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Full text of "The Monthly review, or, Literary journal"

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I 



THE 

MONTHLY REVIEW; 

O R, 

LITERACY JOURNAL: 

Br S E V E R A L HAND S. 
VOLUME XLIlt; 



LONDON: 

Printed for R. G R ^F F I T H 8 i 
And SoM by T. Bsckbt and P. A: PeHokpt^ in the Strand. 



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TABLE 

TO THE 

Titles, Authors Names, &c. of the Books 
and Pamphlets contaioed in this Vdume. 

N. B. For REMARKABLE PASSAGES, fee the I N D £ Xf 
at the End of the Volume. 



British Publications. 

^% For the Contents of the Foreign articles, (ee the Isjk page of 

this Table. 



A. 

ABRIDGMENT of die Saoed 
HiHory, 317 

Account of the late Diftorbances 
at BofioDt 6S 

Add a sss to the Judges in Behalf 
dF inMvent Debtors, i ^6 

•- to the People of Com- 

berland-ftreec Chapel, 490 

Account of the Differences there, 

49« 
Adventures of aBank>note» 15a 
Alston's Le^lnres, 3^5 

Analysis of theThooghts onthe 

prefent Difcontents, 161 

Anecdotes of Peter Colliafon, 

250 
Another Letter 10 Matter of 

LibeU 2S8 

Answer to the fir^ Series of Let* 

ters to P. Oxottienfis, 166 

AvoLoGY for l^diy- Gioffenor, 

Archaeologia, VoU L 357 
Arden of FeveHham* a Trag. 493 
Art of dreffing the Hair, 240 



Bar ETTi's Journey from Londom 



B 



B. 
Aldwin oatbeCaAoflMy 15S 
Bank-note* See Adven- 
tures. 



to Genoa, Sec 

' ■ continued, 
^ condoded, 

> Obf. ofi. 



2I» 

»95 
385 

Bbattie onTruth, &c, z69 
BscKyoao, Poems in Memory of« 

See Elegy. See Poem. 
Beginsung, Progrefs, tec, of the 

late War, 398 

Belgrade. See Laucibr. 
Bsrkenuout's Outlines of Nat. 

Hift. Vol. If. 6g 

BiELP eld's Elements of oniveHai 

EruditioD, 17 

'"Concluded, * 113 
Bocage's Letters, 259 

Booth's Death of legal Hope, 492 
Bolingbrokb. See Hunter, 
Boston. See Account. 
Brevis ad Artem Cogitandi In. 

trodadio, 136 

Buchanan's Plan of an Engliih 

School Education, 1 ^4 

Buchner's Method of enaUing^ 

deaf Feribns to hear, 43 c 

Burrows's Difl^rution on Vel- 

no's Antivenereal Syrup. 476 
Bt^RTON on the Oifice of Pleas ia 

Lincoln's In«, 163 

Butler's Cafe, 23^ 

A 2 Candid 



<^|^ 48064 .„.,Googfc 



Iv 



CONTENTS tf 



C 



CAkdid and impartial State of 
the Evidence relating to Lc 

Fcvrc's Speciiic for the Gout, 

483 

Captive, a Novell 400 

Carolina, South, Defer, of, 484 

Cases in the King*8 Bench in Ld. 

Ch. Juf.Hardwicke's Time, 399 
CAVERRiLL*s£xperiiD. on Heat in 

Aniinalsy -212 

Character and Manners of the 

French, 255 

Church of England vindicated 

from Calvintfm, 167 

— ^ of Scotland. See Tracts, 

Comber's CoritfpondeDce with 

Young, ' 379 

Confessional, 3d Edit. 291 
Considerations on admitting 

Reprefentatives from the Colo- 
, nies, 161 

— r ' ' ■ on the Policy, 

Commerce, &c« of theie ^ing* 

doms, 449 

Constantia, a Novel, 152 

Cook on Potftns, 65 

pc^PENHAOEN. See FaizE-QUj^s- 

•rioNS. 
Cord\vell's Second TraA of a 

Syftem of Phyfic, 479 

CorrespondBncb with the Re- 
viewers, 80,168,328,406 
Critical Remarks oa an exceU 

lentTr^iatife, 75 

— — Cflays, 283 

CaowLBY*s Life of Mad.LaSar- 
CvmbbrLand, D. of, his Letters 

toljadyGn 72 

un Trial of, ib. and 

m Defence of, 237 

CuMBHRLAi^D Street Chape], Ad* 

dreis to the People of, 490 

-^ — Account of the 

Differences there, . 491 

D. 

DEBATES of the Honfe of 
Commons, Vols. 3, 4^ $, 24c 
D'Eon's AmufeuMiiiU in England, 
*c. 237 



Description of S. Carolina, ^i± 
Dialogue between a Farmer and 

a Juryman, 24J 

Dictionary of Painters, 24 
DioTREFHEs re-admonilhed, 16; 
DiscpuRSE on the ChriiliaQ Reli- 
gion, 79 
Discourses. See Williams, • 
Dodd's Comment, on the Old and 

New Tell. 169 

Donn's Epitome of Natural Phi - 

lotbphy, . 3?3r 

Dossiers Effay on Spirituous Li-' 

quors, 477 

Drurt's niuftrations of Natural 

Hiftory, 116 

Dubois, Lady Dor. her Theodo- 

ra, a Novel, 65 

Duff's Crit. Obf on the Wri- 

tings of celebrated Geniufes, 30^ 
E. 

EDwARDs^s Gilay on Natural 
Hiftory, 72 

Elegiac Poem on the Deat^ of 
fieckford, 1 54 

Elegy on the Death of Beckfbrd, 

67 

ELLis^sDired. for bringing Seeds, 
Sec from the Eail Indies, 2 1 7- 
Else on the Hydrocele, &c« 138 
Emerson's Geography, 68 

■ Trafts, 500 

Enquiry into the NecelBty of 
Preparation for the Lord's Sup- 
per, 40 
' ' into the Legality of 
Prefs-Warrants, 403 
Erskinb on Rivers and Tides, 1^ 
Essay on Laughter, 72 
Essex's Letters, izo 
Europe. See Revfew; 
F. 

FAiry's Revel, 483 

Falconer on the Bath Wa- 
ters, 430 
Falsehood in Faihion, 245 
Farmer. See Peters. 
Farmer's Queries concerning the 
Game, 158 
■ Advice to bii Daughter, 
463 
FERcuiON'i EleQridty, 24; 

Fbe- 



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/i^/ E N G L I 8 K Books* 



Fercdsor's Moral Philofph. 237 
FiFTEfiN Letters concerning Con- 

feflioDS, &c. 320 

First of a Scries of Letters to 

Pietas Oxonienfis, 165' 

Fxtzhbnry's Obfervalions on 

Barclti, 323 

Footb's Prologue dete^ed, 72 
■ Lame Lover, a Com. 151 
French. See Character. 

a 

GEoRGicAL Eflays, 2d Edit. 

Golds MiTH*s Edition of ParneII» 

326 
Gout. See Marshall. See 

Candid. 
Gray hurst's Remarks on the 
Trial betnreen Ld. G. and the 
D. of C. 1 57 

Green's CrkkalEffkySf 283 

Guthrie's Hid. of Scotland, 458 
Gyllemborg. See MiI'I'S. 
H. 

HAlss's Letter to Hawkins 
477 
HANWAY.SeeFARMER's Advice. 

Hardwjckb. See Speeches. 

■ See Cas es. 
HARDTOntbe Prophecies, 132 
Herbert, Lgrd, his Life, 410 
HiLL*8 Veg. Syftem,Vbl. xvi. 164. 
— Oonl&uftion bf.Timljer, 210 
-V— ^ Herbu-. Britanbicum, 24; 

Virtues of Brit. Plants, 246 

HiSTORj of Ch.Wentworth, 67 
■ of the D. of C. and 

Lady Gr. 7« 

of Geo. IIL 'i 87 

Hodson's Poem on the Dedication 

of Solomon's Temple, 400 
HuNTER^sSketch of Bolingbroke*s 

Phibibpby, 369 

, . pbferv. on the Life of 

Chrift, 417 

Hymns adapted to paUic Wor- 

ihip, 6^ 

TAcKsoN'a Letter to the Re- 
J Tiewers, 392 

Jacob's Bnglifli Peerage, 438 
Jewish Oi^ncof the Refarrec- 
^ ^n, ' 307 



K. 

KElly's Word to the Wife, 150 
KfiNNidoTT's Ten annual- 
Accounts of the Collation qf. 
Hebrew MSS. of theO.T. 57 
Kino Arthur, 498 
KiRRLAND^s Obf. on Pott, J4I' 
See, alfp, ' Corre- 
spondence, 403 
L. 

LA D y's New Difpenfatory, 1 63 ' 
Laugibr's Hifl. of thrPcacc 
of Belgrade, 148* 

Latin Accidence. SeeOwBK. 

Lb Beau's Hift. of the Lower Em- 
pire, tranflated, 32 

■' concluded, 101 

Lel a s D'lTranflation of iE^hinea 
and Demofthenes, Vol. iii. 1 1 1 

Libels. See DiALOcxrE. Se« 
Another Letter. • 

Letter, Second, to the M* Re- 
viewers, on Agm^s Prayer, 1591 

■ ' ' " ■ ■ " from a Gentlemdn at 
Conffanttnople,' ■ ' - z%9 

- " ■■ Second* to Dr.PricfHey, 

— — — to Sir R; Pierrot, 490 
■■ to Ld; North,* 49^ 

Letters to the Ladies, * 61 

— ^ Series of, to ?ictas 03(- 

onieniis, i6j- 

concerning Confeifions^ 



&c. 



between Henry 



320 
and^ 



Frances, Vols. y. vi. 
Li F E of Archbifhop Seeker, 
-k— of Jemmy Twitcber, 
— of Lord Herbert, 
London Pradlice of Ph3rfic, 
Loves of Mirtil, 
Lucy MaxwclJ, 
M. 

MAbl'y's Phodon, 
Magic Girdle, 
Majesty mtfled. 
Mallet's Northern Antiquities^ 

95 
Manstein's Mem. pf RuiEa, 37 

Margate Guide, 32^ 

— '— - in Miniature, 326 

Mar INI Praaicc of Phyfic, 107- 

. Marshall 



49Q 

410 

«6j 
326 

316 
397 
2.44 



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C O iSit E N T S ^ 



Marsh ALL on the liege Medicine 

for the Gout, 6$ 

Mastini's AccooDt of the Watert 

ofRecoaraif 481 

Mathb, La4yft her Abridgment 

of Sacred Miftory, 3 1 7 

MBDITATIOV& QQ the Attributes 

ofGodt 318 

McMOiRS of Mils Bolten> Vol. ii. 

>»■■ ■ I » of the Mtrq* de Sir For* 

Uux» $6t 

MiLLAR^s Obf. 00 the prev«ifln^ 

p^eaies laGr^Briuin, 478 
1^ i LM s's Boi9A:cal Di^. - 1 07 
Mi LLi on the Weather, 36 ; 

Mills's TranfL of Gyllenboi^'« 

£1. of Agricul(ore, 427 

Missing^ Letter to Lofd Maol- 

field, 399 

Mo&BRN Couple, a Nov. coo 
Mo^ctrY'a Reimarks on the Mor-' 

talicy of the horned Cattle, 64 
MoN R o 00 Mineral Waters, zoQ 
Morrises Letter to Sir Richard 

Aftoo, „ 474 

1^TArra.t«vb of the p. of C. 
XlJ and Lady G. 71 

Natural Hiftory. SeeDRVRy* 
Vbw Prdent Sme of Gr. Brit. 1 ^7 
Mrivton's Review of £cpie£aiti- 

cal'Hiftcny, • 74. 

Noble Pedlary 244 

>foRTHcoTB's Manne PraAice of 

Phyik, &C, . 107 

NORTBBRM Antiqnitie?, 93- 

NvNMBRY for Coq uet s , 489 

OBsBRVATiovs on the ESsQb 
of Sea- Watee in theScurvy^ 
&C. 482 

Old Maid, a Novel, 500 

Qwfi n's Latin Acci<leocr;, 3 zt 

P. 
nARMBL's Works, new Edit. 326 
Jl PAT^ioT&.of JernUeoi, 67 
rRARCH*« Collcia. of Poems, Vols. 
iii.4V. 1^4. 

PfRRiK's Logic. SeeBREvis,&c. 
PiTBR s's Rational Farmer, 322 
Phociom's C6ov«r£ukiQs uzn^ 
ilatca, . 397 



PicicEBXtJo'a Sututea in the laft 
Seffion, 499 

PlETAJ OXONIBNSIS. See FlRJjT. 

SeeANSwsR. 
PjLKiNCTow''sDidionary of Pain- 
ters, &c, 24 
PiHcoTT on Artificial Stone, 488 
Plea in Favour of the Stiip** 

Wrights, 397 

PoBftf inscribed to the Memory of 

Beckford, ' 244 

Poems and Tranflations^ by a Gen* 

tleman of Oxford, 153 

■ Pearch^s Celltaion of^ 154 
Portrait, a Burletta, 498 

Pi^BDicTtoN, a Novel, 326 

Prbscot's St. Paul at Athen^, 74. 
Prrsbht State. See New. 
PrE'S-Warrants, En^Qtry into 

the Legality of, 403 

PaiESTLB y's Additions to his Ad- 

dreis, ' 164 

■ to the Hif 

tory of Elcdlricrty, 214 

.-- Letters to the Author 

' of Remarks, Sec. ' 240 

" " . ■ Anfwcr to a Second 

Letter, 49Zi 

Prize Queftions propofed by ^a 

Society of Sciences at Copen- 

hagen, 314 

Prize Poem. . See Hooson* 
Protestant DilTenter's AoTwcr 

to PrieiUey's Addreis, 164 

R. 

RATIONAL Farmer, 322 

Reasons for an Amend-. 

meht of the Statute 26 Henry 

VilL 70 

Recoaro, Account of the W9ter% 

of, 481 

Recrvitinc Serjeant, ioft 

ItsFLfiCTiONs on the Rotn^ ol a ' 

Cathedra), 244 

Religion of Antichrift, 7^ 

Remarks on ibme Stridoi-p lare^ 

ly publiihed, 69* 

■■ ' ■ on feveral Publications 

relative to the Pi^emers, 23^8 
Resurrection, J'ewiih J^od^ioe 
. ^' 3P7 

R^vi|)¥, 



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ihi EHctiftid Books; 



Vxi 



principal Nations in £«rop«, ^tg 
■ » of Ecclefiaftical tlifl> 74 

Rt viEii^BRs, Secoord Letter ttH oh 

Ac u It's Prayer, 159 

< ' ■ ■ r ■>■ )aekIbQ*0 Letter tb> 

i : ■ _ I Correfpondence witb, 

406 
» I ■ 1 ■ ■ ■ Advertifetnent miD« 

Relative to Dr. Prie(Uey» 408 
Robirsok's Diffimtin^ MhiMer'a 

Diieftory, 317 

S. 

SAsas, Mild: de. Life ofi i$( 
Rater's Law of Damages. 

ScotCHWAw.aNofd.Vol.ii, 66 
ScdTLAMD^Ch. of. SeeTRACts. 
$tA-WAftR» Ot>f. on the Efibas 
of, in the Scnnry* 482 

SiCKEa's Life, 44 

•^— jSeninons, iga 

Sfettits ef Lnters to ^. Oxonien- 

SkUM^NS* Tbtee ac Swallow- 
irect, 78 

-^bjraUdy, 79 

' by Arcbb. Setker» 192 

*— \y^ Williams, , 316 

■■ ' ■' ■■ "■ Single^ 80, 248, 347, 

Shipwriorts, Plea in Favonr of, 

' 397 ' 

fiRtu K, Mrs, bcr (M Mm4, a 

Novel, 500 

Suirn's Xenopbott» 70 

— *— fttndent's Vade Mecnm, 

U4 

PMIorals, ±%% 

-— — Choir Gaur, J 5 3 

Sp^FCtics, two» ^f a Lord Chan-> 

^etlor, 405 

StACKROosB's View of apcient 

Hift6ty» Ac 3lt 

^BPHEN on Imprkonment for 

Debt, 237 

$TOifi, ardficial. SeePrNCOTX. 
SroNiHEifGE* See Smithes 

Qk9irG4b». 
fcctLf^o'sWorks^newEdit. 2^4 



T. 



TArLOR» Mr« ^rmon and 
Charge at hit Ordination^ 
4toa 
Theocritus, Sec Warton. 
Theodora, & Novel, 6f 

Thoughts on ^ Penik>tt-Lift 
of Ireland, 405 

'TIS Well ii*8 no Worit , a Come- 

Tracts concerntng Patroaagef ia 
the Charcb of Scotland, 444 

Trial between Onflow '«nd 
Home, I ci 

■ ■ ■ ■■ between Lord 6. and the 

D.ofc. y*-^j»i 

TtnuMPHs of Bate, < 48^ 

V • 

UNnsRwoon^s Addfeft, g^j^ 
Undutipul Daughter, « 
Novel,- • 400 

VoItaire's Ageof LouiaXV. f 83 
Votaoe fchrOi^ Hdl, 237 

WAR* SeeB^oiFmtiio. 
Wayi.er*s Rfrnmi^ 

Cceufy 3 

Wartom*s Bdit*of Th^bcrita*, fi- 

Cofittaned,8t«- Cbttcladad, £30 
Weather. SeeMii.Lt; 
WENTWDRTR.Cka. Hif^«(^ 6/ 
Whitarbr's Epiftk to Hitldng^ 

ton, 484 

Williams's Difcouries, ' \\h 
WiLsoN^s Reports of CAfesfn the 

Courts at Weftmio^r,' ' 327 
Wimpet's Thoughts on feveral 

Sobjedsi '59 

*— — — Y>ti. of dittb, 406 

Wort-ius^ LogtCi traaflated, 469 
WoRi>to^eWife, -i^o 

Wokslbt's Tranilation' of the 

NewTeftament, 10 

^ — — — Latin^ Graitfiniarr ^8 
Wot y 's Female Advocate, 1 54 
Wynne's Hiftory ef the Gwcwir 

Family^ jg8 

LHfO^ Parmer's Gddc, 195 
See BHb<^MBERk 



Y© 



youNCE'sCrit.Diff. on the New 
TeflameDt, 401 

C0NTEI^T5 

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[ viii ] 

CONTENTS of the FOREIGN ARTICLES^ 
in the APPENDIX to this Volume. 



A Naltsb RaifoDnee da Bayle, 

B A TL By Abridgment of his Works, 
Vob. V. vi. Wi. viii. . 558 

Bvffon's Natural Hiftory» Vol. 
xvi; 566 

CASTILHON9 M. his Confidera- 
tions on ^e Caufes of the Di- 
yerfity of Genius and Manners 
in different Nations, 553 

Considerations fur les Caufes 
, phyfiques et morales de la Diw 
• verfite du Genie, &c. ib. 

Co>yRs &' Hi|U)ire NatnreUe, ib. 

Jbi LA Lande's DifF. on the Af- 

. .centdfFloidsinCApillaryTubes,. 

530 

Pe^ina's Hiftory of the Revolu- 
tipqsof Italy, ' 576 

Dissertation fur la Cau/e,^^ 
A Differtacion on the Caufe of 
tl)e Afcent of Fluids in Capillary 
Tube^, 530 

Education, public. Plan of, (;^y 

Gaubil's Tranilation of the Cl^ou* 
King, one of the facred Books 
of the Chinefe, 552 

QoiiAN% Hiftdry of Fiihes, 541 

H I fliT o I R E 4/^ l*Acadmi^RoyaU des 
Sciences. — The Hiftory of the 
Royal Academy of Sdences at 
Paris for 1766, 505 

»' de V Academie, — The 

Hiftory of the Royal Academy 
pf Sciences and Belles Lettres at 
Berlin for 1765, 519 

Naiurelle de P Air, — A 



Natural Hiftory of the Air and 
of Meteors, 534 

de la Guerre desJSaia*ues 



et des R^maiHs, -^The Hiftory of 

the War between the Batavi and 

f the Romans, C49 

y — de la Guern ^t Alfes^ 

HlSTOlRENATURBX.I.EtS;eBVF- 

fORt SecCouKf* 



HisTORiA Pi/cium. — The Hiftor; 

of Fifties, 541 

Impostures, de V Htftoin, — The 

Impoftures of ancient HiAory, 

Lancellotti, Abbe, his Hift. 

of the Impoftures of ancient Hi- 

Hory, 559 

Le Chou-Kinc. — One of the £^ 

cred Books of the Chinefe, 552 
Marsy, Abbe, his Abridgment of 

Bayle^ 558 

Mirabaud's Syftem of Naturep 

Natural Hiftory, Courfe of, 553 
' Bufibn*8, Vol. 

xvi. 556 

Oliva, Abbe, his Tranflation o? 

Lancellotti's Hift. of impoftoies, 

SS9 

Plan d' Education publique, 557 

Recueil Pbilo/opbique et Litte^ 
raire. — ^The PbiioJfbphical and 
Literary Colledions of the So« 
ciecy of Bouillon, 53$ 

Relation d* um Vwge de Paris^ 

«— A Journey from raris through. 
Spain, &c, c^ \ 

Richard^ Ab}>e, his Natural HilL 
of the Air, &c. 534 

RivOLUZiONi d* Itbliay 576J 

Rose, &c. — ^The Rofe, or the 
FeaftofSfi^Bncy, 566 

St. Simon's Hift. of the War be- 
tween the Batavi and the Ro- 
mans, 549*— Of the War of the 
Alps, 556 

Silhouette's Journey through 
Spain, Italy, &c. 551 

Systems^ ^1 Natur^. — The i>yC^ 
tem of Nature, or Laws of the 
phyfical and n^oral World, 54^ 

Voltaire's Anfwer to the Syfem 
of Nature, 54$ 



THE 



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^ ^ ^ H E 



MONTHLY REVIEW, 

For JULY, 1770. 



