. We also applaud the* 
conclusion, in which he condemns the gloomy doctrine of 
Reprobation * : but we were not a little surprized that such a 
deduction of the great principles of religion, by the efforts of 
humain reason, should have been followed by the assertion 
that < Natural Religion is an inadmissible term.' On the 
contrary, we maintain that the. existence of Natural Religion 
is a doctrine of Scripture ; and that, without this. Revelation 
would have nothing on which it could be bottomed in Ae 
htuhan mind. It is a mistake to imagine that by asserting the 
existence of Natural we sink the importance of Revealed 
Religion ; the fact is that, by the capacities of the human 
intellect, by which we perceive the Being' and attributes of 
God in his works, and are enabled to discern between good" 

* After a display of the divine goodness, the author adds, 
« Fardiffei^nt the picture which is soipetimes drawn by Melancholy 
and Superatitidn japd freely may we arraign the. injudicious measures 
of those, who divest, as it were, the Creator of his Goodness, and 
present him chiefly as the proclaimer of Reprobation, and the Au- 
thor of irrespective Decries. Father of heaven I be thy J>oor of 
Mercy ever open to the returning penitent ; and teach' iis to .comb^at 
the gloomy pcrsuaaioB that thou hast excluded any by thy Fore- 
appomtment^ and that, without an eye to their cotulust^ ,thott h^ er- 
daincd misery for thy children !* . ; , 

: and 

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HiftM{lV Horm SccUttadkdi : V<Ji I ^of 

W evU^ HflFcf 4 are prepared for the enlarged teachipgs* ef Rc- 
telr ttoiii and can appreciate the vahie of its ^rioiK disoo- 
veres. Hence we are pleased with those writers who haito 
cortcinphted the subjects of Natural and Revealed Religioi* 
in connection. We expected to find the topic thus tt^ted 
ty Mr. Hutton, and were not prepared for the strange asser- 
tion that < by Nature we are td understand the Revelation 
nuhicb was prior to the time of Moses! If, however, we oo not 
a|pree with him in this matter, we subscribe to his general 
view of Revealed religion : 

. < Upon the whoTe, and taking into one view the great 8ut:ject of 
Ketrealcd Religion^ it would appear that the Supreme Being, con- 
sulting the happiness and the good of his creatures, has, * at sundfy 
limes and in diyers manners,'--4zi/ all in harmony with the great scheme 
iif improvement centring in the toint of Redemption, '^rcvedlei the klloW* 
tedge of his wi&» by a divine stnd supernatural infflux upon the^. 
minds-of some to be communicated by them to the rest. The result 
of this teaching is. That, in the first place, men should &x their 
hearts upon Him who made, who loves, and continually provides for 
them : Next, as an effort of genuine Self-love, and which lead* 
to Social Virtue, that they keep a constant guard ove^ the 'workings . 
df the irregular passions: that they practise also Temperance— and 
fhey will not outlive their enjoyments; Sobriety— and they will 
know that blessing of blesuings, ** A sound Mind in a sound Body:*' 
And lastly. That they acquire hahiti of Justice, Good-faith, In- 
dustry, Beneficence ; cultivating withal that noble, eenerous dispo- 
sition^ which bespeaks Gratitude, Friendship, Patriotism-^ like m 
bvely stream that overflows its banks^ and fertilises the neighbour- 
ing plain.' 

. It is remarked that the meaning of the phrase applied to 
Pavid, a man after God's own heart, does not refer * to him as 
a warrior, but simply as an asserter of the Unity, in oppositioa 
to Polytheism ; and that we have ncr authority to extend the 
sentiment an iota farther :? — but, with submission to Mr. H , 
this description would not then be appropriate to David, be- 
cause the same may be said of all the friends of the Jewish 
Theocracy, the fundamental principle of which was the ab- 
solute unity and suprefnacy of Jenovah. 

The notices on the several books of the O. T., in die last 
essay of this volume, are extremely concise. Occasionally^ the 
author endeavours to obviate difficulties, but not always, we 
think, with success. He observes that 

. * In the book of Judges, chap. iv. we meet with an apparent in- 
itaiice of excessive depravity-^the slaughter of Sisera by the hands of 
|aetl But I would ask, whether we are not borne out in supposing 
^t the rcfcived Sisera with every purpose of innocence and hospiu- 
Jitf^i but that, after he was in her power, an express revelation waa 


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made 10 het9 of whidi before she w» igbofint— tfatt 1110111111 in htm 
eoftody aneflemy of Jehovah andi of mtn, who was lo. b^ oH o9 
tnm the eaith, and that his dealh was c^led for at har hAods j I& 
aa ever d^raUe to vindicate the honour of the sacred writings, 9hd^ 
die morals of our holy religion. If there is nQthing in the passaM 
that warrants this interpretation) there is yet nothing t^bat contradictia 
It : and when commentators on the other Testament pla<^c a journey* 
of St.f^aul into Arabia, between verses ^2 and 25 of Act# ix. ; vwf 
may be less unwilling to admit an biatus between verses td SHird 11 of 
. Judges iv: or between the Lordly Dith and the Wolftmm*4 Hammer, 
in the subsequent chapter.* : 

W^ cannot approve this explanation. Many wicked acts 
are f ecoided in tiie history of the Jews, and Christians are twi 
bound to find an apology for them. 

As Mr. H. has been studious to propagate the instructions, 
consolations, and blessings of the Christian church to whichT - 
be belongs, we hope that his labour^ will bo favourably re* 
ceived, arid that he will- be encouraged to finish his pl^. 


For J U H E, 1809- 

M i D I c A t, Wr. 

Art. 14. Ohervations upon an iruftiite Distase whteh has lately «^- 
curred pi the Town of SherBome^ Dorset, after l^accinai'ton ; in a 
Letter to a Friend. By Richafd Pew, M. D. &c. 8vo. is* 
Liongm^an and Co. iSoB. 
A FTER the process of vaccination had eone through its regulai; 
stages, exposure to virulent variolous mfection produced, in th^ 
ca!lc here stated, an eruptive disease which exhibited the characteri^ 
of very mild small-pox. In^ances of this kind have occasionally' 
happened \ and it is proper that they should not be coocealedt iff 
estimating ine relative advantages of the two Jui>ds of ioocuktipa. 
It appears, however, that this subsequent disease is seldom attended^ 
with inconvenience, and ne'oer with danger ; so that it cannot be re- 
garded as any real diminution of the bene£[ts of vaccinsition, qr as 
affording any valid ground of objection to it. Dr. Pew writes wjtiT 
candor ; and his pamphlet must« we apprehend, have produced the 
desifed eff^fct on the minds of those who were influenced by the cic* 
cturrencc which gave rise^o it» 

Act. 15. The Candid Jfpeat to the British PuhUc of John Sifffai 
Jif. T). Late Physician to the Army Depot, Isle of Wight, cdn*i 
uining his Remonstrance to His Royal Highness, Field MatsBli/ 
the Duke of York, &c. Sec 8vo. 2s. 6d. Dickson. l^o#.> 
This pamphlet relates to a series of events which occurred w D»IV 

BuiFa^ and which tbrmindted ia his being' reduced to liftlf ^,^IJM 


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MoNTHLt CATALOGO^r MiiUal. 2^C^ 

ordered not to be again employed, in consequence of ^'impropec 
conduct.** The story, as related by himself, mu^t impress th^ 
reader with the idea that he has been hardly treated; and yet, having^ 
heard only one side of the question, we sliould not deem ourselves 
justified in coming to a positive decision, '^ome parts of the affair, 
also^are related in rather a confused manner ; and the memorial 
which he. presented to the late Commander in chief, and which 
contains the main circumstances of the case, even though it may b^ 
perfectly correct as to facts, is certainly ill written. 

We were inclined to give Dr. Buffa credit for the rooderatioR 
which he had displayed, and the care with which he had avoided per- 
sonal invective, when we discovered that, although he preserved his 
temper through the body of the pamphlet, he has unfortunately 
given way to his feelings of irritation in an appendix subjoined to 
the second edition, and in which he has lavished some puerile abus^ 
on the members of the Army Medical Board. ' 

Art V 1 6. jittniversary Oration delivered, March 8^ 1 808, hrfort^ 
thf Mtdicai Swietj of London^ on the gencrtl Strtictune and 
Pbysiolo^ of Plants, compared' wfth those of Animals, and thd 
mutual Convertibility of their Organic Elements. Published 
at the unanimous Requeijt'of the Society. By John Mteoa 
Good, F. R. S., &<^ bvo. Longman and Co. iBo3. 
We arc well acquainted with the extent and diversity df Mr. . 
Good's acquirements ; and we regret that the present tract is of 
such a nature that it is likely to diminish his literary reputatioa. 
Notwithstanding that he pleads the excu^ of < request of friers,' 
aad although the whole Me£cal Society of London were unanimoui 
in their approbation, We .are obliged to pronounce the performance 
UQWorChy of publication, since the matter which it contains il 
deformed by a waint of selection and arran^ment, and by a total 
neglect of-^tylc. Yet we can suppose that it may have gratiied the 
society, because it T)osse8Bes the merit of bringing together a con- 
siderable portion of amusing facts and discussion, and it exhibits an 
extensive acquaintanee with the different branches of nat^iral'science. 
We know also that a discourse delivered viva *v9ct^- and to a wdt 
disposed audience, may pass current, and even "be applauded, ;ivheit 
it wiU not bear the eye of the impartial pubHc in a printed form. 

The oti^ect of the author is to entablfsh an analogy between 
plaats and anknak, as to the respective parts of which they are 
composed, and the nature of their functions. He pursues thi^ 
analogy in the mode of their decomposition, and in the manner in 
which they both seem to draw their nutrition from the same kin4 
of matter. 

Art. 17. Important Researches upon the Existence ^ Nature f and Ctm» 
mnmcaiitm of V^nfireal Infection in pregnant JVoin^f meW'lrom 
Infatas^ and Nurses, by the late P. A. O. M^ihoo, chief Fhy9 
dciah to the.Veaereal Hospital du Vaugirofd^ ^. &c. &c. a( 
Paris. These are contrasted with the nert' opinions of the late 
John Httateroipon this subject, together with observations tiiereon, 
by Jeaie Foot, Surgeon. 8vo. 38. 6d, Becket. * i^ ^ 

lUr. JviiB> 1809, p jm^mmiiorM 

a 10 Monthly CATAtocusy Religma. 

M. Mahon is an author whote works are known and e^teeancd-iR 
this country *» and whose opinions we should be inclined to receive 
with attention He enjoyed a puWic appointment, which gave him an 
opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted with the disease 
Oil Which he treats, and he appears not to have neglected the ad- 
vantages of his situation. His Researches^ now before US| are 
divided into three parU ; in the first of which he gives an account 
of the opinions of preceding writers ; sdly, he enumerates the 
•ymptoms which have fallen under his own observation; and 3dly, 
he attempts to remove the objections that have been urged agatns^ 
the existence of this form of venereal infection. With respect to 
the first section, which contains his historical survey of the ^doctrines 
of his predecessors, we have little to remark; except that it displays 
a considerable extent of information, and, like other similar re- 
searches, presents a lamentable picture of the errors and inconsis*- 
tencies into which men of science have been betrayed, by trusting 
to f^lfte hypotheses. The part of M. Mahon's work, which will be 
lead with the most interest in this country, is that in which he 

- endeavours to answer the objections that have been urged against 
the possibility of the venereal infection being communicated to ehil* 
drett, except by the immediate contact of an ulcerated surface. 
Thif latter opinion, although in our estimation controverted by the 
most palpable' facts, yet, in consequence of the support which it 
received from the celebrated John Hunter, obtained at onie pcrTcid 
many respectable followers. We apprehend that the number ef its 
adherents it now much diminished : but it is a doctrine which leads 
to such important practical conclusions, that it cannot be too f i^y 
discussed ; nor its futility, should it be prpved erroneous* be too 
dearly pointed out. M. Mahon has attacked Jt in the fairest 
manner; he bar taken those eases which are brought forwards by Mr. 
Hunter himself ; and, by his remarks on them, he' endeavours to 
shew (it we think, with complete success,) that they lead to con* 
elusions directly the reverse. of those which were originally deduced 
liroro them. 

To M. Mahon's Ueatise,. seme observations in. support of hit 
opinion are added by Mi'. Foot, whose cases are much in point, and 

, whose remarks are generally ludtcious : but we canaot refrain from 
warmly animadverting on the petulant and indecorous language 
which it adopted, .Bot only^ against Mr. Hunter, but against Mr. 
i^bemethy, whose candor aM mil^locss should have especially shield • 
ed him against such an at}a<rlt. 

, H E L I G I O U S. 

Art* 18* Jn Attempt to display thi original Evidences of ChristlanUy 

In their genuine Samfllelfy. By N. .Nisbett, A. M. Rector of 

Tunstall. 8vo. pp. 204. 6s. fioj^rds. White. 

Mr. N. states in the preface that this volume is little more th'^n 

an abridgment of a much larger work, published in i8c2.; and 

Of/which wc gave a particolar account in M. R. Vol. 46. N. S. 

• See M. Review Vol. 38. N. S. p. 307, and 48, p. 465. 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

^. 144. hmwthwm.wA tW ^giQil voliHBe at kiodt «»i M ^ 
tdlliDr dof«,oet annoiinqit the ifltroductios of any new eutur^ ^^x 
duty it confined to tin) uak. of refrrrtng our reader^ io the article 
which wc have formerly written. We must add, howcvcr» that 
many wrtten of late having discovered an unaccountable predllectioa 
for.tbe hiaroglyphict of the -Revelfition, we are happy to 6nd Mr« 
Ntsbett honestly confessing that he does not understand them,, not 
•et any talue. on their noystenons allusions. * Whpever ( he re* 
marks) has read what Professor Mfchaelis and Dr Less have advanc* 
ed upon the subject of the authenticity of this book, will not h€ 
yr^Tj confident that it ought to be ranked among the sacred books.* 
We trust that this opinion will spread among the Clergy, and that 
they will leave it to Fanatics to flounder in •< the Serbohtan bog'' of 
the Apocalypse. 

Art. 19, The mysterious Lemguafe 9/ Si. Paid, In his Description of 
the Man of S:n^ proved from the Gospel History to relate not 
t6 the Church of Rome, but to the Times in which it was 
written. With some Remarks upon Sir H. M Wellwood'a 
Sermons on Mate. xxiv. 14. By N. Nisbett, M. A. Rector of 
Tunstall. 8vo. pp. ?8 zn. ^ d, Rivingtons^ 3tc. 
Between apostacy from the faith and an erroneous faith a very 
' wide difference subsists, and on this ground alone the common ap- 
pCcatbn by Protestants of ** the Man of bin" ( iThess. ii. 3.) to 
the Church of Rome may be resisted ; because this Churdi, how« 
ever corrupt, has never denied the Faith. It is easier, however, to 
defend the Church of Rome from this stigma, than to specify the 
object to which this phrase of the Apostle is pointed. Mr. N. it 
of opinion that the *' apostacy" mentioned by St. Paul is of a civil 
nahwef viz. a revokffom the Roman Government ^ and that the '*Man 
of Sin" designates • the Jenvith Nation/ We allow that the lan- 
guage of the apostle is very mysterious, and we should be happy to 
have found Mr. N. in these paget withdrawing the veil : but his in* 
genious comments do not produce conviction. Supposing the Man 
oi Sin to mean the Jewish Nation^ and " the coming of Christ" 
mentioned 2 Thess. ii, 1 . to import the destruction of Jertttalemi what 
-«re wc to understand by the converts of Thessalonica, a town in 
Macedonia, being *• gathered together untoChrist/* as specified in the 
same versef ? Mr. N. endeavours to account for the mysterious lan- 
' gusge of St. Paul, by supposing thkt the Gospels were not publish- 
ed when' this epistle was written. 

The remarks on the Reverend Baronet were provoked by hit 
having maintained that Matt. xxiv. 14. refers to the day ,of judg- 
ment, as well as to the destruction of Jerusalem ; whereas Mr. N» 
contends that it simply refers to'the latter event, and that Scripture 
has no double meanings. 

Art. 20. Scripture made Easy, in familiar ^n$vrcn to the cateche- 
tical Questions of a late learned Divine. For the Use of Schools. 
By Mrs. Eves, Clifford Place, Herefordshire. Crown 8vo. pp. 200. 
^8. 6d. sewed. Printed at Birmingham. 
As a school. book, intended to lead young persons to an early 

l^QOwUge of the contents of the Scriptures, this little volume may 

Pa have 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

U^e In lier fiitrDdiMsIc^ 4bldgtt«, id WtHA irfie tdU ¥itr fMJpHittM 
Mea«w«ll tlmt, to^ l^ppcrly drtss^d fof Ihfe Msutslon of DeH|ht 
(Mcavfcn>, ^ hcK rbbc must be rigbtcousrHwl, her girdle hoKltes*, her 
6snfdeau discretion, lier gloves 6harity> and bet tril bitlbSity/ 
Why not pr<<etfed to inform her what her Mockii^ft alKl gtfttr* 

Aftr.ti. The Nevf tuhofe Duty 9f Prayer $ containing fifty-sw 
. ' c Family Pray^rs^ suitable for Mornine and Evening for every Day 
' in the Week ; and a Vanety of other Devotions and Thanks^* 
' Civing6> for particular Persons^ Circumstances, and Occauom. 
\ ; j%mo,^ 48. 6d» Boards. Scatcherd and Co. 1 809. . 

Prayer-making is supposed to be a very easy sort of produc- 
tion ; and certainly it is a species of composition on which Re- 
viewers dare not be severe : but we think, with submissibn to the , 
pious gentry of North, and South Britain, that they who write 
prayers for others ought not to conclude that Any drawling prose 
Will pass mu^er with \is, provided that it be iil the sh^pe 6f a 
devotional e^^rcisc. Our pious affections arc not to be excited and . 
kept alive by tame and spiritless forms of prayer. — In point of 
onnodoi^y, the compositions before U3 will not fall to please s T)Ut, 
on the score of language and felicity of expression, they have no 
con^manding charms. Their character is extreme plalnitess. 
" *rhi« Duty" of Prayer is divided into four parts ; the ist incftidinf 
Family Prayers, for every morning and evening throughout the month ; 
Ae 2d, Occasional Prayers ; part 3d, Prayers for the u»e of particular 
periontf, ^in which separate forms occur for a husband^ for a 4l^> 
and for a wiJoivJi and 4thly, Thanksgivings. \ , . 

A hundre4 Specimens of devotion cannot l^e dear at the price ' 
of 4^. 6d4 


Art. «!• J Treatue of the Law rehtive to Contracts and Agren^, 

mentsjuot under $eaL With Casea and Decisions thercoifin the. 

Action of Assumpsit. In Four Parts. By Samuel Comyn, Esq. 

of the Middle Tepople, Barrister at Law. Vols. I. and II. 

£to. jI iu>^ Boards. Butterworth* t^oy. 
. Mr. Comyn states that his object, in undertaking the* present 
work, was ' to produce an useful book of reference, and to super*. , 
sede the necessity of a long and laborious restarch into a vttt 
varietjr of detached reports of cases upon the subject*' The design: 
is. doubtless merit orious^ and we think that it has been success 
fully prosecuted. — The student, who wishes to gain a liberal and, 
comprehensive view of this matter» should accompany the readtn|r 
of these volumes with a perusal of the Digest from Lib. x^iu to 
x> oflPbthTer*! Traite des Obrtgatioru; together with the treatises of* 
Mr. Newland atid Mr. Sugden, which lay down the doctf ines of otor • 
CoUrts^ of ^Equity in relation to the same pofnts. The pertbrmiike 
before us is strictly practical, and aspires to no praise beyotid that 
olF method and correctness. ' It is# h'kc most Englfih u(!ir.W)1ts,, 
"* ^ 7'' ' ■'■''' -lathe*^ 

Bd^y Google 

ntker'a coimiKMiplace iKXik of the htah bl'iakrsiiihiA t<< mWiceg 

than a treatise. M;.t^i ? ' • 

^rt. 33. P^orii of Qatet arvuei aM rulei at fftsf Prm In f!k< 

Courts of lying's Bench and Commoft Plcasf By Johti CatnpJ 

bell, £sq. of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister at La^.'^ vol. f. Partft ti 

and II. 8ro. pp.589. ji|9|^t(tched. Butterworth. 1809. 

This work may be considered a^ a cbittfndatlon of that of Mr. 

Eapm^sfc ; and those whp 49<^HU%^d Um; i|ittpi;;pijrtp»"mf»cc yfjB 

pttnteoance the present, f^ certainJ^ pot infc^ripr ip ^^Vl^^<^ 

interest. These ptscifftili »htw , tjiat the writo? is f t»Uir fV^ 

to bis dDdertafciiig.;.»nd, if' t^ e|»^^y«^ept he hrnnhl^K^, \i ^t 

without lU vtitttty. loctel^) . labours ^f this fprt .^'^f^.JIf^t HTairly 

estimated, if they are oopsifiUced* nfttely i^,^iving.a?9ist^«cemFhe 

practising lawyer ; for ii ppght t^ bf rcfroil^v^ted t^at they b99^ a 

most, salutary influeaeeoil (he admiitistr^ion pf jiKtjccj i(self> -si^ce 

they plfice the Jo^gc not pnlynior* vrix^irvUi vifi^.of ]iisnco* 

temporaries, but under the immediate eye of posteiit^.r-^l^et Mr. 

Campbdl guard, a^atoAt iatniducing trivi4 *€iMks, ^nd <«pp|K tplv 

soch as contain re^l points; let value, rather than 4)u£|l 4i^tu9g^ji4 

Us tolumes; aad he will, we doubt not» e^f;fi^uce as l^^fv^ dfsl^9f 

eiMrousBgement. ::«,:- ,, t 

Art. «4. An Efitome of the Pi-actict on fhe E^tttty fkte9fpe Conri 

0/ Emchequer \ comprehending all the* material Authdritfes tlpon 

Points of Practice, from the Commencement of the Suit to the 

Decree. By the late Samuel Tumter, Solicitor, with very con- 

. SHierablq Additions and ImproTements by 9n . eaipefisoced l^ao4* 

Pyo, pp. 114 5s, Boards. Qark^ and Sons, . 

A similar compilation of the same auyior, respectliig the Cpiir^' of 

Chancery, is, ^e are informed, in coj^siderablc request amqng ep]^ 

Citor^f The ab|ect in this perf^rinanc/: ae^n^s to h^ve been tQ,gi^ 

^tUvm in parvo ; and ^ must be owned that the writer has not iQ 

pi^cej:dG$l* The law^pracitioner will mctt in these pag^s .w,itb 

4ire9tions for proceeding In aQ ordinary cas^s ; and the 'compilers of 

^his closely-printed volume arc iuiitled to praiie for their oiUgence 

^d fidjcJity. ... 

Att. 2q. A Treatise on the La*» of Disttetus. By Jamet 0ra4hff 
of Lincok's Inn^. * 8vo. pp. 324. 78. 6d« Baardh« fi«itter<i 
• worth. ■ . .' w 

In this treatise, «he author confines hk attention to - Dtstrest 1 al 
Common Law ; at the same time tioticing the successive xhi^gea 
whtefaiiave been tntfodneed into it by dilerent 8tatuccB,.jmd pat> 
irfng over sueh Dfbtresses as^ he says, may^ be called atatuiory 
erecaiion. We admit that ' the ' affinity bet ween • these and ■'^ the 
subject of his pages is more in sovnd than in substance^ 3rDt,sliil it- 
^iTDuld iiave been convenient to ;&ui bbth- treaUdi in - «hf #a[ia 
▼olarne, biecause they are hot without point tvfrescmUaacer WjS 
af'e the more led^to express this wislt, since we should have ibe^a 
j^leaaed to have ha^ more* to peruse frotfi so ah^ and luas^noos'a pies 
aa that to which we owe the present production ; wbich^ i^ ttecutcl 
■'im, a jnanner that is not less interesting than instructive. Mr. 

P 3 Bradbf 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Si4 MmitoiT.CATAL06Tni| Fm^ 

BmAt ta1tfs«!liWrd and OMiiprehciiiiTe firw of Im9 lubjc^* aai 
vet bi« treatise it at practical at the merett dradge could wiUi it to 
Ws |t it 1^ lK>ok4 and not' a compilation. 1 he writer aimt at the 
ttyle and manner in which wc could with to tee law»pcrformancet 
wore genially executed. 

.,1, ., /. ACUXCULtURE, '&e. 

nft. t€. Cfihfi Farmer^ 9 Crrateien*, Siemfarsb% Sai^*p and 
-€mAKtep$r^ P^hf Bo0i for ihoS, and for 1809. Cootaining 

' M fenetal Account of Uve and dead Stock; a quarterly Calcndat; 
t Joutnal { Tablet of Weight aad M^^raret ; a Litt of Town 
and Country Bankert and of all Matket^^Townt, with their 
Dittancet from London ; Hkitt and Rulet fbratcertabing the 

' Weather | Litt of Taxet, ftc together with numerous ot^er 

' Aniclet of Information neceatary to be known by every. Farmer, 

* Crasier, and Catde Keeper. To be contiaued asraually. Sro. 

•'^ Crosby and Go. 

\ A glance at the Tarfottt contents of thtt vobmci whidi it printed 

Sd bound conveniently for a pocket companion^ must indicate itt 
ility to^hote persona .whos^ accommodation it consulu. It it 
pot properly a work whkh demandt the notice of reviewer : but 
%y announfii^it wc may oonvcj information to tome of our readers^ 
" which they will thaijk ut. 


F O E T & 7. 

Aft,^ 27. 7%e Mmstre!; or the Progrett of Geniut. In Continue 

ation of the Poem left nnfinithed by Dr. Beattie. Book the 

' Thtrd. 4to. 4t. Boards Longman and Co. 1808; 

'^ We trembled for this adventiitous Muse» who hat dared to at^ 

t^mpt a continuati<m of a work which it rcfdete with the mo,st cxqui* 

dte^emt of true poesy ^; and we entered on the perutal of ihmtJhrd 

bobk, full of apprehension that our disappointment would surpasA 

our pleasure. As, however^ we do not suSer our prepossessionra to 

blind our judgment^ the merit of the author has sustained no injury ; 

and our etaminatron has convinced us that his presumption was not to 

mat aa we were indined to suppose. If he has not actually caught 

Jyr. fieattic't mantle, he hat found a lyre which it much ip that writ^r^a 

fashion .and shews himself capable of sweeping itt stringt in the ttylc of 

true Mittttrelty. Though not equal to the original bard» he follow at 

BO great distance $ and as Dr. fi left his work unfinished, thia fai% 

thcr development .of the Progress of Gknius may be read with ic^tcreat 

by tU those who were charmed by the former stanzas. The author 

^ok^^et for not having pursued the outline of the plan fi^xntly 

aketched tn oat of the I>octor'a letter^ lately published by hie 

bio§n^»her Sir William Forbes; observing that the verses before 

IM were eonspoaed li^g ago, and would not now have been published 

if the fcaolt of his inquiries had not led him to believe that no mater 

lads for thf continoatioa of '* The Mtostrcr' had bcea found among 



. •' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Monthly Catalogue, Poetry. irj 

Tf)e character of Edwin it well tustained % and the stanzas sweH 
with that tide of verse^ fiow with that ease, and abound with that rich* 
ness of imageky» which manifest a soul finely touched and endowed. 
We need only transcribe that part of the present poem which depicts 
the blessings of the Muse : 

' Ohy could I aught of thmt celestial flame 
Acquire, which glow'din SF£NSER's.boly breast, 
How small would be on Fortune's gifts my claim. 
Of Nature's stores and Nature's kwe possest ! 
He whom the Muse has favoured is most blessM; \ 

For him the forest spreads a broader shield ; ' 

The shades of summer give securer rest ; 
The beauteous vales a livelier verdure yield ; 
And purer flows the stream, and fairer smiles the field. 
' He envies not the rich imperial board. 
Or downy couch for pampered Luxury spread , 
The simple feast that viroods and 'fields aflbrd, 
The canopy of trees, the natural bed 
Of moss by murmuring streams perenhial fed. 
In him more genuine heart's content excite : 
The dazzling rays by bnghtcst diamonds shed 
Yidd to the fairer glories of the Night 
That circle round his head in order ioflm'te. 

* Such were thy joys, sweet Bard^ when stretch'd along 
By Mulla's fountain-head thy limbs reclined^ 
Where Tancy> parent of encnao ted song, 

Pour'd the full tide of Poesy, refined . >j 

From stain of earthly dross» upon thy mind* .>r; :> 

Thine was the holy dream when, pure and frecp ^ ' 

Imagination left the world behind 
" In that delightful land of Faerie^' 
Alone to wander, rapt in heavenly minstrelsy. 

* Oh who, so duU of sense, in. heart so lost 
To Nature's charms and every pure delight^ . 
Would rather lie, on the wild billows tost 
Of vain Ambition, with eternal night 
Surrounded, and obscured his mental Mght 
By mists of Avarice^ Passion, and Deceit I 
Not he whose spirit dear, whose genius bright. 
The MoK has ever led, in converse tweet. 

Within the hallowed glades of her divine retreat; ^ 

* Not Edwin'— in whose infant breast, Tween, 
From childish cares and little passions free, 
Tho' long in shades retired^ unmark'd, unseen. 
Had blown the fairest flower of Po^sy. 

That lovely promise of a vigorous ^ee 
Instructed Genius found : each straggling shoot 
He wisely pruned of its wild liberty, ' ' 

Tum'd trie rich streiams of Science round the root, 
And viewed with warm delight the fair and gratefu 

:ji5 Monthly Catalootjb, Poetry. ' 

. Can a doubt be eotcruined tbat the author of ctich stte^u 
will obtam from the public«,to wh«te tMte he makes his appeal* 
any other than such a rcceptioa as will induce hjm t« resuioe hii 

Art. 28. The Batik of Maida^ an Epic Poem, by Lieutenant-Co- 
lonel Richard Scott, of the Honourable East India Company's 
Bengal Establishment. Crown 8vo. pp. if 2. ^ ^s. Boards. 
Sy mends* 1808. - 

Somewhat too large a proportion of this 'epic poem in two books 
on the Battle of Maida is dedicated to the author's campaigns in 
Indian o^ which,, however, he relates some interesting^ military ancc- 
dotes, but in which we ar^ sorry to find that he thinks that )iis own 
services and those of many among his companions in arms have been 
unjustly overlooked* He promises in a short time to publish memoir? 
of a thirty years' mlh'tary life in India, from which we are prepared to 
expect considerable entertainment. As a poet, the Colonel can scarcely 
anticipate very exalted praise ; thpugh it has oft£n been our lot to 
review inferior wotks from those who, far from having his excuse for 
the want of literary excellence, have devoted the whole of a sedentary 
life to its attainment* 

Art. 29 Scripture Verstom^ Hymns ^ €ind ReJUciionsy on sefat PaS' 
sages. By J, Waring. For the Use of young People, irimo. 
y. 6d. Boards, l5arton and Harvey. '" 

This kind of hymn-making, and putting into easy verse certain 
portions of Scripture, though a very subordinate department of 
poetry, deserves some recommendation on account of its utility, in 
tending to impress serious truths on the minds of those who are in- 
capable of relishing the more elegant productions of tlie Muse. 
Watis's hymnft art more adapted to the taste of common readers than 
Gray's EKgy * One great ilse 01 poetry (^ays Mr. Waring in hisin- 
' troduction) is, by measured lines and the recurrence o^ simitar sowtds%. 
to assist the memory : and, on subjects df the utmost moment, who 
will say the' youthful mind can be too much assisted? There arc 
inany who, having tio relish for povtry, eannot judge ef its effects on 
miuas di£Perently disposed : and herein I have the judgment of a 
friend; to whose opinion I pey great deference : ** There may be 
Tery susceptible mindis, who* if they cduid ha«e reli^otis truth 
pleasantly brought to their view, would, I hope, fiod a basis of solid 
rest which they ean nowhere else obtain." ' • 

Mr W *s professed object in'thecc versions is to bring young 
, persons to luve aad starch the sacred* writings f and. when w*c'are told 
that he has been obliged * to rise early aod to lie dowa late in pilfpar- 
tng this little work for the pre&Sy' we cannpt doubt of his hammg been 
instigated by a religious motive.. His stanzas are not ewperior to the 
style of our modern hymns : but compositions oC this liatore^ for 
private use, .need not be nicely weighed ia the scales of Parnassus, 
As a practical volume of hymns and versified tcxts^ Mr. W.'s work 
U not to be despised* 



^Tt. 30. Good' Jdvk'e for the' Husbandman 'in Harvest, and for all 
- tlK>Be who IjfbJour hard in Hot Berths*; as also for others who will 

follow It in warm Weather. By Thomas Beddocs, M. D. i2mo« 
' .7d. R. Phillips. i?oa. 

•Tbii^iB a valuable little tract, and exhibits to great advantage 
the petuMar manner which the deceased and lamented author pot- 
ttiscd^of^s^iiig a Subject in a remarkably <?tvong and clear point 
xsFvieW.' In many pans of England, it is ufiual for the labourers, 
wh^ ai<e citiplcyyed about harvest-work, fo drink most enormous 
qxiantilfea of cyder and malt-bcjoor ; and the practice is often en- 
corirag^d by persons whd ought to be belter informed, on the idea 
that the bodily/streiigfh of the men can only be exerted to its full 
advantage when it is continually recruited by copious potations of 
Stimulating Uiq\iors. The quantity swallowed is almost incredible | 
^dtht consequence of this intemperance is not merely the tempo- 
fl^loss of vigor, but it appears to. lay the foundation for many 
Irremediable diseases, and to bring on premature old age and death. 
By our medical readers, ail these facts will be readily admitted, ai 
being consonant to their daily experience ; it is not therefore to the. 
pro^ssional man that thfs work is principally addressed ; and we 
•focerely hope that it ixiay obtain that general circulation for which it 
js BO welladaptcd in form and price. On one part of ic we must 
icmark particularly, as' contafning useful information on the cfFecca 
of excessive drinjt'rng which arc exemplified in the London coal- 
iieaven. The statement is' conveyed in some answers by Dr. 
Willan, to queries addressed to him on the subject by Dr. Beddoea* 

• They work twelve hours daily, drinking each about a gallon of 
porter. In the pauses of work, or in waiting for waggons* they 
take gin — not less than a dtmen glasses. 

« mars out of work, they proceed as above, but somewhat more 
kisardy. On holidays they are universally drunk from an early 
part of the day. - - 

* They have all the appearances of old age at 45, and moat of 
them die before -jO'— many of ihftOi much cdrilcr. Those who 
remain alive at 50^ find abovcj pine a few years iu workhomtiy aiMl- 
die of ^hc dropsy • • , _ 

< T)i«y aro affected with bilious vomitings^ tumour* and teiMsoB m 
t)ie hepatic region, and ja^mdi^e repeatedly ; many o£ them wttH 
fatal apoplexy at an early period of life, 35 to 40. Sbme wttii 
para}y«is« (palsy*) They are also Liable to pneumonic iniiammJitiony 
an4 even to pl^tbisis (consu^ptioi|.) Without much lesion of th^ 
organs* mao^y of them fall into a temporary state of extreme debU 
lity* which, prevents them from working from three to six w«eka.* 

We must again advert to the cheap form in which this pamjiUet 
is printed ; a circumstance wjiich speaks hijjbly in favour of th^/ 
motives that influenced the author in its publication. We bate 
poied over its small type, closely-printed lines, and rough paper* 
with infinitely more pleasure than we have surveyed the hot-pressed 
and wide*macgint:d volumes, which have begun of late to obthidc 
themselves even into the study of professional meo«~ 


Art. 1 1, ji Distiriarim m ike Mdtrvf JftMs^ intended tp point out 
their extensive lolHiience oq all known LaQgtt9ge|. By the k% 
Rev. Alestnder Pine of Newburgh- Irimo. ,pp. X74. £din* 
hurgh. Ogle ; London, WQHama and Smith. ^ 
It hai rather been taken for granted than proved, that in the He* 
brew language every word or term derived tti source Aron a ncianifest 
attusioo to some quality or attribute of the object to which it was dpr 
plied. In many instasicest names, when first giTeo, majr bt sup* 
posed to have been prompted by some qualities or accicUnts belong- 
mg to the subjects to which they were applied; but it isnot^asy 
&>r us to trace the connection between the articulate sounds, or wjritn 
ten characters, and the ukas meant to be conveyed by them. For 
example, Parkhurst tells us that the term ^3*1» which signifies 
word, is used for the eeietliaijluld or lights and ot course most be ap* 
plied metaphorically to words which announce or briaf to Ifght oUr 
sentiments or conceptions. The difficultyi however, is not removedi 
because the question recurs^ vyhy should three letters. Daletki Beti^ 
nndResbt or DBR, express /f^^, rather than RED or AficI 
Vft must allow that the connection, between certain characters aa4 
sounds, in language, is ia some measure arbitrary, and that this coutt 
nection originally must have been declared before. language could l^va 
become intelligible ; just as in the modem discovery of telegrMji^ 
writing, the meaning of certain. sk^nak must be first spcpficd b^dEor< 
tbejr can convey any meaning at aC When words are once foriiAtdc 
derivatives flow from them in all directions; and bcnce» in aU mNodeiu 
languages, the features of their great progenitors in the East 91^ 
be traced. Parkhurst, in his Hebrew and EngUsh Lexi^Ut hai 
tcated a multitude of English. French, and Italian words* at well as 
Latin and Greek terms, to thf: liebrew. We think that Mr, Pirie 
1^ been greatly indebted to that Lexicographer ; and had his editor 
coinpared the substance of this dissertation with the notices it the 
b&ttom of each arttelc in the Hebrew Lexicon, and priuted oolyibat 
which ^s origtnalt the whole would have been compressed v?it(u& ^ 
few pages. 

Art. 33. Tie Comei ; a Mock-Newspaper. By the Author of All 
the Talents. 8vo. . pp. 86. js. pd. sewed. Stockdale, jun. 
We expected to find this comet blazing v^ith a long tail of wit 
aad frfeasaiitry» but it is rather nebulous than fiery. In all mock 
pfodittctions, the semblance of trnth must be preserved in order to 
keep up the delusion. , fieta, voluffaih cautdf tint proxtma veru* 
T^hiB rule, however, has not been observed in the present instance, 
ladall probability and keeping are outraged, for the purpose of 
overwhelming the talenis with ridicule. In the supposed artkrlcsof 
Nenoif most of the humoiir consists in nick-names and puns s ig^OmmA 

■. « BisTK. ■■ .•'.:^ 

* Yesterday mominfir. o£a Sum and Jir^ Mrs. Horizon JloiiiyiM^^ 

* Of a lingering i, £rcad4ofiom 7r ^ 

celebrated iwindlcr 

Jj^^Kginzed by GoOglc H 

MoirvnT Catalocob, JUkalkmgui. ^ in^ 

Art. s$. -Gltamngt frm Zhmermm** SoBtudts to whicli trt added 
occasional Obttrvations, and an Ode td R«tireaMnt« By Mia* 
Bayfield Crown 8vo. pp. 194. 48. Boar^^ LiadacU. 
By lofitttdtf Ztmmerroan meant rttiremeni^ and it it by ch» relkh 
for recirement that our character may be appreciated. He wll9 
tent courtt tcditary reflection knowa none of the plramffca of an m 
tellectual Beingi ne can neither govern himself, nor be qualified t» 
gorem btheni. Our SaYiour was often alone ; and to withdraw oc^ 
ctttonally from society is as ne<^essary for the cbristtan as it is for tim 
|lh^>topher.— if Mrs Bayfield, by redodng the work of Ziasmcr^ 
man on Solitude to the size of * a pocket em^atmm^* can Mw reasc tkc 
^ibsion of the beautiful sentiments which it contains, and thtts c«l» 
tivate the virtues which grow in retirement and are fostered by sciC» 
cmiverse> she will most charitably have employed her tiara. It aa 
thtly remarked that 

. ^ Solitude enables us to live independent ; there is no misfortune h 
eaanot alleviate^ no sorrow that tt will not soften ; it adds dignity \m 
die ehaj^actety and gives fresk vigour to the powers of the mind ; k 
ei^ges the sphere of attention, and ripena the seeds <rf;jttd|g« 

' Mrs. Bayfield's observations are not noa^eioiia : but they msnifcal 
good sense. Let one note speak for all the rest: 

^ EufmsUi ttnsiMky, however; should be rather corrected thaa ea* 
eouraged ; or it will create that enthusiasm of the asind, whose fis« 
obscures the sober light of reason^ and the steady rays of NoAm Truftiw- 
Matfuske amihUiiff even when extended to the /mt and gooJf bfwm 
excessive refinement of our fteiings, is apt to rendor ut peeVisk and 
dtsgnsted with those persons and circomstancea it may be our lot lo 
mix with, in our intercourse with the world. Aks I alas I there wtm 
tea thousand avenues through which the susceptible and feeling keait 
is daily wounded.* 

By the Ode on Retirenlent, prefixed to these Gleanings, Mrs. & 
proves that she is imbued witk the spirit of her autkor, and possesiM 
the talent of forcibly expressing it : 

* Here, rural objects woo to soft repose. 
Here, starts the tear tha|:'s due to other's woes- 
Here, the full heart with kind emotion bends, 
Here fceis the Lover's claims, and here the Friend's** 
Here, pure Benevolence the soul expands-^ 
Her^, Pity opens wide her liberal hands : 
And mild Religion sorrow-soothing pow'r i 
Beams o'er the fasi and decks the /uhtre hour. 
Lights up her torch skt faith's resplendent rays. 
While Hope triumphant marks the ballow'd blaxe.' . 

It is aukward to apologize to a lady for having long neglected 
her ! but we can assure Mrs B. and others, that we are often forced 
to betray this want of gallantry agakst ottr will. 


3MO ItlaMTHtT Catalogue,. Singb Smtmi. 


Art. 94« "Dilivorl^ ; or» Elevated Generosity. By T. Soutb^wo^* 
TiflM. 3 Vols. 15%. 6d.' sewed. Crosby and Co« 180^.' 

The outliae of this story may be very easily traced. The hero ^ 
it WM attacbcd* fionm hb earliest years, to thelovdy Anne MsuIab^* 
wko nicritfid and returned his piston. Hi& friend, |iainpdenw»» 
e^aUy tmitten tvith the fair Matilda : but V^us, being on thift ec«' 
CMiotn peculiarly in humour for '♦imposing her braaen yoke on ill- 
attCMTtcd -hearts," made Hampden the object ofMatilda'ii indi|{eV<»«ff 
a»d cooteaipt, while Dclworth bcrcarfie the idol of *hf r enthusiaiic ad* 
flMralioB. • Dclworth undertook to plead the cause of his in^sm^ \ ,%^^ 
fbrgejtttng u well the obligations of friendship as the sacredveM of 
1ms own previous engagement, he fell a criminal victim to the cluMrmf 
of Matilda. The little society was now dissolved ; yet, at the period^ 
tbet^ re-iinioni though all these facts were known, and Anne moreover 
tppeared in the character of Hampdeo's wife, an aniicabk arrange^ 
mttt was somehow negoctatcd on the footing of sfa^s quo amieMwm* 
7)ie ri^ts,<of first love are trtunopbantly es^blisbedt Anne gtvea 
licrhand to Dclworth ; and Hampden is contented to submit t«« 
Ooiijuffal connection with the forsaken mistress of his friend. 

It It needless to remark that |Mrobabilities are here sot much ve; 
|[;*r<kd \ and coimdcrablf conftisioh |tnd obscurity prevail in the I'n* 
cndenta, more especiaHy in the etktrc'usement. I'He reBecttona w^ 
moral obaervattoas, alao^bear much too large a proportion to the eveata 
jrelated. Yet we hare occasionally remarked a ^ej^et of force fWid 
feeling vol th^ styl^ which inspires us with the hope of being ^bli* to 
bestowt fK> inconsiderable portion of applause on the w«il digested 
paedifotioitt of the author's aaaturer nund. 


Art* 35. (ktamned by the Death of the Re^. WiHiam Humphry es^ preach- 
>ed at Hamraevsmith, Oct" 9* i8o8> by Robert Winter, and tkf 
Address deli ered at his Interment in Bunhitl-Brkk fitimlGrouad^ 
Oct. 6, 1808, by William Jay. bvb. pp, $4. 2s. Maxwell 
and Co. ' 

After some serious and pious reflections on the character and 
history of Enoch, (text*Oen. v. 24.) the preacher enters 00 a long 
biographical memoir of the deceased, who is represented to have been 
• one of the best men that ever lived.' Funeral sermons arc npt often 
more creditable at once to the orator and to the subject of his elo- 
quence; for though Mf Winter has yielded to the, warmest tmpres* 
sions of friendship in speaking of Mr. Huhiphryes, he has ppt by his 
encomiums, surpassed the character which he wished to hpld up to 
view. The account, however, of Mrl H , in the fir^t^Hne of p. 4J, 
does not harmonize wkh the general st^atcnrvent, a[vd,{| 1% wcq^i^\y,9Xi 
> oversight ; for * prefer earth to heaven,' we sKouJc} rjo dopbi rendf 
prefer heaven to earth. .... 

In :the address at the *gravc,* t^ic'same honourable testimony is 
given of the deceased which occurs in the sermon, introdiKed by 
some, rctns^ks on mortality in general^ and on the death of Christ 


^ Digitized by VZtOOQIC 

MolmaT Ci rxLOCui^ SUfgte Sermns. mi 

ni ptrtictil«r. '^ Ue i,wf% the orator) h UM to Ax we 1m fats fbk 
lowers «ft oitty laid to /ib^. Death itdng him ; bor, as it is fabled 
if the bce^ Idt hit* sting in him: wc mky therefore tafdy defy the 
htrmlesr foe/ We suftpect, however^ that, hj this eiassical anusion 
to Lucrettut's bee, Mr. Jay has beta seduced from orthodoxy. 
Sotelt ^th cartnot be said to hate stutig our Safiour, and to hate 
kft his sting in the wounds when Christ is risen from the dead aA^ 
dieth no more. The distitiction betm^n t\it (fyltt^ of Christ ami 
the sieipmg of his followers is also a puerile conceit : but Mr: Jay {| 
nore excusable on this head than for telling his hearers and reader^ 
that an ap{>eal has been made to the Legislature, * to tttpprett^ thcf 
pnactples professed .by Mr. H. and his Calvinistic brethren.' At 
the grave of a friend, it was out of place to allude to the coiTtroTers]^ 
respecting the Evangelical Preachers ; and, standing on the imme<* 
diate iriew^f eternity, Mr. Jay ought to have been sacredly accinrate. • 

Arti ^6, 7be Church of England ineompUtely rtformtd t preadbed e» 
the Occasion of the General Fast, Feb. i7> 1808. ByOcoi|^ 
Somers Clarke, D.D. Vicar of Great Waltham, Essex. ^^^ 
U,(W. White. . ' 

Art. 57. The Eiyer las ting Fire of the Alhanasian Creed i preached on' 
the Sunday after Ascension-Day,/ 1808. Dedicated to the Rev. 
Francis Stone, M. A. Rector of Cold Norton, and his Frose- 
ctftors. By the Revr George Somers Clarke, D.D. Sto is. 6d. 

