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Full text of "The Monthly review, or, Literary journal"

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THE 

MONTHLY R^EVIEWj 

OR 

LITERARY JOURNAL, 

ENLARGED: 

From Jamuart to Af&il, inelusiw, 
M,DCC,XCIX. 

With an APPENDIX. 



** I take Vipon me absolutely to condemn the fashionable and prevailing 
cnstom of inveighing againfl Critics, as the common enemies, the peits, 
and incendiaries of the Commonwealth of Wit and Letters, t assert,^ 
on the contrary, that they are the JProps and Pillars of this Building; 
amd that, without the Encouragement and Propagation of fuch a Race, 
-^e should remain as Gothic Architects as ever." ^ Sbaftes^ uar* 



VOLUME XXVIIL 



LONDON: 
Printed for R. Griffithsi 

419D SOLD BY T. B E C K B T, IN PALL MAL|.» 
MDCCXCIXn 

^'^'^'^ Dig t zed by Google 



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A 



TABLE 



OF T Hft 

Titles, Authors* Names, &c, of the Pub^ 
lications reviewed in this Volume. 

N. B. For KtMARKABLE PASSAGES iQ tfac Criticitnu afid 
£xtrmth fee tht IN D £ X, ^t the End of the Volume. 

«9^ For tlie Namei » aho^ of those Writers who are the Authora 
of new Dissertaponiy or other conous Papers, pablished in the 
Meuoirs and Transactions of the Scientific Acadbmib^ 
at Home or on the Continent, and also for the Titles of those 
DusertatioDS, &c. which they include, and of which Accounts ari^ 
giTen in the Review^— tee the Imfix, printed at the End of eatk 
Volame. 



jd>EWWr% Thrtt Euajf. 64. 45 
^ 4to*t Nor HUS5rj of logtMid« . 

io» 

•^^*«l>te tfRomt^ 103 

Ms€b0rut •bridcea, in TfVilcli^ Xi6 
jhmsUt d* Cblmuf 547 

^iB<«y*t UtiA VcnioB of Gty*t Fablet, 

468 
Jh^dtte to the CongreSt at Raitadt, 524 
^^Afr 00 the EflFecu of Otygen, 32! 
JrfOUMts lor tod ofttJiM ao Vo^oru 

^^nuKtic* See m^nbtf* 

Jti0k Reiearchssy VoL tV* fnthtud^ 

^ijcMs't V1«r of «he Coospiracy, t33 
4$^daad^L»ip Sfcechof^ tSS 



fd^jirrVt MiDBoirs of Col. Detpara, 

*31 
^t^ntfT^ Mcmeift lelatiuto Jacobloism 



MsrryU Letter to the Dilettanti Societf^ 

179 
Bgrthtt/my^AnaehanU Ahrfgff 1 15 
Btitt*% Meteorologictl Joornti for J 798, 

465 

Bitheno'% Glance at the Hiitorj oC 

Chrtitianity, iis 

BiJlaki'i SermoOt ajf 

BiagUj on the DJtcomeflta iii Irelan^^ 

aia 
Bhrd on the National Debt, 34$ 

Slack* % Ntmtive of the Mutiny in the 
Lady Shore, 232 

Blaj^neft Translation of Zechiriab^ z6 
Boadin't Cambro Britons, 214 

Bolln^hrokt*% Letters, 949 . 

BoufiirCt Diico«ne on Litetatort, 499 
Bwueni Serttcn,. j^y 

B<,wU^% Song on the Battle of the NUe^ 

Bridert lotroduttion to Eogliih Qram* 
mar, 2%% 

Br'tssm on Mineral Sabstaticet, 1C&5 

BrcpkboMst, Ann, Narrative of her Sei^ 
etire, 355 

FrMtfff on Scrophaloui Diteattf, 46 i 
Buonafartt. Sec /rtPi«. See (2i^»». 

.Jt, ^« V^itized by GOO^*^^ 



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CONTENTS. 



Otiaresn Cperatioa. See Smrntns, 
Csmhro Brttont, . 114 

iMutaU, See Tatbam, 
CaHnlng'% Spfeph, 2 20 

Ctfm^f '8 Reply,' 47 j 

C0rp«nter*i Scbolar*! Spelling AititUatf 

331 
Cirr'i LacitOf^^oli. IV. and V. 175 

Case of Ireliiid re<considered, 337 

Catherine II. Hermitage*Theitre fff, 501 
Cea^e your Funning^ Z17 

ChtmUal Aonalsj 547 

4Zftm, Theoiy oF, ' 354 

Vtichester, Bp. of, Thanksgifing Sermon, 

556 
China, Dutcd Efflbaiiy to, Aceounc of, 

}Ckriitianity, See Bkbnfo. 
Ckero. See Macartney, 
CUdrcn, MademoiseJle de, her Memoirt, 
^ concluded, 5I9 

.<ytfr^ on the Tonne] at Gravetend, 

3if 
— ^'i Medical Stnetarcf, 460 

C/avid^, a Tragedy, 105 

Ctfec k'lanter.. 354 

Ctitnius of all Complexlors, 51/ 

fmpetency of the Pa/liaments of Grtet 

Britain and Irelan;!, 343 

Cmgrestf Acconot of the Procceding5 o^, 

101 
€tote*t History of England, 51, 176 
Cojties of intercepted Lectori from Boo- 

napartei^ 2^1 

%• C0S.RESP0NDENCS tu'th tb* Re- 

kiievocrs, 119— 120, 239—240, i^o, 

478*-4So 
Ctti'gbam** Sermon, 357 

' Cot le** Malvern Hillf, 2i 

Courtney' t Sermon, 359 

f^,vf-f«jt $te Pearson, See Siftmont. 
Curtit-^Fkra tondin'nsis^ Vol. lit 446 



Draining. See JobnH^u* 

X)r»iMir*t Letters to Piety 454 

2>Kiy<^i't speech, 342 

Durham, Bp. of, hit SermoDi 476 

DydtU Hinory of Tewkethury^ si^ 



Education,' See Evans, • 
Elegy on a inuch-lov*d NxecCf 109 
Elkington. See Johnstone. 
Epinolary DiKussion of Religioo, j i» 
Evart on Education, 45 j 

Euripides. See Parson, 
Eyret Tranilation of the Kiffg of Pre's- 
iia*i Seciet loituictioasi 470 



Falklaftd^ Lfftif on the Competeney erf 



the Irish Farliamenti 
False and Truei a Play, 
Fast Sermon, 
Favfcett*t Poems, 
FeJlov/es*» Address to the People, 



206 

268 
219 



Female Sex, Condvct ot. See IFah^ 

fe'd, 
Jerriar't Medical flittorIes,&c. Vol. III. 

t2g 

— *s UlustratioM of St^oe, - 139 
Fever, See Fordyce, 
Flora Danica, Fascic. XX. j9« 

Flora LottdineasiSf Vol. II. 44^ 

Force of Example, ^tt 

Fordyce't Third Disiertation on Fever, 

4«x 
Forfeiturt^ Thoughit oa the Law of» 

459 

France, Losses of^ by Ret tlotion and by 

War, View of, ^^j 

^cr0c//0ffr, Analy deal. Theory of* 481 

fynci's Sermon, %^j 



ttthefy's Gul-^e to the Church, 234 
^*— — 's Sermon 00 the Fall of Papal 

Rome* 235 

DexLHtii Girdens, a Poem. 29^ 

DrtoioWf— Louis XV. and Xyi. 510 
Despa'rds Colonel, Mrmoirsof, 233 
Diekimunt Instructioos for forming a 

Regiment of Infantry, 471 

Pietionariet. See Sooper* See Nent' 

nich. 
DuUTt Reports on the Tunnel at 

Cravetcnd, 308 



CameUtr\ Pcogress, • |{] 

(Gardens, a Poem, 294 

Gardner % Sermon, 360 

Gay** Fables io Latin,, . 468 
Geometry. See Howard* 

Cerahty*% Letters 00 Ireland} 341 

Qillet** Mora) Philosophy, 3}^ 

Gilpin % Observattcni on the Wtkt of 

iing!at>d, 394 
Girard on the Resistance of Solids, 582 

Gisbome's Poems, 44t6 , 

Goethe % CMsvtdKO, a Tr^ft^dy, »©< 
Gout. SMH'allk. 



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CONTENTS: 



€ravae9d^ Tutmd at* See D$iU. See 

Ckrh, 
■ ■ , Hiitory of. See Pcack. 
Crtck Scstcnces* See Pritst. 



Kant. SttmUhh. 

Kent, History of. SttKeushA 

Xyd^t Subktaocc ef the liicooie Aft, 45/ 



Ksmbtm OB Hydrophobia, 
PMrgr0v^% Jnridical Arguoitotiy 
Umper*i Proceedings of Coogrets, 
Bmrrmtt hLono&f on Palmer, 



^rmgtm on Heat. &c« 
'» or tbe Found liogy 



4«4 
386 
101 
lot 
465 

33» 
HasbaWt Specimeni of e History of 
Keot, 111 

fifmirm-Thentre of Catherine II. 501 
Hew^r s Sermoa, 219) 357 

Hext^b^ King of Jodab, 350 

fiisJasftfa, View of, 361 

^isiaritf/ Beauties, ^ 331 

Misery. SetCocte, SetA^eri, 
^M^*0 Medicai Dictionary, 461 

UewMrd 00 Spherical Geometry, 2 1 z 
BM9t*% Dnd, of Appointment, 45S 

Emsiots^ &c. Inatroct tons for, 3^6 

BjibifUhla, See VtMrmn. See //a- 

MjdrmwUu See ^cr. 



I tad J 



9ar«^i<iaai. See BarrueU 
jeU*6 Reply to Arguments on an Union, 

340 
^— , Rudd*s Ansvrer to Do. 341 

imeme. Tax on. See Tax, Shelatr^ Auck' 

iaady Review, Ohtervathns, Kyd. 
Infant^ Friend, «30 

Inftnt los itutes, 234 

Josm of Arc, a Poem, 57 

J^nttomton £ikington*s Mode of Dnin- 

ing Land, ' 169 

irdaid profiting by Example, 45 5 

■ " See VaUanfty, See Unhn, See 

Bhg/ey. 
JrM€uW9 History of Twickenham, 4ii 
/'tpj*— Buonaparte in Egypt, 113 

•: » *epiy to Do. 114 

htria and Dalmaiia, Picturesque Tour 

tkroogb, 568 

IvermiSf $ir Fraacia d**, on the Loisei of 

France, 525 

^«riii(4i/ Argvments, . 3S6 



Lahmit Coffee Pbinter of St* Doadago^ 

354 

Lady Shore. See Black. 

La Graniii Theory of Analytical Fmoc* 

tioos, , 48 r 

Land-Tax^ Thoughts on the Sale of, 34$ 
— — . See Hunt. 
Langvfortby .on Feckinean Electricity* 

464 
Lawy Study of. Treatise en, 457 

Le^l Argumenu on an Union, 344 
Leigb*t Setm'>n, 35S 

Letter to a Member of the Irish Parua^ 

ment, 455 

Letters on ibe Subject of Uoion^ 217 
Lettice^t Sermon, t37 

Life, Scieoce of. See Tates^ 
Lisbony Academy of. See iltealrt* 
Literature, Discourse on, 499 

Little Teacher, 33 g 

Lrvecbild*k Parsing Leuons, ^34 

'■ Infant's Friend^ S3» 

ZMTitXV.and XVI. 510 

Lucian, See Cgrr, 

Lyne^s Latin Primer,. 331 

M 

Macartney* t Transladon 6f Cicero, 277 
Mackintosb^i Discourse od the Law of^ 

Nature, i85 

Maclean. See Yatet, 
Mainauduc't Lectures, aS 

Malvern Hills, a Poem, af 

Afanr^i/fr' Society. See Jli«iio«rf. 
Mannt Sermon, 3cS 

Manning** Introduction Co Arithmetic 

and Algebra, Vol. II. 444 

MarsbaJPs Rural Economy of theSoutb- 

ern Counties, ftSS 

Mecbania, See H^9od. 
Memoirt of rhe Literary Society it Man« 

cheater. Vol. V. Part !• 39 

Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences ac 

Paris, for X790, S^9 

Memoir's of the Academy at lisbon. 

Vol. I. concluded^ pt 

Merebandice. Dictiooary of. See Nem* 

nicb. ' 

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CONTENTS. 



MkhtWt S e tmt/tty 119 

Mineral Sobstincel* $ee Brhson, ' 
M:sce//aneous AntiquiUc9« Ho, VI* 91a 
Moreau ^ St, Merft EdUion of Vaii ■ 
Bratirt's Account of (he Dutch ^m- 
%Mty to China, " %^\ 

Jtforrit*t Secrrt^ a Ccmedyt 469 

JfdoKal Diieases. ^t Ontyd* 
Mu»kb9uu% ScrfflOD> 119 



H 

fffrrafive of the Proceeding! of Adm*nt 

lf«l9on*t Squadton, ^^t 

• ■ ■ of the Miiti»y on board the 

Wy Sfeprc, ^^ft 

> ■ ' of ihe Seizure of Ann Brook- 

Jrob8% 35 5 

MMcnsi Dtht. tttBird. 
^aiwre and Nations, Law of. tttM^^' 

mtosb' 
Hectivty of an incorporate Union, ^13 
MUhom^t S^uadfpn, N arraure of the Fro- 

ccedinfs of, %^% 

VmnUb^i UniTcn^l European Dictlooary 

of Merch«pdlce, 569 

^tle^ ^f ttte of, Poeai on. S«e Bowlu, 

^e Stfhehy, 
V9 Union, but Uoit^ and Ff))^ 45$ 
Mmu^ a p4)en)| 41% 



Phihfpbicel Transact lOAf of tbf Rpyal 
Society, PfK U. fpr 1798, Jai* »M 
Pbtbhh/ogi49 a rpem, ^fta 

Pbysiciattu See Stangcr, 
Pic'u eique Tour through Syria, &c« 

— through lattia, &c. 56S 

FUktngt9n*% (Mca.)/Mirror for the Fcma'c 



3?« 
35* 



Sex, 

P///'s S^acJi, 

Plumptrf'i SersiOD, 

f^ioekU Hiitorjr of Gravettsd, 

fMf/c Bag>tenet, 

P^IiJorir- due Tr^gcdist 

Popt% Measure prodnoiv* of Ssbataotial 
Benefitt, axz 

PersoH*p Edition of the Hceu^a aii4 
Oreitoi of Euripidciy aad H^aJkeJkld'm 
Diatribe, 79, 192, 4XS 

P«r/er*t(Miia) Octavia, 34^ 

Priiit'-^Dekctus Grec^rtm SmttmtiMimt^ 

roj 

Frkd^kt of Matbcmatiei, «(C. Vol» 111* 

Frfl^en of Satire, $upplf iRenc to» ^47% 
Prussia^ Kingof. See JC^rr, 
Pur mm of I^iitcauut, XraaalatloB ^ 
Passage! In^ 47^ 



0£/j^e View of the Coasplracy, ^13 3 

ObttrvOthtts on th« Income Act^ 457 

OctMvia, 346 

Oficfr*t MaAnal in the Field> 336 

CSffJ 00 mortal Difeafcs^ ^ 
C;eyfeH, Sec Jrcbtr^ 



^4'«f«r» John, Monody on, loS 

F#rlt Academy of Sciences^ their Aic* 

moits, for 1790, 599 

Parked f diUon of Bo)ingbrokt*9 Liet- 

te«, 249 

PgtS'tig Leasdht, ^34 

Patrifit^ a Poem, 106 

Patrmt of Geot«S| t95 

i*9MrsM on the Cow-pox, 160 

— — <-^- (Dr. Kichard) on Diatheaia in 

HydrQphobia, 4(1 

Fiunatti** View of Hindustan^ 361 

Per(m 00 Metallic Tractots, 463 

•-»--• See Langmttiy, 



RattdSt, Congreta at. Antidote tO| 5241 
Reasons foe adopting iD Union, 456 

Redem^ion and Sale of the Laad-Tax* 

345 
J{r<t*B Sermon, 117 

Rtformtd in TiiBCf an Opera, le^ 

Rtid on the Duty of Infantry Officert,' 

RiU^ont Epistolary DiKuitioji of, 1 1« 
Rerme/f'n SermoOp if^ 

Mi^ to Irwin, ^ 114 

Ref>iy of Carnot» ' 47f 

£^ort of the Conumttte #f Sccaecyp 

Revenue, See l?Me. 

R^iew of Argnmeata «a the }iicani» 

Bill> )44- 

Roberts^t Military Inttnietions, 47^ 

Rob'uiion^% View of Eogliefa Wart, 03 f* 
Roman Hiitq^y. lOf- 

Rom$^ Papal, Two Sermona oa the FaU 

of. Sec D§ubenif» See H^rangbem^ 
ResefieU Translation of TahsiUo^aNurte^^ 

4f». 
Rm*% (Mr. O. H.) loittiictions ht Hos^ 

RMe'f 



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CONTENTS. 



▼it 



^•M^s (Mr. G.) 'Estmtnattoa into tbe 

Increase of tbe Revenue, 471 

Kadd'$ Aotver to Jebb» 34.1 



8 



Smmt Ihmanj^. See Lsiofiu 
^c£^rorlogratitu4f» 107 

Stmt' 9 Senaoo, 117 

*» SeroMnity 314. 

SacpbaU. See BnwM* 
Sttrgt, t Comedy, 469 
&FKMr> CollectiTe* See Scott. 
, Single, 117-1 19, 235 *39»35^- 

360 
Seftr tk Latin Syntax, 409 

SkUf, Travels io, by Spallansanii 400 
SUaeff a Mooo^, 223 

S'ansMS on tbe Caesaiean Operation, on 

Oiw-pox, Sec, 167 

ShuUiTf Sir John, Spoecb of, 221 

Smtb*% (Mrs.) Young Pbilosofber, 34^ 
SJUu See Girard, 

^ixiy*s Battle of tbe Nik, 227 

SvmtbttB Counaes, Rural Beoaoay ef, 

%%% 
SmtiefUJotmoi Ate, a Poeni| %i Edi- 

uoa, e7 

j^«Zltf«XMrs Travels, traii»lit««| 450 
StacAhmte^^Nertis BritatutkHf 335 

Sts^«r on tbe Rigbts of PbyskiaiM^ 

347 
StMe of tbe Country, 220 

S/<rM, lUostratioos o^, 1 30 

Stratford on Avon, Account of« 115 
StMprt*t Genealogical History of tbe 
Stewarts, 36 

SafJkf Agriculture of, 69 

SjmtMX, See Srycr. 

tjm, tec, Picturtsqae Tour through, 

56« 



Tbeod$re, or tbe Gamciter^s Progress 

3S3 

Theory of Che»s, 354 

7boygbts 00 the Law of Forfeiture, 4519 
Treatise on the Study of tbe Law, 457 
TunrteL See Cra^jetend* 
TtuickcnhMWy History of, lis 

UandV 

Vallantey, General, on tbe AntieAt Hii« 

tory ut Ireland, 1 16 

Valpy't Sermon, 136 

Vtn Braam*i Account of the Dutch £a« 

basiy to China, 241 

ykmouver^t Voyage, 1, 141, 374 

VtUaim'* Death. Bed, 349 

Vwce on Hydrostaiicr, 313 

Union with Ireland, Trads relative COy 

ai3— 218. 337— 344.454-455- . 
Voyage Ptttoresquef gee. See Syris^ 

5ee htrit, 
Vc^agei* See y^ncouvtr. 



JVahfiehl^n EarifidSi ttetuham wafer 
pthicatim Diatfwe, 79. 192, 428 
*^.' ■> * (Mim) #n M Coaduet «/ the 
Fmab S«i, 333 

/iTtf/Afi on tbe Gout, .4-19 

JVart. See Robinson, 
f^iIJkb't blementsof Ktnt*i Pbiloiopby, 

6i 
JVinterU Sermon, 357» 359 

JVood on Mechanics, 313 

IVcoiPt Addreif, JI3 

JVrafjgbtm't Sermon, %%f 



TtfuiiZp. See Roseoe, 
fotbam on Inland Canals, 11$ 

7>^^*t Sermon, 11 S 

Tdx on Incooie coofidered^ 220 

fem of National Wealth and Fioaoccs, 

210 
Trv/io^fy,, History of, 213 

ftner^thc ColoniSiSof aU Complexons, 

Tbni^ing Sermon in Durham, 359 

fhwre de PHermitage do Catterine 11. 

' . 50« 



Tales and Maclean on the Science of 
Life, 459 

7Mrȣ Philosopher, 346 

Tofng't Agiicultore of SufFolk* 69 

— — on tbe State of the Public Mir^d, 

20S 



Zecbarlahi STew Traoil^lioB of, %^ 



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IRRATA in Vol. XXVttL 
fsge 89* !• 26* for r^ilMo* read r^tlalct9 ; and L 27. for v$eaii r« 

ioo« note f for xvcAhl^ read kvkXv^ 
37a. 1. 17^ dele the word line after * metrt^ 
352. the price of Art* 47. should be 2a. 6d, 
556. L 25^ dck • cf after • ^mfrebenfinf^ 



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THE 

MONTHLY REVIEWi 

Fbf JANtJAFLt, 1799. 



Akf. t. A P'oi^i if DucO^rf totht North Pacific OcehHf afJ 
he World I in whiah the Coait of North- VVeet America 



the 
has been carefully eyammed aad a^rcuratelf surtcyeii. Undertakcri 
by bia Mfje^y'a Command, priacipally witl^ a View to ascertayi 
the 'Existence of anj navi^ble Commumcatxon between tHe Nor^i 
Pacific and.Korth Atlantic Oceans ; and performed m the Years 
1790, 1 79 W 1 792> i793» I794> and. 1795, ^*° ^^^ Discovery 
Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham,' under the Com- 
mand of Captaioi Oeof^ Vancduver. 4to. 3 Vols. 61. 6s« 
Boards. Robinsons. ^798. 

'T^HB advantages of a Fur trade ^itK China from the westerrx 
•*- coasts 01 North America, though for a considerable length 
of tim6 known to -tne Russians, « were very little understood 
and wholly unattenipted by other European nations, before the 
voyage o^ Captain Cook to those parts* I'iie information ob* 
tained by that excellent navigator not only encouraged mercan- 
die expeditions ^rom mos^ maritime countries, but revived the 
expectations of those who were advocates for the supposed 
existence of a N. TiC'. passage through America ; and these 
expectations were strengthened by siibsequeht dikovefiesi at- 
triboted to 'tome of thtf late cnterptising adventurers. To 
dcamtne into the tfbfh df these as well ai of the mott earlf 
accounts, and td cdmplete a siirvey of the urestern coast of 
North America frorii the lafitiide of 30** N. to 6o* north, with 
the additional purpose of executing the articles of the conven- 
tion ipade between the Britisih andthe Spanish courts respect* 
ing Nootka ^ound, were the proposed objects of the expedi- 
tion of whidi the narrative is noi;^ before ns. The voyage 
had been phnned, .and preparations for it had be^n made^ 
•ome time before these dispiftes between the cootfd of London 
and Madtid arofc^ and was suspended till the adjustment o£ 
them w^ to take nlace. 

The ill htiiiYi of the late Qptain Vancotavcr, for some time 

fttviously to his decetse^ 19 assigned as the cause of the pub- 

*Vot,X3CYUi, B Ucation 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



% Vancotivci^/ Voyage of Discovery. 

Iication being 9o long delayed after the return of the ^ip^ 
His brother, Mr. John VindduTfi', has performed the office 
of editor ; and he lays before the public, in an advertisement 
mfked to the iir«t rolume, tjie state of the work when 4fte 

l^sndispbskion of his brother lenietedhim incapaMe of'ooii- 
tinuing his attention to it. From this adTertiscmcnt^ it ap- 
pears that the first and «u:OTd Yolunvs,^. (the introduction ex- 
cepted,) and as lar a» tiie i9^h{>age of t|^e t&ir<l volume^ were 
then printed, and had undergone his examination. He had 
also prepared the Introductlonf aod a farther part of his journal^ 
to page 408 of tlie last volume \ vvbich comprehended the 
whole of his geographical discoveries. 

V In the intlrodiictiQii is giveaan account «f the equip^nei^ 
and i copy of the Admiralty inatmctionst dated Mateb 8th» 
i^^\% under which Captain Vancouver saUed. B^ these 
orders, he was directed to proceci^ immediately t» th^ Sand- 
wich Islands in the North Pacific Occan^ there to remain du^ng 

, the ensuing winter ^ in the cokirse of which it wis Intended 

. that he should be joined by a vessel, to be dispatchj^d ii^om 
Engl^di co^iv^yiog to <bim th^ King^s oi;ders r^soi^c^pg ^the 
possessions on' the coast of Am^ric^ that w<;re ^ be restored 
to hisMdesty's subjects, agreeably to the conventipn aboyc* 
inentioned : out, (say the instructions,) " if no such otSfrs 
should be received by you previous to the end cf TaQUiij 
1792, you arc not to wait for them at the Sindwich Islapd^ 
Vut t6 proceed, in such course as you may judge ioost exp^ 
dient fer the examination of the coast abovementit)ned/^ ^c. ' 
The language of the instructions evinces that strotig bop^ 
were entertained of a comnnmicatlbn bein^ dfocovered, w^ 
tween the Atlantic ocean and the sea^Mfest of Anierica^ 'a^ 
appears by the following extract : 

- «* You «« tlwrrfore hereby ifcquiw} wS dJiiPCted *o, pay a pSHt%r 
fx^ at^tioa t(^ ^he e^aoun^on o^ the supfiosed ^traits of Jua^ 
deiFuca^ said to be situated between, 48** a«i 49** nojrtU latitude;*, 
and to lead to an opening tl^rough which the sloop \Va«hington i» 
reported to have passed in 1789, and io have come out again to the 
northward of Nootka* The discovery 0/ a pear commun^tion he- 
Iwech any such sea or strait, and any river rutiniog into, of from the 
lake ^ tne wocids, would ht partfibuhurly titscffulk 

<< If you sbnuid fell of discovering atir auch ihlet^ ks ts abev^ 
j&estbnedy 'to the southward of Cook's rmc, there is the gtfe^teffc 
fnsofaabiity that it waU be found that the said river risei^ iq iome if 
j^^ejak«s already known tp the Ca^adJaivtBad^i an4 to the servi^'^ 
of the Hudson's bay compaffiy ; which point it would,. In that C99tL 
ht material ta ascertain.; ■)i4wy<Wi 9H% ^^^forJEr l^ eafevpiy t^ as^ 
eertaia ajccordwiy/' Ice. " 

JJ^ 



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^rfie i^oMlibetal conduct and the greatest openness of commu- 
lication were directed t^be observed towards any vessels which 
svigbt be met, belonging to other nations. It was cafculated that 
Jic proposed survey would occupy two summers on the coast of 
America i and hi the return, which was ordered to be by Cape 
Bom, it waa recommended, if practicable, to examine mo 
wealieni coast of South America, beginning at the^ south point 
of the island of Chiloe, in latitude 44* south. That no cause 
of dise«ii€eiit nor of complaint might be given to the Spaniards, 
tkc Gommander was strictly charged that, in the execution of his 
instructtons, he should not on any account (diatress excepted) 
touch at M»y port on the continent of America between the 
latitiides of 30* north and 44^ south* 

The vessels af^nted for the expedition were named the 
Disc over y «id the Chatham.— The former was a ship of 340 
tons bttTtiken, commanded by Captain George Vancouver, 
carrying logons, with a complement of 100 men:— The 
oditer wa« a brig, commanded by Lieutenant (now Captain). 
W^. R. Bvouj^ton, carrying 4 guns and[ 45 men. A native of 
tbeSaacNrich Islands, named Towereroo, who had been brought 
thence by oine of our trading veisels in July 17 89, was sent 
(ol beard by th^ AdmimUy, with orders to Captain Vancouver 
to convey him. to his native land. Thb man, he saySf. 
*^iiA3c in England, lived in gres^ obscurity, and did not 
seem in the least to have bendSted by his residence in thift 
coontry.' ' 

On the I St of April 1791 they sailed from Falmouth;' 

on the'ioth of July they arrived at the Cape of Good Hope; 

wiuch place they left August 17th ; and on the 26th of Septem- 

bee they made the south-west coast of New Holland, in latitude 

)5''ae«^, and longitude 116P east. Having sailed 35 leagues 

alowg tbe coast, wfascb ia this; part was but very iqlperfectlj! 

kne^m before* they disoovered a harboiir to which ^as given the 

aanae of King George the Third^s Sound 5 where they remained 

nearly a fortnight. They n^ct with none of the natives, but 

found deserted huts. The most remarkable objects that they 

saw were black swans, of which the fdlowing account is 

given : ^ As we proceeded to the upper part of the harbour, out 

attention' was directed to several large black swans in very 

stately attitudes swimming on the water, and, vdien flyings 

discovering the nnder part of their wmgs and bi^Hsti to bit 

wMte: this is all the description we were enaUed to give of 

them, since they were excessively shy, and we very indiflFerent 

I mirksmen/ We might appear too sceptical, perhaps, should 

I werenture to suppose that these Uack' swans might ^avebem 

B a tygnets. 

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4. Vancouvcf*/ Voyage ofDhcoverjfi 

cygnets* The wild swan, however, i$ described at hstvlttg 
the back and the tips of the wings of ^n ash colour. 

After their departure from King George the Third's Soundf 
bad weather prevented their keeping near the coast, which they 
only saw in detached parts. Towards the end of October 
tbey passed Van Dtemail's land, and on the 3d of November 
anchored in Dusky Bay, in the south island of New Zealand. 
This place, which, in the former voyages, had been found in- 
habited, appeared now entirely deserted. In a three days* ex« 
cursion, several spots, formerly the residence* of the natives^ 
were visited : but no traces of people were seen^ nor any cir- 
cumstance which in the least indicated that the country was at 
present iRhabited.*-The vessels left Dusky Bay on the sad, 
and during the next night they were separated by a gale, and 
did not meet again till their arrival at Ouheite. After their 
separation, the Chatham discovered land in latitude 43^9 48' S. 
and longitude 183® East : of whicli new discovery the follow- 
ing particulars are given from the narrative of Lieutenant 
Broughton^ who commanded the Chatham. Having stce^d 
along the coast, keeping between 2 and 3 miles distant^ with 
regular soundings from 22 tq 25 fathoms, he says : 

< The shore x« a continued white saidy beach, on wbfch the surf 
ran very high. Some high land, rising gradually from tKc beach and 
covered wi3i wood, extends about 4 miles to the eastward of the- 
Cape. After passing this land, we opened the several hills over the 
low land we had seen in the morning, and could discern that many 
of tUcm were covered like our heaths in England, but destitute oC 
trees. The woods in some spots had the appearance of being cleared, 
and in several places between the hills smoke was observed.* — 

< After sailing about id leagues, we came abreast of a small sandy 
bay. Water was seen over the beach, and the country had the ap- 
pearance of bcinj very pleasant. With our glasses we perceived 
some people hauling up a canoe, and several otlicrs behind the rocks 
in the bay. . Fearful that so good an opportunity might not occur 
for acquiring some knowledge of the inhabitants, I worked up into 
the bay, which we had passed before the natives were discovered. 
We came to an anchor about a mile from the shorein 20 fathoms water.* 
i Lieutenant Broughton^ accompanied by Mr. Johnston the 
master, and one of the mates, went in the cutter towards the 
shore, The natives made much noise as thev approached. 
Mr. Sheriff, the mate, leaving his arms in the boat, landed: 
but only a or 3 of the inhabitants came to him: the remainder, 
about 40, keeping at spme distance. They took whatever was 
ofitsred them, but would give nothing in return. 

. [f Having repeatedly beckoned us to follow them round to where 
their habitations were suppoKd to be, «i soon as Mr. Sheriff returned. 



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Vancottvcr*/ Voyage of Discovery. 5 

fpe proceeded to comj^ wWi their wishes. They had been very cnri-' 
0HS IB. thetr examination of Mr, SherffPs person^ and seemed very 
liesirotts of Jkeepin^ him, at they frequently pulled him towards the 
woody where we imagined some of them resided. On meetings 
them 00 the other side, they seated themselres on the beach, and 
feemcd very anxious to receive os on shore ; but as all our intreaties 
were ineffectual in obtaining any thing m return for our presents,' 
pcrcetring many of them to be armed with long spears, and the si- 
to^n l^in^ unfavorable to us, in case they should be disposed to 
treat us with hostility, we did not think it prudent to venture 
imon^ them ; and finding our negotiation was not likely to be at- 
tended with success, we took our leave : but in our way off, as the 
Bttivts remained quietly where he had left them, I thought it a good 
opportnoity to land once more and take another view of their 
puioes.' 

Of these vessels, Mr.Broughton has given a description, and 
likewise of tbeir nets and fishing tacUcj which were very in- 
geatposly made- 

* The woods^ afforded a delightful shade, and being clear of under- 
growth, were in many places formed into arbours, by bending the 
bmcfees when young, and enclosing them round with smaller trees. 
These appeared to have been slept in very lately. The trees of 
which the woods are composed grow in a most luxuriant manner, 
dear of small branches to a considerable height ; and consist of several 
jorts, some of which, the leaf in particular, were like the laurel.* 

During U^s examination, the natives began to collect about 
them. One Qian exchanged a spear for some trinkets, but no 
other barter was eflFected. Spme looHing-gla^se^ being shewa 
to this n)an» he was so delighted with seeing the reflectioa 
pf himself, that he ran off with them. As the people did not 
appear unfriendly. Lieutenant Broughton and a party walked 
^g the shore towa^d^ their I^abitations, the boat keeping 
near them : but hostile pKparatlons were soon observed to be 
making by (be x^atiyes y ^d those whp b^d i^ot spears collected 
Jaigf ^tipks, 

f Nqt liking ibese appearances, we had some thoughts of embark- 
iag; but, on our suddenly fiacing about, they retired up the beach, to 
a fire which some of them had just made. Mr. Johnston followed 
them singly, but was not in time to discover the method by which it 
had been so quickly produced. Ijis presence seemed rathei^ to dis* 
please them, on which he returned, and we again proceeded along tli^ 

Arriving at a piece of waiter wh'^ch hayl beea $een fton^ the 
fhipi they tasted and found it brackish. 

• We tried to explain to the natives who. ft ill attended us, that 
tic water was not fit to drink, and then returned to the sea sid^ | 
W^^ abrtast of the boat, tht^y became very clamorous^ talked ex- 

B 5 uemd^ 



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6 VmimMi^t V^ijt^tfBimmfi 

tm&dy loud to each other, aod divvkd «04i8 tieMigr to iafV9oM fM^ 
A yo^Qg man strutted towards me ia « vfry meoaciflig. aoklidr,; iMt 
^uitorted his person^ turned up his «fe8| pMuk hid«o^ &oc% »w<i 
oreated a wonderful fierceness in his appearaace by his ^estuces. £>■ 
pointiaflr my double-harreUed gun towards htm he desisted. 'YI^^At 
l^ostiie mtentions were now too evident to be fiMtaken, and thciEc fogc# 
to avoid the necessity of resortintg to extremities, the boat was im« 
mediately ordered in to take us oa board. XHaing this inteiHsaly al« 
though we were strictly on our guard, they ^sNtgan thf^ attack* aod 
before the 4>oat could get in, to -avoid being knecked down I was 
reluctantly compelled to fire oae bariiel, it^ch being loaded ^nricb 
amall shot, X was in hopes might intuaidate without i&afieriaUy 
wounding them, and that we should be su&red to en^bark withaut 
further molestation. Unfortunately I was disappoiated in this h<»pe, 
Mr. Johnston received a blow upon his musket with such foixje ironi 
an unwield^r club, that it fell to the ground ;but before, his oppiMurnt 
could pick it up, Mr. Johnston had time to recover his position, and 
he was obliged to fire on the blow beinfr again attempted. A ma- 
rine and seaman near him were, under simuar circumstances, forcoA 
into the water, but not before they had also, justified alone by self 
preservation, fired their pieces without orders. The gentleman havlMr 
charge of the boat seeing us much pressed by the aativ^andobIi|rel 
to retreat, fired at this mstant also, on which they fled. I ordered 
the firing instantly to cease, and was highly gratified to see theqa 
jiepart apparently unhurt. The happiness I eniqyed in this rcfle^tioa 
was of short duration, one man was discovered to have fallen \ and 
\ am concerned to add, was found lifeless, a ^ball having bfokea hia 
. arm and passed through his heai^. We immediately repaired to* 
wards the boat, but the surf not permitting her to come near euough, 
"we were still under the necessity of walking to the place from whence 
vtt had originally intended to embarks As we retired, we ptroeiv^ 
one of the natives return from the wooda, whither all :had netreated, 
find pbciQg htmsdf by the deceased, waa distinctly ifacatil in a aast 
of dismal howl to -utter his lamentatioos.'—- 

< We distributed (continues Mr. Broughtoi)) amoq^st the canoca 
the remaining part of our toys and triukets, to manifest our kind 
intentions towards them, and as some little atonement also for the 
injury which, contrary to our inclinations, they had Sustained, in 
defending ourselves against thtir unprovoked unmented hostility. 
In our way to the ship, we saw two natives running along thebeadi 
to the canoes, but on our arrival on board they were not discemlbk 
with our glasses.' 

This unfortunate accident could not be prevented by people 
who were situated as were Mr.Broughton and Tiis party. Tbr 
natives were probably^ncou raged to th^ asaault by the smallness 
<>f the force which"^ they believed they should have to en- 
counter ; although, somfe time previously to the attack, Jdi*. 
Brougfaton gave th^m some birds which he had kflled, ai^d 
fired his gun to shew the cause of dietrdeath* 

14 This 



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*- lUmhni n of oniiidQraUe nagAitwde : the^tsC whicK^bof 
4aw cxtcflded nouff 4# ailet from cait to west ; anui the ap^ 
1»eftri0ce cyf the country, laccotcUng to the description gbren, 
it ftrj prdtnfeing. In many respects, the Adtlves r«wmblfe 
ihoa of i^w Zealand ; from which country they arc distant 
about ICO leagues: but their skin^ ^ere destitute of any 
'marks, and they had the appearance of being cleanly in their 
persons. Their dresses were o£ seal or sea-bear skin, and some 
Lid fine woYcn mats fastei^d round the waist. < They seetne4 
a cheerful race, our ,co,nYersation frequently etcitixlg violent 
bursts of laughter aqiongst them. On our first landing their 
iurprize ahd exclamation^ .can hardly be imagined $ they 

Cted to the sun, and then to u$, as if to adc', whether we 
come from thence/ Their arms were speaifs, clubs, arfd 
a small weapon resembling the New Zealand patoo. — ^The bay 
In which Lieut. Broughton landed he named Skirmish bay. 

A small island was likewise, faund by the Discovery, in the 

jpassage to Otaheite, in latitude 27* j6' S. and longitude tij* 

49* £• mhabited by a people, who, on account of their Ian- 

^age and thdr resembbace to the Friendly Jslanders, Ca^aili 

Vancouver (rather quaintly) says, were evidently of the Great 

Swth Sea Nation. Nevertheless, their language (as appears in the 

narrative) was so little understood by our navigators, that, 

,tbough they exerted their whole skill in endeavouring to obtaiii 

from the natives the name of their island, they were eacli 

^unable to comprehend the other's meaning 5 andf the name of 

.Opano was adopted, as the one which Captain Vancouver 

thought had the be^t chance of being* right. A vfry material 

difference, which was likewise observed between these islanders 

and the inhabitants of the other islands with which we are ae- 

qaainted iir the south seas, was that not any of these people 

were tattowed.— Of the isbnd. Captain Vancouvelr siiyi, 'Its 

pxiocipal character is a cluster of high craggy mountains, 

fenning, in several phces, most romantic pinnacles, with per- 

\pendicuhur clife nearly from their suojmits to the sea 5 the va- 

^caaetes between.tbcr mountains would more probably be termed 

chasms than vallies.' The circumstance most worthy of obser- 

^vation, however, was, that ^ 

• Hie tops of sk cf the highest Ulla bpec the appearance (fi 
fMrti&ed plaM, rcscmblipfr redoubts; hating a wrt of block-hous^, 
ia die shape pf aa EogUsfe glass-house, in the center of. each, wiUi 
tows of i^sidoes a considerable way dowu the sides of the hilte, 
aeazfy.at emial distances. These, over-hanging, seemed intended 
for advan^edworks, and apparently capable of defending the citadel 
by a. few against a numerous host of assailaats. On all of ^bem, v«e 
Wliccd people,* as if on duty, constantly moving about, what we 
; . ' B4 considered 

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poMAenA a« btbck-iiouies, from their ipdsat nmifarftj Sa apittariuiee 
to tiiat 8Mt of buildiiig, were sii£Sciaatlflaj;ge to Io4g9 « conskkvablr 
^numbci; of peraontf, and were the onlyhabitatipnf we taw. Yet bojn 
the outpbor of canoes that in so short a time assembkd round us, i{. 
!« i^atural to conclude thk the inliabitanis arc very frequently' afloat, 
jiud to infer from this circumstance that* the 8hores> and not those 
.fortified hills which appeared to be in'ttie center of tiic idaxld, woulij 
be preferred for tiic}r general residence.* • '• ' 

i ^bovc 3o|capocs'wcfC seen, Hht island was estimated to 
lie 6| m^lc§ in length, and no oAei^ appekrcd * iii sight, 
. Whether jiic fortified places, here described, Were intended 
.for/ d^fen^cs oi the islanders against cath other, of agiainst 
attack's 'ftom some more powerful neighbours, cpald only be 
corijectwrcd : but the latter idea secm^'the nibst probable^ — It 
.^as not asfiertained whether this ikiand zffardffA ahchoragc :— » 
tut appeajr^nccs were thought favourable for that purpose near 
.|Jic N.W. part'.'. ' , • . 

r Oji t|ie 30th of December, the Discovery dncjiprcd at Ota- 
.|icitc, and rejoined the Chatham, yhich hard apyed there a few 
,days before. I 

' The natives oT'Otahelte received our voyager? in the most 
friendly and cordial manner. The original intention of the 
Commander was to have waited here no longer than was ric-^ 
*cpssary to procure' a small supply of fresh provisions \ and then 
'to ^ave proccf de4 witliout fatther loss of time to the Sandwich 
Island^, agrceabfy to the instructions received from the -^dnii- 
ralty: tho§c islaqds lying nearly a monthy'sail from Oti'- 
hcite, and the end of January being the time limitcd7or die 
expectation of a Vessel from Engbnd with additional in^truc* 
tion^. Tbc present situation, however, apfJe^rcfd to'posscs^ 
.^o much c^se and convenience, that it was deterrt\ii^^d to re- 
main, and here to finish whatever repairs wcr^ i^cissary, !^ 
' preparation for the ^merican coast. 

Some n^onths previously to Captain Vancouver^ arrival here^ 
the British s^ip dt waV the Pandora, which had been sent iH 
quest of the mutineers of the Bounty,, had left Otaheitej ah4 
nothing was known there cohcenring Mr. Christian and his rc^ 
inaniihg companions since that period : but it appears that^ 
. \rhilc mey lived at Otaheite, they assisted the chiefs in thetf 
'Wars; andCap'^in Vancouver relates thiat he frequently saw the 
^ objects of thfenr particular regard, by whom they liavc children;* 
whence it m:^y be presumed that thtir children weif^ seenr'iUo^ 
though' ttiey ^re not in any othcir way mentioned. 

Captain V. gives a full and not urientertaining account of 
die political views and enterprises of some of the chiefs : bui, 
^1 |ii? ^^Jaticn, he SQmctimcs ?l>cak^ of them with all tljp 
'*'■ '- ,"* . •'* " * ' " * resDcct 



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^sanconyc^s Vojage of Discevtrif* c k 

*|C8|^eet- due to royal p^tsonagesj and at others treats them 
:wiui too little ceremony.— >It was remarked that many altera- 
cions'had taken place in the manners^ customS) and even pei^ 
.30ns of these people, since the time of Captain Cook's last 
visit to them. The wives of the chiefs, but no other women, 
•)rere privileged to eat with the men. On the accession of the 
present chief to the Maro, or girdle of royalty, 

• A \ery considerable altfrat ion took place in their language, pat* 
tJcularly in the proper names of aU the chiefs, to which however it 
was not solely confi^ed^ but extended to no less than fotty or fifty 
of the most common wbrds which occur in conversation, and bearing 
hot the least affinity whatever to the fortoq; expressions. 

« This new language every jnh^itant is under the necessity qf 
adopting ; as any ne^h^ncc or cqntempt gt it h punished with the 
greatest severity. Their former expressions were, however, letained 
in their recollection ; and, for our better communication^ were, 1 
believe, permitted to be used in conversation with us, without incut- 
ring displeasure.* 

ilere it is proper to mention a custom, remarked, in formqr 
voyages, to have been iri ver^ common practice among the 
natives of the South Sea Islands, in their intercourse with £u« 
peans, of adopting such pronunciation of their ov/n language 
as was in use and best understood by the new-comers, for tSe 
a>nyenience of more ready communication ; this adoption, no 
doufjt;^ being attended with much less trouble than the ea- 
iieavour to correct. So far has this practice been known to 
prevail, that, when ships have been visited by people from the 
more distant parts of an island, it became necessary to have 
recourse to the natives with whom thev had been longest ac- 
quainted, to act as interpreters between tnem. The most serious 
adterat'ion, however, which Captain Vancouver supposes to have 
been effected by European communication, is in the beauty of 
the women. • I cannot avoid acknowledging,' he says, * how 
great was the disappointment I experienced, in consequence of 
flie early impression I had received of their superior personal 
'endowments.' — « The extreme deficiency of female beauty !h 
these islands makes it singularly remarkable, that so large a 
proportion of the crew belonging to the Bounty should have 
become di> infatuated,* &c.— No similar remark is applied to 
the riicn ;' who, if the race had degenerated or declincdi roust 
liavc beeA involved in the misfortune. — Shortly after their ar- 
rival, the' Capbin, intending to keep the first day of the new 
;' ear as a holiday, 'isays that « all hands were served with a 
oable' allowance of grog to drink the healths of their wives 
' and friends at home, lest, in the voluptuous gratifications of 
(telhcite, wc nai^t forget our friends in Old England,' This 
• ' * - - « ' u jccnig 

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^4 W^atMaietraji^fBisnoiff 

0eettf to nfti^ h^tn wiMcn uod^ diffci^itt tm^rettioiiS' Unst 
^diesfr which diotateA the observations fint ijntted^ tkA aBows 
*w ^ iB4d)jpK ft hopo tiMt the alleged alteration existed mkf 
ja theCaptaiti'liA^giiiatiAfi;— peihi()sfram h^htmg becooip 
;in«0e festkUooi smee bis y^outh, 

'< Gaplaio Vai»couv«r observes, t<» the hocmor of tbe Oui- 
beiteans, that thef ware tnoeh t9^x€ honest ki tbek trassao- 
,tions wkb the ships than in former times ; and, ' except mi ^ne 
instaace^ they gave scturoely any catise of coinplaint in tAa^ 
^ipcet. .^ Most of the animals^ plants, and herbs whkh had 
:«a«sBd Captatti Cook so much anitiety and trouble to deposit 
liere, have fsUen ^ sacri^e to the ranges of warZ-^-The tfaieb 
W Otatheite had procared, from the different vessels whi^ had 
Jbtriy visited their islamd, several musfcefrand pistols, with the 
use of which they were well acquain ted. «— When the vessds 
were nearljr ready for sea, the native of the Sandwich Islands, 
who had embarked with the voyagers from England, absented 
lilfloself in •consequence of some female attachment : but, from 
I^ptain Vancouver's infiaet^ce with the chiefs, he was brougl^ 
again io the ships. 

The vessels quitted Otaheke on the 24tK of Janvarj 17^ j 
ind on the 1st of March they arrived in ^ight of the Sandwich 
^siand^^ among which they remained till tl^ i6th. They heard 
SKO tidings of the store-ship which they expected to have csklled. 
liere for them,— but received information that no vessels had 
arrived since the preceding autumn, when one British and 
.three American traders had touched at the islands. Towere- 
roo, the native, whom they carried from CnghndL was left at 
'Owliyhee, under the protection of a chief named Tianna, who 
%ad visited China, and of whom mention is made in the nar- 
rative of Captain Me^res's voyage. On the 9th> the ships 
anchored at one of the islands fiStmed Attowai, where thej 
. loond ^art cff the crew of an American trader ^ who had been 
.left here by their commander, for the purpose of coQectii^ 
jiandal wood and pearls : with the former of which the islan£ 
abound, and a great price is given for it in India. 

Many o^ these islanders, from their commerce wi(h the Eu» 
f0{>ean vessels which have been employed in the Americah ft|r 
'fr^de, are ,provided with fire-arms ; which they are more de- 
sirous of c^taining in return for th^ir refreshments, than any 
of her European commodity. Some of the chiefs produced 
written certificates of good behaviour, with recommendations 
'Trom the commanders of trading vessels : but many of these 
^directed that strangers, in their in^rcourse with the natives^ 
should observe the greatest chpcumspection, and keep con^Unt^f 
OH their guards am for these cautions, our people learnt 

' tbCTC 



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VascooveiV yhyagttfUmmjny. tt 

Ikcie laJ keen very sufficient reasoo, attempts Innring hcti 
BMuk by the natives to xrapture 6cvcral vessels ; one of which, 
an American schooner, unfortunately became their prcyt an4 
the crew were all, except one man> put to. death.— At At* 
towai« the chiefs proposed to ristt Captain Vancouver's sbip^ 
butt before they would veiuure on board, they required 'hoat* 
ages. 

Seeds of different kinds were left with the natives > and thei« 
is every :pw)hability of their thriving^ es these people are Tcry 
intelligent and careful in their husbandry. Among other v» 
sUBces of their ingenuity^ an aqueduict was seen on a wcU« 
constructed wall of stone and day, 34 feet hlgh^ for the pocv 
pose of watering their plantations. 

April 1 7th, the ships made the American ooast in hititudt 
39^ j^' N. and stood to the iu>rthward, keeping in sight of the 
shore, and preserving their station during the nights, dial tm 
part of the coast might be passed unobserved. In latitude 42^ 
gS' N.) having anchored «ear the laa4» f Moe canoes came off 
to the ships. — As these people seem tp difer in character frons 
any others who have been seen on the western coast of North 
America, we shall give Captain Vancouver's description of 

them. 

■• 

* A pleasing and eourteout dq>ortment distlngtiished theae peopkw 
tnieir oountenances indicated nothing fepooioue ; their features par«. 
took rather of the general European char^oto*; the^ colour a Ugfat 
oVve ; and besides being punctuated in the fashion of the Soutfa-oea 
iilamiers, lEeir skin had many other matks^ apparently from a^juries 
JB their -excursions through the foFetfts» possibly, with little .or im 
' cdoalhing that could protect them; though some of us were of opii^ioa 
these marks were purclv cMnamenul, as is the fashion -with the inha» 
|>iunts of Van Diemants land. Their stature was under the auddit 
size ; none that we saw exceeding five feet six inches in height* 
They wece tolerably ^ell limbed, though slender in their persons ; 
bore little or no resemblance to the people of Nootka ; nor did th» 
seem to have the least knowledge of that language. They seemOT 
to prefer the comforts of cleanliness to the pamtinff oF 'their bodies % 
to tfaenr ears and noses they had small ornaments of bone ; their hairy 
ivhich was long aad black, was dean and neatly combed, and ^ttt^ 
raSy tied in a club behind ; though some amongst them had their 
hair in a club in &ont also. Toey were dresned in garments that 
nearly coveted them, made principa^y of the skins of deer, beat^ 
fox, and river otter ; one or two cub skins of the sea otter were also 
observed amongst them. Their canoes, calculated to carry about 
eight people, were rudely wrought out of a single tree ; their shape 
much resembled that of a bittclir*8 tray, and seemed very unlit lor 
a sea voyage or any 'distant expedition. They brought but a few 
Irifliag articles to barter, and they anxiously solicited in acchange 
tran and beads. In this traffic they wer^ 4crupulotisly houfcst, parti- 
i . cularly 



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f * . Vancouver'/ Voyage of Discovery. 

cukriy Iirfixmg their bargaio with the first hid4c&; for> if a's«conft 
e&red a x^ore valuable commodity lor what they had to scUt thev 
irould not consent, but made signs, (whi,ch could not b^ mistaken,) 
fliait the first sjiould pay the pnce offered by the second, on whic^ 
the bar^in would be closed. They di^ not entertain the least idea 
cf accepting presents :. for on my ghiiiig them some beads, medals* 
vont-^c. they instantly offered their garments in return, ani] seemed 
much astonishe'd, ' and 1 belive not less pleased, that 1 (ihose to de« 
fimc thtm^ The first 'many in particular, gave me some tvouble to 
persuade liim that be was %o retain bpth the trinkets and his gar* 
ment/ .... 

• When the ships had proceeded along the coast as far as 
4^* 37' N. -they fell in with an American vessel, named the 
Cokmbia, commanded by Mr.RobertGray,thc same person who 
Ibd fovhtcqrly commanded tk sloop called the Washington ; and 
ef whose discoveries mention i& mkde in the Admiralty instruc-r 
tions to Captain Vancouver, as may be seen in the part which 
We-have. quoted. The information which they obtained from 
Mn Gray difftrs very materially from what was published cpn-f 
ceming him in England ; it y^ tbu$ related : ^ 

.'. f ^It is npt possible to conceive apy oije ^ci be more astpnished than 
Ws Air. Cray/ oji his being made acquainted, that Sis authority ha^ 
keen quoted, and the track pointe(| out that he had been said to 
lave made in the sloop Washington. In contradiction to which, h^ 
Msured the officers, that he had penetrated only 50 miles into the 
tftraitson question, in an'E. s. e. direction; that he found the passage 
J leagues wide ; and that he understood, from the natives, that the 
^opening extended a considerable distance t^ the northward ; that thi| 
was'adl the information he bad acquired respecting this inland 8ea» 
and that he returned into the ocean by the same way he had entered 
«t» The inlet he supposed to be the same that De Fuca had dis-i 
Jtovered, which opinion seemed to }^ universally received hj all the 
lM>^ra visitors** 

; Another piece of intelligence obtained from Mr, Gray was, 
j^at be had been off the mouth of a river in the latitude o^ 
i|6^ 1 o' N. which he had for nine days endeavoured to enter, but 
wa§ ^t length obliged to relinquish his purpose in consequence* 
ef a constaht strong out-set. This opening Captain Vancouver 
liad seen as he sailed by that part of the coast, but he had 
iteetrt(?d it inaccessible; not on account of a current, but 
IVom breakers, which seemed to him to extend quite aci^ss the 
entrance.— The 'hnd which they had hitherto passed is de- 
»6rib*ed as presenting a prospect of great fcrtilfty, and abound- 
ing with woods : but, excepting the place at which a few 
CHUoes came oPt to them, as already mentioned,, no inhabitant$ 
•mQXQ seen on the whole extent of the coast \ nor did they meet 
^ with any circumstance^ that in the most distant manner iiw 
\ ^ ^J 4^cate4 



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VineouvetV Vcya^ of t>iscoveryf t^ 

Seated a probability of the country being Inhabited/ Whcrc^ 
they had now arrived, however^ several vUlages were seea 
scattered along the shore ; and on the evening of the ayth of 
April,, they were off the entrance of the celebrated straits ot 
Jaan de Fuca. 

An adequate, or even an intelligible, idea of the surrey in 
which Captain Vl and his companions were now engaged, caa 
only be obtained by an examination and comparison of the^ 
diarts with the nanative.— :As they advanced within the opeti-: 
kig of the straits, their progress was greatly retarded by the 
namber of inlets into which the entrance branched in every 
direction; — and most of these were examined by the boats, whicK 
were frequently absent from the ships on this service for severat 
days together. — In the midst of their labours, they were sur- 
prised by. the sight of t>vo Spanish vessels of war, employed 
like themselves in surveying this inlet, the examination o^ 
'which had been begun by them in the preceding year. By the 
officers of these vessels. Captain Vancouver was infornici 
that the commandant at Nootka waited his arrival there, * ta 
Order to negociate the restoration of those territories to the, 
crown of Great Britain ;' and measures of mufual assistance 
were concerted between the Captains of the two narions, foe 
the prosecution of the survey, in which each agreed to com* 
fiiunicate to the other their discoveries. Not one of the naanj 
arms of the inlet, nor of the channels which they explored ii\ 
this broken part of the coast, was found to extend more thaa 
loo miles to the eastward of the entrance into the strait.— f 
After having surveyed the southern coast,— >on which side a ter- 
mination was discovered to every opening,—by following tlie 
continued line of the shore, they were led. to the northwapd 
and afterward towards theN.W. till they came into the opea 
sea through a different channel from the strait of Jaan de 
Fuca, by which they had commenced this inland navigation. - 

Thus it appeared that the land forming the north side of 
that strait is part of an island, or of an archipelago, extending 
nearly loo leagues in length from S. E. to N. W* \ and on 
the side of this land most distant from the continent, is sita- 
ated Nootka Sound. The most peculiar circumstance of thif 
navigation is the extreme depth of water, when contrast 
with the narrowness of the channels. The vessels were some* 
times drifted about by the currents, during the whole of t 
night, close to the rocks, without knowing how to help them- 
selves, on accQunt of the darkness, and the depth being much 
too great to afford them anchorage. 

In the course of this survey, the voyagers had frequent cont- 
ffiunications with the natives, whom they met sometimear in 

canoes 



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. '^m:oMyfC^s Voyage ojf^ Dtscoverf. 

eanoed and sometimes at their vSlages. In their traoiactio^ 
vith Europeans, they arc described as < well versed in die pitR^ 
ciples of trade^ which they carried on in a rerjr fair and honor-^ 
ahlc manner/ In other respects, they were fess honest. At 
one village, aoo sea otter skins were purchafed of them bf fhct 
crews of the vessels in the course of a dayj and they had 
itiany mor^ to sell in the same place,, as also skins of bears^ 
deer, and other animals. — ^One party of Indians whom they 
met had the skin of a young Koness; arid these spoke a Im-^ 
guage di£Ferent from that used in Nootka Sound. Venison wa^ 
sometimes brought for sale ; and a piece of copper. Hot more 
atizn a foot square, purchased one whole deer and part of another. 
Among other articles of traffic, two children, 6 or 7 yews of 
age, were oflScrcd for sale.— The commodities most prized by 
die natives were fire-arms, copper, and great coats. Beadsi 
and trinkets they would only receive as presents, anrf not as* 
articles of exchange. Many of them were possessed of fire- 
arms. In one part, it is related that, after a chief had re- 
ceived ^ome presents, < he, with mofl: of his companions, re- 
turned to the shore ; and, on landing, fired several muskets> 
to shew, in all probability, with what dexterity they could uis^* 
these weapons, to which they seemed as familiarized as if they 
Bad be^n accustomed to fire-arms from their earliest infancy.* 

The dresses of these people, besides skins, are a kind of 
Woollen garments; the materials composing^ which are tXi^ 
6 lained in the following extraij : : 

* The doss belonging to this tribe of Indians were numerous, anf 
much resembled those of Pomerania, though in grenend somewhat 
ttfger. They were all shorn as close to the skin as sheep are 10 
England ; and so compact were their fleeces, that large portiooa 
eoiSi be lifted up by a corner without cautiQ|p asty separatioa* 
ney were composed of a nuxture of a coarse kmd of wool» iiritb 
very fine long hair, capable of being spun into yarn. This rave mc 
season to belidve, that their woollen cloatbing might in part be com^^ 
loosed of this material mixed with a finer kind of wool from som^ 
Other animal, as their garments were all too fine to be manufacturul 
from' the coarse coating of the dog alone/ 

Of Other animals alive, deer only were seen in any abundance 
\fif our people. ' 

The number of inhabitants computed to be in the largest 
of the villages, or towns, that were discovered, did not exceed 
<Sqo. Captain Vancouver conjectured the smallpox to be a 
disease common and very fatal among them : many were 
much marked} and most of these had lost the right eye*— • 
.Their method of disposing of their dead is very singular : 

^ BaakfiU were found suspejided on hi^k trees,, each cpntaiQ- 
jog^ thp skeleton of St young child; in some of which were also ^thA 

square 

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|nmc te»» fiQ«4 wiiha Uad «f whiu pMt^ teMmUng to^ a» 
VbaiA 8CCD the ositive^ eat, tupppsffd to be ^la^ of the sanmoe mt^ 
%ome of these bo^es wore quite full, others were nearly empty, eatea 
prpbablY by the mice, squirrels, or birds. On the next k>w poin^ 
couth ot our encasipmeiit, where the gunners were airbg the pow- 
der, they floet with several holes fn which hunuln bodies were toterred, 
•lightly covered over, and in different states of decay, some appear* 
b^ to httvc been very recently deposited. About half a mile to thtf 
iaortfaward of oar tents, where the hmd is nearly JbTcl with high 
water mark, a few paces within the skirting of the wood, a caooo 
.was found suspended between two tr<eS| » which wei^ three luunaa 
akclctons.^- 

* Ob each point of the harbour, whjch in honour of a particuhir 
friend I call Pemn's Cove, was a deserted village; in one of which were 
found several sepulchrea formed exactly like a cectry box. Some of 
them Were open, and contained the skeletons of many ycung chil« 
dren tied up in baskets ; the snudler bones of aduh« were likewise 
pioti^ed»biit BO one of the limb bonea could here be fbund, which 
gave me to tn opinion that these, by the living inhabitants of tiw 
•ttgbteuibood, were appropriated to useful ptirposes, such as pokl» 
iiyr their amowH spears, or other weapons.' 

Howeirer hotioiirably these people bare been represented hi 
Iheti^ condiict ^s traders, it appeared on several occasions thst 
it ihA unsafe to depend on their good-will alone ^ and som^ 
instances occurred of their makirig every prq)aration for aiv 
attack, fcpn> which they desisted only on being doubtful of the 
creat : yet iiQoaedutely on relinquishing their purpose ^e]( 
l^ottld oome with the greateft confidence to tjfade, appeanng 
Mrlpctly ve^ffdiets of M^hat bad brfore been in agttatioiu 
^Hic bcMts^ as ahready notieed^ wevc frequeixly at a great difr* 
tance from die ships ; and on such occasions, when large ptfi^^ 
fmof ladtans have first ieen thetii^ they generally held iong 
fonCmacet among themfeWos before they tpproache^l thtf 
Wats; probftbly for the ^urposp of determiakig the modo W 
^odnct whkh tb«y judg<»d it most prudeBt to observe^ 

On dift ^ of August, the vessels had ftgain reached th# 
•pe» iC4» and proceeded along the coast to the northward. 
Qo d0 lyth^ in the hnitude of ji^ N. they met a Britif)| 
tmdiag. vesftel^ whkh had lately left Noodca t from whom the/ 
learnt that the Dxdaltts store*ship had arrived from England'^ 
aad a kttav;» wiii^h >ira6 sent t# Captain^ Vancourer, informed 
Uoi^ the onfortiuiatQ death of Lieutenant Hergest, her com<« 
fiamdcis who bad boen killed by the inhabihrnts of Woahocy 
•ne of the San^ieh Islands, with Mar. William Gooch the 
asttotiomet. la con3e<{uence of this intelligence^ Captaitt 
Vteoouver determined to abandon^ for the present season, tbi; 
Ikr^her pnyocutioo of tbesvnrey to the northward, and ta 
make tbQ besc of His way towards Nootka Sound \ at whidi 
|on}|^%9€htf^%iitfaft:(Sth. : 

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-|^ VaneovLVti^s Foyage of Discovery, 

' 111* Cfec at Nootka was fully occupied by negociation 6^ 
icrnhie the territories, of which restitution was to have beerf 
inade oy the Spaniards. Diplomatic history, however, ip i 
kind of forbidden ground j and, as the subject of thisdocs not 
afFord much matter of entertainment, it may be sufficient to 
remark that, with greait mutual civiUtie^, very little progress 
was made toiit^ards an adjustment $ till at lengdi it was agreed 
by both parties to refei* the business back to their fesp>ectivtf 
courts. 

Some circumstances occurred while this affair was transact* 
ing, which exhibit the. character of the natives in a very en- 
tertaining manner. On the day after the arrival of the British 
ihips af Nootka, the Spanish comiiiaftder, Sen. Quadrdj was 
invited oii board to a public breakfast. The chief of the In^ 
dians in the neighbourhood of this place, 

* Maqmmta^ who was present on this occasioti, had early in th* 
morning, from being unknown to us, been prevented coming od' 
board the Discovery by the centinels and the officer on deck, as Uiere 
was not in his appearance the smallest indication of his supenor raiU^I 
Of this indignity he had complained in a most angry manner, to 
Sen^ Quadra, who very obh'giugly found means to sooth him ;,^antl 
after receiving some presents of. blue cloth, copper, ice* at fcr^akfost 
time, he appealed to be satisfied of out friendly intentions: but ijo 
sooner had he drank a few glasses ot wine, than he renewed the sub-^ 
ject, regretted the Spaniards were about to qui£ the place, anrf 
a^sscited that- we should presently gis^ it up to some other riatibta i 
\^ which means himself and his people would be (Jonsftintly disturbed 
and harassed by new masters. Sen'. Quadra took much pains 
to explain thsft it was our ignorance of his person which had occa* 
lionca the mistake.' 

' Captain Vancouver adds : ^ I could not help observing with 
X miif ure of surprise and pkasure, how much the Spaniards 
had succeeded in gaining the good opinion and confidence of 
these people ; together with the tery orderly behaviour, so 
ColispicUously evident' in thjcir conduct towards the Sjniniardt 
pn all occasions.' A fe# days afterward, m order to promote 
a good understanding with this chief, it was proposed to maho 
Aim * a visit of cerertiony ;' of which the following account It 
given : 

^ After visiting most of the houses, we arrived at Maqmmu^s re« 
sidence, which was one of the largest, though it was not intirelf 
^vered in ; here we found seated in some kindof form, Maqmfma*t 
daughter, who not long before had been publicly and with great 
ceremony proclaimed :iole heiress of all his property, power, apd do«^ 
minion. Near her were seated three of his wives, and a numerous 
tribe of relations. The young princess 'was of low stature, verj; • 
^lump, with a round face, and small features ] her skin was clean, 
and being nearly white, her person altogether, though without any 
preteasiona to beauty, could not be considered as dis»^eahle« T# 
• -' . tcr 

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Vancouver'/ Voyage of Discovtrji If, 

Wt attd te \tx fttber I made presents suitable to the occanon, wlvcb 
wert rccefrcd with the greatest approbatioe by themsdvesy and th^: 
throng which had assembled; as were also those I made to bi«.^ 
wivei^ brothers, and other relations. These ceremonies being ended, 
a xaoit excellent dinner was served, which Sen^ Quadra fed pro- 
Tided, at x^fch we liad the company of Maquinna and the princess^ 
wb0 was seated at the head of the table, and conducted herself with 
nosh propriety and decorum. 

• Alter dntoer, Maquttma entertained us with a representation of 
thdr waritke qlchierements. A. do/^n men first appeared, armed 
vith nuikets, aiid equipped with all their appendages, who took their 
post in a very orderly manner withm the entrance of the house» 
where they remained stationary, and were followed by eighteen very, 
stout men, each bearing a spear or lance sixteen or eighteen feet ia 
length, proportionably strong, and pointed with a long flat jnece of , 
iron, which seemed to be sharp on both edges, and was highly po- 
B^ed ; the whole however appeared to form but an aukward and 
mwicldy weapon. These men made several noovements in imitation 
of attack and defence, singing at the same time several war sotigfs, in 
vbieh they were joined by those with the muskets. Their dmtftm, 
eroltttMns being concladed, I was presented with two small sea-otter 
ftkiii3 ; and the warriors, having laid by their arms, performed a mask- 
dance, which was ridiculously laughablCi particularly on the part of 
Maqumnay who took a considerable share m the representation.' 

The negociation finishing in the manner before stated, Cap^ 
tain Vancouver informed Sen. Quadra that he should con- 
sider Nootka as a Spanish porty and requested his permission t<x 
carry on the necessary employments of watering, &c. on 
shore : which, says Captain Vancouver, he very politely gave 

On the 12th of October, the ships left Nootka Sounds the. 
Dzdalos store-ship in company, which had beep found at Noot* 
ka. An extraordinary circumstance appears in this part of the 
narrathre, which is thus related : 

* On the day previous to our sailing, I received on board two 
yoang women for the purpose of returning them to their native 
country, the Sandwich Islands ; which they had quitted in a vessel 
that arrived at Nootka on the 7th instant, called the Jenny, be- 
longing to Bristol. But as that vessel was bound from hence ' 
«t«Mght to England, Mr. James Baker her commander very earnestly 
rttjnestrd, 'that I would permit these two unfortunate girls to take 

a pkssage in the Discovery to Onehow, the island of their birth and 

The manner in which these young women were brought 
*Wtty wa^ very difftrently represented by them and the master 
of the vessel ; he alleged that he put to sea without any 
loiowlege of their being on board. In the sequel, it appears 
tliat they were restored to their country, after having received 
great marks of kindnesa and attention from Captain Van* 
c^iivcr. 

Krr. Jan. 1799. C TJi^ 

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I'd Vancouver*/ Vojage of. Jyiseoverj* 

The sbips steered along the coast to the S. £• towards A§e^ 
river mentioned to them by Mr. Gray, commander of the Co- 
limibfa, in hthixde 46^ lo'N. which river is distinguished in 
the chart by the name of Colunibia. On the 17th they were 
off its oiouth, within which the Chatham entered : but the Dis- 
covery was prevented by the currents and broken water, and 
on the 2 1st was forced to sea by bad weather. Captain Van* 
couver continued his course to the^ southwiird, leaving the 
Chatham in Cplumbia rivcr> and on the 14th arrived at Port 
St. Francisco. Thi5 settlement is described to be in a very un- 
improved state. * Except its natural pastures, the flocks of 
sheep, and herds of cattle, there is not an object to indicate the 
most remote connection with any European ot other civilized 
nation.^ The character drawn of the natives is by no means 
a flattering picture : — ' under the middle size, ill made, their 
faces ugly> presenting a dull, heavy, and stupid countenance^— 
the same horrid state of uncleanliness and laziness -seemed to 
pervade the whole,' &c. Captain Vancouver visited the mis- 
sion of St. Clara, (of which he gives a description,} 18 league^ 
distant from St. Francisco ; in which journey, though the 
country presented a prospect of luxuriant fertility, < there was 
neither house, hut, nor any place of shelter, excepting such as 
the spreading trees afibrded.' Oaks were seen in great abund- 
ance. On his return to St. Francisco, Capt. V. found that the 
Chatham had arrived there. 

Lieutenant Broughton, who was left in the entrance of Co« 
lumbia river, when he saw the Discovery forced to sea, judi- 
ciously determined to take advantage of his situation, and pro- 
ceeded to examine the river. The navigarion was so inter- 
rupted by shoals, that, in the course of a ^w leagues, the ves- 
sel had twice taken the ground. This determined Mr. 
Broughton to continue his examination in boats *, and accord- 
ingly; after having fixed the Chatham in a place of safety, he 
set out with his cutter and launch. They advanced in an 
casterjci and southern direction, for seven days, following what 
appeared to be the main branch of the river: for several other 
rivers fell into this. During the first part of the time, they 
had some assistance from the flood tides : but latterly they had 
found the current constantly running towards the sea, though 
the rise and fall of th« tide was very discernible by the shores. 
They had met witli people in their way lip, and at one time 
•Were surrounded by twenty three canoes^ carrying from three 
to twelve persons each> aU attired in their war garments, and In 
every other respect prepared for combat /—but, after having 
discoursed with some friendly Indians who had before joined 
the JEnglish, they laid aside their \^ar dress, and with great 

civility 

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Vancoutrcr*/ Ve^ge of Discovery. 19 

dYiUty* exchanged some of their anas, and other articles, for 
such things as were presented to them, ^ but would neither 
part with their copper swords^ nor a kind of battle-axe made 
of iron.' Some of these strangers advised the voyagers to go no 
fartber> making signs thati if they persisted, they would meet 
people who would cut off their heads. This was on the fourth 
day of their expedition. At the end of the 7th day, the rapi- 
dky of the stream increasing against them, and their provi- 
sions being nearly expended, Mr. Broughton found it imprac- 
ticable to proceed farther. Jhe breadth of the river here was 
a quarter' of a mile, with soundings across from 6 to 2 fathoms. 
Some of the natives, from whom they endeavoured to pro- 
cure intelligence, made signs which Mr. Broughton imderstood 
to mean that, higher up the river, they would meet with 
waterfalls, . but that the source was very distant. — Such are 
the partkiilars of t^ interesting information gained by Mr. 
Broughton concerning Columbia River. 

T^ observations made by Captain V. respecting Port St. 
Francisco open another field for conjecture. 

* The little we had seen (says be) of Port St. Francisco, enabled 
us to decide that it was very extensive in two directions : one spa- 
cfotu branch took its course eaft and south-eastward to a great dis- 
tance from the station we had quitted in the morning : the other, 
apparently of equal magnitude, led to the northward. In this were 
several islands.'— ^ Near the branch leading to the east and south- 
eastward before-mentioned is situated the mission of S'*. Clara. 
These gentlemen informed me, that this branch had been thoroughly 
examined, but that the branch leading to the north never had.' — 
• The port having been eftablished by Spain, 1 did not consider it 
prudent to prosecute its examination without sufficient authority for 
so doing.' VoL II. p. 4. 

Here it may be remarked that it does not appear, in the 
narrative, that permission was demanded to make examina" 
tion : but Captain V. states that the weather was not favour- 
aUe for such an undertaking. 

Leafing Port St. Francisco, the ships sailed to Monterey, 
another Spanish settlement. The Daedalus was now dispatched 
toNew South Wales j and Captain Vancouver wrote to request 
of Governor Phillip, that she might be sent back to him at 
Kootka, with a supply of twelve, months provisions and stores. 
This sMp was also ordered to call in her way at Otaheiie, for 
some English seamen who had been cast away in the ship Ma- 
tilda, of London, on a ledge of rocks out of sight of any 
land ; after which accident, the crew in their boats found their 
way to Otaheite. From that island, the second mate and two 
of the men had proceeded in an open whale-boat towards^ 
New South Wales, a distance of nearly uoo leagues. Wlie- 

Ca thcr 

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«4 V*ni*OttYtr*ft VdytigB tf Dlscev&j. 

^ i\^x they Mtdce^ded in thii hsetrd<Ai» tind txtr»^A\fa/rf fMM> 
dfirtftkingi we do not find in iht sequel. The tommnMdt #f 
«he Metilda^ with four <>th0n» b^ ttken thtit (itesiige from 
Otabeitci on board the Jenny of Briftol ) Which vessel Cdpt^ 
Vancottrer m^t at Nootka Sound« 

lii^utenant Broughton tk^a» left at Monterey ; With acecmflt* 
for the Board of Admirsihy, of all their transactions tip t# 
that time, with surveys^ ^. Sen. Qtf«dr<^ pr<)tni6iAg Co MC^ 
commodate him with a })^$sage by the way of New Spain t^ 
England. On the 1 3th of January 1 793, the ships sailed from 
Monterey, sind on the tSth steered from the American coait 
tbwards the Sandwich Islands.-^ Thus concluded the first 9«s* 
ten ti their aearcb after si N* W. passage. 
' ' - ■ - 

Here we shall for the present break off; detaftnng otit 
teaders no longer than while We offer a few remarks oh the 
part of this valuable work which we hive already examined. 

Iri the perusal of Captain Vancouver's narrative, it will 
obviously strike the render, that it is too mUch encumbciled 
With n:mtical and geographical accounts. Some are necesshry 
tb Inake the details cleaf and intelligible : but more than is 
requisite foi' that purpose tenders it sometimes /bW^>'^/, aft 
iJr. Johnson, perhaps, would have said. It is to be regretted 
ihat, in the publication of sea voya^s, the bulk of the ndu* 
iical and scientific aacouiUB is not gi\'en in a section by itself; 
Ibt it is a sufficient tax oh the unlearned purchaser, to pay the 
price of that part in which he must be little interested \ with- 
out the sidditional grievance of being under the necessity of 
toiling tbtough it, before he can arrive at the mort ehter(alfU 
ing matter. 

The title-page announces a Voyage of Distotery, performed 
in the years 179c, J 791, &c. to 1795. The first of thoie 
ye^rs must have been inserted throilgb inadvertence \ fw 
though the preparations for the voyage were firft made in 
1790, the expedition was afterward suspended, as we have al- 
ready mentioned •, and Captain Vancouver's sailing orders from 
the Admiralty were dated March 8th, 179!, and the ships diA 
not leave England till the iftt of April. 

The application of the name of NoHh-JTest Ainerica^ to 
the coast which they were employed to survey, is surtjly taking 
tt)0 much licence:— the Admiraltv, in their instructions, gave 
It the appellation of the North West Gi?/?^ 3^ America, which 
is less objectionable:— but the division of America into Mottk 
and South having been lortg received and universally bstab- 
Kshcdj and by that division a^t that region which is to- the 
northward of the Isthmus of Dari^n being, strictly speaking, 
5 ' ( \ Nijrth 

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fMHnii&g ^c ot^t of the.rjcs^frcbfsof thcwy^offt, w||bo\H 
4k Appearaace of its H^vii^ been intended ; ^ I wa^ cho«f»i|g^p 
OMnvcedt m were dlso «9o»t pf rfopts of ot>^8ry9iu^B m 4)pajF4'-'^. 
^ The caiuiacn^M isbofp wbi^h I pfesuoied (hip fp bCi* ijce^nr 
Tht ^eqfcrap^i^ 4«acf}ptM)9^, JiUwise, ^r^ «of 9lw0yii fw* 
Ir^ai^pcrpl^Yfttie^i wbicbi hoM^ver^ nay be attiib»tfU to Q^f 
tfm VMfoiivfr*^ b»d 9i0te pf h^ealtb «^ fJlowiqg bi» %9 Mf 
tepd 8officiem(y» ?k aU times, to (heir eorreoiioA. 
. The account of a voyage pJ?o#ie4 fpr the »tfpim»e»t jrf 
knavkge €«n scarcely faU of abjomding in mforcnaiiQp ^ ti^A 
t^ t^ po6Hioo> the ffoi of the narrative whkh w(e b?vf! hii^ 
beim oui rfaders proves th9t tb^ present work U not f»n.^<» 
oa^iOii* Tbfi style of i|, bowfvf r, is unequal \ m many p(M*- 
9^^8 it depans from the unaffected plainness whi^h: 19 UQ bf* 
QQfliiQg ifl the nsrr^tiiri: of 9 seaman* Tbe ships sail fffmi 
Eogiand wkk a g^tle breeze at d»y da^iu We meft with 
wuanj^r$^ stre^mkts^ enchao$iffg kvmsy and btmkf wiUi cv0rba9g' 
tht mummring ir§$k. In SiCffaes the reverse of tliese, ^ftim^kd 
ft^mr0 $^mci nearly esflnmsiifi. Most eomnionly, bowe)Fer, lb# 
]9W^^ k easy ^nd natnt^* 

We defer our observ;tfioQ3 on the general merits of the wr 
pedition, until we arrive at the conclusion. of pvir abstraot: bill, 
it would be injustice to quit the subject at this perio^ of our 
analysb) without i^cknowkjging that> though n^any p^Fts of the 
survey were attended \frith grt;^ difficulties 9n4 much danger^ 
it was prosecuted with ;^ pnaisei-wf^tby fUlig^iK^ go4 unre« 
mitted attention. 

{^Toiie conthmeJ. ] 

Art. IL Malvern ffiff^f a fomi* Ry J<wpb Cgttk. 4to. 2d. 6d, 

iK cue of Mr. Pope's notps on H^omer^ he seems XQ have 
•* thought it strange that gramrtiarijuis, whose business it is to 
torture wordSy should^presume to judge of poetry. Perhaps it is 
still more out of chara9ter for the gi^tbox' of ^ poen), wnich is 
descriptive of grand or bwitvfel soc»ei^> tp W^i^ * laboured 
preface on th^ sM^a^ings of ti^ pipor, nuxed /with serene reflec- 

• O^ts^n Cook's last voy^ ts expressed, in the title, to he for 
the purpose of 4«tcfmHi^g the position and c;t^cnt of T/V '^V •S'f<* 
•/ N$/ii America. 

C 3 tions 

V 

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12 CottleV Malvern Hills, a Poem. 

tionis on the conduct of the higher ranks in society, and accoa-^ 
ing them indiscriminately of luxury, selfishness, and insend- 
bility. That there is an abundant store of misery in human 
life, we all know, and in a certain degree experience. Entirely 
to eradicate evil, we also know, is beyond the reach of human 
wisdom, and the exertion of human power : but to mitigate and 
lessen \t are possible, and are very sacred duties. It must like- 
wise be allowe4 that the present age has been very fertile in 
expedients for bettering the condition of the poor ; and perhstps 
there never was a period at which active benevolence ifvas more 
universal than at this time. It is the misfortune of theorists,' 
however, to form to themselves pictures of perfection and hap- 
piness which never did and never can exist, in our present state ; 
and then to ascribe every deviation from these golden dreams, 
to some defect in the laws, or some error in the government. 
To this source we may not uncharitably (it is hoped) attribute 
that appearance of discontent which prevails in the poem be- 
fore lis ; for although it bears the name of Mahem HiHs^ yet 
a very small part of it is (properly speaking) descriptive of that 
beautiful and salubrious spot : the greater portion being de« 
voted to express the thoughts and sentiments of the writer. 

One of the finest passages in Thomson's Seasons is in his 
Autumn, where he sets forth the advantages of industry 
and commerce : but on this subject Mr. Cottle differs very 
much in opinion from that admirable poet \ as will appear fron^ 
the following extract : 

* What of our mortal ills to thee belong. 
Infuriate Commerce ! thou unceasing weav'st 
The veil that hide$ the Deity from man. 
Gold turns the heart to stone ! makes wise men fools} 
For this the parent sells his darling child, 
, Surwys the price of bartered innocence. 
And with Iscariot smile, cries, all is well« 
For this the Merchant toils his life away, 
pndures Hindostan's heat — Siberia's snows. 
That when the worms have burrowed in his skuU, 
Some prattling tongue may tell the wooderous suni 
Once he could call his own. For love of gold 
(Gold only sought for luxuries, not wants) 
The gallant sailor braves the tempest's rage. 
The wild tornado's desolating power \ 
Contends with dangers in heart«harrowing shapes. 
Far from the wife held dear— -the home of peace. 

* Thy triumphs. Mammon, shall not always thus 
Sound thro', the earth, nor always shalt thou see 
Youth, Beauty, Innocence, and heaven-bom Lo?^^ 
And aWDie nobler passions of the soul 

Bend 



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Cot£kV Malvern RUls^ a Poem. ^3 

lend at thy feet, and own no God but thee. 
Nor always shalt thou view the peaceful child 
Of iimocencey in some unguarded houf. 
Lured by the demon Commerce from his hom«. 

* Cities and towns, ye haunts of wretchedness * ! 
Where Commerce with a grin of extacy 
Sits counting o*er her votaries* tears and sighs ; 
Urged by your splendid poisons f , what a host 

* * A reference is here made to the evils arising from manufactures. 
I do not mean to cast a general reflection on all of them, but that 
HOOML are attended with destructive <x>nsequence8, cannot be ques^b 
^ned. It may be well to specify one or two. I shall therefore 
notice the pin manufacture and that for white-lead. ,In the formcTf 
the pointing of pins is attended with the almost certain sacrifice of 
tliose who are employed in it. Strong constitutions are not so ino* 
mediately affected, but to the strongest it generally proves fatal, if . 
persisted in for a few years.; which arises from the number of metallic 
particks received into the lungs by breatliing. These stop the finer 
vessels, and induce by that means apoplexy and consumption. If 
property had been concerned, and not iivet^ ingenuity would long 
ago have discovered some mode for supplying the lusgs with air un- 
contaminated with this destructive mixture. 

< With respect to the manufacture of white-lead, the consequences 

are still ^aore fiaitaL In particular departments of it, an employment 

of three months produces palsy in some of the lirnb^^ commonly a loss 

of the hand chiefly empkiydd, and which rapidly extends, unless the 

penon change his occupatioi;i. The conductors of this manufacture 

are so aware of the consequences, that they never soUcit any man to 

engage in it. They sjmply open their doors, and receive 8»ch only 

as are starving, and can find no 6ther employment.— What arc 

these manufactures but an union of suicide and murder ? Society has 

.enacted laws for the punishment of murderers ; but it is for those only, 

who kiU on a small scale, or* in a partkidar way.-— The far larger 

proportion are considered as honorable men— <•< aul honorable men.*' 

White-lead is principally J^scd in the composition of paint. I have 

had a room painted with a •nuxtwre of chalk and oil, which looks full 

fs w^ as white-lead; its pi4y disadvantage arises firom changing 

colour sooner than the common paint ; but ,tbat other experiment^ 

might succeed Jbetter cannot be doubted ; and the Society of Arts, 

if they ^ve not already done it, could direct the ^tentipn of xhd 

iugen^Qus ^ind scientific to few questions in which the in^tore^ts of 

society arc more involved.'' 

f * 1^1*4^ manufacturing .to^ns receive annually a supply oJE 
young menlrom the surrounding country, to pake up for the de- 
ficiencies of those who have come to a premature death from the 
nnwholesomeness of their occupations. Unthinking youths, from' 
|he superior wages offered them, are induced to try these dangerous 
experiments. They commence their neW employments with com-^ 
pkxions that indicate health, but in a year or twO| their countenances 
^ C 4 ... commonly 



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Of inexperienced spins h#ive left tb«ir hom^tf 
The cot's calm casn&rts, and tlie quiet ehadciy 
Te taste your bitter dregs, and be immured, 
From morn's first dawn till evening far is speat^ 
In dust, and stench, and pestileace ! remote 
From fnends, assail'd by vice in every shape 
That chains to dust the soul» and deom'd at Icogtb 
To linger out their blasted lives in scorn-* 
Their peace destroyed — their innocence gone by.' 

We conceive this to be a fair specimen of the author*^ vevei- 
J^tion, which is certainly smooth and barmontom; snd what* 
m^x w^y be determined in regard to his sentiments, tbey a«^ 
mt least founded in benevolence, -^xh^ brightest ornament of the 
huntoin character* 

From the opening of the poem, an opinion may be formc4 
•f Mr^ Cottle's talents for description : 

* Alone» unnoticed, at this early hour. 
While all around is sfleace, I will mount 

The Malvern Hills. This is a holy-day* ; 
And holy I will make it, leave the world, 
Ite toils, and oares, and commune with myidf* 

* As up I climb, the freshness of the mom 
Smells grateful, ClM>jugh fio o^ct meet my Tie«r« 
Tbrougn the dark mists, whidi now wkh coming dsf 
Stru§^ fi>f mastery, tiiue giant Hfll 

Casta aot a shade. Now bock J turn to mark 
The wmdine path, but ail is grey mid Tmd f 
On €very si<k tJkick douds ; tnc spacious vorl4 
^ves but i|i memory ! whilst forth I rpam^ 
A wajodcripg, unloy'd, solitary thing. 
Tho' here on \h\% known ^)ot, my vmof starts 
, At ter own ehapjigigs-^fcarful-— impotent j 
Now rousing 4ip impossibilities ; 
Pur&uiiig tken, through each stirai^e etceumttaocei 
The vagrant thought with ajptest tncrgj. 

fcii i ■ I I I ■ ■ ■ ■■■■ <» I Ml 11 I i - 1 1 1 I T I III I r 

Commonly becbme paJKd, their minds dismrited, and their bodic* 
tlteik. 'inioiigh these appearances are applicable to most manufac- 
turing towns, yet I have an eye more particularly on Manchc;ster. In 
^lis Mace the above effects are notonous, nor. wjH it.be wondered at^ ^ 
t(bcn k is utiderttood that many branches of the manufactures con- 
ducted at -this place, require the absence of fresh air, in consequence 
tf whkh the air becomes so impure as seriously to injure the healthj|> 
Vfi if consumption should not be the immediate consequence, the 
general' kahit is so much impaired^ as to be rendered h*able' to a long 
cataibgne of distressing maladies. The evil is further increased by 
Ae freoocnt custom of employing two sets of hands to work day an4 
^Mit akemately.' 
* ^^tkut time, Whft-Moflday, and early in tfie momfeg.* 



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CottleV Mkhem Itt/ls, a Poem. tj 

Yc idle phantasies ! away 1 away ! 

I am BO anbiest soKtary man. 

Confined to one rude spot, M-hflst tx>tind, a sc^ 

nUmttable spreads — l>leak<-*-<lesokite — 

With not one kindred soul to share my being. 

I have ten thousand recollections dear, 

This Mount, I Jcnow it wd), and soon shall tread 

Its proudest sunsmit, soon with joy behold 

Objeas that glad the heart — ^unspeakable I* 

We may a4d also the poet's' conelusiony ZB a Sarftfaer dUplijr 
^ the peculiar mood and t^oiper of mind io which Mc 
Coedepaid bis vi«tt to the celebmted rural scenery of MaU 
^eni. 

< Farewell, delicious mpot \ I now usuft leave yon ; 
Now must return to breathe poUutioa's air $ 
Tp mix with men, enveloped in the cares 
Of life ; to be envelop'd too ; to hear 
Their converse low, how best to meet with wealthy . 
And to preserve that end of life till death. 
It must be so, yet will I love to think 
On you, dear Mount \ and ponder on the joys 
lliii morn bestow'dy smd tay, pressing my hearty 
Thao to review with memory's nmsing eye 
Your h^fty summit, mark its subject vak^ 
lu many scattered spirfs, and hamkts amallf 
And bear the magic orisons of birds, 
Breaking the silence with their melody ; 
Not sweeter to the n^tly travello-'s ear 
Sounds the soft' lute, while wandering by the side 
Of some slow stream, when, not a whispering bree^v 
Awakes the grove, ind not a murmur, rude. 
Impedes the waihWd notes^-^xpiring slow ; 
Wlitltt the clear moon resf^dent shines aloft, 
And casts her paje beam o'er the sleeping tide' 
To the poem on Malvera Hills, the author h^ added M 
f Elegy on the Death of a beloved Sifter,'— which breathes the 
genuine spirit of fraternal afiection and tenderness. 

'nK>9e leaders, who may incline to ^muse themselves with « 
comparative estimate of the respective characteristics of Dn 
Booker^s ahd Mr, Cottie*^ rival poems * on Mahrerni will fend 
•ur account of the former in the Rev ic\^ for the preceding 
month of December, 

^ ...■...■ ■ . _ I I I — , ' ' ' 

* Their publication so nearfy together gives some appearance of 
livvbkip, though the circumstanoe may be merely accidentaL 



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( a<S ) 

J 



AnT. III. Zeehartah ; a new Tramlatton : with Notc^ cnticaf 
philological, and explanatory ; and an Appendix, in Reply to 
Dr. Evelcigh's Sermon on Zechariah, li. 8— ii. To which i» 
added, (a new Ediuon, with Alterations,) a Dissertation on 
Daniel, ix. 20. to the End. By Benjamin Blayney, D. D. Regiij» 
Professor of Hebrew, ,and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. 410. 
pp. 161. los. 6d. Boards. Cadell, jun. and Davies. 1797* 

A s wc have formerly had occasion to notice honourably the 
'^^ sktli of Dn Blayricy in Hebrew criticism, we are glad to 
meet him again in that arduous department of literature. 

The Doctor justly observes, that the book of Zechariah has 
been generally acknowleged to contain many things hard to be 
understood.; and though the number of these has of late years 
been very considerably lessened, yet new light may break in on 
a man who comes fresh to the task, which probably might not 
bare done so but for preceding observations. In order, how- 
ever, to comprehend the sentiments and writings of an author^ 
it is generally of use to become acquainted with the situation 
and circumstances in which he wrote. Zecharbh was one of 
the last in that succession of prophets, who delivered thbir orai- 
cular sentences to the Jews as declaratory of die will of God* 
That he was in the number of the captives who returned from 
Babylon to Jerusalem in consequence of the decree of Cyrus, 
says Dr. B. is unquestionable : but that he was very young 
when he came thither appears from this, that, sixteen or seven- 
teen years afterward, when he had begun to exercise hi^ pro- 
phetical function, he is styled a youth \ a title -which would 
scarcely have been given to him had his age much .exceeded 
twenty. He was not only of a priestly family, but he was of 
considerable distinction and rai^k among his brethren. It was 
in the eighth month of the second year of the reign of Darius 
the son of Hystaspes, king of Persia, (that is, about the year 
5.20 before the Christian sera,) that he first opened his divine 
commission -with a serious and solemn call to repentance. In 
the same year, he is found, together with the prophet Haggai, 
employed in assisting the endeavours of Zerubbabel and Je^ua 
to excite and animate the people at Jerusalem to a vigorous 
prosecution of the work of rebuilding their temple. For this 
purpose, he communicated the visions, which are contained in 
the first six chapters, and with which he was favoured on the 
It4th day of the eleventh month in the year aforesaid ; all evi- 
dently calculated to inspire the strongest hopes and assurancfi 
of future prosperity through the returning favour of the Al* 
mighty ; and thus to convince the people, that they were not 
lsbo\(ring on a barren and ungratctul soil. Hie same design 
7 is 



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Blajney'/ Transhiion tf Zfcbariai. tf 

H psTSued in a subcec^eat fereladon made to him about two 
"yeafs afterward; when, in answer to a question proposed^ 
whetber the anniTersary fast of the fifth month, which had for 
snaoj fears been observed on occasion of the destruction of the 
city and the temple of Jerusalem by 'the Chaldeans in that 
nonthy 8lu>uld Continue to be kept, now that the damages tfaea 
sustained were in a &ir- way of being wholly repaired, the 
people were told that they not only might sately discontinue 
the observance of that and other similar fasts, which they had 
instituted for diemselves in the days of mourning and sorrow^ 
but diat, by a happy turn in their affair^, those fasts should b^ 
changed into times of festivity and rejoicing. 

With respect to the succeeding part of these prophecies, Dr. ^ 
filayney tells us that they are left more in the way^ of conjec- 
ture : diat it is however highly probable, from the apparent 
difference both of style and subject, that they came forth at a 
difiereat and more advanced period of the prophet's life ; and it 
is not at all surprising that the writer, as be advanced in years 
and dignity, should have learned to express himself in a tOM 
oi more elevation and energy. At such distant periods also^ at 
the author supposes, the subject would in course be materiallft 
changed. The Prophet would no longer have occasion to 8tima«« 
late his countrymen to the building of the temple, which waa 
BOW completely finished : but he was actually engaged in pro-» 
dieting some remarkable occurrences, which would distinguish 
bis own nation and the neighbouring countries in remote pe- 
riods,— spn^ of them perhaps not yet arrived ; and in urging ai% 
immediate reformation of national manners. ' In so doings 
what was more natural to expect, than that he should encoun« 
ier hatred and opposition from those whose corruptions he was 
called to censure and repress ? Accordingly, there is sufficient 

f round forxoncludiiig that all this happened to him, from what 
c says (in the clevfenth chapter) of the freedom and zeal with 
wMch he exposed and counteracted the iniquitous conduct of' 
diose who make merchandice of the flock ; meaning those un- 
principled guides, who assumed the direction of the peopt^f 
only to sacrifice diem to the gratification of their own ambi- 
tion and avarice. . Several of these, by exhibiting in himsetf 
die contrast of a good shepherd, he found means at first to de- 
prive at lea^t of diat influence and authority which they oncer 
possessed, and had wickedly abused. The sequel may easily be 
guessed. His enraged adversaries, after having thwarted and- 
defeated all his endeavours for the public good, at length, (no 
doubt by intrigue and misrepresentation!) so far succeeded as 
to tarn the tide of popular prejudice and resentment against^ 
Ux&s and be was Darbarously murdered; as his namesake' 

Zcchariab 



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ft JD« Jilaifiau4ucV Ltetunff JPmrt £ 

^SmAmanJk die son.rf Jtfhobidi: Jm4 Imh. Ant tbr l>am« «m$«» 
amji ifi the lunf place, bctweia tlm^ a^i fjiHfr hiuiidiH^ 

Tlte traosittiotiy cm ih« iirhole, b neravgiU ) ;wl the rc|^ 
«se ainsibk and jmiieioiii, ihrowinf musb f9«w light on (b^ 
ebscuce jprophet. For our opinion of the Piasen^dj^ on 
Dsniel, ix, io« which forsis a durd purt of thie voI)illV?> W<9 
Bftfisr die reailer to our Rcriewi tpI, liju p# 4J67. 



of the Corporation of Surgeons in Loi^dop. Part the Fif^t. ,4to. 
pp. a jp. Price Flnje Qtdncas in Boards. Printed for Mi^» Prcs- 
cptt, tic "Exe/gutm, in Ploomsbury Square. 



O' 



|N i^ing this work, we could not avoid lamenting thelktal 
obstinacy of fnen; who, when diey have it in their pctw^Tp 
hf the simple mq of tfactr common senses, to lemoific all iliftv 
#aet9 wiKitsoever, will still contiaiie to s,u|i^r mnd be miserable, 
because^ they will not . stretch out tlieir hanis for their omt 
MStftMice. O^Q souree, indeed, of tbax preacot atate of ei^fror 
Ifae been, that they ^ci^ and are igoMraiit of what k, and 
w4iac is not, disease \ and hence they have hitherto un\tii^nf^ 
Mmo«ied diose conditions of the body, which they slioukl havd 
eftc^ur aged, it i^ no wonder, tben, diat our leartied author 
gfuMild exclaim, 

^. How essential for mankind to know, that -all 'tke alermiiig ap* 
peavances of fever, ague, cfeojic, and e«iivillsioa, so Tolutmf>dudyr 
Wtitteii on, atid so lavishly presctibed for, are sm^tmt oidy aid not 
diaiasai that tJa^ are ^its of mature, mticaUr «et ^ to <?i»re Mov 
wdi^ aod i^R^eqMeatjy, that they are io^e ohierisned afyd en(C(Mia>gcd4 
\^j which jp^caAS they become efficacious igid successful ; an4 that; 
every ^nrpt by bleeding; by vomitiflg, by purjjipg, pr by ir^in??n,. 
ta remove them, is injurpus and destructive, and by no, means to be 
ipbiyiitted tpl' ' 

il^wet^r, ik»Xk\sA ip Dn de IMUiogwluc, * w^ no Joqgpr 
ymf^ ftyajftoms lo jiride wr jvidgm^pt.ji^r drugs ^0 prpdAwe 
ey^PWtiws ; we pos«?$s "vnitbin wrselv^ ts^e power ojf i^-^ 
4licw^ those ^cts/ 

. Ayr! bAKbow; ei^clann our.r^vadi^s* Patieoce^ geml/eo)je« p. 
-r-w sfcail k^aw* 

It must a^ear strange, i^be» so lopg a tigi^ has ds^ats^ 
sfooe in^ bepanoe an uibaJbi^ant of tbiiS globe, tba^ he should 
PiH y^tbavfi disQc^viered the tr«ie and prpper uses of two veiy, 
iMdertal psn^ id ^ fra^fc^, JW»plyj W* eyes aud U^ bands.m», 
I^ ha$ bef » a ^«cral)y rehired <ap Won that we cannot sec in 
what Jmi$ bc» cailcd ftfdtfi, JUf^ h a|tog9ther eyj:^)ncovi($: 
• there 



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Ik^ MkinwaimfJ LtalMngrf Part L ^ 

ibere is nd such thing as darkness in naUure; aod^ by prdctlcci 
we ttoj see in all ^huations. 

. * A gill' (for instanccy * at Parma saw objects as iistiilcfcly at mM- 
x^g-ht, though her window. shutters were perfectly closed^ as -she 
could by day-light. 

* Bnggs gives an account of a man who read letters in the night. 

* Mr. Boyk tells us that a gentleman confined in a dungeon, be- 
gan in a few weeks to discover light ; it dafly increased, so that he 
could dttlbguisb his bed, and other' large objects; at length he 
fkinly saw rats ruonitig about, anci picking up his crumbs. 

* The Emperor Tiberius, 

' Scaiigert and his son Joseph, 

* Marcus Antonius Sabelllcus, 

* Hieronymus Cardianui, 

* Caelius, 

* Asclepiodorus, and a very long list of names, are all upou record, 
for secmg and reitding ^ell in the darkest nights. 

* Fabficius ab aqua pe'ndcnte> tells us of a man at Pisa, who ssw 
weH in the cbrkest nights, but oBscurely'by day. 

' JulhktiUBf a Mosk> constantly reaid in the darkest nights, and 
acvcr l^hled a candle for seventy years. 

* In all these instances we perceive thsre was no want of light, and 
yet other people called it perfect darkness ; conseiqtieotly the defoot 
umit have betii in the visual organ of those who could not diioovw 

light. 

« But Wc have many instances of human sight receiving this im- 
provement by accident, by inflammation, by di-unkenness, by fevers, 
by fits of passion, durirtg which time all appeared hght, which but 
tne momefit before was deemed perfect darkness. 

* Mr. Boyle, Bttggs, and several other authors, confirm these ad- 
cmnti, nod give instances which it would talce up too much time to 
repeat. One only I beg leave to select from the Journal des S^avans. 

* A gentleman received a stroke in his eye by the snapping of a 
Kite-string ; inflammation was set up, and to his astonisnment, he 
could from that instant discover the most minute objects, and read 
the smallest type in the greatest darknesSi but was ijerfectly dark of 
tnat eye by day or by candle-lirht ; so that he liabitUally used the 
Earned eye in what others c^ed darkness, and the other eye by 
day. 

* In short, every circumstance tends to prove that light is conti^ 
IwSj present in every situation, but not at all times in the same de« 
gree, and that there is no such state as absolute darkness, or privauon 
of light in all nature/ 

Now this belhg the case, It is erident that the hitherto hld^ 

den and interior parts of our frame become luminous ati<{ 

risible ta the well- practised and intelligent eye ; and hence, in 

order to Sscover all diseases* we have only to conunand ouf 

cyea ip look-^ifter them, < This proi^css/ it eecmS) < is com<- 

prised an tbrte divisional. 

< A thought. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



* A thought, or influence, must first be conveyed to the spirit, or 
mind, by sonac visible, or invisible agent. This the spirit is perfect^ 
fcec to adopt or reject. 

« Having arrived at this second stage, volCtion arises ; that is, the 
^rit commands some part of its body (the eye, for instance) to ex- 
ecute its will, and &r that purpose transmits its decree by the nerveH 
or conductors of its yolition to that part of the form, whose depart* 
■lent it is to act, according to the nature of the object.* 

- The nature and extent of any disease being thus easily 
ascertained by the eye, it appears to have been almost needless 
for the author to put us in possession of other modes of in- 
vestigating the same facts. As he has thought this necessary, 
however, it becomes our duty to instruct our readers in this 
process i first referring them to the Doctor^s serious admo- 
aition : 

* Permit me to intreat you timely to reflect on the very, very mo- 
Bientous charge you are now undertaking : remember the parable of 
the Talents, and the fate of the indolent servant ; remember^ that 
fixnn him to whom much is confided, much will be required. That 
by the mysteries into which you are now initiating, and which are 
totaUy unknown to the wprld, (yourselves, and your instructed 
:biethren ei(cepted«) the health> the lives, and the morals of perhaps 
thousands of your fdlow-creatures will be intrusted to your care ; 
consequently, and most assuredly, you will become accountable to the 
Author of those mysteries for the use you make of them.' 

To clearly understand our author's mode of examination, and 
treatment of diseases, the following recapitulation of his doc- 
trines should be duly noted.^— The globe of which he here 
speaks is the earth, and the warty appearances on its surface 
are men and women. 

* On looking back at the picture, a globe appears changing its 
solid state into that of action, re-action, heat, and circulation. 

' This is rapidly succeeded by a prodigious number of atoms, at- 
tracting each other into circular currents, and branching out quite 
round and through the entire globe in every direction. 

* Scarcely has the eye indiugcd in this curious process, before it 
discovers numberless atops getting together into small heaps, and 
moulding themselves into forms of various shapes and sizes, al) whkh 
"are penetrated by, or strung as it were on, the circular currents. 

* * Attentively considering those warty appearances, we soon per- 
" ceive them surrounded by what was, before, an invisible part of themk 
selves, collected from tKeir form and shaped like their figure. From 
this vapour of atoms we again perceive particles detaching and conti- 
suiallyflpng upwards into the general space. 

* This surrounding shadow, as well as the particles which are de<T 
tadiedfrom it, appear at first sight to be perfectly simple, and composed 
-of atomtf of one kind only ; but on a closer investigation, it changes 
hs aspecti and shews atom9 gf varigu^ kiadi sud of difotot colours. 

• «Thr 



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tie MainauJttcV Leciuns, Part I. 3f1 

* The eye of critical observance becomes too strongly attached to 
dus new phenomenon to pass it hastily over, and new lights shine 
forth to gratifjr the pursuit. 

* Chradt ox iuid atoms, varying in their colour, shape, and stze^ 
according to the state, of their respective sources, rush forth from 
each internal part, and conspire to render the surrounding shade as 
hetcr^enial in its appearance as it is in its quality* 

*. These are succeeded by a second class of atoms, as little homo* 
genial as the former : they fly off from each uneirculating part of the 
form, and bursting through its pores, penetrate the surroundini^ 
shade, and lose themselves in the general medium. 

* Scarcely has the complex picture attained this state of perfectiooy 
before some of its objects begin to moulder into dust. Cohesion's at« 
tractive bondsdissolve. The curious form breaks down. The separating 
atoms disperse to join the general mass, and leave the unencumbered 
strings ready to receive §nd penetrate the next succession of acai« 
mulated heaps of particles. 

* Thus action heats the general atoms into circulating forms ; 

* Composition and emanations surround them with an atmosphere; 

* Universal bonds attadi them to each other ; ' 

* Obstruction -destroys their regularity; 

* And decomposition scatters the atoms to their parental earth.' 

Now respecting the mode of examination : 

* There are two general methods of receiving impressionSy or of 
dnpodng the examiner to receive thetr. 

* The first is, by opposing one, or both hands. 

* The second, by opposmg the entire body to that of the ex- 
amined. 

* The first is that mode which should be accurately attended to 
by newly initiated students, as it affords a catalogue of sensations^ 
t^ch become a regular standard to judge of all diseases by, and to* 
reduce examination to accuracy and perkction. 

* This nK>de of examination consists in opposing one or both hands 
towards the patient. The examiner shooid sit or stand in an easy 
position, cautiously avoiding all pressure on his body or arms, lest 
that should afford him an excuse for suspecting the impressions to 
proceed from that cause, rather than from the disease. 

* The examiner should fix on some particular part of the patient's 
external or internal form : then, turning the backs of his hands, with 
the fingers a little bent, he must vigorously and steadily command 
the emanations and atmosphere^ which derive from that part, to 
strike his hands, and must closely attend to whatever impressions are 
produced on them. 

' It is scarcely necessary to say, that the more composed and at- 
tentive the examiner is, the more accurate will be the result of his 
examination. 

* During this process, he must not permit his attention to wandcf 
firom the object ; if he should, his labour is entirely lost, and he must 
begin anew, or relinquish his purpose. 

•To 



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A^ pt Mainau JucV Lectures^- Pttrt X ^ 

< To render the process the more steady, the eyes of the esuniicr 
fliould he fited oa dtf part he attends to, with the unvaried intent •£ 
directing the atoms^Riteh denVe from it towards his hamls, which 
mist -be as ready to catchi as he is to account for the earh'en impres- 
kions. Jt may be n^urafly supposed that the eyes of the examiner 
ihould be open^ but it is better they were shut, as all foragn objects 
are by thaK means excluded, and the porosity of the eye-lids removes 
, the idea^ of impediment, 

• The examiner should never be hasty in dclivermg his opinioO) 
Iblit should iNepeatedly examine the same part, and deliver his decidoa 

- irhen he has found the sensations uniformly similar after several 
trnb. . 

* The impressions made on different examiners by the same disease^ 
irin be. uniformly the same when they become adepts. 

• It is essentially necessary to render the process of receiving the 
atoms detached from every object familiar to us. This will be ct 
fected by habitually seeking for them. For this purpose students 
should frequently receive tl>e emanations from salt, su^ar, water, fire, 
and in short, from every occurring substance ; by which meant they 
•con becobne expert. 

* As the inipressi^n produced on the examiner by such emanationa 
as he attracts from disease, wiU frequently give him some slight pain, 
more especially \{ he has himself obstructions : those who are ready 
to grasp at any excuse to wound the science, may very probably bold 
that up to excuse themselves, or to deter others trom their duty : but 
those who venture to look beyond the surface, perceive the great ad^ 
vantage which must derive to the examiner, if he should be tb- 
itructed, since those very emanations which cause him pain will de- 
tach some of his disease, and by frequent repetition will effectually 
remote the whole. Those who receive such pungent impressions, 
and are not themselves diseased, cannot have any apprehensions, be^ 
cause such emanations never create disease in the operator ; aod all 
properly -instructed persons have it in their power to remove them 
Ifom themselves as soon as they please. 

• In tlKT second motle of. examination, the operator must not seel) 
to know where the patient is ; but recollecting that all human beings 
are connected to each other by innumerable atmospherical nerves, 
and that the entire medium in which they are placed is composed of 
loose atoms, he must fix his attention on the object, as if he stood 
before him. 

' « Thus situated, the examiner must vigorously exert his pow«r to 
attract the entire atmosphere and emanations from the patient ta 
knnself. 

♦ By this means, the atoms which derive from each particular part 
of the examined, run to the parts of the same denomination in the 
examiner 5 and those particles which are diseased produce impressions 
en the same parts in the examiner as they do when attracted to his 
band. Thus he feels' in every part of his Own person, whatever the 
patient feels in his ; only in a less degree in general, but always sufX 
IcicDtly to enable him to describe the feelings of the patient, am) 

clearly 



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De JyTainauducV Le&ures^ Part t 33 

deftly tOtdae^rtain the very spot in wbich ii existe^ and die coose^ 
^uencea dcming fjrom it* ^ ^ ■ 

* If the examiner's attention is carried only on one particular tis* 
cus in the patient^ that same tIscus only will receive information in 
himself. But if it be rendered general, every part of his jbody wilt 
jive an aCcOUat of its own proceedings. 

' But it is to be observed^ that imdiseased parts will not convey 
any remarkable impression to the examinet; as nothing results from 
health, but gentlc» equable, soft heat* 

* In every examination the parts which produce impressiohs on tht: 
aaminer arc to be duly considered f the manner of their formation 
recollected ; and the kind of treatment they demand is t6 be clearly . 
made out before any curative process can be commenced. 

HaTing thus ascertained the existence of diseasci it remaina 
only to tcteove it by the ptopet treatment. 

* The present process is the opposite to the last ; in that the ex- 
aminer attracted the atoms from the patient to himself; but in this 
he must force his atoms against the patient. 

* By a steady exertion 'of compound volition » we have it in our* 
power to propel the particles which emanate from ouf own body into 
and gainst whatever part of any otheir form we fix otir attention on^ 
and can force them in any direction, and to any distance* 

* Thus, by a continual and regular succession of particles, directed 
vigorously in a rapid stream against those atoms which are stopped 
in their passage, and accumulated in a heap, we break down the im<* 
pediment, push off those atoms which we detach, direct them into 
the circulatidg currents for evacuation^ and rfscUe the system from 
its inmeded functions. 

* This process may, in some sort> be said to resemble that of 
continuing to throw handsful of shot at a heap of sand, accumulated 
in a rivulet, which, as the grains of sand become separated from each 
other, washes them along before it; as all obstructions are fiot' 
qually hard or compact, they are not all destroyed with the same 
ncility, nor equally soon. A single look will often prove sufEcient 
for a recent accumubtion of particles^ fof ati accidental contraction^ 
or for a sudden distention \ whereas those of long standing, and of a 
more serious nature, demand frequent, long, and judiciously-varied 
treatment.' 

It here becomes necessary to recall to the attention oi the 
reader a circumstance to which we before alluddd. We mean^ 
that men have hitherto not only been ignorant of the true uses 
of their hands, partkularly of their fvigers, but that they 
really do not know their figure and extent. Our fingers by 
00 lAdans finish at the point at which they are supposed to end \ 
that opinion is erroneous j they arc prolonged into *• invisible 
: Gnger^ whidh penetrate the pored of other people, and are to 
|>e considered as. the natural and only ingredients which are^ 
W can be, adapted to the removal of nervoua w of any other 

Rev. jAN*i7yp. D affections 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 Dd liEu9aud\ifi^jr Leciuw^ Part J. 

affifictioiii of di« body/ Thus-^^ b^ placing thes^ ioH^e *fia« 
gers on the contracted and curled up nenresi and by striping 
down^ or lajitig smo9th thjsir initated ineqvaKtieSi the spasms 
0r convulsions disappear/ Can any process be more siit^ple 
and easy than this^— -Tb apply its use, now, in the case 
of, stone in tb^ bl^ckler ;— a disease which it certainly is de- 
sirable to Ifnow ^ow to rcrpedy- We learn thf^t 

< The impressions produced by stone on the hands and fingen of 
the examiner will be 

Heaviness, indolence, and cold : 
And these impressions are uniformly the same, over the entire eztCBf 
of the stone, from centre to circumference in every direction. 

* But when ^^c hfi^e passed the bounds of the stone, the io^^ict* 
tions immediately alter, because we no longer receive emanatlonii 
from the stone, but from the parts which surround or contain it. 

^ Suppo^^ thQ stone' tQ. be situated in the urinary bladder : when 
vft ge^ bcypnd the bpuuds of the stone, we receive emanations froin 
the bladder, and the impressions must then be according to the 
healthy dr diseased state of that viscus. 

* If the stone has not caused inflammation, or any moibid aftc- 
tjoi^ in the bladder, we must receive the impressions of beakh/ 
which arc, . > 

An Equable, *) 

Natural, •* 

* BHt if the irritating, surface of the stone has induced 

Inflammation, 
Pus, or mattery 
Scirrhus, or 
^^ortificatioll ; 
the in^pres^ions must be such a^ those differettt stages commnnicatc*^ 

•* The next practice is to remove the stotie ; 

* To remove the heap of s^ndi thus accumulated iuto ttonc^ it 
mus( be again r^uced tp sand, or t9 very ^ne graveL The connect- 
in^ bond^ which^ d^rii^g h^es^thi had heea oneca tjbe natural humouia 
ofthe body, must be again attenuated by mixing its thick and gum* 
my atoms vnth other .more fluid ones of the same natipre, and the 
stCAie must then be crushed into powder. 

* Thb operation calls forth a feoolkction and an exertion 6f the 
practical niles, wjiich i have endeavoured co explain ; and compre- 
l^iexids, by its con^^^ity, aeveral of the diSecent modes of action or 
tjfeatment. 

^^ In^ the first place, the rule» {(^ exafoinatio^^ i^\it^ h^f ltee« ju-» 
diciously exert^ed to ascertaip the situatfiop and sl^ of the. stopie, smdi 
to judge of the injuries whith th^ surroundiug pa^tts, vd^J )iaye WJM 
tained from'it. 

V < In the second place, our inyisible power mu^t be applied to the 
jnices which circulate m the ticmity oi the stone i they mujK be con- 
victed 

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De MabaudueV L^ctures^ Pari I. 35 

dacted to tbe stone and immedlatel]^ appL'ed to its surface, so that 
the stone must be soaked in that fluid tor the purpose of di88oltin|r 
the gum ^hich sticks the particles of sand to each other. 

« If the hands are employed in this process, the mfcd mu«t con« 
cetre, that the streams of atoms which continually rusk forth froih 
xhe fingers, are continued on, and lengthened out into, long inrisiUc 
. iii^ersy which become Continuations, of our risible ones ; and which, 
bong composed of minute particles, are perfectly adapted to pass 
through the pores o^ another form, and to be applied as we should 
our Tistble fingers to the very part on which it is intended to act. 

* The third process is action, by striking those veiy ertianatirife 
IMfftkles that constitute that invisible part of our form, whicli it is 
intended to em^doy, whether it be the hand, the eye, or any oth«r 
port. By striking them, I say, forcibly, and in constant and rapid 
aucccstion against the st6ne, tne particles of sand, which, by steep- 
•mg^ arc rendered less tenacious to each other, detach, and falling 
•QIgani into dust,^ are taken up and washed out of the body by the n»> 
tuial evacuation.' 

What shall wc say to this ? Was ever operation so ingenious 
and %o plain ?^So» likewise, in the cure of* the rheumatic 
head-ache: 

* To cure this kind of head-ache, the'^scalp, or covering of the 
skull, must be vigorously treated outwards, by placing the invisible 
hand on the l«UTe skaft, under the scalp, and with the back of the. 
hand upwardsi forcing a^l the obstructed particles outwards through 
the pores, and bitfstii^ open all those which may be shut up.' 

Again, in that species of head-ache which arises from a dis- 
'cased stomach :— to remedy thl5, 

* Hie intemsd cavhy and coat of the stomach must be cleared %i 
aUme i the invisible fingers must scrape, as it were, all the internal 
.fonrface ; and we must cai^efully attend to such evacuations as nature 
^inaj dictats. 

* If a strong inch'natvo^ to vonoit should come on, direct^he stuff 
thnmgh the cardia, or left orifice, through which aliment passes into 
the stomach : but \i a coiitrary evacuation should be indicated, either 
by the operatoi's imprcssioB^ or by the patient's own fediings, it 
SNi&t be assisted and not counteracted. 

* ']fbe sensations produced by this ropy humour in the stomach, are 

A Thi<:k, Gummy, 

ie^ oft llse ftigei!^^ sfnd v^hen they are gently movcd^ they meet'wkh 

ft slight degree of revintance; if attemptied to be bent, the skifo ffflf 

Stii^ and a little Rigid. 

* Ta judge of the de^h of the slim^r humour in the stomaJch^ the 
jngeA must be perpendicularly pipped in it to the bottom of thcsto- 
jm^^ \ the consequence will be, the impressibn of 

A Circular Line, _*.^ 

ar if 31 st>^ snrwunded ca^h Angier, marking the ddjpth to ^AnAi 
Atfy had fttnk in die* st^ft 

pa • From 



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3(5 StuanV Genealogical History of the Stetvarif, 

• From that line downwards to the fingers'-cnds, they feci 

Stiff and Rig^d : 
tut above these bounds, the fingers and hand have their natural freL* 

So in the cure of vomiting — * the invisible hands must be 
laid on the internal surface of the stomach, and the whole 
must be made smooth, stretching gently out dhe little contnu:-' 
tions and curlings of the delicate nerves.' 

In this easy and expeditious mantier, are removed all those 
diseases which were once thought formidable ;— and here, said 
our author, with an air of triumph surely justilSable, 

* Wc close the present curative instru^rtions ; in which you per- 
ecive that all received theories of disease are totally overturned ? 
•vmptoms, pulse, and all the deemed unerring rules are rejected, and 
the entire voluminous materica medica rescued from the torture of 
alteration and improvement. We have, in short, established a pei> 
snanent peace with the entire animal, vegetable, and mineral king- 
doms, and reduced the medical library to a very small compass. 

^ Thrice happy the man, who, his task accompUshed, shall receive 
the last Eternal Benediction, cease to emanate, and resign, unat- 
aaospheved, his useless house of particles/ 

An elegant portrait of the deceased author is prefixed to this 
sflendid and every way extraordinary volume. 

Art. V. Ghiealogical Hittory of the Stewarts ^ from the earKest Pe- 
riod of their authentic History to the present Times. Containing 
a particular Account of the Origin and successive Generations of 
the Stuarts of Darnley, Lennox, and Aubigny, and of the Stuarts 
of Castelmilk ; with Proofs and References j an Appendix of re- 
lative Papers; and a Supplement, containing Copies of various 
Dispensations found in the Vatican at Rome, in the Course of k 
Search mrtte by the Author in the Year 1789 ; particularly Co- 
pies of two very interesting. Dispensations which had long been 
sought for in vain, relating to Robert the Stewart of Scotland, 
^Kmg Robert II.) his much-contested Marriages with Elizabeth 
More and Euphemia Ross. To which is prefixed a Genealogical 
Table relative to the History. By Andrew Stuart, Efq. M. P. 
4to^ pp. 46$. ih los. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1798. 

THE days of chivalry are no more 1 exclaimed Mr. Burke^ 
in a tone of indignant despair. We trust, however, that 
the virtues of our gallant forefathers will never be forgotten nor 
extinguished among Britons. We trust that loyalty to our 
king, courtesy to the fair, and courage to repel an invading foe> 
will never be wanting to the inhabitants of this isle; and that 
we shall see little cause for repining, though the fading gUlcs 
and ermines of heraldry shall have lost something of their 
brilliancy s nor if some portion of that respect^ which was 
^ ■ , -15 formerly 



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Stu'artV Genealogical History of the Stewarts^ 37 

fbnnerly monopolised by the great, be how claimed and en- 
joyed by the wise, the good, and the humble. Yet the prirfe 
of illustnous descent is natural t6 the individuals who possess 
that advantage, and is of beneficial consequences tb society in « 
general. Docs there live a descendant of the brave Bayard^ 
who deserved and obtained the glorious title of < Chevalier sans 
peur l*f sans reproche ?^ and is he not valiant, magnanimous, 
and humane ? Does he not feel a more than common incite-^ 
mcnt to the performance of noble deeds ? Is he not withheld 
by ao adamantine chain from the commission of any thing 
base, mean, or ignoble ? — To this theory, it may be objected 
that distinction ought to be the reward of personal merit, or 
(in other words) of talents and virtue j and that, by attaching 
it to a fortuitous and adventitious circumstance, — such as high 
birth,— we depreciate the reward really due to the former; 
Be this as it may, it is certain that the pride of ancestry pre- 
ceded, and may possibly survive, every trace of feudal insti- 
tutions. It is easily recognized in the most despotic states of 
Asia, and is not less visible in the most anarchical republics of 
antrent Europe. It is difficult to repress a smile wlien we per^ 
ccive Caesar,— the destroyer of the Roman aristocracy, the 
uniform adulator of the populace,— taking occasion to deduce 
his pedigree from the antient kings on t)ne hand, and on the 
other ascending even to the summit of Olympus. * Amita: 
ma JuBa maternum genus ah regibus ortum^ paternum cum diii 
immoftalihs conjunctum est. Nam ab Anco Martio sunt Marcit 
ngesy quo nomine fuit mater ; h Venere Julii^ cujus gentis familia 
est nostra.* Suetonius. 

It is almost superfluous to state that the elder branch of the 
House of Stuart descended from Robert the Stewart, (Senescallus 
vei Dapifer regis^J'^who ascended the throne of Scotland in 
1371, m right of his mother Margery^ daughter of King 
Rchert Bruce, — was extinguished in the male line in the per- 
son of James V. It is scarcely more necessary to mention that 
the Cardinal York is the only male descendant, now alive, 
from James VI. of Scotland. * It follows, therefore, that upon 
his death the representation in the male line of the Stuarts of 
Pcmcley and Lennox must devolve upon the person who -shall 
be able to prove himself descended from Sir William Stuart, 
die next brother of Sir John Stuart of Derneley, the first Lord 
of Aubigny;* The competitors for this honor are the Earl of 
Galloway, and Mr. Stuart of Torrance, member for Weymouth, 
author of the publication now before us. This, indeed, is not 
Chc first wotk which has appeared on the subject. In 1 794 was 
printed a ** State of the evidence for proving the late Sir Joha 

D 3 Stuart 



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*f StuartV GefualogUal History rf thf Bt^vfarisi 

^tuart of Castelmilk to be the lineal hdr male and represents 
atiye of Sir WilHam Stuart of Castclmilk." On the part of the 
pSiTl of Galloway, there has been printed and circulated^ aboii^ 
p^o yeairs ago, a paper intitlcd, " A view of the evidence for 
proving that the present Earl of Galbway is the lineal heir 
m^Ie and lawful representative of Sir William Stuart of Jcdr 
worth, so frequently mentioned in history from the year 1385 
to the year 1429," In that publication, his Lordship con* 
tended that Jedworth and Castelmilk were both possessions of 
the same Sir WilUam Stuart, who took his title indiscriminately 
from either •, and that he was brother of Sir John Stuart cj 
Derneley, followed him to Fiance in ihe service of Charles VIL 
and Wi&s killed with him at the siege of Orleans in 1429. The 
^Aanner of their death is thus related in a book intitkd, <<^m« 
r#/;W urbis Anglica$ia obstdioy 8c c. Autore Joanne Lodocio MiqueHa.*^ 
<< In that battle (des Harrans] there fell on the side of the 
IVench above four hundred men ; among whom of more thai^ 
ordinary disriuctioa were Alebret, Qrval, William Stuart, Ver^ 
duran, Chateaubrun, Rocliechouart, John Chabot, and above 
aU die truly heroic John Stuart, descended of a most illustrious 
s^ce.-^This gentlemran coming to the relief of his brother, whq 
ha4 fallen into the hands of the enemy, extricated him from 
dangfr, andj though hin^eU wounded, made a most gallant aii4 
persevering resistance; till at length surrounded by Uit enemy, 
2(nd covered with wounds, he sunk to the ground. Hit brc^ 
^er» i^ho h^ retired from the battle, observixig at a distance 
vh^ had p^sed, agaii;i flew to presem himself to the enemy^ 
and was slain.'^ 

IjAr* Stuart of Tprra^oe, having succeeded to the estate and 
f retcnsions of the C^stehnilk family, has published this Gc*' 
i>eaWgieal IJistory with a view of asserting and elucidating hijl 
olaiiH to bo the representative of the House cxf Lennox, accom-^ 
pajped with all the proofs which it re<}uires or admits. He 
in.a^9tains * that Sir William Stuart of Jedworth (the undis- 

Suted ancestor of Lord Galloway) had b^n taken prisoner by. 
lotapur P^rcy at the battle of Horoildou, on the 14th Sep^ 
fember 1402, and wais soon thereafter, at his instigation,^ tried,, 
condemn^) and exe<;uted as guilty of high treason against the 
I^ng of England, upon the pretence that he was a subject of 
that monarch, having in his early yguth belonged to the county 
<rf Teviotdale> while it was subject to the English crown/ I£ 
<;iredic be given to this fact, as related in the Scotico eirenicon and, 
liy Winton, of his beipg put to death by Percy in 1403, it i*. 
impossible that ihis Sir William Stuart could have attended his. 
brother to France in 1420, or have falka at the siege oC 

Orleans 



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itmMrs tfihe Manchester Soeiiiyy Kl V4 Pm t. 5^ 

Orieant is 1429 : whkb pardculars zxt apfsUcabte to Shr Wil« 
liam Smart of Castchnitk, the ancestor of Mv. Stuart. — It i$ 
ii«t our proTiooe umtas amponere Hies. 

Two centuries ago, the ancestors of these high-borti d»iefi 
toons vouid have decided these points by the poims of their 
swords; a thousand vassals would have fought and hate fallen 
in the cattse ; aod rivers of blood would have been shed. In these 
hjppy dajsy propfe only are brought into the field on such 
occanotis ; trguftieBt opposes argument ; ink only ig shed in 
the contest ; and many people may think that ink might have 
been nmch better enipk^edy by a person of Mr« Stuart's ac<» 
kaowleged abilities and erudkion. 