Art. I. TTyiocritt Syracufii qua Jipeffunf^ £um SchoSis GrIBch 
'• JttSihrii^us, Em^ndationtbus^, et Animadverfionibus ih, S'thblia 
' Editoris et Jg^nis. Toupii^ ^hffa fele^U\ ineditis^ hidkibus 
' ampi^tmis. . l^rismlitmtur Edit oris rifjferiatio de 'ISucolicis 
^Gtitcorumj Flia Theomii a J<ifu(i^,Barneffo fc/iftay cion non- 
; nulps aVts auSiaxHu Acctdunt Edliorti et^Varidrum Nofa per^' 
pttua^ EpI/f^laJ^afptisTQupiidie'SyracuJiis; ejufdeyn addenda in 

- Theocritumy hec non CoHationes qwndecim Codicurrt, Edidtt Tho- 

- mas Warton, S.T. B. Coll. SS. Trin. SociUs, nuper J?oeticaB 
PabKcuj fraeleddr, Oxohit. 4to.' ^a Vol. 1 1. 5 s. in 
Sheets. , SoJd by T. Paync^ J77P* - . • » ^ 

'E c^^ooi: bjr any means agree whb the nobk attthocof 
t^ Dialogues of the Dead< that the bfKce jof an edkor 
h^benea^.A ni2^ ^f genius, ox* thftt to give an. edition of 
Shali^l^dre was a difgrace to Po^. Woald n Oatnfborp^gb^ 
a.?.eynoJd5> oraPaxton, think themftlves diihononrcd. ih isc^ 
^ring 5he;f2idqd.tiaUof Teniers ? Or<:an it hart the dignity. 
of living gejiius t;6 bumiiK the trophirs and trim the lai^r^' 
of the dead .^XhQ|eIn^ft be a^kind of &lly vanity ia the. fiiip'p' 
IM>fition. . . , ' ; , - ^ 

: It is with particul^ pleafure we find that the very ingenious 
and learned Mr. Warton, late Poetry Profcffor in the univcrw 
fUy of Oxford, has ^iyen the Public an elegant and accurat*' 
edition of Theotritus* The great father of the paftorai poetry 
certainly dcferves^ every attention that tafte and erudidoQ.caQ 
properly pay him. For our parts, 'we canoiot but be gratefi:il 
for the many pUafures he ha& afforded us ; and we {halt ftill .add; 
tQ thofe pleafures while we prefent our Readers with an agiple 
account of the advantageous manner in which he n ow appea rs 
to the worid. : ^ 

In the firft place, we fliall give. the Editor's account of the. 

wbik, from his Laiin preface. < When I was Poetry Pro- 

^eflbr in Oxford, and read lectures on the Greek poets, Dr* 

Digitiz'edbyLiOOgle 



t WartonV Thiocrittts. 

Blackftone, who is no lefs dtftinguiihed for bis knowledge ^f 
polite letters than of the laws of his CQiiotr7» foliated me ta' 
give an edition of fpme Greek poet from the Clarendon prefs» 
of which he was then one of the curators: at the fame time 
he had the politenefs to obferve, that . it would be equally an 
honour to that prefs, and an advantage to the younger readers 
of the Greek poetry. Conveniently for fudi a purpofe, it hap* 
f?ned then, too, that a large collc£tion of learned trads, fcrving 
to illuftrate AriAophane^, Pindar, Theocritus, and other Greek 
writers, had been prefented to the Bodleian Library ; a collec* 
tion made with great labour and expence by the late learned 
Mr. St. Amand •• The befl part of this treafure related to 
Theocritus, a poet whom I had ever admired for that fine re^ 
lifh of antiquity, that flavour of ancient genius, by which be 
is diflinguifhed, and whom I had read with peculiar pleafure 
in a very early period x)f life. As thcfe materials were before 
ipe, my friend continued his kind importunities, and urged me 
not to fufFer fuch a treafure any longer to lie concealed. You 
have now, faid he, an opportunity of giving Theocritus to the 
world in fuch a, manner a%?he both requires and deferves.- In 
fhort, his arguments prevaued, and I undertook to give an Ox- 
ford edition of that celebrated poet. But it is necefTary that I 
fhould acquaint the reader, not only with the inducements I 
))ad to engage in this work, but with what materials, and what 
fupportl found in the execution of it; and this I fhall do as 
briefly ks poffiblc. . . : 

« About the year 1705 the above-mentioned Mr. St.* Aiinand 
was:il'adent of Lincblii College in Oxford; but be made no 
long fiay there. His^paflion for the Greek literature, but par- 
ticularly for acquiring materials towards a new edition of Theo« - 
critus, led him into Italy. There, though very young, for he 
was fciarce twenty, he obtained a diflinguifhed reputation for 
learning, and became acquainted with men of the fkfl erudh* 
tion^ aimong whom wercGravina, Fontanlni, at^d othersf. -Vif^ 
tbf ic acquaintance he vras eafily introduced to the befl libra* ' 
ries ; and, at Florence in particular, he was favoured with the. 
friendlhip of the learricd Profeflbr Salvini, who fiimifhed him 
with feveral materids relating 10 Theocritus from the Lauren- 
tine, library and St. Mary's roonaflery of BenedicSlines. The 
patnuia^ and friendfhip of Mr. Newton too, the Englrfh ani-' 
baffiidor at the Grand Duke*s oourt, were of fignal fervice to 
Wm. After fpending fome time with thefe and other learned 
aK«,.in a mutual exchange of literary treafures and obferva- 
tion% he returned to England, by way of Geneva and Pari?. 

* This gentleman, as we are informed, was apothecary to kin|f. 
lame^IL 

t He 



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ttc 4ied Abput^l^ yeir (756^ and left the valuable %Qi)eSiox| 
of books and manuicripts he had. made abroa,jd» to t^ jBlodlciaiii 
UbraiTU Of- thai: .part, of this coUc^on^ which h;^ morein)^ 
bi^ia^. reference to Theocritus, the following is a catalogue :- 
If ,Vfiri0 Liifionfi treiidm Codicum l^aticanorum^ Roma. \ 

fl. GUJfa i dUfis, Codicibus. .^ -. j - ' 

77/, Scboiiay quofummukahaSfenui imdfia^ m dt^is CoMcihuu 
fV* rmrjit Le^on€s CoJrtis Medicei^ fiue JCaurentiani^ ^Fiorentia^ 
a cum Pindara^/Epi/lolis Ubami^.compa&i^ mtat. 37. ; .. 
i% Varia LeSiionis Codicis Atedicei^ Jfivt Laur^ntianiy nQidt^^ ^^^ ^ 
Yh VoTia LeSiionis Codicis Medicei^ Jive Laurtntiani^ mtat. 43. 
yiL Gloffa interKnearts e Ccdtce Laurent, mtat. '^j, 
VIIL Farige Le^'ones eCodice Cardinalis Otioboniy Rj^mfi. 

IX. Sylloge quarundam variantum Le£fiomm Codicum trtum Launtp* 
tianorum. t'Urirtfipp^ ifotat. 37^ 4.3* ^bi [Vid,. tiumb* IV^ 

V»Vl«'' 

X. Ghjpt unius Cfid^ Laurent. PradiSifirum. * . / . ' 
JO* Nota fcripiain MargimQfd. I>durint^,mtat. 46m, * , ;. 
JCII. .Jrgumentarum Differentia^ notata a Tolitiam^ e Coa. tauy 
• rejtt. mtat. J^6. ^ ' " . .. . 
XIII. Gloffa intirlineares Cod. Laurfr^. miafp 46, . ^; • 
XIF. Varia Ls^ioms e duobus Codtdbt{s Moiiajierii BenediSfm S\ 

Maria^ Florentine ^ notat. A. C. 4^* ^<rC* 12. quoruhinlius 
venMory alius recentior dicius. ,. ^ * 

XV* tytojpg Codicis recentifiris Pradi^i^^ /^ 

XFI .Scholia eJiaUq»0 laurentianorutniCodfcurn. 

* Such were my materials, and from tHefc varipus readings my 
bbjed was to felc£l and make up a new and improved text of 
Theocritus. At laft, however, I thought it mbft convenient 
to exhibit thefe readings, or the beil of them, in on? view a^ 
the end of my text, under the title Colktiones. 'Many of thefe 
too neceflarily occur in my notes — yet not that I baa any view' 
of fwelling my edition with repetitions, but in the courfe of 
comparing and enquiring into the ncierits of the refpe^tjve resid- 
ings, it was unavoidable. I would here have the reader obferve^ 
that though I may appear to have paid ^reat attention to. MSS. 
as I have uanfcribed fo much from them,' yet I am not in the' 
number of thofc who* repofe iuch^ah implicit faith ip them, 
that they look upon every line to be written by the pen of the 
I}elphic Apollo. . For many of thefe were written after the 
taking of Conftantinople by thofe poor hungry Greeks, who, 
when baniihed from their country, were glad to do any thing 
for bread. Many likewifc of thofe MSS. which were brought 
frctoi Greece, were written in the middle period, by people 
totally Ignorant of the purity of the Greek language. As to 
the Scbolia^ I have enlarged and improved the vulgate from the 
Vatican, with feveral hitherto unpublifhed ; and to thofe that 
have been publilhed^ I have added the various readin|s f;om the 

JB a fame 

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4 WaVton'i Theocrlm. 

ft^li|55.j^ l*or*1)avc I altogether ne^lcacd the ^&^j ; fb^ 

tjf theft; as they livetf in -ages ncarefio- tbie period of purfty: 
rccciifcd ftxhc lights and fomt inrelligence from tradition 5 ;m^ 
they had 'atcWi 16 bocfks ^rtd comments iwhicH. arc loft.^^ u^; 
By accident^ or by indu/lry, they inftrtated^ rtiany ^ood Veaji* 
jngs-j- and though the Qrtcfc language was corrupt in thidi" 
timer, y^t "flill h ritshn^dfottie maris and traces that ledtA 
its^originoJ genius ahcj phrafeology, and tfcfiis* many woWs of 
obFcbrc or doubtful m^nin^ were happily explained, "Even die 
barbarroDs Byzantine interpretations are fiVqaently near w 
truth, or m^ker at leaft an opening for the difcovery of it^ 
We have, therefore, given a collection oT the Vatican atfd Mfei 
diceah Gfofles, and have now firft publifhed ^the argument* 
frohrthcrVatrckn, ht 'Coliu/r, ti pumles amfjres. The titles of 
the Idyllia arc taken from the moft approved. copies. 

' This plan, with'thSfeinateriaU, might bfe fuppofed "Aiffi- 
cient for a new edidpn^ " That nothing, however, lhoul<J be 
Sieartting to*this undertaking, I made it my hext objeft to exa- 
mine fuch MSS. of Theocritus as the Englifh libraries would 
^ord me. Two I ^Ound in the Bodleian hbrary, one of which 
contained the firft eight fdylliuras, with a few of the publiflncd 
&cMid. • The Dth^ wis 'ittiperfea both 'at the beginning and 
the end, and, indeed, had. nothing entire belonging to it. A 
third I found amongft the Laud MbS. but thit contained only 
the firft eight Idylhums. in the Britifh MuTeum I met with ^ 
MSS. of good chara£ler, apparently of the fourteenth century : 
biit this MSS. contains no more th^n five Idylliums, with a 
few fele<a Scholia. Thefe fevferal MSS. arc collated in this 
edition, and fonftetimes feferr^d to in the notes. After thefe 
1 exanrtined two Cambridge MSS. one belonging to the public 
librai-ys the other to Emanuel College- but they did not ap- 
pear to be worthy of collation. 

• Thus much of the MSS. and now I fliall fay fomething of 
thd ^ditibns, at leaft the beft editions of our poet, that the 
tciL&tr mu^ perceive at once how much this work has been in- 
<^ebt^d to thofe that have gone hefore it, and what qrigind' 
ifterit it may claim. 

* AtdUs, that gr^at rfeflorer of the Greek learning, firft pub- 
iShed^ Theocritus atVinice, in the year ^495. That edition 

nty three Idylliums, and the thirtieth. To' 
pieces of Mofchus and Bion,. with Hefiod, 
?s, the diftichs of Cato, and a variety of 
his edition derives great authority from the' 
dus, who, in his expreffions, never varied 
ianufcrlpt : and this will appear upon exa- 
IS.. A little after this, viz. in 1515, fol^- 
Ibwed the Florentine edition, fo frequenfly referred to by H.. 
6 " ** Stephens. 

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Stepheo9» TJi?: editor fccrm to h;^e bad gpoAM^S*' prpbiJbljr, 
from the Mcdjcqap ribrary,. to wnich Aldus had not recQuffe* 
Xn the year followyig^ 1516, our poet was edited at Roirie by, 
Zacharias Calliergu^^ a Cretan,, of fome (kill ip the. Greek 
learning, who appiears to have got hi^s living in Italy by print-* 
ing and copying' manufcripts. He firft added^ v/,hat had beca 
omitted in tb^ efJkiojp pf Aldus and that of FJorencei ti\c 
twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth, twenty- fixth, twenty- eigbth, s^qc^ 
twenty-ninth I^dylliums j befldeth^ Syrinx^ nineteen epigj:ain$|^ 
the Hatchet, thjeWing^, and the Altar*. Thooctitus, after* 
this, received xip Cuither advantages, except in reoiovih^ fucb, 
things as were unworthy of him. Calliergus, moreover^ ac% 
compaoied his text with the Scholia, which bad never before; 
been publi(hed. He ad^ded likewife the Greek commentary of 
John Pcdiafmas~on the Syrinx. Calliergus removed m^y 
faults which fieod in the edition of Aldus^ and introduced many^ 
others of hi^ own, depending too iruch on his own fag^ky,[ 
which frequently failed him, though at the fame time, I fvip- 
pofe, be had the afliftahce.of the Vatican MSS. Henry Ste- 
phens, however, eclipfed all the former editors in his editioiv 
of Theocritus, publifeed alon^ with the principal Gregl^ 99^\^ 
wKo wrote in the heroic meaUue in the, year 1 566 -^ foi; it wfw 
fiot only more elegant than the preceding editiona9 bi^t abun-v 
dantly more cprrea. He had not only the advantage oF thc^ 
editions of Aldus, Rome, and Florence, but fevcral roie emen-. 
dations from an ancient MS. which the learned Sophianus hadt 
brought with him out of Greece. He rnoreoyer chapged th<^ 
order of the Idvlliums, and, what was, n)oic than all, by bia 
fine tafte he diftinguifhed arrtl fepaVated what belonged tp '^i.91^, 
and Mofchufl from the works of Thepcrituj. A^ to the a^l^o* 
rity of thofc MSS. which exprefly give to Theoc.ritui thQ.i# 
pieces which Stephens has fo properjy reftored to fiJn ancf 
Mofehus, it pafles for nothing with me. Thofe M$S. .we/e 
taken principally frpm the ar<;hetype of Artemidorus the gracx)^ 
marian, who collected indi(^in£tly all the Greek BucoUc poetry. 
What Stephens took from Theocritus catries an internal evi- 
dence that it never belonged to him> and that evidence with 
me weighs more than the authority of a thoufand Byzantine 
MSS. . , ^ 

* In the year 1604, Daniel Heinfius publifced an edition pf 
our Sicilian bard^. His text 1 have adopted entirely, but wi^-. 
out the accipnts. To reje£l thefe wholly had, it mulibe. owned^ 
the appearance of innovation; but in this I was fiipported by 
the authority' of the very learned curators of the Clarepdoa 

* T>cje childiih t^gf^ d^d no; come from Theocritus, but from 
SiDiini|» of Rhodes. 

^ 3 Digitized by GoOgl^* 



i VrgLrionVTkiocrikis. 

ffref$, utiitf i^^hofe aufpices I undertook this ^ork, an^ who> I 
doubt not, had fufficient reafons fdr enjoining the difmiifion oC 
the accent. Heinfius, as he confulted no manufcripts, made 
frequent change's in the dialed, and {6nit common forms of 
expreflion he reduced to the Dorian. In the Scholia too h^ 
made fome curfory emendations. :? 

■ • The laft edition of Theocritus was that of the learned' 
Heifke, publi(hed at Lcipfic, in 1765, with Very valuable obfcr- 
Tatlons. Of this edition, as it has beeh fo recently in the 
hands of the learned, it is nOt neceflary t6 fay much, though 
it merits all poifible attention. However, had not this learned 
man's intention of editing Theocritus come to niy knowledge 
too late, I {hould certainlv have had fo muth relpe^ for bi3 
merit as not to have interfered with him in that province. 

• t Jiavc already mentioned the feparatibn that Stephens- 
made between fome Idylliums of Bion and Mofchus and thofe 
<5f Theocritus. Stephens, neverthelefs, ftiU'left to Theocritus 
many poems, which by no means belong to him. Of thefe t 
was folicited by fome learned men to make a collection in^this 
edition, and to give them a feparate department, that they 
might be diftinguifted from the reft. This, however, I de- 
clined to do. I was unwilling to expeh thofe produQions from 
the province of Theocritus, in which the general confent oP 
Ac" learned world, and even time itfelf, had fecurcd their pof- 
tdlRon. It will "not, however, be foreign to ray purpofe, if I 
Bere give my opinion Concerning the making a futuce collc£tiori 
Cff thefe poems, and mention what Idyllipms have, in my opi- 
nion, m^de their way from pther quarters into the volt^me un- 
der our care. 

' • Theocritus, according to Svidas, wrote fcveral books of 
Bucblics ; and thefe he divides into PratiidiSy EXinSt^^ Funehres^ 
ttymnii Hgtoina^ Ekgi, Iamb:. Befide thefe I doubt not but 
he wrote other poems, which cannot be referred to any of the 
abbve-mentioned claiTes. Thefe, I fuppofe, were diftinflly col- 
le<^ed by the ancients. In procefs of time fuch parts as were 
liot properly Bucolic fell away from the reft ; for we have no- 
thing, or very little remaining, of the Prcetides^ EXw^in, fu- 
$ebresj Hyrrmi^ Heroina^ E'l^gh or lamhL However, as the 
whole had, from the firft, thp appearance of a mifcellaneous 
colleAion^ it is no wonder if poems of a different origin made 
their way ^nto it. With refpe<^ to the Bucolics, the whole of 
which a^ ppfBbiy c6me down to us, in this clafs were incor- 
porated tl^e paftorai poems of Bioi^ and Mofchus, and, proba* 
ply of other writers. In tbc rocap time the general title of 
BOTKOAIKA hac| fo entirely fwallowcd up the reft, that even 
fuch poems- of Theocritus as were of a. different ftamp, wcre| 
comprehended undejc that tkle. ^ence it comes to^^fr that 



Wtrton'j Thi§critus. 7 

Ae HyUs is ranked iiKthe fame clafs by the Scboliaft of Apollo- 
pius Rbodius. Soon after, fome officious grammarian 'gave tbis 
coUeftion, whicb, thougb mutilated and full of interpolationsy 
contained moft or all of the Bucolic, and fome other poems 
of Theocritus, under the general and convenient title of Idyllia^ 
. * Upon this view of things, it appears that much mud have 
been loft. I (hall now mention what I apprehend to be fpu* 
rious in the colledion that remaitis. Such are the AiTES^ 
Ekcomium in Ptolemaum, Helena Epithalamium, 
Favoruai. Fur, Buccliscus, Hercules LeonIs Int£r<» 

FECTOR, riSCATORES, OaRISTYS, IW MORTUUM'ADOHIM* ' 

Why I think thcfe belong not to Theocritus, my reafons, ot 
at leaft my fufpicions, I have mentioned in their proper place.. 
That fome of thcfe are quoted as the produdions of I'heocritus 
by Stobxus, Euftathius, and Etymologus Magnus, ftand for 
nothing with me. In the time of Euftathius I ant convinced 
that Theocritus was read in his prefent form. All the Greeic 
poetry that pafted through his hands is come down to us. He 
quotes, indeed, the comic writers frequently, but all from 
Athenaeus. To fay the truth, he had read the produ^ons of 
fevera] grammarians, which are now loft, and from them he 
has many fragments that are to be found no where elfe. He 
had undoubtedly many of the heft MSS. of the poets, and 
from thofe he was fupplied with readings, which the conjee* 
tures of ingenuity could hardly have fallen upon. Stotraeus 
and Etymologus Magnus are older than Euftathius. But even 
before their times the good Chriftians, with a pious deftgn no 
doubt, made fad havock of fuch poor Greek poets as caime in 
their way. Much did they fuffer from their mifguided zeal, to 
fay nothing of the injuries of time, and the fate of human 
labours. 

^ I can promife, however, an edition of our poet faithfully 
printed, ror this I am in fome meafure indebted to my learned 
friend Mr. Wheeler, who has been defervedly honoured with 
more than one profeflbrihip in the univeriity^ of Oxford ; for 
he had the kindnefs to aflift mi^ in the tedious labour of cor-> 
reding the prefs. Indeed, in co/iAderation of his diftinguiftied 
erudition, the whole work might with ftill greater propriety 
have devolved upon him. 