These compositions are placed by us in the class to which their title 
assigiis then:i, but their contents are of a descnptton which intitles. 
tbem to more consideration than the generality of sermons demand 
ft-oai us, or from rhe theological reader. Dr. Clarke is very acute 
in his investigations, and bold in his strictures ; though, having 
the fear of the Consistor^al Court before his eyes, he is more guarded 
and cautious than the unfortunate Mr. Stone, to whom one of these 
discourses is dedicated Immediately on naming the text of the first 
sermon, ]tT,'y{\\. ^, /Imend your ways ^ the Doctor adds, . 

* Not $0 mnch to you, my hearers, as to myself and to the clcrgyf 
but more particularly to the compilers of the form of prayer for this 
day, and also to those who are in authority over them, I take the 
liberty of addressing the words of the text ; which appear to me to 
belong in the first instance more to the priests and rulers of the ov 
tion, than to the people at large.' 

By such an exordium we are prepared for a concio ad clerum on 
matters of importance ; and the purity of the sacred text, from 
which the psalms and lessons of the church are taken, is tiie firrt 
object' of inquiry. Having adverted to the disingenuous conduct of 
ErasanusVespecting ijohn, v. 7, Dr.C proceeds in this long sentence: 

* While our religion is thus supported : while the names of Ori- 
gea, Jerome, and* Erasmus suggest more than suspicions of altera^ 
tion and interpolation of the sacred text ; frgm which the short 
prayer of oUr Lord is itself far from, being free : while evidences arc 
contiBually produced as numerous as the MSS. brought to light by 
thc'^iadimry of editors : and, although for nearly a cenua '^~ 

aa^ , MOHTHtsr QATHUKmBp ShmkSirmnr. 

titnahlioM of tht^BiUc hwftkk b«i9 \w^i^mak<if tolidted bf tte 
Imrned of these coiKitriev ; by: KcfimcoU» Lawtb» NcwcoMt* Blay* 
•eft *Bct otb^rfi a|)«tx>chiiil mivinur. n ititl oompdlrd to rc^ 
flittmt and fi?tt ktsoiif in tniu«Utioii«5 which frequently mock fto4 
Oertde bis knowle4gi^ of the original, disgiMt him wHn ihdr ah^ 
'iiii;dity» ipa4«<{iiacy, or impropriety, and coofuac him wkh tbasia 
lorjbia <^rchy from a conaciousne^ of their being unintcWgible to 
^ congr^atioa* and tcarcely ieas so to himselt: while dramatic 
fpd other writers of past times are now renewed by alf^ost countlcu 
•ittoc^ andjnterpretera, and the booh, which it as tnuch more poctie 
duui any of tb^m as the work of God must be lupcrior to that of 
sum, ia ai^£Fered to He in the obacority. and imperfection, in which 
ailonc it could have been given in translation two hundred years ago 
\yf the b«Bt learning that then existtd ; and although there is now 
|io wagt of any sort of lability for the wbtk ; to whom, rather than 
to himselfi . the clergy* and their superiors before mentioned, ^uld 
aparodial minister in the first instance addresa the words of the 
text IB the portion, of scripture appointed for the epistle in this day's 
«r»tce i^ ' / 

A learned and critical examination follows, to prove that 'many 
oftheps^lms ajBcribed to Day {d ace not of his compositfoo : that 
Aftaph is Isaj^h ; that the 5otH psalm refers to the deUvcriLnoe/bf 
Hezekiah and.Jtrusalem from the Assyrian invasion by Senoachciib; 
tttd that, the 9,1 8t> usually supposed to have originated in Dairid's 
penitence after bis complicated act of adultery and myrfe* wa^tpro- 
b^bly a formulary of humth'ation, composed by the plaintive J^k- 
siiah^ during one of the sieges, 01 the captivity by Nebuchadneaecar. 
Though this be a new discovery, it i^ -rendered probable by the 
inclusion of the psalm r since David in his time could not have prayed 
for ** building up the walls of. Jerusalem;'* nor have contemplated 
tl^cm as lying, in ruins* This subject is curious and important ; 'aiod 
t)r. C.'s new rendering of the.wordsj, ususdiy translated rjtghteoutmis 
and salvation^ Sec willbe approved by sound critics. . 

In conclusions Dr. Clarke hints at the incorrectness of the aicrcd 
text, and the defectiveness of fhe public translation ; he calls on the 
cl«rgy * sincerely to enter On the duty of amendment, by contributing 
to remove from the worship of God every impediment, every oils* 
inteipretation and' interpolation of sciipcure, every false- and un- 
intelltgible translation;' promising to proceed in hiscriti<;nl hbotirs, 
and to give to the public his readmcrs and jnterpretatibns of the diffi- 
cult Qt misioterpretfd passages of tbc prophets, particuhirly in thoise 
passages which are ^aj^iointed to be read as the first ksSoot 00 

The discourse on the EverUuttng Fire -0/ the Jthanasittn Cretin 
though not so original as the preceding, displays the same character 
of bold research : but Dr. Clarke has taken care to guard hta 0r* 
thodoxy from cousistorial suspicion by this sin'gtfdar passage, in '% 
note at p. 37 ; 

• The three creeds, particularly the Athanasian, the atitfa«r» 
when a boy, was instructed to learn by heart ; and every part' of 
every one of them he always not only submiswfcly b^lwvcd, bu^ 
- . ^ thoughj 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

diougbt ttiat lie comprrlicadcd t' be Imm d ^ fc f uit' beea oo hypotii- 
dcal subicnber of articlet of faith for, secular porpoaet. For nearif 
thirty years be has read the Athanaiian creed ia church, upon the- 
days appointed $ . and oeTcr omitted it» as the writer of the Confcs* 
ibiMly published about half a century ago, says that inany of the 
dergy hare done. Every particuhir also of every one of them he is 
dtsirous of prdvingt ia the best manner possible, ' by most cerMitii 
warrants of holy scripture ;' but by no uncertain warrants : and on 
that ground the present sermon was composed.' 

It is conceived that the part of the creed which is the subject of 
this sermon .originated iif Is. xxx. %^i and hence the preacher consi- 
ders the import of this passage, and explains the reference to Tophcch 
ia the valley of Hinnom, as well as the meaning of Gehenna m the 
N. T., for the purpose of proving that the strong expressions^ which 
we understand to signify hell and everlasting fire in the 0« and N. '!*•» 
deaote nothing more than temporal punishment everlasting in its 
effects. We transcribe the concUision : 

' From the different parts of scripture, which have been explained^ 
and particularly from the last-mentioned testimonies by St. Paul and . 
St. Peter> kt us conclude, \yith the Athanasian creed ; that * they 
who have done evil tkadl go into everlasting fire,', that is, be 'ever* 
lasu'^y destroyed by fire : or that, in St. Taul's words, they shalP 
. itiffef the punishment of everlasting destruction, as completely as the 
Assyrians were io Topheth annihilated by fire ; or a* the cities of 
Sodom and Gomorrha were reduced to ashes by a vengeance^ that 
wai evei^astiog in its effects ; not fa^y a perpetual' burning; but by 
fire that, should not be quenched, unti> it hath complettSy and for 
ever destroyed all, who at the last day shaU be found to have lived 
add died incorrigibly wicked and impenitent.' 

If this doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked be preferable ta 
^tt of everlasting torments, it is a gloomy accoun; of the final des* 
Ciiy of moral and intellectual creatures. 

^n. 38. ^'Dhcouru iy Thomas Falconer, A. ^t. of Corpus 
^ Chnsti College, preached before the University of Oxford^ 

Koveinber 5 . 1 ^oS- 4to« is. 6d. Ri vingtons* 
. Two circumstances in our hi$tory> both having for their declared 
object the re-establishment of the Catholic Religion, pass in review 
on the present occasion. Against the assertions of Dr. Milner^ the! 
preacher, in the first place, contends for the reality of the Gnn,* 
powder Plot; though, in our judgment, it wears a suspicious aspect. 
On the subject of the Revolutwhf the second object of discussion^ 
Mr. F. freely delivers his opinion ; observing that • by this memor« 
abje transaction the Revolutionist? taught, that from the rights of 
one party flow certain dufties of the other, that the rejz:al state is not 
a species of hereditary pro^rty oi>ly, but also an office which has 
certain relative duties belonging to it, and likewise, that the regal 
authority has its limits, but that {ts limits are identified with those 
duties.' Contemplating the Cathokc Religion- through the medium 
of historyi the preacher feels some alarm at, the proposal of its ri^ 

«4 Co»«B«1»0^%>tHC^I^* 

cHilMMiinHit r1«it*flic difcrwcciof fomwr a^ prcsfnt tWs »nd^ 
eircumstattcet oti^t to be well weighed, beciause k is very essential, 
jh eonsidertiig this subject. 

Art. 59 • Pleached at a Country Church, November 8, 1^07, an 
the |tb verse of the 9^d Psalnst ** Holiness htcomith thine Houses, 
Lord for ever** Adapted to a Country Congregation. 8vo« 
l».j6d. Williams. . . . ^ 

A serious exhortation on the importance of Public Worship* well 

mlted to the, state t)f Religion both in town and country. 

Art. 40. The Hopes of the Righteous in Death, iihstrdted : preached 

In the Pa>ish-church of Horningsham, by the Rev. Francis Skur- 

ray> A.M., Fellow of Lincoln-college, Oxford. 8vo^ is. 

RivingtonS. ' . . - 

Wc have here a serious and appropriate discourse, preached on the 

Sunday after the interment of Mr. Davis ; who had, for a series of 

years, been the confidential agent in the family of the Marquis 6f 

Bath, and to whose death we adverted in p. 18. of onr last 

Number/ ^ 

^ Correspondence- . . .- 

It would be eas^n to comply with the request of a Consieua 
feoiier i but we do hoc undertake to answer all question». When- 
ever the texts which he specifics come in our vray In tht review^ f)f 
theological arttoles, we shall not besitate to offer our explanation ^of 
ifaem. In onr opinton, chcy involve no difBculty. 

We are obliged to "W. *r. FnG., for pdintniff out aii oversight in, 
our lifet number, arising ftom some confusion in the MS. not detected 
m revising the Press. Certainly the words ** and Consort*' siiou& 
not have occurred in page 61% line i4» 15 of the May Review* juid 
our readers are desired to erase them. 

Mr. Bayncs's request shall, if possible^ be fulfifled in *our next 
number. ^ , * 

We applaiid T. J.'s condupt, as well as the vigour of. h» Lei^ t 
but we camiot enter into any private'communications. 

♦.♦ In the A>F£imiz to Vol. 58. which was .published with the - 
Review for May on the 1st. of June, Page 490^ line il. for * coirec*^. 
tioD^' r. comteciion ; and in the Table of Errata for the Volumej for 
P. i«5. r. P. 195. 

In the Review for May> P.. 61^ J. 14 and 15. del^the words *mul 
909uwi.* P. 64. 1. 15. from, biitt. read < not to pursue.' £«,ioo« 
L u iot ' J'ft^mees/ r. Psattmet, and add the wor4 tires. 

■^ ' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

' , THE 

M O N T H L Y R E V I E W, 

For J U L Y, 1809- 

Art, I. Ohservattont on the Hlttorical Worl 0^ the late Rt^ 
"^ Hoho^rdhk Charles James Fost. By the Right Honourable 

George Rose. With a Narrative ef the Events which occurred io' 
' thcEntcrprizc of the Earl of Ar^le in i685, by Sir Patrfck 

Hume. 4to, large Paper* with a Portrait of Sir P. Humct il i$«. 

Small Paper, without the Portrait, ll. 5s. Boards. Cadell and 

Davies. 1809. 

'Tf our ancestors^ who were familiar wJth poKtical ton-- 
-*- troversy as it prevailed a century ago, cotild cast a mo- 
mentary glance on the manner and the terms in Vhich it if 
BOW carried on among usy they would probably be filled with 
«urpri2e.on witnessing its continuance : for they would observe^ 
in the language of our disputants, that all are agreed on the 
great points which then agitated the public mind ; that all 
Englishmeri profess the doctrines of Whiggism, and no maa 
living deifends the principles then announced by the Tory 
.faction J that the Revolution of 1688 is univers^ly and by 
each party termed not only lawful but glorious 5 and that th#t 
Act of Settlement, though its provisions may have been ove»» 
looked in some . inferior |Jarticulars, is regarded, as the very 
foundation of all the blessings that we b^t or enjoys Per^ 
xeiving all this, they would inquire with astonishment what 
|K)8sible differences, at least as to abstract and specu^v« 
positions^ CQul4 still retain the power of dividing opinions 
which to appearance were so completely unitedl. 
. In ^edk^ical contests, a remark has sometimes been made 
.whicfr is not wholly inapplicable to this question. It haf 
been said that eminent protestant divines have occasionally 
advanced arguments in favour of their orthodox Creed, which 
^wooldhave been equally gpod in favbur of popery before the 
Reformation. In other v«:ords, they have required the assent 
of their follavrets to particular .doctrines^ not on account of 
their truths but because they were by law established ;— an 
ai^ument which, if admitted in the time of Henry the Eighth, 
would have effectually prevented them from ever being esta- 
Jblished. By z similar method .of re^soning> of la^^g^jj^ie 
Vol. lix. Q 

1126 Rose*/ Ohservatlons on Mr, FbxV tiiftorieal W'orL 

measure of the Revolution has been defended ; not that the 
people have a ri^ht to change the instituticMis of their govern- 
ment whenever they become Oppressive, but because the 
existing kistitutions. of this country have aS drawn their oriffiii 
ftom the Revolution, and the power of the Whig party nasi 
finally triumphed over its adversaries. Thus, (as Mr. Hume 
observes on the anconsistency of Socrates; who deduced the 
principle of non-resistance from the notion of an original 
compact betwo t n the governors and the governed,) the Whigl' 
gish premises of cashiering' the possessor of the throne in 
t^e yeaiF i68S 4re made subservient to the Tory conclusion 
cjf entire acquiescence^ under any circumstances^ in* the order 
^f things which happens to be established. 
' Hence, while we have all ranged ourselves under one 
pfcJitical denomination, the spirit of party, which is supposed 
eb be natural to Englishmen, has still found full scope for its 
fctfmer activity. One portion of us are Whigs, from approba- 
tion; of Whig principles; the other, becatsse the house of 
Hanovet is actually seated on the tlarone, and can derire t 
tsUi^ title from nothing but the exchision of James and his 
fimily. The Revi)lution applies the surest touchstone for 
{ascertaining to ^which of these discordant opinions an in* 
dividual is attached. This great event is regaitled by the 
i«w/ -Whigs as a natural consequence of misgovernment, and 
«B the proper punishment for laws invaded, and for an open 
violation o^ the social compact ; — that power, which wa» 
originally intrusted by ihe people^ to th.eir ruler for. certain 

. bei^c^idl pui^^oses, being resuaned by them when the trust 
was abused, and the condition broken. The nominal Whigu 
<KJntemplate the R;evolution with different eyes. To them it 
is an insulated and anomalous case, not deducible ' &om but 

. a gtering exception to any rules of public bw, an^ like othet 
txceptionp, te^ixlg to confirm the rula^ by the deviation ; — at 
transaction, not to be justified on principlei though. fiill|r 
sanctioned by steccess. Their sole phea for it i-s the over.* 
tuUng necessity that compelled, at all hazards, the exclu^oa 
t)f a popish prince from the throne of their protestant country* 
'According ta diese reasoners, the only ^^oral to be drawn from 
Ae Revolutiorf is inapplicable to all other circumstances, an4 
the precedent established by it is siich as ought never to be 

It is impossible to deny, though grievous to aeknowltege^ 
4hat the illustrious name of Butke has imparted a daixgerous 
splendor to the latter class of opinions : but the W€fight of hi» 
•authority will be much diminished, when we consider the* 
temper, the times, and the circumstances in which his later 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

ItdseV dtiervaftohi ek Mr. .Fox'/ Hisftrical Wcrii 23^ 

Vorks werd composed \ when we cbntrast them with thte 

^jHrit dat pervaded the prodtictknis of his- better days ; and^ 

abore all, when We attentively weigh the nature of his 

i^ology for an inednsistency so strikingly apparent*; On tlte 

other hand^ a confident appeal may be made to the whole 

conduct and all the public declarations of the mbst distin^ 

guished luminaries or the last and the present reign, — ^the 

great Earl of Chatham, and Charles James Fox; The revok 

of our American colonies gave to both the fairest opportunt^ 

ties for unequivocal professions of their political faith {but 

the immortal champion of liberty in our own times was called 

to ^sert its principles under an in^Bnite variety of trials the 

most disheartening, afflictive, and even perilous. On nb 

single occasion did either of these great men waver in thef^ 

conviction, or hesitate to proclaim it. They made no sacrificed 

to the weakness of temporary alarm, to the attractions of City 

popularity, or to the gainful favour .of a Court. Through 

life, their stedfastness was unshaken^ and one of them had 

resolved to devote the evening of his active day to the task of 

fixing on the minds of his countrymen, and establishing by 

historical evidence, the important constitutional truths with 

which his own mind was impressed. The small part of his 

lustory which he was able to accomplish has not in geiieral 

been justly appreciated ; nor will its full value be discovered 

without frequent consideration and repeated discussions; 

Every attempt, therefore, to bring its excellence to the test is 

^ benefit to the public ; but we own that it was not without 

some eniotions of surprize that we found it assailed by sucH' 

an antagonist as the present. - 

The most important position maintained by Mr. Fox is 
comprehended in his observations on the commencement of 
the reign of James the Second. He thinks that a connection 
with Riance was that monarch'-s first object, and that his 
tnotive to it was the desire of rendering himself an absolute 
sovereign, rather than that of establishing popery, which was 
considered as a mote remote contingency. This supposition 
is made probable by observing that the most zealous ministers 
of Janies^ both in England and Scotland, were prdtestants j 
and the lesson to be drawn from this view of facts is de* 
scribed as fir more instructive, than it would be if the sole 
itJierence Were ** that we must not hare a CathoHc for 
our King/' 

Against this position it will be easily belieVed that all Mr. 
jfiLose'^s ibrces are directed^ He sets oufc With unceremoiiig^y 

* Sec the last page of his *' Rejections on the Fren 
tioti.': ^ ' 

' ^f Diniti/fit 

ia8 Ros^/ Ohsmmiions oh Mf* Fp»V Historical Jf^crt. 

deckring that it is « contrary to the clearest evidence ;* he 
f emurks, with that kind of omcial smartness which is not very 
^gaging even in a parliamentary retort addressed to a living 
adversary, that < the truth of history is not to be sacrificed to 
€u% imtructivi lesson *J but he adds Uiat lessons are instructive 
in proportion to. the. extent of their application^ not accdrdilig 
to the [mpreision which they make ; and that it is far more 
important to warn the generality of the world against religious 
bigotry) by shewing that it was the cause of Jaine^'s deposi- 
tbtt) thah to caution the few individuals, who may happen to 
611 a throne,, against an abuse of regal powen Though his 
calculation of consequences may not perfectly coincide with 
.our own, we are delifi;hted with Mr. Rose's discovery of the 
political mischiefs mat flow from religious bigotry, and 
earnestly hope that all private individuals, members of parlia- 
ment, and others, will profit by his hint. When the just 
claims of the Catholics, are next brought before the House of 
Commons, that injured body may surely reckon on his en- 
lightened support ; and it may be augured with a reasonable 
confidence, resulting from experience, that Mr. Rose and the 
majority of our representatives will not differ in their votes! 

In order to disprove th.e opinion of Mr. Fox, a vast number 
of extracts are taken from, the Appendix to his yrorkj all in- 
tended to shew that, in the early part of James's reign, both 
that Monarch and His Mpst Christian Majesty were intent on^ 
the project of establishing the Catholic religion in England. 
Some of the expressions to this effect are unquestionably 
strong : but they are very far from being uniform ; and an 
obvious distinction is to be obsetved in the use of theoi 
diroughout the correspondehce. * Lewis appears to insist on 
the introductuffi of;p7pery as the condition of paying a -pension 
to James } who, on the? other hand, naturally unwilling tp 
forego his pension, promises very largely, in phrases which 
fall extremely short of the importunate veaemence of his sai>- 
■guine correspondent, to procure every possible indulgence to his 
Catholic subjects. Lewis requires that his own religion should 
become predominant in England 5 while James undertakes to 
.obtain for its professors a legal and unshackled right of openly 
practising its ceremonies. The former asks every tihing, and the 
latter is loth to refuse any thing, but his promises are faint 
and feeble, as if checked by a secret consciousness that the 
enterpdwe was both hppeless and dangerous. Lewis fancies 
that the name of king implks an absolute . power over the 
bodies, souls, and consciences of all his subjects, and he vnshe$ 
the first empbyment of it to be exercised in planting the true 
faith in England: but James has learned that an English king 13 


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'SLoWs' Qtservatioris on Mr. FoxV Hirferical Wtri. 22^ 

subject to many restrictions, and deems it prudent to place his 
authority beyond controul, before he will risk it on so perilous 
an experiment. This dispodtion to hesitate and delay, and 
to decline attempting too much, may be collected from ev^ry 
statement made by James's ministers to the French eovem- . 
ment, and from every report by Barillon of their confidential 
discourses : but, as we cannot pursue the comment through 
any considerable length of text, we shall content ourselves 
with referring to a letter from jforillon, which appears to us 
nearly decisive of the question. It is dated the 19th of 
February, 1685, and is the first document trausmitted to 
Lewis XIV. by his Ambassador, after the death of Charles 
the Second. The new King of £Jngland and the representative 
<if France appear to have been closeted without witnessed, and 
to have exchanged their sentiments with unrestrained freedom. 
James threw himself without resetve into the arms of France, 
and was anxious to enhance his merit with die power to which 
he looked for support, by promising the most extensive com^ 
ji^iance with all that Lewis could desire from him. What, 
then, at this moment, is his language, and how" far do his 
promises reach ? ** Le Roy d* Angleterng'* (says Barillon to his 
master) " a ajoute it cda touUs sortes de protestations de recon-" 
noissance et £ attachemtnt pour Voire Mnjeste : il me dit que sans 
son appui et sa protection il ne powooh rien entreprendre de ce qii^il 
ayoit dans I'espfit en faveur des Catholiques ; qttil savoit a^sez^ 
qi^il ne seroit jamais en surete que la liberte de conscience pour 
eux nefut entierement etahlie en Angleterre ; que ^est i cila d quoi 
il travdillera avec une entiere dppUquation^ des qu'il y verra la 
possibilite," &c. (Appendix to Mr. iPox's work, p. xix ) 
Thus, even at the moment of opening his heart to him whom 
be w^s most interested to conciliate by the largest protesta- 
tions, he engages, to do no more than aim at the establishment 
of liberty of conscience^ and strongly implies his conviction that 
even this would for some time be impossible. Can we have a 
stronger proof that a resolitfioa to establish the Cathojic re- 
ligion had at that time no place in his mind ? — ^That he after- 
ward entertained this extravagant scheme, and took acrive 
steps for carrying it into execution, all the world kn6ws too 
well to require the fact to be now stated again. Mr. Rose, 
however, has done us the favour to relate the pitrticulars much 
at large ; and from them he would have us conclude that James 
intended, from the very outset of his reign, to abolish the 
existing rdigion, and to substitute the Catholic. We might 
perhaps hzwe acquiesced in his inference, before the publica- 
tion of BariUon's letters : but by tKem we are convinced that 
Jamea was tbropghout the passive instrument of the French 

Q3 King J 

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^ingi whose cdmmnds fae darcd not to conte«t> &om the fi^ 
of losing his pension | aad whos^ bigoted seal he sharedi 
though expenence had taught him die danger of iiufailgim it 
in a nation of fteemen and piot^sfants^ We a^pprehend^ t&*» 
that James's subsequent labo«u:s. towards the restoration of 
popery wiU be more naturally, explained by . die impatient 
remon^ances of Lewis, who never ceased to wg« nim tQ 
^ them, than by any -pneviaualy formed resolution of Jameshimself j. 
who is proved, by ^ many circumstances, to have been 
ifQrk^d up slowly and gradually to the violent sta$e of mindji 
i^^hich hurried hiisn to the loss df Im dominions^ 
. In our judgment, the objections to this great position of 
Mxl; Fo$ ^e by these considerations satisfactorily, removed \ 
but various other parts of his work are attacked with equal 
pertinacity; it is said that -he has stated facts withonf au^ 
thority } that he h^ indulged his party-bias at the e^qpence of 
truth $ that he has, overlooked facts which might have been 
estabUshed by documectts the most authentic and accessible \ 
diat he has abused authors, vv^hom he certainly never r^d \ 
t|iat he has omitted to defend Russell and Sidney from ; the 
idiarge of accepting French bribes, which be might easily 
have done ^ and that he has actually gone so far as to stafe^ 
fact on the evidence of Bbhop Burnet, who is intitled to nq 
credit or respect. His head-strong partiality for a republican 
foam of govermnent is ihferred h-om his haying rendered 
justice to the magnani;nity of Cromwell, the destroyer of 
monarchy, while he has spoken widi abhorrence of Monk, 
who restored it j and his solicitude to give colour to rebellion 
is collected Irom his having praised the Earleof Argyle, who 
took up arms against his King, while he refuiies to go out of 
his way to praise the Marquis of Montrose, who resisted the 
usurped power oi the Commonwealth. These various obser«< 
vations afford Mr. Rose numerous occasbns of complimenting 
His present Majesty, and the existing state of the laws ; of . 
referring to former works pf his own, which may have es- 
caped the memory of an ungrateful public ; of treating with 
complacency of his own official situation, and the natural mo- 
tives which it induces for perfect impartiality in historical re- 
searches 5 mixed with frequent profeSsicms of hisown candor,caUf 
tion, patriotism, modesty, delicacy, official accuracy, and many 
other amiable qualities; 

We trust that it is unnecessary to assure our readers of our 
willingness on all occasictos to investigate important ^-troth 5 and 
we will add that, if any colourable charge had been brou^^t 
against the work of Mr. Fox, we should have been peculiarly 
anxious to scrutinisje it with severity, because it would be as 
,14 desirabW 

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RosbV pharvcahhs pH Aft". To xV Historical Work. %% I 

desirable tO deprive real erf or of the high sanction of his nainff 
•as to shield that name from the unjust imputation of suppress 
sing truth, or disseminating, falsehood. On the present oc- 
casion, however, we openly declare that we scarcely know in 
what manner to proceed ; an attentive perusal of "the volume 
hefore us has fully convhiced* us that all the charges against 
Mr. Fox are destitute of foundation : but a detailed examina- 
tion of them would exceed all reasonable limits \ and it is Mr, 
Rose's unhappiness that his proofs and allegations are equally 
tepulaive in their manner, tedious in their particulars, ani 
trifling in their effect. By what beneficial operation^ then^ 
these * Observations' are to render a * service to his country,' he 
has not condcfscehded to eicplain,and we have tiol the ingenuttj 
to discover. • - •: ^ . 

This gentleman's attack on Bishop Burnet is induced by 
that prelate^ assertion, adopted by Mr. Tox, that Moiil^ 
procured the conviction of Argyle, by betraying confidential 
letters addressed to him by that nobiemanl. The fact itself ha§ 
been disputed before, by Dr, Campbelliifr his Lives of lh(| 
Adnnrals, and also in his life of Archibaldr Marquis of Argyte 
m the Biogrsphia Brifannica. Their arguniefttS, ' Some o€ 
which are certainly intltled to consideratiprf, Mr. Rose has 
copied into his Appendix ; and he has added some ofliers 6f 
a negative kind, which we shall transcribe in his own wprds : 

, < Wooifow, ao historian ^alously attached to tbe Presbyterian 
cause, who lived soon after the event, and was remarkably {tidua* 
trious in searching records,- and collecting ^tnecdate^; especially fiOch 
as affected leaders in that party, is entirely silertt on the point. Ttc 
reliance, however, placed by Mr^ li"ox on this anecdote, appeared to 
call for a further ' attentive investigation, in order to ascertain the 
truth or falsehood of it. Without resting, therefore, on the ini' 
dustry which had been applied formerly, 'a diligent seftrch was first 
made amongst tbe records of the- ParKament, the Council, and the 
Justidary in Scotland, to discover whether any trace df the fact al» 
Icged could be met with in the proceedings on the trial of the Marv, 
quis ; but a chasm in those periods rendered that search ineffectual. 
Recourse was next had to a collection of all the publications during 
tbe civil war, and some years after the Restoration, supposed to be 
complete ♦ ; several of them written after the death of the Marquis, 
and some by persons devoted to his memory ; giving accounts of 
what was most interesting respecting him, and of what passed at hia 
tria], and to his latest moftientsi in no one of which is there the 
re^xiote$t a}ltt&loii to papers of any sort having been reed, pfevlofCisly 
ip pas^in^ .sentence oa htm, in aggnuratioD ot4iis offence. 

.' ^o better su c ce s s at t c n d g d a mo st di i ig inl e c a r o h ia-a- coUecti o B 
of the, books and panaphlets, printed in the reigns of King Charles the 

* " n , 

^ * Iir Ukf p^seitsion 'ofthe author/ 

232 RbseV Obs^rvatms &n%fr. ToxV HistoricatW'orh 

Fi» t and Second, pr^tented by His Majesty to th** British Mnseuirf^ 
•in v»:hfc*h there arc fto less than wvrn difftrtnt tracts respectinpr the 
tnai and execution ot the Nlarquit, published in Xioodon and*£din« 
bur^ in 6^1 one intituled the last proctedings a^^io.^ him, '*com» 
tainingr* inter a/fftf a speech of hi% in which he rxptcssly denies btv« 
tog had any epistolary intercourse with CromweiU or any of that sec- 
tarious army *." 

• The inquiry, however, did- not end there Thurloe's State 
Papers having been rcftirtd to in the Biographia Bntannica on the 
tuhject^an exannipaiion was made through that volunninous collection, 
whether ihcre bad been any communication' bet ween the Marquis of 
Argyle and Monk . but nothing of the eorr could be fonnd : on the 
contrary, there is, besides the passages rtrftrrtd to in the Biographia» 
|he heads of a discourse between the exiled King ai«d Don John of 
Austria f • on the state of Scotland in the end of 165'), which afford 
strong prcbumptivt evidence that no confident ia! letters, especially 0/ 
auch b'lfih iaaportance to the writer af those alluded to, were written 
by the Marquis.' — 

' * In Older, however, to leave no source of information untried, re- 
ebursc was had, last ot all, to the newspapers of the time, in which 
particular accounts of the proceedings oil the trial of the Marquis at 
Bdinburgh were given from day to day ; but not a syllable of the 
pretended communication made by Monk is to be found in them It 
IS hardly pos%ibhr to conceive that stronger evidence could be found 
in any case to establish a negative, than is here produced to pro^e the 
falsehood of the Bishop s <;narge We must therefore believe, tha( 
it^r. Pox had fnfoimed himself fully on the subject, he would have 
b^n induced ro forbear the posit ire condemnation of Monk, and th^ 
consecfuent i^evere censure upon him.' 

I^et us ca}mlf incjuire what is the amount of all. thi^ ostenta« 
tion of itidustry. Woodrow lived soon after the event, which. 
was not properly within the scop^ of his church history : biit 
Burnet Uvea at the tinje of tlie event, and coiUd not hav^ bc^n 
dieccived respecting it. TJie records* of Parliament were pror 
perly searched ^^ yet it was not likely that the letters should 
]be found there, for they are expressly have JPbrmcd nq 
part of the evidence, but to have been read in the course of 
the' debate by jLord Midd^ton, after the evidence was closed 
and ?ound msuflScient. — The records of the Council were 
still kss promising j for it does not appear that Argyle was 
once' examined before the Council. It was equally fruitless 
to rummage the papers of the Court of Justiciary for what oc- 
curred in a parliamentary trial -r-^s well might Mr. Rose 
have said ^t IiO^d Melville was never impeached^ because 
^e Court of Swing's Bench renins, no traces of his trial be£cNC<e* 

fc 11 ■ IP II ■■ ■ ■■ II IMWl»i«l II. I ■ II ■■■... . 11 • ,. 

« 'Ihc last PiiXiedings against the Marquis of Argyll^ ^^. 
London, 1 65 1, 4to ** - 

' f TJiurlqc's State Fapersy VtJ, v. p. <04.*^ 


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' RoseV Ohitrvatums on. Mr. ^^V HisMital Work. . 233 

the House of Peers* The absence of these letters 1^ explained 
by Dr. Campbell in his life of Argyle, in a most satisfactory 
way, and Mr.. Rose cites the foUownJg sentence from it : 
*< The. great ministers of those times, and those who were 
deepeit in taking away tb9 Marquis's life,' remowd^ as far as 
they were able, all the mnutes relating t» his process*^ liy then, 
Mr. Rose believed Dr* Campbell, he might have entirely spared 
himself the vaunted labour of this useless search. Nobody 
would thinly of examining the registers of the Court of Justi- 
ciary, for a discovery of the vouchers which Lord Melville 
and Mr. Trotter obliged themselves, by contract, to destroy* 

The omission of tUs fact in the var ous publications of the 
time savours strongly, we think, <of a forcible suppression, by 
the government of Scotland, of the documents of their own scan- 
dalous conduct and the inexcusable baseness of Monk. Let 
it be remembered, too, that the liberty of the press was in 
those days very imperfectly established ; and that the disclosure 
of any thing which the Parliament, or the Council, wished to 
conceal, would have probably been visited with severe anim- 
adversion* Moreover, the letters in question were no part 
of the evidence, nor were they read in aggravation of Argyle's 
offence. All the facts, on which his indictment was to rest, 
had been given in evidence ; they included treasonable acts 
fully sufficient to lead to a conviction, if they proceeded from 
a treasonable intention, and were not to be considered as mera 
evidence of non-resistance to the government de factor which 
he had not power to overthrow. The question therefore related^ 
as the lawyers express it, to the quo animo of the Marquis \ — of 
which it is easy to conceive that his parliamentary judges would 
be satisfied by the Commissioners privately reading these letters, 
though they never formed any part of the public process against 

Argy^e's disavowal of all ^^ epistolary Intercourse with Crom- 
well, cfr any of that sectarious army," appears to pqint at 
something like what is here imputed to ^onk : but it is possible 
that the crafty prisoner might draw rather a Jesuitical distinc- 
tion in his own mind, between Monk's military character as an 
officer in CromweH's army, and his civil csfjxacrty as governor 
of Scotland \ atid it is hard to conceive that in the latter some 
correspondence should not have passed between them. Argyle 
was shcriflF of his own coufity, and must have communicated 
with the ruling powers of the state ; and might not so subtle a 
mind have consulted his own safety^ by professing more attach- 
ment to Cromwell and "his-governnt^nt tlran he. fek, for the 
very "purpose of concealing that disaffection towards them, cf 
Mriiich he was so strongly suspected ? If he did so, such pro- 
i^ " fesslons 

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»34 ^08*'i 0bsfrvatknMnMr.tcft^jJHSa9fUa1$(^erk. 

liessions in his own hand-writing would be tx onqe admittea'as 
^decisive of the quo ammo^ by thoee who wanted only a plausible 
^pretext to justify their predetennined sentence. 

Tharloe'$ State Papers puove nothings on this subject. 

It is hoped that the silence of the news-papere fa^ been sttili- 
xiently explained, by what was said with respect to the silence 
jiiAichis observed by other publications: but it is proper to men-» 
tiott that, m our extract, we have omitted a panegyric on Monk 
by Skinner his chaplain, which we consider as both inapplicable 
and ridiculous. 

Though Mr. Rose has condescended to repeat so much front 
'Ae works of others ift defence of the ^ restorer of roy^ty,* he 
takes no notice of what is said on the other side. He does not 
•canvas the memoirs of Bailhe, nor Cunningham's History of 
jBritain^ who state the same fact in the same manner \ and 
though he mentions that Mr. Laing adopted it from them, he 
would conceal from us that this acute investigator was aware 
pi the doubts of Dr. Campbell, by whom he observes (vol. iv. 
iK)te I.) diat it «* is preposterously questioned." — We really 
cannot suffer our prejudices in favour of royalty, even with the 
assistance of Mr. Rose's industry and Dr* Campbell's ingei> 
puity, to outweigh the testimony of three respectaible witnesses^ 
confirmed by the judgment of the most accurate historical rea- 
«mer now living, and adduced to prove a fact which is highly 
probable in itself. 

We venture to call Burnet a respectable historian, notwith-* 
ftanding the great pains employed by the present author to 
Tilify and degrade him. In the Appendix, No, 6, Mr. Rose 
has adopted the invective poured forth by a Mr. Beyil Higgons, 
in two octavo volumes> against "the mis-statements, ii^accuracies, 
and errors in the Bishop's history ;" has been at the expence of 
reprinting a complimentary dedication oi a book of Burnet ta 
^ Duke of Queensberry, whom in his Hsitory he afterwar4 
iireely censured 5 has himself pointed out three trivial mistakes, 
widen are so easy of correction that they could never have been 
intended to deceive ; and has copied some of the MS. notes 
written in the margin of the Bishop's history by the second 
Earl of Dartmouth, who treats the prelate's reputation for ve-» 
lacity very coarsely indeed. We know not why this Tory Earl 
i^ more deserving of credit than the Whig Bishop : but we are 
sure that one of his reflections on Burnet, for having been " a do-, 
me&tic servant in the Hamilton family," even if that circumstance 
be true, shews no liberality of mind. Another of this nobleman's 
annotations declares that the first inquiry which the Bishofi 
^< made ifito any body's character was, whether he were a Whig 
pr a Tory J if tne latter, hfe made it his business to'rake aH the. 


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S.oseV Oharvaiions $n JBTr.'ltexV HutcfUal Worh 135 

^iteful stories/' &c. •«» perhaps so; — and perhaps the first 
£arl, of Baitmouthj the confidential friend of Charies aad 
James, (the latter of whom, after his abdication, correspboded 
with and distrusted hini|) may have sufiered from the £ishc^'s 
^gence in cplkctiag facts. It is probable that many otW 
poblemen may have been equally interested to abuse this phiiw 
spoken prelate^ and that many mareinal libels of equal Vim* 
}ence might be produced from the libraries of the great : but 
these illustrious characters would be quite as little disposed 
to pardon his veracity as his falsehocki. We must add, how* 
ever, that IfOrd Dartmouth does not appear to have contested 
|he truth of the anecdote concerning Monk's suitender of the 
letters which be had received from Argyle. 

To us, the narrative of Qi^op Burnet afiords strong internal 
evideqce of truth. We cannot believe that he as a religious man, 
writing ii^the style and with the professions employed by hin^ 
and with so much openness and simplicity, could possibly be 
engaged in the fsibrication of wilful and deliberate lies* That 
he was careless, credulous, and partial, may be allowed : but 
tfiat he was guilty of corrupt deception is in our opinion in- 
credible *. The same judicious historian, whom we have be- 
fore cited, in the same note to which we referred for hb opi- 
nion on Monlv's treachery to Argyle, nicely and justly discri- 
minates the merits of Bishop Burnet. Mr. Laing thus ex* 
presses himself : *« Burnet's veracity, at least in Scottish affidrs* 
|S attested tfiroughout by his coincidence with Woodrow*s 
history and original materials \ an immense mass ~of MSS. in 
the Advocate's Library, which I have carefully inspected. 
The coincidence is the more remarkable, as Woodrow, who 
published in 1721, 1722, had never seen Burnet's histo^ry^ 
published, the first volume in 1723, the second in 1734* la 
writing from memory, Burnet neither is, nor pretends to be, 
always correct in dates -y and in his latter days he was ua* 
dpubtedly credulous. But his narrative is neither to be rqect* 
ed because the dates are misplaced, nor are the glowing cha- 
racters of nature to be discarded because they coincide not wiA 
^e prejudices of party writers." This appears to us a very 
adeqila^ anwrer to Messrs. Higgons and Rose.— We beg also 
to call our reader's attention to the unexpected confirmatioa 
which a fact stated by Burnet alone, and questioned by Mr« 

* Lord Dartmouth himself 8ay9» in one of tiis notes, '* He wascx* 
tremely partial, and readHy took every thing for granted that he heavd 
to the prejudice of thoee he did not like ; which made him pass for « 
man of les8 truth tban he really was. I do not tfainjc he designedly 
published any thing he believed tohe fal^e/' 


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23^ RoseV Obierifimo^s Mi". Fox'/ Histonc^l JFtni: ' 

Rose, (p. 156, 157*) has received from lioitl -Lonsdale's in* 
terestirig memoir, lately printed^ . ani reviewed in our .last 
Number. That noblemai^, who w;as a member of partiament 
when the *^ bill for declaring treasons" was brought in, ex- 
pressly mentions the vigorous and efiiectual opposition by which 
it was defeated. , 

The present opportunity will not perhaps be deemed an im- 
proper one, for inserting, from the volume before us, an anec» 
dote respecting the Marquis of Argyle, whose trial has been 
$0 long under our consideration. It relates to the period at 
whidx he was in the highest authority, and bad nearly suc- 
ceeded in establishing Charles the Second on ^e throne- of 
Scotland ; and it rests on the credit of Lord Dartmoiuh*s MS* 
notes in his copy of Burnet's history ; 

'* When the .King canfe to Scotland, the Marquis of Argyle made 
great p/ofeseions' of duty to him ; but said, he would not terVe htm 
as he desired, unless he gave some undeniable proof nf a fixed resolis* 
tion to ^u^port the Prfsbytei'ian party, which he thought would be 
be&t done by marjrying into some fanuly of quality* that was kuowa 
to be entirely attached to that interest ; which would in great meaBure. 
take off the prejudices both kingdoms had to him, upon hi§. mother's 
account, who was extremely odious to all good Protestants:, and 
thought his own daughter would be the properest match for hirn, not 
without some threats if he did not accept the offer ; which the Kin]g 
told ColoneKLegge, who was the only person about htm thrft he 
could ttt^st with the secret *. The Colonel ^id, it -was pkftn the 
Marquis looked upon His Majesty to be absolutely in his pow^r^ or 
he durst, not have made such a proposal ; thert^fore, it would be. ue- 
ccsaary i(y gain time, tiU he could get out of his hands, by tejliog 
him be could come to no conclusion, in an affair, of that nature, "be- 
fore he had acquainted theQu^een lus mother, who Was always known 
to have a. very particular esteem for the Marquis and hia. family, but 
would never forgive such an omission.. But that. was an answer far 
from satisfyinjf the Marquis,. who suspected Colonel I^eggt hid been 
the adviser, and committed him the next day td the castle of Edtii. 
burgh ; where he continued till the King made his escape from St. 
JohnstQuh, upon which he was released 2 the Mai-quis Hnding it qe- 
cessarj to give the King moie satisfaction than he had done befoi:^ 
that time/' 

We are much deceiveil, however, if this fact has not been 
before recorded. 

^ . " - ■ -'■-.. 

- *- * If credit h to be given to Voltaire, the spirit of Charles was- 
so broken two years afterwards, suffering under the severest prhrattons 
iH 1652, as to induce him to propose to Cardinal MaaSSfin to many^ 
ojfie of his nieces, vyhich Was rejected by the CardinaH btH-whoc- three 
yeari afterwards, would have encouraged it^ when difficulties were 
opposed to it by the Queco Dowager.' ., . 

r Mr. 

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RaseV Oburvatisns -m Mr. Fox'/ Historkal IVork, 237 

Mr, Rose enters largely into the circumstancer of compe*. 
tkion between Archibald Marquis of Argyle, and his rival the 
Marquis of Montrose, whom he censures Mr. Fox for declining 
to panegyrize. He allows, indeed, that * the character given of 
him by Clarendon (who cauld not forgive him for having taken 
die first covenant) is certainly more admirable than armable :* 
but did he know that Clarendon charges that great champion 
of royalty with deserting the covenant, purely from hatred to 
Argyle; that he " by underhand and secret insinuations made 
profer of his service to the King," and actually proposed the 
private assassination both of Argyle and Hamilton * ?— Was 
this a fit subject for the panegyric of Fox ? Or is an adherence 
to the King, from whatever motive it originates, to be deemed 
z sufficient covering for the whole multitude of sins ? — ^We 
Jhave no pleasure in bandying about these "Whig and Tory cri- 
minations, a century and a half old ; which are painful and 
disgusting to contemplate, but which are not wholly useless in 
enabling us to form an estimate of hjiman nature. 

As to Mr. Rose's observations in defence of Russell and 
Sidney^ they are rather probable than original : — they amount 
to this :— thiat Barillon was more likely' to have deceived his 
master by stating that he had bribed those patriots, than they 
were to have dishonoured themselves by accepting a bribe^rom 
France. In the money-negotiations between the two courts, 
Barillon is reported to have grown rich ; and it may be con- 
jectured from a letter addressed to him by Lewis XIV. and 
mserted near the end of Mr. Fox's Appendix, that his master 
was not without suspicions of peculation in the ambassador.^ 
It is greatly to be regretted that WjS are deprived of the senti- 
ments of Mr. Fox on this interesting point. Lord Holland 
would have rendered a very acceptable service to the pid>iic, 
by reporting the opinion which his relation ultimately formed 
on the subject, after his return fr6m Paris ;— an opinion which 
he surely must have declared in conversation to his friends. 

Mr. Kose^s exiracts from D' Avaux are entertaining, but 
so^newhat irrelevant. On the Duke of Monmouth's expeditionf 
he generally agrees with the object of his attack, and therefor^ 
says little : but for our own part we strongly dissent from both, 
as to the indulgence which they are willing to allow ,to the mean«t 
ness of Monnioutli's supplications to the King. A paper oc«» 
curs in the Appendix, which contains rather full particulars of 
the Otike*s last moments, but nothing of much novelty or inw 
portance.-— The discussions on Mr. Fox's account of Argyle'i 

■""' ■ — — , " . . — >. 

♦ See Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, Vol. ik p.- 29^, Oi^ 

ford edition. 1707. ^„^M^^, -<f 

^tjft RoseV Ohservations on Mr. Voi^s Historicat U^orL 

attempt, apprehension, and execution, are chiefly remarkabte 
as they display the author's sensitive regard for all persons in 
authority, and all who are in any manner attached to a regular 
and existing government. 

« In examining,' says Mr. Rose, * I hope with candour and 
impartiality, the political tenets of Mr. Fox, I can scarcely be ' 
accused of an ungracious attempt to lessen the reputation of his 
work/ Tet, if Mr. R.'s charges were true, that work would 
be of no value 5 and if the party feelings of its author had ob- 
tained the sway here imputed to them, they would aflFord an in- 
stance of the most childish weakness that ever was united to 
great mental powers. The unfinished state, in which the la- 
bours of Mr. Fox were left at his death, might have furnished 
some apology for considerable errors, if they had been detect- 
ed : but we are clearly of opinion th^jit no impression has been 
made, in any single instance, on the accuracy of Mr. Fox*$ 
Jtarrative, or the justness of his opinions. Mr. Rose, then, acted 
wisely in excusing the imperfections of his own production, by 
allegiiig the shortness of time in which it was composed; 
though, perhaps it was not wise to commence such an enter- 
prize without an opportunity of devoting more time to its com- 
pletion. « In the midst of almost unremitting attention to 
oflicial duties, which take equally from the disembarrassment of 
Ae mind as from the leisure of timey* as he beautifully expresses 
lumself in his preface, p. xxxvi. he certainly may be forgiven 
if he has failed to overthrow the well digested operations of a 
fareat and powerful mind: but whether he was well advised, wheii 
ht attempted any thing, of this, sort, is a question which we 
shall not presume to answer 5 though we flatter ourselves that 
itre may have contributed towards qualifying him to answer it 
for himself. Some allowance is claimed < for the necessity of 
tiiese observations appearing' ("yV ne voispas la necessity*) 'while 
Mr. Fox's work was fresh in the memory of thosfe who have 
tea4 it :* but we cannot admit the occasion for so much expe- 
ditio|i, while we can venture to assure Mr. Rose that such a 
wcitk as that which he has assailed will not be easily forgotten, 
nor seldom re^d. 