AtT. VL MemMrs of ibe Literary dnd Philosopl^oal Sodiety tf Mon^ 
^xtter. Vol. V. Parti. Svo. pp.330. i6s. Boards. Cadelljin^ 
lAdDavies. 1798. 

r^UR readers wHl be able to form Hn opinion of the aggre<i 
^ gate merit of this volume^ when we have presenfed to 
tbem a view of its various contentJi. IVe shall tmrefDre pfo*« 
ccM to notice eadi ^^y, clas^g t!heYn accofldiiig to dieAr subr 
jecls^ aWd cominendng with the 

PhILOSOT^IICAL atid CftE^^ICAL PttpetSy l^c. 

Remarh dfi Dtr. Priestlefi Bxperiments ani bbservatUns re-: 
lathig to thi Aftalysistf Atmospherical Jtilr^ and his Cdnsideraticms 
rni fbe thctririe jf rhlogiston^ dnd tie DecoinpoHiion df Waten 
6y Theophilus Lewis JRtrpp. ' 

We have seldom seen a mbre perfecit spfedmeili of accurate 
Aenricat reas^onlng, than this essay affcfrrfy : it is indeed a most 
c6to*D<ete and triumphant reply to^ the arguments adduced by 
pf. Priestley against the system of Ldvoisicr ; a system iJirhtth/ 
by a singular fatality, is at 6i*esem coVnbnt^d only by that PhtJ 
losopher, to whose splendid di^co^cry 6f oxygen gas it is in* 
debted for its very exrstence. > .... 

Dr. Priestley heated 140.^ grains of black bopes in i-^'H 
ounce measures of atmdspherlc air, whttft #ere thus tcduce4 
td 10 ounce measures. He also hedtcd aoo grains of polished 
*cel needles in 24 ou'nce hieasures of aSr, which w^rc rcduced[ 
to 19.5 ounce measures: ih intense heat was puifj)<)sely avoid- 
ed; and when the experitiient was rAide ovet lime watcf, af 
diick ctust was produced :— the bonds rkther lost weight ; thrf 
bron gained a little, though very incottsJdtfaMy. Therefore, 
says Dr. P. since the air wa^ diminished by heating these snb- 
ttanccs, and they did not gaih any weight in die process, the 
(blogistication of. air is not owing to the absorption of an^ 
iJatt of it J sini, during the calcination of mctab and combus- 
&»! no dxygen 19 abiorbcd. . * 

• D 4 Ta 

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4|d MtmArsrf'thi Manchister SocsOy, Vol. Tv y'Pari J. 

To (bis argument, Mr. Rupp replies tHat the circumsttocei 
of th^ experiments were such as to preclude the pos^bility of 
accuracy. Instead of that heterogeneous mixture which com* 
pose's atmospheric air, oxygen gas should have been, used : the 
experiments ought to have been made over mercury in- 
stead of water: 200 grains of steel are capable of unitkig 
with twenty times a greater quantity of oxygen than wf^ con- 
tained in the quantity of atmospheric air used : no decisive 
effect could therefore be expected : no account was kept of the 
carbonic acid gas produced. In the, first experiment^ dift 
carbon of the black bones united with the oxygen of the air. 
forming carbonic acid,— *which accounts for the diminution of 
the air and the slight loss of weight in the bones ; and the 
excess of azote in the residuum arises from the decomposition 
of the ammonia contained in the bones. In the second ex- 
periment, carbonic acid was produced by the union of part of 
the oxygen of the air employed, with the catbon of the «teel% 
and the slight increase of weight in the needles arose from tiK 
absorption of the remainder of the oxygen. 
• Setting a8i4e, however, these inaccurate and therefore in« 
conclusive experiments, we find, in Dr. Priestley's, third vo- 
lume of his experiments on air, that ten ounce measures of 
4?phlogisticated air (oxygen gas) being confined over mercury^ 
and a quantity of iron turnings being intlroduced and fired by 
% lens I the air employed was reduced to 0.8 of a measure^ 
and by washing in lime-water to 0.38. The Iron being after- 
ward weighed, "I presently found (says he) that the depbhgbti^ 
€ated air bdi actually been imbibed by the iron*^ — " Repeating the 
experiment very frequently, I always found that other quan- 
tities of iron treated in the same manner gained similar addi- 
tions of weight, which was always very nearly that of the air 
yrhich <Jisappearcd." The remaining iron was converted (to 
use Dr. P.*s own worcjs) into a substance the same with^wfj 
iinder. 

The conclusion from these experiments is obvious: bat 
Dr. Priestley, reverting to his theory, declares in a note that 
k was not deptilogisticated air which was imbibed by the iron^ 
tut only the water, which he says is by far the greatest part of 
it :-«but what, then, is become pf the air ? or, if six. grains of 
water were absorbed in the first experiment, where are the 
20 ounce measures of inflammable air which should have been 
produced ? for. Dr. Priestley says that, in passing steani over 
red-hot iron, the iron imbibes the water, and emitsi its phlo^ 
giston in the shape of inflammable air. 

Wfth, regard to the decomposition of azotic gis, Mr. Rupp 

hf^ repeatcii with eare, but without succc^Si Dr. Priestley's 

i. cxperimenti 



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•" iiamrs of tie Mahchsster SociHyi Vol. Y. Paril. 4^ 

e)q>eriment8 on this subjecti in which he confined rUsted iron 
asMl inflammable air over water and mercury. Similar ex^^e- 
liments with the oxyds of manganese and mercury were equall j 
unsoocessfuL 

To Dr. Priestley's considerations on the doctrine of phlogi** 
ton and the decomposition of w^ter, Mr. Rupp thus replies :— 
According to the Phlogistians, a metal is a compound substance 
consisting of a calx and phlogiston ; by parting with its phlp-* 
gistOHi it becomes a calx i and this calx is afterward reduced 
by acq^uiring phlogiston. Dr. P. therefore contradicts bis own 
theory, when he says, concerning the reduction by mere he«t. 
of precipitate per se^ that the mercury was converted into calx 
by the mere absorption of vital air, without parting with any 
or very little of its phlogiston ; and if this calx retains nearly 
the whole of its phiogiston, how does it happen that^this sub^ 
sunce yields the purest oxygen gas of any of the metallic 
Qxyds? Again, this precipitate per se^ if it differs from tibw-. 
ning mercury only in the absorption of oxygen^ should on 
solution in nitric acid give out nitrous gas; one of the com^ 
ponent parts of which, according to the Phlogistians, is phlo- 
gtfton: but this is not the fact. Running mercury^ when 
dissolved iix nitric acid, produces copious fumes of nitrous gas; 
i. e. parts with much phlogiston : but yet the red oxyd which 
remains is as easily reducible by simple heat as precipitatte ^ , 
se : it therefore follows that mercury, whether it has a redun* 
dancy of phlogiston or a deficiency, will in all cheniical pro*, 
cesses exhibit the same phenomena! 

If steam be passed through iron heated red hot, a quantity 
of hydrogen gas will make its appearance ; the iron will be 
reduced to the state of finery cinder ; and the weight of the 
hydrogen, with the acquired weight of the iron, .will be equal- 
to that of the water employed. The Antiphlogistians explain 
this fact by saying that the water is decomposed ;— one of its 
component pafts, the hydrogen, being set at liberty,— and the 
other, oxygen, uniting with the iron, and thus formipg black 
oxyd. Dr. P. denies the decomposition of water, and says, 
that the hydrogen gas in this experiment is the phlogiston of ' 
the iron, and that the water is imbibed by the iron. In proof 
of his assertion, he mentions the impossibility of reducing the 
iron to its metallic state, without the addition of some sub- 
stance supposed to contain phlogiston : — but, from a beautiful 
experimeitt of his own, quoted above, it appears that iron 
tumings> heated under mercury in oxygen gas, absorbed the 
Oxygen, And became converted into finery cinder. In reply. 
Dr. P. says that oxygen gas, and all airs in general, consist 
almost wholly of water j and that in fact ^ was only the 

water 



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vnUf m • pastor cttitt Which was absorbed* AdmSttinf 
this, the effects of steam passed throtigk iiot icon^ -mad of iron 
heated in e»y%€n gas^ ought to be the same: but« in tint 
latter experiment, what is become of the hydrogen or ph^i 
gitton ihA af)pi^red in the fornier ? either it is retained by the 
ison» while in the state of finery cinder ;-^or, oxygen gas con*: 
taioa no water. 

• An Afialfiis xf the Waters of two Aliheral Springs at Letningion'^ 
Prhrs near Wartvkk ) including Experiments tending io eladdate 
ike Origin of the Muriatie Acid. By Wi4Ham Lakibe, M. A. 
la«e Feltoir of ^. John's CoHfcge, Cambridge/ 

If if ilfifmsiUe to d« Justice to this very ingenious and iti*-* 
tmmting paper by a b^ief abstract: the fiifrre quotation of iti 
tkte, wc doubt not, will induce sill who are fond' 6f chemfcafl 
iB¥ <atig 5tti»ns to give it t very attentive perusal. ' W« sha!l» 
bthi^vtft) jttdt mentk>li that the memoir contains thr^e new 
airf very important facts ; first ; the existdrice^ in these mi-' 
nmd waters, of a triple isalt consisting of the oxymuri^ites ctf 
ixMT dod manganese \ secondly, the property possessed ty flria 
salt of ensuing water to hold in solution a large poi^ton of 
dtlphate of lime ; and thirdly, the similarity (ot rather tBe 
iieAtity) of the solutions of iron and manganese in watet' 
tmvit^^A with sulphurated hydrogen, with sohitions of the* 
saate tetttaXs in oxymnriatic acid. 

Metpertments and Obserbations on the Preparation, and sofne' 
rkmdrkable Properties df the Oxygenated Muriate qf Potash. 4{y 
]dr« Thomas Uoyle,jun. 

Tbis paper contains a variety of interesting experiments, on, 
tile detonation ahd itiftammatidn produced by the mixture of 
oxytniiriate of potash with various inflanimable substances. 
Tfhe smell of nitrous gas, produced on the decomp6sit1on df) 
t&is salt by snlphuric acid, will doubtless occasion a series oT 
accurate investigations, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
eiiuse of so extraordinary a circtimstance. 

J Pxperiptents and Observations on Permehtation, and the Vktil^^ 
hdhn jif ardent Spirit. By Joseph Collier. 

TEe results of these experiments are of very considerable 
value, both to the chemical philosopher and the mFaaufac|«^#e?«> 
^be three grand points on which they bear, are, i. The re* 
lative value of artificial ferments^ a. Whether the fermenc*- 
ation ought to be carried on in open or close vessels ? 3. The. 
cilect$ of.did^eo^nt factitious airs on fermenting liquors. 

I. Solutions of saccharine matter may be brought to a 6tate% 
of fermentation without the assistance of artificial ferments^ 
but the efift^ct is sooner brouglu at)out when they aere vfied ; 

and* 



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litmirs (fthe Manchester Society^ Voh V. Part t 49 

ond, of all the artificial ferments, yeast is that which produces 
the greatest quantity of spirit. 

n. BoerhaaTe and Chaptal have mentioned the free admia* 
uon of air as essentially necessary to fermentation, and it is aa 
4^uiion Tcry generally entertained by the njanufacturers : but 
B£r«CollieT has demonstrated that fermentation is not only ca^ 
•pable of being. carried on in close vessels, but that the produce 
of alcohol on distillation is considerably superior when the fer- 
jaentation has been so conducted. 

IIL Different fermenting mixtures were exposed, to an atf 
mosphere of oxygen, of hydrogen, and of a mixture of tht 
two : that which had been exposed to oxygen gas yielded the 
purest spirit, but even this was not equal to w]^t would have 
been produced if air had been wholly excluded. 

The paper concludes with some valuable practicU remarks 
on malting, mashing, fermenting, distilling, and rectifying. 

Observations en Iron and SieeL By Joseph Collier. 

Mr. C. here gives an account of the reduction of iron, and of 
its conversion into bar-iron and steel, as practised at the She^ 
field forges; and he corrects some errors on this subject, com^ 
mitted by Fourcroy in his Elements of Chemistry, and by 
Nicholson in his Chemical Dictionary, relative to the time ne- 
cessary for the cementation of iron, and* the mode of tempering 
SteeL — 

A section and plan of a cementation-furnace accompany 
Ae memoir. 

Q» the Process of Bleaching with the Oxygenated Muriatic 
Jdit ami a Description of a new Apparatus for Bleaching Cloths 
mmib that jtciddtssohed in Water^ without the Addition (f Alccdi^ 
By TbeopkSits Lewis Rupp. 

Hie inportahce of this memoir to the manufsicturer ii 
hardly to be calculated. At the period of the first introduction 
of the new mode of bleaching, it Was found impossible, on 
sccoonfi of the suffocating vapours of the oxymuriatic acid,, to 
make ttseof it in open vessels ; and the method of applying k 
v a closed apparatus was foond to be so imperfect, as tO ie« 
dace the bleachers to the necessity of combining the acid with 
(Stash, and employing it in open vats: by this mode, a great 
^xpence of alcali was incurred, and the liquor, when thus neu« 
fr;dized, lost much of it^ activity. The present memoir (ac- 
companied with a plate) describes a very simple and efiecteal 
^paratus for the use of the acid in close vesseh, and uncom« 
h'aed with alcali *, by which is effected a saving of 40 per cent. 
XL the cost of the materials of the bleaching liquor. 

E^tra^ 

# 

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' 114 " 'M^ttolrs ofihe Mancheiter SocUfy, Vol: V. PartL 

i- Extfacrdinary Facts relatittg to the Vision of Xklmrs : Jmtb 
Observations* By Mr. John Dakon. 

- This memoir offers matter of curxous^ inquiry to the phjr- 
siobgtst. It was long ago observed that no definition could be 
:given of redness, blueness, &c.— that these terms were arbi- 
•trary, yet exciting the idea« of certain impressions which arc 
probiibly different in different persons. Whether the impres- 
•sioiis of tlie same objects be different, or not, is of little con« 
sequence \ we reason and converse intelligibly concerning thent^ 
if th^se two circumstances only have place, — first, the same 
^i))ect uniformly making the same impression on each mind, 
^nd objects that are different to one appearing equally so to 
nthers :<— but if a case were to occur, in which two objects 
that are hardly distinguishable to one person should appear 
Afferent to another, we should be induced to think that the 
one- or the other of these two persons had a defect in hi3 ot- 
gans of sight,— at least some peculi:|rity. 
^ The author of the present memoir, previously to his con- 
irictiou of the peculiarity of his own vision, suspected some 
px:rplexity in the nomenclature of colours. He could not con>- 
prehcnd why red shovild be substituted for pink. Pink ancj 
blue appeared to him nearly allied, pink and red scarcely at all, 
Intheautun^nof 1792, however, he was convinced that his visioii 
Nras not like that of the generality of men, by viewinjg the flower 
of the Geranium Zana/e by candle-light. The flower is said to be 
pink ( but to the author it appeared by day sky blue, and hj 
candle-light a red ; a colour which to him forms a strong con« 
trast to blue. Remarking this phaenomenon to his friends, 
thby likewise observed the flower, but all agreed (excepting his 
brother) that its colour in candle<^light did not differ materiallf 
from its colour in day-light. Having thus ascertained a pecu* 
liarity in his own vision, he did not enter into any investigation 
ofth^ subject until two years afterward ; and the following arc 
the particulars and the result of this investigation : 
' *• It may be proper to obscn'e, that I am short-sighted. Concave 
glasses about five inches focus suit me best. I can see distinctiv at a 
prdper distance ; and am seldom hurt by too much or too little'nght ^ 
nor yetfwith lon^ application. 

• * My observations began with the solar speOruntf or coloured Jmage 
of .tl^ spn, exihibited in a dark room by uijcans of a glass prism. I 
found that persons in general distinguish six kinds of colour in the 
solar image ; namely, red^ orange^ yellowy green^ blucy and purple. 
ifTewton, indeed, divides tlve pui*ple into indigo and violet ; but the 
difference bet\\ een him and others is merely nominal. To me it is 

?atte otherrv'ise : — I tee only twoy or at moitthree distinctions. These 
should call jf^(>w. and blue; or yellow f bhe^ and purple. . My yellow 
comprehends the red, orange, yelloiUy and green of others ; and my 
bkie And'purple coincide \yith \i^iv$* That part of the image whicl^ 

Others 

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Menmrs cfthf Manchester Society^ Vol. V. Part-L 45. 

^hcrs call red, appears to me little more than a shade, or defect of 
Ught ; after that the orange, yellow, and green seem one colour, which 
dtsceods pretty uniformly from an intense to a rare yellow, making 
what I should call different shades of yellow. The difference betWeen 
the green part and the blue ipart is very striking to my eye: they 
»cem to be strongly contrasted. • That between the Wue and purple 
is mn^ le«s 10. The purple appears to be blue much darkened and 
condensed. In viewing the flame of a candle by night through the 
piism, the appearances are pretty much the same, except that the^ 
ltd extremity of the image appears more vivid than that of the 
•olar image. 

* I DOW proceed to state the results of my observations on the cos 
lours of boidies in general, whether natural or artificial, both by 
•light and candk-hght. I mostly used ribbons for the artificial 



« RED. {By day-llght.) 

* Under this head I include crimson^ searUty rtdy and pink. All 
crimsons appear to me to consist chiefly of dark blue ; but many of 
them seem to have a strong tinge of dark brown. I have seen speci* 
mens of crimson^ claret, and muJ^ which were very nearly alike* 
Crimson has z grave appearance, being the reverse of every shewy 
aDd'Sfileodid colour. Woollen yarn died crimson or dark blue is the 
nme to me. Pink seems to be composed of nine parts of light blue^ 
^od one of red^ or some colour which has no other effect than ta 
make the light blue appear dull and faded a Uttle. P^ik and 
light blue, therefore, compared together, are to be distinguished 
DO otherwise than as a splendid colour from one that has lost a 
Httle of its splendour. Besides the pinks, roses, &c« of the gar-> 
dent, the following British ^ora appear to me blue ; namely, Siatice 
Armerioy Trifolimn pratenscy Lychnis FlofcucuTij Lychnis dioicat aiid 
many of the Gerania, The colour of a florid cpmplexion appear* 
to me that of a dull, opaque, blackish blue, upon a white ground* 
A sohitioQ of sulphate of iron in the tincture of^ galls (tliat is, dilute 
black ink) upon white paper, gives a' colour much resembling that 
of a ilorid complexion. It has no resemblance of the colour of 
Uood* Red and scarlet form a genus with me totally different froni 
pink. My idea of red I obtain from vermirton, miniumf sealing wax, 
mfdfersy a soldier *s uniform^ &c. These seem to have no blue what- 
ever in them. . Scarlet has a more splendid appearance than red. 
Blood appears to me red ; but it differs much from the articles 
mentioned above. . It is much more dull, and to me. is not ufilike 
that colour called hottk-green. Stockings spotted with blood or with 
dirt would scarcely be distinguishable. 

* RED. {By candMight,) 

• Red and scarlet appear much more vivid than by day. Crimson 
loses Its blue and becomes yellowish red. Pink is by far the most 
changed 5 indeed it forms an excellent contrast to what it is by day. 
No bhie now appears ; yellow has taken its place. Pink by candle- 
light scemR to DC three parts yellow and one red, or a reddish 
y^w. The Uucr however, is less mixed by day than the yelloMf 
by night* Red, and particularly scarlet, is a superb colour by candle- 

hght; 



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4^ Memmfsofthe Manchester Societf^ Vol. V. Part.L 

light ; but by day some reds are the least shewy imaginable : I shooU 
cul them dark drabs. 

« ORANGE & YELLOW. {By day-Sgii and eandk-Ggit.) 

* I do not find that I differ materially from other persons in re- 
gard to these colours. I have sometimes seen persons hesitate whe* 
ther a thing was white or yellow by candle-light^ when to mc there^ 
was no doubt at all. 

'GREEN. {By day-rtght.) 

* 1 take my standard idea from grass. This appears to mcTery 
little different from red. The face of a laurel-leaf (Prtuau Lamm* 
urasus) is a good match to a sticic of red sealii^-wax ; and the back 
of the leaf answers to the Hghter red of wafers. Henee it will be 
immediately concluded, that I see cither red or green^ or both, di£* 
fercnt from other people. The fact is, I believe that they both op- 
pear different to me from what they do to others* Green and orange 
liave much affinity also. Apple green is the most pleasing kind to 
me ; and any other that has a tinge of yellow appearo to advanu^ne. 
I can distinguish the different vegetable greens one from anodxer au 
well as most people ; and those which are nearly alike or veryuidBM 
to others are so to me. A decoction of bohea tea, a solution of 
liver of sulphur, ale, &c. &c. which others- call brown, appear to 
sue green. Green woollen cloth, such as is used to cover taUeii 
i^pears to me a duU, dark, brownish red colour. A mixture of two 
parts mud and one red would come near it. It resembles a red tml 
^t turned up by the plough. When this kind of doth loses ita 
cofour, as other people say, and turns yellow, then it a|^>€ar8 to me 
# pleasant green. Very light green paper, silk, &c. is v^tc to me. 

* GREEN. {By cam&-ngk.) 

* I agree with others, that it is difficult to dtstiBmi^ grecSR9 firon 
blues by candle-lieht ; but, with me, the greens only arc altered wad 
Blade to approach the blues. It is the real greens only thit are 
ftlter^ in my eye ; and not such as 1 confound with them by day** 
light, as the brown liquids above men tioned, which ate not at aA 
tinged with blue by candle-light, but are the same as by day, e«eepe 
that they are paler. 

< BLUE. {By day-Ught and eandfe-d^.) 

* I apprehend this colour appears very nearlv the same to me tf tB 
other people, both by day -light and candle-lignt. 

^PURPLE. {By day-Ugbt and candk'ligh.) 
< This seems to me a slight mod^ication of blue. 1 seldom fiA 
to distinguish purple from blue ; but should hardly suspect .puiplc 
to be a compound of blue and red. The difference between day* 
light and candlc-Hght is not material.' 

" Mr. Dalton then proceeds to make some miscellaaeoiis ob# 
tervations, and to give an account of seveml per$Da» whiOte 
vision is similar to his owm These persons are, hit owa bvo^ 
dier, Mr. Harris of Mary port in Cunbcrl^nd,^ (^o hadt tlisw 
mher brothers with the same peculiarity m thtir vi0ion5)tipeof 
llie author's ptipBs^ &c. In endcarmringtiV' tssigii tfte cau^e 

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ifePmirs of tie Manchesitr Sodetjy F!?/, F» Jfcwf J, 4f 



TiiF this pttttliarity in his risioii) the authoi coBJectui>e8 that i 
of the humours of his eje*^ must bo a tnm^arent, but co* 
Uund^ medium, so constituted as to absorb red and green rayt 
principally. H( suspects that it is the vitreous humour which 
h coloured, and that the colour is some modification of blue.— « 
Those who have attended to the theory of colours will CMilf 
perceive how far this hypothesis can account for the ph^rao* 
mena above related. It requires more time and observatim 
dun we are at present able to bestow on the subjeeti to pio* 
Bounce decisively whether the hypothesis is competent to ex- 
plain fully all the phxnomena. A very simple mode^ wludi 
now suggests itself to our mind, 'of ascertaining in some degrM 
die justness of the hypothesis, is in the use of coloiuped 
glasses ; the author trying what coloured glasses vrould pro« 
duce the same diiierence in his own vision which his friendf 
experienced in theirs, and his friends trying what coloured 
glasses product the same phaenomena which he constantly 
•bserves. 

Tie inverse Method of Central Forces. Communicated by Dj; 
Holme. 

This memoir is presented in addition to one that appeared iQ 
the; fourth volume of these Transactions. Its nature, and the 
circumstance of its being separated from the former memoir^ 
with which It is connected both by the notation of Its ]^ropo- 
•itions and the method of their proof, prevent us from enterin|^ 
into any examination of its matter. We shaH only obsenrt 
^t the inference concerning the arrival of a body at an apse 
(p; 103) appears to us to be injudicious. If a force, for in« 

stance, varies as j (v distance, A and B certain con- 

^Qt ^nantitie^,] then a body acted on by this force, and pro- 
j^ed with a certain velocity, &c. may describe a curve of such 
^ IVlti^;^, i£at; the points of its inflexion and of its apsideasbaU 
coincide. In this case, the line drawn from the centre would 
be perpendict^^r to a part of the curve, where the cuira^urc 
Vl infinitely soaaU* 

Miscellaneous Papers. 

Cursory Renmrhs^ Moral and Political^ on Party Preju£ce* 
]|y Samuel Argent Bardsley, M. D. 

A very faithful picture of the lamentable ills which flow from 
(arty prejudice is here drawn ; and they arc shewn to be— 
perverted judgment in the' plainest cases, the peace of indivi- 
duals invaded, * the tender charities of l)lood and kindred dis- 
^lyed", and, in its effects of higher concernment, the blood 
9f citiaens spilt, public order interrupted, and the very founda- 
2 - tions 

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4|l Mfnmrstf the Manchester Society, VohV.Partt 

tioDS of civil society endangered. By the striking instancet 
of Milton and Johnson,, we karn that no powers of mind can 
ensure exemption from its tyranny.— With the^ learned, author, 
<^ this paper, we sincerely deplore these baleful effects, an4 
detest theircause ; and we would fain indulge the hope that the 
xepresenutionof them may induce jnen to eradicate thepassioA 
wtu$:h gives them birdi and vigour :«—*but we fear that the 
effect of. these representations is neither powerful nor pcr- 
inanent. Men are to be reformed by different means ; all join 
in reprobating party prejudice, yet almost all act under its 
controul. . We are in this respect like the philosopher in Mo- 
Hare's Bourgeois GentiIhomme,^ who is one minute quarrelling 
and fighting,— and the next, adjusting his bands and commencing; 
a lecture, on the virtues of forbearance and equanimity. . 

The Doctor very justly observes that a sure test of the rec- 
titude and pure intentions of any party is the conduct of its. 
leaders towards the moderate and peaceable class of citizens. 
If we attend to the truths of history, this class, instead o^ 
being deemed pusillanimous, should appear most courageous ; 
for to be drawn between Rome and Fidense, has been uni- 
formly the fate of those who have been moderate, whether 
from interest or principle. 

jin JEnquiry ifito the Name of the Founder of Huh Abbey ^ 
Northumberland^ the Firfl m England of the Order of Carmelites : 
with Remarks on Dr. Ferriar*s Account of the Monument in the 
Church of that Monafjery. By Robert Uvedale, B. A. &c. &c. 

As this paper can interest only those who will be desirous of, 
entering into all the particulars of it, we shall not attempt to 
analyse its contents. 

On the Variety of Voices. By Mr. John Gpugh. 
Tl\e infinite variety of voices, by which men are recognized 
as certainly as by the difference of their features, cannot, ia 
this writer's opinion, be explained on the commonly-received 
notion* of the nature of sound, as given in definitions. This* 
will aUow of no other modifications than those of comparative 
loudness and acuteness, which by no means account for the 
effect in question. He attributes it, then, to a combination 
of sbnple or elementary sounds differing from each other in 
acuteness, and separated by intervals too small to be accurately 
discriminated by the ear, yet sufficiently large to aflrct it with 
distinct sensations.— He next considers the mechanism o^ 
sonorous bodies, by which the combination of elementary 
sounds is formed ; and this he states to depend on the prin* 
ciple that> if a vibratory motion be imparted to one of a 
system of elastic bodies, it is communicated in a less degree to 

every 

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Mmotn ojtht Mamiester Sdcu^ VtA. V. Part L 49 

le^ery body of the system whose time oFviBratiYig agrees nearly 
^ith that of the body first set in motion. . The tocal orgai^ 
of mcffi and beastitr are systems of this kind; and, possessing 
tNUoberless slight TariatiOns in the elasticity and tetlslon of their 
simJiar parts, their joint beats or piilses afe* capable of being 
dhwsified to ah unKmited degree. 

On the Btnefits and Daiies resuhihg froth the Insilhiihh tf 
Societies for the Adtmnceineht tf Literntttre dnd Pbihsophj\ Srf 
the Rev. Thomas Gisborne, A. M^ 

Like the other delineations of social duties given to the 
public by this popular wHter, tht pitsent discourse cohtain^ 
dnich good sense,^ exptessed in polished language. Yet, per- 
haps, considering the age, character, ind specific views of per<» 
bons emcring into fitetary societies, little atttcntidn is to be 
expected from thctn to the obvions and g|etieral remarks of a 
professed moralist^ respecting the endft of their insfitutiom 
Ptt)b^y, mo^t readers of this volume will deem this paper^ 
Iroweter pfoper to be read at an atiiriversary meeting of th^ 
m>cier7, somewhat misplaced adibng the coUettion of m scieo- 
tiic iaboufd. 

On an Uniyersnl Xlharacter t in a Letter from James Ander* 
ton, LL.D. &c. Sec. ^ 

This 19 a slight sketch of a desigtl^ the difficulty of whick 
(Sots net consist in the genetal idea, which has already been 
^nctrved by many ingenious nten, but in the adjustment o£ 
partknlars, and still more in the power of bringing it to actusd 
executiM ; a power exceeding tK)t only that of a learned indi«i 
Ttdual, but probably of an union of all tht learning and civil 
atstbotity of an age; 

An Atcotint tf three different Kinds efTiniber Trees^ nvhich an 
iihe/y fo prove a great Acquislllm t$ this Kingdom^ both in point of 
Profty and as Trees for Ornament and Shade. By Charles 
\Vhitc, Eftj. F.R.S. 

The trees here proposed to the planter, from the actual ob- 
servation of their growth in the plantations of the ingenious and 
public-spirited writer, are, i. The broad-leaved American 
black birch, Betula nigra^ LinH, sp. pi. 1 394. B.foliis rhombeo* 
Ivatis^ iuplicatO'Serratis^ acutis^ subtus pubescentibus, bast integrisg 
strobtiorum sijuamis vitlosis ; laciniis linearibus^ aqualibtis^ Hort* 
Ke^etis. 2. llie Athenian poplar tree 5 populus {Graca) foliif 
cordatiSf glabrisf baii glandulosis^ remote crenatis f petiolis compres-^ 
sis; ramis teretibui. 3. The iron, wainscoat, or Turkey oal^ 
which appears to be a variety of the' ^uercus Cerris^ Linn. 
The details given by Mr. White respecting these trees will be 
interesting to those who are concerned in similar inquiries. 

Rfiv. Jan. 1799, ^ f^ 

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5* Coote^ip JJisHry of SngranJl 

Some Account of the Persian Cotton Tree. By Matthew Gutkw 
He, M.D. F.R.S. &c. 

• Tl>e writer begins this short paper with an enumeration oS 
Linne's five species of cotton, of which the last, the Gossypiunt 
ierbaceum or G. annuutttf k the kind in question. This is called 
by Linne a native of America, and it may now be so reckoned: 
but Dr. Guthrie adduces reasons for supposing that its seed 
was originally procured from Smyrna for the use of the Amexi^ 
can colonies. It is now cultivated in the northern provinces 
of Persia^ bordering the Caspian seaj and a brief account of 
the mode of culture is here given. 

Hint/ on tie EstcAHshment of an Univirsal Written Character^ 
By WilUam Brown, M.D. 

This paper is* Ibimded on that of Dr. Anderson already no- 
fciced. It contains- many ingenious remarks on the appUcatioa 
of signs to language, which are intended to shew the possibility 
of rendering visible signs universally intelligible : \>ut we con- 
fess that difiiculties appear to us to arise faster,, on % close view 
«f the subject, than ingenuity can remove them* 

Account (f a remarkable Change of Colour in a Kegroe. By 
Micrs^ Fisher. 

We here meet with a curious narration, which is incapable 
of abridgment, relative taan American-born negroc, of African 
descent, but with a mixture of blood in his pedigree, from the 
American Indian, and from the European. No reason can be 
assigned for his change of colour, which has already blanched 
the greatest part of his skin, and is in a state of progress. 



W 



Art. Vll. The History of England^ from the eadiest Dawn of Record 
to the Pc3cc of 1783. By Cbarles Coote, LL.D. of Pembroke 

« College, Oxford ;. Author of Elements of the Grammar of the 
English LaiTguage. 8'vo. 9 Vols. 2I. 189. 6d. Boards. Evans. 

^ H£K we call to mind the various writers who, with dif- 
ferent views and with different success, have undertaken 
t<ygiye a history of this country, and recollect the names of 
Rapin, Guthrie, Ralph, Macaulay, Henry, Hume, &c. who 
Bave aJl employed their respective talents m the same pursuit, 
we naturally inquire with what new lights a succeeding author 
expects to illustrate a subject which has been so often dis- 
cussed. Dr. Coote appears to have expected the question ; and» 
in a short criticism iti his preface on our numerous historians, 
he has acguainted his readers with the reasons which led hini 
to the present attempt, and has informed them what they will 
find in the course of his labours* 

• Impelled by tl\e love of fame, by views of pecuniary emolument, 
•r by motives of a more dismtcrcstcd nature, many writers have,, at 

^^^ 12 - ^ diffenrat 



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iiffcront tiiaesi ushered themselves into public notice, as narrators of 
the remarkable events of England. Froni Some of these hi$tonan8» 
it would beiovidious and unjust to vtrithhold the tnbute df admiration 
and applause : but a short critique on the productions of xUSt most 
niodcm of these writers will constitute, perhaps^ the most satifiiactory 
zoology for the appeanlnce of a new work on the same subject. 

' Hume, as an historian, has long enjoyed ^n extraordinary share 
of popularity ; and his performance stems to be con^dered, by the 
majontjr of readers, as the best account of the a^airs of this nation. 
His abil^tes were perhaps competent to the production of an his- 
tory which might have tar surpassed all the efforts of his British pre- 
decessors ; and, if his talents had been exeHed with a just regard to 
candor and impartiality, and with the sole view of exhibiting d fair 
and accurate delineation of the transactioni of forrtfer days, his his-* 
toric fame would ^ave rested on a more soh'd basis than that which 
now supports it; The spirit of philosophy which animates hid work 
giv6i it a manifest superiority over most of the Bnglisli histories by 
which It was preceded. His style is elegant) without affectation ; 
and nervous, vrithout an appearance of labor. His argumentft in de- 
fence ef a favorite hypothesis possess all the acuteness of sophistry, 
thon^ their force is disarmed by the application of sound logic^ 
and the adduction of undistortcd facts, tfnder the pretext of ex- 
posing the delusion^ of fanaticism, the weakness of bigotry, and the 
arts of selfish and designing edclesiastics^ he indirectly endeavours to 
sap the fabric of religion itself, and undermine the dearest interests of 
society. His political principles are adverse to the xrlaims of freedom ; 
and, under the cloak of impartial discussion^ he vilifies the exertions 
of the patriot, and depresses the generous flame of libei^ty. 

* The reputation of Rapin is now in the wane. l*he multiplicity 
of his errors, his want of animation^ and his injudicious use of hit 
materials, have occasioned the decline of that eminence which he 
once enjoyed, and which produced an unprecedented sale of his ro« 
luminous work, riis general impartiality x^s the original cause o£ 
the success of his history \ but that quahty is not so cbilspicuous ist 
this author as his advocates pretend ; nor, on the other hand, \& his 
peribrmance so defective in this respect as some later historians have 
id^iuated. 

« Though Carte is supposed to have employed more time and 
labor on his history than any preceding or subsequent ^\Titer^ hit 
success did not correspond with his ho|)es. The well-known jprc- 
judices entertained by him precluded the obvious requisite which 
such a work demands ; and the public could not be expected to che- 
rish a veiy high opinion of the sagacity of penetration of that au^ 
tl^or, who> in an enhghtened dge, could decisively attribute the ima^ 
gioary cure of the scrofula by the toyal touch, to a sanadve virtue 
conferred by Heaven on anointed sovereignty. Cartfe, however, 
Trhere his prepossessions do not intervene^ is a faithful and accurate 
TOter ; but he nirely dispkysany pbrtion of the graces- or the cncr|ry 
of composition. 

* Guthrie was a good ctassicfal scholar, and an ingenious author* 
Hrl hStory of England is no contemptible work ; but it appears to 

• E « ^ have 



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-2 Cootc^x Ktsiorj tff EngUni. 

have been written with too great rapidity and too Kttle attentibo of 
the mind. His remarks too frequently disgust by the vanity \mh 
lyliich they are offered, or merit censure by the want of a deliberate 
examination of that poipt on which he confidently pfonounccs his 
senyments. ^ * i 

* The charge of haste and inaccuracy, which the present critic 
Imm veutuitd to fix on Guthrie, is more justly iinputable to his coun* 
tryman Smollett, as the historv compiled by the latter is solely bor- 
towed from modem writers, whose misrepresentations hi ha& copl^^ 
and whose errors he has multiplied. A comparison of his woVk wth 
the historical labors of Rapin, Carte, and Guthrie,,, will perhaj>s con- 
Tince the examinant, that he did not consult one of the original aa- 
thors whpm be has quoted in his margin. But his defects as an his- 
torian arc in some measure paUiated by that nenous ele|^cc which 
often a|>pear8 in his diction, and that judgment which prevents him 
from dwelling on occurrences of inferior moftient. 

* Goldsmidi wrote with spirit and ability ; but his history of* this 
kingdom is a mere epvlome^ and is calculated rather for the amusemcfnt 
of an iie hour, than for the improvement of tliose who^aispire to a 
competent knowledge of English affairs. 

* Henry is an accurate and judicious author ; but his plan is too 
detached and disjointed to please the general reader ; and that di- 
vision of his work which coniprehcnds the civil and military history 
©f Gr«at Britain, is too concise to be satisfactory. 

* Whether these strictures are so well founded as to furnish an un- 
disputed reason for the production of a new history of the finglish 
nation, the public must ultimately determine. But the author, who 
BOW comes forward, begs Itave to express his hopes', thit a new wprk 
on this popular subject, comprised within moderate limits, and un- 
tinctured with the rancor of party or the bias of prejudice, will be 
honored with the patronage of his countrymen. 

« In that performance to which the public attention is now re- 

S nested, the narrative will commence from the earliest period of ati- 
benticity, and be continue;d to the year 1783 } a memorable epoch 
to. our annals, distinguished by a peace which separated a wide extent 
of colonial possessions in North America from the government of the 
jjarent state. The author will not only record every political event 
of iipportance, but will interweave siich transactions of a more private 
natunr as may tend to the ducidation of the subject. He wUl avafl 
hio^f of those new lights which have been lately thrown on diflfcrent 
perk>d8 of our history, from original papers and records. He will 
exhibit a faithful portrait of the vfrtues and vices of the r^sjicctivc 
monarchs who have swayed the sceptre of this kingdom, free froiA 
the warm coloring of adulation, and the invidious strokes of pre- 
judice and misconception. He win endeavour to explore the inotivA 
that have led to. ii^terestinjg measures, however disguised by osten- 
itfole pretexts. He wiD trace the origin of oiir constitution, both 
mil and ecclesiastical ; the progress ofsclencc, and of the liberal and 
mechanicat ^rts ; the occ3l^nai vasiations in the custonis, manners, 
pursuits, &C. of the succctttve inhabitants of this country. By way 
•f Appendix to each volume^ he will subjoin Such im{)ortant docu- 

ments 



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CtooteV History ^ England* C J 

m^tsasinaj illustrate the context, or tend to die jgxttification of 
bUtorical curiosity ; for Instance, curious state-papers, the most re- 
markable of the royal wills, specimens of language, See* With re- 
spect to his styk, he will avoid that affectation oi profuse omamentj 
those xneretricious embellishmeuts of speech, which are better adapted 
to the SUxsvl page of the rhetorician, than to the graceful and manly 
di^mty of the his^torian ; and will aim at preserving that chaste sim« 
phcity and nervous perspicuity of dfction, which the mofit esteemed 
critics in all »ges have recommended as the most proper for histoxic 
composiuoa.' 

In a preliminary discourse, the author gives the most pro- 
bable account of the origin of the primitive inhabitants of Bri- 
tain^ a view of the persons, dress, manners, and characters of 
the people, as they appeared at the time of Caesar's invasion, and 
a sketch of their government, religion, commerce, and civil 
and military institutions. This account is very concise, pet- 
ha{KS too, much so, ^considering tlie variety and importance of 
the subjects discussed in it : but, though the statenient is not 
compfete, we have discovered no instances of its being erro- 
neous. Dt. Coote has not passed over the period in which 
the Romans were settled in this island, .in the same unsa* 
tisfactory manner in which it wa» treated by Hume ; who 
was of opinion that the transactions of that time were chore 
connected with, and were to be sought rather in, the 
Roman than the British annals. Would not the same reason 
equally apply to the Saxon, the ^Danish, and the Norman in- 
va»oas ?— The present authpr, following Dr. Henry, places 
the time of the final departure of the Romans .from this jCQun' 
try in the year 420, though he cannot vouch for the accuracy 
of tiiat date. 

The first volume of this work terminates with the battle of 
Hastings; by which event the crovoi of England was trans- 
ferred from the head of Harold the Second to the possession 
of William Duke of Normandy j who certainly had been no- 
minated by Edward the Confessor to succeed him, if that no- 
min^ltion h^d not been confirmed by th« Great Council of the 
Nation. iWe are inclined to believe, however, from the tapestry 
which' was found in the cathedral of Bayeur, and from other 
monunrients of our history, that William was called to the suc- 
cession by the destination of Edward with the consent of -the 
Great Council, and that Harold was sent into Normandy Co 
acqpaint him with this circumstance. Dr. Qoote appears to 
think that the nomination was solely from the Confessor, arid 
that Harold was sent into Normandy with a dificrent purpose; 
oamely, for that of reclaiming the hostages which had been 
icflt thither on the defeat of his fa^w er, .Earl Godwin, 

E3 In 



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1^ CootcV History of Engfan^. 

In the course of tlic narrative, we were pleased with 0ic fol- 
lowing accurate delineation of the character of Alfred, to 
whose virtues and exertions we are indebted for some of ouc 
most invaluable privileges ; particularly for the Trial by Jury. 

* The character of Alfred seems to have made as near approaclies 
to perfection as the frailty inseparable from human nature will allow. 
He was unquestionably, in every respect, one of the greatest men that 
ever gave splendor to a throne, or dignified the annals of a people. 
His capacity was naturally brilliant, and was so much improved by 
-cultivation, that he became one of the most poHtic and intelli^nt 
pnncesof his timc^ His discernpient was quick> his memory letci^ 
live, and his judgment sound. His talpnts and virtuqs were not only 
.of that splendid iind which qualified him for the exercise of royalty, 
jDut were such as would have procured him a high reputation in tlie 
sphere c^ private ^'fe. He was bold, active, ana enterprising ; was 
possessed of gr<at fo; tit ude and vigor of mind, and the most steady 
and indefatigable pei severance. Though firm, he was of a mild and 
placable temper; and notwithstanding the elevation of hid rank, he 
Gisplayed on all occasions the most easy condescension,' and the roost 
winning affid3iji^y« Some instances pf great seventy occur in the 
history of his reign ; but even these do not derogate from his general 
, character of lenity and moderation. His acts of rigor were always 
meritedf and never unseasonable j for thp <jisorder§ of xhc times, 
which mildHCSs and forbearance would have cncouiaged, required, 
for their extirpation, the use of powerful remedies. He was liberal, 
vritboui; profusion^ and charitable, wnthtut ostentation : and, though 
prudently oe^onomical in the disposal of his revenues, he maintained 
in hit court every requisite of regal pomp. His goodness of heart 
' was conspicuous in his whole conduct. He considered himself as 
isorn to promote, to the utmost pf his power, the accommodation and 
feh'city of his fellow-creatures ; and though he was personalty re- 
proved by qnp of Ks clerical friends for leaving neglected the occa- 
sional complaints of those who petitioned him for redress in the 
. ifwign of his Vp^he^ Etheked, this neglect might perhaps generally 
^rise from tl^c weak foundation op which the allegations of injury 
rested ; and if it was justly imputed tp him, it was ajpply atoned by 
liis sub^cQuent behaviour. His affection for his people wna airde'nt 
and sincere, and was recompensed oy a loyalty fouiided on ginatitude 
and attachment. His admmistration of justice was distinguished by 
' strict .impartiality ; and the influence of rank and wealth could never 
procure' from* him a more favorable sentence than he would give to 
the poorest and WPSt unfriended persons in a similar case. With respect 
, to religif^n^ he was less infected with tfce superstition .of the times 
than any pf his subjects. His devotion, though feri'^nt. was ra- 
tional ; and his firm adh'crencp to Christianity arose not rrom idlQ 
credulity, but from deliberate study and conviction.^ 

After having sketched an outline pf the principal regulations 
which owed ^heir origin to Alfred, I^r. Coote concludes the 
^couut with the fojlowing exalted but appropriate cujbgy: 

^ *ThvA 



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CooteV HUUfj of Et^lani. 55" 

"* Thus did this escellent prince difiusc around him the Kgh't of 
-feaowlcdgc and improvement^ and all the blessings which are dedu- 
cibk from a beneficent, liberal, and enh'ghtened plan of government* 
"He was, in the strictest sense, a patriot king; one who invariably 
^consulted the true interests of his country, and the Universal welfare 
-of his peopky whom he protected as a sovereign, and loved as a fa,- 
thcr. He merited, ^uaUy with the amiable Titus, the honorable 
appellation of httmam generit dclicid : and while the splendid talents 
of his mind, and the glorious actions of his reign, clainied and pro^ 
•ctired to him the surname of Great, the more attractive qualities of 
his heart, and his constant practice of virtue, entitled him to the 
epithet of Good. In speaking of this revered noonarch, a writer it 
induced to deviate from the temperance and gravity of the historic 
style, and launch into the enthusiasm of admiration and pauegyricp 
for which the brilliancy of his character is an ample excuse,' 

In the delineation of characters, Dr. Coote has followed the 
cxanfiple, if he has not equalled the sttcccss, of our noble hif- 
toxm Lord Clarendon : 

** Whose portraits boast, with features strongly like, 
" The soft precision of the clear Vandyke. — ^* 
The following remark (vol. ii, p. 49.) is prefixed to the cha- 
racter of WiUiam the Conqueror 5 — we transcribe it because it 
contains the author's reason for a practice in itself exceedinglj 
nice and difficult, and in which ?ery few of our historiaMis have 
attained even a moderate degree of success* 

* Though a reflecting reader may easily deduce the principal linca- 
ments of a prince's portrait from the transactions recorded of his li& 
and reign, a consciousness of the satisfaction derived froni accurate 
delineations of personal deportment, moral habit, and pohtical 
principle, may be assigned as an adequate apology for the delivery 
of our sentiments respecting the character and demeanor ©f the sove- 
rcigni wh^ pass in review before us. As ?n appendage to historical 
jrccordj a chan^cter has the same effect with tj^e perpratioa whidk 
closes an harangue.* 

Volume II. extendi to the cud of the reign of John, a pu- 
sillanimous yet sanguinary and tyranmcal prince. The whole 
narrative atibrds unequivocal proof of learning, impartiality^ 
judgment, and fidelity.-*-The character of Becket, as it is pouiw 
trayed with considerable precision, and as it has been repre« 
sented in opposite points of view by his flatterers and his ene^ 
dies, we shall present to our readers. 

* The character of Becked, wjilcji has be«n assailed with mudi 
obloquy, and extolled with much panegyric, will be best asccrtain<^ 
t>y the unbiassed steadiness of a middle course 'of dehn^eatioo. He 
was, without controversy, a man of strong abilities, great dfscern* 
nient, and some erudition. His manners and deportment were'l^cC' 
fal and insinuating, though occasionally tinctured with an air pf 
hauteur, ^is personal courage, and fortitude of mind, attracted the 

F ^ admiratioo 

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$6 CooteV IRftdry of En^bmi: 

admiratK)!! eycn of Us enemies; but the bttfr of tlieae. cmaU&s 4&. 
geeeratcd nto the most mflexftde obttiaacr, as soon as ne had aJ^ 
tallied the station of primate of the Engli^ church. While he heU 
the office of chancellor^ he shone as an al^e minister, and a loyal sub- 
ject ; as a judicious assertor of the rights of his 8oyere%n« and 'die 
independence of the realm. Btft, when he assuined the^metropoUtaa 
rank, he adopts very dtfienent sentiments, and proved a warm and 
persevering advocate for ail the pretensions of the papal see, Imwever 
repugnant to reason, decency, -or justice. He entered into his new 
character with the zeal of an fnthnsiast, the intrepidity of ardigimia 
liero, the ^rrtfnl spirit and the evasive morality* of an ambitious priett* 
That sudi condnct 'was the sole fruit of hypocrisy, can hardly he 
affirmed wkh truth. That superstition of wnich even the stnmgeot 
minds cherished some portion in those times, had perhaps so mingled 
itself with the cencqytions of this celebrated prelate, that, in simporLi^ 
ing the ^ause of the church against the profanations of temporal anter-r 
&rencei he might think he was promoting the purposes^ of pure re- 
ligion. Evf ry true patriot, however, must condemn his efforts fof 
placing the clergy above the reach of criminal law 5 an exemption 
which would naturally encounige, in that order of men. the copi- 
miasion of the most atrocious onehces ; and for .propagatiilg' discard 
imd ^mosicy in the state, by the erection of the cnurch into a dis- 
tinct body, sufafcct to a lordgn governor, whose interests and pre 
judiccs^had long clashed with the civil welfare of those stated 6\ixi 
."which he arrogated a spiritual jurisdiqtion. In the progrites of the 
contiest which he maintained with his prince, he exhibited a violence 
of temper, a perverseriess of opposition, and a propensity to revenge, 
which nils panegyrists cannot pxcuse by all the reproaches tha^ thc^ 
liave lavished bn the conduct of his royal antagonist. Of his private 
demeanor,' we are authorised, by the concurrence' of historians, tq 
^estk Hi Commendation : he was chaste, temperate, and benefic^t,' 
But these virtues were obscured and lost in the mischievous tendency 
4)f his public proceedings * ;* 

We wish that the author had not dislSgured his paees witli 
the French words' hauteur^ irait, fracas, routCy and others, 

* ♦ An ingenious catholic has lately appeatec} as a vindicator of 
archbishop Becket from the misrepresentations of patriotic and pro- 
'iestant writers.' But, as he professes' to feel an enthusiastic admiration 
•for the memory of th«lt prelate, his impartiality h,fnmd faciei problem- 
-jnical ; 'for i^ioever writes under the infjuence of entfinsiasm, will 
•igtOiM^ be induct t6^glps^ over, even .in ordinary cases, the f(5ib]es 
ind vices of that person >^ho is die object of such warmth of senti- 
ment ; -much more will he be inclined to deviate from the line of dis- 
passionate remark* when treating of a violent congest between hi^ fa- 
vorite aiid a,powerf lit 'antagonist; for he will then be^strongly disposed 
to exalt the merit dflhe former on the ruins of the reputation of the 
tatter, ftow far thcs^e, obscrvatfons'arc epph'cable to that part o£ 
Mr. Berringtpn?s^ ** Histftry of the Life and lleign of Henry II. 
'jRJchard, and john,^' whiclff relates to the conduct of Thomas Becket, 
' ihe reflecting rcadcf of that' work may. easily decide. ! * ' 

4. . ^ V Our 



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' SonHytfs Joan 9f Arc^ 2i BJ&^\ * J7 

IDtur Ufifpxage is sufficiently rich to express the ideas coove7e4 
by emch words^ which tend to debase the dignity of Engllsl^ 
historical composition. 

The legal and constitutional topics, which the reigns of 
Henry IIL and Edward I. •hold forth to d^servation, are in 
the Third Volume properly considered ; though with that brc* 
yiry^which makes a part of the author's plan. In the capacity 
of a Genemlj Edward was illustrious ; in that of a legislators 
Jie was equalled by few, and excelled by none of our sove-p 
reigns \ and the improvements which he introduced into oujr 
CQPStkution, and into the administration of our government 
squi laws, merit particular attention. On this account| w^ 
^lould have been better pleased if it had beei^ coDSiJstent with 
Dr. Coote's plan to have expatiated more than he has done oa 
a reign so full of interest, and so crowded with important 
events. A few pages may suffice to detail the transactions of 
many reigns : biit a volume is necessary to give an adequate 
view of those of Edward's time. This remark, however, must 
te^tonsidered as applying rather to the original design of the 
present work, than to the manner in which that design has 
been completed. An author who confines himself to nine 
octavos, and in that space gives a history of this country from 
the invaaon of the Romans under Cscsar to the peiace of 
1783, must unavoidably omit many particulars which are 
Jnteresting to the mind of every .Englishman. 

In a succeeding article, we shall direct our attention to the 
xemaining volumes of this work. — Of the decorations by the 
hand of the engraver, we mean to speak at the conclusion qf 
jpUr criticisms. 

[fi he c9Htiniied.'\ 

Art. yill. Joan rf An, by Robert Southey. The Second Edi- 
" tioo. -2 Vols, iinfio. 128. Boards. Longman. 1798* 

J T affords us pleasure to sec that a poem, the uncommon 
* merit of which was recognized by us at its first appearance, 
[see M* R. for April i7s>6,] has so far ol^ained the sanc- 
pon of the public, as to produce a demand for a second 
edition. ' We arc also gratified in observing that the au- 
thor has so much pubdued the self-confidence and impatience 
of youth, ^as to submit to the task of a very careful revision of 
{be whole, and to make ample sacrifices oi such parts as could 
not stand the scrutiny of his maturer judgment, yhere may, 
indeed, be different opinions respectinjg the value of his al- 
terations : but his diligent attention to tEe improvement of f^ 
work, a^d his candour in judging of bis own performances, 
^ 13 ^ cannot 



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\y8 - Soiithey's Jaan^c/Jrc, 2d Edition. 

cannot but me'et with universal approbation. The nature of 
tiis corrections and additions, in general, is stated in the follow- 
ing prefixed advertisement : 

* Since the first publica^tipn of this Poem, it has undergone a loog 
and laborious correction. Every thing miraculous is now. omitted^ 
«nd the reader who is acquainted with the former edition may judge 
by this cireumatance the extent of the alterations. Some errors with 
regard to the costume of the time had escaped me : in this point the 
work is now, I trust, correct. The additional notes are numerous ; 
they arc inserted as authorities for the facts related in the text, and 
as explanatory to those readers who are not conversant with tlie an- 
cient chronicles of this country ; for we may be well read in Hume 
and Rapin, and Vet know little of our ancestors. Whenever I have 
€eit, or suspected an idea not to be original, I have placed the pas- 
sage underneath by which it was suggtsted. With respect to the 
occasional harshness of the versification, it must not be attributed 
to negUgence or haste. I 4eem such varietv essential in a long 
poem.* 

With respect to this statement, wc shall just observe that 
the omission of every thing miraculous is affirmed rather too 
largely j since the Maid's discovery of the King in disguise i$ 
«|tUl represented as the consequence of inspiration ; and though 
lier two long visions, in the former poem, are omitted, a sort 
of momentary trance is described, in which she had a view of 
her own execution. *Moreover, her divine mission is still an- 
nounced by * a pale blue flame' aspending from the * trophied 
tomb,' .and the * clash of arms' heard from withjn j which, w^ 
^re^ume, the author does not wish to attribute to aqy nati^raj 
cause. As to the * occasional harshness of versi^cation,' since 
it is the result of system, and not of negligence, we have nor 
thing to remark, it certainly is not our system, any farther 
than as such harshneg(| may occasionally prove an echo to the 
' 8cnsfc : but we do not pretend to make, our Uisie a standard, in a 
matter which can only be decided by the feelings of iadivir 
.duals. 

Wc shall now proceed to a more particular consideration of 
the principal chadges which the poem has undergone in the new 
edition'. A minute analysis of CJiapellain's unfortunate poem. 
La Pucellcy is prefixed, which forms a curious article. In this 
prose sketch, it appears sufiiciently absurd : but we conceive 
that few epic poems coijld stand such a test, -especially where 
as in tlie present case, there was ayi evident design to produce 
a ludicrous effects — The opening of Mr. iS/s poem is entirely 
changed. Perhaps he felt somewhat of formality in the former 
^mnouncement of the subject -, yet we think that the presen{ 
iftbrupt beginnipg (' ^fherg w^s hijh ff asting held a; Vancouleur')' 



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SoutheyV Joan of Arc ^ ii Edition. 5^ 

is rather jxnsuitable to the dignity of an epic poem, and too 
inuch in the ballad-style. The subsuncc of the jfrj/ booVp 
likewise, is almost totally different- The Maid is more naturally 
introduced^ and more conformably to teal history. Instead of 
the taking of Harflcur, we have a pathetic story of Madclon, 
a soldier's wlfe^ whose melancholy fate first roused the sym- 
pafliy of Joan for the wretched. The Maid's r^/Us divested 
of preternatural ^ency, and made the result of natural enthu* 
siasm. We think that our readers will be pleased with die 
Allowing pojctlcal passage : 

** There is a fountain in the forest (:aU'd 
The fountain of the * Fairies : \vhen a chil4 
With most delightful wonder I have heard 
Talcs of the Elhn tribe that on it^ banks 
Hold midnight revelry. An ancient oak^ 
The goodliest of the forest, grows beside. 
Alone it stands, upon a green grass plat. 
By the woods bounded, like some little idc. 
It ever l>atli been decm'd their favourite f tree. 
They love to lie and rpck upon its leaves, 
And bask them in the moonsliine. Many a time 
Hath the woodman shown his boy where the dark ronod 
On the green. swiird beneath its boughs, bewrays 
^heir nightly dance, and bade him spare the tree* 
Fancy had cast a spell upon the place 
And made it holy ; and the villagers 
Would say that never evil thing approached 
^ Unpunish'd there. The strange and fearful pleasme 

That fill'd me by that solitary sprinff, 
Ceas'd not in riper years ; arid now |t woke ' 

Deeper delight, apd more mysterious awct 
1* Lonely the forest spring : a rocky hill 
Rises beside it, and an aged yew 
Bursts from the rifted crag that overbrows 
The waters ; cavem'd there unseen and slow 
And silently they well. The adder's tongue, 
^ch with the A^Tinkles of its glossy green 

? ♦ In the Jpurnjd of Paris in the reigns of Charles VI. and VIL 
?t is asserted that the Maid of Orleans, in answer to ^n ioterroga* 
tory of the Doctors, whether she had ever assisted at the assembSet 
held at the Fountain of the Fairies near Domprein, round which the 
Evil Spirits dance, confessed that she had often repaired to a beautiful 
fountain in the country of Loirainc, which she named the good 
jTountain of the Fairies of our Lord. 

* From the notes to the English version of Le Grand's Fabliaux? 

* f Being asked whether she had ever seen any Fairies, she aa« 
swercd no ; but that one of her God-mothers pretended to have seen 
{Qme at tl^c Fairy tree, near the viUagc of Domprct Rapin/ 

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£0 5outhcyV Joan of Arc ^ 2d Editiof^. 

Hangs down its long lank leav^es, \(rhose wavy dip 

Just Dreaks the tranquil surface, Apcient woods' 

Bosom the quiet beauties of the plaee, 

Nor ever sound profanes it, save such sounds 

A^ Silence loves to hear, the passing wind, 

-Or the low murinuring of the scarce heard streau. 

«« A Wcssed spot ! oh how my soul enjoyed 
I|i holy quietness, ' with what delight 
£saqping human kind I hastened there 
To solitude and ircedoip I thitherward 
On a spring eve I had betaken n^e, 
And there J wt, and m^rk'd the deep red clou^ 
Gather before the wind, the rising wind 
Whose sudden gusts, each wilder than the last, 
Seem*d aV they rockM my senses. Soon the night . 
Darkened around, and the large rajn. drops fell 
Heavy': anon with tempest rage the storm 
Howl\i o'er th(? wood. Methonght the heavy rain 
Fell with a grateful coohiess on my head, ' 
And thp hoarse dash of waters, and the rush 
Of winds that mingled with the forest roar. 
Made a wild music. On a rock I sat, 
'^he glory of the. tempest 6li'd my soul. 
And when the thunders peal'd and the long flasl^ 
Hung durable in h^ayen, and to mine eye 
• Spread the grey forest, all remembrance left 
My * mind, annihilate was every thought. 
Atnost full quietness of strange delight 
Suspendecl all my powers, I scem'^ us tho* 
Diffused into the scene." 
The secondhock is much shortened by the omission of |be 
ifpild but sublinie vision before supplied by the author*s friend 
Mr, Coleridge. The third o^n^ w.iU> a Brief bfrt .striking 
descrrption of a coiiutty wasted by war : 

♦* * In this representation "which I made to pkce myself near 
to Christ, (s^ys St. Teresa,) there would co?ne suddenly upon mCt 
without either expectation or any preparation on my part, such an 
evident feeling of the presence of God, as that I eould by no meani 
doubt, j)ut that either he was within mc, or else 1 all engupe^m 
him. This was not in the n^anner of a vision, biit \ think tl^ey call 
it Mistical Theology ; and it suspends the soul in such sort, that 
she, seems to.be whoUy out of herself. The Will is in act of lovin^i 

•the Memory seems to be in a manner lost, the Understanding in my 

, opinion discourses not; and although it be not lost, yet it worn 
not as I was saying, but remains as it^wei*e amazed to consider how 

•pmch it uadierstaild^*'' Life of St. Teresa written by hinuelf. 

* Teresa wa? well acquainted with the feelings of enthusi^siQ. 

J had, however, described the sensatioiis qf the Maid of Orleans 
before I ha3 met .wfth the life of the Saint.' 

" ' ' * -^i^They 



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SoutheyV Joan of Arc ^ li RJttion. ^i 

« ^They passM the ATtixerrois; 

The autumnal rains had beaten to the caith 
The unrcap'd harvest, from the village church 
No even-song bell was heard, the shepherd's dog 
Prey'd on the scatter'd iiock, for there was now 
No hind to ferd him, and upon tht heartli . ^ 
Where he had slumber'd at his master's feet 
The rank tvced flotiririiM. Did they sometimea £ad 
A welcome, he who welcomed them was one 
Who lingered in the pkce where he was born,' 
For. that was all that he had left to love.' 

So mnch more dia^tenccJ is the atithor's taste becoAiCi that 
tc-e find him omitting cvcii the ptrs<inifications of superstHMiiy 
Ignorance, and Cruelty, which U^ere befote . tnadie attendafhts 
on the donvocafibn of theotoginns sumtnoned to examine the 
Heroine's tn^ssion.^ Her speech before the doctors ia improted, 
in our opftnton, by the omission of sonr>e $eiltiftients whiek 
bordered too miich on free-thinkittg for thcuge m which she 
lived. It is stiil more philosophical than is comflatibl« withth< 
r//i/ character of the speaker, bitt perhapS a poetical lioence 
in this respect may be allowed. The poet's ** Maid of Orleanaf' 
must not be a mere fana^cal miid of art inn. 

In the /eurtb book, the Heroine's Sfevere lecture to the Kfng^ 
and her censure offaitsy ^re omittcfd. One of the fi«t lessons 
taught by' an author's experience is not to give unnecessary of- 
fence. 

The sixth book represents, from history, a French txntifm 
peter or herald as cbndenihcd to the ffames by the crtrelty of 
onfFolk. From an annexed rtote> it appears that Fuller, the 
divine, justifies this detestabfe deefd. Such is the spirit of 
nationality !— -There are in this book some tl6\)^ similies, pattl^ 
dtiTary one alluding to the story of Amadis; ^hich, with others 
from Kke sources, appears to us objectionable, as referring to 
fncidents unkriown to the generality of headers.— The nefl' 
narrative of the relFef of Orleans varies from the former m se- 
veral circumstances'. • * 

Instead of the vision in the ninA bo6k> we have a nocturnri 
cxpeiitiofi of the Maid to the Duke of Burguilidy's ctmpr, 
in which sRe incurs the danger of assassination, but prevents 
It by killing the ^skilant. She then gives the Duke a severe 
reprimand for his want of patriotism^ and suddenly quits htiM* 
This is a short but spirited scene. 

Thesie are all the |frtndpal a^erations which we discover. 
The diction is in many places corrected and impfroved ; and, 
to particutar, the Hccnce of creatiilg new words is considerably 
restrained. On tlie whble^ wc believe that the poem in its 

present 



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Ct Willich V Elements of KantV Philosophy. 

present state will please more readers than before; thougli 
tome^ wp doubt not, will regret those higher efibrts of fanc^ 
which displayed themselves in the preternatural machinery of 
the first draft* Its present character is sentimental, pathetic^ 
and descriptive ; and perhaps modem epic poetry cannot safely . 
soar higher. , • 

Art* IX- Elements of the Critical PMloiophy: containing a condsc 
Account of its Origin and Tendency ; a Vic w^ of all the Works • 
published by its Founder, Professor ImmaQuel Kant ; and a Glos- 
•aiy of its Terms and Phrases. Tof which are added Three Phi- 
lological Essays, from the Gcnnan of J. C. Adcknjp^jJ^.'F. H. 
WilIich^M.D. 8vo.' pp. 300. 6s. Boards. Longman, j 798. 

"IT^EREwe to believe the impassioned panegyrics of Pro- 
' ^^ fessor Kant's pupils, Prussia boasts in him a philosopher 
of the firft water ; whose metaphysical, theory is not less new . 
than incontrovertible^ and who has at 6nce extended t^e 
bounds and ascertained the limits of intellectual science. 
Its very addition 16 human knowlege is stated to consi^^ in 
demonstrating that it is the utrnpfl: attainable stretch of Iittman 
faculty. His scholars, like the disciples of /Plofinus/ seen^" 
enly in doubt whether to revere him as a s^ge or to woijship 
him as a divinity; from the angelic and seraphic doctors of 
their forefathers,' they turn with awe to this incarnate logos ; 
and'they want only the trumpet of Eloa tp sound his name 
firom stfft to sun. * ' 

If we inquire among his follower.s for the general drift of 
his system, we are answered only in negations. It is not 
athebm ; for he affirms that practical reason is entitled to 
infer the existence of a supreme Intelligence. It is not tlieism ; 
for he denies that theoretical reason can demonstrate the ex- 
istence of an infinite intelligent Being. It is not materialism ; 
for he maintains that time and space are only forms of our 
perception, and not the attributes of extrinsic existences. It; 
IS not idealism ; for he maintains that noumena are indepen- 
dent of phenomena ; that things perceptible are prior to per- 
ception. It is not libertinism ; for he allows the will to be 
dctcjFmined by regular laws. It is not fatalism ; for he defines . 
this to be a system in which the connection of purposes in the 
.world is considered as accidental. It is not dogmatism % for 
lie favours every possible doubt. It is not scepticism j for lie 

* From an inscription on a portrait of the Professor^ prefixed to the 
volume before us, we learn that he is nearly seventy-five years old: 
a tinffular period of life for the construction of a new system of phi- 
losophy ] * 

affcct9^ 

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WilllchV Elements of Kant*/ Philosophy. »j 

affects to demonstrate what he teaches.— Such are the m<k- 
finite evasions of the school. Were we, however, to describe 
the impression made on ourselves by the writings of this Pro- 
fessor, (which we do not pretend throughout to understand,) 
wc should call his doctrine — an attempt to teach the sceptical 
philosophy of Hume in the disgusting dialect of scholasticism* 
Wc have had occasion to notice the controversy {Rev- 
vol. X. N. S- p. 524) which the first publication of this system 
excited among the metaphysicians of Holland. In consequence 
of a Latin* translation which has appeared at Leipsig, France* 
has since become attentive to his principles ; and the labours 
of Mr. Nitsch, (see Rev. vol. xxii. p. 15,) tending to popu- 
larize in Great Britain this dogmatic scepticism, are here re- 
inforced by the industrious commentaries of Dr. Willich. A 
very necessary portion of such an endeavour is a glossary ; 
with which Dn W, has occupied fifty pages, composing the 
central part of this miscellaneous volume 5 and which asjyJres 
to explain the terms of the Kant philosophy. A few extracts 
will probably convince the reader that these explanations have 
not rendered it much more intelligible. 

* jiesfbettc commonly signifies the critique of taste, but with Kant, 
the science containing the rules of sensation, in contradistinction ta 
kgic, or the doctrine of tlie understanding,' 

* yiniuipatton of experience, is a cognition of objects liable to ob- 
servation a priori, previous to the observation itselfT' 

* jlrchltectonic is the art of constructing systems.* 

* Beauty is the regular subjective confirmation of an object oF 
nature or art ; the impression of aesthetical ideas.* 

* Co^niiion is a whole of connected representations in one act of 
consciousness ; or the determinate reference of given representations 

to dnc ob^^^* ^^* 

*' Cosnudogy, tlie transcendental rational cosmology, is either the 
Icience embracing the whole of the phaenomcna in nature, or the 
metaphysical philosophy of the supersensible properties of aU objects 
existing.* 

* DtJuctioriy in general, is the proof of a legal claim, a right; 
but in particular, Kant understands by it the cstablishtnent " of 
a representation 5 the proof of the right we have to make use of it ; 
the proof that a representation has sense, meaning, reality, objective 
vallity, that it is not vague or empty, but relates to objects.' 

' Dynamkalf in general, is said of things, so far as we do not 
attend to their quantity in perception, but to the ground or cause of 
their existence.* &c. 

* To ghe (gehen) an object, h to perceive it, to observe it ; to 
refer the conception of it to real or possible experience.' &c. 

* Immanent is used by Kant in opposition to transccuJcntal : the 
former term is applied to conceptions or principles, which are valid 

* Immanuch's Kantu Opera verM Laime f . G. Born. i'797« 3 V0I5 

m 

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in nature, and are used concerning objecU of experience, pli«tR>i^ 
mena.' &c. ^ ^ ... * 

« IniuUion is every representation of variety or tlie multifarious^ 
fo far only as we consider the variety, and not the ifhity in iBe 
object.* 5cc. ... " 

* Novfhenoriy an object or thing in itself, external to tike mtml Jn t 
transcendental sense 5 a thing exclusive of our reprtsentation. It ii 
reneralty opposed' to the term Phancnurton, or the aenftibk rtpreaqnta* 
tion of an object.' 

< Oijcctive signifies, in general, every thing which has objectivf 
reality, which relates to an object of sense or experience.* 

* Pharonomy is the pure doctrine oC the magnitude of motion.' 

* Pragmatical is that which is designed for the promotion of gc» 
neral Prosperity.' 

' * Receptivity is the passive facuky of representation.* &c. 

< Subjective signifies that which belongs to the subject.' &c» 

* Technic of natv^Cf is the causality of nature in relation W thoet 
|)roduction8, which contspond with our conceptions of a purpose*' 

* Teleology is the doctrine of piurposes, or final causes.' 

* Transceitderaai 6igai&c% ifHorif and is oppo^d to empirical, wLicIl 
signifies a poHetfori.* ' 

^ UnconJJtioneAe i& that which is absolutely, and in itself, inter- 
nally possible, which is exempt from those conditions thai cir- 
cumscribe a thing in time and a^ace.' <cc. 

* Wisdom is the idea of the necessary unity of all possible purposes* 
It is therefore theoretically considered the cognition of the highest 

food : and practicafh^ an attribute of that wul, which realizes the 
ighest good, or at feast exerts itself for that purpose.' 

Such word« z^freedomi to give^ to tnowy man^ number ^ wil/g 
&c. arc obliged to be included m the glossary: but wc have here 
extracted only the words which are most unusual, or are most 
perverted by Professor Kant from their usual signification ; an4 
which would therefore be peculiarly likely, to occasion cfUEf 
culty to the mere philologist. We shall not apply to the Pto- 
feiscfr a well-known fine of Voltaire, in his satire intkle^ 
Les deux Biecles^ 

** Si vous tie pensez paSy criez de nouveatix mots ;" 
bat we ask by which of these words is gained a more concisfp 
distinct, or definite mode of expressing the current positions 
of philosophy? Are wc not liable, by the introduction of 
several among them, to put metaphysics into a sttU more l\^ 
attusc form, and to remove this branch of situdy yet finthcf 
from the reach of common minds ? Vaniiy will ever choose tB 
repeat what it has not always the application nor the ability 
requisite to learn and to comprehend \ and thus will arise a 
crowd of nonsensical praters who ^dppt without meaning ad 
esoteric jargon, which they will soon render unfit for the use 
even of the initiated. Dialectic obscurity will be made to 
pass for intellectual subtilty *, and the same offtiscttion of the 

public 

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yfmkVs Mftrnpif of Zznes Phibsopbf. fi$ 

f>abUc.m0i<l will ovcrshardow the modern world, which j by a 
similar process, the Platonists of Alexandria supeririduced on 
the antlent. The Alexandrian writings do ndt differ so widely 
in spirit, as 16 commonly apprehended, from those of the Ko« 
oi^b^rg school ; for they abound with passaged which, while 
Aey sacm :to flatter the popular credulity, reiolve into alle- 
gory the stories of the god$ ; and into aii illustrative personi- 
fication, the soul of the world ; thus insinuating to the mors 
alert and penetrating, the speculative rejection of opinions 
with which they are encouraged and commanded in action to 
comply. With analogsous spirit. Professor Kant studiously 
introduces a distinction b^^ween />r£ir//Vj/ and theoretical reason; 
and while he teaches that rational conduct will indulge the 
hy^thcfis of agod^ a revelation, and a future state, (this, 
we presume, is meant by calling them inference^ of practicoi 
r«ffl«^) he, pretend* that theoretical reason can adduce no one 
sadafactory "argun^cnt in their belief: so that his morality 
amount to a 4efence c^o^ the old adage ; ^' Think ^ith th^e 
wise aad act with thie vulgar:" a plan of behaviour which 
secures, to the vulgar an jiltimate victory over the wise. Thi 
present tioie is favourable to the success of isucH accbmmo:* 
datslg $|ie(;ulatioQ9. EpicUristii has recently been promulgated 
jnSrancie in tbt vernacular tongue, and in wor^s of amusement. 
The consequence . has been . a geperal dissolution of morals, 
which it b now the object of literature to remedy by removing 
the cause. For this purpose, ^^hilosophy is to be withdrawn 
ivithin a xiarrower plrcle of the initiated; and these must be 
induced tp copspire in favouring a vulgar superstition. This 
on be^ be accomplished by knvelopifig wuh enigmatio jargoYi 
the tppics . of discussion ; by employing a cloudy phraseology 
which may intercept from below the war- whoop of impiety, 
and fsom above the evulgation of infidelity ; by-contriving a 
ki^d of ** cypher of lU.umihism,'^ in which public discussions 
of th6 mqst critical nature can be carried on from the press, 
withoiit alarming the prejudices of the people or exciting the 
^fecaiuionb of the n[iagistrate. Such a cypher, in the hands 
of an SMlept, is t)i€ dialect of Kant. Add to this, the notorious 
Gftllicaitism of his opinions, which mtist endear him to the 
pahiotisfn of the philosophers of the Lyceum ; and it will ap* 
pcar very probabk that the reception of his forms of sylJo- 
gizing snould extend from Germany to* France; should com* 
pletely.and exclusively establish itself on the continent; en- 
tomb, with the reasonings the reason * of the modern world; 

and 

• At first glaace, it wfll appear unjust to hate pointed out thf 

Kantiansy who pi(|ue.theisstlve8 on having removed a practical ob- 

Rev. Jam. 1799. t j«c^®^ 

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*<Sfe WMcVs Elments dfKmtl's PktlosopHf., 

and form the tasteless fret- work which seems about to convcrf 
the halls of liberal philosophy into charchee of mystical sikper* 
naturalism. 

Whaterer be the cast of merit which befongf to Professor 
Kant, that of his present commeirtator is in one respect con- 
siderable : he is very conrersant in the history of this modei^i 
scholasticism. In the Introdrtction^ he has giren a iralu^le (if 
not complete) catalogue of the principal works which hare 
issued from the German press, on this obscure or illustrious 
subject. Ta Humc'a Essay on the Idea of Necessary G)n- 
jiexion, and to Priestley's Reply to Reid, Botttie, and OswaM> 
is attribnted the train of thinking which ripened in the mind 
of Kant into the present system. 

The Elementary View of Kanfi Wcrh is not, in onr opti&m, 
a very clear account of this philosophy. The author is Ic&s 
difficult to undentand than his commentator. Indeed, the 
Professor probably understands himself; and, when the diffi^ 
culty of his quaint phraseology is once conquered, he may 
with attention generally be followed :•— but his discipies per- 
petually su}>stitute the words for the ideas- of the sect, aa4 
furnish whole pages which bear the same relation to reason^ 
ing, as those verses of the school-boys, in which words are 
connected merely with a view to the prosody, bear tel* poetry. 
This portion oi the work should luive fonncd a aeparate 
volume. 



The Three Phihlopcal Essays^ translated from Adehnt|r, and 
annexed to this volume, are also sold apart, and constitute in 
our ap'prehension a more valuable work. We sh.all attend to 
the contents of each: but we would first remind our readers fliat 

•9 

jection to the profession of the boldest phflosophy, as likely to Be 
the itlstrumeotft of eventually quenching the light of inquiry. Wc 
admit the "purity of their present intentions : but their subj«:tivr 
conduct may tend to defeat their objective views. HeterocCtical 
phraseology is tlie first step to- heteronomy of apperceptiouy-^and in- 
sanity is nothing more.^ Thcj teleology of nature^ which may differ 
from that of virell-meailuig individuals, has repeatedly caused Fhilo* 
sophy todes^y herself by her own weapons ;— and we should relj' 
more on empirical than on transcendental deduction, in a question dT 
pragmatic causation.~«»ConfusIon of language^ says the parable* 
brote up and re-barbarised the first civil society. Perhaps our Lypo* 
thesis 18 infueneed by architectonic prejudice; (see Rev. vol. xxiv. 
p. 526 ; J it' ceitairily fs not advanced as apodictic futurity. Can it,^ 
then, be. worth while to learn to use 

This party-c<^ur*d dress 
or patch' d and py-ball^d bugBsges, 
This English cut on Greek and Latin i 

that 



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Willich^j Etemmts of Kant^r PhOotophf. ^% 

tiM of Adelung's German dictiohsiry, or word-boolt is it it 
latitledy we had occasion to speak with applause in toI. xxir* 
p« 560. .He is also known by an excellent grammar for Ger- 
mans, printed io 1781$ hy a cotemporary History of Gulture,' 
which well merits trarislation j by a work on Rhetoric * ; and 
by various -cbntributions to periodical publications^ from which 
^ese e8$ay§ are selected by Dr. Willich. 

The first essay contains a concise history^ tie EngRsh Lan*^ 
piage; the second^ a fhilosopbical view of the English Lan^ 
guage i and the third, a diicwsion of the merits and demmfs of 
Johnson's English Dictionary. They are accompanied with use- 
ful aiid learned notes, and occasionally interpolated by the 
translator with well^hcjscn examples and instructive remarks. 

The history of the Language of England takes ilo notice of 
the Erge or trish, wbich was probably the language of the 
priraseval settlers in Great Britain, and which has bequeathed 
a few (not many) words to the stock now in use. This first 
wave of population Was pressed westward by the Welsh 
settlers, was at length wholly urged into Ireland, and thence 
by a returning tide came into Scotland, where it stiH is distin- 
guishaBle^ The second wave pf population consisted of Cimbri, 
and was in its turn pressed westward into Wales and Com-* 
wall, where it remains distinct* From the Welsh language 
of these tribes, many words have passed into general tse, ana 
isome forms of speech. With the third or Gothic wave of 
popubrion, begin the inquiries of our author^ He distributes 
the historv of their language into three periods, which he calls 
the B^psn-Saxon, (he should rather have said Anglo-Saxon^ 
British being a Cimbric denomination,) the Danish-Saxon, and 
the Norman- Saxon. The first begins with the Saxon inva* 
sioB,. the second with the Danish, and the third with the 
Norman. The properly English period is here made to begin 
with £dward I: but it ought rather to commence with 
Henry VIII ; for the controversies of the Reformation were 
in fact the cause which then abolished the Norman dialect o£ 
the court, and introduced the present common English to our 
worsh^, and to our literature. 

Some instances of negligence in our antiquaries are here 
pmnted out ; as at p. 36, that the name of Adam Davie does 
not occur in the Biographia Britannica. Of the Sagas revived 
in Denmark and Sweden, many relate to exploits performed 
in the British Isles, and deserve notice in our ftatty literary 
history. Mr. Johnson (of Copenhagen) has well performed a 

* Ueber den Dfutschen' Styh Berlin, 1785. 

Fa part 



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si ^mdi*s Blmeftfs tf Kini^s PkiJosopBy. 

ftit of At datjof an annkissadct's chaplain, by preftenHhg 
to lift dountrymen such tocal foreign Utettftui^ MStr his fm- 
mediktB notice, as tiiras interesting to llherr ^lebrity. Vtotti 
the time of Elizabeth onward, Engliish M^-iterfs biscome Mi 
ijbosnerdiu, that oniy the more excelleht should be mentioned. 
. The seoood dig$crcation 16 not jaddressed to the at»tiiquary> 
but to the philosopher. The f^llowinng defence of the ^xtati^ 
erthbgra^hy, in opposition to those inhovatota Who wish ta^« 
mak^ it resemble our promirteiation, rs Very j«st : 

« Thfe method of pres^ving the etymbld^ of words, « adopted 
hf the nfttions abpte aUuded to, is rto ^htr than this, that people 
wrke differently from *Jiat they sptak : a f>h0ndm«loft, which in- 
deed has been hitherto represented, bygraromartcns and p h floso | A g c 
Uoguists, as the most palpable absurdity that ein be conceived ; al* 
ihouffh the agreement of all the westem nations of EuiFopc;, in what 
ihey nave thus termed 'absurdity, should have convinced diem, that 
there must be some reason lor it, and whic^ ought not to be over- 
loofced. ' Thi^ rea^oh then Is no'otlier, than to preserve, as long as is 
hteessary, to the eye at lea$t, the proximate derivation by means of 
Imtinj^, although thepVbnnriciation has bst it ; to promote thereby 
that universal ii*ttlliglbility, which is Ihe first and pnncipid 
fiijeet ' tf language ; ^and, at the same time %o>|n'eirent xhlt awemng 
«ai!id ^^uating prommcisltion, as long aa possiMe, from furrier and 
•till: greater deviations.-^ Ai^ example or two will serve to'ma^e the 
matter more evident. The following words, being bonowed from 
the French and Latin languages, l^aikyf le^oup organs orgUsysZrt now 
bronouriced hgaOity^ ledxhuhy argun^ arazhyz. If they were written ia 
this manner, to Ehglishmah might, at length," learn to understand 
ihcm ' tofcrably vrdl, but he wonld stiUTmd a difficulty, when these 
vlnoi^ occurred to him ag^in in their oricnnad language, to Cognize 
liis^wn IB thenu The bond (>f Connection between the English Ian* 
giiage and its constituent parts wtrald dins be ^Moked, and the feti* 
fkTocal mtell^ibility w6uid theirby be iendcred obscune. IFuithevy 
fis the prommciation in all such mixed Itoguages, from the cauatS' 
above-mentioned, is from time to time considerably chan^^, .ma^i^r 
words would soon become altogether obscure and unintel^giblef did 
not the etymological way of writing them, ^till maintain their true 
Iform, as long as is practicable and necessary. Besides, the adherence 
'to the nearest derivat ran, tmd the oresetvation of the brigifial'fofm i£ 
words, by accurate writing, are likewise tfce mtans 6f prCvtJatJfrg'tKc 
wcttsemeiy fluctttatnig pttjniliidatibn frotn *stHrgfWtfcr dtMirtions* 
.T^s ts'the true reason,, why all the Western H^c^rdpeans/^ild btK«t- 
,iquf^y fht English t»o, .write diffeffcntiy fmm v^hat they speak : -vaA 
OS ^ jihehomeaon has b^en. prodbeed ^U»;ly bj|r ^' theiatentiptr- 
ception ii purpose and means," whiclvis involved in ao^ifiniQli #lh 
Vcunty, that, so far as I know;, thcit^ grammarians have not yet -been. 
'able to account' for ?t ; henfce we receive a lesson, not to censure the 
like nguUtiuiib ^ if they*«re lm^ctRa!ly '"sel^mrd't)^^ 
nations, until the Teal'foondalioar of them l^as bear tiskovcred . The 
difference of thi^ mode of writing from tbat of speaking, is indeed in 

itsdi 



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Itself IP ifflpcrfecuoa; l)ut m all those laoguageSy ^1;^ ^ so tlio# 
Toughlj mixtrq, it i» 4 real perfection ; bcoiuse i% presenres^ at Icasf 
to the eye, the ireinedJjite aerivatioi\, and cons^uently fi^rnjshes ut 
with the easiest possible method of understanding words, wHiIe it 
serfcs to prevent any further deviations in the pronunciation.* 

* An observation on accent ako naerit^ selectipn^ as it may 
facilitate i future 4nore correct accentuation of ^hose ^ord^ 
of which the emphatic syllables are stll^l unsettled. 

* The accent consisti in a yj^-ticuUr elpvatioji of the yoice, wiA 

which, in polysyIlal>1^8, the one syllable is as it were raised above Inf 

others: -thus in' emergency f empJuymeniy the syllables mrr and ^&y are 

caBed accenhuaed Jyllables. The reason of this niode of distin^ish- 

ing one syllable from another, is properly contained in the nature 

«f the word and the intention of the speaker, who, ty this devskioil 

of the voice, poiats out that syli^le, whioh expresses the princip4 

idea, and to which he ohkfly dhecta the nttettiQa of the heamw 

Htncc the two accentuated &ylla,hlcs, .abovc-me^tiQuedy contain tbf 

principal ideas of the words, in which t^ey occur, and alj the oth^ 

■syUahtcs denote only collateral ideas, or farther determinations, in-- 

flexions, and the like. I Ji^vc said, that this, in the nature of thf 

thing, is " properly** the intention of the accent j for this reason 

in^c German, and probubly, top, in all other unmixed languages, w^ 

meet with the general rule, that the radical syllable, in such words ag 

consist of a |£irality of syllables, always receives the accent 5 sincfe 

it contains the priacipal idea of the word. In the German laa|^agQ 

lils rule is so g^cscral, that tb^ £t:w exceptions from it scaroely dei^ 

Knre any atteatioo* Bi)t as the EoglJAh is 9 Kry nu4ed Unguag^ 

"this rule is liable here to a much gneater jaunxber of exceptions 2 

especially with respect tjo the \vor<l> bt^ovved from the l^atin and 

French, in which the radical syllabic has become obscure* so that it 

eaanot in all instances preserve its due accent. Since I propose t© 

wume that subject in another part of this Essay, I shall here oplr 

wnark, tlut those words frdm the Anglo-Saxoti, which are stil 

mrent in the EngHsh langaage, folloW't^is ruk, and perhaps a^ 

^orm^ as ia the German.' 

Of Jotnson'^ dictionary, the author speaks with polit^asft 
[In the /jWr^ esaay. Some opinion of it was intimated in our 
Wv?th Tolume p. 559^ which Genres eonoboration from the 
tcate criticisms here subjoiued. The principal object of this 
^bertadon, however, is' not to point out th^ defects of that 
*a«t compilation, but to announce an English-Gernoan voca- 
fculary ; the puWicaMon of which, this learned German phi* 
lologeris tb superintend* 

. — : ' — ' — ' 

AiT. X. Jginerml View of ^ JgricuUnre of thi County of SvfMi 

drawn up for the Consideration of the Board of Agriculture and 

«^aTui Improv^menu By the Secretary to the Board, flvo. 

PPW3I4. 5s. 6d. sew^, Nicol. 1797' 

|A MPOET of the agricultural state of the county of Suflfblk 

r* fr§m Ott pw «f Mr. Ar^hwr Young, wbp baft^lQP|t^/d?d 

I F 5 "^ 



yo YoungV FUfv of Sufolt jtgricukun* 

in }tf and who may be supposed to be more intimatdy act 

3' uainted with it than with any other large district of the king^ 
om, will naturally attract the attention of tlio^e who wish tq 
itndy agricuiturei and the several branches conmectpd with it. 
His pjcesent work contains^ indeed, a g^eat variety o^ interesting 

1*lifpfmatIon, delivered with much apparent accuracy^ andcom^ 
»ined with the reflections and observations of a philosophic mind. 
No man knjcw better than Mr, Y. what his subject required^ 
or was nfipre able to execute it to the satisfaction of the Board 
of Agripultiirc and of the public— That this Report must 
Ijiav^ obtained the approbation of the Bpard is uncjuestpnable ; 
ye$ the secretary does not wish to plead this approl^tion as 
^ sanction of h|s statentents ; and he particularly reminds the 
deader that f the Board doe^ not deem itself responsible for 
any fact or observ^on cotftained in thereport^ which they may 
communicate tp the public,- The object of this Board, indeed, 
is to collect a mass of facts and opinions on the subject of 
agrif ulture, with a view of ascertaining the real state of the 
kingdom ; and as far as this goe^, the institution may be pro^ 
idpctive of utility : bvjt we must not expect too much from it. 
tTfae march of improvement is slow. Meri^ly to point out th^ 
wisdom and reasonablexKSS of any rsystem, pr practice, will 
fiot 1^ sufficient immediately to remove old customs and pre« 
ju(lipes:«>->but, by reiterating instruction^ the most obstinate 
are at last birdugnt to convittioii, and thbeyes of individuals 
arid of natiohs are opened to discern their true interests. 

Publications of this kind are undoubtedly calculated to assist 
practical farn^ers in comparing the different mocie^ of hqsbaudry 
an^ rural eqonoriiy, prevalent in diflerent counties, with each 
other; — tbpy excite a general spirit of cmqiation, and musf 
U^i to an increase of the internal riches and strength of the 
country. To augment the fertility and produce of the soil is, 
^n fact, ta enlarge the kingdom, and to prepare for an in- 
creased population ;— to promote rural industry is to aid an 
extension of tnanufactHrq and cpmn^tri^e, 

Ferh?ps^ particular vicwf of piirticular counties pr 4istricts 
^iU tend more to produce this eQect> ths^n any general obser* 
yationci on the importance of agriculture and the neces^ty of 
i^iproven^ent. Th^y constitute a lecture to eyery farmer, io his 
own field, on his own practice ; they treat of what niost inti- 
rnately coiicerns him and his neighbourhood ; and they instruct 
the fatmer of another qounty in practices which may be new tQ 
him, and which possibly may merit his adoption. 

Jfc drawing up a county report, however, for the perusal 
of the kingdom at large, judgment' is'requiredv ;»It is Aot \^^ 
Mr. Young iremarks) easy to conceive an undertaking more 
difficult, than to givc^uch an account of a ptqvince, a$ shafl 

*'*"'" Digitized b/VjOOQlt * QJX 



YoongV View of Suffolk Agriculture. jtr 

on the one band be minute enough to convey satisfactory inform- 
ation ; andy on the otli^r, shall not be so minute as to include. 
matter either of insulBcient importanccy or that is more cal- 
culated for a general treatise or report than for a local and ap» 
propriated one/ 

AicVe to this difficulty, Mr. Young has cautiously avoided 
tbese two extremes, and has here exhibited a true specimen of 
what a county report ought to be. His statement has beea, 
enlarged on its present appearance, especially by the communi-. 
cations of several gentlemen^ which are given in the form of 
notes ; generally, with the names or initials of the commu^ 
nicators affixed, as Mr. Young was not solicitous of shining 
in borrowed plumes. 

Under the heads of-*Geographical State of SufFolk— Pro* 
perty-* Buildings — ^ Occupation •— Implements «» Inclosing -« 
Arable Land— GrasS'^Gardens and Orchards —Wood ari^Plan- 
tation — ^Wastes— Improvements-»*Live Stock-^'Rural economy 
—Political Economy — Obstacles to Improvement— and Mis«- 
cellaneous Observations,-*-the author exhibits an instructive 
survey of the district which he undertakes to deadrifee. — To t 
map ^ tbe soil ol Suffolk, he adds an account of the different 
management prevalent on the different soils> and sugg^st^ hints 
for improvements 

We shall not he expected ta follow this intelligent agrlcuU 
turist through the various details contained in this memoir : 
Wt a few of the facts which it comprehends we shall lay before 
our readers* 

Mr. Young estimates that th6 county of Suffolk contains 
800,000 acres; of which 30,000 are fen, at 2s. 6d. per acre: 
46,6661 rich loam, at 148.: 156,666 J -^and, at los, : ii3j333f 
do. at 5s. ; 453f333 J strong loam, ^t J3S. ; so that the average 
rent of land in this county is 10s. 6d. per acre. 

In noticing the course of crops on different soils, and the 
preparation for them, (especially wheat,) he observes, in re- 
spect of manure^ that <it is common with many farmers to 
manure their clover lays for wheat with the farm-yard com- 
post of the preceding winter. The same husbandry is common 
m parts of Norfolk, where they do it with a view to a crop 
of barley to follow the wheat. There is scarcely any doctrine 
in husbandry more orthodox, than the propriety of spreading 
all the dung of a farm for the turnip crop ; a practice on 
which dqpends not inconsiderably the progrcbsive^ amelioration 
of a farm, since, by making the turnips as productive as pos^ 
iMe, the live stock b increased, jwhich increases dung, and 
goes round in that beneficial circle which makes cattle the 
patents of com/WThcre is much good sense in this remark, 

¥"4 • and 



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fZ Young*/ View of SuJfhSt Agricuhun. 

and we transcribe it not only as acceding to its justice, but witl| 
the hope of exciting genetal gfttention to 4t. 

Next to bringing manure front the farm-yard or conftpbst- 
bin, and feeding off with sheep, js what is called ploughing m 

far manure; a practice to which farmery are forced to xt^xt at 
sr distance from towns, where the manure which they make by 
their stock bears p© proportion to the size of the farm. Bueh 
ivheat is commonly ploughed in as manure for the succeeding 
<rop. Mr. Y. informs us that the Rev» Mr. Mosefcy, of Dyiiik-^ 
ston, has the merit of planning and executing a system of tare 
husbandry, which deserves considerable notice >— The fdlowiilg 
is his own account of it : 

^« When I last had the pleasure pf seeing ydu at Drink $ton, you 
expressed a desire of hearing from me, as soon a« I could ascertain 
the effects of ploughing jo buck wh^t, as a vegetable manure foif 
wheat, after haTiiig^ preriottsly taken a crop of tatei for fodder. Ill 
compliance with your request, *yo« receive the fc^owing imperfect 
micount. . . , • 

« Your exo^Jcpt ndietiiod of managing light lands I genera^y ad^ 
here to, viz. turnips, barley, clover, and wheat ; But findiOjg, from a 
toilure of clover in my two last crops after barley, that the succeed- 
fng ones were not equal to my expectation, \ determined to try some- 
thing as a substitute for* that esdCellcnt preparation. Tares, I wa^ 

, aware, were frequently sown, and excellent erups of wbeat have suc- 
ceeded ; but, as there were near three months between the time of 
cutting tares and sowing wbeat, I thought thsrt something might be 
done in the interim, in order, not only to keep thi land ckany but to 
improve the succeeding crop. 

, '< It was necessary to consider what would answer thi^ end, that 
would not be attencfed with considerable expence \ buck wheat claim^ 
ed the preference, as it was of quick growth, and had been recom<« 
mended as a strong and lasting manure. I, therefore, .determined to, 
try the effects of it, and have reason to think that niy es^ectation 
was not too much raised 5 for, although I cannot with that certkinty 
^certain the real produce of the land as i can wish, as af ebnsiderafblc 

riantity of the wheat has been destroyed by. vermin* yei, stiQ have 
had the satisfaction of lodging in my granary as much as I usua]l]|r 
have done m the common meth^ of husbandry. The los^ I 8llata^fled 
was^indecdy veiy considerable, add almost incredible, from such 8nial\ 
animals as mice,; for there was not a rat in the bam, and will be 4 
standing memorial to me for thrashing my com in the proper season, 
Jt was computed at one fourth of the whole crop. But, eveb de- 
ducting the loss, ^nd allowing the' increase to be equal to former 
years, will it not be right "sometimes to alter the usual- course, an4 
Substitute a preparation equally profitable as clover for the farmer^i 
grand crop, wheat? < 

<* The land upon which this experiment was made, was U^t, attd 
prbdiiced excellent turnips and barUy, but seldom more thip a qkk 
derate crop of wheat 5.tw;^t]{.l3<ishda j»r aqre^ were as pau^ aft,might 
^expected in a good seasoiii 



V B«^ 



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Toun^x Vmxrrf Btffolk Agriculture. y| 

?• B^, although I cannot speak with precision in regard to the 
l^hcat crop, yet I can thus far affirm, that the addiuonafprofit from 
the rye, as spriiig feed^ which succeeded the wheat, was^ more 
thae equal to t^e or^nal price pf the buck whcjit. How long the 
effects of this manure will oontinue, I cannot possibly say j but, fron| 
the luxuriance of the ryc^ should not have made th^ least doubt pf 
Its operative qualities to tte ripening that crop. The expencc ii 
triffiflg, for you cannot find anv manure, even for a single crop, equaj 
jn all respects to this for five snilGngs,' which i^ in general, ^e price 
pf two bushels, and is sufficient for one acre. 

** But a material advantage there certainly is from two vegetable 
crops, the one immediately succeeding the pther^ in cleaning the 
land ; for although the rye was sown as soon as I could conveniently 
plough after the haulm was carried otf, y^t, upon breaking up the 
{and after the rye was fe^ off, it was much cleaner than it was after 
the last fallow. 

" I wish I could have dra^i^a a more accurate conclusion from this 
experiment, as I find that it is tlie first tl:at ha^ been made in thu 
manner ; and would not have troubled you with this, liad it not been 
by your particular desire, it being impossible to aspcrtain precisely the 
loss I sustained, consequently, from m«re presumption to offer any 
tiling ^ certain from it. 

. ♦* I hope hereafter to be more accurate, as I have six acres, which 
have produced this season twelve waggon loads of tares, and are now 
sown with buck wheat, to be ploughed in the latter end of this 
month as a preparation for wheat. ^ The produce of these you shall 
be acquainted wit^, as I wish to give you a fair account of this, as t 
think, valuable vegetable manure/' 

« And in a succeeding Iptter — ** I am now able to ascertain the real 
product of my Held of wheat after my tare and buck wheat system ; 
|od it gives me peculiar satlsfn^ctipn to assure you that the increase 
has exceeded my expectation. 

*f The field contained near 6 acres, including borders, and the 
produce was 29 coombs 2 bushel8/>f clean wheat, so that it may rca- 
ionaUy be set at 5 copmbs' per acre, which is a much larger crop 
|han I expected* 

** The appearances at different times were such, as sometin^es ta 
pronote a large crop^ at others, a very moderate one. At first, vegeta»^ 
tion seemed to be yery luxuriant ; this continued till April, when it 
jiianged much for the wprse, and from that time till harvest, appear- 
ances were against it. l^or this, I believe, I cao in some measure 
ijccount. The tarcf and buck wheat were both in too forward a 
state ; the one not tp exhaust the land in some degree, the other, 
to afford that food for the' sucttcding crop iK-hich might have b^ea 
expected, had the tares b<fen cut a fortnight sooner, and the buA 
Wheat turiied {n before it had formed the seed. £)elays firom freq«eat 
^orms occasioned tfc[e latter. 

" However, upon the whole, I am^so weil satisfied whh niy tock 
cess, that I shall try several methods of .-pplving this useful manurcii 
sometimes to assist my crop with others, and sometimes, as the only 
^^aimre that caa conveniently be procuied. 



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^^4 YoungV Vievf of Suffolk Agriculture, 

•* One observ^ion I have made in watching the tare and buck 
wheat system, and which every cuUivator ought to have primarily in 
view, viz. that jn order to ensure the succeeding crop, it wfll be nc* 
cessary to mow the tares as early as possible, that the buck wheat 
. may be so<v\'n and ploughed as soon as it is in blossom. . By this ma- 
nagement, much time will be gained> the land little exhausted, and 
the buck wheat in a state to afford the strongest vegetable manure to 
the succeeding crop : and could this be performed early enough in the 
autumn 'to allow three weeks or a month for the buck wheat to rot, 
1 would then adopt Mr. Ellis's mode of harrowing the land, and then 
plough and sow the wheat in broad lands, under thorough. This way^ 
ne say^ in his treatise upon btick wheat, will dress the ground for 
^hree years ; whereas dover, vetches, or tbmips, ploughed in, will, 
pnly for half the time. My grand object, in adopting this prepara* 
tiop, has been hitherto to secure a crop of tares as a substitute for 
clover-hay, and it has answered the intended purpose ; the crops of 
^ tares having been unifotmly good, and the succeeding crops of wheat 
equal, if not superior to former years. 

** If what Mr, Ellis has asserted be fact, in respect to the strength 
of buck wheat as a manure, surely it would be well worth consider- 
ing, wherein this comparative differeBce of buck wheat, and other 
vegetable manures, consirts. This only can be brought to the test 
by a chymical operation, and, according to my opinion, well deserv. 
ing a serious trial. If you think it of that consequence in the gene- 
ral system of husbandry as I really do, I am persuaded that you will 
favour us with some experiments to ascertain the reality of this asser- 
tion, and poiilt out the respective properties of the manures, from 
that aqd other tegetables. 

" 1 find in your experiments upon the best preparation for a crop 
of barley, that beans claim the preference, and that the buck wheat 
land, with all die apparent advantages of the crop for m^inure, did 
not answer ao well ^s the fallow. Having thought much of this 
preparation, I think that I can point out a method by which it would 
Jjavc answered better, and that is, by sowing the wheat stubble with 
lares, immediately after carrying on the muck, and then upon one 
e?rth throwing in the buck wheat. If this had been done, I question 
whether the crop of barley would have been worse, as the muck would 
have forced that, and the creditor side would have made no despicable 
appearance. 

" If we treat this article in this manner, we xpust adjust our cal- 
culations in the following way * : 

. • * Mr. Moseley here alludes to an cxperinient published in t]>9 
Annals of Agriculture The observation aqd the calculation are 
per^tly fair ; and had the trial been a part of my design, Iliave uq 
doubt but the result would have been correctly as this very ingenious 
correspondent sUtcs it.-^vA /*.* 



*4 To 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ToUDgV Fiew of Suffolk AgricuhurB. 






75 


l. s. d. 


Creditor. 


L s. 


<f. 


^ojnaiHire - -199 


2 Loads of tares. 








I Floivrhiag , - - 6 
Tares i^r teed, 2 bushels I 5 


il. 15s. 
By 4 quarters, 2 bush 


3 


le 





Sowing, harrowing and 


els and i peck bar 


* 






. rolling - * . 6 3 


ley, at 2od. 


4 


5 


7f 


Mowioff, &c. • - 5 


By straw - ^ • 





12 


4 










&c* • - -073 




8 


7 


"i 


aBushels of buck wheat 5 




8 


5 


5 


I^MSt • • ' • 18 A 










Sundriet 7 - 021 


To profit £. 





2 


"5 


3 Earths - - 18 
Harrowing and rolling 10 






_p*.. 












Seed and sowing • 10 3 










Harvest - - 5 10 










Threshing - - 4 6 










Rent, tithe and rates 18 










Sundry cxpences •038 










£^^ 5 5 





.*« I think that I have not placed the tares at too high a rate to the 
credit account, as I really think that the fodSer is well worth il. 15s. 
per load ; nor do I think two loads per acre too much, as, upon mo- 
aerate land, I have seldom had less : I have therefore estimated th^ 
profit accordingly. 

** If wc allow, according to my mode of treating your land, (see the 
preceding note,) the same quantity of barley per acre, it will then, in- 
stead of being the most unprofitable of all the preparations, be found in- 
finitely the most profitable. But even deducting something from the 
barley crop, or throwing but the crop of tares entirely, if it be true that 
this vegetable manure wiU continue to improve a crop for three years, 
yorar experiment of a single year is by no meana complete, as, accord*- 
mg to the common course, the succeeding crops might be expected 
\iQ derive m|ich benefit from this manure. 

" I have never sown buck wheat upon wet cold lands, consequently 
pLBoot ascertain the effects of it as a manure upon them : what I have 
nitherto done, has been upon a light sandy sou, and f«om experiments 
upon that, niy mite of information has been drawn." 

* I may call (says Mr. Young) for the atteiition of farmers anxious to 
become acquainted with real improvements in agriculture, to this ac- 
count of Mr. Mosdey's system ^ which is one of the best imagined ar- 
rangements that has been discovered. One ploughing puts in tl>e winter 
tares; that earth is^iven in autumn, and consequently opens the soil to 
the influence of frosts ; as the spring advances, and the sun becomes 
powerful enough to exhale the humidity, and with it the nutritious 
particles of the land, the crop advances and screens it from the action 
of his beams. Whatever weeds are in the soil, vegetate with the 
young tares, and are either strangled by their luxuriance, or cut off 
with thctn before they caa seed. A crop is gained at^ a very moderate 
* ' expence. 



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^6 TouogV yietQ 0fSi^ffili Agriculture. 

<spcace^ which \% uftually woith from 4P8. tp 3!. an acre ; oftentimet 
much more. But thia crop is ckarod so eaily iromthe land, tlist Jt 
ywulA resiam exposed to the win through the most burning part of 
the summsr for tiiree months, as that ingonious gentleman rightly 
observes : H* kft ao» there would be a call for three ploujdbitig||i to do 
iDttchiefy. except in. the point of kilHng some weeds. To givt one 
earth imopiediatelyr and htrrow in buck wheats spares that expenci^ 
and covers the earth when it most wants to b^ ao ^mittfcted. Butm 
|rveat dead more is done ; for according to ibis comparison, a coat of 
manure is gained at absolutely no expence ; and the year it carried 
through from Michaelmas to Micliaelmas* and three- crops put in am 
only three ploughings, viz. the tares, the buck wheat, and the 
wheat. It is not easy to invent a system more complete* . Let nxe 
go further, and remark, that Mr. Mosdey in this husbandry b 09- 
ginal : many have sown tares ; and many have ploughed ia buck 
wheat ; and most haye given a year to each ; but it is the combinar 
tion of the two that forme the merit, and is ^ plan not befinc re- 
gistered ; and therefore, we are ito pronounce (as far ^ the advaiiccp 
ment of the art is concerned), not yet practised. 

* When we see the universal eagerness and anxiiety expressed by 
the experimental philosophers of the present age, to secure to them* 
selves priority of discovery (an anxi<^y feir and honourable, as speak* 
ing a noble emulation in the best paths of fanae), ought we not to 
do justice to those who in a less brilliant, but more useful walk, jot 
yent new combinations of old practices tbfit have the raerit^ foecauM 
$hc advaiit|i^9 of novelty V 

In the subsequent section, Mr. Young relates some experiir 
ments made by the late Rev. Mr. Laurcnts, of Bury, to ascer- 
tain the distinction of winter and spring tares. As f^r as these 
experiments go, they prove a real diSerence) ixfhich manj 
poopk doubt, 

Mr. Young not only speaks highly of the culture ^f t$^f^s% 
-(which we deem wkh kim the greatest improvement in Englttk 
^sbandry that has beeti established in the present ceoturyy 
since it has changed ^ face of the poorer soils,) but urges the 
jcuhurb of eabbagei ; though it idoes not appear that they are a 
profitable kind of crdp. By being drawn and cs^ned off, they 
impoverish and poach the land on which they are raised^ 

There is a di^ict of Suffolk called the Satuilhgs, which is 
celebrated for the culture ol carrots i^-^ crop which appears )tp 
be extremely profitable, as well a^ peculiarly adapted to a ligh^ 
windy soil. * For many years, (generally til) about six or sci^m 
past,} the principal object in the cultivation- was sending the 
mxrots to London market by sea ; but other parts of the king<i> 
dom having rivalled them in this supply, carrots have of late 
years been cultivated chiefly for feeding horses ; and thus they 
now ascertain, by the common husbandry of a large district^ 
<bat it will ansA^qr wsU to w^ canots for ^q vf^Tl^ object ctif 

*5 ^S 



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the tiams/ Mr, Young conoliiries the detail of this practice, 
by ^ calling on all persoiiB who haTe sands, or light sandy 
loams, to determine to emancipate themselves from the chains 
'in which ^rgodice, or incipience, have bound them \ tp cul-^ 
tivate this admirable root largely and vigoro^Iy ; to give it the 
best soil they have ; to plough very deep ; to hoe with great 
spirit ; and to banish corn frpm thek stables, as a mere luxury 
and barren expence that ought to be extirpated ; an effect that 
flows very fairly, from the preference which the instinct of the 
four-footed inhabitant generally gives to carrots/ 

A cheap mode of feeding the team is an important desideratum 
in agriculture : this the author of the present memoir knows 1 
and therefore we do not wonder at the energy of the above 
exhortation : but we are surprised that he does not say a word 
of {b&panmp^ a root cqualiy valuable with the carroty which 
may be cultivated both on strong and on light soils, and niay 
bemixed with carrots for the food of horses. 

A long article on the culture and manufacture of hemp oc* 
curs, which we must pass without more particular notice. 

* On the subject of wastes^ Mr. Young informs u§ that there 
Ttc in Suffolk wastes to the amount of 100,000 acres> or ith 
part of the whole, comprehended under the terms sheep walk, 
ctrnmon, .warTen> i&c. These, however, strictly speaking, 
ate not really waste \ and perhaps the oldHoratian maxim. In 
vithtm dmeit culp€ fuga^ si caret artet ihay apply to the rage of 
inclosi^ and cultivating wastes. Very poor 4ist|ricts will^ot pay 
for fencing, and for the management necessary for arable crops* 
One of tfac author's correspondents .{or ritfaec smnMators) is 
of fbia •pinion ; and he tells us that, within a f!9W miles from 
him, aereral heaths which had been brokea up and improved 
under ^ddUui occupiers, about thirty years since, have within 
these last ten years bencn lafd down again, and re-converted 
imo healh-land. 'In a political vi^w, it may ^e prudent to 
have latid:iOf all^tofts ; (>Ut surely the waste land ought not to 
bear so ia^e a proporftion to -that which is inclosed md culti- 
rated, ms itidoes at present. 

Under the head of Improve fhents, notice Is taken x>f that 
valuab^ j>ractice Of Ho/low- draining/ whi^l^^ the author tells 
us, b federal In all the wet lands of SiiiTolkf .and which, we 
hppe^ ia Extending throughout the kingdom : as ,l;liius the-^u^n- 
'-titf of icorn'^todticed from the same laild will bc,grcatly in- 
creased. Thia will better pay the farmer, and Jne rawre sdivan*- 
tagcpus to the public^ than his e:^pcndit)g his «notiey 4mdL )]Ma 
suength on large tc|u:ta^)f barren waate.-^Tfaepinctice of Jm- 
gatiwy or of watering meadows, thpagh::uiiq[«ctstioiMMy iaapofa* 
4U]^^48 ^arcely known in the couhty of Suffolk. 

Mr. 



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tji t'oungV FiM o/Sufvtt Jiffricuituh. 

Mr. Young has taken much pains to ascertain the populatidfi 
of the county of Sufiblk ; and he has collected and brought 
together, in one view, a number of very interesting particulars^ 
to which he has added the following sutcment respecting Uxa-^ 
tion. -' * ' 

« An account of the number of houses, servants, hors^» dogs, and 
carnages, in the county of Suffolk in 1796 : 

Houses. Servants, Horses. J^i- 

Under 7 windows, * 8,376 



From 7 to 9 'vtindoWs incL 3,607 
10 to 12, ditto, 2,1x7 

13 to 20, ditto, 1,977 

A I to 14, ditto, a6j 

25, and upwards, 602 



> 



I 



Carriages, 



16,944 1,065 U,oia 33*474 6,026 4,710 ^56{44c 

• An account of the number of inhabited houses, ^rvants, horses* 
and carriages, as assessed to their several duties, in England and 
Wales in 1796 : 

Houses. Servants. Horses. Carriages. 

Houses under 6 windows, 354>39i 
- From 7 to X^ incl. 160,084 



XX to IS ditto, 6i,473 
X4 to X9 ditto, 61,356 
2pto ^4 ditto, 19,89$ 
15 and upwards, 3 1 9642 



688,844 



5^850 



> 



178.784 



.> 



! 



900,7001 I9»070t24.305 



I 



< For Suffolk to be in proportion to England, it will contain by 

acres : 



Horses in husbandrj. 
Houses, 

Horses for pleasure, 
Servants, . 
. Carriages, four-wheels. 
Ditto, two<-wheels. 



15,871 

12,181 

3*150 

X,OOI' 

42S 



Proportion by reiit> of .444,ooo]. to a6,oco>oooL 



Horses in husbandiy. 

Houses, 

Horses foF pleasure. 

Servants, . - 

Carriages, four-wheels 

Ditto, two-wheels. 



>w8i 

3»05i 
970 

.415 



* Hence it appears, that this county contains more than the double 
of its proportion of horses in husbandly ; one-fourth more 'of those 
kq)t for pleasure; one-fourth more houses; about its proportion of 
servants ; tibout a-fourth more fbur-whedefd carriages^; ana nearly its 
proportion of two-wheeled ones. This is on the supposiitonthat the 
luAgdom at large pays correctly* 

• . < Let 



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PwrsonV Hdcuba ig OrtsUs^ ?5^Wakc6cldV DiairHe. 79 

. * Let OS, on the contraryy suppose ^at Suffolk is correct, and iji- 
^uire what ought to be the proportions of the whole kingdom 1 

Ans-wfr, Really 
f aid for, 
"I^AIA horses frf husbainfry,-^ T 1.978,009^ 900,000 



ir440/XX>L 
rentil 
maiauios 



4^1 a horses for pleasiire, 
16^44 houses 
1,065 servants, 
456 4-wheel carriages, 
440 2>whect ditto, 



What should \ 137.07* f i78poo 

a rental of J 1,001,235 1^88,000 

26mUlions'\ 62,931/" 56,000 

maintaui ? i 26,945 t 19,000 

V 16^000 J 04,000* 



On the whole, this work reflects credit on Mr. Yourtg, not 
oalf as a rural but as a poKtica^ economisr, and may serve as a 
guide to other reporters. We most sincerely wi«h that the 
agricultural surveys of the several counties may be so exccated, 
^ to collect from every district the most valuable and accurate 
information, and to throw light on the real state and capability 
of the country. 

Accompanythe^^bts memoir, are a map of the soil of Suffolk 
— -ai plate exhibiting *a machine called the extirpaUr^ for destroy- 
ing weeds, invented by a Mr. Hayward of Stoke Ashr-and 
another plate representing a stage to assist in building die upper 
part of hay-stacks* 



Art. XI. ETPmiAOT EKABH. Eunptdtt Hecuba^ ad fidem Monm- 
scriptorum emenJatih f^ hrevlhus Notts emendationum potisshnUm ra* 
ikmes reddeniiha hutructa. In wum tiudkota Juventvt'u. 8to. 
LoiuSfttf Wilkie. 1797. 

Aar. XII. In Euripidis Hecuuam Londmt nuper pyhiicatam Dla* 
tribe exiemporalu. CompoiuU Gilbertus Wakefield, A. B. Svok 
Zmm&u, Cuthell. 

Art. XIII. ETPmiAOT OPETTHT. EmpicBj Orestes^ ad Jtdem 
Mamuscr^orum tnundaia^ et brevihui Notu emendationum potistimwm 
ratkmes .reddentHut itutructa. In usum studios£ Juventutis, 8vo» 
Lottdimy Wilkie. 1798. 

SOME apology is due fronl us to our readers, and to the authors 
of these works, for the appearance of neglect, in having 
permitted so long a time to elapse between the publication c£ 
the two former, and their being admitted to take their statioo 
in the Monthly Review. 

'A«^5 fM^ot Tiif 'AxuOwof f^,— *— Some few arrangements 
were made for a critique on the new Hecuba, when Mr. Wafcci- 
field^s Diatribe appeared. It instantly occurred to us, on 
perusing these contemporaneous remai^, that the editor of the 
Greek tragedy might, perhaps, be induced to answer them, in 
a preface to the play next expected : in which case, we should 
have judged it necessary to haye presented an account of the 
passages in dispute to our readers^ and to have suted, at th« 

same 



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same time, our bwn opirtton at length, and wkhout rortrahitV' 
The OHESTES, howcvcri is how published, bat without -an^ 

{preface.-— It seemed also that a second Diatribe might have fol- 
owed this second iragid;^ : :bat, no such pulhlicatjofi having 
reached our knowlege, wfc jud^e it proper ro include the rer 
views of the Hecuba^ the Diatribe, and the Orestei, id one 
article* 

We shall now begin otir eiarfljnaftion wttlioiit farther pre- 
amble ; oidj. observing that, though the nat^e of the editor is 
jDOt prefixed to tb^ Hea^ba add the Orestes, internal tvidcnc^ 
^tod so^ie other circumstances have induced us to adppt ^hc 
Uttoeral opinion, which attributes them to Mr. Richard Porsbnj 
4the Greek Prdfitssor in the University of C^mbtid|;e. FuiSTi 
theo^ for . 

HfecuBA. Prafatio* 

. Tiie Preface, which is given with this fr^dy, maf in 90m<f 
d^gtee be cotisidered as an introductiptl to. i^. a^arance sji 
a complete Euripides : whose plajrs thd editot pviposes t^ 
|Nd]^i8h in ^epirale little Volumes^ and in thejeofltimon order. It 
begins with informing us that, ^ nihil hie exqmsiti emt re^diH 
expeitandum ; tironum unbus hac opella potissitnum deitifiatd ejt* 
The Prof«s^or then proceeds to this purpose i 

• The text of this tragedy, if not perfectly correct, i§, at leasf^ 
nui^t than it has yet appeared. In aH places in which tite usual read* 
ug has been altered, the source oT the change is mentioned in the 
notes ; in which the lections of the Aldine editions are recorded ; 
except in those cases which belong to a common source of error, such 
"as the Dofism of ^i^a for ^iint, and the addition or removal of the 
final I, or IN. * 

' * The Van£ Lectumesj except such as are manifestly etto)(coii8| 
•we generally mentioned ; though the autboritici en which tJbcy dc* 
•pcnd, fiom the tnattention of former editors, cannot alwaft be niirly 
weighed, nor accuratdy enumerated.' 

He then acMs : ^ ^^xe$cftn^e Bmipidis loca , ab oHiiqm f»f • 
^^am seriptmre cum varktcde kdji^nis lem^ri . m^mineratiff ^edub^ 
HMgoui f.' 

In ihe. perusal of the.obacrviitiQAs .^o. these two plays, it bias 
been with us a subject of regret, that tbe editor ibas not re- 
neofidcd all th^ aothors.who Iwre eked. vetK^ CroQi them, oi 

* Tl^is edition of Aldus bears the date of MDI. It eontaint 
\^ Hays. Four of these only had been published a few years carh*cr# 
in capital letters, at Florence. The Electra first appeared in 1545/ 
ait Rome. 

f A noble cellcction of various neadings wfll be d^nVcd bom thit 
•«ourtc ; which we beg to rccQtim>«ad eametClylo the attontioa ii 
-those, who^uodcitake tke^publieatbajof the aatmt Ci«ck writera; 

whoie 



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PorsoaV Bpcuba.^, Orestes^ bt ^aktficWV Diatrtl^. 8*i 

Wboee allasiops to tjiem are evident. Those who exhibit 
new readings arc doutjtTcss of the most consequence : but still 
those who defend the common teit ought not, in oi;r opinion, 
to be lieglected. In how many instances might the correction^ 
of modem critics be proved tinnecessary ,. by such an assenv- 
bfage of references ?— -In how miany instafices might the styk 
of the Attic plays be illustrated, and ihe sentiments be eluci- 
dated ? Not merely these poets, however, would derive great 
advantages from such a nieasure : the authors, in whom the 
quotatiotis are founds Myould reap still greater. The blunders 
which have arisen from the words of a citation being con* 
founded with those of the original writer are ionumerable.-r- 
Mr. Person has not excluded these authorities from hjs 
Notes : but it is to be lamented that they were not studiously 
admitted^ He^ and he alone,, could have p^sented us with 
^ach a collection of them as might be deemed nearly. complete* 
His mejBory appears to be eminently tenacious : his reading 
seems to have extended through nearly ,the whole range of 
Greek literature ; and hid familiar acquaintance with there* 
mains of the Attic sc^ge, both the tragedies and the comedies, 
may be clearly seen in every page of nis observations— —'I^o 
proceed : Mr» Porson next observes ; 

' In voclbiu per croiln amjumtis^ Ut xofru xin »ar (i. e. xod lu.Kou i*) 
ii tmiiihus urwendisy ratlonem a velmtipribut MSS* servaiam diligenUr 
s^ctthu fum^ Iota scilicet liusquam addi oportetf nisi uhi xau cum diph* 
tbongo crasin ejffuity ut in xdjct pro xai uta* Hoc post altos monuit 
t)amf€sius. 

* 'Ai*,' Piersono julentCi Brunclio non nolehtc, ierjiiper stni diphthongo 
scripsif idem facttirus in »ito<, iCSau et ««*•. 

* BruncHus secundas futuri passi^i indicativi personas in u semper^ 
nonin Jt, terminavit ; secundas etiam prasentis ego ad eandemfofmam re- 
Asti. jinalogla nempt postulate ui vocaUs corrtpiatur in iniGcativOf pro^ 
ducahtr in suhjunctivoj TOTfTOfjuity rvvrup ruirrtrouf mvirr»iyau» rvvrn^ 

■ 7»miTaH*' 

He then infof ms tis that, in his Hecuba, there 19 no instance 
tiiaugmentum verborum omissum^ nor of an anapxstus in pari sede» 
—As to the^r//. Tie says: * Plane persuasum habeo^ non licuisse 
in Attic9 serthone augmentuni abjicere* As to the second^ he ob- 
•CTVcs: ' ' 

^ BrvncHutj qui anap£stos in secundo et quarto senarii loco subinde 
afim^ffatetur tanten Tragicos hone licen^am^ quantum poterant^ vitasfe. 
^mdni tgitur semper vitarint ? jIn volabani, et tamen nequibant ? An 
casu et incuria eos has nuuulas fu£sse arbitrabimur ? Adde quod AfSS* 
aactontatej scripforum citiftiombuSf et criticis argumentis exemplorumf qus 
in banc partem laudari solebant, numerusjam ^alde imminutui est, 

, * ASam ipse rationem a^icio^ qu£ si ^era estl, omne*^ opinoryanap^stum 
pamlw. senarii lock ^semper. Ofclmfendum esse ultre, agneicettt. . If one ra- 

Rev. Jan. 1799. G ''««*» 



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Sa PorsonV Hectfia tfT OresUSy 6f WatcfictdV Dlatrite. 

Jtonttttf Jfton plane am Jan novamy tkrisque iamen sgnofamf quam hrevh^ 
slme expBcaho. Tantutn scilicet abesU mea sentential yt anapMturpr^ 
*^seeunA out quattt^peJe ponaiur^ ut ne pro tertlo qmdem ant quuito smSrit" 
'tin possit:— ,H6t tfe teriio pede si quh verum esse concedety ctmedet a far^ 
•tUrtfUt Ldgki^dicitntr ae qumto etlam verum essem J)tictyhu enimf ^qtn 
iin tertia sede .tteierrisaSuMsurpmtitr, in qutfUa^ vunq^am appareU Jhut-- 
fsshu i^uTf si ilia excluJiturt 6apc Intrare non potest J 

Wc have transcribed the Profcssor^s words, because the 
adrtiiseion or rejection of augments and anapests has been long 
and frequently a svbject of bitter dispute anaong the critics^ 
In our opinion, the questions never nierited discussion : hot 
tbcy ace now, it may be hoped, completely settled : for the 
9ingie passage, in which the augment was once omitted, in the 
•Hecuba, no longer appears ; and those verses in which there 
were anapests in the second, third, fourth, or fifth places^ are 
' successfully corrected in this first play. We doubt not that 
they will be emended with equal ability in the other tragedies, 
when dicy are brought before the public by Mr. Porson •• 

As to Eschylus and Sophocles, there are six instances of an 
anapest m tertia sede f , in the former, and four in the latter. 
These are thus incontrovcttibly amended : 

I. JEt, Prom. 246. JLou jmtTv ^IhsM Ixiivo; liovp^v \ti^ instetd 

• of tMfivoV Ruhnkeniusi to ^hom Mr. P. refers, on. the Hymn 
to Ceres'283. [not 2^40 has only quoted c^ part of the ardde 
from the Snn German grammarian* The whole shall, folk^, 
as it stands in out transcripts from the MS. which was ooce 
in the . CpisUnian library ; TExiiyov, ai^I tow 'E^fciwi'. '*Zu%€Kii 

, ' JUU . ^amem, 664. ''H^eiKov* a,L ii K£folyTiuiM¥a^ jSif,. tor 
m^lvwoifitomu r v.. ,1 , ... ■ /. . ; ....... i.t I.- 

- \IIt Choeph. 654. "EiTif ^iXogiyw Wiv 'AiAo^oUp/fls bstead of 
f»x3gf^iA». « -^ ' V' . ...... 

IV. Eumen. 896. ITaVu; iiriym oi^oV* 3i^w 31-rxJ^for 

• tfs'^v «(. Thc^ Attics, always, as Pierson obsetvea on Mpms^ 

^ -.^ -7 '-:■ ' < — — : : — T^ -T-r; — -T^Tq ■ ■■ ^ r\ — 

^ * Mr*.. Porson i^ghtMve compared ^ffonnatign^ the tTi9cbaic 
jfjith that of the Iambic vcr§c. In. the fanner, i^dqftji isadmxs- 
tiblc only in the sixtt place ; and in the latter, the anapest is allow* 
able only in thc^st. We jiavc not room to enlarge on tL?s iubject,. 

' but firaflt be contented wkh -remarking that, as the iamfus is iiliaioiX'i 
to the troekata^ »o isi the^arkifresttis to the daciyks - 

• " The le^mcd^ reader ta panrcubrly rec^ueeted to ociqusq any^^enaors* 
which he Aay ►observe' in- the Greek- tyWraphy of th» article They 

-^inii8lt''ftnd their apology in the hurry in* which a periodical work must 
lAevitaM^ be printed. ► ^ - , - ■ . . , 1 . . .** 

• * t Thdse m «Ke «eooiid4lfid fourth ^places aw not nMmtlg^itfd in the 
pMaoe. They have generally been conccted bythc editors. 

14 write 

^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 




?f{Xt^UIi^h is^ Orestes, tst WakcficldV Djatriif. 83 

writ^ i'Z'^ and ..the. Aldine edition, in this verse, gives 'Oi^vo^* 
Thcy/aUousfd'Oi^ [OMXi^ 'Oixiyg^ and '6«a%'^; of >irWch 
word Mr. Porson remarks, ^in EuripiJe usque ad hunc' diim 
semper editum est o\'<flo(f contra versus metrum, coriira gramtnaH^ 
€^runt aucforitatfm.* ^ ' , ; f^ . 

v.. Suppi.^ 800. TUii ov vifpin i* iii^riKoi ylyvilat x^^^y as it 
$taiicfs in Aldu3 and Robe;te!ius, and nbt !«' !5g>iAa'.' ' \ ' 
.Vim In a fragoi^nt of.Eschylus, ap. Plut. de Consolat p. io5. 

Grpti 

yii 

instead 

^/fub 04 •«, from the Corpus Cb, Oxen, most excellent 

• AB..0I ' 

^in* 9.*.^*, ?4^*. !9'"'^^>l MouuSg ViV M/Mfoy sxl^/il^i p/pVy for 

iX, PAi7. Il88* .H«c fT-srac; i^* .oJ [or 5fa] J'wTfgoy JoXcw- 
|4f9a( by coojectnre^. instead of pv9^,/ifa*Mu)ff9v. - - 

X. And a^d Hesych^ V. dtliTTTiourlov. Tip elvl!7r><»^n yi^ 

Ixtt xnifiTiMiroffj for (X'l vo/uov. 