< With refpe^ to the notes annexed to this edition, if it 
Qxould be obje^fled by fome that I have produced little or no* 
thing new, it ^uft be acknowledged at leaft, that 1 have col* 
feiJted and digefted every thing of the kind from former writcra 
that was worth preferving, particularly the notes of Caufabon 
and Heinfius, which abound with erudition. It muft be owned 
that I have fometimes found fault with Heinfius for being too 
^JJJgent about trifles, and for his too great fubtlcty in hunting 

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8 Warton*j TljiocrUu/.^ 

after new meanings ; but then I have not forgot to give Caufa-- 
bon bis due praifc for that conrummatcWklll in ancieAt Wfti* 
ing, united with the cleared and moft temperate judgment^ 
which be has difplayed in his critical obfervations. 1 hisT^ow-* 
CTcr, muft be ODJcSed to both, that they have left many diffi- 
cult pallages wholly unconfidered : and if t h^ve failed in at^ 
tempting to explain fuch paflages, there muft be fome indul* 
gence dueta an effort which had been declined by men of fuCb 
drftinguithed eritdftioni 

* 1 have likewife n>ade diligent fearch aftef-fuch obfervations 
on the woa ks of Theocritus ts have cafually fallen fijMn writers 
engaged in different fubje£bs ; and that I might bring tbefe into 
the common treafure, it has coft me no fmall pains. As to 
matters of ancient biftory, mythology and geography, thejr 
come not into my plan. Tedious diflertations on fuch fubje^ 
as thrie generally give the reader more trouble than they do the 
il^ritjer. It is always beft for the reader, when he finds it ne-^ 
cel&ry, to refer to writers who have profelTedly treated theft 
^bjeSs. Sometimes, however, l¥e have touched upon them, 
when adiiCcult paflage, or an obfcure allufion, required it. 
As to my conje^ures tn rectifying the text, I leave them to 
the judgment of the learned. 1 do not introduce them as au*" 
thoritative or authentic, but as fome leading means of making 
future di&overies. I found among Mr. St. Amand's papers a 
fpecimen of a Commentary which he^propofcd to have added t» 
his edition. But this was a mere beginning, and I could find 
little in it that could be of ufe to me. That gentleman had 
undoubtedly great ingenuity and learning, particularly in the 
Greek literature : for how could he, otherwife, attempt a com- 

f»let6 Commentary on Theocritus ? But bad health, a furfeit of 
abour, timorous apprehenfions, fome or all of tbefe caufes 
made him leave his materials and h's talk to other hands. T 
found fome fmall notes of Salvini's, which he communicated 
to Mr. St. Am^nd at Rome ; and my learned friend R/Jr. Far- 
mer, Fellow of £manuel College, Cambridge, favoured me 
with fome MS. readings of the late Jofhua Barnes, fo well 
known for his (kill in the Greek literature : but thefc were of 
no fervice to me ; for they were either trite or trifling. 1 had 
been informed that the celebrated Taylor, formerly Greek Pro- 
leflbr in Cambridge, had left many notes dn our author^ Thefe, 
however, I could not obtain ; and if I had obtained them, I 
underftood that they would have beep of no ufe to me. Sub-* 
joined to my Commentary is a letter on Syracufe, very ele- 

J^anfly written by my learned friend Mr. Toup, who, out of 
fifndihip to me in this inftanct, for a while fufpended his 
inuch expeded edition of H^onginus. He was willing that 

Thpocritu? (houI4 come mto the world wi;h fomcthing valuable 

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Warton V Tkiocritui, , . ^ 

JD recommend liim. His benevplpnce to the poist and bU ^di« 
tor did not^ Ijowever, end here. From him 1 had the learned 
oMenrations on the Scholia, and a moft finiflied* colle^ioii 
of notes on' the text, under the title o^^Addenba; which 
whoever reads, I am afraid,, will thipk very flightly of mjr 
Ihare in the work. Some things, too, he communicated to 
me by letter, which will be found in their refpeAive places in 
the Commentary', followed by his name. Indeed, the name of 
every author from whom I have borrowed, I have been c^areful 
to fee down : for I was unwilling to do, what marty haife done^ 
to acquire, by fuch filent frauds, a reputation ©f erudition. 

* The Diflertation on the Bucolic poetry of the Greeks was 

given formerly in nly poetical lectures in the public fchools at 

Oxford; but Has been revifed and augm^ted fmce. To the 

Scholia I have prefixed a (hort account of them and their (everal 

authors ; and have annexed the emendations of former editors. 

Befide thefc thingis I have made two indexes : one, of thofe 

ancient Greek writers, whether loft or come down to us, that 

are qudted either in the publiihed, or in the hitherto unpub* 

liihed Schalia: the other, pf fuch things in the Scholia as were 

any way remarkable. Hercj^ too, the reader will find a moft 

ufeful and pregnant index of all the words in Theocritus, for- 

iiierly prepared by St. Amand. For the accuracy of this indeit 

I can be anfweraole, as I have compared it wirh one of tho 

learned Dt. MorelPs, and have not found a fyllable to alter; 

Among other acquifitions that this edition has made, is th^ 

Life of Theocritus, written by Jofhua Barnes, and never before 

publiihed. This was communicated to me by the very learned 

Mr. Morris, late Vice- principal of Hertford College, Oxdn, 

This Life, it muft be owned, is by no means fatisfaftory to' 

mc, though I have here and there been at pains to correS it. 

To fay the truth, I found it fo trifling that I hardly thought it' 

worth' tranfcribing ; but I had no other to fubftitute in its Head.' 

There is certainly nothing more eafy than to make ufe of the 

materials that are at hand \ and I did not find myfelf by any 

means difpofed to write a new Life of Theocritus, though it 

might have been done with little more labour than it con me 

to tranfcribe the other. There was fometbing too in yielding 

to the advice, and gratifying the inclination of my friend, wh6fe 

obiiging manner of offering a favour I knew not how to ^et 

over. 

« I muft not forget to mention my obligations to Mr. Price, 
the Bodleian librarian, who gave me a)l poffible aiBftance in 
my refe^rches, t)y pointing' out MSS. arranging papers, an4 
removing the many inconveniences which occiur in *& public 
Iftrary, In i^ort, b? left npthiog yndg^c to make my labour 

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^0 . . VfprtifjmthiNiUjTeftamerii. 

* The reader may reafonably wonder to find an edition of 
an author, who has hitherto, on account of his few remain- 
ing produAions,* been reckoned amongft the minor poeta, 
fwelled to fo enpripous a fize. Such, however, is the man* 
jier of editing in thefelej^rncd times, that a poet, efpeciaUy if 
he is a Greek poet, is the leaft part of bimfelf. Befides, the 
large treafurcs with which we were provided for this work, 
would not be cpntained within a narrower compafs. Some re* 
gard too was paid to elegance and fplendor. The honour of 
the Clarendon prefs, and the magnificence of the Univerfity 
were confulted. That this edition has been ten years in pre- 
paring, will, fiircly, l)e no objedlion'to it : and I can affure the 
reader, that if the time was protraftcd beyond what might rea- 
fonaWy have been cxpefted, it was not an averfion to the nc 
ceflary labour^ but other avocations that occafioned the delay. 
Befide this, the dilatorincfs of the printers, who are fuch a 
ilippery fet of men that there is no depending on them, made 
the bufinefs (liH longer. The delay itfclf, however, was at- 
tended with manv advantages, fuch as time and chance in the 
like cafes bring along with them. Had the edition been more 
haftily executed, it would have wanted its beft acquifitions. 
To fay nothing of others, the Obfervations of Reiflce, fo lately 
publimed, could not have been had, and what are worth all the 
reft, the Criticifms of Toup, which have not been in my pof- 
fei&on above twelv/5 months/ 

Such is the Editor's account of this learned work, which we 
have tranflated from his Latin preface. In our next Review 
we (ball oblig^ our Readers with a tranflation of Mr. Warton*s 
ingenious Diuertation on the Bucolic poetry of the ancients» 
As the foreign accounts of our literature are taken chiefly from 
our Review, we cannot pay too much attention to any work that 
does honour to our country. 

[TI? be contsnui4»'\ 

Art. II. the New Tejiament or New C&venant of our Lord and 
fSaviour Jefus Chrijt. Tranflated from the Greek according 
to the prefent Idiom of the EngUfh Tongue. With Notes 
and References interfperfed as Occafion required, to confirm 
and illuftrate the more literal or various Renderings given at 
the Bottom of each Page ; by which even they, who do not 
underftand the Original, may often judge for themfelves of 
the Juftnefs and Propriety of the Tranflation. By the late 
Mr. John Worflcy, of Hertford, 8v0t ^ 5. Cadcll, &c. 
J770. 

ALL attempts for the illufiration of the Scriptures, which 
jTjl are guided l>y judgment and learning, and are not the 
^ef^s of fancy, prejudice, or fecular views, arc truly com- 

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^orflcy on the Mw Teflament. Jri * 

Biendable and valuable. In this number we muft rrrnk the pre«> 
fent performance, to which the author fcems to have applied 
with confiderable attention, and to have executed it with fidelitj. 
This laft is indeed a qualificati9;i of eflential importance for a 
work of this nature. In expofitions and commentaries on the 
facred wriirings, no doubt, every writer is at liberty to give that 
meaning of a text which he judges to be, on the whole, moft 
juft and probable ; but ^ tranflation requires a rigid exa(9nefs. 
AU endeavours, even though well intended, to make the fcrip* 
tures fpeak a language different from the original, or to give 
them a turn favourable to particular opinions, however rational 
in thcmfelves, are daring and unwarrantable, totally incon- 
fiftent with proteftant principles, and will afford our popifh ad* 
verfaries fome plaufible arguments againfl: us. 

The Englilh verfion of the Bible commonly ufed among us, 
IS certainly very far from being perfcft j the labours of the 
learned have difcovered in it a variety of errors (fome indeed but 
feconfiderable) but, at the fame time, we may obferve, that 
no finall honour accrues to the^mcient tranflators from thcfc 
critical enquiries. It is fo far from being furprizing that they 
(bould have fallen into fome miflakes, that, all circumflances 
confidered, we may rather wonder there are not more in num* 
ber, and of greater importance. However, though we may 
join with this author in acknowledging, that < the Englim 
tranflation of the Bible in the reign of king James I. is, no 
doubt, {on the whole) a very good one ; and juftly fo efteemeJ 
to this day, though it be above a hundred and fifty years old/ 
it is alfo very defirabic that a new edition of it, correded with 
the utmoft fidelity and erudition, (hould be delitrefed to the pub* 
lick. Mr, Worfley cxprelFes an earned wilh of the fame kind, 
but principally on account of thofe words and phrafes, which 
are * by this time become obfelete, and almoft unintelligible 
to commop readers.* * For, fays he, as the Englifh tongue, 
)ike other living languages, is continually changing, it were to 
be wiflied that the tranflation of the facred oracles could be re- 
vifcd by public authority, and reduced to prefint forms of writ-, 
ing and fpeaking, at leji once in a century : but though this be 
net allowed for public ufe, it is to be hoped fomt private perfons 
may receive benefit by that which is now offered •* He farther 
tells us that his < principal attempt is to bring it nearer to tht 
eiriginal^ either in the text or notes, and to make the form of 
expreffion more fuitable to our /r^/a/ language.^ He difclaims 
all defign of countenancing any particular opinions or fenti* 
ments, and aflures the reader that he has weighed as it were 
every word in a balance, even to the minuteft particle: of this 
}aft particular, his editors take peculiar notice, and recommend 
I at clofe an examination as p<»l|iblc of fmall particUs^ /Wfaidi.T 

^ ^ . • Digitized by GOi^le 



1^ yrqrlkf^ff tli Netv Tefl^msnt^ 

fey they, may tfcape the notice of a tranficnt reading,, but ^i^H 
be found on accurate infpeftion to diftinguiib this from the ol^ 
tranflation more than almoft any other circumftance4 — and that 
in many places^ where the fenfc of the paflage is materially. 
afFcSed.* Mere alterations in the Englilh phrafeology, a com-, 
ipon reader, tolerably acquainted with his own tongue, may be 
able to make with fome propriety, hut to afceitain the cxaft. 
fcnfe of the original, and deliver it fully to the reader, is a bufmefs, 
of much greater difficulty, as well as learning. For each of- 
thcfe Mr. Worfley labours. He very often changes the cx- 

Sreffion where the fcnfe remains as before, and in many in- 
:ance& this is done with great juftice, though in fome others it 
appears lefs neceflary ; but this is a point on which different 
readers will and muft think differently. Where the common 
verAon fpeaks of a mete in the eye, zs Matt. vil. 3. the word is 
here exchanged for chaff ot fpUnUr -y inftead of the aukwarA 
pbrafe, we do y&u t§ wit, we here read, w,e make known to you j 
and where Jhall is ufed for will^Jhould for would^or the contrary ji 
they are here altered. 

We do not find confiderable ctiticifms 00 the original Ian- 
euac^^, nor docs the author endeavour to elucidate particuTar 
words or phrafes by quotations from other ancient Greek* 
writers, or by obfervations on the Hebrew idiom which is fome- 
times apparent in the expreflions of fcripture, both of which 
may be and have been ufefully attended to in enquiries of this 
nature ; nor ;ue the different readings in ancient manufcripts 
' and verfions, in- fome important places, here particularly no- 
ticed. This we fuppofe did not immediately fall in with our 
author's defign, but he does in feveral inftances exprefs morn 
fully the fcnfe of the original, though there are other words and 
phrafes on which learned men have often made judicious ob- 
fervations which, we think, he might have confidered with ad- 
vantage. In the fhort notes at the bottom of each page, £f-^ 
ferent ways of expreffing the original words are offered to the 
reader with or prefixed \ a different reading alfo in the original 
is diftinguifhed by aL for aliter^ otherwife. Further we fometimes 
find here a more literal rendering of the Greek than that which 
is given in the text, which is marked by Gr. and whereas fome 
notes are doubly diftinguiflied from the reft, by being printed 
in Italics and reterred to by aftcriflcs, &c. we are told, they con-, 
tain certain words, wfthout which the fenfc in the Englifli is 
perfeft, though they are to be found in the Greek. We fhall 
only add that this work may be very ufefully confulted, and 
perrons' who are unacquainted with the original may b? able 
from hence to form their judgment concerning the tranHfttion 
kx common ufe among us, and to improve their knowledge of 
the CcciptureSi As it ba« been our ufual method in the accoupt 

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df ptfbHcatiotis of tftis tiM, we ihall here iAA ^ few <*tra&r 
which may '^IVfe our traders fotac farther idea* of die per* 

' S. Matthew. Ch, v. ' 

* Yc arc the (alt of the earth, but if the fait be grown tn- i^ 
fipid, wherewith (hall it be ftafoned ? it is no longer fit for 
^aij thing, but to be thrown out of doors, and trodden 
under foot ^. Ye are the light of the world : a city, thttt if 
is fittutted on a hill, cannot be hid. Nor do men light a 15 
candle, *» to put it under a buflicl, but on a cartdfeftick : 

and thch it giveth light to all-in the houfe. So let your f6 
Kght fiiinc before men, that they may fee your good works, 
and glorify, ybut father, who is in heaven. 

* Think not thit I came to ' abrogate the law, or the 17 
prophets: I' am not corte to abolifh, but to * compleat 
ibem r fix ' verily I fay unto' yOu, till heaven and earth 18 
pafs iftvajj not one jot nor one tittle (hall pafs from the 
law, till all be » complealed. Whofoever therefore (hall 19 
break one of the left of thefe commandments, knd thereby 
teach men fo to do,, he (h^ll be » efteemed very little in the 
kingdom of heaven : but whoever (hall do, as well as teach, 
duTtty he ihall be r accounted gitat in the kingdom of hea- ^ 
Vea. iFor I tell you, that unlcfs your righteoufnefs exceed 20 
that of the fcrib^ and pharifees, ye Ihall not enter into the 
ktngdoip cf heaven. 

The Acrs. Ch. xix. 

* Then fome of the vagabond Jewsf, exorcifts, took upon t J 
them to nairtc the name of the Lord Jefus over thofe th^t 

had evil fpirits,- faying, ** We adjure you by Jefus, whom . 
Paul pr^aeheth." Now there were f fcven fons of one u^ 
Sceva a t^wifh % prieft^ who did this. But the evil fpirit f 5- 
anfwcrcdahd faid, Jefus I know, and Paul 1 know, but 
who are yc ? And the man in whom the evil fpirit was, 1^ 
feaped upon them, and maftered them, and prevailed againft 
them, fo that they fled out of that houfe naked and 
wounded. And this became known to alf, both Jews and' if 
Greeks; that dwelt at Ephefus : and fear fell on them all, 
and thte name of the Lord Jefus was magnified.' finA many xg 
cf them that believed came confeffing and declaring their 
former praSices. And a great number of thbfe that had 10 
ufed inquidtive arts, brought the books j|, Und burned 
Aim before tiem all : and they computed the price of them. 



• ♦ ly men. ^ 'i Gr. and. • ' Or, diflblve. » Or, ftl- 

fil. ' Or, I aflaredl^ tell you. « Gr. done. « Gr. 

ctHed the leaft or very Utile. y Gr, callcdj ^ + Jgm. J ci^ief 
II together^ • . . . .. ■ 

and 

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1^ Wotiky M th^ UtwS^fimenU 

90 , aad found it to he ^ fi% tfaoufand fleets of iilver. So mightdy 
did the word of the Lord incr^afe and prevail* 

%l ' * After thcle things §, tauT purpofed fn fpirit to pafi 
through Macedonia and Acbaia^ and go to Jerufalem, fay- 

%% ing> H after I have been there> I muft alfo fee, Rome.- :,So 

' he fent into Macedonia two of thofe that miniftred to 
him, Tindothy and Eraftus, but he himfelf fkzytAfome time 

33 in Alia. Now there happened at that time no fmall dif-^ 

;2+ turbance about the way which he taught. Fpr one Denies 
trius ir> a Clvcr-imithj who made filvcr • modcl$ of Diana's 

315 temple, brought no fmall ^ gain to the artificers : whoni 
he got together, and with tbem the workmen they employed 
about fuch things, and faid, * My friends, ye know that 

26 by this employment we ^ g(?t our wealth. And ye iee i^d 
hear, that not only at Epl^efus, but in almoft all Afia^ 
this Paul hath perfuaded and perverted many people, &y- 

2,7 ing, that they are no gods which are made by handSp So 
that we are not only in danger of this, that the buiinefs 
we follow will come « to nothing ; but alfo that the temple 
of the great goddefs Diana will be ^ defpifed ; and her mag- 
nificence dcftroyed, whom all Afia and the whole world 

m worfliippeth. * Hearing /i&uand being filled with rage^ 
tHcy cried out, dying. Great u Diana of the Ephefians,, " 

29 And the whole city was filled with confufiop; a^qd the}' 
fuflied with one accord into the theatre, dragging with 
them Gaius and. Ariftarchujs.,/tt/o Macedonians, fellow- 

JO travellers * with Paul. Aiidwhen Paul would have gone 

^i in unto the people, the difciples would not let hira. And 
fome alfo of the chief men of Afia, being his friends, fent 
to him, and defu-ed him not to venture himfelf into the 

35t theatre. Some therefore cried one thing, and fome another % 
for the aflembly was confufed, and the greater part did 

33 not know for what they were come together.. And they 
brought Alexander forward out of the multitude, the 
Jews urging him on. And Alexander beckoning u;/>6 the 

34. hand, would have made a defence to the people. But 
when they knew that he was a Jew, they all cried out with 
one voice, for ** near two hours, Great h Dianl of the £phe« 

35* fians. And when the fecretary had appeafed the multitude, * 
he faid, Ye men of Ephefus f, what man is there who 
doth not knew that the city of the Ephefians is devoted to 
the * fervicc of the great goddefs Diana, and of the image 

^ Qr» iive fnynads of filvcr. '^~% n»ere aecomplijhed, jf thett- 

fl hj name^ * Or^ medals, Gr. filver temples. ^ Gr» bufinefs^ 
toploy, work. « Cr. men. * C>. have. * Gr» to 

rcjedion. ' Gr, eftcemed as, or for, nothirg. • Jftd, « Gr. o£ 
' Cr. about. * i /or. * Or, worilap, Gr. temple. 

, which 

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rom Jupiter ? Since therefore thcfc tfauign^ 36 
ai| incontei|ible, ye oakhV ^o be quiet tfiidT cmpoftdy and 
to do nothing ralhl^. - Fbr ye have brougfi[i * chcfc men 37 
titbefj who are neither .robbers of temples, nor blaf-' 
phemers of your goddefs. If .Dcmetriud therefore, and 38^ 
the artificerB that are with him, have a charge againft any '^ 
tfUi the law-courts are cfpen, and there are SSman pro- «:• 
confuls liiiwife : let them * implead one another. But if 39 
ye arc enquiring any thing about other matters *^ let it be 
decided in a Uwful aflembly : for wc are in danger of being 46* 
charged with fedition for what hat happtnid this day, there 
being no caufc by which wc can give a reafon for this con- 
coai%« And when he had faid thefe things, he difmifTed 41 
the affeiably* 

. ' 2 CORINTHIAKS. Ch. IV. 

* But havinz the fame Spirit of faith, according- to what 13} 
is written, ** I believed, and therefore have I fpoken," 
we alfo believe, and therefore . fpeak : knowing that He, 14/ 
who railed up the Lord Jefusi will raife.up us alfo by 
Jefus, and prefent us with ' you. For all thefe things are 15 
f*r. ]rour fekes, that the abundant grace might through 
i?e * gratitude of many redound to the glory of God. 
•or which caafe we are not dtlbeartened: but though 16 
f r outward man decayethi yet the inward man is re- " - 
jTcwed daily. For our »• fliort and light affliflion is work- 17 
fng out for us an ^ infinite nnd eternal weight of glory, - * 
as we aim not at the things which are vlfible, but * in- iS 
vifible: for thofe, which are vlfible, are temporary, but 
the invifible are eternal. ' For we know that if our V. 
earthly houfe, which is but its \ 9l tent, were diflblved, ' [ 
we have a building of God, an hoofe not made wich.^... 
hands, eternal ip the heavens. And « therefore ixtbi^ - %. 
we one \n this tabernacle yf^. groan, being very defirous 
to be covered with ojir. )^^^ wbick w. u9m heaven-: 
fincc though ** unclothed of this body^ yet we fhall not be j 
found naked. For we who are in this tal>ernacle do 4 
groan, being burthened ; wherefore we define, not to be 
wbeUy unclothed^ but to put on « immortaiityi that the.nior- 

lalpart may be fwallowed up ' in life. 