When we saw this quarto volume announced for publica« 
tion In the newspapers, it bore this title in the advertisement :— 
•• ji Narrative of Events y isfc. by Sir Patrick Hume, nvith Ob* 
tervotions on, ^c. by the Right Hon. George Rose!* The tide-page 
of the volume itself, regulated no doubt by correct rules of.pre* 
cedency, his reversed this order, and has made the obserVation» 
of die privy counseUor take the lead of the knight's fiaftative, 
%hicll is pbeed in an obscure comer of the book, between tw^ - 
Wods«4 fa|(ts of Observations and a long* Appendix. — ^Mn 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

OunpbQiPj Gertrude ef Wyotntng* $39 

Jtose certainly appears to be possessed of many valustble histo-^ 
Meal documents % among which the papers of the late Earl of 
Marchmont, the descendant of Sir Patrick Humey and the friend 
of Mr. Rose, hold a distinguished situation. It will be re- 
membered that Sir Patrick joined the Earl of Argyle's expedi- 
tion in 1685, of which he wrote a rather full account to hia 
wife ; and Mr. Rose, thinking that this narrative throws some 
new light on that unfortunate transaction, and may serve to 
remove certain imputations which he conceives have been 
cast on the character of Sir Patrick, has very laudably conw 
liHtted it to the public. It demands a more particular exami- 
nation than we can now find space to bestow on it, after having 
paid our respects so much at length to the Right Honourable 
corrector of Mr. Fox's hiistory : we are therefore reluctantly 
Compelled to postpone it to a future article. 

[^To be continued.'] 

Art. II. Gerirude of IVyoming; z Fctinsyh?Lnhn Td\c: And other 
Poems. By Thomas Campbell, Author of '* The Pleasures of 
Hope," 8cc, 4to. pp. 134. il. 58. Boards. Longmaa and 
Co. 1809. 

f^VHE brilliant and early promise of poetical talent which we 
^ joyfully hailed in Mu Campbell's first performance, — the 
manly maturity which his mind has since attained, — his 
pmdent delay in risking a second attempt, which manifested 
his . Scrupulous regard for reputation, while it afforded him 
ample leisure for correction and improvement, — and finally 
the natural operation of " hope deferred," in stimulating im- 
patience, — all combined to inspire a sanguine confidence that , 
this much protracted poem would rival the best productions of 
our most ^stinguished classics. At length the volume "was 
ushered iato the worJd ; and the general expectation, thus 
highly wrought and eagerly excited, has been quenched in 
the universal feeling of total disappointment. 

According to our long observation of the literary decisiohs 
of the public, they have often erred by excessive ii!idulgence^ 
and sometimes by undeserved neglect : but we do not re- . 
member a single unjust sentence of deliberate conckmnttiom 
In the present instance, howevet, a desperate experimept has 
been made, to drown the expression of the prevailing ©pinion in 
a tumult of noisy panegyric. A dictatorial cabal has attempted 
to win the mass of readers by cmnplimenting their sensibility, 
or to threaten them into affected admiration by the Jreai of 
imputed dttUtieM. As our own judgment, however, entirely' 


314© QampbellV Gifrtrude ofjf^ymifrg. 

- , \ 

coincides wth that of the majority > we feel ourselireB bound^ to 
defend it with some particularity, by speakine plainly of the 
preponderating faults, a8. well as of the smaU, the doubtfuli 
and the chequered merits, of the work before us. - This 
examination is due to the public taste, which is in danger of 
being vitiated by the worst sort of cotruption ; and it is not 
less due to the reputation of Mr Campbell, who may perhaps 
hereafter feel that we are intitled to his gratitude for the 
frankness of our proceeding \ since, if he could be unfortu* 
nately persuaded by the co-operation of flattery and self-^love 
that this poem is one of which he might be proud, all chance 
of his future excellence would from that moment vanish << into 
air, into thin air." 

At the same time, it is right to observe that disappoint- 
ment in the general effect of a literary production constantly 
indisposes the mind for the enjoyment of such -parts of it as 
may deservie considerable applause. When x)ur hopes of- 
excellence are baffled, we are not in spirits to search for those 
inferior beauties of poetry, which we should otherwise deem 
worth the pains of inquiry \ — ^when we have vainly looked for 
the picturesque enchantments of " the Fairie Queene," or the 
voluptuous refinement that pervades « the Castle of Indolence," 
we have not patience to hunt after such minuter graces as 
those which raised -Dr. Beattie's <' Minstrel" above the level 
of its contemporary poems. With the domestic part of this 
last-mentioned work, describing the rural habits of Edwin*i 
father, and the happy life which he led with « the blameless 
Phoebe,'' the tale of Gertrude of Wyoming, where it is intel* 
Ugible, may perhaps be fairly paralleled % and we hope to 
persuade that numerous class of readers, who have laid down 
the book with an undiscriminating sentiment of displeasure, 
that It contains some stanzas which are animated by nobtt 
emotion, some which are adorned with much elegance of 
description, and a few specimens of a style which, has been 
laboured with felicity, and might have been rendered uni- 
formly forcible, expressive, and perspicuous. 

Mr. Campbell diescribes ^ lovely . innocence of the seclud- 
ed settlement of A^yoraing, in Pennsylvania, before the fatal 
invasion by tlie Indians in 177^ We shall quote some of his 
first stanzas^, and observe on them as we proceed : 

* On Susquchana's sitje, fair Wyoming, 
, Although the wlld-flowcr on thy ruin'd wall 

And roofiesa homes a sad remembraA^e bring 

Of what fhy gentle people did befall, * 

Yet thviu wcrt once the loveliest land of nil 

That 6CC the, Atlantic wave their mora reOore*. - - - . -* 
'• * ^ Sweet 


fwc^t la^d! may .^ thy Ipst delights recaOj ^ * " i- 

'' "■ ' And>»l Wf Ocrtt-ttde in her bowers of y orf , ''^"^, ^^^ ;7' 
' ^ Wlios^b^uty \i^a«Hhe love orPennsyMtiIay«ht>W! *"'"■• Y^-^'* 

* "yhe reade^ Will immediately perceive ; tliat tliis verse is tiot,. 
cSted for th6l;>eauty' oi its lar.guage. in, a,\pathetic .address to^ 
Wyoming^' Its gebgrapHVoal position shpulcj not have teen the^ 
first' fact stated. « Gentle peop/^ ^;W befall' is somewhat tame^ 
^nd Idw. ^ Set the Atlantic wave their morn restore' seems a 
strange periphrasis for lying to the westward of the Atlantic,] 
The tteedlessties's of the Alexandrine appendage is obvious [^O; 
eirery reader, *^. well -as its ^low length and 'deficjen€;y -QJ^ 

* It wa» beneath thy skies thar^ but to prune ,VA!\«a^'.'«»* 

Hii Aiitumn fruits.^ pr «^in[\ th^ li^h^ «a^o<f,,^ ^^.^^^ a 
Perchance, along thy riveif calm at noon ' , ', ^ ^^1 

The happy shepherd swain had '^o^ght^' '^ '^^^',j 
From room till evenirig^s sweeter pastiipe grep|. i,,, a 
Their tifnhrcl, m the dance of forVstshrowji* , \ *' kx 
When lnvelymaraens prtinkt in ;,^ . .,,^v/ 
Aiid aye, tho'se sunny moun'airiB half vvay Aown i i^,-^ 
Would cdhoiajrelet from some Vbnriantic toW\ii , ' Vt 

' Sonie suiprire was excitdd in»€mr' minds^ -wli^n ''^e dis- 
cpveredj ^ter repealed peruses of this second ^st^nzs^, . thal[ it 
wa&^acJi^:^lly;is^Qeptitiie of 'i^ grammatical constru^tipn : but 
our language^ unassisted by inflected verbs and ql?l)que .casej^ 
in nouns, will not easily, bear such distortion as it l\exe un- 
dergoes ; and it is besides iippQlitic in an author to de't^m our 
attention too long In decyph^riug the sense of such a passage. 
If the happy swain had .a>othing to do /but the worj^ of a 
gardener oi^a^WiaterHian,. why is he called a- shepherd ? Of the 
evening pastime, w]bich- ^r^^W) and was sweetejr tlian "having 
nothing to dt), ktelicacy /."r^A^/z/c^l preyerited a folief rdescrip- 
tion. The terminatidn of the ks*t line httt'<)fte>'' ^iSlf way- 
down,'' his^ « tiotight :tQ do* 'with the meantrtgi '^biit fe^^ great 
use to the rhyme. ."^ ,.: '. / '.Ot,..< !j.jA* 

* Then, where of Indian hip;^ the d^iyrh'ghjt' taji^qi v j, j^ 
His leave, how might yoy the flam! qgp^sye ,, ;^ j'^^ 
Disponing'] ke a ipete9if f^ the l^e«-f-^ /, [^^,^ f,,^ *X. 
And playful squirry^l o^u hi^ nul^grpwfi' treCj: ^y ^' ,^. ^'p 
And ev*ry ^ound of Iffe w^s !^"^\-^f^JBk^»i • f,f.w,/l Vi /\ 
From merry mock-bird's wpg, .of,hyRi.p^;plpO^ oHV/ 
•:Wl?il<j<J\ea5V,innjg;- teariog, fioula^t^^lyiirr^jieljy, j' ^,'-j^^ 
7 he, wild de<r arch'd his neck from gfades, and tnen 
§'• * UfiBun^cd ; Mfcii^Tit hii vv^diaWi^mdm^Si^ner'y ^^ 

**~W^«icmld-be_somewhat puzzled to ascerlain what jire the 

periods fixed by the word tt^n in the first liiie^|^LJn' the 
^ Ret. JuLTj-^teop.i xn:^i.-.vVjfc:; u. L.qiV-.jrafflgMLlast 

i4t CuA^fhflSs G 

htk btst one. Parhaps not aiity : liut thia may be detmed sn 
easy and fam&a^ wsgr of continuing the <Ie$criptbn..: If 80» 
^p^ will take this occasion to xemark the inconristency of 
psitchihg these every^-day idioms— «a»fffi&/ to d^— daylight taka 
tu /if^iv«>-*^we should have preferred, tnahf Bis i»ii;)— the in- 
utile exclamation, how might you thejlamtngo see — over hills 
0n4for mvjay^'^ix,^.^ on a groundwork ofstyle wbichsabruptnesa 
tnd inversion, the- omission of articles, and die precedency of 
terbs to* nouns and of substantives to adlectives, conspire to 
intrest with the character of extreme peltry. Arching a 
mekjhm a glade is a curious phrase i and the music of our 
himiage is not improved by the newly created participle, 

• And scaree had Wyomm|r of war or crime 
Heard but in transatlantic story .ryn^, 
For here the exile met from ev'ry climei 
And S]^ke in friendship ev'ry disunt tongue : 
Men from the bipod of warring Europe sprung, 
Were but divided by the running brook ; 
And happy where no Rhenish trumpet sung. 
On plains no sieging mine's volcano shook. 
The Uvic*ey'd Germail changed his sword to pruniag^hook.* 

Here ^ obscurity is at lengdi broken by a gleam of sense 
and ppetry. Ezoepdng the last three lines and the first two, 
fttti <tan;i;a is good : . 

^ Nor far some Andalusian saraband 
Weuld sound to anany a native rondelay* 
Bat who is he that yet a dearer bnd 
Remenibers, over hills and far away f 
Grees Albyn I * what though he no m9re surety 
Thy shros at anchor on the quiet shore. 
Thy pcllochs rottipg from the mountain bay ; 
Thy loae sepulchral cairn upon the moor, 
j/inA distant ides that hear the loud Colbrechtan f roar I 

*fAl«ll poor Caledonia's mountaineer, 
That waist's stem edict e'er, and feudal gnef. 
Had fdix-ol him from a home he lovtd so dear I 
Yet found he here a home, and glad relief. 
And plied the beverage from his own fair sheaf, 
TWiat fir'd his Highland blood iivith mickSfr glee j 
And England seni hfer men, of men the dii«. 
Who taught those sires of Empire yet to be, 
Tp plant the tree of life j to plant fair freedom's tree V 

We ca»r no kmger pursue the irk*9^ toil of expa^tiM 
ea die defecu of a style which is obviously at once arimcial 

« * Soathmd^*' ^ Jl ... 

' + Theffc«t whii^?oolt>f tl*WcstaiiIJfebp3^ ._ 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

CainpbelP/ Gtttrudt cfJFjcming. 343 

and uttcouth, Tulgar and elaborate : but W! wJU feqti^ Hh 
intelligent r^er once more to cast his eye oyer die stanzas 
above quoted } and must take the liberty of asking ^whether he 
could nate doubted, if we had quoted such poetry .with 
applause^ that we were laughing in out sleeve Dodi at him 
smd Mr. Campbell ? 

The patriarchal govermtt jo^ ludge of this bmWM9 hamlet 
was Albert, an Englishman, vmose * foutual htarf ^fate hii 
rAi (n e. he was a widower,) but to whom his only child 
Gertrude was spared. The description of this amiable sage 
is radier interesting : but- we are sorry that it is not in our 
power to make it comprehensible without transcribing the 
whole verse, of which the first five lines ate in the same strain 
of affectation as the greater part of those which we have 
above cited : 

* How rcv'rend was the look, serenely aged» 
He bore, this ceotle Pensylvaniao «tre, 
Where all but kindly fervors were assuaged,. 
UiidJmm'd by weakness' shade, or turbid ire ) 
And though amidst the calni of thonght entire^ 
Some high and haughty featutcs inight betray 
' A soul Impetuous once, 'twas earth^^ fire 
That fled composure's intellectual niy, 
As JEtfia's fires grow dim befcM'e the riatpgdsy*^ •• ' 

The concluding, simile has much beauty, and is» we b<!lteve» 
new. It is, however, deficient in propriety, heeaise the feiet 
of iEtna are obscured, but not extingufshed^ bt the fight iA 
day I and while the blazing sun prevents diem from spreadiiitf 
an alarm, dvsy are effecting unseen the work of horror and 
devastation. They might have been compared wiSi oiore 
. correctness- to hypocrisy dhan to s^lf-subjugation. 
' Some beautifid lines occul^ in describing the early' Y'Wt, 
of Gertrude : * 

^ How like a new existence to his heart 
Uprose that living flow'r beneath bis *eyc/ 

< I may out palt^t those thousand infant chartef 

niocoA^cious fascination « undesign'd 1 ) 

The orijBon ta>cate^ in his arms. 

For God to bie^rj{^^ sire and all jonankind ; 

The book, the l>osom on bi^ kn.eerechVd, . 

Or faoiiif SMire^t iairy-Iore he heard her con, 

(The playtniate ere the teacher of her mind) | 

ASifticompanlofiM t^sd.her years had g6ne 
y&SL'ty^ti so Gerthide's eyes thdir ninth Uue 

■[ ISm is a.le^y i^ure of the endearing inti 
;'\twtej:^ a father and aai inifant daughter ; but "'' 

V^ ■ . .,' ... ./: 'R a . . ' 

tlite, the nfic ckti o!^ pf , i^ea^ by ,w6ii^h,the, Ibardjs le4 to begiy 

li}^^ «JiQni?;ii^'<3#rtru4efA,expa^ Ji^ ^, repiin4?d that; U wa$ 

, " ' ' * -J ' 

• Andmmmer wai the ft'dfc, and sweet the hoot*, / ' ^ ** 

iXI^^ jl,.;^ yeJ7f,f9rg?4.i^P^^^j^<^^'*%^ ?^^ W^?"^ s,o than % 
dC<>mp2insb^.pC af ' ^v'J^i^ pqy: Jpd'by.^, ^jirar^y Indign^to < ^ornin^ 
•,6w)Ught.bjr.</f^^/4.aa iwg§ whicb^p^Y^F CPV^ be drawn from 

,,;.!0i9PM^ect,wJ^cKtEie.wTew^ $aw was^ 

Ji;9dia9.#hjff,;jC^ the P^qyda mbe^^ boy^ the 

omy surviving child of Waldegrave ahd his Julia, with whom 
Albert had mriperly ,been united in the closest bondV of 
friendship. TWi W/s fafhfer ^Utliiti \h a treachfeffotis attack 
by the Hurons, pd his mother app wi/tb hav^ died pi grief, 
but not till sI^^Hadl directed old Outalissi to confide hef orphan 
to the hands jof Albert. . H^re avnet ,^4 e^traordinajry chasm 
occurs in the^^toty,, which leaps from tjb^is.pexiod to the return 
frond Eorope of m Albert's protege, this Henry Waldegrave; 
whose departure from' Wyoming had not been aiUiounced 
before* it W' steely requisite to 'add that, after h& return, 
^^ f*>«Wl6 ,W9J^ |T^^? iwt^PtJy jp[ianrie4, Th^i;i? 4i?ppi|ie6s, 
f^idiex€^«4s allxlescriptiontf wa9 fatajly^destrpjiedhy the, m- 
irFaftteif t^jAe Mohawks under Brandt, wM .^QQipell^z^e Jg- 
f.hai^tai^ts 'to/fly from.tbeir h^lpY^d^yetre^J .^a pla^e p.t^tr^ ^g^h 
f,a»d..:aafety,:> but^a ps^rty i?f .riflienieii )>^spt .tl^^.q^vdl^r 
i.joumey,^nd Albert ^ J^is d^ugh|^]; wpr^fiaid J[q)y fey,ilje 
^ame bullet. ,."\^hatjrfter5^^d;,b^opi|PS of .WfaJ4egr^yp,^qr^ff 
i/Qji^aJ^,,WC:Jcr^W.WlU;Jbtt< a.i$prr^,o44?.^ti^sp9g.of d|f;;^'tter 
finis-ics the po«n*— Our readers wilf perceive, nj^t^Jpgrpejgji- 
liarly well imagined in the events, and nothing very ineehious in 
the constructioi^ of tfiij^' $t6ry \ ' Which^c^^Myi ms^kr^ fur- 
nishes ample scope For the^ ^xercUS cm the softer embtions. If 
Mr. Campb<ffl'ms'eftiin^rtdy succeeded m awafceni^ them, 
this would be betiei* Evinced; by > t^ferfence to AV ^affecting 
passages of has rpo^ni, than ' by any , detailed , comVn^taxy on 
their beauties tibut^ in aiming at a i^Vection^ we. honestly and 
sorrowfully declare that . we h^ye conside^ble dil^culty in 
chusing a stgtfim, or eyen « se^ which ^ ^ense and 
feeling are not overpowered by. Job8ciarity,of.«xpimion, or 
'tMittfadied by' painfiit afF^ctfatiofr* ^ l!lie cfaarac^^ of: Outal^ 
. ^pg^^ to us the mt)st sucpessfuKas it iSjthe.most l^iiofired 
^p©rtidnoi the poem; ancf thecomrait'lfeiW4«K4iSidtt^^ 
•ouiwt I ;.,; iciisiixve 

'. , - Digitized by CjOOQIC* 

sensitive Eurojvean is ks finely iiiAtfed iA'tlfe ^tfef ifef^, Ji« that 
which is caused by his ardw^f revenge an3 the Cbri$!teah s f C|\»^ 
minity iu the list. Albert gives way tO t?ie inix.ed ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
afection and rcCTct, Vhen the son '6( liis 'fiiends it Jui^^ 
presented to his care i , . . ^ 

* He 8aid«-^and strained unto his neart the boy : 
r , FardtfFferent}y^^f4iHiteKDncy^td©kr •? - ^v hr^ i^ 

His calumet of peace, and cup of jpy*^} ^ - L^tiW^^isn 4*11 
' As nionumental bfQRze unchanged his Wk ^^^ ^^ , 
A soul that pity touch '<i, but iiev<rr shooTc : * ^ 
; Tratafd, (rom hk tvte-roek^A cr.tdkf- to liiiiiidt^* ^ i /*i^^ 
; T^c fierce extremes of gt)od Slid iU to brof^k/ ...; , ' •} yttU 
j^, . Impa^sivef— frariqg but t^e thamf! of/ea»rr . . , h-^ 'ii) 
, A Stoic of the wooda»-<i itiao w>L^ofi|t^^^te|if .*rr ... ,♦ t ^ . . J » 
/ * Yet <Jcem not gfoodnas «n the iavagjK Jltck • v, # -. 'I 

. ^ Of Outajissi'p heart di^dain'd to groj/ir j , ; ^ - . . .i 

As h'ves the oak unwitherM on the rock . t ,: .-, , , t.^ 
B. St ormi^ above, and barrenness l^elow : * ^. r , , . • •, . ^^ 
He scorn*d his own, who felt another*^ v^oe* ^ ^ , / 

'AmM ere the wblf-»kih on hfs bmck h^ Sung, ' , ' ^ 
Or laced hi's mocasrni,' iii act to go, 
A 8o#ig, of 'patting to the boy h««u^g, f . . . * 

Y/ho slept on Albert's couch, nor hcnrd his friendly t^ngu£. 

>* Sleep, weari'ed one ? and in the drciming land ' ^], 

Shouldst ihoti the spirit of thy mother greets ^ 

Oh I Kav^ to-motrow, that thjc white man*8 hartd- 
Hath pSackM the thorns* of sorrovi^ froirt thy feet ; ^f 
While I in lorfely wfldcrness shall meet ' 


Thy little foot prints — pr by t faces kn<^ 
^ 'Fh'c fovntain, where at noon I thought it iwter ' '' 
To feed thee wi^h the.q^uarry of mjj bo»«^^ f. ^ ,< f * 
And pour'4 the loCm-boro $« or slewxhe <90jaatftift co& 

^ Adif«^ sweet seion of thfe rising sunft* " * " ' /! 

But shijuld ai^iction's stortns thy blOfssam motk, ^ 
Then camfiagain^-my 6^p adopted one 1 ' ' 

And I will graft thee on' a irohte stocks . - v 4 - ' *\ 
The jcrocodik, tije condor of the rock-*^ ' , ' * 

Sh\iU be the pftstime of thy sylvan wars j ' »i -' - ' 
r.' c t, A'n«l:^'wiU ttachtbee, in the battle's shotk,' '' • ^'- ' 

' * ^(kU^JhPfj^^ ^(f^fi' The .c*lumct is th« IndtininAiiie forlthe.or- 
namented pipe of friendship'* which they smoke asa*p1eAge of^ity.* 

' f TreerrocVd ffodlfe.T-The Indian mothers SiMpe^Kl the^^hii^ren 
In their cradles fr«^^. boiQgbs. of trees, asdltt itfaem jM'rodkhl by 
the wind.* ' ,«::.:, ,,.'.., ^, „ ,.*..; ^ r* . .i /y 

< X From a flowei^4b9^sMlike>4horn»;which^hsltciabfi«fit prv* 
SQmes to be of the lotus kiad» the Indians x%^t\mt timveli^ thrbfigh the 
dcttrt^|(3^%jJ;pi^pigk^-0< dw^jfrirr^iaaiiof ^tkjr 


944 Cmif^SiixXs<jiifk:uJkrfW 

To My with Hiin»i Wood thy feitfcer*g tears. 
And gratulati* his »oul rejoicing m the stars !*'— 
Perliaps it did not become Mr. ۥ to anticipate the ptaise 
Hfhich we should not have withhoWen, by observing of his own 
»bngj that It * 

• True to nature*^ fervid feelings ran j' 

Sior can we perfectly discover the metaphysical acciuacy of 
the subjoined definitfon I—- 

• For' song is but the eloquence 6t truth* 

Fvom the soft of a northern. unnrerdtyt language of this sort 
n^ay justly be called impostf^.^-^hie fearlessness of Outalissi, 
(If on this occasttm f&i^ also may be permitted to 'coin an 
affected Mrord) is well portrayed, but occupies to6 large a 
proportion of the work. It is in fact in the nature of an 
underplot ; and the tears of the savage hero, extorted by the 
offerings of his friends, are made aai important as the rills 
which burst from Horeb to revive the fainting Israelites. — ^The 
description of the advancing; war and of the prepared resist- 
tnce is full of bold and nobk imagery : 

• Searte had he utterM,— .when Heav V« verge extreme 
Reverberates the bomb's descending star, — 

And aounds that mingled laugh, --and shouty-^and scream» 

To freeze the blood» io oae discordant jar. 

Rung to the pealing thunderbolts of war. 

Whoop aftjer whoop with rack the ^ar assail'di 

As tf unearthly .fiends had burst their bar ; 

While rapidly the marksman's shot prevailM ;— . 

Andaye» as if for deatht some lonely trumpet wail^d^^^^ 

< Then looked they to the hitls« where fire overhung 
The bandit groupes,. in one Vesuvian glare ; 
Or swept, far seen, thetow'r, whose Gk>ck unrung^ 
Told legible that midnight of despair. 
She fainta« — she falters not, — th* heroic fair,-^ 
As he the sword and plume in haste array *d. 
One short embrace-^he clasp'd his dearest care — 
But hark ! what nearer war-drum shakes the glade f 
Joy I joy ! Columbia's friends are tram{4ing througkttiV shadef 

^ Then came of every rate the «ngled ti|arm« 

Far rung the groves, and gleam*d the midnight gttss 

With fian^heau,, javelin, atid naked arm ; 
- Af^ warriors wheclM their culverihs of brass, 

Sprung froin the woods, a bold athletic maii> 

Whom virtue fires, and liberty combinea : 

And first the wild Mopavtan yamrs f>a8S ; 

His plumed host the dark Ibenan jotn^-^ 

And Scotia^ timrd bcuc^ili the HigMmiiMstk-iiiinct. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

* Abd in — the butkioM hunters of the deer^ 

To ^ben't home, with tbout aad cfmbal thipc^ :-« 

*RouiM by theJr warlike pomp» tad mirth^ and cEonv 

Old Outah'ssi woke hia battle aoAg» , 

Andy beating with his war-club cadence ttrongi 

Tells how his deep-stuns indignation tmartSy 

Of them that wrapt his house in flames, ere bag. 

To whet a dagger on their stony hearts, 

And smile aveng'd ere yet his eagle spirit parts. *« * 

* Calm, opposite the Christian father rose, 
pale on its venerable brow its rays 

Of martyr light the conflagration throws ; 
One hand upop his lovely child he lays, 
, And one th' uncovered croud to silence sways \ 

^ While, though the battle flash is faster driv'n,— 
Unaw'd, with eye unstartled by the blaze. 
He for his bleeding country prays Co Hcav*n,— . 
Prays that the men of blood themselves may be forgiven.** 

The funend of Albert and his daughttr it sfcctdied widr 
rapidity and spirit : 

' For now, to mourn their judge and child, arrives 
A faithful band. With solemn rites between^ 
*Twas sung, how they were lovely in their lives. 
And' in their deaths had not divided been. 
Touch'd by the music, and the melting scene. 
Was scarce one tearless ey^ amidst the crowd :— 
Stem warriors, resting on their swords, were seen 
To veil their eyes, as pass'd each much4ovM shroud-# . 
While woman's softer soul in woe dissolved aloud. 

< Then moumfally the parting bugle hid 
Its farewell o'er the grave of worth and truth % 
Prone to the dust, afflicted Walde^rave hid 
His face on earth ; — him watch'd m gloomy ruth. 
His woodland guide { but words had none tf sooth 
The grief that know not consolation's name :, 
Casting his Indian mantle o'er the vouth. 
He watch'd,' beneath its folds, each burst that came 
Convulsive, ague^Hkc, across his shuddering frame!' 

. The <.wild descant' that ensues appears to us a sober ;uid 
4^en a tame calculation. It has evidently been wrought with 
csre, but is neither ardent nor tender. — ^The picture of the 
we^ed loves of Henry and his Gertrude we have ^ntireljr 
iwiitted, as by no means creditable to the author'^ powers of 
composition : — ^but, as our opinion here, is perhaps singular, it 
Will be lair to extract the4tan9as which finish this descriptioo; 
* At «u»m, as if beftcath a galaxy 
Of OTcr-archiar JETota in blnstnms Mute^ 


4|§ aSHgJiS'>30iW^>^^ 

Where til wA cffl^ui scent and harmony, ' ' / '- • V 
Aiiil^HekVtfBc^feart, nerve, ear, and sJglit: " ^. 
Th^ Wi^WigttXie \^t i 1 read anght, \ 
The utterance that'geaW lliyWrtd bond, '^ 

•TwasMPiiWcrttfite^eaccenM of delight. ^ 

She hid i^brt life Ijitan those eyes, beyond 
Expf^fon'i'ptrBfrer to paint, all languiahltigly fond. 

*' riowV of my Iffe, so lovely, and so ^one! 

Whom I would rather in this desart meet, ' .-, 

Scorning, and scornM by foi tune's flowV, tlian own 
Her pomp and splendors lavished at my feet 1 ' 

Turn not frchii rne thy breath, more exquisite ' - 
Than odours c^t on heav*n*s own shrine — to pkasc-^ 
Give mt thy love, than luxury more sweet, t 

And mdre than all the wealth that loads the breeze^'-. 
When Coromandtl's ships return from Indian seas/'-i- 

^ Then would that .home admit them — happier fer . . 
Than grandeur's most magnificent saloon — 
dtiw iWbile her<e and iheijc, a solitary star ^* .:... .. 

Flush'd in the darkening firmament of Ji^ne ; 
And silence brought the. sopl-fclt hour, full soon, 
Inefl&ble,^'\vhich I maynotpourtray; ■' 

For never did the Hym^nean moon 
A paradise of hearts mbre^^ sacred sway, 
/ In all that slept beneath her soft voluptuous ray/ 

Let the reader fonn hi& own judgment on th^; natural 
feeling and clear expresdon of tjiis passage. We k^ve said 
enougrr on the subject of invetsions and tortured grammar^ 
and shall ?Ycre only protest against tiie changieew the old 
fashioned Honey-moon into liymen^an mooff. We have said 
enough, indeed, of this pnblicatic^ altogether; of wlUch we 
have endeavoured to lay befdre our readers all the panrts that 
are likely; thrive them pleasure, together ^th a ' fenii- speci- 
mens of iiich as dertiand anirfiadversion. ' It is i^hfortunately 
true that the faUlts of the worjc are exceedingly bbKoo^^ while 
its beauti^ f?S?PP^ ^^; evisc^dud without extf erne ^cbficulty. 
In factjijI^ftiCi^tiigjOfdinary vices qf^ its^ style could, .pji^^i^ com- 
pensated by the highest excellences of invention.. sentinKnt, 
%krl<^'ef, SnJFf^e^J-sfifce «iese'^%ay&- dejpr^nd WtKe'c^^ 
*ne«^ bt'the^mfeditiiTi^hrough'-Hii^^ih iJfey^^re eJcJiffiSfe^ Plj^ 
^.t^tt dlW»/^6Jsiess~these md^ts-ln a- v^ emittent^ci^, j 
Wt^^^n-thit^^ hare hitherto fete6n^una(^^tto2dfeiferti.'^'^OI& | 
W^Xvfeiet'^^e-fliihk- that th^-orily^i^gf^ic*,^ \i^^-caii^ 
^teit<§4¥itf %y«aS8iJfteftiSl?r-the'i^li»* oSF-fe-aftflfe,^ i»^^ 
:|igh«W!«^ m^ {fefi^irf^e''^that^4<^«^ibf^ftt!iei «i^^t»«, 
under which his poeticalvsqjiirif 'tfippe«ff«dtl> lttvc<«»kjto^ in Ae 
effort of pi?oducii)^iliis«8ddidbhal qwognpuu'^-i^vo 10 ' 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

=• The? vSWmd is firt/'iii/'by baflads'ana mitidf 'po<!;nis,'aIl'pf 
which, having ap^are^ already (we believe) more than oncfe ^W 
public, may be hov ik^xf^^^ witliput p^rticulai; observatipi;. .^ 



Art^HI* An^^ccount i)fJidmkt(A aniitt Inha^UuUu ' Bf a Qcntle^i 

vroan long resident in the W«ftt« Indiee. t»V04 ^pp. 30C* ' j%, 6di.J 

Boards. Longman and Co* i8oS^ • V . \: \ .\ ,:\ 

''rHE greater part; of the British public ajie still 'sp^imp^ife'ctlj^ 
;■- informed in regard, to our trans-atlaiiliq,pp^s^sigins,.tW, 

we oj;>en with considerable satisfactioa , a voliune. whith 
promises an account of the most important of th^mv fronip 
the pen of a writer who has had the benefit of long dequftintancc^ 

, with the spot. When an author describes himself asi tesidetrt 
in Jamaica, the natural inference is that he is a man of busi- 
nesSj in some branch j and the reader, who limits liis expecta- 
tions to the plain statements which are to be ej^pected from^ 
•such a quarter, will not be disappointed in the book nov^ 
before us. It is on the whole a work of considerable i4<tility \ 
since the author is perfectly familiar with his subject, nad^^i^ 
knowlege is the result of lactual experience. Its chief va)ue . 
indeed is as a record of local information, or as a fund of 
materials to the philosophic inquirer ; sinfce the view* of the 
writer, when he 'leaves the level track of description td t;nVavel 
Causes or deduce conclusions," are neither brilliant i|or ]pro^ 
found. On the score of good intention, however,^ he has :^ clajni 
Jo our unreserved approb^tipft,; .be writes w;itb: ^ c^^mplet^ 
exemption iim^ pey ^QI^1 pr painty ^mptiv^s 5, and \C\% arguin^t* 
are directed to the support 0^ju4tiee a<ad« liberality, \:^^ ^\ A 
■ A' brief sket^p^, pir rather noAeei ^ th^ liisfiory of Janiaita, 
from its capture by'iAet^ErtgHsk^ih' 1655, property inwoduc^i 
tiievoKififie. Thhef'^iite^^g^ i^om)Europie, the aspect of the shor(i* 
]df JSftkibi'm'iJKfe'^^^^ strdhg6r\ irfivihg ih cibp-tiiriey art* 
the' diveirsiffeli "arid ¥6ftianti6 scenery 'of the, interipr, \ih 
nm, describe,^. , "^hg > {ojj^owm^ p^S^^e (pa^ jo) cont^ni 
j^y^^teresting.remii^Sion tfif;,^^^^^^ ]^ .-.^^ 

' «Tliffi ^ftwcoHiittriei inth^'urofld bHftei- #iitertd ihan'Jaoiffkaar; 
-forv^'^ekftk^ th)s^^i*ri^cW ^rmg» ktid' Wv\llots whieW k4trt frt>m -^ 
^()>Mits4{DSi'<ith(iei* arelriiaiay fine^ HV^fs •5ft'\fririoU^ Jiarts of iU t NdWk 
«fef^* afej^oweNfcr/ rtaVigfaW^, ^J^ptftig Bla^k^riVer, Iw tbe^rfeh 
W8t. EKittbfethi ^6tf ^hidi ^at^ttt^lwiied boats btinj^ dbwrt tfife 6ug«f#, 
^rim; Mi b^tlt'^d&titsefi^it tte interior of f hat dari»h to the pbW Jf 
^BlBiekir!^i'^j6t686f^^theciithd's'{a8 th^ Rio Oobte/Srti; cAh&^ 
and small bpats can sailv^r sqme'inryup. As-to'the dn^tfAfor sit^aml, 
"^^ *"'^^i(JWe4o'pdrtr<*|da*izye tli«m ;* suiBcell to eayi'tfiatttiintiny 

nialy ire known to take;theii: risc^wichiiujib&ck^uit q£ tpo.iir tliree 

viSi^t* ..... ' • 

* Jamaica 18 divided intottircc counties, Middkaex,; Surrey, and 
Cornwall ; and these are €ObdMded into twenty parishc* - it con- 
tains one oity (JK^JngstonJ, and^3jLtpwn8 and villages. ' The princi- 
pal of tdese are Mpntego Bay (which for si^e* populattony and trade, 
may be ranked second to Kingston), FalmoDth, St J^ de la Veg^ 

ithe seat of govcrnooent)^ Port Royal. Savaonafa b Mar, ftioraot 
^ay» Port Morant, Lucea, Port Maria, Old Harbour, St. Ann's 
(or St. John). Lacovia^ &c. Kingston is a large city, and has a 
Tery extens.Te trade. Its population may be set down ix upwards of 
thirty thomand fouls of all descriptions. It is governed by a mayor, 
aldermen, and council, and has a town guard of forty men, who set 
tiader the poHce of the city, and are of great service in protccttn|r 
the inhabttants, and preventing riot and disorder. There are in it 
some handsome buildings in the West India, style. ^ Kingston is, 
however, a hot, and* at times, a very unhealthy place. Many of 
the gentlemen there have pens, or country seats, in the cool parts 
of the vicinity, particularly the Ligtianea mountains, to which they 
occasionally retire, and where they breathe for a while a more pure 
and salubiious air. There are some very laudable institutions here 
ibr charitable purposes, particularly the fite-school, and asylum for 
deserted negrqes ; the latter is of a nature so benevolent and neces- 
sary, that none of the parishes ought to be without one. 

' MoBtego Bay is a thriving and pretty papulous sown ; but it 
was still n[if>re so previous to x/95, in which year it 9uSered very s^ 
verely by a fire, which consumed two thirds of the town, a^ de- 
stroyed a great deal of other property : the whole of the houses that 
l^ere destroyed have not since been 'rebuilt, a proof that tlu*s town is 
not now so populous as it then wa<). There is here a handsome court- 
house, lately built, and a neat little church, but the gaol is^a most 
wretclied one, and is, indeed, a disgrace to the parish. This tow< 
is die capital and sea port of St. James's, 

^ Falmouth not many years back was a snmlt petty vllla^ ; biit it 
kat risen rapidly to be a considerable towu, through the iadreasif^ 
trade and coltivatioa of the j^rish (Trebwoey)^ of which it is the sea 
port, and now bids fair to rival Montego Bay m wealth andjprospc^. 
lity. There is a good church here, and a hyoraulic machine tot iup* 
pljifig^the inhabitants with water. 

* St. }ago de la Vega, or Spantth Town (as it is somettmcB catted)* 
it situated in St. Cathtnue's, and is, as before noticed, the seat of goi^ 
Temnkettt. Here, too, are the pi^lic cffices; so that tbia town, 
though not a large ooe, from ita contaming the government and as« 
aembiy bouses, and various other public btfiklioffs, uasf b^ considered 
SM the genteelest and bandiomest town in the iuand. It it intended* 
too, that some cbnsiderabfe additions and inprovementa in the pnblw 
buildinga here ar^ to take place. Here \m a temple and •tatne erecla4 
to the memory of l40rd Rodney, whose name ikt people of JmaiqA 
konour as they would that of a tutelary deity. 

^ Port Royal is a middh'ng large but mean-looking town,<.kim]t8f 
,on a narrow peninsula or nook of land* Vx k M'^f^lMrm^^^ »V 

. : I at 

^Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Aceoimtcf Jammau 951 

Its excenent fo^tficattons, and oaval jard* the harbomr of Port. Kpral 
being the rendezvous for our men of war in this part of the world. 
Most of tlie inhabitants here arc people of eolour. This towo waa 
totally swallowed up by an earthquake, m the year i692« 

* Savannah la Mar is a hot, dirty, and mean-looking plaee, tnha« 
hued chieAy by people of eolour, who keep lodging houses for the 
accommodation of those who attend the Cornwall at8ixf<ourr, thU 
place having the honour of being the county town, on account of ita 
central situation In this wretched place, however, the beat fare ia 
provided, for which a moHt enormous price is charged, vis. six or 
seven dollars per day. Savannah la Mar once suffered greatly from 
an cat-ihquake. 

' The houses in this island are of various forms and conitmcttons* 
8oTT.e- have stone foundations, others are entirely built of Wood ; some 
have jealousies, some sash windows with Venetian blinds, and some 
have a mixture of bt^th- Most of them have piazzas, cither open or 
with jealousies, and many ^avc balconies^ The apartments within, 
besides the piazzas, are a krge hall, iomettrocs a recess as ^ sitting* 
iyK>m, or boudoir, a paiitiy, a closet, and bcdHroonas. * The kitchen^ 
or enoh^oam^ as it is here called, is a separate building, being never 
part of the dwelling*house as in Europe ; this ia highly proper, in or* 
dtr to obviate accidents by fire. 

* In the towns tlicre is s wretched intermixture of handsome and 
R>aciou<( houses with vile hovels and disgraceful sbeiisf' inhabited by 
^e people of colour, who keep petty hucksters' shops, and by low* 
white people, who vend liquors and give rise to many disorderly and 
jadecc«t scenes This evil ought to be rectified if possible. As the 
fity of Kingston is now chartered aa a corporate body, it will pro* 
hably take the lead.' 

In treating of that destructive malady^ the yellow ferer, the 
present author is disposed to ascribe its fatal effects^ in a great 
degree^ to the influence of fear on the patient ; an opiiiiofi 
which we have (bund general among those who, like due 
gentleman, had ceased l^ long residence in the West Indies 
to beia any danger of such attacks. Admitting that die idea 
may be sanctioned by a considerable share of truth, ve are 
notwithstanding led to believe that this, like other West India 
maladies, is as yet v^ imperfectly understood j ahd that fl\© 
mortality of our countrymen in tropical climates might be 
exceedingly lessened by a careful application of medical 
science. Of the truth of this remaik, we have here a very 
KriktQg example : i 

' Young men, just arrived in the island, are peculiarly liable t<| 
febrile disorders ; an excellent precaution against which would be their 
itsiding, if possible, in a cool and healthy part of the interior for a 
few months, as a sort of scasoninjr. What strikingly evinces the 

nriety of such a step ts the following circumstance :•— About 
vt years ago (ft<om f8o6), Hts Majesty's 16th regiment of fool 
•mved at Mmcgo £ay fmu Halifax. It waa theo 

rtrong ; ind^h thfe first ^^tf it vC-as qaartefitfd at tfiit place -it l68t 
from two to three hiindrM men by tkkntsi. But Rince'^c Maroon' 
♦ar, the bulk of the regiments stationed 1h St. Jamefi'ahaS be^n quar- 
tered, in barracks buik on ttie nclte <^f the old'Marqon town, (about 
fWenty milcis u,p {n the interior) ij since ivl)I(;h t/me the part of t^ 
regiments posfed there ha? t^eh uniformly as leMyAs if quartered iti' 
the heart oJ"£n^Tarid. Seven hundred of the 55th regiment, stu^^e 
<ime back statroAed" there, h&d at one time not one i\tk man in the: 
Tiofpital, ind only on^ had died in a space of siac months This spot' 
ft, therefore, very properly converted into head quaVterB for the n^) 
^ments. • Thcrfc arc, indeed, tw6 circamstatices to bfobfterved wiih' 
respect to the fnortalityj'n the i6lh rtgiment ; it was Injudicioustf' 
drawn from a very cold country* to ^ hot tropical <bMmaie, and the 
foldrers had ptifortiinatcly a too free access to spiriiuotis liquors, thie- 
very bane of the b/cst constitutions in a climate hke this/ 

, Aft?r Jbis ideficription of <the jAjsical cbara<;ter of the i$Iai>4t. 
tke author |>TOceeck to glvtie an account of its. political coosti*; 
tstttion. - The office of Governor is< twofold, civil and milijbttjr 
uniting the duties of Chattcellof with those of CJommanderof- 
die Forces. This higt 'station is usually cdttferrctf on a mi-' 
litary man, who in general is entirely ignorant oT law;' yet* 
uie satisfactory manner in which, it is universally admitted, 
^ese gentleqien, administer justice, should afford an iitxpressivej 
Ips^ib ;tQ those who maintain tlut a technical knowlege of la^V 
is indispensible in a judge. It shews that^ in the catMogu^, 
of judioi^ r^uisites, thiS' technical knowlege. is «f 4niich l€sa> 
consequence than integrity and good sense : or, to spe^ nw«i 
ga^eia^jpi 4J, ?s one- proof in. addition to the many wti^h we 
^uyle^i^y find ^t home as well as abroad, that^e acmii^tr?^ 
tiqi^ oiF j\i§tice is in itself a, very si^iple. affair^f an4 tJ^atitJb^s, 
'^Cltfi i:^eT^.poi;^.Bcated <?nly by th^ p^ryftraiqn^ w^ich ouf 
9wn.,fis^irtions-;h^ye Jritrpdiw:ed iptp it^— p^nrprsiops.prigiQ'n 
^ng dlfi^flyi ir^ the: .n\i^take§ of ..w^t}, it^eptioi^^^^ Ijegjjjatcjr?^ 
Vid ^|aietin?ef> .hut; m^iXQ, rarely,; in the artifices pf /a part|c^}jH;i 
9^1a^( who/ Qonceiv^ thenjiselTps to );>fi;iii^e^esjted,!i^,*retaTAnft 
^^ KPB^^^f^^^incr^asi^g^ e?cpei?(?P pf JAi^icia4 pap©ce,d^lje•,^ 
. The assembly of ^aipai^^i^ fleeted jiy the fri^el^pJ^ers, an^ 
^0 repf esppt^^ives ,^e retv^^fi f^P"^ ^ch p^ish^ Allfl^^ooEj-ij 

Ss^ojigi^a^^e ^e^ne \^^xi^, s^p^p ^w^y ,^4^,t;^e ^rit^ IJoxise^pJ 
mmons ; and in general the Assembly lays dajfp to ^ papfj 
of rights ^nd privilege^ with that House. The history of the 
feland (as Stltedih our Review fdr*A%i!istlii5t;']p(. 349) shewj 
ftat the Assembly iias, from the begirinihgi"^cbndu^ed its^lr 
yi'i^h splri^ apd jn^fpfencll^ce ^ an4 on"! Ae.\3ijfei^pe* S^^ 
tpokf place a 'few n\pnths ago y^ith^ the p;|e^i^^ (^yer^i^pri .pa 
^e nefusal of .Qe^fr^l fc^rmichJiel, (the .seqc^d .^.jcompjwift 
tR^tfae k^2iii)iitQ.aittetid atith^bar>*thfjaaeis||beffSj^at» pcooii 

\ '^n^iiik \ / of 

- Digitized by CjOQQIC 

Account ^Jammiia. 253 

of their, resolute determination to maintain the authority of 
their predecessors. Amid all the distresses which have of 
late years befallen our West India planters, the ^onsolatioji. 
remains ta them of having an independent representation;: — a 
xepresentation compared of men-^hp have exactly > the same 
interest as their constituents, whaar« unbiassed by Government 
jnHuence, and whoi are invested with powier sufficient both to 
carry into efFett colonial improvements, and to make the voic% 
of reason be heard in the mother-cpuntry in behailf of thosfe 
measures of relief which can proceed from Parjiameni alonq^ 
This would be an admirable advantage, if our cplonfets Icnew 
how to U3e it, ,ar;d, were they thoxQughly instructed in regard 
to the nature of commerce and the.ptinqiples which ought tp 
regulate their intercourse with the parent-state.. Had this 
been ^^e lease,- tbey >woiild not have»ilaboulr^ under ten yeaits 
of distr^s ; millions would not have be«n expended* by credi- 
tors, in courts of law,^ in fruidess endeavours^ to recover their 
clmiris 5 the debtor would not have contintied to delude him- 
self with the notion titat- his advamage consisted in. opposing 
-and delaying payments, at whatever expencje j j the, field- 
husbwdry of the inland, as .\7ell as the manufaptuf.e of produ<Je 
vwithin doors, wouldJbav^ beeuimuch more rapidly, imprqved.5 
-and, by the. gradual diffusion of accurate f notions .of ^rade, a 
libdck. would have be«n given to an O^miion .extremely i plausible 
in'appearamce, and which, to the incaiculable injury of ' the 
^Coionife8,^tns tdliemaln in full force at home4-^ri4meiy,th«t 
"tliei profit 6f Great ^ritaih'^^i^'Ae'gi'eater^'A^^^ iii«ire; doSelV 
she draws the ties of monopoly, and the mor^ produce she 
compfls Hef^Oiloriies to sfeAd'^tii'hyK "th6'<i61^hfe^8,:howei^r, 
'have"' ' ''' '^ *' ^^"•" " •' » '■' •'*'-'-^- -. I.— -^^'- u 

'pnce 6f crfbr and creauliW--^r;^k¥W-,'in' A^ misaff^l 

yf tk^ir'b'^vii interifky,^atldof' <!re<iui?ty' in inlk^iiig that relief 
"tfoidd ifoAii from aiif quaVtfer bt^t'thWi^elVes.^ Whenever the 
'te shall iivrfve'tyt thdV ifriliia«'*irti*^Opened to a mOte com-. 
' pi^aliensrire vi^Sle of tWfir' sltUaitibni ^the^y witt derive the most 
'bsenhat ti^efits Sftdih' theh^' separate- legislature. In these 

, any ^ 

' b Ktiglatid •' arid the' cimnibh pfostoek^V iii liki' inspect is 
iftttchm'ore likely; ttt be'dd^aiided by arl^^A'^^emMy '^confinirtg 
*i«^^att^ht^n jpHridipklty to this' subjecti^thih' bf bite whiah 
' *6uld Wcbutit' that ^bjedt afiAong" its setfoiidiiry*^ Utiles. 