? /Iliese' alterations ar^ c^fe.nded b{ sucb pertain ^r^mentSt 

tkat no crittCf we imaginej yifill in future, allow an anapcst in 

aojr &<)t of an iambic vers6» bi^t th/s pii^^T^ ^itH the exception 

> of proper D^jnes.j The learned wiU peruse, this piiirt 6t the 

• Ptelace with singular j^leaspre^ s^nd,. if we be not deceivedy 

. witbmucb a()va|^age., He must be referred to| the book for 

. the ^editor's, account Of these changes^ as the passage is too 

Ion for transcription. — 

'^rTbeacuteness of this .canon, an4.tI)e.8irppUcit| pf the em^nd- 

- 9liont :w.iych were proposed for, the questio^iable yerseSf 

teemed calculated to demand universal applause : bi^t to pleaSo 

afl ia rarelf. jthe .Ibtof s| philo)ogical writer ; anH the Greek 

/* Ar9fessof must share .the general d9on) of (3 reek criycs ( ^The 

iiewiispUBA -had been pu)di^bed pnly a jfew weeks^ .when ^ 

ijerkvi? of it appeared*, uiider th^ ^ title of .Diatribb^Ext^m- 

PORALis, avowedly the production of ^^^. Gilbert W'akb- 

n£Li>. In the opening of it; after a severe treiisure on"Mr« 

.-] 

'.-] 

1 



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^4 PorsonV Hfcuia tg Orestes^ (sT TV'akcficld'/ HiatriBe. 

tictus of Mr. Wakefield : but, even if he had consuUecf fiy 
there appears no reason for its being mentioned on the present 
occasion* ^OJ^i^i b the lection of the Aldine, the priticeps 
edition, aad is therefore properly noted. 

In the comments of Mr. Wakefield on this tra^d^r, tlie 




pnnted 

really intentional^ the lection of Aldus, and the judicious canoo- 

- ^f Pierson, ought to have been carefully registered.— In rejfly 

to the latter part of Mr. Porson's observatibn on these Attic 

words beginning with OX jineTesolutione^ MuW. thus proceeds : 

* Sijfodpergit qffirmare solidissime V. D. p» xi. " In EurifiJe tuqur 
ad hu^c diem semper eSiitm est oiVroi*" id plant infalsissimis habendum ^ 
nam not disertissime editUmus in Here* fur, 194. ad hunc ipsum modmm : 

" ' /^^*Vc oio^ret apiij. 

fern indaeoTt nt V* D» Homereie verHs alloquoTf te'yJectar I vtputemyman 
improbante: 

Mr. P(trson shbuld undoubtedly have limited his remark 
abo>ftt (>KrT<)$, in Euripides. The mark of diaeresis is fbund in 
the Aldine/ Med. 640, iiifiiv. Andr* 1134. iCt/loL and Hny*' 
Fur, r94. i^dhug. In the two former places, Barnes states 
thzt the word must be read ^iffvTJ^Cug^ and in iht latter he has 
published oidloig^ with, /. e, i'idhl^^ on the margin. The merit, 
therefore, of printing iidlodg in the H, Fuv, belongs«to Btfoes^ 
and nqt to Mr. Wakefield ; who iBhould have mentI0ned^ the 
variation of the Aldine and Bamenan editions, in his Npt€S> 
and should have produced his reasons for following the latterj** 

^ if, indeed, the change was intentional 

It is not, however, easy to determine whether the mArt 
of diaresis is to be expected in an edition of a Greek poet, from 
which acceffts and half the spirits are almost wdiolly discarded > 
Inr this collection, indeed, Mr* Wakefield,, in Jin. 473. instead 

• of *oj€nioff, gives: 

^oitrfU;^ as it stands in the note, is wrong as* to die place of 
the accent, though right as to the duttisis. The antistrophic 
verse demands in this line an bni£ a majore. It must also be 
Xn^ntioned that,, in Mr. W/s Tracbinia 237. the dueresis is 
«sed where it is not wan^ in (he word tvSotU^ which Bpuinck 
likewise prints in the same- manner. 

^ Mr. Wakefield, as was mentioned, is also dissatisfied with 
' Mr. Forson's cori^tbn of the uint^ instance: ScfJ^JUiL 
^ mWi ifo, or ig ov, instead of ivjr Vf^S and says: ^Pro^ 

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PorionV Hecuia f^ Ofisiesy tf T^JTakclficldV Diatribi. 85 

mui^ciefit eruditif an ms in edii'tone nostra non dudum doctiuff 
txmiUitiuSy atque rtiam Uvion otera^ cornximus ; aurium ope vi» 
tium sentienteSf sed originem ejus ea^ qua Y* ^' lagocitate nofi 
valentes indagare : n«t tiwai ; OX TAP Jl Sa'koufxiQa* 

In correcting the antients, no opera can be levior than 
transposition; for> as Mr. Porson observes in his Preface, 
• tuHssima proinde corrigendi ratio esiy vocularum transposition 
"Af oS wc deem the preferable emendation. It has tQore force 
than ifx alone ; and as for oy yof, some explanation is re* 
quired respecting ydg^ beyond what appears in Mr. Wakefield's 
note on the passage, either in his Delectus, or in his Diatribe. 

To return to Mr. Porsoh's Preface. With regard to the 
choral systems, two rules are principally adopted : * Prii^ 
mravi, ut quodque carmen ad nota et Lyricis poetis usttata^ si fa* 
ale fieri posset^ %fersuum genera redigeretur ; deinde^ uteadentydut 
similis versuum jpecies quhin S/tpissime recurreret^^^TAx. P. then 
remarks that it is difficult to define the licences, in which the 
tragic writers indulged themselves with regard to dialect. 
Some JonismSf such as imo;^ iiouvofy yovvcHoj uou^c;^ and ^oval^ 
arc found ; even though the Attic word giW, and so on, be 
admitted : but the greater number of these irregularities have 
been introduced from Homer by unskilful transcribers. The 
instances of Dorisms in the Choral Odes are, indeed) niore 
readily reduced to rule : but these forms are not regularly pre- 
served even in the best MSS. — where moderate copies have 
them, they are inserted in the text of this new Hecuba^ 

Mr. Porson has used, besides the edition of Aldus, those of 
Dames, of King^ and its repetition by Morell, of Musgrave, and 
of Beck ; and be has given new collations of two MSS. in the 
fibrary of the R'. Society, and of a third in the British Museum. 

The Preface thus concludes : 

' Inierpretandi et illustrandi labor e *, utiBssimo sane^ supersedendum duxif 
fariim ne Hbetttu in Ftbrum excresceret. L^ca tantum qu£ LtOim imhati 
satif prout numoria tuggesslt^ adscripti. Raro sum interpretis vieefunc^ 
tnt^ niif idfi cum crit'ui offHto comuncium estet. Sin ofttem in uUa re 
mtoparcior viiusfuer&f in sequent Aus fabulis^ si quas posthof edidero^ hoc 
vkiitm emendare annitar* Hoc enim monendus est lector ^ c£teras Euripidis 
ffMas ordine vulgato singu/as mox prodituras, si modo hoc specimen rei' 
fdSae Rteraris non dispUcere intellexero. Si opusadjinem perduxejro^ ad* 
^ observationes quasdam in varla Scenicorum f^oeiarum mefraJ 

It tnay naturally be expected that, according to our usual 
plan, we should now proceed from the Preface to the work it- 

* These words demand the serious consideration of the reader : 
fivft in defiance of this declaration, Mr. Wakefield, in his Diatribe, 
frequently censures Mr. Porson fpr ijot having acted the part of an 
jiQnpreter in his notes on Hecuba. 

' G^ self: 

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Z^ PorsonV Hecuha V OnsUsy ti WakcBcldV Dlattihe: 

self J but. as several* parts of it have been brought forwards 
anjicxaniiniedby Mr. Wakefield, in the Tract which has been' 
already mentioned^ atf attempt shall first be made to investigate 
thg, truth of ^he objcction^i which have bcei> raised against these 
particular, passages*. They shall be taken in the order which 
is 'assigned tp fhem ia the piATRiBE. After thij discussion, 
if .our, limiteil bounds are not too far exceeded, we shall 
add. some remarks on the Notes and plan of Mr. Professor 
Pprson. . ^^ ^ 

'^'hc reader is. already informed that thr Diatribe Extem- 
P9iUU? of Mr. Wakefield appeared very* shortly after the 
pvb^pation of the Hecuba* ^ Tliework, indeed, in general, 
bcikW .evident marts of haste in the objcctioiiis which are' ad- 
vam;ed, and in the alterations which are proposed: in the 
Lat^tji an4 in the general style of the composition. 

<These objections and alUrathnji we must now discuss. AVto 
atfi LaHnitjfi it is npt our wish to be fastidious in examining 
the lang^age of critical disquisitions : but as to the universe 
cprnplex^on of the whole t)lairlbe^ we assert, in the most un- 
q)ia^^94 i^snneri that the resentful spirit by which tKeauthor^s' 
T^^rk^; appear to have been dictatedj and the splenetic style 
i^.u^hicjj^th^yarewrittei^, blended as it is with a mixture of 
wb^t he call^ (p. ^p),amxnitatum ac leporum conditnentts^ can 
nev^ be too seyorely condemned. , 

The genuine Cblitic, when he undertakes the ex'aminatioa 
qf a^ywork^., deliberates with coolness, and investigates with' 
qauUpn^. His, objections are statecf with civility, unalloyed 
lif.^arpa^pij ^nd his opinions are delivered with firmness^ un- 
xp}xp4jw^^i^h petulance. His judgment }s riot obscured by an 
overweening confidence in his ow.n acquirements. His taste 
i^ not;_vitiated by a .perpetual search after novelty. His ardour 
\fi )the causq of learning is superior to petty considerations ; 
and the sportive obtrusions of a, playful fancy never diminish 
theiorce of his arguments. He proposes his own einen<}a« 
tions with diffidence \ while he does not rashly infer tHat the 
silence of his contemporaries has its source in malevolence ; nor 
does he attribute their objections to a desire of degraditi^ him 
from that post, to which he is entitled in the ranU fflFliteraf Qti. 

Such are our sentiments. Mr. Wakefield^ ihil^ed, tlitki it^ 
jjCjribcs-his own mjotiyea: \JPaucuJa — -^de^pirato calanio com* 
ti^$ntabifpurj catiitdutn^ Htera'ta reipuh)tca juiicium lihehiir pericB* 
tati^M amma. a spe^ metu, atque affectibus quib'uslthei ihiquiri ah^ 
solutissitne defacatoJ P^rf*- Diatrib, Jlxfempor. p. 4. 
. With the Hecuha ot Mr. Borson, ahd^ the DiATRtBE EaP- 
TBMi^oRALi's of Mr* Wakefield, the Animaptersions of thfe 
Monthly Review shall now be submitted to the PubUc 1 ^d 

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PorsonV Hicaha Isf Omtei, If Wakefield*/ Diatrile. 87 

before Aat tribunal let the merits or demerits of the Editor^ 
of the Critic^ and of the Reviewers, be decided. 

The Diatribe Extkmporaus 
consists of forty piges : four of which are occapted hj the 
title and preface ^ tl^ following thirty-three are fiHed with re^ 
merits oft ihe Heccba of Euripides, which relate principally 
to Mr. Person's edition of that tragedy ;• imd the last three ex- 
hibit some reasons for the publication of this pamphlet. Frbia 
Acsc'*, let the reader accept the fbUowing extract, in the 
words of the author : 

* M^ftorc hdoficth ft affect tbut henigmorHms emoIUth f w verwfructui 
tti doctHftJty tenientktm firant velimf ah vtr^ niuquain non a me Mausibut 
exeepfas^ aiqve boMttU amictf excusandtu sity quit tn. shnilik matend versa* 
tuty datam decaf iotum met cohtme^tanS iton modo non drripuerk^ 'fneqiu 
etam tdfmseem questtie) led taH negrtgentta prMterieritj qmlie haud inmtai 
dhcmrct verum contra palqm pr^mtdgetf legendbue ttmverwy mea in. Rtmras 
Grsuas merka md&m tue prorsui pretii; et memet insvperindtgnum uti^ 
qwe^ de sua saltern odinsonef qui doctorum cattbus inscribar* Sin uuiem iuc 
cmsarem, ueque acrUer calumnwm^ silentem quidem^ sed (ut ilk ait) vanog 
i-^^%koTifa» >o>*^, pr9pk!satem gnavt hominis officium per vecordiam pudi* 
hundam mihi viderer pr9dere; et atucKytxriou turpiuims jure pmtulandus^ 
Sed nee Vecors sum, Hejue eac^ytrttn; et miRtiet mes signum, quod prius (ui 
fui per omnem vitam tat ineommoditatibus impeditus fuerim, ne dmm El^ 
uenrntm £sciprmahtm, quas in summd felicitate posuissemyf ruetus) forwide^ 
mstsem pndmuse^ eerie Hecuba facit pubUcata^ ut audatter proferam: . 

*S?£6TEMUlt AGENDO.' 

Thus is the gauntlet thrown : but the challenge has not 

been accepted. Mr. W, published this Diatribe becausd 

neidier his' name nor his observations on the Hecdba were 
mendoned in Mr. Porsoii*s note^ on that play; and now, tha 
Orestes is published, and the same silence is observed. 

Ac' 'the end of the tract is a Mst of Mr. Wakefield's works, 
and'a short account of his Lucretius : a paft of which only^ 
at that time, h^d appeared*. The three volumes are now 
Cfompletcd ; and the whole work forms an elegant and splendid 
ornament for" public libraries, and for the cabinets of the ctt« 
^ous. ~ It must,* indeed, ever rank highly among the speci- 
mens of English typography 9 and mast be considered as the 
grandest edition of Lucretius which has yet been- published. 

lie rcniafks th the Diatribe zrc about fifty in number. 

Hiey shall ^It)e noticed, in the cursory account of the new 

Hecuba .and Orestes which we intend -to fey before our 

readerr; and, forthe sake of brevity, we shall generally venture 

f* « — ■ t . . I ■ f II i.>. . — I ,— , — , — ' 

• The censure passed on the translator of Aulas Gellius, p. 39. 
», ID ovr opttidii, snproperly introduced into the Diatribe. 

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8« Poison-/ Hecuha (ff Onstcjy (f WakcfieldV Diatribe. 

to maik Mr. Professor Richard Poison's notes with R, P. only^ 
and those of Mr; Gilbert Wakefield with G. W. 
V. 13. "O nil fAt yH^ 'TflTfffTijtAiJ/af— 

r Mt. Porson 8a]^9 : **^0 videtur cum SchoL Barocc. interpn-* 
iAndum^ TO Xivot,i n^T^doVf qit93 res scilicet. jUii pro ^* 3 acci^ 
pfunt. Litepi dirimcret MS. Harl. si ejus hctidnem i amplecteremur^ 

- Mr. Wakefield says : * V. D. formulam in K 1 3. parum per* 
eepitj licet pervagatissimam:'''^^^quam Lvcretio frequentatam aique 
noHs ibidem seepiuscuk Ulustratam^ piget hie vevare .^^^ Harl. 
MS. y ■ in hoc sensu^ pace V. D. dixerim^ ne Gracitati quidem 
qfinem puto,* 

• It would have been more satisfactory, i£ Mr. Wakefiel4 
had stated his own explanation of ^'O, and opposed it to tlut of 
Mr. P. I and if he had advanced some proof that the Pro- 
fessor did not 'understand the construction of the relative. Wc d<» 
iiot conceive why w, the Harleian lection, should be considered 
zs not ojfinis Gracitati ', though the explanation of the Baroc^- 
cian Scnoliasthas always appeared clear and satisfactory'. It 
^tiU scorns to us preferable to any other i and this opinion will 
not be readily shaken, iifrhile it is thus defended by the autho- 
rity of Valckenaer : •' In flecuba, V. 13. l^fdlxlog J* h v^tos,* 
fAttdJr xxi jue yiff 'Twt|i7rj^4/cy maR dederattt i^i quamol^rcm vel 
^uare, cum nihil aliud ut quam quod &9r^, scilicet to Inii f^a.f^* 
'iarwt' riay «^cX^e0y,<*— ^yc^vcy i\im rcu in7rtiAfinyeu fn. prouti 
recte cepit Scholiasfes in Cod. Barocd* The whole of Valcke- 
iiaei's note is excellent, and demands a careful perusal from 
the readeis of this passage in the Hecuba. 

Mi. W. commends Mi. P. for obseiving that * in a^ctiva 
fratlf u» contineri substantivum valvp, quo refertur cu/lgg.* Mr. P., 
he adds, gives three examples of this schema^ but has not men^ 
tioned Mr»W.'s note on one of them. Soph. Trach. 259. where 
he has produced *plura et reconditiora^lzs also on Lucret.I. 353, 
We think that Mr. W* should not h^ve been ofended at thi^ 
silence ; as the Professor seems studiously to havie avoided 
crowding his notes with references to the illustrations of tjhe 
critics on the tragedies. On several qccasipns. he has on^ttecl 
to quote even Valckenaer himself. 

32. TpSoiiov liifi "^iyyof iioifov^tyo^. 

R. P. * Mird locuiiof rpOottoy piyyeg pro simpUci y^ijev. Una 
"tamen exemplo se^ ipse Euripides defendit Hippol. 275. IIc^^^ou, 

• G. W. ^Incogitantiam equdem V.D. tatit mirari nequeo. . Nimlntmp qms" 
'quis MwpttTctt Tpnator ifu^atvwper trcs dies «ii»pftTai* qw vcro rftro* ii|i4cp«>» 
per. amim solummodo ex tribtis. Optime et Sraciseime D. Joannes^ xi. 39. 
Kvfu , r^ o(ii* TSTAPTAIOS yap urtu Age verQ subititue rnffrffy ^ 
^nia corrumpes acpcssum dahis : ncc rfirv tamen minus Euripi£s menti 

diiconveniret^ 

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^tconvemret^ mtl verhontm temrem nuitesy et, tngemum comtructumttf 
tioc atOcm^ lii Iscet nonnihil incomtatUia fCjrlptpnbus^ geheraTiter verum est^ 
ct.rectunu Ut^ quid veRmy brevUer Jefiniamf TpT«»oj u*fu^a In eddem r§ 
successionem sm&cat ; T^ircc, nonUimJ 

How can the masculineSi T^tloc and TpfTaio;^ be joiiled t6 tHa 
feminine if^^a ? How can Tilafldici iSydpuTrog] in St. J9hny il» 
lostrate rp/7a<oy ^iryoj or T|vlfle<a *u«A^ ? T^^^ J?^^'^? continmtlson of 
titm is sufficiently marked by the accusative case ; and the sibgOr 
larity o{ the expression in Euripid^ arises from the adjective 
Tfilouofj^^which comprehends in itself. the notion of continuance 
of time, being joined to a substantive which also signifies time* 
The termination oio^, in this and in similax adjccttyes, is prot: 
hably derived from asi or aish being incorporated with an or« 
dinaL---As we have transcribed the whole notes of the editor 
and of his critic, in order to render the point in question 
llcrfectly clear> we beg to recommend the following words of 
Yalckenaer to the reader's consideration. Hippolytus 274* 
Tf Haifliir ifAi^eaf.li ** Tiiir rpijny i/Ms^av dixit Euripides rpOcdoty^ tit ri^ 
^f^ff^ar dicebattt et t^^m^v, Polydorus in Hecuba, V.32. T^- 
mtO¥ tin ^iyfos euic^wfuvo;* uhi SchoL multa tradehs de his numcra* 
hbusy irlaufla Si^ to tj ijaiov iy-rX Toi; Tf ilcy xi^cJai. Hie usitaio 
more scripsisset^ t^olxq^ x^u dta^oifju^oi' ut nostro loco^ r^lsiix'/ 
M-' Sa^Hof* emissis vocibus (piyUq et ifAt^avl Suatn outtc conjee^ 
turam C/. ReisiiuSf opinor^ jioUet doctis hmnibus propositam!* 

Let Reiske's note on the line in the Hippolytus be added : 
275. ** Aut r f Motion IJegendtwi,'] at V» 135. . producia tneHia 
vccati' metrt necessitate ^ aut alias sol cecum dixit* Ncn enim de 
die dicitur rqiliuxtf ifAi^av olffHii l(/}t¥ i indfuimgf sed 4 av9p(anos fc 
Tfthnr^'vel r(ifita ijJii. acr/Iif hliv^ in nomi/iativo^ et absque ^f^ifov.** 

We spare comments. Valckenwr compares the usage of 
rqiialot for Tf iTD in Euripides with that of ^^oliooiia for Trgolg^a ; 
we shall quote the authority of Thucydidcs: v. 75. p. 362. 
Tn ii ^f olf jaws xfMfst^ and vii. 5 1 . p# 479* T J feir w^t^xia^ 
In both places, however, some MSS. give srf ojif «. The reader 
may consult the notes ; and Henry Stephens, Thesa^ur. V« 
Tf /Jaioj and V. Wfo'tpiioj. - 

Tfilstiw q>eyfou it may be added, is one of the few passages 
^ivhich the writer of -that dull tragedy, Christus Patiens^ (attri- 
buted to Gregory Nazianzcn,) has borrowed from the Hecuba. 

41 • Tlfo^pctyfAa] This word is compounded of it^o and 
^fiyfMty not of wf if and ^^.— as ^poivfAU h said, and not irf oc- 
ivf^cu Yet here, and in v. 169, [Diatribe, p. 17,] Mf.W. 
wishes to spell this word \frith a double y/^gm/i;; JlfOffff^yfMC. 
He has also published ir(oj<rfarfjLa%v, in the Alcestls, jisy. .This 
is an improper addition^ Markland gives it with a single S in 
• the second Iphigcnia^^fc^ and 25 8. itnd Henry Stephens says: 



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9^ PteonV Hecuha (^•^Orestis^ &r.WakeficIdV DiatrJhs 

fro rfeijtiaf t^ietima : cr^dytoif. Fsrsan iamen sigmficmt id,, qttod 
jugtdationi pccudis pramttitur sacrificium, utidiin sif cum irfiivfiot^ 
ThisauryV£[. rijp.'' 

"Mr. PorsQu's conjecture of yi^f >^x^**9 >" thb yctsc, for 
y^Cit^^ is properly tcrinedjngenhmm by Mr. Wake^eU, 
53. r'T^tFaycHg ^y airi^'^xtiyn^ frcim 

The old'reading'is wVo <rf. Mr. Pi has published civ^ ,aod . 
«ajs * ajro pn iiro enwtdavit Kmgtusf Mv« W* ob^rres : 
* E^uidem^ifurn censeam Hii, 1.^. i^'ftx Xvctitn tentoru transit, 
JfMvocultt^adVtr.66* scribis commutata suntJ' 

!R^iske,also proposes aVo for iwi^ but mentions not King's 
nanje, ^srjf appears. to be the true reading; and vrc il^erte 
lither surprised at'not firiding it in Mr. P/a text. Brunck and 
Beck had both changed the i/Vo of Aldus. into the conjectured 
ft79, and .there w^s equal authority for the admission of vwtf ; 
whicK as,micht have bcen'stated byMr.W. is to be found in' 
the notes of ^usgrave : 13. </W <nu^ ^ L^gendunty ni foliar^ wfo 
«wif J^ 5i; vgi 3^», ▼. 59 > Nisi malis ix f <niwi!k, extra ten- 
tpriurp, ut itirtf tf f apOf ' Orest. 1377.* — The authors of . the 
BibHotbeca Criticii^^ppczr to prefer the former : ttjo trmtiAf. 

M]^. Vf'. proceccjs : * iripjit voia numstrum puto-^Rescripsirim : 
^^np^ — quasi sonus Hecuba inctdmtis auribus accident* Hmteri 
fhoen. 100. 

Ktigov vafaica kUfjM, 'EKTIEPA IIOAL' 

We thinK tjbat mg% wi'ia. is ri^ht \ and that the alteration into 
1^1 pb^curesi the passage, and is not to be defended by cmrba 
n^lfjLoata 9roS, where the vfcrb is followed by an accusative 
joined to the dative. All doubt will be removed by transcrib- 
ing a part of Mr. Person's note on the Orestes, 1427. 

• Verbay qu/t niotum ti^tficant, rede aeeusativttm adsciscunt tnstrw 
menfl out roffntri, qjiod praeipue adhibetur. Sic ita ir^' iwciicKif Hch 
1962, tibi nl^x miho fiulfius quam vo^u Ibid 55. v$p» vohi* B«W 
i^ud jMcos neut^rak esf virl^m ; ^dimt iamen no^x dixit Euripides^ 
Mlectr. 94. 1 182. Imo /Iristophancs Ec^ks. 1 6 1- *E»jeXr<ri«rouy oJk aw 
xcoSeUvi rw vQ^n Tot fT4fo>, tt {atj tuvI^ »*p^«G»Vtla»- Jnox* 14^5« ^fn 
Offffti tc^2 M»'«»»?»?' aV°^^» i?oCaf, Pben. 1 4 CO. weo^ H ' ki5x&» 
^w> SopbqcifS apud P}^tiun3k * MS. in nota ad HesycL V. *Oxoi 
'Ansdlcim* Stfi^fV' '^^X^?"' ''^^'^*« 'AtcwluUfa^ i^jCTw^ »^«.' * • 

It m^f }^ adde4 th^t IJepry Stephens says in his Thesaur* 
III. ij?. *• jid 7fig4^ ^i&VfimV^ simpliciUr iransferq. pertinet 

■ ■ ,_ , — ; ' ■ ■ ^ *- — '■ ^ '- ~— 1 — i-2 *-"i.J; ' 

^ A Quotation ftpm Photius ! — fan wc forbear to express our 
ardent uriskes that this valuaj:^ and eagerly* expected l»e;uc9n may 
sooa'a{^^par ! W« fed true d^ii^ht at myjg^^ an4 perusal of thesf 
Gupck f^y« ^— iuil kt m»t 1^ Ptttnar9^i Cpnnanti^ople be for- 
gotJk^i* ^ ' * ' 

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^lOot'e* ' Bufiptdf'af^rrur^ xsfd ^S trtcmrSy iro$«j /wr E tfftiofh • 
p/if^fff^de^ S*---ThG rcardcr will fitid in Luciany if thcscwch be * 
Mantif ^rfooAlof iro3a> and Tr^o^Mttv ^o3ix. 

~55. £« Vof A^wie^tf^ J^ptArtf.] Mr. VF. hesitaftcs in decMhig wlic- 
tBn th6'cdiu5r^^ and 'interpreters understood this usage of £^ 
aftd-Tcferrttr the eXJj^andtioftd inf hi«-Sy^/i*OrJfwa IV. wiiidi^ 
Mr. P. neglected: Whence the ddubt sptings, he has not in-f- 
£^ed "a^ The trin^htiotr givtrs : ex regns ai^us. The La- 
tins use EX in phrases similar to. those in whjch tb^ G^eeks^ 
employ EK. The readef mdyconttiilt'DonatBS on^the Andria 
of Terence, I. i. 10. 

6^^-274^ Ak Arbtophaner coUt: iiAm/9r twff»r-^€}ieiMfir 
V}iAiiv6UiiZy Mr.P; wish^^the^t1mo^bm8Qs,,^X^JTOT«*<l.xl^,all^ 
^Si^itSUaifHf td change- plaee^. Mr; W« would pHice^ V « 7/. 
after V. 68. and ct^mw %\9Km ftom Hesycbiut hj^^A^^ 

notem^ cpnfickw^afi^i. at ikptHtiHs^evMif, F*. Di crmunt suspif^ 

G.W. 

. Ifa07change.be' neeessaryv the akeimtioft of MnP. is^ac*^ 
saredly more simple than- chat- of Mr^W. Ther^fennocM 
the Ramtiorcflre^i indeed;, what'hat freqnnit})! amieJi uft in^tbr 
perasa) or the Professoi^s Jioto%. tba« he i»a8rfamiliaffl]i %C9 
quikitec^wieh Aiistophaaei as ho is uridi the tragexlkt^f^Whffi 
iM^cauae tlknofc^ sometimes hastho stgnificaiios^if 'Aul%, S^i^Mm 
Aio^ must be translated splendor so/is. Dies, is not clca& The 
text seems to require no; change: Ti>*>^/kM^^i(v0ii%v7c^«]|iifid9 
u'nisfa, are the word^ of £ustachius, in Iliad^I}, g. 131. £d» 
Baa. ihese are nearly repeated in Od. T. 713. aad Tur^elnis 
b^ obserrcd : VeUres somnia e terra nasci credidgrutU^ et ah mk 
fifit^ maniiuf^ mitti* Itaqui Terr A ah EsMripubs fAMXa^-tfl^film 
/MTif /Wif «>»5 in Hecuba. Adversary XX.VIIU c.4du p.63l« ** 
In V. 6^. Mr. W. proposes : 

T» 7r«7 AP^ aifOi4ou &^X9i ^^^ 
Iqxitii 6f T/ mf ai^fim^ vbich Mr. Porson gives from the 
Harlbtan MS*-- Aldus has iifOfA\ and the rest duo^oyMt* lo 
an edition of the Hecuba h^ Moreihis^ Paris, 1642!, in 4to., 
which Mr. P.- does not appealr Co have s«en, the lection is aUa 
|i|i«Pcgi;-^Mt. W.'s insettio/l of AP* may be defended: Soph. 
^* 5K%. Xlm wot' if 2rf«{| x«f* itt<rfA6^i\ Arist. Vttp. 143* 
Ti' DOT* ^AF ij Hm'Tm ^3 5 T«V d^a is also in Eur. I^j^ 
8284 irhe#e Mr. Egcrton has admitted into bis 4ext the re^ 
yud ia t e d correction of Musgrave, without a ck no wlcg emcot, 

■II II I .. nfi iti n n g i . gj i« .1 Mil i Mn a^>ii i »i i > n m \ m 

' * WtBlicr of tfaes^ panMagits hat tecapcd Mr« Pofso^'s yt M ar ch ^s. 
f We give lUs daCe^Dm Han^obdi u our cofy )bi*1okU»c Mtk. 



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I^t this pissagCy ^d the proposed ^Iterations, be left tp Mn 
Fprson i who, whep he arrives »t it, will probably remove alt 
* dispute. 

It must be recollected, however, that^ though this insertion 
o/ AF rnay be allowed, it is by no means necessary ; as there 
zp^ oih^X'Parcemiati, qt anapestics df fourteen lines in this 
syfttem, which ceases to be regular after V. 67. 
. Instead of iyKvfoi r' ii^ivf Mr, fpr^on publishes^ after 
RcisKe, - „ ^ 

T«'y xioKtfJn GfnKfir jimJ/x"* 
which Mr. Wakefield chuses to render thus ! * ^cn* /oA^ a// «x/ 
medi dotntts ancoraj sic^ ut ancora Unet Tbtactam ;' and boldly cor^ 
rects : *Oj MEN02 o\wa^ AFKYPA t^ «/i«v. In the Attic Poets, 
we recollect no instance of such a junction as /laW oiiect^. The 
position of t' for xf , after mynM^ inclines us to join with the 
Professor, in judging Reiskc*s emendation to be true^ 

The following passage of Suidas, omitted by the editors of 
Hecuba, had almost escaped our recollection: XtjLxicru rtfy 
hfwt iynv^aof. "Ayxf/ftf, fiila^^im^ a^o rccv iniccv, v aVfaXtia, 
<»g '^ofox}^ii h ^Mi^» ^ ^Eu^tmSifij h 'ExxCr. Hesychius, V^ 
"Ayxvfa^j refers to the place in Sophocles, and the Sangerm^ 
Grammarian preserves the verse : AxV im /Aulpi xs-aiSi c ayxvfM 
giw.' In Brunck's Lexic, SophocL p. 47. who has not mentioned 
Suidas* The line before us is ths one intended by Suidas in 
the Hecuba. 

100. *E»a6»», VTTQwili Tfot o' iXiao^nr, 

G.W.— * W. DD. vere xafA.n^o'rrolan oMtsstmum menJum^^^CM' 
ioquere quiverunt.'-^Sat tciof neque juvenias ftudtosa^ nemie ptmc^oret 
Hudiose jitventuih^ firoiem bellulamf vfo^ 9 f^*a^y, nohu ^ttnt d^loTAn 
turii Rescribeiuktm scilicet : 

Inierfretis officio fungatur Orest, 4J6. ed Beck* 

The words are (for Mr.W. has not given them) : HpoA iw^ 
ilJLi'KKoLiaiwoii^* V. 450. £d. Porsoni; which may, indeed, 
explain what meaning Mr. W. wishes to aiEx to Ouia^^ 
but cannot be considered as a defence of the change. 

It is to be lamented that Mr. W. did not assign his reasons 

, for wishing the alteration of ^n-^of cl fXiAorOny. Aui^ui is derived 

, from Aiaof^ as the Etymologist observes, p. 27. i. and p. 620, 

1.; and liot from 'Axi^co, per trnnspositionem \, It signifies 

", * So the Latins use the verb contendere* 
* - + This 48 not merely the optnion of the Schol. on Eun Hfcc* too. 
but alio ol^thc Etyoaologist, Y. ' AAioc/loj^ and Y. A%aM%\. V. 



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'I^otsbii*/ JJ^AU & Ofist/s, bf Wakdfietcf / Dtatrih. ^f 

'cgtt0fjad9i turbo ;— wc transcribe from H, Stephens ;— and in 
the passive form, Separo rngf Deelino^ Devito ; vcl ctiam Ab- 
8CEDO, S£C£DO. In Homer, it is joined with Asi/f o, ££, ZU% 
*Afip\f and IIPO'2), with which last preposition it is used by 
Euripides. 

'£AiaV6>tt is explained by the Scholiast on the passage tX^o- 
ffipvyvf^ viXSor. Hodfier. 11. X, 12. has J,y Jc iw^n Aia^^DCf— - 
Ttt vera hue ^/Wr////i,-— ClariC, Tu auUm 'hue cucurrutu 
DaMM. Lexic* Pindar, E^ifuyii^ UvtTdPo^i H i^Asvnff)};* ScHO« 
xiASTEs. Eustathius, indeed, says, Qp. 1254. 35. £d. Kom. 

1349. 39.) TlXtJirlflM ii M»t To yuOff^JtVCUf OUH ITTI TQU fvyU9 

i|cI^7>K Tr$ luiiiui iioVf 'itKopfiouroL^ Again, p. 1294. 12* 

*Xi^1f tin du Xia^Krim t6 Ixfiuyuv*^^ * 

This Tcrse of the Hecuba is quoted by H. Stephens in his 

index, V. Aw^», without suspicion of error ; and Aiol^ofjbOit^ 

Sscedo, is frequently used by ApolL Rhodius, as in III. 1164. 

•Er x»f?> cii roui yt xcQxUPOAUVai^ 'EAIA'IOH. 

Let us now examine the proposed correction ; than which 

mbil iUgantius^ nihil efficacius^ says its author: EBIAS0HN, 

lor EAIAieHN. The change of A into B is, indeed, slight : 

but what is the meaning of the word ? that is to be collected 

from G.W/s citations, which are frotn Arrian, Diony^ius Hali- 

cam. and Lucian ; three /r^// writers, who lived long after ^ 

age of Euripides ; and who ought not to be considered, alone, 

as sufficient authority for the. defence of an. emendation in a 

Greek tragedy, or comedy. 

As the force of the original word Aia», mnino^ himirum^ 

' valde, has an infliience in the meaning of the derivative Aioi^o^f 
Moifto eelentef et valih^ and Aia^o^ai, Amoveo me celerittt tt 
omninoff so Bio^, and Bta^tf/xai, the middle, vi urgto, aild 
Bia^ojuof, the passive, vi urgeor, always partake of the signifi- 
cation of BIA, from which they ar^ descended. Mr. Wake* 
field's first citation is from. Arrian De Venat. xvif. where he is 
q>eaking of Hares : U '«•« '"«^*« BIAZONTAI, ipi^wlif w^bj rac 
w«c. Vi suilMA per camporum planitiem cursHm intendunt, 
contendintes cum canibus, Blancard.—- The second is from Dlo- 
nysius Halic. Anttq. Rom. II. 66. Vol. I. p. X22. 'During a 
fire in the Temple of Vesta, Lucius Cecilius, in order td save 
what had httn left by the Priestesses, va^auyiiyvj^ii i»< t£ 
Hztifjttva BIASAZ0AI, summo cum periculo est ausus in drdint 
penetrate jrrumpere. Hudson. In these two passages, as ia 
the third from Lucian, the verb in the present middle cannot 

- be allowed as a defence of the admission of the aorist passive, 

■ » % ■ . ■ ■ ' ' :a ' ' ", *"^"^ 

• Conf. Suidas, el Hcsychjus.' t From Damm*« Lexicon. . 
'» which 



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Tf4 B«1WftVJa!ww«#«rOri;^^^ 

■^hkh weda not TccolfectitfthdOfe^fc plays. ^Sui^v indeed, 

says : ^^tk^cnhx, kx\ -« ttJ rm nokff%oi\<At '^tOiS^m, B^ofA&Of 

' ia af passive sense» is not unusual in ThuGydidet ;•- firom- wliom 

also die following wtardjunaf betrsttscribcd : ^(piif^^^d^Jiin i 

' ©ncER, TV. 79. p. 250. 17. 

• If tbese remarks ^)C' just,' how ^ani^i&rf^dw b«. put iota; tkc 

• BWuthrbf ' the chorus- in the • Hecuba, - Who <oine, fnnn * the 
' tents of theif Grecian- RMstersy ta inform their- icviner queen 

• iirhat'vi^s' Che intended fete of Potyxenl^hei: daughter ? They 

' cume in hastCj-^cnrditfyf lAia'^V but not by compulsion*— 

^ TBCwfcrtffjV must meany ' I have- been forced ;• which is ^ totally con- 

traryto'the sense 'of' the ^eofitextr vorwould^eveirthc.middle 
aoristy iCiA^rafinf, I have forced-mfselfs oi Ibaveforeed»tftf^9»fay^ 
be admis^ble;— ^This eorrectton'-we^^eleot )- tbocigh- we are 

* aware that we may incur the^-cflnsure' of po.ssessing no- tsue 
-^Grtck taste \ for thui Mr. W* concludes his note^ ov.^his 
place; ^ 8ed tmmt naiis'tAeen^ibtd^emeMdatwnem-^jiiffiim verissi* 
mam agmscfnt gentdrto - Hterarunf Grscarum^ putuii i$niacH! 

* Diatribe, p. la. 

112. 'CXolfSZi Xfmoi^ t^fltwi ftrti o5rXo/f— — 

Mr. P- xestores "Ow .from* Aldus and . the . IfiS&r h^tead ^of 

r itii the conjecture of Canter, .wiiich Mpsgrave coounondsj and 

'"wfiicbBnmcfcf'Ammon^.andBcclchave inserted in their texts: 

• 'Phtt'7mimtesti-'ohsfity^& th&.Professorv fLq.uk simul ef rm 

ipsam^ it ret tempuSy qtihrn st rem soUmmemorat* 

/OiML opinion coinoides^wjth^hat of Mr* W.^>frhp {la^'l^^tow- 

• ed«4HB.^B(pprebfttton"on this i?estoration, ,but adds:^*^.-Or J[as 

'h^ gencmlly'teims the editor) trafione^* suas rninus^ofefi^aiefvi'' 

^,idettnr4e^suUse» ', Sic^,0xpositas-^pO0tuit:. pliu esff ^i quis tempus 

' : rei^ •^j«^zm1Tem.ip6am . m^mofet, quia In .tempore <9^K<f>Plf&^^ 

' ' tamsaria res.ipsa,' sed in re mu iia vldr/im-t^ni^fus* 

Mr^P; then^ubjoins, ""Q^^hicridem ^4/. j^//fi:/./fii^m^a^; wKich 
' t ha-pnores by anochpp- passage &om.tbc fiecuba^ f<op[i.^Q^h^les» 
-•: ^V i273*-Hia83t»Ariatopbaiics^v*. 1054. Vesp.^^^;^ in whicli 
*^'jbs^'^TVhe^'»cotiQns,*atands for ^fOre, and not.for'"07i/of 
■ which^he fimil iota is nev.cr ifijided bythe .cpfnip- writers i—A^ 
^''«xoeliel1^eaaDonv~^hich fimnck had.estabUshQd in.h^s |iotesi|On 
ii the Siatf* p2XcLyfistr^ 6^ H and. on jothtuc p9S$,agca pf Ari^to- 
tr^iiianes.**-It.wa8 probably, up taawn ^Davs^eVnWho, in hSs 
s: MistHlant £rkicmi p» ^39, or p^ ^37, Edit. J^\xtgt^^ XP^A\ iti 
-^^^IieiiKiflir Af Aristaplume% Sipa, 'Ofl' n' arou;(r4$,-rrfor *Q\4 ^ow^ 

* •^iyAiev^x^B^^GodemRanefm^oiinv^rxw^ Pri 

• -^ TFonyoij*— *^ as-k jfr tacitly, .quoted. hy^Aanley^ in _hi^ TO*^ 

dinttrtife Bf EtAyltts, p. 707. 

H4. 



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PorsonV tieciila f^ Orestes, ^tf WakcBclaV mutrihi. ^ 



^*.^ 



154. — ^oinc'co/«iaif 

R. P. * Mos erat apud lieteres vrrgintiur plMtHiim • dmi 
pstareJ' Mr.' P- then citei Homer. U. B'; 872. AtUtc^L 
^v. d7o~*ithc instanced 'merely 'pi'ovc, as fhc n6tc~aJBC*ts, 
that Virgins tJisfei t6 Wear gold, but do hot refer directly to Ihc 
decoratrons of the neck. Mr. W. complains of this ohridsibdj 
and exclaiins : * Mrjg^^f /' 'sperialc aliqhid ' dej^idefamus g quaU 
umcum Vifgitn'lepldulii'Sumciat. Mn» VII.'35i,— i-;f# tortile 
CotLO AvLXum ingen/ co/u&er,* 

A most infelicitous example ! Alecto throws one of the- 
lerpents from her head into the bosom of Amata : 
** ///f, infer vettit et levta pectord lapsus ^ 
Volviiur adtdctit nullo^ faSkque furenkmf 
Vspeream ins far am ammgm ;fa tdrtUe coih 
jititmmingens Loluheryfit hng4S tenia viu^f 
/nnectitqve comasy eS memhru hdricus errat.** 
' We baVc transcribed thfe whale passage 5 and we camiot^. 
ccxvc in itany proof that tie necks of virgins were antientljr Or- 
namented with gold.--.The snake, iiideed, is changed into a 
golden twist for the neck of Amata : but Amata* was Viot a 
• Ti'RdiN. 'She was the wife of Latinus, and the itfOi^ffEKof 
Xairmia. 

Mr.'T^. thefi* rdnarks that Polyxcna couH not ttsily prociire 
muliumduri\ and he thitlks, ^ekganringerirvm-Ptetk Jv*natu- 
/ ran ^uoda^/decore, nok ddf^tdi >cogttdturttni fuisse in ^hQerioea! 
Hfe jWptiscs to read I* XPT2x3*OBOr Jfff>ij, instead fAyjptrt^ 
^^ou.^ ThV^pithtftXfy^rc^^dPo^ appears to be use* in this^acc, 
in con'^^^ubnce of the custom among thcanticnts cffdecdrating 
Tictlnis/^htthcr^hartian 6f animai, before-they wtji^ isaQrifi<:ed. 
Thus in {fid Ihrd'Aida;^ Mauff says ia Macaria, who had oBcried 
her life iri cAnsel^ufeftce' ofthc decree of the Oracle: 

his' ' questi6nsy liis^ ^ daugfitet ' EViHnr^ 
rin'^t seif-devmcd, onr'the funeral ^ilc 
is: 

s Tov x«f«^ ko^ixtii SifMde; ; 

may ' consult ETian 'P^ar. Hist. f. JiVL 

with the authors* tb ^hom tfiey tefer, 

-55.^^? T^^ifPJiT^.^^^^l^^^ which ApoHo'dorusbrbiight to $0- 

j^^^])gforc fif drank "the "poison. ' Dori'ille in'CSarit. p.* 68. 

may &€ ao^^^' who IS cited by Matl^arid on the' verse in the 

. jSuppljces* , ^oi;i tlTose it will appear that, whether the'^fson 

was con^demned xo die,, or stood forth as a voluntary vic^m, the 

•custom was the same with regard to external decorations. ' 

* A« 

- ' Digitized by VjOOQIC 



5f* PbrsdlT/ He^uhd tsf 6*esiis^ £^ WakcfieWV Diatriie. 

As to the means of procuring ornaments, (tntfbum aun. 
Diatribe 13.) it is not certain how far Polyxena, who' was in-* 
fended for a religious ceremony, might have been stripped ; 
• auad 'Hecuba herself afterward proposes io collect, fronv-the 
c^tives, whatever they might have been zhh to conceal from 
their new masters, 617— 622> in order to adorn the deid 
body of her daughter Polyxena. On this very passage, iter. W; 
gives a note, Diatribe^ p. 27, 

It has been stated that Mr. W..prop68CS to change XPTI6- 
*OPOr into XPTIO^pBpr. He points out &I5 great sin*- 
litude, and tlius defends thd correction : 

m *oTM«, XP«EOB0rrPYX£y 

£adem mcJkina Ckarcho ftUitnJa est apud Athetutumy xra. 2. p. 564^ 

jtoXov TO Tr^oqtivou Lfgfy 9r«^dtp*»f XF¥£CHK)BnN* ut mox in eddem pa-* 
gindc n xaTiKt-jr^oiunn XPTSEOBOrTPYXE raX!:^Tn:r. Nuimroi loah- 
nan non attingo ; qutgn me longe perltlorem artrficemf FoKSONUȣcOf 
postulfnt* 

This emendation is liiable to objections, ist, Tlierc is no 
such word as xf »'^o^of.— 2dly, If there were such a com* 
pound, it would signify, qui aurum timet ^ as ^T^^of^'oCo^ means, 
^i aquam timet : there are no similar compounds of OoCn, 
Ciwia.— '3dly, If it were suflScienlljr authorized, and if it could 
signify Golden^hairedf ought it to be applied to a mortal? 'the 
Heroes and Heroines of Antiquity ars celebrated by the Poets 
for their H^vOof irTvlxafMiy but not for x^itno^. To speak of 
Euripides alone : the adjective HavSo^, ^avOii', icMv^ is joined 
to the 'substantives, BoV7f vxojt "EOctpa, K«p, lUpaXfi, K^au, 
Kpac, HxiuofMi^ or Xawlu, according to their respective genders, 
in his descriptions of Hippolytus in Hipp. 1^59* — ^Lycus. 
Here. Fur. 232^— Menelaos * Orest. 1558. Iph. A, 175— 
Orestes. Iph. Taur. 52^ Electr. 518.— Parti^enopjeus. 
PhoMi. I J94. So also with regard to females : Cassakdi^a. 
Iph. A. 763.— Clytemnestra. Electr. 1078.— ELECtftA. 
Electr. 523. Glauge. Med!. 985;.— HeiLena. Helen 1244.— 
Iphigenia. Iph. A- 685, 1376. Iph. T. 173.— PHJE6iA. 

***??• ^3^' ^^^- To these may be added the Son of .Her* 

cuks. Here. Fur. 995, and the Children of Medea and Ja- 
son, Med. 1 1 50. f . . • 
•^ — — > ■ - 

♦ H^e Mcnelaus is called, |«rdof, without the addition of another 
substantive } as Harmonia is 4«»Gu, in Mcdca, 859. 

f A few passages arc omitted, which are not to the present pur- 
pose | as, CycL 499. Troad. 229. Here. Fur/j^a. 

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IVjrsQnV HioAa ^ Orestes, (sf WakcficIdV Diatribe. 97 

Similar fotnis of expression might rcadiLy be produced from 
the other tnmc writers : but we have intentionally confined 
ourselves to Euripides. From whom, however, can instances^ 
in which mortals are described with golden tair, be produced ? 
Not so the son of Mnesarchus:— he affixes, indeed, the epi- 
thet Mv to Harmonia, in MeJ. 859, and {ayOoj to ftacchus, 
in Cjd. 75, and in Bacci. 235.— Grf^« Hair, however, with 
him, (as it should be,) is solely the attribute of Divinity 1 

Qreusa thus addresses Apollo, Ion. 9034 
■■ ■ ■*■■ ^Xl Aaloyf vHi^ 
* #. # # 

Mofpuugm 

So Apollo is styled XtwrokSfui;^ in the i^uppl; 978; Iphig. 
Taur. 1244. Troad. 255. 
The same epithet is also applied td'^EfWf, in J^. Atd. 548^ 

Tc? iifkipiiau xfi^ghwi 
We quote from Miisgrave^ 

Diana is also thiis invoked, in the very passage whleh Mjr« 
W. has cited, Diair. 14.— Eurip. Phmniss. aooi . 

'11 Aioc tfyoif "Afsfu^ 
Aoi/Xoawof tX»juv* 
Hippolytus likewise thus calls 6n.fcis tutelary divinity t 
Jt^. 82. 

'aw f (d ^/a)) iicmoiw, XS^^^^S ftifAvi 

This passage brings to our recollection a corrupt Verse in the 
Electra of Euripides i in which, instead of avaivfAOilc^ which 
doses the iambic with an obtrusive anapest * in the fifth place^ 
we venture to propose, (V. 886.) 

^AmAifMla seems to have been derived from the cited plact 
of Hippolytus. 'AyuXfjiala is used in tWo verses of this play, 
immedialely preceding 876 and 878, in which theie very orna- 
ments are mentioned* 

The watd^AyahiAot has been illustrated, with hi& Usual accu- 

ncy, by the leartied editor of Timaeus ; who is no longer in a 

■-■I - ' - --_-•-_ ^ ■*..., , 

* Consult Mr. Person's Prtfate to his Hccubi^, p« vii. 
Rev. Jan. 1799. H itate 



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'pi PorsonV Htcubn fcf Orestes^ &f WakcficI<Pj biafriht. 

Btate to enjoy the praises, nor to repel the cerisurcs, of His eon- 
temporaries. —The intelligence of his death reached us very 
lately. — ^This melancholy event has carried off the last of the 
school of Hemsterhusius ! The limits of a Review arc by no 
means calculated to admit a description of his virtues as 
' a man, nor'of his learning as a Scholar. Half a Century has 
nearly elapsed since the publication of his first Epistila Critich 
on Homer*s Hymns, and on Hcsiod, addressed to* Bis eminctn 
friend, Ludovic Caspar Valcfccnaer. This long ^period has 
scarcely^ produced any critic who has equalled him in elegance 
of taste, in depth of research, or in soundness of erudition ; and 
during all future ages, if the writers of observations and the 
editors of antient authors be deshrous of arriving at the style of 
^genuine cpminentator, pure in his Latlnity, deaf in his ex- 
pressions, concise in his phraseology, temperate In his censures,, 
calm, in his decisions, sound in his judgment, acutis in his 
conjectures, secure in his quotations, disdainful of imaginary 
witticisms, and superior to pvJtty cavils, they will " devote their 
days and nights" to those perfect models of critical compost* 
lion, tlie works of David Ruhnkenius. 

Nos tecta fovtb'rmus osm 
VioVts^^ et fronde frequenti i 
Titultimque etfrigtda saxa 
L'tquido spargemus odore!^ 

To proceed. In the fourth place, if there were such a com- 
pouqd in existence, and if it could signify golden* haired^ and 

'if it 'c(>l^ld bC'f^l^fd to mere mortal woman, would Euripides 
have used it as an epithet for the neck of Polyxena ? It would 
surely rather have raised disgust than compassion, if he had 
described this ill-fated daughter of monarchy as haVipg a neck 

. coverpd with a natural tegument of golden hair ? The com- 
pounds xfivffioQoalfuxo^ Jmd xp'^^cx'aaf; are never admitted as 
epithets of A npjT. There is a passage in TheocrhUs,*indeed, 

' in which i<^Cf i^ in^^i occufs; bat then the poet h Speaking 
of the well-feathered neck of Chanticleer. It is at tHc close 
of the Epithalamium of Helen, Idyll. ij, 36. 

as pvid says, Metam* XIII. 

Pluma TEGiT VOLUCR^s *. oviius sua lana iecort est. 

£uripides^ indeed, never distinguishes the neck of youthful 
females by this epithet, but he applies it with great propriety 
«D the beard of Hercules : 

*Af fw iMlcf^* iir^x^ ^^n^i^* Here. Pur. 936. 



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PonohV Hecuhatsf OnsUf, bt Wakefield'/ Dlt^rih. 99 

^£ii(|»i| maf be added from this passage to Beck's Index to 
Euripides, in which it is omitted. 

Now to examitie the authorities which Mr. Wakefield has 
called forth in defence of XPTDO^BOS. 

The first is from the Phceniss. of Euripides, 190. and has 
been already produced. In it, ''Af^fjui is called xf<^>oCoV1^2^o; : 
but, as Diana is a goddess, and as the compound epithet goifkfi' 
haired is applied. to her, and not to the neck of a mortal, we 
conceiTC chat it can have na weight on the present occasion. 

The second is said to be from Clcarchus : but Clearchus the 
poet was a comic writer. The passage is from Lycophronides; 
and if Mr. Porson had recollected it, he would probably have 
cited it as a confirmation of the propriety of his poet^s xof- 
taw m x^vffofifou iu^^. It is quoted, indeed, by Clearchus 
the Peripatetic, a pupil of Aristotle, in the first book of his 
Erotics ; a prose work, which is frequently mentioned by Jthe-' 
fi£HS. The whole passage, with the metres properly digested^ 
should stand thus : 

Ilfd; d\ffi&oaf ydf^ ucAocmf (pfio\ KAEAPXOX, h rtS %^(iSr<a rCh^ 

I.'Oi^E va^of a^fi\f0ff oi/7f vap^hav. 

2, Tttfir Xf^opofiCifj JyS^ yvvautdv 0cAvMoXn'uf. 

3. KoeXoV TO nepiffUTToy* d»d Kio'fjtiou mpintim 
i\, *h{yd^ ^Aiidit £y6ofiirto'kitpit, 

1. MetrttM Bpichoriamlncum trim, aeaiah 

2. Lmicum a major e, tetram. Sotadic* 

3. Uem, 

4. Epichoriam, irimetrum brachfcdt. 

Lycophronides, as far as we recollect, is quoted only i» one 
other place by Atbenatu^ in which the same Kberttcs with re« 
^ect to metrical arrangement are observable : 

t. Tof dfoOiinfJu m-fciiw, / 

3. Koi vAxa^ xai jorveim, 

4. Kai rh hpafAt09 >a7y()i\ hrti fM vioi d>^^ nix^^ 
5* '£vi T^ Xdpm (piX£M9 n 9cmia tuu iiakdf* 

U MsT&9if OMV^. dim, acat* 

2. Iamb, partheik. In Atbenmo kgitur wifAOU 

^. dori^ank-^An, aeat. 

4. Antisparticum pentam. brachyc* uU Editt^ Aid* et BasiL 

acbibent i»Ji pino et»>^. 
5* Jami. trim, acaial.' addidimus n. Ista vocula omissa^ 
waetrumfit Efiionicum a miaore trim. acat. In prjttia sedo 
Mttomacrot, secunda hnga sobsta; et in tertia iamb. sy%jg% 
Another mode of. dirkton may be proposed. It is very dif- 
ficult tP dccifde which is the more eligible way of measuring 

Ha the 



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TOO PorsonV Heeuha t^ Orestes^ fi WakcfiddV Diairite. 

the fragments of Nomes, and Dithyrambic Odesj or unfettered^ 
Inscriptions. 

Mr. W/s third instance Is from the Cyclops of Philoxenuf> 
and may be thus arranged : 

I. "^Xl HaX>a'7r^ic'a'jrt^ 

I. Ionic, a tnaj, dimetr. brachycsi. 

S. Choriamb » dimeir. hy per cat. In secunda udi^ prima hng0 
solt4ta, 

3. Choriamb, dimetr. hyper cat. In prima nde^ prima hn^ 
soluta. 
Our opinion of Fhiloxenus, it must be added, perfectly 
agrees with that of the learned and elegant translator of Aris- 
totle's. Poetics, Mr, Twining *. In p. 178 of his Notes, he ob- 
serves that the poem of Philoxenus, intended by Aristotle, in 
chapter vii* << must clearly have been either a Nome, or a 
Dithyrambic poem ; most probably the latter. Phiioxenus is 
.recorded as a Dithyrambic poet: it is by no means certain^ that 
the 'Cyclops of Phiioxenus qaentioned by Atheuaeus, ^lian^ aiul 
6thers, is the piece here alluded tx> : and if it were, which, 
undoubtedly, appears rather probable, I know of no sufficient 

J roof that it was a drama, as it has been sepeatedly called* 
r*^ian is to be regarded, it certainly was not ; for he calls 
it /buXo( — a term appropriated to Lyric poetry. — T«» Ktm?imwa 
ii^yaaoHOf ruxv lavlou M^AXIN to twy^irlov^** 

The Cyclops was certainly not a play. In the Excerpta of 
Grotius, two verses are in$erte(), which are assigned to the 
cemcdy of the Cyclops ^y Philox^us. The first of thc«e r 

is quoted by Athemeus, VIII. p. 362. A. — by Zenobius, II. i4b 
and by Diogenianus, II. 32. without mentbning the name of 
the author ; though the two latter state, that these are the 
words of Polypheme to Ulysses, tir ILwtKuw^ or Ki/xxanri 
i^oifjuxk. This drama, however, was not the Cyclops of .Phi« 
loxenus ; for Suidas^ in his note.on this proverbial iambic, ex- 
pressly tells us that it is a ycttc* ii *Ap^tm) Kiii^TOi, on the 
authority of Chameleon, in his work De iatyrif f «. 

The other fragment is tak^n from Zenobius, V. 47. iwrho 
^Ms this Cyclops AfoifAo, and from Diogenianus, VII. 19. 
*Ofu /a' i AolifjM9 ri^otli avyxciliTg^tv \ they. are the words of 
Ulysses, when he was shut into the cavern of Pblypheme. 
In order ta render k an iambic verae^ Grodus- reads crvyxa- 

♦ See Rev. N..S. vol. iv. p.383.— viL p.iai,^«-»xi. p. 341. 
f Corf* cHam Suidafi V. A|#T»ot; niKu^* 



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Monthly Catalogus, America. loi 

Ifi^^o, as does Gatakerusy Advers. MiscelL Posth. >:.p. 522* 
£. The active form is right ; as Euripides, Baccb* 509. 

Again, 6 1 8. 

Hemstcrhusius was aware that the middle voice was not to be 
admitted, but he wished the line to be made a Trimeter. He 
therefore proposes cuyHahTfiiv civ ; in his Notes on Xenophon's 
Ephesiaca^ MiscelL Obser. Tom. VI. p. 303. He should have 
explained the use of this additional particle, and should have 
proved the necessity of rendering it an acatalettic, instead of a 
catalectic verse. Valckenaer^ indeed, justly observes <^ <T\fy}ta%» 
tW^tSto GrsciSi ^ibtis nostra debemus monummfn, ncri'^in usu 
fidssef* Yet he would change the word into cvyHoitiHiJtv^ ia 
order, it should seem, to complete the verse. Adnot. in Eur. 
fllppol. V. 1389. p. 314. The fragments of Philoxcnus, 
which still remain, undoubtedly bear not the traces of the usual 
dramatic measures. The Cyclops was in dialogue, as were the 
Mimes of Sophron ; which, though of a dramatic cast, were 
not plays^ or Fabula. — There is a verse, indeed, which mocb. 
resembles the line from Philoxenus : 

which is said to be from the Andromeda of Euripides, bf 
Casaubon, Animad. in Athen. III. 23. p. 203.— ^by Gataker, 
A. M. P. 522.— by Barnes, in his Addend.^^hj Valcken. in 
Hipp. Eur. 1389.— and by Beck in his Addend, ad Musgr.frag" 
menta. We know not, however, in what antient writer it is 
quoted, nor on what authority it is assigned to the Andromeda 
i( Euripides. It is omitted by Musgrave. 
[To be continued*'} 

MONTHLY CATALOGUE, 

For JANUARY, 1799. 

AMERICA* 

Art. 14. A short Account of the priucipal Proceedings cf Congress^ m 
the late Session, and a Sketch of the State of Affairs between the 
United States and France, in July 1798. In a Letter from Robert 
Goodloc Harper, Esq. of South Carolina, to one of his Consti- 
tuents. 8vo. 18. rhiladelphia printed ; London reprinted for 
Wrirfit. 

'pJ^E French arc certainly not to be ranked among the very few who 
make a moderate and just use of power. Their continued aggres- 

loons have at kngth determined the Uniud Sutcs to put thcmselvea 

H ^ . *" 

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101 MoHTHLT Catalogue, JTutory. 

in a coii<itition of defence agamst attack and to repel insult. In thii 
letter, Mr. Harp^' infonns his constituents of the preparations on 
which Conmss had resolved, and gives a short account of the annud 
revenue and expenditure. Great moderation is shewn hi the resolu- 
tions of Congress ; who, notwithstanding the depredations censmit- 
ted on their trade by the French, have only, for the present, autho* 
rised their ships to capture, and bring in tor condemnation, French 
armed vessels. Unarmed ships are not to be molested. Mr. H. 
wannly recommends a vigorous resistance on the part of America ; 
and this, he doubts not, will soon induce the all-grasping French to 
keep their proper distance. 

HISTORY. 

Art. 15. A new and improved History of England from the invasioii 
of Julius Cxsar to the End of the Thirty-seventh Year of 
George III. By Charles Allen, A. M. Embellished wiA Four 
Copper- Plates, and a Chronological Chart of the Refolutions in 
Great Britain. Concluding with a short but comprehensive his- 
torical View of Europe, from the Abolition of the Monarchical 
Form of Government in France 5 the Military and Naval Opera- 
tions, with the Conquests and Revolutions in Italy to the Jrcace 
of Udina, the Changes and Revolutions in the French Republic, 
&c. 12 mo. 4s. bound. Johnson. 1798. 
The knowlege of history is justly considered as a very important 
part in every system of education, as there is no study which pos- 
sesses greater efficacy in removing prejudices of every description, nor 
any whiph conveys more beneucial instruction. This knowlege is 
admirably calculated to instil into young minds just and liberal senti- 
ments, and to inspire them with a generous spirit of emulation. Tlie 
censure and contempt with which history marks the characters of 
the vicious and the mean, and the praises which it bestows on the 
virtuous and the noble, will naturally m^pire the minds of youth with 
the love, and lead them to the practice, of what is, laudable and , 
great. 

In addition to these advantages resulting from a knowlege of ^^- 
fieral history, that of our own country holds out benefits peculiar to 
itself. Independently of the interest which every man feels in the 
transaction? of his ancestors, — an interest which it would be degrading 
not to feel and to cultivate, — there are few histories more replete with 
events of importance, or more diversified, than those which form 
the annals ot Britain, 

The present abridgment comprises much useful information in a 
•mall compass, and is written in a plain and perspicuous style. It 
Itas also an advantage which no other History of England on this 
plan of abbreviation possesses, by giving a summary account of the 
most recent events j-^-events, too, which have no parallel in the his- 
tory of mankind. — On ah examination into the contents of the vo- 
lume, we observe nothing in the opinions of the author that could J 
have a dangerous bias on the minds of young rtaders ; . his sentiments 
appear to be the dictates of good sense, and to be regulated by modera- 
tion ; and oh the whole wc conceive the work, to use the author's own 

exprestionsi 

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CKpressioiiSy to be < calculated for general ubc^ and particulaHy adapted 
to acminanes for the education of either sex/ 

Art. i6m A new and Improwd Roman History^ from the Foundation 
o£ the City of Rome, to its final Dissolution as the Seat of £m- 

?irc, in the Year of Christ 476, including a Penod of about I2z8 
ears frooi its Commencement under Romulus. By Charles Allen^ 

A.M.' i2mo. 48. bound. Johnson. 1798. 

Commendation similar to that which we have bestowed on the 
author's History of England, in the preceding article, is equally me- 
rited by the present work ; for we discover m it a considerable flind 
of information, conveyed in plain and intelligible language. Mr. 
Allen has selected his facts with Judgment, and has delineated his 
diaracters with impartiality and a strict adherence to the best evidences . 
9f historic truth. He has also introduced sentiments and remarks 
which, from their propriety, can ha,rdly fail of proving beneficial to 
the ductile mtnds of youth. 

We have little praise to bestow on the plates designed as oma- 
meou to Mr. Allen's Hist/»ries. 

BDUGATIOK, CLAS^I OS, l^C. 

Art. 77. Delecttu Grtcarvm Sentcnfiarum^ cum'I^Qtts turn GrammattcU^ 

turn PbilologUii ; In luum Tlronum accommodatis. 8vo, 48. bound. 

Richardson, &c. 1 798. 

It was the gr^at benefit derived from Dr. Valpy's Latin Delectus^ 
which induced the present author 7 who, at the close of his Preface^ 
signs himself S. P., Seaming, Norfolk, and whom we understand to 
be^Mr. St. John Priest^ to compile this work. The sentences arc 
chiefly selected from Euripides, Sophocles, Socrates, -£lian, and 
XeaophoD ; and the compiler begins by short simple sentences, pro- 
ceeding to lengthen his examples through sixteen sections ; contsua* 
ing iu all 40 pages. The division of Sections was adopted, for the 
purpose of arranging the principles of Grammar and Idiom which 
were intended to be inculcated. The Greek text is unaltered. 

To enable our classical readers to form some judgment of the work^ 
we suhjoin the whole of Sect. III. with the Notes corresponding to 
the first five numbers. . ^ 

4 Aiynfft rtni Xoyoi Tlv^xdt /ro¥ ttpxxT^iff I'M Aio( ««( AAiefAii»i;( vcuieif^ 

eimo ytnei^ *H^xXfil^ iecieX?0-$a(. . 

5 Amm;Vio$ ii oinailm Tuf if £tfpa««0-talc lifUf h^Xvifft rii ^^^tu 

6 *Ptf|C4£t(«v at voXW yvfoTfu^ tuct rsi J^cliifcaTa avii fo^ih roTf a^^ffi$ 

U^fAtfOA iMTi* 

9 Ka^ ficuMo-if om^hT^ 
12 'A«r«mK i vai^vati viuiia; ttqiu. 

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104 MofrraLT CiTAtoGUBf EducMAo^ fsfci 

14 'Aicm «oXX»» Xa^ii ^ oXir0(« 

16 '£«r«ivfiTi T»; ayoStlf* ^ 

x8 T11V Ttff woiaaSf ^U0W| «i2* 1« ^»0<« «J7«r» o^^fuv* 1 

ao noU» f««}^i» fstT o^yitf • 

^I Tcvf ayadtf^ mT iroiii* 

|. *Ax4a»^fo<) 8. in Latin Akxander. mvim) t. nMtui. Amfnm) s« 
^ecfiho^f Darius. 

t* Nia) »t<K adj. see the Rule in Sec. I.N. tSf agrees witli ^p«»7»o() 
$• v'k) adv. « IS added to « nouf when the next word begins with a 
vowel having the smooth breathing. dhXyitv) v. a\yw^ infin. after fiAi «) 

3. nXtfTWk) s. PZfi/p. Proper names are used with the article some^ 
times as if to give them pmnence* .Thus mv *EXi»i}»s Sec. I. sent. 4. 
T«( 3tiCa(, Sec. I. sent. 44. aiid in this sentt Ziy^uty &c : Not so 
'Pft'flu, Sec. I. sent. 3. 'OfMj^» Sec I. sent. 5^ 'ax«>Ci«1k ibid, 
Au>'9 Sec. II. sent. 5. ^ nroXifMiof, Sec. II. sent* ^ 'AXi{«4po< and 
Aftfiiop, sent. I. of this Sec..&c. JXiyit) see Sec, II. N.9. an4 
See. I. N. 5. Ta? ixwi^flK) 8, iXgrif. Sec Sec. II. R. at the bc^ 

finning. iyptjyofo!*»r) part, y^yiy^tt^ which forms regularly iy^yiy^Mt^ 
erf. Mid. whence the part, lyptiyo^^y via, «f, &c. Its substantive 
is iJ^mwwt a gen. understood after ^Ni^tfc) flu oru^* 

4. y^yHffi) v. Xty*>) its nom. is Xo>«i) s. x^yo^. TiN() adj. tk* Thif 
pronoun has two distinct significations \ it Is sometimes used as an 
interrogative and signifies^ whof vthat ; and sometimes as a pronoun 
Mefinite and signifies, any^ iomty certain* Here it is a pronoun inde'* 

Jiffite* It ^ccs with X070U . 'H^oMXtiO s« ^HfauX^^ by Crasis for 
*H^a«Xi«ic. This word is declined both as a pansyllabic and an imp^T 
risyllabic. For its declension as an im|>arisyll^bic s^ the Grammar^ 
|iere it is declined thus : 

*H^««Xt9(» «c 

""•?» ?i 

— "ii», « 

See Hercvki in the Biblioth. Class. va»>«i), s. way^f put at afpotflfim, 
to 'Hf««xw. Aio?) s. see Sec. II. N. 5. ^AXxftvinK) s. "AKxi/umu 
jikmena. ««o) prep.» governs a genitive only, From ymau^ u 
ymo, see the Rule in Sec. L N. 42. *\\^ut>jn^m) s. 'h^oicXm^* 
HeracSdeu KmXiNrSdu) v. juiXttf. This verb makf^ tatf in the futurq 
and «Ka in the perf* 

JMtXfa»«---«4iX«9-tf— jcmmbXjika 
by synct-^-^jiMXiMi* 

5* AMonttrtni^ 



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MORTRLT CATAtOGUB, Podfjy Ifc. I05 

9* AuratfUK) fl. Dionysiut; see N. 5. of this dice. i{) prep. f« 
u med hefrrt a cofuonanff ti before a ijoweh It governs a genitive 
4HklT. From^ out of. dvaHuv) adj. ava^f agrees with Ufivf) 8« Ti^u 
r*wj art« The article ike an adjective (see Sec. I. Obs. R. 39) must 
ffove a sttbstafahoe escfreued or understood y nv'tth which it agrees in gender ^ 
mtmher and case. The substantive here is li^uu The article is often, 
prefixed to a participle ^ and must he rendered as if it were the relative o(» 
1, 0, ivith toe verb , v. before the participle made to agree with the rela- 
tivCf or as if it were the relative L-, i, 0, with the same tense of the verh 
in the indicative mood as the parficiplc'^thus XtyM may be rendered as if 
It were ©r !<-» \tyvr^ who is speakings or as if it were 0? Xiyi», whospcah* 
The participle in instances ^ where a preposition or adverb follows t is often 
9mderstood'—xh\x% %f tok «pa»oK L e. J» h roi? »^«»ok the same as l^ 
Ww ivIoK ii^MK • T« *i*t !• c* TA ^ou i|«* the same as « uan i^w^ &c« 
Jo the present instance liixf (sec m^ »r«, o», the imperfect participle) 
from Uu.1, 18 understood before the prep, iv, which may be rendered as 
if it were « «Va» if, wA/fA were in. Hv^axufftam) s. It;^a««^ia4, it 
has no singular, in Latin Syracusa. v becomes jr, and an becomes x as 
before. See Theba and JEthicps^ Sec. I. N. 33 and 44. iav^nat) 
T. c-vXouf* T« x^r^fAxtla) s. ypr.fAo., acc. after the verb.* 

The vohimc will be found to be an useful Chrestomathia : but per- 
haps it would have been of more general utility, if a literal Latin ver- 
sion had been added to the Greek. 

It was once the author's intention to have subjoined a Lexicon^ 
and some notes on the First Iliad of Homer ; calculat(*d to shew the 
origin and progress ofdicUects, the use of the Greek particles ^ the laws of 
preek quantity, and similar passages irom Milton and Virgil : these 
notes are now designed for a separate pu^cation. 

POETRY, DR A M ATI C, fe'f. 
Art. iS. ClavidgOy a Tragedy, in Five Acts. Translated from the 
German of Goethe. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Johnsoa. 1798. 
Wc gave some account of Goethe's Iphigenia in Tauns, in vol. xi. 
N. S. p. 51 ; and of his StcHa, voL xxvi. p. 579. His Clavigo, or, 
as the translator calls it, Clavidgo, now solicits attention. The plot 
18 founded on fact, and departs very little from the real history. 
Beaumarchais, the editor of Voltaire's works, went as here described 
to Madrid, to fight a duel with a Spaniard who had deserted hit 
%«ter. — ^The play is worthy of the German Euripides, and the trans- 
lation is^ in general, unexceptionable. 

Art. 19. Reformed in Time; a Comic Opera, in Two A€t8. As 
perfo r med at the Theatre Royal, Coveat Garden. 8vo. is. Ca« 
dell jun. and Davies. 1798. 

Not having seen this little musical drama exhibited, we are unable 
to judge of the effects of the dialogue when delivered, or of the 
niastc of the songs when sung. It seems, however^ on mere perusal, 
not to be devoid of merit in the composition. The fable, indeed, is 
act quite new, npr arc the characters either very original or strongly 
marked : but the piece is innocent, and of a moral tendency- 
There is a variety in the measure of the son^, with a buffo humour 
l^^soa^ of ^enji very favomlible to dramatic music of the burletta 

cast: 

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J 



loS Monthly CA^TALoouf jf P<)r/rf> Ww 

cast : b^t we ipcnt observe tb^t ^h^ cbafacjter of the totihreUc4 Mrs* 
Handy* (l>a^y losight's viromaQy) 19 gvQ'chai;ged wkh as^urajip^ inv- 
pcrtinence, and absurdity. 

Art. aa The Patriot ; a Poem. By a Citizen of the World 8ro« 
18. 6d. Rfdgway. 1798. 

Patrlgty and Ciiizen of the Wvrlily are contradictory terms. A 
patriot is a lover of his own particular country j and a citizen of the 
world is one who cares as much for one country as fw another. 
. . We have not room to insert our remarks on particular defects in 
this poem, though in the course of examination we had written 
down more than twenty ; exchisively of bad rhymes: such as worse— ^ 
use. Death — wrath* Prepare — rear. Began — z/awn, Grace — «t- 
crease* Eyes^oys. Joy — melody :^n^\\t there are slight defects, 
such as care and diligence may rectify. We wish not to discourage 
the attempts of young or anonymous authors in any species of writ- 
ing, if the seeds of genius be discoverable : but in essays at poetry, 
if no originality* no ideas, no poetical language, be discoverable, 
the case is hopeless for the future. It is to be regretted that our 
worthy citizen of the world wants to be told, publicly, that he is not 
afflatus numine, not gifted with inspiration ; and that hx haa chosen a 
mibtect which is above his powers. We observe that the 2d fine of 
each couplet is in want ot ideas, and seems left to chance, with- 
out any preparation being made for it. Common thoughts expressed 
in common wbrds^ will not constitute the language ofthegodsy as the 
antients called poetry. Many modems have usurped a place among 
poets by the mere aid of rhyme : but antient poets, who had no such 
•resource, were expected to possess other requisites than the mecha- 
nical art of arranging longpfind short syllables. A species of inspir- 
ation was thought necessar}- in their ideas and invention, as well as 
metaphorical expression in their language, to entitle them even to 
the name of verstfiers ; which modern bards acquire on eabier terms, 

The^e remarks arc not address;;J merely to the author of the Pa- 
triot^ but to poetical Tyros in general ; who frequently imagine that^ 
by being able to put into rhyme common thoughts, stale stories, and 
prosaic language, they shall be dignified with the high title of poet. 

The smaller pieces, which terminate this publication, seem of a 
better texture, and merit more lenity than the Patriot. 

Art. 21. False am^True^ a Play, in Three Acts. Performed at 
the Theatre Royal, Hay-Market. 8vo. 2s. Bell. 1798. 

Out of whose cage this suirimer bird flew to the Hay-M-itket, we. 
are not told. We find, however, on examination, that it is a bird 
win'ch not only sings but tidies ; and though we h^ve not been abk. to 
hear its ^arblings^ we are quah'iied to give our opinion «f its powers 
of speech^ since what it uttered has been printed. 

To get rid however of a troublesome metaphor, and sp6ik of this 
production in plain Eajglish, we may apply its own title, to the 
merit of its writing and its characters. There are some good scenes, 
some comic and agreeable songs, and some amiable personages in the 
drama : — but the character of Caliatl is too black and drsgusting 
for comedy ; Cdunt Beam is too gay, foob'sh, and frolicsome, for 

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MoKTHLY CatiloGOT, Poetry^ bfc, 107 

%n Italian oM man, though his archetype mi^rht possibly have been 
fopnd in France some time ago; the Marchesa Feteria is too coquf ttish, 
fantastical, weak, and ridiculousy for an ugly old woman of an/ 
ccuotry ; (yRafarty is too absurd, even for a stage Irishman ; and 
the Assassins are too easily found and purchased, even for Italy* 

Exaggeration is the great defect of this drama. We arc not 
unacquainted with the customs and manners of the Neapolitans, and 
can Tenture to say, from our own knowlege, that there was a 
CTeater appearance of liberty,, manliness, and personal safety there, a 
lew years ago, than in any other city in Italy. Its climate is dc- - 
lightful ; its productions are abundant, and of ea^ purchase ; and . 
there was a greater cheerfulness of countenance, witti more seenung 
happiness, among the people of that kingdom, even in rags, than 
^mong those of any other country which we have seen. Such are 
the waranth and salubrity of the air, that clothes are a burden to the 
inhabitants ; and the children of the poor will not be incommoded 
by shoes and stockings, even when given to them by compassionate 
strangers from northern climates, who imagine a warm covering to 
'be the first of earthly blessings. 

Art. 22. The School for Ingratitude ; a Comedy, in Five Acts: so 
LIKE, in moAjf Points— in one, so uicxike— *^ Cheap Living.'* 
8vo. BcU, Oxford-street. 

Heavy complaints are made by the author of this comedy, which 
had been submitted to the inspectioh of the managers or Dniry- 
lane Theatre, and suffered to remain in their hands ajmost a year^ 
when another play on a similar subject, intitled Cheap Livings was 
brought on the stage, and his own rejected. He seems to insinuate, 
in strong terms, that some unfair use had been made of his MS.; 
and that the colncidencei of character, sentiment, and expression, are 
as much beyond the power of chance, as the system of the universe.— - 
As he states the case, indeed, there certainly does seem a colnciJenet 
which is rather incredible, and unaccountable by the laws of chance;— 
but not having seen the defence of the managera, nor of the rival 
author, we cannot enter deeply into the controversy, nor pretend Xm 
decide, judicially, on this misprision of plagiarism. Let us see, 
however, what kind of draw .a it is, chat has been thought worth 
pillaging so unmercifully. 

On perusal, we must own that commiseration for the author has 
not had the power of making us partial to the merits of the piece* 
We scarcely think that, with the best possible acting, it could have 
been well received by the public. The brutality and villany of 
Perkinsy one of the principal characters, are dfsfi^usting ; and we see 
nothing either pleasant or ingenious in the duplicity and rascality of 
Janusy another prominent character. The scene at the Chop-bouse 
IS vulgar in the extreme, and by no means risible. Low Comedyf 
in the hands of a man of humour, is diverting, and often makes us 
langh tin we are ashamed of ourselves : but mirth and laughter cannot 
be excited by scenes of dirty distress and pilfering. The characters, 
here,; verge too much on vice and villany, to be amusing. There is, 
indeed, no tragic murder nor conspiracy: but rank offences and 
immoi^ty abound.— The only two characters for whom a wish can 

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ip8 Monthly CATALoour, Pntry^ ifci 

be formed, cxcq>t for their being hanged, are feebly wfittem Wf 
thought Hopeful amiable and innocent, till he joinied in robbing the 
•palace at Lambeth.—" But what a genius t*^ Thrice is thii 
Tulgar exclamation uttered at the gross thefts and ravcnoxis appc* 
lite of the prlndpal hero, ^ichcent^ on which the character of 
Sptingej in Cheap Livings is supposed to be formed. The whole is in* 
dfccd such a farrago ; there is such confusion in the denouement ; 
such indelicacy in seizing for wives, on such short acquaintance, tw9 
females, who had been rather debauched by than married to one 
man ; and the d in ner- j/fj/fr, not hunter^ is so gross, unnatural, and 
unlikely to be tolerated in society; that the loss to the public, by 
the rejection of this play, will certaraly not be very great,— whatever 
it may be to the author. 

There is a considerable dissimilitude between a parasite who ob- 
tains an invrtation, or invites himself, to dinner, where he h an un* 
welcome guest, and a man, like Mr. Sceniwell^ j[if such ever had 
existence,; who steals his dinner, by robbing the kitchen, the pantry^ 
and even the table during a repast. 

We were not much captivated with Mr. Reynolds's play of Cheap 
'JJvwg*: but with all its exaggeration and deficiencies, since that ana 
the School for Ingratitude are brought into comparison, justice obliges 
us to confess that the former is the best production of the two. The 
impudence q( Spunge is outrageously overcharged : but we have heard 
of parasites, though never of town-footpads, or dinner4ifrers, robbing 
people's larders and plates in open daylight. 

Art. 25. A Monody on the Death of Mr, John Pajmer^ the Comedian^ 

To which is prefixed a Review of his Theatrical Powers : with 

Observations on the most eminent Performers on the London 

Stage; inscribed to Mrs. Siddons. By T. Harral, Author of 

Leisure Moment t. 8vo. pp.20, is. Cawthorne. 

This production comes from the pen of a cordial friend and ci>- 

thusiastic admirer of the late excellent actor whom it celebrates ; of 

whose various and extensive talents, his family and the public were 

deprived bv a sudden death .on the stage at Liverpool, during the 

exercise or his profession. 

We perfectly agree with the author as to the variety and excels 
lence of Mr. Palmer's theatrical powers, and the loss which the 
lovers of the drama have sustained by his decease, in the meridian 
of his fame : but we are not so certain of the necessity and utility 
of that spirit of ctfmparison which runs through the whole revie*w now 
before us. To instruct the people at large how to feel and how to 
admire in their amusements, is assuming a kind of dictatorial powei* 
which may make it difficult to please them, while it will not add tq 
their real enjoyment. 

Such a review as this must be extremely mortifying ^o ind{vi4uaU 
whose talents are depreciated, . and will excite envy, liatred, malice^ 
and all un charitableness, in the objects of the author's disappro- 
bation. The applause which each performer receives frqiti the spon- 
uneous feelings of the public is the most certain 1:est of hin or her 

* Sec Rev, Dec, 1797, p. 4^5. 

9icrit I 



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MOMTRLT CATAtOCUB, P^etrj^ Isfc. lo^ 

Incrit ; while the company which a performer can attract to a theatre 
it the manager's moit unerring steel-yard. 

We are ready to subscribe to dmost all that the animpted author' 
ftayt of actors and actresses of the first clas8» except when he de- 
ducts from Mrs. Jordan's men't in the two serious parts of OpheRa 
MndTaReU The bewitching tones and manner, with which she sings 
the little fragments of old melodies in the former, render her in that 
chaiacter (to our thinjcing) superior to any actress by whom k 
has been performed iii our time ; and yet we well remember Mrs. 
Cibber charmmg us tery much in the songs of Ophelia. Though 
so extremely j^ayful and comic in gay parts, Mrs. Jordan's 
speaking Y«ice is so truly mellifluous, feminine, and touching, in 
serious parts, (such ^% Ju&et^ for example,) that if, like Gam'ck, she 
were placed between Comedy and Tragedyy it would be very difficult 
to determine to which of the goddesses she most |>articularly apper- 
tained. 

We old folks are scarcdy ever satisfied with a mw peHbrmer in aa 
♦ii/part. The best actors whom we saw in our youth, when judg- 
ment was weak and feeling was strong, have taken such possession 
of our affections, that we are apt to thmk that every deviation from 
their manner is erroneous. It is in new pieces ^ where all eomparisoQ is 
predudedy that a new performer has fair play, by the audience 
gvnufr vrzj to their feelings ; without drawing parallels, or compariB|r 
them with any thine besides the images of Nature, whkh Nature 
herself has implanted in oixr existence. 

The poetry of our author is sufficiently Ptndanc% If irregular mca.- 
sures still continue to be honoured with that title : but the praise of 
the hero is so violent, not only as an actor but as a man, that it wifl 
be apt to excite an invidious wish to ** draw his frailties from their 
dread abode.** By asking too much^ it generally happens that tod 
little is granted.*— The foflowing is part of his beailiude': 
* Behold, in yon cerulean space. 
An betn/nfy chehib ukes his place 
With frideless glory crowned 
He comes 1 your hero contes! eternal bliss to share. 

** Hark I hark ! from yon ethereal cloud, I 

Angelic sounds advancing 
The happy soul entrancing 
Inspire the drcling crowd." 
And having found <^ another and a better World.'' 
** A balmy halo plays around his brow . 
An angei sweitaese prompts religion's vow.'*. 

Art. 24. Elegy on a much-loved Niece ; with an Hymn from the 

£thi*prc. By Eusebip. 4to. is. Egerton. 1798. 

< *Tis love alone that brandishes the rod 

To wean us from the woild, to- wisdom and to God.' 

Thus sings Eusebio \ and thus no doubt we ou^ht to consider 

the various affictioiis with which we are exercised by Providence. 

Indeed, before those who suffer the loss of relations vnd friends can 

strike the mournful stringrs of the elegiac lyre, the mind roust be 

somewhat calmed by rtUgious and philosophic reflection ; so that the 

II • building 



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11^ iMbN-miT CATALdGtm, jReliginfs, ffe. 

* bofldin^ of the lofty rhyme' is rather the evidence than the < 
of returning consolation.. The muse may wonderfully relieve the 
mind ^nd assist its resignation, after it has attained a sumcient degree 
of calmness to arrange its thoughts in harmonions numbers. 

On the subject of privations by death, the train of sentiment 

mtMt be for the rooet part common. The survivor is told not to 

grieve, for this world is full of sorrow ; while that world, to which 

-the departed spirit is fled, is full of joy. Eusebio makec this 

, contrast : 

♦ What is frail man, ev'n at his happiest height ? 
A wand'ring pilgrim through a vale of tears. 
Think then, had Sorrow's storm or Envjr's blight 

Nipt the sweet blossom in its riper years ; 
And own that Fate's inevitable pow*r 
In kindness interpos'd, and cropp'd the lovely Flow*n 
The lovely Flower, more eminently bright. 

Now Safe-transplanted to a happier climcy 
Imparts new beauty to the Bowers of Light, 
Where it shall bloom in never-fading prime, 
Fann'd by the g^ales of Paradise, and fed 
With ever-livmg streams at G lor v^s- Fountain- Head !* ' 
Following unfortunately the example of Dr. Watts in this r«- 
^tpect, he blends the sentiments and representations of religion with 
-lliose of the paesion of love : henc* he represents his Fatnw y as 

* Imparadis'd in her Messiah's arms !* 
The serious muse should take care not to excite such an idea as thia 
description may possibly ^i\c RcHgioiis potts ought to be very 
cautious in the use of words. They should not convert the Jove due 
to Christ ioto a passion, and the Christianas heaven into a Mohanune- 
dan paradise. 

Art. 25. Song of the Bauk of the NUe. Pnbliahed for %he Benefit 
of the Widows and Children of the btsfFe Men who fell on that 
memorable Day, and 'humbly inscribed to the Gentlemen of the 
Comnuttee. By the Rev. W. L. Bowles, A. M. Rector of Dum- 
bleton, Glou(;etter^ire. 4to. is. 6d. Cad^ll jun« and Davies. 
There is a wildness of sublimity in this patriotic celebration of 
Admiral Nelson's truly glorious victory, which nwy not perfectly 
gratify every ear, hor suit every taste ; yet we think that, with most 
readers, it wHl not fail of supporting the author'^ unquc8tioiiA>le re- 
putation as a poet. Some t>bjcction we nri|;ht, perhaps, have 
made to the irregular structure of the vergificaUoa of this poem :— * 
but true criticise wars not with benevolence^ and the love of our 
country. ' 

If it be objected that the title of " Song'* is linsnitable to the 
lofty and awful spirit of this poem, the author answers [in a 110^^3 
that it is here used in its highest sense, as appUcablc to a lyrical ^im- 
position* 

RELIGIOUS and POLEMICAL* 
Art. %ۥ An Eputolary Dtscussion upon [0/] Re&gkn^ between 
G. W. a Protestant of the Church of Engta^, and M. J. B. B. 

a French 



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MoK'fHLT CataL©<S0<5, ReFtgictif^ ^iS li-t 

a French Rottiah CatbbHc. 12 mo. pp. 790. 28. 6d^ eiewcA 
CadeHjun. and Davk8> Boosey, &c. 179^. 
Th€ subjects of this discussiort are ; the ditirch ; statnes and 
images ; invocation of eatnts ; service jn an unknown tongue ; cu* 
chanst ; cummuQion under one kind only 5 penance [sacfanHrnt] ; 
tradition ; purgatoTy ; indulgences ; celibacy of priesrs ; monastic 
TowTs; explanation of " Do-tbli in remembrance of me )" ^mass'^ I^u- 
thcr*8 sentiment on the leal presence of Chri^ in the eutAaiiftt; 
confession ; reh'cs of samts ; reading scripturetj the Pope j fastings 
theology ; legends ; holy-water ; rites and ceremonies ; singing 5 
uncharitableness of the Roman Catholics ; antichrist ; submission to 
higher powers ; festivals of saints 5 crueljy of the Roman CathoUcB ( 
toleration. 

From the French idiom which prevails throughoiit this Kttl* work, 
and from the tenets which it inculcates, we have no reason to doubt 
that it -was written, as the title expresses, by a French Roman Ca- 
tholic. — G. W. the poor Pmtestfant) being the man of straw s^t op in 
thij discussion, merely for the pUrposc of being knocked down by 
Mr. ]. B. B. the doughty champion t>f xratho^ici&niy we shall take ho 
notice of the feeble resistance which he makes to his conv^ursion: 
but it may not be ami«8 to shew our reader^ what is the specious 
mode adopted in the present day ip ord<.r to gain proselytes^ ^y the 
zealotfs members of the; church of Rome; 

The author sets out .with tefllng his cat<;chumcn (who, J>y the 
way, seems half a Roman Catholic before tbe controversy begins-) 
that tfcere is but one way to Heaven, and that is a narrow one : 
this, 8tys he, * is what you believe as well as I : but what you may 
beUevc, and I do -not, is that, to be in that way, it is enpugh to 
belierc in Christ, and to receive, as inspired from God, the^ old and 
new testaments, in whatever manner ^hey be understood ; as If truth 
were not essentiitlly one and indivisible, and two people of a contrary 
opiaioo on the satne subject might be botl^ rlgut : surely, Sir, i£ 
one be so, the other is iiecessaril,y wrong. 

* The Roman Catholic believes (continues Mr. J. B. B.), 
that the church, out of which there is no salvation, is the cathoUc 
and apostolic church, the head of which, the Pope, successor of Sf . 
Peter, by a visible and uninterrupted succession of about 250 bishops, 
acknowkgcd as such, by the Christian world, has, generally speaking, 
always resided in Rome from -her establishment j for \yhich reasoy, 
the is called the Catholic $ ^posioUc^ and /?<M»«/r church. 

* That the church is intallible : i. e, that, if any part or parts of 
her happen to fall into error, Jesus Christ \vill not permit that the 
others fall into it, at the same time ; so that, when duly interro- 
gated on the controverted point, their answer, God making g^od 
£is word recorded in Matth. xxviii. 20, shall always declare the truth, 
such a» It was taught by Jesus Christ and preached by his apostles 
and their lawful successors. 

* That there are seven sacraments of the new law, understanding 
-by a sacfament, a-^etaiik sign of in'oitihle grace ^ viz. baptism, eucha« 
rift, con&matioD, ptnance, holy orders, extreme unction, and ma- 
trimony ; ths: existence of which stands proved by what follows : 

3 ' , ■ Baptism, 



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iia MpNTHLt Catalogue, IMighuj, tffc. 

Bapmm; Unluf a man be^ bom again of water and the Holy Qhostf 
he cannot enter Into the kingdom of Godf John> iii. 13, £uchaii8t» l/m» 
less you eat thejlesh of the son of man^ and drtnk Ins bloody you shall 
not have life inyou, John, vi. 54. Con€rmation, Thejf laid their hand§ 
upon them and they received the Holy Ghost^ Acts, viii. 17, PcnaDCC, 
Whose sins you shall forgive ^ they are forgiven them^ and whose you shall 
retainy they ar^retainedy John, xx. 23. H0I7 orders, I admonish thee^ 
that thou *^^r up Uhe grace of God which is in thecy by the imposition of 
uiy hands, 2 Tim. u 6* Extreme Uoction, Let them pt-ay over him^ 
anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord, and if he be in sins, they 
shall be forgvoen himy James, v. 14. Matrimony is not so expHcitlj* 
record^ in scripture as a sacrament ^ but the church, by decUurin^ 
that it was alwavs received ^y all the Catholic world, as a sacraiaeot 
of the Qcw law, has removed all doubt about its existence as such.' 

The author then > proceeds to.transubstantiation, purgatory^ the 
power of granting indulgences, the stories contained in thelegends, &c. 
all of which he; takes great pains to reduce to the level of the nuautst 
capacity, 

Art. 27. ^ Glance at the History of Christianitv, and of Ei^sh 
Nonconformity. Third Edition, with additional Notes, and a rost* 
script on the present Movement in the East. By James Bicheno> 
M. A. .^Yo. IS. Johnson, &c. 1798* 

A compendium of the histonr of popery, of the rise of protest- 
antism, and of English nonconformity ; the principal reasons for 
the latter of which, as it exists at present, Mr. B. says are - seven. 
z. The frame and constitution of the established church, it being 
national* 2. The officers of it ; the scriptures knowing nothing of 
many of them. 3. The mode of worship. 4. The ceremomes. 
5. The terms of admission to membership and to the ministry. 6» The 
choice of ministers. 7. The discipline of the church. 

In his justification of nonconformity, Mr. B. remarks that ^ us 
the New Testament we read of no national churches, made up of the 
mass of the people ;' — surely for a very good reason, since the New 
Testament history only relates the introduction of Christianity into 
' several states and kingdoms, and not its triumph or complete estab- 
lishment in any one. By referring us therefore back to the. infancy 
of the Gospel, nonconformists do not produce a case in point, nor 
fix on precedents exactly suited to the state of countries professing 
Christianity. 

Mr. B. is one of those who have undertaken to interpret Apoca- 
lyptic prophecies, and to explain the signs of the times ; that is to 
say, he views the politics of the day through a theological meditiia. 
He is therefore of opinion that * the commotions which now shake 
the world are judgments which are to dash in pieces the nations of 
the earth«»to cleanse the sanctuary of God, and to make way for 
the kingdom of Jesus Christ.' Can Mr. B. think that what is now 
passing in Europe has any tendency to * dash in pieces' the Chinese 
empire ? 

Mr. B. proceeds to tell ns * that we are just entering on the cab* 
tnities of the M vial of wrathy which is to be poured out on the 
mat river Eupbrt^Sf or the Ottoman empire.* What authprity Ima 

he 



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MofritelT CATALOCt*, idisceUaneoiU.' 11 J 

i For taking the great mer^EttpbiraifJ^to flican the Ottoman empire * ^ 
i conjectunu interpreter of the Revelation (and all is mere conjee-, 
in;) may have the seven vials popped out in each of the wars in 
rhich Europe has been en^gcd foPccnturies past. It is better tcr* 
ihort to idiristian piety, virtue, and charity, than to pretend to ex* 
lain what is completely beyond explanation. Conjecture, whicb' 
omnin the serTous garb of piety, and in the shape and semblance 
f prophetic interpretation, is frequently respected : but we think 
bat it is a species of presumption which ought rather to be dis- 
oQiaged. 

idlSCELLANEOUS. 
bt. a 8. //n jiddrtis delivered to the Commtleee of toe several Pariihei 
of Si. f4ttr amd Paid^ St, James ^ St. Michael^ Lyncomb' and IVidcpmht 
m^dAt^ftwJ^i met to ddSb&S9it upon the Propneiy of incorpprat ing 
for tte better Relief and Employment of the Poor by the Ebtablish- 
meiit of an House of Industry. By J. Wood, a Director of th^ 
Shicwsbury-HoQse. 8vo. is. Dilly. 

Perbapt no question h^s been agitated with more warmth, by 
hotc persons who have employed their thoughts on the management 
of the money appiopnated by law for the maintenance of the poor, 
thaoi ^ expedicocy of establishing houses of Industry in different 
puts of the iLingdom. It cannot be, denied that houses of Industry, 
la some counties, have been attended with all the advantages which 
Uieir advocates could expect ;'-^"fand it is not less true that, in othet* 
ptrts, they have provea the source of distress and misery. In the 
iaitcr case, something may be ascribed to lodal and accidental cii^cuiiir 
stances, and yet more to negligence and mismiin^gement. 

Without presumingi however, to decide on' a. matter .of so much 
importan6^, we can ^ith truth say that the work before us is very 
veil wntteoy and deserving of attention. The author seems not only 
to be master of the subject, but to possess a feeling and benevolent 
keart : the vguincBtS' which he advanoes in favour of houses of Jn- 
dustry appear to us vety strong : from his situation in life as a di- 
rector of Jthc.irclfiiirated ShVewsbury-hooae, he must have had the 
best means of information ; and we think that we may safely lecom- 
ncnd thai, ji^drbss to the ' pertisal of those w;ho» actuated by a 
pliilandirapie.'spmt^ ibteresi' themselves in subjects of this nature. , 

An. 1^ BMonaparie tn B^ft : or. An AppenJkx to the Inquiry into Ifrs 
lappoied Expedj^ion to the East. By Eyles Ii*win, Esq. Bvd. 
IS. NicoL 179S. 

Mr. Irvin's Inquiry was the subject of a brief article in 6bT Vafa' 
logae fijr Septeml>er, p. 107. That trict was," tiefcessarily, a wprk of 
specida^on rather th^n intelligence ; and the sjuYie may be observed 
of this auppIemcnC, in which Mr, }^.' Communicates to the pu)^lic his 
itmariu on this extraordinary scheme t)f the 'F'rcnch government^ 

• If Bahylon be interpreted to meaii Rome^ the river Euphrates^ on 
whose banks antient Babyten itood, maV mean sortlething relative to 
Rame :— ^bVitTiaVc -we, protestants, good to4 suftdent aaibority for 
wjing that the Pope is indeed the tJb$re of Babylon ? 

Ret. Jan. 1799. I Di^tzedbyGo^k 



iiA Monthly Catai,ogue^ MuuIUtieouf^ 

^d «fk its in<mm circiunsUaoci, smcc ihe dcttrucUon of their Bet 
hy the vtctoisous NeI«on. 

Mr. Irwin k nttw, if pessiblv more strongly thin ever persuade 
of tiietoUdrum which from the'^^inDing awaited the Callic invadcj 
of E^yptt yet be somewhat dubiously concludes this pamphlet wit 
the following paraffraph : 

* We are arrived at times, when probabflities are no Iouqct to h 
ve^hed« b«t measures to be adopted against seeming rmpoMcbnitiei 
BiM)nfliparte'« appearance in Egypt has put calculatioa tu the blush 
and hib reaching the coast of India> is only' wanting t6 maki; , us di 
bious of every thing, but the success of these maraadcrsy fh th 
Irreach of all raith, and the contempt of all rufe and experience ! L.< 
the Company, let the Nation, be awtre of the catastrophe^ ^thoa^ 
fhe present moment be unfayourable to hrm, koonapsfrte triky *6o fa 
succeed in his views, as to establish litmself in Egypt. If tlie ^f^ttgu 
spare what this pmwess and military genius may preserve ftkkh th 
' sword, a year or two mar produce k revoltitibn at sea, Ite toable hin 
ta build and collect vessels for his projected expedition. An Admiral 
^hdm 1 am proud to call my friend, has been 4ong ^appointed to th 
Indian station. What delays the saiHng of Sir John Colpoya ^ am 
"why are his local knowledge and enterprising talents so long with 
held from the threatened scene of action ? If a pass be ottcb Aiuii 
bvcr the Guff th^t separates l^^pt and tndta, by the uhdaaHtc^ 
jerseverance of Buonaparte, the charm will be dissolve, and ouJ 
possessions contested. No leSs fatal wtM it prove to the British graii 
Oeur, than the bridge which Sateen threw over Chao8» t6 man£lttj|( 
where 
^]., 'V Sip and Death amafrt 

toflowrojg his track, such voas the will of Heavto^ 
JPavM after him a broad and. beaten way . ^> 

- , Over the dark abyss.'* MtlY oh.* 

Art. 50. Repfy tp hwin : w, Thfc FtirtMity t»f Bupnapaltef a tuf^ 
jposed Expedition to the East, exeiwpWied- / fiy*i Gffiper in t&l 
Service oT the East India Cbmpanyw ^Svj;>* • s^ 6L . Cadell jna 
and Davies. i. ., ; . > . 1 . ^ 

These remarks tWi the above-mrtrtlwud ,♦ /npdry* if^fctkr to li« 
pre^totcd themselves 'to th^ pubh'c tinU^r a disadvg^nagp td mhh 
Jwr. Irwin^s pamphlet is not "exposed : the jfniwer wznts t 
crciit of its -author's «/i»w.-— "With Mr. l.^s abtHtics^^d-Iro-^ 
sonal knowtcge of the countries concerned fn ^ese disciissiods^ \ 
were peviousiy ac^aintcd> and wcre^consequctitly prepared ^o :ffibi 
feimthat attention to which his rcape<*tablt i^^racter -was trftWe< 
but his anonymous opponent comes forth Ur%h no kiidi ^dviiiitl^ 
'He informs us, in the course of his observations On Mr. l.S!tt*ct 
as well as in liis titfe-^age, tliat 'iie has seen tnlfodty stbv^e in tlM 
eastern parts of the gtbe ; and for this asiUVance \fre irtHncKtlcd i 
igive hifii lullcr^it; but ytf have 00 dpubt jhatbis reader^ woul 
•hawe been bietter satisikd if his name ^lad Jk:comp:iniedHs. pages, 4 
«|>enl7 as that of Mr* icwia has i^p^arcd^n this occt&ioB. 

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MoHTHtr Cat Avoovny JUisceMdmf^. 115 

Notwithstanding tlut objection^ we h^vc Ittik -^ttbt rtepecting the 
author's pcnojial acquaintaace vv'ith some of the coimtnea whidi oiiYe 
^en, QT were proposed to be, visited by BuoBapotrte ; aod theie it an 
ippcafance of candor as well as of solidity ia hl^ objections to wime of 
Mr. IrwiVs representations. In bricfi as, on the one hand,. \it de- 
clares himself to be * by no means influenced by a spirit of despond- 
ency/ neither, on the other, does he * in th^ smallest degree d^irc 
to excite a false alarm.' He adds, * there is certsiiply an appearance 
«f an extensive confederacy * against the British possessions in Asia, 
and to obviate the effect, we have only to be prepared to meet it, by 
the adoption of such permanent arrangements there, as to obviate 
the necessity of resorting to tcmporaiy expedients, which, iq a go- 
Tcmment so far removed from the mother -country, may fatally prove 
loo late ; and not leave, what is allowed to be the " brightest jewel 
Jn the British crown," to that fate on which one of its greatest rulers 
has emphatically expressed its existence to be suspended, •* by ^ 

THREAD 50 FINE, THAT THE TOUCH OF CHAKCK MIGHT BRE^K, 
Q% THE BREATH OF OPIKIOM DlSSOVVE IT." 

*** These two articles were written for insertion in ojur Review 
Fur November, but could not, till now, find room. 

Art. 31. JR^nutrks on Inlatul Canals ^ the small System of interior 

Navigation, various Uses of the Inclined Plane, &c. &c. In a 

I*ettcr frym William Tatham, to a Proprietor in the Golebrookr 

Dale and Stratford Canals. 4to. is. J. Taylor. 1798. 

This tract affords but small groand, to merely speculative per? 

OM, for ascertaining the relative merits of the loci and inchned 

plane used for the purposes of inland navigation. It may, however, 

n some degree, be interesting to those persons who are previously ao- 

juainted with the subjects to which Mr. Tatham refers. 

\n. 1%. A hrief Accdunt 9/ Stratford on Av<m\ with a i»rticular 
DetcnpUon aro Survey of the CoUedate Church, the Mausoleum 
of Shaikspeare, eontaininji^ all the Arniorial Bearings and Monur 
mental Inscriptions therpm : to which is added, some Account of 
the three eminentPrclates who denude their S/rpamf s from Stcaxford, * 
the Place of theii Nativity. iaino« is* 6d. sewed. Strata- 
ford, printed : London, sold by Robinsons. 
The contents of this small tract are suScicQtly tpociiied in the 
boTc title. It has been, we understand, the innocent (and, if leii- 
ore admitted, the cammeirfabk) employment ^f a youth, who waa 
ersnaded to make public what he had coUectisd on the subject; 
>ttg4ak's ;work is top volnminpus for genera] reapurse. To persons 
the mit si ^mh so famoi, oa one account at lea»t, this pamphlet maif 
rbbably prove an agreeable comp^ijiof), aod not wholly unflccepcable 
> amtueiiu!nt to <^her8»-T-*Tbe yotpig author has judged rightly ia 
ixing a Jirief Accoupt of John, Ropert, and Ral^h, pe StratforJt 
ho vere patives of this town, and assumed' their distinguishing 
■ — J ■ t — » J ■ — - 

* Tbe pru»^>p^ 9^ wM^^ P9riici4arisc« xa the course of his ob« 

I % name 



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1>4tni^ horn It ; all of them wete-tminent to the annals of the Eng^ 
lish'hi^Kpiy, particularly m the reign of Edward III. Other authon^ 
lai well as the present^ have written jirname instead of /vmame. 

Art. 33. The ancient History of Ireland^ proved from the Sanscrit 
!j3pol(s of the Bramins of India. By General Vallancey. Svo. 
PP..3Q. Dublin. 1797- 

Jn our Review for October l^st, we gave some account of a recent 
publication by Mr. Maurice, intitled " Sanscrit Fragments ;" aad 
It now appears that the last part of it, said to relate tathe British 
Isles, is a republication of the tract at present before us. We then 
expressed our hopes that Capt. Wilford's communications respecting 
the allusions to the British Isles, which that gentleman imagined 
Jie had discovered in the Hindu Puranas, had not been given to thJ 
public without the permission of the ingenious author- This ob^ 
serration was not of a n^iture to be overlooked by a man of Genera 
Vallancey 's character ; and he has, accordingly, convinced us, by i 
letter from a Mr. Ouseley, in India, (though not from Major Ouse| 
ley, as the General supposes,) that he was at liberty to make whai 
use he thought fit of Capt. Wilford's remarks. These remarks hav( 
been (by the aforesaid Mr. Ouseley) styled extracts^ and thus tl 
General has been led to imagine that the conjectures of Capt. Wi 
ford are actually extracted from the Puranas, They begin by obser 
ing that " tVe British Isles are called in the Hindu sacred boo! 
Tricatacbal, or the mountain with three peaks," &c. Now, is thi 
we ask, an extract from the Puranas ; or is it a conjecture of Capl 
Wflford, that the place thus called in those antient poems may (^ 
vrand hazard) be the British Isles? The first supposition does 
deser\'e a comment. — Capt. Wilford has not assigned a single re 
in support of his opinion above quoted ; consequently. General V; 
lancey and Mr. Maurice assign none : but, assuming it as prov( 
that the Suvomfifchal, or golden mountain, (the others are ot sil^ 
and iron,) was no other than Ireland, it remained only to explain 
legend respecting a pions monarch of that cotmtry, contained in 
real extract from the Brahmanda Puran, aceurately translated b 
' Capt. Wilford. His name was Cracacheswara. Now there is ment^ 
mado in Irish records of a King Crach, who attempted to kdl S 
Patrick ; ergo — We leave the sequUur to be deduced by those w^ 
may think i^i history is susceptible of illustration from verl^ 
analogies, 

We hope that General Vallancey vnll not class us with *< the li 
lettered tnbe, who have aimed the shaft of ridicule at the vindkat 
of the history and antiquities of his country." Nothinj^, indeed, c 
be farther from our intention : but we think it deserving pf his sc 
ous contemplation, how far such discussions as ate contained in tj 
pamphlet are calculated to elucidate the history of Ireland. 

Art. 34. Vgyage An jcune jinacharsis . en Grice, ahrege de TO^rvrt 
de r Ahhe Sarthekmy \B(.Q. §^c, 8vo. pp.377. 6 s. 6d. B<Mrl 
Vemor and Hood. 1 798. 
Tliis French- alnnd^ment of -the travels of Anacharsis -closely I 

fl^mbles an English epitome noticed by us in voU xxii>> p* 134* \ 



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MoKTHLT CaTALOGU^^ Thanksgiving Sermofit. tx'j 

U decorated vith die same prints add maps as that cditMHi. T\\t 
hUtoncal introduction has here been wisely prefixed ; and the voltunc 
IS farther enriched with a life of Barth^lemy, from the pen of the 
late Doke of Nivernols, which was mentioned in our xvilith vol. 
p. 558. The work is well adapted to the use of schools and young 
persons* 

THANKSGIVING SERMONS, AW. 29, 1 798. 

■Art. 35. The Privil^es of Britain^ preached. at the Meeting- Hoa<w 
in the Old Jewry. By Abraliam Recs, D. D. F. R. S. 8vo. 
IS. Robinsonsy &c« 

This discourse is rational^ pious, and loyal. Dr. Rees has made the 
•waDs of the Old Jewry resound with a discourse which a Bishop might 
•have preached at St. James's, and which would probably have given 
•univenal satisfaction to his audience : while at the same time the Doc- 
tor has not violated any one of his own principles. From Isaiah^ v. 4- 
he has exhibited our local, eivil, and religious privileges, with a view 
of exciting our gratitude to God for the blessings which we enjoy. 

Xtord Nelson's splendid victory is thus loyally noticed. * The 
late victory on the coast of Africa, so important in itself, so beneficial 
in its consequences, and so honourable to all who were engaged ia 
atchieving it, will bring to our mteful recollection the glorious 
jfiri/ of iVugust, which has been long celebrated as the aera of the 
accesaion of his Majesty's family to the throne of these realms, a«d 
by n^ne of bis Msgesty's most loyal subjects more sincerely and more 
joyfully than by protestant dissenters.' 

What would Mr. Burke have said to such a sermon preached in 
the Old Jewry ? 
Instead of commenting, we will make one more shbrt extract. 
< Such have been our late victories, that we have reason to hope 
that the attempts of the enemy against our religion and libtrty will 
prove unsuccessful ; and that neither their licentious principles nor 
t^r present conduct will find any advocates in this country. That 
Providence, which has hitherto fenced us round and preserved our 
possessions. and persons inviolate, willy we trust, yet deliver us, and 
lender our salvation complete and permanent.' 

Art. 36. The Lord proUctlng Great Britain for hii own Name's Sale. 
Preached at the Lock ChapeU and at St. Mildred's Churchy 
Bread-Street. Bv Thomas Scott, Chaplain of the Lock Ho^pi- 
tai. 8vo. IS. Matthews, &c. 

• In introducing the subject of this discourse, Mr. S. observes: 

* Wc do not meet here to enquire what men have been doings but 
what the Lord hath done for us as a guilty nation.' So far he it 
right. He well understands the extent and h'mits of his province. 
Ciergynien are not invited to preach Fast or Thanksgiving Sermons 
in order that they may discuss the merits or demerits of statesmen, 
but seriously to trace, if they can, and to improve the over*ruling Pro- 
vidence of God, who is carrying on his designs amid the contend- 
ing interests, passions, and vices of men. Mr. S. has not imdertaken 
4i«iiiictly ^nd fiijly to explain what he means by the Lord's protcct- 



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fi8 MoKTrtLT Catalogue^ Thatdigtvi/f Smootu. 

ing o* tir hh ovm nam^s sdh; though wc tjhink that he means 
lor the sake of the honour of his dirme perfection and moral gtovern^ 
Bieot ; for the take of relt^ous truth ; and for the promotion of that 
great tykem of tptrcf which is the object of revelation. In this view 
of the matter, there is something truly sublime ;-^4omcthing to whick 
the vision of the mere worldly politician does not extend. 

Th« serious preacher enumerates a variety of ipstances in which 
the hand of Providence (when our own arm was impotent) has inter- 
posed for us, e^peciaHy in the preservation of Ireland, and during the 
mutiny on board our fleet. With suit^e praise to ebch of oar 
victorious naval Lords, he blends gratitude and prarSe to * tie alone 
Cher ttf all victory.* He seems to consider Great Bntam as pro- 
tected and preserved, as Jndah was of old, in order to promote soni* 
religious purpose among the nations of the earth; and we sincerely 
hope that l\e has predicted rightly as to the future scheme of Prov*- 
dcnce. He remarks that, * notwithstanding aU our heinous crimes^ 
ve hare not by any national act renounced the profession of Christie 
anity.* He farther notices, (what we wonder to sec omitted m most 
of the sermons on tin's day,) the different language of the British and 
French commadders, in reporting to their respective governments the 
victory of the Nile. Lord Nelson ascribes the vosuh to Almighty 
CrOi> :— Buonaparte, to the Destinies ^--^^ And so long (says Mr* 
Scott) as God is thus openly acknowledged by us, ana despised or. 
defied by our enemies; we may hope that " he will withdraw hit 
hand, and work for his name's sake» that it should not be poUudcd is 
the sight of the heathen." (Text, £zek. xx. 22.) 

Tet Mr. Scott is not for boastings and vaunting on account 
of our successes. ^ A consistent Christian (he obserres) will be 
pained to hear of Britain's ruling the waves^Sox he knows that the 
Lord alone rules the sea and the land.' This perhaps is carrving 
•crioosness too far : but it proceeds, no doubt, from a spirit of^ gc- 
mitne piety. 

A volume of Sermons by Mr. Scott has lain for s^ne time on 0|ir 
ihelf>'but is not forgotten. 

Art. 37. Preached at the Meeting-Housc in Carter-Lane. Bj 
Thomas Tayler. 8vo. 6d. Dilly. 

We have met with laughing tragedies and crying comedies ; wttk 
inprightly' fast-sermons, and melancholy thanksgiving discourses^ Mr. 
T.'s sermon is of the btter description. Apprehensive that we may 
probably be too happy y he exhorts us (PsaL ii. ii.) to r^ice ntfith 
trembling ; «nce, notwithstanding our victories, < we affe still in cir- 
cumstances of danger and uncertainty.' It is true that he ii not in- 
tensible of our national blessings ; for he freely confesses, for hiouelf, 
that he has never heard of any country, in any part of the woHd^ 
which he should prefer to his own : but he mixeB with his pious gra- 
titude the most fearful apprehensions ;— so that hh sermon im'ght mvc 
been stititlcd— /?az/oiu against premature Thattksgtvifigs. * At such an 
interesting period as the present, (says Mr. T.) who can say what we 
may yet live to sec or to suffer V 

It is but justice to add that Mi*. Tayler views th^ great events, now 
passfug in the world, through the me4iam of genuine rchgion and 

Christuw 



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ColtllES^OlVD£NCB« H^ 

Ckrsua&pie^; and that he has too muoh reason for tlieglooinf 
^imcoU wUch he ba» Interspersed thsough the offerings of thanks* 

An. $S. PriKichcd at Weston under Fenyard, Herefordshire. By 
Charles N68Wthy Michcll, M. A. of Oriel Coll. Oxon^ eivl 
Curate of Weston. 8vo. is. DiHy. 

Muhah in^ixrsp. Mr. M. shews that we have reasoti ta be thank- 
ful, and ourghl not to <>bject to abridge our hixuries in order to pri- 
save our many sohartanftial blessings. His text is Psaliti cvii. t-. 

Ait.,59* Before the Honorrahlt! Ht)U9e of Commons, 'Now, 20, 
1798, at St. Mai;garet'3, Vy\stnia3tcr. By Thomas Renne^ 
Brt D* MastCi: of the Temple. 8vo. 1 3. Riviiigtons. 
Popularly and well adapted to the great and interesting ocxamon 4 

and suitable to the tlmesy and to the audience before mom It was 

^difered.- 

. SINGLE SERMONS on oilnr Occaskns» 

Art. 40. Tife' Duty of Tbanks^vmg^ preached at the Foundling 
Hospital Bee. 19, 1799, being thel&ay appointed for a Genenk 
Thanksgiving. By the Reir. John HcwJktt, B. D. ^vb. is, 
Johnson, &c. 

A juAiciou« exKibiition of the strong reasons which wc h&ve for 
hdntf thanfcftil to t*ie<3iver of ati %qo^ for the vorioos: MesBin^ 
wl^ he bestolvB <>a otirselves, on our ueigiibour, • aad on oar 
country; from Psalm cxxvi. 26. 

Art. 4*^ Preached , In the Church of St. John Baptist, Wakefield, 
for "the Benefit of tlie Choir of the said Chur?h ; for defiraytng ne- 
cessary and incidental expences, and forming a "Fund for its fulur'e 
Pennanepce and Prosperity. By the' Rev. Richard Munkhousc* 
D. D. To which are added Notes and an Appendix. '4tol pp.50* 
IS. ' Rivingtons, ^c. 1798. 

Dr. M? here discusses the .sabject of Church tmisw iritTi the e»- 
thusiasm of a professed artxateUf . Viewing psalmody as * tlie most 
'rtaKcd'anrf ennobling part of Christian worship/ he is desirous of 
roodering; it as perfect as possible ^ and It must be confessed tliat, in 
inost of our chutche$^ this portion of the service requires miich im- 
provement. Surelj, if psahnody is to make a part of the pubKc Wor- 
«hm. It should be executed with propriety ; and both the transhtixm 
and the music should ,bc as exctflhait as they can be made. Every one, 
thereforeV ^i'ho is d<fisiroas of having the service in our churches con- 
ducted witk decency and effect, must wish ^ucttssto Dr. M. in the 
object pf this 4MC^ttr8e. 

- 

'€otim£SPONDENCE« 

-TV ^he £»itOr /if ibt Mohthly Review. 

SlR> 

* 1 Request yon w^l inform yoar r«ad«rs that a reply to Mr. Wood's 

^ ittttr> MiseHed iri four Review for November, reUtwe to some 

np i mad vc Tiic ms 1 had iactdcnully made op his ** Account of the 

8lktw#bQry Hoosc of iakhntry," has appeared in the Monthly ^gasine 

fof 



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%20 CORttkst»ONDEVcfi, 

,Jbi l>e^ember; afid tbat T should hairfe Wged ytmr iiMiprtfofi dftiltf 
TcpJy in yonr RcTiew for the present month, btit vai pfr«u«di5d that* 
firom its length, it would have been inadmissible. I am. Sir, 
* Caroline Pla€<iGiiildlQr<i- Your obedient hufTt!>lc Si-rvant, 

Street, Jan. lo. 1799- JOHN MASON 0OOJ>.* 



We have received a polite letter from Dr. Underwood, informing 
«« that the publication on the ditorders of childhood^ reviewed 
ill o\ir Number for September last^ is not intended by him as a nciy 
edition of his work on the Diseases of Chtldrent-^hiit as a separate 
'production adapted exclusively to domestic i/xr.— We learn also, that 
. « new edition of his former treatise is almost completed. Ta tbis 
edition, wI.IcIl will be calculated solely for me£calreaaprsy we shall pay 
the netcssary atteution on its appearance. 

In our last Number, we noticed Mr. Salmon's nc%v edition of Ler 
jfventures de Telemaque^ as a correct and neat impression : it may also 
-W toceptabk iiifonxuktioa to our readers ?td know tha^ there i» aa 
inferior edition^ pinned with the same typ^s, qnd cs^^ised ^ one 
volume, without pl^d^es, price, 3s. 6d. id btiirds». 

B. D. ia informed that we intend to examine into the merits of the 
woik vrhidi he mention 9« as soon as opportunity permits. It haP 
:«beady been ^ome time in our posdession, bujt y/^ have not yqt \xttL 
able to peruec it* . ", 



[^ It would be improper for us to comply with the request of "j^.* Y, ^. 
-*^Soinc intelligent friend nwy be able to satisfy him. 

' Wc must not suffer ourselves to he drawi^ into controversy, by 
anonymous correspondents, on such pqipts jistliat which /s the; ol>- 
jcct w^ a letter signed €lerie$» IVestnioriemfsJ Our^diity doc^ npf; re- 
. quire, land our tinic will not permit;, that V« should .e^termto'dd)atc 
with every unknown correspondent who may differ from \f8 in ppi^j&m 

A correspondent who signs i>. gives us reason to coneJuVli tfeit 
Mr. George Forster, son of the late ♦ Dr. J< Jl. Forater^ could ndt 
have been the author of .the Journey from Bengal to Engjand, men- 
tioned in our last Review. We were also . incorrect in stating that 
Dr. F. and hj^ son accompanied Captain Cook in his Jirst voyage ; 
it was in the second joyzs^t. j ' . ' . 



♦^* The readers of the Review are requeued to ^aifee 'notice ^it 
the Appendix to Vol. xxvri. consisting of^^cbpioUa" accounts of 
various important Fore iGii 'PirBLitATio>rs,^wi£h the General Title, 
Table of Contents, and Index, for theVohune, is <(8ls usual) pub- 
lished with this Number. ' ^, 



CC> P. 89. 1. 26. for T^TJwfy r, Tf»V)Bir; ^tA L'a^.'fom^fiHf^ rJiwitpU. 

* ' — : — . ^ ■■■■■. • I — ,— ^ i "fHUj i % % 

• * His death has been aiinqi;nced in sotneiiMreigib papers s tQ.f^)|HU(h 
i;fe must refer as all our authority. One of our Magazines has also 
recorded the decease of Mr. G. F. Digitized by Google 



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tia Phihs^ical Tfamacttons of the IL S. Part It fir i J^S^ 

tinctly detail its content9f in a tnanner that will be intelUff ibie 
and bterestibg to our readers, without the figures on which 
the illustration of them depends : but the following general 
tcoount) premised by the author btmseff^ wiH afford suMcienc 
information to those who direct their attention to subjects tx£ 
this nature, and who maj; be desirous of enlarging their ac« 
qu^intanc^ with them» 

In estimating the stability of rpsscls in particular cases, hy 
means of the theorem previously demonstrated, the author ol>^ 
serves that 

< The form of the sides, and the angle of inelinatron from the 
ftrp«tidfcii!«r» must be given. These conditions admit of great 
variety, considering the shape of the tides, both above the water- 
Une and benes^tb it ; for we may 6rst assume a case, which is one oF 
the most simple and obvious : this is, when the sides of a vessel 
are parallel to the plane of the masts, both above and beneath the 
water-line j or, secondly, the sides may be parallel to the masts un- 
4tr the water-line, and project outward, or may be incKned inward^ 
above tbe saad liae ; or they may be paraHd to the masts above the 
water-line, and Miclined cither inward or outward beneath it { some 
toC these casos, as well as those which follow, ,being not improper ia 
the constriction of particular species of vessels, and the pthcrs, 
ilkhougfa not suited to practice, will contribute to illustrate the geno* 
tal theory. The sides of a vessel may also coincide with the sides 
•of a wedge, inclined to each other at a given angle ; which angle^ 
Ibrmed at aa imaginary line, where the sides, if produced, woule in- 
UvHfX each other, may be skuated either under •r above the waUr^A 
jtjirface. Tp these cases may be added, the circular form of the 
^idcs, and that of the ApoUom'ao or conic parabola. Ilie si4es<of 
vessels may also be assiuned to coincide wkh curves of difliereiit 
^>ecles and dimensions, some of which approach to the form* 
'jidopted in the practice of naval au*chitecture, partteulariy in the 
lai|rer ships of burden. And lastly, the shape of die sides may b^ 
vewicMe to no reg^ar geometrical law ; in which case, the deter- 
iBtnation of the stability, m respect to a ship's rollings requires the^ 
snensuratioa cf die ocdinates of the vertiod sections which inter-* 
«eet die liogef aids at right angles ; sknilar mensurations ate alto 
nM|ttired for determimng ^ atabiljty, k respect to the shorter axts^ 
KOMnd ."iachich a vessel revolves in pitching. I9 order to descobc 
itistiactly these several cases, the variation of the sections, both m 
form ana n^gnitiide, from head to stem of the vessel^ has not tteo 
considered ; the sections being supposed equal and similar figure^ 
imch at they in reality are, near the greatest section of a ship, grow* 
ing smaller, apd altering their form, toward the head and stem. 
But, before this ahenidon ean be taken into account, it is necessarj^ 
first to aacertam the stability corresponding to a vessel or se^ent^ 
jMi which the sections are equal and airatl^ figures \ from which de* 
termination, the stability is inferved which actually exists, vAitn the 
Aicm am} magnitude «f the sections aker oonliiVMidly, fmm one ex* 
Iremity of the vessel to the otbctv .T^ «^oasid«rfttmi of the caitfB 

whicli 



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Tliks^llticd TrMMfMhiU ofOe Jl. S. Pari II. /ft 1798. 12} 

bich hswt been here stated, with lafin-enees and obsetvatioitt 
tereon, it the subject of the ensuing pages ; m which, if any ideas 
e suggested which mxf be at all usefm in the practice of naval 
cfaitecturey or may contribute to remove iropertect or, erroneous 
rtions which have been entertained respecting a principal branch of 
i the intention of the author will b^ accomplished/ 

^ueiques Remarqtus d^Optique^ prlncipalement relatives i la Re^ 
rxibiiki des Rayons Je h Lumieti. Par P. Prevost, Profisseur* 
' Philos^phit a Geneve% Icc. &c. 

These optical remarks were suggested by the perusal of » 
iper of Mr. Broughatiij published in the first part of the , 
lulosophical Txansactions for 1796, (see M. Rev. N. S. toI* 
Kill. p. 42,) and containing some objections to the Newtonian 
leory of the reflexibility of light. M. Prevost begins with 
ating what Newton mcane by this term, ^nd in what sense 

is Bsed byMr. B. s and he then proceeds to inquire, in (bp 
rst placcj whether the homogeneous rays of light differ in re- 
cxibility acc(»rding to the Newtonian sense of the expression ; 
r, in other 'words, whetheri under the same angle of inci* 
encef and all other circumstances being precisely similar, 
be violet ray will be reflected while the red ray is not re- 
ccted. To the well-known experiments by which Newto^ 
emonstrates this proposition, Mr. B# objects that <* the de- 
KMistration involves a logical error. When the rays, by re* 
raction through the base of the prism used in the experiments 
re separated into their parts, these become divergent, the 
ioiet and red emerging at very different angles, and these wq|re 
Iso incident on the t^se at different angles, from the refract 
ion of the side at which they entered ; when, therefore, th^ 
rism is moved round on its axis, as described in the proposition^ 
tie base is nearest the violet, from the position of the rays by 
^fraction, and meets it first ; so that the violet being reflected 
s soon as it meets the base, it is reflected before any of the 
cher rays, not from a different disposition to be so, but mere^ 
rom its diSerent re&angibility,'' 

In examining this objection, the author allows that, while the 
rism is turned round on its axis in the manner described hy 
iewton^ the white ray, which fell perpendicularly on the 
nterior side of the prism, will now fall obliquely. In the case 
^hich he represents, and to which his figure is adapted, the i?- 
idcnt rays will l)e refracted towards the perpendicular : bvt 
he flMttt refrangible, i. e. the violet, will approach the nearest ' 
it } and the least refrangible, 1. e. the red, will be the most 
emote from it. The former will, therefore, make a greater 
ingle with the base cf the pristn tfian the. latter; and, as the 
>D{ie8 <^ inadcacc are. dip cprnplemeAt^ of th^e angles re« 

K a spectively. 