, ■ - , , . ^^ »,..,,- ' ■ ... 

^ Or, join iflbc. ' Gr. it fhall be. * Or^ thankfgivinflr, 

»■, tbankfnlnefs. • Or, momentary. Gr, for the prefent mt^. 

^ Or, above all degrees of expr^n ; or, in a moft tranfccndently 
excellent manner, or, degree. • the. -^ of ^ Gr. 

for. ** ixivadfiuwf as in fome Greek copies / or, as in others, 

49s<M»oi, i>eing> clothed, we (hall not, Src. * See i Cor. xv. ' 

% ' ' Gr. by, 

% Petse 

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* Slthbti Piter, a fcrvsuit ^d' ^ apofllc <ff. ^«ipt C^ift» 
to them that have obtaineil 13ce,pi^ous faith y^icb us^ ia 
the righteoufnefs of pur God, and of our Saviour ^efus 

2 Chrift: grace and peace be imiltip.lied unto you^ in the 

3 acknowledgeitient of God, and of ^fus our Lord; s as 
his divine power hath :givtn us all things that firfain to ^ 

' life and godlinefs, through the ' knowledge of Hini who 

jL hath called us by that glory and virtue, by .virbich are 

given unto us exceeding great and precious pfomifes % 

that by thefe ye may become partakers of a divine nature^ 

having efcaped the corruption that is m the wocld through 

5 * And ' to this giving all ^diligence, add to your feith 

6 fortitude; an^ to fortitude knowledge; and to know- 
' ' ledge tempecancc; and to temperance patience j and to 

7, ^ patience piety ; and to piety brotherly affection ; and to 
S' brotherly afFe£ltion ' charity. For if thefe be in you and 

abound, th^ will not ■" fuiler you to be idle, nor unfruit- 
9^ ful in the kiio\f ledge of our Lord Jefus Chrift.,, But he:, 

that hath not thefe, is blin4> ^r fhort-figfated^ having 

. forgot his haptitmal puriiicttion from his former fins* 

10 Wherefore, my breljiren, be the more diligent thus to 

, , make your calling and ete^lion " fure ; for i? ye do thefe 

kt* things ye (hall never ^ fall. For fo an entrance ihall be 

admiaiftered unto you p abundantly into the everlafting 

kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jcrfus Chrift.' . 

We have no particular reafon for feledling the foregoing 
paflages, rather tbdn others; but thefe will ferve to giv« our 
Readers fome notion of this work* Wemayjuft o'bfervo, that 
there is an on^ucky miftake. Matt. it« ver. :ky 3, &c< where 
the names of the apoftles are enttdievated ; two of them toeing 
omitted : and, fome how or aftother, ^is has efca^ed ndtice 
iir the errata. 



» Or^ fljr. ^ Or, % godly Hft. ^ Or. acknoWcd^c- 

ment* ^ Or^ for this reafon, or^ in like manner. ' Or^ 

love. " Gr. cenftt tote yoti. • Or, &nn* * Or, 

ftmnbie. i" Gr, richly. 



Art.IIL 

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t 17.1 

Art. III. The Elehunts ef Unlverfid ErudlttGH^ rdht'a'nwg an 
' jfnafytical Abridgment of the Sciences^, Polite Arts^ and Belles 

Lettres^ by Baron Bieifeld^ Secretary of Ligation to the King ff 
• Pruffia^ ice. Tranflated from tbe laft Edition j^rinted at 

Berlin, by W. Hooper, M. D. 8vo. 3 Vols. iS-S./boui^d. 

Robfoo. 1770. . . 

AFTER havihg liv^ed for many yfe'ars In the great world, 
the baroil BieTfeld Was convinced that, at a certain pe- 
riod of life, the greateft happinefs to which a rational mari 
can afpire, cttnfifts in enjdying himfelf, the company of a few 
i'eal friends, and fhe comforts of retirerrient : and, as he had 
hot learned in fociety*to hate arid (6 rail at men, he employs 
the leiiure of his folitude for the inftru£Kon of his owa a^e, an<! 
of pofterity. * Can I be condemned, fays he, when placed 
between two periods, bfte df which has given me life, and the 
other ^yill giVe me death, If I try to fill up the interval by aa 
Occupation that will be ufeful to the rifing generation, who 
are to appear upon the ftage of the w6rld after we have left iti . 
If, not content with coming into the world, exiftirig, and dyingi 
I (eek to leave behind nie fome traces of my exiftcnce, to ac- 
quire a pofleiTiori of iritrinfic value, and one that to my la4 
ihoraents will never forfake me ?^ 

The tafk which he bad undertaken is a noble one, but^ 
perhaps, it is too vaft and ditBculi to be executed, with fuf- 
ficient ability, by any 6ne man. Nature is not lavifh of her 
gifts, and does not often prodiice a Bacori or a Leibnitz. If 
a man of genius confines his obfervation to a particular art or 
fcicnce, he is certain to excel in it; but, whil^ he would ex^ 
tend his remarks to all the arts and fcierices, the force of his 
mind is debilitated, arid his acquifitions are lame and imperfedt. 

We are hot to imagine, that b<lron Blelfdd was equally well 
informed on all the fubjecls of which he has treated: he Hai 
done a great deal if he has given a general furvey of therni 
and has pointed out, to the induftrfou5 ftiiderit, a more expedi-* 
tious method of acquiring knowledge. 

In the introduftion to his work, he comthuriiratcsi fome re-' 
flc£lions on erudition in general, and explains the p'lin which 
he propofed to himfelf. By the word erudition, in ir*^ moft ex- 
tcrlfive fcnfe, is meant, the knowledge of every thing within 
the corhprehenfion of our faculties. All ufrful arts, all trades, 
all fciences, even thofe of a lefs important nature, are there- 
fore comprifed under the general idea conveyed by it. It is n<^t, 
however, the intentioft of our author to range in this immcnfe 
field. *« By the term erudition, fays he, in the courfe of this 
work, we underftood, an affembhge of all the fciences and liberal 
arts ; of which we are Co offer a concife and diilinct ana« 
iyfis." 

Rev. July 1770. C Cooolc '^'^^ 

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1 S Bielfeld V EUmmts of Univir/aJ Eruiklon. 

' X^^^ fi^ difficulty which he encoQntered, was in the arraifgtt- 
ment of his fyftcm. The common divifions of knowledge did 
not pleaib him, and he has certainly fhewn that they are im- 
)>roper#- It was neceffary that he fhould invent a method of his 
4ftWA, which might.^be free from all embarraflment and con* 
fufion. * When we refleft, fays he, on the nature of the 
human mind, we think ^e perceive three diftia£l faculties, in« 
dependent of fenfation and the will ; thefe are the underfian^ng^ 
the imagination^ and the memory: the underftanding examine^^ 
compares, judges, ai^d refle£)s ^ the imagination creates, im- 
proves, and produces ; the memory retains and reftores what ^t 
has retained. Every fcience, every art, feems to appertain to 
one or other of thefe three faculties : we have therefore ranged 
^hem into three claiTes, and divided this ireatife ipto three books : 
ihe firft of whiclvtreats of thofefciences that employ the underjianding\ 
the fecon^, thofe that are derived from the imagination \ and the third, 
U>ofe that exercife the memory* Such is the arrangement which 
pur author has followed \ apd the better to eftablifli a due or- 
der in his work, and to imprefs his obfervations with the greater 
force, he has affigned a chapter to each refpe£live fcience, and 
))as divided each chapter into paragraphs., allotting to the prin- 
cipal fubje£l of each fcience, or dodrine, a particular para- 
graph. 

In examining the fciences which relate to the underftanding, 
}ie has given the iirR place to theology : and he has treated this 
•delicate fubje^l with moderation. A$ a man of fenfe and a good 
citizen, he leaves bigotry and fuperftition to fanatics, and ac- 
counts thofe as obftinately perverfe, and infufFerably vain,, who 
Imagine that t^ti^ man, who does not think precifely as they 
do, is heretical, and guilty of palpable error. • The ftu- 
dents, fays he^ will do right, well to remember, that there is 
no fed, no communion on earth, that is perfedly true in all 
its dogmas ; . that there are fome fmall errors in all religions : 
that infallibility never w^s, nor never will be, the portion of 
humanity. He fhould likewife remember, that the matters 
yyho teach him, or the books that he reads, are confiantly par- 
tial to tbe religion they profefs : and that when he has fupported 
a thefis, and confuted his adverfaries in a collegial difpute 
(where bis adverfaries, as well as his preceptors, are of the lame 
nde of the queftion, and will not fail to adjudge him the vidory) 
he (hould be perfuaded,. that the victory would not have been 
fo eafily obtained, had he contended with able adverfaries of the 
oppofite religion : he fhould remember, that we triumph with- 
out glory, when we combat without danger ; and let him not 
be vain of his laurels, nor imagine himfelf fome wonderful 
fcbolar \ feeing that it is very poffible that he may go off vido- 

lious 

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BicIfeM'/ Etenunts ofVnherfal Erudithn. t^ 

rious from fuch adifputc, that be may receive v^ft apjJlaufe 
'Ifoin his profefibrs and his coUegiies, and at the iaoie tipi^ h^vie 
reafoncd like a ^19^/ 

Frooi theology our learned author proceeds to tre;^t of juriC- 
prudence; and what he has advanced concerning it muft be 
allowed to have coniiderable merit ; but we muft co^fefs, th^t 
we cannot fubfcribe to fevera) of his opinions. He contends, 
that the feafons for which laws are made fhould never be an*- 
fiexed to them s that the people fhould be taught to rely on the 
wifdom of him or them to whonr they have afSgned the legiC- 
lative power $ that it is repugnant to their dignity to detail tp 
the. public the motives of their conduft in every particular ; and, 
that the fubmitting of thefe to the examination or criticifm of 
^ the people^ or commentators, or other fuch like reafoncrs, ferves 
only to enervate the law itfelf, and gives rife to a thoufand falfe 
interpretations, and chicaneries without number. We flioif^ 
imagine, on jthe contrary, that the heft method to make laws 
refpe<^ed, is to enumerate the caufes which have given rife to 
them. The people furcly will be more apt to rely on the wif- 
dom of a legiflature, where the motives of its ads are made 
public, than where they are kept in the dark, and know n9t 
the reafons of thofe maxims by which they are to be governed. 
They will likewife be lefs alarmed with fufpicions. H^tddts^ 
at the dJftance of years, the alterations, it is obvious, whicji 
take place in Ibciety and in manners, render thofe laws inex- 
plicable, which have no introdudjon or preamble to illuArate 
their intentions. The fpirit of them is loft, and occafion is 
* given for the moft arbitrary and unjuft decifions. A nation of 
flaves may fubmit to laws, of which they underftand neither the 
for(x nor the dcfign : but it is not fo with a people who have a 
Talue for their natural rights. A tyrant may didate to the 
fbmiler: but the motives of regulations which concern the 
latter, muft be.explained to them. 

Jn the chapter which treats of political law, our learned au- 
thor has exhibited an analytical abridgment of the public law, 
or confiitutioD, of Germany, which is of all others the .mpft 
complicate: and on this fubjed he difcovers no lefs erudition 
than perfpicuity. What he haslaiddown concerning it. may 
ferve as a model for the method in which the conflitutions of 
the other ^ates of Europe may be examined. 

What he has faid concerning the Roman or civil law is more 
liable to exception. ^ 1 o fpeak plainly, fays he, this fo famous 
book [be had been fpeaking of the Corpus Juris] abounds with 
infufferable abfurdities, and a pedantijm that is repugnant to 
'good &nfe. "IJuft now opened it by chance, where it treats 
df patria psteftate^ and it there fays, Thefathtr may loft his autho- 
fit J over the Jon by fever al ways \ firjl^ when the father dies ; fe- 

C 2 eond^ 

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10 Bielfcld'j Elements of Univerful EruMtiou. ^ 

condly^ when the fon diesy &c.. Are not ihcfe happ]^ difcoverifs? 
*and it is no exaggeration when we fay, that there is fcarcc a 
page in the Corpus Juris that does not cbntain fimilar infipidi- 
tiesv and that is not at ihameful variance with the common 
fenfe of mankind.' The baron Bielfelcl (hould have remem- 
bered, that in all elementary books, (for it is againft Juftinian^s 
inftitutes/hat he has chiefly levelled his attack) it is impoffible 
to be too minute or explicit.' Many obvious particulars muft 
be infifted upon, and many diftindtions made, which thou2H 
they appear frivolous to the man of letters, arc of real ufe to 
the ftudent. When men arrive at an excellence in any branch 
of fcience, they are too apt to defpife the fteps by which they 
attained it ; and to give way to a fupercilious arrogance, in 
which there is more of vanity than rcafon. 1T)e refpeifl which 
has been paid to the Roman laws by all the nations of Europe, 
ought to have taught our author to have expreffcd himfelf on 
this heaJ with more mndefty. 

Under the divifion of jurifprudetice, our author has attempted 
to give the outlines of the feodal fyftcm ; but it does not appeir 
to us, that, on this fubjefl, he is entirely fatisfaftory. He has 
not entered fufficiently into the hiftory of it. In the fituation 
in wnkh the barbarous nations found themfelves when they 
fettled iu their conquetts, this policy was produdlive of tl)c 
gr.atcft advantages ; and it was not till their manners had been 
confhicrably improved that it became inconvenient and oppref- 
live. It is only in the lafl: liglit that the baron Bielfeld has con- 
fidercd'it; and perhaps, after all that difterent authors have 
written concerning this fingular fyftem, there is flill wanting a 
tre^tifc, which felefling every thing concerning it from that 
chaos o* matter an. I of laws, which is prefetiied in the collec- 
tions about ihe middle-ages, fliall' exhibit, in a mintite detail, 
its rile and progrefs, its conveniences and defe£ls. 

• The oh:ipter which tieats of criminal law is curious and in- 
terefting. Odr author, however, would have rendered it ftHl 
more valuable, if, inftead of a fimple enumeration of crimes, 
he had entered into the hiftory of them. What he has written 
co'icerning punifliments, is full of humanity and good 
fenfe. ^ " 

The military law, and the mercantile and exchange laws, he 
has explained with fufficient precifion ; and to the medical 
iluderu, he has pointed out a very full and confiftent method of 
inveftigation An.f (tudy. He has treated of the different branches 
of phi:ofophy at confiderable length ; and the obfervations 
-which he nas made in this diVifion, he has introduced with the 
foHov/ing reflections : 

* That delirc of happinefc which is fo natural to mankind, 
that it becomes the motive of all their labours, and the fpiihg 

of 

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' B'k\h\^s Elements of Umverfal Erudition/' 2t 

of every aAion, it was that define, I fay, which alone gave 
birth' to philofpphy in the e^rlieft ages of the world, tach 
mortal, by following this injRin(5l, doubtlcfs endeavours to ren- 
der his condition more advantageous, that' is, to render himfelf' 
happy ;* but as all men have not either fufficient difcernment, or 
fufficient opportunity, to difcover the path that leads to felicity, ' 
fome. among them have arofe, who have |>crfuaded others' that 
they had difcovered that path, or at leaft, that they app'red^ 
themfelves cxprefly in the fearch of it; and have eftabiiftitd 
celebrated fchools, where they might point it out to thtir 
fellow-citizens. Thcfe new guides, in t|ic cafeer'of good for- 
tune, have called the fcience that leads to happincfs'by the narrie 
of ivtfdom \ a/id confequeiitly, their doftrine the /;i;^^^/^ij/n^* 
which is exprefled by the Greek word phikfophy. 

*' it is naturally and morally impoflible for all mankitid to 
behold the fameobjcS from the fame point oif view ; and con-* 
fcquently there foon arofe, among thofe mailers of phiiofophy, 
different opinions concerning happmefs, and the road that fe-ads' 
to it: from hence came the different fyftems in philofopHy,- 
and thofe famous difputes, which at this day appear to us fo in- 
fipid and frivolous. All that there is of certainty ih' this ipat- 
ter is, that none of thefe philofophers pef-ceived that th^ hi^pi-^ 
nefs of each individual rcfides in his opfhion': arid it is"w?th 
r^afon that opinion has been called tht ^ueen of the tvoridy l^a^pidfi' 
is nothing but a vehement d fire we have to fatisiy our wpimoff 
in what we think capable of procuring biir felicity/ ^yery man 
derides and cenfures his neighbour for'hi? Ijid tafte in this pur-- 
fuit, and for the choice of tlie ob/efl that js to render hjtn. 
happy. The covetous blame the prodigal j the'fcholar retiring 
to his fludy, condemns the courtier immerfed in the diffipations. 
of the world ; the petit maitre, iii return, laughs at the, fchblar j 
the connoifleur ih paintings,, fin antiquities, x>jl naturat curT6fi-| 
ties, cannot account for that fcxceffiye love which the mifer h^S ' 
for his money 3 the lifurer fhriigs hfs (houlders, and is .aKonifliedT 
that any one fliould mifpend his time in the purfuit of learning { 
the nian of fan6^ity, lifting his eyes towards heaven', laments 
the wretched tafte f6r earthly enjoyments ; and the man oF the 
world, in his turn, ridicules the enthufiaft j in a word^ each 
one is unable to account for his neighbour's tafte 5 and no one' 
is fatisfied, but in proportion as he is able t6 gratify his favourite 
paffion, that is, what in his opinion coilftitutes human happi- 
nefs. It is apparent that we do not fpeak here of eternal happi- 
nefe, for that is the objeft of theology, but of temporal felicity 5 
which the mereft bauble is as able' to procure as any thing of rca^. 
life. It is pleafant enough, ho\^ever, to hear a j-hilofopher 
cry out^ Motfah^ you cannot be happy y but by fuch and fuch means'^ 
or by fuch and Juch maxims j but he forgets that the happinefs of 

C 3 ^ a womaa 

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1^ Bj^lfdd'i Elements ^ Unhirfal Eru^imB 

a, woman freauently confifts in a diamond or trinket ; and that 
of a courtier in a title or ftbknd. 

^ The inquiry after happinefs alone, and the duties which 
rcftjlt from that inquiry, is far from being an inrtmenfc afiair ; 
the fubje£l is foon exhaufted. The mafter in phllofophy, how- 
ever, muft live, and to live he muft be employed and amufed, 
and for that reafon neW fubjecfts muft he provided. To this 
firft motive a fecond was added : the defure of happinefs necef- 
farily produced a defire of inftrodion ; and by tnat means Cu- 
rloiity ^d utility were both gratified at Ae fame time. The 
pliilofoppers wer? a fet of men Who devoted themfelves by pro- 
feflion to the exercife of reafon ; and it i6 not furjirlzJng that they 
extended by degrees their ratiocinations to all objefts that were 
fiifceptible of it, and efpecially to fuch as had any affinity with 
tjieir firft inftitute, or that required a complicated, deep, and 
difticult invefligation. InfenTibly, thei'efore, they . extended . 
tlieir inquiries to the caufe of all things ; afcended to the firft 
principle of all beings j and placed true felicity in that profound 
kndwl<dge> according t6 the expreiGon of Lucretius, 

\ . . Pdix qui potuit rerum cognofcere caufas,* 

^ In the chapter concerning the law of nature, our author 
combats very ftrongly that'opinioB, which confiders the natural 
^(e of man as a ftate of folitude and war. He ridicules ac- 
corciingly the incoriceiva'blc trouble which (o many learned 
men have given themfelVcs, in* order to difcover the origin of 
(ocietids. He imagines that the ftate of man in fociety is his 
liatui-al ftate ; and it may not pierhaps be difagreeable to our 
rjcaders^ to attend td the rcafonlngs whic^h he iias employed 
in fupport of his theory. 

* Love, the firft ||>rinciple t)f £he unlverfe, and of all that is 
in the univerfe, infpires all beings with a natural inclination to 
unite. The birds that hover in the air, the animals that inhabit 
'the earthy and the fifli that poftefs the waters, all live in a kind 
odT fociety, that has laws which are proportionate to their 
nature and their wants. Beafts, birds, and the inhabitants of 
tfae floods, aftemble at the approach of daneer ; the bees affift 
each other in their exigencies ; and a cock, m a farmer's yard, 
vf\\\ defend the ben of his fellow cock : it is only neceflary tq 
obferve the face of nature, in order to be convinced that the 
idea of property takes place among all animals ; and this pro-? 
perly is the neceflary and abfolute confcquence of felf-love, of 
the defire of prefervation, and of happinefs, which is natural 
to every being that exifts. To abridge this argument, let us 
return to man, and confid^rhim as in a ftate of perfect folitude. 
Will not the firft queftion be. How came he there ? Is not hia 
very exiftence a proof of a previous fociety ? But let us con- 
iider him jigain ^ perfedly unconnected,' i( {t be poffible, and 

without 

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Bielfeld*/ EUments of Vmvtrfal Eru£tUn. !^i 

WtdM>ut any regard to his origin : will he not conftantljr feel t 
natural impulfe to propagate his fpccics ? And wil| he not in- 
ceflantly feek a compamon to fatisfy that defire ? And if he find 
one, is not this the T:ommencement of focicty ? 