' Tfie' abuse meJrttibhed iri th4 ^ilsuirt^ ^litiigWlt![h''(J):i]^6 2(8)is 
"Wh, ihat we de^m'it our &\ky Iti assist iil^^itig iy^gn^j^: 

2$ 4 Account tf Jatnaica^ 

* The oiBce of secretary is here a very lucratlre one indeed, perhaps 
second to none but that of the governor himself. The fees attached 
Co it are very considerable : cTcry patent commission, and other in^ 
•ttnmenty has its stated pnce, and even' the records of office can only 
be opened with ^goUen key, ,^ It ts pretty shrewdly to be Mispected, 
that the prke of sinecure or nominal appointments vi rathtr arbitrary 
than specific. It is by no means unusual to offer from an hundred 
to five hundred pounds currency for these nominal appointments : 
they are eagerly sought for as soon as vacant, by people who can 
afford the money* either for the honour of the thing, qt in order to 
be exempted froip militia duty ; for as there is little or no duty to 
perform, neither is there any emolument accruing. This sale of no- 
minal appointments is indeed dften carried to a most reprehensible 
length. The secretary under a late governor, on the eve of the 
latter's departure from his government, eager to reap the golden 
hanrest while the /am in which he basked had not yet sunk bcloiV.tbe 
borizoR, made, it is said, a pretty active use of this privilege, and 
SK>t always with a very scrupulous attention as to recommendationst 
U^, ^ fusible was the succeeding chief magistrate of the impro* 
priety of many of those appointments, that he for some time hesitated 
whether he yvould confir^i them : and bin predecessor oo doubt must 
have felt that he had sometimes too implicitly given the sanction of 
his name on these occasions. This species of traffic, to say the least 
of it, is an indisctiminating way of giving ease and honour, if bonemr 
it may be called. By this unjust distribution, able-bodied men ate 
improperly etempted from that duty, in a military capacity, which 
they owe to their country, as well as others ; and stiuatioaa whidi 
should be the reward of merit, the mead of talent, or the repose, o^ 
age» are thus scattered fbrtuitposly among those who can atford the 
most alluring price/ 

Oi r^ular troops^ the number in Jamaica is gexierally two 
thousand; and in addition to their usual pay, they have a 
handsome allowance from &e island. Here are also several 
West India Regimentif composed of negroe soldiers and white 
officers ; an establishment which this author, like other Colo- 
nists, considers as of hazardous tendency. As a remedy £or 
this danger, be, proposes to send these West India regiments 
ta die Eatt Indies^ an4 to bring over an adequate number of 
Sepoys in their stead. The male population of whites, in 
Jamaica being li^ble^ unth few exceptions, to serve as militia, 
that corps is numerous, and can bring into the field betwem 
eight and ten thousand effective men. They are toleraUy 
well disciplined : but: jccmiplaints have long been made of 
gross partikity in the 5fi^ribution of conrniissionsi raw ine^ 
perienced youths, the sons of men of influence, being made 
officers at the age of fifteen or sixte^.— -The autl^ rerj 
properiy recommends that, in a climate m which rapid imffch- 
in^ so soon disqualifies troops f(6r actbn, carriage^ should be 
Jk^t in rea£nes8 liotr their conveyance on 9nf lemergencf. 

Digitized by Google - • '^ 

Jtaount of tfanutica. i«*j 

Anns, accoutrements, and dress ought to be as light as pos- 
sible J and riflemen would .be of incalculable utility in a 
country which is so much intersected as Jamaica is with woods,, 
xmmntainfl,. and rocks. 

After having discussed die political stat^ of the iaIaiKl, the 
writer jplioceeds to d^cribe its animal and vegetable prodoc*^ 
trons. Tlie animals common in tropical climates are suffici*^ 
ently known to faiake it unnecessary to enlarge on this part 
of the subject;: — but the subsequent anecdote (page 82) 
deserves to be noticed : 

^ As to the p«vrcr »f fascfnatioa which it ts said the snake pos* 
K8K8, the author never knew but otie instance that had the appear* 
Mce of it :— on riding along a road one day» he observed a little bird 
bopping, with a kind of circular and feeble 'motion^ round oile par^ 
ticuiar ^ot ; he dratred his servant to go and seize the little fluttereri 
but just a» he had got to the spot, and almost laid his hand on it, ^ 
large black sftake darted away from under the grass, and at the same 
iostatit ihe Htde bird flew away. Extreme terror and strong surprise 
produce a species of fascination^ and this probably is the kind which 
charms and arrests the hapless bird, and iinally draws him into the 
mouth of the wily aerpent.' 

The bread-fruit tree has been introduced into Jamaica above 
a dozen years, and has multiplied so fast that every part of 
dte island abounds with it. The negroes, however, are not 
fond of it, preferring their plantain and yams to this newly^ 
imported^food. In the event of a hurricane, it would be 1 
mttch more tedious matter to reinstate the bread-fruit-tree 
dian the plantain. The ihterruptbn of supplies from America 
has tnade omr planters direct their attention to die raising of 
provisions m weir Own grounds, for which the most ampte 
fiel4 presents itself; the favourite root, the yam, being so 
productive that the labour of one negroe would probably be 
«qu^ to the support of fifty. 

hi the fcdlowing extracts, our readers will have a fair 
ipecimen of the authoifs style, and will gain a distinct idei> 
both of the situation of a West India estate and of die inodc 
of managing jhe negroes,: / 

' The situation best adapted for a West India estate is a fertile 
Icvdor vaHey, well watered, and at an easy convenient distance from 
tbe sea side. But few estates Tn Jamaica can, from the nature 
of the country^' be so favourably situated. The greater ' part 
ire aiore or less Intersected^ with ridges^of mountains, a number aie 
witbottt the conveniency of contiguous water, and many a^'e necessaf* 
r%r placed at a ^r^at distance from the harquti£§r^ or shipping place* 
li aa estate Jies m a, mpuntainous district, the hills oh whi^h thesu^ 
<ia{ts planted, are the better for beinj^ of easy acplivitjjr, 'an d fac ir ' 
Vimiik the risMg sua* But the steipe'st acclivities somietin " "'"" 

254 Account (fjanmica^ . 

8i3t qf a jnplt. fertile jjcfili andr prp^^ce tbe n^ost jq^unant canes t there 
15, hbwevcr, a great ad<JitionaI diffieultyin removing them from these 
en^inenciet to the mill ; a;)d a, remote' e^ate requires dou^I^ the num* 
berof oxert which are on 6nc situated by thfe s'^ia 'side, iVifdef 't6 traw- 
port its produce to the shipping place. An estS^te which hfl^ II Water- • 
xkifil, kfta cdosiderabljr Ia stock ; br««te Wnboiit buch oonVeoien^ 
mv»i work thckr mills With cattle and mules ; if, bowb^pcr^ it be situ-^ 
ated near the pea,, k may be supplied wi^b a w!nd*nu9. In the in- 
terior the bi;eeae is tt>o unsteady and precarious, for 9U|cb a machine, 
and is too liable to be intercepted by the natural inequsdlties of the 
country. The works of an estate, or building for the manufacturing 
of the produce^ are placed in the most central situation of the cane 
land; at the same time with an- eye to other conventencies, as a 
stream of water (^is being armost essential advant£^e, iu many* 
points of view), an easihess ^f acc^, > and a proper extent of eh'gibk 
erouud for^baildiog on, and fdr a good sizeable are4 around for dry* 
wg trash, &c. These bbildlngs area mill (sometiiftes two, a water 
and cattle-mill, or cattle-mill arid wind*miU, or twd catti^-miOsy ac- 
cording to lihe size of the estate ;) a boiling* bouto, a curing-house 
(whev« the* BU^ria cured ^, a distilling«bou«c^ /one, two, or three 
tra&h-housfB (ror drying the cani-trasb for fuel) j one or two mule j 
(Sheds ; and a'coopet^s and carpenter'^ shop. The otlier buildings on 
the estate are the proprietor's house, the overseer'a houj(e, an bos- 
pit^! for sicJ^.Vf groes, and som^tjmes a house for th^ surgeon ; .though 
^omciimes heiesi^esln the ovcrver's house. The land is portioned out 
in the following manner : If a large estate, consisting of abbirt: fifteen 
hundred acres, about a fifth part is planted in canes ; twd iifiths are 
laid'out in ^U(hed*grass and Common pasture ; 6ne-fiftii ih occupied 
by plaiitsfin Walks/ &c and tiegroe grounds ; and Ithe.remiiiing fifth, 
eofiftititrin ^vood6« rtiinatte, and land lying fallow^) f. This propoftion. 
farte^y howevet,; adcordui^ to cirounsstaAcea. , Tbie ^k|a or «»?ie8, 
|nd jpastures^ are^ e^clos^d dther wi^ ,lpgwpQ4 fppfi^ Qi;,sFdnf; Wws ; 
liiciormerii^ n?^st common, an,dt,.when Ifcpt. In m^at order, are a 


houses are grouped together, and statJd AolateS fifoM allth^ other 
liufldlhgi;'Wrnltnga'^rt df fti'^ic^vmage, incldsed^fcy k 8tblie«i*all, 

toti' df^pbiyihe^^an' intermixture of 'gardens and varioua fruit^trcet» 
li^hidi bak a ^Jdwipg-^y Ivan appearance .'-*• » ■ . . i ,*, 

* Formerly ihe slaves on the estates were cruelly andinjudicjossly 
made, to perfornri mjuch 8up^rnum<;r^ry. work, at improper tiooes. 
A iter tlie labours' o*f crop were over, and, they should havie cnjoyjcd a 
^ittlc additional resprtc, they were, on niany properi^ica,' barastted to 
a ihamefui degre^. Not even the light of heaven ci^cumscnb^ their 
kb6urfi, but tney were made to WorH. for hours aRerit waft dark, and 
for hours before light 'dawned in the morning.' '*At pre^nt tbeir 
Yahoor 18 light, and th?8 supernqmetary toil iV pb ldTi6;^r eitSfcted. Oa 
a* property which has five hundred acres' of land in< d ultivatiqo • (4q- 
^clndtng pasture and prbfi^oiis) thefi *aVe i^'6 h'uiftdi'ed iatvhi ^ftoot 
-half of which number^re cgnstaUtty <mWbyedfiu thi'agrtbtil^^ 


Account of Jainau^ h^ 

dTthe fBtate, afkl tAantrfiicturing th« produce. Ifi England, nn 
e8tate.<^ tilts «xUQt wouidiie cokivai'cd by the tendi of this imad>er. 
. Jt la trtte,^ the mod^ of cirftiiratiofi v here di&rcnt. Thia proportiqp 
shews at feast that the woiik -the slaves here pciform is iar iraw btin|jr 
jrxccasi ve. > The rautiae of their daily worjl h ^s /ollows : They as- 
semble In the fields at day break ; about ten in the foreuoqn, they 
are allowed about halFan hour toeat their breakfast, which is brought 
but into the fields by the negro cooks ; at or>e they go to dinner, and 
iu about two hours after arc again assembled in the fields (ciiher by a 
btH. or, as fs most usual, by the sound of a conque- shell, which is 
hesnrd at a very great distance) ; and they draw oft from work in the 
twrligfet of the evening. Once a fortnight, out of prop, they ate«l- 
>J|io«i*ed a day; but during crop none can beaUovved, as that is toobtt^ 
a seaaon ior any extra allowance of time. Perhaps, if one day out pf 
e«cry week ihrougjhout the year was allowed, besides Sunday, which 
should rather be deemed a day of rest, in conformity wich.owr ho^r 
religion, it would not be more than humanity entitles them to ; ai^d 
if that were impracticabl€> as in is during the season of 
crop, some compensation might be allowed In lieu of the deprivation 
ef it. * At Christmas they arc allowed three days, and at the end trf 
crop, orliarvest-home, one day to mdke merry. Though the season 
ofsccop brings along with k nvany additional bbours, yet is it ^ 
faycst. and most cheeiful throughout the year to the. negroca. ^t 
this time they seem animi^ted with a livelier tflow of spirits, a&dlneiv*^ 
riment and ^ong every where resound : in short, a stranger^ witU 
tlie anticipation of being a witness of nought but depresaioti and mi* 
scry, would be astonished and delighted with this c<tcrior shew di 
happiness, both at this time and at Christmas, when they give way to 
unxcstrained festivity. It is difficult to say, whether the juice of the 
«ugar-cane has any effect in elevating their spirits ; certain ic u^ that 
it has a very evident one in promoting their health. Indeed, so »al»J- 
brioUB is this liquor, that not only the negroes, but all the different 
aoimak on the estate are fond of, and thrive wonderfully on it. Thf 
negroes arc formed into different gangs, according to their age and 
•strength. The first ^ng consists of the ablest hiMids (of both sexes) . 
on the estate ; the second gang of less able hands, and boys and girlsj; 
and the third, or small gang, of children from eight to twelve yeafis 
of age, who are employed \\\ weeding the young plant-cases, and 
such other liglit work. The two principal gangs are followed \xf 
black drivers, as they are called, who supenntcnd the wock under 
the book-keepers, and carry whips, as instruments of bcoistonal eotv 
rection, which it is the duty of the^ book- keeper, in the absence of 
the overseer, ta see they do not unnecessarily or maliciously inflict, 
and only in a moderate degree. It wer* perhaps to be wished, that 
,(his iHstrumait were laid aside, at-heast only used in cases of.markad 
dehuquency, and a mode of common'^rrfction, less revolting,, duh^- 
iStituted ; for, however seldom this instrument may be used, it is i& 
itself a disgusting and unoatuial thing.' 

An a^icuhural society having been latdy formed in Jamaicg 
Vy some gentlemen of fended pxoperty, the pri^sent 
Rev. lujLY^ 1809. S "" 

•5^ Jiccount (f Jamaica. 

:^auds'the intention of the institution, but is- doubtful of itt 
success. We are aware that, from varbus circumstances, tl% 
progress of such a society in the acquisition and dissemina- 
tion of agricultural knowlege must be- extremely riow : \\ii 
■we would advise the planters to look for relief xfiuch rathcfr 
•from their own improvements than from Acts of Parliament. 
.Their parliamentary interest is too we^k to carry a point 
against any considerable opposition \ and moreover the benefit 
oi legislative preferences is temporary, while the benefit of 
practical amelioration is permanent. The former is obtained 
Sv a struggle against persons of adverse interests, who imagine 
themselves injured, and are disposed to watch every oppor- 
tunity of getting the ungracious 'edict cancelled; while the 
latter, injures no one, but proves a general blessing- by the 
addition which it makes to the progress of human improve^ 

,/ The kind of writing in which this author seems most de- 
sirous to elevate his style is the descriptive \ and though it is 
very dear that literature has not been his profession, yet his 
attempts to convey a vivid impression are not unsuccessful, at 
:least when directed to objects of nature. Indeed, the scenery 
-of Jamaica is sufficiently striking to animate miiids possessed 
of less sensibility than we are disposed to ascribe to this 
gentleman. His principal efibrts at description are the 
picture of -a hurricane (page 29-), and of a December evening 
and morning (page 116^.) We extract the latter: 

•' * The sun was just setting hdow the western horhson, and the 
•heavens were nilldly irradiated with his farewell beams ; it was clear 
-dnd serene all around ; the air was mild and bland, and the distant 
green eminences gleamed with a reflfcted liretre. Nong^t disturbed 
. i^he stillaess of the scene, save the busy and o0icious musquitb, who 
jr kind enough to warn you of her approach by an unwelcome 
ibuazing in yoirr ear; the screaehings of the wild parrots, who, in 
ide^Kihed parties, skim the arch of heaven, in their retreat to their 
^htiints ; and now and theit the scream of the clucking-heii, an. unso^ 
ipiablc bird, delighting in the solitude of the deepest retreats, 
-r ' The following is a Jafndscape at sun-rise in this month. From 
•the lofty summit of a mountain is belield an cxtenwve circuit of 
'^Seoantry. , The sceneryr at the foot of the mountain is lively and vivid; 
.the negroes, in gangs, arc employed in the fields cutting eantrs, or 
>*ecding pastures ; numeroils herds of oxen, &c. graae in the reaped 
^field«, or verdant acclivities. An endless diversity of hill, valley, 
-wood, mountain, and deiiJe, interspersed with clusters of the bamboo 
caocr copses of uadcrwood, pastures shaded with lofty trees, plantain 
walks,, ruinates,, and extensive fields of sugar-canes, chequer and 
adorn the face of the cojiintry ; wfiilc from th^ work* of majjy of the 
^'TOpertie's, crotumn§ of smoke per pc^dicuUrlv ascen^ to a great height 
*i tbe'p#c*he5tTciM-i-3ndCaawitjJiiiiarkrf i» apparent a^uod thcirf. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Accmftf of Jvmunca. f^f 

At a greater distance, an exteosive and beautiful valley, rich in the 
products of th^ soil, opens to the eye. The morning muts, which 
still partially hang over it, have the illusive appearance to the be- 
holder of a vast lake resting on its bosom : behind it are the evanes- 
cent hills, losing themselves by degrees in the clouds. At a still 
greater distance, «ppears the ocean -^still, calm, and unruffled; the 
sea-breeze not yet having curled its smooth glassy surface. The air 
is serene, the sky cloudless, and the sun, now immerged into si^ht> 
appears as if resting on the bend of a distant rising while he gladdens 
and illumines the whole scene ! Innumerable wild flowers, shrubs^ 
and blossoms now exhale their sweetest perfumes ; and the birds^ 
who retire bilently into the shade from the mid-day heat, now warble 
their rcMovated song.* 

The great misfortune of Jamaica, as of our other West 
India colpnies, is the want of education on the spot. 
Children are removed from the parent's eye at a tender age, 
and sent to the mother-country, where a boarding school 
ill supplies the absence of paternal vigilance. They return 
to the West Indies with the appearance of a finished educa- 
tion, but generally without any serious impression of its value, 
or of the necessity of following up what they have only begun 
to learn ; and here the opportunity of farther improvement 
may be said to be at an end, since the society, into which the^ 
male part of them at least are liable to fall, is often more 
calculated to degrade than to instruct. To explain the means 
of gradually amending the state of society in the West Indies, 
and of rendering the members of it more intelligent and more 
virtuous, would much exceed our limits ; and we must 
content ourselves with a short extract from the volume beforef 
u^ . (p. 208. ), which will be found to justify the praise be- 
^towed at the beginning of this article on the moral tendency 
. of the book. After having lamented the improper state of 
morals in the West Indies, and the inefficiency of tlie means 
hitherto adopted to amend them, the author says i 

'' But let innocent, elegant, and rational pleasures he a little more 
encouraged here ; let a poh'te taste for literature be diffused, at least 
among the independent ; let the mean^ of education be more fully 
and liberally established ; let the great and leading men {married ati 
well as single) exhibit, in their moral conduct, correct examples of 
virtue, prbpriety^ decency ; let them foster and encourage this dis-* 
position in their dependants, by their countenance, favour, and as* 
distance ; and, above all, let the duties and ordinances of religion be 
more fully understood, and better respected, and the good conse- 
quences wotiM soon appear. Virtue and reason would then, in som^ 
measure, re-assume their rights ; self- love wouW be enlisted oti thd 
side of duty ; men would be impelled, by still stronger motives than 
those of ihame, to avoid the open and gross violation of the social 
duties; one passion vould be engird to founteractaa^htr; thd 

voice of intrernt imv\& check ttid intknidate the tfcetttions saBie» of 
ptmion ; intr^act of that indecent ditregard of reh'giotxs and moral 
duty ; instead of that general dcha^ement of Blicit sexual intercourse, 
8o iprtch complaiYTed of by the wwe and thinking part of the West 
Intiifhs themftelves ; instead of that titfiTertal laxity of manners, which 
will uttioiately pr»ve the ruin of the coimtry ; men wotild at leasC 
strtve to be virtuoas and decent ; they would at least endeavtfur to 
avoid the semblance of a licentiuus and dissolute people/ 

We are glad to find the author bearing testimony to the 
great amelioration which has taken place within these twenty- 
five years in the treatment of the negroes ; and humanity has 
been seen, in this as in other cases, to carry its reward along 
with it. Formerly, the white inhabitants were in perpetual 
apprehension of insunection, as the stanchion-windows^ and 
Idop-holes of old houses still testify : but at poret^t they 
have no need of such defences. - 

The article in our Review for August last, to which we 
have already alluded, treats explicit^ of several subject's oon- 
tained in the volume under notice, and renders it utmecessary^ 
after the specimens which we have given of the writer's 
composition, to dwell at any lengtl^ on matters that are 
already known to our readers, llbese topics are the eha-i 
racters of the Mulacttoes and Jews, the humanity rf the white 
master to his Negroes, the amount of island^opulaltion, and 
the intercourse. c5f our West India colonies widi- America. 
On the last topic, we cannot forbear to notice a ciwncidence 
between the present author and Mr. Renny, whose book wa^ 
the subject of the article just mefltdoned ; and it is vemarkable 
as tending to shew how much die cause of justice and liber* ' 
ality would gaip by tn unremittedVpursuit of knowlege. Both 
these gentlemen are zealously interested for the West Indies | 
both of them perceive the advsmtage to our colonies of inter- 
course with the United States \ and both accordingly claim 
its permission on behalf of the planters. Tet both concetve 
themselves obliged to make l;he admission that diis intercourse 
would be injurious to the mother^ country. Now had they 
carried farther their researches on the principles <rf conrmerce, 
had they ascertained the nature of capital and the causes of its 
augmentation, they might not "only have avoided an .admissioii 
se likely to be fatal to their argument, tiit they might have 
proved to the British nation that its interest would be pro- 
mpted by the intercourse in question, in a degree wjiich woul4 
be similar to that of its colonies. . 

Vft must now say a f>ew words on the present authoir^s 
defects. The style of his volvme is sometimes disfigured by 
conside^^e inaccuxocies and kieltgaiicie#(» We .have at <$Yie 

^ M^ place 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Cook on the Evld^ncf tf Chrht's Resurrection. 26x 

place (p. 04.) < for to, gratify/ jtnd at another (p. 122.) * con- 
tingencies of chancer' Circumstances also of too humble a 
class are introduced into the text, instead of being put in notes 
at the bottom, where their inequality to other topics would 
not have been itk. Finally, the author's observations are 
sometimes of that obvious cast whicli must subject them to 
the character of common-place. As a literary composition, 
therefore, the faults of this book are consideraole ; but these 
are greatly outweighed by its merits j because, while it is not 
devoid of claims to approbation for occasional elega»ce of 
language, it has ^n undoubted titl^ to favour for tlie uniform, 
substantial value of its matter. 

Art. IV. Jn Illustration of the Genm^ Evidence eitaUithing the. 
ReaVity of Christ* s Resurrection* By George Cook, iA.M. Minister 
- of Laurencekirk, 8vc. pp.325. 78. Boards. Longman and 
Co. 1 80S. 

« Tf Christ he mi risen j (says St. Paul,) then is our preacbing 
-^ vainy and your faith is mlso vain" This text, which 
places the importance of the Resurrection of our Blessed 
Saviour in the most striking point of view, will serve to the 
end of time as a complete justification of every attempt to 
illustrate the evidence of that momentous event, on which all 
the s^ublime and consoling hopes of the Christiaii must be 
established. To be satisfied of the reality of this pledge and 
assurance of immortality is of more valua than any actual 
possession of sublunary good; for though lawyers may make 
out the conveyances of estates to us « to have and to hold 
for ever," experience teaches u$ that our tenure is testricted 
to a few years, and that those are embitteted with, sorrow. 
The hope of a future existence has always been the buoyant 
principle of reflecting man; and the distinguishing feature of the 
^ Christian Religion is that it gives a power and a weight to this 
doctrine, which unassisted nature could not possibly obtain. 
It supersedes speculative reasoning by building our faith on 
a fact^ and by. pointing to the Resurrection of its Great 
Foum^r as the forerunner of our own. 

We require not, therefore, fropi Air. Cook any apology for 
the present undertaking, though many have preceded himj we 
expect not originality, but an able exhibition of argument } 
we ask for no new illustrations, but ability to do justice to diti 
most interesting of subjects^ Whether we respect the ma* 
jftifest irreligion of tl^ age, the lukewarmness txA worldly 
spirit that are visible in ^e Christian church, or the^^^^^^g 
grpwjth P,f infidelity, it seems imperiously uec^ 

262 • Cook on the Evidence of Cfmsfs Restirrectioni 

recourse to first principles, to examine the foundationt of 
religion, and to prove that the hopes which animated the 
Apostles are not less stable than glorious. Here the members 
of Establishments and sectarian conununities, the clergy 
and the laity, are equally concerned j and here Trinitarians 
and Unitarians must be of one mind, because if Christ be not 
risen the hope of all is altogether yain. Though Mr. Cook's 
treatise cannot be said to be complete, it contains some strong 
reasoning ; and, from the specimen which we have of the 
author's talents, we wish that* he had not confined himself to 
the General Evidence. Mr. (Gilbert West's celebrated ** Obser- 
vations on the History and Evidences of the Resurrection of 
Jesus Christ" include a portion of matter, which infidels will 
insist on having brought into the debate, and which in fact 
dught not to be slightly passed over \ we mean the distinct 
narratives of this interesting event which are given in the four 
Evangelists. The work of this layman, it is said, has been 
effectual^ in the conversion of several Deists 5 and surely a 
plan which has been so successfur ought to a certam extent 
to have been followed, after which Mr. Cook's arguments 
might have been added as auxiliaries. Mr. West's method 
was first *' to lay down the order in v^hich the several in-.* 
eidents related by the Evangelists appear to have happened ; 
next to make some, observations on the method and manner 
m which proofs of this astonishing event were laid before the 
Apostles, and in the third place to add an exact and rigorous 
examination of the proofs themselves." To 'this most import- 
ant part of the inquiry, Mr. Cook has not, in our judgment, 
paid sufficient attention ; while, as if to supply this deficiency 
in the outset, he has in the last part of his essay wandered 
into an elaborate disquisition of the circumstances under vhich 
Christianity combated and supplanted those systems that were 
hostile to it : — nwitters which relate rather to the general history 
of the Church, than ta the particular fact of the Resurrection 
of our Lord. 

It must not, however, be -supposed that by these hints, 
which are thrown out chiefly for the consideration of the 
author, we mean to undervalue the work before us ; which, 
as far as Mr. C.'s plan has extended, is reputable to him. 
His illustration is divided into four parts. After havmg made 
some preliminary remarks on the possibility of a Resurrection, 
tttd on the sufficiency of such^ a fact to prove a divine in* 
terporition, Mr. Cbok proceeds, ist, to state the evidence of 
Ae troth of the Resurrection, derived from the prophecies of 
Je^s, conjoined with his wisdom; and the improbabilityj|. as 
^^e predictipiw respecting himself were known to his ene» 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Cook on the Evidena rf Chris fs Returredioru 2^: 

niieS) of his not pcrceiring that if these were «ot fulfilled he 
wouhl efiectually defeat lus own scheme j adly, to consider 
the evidence for the truth of the Resurrection derived from 
the fact, or the amount of the circumstantial evidence 5 3dly, 
the evidence for the truth of the Resurrection, arising from 
the testimony of those who were witnesses of it j and 4thly, 
the evidence derived from the success which attended the 
preaching of the Apostles, founded on the fact that Christ rose 
from the ^ad. 

The last two parts are the most laboured. In the third, 
Mr. C. argues^wkh great energy to shew, in two distinct 
sections, that the Apostles could not have been deceived 
themselves, and that it is in the highest degree improbable 
that they should enteruin a wish of deceiving others. On the 
former topic he observes : 

' If Jesus was not restored to life on the third day, as they said, 
hi« body must, on that day,* have been cither in the potscseion of 
the apostles, or of thfcir enemies ; in the former case, the roost scep- 
tical cannot doubt that the apostles knew that he was still dead \ m 
the latter, even granting that they had before been somehow un- 
accountably mistaken, their mistake would have been completely 
removed the moment that they announced it, because the rulers and 
Pharisees, who were most eager to extirpate Christianity, would have 
triumphantly produced the body.' 

, To prove that the Apostles could have no desire of deceiv- 
ing <^ers, the author adverts to their own disappointment, 
and to the presumption in favour of their veracity which is 
derived from a variety of considerations ; especially as they 
had no passion to gratify, and as they endured suffering and' 
death lather than they would retract their testimony. We 
shall make some extracts from this part of the treatise : . 

* It tends very much to establish the veracity of the apostles, that 
they had been themselves much disappointed by the death of Jesus, 
abd mu8t,'fr»m the nature of the case, have been completely so, if 
he never rose from the dead. When they 6rst renounced the com* 
forts of domestic life, and the place which they held in so(;iety, that 
they might follow him, they were prepossessed by the idea, that, 
notwithstanding the meanness of his appearance, he was their Mes- 
siah ; that at a convenient season he would proclaim bis sovereignty,* 
and would confer upon them the most exalted situations in Bis 
kingdom. It required the most delicate and continued instruction 
on the part of Jesus to remove these prejudices ; to convince them 
that his kingdom was not' of this world; that it was necessary to 
look beyond it for the happpiness which was to reward those who 
were sincerely attached to him. . T : 

• But thi&^hope of eternal liffe Which ultimately, ii| a ^reat mea- 
mrti rcconcikd them to th^humbk condition, to the^aa yer tv lit- 

&^ ^MH|ihich 

2d^ Cock m the kviderie4(fChrisfsResufT^emH* 

ifiiicYr tUef were to coDtfmic wWl^ npoo «inh, wstid- '^fllirclf «fMHI - 
the dnrme mission, of J«fttt9, or. upon bis.ctmirreettoa ; he hiMclf 
' often toW th€m*8o ; and iiidcfd ft was so evident,. th«t aU of tliem, 
v^ithout any particular infornr^ation, tnost have pemlvfd it, , 

• If, then, they saw him, in pbce of rlsincr from the aiave» inooU 
<Iering into dust, they must have been satisntd that all nis promisct 
^cre deceitful ; that the delightful prospects of future bliss which 
Ire had set before them could never be realised. How severe must 
have been this dtsappointihem ; with what fcelmgs of mdignation • 
would they reflect on the memory of a man .wno had not onfr- 
(k\;etvid tWemrbut'who, fey doing so^had led them to renouitce all 
which was roost dear to ihen» \ In what manijcr wovld men in this 
situation naturally act ? They could not fail to regret iheir credw- ^ 
lity, to think with much sorrow on the part which they had acted ; 
tjicy would be eager to hide themselves from those who had been; 
the ihost ffcquerit witnesses of thewr delusion ; to icturn to the 
stations in life which they had abandoned ; and to renew the kindly 
irttercotirsef which their ill directed ' zeal had induced ihem to 
0t)$pend. « 

• And, accprdingly, we find that the apoMles did act ptectsely m 
this manner. Depressed by the melancholy event of their Master't 
death, and dreading that he was for ever separated from thefn« th«y 
dispersed, and resumed the professions which for hipi they had for- 
saken, ^nd if they thus acted when their hopes were rather shaken 
than destroyed, is it not patural to conclude, that they, would be 
confirmed in this course of conduct, when th^y found that what they 
dreaded had actually happened.' — 

• It w equsrfly evident that t4ic apostles had no hope of acquiring, 
wtalth. It WIS the constant subject of their Master's preaching 
and of their own, that this world should hold a veiy low place m 

, our affections ; that excessive attachifient to it is iiKonsistent with 
that elevated piety, and that disinterested generosity which wc avo 
formed to acquire ; in short, they endeavoured to destroy the power 
of those mercenary considerations which so often corrupt the hearty 
ai^ to eipand the noblest feelings which adorn human nature. In 
perfect harmony with a design so amiable and refined, they never 
grasped at riches \ they continued, during their ministry, in the. 
seme poverty in which they had been before they at^aehed them- 
selves to Jesus, and they even exercised those mechanical employ- 
rocHts in which they had been initiated, thdt tlrey might not be 
under the necessity of requesting support from the converts, who 
would have gladly shared with them the abundance v\hich they 
enjoyed. It is established by the writings of autborsi who certainly, 
had DO design to applaud the Christians, that the attention of the 
primitive disciplea was directed to objects very different frcKii tho 
accumulation of wealth ; that they even shewed an indifference ta 
it, which the particular circumstances in which they were placed 
rendered very amiable, but which, iu the ordinaty ftate of jK>cicty, it 
is by no means a duty to cherish- 

< If, thep,. Jesus Christ did not rise ffom the dead, it must be 
a^itted ^^^ a .number of men ehangi^ ^ their imhits xtf lifc^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Cook on the ]!vidh$ie of ChrU^s -RiJurfiction. 265 

Emitted to incessant, and, as th^y believed, hopeless kboar, for 
ftie purpose of reprcscntmg an impcwtor as the greatest benefactor 
of the human race, although they coiild thus gain nothing whick 
they could hold in estimation ; ahhoitgh there was bo motive which 
could, if they v^rere constituted IHce other men, even in the sh'gbtest 
degree incline thefn to act as fhey did.* — 

*■ But what, if Jesus did not risje from the dead, was the ^edse 
state of tlic case, 'lliey displayed this courage when mental forti* 
tude, that resolution which arises from the consciousness of recti- 
tude, had ceased ; the change in their conduct was accomplished by 
what should have had quite a different effect, by what should have 
^trsfied them of their prudence, or at least of their good fortune, in 
having declined to die with their Master, and should have determined 
them to submit to no more inconvenicncy upon his^ account, by 
producing absolute conviction, that through tlieir credulity they had 
been engaged in a bad cause, in a cause to which ic would be cti* 
minal, and even impious, any longer to avow an attachment. 

* If, therefore, tlie resurrection never, happened, tlierc is no suffi- 
cient account, no account at all, indeed, for one of the most wond^- • 
fot facts which occurs in ths history of the human mind ; the. transi- 
tion so rapidly made by the apostles, from the excess of timidity, 
to cool, steady, and long continued fortitude ; nay, this singular 
resolution must be ascribed to what every person may be sensible 
ought, according to every' principle in our nature^ to have proved f 
complete security against it' — 

• If the resurrection never took place, as the falsehood of their 
assertions must have been certainly known to thpse who declafe4 
that they were the witnesses of that event, thtir continuing to 
profess their belief in Jesus as the messenger of heaven, and the 
Saviour of the v.orld, implies, that a number of men who had been 
much deceived, and most cruelly disappointed, became, in conse- 
quence of that disappointment, fervently attached to the memory of 
the man who had deceived them ; that with the avowed design of 
prenioting his honour, of procuring for him the love, the veneration, 
and the gratitude of mankind, they engaged in an undertaking 
which, to persons possessed of their measure of judgment, must 
have Appeared impracticable ;, that they ascribed to this teacher, 
doctrines wfjich would not naturally have suggested themselves to 
inen in their situation of life, doctrines which subverted those opin- 
ions and sentiments which fom infancy they had been taught to 
revere, and to which, conceiving them to be sanctioned by divine 
authority, they were most firmly attached, even when they believed 
in the divinity of their master ; that rather than renounce this 
scheme of imposture, the success of which could be attended with 
no benefit to them, and* couhJ only give currency t<> what in their 
hearts they must have detested as impious, they patiently slibmitted 
to the most dreadful tortures, and even voluntarily exposed them- 
selves to death, with the composure and joyful anticipation which 
would have been natural only if their pretensions had been well 
founded ; and to sum up the whole, that they acted with this as- 
tonishing difgrce of fortitude .and resolution, althoug h^ tj^-y werte 

t66 Custance on the. Cohstitutkn of Efiglftni. 

coiistitotfonaliy tm^fd^'and had be^n betray>ed by that timidity iota 
comluct which, when they refltcted upon it, they severely coa^ 

* If there be any man who aces no dtiEculty in admitting all this, 
ID reconciltog it with human nature» he must be allowed to believe; 
that the apostles were impostors, and that the retturrection pf Christ 
wa» devised by theni fof the purpose of .deceiving the world, or 
father for no purpose .whatever ; but I cannot^ persuade myself that 
auiy one who looki^ into hid own bosom, who endv;avours from con- 
sciousness, or from experience, to investigate those radical principles, 
which must, while we are men, influence and determine our conduct, 
will hesitate to admit, that if, under all the cii^umstances which 
have been stated, the disciples of Jesus gave a false testimony re* 
apecting the. resurrection* they actea in a nnanncr subversive of everv 
Jaw of the, mind ; that the suppaaition of their giving such a testi*' 
nony ovetthpows every ground of belief, and involves ^s in iaextri- 
cable perplexity/ 

' Though the fourth part contains many ^pertinent observa- 
tions, we shall not draw the attention of our readers to it j 
because, /as we have already said, the success which attended 
the apostles belongs more to the evidence for the credibility 
of the Gospel in general, than to that of the Resurrection iu 
particular, ' ' * . 

For 3; conclusion, the author illustrates the. harmony which 
^bsists between the different parts of the evidence, and 
declares his oer'suaislon that the future progress of Christianity 
will be promoted by an examination of the solid grounds oa 
^hich its divinity is established. 

Some words not in common use in the southern pdrts of 
the island oc^ur in this tract, zs efcpiry for exipirzt'ion :^ . stumbled 
them, for caused them to stumble 5 profafiity for. prdfatieness, 
&c. : but, on the whole, the language is correct ; and the 
pxhibitioxi of the arguments, in support- of die reality of the 
important point which is disctissied, is of such a nature, that 
a perusal of the volume must afR)rd comfort to the Christian, 
while on the mind of the ingenuous infidel ij; cannot fail of 
'pialking an ipjpreasipu/ 

gAiT. V. A ceneise Flinv of. the Consthutlon of England. By George 
Custanc^. Dedicated, by Permission, to William WtlbcrforcTy 
EsqCM.P. for the County of York* ]}xno« pp. 474. 6s« 
Boards Printed at KrddermmSter for the Author ( an4jK>]d;,ia 
London l^ Longman and Co. ^808. ^ , 

TtT would teally hate given lis great pkisure to havq been 
A able to recommend this work, which is written <m a very 
D^ful plan, to thS attention of young- t^ersons pursuing theijr 

\ ' , ^ -= ■ ^ •• 5 / ' r • '.stu4fc'^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Cttstance on the Constitution of England. ^Sj 

studies in the ordinary course of education : but such a re* 
commendation -would be inconsistent with our duty as re-* 
viewers, not merely on account of the ferrors which we have 
detected in perusing the volume, (since some errors were natu- 
rally to be expected,) nor on account of its deficiency in clear- 
ness of language and in lucid arrangement of particulars, but 
because we have been shocked with a prevailing strain of 
sycophancy, and a fashionable acquiescence in corruption, of 
which we should above all things deprecate the reception 
among the rising generation of our countrymen. — ^We must 
protest against the assertion that * the privilege of parliament 
does not extend to the case of writing and publishing seditious 
libels,' (p. 80.), since the proceedings in the case of Wilkes, 
on which alone the above doctrine is founded, were ordered 
to be expunged from the journals of the House of Commons 
as subversive of the rights of all the electors of Great Britain, 
by a vote of that assembly passed on the 3d of May 1783. 
Moreover, we cannot deem it right aid useful that our sons 
should be instructed to believe that ^ the King has the same title 
to the crown, that a private man has to his hereditary estate* 
(p. 1 17.) > though indeed, in refutation of this false and danger- 
ous position, it will not be necessary to travel out of the very 
chapter which contains it, in which it appears that the crowa 
W2is taken from ^he hands of its actual possessor, and confided 
to those of the Prince of Orange, who had do pretence of 
hereditary right; that it was afterward settled by Act of Parlia* 
ment in a particular line, to the exclusion of two elder 
branches; that the kingdoms of England and Ireland, when 
forming a legislative union, agreed in the year 1800, (a period 
not very favourable to wild political theories,) that ^^ the crown 
should continue settled'' on the terms prescribed by 2 previous 
^ct of Parliament '^ and that to maintain that parliament ia 
<< not able to make laws to bind the crown, and the descent 
thereof," is high treason by an unrepealed law of the realm* 
We did not, however, Expect to see that grave absurdity re-» 
peated in an elemental book on the laws of England, that ' it 
is very surprising that any sensible person can infer th^ 
doctrine of *^ a right to choose our own governors," from the 
conduct of our ancestors at the revolution in 1688 ; since if 
we had possessed it before, it is clear that the English nation 
did at that time most solemnly renounce and abdicate it^ for 
themselves and for all their posterity for ever.' 

In speaking of Ac Royal Prerogative, Mr. Custance takes 
occasion to discuss the judicial power, and the King's right to 
appoint judges, — ^who, we may remark, are never once men- 
tipp^ in the chapter « Of the Magistracy " It is here that 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

a6& Custance en th Comtitufion of England. 

the autkor biraks out into the most extravagant raptures on 
the act padsed in the early. part of the present reign, in con- 
sequence of the suggestion from the throne, by which it was 
provided that judges should retain their office, notwithstanding 
a demise of the crown. « An Act was passed, (says he) by 
which the judges are now continued in office, notwithstanding a 
demise of die crown \ and cannot be removed but by a joint ad- 
dress of both Houses of Parliament to the King.' Who could 
doubt, on reading this sentence, that both these important objects 
were for the first time secured by tlie Act in question ? Yet 
it is bare justice to the calumniated memory of William the 
Third, to state that he first altered the tenure of the judges 
from durante bene placitOj to quanidiu se bene gesserinty and 
made the address of both Houses of Parliament the only 
criterion of their good behaviour. The Act passed in the first 
year of the present reign merely tied up . the hands of His 
M^est/s successors, introducing no alteration whatever while 
that reign should last. 

We cannot take the trouble of controverting this author in 
all his positions by which we have been disgusted : but the 
following passages ought not to be entirely passed over, when 
we are calling the pubhc attention to an elementary .work 
\i^hich is destined for the. moral and political instruction of' 
yoitthful readers : 

< Pensions and sinecures are liable to be grcitlf abused ; yet ^he 
bestowing^ them even where no service has been performed or im- 
plied, f* Do« always improper, but may sometimes be strictly politic 
and wjse. Every man thinks more highly of him«clf than he ouifht 
to think ; and is more or less under the influence ©f vanity, pride, 
selfislines*?, and ambition. It is, indeed, very easy to raise a cry of 
bftbery and corruption against ministers of state ; but a disinterested 
patriot h a very rare character, at all times, in aH countries, and un- 
der all forms of governyicnt. The sqrlptnres represent every unre" 
netoed man, as pYouH, and disposed to resist all authority over him. 
Yet most nten in civilired states are so sensible of the benefits of sub- 
ordination, that they are ready to defend *• every ordinance of man,'* 
provf4ed fhey themselves may but have a share of the nding power, 
They;will even be obedient for wfalh, but none but the real christian 
wiU be so ft>r (onse'unce^ #ake Jf then many of those who, frofn their^ 
talents and rank, have great influence in the country, were not by 
6ome means gratified, and thus engaged to support the government 
fcr their own advantage : it would soon be overthrown by the united 
eflfbfts of 'ambic ion, and avarice, and pride, and revenge. The^ mi- 
nister, therefore, who^)las the ^dress, seasonabfy to confer a fivourfc 
»vold -a greater evil; ought no more to be charged with int^, than 
the )4iyjieian does with poisoning, vrhen he ai, ministers a rr opiate, 'lir 
all^y tlic irritation of his patient. Doujbtkfis, it is the boUndeo duty, 
of ibergOYcrnmeiit to adopt the stri^ttst eeoflomy > bui the total abo^ 

t litiof^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Custance on the Comtiukion of England. 269 

Ktion of pennons and sinecures would not be poKtic, if practicfaMe. 
The burdens of the state, indeed, would probably be no m^rc light«> 
ened by such a measure, than a first-rate ship distresiied ^in a Horoa 
would be, by the officers throwing overboard theo- pocktt vmKf 
WEiA tfinkett.' ' 

That this corrupt cant shojiild be circuhted. among t^e midi 
dling and lower ranks is oiie of the most alarming symptoms 
in the present state of the country. Where is the reasoning 
to stop ? Bribing in voters at an election may be preache4 
up as a religious duty ; and why may not the same or stmilsMr 
means be adopted " for preserving , the peace of corporatmi9, 
parishes, mercantile partnerships, and even domestic associa- 
tions ? The dangers of Methodism, in various points of view, 
have been often and ably pointed oat : but we 4irc here 
enabled to contemplate it in a new character,*— 'as the avowed 
advocate and slave of Mammon, endeavouring to durow the 
cloak of evangelical Christianity over the foulest and meanest 
abuses of worldly wisdom. Inapplicable scriptural quotations, 
and scraps of holy writ, are foisted on us in every page of 
this work with a puritanical pertinacity which some rea4ers will 
think is irreverent, and all will consider as ridiculous. Thus 

* the best soluticMi of thd difficulty' (respecting the origin of 
government) * is given in few words by an inspired writer, 
who affirms that " the powers that be are ordained of God/ 
—Again, this holy man (Mr. Custance, nbt St. Peter) treating 
of the revenue, after having averred that <it is but rc.sonabte 
that the people, who derive the benefit resulting from this 
ordinance of Gody should contribute towards the defraying ^ 
the unavoidable public expenditure,* proceeds to remark thaqt 

* this should be done with chearfulness, because * rulers are 
God's ministers attending continually on this very thing t* — 
Attending continually on the means of raising revenue frorti 
the people! A very strange ^ reason for contentment an& 
chearfulness on the part of the said people ! 