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^ 

3 



^^ tMosofiiical Trinsactlinshfthe R:8. Pairi ILfir i ^^Shj 

speetivelr, . the violet ray will meet the base or die rcfl e cli f 

.<8ide of tne prism under a less angle of incidence than tl^ 
ray, and consequently it will be- in circumstances less ^ 
able to reflection than the other. Nevertheless, the violet 
Is reflected sooner than the red ray ; and, therefore, the fi 
is, in its own nature, more reftexible than the htter, accc 
to the Newtonian sense of the expression. Hence M. Pre^ 
infers that Mr. B.*s conclusion; which is unauestionably jo^ 
furnishes an argument a fortiori in favour of Newton's ^t3p| 
Sitipn : so that we may aflirm not only that the violet mj"^ 
teflected sooner than the red ray at the same incidence, ^ 
•even when its incidence is less favourable to reflection 
that of the other. 

The author proceeds to establish the same principle, aadj 
vindicate it from Mr. B/s objection, in the case in whk^ fl 
irefracting angle of the pri§m is about 40*^ : but, witfaotit n 
diagram, we cannot do justice to this part of his reisoiu^ 
He concludes, on the whole, that Mr.B.'s objection is nbtai 
ficient to invalidate the proposition of Newton ^ and that i 
are still warranted in affirming, in the language and acconBl 
to the precise sense of this great philbsopher, that the mc 
refrangible r«»ys are also the itiost reflexible. 

M. Prevost next inquires whether homogeneous rays dn 
]n reflexibility, in the Sense of Mr« B. : in other words, in 
ther, under the same angle of incidence, tlie red ray formri 
less angle of reflection,- arid the violet a greater angle of 1 
flection, than the angle of incidence ? In order to asccftJ 
this'point> Mr. B. presented the convex surface of a pofiaM 
cylinder, of a very small diameter, to a white ray ; and havk 
measured the coloured spectrum which was reflected £roai j 
and made the necessary calculation, he found that the on 
-rays, or those at the confine of green and blue, were reflectt 
at an angle equal to that of incidence i but the red. werrd 
fleeted at a less angle, and the violet at a greater angle.- | 
Prevost investigates the evidence aflbrded by this experiflad 
in favour of Mr. B.'s principle; and with this- view, he 4 
scribes a circle to represents section of the. small pofisb 
cylinder, and a larger cirble on the same centre to xepvi»«| 
•the corresponding section of the sphere of activity of Ac ■ 
fleeting force, which encompasses this cylinder. He thsn ^ 
poses a white ray to fall on the- surface of the sphere of a 
tivity. Since the red rays are more powerfully repelled 
the violet, (which is Mr. B.'s own hypothesis,) the bttor 
penetrate more deeply into the sphere of the repulsive fi 
than the former ; and, as this force acts in lines perpeadic. 
to the reflacting surface, thexourse which aa homogBnsQJ 



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f&Usophtcal Transactions of the R. S. Part tl.for 1 798. ^X^ 

\ describes within the sphere of activity will be formed of 

equal and similar curves or branches, whose axis passes 
rough the centre of the sphere : hence it follows that thc- 
mogeneous ray will pass out of this sphere, so as to make 

angle of reflection . equal to that of incidence. Thus all 
z homogoneous rays, which form the same angle of inci- 
nee at the point of the reflecting medium on which they 
11, will be reflected under equal angles :— -but, as some of 
em penetrate deeper into this medium than otherSj they 
ust diverge in their progress \ because this divergency is 
-ccssary to render the angles of reflection equaL 3y pur-, 
ing this kind of reasoning, and availing liimself pf the 
jure which illustrates it, the author deduces this conclusion ;' 
at homogeneous rays are not unequally reflexible in the:, 
nse of Mr. B. ; or that the law of reflection proposed by. 
ewton, and evinced by his experiments^ is the true law of 
ature. 

In the sequel of this paper, M, Prevost discusses otter, 
icstions pertaining to this subject ; and he thinks it jprobable^ 
at the ravs of light are refracted, reflected, inflected, and* 
;flectcd, by the same power variously exerted in different; 
rcumstances : but thisj he obsqrvesj is. a proposition which: 
not yet demonstrated, / 

Account of a singular Instance of Atmospherical Refraction^ 
f a letter from William Latham, Esq. F. R. S. & A. S. 

Atout 5 o'clock P. M. in July 1797, the cliffs on the French 
last were discovered from the shore at Hastings in Sussex^ 
lough the nearest distance is between 40 and 50 miles, and 
ley are not i|Siially discernible from that low situation by the 
d of the best glasses. The places on the French coast, which 
ere known to the sailors and nshermen, were described by them 
\ appearing to be as near as when they were sailing, at a 
Kiall distance, into the harbours. From the eastern cliffy* 
iiich is considerably high, a very extensive and beautiful 
:eDe^ comprehending Dungeness, the Dover Cliffs, and the; 
French coast from Calais, Boulogne, &c. to St, Y^lcry, pre^ 
?nted itself to view. • This curious ph^enomcnon continued 

1 the highest splendour till past 8 o'clock, (although a black' 
bad totally obscured the face of the sun for some time,) 
rhen it gradually vanished.' .The day was extremely hot, the - 
bermometer at 5 in the afternoon being at 76^; the mer- 
ory in the barometer is supposed to have been high, as th^ 
by ir2Ls remarkably fine and clear ; the* air was in a verje 
sdm'state, so that scarcely a breath of wind was stirring ; and 
[was high- water at Hastings about % o'clock in the afternoon, 

.. ■ •-■ •■ .-■■ • .%? ■■■■ '-'■'-' ■■ •••■s«»Jt 

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ll6^Phil$S9piicdTramac^ofttrfthi.R.S, PartlLfsr 1798. 

Such are the priodpal circumstance^ which are recited i| 
this paper, and which accompanied the singular appearaik 
here commemorated. 

OiservatUfU of the diurtttil Variation of the Magnetic Need 
ifi, tie Island of St, Iblena ; wth a Continuation ^ the Gkitr\ 
atxons at Fort Marlboroughy in 'the Island cf Sumatra. By Jol^ 
Macdonald, Esq. 

It appears from these observations that the general v^riitid 
at St. Helenai in November 1796, was 15*^ 48' 34 J'^ Wcsi 
and by subtracting the medium diurnal afternoon variat'io 
from th:it of the morning, the vibrating variation proves to fa 
3^55". *The magnetic needle is stationary from about 
aclock in the evening till 6 o'clock in the morning ; when 
commences moving, and the west variation increases^ till 
amounts to its majcimum, about 8 o'clock; diminishing afta 
ward till it becomes stationary :' whereas,' at the apartmen 
of the Royal Society, this species of variation is found ^ 
increase from 7 A. Mr till 2 P. M. The quantity of i\ 
diiihial variation is greater in England than at St. Helena or ] 
Bencoolen. This, says the .author, * will naturally arise froi 
this country^s being more contiguous to its affectini^ polei 
than those islands situated near the equator/ lie ;dso ixn 
gests, in consequence of observations made at St. Hdena an 
Bj^ncooleni that the dip of the needle is subject to a diumi 
variation in its vertical movement. 

Experiments to ieterthine the ^Density ff the Earth. By Han 
Cavendish, Esq., F* R-S. & A. S. 

A method of determining the density of the earth, by re^ 
derin^ sensible the attractionof small quantities of matter, v^ 
contrived bjr the late Rev. John Michell : but his apparat^ 
for this purpose not beipg completed till a short time befoi 
his death, he had no opportunity of making any c^q^nmeni 
with it. This apparatus is very simple. 

< \\ Gonslks of a wooden, arm,. 6 feet bn^t roade so. as to ufti 
great stren^^b with little weight. This arm is suspended m ajB hof 
^ODtal position, by a slender wire 40 iiKhes long, and to cache 
tremity is hung a leaden ball, about 2 inches in diameter; and tl 
whole is enclosed in a narrow wooden casei to defend it frota u 
wind. As no more force is required to make this arm Curti round i 
its centre, than what is necessary tb tvinst the suspending wire, ft 
plain that, jf the wire is sufficiently slender, the most mnm^ fbwo 
such as the attraction of a leaden weight i few inches ta <fi«tatc 
vHll be snfficiient to draw the arm sensibly aside. The "Wf^ 
^hich Mr. Michell intended to use were 8 inches diaincten Ob^ \ 
these was to be placed on one side of the case, o^otote to <m^f t^ 
balls, and as near it as could be conycniently done, a^dtlie oSicr e 
the other side, opposite to the other ball| so that the ?ittractibn 4 

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PhihsopEkalTransaetums ofthi R. S, Partllfim^i. fa? 

both these weights would conspire in drawing the arm aside ; and, 
when its position, as affected by these weights, was ascertained, the 
weights were to be removed to the other side of the case, so as to 
draw the arm the contrary way, and the position of the arm was td 
be again determined; and, consequently, half the difference of thene 
positions wouH shew how much the arm was drawn a«idc by the atr 
traction of the weights. 

• In order to determine from hence tltc density of the earth, it ft 
mcessary to ascertain what force Is required to draw the arm aside 
through a given space. This Mr. MicheH intended to do, by 
putting the arm in motion^ and observing the time of its vibrationst 
from which It may easfly be computed.^ 

As soon as the present ingenious author became po a M pct d 
of this appaf atust Be directed that attention to the improvt* 
ment and use of it, whichi on various, other occasions^ buy 
been laudably employed in the advancement of philosophical 
science. No person could have been more disposed to apply 
k to the purposes for which it was designed, nor more capable 
of accurately and advantageously conducting the experiments 
-for which it is adapted. After having described (wltjv the 
-assistance of suitable figures) the several parts of this curious 
apparatus, in its altered and improved state ; ^nd having spc- 
cibed the matJnet of using it, so as to avoid the various cr|»rs 
%o which tlie observations made with It are liable \ Mr. Ca- 
vtodish gives a particular account of his numerous cxperi- 
meats, and of the conclusions which bM6duted fe)m ijiem. 
The detail is so minute ^nd so extensive, that no abstract, 
within our restricted limits, can be rendered interesting to our 
readers. The result of the whole, however, is exhifaiml in a 
tabte. By a mean of one set of experiments, the density qf ' 
the earth appears to be 5,48 times greater than that of water ; 
and by a mean of those of another class, !t com«i out the 
iait^ : the extreaM difference of the results of the 23 ob9err<- 
a&0ns beloftging to this latter class is only ,75 ; ^ 10 that the 
e^^treme resets do not differ from the urean by more than ,3^9 
or T, of the whole \ and therefore the density should seem to 
b^ ^teSermtscd hereby, to great exactness.*.— <It secmsvery un- 
fikely (says Mr. C.) that the density o€ tiie earth should differ 
from 5,48, by so much as t* of the wh€*le/ 

* According to the experimentB made hy Dr. Maskelyne, on the 
firttroetion of utt hitt Scheha]lien» the den$fty of thle earth is 4I times 
that of water; which diflsrs rather snloFe from the preceding deter- 
tfunation,' Cays Mr. C, « than i should have eiqpeeted. &u!t I for- 
bear eoteriiMr into anjr c6najderatioB of whkh determination it most 
^p be depended en, till 1 have exanlined more car«lully how nuoh 
the preceding delermination is affected by int|^uIaotie8 whose %liaa* 
|a j i taaoot measorc.' 

S4 The 

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\ it Ferriar*/ Midkal IBstmes and R(/kctions, VvL Uh 

Tlie other papers of a mathematical nature, which wc have 
pot noticed| adinit of no abridgment ; and we m^st, therefore^ 
* content ourselves with reciting the titl^ of them. They arc 
as follow : • 

^ On ihe RooU of Equations. By James Wood, B.D. Fallow of &ty 
Jobn^s College^ Catnbri4ge. 

General Tf>eoremj, chiefly Porismf^ in ihe Higher Geometry. Bf 
Hc^iry Brougham, y/z/i. jksq. 

* An improved Solution of a Problem in Physical Astronomy ; h 
nvbieh swiftly converging Series are obtained^ which are useful th 
tmpitting the Perturbations of the Motions of the Earthy Mars^ 
and Venus f by their mutual Attraction. To which is added ok 
'Appendix f containing an easy Method of obtaining the Sums of many 
Slowly converging Series which arise in taking the Fluents of .W» 
nomial Surdsy &c. By the Rev. John Hellins, F* R. S. 
' A very elaborate paper. 

[To-be cofainucd.'} 

> ' ■ ' ' I ■■ ■ . ■ - , , 

Art. n. Medical Histories and Reflections. Vol. III. By Jofm 
Ferriar, M. D. Physician to the Manchester Inlinnary, &c. &<^ 
' 8vo. 5s. Boards. Cadell jun. and Daviee. '798. 

PUR medical readers, we doubt not, will receive wiih sdtts- 
factioq the infd^ation of a new volume from the band of 
.this ingenious 'writer. His first topic is that terrible disease 
:the JRabies Gamna^ of which a second case has occurred to him, 
that seems to h^ve produced some change in his ideas of itiis 
jjoature. An effusion of blood into the substance of the lungs, 
,and the appearance of inflammation in the stomach and oeso- 
•jibaguf, (which last he has traced through the descriptions ti 
eeveral writers,) haye induced him to consider the Rabies as 
•pwing- rather to an inflammatory than a spasnK)dic afl«ction* 
,He has, in cpnsequence, laid down a plan of cure ; in which, 
.however, we cannot discern apjrthing that has not been re- 
.pcatedly tried without success : nor can we flatter ourselves 
..that his researches have thrown any material accession of light 
pn this singular and hitherto, incurable malady. . - \ 

, T^ht Accmnt.of th( Estpblishment^of ^ever^Wards in Man-^ 
jhesier' aflFor^s a yery pleasing example pif the success of a pk^i 
\icyc the ^eventson of disease ; th^it. best, hvit most neglected, 
-branch of the medical art. The prevalence of infectious fevers 
in manufacturing towns is a melancholy fact, which- mam 
-writers, and the present author in particulari have taken lai^ 
•able pains to iplaoc in^the view of the puhlic. To prrfreit 
them from arising in the first ^nstancei a vafietjr bf 'p^recadtfons 
^.. r ' f A . aj^' 

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PcmarV Medical Histories ani ReftedionSy VoL III. % 19 

iVc requisite ; a^d Dr. F. has had the merit of affording muclv 
instrtkction on this head : — but, to prevent the progress of in- 
lectiou once generated, the grand point is separation ; and ic 
ts the accomplishment of thi?, by the Board o| Health at Man^ 
Chester, which forms the principal subject of this paper. A^ 
Idnd of Fever-hospital, under the popular name of a H(}use of 
Kecovery, has been established in a proper quarter of th<5 
town, to which all who are known to fall ill with fevers pf the 
infectious class are immediately conveyed; and the effect of 
this institution in extinguishing epidemic disease has been truly 
surprising,— -We shall not attempt to abridge this paper, sinc^ 
every part of the detail naust be interesting to those whom 
inotivcs of humanity, and regard to the public good, may e>j- 
cite to similar exertions ; and who.m, therefore, wC would ad^ 
vise to consult the volun^e itself, . 

An Affection of the Lymphatic Vessels ^ hitherto misunderstood^ \% 
the subject of the next article. Mr. White of Manch^steti 
several years ago, , called the attention of the faculty in this 
country to a singular 8\ydling of one or bpth of the Iqwer ei^: 
tremities, sometimes occurring in lying-in woirien. He clfearly 
Vliscerncd this to be owing to a disease of the Jympliat\cS of the 
pan ; and he attributed it to the rupture, during laboi^r, of th^ 
great lymphatic trunk which on c^ich %\At passes over the brim 
of the pelvis. Other writers, afterward brought additions tp 
the history and description of this disease^ ^nd formed different 
theories of its cause. Dr. F* ^ere addi^ces a case of a very . 
similar affection in a man; and, generalizing his ideas/he coiv 
'ceives an inflammatory state of the lymphati,c system in a partg 
which may occur from various causes, witbou^t being limited 
as to sex or part x)f the body. From this notion gf the di^ 
ease, he adopts a practice calculated to unload the sanguineous 
'vessels, and to diminish local and general irritability. H< 
'directs the free and repeated application of leeches to the 
•swollen limb, together with a continued use of gentle cathar* 
rics ; and he proves ^he success of his metho^d, as well by th^ 
cverxt of the case first mentioned, as by that €^ a woman iu 
•whom the attack commenced on the day aftfer delivery. 

On the Croup. The purpose of this short paper is to cha- 

-ractcria^e the genuine croup, and strongly to impress the neces^ 

'^ily of employing (without delay) the only remedies which are 

.'irorthy of reliance, viz. copious bkading, emetics, a^ large 

blisters on the breaft or shoulders* 

A still more brief paper on the Hooping'Cough ends with t«« 

Vomm'ending, as the most effectual remedy for shortening this 

fedious disorder, the solution of white arsenic. We cannc^ 

'but wi^h' that tKc'audiorTiad given isomc details of his own 

" 4 ' ^ practice^ 



»^4* 



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practice (which he represents as vefy successful) in this dcli? 
catc point. , 

The Useof the Nitrous AcidinSiphyRs^ and in some ciher Dis^ 
gases^ is next considered. The general result of the author'* 
experience, in this matter, is that this remedy is capable of rc- 
, moving certain symptoms in the advanced stages of the Ycnc- 
fcal lt»e«, but that it would scarcely be prudent to trust to it 
»kme. He has nerer been able to ascertain that the acid hat 
9RV other action on the salivary organs, than what proceed* 
frbm its external application in the act of swallowing. In 
chronic rheumatism, and as % general tonic, he has found it a 
iraluable medicine. 

A section on the Treatment of the Dying contains some curious 
anil probably little-known facts, relative to the practices of 
mnrses and other ignorant and prejudiced persons in this parti- 
cular ; and it is worth perusing by all who wish to procure for 
^mselVts, or their friends, that last of blessings to poor mor* 
t^i^-^^euihanana. 

The Ai>PBNDWr contains two papers. The first, mtitled 
Advice to the PooTy was originally drawn up for distribution by 
the Board of Health, and consists of plain rules directed to chf 
bresemtion of the nlanufacturing poor from contagious fever^u 
The second is a communication from Mr. W. Simmons, sur- 
ge6it, relative to the use of the Kali purum as a caustic in th^ 
^te of a mad dog» and of the nitrous acid in (ues venerea*'^ A 
fexnarkablc instance of the fallacy of teport is given in this 
Mmmunlcation. Mr. Dent affirmed, in the House of Com* 
mons, that 40 cases of hydrophobia had occurred in the Man- 
chester Infirmary within a fortnight. The fact was, that this 
number of persons l^itien by mad dogs, real or suppo^d, had 
offered, but that not one of these was attacked with the hydxq- 
Jjhobia. Mr. S. is led, bv his own experience^ to think tha* 
the timely ^Implication of the alkaline caustic to the wound is 
»tt ahnost certain preveiltivc. — His cases of the trial of nitrous 
^ctA rn the Ven. Dis. go to prove that it is capable of curing 
the primary^ but that it fails in permanently removing secondary 
symptoms. This, certainly, is a sutemcnt very htUe in ki 
favour. 
^ ■ ■ ■ ■ . , ., 

A*itT. in. Ilhstrttiont of Sterne : with odier Essays and Verses. Bjr 
John Ferriar, M.D. 8vo. pp*3i4. 51. Boards. Oaddi jun« 
aiid Davies. 179s* 

1 Met many others of his profession. Dr. terriar has made p 
^ happy Combination of the literary with the, medical dba- 
tac^eri and after having in various ways in$tructed» be here 

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FciTiarV JBmtrstions $f Sterne, &ct I3t 

^ims to amusej the public. The variety and unumial turn of 
his re^duig have alre^y been displayed in certain papers in- 
serted, in the Manchester Transactions \ particularly in onc^ 
pointing out the source of various imitation^, or rather pla- 
giarismsy in the writings of Sternci which excited considerable 
notice from the curious in literature *. The greater portion 
of the present volume consists of an augmentation of the Doc- 
tor's discoveries on that topic ; or rather of a new and more 
methodical exercise on it, comprising the most material part 
of the former paper. It is a piece of much entertaining re- 
search. The story of Sorlisi, though little connected with the 
subject, is a good onCj and is told with many touches of Sterne's 
manner. 

The second piecej ' Of certain Varieties of Matt^ Is chieflf 
occupied with. authorities antient and modem on the existence 
of pygmies, and of tailed mtn. Several of its quotations arc 
amusing instances of the extravagancies of fiction and credti- 
lity ; and the lesson deduced from the whole, inculcating cau- 
tion in the admission of pretended facts, is a very necessary one 
to those who form systems on the observations of others. 

The Menippean Essay on English Historians' is a composition 
not easily characterized ; rather too grave to be jocular, an4 
too light to be serious. It is written in that whimsical mix« 
ture of verse and prose which some authors of note have occa« 
^tonally adopted, probably by way of frolic or experiment. 
Dr. F. is no bad versifier, as the following quotation may 
shew ; at the same time serving as a specimen of the bumouir 
of the piece. 

* From bards, inspir'd by mead, or Celtic beer. 
Burst forth the bloody feu(J, or vision drear. 
Till each attendant bagpipe squcak'd for fear f : 
They ^ung how Fin Mac Coid ^ ipontroll'd the %1|t^ 
Or Merlin rav'd with more than second -sight. 
Down Time's long stream the dyfng music floats 
And cheats th' impatient car with broken notes. 
Lull'd by the murmur, antiquarians snore. 
Of Highland-epics dream, and Druid-lore ; 
Or on the seeming steep, and shadowy plain. 
Hunt the glasS'Castle, or Phenician fane §, 

• * Sec Review, Vol xiii. N. S. p. 183. 

• f At thy WeU-sharpenM thumb, from shore to shore 

The trebles sqUeak for fear, the bases roar. Mac Fkci$u>* 

Firtgal.' . ^ ; 

Glass castle.'} Vitriftcd forts in Scothod } aftd the celebrated 

•h^temples ift IrebmL^ g K t 



'A 



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iji FerriarV Illustrations ofSternB^ &c, 

« Next doleful ballads troll'd th* immortal theme, 
' Sung to the car, br whistl'd to the team * : 
Th<r wicked wks, from age to agc» refuse 
The homisly ditties of the hob-nail-muse, . 
X.ong tost, the sport of mountain-air and winds f , 
' These P — ^y compients, and these Edwards binds. 

Now from his store each restless rival draws 
khyme's tarnish'd flowers, blunt points, and rusty saws. 
Till our bright shelves, in gilded pride, display 
The trash our wiser fathers threw away. 

* Our early history shuns the judging eye, 
in convents bred, the urchin leam'd to lie j 
White phantoms wave their palms in golden meads. 
And the pale school-boy trembles as he reads. ' 
4 * The later chroniclers, with little skijl, 
Darkling and, dull^ drew round th' historic mill. 
In wild confusion stro\^'^d, appear the feats 
Pf shews and b^^ttles, due^s, balls, and treats \ 
Here the rich arms victorious Edward bore. 
There the round oaths which great Eliza swore ; 
And quaint devices, justs, and knightly fiameS| 
And gay caparisons, and dainty dames.' 

The serious purpose of the essay is to point out the difFcrcn^ 
faults of English historical compositions at various periods. 
An imitation of Gibbop's manner (we take it for such, though 
it 18 not avowed, Jis one of the parts which has most pleased us. 
; The Puppet'Shewy a poem, chiefly translated from Addison's 
<* Jifarfifjo^ Gestjct/lantesy'* next occurs. It is not unsuccessfully 
executed ; though some of the elegant humour of the original, 
consisting in classical phraseology applied in the way of pa- 
rody, is necessarily lost. Compensation, however, is made 
by the introduction of modern satire : of which wc shall giv^ 
il speciiTioi, 

. * * Behold Noverre the mimic a^t restore * ^ 

Medea raves and Phaedra ^ffeeps no more. 
Her^ §ense and shew decide their long dispute. 
For man tunis puppet, and the stage is mute. , 
Ungraceful Hamlets, aukvvard Rpmeos fly 1 
Let Mother Goose t n^ore worthy themes supply^" 
On the vast stage, o'^er many an acre spread, 
B? lowing herds and numerous squadrons led ; 

* * Sung to the wheel, and sung unto the paile. ffalPs Ptrgidhn.^ 
. Vf ■:— ^rapidis ludibria ventis.* ViitO.' 

*':{: This passage might very well have been written at the time 
when the poem is dated; for the entertainment of Settma and A%or 
xvas taken from the story of Beauty, and the Beast ^ in Mother Goose'a 
Tj^lfs. The stage is.now farther indebted to that U^rned author.** ^ 



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^fJlvik Blue Beard fierce the htdi Jcey demands^ 
Or Puss IN Boots acquires the Ogre's lands ; 
Or fair Red Riding- Hood, ip luckless hour» 
A helpless victim falls to fraua and pow'r. 

* Proceed, great days ! till poetry expire. 
Till Congreve pall us, and till Shakespeare tire ;. 
Till ev'ry tongue its useless irt let fall, 

- And moping Silence roost in Rufus' hall ; 
Till nimble preachers foot the moral dance, 
Till cap'ring envoys check the pow'r of France, 
And full St. Stephen's see, with mute surprise^ 
The Opposition x/n;f, and Premier r/>^. 

* But oh! what God inspires my boding mind 
To paint the glimm'ring prospect yet behind ! 

I see in gesture ev'ry wish exprcst. 

Each art, each science quit the h'ghten'd breast : 

No wand'ring eyes the distant hcav'ns explore. 

On two legs tott'ring, man descends to loiir. , . ' 

Then, great Monboddo, proves thy system true ; 

Again in caves shall herd the naked crew ; 

Again the happv savages shall trail . 

(A long-lost gift !) the graceful length of tail i . . 

In that blest moment, by indulgent heav'n, 

Thy wish, Rousseau, and Swift's revenge are given.* 

A paper on Genius turns on the idea that, in the use of this 
word to denote a particular faculty of the mind, writers hav^ 
been Jed into obscurity by attaching to it something of the 
mystical notion of Genii^ or inferior deities, under whose spe- 
cial direction every man has been supposed, according to some 
theological' systems, to be placed. Several learned proofs of 
the prevalence of this opinion are given ; and its connectioa 
with inspiration, enthusiasm, and the prophetic spirrt» is point* 
cd out. 

' The topic of a Dialogue in the Shades^ between Luchn and 
NeodidactuSy is the new, or Qodwinian philosophy ; the moral 
{>nnciples of which are exposed partly to ridicule, and pai^tly to 
disapprobation of a more serious kind. The dialQgue is shorty 
and, we suppose, will not be deemed. conclusive by the adepts 
in the system which it is intended to combat. 

KnasteTy an Elegy^ is a piece of local or personal humour. 
Knaster^ it seems, is th^ name for a kind of German tobacco^ 
smu^led into England. 

The concluding piece is an ode, intitled 'A tforthern Pro^ 
tpect. The 9cene is painted from a rock in tfie neighbourhood 
of Alnwick castle, and, comprises a variety of objects, inte- 
resting (doubtless) to the inhabitant who is familiarized to thp 
ideas of the vicii^ity, but too local .for general impression. 
The poetry is, at least,, very tolerable ; but, as in most other 
^ , odes^ 



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jj^ Astatic R$S€&rcbety Voh It^m 

•des^ the cihapge^ oi th^ measure have seldom aoy peculiar 
^ adaptation. / 

From this brief analftis of the contents of this yolume, our 
leaders will judge of the entertainment which they mav expect 
in a perusal of it. .We have no doubt that it will be wel- 
come to those who love varied reading ; and who may there-* 
fore eiclaim with Lord Shaftesbury, as quoted by Dr.Ferriar for 
a motto to his volume : ^^Iftace Be with tif soul of that cbaritabie 
mid courteous Author^ nvho^ for the common benefit of his fellow^ 
mutbors^ inttoduced the ingenms wdy j^Miscfellaneous Writing !** 



Art. IV» jtsiailc Researches. Vol. IV. 4to. Printed at Calcutta. 
[^/. eoiUinued.2 

Tj^E have already given an account of part of this interesting 
^^ volume> io our Number for June last> vol. xxvi. j and in 
tficfoUowing Review, j(p. 463,) wc informed our readers that a 
London edition of the work had been published by Messrs* 
Vcrnor and Hood, under the title of Dissertations and MisceU 
' laneous Pieces refuting to the History and Antiquities, the Arts^ 
Sciences, and Literature of Asia. VoL IV. Bvor From this 
edition, we shall now proceed io our abstract \ whicb> by an 
unavoidable accident^ lias been too long delayed* 

On some extraordinary Facts^ Customs, and Practices of the 
Hindus. By the President. [Sir John Shore.] 

Among the Hindus, the person of a Brahmen is inviolate $ 
and to occasion his death, in any way, is accounted a crime 
which no atonement can expiate : — whence the foundation of 
the singular pracrice which formerly was frequent at Benares, 
and which in its effects approaches the nearest to our caption 
or arrest. The Brahmen, who adopts this expedient in order 
to procure redress, proceeds, armed with a dagger or poison, 
to tbe door of his adversary's house ; where he deliberately sett 
limself down, and threatens to commit suicide, if the of* 
fender should attempt to pass or molest him. He fasts with 
in&exible rigour, to which the other party likewise sob^ 
znits, and perseveres in his resolution until satisfaction is ob* 
tained. The pracrice of sitting in Dhema is not confined to 
the male Brahmens only $ for an instance occurred at Benares ifl| 
1789, of a widow directing that engine of opinion against her 
br6ther-in>law. Both fasted obstinately during thirteen days; 
when, worn out with hunger^ her antagonist at last yielded 
the contest. 

No traces of this extraordinary custom are found in BengsJ, 
|)or in Behar-, though even in C^/rtf/Ztf it is not unusujd for 
^ Brihmens 



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Asiatic Researches^ Voi, If^» 13 j 

Brahmtns to ettort charity from the Hindus by posting theua** 
selves at the doors, declaring th/sir determination no^ tq retite . 
till thetr solicitations are jgranted; and in the Fizicr^s don^. 
tiions^ they have been successfully employed to recover claims* 

Another practice of the BrahmmSf equally singular and more 
cmel, is balled erecting a KMr. They construct a circular pile 
of wood, and, placing on it a cow or an old won^aa^ prepare 
to consume the whole together* The person who should oc- 
casion this desperate act is believed to incur a heir^ous sin 5 aikl 
the object of the rite is to deter the agents of gpvernmeat 
ir#m urging importunate demands, or levyinggrievous exactions^^ 
The oniy case of settkig up a Koor^ that occurred for manjf 
years, happened near Benares in 17S8 : but the sacrifice was 
prevented by the timely interposition of authority. 

There are a few instances of still mofe atrocious actSi by 
which the J3ri^«r/7x seek to repel injuries, or jto wreak their 
(eetife vengeance \ as by murdering, with R^utual consent, their 
aearest and 9ost beloved relation, from a persuasioB that 
lu^or of the^eed w^l redound on the head of their oppressor. 
Sir John Shore relates three shocidng cases of that nature, whidi^ 
aolate as Che years 1791 and 1793, came under his cognizance 
so die province of Benares. 

In somecountries, otherwise admired fpr their political wisdom^ 
the laws, trusting to the prevalent force of natural affectioo, 
have overlooked or permitted the practice of infanticide. Yet 
'«ueh are the pleadings of helpless innocence, that a crime so 
ftpugnant to the feelings of a mother is seldom committed but 
tn the most extreme cases. It excites our surprise, tlierefone^ 
ttad it rouses our pity and abhorrence, to hear that a whole 
tribe in the provirice of Benares regulariy starve to death thdr 
lemale ofispring. The reason alleged by the parent is the utter 
impossibility of providing their daughters with the portions re- 
-^red 4n marriage ; and their youth seek wives from among tte 
BeigU)o«urin^ and less indigent tribes. The servants of tbp 
JEast India Company have humanely imerfered, but have tiotp 
we fear, attacked-the evil at its source. Wretched indeed nmsr 
kf tW <}^dHi^n of tiiat people, in whom the dictates of nature 
are so completely stifled !— It is consolotary to observe soi^e 
lew Q|C€cplS(Mis: certaiti lu^ies suffer at kzst one female chilil 
# bf xeat^. 

U aof of Attii cane remains unemployed, the propi^etor 
tqiaks to die spot {deviously to the 25th JeyU or 1 1 th of June^ 
fniit having sacrificed to Nagbeky the tutelar God of that plant* 
Jn^ cv^Uf sets >fire^ the whole i it being firmly believed tgr. 
the ryis ^ husl(aa4mea, ^t, if a single cane should #ow>^ 

15 after 



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^^3^ Asiatie JUsearches^^ T©/. Jjh, 

\htx that, term, it would portend the most dreadful calanutiii 
to themselves and their farhifie^. 

' When we reflect how loth Europe waS to reject the grossest 
prejudices, we need hot wonder that the befief in charms, 
dmiilets, sorcery; fascination, and astrology should generally* 
prevail in the "Cast. In the year 1792, among the Soontaars^ 
bne of the' wildest and most unlettered tribes in India,' five 
tinhappy women Vere put to death on a charge ol witchcraft^ 
The ordeals of trial are remarkable, and bear s6me resem- 
blance to those so learnedly desttibed bjf dUr sage monarch^ 
Jiimes I. in his Demonolo^^m 

" / First. Branches of the Salt! tvecr marked with the names of all 
the females 111 the village, whether married oc unmarried} who havtf 
'attained the age bt twelve years, are planted in the water in the morn- 
ing, for the space of foUr hours and a half; and the withering o/an^ 
t)r these branches is proof of witchcraft agaiiist the person whos^ 
' name ts annexed to it^ 

. • Secondly, SmaXt portions of rice ehvfeldped in cloths, marked as 
^ove, are placed in a nest of white ants ; the consumption of the 
rjce in any of the bags^ establishes sorcery against the woman whose 
name it bears. . . • ;. 

[^ . f Thirdly. Lainps are lighted at night : water is placed in cupiS 
*iTiade of leaves, and mustaru-seed and ou are poiureo* drop by^drop^ 
into the water, whilst the name of each woman in the village, is pro- 
notinced ; the appearance of the shadow of any womaii on the watc^ 
during this ceremony,' proves her a witch.* 

The proofs succeeded to the wishes of the prosecutotrs. The 

,poor females h^d been Yrequtntly surprised at their nightif 

gambols, dancing naked by the light of z lamp, with a brppQi 

'tied about their waistjs. It is not said whether those sportivip 

ladies were old' and wrinkled. ... > 

A very curious mode of ascertwning the boundaries of pro* 

!)erty is sometimes practised in Hindustan. Two holes arc d«ig 
n the contested spot, into each of ^^hich an old man chosen • 
by either party from the adjacent villages puts his leg, and re^ 
mains there till he is tired, or complains of being stung by 
.insects y in which case his employer loses the syit, , . ... 

. 0/$ tie Duties of a faithful Hindu Widdw. By Henry Cold* 

brooke, Esq. . . , ^ 

i' The European compilations on the manners- and religi(m (If 

the Hindus are often leplete with error and fable^ firom^dfe 

• want of judgment in selecting tbe authorities. The obligadoQ 

of the widow to ascend the funeral pile of her deceased htll- 

^band being generally misrepresented, Mr.Colebrookc has taiketi 

^the pains^^of collecting, from the zwimti Sanscrit books, alltbit 

.may tend to. elucidate a ritual so extraordinary* - . ^ » -..•. /f 

v-*,w '.^ ^Havuig 

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JsiaA Re^eqrcket, Vol. IV'. * 137 

' *• Hiaving 4r6t bathed, the widow, dressed fn two clean garments, 
tnd. hoUiDg some susa grass, sips water from the paho of her hand. 
P<4npg ocM ind ft^ on her hand, she looks towards the e^ist or 
north while the Bralnnana\\Xtx% the mystic word Om. Bowing ta 
Ncri^aficL, she next declares : " Oo this month, so named in such a 
FacsBay on such a tU^hl, 1 (naming Herself and her family) that I 
may meet Arundhati and reside in Swarga ; that the years of my stay 
'may be numerons as the hairs On the human Ipody ; that 1 may 
enjoy with my husband theftlicity of heaven j and Sanctify my paternal 
axid matensal progenitors, and the ancestry of my nusband's father; 
that, buikd by the Apsaraas^ I ma^ be happy with fny lord, through 
the reigns of jTouitCffn Indtas ; thi^ expiation be made for my hus^ 
bmd't pffenccs, whether he have ktUvd a Brahnuina, broken the, ties 
of gratitude, or murdered his friend-; thus I ascend my husband's 
burning pile. I call on you, ye guar^ans of the eight regions of tlie 
Worla ! Sun, and Moon ! Air, fire, asther, eartfi and water ! My 
owji sou^ ! Tama ! Day, night, and twih'ght ! And thou, conscience, 
iiear witness. I foHow my husband's corpse on the funeral pile.'* 

*• Having repeated the Sancnl^Oy she walks thrice fotrpd the pile ; 
•sd the BribfHana utters the following Mantras. \ 

* Om ! Juct these women, not to be widowed good wives, adorned 
With coUyrium, holding cUrified butter, consign themsplves to the 
fire. Immortal, not childless, nor husbandlcssj^excclleat, let thoak 
pass into fere, whose ori^itwl cl3en>ent is water. From the . RigveJa^ 

** Om ! Let these wives, pure, beautiful, commit themselves to 
the fire with their husband's coi-pse. A Paurgnica Maiira V^ 

The h$t r\K^% are more fully described thos 2 . 

• Adorned with all jewels, decked with m'lnhm, and other customary 
anwments, with th^ box of minium irt her hand, having mzdc pujay dr 
adoration, to the DevaiiSf thus reflecting that this life k nought^ my 
l^s^d a^ m^Mr to nm vuuaU; she walks round the.burning pile. She 
bestows jewels on the Brahmanasy comforts her relatione, and 8h<iw# 
ber friends the Mtentions of civility \ while caUing th^ Sun and £le« 
n\ents to witness, she distributes mnium at pleasure ^ and having re^ 
peated the Sancalfay proceeds into the flames. There embrac;iajjr ihp 
corpse, she abandons herselT to the fire, calling. Satya ! . Sat^^a f 
SatjaP 

This sacrifice is not absolutely enjoined, but it is rccoon- 
mended by all the allurements ^ymch enthusiasm <;aQ invent- 
There are, however, some cases of exemption. If the widoy 
has an infant child ; or if she is pregnant *, and, among cer- 
tain casts, if the husbai)d dies in a distant country, — the cere- 
iJKny is interdicted. If the wonian declines burning, sh^ 
mu^t thenceforth lead a life of the most rigid austerity, wholly 
devoted to acts of piety and mortification. If she feels reso- 
hitiqn equal to the deed, the son or nearest kinsman of ifa^ 
decea$ed applies the first torch.. The spectators cast wood and 
butter on the, pile, an act cst<:esped traxisccndautly mciuoxiuus ; 

Ret. Feb. l^^^). L and 



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138 Asiatic Researches, Vol. IV. 

and even those who join In the procession are rewarded in heatril 
for every step of their march. Such liberal immonides are a 
proof, as Mr. Colebrooke remarks, that burning could never 
be a frequent practice in the East. * 

On the Inhabitants of the Hills near Ra'JAMAHALL. J9^Licute<* 
nant Thomas Shaw. 

This ample p^rpcr contains much curious information, but 
is tedious> devoid of arrangement, and abounding in repeti* 
tions. The rude and illiterate people of whom* ;it speaks sub- 
sisted chiefly on the plunder of their richer neighbours, till the 
arrival of Mr. Cleveland among them ; who, by his gentle and 
prudent treatment, happily succeeded in for mmg them to habits 
of regular industry* They believe in the Supreme Being, with 
a number of subordinate divinities. Their Deity, as in some 
other countries, b clothed with the attributes of an absolute, 
inflexible, and capricious- so vcre'^n. By his express appoint- 
ment, cath event arrives; and Providence is continually 'at 
woric in dispensing the punishments of the Divine disple»» 
sure. Like the rest of the Orientals, they hold the doctrines 
of metempsychosis. The souls of those who have acted with 
injustice or cruelty, while sojournhighere, are supposed to be sent 
back on earth to be born of woman, forthechastisement of their 
sins ; and if they were guilty of crimes of great enormity, tbey 
are thrust down to herd with the brutes, or even degraded to 
mingle with the vegetable tribes. Hence die aversion of 
the natives of the hills from killuig a tiger. Suicides are 
not admitted to heaven, but suspended midway,, or cao^ 
demncd to toil with unavailing efibrts. Warriors, slain in 
battle, are welcomed into the presence of God, and fare 
sumptuously. . 

Such opinions are salutary, or at least innocent : but, among 
'a simple ^nd credulous race, superstition, directed by the arts 
of tl^e priesthood, has given rise to practices decidedly perni- 
cious to the interests of society. The Demauno or Dewassy, 
of whom there are several in every village, lives by the trade 
of retailing oracles. The prophet affects superior purity, re- 
tains his long hair, drinks the reeking blood of immolated 
victims, and abstains from beef and milk. His cruel noviciate 
IS here related with a minute prolixity. On the first full-moon 
of January after his inspiration, the Vemawio sallies out from 
'his house with all the signs of frenay, and retires to unfre- 
quented rivers or jungles, where he passes seven or nine days, 
fed (as he pretends) by the Divine bounty. With the rerarn of 
reason, the impostor emerges from his retreat, tears up large 
trees by the roots, and astonishes the populace by his power 
in working miracles. He holds converse with the God Bedo 

GosaiAf 

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. :gsiattc Researches, Vol. IV. \yf 

Gofaiby in tfatf visiotis of the night. He drives out deviky 
cures inTCterate diseases, and promises wealth, prosperity, and 
honors to his humble votaries. The pigeon, the cock> and 
the goat, are the usual sacrifices which he directs. — As a spe- 
cimen of his priestly functions, we select the following pas- 
^ges : 

• The Ci<//irifl-fc8tival is held but once in three years. The ce» 
iebration of it so seldom is, probably, from its being very expensive 
to the Maungy, who bears the charge. It is not every viUage that 
has a ChaltuSf though he is considered as the God that presioes over 
the welfare of villages ; but, like Ruxey Nad, he is. not supposed 
to be essential to their happiness, till the inhabitants are harassed by 
90me plague or pestilence ; when the Demauno, on being consulted, 
informs the Maungy that this Deity is desirous of having a Nad 
raised ; that, effecting this, and worshipping him, will put ah end 
to their misfortunes. The Demauno then dreams of the place where 
this shnne is to be found, in the shape of a black stone ; he pro« 
^eeds in the morning to discover it, observing the same forms as are 
described in obtaining Ruxey Nad ; when found, the stone is placed 
under the shade of a muctmun-Xxtt contiguous to the village, and 
undergoes no alteration in its form from the chissei. 

* Among the preparations for the Ci&//flnw-fe&tival, the Maungy. 
must provide a cow, and a piece of red silk» previous to the day fixed 
for prayer. The Saiane^ as usual, is pcrfoiined, to find out. what 
two of the Maimgf% vassals will be most acceptable to the god-head 
to pray. This point being settled, and every thing ready, a day is' 
fixed ; CD the eve of this holiday, the piece of ^ilk is cut in two, and 
bne part given to one of the wives of each of the preachers, with 
whom their husbands have not cohabited for ten or fifteen days pre- 
viously. The Demauno^ Maungy^ Cutwaly Phojedar^ Jemmadan^ 
and Bundareensf having been invited into one of the preachers' hous^, 
the Demauno gives water to two Kalnvarsy one Dolewar^ one M'an^ 
geeta, and one Jelaumy to wash their hands ; and these musicians are 
taken into the house : a feast is served, of which all present partake, 
as soon as the chiefs have thrown a little of each dish away, in the 
name of Chalhad. Immthere digress, to observe, that it is a 
custom through all the hills, to throw a little of their meat away 
at every meal, previous to their eating ; and the same rule is observed 
in drinking, the intention of which is to avert any bad consequence 
from any i:vil or evil spirit having defiled it. The Bandareeruy whose 
particular province it is, at all festivals, to serve out the (oddyy oc 
spirits, perform that office ; and the chiefs, having spilled a little 
Jso in the name of Chalnad for a libation, the party drink and sing 
all night, in praise of Chitariah Gosaih, invoking his protection, 
the musicians, or rather drummers, beatin? at the same time ; should 
any person sing a different song, he is nned a fowl, which is sacri- 
ficed, and the blood sprinkled over the whole party ; during the 
course of the night, they patrole the village itive. time?, leading a cow 
mih them ; in the morning, the Demauno^ the two preachers and 
drummers, proceed to Chalnad with the cow ; having finished their 

L Z prayers, 



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i4Cf Asiatic JUt$greUsy V^L W. 

praycrt, ^ cow ie Bacriiced by due of the preachers, in ttud^ a 
manner that -the blood may &U oo the ehrine ; a feast is immediately 
made oi the fl^sh; an4 all the men who accompaiued them fnpm the 
^Ulagey^cept^such as may b^ disqualified from domestic cau$e«» par- 
l^ic of it. 6n their return to the village, they send notice of their 
a"toproach> tliat the two wives of the prtFachers, between whom the 
piece of silk was divided, may take off their clot^hes and ornaments, 
and tic the silk round their middles, .co^nr-g them from their waists, 
to their knees ; their hair fs festened in sc 4 not on the crown of their 
heads, and every part of their body, w>iich i& exposed, is spotited 
with a mixture made of turmeric, povi'dere^* and the heart, or white 
part, of Indian corn, which is findy ground for that purpose : part 
of this is also sent to the preachers, that they may be spotted in the 
same manner, and with it the halves of four mats thus prepared. 
fht two women (the whole village, ;nen, wbmen, and children beings 
assembled to see the proceseion ) set out, one following the other> 
and taking care not to advance the foot which is up beyond the toe 
ef that on the ground, to meet the preachers, who observe the sane 
pace as their wives ; and the mats, as the parties pass over them, are 
always taken up and placed again before ; having passed each other, 
the women take place behind the men, and follow them by the same 
step at which they at first set out, to the Iiouse of one of the preachers;, 
^hen arrived, the men taking one side, and the women the other, 
they wash and change their clothes t Here the ceremony ends ; an^ 
the preachers, witb their wives, are invited to a feast at tlie Mamtgy*^.^ 

Thi» b the. only festival a€ wWch women' arc pcirmitjed Kq 
assist. They are taught tO' ask in private the piotection Qf tli6 
Supreme Being, night and morning. 

Pow GosAfH, the god of the highway, is the first wor- 
sbippcd by the young men,, an*d this after they have met with 
86mc accifdent in trafclling. The offended divinity is appeascjl 
by^ sprinkliog thp blood of a cock on the muckmun brapphj^ 
and Jniaking a painted hen's cgg«— The next in order is 
bEVTARY GosiiiH, \;rl>o p^re^ides ov^r tfie welfare of families. 
He is* treated with a fe^, consisting of a hog> ricei distitied 
aptrks,- xed-paint, and oik £ull GosiiiH, or the Ceres of the 
inountatneers, is worshipped annually at the time of sowings 
Und in SBth manner as the circumstances of the suppliant can 
best aflford. The wtn-ship of Goomo Gosaih is likewise at- 
tended with some pomp : but that of Chumdah Gosaih is 
$o expensive that only Chiefs are his votaries and not oftenqc 
than once in three years. 

These mountaineers arp said , to be in goipral of a very 
amorous disposition. The attachment bcfiween youag lovers 
is ardent and sincere ; an^, as in countries in which simpli* 
city prevails, they indulge their passion to a -certain extent be<* 
fore marriage. That ceremony is attended with heavy cx« 
f ^ce. Having obtained the consent of the damseV ^^^ ^spe^ 

cioUy 



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^Sally fliart of her parents, the suitor is obliged to make costly 
presents to them and the relations of the family. — Polygamy- 
is permitted. It is allowed to marry the sister of a deceased 
wite, or, as under the Mosaic institution, to espouse the widow 
of a deceased brother. — Adultery is punished by fine. 

Witchcraft and sorcery are firmly believed, and a sort of 
trial by orde;al obtains. The dead are interred with their headg 
^0 the north j anrf to bury the bedstead along with the corpse 
is an honour purchased by tl>e present of a hog to the Mnungj, 
The funeral of a Chief is performed with every circamstawice 
of pomp and magnificeilce. Of his fortune, one half goes to 
the male heir ; aiid the other is apportioned among the rest of 
the family* 

Justice wns feebly administered among these inftabitants of 
the hills, and the injured w€re often obliged to redress them- 
selves by tl>e sword. Theft, nay poisoning, was punished only 
by fines ; aad indeed the penalty of every kind of murder was^ 
at the option of the relations of the decea^d, commuted into a 
pecuniary mulct. 

As these people Hve much by hunting, they sacrifice to the 
jfod of the chacc^ and hold a tunning dog in great esHmatiot>. 
Hospitality i^ esteemed a virtue, and generally practised : but 
it is held disrespectful in a peasant to sit in the presence of a 
Chief, till he is repeatedly desired. 

The natives of the hills near Rajamahali are of very low , 
stature, but are stout and w>ell proportioned. They have iat 
noses and thick lips, though not to the same degree as the 
Africans. Their agriculture a«d mamifacturee are in a very 
rude state, and they have no other domestic animads x\nxx hog<^ 
goats, and fowls; with a few dogs and cats. Their latiguagc 
is equally imperfect ; they have no original words to denote 
numbers beyond two, and borrow from the Hindu the term^ 
as far as twenty. They have no hieroglyphics, nor alphabetie 
characters. With all this ignorance-, however, the authority 
of their Chiefs is moderate^ and no slaves exist among them. 
They are addicted to spirituous liquors, are of a kind and cbcerful 
disposition, and utterly :ibhor falsehood. Instances of longevity 
5ccm to be rare among them. 

\7o he continuedJ^ 

Art. V. Captain Vancouver'/ Voyage of Di^overy to the North 
Pacific Ocean^ &c. 5cc. 
{^Ari, continued from ^. a i . ] • 

'T'HE year 1792 is concluded by Captain Vancouver with a 
* relation of the circumstances attending the death of Lieu- 

L 3 tenant 

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14* Vzvicoyxvtifs Voyage rf Discovery. 

tenant Hergest, the late commander of the Daedalus transpotti 
and of the discoveries made by that officer. Some particular^ 
in this account arc well worth notice. 

While among the islands CfiUed the Marquesas, the Daedalus 
was discovered to be on fire in the after-part of the hold, near 
the magazine. The cause of this fire, and the manner in 
which it was extinguished, afTprd matter of curious and useful 
informatioit-rThe powder was iqimediately ta]^ep out^ and put 
into a boat alongside. 

* At first the fire was supposed to have been occasioned by some 
oakum, stowed in the fore part of the gun room, taking fire, br acci- 
dentally getting wet ; since no lights had ever been near it. After a 
large quantity of provisions had been hoisted up to get out the 
powder, the smoke was still found to ascend from below ; this cir- 
cumstance, with that of the deck being so hot as not to allow thp 
people keeping their hands upon some lead that was laid upon it, 
convinced them that the fire must be in the lazaretto below, whcrp 
some pursers beds were now recollected to bave been very' improperly 
stowed ; and from the seas they had shipped during t}ie tempestuous 
weather which they had experienced in their passage rqund Cape 
Horn, no doubt was entertained that these beds had got wet and had 
taken fire. Every minute confirming Mr. Hergcst in thi? opinion^ 
care was immediately taken to stop every avenue and cixvice* abou£ 
the after hatch-way, to prevent any comn^uniption pf air before they 
ventured to scuttle the deck for tne purpose of extinguishing the firp 
by pouring water over it. Happily they had day-light for executing 
this ; and were soon convinced, that the fire had originated as they 
had last conjectured, from the appearance of the ascending smoke, 
on scuttling the deck, as also of the good effect of their judicious 
labours. Other holes were now bored immediately over the beds, 
and after pouring down larjfc quantities of water, they soon had rea- 
son to be gratefully tl^nkml to Divine Providence for so timely an4 
critical a preservation. Some of the beds were entirely consumed ; a 
case on which they were' laid, as also the deck over them, were burnt 
some way into the wood to a black cinder. Little else was stowed 
wjth these beds but rum and oil ; so that had the fire once broke out 
into a blaze, the extinguishing it, or preventing its communication 
with these inflammable substances, would have been morally impos- 
sible, and their destruction would have been inevitable.* 

Some islands were discovered north of the Marquesas, or 
rather a continuation of the same groupe j the southernmost oi 
the islands last discovered being in sight of the northernmost 
of those before known. From these islands, the voyagers met 
lirith no other land, until their arrival at the Sandwich Islands^ 

The death of Lieutenant Hergest, of Mr.Goochthe astrono- 
mer, and of one of the seamen, as here related, exhibits a strik- 
ing instance of ^ wanton barbarity ; it being stated that they 
were murdered while perfectly defenceless on shore amoiig 

11 tbci 



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yancourer*/ Voyig^ of Discovety, 143 

iht natives of Woahoo, and without provocation or any visible 
circumstance of temptation whatsoever. The generous and 
intrepid behaviour of thr^e seamen on this occasion is too 
slightly passed over in the narrative. — The D^dalus had an- 
chored at Woahoo ;ibout noon ; and Lieutenant Hergest, ac- 
companied by Mr. Gooch, went on shore in the cotter whea, 
it was nearly dark. 

« Tlie cutter returned, with only fivt persons instead <of the eight 
■who had gone on shore -m her, from whom was learned the distress- 
ing intelhgcnce, that Mr. Hergest, Mr. Gooch, and two of the 
Ixnt's crcw^ havii^ landed unarmed with two of the wata: cabks to 
,611, their defenceless situation was perceived by the natives, who im- 
jnediatdy attacked them, killed one of the people, and earned off 
the commander and the astronomer. The other being a very stout 
active man n^ade his escape through a great number of these savages, 
Jed to the boat, and with two others lande/1 again, with two mus- 
kets, with the intention t« rescue their officers, and to recover the 
body of their messmate. They soon perceived that both Mr. Hergest 
and Mr. Gooch were yet alive amongst a vast concourse of the in- 
habitants, who were stripping them, and forcing them up the hilk 
behind the village : they endeavoured to ffet near the multitude, but 
were so assailed by stones from the crowd, who had now gained the 
surrounding bills, that they were under the painful necessity of re- 
tiring ; and as night w^s fast ajpproacbing, they thought it most ad- 
visable to return on boArd*' 

It is %o be hoped that siich proofs of attapfasient t<9ward« 
^heir commander 4id cot pas^ unrewarded, though no others 
wise noticed in the narrative^ where eyen the names of tlie mea 
are not mentioned^ 

We left the Discovery apd tlic Chatham steering from the 
American coafit, towards the Sandwich Islands. They arrived 
off the eastern part of 0)vhyhec, February 12th, 1793 ; when 
the two vessels separated for the purpose of surveying each a 
«ide 6f the island, it being settled that they should meet again 
at Karakakooa Bay on die western side. None of the natives 
came near the Discovery till the next morning, when a canoe 
paddled from the shore to them. The people in this eaooe re- 
ported that a general tahog (interdiction) had prevented, the in- 
habitants from coming to the $hip. 

* The taboo had now existed some days, and in the com^e of a 
day or two more would cease. These people further informed us, 
that Tamaahmaab was then residing at l^arakakooa, and that hop, 
and the other refreshments of the island, were prohibited from being 
disposed of to European or Amencan visitors, under penalty ot 
dcm, for any other commodities whatever than arms and ammuni" 



* This is the^ baneful consecjuence arising from the injudicious con- 
^od nf itfuettraiueid pom^cial adventurers, who have thought pro- 

L 4 P«^ 

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1 4*4 •VahcouTcr'; Voyage of Dtscovefj. 

per to furnish these pcoJ>le, naturally a warlike and darb^ race, w&h 
a large assortment of arms and ammunition ; not only rendering thtej 
tby these means, a formidable nation ; but by thus absurdly aod pfXK 
fusely out-bidding each other, bringing the generality of other Eu- 
ropean commodities into contempt and lo\v estimatron.' 

These* visitors, however, regardless of the taboo, sold a hog 
and other refreshments for some iron ; and it afterward ap^ 
pcared'thattlie-Chiefs^, when it suited their purposes, scrufJed 
not to dispense occasionally with the restrictions of the taboO| 
if it was not of a religious nature. 

In this i^art of the voyage, some particulars, which arc re- 
lated respecting the intercourse carried on by the European^ 
«nd' Americans with these islands, are of too singular a nature 
to be passed without comment. — February i8th, the two ves- 
sels joined on the west side of Owhyhee, and Avere soon after- 
ward visited by Tamaahmaahy the king of the island, attended 
by John Young, an English seaman, who appeared to be a 
^rcat favourite, and to possess considerable influence with the 
Chief. Young had been boatswain of an American snow, called 
4hc Eleanor, mounting lo guns and navigated by 55 men, 
partly Americans and partly Chinese. The comnunder,Mr.Mct- 
ralf, also fitted out a schooner to accompany him, which w«9 
navigated by his son and five man. This vessel, which had 
been originally only a pleasure-boat, was named the Fair Amc- 
Tican? They s:^iled from China in 1789, and the Fair American 
•^ttras detained by the Spaniards at Nootka, but the Eleanor went 
to the Sandwich Islands. 

* Young stated, that in February 1790, they proceeded to Mowcej 
where a boat belonging to the snow, with one man in her, was 
Molen by the natives from the stem of the vessel ; and, on a reward 
treing offered for the boat and the man, Mr. Mctcalf was inform^ 
that the former was broken to pieces, and that the latter had been 
tkilled. The bones of the man were then demanded, which, with 
the stem and stern-post of the boat, were carried on board the snow 
in about three days. The natives in the mean time had continued to 
trade with the crew ; and after delivering up the remains of the man, 
and parts of the boat, they supposed thfe anger of those on board waSi 
entirely appended, and demanded of Mr. Metc^lf the reward he had 
offered. This, Mr. Metcalf replied, they should soon have, and im- 
onediately ordered all the guns to be loaded with musket balls, and 
naih ; and having tabooed one side of the ship in order to get ^ the 
canoes on the starboard side, next' the shore, the ports were hauled 
up, and the guns fired amongst the canoes. The g\ms between 
decks, being nearly upon a level with the canoes, did great execu- 
tion, as did the small arms from the quarter-deck and other parti of 
thetjhip. On ^ his occasion. Young represented that upwards <tf an 
hundred were killed, aAd a great many were ttrounded. 

* Having thus taken such revenge as he considered equivaknt tp 
Uic injury^receivcd, Mr. Metcalf quitted Mowee/ 

From 

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Vancotlvci^/ Voyage cf Discovery i 145 

Ttom Mowec they sailed to Owhyhec, where they were ap* 
-parently on good terms whh the natives. On the eve of their 
departure, the Eleanor being then under sail. Young had 
leave to stay on shore till* the next day, when the vessel stood 
in and fired a gun as a s'gnal for him to return : but, to his 
surprise, the canoes were all tabooed. The cause of this, he 
learnt, was, that the schooner Fair American, commanded by 
the youngrr Mr. Metcalf, had arrived from the coast of Ame- 
rica on the west side of Owhyhee, where she had been sur- 
prised and captured by the natives, and that the crew, one 
seaman excepted, had been killed by them. The Chief who 
commanded the islanders gave as a reason for this act, that he 
had been beaten and otherways ill-used by the father of the 
unfortunate young man. The natives in this attack were un- 
arnied, but threw the crew overboard. The mate, Davis, all 
Englishman, being a good swimmer, got into one of their 
canoes, where they b6at him till they were tired. * After % 
ehort respite he recovered a little, and looking up to the most 
active of the party, saitl *' tnytte, nfyitey*' signifying ** good ;** 
the man instantly replied " arrowhah^^ meaning, tliat he pitied 
him, and instantly saluted him by touching noses, gave him 
some cJotb, and assisted him to wipe and bind up his wounds* 
After -this he had no other injury offered to him.* 

The whole of this business appears to have been transacted 
witliout the knowlege of the King, wlio afterward took the 
curyivor, Davis, under his own protection, but would not per- 
mit Young to rejoin his vessel \ lest, like the Indians, and at 
Mr. Metcalf himself had formerly done^ he should again ieek 
to revenge himself indiscriminately on the innocent as well as 
the guilty. The Eleanor stood off and on during two days, 
firing guns ; after which she sailed from the island without 
having learnt the fate of the other vessel. 

Young and Davis had at this time been nearly three years 
in the service of Tamaahmaah. They had endeavoured t^ 
make their escape on board a trading vessel, and had been pre- 
vented : but such was the opinjou which the natives enter- 
tained of their friendship for each other, that, when any ves- 
sels arrived, cither was allowed to go singly wherever he 
pleased \ the detention of the other being esteemed a sufficient 
security for his return. 1 hey now shewed 00 inclination to 
quit the King of Owhyhee, and were each possessed of estates 
and houses. On the other islands, likewise, were found Amc- 
ftcans and Europeans, settled in the service of the Chief^i and 
who dieted as their agents with the trading vessels. 

The character of Tamaahtnaah appears to great Advantage, 
tttvL when not contrasted with the savage maaiiert of others 

of 



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14^ Vancourcr'j' Vojagt ofDisccverj. 

of his countrymen. Besides the kind treatment and protectioii 
experienced by Young and Davis, he had secured the cap^ 
tured schooner^ and laid her up> with the declared intendoa 
jof returning her, if ever demanded by the owner. Our navi«- 
gators likewise experienced fron^ hix^ the onost hospitable and 
Jriendfy reception. 

The foregoing is neither the only instance of a trading ves- 
sel being captured *by the Sandwich Islanders, nor of unpar- 
donable outrage committed by some of the com m anders : as 
ire shall have occasion io observe in the sequel. 

When the ships were, nearly ready for sea, a grand entec- 
jtainment was given by the King of Owhyhee, at which, be- 
ikies many other formalities, was represented a battle. la 
some particulars of t)iis representation, we see a striking re- 
semblance to the manners of the antients. The arms use4 
were woQ4en lances or javelins, blunted for the occasion v 
with long spears, by the natives called pai/aloo^ /which wcrp 
never to be quitted but Jn case of 4eath or defeat ; and the 
performance began by the ppposed parties advancing towards 
^ach other with reproachful 6p/;eche« and gestures,, and then 
throwing the lances. The following instance of dexterity wiU 
doubtless excite the a.dmiration of our readers : 

* In this exercise no oae seemed tp Ofcel jbis Owhybean- majesty, 
who entered the ]j[«ts for a short time^ and defended himself with the 
greatest dexterity, mu^ to our surprise and admiration ; in one in- 
stance particulaHy, against six spears that were hurled at him nearfr 
at the same instant ; three he caught as they were flying, with one 
hand, two he broke hj parrying them with his spear in the other, 
and the sixth, by a triflmg inclination of his body, passed harm- 
lessM!!— 

* The consequences attendant on the fin^t mai^ bqng killed^ 
er being so wounded as to fall on the disputed ground between the 
Contending armies, were next exhibited. 

f* This event causes the loss of many lives and much blood. In the 
conflict that takes place in order to rescue the unfortunate individual, 
who, if carried off by the adverse party dead or alive, becomes ai| 
immediate sacrifice at the morai.' 

Thus far the performance was without much regularly, but 

* The warriors who were armed with the falla/oosf now advanced 
with a considerable degree of order, and a scene of very different ex- 
pToits commenced ; presenting, in comparison to wjiat before had 
bcc« exhibited, a wonderful degree of improved knowledge in mili- 
tary evolutions. This body of men, composing several ranks, formed 
in close and regular order, constituted a firm and compact phalanx, 
which in actual service, I was informed, was not easily to be broken. 
Having reached the spot in contest, they sat down on the ground 
about thirty yards asunder,, and pointed their paUaloos at each other. 
After a short interval of silence, a conversation commenced, and 
Sdi« was supposed to ^te his opiaioQ respectiji^ peace and war. 

The 



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Vancoufcr^/ Voyage (f Ducoveiy. I4| 

Tbc ai^unients seemed to be yrg^d ain4 supported with equal enei^gry 
on both sides. When peace under certain stipulations was proposed^ 
the fallaldos were inclined towards the ground, an4 when war wa^ 
announced, their poipts were raised ^o a certain degree of elevation. 
Both parties put oa the appearance of being much upon their guards 
and to watch each other with a jealous eye, whHst this negociatioxi 
was goiug forward ; which, however, not terminating amicably, their 
respective claims remained to be decided by the fate of a battle^ 
Nearly at the same instant of time they all arose, an4> in close cor 
iumnsy met each other by slow advances. This movement they 
conducted with much order and regularity, frequently shifting thtir 
ground, and guarding with great circumsp^tion against the various 
advantages of tjieir opponents ; whilst the inferior bands were sufr 
posed to be engaged pn eaph wing witl^ spears and slings.' 

The whole account pf this exhibition Is very entertaining« 
and, if nothing more were known of fhese islanders, woul^ 
sufficiently evince that they are a hardy and warlike people. 
Many hurts and slight wounds were receivefi in the course of 
these exercises, which were borne with the utmost cheerful* 
ness and good-humour. 

The following are the most remarkable of the other customs 
which we find noticed among them. Captain Vancouver, 
when be quitted Karakakooa Bay, intending to anchor for a 
^hort time at another part of Owhyhee, Tamaahmaah» the 
Kihgy sent Young and Pavis to attend him thither; as he 
might not < absent himself from Karakakooa until certain cere^ 
jnoniejs had taken place, in consequence of his having cele- 
brated the festival of the new year in this distriet ; and of his 
having transgressed the law by living in such social intercourse 
TFith us, who had eaten apxl drank in the company of women.' 
—A prevailing custom, after having been any time at sea, was, 
to wash themselves in fresh water, immediately on their return 
to the shore : but whether for their own personal comfort, or 
Jn obedience to some religious ordinance, does not appear.— It 
\% a strong proof of the ingenuity of these people, that they 
hold armourer's tools in high estimation, and with them manu« 
facture iron for their several purposes, after their own fashion. 

Captain Vancouver had long meditated on the means of ob* 
taining satisfaction, as far as it could be afforded by the punish- 
ment of the oflFenders, for the murder of the unfortunate com- 
mander of the Dxdalus and his cpmpanions at Woahoo. He 
ha^ heard at Owhyhee, that three of the principal offenders 
had been put to death by the orders of Titeeree who was sove- 
reign of Mowec, Woahoo, and all the smaller islands to lee- 
ward: but this account had been directly contradicted by the 
Puefs of Owhyhee, who represented that * Mr. Ingraham, com- 
znanding ^c American brig Hope, on some misunderstanding 



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I 

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f 4^ Vift^titc/V Vojttge of Diwverf. 

with TiUetei arid ^slo^ had fired several shot at them as flicy 
vent from his vessel to the shore; and that in consequence of 
this treatment, those Chiefs had given directions to the inha- 
bitants of all the islands under their authority, to kill every 
while man they should meet with, whetlKr English, American, 
«t of any other nation.* — It roust be observed, ho\^ever, that 
the Chiefs of Ow'hyhee, when they related the case in this 
Itoanner, were endeavouring to persuade Captain VancooTcr 
to assist them in attempting a conquest of the other islands. 

On leaving Owhyhee, the vessels steered for Mowee ;' and 
immediately on their arrival, a Chief, who was brother to^ the 
King, visited thenu He insisted that, so far irom the murders 
having been premeditated and committed for the purpose of 
tevenging a difference betN^'ceri them and Mr. Ingraham, the 
transaction had happened wholly without the knowlege and 
much to. the displeasure of the Chiefs. All the circumstances 
, being considered by Captpin Vancouver, he thought i^ most 
probable that the principal people were not in any way con- 
cerned In the perpetration of the nuirders : but, ^ys he, « I 
now came to a determination of insisting with Tireerec, that 
the remaining offenders should be brought to justice, not by 
any measures of force in our power, but by their own means/ 

At the first interview with Titccree, after some conversa- 
tion on the subject of a peace between Owhyhee and the other 
Islands, Captain Vancouver relates : 

* I demanded of Titeerecy what offence had been committed by 
the late Mr. Hergest, and Mr. Gooch, to occasiori their having 
Vin put to death ? To this question they all replied, that neither of 
those gentlemen, nor any otlier person belonging to the Daedalus, 
liad, to their knowledge, been guilty of any offence whatever- I then 
' /cquc8ted to know, what was. the reason of their having been qiur- 
dered without any pfo vocation on their part ; and wbo was the Chief 
tilat gave orders for that purpose, or that was by any other mcsyis 
the cause of their losing their lives ? This question was also answered 
by the solemn declaration of the whole party, that, there was no Chief 
present on that melancholy occasion ; nor was any Chief in the least 
degree concerned ; but that the murder was committed by a lawless 
•et of ill-minded men ; and that the instant Titeeree had^ become ac- 
quainted with the transaction, he had ordered all those who had been 
princfpally concerned to be put to deafh ; and Tn consequence of his 
directions, three of the offenders had suffered that punishment. I 
then desired to know if three people only had been concerned ? The 
king then replied, that many were present at the time, but that only 
three or four more were concerned in the murder ; who would likewise 
have suffered death, had they not found means to escape to the moim- 
tains, where they had secreted themselves for some time ; but that 
lie understood they had returned, and were now living in or near aa 
estate belonging to Tomobomohe* These protestations corresponding 
7 w^4h 



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VancoovcrV Vt^age ofDlsaroery* x^p 

ipiAtTic-CTidcnce before Vetated, induced me to give credit to jth« 
asserted innocence of the Chiefs, and the guilt of the persona crimi* 
natcd by them. As puntshment ought to fall on tliose alone, 1 de- 
manded that tbi7?c or four, who \^'crc known to have be^n principal* 
in tht horrid act, should be sought, and published according to the 
hcinousness of their crime ; not py us, but by tlieraselves, without 
the least interfereace on our part. And that the punishment of th^ 
murderers might be made as public and impressive as possible, I re- 
commended that it should take place alongside of the ship, in the 
presence of the natives.* 

These propositions being settled, the £ing's brother under«9 
tOQk to accompany the ships to Woahoo, to secure the persoa^ 
of the oficnders; and an English seamaQ^ James Coksaan^ 
who had left an American trader and entered into the service 
ofTitecree, was likewise sent to assist. At Woahoo, the af- 
fair was represented by one of the Chiefs of that island in the 
following manner: — That Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Gooch, 
after having left directions with the people of the boat, went 
from the sea-side up to the habitutions of the natives, wbp be- 
haved to them in a friendly manner :— that, 

^ While the g^BBtlemeir were absent, a dispute arose at the waterbg 
place, between the natives and the people of the Dxdahis, from 
which an affray ensued, and the Portuguese seaman was killed. Ths^ 
BO barm or molestation had been olFered, or was intended, towards 
tboiegeBtlemen, who were treated civilly by the people of the village^ 
until tae news of this unfortunate transaction arrived ; when, to prot 
Tent rsfcoge taking piace, it.vea8 thought necessary to put to deaUx 
the Chiefs whom they then had in their power ; and that, in pursuanet 
•f this h9rrid cesolution, Mr. Gooch was instantly killed by being; 
stabbed through the heart with a pohooa ; that tlie first blow only 
wounded Mr. Hcreest, who, in endeavouring to make his way towaroli 
the boat, was knocked down by a large stone hitting him on jhc side 
of his head, and was then murdered in a most barbarous manner. 
The man who stabbed Mr. Gooch, the one who first wounded Mr. 
Hcrgcst, and another who had been principally concerned at the' 
wateoD^ place, had been, he said, apprehended by Titseru'^ orders^ 
and been put to death.' 

Coleman likewise affirmed that he had heard the story re* 
bted in the same manner, and that he believed it to be a true 
statement. With respect to the parties accused, it appeared 
that the authorrty of the King's brother was not sufficient for 
ium to venture to apprehend them : but he imreigled three 
men to go off with him in a canoe to the ship, and, when bo 
arrived on board, pointed them out to Captain Vancouver as 
^ guilty persons i— they were accordingly taken into the 
ship and coafiped. After a long examination, in. which the 
tdttknony^ of the Chiefs tUrectly charged the prisoiiers with 
being ^liy^ and whicli.wa$ constaiul][,demed bj tbem ; 

* Neither 



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ij|# Vancouver'/ Vf^gi of HUeovirji 

* Neither myself nor imr officers (saysCapt.V. ) discovered any rexma 
nom the result of this further examination, to retract or alter our 
ibrmcr opinion of their guilty or of ddivenng them over to their own 
people, to be dealt with accordiitg to the directions of their Chief. 
. * Before they went from the 8hip^ they were placed in irons on the 
, quarter-deck ; where, in the presence of all the shlp^s Company, 1 
recapitulated the crime which they had committed, the eviidcncc that 
Iiad been adduced against them, and the condemnation of their Chiefs, 
and stated the punishment that 'w/s now to be inflicted. All this 
was likewkc made known to the Indian spectators who were present. 
^ That the ceremony might be made as solemn and as awful as 
possible, a guard of seamen and marines were drawn up on that side 
of the ship opposite to the shore, where, alongside of the ship, z 
«anoe was' stationed for the execution. The rest of the crew were in 
icadiness at the great guns, lest any disturbance or commotionr ^odd 
arise. One ceremony however remained yet to be performed. One 
of these unfortunate men had long hair \ this it was necessary should 
he cut from his head before he was executed, for the purpose of bcing^ 
presented, as a customary tribute on such occasions, to the kiug of 
the island. I was shocked at the want of feeling exhibited by the 
two Chiefs at this awful moment, who in the rudest manner not only 
cut off the hair, but, in the presence of the poor suffering wretch, 
without the least compassion for his situation, disputed and strove for 
the honor of presenting the prize to the king. The odious cootest 
being at length settled, the criminals were taken one by one ioto a 
double canoe, where they were lashed hand and foot, and put to 
death by Tennavee^ their own Chief, who blew out their brains with 
» pistol ; and so dexterously was the melancholy office performed, 
that life fled with the reportof the piece, and muscular motion teemed 
almost instantly to cease.' 

It is to be remarked that Tcnnavce was not the Chief of 
Woahoo, though no doubt a man of considerable importance. 
The eldest son of Titcerec was the Chief of Woahoo, and: 
during the whole of this business he did not come near the 
ships, though much invited, but pleaded illness. 

There appears in the relation of this transaction, and in the 
transaction itself, a dcgreeof embarrassment and confusion which 
renders the different parts irreconcileable with each other. Cap-* 
tain Vancouver declares a determination, in the beginning, that 
< the offenders should be brought to justice, ttat by any measures 
ff force in our power ^ but by their own means :* — * not by us, but by 
themselves, without the least interference on our part / and he 
seems to have been satisfied that he delivered them over to their 
own^ people to be dealt with according to the directions of their Chief. 
Nevertheless, the men were apprehended and kept in confine- 
ment by Captain Vancouver \ the trial, or rather examination, 
was on board the ship, and not by the natives; smd the sca* 
tence was contrived and the execution directed by himself: 
their own people having np otherwise assisted than in decoy* 



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Vancowrcr*/ V^ge of Dh^iverj. 1 5 1 

{ftg them on board, and discharging the office of execationers ; 
whlch^ though not performed in the shipy was accomplished clos^ 
under her guns. The motives by which Captain Vancouver 
was guided were, doubtless, a desire of impressing the islanders 
with an idea that our countrymen were not to be injured with 
idipumty, and the belief that the terror of ah example would 
hare a powerful effect m deterring them in future from the 
commission of such outrages : — but many circumstances seem 
not to have been sufficiently considered. The latter account 
of the murder of Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Gooch is wholly 
difierent from the first relation. It appears clearly that their 
death was not premeditated, and that no injury to them was in« 
tended, until the affray took place near the boat, by which a 
seaman was killed. The examples of revenge which had re- 
cently been given by* Mr. Metcalf, of the Eleanor, might jus^ 
tify the natives in their determination not to allow the Lieute- 
nant to return to his ship. It isproperalso to notice here, that^ 
though Captain Vancouver wished the execution of the three 
condemned men to be as public as possible, yet very few of 
the natives were present \ and on inquiring the reason from 
tmc of the Chiefs, he was answered that it was owing to the 
stispicions created by * the former conduct of Europeans, on 
disputes or misunderstandings takmg place between the Chiefs 
and the commanders. Some of these, under the pretext of 
re-established friendship, would prevail on many of tKe inha- 
bitants to come off to their ships, where they would, :1s usual, 
enter into trade with the natives, until great numbers were 
assembled; the commanders then ordered them to be fired 
tipon, which continued, without mercy, as long as any of th« 
canoes were within shot. Tomohomoho stated, that two or 
three instances of this barbarous nature had taken place, as 
well by the English as the American traders.' The natural 
effect of such detestable conduct must be, that the killing a 
white man could scarcely be considered by the natives as a 
criminal act ; and though Mr. Hergest was of a very humane 
dispo8ition,yet the natives could know nothing of him but that he 
was a white man. The three nrtost culpable of the natives had 
been executed, (at least so Captain Vancouver believed,) by 
trder of the King ; though, from the foregoing account of the 
behaviour of Europeans, such a measure was little to be 
expected. In the examination of the three men brought to 
Captain Vancouver, there appeared strong presumptive proofs 
of their being all concerned,-— but these did not amount to cer- 
tainty. Captain Vancouver says, in describing the execution ; 
* the whole of Tennavee's deportment, on this sad occasion, 
vfibrded us additional cause to believe, that the persons exe- 
cuted 



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cutcd were whoUjr guilty of the muFdqr, and that the Chiefs 
had pot punUhed the inooccnt to scrcea thctnseWes.' One of 
the sufferers had been accused of being the murderer of Mir* 
Herge$t : but against the other two,' there appear to have been 
pnly general accusations. If one M^as judged. to liave been 
more guilty than the rest, there would liave b^en a graceful 

Sroprlety in pardpning the other two ; and the terror inspired 
y the execution would then have been qualified with a degree 
or approbation. 

_ After the execution was over, the Captain was solicited tp 
visit the Chief Trytooboory on shore: but this he judged i( 
prudent to decline. By repeated invitations and pteseats, the 
Chief was at last induced to come on board. * I requested (sayi 
Captain Vancouver) the favour of his company below ; to this 
with much pleasure he assented, but no sooner were his inten- 
tions'^own to the natives in the canoes about the ship, than a 
oeneral alarm tpok place, and he was earnestly recommended 
not to quit the deck*, from a suspicion, as I imagined, amqngst 
t^c cfowd^ that the works of dcatli were not yet finally accomr 
piisbed*' The Chief, however, persisted in going down intQ 
the c^bin ; and Captain V. afterward adds, * I had the hapgiae^^ 
pf hearing him confirm every part of the evidence that had beea 
pven against the three unfortunate wretches who had sufiqped 
in the morning.' 

Captain Vancouvjer strenuously endeavoured to make the 
Chiefs of Owhyhee and the Chiefs ' of these islands spqsible 
of the superior bles^ngs o| peace, instead of being perpet^aUf 
at war, and aia)ing at coi^qjuest over each other i and he be- 
lieved himsielf so far successful, as to have put them in a ine<- 
thod of adjusting their differences by negociatiqp.. 

The extraordinary nature of the transactiops. at; the S,and« 
wich Islands has occasioned us to detain the reader longt^ oa 
this p^rt of the voyage than we otherwise had iptendcd^ hut we 
shall now hasten to attend the navigators in the farth^ prose- 
cution of their survey of the American coast. The ships lefip 
the islands on the 30th of March, and on the 26th of April 
were in sight of Cape Mencjocino on the coast of .New A^b^on, 
May 2d, they anchored in Porto de la Trinidada, latitude 
410 3' N. Here they took in wood and water: but as a bar-, 
bpur, or a place affording shelter for shipping, they found it 
V^ be very inferior to what they had expected ffom the de- 
^ription given in the Journal of Don Francisco Maurelli.; % 
translation of which has been presented to thepubUcby the 
IJjpp. Daines Barrington. The identity pf the poft^ C^pta^ 
V^n^^uvcr says, could not he dou^t^d ^ for 

/I? 



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Vancouver*/ Voyd^e if Dis'coveiryM 153 

« In an exeuwion made by Ml*. Mcnzies to the hill composibg tks 

frojccting Bead land, that foims the iiorth-wcst side of the bay, h^ 
bund, agreeably with Bed'. Maurelli*8 »dc8oription, the cross which 
the Spanianls had erected on their taking possession of the port $ 
9nd though it was in a certain state of decay, it admitted of his copy^ 
ing the following inset ^tion : 

* CAROLUS III. DEI. G. HYSPANIARPM. REX7 
At Trinidada, they found an Indian village^ and the natives 
visited the ships. They were of a lower stature than any tribo 
of Indians before seen by our voyagers; but stoutly made. 

* Amongst these people, as with the generality of Indians I hii 
met with, some mutilation, or disfiguring of their persons, is prac- 
tised, either as being ornamental, or of reh'gious institution, or pos-* 
sibly to answer some purpose of which we remain ignorant. At 
Trinidad the custom was particularly singular, and must be attended 
with much pain in the first instance, ^d great inconvenience ever, 
after. All the teeth of both sexes were, by some process, ground 
unifonnly down, horizontally, to the ^ums ; the women especially, 
carrying the fashion to an extreme, had their teeth reduced even be- 
low this level ; and ornamented their lower lip with three perpendi- 
cular columns of punctuation, one from each corner of the mouth, 
and one in the middle, occupying three-fifths or the lip and chin. 
Had it not been for these frightful customs, I was intbrmed that 
amongst those who visited our party on shore the last day, there were, 
amongst the younger females, some who might have been considered 
as having pretensions to beauty.' 

From Porto de la Trinidada, they proceeded northward, 
and on the 20th of May anchored in Nootka ; where they 
stopped only three days. The Spaniards were increasing theft 
fortifications at this place, but tliey gave every assistance in 
their power for the accommodation of the two ships. The most 
remarkable occurrence noticed during their short stay here waa 
a treaty of marriage, which was in agitation between the son 
and daughter of two Indian Chiefs j and of which the follow- 
ing account is given : 

• When we were last here 1 had understood, that Maqulnna's 
eldest child, being a daughter named yihpienh, had in the course of 
the last summer been proclaimed as the successor to the dominions 
and authority of Maquinna after his death ; and had about that time 
been betrothed to the eldest son of Wicananish^ the chief of a very 
considerable district in the neighbourhood of Clayoquot and Nittinat. 

• This chief with his son, attended by a consiaerabl? retinue, came 
jn form to Maquinna's residence, now situated without the sound on 
the sea shore, about a league to the westward of this cove ; where, 
after presenting an assortment of certain valuable articles, he had de- 
manded Maquinna* s daughter. The considerations on this dower caused 
great'consultation and many debates. At sorifie of these a few of the 
officers of the Discovery were .present, who understood, that the 

• Rev. Feb. 1799, M compliment 



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%€hf&tP^i was deemed inadequate to the bccaston ; bat on the fore» 
Adon of th€ jqd, I was kformedy that- matters between the two fa* 
fh«r6 were finaU)& ad|jU8ted to the fiatisfactios of both parties, and that 
UnddtfOtiuh^ whh bis suite, had returned to Clayoquot; but that 
Ahpienis was stiU: to reside sonae tttne bngper at Nootka. Her youth » 
most likely, as she did not then exceed ten or twelve yeartof age, was 
the rt^ofi for postponing th^ nuptials/ . 

* May tb« 26th, they anived in Fitzhugh'^s Sound, and tc- 
commenced their eyamin^tioB at the part at which it had been 
discoQtinuied in the preceding yoar. , The survey tiow made^ . 
m most of its circumstances, resembled the former. They 
tQUnd the same kind of broken coast, with inlets and channels 
aimoftt utnumerablev and the same extraordiaary depth o£ 
w^tcr dose to the shores, and tn places inclosed all round 
%ith laad^ One instance occurd^ in which, in a chantiel onlf 
a mile in width, ^theyf trarersed repeatedly from shore ta 
^ore "itrkhout finding bottom with 1S5 fathoms of line, though 
i^^Tthrh half a ship's length of the rocks,* — From the end of 
May to the iist of September, the time occupied in this year 
hy the northern survey, they advanced but little more than four 
degrees nortliward, leavihjj off between the 56th and 57th de- 
gree of Bortli latitude. The greater part of the survey was, z% 
(ornierly, peifot med in boats ; in which^ besides the hacdship^ 
df being continually exposed to the weather, our people i aa 
great rifles from the dispositions^ of the natives ; the behavtduf 
of sam^i of the tribes which they ^et being, extremely feroci- 
ous. In a place named Fisher's Canal, the natives offered foi 
sale the skin of the animal which produces their wool> and of 
which the following description is given : 

* The skins appeared evidently too krffc to belong to any animal of 
tiie canine race, as wc had before sapposed. They were,, exdutivel]^ of 
the head or tail, fifty inches long ; and thirty-slx inches broad* ex« 
clusivel^ of the legs. The virool seemed to be afforded but in a small 
proportion to the size of the skin. It is principally produced on the 
back and towards the shoulders, where a kind of crest is formed hff 
long bristly hairs, that protrude themsdves through the wool, and 
the !tamesort of hmr forms an outer covering to the whole aninud, an^ 
Jntifcly* hfdes the wool, which is short, and of a very fine qualitr^ 
All the skins of this description that were brought to us were Mitm*r 
white, or rather of a cream colour ; the pelt was Uiick, and appeared oa 
a strong texture, but the skins were too much mutilated to dncov<6r 
the kind of animal to which they had belonged.^ 

In one of the most intricate parts of their navigation, A^, 
met three English vessels. The intelligence imparted to Cm- 
tain Vancouver by Mr. Brown, who commanded them, is tfte 
most knporunt matter relative to the object of the^voyage> thut 
occurred during the season; 

cHe 



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Vancouver*/ l^^yage of l3tsc9Vify. . rfj 

• lAt rtrj obligingly coTmnunicatcd to me every information he 
had been able to ot>tara. TheprincipaS circumstance wa9 that of his 
>iavhig faded np a krge opening, wlu^e southern eotnoice wtts in k- 
titttdr 54^ 45'. 

* This 16 probably the 89m^ as tliat laid down tn Saf^ C aammio t ^ 
chart, named Estrecho de Almrantc Fuentst* Mn S^own fou^d H ex- 
tend to the north-westward, with several amw branchiag from it in 
Yariotls directions to the latitude of 56° ao'; where, in a south- 
vrcsterly directfonj it again communicated with the north pacific. , I^e 
had understood, from the natives, that there was in this neighhourhood 
a very extensive inland navigation, communicating with a sea to the 
northward, that employed the inhabitants nearly three months fn 
reaching its extent, where they traded for whale oil, sea-otter skfns^ 
and otner marine productions. This inland navigation Mn Brown 
supposed to be in an extensive arm, ^y^ng from hence towards the 
N. N. E. about nine leagues distant ; the entr^mce of which he ha*d 
yisitedy and fomid it spacious and large, but had not penetrated any 
distance into it. At its south-east point of entrance a small brancn. 
extexMicd to tiie south-eastward, up which he proceeded with hia 
slopp and schooner about «ix mile?, whtre they anchoced before a 
village of the natives.' 

Two days after the receipt of tbis information, they arrived 
«t the ctittancc of an opening in the continental shore, Vjrhich 
they believed to be the one described by Mr. Brown. The ac- 
count of the coast and of the survey is hete not sufficiently in-> 
celtigftie : but perbspt it w^s not possible t6 make it wholly 
dear. Captain Vancouver speaks of a nun^r of openings 
•ecB, in the following msinnef : * The branch of the inlet we 
were now navigating was not of greater width, nor did it ajp« 
pear likely to become more extensive, than th^t to the west- 
ward oi us just discovered. This xp^dc it uncertain which (o 
coofikler as the main brs^n«h. Four other openin|;s ^ad bean 
passed on the eastern shore, whose extent had not yet been 
gficcrtftioed.' It is evident that, on the plan kid down for the 
survey, cvory branch shookl (in its turn) be regarded as i^e 
Main branch, till experience had proved the contrary. This 
part of the narrative is defective in method : but the word yet^ 
in the preeedn^ extract, implies that it was not intended that 
any opting diould be passed unexamined. On applying to 
the charts^ we tee the Une of continuation unbroken, except 
by two or three rivers, which are represented as not aflbrding 
any reasonable prosipeet of a navigable c6mmunication ; and no 
•nc of the chamnols, whkb they explored, carried them far in 
»i easteriy dkection. In (his service, Captain Vanconver 
W ibsnit from the ship, examining with the boats, at one 
Ask 13 4ay8, havii^ traversed from their outset to their r^« 
turn abort 706 geographicid mi}es. The Captam*s boat was 

M 2 attacked 



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.atucked by a party of Indians, and two of his men* Miere 
wounded. On this occasion, an old woman, in oiie of the Inr- 
dian canoes, gave directions, encouraged them to the attack, 
and seemed to be their principal leader. Indeed, the situation 

• of our people was* at one time extremely perilous, and princi- 
paHy owing to their own neglect. 

* But, (says Capt. V. ) having been so long 'accustomed to a series 
of tranquil intercourse with the several diflPcrent tribes of Indians we 
had met with, our apprehensions of any molestation from them were 
totally done away ; and that attentive wariness which had been the first 
object of my concern on coming ampngst these rude nations, had latterly 
been much aeglected. For although we had now more arms than we 
were provided with during the preceding summer, namely, two wall- 
pieces cut short for the purpose of bting more handy in the boats, each 
^f which vras loaded with a dozen pistol balls, yet these as[well as some 
of our muskets, had been so neglected by disuse, that they were u&- 
eerviceable on this pressing emergency.' 

The launch, under the direction of Lieutenant Swaine, had 
fortunately been more on its guard against the natives, and came 
mp very opportunely lo the Captain's assistance. 

A similar instance of female authority had been observed 
ampng the natives, a few days before, in a party jvhich, in- 
cluding one woman with a lip-ornament^ consisted of i6 ox iS 
persons^ 

N * This woBoan, as well as the other we had seen on the zyth, 
. steered the canoe. She appeared to be a mo^t excessive scold, and 
to possess g^eat authority. She bad much to say respecting .(he 
whole of their transactions, and exacted the most ready obedience to 
' Iier commands, which were given in a very surly manner, parricularly 
■ iti one instance to a man in the bow of the canoe ; who, in comph'ance 

• to her direcrions, immcdiattfly made a different disposition of the 
itpeard. These hid aU lain on one side of him, just pointed over the 

- boW of the canoe, with scvefal thiilgs carelessly lying over them ; but, 
.on his receiving her commands, the' outer cndrf were projected fur- 
ther^ their inner ends cleared. of the lumber that was overthem, and 
the whoIe» amounting to about a doaen, were equally divided, and 
regularly laid on each side of lu'm.' 

While Captain Vancouver was absent on this survey, another 

^ party, with, two boats, went to examine some openings to the 

eastward, which had been passed in the ships. As chamiels 

• in this direcuon arc of the most, importance to the main object 
, of their survey, we think it neceaisary to take notice ef a river 
f discovered in 55^ N. latitude, in a 9hoal bay on ^tfae eastern 

side of the entrance of an arm of th^ea,. by Cajptain V. named 
. Observatory Inlet. The river is described to be a small open- 
ing in a shallow bank, npt exceeding in width a ship's length: 
f -bnt the water had suddenly deepened from five feet to two 

7 and 



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Vancouver^ Voyage of Ducwery. 1 57 

•and five fathoms, and through this narrow entrance the tide, 
both flood and ebb, rushed with great force. At the latter 
part of the ebb, however, the water was perfectly fresh, though 
not more than four ^liles from the main arm of the sea. 

Captain Vancouver observes that this small river, and an- 
other in Port Essington, (an account of which is given vol. ii, 
P* y^Sf 3'^*) * ^^ ^^^ o'^'y ^^'o streams that had yet been dis^ 
covered to the north of the river Columbia.' 

* These (he says) are too insignificant to be dignified by the name 
of rivers, and in truth scarcely deserve the appellation of rivulets ; but 
should it hereafter be thought expedient, in support of the late pre- 
vailing conceits, and to establish the pretended discoveries of Dc Font, 
"De Fonta, or Dc Fuentes, that one of these brooks should be consi)- 
dercd as the Ri'q de los Keys leading into lake Bell, I must beg leavfe 
to premise, that neither of their entrances will be met with under the 
parallels <»f 43, 53, or 63 degrees of north latitude ; these being the 
several different positions assigned to the entrance of this^most famous 
iRio de los Keys, by speculative closet ti:;vigatorf* 

• Had any river or opening in the coast existed near either the 43d 
or 53d parallel of north latitude, the plausible system that has beeo 
erected, would most likely have been deemed perfect ; but, unfor- 
tunately for the great ingenuity, of its hypothetical frojectorsy our fraC' 
tical lalours have thus far made it totter ; the position of the former 
stream, seen by Mr.Whidbey, falling into Port Essington, being in 
latitude 54** 15'; that of the latter, in latitude 54** 59'^ neither of 
«7hich will correspond with any of the positions above-mentioned,' 

This kind of language provokes comment ; and though we 
can safely profess ourselves to be but httle -sanguine in our ex- 
pectations of a N. W. passage, we nevertheless sec fair occa- 
sion to remark that, in the opening examined by Mr. John- 
stone in latitude 54^ jp' N. the sudden increase of depth 
from five ifeet to two and five fathoms, and the rapidity of the 
tides, both flood and ebb^ are circumstances which amount to 
a very strong preeumption of a navigable channel into the river. 
With respect to the pretended discoveries ofJDe Font^ or any other 
uncertain accounts of discoveries^ manywho wish them verified 
will. think thit a belief in their existence is a very'useful qua- 
Bfication in those Who undertake to ascertain the truth con^' 
teming them. 

The extent of Capt. V.'s progress northward has been rhe n- 
tioned; and the account of his labours, in this Kis second 
st^on, adds considerably to our knowlege of the c\astoms and 
dtspotitions of the natives. 

*. Here they met another small party of the natives, consisting of 
fntsi men only, who seemed to be prepared to oppose tlieir landing. 
Their canoes were lodged close to them> near a miserable small hut. 
ijAs^ they had put on thdr war garments, they advanced to meet the 

M 3 beati 

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1^8 VancoUTCt*/ Voyage of Discovery. 

]N)(it| tee<>f theib was armed with » musket, and another witK s 
pistol 5 these they cocked, whilst the other five, each provided witi 
a bow, and plenty of arrows, had them in readiness for Immediate 
service. Beside these, an elderly person made his appearance at a 
little distance ; he was without any weapon, or his war garment* and 
whilst he made long speeches, he held in one hand the skin of a mrd, 
and with the other plucked owt the young feathers and down, which* 
at the conclusion of certain sentences in his speech, he blew into the 
air. These actions being considered by Mr. Wkidbcy and his party 
as overtures of peace, they threw some spoons and other trivial ar- 
ticles to the orator, and gave him to understand that they waifted 
aomethin^ to eat. This had the desired effect ; for this pacific indi- 
vidual oraered those who were anncd to retire, and some salmon vras 
soon brought. He now directed the boats to come to the rocks, 
where he ddivered them the fish, and he received in return such ar-» 
tides as appeared to be highly acceptable, still continuing to blow 
the down into the air, as he plucked it from the bird's skm.' 

• After the aoth of September, tliey returned to the south- 
vard, keeping at a distance from the continent, and to the 
"C^estward of the land named Queen Charlotte's Islands. On 
the 5th of October, they 'Anchored at Nootka ; whence, conti- 
nuing to the southward, they called at Port St. Fiancisco, and 
at Monterrey :— but it now appeared to Captain Vancouver that 
the attentions and friendly disposition of tlie Spaniards had 
been quite exhausted in the preceding year. His reception 
■wns such as convinced him that he was not a welcome visitor 1 
and he therefore left these places, and continued to the south- 
ward, keeping the American shore in sight. At other Spanish 
settlements ne^ar the sea-coast,' he experienced more friendly 
treatment, and obtained such supplies as he wanted. 

This part of America is represented as a most fruitful coun. 
try, very thinly inhabited. * The number of the natives, at 
this period, who were said to have embraced tlie Roman Ca- 
tholic persuasion under the discipline of the Franciscan and 
Dominican orders of missiionaries of New Albion, and through- 
out the peninsula of California, amounted to about twenty 
tliousatid, and they were esiihiatcd at an eighth or tenth of 
the whole native population of those countries.' The whole 
of tbe military establishment in this extent of territory is said 
not to exceed 400 men. 

< ^he fwtives (says Captain Vancouver) are not, nor can 
they be rendered tributary, because they possess no tribute to 
offer.* This is making very little account of a country which 
is fertile almost beyond example, and of which the coasts 
abound with sea-ohers. All the labour of the natives who lire 
subject to llie Spanish jurisdiction is under the imnaediate di* 
reciion an4 control of th^ missionaries, who act wholly under 



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Vancouver'/ V^jagt $f piscnftrf. Ijy 

tbc aratborify ,of the Spanish government* Bcsiies, wcmk 
told by M. de la Perouse that it was the plan of the Vi«roy 
of Mexico to reserve for government the esdusiYc tmdc of sra- 
otter skins ; of \ybich, that unfortunate navigator says, Ac 
'Spanish settlements furnish 10,000 annually, and are capajbk 
of furnishing, if the Spaniards choose to be at the troublo df 
collecting them, 50,000 annually. This surely may be estcsm* 
<d as tribjute. 

Some of Captain Vancouver's poEtical ideas coBceming New 
Albion are rather too profound : 

* Should the amhition of any <:ivili2ed «ation tempt it to seize d» 
these unsupported posts, they could not ciake the least resistance, 
and must inevitably fall to a force barely sufficient for ganisonittg 
.andsecunngthe country; especially that part which I have comprc- 
hentkd under the denomination of New Albion, whose southmost 
limits Kc under the 30th degree of north latitude. Here the coast, 
washed by the waters of the pacific, is not more than 30 kagues, (if 
to much,) from the shores under the same parallel, nearly at the head 
of the gulph of California, This pass, being once weU secured by 
any power, determined to wrest New Albion from the Spanjsh mo- 
tiaichy^ would inevitably prevent an army by land from coming to th^ 
support of the present possessors^ or to the annoyance of an invading 
enemy.* 

In another place he observes^ 

* From their dominions in New Spjun they have stocked this 
frontier country with^such an abundance ^of cattle of all descr^tioniy 
that it is no longer m their power, even were they so inclined, to 
effect thcM* extermination. They have also pointed out many fcitilc 
spots, some of which are very extensive, where they have introduced 
the most valuable vegetable productions, not only necessary to the 
'Sustenance, but ministering to many of the luxuries, of eivnized so- 
ciety ; and they have, by meir previous experiments, fully aspeitaincd 
in what degree each is found to succeed. A certaio propordoo of 
the natives have, by tiie indefati^ble labour of the missjonanes, been 
weaned from their former unci^zed savage way of hfe, and are bo- 
come obedient to social forms, and practised in many domestic occu* 
pations. All these circumstances are valuable considerations to new 
Blasters, from whose power, if properly employed, the Spaniards 
'would have no alternative but that 01 submissfvcly yielding.' 

This species of political reasoning is fiot wcfl calculated to 
make the Spaniards thinlc that they acted wrongly, in discoti- 
raging the visits of strangers to their settlements. 

Having finished the examination of the coast of Nciv Albion, 
as far as to the ^odi degree of latitude, the voyagers departed 
from the American coast, and steered cowards the Sandtiridi 
Uands. On the 9th of January 1794, they were ag;^ifj i^ 
^]{bt of Owhyhee; and on the next morning, before the «:htf«% 
fpt into liarbour, the friendly Tamaahittaah came oil" to -w^lw 

M 4 come 

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j6^ PearsonV Inquiry concerning the C^w-pox, 

eotn^ them. ^ By the reports of the masters of some trading 
vessels then at Owhyhee, it appears that, in their conduct tOi- 
ward^ strangersr the islanders had latterly been more orderly 

rand pivil, and evinced a better disposition towards them than 
had ^ver before been experienced. This may chiefly be attri- 

:but^d to the mild character of their present ruler, Tamaahtnaah: 

-but that some of .the credit ought to be placed to the account 
of the good understanding whicli Captain V. made it his studj 

^to eulti^te with the Chiefsy an extraordinary transaction which 
shortly afterward took place will sufficiently prove. 

* [Ti? he continued J\ 

Art. VI. An Inquiry concerning the History of the Cow-pox^ prin- 
cipally with a View to supercede and extln^ui^h the Small-pox. 
By George Pearson, M. D. F. R. S. Physician to St. George's 
Hospital, &c. 8vo. pp. ii6. 2s. 6d. Johnson. 1798. 

IN our last volume, p. 447, we reviewed a publication by 
Dr. Jcnner on the causes and effects of the -wzw/^r vaccina, 
or cow-pox : a subject unknown to the medical world, till it 
was introduced to their notice by that author. We have now 
another wotk on the same topic, from the pen of Dr. Pearson ; 
whi<;h affords us avaluable commentary on the text of Pr.Jenner. 
' After a few introductory remarks. Dr. Pearson proceeds to 
examine the evidence of the principal facts asserted by Dr. 
Jenner concerning the cow-pox ; and to relate what farther 
evidence he has derived front his own experience, or collected 
from the communications of others. In this examination we 
shall attend him, that our readers may know the state in which 
this inquiry, or discovery, now stands. 

The first position to be investigated is thus expressed : 

-I. * Persons who have undergone the Specific Fever and LocAi^ 
pis EASE, occasioned by the Cow-pox infection, cofnmunicated in the ac* 
fidental avay, ("who had not undergone the SniaU-poXf) are thereby ren^ 
dered unsusceptible of the S mail-pox? 

In confirmation of .the evidence produced byDr.Jenner, to 
establish this fact, we here find a variety of concurring testi- 
monies ; but we shall particularly notice only the experiment? 
made under the author's immediate inspection, some of which 
are thus. related: ft 

< On Thursday, June 14th last, happeninff, with Mr. ^.ucas» 
Apothecary, to be on professional business at Mr. Willan's farm, ad- 
Joining to the New Road, Marvbonc ; which farm is appropriated 
.entirely for the support of from 800 to 1000 Milch Cows ; I availed 
ipysclf of that opportunity to make Inquiry conctri^g the Cow-pox* 

IwH 



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. PcarsonV Inquiry concerning the Cow-pm* i6i 

I was tol4 It was a pretty frequent disease amoD^ the Cows of thit 
£ann, especially in winter. That it was supposed to arise from suddea 
chai^ from poor to rich food. It was also well known to the ser- 
vants, some of whom had been affected with that malady, from milk- 
ing the diseased Cows. On inquiry, I found three of the men ser- 
vants, namely, Thomas Edinburgh, Thomas Grirashaw, and John 
Clarke, had been affected with the Cow-pox, but not with the Small- 
pox. 1 induced them to be inoculated for the Small-pox : and, with 
the view of ascertaining the efficacy of the variolous infection cm- 
ployed, WiUiam Kent and Thomas East, neither of whom had had 
either the Cow-pox or the Smallpox, were also inoculated. 

* Three of these men, viz. Edinburgh, East, and Kent, were in^ 
oculatcd in each arm with perhaps a larger incision, and more matter, 
than usual, on Sunday, June 17th, by Mr. Lucas; and Dr. Wood- 
ville and myself were present. The matter was taken from a boy 
present, who had been inoculated 14 days before this time, and who 
was obligingly provided by Dr. Woodville. 

• CASE I. 

* Thomas Edinburgh, aged 26 years, had lived at the form the 
bst seven years. Had never had the Small pox, nor Chicken-pox, 
nor any eruption resembh'ng that of these diseases, but the Cow-pox, 
which he was certainly affected with six years ago. He was so lame 
from the eruption on the palm of the hands as to leave his employ, 
in Order to be for some time in a pubhc hospital 5 and he testified 
that his feliow-servant, Grimshaw, was at the same time ill with the 
same disorder. A cicatrix was seen on the palm of the hai?ds, but 
none on any other part. He said that for three days in the disease, 
he suffered from pain in the axillae, which were swollen and sore to 
the touch. According to the patient's description, the disease was 
uncommonly painful and of long continuance ; whether on account 
of the unusual thickness of the skin, which was perceived by the 
lancet in inoculation, future observations may determine. 

* Third Day. — Tuesday^ igth June. 
« A sh'ght elevation appeared on the parts inoculated. No di»- 
prder was perceived of the constitution, nor complaint made. 

* Fifth Day. — Thursday^ zut, 

* The appearance on the part inoculated, of the left arm, was Ukc 
that of a gnat bite, and Mr. Wacksel, Apothecary to the Small- 
pox Hospital, observed that the inflammation seemed too rapid for 
that of the variolous infection, when it produces the Small-pox. 
On the other arm there had been a little scab, which was rubbed off", 
leaving only a just visible red mark. No complaint was made. 

• Eighth Day. — Sundi^^ 24/^. 

* The inflammation on the left arm had subsided, and there was 
in place of it, a little scab. The right arm as before. Has remained 
qoite well. 

* Sent the patient with Mr. Wacksel to the Small-pox Hospital, 
where he was inoculated a second time, with matter from a person 
prcyent^ who then labouted uuder th^ Small-pox. 

* FOITIITK 



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t6t Pearson V Inquiry ameeming the Covhpex* 

* Fourth Day ajier Sectmd Inoculatilm^ Wedtusday^ t^th* 

* A fittle iDflammation appeared on the part inoculated of on^ 
arm, but none of that of the other. Except some slight paina and 
fiead-ach''on Monday kist, had remained 'quite well. 

< Eighth Day after Sicond TnocuIaiioHf SunJqyt 'fvly lit. 

< A little dry scab was upon each part inoculated. No symptoms 
cf disorder had appeared* 

< CASE IL 

< Thomas Grimshaw, agefl about 30 years. Had lived in town at the 
farm only 7 weeks, but six years ago also lived at this place, when he 
was affected with the Cow-pox ; and he tes.tiHed that nis feUow-aerr- 
vant| Edinburgh, was at the same time ill of the same diaeasc. 
Grimahaw said he had pains and soreness on touching^the axiUx dn^ 
ring that illness, but he got much sooner well than Edinburgh. 

' On Tuesday, the 19th June, Grimshaw was inoculated in both 
arms, at the Small-pox Hospital, from a patient then ill of the Small- 
pox. 

< Third Day. — Tbursdcn, list. 

* A little inflammation and fluid appeared under a lens in the parts 
inoculated, as if the infection had taken efl'ect. Remained quite weL 

* Sixth Day. — Sunday 9 24/A. 

* Inflammation which had spread near the parts inoculated has 
disappeared; and now nothing was seen but a dry scab on them. 
Had not been at all disordered. He was inoculated this day a second 
time, as before, at the Smail-pox Hospital. 

* Fourth "D a\. '-Second Inoctdation^ Wednesday ^ June ^*]tbm 

* Not the least inflammation from* the last inoculation^ nor any 
complaint* 

* Eighth Day. — Second Imculalton^ Sunday^ ^y ixf. 
< Not the smallest inflanunation from the inoculation. Had re- 
mained quite well. 

* CASE HI. 

* John Clarke, 2S years of age, had the Cow-pox ten years ago 
at Abingdon, where he was under the care of a medical practi- 
tioner of that place. He was inoculated by MnWacksd, at the 
Small-pox Hospital, on Tuesday, June 19th, from a patient affectod 
vith the Small-pox. 

* Third Day. — T/mrsd/iy, ^une 2\st. 

* There was inftammation> and a fluid in the parts inoculated ; 
but th'ese appearances were judged to be premature, with reject to 
the Smallpox. 

* Sixth Day. — Simday^ June l^h. 

* The 3ppcaranccs of inflammation and fluid in the right arm 
were such as-to make it doubtful, whether or not the varimous in- 
fection had taken cflect ; but there were no such appearances on the 
left arm, the inflammation being gone. 

* He was this day inoculated a second time at the Small-pox Hc^ 
-^kal, fibm a patient. 

< Eighth 



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FearsonV Jrtfuiry csncemifig tie Csw^pdk. ji6% 

• Eighth Day after Seeond Itacuiatmj Sunday f Juhf ij/. 

^ No efiFcct but inflannnatioay^and jiftenmdt festering, finom the 
•eoond inoculatiofi. 

* Tile iDflammatmn on the- nght amiy from the first inoculation^ 
wedt off in a day or two after tn^ last report. He had revniined 
tjuite wcU in aU rejects*' 

The other two men, Wm. Kefnt, and Thomas East, who ' 
fcad not had the cow-pox, underwent the variolous disease in 
consequence of inocu^lation. 

From these, and a variety of other instances, related in the 
most positive terms, It is difficult torefuse our assent tothepropo* 
sition that * the speci&c fever and local diseasci named cow •pox/ 
incapacitates the patient from afterward undergoing the smalU 
pox. — We say this on the faith 6f the experiments which have 
hitherto been tried i — but let it be remembered that numerous 
indeed should be the instances of success in order to establish, 
beyond doubt, a doctrine like this, so uncommon, so unsup- 

tDrte<l by analogy, and which must immediately fall if oppoj»ed 
J one real instance of failure. 
The next position is that 

11. * Per tons who have been affected *atlth the Spectfic Fever ^ aid fe* 
ioBar Local Disease^ by Inoculation oftheCow-pox lNFiiCTiON« 
vbo had not prewmly undergone the Small^pox ; are thereby reaped 
muttsc^tibk qjthe Small-fox.^ 

Dr. Pearson's additional testimonies in favour of this doc* 
tiinc are as follow :^ the first is from DnPulteney, of Bland- 
ford: 

** A farmer in this country inoculated his wife and children 
with matter taken from the teat of a cow. At the end of a week 
the arms inflamed, and the patients were so far affected, as to 
alarm the fanner, although unnecessarily, and incline him to call in 
medical assistance. They all soon got well, and were afterwards ip« 
,<K:n1ated for the Small-pox, but no disease followed. I was not ap- 
plied to in this case, but the fact is sufficiently ascertained."— 

2dly.. * Mr. Downe of Bridport furnishes roe with important in- 
formation on the present fact. " R, F. near Bridport, when abont 
so years of age, was at a farm hcmse when the dury was infected 
with the Cow-pox. It being suggested to him that it would be the 
«eans of preserving him. from the Small-nox, which he had never 
taken, if he would submit to be inoculated with the Cow-dox ; he 
gave his consent : he was infected in two or three places in his hand 
with a needle. He felt no inconvenience tiQ about a week, wheri 
the parts began to inflame, and his hand to sweU, his head to ach, 
and many other symptoms of fever came on. He was recommended 
to keep much in the open atr, which he did, and in 4 or 5 days the 

Splftims of fever went off, as the maturation of the hand advanced. 
; fMrtt faOQ healed, leaving permanent scars. He was afterwards 
woduatcd twice by my grandfather, aad a considerable time after 

twice 



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164 PcatsonV Inquiry concerning the Cow»pox. 

twice by my father^ but without any other effect than a sb'ght irri- 
tation of the party such as is occasioned in the arms of persons who 
' have ah-cady had the Small-pox. It was not expected at the tirac^ 
that the Small-pox poison would be effectualybut it was inserted, partly 
by way of experiment^ and partly by way of precaution, the SxhaU- 
pox being then in the family. The Small-pox has been repeatedly 
since in his own family^ and he never avoided it, being confident 
that it was not possible td infect him with this disease. — The next 
case, by Mr. Downc, although it affords defective evidence, is not use- 
less. " I have lately conversed with a person who was, in play, in- 
oculated in the hand with the Cow-pox matter. The wounds ap- 
parently healed for a time, and then inflamed. He had a swelling 
m the axilla, pain in the head, sickness, and slight fever. No erup- 
tion took place, but there was much maturation at the place of inser- 
tion, and considerable scars remain."— 

3dly. * Mr. Dolling, of Blandford, communicates the following in- 
stances : " Mr. Justings of Axminster inoculated his wife and children 
with matter taken from the teats of a Cow that had the Cow-pox : in 
about a week after inoculation, their arms were very much inflamed, 
and the patients were so ill, that the medical assistance of Mr. 
Meach, of Cemc, was called for. The patients did welL They 
were afterwards inoculated for the. Small-pox by Mr. Trobridge, with- 
out effect." 

These are the testimonies produced in addition to those urged 
by Dr. Jenner : but when it is considered that the cow-pox is as- 
serted always to be communicated by inoculation, whether ca- 
sual or designed, — then every case of cow-pox, not allowing 
the future action of small-pox, becomes a testimony ia 
point. ^ 

Position III. * Tie disease produced by inoculating mjtfh ihe matter of 
the Cow-pox f does not differ from the Ssease produced by inocuUtion 
with the matter from the human animal; nor is any Sfference observed 
in the effects of the matter from the first human subject Infected from 
the brute antmcd^ or from the matter generated^ successively^ in the 
secondy third, fourth, or fifth human creature, from its origin in ihe 
brute.* 

Oji this head, no corroborating testimony is produced. 

* IV. y1 person having been affected with the Specific Fever, eutd Local 
Disease, produced by the Cow-pox poison, is liable to be again affected as 
before by the same poison ; and yet such person is not fusctfttole of the 
Small'pox* 

Dr. Pearson remarks that professional men are extremely 
reluctant in yielding their assent to this position; aad the 
only additional testimony which he brings, in support of it, is 
that of Mr. VVoodman, of Aylesbury ; who says that *• the 
cow-pox does not supersede itself on future occasions, for the 
cow boys have it repeatedly." iDr. Pearson's observation on 
tlus head requires to be quoted : 

^Tht 



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PcarsonV Inquiry concermng the Cow^pix, i6g 

' • The evidence for this fact, to my apprehension, only proven, 
•a^sfoctorily, that the JocaJ affection of the Cow-pox may occur in the 
jiame person more than once ; hut whether the pecuriarfemer also oo>- 
cun more than once in the same person, from the Cow-pox poison, 
does not appear certain ; and must be de;termined by future observa- 
tions, to be made wi^h a particular view to this point. Future ob» 
•ervations must likewise determine, whether, in those cases, (if such 
occur,) in which a person, after having gone through the Cow-pox, 
takes the Small-pox, the Cow-pox was attended with a fever, or was 
merely a local anection. It seems pretty well ascertained, that the 
variolous poison may produce the Small-pox only locally, or without 
any affection of the whole constitution ; and in such a case*, the con* 
«titution is still susceptible of the Small-pox, and yet, in both cases> 
viz. of the heed affection only, and of the whole constitution, the 
matter of the eruptions is capable of infecting others, so as* to pro- 
duce the Small-pox ; either locally only, or also in the whole con>- 
stitution. Hence it seems probable, that similar local and general 
effects may be produced by the Cow-pox poison, and not only in the 
human kind, but In Cows. I acknowledge, however, that the Case, 
p. 51. in y<pfl«^T's book, militates against this supposition.*— - 

V. * ji person Is susceptible of the Cow-pox^ivho has antecedently been 
affected *ajlth the Smallpox ,* 

Little additional inforraation is given on this subject : yet the 
positive proof of this fact by Dr. Jenncr * occasions a very cu- 
rious distinction in this question 5— namely, that, while the 
cow-pox renders the patients incapable of undergoing the fu- 
ture action of the. small- pox, the converse of the propositioa 
does not hold, and the small- pox does not reqder the patient 
unsusceptible of cow-pox. ^V 

VI. * The Cow-pox Is not communicated In the state ofeffhivlay or gas $ 
,iMr by adhering to the shin, In an Imperceptihlv small quantity ; nor scarcely 

usdtss it be applied to divisions of the skin, by abrasions, punctureip 
wounds, C*fr.'— 

VII. * The local affection In the Cow-pox, produced In the casual *way^ 
is generally more severe, and of longer duration, than Visually happens in 
the local jetton in the inoculated Smallpox ; but In the CoW'Pox the fever 

'it ht no case attended with symptoms which denote danger, nor has it, m 
att^ instaacer been known to prove mortals — 

VIII. * No consequential diseased which should be attributed to the 
Cow-pox, bos been wservecfd "or has ,any disease been excited, to which 
there previously existed a ditposltlon ; nor has It b^n ^covered to produce 
a pre-dsspos'ftion to particular SseasesJ*—- 

On this subject. Dr. Pearson properly retnarks that, 

< Akhough a considerable body. of evidence^ might be stated m 
confirmation of these momentous facts, from the experience of I>r. 
Jenoer, and the uniform testimony of my correapoadents : and aU 

' . — : = *- 

* Sec Case VII. of Dr. Jeoner's publtcau'on. 

though 



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t(S6 PeafsoiiV Inquiry comerriing the Covhpdx. 

Aougli wc AduTd be inclined ^o conclude in favour of these hdSp 
from the consideration of the nature of the Cow-pox, as far as yet 
Itnown : yet it does not appear to my judgment that the obscnratioas 
and argunYcnts warrant more than conclusions on the side of great 
jbrobabnity. A number of persons, many hundi;pds> have gone 
thrOujjh the inoculated Small-po^^ under the observation of many prac- 
titioners, without any disease, or disposition to disease^ being pro- 
duced by the Small-pox ; yet no one doubts, that in a certain pro- 
portion of instances, disease has been excited, and disposition to dis- 
ease been produced. 

* We are led then to think, that a greater number, and more ac- 
curate oWervations are wanting, to authorise po&itive conchisioo^ 
relating to the facts stated under this VIII licad/— 

IX. * Tie CoW'pox infection may produce the pecurtar haJ ^tate 
Umipf^ io tit hui tvithout the Storaer of the constitntim : in which 
sate, the anutiiu&on is UMe to be infected by the SmaU-fOK infection.* 

Such are the aphorisms (or **/aci/*) on which Dr. Pearson 
hiis very ably commented ; and in elucidation of which he has 
exerted great industry, and procured much valuable inf<^m- 
ation* 

In the subsequent part of this inquiry, Dr. Pearson enlarges 
on the probable impir6vement of our medical prjicticc in con- 
sequence of substituting the cow-pox for the small-pox* He 
truly remarks that its utility * must dejpend upon the effects of 
the cow-pox, in comparison with the small- pox, especially in 
the particulars tfthe degree of danger to iifej the kind of sjmp^ 
iomsy and thiir duration ; and the subsequent effects on the coruH^ 
iution^ 

Off this subject, however, much experience, and on a rcry 
enlarged scale, is wanting: a long list of facts must be adduced, 
in order to persuade us to dismiss the practice of inoculatnig 
for the small-pox ; and we may safely conjecture that mucn 
'time will elapse before a testimony can be given in favour of 
cow-pox inoculation, that shall outwpgh u)e following fact 
related by Dr. WoodvMle : •« From January to August inclu- 
sive, out of upward^ of 1700 patients inoctdated at the loo* 
euiflition Ho«nital| ificluding the in a|id out patients, 9nl^ ivip 
Hed; both ot whom were of the latter description.** 

Let us not be understood as wishing to decry the Talae 
and use of this important investigation : far different is 
our intemion. — ^t cannot indeed Ifatter ourselves that, by 
.^eans of it, the variolous infection will be extinguisbed s and 
^ thflkt loathsome and destructive dtieaae, tlie smaU-pot> lie 
•knoom only fay name:' yet we trust that an increase of our 
■Joaowiege will accrue from this inquiry, and that aonte tmproTe- 
^ents i;nay be fdded to our praaicc. At aH evdits, whaterer 

9 may 



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Slnnmohs on the Cesarean Optra^on^ CoW'pox^ ists. I A^ 

may be the fate of the fact in question, they who have asristed 
. its inf tstigation are certainly deserving of praise. 



Art. VII. ReJtecHuns on the Propruiy of performing the Cstaream 
Operation : to whicn are added Observations on Cancer ; and Ex- 
periments on the supposed Origin of Cow-pox. By W. Simmons, 
Member of the Corpoi-ation of Surgeons, and Senior Surgeon to 
the Manchester Infmnary. 8vo.^ pp. 97. 2s. 6d. Veruor and 
Hood. 1798. 

xyiR. Simmons here professes himself a determined opponent 
^^ to the Csesarean operation ; all trace of which/ he hopes, 
* will in future be banished from professional books ;* for, he 
observes, * it can never be justiiElable during the parentis life, 
and Stands recorded only to disgrace the art.' As this is a 
point which we do not choose to discuss here, we shall leave the 
surgical reader to judge of this opinion, and to consult tbf 
work 'y two thirds of which are occupied by this subject. 

The observations on Cancer are very short. The anthor re- 
jects the external application of arsenical remedies, but related 
a single case in which arsenic, taken intem$illy in very smaH 
qsantittes, was productive of material benefit. The dose con- 
sisted of twelve drops of the mineral solution of Uf . Eowlcr, 
three times in a day. 

The experiments on the supposed origin of Cow-pox will best 
speak for themselves.*— Doubting that uiis poison arises from 
the horse-disease called the Grease, as conjectured by Dr. Jenner^ 
Mr. S. determined to ascertain the fact \ and be thus rclacea 
the result : 

« With the assistance of a veterinary surgeon to enable me to pro- 
cure the erysipelatous fluid in its proper state, I instituted a course of 
expenmeBts. 

* The fluid esed in the three following experiments, which was 
thiD aad of a yellowiah colour, was taken from the inflamed heel of a 
bene, a few hours af^ the disease had taken place, and before aoy 
drestiag had been applied. 

* QtL, 29 — — «t. a years ; — — wt. 6 months ; and 

— «t. 3 months, all Bnc hcdthy looking ehtldren, wete Ino- 

cofatcd with the above fluid, by makii^ four puactures in the left 
■m of each, at a little distance from eacTk other. 

< Ibv. X. There appeared just as much inflammation on the cdgea 
of the punctures, as ttight be expected from the scratch of a ckitfi 



vend 



* Tke oooltag regime« was cajoinedy but no medicine was given* 
' '. AH the punctures were quite weS : and the skm haa reco* 

its feraMT complexioa. 
^ Variolous mailer was inserted to-day* very much diluted whh 
onm water, by making one single puncture in the arm of each, and 

the centre at the Coimer. 

# ».Thcy 

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i68 Simmons on lie Cesarean Operation, Cow*J>o9c, ifTc^ 

* 8. Tbey all had evidently taken the infection. 

« The disease went through its i^ual course^ injts mildest form. 

* The fluid used in the foUowing experiments was taken from the 
heel of a horse, in a high state of inflammation^ and discharging 
copiously a irownitb coloured ichorous Jiwd. The first symptom of 
the disease had shewn itself scarcely six-and-thirty hours, and the 
discharge not more than twenty-four hours, and, as he was reserred 
for my use, no dressing had been applied. 

< Nov. 1 6. With this fluid I inoculated three cows, by making a 
picture in each teat ; and, the cuticle covering chem being thicEer 
than in the warmer months, I took particular pains in inserting it. . 
- « For several days, traces of the punctures were discernible ; and 
then they disappeared, without' having excited the least sign of 
disease. 

* At the same time, I inoculated two cows of the same herd with 
variolous matter, by making a puncture in each teat ; but there oc- 
curred no perceptible change. 

* With a part of the same ichorous fluid three children were inocu- 
lated, by m&king four punctures in the left arm of each ; but neither 
inflammation » nor disease of any kind, ensued. 

* If the disease called cow-pox will free the constitution of those 
.who undergo it, from 'receiving, ever after, the infection of the 
small-pox ; it is rea^nable to infer, that the poison of both is iden- 
tical. It is a fact well ascertained, that the small-pox may be com- 
municated, either by the erysipelatous fluid, obtained from the inocu- 
lated part, before the eruptive fever comes on ; or in the form of 

, pus, taken at the period of complete maturation : or even by the scab 
of the dried pustule, in the last stage of the complaint. 
** ♦ The limitation of the contagious power of the fluid supposed to 
pccaaion the coA^-pox, ^nd obtained from the horse's hed, to thf 

\ first or erysipelatous st^ge ptthe grease, disproves the identity ; and 
also destroys any analogy, that might have been conceived to subsist 
between it and variolous, matter. ■ " ' 

. *^ Twelve punctures^ werem'ade in the teats of the three cows ino- 
culated with the ichorous fluid, and it did not produce the smallest 
effect in either of them : sath children were inoculated with the same 
6ont of fluid, by making four punctures in the left arm of each ; and 
no disease whatever ensued ; eight punctures were made in the teats 
of two cows, and variolous matter was inserted ; but not the smallest 
change -took place : one, single puncture, with diluted variolous mat- 
ter, gave the small-pox to a child. 

* "The evid,ence, therefore, is as one to tiiienty'four^ in the huxxiaa 
subject, between variolous matter, and the discharge from the horse's 

' heel ; as one to t^welve in cows ; and, between the insertion of vario- 
lous matter in man and in cows, as one to eight, 

* 1 had engaged a herd, consisting of tliirty coW9> for my fxpeii- 
ments ; but it- appeared useless to prosecute them fatther,- unlete I 
could have procured some genuine cow-pox matter. * 

* These experiments prove, first, that the cow-po3^ poison docs not 
originatein the horsc'siheel? secondly, that cowj will not" take the 

. 9n>all-pox. 

* The 



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Johnstone ofi ElkingtoaV ModirfDrmniMg LmA Itfp 

* The cow-pox is a disease wholly usknowm to farmers, both. 19 
thcshirc, and in Lancashire ; sO that disappointment could not aiiac 
from the anim^als having undergone that disease i and m Cheshire^ a 
large dairy-countY) the men are employed mdiscriminatdy in cleamng 
the horsey and fn milking the cows.' 

The event of these experiments is certainly imfavoarable to 
Ur. Jenner's hypothesis. 

Ajlt. VlIL ^n Account of the most appronjecL Mode of Draining f^anjf 
according to the System practised by Mr. Joscpn Elkington, late 
of Princcthprp in the County of Warwick : with an Appendix, 
containing Hints for the farther Improvement of Bogs and other 
Marshy Ground, after draining ; together with Observations ori 
hollow and surface Draining in general. The whole illustrated by 
explanatory En^vings. ^ Drawn . up for Consideration of the 
Board of Affricmturc aind Internal Improvement; By John John- 
stone, Laina-Siirveyor. Ato. pp. 183. il. is. Boards. Edin?- 
burgh printed: sold by Nicol in London. 1797* 

THE subject of this publication is of great iflbpoivtahce : it 
has excited, and will continue to excite^ the attention of 
intclfigent country-gentlemen 5 who, by their spirited and well- 
directed exertions to drain those parts of their estates which 
were wet and boggy^ will improve their rentala^ and increase 
the productyreness and salubrity of the countrjf. Tin of late,* 
the art of land-draiuing, in order to discharge cultivated 
or adtivaiahU land of its superfluous water, had not been well 
imderstood : but two gentlemen, nearly about the same time, aad 
nearly in the sanie way, made ^ discovery which threw consi- 
derable light on the subject, and has since served to point out 
the proper practice. Dr. Anderson, in a late work intitled 
♦* A Piract'icat Treatise on Draining Bogs and Swampy Grounds y* 
(of whicli we gave an account in our Review for September 
last, vol. xxvn. p. 46.) deems himself the first discqverer : 
but it appears that the idea which is the basis of the improved 
mode of draining land suggested itself to Dr< Anderson, a^ 
he himself tells us, in the year 1764 \ and by the treatise us- . 
der review, it is shewn that Mr.Elkington* was led to the {>rae- 
tical adoption of it, hj an accivtental discovery in the yeat 
^763. 