* But let us go (Bll farther. From this firft (bciety, a 
third human being is produced. In what^ftate does be com^. 
into the world ? Without the lead power to provide for (lis 
wants ; he would p^riih at the momeiu of his birth, if nature 
bad not given his parents a love toWar<l$ him, an inclination 
to nouriih and fupport him. The adthorof nature has given 
milk to his mother, for his fuftenance, and force to the fatKer, 
to protect the mother and the ch^Id, and procure them fi^b- 
fiftence. Are not thefe manifeft proofe of the natural s^nd ^b-» 
felute necefHty of f^^iety ? But from the fame father .and ano- 
ther are born feverol children j and thefe forn>a fiamiiy. Th^fe 
children render to their parents, fh did age, what they hi^ve 
received from them in their infancy; they defend. them fr^m 
injuries, and fupply them with necefl'arie§, when their ftrength 
bas for(aken them. Is this innate love, this attachment, pr, 
if you pleafe, inftin£^, which men ^nd brutes have for thofe 
beings to which they have gi\^en exiftence, a matter of no con- 
fideration ? Do not the fmalleft of the feathered tribe, wbot 
purfue through the air thofe birds of prey that have robbed thfm 
of their young, and endeavour, at the riik of their own lives, 
by inceffant efforts and lamentations to regain them ; and thefe 
very birds, who reft unconcerned, or even hide tbemfclves in 
their nefts, wberi the bird of prey paiTe; by with other young 
ones of the fame tribe iri his talons (an ohjefi that the country 
daily affords) do not thefe, I fay, prove 'that property is a na- 
tural and inseparable attribute of the exiftence of every being ? 
Does not the mother in this inftance cry outj it is my child f 
And is man formed diff?:rentJy ? Is he born without love, and 
without intereft? Has nature no concern in the formation of 
focieties? You ridiculous inventers of paradoxes ! will you ne- 
ver hearken to her voice ? If a family is in want of neceftary 
fuftenance, or is threatened with fome danger, in either cafe i^ 
ieeks th^ aid of fome neighbouring family i thefe families be- 
come by thefe means united : love performs the reft : by love 
a great number of families are united. Here we fee the origin 
of all fociety. But focieties muft have laws, that is, relations 
,which arife from the nature of things. The idea of a fociety 
naturally implies therefore, that of property and of Jaws ; for 
to imagine a fociety without property and natural laws, is to 
conceive a chimera, an impoffibility. And from hence arifes 
the origin of the laws of nature.' 

The article which examines the mathematical fciences is 
^orngpfed with great care and attention ; ^nd our author con* 

C 4 eludes 

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24 Pflklngton*/ Di^hnary of Painters. 

dudes with, it his firft book; In oUr next number, we fhalf 
attend him through his fecond and third books, and ftall ven- 
ture to pronounce in general, conccrnihg the merits of his' 
work. 

Art. IV. 7 he Gentleman? s and Connoiffeur^s DiSlionary of Pain-^ 

■ iers. Containing a complete ColUclion and Account of the mojl di^ 

-- Jlinguijbed Artijisy who have flour ijhed in the Art of Paintings at 

Rome^ Venicey Naples^ Florence^ and other Cities of Italy ; in 

" Holland^ Flanders J England^ Germany^ or France ; from the 

^'Year 1 250, when the Art of Painting was revived by Cimabue^ 

' t4the Tear 1767 j including above Five Hundred Years ^ and the 

' IfArhher of Aritjis amounting to near One Thoufand Four Hun- 

- dnd, Efctra^edfrom the moft authentic iVritert who have treated 

on the ^ubjeSt of Paintings in Ltitin^ Italian ^^ Spanijh^ Fnglljh^ 

French^ and Low Dutch. To which are added^ two Catalogues \ 

the one^ a Catalogue of the Di/ciples of the mofi famous Maflers j' 

' for the Ufe of thofe tvho defire to obtain a critical Kvovdidge of 

the different Hands ^ and Manners y of the different Schools. — Thi 

ether y a Catalogue of thofe Painters who imitated the I Forks of the 

eminent MajUrs fi exatlly^ as to have their Copies frequently mif 

' taken for Originals. The Whole being digejied in a more eafy and 

inflruSiive Method ihhh hath hitherto appear ed\ and calculated for^ 

general Entertainment and Injiru^ion^ as well as for the particu"^ 

lar life of the Admirers andProUffors of the Art of Painting, By 

the Kev. M. Pilkington, A. M. Vicar of Donabate and Por- 

traitie, in the Diocefe of Publin. 410. 1 1. i s. in Boards; 

Cadell. 177©. 

MR. Pilkington fays, that an eager inclination to improve 
bimfeJf in the knowledge of the'artof painting induced 
bim to read a great number of the lives of painters. Whether 
this was more likely 10 ianfwer his purpofe than reading the 
Jives of carpenters would have been to make him a good car* 
pcnter, we (hall not enquire ; but in this Didionary he has 
extracted all that he found relating to the particular excellen- 
cies or defe£ls of the feveral artifts, in their flyle of painting, 
colouring, and penciling, rejefting all that has been recorded 
of their fnigularies in public and private life, their morals and 
manner of living, which he found, he fays, yery tedious and 
unt,ntertaining. This Dictionary therefore is by no means 
what he calls it in his preface, * a complete collediion of the 
Lives of the painters,' but only a general account of their 
tVorks^ and a defcription of the manner in which they praftifed 
their art. It appears to have been extra^ed with great labour 
from more than fixty different works in various languages, very 
few of which are in our own. 

Prefixed to this work is an explanation of many of the tech- 

jiical terms of the art : it contains, however, much of the cant 

"'"""'""" ' 9f 

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FilklngtohV DWionary ofVainieru^ , 25 

of the connoifleur, of which the reader fe Ic.^t ,to makeKngJifh. 
as be can. The iuppofed dife^jvery Qf the crofs on which Chrtft/ 
fttSered, the Author catls the invention of h, and he talicfi of the 
tme oCsLraiour, which is not lefe a perverfiort of the language* 
of common fenfe, than if he had talked of the cok'^r of a tone, ^ 
It is fcarce neceffary to fay that no fkHh in the art can be' 
obtained from this Diftionary., or any others but perhaps the* 
Reader might expcS fomcthing which wo^ld enable him to ii-^ 
ftijiguifb the works of one matter from another, in which how-" 
ever he will* very often be difappointed. 'The Author ra)s'in 
his preface, 'that almoft every aVtift is remai-kabie for fome one* 
predominant tint of colouring ; but the tint, wl^ich thiis diftm- 
guiflies an artift, ia feldom mentioned in the account of him ah^ 
his works. In the preface, Teniers i^ faid to be diftinguilheci, 
by a grey; but we find no mention of the'prevalen e' of t*^Tsj 
t^nt under the name of the mafter, Greatcare however is takeiv 
to acquaint the Reader with imitations of great^ mafters that 
have been taken for ofiginals : Van Alen, or Ulen, (Aya this* 
Author, imitated Hondekoeter with fuch fu prifing exa(£!ners,' 
that the moff fagacious connoifleurs weie puzzled* t 'deicrminV 
which was the original and which the copy. But when this is 
the cafe, would not any but a connoifleur think the pictures* 
of equal value ? ' * 

» The work is not wholly deftitufe of curious particulars, tho* 
it muft fee confefttd that they are thinly fcattered ; among thcfc' 
are the following : . / * . ^ 

* Carfare Arethuli was invited by the duke of Ferrara to vifit his 
court, and received there with extraordinary rcfptdt. That prince' 
ht to him for his portrait, admired the perfortr.tnce Tilghly, gave* 
him evident proofs not only of his favour, but of' his friehdihip and* 
tfleem ; and having at laft cfonciuded, that his ^nerous creatoient 
ijfArethuii.nnjft inevitably have fepuied his grautwde (if not hwr 
^eftion) he freely acquainted hin\ ^i.ih his r^al ivducenjeot for in- 
viting him 10 Ferrara. Confidinff in the intcgrii)^ of the painter;. 
^e told him, there was a lady in that city, whole portrait he wilhed 
to poffefs ; but, it miift be procured in fo fccret a manner, as neither^ 
to be fafpefted by the lady herfelt, nor any of her friends. He pro- 
xnlfed an immcnfe reward to Arethufi, if he was fuccefsful and fecret ;* 
bat threatened him with the utmoft feverity of his- refentmcnt, iif 
ever he fufFered thfe fecret to tranfpirc. 

* Theartift watched a proper opportunity to (ketch the likcneft 
of the lady, unnoticed by any; and having Ihewn itto the duke, he: 
itemed exceedingly Ihruck with the refembiance, as well as the graces 
fu] air of the figure, apd ordered .Are thun to paint a portrait from 
that fketch, as delicately is he pofTibly could ; but above all things, 
recommended it to hjm, to preferve it from every eye but his pwn^ 

* Wlien the piflure was finiftied,' the painter hlmfejf beheld it 
with admiration, and thought it would be injurious to his fame, to 
fonceal fronrth^world a per&rmanccy which he. accounted perfe^r ; 

and 

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a6 PilkingtoaV Dl/tionarj ofP^inursm 

and tjirppgh an excefs pf pride and vanity^ he privately (hewed it tf> 
ftvcral of his'fri^hds, who coold nbt avoid commending the work, ^ 
while they detefted the folly and in|raci;tode of .the artiA. 

■^* The fecret thos divolge'd^ circulated expeditioufty $ it (oott 

"roamed (be ears of the lady» and her family, who wereexceedbg^ 

irritated ; and the du]^e appeared (9 highly earaged, at th^ treachery 

ti Arethuiiy that he was alniofl; ppoyoked to put him to death ; bot^ 

h.e only bani^ied him for ever from his dominions.' 

^ra. Bartolomcd Baccio, who flouriflied at the end of the 
I5tli century, is fuppofed to bave invented the image with 
moveable limbs called by the painters a Layman^ and now ia 
univerfal ufe. Over thi? machine he threw the draperies to 
obferve their natural fpl^s. 

r A remarkable incident happened to Peter Balton, a painter 
rf landfcape and hiftory, born at Antwerp. When he was ' at 
the court of the cpipergr, that prince engaged' blm, to paint a 
landfcape, with ^ great number of i^gures^ Walton chofe for his, 
fpbj^^ S. John preaching in the defert, which afforded him an 
cippprtunity of filling bis defign with a numerous variety of 
aiiditprs* To every one pf th^m iie gave a ftrong and proper 
<&preffion pf attention to t|ie principal figure ; every individual 
having its eyps dire(3ed to the preacher. But the emperor, 
irbm fome n?6tiye that never ^vap difcovered, ordered a mon- 
ftrous elephant to be painted in the place of the faint; fo that 
the whple auditory fcemed then only to exprefs an aftonilhment 
aithe unweildy bulk and ihape of the animal 1 iior was the 
plSure ever altered. 

^ jSy fppie it was fonjedur^d that the emperor meant it only 
as a piece of humour and drollery \ by others, it was imputed 
ti^ a contempt for the artift ; but, by all the eccle(laftics, it was 
9i|pribed to a (:ontempt for religion/ 

: in this article it niay be obferved that the event is referred to 
BO time, and confequently the title of emperor to no perfon; 
z defeft which, we are forry to fay, very frequently occurs in 
this work. In what year an art HI was born, or died, or what 
w^s his age, are particulars not al\Vays to be known \ but the 
time in which he wrought may always he afcertained wi^in 
twenty or' thirtv years, efpecially if he painted portraits. 

' A iingular adventure happened to David Beck, a portraits- 
painter of Sweden, the difciple of Vandyck : ^ As he travelled 
through Gernkany he was fuddenly taken ill at his inn, and was 
bid out as a corpfe, feeming to all appearance quite dead. 
His valets expreffcd the ftrongeft marks of gric^ for the lofs of 
their nriafter, and while they fat bcfide his bed, they di-ank very 
firccly, by way of confolation. 

* Atlaft, one of them,' who grew much intoxicated, faid to 

J is companipijs, our mafter was fond of his glafs while he waa 
jiye I and Q!^t of gratitude, \%t us give bim a glafa now. he ia 
. ' dead. 

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PilkingtaaV pl^ionary 'of Palntm. . a». 

iif^i. As the reft of the feryanjs affcnted to the propof^I, he 
raited up the b/sad of his mpfter, and endeavoured to ppur fomq 
of the liquor into his mouth. By (jhe fy^gr^Mce qf the wine». 
or.pro)Ni%, hy« ftn;^ iguwttity fhai ifpperceptil:)ly got dpwn 
his throat, Beclc opened k'\^.t^t% ^ and the ferret bqing excef**- 
£hr«iy drunk^ and forgetting ^at* his mafter fvaa confidered as 
dead, coropelkd him ' to fwallow what wine jremained in fht 

• * The painter gradually revived, and by proper ni^nagemcnt 
apd e^re recovered pcrftcHy, and efcaped an interment/ 

It is Ajfpe<Sted that leaving tbe court of SwedjCij againft tbQ, 
iodi^Appn of ^be qMce^ ^l^i(lifi?,'ihecaiii^ him to be poifoned : 
he died at t^6 Hague, a yoUng m^n, being hnt 34> in tbe yeigr 
1656,: 

Two particulars are recorded of Cornelius Bcga, which re- 
lating to the fame man are remarkable. He Was a' larldfcape 
painter, born at Haerlcm in i6io ; his morals are fdid to have 
been fo depraved that his Either, after raaiiy incftecaual remon- 
firwces, difewncd him: .he, in return, c a ft* off the name of 
his father, which was 5.egeyn, and aflu^ud that of Bega. But 
tbe man thus ftigmatizedfor depravity of manners^ had a mind 
capable of the moft difinter^fled afFeflion, and the nobleft forti- 
tude ; f or a woman with whom he had a tender though not a 
kwful connexion, falling ficjc.of the plague, Pega fbut himfelf 
up with her, ?nd notwithftandiog all the entreaties and remon- 
ffrances of his friends and the phyfjcians, continued to attend 
her to tbe Uft moment, pf her life, and qatching the difcafe of 
h.er, furvived her but a fjpw days. 

In the account here given of Chriftopher leBlond, a miniature 
portrait painter, known at Rome in ijj^b ; he is faid to have fet 
t{p a kind of n^nufaSure of painting, or impreffing colours pn 

Eper from copper-plates, fo as to appear very like paintings in oil. 
r.Pilkington fays, that be might have fucceeded to his wifh, 
but for his diflblute morals j yqc he immediately adds, that one 
Laftman and others, who had equal capacity, whofe conduft 
waa difcreet, and whofe morals were regular, had made the 
fymt attempt before^ with no better fuccefs than le Bloi^d. 
But if k Blond failed merely by the dlflolutenefs of his morals, 
it is not eafy to conceive bow they came to fail wbofe moral* 
were not diflblute. 

The following remarkable incident is related of Brouwer, or 
Brauwer, a contemporary of Rubens : 

• brouwer going to Antwerp was taken op as a fpy, and impri- 
fon^ in the fame place where the duke D'Aremberg was confiaed*'- 
fhat nobleman had an intimate friendOiip with Rubens, who ofteii 
went to vifit him in his conftncment ; and the duke having obfenred 
tiie genius of Brouwer (by fome flight fretches which he drew with 
* ^ , black 

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28' PilkingtonV DiSIionary ofPatntersl 

Uack lead) without knowing who he was, dcfired Rubens to bring- 
with him at his next vi fit, a palette and pencils for a painter, who 
was in cufVody along with him. 

' * The materials requifite for painting were given to Broawer, who 
took for his fubje£t a gronp of ibldiers, who were playing at cards 
m a comer of the prilon ; and when the pifiure was iinifhed, and 
Ihtfwn to .Rubeas, he cried out, that* it was painted by Brouwer^ 
whofe works he had often feen, and as often admired. The duke» 
delighted with the difcovery, fet a proper ralue on the performance ; 
and although Rubens offered fix hundred guilders for it, the duke 
would by no means part with it, but prefented the painter with a ' 
much larger fum. 

* Rubens immediately exerted all his intereft to obtain the en* 
Itrgement of Broower, and procured it by becoming his furety ; he ^ 
took him into his own houfe, cloathed, and maintained him ; and 
took pains to make the world more acquainted with his merit* But 
tke levity of Brouwer's temper would not fuffcr him to continue long 
with his benefaflor ; nor would he coofider his fituation. in any other 
light than as a (late of confinement. He therefore quitted Rubens^' 
and died not long after, deflroyed by a diflblute courfe of life.* 

It may perhaps be of fome advantage to the art of painting to 
record excellence that has been acquired not by ftudying the an- 
tique, as it is called, but nature ; the great original which it is the ' 
pcrfeftion of this art juftly to refleft, Claude Lorrain was born in 
i5oo and bred a paftry cook 5 he was little indebted for inftruftion 
to any naafter, but having learnt the firft praftical rudiments of 
the art, he derived his principles from the fountain head, mak- 
ing all his fludies in the open fields, where he freqtiently con- 
tinued from the rifing till the fctting of the Sun; it was' his 
to (ketch whatever he thought beautiful or ftriking;* 
ry curious tinge of light, on all kinds of objcfts, he 
in his (ketches of a fimilar colour, and thefe he improved 
dfcapes, which are univerfally allowed to be fuperior to 
all other artifls who have painted in the fanvc flyle. He 
c who would rival this great mafler fhould certainly take 
t method to excell, and inftcad of copying his copy, 
>e the fame great original with the fame attention and 
pcrfevcrance. 

It was alfo the pra£tice of Claude Lorrain in order to avoid a 
repetition of the fame fubjeft, and to prevent the obtrufion of 
pictures upon the public in his name which he did not paint, to^ 
draw in a paper book, the defigns of all the pidures which he 
fent abroad, and on the back of the drawings to write the 
name of the purchafer : this book, which he intitled Libro di 
Picritay is now in the pofleiSon of the duke of Devonfliire. 

Corregio was alfo an imitator of nature; he is faid by the 
force of his own genius, obferving the appearance of natural ob- 
jeStSy firfl to have brought the ^rt of forefbortening iigures to 
perfefiion; the novelty and beauty which, this produced in the 

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Pilkington'j Di^lonarj of Paintert. ^^ 

figures with which he adorned domes and ceilings, was the Tub-- 
j^of univerfal admiration. The other graces which diftingulfli 
his pencil are peculiarly his own, and not derived from thb 
ftudy of any mafter. 

It is fuxely ftrange that an author who has recorded the(e 
efie£ls of genius and induftry, working upon nature, (hould 
pathetically lament the fate of an artift, born with the happiefl: 
talents, who wanted opportunities to ftudy the antique ; yet 
fpeaking of our countryman Dobfon, who painted Portraits ki 
the time of Charles the firft, he fays, had he but fan Itafy^ hsKl 
he but heheU an antique^ he might have equalled the beft portrait 
painters that ever lived. 

As there is fomething Angular in the account of Pietn> 
Pacini, we have extracted that article at length as a fpecimen of 
the Author's manner. 

* PiETRo FAaNi. Painted Hiftory. Died 1602, aged 42. 

' He was bom at Bologna in 1 560, whttt he accidentally hap- 
pened to be a difciple of Anhibal Caracci ; having acquired that ad- 
vantage by an uncommon incident* which introduced him to the 
acquaintance of Annibal, and eAablifhed a durable frieodihip be- 
tween chem. 

* As Pacini pafledby the houfe of Annibal, he had the curiofity 
to go into the academy of that famous mafler, to look on his dif- 
dpies, drawing, and defigning ; and while he was attentively en- 
gaged in obferving their work, he feemed fo wrapped up in deep 
ni«litation, that one of the fcholars, out of drollery, drew the like- 
neis of Pacini with black chalk, and in a flrong charader of cari- 
cature. 

' The drawing was immediately handed about among the difci- 
ples, to the univerfal mirth of the fociety, and the mortification of 
him who was made the fubjed for ridicule. But, when at laft the 

, caricature was (hewn to Pacini, and he faw the real caefe of fuch 
extravagant buffoonery, he took up a piece of charcoal, and al- 

. though he never had learned to draw, or deiign, he iketched the 
likenefs of the perfon who had turned him to ridicule, fo ftrongly, 
and in fo ludicrous a manner, that the fubjed for laughter was in- 
tirely changed ; and Annibal, ilruck with admiration, to fee fuch 
an uncommon effort of genius, generoufly offered to be his inilrudor 
in the art. 

* He foon made a wonderful progress, under fo ingenious a pre- 
ceptor, and in a ihort time furpaffed all the other dilciples, fo as 
to become the objed of their envy, as he before had been the ohjed 
of their contempt. He poffcJTed a ready and lively invention ; his 

- colouring was exceedingly plcafing ; and his touch was free. His at- 
. titudes were juff, and well chgfen ; the airs of his heads were graceful, 
and genteel ; and in fome of his compodtions, he (hewed great (kill 
, in difpoiing a number of figures in proper groupes, and giving them 
adions that were lively, and fpirhed. The whole was excellently 
felieved by judicious maffes of light and ihadow ; yet he was fome-r 
times iacorred^ and often ffiewed too much of the manneriit. 

' " 'At 

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30 Pilkington^s Di^mary of Painters* 

* At Bologna is feen a larje comporition painted by this mafter. It 
reprefenw tne Marriage of S. CaAcriiie, who is a'ttcndcd by four 
famis, the reputed protcftdrsWBologha,- This pi&dre is' cxcelleftt!^ 
coloured, and touched in the ftyle of Baroccio ; oat it is inccnTed ih 
the defign, arid there is an appeara^e 6f too machof "die imlnnerill. 
The boys, in that compofition, are Tery finely paaoted ; and their 
tolooring is beautiful, and ti^e. Aifo in the Pembroke colkfUon 
at Wiiton, there is a pidbofe of Pacini, of wiiich the ru})jed is, 
Chrift and three difciples, with Mafy kncclistgy and weeping onae- 
count of her brother jLazatus who is dead.' 