Perhaps we liave dwelt too long on this publicatioh : but 
we confess that, at this particular period, every treatise, bow- 
ever imperfect, on the constitution of England, which may 
by possibiUty bias the opinions and regulate the feelings of 
even the lowest classes of our countrymen, appears to us 'so 
deeply important, that we can scarcely persuade ourselves tx> 
quit the subject. That this constitution must owe its per- 
manence to a timely reform has been long ago demonstrated 
by Chatham and by Fox j and the necessity of that reforrti 
has been the favourite doctrine of all honest politicians for the 
last, thirty years, the leading principle of all the eminent 
members of the party now excluded from power, ^and the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

fLjo PiUoj^ Transaeti$ns> of the R. $* Psrt ItforiioS* 

great bond of union among all those who, from disinterested 
motives, have adhered to ^heir vicissitudes of fortune. Recent 
detections aiid exposures have still more fuUjr manifested this 
i^ecessityj of which a larger and more respectable body of the 
people have by them been made sensible, than ever before 
appeared in its favour. Is it possible that, at such a moment, 
^d contemplating the known alternative, the Whigs of 
England can be guilty of a dereliction of that important 
principle, to which their honour as individuals is thus solemnly 
pledged, and in which the peaceable continuance of a free 
^constitution in England is inseparably involved ? 


Art. VL Phihfophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London^ 
for the Year i8o8. Part II. 410. 14s. 6d. sewed^ Nicol. 

' Naturai. History, Surgery, /j«^ Chemistry. 

Litter on the Alterationi that have taken place in the Structure 
of Rocks^ on the Surface of the Basaltic Country in the 
Counties of Down and Antrim. Addressed to Humphrey Davy, 
. .£sq. Sec. R. S. by Wm. Richardson, D.D. — The Reverend 
writer of this letter, who is an inhabitant of the country 
which he describes, and who seems to have examined its 
'peculiarities with great attention, here proposes to investigate 
the natural causes which have produced those singular ap- 
pearances, that have so long rendered the coast of Antrim an . 
object of curiosity to the scientific traveller. For an extent 
• of several miles, the land is bounded by an abrupt and very 
lofty precipice, the front of which is composed of immetise 
tasaltic columns, of the most regular structure; occasionally 
.interrupted by breaks, and intersected by horizontal strata of 
^different materials. The number of horizontal strata which 
.Xnay be distinctly traced is ten j and Dr. Richardson informs 
us tliat each of them .preserves very rfearly the same thickness 
.through its whole extent, their upper and lower surfaces 
"Wng jexactiv parallel to each other. He also renlafks that, 
.where'any cnange occurs iri the disposition of the strata, tfie 
altieration taikes place ./>^r saltum, as he expresses 'it, and^ not 
^gradually 5 tliat the facades are formed by vertical sections of 
^ the upper strata, while the lower part is steep, but fiot per- 
pendicular ; that the bases extend a considerable way'' into 
;me ,sea J, ah^ that wherever ^ these yj^f^orr/^j- present thetfiselves, 
'ij^einaterlalswlifch. might be supposed to have'^for'ftied^ the 
4j5jntinuatibn of tixe strata are entirely carried away; ' ' 
. .ipaving^ established these positions by an accurate examina- 

■' tlWi5Jf the featureis which tjie basaltic region linifdrrhly exhibits, 

;- - ^ '^. .^ ^. ... . . .. _.. ^.. ^ _ . . ^ .... jj. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Piilo^ Transactions of the R. S. Part TLfor 1808. 571 

Dr. Richardson, waiving the discussion concerning the original 
formation of these rocks, proceeds to inquire by what means 
they obtained their present arrangement. Many circum- 
stances render . it probable that the basaltic columns extended 
beyond the present fdgadesy and that the breaks were once 
occupied by a continuation of the strata which occur on each 
3ide of them. He argues that these changes could not hare 
been produced by any cause operating in the bowels of the 
«arth, since in this case the strata would have been broken 
into parts, which would have had various oblique directions, 
instead of that regular parallelism which they now preserve. 
It 4oes not seem probable that the action of water, coveting 
the whole surface of the globe, or the*- currents of rivers, 
or the gradual decomposition of the materials, could have 
produced the present appearances, where large parts are 
entirely carried off, while other large parts still remain exactly 
in their original state. It seems, indeed, almost impossible 
not to conclude that what we now see are parts of the original 
masses left behind, without any alteration, and that the in- 
tervals were once filled up with similar strata, which have 
been swept away by some powerful but unknown agent. — On - 
th^ whole. Dr. R.'s paper, although not profound, may be 
/considered as interesting *, and if not completely satisfactory^ 
it is at least less vague than the majority of geological specula- 
tions. Two perspective views accompany and illustrate it. 

ji Letter on the Differences in the Structure of Calculi^ tvhich 
arise from their being formed in afferent 'Parts of the Urinary 
Passages 5 and on the Affects which are produced upon them^ bf 
the internal Use of solvent Medicines^ frorn Mr, William Brands 
to Everard Homey Esq. F. R. S. S ome Observations on Mr, 
Braiide's Paper on Calculi. By Everard Home, Esq, F. R. S* 
^-Mr. Brande, having bad an opportunity of examining the 
large collection of calculi contained in the Uunterian mu- 
seum, has formed some conclusions which are rather dif- 
ferent from those, that are generally adopted on this subject, 
and are such as must in some measure affect our treatment 
pf patients labouring under calculous complaints. He ar- 
ranges them both according to the part of the body in which 
they are formed, and according to their chemical constitution- 
Calculi produced in the kidneys are generally composed' of 
nearly pure uric acid, although sometimes mixed whh. th^ 
phosphoric salts ; while the calculi of the urinary bladiiierj 
which are by far the most frequent, . consist of uric acid, of 
the phosphates, or of oxalate of lime : but it frequently hap- 
pens that the nucleus of the calculus is of a different nature 
from. the incrustation which has formed around it. Those- of 
14 pure 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

rjZ JPhiJes^. Trxmmfiens of the R. S. Part IL for % 8o8. 

{Hire vsK acid w^re found to be of rate oceMn^enoe i tbeae ih 
whkh ihe wric 9cid aivi . the phosphates ave united were ibe 
mo^t C9n\mon ; and tho^ of oxalate of lime were the least 
frequeatt. The mwnbej which Mn Braiide examined was 150* 

With respect to the remedies whkh may be employed for 
dissolving , these concretions^ the researches of Mr. Brande 
certainly lead us to eittertain great doubts of their e&cacy. 
It unfortunately happens that tlK>se substances wiiich prevail in 
the constitution of calculi, viz. the iinc acid and the ptvosphates, 
require precisely opposite mcJes of treatment, the firat being 
soluble by alkalies, and the latter by acids. It must ako be 
remembered that, independently of the actual solution of the 
calculi, their formation is promoted or retarded by th^ exiu;- 
bition of these substances ; a long course of alkaline medkinee 
would favour the deposition of the pliosphates, while a long 
course of acids mi^t increase the prcnluctionof the urk acid. 

Mr. Home seems to acquiese fully in Mr. Brande's reasoci'> 
ing, a;id supports his conclusions by some striking facts 5 in 
which, after death, the bladder was found fuU a£ calculoiis 
concretions, ia some subjects that had been brought forHtrards 
as iixstances of the power of particular solvents. 

0» the Changes produced in atmospheric Air and Oxygen Gas 
by Respiration. By W. Alhn, Esq. F. R. S. atid W. H. Pepys^ 
£sq F.R^S — ^This valuable paper is comprized almost tetitiriBly 
of a series of experiments, made with the view of ascertaining 
the change produced in atmospheric air by passing tkrougn 
ihe lungs- The apparatus employed ooiisisted of a tiirge 

Eneter connected with two others of a smaUer sizer The 
ganometer, which was capable of containing 4^00 /^ubic 
js, held the gas which was to be made thwe subjecf of 
experiments '^ the air was inhaled uito the hmgs froAi Sr? 
and it was expired into the smaUer gasometers, caioe beiilg 
taken that all communication between the two was cut o^ 
JFor the precautions which were adopted to ensure tie 
accuracy of the pipcess, and for the results of the indisridtnd 
^X|)«rim0nt8, we must refer to the piper : but we must 
observe that they appe^ to hare been coi^ucted M^kdi ^nnssuai 
fikUl and. assiduity ; and we can state some of the moat ^im* 
portant conclusions that may be deduced IromLifrhem* 

The quantity of csurbonic atcid discharged is. evactliy equal t^ 
the 03tygen received into the lungs ; atmo^heric air that has 
oncie passed, through the lungs returns charged with (8 -or- %\ 
pet ceitt. of carboxiie add gas j and when tl^ .air is %eftpti«rf 
as frequently as may be passible, ;^e carbDnhrackl gn»-it*«e»ttr 
increased bay<md xo per cent. 'The average, quantity** xtf 
caducoiic acid gas disdia^^^ by a^middk med mTO^itML^ 
:, ^ - hours 

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kours is nearly 40>ooo cubic inches^ llie carbon in wluch , 
would be rather more than 1 1, ounces Troy. When the sianie 
air is respired with the utmost possible fr^uency, a larger 
quantity of oxgen is consumed than is employed in the for- 
mation of the carbonic acid gas ; stnd a more than ordinary 
quantity of carbonic acid gas is formed when oxygen is respired 
instead of atmospheric air. It does not appear that any hy- 
drogen is involved during the process of respiration ; nor have 
we any reason to suppose that water is generated in the 
lungs, by the union of its constituent parts. It seems doubt- 
ful whether the buJk of the air be diminished by respiration, 
the diminution which seemed to take place in these experi- 
ments not being more than six parts in 1000 ; and even this 
small deficiency may perhaps be ascribed to some imperfection 
in the nature of the experiment. 

Although we would not go so far as to say that we agree 
with the authors in every one of their conclusions, or that we 
conceive all their experiments to be completely decisive, yet 
we readily acknowlege that we have seldom f erused a paper 
on a physiological subject which has given us more satisfao^ 
tion, in which the experime^nts have been performed in a more 
unexceptionable manner, or in which the deductions from 
them have been made /with more candor and propriety. 

Descriptum tf an Apparatus for the Anaksis of the Compound 
Inflammable Gases by slow Combustion ; with Experiments on the 
Gas from Coalj explaining its Application. By "William Henry, 
M*I). &c. of Manchester. — We have had occasion, more 
than-once, to refer to the curious discovery which appears to 
hav6 been originally made by Mr. Murdoch, of the lummous 
gaf that is procured by the distillation of coal; Although its, 
general properties had been tolerably well ^ascertained, yet 
softie circumstances remained, connected with its constitution, 
which required farther investigation ;» and we were happy to 
observe that the subject had fallen into the hands of one whd 
is so well qualified for the undertaking as Dr. Henry. The 
difficuhy attending this inquiry depends principally on the 
compound nature of the product evolved from the coal 5 which, 
it seems, «nay consist, according to circumstances, of six different 
ga$es, u^ted to each other in various proportions ; carbonic acid 
gas, carbonic OKyd, sulphureted hydrogen, carbureted hydrogen^ 
the olefiant gas, and pure hydi-ogen. — As it would not be easy 
to render intell^ible any description of the apparatus, without 
a reference to the plate, we shall proceed to notice some of die 
coHcIttstonis which the author deduces from his ^experiments. 

The dtefiant, the sulphureted hydrogen, and the carbonic . 
Uii gasesi are pro4uced in, a. small quantity, and ohly at thd 
^ R^. JubT^ 1809. T commenceiBent 

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commencement of the operation : but it is observed^ particif^ 
larly with respect to the first of these bodies, that their relative 
quantities are much influenced by the temperature employed. 

• The gas which is formed by the aistillatjon of coal imde^goes 
a gradual diminution of specific gravity and combustibUity, 
from^the commenceijient to the close of the process j and it 
appears that these two qualities are nearly proportional : so 
that, by ascertaining the specific gravity of* any portion of 
coal-gas. We may form a sufficiently accurate judgment olF its 
illuminating power. The carbonated hydrogen, gas, which 

. composes by far the largest part of the product of the distil- 
lation, does not seem precisely to resemble any of the inflam- 
mable gases which have been hitherto described. Whether 
it be a specific compound of carbon and hydrogen, or whether 
it consist of variable proportions of these elements, are quesr 
tions which de nof appear to be clearly ascertained. The 
\yigan cannel coal is the species vhich gives out the greatest 
proportion of inflammable gas : but it unfortunately h^ipens 

• tlKit it also yields the largest quantity of sulphureted hy*- 
drogen. Dr. Henry observes that simple washing wjth water 
is not sufficient to deprive the gas of this ingredient •, wliich 
can only be completely efi^ected by agitating it with a thick 
cream of quick lime and water. 

jin Account of some Peculiarities in the anatomical Structure 
cfthe Wombat y with Observations on the female Organs of Genera- 
tion. By Everard Heme, Esq. F. R, S. — This animaF, which 
was discovered in the southern parts of New Holland^ has 
already been described by M. Geoffroy and M. Cuvier : but 
Mr. Home, having had an opportunity of examining it, has 
made some additionar observations, which form the subject 
of this paper. The structure of its posterior extremities is 
singular; it has no patella ; and the fibula is prdpoitionably 
of- great size. With respect to the female Organs of genera- 
tion, it possesses two uteri, each furnished with one Fallopian 
iube ; a circumstance in which it resembles the Oposfum. 
The ovum, while in the uterus, has no placenta, biit it is 
surrounded by a gdatinous substance, which appears^ to 
perform the office of the former. The stomach is most* like 
that of the beaver, and is considerably different from that of 
the Opossum ; to which, in other respects, the Wombat appears 
the' most allied. . _ 

: On the Origin , and Officf cf/thi Alhxtrnum^of^ritu In a 
JLetterfrom T. A\ Knight^.. Bsq. F* R. S. to iSir Joeepb ^anks^ 
Bart. K.B. P* R^ A— -From the title of this paper, our 
leaders will "perceive that Mr- Knight is contirtuiag his 
researches on the subject, ofv^tatle physiology. After 
. ^ • ; haying 

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^Philos. Transactions df the R. S. Part 11. for iHoB. 275 

having proved, in a former memoir, that bark is not convertlbk 
into alburnum, but that alburnum is deposited from the bark» 
he now inquires into the uses of this latter substance^ and 
particularly of the perpendicular tubes with which it is 
furnished. He conceives that tlieir office is to serve as re- 
servoirs for the lodgment of the sap, until it is carried off by 
the cellular texture, and distributed to the different parts of the 
plant. He supposes^ ako, that the sap ascends through the 
cellular texture, and that its motion is effected by the alternate 
expansion and contraction of this substance ; 

' If the sap be raiFcd in the maimer I have suggested, much of ft 
wiH probably accumulate in the alburnum lu the spring; because the 
powers of vegetable life are, at that period, more active than at any 
other season ; and the leaves arc not ih<m prepared to throw off any part 
of it by transpiration. And the cellular sMbstance, being then filled^ 
may discharge a part of its contents into the alburnous tubes, which 
again become reservoirs, aod are filled to a greater pr less height, in 
proportion to the vigour of the tree, and the state of the soil and 
seacpn : and if the tubes which arc thus filled be divided, the sap will 
flow out of them, and the tree will be said to bleed. But as sogn at 
the leave* are unfolded, and begia to execiue their oSce, the sap 
will ,be dra\yn from i^s reservoirs^ and the tree will cease to bleed, if 
wounded.' , 

£leciro^jchemicaJ Researches on tie Decomposition 'of the Earths ; 
with Observations on the Metals obtained from the aliuiline. Earths ^ t 
and on the Amalgam procured from Ammonia ; by H^Davy, Efq. 
Sec. R. S. M- R^ LA. — In. our former numbers,, wie have 
given an account of Mr. Davy's brilliant discovery of the com- • 
positipa of the alkalies by the applicatbn of the electric . 
energy ; and we have now to detail a continuation of his 
iabpurs in the application of the same agent to the earths. 
The former arrangement was not altogether successful in the 
present instance \ and several trials T/ere necessary, before the 
effects could be rendered sufficiently distinct.. Mr.Diivy's 
perseverance,, however, conquered every obstacle 5 anil, -with 
resjkect xxx the alkaline earths, the results jof his' experiments 
arejaearly as satisfactory as in the^ase of the alkalies tbem- 
' selves. The jearth on which, he operated, having been slightly 
moistened,, was mixed with a metallic oxyd,.and then subject* 
,ed to the a^pn of. the wires \ when an amalgam adhered to 
the negative wire, which appeared to consist of meaxury 
united, to ^th^ ttjetallic bji^e. of the earth that hadi been em- 
^pioyeA.. -A still more- perfect jnethod of obtatni»g the base 
of. tte alkaline earthy was. suggested by Prof JJre^eliiw 5 a 
^l^biifeof mercury, was ij^ade to ^t on.tbe earth sUghtly 
jpbisten^^.and ti^stiu^ on ajjlate of platiaai i n \Aich case. 

2']6 Philos. Transactions of the R.S. Bart 11. for iSoffi 

as in the former^ the mercury became less fluid and amalga- 
'matizedy as it appeared, with the ear^ on which the experiment 
was performed. By distillation^ a part of the mercury was 
driven off, while the metat was left behind : but it did liot ^^ 
seem possible entirely to separate it from the mercury, so as 
to be able to examine it in a state of perfect purity. 

Alumine and silex were not decomposible . by the same 
process which had been applied to the alkaline earths : but, by 
a different arrangisment, the object was at last partially 
obtained.^ They were fused with potash, and theh negatively 
^l^ctnfied \ and in this state they were touched by a positive 
wire, when a kind of explouve effect was produced, and the 
wire became dotted wiA brilliant metallic scales, which 
seemed to be the metallic basis of the earth. — ^Respecting the 
earths 'in general, althbugh the proofs of their composition 
cannot be deemed quite so clearly made out i^ that of the^ 
alkalies, yet we see no reasonable cause for doubting the 
justice jDf Mr. Davy's conclusions regarding them. 
AsTRONG^T and Hydraulics. 
Observations of a Comety thade with a View to investigate its 
Magnitude and the Nature of its Illumination, To which is 
added f an Account of a new Irregularity lately perceived in the- 
apparent figure of ^he Planet Saturn. By William Herschel, 
LL.D. F.R.SM^-^This paper contains no observations relative 
to the metien ot the comet, but is entirely devoted to the 
subjects specified in the title. Dr. Herschel pursues his 
antient mode f4 journalizings and on this occasion we are 
not disposed to complain of it 5 since several persons, who 
viewed the remarkable comet of 1807, will thus have an. 
opportunity of comparing their observations with those of Dr. 
H;, though no very important conclusions can be expected ta^ 
follow froni such comparison. , 

A^ripcipal ^object with Dr. H., and an object not easily 
.fuHUled, was to ascertain the m^nitude of the nucleus of the 
i^om^t J the nucleus being, according to his definition, ' that 
•part of the head which appears to be a condensed or solid 
"body, and in which none of the very bright coma is included.* 
*By two methods, the magnitude was ascertained 5 the first 
* consisting in a comparison of the disk with small sealing-wax 
globules, placed on a post 2422 inches from the object mirror 
-of Dr. H,'6 ten-feet-reflector ; a mode which is liable to un- 
certainty and objection, because the observed magnitude of 
the dist was compared with the recollected magnitude bf the 
•globules^ Jn the second method, a direct comparison wa» 
made of the disk of .the conxet with the disk of one of 
Jupiter's Satellites ^ wd the- telescopes employed fo* the 

I I purpose 

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.' • 

imrpose of making this Comparison had, generally, a power ^ 
ittle above 200. From a due consideration of die observa^ 
tions, the circumstances attending them, and some slight 
necessary computation, Dr. H. concludes that the real dia* 
meter is 538 miles. With regard td the illumiaation, he 
«ays : 

* Having thus investigated the magnitude of our comet, w^ may 
in the next place alspipply calculation to its iUumination. The ob- 
servations relating to the light of the comet were made, from the 4th 
of October to the ipth. In ajf which time the comet uniformly pre» 
ferved the appearance of a planetary disk fully cnlighteoed by th€ 
«un : It was every where/equally bright, round, and well defined on 
its borders. Now as that part of the disk which was then visible to 
UEb could not possibly have a full illuroioation fr^m the sun, 1 have 
calculated the phases of the comet for^he 4th and fpr.the 19th, the 
result of which \%y that on the 4th the illumination was 119° 45' 9'% 
and that on the 19th it had gradually increased to \%a^ i% 40"* 
Both phases appear to me 6U&ciently defalcated, to prove fhat the 
comet did not shine by light reflected from the sun only : fur bad 
this been the case, the deficiency I think would have been perceived. 
notwithstanding the smalluess of the object. Those who are ac< 
^^uainted with my experiments on small silver globules *, will easily 
admit, that the same^eltscopcj. which could shew the spherical form 
of balls^ which subtended only a few tenths of a second in diameter,. 
would surely not have represented a cpmetary disk as ciicular, if il 
had been as deficient as are the figures which give the calculated ap^ 

• * Tf these remarks are well founded, wc are authorised to conclude, 
that the body of the comet on its surface is self-luminous, from what- 
ever cause this quality may be derived. The vivacity of the ^ight of 
the comet also, had a much greater resemblance to the radiance of 
the stars, than to the mild reflection of the sun's beams from ^the 
moon, which is an additional support of our former inference. 

* The changes in the brightness of the small stars, when they arc 
successively immerged in thf tail or coma of th^ comet, or cleared 
from them, prove evidently, that they are sufficiently dense to obi 
struct the free passage of star light. Indeed if the taDl 01 coma were 
composed of particles that reflect the light of the sun, to make theni 
visible we ought rather to expect, that the number of solid reflecting 
particles, required for this purpose, would entirely prevent our seeing 
any stars through them. But the brightness of the head, coma, and 
tail alone, will sufficiently account for the observed changes, if we 
admit that they shine not by reflection, but by their own radiance ; 
for ^ faini object projected on a bright ground, or seen through it, 
wil} certainly appear somewhat fainter, although its rays should meet 
with no obstruction in coming to the eye. Now^ as in this case, we 
pre sure of the bright interposition of the parti of the comet, but 
have no knowledge of floating particles, we ought certainly, not to 

* • ^e Phil. Trans, fpr l8oc, page 38, the Jth experiment* • 

T 9 ^^MjHl^ascribc 

iji Phi/os. Transactions of the R. S. Part it for 1 808. 

ascribe an effect to an' hvpothetical cau(>e» when the existence ef onc^ 
quite snfficfcnt to explain tlie phenomena, is evident. 

' * If «^c admit that the observed fnll iflumination of the dtsk of the 
conaet cannot be accounted for from reflection, v/t may drai* the 
fame concKision, whh respect to th« brightness of the head, coma^ ^ 
andtait, fiom the following consideration, /t'he observation of' the 
jd of February mentiorts that not only the head and coma .were still 
▼cry bright, BWit that also the tint remains of the tail were still vi-^ 
Bible ; but the distance of the comet from the earth, iat the time of . 
observation, was nearty ^40, millions of miles*, which proves, t ^ 
think, that no light reflected from ^oating particles could possibly 
kave reached the eye, without supposing the number, extent, and 
density of these particles, far greater than what can be admitted. 

* My last observation of the comct> on the ? 1 st of February, gfivcs 
addnional support to what has been said ; for at the time of this ob- 
servation, tlicComet was almost 2,9 times the mean distanceof the Sun 
from the earth j-.' ,It was also nearly 2,7 from the sun X* What chance 
then could ray^ going to the comet from thesun, at such a di&tance,have 
to b^ seen after reflection, by an eye placed at more than 275 millions 
C(f miles § from the-comet ? And yet the instant the comet made its 
appearance in the telescope, it struck the eye as a very conspicuous 
object.* ' ^ 

The iatter part of this, inemoir relates to a subject whick 
has for sotue years occupied Dn H.*s attention, namely the 
figure of the planet Saturn. The astronomical world was as-. 
tonished, when it was first anhoiinced to' them by the Doctor 
that the equatorial parts of Saturn did not bulge out, but wpre ' 
Hattehed J and the phaenomehon is so cootrary to that which 
might be' expected to happen from the CiTect of rotation, /and 
from the attraction oi the planet's ring, that, without incurring 
the charge of ojbstinate and blameable incredulity, we may 
venture to doubt. the existence of the fact stated, till it has 
been verified by more numerous observations'. Dr. TH. will 
no doubt multiply his examinations; afid indeed he was, for 
the very purpose of ascertaining the ' phenomenon, observing 
Saturn when he remarked the new pbanomendti of a difference irt 
its two 'polar regions^ On June r6, 1807, he perceived that v 
die solithern regions were more curved, or bulged outivard^^ 

for this ph«nomenon, however, pr. H. does not seem iur 
clined to account on any 'principles of material attraCti(9Q, sinc^ . 
he calls it an illusion \ and it is t)roperly an illusion, if the 
cause which he . suggests be the true caus^. The ra'y« of 

* * •.^894939.' . ; ' 

« f' 1 he »\ni\* naean distance being t, that of the comet was 

* J" The comet's distance from the sun was 2,683>i^5;^ 


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Bglit from the southern regions of the planet to the specta^ 
toi^^s eye pass very closely to the edge of tfie ring; and thejr 
may be infected by the edge, or refracted by it^ surrounding 
atmosphere. The last is imagined by Dr. H. to he the. ca«ei 
and he thinks that his, Supposition is somewhat confirmed by » 
one of his former obsetvations, (see Phil. Trans^ 1790, p. 7«) 
when the smallest satellites of Saturn were seen (as it ^cre^ 
bisected, by the narrow luminous line under which the ring 
appeared when the earth was nearly in tlie phne of it. ' ' 

Hydraulic Investtgatiom^ subservient to an Intended Croonian 
Lecture on the Motion of the Blood, By Thomas Young,, M.D. 
For, Sec. R.S. -^These discussions relate to die mechanic4 
principles of the circulation of the blood ; and accordingly the 
author has found it necessary to investigate the motioB of fluids 
in pipes as affected by friction, the laws of tlie propagation of 
an impulse through the fluid contained in an elastic tube, the 
magnitude of pulsation in various parts of a conical -vessel, and 
the effect of a contraction advancing through the length bf at 
given canal. The mathematical part of thisMiscussion is con- 
tained in the present paper, and the physiological is reserved 
for a future occasion. 

In the Encyclopedia Britannica^ we find an extensive Tmd in- 
teresting article on Rivers, written (as it is acknowlegfsdto 
have been) by the late Professor Robison : in which the chief 
^im of the writer is to explain and confirm the theory of M. 
Bttat, as it is delivered in his HydrauUqtu ; and indeed from 
this article all our knowlege of M. du Buat's labours is derived, 
because we possess not his work. It would lead us very far 
beyond our boundaries to explain the plan and construction of 
M. Buat's system ; but we are persuaded that we shall do a 
kind office by recoinmending to our mathematical readers a 
perusal of the article Rivers, It will be difficult to point out 
such another specimen of a cautious, refined, and dextrous ap- 
plication of the language of Mathematics to.Pbysics. 

Among the important formulx given by M. Buat, one ex- 
presses the velocity of water flowing in a pipe. If F be the 
i?iean velocity, d the mean hydraulic depth, s the slope of the 
pipe^ ^ =12 X 82 inches, n ^ number determined from exper 
riment and = 243.7^ then 

To this formula of computation Dr. Young objects, because 
k Is not very convenient for practice 5 and because, \«^hich is 
mofe material, in extreme cases, (that is, when the tube is 
^jfher extremely narrpw or extremely long,) it Is completely 

T 4 erroneous? 

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erroneous : anoidiv formuh is therefore substituted^ which is 
thus obtained : — if we denote by / the height necessary to 
overicome friction, by d and / the diameter and length of a 
pipe> and assume a and c as arbitrary quantities, then 

I5r. Y. states that he wa^ justified in assuming this formula, 
because, from certain experiments, (which, however, he does 
;not relate^) he found that the friction could not be expressed 
by any single power of the velocity, but appeared to consist of 
two parts, the one varying simply as the velocity, the other as 
its square. 

The parts of the coefficients of v* and v, that is, — , are 

rightly assumed, because the friction will vary as the length of 
the pipe and inversely as its diameter : the other pares, a and 
<> are numerically exhibited in this paper, and determined, we 
suppose, from experiment. These being ascertained, the 
whole height of water, composed (according to the ingenious 
principle of M. Buat) of two heights, one due to the friction, 
reilstance, &c., the other necessary for producing the actual 

velocity with which the water flows, is equal toy+ -^; 

or, according to Dr. Young, more nearly =/ + . Hence^ 

if we call h the height, and put for / its value, we have , 

If this quadratic be solved, and if * be put for ^ q-^ ^^^z a 
and e for "A-x we shaH have 

which is Ae form that Dr. Y. regards as more convenient for 
practice than that of M. Buat, and, with the determination df 
his arbitrary qu<ititities^ more nearly agreeing with the results 
of experiment. 

In order to compare his formula with that of Buat, Dr^ 
Young gives at page i(S8, &c. a tabular view of both; and 
he then adds : 

« Jt appcars/rom this comparison* that lA the forty experiments 
extracted .from the coUection, which served as a basis for jOwbuat's. 
cafculations, the mean error of bis formula \^ ^ of the wbolc velo- 
city, and tbat oi mint -i^ onl^ ; but if we 6mittTie four expcnmciits, 
in which the superficial velocity oply of a river w^ts observed, and ^ 


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which 1 hate cdcolated the mean VclpcUy by B[ci^ua(*€ rules, the 
mtan error of the rcmaioing 36 is ^Kp according to my mod^ of cal^ 
culation, and -^^ accordiog to M. Duhuat's; so that oa the whole* 
the accuracy tof the two lormulae may be considered as precisely equal 
with respect to these experin^cnts. In the six experiments which 
Dubuat has wholly rejected, the mean error of his formula is about 
,'5, and that of mine ^\. In fifteert of Gerstfter's experiments, the 
mean error of Dubuat's rule is one third, that of mine one fourtfi ; 
and in the three experiments which I made ^ith. very fine tubes, the 
error of my own rules is one fifteenth of the whole, while in such 
cases Dubuat's formulae completely fail. I have detern^jned, the 
mean error by adding together the logarithmic ratios of all the re- 
sults, and dividing the sum by the number of experiments. It wbuld 
be useless to seek for a much greater degree of accuracy, unless it were 
probable that the errors 0/ the experiments themselves were less thrni 
those of the calculations ; but if a sufficient number of extremely ac- 
curate and frequently repeated experiments could be obtainetf; it 
would be very possible' to adapt my formula slill more correctly to 
their results/ 

Dr. Young promises to pursue this subject m a future paper; 
and we hope that he will then be more explicit, will etitef 
more into detail, and will shew with greater argument why the 
friction (which term, we suppose, he intends to denote the sum 
of the various resistances that arise from the contact of tht 
fluid with the sides of the vessel, from the viscidity of the 
fluid, &c.) may properly be expressed by such a form as 

It appears to us that several other formulx besides the ahovd 
may give mere approximate results, and such as nearly agrte 
with experiments. Why should not a formula such as av^ 9 

+ bv^'^ + c y^''^ + &c. express the height due to the 
friction? We see much ground for caution an(J doubt i4 
these investigations j and although we by no means intend tq 
say that the form av"^ -{- bv is untrue, yet we could wisl^ 
that it had been more particularly verified,. 

We have on former occasions expressed a desire, which we 
now repeat, that Dr. Y. would more considerately attend to 
the convenience of his readers. He is not suflSckntly plain 
and explicit. He alludes to books, instead hi specifically 
referring to them. Half the matheniaticians and philoso- 
phers of England are unacquainted with the researclies of 
Buat, and the explanatory commentary of Robison. Dr. 
Young has, indeed, in nis work dn Natural Philosophy, 
published an admirable and most useful catalogue of authors 
find matters : but is he thus absolved from all futuije refer- 
^ces? ' 


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Wtea Dr. Y. says ttKit he has only followed M. Buat In 
his mode of considering a part ©f the height of a given reser- 
voir, as due to the friction of the pipe, he appears to make 
rathi^ too slight an acknowlegmeflt 5 and we wish that he had 
particularly exposed, in the two instances to which he alludes, 
M. Buat^ mistakes, instead of saying that they were so 
obvious that to overthrow them scarcely required an argurtient . 
These arguments, which lie so. near to the surface, and have 
so little to effect when made to emerge, are with us generally 
the most difficult to find out. 

The remaining parts of the paper, which we have not mayf 
an opportutiity of minutely examining, are on the resistance 
due to flexure in pipes, the propagatioh of an impxtlse' through 
an elastic tube, the magnitude oiF a diverging . pulsation at 
different points, and the effect of a contraction advancing 
"through a canal. 

Eclipses of the Satellites of Jupiter ^ observed by John Golding- 
* hsiTCXfEsq. F*R,S. and under his Superirttendance, at Madras 
in th^ Bast Indies. — ^The eclipses of Jupiter's^'Satellites are put » 
down in the Nautical Almanack, to enable observers to de- 
termine the longitude of places : but, from the errors of the 
tables, the difference of longitude betvi^een Greenwich and the 
place of observation cannot be obtained with any great degree 
of accuracy.; and on this account Dr. Maskelyne, in the 
explanation of the use of the Ephenieris, recomi^ends, if it 
can be effected, the comparison of a correspondent observa- 
tion mad^ under a well known meridian, with an observation 
made in a meridian (rf" which the longitude is required. This 
plan is more certain than the niethod by the calculations in 
the Ephemeris ; of which Mr. Goldingham is aware ; and 
he adds, also, that the correspondent observations, when great' 
accuracy is attempted, should be made under like cutum- 
stances, and with telescopes of the same poweirs. This latter 
iondition is not easily attained ; and the author remarks : 

* It may not be an easy matter to have telescopes at both places 
of precisely the same powers for these observations : at Madras we ha4, 
two tel^scopfcs in ii^e, constructed at tile «?ame time, in appearance 
precisely ahKC, and intended by Dollpndto have been so in all respects ; 
yet on repeated tn'allf one was found to have a decided advalitage of 
several ecconds over the other, shewing the emersions sooner* and 
the immeraioira later by that quantity. In onfcr to dp away the er- 
ror arising from a difference m the powers of .^elescopes* immer^mt 
Zfid 4mi?dont should be observed at both places; ihe difference of 
longitude will he as much greatj^ than it ought to be by one series, 
as lc»€» by the otlier, but the medium will be the correct difference df 
longitude of tlie places : it is possible also there may be some differ- 

'■•■■*- " ' -'■ elide 


LecIdeV Survey of Foreign Affairs. 283 

ence in the cyet of obtervcrs, any trfor which toay arise from thit 
source will bIso be don« away by tkil method. 

* Hence it would appear^ that in order to obtain a correct di£fer« 
ence^of kengitude of two placet ^om correspondent eclipses of die 
sateliites of Jupiter, the circumstances, at both places should be simi- 
lar and favourabU ; and that the telescopes 8houl4ha^'e equal powers^ 
or that both immersions and emersions should be ob.^erved, which in- 
deed ought always to be done, where time will admit ; also, that the 
circumstanccfi being favourable at one place and not poat the other, a 
result very different from the truth will be obtained.* • 

This papec contains seven pages of observations \ the las^ 
column expressing the longitude of Madras, as computed from 
observations and the tables. By numerous obsewations of 
various kinds, Mr. G. estimates the longitude of Madras at 
5^ :^i* 14* or So** \^ j8" East of Greenwich. 

Part I, of the philosophical Transactions for 1809 has 
just appeared^ 

Art VII. Jin Historical Survey of the Foreign AJairs of Great Brl- , 
talm^ with a View to explain che Causes of the Disat^t'ers of t^e 
late and present Wars, fiy Gould Francis Leckie, Esq. Svo# 
pp.291. 6s. 6d. sewed. Bell. 1808. 

TE karn from this work that its author visited Greece ,so 
far back as 1 790, and has passed in various quarters of 
the Mediten-anean almost the whole of the long period which 
has since intervened. In Sicily, particularly, he resided seven 
years; and he ranks, it seems, among the landholders of that 
island. His book comprizes nearly three hundred closely 
printed pages, and consists of a variety of Tracts written at 
diffisrent times, from January 1806 to October 1808": which are 
partly letters- addressed to persons at that time in public 
stations in the Mediterranean, (the Generals Fox, Sir John 
Stuart, and Sir John Moore, and Mr. Drummond,) and partly, 
disquisitions committed to writing at. various dates, but not 
circulated till the publication pf diis volume. The object of 
these extensive labours is to point out the errors of out 
Government in the conduct of the late as well as the present 
war, and to suggest different views on the part of the author.. . 
His general purport is to advise that we should by no means 
tie ourselves to an implicit support of the government of 
an allied country, when that government is ill calculated 
to draw forth the energy of the people, biit should have no 
scruple in exerting bur influence t* revolutionize^ whenever 
revolution can be shewn to be salutary and acceptable to the 
bulk of Si nation. The French have abolished th^ old govern*^ 




a84 . LeckieV Survey <f Foreign- Affe^s. 

ments in the comitries which they Ime conquered,- and 
have substituted others, of the superior efficiency o^ which all 
Europe is witness. A similar course in regard to our allies 
is recommended by Mr. Leckie; with the important distinction, 
however, that we should not, like the French, usurp any thing 
for oiirselves, but give to the regenerated country the whole 
benefit of the reform ; being guided in our interference by 
no other consideration than diat of augmenting the power and 
happiness of our ally ; and doing in self defence, and from 
virtuous motives, that which we see the French daily practise 
from the thirst of incessant aggrandizement. His views, 
however, will be best explained in hh own words : 

■' Let us reflect' that the French revolutionists extended their power 
by affecting to assimilate the government of other cotMitrias to their 
own ; and if thi« deceitful plan succeeded, Britain, by propagating 
among mankind the principles of fretdom and of justice, may hope 
to counteract them with success. Were the spirit of our institutions 
imitated in other parts of Europe, wherever this happened, we should 
find friends and allies ; and t)ur system ought to be opposed to the 
military and revolutionary code: it is the only one capable of being 
cpfitrastcd advantageously with them, as all the simple monarchies 
on the continent have crumbled before them.'—- 

* The following tracts have been written as the succesSire transac- 
tions suggested the matter, and result from the writer's having been an 
attentive spectator of them during the whole war, from its commence- 
ment after the death of LouisXVf. to the present time. Events have 
crouded so fast on each other, that their cause and spirit cannot at 
, first sight be easily discovered ; but this is evident to all, that the 
French have been successful in alpnost ^11 their attempts, tha^t they 
have totally changed the face of Europe, while the British govern* 
^ment seems never to have been gui4ed in its conduct by any general 
abstract principle, nor by any great and philosophic view of human 
events ; but rather to have suffered its n^easu^es to be determiued by 
some bias it received at the nipment. 

« Had the ministers of the crown attentively read the history of 
thoftc countries where their arms have been engaged, or to which their 
views have.been turned, tl>ey could never have sent expeditions abroad, 
called forth by the reliance upon false hypotheses, and ih no way 
adopted either to the circumstances^ of the country which was the 
pbject of them, nor teikling to any one advantage, in the event of 

* Thus the conduct of our arnues being cramped by the considera* 
tions quite foreign to the real state of afiairs, can produce no advan- 
f agp, while the principle on which we carry on the war tn general de- 
feats its own object ; and the diplomatic agents we employ abroad 
are either so confined by the orders transmitted to them, the natnre 
9f their powers, or, as more frequently happens, by their own want 
of abilities, that wherever we find the British government conoerned^ 
wejee ihe want of energy and dcpision^ and inconajs^ncy ^d wetk! 

' * Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Leckie'/ Survey of Foreign .^iffiars* a'E^ 

Hcss in all oar measiirefl. This opinion is now so deeply-rooted in ch« 
minds of foreigners, that no party have any confidence In us, and 
our national credit is daily suffering depreciation. While th^ Frencfi 
were consolidating a great empire in Europe, we have beerj afraid to 
pursue the war with vigour, lest our success should excite the jealousy 
of our allies ; and this sentiment, the offspring of timidity, has lo\v» 
crcd 08 In the esteem of other nations, and become the subject of se- 
vere sarcasm, or contemptuous ridicule. 

* The tracts contained in thia volume may serve to elucidate the 
foregoing asft^rtions, and at the same time satisfy us, that we have 
not only the means of commanding the respect, but also of gaining 
the confidence of other nations; that the present war, were it con- 
ducted with a different spirit and more enlarged views, would pro- 
duce not only the security which we declare to be its object, but also 
lay the foundation of a grandeur and duration far exceeding thit of 
any empire which ever yet existed. To the attainment of that end 
the present system, or that followed during the administration of the* 
imniortal Pitt, -cannot be subservient. We mu8^ be led to it by 
principles resulting from the evidence of facts, and confirmed by the 
repeated testimony of the most authentic historical records.' 

Mr. Leckie begins his first tract with telling his readers 
that • history in its origin consisted of nothing more tlian the 
traditionary songs of hards who celebrated the warlike ac- 
tions of their heroes or tribes^ as maukind improved in civiliza- 
tion, it became a chronicle of events and a repository of laws 
and institutions.' From this repository, he advises statesmen 
(and the advice, we must confess, is not a little wanted in our 
days,) to draw, by a c6mprehensive and diligont examination, 
rules for their guidance in a course of steady policy ; \n lieu 
of those wavering schemes into which they permit themselves 
to be hurried by the incidents of the moment. The subse- 
quent passages express his opinion of the inadequacy of ouf 
political exertions, as well as his conviction that this inade- 
quacy lias in no degree arisen from national weakness : 

* If we look back to tl*e national character at the close of Lord . 
Chatham's war» we shall see that the English nation arc how less 
sanguine in their hopes than at that period, and more disposed to re- 
Sect on the injuries they may receive from otiier nations, than on the 
mean? they possess of being terrible to their enemies, and of improv- 
iog the advantages w high' they possess above every other nation. If 
we consider the insulated position of Great Britain between the old 
and new world, the discipline of her armies, her riches, her public 
faiih, the security of individuals, her empire of the seas, her commerce 
and. colonics, we are surprized to find that all her wealth and power 
in thirteen years have not gained greatfer advantages, and that her 
systerti of war is a system of mere defence ; that to the blockade of 
harbours almost all her operations have been confined—that to watch 
and prevent the enterprises of the enemy, is the utmost effort she can 
jpake ; following with servik ttcps the route of the conqueror^ with- 

■ ' - ' ■ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•ut adopting one great and^^oeral plan for ihe advancement of bcr 
glory and power.'— 

• The British inlei contain^ according to the mo$t probable calcu- 
^^ionsy about fifteen millions of souls ; but the people are siogularif 
ingenious and docile, persevering and brave. The nature of the go- 
vernment, by the support it gives to good faith in all transactions, has 
afforded to the freedom of commerce, the valuable aid of public credit. 
In this empire every thing is activity and enterprise, and the moral 
sentiments of the people give it a splendid superiority ove** the proflf- 
gate nations of the continent. These are, probably, the intellectual 
apringa from which the British energy originates ; and wiih such ma- 
teriala in their hands, there is no enterprise too great for a wise adou- 
nistration to uodertal^e.' 

Before he proceeds to any practical application of his 
doctrine of political interference, Mr. Leckie gives a chapter 
. on drawing die line between too great and too little innovation. 
His general ifeasoning on this important topic is not so diear and 
condensed as we should have wished : but his remarks on 
two events which occurred during his residence in the Medi- 
terraneian are deserving of attention. When we took\ pos- 
session of Corsica, he minks, we went too far by endeavouring 
to introduce ;the British constitution into a country* ^ich 
was riot prepared for it, either by progress in civilization or 
by habits of industry. In Malta, on the other hand, he con- 
ceives, we have not proceeded far enough, since we have at- 
teijipted no change whatever, — not even a reforrh in the avowed 
mal-administration of justice. 