Havitig, in the article above cited, extracted what Dr. An« 
derson advanced in asserting his claim to priority of discovery^ 
we consider ourselves impelled by j|istice to exhibit what is 
beTB. stated as to the ms^in of th§ discovery made bf Mr* Elking^ 
lon^ tmd the means that first ltd hitm (9 tie incv^ege ^ the Qrtf 

J *• >■ ■ '■ ^ ■ \ ^^ P y< - ».. Wi|. It I 

* Origiwillf % CuriMf ID the wm^ty vf Wafwivk* 
" Rsf.FEB. 1799. N cipociaU)^ 

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17© Johnstone on ElkingtonV Mode of Draining Land. 

especially as Mr. Johnstone assures us that * its veracity nwy be 

dcpeiulsd on' : 

* In the year 1765, Mr. Elkington was left by his father th^ pos- 
session of a farm calLd Pvincetliorp, in the parioh of Strctton upon 
Dunsmore, and county of Warwick. The soil of this farm was very 
poor, and in many places so extremely wet, that it had been tlie 
cause of rottinor several handred sheep, which was the first means 
4hat determined him, if possible, to drain it, which he began to do 
in 1764.. Tlie field in which he began was of a wet clay soil, ren- 
dered almost a swamp, (and, indeed, in some places, a 'shaking bogy) 

"by the springs issir'ng from a bank of gravel and sand adjoining it, 
and ovei lowing the surfuce of the clay in the manner described in 
the annexed plan, which is a true representation of it. In order ,to 
drain tjiis field, he cut a trench about four or five feet deep, a little 
below the npprr side of the bog, or where the wetness begaji to 
make its appearance ; and after proceeding with it so far in this di- 
rection, and at this depth, he found it did not reach th; main body 
cf suhja'ccr.t ivaier^ from whence the evil proceeded. On discovering 
this, Mr. Elkington was at a loss how to proceed. At this time, 
A\hile he was considering what was next to be done, one of his sen^ 
auts accidentally carac to the field where the drain was making, with 
.an iron crow or bar, which the farmers in that country use iu mak- 
ing holes for. fixing their sheep hurdles. Mr. Elkington having a 
.suspicion that his drain was net deep enough, and a desire to know 
wliat kind of strata lay under the bottom of it, took the iron bar 
from the servant, and after having forced it down about fou!r feet 
below the bottom of the trench, on pulling it out, to his astonish- 
ment, a great qnantity of water burst up through the hole he had 
thus made, and ran down the drain. This, at once, led him to the 
knowlege of wetness being often produced by water confined farther 
btlow'the surface of the ground, than it was possible for the usual 

* depth of drains to reach, and induced him to think of applying an 

■ auger, as a proper instrument in such cases. Thus did the discovery 
originate from chance, the parent of many other useful arts ! In this 
manner, he not only accomplished the drainage of this field which 
soon rendered it completely sound, but likewise all the other wet 
ground on his farm. 

* The success of this experiment Jsoon extended Mr. Elkington's 
fame, in -the knowledge of draining^ from one part of the country to 

- another ; and after having drained several farms in hjs neighbourhood 
with equal success, he at last came to be very generally employed, 
has been since, and is now, in various parts of the kingdom, which 
shall be more particularly taken notice of in the sequel. It is, in- 
deed, now impossible for him to execute half the employment he has 

■ in hand, or to accept tlie numerous offers that a^c every day made to 
' him. From his long practice and experience, he is now so success- 
ful in the works which- he undertakes, and also in judging of the 
'internal strata of the earth and nature of springs, that. he can, with' 

- remarkable precision, judge where to find water, and where to trace 
the course of springs that make no appearance on the surface of the 

'^ ^ ^outid. 

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" Johtistone on ElkingtohV Mode of Draining Land. 171 

^Tonnd. The rules on which he afcts, with regard to these dSscd- 
veries, will be afterwards explained in treating of the nature of wet 
^roimd caused by springs. 

* Xastly^ Within these few years past, since his practice has been 
so widely extended^ and so generally successful, he has drained in 

. various parts of England, particularly in the midland counties, many 
thousand acres of land, which> from being originally of little or no 
value, is now as productive as any in the kingdom, capable of producing 
the most valuable kinds of grain, or of feeding the best and healthiest 
species of stock. 

* Some have erroneously entertained an idea that Mr* Elkington's 
sole skill lies in applying the auger for the tapping of springs, without 

, attaching any merit to his method of conducting the drains. The 

accidental circumstance above stated gave him the first notion of using 

, an auger,, and directed his attention to the pi-actice of draining, ia 

. the course i^' which he lias made various useful discoveries, which are 

herein afterwards more fully e)t.plained. It will be sufficient here to 

rem^k, that draining, according to his principles, depends upoa 

.three points : — \fi, Upon finding out the m^in spfingy or cause of the 

^ nuschief, without which nothing, effectual -can be done. 2d, Upon 

taking the level of that spring, and ascertaining its subterraneous hear^ 

ifigsy a measure never practised by any till Mr. Elkington discovered 

the advantage to be derived from it ; for, li the drain is cut a yard 

" beyond the Tine of the spring, you can never reach the water that issues 

from it, and, by ascertaining that line by means of levelling, you can 

cut oil the spring effectually, and consequently drain the land in the 

, cheapest and most eligible manner, f he manner in which this ia 

done will be afterwards de$cribed. And, 3^', By making uee of the 

auger to reach or tap the springj when the depth of the draiii is not 

fiumcient for that purpose. 

* In regard to the use of the auger, though there is evcr^- reason 

to believe Mr. Elklrtgton was led to employ that instrument from the 

accidental circumstance stateid above, and did not derive it from any 

• other channel ; yet there is no doubt that others have hit upon the 

«ime idea, without being indebted for it ta him. It is said, that in 

. attempting to discover mines by means of an auger, springs have 

. been tapped, and the adjacent wet ground thereby drained, either by 

. letting the water down, or giving it vent to the surface. The auger 

has also been, made use of in bringing water into wells, by boring in 

the bottom of them, to save the expcnce of digging, especially in 

Italy, where it is probable that the practice is very ancient. But^ 

that it has been used in draining land before Mr. Elkington made that dis" 

covery^ no one has venturtd to assert.^ 

^^ * In Dr. Nugent's Travels throijgh Germany, printed anno 1768 
f ,nof which an extract will be found in chapter v.), there is an account 
*f a mode of draining land, on principles in some respects of a simi- 
. lar natuie, not indeed by the use of the auger, but by making pits. 
And, ill a publication by Dr. James. Anderson, entitled " Essays ou 
Agriculture and Rural Affairs," printed anno 1775, after describing 
a mode of tapping the Doctor had adopted, by sinking small pits, 
be adds, <* I have often imagined that the expence of digging these 

N 2 piu 

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r73t JoMstbnc m Elkington'j MdA ofDraihlH^ K$nd. 

fk^ nM|;h% be tavetli by boring a hok through this solid stratem •T 
clay, vith a wimble made on pui|)o«c ; i>ut as I have ncvrr experi- 
enced this, I cannot say whether it would answer the desired cad ck- 
■ctly." 

^ Mr. Elkington, however^ made uoe of the auger prior to the dote 
•f these publicatioiis^. or to any hint he could possibly deriTC from 
any publication in the English language, though it is probable tfaat» 
in so far as regarded tapping of springs fw vDell^ the use of the mugrr 
was well know.n in some parts of Italy. BufiFon states, ^ Tiiat> m 
the city of Modena, and four miles round, wl^tevcr part is da^^ 
Vrhen we reach the depth of sfxty-three feet, and bore five feet deeper 
with an auger, the ^Titer springs out with such forces that the wdl 
is filled in a very short space of time. This Water flows coittitiua]ly». 
and neither diminishes nor increases \)y the rain or drought." Men* 
tioning the difierent strata that are met with to this deptht he «ddt» 
•* These successive beds of fenny or mar^y earth anc^ fhalk, are al- 
ways found irt the same Order wherever we dig ;- and very often the 
auger meets with large trunks of trccs> which it bores through^ Imt 
which give great trouble to the workmen ^ bones, coals, fHnt, and* 
piecies of iron^ are alsa found* Ramaaaini,, who relates these factt^ 
to.'* BufotCsNai.Hk*.' 

This new principle of draining, by tapping springs, or by 
perforating with an auger through a retentive Into an aSaorfai- 
ent or porous stratum, being ascertained, its application i» 
iheory ia obvious : but it will require some judgment to direct 
its practice^ Mr. Johnstone represents Mr.. Elkington, to 
%hcm Parliament hiis awarded loooA, as having beeti pccts- 
liarly fbrtdttate, not on!y in the original discovery, btit iti tfcc 
various and extensive use which he has made of it. This tt'OA 
IS an exliibition of his system drawti out into actual practice \ 
iand there are many to whom it will be very acceptable. The 
ktter-prcss, assisted by the plates^ will explain the draining-- 
process requisite for wet soib of every description and in cvcty 
situation : btit> withou^t the plated, the detail would not always- 
be very inlcHigibl^. We shall not, therefore, notice the vati- 
l^us instances in which Mr. Elkington's principle has been a^ 
J)lkd With eiRrct, bur content ourselves with an extract cfc- 
planatory of the principle itself. 

* Wetness \\\ land proceeds from two causes, as different in them- 
selves as the effects which they produce.^ 

* It proceeds either from i*ai« water stagnant on the sur^e^ or 
from tlic tN'ater of springs- issuirig over, or confined under it. <3a 
clay soils, that hate no natural descent, wetness is comAKMdy pco* 
duccd by the first of thtse €au3e« ; but, in a variety of situations, it 
Biayjprocecd from the lattt^r.*— Ikit, 

* The principles of ,Mr. Elkington'* art are so closdy comiectcd 
with the nature of sprfitgs, that, williout a itfiDwledgc of these, asd 
the causes yroducia^ them, it \:i impossible to fpractl^ it witb .cttJier 

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tIKcets or advant^c ; for twrface 4r<tmin^ "w^Qrf the Wf tn?ss pro-, 
•cfcds from «ubj9^qt wat^r, i> pojv allcrgau'ijg tfee ^cct, ia pl^i,<;c of 
rvmoma^ the cau$e. It will ^h^refore \t n<;qq^hary, ip ^Uej£r/^ ^i^ 
•o far to aicertftin the nature of wings, an<i their Connection w^fe 
the formation of b^gs, ^s to cn»pl? tffp pyacti^^ 4raintfr morf CfiJ^ily 
•tfi comprehend the theoretical part <rf Mr. Elkingioii's syjitttm. . 
» « From it«gep?ral exteraal appearaace, and i)y the peifprati^m 
that have been sriade in \\ by quarries, welk, ai^d 9th?r «ujjtctnin^ug 
Aiti, the earth is known tQ t>e con)p(?s^ (rf varioi^ strata, which, 
Qcing in their natuie pf opposite consistence, are distingviishc^ ty 
the immes of ^ar«v and ^'i^rvioi^j. Tho^ fitfata* which, frow th?ir 
laore open e^mpo^iony are pprous, and capable oJf receiving the rain 
vatcr mt falls on them, include rpok, g-ravelj sai)^]^ and ^u.ch marie? 
as are of an absorbent quality. Clay, and a cqptaip kind of grayel 
jhaWng a proportion of clay in its composition, whicl;, by binding and 
cementing the small stooea together, renders it equaJly s^^ a;td te- 
•acuius aa day itself; with ^uch rock as is of a c^§e and compact 
•ature» without any fissures ip it, are the principal strata tha,^ ipost 
^ft the reception of water, and that are capable of rttainip'g it qh 
their surface Ull exhaled by the sun, pr eatrie^oif by suitable dniin^ 
«nd arc tenned impervious.^ 

* Springs theref;>re origii^ate ifqs^ tw water faUipg tipon sud^ 
'foroua and absorbent surfaces, and subsiding d^y^nwards through 
«ich, till, in its passage* it meets a body of clay or other injpei^e* 
€nble substance, which obstructs its farther descent, a»d here, fgrm- 
ing a reservoir or considerable cgUc^tipri of water, it is forced eithw 
to ii'trate along such body, or rise to some part of .-the -surfacf^ 
where it oezes out in all thPSf diffc^eivt appearancea.^hat are so fre- 
aiucntly met with# This is evident fr(^ the immediate disappearance 
4>f the rain water, afi it falls* on some pa^ts of the grotrnd, while it 
fcmaiiis stagnant on others, till parried off by ev^pot^tjon; and from 
the strength of springs being greater in w<^ than in ,dry spasons* . 
Hence, alter incessant rains, they arc observed to break put in higher 
fituationt* apd, as the weather becomes drier, ffive over running out;, 
tmless at their lowest outlets. The strength ofsprings also, or quan* 
city oi water which they issue, depends chiefly on the extent of high 
^pund that receives and retains the rain, forming large reservoirs^ 
which affords them a more regular fiupply. Thus bog-springs, or 
those that rise in valleys and low situations, are much stronger, and ' 
liave a mprc regular discharge, than those whigh break out on iiigher 
^roond, or on the fjde^ of hills* ^ 

* IrHi«>fnd^nt of these eau^es, thf re ate ceitainly great springes 
icontaio^d in the bowels of the earth ; oth^wise, how coyfd the 
maoy riyers that iDiersect it be supplied with such vast quantities of 
prater as they discharge, the rains falling on its surface, or the dews 
that descend, not being adequate for that purpose f But, as this may 
i)C considered among tnose arcana of natune which have not yet been 
sufficiently explored, and lying at too great a depth to aAVct the 8ur-> 
-£Ke, it com^ not within tne Itmits of the present inquiry^ 

4 Witk the nature ami cau^^ of springs, that of bogs is intipiatdy 
COfisectcd \ foo wheu ^^g s bre^wg^O^t ^p th? n^^uncr above de- 

N 3 scribed^ 

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174 -Johnstone &n ElkingtohV Mode^of Draining Lan3. 

fid^ibed, run over a flat surface of ,clay, and cannot get off with SBft 
ficient- rapf Jitv, or are not confined to a narrow channel ; the super- 
abundance of water must cause the dissolution of all the coarse 
vegetables it produces, which, together with part of the natural soil 
itself, is formed into « peat earth, every* year increasing in depth j 
and the extent of audi bog or morass is according to the quantity of 
water, and to that of the flat ground on which it is formed. The 
great object of Mr. Mkington's system is, that of draining such bogs, 
by cutting oif entirely the source of the springs or subterraneous wa- 
ter that cause the wetness, either by flowing over the surface, or by 
its being long confined under it. If the springs have a natural out- 
let, the object of the drain is, to lower and enlarge it, which, by 
giving the water a moi-e free and easy channel, will-sooner discharge 
and draw it off, or will reduce it to a level so far below the surface^ . 
as to prevent its overflowing it. • 

• Where the springs have no apparent outlet, but are either con- 
fined so far below the surface, as to injure it by constant moisture, or 
by oozing out imperceptibly through any small pores of the upper 
soil ; the object of the drain is, to give a proper vent to that water, 
and to extract more quickly and more effectually what has before been 
pent up in the bosom of the soil. The object of the auger, which in 
many instances is the sine qua non of the business, is simply to reach 
or tap the spring, and to give vent to the water thus pent up, w4icn' 
the depth of the drain does not reach it, where the level of the out- 
let will not admit its being cut to that depth, and where the ex- 
pence of cutting so deep would be very great, and the execution of 
It very difficult. / - 

* As the whole depends upon the situation of the ground to be 
drained, and the nature and inclination of the strata of which the- 
■adjacent country is composed ; as ipuch knowledge as possible must ' 

be obtained of these before the proper course of a drain can be ascer* 
tair.ed, or any specific rules given for Its direction or execution.' 

By Mr. Johnstone's account, Mr. Elkington does not merely 
content himself with discharging water from sotIs in which it is 
injjiiriQus, but endeavours to convert what has hitherto operated 
as an evil irito a real good, by niaking it serve the purposes of 
irrigation, of $upplying ponds, or reservoirs, or houses, or for 
turning mills. • ■ 

A descrip.tiorris given, with plates, of the level, augers, and 
other instruments, employed in Mr. K.'s mode of drahiing ; 
by which many large tracts of wet and boggy land in the king* 
dom have beep eftlctually laid dry and brought under tillage \ 
as is evident from subjoined extracts taken from the Agricul- 
tural Report?, 

Tills useful work is enriched by its Appendix, containing, ia 

19 sections, many hints, remarks, rules, and directions, rela-^ 

live to the practice of hollow draining* \ which will Jbe of grc^t 

use to the young land-surveyor, or to tlie gentlemaQ \rbo 

,wi;jhes'to superintend his own improvcinents. 

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( »7S ) - ■ ■ 

AiiT. IX. D'laJogues of Lncian^ from theXJreek. Vols. IV. andV.* 
5vo. los. Boards. Longman. 1798. 

A ?TEii a Kino: Intefval,- Mr. Carr h^s. produced the remaining. 
■** volumes of his translation ©f this, lively and eccentric, but ^ 
too iiccnfious writer. He has judiciously omitted many parts, 
which merit the latter epithet, and has confined his labours 
to those passai^ts which exhibit the fine sense of the satirist,- 
wilhout. his follies and his ribaldry.— Perhaps the learned 
reader may in some instances charge Mr. Carr with too great 
familiarity of diction^ and; with taking* undue liberties in his* 
attempts to imitate rather than to translate the orijrinal with 
fidelity ; yet we think that he may plead, in his defence, the 
acknowleged rules of liberal interpretation, in regard to an 
author whose graces are sometimes beyond the reach of art. - 
Although Lucian is frequently sarcastic and ludicrous^ and. 
approaches too often to the charocter of a buffoon, yet his 
works furnish many instances of dignified satire, philosophical 
acutcness, and a noble spirit of moral disquisition. We think 
that our readers will be pleased with the following quotation 
from the life- of Demonax (voL v*), in which tlie' character of 
a true philosopher is drawn with that skill, accuracy, and 
gravity, which would confer honour on the disciples of the 
Porch. 

* Demonax was a Cyprian by birth, of a family far from being 
obscure; being distinguished by abundant possessions, as' well as 
consequence in the state. Superior to such considerations, and as- 
piring to all that was great and good, he applied himself to the study; 
of philosophy, not from any recommendation of Agathobolus, or 
his predecessor Demetrius, or Epictelus, though very well acquainted 
with all the three, as he was with TImocrates, the wise and eloquent 
Heracllan ; it was not, I say, owing to any other phJlos6pher, that 
he became one ; but from the native impulse of his own mind, which 
from his early youth had directed him to the nto9t honourable pur- 
suits, looking do;Bvn, as from an eminence, on the follies of mankind, 
and devoting his life to liberty and truth. Sober and Irreproachable 
ID his numQcrs, he set before those who saw him and heard him au' 
example to be followed by alL Not that he came, as the proverb 
expresses it, with feet unwashed ; for there was haidly a poet, wliose 
verees he could not repeat. He had practised the art ot speaking, 
and had studied the distinguishing tenets of the several philosophical 
sects, not merely to touch them, as. the saying i3»' with the tip of 
his finger, but that he might perfectly understand them. < His body, 
»t the same time, had ngt been i^egltcted, but trained, .by exercise, , 
•OHd imired to labour. The point with him was, neyet to b? bchoJdej?i 
to any one : which when he .beqapae. sensible was not in his power to 

* Sec Reviews of the former. In vols, xhx. ki'.^ ,ap^ Ixxvi. 

>J 4 » V..!' * attain^ 



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tj6 Carr'/ Translation pfLttdan^ Vols. IF. and V. 

attaiii^ be •qnitted4ife -of his own aecord| kaying aU t&e great moi 
of Greece a great deal to talk about. 

' It was not that he had cut his philosophical icoat fcom any par« 
tikular cloth; for k was a compodtjon of direds and patehe^ 
picked up here and tkene ^y and nobo^ knew -which piece ne likea 
best. Ho«ierer, it was observed^ thai he seemed hKMit at home 
w^ Sop^atesy /dfewin?^ aft the same time, the Philosopher f of 
SiBope in his habit and simplicity of life, yet yithout nestrictiofr 
tumself to a mean diet for the purpose of being stared at. He at- 
&cted not siQgularity in his appearai^ce or manners, eating, drinkisgy 
and conversing, in piiblic and private, just li^e other people, without 
pride 6r ostentation. His conversation was the graceful Attic, pmc 
iind uitmixcd with Socratic irony. No one thou^t meanly of ii, 
ttordid anyone *cfcr l^ave him as dreadifig the seventy of his <:ciitare. 
His t)ontpam*6li8 were pleased aiid improved, wont awaiy better men^ 
with better hopes of an heicafter. He was not addicted to th^ 
doise of 'OonteotioB^ nor put himsdyp out of humour^ because he «aw 
^e aeoessity of reproof; he could fbirgive the offender^ and yet'be 
severe on the ofience ; well knowin^« that a wise physician ' never 
thidks of -curing thc^ disease by raihng at the patient. To err, he 
said, was human ; godlike, to reclaim. Pursuing tihi^ course of Cfei 
and in want ' of nothing for himself, he was always ready to supply 
die wants of others ; whom he never failed to admoni^, wliencvcr 
ke taw them ^^ulting in prosperity, how frail and trtiwitory it was* 
Such as een^ftiiKd of ^poverty, ^le, old ag^ or ill healtii| "9f^x^ 
sure to be rebuked with a smile, for not considering how very aooa 
their sufferii^gs would have an endt when both good and evil woul4 
be last in oblivion, and they all would iind a lasting deliverance. If 
brothers were at variance, it was his business to malte them friends ; 
if husbands and wives disaguced, he was the mediator J t>etwecri 
ftem ; and there have been instances, in turbulent timeS| when m 
reasonable ^eech, in his pleasant way, has subdued the spirit of party^ 
brought over sedition to the service of the state, and made eveii 
taxes popular : such was our philosopher, mild, smiling, unassuming.* 

The notes «t the Jaottoaa of the page« are chiefly coaipa5e4 
tof altaakiiK lK»4iiedern faott m CDst^ns ; and though Hicy Oktrj 
Wffh them ^o ^kmtk% ^f evtrsordinaay :eriuKtion oar Aagacity^ 
fhey irray aflfbrd assistanoe to the Engi'rsh reader, hy cmlbVmm 
fc(m to relish the text.— Mr. Can takes no mrtice «f Dr. Frank- 
Jyn's mdre j:la«fiical transbtion of this airtht)r^ j?bojigh it wa^ 
subsequent to his first publication of the three vols. 

tld^ fifth voL con^plete3 Mn Cut's deai^gn. At thp end of 
It, be infbitn^ U9 that, 

« A^ a preface to this last w fl wi w c, X bed set about pveparai^ m 
'|>fsdertatlon tm the -WtrfisA vfnj «uth6r. i hsd fbcwd in my^ d iawm. 

« * A o«rio«8tlwpt^lBi4jeiaJBew^»tect.' 

^ +' jKojnies.' 

f Tj A •ei'fite'tJrdiunj'CT.* 



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M*GartneyV Tranitatim ef Gctto df Offiais. 177 

^tefiA: of Remarks ready made; and it could not be a painfal taik, 
iwiien there was little more left to be done, than to colkct tbt «cat« 
ftocd (TOxiuaBS of the karaed, which^ with the uolcarncd, might have 
puicd m wijown. Nevertheless, after some sober reflections on th« 
)ise and abuse of wit, I have chc^iged Iny mind ; and give up Lucian^ 
vith all his faults, to judges duly commissioned, 

** ■ who read each work of wit 
With the same spirit that its author writ," 
only begging them not to forget, that he lived and wrote many ages 
igo ; tiS his education was none of the bcjBt ; that chastity of style 
and manners did not then universally prevail, as in these happy timet ; 
and that, though he could nra away from his apprenticeship, hii 
Diaiognes could hardly escape some small tincture of those in hit 
iinck's dhop. Just as the conversatioQ of Lord Bolingbroke, after 
tSX his gpcctness, and with all his elegance, might stiU be traced to 
the inns of court : 

^ Q^ semel c|t imbuta reoens, senrabit odoctm 
Testa dlo. 

* Monsieur Balzac, who deserved so well of the first pmon m* 
gdlar, when he spo^ of himself and his letters, used to take off hii 
|»eaver ; bat a Translator, the m'nth part of an author, when he » 
^oBtcnt&d with his proportionate share of vanity, and in possession of 
a hat, \inll be naore chary of it. I pull off mine, this cold day, 
^K>t to myself, but my Reader, with whom I wish to exchange for- 
giveac^s, and part in peace, wliile he looks so pleased to see the end 
fii the book.' 

* 7«. 29, 17^8. J.C* 

None of Mr. Carr'a readers, probably, will refuse to return 
this eoorteoiis salute, nor fail to accompany it with thanks for 
Ac entertainment with which he has supplied them. 



Art. X. ^he treatise of Cicero f de Offictis ; orv his Essay on Mo- 
ral Duty. Translated, and accompanied with Notes and Observa- 
tions, by William M'Cartney, Minister of Old Kilpatrick. 8vow 
pp. 565. cs. Boards. Printed at Edinborgh ; Robinsons, Lon* 
dou. 1 798. 

^HE writiogfi of Hume, Adam Smith, and Faley, have dis^ 
f" ctmcved s^tch oomprebeosion and accuracy on the nature 
imi extent ofkbc Moral Duties, tbat to an English reader this 
trearise of the great Roman orator will appear comparattrely 
dry and vninstnictirc. The subject, indeed, through the 
three divisions adopted by the author, is too often violated (if 
we may so express it) by frivolous questions^ fabulous lllusr 
tratious, and a too frequent neglect of luminous drrangemeim 
With these disadvantages the translator of the three books Vf 
OjficUf had to contend; besides the diiikulty of rendering 
irixh £ife the f ^ apioiiU bf compositum genus oraiionis'* of |he 

5 origioal 

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17^ McCartney V Translation jf Cicero de Officils^ 

crigina). The learned reader. will grant him indulgence, should 
he sometimes appear diffuse and at other tin>cs abrupt ; as Ci- 
cero in this cpsay frequently uses the petulant mode of diakc- 
ttcs which distinguished the school of Socrates, and sometimes 
the declamatory style of reasoning which marked the writings 
of his disciple Plato. The notes annexed to the volume arc 
well suited to persons who art unacquainted with the nature 
of classical writings, as they are occasionally illustrative of 
the persons and historical events to which the text alludes; 
and sometimes (Contain observations oh the text itself, where 
a doubtful, vague, or improper sentiment is delivered. The 
original work was written by Cicero to his son, then a student 
at Atheus ; and this circumstance may account for the style 
being nearer allied to the epistolary than to the argumentative 
form of writing. 

^rhat our readers may judge of the manner in which this 
work is rendered into English, we transcribe the following pas- 
sage from fhe Third Book. 

* Let us pass over fabulous and foreign details, and come to the 
mithcntfc hiiitory of our own country. M. Atillius Rcguliis, during 
liis second consulship, was surprised, and taken prisoner, by Xan- 
ttippns, the Lacedemonian general in Africa, when Hamilcar, the 
fhther of Hannibal, was commander in cTiicf. He was st;nl to Rome 
to tlie senate, after having taken an oath, that, unless certain noble 
captives were restored to the Carthaginians, he should himself return 
to Carthage. When he came to Rome, he observed the appearance^ 
of iitib'ty in his nu'ssion ; but, as the event declares, he conceived it 
Ho more than r.n appearance. Such was his situation ; and whp 
would deny that it \va8 profitable to remain in his native Country ; to 
be at home with his wife and children ; and, judging the calamity he 
Itad sustained the common fate of war, to retain the rank of consular 
dignity ? What is your opinion ?— Greatness of mind and fortitude 
deny that It was profitable. « 

* Could you abk more ample authorities than these ? — It is the 
property of such virtues, to fear nothing; to despise all human 
things ; to think nothing intolerable that can happen to man. What 
then did Regulus do ? He came into the senate, and laid before 
them his commission: he refused to give his opinion ; for he was 
not a scnr^tor as long as he was bound by an oath to an enemy. And 
in that celebrated speech, which some will declare foolish, and repug- 
nant to liis own interest, he denied that it would be an advantage to 
restore the captives ; for they were young men and able generals, but 
he was now wasted with age. ' When his influence prevailed, the 
captives were retained, and he returned to Carthage ; and neither 
the love of his country, nor affection for his family and friends, de- 
tained him. Nor was he then ignorant that he was returning to a 
roost cruel eftemy, and to exquisite punisliment : but he thought bis 
oath was to be kept. His condition, therefore, w^s bettei", even 
vhcB put to death ty watching, than if he had jemained at home aii 

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BarryV Letter to the Dilettanti Society^ 17 j 

^UcaptiY^ and a perjured nobleman* But it was folly, it «nay b^ 
said, not only to give his opinion against restoring the captives, bu^ 
even to dissuade the measure. How, folly ? Was it folly, if thp 
advice was conducive to the public welfare ? Can that be profitable 
for any citizen, which is detrimental to the state V 

We have seen two or three former translations of Cicero de 
Offidis into English ; one by Cockman, another by Guthrie, 
aftd (we think) a third : but we do not recollect the name of 
the translator. 



Ak^t. XI. yf Letter to the Dilettanti Society ^ respecting the Ohtei;- 
tion of certain Matters essentially necessary for the Improvement 
of Public .Taste, and for accompUshing the original Views of the 
Royal Academy of Great Britam. By James Barry, Esq. R. A. 
Professor of Painting to the Royal Academy. 4to. pp. 76. 
2s. 6d. Walker, 1798. 

TiyfR. Barry stands very high in the scale of European art. 
IVl y^^ recollect few pictures of any living painter equal to 
his Olympic Triumph, in the Adelphi Buildings.; and scarcely 
;iny single figure so divinely yet harrowingly expressive, as the 
Angel of Retribution in his Elysium. His Groupes have in- 
deed been reproached with flatness of colouring, and a too 
anxious and habitual imitation of classical prototypes; but by 
beauties how great ! are these alleged blemishes counter- 
balaAced ! —From such an artist, every word concerning his 
art ought to be received with great impression. Yet Jiis 
Inquiry into the real and imaginary Obstructions to the Acqui- 
sition of the Arts in England, published ^o long ago as l^^S^ 
has caused no reformations (see especially c. xi.) -, and his 
Letter addressed in 1793 to the Society of Arts, (an account 
of which dccurs in our 12th vol. N.S. p. 23.) though better 
known, has produced as little effect. 

The Letter now before us begins, as we observed when we 
formerly noticed apart of it, annexed to the last edition of Pil- 
kington's Dictionary, (see M. Rev. N.3. vol. xxv. p. 435.) 
with ridiculing a costly subscription formed by some indivi- 
duals, to learn the Venetian colouring ; as if it consisted 
merely in some mechanical secret ; in covering the canvass first 
with body-colour ; in the proportion of ceruse or vermilion to 
be mingled with linseed oil or soap of wax ; or in the che- 
mical purity of the muriate of lead employed to give the buff 
Jiue to the flesh. The peculiarity of Titjan's* colouring, con- 
sists in his usually imitating nature when irradiated on all sides, 
or objects fully illuminated. Consequently, hisf boldest relief is 
always prodac<rd with the smalkst possible discrepancy of tint. 

Kb 



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||9 BirryV iMUr io th DiUtiMNti Sicuty. 

Mo d^ubt, he usually exposed his models in broad and epea 
^irylight* All the colouring of the Chinese is executed on rins 
principle. When they first saw the portrait of our King^ they 
mistook the dark shade intended to give relief to the nosci for 
$ome injuty which the picture had sustained during the voyage, 
and were preparing to efface it. Their painters not being in 
the habit of in)itating objects partially illuminated, which th^ 
light reaches from one point only, had no conception that 
such contrasts of colour were ever to be found in nature. Some 
p tiiKers ^ the £rst rank affect catching lights : Gucrdno, if 
wc jrightly teooilect, and Ppie, ^c dt the number. They 
purposely tntroddce their light through a single orifice, and 
from above, [dungeon^ainUrs, the Italians call such,) and thus 
imitfite a partially illuminated scene of nature. They conse- 
quently employ > the greatest possible intervals of hue which 
nature can exhibit in the s^me figure. This mo4^ of colour* 
ing* is precisely the reverse of that of Titian, but in its way 
is equally meritorious, and can be accomplished with the same 
pallet iti^d canvass ; it seems to result from a habit of pr^ctia^ 
1 ng in a room with a single sky-light. Indeed, the method of 
study pursued by the great artists will account for nearly all 
their peculiarities. Rubens, at one period, had probablv crim- 
son hangings to his paintbg-room \ for at one time he con« 
st;(ntly gave a redness to the dark shades of his fleshy which 
has all the appearance of reflected light.^v-Many Englbh artists 
inhabit rooms with windows to the north. What ts the con- 
sequence ? They see all their models illuminated with a bluer 
light than that of day ; and^ if they faithfully imitate the na- 
ture before them, they steep their objects in, a leaden twiligfal^ 
and acquire that d^y-cold colouring which is opposed to the 
mellow. 

Mr. Barry next proceeds to enforce the inijportance of a pub* 
lie collection of antient art. In all lines of pursuit, it i$ so 
obviously necessary to consult the master- pieces of our prede- 
cessors, in order to attain ex«:eIleoce» that it seems Strang to 
have instituted an Academy of Painting without first providing 
such a collection. His proposal was made to ^he Academicians 
in these terms : 

^ I also jnove^ that aom^ part of oyr sroperty be laid out in the 
|>ur!cha#C of i^ome one or more exemplars of ancient art, and a room qr 
-reome to put tbcjn in. Thl^ beginning (which would come so grace- 
fully and with such peculiar propriety from the Academy) woukj, 

• ■■ m ' ■'■■■■' » ■. — ■ * . . 1 — . - 

^ Intensity of Ugiit and ^ode gwu arti^ial prominence, atid h 
vthcMfbre fkyouriUc tp diect : but it can seldom be employ^ ;Mth 
probabilttyt «k1 k scacccjy cowpauhk with Jbepiai^. 

iritb 

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B$nfs LdUr to Ot DUmanti Sfcidy. tVf 

«vidi «k fett^ro^ pubHt tkut oulf wtnu tncb an occaMon of dii^cting 
kft ener^, sooa fhictifjrand extend to a National Gidlery *, whicfa^ 
wb^st It trould cotnpkat the vicwt of the Academy with respect to 
tke cdiicttidA of it« {Hipib^ would alto no len beneficially extend t^ 
the intprorement and entertaintneat of the nation at large. There 
arc many old famous pictures in this kingdom : whether any of these 
should be bestowed on this public gallery, or only lent to it for any 
giTCD Dumber of years, to b© replaced b^ others, the end would be 
equally amwered; and, by proper inscriptions on the frames, the 
pii^Iic would know its benefactors, who would be paid in a glorioua 
$debrity, proportioned to the utility and satisfection they diffused. 

•« A proper attention to the obtaining these desiderata, would not 
only appear more becoming the reputation of the age and nation, and 
raefn cousntetit with the noble disinterested conduct hitherto,adopted 
by tiK Academy, but would eventually and iinally be more profitable 
ttd adrantageous to the interests of superior arusts, and the widows^ 
imd rekdves they maj happen to leave t}ehind them, than what hat 
been proposed by dissipating this property of the Academy, in pen- 
sions annexed to the mere frequency of exhibition, without any regard 
to the degree of importance or contemptibility of the matter exhi« 
bited. Such a procedure would inevitably reverse all riVht, and pr»« 
dace mrachief and di^onour instead of benefit. The nobler occasiotm 
of exemon do not so frequently occur as those that are paltry and 
wortyesa, not to say mischievous ; and the answer of iEsop's Lionetft 
m tite fable, would admirably apply in this case. << Teu produce a 
ptai vumy at a Utter ^ and often ; but what are they ? Foxes^ I indeed 
Li^ hut 9He at A thne, hut you jhouid remember this one is a Lion,** It is 
fiill time* Gentlemen,, that we should recollect, in this Academy, that 
our art has the glory of being a moral arty with extensive means, pe- 
euliarly universal, and applicable to all ages and nations, to the im« 
^vtttent and deepest interests of soaety j and although, from the 
vnfottunate combinations tlnrt sometimes occuf , we )»ve liad mote 
fiequent occaftieto to decorate the exhibition WUs with pictures ^f 
K^ <k dead partridges, mackerel on deal boards, or sudi like humaa 
or other crifting matters, every vtrhit as unmeaaiAg and inappHcabte 
to «ny great or ethical pui^ose, yet surely, surely, \£ the Academy 
cannot every year gratify the public with a Gynmatium at Athens, or 
the Stadium at Olympia, it wilt ill become them to encourage, by their 
countenance and ineir pensions, so horrid and 3catida}ous ti Teverse 
and degradation. These opinions, which I hope wffl meet the wi^a 
of a majority- of the Academicians, 1 am happy to deKvcr on snA an 
occasion ^ the present, where they are so fainy, so necessarily caDed 
Swl and that, whatever determination the Academy may choose to 

« * The 'fiMnoros Csittoons t>f Rafael, wh]<<h were pwchased witb 
fte p uM fetnoney, fmrift stand gloriou^y at the head ot such an acade* 
teieal or lAtional galkiy ; or if they should be thought to «ooupy too 
invch ipaee, and ^t frneljr troknired <oil piotttKs would be more -ba^ 
IftKdSttay i»e(nl>-*4obte ot ibe Royal Wkoes abound with wtbt^ks iof 
^^snAydt, of ^hat delcHiytibn> Whidh mi^ be well spared. Wk\ 
vtA i m e i t<g)gt iod^iJpiEttei idke JtH .would Mon ftUow.' 

adopt 

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1 82 Barry V Letter to the DUettattti Society. 

«dept m ttiis bu8ine6s> these sensimentSy ehher in tbe way of aMcf 
x>r pretest, must now, in the order of things^ remain upon their booksf 
for the inspection of those who may come after us, and who, it is to 
be hoped, will have other and higher views of the concerns of art, thatt 
those arising from the undue, political artifices^ of somblnation and 

Many particulars relative to the fate of this motion, to the 
election of new associates, to theaelection of artists for executing 
the statues of Jbhnson, Howard, and JonCs, and to other acade- 
mic transactions, are given ; which seem to indicate^that the in^ 
ternal state of the Academy would admit of some improve- 
ment. 

Occasionally, our author pays high compliments to David, a 

'leading artist among the French* This is liberal, but is it also 

just? Have not the figures of David mostly that afiected theatric 

grace, or cum, which is wholly occupied with the effect of its 

"expression on the spectator, rather than with the passion ex- 

[pressed ? His Horatii seem practised to swear. In grace, 

energy, and expression, do not his figures bear that relation to 

-nature which a select actor does to an agent: as if the artist 

had studied the picturesque at the opera, and not in life ? 

^ Mr, Barry's general tinge of opinion well deserves to become 

all object of meditation. He considers Atheism as a destroy* 

•ing angel, let loose for a time only by the order of Providence, 

\in moments of political corruption and convulsion, while crimes 

' are necessary to effect the overthrow of mischievous institutions. 

He recommends the preservation of the Papal government, as 

a perennial fountain of the arts which humanize society, and 

• of the religion which must again be invoked to heal the moral 
disorders of a revolutionary period. The speculation is worthy 

:.of Mr- Burke for the reverential piety which it displays, and for 

• the 'luminous trains of idea which kindle and phosphoresce 
■ along* its track. Wfc cannot resist the pleasure of presenting 

our readers with a considerable extract. 

* Would to HeaiKn that some great and good man, possessed of 
, the eloquence of a Burke, ^ Rousseau, 2l, Bossuet, or a Fenclqu, 
, should in this momentous crisis X)f Revolutions (when the happiness 
' or misery of ages is pending upon the issue), come nobly forward, at 
. any risk, as the blessed advocate for that constitution of things which 
. is. likely to be most productive of that happiness whicH results from ia- 
ttllcLCtual, virtuous culture, ^ and from those ingenious arts which con- 
. .stitute the very pabulum, and nutriment of this virtue and culture of 
r the intellect I The vindictive, tempestuous passions of ourjiature will 

• be always sure to make ample provi^sion for occasions of strife, for 
military establishments, and consequently for tho§e modes of govem- 

i mtjnt \v;hich are best adapted to spch views : although, this is, per- 
haps, inevitable for th^ inos.t part j yet one might hope tKerc would 
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BarryV Letter io the Dilettimti Society. ^3 

te always found magnanimity enoilgh in human nature to 'pecmit, 
as the Greeks had so gloriously, and for such a lorng time, per- 
mitted, a sacred territory apart governed by its own pacific laws, 
which were respected by all contending panics. Th^ere is nothing in 
all the Grecian stoiy whicli can exhibit that very belligerent people 
in a more graceful, amiable, and becoming point of view, than their 
admirable, salutary, exemplaiy conduct in this particular ; and yet, 
what could any man say of the sacred territory of Eiis, that might 
not be affirmed (with many additional arguments of inexprcsolble ad- 
vantage) of the Papal government at Rome ? How easy would it 
be, without rashly destroying it, to weed out discreetly and prudently 
any of those defects and abuses wljlch might attach from length of 
time, and from the very excusable infirmity ever inseparable from 
human nature in all conceivable situations and "concerns ! Ho<w easy, 
without loss of its dignity, to accommodate it to any existing circum- 
ftance ! But there will be no need to wish for the eloquence of a 
great man, on an occasion so deeply interesting to humanity : the 
French are a wise and a great people, who have been long distin- 
guished by their predilection for those arts wliich humanize, and are 
not likely to forego any occasions of practising their usual magnani- 
mity. The Papal government cannot want persuasive advocates 
among a people so happily enlightened ;' and as iov any republics that 
might grow up m Italy, they will be so well acquainted with tlic 
Talue of the Papal government, as to make every effort for pre^jerving 
it ill a fiourishing state. The infinite importance of such a govern- 
ment as the Papal to the arts which humanize society, has been long 
an olSject of my deepest meditation ; and 1 have before had occasion, 
in my printed letter to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
from the 24th to the 3 2d page, to touch a little upon the gr<;at and 
essential advantages derived to Europe from its connexion with tlie 
Papal government ; and as it is impossible to reflect upon the growth 
and advancement of those arts which tepd to meliorate and humanize 
society, without recurring to the same venerable source, I have, in 
the introductory Lecture to my Course in the Academy, been also 
led to take notice of a few particulars which, a? thfty will come in 
ycrj wdl here, I shall transcribe, without caring much whether ft be 
digresthg or not. 

* It is curious to reflect, that the exertions of art seem, to arise 
from the disappointment of the human mind, sated, disgusted* and 
tired with 'the monotony of the real persons and things which this 
world affords, so full of imperfection, and accompanied with so much 
misery, strife, and injustice. In proportion to the serenity and good- 
ness of the mind, it naturally turns away from such a state of things, 
in search of some other, more grateful and consoUng j and it has a 
natural horror of those atheistical cavils which would malignaptly de- 
prive it of all other resource, by mercilessly chaining it. down to the 
scene before it. Hence 'it arises that the minds of men, in, all agea 
and places^ where they were at leisure, and happily relieved from the 
oppressions 'of war, tyrannies, and all their horrid train ofeonscqucDt 
cniseries, have naturally dilated and found consol^ation in the -objects 
. rfrcKgioD, which they would anticipate and realize by .th^iiende^- 

vouri 



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lS4 BurryV iMter fy ihi DiUiUmi Sotitif. 

noon to cttt Of* carve them in blocks of wood or stone, wke* 
ther detached from their parent rocks, and set up in high and bo^ 
noared places of frequent resort , or, as was probably the more an- 
cient way, cut into and making part of imn^nse excarations, as ir 
•ccn in the mountains of Indift. Whether the sulMect-matter of rcH- 
cion be well or ill reasoned upon in these detailed efforts $ vrfietbcr 
It be taken from the various incarnations of the Indian Vistnou, from 
the more elegant ideas and forms of the Greek Mythologr, or froat 
the RK>re consoling^ justy and happily adapted matter resmttng fron 
the more equitable rational hopes and fi^ars inculcated bj the ChiistitD 
rcUgion ; yet the whole taken together forms an astomshing cham of 
the most indubitable proof of the extreme thirst of the mind for a' 
more satisfactory state of things, and of its natural recurrence to the 
-arts of design, as the first, the universal and most natural written 
language, which, in funyshing the means of expressing this universal 
testimony, affords a happy and the only opportunity of tracing htiman 
n^urc through an immense tract of ages; through India, Egypt,Greece, 
and Italy. And although whatever was not connected with the rdigioa 
of those people, was not thought of as worthy the commemorating, yet 
many other matters and usages are luckily preserved by their incidental 
connexion with this superior matter, which otherwise would now be ut- 
t^ly lost to us; and, every thing fairly and fully considered, what should 
we nave known of the ancient nations, their arts and knowledge," were 
it not for the stimulus which religion afforded to the human exertions f 
What other motives ever did or could supply its place ?*— 

* Notwithstanding the inevitable jarring from the varieties of men's 
dispositions, interests, and circumstances, yet it is a well known stnda 
true maxim, That in all Repubh'cs or constitutions of society, accord- 
ing to whatever 'way the citizens are reared up, so they shall be found 
to be. — But, without entering upon abstract reasonings, on all the 
possible advantages that science and art might fairly derive from the 
doctrines of Christianity, from the suppression of barren sclfishncsi^ 
and fraternal equality, and the intellectual culture which, upon a just 
statement, will be found to form the tissue and the very essence of 
Christianity, we may even content ourselves with the mere matter of 
fact, as exhibited in the Papal Government at Rome ; and there it 
has been abundantly apparent, that the time, the attentioifrf wid the 
wealth employed for the public in the culture of those arts and intellec- 
tual accomplishments which ^elevate human nature to its real dimitj» 
above mere sensual and brutal existence, forms an aera la the history 
of mankind, not less new than admirable and amiable, more especially 
if we compare this pacific scene of intellectual exertion with the hor- 
rors and carnage of preceding military Governments of brutal force,, 
under the pompous titles of Roman Commonwealth or Roman Em- 
pire, whicn for so many ages had deluged or dfcgraced the world. 
The name of Civil Soeiety was, is, and ever will be, ill bestowed 
"l^on .such hordes and combinations of robbers or assassins. 

• Neither our time nor the subject we hare in hand will allow vts tot 
go fitr in our remarks on this Pontifical RepubKc at Rome, this uni*- 
Ycrsal treasury and theatre for the culture and support of the educft- 
iioa of Europe ; where, tfaiowing aside all privilege, rank| and clal«)» 

of 



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Tiztrfs Lettef.tolAeiDtlettantiSGciety. l8^ 

of famOy and primogeniture, every thing was devoteV to the gener^ 
pr6mQtion b£ intellect. AH its hoiiotrrs '^nd rewaMs, its ' nutrW, 
purple hats, and tiara, accessible to allj to iererv condition, where 
superior worth and ability could be found, diffused vuch a spirit 
throughout Europe, as was best calculated to wrestle witl.> the brutal 
ferocity of the dark Gothic ages, and, sooner or later, cot'ld »bt fail 
of being attended with the mort extensive salutary effects. * TKeir 
ascendancy and power derived fiom intellect: whatever cf>uld be 
gained in this way, was from the state of celibacy to which they had 
reduced themselves, necessarily dispensed in the way best calcul!att4 
to furnish the means and increase to this ascendancy, and conseqiiently 
in a" manner most profitable to the ivorld. It is tq no purpose ta 
cavfl at those abuses which, from the frailty of man, will Sometimes 
accompany the uses of the be^t things. We all know that the worst 
conceivable things are the abuses t)f tlie best ; and vtc may therefore 
£urly and juatly give them full credit ,for the early nurture, cultiva-* 
tion, and, I had almost said, mature and vigorous per&ctiott oC 
whatever, we have most reason to value ourselves for, either as •om- 
pared to the animals beneath us, or to the rest of our own species^ 
scattere'd over the other parts of the globe. With respect to those 
Arts which principally form the object of attention in this Academy, 
however pleasing it may be to reflect on the different monuments of 
their cultmre, in the churchy and convents of the sereral countries of 
Europe ; yet it was at Rome where all this intellectual influence eon-' 
centnited; it was there that the mind was astonishedv delighted^ 
and enabled to contemplate with rapture, the sublimities to whicfaf 
art ba^farrived : and it will not be from our purpose to clofle these, 
observations with remar^ng, that, even in the hercditanr aristocracy 
at Venice, where the professions of arts and letter^ \vere toolishly con- 
sidered as beneath the nobles, the commonalty jiitimidaled at an awfiiT 
distance, and consequently destitute of the necessary athbitlbn of ex- 
celling, «nd there "being nb third estate, its effects in the arts may be 
seen accordingly ; for whilst the human mind made the noblest ex- 
cursions in the Vatican and C<ip<Ua Sistina, under the auspices of the 
Roman^ Pontiffs, the genius oi the Venetians was ctiltivating the 
medutnjipal branches- of art, the colouring and chiaro-scuro, which 
Ciorgfi||jie liad imported from L. da Vinci, the Florentine.* , - - ^ 

Sonte interesting anecdotes occur (p. 38, &c.) concerning 
Mr. Burke, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mortimery Husseyj and 
othersi Good observations on patronage, also, are Interwoven. 
Soreiy it i^ worth while to make some national provision for 
tlie growth of art * ! Siurely it is well worth wliile to uphok) 
and strengthen the fastnesses of religion, by the powerful and 
lasting aid of painting and of sculpture ! Surely our cathedralsr 
rriight set the example of cherishing those labours of th& 
artist, winch are employed to promulgate tKc' praiseworthy ac- 
tions of the truly venerable founders of Christianity I 

•' Notwithstanding the pretended encouragement' of the govern- 
ment, and the trumpeted praises of philosophers, art is peri&hing in 
France for want of demand* ' Art. 

' Riv. Feb, 1799. O 

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:( lis ) 

^A^. Xn. .J Dkcmm m the StuA ^the Lmm> ^Natun midNgP 
tims ; «trof JiicUMfy to fi Course of Xjecturcs on that Sdencc> to lie 
cominf6CQf*i in Lincoln's Inn HaUyMi fVednadayi Feb. 20, I799f in 
pursuanc/j of an Order df thi Honourable Society bf Lincob't 
Xfrn^ 9 y JanKd Mackintosh, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, Barritfter at 
Lfrwr. .^vo. pp* 7o« 2s. 6^. CadeU jim. and Daviet. 1799* 

•T^HE ?il5tory of natural jurisprudencf, of that great and com- 
•* pfiehensive Icienqe which teaches and ascertains the duties 
of individuals an4 of states, thou^ a truly noble and imports 
^at aubjectf ^s nover been considered in all its parts with the 
precLsion and attention which it deserves. The late Doctor 
^mlth, at the t\o9t o£ hh Theory of Moral Sentiments, made a 
picmise to the world of dedicating his leastire and \a% talents 
U> this vast and spiendid undertaking : but, unfaappilj for man* 
Ibind, he lived to complete only part of his piati \ and his 
Enquiry into the Nature arid Causes of the JVealfh of Nations ex- 
tends alone to whit concerns police, revenue, and arms/ 

In a course of lectures now delivering in Lincoln's Inn Hall» 
{he author of tlxe pamphlet before us proposes to discuss those 
various subject^ which constitute and are comprised 10 the lav 
of nature aiid nations ; and m the present discourse kc gives 
9^ outiiiie of the pbn wluch he intends to piursue* A i£ort, 
but a clear and inasterly account- ef the pitigcess and pftsent 
state of the science is given, and ^f that sueciesaion of able 
uTiters who have gradually brboght ft to its present high state 
of cultivation. From this part of the work, we cannot deny 
ourselves the satisfaction of preseutiiig to our readers the 
finished portrait of GROTius;«--of whom it zzKiy truly be 
said, . 

•' ^i nullum fere seriienji genus 

Non tetigitj^^ 

Nullum quod tetigit non ornavit!* -,\ ' 

«. The reduction of the law of nations to a system wat menred 

for Grotius. it ^as by the advice of Lord Bacon and Pfeiresc that 

&c undertook t^is ardu^ous task. He produced a work which we now 

ictdeed justly deem imperfect, but which is perhaps tlte itiost co»-* 

plete that the world has yet owed* at so early a stage in the paogreas 

of a^y, science, to the geniuis luid learning of one man. So groat is 

lfh< u|ii:ertaHity of posth.umous iieputa^ion, and so liable is tl^ JE^^m 

^ven of the greatest men to be obscured by those new fashions of 

thinking and wi^nting which succeed each other so rapidly among p6« 

lished nations, that Grotius, who fil!led so large a space m the eye of 

Iiis contemporaries, is now perhaps known to some of my readeA 

only by name. Yet if we fairly estimate both his endowments arf 

hi$ virtues, we ,m^y. justly consider him a& oi^e of the most xaemo* 

r^ble men who iu^ve done honour to modern times. H^ combioeS. 

^ e 4i«charg< #f the most important duties of actirc aad public life 

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MacKhtbslft jbhatirj^ oh tie taw hflTaiufe^ &c. i 67 

viirlk the attainment of that exact and various learning whicli is gene* 
rally the portion only of the reclua^ student. . He was distinguished 
as an advocate and a fnagistrate, and he composed the most valuable 
works on the law of his own country ; he was almost ^qutily aele* 
brated as an historian^ a scholar^ a poet, and a divine : a disinterested 
ttatesmaa, a philosophical lawyer, a f^tKiot who united modcratiqa 
vrith Hrmnes$> and a theologian who was taught candour by his learn* 
ing. Unmerited exile did not damp his patnotism : the bitterness of 
controversy did not extinguish his charity. The sagacity of his nu^ 
merous and fierce adversaries could not discover a blot on lus charac* 
ter ; and in the midst of all the hard tn'als and galling provocations 
of a turbiilent poh'tical life, he never once deserted his friends whea 
they were unfortunate, nor insulted his enemies when they were we^» 
In times of the most furious civil and religious faction he preserved^ 
his name unspotted, and he knew how to reconcile fidelity to his own 
partyy with moderation towards his opponents. Such was the^ maii 
who was destined to give a new form to the law of nations, or rather 
to cr^te a science, of which only rude sketches and indigested mat^ 
rials were scatter^ over the writings of those who had gone before 
him. By tracing the laws of his country to their principles, he wag 
led to the contemplation of the few of nature, which he justly- con* 
gidered as the parent of all municipal law*. Few works were more 
celebrated than that of Grotius m his own days, and in the age 
which succeeded. It has, however, been the fashion of the last half- 
century to .depreciate hiis work as a shapeless compilation, in whvch. 
reason lies buned under a mass of authonties and quotations. Thid 
fashion originated among French wits and declaimers, and it has been, 
I know not for what reason, adopted^ though with far greater mo- 
deration and decency, by some respectable writers among ouriselves. 
As to those who first used this language, the most candid supposition 
that we can make with respect to them is, that they never read the 
work ; for, if they had not been deterred from the^pemsal of it by 
mch a formidable display of Greek characters, they must soon have 
discovered that Grotius never quotes on any subject till he has first 
appealed to some principles, and often, in my humble opinion^ 
though not always^ to the soundest and most rational principles. 

* Bttt aqpijrflier sort of answer is due to some of thosef who have cri* 
ticizcd C^olius, and that answer might be given in the words of Gro* 
tias himself J. He was not of such a stupid and servile cast of mindi 
asio quote the opinions of jpoets or orators, of historians and philoso- 
phers, as those of judges, from whose dedsion tliere was no appeals 
He quotes them, as he tells us him,8elf> as witnesses whose conspiring 
testimony, mightily strengthened and confirmed by their discordance 
©n altnost every other subject, is a conclusive proof of the unanimity 
of the whole human race on th^ great rules of duty and the funda^ 
meMal principles of morals. On such matters, poets and orators are 

* * JProavia jups civilift. — Dc Tur. BelL ac Pac- Prolcg. § 16.* , 

« j Dr; Paley, Principles of Moral and PoUtJTal Phitowphy,- Prrfi. 
p. XIV. andxv.* 

* I Grot. Jur. Bel. ct Pac. Proleg. § 40.' 

O 2 the 

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188 MajckmtpshV DUcmrSi on the Lama »f Nature^ ?5V- 

the mo^t injcxccptlonable of all witnesses ; for tlicy address thenaadvef 
td the grcneral feelings and sympathies of mankind ; they arc neither 
warped by system, nor pers-erted by sophistry ; they can attain none 
of their objects ; they can i>ei'ther please nor persuade if they dwell 
on moral sentiments not in unison with those of their readers. ' N^ 
system of moral philosophy c^n surely disregard the general feeling* 
bf human nature, and the According judgment of all ages and nations. 
But where are these feelings and that judgment recorded and pre- 
sented ? In those very writings which Grotius is gravely blamed foi^ 
having qnotcd. The usages and laws of nations, the^vents of history, 
the opinions of philosophers, the sentiments of orators and poets^ 2% 
well as the obsen^tion 'pf common life, are, in truth, the materials 
but oT which the science of morality is formed ; and those who 
ficjrlect them are justly qhargeable with a vain attempt to philosophize 
without regard to fact and expenence, the sole foundation of all true 
philosophy. 

* If this were merely an objection of taste, I should be wiUmg to 
allow that Grotius has indeed poured forth his learning with a pro- 
^sion that sometimes rather encumbers than adorns his workj and 
vlildi is not al\\'ays necessary to the Illustration of his subject. Yet, 
e^cn in making that concession, I should rather yield ta-the taste of 
others than speak from my own feelings. I own that such richness 
and splendour of literature have a powerful charm for me. ITiey 
fill my mind witb an endless variety of delightful recollections 2jxi 
associations. They relieve the understanding in its progress through 
a vast science', by calling up the memory of great men and of interest- 
ing events. By this means we see the truths of morality clothed with 
•11 the eloquence (not that could be produced by the powers of one 
man, but) that could be besto^ved on them by the collective gcniu* 
of the world. Even Virtue and Wisdom themselves-acquirc new ma**' 
jesty in my eyes, when I thus see all the great masters of thinlting 
and writin|g called together, t»«iLwere, from all times and countries^ 
to do them homage, and to appear 7n their tr^'n. 

• ' Btt this is no placcf for discussions of taste, and T am \cty r€tdy 
to own that mine may be corrupted. The work of Grotius js liable 
to a more ^erlous obfection, thgugh I do riot recollect that it has 
ever been made. His method is inconvenient and- unsd hjjfi c. He 
has inTerted the natural order. That natural order undflKdly dic- 
tates, that we should first search for the original princ^l^ of the 
•cience iq human nature ; then apply thcra to the regulation of the 
conduct of individualsi and lastly, employ them for the, decision of 
those difficult and complicated questions that arise with respect to the 
intercourse of nations. But Grotius has chosen the reverse of this 
method. He begins with the consideration of the states of peace 
aijd war,'dnd he examines original prindples only occasionally tad 
incidentally as they groAv out of the questions which he is caIteain)on 
to decide. It r8;a necewar}- conscquenccr of tfiis disorderly mewHL 
vhich exhibits the clemtnts of the science in the form of sotttrea 
digressions, that he seldom employs sufficient discussion on tluse 
fundamental truths^ and never in the place wkere such a discasswn 
would be xnoit instrnctire to the reader.' 

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MackintoshV Discourse on the Law ofNafure^ Isfc. i 8p 

On the subject of this great man, the oplQions of Dr. Smith 
Ind Mi;. Mackintosh perfectly coincide. The former learned 
writer says : 

<< Grotius seems to have been the first who atteitapted ta. 
give the world any thing like a system of those principles which 
Mght to run through and be the foundation of the laws of all 
nations ; and his treatise of the laws of war and peace, witK 
all its imperfections, is perhaps at this day the most complete 
work that has yet been given upon this subject." 

In enumerating the advantages enjoyed by a writer of * the, 
present day, which were not possessed by Grotius and other 
celebrated jurists, Mr. Mackintosh mentions that there has been 
introduced into the schools a more simple and intelligible phi- 
losophy than that which prevailed in the last century. He 
then points out the benefit resulting from the investigations oP 
hif^orians, and from <he various accounts of travellers and na- 
vigators; which he has performed M^ith so much eloquence 
a;id discrimination, that we shall lay the passage before our 
readers, and thus enable them to judge of tlie high literary 
merit of the present discourse. 

* Since that time, vast additions have been rtiade to the stock of our 
knofwledgc of human nature. Many dark periods of history havo^since 
keen explored. Many hitherto unknown regions of the globe have 
been viaited and dcsdribed by traveUers !ind navigatoi-s iM>t less intel- 
ligent than intrepid. We may be said to stand at the confluence of 
the greatest uumber of streams of knowledge flowing from the most- 
distant sources, that ever met at one point. We are not confijicd, as 
the Icamed of the last age generally were, to the history of those re* 
Bowoed nations who aie our masters in literature. We can bring^ 
bcldrc us man in a lower and more abject rendition than any in which 
kc was ever before seen^ The record*? have been partly opened to us 
«f those Vfiijtttjr empires of Asia *, where the beginnings of civiliza- 
tion arc IdBk'the darkuess of an unfathomable antiquity. Wex:ah 
make humim society pass in review before our mind, from the brutal 
and helpless barbarism of Terra delFuego^ and the mild and voluptuout 
a^yigcs of Otaheitf , to the tame, but ancient and immoveable civiliza- 

• * I cannot prevail on mysHf to pass over this subject without 
wying my humble tribute to the memory of Sir W. Jones, who has 
laboured so successfully in Oriental literature, whose ^x\t genius, 
pure taste, unwearied industr)', unrivalled and almost prodigious^ rn- 
ncty of acquirements, not to speak of his amiable manners and apotksir 
integrity, must fill every one who cultivates or admires letters with 
reverence, tinged with a melancholy which the recollection of his 
«ccnt death is so well adapted to inspire. I hope I shall be pardoned 
if I add my applause to the genius and learning of Mr. Maurice, who 
trcadf in the steps of his illuslrious friend, and who has beuailed his 
^ath in a strain of genuine and beautiful poetry, not unworthy of hap. 
pitrpcriodsof our English literature.' . . 

i ^.'•. . V ' O 5. ' Digitized by CjOtigte 



tlon of Ch^n5^^ which bestovt^s its own arts on cvcrj. succcsnv^ n^ of 
Conquerors ; to the meek and servile natives of Hindostan> who pre 
serve their ingenuity, their skill and their science, through a long 
scries of ages, under the yoke of foreign tyrants ; to the g^ss anJ 
incorrigible rud^essof the Ottomans, incapable of improvement, and 
pctinguishing the rcniains of civilization among their unhappy sulxects, 
on<:e the most ingenious nations of the carih. We can examine shpkis^ 
^ery in^aginabk variety in the character* manner?, opinions, fcoUngii 
pitjudices and mstiputions of mankind, into which they can be tfarosni, 
fiitner by the i*udeness of barbarism, or by the capricious com:|ptiQn% 
of refinement, or by those innumerable combiijations of circumsiaoocs, 
which, &oth in these opposite conditions and in all the intermediate 
stages between them, influence or direct the course of human affairs. 
History, if I may be allowed the expression, is now a vast museuin, 
in which specimens of every variety of human nature may be studied. 
From these great accessions to knowledge, lawgivers and statesmen, 
Hut, abave all, n^ioralists and political philosophers, may reai> the 

, mo§t important instruction. If hey may plainly discover* in all tkc 
tjs^ul and beautiful variety 0/ governments and insti^itions, and under 
iil t1ie fantastic multitude pt usages. and r|tes wkich hav^ prevailed 
among men, the same fundamental, con[iprehfensivc truths, the sacred 
master-principles which are the guardians of human society, recog- 
nised and revered (with few and slight exceptions) by every nation 
upon earth, and uniformly taught (with still fewer exceptions.) by a 
auccession of wise men from the first dawn of speculation ko the pic- 
flent moment. The exceptions, few as they are, will, on more cenec* 
tion, be found rather apparent than real. If wc cotUd raise ouiselvtt 
to that height from which wc ought to survey so vas^ a subject, these 
C3CceptioDS would altogether vamsh ; the brutaHty of- a handAil of 
aavages would disappear in the immense prospect of human nature, 

^ and the murmurs of a few licentious sophists would not ascend t(i 
l^reak the general harmony* This consent of mankind in first pxin* 
inplest and uiis endless variety ii> th^ir application, which is one anio]% 



BOAny valuable truths which we may collect &om our mt^ent eztest 
sive acquaintance with the history of man, is itself cJ|l|||l import- 



ance. 'Much of the majestv and authority of virtue wf^pred from 
their consent, and ahPQH t$e whole pf praptical wisdofll u founded 
<in tjicir variety** 

The proposed course of lectures * will open with a verj 
diort, and (as Mr. M. expresses the hope) \ very -simple aad 
ijnteUigible account of the ^powers ajid operations of the huqaau 
ipind/ H^ will then proceed to a consideration of the rekuiTC 
duties of human life, especially of those which arise out of the 
two great institutions of property and marriage ; and having 
established the principles of private" duty, he proposes to con- 
sider man under the important relation of subject ap4.a|OTe- 
reign, or, in other words, of citizen antj magistrate. In thU 
division of his subject, tlie author wi^l examine the general 
frame of the most celebrated governments of antieafe 2fiA mor 
dern timcsj and especially of xhQ^ wbic^ hav^ been mMC ne* 



MacksAtotbV Vikmrsi ^ tis Law ofN4tiir^f. tjfc^ tya 

iiowoed fov tbcir fiMdom ; cc>l^kKl»f)p,i witb ^n account of the 
COB^tkutkm cf £ngI»fuL The geaerai principles ol cvn\ and 
criminal laws will then ht discussed, with a camparalire re* 
view of the codc^ of Rome and of £ji|knd* The next great 
dirision wHl be the la^ of nations, strictly artJ propcriy so 
called; the Jus Fecialeoi the Romans, and what the CJhancellor 
d'Aguesseau accurately terms * Dm/ entr^ Us Gens.* As an im- 
portant sttpplemeiit to his pla^, or rather as a necessary part of 
k, Mr. M. will concludij with a s^urvey of the diplomatic and 
sommttknal law of Europe^ and an account of the treaties of 
Westpbalia^ of CJIiva, of the Pyrenees, of Breda, of Nimcguen, 
of Ryswick, of Utrecht, of Aix-la-ChapeHe, of Paris (1763), 
and of Versailles (17 83). 

, Such is the outline of the vast, arduous^ and nKkgnificeiH 
un(|ertaking which Mr. Mackintosh has here delineated ; and 
for which his nice talen^ of discrimination, bis , accurate and 
extensive knowlege^^^ his fine taste, and his fertile powers of 
illustration, seen eminently to qualify him. He concludes his 
pftmphlet with the following just and eloquent passages : 

* Though the course, of which I have sketched the outline, may 
seem to comprehend so great, a variety of miseollaneous^uhjects, yet 
they are all ui truth closely and iosep^ably interwoven. ' The d\xiw% 
of men, of subjects, of princes, of l^vvygivers, of magisUtites, and of 
states, are all parts 01 one consistent system pf uBJvfrsaf morality. 
Between the most abstract and elementary maxim of moral philo- 
sophy, and the most complicated eontroversies of civil oT'pubKc law, 
tt^re subsots a connexion which it wiU be the main object of thescf 
lectures^ to trace. The princif^ of justice, deeply rooted In the na* 
tiftsc aind interest of man, pervades the vAioXt system, and i» dlsca«« 
verable in every part of it, even to its minutest ramidcation in a kgak 
formality, or m the cdoftttuction of an ar^cle in a {^reaty. 
' * I -know not whether a philosopher ought to confess, that in^his 
inqiunes after truth he is biassed by any consideration ; even by ihe 
lovgp virtue. But I, who conceive that a real philosopher ought 
to vfci^d truth itsdf chiefly on account of its subserviency to the 
bappmSess of mankind, am not ashamed to confess, that I sfaafl feel a 
great ^ consofetion at the conclusion of these lectures, if, by a wide 
etirvey and an exact examination of- the conditions and relatioits of 
humaMi nature, I shall have confiraled but one individual in the con« 
victiott, that iusticcc is tj[ie permanent interest of all men, and of all 
(»mmoi\wcalths. To discover one new link of that eternal ohain by 
wliick the Author of the universe has bound together the bappin«s^ 
and the duty of his creatures, and indissoluljly fastened their interests 
to each other, would fiU my heart with more pleasure than all the 
fkme with which the mast ingenious paradox ever crowned the mos^ 
eloquent sophist. 

• I shidl conclude this Discourse in tjje noble language of two great 
onMrs and-phiknophors* wha have, in a few word&; stated the sob* 
at^mccj the objecti axid the rcsuh of all morality, anitpoUtics, and l^w. 

O4 " Nihil 



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X^% PorsoaV Hecuia Isf (kestesi if WakcfiddV Diairih. 

** Nihil est quod adhuc dc republii^a putem dictum, «t quo ponfm 
longius progredi| nisi sit confirmatum, non o^odc^ fakum ct&e illudy mbc 
ZAJuria upn po89c»9ed hoc vcirissimum, sine summa justitia rcmpubjLicam 
Ytgi non posse.'* — Cic. Fr^xg* //3/ii. de R^uh. 

** Justice is itself the jreat 'standing pohcy of civil sope^^ ^dany; 
eminent departure from it, under any circumstances,, lies under the 
iuspicion of being no ppHcy at alL" — Burke'* i IVorJts^ vol. iii. p. 207/ 

' Wi^h this extract >ve qlo^ our acpqi^nt of this prelimi* 
fiary pi$cour$e; and M^e tc^^t that bur readers, will be gracir 
^ed wi^h the length of our quotations, >vhcn' they consider the 
^eat abfliry which they manifest, an4 the very cpmprehensive 
and important matter to whjch they are introduptofy. 

Art. XIII. EYPiniApY EKABH. Eurtftdis Hecuba^ ad fidem, Manu^ 
script or uni emendataf &c. 

Art^XIV. Im Euripidis HECVT^AviLoncKninuperfuhlic^tamDia* 
tribe extemporalts* Compoiuit Gilbertus Wakefield. 

Art. XV. ETPmiAOT OPEZTHS.' Ennpidv Orestes, ad fdcm 
Manuscriptorum emendatay &c. 

[Continued from p. loi.] 

THE examination of Mr. Wakefield's objections to Mr. Por-: 
son's Hecuba was begun in our last Review 5 and, from 
the nature of. the criticisriis proposed ii> the Diatribe, it vt'as 
necessary to investigate every remark deeply, and to offer at 
full length our own sentiments respecting the editor and the 
anin^adyertor. We propose to proceed on the same plan, and 
beg to solicit a continuance of the indulgent patience of ouc 
Kaders. ^- 

165. Ilor J ^«rw ; mw m 060)1 f^T* iiragutog ; 

R. P. ' Fro TTov Musgravius Troia conjecit ; recepit BrUnckiur* 
G. W. ^ Illud V otioium est : ut oratio manca insuperMksie 

Graca jtiidet^. Si rescribas, ttoi M* r.(ra } ^uo me imnoBS^ ? 

habebis idf qi0 n}hil purius, &c. &c. — se^ quoniam cfssat m^ hoc 
systemate subinde attapajticorun^ lex, malii/t equiien^ rtscribi 2 

lioi no A' ^(^(4 9 * Some part of the honour supposed to be 

derived from this emendation should have been given to Mns- 
grave; whose correction we deem preferable to that of Mr; W. 
* Legendum^ ni fallor : vcoi S* n<y« ^oJa ; rli flewv— ' says the 
former, in his note; which led the way to TroJ^t^^the position 
of which word, in the variation of the.'conjectiirc proposed by 
the latter, totallv destroys the'^napestic form ; s^^nd though, as 
Mr. W. jiistly observes, the verses are irregular, ye^ we arc 
of opinion that all emendations, founded, on possibly anoma- 
lies, whether ip construction or meuc, arc hazirdotw, and. 

^ught to he carefully avoided, ; , , ,i. . 

• ' ' '. - The 



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PoTSonV Henda bf Orestes, fef WakcficldV'JDii/rS/^ i^j 

The uisc!;ti<>ii of woia, the correction of Musgrave in the 
text of this fine, by Brunck, seems to us right: the alteration 
itself is commended by the authors of the BM^beca Critica. 

167, u xobt^ ii/eyxQ'oacu 7rnfJt>x\* ■ 

Here Mr. Porson is silent- Mr. Wakefield changes ^»/*rt7, 
into THMAT', which he defends by 107. ayyty^iag Pccgo^ 
Wfa]5a«a— by Helen. 1297. f>f/xfl^ — myKciv {^Afusgr. 1301.) and 
refers to Hecuba, 178. 668. 

To this alteration we cannot assent. We think that It i$ 
totally unneccss?ary, and that it even weakens the sentenced 
Are all figurative expressions to be banished from the antlent 
poets ? In this play, .is v. 663 to be inolested : ^Exii-n^ 4»EPH 
tqS AAFOZ ?— What is to be done with Eschylus, Agarnem^ 
873?. . 

ILxxtf^ ax?u? IIHMA. — And again, 647 : 
"Olair y amwHd IIHMAT', ayffXoj 9roA« 

To these passages others may be added, in which fi^av vrr'fMol^ 
bears the sense of fi^uv iyyEXiav Trnfiocl^y, or dyli'KKiiv ^rrifidlau 
We cannot here transcribe Mr. W.'s note, nor repeat his re- 
ferences i the curious reader may consult the Diatribe, p. 1 j. 
180. ■ » ■ Ti viov 

Kof wfafl"' oixdiy //, Z<f? ogvtv 

18?. R. P. is silent. G. W. gives the following note: 

* At enim experg'isciminiy VV. DD. qui Euripidem nobis e^oUstis f ' 
atque eduserteiis velim, quidiiam sit hoc fj/raseosy iK'trlraauf MXMf npo^ 
Muitanif el nihil habenty quod respondeant. Forsan tametiy vir acutitsimt 
rt TsXtfoofiftrlale ! amicus ille trnts, .qui me subdole et minus candide m 
Mscbjh Gieuguensi recensendo nuper impetiverit ex latehr'u, 

{homtmcij^lil^ sludiis tmprobissimis inter has iemporum angustias viclttm 
^fficiltm siK suisque vix^ out ne vix quidem, CKtundentem) hac et ali/r 
mracuia speciosa most in lucem prolaturus siel Dixerim interea, et edixe» 
rim^ in ultimam barbariem retegandum tsse hoc dicmdi genus ; nos adc9 
vidfnS ad Eur* li^ F^ 976. 907. /on. 1299. ' Nimirumy vei capiendun^^ 
«/ pro t^tntlaaa^, a viau, wl>jfi<, Yolo ; vel scribendum i|ia-W<ra?, a 
^vtfftr, tcrrco. ^ Utrum mavis (ucipe,^ 

The whole of the note is transcribed. To whom Mr. Wake- 
field refers, and applies his quotation from the Hercules Furens . 
197. it would be presumption in us to attempt to determine.— 
" Let the galW jade wince, our withers are unwrung." Mr.- 
W. cannot alludj^ to the-Monthly Reviewers' critique on the 
GlasgowEschylus, which should have been Mr. Porson^s edition, 
^MK^lcritic h^ probably brought for^^ards Scbutz's remarks 

Ott 

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194 PcnonV Hmia (st Orestesy (st WakcfiddV piatrOe^ 
C)n I\tf. Wakefield's Eumcoicjes, and has b«cn cooiparing Ac 
Birce editions, and the M. Reviewers' strictures, togethei. T© 
sont^e such ajiimad versions this passage may perchance relate, 
though they have not reached us; and, indeed^ we are rarely 
tepipted to dive into the mysteries of contemporary critics. 
Our article, if we be not grossly misinformed) has beca 
commended by Uberal scholars^ on account of the temperate 
ob5ervations which it contained,— —The person to whom 
Wr. W. alludes may possibly reply : but^ at all events, it is 
Qur duty to mention the passage, and the note. We sl^U vea« 
ti{re also;, it is hoped witnoui offence^ to add one remark. 

IlT^ifcrtrw is the Doric form of the verb nriTavw, and 
%ii'x1»icti stands by the samii dialect for 'Ef/iTrhia^ the first 
aorist. 

The usage of n?iiW«^ in an active sense, and.tbo lection 
*B{i5rra|a$, which Mr. Person is censured by Mr. Wakefield 
for having permitted tP remain in Euripides^ though there is 
no variation in the preceding editions^ and appears to be none 
in the JMSS., may be defended by the authority of HoQicii 

NiVTwf , HTHHE it 0TMON in ffliisaan ^AxffuSf. 
*' J?/ vero oyviam-^factuf-^est senex Nestor ^pj^xicrr^ffcitqUiCMimm 
in pectortbus Achivorum*** Clark. . • 

In this passage, the Scholiasts state, Herodian reads IIHHE, 
—but Aristarchus, the genuine Aristarchus, preferred IITHSE. 
On this authority, the former editors of Euripides, and Mr. 
Torson, may be defended for having left the word '£4c3t7i4a> in 
tiie text of Hecuba. Thtis write the commentators : 

Schol. 4/5S, Lips. *il^'x$\avoi FlJIiv ivoHxiTcu i ^ J^ftrlafx^ 

de SchoL Horn. p. 130. et Ernest, ad loc. * jfc 

Schol. Venet.^ Filhiso/J. UriiiE^ 'Oul(i)i 3/(x roy^ T ^*^BA^X^» 
y^vitv EK ffloiay wf^ffv. *0u1cdf 3wu *Afn<xlofavnf* ^^ 

, Ei^stathius m IMa4 S. 40. viii9r^wTiali¥ ^itmv^ $i$f$Cn(r&^ 

p. 950. 16. £d. Basil. 966^ 164 £d. Rom. 

Hesychlus: IIt^^cv, tig (pi€o9 ItTaTip. He a]so» 98 might be 
e^ctfd» explains the otiber lecuon^ IKJc* «s RjihaJEeftim not 
Quitted to obaerre m hi& Auctattiumy mi II. h>72» 

-The explanation o£ Dtwm staods thus: QtiTif^M^MiWA 
nmmufn ccndckre fofiio .— r^i/--tw?Av«» trmmiiPiwt^. maf tbomni-' 
As«39 inUliisifindufn^ ttm vem dy^Qn^ASk* Si^ l^ t"^ cMwmimn 
Lesifr. 2Q20k 



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PorsonV Hecuia figT Or^Jtfs^ tsf WakefieldV Dktrih. tg^ 

These obscnratignsappc^ur to exhibit an ample justific^tton 
o,f Mr. pprson, for pot violating the text of his Heculjai, ^nd 
we did not judjfc it right tb^t they should be suppressed. 

la addition tp these repiarksi 4ve . shall tr^cribe part of % 
note by Mr. Po^rson, on ^l^e Orestes, iv which he cites thit 
passage of the Hecuba 2 

^ ^jfi^m" — 'Aft^neixtfTfli tarn len^ fro i9tiztx:fJit\ou^ 4uhaii£u^ pro* . 
npmM£j pojufti^r, qum xa%Tav<ra<: fKo n<iQu7r<;n(ruf^pof^ ffi^. 912. 
l^i^rs pro iv%\yov infra 788. {ubi MS. uam uftiyav) ef qJUfi Jly^^ p^s 

iyikpv IpL ,A. 626?-. Contra vertc^ qti£dam ex. n^utraU trqnsim 

ftvam induunt stgnificattonamy ut^ iKTt^^anu j'^rr, He^, 18 U SW. qum 
ifuani css€t ioHcitare.^ " -^31 

R. Porsonus, In Eurip. Orest. 2W. 

201. ^ ^ualptvo'j fJLoit^ piolx^. 
Mr. Porson here also is silent : Mr. W» says : ^ 
* M^rJi^eJHSsordf ti/s^atiff^carrjgas 0uda£ieri 

Hf parifar centUs m Tr^icU ; ne^ue ajhcr^ ulijam, vitkOf ^choli^eu 
Nsster H. F. 482. ^ 

Efw* ^1 J^if^wflf, Xot/Ip* ^ja?>jrQ5 <I>PE!cnX. . ' * 

Hinc F.D. opt'me corrcxH Ver. 215, infra s qucmadmodum ei ibu re* 
fonendum esse stathn viderinip* * 

Tfai3 correctipn we deem totally Inadmissible^ Aui/hivo^ oc- 
curs, indeed, frequently with a Genitive case after it : but the 
word Av<rlnva, Dorice Avjlowa^ is only used in the Greek playt ' 
as a Neuter plural. The Vocative singular is ACtAwty, or 
ACi/lavEy Dor, : as is evident from the very lii^e in which Mr.W. 
informs us he made the same alteration which is proposed by , 
Mr. Porspn. Hecuba, ?i^. «? f^irs^ AT'ITANg. 

Lest it shopid be attempted to chance the termination into A 
in ^is instance also, a few . unalterable and incontroveitibj^cr 
eJHj^Jles of this Vocative feminine shall be produced: 

piiipiDEs. Androm. The attendant addresses Andromaclie;. 

68. Toy TTal^ (Tou yX>^0U7iyy <a ATSTHNE Ci), 

Again, Hermione say.s to Andromache : 

170. 'EijToyro S* ^xt^ oliA.(i6iai, ATITHNE cv. 

Orest, The nriesscnger to Electr a : 

842'. ;X2 rXnixov, <3 AT'2THNE rou (/l^akxpirjoi^ 

* Ay aiMfxyovo^ ir-xi* ' > 

'Ji^ed. Crcon to his d ving daughter : 
1 2 16.. T L oCtrkys Tritf 

T»'< «3' cirlfA,u$^ fcii/Lto'v^v ^* otVwAf.^c j 

^ TrQaJ. 512, /l^jlavi y6y(Xi. — 

' Sp a|ao in comedy. AaisTOPHA^je^. Eccles, fr^x^gpx^t^y 
^l^v^ tp pjttc of the fqw^le ^o^tcy8 ; 

160. Ti^- 



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^f6 PorsonV Hecuba &r Ofestef, &f Wakefield*/ Diatribe. 

1 66. To^&Tkc^ iu^ AT2THNE, rod^ if^ooi xiyu^. 
- The feminine Ay^/kvot occurs frequently in the Attic poets ; 
and it is of this geader, in the very example cited by Mr. 
Wakefield in his note from the Hercules Furens, 482. where 
Megara^ the wife of Hercules, exchims of herself : Av^nkoj 

Mr. ' W, also observes that iifjiava is the lection of the 
Scholiast. We wish that the ScboHon had been quoted, as 
our search after it has proved fruitless. In Barnes's Euripides 
vre find the following, which is omitted by Musgrave : i 
#»TX>5*ftjy [1. wav7A»i/AOv3 ftal w«»aGx*a, cu /Aiflfj , iyvca tiij ATZ- 
THNOT XM a'flAw ftoliV ^ ^cor.i. 

In this note, the Scholiast, so far from justifying Au(rluva as 
the Vocative feminine, properly vindicates the old reading 

a32. Mr. Porson*s change of ti into to», on the authority 
of EumathiijSj is <jommendcd by Mr. W. \ who observes that 
Tt is the lection also of Stobaeus, Eel. III. p. 36. which tcfercnc^ 
Mr« P. has omitted. He appears, indeed, to mention onjy 
those citations of |he antients in which his author is quoted 
With any variety of lection. — Mr. W. adds that he had fallen 
on this very alter^ion of n into toi, many years ago. 

The same mode of correcting defective passages must fre- 
quently occur to different scholars : but the merit of all emend- 
ations must be attributed to the wrifer by Ayhoir^ they are first 
published, 

■ 246., t^avai fjioUf and 247. hoIsTtt* IfMOh 

, G. W. * Fid fas ei in transitu mireris, hie at que per toiam fa* 
hdlam y. Z). in his scrib^ndis obstupescendam sane inconstantiam** 

After a careful examination of Mr. Porson's editions of 
Hecuba and Orestes, we are decidedly of opinion, inste^Lof 

1*oining in this censure, that he deserves the commendatljnbf 
lis readers for this variation. If there had been no emp^is 
in the latter instance, he would have given xalum fMi^ as in 
Orest* 1073.— fir^ 2^vB>»j(r«£ fioh In. the former also, if any 
emphasis had been denianded, he would have published E^/oi/tr* 

Brunck intended to have observed the same distinction, as 
he informs us In a note on Eur. Fhcen. 852, where he points 
cut the difference between uT^i fjLOiy and u-rr* lfj/>iy and between 
xxr^oi/c T* ifAOi fuXa^cif and xArl^oi/^ ri/jLOi, He has not always 
preserved this variation of ifxou and fxou accurately :. but ms 
observations will b« of service to any reader who may h^vc 
doubts on thq, subjecf. They are too long for transcription i 
but we shall add a short note from Mr. Porson, in order that hg 
may ^xplain^ in his o^ii Words, whence this obstupescenda in^ 
* ' ' consfantii^ 

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PcrsonV Hecula Isf Orestfs^ ts^ WakeficJdV Diairihi. ipy 

cMstoHtia arose ; and whfit his vicwe were, in printing the ob- 
lique cases singular of the pronouns substantive, in some 
passages accented^ as : i juoJ, i^ol, £|x£, *. r* A. and in others with 
the accent on the finalis syllaba vocis pracejtntisy as enclitics^ 

fJLOlf, /to?, fAif X. T. A. 

' Orest. 514. \^\>v}k c?. sic eduU ex H. J. cumvnlga jii *OtA' ^Z 
Leve est, sed semel duxl monendvm, me in prcmomioihus accentu ' sigHondis 
out non signandis sententia et emphaseos ratiojiem semper hahuitjt.^ 

' 269. Mr. W. again commends Mr. Person's insertion of 
if^G(jpriffj.cRx in his text; though, as on.r. 41., he wishes to 
double the sigma^ and refers. to his note^ on Soph. Phtloct, 2S* 
on Lucretius^ IV. 591. and 6^3. and to his Si/va Crft, 1V« 
p. 49.— In the first of these places, it may be remarked as wii 
proceed, Mr. Wakefield mentions the Schema AUmamcunty and 
quotes Amwfinius, (he should have said Leshonax^) and his learned 
editor, p. 179., and cites a memorable instance of this€gur« 
from Villoison's Anecdote Graca^ II. ^^ 

This citation, which should have been produced as front 
Hcrodian's work ^s()J ^^fAo^locj first ptiblisbed by VilJoison, 
Is also quoted with some variation by the Scholiast oft 
Pindar, Pyth. iV. 3 1 8. ; fr6m whom Valckcnacr inserted it, 
in his note on Lesbonax, pt 180. ; which he thus concludes; 
•* f quo Alcmanis loco^ si quis voces iTT'Trorai o'ofoi^ veiuti alienas 
tola veliti me -cert} sibi adversum non habebit,^' It is to be men« 
tioned that Eustathius, who has preserved this fragment, if$ 
Odyss. K» p. 410. Edit Bfisil. omits these very two w4»rds. 
This reference and its remarkable variations escaped the truly 
learned Valckcnaer; ^nd Mr^ Wakefield has nothotibed Pindar** 
Scholiast and Eustathius, and the lections which they afford. ' 
- In Ac last oF these references, Siha Crih IV* 171. Mr. W. 
commends a ^stricture on the Philoctetes of- Sophocles, pub- 
lished in th^/Appendix to Toup, IV. 503., which he attributes' 
to BteTorson; and he cites rfp^vaVf^o^a, in capital letters, 
frocflfie Orcst. of Euripides, 105 1. as if it were a new r^ad-J 
ing. He rightly, however, compares the Tr^offpdytJtc^a of the 
Hecuba, with the tixytoi^^ciia of .the Orestes. Mr, Porson 
m his note on the farmer, Hec. 269. refers us fo his ob- 
servations on the OresU 105 1. in .wjiich he produces some 
exan^ples of neuter pkrals, applied to single objects. In neither, 
©f these annotations, the one publi^cd before th6 DitUrthg^ 
and the other after it, has Mr. Porson mentioned the hame nor 
the remark of Mr. Wakefield : but he has treated with equal 
neglect even the ** Notit breves ad ^oupii Emendationfs in Swi- 
dam, A. R. P. C. S. S. T. C. Sr 

3 14 284. He. 



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29^. HectiU, ift licr address to Ulysses, sip of hef 
daughter Polyxcna : 

*H^ anil t(f^9 Ifil fAOt irrocfa^vx:!^^ 

IloXlf, Ttimy |3o^f8^, l!7B/*«V^3o3. . ' 

Mr. Porson produces a similar passage frbftl a fragWcnt of 
EiinpideBqnoted by Alexander, one of die AJdine rhotoridatiSy 
|). 57ti. MUsgrJit. inter iftcert, CLXXX^.— — SJi /Btor tjo^^, 

Viim^y diih^r), 3jx6jt?, ciyxv^Oj (rHyri, 
Mr* W. toitiplains that Mr. Porson did not judge his correc- 
tion of 1102:12: for nOAIS worth mentioning ; though it was 
proposed in his S//v. Cnt. Sect. 175. in which .the new reading . 
is defended by Homer, II. Z. 429F. where Hector is called by 
Asdrotnathe, 9ra2np, f^u'Titp, M^lyrihis wApaniCk^. In his JD/j- 
Irifc, Mr. W. allows that the present lection derives some 
support from JEustathius, ^ Ismen. Am, p. 205. * | yet still he 
contends fo]r the admissiort-of IlcxrKf and refers the vere can^ 
Jidos ac venustos to seven different passages, which we AsXL 
' beg leave to ej^amine. 

I. The passage from the sixth Iliad, which has been just 
jncntiotted. This does not apply; for though Andromache 
might properly call Hector 5r«p«jtoi?*i?, yet Hecuba could not 
on that account style her daughter Polyxena nO'2I2. 

XL Kui. jilceit. 657. 658. Here Admetus tells Phercs, thit 
he justly reckons his wife to be both father and mother. Thif 
does not defend nO'Sis. 

^ ill. Troad. 107. Here Hecuba says, speaking of herself : 
Half 15 (tffti, Mci Tfxwf, xst* voaii. Does it follow, because she 
had lost her country, her children, and her husband, that she 
' would therefore call her daughter ITO 211 ; 

IV. The Tragic Ferses^ quo^d by Diogenes Laertius, VI. 
38* vol. I. p. 332* The lines arc : . 

IItwx^c ioatii^m^ ptoJtx"^ toiifmfjt,i(av» T5> 

In the former, we have taken 9rX«»K from Elian. V. If; Iff* 
19. instead of irroM^, the reading in Laertius, and Tuliati 
Orat.VI. p. 195. B. and in £pist. ad Themistium^ p. ajj. It 
seems to b« a gloss, explaftatory of fralpl^Qq i^w/ji^fc^i-oj. In ths 
latter also, Ji/ccijitwv, instead of wTwiviiru^, from Elism.^-^If any 
defender of "AvoXig^ should aristt, we shall not VeheHufn^y 
cbntend for oUr reading. In whichevet mode, however, theie 
iambics are to stand, they surisly cannot be deemed the slight-. 

♦ The passage is: XvfMi vul^a «J vdryi(f xj fA,%lvi$ 'b ^4^^^* ^ 

■ • «f 

V ^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PorsonV H^cuha bf Orestes^ 52f WakcfieldV piatrihe. 199 
defence of Mecuba applying to her daughter the word 

V. Ovid. Ephu III. 52. Briseis writes thus to Achillas : 
** Tot tamen amissis ■ 
** Tu DominuSj tu Vir^ tu tmhifrater eras** 
Sriseis might call Achillea, Vir : but would Hecuba therefore 
tserm ber daughter^ Ilocri; \ 

ViL Antholog. Lat, Burmanni. i» 161. i. The line is : 

** Prele^ virOf regnoque carem Priameia conjunx** 

This privation, which seems copied from the verse in the Treadi 

1 07* would not, we appithend, l(;ad the wife of Priam to eiill 

her daughter IIO'IIZ. " - , 

From a due consideration of the ne^- reading, ^nd the cita- 
tions produced to defend it^ wt ate compelled to adhere to 
the old lection IloXif. 

Mr. W. next contends that the word *'AwoXif, citylessj in 
Hecub. 669. 805. and TroadiiiSd. sliould be change i^ito 
"A^o^H^ husbandless. 

The compound *A'rrd<r{^ as far as our recollection ettends^ 
does not occur in any Greek writer of any age^ nor of any dia- 
lect. - The introduction of Voeables, which depend merely^ on 
analogy for their formation^ and which are not authorized by 
sonie good writer^ cannot, in our opinion, be too cautiouisly 
avoided. 'AmXtiy therefore, a sound, genuine, and established 
word, which perfectly suits the sense of the three pass»ges^ 
shotikl not be buiished in order to favour the admission of thia 

newly-croated "Attom.^ In the first passage of the Hecuba^ 

also, iitoxtf 18 preceded by avairJ^f. Mr. Wakefield has 
not ifrformed us bow the two xvavf^of and ax^^;, in the 6af!i6 
vefse, are to be translated ; nor would either of the otlier tw0 
places, according to cur view of the poefs meaning, even if 
a««0^ Wi|€ not an imaginary word, bd improved by receiving. 
it insteadU»f ivipnii*. 

On V. 286. Mr. W. properly remarks the omission of a va- 
rious reading, which he has carefully noted from Stobseus, CIIL 
p. 561. Tfiis should have been specified by Mr. Pofsoti ; 
who, horwever, refers in his notes to tlie citation. As to tfaer 
tett of the Hecuba, we think that the passage would lose 
much of iu forcie by changing the plura}, which is the present 
Kadiog, into the singitiarY r^ Mfdkmkxp .wbioh Stob«eu» ex- 
hiKts.— >Mr. W. we find, is of a different opinion,— *— 

297* To^ ^ eUlufaOf ^^ xdflW0$ \sYph "^^ ^^ 

ITfiVe*. ^ • 

Thus Mr. Porson publishes the passqe, as it is silently 
corrected by Murctus, III, p. 5^3* la opposition to all the EdJ. 

- , ^ Fftt. 



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20* PorsonV Hecuba fcf Ortsfes^ fcf WakcfieTdV Diatriieg 

Vett. and MSS., G^Uiusi and Stcftscus. Your dignity, though 
ym speak ill^ will persuade ; instead of, though it speak ilL 

Mr. W. censttres this introduction of ^iocutio vulgaris^ Xryyf, 
prO' exqutsitissimd Xcj'tj.* — Let the learned decide whether \fy?jc 
or A£7W.. be the true ^c^dinjj. We shall only observe that the 
addition of the sigma by Muretus is not warranted by this 
insertion of Mr. Person only; for Xej/i?f is proposed, ars a 
fiew conjecture, by Wasse» in the MtsceU. Observat, 11. p. 93. 
Aiyri^ is commended by'Musgrave; Aiy^g is adopted by 
Valckenacr, who quotes this passage, Diatribe, p. 26r. Asyrig 
is praised by Brunclc, who gives it a. place in his text ; and 
Ai)^,— if the opinion be worth recording,— is judged to be the 
genuine lection by the Monthly Review. 

321. Ka] fx^v.ilfAOtyt ^cTvTr ft€v na^* •nfis^ay, 

Kli CfJt^iK^* ix^H'^h '^oivr* oiv a^Kwyrai ?X^> 
TvfJoov i\ /SouXoijtAjjk uv d^iojf/evov 

R, P. is silent.— rG. W. proposes a*new. punctuation ; and 
then asserts that uiLovffiai is never used * sine substantivo prt 
M»tryi£its%ax* and therefore, * restripsimus TIMUN^ra top ffA09.— 
' RursuSf si yovifjLog pro yf wot tog nobilis^ laxi&re sensu ferri poteratf 
rONIMON a vestigiis titerarum TONEMON, de veteri scrips 
iurSj propiws ahfuisset* 

* Mr. Wakefield's second emendation TONiMON id in direct 
f lolation of the canon which he lays down as a proof that the 
iiRST, TIMnN, is necessary. — If it were true that a^K^^ient 
requires a substantive after it, how is the deficiency supplied 
fcy the substitution of roNIMON for TON EMON ; 

Eustathius, whose remark has escaped the editors^ refers to 
this part of Ulysses's speech, in IL H\ /. 535. Ed. B^^. lU 
p. 666. 44. -Srfi Rom. *%m Touroig i "Ej^^a^ xui t©^ Ti>JOi fxg icuir^t 
l^/fffwr IfiHiiiatf ijiXeti^ rhf rifAriTfy ii)r«V [U. H. 91.] 

*fl; troll TK ifi^^ f^ 5* ifJLov xXiog ohrot o>^i7rat. Hn icst^lf^afi 
not o iv TW TpafwJi'a l»^wV, iSiMiy roy dtulou ti/xCov j*^ &»w3o». 
^fls^xvov^T^ou. iio^ fjuxH^ov yaj, ^«y, i X*V^* The quotation, 
which immediately follows, is from the Jnfe'^fra, 547. 

These words f«*^ [molm^c^ yccf r/x^^s arc also illustrate by 
Mm, p. 568.46. and in IMad K. 72b. 15. Xlt Ufu^t j^di'eoiNyo 
«rorX«auf ro7g tU iav\oi)g Ivutt/oLgy JV|^or xsu o fjiM ^drotlop ^£^#- 
iovffVai ToS iavloij T«fov i6i><uu rrg ^ fjtaicpou X!*^^^ tYtf^» H^ 
then cites the same passage from Medea, which he had quoted 
in Iliad H. ' • # ! 

We should strongly h^ve suspected that Eustathius found in 
the place : 

Tvfjiiov 81 Boi/^fkfAnv ay a^miACvov . 

^Tffxvti$ oau(riatf ? * ' .... ji.'*- ' 

n 



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. ForsoaV Hict^ tsfi Orutes^ (9*. WakofidcTi' Diatribe* aoi 

if he had not sp carefully inserted r^txMj and riv intt^ tvm^of 
fj(,fl-J^ iavcSo^l which shews that rh Ipi^v was in his copy of the 
Hccubai Eustathius, therefore, explains a^icSrSai by als^ovquer* 
6a^ and Euripides himself uses dimijisvov in the same sense as 
be docs ripuifjimsff in 320. It m^y also be noted that, where 
9 person speaks of himself, the pronoun should rather be 
doubled than omitted ; as here riv i^^ follows ifijuiyty and in 
the Hippok 49. ' 

ToV»? oV ira^offxt'^v TOTS 'EMO^TS ix^^oH^^JLUO'l 

Aixnv ro<ratP.nv^ it/Is (xoi xaxig i^^* 
And in the Med^a ^47. which Eustathius quotes : 

#»•♦*.♦ 
'E/ fjt,^} ^ir!(ni[xog i '^^X'\ y^^^^ MOL 
Why dZu)j<ri»t should demand a substantive after it, \^c do 
Dot exactly comprehend. This verb is used \^ithout the Geai'* 
ti?c expressed, in the Active voice : Eurip. 
Herach 970. ^Q. 'TfAivati, h^iroOg 

S^i. Aj. 1114. ^Ov yc^^ aioy roOc fJty^viau 

In the passive : Or est. 1 165. Ed. Porsoni 

and iao8. ^cisoia^y vtAJtrMoiay dJ^iovfAiYn* 

336. Mr. P. reads TrtpvKiyxi, with Aldus, several MSS. and 
Eumathius, p. 301. ; and in 337. r$Xf4,iv for to\u.SU Mr. W. 
prefers m^tm* at], the common reading, and scornfully re- 
jects TPA/xav. 

To us, Mr. f orson*s lections appear right : but the follow- 
ing passage of the Diatribe is extraordinary : * Suspecta nobis 
semper lectio est, qua suffulciri se jlagitet arbitraria prorsiti contra 
iihrorum auctoritatem conjeciura.* Are not all Conjectures contra 
iibrorum auctoritatem ? On what do Mr. Wakefield's newly-pro- 
posed readings, and the corrections promulgated in his notes 
on the Tragedies, and in his ^ilva Critica^ depend ? 

439. Mr.W. proposes to change 'K^oir.mil'^ oifO,aa into v^dcru'TrBTv 

ifjLfAa^^*^ O lights for it is allonved me to accost your ^yi?— ;" and 

not, <* your name'^^hx, the end of the note, however, Mr. W. 

discovers that Fridcric Jacobs had before formed this most 

' incontrovertible conjecture. 

On this emendation, we shall give Mr. Porson's remarks, 
from his note on the Orestes^ 1080. After having stated that, 
though it is sometimes difficult to determine, dissentient thus 
MSi. whether o/x/jl» or ovo/^ should be admitted, yet, con^ 
ientientibus MSS. nihil mutandum \ he thus proceeds : 
. Rev. Feb. 1799. P < ^oclrca 



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202 Person'/ HecuU (sT Oresia^ tsT Wai^efidd'/ Diatrik. 

* ^Udcitxm Friderus Jacohi coty<ctitrMm im Hec* 439* vpo<mvm ym^ 
MtAfA ir vrr% /BMt> ut inutikmf fr^termuif ted eam^ octatione oblatm^nanc 
pauc'u exammabop jIc prlmum tllud qusrerc suhiif quid nundosum est m 
vulgart Uclione ? Anvttiosumestit^f»cr^%ichTton^? ^uare? ^mamu' 
quam artlt occurrtt* Occurrainr oTthh an non^ nesc'to ; ted eur non /ro- 
iuBsti locay uhi n^oci%-nu9 Z^'/ux occurrat ? yam si nusquam ea verba am 
juncta reperiantuTf cujusmodi dialectices «/, seme! dictum tjtcertf vt i 



quam dictum suhstitvas ? ^anquawy ut verum fatear^ vforat^i* ofifub 
exsiare vtdetur apud JEschyl. Cho'e'ph. 236. lU tamen Valckautrius lept 
•»'ifM»9 de u/A^TOs iH loco Fbanbsarvm 415, qMe est viri docti conjectura, 
non dare loquitur. MiJ/t quiJem omiuno in his locis recepta lectio servanda 
videtur, jacobus est vir neque ingeml neque doctrins exbers ; quo tamen 
utroque sepe ahutiiur ad sauus leci tones sollicitandat . vfe longe abeam f 
in hacfahula 10 17 pro Kueat, coajicit ,-v>^, Legerat sciBcet mescio quid 
de f-^ri:a,r t v\a.i<i ct .thv ^^Aa*,. lucrum priusquam de hoi inventosibi 
plaaderetf demotistrare debebat »?'Tirw> wt^^a? vittosum esse ; demotutrare 
dehebatj xu\r, sln^ulari numero Euripidi esse usitatum. Cum Dbrariorum 
irts:Ula atqiie audacia tot uh'tque solactsmos atque barbaritmosy de qmbus 
hemo' dubitare possit^ htvexerity Bella geri placuit nullos habttura tri^ 
umphos V 

490. The Chorus described Hecuba as having her bach on the 
ground, koiT' f'xoycr* k7r\ %9on — xiiTa%. Mr, W. is of^ndcd at 
this grossness *, and proposes, xf «t* tx^utra, having her skin* 
He explains xp^^^i indeed, by corpus^ in this passage \ as 
Hecuba, 505. asks : rlq Ivroi IHMA touiju^y oJk li utTa^ai ;— 
and also,^(but improperly, in our opinion,) in Homer II. N. 279. 
and P. 733. 

This alteration appears to us wholly unnecessary, as the 
meaning of the piwsage figuratively will be the same, whether 
the word be xfwra or v:dTaf, instead of o-a^/xab.— So £Icctr, 481* 
Ht>uxi\^ ' diip yW 7tro )c6¥(;* 

This correction is of the same nature with that of InyxtT^ 
pt.iJLxix Kxxxy instead of xn^ccala, and some others, proposed in 
the Di.^tribv, 

Mr^ W. reads A^'i.I, at the beginning of this verse, where 
Mr. P. and the Editions give oiCir.\ which we deem right. I^ 
is the feminine of lu,oi. 

*E?i»;v rjoiai. — 
The Editors of Euripides place a full stop- after p!xm. In a 
note on this line, which follows instead of precede* that on 
V. 490. Mr. W. proposes a slighter stop after (piXar which 
is more proper than die plena distinct io of the Editions. 

Scholianton the SuppL of EscUy4ns, 95. How wHcly different is the 
cz%z in Hecuba ! 

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It m^ be mentioned, on this passage, that in ezetratkm^ 

among the antients» it is not unusual for the sufferer to pra]f 
that the viflicter may be exposcrd to the very same calamities 
which he has occasioned. Philoctetus thus exclaims, describ- 
ing bis situation when the Grecians Chiefs left him asleep i 
Soph. Phil, Gxa (p«?) ivafj^^a 

*Egr«^£X»)|tAa afxtxpr^y' OV ATTOII TtXOI. 
This passage brings to our recollection an excellent emenda- 
tlon of a learned friend— whom on the present occasion we 
shall forbe:ir to natnc»— P^rr* viventis nomini. It is on'tha 
concluding p^act of Philoctetus^s speech: V. 3 14« 

The old reading is Sig ^OXy/tATttoi flr>V. — To the reader of taste 
and erudition this correction requires no display of words to 
prove its certainty. It is simple and happy. ^< In hoc etiam 
arte nihil difficiliusy quant id, quod se dicturos fuifte omnes putanti 
poitquam audierunt*** Valcken. in E. Photn. V. 1637* p, 552. 

492. An intricate, if not a corrupt, passage \ which none of 
the commentators, in our opinion, have either corrected or ex* 
plained in a satisfactory manner. It must be noted that iM^^ 
which Musgrave, in his first note, proposes as a substitute for 
ftXXfi)^ and which stands in the text of Brunck, was originallv 
the emendation of Reiske. The alteration we do not thine 
right, but thus it is : 05 quh tx^iy xai i;^« af GnVflo* «ir* aulw^ 
^. Matt. xxv. 29. 

R. P. is silent. G. W. « Et caput iantum puhere fedakat 
scilicet^ dutn solum voJutabunda premerei I Lego xovn (p* i, X]^OA« 
lile paullo diversus est lugendi modus : videos Suppl. 826. Horn* 
U. £. 23«'26. alii passim.^ 

This alteration also appears to us unnecessary. From die 
situation of Hecuba, she might more properly be described eu 
defiling her unfortunate Hbad with dust^ than either her \nfor* 
tunat€ Skin, or her unfortunate BopT, in whichever signified* 
tlog Mr. W. understands XPOA. The latter part of the ob<» 
servation has no relati6n to this passage ; as << the mob-led 
Queen" is not represented as performing any ceremonial of 
sorrow: her Head was naturally exposed to this pollution, 
from her position. The vStta in 490- and tke xa^a in this 
veeie, illustrate and support each other. Talthybius, therefore, 
coocbides his speech with desiring her to raise ar^ffi/f»V, nai r^ 

P 2 598* W- 



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1^ PononV Hauia tsf Orestesj b" Wakefield'/ BlatrHe. 
. 50s. Takhybios says to Hecuba : rnuij 

R, P. IS silent. G. W. complains loudly of a solecism left 
untottched by the Editors, and proposes^ with six references to 
different passages in Euripides : 

^AyctfAtiAvovo^ vtfjL^avloi 2^> J yvvou, (Aira, ^ Qui me ad it 
quarendam misit«' 

This correction gives an iambic verse with a firm and 
steady spondeus, in the fourth place. We find it, how- 
ever, altered thus with a pen, doubtless by the authox^s dircc- 
don, in our copy of the Diatribe ; 

• * 2' — — j^-f/AiJ/avTof, ft) ymtxi, fA.3x :* 

but V for £t does not appear, as far as we recollect, at the be- 
ginning of an. iambic verse; nor will such a position be justi- 
fied by the production of examples fropi the Chorus. A /n- 
nteter Catalectic Iambic^ indeed, begins with V &iisi^ in the 
Phsen» 301. VaLl. 305. Musgrav. which, though on a dif- 
ferent account, Vafckenaer removes. 

V for 2E, elha vocally * it may be added, is not placed by 
the Attic Poets at the end of an iambic, when the following 
line begins with a vowel j though A* for AE is so allowed. 
' Sophocles. 

O. T. 29. txixai A' 

AIAHS (rlivxrfj^Af Koi yoot^ frXovll^elau 
1224c — wrov A' 

O. C. 1 7. ■■ ttuxvottIspoi A^ 

Elfl Moi* dvVv iu<f]ofAova' driiopBi. 
T' for TE also is similarly situated. Euripides r 
^ ' ■ - ^. T. itf yiMftv T 

• 'EITHN 

The insuoces in the Choral Odes, and in the Anapestic ' 
Systems, are more numerous: but they have na relation to the 
point under consideration. ££ without an elision is to be 
found at the end of iambics, as in Med, 611. Hipp. 1327. 
Helen. 1221. Androm. 460. 557. 722, It also stands the first 
word of the verse in a variety of instances : but in no one. of 
them is the line terminated with the preposition by which tbcL 
inceptive 2E is governed. 

Uifjt.^aHeg'^fAira is the same as /tAilflwrEvj/avfof. 
^29. Mr. W. places a comnm before and after ^Ax^u^ uciyi« 
oi, which renders the passage cleater. 
565. KotSfUffa vf^% yeiiotv yivy. 
li. P. » MSS. quidam^ itaT9f«<r«. Non mali! — — 

**'■'. ' ' G.Wi 



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PorsonV HuiAa ifi Urntes^ (^ WjJccfieldV DUdrihit »af 

G. W. " Nm nude.'' Im^ > msl n$aUe folhr^ fuumi. Nam 

tutf^ucm yow solutum esst genu et dcartuatum colore f innueret^ in hoc^ 
ioco : noM submisissct igiiur genu Polyxena^ ad F, 1). menitm^ ud^yi' 
m$sct plane, quasi ligAeum, et qffabre poUtumy u DU placet. 

For the rest of this whimsical iK>te,' we must refer tp the 
Diatribe. ' ' 

Why putting dovon her knee, Kalilt<rec^ may not be said, a| 
well as ktting doum uaSliurot, we shall not tttempt to detertQiiae. 
In the Troadcs, 1315. and 1317. we find: . 

and — Aj»&xo> ^0* y'^yv V/O^^ui TaioL^ 

In Latin^ Depono is used in the same manner in which 
Mr.Porson appears'to suppose Kalali^i might have be^n kd^ 
mitted by Euripides. A few examples may Wsuffieient. Ho- 
race, I. 36. 1 8. Dipofsent o^\3lo$. CicerQ,. Philipp. ^T^IL 11. 
Ed. Gr. Vol. VII. p. 88 3. in gremiis mimarum fne^um mn-^ 
temque deponeres. Ovid. Amor« III. 5. 20. Cortug^rum terra 
deposuisse caput. 

It must also be observed that this verb, Deponere, is like- 
wise used in the sense to which the author of the Diatr^ \% 
desirous of confining nalM^fM, In Lucretius, I. 259*— . 
PecudeSy pingues per pabula lata 
Corpora dei>onunt— -^ 
Where the great Bentley says : ** sciFtcet cum parturitmt^' and 
Mr. Wakefield adds, in his truly beautiful edition of this Poet: 
*« Huic interpretatit/ni tvtus accesserim \^ and then quotes Virgil 
Mn. VII. 108. and Catullus, XXXII. 8. for which we com** 
mend his taste and his learning. 

In Euripides, however, the true reading is assuredly nafilt^x. 
Let him defend himself : Iphig. in Taur. 333, 
— *Ek i"* yHv y w lLxfA%r^ uet^ua'c^i'^ ■ '* — 

584. — To^^ a/Mf J 0-«5 Ai7« lia^i^i OoWlP^fff. 

k. P. Aiya is the conjecture of Heath, which is neaif'th<ll 

reading of the Harleian MS. xiyi^y^ aQ4 in,V^p57 for Toy;Cftwa 

the Reg. Soc. MS. gives Tuxc^yov. Morell, not King, -(as Mr, 

P. corrects his note in his pref;^ce,} silently publishes : ^ 

ro7o^ ctfA(pl ^9)f T^oyo^. 

•* Sed si^imperfectum omnino retineri oportebaf, nan erat^ quod 
trimmpbarant augmenti bostes, cum kgi posset yroi<ii* *f4iyof dufi 

G. W. states the Faria Lectiones, and observing th^t * xiyw^ 
fi^tnre Utali ferit tocum^ proposes AEXOT for 7^y(a, and de- 
m(l$ it by long citations* 

P 3 r- ^« 

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20<J PotsonV Hecuba f^ Orestet^ tf WakeficMV Diatrih. 

We Tire not satisfied with Ary^. Atyw for iXtyov h indisput- 
ably wrong ; and Aixoy is too violent a change, and docs noc 
suit the general tenor of the passs^c.— The new arrangement, 
TOK»^ iWov ap^i afih in our opinion, might more safely have 
been admitted into the text, than Aifu. We deem no mode 
; of correction so secure as that which alters only the position 
of the words, and not the letters. 

We cannot but add that Thomas Morell, who < audacter 
sed tacite edidit roio^ otfxfi <r*»i y^yoi pPraefat. R. Porsoni, p. xvi.] 
in his repetition of King's edition, instead of King's Afx^l ^"j 
X^ov, afterward seems to have altered his opinion ; as we 
hare seen, written by himself, in a copy of the Hecuba 
which once belonged to him, the variation which Mr. Porson 
inentions :-— toi»J* iXtyov a^^J <mj. — This, we repeat, appears 
to u$ the genuine reading* 

^ ^92. ■ ■ ■ ■ Uetfoata>Xi yhuiGsv «u 

■ Airtrti rii aAXii, iioiSoxoi Keuccov naKoT^, 

R. P. is silent. 

G. W. * CrUieiUf juicunque factlem hujusce syntaxcos exposhlonm 
enodatam prdstlteritf erit mibi magnus jipollo. Tres reconduniur 

nohis in pbaretra sa^i€y quarum qualibet dextro jactu seopumferiat^^^ 
Prior kdc Cft ;— AI AaOXOi S «»««> Kuttoi^.^-^Possis etiam pir ■ . tlhp- 
fin ;— AIAA0XA2 «. «• Nee minus. -^^^^^aiiox^^^ etiam satu constmt^ 
tioni/aetret.'^ConL Andropi. 745. 804,' 

Of these three emendations, the first, which Mr. W. judges 
♦ veropropioremy is not original ; for thus says Musgrave*$ note; 

"588. A*«3pxoff. Forti AiaSoxoii**^ 
The second, Aiaioxfi^, like Heath's Aixiox^i is strained ; and 
the third, Aixio^atg, is more exceptionable than the first, a$ it 
less resembles the original word on which the correction is evif- 
dently founded. No one of the three seems, in our opinion, to 
be necessary. The construction is die same as in the SyffL 72, 
*Ay«Jv SJ* a?iXf5 t^x^icu^ yiunf r^'oij [vcl yo'wj 
M'hx'^i' " ' ' ■' 
Sq Sophocles says, Aj. 8(S6. 
liow^ ^ov'^ iroy^ (psfttf 

Wc have placed a comma ^fter tfxif^h instead of after yo^^?, 
tnd would admit either Valckenaer's correction, q/o«^, or read 
^0^ in. the place of the second Ykov. In Aldus, the j)assago 
itands thus : ' 

Val^kcpaer in Pbctn, p. 134. reads ; A. 0. «. tfx^ou j^p, 
^o»f A|«^x?f| ** W(^ ^^ Stfucre fotef jl/arn diffionem Buri^ 

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PowonV Hecuba isf Orestes^ (^ WakeEcldV Diattibe. 207 

Ai %^o^o$ takes sometimes a Genitive case after it, sometimei 
a Dative^ and sometimes a Genitive and a Dative. Examples 
maj be produced from the tragedies. 

JEscHYLUS, Prom. 1026. Edit. Porsoni. 

Sophocles. Phil. 867. "'H ^yfoj vfryov iiuioxfiy. 
Euripides. Androm. 744. 

and 803 <A% xaxh^ Ksi^Jh 

Aldus reads xoxoy xoxcS^. Valckenaec rightly, loc. citatoj re* 
stores 3uex» from the Florentine edition in capital letters^ where 
it stands KAKX2I. 

Eurip. Alcest. 666. 

niij J* h iyd cot T«p h itxioxo^ tcfAXV* 

jSschyl. Prom. 477 — — l,ufM(riv 9' «7rw^ 

In this passage of the Hecuba, 592, and in that of the 
Sufplices 73. if our proposed punctuation be right *, there 
are both a Genitive and a Dative after Atoiioxo;* A Genitive 
is also found in Xenophon^ Hellen. I. i. p. 432. 

B.Ed. Paris. 1625. ^^^ ^*' ^^^^'^^ ^^ tufMcoutflwv ii MtXiiJov. 

AiaJox»J is followed by a Genitive : E. Hecub. 1 159. 

■ AiaJbx*iC dfxiiCovceu X^^*^* 

Iph. Taur. 79. —— 3iafcx**$ ^ 'Efiw«» 'Kxgwo/ut£g^flt. 
It is also used without a substantive: E. Phctn. 1067. 5i//^., 
408. JBschyL Agam. 321 ; as Aia'Joxoj is in E. Troad* 1317. 
AftxJbp^A is found adverbially E. Androm. 1204. The word 
does not occur in the Comedies of Aristophanes. 

After having duly considered these passages, it appears to 
us that Mr.Porson would not have been justifiable, it he had 
admitted Musgrave's alteration, or that of any other critic^ 
into the text of his Hecuba, 592. 

ITo be continued.^ 

* Iq due time, Mn Fotson's opinion of this passage will, we trust, 
mear. Markland rqids : <ex<'>* V^^'y 7^a;y Aia^<.x<^> ^* Mutgrave 
points it, but in bis notes conjectures : 'a^ 0^ «t. %^%\cu* y'M yiw* Ami* 
f^ff* ix*^* 9f9wihm [ex Heathlo'] x'i^if 

f^ Atr 

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( «o8 ) 

Art- XVI. An Enquiry ut^6 th Stae of the PtM^ Mind amm^tt 
the Lower CLuses / and on the Means of turning it to the WeUare of 
the State. In a Letter to William Wuberforce, Esq. M. P. By 
Arthur Young, Esq. F, R. S. 8vo. is. Richardson. 1798. 

'TpHE author of this Inquiry gives a very favourable and, in 
•■' many respects, a very just account of the condition of the 
poor in this country, contrasted with that joi those who reside 
in neighbouring nations ; and he then represents the danger, 
to which they are exposed, of being seduced into repub- 
licanism with regard to politics, and into infidelity on the 
subject of religion. In our opinion, be feels Or feigns alarm in 
d much greater degree than die actual stafe of the public mind, 
specially among the lowter classes of the comrauntty, i^ill 
jnstify. It is not uncommon for men who ate really terrified, 
or who wish to produce terror in others, to e:^gerate an ex- 
isting evil ; and this we conceive to be the €bse in the present 
instance. Ignorance and profligSicy, and a disposition to in- 
dulge discontent and complaint^ have been always more com- 
mon in the inferior brders of society, than a friend to his 
country and to the true interest' of maiikind would wish : bnt 
we do not apprehend that, at the present period, they a^c 
more prevalent and ncfltorioas than they h^ve beeti on former 
oceasiohs. At all times, it is the duty of tho$e wiio po^$^ 
the rcqtiisite talents, and whose ^tritiOn^ give the|n an dp^r- 
tunity and lay them uiidet a pecolitfr obligation, to enHghten 
the ignorant^ to i^tf ain the licentibuis,^ and to t^ftquilUze the 
discontented axid <)tieriiIou6. Mr. Young*^ mode of stating 
the evil is not, we apprehend, the most eligible and -tbc most 
6#eetttal method of t^Nhressing it : fei exaggeration acnd crimi- 
nation are not the b^st means of guarding tfguinst tbe influence 
of either political or moral depravity. Infinite pains^ he says, 
have been taken, on the one hfind, to corrupt the people i and, 
very much to our surprise he add$, on the Other, 

* What a blank is presented to us, wh(n we demand what has 
beeh done by the legislature, to oppoie that tonre^ of atheism^ 
deism, irreh'gion, and contempt of all duties, humaa and divine, 
which has pervaded the nation like a pestilence, Blasphemy, sedi- 
tion, treason, distributed for a penny \ their antidotes for a smiling, 
or half-a-crown.* 

In another place, after having intimated the good or bad use 
Aat may be n\adc of existing Hbetty < in diffusing flic Bible, 
ihd Mr. Wilberforcc's Practical View; or disseminating Tm 
Painey &c. he" says that, * horrible as French principles arc, 
^ they might be counteracted, were governmen,t as anxious in 
preserving, as Jacobins arc sedulous ip poisoning, the minds of 
|be people/ 

la 



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YovMgotith SiaU of the Public Mind. aoy 

In order to guard the poor and laborious against jmVibing 
discontent» he directs them to view the state of Switzerland % 
^nd also that of Ireland, ^ whete they may see a peasantry 
frantic with discontent, yet without the power of stating ai 
tingle grievance \ involving their country in anarchy, and cut^ 
ting throats, they know not for what ; favours accumulated 
upon them, yet producing no other effect than darkening the 
shades of discontent, and sharpening the daggers ready to.be 
plunged into the hearts of their benefactors/ 
He farther leads them to consider 

* The almost incakultble and, to them, incredible sums whidi 
they receive in the payment of their labour, and in the recdpt of le-^ 
gal and voluntary charity. I have calculated, and with some atten*' 
tion, the amount of what is paid for labour of all sorts in England | 
and it is^not, probably, less than one hundred nuUions sterHng ; poor- 
rates, and charities of every sort, cannot amount to less than seven 
millions. Add to thi9, the income (to the lower classes) derived 
from the amount of our taxes, so large a part of which, by far the 
greatest part, is swallowed up by those claues, and it will be a very 
moderate calculation to estimate, that a revolution in this country^ 
through Freiich assistance, would annihilate a greater mass of income' 
than is enjoyed by all France, in this moment of her triumphs abroad 
and misery at home.' 

From such calculatbns, Mr. Young infers that * of all the 
classes of a state, none would suffer more by a revolution ihaA 
the labouring poor, except it be the great landlords and the 
clergy. These are facts susceptible of demonstration: what^ 
then, is the care that has been exerted by government to have 
' them clearly impressed on. the minds of the pbople?* 

Having explained the political cause of the discontents, which 
be conceives to exist amdng the lower classes, the author di'*^ 
recta the views of the readqr to that defect of iciigious instruc- 
tion, of which the poor^ if tiiey were duly sensible of Its value, 
would be disposed to complain. As our churches arc now 
arranged, he says, there can be no such thing as religious in- 
struction and public worsliip among the lower ckiases in this 
metropolis. Our churches, according to his account, seem to 
be 'built only for the rich : for the whole space which they in* 
elude is occupied by pews, to which, the poor have no admit* 
pcact. The aisles are narrow, and in some churches < there 
are few or no benches to sit on, and no mats to kneel on.' 

Having stated the evil in his usual manner, he proceeds to 
specify the remedy, with respect particularly to London : 

* BuHd new churches in those parts of the town, where the poor 
arc most numerous. Let them be in the form of a theatre 5 the 
whole area occupied by benches for the poor, with thick mats to kneel 
Mpen } and for m higher classes, ranges of galleries, or boxes, con- 
trived 



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ti6 'toxmgtmtht State of the Puhtic Mind. 

trived for hearing distinctly. Do more than bu3d : provide preacheri^ 
who thatl inculcate the vital Christianity of the Church of Eng» 
land} for that alone can administer true comfort to the miserable^ 
the distressed^ the poor. — ^The service might be performed four 
times every Sunday ; and if the churches were as Virell contrived for 
receiving sinners to be rendered penitent, as theatres are for colIoct« 
ing them for other purposes^ thousands might, and would resort to 
them.*— 

* Let this expence be incurred, notwithstanding the charges of 
assessments, taxes and subscription.' — * Shall ^e go in crowds to 
subscribe for building a ship, or payin? a regiment ; and shall we 
not be as desirous of contributing to another tecurit^f the g^eat basis 
of every other. The mere hull of a single 74 would build two churches ; 
which, in the course of a year, must carry the gospel doctrine of 
content, and of submission to legal authority, to the hearts of many 
thousands at present debased, profligate, and ready forevery mischief.' 
— * Genuiiit Christianity is inconsistent with revolt, or with discontent 
in the midst of plenty. The true Christian will never be a leveller ; 
will never listen to French politics, or to French philosophy. He 
who worships God in spirit and in truth, will love the government 
3nd the laws which protect him, without asking by whom they are 
administered.' 

Other evils, for which Mr. Young wishes that a remedy were 
provided, are — the non-residence of the clergy, and their ex- 
ceptionablcf condu6t% Let those whom it concerns peruse what 
he says on this subject. To his remarks on the state of reli* 
gious instruction and ecclesiastical discipline, he subjoins simi. 
lar reflections on the system of our moral police ; and he cau* 
tions against granting so many licences to public houses, which, 
he adds, < is building rerenue on the ruin of morals. It is to 
estabKsh public security on disafllection to government — it is 
to lK>ld out a jacobin paper as a rival to the parson's sermon- 
it is to consider industry as useless, and sobriety as a national 
)osSr The finances that are leried on such principles will not 
flourish long, nor do they deserve prosperity.' " 

The pernicious effect of wealth and luxury on the lower 
classes of the community is another subject on which the au« 
thor enlarges ; and to this he attributes much of that habi* 
tual neglect of religion, and that spirit of infidelity, which are 
gaining ground, and which are promoted by the diffusion 
and taint of French principles. Many of his reflections^ 
in this part of his address, are very just, and deserve attcn* 
tion. 



MONTHLY 

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( 211 > 

MONTHLY CATALOGUE, 

For FEBRUARY, 1799. 

MATHS ATA TICS, 
Art. 17. A Treatise on Spherieal Geometry ^ containing its funda* 
• mental Properties ; the Doctrine of its Loci ; the Maxima and 
Minima of Spherical Lin^ and Areas : with an Application of 
these Elements to a Variety of Problems. By John Howard* 
Svo. pp. 170. 68. Boards. Longman. 1798. 
'T^HE object of this treatise is to advance the doctrine of the sphere, 
which has made but small progress since the time, of the antient 
Geometricians. — The distribution of the work is as follows : 

* Book I. contains the fundamental principles of spherical angles 
and triangles, including not only those composed of great circles of 
the sphere ; but, in general, such as arc composed ot circles of less 
radii. A subject that I do not know has before been attempted. 

< Book II. contains the fundamental principles of spherical qua* 
drangles, with some added properries of spherical quadrangles, and 
determines the measurement of solid angles. 

* Book III. contains a g^eat many curious properties of straight 
lines, and circles drawn from given points within and without tlic 
surface of the sphere, and terminating in the circumference of given 
spherical circles ; also, some curious loci of spherical angles and 
triangles, and of lines drawn to spherical and cvh'ndrical surfaces, axuu 
logons to some of the plane loci of Apollooius. And here the 
reader will find many beautifid analogies between the properties of 
lines drawn to meet in the surface of the sphere, and 01 those drawn 
to meet in the circle in piano. 

^ Book IV. includes the doctrine of spherical maxima and minma ; 
^d here, I believe, v/iU be fpund a variety of new and useful pro* 
perties relative to triangles, polygons, &c. not confined to figures 
{Tomposed of great circles of the sphere ; but, in general, extending 
to such as are composed of circles of less radii, including the rcr 
markable problem which determines the curve, that under a given 
perimeter, includes the greatest spherical surface, as also an exten* 
sive theorem of solid maxima and minima. 

* Book V. (or I. of the application) contains the construction of 
spherical problems deduced from the foregoing principles ; many of 
which will, I trust, be found useful in astronomical researches ; and 
here is included, a series of curious problems, analogous to those 
which VI ETA has ' constructed in piano ^ and that fermat has ex* 
tended to planes and spheres ; beginning with determining a cirde 
tn th^ sphere that shall pass through two given points, and touch a 
circle given in magnitude and position, and ending with finding a 
cirdie 00 the Sphere that shall toach three other circks given in mag- 
|utude and position. 

* Book VI. (or II. of the application) contains a variety of prob» 
)ems lelatiof to triangles.' 

'Jl^s pttlwcation doghres the notice of Philomaths, 

fflSTORVf 



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ai2 MdNTHLY CaTAI-OOUB, History, i^c. 

HISTORY, ANTIQ^UITIES, isfc. 