We fbdll difoiifs this work with an ejOxzQ. from the account 
ivhich is given of the celebrated Rembraht Van Ryn. As the 
manner or ftyle of this artift is more generally known than pe^* 
baps any other, a greater number of our readers will be able to 
judge how far the author's defcription of it is juft, or would 
convey an> idea of it correfpondent to that which they have 
conceived fiooi the pi^ures or prints of this artift. 

The author having oblerv^d that this great m^fter forn)ed his 
own manner intirely by the ftudy and imitation of nafture, pro- 
ceeds to defcribe it thus : 

* The invention , of Rembrant was very fertile^ and his imaginli* 
tibn lively and aftive ; but his compofition, notwithftanding it was 
TemarkaWefor Urcngth of expreffion, was deftitute of grandeur ; arid 
although his genius was fiail of fiire, yet he Wanted deVation tf 
thought, and had little or no notion of grace, or elega«ce. Itilis 
been fatid, that if Rembrant had vifited Rome, his tafte would hate 
been proportionably refirfed ; and riiat the knowledge of the antique, 
added to his other eminent qualifications, might have produced a 
mafter equal to the mod exalted chara^er. But, that this would 
certainly have been the effect of his vifiting Italy, ihay juftly be 
doubred, when the prevalence of habit is confidered ; when his mind 
was ftored with ideas, taken from grofs and heavy nature, to whi^h 
he had 'been familiarized from his infancy ; and if it be alfo parti* 
cularly confidered, that he took pains to furnifh himfdf with a col« 
leftion of the iineft Italian prints, drawings, and defigns, many of 
them taken from the antiques, which he feems to have ftudied with 
pleafure, but without the fmalleft improvement of his tafte. It ap- 
pears as if he had more foiid delight in contesrplating hid own re- 
pofitory of old draperies, armour, weapons, and turbans^ which he 
jocularly called his antiques, than he ever ftlt from furteying the 
works of the Grecian artilh,^ or the compofitions of RaphseeU 

' As td his colouring it was furprizing ; his carnations are as true, 
asfrcih, and as pcrfe^, in the fnbjefts he painted, as they appe^ 
in die works of Titian, or any other matter ; with this "only differ- 
ence, that the colouring of Titian will admit of the uearcft infpec- 
^ tion, whereas that of Rembrant tttrft be viewed at a cbnveni^nt di- 
ftance ; and then an equal degree of union, force, uid harmoby, 
inay be 6bferved in bcJth. 

*• Hisoorrraits arc confcftdjv excdiettt ; but, by his bcmg 'ac- 
, cuftotfletf to imitate nature t3Caftly> aawl the nature heimitatcd being 

always 

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Rlkin^on V Dt^iondry of Patniirsi Jr 

always of the heavy kind, his portraits^ though admirable in refoe^ 
of the likenefsy and the Iook.of li^e, want grace and di|;hity, in tne 
m% 'aiid attitudes. In regard to other particulars, he was fo «jca& 
in giving the true refemblance of the perfons who fat to hiih, thit 
he diftipguiihed the predominant feature, and charader, in eveiy 
ike, without endeavoorxBg to improve or embellifli it. And, in 
jpany of hi^heada, may be f^^en fuch a minute exadoefs» that he re- 
, prefented even the hairs of the bearci, apd the wrinkle^ of old ag$t; 
* .yct9uJita^j:Q]^r diftance* the whole has an effe£i that aftoniflies : for 
he imitated his model in.fo tru^ io plains and fo faithful a manntf^ 
that every portrait appears animated, and as if ilarting from xkc 
canvas^ 

• His local colours arcf cxtrcrtety eoOd ; he p^rfe£Uv unde'rftood the 
principles of the Chiaro-Scuro ; and it is reported, that he geneially 
■paintol ia a chamber b contrived as'to'admit l>ttt one ray of light, 
aiui that from ^bove. The ligl^ts in hi3 piflnres were painted with 
a, body of colour unufually thi<;k, as if the artift had aii intentu^ 
rather to model than to paint i, but ]|e knew the nature and prc^erty 
of each particular colour fo thoroughly, that he pl^ed every tint 
in its proper place: and, by that means, avoided the heceflity of 
breaking and torturing hb colours, and preferved them in their full 
frefhne^, beauty, and luitre. . 

' One of his greateft defe£ls appeared in his defigning tlie naked ; 
ftr in fuch figures he was exceffifvely incorred ; the bodies were eith^ 
too grofs, or too lean ; the extremities top imall, or too great ; and 
jthe whole figures ^nerally out of prdportion. But in other parts bf 
.his, fuch as colounng, expreflion, ana the force produced by ligh^ 
and ihadows happily and harmonioufly oppofed, he had few equal 
to ^im, and qone fuperior,' 

Upon this extra^ we (hall only reuiark that it does not (eem 
to have beeq necelTary for Rembrant tp go to Kome to improve 
his manner. If he copied, with almoft unequalled excellence, 
the nature that he faw, he might have copied graceful nature 
equally well, without having recourfe to the copies which h^ 
beei| made of it by others. Graceful objeds, if his genius had 
led him to feled^^ them^ Vere cafily to be foutid, and if he has 
not transferred iheni to his works, it was not becaufe be did not 
tc^vfl, .but.becaufe he wanted tafte. 

Several painters are occafionally mentioned in the courfe pf 
jlhis work, yr\iok names are not found in the alphabetical 
feries, aiid of whom therefore no account is given; particularly 
Giulio Borgianni, faid to be the preceptor of his brother Orazio 
Bdr^iai^ni, and' Celio his competitor at Rome, who is faid to 
Have broke his heart.. 

J Many furprizing inftances of the facility and expedition with 
whidiTome artifts executed their performances are given, of 
which the following is the mod remarkable; Philip Robs com- 
iQonly palled Rofa de Tivoli, who flouriliied near the ^nd'ofthe 
47tb century, being known to Count Mertihetz the Imperial 
ambfiflador (to virhat courtis not* faid)'t^e Count laid a wager 

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4% Le Beau'x Htjiorj 9fjh$ Lower Empire. 

t^ . • ■ • * ." \. • 

with a Swftlilh .cncraK that Tivoli 'would paint a piflure of t 

'thrte quarter's lii^e, while' they wcr^ playing a fingle game at 
cards. The game lafted about half an hour, and the painter 
Won the wager, havini: in that time finifhed a iandfcape of the 

-fize proposed, wuh ope hgurc and fev«ral fheep and goats. 

Upon the who.e ih'S i ct ion a ry contains what a ^eat oumber 
of volames mutt be tcarched to find ; and, to thofe v^ho defire CO 
know wh .t it relates is a- valuable performance. 



Art.'V. The Hi/iory vf the Ltxver Empire; beghmmg from Con^ 
Jlantine the Great: ' Trafnflated from the French of M. \t 
Beau. Volume th^ Firft. 8vo. Davies. 5-8. 3d, toaids. 
1770. 

TH E tranfaSions of the Roman republic have been illul*- 
trated and adorned by very able and intelligent writers; 
but that immenfe pt;riod, which occurs, from the battle of 
AiSium to the deftruilion of the empire, has not been f6 
fortunate. It is a rhdre agreeable taflc to atterid the rife 
and grandeur of a nation, than to trace the ftcps of its 
decline. If we wou'd be acquainted, however, with men^ 
we muft behold them in every fituation ; we muft examine 
them in that flate^of corruption and debafement, in whicli 
they appear, when oppreffed by a military defpotifn^ and 
diflblved' in luxury, as well as when they are diftinguifhed 
by conquelts, and are advancing towards p^rfeflion. The 
fccnes, which are prefcntcd to an hiftorian in the lattet 
fituation, are lively and brilliant^ and cannot fail of being 
highly interefting. In the former fituation, the uniformity 
of the tranfaftiuns is apt to difguft, but the difplay of the 
politics of a court, offers to him a large field for political 
difcernment ; and, if he fliould not always furnifh entertain- 
ment, he will m.ike ample amends to his readers, by the in- 
ftrudlion which he will communicate'. The former period re- 
quires the keen obfervation of a philofopher : the talents of aA 
orator are more fuita^ le to the latter. 

M. le Beau ha- given us the following fhort view of the 
nature of his fuhje£t. * The work I undertake is the'hiftory of 
the old age of the Roman empire : it was at firll vigorous, and 
the decline of the ftate was not fenlibly perceived lill under the 
defcendants of Thcodofius. From that time to its entire fall, is 
a fpace of niOrc thnn a thoufand years. The power of the 
Romans had the fame confiftence as their works. It required 
many ages and repeated blows to {hake and overthrow it j and 
when I confider on one hde the weak nefs of the emperors, on thtf 
other, the efforts of fo many nations who fucceflively cncroact 
.upon the empire, and on the broken parts of it eftablifti all the 
kingdoms of Europe on this fide the Rhine and the Danube, I 
• • thinfc 

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4bink 1 fee an old palace, which Ml fupports itfelf by its bulk, 
«nd the Brmnefs of its ftrudure, but is lefc unrepaired, and 
ftraAgersby degrees demolifb, and at length deftroy it, tb make 
-their advantage of its ruins/ 

The firft volume of his work, which is now offered to the 
(Kiblic in an Englifli verfion, contains the reign of Conftantine ; 
* an sera in which (to ufe his language) the Chriftian religion 
Vna reicued froiii the hands of executioners, to be invcfted with 
the imperial purple.* This irtiportant reign, he examines with 
the attention it defefves ; and his nariration, though minute, it 
not tediousi Many fa£3ts which were doubtful he has been aWe 
to afcertain ^ and to a period. Which has hitherto been involved 
in obCcurity, h^ has given dignity and luftre. 

Waving, In a fliort introduaion, prepared his reader for 
entering with him on the hiftory of Conftantine, he gives an 
* account of the birth and defcent of that emperor, and of the 
projeds formed by Galerius to deftroy him. He then mentions 
his efcape to Conftantius, who received with the utmoft joy, 
a ibn^ whom misfortunes had rendered dearer to him. With 
his father, Conftantine pafles over into Britain, where the fbr- 
ixier falling fick, died on the 25th of June, 306. Before his 
deaA^ Conftantius tenderly embraced his fon^ named him his 
•fuccefibr, and recommended him to the foldicrs. They pro- 
ckimed him emperor ; and neither the attempts of Galerius, nor 
thofe of Maxentius were effectual to exclude him from that 
dignity. In this eminent ftation he was mot totally inaftiVe 
like fome of his predeceiTors, nor like others of them, did 
he give himfelf up^to cruelty. He had often in his mouth, fays 
our Author, this excellent maxim, * that it is fortune which 
.makes emperors, but that it is the bufineft of emperors fojuf- 
•tify the choice oJF fortune.* He applied himfelf, firft to regulafe 
the interior ftate of his dominions, and then confidered how to 
•fecure the frontiers. After defcribing the meafures which he 
•embraced to effcSt thefe purpofes, and his fuccefs againft 
Maximian with {bme other circumftances 6f lefs importance, 
our learned hiftorian, comes to mention thofe reflexions which 
indtned this prince to chriftianity, arid brought him from 
the darknefs of paganifm* In this part of his work, and when 
he narrates the apparition of ihg crofsy his ufual judgment 
Md penetration, we (hould imagine, feem to forfake him, ' fti^ 
he difcovers a degree of fupcrftition, which one Would not havfe 
'expe<3ed in an hiftorian of the prefent age. Conftantine, haviri^ 
4letermined to acknowledge the true God, battened toinftruS 
himfelf. * He applied, fays our Author, to the moft holy and 
'enlightened minifters; who, without feeking to' fpare the 
^licacv of the prince, began, as the apoftles had done, by the 
^yflenes the moft capable of revolting human rea(bn> iuch at 

KSY. July 1770. D rnnolr*''' 

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^4, . Lc BcauV Hijiory of the Lower Empire. 

the divinity of Jefus Chrift, bis incarnation, and what St. P^ttl 
calls, on account of the Gentiles, the foolifhnefs of the crof».' 
The example of Conftantine was followed by his family : aitd 
their converfion is the lafl circumftance which our author re- 
cords in his iirft book. 

His fecond book commences with the triumph of the chrif- 
tian religion* ^ Almoft three centuries, fays he, had nour 
paft, during which the Chriilian religion, conftantly preached, 
and as conftantly profcribcd, gaining ground in the midft ef 
perfecution, and deriving new ftrength from its own lodes, had 
undergone every trial neceflary to afcertain its divine original. 
It had been confirmed by thofe means which are the fureft that 
men can employ to fubvert an inftitution merely human ; and 
its eftabli(hment was a prodigy, the duration of which had been 
prolonged by the Supreme Being, that it might be confpicuous 
to the moft diftant ages of futurity. When Chriftianity had no 
farther need of perfecutions to evince its divine original, the 
perfecutors became Chriftians ^ the Emperors fubmitted to the 
yoke of the Gofpel ; and the miraculous converfion of Con- 
ftantine may be faid to have caufed the ceflation of a greater 
miracle in the world. We (hall foon fee the crofs placed upon the 
heads of the Emperors, and revered by the whole empire ; the 
church loudly, and without fear, fummoning all the nations of 
the earth; paganifm deftroyed, without- being perfecuted. 
Thefe great revolutions were the fruits of the vi^ories of 
Conftantine.' The proceedings againft Maxentius npxt env- 
ploy the attention of our Author. Sura is taken \ the battle of 
Turin is fought ; and the other places between the Pq and the 
Alps fend deputies to Conftantine to aflure him of their fut- 
mrffion. The victorious* general then marches to Milan, 
where having refreflied his troops, he takes the rout of Verona. 
Aquileia, Modena, and Verona furrender almoft at the fame 
time; and after fuch a ferics of fuccefs, the Emperor arrives 
within fight of Rome. , Maxentius, (hut up within the walls of 
this city, abated nothing of his ufual debaucheries. But the 
tranquillity in which he <tppeared was not real. After ofFermg up 
vi^ims and interrogating foothfayers, he determined to hazard 
a battle ; and to deprive his troops of all means of retreat, he 
drew them up along the banks of the Tiber; The fight of fo 
fine and numerous an army befpoke thedecifion of an important 
quarrel. The troops of Conftantine were not equal in num- 
bers, but they furpailed in courage, and in attachment to their 
general. The Pretorians, and the foreign troops made a 
vigorous refiftance, but the Romans and Italians did pot hold 
out long againft a prince, whom they wilhed to acknowledgf 
for their mafter. The news of Conflantine's viftory wag 
known inftantly at Rome ; and our Author has thus deicrib^ 

.his 

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Lc Bcau'i HiJIory of the Lower Empirer 35 

his entry into this city. ^ Leaving the Flaminian way on the 
left, he croifed the meadows of Nero ; pafled by the tomb 
of St. Peter to the Vatican, and entered by the triumphal gate. 
He wa5 mounted on a car. All the orders of the ftate, the 
fenators, knights and people, with their wives, children and 
ilaves ran to meet him : their tranfports knew no diftin£tion of 
rank: every place refounded with acclamations: they hailed 
bim as their preferver, their deliverer, their father : it feemed as 
if all Rome bad before been but a vaft prifon, the gates of 
which were thrown open by Conftantine. * Every one ftrove to 
approach his car, which could fcarce find a pafTage through the 
crowd. No triumph bad ever been fo brilliant. Here, fays an 
Orator of that time, were not to be feen the fpoils of the 
vanquifbed, repreferitations of towns taken by ftorm : but the 
nobility, refcued from afFronts and alarms, the people releafed 
from the moft cruel oppreffions ; Rome, become free, and retriev- 
ing her former condition, furnifbed the conqueror wiih a more 
glorious retinue ; in which chearfulnefs was without allay, and 
compaffion did not damp the general Joy. And if, to make a 
triumph complete, it were necefTary to fee captives loaden with 
fetters, they figured to themfelves avarice, tyranny, cruelty and 
excefs chained to his car. All thefe horrors feemed flill to 
breathe in the features of Maxentius, whofe head, carried aloft 
behind the conqueror, was the obje£t of all the infults of the^ 
people. *Twas cuflomary for the triumphal train to proceed to 
the capitol to return thanks, and to offer vidims to Jupiter : 
Conftantine, who entertained jufler notions of the authqr of his 
viftory, omitted this pagan ceremony. He went direflly to 
mount Palatine, where he chofe his refidence, in the palace 
which Maxentius had abandoned three days before. He im- 
mediately fent the head of the tvrant into Africa : and this 
province, whofe wounds were frill bleeding, received this 
token of its deliverance with the fame joy that Rome had done ; 
and voluntarily fubmitted to a prince from whom it hoped to 
receive niore humane treatment.' 

Having defcribed the feftivals, the rejoicings and honours 
which were paid to Conftantine on the occafion of his fuccefs^ 
our Hiftorian proceeds to give us an account of the moderation 
with which he bore his profperity, and of the advantages which 
the people derived from it. * During a refidence, fays he, of 
little more than two months at Rome, he repaired the injuries 
of a fix years tyranny. Every thing feemed to breathe afrdhy 
and to refume new life. By virtue of an edidl publifhed 
throughout his empire, thofc who had been deprived, re- 
entered into the pofleflion of their eftates ; the innocent exiles 
rc-vifited their country; the prifoners, whofe only crime had 
been to fall under the difpleafurc of the tyrant, recovered their 

D % libtrtyj 

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jfi tit Beau^ X^ry ofthi Lowir Empire. 

liberty ; the military people who had been difmiffcd from ftfnrice 
6n account of religion, were at their option either to reAime 
their former rank, or to enjoy ah honourable retreat. Fathers 
no longer lamented the beauty of their daughters, nor hufbands 
that of their wives : the virtue of the Prince fecured the honour 
of families. An eafy accefs, his patience in hearing, his 
benignity in anfwering, and the ferenlty of his afped, excited 
in every breaft the fame fenfation as the appearance of a fine day 
after a tempeftuous night. He reftored its ancient authority to 
the fenate; he feverd times fpoke in that auguft aflembly: 
which became ftill more fo by the attention paid to it by 
the fovercign. To add to its luftre, he introduced into it the 
mod diftinguiflied perfons in all the provinces, and as it were 
the quinteffence and flower of the whole empire. He knew 
how to recal the people to the rules of duty by a mild and in- 
feniible authority, which banifhed licentioufnefs without re- 
trenching liberty, and appbared to be armed with no other 
force but reafon, and the example of the fovereign.* . 

To this general idea of the adminiftration of Conftantine, 
M* le Beau has added a detail of his muniiicence, and of the 
knanner in which he embeUifhed and repaired the difierent cities 
of I^ajy* He then explains the eftabltfhment of the Indidions ; 
an iniricutibn) which has been the occafion of much difpute 
among men 6f learning. Proceeding in his fubjeft, he exa* 
hiincs the condufk of Conftantine in regard to Chriftianity. 
This polhiclEmperor was cautious of irritating the minds, of the 
people by rigorous ediiEts; he knew that the punilhment of 
thofe who periifted in the worihip of idols, would produce an 
abhorrence of Chriftianity ; and that mild meafures would 
advance bis purpofe more effeflually. His example, his fiivour, 
his benignity made more Chriftians than torments had made 
Apofta^es, under tht perfecuting princes. The people begun 
infeniibly to be afhamed of thofe gods which they made ; and 
the ChrilHan religion infinuated itlelf even into the fenate, the 
ftrongeft bulwark of paganifm. The very candid account 
"which our Hiftorian has given of the progrefs of Chrrftianity,and 
©f the honours paid to it by Conftantine, is fucceeded by a 
defcription and explanation of the laws which this Emperor 
enabled concerning the colleflion of taxes, and the ^mini- 
ftratfon of juftice. His attention to the advancement and 
dignity of the church did not make him lofe fight of the civil 
government. The war between Licinius and Maximin, which^ 
was terminated by the death of the latter is then explained by 
our author ; the adventures of Valeria, Prifca, and Candidiantts 
are recorded by him; and he concludes his fecond book withiui 
account of the origin of the fchifm of the Donatifts* 

5 Suck 

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Such are the matters, wbicb our learned and accurate Hi(lo* 
rian has made the fubjed of the t^o firft books of hi« hiftory^ 
To enter at prefent upon an examination of the remaining books 
in the volume before ua^ would lead us to fwell this article 
beyond the bounds which we prefcribo to ourfelves ; and we 
muft therefore beg leave to refer what we have to fay concerning 
them, and concerning the aierica of the tranflation, till our 
Review for the next month. 

Art. VI. Memoirs of Ru£iaj Hiftoricalj Political^ and Militarf 
from thi Tear 1727, to 1744*. A period comprehending many 
remarkable Events : in particular the ff^ars of Ruffia with Turfy 
and Sweden : with a Supplement containing a Summary Account of 
the State rf the Military^ the Marine^ the Commerce^ ISc, of 
that great Empire : Tranflated from the Original Manufcripl 
of General Manftein, an Officer of diftin&ion in the Ruffian 
Service : never before Publifhed : Illuflrated with Maps and 
Plans. 4to. 18 s. boards. Becket. 1770. 