The first three chapters, or tracts, a« they are called,* are 
• written in the author's name, and bear the dates of January 
-jind February 1806. The fourth tract is of a date consider- 
ably subsequent, being in September 1806; and it differs in 
form also from its predecessors, being put into the whhnsical 
shape of a letter from the dead to the living. The supposed 
writer is Phalaris, the antient tyrant of Agrigentum, who 
Vrites from the Elysian fields to General Fox in Sicily. The 
subject of this letter from a ci-devant Sicilian prince is, as may 
naturally be expected, more of a local than a general nature ; 
and accordingly it forms the beginning of that part pf Mr. 
l,eckie's book, which from his opportunities of, personal, ob- 
servation is of greatest interest to the public, namely the 
descrqytion of the government and condition of Sicily. . "With 
this subject the British public are very little if at all ac- 
quainted; and as it is of very considerable importance In a 
political light, we have selected from the large mass of ma- 
terials heje j5resen*ed to us the passages which we considar as 
best calculated to^ive an idea of the author's manner, as well 
' 10 . '',*'"»• 

Digitized by 


lieAui^s Survey of Foreign A^^irs. 287 

3^ to convey iiUetetting information. We quote fir«t frpni the 
letter in the name of Phalaris : 

* After tfee conquest of Sicily by Ro^cr the Norman, the history 
of the country has been marked by a continual series of the changjil of 

'its master?, and ekhibils a register of all the evils resulting from an 
erroneous system of revenue, and from the feudal institutions; but 
these were at that time in iheir vigour, and the evils which were suf- 
fered from them were common to the rest of Europe. But fft the 
northern parts the laws have been revised, justice has been better ad- 
ministered, and tlic knowledge of letters has by degrees mitigated the 
mrschiefs arising from ignorance and barbarism. The nations beyond 
the Rhine and the Danube, as well as those of your native isle, *arc 
now the most civilized and enlightened </ mankind ; the northern 
parts of Italy have felt the rays of science by the dispersion of those 
clouds of superstition, which so long darkened the atmosphere of 
Europe. None of these advantages have yet been felt by my country- 
men ; but every aggravation of misery, poverty, corruption, and ig- 
rorance, has been there accumulated ! Biit the period of the total 
tlissolniion of the whole system, civil, political, and military is 9t 
length arrived ; the laws are either silent or contradictory,— ihc clergy - 
are ignorant and depraved, — ^the tribunals uf justice venal and insolent, 
— the revenues of the country are embezzled by its ministers.' — * It 
is therefore proper that you should make yourself perfectly acquainted 
with the manner of raising the revenues of the country ; how those 
revenues are applied, or how they have been alienated from the crown,* 
and mortgaged to ihdividuals ; — that you should he made acquainted 
with the unequal distribution of the pubh'c burdens ; the cruel and 
oppressive taxes on corn and bread, and ti)e monopoly of those pro- 
visions ;w-that your troops are now paying taxes to the state of 60 
per cent, on the bread which they eat ; and that the government, 
besides what it receives from the prodigality of your ministry, raises 
a revenue of nearly ioo,cool. steriing on your array. ^ 

* It is not only the prohibition of commerce by absurd regulations 
which contrabands might evade, but the corrupt dispensation of jus- 
tice, which takes away all security from transactions between man 
and man ; but the inefficacy of the laws, the impunity of cnmes, 
the shackles of landed property, the forgery of pa*pcr%all these openly 
defended or secretly protected by the ministers of the laws, contribute 
to heap misery upon miiicry^ and to d£;prive the island of the hope, 
nay even the right, to a wise and just government.* 

In tract v., Mr. Leckie pursues the same -sub|Kt under a 
more serious foi;m, since he there comes forwards in person as 
the correspondent of General Sir John Stuart. The letter is 
written with great ardour, and contains the following address 
tpthe Generara. feelings : ' 

* I appeal to your own knowledge of the national character of 
ihese kingdoms, its cotrrt, its nobles, and its people ; if their down* 
hUX was not as much to be attributed to their own internal corruption 
li» lo iht fpreigii fwct by which they were overthrown. When a 


aSB . LeckieV Survey (f Foreign Affairs. 

goviemracfit cc«8c» to support kfclf on the prindfpkk of public %o(A 
and public justice ; when in the h*vtst of the nobles it extingaished 
-every sentiment of patriotic ardor ; when the sense of honour, and 
th^ love of mih'cary tame, ate only empty sounds ; when the general 
corruption of the mind has totally unhinged the tics of civil society ; 
when those who dispense the laws in the name of the sovereign, in- 
terpret them according to their own caprice and interest ; — in short 
when the government has no confidence in the people^ nor the people 
in the government, bow long can we hope that the superstructure 
will be supported on so mouldering a foundation ?— 

* Should Prince Charles again penetrate into Lombardy, the inha- 
biiants will wait the event, cither with sullen indifference, or passive 
despair ; because they know that this country will be divided amongst 
the conquerors on the one side ; or that they mu'^t relapse into their 
present oppressed state. It is for the interest of England to create 
as many powerful rivals to France as she can ; Iraly, consolidated into 
one great and independent state, would become our natural ally : but 
we nr^ust not liberate Italy frinri the French, to introduce into her 
bosom strangers, who as a reward for their services will insiilt on her 
jismembermenti and tiius renew the circle of the same revolving mis- 

* ' Thcrf exists in Upper Italy a society of men, consisting of the 
principal nobility,' whose political views are directed to this grand ob- 
ject- This society has existed for several years, and many who adopted 
the dfess and language of republicans, secretly held the following 
doctrine: — " That Italy ought to be under one head ;— aiid that she 
•hould adopt, as far as circumstances would permit, a limited con- 
stitution oi monarchy, and enter into a firm alliance and commercial 
jnfcrcourse with England." Could you keep your ground on the 
continent, and hqjd out this hqpe to the Italian people, all ranks of 
men united by every tie of interest woul4 support you, as the repre- 
sentative of a nation who prides herself on the fulfilment, of her en- ' 
gagements.' ' 

In regard to the justice of such interferences with the 
government of our allies as Mr. Leckie recommends, con- 
siderable difference of opinion will exist : but of the advantage 
that might have accrued to Europe from radical amendments of 
constitution, in the case of the allies of Great Britain, no doubt 
whatever can he justifiably eftjtertained. When we examine the 
history of the Continent for the last seventeen years, when 
We coTlsidA the gallantry of the nations -who have been led 
lout to combat against the French, and conttast that gallantry 
%ith thfe pitiful weakness of their Cabinets and Generals, we are 
forced to acknowlege that, had the people possessed a greater in* 
fiuence in their respective governments, the chances tA success 
^njd have been very different. If we analyze the history of 
the five eventful campaigns which Austria maintained agaittit 
France, from 1792 to 1797, we discover amdng their varioui . 
cottunkhders no names of eminence, except tho&e of Ctatrf»t 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

liCckieV Survey of Foreign Affairs^ 5t8^ 

and Prince Charles. If we look to the more recent Coalition 
erf i^t^y the first character who meets us is Mack; who, wi^ 
some capacity for the details of office, had always failed when • 
he attempted active operations. This man, whose imbecility 
ought to have been perfectly known in the cabinet of his 
sovereign, was permitted to intrigue for the command of die 
. finest ariAy of Austria, obtained that command, and lost to his 
country 80,000 men at a blow ! 

After Bonaparte had dissolved the third Coalition, and in 
the course of the next season had overthrown the Prussian army, 
we fixed our hopes on Russia. We persuaded ourselves that 
** the magnanimous Alexander" would remain faithful to his 
pledge, and constitute himself the permanent champion of the 
liberties of Europe : but the loss of a single battle, and the 
intrigues of a few days, proved sufficient to effect a complete 
change in the politics of a prince, whom in the ardour o£ 
our predilection we had believed to be the greatest of heroes. 
This ««hero" has since that time not only been the stedfast 
ally of Bonaparte, but he has been induced, by the hope of 
shying in the spoil, to go the most extraordinary lengths in 
his* favour. He was the first to render himself the abettor 
df the unparalleled usurpation in Spain; and he is, at the 
present hour, a co-operator with Napoleon in the oppressiou 
o( Austria: — a memorable lesson, this, of the justice and. 
cpu^istency of despotic governments ; and a proof, could 
ajiy proof be wanting, that no country can be wi^lj^^br 
virtuously governed, if the voice of the subject is not heard iti 
the councils of the ruler ! 

To return to Sicily. — After having premised that other 
authors had fully described that fertile island as far as its climate, 
produce, and antiquities are concerned, Mr. Leckie expresses an 
intiention of confining himself to very different topics. He 
then proceeds to give us the following information in regard 
to the several classes of society in the island, and also in 
respect to the Tribunal of Patrimony, a court which seems to 
absorb all kinds of jurisdiction within itself : 

^ * Orders of Society* — Those prince^, dukeSj marquisscs, and bo- 
rons, who hold estates which have a town, or sufficient populatipn, 
are called parliamentary barons, and have a right to sit in the ^semblf 
of the nobles : all others are called rustic fieTs, and give no right of 
tMi kind to their landlords, though they be decorated with a title. ' 

%,;* The next order of men ai:e the clergy, who form a distinct assem- 
bly ^r house in the parliament, and consist of archbishops, bishtrps,/ 
atpbimandiites, mitred abbots, &c. The principal of these are younger, 
bmtjhers. of the noble fi^milies, so that, in faet, the ccclcatadtical bouse 
orp^iliaRjent is tied to the lords. 

-Rev. Jul Y^ 1809. U 

i0O! IfCckie'/ Survey of Foreign Affairss^ 

* Tli€ next order of men consists of a second rank of nobles, who- 
hoid fiefs, without burghs or towns^ and who, though they have the 

, same splendid titles, have no scat in the parliament ; many of these 
inhabit the principal cities in the kingdom. 

* The next order are the burghers of the different to#lttS 5 these 
apply to agricultute, to the church, and to the medical and lejgal pro- 
fessions ; then come the artizans and peasants/ These are the pea- 
isiits of the demesne, and those who arc the vassals of the paiiia- 
mentary lords.' — 

* The Tribunal of Patrimony —The Tribunal of Patrimony consists 
pf MX members, viz the l^rcsidcnt, the Conservadore Generale, wha 
is the King's Advocate, and four judges. 

* As this board superintends the King's territorial revenues, so it 
commands the municipalities of the royal and baronial towns ; and as 
the property of every individual is implicated either in the one or the 
other, so it has become a civil court, under the pretence of an autho- 
rity in what regards the royal interests. In the same manner it has 
an authority over all ecclesiastical hnds, and the copyholds grant- 
ed thctcon by the crown ; thus no act whatever wkh regard to landed 
property can be done without its cognizance. In the same manner 
as all doties on exports and imports (which answer to tuonage and 
poundage), and which are enforced with all possible rigor: and the 

- exports and imports themselves, interest the royal revenues, so this 
board has assumed a dictatorial right to command, — not by fixed 
rules or general laws, but by issuing an order or permission on every 
Jh dividual occasion. None' of the produce of the country, that is, 
com, oil, and some others, as cattle, &c. can be exported without 
its permission, though the exporter offers to pay the duties/— * With " 
ffgard to com, cattle, and oil, the greatest difficuhy occurs in the 
exportation : and a particular order is requisite from Palermo, to ob-' 
tain a pcrrais^sion for the same ; to procure ^his the frsder must bribe. 
ihrou^b thick and tMn,^ Sometimes the right of exportation is allow- 
ed for a short time, and then suddenly stopped; and thiis causes thc« 
rbin of those who had provided a quantity to ship off.*— 

* A certain farmer of the town (>f Granmichele, in the Val dl Noto, 
had in a granary in the territory of Miueo, about fifty quarters of 
vvheat, which then bore a high price, as it was a year of scarcity : — 
the ginrirti or corporation, wiihout asking any questions, broke open 
the same, and took the wheat to their town. The farmer's complaint 
to the tribunal was answered by a fnU approbation of the conduct of 
the^iurati, but with an order that he should be paid by them, allow^r 
injr a credit of some months ; divrfng this interval the office of these 
(who are chosen annually) expired ; their successors refused to pay, , 
and the farmer having prosecuted the corporation, before the same 
tribunal which had given the above order, was cast ; so that he wa» 
first plundered, and the public robbery thus sanctioned by a decisiort 
of the court, made contrary to their own oi^ders. This person is stiU 
alive,' and is baronial goveriM>f of Granmichele for the Prince of 
Butera J 

* The privih'gc of supplying the city of Palermo with oil and cattle 
is granted 10 contractors -, tliese 6S?erci&e every kind of tyranny ; as the 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

LeckieV Survty ofPoretgH AffaitSx 49 1 

tr^unal sijpporta them in every measure which they can d€v{$e to ob- 
lige the holder to sell to a disadvantage, and the^c gentlemen are. in 
retorn handsomely complimented by the contractors. Until these 
last have bought the oil they want at the price which suits t^em, no 
< exportation is allowed ; and even then the tribunal makes so man]^ 
difficulties in order to get bribes to permit the exportation, that the 
whole disappears in contraband. 

< It will be natural to ask who ^re the men who compose this 
board ? They are lawyers, whose whole lives having been spent ia 
scenes of the most iniquitous litigation ; possess no knid of informal ' 
lion on commerce, when they are promoted to this rank ; so that 
all commercial regulations, which with us are fixed by act of 
parliament, are here left to their absolute will and capricf^ to ignor- 
ance and venality. 

« As this tribunal has a controul over all the corporation^ tn the 
kingdom, it has multiplied its regulations and orders so muchy witk 
respect to the privileges of eac& town, that though these are cleat 
and explicit, and though the law prescribes the extent of their powers^ 
the tribunal has by degrees caused every thine to be referred to it-^ 
self — this has been done in order to .multiply lees and writings*' 

The tendency of these enormous abuses is equally injurious 
to the prince and the people \ and it Would have been surpriz- 
ing if the sovereign had made no efforts to correct a system 
which detracted so materially from the efficiency of hid 
kingdom* About twenty five years ago^ an enlightened 
noUeman^ the Marquis Caraccioli, was appointed viceroy o^ 
Sicily \ and one of his firat measures was to employ a Neapo* 
litan jurisconsult, of the name of Simonetti, to draw tip for 
die public an account of the revenue*8ystem of Sicily. He 
performed the task j and the introduction to his book is 
strongly indicative of the indignation felt by an upright mind 
at the disgusting scene which he was about to lay open. 
His efforts, however, were fruitless ; and the influence of the 
Sicilian aristocracy proved to be stronger at the Court of 
Naples than the evidence of reason or the dictates of lib^ality* 
Caraccioli was superseded in the government, and Simonetti 
found it necessary to relinquish the prosecution of his labours. 
It is apparent, from the succeeding passages, that the 
Sicilian barons form an aristocracy all-powerful for the op- 
pression of the people, and almost wholly independent of the 
^rown : 

* According to the original constitution of Sicily, the three houses 
of parliament have the faculty of granting supplies to the t;rown ; but 
the majority of two houses is sufficient ; by which means the house 
of commons, or demesnial assembly, becomes totally nugatory, and 
the lords and ecclesiastics, after generously granting the supplies, 
throw the whole burthen of them on the commons. > Whatever re- 

U 2 monstrances 

Digitized by VjOO V \SC 

?9? Lodde^s Survey ^f Foreiffi jifairu 

monstrances are made, the matter is left to the decision of those wh^ 
have done the evilj and the mischief is thus perpetuated.*— 
' ♦ No land tax whatever is imposed on the great landholders ; and 
those fiefs whi6h have no town or village in them are also exempt. 
The royal town, in whose territory these are situated, assesses thena 
in the folfowins^ manner: — A calculation is made of what land 
is cultivated and grazed 5 of course what number of people are vari- 
ously employed on the estate. From this another estimate is made of 
the quaiitity of bread consumed annually fn it, this is called consumo, 
and the renter pays the amount according to this assessment. Bfc- 
^ides' these,, there is a tax called il pclo^ which is levied on all cattle 
bolight and sold^ There is also a duty on tbe cheese which is ma- 
nufactured, — and these duties fall on the husbandman, as he is forced 
to indemnify the renter for the money advanced on the consumption- 
of flour. He also pays it on his cheese, and also on the ox which he 
iDuys to till His ground; while the lordwfio receives the revenue iai 

* Since the time wh^n Simonetti wrote his book, the crown has* 
afpplied to parliament for farther supplies, which were called miUtoni r 
the burden was distributed as usual between the corporations of the: 
desmesne and those of the batons, excepting the quota of the baronr 
themselves, each share of which for a b^rojiy amounts to about as 
much as a small landholder pays who possesses one or two hundred 
acres of land in the demesne. But the baron, if he is assessed at 2ol. 
for example, levies an arbitrary impost on his vassals, whith he takes 
<^rc shall produce so much as to saffsfy the demand with n profit to 
himself of about Jive or six- hundred per cent^^ so that his vassals not 
only pay as a'^>ody corporate their shape, but also as individuals a far« 
ther heavy' tax to the lord ^^but what is. still more incredible^ tkete 
lords are now five-and-twenty years in arrcar to the crown ! 

< Farlkmenl of SicUy.- The Patliament of Sicily consists of three 
houses, viz.— the barons or lords, apd such only as possess fiefs, includ • 
iiig within their limits, a town or burgh. A baron has as many votes 
in the dssemUy^ as he has villages or towns on his various estates, 

' * The next is the ecclesiastical assembly, consisting of archbishops, 
bishops, the heads of monastic orders possessing lands, abbots, &c. 
^c. ■ ■ ■ ' 

'* N^t in order follows the demesnial house, or the representatives 
cfthe towns of the royal demesne, but tberc are no provincial reprc- 
lienttitives, nor are any of the- baronial towns icpiescnttd. There arc 
fi9 elections for members in. the townsy nor have the inhabitants any share 
in chiisingthc deputy. The corporation riominates him. and he is in- 
general, their attorney in Palermo. Thds a single man is often re- 
presentative for several different places at once; and as these men are 
lawyers dependent on the nobles, the house of lepresentatives is never 
convened, but its vote is obtained as a matter of form.' 

If this ariistocracy possessed any of those splendid characte-* 
rxstics which challenge the admiration of the- inferior ranks, 
Sicily might find in the fame of her governors some consols-^ 
tioa for the rigour of their yoke : but they appear to be not 


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XectieV Survey of Foreign Affairs % 2^3 

' * , >j 

less devoid of intelligence titan of rirtue. Mr^Xiedcie (p^ge 77.) 
gives this account of the 

\ * Education and Character of the NcWity. — As toon M the son of a 
nobleman is old enough to be talc^n out of the bands of the nurse> a 
priest is hired to te^ch him his letters, to give him the rudiments of 
writings and to attend him when he b out walking. As the salary 
allowed to this tutor is from sixty to a hundred dollars per annungi 
^nd his hoards it is not likely a man of learning will undertaike the 
drudgery of this office ; it*3ometimes happens too that he. acts as 
house steward, and is ever the-conGdent of the m^ter or mistress in 
their amours. If he has some humour, he becomes the butt for every 
one to pass their jokes upon, familiar with the heads of the family, 
lie is also the confessor and spn-itual comforter of all the servants 4 
and as he is forced to accommodate himself to all circumstances^ hi^ 
manners can neither bedigniBed, nor his sentiments elevated. Under 
4uch a preceptor^ the young nobility of Sicily learn to write and read^ 
*vith some rudiments of the Latin tongue ; but a principal part of their 
education consists of religious docirines, and they are early initiated 
with all the immorality of the catholic persuasion. As the prcceptoff 
js familiar with the seivants, so are his pupils, and all the falsehoods 
fabricated to deceive their parents, become the examples of their con- 
duct through life. The preceptor is ever the sycophant of his pupilsj^ 
and favours their idleness by some plausible excuse. 

* When they are old enough to be sent to college, they are again 
put under the direction of priests, who teach them theology, the 
history of the saints, a smattering of the Roman history, but not 
one science which can be of use to them When a lad is arrived at. 
fourteen or fifteen, he comes Jiome to his parents, where he enter* 
into the routine o^ elegant society at Palermo. The females are kept 
in a convent till they are married, whence they sometimes come ouD 
-without knowing their letters ; and there are many women of the first 
rank, who can neither read nor write.' — 

■ ^ A few individuals are to be admitted as an exception to the ge« 
ncral rule ; among the first, is the Prince of Vcntimiglia, who has 
both read and travelled, and who is on a footing, m point of acquired, 
knowledge and reflection, with any gentleman m Europe. A few 
more might be named, but far inferior to him. — The house of the 
Prince of Ventimiglia is the resort of strangers, and of- the learned 
few who inhabit Palermo ; the rest of the nobilitj] are such as we have 
described. Yet these men are to wield either the arms of the ea^ecu* 
tive power, to preside over the finances, to administer justice, to 
distribute the pubHc burdeps ; and with such men must a British 
minister concert measures for the defence and independence of 
Sicily 1'^ 

We shall conclude our extracts on this degrading picture pj 
government and society by a short account of the judges : 

* Courts of Justice '^'li is necessary to say a, few words on 'die 
<:o\irts of justice, civil and criminal; ofgthe first Oi-Crc ai» two, 'tviz; 
$he X^bunal del Consistoro^ and the Gran Gorte. in each of these 

U 3 a law- 

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2^ LeckieV Survey ^Foreign jljfair^ 

« law-sntt may be heard 6ve times over, and the last dectsioD is ge« 
merfilly^ glftn in Mieh vodefined and equivocal terms, that it often is 
the cause of a fresh suit. The barefaced manner in which the judges 
sport with the happiness and property of the subject, must excke the 
iridig nation of every honest mind ;' the judge receives private visits from 
hotb parties, who go to inform his worship on the cause, and they arc 
Dot confronted, until it is brought to a puWic hearing ; when there . 
if so much falsehortd to sift and disembroil, and the C4use, which was 
St first clear and ample, has become so puzzled, that it seems im- 

' possible to decide it. This oTccasions the necessity of. putting off 
the hearing. 

* The salaries of the judges are trifling, andtlie fees are multiplied 
by the length of the suit; so that litigation is calculated here to ruin 
•n» and vindicate none. Many lawsuits finish by a compromise be- 
tween the parties, where she power and influence are nearly equal ; 
when not so, the weakest must be cast.' 

It is natural to imagine that a sovereign, M^ho suflfere the 
continuance of such abuses, is either ignorant or indolent in 
the performance of his royal functions. Accordingly, we find 
that the King of -Sicily is much more attached to the chace 
than to public biisiness ; and that he permits the affairs of 
the nation to be managed by the Queen, who is fond of 
fower and political intrigue. It is strongly suspected that 
those who possess her confidence are more partial to the 
French than to the English. — In a country degraded by such 
glaring corruptions, it i$ no wonder that the desire of change 
ahould be general, and that the public should value foreign 
nations according to the prospect of redress which th'eit 
interference may afford. We therefore are not surprized to 
hear the following $ayii\g represented as current throughout 
Sicily : ** If we obtain an amelioration of our condition firom 
die British, their coming will be the period of our ills : but 
if they leave tilings as they found them, we shall be ready to 
join tne French.^* 

We now take leave of that part of Mr. Leckie's book which 
tftats of Sicily. Of the remainder of the volume, the most 
inter€8ting passages are those which describe the present con- 
dition of Greece, and exphin the difl&culties to be encountered 
by the French in attempting to march by land to India. The 
route by Egypt and the Red Sea is evidently out of the question, 
because a few British fneates stationed in the Babelmandd 
Streights might bum or siw the whole expedition. If, as some 
|)erson8 have imagined, the enemy should succeed in carrying 
an army through the immense plains of Mesopotamia, and the 
country west of the Euphrates as far as Bussora, and shoul^I 
embark there to proceed to India through the Persian 'Gulf* 
Aey would atiU be exposed to imminent £nger froni our naval 


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LeckieV Survey of Foreign Affairs. ' '^ ;i95 

^operiority, where the gulf becomes narrow towards the 
streights of Ormus, and where a numerous fleet could hardly 
escape the observation of a squadron on the alert. Such are 
the obstacles to the invasion of India by sea. By land, it is 
impossible to convey an army through the south of Persia to 
the Indies, the immense deserts on this side of that river ren- 
dering the passage of them as impracticable now as in for- 
, mer ages. It was in these deserts that the armies of Semira- 
.>ini3 and Cyrus perished, and that those of Alexander encoun- 
tered such a series of hardships. The state of government in 
. Persia, far from improving, has been calculated greatly to de- 
teriorate the country during the long period which has elapsed 
since the time of that conqueror. The track to be followed by 
an army m^irching to the invasion of India is therefore the north 
of Persia. If we suppose the French to be conveyed by the 
aid of the Russians to the eastern extremity of the 'Buxine, 
their route would lie through Armenia, and afterward through 
the antient Media, Hircania, and Bactriana ; or, according to 
modem designation, through Curdistan, Irak, and Khorasan : 
which was the course pursued by Alexander the Great, as well 
as by all subsequent invaders. This part of the Persian em- 
pire, however, has undergone a wQuderful change since the 
events of antiquity. Its meadows and gardens are now reduced 
to marshes and forests j and the court of Persia, even if gained 
over by the French, has not authority sufficient with the rude 
inhabitants of these regions to make them co-operate in accele- 
rating the march of an army. The time and the treasure required 
for such an undertaking would therefore be very great j and 
when we suppbse the hostile force to have reached the banks 
of the Ganges, that army must be large which ventures to 
contest for victory with the numerous and well disciplined 
troops which the British could oppose to it. Without the- aid 
of Russia, the attempt would be idle : but since, with her 
aid, the scheme is evidently not impracticable, it behoves us 
to take timely precautions ; — among the principal which Mr. 
Leckie recommends, are the improvement of our India cavalry, 
and a close alliance with Persia. The expediency of this al- 
liance' is not lessened by the almost insurmountable difficulties 
attendant on the march of an European army through the coun- 
tries which we have described 5 since a conviction of these 
difficulties might induce Bonaparte to forego the attempt ©f 
transporting French troops, and make him endeavour to assail 
Jactia by Persian soldiers under French officers. 

• The pcdicy of Bonaparte towards Turkey exhibits a specimen 
of duplicity, which under any other government would be 
accounted singular. At- the -very time titot he Sent offlfcdf^'to 

U 4 defend 

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2g6 LecldeV Survey of Foreign Affairs, 

defend the Dardanelles against the English, and declared him- 
self the firm friend of the Porte, he drew to Paris a Greek of 
J:he name of Koraes, to prepare materials to be employed, at 
a fit opportunity, for exciting the Greeks to insurrection 
against the Turks. Koraes is the literary champion of his 
countrymen, and the author of songs which inculcate their 
claim to independence, and urge them to wrest the sceptre of 
dominion from their oppressors. — ^The subsequent quotation 
conveys some important information in regard ^o the state of 
modem Greece ; 

* The Peloponnesus, at present, contains scarcely more than two 
hundred thousand 'inhabitants : Cyprus hardly one quarter of that 
number : Asia Minor, once the seat of arts, of sciences, and of phi« 
losophy, wears the same marks of desolation ; its beautiful and exten« 

•sive vales awd plains are left to wolves and foxes, while here and there 
. a miserable Turkish <2j* Greek village intervenes, as if it were necessary 
that a few of the human race should still remain to bear witness to 
the dreadful reverse which that country has undergone. LiCt the 
traveller visit Greece, he will find the same lamentable effects of 
Asiatic despotism ; should he turn his steps southward, and visit the 
plains of Mesopotamia, he will still trace the canals which once car- 
ried the waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates to fertilize them, and 
render them a fit abode for man ; or let him visit and shed a tear of 
compassion on the present unhappy Egypt ; — all will evince that 
such an empire, situated as it is, near to active and clear-sighted 
Europeans^ can^nevcr be of very long duration. 

* It is a reflection worthy of notice, that the pride and stupidity oT 
the Turks caused one of the greatest errors that ever was committed 
by a conquering peeple, as their bigotry has always kept them a 
distinct race from the nations who held the country before their con- 
quest of it. They denied to the conquered nations the same civil 
rights with themselves, and refused to treat them in any way but as 
slaves. The Greek, the Armenian, &c. each has preserved his ovvn 

.* language^ his own religion, and customs ; and as they were not put 
on a footing with the Turks, they have remained apart. The 
Christian subject could thus have neither interest nor pride in such an 
order of things. ^lence the Tur^ has remained to this day a fo- 
reigner in his own land, and he has left the means. most available ta 
^is enemies for his own destruction. 

* Had the Turks waved the coercion of religious opinions, and 
amalgamated with the conquered, the whole empire would have 
formed one body ; and as the same distributive justice, however im- 
perfect it was, would have been the right of all, the whole people 
-would have formed one nation, aind the weakness and discord which 
^result from the contrary system would not have existed. 

* The map of the Turkish empire still exhibits the different 
pashah'cs and governments as it did during the meridian of their 
power. But these different vice-roys have long since bid defiance 
to the sultan ; and all thc$e examples prove that Dtiahpinmed^ 


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LeckieV Survey of Foreign Affairs. 2^7 

' governments generally have the sanae principles of destruction in- 
herent in their constitution ; the influence of the great Greek fa- 

' milies at Constantinople increases daily ; and the commercial spirit 
which has grown up among that people, in various parts of the cn*- 
pire, portends that the Greek is waiting for the first European power 
which will step forward and assist him \\\ throwing off the yoke/ — 

* Crete shuts in the Egean Sea on the south, and covers the ap- , 
proaches to Egypt. This island is about two hundred miles in length 
and about forty in breadth ; the soil is fertile and well cultivated ; 
and though under the yoke of Turkey, the superior activity of the 
people makes the state of the country less languishing than that of. 
Sicfly, though the evils which they have to contend with are per- 
haps more violent in their nature, the human race here surpasses 
almost every other part of the world in' strength and beauty, and 
the slavery of two centuries has not yet subdued the spirit of the 
Cretan people. From the most probable accounts of the population, - 
we may conclude that it cannot be more than three hundred thou- 
sand, the sixth part of which only consists of Mahommedans. 

* The military power is totally in the hands of the Turks ; and 
with very few exceptions of Turkish villages, the Mahommedans 
are entirely confined to Canea and Candia ; the strong fortress of 
Suda is id their hands. 

* To recapitulate the oppressive conduct of the Turks, would be 
to undertake a task at once disgusting and superfluous. They are ia 
possession of the best lands in the island, vfrhich they obtamcd by 
force and by fraud. The Greeks are mostly their farmers and rent- 
ters, as well as land 'stewards ; it is the policy of the Turks to pre- 
vent the Greeks^ from wearing arms, but many have them iu their 

Several years have elapsed since Mr. Leckie began to re- 
commend his opinions to persons in office ; and their receptioa 
does not appear to have corresponded with his estimate of their 
importance. He now submits them to the judg^nent of the 
public ; and in doing so, he draws a sketch of the means by 
which our statesmeh usually ascend to office : a representation 
which seems intended to account for the frigid reception which 
the members of our government, are in the habit of giving to 
such bold and comprehensive schemes a,s those of Mr. Xieckie* 
The passage is curious, aS exhibiting, at the* close of the vo-! 
lume, a specimen of the application to our own country, of 
that spirit of animadversion which in the previous part of the 
book we have seen so keenly exerted towards other govepi- 
ments. It is as follows : 

* A young man, of a powerful family, comes from the university 
into parliament ; he had made a very fine oration in the theatre be- 
fore the vice-chancellor and many of the nobility ; he had received 
an honorary premium for his performance. Under these auspices 
he gets up in the Hpuse of Commons, where the elegance of his lan- 

^^jS ' Jj^cVie* 4 Survey of Foreign Affairs. 

ffuage and tbe roundness of his periods gain bkn universal applause* 
Ht is cunaidered as a young man of promisiug abilities^ and is des* 
tintd to be a future member of the cabinet. He thus serves^his ap- 
preniiceship under the minister of the day^ and is thereby 'initiated 
into the routine of public business. From that moment his time is 
not his o\vn> a muhiph'city of papers are put into his hands> and 
the page of history is thenceforward closed to his inspection. His 
future poh'tical career is traced on the model of that of his predc* 
cesspr ; and as his habits of thinking are formed upon example, he 
becomes administer without having oace, thought for himself on tbe 
most impoi rant subjects. 

• An inferior class sometimes rises into notice, from a Ipog em* 
ploymentin the public offices ; and as their education lias consisted 
cither in copying paperSf or wording official letters and dispatches, 
according to formula placed before them, these are also men of 

* From these two classes have been drawn the principal men who 
have guided the helm of the state of late years : l^ut while they have 
the means of acquiring a perfect knowledge of its interior concerns, 
and may often do so in a very eminent degree, they arc still totally 
incapacitated from obtaining even the rudiments oi information on 
the foreign relations of the government. It is very easy to see thit 
such men, Jn arriving at their dignities, must necessarily have ac* 
quired all the prejudices of their predecessors, engrafted on tbe 
habits of office, which have deprived them of the time necessary to 
deep reflexion ; they cannot, therefore, be very open to the repre- 
sentations of those whose lives have been spent in travel^ and in 
actual observation, who have attentively perused the history of past 
times, who have compared them with the present, who have caught 
the habits and- entered into the spirit and principle- of foreign go- 
vernments, and who have thus learnt to appreciate the probabilities 
of events; who, in the prosecution of their local enquiries, have 
visited the palaces of princes and the cottage of the peasant. 

* When a man of this description encounters a minister of state, 
he tells the truth as it strikes him ; be conceives that men, sur- 
rounded with all the splendor of power, and celebrated for their 
eloquence in the senate, must be equally candid and open to the 
force of reason with himself { he is still more deceived by the kind- - 
ness and the urbanity of their manners, and becomes the more wiUing 
to give information to men who receive him so graciously ; he how- 
ever finishes by finding that what he has represented gains no credit^ 
and the same erroneous principles of policy triumph over the most ' 
ol^viobs reasonings. — Whoever has had the mortification to meet 
with this kind of disregard will not be vexed when he has onqe diV 
covered the 'causes which have operated to render his reptesentations 
of no avail : he must recollect that when he expected that those who 
have been warped, from their outset, by prejudice, example, and official 
routine, could reason like statesmen and historians, he has only at« 
tributed qualities to them which they have had no opportunity of 
acquiring.* ' , . 



Nuiilia itt Search of a Huston J. ipp 

, We have now accompanied Mr. Leckie to the end of his 
look, and shall conclude by giving our ophiion on its general 
merits. It is much to be regretted that his discussions have 
been brought before the public in their present unconnected 
and indigested form. His want of arrangement is so obvious, 
and his. repetitions are so frequent, that few of his readers, 
perhaps, will have patience to travel through the whole vo- 
lume ; and they will ir> general be contented with those local 
descriptions which may interest by their novelty or amuse by 
their singularity. We have not discovered^ moreover, in this 
work, any proofs of an intimate acquaintance with the doc-, 
trines of political economy ; yet this knowlege is a sine qud nm 
In all profound investigations relative to government. The 
strength of a nation always depends more on the, nature of its 
constitution, and its progress on science, than in the extent of 
its population. Political economy unfolds the causes of the 
increase or decay of a most important part of its strength — its 
wealth ; and, which is still more essential, the rules by which 
it proves that wealth may be increased ire applicable to the in- 
crease of national power and happiness in every other respect. 
Mr. Leckie apologizes for any errors which he may have com- 
mitted in diction, from having been long accustomed to foreign 
idioms. Errors of this description, however, we have not often 
remarked : but we have been repeatedly perplexed and disgusted 
by the inaccuracy of the press, especially in regard to punctuation. 
•—To conclude \ the present volume contains much diat is new 
and deserving of attention, both from the public and our govern*- 
ment : but, if the author expects his work to be generally read and 
understood, let him print a second edition in a compressed form; 
dividing the chapters, not by the date of their composition, 
with which the public have very little concern, but by the or- 
der of the subject ; giving in one part his local descriptions, m 
another his general principles of policy, and in a third his 
application of these principles to particular countries^ 


Art. VIII. NuhiRa in Search of a Husband \ including Sketches of 
modem Society, and interesting moral and literary Disquisitions. 
Crown 8vo. pp.456. 9s. Boards. Ridgway. 180^. 

E one writer sends a gentleman in pursuit of a wife, another 
is sure to take the hint, and to exhibit a lady in search of 
a husband. Modern book-makers avail themselves of every 
opportunity of putting their pens in motion, and the success 
which Coslebs has obtained presented a temptation not to be 
jr^sisted. .Accordingly,\we find that on l;he igth of May 1809 
- - - ^ the 

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'yyo Nubilia in Search of a Husband. 

the author of the present work began his undertaking; axirf 
'«o intent was he on bringing it out in time while Coslebs 
was in course of reading, that by the 3d of June following 
he had completed it. We should have pleasure in compli- 
menting him with not having made *^ more haste than good 
speed," to use .the vulgar proverb : but, strange as it nuy 
appear when vtq talk 'of haste ^ it must be confessed that 
the composition is throughout laboured 5 that the reader, in- 
stead of being pleasantly carried, is dragged along ; and that 
the book disappoints because it does not answer its title- 
* Nubilia in search of a husband ?' No such thing. Nubilia is 
no forward miss, all whose thoughts by day and dreams by 
night are fixed on marriage. In fact, she seems to think as 
little of a husband as any woman who ever wore a petticoat. 
She is as cold as a cloud of snow, (cor inter nubilia condit*) • 
and is more like a philosophic member of the blue^-stocFing club 
than a young woman commencing the impassioned career of 
life. Nubilia is a thousand times more out of nature dian the 
Lucilla Stanley oi-Coelehs ; and, instead of being in search of a 
husband, she is fond of funeraljs, and ' loves to hold some moul- 
dering bone within her hands.* (p. 164.) At one time, she dis- 
cusses moral questions with the gravity of a college-tutor, and at 
. another she is inflated with bombast. Now she is represented 
as an Epictetus endeavouring to give tone and vigor to the 
mind, and then as ^ longing for dissolution,' because she heard 
the sounds of an ilolian harp- She indeed marries at last; 
but it is after a great deal of talking rather than searching. 
She sees little of the world; and to the first man who is at 
all estimable in her view, to whom she is introduced after a 
little Philandering about German literature, she gives her 
hand. Altogether, the story is very meagre, the transition 
from one dissertation to another is not very natural, and, as 
the picture of a young woman « in search of a husband,* it is 
to the last degree disappointing. 

It is true that the volume presents matured reflections pa 
morals, society, and literature, buj we cannot think that they 
are with any propriety put into the mouth of a young female. 
The remarks on Education, which are the result of much 
observation and meditation, are with judgment assigned to 
Nubilia's father : but, when the parent is removed from the 
stage, and the author throws the weight of all his disquisitions 
on the shoulders of the young daughter, we protest against 
such an impositiony to use an University-phrase. To these 

* We introduce this parenthesis to suggest the impropriety of 
the name. It should have been Nubllis instead of Nubilia. 

I" remarki 

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NubiUa in Search of a Husband* ' 3^1 

Hemadcs on Education, however, some attention is due, espe* 
cially to such of them as respect the importance of corn-* 
mencing the moral education very early in life ; of keeping 
our word with children 5 and of securing them from having the 
first impressions made on their tender minds by our servants 
instead of by ourselves. On the first point, we quote the 
following passage : 

* A child who is capable of feeling pleasure or pain at any ^vtm 
eveaty is capable, to a certain degeee, of volition, and of the 6im»> 
plesc operations of intellect. He is able to distinguish between cw» 
objeetSy and in distinguishing, to determine their respective worth, 
relatively to himself ; accordingly, if one be presented to him he i© 
pleased ; if the other, he is displeased. The moment reason has ad- 
vanced thus far, that moment, I say, the moral education should 
commence ; and in nine cases out of ten, I have seen this progress of 
reason take place before the eighth month. Then begins oitr work ; 
it 18 for us to determine what shall be granted and what dented, and 
to erect a barrier against the influence of caprice ; to wrestle with the 
first contentions for mastery which betray themselves in every peevish 
tear that follows a refusal. Mothers and nurses, I know, will ex- 
claim against the crutlty of denying the poor little dear infant ; pro- 
nounce you hard-hearted, unfeeling ; mind it not ; let the storm 
rage, but proceed steadily in your path, and be assured, that every 
tear your infant sheds, waters a bed of roses which will bloom with 
captivating beauty ; while every smile that succeeds the completion, 
of capricious desire, is a hot and fecund stui which ripens into matu- 
rity the nettle and the weed* 

In the superintendance and management of their offsprings 
parents should make a point of having their jf^ to be indeed 
yea^ and their nay to be unalterably nay. Here we approve 
what the author before us has written : 

' Let your word be to your child as a wall of brass^ impregnable 
to all assaults ; what you have once asserted or commanded, let no 
iBtreaties, ' no tears, no prayers move you to retract 2 it is thus onljr 
that you can do justice to your offspring and yourself. If a child 
-ODce succeed in making you go from your word, or alter your opi- 
nion, farewell to all future obedience from that child ! He will al- 
ways cherish the idea, that by imploring he can induce you to re- 
tract ; thia idea will make him careless as to what you say, and ia 
time generate even a contempt for your will. But remember, if you 
lift your hand in wrath against that child, you violate the rights of 
justice and humanity ; for the disobedience you would chastise, you 
ha«c fostered by your own inconsistency.' 

From the disquisition on Education, we pass to one in, 
\rfiich, under the idea of .removing the shackles of the 
married state, wives are encouraged in cherishing a friendship 
fpi: others besides their husbands* This cause is .p^^^iocated 

joi Nuhilia in Search of a Husband. 

by Nubilia's father ; who, in reply to a letter from a friend 
expostulating with him on bis intimacy with Julia, (a married 
woman,) exclaims : 

* Does the human heart undergo a metamorphosis after the ritual 
ceremony of the church ? Is the ring a magic circle, whose propertied 
are potent enough to confound all feeling,* to hoodwink the mind» to 
corrupt the natural sentiments of the hosom ? Is there, in the word* 
wife and husband, some invisible spirit that pierces through our na* 
ture, and curdles the genial current of hunrian affection ? Is the wide 
extended love, the sweet play of the h^arc, the general delight we 
take in our species, the natural emotions of the soul, arc all these 
to vanish before the magical incantations of the altar \ Arc we 
to turn away from the world, arid the world's concerns Tare wc to 
crush the kindling warmth, to forego the most endearing inter'* 
course of life, to, tear from our hearts the sweet band of .unioirthat 
linked us to our kind, to choak up the living stream of rich deb'ght 
that gives unfading verdure to the path of life ; must we shrink 
back with fear and horror, and well disciplined disgust, from the 
mutual intercourse of the sexes, without which this world were but 
a barren desart, and its highest pleasures 'only sullen cares? Must 
all this be done the moment two beings consent to strengthen the. 
iotimacy of a partial connection I It is a vulgar and debasing idea^ 
and it is degrading to the heart of man/ 

Of such rant we are not enamoured, nor can we perceive 
the utility that is likely to spring from its publication. Nuhi- 
lia, who is wiser than her parent, confesses that he assumes 
as a principle a greater moral, purity than is usually found 
in mankind \ and she calls the picture of married liberty, for 
which her father contends, t sublime one. — When Nubilia is 
meditating on her entrance into the Holy State and on the 
character of a wife, she admits that * in her breast there is no 
room for effective friendship ^ that it would draw Jier from 
the more important duties of her state : that Nature providen-^ 
tially foresaw this, and ordained that she should fix her whole 
soul on man and their mutual ofFspring.'^-Though, however, the 
young lady, in this respect, appears to have more prudence 
than her father, and unites herself to a virtuous young man, 
the sentiments of whose mind and the qualities of whose 
heart were excellent, yet at times she is represented as very 
romantic, especially when contemplatmg the. beauties of 
nature. One extract will suffice : 

* At other times softer and more ethereal images arise. When I 
have beheld distant clouds strongly tinged with the sun's rays, and 
floating,.. as it were, in the whitL'ness of surrounding aether, steadily 
I have fixed my eyes upon them, and imagincft, that resting on 
their fluid borders, or rolled within their fleecy folds, angels sit 
hymning to the Great Creator ^ and, with heavenly voices^ joined to* 
the dulcet melody of harps, sing their vesper chorus. I fancy 


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Nuhitia in Search of a SiishanJ. ^03 

fbat th« serial strains mch my ears ; and for a naoment I am trans- 
ported among them : then ! hea?cn opens on my eyes I I sec trans- 
parent forms, whose milk white wings fold, like a cincture, round 
thctr dazzling loins ; they *lean Ofi golden harps ; the blazing floor, 
spangled with stars innumerable, beams like a furnace ; peI^Jent, 
from vaulted roofs, hang starry lamps, burning sweet incense, whose 
odours, wafted through the balmy air, till the delighted sense with 
gladness. Angelic shapes glide through Doric columns in wreathed* 
with many a spiral fold of flaming cressets, which, circling in magic 
dance ground, reach a nameless height supporting roofs of fretted 
gold ; these, as they move along, hold mutual discourse sweet, and 
look such dewy mildness from their eyes, as heavenly spirits wont 
when they, of old, descended to converse with man, swift messen- 
gers of God's eternal word ; still, as my fancy works, methinks I'm 
led, to softly breathing measures from viewless harps bv airy min- 
strels flayed, along the space of heaven : odorous perfumes frqm tea 
thousand fanning wings are wafted round me : trembling I standi 
even at the throne of God himself, whence angels turn, with soften- 
ed g;aze, away, so bright the effulgent glory which irradiates from 
the clo\ids that dwell, for ever, round the Omnipotent I The lost 
soul is lapped in cxtacy aid big with unutterable feelings : mys* 
terious visions sweep before my sight ; and, m an ocean plunged of 
pleasures, tempered to its state by the creative mind that formed 
themj it dies, dissolves away, and conscious only of amazing bliss. 
The shadows of approaching night recall its wandering thoughts, 
and I awake to life, to misery and the world !* 

If this be a specimen of that * elevated English prose* which 
we are promised in the preface, we shall only say ^at it i^ 
much too elevated for us. , ^ 

In Ccelebsi little in the shape of courtship occurs; and here 
also the parties <shew their predilection for each other by 
none of those little attentions which usually discriminate 
lovers. No frivolity marks Mr. Vaughan's character, and he 
becomes the object of Nubilia's preference in consequence of 
* dignity of mind.' 

* Mr. Vaughan f says the lady in search of « husband) had the 
latter, and was wholly exempt from the former. 

* Towards my own sex, his manners were far removed from that 
exuberant devotion w^ich is a compound of deception, meanness, 
and imbecility. If a lady dropped her glove, he exhibited no 
agonies till it was restored to her, nor did he rush, with impetuo- 
sity, to the spot that he might be the happy individual who was to 
perform that duty. He believed a lady to be gifted with powers 
adequate to the task. If he walked out with a female, he avoided 
carrying her parasol for her, either over her head, or under his 0^^ 
arm : to this labour also, he thought her equal. He always declined 
the distinction of attending them to a mercer's, a milliner's, or a 
linen draper's ; and for all these offences, (great ones they undoubt- 
edly arc in the eyes of many,) I have heard him severely censured. 

. . - , For 

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J04 tJuhilia in Searti 6f a Husbands. 

, For my own part> I considered them as evidences of a mind and 
character compounded of something' more dignified than what ia 
ttscntial to the composition of a hdfi man, as such animals arc em- 
phatically called. When, however, I behold the one sex offer, and 
the other receive, such unmeaning attentions, such vapid co^esics, 
1 know not on which my contempt should fall most heavily. It is 
difficult to decide which is the most abject, the fool who pkases, 
or she who is pleased/ 

After all, it* is fair to ask whether dignity of mind be in- 
consistent with attention to little things ? " Man (as Lord 
Bacon says,) is a- trifle, and his life is z trifle ^" and iu the 
interchange of social duties, especially between the sexes^ 2 
number of trifles must attract our notice. Civility and 
politeness are made up of trifles 5 and we cannot perceire 
that a gentleman is degraded by carrying a lady's parasol, 
because she can carry it herself. On this principle he ought 
vjtot to cut up a chicken for her at table; * for to this labour she 
is equal.* 

The author speaks of his having constructed his language 
^ith a greater latitude of rhetorical embellishment than is 
usually thought to be consistent with English prose ; and we 
have given a sample of these his flights into airy regions : be- 
sides which we have detected occasional incorrectness, and an 
affectation of employing terms which are not in common 
use. At p. 19. he exclaims, ,' How few are the authors 
whose wprks can be read througJx without receiving contami- 
natioti/ According to the construction of this sentence, 
•wforks receive contamination in consequence of being read; 
a meaning which the author does not intend to convey* He 
talks also of * a niggard hand,' — of * an antepast of heaven,' — 
erf * throwing custom to his feet'— -of * Nature's kindly Ivfs^ — of 
••the tinet native ±0 their sphere' — *of impregtiing eveiy emo- 
tion* — oi^ congenerous superstructure' — oi^ a short whiley &C. 

In our judgment, this work, though far from being a 
flimsy and inferior production, will not aflFord much satis- 
faction to either sex. It is barren of character; and the 
heroine sustains an utinatural part, when, instead of bemg 
shewn the world before she makes her choice,' she is pre- 
sented, to us as the sage moralist an^d the learned critic. Quoi- 
cmique ostendis mihi sic, &c. 

Like most moderns, the author misquotes the couplet of 
Iludibras, which should be, 

, " He that /jiiffi/X against his Will 

. / Is of the same opinion stilli" 

/ . : Art* 

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( 3^5 ) ^ 

AiiT. 13c.'- . .^mfiW XjfcroftcJ^rrmts vn JBrufsi, Rt^hmi or Ot 
tcryatlons on the Importance ',of the Briijsh North. Amencaa 

]^ Colohies^ and on the late 'treaties with tKc Un^tdl Btatcf ; wjtli 

* Remarks on Mr. Baring's Examination ; and"' a pefcncc of the 
shipping Interest from Ihe Charge of having attempted to impose 
on rarliamenti and of factious Conduct in their Opposittoa to 
the AititrlGsiUi Intercourse Bill. Bf Nathaniel Atchcson, Esq* 

. F. A.S. 8vo. pp. 3^6. 9t. BoiTtk. Buttcrworth. 1808? 