Art. iS. ■ Specimens arid' P&rts ; containing a' History cf the County of 
Kenty and a Didfi^rtatlon on the Laws, from;thje Reign of Ed- 
ward the Confessor to Edward the First ; of a Topographical, 
Commercial, Civil, and Nautical Hutbry cf South Britain^ with its 
gradual and comparative Progress in Trade, Art§, Population, and 
Shipping, from authentic Documents. By Samuel HenshaU, Clerky 
M. A. Fellow of Brazen-Nose College, Oxford. 410, pp» 175. 
I08. 6d. Boards. Faulder. 1798. 

This ample title*page is followed by a prospectus, frop* which wc 
leara that It is Mr. H.'s intention, to continue a similar myestigatioQ 
in every county, up to the present re^ ; and that his whole aeetgn 
will be completed in ten fcucicuR^ of the same siee and plan as XhtX 
before us. 

The undertaking is arduous, in proportion to the difficulty of its 
execution, the extent of the subjects, and their importance in forming 
a genuine history of the early I'eigns. This specimen gives a map of 
Kent from Domesday-book, and a new arrangement of its contents 
in summauy tables, which are digested with diligence and perspicuity. 
In describing the early feudal tenures, and ascertaining the rank 
and privileges -of the tenants, an uncommon acquaintance with the 
Norman law, and its influence in England during the first centuneg 
after the conquest, is displayed in almost every page. We refer our 
readers- to the specimen itself, which would suffer by- an analysis | 
cordisdly wishing that the attempt may meet with its merited encoUf 
ragement and success. 

Art. 19. Miscellaneous jfntiqmties (in Continuation of the BihJhtheca 
Tofograffhica Britannica), No. 6. containing the History and ^n* 
iiquities of Twickenham f being the First Part of Paroclual CoUec- 
tions for the County of Middlesex, begun in 1780. By Ed- 
ward Ironside, Esq. 4to. pp. 156. 10s. 6d. sewed, Niciiols. 

'797* 

On this specimen of the parochial smrey of the county of Middle* 

sex, and as the siifth No. of the continuation of Mr. Nichols's adS* 

iional antiquities, v/e would beg to hazard one or t\\'0 observations. 

Are extracts of the mere names of obscure individuals fiom the re- 
gister, and epitaphs given verbatim^ of sufficient importance to any 
class of readers, to occupy Jifiy-one pages out of i^6i largely and 
loosely printed ? 

Are a comparative statement of the price of provisions from 17 30 to 
1780, and a list of principal inhabitants in 1789 relating to apopu-r 
I9US village near the capital^ worthy of forming a part of a general 
county history ? 

Our opinion is in the negative; — ^and we hoped to hare foimd ^mt 
little relief in the description of a place which is rendered da^ical-by 
the long residence of Pope and Walpole, and higlily embdHshcd by 
the resort of the opulent and the polished.: but we have discovered w> 
valuable supplement to the judicious account given by Mr. Lysons in his 
Environs <rf London (voL iii. p. 5j8), which Mr. Ironsidhe has very 
Jreely adopted, as fer as the facts. The menroirs of tbc learned Vicar^ 
1 1 George 



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Monthly Catalogue, Ireland. 2^13 

George Costard, are the most interesting : but hi8 portrait, and the 
other platesy are positively below criticism ; especially at a time like 
the present, when able artists abound, whose employment is very 
limited. 

Art. 2Q. 7he History and Antiquities of Tewkesbury, By W. Dyde^ 

2d Edition, with considerable Additions and Corrections. 8vo. 

pp. 213^ 6s. Boards. Printed at Tewkesbury, by the Editor. 

London, Wilkie. 1798. 

The first edition of this work has been already noticed with appro- 
bation in our annals *. It now appears in an enlarged and improved 
form, and may be considered as a pretty performance, at once instruc- 
tive and entertaining. It is accompanied with a View of the Town, 
and some other additional engravings, very well executed. 

IRELAND. 
Art. 2T. Necessity of an Incorporate Union between Great Britain and 
Ireland^ proved from the Situation of both Kingdoms, With a Sketcli 
of the Principles on which it ought to be formed. 8vo. pp. 132. 
2S. 6d. Wright. 1799. 

Not one of tne many tracts which we have seen, in favour of the 
proposed Union between Great Britain and Ireland, has taken a more 
comprehensive view of the subject than that which is now before us. 
The author supposes that the first idea, that an union was to take 
place between Great Britain and Ireland, originated with the public ; 
whence he infers * a general tonviction, that some arrangement must 
be formed between the countries, to ensure their joint prosperity and 
mutual good understanding.' The manner in which the idea origin- 
ated does not affect its merits : but our belief is, that it first came to 
the public in the shape of a rumour that such a plan was in the con- 
templation of ministry, independently of any public or general con- 
sideration respecting its necessity. 

The points which the author attempts to establish are, first, * that 
the present system is insufficient to promote the prosperity and en- 
sure the tranquillity of the empire ;' and 2dly, * that an incorporating 
union, forming the two nations into one kingdom, subject to the 
tame laws, and governed by the same legislature, is the only means 
to accomplish these salutary effects.* After a short but clear state- 
ment of tiie situation of Ireland previously to 1782, he observes ,that, 
* By the final recognition of her legislative independence, Ireland 
then took a new station, in respect to this country, from that m 
which she. had previously stood. Two consequences necessarily fol- 
lowed, from her Parlianlent having gained the exclusive right to re- 
gulate her national interests ; both materially affecting her connection* 
with Great Britain. First, it left no common bond of union be- 
tween tfee kingdoms, except what arose from their acknowledgment 
of a Common sovereign. Secondly, it reduced their commercial in- 
tercourse to a mere matter of convention. It left each at h'betty, 
unless where bound by positive compact, to consider the other as a 
fbmgn nation ; to disregard its maritime regulations ; to exclude its 

li—.iM W n il ■ ' * ... . . ■ ■ . _ 

♦ See Rev. for May 1791, N. S. p. in, 

commodities 



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214 Monthly Catalogue, Ireland. 

commodities from the home market, or even to g\^c a decided pre* 
fcrencc to those of a rival staple.' 

Sister kingdoms^ heing portions of the same empire, he iiui8t6« 
• must admit of some common supremacy to regulate their mutual 
intercourse, and to improve and apply their, physi^ strength to their 
joint advantage' If the present system supplies such an authority, 
lie adds, * it must be, that a principle of empire sufficient to regu- 
late the conduct of these islands to their mutual advantage is created 
by the unity of the executive government, or that it exists some- 
where else.' After having shewn that the prerogatives of the cix)wn 
do not furnish power adeauate to this purpose, he demands, ' where 
else, then, can this imperial principle be said to exist ? Surely not in 
xtwo legislatures, by their constitution wholly distinct and independ- 
cnt J possessing neither means nor forms, nor even a-painted chamber 
to communicate or hold a conference with each other.' 

It must be obvious that a principle, sufficiently powerful to direct 
the affairs of Ireland according to the views of the executive govern* 
medt of this countr)*^, has existed, notwithstanding the. recent in- 
stance of the legislature of that kingdom rejecting the prop<$sed plan 
of an union ; which is only to be regarded as an exception to a rule, 
otherwise almost without exception. The writer allows that the 
Irish Parliament, notwithstanding the * giddy wishes of the people, 
have wisely avoided all subjects of contest with this country, and 
prudently submitted to such regulations as her laws prescribe to the 
empire : but (adds he) a new malady, dangerous to the connection 
of the countries, has arisen out of this very practice, by which it has 
been hitherto preserved. Artful, innovating men, have ascribed this 
acquiescence to Servile and shameless corruption. They have painted 
the Parliament of Ireland as ^ more attentive to the nod of a British 
Minister, than to the interests or the will of that people by whom 
they are chosen.' 

The author asserts, (we hope, errgneously,) that many well-affected 
Irishmen are of opinion tliat a separation of tlic two countries would 
produce no ill consequences to Ireland. Many of the probable evils, 
which Ireland would have to sustain in consequence ot a separation, 
are pointed out, and by no means exaggerated :— indeed, we are of 
opinion that it is soarccly possible to exaggerate the description of the 
mischiefs which a separation would bring on both countries ; and that it 
would be to each an event more fatal than any which lias befallen 
either, since the Norman conquest. As a separate country, the au- 
thor justly remarks, the very limited strength of Ireland * must keep 
her in a state of relative insignificance, when compared with those 
empires which predominate in Europe.' — 

* Dinvnutive states have neither means nor power to command the 
tranquillity^ or ensure the prosperity of their people. ' They exist 
rather by the sufferance and jealousy of more powerfiJ neighbours, 
than by their own inherent vigour. 

' Many such have been created, and aU those which have existed 
since the time of the Emperor Chailes V. have been favoured and 
protected by the balance of power \\\ Europe. Their destruction, 
was the first consequence of it« faU. Those rough republican storms, 

which 



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MoNTHtT CataloCUF, Ireland. 215 

whicli shook little more than leafy and deciduous honours from the 
rreat monarchies of Europe, have torn tlie lesser states from their 
'foundations^ and laid them- prostrate.' 

Ireland may share greatness with others, but, hy herself, she can- ^ 
not hope even' for that tranquilHty which is essential to happiness. 

The author has happily described the temper and abilities neces- 
sary for the examination of a question so important as a scheme of 
perpetual union : 

* Those who consider an object which extends infinitely beyond 
our petty space of time upon the earth, should cautiously purge the 
mind of such little anxieties for aggrandisement as center m onrselves, 
and must terminate with us. We must disencumber and lighten the 
understanding of these selfish pas^ons, which cannot flutter above 
the narrow spot on which they are used to grovel, if wc would rise 
to that degree of elevation from whence, as from the true point of 
perspective, the mind's eye may wander over the entire plan ; survey 
its proportions ; examine its ends ; compare its beauty with its use ; 
and contrast its durability with both.' — * To frame or judge of the 
plans of a statesman, with the wisdom of a statesman^ requires a 
statistical knowkdp^e of the country upon which they are to operate; 
profound views of human nature ; a laborious and patient comparison 
of all that the wise and the disinterested have accomplished, and 
all in which they have failed, to assuage the evils and augment the 
happiness of human life/ 

Having remarked on the inconveniences of the different kinds of 
federal union, and on the advantages of an incorporate union, as the 
only one suited to the present occasion, the writer states the follow- 
ing objections, which are most likely to be urgrd : 

* I. That it would destroy the very name of Ireland as a nation. 
2. It would annihilate her Government and her independence. 3. It 
would greatly increase the preponderance of English influence : every 
place, worth having, would be conferred on Englishmen ; the re- 
tainers of ministers, peers, or persons otherAvise ot great English in- 
terest. 4. The number of absentees would be greatly augmented. 
5. Dublin, the capital and present seat of the legislature, would be 
reduced to the state of an inconsiderable village. 6. It would bring 
that counti-y into partnership as to the debts, as well as the pro- 
sperity of England, and her taxes would be increased to an enormous 
extent.' 

Of these, the 2d and last are perhaps the most important. The 
establishment of a new government necessarily annihilates the old : 
the only question worth consideration is, whether the new be pre- 
ferable to that which it has superseded. Independence, likewise, 
cannot belong to any separate portion of a state ; and this will apuly 
to both countries. The share of political importance which Ireland 
would enjoy, if she were fairly represented in an united parliament, 
wotild probably be more than she at present possesses ; and we arc 
wifling to believe, with the writer, that tUe • objection built upon 
the s^position that a narrow principle of rivakhip and jealousy must 
continue to exist bet\yeen the two countncs, akhough an union should 
take place,' is vpid of foundation ^ and that ail united legislature 
3 * would 



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tt6 MoNTHLT Catalogue, L^elani. 

would be actuated by a more iiberal tpint. Another ground on 
which Ireland may hcaitate, notwithstaodiBg that she has na preten- 
sions to superiority in that respect^ is the present state of our re- 
presenjtation. 

.The latter pages are occupied with schemes of financid adjust- 
ment. The following is the outline of what the author pro- 
poses : 

« The debt of that kinprdom which is the least may be easily con- 
solidated with a portion of that which is the greater ; calculated in a 
proportionate ratio to the number of Representatives which each re- 
turns to the Legislature. But as the excess of debt will still remain 
considerable oil the side of Great Britain, she has two ways of pro- 
fiding for it, without injury to Ireland. By the first, it may be im- 
posed upon the two countries indifferently ; this kingdom, papng an 
equivalent in money to Ireland, proportioned to the burthen which 
would thus fall upon her to sustain ; the equivalent to be laid out ex- 
dusiyely for 'her advantage and improvement. By the second, she 
may take it entirely upon herself, and raise the means upon her own 
people to defray the interest, and discharge the principaL' 

The late decision in Ireland, on the question of an Union, had not 
taken place when this publication first made its appearance. The 
author is an able advocate for the cause which he has undertaken : 
but some may thifik that he is not free from partiality to this coun- 
try ; and perhaps it may be said,— on the other side of the water, at 
' leastj-^hat he rates too higlily the obligations which she has conferred 
•on Ireland. His reasonings, however, arc clear ; and it must be ac- 
knowleged that many of his arguments, in favour of an Incorporate 
Union with Ireland, have great weight. 

Art. 22. Arguments for and againjl the Union hettveen Great Britain 

and Ireiandy considered. 8vo. pp.58, is. 6d. Printed at Dubh'o ; 

reprinted in London, for Wright. 

The title prefixed to this pamphlet led us to expect an impartial 
statement of both sides of the question ; instead of which, the aim o£ 
the writer is wholly directed to prove the benefit of the proposed 
union. No arguments on the other side are advanced by him, except 
with the design of refutation ; — and his ideas of poh'tical expedience he 
cndcavburs to maintain with too little respect for right. His leading 
position is the preservation of the protestant ascendancy ; and loss of 
power is treated as loss of right. 

That justice shall in any case be superseded by motives of expe- 
^iiency can be excusable on no other plea than that of self-defence. 
Ireland, ever since it has been subject to the crown of Great Britain, 
has, in fact, been united to this countr}'. Whether, by incorporating 
the legfislatures, the union will be stronger, will most probably depend 
qn the principles on which such a measure shall be carried into effect: 
but it is, no doubt, in the power of this country, by acting with 
justice towards Ireland, to make such an union palatable to every 
honest man on both sides of the water— With respect to the pam- 
phlet before us, it may be said to contain more of mformation than 
of sound argument. 

Art. 



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Monthly CATALoetm, Ireland. aiy 

Art. 23. Cease your Funning. Svo. is. 6d. Dublin printed ; De* 
brett, London.' i799« - 

The proposed scheme of imioo between fcreat Britain and Irolas^. 
Iras natutally caHed forth, the exercise of considerable tibjlitics on, 
both sides of the queftion. The writer of this pamphlet is, a wamt: 
opposer bf the measure. He attacks the author of Argumenttfot^, 
£mi against an Uriidk cmsidtrei in a strain of severe irony ^ which, is 
continued throughout :^— but his language is frequently too strox^ ^ 
and there is not a sufficient portion of that bght and relief which, 
are the soul of irony, and without which the author^s real meaning 
sometimes appears ambiguous. 

A measure involving so many comph'catcd and contradictory in* 
terests as an union between two kingdoms, and which woijild 
certainly be productive of so many advantages and disadvantages^ 
inust afford an inexhaustible fund tor disputation. The misfortune 
is, that there are so few who enter the lists for- the purpose of fiut 
investigation. > 

Art. 24. Letters on the Subject of Union, In which Mr. JebVi 

« Reply •' is considered ; and the Competence of Parliament to 

bind Ireland to an Union is asserted. By a Barrister and Mem« 

ber of Parliament. 8vo. 2s. Printed at Dublin : Reprinted ia 

l.ondon, for Wright. 1799. * 

Some pf these letters are addressed to WiDiam Saurin, Esq. ait 

eminent barrister in Dublin, and Captain of the Lawyers' Corps j 

;jmd others to Richard Jcbb, Esq. f he concluding letter is addressed 

to the lloman Catholics of Ireland. Though the author writes \rt 

a lively and rather eccentric manner, he is a good arguer, and, with. 

a semblance of simplicity, makes many shrewd remarks. His rea-^ 

zoning in favour of encouraging doubts, in the discussion of im« 

portant questions, is entertaining and uncommon. 

< Men aire not zealous (^till less are they violent) in supporting an 
opinion the truth, of which they doubt. We do not venturt to stamp 
and rant, where we are not sure that we are standing on firm ground. 
Now, as a violent sapp6rt of either side of the present question 
does not seem calculated to promote the happiness or tranquillity o£ 
our country, that man is perhaps something more than justified, wha 
would excite doubts, for the purpose of appeasinj^ violence.' — 

< He who chooses to weigh the argruments berore he decides the 
question, is not a weaker man than him who decides without exa« 
toinatipn ; yet the period of examination will be a period of doubt^ 
and the duration qjF this period will bear some proportion to the 
coB^licatton of the question, and to the number of the arguments 
which it supplies. But this interval of uncertainty it has been my 
lot to find scorned by the promptitude and subhmity of many of 
-those geniuses with whom I have conversed on the subject of 
Unbn.* 

The writer combats the propriety of a prcBiature and unquah'fied 
t^ection of the abstract question of Union, as being excuseablc 

* Mr. Jcbb*6 Reply is not yet before uf. 
Ret. Fib. 1799* <i^ only 

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21% ' Monthly Catalocue, Iceland. 

only m those who are picpiiied.taua«eiit * thatUto scheme of Union can 
Ikdntkedt wKtlk nviil noP h mjariomJalre/md^''^* li {mf^hcyi 
vmrc adCied wbetibcr'aii Union vrould be advBntog^oos to Ireland^, I 
•hcndd watwit'ifestseion .-•-4iiat Ufiion in the abttra^ is a thing ;jb- 
Sffkrent, atodbeBomesigaDd or bad accofding to the kind of XJnioii. 
anat it \% and to tkeciraumatanees under wluch it is obtaioad/ In* 
ste»d of thif qutstkmr^^ whether there bean^ thiugithat by an Unioa 
osir be dbtaraed from Great Britain^ which ^ might not grant >K7itL> 
#at an Union/ he obser%iei, another questioa might> be ai^bftticated«. 
I. e. whether Great Biltain w/7/be, or, la sound policy, ^,g^to be 
as- liberaty^ in ;&• connectioni under cir€iimGlattGe» tending to promote i 
jIsAmjs a6d reserved {loin^, aatin: an Union ? 

i^r Soswer to tiie hackueyed objection against rdorm or altetatioo, 
tlisit ^ this is^not the proper time/' the writer asks; if Ireland bad beet 
peaceably advancing ifr industry, and had ^ now attained that pro- 
sperity, which T trust still «waiu her, would this be the pK)po^ 
Bcrioa for-proposinff an Uuion^? — Coixildthe Minister g^'avely tell the 
Parliament, or the x'ei^ple^ tha^ their situation being mdnifestty prosperous 
mid happj in a high degfee^ he thought they could uoi do Better nian imnU' 
dkdt^ly aher and correct that Constthttioriy under which their ^rosferiij and 
happiness had grown.* 

In, the two concluding^ letters, the question of the competency of 
Mrliament is argued^ and opinions of great lawyers are quoted on 
^e absolute andr uncontrollay,e authority, of parliaments. If vri 
should venture an opinion on this subject, It would be that', when a 
^rHamini^r kgisleUure is .so cowtituted as to express the reql sensi a/ui 
wishes of the.feapkjor whom, if ie^slaies, such a parliament will k^ 
ejaim abs^su^. sufrem^uyy unless it^ ii wUrin'gly conceded to them by, iA 
ionststucnts. 

Art. 3jr« ^ Bxandnation tM the LdsionUnts in Ireiand ; widrRo* 
marked on the Wiaitng» and InterfdiKnce^ ck qficht of Arti^ur 
Yoking, Baq. Bcia^ a ftnthful Narrative of the Suferings of the 
Rrotnan Catholic Pdaeantryi feom . the. QpewitioB of Xi^^w^, the 
Paymetit atid Eocactipm or. SurpHoe Fees* &:cu S^^wing, by a 
very easy Method, a^Pkn fbar.the Tranqu^lli^nMon of that Kinfe 
dom. By William Bin^ef^fivrteen Tears, a Resideiil in Iieh|iid* 
4t<x 2s; 6d. Sokl by. the Bdiuu^ atrllo, 2» Red^Lipu-Pa^age, 
Fleet-Street. 1799. 

The )^blic-spiritted writer of this tracft, who. is well k^iowno^ 
tc<ioUht of tome former productions of a political ^intune, hj^siior 
cidentally- been furnished with singular oppar|unities;of iudfiAQ||^ 
fronr a personal act^intance wkh/acisf of the real std;^: of tV ju>uiw 
try and -country-people oifc Ireland, and of the actual .nature and coff 
sequence of- the grievances to wluch thfi-late insmrecti^ms atKLfaw 
occurrences iii the sister kingdom have been, or may Jse, asci^ba^ 
>These' he hefe points ont^ Ibr the particular cOfli|»d<)»tion of hii| 
EhglMih reades84; and ho iiai .done, th^ with <^ery appeao^KXO^ 
candour, temperance and sagacity, of observitiop. Indeed^ th^ 
details have afiiEirded us more sat^isf^tory infortnation on the subject^ 
.than we have found in all tlie swarm of speeches, pamphlets, and 
'iitjwspaper-Qiaayst whi«h have l^y been circulatcd^ on ms fk& o{ 

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MbimitT dATAVJcuij PiltU'e'r^ &e: % r^ 

«wter ; afid perhaps the sartie remark may apply to the greatest 
of what'haiappicarcd on both sides. — We suggest this opinion 
ill conviction tfiat the anthor is right iii his conclusion, thlt out* 
Ssmen and poKticians * have beguii at the wttmg end/ in their 
wrc» f6r terminating the differences which have so unhappily dJ* 
2 and harassed the two nations. He dwells, especially, on the 
ter of tithes, 5rc. the weight of which> he is firmly persuaded,* . 
Ro'ifian^tialic inhabitants, (the, peasantry, particularly,) rievfer 
nor can patiently endure. Remove this stumbling block, xhli 
v of cotaMoft,^ and the writer is decidedly of opinion that all the 
Iwfwi now subsisting; m regard to the government and peace of 
bd, will spe^tBIy subside, and- Br no more! 
Rth respect W a due provision fol^ the established chrgjf he pto- 
S a phn for their;^ I/eiter niairXenaHcey which seems b'able to Kttlej' 
ly, rtasonabfe objc(fti6n ; though possibly, considerable improvc- 
t may be' added 'to it. • 

Ir. BT. offers many other obiifrvatlons and arguments, on points of 
iteral import : tht w'hole forming a miscelfeny not devoid of efl- 
finmenr, and cerfiinly abbtind tug with useful infomiation. 

FbllTICS, FlNfANCE, GTr. 

- 26. AnAddrefs to the Peode:, on the prefent relative $ttuatmi 0/ 
^Kglaad anfi Prauef with Reflections on the Genius of Democracy* 
wi on Parlnunentary Reform. By Robert FelJowes, A. B. 
^on< jatdo* ]8« 6d« Rivingtons. 1799. 
l5t)irit^4 ?Qd animated writer is generally himself hurried, and^ 
Bcquectly endeavours to cairy his readers to extremes. It is not; 
?itn Mr. F., who is energetic without being violent 5 and wfio 
icttt^ great moderation of sehlirtiBnt in'th^ midst of gWangex- 
iifions;- He does not declaim against repriblican democracy be- 
se be is partial to absolute monarchy ; nor, in combating* the d6c- 
t'of unmrsaF sxiffi^ge; dofe^.he scout aH idea^ of parlidfafentary 
fc So" fit from'TJubscribtrig" to- the doctrine of divine right^* 
iJscfti^tet^' th^e is-- no truth wWch^ppeati more plain and in- 
stable to his mind than thfs, that all government is -a poWer W 
It;, and that the only-valid title-xleed of itr riglA is the will of the 
pic' Notwithstanding this, however,' Mr. F. is a most strenu- 
advocatc for kingly government, in opposition to the republican 
Km } and he has supported his preference by the most weighty^ 
MWflts. * In monarchy, there is a certain limit, at which amb^. 
u expectation ends ; inQcntocracy, there is no quiescence to the 
Wn of aspiring pride till'it reaches tte pinnacle of tyranny.— In 
Barchy, there is a wish' to lie high ; in democracy to be highest ; 
the one, individuals are emulous to the great, in the other, to the 
atcC«-In*ni6iiaf6by; the^ highest 'statldti of pfc\v'er kno object of- 
y ; in democracy envy is biisy ev^n with the lowest. — The fac* 
K th^ ilrftttc ■% dtiffotrfeiy; resemble theVrnJitidns bf a volcittio, 
^»piWkd'*^&tittttfi'aRcr*Tuin thixiugh the spate whiclv they bfei 
ff; m^ ntbnat^ thef ariJ^firdre like' the mists,' that colltct 
I ^tHi^i?f hB#^kl§«e8^'r^^ rdtftid thtf niftiiflit of thcmotiii^ 

0^2 Aifker 

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\ 



i(0/y Monthly Catalocue^ Pontics^ l^c. 

After thk contrast^ it is scarcely necessary to add tliat tlii j 
dress exhibits no favourable picture of modern France. Mr. 
justly thinks, indeed, that we ought to be thankful that Dircctfli 
despotism is not sufif red to stalk, with strides of ruin, through i 
island. 

i On one subject \vhich Mr. F. has introduced in a note, wc « 
that he had \'n-itten ^ pamphlet, viz. The influence of property 
principle ; shewing how far virtue depends on a certain share of jl 
sical happiness, and consequently how far the nlorality of the pea 
may be amended by ^n irapr9vement of their circumftanccs. Si 
a discussion will lead to a jufl view of the state of the poor, \ 
will expose ttie folly of that system of laws \vhich endcaTours to 
pxove their morals by (as it were) anntKilating them as member; 
the community. It will perhaps be discovered that oar poor-L 
originate in a mistake. * Philosophers (says Mr. F.) have never 




Art. 27. Substance tf Mr, Canmng*s Speech in the HqUsc of Cmnm 
De^. II, 1798, on Mr. Tiemey's Motion respecting Cootixtei 
Alh'ances. %\<i. is. 6d^ Wright. 

We belifevc that past experience nUist have sufficiently inatra^ 
cur cbuntiymcn, -wnat degree of dcfpendencc . is to be placed on c| 
tinental alHaijces ; ^specially those of which the princip^ ccmcn 
]6ritish gold. Neither Mf< Cannin|f s arguments^ nor \ak ackn 
leged eloquence, have lessened our distrust. 

Art. 28. tain upcn Income^ as, stated in Mr. t*itt*« Speech^ Dcq 
1798, Impartial consider^ By a Member of ParliMneat. 8 
IS. Clement. 
This pamphlet contains many strong arguments against the n 

ciple of taxing income ; and particularly against taxing such ind 

as arises from industry, in tlie same proportion as that tv^hich ar 

from capital. 

Art. 29. TeHs of the Narwhal Wealth and Flnartces of Oreai Brii 
in Dec. 1798. 8vo. is. 6d. White. I 

This writer ififers, from the increase of our taxes, the increaJ 
, the national weahH, His pamphlet likewise contitirts some rcn 
on the redemption of the land tax, and the copy' of a letter froi 
author to Mr. Pitt on that subject ; in which lie proposes a p| 
CTiable the proprietor of land, by borrowing, (if he cannot otha 
effect his |5urf>o8fei) to piirchast tht redemption bf his la»d-tax. 

Arti 30. State tf the Cwntry in the Autumn of 1798. Swo,, 

Wright. 

A glowing panegyric on Government ; < which,' says the wi 
< has been the instrument, in the hands of Heaven, to efiect on 
liverabce, and to conduct w? to safety , and to gloty. What muj 
the tree which has produced such fruit ^ SpeiScing of the comid 
]x)wert that hate been confederated against FraacCt he says, 



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MorrvBtr Catalogue, PcHtiaiisfc. 211 

?Vionc*^ur part, and shall, I trust, continue td da it. — Let them, 
X nour, do theirs, and the WoRi,'t) is saved/ ' 

* 31- j1 Measure productive of substantial Benefits^ XoGoytvntfxi^i 
^e Ooitntry, the Public Funds, and to B«ink, Stock, Respect Ailly 
nbmitted to the Governors, Directors,: and Proprietors of tl^ 
kmk of England. By Simeon.<Pope. SvO. pp. 46. ¥s. 6d. 
iicbardson. 1799* - > 

["be measure proposed by Mr. Pope is as follows : 
Let the Bank of England (under the saiH:tion of Parliament) 
ance Xo Oovemn\eht, this year, the sum. of ten millions, at an 
rrest c|f four per cent, and payable in tea insjalinents, on the secu- 
r or credit oi tlie general income tax fgr the ensiun^ year 1800— 
n to be optional in the Bank proprietors to extend or not the lo^ 
:he year 1801 — and so to every succeeding year as long at the taic 
U exi3t.* 

The most important objection to this plan is the increase of b^m]c 
ler in circulation which it might cause. Mr. P. supposes that, 
sum being advanced by instalments, the notes issued for the first 
U in the common course of business, have returned to the bap]c 
ore the second instalment becomes payable : — ^but if not, be af- 
ns that, in our present circumstances, aa * emission of more than 
al^ the notes at this time in circulatioil is justifiable.' }£ the 
nk be reatiained from paying in Specie, and unae;r no restraint as to 
^ quantity of paper which it may circulate, it may well affoni 
lend to government any number of millions : but a dispropor- 
Eiate use of such a licence endangers not only public credit, but all 
iperty in the kingdom. We believe the legislature to be the only 
Ige competent to determine the quantity of bank notes whi(;n 
»uld be allowed to circulate. 

Mr. P. advances several positions to which we cannot accede. He 
>f opinion, for instance, tliat taxes which distress the farmer are be- 
icial, and occasiort overflowing markets and low prices : — ^but, if the 
tner carries more to the market than the average produce, he must 
kn his stock, and future years will suffer for a preserit plenty. — 
ic style of this pamphlet is too florid for such sober subjects as 
mty and artithmetical calculations. 

t- 52. The Speech of Sir John Sinclair^ Bart. M. P. &c« on the 
Bill for imposing a Tax upon Income, in the Debate on that Bill, 
onFriday the 14th December 1798. 8vo. 6d. Debrett. 1799. 
5ir John Sinclair regards the funding system as * the climax of 
kocial ^tyention, the greatest of all political discoveries, the most 
bable mine,' &c. If there be merit in anticipating revenue and in 
brring 4ebt, the modems are not entitled to the honour of the in- 
ition ; for it is a discovery of very antient date. Funding depends 
I the abflity of th^ borrower, and on the credit which the opi- 
Ki of that ability creates. When Governments anticipate, if 
^ be a want of ability in the country, or a deficiency of credit, 
^ become, bankrupt* Nothing strengthens so much as the prac- 
t of &n4ing, in appearance, the mischievous political paradox that 
pate w^ ^^^ public benefits. In Sir Jol^n's speech, it is appre- 
IJedU' as a misfortune^ that a spirit of economy may be introduced 
"^ q^l inta 

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true, and matbematjc^j deppos^rajble, that the lesa eabh to^^ 
czpendo on hin^selfi the more he might afford to contribatc to 
vplMic support. 

* If (ttys h^ a new plaa mutt beadoptcd^ and if praporty, tB8t« 
expenditure, must be attacked, it becomes a matter <>f nibe disciMi 
whether the extfaordinary cpntributron should be raised by a taB 
capital^ or a tax ondncome, or by blending the two toeethcr, wli| 
though the most complicatedi yei being unque«donabTy the juiH 
pught to be pr^errcd. What! mean is, tliat evory man shoaled 
instead of lo fer cent, on his income, f fer cent, on his capital/l 
5 per cent* on his income, by wM<(h persons who had f>o cajpi 
^would be greatly rdiered, and those who were possessed €^co^ 
aUe property, would pay more in prc^>oFtion to their Qpidcocc,! 
«oder the .system that is proposed. 

' Almost the onlv objection to this plan is, the difficulty of ai 
tttning the value dt a mantes capital.N 

There appears to us at least oqc other objection : the prcseotj 

4H1 income may prove, in many cases, partial : but wouM the ] 

proposed by Sir John Sinclair be less so? Land, he classes as 

come. Reckoning land, \ehich produces a clear annual rental of 

thousand pounds, at t$ years' purchase ; then property ifi 

/*» 25,000, if It be in land, will not be required to contribute a 

'%aa will be demanded from propertv oi £. 10,00b value which i 

ht deemed cafkal. Such great tenderness shewn to the landed 

tercst could not be verv encouraging to industry, and ill accords 1 

the professed object, ma ihote Wfo were potiessed of cxmsUtrabU ^ 

P^y Atnidfay in proportion to their opulence, 

'Art. 33. Tife Substance of a Speech made by Lord Auckland in! 

Houte of Peers J 8th January 1799, ^" *^^ 3^ Reading of 

Bill for granting certain Duties t^on income^ 8vo. is. Wn| 

The political opinionG of this Noble Lord being so generally kno 

and the subject of the speccli before us liaving been so fuMy discus 

many remarks will not now be necessary. The principle of ^rai 

rise m taxation, ^r *6f reouiring a higher proportion from the L« 

classes,' his Lordship thinks, is objectionable, as having a Icvellicgl 

dency ; and ' that it wpuld amount to neither more nor less than 

* introduction of a plan for equalizing fortunes ; and to the impliH 

•fercnce, that, because a men possesses much, therefore more ] 

be .taken from him thaiv is proportionably taken from others.' I 

the merits of this olijection, there will be various opinions. ' 

Lordship has not thought it necessary to add weight to it li] 

gument. 

'^ The noble Lord endeavours to prove that every species ci" sd 
pr iru:ome is equally valuable. He demands 5 

■* WiH it be contended, that, in point of real value, an uci 
estate, v4iich its owner will leave to his son, t^ of more worth t( 
than if the same estate were for his life ortly, and already sett 
his son and his descendants ? Would an estate so settled for 2ifi| 
irmainder.ito his son, be more valuable to htm, than St would 
he had qp son, and it were sealed on some distant rdation 



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MoNTHXjr Cat ALCOVE, poetry ^ \sfc. %r\ 

Aruger ? A|^ \t on a stranger, how is it more valuable to the pbi- 
««CMor than any other annuity for life i' < 

The casta •here suppoeca do not «tem aeleeted > on account of 
'^eir difficulty. All property left By diose who have no chfldvep 
must, in . course, go to «9ore distant relations, or to stranfifera : but 
ibow willan^ of the cases mentioaed apply to that of a man having 
children, whpse annuity nevertheless expires with him, or^is perhaus 
only for a short term of years, and who must depend on \mat he 
can save during the term, for the maintenjuice of himself and his 
family after its expiration \ 

The change in political opinions ^u'oh has of late years taken 

place in this country, is strikingly exemplified in the following pa- 

'tagraph of this speech ; in which, alluding to some expressions in 

Ilia letters addressed to the Earl of CarlisTe, written in 1779, anji 

which were now quoted by the Earl, in debate, Lord A. says, 

• If however the Noble Lord had adverted with his usual accuracy 
to the context of the passages which he thought proper to cite, lie 
would have found that they related to a voluntary contribution to 
be dependent on the enthusiasm of the contributors ; or if to aforced 
and general contribution, then to be dependent on a mer^ vqlxmtary 
disclosure of income. At the period of which I speak, it never en- 
tered into the minds of the most enhghtened statesmen (and I ap- 
peal to a Noble and Learned Friend *' who now hears me, and was 
oonversant in the discussions to which I refer) (hat it could be .prac* 
ticable.to establifh a forced and s^eneral contnbution on the only just 
and dScient system of a forced ojUclosure.' 

POBTRY ^WdRAMATIC. 

Art. 34. Sidney * A Monody, occasioned by t^e Loss of the Vioe- 

jxxy Packet, on her Passage from Liverpool to I)ublin, in "Dtt^. 

179^* 4^0. 2S. Rickman. 

We wish toot to repress sensibility,, when excited by unaffected 
•sorrow : but there is something ^ singularly medumical m the afflic- 
tion which is said to have produced these lines, by anticipating 
the death of the two youths whom they were intended to bewail, 
end transferring them to two others who were not in the author's 
thouj^hts when they were written, that we nmst own their effect oa 
our Kelings to have been rather feeble. 

The e^sions of a poetical imagination, even in fictitious sorrow^ 
if Olumined by the s%htest radiations of genius, and if not ex- 
tremely wild, we arc ever disposed to treat with Jenity : but, when 
tbe best lines and sentiments of a production called a Monody^ .or 
mrhatever be its title, consist of shreds and foH lies' horn the wntii^s 
of others, it cannot claim, — ^nor ought it, through tenderness, to 
receive — the praises due to works of real merit. 

This monody may be very acceptable, perhaps, .to the author's 
fnends» and to the particular families which have been bereaved .of 
their children by the calamity described ; without .beiQg fit for the 
public. ^e, wh^di can be repaid for perusal only by real poetical ment* 
yi^iiMt Tutue Qifl there be in the name ofLyciJas^ or Sidmy^ to c^mpen* 

♦ ♦ The Lord Chancellor/ 

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sate for defects of composition ? The untimely death of dogSf catit 
and birds^ has often Been bewailed with wit and isgenutty in the lan- 
guage of aorrow : but the merit of these fugitive pieces did not rcit 
on liie name of Caesar, Pompey, or Selima. 

Though the author calls on a Muse in the first stanza, he bids her 
get about her business in the second : 

* Amid the sacred griefs which rend my heart. 
What sympathising Muse will bear a part J*^ 

* Far hence be all the giddy train 

Of fabled inspiration, light and vain/ 

The title of Sidney, which, like Lycidas, seems merely to imply 
^n individual, must perplex and embarrass those English readers who 
have not had a Sir Hugh Evans to tejl them that " there is numbci;s 
in nouns," or have never heard of the Greeks writing and speaking in 
the dual fmmber : for Sidney here implies two brotliers shanng the 
. isame melancholy fate. The sorrow seems equally fictitious with the 
iiame. , The author i^ay, however, boast at least one requisite for a 
poet : for he invenis not only the sorrow but the occasion ; and in- 
deed he has found so many scraps an^ allusions to his purpose in 
Mijton, pray, and other plaintive bards, that his conipilation re* 
^nds us' of w)iat musicians call,, not a Monody , but a Medley. 

Art. 35. CamirO'jSritonjf an Historical Play, in Three Acts. First 
performed at the Theatre-Royal, Haymarket, July 21, 1798. 
with a Preface. Written by James Boaden, Esq* 8vo. ai. 
Hobinsons. 1798. 

Jiistorical plays very rarely observe the truth of hist;ory. Fai^- 
fiiUy to Exhibit the march and issue of events in rtal life would n6t 
• exactly answer the play-wright*s purpose. Fiction must be invoked, 
in order to give a continued interest to the drama ; and probability 
must be outraged, in order tb surprise and give stage effect. Qhosts 
and spectres have lately Veceived some countenance, to the no smaU 
satisfaction of the dramatic writer ; who is happy, when put to a dtf- 
■ £culty, to avail himself of the ready assistance of these preternatural 
beings. Hence a splendid and amusing scene is exhibited to the gal- 
ieries','but good taste is always disgusted. Mr. Boaden, in order to pro- 
duce a sudden reconciUatioii between Llewellyn (the hero of the piece) 
' and his t)rptlier David,' makes the tomb of their mother "ope its 
ponderous and marble jaiVs" to vomit forth her ghost; which being 
accomplished, the apparition magnificently ascends to the upper re- 
gions! Thtis, by the intervention of thiaccrulcan-colaurcd ghost, the 
angry hot-blooded Welshmen are prevented fram destroying each 
ofher ;• a moniehtary change from hatred to love is effected; and 
David, who justbeforfe was in rebellion against his brother Llewellyn 
and anxibus to deprive him of his tnistref.s, returns to his allegiance, 
renounces his passion, and undertakes to conduct Elinor from 
Chester, where she was in captivity, to Llewellyn's retreat in the 
fastnesses of Snowdon. ''It must be confessed that this maternal ghost 
IS' not inirt>ked for nothing; for no sprite could do more in less tirtie : 
but was it necessary to oblige the tombs to give up their dead, in 
©rdcr to bring a rebellious brother to a sense of his duty ? The 

etag^ 



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MoNTOLt'CATALOGUB, Foettyi (fc. 2%$ 

«ta^ cannot produce its proper moral effect by such a conduct. Are 
ght>8t8 necessary to frighten to repentance ? Is conscience .so weak 
that it must be supematuradly^idea before it can do its duty? Miser- 
able erroneous doctrine ! Would it not have been more judicious in 
the jjoet, to have brought the offending brother to seek "for recon- 
ciliation with his prince by ** compunctious visitings of nature ?" 

The piece in other respects is not ill conducted, and the characters 
arc well delineated. Welsh scenery and Welsh bards are introduced ; 
and Lie weUyn» instead of being conducted to a miserable end, triumphs, 
and becomes the ally of Edward. The play abounds with loyal sen- 
timents, and is calculated to inspire ardor against an invading 
enemy. 

Art. 36. The Patrons of Genius : a Satirical Poem. With Anec- 
dotes of their Dependents, Votaries, and Toad-eaters. Part the 
First. 4to. 2s. 6d. Parsons. 1798. 

This poem wDl probably be read by all parties, as the author calls 
5* a spade a spade,V and favours neither power nor person, nor pro- 
fession. I^ is written on the plan (so often adopted) of the first satire 
of PersiusL 

With respect to the little patronage at present bestowed on genius 
by the great, we must observe that the rime for expccring specific 
fiimis for dedications, and remunerarion for flattery, is past. Au- 
thors are now too numerous, and the great ^te too poor, for such com- 
merce. If a work has real merit, the Public does more for it, by 
enabling the booksellers to give a price for the copy-right| than, in 
times when a Mecsenas could be found, any author could ever expect 
from individual patronage. Pope, the first poet who ceased to sob'cit 
patronage, (except for the subscription to bis Homer,) was the fir^t 
who acquired a considerable fortune by the sale of^ his writings. 
Every man can dedicate, but every man cannot produce a great 
work. It is well known that, in all countries, as civilization ap- 
proaches, hospitality recedes : so in liteiature, while the writers and 
readers are few, patronage is wanting to encourage ingenuity and dili- 
gence to instruct and amuse mankind. 

The personages assailed in this saUre have a sturdy foe to encoun- 
ter. If, unluckily, some of our friends be among them, however 
we may wish to mount the stage in their defence, our interference 
miffht, possibly, have no other effect than to render future flagellation 
still more violent. We must therefore leave them to fight their own 
battles i-rfor, though Broughton, the PugiHst and Beaf-eater, when 
in Germany, having had a quarrel with some soldiers of a Hanoverian 
regiment, is said to have offered to fight every individual of that 
corps, provided he might have leave to return home when he had 
done ; we cannot ** screw our courage to the striking place'* tight 
enough to fight /br a whole regiment maltr;aite by one who might an* 
swcr, perhaps, if asked his name, — " my name is Legion.** 

We shall therefore, without attempting a defence of the nominal 
culprits, merely bear pur testimony to the abilities of the judgct and 
present our readers with the exordium to his poem ; which will at 
once manifest the author's design, and terxt as a specimea of tho 
K^ a^d force of his numbers ; ^ 

I Beat 

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^6 . ' JfloNTHLT Catalogibp, Poettj,f:fc. 

< Beat to the ground sX life's meridian qta^Ci 
'L&e Aiiit matune by equinoctial rage ; 
:0*erwKclm*d with ills, by inany f ctfc consumMi 
rMirf^rtunc's child, to disappointtpctiHooirt^if! : 
•fcfplex'd, delected, doubtful what to do, 
*1 summon'd all my friends : — Brfy friends were two ; 
One wj^Petronius, Casshis one by name ;•— 

, 'Twas'but advice I wanted— ^nd:tbeytyttne. 
The first, endowed with ev'ry gentle graoe, 
Smooth was his speech, ,and smoo^er w^ his^fve ; 
"Trim* his apparel, oourticrrKke histiir— 
'A wond'rous faVrite of the young and -fair. 
Nor yet of worth or honour did h^ lack i 
iStrong,tho* complying, like a supplc^jadu 

•^ My other friend was hewn from stevner<lvfff; 
Rude^ un^efin'd, imjpracticable, rough, 
Seneath a misauthrope's unseemly cnut, 
He hid a heart <!0|]rajBeoU8, kind, and just : 
though t« wi^r, and travel, and the hand of Case, 
Before the time had stripp'd his forehead bare ; 
tiad PobbM his eyes of fine, his cheeks of bloom^ 
And o'er hb Tisage cast a turbid gloom : 
^Yet still with nerves unbroke, and brow elate, 

, Firm, proud, and patient, he derided Fate, 

* So the ull oak, by winds impetuous loft 
With mangled branches, and of leaves benft. 
Amid the tempest lifts its h^ on high. 
And ^^ods defiance at the threatening sky, 

* These friends and I were met in close divan ; 
And thus the tenor of their coUMel ran :— ^ 

Wc shall not cite personal accusations in the aubsequent text,— nor 
,the notes, which are written with still more spleen and personal ob- 
loquy, — ^but hasten to p. 36 ; where, after a bitter invective i^gaiat 
'the Whig Club in the aggregate, the poet exclaims : 

* No Whig is Cassius :^I should blush to sec 
My name enrolled in such society : 

A drinking, \brawling, singing, motley cfcw, 
Made up of rogues of ev'r)- shape and hue : 
Insolvent debtors, swindlers, samesteri, rooks, 
Didcarded atatesBnen, disappointed dukes. 

* Gods ! bow my bile o'erflows when men like these 
Corrupt society's most ^athaomc lees ; 

Amaze the welkin with an empty cry 
Of Justice, Rights of Man, and Liberty, 
As if the villain, whom no ties can bind 
In private life, can dierish all his kind ! 

* On that dread diwr, ibr come it surdiy must. 



When pow'r abused smU render up its ttrust, 
O ! my poor country, ere thou lift'st the knee, 
CoBiempbtc weU the d^ettkiet ^f Fra«ce, 



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Sec there 1 Oh ! see o'er all her fertile plains. 
With killing g^i>e, how cruel famine reigns ! 
See'towne deDnolishM^ -villages consumM ! 
, Gee all that's^ Turtuous to the scaffold doomM ! 
And .listen kow the troublous air rtbotinik 
With an accurst society of -sounds ! ' 

A horrid .^roaoertT-fharmQay of htU — 
The viatim*s dyio^ groan,— the nHu^'rer*>s^ell ^ 
The whoop of civil war, — the cannpn's Toar, 
tWhile Discord daps her wings, distfltkig gor Cf 
And Tyranny's dark genius laughs to^ee • 
The drops pollute the face of JUberty ! — 
Whose hateful >York wa? this ? The Whiffs of tGftiiU 
Their country's boasting champions, did it ail. 
With furious rage they pull'd a tyrant dowp. 
And then, with rage Biore fell, set up their own.* 
Notwithstanding this Philippic against the Whigs, the author seemg 
to have np partiality for Tories : — neither the Royal Family nor 
nobles are flattered, nor ever supposed to do anv thing right :-*nor 
can we rank him with Jacobins and Revolutionists. 

He compkitns in his preface, and In the opeaiog of the poem, 
of something*— we know not what :— but if ever he was in humour 
with the wprid before his misfortune happened, it has had a mar- 
vellous effect on his temper ! His disorder is, paadventure, the 
jaunJiccy which has discoloured persons as well as things :-.*or, per- 
haps, his complaint is biBow, 

Art, 37. The Battle of the Nile, a Poem : ty William Sotheby, 
Esq. 4to. as. 6d« Hatchard. 1799. 
We hope that we shajl not offend any of the preceding patriotic 
candidates for poetical fame, who have celebrated this signal and im- 
portant victory, if we should deem the poem before us .Sie hest pro- 
duction on the subject, that has cojne to our knowlege. It pQS^essea 
more nerve, more poetry, and a wider range of detail and descrip- 
tion. 

The events in Egypt, subsequently to Buonaparte's landing, arc 
accurately related, m lines whicn would not disgrace Prydcii. One 
inaccuracy, however, will be laid to Mr. Sotheby's charge, arising 
from credulity in the rumour of the death of the French leader, p. 1 j, 
where it is said : 

^ Hark, the loud vpice of rumour loads the ffale, 
And Europe spreads from realm to realm the tale : 
He rests in death, the dream of Olory o'er. 
He rests untimely on a barbairous shore !— 
Not in the front of War, mid Armies slain !— 
FeH the bold Conqueror, bleeding on the plain. 
While Olory wav*d her banner o er his head. 
And sooth'd the hero, as his spirit fled : 
Lo 1 there he lies, by treach'ry girt around ; 
The grim Assassin sterply eyes the wound, 
jaunts the Invader, as he groans in Death, 
And h^ with /E^jpt*^ cur^e hj^p^rUng br^att' 

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but, as Prior says : 

** Odzooks ! must one swear to the truth of a song ?** 

Mr. Sotheby was not singer in his belief of this Vumour, which 
liad penetrated evfiy pjat ^ Euttjpc ; nor is the fallacy yet totally 
discredited among those who so ardently wished for the event. 

After the lines just cited, Mr. S. paints, with a glowing pencil^ 
many of the revolotionary horrors in France, and the insidious arts 
with which she compassedthe ruin, devastation, carnage, and plunder 
of other countries ; -particularly Switzerland. Speaking of the hap» 
pineis of the fatter, he says: 

* Did none resist ?— before the invading host 
tfone fall in arhis upon his native coast f 
A race w^nt forth — the women mock'd at fear, , 
Fought mid the ranksi and feH the warrior near — 
A face went forth — the grandsire, father, son, 
March'd side ^y side and deem'd the battle won ; — 
March'd where their sires of old had proudly bled,* 
And clashed their iron shields as Austria fled ! — 
Ah, hapless race ! m vain each bosom glowM, 
^nd Hfe, thro' all, one kindred ciirrent flowM ! 
Gaull by thy fraud subduM, the patriot band 
J>y*d with fraternal blood each murderous hand : 
While thou aloof, upon the mountain height 
Towerd*st like a vulture hanging o'er the fight ; 
And, when the slaughter ceas'dupon the plain,! 
Did'st rush in triumph down, and spoil the slain.' 
The last of these, lines, we think, is the most feeble in tlie poem. 
DuTst has scarcely been admitted in good poetry, since it^ was stig- 
matized by Pope : 

«* While expletives their feeble aid rio join.'* 
Mr. S. admirably describes our military ardour in arming to repel 
fovasion — the Foe's vain attempts on Ireland — and his threats agains^ 
England : — then bids * 'Albion beware ! 

f Trust not their oath, till heav'n accepts their pray'r— 
Have we not seen their harlot Goddess crown'd. 
While frantic elders howl'd the shrine around ? 
Seen their pledg'd hand, to still their rav'nous host, 
Unbar th' associate town, and ransom'd coast ? 
On fear's bow'd neck, their yoke of freedom chain, 
Torce states, self-rul'd, beneath a tyrant reign ; 
And, cast •proud Venice, that espou6'd the wave. 
At Austria's fe^t, a tributary slave-' 
—and terminates th^ poem by recommending firmness iq |«sistancc^ 
and in the support of our government and religion^ 

: E D U C A T I O *f , Cffr. 
Art. 38. yfn Introdtrcfhn to English Grammar : intended also t(^ 
assist young Parsons in the Study of other Languages, and .to re- 
move many of the Difficulties* virhjch impede their Progress ii^ 
I-caming, 4to* as. IW. Philips, Lombard-Street, 

\t 

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Monthly <l4jiL0GxjE, j&J^^/i^, JfJ*^, itig 

It has been observed that> in the Augustan age of English Ut^ra- 
tiirc, we could not boast of either a dictionary or a griammar of our 
hnguage 5 or at least of any books that W^^ht be said to reduce our . 
vernacular tongue to a fixed stsfndard. "iTiis defect has bcetl sbp' 
jJb'ed by Dr. Johnson's dictionary, and Bishop Lo^th*« gr^ttikt': 
and perhaps it is not one of the least of the merits erf tho^ works, 
that thej^ have induced scholars to pay attention to a languagewfi^i^b' 
fbr copiousness and vigour is exceeded by *fe^*; the capacity. t>f 
which for harmonious modulation is sufficiently manifest in the tmt- • 
ings of our poets ; and which perhaps wants only regularity td make' 
it complete. That this- regularity is unattainable^ without 'a sacrifice' 
<jf the greatest cxcefleiicies of the language, is gentf^ly ^UoWed^ but' 
•urely every attempt to explain the analogy between words and the ideas 
<if which they are the symbols, to mark their rdations, and to as- 
certain the different modes of action and passion, with the circum- 
stantials of time and plKce, must be of general use : — for, if a' great' 
part of the disputes among- mankind arise from the obscurity antf , 
ambiguity of the terms v^mich they use, we cannot take too nmcji 
pains in assigning to every word a clear and precise meaning, both, 
wngly and in conjunction with others. 

The author of the work before us seems to have been acttiated by 
very laudable motives, and to have bestowed much time and thougm: 
on the subject. — Of his plan, a judgement may be formed from the 
following extract from his preface : 

• Although an attempt to become usefiil may not in general want 
an apology, yet this Intkoduction to Grammar requiren one. 
The public are in possession of so- many English Grammars, among 
which are many good ones, that my entering the lists might make mc 
appear like the knights-errant of old, who, coming from distant rc- 
^ons, suddenly appeared in a tournament, and threw the gauntlet to- 
nic stoutest men m the land ; if, to clear myself of the reproach of 
Quixotism, which I do not wish to incur, I did not ^'^ an idea of 
my plan. 

. * I will veoturc to say, that when young persons unden^tami thi« 
Introduction, they, to say no more, will know as much of Engh'sh 
grammar as most of those who have been taught by the Grammars 
which are commbnly put into children's hand^. But the design of 
thia litde work is more particularly to open the way to otheji^ Ian* 
guages^and tolesseu those dtfficulues which are apt to discourage young 
Bcople, when they come to study Latin, French, &c. because having* 
nttleor no idea, and certainly no habit, of some things unnecessary. 
in English, such as making adjectives agree with substantives, Scc» 
they naturally liislike a study which at first view presents trouble, and 
very little tp entice them : for it is well known how dry the siudy of 
languages is at first. 

' * liprp I cannot help taking notice of an opinion^ the more |hn- 
geppns as it or^nated amongst scholars, though it has been propar 
gKttd by others, who know little about the natter, *< Let a youth," 
jwy they, " Icam Latin, and he will know his English grammar." 
,Tnat mly be trtic, but the question is, whether the knowledge he 
ii^ acquire a£it ixx th^t mamxer, mdy not cost him muchmorp 

• troubki 



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i3<5' MoNtHLf GAfAtoCutf, SiucaiioHi t^it. 

trouble, and require much more time, than if the first nbtions ^f . 
graomiar had been giYeu him in his own language ; and whether he 
may not be di«gu6ted with JLatin» before he knows his En^llsji' 
Grammar,, whi^ is sometimes the case. For my part, I tmnk, 
that it isniuch ea«ieV to niai:e a yoifth understand what is a substan- 
tire and what an gdjectiTc, by applying them to the Engh'sh words. \ 
g^ noHf thftn to .the t4atiu ones, bontts homo ; and if any one still 
|iersis^ ia a contrary opiuk>n».my answer will be, prove it,-f/ eris 
miii magmu^ Apollo* We might as wdl put under the care of a dancing- 
matter, axhild before he can stand on his legs> saying that he coula- 
not fail to know how to walk by the time he should be an adept ia 
dancing; - 

* To -this Introduction I ha^te added Dtrtftiom for Parnng^ which 
to some majF se^m long ; but I hope, when read attentively, nothing^ 
in them will appear unnecessary to my design. I am convmced that 
« no one can translate properlj^, or even feel the beauties of an £nghsh 
book, who cannot perceive the right construction of phraseS) or* . 
who -mistakes the- tenses of verbs jl have always found a deficiency, 
m that point, attended with an almost invincible difficulty to young' 
people, when they< try to translate Engh'sh into any other language ; 
and I dare say many teachers have found great difficulty, if not in. 
pointing out the differcn£ meaningsi at least in making their pupils 
remember their distinctions, so as to make use of them when neces- 
sary. Lliave therefore said what seemed to me necessary to obvis^e' 
these dil&iilties.' 

There is something peculiar in Mr. Bridel's * disposition of the- 
subject, and the terms which he uses are rather uncommon : yet wc, 
cannot but. allow that they ar^ significant ; — ^and akhoogh it may re*. 
quir« more attention to imderstand this work, than young persons' 
may always be willing to bestpw, it will reward them for their labour j 
it may -also be of great service to foreigners who are desirous of in-^ 
forming themselves respecting the^ principles of our laiigUage. 

Art: 39*- Tht Hfam^-i frmtd t in Two Parts*- By>]Vfrs« LovechikL 
i2mo» 28. 6d. Newbery* 

The first of these volumes 19 a spelHng^book, the second constsltk 
of reB4lmg-ie4soti6«. So numerous are publicationt oi this-Jcind,' th«^ 
it is di^iituit'to aadgn-to each its distinct or peculiar office ormcrib* 
Few are totally dcstkotc of uwe, though some are bett6"adaptcd« 
t» df«:pttrpo8e thaa others;. The prciscnt work^ it \% said, (p9ttiQ»-r 
larly th«t^vst volume,) may- either serve alone: for tcocyng- midi^ 
mcMs,' or pwve a convenient appendage to anyt-of the ingfehious'in^ 
wntions now to be purchased for the purpose of rendondg. ^i;g««iiMt * 
pleasattty' and p^int out how to use them, so xkata they may be ramy 
an amusement. 1 

lie writer has beitOAved" considerable pains irf coUeclirtg^ and ar- 
nmginfg the materials ; and -if instructors will attend to uie dtreo» 
tiojH wkieh are gtven^; or ^take those measured of 'their own vMdi* 

. * T^e work is said to be printed fgr E. P. Bndel, Alatsttr of aii^ 
Academy at Stoke I{£wi|igton ; and we thersi^ore conclude that hc<ll 
theau^tofit* ... . .^. ../ 

. oatiird 

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natUTsJ good eetisc may suggest, tbe volunics wiU no doubt proTc ad* ' 
vaatagcoud. In tlic secoindr the lessons leaJ very, propyerly to.thd 
distinctions of nouns, adj^ctives^ verbs, &c. and tbey indude certaia» 
short narratives, • -v^cb may afford pleasure and instruction. 

- MISCELLANEOUS. 

ArU 40* ^ Vtew of the Causes and Cons^^fuepcts of Snffith Wartf 

from the Invasion of the Country by Julius Caesar to the present 

Time. By Anthony Robinson, ^vo. pp. %^\, 4s. Boards, 

Johnson. 1798. . ' 

This compilation from the English historiarts; !rut chiefly talfen 

from Dr. Hemy^ appears to Have been made for the purpose of im» 

pressing on* the public mind, as a grand political axiom, the" opinfoiv 

that, whatevermay have been the- pretences or whosoever the authors 

of a war, the event has bceii always' fatal to the nation at large. 

Mr; R.'s style is much too inffattcd, and not unfrcquently vulgar | 
ar'vHien he says of Htnry the Thtrdi that he was * a coward; a liar, 
ahtd^somc think a fool,** p.''4t.— and again p. 80; 

*- How mankind shaft be ga^^feiTTed in future, it is impo&stble to 
say: bnt'^t they have hitherto been governed hy fbrce cannot be 
dtrnied. 

« Mtiscular strength has^ indeed been subdued by the etxergfql of 
mhtd 2 but the advantage to man has only been, that the cunning of 
a picfc-pocket has succeeded to the strength of a rufifen.'- 

tlc IS- the panegyrist of Hierrry the Seventh and Jtimes I. merely 
because they were lovets of pcacx? ; — and even the immortal King 
WiHiam Josesxal! claim to /^/ rc?pcct, because he opposed Louis XI\w 
in the fidd. 

The wars of the pV^senl cen^ttiry, as bein^ nearer to observation, 
- arf treated with ititemperate prejudice, and with piuch more declama- 
tion thau amiment. Gonccrrtinjg; that cont^t in which we are now 
rug ag ed, B(lr. R. tellsus that so acute are his reflections, and' so 
dreamul his forewaming8,.that *the pen trembles in his hand.' 

Acti 41> Cafiu if Qripnal Z^ten. from the Arn^ of General Btmd* 
farte in Egypt $ intercepted by the Fleet under the Command of 
A4Bcura)^ Lord Nelson. With an LagUsh Translation* Svo*. 
4s. 6d, sewed. Wright. 

These intercepted and ^nqvle6tionably authentic letters contai^ t 
~ ly-ibteresting mass of information, respecting Bonaparte's wild 
ptiain expedition,and Nelson's eyerrmemortbJe aaVd glorious victory. 
ac of these articles of correspondence wae written by Gei^eral 
Bonaparte hinwclf ;> others by ofiicer» of distinction, military and 
naval }, and many passages in them are aptly illustrated by the trans* 
littoys notes. A weU-written liitroductioji is prefixed 5 in whic^ 
tbe.^u^W his taken especial caie to evince his loyalty, zeal, aitd 
patliotisni, by a torirent of execration^ which he unceasinj^ly pours 
oii ^^g^o^ die commander of the," Army of the East," his. wretch- 
c2fbuower>» andtfie existing rulers of the French nation in vcacx^ 
li^tftjtti honour of human, natjure, it were to be wished that «it 
contioenud enemies Bad not s^orded him such incontrorertiblc ooca* 
3 iioDt 

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sions as they have done, for the exercise of his distinguished talent at 
invective. He has, nevertheless, whatever be the ornament of h» 
style, fairly commumcated to the world a most acceptable publica- 
tion.-— Were it not for the multiplicity and pressure of articles, in 
every class of Hterature, now waiting for admission lAtO our woi^V 
^e could have enriched it with extracts which would have afforded 
much gratification to the generality of our readers : but we must con- 
tent ourselves vdth recommending to them a perusal, o^the ccAectioif 
'at large. • 

Art. 42. jih Jiuthentlc Narrative of the proceedings of his Majesty* s 
Squadron^ under the Command gf Rear-Adminu Sir Horatio Nd- 
sori, fram its sailing from Gibraltar ta the Conclusion of the glo- 
rious Battle of the Nile ; drawn up from the Minutes of an Officer 
of Rank in the Squadron. 8vo. 6d. Cadell jun. and Davies.^ 
This account has already appeared in different newspapers, and {s 
now republished in the form of a pamphlet. The editor, in air ad- 
dress prefixed to the narrative, makes use of some expressions which 
^re too unqualified, but wliich are ip a great degree excusable ia 
the warmth of admiration for one of the most brilliant victories ever 
atchicved, and which was distinguished by many pecuh'ar circum- 
stances : particularly in the time of commencing the attack. It was 
noon, (on the ist of August) when the British fleet arrived in sight 
of the Pharos of Alexandria ; and then, it may be supposed, they 
could not be le^ than six leagues distant from the French fleet: which 
was at least equal in force, and was placed to defend themselves and the 
harbour, in such a position as they believed to be most advantageous, 
their flanks being defended by gun-boats aiid a battery on the land. 
Ko time was lost, nor was the attack delayed from a pn^ferenqe of 
fighting by day-light. The Admiral's plan had been long formed ; 
^id the fleets were closely engaged by sun-set, viz. ; at half past six. - 
^ At about seven o^cIock, total darkness had come on ; but the whole 
hemisphere was, with intervals, illuminated by the fire of the hostile 
"fleets.* By this light, the battle was fought. 

*The narrative is plain and clear : but, in order to g\\€ correct id^as^ 
.the account should have been accompanied with apian of the port, 
.and of the position of the enemy's' fleet. 

•Art. 43. jin autheniic Narrative of the Mutiny on loarJ the f TVtfiix- 
^rt2 Ship Lady Shore ; with Particulars of a Journey through Part 
of Brazil : in a Letter, dated " Rio Janeiro, i8th January 1798," 
to the .Rev. John Black, Woodbridge, Suffolk, from Mr. Joha 
• 'Blatk, one of the surviving Officers of the Ship. Svo. 2s. Ro- 
binsons, Set. 1798. 
*' The account of this mutiny is short, and the circumstances are 
'interesting. The proposed destination of the ship Avas to New SotttK 
Wales; and a party of military were embarked m her, who were to 
have landed at Port Jdckson. The mutineers were principally Ftefidi- 
mcn. After having murdered Captain Wilcocks and the chief fnate, 
they put into the long-boat, when near the coast of Brazil, the remfin- 
*fiig officers, and several others ; first compelling them to sign c^rti- 
'ficatcsthat none of them Vvould serve against &e French, for a year 
■ 4 • * ^ and 



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%nd a day ; and UkcM^^isc stating that the petty officers and seatffen j not 
put into the long boat, were detajned against their incKnations. In re- 
turn, the mutineers, wljp had chosen two Frcnchnneo for theii* first 
. and second captains, gave a paper certifying that it \vas not by any ill 
tiieatroent received that they had been induced to the measures wliicl^ 
they had taken, *• but on account of their having been trepanned into 
the British service, without being able to obtain any redress.' The 
long boat soon arrived at Rio Grande, and the ship was ^terward 
taken by a French frigate. — The narrative is inscribed to his Excel- 
lency the Chevalier D' Almeida, Minister Plenipotentiary from the 
Court of Lisbon to that of London, < as a testimony of gratitude* 
for the hospitah'ty shewn to the narrator and his fellow-sufferers 
at the Portuguese settlements in the Brazils. 

Among th^ circumstances which attracted the notice of the writer 
while at the Brazils, he mentions the almost incredible number of cattle 
which are killed merely for the sake of the skins. The number of 
skms exported annually from Kio Janeiro alone was said to be nearly 
400,000* ' The price of a fine bullock is a dollar. 

Art. 44. Memoirs of Colonel Edward Marcus Despard. By Jamet 
Bannantine, his Secretary when King's Superintcndant at'Hondu- 
• ras, &c. 8vo. is. Ridgway. 1799. 

Mr. Bannantine enumerates the active pubhc services of his friend 
Col. Despard \\\ his professional capacity, and complains that this 
gallant, but at present unfortunate, gentleman, has been much in-i 
jurcd through the misrepresentations of certain enemies ; notwith- 
standing that he has repeatedly received assurances * that his services 
were not forgotten, and would receive their reward.' It is added * that 
his attempts, for nearly these eight years, to get his accounts with 
government settled, have been equally fruitless and unsuccessful, al- 
though he has^aiois to a large amount.' We doubt not the Colo- 
nel's merit as a commanding officer, in Jamaica, on the Mosquitoi 
Shore, and at Honduras ; and w^ are tlie more concerned on finding 
this account T>f Us present embarrassments concluding with -tlie follow- 
ing paragraph : * Respecting the nature of his imprisonment in Cold 
Bath FieWs, it would be improper here to enter into any detail or in- 
vestigation. ' It is enough to say, that after having been kept in con- 
finement for several weeks last spring, he was released, no charge 
being substantiated agaiust him ; but immldrately after the suspcnsiori 
of the Habeas Corpus act, he was again arrested, without 'any speci- 
fic charge, and has now been kept a close prisoner for above eight 
months in a House 'of Correctiqn, without any attempt to bring 
blip to triaL' — Surely there arc syme circumstamces attending this ap- 
, parently hard case, which are not yet before us. jiu<U aiierujti partem. 

Art. 45. An Ohlique Vteiv of the Grand Conspiracy against Social 
Ordery &c. &c. 8vo^ is. Wright. 

This ObUque View is sketched with a porcupine-quill, whicli can 
|ctatch, but cannot write. It is really not our fault if the Anti- Ja- 
cobin literature does not amu^ the public. \f,c are charged, indeed, 
by this and by every unsucces-ifiil author of the party, in his turn,' 
with a conspiracy to bring his writings and all that is valuable in society 

Rat. F£f. 1799. R "iusp 

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234 ft|0|JTHLY CaTALOOUB, SdigUuj, tsfc. 

into disrepute. Geniua cannot be brought into disrepute. Mr. 
Burke, wTicther he wrote to encourage the foundation, by rebelL'oDt 
of a repubh'c in America, or to disco*u^ge the foundation, by rebel- 
lion, of a republic in France, was alike secure of a world of admiren, 
tuid obtained the praise of the Monthly Review. 

Art: 46. Infant ImslUutesy Part the First : or, a Nurscrical Essay 
on the Poetr/, lyric and alkgorical, of the earlier Ages. With in 
Appendix. 8vo. pp.69. I8,6d. Rivingtons. 
** Blessed be the man who invented laughing." We esteem our- 
selves singularly happy, when a wnter forces us to change the grave 
and fifcrious aspect of criticism for the cheerful smile, and enables us 
to shake the cobwebs off the heart by a good and genuine laugh. 
The author before us seemed at first to be of this kind : but the rogue 
has disappointed us. His comments on the Lvllahy Muse^ or the 
nonsense which has been invented for the diversion of children, have 
some humour : but, alas ! he wears it threadbare, and the acrimony of 
politics is seen through it. 

As it may be difficult by description to give an idea of this work, 
in which a gentleman of some learning and abilities has in a strange 
way endeavoured to amuse himself, and hopes also to amuse others, 
we shall extract a part of his tllus^ous commentary on the celebrated 
verses, 

** I sing a song o* sixpence 
A pocket full of rye. 
And four and twenty blackbirds 
Baked in a pie." 

* If it should be wondered why the black-birds and the rye are 
particularly specified in this place, a sufEcient reason, perhaps, might 
be given for our author's choice, both as to the ope and'the other. 
With respect to rye^ the author might probably intend it as a final ab- 
breviation, according to the orthogi-aphy of Jiis day, of tlie word trean. 
^\xrye ; just as it is said, though I know not how truly, ^hat a certain 
singing- woman, famous for picking up gr^at quantities' of this kind 
of lye from those who have not wit enough to keep it, is called Mara^ 
because her name is Macnamoni. — But this conjecture 1 must leave 
to the critics. — Here then we see what it is that these birds have to 
chirp and whistle for ; lest however this might appear to be rather too 
satirical, the poet h^s artfully contrived to soften it, by entitling 
them black-birds, as expressive of their freedom of speech ; the pro* 
priety of which I might not myself perhaps have fully olfacted, had it 
not been for the observation of a friend, that the very note of the 
black-bird always inspired him with the idea of liberty. 
\ Tvjee »^ fi ,tm , ,ti.too, tt . titti . ^nveew** 

f* quantum est in rebus inane P* Does this writer mean to rtdicuk 
tome strange commentaries on the Revelation, tfrhich proceed with a 
latitude of interpretation almost equal to the above ? 

The author has however brought together, in one view, the quan- 
tity of nonsense formerly taught to children ; which roust avggest the 
propriety of substituting better Infant Institutes. 

RELIGIOUS, Isfc. 
Art* 47. ji Guide to the Cburth, in several Discourses ; to which 
are added, two Postscripts $ t^e first, to those Members of tb« 

DigtzedbyCjOOglC Churth 



Monthly Catalogub, Single Semions. 235 

Cfanrch who occasionally frequent other Places of Public Wor- 
• ihip ; the second to the Clergy. - Addressed to William WHber- 

ibrce, Esq. M. P. By the Rev. Charles Daubeny, LL.6» 

a Presbyter of the Church of England. 8vo. pp. 488. 78. 6d« 

Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1798. 

In the dedication to Mr. Wilberforce, this author deems some apo- 
logy necessary for addressing to him discourses, many parts of which 
have no claim to his notice, being calculated only for the use of those 
mu'mjhrmed persons for whom they were originally written. These 
muittformed persons we find in the sequel to be all those who dissent 
from the doctrines and discipline of the Church of England as by law 
establislied, of whatever sect or denomination they may be ; for it 
appears, from the whole tenor of scripture, (it seems,) that the onir 
appointed road to heaven lies through the Ckurch of Christ oa earth 
fwhich IS the Church of I^ngland] :-^for the church is the spouse of 
Chpst, whose office it is to bring forth children unto Gqd ; — and it ia 
from the arms of this spiritual mother that all the legitimate children 
of the Father are received. To trace the church througl) its several 
progressive stages, from its original establishment in Paradise, where 
the good news of a Saviour was first delivered to fallen man,— through 
its infant condition, — and from its days of contraction in the ark, when 
it was confined to one single family, to its subsequent enlargement in 
the descendants of Abraham ; from its wandering state in'the wilderness, 
and its more complete settlement in the land of Canaan, down to that 
fulness of time when our Saviour came in the flesh to visit it ; our au- 
thor justly says, would lead us into too wide a field. It is our happi-^ 
ness, he adds, that we live in that stage of the church, which may 
be considered as the completion of every former dispensation. Jcsui 
Christ, the head of the church, by purifying it from the corruptions 
vhich it had 'contracted, and restoring its worship to the spiritual 
standard in which its perfection consists, has (as it were) put his finish^ 
ing hand to th^ establishment of it, on the plan best calculated to se* 
cure the purpose which he had in view. 

After this statement, Mr. D. informs us, p. 476, that * some well- 
disposed people have found a way of satisfying themselves on this 
head, by making the Church of Christ and Church of England mean 
two different things. — That ^noZ-flw/ people should be carried away 
with so plausible an idea, can be no matter of surprise : they have 
been and always will be deceived by sounds : — ^but.that men of read- 
ing and education should adopt it affords one proof, among many, 
that experience does not always furnish wisdom.' 

We need say no more concer^iing this work, than to remark that- 
tlie author is at variance with Bp. Hoadly and Archdeacon P«»Iey^ 
and '^ww with Bp. Warburtou ; and not in perfici agreement with Mr. 
Wilberforce. 

SINGLE SERMONS. 

Art. 48. The Fall of Papal Rome recommended to the Consideration of 
England. By the Rev. Charles Daubeny, LL. B, Author of a 
Guide to the Church. 8vo. pp.45. is. Caddl jun. and 
Davies. 

. R a It 

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i2ir RfoNtHLt Catalogue, Sifi'jU Strrmns. 

In this sensible discourse, the preacher, takes occasion, from the 
application of several prophecies to Papal Rome, to point out some 
Circumstances which present events force, as it were, on immediate 
noticfe ; with the view of impressing pn the minds of his hearers, by 
way of antidote to the growing infidelity of the day, a full convictioxf 
of the superintending providence of that all-wise Governor of the 
universe, " whose counsel shall stand, and who will do a|l lus piea^ 
dure.*' He concludes by observing that * these are evci\tfi4 timcfc 
'An important page in the great history of the world is now^ bcfbro 
us. How faT this nation may be concerned in the contents of it, God 
only knows. But it is sufficient for us to know^ that, if the Christ- 
ian religion is to be preserved in this country, the professors must be 
in earnest upon the subject. Possessing the form of the church, we 
inust also pos'^ess that sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit, which 
was designed to accompany it ; without which we are in the condi- 
tion of the church of Sardis mentioned in the 'Revelations, " We have 
a name that we //W, and are deadJ** Rev. iiu i.' 

Art. 49. Preached Aug. 13, 1798, before the Reading and Henley 
Associations, the Woodley Cavalry, and the Reading Volunteers, 
at the Consecration of -the Colours of the Reading Association. 
By Richard Valpy, D. D. F.A.S. 8vo. is- Elmsly and 
Bremner, &c. . 

Ardently and frequently have Protestant Divines prayed for the 
downfiall of the Pope ! " yet, when the venerable old man was 
hurled ffom his throile, and his triple crown was torn from his head 
by French violence, how few have even noticed the circumstance ! 
Dr. Valpy is an exception. He seems to have given the subject much 
thought, and he apprehends that all must be struck with the comple- 
tion of prophecy by this event. * In the year538, (he says,) the empire 
•f the Qoths was abolished in Rome, and from that time the Ponti- 
fical power advanced with rapid strides, until it became, by its influence 
and authority, the most extensive dominion in Europe. If this epoch 
be admitted, the period mentioned by the prophets fixes the destruc- 
tion of the Pontifical authority to the present year, in which the Pope 
was forced to fly from Rome by the arms of France.' — Copious notes 
are subjoined to justify the calculation, on whidi we say nothing. 
- Dr. Valpy proceeds to assure us that order will arise out of the 
present anarchy ; and he expresses his wish that we should cherish 
what he ^alls an humble hope that " the Lord hath chosen Ei\^landfor 
limselfV* If there be ground for such hope, all Englishmen ou^ht 
to he al'ways] ready (text, Matth. xxiv. 44.) for every service which 
their country m^y require. 

Affixed is the Consecration prayer ; in which the Association * de- 
dicate themselves to the service and glory of God, and in hu name set 
vp their banners.' 

Art. 50. Preached at the Consecration of a Chapel at Bradley, . by 
the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Worcester, . 1 2tb Sept. 
T798. By the Rev.John Plumptre, jM. A. Prebendary of Wor- 
cester. 8vo. 6d. Rivingtona. 
Mr. P. has here advanced all that his subject required, from'Matth. 

xviii. 2o. Indeed, the expediency and necessity of appointed places 

for 

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Mo!<rrfitY CataloguEi Strtgh Sermont. ^37 

for rc%tou8 worship must be evident, and there is no reason why ther 
ahould not be appropriate. 

^rt.51. Preached August 17, 1798, before the Armed Association of 
the united Parishes of St. Margaret and St. John, Westminster ; on 
the Consecration of the Colours. To which is prefixed the Cere* 
mony observed on the Occasion. By the Rev. Charltfs Fvtoes, 
LL.D. &c. 4to. IS. Hatchard. 

Dr. F. commences this discourse with arf account of the miraculoiu 
interpositions in favour of the Jewish people, their almost miraculous 
ingratitude and infidelity, and their subsequent punishment. This 
picture he exhibits as an awful lesson to every nation which enjoys 
divine revelation and protection, not to forget nor deny their o^ 
While he is sorry in reflecting that the people of this privileged country 
are not sufficiently gratefid and obedient to the <• Father of att 
mercies," he is consoled by thinking that we are not to be degrade4 
by a comparison with those who have daringly renounced the worship 
of God, and blasphemed the Saviour of the world : — he hopes that the 
solenmity which has called his audience together may inspire them 
with fortitude, established on reh'eious principles ; — and he concludes 
with complimenting the associated corps on' their respectable mihtarr 
appearanpe, and with his assurance that, w^re they really called to 
defend their King and Country against an invading foe, they woukt 
^ttit tifcmse/vet /tie men» 

Art. ^2* On the peatUaf Necessity of renewed and vigorous Exertions 
OH the Part of the Clergy y in the present extraordinary Conjuncture ^ for 
the Support ofRe/igion^ Peace, and Order 9 ^c: preached at the primary 
Visitation of the Bishop of Chichester, at Hastings^ August 20^ 
1798. By J. Lettice, D. D. 4to. is. Rivingtons. 
By what rule of Interpretation, the text Isa. xL 3 1. can be supposed 
to refer to the apostles and first preachers of the gospel, or the first part 
of ilyTiey who wait on the Lord, can be solely appropriated to the ckrgy 
or * the ministers of the altar,* we are unable to divine. The text is 
a general promise to men of piety and virtue, Whether clergry or laity; 
a promise which ought to animate all to religious exertion, and to 
keep the pious and conscientious from being cast down and dispirited 
in the worst and most unpromising times. Dr. L. seems aware, at 
tiie conclusion of ^is discourse, that he iias not been altogether cor- 
rect in limiting the description m his text to the clergy ; aj)d he calls 
on an the church militant* as comprising all sects and parties, to unite 
aeainst the foes of religion, order, liberty, and peace. To stimulate 
their exertions, he tells them that * the very existence of Christianity 
i^y depend on the combat :' but vn this latter score we have no fears, 
»nce a greater than Dr. L. has told us that against the Gospel 
neither Death nor Hell shall prevail. 

Art. 53. Rome is Fallen ! Preached at the Visitation held at Scar- 
borough, June 5, 1798. By Francis Wrangham, M. A. 4to. 

IS. only. 

This sermon wHl reflect considerable credit on fts author. We 
know not which most to commend, its learning, its manliness, its %ex{» 
^ or its liberality. It appears to us that, to a virtuous and con* 

sckntious 

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J38 Monthly Catalogue, Singh Sermons. 

/- 
fcicntioos diligence in discharging the duties of his professton, Mr. 
W, unites the utmost candour and generosity of Sentiment. He re 
joicea at the fall of Papal power, without the acrimony of a polemic ; 
and witk zeal and learning he maintains his own principles, without 
feeling any narrow and ungenerous sentiments respecting those who do 
Hot come within the pale of the established communion. 

From Rev. xiv. 8. he discourses on the Fall of Papal Romg^ sup- 
posing that this is meant by Babylon in the tfext, though he does not 
pretend to undertake the developement of the mysterious pages of the 
Apocalypse ; which he with critical justice represents as * bar- 
barous even to solecism in its style, of an involved and intricate con- 
•tTUCtion, and. loaded with dark and apparently-wild allegory.* To 
this his own judgpient of it as a composition, he subjoins in a note 
the opinions of several learned men ; as that of Scaliger, who said CoA 
^nus satmh quin non SQrlpsit In Apocdypstn; and that of Dr. South, who 
assertea that " it either finds a man mad, or leaves him so.** "We 
•^cercly wish that the extreme difficulty, which the most able bibli- 
cal scholars ha^tf: found in attempting to interpret consistently the 
ttiysterious contents of this book, could operate to restrain the pro* 
pcnsity of some modern Christians ; who seem to read their Bible 
and their new8paper together, make Gazettes their expositors of St^ 
John's visions, and apply the strange allegories of this book to the 
whole chain of recent occurrences. Such persons may mean well, 
but they arc not justified by common sense and sound cn'ticism. The 
passage to which Mr. Wrangham refers may be held up as a ^sv\ 
figurative delineation of the crimes and punishment of Papal Romcf 
and be tngeniously accommodated to them : but the judicious critic will 
advance with extreme caution in this dangerous career. 

As Christians and Protestants, however, we mus^ be pleased, not 
th^t the latter days of a venerable individual are embittered, but that 
a power which exercised the most grievous spiritual tyranny over 
Kings and their people is subverted, and that she^ nvbo made all na' 
iifiris to drink of the 'urine of the wrath of her fomicatioa^ is tumbled 
from her " bad eminence^" 

By the fall of ^he Papal power and authority, the protestant 
church of Christ is not indeed delivered from all its enemies. Vice 
and infidelity prevail in an alarming degree ; and therefore Mr. W. 
proceeds to exhort his brethren the clergy to peculiar diligence and 
assiduity. His admonitions rre serious and pertinent, and nierit much 
attention. He particularly cautions his brethren against secularity 
and lukewarmness ; not that he wishes to see the clergy secluded from 
innocent and cheerful intercourse with their fellow-creatures, nor ani- 
mated by a flaming zeal which shall consume all liberality, and 
prompt them in the cause of religion to proclaim on earth war, ill- 
V'?LL towards men. No. * Let ^s not (says he) exhibit our mis- • 
tafcen godliness at the expence of our humanity, nor erect aa akar 
to faith upon the ruins of the temple of Charity.* 

lur noticing the military associations, of whjch the clergy are m ^ 
some places niehibers, Mr. W. offers it as his- opinion that they ought 
not as yet, if they have no sword ^ to sell their garments and buy onei but 
to content themselves with using the spiritual weapons belongiu^^ to 

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iKcir profession. By dili^ntly and faitMully wielding these agaimic 
the enemies of religion and of our country, he says, addressing fcini* 
•elf to his brethren, * we shall havedone all that we were permitted, 

perhaps all thtit we ought to have been permitted to do : and if for 

come mysterious but unquestionably wise purpose of Providence— we 
be indeed ordained in our turn to drink at the hand of the Lord the cup 
of his ftiry^ to drink the dregs of the cup of tremblings and wring them 
#«f— w shall possess the consciousness of having contributed our 
most Jealous endeavours to avert the ruin of our country ; a con- 
sciousness which, sustaining and consoling us amidst our sufTeringi, 
will in itself be our exceeding great re<wardJ 

This discourse is enriched by many valuable notes ; at the begin- 
ning of which Mr. W. tells us that he has been falsely suspected of 
being the author of the Pursuits of Literature. 

Art. 54. Preached, August 25, 1798, before the East-Stonchonsc 
Foot Association, and published at their Request, by John Bid- 
lake, A. B. &c. &c. 8vo. IS. Chapman. 
We have perused this discourse with pleasure, for the preacher tp. 
pears not as a party-man, but as a friend to truth and virtue. He it 
temperate and rational in speaking of the French revolution \ and 
he gives a just account, we think, of religion in general, and of the 
Christian scheme in particular. As to the latter, he says, p. ^r. 

* we must look for it in its primitive sta'e; not as it is found, dis- 
torted by narrow bigotiy, or disguised by sordid interest ; not, as it 
loo often is, mixed with the passions and temporal interests of de- 
signing men, and made the instrument of worldly ambition, coloured 
by human avarice and clothed in incongruous splendour. '^A gain, 
when addressinc^ himself immediately to the Association : — * Tnie re- 
ligion consists m a heart devoted to God, and a life of holiness. It 
is not the slave of sect or party. It is not subservient to worldly in- 
terests,, nor basely submissive to the reigning humours of the day. 
Its object is uniform and unalterable righteousness. It does not con- 
sist in the offering of tlie lips, in a set of enthusiastic phrases of httlc 
meaning, and a heart full of spiritual pride, but it is at once sincere 
and ar<fcnt. God hath shewed ihee^ man^ what is good,* &c. — ^Thcsc ' 
sentiments arc worthy of dissemination. 

CORKESPONDENCE. 

* To the Monthly Reviewers. 

* Gentlemen, Liverpool, 1 8th Feb. 1 799. 

* f w your Review for last month, on noticing Capt. Vancouver's 

relation of his having seen black swans at King George the 
Third's' Sound, on the south-west coast of New Holland, ybu seem 
to dcjubt the existence of this rara avis, and to suppose tliat the birds 
taken for black swans might be cygnets. 

• From the concurrent testimony of se\i;ral, nay most, of the tnt- 
▼cDcrs who have visited New Holland, it appears, however, that 
Uadi swans are really to be met with in almost every part of that 

• CQUlktry. In Governor Phillip*8 Voyage to Botany Bay, chap. xi. 
mt arc informed thatj in ?m early excursion of the Govempr to the 
»cith side of the hiirbQur of Port Jackson, they met with a lake, on 

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*%hich they first obscrrcd *' a black swaq, which specwi, though* |»Q« 
Ycrbiiilly rare in other parU of the world, is here by no means unccm- 
mon, bchig found on most of the lakes. This was a very noble had, 
lamer than the common swan, and equallj beautiful in form* On 
bemg shot at, it roK, and discovered that its wings were edged widi 
white.'' 

* In White's account of Botany Bay, p. 137, we have equally an 
account of their sedng, on a small salt water lagoon, nine black swaos ; 
which, though when upon the water they seemed perfectly black, 
when they rose, gave an opportunity of seeing some white feathers, 
which terminated the tip of each wmg. Mr. White, however, sajs 
that their ^ze appeared not equkl to that of an European swair. 

♦ Of the same Jtind, in all probability, were the birds observed by 
the gentlemen on board the Endeavour, both at Botany Bay and at 
Hervey's Bay ; at the former place, amon^ the aquatic birds seen, ** one 
of the most remarkable was black and white, much larger than a swair, 
being nearfy five feet high, and in shafie somewhat /esembKng a peli- 
can ;'* and at the latter place they saw among the shoals and sandbanka 
many large birds, " some in particular of. the same kind as had been 
seen in Botany Bay, much bigger than swans, which were' judged to 
be pelicans ;. but they were go shy that there was no getting within 
shot of them." 

* I have not an opportunity, at present, of consulting* other recent 
accounts of New Holland; bnt I am enabled to' add a relation of those 
singular birds being both seen and caught by a Dutch navigator, oa 
the west toast of that large isbnd. It is given in the third volume 
of VaUntyn*s Oml tn nieuzu Oost Irtdienf Amsterdam 1 726, and the 
Toyage in which it occurs has not, I believe, ever been published in 
EngGsh. On the 6th of January 1697, Willem de Vlaming landed oa 
that part of the- main land of New Holland called the Land of (d^ 
Eeadragty and near Dhk Hartog^s Bay ; where, in a Jagoon, commii* 
nicating with the sea, they found two and afterward more black 
swans, four of which they caught and took on board : bringing, 
however, only two of them alive to Batavia. This account is accom* 
panied by an engraving, representing the lagoon with the black 
swans swimming on it, and the catching of one of them by a boat's crew, 

• These facts seem to me sufficient to remove all scepubism as to the 
cxfstence of black swaus in New Holland ; and presuming that you witt 
Bot be displeased with the communication of the last, and my reminding, 
yoy of the 6thcr instances of their, being seen, I remain, Qentlemen, 

* Your very humble Servant, S. H. W.* 

We are obliged to this correspondent, for recallinTg to our recollection 
the above corroborations of Capt. V.'s statement, which we had for* 
gotten, and which decidedly mih'tate against our doubts. 

The quiere from Ipswich, from one of ** the Friends," surely caniiot 
be seriously pr6posed to us : but certainly we cannot seriously v^ 
swcr it» 



In the last Appendix, p. 508. L 26. for * Subordination,* read &• 
.subordination ; p. 51 j. 1. 12. ftom bottom, read by deputatieni ofik* 
putatietu ; p. ^19. L 8. for < //i/,* read de ; p. 580. L 26. put a fifl 
Styp after * miraculous j* and only a colon after timcf in L aS* 

^^^ . Digitized by Google 



THE 

MONTHLY REVIEW, 

For MARCH, I799. 



«■ 



A»T. !• An authentic ^ccounS nf the £ 
Company to the Court of the Empero 
and 1795 ; (subsequent to that of 1 
taining a Descripdon of several Par 
kobwD to £ufx>pcan6 ; taken from l 
Van BnaiQy Chief of the Direction 
la tb« Embassy- T]:aiisl^te4 from t 

j«ui dc Saint-Mery. With a correct Chs^rt of the Rgu|c< 8va« 
s Vol^ 128, B'QanU. Pbillipa, J)ebjrett» tuc. f]^^. 

CHiNii is likdj to continue to be an object of European cil« 
riostty ) while it refuses free access to foreigners \ and whiie 
it cbcridhestfajQse manners and customs which| originating in the 
first ages of the world, form such a portrait of primeval civifi:^*- 
ation as might be deemed either ideal or embellished, were it 
iuA represented by a succession of eye-witnesses and authentic 
vikei^. Tet a country, iiihabited by one of the most jealous 
jiations on the,gkfae, can be perfectly known only from the 
i^bsorvatiofls of many* Every travelleri tudeed, adds a trait tb 
die iotexestifig picture ; and die stronger the presumption ap- 
pears sA his having strictly adhered to the truth,— -which, in 
accowtts of distant countries, is frequently sacrificed to vanity^j 
■—the more value will be set on his comi^unieations. 

The psesent nairativc of the recent Dutch embassy to China 
'hears evident indicatioos of veracity, and will be a valuable 
addidon to our literary stock of writings in this class, in pro^ 
porti«o as itmaj be found to contain new information. M. Van 
Bcaam^ as t|ie second personage in that missiofl, had better op« 
^ttunkies of making ob8ervacioo$, than those of inferior rank 
who were attached to it. The French editor assures us, also, 
in a prefixed advertisement, that the author had lost np time 
tn ni^ting the inhabit^ts of other parts pf tbe world, as £ir f^ 
depended on him, partakers In the ^^n^ations li^^hich he exjse^ 
^pocd* * Douhl^ ai>amter, hi? pc3» ^md hb pencil w^e cpn- 
:iraotly employed m ^pipUri^ wj)}it;fc?er j»e $vfi ; and sparing 
neither pains nor t^jftMt^ l%e JMy be said not to have .su&cejl 
. VjPIh xxviii* S any 



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24^ Van Biaam'/ Account of the Dutch Embasfy to China. 

any thing to escape him^ which was worthy of the attention of 
a discerning public/ 

We are eiven to uitderstandy (if we mistake hot,) that die 
Viceroy of Canton himself suggested to M. Van Braam the 
idea of a Dutch embassy to the Court of China, in order to 
congratulate the Emperor on the anniversary of his accession 
to the throne; The Commissaries- General at Batavia, bein; 
hiformed by M. Van B. of this overture, thought proper to 
avail themselves of it, and appointed M, Isaac Tiiiing* am- 
bassador. Among his suite, which does not appear to have ' 
been very numerous, were, in the capacity of interpreters, 
^Messrs. Agie and De Guignes^ both Frenchmen \ besides whom, 
we also find frequently mentioned, and here called by a Por- 
tuguese term, zLinguay or Chinese linguist* 

The Dutch embassy proceeded from Canton in the latter end 
■of November 1794, and arrived at Pckin on January the 9th, 
•1795 ; during which time they went through so many hard- 
•hipSy- that it is not easy to conceive how they could teach the 
Chinese capital in health, or how the author could find him* 
$elf disposed for taking any minutes on the journey. It seems, 
indeed, that he and M. De Guignes f were the only pn^ons 
who kept a journal :— but, though M. Van Braam appears to 
have seen his companion's memorandums, we do not find that 
he was indebted to them for any of the matter exhibited in the 
present account* We are toM, likewise, that the author's 
journal lay constantly open for the inspection of the gentle^ 
men composing the Dutch embassy, and that it even was 
copied for the use of the ambassador himself^ From tliese 
circumstances, M. Moreau de Saint-Mery, the French editor, 
(no doubt, on the authority of the author,) wouki have this ac- 
count considered as demi-official : a claim to which^ ppflbably, 
there will be no exception. 

' yft shall now present the reader with some extracts from 
this work, and reserve our general observations on it for an- 
other article, which will probably appear in our next Number. 

Some part of the journey was made on the rivers \ and. M. 
Van Braam could not behold without astonishment the inde- 
fatigable zeal which the bargemen manifested night and day^ 
and almost without taking rest, for its farther acceleration : 

^ Ttiis gentleman is mentioned in a note, p. 282, to have been Sot 
some time resident at the court of Japan. ^ If our iiufonnatioa be cor- 
rect, he is now settled at Bath* 

f We. understand that this gentleman, a son of the Celebrated 
French Orientalist of that nakne, resides at Macao^ for the purpose of 
purstttDg hii &vouritf study of Anatic literature. 

- • «Thfc 



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Van BraamV Account of the t>utch E^dssyio Ckind. 24 j 

• Three times m the four-and-twenty hours they make a mcal^ 
which lasts little more than a quarter of an hour, 'and get but very 
little sleep. They do their business nevertheless with vigour, and 
with a decpree of gaiety, which in other parts of the world is only to 
be met with upon parties of pleasure. Ko being on earth is fitter 
than the Chinese to endure ratigue, wad to support a long continu- 
ance of labour. Provided care be taken to ensure him a sufficient 
refection at stated penods, there is no doubt of his always finding 
new strength for wliatever laborious task he may be required to un^ 
dertakc.* 

At Satt'cBan-tong^ the author observed several f^i/V/r, which 
raise the water of the river above the banks ; whence it run^ 
into reservoirs, to be afterward diffused by means of canak and 
aqueducts over the fields which require irrigation. From M* 
VanBraam's description of them, we are led to suspect that the 
term mi//is misapplied. The machine appears to us to be nothing 
bat a nvaier wh^eU By referring to Sir G. Staunton's account 
of the'^Btitish embassy, vol. iii. p. 335, octavo edit, we meet 
with a deftription of a machine exactly similar : it is there called 
a large 'and durable wheels consisting of two unequal rims» 
&€• an4. is illustrated in the 4to edition by a neat engraving. M« 
VadBr^iam has however made some additional observations : 

* *!^'increase the* velocity of the stream, separations arc made in 
the river, so ^ped and disposed, that they form a channel or water* 
cours^in the direction of the wheel. By means of this channel, the 
.Mter when it approaches the wheel is a foot and even more above 
fbc level of the nver, the consequence of which is a fall that in« 
creases th^ momentum of the fluid upon the flat bamboos, or ladle* 
boards of the wheel, to which they give greater rapidity of motion*. 
But iot this cause of acceleration, the wheel would bring the jointSf 
fiill €^ water, but slowly upward, especially as they have nothing to 
cooMribahince their weight on the other side. 

* Of this contrivance, the mill answers the intended purpose as 
coomletely as the most complicated European machine could do ; and ' 
I wiu-anssver for it, that in China it does not occasion an expence of 
ten dollars. It seems to me, that the mere putting together of the 
pieces of which it is composed, is a new proof of the industry and 
mtelligence of the Chinese.' 

At Nan^hang'cherij M. Van Braam saw a handsome temple 
dedicated to Confucius. The hall in which the Chap * of the 
philosopher is exposed to view (for th^re is no image to repre- 
sent him) is surmounted by a noble octagonal dome, such as 
M« Van Braam had never before remarked in any other pa« 

• ♦ Chap ii said in thetiotes to be a generical word which indicates 
a piece of board, or tablet, inscribed with the name of any one, of 
witksoine title desj^natiag him ; s^id to which the same honours are . 

If.*' paid that he would ha]^ a right to expect in p«hK>a. 

- - S 5^ . goda. 

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244 yiinltimni'sJccourtiftJ^DmtiEmUstft$Cbmd. 

godi. The ciqpola of the domt it covered with gilcfiiig and 
paittdngs; and the diTisiotis of the border^ which correspond 
with the eight walls of the octagon, bear inscriptions that are 
acfcnowltgtd to be the most antient of any preserved in China, 
By a lingular oversi]^t, no tratisladon oF them is inserted^ birt 
their plate is left bpen wuh blailks. Ifi anpther apartment^ ad* 
joining to the forraery are sixty^two tablets inscribed with letteit 
pf gold) juul cojitaimi^ the pames of the wMt cdidurated dit« 
ciples of Confucius. 

• The Chinese never- scatter the seeds of vegetables with the 
hand, but sow them in furrows, and use a dibble. This regu- 
larity gives a pleafing symfloetncal apf earance to the £eUif 
when mey are in a state of vegetation. 

Among the carriages empbyed in this country, is a wheel* 
barrow, Singularly constructed^ and emjployed aUkse for dm 
Conveyanee of persons and^oods: 

^ According as it » more or leu heavfy loaded, it Is dstctcd bf 
one or two persc^ns^ the one, ^'agiriog tt after him» whSe the otbcr 
pushes it forward by the shafts. Tjie wheel, which is verjr hx^ im 
pi^ortioQ to the barrow, ,is placed in the centre of the part cia 
which the lo^d is laid ; so that the weight bears upon the axl^ 
and the barrow-rhen support no part of Tt, but serve merely to move 
it fomard^ and to keep it in ^tiflib^wm. The a4ieel is as it wtae 
cased m> in a frame, made of htdtu^ and coveted «FVer with a tMi 
fkeihf toDT 'or £ve inches wide. On each side of the txuMiair km 
prc^tion, on wliich the goods a»e f»ut, or wtiiefa actves as aaestUgft 
pttsengerK. A "Chinese tiavdberaitt on one side> and iftias s ci P Ss ^i 
w rt wte ibahwoc' his baf^age, winch is placodl on die other. If lUb 
bi^gi^ be ^heavier wni himself, it is bdanced cwEiaUy «n the vwi^ 
sitfis, and he ^eats himself On the b«ard 09«r «he ^lAutdf ite Winitl 
beti^ fwqpotd/f eontrived to auk svich oocasioas^^ 

As the rivers sooti f^o2e up, the embassy was oVUHIB to 
p^roceed by lan^, and to be forwarded in palanquins earned hj: 
C^2^£/% or labourers; who, f4rom extreaie fi^tkue, aosaetiiiiea 
set the JDtutch gentlemen down in the -middle of the raodt and 
t^used to oinry tlhem any fmtkot. . ^hey even hohawod ao ^tti» 
respectfully to M. Vaxv jbraam, as to let hiaa faH ^seronl «HMtt# 
and obliged him so pnxSied on foot ^p. 15$). Whea tbt ^ce* 
cond in the embassy was treated in this maaoer) it ^aaaf hn 
easily conceived what usage the inferior persons nawt have iaa* 
perienced. Indeed, we and that a ,MaIay boy» in the amka^ 

* * This name, which is borrowed from India, is applied te ^ 
sorts of labourers, but particularly to those who olut^ |)er8Diiit nstr- 
chandlce, &c. an occupation which is coostdcMdas tne Itfa^stof aO» 
because it is that of such individuals as can (get nothiag else io da* 
Ahnost aU of thoBfo with thfiirJmdlH^ieQiwabld,' 

a . aador^ 

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Vtt Snaft'y dcrtuH$ ofth Dttfd JBmiatsy fo China, a^; 

Jador's wttncCf became delirious, aiid died at BeUn, In con« 
sequence of the farigoe undergone in the voyage* Of the 
wretched and half*naked labonrers, who carried both passengets 
^^ b^ggsgCf not fewer than eight are said to have died^ duf ing 
two very severe nights and days in December. 

The capita of Eianghant M* Van Braam infortos us, ou^ 
propexiy to be called Coft^ing-fm \ though Europeans generally 
substitute for it the name of Nan-king^ a word iigrHfying pnly 
the court (f the souths because the Chinese Emperors formerly 
resided in that city. 

The laborious mountain-cultt^re, which is perhaps nowhere 
carried to a higher * pitch than in China, is thus accurately 
ddcrtbcd: 

• The eye of an European is delighted at beholding the industri- 
ous application of the Chinese, who, rating difficulties at nothing, 
convert mountains into' fertfle fijeMs, and change their inclined surface 
into level ground, by means of terraces of four or five feet elevatioQ, 
which descend by steps from the top of the declivity to the bottom 
of the vaDcy. But for their exenions, it is evident that those 
regions must remain for ever uncultivated, on account of thje ravages 
committed by the floods during the heavy rains, which would not 
fell to carry both the soil and the seed deposited in it into the ra- 
vines below. The precautions of which I am speaking render such 
a mbdiief impossible by levelling eveir thing. Each terrace is be- 
skies secured with a parapet, ahd a little (h'tcn to drain off the super- 
fluous water. On the otuer hand, as devated ^ound^ are m their 
very nature subject to drought, the Chinese, to remedy this evi]« ju- 
dicu>asly place on the summits of the highest moimt^'ns ample re- 
servoirs, in which the rain water is received and preserved. As soon 
as the drought begins to be felt, the reviving stream descends, and 
saves the com, grass, and vegetables, from its pernicious effects. 
The aspeee of a slope se disposed, when seen from a commanding 
situation, was highly agreeable, although the ground was now entirdy 
icrtpped aod ila&ed. How deliehtfuf must it be when wheat em- 
bdli^es tbe sur&ce, and covers it with a verdant carpet*' 

Throughout China, numerous triiim{4ial or honorary arches, 
built either of wood or stone, perpetuate the memory of per- 
ifiaft of botb lexes, whose virti^s ha.ve deserved c^bration 
md the homage oiF the public* The Emperor tatsss care to 
preserve whatever may transmit to posterity an idea of the 
gftory of thoso ceUbrated persons } whik iiMcriptions indicate 
lieir nam^s, and the noble actions by which thev gained re« 
Qown. Sir G. Staunton (vol. ii. p. 289) says tnat they are 

* The reader, it is hoped, will not ^oppose diat by the use of 
ehts word we ate InMoUy Aspoeed to auujse htm, or ouradves, with 

'^ S3 «iit4 

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14* Van BraamV Account of the Dutch Embassy to Chbia. ^ 

called by the Chinese Pai-loo^ and mistranslated by < triumpld 
arches,' as nothing like an arch is to be seen in any part of it| 
the whole being built of wood, and consisting jof three hzx^ 
3ome gateways, of which the middle is the highest and largest 
With respect to the design of them, M. Van Braam is mofc 
explicit and satisfactory than Sir George :— he thus parti* 
cularizes the classes of men in favour of whom this usage has 
been adopted : 

* r. Persons who have lived a century ; the Chinese thmkiog, tlot 
without a sober and virtuoiis h'fe it is impossible to attain so great aa 
age. 2. Children who have given proofs of great filial aiffectioiu 
3. Women remarkable for their chastity. The finest of the tii 
vmphal arches we saw this day, which is composed of a very bard 
kind of white marble called Samchit^ was erected in honour oi three 
listers. ^According to the Chinese custom they h^d been betrodie^ 
from ^eir infancy ; but their three intended husbands died btfore 
|hcy were marriageable. In vain did other m^n desire their compaoi 
through life; ^tthfnl to their first engagements, they considered 
them as binding till their death, after which this mark of hopqur wii 
awarded them. 4. The Mandarins who have governed in the (& 
tnct subject to their authorky with fidelity and justice, so as to 
gain the love and esteem of die people. 5. And lastly, the penoffl 
who have distinguished tliemselves by rendering signal services C9 
the state ; or who have made or invented any thing conducive t^ 
the advantage of the public' 

M^ny learned Chinese have, from time immemorial, wiittei^ 
% great number of treatises concerning agriculture, &c o| 
which Gramq^nt, a French missionary at Fekin, spoke ta 
M. Van Braam in high terms of praise. The missionary ctci 
deem^ them worthy of translation into the European languages! 
particularly as many things occur in them which «re entiiel] 
unknown among us. 

The Chinese custom of applying sails to land-carriage^ 
though mentioned by Milton, and by several traveUers, b^ 
pften been questioned. M. Van Braam^ however^ pbces i 
l>eyond aU doubt. 

* How great was my surprise (he says) when I this day »^ ' 
whole fleet of wheel-barrows, all of tne same, size. I havego^ 
reason to call them a fleet, for they were all upder sail ; harind 
little mast very neatly inserted in a hole or step cut in the forcf 
•f the banow. To this mast is attached s^ sail made of matting* 
more comi^only of canvas, five or six feet high, and three or I 
wide, with reefs, yards, and braces like those of the Chinese brt 
The braces lead to the shafb of the barrow, and by means of tlii 
the conductor trims his saiL 

* It was easy to perceive by this apparatus, that it was not S0< 
momentary matter, but an a4ditioDal contrivance in the carriage ^ 



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Van BraamV Account of the Dutch Embassy to China. 247 

meant to gire relief to the barrow*men when the wind is fiur ; for, 
otherwise, considering the money it must costy and the trouble of 
carrying it> it would be but a very ridiculous whim.' 

Sir G. Staunton (yol. ii. p. 243) has also mentioned these 
sailing barrows^ though the English embassy do not appear to 
have been gratified with a sight of them. 

An extraordinary instance of subordination among the Man- 
darins is noticed at p. 167. The second conductor of the 
embassy was so much offended at the governor of a city^ 
where they were delayed for some hours, that he thought 
proper to pay him publicly with a fenu cuff's ; which foreboded 
that he would lose his place into the bargain. 

Though the embassy looked forwards to Fekin for better jic* 
commodations than they experienced in their route to the ca- 
pital, they had the mortification, on their arrival, of finding 
them worse. They were carried on the first day to a public 
house, generally frequented by carmen. This disappointment, 
however, they bore with patience on seeing the Mandarins 
placed in the same situation with themselves 5 though M. Van 
Br^am cannot conceal the vexation which he felt. *• Thus,' he 
exclaims, < onour arrival at the celebrated residence of the 
Emperor, were we lodged in a kind of stable ! who could have 
expected such an adventure ?' — Did this mode of behaving to 
foreigners of distinction prove, what the Chinese so frequently % 
asserted, and what is repeatedly mentioned by M. Van Braam^ 
(^|. p. 185,) that the Dutch embassy was better liked and 
bener treated in China, than the English ha^ been ? 

Of the Chinese metropolis, the author gives the following 
description : 

* la general, the houses. in the city have a tespectability of ap- 
pearance of which those in the suburbs cannot boast, and there ara 
even shops of whiph the fronts are decorated with carvings or sculp- 
ture in wood or stone, and gilt or varnished from top to bottonu 
The street even in the parts that were not paved, was covered with 
tents, under which the shopkeepers displayed all that \he loom can 
produce, as well as provisions and goods of every other kind, which 
gave It* to us, exactly the appearance of a fair ; and the great con- 
course of pebple, assembled in European towns on such occasions, is 
jan additional trait of resemblance. This spectacle, the noise of car* 
riagcs, horses^ mv^es, and dromedaries ; the assemblage of so many 
men and animals ; the appearance of new dresses, manners, and faces ; 
every thing, in bhort, .put in its claim upon my curiosity, and capti- 
vated my attention.* 

The embassy ^as one day addressed by the old Emperor*8 
seventeenth son, then about thirty years of age, and of a pleas- 
ing countenance i -and tlic same prince who was declared 

S 4 ^ Empcroj: 



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248 Vian Braam'/ A£e$UHt <fih Dutfib EtrAas^ id CbinM. 

^pcvot of China on the 8th,of Febniarf i79<> by hi9 fttte 
Kieii*Loiig. 

Among the dmti^«MiefiU at Cotirt, the fetts of aetii^y ex- 
hibited-in the presence of the Emperor and of the Daicb an- 
t>assy are remarluble : 

* A many lyin^ down on his back, hdd up lUt kgd verticilhr m 
the ftir. Upon Sie ac^e of hk feet vm nest pfaoed a ladder dt us. 
Imr Btepe, with a fiat board at the bottom. A child of se^en or 
e^nt y^ars of age then dimbed \xp the 8tep8, and' sitting upon the 
ipper one^ play^ a number of monkey-tricks^ while the man kept 
fuming the ladder first one way and then smother. The child after- 
ifiricrds d^lceitd^d and ascended, twisting his body in such a way be- 
tween the steps, that the di^ent parts of it were alternately on the 
e^>f>diMt^ sides cf the ladder. Thfs diversion hsted at leak a quarter 
ef an h6ur* 

^ Wheti th^ exhibitaoii of the ladder Wf i over, tteo men brought an 
t|*>rmou8 earthen vessel) which must certain^ have wc^ed mmtt 
than a hundred and twenty-five pounds, and whKh they laid sidcwiyl 
iipon the feet of the strong man, who turned it round and round and 
over and over with astonishing rapidity. The child was then put 
into the vessel at the moment the mouth of it wad turned from the 
£mperor, towi^rds whom it was immediately brought round again by 
the riian. The bby then made signs of respect, and clirtbing over 
the fcdgt, got upon the top of the vessel, seated himself there, and 
ftSsttmM a variety of attitudes, l^ng hitniself hang dort^n over die 
edge, by which he held, with his liands, and enlivening tlk perfam* 
aace by a thousand playful tricks.' 

M.Van Braani's rcmiirka conceririftg the Emperor Kien-Long 
are somewhat diflferent from the descriptbn given in the ac- 
tdunt of the British embassy :-*»hc says : 

* His external appearance exhibits all the marks of old age. par- 
ticularly his eyes. They are ti»atery, and s6 weak, that it is vmk dif* 
^i^y he raises his eyelids, which hang down in folds, especkny that 
^ the left eye. He is, in consequence, obliged, whenever he wirfies 
to look at any thing that is nbt very close to htm, to raise his head 
and even to throw it a little back. Hi^ cheeks are shrivelled and 
|*ndant. Hfe beard, which ia shortj is very grey. These are the 
imly particulars I can gWc of this monarch's person, never having 
been very near to him, but when he vwis sitting,— His ^ess consists 
«r clothes lined with fur, which appeared to me to be that of the 
«cii-(^er ; and round his cap, which is sometimes ornamented with a 
iai^ pearl, was a border of the same kind, in this season, as weH 
9S m all others, the Emperor's dress is very plaiti, although he is 
-ierved and honoured Kke ^ god. He does not, indeed^ enjoy the 
tenth part of the pleasure and amusements, which are at the com- 
mand of the meanest prince in Europe, ^is recreations cousiit of 
tricks and buffiooneries, with which it would be difficult to divert the 
common pepple of an European country at a fair ; but as he is un- 
tcquaiated with mlpre refined enjoyments, and unabk to form an idea 

of 



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LtHiri ani Csms^ondente of JLord BolingbroW 2f ^ 

•f tfaem» he cannot be said to 8ufier any privation* It It not thea 
aurprisrag that die diversions of diildrea should be an amusement to 
the Emperor inliis old age*' 

The aittbor seems to discredit the reputed number of Chin^ 
troops, which wete stated to him by a person who had belonged 
to the English embassy, to be 1,800,000. In the appendix to 
SirG* Staunton's account. Number IV. we meet with the same 
statement. It is impossible for us to divine whether or not the 
Chinese army amounts to a nutnber which, indeeti, •taggers 
bdUf : but Sir G* S. (vol. iti. p. 392.93.) mentions the above 
calculacton as resting on the testimony of a dUiittgtiiihfd military 
00icer ; and he adduces some tircumstances which render it 
less incredible : yet he candidly add& : ** if the number men« 
tioned really 60 exist, a great proiportion of them must be in 
Ttrtary, or on some service distant from the route of the em- 
bassy." We here see nothing like credulitj or wilful exaggera- 
tion; and the apparent tendency of M. Van BraamV observa* 
tiofi * will most probably be defeated. 

^Tif be centiHued.2 

Ai.T. It. Letters and Correspondence^ Public and Privatey of tie Rigbi 
lion, Henry St, Johrtf Lord Vtsc. BoKngbroie, during the Tim« ne 
was Secretary of State to Queen Anne : with State Papers, ex- 
phmatcrry Notes, and a Translation of the Foreign Letters, &c. 
By Oifcert Parke, Wadh. Coll. Oxon. Chaplain to his R. H. 
the Prince of Wales, ^o. Four large V^U. il. 123^ Boards* 

. Robinsoms. 179S. 

^TTHEH we consider the importance of the treaty of Utrechi 
^^ to the interests of this country, and the splendid abilities 
of dmse men wl^o were employed in promoting or in resisting 
its ratification ; — calling to our recoUection the names of MarU 
borough and Bolingbroke, who were both engaged, though on 
diflferent sides and with different views, in this calamitous and 
disgraceful transaction, which originated in the machinations 
and dissensions of two of the Queen's waiting- women }— we 
rcceire with pleasure, and we read with avidity, every produc* 
tion which promises to throw new light on the events of that 
period. 

When Mr. St. John made his first public appearance, the 
Whig and Tory i;>arties were strongly opposed to each other, and 
their interests were nearly balanced. Though he had been 
educated among the Dissenters, and had imbibed such political 
tenttments as should have attached him to the cause of free- 
dom, he united himself with Harley, and was in 1764 ap« 

* * Perhaps it is requisite to go to Tartary to see them.^ p. 164. 

pointed 



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250 Letters att'd Cofrespondince of Lord "RoYm^roVtl 

pointed Secretary at Wai, and of the marines.-*- While hcTC- 
tained this appohitmcnt, he manifested himsc^f so farunio* 
fiuenced by petty motives of jealousy, that he supplied the 
Duke of Marlborough, who might be considered as the head 
of the opposite party, with all the necessaries for carrying on' 
the war with vigour; and several- of the most glorious and re- 
markable events of the war (viz. the battles of Blenheim and 
Ramillies, &c.) happened during his administration *• In the 
year 17089 he experienced a change of fortune \ and on the 
election of a new parliament, he was not returned. This 
period he dedicated to the severest study, and he declared that 
he considered it as the most serviceable of his whole life. Even 
In his youth, and when his thoughts and his time appeared to 
be devoted to extravagant and disgraceful pleasures, be had his 
lucid intervals, and observed that << The love of study and" de- 
sire of knowlege were what I felt all my life ; and though my 
genius, unlike the daemon of Soerates, whispered so softly^ 
that verv often I heard him not in the hurry of those passions 
with wnich I was transported, yet some calmer hours there 
were, and in them I hearkened to him." 

With such feelings in the midst of his dissipation, it 1$ 
BOt wonderful that, when arrived at a maturer age, and having 
in some degree realized his ambitious prospects, (though still 
with much to hope,) he should devote himself to incessant 
study.— The fruits of that application soon became apparent, 
and in the year 17 10 he was appointed Secretary of State. At 
this time, the correspondence contained in the present work 
commenced 5— and here we cannot but lament that the period^ 
to which these volumes are confined, seems to have precluded 
the insertion of some letters addressed by Lord Bolingbroke 
to Sir William Wyndham, now in the possession of the Earl 
of Egremont, with a perusal of which we were 6ome time since 
favoured and much gratified. 

We shall transcribe, for the satisfaction of our readers, the 
account given by the editor of the manner in which the letters 
here printed came into his possession. [Vol. I. p.vii, andp.x.] 

* When Bolingbroke was dismissed from his office, and fled to 
France, his Undcr-sccrttary, Thomas Hare, Esq. who is often men- 
tioned \n his Lordship's Letters, secured these Papers. At that 
lime, Mr. Hare resided in London, and being a younger brother, 
was possessed of a very j»mall fortune, beside the place of Chief 
Clerk, Sole Examine"^ ancl Register in Chancery, and Clerk of the 

* He was always a sincere admirer of that great General, and oa 
every occasion avowed his opinion of his exalted merits, and boasted 
of being instnimental in giving effect and lustre to those tnumphs» 
by which his own power was eirentually overthrown. 

Cromi 



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Letters and Correspondent of Lord Bolingbrolce. 251 

Crown and Peace in Barbadoes» which offices he held, but whether 
for life, or during pleasure, is not quite certain ; one copy of the ap- 
pofatmeoty in the hands of the JEditor, specifying for life, the other 
dunng pleasure; the latter is dated June 18, 1714, the former has 
no date, and, perhaps, was never executed, as the Queen died on the 
I St of August following, and it w^s not probable tfTat the friend of 
the proscribed Secretary would experience any favour from the suc- 
<:ccding administration. Independent of this place, whatever fortune 
he possessed was lost in the general calamity originating in the South* 
Sea Scheme. 

* His elder brother dying unmarried, he, in 1732, succeeded to 
the noble estate and seat of his familv at Stow-Hall, in Norfolk, 
and to the Baronetage granted to Sir Ralph Hare, in 1641. Thither 
he then retired, and the Bolingbroke manuscripts were deposited ia 
the Evidence-house belonging to the estate, where they remained ; 
and, from the time of his death, in 1760, were little known or 
noticed. 

* To the present worthy possessor of the estate, Thomas Har«p 
Esq. and the descendant of the Under-secretary, the Editor, then 
residing in the neighbourhood of Stow, expressed his wishes to per- 
use the Papers, and upon stating his inclination to publish them^ Mr. 
Hare, in the most h'beral and poliff manner, sent him the whole of 
the Bolingbroke Papers in his possession.*— 

* Upon an examination of the Manuscripts, many appeared to be 
autographs, and the remainder in the hand-writing ot Sir Thomas 
Hare, or of his colleagues in office. They consisted of four volumes 
of Letters, and very many detached Papers. The first volume con- 
tained the Public Dispatches to the Earl of Strafford ; the second, ^ 
the Public and Private Letters to the Marquis de Torcy, with those 
to and from Mr. Prior ; the other two, his Public and rrivate Let- 
ters to Correspondents in firen^ral. The detached Papers consisted 
of the Letters from the Marquis de Torcy, and the entire Corre- 
spondence with the Duke of Shrewsbury, together with Memo- 
najs, &c. , • . . 

* Th^ Editor has endeavoured to arrange all these in a regular se- 
-Tics, and to supply such explanatory Notes as seemed necessary to 
render characters and occurences more familiaf to the Reader. A 
Translation of the Foreign Letters was not intended, when the book 
was ready for the press, from a fear of swelling the work to an inor- 
dinate size ; but, at the suggestion of a friend, whose Judgment 
the Editor has ever respected, he was induced to alter his plan ; and« 
by printinfir the work in a smaller letter than that used in the other 
Volumes 01 Bolingbroke, and by extending the page of letter-press, 
to give room at the end of each volume for the Translation of th^ 
preceding Letters. , ' 

* Extracts from the putPtc Letters of the Secretary appeared in 
the Report of the Secret Committee of the House of Commons in 
171 c, which formed the ground-work of t^ie impeachment of Oxford, 
Bolmgbroke, Strafford, and Ormond. But these seem to be of no 
farther use than as they served the purpose of one party in effecting 
the overthrow of another ; in their mutilated state they are of little 

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2|l Leiia^i and Cmr(fsp9i^nci of LMfkiix^ 

iemce to^ the history of our country, and remaui oidy to record tik 
-vjokiice and the prejudice of faction. 

• The late Earl of Hardwickc inserted in hi» State Papers four of 
the djicial Letters of Lord Bolingbroke and Mr. Prior : these, so fiM- 
m die Editor has been able to learn, are all the Papers in the follow- 
ing Collection that have hitherto appeared in print. 

* The present PabHcation consists not only of official, but of pri- 
««te Letters of the Secretary f the general business of that A<&ni- 
-tilstration, and his particular sentiments on that business ; the orders 
and instructions of the Minister, and the confidential comnwniaaidGn 
•^^f the motives for them. La a word, it seems to reoord the poli- 
iri<jat oecurrences and history of Great Britain, from the time Bolmg- 
%roke came into office until his supercession by the Regents; and the 
readei^ i» not to learn the importance of that period.' 

. There C5m be little doubt; tUat at this period Mr. St. John's 
friendship for Harley was warm and sincere : but, unhappily 
i»r thfiflt&ekes, and unluckily for their p^ty, this intiniflcy 
soon declined, and coldness and suspicion assumed iu phice. 
In 8 lettet iddressed to the Earl of Orrery so early as May 17119 
vrt obserrc the folbwtng fUssagei from which it is evident 
that the writer was dissatisfied with his colleague's resenre : 
[Vol. L p. 216.] 

« Dk} jfSa not remember, my Lord, a certain time last summer, 
"WhcB for several, weeks I avoided writing to yon, although I knew 
^ow uneasy the pan^s of expectation were to the Duke of Aiprle 
jo^d yourself, in that crisis of domestic aifairs ? We are now m a 
•tatc not very unHke to that which we were then in. Mr. Harley, 
dn4e his recovery, has not appeared at the Council, or at the Trea- 
«nry at all, and very seldom m the House of Commons. We, who 
«re reputed to be in his intimacy, have few opportunities of seeing 
-kirn, and none of talking freely with him« As he is the only true 
channel through which the Queen's pleasure is conveyed ; so there is^ 
-lind must be a perfect stagnaUon tSU he is pleased to open himself, land 
^sct the water flowing.* 

Ifi another letter to this Nobleman, written in the same^ 
.jear, he Sipeaks of Harley with more kindness^ but dtijl alludes 
to his want of openness and candour. Here also he gives an 
account of a club just then established : [Vol. L p. 244.3 

< Our friend, Mr. Harley, is now Earl of Oxford, and High 
Treasurer. 

< This great advancemeht is, what the labour he has gone through, 
the dan|%r he has run, and the services he has performed, seem to de- 
acrve. jBut he stands on slippery ground, and envy is always sear 
the. great, to fling up their heels on the least trip which they make. 
The companions t)f his evil fortune are most Jukely toJbte the sup- 
pofters of hie good ; and I dare say he makes this a m9»tt to htm* 
jelf ; for though he often wants that gnice and openaess which en- 
gages 



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LtHtrs mr/ Cohres^niemx xf Lord fioUiiglMwkc* 1(3 

ga^ 1^ affectioiiy yet I must owti, I neTet- k^iew that he wafited 
«itDer the constancy or the headship which eogages the ^iteem. 

* The Peerage * which you expect^ will be declared ; and yoa 
will have a companion, whon\ I am confident yjou cannqt but Id^e, 
ihy L<>rd Keeper Harcourt. 

< Many changes have been made at the rking of the parliament, 
vhich was this day prorogued to the idth of July 5 and although 
they are such as odg^ to satisfy our friends, yet the number of the 
discontented must luways exceed that of the contented, as the num* 
bcr of pretenders does that of employments. I confess to you, my 
Lotd, tnat it made me melancholy to observe the eagerness witt 
which pfaces were solicited for ; and though interest has at all times 
been the principal spring of action, yet 1 never saw men so openly 
daikn their hxr&, or offer themselves to Sale. You see the effects of 
frequent parliaxhents, and 6f lot^ wars, of departing from our old 
constitution, and from our true mterest. 

« \ must, before I send this letter, give your Lordship an account 
of a club ^ich I am fotroing ; and which, as light as the design 
may %eenv to be, I believe will prove of real service f . We shaD 
begin to meet in a small number, and that will be composed of some 
who have wit and learning to reconwnend them; of others w}^>, 
from their own situations, or from their relations, have power and 
influence, and of others who, from accidental reasons, may properly 
be taken in. The ftrst regulation proposed, and that which must 
be inviolably kept, is decency. None of the extravagance of the 
kifc-cat Xy none of the drutikenness of the beef^-stenk is to be enduned* 
The in^rovement of friendship, and the encourageoent of letters, 
are to he the two great ends or our society* A number of valuable 
people win be kept in tlte same miH4, and others will be noade con-. 
Verts tp their opinions. 

* Mr. Fenton, and those who, like him, have genius, will have % 
corp<yration of patrons to piotect and advance them in the world. 
The folly of our party will be ridiculed and checked 5 the'opposttfaa 
<if oncther will be better resisted ; a multitude of other g<^ vies 
«31 foUow, which I am sui^ do not escape you ; and 1 hope in itbr 
wtifter to baUot for 'the lionour of your company ftmongat us. 

* I am ever, my 'dear X^o^i ^^ 



1 ■ -■ *^ ^■'■■- M . I. -I ■ .11 ..i.... ^ . .... ■■! ■ » ^r. 



' * Baron Boyle, of Marfton, in the coonty of Soinenet.' 

* f The members were. Earl of Arran, Lord Harlcy, Duke «>f t 
QriDOnd, Swift, Sll: Robert Raymond, Arbuthnot, Duke ofShoe^vs- 
bury. Lord Duplin, Sir William Wyndham, George GranviU^ 
Masham, Earl ot Jersey, Bathurst, Orrery, Colonel Hfll, Colonel 
Desncy, Bolingbroke, Duke of Beaufort, Prior, Dr. Friend, ^c. 
Their meetings wete first at their several houses, but afterwards they 
hired a room near St. James's.* 

• X This kit-cat was instituted m 1699. Congreve, Prf<yr, Sir 
y^ Vaaborgh^ the £ad di Qivery, tnd Lem SoiMn «i«re> 

In 



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254 Letters and Correspondence of I.0fx/^BoliDgbrokc* 

In a letter addressed to Prior, In 1713, he does not conceal 
his disgust at the Treasurer's reluctance to oblige him s [ VoL IV. 
P- 3to4.] 

^ I cannot conclude this letter, without desiring you to try at t 
matter which I have very much at heart, and which I would have 
writ to the Duke of Shrewsbury upon, had I not apprehended that 
he might take it ill, if I sboidd apply to him upon a supposition of 
what he does not own. In a word, we imagine he goes to Ireland % 
in that case might not Mr. Hare be secretary there T Addison went 
from the office at Whitehall to that post. Mr. Hare has served so very 
well, that whatever becomes of mc, I should be under the last con- 
cern if he was not provided for. My Lord Treasurer's provisions 
come too slow, and arc so uncertain, that I expect little from hkn. 
I have solicited for an uncle of my wife's, these three years ; all I 
pretended to was an employment of 200 L a-year, which has been 
iracant above half the time, and 1 have not succeeded. Judge you, 
whether I am likely to trouble my Lord for any other person. If 
you find that easy moment, which should be watched for in our ap- 
plications to great men, use it for Mr. Hare's service. 

* Adieu, dear Matt, in my friendship to you I can never alter. 

* Servetur ad imum qualis ao incepto processenl^ H ttht coastat ; com- 
pliments as you see good. 

* Lord Treasurer is extremely ill ; ifhcwaswcll> I should know 
nothing of your destination. Once more, yours ever, Bolingbroke. 

With such sensations respecting Lord Oxford, and with ub* 
limited confidence in his own abilities, and possessing a superior 
influence over the mind of his sovereign, it is not wonderful 
that he should effect the overthrow of the Treasurer : but this 
rupture, hbwever it might' in some respects be flattering to the 
ambition of Bplingbroke, was fatal to his interests as well as to 
those of his former friend. 