TH£S£ memoirs were fent tq Mr. David Hume, from 
Berlin b^ the Earl MarfhaU with a defire that tbejr 
ihould be publiflied in England* Th^ Were originally com^ 
pofed in the .French language, as thb Ingenious Writer informs 
us, in the advertifement which he has prefixed to them. But, 
fs it was thought, that an edition in Englifh would be mord 
agreeable to the Britiih reader, they make their appearance ia 
the prefent tranflation. The Baron de Manftein, who is the 
author of them, was a German by birth, and, having ferved in 
the Ruffian army, was an eye-wtcneft to mpft of the incidents he 
relates. His work* though it does not appear to be written 
with elegance, or with much political difcernment, is extrem/ely 
candid, slnd impartial. If we find in it no great views, and 
none of thofe raafterly refledions, which ihine, with fuch 
dignity, in the pages of a Hume and a Robertfon, we are yet 
prefented with many curious particulars, which are not to be 
found in any other publication on the Ruffian empire. Few of 
t^e hiftorians, who have fpoken of this country, have refided 
in it ; and ga^xttes and news^papers were the chief materials on 
which they founded their narratives. ^ The information, on 
the contrary, which is communicated by Baron de Manflein, 
may be confidered as authentic : and this circumftance con- 
ftitutes the chief value of his memoirs. It may be proper like- 
wife to remark, that he difcovers a very exa^ and extenfive 
knowledge of military affairs. He iparflials his troops, and 
fights his battles with great ikill. The account which he has 
given of the magnificence of the court of Pererfburgh ia 
the year 1739, may not be unentertaining to the bulk of our 
Readers ; and when we have added to it the charader which he 

D 3 h^ 

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38 ManftcIn*J Memoirs of RuJJia. 

has given of- the Ruffians,, they will be enabled to determine for 
themfelves, concerning his manner and capacity.- 

* The duke of Courland, fays he, was a great lover of 
pomp and (how : this Was enough to infpire the Emprefs with a 
defire to have her court the moft brilliant of all Europe. Con- 
fiderable fums were facrificed to this intention of the emprefs, 
which was not, for al) that, fo foon fulfilled. The richeft coat 
would be fometimes worn, together with the vileft uncombed 
wig ; or you might fee ia beautiful piece of ftufF fpoiled by fome 
botcher of a taylor; or if there was nothing amifs in the drefs, 
the equipage would be deficient. A man richly dreffed would 
come to court in a miferable coach, drawn by the wretchcdeft 
hacks. The fame want of tafte reigned in the furniture and 
neatnefs of their houfes. On one fide, you might fee gold and 
filver plate in heaps, on the other a fhocking dirtinefs* 

* The drefs of the ladies correfponded with that of the men ; 
for one well-drefTcd woman, you might fee ten frightfully dif- 
figured ; yet is the fair iex in Ruffia generally handfome ; that 
18 to fay, they have good faces enough, but very few have fine 
ibapes. 

* This incongruity of Ruffian finery and fliow was almoft 
univerfal ; there were few houfes, indeed, efpecially in the 
firil years of the reform, where every thing was of a piece. 
Little by little others imitated the example of thofe who had 
tafte. But not even the court, nor Biron, fucceeded at the 
firft in getting every thing into that order and arrangement 
which arc feen elfewhere. This was the work of years. Yet 
muft it be owned, that, at length, every thing grew to be well 
regulated, except- that the magnificence ran into excefs, and 
col^ the court immenfe fums. It is incredible how much money 
went out of the empire upon this account. A Courtier that did 
not lay out above two or three thoufand rubles, or from four to 
fix hundred pounds a year in his drefs, made no great figure. 
One might very well apply here the faying of a Saxon officer to 
the late king of Poland, advifing him to widen the gates of the 
town to let in the whole villages that the gentlemen carried on 
their backs. In Ruffia, all thofe who had the honour to ferve 
the court, hurt their fortunes by .overdreffing, the falaries not 
being fufficient to afford the making fucb a figure. It was 
enough for a Dealer in the commodities of luxury and faOiion to 
remain two or three years at Pcterfburgh, to gain a competency 
for the reft of his life, even though he fliould have begun the 
world there with goods upon credit.' 

The following character of the Ruffians, is to be found in 
our Author's Supplement to his memoirs ; where, we cannot but 
pbfcrvc, tbcr? 4re many intercfting circumftanccs, in regard to 

tb« 

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Manftcin*/ Memoirs ofRuffid. * 3^ 

the revenue^ number of inhabitant^ trade, and government of 
Ruflia. 

^ To conclude thefe memoirs, fays he, I (hall add a few 
iM^rds on the genius of the nation in gf nera). Some writers 
have advanced, that before the reign of Peter I. the Ruffians, 
colie£Hfe]y and fepafately conlidered, were all perfedly ftupid 
and mere brutes \ but this is entirely falie, as the contraVy may 
be eafily proved • 

* Thofe who have formed to themfelves this idea, need but 
itad the Ruffian hiftory of the feventeenth century i in the 
courfe of which, the ambition of Godunow, and the cabals of 
the Poles, had divided the nation in feveral factions, in a man- 
ner that brought it to the brink of ruin. The Swedes were 
mailers of Novogorod, and the Poles of the capital, Mofcow 
itfclf. Yet, notwithftanding fuch great difafters, the Ruffians 
at length prevailed fo far, by the dexterity of their management, 
as to recover themfelves from the yoke impofed on them by two 
foch powerful enemies as Sweden and Poland at that time were* 
In lefs than fifty years they reconquered all the provinces, 
Which had been taken from them in the time of their domeftic 
troubles ; and this they eSeded without any foreign minifter or 
general to condu<ft their affairs. A juft reflexion on thefe 
events, will readily fuggeft the juftice of owning, that under** 
takings of fuch importance could not be projedied or executed 
by ftupid people. 

* The Ruffians, in general, do not want w!t or natural good 
fenfe. The concern and attention of Peter I. for the civiliza- 
tion of his country never extended to the citizens and peafants ; 
yet, on any one's having the curiofity to talk to thofe of this 
condition, he will find, that in general they have all the need- 
ful common fenfe and judgment ; that is to fay, in thofe things 
that have no concern with the prejudices of their childhood or 
education, in points relative to their country and religion ; that 
they have a readinefs of capacity for comprehending whatever is 
propofed to them; that they, with great quicknefs, difcover 
th^ neceflary expedients for arriving at their ends ; and that 
they feize, with abundance of difcernment, any favourable 
occafions that prefent themfelves. In fhort there is full room 
for beint; perfuaded, that a Ruffian citizen or peafant, will, on 
all occasions, give proof of at leaft equal fagacity and fhrewd- 
nefs, to what is commonly to be met with among thofe of that 
clafs, in any other country of Europe. 

^ But as there is no entering into fatisfacSory refearches of 
that kind, without knowing the language of the country, which 
few ftrangers give themfelves the trouble of learning, the want 
of that requifite has been one of the caufes of the depreciating ' 
accounts. given of the natives of that country ^ who, 00 their 

D 4 part. 



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A 



40 Enqsdry into the fifceffhy ofPrepnrAionfsr th Lord's Suffer I 

rp^U h^Vf g^^tty contributed to fix fu^h imputations, by.thf 
contempt which, on many occafions, they have (hewn for 
foreigners, an4 for ^hat^cr had the air of a foreign fafhlon or 
cuftom : add to this, that the way of living, and manners of 
the Ruffians, in the beginning of this century, differed entirely 
from thofe of the other nations of Europe; apd that they were, 
pcrfedly ignorant of all the rulej of good- breedings even of 
the laws of nations, and of thofe prerogatives of foreign mini- 
ftf rsv wTiich are eftabliftied in the other coiirts of Europe/ 

g ' '. ; — -=— • ■ ' ' ■ ->. !■ ... .1 

Art. VII. Jh Enquiry into the Isecejftty of Prephrathn for the 
Lord's Supper^ upon the Authorities of Chriji and his Apojlles^ 
and the Evidences of Rec^fon and Argument. Wherein that 
Dollrim is Jhewn to have no Foundation in the Gofpel^ to be 
highly detrimental to the Extenfan of the ^holefomt influences of 
that Rite, and confequcntly to the good of Chrijiians^ deftgned to 
obviate the fcruples and remove the unnecejfary fears^ which an 
daily fe^nto wit hold the bulk of Chriflians from frequenting thai 
Supper as they ought. 8vo. js. bound. Wilkie. 1770. 

THOUGH this Writer oppofes a prafiice, the propriety of 
which, poffibly, fomc pcrfons will confider it as ^ImoQ pro^- 
pbane to conteft, we can affure our Readers, that he writes with 
a very fefious fpirir, and appears to be a friend tx> religion. 
What he delivers, we are told in the preface, proceeds not 
from the pride of opinion, but from a confcicntious perfuafion 
of its truth. ^ I have the honour and happinefs, fays he, of 
JFollowing in this path, that very great and learned prelate, Dr* 
Benjamin fioaelley. He gave th^ work! J Plain account of th0 
Lords Sttpper^i in which he left the advocates for the neceffity of 
preparation, as well as for many other equally unwarrantable 
ppinions concerning this. r//#, to find and maintain their doc* 
trineS) if they could ; and by that plain aecountj thofe advocate^ 
were, as by an eleSfrieal jbocif flunned, driven back, and 
brought to the sround.-r-But ftill the truth, though fufiiciemly 
cleared againft difputants, wanted eflablithing in fome degree tO| 
th^ fatisfa£tion of fcrupulous minds««-*-Witb this view the fol^* 
lowing treatife was prepared.' 

The Author farther explains bis defign in this nianner^ ^ It !# ' 
not my intention in any thing 1 have faid, or may fay, to con* 
^emn fi;ch inftru£tions as we generally find lajd down for our 
preparation for the Lord's Supper, be they ever fo ftrift and 
rigorous, any otherwife than as they claim an obligation upon ua 
to obferve them, and ataboritatively forbid us to approach to that 
fupper, without firft having gone through that coiirfe of felf- 
f xamination which they defcribe.— The great point which W€ 
^re here concerned to obviate is the necMty of a feyere prepara- 
Xit^. It ^ one thing to % it is ttfeful^ an4 aqocl^^ thing tp 

faj 

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Enqmrf intc th Nsttfflij 0/ Pr9p4ratimfir the LorJfs, tnpp$r. 4^ 

fay it is ahfilutehf nuijary% txA iprtthout it cmi not /a ibm b$h 
UtbU: 

In profecution of bis deiign he oopiklert the nature of the io^ 
^itution'^ which he concludes to be fnerely cmnumorstiviy and - 
fanher adds, that Chrift, in its iirft appointment, ' gave no (on ot- 
dirci^ions to his difciples about it any more than that they ihould 
fot and drink in rememhratui rf him i nor prefcribed t& them anjr 
particular quali^ations to be attained, or any particular mode 
of duty to be purfued, in order to the difchargtng this dut/ 
moft conformably to the ends of its eftabltihment/ 

He proceeds to the account which was given to the Corin* 
tbians of this appointment, and infers that the diredion tbert* 
propoied, lit a man ixamim biwfi^^ * cannot be taken as a gene- 
ral rule or diredidn at large, mdependent of any thing that had' 
been fpoken of before, but muft have an immediate referenoe to 
the particular caufe and ground of that abufe for the curing and 
preventing of which it was apparently given/ 

Befide all this, he fays, * There is abundant reafon to fati^ 
ourfelves from reafon and argument that no ftich preparation le 
neceflary. The participation of the Lord's Supper is but one* 
individual duty, amdngft the many others which are binding 
upon chriftians by the lawa of the gofpel ; and a duty to which 
there are no higher circumftances or charafiers of importance^ 
efficacy, dignity and awe peculiarly annexed, than are inherent 
^n all the other offices of religion and piety that have the fane- 
tion of divine law.' 

After .other reflexions of this kind, be endeapvours to. 
firengthen his argunnent from a prevailing praAice, * We may 
obferve, it is faid, that the Lord's Supper is in fa^ frequently 
received by thofe who muft be fuppofed to underftand its nature 
luid defign the beft of any men, without any formal preparation 
for it. Do we not daily fee the clergy take it upon fudden 
emergencies ? — Either preparation is neceflary for the worthily 
receiving it, or it is not. If it is neceffary, then the clergyman, 
as well as the layman, muft do wrong when he receives it upon 
fudden emergencies ; and if it js not neceflary, then it cannot 
be wrong in the layman to take it upon a fudden emergency,^ 
aey more than the clergyman, nor needs the former to wait for 
the formality of a preparation any more than the latter. For in 
matters of general obligatton, that can never be pronounced 
a crime in one mai^, which is deemed an a& of propriety 
in another.' 

It (bould however be remarked here, that there is no reafon* 
iBg in fupport of truth from general or particular cuftom, 
though it may be natural in the prefent caiie to think of the 
^dice here oeptioned* We do not find thi^, at this time of 

day. 

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41 . Enptifj into the NeceJJity of Preparation for the Lorfs Supper, 

day^ the very ftriS and. rigorous preparation, which this writer 
fccms principally to oppofe, is commonly and greatly infifted 
on : fome Bookfellers indeed, earneftly folicitou^, no doubt, for 
our fpiritual welfare, do frequently take care before the great' 
fefiivals, to advertize A fVeek's Preparation^ bfc. but othcrwife, wc 
apprehend, men'sbfcntimcnts upon thefe fubjeds have greatly 
abated of- the feverity which formerly prevailed. 

It will never be thought that the Monthly Reviewers are 
advocates for enthufiafm and fuperdition in any of its degrees, 
yet wc cannot but obferve, from the account given in this 
book, and alfo in other treatifes which are judged the mofl 
rational upon the fubjed, that there is a particular diftindion, 
between the inftitution here infiiled upon,^ and the other parts of 
public worfhip : our author, who is wifely folicitous to remove 
every obfiru£Uon to a compliance with an appointment, whiih, 
he fays, is in itfelf fo plain, eafy and inviting, does at the (ame 
time declare againft its being attended by perfons of a diflblute 
life, or fuch who habitually and openly violate the moral laws 
of the gofpel ; yet we imagine, though he places this nV^upon a 
level with other religious duties, he would not be for excluding 
fuch of his fellow-creatures from the other parts of public wor- 
ibip or exercifes of piety, bccaufe he would hope they might 
poffibly prove the means of their being reclaimed ; and what he 
farther offers concerning the nature of the inftitution as bein^ 
declaratory, not only of our faith, but of the moji ferious purpoje 
in rellgiony does feem to imply a more exprefs and p Titive obli- 
.gation, than a common attendance upon the other parts of 
worihip is generally fuppofed to include, it is not our province 
to decide upon the point, nor do we make any pretenfions to it s 
but reflections of this kind have arifen in our minds, while 
employed in reading this and other eiiays of the fame ten« 
dency. 

This Writer, whoever he is, delivcrshis fentiments with great 
candor, and with freedom ; at the fame time he appears i true mem- 
ber of our eftablifhed church) aflenting to fome of its dodrines, 
fo far as he has here occafion to mention them, in what is fup- 
ppfed to be their orthodox meaning. He, for the moft part, 
confiders the fubjed in a rational and feniible manner, yet we 
think, that fometimes his obfervations are not entirely con- 
fiftent, as for inftance, p. 25. having acknowledged that endea- 
vours after greater putity and goodnefs, will be very fuitable to 
this particular aA of duty, he adds, ^ it will make the obfer- 
vance of this inftitution, which, when it is obfcrved in a 
ferious and fmceie remembrance of Chrift, is meritorious^ to be 
ftill more meritorious ;' we were furprized at this expreffion ; 
and, in another place, he himfelf fpeaks very differently and 

juftly. 

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Enquiry into the NiCiJfxtjofPriparathnforthi LorJtsSuppir. 4j 

joftl^) when he fays, < It never was, and in the nature of 
things it ihould feem that it never could be, made in any reli- 
gious difpenfation, the abfolute condition of divine acceptance, 
or the meritorious caufe of obtaining a remifTion of fins/ 

In like manner, though he commonly reprefents it fairly and 
intelligibly, yet in one place be call it, in the languafjge of our 
church, celebrating his foUmn m^eries^ and fays, by faith we 
partake virily and indeed of his body and blood, not by the tran- 
fubftantiation of the outward elements, but by the fpiritual 
iofufion of himfelf and that indwelling power within us, which 
accompanies our participation of thefe elements/ 

Thus alfo, though he pleads fo much and fo properly againft 
the preparation which has been frequently infilled upon, yet it 
appears from his account, that fome recolledion and ferious 
thought beforehand is requifite, as indeed, muft be the cafe, 
unlefs the inftitution is to be regarded, purely as a charm, or a 
mere fuperftitious obfervance; of which he has certainly no 
idea, as we may judge from the following rational fentiments^ 
with which he concludes : 

^ If we would wifh, fays he, to underftand and pradife 
this duty truly, and to rid'ourfelves both of miftaken notions 
and difquieting fcruples about it, let us not feek to be wife 
above what is written ^ let us look for our accounts of it frooi 
what Chrift and his Apoftles have delivered concerning it, not 
from the authority and cafuiftry of men : what they have faid 
and written about it will perplex no man, will difquiet no man^ 
will forbid no man to engage in it, but on the contrary will 
perfuade and invite every man, who can but lay his hand 
upon his heart and a{k himfelf honeftly, if he \s a iincere 
believer in Jefus^ and wifhes and will ftrive to the beft of his 
power to obtain falvation through his mediation. And let us 
not think, that we, in our piety, or our fuperftition, can pof« 
fibly give any honour to his inftitution, by any circumftances or 
chara<9ers of it, with which he himfelf has not declared his in- 
tention to inveft it ; neither let us conceive that to be a low and 
unworthy character of it, in which, whatever it is, he himfelf 
thought fit to communicate, .and leave it to the world/ 

We almoft wonder that a Writer, who generally reafons 
fo juftlv, takes no notice of thofe circumftances of diftance, 
and forbidding folemnity with which this rite is ftill celebrated 
in our church, which tend to make fuperftitious impreffions^ 
and reprefent it very differently from the plain and fimple man- 
ner in which it appears in the Ne^«^ Tcftament j as every perfon 
may immediately perceive, ugon reading the account of it which 
i« tljcrc given, 

A«T.VIU. 

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r 44 3 

Art. VnL The Life of Dr. Seckef^ late Lord ArcbKJhop ofCan^ 
terbury. Continued from our laft Month's Review, p. 467, 

TJAVING already accompanied this very eminent Divine 
t^ as far as the firft ftage of his epifcopal dignities, the 
bithopric of Briftol, we now proceed to take a view of hia 
deportment in that high ftation ; after which we fhall attend his 
lordfliip to his farther promotion, the fee of Oxford, and 
finally, to the fummit of ecclefiaftical greatnefs, — as far as it is 
attainable in this proceftant country. 

The honours to which Dr. Seeker was thus raifed in tbo 
prime .of life, did not in the leaft abate his diligence and 
attention to bufinefs ; for which, indeed, there was now more 
•ccafion than ever. His learned Biographers, Mefll Porteus 
and Stinton, now relate the manner in which he fet about 
the vifitation of his diocefe, and the ceremony of Confirmation^ 
which he performed in a great number of places; he alfo preached 
in feveral churches, fometimes twice a day. The affairs of his 
parifh of St. James's being likewife in great diforder, be took 
extraordinary ^ains to regulate and adjufl: every thing, particu- 
larly tbe management of the poor ; and thus became of fignal 
fervice to his pariftiioners, even in a temporal view. But, fay. 
•ur Authors, ^ it was their fpiritual welfare which engaged, as it 
ought to do, bis chief attention. As far as the circumftances of 
the times, and the populoufnefs of that part of the metropolis 
allowed, he omitted not even thofe private admonitions and 
perfonal applicat'tons which are often attended with the happteft 
effeds.— He allowed out of his own income a falary for^'eading 
early and late prayers,^ which had formerly been paid out of the 
offertory money* He held a confirmation once every year, and 
examined the candidates feveral weeks before in the veftry, and 
gave diem religious traSs, which he alfo diilributed, at other 
times, very liberally, to thofe that needed them« He drew up 
for the ufe of his parifhioners that admirable courfe of Le^uret 
m the Church Catechi/m ♦ which have [hath] been lately pub* 
lifhed, and not only read them once every week on the ufual 
days, but alfo every funday evening, either at the church or 
one of the chapels belonging to it/ 

The fermons which at the fame time, we are told, he fet 
himfelf to compofe, * were truly excellent and original. His 
faculties were now in their full vigour, and he had an audience 
to fpeak before that rendered the utmofl exertion of them 
necefTary. fje did not, however, feek to gratify the higher 
part by amufing them with refined fpeculations, or ingenious 
eSays, unintelligible to the lower part, and unprofitable to 

* See Review, vol. xl. p. 129. 

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Thi Lift &f AfcUi/hf Sscitr. 4 j 

tfotb; but he laid before them all, with equal freedom and* 
plainnefs, th€ great chriftian duties belonging to their refpedivc 
fiations, and reproved the follies and vices of every rank among 
them without diftindion or palliation. He ftudied humaa 
nature thoroughly in all its various forms, and knew what fort 
of arguments would have moft weight with each clafs of men* 
He brought the (ubjtSt home to their bofoms, and did not feem 
to be merely faying ufefql things in their prefence, but addreC* 
iw himfelf perfonally to every one of them. Few ever pof** 
fe&d, in a higher degree, the rare talent of touching on the 
moft delicate fubjeds with the niceft propriety and decorum, of 
faying the moft familiar things without being low, the plaineft 
without being feeble, the boldeft without giving ofFencCi He 
could defcend with fuch iingular eafe and felicity into the mi* 
nuteft concerns of common life, couM lay open, with fo much 
addrefs, the various workings, artifices, and evafions of the 
bumao mind, that bis audience often thought their own parti* 
cohr cafes alluded to, and heard with (urprize their private fen- 
timents and feelings, their ways of reafoning and principles of 
ading, exa£Uy ftated and defcribed. His preaching was, at^he 
fame time, highly rational, and truly evangelical. He ex* 
plained with perfpecuity, he afierted with dignity^ the peculiar 
cbarafleriftic do^nes of the gofpel. He inculcated the utilityt 
the neceffity of them, not merely as fpeculative truths, but aa 
mdtcd inftruments of moral goodnefe, tending to purify the 
hearts and regulate thelive^of men ; and thus, by God's gra* 
cious appointment, as well as by the inseparable <!onneSioa 
between true faith and right practice, leading them to^falvation* 
' Thefe important truths he taught with the authority, the 
tendemefs, die familiarity, of a parent inftruSing his children. 
Though he neither pofiefied nor afFeded the artificial eloquence 
of an orator who wants to amufe or tOxmiflead, yet he had that 
of an honeA man who wants to convince, of a Chriftian 
preacher who wants to reform and to fave thofe that hear him* 
Solid argument', manly fenfe, ufeful diredions, (hort, nervous, 
ftriking ientences, awakening queftions, frequent and pertinent 
applications of fcripture; all thefe following each other in 
quick fucceffion, and coming evidently from the fpeaker's heart, 
enforced by his elocution, his figure *, his .a^ion, and above 

♦ In the latter part of this account of his Grace, the following de« 
icription is given of his perfon : * He was tall, and comely ;. in the 
tulf part of his life flender, and rather confumptive ; bat as he ad* 
vanced in years his conftitation gained flrength, and his Gze in* 
creaied^ yet never to a degree of corpulency that was difproporcionate 
er troublefbme. 