COPIOUS as this title-page is, it does not seem to express 
clearly eidier the object or the plan of the audior. Ac- 
cording to our view of the work, it might have been more 
appropriately intitled " a Dissertation on uie Importance pf the 
Shipping Interest to Great Britain, and on the Value of British 
North America to the Shipping Interest." In one respect, 
that of citing his authorities, Mr. Atcheson is distinct and 
methodical : but we cannot give him correspondent credit 
in another very essential matter, namely the arrangement of 
his own idea^. He has prefixed no introduction, nor has he- 
viade any division of his subject into chapters or sections. 
His book opens with statistical information on our North 
American Colonies, continued through rather more than fifty 
pages 5 after which the general question of the importance of 
the pipping interest is argued, until (page 10 1.) the statistical 
part is resumed. How much woiild^ this writer, and the 
aumerous class to whom similar observations are applicable, 
gain in reputation, by thoroughly digesting their subject-before 
they send their MSS. to the press ; by explaining, in the 
beginning of their work, the fundamental principles which 
form the source of their reasoning ; and by proceeding to 
make their subordinate conclusions flow in a regular channel 
from the fountain head ! 

We shall divide our remarks on Mr. Atcheson's publication 
into two parts, considering first ^^his observations on the 
produce and trade of Briti^ North Ajmerica> ai^l nc^t his 
arguments on the general question of the shipping interest. 
— The difierences which have unfortupately eiisted for many 
yeatis between our governraient and the United States, on the 
subject of their boundary line, are the first object of Mr. A.'s 
attention; particularly with regard to Passamaquoddy Bay^ 
which lies at the Eastern extremity of that boundary. During 
Mr. Addington*8 administration, a convention was formed, 
(12 May, 1803,) by which that bay and its islands were 
ceded to and declared to belong to the United States : but 
Mr. Jefferson having followed the same course lA regard to 
this instrimient as in regard to the ti^eaty of i8o5, namely, hav- 
ing decUned to ratify it, the question remains --«"«- 

IS u^^nk^ 

icS Atcheson on ^merii^ BncroaAimnU. 

\- ■;, / 

^u? d^y. , The ^ Americans, however, hate occupied tibrer 
^lanis iA^t^^ba^^'fr&n^VhicK a very adhre smu^Kr^ frad^ 
ji carried ; on rwith our neiglA^ring colonists* Yet, as. na 
final ces^igf^^ of^ the bay and islands has been ih|ade on wa 
part, Mr. Atche8<»i stre^uausly urges the resumption of them. 
^-^Andtber and a 'much.,itore important p(»nt i^ t^ fact that 
qur Nordi American provfhces are supplied from the United 
States,^ and not from Greiat Brittini with teas «nd East India 
goods of all sorts, j with West India produce, and even in some 
degree with European manufactures. The duties on the ina- 
j)ortation of these articles are the same, whether coming from 
preat Britain or the United States % and the preference given 
.to the latter arises chiefly froni the greater cheapness of their 
Ifreight in time of Mrar. It is not, however, in North Ame- 
idea alone that our colonists avail themselves of the means of 
JsmuggUng which the fl^g of the United States ^fiords ; and 
ifhe ensuing extract shews its prevalence in the West Indies, 
/apd calls loudly for a new modification of the duties : 

. . * Extract from a letter from Kingston^ JanuHca, dated the 2d of 
..March» i8oS.«— 'f T)ie quantity of nankeen cotton cloth alone con* 
-eaijtied in this colony and in the Leeward Islands, has been computed 
'to be ia a ratio of ten .to one of mtiggUd from the United States^ 
ragainst that Imported in Engh'sh bottoms; and which the ofBcers of 
custom-house with all possible vigilance cannot by any means pre- 
Teht; There are so many means of landing and vendmg those ar- 
'ticjes that no vigilance can prevent it. The quantity of other East 
'India goods and foreign silks is beyond calculation/^ 

We aow present our readers with a specimen of the mis- 
.takes into which a writer is apt to fall, when he is wholly 
'occupied with one side of a subject, and averse to entertain 
objections to a favourite theory. The passage relates to th^ 
aboyementioned islands in Passamaquoddy Bay, in which the 
. Americs^is have made settlements : 

''f>dm thesf islands the Americans carry on an il&it trade* most 

lucrative to themseLve«» but seriously detrimental and ruinous to the 

' ptovittjcef of Nova Scoria and New Brunswick^ whose inhabitants 

' are supplied by them from thence with liauors, tobacco» teas* and 

' all kinds of India and other manufactured goods, and occasionally 

wiih small quantities of pitch, tar, and turpentine, for which they 

receive in return, specie, peltry, fish, lumber, grindstones, gypsum 

Tand other things, and thus they drain the British provinces dP their 

most valuable articles.' 

. -That this illicit trade lessens the whole amount of British 
'shipping, employed, few persons will be disposed* to doubt ; 
^ and that it diminishes also the profits of the parent-state 
/many will be disposed to belteve ; but that it sfcouid be 

. _ 'seriously 

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• i^he$Ctt en A$»ericgk JBtuTOtdlfmetHs. .307 

'^tefioualy detrhnental and ruinoas to die prormces supr 
plied/ we are utterly at a loss to concehre. Mr. Atchesoxif 
like odier writers on d^ same side of the qne$tion» makes no 
appeals to general reasoning : which if he had done, he would 
Jhave found that < detriment' of public wealth is caused by a 
diminution of productive capital : — that capital can be di« 
mihished by buying goods cheap would indeed be a novel 
proposition. Farther, he savi that ' the Americans drain our 
•provinces of their most valuable articles :' but do they get 
these articles without paying an equivalent ; and what is trade 
in all countries but an exdunge of equivalents ? 

The principal export of the province of Canada is wheat 
and flour ; of the former, 800,000 bushels, and of the latter, 
30,000 barrels, have been exported in a year. Great quanti*- 
ries of timb^ can likewise be exported from this and our 
other Norrfi American provinces, of which the forests are 
inexhaustible ; and we learn Mrith much satisfaction that the 
Canadians have greatly lessened the cost of preparing their 
timber, by a new construction of floating mills. Mr. A. more- 
over affords a hope that two voyages, instead of one, may be 
jxizde from Quebec to this country in a year : 

• From recent information, it appears there were at the clotc of 
last season^ cargoes of timber prepared at Quebec for 100 sail of 
ships, for which sufficient tonnage could not be obtained ; and it is 
the opinion of many persons well acquainted with the trade, that 
with common industry two voyages may be made in a year from 
Quebec to any part of Great Britam and Ireland, though it may be 
thought that the severity of the winter in that country is unfevour* 
able, by reason of the rivers being frozen ; but the reverse it the 
fact« fof to active exertion in procuring timber^ it proves a great 
facility, by enabling the wood^cutters to draw the timber from the 
.woods on the snow, to the banks of rivers, from whence they are 
floated in the spring.* 

Amid the many contradictions which a regard to truth 
obliges us to give to our well meaning but ill iniormed writers 
on commerce, it affords us die greatest pleasure to dwell on 
such of their arguments as are justified by sound policy* 
Thi$ is fortunately the case in the part of the work to which 
we are now referring. The inhabitants,^ we are told, are 
lessening the expence of preparing their timber by improving 
their mi&s 9 and a .method i^ shewn to them of quickening 
its shipment, by driving it in winter along those easy paths 
which the frost forms for them. These are examples of the 
true m^ans of improving a country. If our colonists will run 
this race of industry and ingenuity, they need^ fear the com- 
petitic^i neither of the United States nor of any coontry in 
. . 2fc..a the 

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^g[o9 Atcheiofki ^ Afturican Sntrmhm^tisi 

1%t uQtverse. IlKSt ireaith, wfakJi always ehittes tfie gnsp 
of arbitrary regulatbn, will flow into their. coflFerf. Wh^er 
a$ individuals or as nations^ it is not hy di89oaragii)g the com*^ 
'petition of others, but^ by bending our whole attention to the 
improvement of our OMrn means> that we ^uco^ed .in rearing 
' 1^ structure of fortune. 

It was in 1 784 that Nova. Scotia was divided into twO{ 
provinces, liamely Nova Scotia and N,ew Brunswick* These 
provinces ate important to thfe mother*country, boA as af- 
fording naval stations, and as eaq>orting timber^ fish, and other 
salt provisions. In regard to the aptitude .of the soil for grwt 
and pasture, it is here stated : 

* These two proTinceSi^ likewise^ produce conudef^bk crops oi 
Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, oats^ peas, and bcani» The cpJ* 
tivation of which might be much extended, if the provinces received 
due attention and encouragement : indeed, they have becomt objects 
highly inicresting to the mother-country, and are deserving the 
attention of the leeislatui^e ; who ^ouid direct inquiries to be made 
as to the nature, soil, and resources of them, the land being generally 
well adapted for the cultivation of aU sorts of grain, hemp, tax, and 

* It is not, however, to be expected that the inhabitants of theto 
' twa provinces- will become extensive exporters of gain ; the soily 9B 

wcU as climate, being so much better a4apted for other yalu^k pur* 
suits,, to grazing in particdhr. In all those parts which are called 
the New England States, it has by experience been found to be the 
most advantageous occupation ; and^ long as they have been settled^ 
it is known they still prefer importing from other places the flour ^d 
corn they consume, to raising it themselves.' 

We select these paragraphs, nbt with the intention ot im-^ 
puting any inconsistency to the writer, but to afford in ^ 
exarripld or the errors which a mind, that is absorbed in the . 
pursuit of favourite notions, is liable tO entertain. With sucfi , 
persons, and indeed with many others in a higher station, it 
is a maxim that we should make as much as possible \" a, 
monopoly of. our own commerce." They are under the im-* . * 
pression that the more completely we supply our own want^ , 
and the less we take from foreigners, the greater. will be bur 
gains j^-a" very natural idea to a plain trader, but ah id^ea yery 
unworthy of the well informed mind which a legislator shoula 
possess. "We ought to keep steadily iii piir -recollection uat . 
all commerce, i&* an ^exchange i that, unless, we buy tfOOi 
foreigners^ we cannot sell to them'j and that the receipt ^ 
specie* inVetiirh for goods, which was forinerly accounted «» 
advantageous an exchange, is ndw admitted to be no bettet. 
fhan the 'receipt of any other comi^odity. , Haying inlpre^jaib^ 
^om-seives-'Witlitheie^P&ftdani^^^^ truths, burnext «tep is'til 

^ consider 

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Atc&esoQ $H ^nuruan Encreachnunts. 309 

consider in \irhat consists that object. which is the end of all 
our speculaitions, the increase of national wealth. This in- 
erease we shall find to consist, as alreacjy mentioned, in the 
increase of capital ; and the quickest way of augmenting capital 
Is not by labouring to raise a variety of commodities within 
ourselves, but to raise them at home or to buy them abroad 
iccprding as we can get them cheapest. These plain truths 
lead to as plain a concfusion ;— namely, that of allowing the 
Ttierdiant to pursue his interest in liis own way, and of im- 
posing the fewest possible legislative shackles on individual 
cnterprize. Freedom is the soul of commerce, and the main- 
spring of national improvement. — As the gains of commerce, 
however, are always mututl, a case may be conceived in which 
irwo countries are so jealous of each other, that "each will 
rather doom itself to a loss than consent to grow rich on the 
condition of enriching its rival. We m^y consider ourselves 
to be in some degree m this situation in regard to France ; and 
of the two alternatives we may prefer a submission to that 
sacrifice, (and palliate it as w^ may, it is still a sacrifice,) 
^Bflrich a compulsory restraint on commerce never fails to 
causer — but in regard to the United States we are in no 
Ai&iger whatever; the increase of their wealth does not lessen 
btir political safety ; and we are therefore under 110 obligation 
to submit t© a sacrifice, or to witlihold from our traffic with 
them that complete liberty which will yield us the largest 

These general observations will render more easily inteU 
ligible the remark which we are about to make on the two 
extracts last quoted* The first passage expresses 51 wish 
that ^ encouragement should be given to, the cultivation of 
grain in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick j* while tlie second 
states that the soil as well as' the climate is * much better 
adapted for other valuable pursuits, particularly grazing.* 
Now we would recommend that, whatever eucouragemeut is 
given, it should be extended not to the cultivation of grain, but 
to grazing, and those other objects fer wtich the soil and the 
climate are 50 much better calculated. Much less loss will 
odcur in i^nporting a part of the grain which may be required, 
than in raising it in spite of the soil and climate \ the capital, 
wAich in the latter case '^ould be absorbed % in agriculture, 
will .yield a larger return when invested in a manner which 
■wW oe secgndedrby the natural aptitude of the country ; and 
it Td immaterial Aether we raise grain enough for our co;i-^ 
jBuhiptioh, or not, provided that we create abundance of .other 
f onynodities which will buy grain. 


lio Atcheson on Anurican Encroafimnts^ 

After having described the productions of. the main*land», 
Mr. Atcheson proceeds to give us an account of the islands, 
adjoining our North American provinces. The first of these 
is Cape creton, which was erected in 17841 into a separate 
government. A large proportion of the land of this island is 
^rsd^le, and it abounds in timber and hard wood. From the 
coal mines, also, great advantages are derived ; and the pos^ 
session of diis island is indispensable ta the prosecuticm 'pf the 
neighbouring fisheries. — St. John*s (called since 175^ JPrinc^ 
Ed^trard's Island,) abounds with timber of various sorts, and 
exports provisions to Nova Scotia. Its fisheries have declined; 
since tlu^ war ; or, according to Mr. Atcheson, . since the 
suspension of the navigation act, which seems in his opinion 
%o be a kind of palladium to ir^dividuals as well as tp tlm 
nation. To a similar cause he attributes the Recline of our 
Newfoundland fishery, but with the addition of a grievance 
which it is evidently within our own power to remedy ; viz* the 
impress of the British s««men employed in thistralici than, 
which we cannot conceive any measure more impolitic. 

We come now to that part of the present work which ex-. 
patiates on the importance of the shipping interest, and urge^ 
the adoption of certain measures gainst the Americans which 
the autnor thinks would be beneficial to our navigation. We 
had intended to ' enter at some length into the merits of this 
question: but Qur space will permit us to make only a, few 
6bservations on these much misunderstood topics. We agree 
most cordially in the importance of shipping* to this country, 
and we look to our naval strength as to ** the rock of our salva-i^ 
tibn :'^ but we can by^ no means allow that the measures pro- 
posed by the advocates of the shipping interest, and too often 
adopted by ministers, are the most likely to promote our naval 
power. They are formed on a superficial view of the subject, 
«nd indicate no depth of inquiry 01 reflection. They generally 
originate with persons who have not had the benefit pf a liberai 
education ; and they receive a sanction from men in office^ 
who, whatever may have been their early attainments, are pre- 
vented, by the multiplicity of business, from analyzing the 
merits of the various questions. submitted to them. Let us 
take, for example^ the permission which the West India colo- 
nists request, ** to barter produce with the Americans to the 
extent or the imported stores.'^ That permission has been, and 
probably will continue to be, refused,, because it woiiM p^t 
seventy or eighty of our West India ships out of employ ; and no 
attention is paia to the relief which the adoption of that mea- 
sure would afford to our coloniats,-^no]r to th^ in^ease of our 


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jierenue consequent on the increase of their profitsr^-aov to tjbe 
additional navau strength .whidx that additicmal reveiiue wouU 
enable our government to maintain. All tib^se^- the ultjmia^s 
consequences of the measure, are overlooked i and a decision 
is given on the strength of d ie first i mpiessimi, nain e l y,-that 
it would put some of our merchantmen out of ^plo)^ .. •^ 

Although we have thus expressed our dissent npm variious 
measures brought forwards by the shipping interest, we ar^ by 
no means disposed to deny the hardships under which that con* 
cem has laboured. We very readily believe that their business 
has been an unprofitable oneduring ^e whole or nearly the whole 
of the present war : but the true source of relief, in this as in 
other cases, it to lessen as much as may be f>08$U>le the pi:d>Uc 
burdens on them $ and the abolition of the tonnag«-duty would 
be one of the greatest benefits, which any improvement in our 
mode of taxation could produce. 

Of the general scope of Mr. Atcheson's sentiments, it will 
not be supposed, after the exceptions wbidi we ^ve made in 
particular cases, that we shall express commendation. Nor 
IS his manner of communicating them calculated to attract 
either the applause of the public or the approbation of the 
critic. If he aims at becoming a popular writer, he must 1^ 
much more concise, and must guard against those inaccuracies 
of style with which this volume is replete. In page 80, we 
have the expression, < there pervada throughout ih(a whole of thjs 
examination, so strong a disposition to depreciate/. In the two 
following sentences, the relatives are so grosslv misplaced, that 
we must ascribe the error, in both cases, to the press : 

Page xxxiii. < The diflferent kinds of timber in t^^ (orefts 9f 
these provinces are enumerated in other parts of these observa- 
tions iJuSich from the numerous rivers and creeks that inter$(e9t 
the country, are brought,* &c. 

Page cv, mentioning the NewfouiKUandtishery, the author 
eays : ^ It was discovered by the Cabots in 1507 and tak^ 
possession of for the crown of ' England, *which they named 
Terr/t de Buccaleos, but did not settle any fishery there.' 

The composition of the author does not occupy above a third 
-part of the volume \ the other two thirds consisting of an ap- 
pendix, containing various documents % the principal of which 
are our three treaties with the Americans in 1783, 17941 and 
1806, and the Report of the Committee of th^ House of 
Commons in July 1807, with the evidence appended.- The 
publication of useful documents is always commendable j and 
JVf r. A. is intitled to praise for the industry which he has h^e 
evinced : a sense of which, and a conviction of his sin^eri^, 
have influenced our mode of expressing 9ur diss$;(itt (rom ^t^e 
'^ X4 ' ">' 

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'of Ws'lopkiicms which wc consider aa' not ouJy erroneous In 
^principle» hxtt as productive, under the present tegulations of 
•cur commetcc, t>f actual injury to the public. 

Ai^T. X. Political f Commercial, and Statistical Sketches cf the 
Sfakish Empire in both Indies ; Reflections on the Policy proper 

. ,lorGrcait Britain at the present Crisis; and a View of the 
|>olitfcar Question between Spain and the United States respect- 
ing Louisiana and the Flondas, with the Claims of Great Britain* 
as founded on Treaty, to the comoierclai Navigation of the River 
Mississippi, &c. &c, &c. 8vo. pp. 15Q. 36. W* Tipper. 1809. 

HPhe verbosity of this title, as well as that of Mr* Atcheson's 
-■- book which we have just noticed, is a warning to ex- 
perienced Reviewers that the author is little accustomed 
to publication 5 and the errors, into which he almost always 
falls when attempting general conclusions, demonstrate that 
he has been more' conversant with those' detached notions 
which strike the man of mere practice, than with the con- 
nected thoughts which mark the philosophic inquirer. Like 
other men who are unacquainted with the principles of trade^ 
the author affects to despise the science which teaches them j 
and he does not yield even to Lord Sheffield himself in 
enthusiastic admiration of our colonial system, or in the 
confidence with which he draws a positive inference from a 
scanty stock of information. As far as our general policy is 
concerned, therefore, the public will learn nothing from such 
writers, and we shall accordingly confine our notice of this 
tract to its local biformation ; — a species of knowlege in 
which the writer is by no means deficient, and to which it is 
to Be regrette<l that he did not restrict his endeavours to 
instruct others. 

It /is stated (page 20.) that the reign of Charles 114 
of Spsun (corresponding to the time of our William Hid,) 
^uras the period at which that kingdom began to aflFord some 
facilities for the convejance of English produce to its colpnies. 
Our goods were earned in our own vessels to Cadiz, an^ 
there shipped off, in the name of Spanish merchants, in the 
annual galleons 5 and an abatementf of twenty five per cent, 
tdok pbce in Ae duties with -wAich Spain had formerly 
burdened our merchandise that was destined for the transat-. 
hntic market. ' Soon after this, in the reign of Queen Anne, 
was framed the contract which was so well known during the 
last century under the name of Assiento. It did not originate 
between Spain and England, but between Spain and Ftanc^ 
and consisted m an engagement, on the part of Ae French 


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Political SietchiS afthe Spanish Empire*' jij 

Guinea C6mpany to supply Spanish^ America with negroe«5 
the Company providing the whole capital requisite fpr tte 
trade, but agreeing to share the profits with the Kings of 
Trance and Spain, each of whom was to receive a fourth part. 
At the peace of Utrecht, this contract came into our handsy 
as the present wriier mentions in the following passage : 

« When France and Spain were at length desirous of putting aa 
<nd to the war, this contract was held out as a bonus to Great firi^ 
t^iia J and Philip V. transferred it to us with many favourable modn 
fications^ and also with the extraordinary privilege of sending annually 
to the fair at Portobello, a ship of 500 tons, laden with European 
articles. By the ninth article of this Assiento, we were pcmaitted to 
carry 800 negroes ip Buenos Ayres ; and it further declared, '* That 
Her British Majesty, and the assientists in her name, may hold some 
parcels of land to be assigned them, by His Catholic Majesty, in the 
River of Plate, from the commencement of this Assiento, sufficient 
to plant, cultivate^ and breed cattle upon,, for the subsij^teiice of^he 
persons belonging to the Assiento^ and their negroes, and may build 
bouses of timber only, but shall not throw up the earth, nor make 
the slightest fortification, &c, !" In consequence of these arrjn^c- 
xnents^ a rapid intercourse took place ; British factories were esta^ 
Wished at Carthagena, Vera Cruz, Panama, Buenos Ayres, and 
several other settlements ; by, which means our merchants became 
possessed of much local information, and were enabled to know tU 
their probable wants, and thus to assort their annual cargoes to ex« 
isting circumstances^ But it was Jiot the legal traders alone, who 
derived benefit from these establishments ; the merchants of Jamaica, 
and the other persons engaged in the contraband trade, were there- 
by enabled to suit the market, and ensure a ready sale for their cari» 
|roes, and a most beneficial commerce becanie the result. 

* '77/ beyond our plan to notice the bubble which arose out of 
this Assien^to ; it is Sufficient to observe, that the South Sea Com^ 
pany possessed it until the year 1750, when by the treaty of Ma« 
drid we gave up thelfour remaining years of the contract, and the 
Crown of Spain paid-up a. considerably balance, as a complete satis* 
faction, to the Companv. By this treaty also a complete stop was. 
put to the foreign tracie of the So^th Sea Company. 

* Though Spain departed so far from her general policy, as to 
permit a foreign nation t^ participate in the profits ot her colonial 
commerce, yet, with respect to the colonies tliemselves, she adhered 
strictly to the ancient jedous maxims, and prohibited all commercial 
intercourse between thc/provinces, whose shores are wajhcd by the 
Great South Sea. This was indeed a prohibition^of a very injurious 
Bature, as ea(;h province po^sensed peculiar productions, the recipro- 
cal interchange of which might have provecf a mutual stimulus to the 
industrious exertions of the population of each, and thus have added 
to the power and wealth of the mother-country. At length, in 1774, 
a royal edict was sent out permitting a free trade, and a general in- 
tercourse took place both on the" continent and in the islands, so that 
Cuba ilkine tripled bcr commcircc in the ibort s'ftace of ten yea 

# When we take a general ^graphical view of th,e Western CfMir 
tinent^ we cannot help observing^ that it is of a form extremely ft> 
irourabk to commercial intercourse ; not like Africa, which is com- 
posed of one solid mass, unbroken by inlets of the ocean, possessing 
iew navigable rivers, and these so far distant from each other, that a 
great proportion of the continent seems doomed to eternal barbarism, 
amd to remain fbr ever incapable^f carrying on an extensive commu* 
nication with the rest of the world. In all these respects, however, 
the New World is as well supplied aa the Old ; for the Gulph of 
Mexico, between the two parts of the continent, is similar to a Me- 
diterranean Sea, and afForas great facility of communication with a 
large portion of the mass. As to Southern America, it is entirely 
surrounded by tKe ocean, except where the narrow Isthmus of Darien 
joins it with the sister continent ; and though it is intersected by no 
salt water inlets, the greatest part of its interior is yet of easy access 
from the large rivers w^th their tributary streams, which flow from 
the gigantic Andes, diffusing fertility, and facilitating intercourse.' 

We find in this pamphlet an idea which we beKeve wiB 
be new to most of our readers, viz. that an opened inter- 
course with Spanish America would afford an excellent field 
fpr those of the Catholic * youth of Ireland who are educated 
for trade, the inhabitants of the Spanish Colonies being 
almost all Catholics, though not immediately connected with 
the Pope I for it is a remarkable circumstance, amid all the zeal 
which the Kings of Spain ;have professed for the Court of 
Rome, that they haVe excluded the papal dominionj^rom their 
colonies, and have constituted themselves the only heads of the 
Catholic church in these extensive regions. The right of 
patronage, the disposal of all ecclesiastical benefices, and in 
shprt the whole church authority in Spafiish America, are 
vested in the Crowiu ' 

. The city of Mexico, which is one of the best built in the 
world, contains 150,000 inhabitants; and the port of Acapuko, 
situated on the West coast of 'Mexico, and so well known 
foi' its Manilla trade, is much superior to any other harbour in 
these se^. It lies in i7^N|f;lat., arid can afford secure arir 
chorage for several hundred sail. An island, of a mile and 
a half in length, lying without the entrance, defends the 
harbour from the swell of the sea, while it leaves a chaiine} 
for ingress and egress at either ^ end. The town of Acapuko 
has hitherto been unhealthy : but this would in a great measure 
be remedied by the public improvements which, never fail to 
accompany successful industry. The trade with the Philip- 
-j>ines was formerly carried on in one or two annual gallecms, 
which took silver from Aculpulco arid brought back spices, 
china-waare, muslins, calicoes, and other Eastern articles, col- 
lected at Manilla by country ships froni varjpus quarterl: biH 
• ^ ^ '■/■-■ \ ^ -' * ' ' ; " ■ ' ' . • • • • ■ in 

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Poliiical Shtcbes rftbe Sfamsh Emphn. ^t$^ 

in the year 1785, the dpani^h ministry, influenced (it is said) 
by the reasoning of the Abb6 Raynal, established the Royal 
Pnilippine Company, with a capital of t)3oo,oool. sterling 1 
to this Company the Acapulco trade was made ovesi and 
the ports of the Philippine islands were opened to the 
ihips of all nations. A speedy increase of population and 
wealth was the consequence of this liberal policy, and th^ 
number of the Chinese resident in Manilla soon amounted to 
30j00o. The real value of the Philippine islands is as yet 
Ycry imperfectly known, because, though abore a million of 
j)ersons have already consented to acknowlege the sovereignty 
of Spain, the inland parts contain many considerable tribes 
whom the Spaniards have not subdued. The climate is aQ* 
counted healthy, and the products of the soil are very various ; 
— a new proof, among many others, of the inmiense field 
that would be opened to commercial adventure by the emanci- 
pation of Spanish America. , 

Jrom the Philippine islands, the author proceeds to the 
description of Califomia *, the most remarkable circtmistance 
respecting which is that, like Paraguay, it was indebted for the 
chidF part of the civilization which it enjoys, to the indefatigaUe 
industry of the Jesuits. The writer treats at great leilgm of 
the political and commercial advantages of the Floridas, and 
seems to discover much solicitude that no part of the Spanish 
Colonies should be allowed to fall into the hands of the 
United States. 

-In proceeding to the Southward, the next object of interest 
48 the Isthmus of Panama ; with the question of the practica- 
bility of cutting a canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Oceans : but the writer does not seem to be sufficiently 
awax»e oT the means by which this beneficent undertaking 
mW>t be . accomplished, either at the isthmus or at the 
Lake of Nicaragua, Of the interipr of the province of Quito^ 
little was formerly known, but it is noy discovered to possess 
many advantages. That district, wh^h is called the Valley 
of Quito, is a table-land raised I4<^ fathoms (or a mile 
and a half) in perpendicular height fi>ove the level of the 
ocean ; an elevation nearly equal to the summit of' Etna t 
jM> that, although directly under the Equator, this region po^ 
sesses the advantages of the finest temperature. 

No language can convey an adequate idea of the aukwar<i 
and unprofitable planner m which the Spaniards work their 
mines. Whije they are unable to extract above two thirds oif 
the silver, from the ore, the waste of quicksilver amounts to 
double the. wj^eht of the silver produced. Helm, th^ 
IwneralogiHt WW5» Itbati when h^ visited |he mine — ^ 


^ifi Political Sietehes oftht Spanish Empires 

hundred weight of popper cost the Spaniards 351, sterling, and 
occupied a month in roasting 5 while^ he produced the sjpne 
quantity in four hours and a half, and at a ttrentiedi of the 
expence ! In such hands, ^e may be well assured that the 
ricnes 6f Anierica have not yet been brought to iight. Chili, 
in particular, seems to enjoy incalculable advantages 5 its 
clin;iate is highly salubrious; and its productions, both in the 
animal and m the vegetable world, are rich and various in 
the extreme. 

The writer's short account of the smuggling trade between 
Trinidad and the Spanish main is curious : 

. * Th^ comiperce with the Spanish mam was also considecable 
during the period of the contraband trade* and has. again risen to 4 
gveat height since vre got posseaeion of Trinidad* It ^ has beca no 
iuicoinnH)n thing during the latter part of last war^ to see ten or ^ 
dozen Spanish launches lying off the pier at Puerto d^Espagna in 
that fdland ; these vessels left ^he Spanish ports as coasters apparent!]^ 
carrymg nothing but serons of tallow, in which however they had 
^ttbloons concealed, as well as in the lining of the boats* On ar* 
riving off the Bocasdcl Drago, they pushed in under Spanish colours* 
VARiolestcd by His. Majesty 'scruizcrs, who rtever interfered with t^em» 
except Sometimes to send a boat for the purpose of purchasing fowls 
or.frurt, which tl\cy generally brought, knowing that they would fin4 
% ready marl^ct in case of falling in with an f^nglrsh man of war. 
Their conamercial transactions were soon finished ; the patron of th^ 
launch called on a merchant, sold his cargo of tallow at the inarket 
jHrice, pefhaps from five to seven hundred dollars, bespoke a quantity 
of .English goods, such as cottons, platillas, hardware, and haber- 
dashery, looked at a few samples, and deposited his cash in hard gold 
to pay for them ; and such bargains, to the amount of eight-snd- 
twenty hundred pounds sterling, have been known to take place lit < 
iU courts of half an hour, 

* This traffic was not only carried on with the small settlements oq * 
the.wcsiem side of the Gulph of Pana, but also with the whole coast 
ci.'Cnmana and the Caraccas^ on the one side, and with the river 
of Oronoque on the other> as vessels frequently arrived fTX)m Angus* 
tuia the pn'ficipal settlement on that river. With such a tradcy 
In -ttme of war with Spaia, we may naturally conclude that our 
inttrcoiuse must be profiuble indeed, tn case of an amiqahle arrange* 

' Jn the concluding part of this pamphlet, we find kn u^gu^ 
ment which has. of late been a favourite topit widb the k» 
enlightened among pur merchgnts^^^Hiasnely the pract}csd>ility 
of being supplied from -British North* America ^h>]ie,"witn 
those articles which we have hitherto drawn from that qthiter 
and the Ui^ited State* jointly. Hie-inffiWdiiiAs'Who. ' Hlw this 
writer, maxntein the ^ffirnnlativfe of this ^ropbSifioA', hd^()oubt 
"me^in well both to Great Britain and her Colonies v but they 


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MoKTHLY CaTALOGUB, B'togrophj. 317 

(rf greatly in imaf^iling tliat the mode which they ^itit out 
-would promote that end. 

This atithor informs us that ht has been occupied tit 
making personal observations on the four quarters of the 
globe during the last twenty years. His style is in general 
good, though sometimes disfigured by quaint expressions ; 
the most importunate of which is perhaps that of * ini- 
mical rivals.* (page ii*)-;— A Table of Contents should have 
been prefixed.— On the whole, we shall be glad to be favoured 
with more of his statistical observations : but we can give 
him no encouragement to enter <m the field of politkal di»- 


For JUL T, 1809* 


Art. 1 f . Sietch of (hi Life 0/ (be hu George Chapman^ LLD., »d* 
dressed particularly to Parents* aod TutorSf cxhibittng the Method 
of correcting the Tempers, and improving and enlarging the 
Minds, of Youth, which that eminent Teacher so auccessfullf 
practised. 8vo. pp. 30. i s. Cadell and Davies. \ 

tJo.w unlike the pompous displays of biography which^ at the 
present day, encounter us from all quarters, is this unat* 
SumiTig pamphlet ! A man is now scarcely thought to have lived 
to any purpose, unless his memoirs swell to one or two spleoclid 
quartos ; and if incidents are wanting to piotract the jiarrative, hit 
correspondence is laid under heavy contribution, in order to give bulk 
and tangibility to the memorial. The writer of this sketch of Dr» 
Chapma;i*i Life has not followed the fashionable mode, nor adopted 
any of the ordinary expedienu : but within the Compass of a fe«r 
pages, all that It was deemed necessary to relate of Dr. Chapman 1$ 
compressed. Wc are told what were the prominent features in tht 
character of the deceased, how he spent his timcy and to what objecti 
he devoted his labours ; and enough is recorded to ezdte respect -for 
his, virtues and his literary attainments. To the important provtiide 
of tuition his talents were directed, and his labours in this itnc art 
stated to have been eminently useful to others, since he made many 
good scholars ; though, unlike the tutors of most modern academies^ 
he didi&ot accumulate a fortune for himself, but died poor after a long 
and active Kfc. He was bom in the parish of Alvah, countr of 
Banff, Aug. 45^ ^7^3> ^^^ educated at the grammar school, wher^ 
he rendered himself conspicuous; became first rector of the grammar 
acHool at Dumfnes, and afterward of the academy of Banfl^ and in 
both situations was distinguished as having adiranced (hose serbinalri^ 
to a floiirifhing stat^ from fianff he remorcd to Edinbiirgb^ 


-318 ^ BfoHTHLT CxTMiJfiCm, Ibvds^ 

vnd died it bit house in Rose-ttreet In that dtf^Feb. 22» 1806, 
^ the 83d year of hit age» Ic is reported o£ him that, in the super- 
Mitelidamre of his schools, * he rcsblved nerer unAeceasarily to violate 
the feeh'ngs of his pupOs» nor have recourse to any thing bordering on 
severity, until every means of gentleness had faikd ;' and his practice 
we recommend to the coB«deration of all school-masters. We are 
farther informed * that he devoted the whole of his attention to the 
most eai^, obvious, and natural means of developing the powers of 
the mind, and inepirin? the principles of virtue, rdigion, and public 
spirit ; and with such happy effect, that not ordj were his pupils dis- 
anguished for their classical attainments, on their entering the h'te- 
4rary classes in the University, but their conduct in pubUeliie, in all 
Its various departments, was almost universally peculiarly correct.' 

Such a happy instance of success in the momentous, senously 
mo me n t ou s^ biismess of education, ought not to be disregarded 1 and 
Dr. Chapman's Treatise on Educaiiim (see our account of it, M. R. 
AToL ilix. p. S8.) acquires importance from the experience x>f the au- 
thor. For the benefit of his familv, a new edition of that tract, with 
his other works, is preparing for the press ; and we presume that tbe 
subscription, considenng the eminent character of Dr. C. and his 
numerous connections^ wiU be respectable and efficient. 

If O V E L f . 

Art. 13. The Km^ki ; Tales illustrative of the Marvellous. By 

RC. Dallas/ Esq. i2mo. 3 Vols, j 5s. Boards^ Longman 

and Co. 1808. 

These volumes are dedicated to Mr. Pratt, who is figuratively told 
that he * will find in them a seed of gratification for his heart, by the 
warmth of which, it will be expanded into a pleasing fiower of 
friendship.' The tales consist ostensibly but of two stories, which, 
however, serve to introduce various other Fairy Tales, Allegories, 
and Magician's Talcs. Of the first, viz. « the Knight of Tours,' 
we cannot speak very favourably; it displays some invention: but it 
)ias so little either of interest or moral, and the characters are so 
unnatural and the incidents so incongruous, that, if the name of a 
yeteran novelist were not announced in the title-page, we should 
have been tempted to consider it as the production of a much more 
juvenile understanding. 

In the second story, * The Knights Errant,' the reader is some» 
what reheved from the perplexities of the first by meeting With a»^ 
imitation of Don Quixote ; and with a squire whose blunders, 
proverbs, and greediness emulate those of Sancho Pan^a* in every 
respect but in that of exciting an equal degree of risibility : while 
his master sets out in search of adventures, to captivate a ronsantic 
widow, whose head, as well as that of her maid Babet, has been 
turned by reading tales of chivalry. De Joinville, the her^ after 
having wandered some little way, seats himself in an old tree, aadf 
taking up some old leaves, is transported by thenv into an allegoricd 
country, of which a long description is given ; and this alk^fory, we 
think, is the best part of the work. It contains several ingjenious 
jtrokes of satire, and some good irefiections : 1)ut tbe names taken 

a from 

• Digitized by CjOOQIC 

JloNTHtT (LrMLOftrat Mm&. 319 

Ahiiii die CEredc ahouM hate been made more iotdl^ifale to the mere 
Eoglii^ reader^ tiiiee» uokft they are nnderttood^ tome of the point 
w91 be lost. We were particabriy pleased with the patnge in 
which Benvolio is detcribcd at being on the point of yielding to the 
fary excited in him by an arbitrary prince^ who robbed him of hit 
horse : but, consmlting first his ' Syneideeses' or iht Mirror 9f 
Jitdgmemt, * he saw two figures of himself^ the one» naked, unarmed^ 
gentle and patient, the other with a sabre in his hand, inflicting 
dreadful blows on \m defenceless counterpart;' and being thua 
warned that those who yield to 4U)ger are thenoelvet the greatest 
^sufferers from their own ytolence, he desists, and resoWeS to endune 
the irremediable erll patiently.— This allegory breaks off abruptly; 
and we are then told that the old I^tes were the leaves of an old 
book, with whose hero the romantic De Joinville identified himsdf 
'by the force of imagination, and> sending his squire to fetch it tfgain, 
he meets> instead of it, with a Fairv Tale very inferior in naerit. 
Tlie.&ir widow Felicia, on changing her name and attire for those 
of the male sex, also dreams a long « Magician's Story :' after which, 
being atucked by some countrymen, I^e JoinviUe and bis squire 
come opportunely to rescue her and Babet ^ and the terrified damet 
are convinced, by the fright which they experience, of the folly of 
their past fancies* They therefore ^ go home, and live very 

On the whole, we think that this work displays considerable 
powers of invention, and some hunH>ur. The sentiments and lan-> 
guage are occasionally nervous and striking ; at other tiines, the 
style is a little tinctured with incorrectness and vulgarity ; and we 
wish to weed out such expressions as the folbwing : * h nudSf nvh9 
should have hsnif* — • he said a thousand edetravagatit things in a breathy 
nvhich set all the momen ag9gfor hiniy'^^ in short he was so be'-praksed^"-^ 
* it is the thing to appear sometimes tired of them.' 

Art. 15. Susan, i2mo. 2 Vols. 7s. sewed. Booth.' 1809* 
This production promises to class among the Slue^fvinged ephemera 
of the year, and we will not seek to impede its feeble flitting among 
%he gentle judges who may be disposed to bestow on it the sunshine 
ol tneir smiles. The language is always modest, though sometimes 
ungrammatical ; and the tale contains a prodigious number of fevers, 
together with several faintings, two duels, and one or two deaths* 

Art. 14. y«/iwi 0/ England, By Mrs. Norris. i2mo. 4 Vols. 
J 8s. Boards. Tipper. 1808. 
Novel-Heroes and Heroines of the present day seem only to exist 
' in each other's arms ; and Julia of England and her two lovers, 
' together with the rest of their friends and connections, find reasons 
" for embracing mingled with all the wonders with which their 
* history abounds.— The gentlemen also vie with the ladies in weep- 
ing and dropping down senseless ; while tlie latter innocently firivc 
them to these extremities, by the slowness of comprehension with 
which they receive all the evidences of female attachment. Julia's 
method of paying her debts in London appeared to us rather too 
"hctoical : out we were sufficiently interested for her to be some* 


Digitized by Vj'OOQ IC 

^20 M^nrutrXUrTAtjoGxmf ih^ds. 

^dnt iacKgiAid at teeing ha.tnAtA to raadi Uke t dlild by the 
4«niorf <rf tkc pai^, that her owo wedding day.k^arcfaUf cpnccakd 
ftom hex tilt the marmttg of itt arcivyl, wh«i, i% i« di«^<»cd at a 
^rand «urprize» and aiwoiuiCQd to her by » new goi^n betng plac^ 
on her chait !.-9-Thc«c are ainoDg the minor faultt of this BOifel : but 
wewcrcfliort seributly displeased when we fo»nd that the author 
Int iattod^iccd a dialoffoc on JDuellmg, m ^our jof which lamentable 
cottons Ihc hew>. calnJy^ arguet, tUl Jutia -tactOy ao^iteteet in the 
propr^ty of his fighting.— We do not hope ^t the e&rts of any 
Bovelisty directed against duelling, could succe^ in preventing it : 
but we think that all who profess to be moral writers owe it to 
;ioc^ty to:iDention a practice so blam<ab]e> only to eicpote the Wae 
•otions of honour on which it. is founded and the niiacry by which 
it may be followed, -r- * Julia of Engfend* has, however, ^somc 
.fecommeodations which we are happy to notices the ginc^ 
.ftyle of.thc work is pleasing; its moral precepts are uto^ly go<>^5 
«s interest is well preserved ; and. some novelty and much sense are 
displayed in. delineating^ the character of Henry Wynneford : a 
young man who, neglecdng the wishes and frus^ating the hopes of 
wise and kiod parents, chuses a wife by whose bcautjr and rank he 
is dazzled^ but who disappoints hts ill.foundcd hopes of her excel- 
lence f ^M^ his maui^r judgment teHs him that the mistress ii^bom 
- Its parents had selected for him was of a charac^r most oabttbw 
fcr his felicity. 

Art. 15. The, Man of Sorroiif. By Alfred Alkndale, Esf . ttmo. 
3 Vols. 158. Boards. Tipper. , 1808.^ . , , 
On Vp^^^^S ^^** ^?^^i we confess that we were dispileased. with 
the author's selection of a motto for the, title page. It is. takp 

.from the scriptures, and is part of a prophetical description of 
our S^i6>V^** suficrings, and therefore is top irreverently applied 
when made to characterise the hero of a novel. Abundapc^ of 
melancholy mottos might be found; ' arid» |he au^ior*i8eei*i-in 
general to have been at no loss for qwotatiorfs of all sortt.— We were 
sorry moreover to perceive a spirit of Irtentiousiresf pervading- this 
history ; and we can assure Mr. Alfred Alkhdale ^or tfrhatlWtr Ic 
his name) that, instead of heightening th^ effett of Wt perforaitacc 

rfcy a variety of exceptionable passages, he has> by such * interjardar - 
tms/ (a word for which we are indel^ted tof him, y very nuiclldimi- 

> nhhcd the interest which his Hero's disap|KantnofenU might J^e 

' excited. Some of Musgravc's first sorrows arc indeed too trivnl to 

, claim *much commiseration ; and ibo«(gh, at an ca^y fjcriod jof 1m« 
history, he murders a man in a duel, yet this aceiden.tit au«09g tic 
least afflictive of his. adventures : because, instead of oviprwhclBaiaj^ 
him with his usual despair, all th^ effect which it has.oix hi&.flomiit 
that when ^ he had ordered his supper and sat down quietlr tt 
reflect on the events of the last week, upon summing up he did not 
fccl that internal satisfaction which hjs con^icncc hitly^rto^hMl 

' used to afford him.' Some. of his calamities are, bo^p^er,. really 
lamentable; but. they are related in a manner whiph qi^M(f tbc 
compassionate reader to consider them with the utii|o^ cofi^iiare* 

^ . * Digitized by Google 

NTitLi CiTAtoaw, JsJigi^. S^ it 

l^atbofit not Mr. Alfred Aflcndalc'sy^r^, ^ftaiqd«ed. wc ihouia be 

{>uzzled to state what is : not' no^el- writing altogctl^er^ we inngine^ 
rom the specimen Wore us^ and yet his work contaml a delin^atiooL 
of squah'd mtsety in London which is well written^ though revoking^ 
ftnd which rc^jinded us of Crabbe's dcscripuori of the filth and we 
in a Country*Town. We found also the history of a Crim, iC^m^ 
Trial which is penned with some humour ; and n f<?w happy «Q^ 
tences evince taste and feeling, but they are thinly scattered^ 
*« Like gleaning of an Oh>e*trec they shew 
Here and there one, upon the top*most bough/' 
On the other hand, the general style of the ^ork evinces i, 
iippancy i^hich is neither authorized by the portidn ' of talent thai 
IS displayed, nor excused by the morality which is incukated. Th^ 
Hero's mis^rtunes are either the result of his ill-luck or the con- 
sequences of his benevolence ; and the female <fharacter, whd is thi 
moat extolledy is a young woman who elopes from her mother^ 
carries oa a clandestine correspondence, and contHves assignation^ 
with her lover, without fear or shame, as mete matter^ of course. 

Art 1 6, Mandtvilk Castie ; or the Two j^inori. iimo. It Vob# 
7s. Boards. Booth. 
To notice the titles of works like the present i| ^tjli^ sufficient. 
It merely forms, one in the common class of Novels. 

Art. 17. The Mistiriout JVanJerer, By Sophia ke<ve. I^iAoi 
i^ Vols. i2s. Boards. lUcharchctris. 
It appears that this is a lady^s fir^t attempt *; and we shall only 
renMrk on it that she has been unfortunate m the selection of her 
Woes, some of \Wiom require the discipline of 'dt.f Luke's; wkil^ 
ittbers demand the severerx corredtien of th^ Ok} Baifey. 

Art. 18. The Twin Sitten \ or, the Advantslgcs of Rcligiocii 
idmo. Boards. Harris. ' 
We ionbt not that this little volume was #rlfiefi witfa a good 
n«d pifloa intention, bat we muok quest^ the litilky of tite practtge 
vHiich would display the benefits of devotion, and allure thentindto 
telt^^^ifty the means of Novels. 

An. 19. Th 0MlH^ Dmyy by Elizabeth Isslbetla Spence* 129^0* 
3 Volumes. 1 2s. Boards. Longman and Co. 
We could not avoid noticing many inaccuracies in the hngqage 
of this tale; but these, we are aware, are trifles ^hich give little 
concern to writers^ sind less interruption to readers, iri this line. 
It is ttpBg something favourable, hoWever, to ^cknowlege that 
ttiort senous fkults than ihose of composition' and dianagement aire 
not imputable to Miss Spence ; whose former prodactions have 
aiade her known to the frequenters of circulating libraries^ 

&ELlGlOtTI. , 

Aft. 90. The AlekandriaH School ; or at NUrratite of the firit 

Christian Professors in Alexandria ; with Observatidns on the 

InAuenet they still maintain in the Establigbed Church. Growa 

Bvo. pp. 58. 2S. sewed^ Churke. 1809. 