In the negotiations at Utrecht he experienced the assistance 
of Prior, whose abilities on similar occasions had before bees 
tried, and whose authority in this instance was very laconic j 
consisting only of the following words, signed by the Queen.— 
•* Le Sieur Prior est pleinement tmtruit et autorise de commtmiquer 
i la France nos dcmandes prelimifiaires^ et de nous en rapporter U 
reponse** 

The correspondence between these two eminent men, in a 
business so full of difficulty and hazard, and which eventually 
threatened the lives of both, is full of pleasantry arid interest. 
Bolingbroke always lays aside his state when he addresses his 
friend, assuring him that his long scrawls are only from Harry 
to Matt, and not from the secretary to the minister ; and 
Prior seems to feel himself on a perfect equality :— at the close 
of a letter^ in which he states that he had a little departed 

6 fttjm 



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Lftttrs and Corrtsp§nJince of Lord Bolingbrokc. . 255 

from the straight and narrow rbad of truth, ht signs himself 
«« Animal peregrine missum ad menitendum R. P, causi.^' 

It docs not appear from these letters that the poet was sa- 
tisfied cither with his precise situation, or with his establish- 
ment at Paris. Thou^ his services were so important at this 
treaty, as to exclude his name in the following reign from an 
act of grace, yet we find him frequently complaining, and 
desiring Bolingbrokc to interfere in his favour. QVoL IV. p. 73, 
and p. 541.] 

* From Mr. Prior* 

< My Lord, Pans, April 8th, .1715. 

* The Duke of Shrewsbury sends your Lordship the state of our 
affairs in Spain, to which I hope our own in England' will so hr 
correspond, as to open soon to ns the scenes of an honourable peace 
and a good Parliament : I hope I. shall have my Lord Treasurer** 
orders, and your opinion, as to my own particular or public figure. 
These peopl^, who you know are curious and impertment enough 
upon such heads, begin to question me so closely, that I sometimes 
wish I knew how to turn the discourse: upon the whole, I ani 
4tfhamed to trouble you, my dear Lord, any farther, and I will write 
of it more to Dartmouth. I have again interested all otir friends^ 
Monsieur de Torcy particularly, in behalf of poor Monsieur Calen- 
drini ; I hope I shsdl do him service ; . and, in every thing that caa 
relate to you, approve myself most truly, &c. M. Prior. 

* To hit Grace the Duhe of Sbrenvshury. 
(With Montaigne's Essays; inclosed in the above letter.) 

• Dictate, O nyghty Judge, what thou hast seen 
Of cities and orcourts, of books and men. 
And deign to let thy servant hold the pen. 

* Through ages thus I might presume to live. 
And from the transcript of thy prose receive 
What my own short-liv'd verse can never give. 

* Thus should fair Bitain, with a gracious smile. 
Receive the work $ the venerable isle. 

For more than treaties made, should bless my toil. 

♦ Nor longer hence the Gallic style preferr'd^ 
Wisdom in English idiom should be heard. 

While Shrewsbury told the world where Moataignc crr'd. 
■ I Arc they good ? 

* What thiuK you of an oak, which is Britain ; a trophy of arms 
at the bottom of it ; a wreath of palm, hung on the tree ; over the 
trophy — ituiumeris potior J* — 

* From Mr, Prior *. 
• My Dear Lord and pRiEifD, 

Paris, I St- 1 2th May, 171,4. 
. • Matthew had never so great occasion to write a word to Henry 
9^ now ; it is noised here, that I am soon to return. The question 

• • Private, by Mr. Bart.B,' 

.that 



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Sjtf Lttteri and Comspmdmci of Lord Bolingbroke* 

that I wUi I could answer to the maiif diat ask* and to our friend 
Colbert de Tjorcy (towbom I made your compliment^ in tbe manner 
you commanded) is, what U done for me^ and to what I am reca^^ • 
It may look like^ a bagatejl^^ what is to. become of. a philosophar 
like me ; but it i$ not auchy what is to become of a pex^ion who ha4 
the honour to be chosen, and sent hither as intrustedt in the puid^ 
of a war, with what the Queen designed should make the peace ; 
returning with the Lord Bolingbroke, one of the greatest men m 
England, and one of the finest heads in Europe (as they aay here, 
if true or not, tCimporte) having been left by him in t^c ^preateA 
character, (that of her Majesty's Plcnipottntiary,) exercising that 

Sower conjointly with the Duke of Shrewsbury, axid solely after his 
eparture ; having here receiv€d,moredistingujsh,ed honour than any 
Minister^ except an Ambassador, £ver did, and some which wor 
never given to any, but who had that character; having had all the 
fuccess that could be expected ; haviog (God be thanked!) aparqj 
no pains ; *at a time when at home the peacf \a^ voted s;;ifc and ho- 
joourahle ; at a time when the Earl of Oxford is Lord Treasurer, 
and Lord BoHngbroke first Secretary of State, this imfortunatc 
perspn, I say, neglected, forgot, unnamed to any thing that may 
«pea,k the Queen satisfied with his services» .or his friends conccmed 
as to kis fortune* 

* Monsieur dc Torcy put me quite out of countenance, the other 
day, by a pity that wounded me deeper than ever did the crueUy of 
the late L^rd Godolphin ; he said he would write to Robip jaod 
Harry about me : God forbid, my Lord, that I ^ould peed any 
forogn intercession, or owe the least to any Frenchman, living, be- 
sides <lecency of behaviour, and the returns of common civility. 
Some say I am to go to Baden, others that I am t<> be added to 
the Commissioners for settling the commerce ; in all cases I am 
ready, but in the mean time, die aUqiad de iribvs eape^ t neither of 
these two are, I presume, honours or rewrards, neither of theHi (let 
me say to my dear Lord Boiingbroke, and let lum not be an|rry with 
me) are what D>iit may aspire to, and vtrhat Mr. Whkworai, who 
was his fellow'-derk, has or may po&dess* I am far from desiWng to 
lessen the ^reat merit of the geatleman I named, for I heartSy esteem 
and love hmi :, but in this trade of ours, my Lordj in which you are 
the General, as in tliat of the soldiery, there is a certain n^t ac- 
quired by time and long service. You would do any thing (ov your 
Queen's service, but you would not be contented to dedccnd, and be 
degraded to a charge no way proportioned to that of Secretary of 
State^ any more than Mr. Koss, though he woidd ch^];ge a party 
with a halberd in his hatid, would be content aQ \m Ufe aner t« be 
a Serjeant j was my Lord Dartmouth from Secretary returned ugA 
to be Commissioner of trade ; or from Secretary of War, w»oli 
Frank Gwin think himself kindly used to be returned again to be 
Commissioner ? In short, ray Lord, you luive put me abtiw^ myself, 
and if I am to return to ^nyself, I shall return to somethin|r yery 
^iscofiteated and uneasj^ ; I am ,«ure, my Lord, yoa will malx the 
|»est use you can of this hmt /or iay good* If I am to kave wtf 
tWng, it will certainly be for her Majesty*^ service, and die credit df 

my 



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Letters and fSo r re s p o fi de nce ^LoQ BoKng%r<^. ^f 7 

my iriends in the Mtnidlrv^ that k tc -<!bii^ before I am recalled 
fra»^ictj6^ icit t|ic wqtW Ihay think either that l^Xt .^Wrked ta 
-ht^tttPKfii, trt-ttifityf d«rcw«ipt5gt|S)d.blr7iDe} /if^qqi^Rg./i^ t» be 

^ * I have writ to Lord TroiflviDdr ^^m &m ^\i^X^ find haviiig 
;$njpl«red yonrikind intarceaaion, J ,pcpmt«ff jouy itx^ fhf laat rem6n- 
. ttlsuicc of tliis luQd» 5^at I vfiU ever fnakfs. ' Adiei«, my Lord, 4ll 
jMriioiir, licalth^ and ple^^vupe U)t yPAU Your^ 0V]$i:» ' Matt. 

.'J*. S. Lddy Jcrsy is jiwt^ncjfroin^xne,; we drank your health 
^ti^gc^^in TJtqucbaughy after our leu: we ^re the greatest fneods 
ahve. Qoco more adienu There is «o 9Uch iking as the boiiks of 
.Tca^ebypu pientioDedi if ithece be, :let ifriend Ti£pn lend us a more 
pvtJcidar account of tthem^ for neither I nor Jai:ob Toosou can find 
thcm^ ,Pftty «ead iBarton bttok lo vie, ,a«id I ii^pje with aome com* 
.&rtiaye^diag|.' 

• ' lfec«e ^Tokimcs -wiflljcfonnd particufl^rty uacfu! in-iicftftaiiig 
"fte ^nigitss* oF i(his ioJportant negotiation, and tht circuqi- 
,9taxu:es whldi .6b>iructed its compktion : but \^e do riot thirik 
.th?t tbey Vii^g to iight a^ thing very essential^ which wjis 
before unknown. Tbc.^tate of Lorcl Bolingbroke's n^jn^, 
h^inmt^^ by 4i$fipp9i^jttn<nt9 «n4 disconcerted by oppopi^on, 

rfroqiiais% di9eoir6r8r:jiitfelf i^io » Jetlor lo Mr. W9tkie% he 
.i«y8, ifVIoL H. p. 159.3 

• « And now, good Jud^, let me a^k you whether you bclfcve thkt 
tvf Situation in the wofW is perfectly as I .<iotad wish it ; Whethbr 
■yoU imagine that I meet with no shock from mjr.^ujpenorg, no p^- 

vqrseness fix>m jny equals, no impertinence , from my mferion ? If ybu 
'£itic}r tiie, or any one else, in such a state qf ^ti^ you are wide 

from the.matik' 
*. I desire you to do for a while, no more than what I .have done, 

eret ^ce I trod the stage gf pubh'c business ; bear with the hard- 

n^Miflif ^ temper yqn oomjjatn of, and the prejudice will soon decay, 
'or if it docs .not, the ttjae reason of jour leaving tb? po^t ,vrhich f6\x 

^ ill, vt^ be manifest tO the world, and no f4sC| uo maKcioiis * 

tnw caiT be then given to your removaL 

* I .use this liberty, because Lpersuade myself you are coptincid 
of the true value which I have ftjr your merij, and that you wjll 

"bdieve I judge in yomr case as I phoulddo in my own. ' 

* We have «tri|ggled this ^'nter through inconceivable dH6c;lV'*^» 
ixk oppo^ion to a powerful faction at home, to all our ^idi» 'and ' 
even the succes^r himsdf abroad ; and, I may say, we have com- 
1)a^ed an habit of thihkitig falsely, which men have been ^sed to,for 
tifrenty years. 

* U we fillhh our work, as I do not fear hnt we ^hsdl, ihjt smeceis 
must be ascribed tb .the uushsAren firmness of xht (jK^een's serf antit, 
a^ifl to the Joyalty <ff the Stitch interest, T\^di eveu ill usage 6otl}d 
Jii« itficftate.^ 

fa iUi K tr arioa -of 4bl6 yntit, we shall transcribe die letter ^o 
the Earl o( jp^tertyo^oti^ and m¥h it we. abctll dose our ex« 
^iracts : [Vol. IL p. 30a.] 

R»T. March, 1799, T T9 



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iSfi Ldtiri Mi OrrafmidetKi ofZ4fd BoUngbroke* 

*T0fbe Sari tf Peterhorostgb. 

« Mt LoRi, Whiuhall, May ad, 17 tt. 

< Seir^ral of y<»ur. LordaUp^ lettoit an come» almoatat tlic an 
time, to my hands, some of them are without any date, the fine^Ktt 
is of the 43d hst month, from Venice. 

* It would be a teal and a very great mortification to me^ ff«I 
imagined yoiir Lordship had entertained the least doubt o£ thit 
friendship which I profess to have for you $ my habits at Court ha^ 
neither taught me to show what I do not feel, nor to hide whtt I 
do ; aind my love and my batt are so fyr irom not appearing farifdjf 
wofds ^d aetions, th&t they generally sit in my very nee. > 

* As 1 endeavour to do this justice to loiy own heart,* so, my Lordy 
you must gire me kave to do the same -to those fnendt ^wKom you 
left bdiind you : .and who, I dare amswer £6t thein, have the sa»c 
esteem for your merit, the same affection for your person, aad the 
same zeal for your service, which ^h^* <vcr had* Bi^t, my I^f<ndy 
in all your experience, I noay venture to .affirm, you ncvo- P^^aac^ 
through such a scene of contusion and. ctilRculty, as ,this winter baa 
afforded us ; and though we have, kept one pomt of view' steadily in 
sight, and worked towards it, yet have been, fofCed to shift our courset 
and try different measures, almost every day. ^ > l . " 

* Faction can invent nothing -mort niinotis to the pbblic, die ttigc 
of wonua fik)^ing nkitt bai^^rotts toivafds: jparticultt men, ttnuaone 
of the intrigues which have been latefy cairied on. ..At the sane 
lime, a nice negociation has been oa foot« wherein not Britain alpne^ 

. oiit an Europe, i\9t'l;)|)e present age alone, but posterity aredeepl|r 
concerned ; and this with an enemy, who wants no indihatioii.to jtake 

, advantages, nor skill to manage them. 

f To these causes, and to gtbcrs of! g near resemblance to these, 
be pleased, fny Lordi to attribute the state of darkness and uncer« 
taiaty, which you complain you have been left in» The Queen bais 
from week to weel^, .expected the mpmeot when her affairs, and the 
.great business now in agitation, would require the employing you 

J ui a post worthy of your talentsj^ and, ,1 beUcve, agree^^lc to 
jour wishes. That moment is not v^ry far off", arid I take it for 

Cted, thai the Earf of Dartmouth has already hinted to your 
iship, what you are to expect; : 

^ * The Duke of Savoy will find the Queen is the best friend be and 
his family have> and therefore, that more confidence in her^ and lest 
uneasiness of temper, ,)vould have become his character better, 

> The alarm which we had couccming the Pi:ince Electoral*, 
made a great impression upon h^r Majesty, aiid under these first ter- 
rors^ the resolution was taken of glviiig'your !Lordship a commission, 
tirhich, I perceive, you do not very inuch' relish^ Mackenzie was 
pitched upon by the Elcptoress Dowajgyr, and trusted with her. let- 
tcrs, and with tho;ie of the Protcst^t minlstei-s ; so that if He had 
been guilty of siny indiscretion, we should not be answerable (or it | 
but, I hope, before tKis time, your Lordship has received another 
account of the adventure with his servant, . , . 

' m, * --' fc*. ' ■ . 'Tf r' . ■ — ■ ■ '. f t , r . f . ri • ■ , , i ,., r . . - , , i, 

* * Of Saxony^Ttnoundng Pjrot«tanlisn|.*: » . , 

• • \ *. •At. 



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Plilatcfhic^ trOud^khs o/fie. R. & Part U.fir X^^. ili 

• A» t<> XXKJ own pwt, njy Lord, in ParKamCnt, or out of it^ as I 
will always deserve your friendship^ oo I flatter nmeliF, I shall always 
have it. But, my Lord, as to my conduct in Ine ncgociatioh for Si 
peace, I stedl Want; no JUstiftcatittfi. L have> it is true, acted as 
lx>ldty in the promoting that good work, as your Lordship used to 
do, where you thought the interefl of your country at stake ; and I 
tell you, without any Gasconade, that I had rather be banished fob 
my wbolc life, because I have helped to make the peace, than be 
raised to tbe highest honours, for having contributed to obstruct it*; 
however, God be praised !• we run no risque of this kind ; the eyes 
of n\ankind are opened, and they begin to see the falsehood of tnat 
rystcm of politics, on which we have acted so many years together. 

« I ii^dose this letter to Mr. Cole, who will convey it to your 
Lordship, wherever you may happen to be. No man loves you'bcV 
t€T, or Honours you more than ^ Yours, &c.' 

Whatever opinion we tnay entertain of the motives in which 
Ae treaty of Utrecht originated, or of the consequences to thijj 
xountry of that negotiation, it is. impossible not to admire the 
talents and perseverance of him by whom it was planned^ con- 
ducted, and completed. 'When we review the mapy and vari- 
ous difficulties which Bollngbroke had to encounter, we reflect 
with astoni^meot on the^pati^ce, the spijrit,^' and the addret^ 
with which be overcame all opposition, a|i4'?t,lepgth acQQni- 
plished his favourite object. 

Wecannot dismiss, thia^ article wiitbout .recommending the 
ivoikto'th<^e readers, who. wish to hayeaxireumstantiid ac- 
count of a transaction which, wns so sedulously forwarded by 
one parrty, and so uniformly opposed by the other; a^nd which, 
as it was the cause of aggrandisement t6 the Whigs, nearly 
proved fatal to the lives of its supporters. 

The letters arc chiefly addressed to the 'DxxV^ ot Shrewsbury 
and tiic Earl of Straffbrd, formerly Lord Raby. 



Alt. hi. PhtlojQphkd Transactions of fte J^ojai Socscty of London^ 
Part II. for 1798. 



[^j1rt,.c99teludfdfromp4 128.] 



ANATOMICAL PAPERS. 



jln Account of the Orifce of the, Retina of the Human Eye^ dis^' 
covered hy Professor Soemmering. Ji which are added^ Proofs 

m> >| - |» 11 ^ ,p,i. .1 .. ^ ■ ■■■ III — 

* • This passage is remarkable, on account of the event verifying 
the assertion. Upon the return of the Whig administnftion', at the 
accession pf George I. Bolingbroke was impeached for helping to 
make the peace, and actually went into a voluntar}' exile.' 

I 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



vfthiT /fppearbhce heing ekended to tbe^Mftl ^f athr AmmaJsm 

THE following accoutit of this t>ew discovery in tfcc anatonf 
of the human eye was coitimiumcatcd by M. Mauiioir^ an 
eminent surgicon at Ccp^va, in a letter to Mr. Home : 

*< Professpr Soe^imcrU^g was diswcting; in the bottom of a vessel 
iaied with a transparcut liqui^,. the eyes of a young man, who had 
i)een drowned, and w^ stn^k on 8e;eiJig, near the insertion of the 
Jbptic nerve ^ the retina, a ydlow noupad spot, and a small fcole^ ia 
the ^liddle^ through which he could see the dark choroide^y {]aokJu^ 
^ the surface ,gf ^e retina which eoycrs the vitreous humour*) 

« He dissected other hum^ eyesj and constantly, when theiissec- 
tJon wjft carefully made, found the hojfc of the reUna seenru^gly at the 
posunor end of the visual radius, nearly two Urtes on the temporal 
side of the optic nerve, arid the hWc surrounded by the yeBow aone, 
©f above three lines in dtamrter. The hole of the rcUna is ttot^^ 
•pectly seen, b^ing coveted wftb a foW pf the ertina. itselt An aoAi^ 
mist of Paris dissected many eyes of quadruped and birds, and fooai 
4hc yeU»w,spot and hok in «a animal hat the human kind." 

The best way of seeing the spot, the ruga whicb conceaU it, 
and the yellow zone, is, according to M. Mavmoiry 

>« To take off the half posterior part of the selfert)tica, then the cor. 
respondent part of the choroid; both mnsibe c«t roimfl the insertiqpi 
^f the optic nerm. Th« retifta ts to remain bate and iiatoiiched» 
••usuining alone tfaeivhveottsbumaiir ^/thovyott-aiiaT aee the YssmA 
«ot, which reaches the optic mow ,.and a foW;of tie i^na» naifc- 
ifig a diamctfr.«(f the ^Qt, Ttf n, if you pfesf tbejjall a )ittfc jnith 
Vour finaa, so. as to gush the vitwpus humonr rather near thjc bpttojpi 
of the eye, tlic ruga is unfolded, and ^ou wfll^ee th? hole pei^ctLr 
round, of { of a line in diameter, and its edges very thin. Au thfc 
can he seen in the fcside of tlie eye^ but not bo pei*ftctlf ; and> ia 
that case, you must make your c/bservations in water*'*' 
* Mr. Horned Riode of examining the retina waa 

< By removing tht transparent cornea ; then taking away .the ins, 
and wounding the capsule of the crystattine lens, so is to doengage 
the lens, without removing that part of the capsule which^ adheres to 
the vitreous humour ;. by which jne^uw*^ the retina remained undis- 
turbed, and could 6c accurately examined, when a strong light was 
thrown into the eye. Theaperturein''the TeM9ai( surrounded by a 
-zone ^th a radiated appearance, was distinctly seen, on thp temporal 
•aide of the insertion ofthe Optic nerve, and about ^ of an inchxfestant 
irom it, apparently a little below the posterior end of the visnal t»> 
dius. The aperture itself, in this view, was-wry smtdl.* 

Mr. H. at first thought that a fresh eye wa& necessary* for 
demonstrating this apwture : but he has since found that h is 
more readily seen in an eye t^^'o days after death j ^ the zonjh> 
which is the most conspicuoife part, being of a lighter colour the 

first 



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Fiifof^cift Tr^sacthHf tfthe^ R. i. Paft 11. fir I7$y«. %6t 

firsts day, thaa it is upon the second.' He has succeeded in pre* 
serving the posterior part of the eye in spirits^ without destroy* 
ing the appearance of the aperture. 

In Dr. Duncan's Annals of Medicine for the year 1797, is an 
account of a publication concerning tliis singular appearancci by 
Professor ReU, intitled, The plait ^ theyglhw spot, and tht tram* 
parent porttmi of the retina of the eye i and Mr. H. informs us 
that the Professor's mode of dissecting th^ eye, in order to 
shew the aperture and piaiti is exactly shnilar to that nteii* 
tioned in M. M aunoir's letter* 

Having ascertained the appearance of the aperture above de« 
scribed in the human eye, Mr. Home determined to in?estigatd 
it in the eyes of other animals; and he found that it is not pcv^ 
cnliar to the retina of the human eye. Its situation in man 
and in the monkey (the latter was the animal in which be first 
explored it) is the s^me. In them it is placed at son(i^e distance 
from the optic nerve : but in some other animals, as in the 
bullock and sheep, its situation is close to that nerve, and it 
puts on the appearance of a tube, instead of an orlfii^. 

99r. H. observes thot the yellow zone, found in the human 
eye and in that of the monkey, does not exist in any other ani* 
mal in^iich he has had an opportunity of examining. As to the 
use of this aperture in the eye, he conjectures that it is the ori^ 
fic^^a lymphatic vessel, intended to carry off the vitiated parts 
of the vitreous humour and crystalline lens ; and Ite offers Se- 
veral reasons in support of this opinion.— The several appear^ 
anees described in this paper, as they were observed in the htfi 
man eye and in those of the monkey, bullock, and sh«ep, are 
exhibited by figmes. 

A Description of a very unusual Fonnation of the Human Hearts 
By Mr. James Wilson, Surgeon. 

The heart described in this paper Consisted of a single aur^cld 
and ventricle^ each of which was of a large size. A large arte* 
rial trmvlk aro^ froth the vehtricle, and ascended into the tho- 
rax, between the pleurx, immediately behind the thvmus gland. 
This soon divided iijto two large branches, one 01 which conr 
tinaed to ascend, constituting the aorta \ which^ from the place 
wheie it began to form the usual arch, was in no respect dtf<« 
ferent from the aorta of aay other infant, except that no bi^n« 
chial artery was sent to the lungs from it or any of its ramifi* 
canonfc The other branch pas^ backward, and proved, on 
examiiutton^ to be the pulmonarv artery .; which divided into 
two bnsthe^ osegoing to the lungs of the left> the other to. 
iSac luags of die tigbl side. The circumference of the aorta^ 
Mici« te te^air«te4 froiH the^ original trunki was found co mea« 
i- '^3^ sure 

Digitized by ChOOgle 



2^2 PbU&sophUdt Transactions efthe R. S. Part 11. fir 1 798. 

sure i| inch; and tliat of the pulmonary artery fifteen ^six- 
teenths t>f an inch. 

For other particular?, apd corresponding^ remarks, .wc must 
refer to the author's account. . He has illustrated the se- 
veral circumstances in which this infant differed from others 
by suitable figiire8.««--It had arrived at its full time, and lired 
seven days after its birth. 

- Account of d Tumour fmnd in the Substance ofth^ Human jp/a-* 
ccnta. By John Clarke, M. D, , * 

It appears, by this account, that very considerable deviations 
from the ordinary structure of the placenta may exist, and be 
perfectly compatible with the life and health of the foetus. 
The tumour here -described was situated bchiii^l the chorion, 
and lay imbedded in the foetal portion of the placenta. lu 
general form was oval, it W9S about 4I inches long, 3 inchet 
broad, and about 3 inches thick. Its weight was upwards of 
7 ounces; it& shape resembled that of a human kidney; its 
surface was convex, with slight indentations ; apd it was in- 
closed in a firm capsule, the substance of wh\pji contained large 
vessels. The blood-vessels, branching off from the funis to 
supply the tumour, went partly to one side and partly to the 
other ; ramifying in their progress, till, meeting at the coovck 
edge of the tumour, they anastomosed very freely. From the 
large trunks on the surface, small branches were giyen pff» 
which penetrated into the substance, and supplied the w1k>1c 
tumour with, blood* Its consistence, on cutting it, ^was found 
tQ be uniform^ firm» an^ fleshy. Son>e parts appeared to b^ 
highly vascular, while others were .white and uninjecte4« 

The ingenibus author inclines to think that the existence of 
such^a tumour is not to be considered as a disease, because no 
part of it exhibited any appearance ol* a morbid tendency. He 
observes that 

* The whok structure seemed to consist of a regularly organt^e^ 
matter throiig^l^put, su{)plKd with vessels exclusively belonging to it- 
self, and not passing to it from the surrounding. paits, as is generally 
the case In diseased masses.' — « All the fcomrnt>n and kuown functioDt 
of the placenta were performed, notwithstanding the existence of this 
Subnancc ; and the dhild had been as welT noumh^4,'and theboncfits 
aridng from the'appUcatron of'vital air or oxygen to ::jts blood just 
Ifi'cilrsuppb'ed, as if tho tumour bad not existed*' 

Dr. C. is diisposed tO'Ct)nsidep < this fleshy substance, as a so- 
litary instaivce of a formative property 111 thevesiels of the pla- 
^critd, which they liave hdt been hitherto generally known to 
possess.* • The extraordinary quantity of liquor anmii^ dis-; 
^hargcd previously to th6 birth of the ohild^ ah4 wfaic^ amoim$e4 
'^ ' 4 , ' • . t^ 



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PWcf$phical Traniactwttiofthe R. S. PmrtJT.for 1798. 263 . 

to' two gallons, is a circumstance in this case that is wdrtby^ 
of notice. What connection subsisted between this Kquor and • 
the tumour, and how 5ucb a quantity of secreted fluid was con* ' 
vcyed from the tumour into the general cavity of the ovum, the 
author professes himself unable to explain. 

CHEMISTRY and natural history. 

An Inquiry concerning the Chemical Properties that have been 
etttributed to Light. By Benjamin Count of Rumford, F. R\ S. 
M.R.I.A. 

The indefatigable author of this paper, having, in an Essav 
on the Propagation of Heat in Fluids, [see M. Rev. N, S. vol. 
xxvii. p. 168.) expressed a doubt concerning the existence of 
those chemical properties, which have been ascribed tp light \ 
and having also mentioned his reasons for concluding that 
all the visible changes^ produced in bodies by exposure to 
the action of the sun's rays, are efFected merely by the 
beat which is generated or excited bv the light which they ab« , 
sorb, and not by any chemical combination of the matter of ^ 
fight with such bodies; has since directed particular attention. 
to this subject. In consequence, he here presents the Society 
with an account of tho^e experiments whicn he has made w^th 
^ view of investigating and determining how far his opinioi^ 
was well founded. He modestly acknowleges that he has not, 
been so successful as he, could have wished : but none who are 
^^uainted with his sagacity and assiduity, in prosecuting re«^ 
searches of this kind, will think any. apology necessary on his* 
part for submitting the result of his reflections and experiments 
to the public inspection. 

Having found, on a former occasion, that gold or silver 
ipight be melted by the heat which exists io the air, at the 
distance of more than an inch above the point of the flame of a 
wax-candle, the Count was curious to know. what eflFect this 
beat would produce on the oxyds of these metals. For this 
purpose, he evaporated to dryness a solution pf fine gold ii) 
mqua regia, and dissolved th^ residuum in dit(ti]le4 water, till 
the solution became disposed to crystalli^^e ) apd wetting ih^ 
middle of a piece of white tafl^eta ribband in the solution, he 
held it horizontally over the clear bright flame of a wax-candle, 
at the distance of li inch above the point of the flame. The 
purt of the ribband, which was directly over the flame, almost, 
immediately emitted steam in dense clouds ; and, in abou^ ten 
seconds, a circular spot of a fine purple colour, approaching to 
fnrimson, appeared in the middle of it, and rapidly spred from 
\f\ %stsif9 of about thre^'fourths of an inch in dian^eter, to the 
" ' ; ' " T ^ " " extent 



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ev^ent ef Marif an Uicb. B7 movlng^ tlie ribband^ all the pacts % 
of iif vfhiehi b^4* b^^^^ wetted,, and which w^e exposed ta the hot 
vayouM q£ thii cskudle^ were tinged with the same beautiful 
pMTpIe colour* Thif colour^ which was uucommon^j briiliant, 
penetrated the ribband, and the staia was pcrCectij indelible. 
Though there was no appearance of gilding on the ribband, 
and no tracer of revived gdd coHJd' be dkeertied, it seemed to 
b,e covered with a thin coating of the mdst beautiful purple ciia- 
mel> which, in the sun, had a degree of brilliancy Aat was 
sometimes* quite dazzling. The moistened part of the ribband 
was afterward dried in a dark closet, and thtn exposed to the 
fllime of the candle ; when the same effect was produced.— The 
experiment was varied in several ways with paper, fine linen, 
apd fine cotton cloths ; and a similar tinge was produced, 
i^liatever the substance was which imbibed the aqueous solution 
0/ the metallic oxyd'. The same substances, tinged with a sf- 
xxjilar solution of nitrate of silver, artd treated in the like' 
manner, exhibited a very dark orange Colour, or rattfer a yel- 
lowish, brown. 

In order to detemiine whether the purple tinge in the first 
instance was occasioned by the kedf or by the light of the candle, 
the author made the following experiment, which he concetti 
tip have been decisive* llaving wetted a piete of rii^band as 
'before, he held it vettically by the side of the clear flame of a' 
burning, wax-candle, at the distance of less than half an ibeh 
from the flame. In this case, the ribband was dried, but with- 
oiit thp least change' of colour. When it was held for a few 
seconds within alioiit Jth of an inch from the flame, a tinge of 
a very beautiful crimson colour, in the form of a narrow ver- 
tical stripe, was produced. The heat, which existed at tbfs* 
distance, wa^ suftcifendy intense, as he found by trial, to melt 
tltj fine silver wire, flatted ; such as is used ih making silver-- 
lace. 

^ lii another eitpctimcnt, which was repeated several times-, a 
pldcjbof whiticl ribband', wetted with the aqueous solution of tlie 
oxyd of gbld, and thoroughly dried in the d^rk, waff 8usp<fnde4 
iti 4 ghial of fine transparent glass; and die phial, being* weH^ 
slopped with a cork, was exposed to the strong Hght of a bright 
sun. After having been thus exposed for about half an hoinr, 
Merc artd tli^rtf some faint appearances of a change of colotii' 
were visible : but no disposition to take th^t deep purple hue,- 
which the ribljaWd had acquired in the former experiments* 
could lie p^fcdfVed. When, however, the same ri bba n d wan 
wetted, with cftiitillerf wJitep and exposed in its v^tt stite to tbcr 
Sun's rays, it al'moist iilfltantly began' to change qblonr aihl sootf 
bieca^fec' of a d^ftf pirrple tiAtI Wtlr the mort* accutstc^exa- 

minatiooj 



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HtlMffilMlTfdhsdkiihscfthi Jiv& FarJH fir 1798. t*J 

agnation, the autlibf ootrid not pereeiv): tin amalleist particle of 
tcr?ivedgold.-^Froin this experiment^ he ^oocloded 

< That light hi» Kttle effect in changm^ ttc? cohuifof metkVSi^ 
oxides, iu hng as th^ are in a state of cfjstal&xatioru The heat T?hich 
is gcncnited by the ahaorpti'on of the raysof h'ght mutt Becc88ai«ily^ 
ai the moment of its gtneralibn at least, exist in almost iniiQitely small 
spaces ; and cousequently, it is only in bodies that are inconceivably, 
smaii that it can produce durable effects, in any degree indicative of 
its extreme intensity. Perhaps the particles of the oxide of gold, 
dissolved in water, are of such dimensions ; and it is very remarkable, 
that the colour^ produced in some of my experiments on white rib- 
bands, by means of an aqueous solution of the oxide of gold, ,artf 
precisely the same as are ppodueed from the oxide of that metal, by 
eoamellersy in the intense heat of their furnaces. As the colonringf 
sabstance is the same, and as the colours produced are the same, why* 
should we not conclude that the effects a^e produced in both these cases 
by the same meaiiS, that is to say, by the agency of heat i or^ in other 
words, and to be more explicit, by exposing the oxide in a certain tem- 
perature,at which k becomes disposed to vitrify, or to undergo a change 
in regard to the quantity of oxygen with which it is combined?' 

The Count recites some other experiments, which evince 
the intensity of heat generated in all cases when light is ab- 
sorbed, ami the striking effects which, under certain circum-^ 
stances. It is capable of producing. Concluding that gold 
might be revived in^ the moist ivay^ by means of charcoal, from 
a solution of its oxyd in water,— provided that it were possible 
to communicate to the charcoal, and to the oxyd attthe same 
time^ a sufficient degree of heat, — he was desirous of ascertain- 
ing whether this might not be done by means of light. The 
mode pursued for determining this fact, and the success which 
attended his experiments, are particularly described : — but wc 
must refer to the sequel of his paper, which, in this and in 
other respects, is curious and interesting. 

On the Corundum Stone from Asia. By the Right Hon. Charles 
Grcville, F.R.S.' 

The mineral substance described in this paper has been ge- 
nerally denominated, on account of its hardness, Adamantine 
Spar. Some specimens of it were transmitted from India, 
about the year 1767 or 1768, to an eminent engraver in stone 
at Edinburgh, together with information that it was the mate- 
rial used by the natives for polishing crystal, and all gems, ex'- 
cept diamonds. In 1784, Mr. Greville obtained its native 
name. Corundum ; and he soon discovered that Woodward had 
mentioned it in his catalogue of foreign fossils', published in 
1 7 19, and also in an addidonil catalogue published iti 1725; 
together with the purposes to whfcli it was applied in Indian 
After several ftuitlcss inqairiesVconcernipg this stone, Mr. G. 

in 

Digitize'd by Google 



t66 fhOofopKcat Ttmsaitm/ tftU JR. 8. Pari U. firx 7j>8. 

in 1793 receired a tatisfactoiy account of it, contained in % 
letter to Sir Charks Oaklej, tlurn governor of Madras, from Miv 
Glrrov ; wbo» after some difl&culty in hi^ researches, discovered 
ibe pits in' which it is dug, at some distance from Permetty, 
and who was thus enabled minutely Xo describe the manner in 
which it is procured by the miners, They descend into a pit 
•bore 14 feet from the level of the ground, and with an iron 
crow foVce through the strata which cover it ; and having 
broken to pieces the substance by which it is inclosed, they 
find the Corundum among the broken lumps. The sale of it, 
by those who are employed in procuring it, is confined solely 
to the glass-sellers; and they vend it through the whole 
country for the use of the stone-cutters, to whom it is essen- 
tiaHy requisite. The specimens which the author obtained 
were of a greyish colour^ with a shade of green. By the na^ 
lives of Bengal it is called Corone, and they use it for poKshing 
stones, and for all the purpos;fS of emery. The specific gra- 
vity of a lump of this stone is 3,876. Mr. Grevillc describe^ 
^veral varieties which he obtained from India and from Cluna, 
together with the strata in which they were founds and the 
circumstances which distinguish them from one another, and 
from other substances of ^ similar kind. 

Under circumstances favourable to its crystallization, Co- 
rundum becomes glassy in its fracture, and of various colours. 
In crystals of it, Mr. G. has not only observed specks of a fine 
tvlbj colour, but he has fragments of crystals in texture and in 
every respect like the colourless Corundum, of a fine red co-. 
lour^ and he says that we obtain, from India, Corundum 
which may pass for rubies. The specific gravity of this sub- 
stance has been found to vary from 5,876 to 4,166; and Mr. 
Gi supposes it to be subject to a variation from 3,300 to 4,309. 
J^j an analysis of Mr. Klaproth, this stone consists of 

Corundum earth . - 68 . o 
Siliceous earth - 3 1 50 

Iron and nichul n o 50 



By 
consi9 


anotlier analy^is^ the 

ted of 
Argillaceous earth 
Siliceous earth 
Oxyd of iron 


poru 

. 5 
I 

3 


JO 
9 


100 

^ of tbe Peninsula of InJIIa 
The Qorundum of Chio4, 
84 
r /$ 50 

,7 50 




f 99 « 

Digitized by Google 



PbUosopMcal Transactions rf thi Jt.S. Pari II. for 1 798. 267 

■ Mr. GrcviHc thinks it probtMc that Corundum may be found 
in Great Britain, and on the Continent of Europe, ajB well as in 
Asi9f-^He terminates his account of this substance with some 
Valuable observations on crystallography, and on the importance 
of combining intrinsic and extrinsic characters in the arrange^^ 
ment of those specimens which belong to this class of sub* 
stances. ^ He has also subjoined the translation of a paper by. 
the Count de Bournon, intitled^ jln Analytical Discretion gf 
the Crystalline Fonns of Corundum^ from the East Indies and 
from Chinay ivith a Table of the Specific Gravity of the Corundum^ 
Sapphire^ Topaz, Ruby, and Diamond, on different Authorities^ 
The following general observation closes this last paper : 

^ The generic parqe Corundum I am in the habit of^ving to those 
sorts which have a sparry or a granulated fracture. "When Corundum "^ 
has a vitreous cros^ fracture, I call it sapphire; and diftinguish itsva* 
netjes by their colours, white, red, blue, yellow, green, and by the 
acddeutal reflection of light from their laminz : when in one direc- 
tion, I call the Sapphire chatryani : when the reflection is compounded 
of rays which intersect each other, and appear to diverge from a com« 
mon centre, I call them star-stones, as red, blue, or greyish star- 
Stones, or star-sapphires*' 

Account of a Substance found in a Clay^pit ; and of the Effect of 
the Mere of Diss, upon various Substances immersed in it. Bf 
Mr. Benjamin Wiseman, of Diss in Norfolk. With an Analysis 
of the Water of the send Mere, by Charles Hatchctt, Esq. 
F.R.S, 

From the observations and analysis contained in this paper, 
it aippeais that martial pyrites is the only substance deposited 
on bodies immersed in the water of Diss-Mere \ and that this 
water does not hold in solution ^ny sulphur, and scarcely anf . 
iron. 

< It has not, therefore, b«en concerned (says Mr«^H.) in forming 
the pyrites ; but it appears to me, that the pyritical matter is formed 
10 the mad and filth of the Mere ; for Mr.Wi(ieman says m hk letter, 
that the Nfere has received the silt of the streeU for ages. Now, it is 
9, well )uiowu fact, that sulphur is continually formed, or rather li* 
Iterated, from putrefying animal and vegetable matter, in common 
sewers, public ditches, houses of office, &c. &c. ; and this most 
probably has been the case at Diss. Moreover, if sulphur, thus 
formed, should meet with silver, copper, or iron, it will combine with 
them, unless the latter should be previously oxidated. The sulphur 
has, thereforCr in the jMesent case, met with iron, in, or approacniDg, 
the metallic state, . and has formed p^ntesw' — ^ Similar effects, on a 
larger scale^ have been, and are noiqr, daily prod need in many places. The 
pyrites in coal-mines have, probably, in -great measure thus originated* 
The pyritical wood also may have been thus produced j and, b^ the ' 
f ubsequent loss of sulphur, and oxi.dation of the iron, this pyritical 
vrood aopear^ to have torn^<<i^ ^ veood-like iron orej which ii found 

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jiSf • FawcetV/ Poem. 

ii mtfry ^2stti and particulady in the mines &i tiie rtver Jeaxsrf, til 

I The fe»t article in this vi>lunic is A Ctriahgae of Samssrkti 
Matmfcripfis prnented to the Royal Scciety by Sir Willtaiin and 
La^ >nes. By Charles Wilkins, Esq, F. R.S. 

• Mr. W. has nor only recited the titks of the scvefal mano* 
, 0c#ipcs in this catalogue, but has annexed te cadi a partkolar 
accoum of its subject and contents^ 

A»T. IV. jPo«wx, by, Joseph Favcett. To which is added ** Civi- 
lized War," before published under the Title of •< The Art of 
War," with considerable AlteraUons 2 and " The Art of Poetry," 
according to the latest Improvements, with Additioas. Svo. 
pp. 277. 48. Boards. Johnson. 1798. 

'IT^ HE poet usuatlj rrprcsents himself as supremely blest in the 
■* favours of the Mase, but his happiness is generally as 
iRuch a fiction as the subject of his verse. He becomes tltf 
inhabitant of an ideal world, 

■* And oft in Fancy's light- wheePd chariot cymh^r 
To spheres where woes nor errors e'er have been *.* 

To descend ken«e to the low business, stuped cares, and vicious 
{wvdah;® of men^ is extreme degradation f and the ^bHme ge« 
ifittSy ** smit with the love of sacred song/* twn* away with 
disgust, courting ^solitude and despising riches. In proportion 
ti^kis emhusiasm is the vividness of his im^mation ; and he 
xiim% on it splendid visions, hopes, and e»peetatianc, wfaicb 
tMMd afMt tfxperietic^ invariably disa|^nt« Hence poetry be* 
Cfmt\ pkiin«ive(, a!id this happy art is employed to point un- 
happincssj The gravity of elegy then seems most congenial with 
mfeditigs. Tbs bright colours, in which its gay iUusidnd are 
cfrtmrd, fade Mkt the rich tints of summer cioods with the set«^ 
tiftg 9(ii¥, and: gloomy shadows obtrude %q dM^ken \t^ horizon, 
ft rtjay' be aske^, then, is poetty a blessing dr a ctifW? Is it 
rf feficftv <st a mi^foiftmie', to have '* the spirit finely touched 
tc> (his ftoe issu? .^ In Arcadia^ or in the Goldfti Age, there' 
^ould be no di^iilty in answering the question : but in this 
Ift>n Agj^ so mudti aUoy is mixed with its sacred pleasures,, 
titffel te may be dou^d v^heefaer it bef an eimablc endowment. 
E iBtttiice , however,, bring very rarely a poetic virtue^ tbi» eon-* 
sidetattotr doi^ not aba«e p6«tte ardor \ aftvd the poet, chougk 
Y^ be ^6fte*i reminded MdonUifs nWas ^ ftliqiHt dpet^ vrtH per- 
scvettf iA cdtrrt the? Muse. Yet, whh hir elegant, seifetwi mof-t 

1 ■ ■> II ■ ■ . i * ■ ■ ■ ■ ' { m" «■' — - - - ■ 

^ ♦ Sec Mr. Fawcctt's Elegy pu Solitude. 
». • ralizing 



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raltzing giavlty^ few iM ddighted. Tbe Ma«e must be 
sprightly, witty, a«d gay, to hare many tco^cm. 

Mr. Fawcetc appears to -be in the Dumber of thoae who have 
pictured the wbrki to their imaginaiions mudh brighter than they^ 
have found it ; who have been disgusted by its fdliics, and shocked 
by its vices ; who have no wish to conciliate the esteem either 
ot the great or little vdgar, nor to seek fune in the Approba- 
tion of the multitude. He vrrites £i>r the few, and must pro* 
bably be satisfied with the applauae of ^be few* He is a plain- 
tive, philosophic, and moral poet ; and stxdi an t)nc' will have 
reason enough tio oompl^h that ^ No^smUe^lfrpias^.l^mmon 
bless the Mus^s train /^ In point of vigour of koagination^ 
splendM -of imagsry, and force of expveission, h« ftas not many 
superiors among modem poets ; as his ** Art of War** (now, 
at our suggestion, called ^f'GivHiaed War*') ]»i6 sufficiently 
sbewn. Most of the slM>rt«r pieces isi ^his volurme manifest 
the same energy of smind and power pf descriplton ; though 
we must add that, especially in ihe Elegies* he has often wire- 
drawn a thought, and has fatigued us jb^ionnifig stanca aft^r 
sunza only to sepcat the same idea. Ifhat he possesses feeling 
and sentiment will be evident to our readers, when they have 
perused the 6tfa Elegy, 

WUITT5N ON REVISITING THIS SCENES OF EARX-V LIFE. 

• HaO, JovcKest scene these eyes have e'er wrvey'd i 
Where my gay childhood innocently grew ; 
Where oft my fcet wkk truant pastine piay'd. 
And my warm youtk life's freshest pleasoies koewl 

« Roll back, ye hasty suns, and bring again 
Those days of gold, then stand for ever stiB f 
Ere ^hro* my imme had piecc'd the shafts erf ^in.j 
Ere my warm spirita care hadleamM to ehiV. 

« Delightful Hope ! gay, ianghiiig prophetess t 
The flattcnng painter of Futurity ! 
•JTiat told'tt ine. I flh»Mld feel unroipgled bliss J ^ 

Come^ tdl me o'er again the ^banwbg lie! 

« Rn)eat that talc I heard of days to come ; ' 

Adf rich with bright impossibilities ! 
Wa^s alwftys.»mopth, and flpweri of lasting tWon^ - 
And thonikq$ soses, and uacJbu^cd aki^^i 

« WiUfc wanton prom^ ! that" t<^sft -this br east^ 
This trusting breast, it ne*er shonld taste of-pain-j 
By si^Tiqg rat^ wiU*toillidfctea©»e fiwwftt! 
The chsnniQg Ue, jKor^ tdl roc o'-er ^gni» ! 

* Return that'health ^ch WoomM tvkhout my caiv *, 
Came uwnvok'd^, and, though neglected, stotd: 

Which 

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f70 Fa^ccttV Poetks: 

Which tsk'd nor lenient herb^ nor fount nor atr^ 
Contemn'^ all danger, and despk'd all aid. 

^ Again» mj bosom glow as th^n it glow'd; 
IJV^en round I V>Qk'd9 and fdt that all was fair! 
When high on reptut^'s eagle- wing I rode; 
Tower'd to the son^ and spum'd the donds of care \ ' 

* Thoee slumbers sound again my senses bind* 
l^hat made but one sweet instant all my night; 
That heard nor barking cor, nor howling wmd» 
Nor Time's deep» solemn toll proclaim his flight. 

* And, oh! the fervours, Heav'n, renew, that ran 
Through my young nerves, (sensation all divine! ) 
Ere broke that golden dream which showed me man^ 
Not fairer in his form, than pure within. 

* Ere yet Surprise had made her fearful' start. 
As hcll'bom ViUainy first meets the view ! 
That smoothest smiles oft mask a froi^ng heartj^ 
Ere yet my blissful inexperience knew. 

* Give me again in all men to. confide ; . ,. 
Again suspicion from my breast be dnVn ; 
StHl would I view my kmd with gcn'rou^ pHde* 
And deem the word of man the word of rfeav*n. 

< And take once more your turn, ecstatic days! 
When life's Vast curtain rose; and blcssM my view! 
Lp ! the gay plumes, the spangles and. the blaze! 
All wond'rous bright, enchanting all and new! 

* Move my still bseast, sweet Novelty again ! 
Again with wild delight my passions £uice ! 
Return the bounding heart, the fever'd brain^ 
Return the years of transport and romance ! 

< But, chief, that sweet surprise restore me. Fate, 
Young Fancy felt in Academia's hall ; . 

The Muse of Rome and Greece as first she met. 
And each quick passion own'd her mighty call ! 

< On the bright plains when Fbar first bent her gazCf 
Where, back'd by gods, immortal4ieroes strove ! - 
At dead of nigjht, view'd Ilium*3 funeral blaze. 
And shook, with heav'n, beneath the nod of Jove ! 

« When first young Pity wept witlj Hector's wfc. 
As her fall'n hero to her sight appean ; 
Saw Ajax' sword case it's griev'd lord of life ; • . 
And sweU'd the flood of exilM Ovid's tears ; 

* And trac'd that flagring jav'Hos languid flight. 
An old man's trembung^anger faintly threw ; 
'MockM by the foe, who, Jh a father's sight. 
The flying son, .with barb'rous fury, slew : , . ^ 



«Saf 



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xt'awcettV Poms* xjx 

« Saw hiro, o*er scepteiJd subjects, that had rcijn*d. 
Of aH vast Asia that had worn the crown > 
An headless corse, unbuned on the sand. 
By no one honour' d^ and to no one kiiown! 

' • And shar'd his sigh, who, in the myrtle grovc» 
The unforgiving Fair obscurely knew ; 
From him (too late returp'd) who fled her love. 
Cold, in her turn, the scornful shadow flew : 

• Tho* wooM with tears, the phantom shot away, - 
Nor injured Beauty's sitately silence broke; 

- Heedless of all he now would idly say, 

T' excuse the sails that her kind shore fbr&ook^ 

J And give me. Nature, once again to prove, 

• Those dear, delirious, agitatea <lays. 
When woke within me first the throb of love. 
And radiant Beauty dazzled first my gaze ! 

• * Soft idle hours ! when Reason sat retired. 
And Fancy o'er me all her influence threw ! 
When, save what Laura's changeful eyes inspir'd, * * 

. No hopes I cherish'd, and no rears I knew ! 

• Resume, blest Lunacy, thy pleasing sway! I • 
Return the wild delight, — ^the pensive sigh,— 

The airy sonnet,— and the plaintive hjf — 

The moonlight walk,—* and sweetly sleepless eye! • 

• Enchanted gh)urids ! o'er which I vacant stray'd. 

In bowers of fragrance where I careless sat, • ^ 

While more than earthly music round me play'd. 
To a sad outcast ope again your gate ! - 

• Ah ! swift-wing'd joysl for ever, ever, flowQ ! ' 
Ail,' fruitless Revocation, fond and vain ! 
Adieu, blest days, that must but once be knoWn ! 
Farewel, delights, I may not taste again ! 

• Come, Virtue, when all other joys retreat, 

StiO constant found ! and, smiling Friendship, come! 
And beauteous Truth!— now gaudier beams nave set. 
Gild, with yotur mild and lunar rays, my gloom.' 

S<mietiines, in the Elegies, Mr. F. is ob,8cure ; and some- 
times the nerve of poetry is relaxed by a feeble epithet*. 
Speaking of the heart of the disnppointed lover^ he £ay9, 

< The agitated /&'ii^ has itoppM at last f/ ^ . 

'We 

* • Is that dejected bendine figure she^ 

That nymph renown'd for high vivacity ?* p. 75. 
f Mr. F. seems fond of this epithet. Jam Shor}, m iJie poem itt« 
titW** Change,'* is called 

^ A ibriorrtr, oe^lccte^ withered fi^f.' p. 74* 

' .- Again 



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iji FzwcetCs Poems. ' 

We do not approve of leaping bells, and ivinnowng wings ; and 
^< lorn esteem,'^ in p. 47, does not seem to convey tlie 'Oense of 
the author. 

The Sonnets, "whioh follow the Elegies are x>f the same com- 
^exion. They arc elegant 5— and ode line is teautiful .— 

* Hope: sweetly wq)C8 the eye that wets the tomb.' 
Miscellanies next follow ; of which the first is intided 

Change. Of this long poem, perhaps, the penisai 6f Juvenal's 
loth Satire, or Dr. Johnson's imitation erf it, (•* The Vanity of 
Human Wishes,") ^ay have suggested some of the thougMs. 
Mr. F. thus enters on his subject : 

♦ Nought, nought is found, wherein our search can stray. 
But fleet and basdess forms that gKde away j 

One 9trean:i of visions that in endless flow. 
Appear and vanish, and hut come to go.* 

The last line is an instance of that vulgar tamencss, and of 
ckeing out the mqtre line by the repetition of a thought in low 
terms, which the poet pvigbt studiously to avoid. 

We do not mean to insinuate that Mr. F. has tamely copied 
either Juvenal or Johnson. He has introduced many new 
thoughts and charactew^ That of the gamester is findy por- 
trayed: but^ sifter J6hn«oo*« delineation of Wolsey and Swift, 
we wonder that he should have ventured to re-draw tbtir 
pictures.^ . , ^ 

** And Swift expires a driv'ler and a shew,*' 
is superior to Mr. Fawccet*^ Kne, 

• A fury bums or dies into a fool.* 

In the conclusion^ however, he rises into sublimity. After 
having described the various gloomy instances of Cponge ex- 
hibited in this world, whose fashion passes away^^ he ad<hesses 
the GREAT ENDtTRER, and then haHs that lasting bliss 
which is the noble object of enlightened nun's faith and hope: 

* No dormant ^^^ I iaiU of flat repo^ - ; 
WAcrp pant no ardoursj where no action glows J- , 
No pool of standing life that always slec;ps, . 

O'er whose still sea no breeze of spirii swecjps { 
*No scene, as priests describe the bliss abo\x. 
Of heavy Caithness, and of shunb'nug-.lbre ; . . ' 
Where useless saints on easy thrones recline, 1 

Ajid tune their idle wires tp sopcs divine, . > 

Relax'd in holy sloth, and piousfy supine : * . * 3 

Nor^&tpra4^p:ne, as b^rds past ages ieign, , 
Whp sing of duhiess undisturo'd by pain i 

Again, p. 93, nutef^n arcijaUed^-iaiazing tbin^.\ jS^ ^gsisip p. t^tp 
f'^mni tbins[J* 

14 Of 



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Of meads, and flocks^ and flowers, and tipooks^ and trees^ 

And lazy innocence, and torpid ease. 

Whose iorcdess portrait of ilKimag'd BRss^ 

I>isp(ays alone, in its tame drowsy plece^ 

A iangruid form, all careless laid alone. 

By murmuring waters lullM, or warbhng song ; 

As gifted man were only made to sleep, 

To lie on violets, and to live with sheep !^ »■ 

« Not such, now beaming on her ghstening eyes^ 
Not such the scene th'exulting Muse descries ! 
£'en more than this, a stirring, wakeful state ; 
Quick with yet livelier change, yet busier fate ; 
But happiest change alone, that blissful proves. 
From truth to truth, from good to good, that moves ; 
Whose lovely flux, admir'd of Reason's eyes, 
Is only endless fluency of rise ; 
Where fairest scenes, from fetters wisely freed. 
Resign their place to fairer that succeed. 
Which, in their tuni, make way for yet more fair. 
And, beauteously unstable, disappear ! 
. Delightful state ! in which th* admiring Muse, 
The neavenly form of true Fruition views ! 
All bosoms throbbing with a pubh'c zeal ; 
All minds at work t' advance the general weal ; 
In tuneful chime, on one great aim intent. 
Harmonious moving with a sweet consent ; 
Exploring Nature's mine, where Hcav'n has ttoi^d 
The means of welfare in a boundless hoard ; 
Whatever charms the social state they lend. 
Still eager all, the beauteous piece to mend ; 
Content in no degree of bliss to rest, 
Studious to add new blessings to the blest ; 
All present excellence resolv'd t'excel. 
Whatever its growth, the sum of good to swells 
Awaken'd intellect yet more excite, 
To Truth's best lovers more endear her light. 
Of minds the most enlarg'd expand the views, 
In breasts the most inspir'd new fires infuse. 
Bid joy sublime to loftier transport rise. 
And breathe yet more of heaven in paradise! 

< Such the fkir state, in which alone appears 
The genuine smile a pure elysium wears ! 
(The reign of strife, and wrong, and tunuilt o'efi 
And fall and ruin mournful words no more) 
Serenely fervid ! busily at ease I 
A scene of active rest, and glowing ^/v^/ 
Whose gentle dove the eagle's force assumes^ 
And with whose oh've glory's laurel blooms ! 

* HaH ! radiant ages t hail, and haste along I 
To reasoning man your ^endid yean bcl9i>g I 
Riv. MA^c^^, 1799. U Uncloie 



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^74 FawcettV Poems. 

•Unclose your Icives of true, unfabled gold, - 

That bidden b*e in Fate's ricb volume roll'd ! 

Not Fancy, Faith the Muse this vibion gave | 

Of real scenes her sober raptures rave ; 

Prophetic fury what she sings inspires ; 

Truth's living coal hath lent her lip its fires : 

Of moral science, lamp to love and peace. 

The lucid crescent shines, whose bright increase 

Shall lose its bonis in plenitude of light, 

And reach a glorious lull, that ne'er shall wane to night.* 

Tliere is a great similarity, in this finale, to the animated 
Ct)nclusion of the ** Civilised War.'* 

To this poem succeed — Leo Mansuetus Imp. or the Emperor^s 
tame Lion, freely paraphrased from the second book of the Silva ^ 
Statius-'^'Vtrscs written on visiting the Gardens at Versailles 
.—On visiting the Gardens of Ermcnonville, where a tribate ii 
paid to poor Rousseau — On the general complacency with 
which infants are contemplated — The Contrast, occasioned hj 
seeing a gibbet deform a sylvan scene. The poet calls on the 
magistrate not to persist in a practice so disgraceful to civil and 
humanised society, as that of hanging felons in chains:— a 
practice which has never been known to do any good. It 
never terrifies the atrocious offender 5— it always disgusts the 
gentle and the reflecting traveller. 

* Ye who direct the social state. 
Which tauntingly ye civil call ! 

Who whip the crimes yourselves create. 
Yourselves most criminal of all ! 

* Cannot the cUy*s ample room 
Your polity's dark frowns confine. 
That thus they spread their angry gleoixi. 
Where loveliest Nature smiles benign. 

* Oh, violation most profane ! 

That thus disfigures scenes like these ; 

And fills each gentler breast with pain, 

Where all around conspires to please.* 
We come next to— A Monody on the Death of a young- 
Lady-^The Nightingale— To a Robin, whose nest had been 
taken out of the author's garden-^Louisa, a song — To the 
Sun, a fragment, written in the Spring. This is in blank 
verse, and in the author's best mariner : but, though a divine, 
Jie expresses hinrself concerning beauteous Nature in terms 
which will not in these times be thought orthodox. He 
tcrpis her 

♦ Bible of ages ! boundless word of God I 
Writ in a language to all nations known % 



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And through all time, with care divine, preserved 
From all corrupt interpolations pure.' p. 152. 
After two short poems, w^ find An Ode on the commemo* 
ration of the French Revolution in the Champ de Mars, July 
14, 1792, which Mr. F. introduces by an advertisement, de- 
siring * the reader to keep the date of it in his eye, that he may 
not imagine that that unmoderated admiration of the French 
Rerolution, which runs through it, extends to any of the trans- 
actions by which the cJiuse of liberty in France was aftcrwaris 
disgraced.* This piece, is highly poetical, but we have no 
room for farther extracts. 

A new edition of " Civilised War," with considerable al- 
terations, follows ;— 'and a War Elegy forms an Appendix. The 
volume concludes with " The Art of Poeti-y, according to the 
latest Improvements. By Sir Simon Swan, Baronet. . With 
Additions." The meaning of th6 author in this satirical poem 
baving been missed by the dull reader, Mr. F. makes the fol- 
lowing remarks in his preface, in order to ' rectify absurd mis- 
apprehension :' 

• With regard to the bagatelle at the close of this volume, the author 
takes tills opportunity of rectifying a mistake respecting his meaning in 
the beginning of it, into which he has found one of his headers tail- 
ing, and into which it is therefore possible that others may fall, al- 
though he should previously have entertained no suspicion of the pos- 
sibility of such a misconception. In the passage alluded to, he has 
been erroneously conceived to make correctness in poetipal com- 
position the object of his satire. He flatters himself, however, that 
an attentive reader (if such a trifle may be supposed entitled to an 
attentive perusal) will readily perceive, that it is not correctness 
which is there riaiculed, but productions of which correctness is the 
otdy or the rj&^j/" excellence ; not correctness in the abstract, but cor.« 
rect dulness. While he despises the notion, that negligence is among 
the features of Genius, he feels an equal contenrtpt for that chilling 
system of criticism, most injurious to the rights of Genius, which 
bestows upon the page, where scarcely a fault can be detected, 
but where scarcely a beauty can be found, a degree of approba- 
tion which it denies to the genuine spirit of poetry, when accom- 
panied with marks of carelessness. He has likewise been falsely 
iQpposed by the same individual, in the* second branch of the 
same poem, to ridicule flaintivb poetry. Of that peosive strain 
which Hows from a melancholy mood, and is founded in social and 
generous sensibility, he feels the charm as much as any of its ad- 
inlrcrs ; and has indulged himself in it, as this volume will disojover, 
in no inconsiderable degree. What he aims to expose, is that egotism 
oF complaint, of which se^u the incessant subject : and chiefly, that 
wail of private woe, which, as, in more instances than onc» he has 
itrong reason to suspect has. been tlie case, is the mere affectation of a 
sorrow that is net felt 5 which, instead of being the vent and relief 
of suffering nature, is the trick of art to produce pathetic effect ; 

U a whidi 



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276 Coote?/ Htstarfcf England^ 

wluch citW flows froma writer whose real fedingt are m^gtitly, ar^ 
if it take its gloomy hue from any^ derives it from a far hunter shade 
of actual sadness than the deep one which it assumes. Thit apedet 
of pbintive poetry y at once selfish , and, in a greater or smaller de« 
grecy -insincere^ which he has met with» or imagines he has^ in ptx>« 
ductions that, in other re8pect8> have yielded him delight, is, he 
thinksy a proper subject for satire : not so much with a view to d&- 
parage the works of*^ those whp have already written in this spirit, as 
to prevent their poetical merit from seducmg others to foUow their 
example, and thus introduce a mournful monotony among the mo- 
dem productions of ^c muse, instead of that variety of strain, which 
variety of talent and temper should naturally prompt^ and from which 
the lovers of poetry derive diversity of entertainment* In writing 
that little piece, he can sincerely say, he was not actuated by the 
smallest tincture of ill--will towards any one of the writers whom he 
had in his eye, for the poetical talent» of some of whom he entertains 
tlie most lively respect. If his satire be found deficient in wit, he 
hopes it will not be thought to vrant good humour. Tliat was the 
iteling of his mind in pennmg every line of it; a regard to the interens 
of poetry and taste was his sole inducement to undertake it ; it it the 
$rst composition of the kind he has ever written, and, as his natsral 
dispositions lead him a totally different way, will pvobably be the 
last.' 

We shall only add that the satire cannot be very pointed tod 
discriminative, which requires so long an explanation; and 
that real genius is degraded by indulging in vague in?ectt?i9 
against the correcting hand of criticism. 



Art. V. Dr. Coote'x History of England. 
[^Article sontinutd from the Rev^forjfanuaryj. p. 51.3 
'tTTE concluded our former article on the subject of thi$^ 
^^ work with an account of the third volume \ and we then 
expressed pur regret, which we have had frequent occasion of 
feeling, tliat the iuthor^s circumscribed plan presented him 
from giving that attention to various objects and periods which 
thfir inqportance demanded. Hume's History, which extemjt 
eoly to the Revolutioui and consiilers the Roman and the Sixoa 
periods in little more than two hundred pages, occupies eight 
volumes 5 and the \y6rk of* the present writer, which professes 
to discuss his subject ^ fronx the earliest dawn of record to the 
peace of 17S3,' i$ confined to the limited and inadequate space 
of nine octavo$. We think that, while this plan is too com- 
prehensive for an abridgment, it is yet not sufficiently amj^ 
to give a satisfactory view of the events of the respective perim 
in our history. 

The fourtn volume begins with the reiga of Henry IV. aod 
proceeds to the marriage of Henry VIJL with Anae. Bolcyof. 



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t^teV ISHory tf Srtglani. H77 

mcA his diTOrce from Catharine of Arragoni in the jrear i53|. 
The History of the Reformation, the motives in which it ori- 
ginated» and the steps by which it was completed, form a very 
interesting topic in the reign of this arbitrary, violent, and san- 
guinary monarch : but they do not appear to us to be anywhere 
60 well and ^q satisfactorily related as in Dr. Henry's very va- 
loable book. The death of Cardinal Beaton, which happenod 
in the year 1547, and which was, entirely occasioned by that 
Ecclesiastic's murder of Charles Wishart, a celebrated and en- 
thusiastic preacher, has been falsely attributed' to a previous 
encouragement given by Henry to his assassins ; this mistake, 
for a mistake it certainly is, was probably occasioned by the 
assistance which they received from the English monarch after 
that event. 

In the fif A volume, is Included the remainder of the reign 
of Henry VIII. and the reigns of Edward VI. Mary, and 
£lizabeth. The whole account of Edward is interesting, and 
fills the mind with favourable ideas, of a prince who cei^ 
tainly manifested sense, moderation, and judgment beyond his 
years. Under his encouraging influence, the reformation of 
religion was promoted, and by his advice the repeal of many 
rigorous laws was procured ; indeed, the whole tenor of his 
conduct was distinguished by vigilance and prudence 

* Had this prince (says Dr. Coote) been permitted to live to 
years of maturity*, he would doubtless have proved an able and respect- 
able monarch. Of natural capacity he had a great share ; and be 
seems to have, had a genius for government. He reflected much on 
the concerns of his digniiied station ; he was sedulous in his inquiries 
into the state of his kingdom ; he was acute in discovering the abuses 
which prevailed ; he pknned schemes of improvement and reforma- 
tion ; he encouraged every measure which he considered as conducive 
to the interests and the happiness of his people. He cultivated fo- 
reign politics with eagerness, and astonished the ambassadors of Eu- 
rope by the variety of his knowledge and the sagacity of his observa- 
tions. He patronised the arts, as well liberal as mechanical ; and lie 
was a friend to merit of every deoomination. The navy, that bulwark 
of an insular situation, was improved under his auspices ; and on com* 
merce, that promoter of national aggrandisement, he bestowed a high 
degree of attention. Among the writings which are attributed to 
him, we find the hea^ of a judicious scheme for the csUbHshment of a 
general mart of European commerce in England. 

' He hat been celebrated for the mildness and humanity of his dis- 
position, for the modesty and humility of his deportment, for his re- 
gard to justice and equity, for his combination of liberaUty with oeco'- 
nomy, and for his vigorous appUcation to pubh'c business. His lite- 
rary character has also been. the subject of extraordinary panegyric. 

^ He died in the i6th year of his age. 

Uj At 

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17^ CootcV Htst$rj tf England. 

. At an e^Iy age, be dUtinguiabed himself by bis acquisitions iR'pbik* 
logy; he was acquainted with the controversial points of divmity; 
and he had made a great proficiency in philosophical pursuits. Carduit 
the celebrated Ita&an physician, passmg some time at his court, was 
surpn'sed at the multifarious accomplishments which he obserrcd in 
this, princely vouth; and he has borne testimony to Edward's ac- 
quaintance with ancient and modem bnguages ; to his skill in logk, 
music, i(nd natural philosophy; to his dignity of demeanor, and com- 
placency of temper * . 

* But, notwithstanding all the encomiums which have been passed 
on his character, some blemishes may be remarked. His early initii^ 
tion in the doctrines of the reformers had given him so rooted a (fis- 

fust to whatever was repugnant to his own religious ideas, that his 
evotion may justly be said to have been tinctured with bigotry; and 
though he deserves our commendation for having testified such rcloc- 
tanceto the execution of two anabaptists who were the only personi 
committed to the flames in his reign f, (and it is much to he regret- 
ted, for the honor of the protestants, that even two should sufo- 
for opinions under their sway,) we should have been better pleased if 
he had earned to a greater extent his opposition to such unjustifiahk 
cruelty. But the influence of Cranmer, whom he regarded as an 
oracle in points of religion, prevailed over the king's humanity, 

* In another instance, there seems to be suflicient reason for blam- 
ing his want of mental vigor. We allude to the death of his unde, 
the duke of Somerset, a faithful servant of the crown, whom, frooi a 
facility in believing the insinuations of his enemies, and from an appa- 
rent' defect in manly firmness, he gave up to the malice of factkin. 
The sacrifice of his other uncle was less reprehensible, as the^ilt of 
that nobleman was lefes problematical if.' 

The mildness and humanity of Edward must have been 
strongly contrasted in the minds of his subjects, as well as in 
the impartial opinion of posterity, with the horrible and un- 
mitigated cruelty of Mary's government. That 5uch savage 
and sanguinary acts should have been endured in a country 
which had advanced any steps towards civilization, is astonish- 
lug ! but it nearly exceeds the bounds of belief, that these acts 
should have been practised under the pretence of promoting the 
cause of a religion, of which the distinguishing characteristics 
are peace, forbearance, and good- will towards men. From 
the contemplation of such enormities, we turn away with 

* *>- Hieronym. Cardan, de Genituiis, lib. xii.' 

* f These were Joan Bocher, commonly called Joan of Kent, and 
Van Paris, a Hollander.' * 

« X This monarch was never married/ though an alliance iiad been 

frojected between him and one of the daughters of Henry 11. of 
ranee. He was the founder of some valuable institutions, Christ's 
Hospital in London, that of St. Thomas in Southvrark, and sevqral 
free-schools in diflfcrcnt parts of the realm, owe their cstablishjncnt to 
)u$ bounty,' 

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CooteV History cf England. 279 

torror and disgust.— Yet, in justice to Mary, it must be ac* 
•knowleged that ihc execrable example was afforded her by 
the protesbnts, in the time of her predecessor, in thfc horrid 
instance which has been noticed in the preceding extract. 

Queen Elizabeth was rendered deservedly popular, and ob- 
tained much admiration, by many of the events of a long and 
splendid reigh : but still, in some instances of her conduct, we 
discover strong marks of a resemblance to the arbitrary, unre- 
Icntrng, and cruel dispositions of her father and her sister. 
The whole course of her behaviour to the lovtly and unfor- 
tunate Queen of Scotland, is marked by female jealousy, dissi- 
mulation, perfidy, and the most unfeminine severity. — What- 
ever might have been the errors of Mary's government, and of' 
her private and personal conduct,— and we by no means deny 
that there were faults in both, — they were' not subject to 
the jurisdiction of her rival. Elizabeth, in depriving the 
Queen of Scots of her life, acted in as open a violation of the 
law of nations, as of every principle of justice and every sug- 
gestion of humanity. "We are inclined to believe, with the 
present author, that Mary was not j^uilty of Darnley's murder; 
and we think that what he urges in support of his opinion is 
powerful and satisfactory : 

* The partisans of Murray immediately propagated reports to the 
prejudice of the queen's character, ins'uunting that she had been 
concerned in the murder of u husband whom she hated. But more 
satisfectory evidence than has yet been produced is necessary to jus- 
tify those who have imputed to her so horrible a crime. However 
great was the aversion which she had conct-Ived for Darnley, the hu- 
manity of her disposition was too strong to suffer her to concur in bis 
destruction. Had uhe been desirous of his death, she might have 
procured the judicial condemnation of one who was so generally de- 
spised, that the nobles would not have interposed to rescue him from 
justice. She might have brought him to trial for the united crimes 
of murder and treason ; of murder, in having abetted the assassination 
of her secretary ; of treason, in having directed his agents to commit 
that deed in the queen's apartment, to the rnanifest hazard of her life. 
She might, with equal facility, have procured a legal separation from 
him, without injuring her son's legitimacy, which could not hav&been 
affected by a divorce gmunded on his adulterous commerce with other 
women : or, even \i there had been a risque of destroyinj^ the son's 
right of inheritance, an act which exposed that ripht to dispute would 
have been -far less criminal than the murder of the fnthcr. 

* From the character of the chief accusers of Mary, we may form 
a strong presumption of her innocence. These were the earls of Mur- 
ray and Morton, who were men of such depraved' hearts, and such un- 
principled minds, that no crime which might gratify their irregular 
passions would appear too enormous for them to perpetrate. The 
former was conHdent that, by hi^ hvpocrijUcal pretences to piety, and 

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ftSo CooteV Hiftmry tf England* 

by hi8 artful m6de of throwing off his own eutk on th^ hetds oF 
others^ he could retain the good opinion of the whole prwhytcriaii 
party, whose shemcs of reformation he had warmly patronised! An 
Imminent historian observes, that Murray could have no motive for the 
commission of the murder ; but, without judging from the event (a 
practice which that writer justly represents as absurd), we may infer^ 
irom his conduct preceding the king's death, that he aimed at the 
possession of the government ; and, as he retained a strong resent- 
jnent' against hi^ sister for her final resolntion of punishing him, which 
nothing but the situation of her affairs, on the assassination of Ric* 
cio, had induqed her to relinquish, he was ready to contrive any 
acheme which might at once be subservient to his animosity and hn 
flux)bition. We also find that he had been apprehensive of the exccH- 
tion of Damley's menaces against his life *; a circumstance which, 
according to the frequent practice of that age, would prompt him to 
Itnticipate the blow. Under these circumstances, can it be justly said 
that he had no motive for the crime ? On the contrary, he seems to 
have had every motive which, however repugnant to humanity and 
justice, could urge a vindictive and aspiring nobleman, who foresair, 
m the event of the conspiracy, the indulgence not only of hjs rcTom 
figainst Darnley, but likewise against the queen, whom, by calum&iei 
Consequent on the murder, and py such advice as might contribute to 
^crease the effect of his mahcious fabrications, he might render -eo 
unpopular that her deposition might easily be procured by hit influ- 
ence over a people who had lojig been impatient of the government of 
H catholic pnncess. The earl of Morton, the friend and confederate 
of Murray, was Influenced by similar views. He was exasti^:rated 
Itgainst the king for having deserted him after the mufdcr bf Kicdo, 
Jn violation of his solemn engagements for the protection of the au- 
thors of that dted. Besides the desire of vengeance, the hopes of 
recovering his influence in the government, and the dignified office of 
frhanccHor, inclined him to promote, with great eagerness, the iniqui- 
tous schemes of the queen's brother. 

< When Mary had received intelligence of her husband's sudden 
dissolution, she issued a proclamation, offering rewards for the disco^ 
very of the murderers. Bothwell being accused of the crime by the 
public voicci the earl of Lenox urged the queen to bring him to trial, 
as well as all other persons who were suspected of a concern in it. 
i^lary, without hesitation, gave directions for that purpose ; and Le- 
nox was desired to repair to Edinburgh, that he might be present at 
the judicial proceedings. He had desired that Bothwell might be 
taken into custody ; but the queen did not gfant that request, as the 
accusation against him rested at present only on the c%'ideiicc of ano- 
Jiymons bills fixed pp in different parts of the city. When the dar^ 
pf trial arrived, the arts of Bothwell, and the influence of Morton and 
the other partisans of Murray (for this nobleman himself, to avoi4 
suspicion, had lately retired into France J, deterred the earl of Leno^ 
from appearing as an accuser ; and no evidence being adduced against 
JBothwell, the jury thought proper to acquit him. This verdict re- 

"* < ■ H I < ■ ■ ■ I I. "^ — - 

I * ipamd. p. UQ.' 

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CooteV Mifiory bf £tjglan^. 58 f 

ftrrtd the ssmctiQfi of a parliament which met two days afterwards 1 
and tbc dissolution of this assembly was followed by a remarkable as- 
sociation of many of the nobles for promoting the marriage of Both- 
well with the queen. They signed a bond, expressing their convic- 
tion of his innocence of the king's murder, and promising to hazard 
their lives and fortunes in defending him against all who should pre« 
sume to charge him with that crime. He had lately been extremely 
arduous in his endeavours to obtain the favor of Mary ; but, when 
he made proposals of marriage to her, she signified her dissent, Ua-. 
willing to submit to a refusal, he resolved to make use of compulsive 
measures; and, by a daring violation of her chastity, to render a 
marriage with .him necessary for the reparation of her wounded honor. 
He assembled^ party of 800 horse, under the pretence of making an 
excursion against banditti ; and meeting the queen in her return from 
a viait to her infant son, he dispersed her small guard, and eeiding her 
horse by the bridle, conveyed her to the castle of Dunbar. He 5iere 
conjttred, in the most persuasive terms, to forgive that vehemence of 
passion which Had hurried him into t)ns outrageous behaviour ; called 
to her mind the loyal services which he had performed 5 represented 
in strong terms the inveterate malignity of his enemies ; and declared 
that no&tng but the queen's favor, exempliHed in her acceptance oE 
his hand, could secure him from the effects of their hatred. Her re- 
luctance not being overcome by his artful insinuations, he produced 
the bond which the associated nobility had signed. Finding his ad- 
dresses so strongly sanctioned, and not being aware of the perfidious 
views of the diiti subscribers of the bond, she began to relax in 
her opposition 4.0 his proposals, and promised to gratify him with, 
the matrimonial union. A mere promise not being so vaKd a secu- 
rity as Ee wished, he had recourse to " extraordinary and unlawful 
means" (according to the account of those who afterwards rebelled 
against her) for the completion of his wishes. Partly by artifice, 
and partly by force, (for the latter circumstance is mentioned 
by the rebels, in additron to the extraordinaiy meofUf by which, 
perhaps, philtres are alluded to), he triumphed over her chastity. 
He soon after procured^a 'divorce from his wife ; and when Mary had 
promoted him to the dukedom of Orkney, the nuptials between him 
and his sovereign were solemnised at Edinburgh *,' — 

* Bothwell, in the mean time, though an undoubted agent in the 
murder, was suffered by the rebellious nobles to remain at Dunbar, 
unmolested, near a fortnight ; a circumstance which may be consi- 
dered as corroborative of the opinion of those who have attributed the 
contrivance of that deed to Murray and Morton. The latter, who, 
in the absence of the former, directed the motions of the insurgents, 
dreaded the regular condemnation of BothweD, lest he should disclose 
such particulars as might injure the reputation of his secret accom- * 
plices. He therefore connived at the retreat of this obnoxious noble- 
man, who, apprehensive of the stroke of assassination, put to sc^ 
With a few vessels, apd commenced the practice of navd depredation. 
Pdng pursued by Kirkaldy of Grange, he escaped to Norway, where 

i f McHl^s Memofrs.— Anderson/ 



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2$2 CootcV History $f Efiglani. 

he was thrown into prison for an act of pirady. He died in confiaC' 
ment some years afterwards ; and, on his death-bed, made a sokmo 
declaratjion of queen Mary's hmocence of the murder of Damley, u 
which, he affirmed, the earls of Murray and Morton, secretary Mai- 
land, and other persons of distinction, were concerned with him *.* 

The prejudices entertained by Elizabeth against her unhappr 
kinswoman were evident in her conduct in the appointments 
commissioners, and in the testimony^ which she admincd or re- 
jetted on those occasions. 

J * When the different commissions had been read, Mary^e repre- 
sentatives entered a protest, importing, that, though she had coo- 
. tented to refer the disputes between herself and her rebellious subjects 
to the arbitration of the queen of England, she had no i4ea of ac- 
knowledging any superionty in that princess, but was herself an in- 
dependent sovereign. The English commisaioners, on th^ other 
hand, declared that, though they received this protest, they^woold 
) not suffer it to prejudice that right of feudal superiority which |he 
sovereigns of England had formerly claimed over Scotland. A paper 
was afterwards presented to the court by Mary's deputies, containing 
a statement of the acts of treason and rebellion committed against her 
by her brother's faction, and of the successive injunes which had 
been heaped upon her. The regent, in his turn, accused NIary of 
. having countenanced the iniouitous schemes of the earl of Bothwdl, 
. so ais to render it necessary for her nobles to insist on hfs dismission 
from her society ; mentioned the steps which had been taken against 
the earl, as well as against the queen, whose partiality for him jiisti- 
.£ed them in depriving her of her liberty $ and afi&rmed that she had 
voluntarily resigned her croitn to her son, from the disgust which the 
fati^es and inquietudes of royalt)r had excited in her mind ; that the 
narltament had sanctioned her resignation ; and that the national af> 
lairs* had been- conducted with order and tranquillity, till some tur- 
bulent individuals had released her from her confinement,, and takes 
arms against the young kingf. 

* The omission of the charge of murder against the Scottish queen, 
which the regent had before industriously propagated, gave great 
surprise to many. But, exclusive of the supposition that he was 
^rupidous of advancing an accusation which he knew to be inca- 
pable of proof, he had lately had secret conferences with the duke 
of Norfolk, which may account for his present silence on this bead. 
The duke, commiserating the fate of Mary, of whose restoratroa he 
was sincerely desirous, and whose person he wished to possess, reoum- 
strated with the regent on the* infamy to which he would subject him- 
self by a public accusation of his sister and his sovereign; assured hira 
that Elizabeth had resolved not to crive a definitive sentence in tie 
cause, whatever evidence might be adauced on either side ; and hinted 
the danger not only of being deserted by that queen, but of beiag 
exposed to the severest vengeance of Mary, if she should ever ngtin 

• * Appendix to Keith's Hist.* 

« t Anderson, vpl. iv.- Camd, p. 1,38— ►i-^i,*, 

lier 

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Coote^s Htsfdrj of England. l?j 

her crown. The carl listened to these observations, and gave the 
duke a promise that he would not produce those documents whidiy 
be pretended, would convict Mary of adultery and murder*. 

* Th<; documents here alluded to consisted of letters and sonnet<» 
supposed to have been written by Mary to Bothwell. If these were 
genuine, little doubt would remain of the guilt of that princess. A 

•controversy has long subsisted on this subject ; and authx>rB of 
eminence have appeared on both sides jof the question. Some have 
maintained, that the letters and poenls are the real compositions of 
Mary ; while others, after a very accurate examination, have proved 
to the general satisfaction, that they were forged under the auspices 
of the eark of Murray and Morton, whom not only the most re- 
spectable friends of the injured queen, but many of the criminals 
who suffered death for their agency in the murder of Damlcy, aoi' 
cuscd of having planned that nefarious deed. 

* These pretended productions of Mary were shovm by the regent 
to Elizabeth's commissioners, in a private interview ; a circumstance 
which does^ not give us a very high opinion of the candor of the eail 
and his colleagues, who thus clandestinely tampered with the English 
delegates in the consideration of that important evidence which ought 
to have been first produced in open court. They had before expressed 

-an nnwiUingness to exhibit in form this grand head of accusation^ tlH 
they had received an explicit answer on the following, poirits; whe- 
ther the commissioners were authorised to give a final decree iq the 
cause ; and whether Elizabeth would protect the accusers of Mary 
•from that resentment which the latter princess would naturally fea 
against hei* adversaries. To these interrogatories an evasive reply was 
given by the English deputies, who, at the desire of the regent, sent 
to Elizabeth for further instructions. It was in this intcrvd of delay, 
that Murray had privately opened to them his budget of evidence, that 
they might communicate their opinion of it to their sovereigii, who 
would then see how far they Were disposed to concur in the plan whfck 
she and the earl appear to have concerted for obstructing the vindica-^ 
tjon of Mary's character. From the account which they gave Eb'za^ 
hcth of the papers, she was inclined to think that they considered 
them as forgeries ; a circumstance wliich did not coincide with her 
views. Hence she was induced to recall the commission which she 
had granted, and to evoke the cause to Westminster, where the pro^ 
ceeduigs would be more immediately ynder her eye. A new com- 
mission was then issued, in which, though the duke of Norfolk and 
his two colleagues were re-appointed, five other delegates were named 
in whose subserviency Elizabeth placed greater confidence. These 
were the lord-keeper Bacon, the earls of Arundel and Leicester, Clin- 
ton the high admiral, and secretary Cecil f .' 

In the interval between the sentence of the Scottish queen 
and its execution, Elizabeth acted a part remarkable for dis- 
simulation and hypocrisy : 

* ♦ Melvil's Memoirs. — Burghle^'s State Papers, vol. i. p* 574.* 

* t Aad^SDDi Tol* IT. — Burghlcy's Papers, yoU L^— Camd. Ann. 

♦When 

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3S4 Cootc V History ef Engtani. 

* When Elizabeth fdnnd that the tide of public prejudice eontinoBt 
to run strongly against Mary^ and that the people were as eager ai 
lierself for the execution of that princess, she commanded secrctairy 
J)avi8on to ptepare the warrant for her signature* Aa soon as it was 
produced bdfore her, she signed it with as much cheerfulness and sdU^ 
teomplaceiicy as if it had contained the grant of a pardon. She eicii 
insuked the misfortunes of the injured queen by unseasonable Jdcnla- 
ifity. 
km 

iigence. But^ after she had thus given her sanction to the publtt 
c]cecutk>n of Mary, her fear of the censures of mankind suggested to 
Iier an expedient by which she hoped to remove the odium of her 
Aath on her keepers. She wished them to murder her in private, 
on pretence of the association by which they had bound themtehres to 
SVTenre any attempt against the life of their own sovereigQ. This 
^Bootmrance, she flattered herself, would tend to the propagmtioo of 
ton opinion that she had not consented to Mary^s deatb> and that the 
#fficioo& zeal of prirate individuals had perpetrated the deed wkhoat 
ker knowledge. Pleased with the suggestion^ she ordered the two 
Secretaries of state to write a letter to raulet and Dniry, reproadung 
ffaera wkh their want of loysdty and public spirit, in not hairk^ re- 
Iktt^ heff by some violent and decisive means, from the danger t» 
iirhich she waff hourly exposed by the life of Mary ; urging the hwid 
«f assooiation as a sufficient justification of such a measure^ to Aeir 
fawn conscience as i^-ell as t|o the world ; and reprobating their sn- 
Undness in wishing to throw the odium upon her, acquainted as tfaey 
«nere with the humanity of her dispositioiit which rendered it so un- 
|4ea8ing to her to order the execution even of. the lowest eria^na^ 
that they might easily suppose her to be peculiarly ayerse to tke idea 
cf issuxn? a warrant ro» the delivery of a princess of her owa bmlj 
ttito the hands of the executioner *• Paukt and his associatie, thoopi 
moi fcmarkable for their tenderness to Mary, had too much, honor !• 
Derpetrate the infamous deed in which their uoprincipled aofcicm 
■ras desirous of employing them. She might command,, they Mti^ 
riitir honorable services ; but they scorned to act. the part of astaisink 
Mortified at their refusal, which she ridiculed as theoffspriiig of pflfr' 
CISC delicacy and idle scrupulosity, Elizabeth • iresolved to |p8li|^ 
toms leM conscientious persons to the secret murder of the Scoltvril 
^tteen* But, being at length dissuaded from that resolution '^by the 
ftemonstfances^f Davison, sne thought proper to have recourse p» ^kt 
regular execution of the sentence. That minister having rnminiiii 
p£eA the warrant to the chancellor for the application of. the gnat 
teal to it, Elizabetli sent a messenger to countermand that npcmtirMU 
|uid findhig that it was already performed, she reprimanded Davino 
for his precipitation. Wishing to draw him into a snare, thstrfl'S 
inight have a pretence for Jmputiqg Mary's execution tohim| sht 
peither ordered him to issue the warrant, nor to with-hold it f. jCtl^ 

■ ■ .1 ■ ■■ ■ ■ I.. . . >■ ' till 

. * * Camd» p* 5oa««-*Strype, vol. iii. — ^Biogny>lva Sritannica^ fut* 
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CooteV Hisfyrj of Bnghms^ ^^ 

^ciying It to be his duty to expedite a writ which had passed -thro^gii 
the necessary forms, and which he knew the queen to be extremely 
tlcsirotis of executing, he produced it before tjie privy council ; and, 
as Burghley, Hatton, and other experienced courtiers, penetrated 
Kcr schemes against Davison, of which indeed he himself had some 
suspicion, they reived to gratify her wish, aud easily persuaded the 
whole assembly to concur in sending off the warrant, without fiurtber 
<»>romunication with their mistress. To allay the apprehensions of 
Davison, all the counsellors engaged to bear an equal share of the 
blame that might attend this measure *.* 

After the execution of theninfortunate Mary, which Dr.Coote 
lias narrated in terms of simple eloquence and pathos, the £ng«» 
lish sovereign still maintained an appearance of kindness an4 
fcgret : 

< WhcB the execution of Mary was notified to EliEabeth, another 
scoie of hypocrisy appeared. She affected the utmost grief an<l 
astooishmenfe^ and threatened her ministers with her 6e¥ere8t displea- 
sure, for having put her dear sister to death not only without her 
knowledge or consent, 'but even in opposition to her declared wilL 
She wrote a letter to the king of Scotland, asserting her innocence of 
his mother's death, and professing an inviolable attachment to hi* 
interests. James was so incensed at Mary's fate, that he resolved 
not only to renounce his alliance with Elizabeth, but to avenee, fo^ 
hostilities, the cause of the murdered princess. His nobles applauded 
the ju^ness of his resentment, and promised to act with vigor gainst. 
^ queen who had insulted and degraded their nation. He refused to 
admit Sir Robert Caty, the bearer of Elizabeth's better, within his 
frontiers ; though he afterwards consented that the epistle should be 
received, as well as a memorial wntten by Gary, in which the blame- 
of Mary's execution was imputed to secretary Davison, whom the 
queen mtenced to punish severely for his presumption. These dis* 
patches did not tend to allay the wrath of James, who easily das* 
cemed the falsehoods which they contained^ He continued to think 
of revenge ; and, at his own kmgdom was too weak to give hin» 
hopes ofsuocess In a war with England, he looked out for a power- 
ful ally, by whose aid he might em:ctually punish the injustice, anti 
humble the arrogance of Ehzabeth f • 

* In^he mean time, Davison was prosecuted in ths star-chamber. 
for a misdemeanor, in having produced the warrant before the privy 
council without the orders of the (Jucen, who a£Brmed that she hacP 
strictly enjoined him not t6 communicate it to any one till he had re- 
ceived further directions from her. Thoi^gh Davison denied that she 
had given him such a charge, he was condemned by an arbitrary 
court to pay 4 fine of io,oooL and to suffer imprisonment during the 
queen's pleasure. This iiuguitous sentence reduced the secretary tc^ 
hidigence and misery.. He lingered some years in confinement ;. 
during ^ich the queen-, by whose tyranny he harf been ruined, oc- 
casionally rdieved his necessities :|:.' 

* ♦ Camd. p.502. * t Spotswood's Hist, of Scotland,— Camd. Ann/ 

* J Camd. p. 496 — 501..— Str)pe, voL iii/ yr 

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ltd Ce)OteV History of England. 

Wc shall contrast the characters of these two extraordtnarj 
female sovereigns, as drawn by the present historian, that tb«. 
reader may be enabled to form an estimate of his judgm^ 
and impartiality : 

' * Thus fell Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland in her own riffht, 
dowager of France, and heiress of the ci-owns of England and Ire- 
land ; a victim to the malignity of female jealousyr and to the ra^ 
of purftanical bigotry. Having sufficiently spoken of the contro* 
verted parts of her conduct, we shall now dismiss this iUuitrioiK fe> 
nale with a sketch of her general character. Her personal acoom- 
ph'shments were biilliaQt and captivating. By beauty of countenaoce» 
aymmetry of form, and dignity of stature,, she was eminently distin- 
guished. The patural ele):janc^ of her address, improved by the polish 
of GaUic education, hciglitcned the . attractions of her person; wid 
her engaging afSibility, vivacity, and ease, dehghted all who had the 
honor of conversing with her. She po^essed very respectable talestsi 
and her mind was cultivated by literature and erudition. In thepo* 
found knowledge of policy and goveniment, she was inferior to jEB* 
zabeth ; but, in generosity, magnanimity, and other royal virtues, ^ 
excelled her celebrated rival. Of the crimes of murder and adult^, 
of which she has been so peremptorily accused, we have endeavoured 
to acquit her, not only on the ground of insufficiency of evidence, but 
on the consideration of the flagitious characters of her chief accasera. 
Into acts of indiscretion, however, she was sometimes hurried, by the 
warmth of her feelings, and the suddenness of her resolutions. Her at- 
tachment to her religion was so strong as to expose her to the imputatioo* 
of bigotry ; apd though she made no open attempts to overturn that 
theological system which her subjects had established during her i^ 
aencc on the continent, her forbearance was less the result of inclina- 
tion than of the weakness of female authority over a bold and turbo-' 
lent people. Being naturally frank and open (though she waS not 
unskilled' in dissimulation), she was inclined to entertam too favonMe 
an opinion of those who concealed their vices ; and her occarional 
credulity, and unseasonable clemency, afforded the ambitious hypo- 
crites of her cour^ an opportunity of tffecting her ruin. Herdeport- 
fbent had too great an appearance of levity, to please those fanatics 
^ who» under the auspices of the earl of Murray, and the instructions 
of Knox, endeavoured to throw a gloom over the innocent checrfuL> 
Dess of life. She did not perhaps take the most proper steps for re- 
pressing the factious spirit of her nobles, or the seditious eiecesset of 
tier clergy ; and, by deviating, in some instances, from the paths of 
prudence and judgment, i»he was less able to avert the storm which 
diove her from her throne. Her weakness in trusting to the im>lea* 
sions of Eh'zabcth cannot be mentioned without censure ; but her Be-* 
haviour in that long series of adversity which she sustained after At 
had put herself into the power of the English queen, demands our ad* 
miration of her patience, fortitude, and constancy. In her prisoiky 
and on the scaffold, she appears a greater woman than Elizabeth 0« 
her throne, trembling, b'kc a jealouk tvrant, with me^ auspidooi 
and dcgradiag fears.'— 

« The 



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Coote^s History of England. iSf 

• The length of a reigtt in which the sovereign, far from being' 
the puppet or tool of a ministry, was the animating spirit of ever/ 
public measure, has given the reader so many opportunities of dis- 
cerning the genius and character of Eh'zabeth, that a very slight 
sketch will here suffice. Her masculine turn of mind, her firmness^ 
her penetration, and her judgment, qualified her for the government 
of an empire. Learned, intelligent, and enlightened ; active, yigi* 
hmt, and circumspect ; studious of the honor of her country, and of 
the general welfare of her subjects ; she acquired a reputation and st 
popmaitty which greatly contributed to the success of her en- 
terprises, and the prosperity of her sway. Though menaced with 
ruin by the catholic powers of the continent, she baffled all theic 
schemes by her consummate prudence and distinguished address ^ 
she despised the thunders of the Vatican, and the more, formi- 
dable artillery of Philip ; and, by the efforts of a brave people wha 
cheerfully risqued their lives in the service of their admired princess, 
she was enabled to triumph -over the persevering mah'gnity and the 
tremendous preparations of her foreign enemies. Her domestic foea 
she sometimes overawed by severity, and sometimes conciliated by 
Icnltv ; but her disposition seemed more to inchne her to the former 
conduct. She was of an imperious spirit, and was impatient of the 
least opposition to her will ; and the storms of passion into which 
she was betrayed were frequent and violent. Her frugality v^as car- 
ried to such an extremity as sometimes to obstruct the complete suc- 
cess of her schemes ; and her desire of treasure impelled her into ex- 
tortion and rapacity. Her courage and fortitude did not defend her 
from jealousies and suspicbns, which, in the case of the ScottisK 
queen, she indulged to a disgraceful excess. Indeed, her wholo 
conduct towards that princess was a series of dissimulation, perfidy, 
injustice, and barbarity. Though her general ggvcmment was just and 
moderate, she was guilty of many acts of oppression ; but even these 
abuses of power did not extinguish that popular regard which she had 
procured by the splendor of her talents, bjr the great qualities which 
entered into her composition, by her winning afFabillty and courtesy 
to the lower ranks or the community, by her indefatigable attention 
to public affairs, and by the great events and signal achievements of 
her reign/ 

The influence which the Earl of Essex possessed over the 
mind of his royal mistress, and the effects of his misconduct 
in Ireland, arc not, in our opinion, sufficiently detailed by 
Dr. Coote 5 and the same objection may be made with respect 
to other great and important events in this reign. 

The Vlth volume contains the history of the Stuarts ; a fa- 
mily, we think, more undeserving than unfortunate ; ^nd 
though the fate of the first Charles was severe, and his trial 
and sentence were unconstitutional and illegal, yet it must^be 
allowed that he committed many unkingly faults, which perhaps 
would have justified the depriving him of regal authoritv, 

8 though. 



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^S Marshall^ StMal Feowmf of tie SouHem Couniiesl 

though, accotding to our notions of government^ no faulnrd of 
duty on his part could justify his execution. 

The events of the reign of James the First arc related with 
simplicity and impartiality; and his conduct in many import- 
ant transactions' receives the just tribute of censure or of pratsCi 
according to the respective qualities of his actions : — but Dr« 
Coote entertains a more favourable opinion of the character of 
this prince^ than we have ever been able to adopt. 

In a future article^ we shall consider the remaining volomei 
of this work. 

{To he continued.^ 

■II ail iiMii ■ II m I f ^ ■ — <fa^— ^.1— — III I 

Akt. VI. The Rural Economy of the Southern Cmmik^ ; ^com- 
prizing Kent, Surry, Sussex ; the Isle of Wig^kt ; the Chalk 
Hills of Wiltshire, Hampshire, &c :• and including the Cultive 
and Management of Hops, in tht Districts of Maidstone, Caotev- 
bury, and Famham. By Mr. Marshall. 8vo. 2 Vols. pp. 410. 
each. 158. Boards. NicoL 1798. 

W? E heartily congratulate this intelligent and indefatigabk 
^^ professionalist, on having finished his Survey of Ea^th 
Jtgriculture s which, though the extent, variety, and ms^itode 
of the objects which it embraces will necessarily prevent it from, 
being perfect, is yet highly instructive and useful to thereader, 
as well as honorable to the author. His Notitue Rustwe is 
these volumes discover, as on former occasions, the mind of 
science, the eye of experience, and the heart of phifam- 
thropy. No one will doubt his ability to report the sttte 
of agriculture in any province, and to suggest hints for im- 
proving any particular custom or practice. By comparing dif- 
ferent usages, and noticing every variety of management, he 
may be instrumental in promoting the most beneficial reforma- 
tions. The country-gentleman and the intelligent farmer, of 
every district, will probably pronounce Mr. M.'s Survey to Ijc 
defective in some particulars : but they will rarely peruae. Us 
clear statements, and his acute remarks and Iiints for improw- 
ment, without acknowleging his genius and expressing their 
obligations. 

We read with concern, in some places, that Mr. M. * had 
jbere few opportunities of examining ;'— that he < was not pc«* 
pared for detail ;'— that he < had not time for collecting inform^ 
ation ;'-«^nd that his < information is confined.' We think thai, 
in these cases, Mr, M. should have applied by letter to lim 
most able persons of the district in question, and should hiffc 
followed the plan of eome other writers on rural a^rs ; whfl^ 
to their own experience and observation, have added the expo* 
Ticnce and observation of many other intelligent country gende- 

men 

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men and agrieokamts. Indiridual genlitSi endowed and Inw 
proved to the utmost extent^ can neither be omniprtsent nor 
oflMHocient. 

• Mjr. M. has divided the sotrthem cotinties of England inttn 
tlie'following departments ;— The District of Maidstone-^Thc 
"Weald of Kent-^Romncy Marsh— The District of Canterbury 
—The Isle of Thanet— -The Valley of Farnham— The Heaths 
of Surrey, &c:— The Weald of Sussex— The District of Pet- 
• worth— The Sea-coast of Sussex— The Isle of Wight— The 
Western and Eastern Chalk Hills* 

To the ffrst of tjicse districts, the author appears to have 
paid ninch attention, and his description of it is the most detaile4 
and probably the most perfect of any in the volumes. 

The account of this portipn of Kent is not given without 
proper notice of the g6od law of gavelkind^ still prevalent ia 
that county, and whioi was confirmed to the men of Kent by 
William the Norman, a$ their custom, on surrendering 16 
him. After havinj mentioned this law, by which the landi 
de$cend, not to the ddest, youngest, or any one son only, but 
to all the sons togetherj-^and, in default of male issue, 0a 
conformity with the cqmmon law, though Mr. M. does not state 
this,) cqnaHy-among thefemalcs,— Mn M. rematlcs that there ate 
in the district of Maidstpne, landed estates of considerable size ; 
which (he says) is gqod evidenced to shew that, while this law 
is cajpablte bjr it$ operation of multiplying landed proprietors^ 
♦and of producing the mostvaluaWe order of men which anjr 
country can possess,'"^mcn who occupy theit own estates, an^ 
who ate ?t once best calculated to defend and to cultivate their 
tountry 5 — it does i)pt 'o^^struqt the accumulation of propertyl 
so ouich as to prevent those distinctions in society which ap- 
pear to be necessary to tbe lasting welfare of a nation ; and the 
Suppfes^on of this antfent law may well be considered as the 
greatest evil, which the Norman conquest entailed on this 
country.^ Agahi in jj. 54, the subject recurs in paying his 
respects to that tnrfy respectable class of British subjects,— 
the Yeomanry of Kfent, 

< Out of the law of gaveliind, this valuable order of men have 
nripcipally riacn. And seeing the present flourishing state of their 
country, after seven hundred years of experience, the wfsdom of that 
law appears in a strong light.'— 

< The ^rightful' tendency of the principle of this law was cxetnpff- 
ficd, some years ago, in the district under view; A person, who 
died poaaessed of comtderable property, k£t five aoBS, oftd a will $ 
IB wbicbi partiality to individuals wasV^toourae expect^. Nevertho- 
less, the brothers, harmomsbed hy ihi influetne of e^al Af w, agreed^ 
bcfoire tlie wfll was broken open, to inherit, accordingrto the natural 
bw of the country ; and the will was burnt with its seal unbroken. 

'; iUv. March, 1799. X *The 



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ap^ MarsballVTItf rj/ Eedftomy of the Sotrtbetii CountUs. 

" *.The operation of this equitable law in the inttance fioder iK^tioef 
bas been highly £avorahle to spciety ; which has thereby eaincd five 
weahhy, respectable^ productive members : yeomen of the h^^hcr 
dass. Whereasi Jiad the wlxole property devolved on one of them; 
even this one, probably > would have been rendered unprofitable tM 
society : whil? the rest must have been thrown upon the world j— to 
scramble for property, in^trade^ ,or the professions.* 

The author nov^ proceeds to the subjects of^^work^peeple^' 
beasts of labour ^impktmnts of husbandry^ &c. Under the last of ^ 
these h^ads, he minutely describes the plow of Kent, called 
the Kentish turn-wrest plowy and concludes the section with 
urging' the utility of a public repository of instruments of bms^ 
landry; since the attempts which have been made to realize 
^e representations, and even the drawings, of complex instru* 
ments, have proved abortive. To this hint we will add that 
it may not be improper, nor unwise in a public view, for agri- 
cultural societies to offer premiums for the exhibition and use 
of implements not common to their district; which would pro- 
voke comparison, and enalile gentlemen to decide on the fitness 
'of* adopting or encouraging, on their own^ estates, any foreign 
custom or machine* Indeed, as Mn M. suggests in the sub* 
seqi^ent section, not only the construction <^ instruments bat 
their ready iise requires to be taught. ! 

Anxious to collect all the minutise )»rhich relate to rural eco« 
nomy, the author does not 8uffi?r even a bird-trap or a rat-trap 
\x> pass unobserved. Experience has taught him that ra^a arc 
more destructive animals ,than moles,, and he wonders that 
|armers are not more attentive in securing themselves against 
theii: ravages. Towards the conclusion of the second volume, 
Ite recommends the erection of barris on piles, for this purpose; 
and in the first volume he states it to be his opipiqn tnat their 
destruction is so important, that it should be the object of a 
county rate. Tlie (quantity of corn which the^ animals destroy 
is immense ; and if it be impossible absolutely to extirpate 
them, it should be remem\}ered by. iEarmer$ that, «$ rats 
cannot live without drinking, those places will be moat 
free from them which are cut off from communication with 
water. As we are convinced that every method ought to be 
pursued to diminish the number of these vermin, we shall relate^ 
in Mr. M.'s own worcis, a curious fact which he collected 
during his ekamination of the farm-yard-management prevalent 
in the Maidstone districts : 



; * A respectable yeoman, and most ingenious husbandman, in 
•cighbo'urhood of Maidstone,* has, for some years past, been 



tbe 

years past, been pos* 



* * Mr. *FcnrL& of Fant j to whom lam kdcbied for much ts- 
fermation.' , . 



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Marshall V Rural EHonofn) of the Siuthehn Countiei. ipt. 

Resised of a method t)f drawing them together, in numbers ; an^ everf 
of rcttdcnng them, in a degree, tame and familiar ; not, however, 
by tiny diarm or fafecinating hire ; but by purdoing obvious and ra- 
tional means ; and on principles similar to those employed^ in takltig 
mice, in the instance noticed, in Yorkshire. 

^ The season^ best adapted to the purpose, is that of sunmncr ; 
wheo the bams ure empty, and their allowance of provisioos short* 
At this time, such food is provided, as is found, by experience, to 
be. most agreeable to them. Wheat flour and sugar, scented with 
the oil of caraway, and formed into paste with water, has been found 
to be a favorite Food. The chief difficulty of preparaiioii lies in com- 
municating the scent, evenly to the whole, so as not to give pun- 
gency to any part. This is done, by rubbing the oil into the pahnt 
of the bands, and then rubbing the flour between them ; afterwards 
rubbing the flour and sugar together, in a similar manner. 

< A realvise part of the farm buildings, near their favorite hauntj 
being pitched on, and darkened, they are continued to be fed, with 
balls or bits pi this palatable, wholesome paste, at stated times, or 
regular meals ; until the whole, or a considerable number, of those 
that inhabit the premises, are drawn together, and feed freely, on 
the food prepared for them ; when they are either concentrated on a 
platform, over which a falling tiap is suspended, so as to drop instan- 
tancotjsly, and inclose the whole collection 5 or, which tequires much 
less time and attention, a sufficient quantity of arsenic is added to the 
paste, to operate as a poison. 

* In adding this, as in giving the scent, much caution is required;. 
The least gtittiness offends, or alarms them ; so that the arsenic cannot 
be pounded too fine ; it ought to be elutriated, or washed over ; by 
which means no particle, that is not capable of being momentarily 
suspended in water, can enter the composition ; which is made up, 
with this poisonous liquor, instead of pure water.' 

To this must be added another invention of the same per- 
son, called A Vermin Trap^ on a new principle. 

* It consists of a wooden box, or hutch, resembh'ng the dog hulch 
or kennel, which is usually provided for the yard dog, to hide and 
tlee^ in ; its form being that of the barn. It is divided, in thp 
middle, by an open wire partition, running from end to end, and 
reaching' from the ridge of^ the roof to the flbor. One side of this 
partition is again divided, into two parts, or cages ; one of them for 
a tame rabbit, the other fdr a live fowl, to allure the vermin. The 
other half of the hutch being formed into a falling box trap, to take 
them! Great numbers of weasels, stoats, and polecats (as well as 
domestic cats) have been caught, in coppices and hedgerows, by this 
most simple and ingenious,' yet, when known, most obvious device.' 

The Maidstone district beirig celebrated for its Hop culture, 
Mr. M. particularly enters into the natural history of this vege- 
table; noticing its varieties^— the soil and subsoil most suitable 
to It/— time of planting, — method of manuring, — training, 
poling* picking, Curing, packing, marketing expcnccb, ,ii\^pro^ 

X 2 duce; 



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Dcaripg^ on an average of years, five tho^$;^nd tons of hops. 

in ^ving^e natural history of ^ Hop, Mr* ]VIar$haU rehtei 
a ciccumstanco which, though be tells us t^at he rccciited it firon 
the largest and most successful hop planter diat the island cvci 
ktiew, we can scarcely credit 5 viz. that cu/tkiateddr ftmedi bofs 
are liabh ta change into seed hop.s or maks. Mr, M. is dt^^oscd 
to thipk 'that it may belpng tp the nature of diacious plants^ 
%vhose roots are perenniaL an4 stems annual^ to do it gccasiopatlj/ 
Tl^e subject i§ interesting to the botanist^ wl;io o^ight to lo^ttfr 
tigate the matter attentively^ ip Qr4<<r to i^scer^n t^ i^ 
,The.n, we tmj reason on it^ 

The Hop harvest of England resetnfaks the cliectful Sfitfoo 
of the vintage in warmer countries- It is not only a scene of 
kbouf, but of freedom, mirth, and plc^siire. Mr. Mvthns de- 
scribes it ; 

^ The hop pickiDg. is a SQrt of jujj^ce ; di>rii>g which a li<:€»« 
of speech, and. ijdaxatlop of maximrrs, ^rc authorised by cusToii i 
any thing may be §ald, and niany things. done, which would not p^ 
u^jicenaured,. at another season. Wha^ strikes a strsMjiger the i^oat, 
^ bein? himiielf concerned, i^ the homage witli whji^h ne is receiKd, 
on joining one of thps^ IJctOjCed groups. Tlie f^^r^st, or tbq ^iw: 
wardest, of the female pickers, having .iH;l^t£d:t^ &»est, bifiDch-of 
hops. in her view, aj)proachca Kim, with gre^t; respec|r^atid H inpcs 
his shoes"— -or* ic^tjfi^r touches then) sd\^ It $ and th^ offof <t to 
him. ... 

* Whatever might be the origin of this singular custpn^, its 9iji^4^ 
intention is too evident to be mistaken, by those who attract "its «)• 
tice. It is that of collecting silver : which either goe^ towaitls, thp 
HOP SUPPER^ that is always given, on the evening of the last cbw of 
picking; or is e>fpendcd, in' fiilfiUing another custom of. the nop 
harvest, whose origin might be found equally difficult to be traced. 
. < This may be, t*:rmed the dfc9ra,tioh ojt hats. A<-fcw dap 
before the.pickiug is compleatt;dx by ai^y ixjirtipular plaiit»r, tJiie^i^sL- 




Another is adorned with ribbons, ouly. This is th^ carter**, 
hats are exposed to public view, before the day of fiaislfiug, aD&di« 
played at the hop supper, and afterwards wqru in public;^ ea(^.cpo 
pany endeavouring to outvFc the other, in finery. 

* These rustic feats, and the revelry whjch attends tb^o^, are tbp 
more^ excusable, as they close the labpurs of the yjcat ; aod may 
serve, by leaving favorable impressions of the past, to aOcviatc the 
sufferings of toifs to come.* 

To the long discussion of hop?, are subjoined * gCT^r?! re- 
marks on this article, as a spegies of faroi-prodjacei' n^c^ 
are not unworthy of the hop-groyirer's notice^ 

3 After 



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MarsfrtTT/ RUrnl ScomrHty of the SdutitrH Cthmiifs. k^J 

After the Hop-grounds, (he orchards of Kent engage our au- 
thor's attention. Here he mentions a preservative for the stems 
of treety which is in use ; and he rccotn^ends a home nlahufac- 
tilrc called gd%ie winet made from' the black currant, :4s no 
contemptible substitute fox Port-H^ine. The receipt fot making 
this British Port, he unfortunately does not give 5 but this pre-"- 
8crvative fdr gUJtrding the stems of fruit trccis from being in- 
jured by sheep and hares, he tells us, is sintply a whiU-nvash^ 
composed of lime, night soil, and water, of such a consistency 
as to be^put on with a brush. Any good chifTriist, we imagipCi 
would form a more elegant recipe from this hiijt. 

We believe that the observations made by Mr. M. on th^ 
Isle of Thanet are, on the whole, just, — though he appears 
to have explored that spot rapidly: but, ^hen he proposes fd 
inc !o6e it, we question the wisdom of his advice. It is now 
extremely fertile, and its cultivators are rich ; it is of ^ porous 
soil, and does not want ditches. By inclosing it, much ground 
would be lost ; the fences would harbour birds, which Would 
prevent the Thanet-farmer from growing sonie crops which 
arc now raised with ease : much corn under the hedges would 
be stained, if not spoiled ; and this islet might lose its character 
for the bright samples of barley which it now sends to market. 
There is one circumstance respecting farmers in the Isle of 
Thanet which our author has not mentioned, but which hai 
been communicated to us as fact, viz. that they never admk 
strangers even to help them to get in their harvest, — which^ in 
this open, elevated, uninclosed country, is not liable soon to 
spoil on the ground. By this regulation, they avoid the risk €lf 
increasing their poor's rate. 

To Mr.M.'s hints for the imprbvement of Romney Mafsh, 
we can subscribe ; and probably the farmers of that district, if 
they can, will avail themselves of them. 

When Mr. Marshall proceeds to the Valley of Farnham,. he 
condemns the practice of the hop-growers in this celebrated 
district ; viewing it in a national light. < The really << fine 
samples" of Farnham (he says) are in reality no o^her than 
hops gathered under rtpe /' and he is of opinion that they are 
over-rated. 

* They have, certainly, one very powerful recommendation. They 
are dear ; bear the best price ^ are ever at the top of the market* 
And although this may not always be a sufficient recommendation to 
gentlemen (by whom, I understand, the Farnhani hops arc chiefly 
consumed) it doubtless has its weight with their butlers. 

• Upon the .whole, however, it through the name of Farnham 
hops, such a liquor can be produced, as wiH render malt liquor 
fMhionablc, and thereby lessen the present inordinate import dt 

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194 ^^ Lille*/ Gardens^ a Poenty translated. 

foreign fruit liquors, it will be of less concern to the public, whether 
their estimated merits, in producing it, be real or imaginary.* 

We have with pleasure followed Mr. M. into the WeaWs of 
Kent and Sussex, and over the heaths of Surrey, and iuto tbe 
Isle of Wight : but into these districts we must not thinly of 
conducting, our readers. 

In' exploring the district of Petworth, he experienced tht 
politeness of the Earl of Egremont, which he gratefuUf 
•cknowleges. ' An interesting experiment made by this noble 
Earl) 4 on fatting porkers at grass, is here recorded ; and Mr. 
M. assures us that this grass-pork was yfrm / finely flavouied| 
and the colour peculiarly delicate. 

It will however be of more importance to farmerSi particu* 
larly those who cultivate strong soils, to attend to a hint which 
Mr. M. throws out to prevent the expensive process of lime- 
burning. As the effect of chalk as a manure on stiff soils 
depends on its being pulverized, and as it is burnt into lime 
solely for this purpose, he recommends, where fiiel is scarce, 
the substitution of a hiill, turned either by wind or water, lo 
bruise it to the state of powder. 

We could extract many other instances, to prove the author'! 
solicitude to aid the farmer in his important business, and to 
perfect the rural economy of the kingdom : but this article is 
already of sufficient Extent, and the agricultural works of Mr* 
Marshall, do not require our recopnmendation. 



Art. VII. The Gardensy a Poem, Translated from the French 
of the Abb6 de Lille. 4to. pp. 120. 155. Boards. Edwards. 
1798. 

"n ESPECT for this poem has increased with the celebrity of 
-■^ the author, who is still living, and who is regarded by his 
coyntrymen as the first poet of the present age *. He con- 
fesses, in his text and notes, that the style of gardening which 
he describes * was first attempted with success in England, by 
Kent, a famous architect, and designer of the landscape garden 
which now begins to prevail all over Europe :*~buc the Abb^, 
supposing tl\at the Chinese were the original inventors of this 
jtyle, quotes Sir William Chambers's Dissertation on Oriental 
Gardening, and mentions not Mr. Mason's English Garden, nor 

* We announced this poem, in the original, in our IxiKth voloiiii^ 
p. 72. An English version of it, also, was mentioned io our vth vo- 
lume, New. Senes, p. IJ4, but whether from infcrionty of transla- 
tion, or from whatever cause, we did not then experience that {def* 
furp in the perusal of i^ which we have now derived. 



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Dc XiUcV Gardens^ a Poem\ translated. . ) 19^ 

Mr. Walpok's (late Lord Orford) Essay on Modem Gardening, 
though both must have appeared before this poem was pub- 
Uahed. 

The truth is that the English taste in gardens, ^nd laying 
out the grounds surrounding villas and great provincial man- 
sions, was suggested by Miltort, (in his description of the 
garden of Eden,) by Addison, and by Pope, and was pursuetl 
and reduced to practice by Kent and Brown, a considerable 
time before even tradition had carried it to the continent. "We 
were certainly the first in Europe who quitted the regular 
style, and destroyed parterres, straight iines^ vegetable sculpture, 
symmetry, and unnatural regularity, to give place to open pro- 
spects and inequalities of ground ; in order to catch a view of 
distant hills, woods, and flowing (not stagnant) waters : imitaU 
ing rivers at least, by concealing the beginning and termination 
of lakes and pieces of standing water, and giving to tiie whole 
the semblance of Nature^s work. 

from what we read in Sir William Chambers's Dissertation, 
in Pere du Halde, and other missionaries, and travellers, ai^ 
from what we hear related concerning the magnificence, 
splendour, art, and refinement of the Chinese in imitating na- 
ture, en grandi we are unable, (and, let us hope, unwilling.) 
from the enormous expence and occupation of soil, to copy theur 
e:i^travagance in gardening. Yet, though the simplicity, firee- 
dpn^ and unaffected imitation of nature in laying out pleasure 
grounds, on z small scale ^ may perhaps have been practised by 
the Chinese in much higher antiquity than by ourselves, we 
rather think that this method was invented a second time in 
England, and came on progressively from the precepts of Bacon, 
Wotton, Milton, Addison, and Pope, than that it was stolen 
or servilely imitated from the practice of any other- country. 
Lord Orford and . Mr. Mason are offended with the French 
writers on the* present irregular style of gardening, for assert- ' 
ing that we had it from China ; ascribing to envy their un- 
willingness to allow us the merit of invention :— but however 
they may wish to rob us of this sprig of laurel, there is Englisli 
authority for the supposition : for Sir William Temple, when 
describing Moor Park (which was entirely in the old geometric 
style) as the sweetest place that he had ever seen in his life at 
home or abroad, adds : ** What I have said of the best forms of 
gardens is meant only of such as are in some sort regular ; for 
there may be other forms wholly irregular, that may, for aught 
I know, have nu>re beauty than any of the others ; some- 
thing of this kind I have seen in some places, but heard more 
of it from others, who have lived among the Chines£S.'' 

X 4 Thougl^ 



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, Thoiigb we were i|t /war whh Frai^ before tUs wotk was 
£rdt 'publidbcd (1 762 , yet, from the urbanity of die antbor 
towards us, the poem was thought by some to spring from the 
f^mains of the jhtgiofkania which was ^aid to ihaire taged in 
4hat country previously to this war. Not a hostile nor an if>- 
vidious reflection against this nation escapes him chroa^oottbc 
whole work ; and though, in civiUty to his countrynaeo, be 
is obliged to say that he does not venture to decide betwceo 
the merit of Le Notre and Kent, 

< Each to our choice presents a separate daitta. 
But both are equal candidates for fsUne,' 
yet he abandons the worfca of the one to destruction, and 
adopts fot imitation those of the other. He recommendf 
Milton's description of Paradise as a modd for gardens, and 
towns Aat England taught his countrymen how to cover and 
embellish die earth : 

** Mah enfitt ^gtdftre 

J^9Uf afffit Part d'ornerjet i'habllUr la terre,^* 
' He also recommends Wheatley's description of the wild and 
grand features of Mlddleton«dale, and Dovc-dale, and tcr* 
Ininates his poem with an Ekge on Captain Cook, our celebrated 
^cnmnavigator. Ei^clusively of these civilities, the doctrine 
^hich he endeavours to instil into the taste Of bis countrymen 
in laying out garden grounds is so entirely English, though the 
poetical dress is his own, that our taste ought to be flattered 
()y this adoption, as much as by good translations bf our belt 
Classical writers into the language of a foreign learned country. 
This is " breaking ground at a great* distance :^ but we 
thought it necessary to say thus much respecting the original, 
in the way of preface to the present translation, before wc 
entered on a discussion of its merits. 

We have now to observe that this version, which is avowedly 
executed by a Lady, docs great honour to her sex : for wc 
scarcely remember to have seen, since the establishment of our 
^otnrt 0/ inquiry, poetry translated with su^h exactness, facility, 
spirit, and elegance, 

"Wc cannot resist the pleasure of presenting to our readers 
* The Translator's Pro^logu^. 
i While Genius smiks in deathless vvrcaths attired, 

And points the model Taste herself inspircd| 

My timid numbers urge no boasting claim, 

Nor ask one laurel of immortal Fnmc ; 

Destined alone to charm the curions ear 

Of youthful auditors, who preesed to hear 

Of scenes congenial with their artless age, 

Tb^o^selves unskilled to ken the foreign page, 



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Yet diaU mj cold, intcrpretitnre Itfa, 
Be viewed with rapture, and be crowned with pnriie } 
Oft when this heart no more shall J6y» or gneve, 
A grateful tribute from their lips receive*; 
Bid life'fi gay hopes a tear to Feeling sparci 
In tender memory of a mother's care. 
Till the wild flowers they place around my tomb» 
Till they, so Ibvcly now, no more shall bloom. 
Oh Nature ! guardian of maternal love. 
Protect these numbers which thy influence prove ; 
No Muse from me, alas ! her pride receives ; 
Deign Thou with myrtles to adorn my leaves/ 
In our extracts froqi the poem itself, if we .could afibrd suf- 
ficient space, it would be but just to insert the original of each 
passage with tlie English version : as^ by comparison, the 
reader would perceive that a translation of prose into prose 
could hardly be more close and literal; — and that this ii 
achieved without being either prosaic or laboured. 
For instance, Chant i. French, 4to. edit. p. 9. 

•* % Srai comment Part dans defrals taisagfs 
Dirige Ptau^ lesjleuri^ les gazoni^ Jes ombragesJ** 
English, p. I. 

* I sing how art the imperfect landscape aids, 
Directs the flowers, the water, lawns, and shades/ 

French, p. 10. 

** N^empruntons point id iTornemeni etranger ; 

Viensy de mes propres Jleurt mon front va s'omhager f 
JStf comme un rayon pur colore un beau nuage^ 
Des couleun du sujetje teindrai mon langageJ^ 
English, p. 2. 

* Here let no borrowed ornaments be found, 
With my own garlands be my temples bound ; 
As summer clouds are tinged by glowing rays, 
The colours of my theme shall paint my lays.* 

French, p. 11. 

<* Et quand let dieux offroient un Elysee aux sages^ 
Etoit-ce des pahus ? c*etoit de verdi bocages ; 
C^etoit dee pres^fleuris^ sejour dei doux lotitrt^^ 
Ou d*une longue pais ih goutoietit Ui pla'uirsJ^* 

English, p. 3* 

* 5Vnd, when the good implored immortal powers. 
They asked not grandeur, but Elysian bowers. 
Free in cool shades and flowery meads to rove. 
Eternal peace, and endless joys to prove.' 

No pains were taken in selecting these passages; they 
were the first which we compared with the original; and, 
as we find the infusion equally correct ahd happy through all 

the 



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%ft De LilkV Garden^, aPoenn transUut. 

the four cantos of Ac poem, we ^all now only cite Ac 
translation. 

We think that the English taste in' gardens is accurately de- 
scribed in the following passage : 

• Insult not Nature with absurd expense, 
Nor spoil her siir.plc charms by vain pretence. 
Weigh well the subject, be with caution bold. 
Profuse of genius, not profuse of gold. 
Less grand than lovely, decked with modest carc> 
A Garden one vast picture should appear. 
, See with a painter's eye. The fields array. 
The numerous tints their varying hues display, 
The gleams of light, the masses of the shade. 
The changes by the hours and seasons made. 
The briglit enamel of the grar.s-clad ground, 
The laftghing hills with golden harvests crowned. 
The rocks, tlie streams, the flowers, each varying tree, 
These should your colours, canvas, pencils be ; 
Nature is yours, and your prolific hand 
Must, to create, her elements command/ 
The next ten lines, after having considered the genius of the 
place to be embellished, supply an admirable precept : 

* But, ere you plant, eie your adventurous spade 
' In the maternal soil a wound has made. 

To form your gardens with imernng taste. 
Observe how Nature's choicest works are traced. 
Oft as through unfrequented paths you rove. 
What magic views your admiration move ! 
What fascinating scenes your steps arrest, 
And with a pensive pleasure fill your breast ! 
From the most strikmg be your models drawn. 
And learn of landscape, landscape to adorn.' 
The following verses are an expansion of Pope's admiraWc 
counsel : 

* On Imitation ills unnumbered wait 

How to surmouut or shun them, Muse ! relate* 

This rage too oft engenders forced effects. 

Aim not at beauties which the soil rejects. 

First to your site judiciously attend. 

Consult Its God, and to its Genius bend ; 

Their laws despised, how oft are scenes misplaced, 
. Disfigured, changed, by artisfs void of taste, 

Who, bj the beauties they absurdly choose, 

Return to spoil in France Italian views.' 
The subsequent passngf , in which the author advises tis to 
take lessons from painters, merit insertion equally for the 
original sentiment and its' English dress: 

* Aptly discover, boldly darinc", seize 
Whatever your soil admits with grateful ease ; 

Agiaee 



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De LUle'j Gardens^ a Poim^ tramlateJ. t^ 

A grace adopted thua with happy skill, 

Surpasses Nature, yet 'tis Nature still. • 

This choice made Berghem and Le Poussin shine $ 

Stiidy, and emulate their works divine. 

What landscape freely to the pencil lent. 

Let Art pay Nature to its full extent.* 

The succeeding beautiful lines aitd sentiments are translated 
almost verbatim, and are equal, if not superior, to the ori«» 
ginal : 

• There are more pleasing cares, a happier art : 
Charm not the eye alone, but touch the heart. 
Have you the hidden sympathies between 
Still life and animated beings seen ? 

Have you not heard, when fields and woods rejoice. 
Their silent eloquence, their secret voice ? , 
Give the eifect. Mark too, from grave to gay. 
From grand to simple, how we love to stray : 
To please each taste, combine each varying style. 
Spread gloom around, or bid the landscape smile ; 
There let the painter's touch new charms acquire. 
Let Inspiration's breath the poet fire ; 
The sage in shades a calm retirement find, 

• And faithful Memory bless the happy mind ; 
There Love's pale votaries their vigils keep. 
And th*ere the wretched unmolested weep.' 

At p. 17. we find old-fashioned French and Dutch garden- 
ing well stigmatized and discarded : 

• Go to your antique mansions, there survey 
Those studied nothings, those expensive toys. 
Gay arbours, basons, runnels, naked boys ; 
The sums by Artifice there thrown away. 
To gild a spot which pleases but a day. 
Would dress a country if employed with sense : 
Yield then to Genius false magnificence : 
And to a garden changed let France o6e day 
A second Eden to the world display/ 

We dare not venture any farther into this more beautiful 
garden than that of Alcinous, from the allurements of which 
we already find it difiicult to retreat : yet, during our captivity 
in these enchanted bowers, we have made a discovery which 
Is not unpleasant to our feelings ; and which is that, often as 
it has be^ insinuated (by authors whose works we have cen« 
sured) that w^ have a malignant joy in condemning, we can 
as3ert per contrh^ with the utmost truth, that oyr pleasure in 
bestowing praise, when clearly and indisputably due, as in 
the present case, affords us a delight which the castigation of 
dulncss and absurdity never produced. 

After 



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^ Dc LUldV GdrJenSf a Poeth, trhflstatei. 

After alK the well-marked efJCOTniums wliich wc hare 
bestowed on this translation, we have a few slight defects to 
point out 5 which we cannot do without expressing our wonder 
that their number is sb inconsiderable. 

P. 6f. Speaking of springs, and the circulation of water 
through a pleasure-ground, we find a line which is somewhat 
pro^aicy and which might easily be an)ended : 

* New life, new freshness, every tvbere dispense.' 
Suppose the distich were to run thus : 

* And ye stteams, rivers, lakes, ^nd fountains, thence 
New life, new freshness, at all points dispense V 
P. 73- .2d period, still speaking of water, a little prosaic 
harshness occurs in the four following lines : 

* Snch magic influence thy soft murmurs boast. 
Kind stream, the benejit shall not be lost ; 
Preserving still the simple style I love, 

Let me, ypossiblcy thy charms improve.* 

Would not these lines admit of the following change ? 

* Such magic influence thy soft murmurs boast. 
Kind stream, nor shall the enchanting boon be lost / 
PreserviHg still the simple style I love, 

Each nerve Pll strain thy bounty to impnr^e.* 

P. 76. * ImporUwaUs the car'. We fear that grammaiians 
and philologers will not allow the adjective importurateAo he 
converted into a verb. Perhaps the unwarrantable word may 
be avoided thus — 

* Offends the Jaiaiy ear of captious taste.' 

P. 77. Speaking of small projections of land breaking the 
strait line of a river or piece of water, * advance into the waves* 
is harsh and heavy : — suppose the couplet ran thus : 

* Now let the ground chirustve ehech the waves, 
No\y yield them cool recesses,, rocky caves.* 

' 'P. 107. We coulfl >vish that the expre'ssions— /A^ art of 
' gardening — and rich incidents, were a little ennobled by more 
poetic language. ^ 

. Perhaps in a 2d ecUt. the fair translntrcss, whose ingenious 
labours have so nearly approached perfection, may not deem 
these minute defects unworthy of a moment's consideration. 

We ought not to conclude this article without taking notice 
of .the. beautiful manner in which this book is published: not 
pniy has tbc highest degree of excellence been attained as far 
as paper, types, and accuracy are concerned, but so exquisite 
are the embellishments, said to be invented by Vieira and jBot- 
fQ/ozzif that wc should have sujtposed them, if anonymous, 

(like 



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Jl4atic Researches^ VoK IFf JQI, 

(Ukc t|ie tra^Si^tH>n,} to have been dc^igned^ by- the ^leg^ 
and ^clmirabk pencil of Lady T)u Bc^ucjeic, 

The ergravl^g ia. by B;4rtQki:»^, and iQi W b<at, m^wvei;. 



i\RT. VIIL -Aizitc Kei'earcks,. Vol JfV, ^o^ Priatcdat.C^T 
cutta.; 8vQ. LondoOj^Veraoraad xipod* 
'. [^Jtf^uh cwcktded from p« l^i^J 

Oa the Traces of the fftn4u Language and I^iierature ixtatif^ 

among the ^ala^^s. By William iVIar§d<JU| JEsa. 
A LL the late researches {n, l^\^h Qooq^r t,p, prpv^. the-cyt^WVC 
'^ di'ffusioa and iiitfluenpe of th^ ^afiscn1i% pr antiept lapguagj; 
of the HinduSn iNJUny pf th^ faoiiliajf aqd el«J?icnt;*ry word^ 
in the Malayse are clearly derived from that source, Tbo$A 
term 9^ tooj are aAteriof to ^ucK a& w^rc. iiH^pduccd by the 
Mqh^mrrvetjaa conquesr,, and betray th^ir Arabic oi:igiO^ It U 
npt difficult ta ^qQO.u.nt tor this^ sipce a CQW^nctcrcfel intctCQUx;?^ 
has aly^ays sub^ist«d b?|:ween thet Spiqe Isjii^ds ^d.th^ oaaoxi^ 
focturing p.ar.ts.V Jndia. /X'i<? coflnposifiQup q[ the, Malays Iik<h 
wise bear evident i.n4?rkA. of an JVoqii^W^jige .witk the pofitTJL 
aiui mytholpgy^pf thie tjindus. 

On timee natiiml Froductisns^ of^ Sufttatua, . Sy John, i/bkcdou 
doaaUy Esq» ' ■ - . ... 

The first oi ihc^e 'is van^fMur, v/hhilymitB 6rs|t stage is. an 
esseatial, oil, aiki ifiecomos xonceotod only hi the xmtnuAtfmi 
vegctatipn^ The tree, ^lich produocs this vihiablc dr^ . big 
4 thix± truhk^ and leavKjs resooablJng those of the bay ; h h 
aoft^ and ea&iiy vrorked* for domeaiie puiiposes. . The nifilhc^ 
of coUecting the camphor is thus accurately described: il: 

*'Thc 5i/«<z/rtfiw-; previous to their sett^in^^ but In quest of cainph<^f if 
a$6emlble on the confines of the cpunti-y ti>cy uittnd cxploting, atid 
dtschar^Q a vsuriety of religious duti^ and ooromonies^ calculated ill 
their opiaioo, toi proraotie the future succesa. of tihelr undertukiwgt' 
Th^ cnjt^r .^h^, WQo4», a4d, froaj eKj^aritHce, sq^v?. diBting^li^ sji^h 
trees as contain camphoK. Th^y piqictj thew, an^^ if they >;iel4; ol 
pleotifully, it is presumed they conta n concreted camphor, which is 
found in small wnttielv flakes, situated, perpendiculurly, io irre^lar 
Yeis8, ia and- near the centres of the trees. Tlie tree is cui dWDf 
4jvid«^ i«^o juxxksy and carefully divested of it^ ca^nphor. Wti^ th# 
qil haabe«n drawn off from young trees, the campho;*, wlM«:h,thc]|^ 
illtcnKarda ajord. Is of ajcss valuable nature, and is termed W^ or 
foQf camphor. In prpportion to the degree of affinity it bears tp ^ead^ 
or the best sort. When brought for sale, it is repeatedly soaked 
and washed in soapy water to separate from it all heterogenous and 
sandy particles, that may have adhered to it. When cleaii it wift 
ttHk in watcr> and be of a white, glossy, smooth appearaacci teodlni* 
to traa^arency. Alto? it has b«ea washed^ it is passed thrcw^ 

three 



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362 Asiatic Risiarches^ Vol. iTl 

three sieves of difFering textures, so as to be divided into htadf heJfyt 
and foot camphor : certain proportions of each compose the chests 
made up ibr the China market, where they are sold for 350 A stcr- 
L'ngy nearly. The ec^or (a word of ^r^i^tf origin) matetf or dead 
camphor, is carefully separated from the three divisions, by an acute- 
ness of distinction, acquired by the eye and hand from habit and at- 
tention, and, being mixed with the imperfect kind mentioned above, 
is pounded in a mortar and distributed among proportional quantitiet 
of foot camphor. This caboor-matee is sometimes procured by boiling 
down the thickest part ot the oil^ or by taking the sediment of the 
best oil, after it has settled at least twenty- four hours.' 

The price of camphor must in time rise enormously, since 
scarcely one tree in three hundred is found to contain it. The 
oil, which is more easily procured, would probably serve as a 
substitute. 

The next article is the Coral of Sumatra. The author. 
Strangely enough, adopts the exploded opinion that corals are 
a sort of imperfect plants : — but, as Sir William Jones properly 
remarked, ** it seems at length to be settled among naturalists, 
fliat corals and corallines are the cretaceous habitations of aui- 
mals.*' In the Indian seas, as in the Pacific Ocean, there is a 
continual and rapid formation ef coral rocks and islands. Mn 
Macdonald gives some convincing observations of his own, re- 
specting the growth of the shelves near the coasts of Sumatnu 

The third production is the Copper of Sumatra. The ore is 
Sound over a considerable extent of the bills of Muccbj^ near to 
die sea, and north of our extreme settlement of TapptinoJj. 
A considerable quantity is annually collected on the surface, 
fey the natives. Their mode of smelting is extremely simple : 
tney choose a level spot of clay, in which they cut holes for 
receiving the fused metal ; and having heated the ground in* 
icnsely, in order to render it very dry, they heap up the ore inter- 
mingled with wood, charcoal, and other inflammable matters*. 
The metal requires several smeltings to render it soft and duc- 
tile, and is found to contain a notable proportion of gold} 
which abounds so much in Sumatra. , 

. On the Andaman Islands, By Lieut, R. H. Colcbrooke* 

Wc are sorry that our limits will not allow us to notice this 
peper so fully as it deserves. The islands which it describes 
He on the east side of the Bay of Bengal. The Great Anda- 
man is 140 miles in length and 20 in breadth; its coasts are 
Indented with deep bays, affording excellent harbours. The 
interior of the counjtry is covered with a variety of tall trees» 
darkened hy the intermixture of creepers, parasite plants, and 
underwood , forming altogether a vast and almost impervious 
forest. . The caverns on the shore give shelter to the birds that 
7 build 



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Asiatic Researches, Vol. tV. " 3^3 

buiM the edible nests, which fetch a vefy high price in the 
China market. 

The inhabitants of these islands arc but one degree removed 
from brutes. They go entirely naked, and live in huts the 
rudest and most wretched that can be imagined. Their colour 
is jet black, their stature small, and their aspect uncouth. 
Thiey have slender mis-shapen limbs, prominent bellies, woolly 
heads, thick lips, and flat noses. Thdr moral characteristics 
arc as repulsive as their physical qualities. The men, trafty 
and revengeful, testify an unconquerable aversion to strangers* 
Sometimes they dart a look of contempt and defiance, accom- 
panied by every ferocious gesture. At other times, they will! 
insidiously make a show of cordiality only to decoy their visit- 
ors "to certain destruction. Absolutely without tillage, thid 
savage race spend their days in the search of a scanty and 
wretched at^stenance, and the heaviest part of the toil fails t^* 
the share of the women ; yet both sexes are active, loquacious, 
and fond .of singing and dancing.«->A specimen of their voca« 
bulary is subjoined. 

On Barren Island^ and its Volcano, By the same. 

This singular island, of which a drawing is given, seems to 
ewe its formation to a volcano which yet continues in a vio- 
lent state of eruption. 

On the Islands Nancowry and Comarty. By the same. 

The space between these small islands forms an excellent 
and capacious harbour, of which the eastern entrance is pro- 
tected by an islet, called Trikut, on which the Danes have: 
long kept a petty garrison. These islands, which are nearly 
centrically situated among the Nicobar islands, arc of rich, 
soil, but mostly covered with wood. The few inhabitants 
whopi they contain have their low villages ranged along the 
shore, with tall beacons. in front, and a little advanced into the 
water. The Nicohareans resemble the Malays in their colour 
and features. They are robust but indolent, devolving the* 
greatest part pf the toil on the women, who are of much smaller 
stature than the men, and have their hair shaved or closely 
cropt. The most singular fact in the history of these people. 
is an extraordinary ceremony which they perform annually in 
honour of the dead j and which we shall relate in the words 
of the intelligent author : 

* On the anniversary of this fcstiTal, \i it can be so called, their 
houses are decorated with garlands of flowers, fruits, and branches 
of trees. The people of each village assemble, drcst in their bc^ 
attire, at the principal house in the place, where they spend the day 
h % convivial manner ; the men, sitting apart ^m the wt>menr, smo^e 

tobacco 



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304 AiUttc RiseareheSf V^hlF. 

tobftCCQ and Intoiucate thcm^dveSt wfafle tbc latter are nurai]||r ilieif 
chndren, and employed in preparations for the mournful business of 
t]^e night. At a certain hour of the afternoon^ announced by strik- 
ing the GQun^^f the women set up the most* dismal howls and la- 
mentations, which they continue without intermission till about sun 
set ; when the whole party gets up, aqd walks in procession to the 
burying ground. Arrived at the place, they form a circle around 
one of the graves, when a itake, planted exactly over the head of 
the corpse, is pulled up. The woman who is nearest of kin to the 
deceased, steps out from the crowd, digs up the scull f , aod drav» 
it up with her hands. At sight of the bpnes, her strength seems to 
fail her ; she shrieks, she sobs ; and tears of anguish abundantly £dl 
on. the mouldcrinff object of her pious care. She clears it from the 
earth, scrapes off the festering flesh, and laves it plentifully with the 
milk of fresh cocoa nuts, supplied by the bystanders ; auer wlik^ 
•he rubs it over with an infusion^ of saffron, and \tTaps it carcfoHy m 
a piece of new cloth. It is then deposited again in the earth, aad 
oorercd up ; the stake is replanted, and hung with the v«rk>tfia trap- 
pings and impkmetite belonging to the deceased. They proceed 
tKea to the other graves, and the wlK>k night is spent in repetHMof 
these dismal and disgusting rites. 

* On the morning following, the ceremony is concluded by an ot 
fering of niany fat swine, when the sacrifice, made to the dead, af- 
fords an ample feast to th« living ; they besmear themsdves with the 
blood of the slaqg^Hered hogs, and aome, nK>rc voracious than otbeKt 
cat the flesh raw. They have various ways however of dressing their 
meat,' but always eat it without salt. A kind of paste made of the 
truilort serves them for bread, and they finish their repast with eop- 
OM« potatioufl of tmry.' 

The Nicobarcans are honest, bospitable, and strictly ob« 
tevvant of truth. Their only vice (if what is ftccompanied 
wirii mtrth znd gocHUhumour can deserve that name) is their 
foodiiese for intoxication. 

\/in Account of the present State of Dell/t. By LaCUt. W» 
Fr^tiokliu. 

The rains of the. city of Oilhi^ t)\t famed seat of Mussul- 
man sovereijjylty in Hwdustan, be&peik its anticnt opulence and 
splendour, ihcy occupy a ppace of twenty miles in circuit, 
crowded with ipagnlficent palaces and temples, with spacious 
gi^rdens and countty houses ; and the whole had been watered 

- - - I r - - - - ,1 ■■ _i - 

* * An instrument of brass somewhat like the Gurry of Btnga!. Its 
sound is more liollow.' 

* f We were present at the ceremony on th^ ist of Fihrneury^ ^79^» 
vhcu the first scull we saw was that of a woman, who had bin 
buried but a few mpnths before. It was then dug up for the fint 
time by her daughter. This oj£x:e, we are ipld, is alwaiya pesfiaeoMd 
by the women, .which ev^r sex the scuU belongs to. A laan ia i 
uptasti^ gar)) oJBGKjiates as pncst.* 



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jtfiatic RestdrchiSj Vol. 11%, 3^^ 

>y a noble eanal. For the particulars, we must refer to^ tba 
iescripdon \ which appears to be accurate* 

A Description of the Cuttub Minor. By Ensign Jstmts T. 
Blunt, of the Engineers. 

This superb column consists of fine ted granite^ with flu- 
Lings which correspond to a polygon base of twenty-seven sides, 
itid has four balconies at different elevations. From the up- 
peritiost one, a pillar of white marble rises to the height of 40 
feet, crowned wilh a spadious cupola. The whole height of 
the Cuttub Minar was foUnd, by trigonometrical taeasurement, 
tb be 242 1 feet. This monument Was erected by Cuttub 
Shaw, who reigned at Delhi between the years I205 and 
1 2 10 of the Christian aera, and seems to have been designed 
for the minaret of a stupendous mosque, which was never 
completed. 

Some Account of the Cdve in the Island ofBkpbanfa. By J. 
Cbldingham, Esq. 

The public already possess several accounts of this most 
antient and stupendous monument of the arts and industry, 
the mythology and teligion, of the Hindus. The gigantic 
figures, with multiplied heads or limbs, are here carefully de- 
scribed ^ and our conceptions are assisted by drawings of the 
plao of tlie cave, and of the priticipal sculptures on the walh 
For many particulars, see the 3d vol. of out Getkral Index. 

Extract from a Diary of a Journey over the Great Desart^from 
Aleppo to Bussor^^ in April 1782. Communicated by Sir William 
Dtmkin, and published with a View to direct the Attention <f fu'^ 
ture travellers to the Ruins described in tip 

At the distance of forty miles from Palmyra and fifty from the 
Euphrates, the travellers Came to a place called Castrohuoin or 
Catamy^ and were astonished on observing the ruins.of magnifi- 
cent structures. They saw first a square, each side of which was 
about 400 yards in length, and the walls 40 feet high, in many 
places entitc. The front Was composed of large blocks of 
marble exquisitely finished. The atches, columns, sculpture^ 
and tbe whole architecture, were of the most delicate propot- 
tions, and not inferior to those represented in Wood's plates o£ 
the rutns of l^almyra. 

A Dissertation on Senuramis^ the Origin of Meeca^ (5V. From 
the Hindu Sacred Boohs. By Lieut. Francis Wilford. 

We are here presented with a species of cosmogony which 
ii not devoid of ingenuity and poetic fancy. The Phallus or 
Linga, the instrument and symbol of propagation, holds a con« 
spicttous place in the mythological talcs of the Hindus* Satm^ 

J^Y« March, 1799, ^ R^ma^ 



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)tam»t whldh ftom tfatt derivation in iMscrit signtfiei £nb AaU 
Ijing in the fir-tree, id pltinly the Seffdramis of intiem Stiti3pe. 
Moahua or Mocsha^sfhan is mentioned in the Paroiua as a 
niost holv place, and seems to have been no other than die 
prevent Mecca. The dove was worshipped in Arabia^ Sfo^ 
aQ4 India ; and it is related of Mohammed that, in the fervour 
of his zeal against idolatry^ he raised Ali on his shouldert for 
the purpose of demolishing a wooden image of that bird, which 
fitood in the temple of Mecca. The Hindus insist that tbe 
black stone ip the wall of the Caaba was the Linga of Mmbo' 
d^va. Unable, however, to compress an abstract of tfaii 
learned paper^ we recommend it to the perusal of oar curious 
readers. 

A Treafite ifH the Sarometer. By Frands Balfour, Esq. 

Why a few desultory remarks on the variations of tht bft- 
rptneter ai^ «tykd a treMtise^ we are at a loss to conceive. The 
author, who is a physician, same years ago wrote a boc^ to 
pcove that fevers are marked with diurna) and septennial pe- 
riods * I a|id though the notion of celestial iaflueaces has been 
long exploded, he w^as desirous, in pursuance of his hypothe- 
sis, to inquire whether analogous changes do not occur in t&e 
atmosphere. The result of a month's observations was, that, 
in the interval between ten at night 9nd six in the morning, 
and between teq in the morning and six in the evening, the 
mercury in the barometer falls somewhat ; and that between 
•t^ ^nd ten in the morning, and between the same 1)oors in 4c 
evening, there is general^ a small rise. These are what the 
Doctor would 'call A*wr/^/jr/ variations j and he expresses a hope 
that, if the register was extended, x^/>/^/!r/7/W variations would 
likewise appear.' The ^ady climafte of India would cextaifily 
be favourable for such observations : but fluctuations sunihr 
to the above ha^e been remarked in Europe by Cotte Toaldo, 
Van Swinden, and others ; and it is not difficult to assign an 
adequate cause, without having recourse to any new agency. 
It is enough Co consider the heatiqg and consequent rarefjiction 
of the air during the progress of the day, modified by tMs cir- 
cumstance, that the heat is principally excited at the sutface, 
and is theftec slowly communicated to the upper regions, Hic 
notion of the visible and immediate effect oi the tnoon on die 
ohi^nges of the weather b, with few exceptioni, confined to the 
vulgar. 

DescriptiofT of the Tak of Tartarjf called Soora-Goy^ or tbt, 
Bushj-iniled Ball of Ittbet. By Lieutenant Samuel Turner. 

* '* See Rev, vol. Ixxvj. p. i cS. 



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*|lils;a^Lma1 rescmHl^s the Englisl;i bull in size and $£ttte, ^itt 
1$ covered with a thick coat of long hair, which In the tail i^ ex- 
tremely bushy and flowing. |t pastures on the sl^oi^ h^oigi^ 
of the coldest parts of Tibet, affords rich miU^ and exce^Lent 
butter, and is of vast importance to the Tartars. It% 
skin is made into caps and jackets ; its hair is manufactured 
into tents and ropes ; and its profuse tail, under the name ot 
cbowrjy is deemed throughout the East ^-article of lux\ur]f 
and parade. — An^ engraving accompanies the description. 

On the Lqtis^ or ^low-paced Lemur. £^ tie fresidcjit ($bi 
William Jones). 
Wc mu^ here refer the naturalist to the article itself* 

Qn the Dhanesa^ or Indian Buceros. Bj Lieut. Charlea Whit^ 
tommunicated by Lieut. Frazer.' 

This very singular bird feeds on the nuM vomica. Its f;^t^ b 
esteemed highly medicinal by the natives. 

Additional Remarks on the Spikenard of the Aniienfs. By the 
President (Sir WilKam Jones). 

We cannot, for want of room, enter into the merits of this 
learqed paper, which is chiefly a reply to vbat Dr>. Blane had 
written on the subject* It maintains, with much appearance 
ef evidence, that the true nard is not a fragrant grasSi but a 
ipecie$ of valerian, which grows in the remotest and hilly part^ 
^ladig. 

Botanical Observations on the Spiienaird of the Antients : im^ 
tended as a Supplement to the latfSir William Jones'/ Papers on 
that Subject. By William Roxburgh, M. D. 

On the Plant Morinda^ and its Ifjes* -By William Hunter, Ssq^ 
This plant, of which the root aflbrds a colouring matter usc4 
for dyeing in the £ast« grows to a moderate*sized tree, called 
AmI* It is extensively cultivated in Malava, and is exported 
in large Quantities to Guzerat and the northern parts of Hin* 
dustan. It requires a rich black soil, and a situation rather 
humid. In the third year after the seed is sown, the root i^ 
dug up.— Fixed with alum, it strikes a fine red, and^ with th^ 
addition of martial vitriol, affords a chocolate colour. 

Prosopis Aculeata. Koknig. Tshamie of the Hiftdtts ^ 
the Northern Circars. By Dr. Roxburgh. 
A Description of the Jonesia. By the same. 

A Catalogue of Indian Plant Sy 'comprehending theif Sanscrit dnd 
as many of the IJnnaan Generic Names as could with any Degree 
tfPrtcision be ascertained^ By the late President (Sir WilUam 
|onc»). 

't 2 Botamcat. 

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3o8 bpddV Report m the proposed tunnel at Grdvesend* 

BotanicatXibservatms on select Iftdian Plants. By the sami. 

Triic nature and extent of these papets oblige us to refer oaf 
,'bottnical headers to the articles themselves. The last will be 
particularly acceptable to the curious in flowers, ami indeed vs 
all who have had the fortune of visiting the luxuriant dimaK 
0f Indiai 



Wc have now gone through the whole of this volume ; and 
after the detailed account which we have given of its contents, 
it U scarcely necessary for us to tem^rk on its aggregate value. 
Our readers wtU judge for themselves. 



Aar. VjL. ReportSy with Ptansy SectlotUy (ffc. of the propoteJ Dr^ 
Tunruly or Pass age J from Gravesend, in Ktni^ to Tilbury ^ m Eun; 
d^Jmonstrating its Practicability, and great Importance to the two 
Counties, and to the Nation at large i also on a Cansd from vxxi 
Gravesend to Stroud. With some Miscellaneous and Practical 
Observations.- By R. Dodd, Engineer. Illustrated with Phto. 
4to. pp. 38. 5s* J. Taylor. 1798. 

THB idea of forming a subaqueous communication betweefl 
distant shores by a dry road, we believej is perfectly ncv} 
and in many situatiotis, Mrhere it is impracticable to erect a ifr* 
perstructure in the forrti of a bridge, or where the ferry is both 
uncertain and dangerous, a successful work of that kind most 
be of the greatest importance. Some of these impediinents 
i>eing found to exi^t on the Thames, about Gravesend, bars 
given occasion to the present curious proposal ; which has 
greatly excited the attention of the public, and has met vidi 
Uberal encouragement from the neighbouring gentry. Bfr* 
Dodd says, in his first report, 

* The measiite now projected, will save the necessity of pa^i 
iLiOndon bridge, and thereby a circuit of near 50 miles, indcpe ^ 
of its giving aihple opportunity for various establishments, aro 1^ 
cultursu improvement \ ^nd I think it would argue an apathy not U 
be expected in the inhabitants of these two great counties, not td 
xiursuc the important benefits to be obtained from this scheme, to i« 
^dprocally advantageous to ea6h county : certainly any neglect auuK 
.call loudly for censure ; for where two counties of such magskndi 
din li^ joined at so small an expence^ it ought not to be omtOpd, a) 
ft wtt'add to their commerce, population, and convem'cnce. 

* Probably the hand of Nature never formed a better situatioft foJ 
this purpose, than at or near Gravescnd, on the river Thames, frort 
the scliffibflity of the shores on both sides the rivet, and the ^paM 
rock of chalk to pass through. I should recommend the form oftU 
passage or tunnel to- be cyh'ndrical, wholly made with key- 
therefore the greater the pressure tlic stronger will be the 

> hafiDl 



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DoddV Report on the proposed Tunnel at Graviseni. 309 

liaviog a diameter of 16 feet in the clear, which will be a sufficient 
width for footy horse, and carriage passengers; to be. illuminated 
with lamps, and a ateam engine to draw its drainage water, if neces- 
sary. Upon this scale, I shall give a general estimate from ocular 
observations. 

* I conceive that 900 yards of tunnelling will he sufficient for 
passing under the bed of the river, and keeping each of its extreme^ 
at a proper distance from the banks ; at what depth it must pass 
under the bed of the river, can only be determined by our bonngs 
hereafter, made in an actual survey, to determine its strat^i $cp.' 

Subeequently to chat survey, he continues ; 

* I shall now proceed to give some general remarks respecting the 
practicability and execution of this novel and interesting scheme. The 
length of the line is 900 yards, which will pass from about '20 to 30 
feet below the bed of the river ; the depth of water in the deepest 
parts above the. tunnel, is 1 1 fathom, or 66 feet, in the highest equi- 
nox spring tides ; therefore the crown of the arch may be considered 
as not exceeding 96 fcet> from the summit water-line, which will 
produce an inclination from an horizontal line of nearly 4 inches in a 
yard. The tunnel may be constructed either of stone or brick j the 
lower segment of which will of course be the first executed, and the 
upper one from centres of a proper figure ; the whole wrought in 
tcrrass, and sufficiently bedded in clay, to admit no water ; and fcftr 
greater security, we proceed with a small part at a time, that wc 
may not too much disturb the strata in working. When the entire 
circle is completed by the workmen, it wiH be of a strength superknr 
to the original bed of chalk we pass through : from the actual 
borings made to determine the strata, I find we have to pass nearly 
the whole way through chalk ; but some small portion of the way^ 
on the Essex side, through an excellent clay, mixed in some places 
with a portion of petrified vegetable substances, covered over,* beyond 
"high-water-mark, with a few feet of rich loamy mould ; but on the 
Xentish shore, a solid chalk rock presents itself to the sur&ce*'' 

The following observations on tunnels also ocpur: 

* It is worth while here to remark the grand utility of this tuoneI« 
l)y opening extensive roads in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex* 
Kent, and Sussex ; and that its extremities are near to the ppipts of 
the great leading north and south roads of Kent and Essex^ Thif 
Gommum'cation, when once completed, will be superior to any bridge^ 
3S from its strength and durability it would require little repair tor 
ages. As to the practicability of its execution, ft cannot admit 
a doubt, if we adopt the old adage, that what has been done, may 
be done again. I have already mentioned that excavations or pas- 
sages are made under the sea at Whitehaven for upwards of one mile 
in length, and on a much larger scale than necessary fdr this proposed 
tunnel; add to these, those passing under the rivers Wear and Tyne, 
as adopted by the coal-miners for the purppse of passing coal from 
ffie side of the river to the other. Necessity gave rise to these in- 
dentions, from the cause of working out ^^ coal on one side, and 
l^en driving a lunnel or drift to the other \ by which means, they 

Y 3 obtainca 



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^1 o DdaaV kiport on ihe propohiYMelit Gfa^Aend. 

5litained.coal from the opposite side, withdbt being tt the Aj><Jfta 
"<>f making shafts for raising it. The first circumstance thkt I recd- 
^ct of this nature, took pk^c at Wylam colliery^ on the fiver TV** 
£ome y€ars a^o ; smde which period the whole of the coat has bed 
wrought on the south sid^, and passed through a tunnel under dfe 
river, and brought ujp the ^haft to the bank on the north side. Witlui 
these few months, tne extensive colliery of Walkert, so well knoiA 
jFor the superior quality 6f coal it sends to the London maiket, ha 
'adopted a similar measure. . • 

> * The^earliest tunnel that we have account of for the purpose & 
Inland navigation, was executed by that able engineer, Mons. RicMiet, 
^ convey the can^ of Lanquedoc through a mountain near Bezien^ 
It JB cut into a lofty arcane, and the greatest part of the way ItBoi 
.with ifree-stone, except towafds (he ends, where it is only hevi 
throMfrh the rock, which is of a soft sulphurous substance. 

• The first. executed in thi§ countiy was by the ingenk>us S(r« 
3nndley, on his Grace the Duke of Bridgewater's navigatioo near 
iManchester: the next^ noticed is the justly celebrated tuo^icl f£ 
Jiarecaatle Hill in Staffordshire, executed also by Mr. Briodfcy; 
its length is 2,880 yards^ and passes more than 70 yards belo# 
the .surrace of the earth ; it is carried through a variety of strata 

Siicksands, .&c. The above tunnel was executed to pass & caaal 
rough it| from the Trent to the Mersey, called the Grand Troizi 
Canid. 

f Tie tunnel of Sap^rton was earned through two miles of soKd 
rod^ ; Its extreme length is two miles and three q^uarters ; it now 
^executed for the purpose of conveying an inland navigation throng 
it, and thereby unite the. river Thames and the Severn. Many other 
funnels have since been executed in this country y and some are now 
doiiig with equal success for the purjjose of inland navigation. ^Sht 
|mat drift or tumiel, aboiit fpur miles above NewcasUe, firom tile 
Sanksof the river Tyne tp near Kenton, which was finished last yeaiv 
is thtee miles and a quarter in length, great part of which was, wMi 
ircry great. lal>our, perforated through a hard rock of whin-stoAe, 
Xiearly equal in density to the hardest flint ; it is made for Ac ex* 
press purpose of passing waggohs laden with coal : notwitjistandd^ 
,the annost impenetrable strata, and the magnitude of the wmk» die 
Whole was executed in about four yeart, and ^t less expence tfan 
pcrsqns unacquainted with such works can conteive.* - 

Some practical directions are aho given rc$pectit)g the Ha- 
shed of ooviating the baneful siTects of .fire ^amps and ncrxioQS - 
airs, during the execution of the underground works. 

Mr. Dodd professes to have written these reports so as to • 
be generally comprehended, and has for that purpose avoided 
sU technical terms and mathematical demonstrations : but ve 
must suppose that he is prepared with such docn meats; M 
likewise with a mode of forming a previous duct for'the Aax* 
;ince of ^ny accidenCaLwater that may ^nter during the progfM 
of the work. We cfllclude that such'satisfactory testiinoduft 
liave i)£en presetfted to thd3o who |>^rbai)5e the tUidertaldii^ 

since 



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waEee w« We ^^cn i^&nriiifBd> }>y public .a^v&itisj^ment, Ihkt 
fcjl.the nxof^y Ke^Hiri^rhas been Jibfr^Uy 9ubep|ib4d ; tnd ,dikt 
X )mU 18 now pepping in p^iiiam^nt to e^ip^wer tibem tP CRxib 
tbe propose into €xecmion,^r A Reportt ;Ff$4^c|iog » can^l 'm^ 
neigbbowrhqod ef X^rayeeend) and projects pf ^oiilar tunads 
in othibr parts of Engl^jpd, -ar^ guided by way of elucidating the 
beo^ts vhicbt Mr.DQdd thinks, n^ay be attained by such 
undertakings. 

As a prelimin^ i^ffiH^t on the general outline of the in- 
tewdpi work, we thipk that this pubticatioa farmshes ample 
mmcfulfi k>x con^idcraiiQr^) on a novel and very innportant sid»- 
jcct ; and w£ have no doubt that, b^ing the projector, M? • 
Dodd will meet with ^11 due el^couragem^at, and that proper 
s^Wance will be nxftde for the cor^e^tiop of ^veral impecfec- 
tions vhieix natcuraUy attach X(f the first des^ of a new 
Khenie* 

■ * — ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ' i - ' ■ ■ ■ « I i» . . ..■ — 

Art. X« Oftservattom on the Intended Tunnel leneatb the River Thamefj 
shewing the many Defects in the present State of that Projection. 
By Charles Clarke, F. S. A, 4to. pp.25. 2 Plaftcs. 48. 
eewed. Robinsons, &c. 1799. 

|LyrR. ,Dodd h^s hq-c met with a severe opponent, who at- 
™* tacfcLhimat all points* The novelty of the scheme, in- 
deed, prompts jth9.8e who are ingenious in that branch of 
science to tne,exerci^ pf their investigating talents.; which we 
wish to see pursued in this c^se, as tlie most lively mea^^ 
arriving at safe conclusions respecting works which hav^ 
hitherto, esct^ped ^t^ention. 

Mr. Clar|we commences his remarks with giving some simple 
mod^ ,of cqn&idering the effects of poiiderd powers, as they 
are usually disposed about arches of the common application : 
leading to ^l^se solutions with whi^h the pu*bHc have Jong been 
satifi^ed from several able Ijands. In sijbtj^rraneous or sub- 
aqueous.stjcuctures, however, it remains to be considered bow 
far these c^ilciilations apply; where the arch mpst he particu- 
larly ipfluepced py the surrounding sipils.. tlaijd 'stone, and 
modcratei^y firm cUy, resist (iijJercntly iT-tbe first will support 
itself , in a perp^pcjjcular directubri ; wl\erjea8 the latter will spred 
or bulge in f vf ry ,w^yi in proportion to the weight upon it» 
The several materials should therefore bei considered according 
to their respective degrees of solidity ; from such as cannot be 
compressed by any common weight, to that of verging towards ' 
a fluid state : for it is evident that a solid tedy will not press 
against an upright wall which may be buitAgainst it : but, in 
proportion as the soil to be passed through is soft, or appruxi- 

Y 4 mates 

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311 • Clafke*/ bhsifvattms m the intended ^unml, tsfc* 

mate^ to a fluid, it will undoubtedly requite an ap pny i im 
.disposition in the tunnel to resist it in tvctj direction. Th 
'Jine of the proposed tunnel, we are inform^ by Mr. DodA 

Tvport, does pass thrdugh two very difierent materials t At 

<Mie a chalk and the other a elay. The proper procedure wovU. 

tfaerefbre be, first to ascertain the just resistances which the 

respective sc41s- require ; and then to consider what f6rm wouU 

best apply to the place in question. 
• ' Mr. Qarke has stated an observation which well merits tbe 

mtteation' of those who are in the practice of constructa^ 
•srchei. After having cited acknowleged authorities res] 



•the strength of timber in diETerent positions, he supposes ( 
Mr. Emerson) that the same mode ^ is equally applicable tossy 
•solid bodies acted on in like manner */ — * and we may rest pretty 
well satisfiej, till it'may be thought worthy to make a count 
of experiments immediately to the purpose, that an arch of tws 
bticlu thick, unbonded, is but twice as strong as an arch of 
one } and of three, but possessed of three times that strength: 
whereas, if bonded, the degrees of strength would be as the 
fsquares.of tjiose number^, and be represented by i, 4, 9/ It 
niay likewise be added that a farther weakness results from 
the i:epetition of arches immediately over each other ; that, 
if a defect should happen i}\ the superior one, a partiaii 
weight is thrown on some particular part of the arch be* 
neath, and renders it even weaker than if no arch wcrt 
above it ^ and such must generally be expected to be the case, 
as it is verjf difficult to construct two arches whioh shall settte 
.equally. 

Objections to mo3t parts of Mr..Dodd'3 proposal are detaild 
by Mr. Clarke, who seems throughout to be averse from tbe 
scheme. He has nevertheless presented, at the efid of this 
work, one which he thinks superior for the intended p\irpose. 

We are not disposed, in this place, to enter much at lei^gti 
into an investigation of this novel subject : but we hope to so 
it discussed by those whose abilities and time permit them ti 
give it ample consideration^ Respecting the two schemei 
presented to the public, the question to be decided is wbe 
ther, in the |relafive situation, a preference should' be given n 
l^r. Dodd's proposal of a cylindrical tunnel, or to Mr 
Clarke's perpendicular side-walls supporting an arch pf equ v 



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( S'3 ) . 

AtT^ XI. The PtiaeipUt &f Matbmattcs and NOural Plikiofhy. 
la Four Volumes 8to. Printed at Cambridge. 

Vou III. * Parti. • 

The Prmctfkt of Mechanics : Deaigned for the Use of Student* in tiic 
University. B7 James Wood, B. D. Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. 8vo. 4s. Boards. Wingrave, Elmsley, Wilktey &c* 
London. 1796. 

Vol. III. Part II. 
The Principles of Hydrostatics .• Designed for tbc Use of Students m 
the University. By the Rev. S. Vince, A. M. F. R. S. Plumian 
Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Pbilosopby* 8vo. 4s. 
Boards. Wingrave, Ehnsley, Wilkie, &c. London. 1796. 

TN addition to the great advancements made during late years in 
-■' the pure science of quantity, by inventing and perfecting 
several branches of Analysis, that part of mathematics which 
is denominated the mixed is derived almost exclusively from the 
genius and hbours of the geometricians who have flourished 
since the sixteenth century^ though Archimedes, it i» true, 
has left two treatises, one De Pianorum Equiiibriisy the odber 
De its qua in humido vehutitur. 

The first great steps towards a progref^s in the mixed mathe- 
matics were made by Stevin and Galileo s the former disco- 
vered the important proposition of the composition of motion^ 
and the latter investigated the laws of acceleration of falling 
bodies : afterward, Huygens, Wren, and Wallis, invented the 
' theory gf percussion. It is needless here to particularize tic 
' labours of those great men who have adorned this and the prc- 
* ceding age *, suffice it to say that, in the general progression 
x}f the sciences, that of mechanics advanced with great and rapid 
strides. Yet it has not been exempted from that fatality whioh 
fippears, to attend on every science; it has not received,, with 
an augmentation of its mass^ a proportional elucidation of its 
principles. Its cultivators have been ambitious rather of the 
admiration than of the gratitude of mankind ; have been emu- 
lous of augmenting the superstructure, not/of clearing the en- 
trante ; and have added to the height, when they might have 
been more usefully employed in giving stability to the founda* 
tions. 

It is to be remarked, however, that, if the science of me* 
chanics has not been free from that ill-fortune which has 
been common to all others, it has from its nature derived a 

* Two preceding volumes of this work, on Algebra and Fluxions, 
were noticed in our 23d voL t>. itt* We have waited thus long 
^r the remaining volume, on Optiflpad Astronomy, but must not 
f^er delay the present artidc. ^^ 

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,3 '4 Wood on Mechaniif^ #«rf Vlnec on Hydrostatics. - 

jftesLt OQ^ peculiar 4iclvaiUaj;e ; aa^ next {o.^ometry, jx is«t^ 
ili(f8t certain science^ because the oiost simple ia its object;*- 
and to the simplicity of its object," geometry is indebted for its 
certainty 5 being a science which contemplates only one of thjC 
jvropcrtie« of metter, namely extension. By restoring to mat- 
ter another of its properties, impenetrabilityi (that property of 
a body which excludes every other from occupying its place,) 
motion* is produced ; and the investigation of the laws of mo- 
tieti, thus pfodutedf iiB properly the object of the science called 
i^vchanks. By restoring to jaaatter others of its properdes> 
ifHtwdrcunwtances and new principles arc introduced-; the ob- 
ject of Ae science becomes more complicated,^ the sciefice it- 
-volf fass perspicuous Md oertain.; ,and if, in the hypothesis of 
A {liiystcal iprobtem, we were to estimate all the circunistanccs 
«4it€h «u:tual]jr prceent ijiemselves, the solution would bid de- 
)fiahoe to the utmost labour and rcfiuement of calculation *. 

*•* Glarktur GeomHria (says the immortal author of the 
J ^shii ipi a) .fuoi tarn ^uc'ts prindpiis aliunde .petitUi tarn multa 
tptunitt'^* jret few authors seem to have attended to the cause ei 
the excellence of geometry \ or, in other words, they have npt 
*gitf n'fbctthdity to the .prii^iples qf a scienoe, by reducing their 
-inaifabn' )*^that is^ by abewiog that .some are useless^ as ope* 
••tmg'to tio 'cnd, ^^ome ♦h^urc by the use of worlds to wbich 
irtkve is so precise ineianii>g,H->8Qme merely 4educ^Qns ixQjfi 
ifTcnrioiiS'auDdtnore'sknple principles. 

The Three Laws of Motion are said to contain the principlft 

«f . DiechatiiGs ; and, as tbe supplication of Calculus, m an tie- 

-vnemry -treatise like the rprfseut, is an object of Inferior cop- 

uccrnttent, our attention will be principally directed to the 

OMrgotnents by which these Jaws are established. We wish, 

liioiwover, previously to remark that in Sect. i. the definitions 

dfsucit words as extension, solidity,. naobilit;y, divisibility, &c. 

-fwi^^Aavetbecn omitted, because no me is afterward made pf 

Hmrii jMrhttions \ that in ptige 8. Art. Inofiivity,^ the rea^ning 

-is'vaigue (and the conclusion is precipitate ; and that in page lO. 

^rt. a$, the object of the proof is not attained, because it docs 

-«iot B|)poar from the experiment that such a p<^wcr as Inertia 

exists at alL 

IT. I- • r» , , ,. , , I, , ^ I ' I II I 

' ^ It tnay not be impr^pery in this place, to remark that authors, 
rxti o^mpariQg the.CDUclusion of ^physical problem with the resijlt 
-imm.cxpariment, do not state with sufficient precision the principles 
.««n>)vhseh the sulxita^n.is founded*, aad the circumstances undei; which 
•the experiment is instituted. Were this done, it would appear whe- 
» thcr the diiFcrciice between J^*resglts from theory and experiment 
were adequate to the 'deviation fiTthe hypothesis from the actual stftc 
>'«f'thc circumstances which occur and operate in nature* 

We 



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W^ tiow proceed to Sect. 2. On 4b^ Lmw/ dfAbtwk. 

The Jaws of motion art said to be propowtions intermedi^tt 
l>ctwccn geometry artd philpsbphy, through v^hich Meoh^ics 
tecomcs a mathematical brandi of physics ; and to be such tH. 
their nature, that, although not truths of intuition, they art 
Truths "suggested by the constant and uniform testimony of our 
^Benses. It may not be ami^s to recall tlie^e klws to odr read« 
ex's recollection. 

1st Law. Every body persctercs in its ttnte of rest, or in iti 
tmifotm motion in a right Hne, until a change is efiected by 
*he agency of some external force. 

2d Law. Any change effected in the quiescence or motioti 
x>f a body is in the direction of the force impressed, and i& 
proportional to it in quantity. 

3d Law. Action ^nd reaction are equal, and in contrat^ 
directions. 

The argumentation used by, Mr. Wood to establish the trutli 
xrf these laws is similar in kind to that which was adopted by 
Sir Isaac Newton 5 arid therefore Mr. W. stands under the 
shelter of a mighty authority : yet, as in philosophical inquiry 
^re claim the privilege of following reason, and n^ authority, we 
may exAmirie whether the argumentation has that peif^picaity^ 
that precision, and that force, 'which it 6ught to have, in order lb 
isatisfy the mhid on so important a point as the truth c^ the 
^yrinciples of a science.— The basis on which the truth of USt 
1st law xs made to ft^i is observation or iexperiment * : yet, so 
fir is common and daily ohseVvatton from confirming the truth, 
=diat thence is rather to be inferred a tendency in motion to 
relax and decrease ; ^d if it be allowed that motion becomes 
more tirfifo^m and rectilinear, in proportion ts the causes cC 
retardation and deviation are diminished, still the prodf Wtfnc^ 
that degree of evidence which is necessary to convince the un- 
ifeAtandfng, Hence Inertia (for by this property of body fc 
Motion uniform arid rectilinear) has been proved by some emi^ 
a^t mathematicians, in a method difPereftt fnom the one 
above meritiohed ; a method which, although it possesses not 
in'4tKcra'atical exactil^, is independent of experiment, and lak 
some title to the mferit,of logical pfccisidn atnd connection, k 
may be stated in the follo'wing manner : — 

7^ body aiTest eaunot give motion to itself; and thcrcfbrc, 
tf drawn into tnotion, it mu8ti)e so by the action of sOihe ex- 
traneous force \ whence, perhaps, it follows that a body*put ki 

* *♦ Pt^ktlBa 'peritottant i/fmotulms sulsy aidqudtinus a tesufttM 
^ahir refdrJaniurt et vi gratUatU iMelliiMf^r deorsthn. Tf^ocims, cujw 
farifi 'p&fkhi re tr abuf it se^* ^ moiutus fii^neii,' rion tersM rolari, ttki 
qudUnuj (^ aere rftardantur.^* ''^tcc. ^Prh^ipiom 

6* motion 



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3T^ V^ood on MecBanias mtdVlact m flydrostaiUf. 

motion by som^ cause cannot of itself either accelerate pr xe- 
tard that motion ;^ but more formally and fully thus — 

Suppose a body in motion, and that the instantaneous actiea 
of the moving force is adeq(uate to make the body describe a 
certain space, then, .since after the first instant the moving 
force ceaseSj and the motion still continues, it must be uni- 
form, because the body cannot of itself cither accelerate or re- 
tard it ; — the motion will moreover be rectilinear, for there 
is no reason why the body should deviate to the right mther 
than to the left \ and hence, in this case, vi here the body is 
capable of moving, during a certain time and independently of 
the nioving cause, the motion will be uniform and rectilinear. 

A body, however, which can move itself uniformly and in a 
straight line during a certain time, will perpetually move itself 
after the same manner : — for, suppose a body capable of dc^ 
scribing uniformly a straight line, of which the two extremities 
iire A and B, between A and B take two points C and D, then 
the body at D is precisely in the same state as when at C,. ex- 
cepting that it is in a different place. Therefore the same 
ought to happen to the body as when at C: but, by hypothesis^ 
when at C it can move itself uniformly to B; therefore when at 
D it will he liable to move itself uniformly to a point Gj taking 
D G=C B, and so on for ever. Ice* * 

In a similaif noanner, may be proved the uniform and rec- 
tilinear motion, on the hypothesis that the body to be moved 
bas need of the constant action of the moving force f . 

This proof is founded on a rule which is frequently ex- 
pressed by the words " oh defectum suffictenth rationis.^ The 
sufficient reason is by no means to be considered as an unin- 
telHgible and mysterious principle, but rather as a concise 
mode of reasoning. 

The Second Law of Motion, as stated, aflbrds the mind 
no neat and precise idea. In its developent&ent, it is said < that 
when any alteration takes place in the cause, there will be a 
proportional and corresponding alteration in the effect pro» 
cluced^' Now, although this reasoning appears piausible, and 
in the g*rb of a philosophical language j yet, if we strictly 
^examine what we understand by cai$se and effect^ it will appear 
that, instead of clear and precise notions, we obtain little 

* The point D is between C and B, and the point G by come* 
quence is beyond B. 

^ As 2k proof of a prtnctple involves a contradiction, all that can be 
expected to be done, in establishing a pnnciple, is to give«ufl5cient 
developement to that reasoning which renders its truth probable; 
and, by the use of word«.ii^b .a definite signification, to offer it to 
the mind in a clear and precise manner. 

I, mow 



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Wood on MechdhicSy and Vlnc^ on Hjdf^rtatics. ^tj 

more than mere words in current payment. For inftance, 
'C^hen motion is produced, force is said to be the cause ; now 
of forces there arc only two kinds, those which operate like 
gravity and those which act by impubion. In regard to force9 
of the first kind, they are only known to us by their effects. 
If the effects be unknown^ so are the causes : but, if the effects 
be known, any question about the causes is useless, since it is 
the effects which we are to compare together. In regard to 
forces of the second kind, the cause can only be the bodf 
in motion which strikes another, and produces what is called 
the effect •, yet, if the product of the mass of the moving body 
by any fimction of its velocity be assumed as the causfy it maf 
be proved that the effect in the body impelled is not propor^ 
tional thereto. It is matter of wonder that the plausible 
^octrioe about cause and effect should have been adopted 
by mathematicians •, whose concern is about effects which arc 
capable of being represented and treated as quantity ,«-and not 
about their causes, which are truly of a metaphysical nature, 
and as such not objects of mathematical inquiry. 

The principle contained in this Sepond Law, and which is of 
use to demonstrate the proposition of the composition of mo- 
tion is this ; that the action of a force on a moving body is 
the same as on the body^at rest, estimating the action by the 
effect produced in a given time. 

Third Law— Action and Re-action, &c. By action is here 
meant mpmentum generated in a given time -, and for the truth 
t)f this law, says our author, recourse must be had to experi- 
ment. We by no means dispute the truth of this law, but ob- 
ject to the mode of establishing it. It is desirable to render a 
Science as little a science of experiment as possible ; instead, 
therefore, .of setting out from a principle of experiment, * that 
two bodies meeting each other in opposite directions, with 
velocities inversely as their masses, will after impact remain at 
rest/ we should endeavour to deduce this principle from a 
more simple one \ and a case which manifests itself in a dear 
and distinct manner to the mind is this :— that two bodies 
of equal masses, with equal and contrary velocities, will 
after impact be at rest. From this simple and self-evident 
proposition, may be deduced the equilibria of unequal bodies 
meeting in opposite directions with velocities inversely propor- 
tional to their masses ; and this deduction will be. of no very 
great difficulty, when the bodies are commensurable : but, when 
the bodies are incommensuiable^ the proof must be by a r/- 
ductw ad absurdum ^^-^10 effect which this must be admitted, that 
two bodies after impact will not remain at rest, if one moving 
with any velocity {a) strikes another equal to it and it^sc« 

Sect: 



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J 



]i8 VFmAmJIMi^mff, off4.Ymcfn Ifydrosta^^ 

Sect. 3d^ (p. 33.> On the Omfa^itian and Rejobifipn ^Motifgu 
Tbe demoiistratioQ ad9ptc4 b]f Mr* Wood is siuxilar to mat giveii 
ky Sir I. Newton, and depends op the principle contained ii\ 
lie seicQiid law of motion. The demonstration of this import- 
aat pfopo9ilipi^ 19 n^l without it& difficokics. The only clear 
tase of the composition of motion i^ when two uniform forces 
«9ntinttaUy act on the body : but, when t^yo forces imprei^ 
MOtioas on a bod^y, and aba,ndon i( entirely, the demonstration 
k cmbarrasaeicl* The oijbject of the mathematician's endeaTQur 
ihoidd be to reduce the latter case to tlie first. 

Mr. W. afterward proceeds to demoAstrate the composition 
^f forces. The thing required to be proved here i^ in fact, 
that a body acted on by three forces, which are to another a^ 
the sides of a triangle, will be kept a; rest. We do not obn 
jfct to the truth of the proposition, but to the mode of its. 
pvQof ; which, according to Mr. W., is from the composition 
of motion ;«-*and we object for this plain and obvious reason, 
that wberever there is ap equilibrium there is no ipotipn, and 
by consequence the principle of the demonstration is foreign to 
tfae nature of the thing to be demonstrated ♦. 

Sect. 4. On ibi Mecbcmkfil Powers ; and first on the Levtr.-^, 
Mr. Wood's demonstration pf the properties of the lever is iq 
the manner of Archin^edes *, and the demonstration of Archi* 
medes, as we stated in the review of a former workf, is liable 
to objection : to obviate which, Mr. W, prefixes one proposi* 
liofi and three axioms. 

Axiom I* If two weights balance each other on a straig^ 
(ever, the pressure on the fulcrum is equal to the s\)m of .the 
veightB, whatever be the leijgth of the lever.^ 

Axiom 2. If a weight be supported on a Wer which resta 
on two fulcmms, the pressure on the fulcrums is equal to the. 
whole weight. 

Axiom 3. Equal forces actipg perpendicularly, at the extre* 
mities of equ^d arms of a lever, exert the same effort to turn 
k round. 

It 16 remarkable that no use is mode by Mr. W. (as far as 
we can see) of the first axiom; which, although true -as ap« 
pears by experiment, otherwise does not manifest itself to the 

• Our sentiments on this point arc sanctioned by great authority. 
'' HacUnus ^ nemine demorutrata fiat compoitito virium, quam ex com" 
position^ motus quod demonstrandi genus tamtsi receptum a vtris sunnnu^ 
Hjelutt Newtono^ Varignonioi slilsque : minime tamen rigore geometrico 
mutfitum estf propositionemque non alster quam contingenter vcram reddk** 
&c. D. BcrnouilU. 

f Pr. Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary \ tee Rer^ toL xXt, 
p. J 84. 364. ' 

mind 



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Mf^fGi Ml MBehanltSf attd Viace on HyiroHa^SH %%f 

ttSxxi in a d^r and satisfactory manner ; if, howerer, it be 
granted, then can the properties of the lever be deduced, and 
with facUityi if its arms be to one another as number to iwioi*' 
ber. It is on the second axiom that our author builds his de*> 
iionstration ; vhich, however, ¥rc cannot allow to be eitber 
perspicuous or satisfactory. As a diagram is i^ece^sary, wtt 
art unable to state where' the demonstration wants perspicuity^ 
and in what it seems deficient from obtaining its obj<;ct. In 
the review of Dr. Button's Dictionary above mentioned, we 
gate the preference to Newton's demonstration of the lever : 
but one great objection is that it fails in the most simple 
ease; that is^ when the lever is straight and the powers are 
panttei. 

Oar observations are already so much extended, that wt 
must refrain from any farther investigation : but we will j«st 
tdvert to the mode in which Mr.W. demonstrates the two tm-^ 
{M>rtaht propositions, that the spaces vtiry as the s^juaras -of ttvt 
times, and that the space described by a body fa44H9^ ham 4. 
state of rest, by the action of an uniform force, is half the space 
- described ^y the body moving uniformly with the l^wt ac^tnne^ 
velocity in the same time. This mode is by introd«icingii >ca6e ef 
one body ascending while the other descends, and is^cbjeofiim^ 
able inasmuch as it is indirect. What i» the object of ^teoi i 
The laws thsX falling bodies observe. It is surely then dtepavt- 
ifig very widely from the natural afnd obvious path of infest^a«> 
tlon, to introduce a case of ascending bodies. The demonstra* 
tfon of Galileo is direct and perspicuous. Ik introduces into 
the seience no new or foreign principle, but is built on thost 
two fundamental truths, that a body by its w inertia de* 
^bes a right line uniformly, and that, in the «»mc time, ^tht 
effect of gravity is the same on a b^y, with whatever vetodty 
it moves. 

** Nbus nous sommes un peu ettndus stir ce 4Hf^t^* iw the 
French authors express themselves. We have indeed coneultcrt 
not so much the size of the work before us, as the weight and 
Vorth of its subject. The great aim of our criticism has been 
to shew the necessity of first attending to the fundamental - 
principles of a science ; of what nature they ought to be, and 
hi what manner they ought to be' developed or estabUalied-: 
next, to the structure of the science 5 how its scverAl pat^ta 
thould have their gradation, dependence, arid connexion', so 
that the system, through all its varieties, may be always 
traced back to the simplicity of its first plan. In our partiat 
bhservations, we have objected to the mode of demonstrating 
>Hc laws of motion, because mechani<;s should be rendered as 
fcile ^6 pcssiblc a science of experiment \ and we have objcacM 

CO 



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3M Wood (in iteehamsy knd Viiice wHyirdttatUf^ 

to the mode of demonstrating the laws of falling bodies^ (s^ 
cause the connexion between the several parts of a science 
ahould be natural and intimate. To what we have already 
aaid, we may add that> in a systematic treatise, a demonstra- 
tion is nQt always to be admitted| though recommended by 
superior perspicuity and conciseness; for we must examine whe- 
ther it assimilates with the other parts of the system, or forms 
a. proper link in the chain of . propositions •, — and that a de* 
monstration is not necessarily concise because it employs few 
words or signs ; it may be so to the eye^ but not really to the 
mind ; which from the first truth proceeds step by step to the 
last, and, if any be deficient, must supply them befote its pro« 
gress can be continued. The desire of conciseness operates on 
science^ with a baneful. influence; to attain it, much good \i 
sacrificed, and much error introduced ; and frequently it is 
not really attained, for it is only by an abuse and perversion of 
terms, tnat those demonstrations can be called concise which 
take for granted what should be proved, pr omit what is ne- 
cessary to be inserted. True metaphysical conciseness is in- 
separable from perspicuity *, its essence is to eitiploy only the 
tieoessiiry number of ideas, and to dispose them in the most 
natural order. 

After these particular observations, it appears unnecessary tcr 
give our formal judgment of the work. Yet, considered as a trea^ 
ttse designed to explain the principles of mechanics, we think that 
at wants precision and copiousness *; and the author has not avails 
ed himself of all th^ improvements which time and genius 
have given to science : — but perhaps it may be said that it 16 
unreasonable to expect what was never Intended \ that the 
work was designed for the use of young students, and as such 
leans purposely to the famijfiarity of illustration, rather than to 
the rigour of demonstration ; and that its object was to impress a 
certain numher of truths, without regarding whether they were 
derived from experiment or from logical or mathematical dc^ 
duction, — whether they were truths of the same family and 
kindred, or independent of and alien to each other. What is 
first learnt, it is true, is learnt but imperfectly and vaguely ; 
yet surely it ought not so to be taught : on the contrary, there 
should be an accurate standard, at which the student might 
continually adjust his imperfect conceptions. 

** Oportet discentem credere^* in the study of mathematics espe-* 
cially, enjoins implicit faith ; the student suspects every thing 
rather than that his author is wrong, and will suffer the utmost 

♦ We need not explain how a work may want both these seemingly 
contradictory qualities. 

torture 



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"Wood Ctt Mtebamcs^ and Vince on Iffdrcstatks* 3IX , 

tortiue of perversion, m order to fit his own notioos to the 
standard which he ^nds prepared. For this reason^ we feel 
Tcry sensibly the justness of that other maxim, <' O^iet edoo 
tumjuScare" What right we have to assume it, and With 
vh«^ success we have acted on it, the pubKc must determine. 



We come now to Mr. Vince's Prlncrples of Hydrortailcs.-^ 
In the course of our preceding remarks, we stated that the; 
certainty of a science depended on the simplicity of its object i 
aAd that, consequently, the sciences which treat of the several 
classes of Phenomena will have diflferent degrees of evidence 
and exactness. In some, the principles mav be obscure; in 
others, so numerous that the application ox calculus to them 
becomes a matter of the utmost difficulty. We likewise ob- 
served that our first and chief concern ought to be directed t6 
the fundamental truths of a science ; and that these should be 
as sure and as simple as possible. Yet simplicity of principles 
is in many instances unattainable : for what is a simple prin^ 
ciple ? a truth suggested by the contemplation of the nature of 
an object of which we are to investigate the properties. Hence 
the nature of the object must be known ; for instance, in fluids, 
thcform, arrangement, density,and mutual action of the particles, 
must be known, before we can presume to lay down any prin- 
ciples which the mind can receive as clear or satisfactory :-^^ 
but our knowlege of the form, arrangement, &c. of the par- 
tides is so imperfect, that we arc unable to propose any prin»- 
ciplcs of the above kind. Every spience, however, must have 
its basis ; and the fundamental truth in the doctrine of fluids 
is, Tbe Equality of, the Pressure of Fluids in every Direction • 
This fundamental property of fluids rests entirely on experi- 
ment, and must necessarily do so; since, being ignorant of 
the nature of fluids, we arc unable to obtain any principles on 
which we might otherwise establish its truth. 

From this property of fluids, giay be rigorously deduced all 
that concerns their equilibrium. In attempting, however, to 
obtain the lawS according to which fluids resist, many and 
great difficulties present themselves;— so great, that to sub- 
due them came not within the compass even of the sagacitv 
and mvention of a Newton:— but the difficulties, which this 
philosopher could not overcome, others have found means to 
evade. Influenced by the spirit of calculation, they hate en- 
deavoured to submit nature to the control of geometry, fn 
tl\e choice of an hypothesis, they have not been inquisitive 
about the true one, but have adopted that which was conve- 
nient for the operation and methods of analy^s; and) in the 
- )Ie v. March, i 799. ^ Z last 

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^il Wood on Mechanics^ and Vincc on HjdrostaiicT. ' 

last act of error and precipitation, they have raised aigebnic 
formulas to the dignity of physical truths* 

It may not here be unimportant to observe how necessary it 
is to keep distinct those two objects, the invention of primes 
and the application of calculus j if we wish truly to interpret na- 
ture. Principles ought to be sought, as if they never were to 
become the data of a.problem : but, if their certainty be sacrificed 
to the facility of calculation, it ought to be no cause of weader 
that the conclusions from theory do not agree with the results 
from actual experiments. The research is of pure curiosity, bi^ 
not applicable to nature. Hence it is that what has been written 
on the resistance of fluids tends very little to explain the phaeno- 
mena, since the hypothesis generally used is not exact ; for it 
supposes that the particles of the fluid, after having stricken a 
body, are annihilated, or reflected in such a manner as not to 
impede the action of any other particles. Hence likewise it 
is that the investigation, in the 34th proposition of the 2d 
book of the Principiay concerning the resistance of globe and 
cylinder, is merely speculative. What is determined in the 
remaining part of the section, concerning this resistance, is 
more conformable to experience •, yet many part9 of the hypo- 
thesis are liable to great objections. 

' The distribution of Mr. Vince's treatise is into the following 
heads: 

* On the Pressure of Non-elastic Fliiids — On the Specific Gravitki 
of Bodies — On the Resistance of Fluids — On the Times of emptyn^ 
Vessels, and on Spouting Fluids — On the Attraction of Cohestoc, 
and on Capillary Attraction — On Elastic Fluids— On the Barometer 
— On the Air-Pump and Condenser — On Pumps and Syphons — On 
the Thermometer, Hygrometer, and Pyrometer — ^On Winds, Soood, 
Vapours, and the Formation of Springs.* 

The demonstrations in the first section differ but littk from 
those generally found in books of this nature. A very excel- 
lent observation is, however, made in Prop. 12. on the ccan- 
cidence of the centers of pressure and percussion. 

In Sect. 3. the author has very properly stated why the re- 
sults from theory do not agree with experiment 5 — and in Sec- 
tion 4th, On Emptying Vessels^ his obbervations are judicious, 
and worthy, of notice. His explanations of the philosophical 
instruments are made with considerable perspicuity. 

The plan of the present work r^embles that of Roger Cote** 
•Q the same subject, in which mathematical demonstrations 
and experimental processes are mixed together ; and such a plan 

* Hydrostatical and Pneumatical Lectures : written on account of 
experiments made by the author in a professorial capacity. 

^ we 



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Wood on Mechanics^ andVincc en Hydrostatics. 323 

wc cannot much approve. We have before stated that a dis-. 
tinction should be made between what is proved mathematicailf 
and what is shewn Wperimen tally. It ill accords with the 
proper arrangement of la scientific work, to.maike the mathe« 
matical proof of the equilibrium of liquors in a syphofi, the 
experiment by which it appears that the air has weight; and to 
make the niechanical construction of an hygrometer belong to 
the same class of proposition^ The peculiar excellence of m%« 
thematical science consists in the connection between its se* 
Teral truths. Hence every thing that stands single and insu- 
lated, and is foreign, should be excluded. — We by no means pre^ 
tend to assert that it is always practicable for a scientific treatise « 
to consist of an unbroken series of propositions dependent on^ 
each other, and having one simple truth as their common ori« 
gin \ yet, as it is desirable to make a performance conform as 
nearly as possible to this ideal model of excellence, care should 
be taken to exclude every thing which either depends from a 
new principle, or is established on a distinct basis> or leans oa 
a foreign support. 

We imagined that we should have been able to have found ft 
proper test to try the excellence of the present work, by inquiring 
what was its specific design, or proposed usefulness : — but >ye 
have not been able to sfatisfy ourselves. Was it intended for a 
physical-mathematical treatise; in which, by applying the me- 
thods of analysis to principles clearly ascertained, conclusions 
might be drawn, and their conformity to experiments shewn I 
Was it intended as a popular philosophical treatise ? or was its 
object to offer a certain number of truths without, regard to 
their nature, the manner of establishing them, or to their order 
and connectipn ? We can be justified in answering in the affirm- 
ative only to the latter question ; yet here, if we do not deny 
the author's success in attaining his object, we cannot applaud 
the choice of that object. 

On the whole, we hope that the execution of the remaining 
volume will correspond more nearly to the high idea which 
we entertain, and have expressed, of this author's merit *, and 
wHl more fully justify the confidence reposed in his abilities 
hy an illustrious and learned University. 

» l> H ' .III! II .1.1 I I I K M I ■< III ^ I I H W 

♦ Sec our account of Mr. Vincc' 8 Astronomy (Rev. October last); 
which, if the 2d volume equals the first, will be by far the most ex-- 
fdknt wor^ of its kind in our language. 



Z % Art. 

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B' 



( 3«4 ) 

Alt. XIL Sermmt $n teUei SptjeOs. Bf Thomts Scott^ Ou^lam 
to the Lock Hospiud. 6to. pp. 458. 6s. Board». Jordan. 

^T some diyinesy the joint reverence •f revelation and of 
reason is diought to be as cempleteljr iacompatiUe im die 
lofe of God and me love of Mammon. In their zeal for the 
former, they often so undervalue and vilify the latter, that they 
would incline us to regard it as the gift of some raalqpftasit 
demon, rather than as a benign ray darted into the human 
breast from the bright source of Eternal Intelligence. This 
ardor for revelation may be well meant, but it is not weM 
Csrnsidered. The depreciation of the intellectual powers of 
man- is not the mode by which revelatioa proceeds to recom- 
mend itself; and it is one which, we are persuaded, its modem 
> advocates and apologists would not employ, if they reSecttd 
Aiore on the subject. The very wisdom of making* a revela- 
tion to a race or creatures must depend, in the first instance, 
dn their having capacity sufficient to discern the fitness and 
reasonableness of it, and to improve by it. Revelation itself^ 

Serefore, is the greatest possible compliment to Reason, m 
ing a declaration,— a demonstration ,-«-of its capacity ; for no. 
religious mind could tolerate such a reflection on the Deity, as 
to suppose that he would cause a revelation of the moet im^ 
po^tant religious and moral truths, to creatures who were 
naturally incapable of religious and moral discernment. Rc-> 
velation is chargeable with no such absurdity. Christ com* 
mands us to search and to see^ and Paul desires us to judgt. 
Besides, the instructions of revelation are not elementary : tlMry 
imply previous instructions from an inferior source ; they carry 
ns farther than reason goes, but do not render its preparatory 
lessons and assistance unnecessary. Its twilight is neither use- 
less nor unacceptable, before the sun of revelation arises. 

Had Mr. Scott duly considered the subjeex in this point of 
tiew,' we apprehend that his good sense would have restrainrd 
Jiim from those strong and unqualified attacks on naUirai niigUnt 
which are exhibited in the beginning of this volume. In the 
first sermon, he tells u^ that it is a vnin thing ; and that * reason 
untutored by revelation uniformly kads men into atheism, ido* 
jatry, or enormous wickedness.' Is this correct ? Is not 
enormous wickedness in men imputable to their passions rathe^ 
than to their reason } If reason uniformly leads to atheism and 
idolatry, could idolatry be imputed to any r^ation as a crimen 
when not enjoying the advantages of a revelation ? Without 
employing any reasoning in defence of reason, we would farther 
ask, is Mr. Scott's representation o^ the natural tendency of 
reason towards atheism and idolatry, reconcileabic with Paul's 

3 account. 



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acMUfi^ (Roofi. i# 20, ii.) tbs^ tlie ^liwiiil power and go^ie^d 
of the Deitjr are dedoclUe bj the £icultics of men ^om the 
wovks of the yinble gtadtion ?— or with his statement in chap» li. 
1 4. tfaat ** tht Gtntihs which have not the law are a taw to t%em^ 
4^v€s ?^ which T»y tor thus paraphrases : <' though they have 
no wrjtten bw^ they are, for all that^ under a rule of life» and 
tfaat*r»ie is their own understandflig and reason :" (Paraphrase 
on ctte Romansi p. t^o.) 

Under the pit sent circumstances of humanity. Reason standf 
in need of bciiig aided } and hence the expediency and fitness 
of Revefaition : but the original faculty, or gift of God, to whic}i 
k Js.addtessedt pugbt not to be vilified. 

< The message of God (revehtion of his will) is no vain things 
i^aa/s Mr. S.) because it is exactly adapted to the condition of 
nrwVind / True : but he should have considered that, in thia 
<:mxMttQni must be included their capacitf to receive it, aa weU 
as its tuitableneM to supply their exigencies. -—We will not 
iamga dwell on this matter, because Mr. S. may not mean tp 
assert all that hta werds imply. 

The sermons are twenty-one in nsmbers on the following 
taats^^Deut. xxxii. 47^— Deut. vi. 6-^.— Is. vi. ^«-*8. -^ 
I John, iv. 8.<*»Aets, xxvi^ 19, 20. — 2 Cor. v. 1 7.— Ps. ii. 1 2.**- 
J Cot iv. 5.*-«Rom.it. j — 9. — i Tim. vi. 6.— Rev. iii. i^^ 16. 
-—Matt. V. 16.— James, L 22—25. — i Cor. xiii. 13. — Lnke, ii« 
^3* i4«-- 1 Sam. vii, 12.— Is. ix. 13.i-.J0hn, i. 29.— i Cor. xr. 
20.— Ja,Kxxii. i5.^^Philipp. i. 27.— Mr.Scott shall speak for 
liimseif as to the object which he had in view in the com- 
•poskaod of them ^/^au oibject, it must be confessed, highly 
JEnsckrfale • 

* To shew the absolute necessity of crangelical princtples in order 
to tioJy prilctici ; and tlicif neTer-fafling elficac^' in sanctifyitfg the 
heart, when cordiaRy i^ctnred; and to exhibit, according to the 
best of tlje author^s ability^ the nature and effects of genuiife 
Chrbtisuucy, as distiogoishcd from every species of false rcligioQ, 
without going far out of. kis way to combat any of them \ is the 
•c«pcdal dfs\ga of this'publicatioo.' 

Possessing much seriousness and piety, combined with ability 
as a preacher, this author is entitled to comihendaAon ; ^nvi 
yet, in several instances, we cannot bat protest against his irf* 
tcrpretations, assertions, and expressions. We cannot ap« 
prcive of his teMhig his hearers that < we are put to death by a 
lingering exect^tion ;^ that < there are fallen angels numerous 
and powerful, subtle, malieious, and indefatigable, who watch 
every opportunitv of doing us misehief $' and that Jehovah 
means to say by the words in Ps. ii. xa..*^ Kks the 49n^ *I ds« 

Z 3 ' mand 



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3i5^ Scott?/ 6ehnorts» 

Ai^nd for my beloved Son that very adoratidn which I pTcU** 
bited ^nd abhorred when oflFercd unto idoIs»' 
• In Sermon iii, he erects a doctrine on a false andobvioosly 
erroneous rendering of the text ; Isaiah, vL 5 — 8. —The 
origin and precise meaning of 'sacrifices it may be di£BcuIt to 
explain*' They wcfe no doubt symbolical reprcsciitations : but 
Mr, S*, we think, has gone too far when he asserts that * the 
numberless innocent animals slain in the Jewish sacrifices, and 
then- bodies consumed to ashes, were constant dechrattons that 
sinners deserved death, and the Jiery wrath of God in another 
^orld/ ' It is strangie', indeed, that the consuming an inmceut 
animal, by fire, should be adopted to signify the nature of the 
punishment which 2. guilty one merits* 

Thinkihg it to be his duty to alarm sinners, Mr.S., in dis-^ 
coursing from i John, 4—8. God is Love^ seems to apprehend 
that ^this amiable representation of the Deity, standing by it- 
self, niay create comfortable hope and peihaps religious indo- 
lenfee ; and therefore he tells his hearers that Goi^ in anotlier 
place, is said to be a consuminjr fir^^ and he adds, * Now x 
man would' not think 'of inferring ffom^this last expressiooy 
that the Ltitd cannot erertise- mercy, but must punish and dc*- 
"^troy atll sinners without exception \ - and this may shew us, 
that Ihnrtations are also impliedi when it is said^ that God u 
'Love^ ' ^ . , . - 

. 'We are more pleased .with a remark that immediatcif 
follows: *The attributes of the Deity doubtless exist and 
operate with a simplicity that we cannot explain, and probably 
there is not that entire distinction between the effects of mecc]^ 
justice, truth, and holiness, in the divine nature and condodt, 
which appears to our contracted minds/ Most probably this 
is the case: but is it not surprising that the. preacher,^ "^jrfio 
iCDuld fiius speak of the Deity, should in the very same sermon 
talk of him as ^ glorifying himself in the destr^iction of our. re- 
bellious race ?' and attempt to prove everlasting punishment 
■to be consistent with his iijfinitc love ? • i . 

Mr. Scott strongly reprobates, in another place, the intvo- 
•dUction of language which is not scripturaL « New terms,' 
*$ays he, * will imperceptibly, introduce new doctrines, oor his 
-the; spbtilty of Satan or his, servants better succeeded, ia "** pii- 
-vily bringing in daipnable heresies," than modernizing tlJc 
^iJacigjLLsge of divinity.' According to this, he hajs himself bcea 

Juilty-.of a "damnable here§y," for the jscriptures xeprcseiit 
ehovah as^ placing his Glory in the exercise of mercy towaxds 
risin«er$ : but no where, that wc recollect^ a^ * glorifying him* 
telf in their destruction,' 

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JScottV Sirmottf. 3^7 

Though ?i cast of sentiment and a turn of expression abound 
in these sermons which are not conformable to our judgment 
and taste, a strong desire of being useful is every where mani- 
fiist; ^nd there arc some passages which we much admire, espe- 
cially in the xtli and xivth sermons. 

A digression is made in the xvth sermon, for Christmas 
day, text, "Peace on Earth, &c." respecting the unavoidable- 
ness of war, which we will transcribe : 

• 1 mean not, my brethren, to dedaim against the profession of 
arms, or to condemn all rulers and nations that engage in war. 
Some soldiers have been, and some are Christians : but , their pro- 
fession is their cross, and its duties their self-denial ; they would not 
willingly engage in any war of ambition, rapacity, or revenge ; 
but they readily face danger and endure hardship in defence of tneir 
country- The more we hate war, and long for peace ; the greater 
arc our obligations to such men, as thus expose themselves to guard 
us against injurious. assailants ; and the inore fervently we ought to 
pray for their protection and success. In the present state of the 
world, war is a necessary evil, and often quite unavoidable : and that 
ttot merely when a nation is directly attacked ; for there are many 
other ways, by which the rapacious and ambitious may' render s^ 
neighbouring country incapable of defending its liberties and posses* 
tions ; and these can only be counteracted by vigorous opposition. 
Nor are private individuals generally competent to decide what wars 
are necessary and justifiable, or the contrary : in this respect, rulers 
most give an account to God for their conduct. But wars proceeds 
originally from the lusts. of men's hearts *, and from the wicked one : 
God employs them as he does hurricanes, earthquakes, or pestilences, 
as executioners of his vengeance on guilty nations : and ambitious 
conquerors, however accomplished or illustrious, are the most hateful 
and tremendous scourges of our apostate race. We may therefore 
deprecate and denounce, war itself, as the most horrid and atrocious 
evfl, consistentlv with the obedience and. honour due to our rulers, 
and the most sincere prayers for the success of their measures, as 
far as they tend to the protection and welfare of our beloved country. 
But we must also maintain> that all the blood shed in war is murder, 
chargeable on them, whose criminal projects and politicks render such 
dr^dful methods of resisting them necessary ; and that it will cer- 
taialy be- required at /i6ar hands, on which side soever the victims 
were sbughtered.' 

As to the continuance of the miseries of war, he adds, la 
sermon xx. 

* Thus It will be in great measure, ** until the Spirit be poured 
upon us from on high." Ambition, resentment, rapacity, and in- 
terfering interests will continue to excite mankind to war : and both 
the mighty and the mean will, in general, deem this one of the most 

hoaom^le and desimble of employments ; till those happy times 

J- - I ^ ' ' .• , . _ - • - -. . , . 

< James, iv. i.* 

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3^8 ^ Archer on the Effeds ofOptjgen. 

arrive, which are predicted m the scriptures, when **the nstkistiluiil 
beat their swords into plow-shares and their ^>ear8 into pnioini 
hooks ; and they shaU learn war no more." 

To the sermons^ are subjoined some forms of prayer for 
family worship. 

We. must apologise to the author for having so long omitted 
to notice his work. - 



Art. XIII* Miteeiianeous Obser^mtiom on the Effects o^Oxyge^t om ite 
minimal and Vegetable Sjttenu / illustrated by iixpennient8» "ted k- 
terspersed with Chemical, Physiological, Pathi^gicai^ asd Practi- 
cal Remarks ; ' and an Attempt to prove why som^ Plant* are Ever* 
irreertf and others Deciduousy in the Climate of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Part L By Clement Archer, Esq. M. R. I. A. of tke 
Royal College of Surgeons, Surgeon to die Lord LicuteBanl'i 
Household, &c. 8vo. pp. 144. 3s. sewed. Dtlly. 179s* 

npH]^ readers of this work must not look in it for any de^ or 
^ intricate philosophical r,esearches^ as the author professes 
that < his book is intended for the perusal of the unkamcd 
among the fair sex, as well as for the enlighteafed man of sci- 
ence/ As a specimen of what they are to expect, we present 
them with the -following observations on Plantations in gicit 
JDomaixis, and on thd choice of places for taking exercise at 
different times of the day ; in which Mr. Archer at least (fi»- 
pbys much ingenuity, and may afford some advice of practkal 
utilityi 

< AH plantations in great demesnes should be at such a disttncc 
from the dwelling house, as that the oxygen which the leaves art 
pouring out during day-light, and the azote they are parting ii^thia 
the niyit-time, should be verjr well mixed with the surrounding in- 
termediate air, before it finds its way into the apartments. Flipla> 
tions very close to the windows of a house are exceedingly ill^jfidgcd» 
because, from sun-rise to sun- set, they are throwmg a unrge quaotity 
of oxygen, undiluted by any other kind of air, into the chanfacn* 
which may be highly injurious to several individuals in the>&mQy ) and 
as, from sun- set to sua-rise they produce the roost impure vi^ovn 
only, they cannot £ul, during that time, of being noxious to every 
person in the house. The custom, therefore, of making such plant- 
ations under the windows of almost every house in England and Lre- 
laud should be discontiuued. The practice of bringing a great number 
of pott of hot-house and green-house plants into drawing.rooats tBnd 
\parluurs, should, for the same reasons, be laid aside also. -- 

^ Surrounding great demesnes with extensive plantatioas of aD koids 
of forest-trees and eveip-een shrubs, is not only very omamcotid, but 
at the same time exccmvely benefioud ; for sucn screcnnig plaat^f^ff^f 
afibxd shelter, and furnish a continual current of vital air, which nost 
be wafted iato the groundsj kt the wind yioyf from what point of the 

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Archer on the Mfft£U ^Onyg^ \ 3^ 

^osapass it may. The great m^s of planting ih every extensive de- 
mesne ahoiild be to the west aiid south-west of the house ; becaufc 
witKis from those pviuts are much the most prevalent in England and 
Ireland ; the vital air« therefore, from plantations in these directioDf^ 
willy ^r the greater part of t]ie year, be constantly Rowing towardi 
the house and offices, where there is the greatest consumption of it# 

< It is BOW very generally admitted, that in a great multiplicity of 
diaeaacs, there is too sm»ll a proportion of oxygen in the system % 
whik» oa the contrary, in spme otners*' there is a superabiindaoct of 

- that pfificiple. The caaes in which there is a ' " 
are much more numerous than those in which 1 
AflioDg the former we may include all the ord 
' of Dr. CuUen's two cladscs, Neurosis and Gael 
pepeia, hypochondriasis, melanchoL'a, spasmc * 

.tipns* (not proceeding from organic afiPection 
4«abetea, hystena, tabe^ anasarca, ascites, h; 
eUoroais ; to which may be added, atonic go 
matism, (especially in old subjects,) schirrhus, 
eoiiditioned ulcers, cases of great debility after ( 
iercr, leacorrhcea, &c* The disorders in whi( 
18 unnecessary, and in vvh.ich it might be dange 
fiamtnatory ; but, as in all complaints of this description, (except, th« 
-earlier stages of florid consumption,) the patients are for the most part 
.unable to use exerdse in the open air, I shall confine my obseryg- 
tioDs^ where hyper-oxygenation is present, entirely to* this lasl coi9^ 
f^iit. 

* In every disease in which there is too little oxygen in the systeixjf 
the 8tek should endeavour to acquire a sufficient quantity of tKat 40 
indispensably necessaiy principle to health, by every rae^ns that ca;i . 
he, devised, consistent with safety. The limgs are the most naturil 
route by which any substance in its aei-ial form can be conveyed inl^ 
the system. The inspiration, therefore, of air of an higher staiidard 
than the atmosphere, is now recommended by several very able phy- 
sicians ; and there are a great number of v/ell-anthentieated casts of 
exceedingly obstinate nervous affections of various kinds ; even when 
-they have verged towards melancholia, and of other very refrat^tory 
- complaints, in which the practice has been attended with the mo^t 
• perfect success *. Peisons afilicted with such maladies should a^ 
iie«rlect even the small additional quantity of vital air^ whi$h the 
neighbourhood of woods, groves, or hedge-rows, affords during tfee 
day-time ; they should, therefore, when they go out in a carriage* 
OB horseback, or on foot, make choice of the sheltered, and if pqi- 
smle, the sunny side of extensive planUtions, to tdke their exercise 
in about one o'clock ; for it has been proved by Doctor Iogen|iQUSfS» 
that the leaves of trees pour forth the purest air after the sun bia 
passed: the meridian. (See Expcr. upon Vegetables, page A4;) 
Evergreens, the lauro-cerasus in particular, do not begin to prodttPC 
pure air till late in the day. (Exper. on Vegetables, p. 2^3.) 

< * See Townshend'a Guide to Health, and a Collection of Caics 
lately published by a Society of Physicians in London.' 

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330 Atchcx on tie J^ffkU of O^jgm. 

« It would also, I am satisfied from one or two cases that base 
fallen under my obseiVation, be attended with the most salotary coa- 
•equences, if valetudinarians who are. ill from a deficiency of oxygen 
*(in whose cases excessive debihty does not prevail) were to spend the 
, greater part of the middle of every day, in summer and autumo, in 
ndmg and walking about woods and groves ; or in reading, conver- 
sation, playing at shuttlecock, billiards, or in attending to mubic in 
temples, green- houses, mosd houses, dry well-aired grottos, or f;uch 
buildings as are common in shrubberies and wooded scen^ wficre the 
'trees produce much purer air than is to be met with in more opca 
situations. 

* Invalids of this description should avoid all great assemblies, snch 
^8 balls, roUts, &c. at which vital air is consumed by the respiratioa 
of the c6mpany and the combustion of the candles, a great deal faster 
than fresh can find its way into our present fashionable apartments, 

•from which modern refinement in luxury has as studiously shnt out 
the free access of air, as if it were noxious, instead of being necessary 
to animal life ; and they should spend their afternoons and sleep to 

"spacious and well-ventilated chambers, the windows of which should 
not look into a shrubbery, from which azote instead of oxygen is ex* 

'haling during the whole course of the night., 

* As there is a scarcity of oxygen in many of the diseases ta which 
children arc incident, all such as are ricketty, badly nursed, pot- 
bellied, or disposed to hydrocephalus intemus, or water on the brsuo, 
should pass the greater part of the middle of the day in ^nc weather 
m the nurse's arms, or at play, (according to their age, and other 
circurhstances,) in the neighbourhood of shrubberies or more exten- 
sive plantations ; but when children are hectic, let them avoid wooded 
scenes, and take air and exercise in large open fields, or upon tmcol-' 
tivated commons ; for the smallest additional oxygenation of their 
blood may be highly injurious to them.* 

We shall also lay before our medical readers the opinion rf 
Mr. Archer respecting the use of nitric acid in syphilis. 

* Mr. Scott, a surgeon at Bombay, is so sanguine as to assert that 
nitric acid is equal if not superior to mercury, as an antisyphilitic 
remedy. That it is very efficacious in many stages of the complaint^ 
has been most incontestibly proved in the communications of Dr. 
Beddoes and Mr. Ciuikshank, and under my own observation at the 
X.ock Hospital in Dublin. J confess, however, that I am one amo^ 
a number of practitioners who think it a very fortunate circumstance 
-for mankind, that we have still the old specific to resort to. The 
acid is indisputably a most powerful auxiliary medicine, and as it is 

« "not injurious to the constitution, it may be right to let it precede 
mercury in delicate habits ; but in my opinion it will never supersede 
that metal in, the cure of any disease for which it has for ages bcei 
esteeiAed a sovereign remedy.* 

For a farther testimony on the above subject, we reffer to 
our accouxxt of Mr. Blair's Essays on the Vcn. Dis. vol. xxviw 
P- 45J' 

MONTHLY 



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( 331 ) 
MONTHLY CATALOGUE, 

For MARCH, 1799. 

HISTORY. 

Art. 14. ' The History of the . Incorporated Towns and ParUhei ff 
Gra*vesend and Milton, in the County of Kent ; selected with Ac- 
curacy from Topographical Writers, and enriched from MSS* 
hitherto unYioticed, &c. 4to. pp. 248. 10 8. 6d. Boards* 
Grtivesend, printed by R. Pocock ; London, sold by Robinsons. 
1797. / ' ^ 

nPHE county of Kent, as it produced Lambarde the father of pro- 
vincial historians, has been subsequently examined by more in- 
vestigators than any other part of England. From Mr. Hasted, the 
last of them, Mr. Pocock has principally compiled this local account; 
•f the MSS. which he has consulted we know nothing : but many of 
hfs additions are not more important than collections from the church- 
yard, — not so uninteresting, perhaps^ to the inhabitants of Gravcsend 
as to most other readers. 

We are, however, unwilh'ng to withhold due praiseirom such local 
inquiries, when they are pursued with judgment and detailed -with 
concir^netf, Mn Pocock has at least the merit of industry, and of a 
commendable wish tb augment the information of his neighbours; 
by whom chiefly his work will be valued. 

EDUCATION, fcf r. 

Art. 15. The Latin Primmer y &c. By the Rev. Richard Lyne, 
late Master of the Grammar School at Liskeard, now private 
Tutor there to six Pupils. Second Edition. i2mo. 33. bound. 
Law, &c. 1797. 

As this valuable * introductory book for Latin schools' was duly- 
noticed in our Review vol. xix. N. S. p. 88. it only remains for u» 
to announce this new edition, • revised and enlarged by the author ;' 
referring our readers, for a more particular account of the work, to 
otsr former notice, 

Alt. 16. A Mirror for the Female -Sex* Historical Beauties for Toung ' 
Ladiet ; intended to lead the Female Mind to the Love and Prac- 
tice of Moral Goodness. Designed priocipally for the Use of 
Ladies' Schools. By Mrs. Pilkington. 12 mo. 3s. Boards. 
Newbery. 1798. - 

la this pubUcation, the writer's attention is more immediately di- 
rected to the youth of Tier own sex. She regrets * that the exterior 
of female education is cultivated but too frequently at the expepcc 
of qualities more valuable ; that arshovjry outside leaves hardly any 
taste for mental excellence ; and that reality is every where sacrificed 
to appearance. The requisites, for indulging this fashionable pro- 
pensity, give young Ladies, especially while at school, no time for 
tcqufring the least idea of general history, as they enjoy no leisure 
for reading, or digesting what little they may read.' Such consider- 



ations 

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332 Monthly Cat^locui, ^ducattofiy fife. - 

ations liave given rise to the selections which this volume coDtanii. 
Numerous virtui^y or qtialitks^ with theif Opposites, are prttentcdto 
view, each illubtrated and impressed by short narratives, in general 
very pertinent and likely to pronaot^ the end dclired : one or two, 
perhaps, are of a kind rather too horrid, as particularly that of the 
Spanish nobleman. The good lady dtscJourses well on poRtenets, an 
Jttui^bie quality, when'properly understood and employed : but wc 
arc indiued to wish that she had «dded aome farther reflectioos to 
guard the young mind 9gainst that artifice, or disttmulatioii, whkh 
i^rhat are c^d polished manners have too often concealed. 

The intention and the tendency of the work are so valuable, and 
the remarks are in general so just and useful, that we are rather re- 
luctant in poHiting out a few deficiencies. In page 5. L 7. has should 
no doubt be have,'- — ^In one or two passages, as p. 6 and 9, the reader 
Q;i^ht be led to suppose that Protest ants alone are Chrktutru : now 
though we could agree with this writer that Popery is not Christi- 
anity, we must yet allow its professors the name of Christiaas, tt&ce 
they believe in Jesus Christ, although they have miserably corrvpted 
and deformed his doctnne. — In page 38. 1. i.. the sixth king of 
Rome, Servias Tullius, js mentioned by the name of 5>t«ni/.— Wc " 
may also ask whether the word ^al, in the Portuguese Btory, 
p-5i* should not have hc^a /raSemal ? 

Art. 17. Henry, or the Foundilng : to which are added, the Prgn- 
diced Parent, or the Virtuous Daughter. By Mrs. PilkxiigtDa* 
i2mo. pp.173. IS. 6d« Boards. Vemor and Hood« 1799* 
This lady has frequently received from us* (as in the preceding artioe) 
that favoumble notice to which her pubh'cktions Appeared to be entitled. 
'J'liepiedertt little volume seemft, as j^^ says, * emulated tcimproye the 
mmds and moraU of youth.' If readers, whether in more esniy or ad* 
vj^)cpd life, will pjsrmit themselves, at the s^me time tliat the^ are amos- 
ed or interested, to mark with care the lessons of virtue and tmth wUch 
rUmg circumstahoes pre^nt, or the cautioA^i and wamingfr which they 
Jiuggest, there is little doubt of their receiving at least a preseat, 
aiid pei-haps a labting, bciH^fit. It may be thought by some that 
Hicnry, who talks against revenge, in one instance too readily Tklds 
to its 'dominion : it may also be said that the language I9» ia 
fome places,, raised above what is suited to the time of liic,— qn error 
too common in books intended for children and youth :-^but d(imeijb« 
jcctjon will attr.ch to every performance. There is a strangr ' ioad* 
rcrtence in the title-page, where the word ^ are* is used instep of m. 
Irt page 93." I. iS* we observe, * remarka^/f good,* iustead of remari^* 
zh/y good. When Henry is di;jcovercd to be the eldedt son of; an 
Earl, he is improperly styled Lord Henry Lister : the sons of 'no 
other noblemen than Marquises and Dukes hs^ve by courtesy the tMe 
of LffTil before dieir Christian name : an Earl's eldest son takes by 
courtesy the second title of his father, which is either a Viscoonty or 
a Barony, , . . 

Art. 18. Moral PhUosQfhy^ or Lope ; adapted to the On^iakJes of 
YoMth. By the late R. Gillet, F. R. S. I^tuM ia PhOaaOfkyv 
isxho. ih 6d. Sad. 1798. 

A former 



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A former small publication by this writer received a favourable 
ttotice in our Review *. We often find it difficult to ^ve a jurt ac- 
count of such Woi4c8 as this novir before us ; which consist of selection 
and compilation from former and larger performances* For the pre- 
sent inquiry, Locke and Watts have provided materiads, which may- 
be wrought into some diiferent forms without producing any thing 
new, except in manner. The volume consists of hints and observa^ 
tionsy which (wc apprehend) Mr. Gillct employed and on which he 
enlarged in the delivery of lectures. It may be perused with advan- 
tage by those who wish to obtain an acquaintance with the subject 
proposed, since it contains several useful remarks and instructions j 
which, no doubt, received improvement when they were offered 
vivJ vocf. 

Art. 19. * The Force of Example ; or the History of Henry and Ca- 
roh'ne ; written for the Instruction and Amusement of Young 

Persons. Small 8vo. pp. 159. 2s. bound. Newbcfy. 

Some imperfections might be pointed out in this little volume, but 
its general character is that of important instruction and utility. How 
much has b/etn pronounced by mankind to be onginal depravity, 
which has been solely or chiefly occasioned by the neglect of eany 
restraint and cultivation ! This book may entertain and improve the 
young, as well as those who are not generally included in this descripw 
tH>n I and it merits their attention. 

Alt. 20. The Scholaf^i Spelling jlssistaiU : wherein the Words anc 
miranged on an improved Plan ; calculated to familiarise the Art 
of Spelling and Pronunciation, remove Difficulties, and facilitate 
Improvement. For the Use of Schools and private Tuition. By 
Thomas Carpenter, Master of the Academy, Barking, Essex* 
8vo. IS. Xee and Hurst. 

As it is in other instances, so also in books for spelling, the worst 
may prove of some use, and the best are still defective. Re^ctifg 
this before us, wc conclude it has found acceptance, as it has arrived 
at a second edition. . The writer pkad»for the old method of divid- 
ing syllables, a point on which we will not determine : — but wc 
rather incline to separate des-pot-ic than des'po-tlc ; which keep» the 
radical word distinct. We art pleased with the selection of * words 
of similar sound, but differing in spelling and sense,' as we are also in 
other respects. At the same time, we can perceive that the book will 
yet admit of improvement ; and such improvement it will no doubt rc- 
ceive^ as it passes to a farther edition. 

JSTe are somewhat surprised to find, in a proper list of abbreviations 
and contractions, — *, D. D. doctor divinitati(7. Doctor of divinity ;'— 
The Latin signature for this title, no doubt the author knows, is 
S.T. P. — ^The D. D. rather belongs to the English.— i)iwm/tf/io, w^ 
conclude, is an error of the press. 

Art. 21, Reflections on the present CondUlon of the Female Sex ; with 
Soggestioos for its Improvement. By Piiscilla Wakefield. 8vo» 
aa. M. sewed. Johnson. 1798. 

< > ■' ■ ' ' ' ■ '• ' ■ " "" 

♦ October, 1796. N. S. vol. xxi. p. 230. 

' Much 



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334 MokyiaY Catalcksi^e, ^uc^tUn^ Isfc. 

Much good sense and useful instruction are contained in this IktJe 
Volume. It is divided into eight chapters ; of which the first three 
are more general than the others, and relate to the management and 
education of young females. Among other things. Miss Wakefidd 
recommends more active diversions than are commonly allowed, ^ch 
as running racc8> trundling a hoop, jumping with a rope, 3cc ; she 
also pleads for maternal and domestic instruction ; or, where thi 
cannot be readily attained, for select day-schools. 

The five concluding chapters are devoted to the four dasaes Into 
which females aYe here divided. After having pointed out the ap- 
propriate duties and pursuits of the first and second or higher orders, 
this intelligent writer attends to the transition ' from affluence to 
poverty, which is not uncominon in the fluctuation of human a£Fairs; 
and she therefore judiciously proposes sofne employments of a lucrati^-e 
kind, which in such an event might be the means of procuring a re- 
spectable support. The next class includes * several gradations, in- 
volving the daughters of every species of tradesmen below the merchant, 
and above the meaner mechanic :' from these are entirely exdaded 
♦ plays and novels, with every work tending to inflame the passions, 
and implant sentiments 6f the omnipotence of love and beauty, as 
containing a baneful poison,* — * for (it is added) nothing can be more 
distant from the plain, sober, useful qualities of a housewife, than the 
Excellencies of the heroine of a [common] novel.' A variety of em^ 
r ploy men tS are suggested for women, and it is lamented that the mea 
have in so nrany instances incroached on what is properly the fewaii^ 
province-— The observations offered respecting the fourtli class arc pot 
less pertinent and instructive^ than those which relate to the others. 

Art. 22. Parsing Lessons for Toung Children: resolved into their 

Elements, for the Assistance of Parenti and Teachers. By B4rs« 

Lovechild. i2mo. 9d. Ncwbery. 
Pars'mg Lessons for Elder Pupils^ resolved into their Elements, f(¥r 

the Assistance of Parents and Teachers. By Mrs. Lovechild^ 

itmo. IS. Newbery. 1798. 

In former years, not very distant, our youth knew little or nothing' 

fraramatically of their own language^ unless they were taught the 
^atin or the French, and even then they too often became very im- 
perfectly acquairited with grammar. Considerable care lias been raa* 
ftifested of late (judging at least by the productions of the press) 
tocorrect this error. The little tracts before us are parts of a sertea 
of books for this purpose. In the preface to the first, Mrs. Love- 
child observes that the office which she assumes is humble, * that of 
Dame behind the curtain to prompt such mothers who are diffideo^ 
of themselves. — I am the old woman who offer my service, and ilatter 
mysf If with the hope of leading the dear little people with case and 
satisfaction.' This is intended for younger children, but is in much the 
same form with that which follows, and which is contrived to per&ct 
what has been before attempted. The four sets of lessons id each appear 
to be suitably directed, both to engage the attention and to emplor 
the capacity of the young , scholar. — Tne good old Dame designs wdl| 
her method is amusing ; and she has already, we are told, had the A» 
tisfaction of finding that her labours have been acceptable. 

Art, 

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MoNTHLT Catalog!^, BOanjfand MUHarj. 335 

Art. 23. The Little Teofbery for Reading and Spelling well. By a 
Parent. i2mo. 9d. Dafton and Harvey. 179S. 
More pretty methods of Iteming A, B, C, and n\ore pretty ptc-' 
tures firona Nature^ to excite the infant pupil's attention. — Messrs. D. 
and H. seem to be in a fair way, by their alluring cuts, to cut-out all 
their riraU in tibe Lilliputian elementary branch of Uterature. ' 

BOTANY. 

Art. 24. Nereis Brltannica^ &c. &c. /. e. Nereis Brlianmca ; or a 
Botanical Description of the British Marine Plants, in Latin and 
Hqglish : accompanied with Drawings from Nature. By John 
Stackhouse, Esq. F. L. S. Number I. and IL Fol. 12s. 6d. 
White. 1795, 1797. 

The class of plants* which the publication before us is intended to 
elucidate, has longer perplexed the inquiries of botanists than any other^ 
This circumstance is not surprising, as their place of growth, general 
form, particular structure, and mode of propagation, are all so different 
from those of the vegetable inhabitants of the land, that analogies* 
derived from the laiter are a very obscure and dubious guide. So 
minute, indeed, is the system of fructification of the marine plants, 
that it was not till after several accurate observations made with mag., 
nifying glasses of high powers, that the ingenious author of this 
%1'ork was enabled to discover the curious particulars described in the 
preface to tJie second fasciculus. These are incapable of abridgment : 
DUt it is enough for us to say that the experiments ended in the de- 
tection of real seeds, proved to be such by procuring their actual ve- 
getation* 

The genus /Wt/j is arranged in six divisions^ thus characterized hf 
Mr. Stackhouse: 

Fucus. Fructif, a jelly- like mass^ with imbedded seed-bearing gra- 
nules, and external conical papills-*terminating. 
Ceramium. Fnut. a jelly-like mass, without the seed^bearing gra- 
nules ; internal, universal, papillae invisible. 
Chondrus. Fruct. an ovate, rigid, imbedded pericarp, containing 

seeds in a clear mucus, and prominent in either surface. 
Sphjerococcus. Fruct. external globular pericarps, ad i»atc or im- 
mersed ; sessile or pedunculate ; containing seeds as above.. ' 
. CtiORDA. Fruct. a mucous fluid in the hollow part of a cylindrical 
frond, with naked seeds aiHxed inwardly, 
CooiuM. Fruct. invisible; frond roiradish : soft and spungy when 
wet ; velvety when dry. 

The two fasciculi contain the descriptions and figures of 39 species 
and varieties of Fucus. yhtj appear to unite accuracy with elegance 
^ a very meritorious degree.^ 

MILITARY AFFAIRS. 

Art. 25. ji Treaihe on the Duty of Infantry Officers ^ and the present 
System of British Military Discipline. With an Appendix. By 

. Thomas Reide, ^sq. Captain in. the Loyal Essex Regiment of 
'Fcnciblc Infantry, lamo. pp. 258. 38, 6d. WiUter, and, 
fgcfton* 1798. 

The 



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Tke firft irppremon-af this veiy comprelicoanre treatise was p«b« 
Itshed in 179;) and we icgret that it has hitherto escaped our notSoc^' 
because we do not recollect ever to have met with so much uaefidii* 
formation, for an officer, in so small a compass* The work is now kt 
general circulation, and has in a manner become a book uf authodtr^ 
and several militarr authors have . not only freely borrowed^ Dot 
have literally copied from it. 

We remark by the printer^s date, as wtllas by a judicious altera- 
tion in the insuuciions for forming a * close column on a cen^ 
oompany facing to the rear,' (p. 162,) that the author has had the 
fitisfaction of^seeing a second impression reouired, although 00 
notice la taken, in the title*page of the copy b^ore us, of ks bdag* - 
a second edition. 

Ait« 16. Iiuinsciiptu/or Hussars ^ imd Light Csvalrf acttntg ms iml, 

m Tism cf War* A Translation. 8vo. pp. 147. 2s. 6d. Egef* 

ton. 1798. 

Although no name \» prefixed to this transbtion, we uaderstaad 
that it is the production of a young British Senator, (Mr. Rose, jmu) 
who commands a corps of yeolnanry cavalrv ; and who, betidea 
several intelligent notes, has added a seasible and modest ^fAcs, 3 
itxaa which we take the folio wing extract. 

* He has reason to think that these instructions (whicli caiae ifltUi 
his hands in ntannscript) were in use in a body of troops, highly dt» 
tinguisbed fo^ its good condi)ct in one of the confederate armioB^ 
and that the principles inculcated in them arc those, to which the best 
Hussars now known t:Onform. The reader will hnmedsately^ per<< 
ceive that many idea<«, aud, in some places, nearly whole paragnpha 
oociir in them, which are to be fiMina in those given by the &ig of 
Prussia to his tight cavalry : but this^as the translator is much mart 
anxious for the utility of this work, than that it should wear an ap» 
pearance of onginality, he must consider as an advantage whic^ it 
IKMsesscs. A t^eausc of this sort should be a comp^tion of aacb 
ideas alone, as experience has either suggested, or approved. In 
Ijeneral, these inst^ctions are more detailed than the King iS 
Prussians : but wherever they appear to have omitted any thing eascn- 
tod contained in his, it is added in % note. Use has likewise bent 
occasionally made in them of Cotmt Turnings Essai sor I'Art dc la 
Guerre. A &rw no^es have been subjoined from such parts of lit** 
denau's Treatise upon Winter Posts, as were applicable.' Prc£ p. R. 

A work of this kind cannot fail of being highly serviceable, parties 
larly to the yeomanry and volunteer corps ; and we aft hippy m baaing 
an opportunity of again expressing' the sincere satisfaction, whicb wc 
always feel when we see young men of fashion and fortune dcvotsog 
their time to the service of their country. 

Art. 27. The OJuif^s 3fanuaIJ^i the Field; 01 a Series of-Mflitarjr' 
Plans, representing the .Pntitipal Operations of ^ Campaiga* 
Translated from the Gtrman. lamo. pp* 7^0. i^s. £gcftoli« 



he two preceding articles instruct an ol&cer how to form and 
laove a battalion, and to conduct a small "body of troop3« jifti^ ha 



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Mo«MLt^ATlLMtife, hekmdL .337 

%ikS tJbtdmcj! thfs mlbrmatlcm, he will be qualified to enter on the 
■prcucnt wo^k with pl^sure and advantage. It cobtaint * a senea 
oF examples of the principal operations which occur in the course of * 
• a c^mpai^,' and is dc«gned • to elucidate and render familiar tlje 
'•arious objpcts of tw military profession, by exhibit! ag detached 
"pians, '^ich comprehend botli the position of an army with respeot 
t-o its enemy — the nature of the ground upon which it is to act — the 
methods m which manceuvres, marches, and attacks are to be pre* 
pared ^nd executed, and to give certain precepts of this difficult 
ffpiencc» the rules of whicli, as well as their applications, are almost 
inntt|nerable.' The plates ako exhibit every operation of a siege, 
froDT the first investment of a fortress to the nnal assault. 

The text is little mpre than an exportation of the plates, whicl^ 
arc sixty in number, very neatly executed, and admirably correct^ 
except in a few instances. 

Tne letter E quoted in the references to Plate 36 is not given in 
tfaf pla^e itself, but we have no difficulty in finding the point whick 
it w^ intended to mark. Neither are we at a loss to perceive that 
the aiimerical figures in N® 3, Plate 43, are ftitended to express the 
djtnensions in feet, although no notice is taken of them in the ex- 
planation. 

The profiles N°* « and 3, Plate 42, are in the contrary direction 
to N^ f ^ in the same plate ; which nught lead a novice in fortificatioa 
tm mistake the rear for the front. The hanqnettes in N^ 3, however, . 
ipvpuld probably shew him the error. In page 5O) plate 48 is mis* 
quoted for plate 47. 

We have been ab(le to find only one point on which we can attack . 
the author's Generalfhip \ and that is at the passage of the liver 
plate 15, w^iere, though on the side from which the army crosses he 
h^ Tcry propeily placed platoons of infantry which have advanced 
to occupy the bridge and to support by their fire the dragoons, (who 
have already taken post on the other side, of the rivet,) in case the 
Inter should be repulsed by the enemy, yet no notice is taken of the . 
idand whicf^ divides the stream and unites, the bridges ; and which 
OQfl^ cuutainly to be h'ned both by infantry and cannon, if any at* 
VaSi 18 apprehended bc^re the whole army has crossed. 

Ill ELAND. 

Art. at. The Gate ojf Ireland recimtidered. In Answer to a Pamphlet 
itttided, << Argwneius for and against an Union considered.'' 8vo. 
as. Debrett. 

The intention pf this important pamphlet \s to explain the hard* 
•Ups to which the Roman Catholics of Ireland are subjected, and to 
pvove that what they eiulure is uiijust, and not necessary to any good 
or useful purposeo The author, who is himself of that persuasion, 
wyitee ^'t|i mling^ but with great temper an4 strength of argun)ent. 
We belMvt tha^ jnany of our readers will be gratified by the 
faObDw'ag ettiact*, wmch appear to express 'the sentiments of a 
gtaiftitnytts o^ a fneod to just goveriiment. He decbres himself 
•a •fwaiy < to a'^ aad broad union ibr the good of the whole roun- 



Wjf* but he \% Agnoft /. a ;2^ow insidious union, playing the fears of 
^ae set of men against tliose of another.' 
Ret. MAacH, 1799, A a ^ The 



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'SJt MoNTtfLT CiTALOcuB^ JkkmJL 

* The union/ says lie, * is a secondlury qucition — Give the people 
of Ireland cause to be content. They may be satisfied by aa upioi], 
t|iey may be satisfied without it, but until they are^ no form of govern- 
ment will avail. Do not h'steu to those idle ill-tempered exdamatioQii 
the people of Ireland never can be satisfied 1 Ask yourselves calmly. 
Has a fair trial ever been made I Ask yourselves— not what has beeo 
done, but what remains to be done V 

The question which the author principafly examines is, ** whether 
three fourths of the people of IrelanH ought to be shut out from the 
full and equal benefit of whatever eohstitution she is to have ?** 
. No sentence in * Argufnentt for and agabut an Union consUerd^ 
has obtained more notice, than that which states nine tenths of the 
property of Ireland to be in the hands of the Protestants, who arc 
scarcely one fourth part of the population. If this statement be af- 
reet, the mean ratio of individual pi-operty is as twenty-seven to one 
In addition-to the weight of this unnatui-al disproportion of property, 
the hardships thrown on the unfortunate majority are thus in part dc^ 
, scribed by the author : ' The religion of three men out of four, whtcb 
k the religion of the country, is Catholic, and is allowed no suppod 
from j^vemment. The religion of one man out of four is Protestaat^ 
which is the religion of the state, and is endowed with the tithe of the 
whole kingdom, besides great property in l^nd.'— 

* Among the peasantry, the proportion of Roman Catholic»^is 
much greater. They are the poorest peasantry in the world,^ gd 
■least, for their work, and pay most for their land ; have <he most jm- 
merouft families, and have no help from their panshes to suppoit 
them. After paying a tith^, exacted generally with very great rigeur, 
to support the established religion, of wliich they never hear hot 
by the tithe«proctor, they must out of their poverty pay somethii^ 
to their own priest, who, nearly as pooi:. as themselves, lives wiu 
them and renders them mjiny services.' — * The people of Ireland« t3I 
within these few yejirij, Siere not admitted intp Pro\cstant schools, 
were not allowed to have schools of their own, nor to be educated 
abroad.* 

On the endeavour to compare the union between England and 
Scotland with the proposed union between Great Britain and Irekodf 
the authbr observes, 

* In Scotland, the religion of the pebple was permitted to be the 
'religion of the country : it was not barely tolerated, but esta^Uifa^ 
-and confirmed, by a]l that human wi^^dom can devise, before the ar- 
ticles of union were discussed in parliament. .i 

* In Ireland, the religion of the people" is not' permitted to be die 
'religion of the country: it is scarcely tolerated ; the religion ot^ 

small minority (a political phenomenon) is the established rdigto^'of 
the state.' 

The writer is very justly severe on a maxim advanced in the df$f^ 
merJs ccnsidered^ that, ** when ona the hope of changing i$ ai a» endt 9td 
the h^ of forcing such a change destroyed^ aUsatUfactum ^umMmkith 
ne^utescenccy and acquiescence into content,'*'^* Here (says he) thcpct|k 

• See M. R. Feb, 1799, p.aiS^ • ^ 

-«f 



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Monthly Catalocoe, ir^/jffdL 339. 

of Jirland of all dcriointnation)t, for this is addrt6«cd to thttn all, tnay 
auc through what a soft and natural progression their leading charaC^ , 
ten are preparing to conduct them to happiness.' In another placet 
h« remarks ; ' 

* One cannot help pitying a government which seems to be in con* 
tRtant terror of the prosperity of its own subjects. Their numberi 
their riches, their Spint, th^ir ciWl or military talents, are so many 
objects of fear* Such a government can subsist only by taking ai 
much pains to keep its stibjects poor, weak, ignorant, and mean^ SA 
other princes take to make theirs wealthy, powerful, enlightened^ 
warh'kc, and high-spirited.* 

Yet the author strongly insists that the rehVion, to which the 
people of Ireland are attached, is inimical to revolution : 

* Late events furnish one of the strongest proofs that can exidtf 
of the tendency of Roman Catholic principles to loyalty. Every 
means that human -sagacity could devise, argument, wit, ridicule, se* 
dactlbn of every kind, were used to overthrow this religion, before 
any attempt could be n}ade to overturn the throne in France. I sAy 
tLii religion, because whoever is conversant with the works of these 
precursors of revolution, must know that their wit and ridicule waS 
aimed more at the Catholic religion than at any other.*——* Th'e 
samd thing w'as doing in Ireland, (I hope not with thesazne design)* 
And the common people began to yield to the contempt and con* 
tumely which igrnorant men of confined education^ or men of better 
infonnatibn and worse principles, were constantly throwing out 
against their religion, without taking care to put another in its place* 
Their respect for their priests wa3 weakened, as in the late rebellion 
it appeared ; the conimon people were led away, but very few Ro- 
man Catholic gentlemen, no superior Roman Catholic clerg^ymen» 
and out of some thousands a very small number of priests were con<« 
cerrted ; while the Directory and leading members were Protestants 
and Presbyterians. I do not ^y this from party spirit, either in po- 
litics or religion ; I hate it, for the mischief it has done and is itiU 
doing in both ; but to prove, that the religion which the people of 
Ireland are attached to is inimical to revolution, and does not in the 
least interfere with any legal form of government which society may 
aasumre.' ' 

An ingenious and pointed tnm Is given to the argument in the 
following paragraph : • We arc told, // is difficult to comprehend tie 
wisdom of the Presbyterians joining with the Roman Catholics* It k 
indeed difficult to comj5rchend the wisdom of that system which dfove 
Protestant, Presbyterian, and Catholic, into a desperate union ag^ainit 
it.*— « To comfort this numerous class of the inhabitants (the Ct« 
tholics of Ireland) they are t<Jld, that ** they would do well to rest 
sattiafied with a much greater degree of toleration than the Protestanit 
ba^ e*9er enjoyed under a Catholic state, *^ — * There is more of passioh 
in't&m torment than of justice or of generosity, and less of souni 
retSMimg than of either. Admitting the position, what an infer- 
ence ! - We mt»t regulate our conduct by the misconduct of others.* 

Tlte writer appeals not less fotdbly to our interest as a nation than 
toowr justice : 

- ' A^^ 'The 



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J4<S ifcrtlTHLT CA1^AL6Ctrt, Mafti. 

■• « The atete kitb wte'di the exorbttant, 'conVubiye power of l^r^pf 
kat tlvrown all Europe^ does' certainly command every nation to t^mc 
£c>rwm*d with aU its energy; no portion of the popubtioo of »y 
country can t\o\(r he withheld from an hearty co-operation in dc^CDce 
^ all th«t is dear to society^ out of compliment to suiy party, or ta 
Itny prejudice. . And is it ftiir to tell men, that they must spill tbe 
laftt drop 'of their blood, and spend their last . shillings for a caoac id 
which thev aire not allowed an equal interest with those of the same 
fsnk of life by whose side they are fighting ?^ ' 
. He demands, ' Will the peo{^ of Ireland welcome exdnsion and 
degradation from a British, more than from an Irish pariiameot ?*— 
« U is dangei\ius,' he adds, < it is almost < treason ' against the cause 
of all regular society, attacked as it is by powerful enemies, to tnil 
in this mariner with the fccKngs of three n>illions of people, by ex- 
tTuding them from those rights for which we call upon theiri to Yea- 
tm-e their lives.' 

How far the author has estabHshed his position^ that religioiii 
distinctions in Ireland might be abolished with less danger tlnm they 
ran be continued, we will not presume to determine : but we are of 
ttpTuiofl that his arguments cannot fail to make strong impressicfas oa 
the mind of every nnprejudiced and unbiassed reader. 

We cannot properly dismiss this pamphlet, without mentioning a 
scheme. suggested by the anthor, forvdetermining questions 6E cem- 
tnon interest (which he calls Imperial questions) whereta two iifde- 
pendent legislatures may diflRer. He proposes to effect this by estab- 
lishing n proportion of wdght to Uie votes in each legislature. 

A*t. -ap. ^ Reply to a Pamphlet intitled **' Arguments for and agakitt 
au Uniqn," &c. [Sec Rev. last MoAth.] By Richard Jebb, Esq- 
8vo. IS. 6d. Dcbrett. 
. Mr. Jcbb obscrv^'S, on the consequences of an unioo, that ' the 
^raud and primary consideration paramount to every other, hdwtver 
important lu itself to trade, manufactures, and civilization, is the ef- 
fect on the empire. On the safety and power of the empire depend 
Xhc safety and power of its members.' To this, we imagine, etcry 
apber and rational friend to either country will subscribe. -^Mr. Jcbb 
tlien argues that the King of England being ibio facto King oi In- 
land ; that the prerogative and the whole of the patroaage being 
J possessed by him as amply in Ireland as in En^lsgMi ;— there €aa be 
ittle reason lo apprehend disagreement between the two ktogdpBis. 
In one instance only has It been known. * A diference (hesm) 
from the existing cabinet of England, in compliance with the unMCs 
of what was supposed to \t tke succeeding one.* From what stufahoni 
symptoms then, demands the writer, has the author of ^rgummk fir 
andagamt ofii t/Mton- dedgccd hiV fears of differences between tbf tfidt 
parllameut^nd the executive power? 

The following paragraph ought to awaken serious coaskleyatioii: 

' Now the. patronage q£ Ireland has a su^ieut inftued?e^Ofor;Js»r 

fjumlted ftten to procure constant and lai^ majoritias &^ il^ Mlmfil^* 

The sauje patron^e would not ooly stSl coatintte^ bMt peAtf^ t}R 

patroaage of Eng!and would afford some addition to |t> » i^OMW* 



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*rb« nmnbfxs to be operated upon would be reduced &pm about /oiir 

'ima4*cd to about one hundred, lords and commoners ; the same v^o- 

tiyes of patriotism would operate as on the Scotch members ; and It 

i» fiur to infer, thh fourfold Ififluencc WQuld produce u man mops sui- 

PORT Ot ANV MIKI&TRY.* 

.Art. 50* /fc Answer to th Pamphlet tntUled^ <* ArgumentB for aiid 
ag^uist an Union," &c. in a Letter addreised tp Edward Cooke, 
, ,Esq. SecreUry at War. By Pemberton Rndd, Esq. Barrister mt 
Law.^ 8vo. 6d. Stockdale. 

This is but a short part of the promised answer. Mr. Radd tels 
the author of Arguments for and against an Unhn^ that, though he 
does not approve the order in jvhich his arguments are arranged, ^c 
ihall nevertheless attend him *• seriatim et Ftferatim, through every page 
and line ©f his performance.* We canpot pay the like attention to 
Mr. Rudd, without too much trespassing on our reader's patience, 
after the many pubh'cations on the same subject \vhich we h&vc al- 
ready noticed. This letter is, however, written with considerable 
spirit. In a postscript, the author has (departed from the order 
whidi he had orescribed to himself, to express his disapprobation pf 
the disrespectful manner in which the Volunteers of 1779 ^"^ 1782 
are mentioned in the Arguments for and against an Union. The pre- 
sent remarks, however, seem to be little more than an introduction \o 
what the author intends to write, in a farther discussion of the subjects 

Art. 31. The present State of Ireland^ and the only Means of p«- 
•erying her to the Empire, considered. In a Letter to the Mar- 
quis Coniwallis. By James Gerahty^ Esq. Barrister at Law. Sto*. 
IS. 6d. Stockdale. 

This letter id written m favour of an union, which the writer argues 
. to be necessary, if not essential, to the tranquillity of Ireland, and fo 
-the security of the British empire. We wish not to controvert this 
opinion : but we cannot avoid remarking that some of the sentiments 
of the writer are harsl^, and little to be commended for their mb* 
rahty. He believes it to be one of the excellencies * of the British 
coostkution,' that the royal estate and the branches ^ of the legSdft- 
ture are so connected, that the latter are open to the influence of the 
former.* — He js not a friend to the ch«MTicter of the Irish| as 
. a people, particularly of the Catholics. He speaks with much se- 
verity of their crimes^ and with little feeling for their miseries. Yet, 
according to the following quotation, he seems to be of opinion tthat 
the Irish of the present day are superior, in civilization and knowjegCf 
to the Romans m the days of Cicero : * The late conspiracy in Ire- 
land, for extent, system, and preparation, has po parallel in the con- 
federacy of Catiline. They may resemble in boldness of design; and 
fiagitiousness of means ; but their difference is incalculable, wnen we 
compi^ the two era^ which are ataioed with their enormities, and 
contrast the darkness of Paganism with the light of Christianity.* 

^Kn, 3a. The Consequinca of the proposed Unions kc. consulered. In a 

j»ilLett«r to Marquis ComwalHs, By J. Gerahty, Esq. 8vq. 
^ 6d. Stockdak.^ ^ 

A^y Mr. 



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341 MoNTHLT Catalogue, Ireland. 

Mr. Gcrahty, in his preceding letter, having es^prested his opinion 
on the neceBsity of an mcprporated union of the legislaturct of the 
two cbuntries, writes this secopd epistle to shew that * the opcnuoa 
of such an union must prove highly and extensively heneficial to lie- 
land*' The doctrine of the omnipotence of parliament has by no ooc 
|)een carried higher, than by Mr. G. in the following assertioa; 
That * it is competent for the existing legislature to adopt any mea- 
. a urc which the people themselves, in an aggregate capacity, migfat 
' determine, is equally and undeniably a principle of the British coo* 
ftitution/ If this be trile, has not a majority at any time a right to 
TOCe themsdves ferfetualf with dictatorial power ? 

Art. 33. Substance of the Speech of the Right Hon> Henry DtmJas^ in 
the House of Commons, Feb. 7th, 1799* ^^ ^^^ Subject of the 
L*cgislative Union with Ireland. 8vo. is. Wright. 
Jn this well-laboured speech, Mr. Dundas maintains that, in the 
present method of administering the affairs of Ireland, there is a de- 
ficiency of social compact between that country and Great Britain; 
and he argues on the benefit that would accrue to Ireland, as wcD as 
to the general interest of both countries, from an union of the legis- 
latures. In comparing the state of Scotland before the union with 
|tf present stjitc, he perhaps attributes the increased prospcriiy of 
that country in too unqualified a manner to the effect of the unioii; 
not (as it Seems) duly considering the general progress of improte- 
p[ient throughout Europe, since that period : — nevertheless, it is not 
(o be doubted that -bath England and Scotland have been greatly 
benefited by their junction. 

All that is proposed by the present discussion is, as Mr. Dundas 
atatesr * ^o give the people and parliament of Ireland time and oppor- 
< tunity to know and consider what the EngHsh parliament is wiUIog 
- . tp share with them, without attempting the smallest interference 
with their independence.' * If however,' he says, < upon reflection, 
. ^hc Irish legislature should not be convinced of the utility and neces- 
sity of the projected union, there is an end of the plan ; and it must 
. ][^tain that degree of independence which it preferred to the numeroiu 
9fi4 important advantages which were held out to it.' 

* Art. 3^. Speech of the Right Hon, WiUi^m Pitt, in the House of 

Commons, Jan. 31, 1799, on offering to the House the Reso/iaioru 
which he proposed as t5ie Basis of an Union betweeq Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland. 8vo. is. 6d. Wright. 

* This speech is rendered remarkable as much by the circumstances 
under which it was delivered, as by the importance of the sub- 

•jcct. Those who feel more nearlv inten:^ted in the question of 
union, than in ordinary political discussiofts^ will naturally wish to 
penetrate into the sentiments and intentions of admiulstratioa rc- 
Bpceting the measure : — but their desire of information will probably 
te less gratified by this speech than they might have expected The 
6|h and 7th propositions, which concern regulations in trade aad 
fqyenqej may afford some satisfaction : but \\\c interests of the Ro- 
man Catholics are passed over in the scheme. In the 8peech>,that 
jjeat majority of the Irish arq peri/^tted to hope for cchef from «n 

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MoNTHLT CirAtOCUX» hrdani. 343 

tfthacd tmperiad paritament, when their < conduct shall be tuch as ta 
make it safe for the govcmment to admit them to the participation 
of the privileges granted to those of the established religion, and 
wben tlie temper of the times shall be favourable to such a measure** 
*— Much eacpectation will scarcely be raised on such encouragement. 

In arguing the question of competency, the parliament of Ireland 
is described as representing * ianvjfulfyy fully ^ and freely, all the estates 
of the people of the realm** The tenderness of the ground in this part 
of the speech seeihs to be acknowleged ; the argument being more 
directed to impress an idta that principles on the contrary side are 
dangerous, than that they are untriie. If any proposed scheme of 
union should be approved by the people at large in each country^ the 
Competency of the legislatures to cairy it into effect would probably 
not come into question. Believing, as we do, that the mutual in- 
terest of both countries requires not merely an union o^formsy but an 
uuion of i/icltnallons ; and that neither country could hope to enjoy 
security or tranquilHty, if separated from the other ; it :s pur ear* 
nest hope that, should a plan of union ever be adopted, it will come 
with the hearty apptobation of the people of both kingdoms ; and 
that- it will be formed on principles so liberal and cordial, as to insufe 
t^e continuance of that approbation. 

Art. 35. Competency of the ParUamenti of Great Britain and Ireland 

to incorporate their Legislatures, with some Remarks on the De- 
■ bate in the Irish House of Commons, upon the Address. By the 

Author of Necessity of an Incorporate Union, &c. 8vo. is. 

Wright. 

Mu(% bad and perplexed argument, angrily urged. If by compe-' * 
tmiy we be to understand an adeqiiate potver^ argument is not neces- 
sary. If right be intended by competency y the onlv method of arriving 
at a certain conclusion is by reasonmg on sound pnnciples. The author 
rejects theory, with disdam ; and he substitutes authorities for proofs. 
Unfortunately for his purpose^ he has brought forwards a quotation 
from Mr. Locke, which he endeavours to twist, but it is tpo stub- 
bom for his hand. He pretends that the foundation of legislative 
control has its source in assumed power: ^ It is indispensable to 
human happiness that it should exi^t under some shape or other: but 
the innumerable forms which it takes, are indebted for existence to 
usurpation, to time, to a singular current of events, and perhaps, to 
every thing, and any thing but the deliberate choice of the people 
whom they rule.' On such a foundation, it woiild require great in- 
genuity to establish a right to the exercise of supreme power. As to 
the people, he says, * by the very act of permitting a legislature tor 
aaiume its superintending functions, they acknowlege their incapacity 
to make n law.' 

We arc not hostile to an incorporate union, provided it were ac» 
ceptable to, and effected with the free consent of, both countries t 
neither are we friendly to the idea of referring questions to the com- 
munity at larg^ :<— but we believe that, when the commnity feel a 
ciegrec of interest sufficiently strong^to induce them to. interfere, and * 
to p'v^ their, opinioo y and when that opinion conveys manifestly and 

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ckuriy' the -ttjiT^e ^i i«?^b of th^oommuni^y 5 it » nvA tiwfc ft \ 
be a giij^ to thft: IcgMlature. Wketker piiriiamciit be caDa^>c^est te 
tMl iQ aU cases m which they are not oppoted by the pnblie wshd^ 
or the wishc* of their coBStituenti, 1^ do not inquive : but the o^ 
nioQ that a legislature can have a ri^ht to act, in any case^ coofmi^ 
to the known desire and consent of the community, can be eiiter-> 
taiued only by those who regard government «a the proprietor rattier 
' than the ^ent of that community, 

Art* 36, Le^al Argmitiisy occasioned by the Project of ?ti UnioA 
between Great Britain and Ireland, on the Exclusion of the Ro- 
man Catholic Nobility and Gentry, in both Kingdoms, from Par- 
liament. By a Member of the Hoq. Society of I^ii^coln's Inn, 
Bvo. 18. Booker. 

*rti^ great object of this writer's arguments f and a very great one 
ft is ! ) is to prove that ' whether the project or the union be acconn 
plislied, or abandoned, the Roman Cathoho nobility and gentry in 
either case ought, agreeably to the principle of existing laws, and of 
the constitution of the government, to be restored in botb kingdoms 
X<y the right of sitting and voting in parliament.^ 

This bold proposlttori is defended by an appeal to the cxislmg !^wt 
of both kingdoms; by a right understanding of which, he maTntaittSy 
the disabih'tits of the Roman Catholics will be efitirely remcved^ In tlii 
qonrse of hjs disquisition, he manifests his attachment to and zeal for 
tJie Roman Catholic cause : but it is ndt a %cd^iiht>ut imi<ufl^ He 
writes wdl ; though w^ apprehend that his argxunents- weiud Imve 
had more effect if his style had been less declamatory, his reaaonihg 
more cooI> and his language generally more guarded. The s^il^ct 
,\yhich he treais is of 8tupehd<i)U8 ma|piitude, aad requires to beas- 
proached with the most awful consideration: w^ had' alpHSt ^id^ 
vith F£4R and ra^MBLiNG ! 

PbLI*riCAt, FINANCIAL, (5jV, 

^)t, 37.. Revietu df th Af^merUt advanced m the House of Com- 
mons, in Support of the Duties^upon Income. 8vo. is. Wright. 
This reviewer is of opinion that, in order to raise a large sum of 
money, the taxation of income is preferable to any other mode of 
impost, and that It is the least objeptionabk on account of partiality. 
He pndeavours to prove the equity of making no (iistilicttoo between 
the dilTercnt species of income, whether perpetuity, income for life, or 
for years. * By taxing them all in the same pncij^ortion, (he stys) 
h leaxres the diffin^ent sorts of income in tbe same rdativo state a 
which it found them.* If there be any fallacy in this, it consitta in 
as^mning that liicy are taxed in the sa