Ret. Jt^ Lie, 18094 If '" That 

• Digitized by VjOOQIC 

%22 MOMTMLt GATAlotetJF, RSpdUU 

' That high veneration in which the fathers artrd' Scfioolmcii wcr^ 
€jnce held ts noW almost eietinct/arid an'tiaminarion at thdryritinga 
will rather contribute to obKterate than ' to rerforc thc?r amhority, 
A« gtiid^ in the departments of criticaF inquiry, dound reasoning, 
tnd pure christianfty, they certainly are intitled to no respect /and 
the i.iilnenc^ wfilch thejr appear to hold in estabthhed formSi and m 
artfcTes of faiths, h more tlie restilt of 'Wnser reverence than of any 
present tft^leeffl. Aa ^fn?g, howerer, as appcal$^e made to Jerom, 
Austin^ and other similar \nracle8» in judtiTicati^of tenets eVidfentl^ 
at variance ^ith^ the- troths oS- th« Gospel, sneh Craiets 'ad that 
which is now bdPare us, e^posinjyr the vreakness Md ^en' the 
^ildifthness-of the Fathers, must be considered as* usefiiL I'h^ 
fitlfghtened and liberal writer fs<*very solicitoustp deliver our Estab- 
liohrneift from t^e bpii^dage oJF acholastic divimr^, and t^ piiOmote 
^hdt revision of our A^rticles for which ^me of her wiseH and ablest 
members h^v^ publicly expre^ed their ardent wkli^. Looking* 
l^rinrards to that desirable event, he deems it his duty Moj spnokle: 
the public Itiind with antecedent notices, and to stimulate 'ex<peeta* 
tidn's' and in a concise n&well as pleasinj manner, he has brought 
together a v^irlAy dt respcctaMc opinions which i)ear at once oh the 
point. On the .subjects of ♦' Origin;tl Sin *" and «* v^rks d9ce 
before Piifti itr Christ," hfs observations and reiferences peculiarlj^ 
deserve attention; ' He concludes with asking ; ' Is ii not un- 
bcffimingthe dignity of Vn English DiMvne, to search' for.sacrtd. 
grain in the M^^ granaries t>f antiquity ; should he not rather look 
Hit kick ihe-kaltowed forrow of the Scripiure?* 

Wt i^ebmitMud this Essay to the perusal of High ChurcKmeii', 
and to the £vaogeItcal Preachers, since it may furnish them witk^ 
ustffol hints, too canoot lire them* Wc are, we beliete, »adtbt<4» 
for it to Mr- Jfcrningha^, 

Art 21. A terivui JJmomtion ib m frofuud Christiatty w1^ ha» 

*: viol^ei) lus Mtrtiage Vow by ItTtng in /idulcery, and tht sMl{ul 

yj .dfttroptivc . Tcndgpcy of evil Communicationt. S3Ks«>Ma^$ 

Among all ranks. Adultery is very prevalent ;. and if it cgidd b^r 
checked by serious admonition, this pamphlet, froqi ^he ^efon^yt 
with which it addresses the conscience, might scry^ to neclaim ^tii^ 
fen4ers> bpt in the preseqt state of society wesde»pair .of refj^r^itfog. 
tjie Great by pamphlets ; and while the Noble and the Q|i|ikt^ 
set bad examples and gkny in tBesr jhamc, the n^ultitvidc will pf>£ be 
less scrupulQUa than ihevr superiors To gratifying their! pasooo^* ., 

Aft. W. Dlsdmrttt nUn^l and reltpom^ adapted to "a Naval AkS^ 

' ince $ preached #rt Board His Ma^sty^s ship, the TremendoiWi 

- * - ^ -^ - I - ' '''"''. ' -^ 

• On the doctrine of Origii^al Sin,, the author has introduced M 

valuable remark frbm Bishop Taylor, which merits the consideratlpi^ 

•f^ose who contend for' IMS t^nctr ^. ,>, ,» 

* « SiniQr iio diurch djd cvtr enjoin to any catechumen, any itoepit:-?' 

ance for ori)2»iiial -sin, it seems horrible ''that any man shot^ta jb« 

damned for that, f«r wWch^no man i« bound, to ifi*pcnt'*^ \.; .- 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

MoNTHn, CiTALOGue, Religtousi 3^3 

John OsWp, J^> Goonnandcr, durin^r thc-Year«ti^z» 1803^ 
and -1804, by, the ,J^obert Baync^, LL. B«. and of Sidney 
College, Cambridge. 8v6. pp. 630. I2s. Boards. liongooan 
and Co. . ' ^ . . , / 

Mr. Baynes ^appreheads that • for the iotroduction tp the 
world of a, work of the present nature, little apology will ap* 
pear , necefiiary, when thesa two circumstances are coiuidered to- 
gether, — >the \xi\X\if of it;$ &cope ; and that there has nothing yet 
Seen published of a similav comprehension and adaptation.' 3c 10 
aware that ' ;$ome excellent discourses/ deh'veved to a naval audi* 
eni^y haye already been printed ; but he think* that they were Ut9 
few ; and) he addsy * a work appeared to ou: much wanted» thai 
would unfold to this useful class of British subjects the great and 
necessary truths of religion and virtue* in a full, deary OQODprehen- 
sive^ methodical, and familiar nuuner — in a manner adapted to their 
peculiar situation* and capable of making the moat forcible and 
lasting impressions on their minds. This, it ha^ been my endeavour 
to supply in tlve following discourses/ He admits that * the mode 
of adapting a system of moral and relvgious instructioQ to such fk 
peculiar claos of men as sailors will vary with different instructors; 
and indeed, this adaptation, iq some oarticulars, bpth of style andia 
the mode of ti-eatmetit^ lequires no little portion of address, to be 
at once striking and beneficial 10 such an audience/ ..For himaelft 
he adds, he hopes that he * may l^e permitted, to say, that an no- 
interrupted acquaintance of eight or ajne year^ uodcr almost, eyeirjr , 
Circuii>5iance of situation^ with this class of mep^ affsirdi (S^ery chance 
of beinyr informed as to their peculfar ^>a,bit^ an4> in^^Bptys ;. aad of 
suggesting the best means pt adapting t^ th<m a ji;our»e.Qf moral 
and religious instruction/ 

• On the subject of morals, (continues Mr.' B ) I have followed 
Mr. f aley in many instances ; con-^idering with him the will of God 
as the ground of obligation in Chrisfian morality * -^ With respect 
ta the doctrines of Chh3tianity> they 'art given as professed by the 
Mot heri church of England, of which, indeed, the major part of 
tty liodieniie were members; and in the life and acts of our Saviour 
It have borrowed largely from 0r. Taylor, as being a writer so fully 
and l<eeiingly expressive of the great, the amiable, and blessed 
Author of bur holy religion, whose life and character he. hf^, 
delineated * ' '' ' 'I V 

We esteetti thli attempt as truly laudable^ ; and we hiopc that 
it will meet with encouragement. Some commanders of ships, w€ 
1»KQ^ (.^qd we wish that the practice was g<:^cr^l,).^«?hep no chap- 
lain is on board, give attention the mse^iires to reUgi(H^ services; and 
iii these cases such a volume as the present might furnish. scasunablc 
and beneficial assiiJtance.-i-To the sixty-three scrmo^ns, here suppUtd* 
i?a4ded^ a dTscourse on Mutiny, preached off Cadiz, July the. ..Qthj, 
i^^i, On the execution of three Mutineers j which is sensible, 
striking, and well suited to the sad occasion on wliich it., was de^ 

Art. t%. Smmi^,^ djjffinm SdJ449j ^ ths Key. Toh n Ifaylett j 
S* D. 9 Morning preacher at the Foimdling-hospiy' 

Digitized ^ 

324 MdNTHLT Catalogue, Ihjttrf. 

' tuitr'of tfic Unitf«I parishes of St. Vcifist "Fortcr, mi St* 
Midiacl Lc-Quccn. Vol. jd, 8to. pp. +69. 9«. Boardi. 

JPubUcttions of this Vmd, t^tk as pamphlets and as TolttmesK 
jprest on. ua so largely and frequently, that it is oftetf fi»po««tbk 
for ut to altbr to them more than a fcoir geheral rcmafts: The 
nature and m9t\% of Mr. tie#1ett*s compoft&ioiii are known to the 

Snblic by the former voUiraea with which he has favoured them. 
n the present, the nuniber of discoufsea m twenty-five.; and; all of 
them are aensible, 'tltough unequal in meiit,) and calculated to pro^ 
ihote the most weighty ^d valuabk purpotea. In considf^rrog the 
called Md 4;hoteM, sermon 23, we obserte that Mn H. explains the 
latter phrase to pieain such as were» or may yet be,, appointed to- 
sUtK)D8 oP diStuhy an<f Importance in the christian church.— li^ 
that which was preached en Trimty^Surnhgh ^^ harangues generally 
on the mystertons nature of the Great and adorable God whom we 
worship t a subject on which he waa not likjcly to eocoonter og« 
position or dbsent;. . 

P O E T K T. 

Att» 34- Tie Re^tnjeOiom of Indui, a Poem. With the Prophecy- 
of Ganges; an Ode^ Ctown S^vo4 68. Boards. Cradock ancfe 

Joy. f^JS. 
•It ia 

'It ia honourable to the Britiah character, that a general desire 
ptevaila for rendering our possession of India beneficial to the inha* 
bitants of that popuhma peninsula. When a philanthropin contem- 
plates this subject, he is animated to a sort of poetic rapture. FXe 
tonreys a wi4e region in which mach requires tq be done,, enormous 
. enls prevail, and the blessings of natore have been counteracted by alL 
the miseries tharare accnmulated on a people by bad govertimcnt ancL 
enervating supcrsticioifs. Though our connection with the East orif 
ginates in selfishness, it iff possible to. render it advantageous to the 
inhabitants,^ and to confer on them benefits superior to those which 
virc receive from thenr. Such is the idea which, inspires the bcncvo-. 
lent writer of the present poem. To the past history and prettcnt 
state of Iildia he turns Itis thoughts ; and his ardent wish is to diflfuse 
Kience^ good government* and pure religion amongv the Hindoos. . 
He admits that he ha« given a rapidity to-changeSy which ip the ordi- 
naiy rotation of events are of slow <ievelopcment ; and that a single 
act of the East-loidia Company has made the Ganges a false prophet v 
bnt 6till he trustathat tiie poetic state which he has depicted is not a 
mere ittuaiott, and that a time will come when the Renovation which, 
he haa d«li<»efited mil take |^oe. 

The generosity of :thls author's sentimenta daims our praise, and . 
we wewiQot pleased at making the discovery lha<;hi$ bei^volent con-^ 
ccptions are not always moat happily eapresaed* By the abtindance of 
cnticad^ ^quisitb n yfaeh iis her s- in -thesc-pocmsr we were induced to ~ 
etpect pemnirtancetof the first*rate ^uaHty rhutitiaeaiu^ to j^reach. 
than tia pra«tia^ a9dv»» hefAs^^m^ miIm for t^m prodoc^Dtofet^uisite' 
poetry than to write finished poems. In one respect we gv$t the 
writer ctidit foe hia good ju<%ment '; via/ in abstaining. from * the 




fiiph-toundingvocabularf of Oriental omei/'aftliiftpoAil is intended 
•oTelj for £;ogli«h readers. Jn his sclectioQ* also^ of striking c&'cuiii* 
fUnccsy ^ has sbewn his taKf s but» when he proceeds to '<^uild the 
lofty rhyme/' he fails^ and t^e toitt auembb has no strikinV effeet* 
The concIusioQ of the poem» which relates to the triumphs of Christ- 
ianity, will justify our sentence. Of the first part» it ts not easy ta 
99iake Eoglisbj tpd the Knse of the latter is not very kcid i 

< Th^ iongt of 2ion wait thee.«— He» whose gau 
One hoitr to worship and reincmbery came 
Afar» rejoictri^ on their distant path, 
Th^ Wisest or the East, — even while he Uy, 

'In helplessness of infancy, and elung • , 
To the frail mortal arm,, where Serapkt €ji*d / 
Their ardent eye of tenderness, yet, awed,i 1 
Approach'd not, — the victortoiM Locd pf joath, 
whose voice is immortality,— the Prince^ 
Whoae step is on the stars of heaven, who betro 
The sceptre, blaling with ten thousand annsf . 
That lights and rules the universe, — the hatlM 
Of prostrate Worlds, is nigh. To climes, where erst. 
Musing high wishes yet dcapairiog, wept 
The pilgfim sages, at the doubt fttl dream 
Of -holier hopes to man,*^who * first the knee ^ 

Bent, proudly honoured, where all heaven «dorav«4 .' 
The bright Assurer, the Deliverer^ comeSy 
And on the darkness of the Orient looks 
The morn celestial. . Ope your shadowy ga(teSf 
¥< vacant temples of the night l^^the gloom . . ' 

Of dawnless ages flies,-^the 8peetre4brmo 
Vantsh,'^^he living gk>ry fills their shrines. 
Bend in the blaze, ye nation^ as with steps 
Of light he comes maje^ic 1 --Mark that eye^ - 
' ^ Which, even on the iiirayer\^ when the gknot • - - 

Of meek-broWd Angels fiash'd a gkd revenge* ■ , 
Look'd with so mild a sorrow, with a gaze 
Of such all-meltiug pity, that the heart. 
Which shrunk not in the gvik, aobdued, yet iOit 

• More frantic, could but snatch a dead repose^ 
In the mild momentary phioge of death, , ' . 

-^ No sorrow looks it no w.^^ Yet ^eveo its joy 
Triumphant, but like pitying mercy, beams 
With- majcsfev of love.^H^From land torfamd 
The, voice of gladness 8lionts.«-^The aged JDeep 
Listens, and, answering from his cave, Ifits high 
His hoary locks delighted:— for US COM is. •«- 

'^ The Hosts of Heaven are with him.-*t-Ope your gates. 
Ye proudly silent tempksj^ to yoar Lord 1-^ * 

* ^ '* ' I ' f i I..I i M | ii ^ m I II i> > ■ , 

^ ^ And when they wore come into the houK> they saw the young 
chad ¥Ah fctury hisBiottury md^fhrnL mim»Kd!^$^lmfi - 
t * Ifoariot.' ^- 

Y 3 '^■^Nor 

3^^ . ^0iitr^LT:CArAXOGt^ Jhiify. 

: Nor dose jrc, tiU, at tkuiidor of the voice 

Omnipotent, Etcrttily^ th^t smk ' 

|!^uUM by crea* ion's ifyreading sound, shall w^tkci-^ 
^ The sleeper of ten thousand years shall start 
In sudden strength majestic from the gloom, 
' ^t And lift her eyes undazyled tq the bUse» . 

And spread her drdiag asms from orb to orh,, 
And bid them cea^^ to be ; — when ntshing' worlds^ 
The comets of the infinite, shall flash 
Loose thro* the gloom, and the last thundering shock 
Of ^rth and Suns still shout their wof^hipp'd God/ 

We taike no notice of xhe kitroductory poetic address to a friend, 
fW>r of the Ode at the end, but by the above extract we leave ouf 
readers to jadg^ of 4he author's powers. Some of his compound epi- 
thets are pecidiar ; such as ' nomtrtyed giant/ applied to the $un. 

Art. 85. A poetical Picture of America^ befh|r Observations made 
during a Residence of several Years at Alexandria, and Norfolk* 
in Virginia ;' illastnitive of th^ Manners and Cvstomis of the Inha? 
bitant^ : interspersed with Aaccdotes, arising from a general In- 
tercourse with Society in that Country, from the Year 1799 to 
1807. Byal-ady. iimo 48. Vcrnor and Co. iKpg. 
A picture of America in doggerel rhimes, but not a poetical picf 
ture ; unless this epithet be taken in a sense which the fair writer, we 
suppose, cannot n^an* We are «ery modestly told' that * no muse is 
invoked;* and, as the Lady ceems to have no acquaintance whatever 
on the forked ,hiU, we shoi^d Have commended h^r prudence had she 
abstained from any trespass op the manor of the Muses," and confined 
herself to the plains; of humble prose, yothing is g^ned by la«y 
and hobbling rhymes, except it be the amtisement of the reader at the 
expence of the author ; for it is impossible, when verse is execrably 
bad, to refrain from laughing at it, whether the subject be the traf 
?els or even the sorrpws of a Lady. Fop example : 

* Unwilling serious thoughts ^0 cl^ejpl^i 
1 took a place upon the dec}?. - . 

Farther on, we contemplate the lady at her ease, regar^j^ss cvfi^ 
of the restraints, of rhyme: , ' 

* We'd time enough to look ahouty . 
The wind grew Hack— the mate h^d/port\* 

The state of society in Alexandna is thtis depleted : 

* Such dull stupidity was there 

I thought it secm'd exceeding clear 
That those who chose to live and j^jy * 
^' . In ihk Bzme A kxandria^ \ , . .. ,. .\. 

Must feed on air, or for aVeat, ' .^-^ - . ^ ^^ 

' Their household furniture soon eat.' 

At Norfolki.Ute Jady fromiMde4 1»^ 



To sec the town, iad riew the>n;' 
To open ©tir eyes t-especting ihc^^uppo^cd chttjirBCS* ,af IwSng i» 
Amcfica, it is Hinted ' , ^ 

* That living is iOOt near so 'lew 

As pcopde hope when first they ^o*^* 

Sometifnes the lady " cares not « pin" fof gramf|>ar, wioii it 
X)ppo8e8 the formatign of a rhyme; though, in .general, she ^s. not 
very nice in this latter respect * : .. . . / 

* Sometimes the yonng men shiart abpeetf'i 

And some 4ook well, spite of rtietr ears.* ^^ 

In allusion to female resofirccs an Amouca, w« WP prespated witk 
ihis jom/^0<c{/»^ couplet.; ' 

* As money^ust^e^iad somehow;. 
There every lady has a cow/ 

the commodities with which the macjc^ yin yfrgi»ia are supplied 
'^ jiuif a^Krtf" in these dcgant iioeSiS 

< The mutton tolertbly fat, ' 
The veal as lean as any cat.** 

* Small birds that ev'ry taste may hit 
They bring fron blackbirds to tom-tit.^ . 

* The o'thcr crabs you cheap may buy 

Sightemi for fourpence halfpenny.' ^ 

We arc i^ery glad to see that this bodk is printed by siAicriptiow, 
. ^ioce benevolosce is certainly better than taste ! 

Art. 26. Purmih^9f Agrmtkute ; a^ satirical Poem in Three Canton, 
with Notes, ftvo. Cantos 1. and fl. 58. J. J- Stockdalc. 

As the word Phiho0iint wni tnvcnttd td express that spunout 
^ilosophy which endeavours to usurp the honour^ of the true, so 
this, laughing b^rd^kas employed the term- /fgrkultttriim- ta denote a 
Ijastard iind of .Agriculture, which has nothing really useful belong- 
ing to i^, and rfjerefope4)ecomes a legitimate object of Kdicule. With 
this AgricaitUFism> our modern Miidibras makes-^iimself merry ; and 
in prose «s well as •in verse, he lays on tlielasffcif satire with great 
dcxtanty. The Norfolk AgriciiU«JTal^oeety;is.^more especially the 
.butt against which he discharges his arrows 5 though they glance m 
ge^ieralat that rage for agricultural experimentalising, or: rathtr for 
reporting experiments and supposed discoveries, under which the 
, pess has for some time groaned. We transcribe the dedication, as 
indicative of the kind of warfare whith the author designs to prose- 
cute : :» ' 

^- < < —- ^ ■ ! - ■ ^K 

• In 00c ^e,mMt'tit^tt6i Uii tkjt^ to t!>ii4.. 

■ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

« T© all the locml^rs, ordinary mod extraordinary^ of tlie'Notfblk 
Agricultural Society, atfd to all other philbtbphical and scientific 
AgneUJttiristt of fiiq^'pailatet keen appetite, wide awaUowtnd ttrongf 
digestboy this diah of puffs, dressed by the most «{mK>9«4 niles of 
£ishions^ble copl^ery, is most respectfully served up (tnough. without 
their permission) by tl^eir devoted 6crvaot> and sincere admirer, 

< The Author/ 

While the satirist thus announces his inteotiOQ of making sport 
with the Society, he disclaims aill idc^ of laughing at the important 
objects which it professedly embracer: but he adds ; * At the strange 
vnsuitableness of maans to ends } at their affectation of science, at 
the queer novelty of some of their di5(;pvef i^t i at the profound gra* 
^ity with which they talk nonaense, and at their egregious gnllibiUty> 
f do htugh, because I cannot help it.* Indeed he does laueh, and 
with no small effect; and after the agreeable shake with which he has 
treated our old sides, we are not disposed, for ^be sake of ingratiating 
ourselves with the ^Society, to say a word against cither his Hudi^^ 
brastics or his long potes. On the contrary, we are obliged to him 
fdr both, and we i^re of opinion that hi$ satire will not be played o|f 
altogether in vain. Hk ridicule of the modem practice of rendering , 
sheep« which are intended to be Qaten^ so excessively fat as co be fit 
only for the tallow-chandler, is well conceived i and this part of the 
poem, as no unfair s^unple of the verse, we shall not hesitate to tran^i 
9cribc 5 

*■ Wise Natur^ makes, the wise poaintatn^ 
Nothing superfluous or vain. 
Would she could teach her handmaidy Ar^ 
To practise n$ discrete apart! 
And not po^r harmless sneep oppress 
With such enormous leads of grease^ 
. Nor follow such expensive plana ' 

For deluging of dripping-pans* 
Alas 1 what tantalizing meat 
Too df ar to huyv too &t to eat I 
'Til an odd way (a make a plenty, 
Tbat one should eat enough for twenty]^ , 
. AimI then, per cotUrOf that a score 
Ql fuH-gorged wethers, yieW no nme 
Of wb^t is neither fat Qor. bone, 
/ Th^n one old. nuimbling toothless cf one 

* The dog'SUr ragral «€^ they run ^ 

Sweating b^^atb the ooonnday sua. 
Some curiQ\w v^ight p^ast urge their speed^-^ 
Curiogs ^od filthy too indeed ! ^ 
Seest thpii yoQ gturdy (weltered lubber 
Staggering b^peiith II load frf blubber^ . 
What is it i take a nearer peep ; 
Can'st thou not gttes& U.? a. prize iti^, 
Alliisoleveltflmoodi,.a5j4iBlceki . 
For hciad, le^s, tail^ ia vain you «ec^» .^ 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Mo!riPHLi*CA*riio<:*, Poetry. ^29 

Whtf do ybu see that man can swallow ? * 
Oii^ narrow stripe 'twist bone and tallow. 
All dstf, oiicc food for watering Kp«, ^ - 
Must now fin troughs to make long dipt.f 

** Say, wise improvers* say c^ Bono, 
Must all be thus overloaded >*' - •' Oh no !" 
Such cost and care, an4 time and pains 
Would never answer current gains ; 
Such wadded waistcoats none would put OQ 
Vile carcases of market mutton. 
That would be, what you seem to say. 
Turning the penny t'other way. 
. Our nobler ^ims^ to wjn a pri?:e — 
To make the crowd ope wond'ring eyes — 
To grace our boards wikh silver cups*— 
And make guU'd gawkies hire our tups ; . ^ 

Then, turn from the bambobzled crew , \ . 

And chuckle in our sleeves perdu." 

In a note to the second part^ thcsrriter entera the Usts serbusly 
, pgairist the Agriculturista, afur having dwignated many trf their pro*, 
iceedings fooierut. Take him in h\% plaio'Speakiog ntood. 

< An^ ^^y are therf such ? They are not essential to schemes of 
agricultural improvement, they arc not in the nature even of agricult' 

* ♦ Swallow] — I have once, and only once, seen a joint of prize 
nrntton on a table. It was at an invitatioi) dinner and meant for A 
great treat. I have heard, (and I know something) of being at- 
tracted '* nUore eulwd,'* The force upon this occasion was quite 
in an opposite direction. Both smell and looks were extremely 
repulsive. I cannot say, indeed, that they x^bsohitcly drove me out 
of the room; but they were very * satiating^ which I was sorry for, 
«8 the rest of the dinnef was excellent. * My poer dear friend Dr. 
jtidomeiif a well-known amakur agriculturist/ one of the politest 
mei^ liviugy ^ keen and intelligent lovfr of a haunch> was in the 
mest ludicrous distress imaginable. It was infinitely diverting to see 
luB wry facet intended for smiles, and hi* strong efforts to swalloir , 
and to coinplimcnt, barely overcoouog his inclination to vomit. 

* f Dipil — Some time ago, ah eminent tallow-chandler of this 
(Country remarked that of late the quantity of tallow brought to 
his office was sufficient ibr the consumption of it ; whereas he 
hi£d formerly been obliged to j/urchase a good deal from London. 
This was reported to a certairt distinguished member of our Jgru 
iuliural Society. <* There !** said he, (wkh 'Ml the warm and 
benevolent animation of > nfan who^ feelk conscious of prqmoting 
the public good,) ^< There/* said he; ^' see what our Socieiy ha« 
done t Norfolk produces her owni^^^y which she used to import.'^ 
J am afraid I am retailing a stale anecdote, for it is in great cur^ 
^ncy, and I have heard it* myself twenty times. $ome of xecj 
f caders^ howerera )uive noly tnd it is ctrtaialy \ good one/ 

. '^ tunl 

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t«nd experiment and spf cul^tioiu - H^fr ^i^f m ntytetlfz posittrei 
but the principal hiodmace jof the ^ood effects of then. Supposes 
mrobable iiti^^e&tion of useful chajfjo^^, or new .practice^ to be giveA 
* mm any quarter.- if it be purstied $uigly:« Miead^y, aif^ patifntly, 
till a fair result be drawn, and the proposed pitcttce be adopted or 
rejected ; if, being adopted, it be cautiously and discreetly, but firm- 
ly., reconrrmended to general use t if it be clearly explaiDed and ex- 
'empli6ed ; it will be received. What has happened before, wHl hap* 
pin again. R^al good will have been done, as feu* as it was attempt- 
;cd. Bur, wandering to a S£i;ond» a third, perhaps a jtenth» object, 
.before the first is half iinderstood i wavcMQgand halting between this, 
and that, and another ; betraying an itching curiosity for crery thing 
that n new ; proposing indiscricninat^y to the intelligent and the ig- 
.noiant, the candid and the designings <]uestions of whicb ttome are 
unmeaning^ sohk frivo>lou^,jiome unintelligible ; colltf;cting thu& a mis- 
cellaneous and inoongriioug noasf of ra^ materials, withopit order or 
connection, and ^eteforc^ wrtfhout use; CQofaunding thisconfqstoa 
daily wi^rsc and worse by^additioqs of E|teiSort ; ,acpum|i!ating any 
thing and every thing, digesting nothing ; playing off the noummcry 
mod puffety of Sheep* iheerings aad Cattkriiteivt, where all i« ejcpraisly 
«M|fiieed to be natural, and all i^i^biriously and notoriously anifici&i 4 
forming a(i^udioaiion«<ori fanciful and even oUy and.childiah^teisaj 
and itery ottcn ao at to inimr, at least, <a reasonable suspicicn^ofb As; 
investing the most trifling aadcontanpttble tnttpidttiea in the pom^ 
pousgarb of scicntifip phraseology; but patching it plentifully with 
rustic vulgansms, as if it were to aia|^e sure j^^at nobodf should ao- 
^erstand the -whoe ; all this, "(whicb is iiQtJl9C9Uy but generally chas 
T^cteristic of ^rif«//tfrM'//ctf/ Transact ions) can b^ve only these obvi- 
ousiendeucteit and suisc effecif.—^to iavtte (lumbugy i;o provqjce ridicul^ 
and to obstruct improvement.* . 

P^r limits will not allow us to purme %\teK pursuits more at length; 
—We expect farther amuseipent from the remaining Canto ; and if 
oiur hopes arc realized, we sh^Jl ende^iyoMr to^daiit our readers 104 
participation of the jpleasure* 


Art. 27. jfft Jpohgy for Nls Ropd Hlgi^ness the Dttie 0/ Tort, 
against the malignant Charges preferred against him by «: Mn 
Wardle. A Subject in which every Individual of tWe. CcMmtfy is 
concerned ; so far as an Invasion of the Peace land Happinest'of 

^' a noble Character can interest him. — »• We are all bound , by » 
moTal and political Ob%ation to repel the Attacks of Enay oir 
Malice, even though the iJting be not directed to . ourselves. By 
Astrsea. 8vo. is. 6d. PriiUtd at Lynn, and sold by Walker^ 

Art. aS. ' i^ Lett^ to the Viseounf Folkesforie ; m the XJnlawfsdmf 
' afihe J^oies of Thanhs to Mr'. Wardk and the Late Minority; 'By 

John Pern 1 inney^ Esq. 8vo. is. 6d. C.'and K. Baldwftj.** 
' By placing the titles 6f these pamphlets togethb", tht trader yiA 
at one gfance peteciTe tbe dimtent vicwa in wkich^ wrnefs c6n« 

• « 

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• MmtUlt CataLogoe, Po^MT. 35 1 

tiemi^lalf t^^lalMfiOb^ti (tf>oii|rh enteftainiii^ siinflar motitct,) as<| 
the bias which tBih' <ndearoor9 M) fiv« to, the poWic mind ' The 
^fst. aim« at shieldiaj? H, R#Hr^bii«4ii by an apoioj^y ; while the* 
latter atiempl& to dmw oS onr att^nttqn from the main quentkm^ 
Astraca tells U8 that the Duke ♦ as a frincr'hzB preserved all that 
dlgmiy tind, decorum which wc i^uf t: adintre,' and then pronounces 
the charge^ to be ' the malig^nant fabrications of a cast off mutnss' 9 
but is it a mark of decorum in a marrfed man to have a mistress c» 
cast off i We wotjld not pay His Royal Hifhneiw so bad a 
compliment as to suppose that he could feien a smile for such an 
advocate. Such trash the genuine Jjfraa could never sanction;— 
Mr. Tlnney does not professedly enter on a defeirce of the Duke, 
bat discusses ^ policy of withd«iwinjf from, public consideration 
whatever may tend to the dishonour and reproach of the ihembera 
of tlie Royal House. He aUnde^.to t?)e filial piety which thrwr a 
mantle over the patriarch^s shame, and ininmiates that in the case <kf 
question hiding would have been better than duchslng,^ Surely; 
however, he would not make an exception to the c^nstttmional 
doctrineof responsibility in favour of a// the Royal Family, by placing 
thero^ IB offices l.of trust, and exempting, their conduit from in- 
quiry ? Invioiabilttjr attaches ooVy to the King, and th^ otmetittitfOft 
would vanish if^that doctriae extended one -step-beyond imn. The 
possibility that the I>uke of York- may hereafDir wield. th© Imperial > 
sceptre ought not, when he holds an office of importiince, to render 
hiiti irrespODsible; aud all that the letter-wntcr has advanced to' ttiit 
jpurpofc is Very flimsy.— With respect to hfs subsequent logic on 
the unlawfulpess t>f the votes of thanks, fouiKled on what is termed 
the acquittM of the Duke, Mr. T. docs not seeflfi to consider that 
the Hooscrof Commons is no Court of Judicature; and that their 
conduct, as representatives of the people, vkrill naturally be marked 
by ^^probation or by ceosnre without doors. Vote* of thanka 
mertfly expi^s the opinion of the individuals who present thlem ; and 
often both parties are thanked by their respective adherents in ternna 
equally w^m : but it is a new doctrine,* which Mr. Tianey has 
created fof the occasion, to maintain that Votes of thanks arc 
vnlaitful. Perhaps we shall^oh be' told that voting is uflla^ufp and 
that Elections should be suppressed. , , . 

Art. 29. ' Refiittiont itpm the Siate and Conduct of Public Affairf at 

the.ComnfieQcemcHt oi the Year 1 809. By an Englishman of the 

Old Sch<>ol 8vo. * is.- Cadell and Davies. 

ThougboAly a few months h^ve elapsed since this pamphlet was 

writteBy they have been productive of such changes in the political 

world, thut'the wrtier's rejections arc become in a maimer obsolete. 

Muc^ blan)^ is thrown on the ministry for their tardy conduct ia 

succouring the Spaniards ; and he seems to regard it as a misfortune 

that they should Ipse, his good opinio n> far he begs to be ailawed 

to B^y *^ tliat if be has f6rmtd an erfor,eo«s estimate of tlic talents 

and principles of the present a^nr^inistration, jt will be truly un/o^tun- 

ate for t^e kingdom over which they preside.' We hoyvjever must, 

in our tur9i;,beg^t9.b6 pf a,d»fferciit opipiou \ it will bf morc^itoj^ 

3|» Mo»i^iT CAT4i:^A€iWjii if ftiM^^ 

wtt for the Kingdmn thst he ttimU he wroofr thas that he A»M 

he right in his estimate ; and we moreover think tMf tH.tpiteof btt 
^^auerAy the credU of Ministry^ and the Spirit of the Country ait 
hfkk higher thaa whelA his pamphkt was first published. 

Miscellaneous* ' 

, JirU ^o. .Mdkion of Tithff . rtcammcnJed^ in an Addresa to the 
, , Agricultorists of Great Britain, in which t*he inerctaing ami 
, imjust Clainna of the Clergy are fully examined and disputed { 
. >with some Observation^ on the present Constr^iction of the Lair 
. of Tithmgy and Its dangerous Consequences to the landed Interest 
, of this Country* By 'Richard Flower. Hvo. pp«43* is. 6d. 
. Bumford. 

Jl more, furious attack than this, on the claims of the Cburcht 
lae do not recollect to have witnessed^ and weforewarb Mr« Flower 
that be must prepare. himself for encountering a full discharge of 
i^Icrieal in<Iignation. Not satisfied with denomioatiog Tithe an op- 
preii^ve institution, he does not hesitate to attribute its continuance 
> to the craft and cunning of the priesthood* on ode part, and to the 
^iJuSiy, n^entiiwn,' and folly «f tie feopUt on. the other part.' Our 
voiders need nQt to be informed that^ we are ao frijends to (his 
coarse mode of argumentation ; and that* though we wishf for the 
advantage of the dgricultiu-al interest of the country, that some 
other mode than that of tithe could be adopted for the ^nainteo- 
ance of the ministers of religion, we cannot deem it either fair, or 
4ec«i>t that the clergy should be accused of craft and camiing» for 
f fldcavouring to secure (o themselves the benefit of those pcovisioas 
whkh the law has made for their support, and fot attending aa^ 
carefully to their secular interests as other men. No objeetioa (sm 
|»t made. to a fair and manly discussion of the meriia of their daims, 
or |o an inquiry into every circumstance relative to Tithe: but^aa 
wc m:ust adn^it th^t its value is very^bnsiderable, and that it will no( 
• be easy to substitute a full equivalent for it, we ought not to reflect 
p^ the clergy for not relishmg projected alterations. Sdf nitere^ 
fim^m thietn in the same proportion as it inftuencea lyther bodies 
of men. ^ ' . 

Mr. Flower first compilains that whereas tithe was originallj 
collected for four purc/bses, and was distributed in ^a ' fo«r«>£bl(i 
division, one part to the bishop, another to this T^ir bf the 
]ch»r<;h, a third tp the use of the poor, anil the fourth part' for the 
|»se of the incumbent ; now the repairs of ^ui^es ^moit entirely » 
and the provision for the poor aitogethetS ' fall OQ |he parishea, 
while the whole of the tithe is allotted to the clergy. Looking to 
things As they are, Mr. F«. reprobates the principle of extending the 
^id h^ of taking a tenth of the clear produce in the preknt iniib 
proved system pf agriculture ; and he cpntends that tl^e Clergy ought 
to be satisfied with ^ a tenth part of the clear gain or profit irhes 
all charges are deducted,' as in the case affirsonal tithe« -We «rc 
told that ^the daims of the clergy for the release. of tithe have In* 
freased from one tenth acre to one eightbi and 91 leogth to i J^M 


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; MoNlrMit CATttOCVEf Misettlaneouf. 53^ 

part of the fcc simpte *\^ but, if Mr. F.'s mode of cstim«tin|5: were 
adoptcdf' vi%. of atsigmng otAj .t. tenth of the net profit, the 
fregeot incomes of the clergy wottld undergo a very great reduction^ 
To Ptovc that, if tithe were universally taken in kmd> farmers wow Id 
be forced to abandon their fields, and Britain be kft m want of 
bread, the author states the following fact : 

*■ Calling at ao inn one moralns to breakfast, in one of the most 
fertile parishes ia the coiuity where 1 reside^ I had neither cresflt 
nor mttk brought me ; on requesting sonjc might be served, th^ 
answer was, that they had none, nor could any be procured ; on eo-* 

2 Hiring jthe reason, I was assured 'that the parish contained riot « 
rop. Hie tithe was gathered in kind, and not a single farttier 
thought it worth his while to keep a co«ir ; but all the milk that' 
was used was brouflit from a neighbouring parish : nor let the 
veadkr suppose that ^his was owing* to a fit of spleen, or a desire of 
fkaod ! it was founded on real and proper calcuiatioft. Thetenth^ 
of the imlk being seized, the farmer was l^c destitute of any suf^ 
ficient profit to make \l worth irhile to keep his cows, Grajnng oF 
buHocks was substituted; the tithe gatherer being obliged to take aa^ 
agistment thereon, not eq^ual to above one tenth of the amount of 
th^ milk the fanner had been seized of, and for which had \9r 
^mpotfnded at first, the earth would not have bcea interrupted iw 
xtB increase, nor the parish deprived of its comforts.* > 

• For the purpose of aiding the cause of Aboh'tion^ Mr. F. prcjpo«e»- 
that, in lieu of all tithe, both small and great/ the clergy shoutd be 
allowed ten per cent., on the profit of the farmer, according to tfeev 
ftule applied in collecting the property tax ; and that, in cases of 
new tnclos<^res,. the tithe proprietor should be restrained from taki«^^ 
nore than one sixth 10 lieu of tithe arising from this source. 

As the pamphlet commences w(th some severe strokes at t)^ 
Olergy, it finishes in the same strain ; and Mr. •^. cannot adfert 
to the'rcfenues of the Churdi without asking, ♦^What is al^ 
this for r He considers the good done by the Clergy as greadf 
overpaid X «nd he calls on the avaricious and incon<iideratc amoog" 
them to discern /£f #(gvi/ of the times, and not, by increasing tbetr- 
claims, or resisting necessary reformation, to provoke that revolo- 
ttoaary hurricane bjt whieli sA their property wiHl^e swept away 
UofSk them. 

• These arguments^ addressed to the fears of the Clergy^ will not,> 
"Wc suppose,, have much weight : but considerariona present them— 
selves* though/ not iatroducetd by this writer, which render^ some- 
legal arrangement respecting tithe a matter of political expediency. 

Art. 31., j1 Slatemertt oftki Proceedmgt of the Presbytmry of Glas^ovf^^ 
relative to the Uie of ah Org/m tn St. Afldre^s Ciurch't in ^ 
Public Worship of Godi on the 2^d Aug. 1807. Saiali 8fo. 
pp. 269, Ogle, Glasgow and London^ idoSr , 

J . " — - .. i. -i. „ >> 

^ * In incloswcsy one /(Mir//& of ^ the. fee simple' haa been de* 
aiaivded;*' , 

6 ''The 

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354 MoNTMiT Catalogue, ShtgU ^Sermtm. 

« TWswdlm^ Orfjan ^accm-^iftg to Pope) lifts the rismg touj;'^ 
»«d rpost of His M«ic*'«tv.*s ^^*g1t »abject« south of the Tw^cd coia^ 
cidc with the p'^tt af»d the papist in this scntinoeflt.: b^ing fuljy per-* 
suaded tbat| while tht cUrk and his coadjutors the psaltn-singcr^ are 
ktpi?' in time and harmony by the operation of this most powerfyj 
wind-^ostrumept, tht i^i^ndenr and imposing solemnity of public 
worbhip ai*e pTOfn«»ttd by its rich and impressijie; tpnes. lo Scot- 
Itnd, this matter is viewed iu, a very different ifglft ; and the attempt 
to intRMluce an Organ into St. Andrew's Chu*ch aft Glasgow has 
produced a very unmusical effect. In thi? instancy the dread of ia* 
novation has operated as strongly on .the gpvernors of xht nprthero, 
as it^cver has been known ta inftucnce those of the sombern esta- 
bUsbnaent ; and our English readers will be surprissed ta hear it a^ 
8er.te<i that th^ introduction of an Organ in divine worship is in facl^ 
•forbidden by the second coronjandment/ since they wiB not beaMe 
to perceive the connection between image worship and inatfumentat 
ihusjc^ It, must not, however, be supposed that .the subject h 
decided here by auihorhyf with only weak arguments for its supports 
To Dr. Ritchie, the Minister of St. Andrew's church^.who endea-( 
irours to justify his conduct in the permission of the use of ai^ 
organ, the Committee of the Presbytery make a very abk- reply, in 
vrhich the arguments of Dr. R. are examined, and the admissibility 
of Instrumental Worship is amply discussed. This wprk, there- 
fore, containing the substance of the controversy ou tht Organ cause^ 
presents a long and curious discussion, which to some readers pnay 
not be un-amusing. 1 he committee of the Presbytery contend that, 
vre are not warranttd to transfer the Instrunicncal Music of the^ 
Jewish into the* Christian church, that the authority of the early* ^ 
Christian 'church is agifinst its use, that the Scotch Refprmnf w<rp^ 
adverse to it, and that the Organ introduced into St,, Andrew's 
church was a violation of the pniity and uniformity of their Piitiic. 
"Worship^ ' Notwithstanding the discretion of Dr. R. in preventing, 
ill vduntaries and flourishes, and in keeping the Organ to a simpk 
accompaniment of the precentor or clerk, his coiKluct has been 
much censured, and ft has led the Presbytery formally to' prohibit 
the use of Organs in aU their churches and chapels. ' 

This Organ cav'se, as it lias been called, appears to have e'xcited, 
much attention in Scotland, ahd considerable mgenuity ^nd learning 
Ihave been displayed t>n both sides of the question : but the. advocates 
for vocal simplicity in Divine Woiship have prevailed; and Jt i» d^- 
<reed, in the nortlicrn part of the island, that the voice of jreltgious 
*oy and praise shall not be assisted by sounds mechanically pa^slng^ 
hrough vvoode\i or metallic pipes, ' - . ^ 


Art. 32, The Doctrine of GoiPs tnoral Gif'^emmeftt'of N^knst vsm£* 

ycateJ from the Objections peculiar to it : pr^eached at 1 rInity'Chapel, 

Conduit Sircet, Fcb.^17, 180B, being the Dav appointed for ' a 

General Fast. By the Rev. J; E. Jnckson, Of Qucen^s , Colleger 

Oxford, 8va. is. Rivjngtoodk *^ . -- 


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MoirrBLT C/LTAtociotf SingU Sirmmfm y^jg 

' . Trom the nttrai nature of societies, the pwacher deduces tke infe- 
rence that they arc • capable of being treated^as moral agents'; and bef 
fiirther maintaios that a law for theif' conduct « acluajJy exulSf and 
that It 18 CTident that a mpral dispensation with respect to states ati<t 
political soeieties is * actual fy carrying o».' The application ,of sucb 
a doctrine is obvious, and the exhortation to Britons to seek the Dt- 
vine Protection by righteousness ta warranted by thcv premises. Mr, 
J ^conftrsses his obligation to Bishop Warburton for the hint respecl* 
mg the moral tapoitty of societies. 

Art. 33. Christian Liberty advocated: a Dlcourse deh'vered June 29^ 
- l8od, at th« Unitarito Chapel in Lincohi. By Henry Huim 

Piper. 8vo. lac Longnnn and Cb. 

The liberty accomplisheld (or, ta speak more correctly, intended 
to be accomplished) by the Gospel) i^ stated by Mr. Piper to be a de« 
liteiance from the dominion of sirr, from slavish superstition, result- 
iog from ei^reaeous apprehensions of the deity^ and from civil tnter«» 
ference in religious concern^, as well as from the fetters of ccclesiasti* 
cal ajatkority. lender each of these- heads, some spirited remarks are 
offered^ which will 1^ deemed orthodox by some a»d heterodox by 

An. jijc. T^hi Chrtrtlan Name t addressed to the Congregation as- 
sembling in Miil-Hill Chapel, Lctfds, October 30,. i8o», on ac- 
cepting the Pastoral Oflice in that Place. , Publi«»hcd by particular 
Desire. By Thomas Jer vis. 8vo. is. 6d. Johnson. 
By iht Christian name this preacher means the name Christian firac 
riven at Antioch,. as a general appellation, to t1ic followers of Christ. 
Having adverted to the propriety of this discriminating epithet^ to the 
state of the church at the period when it was bestowed, and to the 
exertions awd sufferings of those who ffrst drd honour to it, Mr. Jcrvis 
proceeds tcr suggest two points of mquii^ to the onsidcration of the 
congregation which had appointed him therr spiritual pastor^ vvi,, 
What i$ iito be^a Christian ? and IVhy are you a Christian ? In replyr- 
In^ to the first, he observes : • The real Christiaji does not cxppse his 
religfou< profession to contenjpt or ridicule, by a pretended infallibilityf 
in deciding controversies ; nor disgrace it by the outward paradv- and 
the sanctimonious appearances of piety, by an hypocrttical cajit and 
mockery oF devotion, or by the gross and scandalous frrcgulari t ics of 
an fmmdra! life and conversation. He lay? Htde stress itpon principlea 
iarthcT than they are productive of goo(t actions. He is less solicf* 
totw ^botit his faith than hi? practict— while ln> m»nd is still impres- 
aed wffh a firm conviction, that the purity of the former is conducive 
to the rectitude of the latter. He is less anxious to appear devout, 
than to be honest and sincere ; less desirous to h^ thought orthodox,- 
than to ^e just, charitable, humble, and imfcignedly and unostentati* 
-Mialy pious.' 

, Sonie readers, perhaps, .will recognise nor>e of what th«y call the 
ifundanoentals of Christianity in this d<:lineation 2 but» if professing 
Chnstfans were generally formed on thk mod<?l, more of thic spirit of 
the Gospel wouW prevail in the church, and more happiness in the 
vodd.-— Under the second inquiry, Mr. Jerris expresses- a hope that 
' ' - • thie 


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33^ MoHT*fLT^CAT4ipatrK, toj^A 6irm$Hu 

tbe inaliber» of Ki^ new flock ftt Chrifltfant on prineipk'; tnd qh 
^is pre^timpUQii he exhorts ihem to honour the name which tkef 
kear, to prefer it to ^arty dUtidctions, to rinduece the autkarky of 
aoan in the church, and to lopk to Christ ^a«'.* the moat iUusirbuf 
model of every virtue that. can adorn, our nature, ckideavooring to 
walkasr he walked, to iive as he lived.'