' ^ IThe dignity of his form correfponded with the greatnefs of hit 
aiadj and anipired at all times reipe^ and awe i but peculiarly fo 

whea 

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4$ Tbi Life df JrcbUJhop Seder . 

all by the Cortefponding fanftity of his example, ftamp^d* coft<& 
vi£lion on the minds of his hearers, and fent them hpme with 
impreffions not eafy to be eifaced; It will readily be imagined 
that with thefe powers he quickly became one of the mo(t ad* 
mired and popular preachers of his time/ — Our Authors have 
judicioufly added a remark, that it is not to be expeAed that 
Dr. Seeker's fermons * will now afford the fame pleafure, or 
produce the fame effe£ls, in the clofet that they did from the pul- 
pit, accompanied as they then were v/ith all the advantages of 
\i\s delivery :' ,yet the learned Biographers apprehend it will 
plainly appear, ^ that the applaufe they met with was founded 
no lefs on the matter they contained, than the manner in which 
they were fpoken. 

. In 1737, he fiicceeded to the fee of Oxford, on the promo* 
tion of Dr. Potter to that of Canterbury, then vacant by the 
death jof Archbifbop Wake. 

He was in fuch a degree of favour with the late Prince of 
Wales, that when the unfortunate breach happened between 
the King and bis Royal Highnefs, Bifhop Seeker, whofe in- 
fluence with the prince was.fuppofed much greater than it really 
proved to be, was fent, by his majefty's direction, with a mef- 
fage to his royal highnefs ; which not producing the effects ex-** 
pededfrom it, the Bifhop had the misfortune to incur his Ma« 
jefty's 4ifpleafure.^For this reafon, and becaufe he fometime^ 
a^ed with thofe who oppofed the court, the king did not fpeak 
to him for a great number of years* 

We have here the following anecdote relating to his Lord- 
(hip and the celebrated Sarah duchefs of Marlboroueh. In Oc- 
tober I744t flie was buried at Blenheim, by f iuiop Seeker^ 
whom iht had appointed one of her executors. For this choice^ 
it is obfervedy flie could have no other reafon than the high 
opinion fhe entertained, in common with the reft of the world, 
of his underftanding and integrity ; for he never paid the leaft 
court to her, either by private adulation, or by accommodating 
bis public condud to her Grace's political fentiments.' On his 

when he was engaged in any of the more folemn funflions of reli- 
gion ; into which he entered witR fuch devout earneftnefs and warmth, 
with fo juft a confcioufnefs of the place he was in, and the bofincfs 
he was about, as feemed to raife him above himfelf^ and added new 
life and fpirit to the natural gracefiilnefs of his appearance. 

* His countenance was open, ingenuous, and expreilive of tvtry 
thing right. It varied eaijly with his fpirits and his feelings, fo as 
to be a ^ithfui interpreter of his mind, which was incapable of the 
leaft diillmalation. It could fpeak dejection, and, on occalion, an- 
ger, very ftrongly : but when it meant to fhew pleafure or approba- 
tion, it fofteoed into a moil gracious fmile, and difFiifed over all hit 
features the moft benevolent and reviving complacency that can- be 
imagiaed.' 

being 

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Thi LifiofJrchbiJhopSeclfr. , 4^ 

being made biihop of Oxford, (he paid him fome common civi* 
licies of neighbourhood, and defired, by Lord Cornbufy, to 
fee him. When he had vifited her a few times, fhe requefted 
htm to be one of her executors, and read to him the claufe in 
her will relating to them, in which (he had given each of them 
zooo 1. and indemnified them from any mifiakes which they 
might honeftly make. Before he gave his confent he confulted 
Lord -chancellor Hardwicke upon it, who advifed him to accept 
the truft : — but as he always (poke his mind to her very freely^ 
how much foever it differed from hers, he blamed her for leav- 
ing io much of her eftate to perfons not related to her, and 
particularly for giving any thing to himfelf, who, he told her, 
was as rich as her Grace. Thefe remonftrances fhe did not 
feem. to take well, and never faid any thing more to him about 
her will. He therefore concluded that (he had ftruck him out 
from being one of her executors ; but it proved otherwife : (he 
gave each of them an additional 500 1. — The other executors, 
if we are not miftaken, were the earl of Marchmont, Bever« 
{hamFiimer, Efq; and Dr. Stephens. 

^ Some time before tHis the nation began to be alarmed with 
the appearances of a rebellion. About the middle of February 
1743-4, the King fent a mefTage to parliament, acquainting 
them that the Pretender's fon was meditating an invafion of this 
kingdom from the coaft of France. The biftiop of Oxford took 
the earlieft opportunity, after this declaration, of fignalizing his 
afFe^ion to the government, and exciting that of others, by com- 
pofing a fermon on the ocoafion, which he preached at St. jfamet's 
church on the 26th of the fame month. A motion was made 
in the Houfe of Lords to attaint the Pretender's Ton. It met 
with (bme oppofition, but was ftrenuoufly fupported by the 
friends of the con{litution,.and among others- by Bifhop Seeker, 
who made a fpirited cx;tempore fpoech ih its favour. When 
the rebellion actually broke out in 1745, he fent immediately 
a circular letter upon it to his clergy, and drew up and pro- 
moted an addrefs from them to the king. On his return te 
London in 0£iober, he again preached the above-mentioned 
fermon at his church, and bdth his chapels, with fome altera* 
tions and improvements, and, leaving it to be printed, went 
down to a county-meeting at Oxford, and back again in a few 
days to St. James's, when he prefented his fermon to the king* 
It was iTiMcb read and admired, and has been ranked, by the 
teft judges, among the lirft of xhe many excellent < ones that 
were publi(hcd on that occafion *.' 

' ' ' * ' ' I I I ■ !■ 

* It is now in the volume of fermons printed by himfelf, when 
tilhop of Oxford, in 175S. 

-In 

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^B .fii Lift tfJrcbl^fiyop &ecisr. 

In ^ %r*ing of 1748, Mrs. Seeker died of the gout in hti 
Aomach* She was a woman of great fenfe and merit, but of a 
'Wmk and ftckly conftitution^ The Bi&op's afl^6^ion and ten- 
tdertiefs for her is here particularly noted : btit we muft proceed. 

lo 1750, he was inftalled dean of St. Paul's, for which be 
five in exchange the re£tory of St. James's and his prebend of 
Xkiofaam,— ^ It was no wcinder, fays our Authors, that, after 
.prefiding over Co extenfive and populous a pariOi, for upwardj 
/o( 17 years, be fhould willingly confent to be releafed from « 
JnirthttJi, which began now to grow too great for his (Irength.*- 
When he preached his farewel fermon the whole audience 
jDdtied into tears: he was followed with the prayers and good 
^p^tihes of thofe whom every honeft man would be moft ambi« 
tioua to pleafe; and there are numbers ftiil living, who retain 
a ftrong and grateful lemembrance of his incelTant and tender 
•ibllicitude for their welfaiie. ^ Having now more teifure both 
.to profecttte his^ own ftudies, and to encourage thofe of other85 
he .gave, Dr. Church confiderable afiiftance in his Firfi and Se^ 
€ond Fiftdi^ation of the miraculous Powers f , t^c. againft Dr. Mid- 
idteton *, and be Was of equal ufe to him in his Analyfis (fLord 
jBdftgi/vi/j W^iti J.— About die fame time began the latjc 
-Archdeacon Sharp's controverfy with the followers of Mr. Hut^ 
chinfon, which was carried on to the end of the year 17^5.'-^ 
Bifli^p Seeker, we are told, tead over all Dr. Sharp's papers^ 
amounting to three volumes, ^yo* and correded and improved 
4iicm throughout. 

fiuttbe eafe which this late change of (kuatton gave him was 
IboD difturbed by a heavy and unexpe£ted ftroke, the lofs of 
his three friends, Bifliops Butler, Benfon, and Berkeley, who 
igere all cut off wkhin the fpace of one year. Of thefe emi* 
iient men, who were thus joined in death, as they had been 
(throughout life, and with whom Bi(hop Seeker was moft inti- 
ntatdy conne6ted from bis-earlieft years, two are fo well known 
4x> the world by their immortal writtngs, and the juft applaufe of 
•contemporary authors, that they need no other memorial ; but 
ihc name of Benfon, being written -only on the hearts 
of thofe that knew him, it appeared to our Authors to^eferve 
|»articylar notice in this memoir : and, accordingly, they have 
given a brief {ketch of his life and character, for which we refer 
our Readers to^the work itfelf. 

Our Authors next give an account of the part which Dr« 
fiecfcer bore, in the H<»ufe of Lords, in refpe<^ to the famous 
repeal of the Jew bill 5 fqr which the duke of Newcaftle moved, 
•^ ■ ■ - ■ ■ 

+ Sec Review, »vols. iL and iv. 

X SeeReviev^> vol. xii. p^j^S. 

Und 

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tie Lifi ofArchbifix^ Suktr.^ 49 

inoTed, and wis fcconded by the biibop^ in a fpeech which^ we 
are told,, was remarkably well received. 

< During the whole time that be was dean of St. Paul's, ho 
attended divine fervice con(bntIy ia that cathedral twice, every 
day, whether in refidence or not; and, in concert with the 
other three Refidentiaries, eftabJifhed the cuftom of always 
preaching their own turns in the afternoon, or exchanging with 
each other only. 

^ The fund appropriated to the repairs of the church, having 
by negled and wron^r management, fallen into much confufion, 
be took great pains in examining the accounts, reducing pay* 
ments, making a proper diviiion of expence between the dean 
and chapter on one fide, and the three truftees on the other ;— 
by which means the fund was put on fuch a footingi that !t in* 
creafed afterward confiderably, and pramifed to be fufEcient for 
the purpofes it was defigned to anfwer. In the following year 
he was engaged in another very troublefome tran^dion, nuk- 
ing an agreement with the inhabitants of Su Faith's parifh, 
concerning their fhare in St. Paul's churchyard ; and he left 
behind him a great number of papers relative to both thefe. 
points/— 

In the fummer months he refided conftantly at his epifcopal 
houfe at Cuddefden^ near Oxford. Our authors give an ample 
account of the manner in which he ufually pafied his time 
there ; his agreeable intercourfe with the members of that learned 
Univerfity ; his prudent conduct in the memorable conteft for 
reprefenutives of the county, in 1754; and his feveral exceU 
lent charges to his clergy. 

Though his conduct, in all refpe£b, was fuch as could not fall 
of attrading the notice and efteem of all who wi(hed well to the 
caufe of learning and religion, in whofe thoughts, he had long 
been marked out for the higbeft honours of his profef&on j yet, 
as our authors obferve, be continued in the fee of Oxford 
upwards of 20 years : going on, that whole time, in the fame 
even cour(e of duty, and enjoying with the higheft relifh, thofe 
leifure hours which, his retirement at Cuddcfden fometimcs 
afforded him, for the profecution of his favourite ftudies. 
• * At length, however, his diftinguifticd merit prevailed over 
all the political obflacles to his advancement; and placed him, 
without any efforts or application of his own, in that important 
ftation which he had (hewn himlelf fo well qualified to adorn.' 
On the death of Archbifhop Hutton he was promoted to the fee 
of Canterbury ; and was confirmed at Bow church, April 2r, 
jy^g j.._on which occafion our authors obferve, that in ac- 
cepting this high and burdenfome ftation, Dr, Seeker afted on 
that principle which influenced him through life-; that he 
facrificed his own cafe and comfort to confideratioiu of public 

Rev. July 1770. E utility; 

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|9 Thi Lifi rf AnibiJhopS^eier^ 

uttlitj; Aat the mere fecular advantages of grantfctir wertf 
obje^s below his ambition ; and were, as he knew and felt^ 
but poor compenfations for tbe anxiety and difficulties attending 
ffaem.— — -* He had never once, through his whole life, afked 
preferment for bhnfelf, nor Ihewn any unbecoming eagerneft 
for it ; and the «fe he made of his newty acquired dignhy very 
clearly (hewed, that rank, and wealth, and power^ had in no 
qther light any charms for him, than as .they enlarged the ^heref 
^ his adive ahd induftrioos benevolence/ 

From the time that he was made dean of St. Paul's, we (ind, 
that his late majefty ufed to fpeak to him at his levee occa- 
fionally, but with no particular marks of diftindion ; but after 
he became arehbiftop, the king treated him with much kind- 
nefs, and, on one occasion, was pleafed to aflTure him, very 
particularly, that he was perfeftly fatisficd with the whole of 
his condudl in that ftation. * And, furely,* it is here added, 
* his majefty, as well as his people, had good reafon to be fo ; 
for never did any one ftipport the rank, or difcharge the various 
duties, of a metropolitan, with more true dignity, wifdom, and 
moderation, than Archbifhop Seeker. He confidefed himfelf as 
the' natural guardian, not only of that church over which 
he prefided, but of learning, virtue, and religion at large ; and 
from the eminence on which he was placed, looked round with 
a watchful eye on every thing that concerned them, embracing 
readily all fit opportunities to promote their interefts, and 
opponng, as far as he vras able, all attempts to injure them/ 

He fought out, and encouraged, men of real genius or ex- 
tenfive knowledge— he expended 300/. in arranging and im- 
proving the manufcript Kbrary at Lambeth ; and obferving with 
concern, that the library of printed books in that palace^ had 
received no additions fince the time of Archbifhop Tennrfon, 
be made it his bufinels to colIe£t books in all languages from 
moft parts of Europe at a very great expcnce, with a view of 
fupplying that chafm ; which he accordingly did, by leaving 
them to the library at his death : and thereby rendered that 
colleAion one of the nobleft and moft ufeful in the king- 
dom. 

All defigns and inftitutions which tended to advance good 
morals and tri^e religion, he patronized with zeal and gene- 
lofity : he contributed largely to the maintainance of fchools for 
the poor ; to rebuilding or repairing parfonage houfes, and places 
of worfhipj and gave no lefs than 600/. towards ercfting a 
chapel in the parifh of Lambeth. To the fociety for promoting * 
chriftian knowledge he was a liberal benefaftor ; and to that for 
propagating the gofpel in foreign parts, of which he was the 
prefident, he paid much attention ; was conflant at ^11 the 
meetings of its members^ even fometimes when his he^ilth 

would 

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Th Life of Arthbljhop Sithr. $1 

^otiid but ill permit, and fuperintended their deliberations with 
tonfummate prudence and temper. * He was fincerely defirous, 
fay our authors, to improve to tbe utmoll that excellent infti^ 
iution, and to difFufe the knowledge and belief of Chriffianity 
as wide as the revenues of the fociety and the extreme difficulty 
cf eftablifhing fchools and miffions among the Indians, and of 
making any eiFeSual and durable impreflions of religion on 
their uncivilized minds, would admit/ But Dr. Mayhew, of 
Bofton in New England, having, in an angry • pamphlet^ 
accufed the fociety of not fufficiently anfwering th^fc good pur- 
^ofes, and of departing widely from the fpirit of their charter j 
With many injurious reflections interfperfed on the church of 
£nglahd, and the defign of appointing bifbops iti America; hit 
Grace, on all thefe accounts, thought himfelf called upon to 
confute his invtedives: which he did in a fhort anonymous 
piece entitled. An Afifwer to Dr. Mayhew*8 Obferoattovs erl tht 
Charter and ConduSf of the Society for propagating the GofpeL [See 
Rev. Vol. XXX. p. 284.] Our authors- give an account of the 
progrefs of this controvelrfy, of the advantage the prelate had 
over the Prcfbyterian, and of the ihare Mr. Apthorpe f , ano- 
ther of Dr. Mayhew's antagoriifts, had in the difputc : they 
havealfo obferved, in vindication of the fcheme for introducing 
bffhops into America, that ^ pofterity will ftand amazed when 
they are told that^ xxn this account, the archblfbop's memory has 
fccen purfued in pamphlets and news-papers, with fuch unre- 
lenting raticour, fuch wantonnefs of abufe, as he ^onX^fcara % 
have defetvedy had he attempted to eradicate Christianity 
but of America, and to introduce Mahometanism in its 
room : whereas, the plain truth is, that all he wifhed for, was 
liothing more thart what the very beft friends to religious freedom 
tver have wiihed for, a compleat toleration for the Church of 
England in that country. What an idea muft it give of his 
Grace's character to have fuch/ a circumftance fingled out by his 
bittereft revilcrs as the moft exceptionable part of it ! 

* But though the archbifhop was a fincere and avowed friend 
to that meafure, yet it Was by no means the only or the princi- 
pal objeft of his concern in regard to the colonies. The 
advancement of true piety and learning, the converfion of the 
Indians and Negroes, as far as it was practicable, the eflablifh- 
inetit of proper fchools, the diftribution of ufeful books, the 
good conduft of the millionaries, the prefervation of peace and 
harmony among the different religious communities in thofc 

• %€^ Review, Vol. xxx. page 45. . 
f Sec Review, Vol. xxxii. page 472. 

X We have printsil fome words in this fentencc emphatuaVy^ the 
plainer to point out xVt Jlrength of this remark, which fhcws the r#f- 
uiifi'Vi candor of the gentlemen who xxx^j^t i^c. 

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5X T^e Life of Archbijhop Sechr* 

j^arts of the BrttMh Empire i thefe things had a very large fhare. 
in his thoughts, and in the correfpondence which he conftantl)^ 
kept up with a few of the ableft and wprthieft men in the 
American provinces. The letters which he wrote to them, Oa 
thefe and fuch hke fubje£ls, are highly expreflive of his pafloral 
ch^rafler ; and reprefent in a very pic'afing light his truly bene- 
volent difpofition, his condefcenfion to perfons of the loweft 
Aation, his indefatigable application to every affair that came 
before him, his zeal to promote the interefts of religion in 
general, and the church of England in particular; not. by 
warm and violent counfels, but by methods of tendemefs and 
Brotherly kindnefs toward thofe who embraced a di£FerenC 
intereft. Of thefe things the Amerhans will ever retain a 
grateful remembrance ; and have, in their letters to this coun- 
try, exprefled their fenfe of his kind intention to them in the 
ftrongeft and moft affectionate terms/ 

It has often been faid that Archbi(hop Seeker bad the princt* 
pal (bare in procuring the late Mr. Annet's profecution^ for 
writing his Free Enquirer ; and the fad has alfo been denied by 
fome friends of his Grace's : whether the fcJlowing paragraph 
alludes' to that tranfa£tion in particular, or to the archbi&op's 
general conduct in affairs of that kind, is beft known to our 
authors themfclvcs. We (hall give the pafiage, as it (hnds in 
their work, viz. 

* Whenever any publications came to his knowledge that 
were manifeftly calculated to corrupt good morals, or fubvert 
the foundations of Cbriftianity, he did his utmoft to ftop the 
circulation of them : yet the wretched authors themfelves he was 
(b far from wiihing to treat with any undue rigour, that he has 
more than once extended bis Bounty to them in diftrefs. And 
when their writings could not properly be fuppreffed (as was too 
often the cafe) by lawful authority, he engaged men of abilities 
to anfwer * them, and rewarded them for their trouble. His 
attention was every where. Even the falfeboods and mifrepre- 
(entationof writers in the news-'papers, on religious or eccle- 
fiaftical fubjci^, he eeneralty took care to have contradided i 
and when the^ feemed likely to injure, in any material degree, 
the caufe of virtue and religion, or the reputation of eminent 
and worthy men, he would fometimes take the trouble of an- 
fwering them himfelf. One inftance of this kind, which does 
him honour, and deferves mention, Was his defence of Biihop 
Butler J who, in a pamphlet publilhcQ in 1767, was accufed <rf 
having died a Papiji. This ftrange (lander, founded on the 

• Dr. Portcus, one of the Editors of the prefent publication, an- 
fwered, from the pulpit, the noted Hiji^ry ofthfMan afier God's onvm 
HiArt ; bot whether that was before or fince he was made chaplain t» 
ilie Arckbilhop, we do not reoolled* 



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Tbi Lift of Arcbbtjhop Sickm. 53 

wealreft pretences, and moft trivial circumftances that can be 
imagined, no one was better qualified to confute than the 
archbUhop ; as well from his long and intimate knowledge of 
Bifliop Butler, as from the information given him at the time, 
by thofe who attended his lordibip in his laft illnefs, and were 
with, him when he died. Accordingly, by an article in a news- 
paper iigned MiJhpfeudeSy his Grace challenged the author of 
that pamphlet to produce his authority for what he had ad- 
vanced } and in a fecond article defended the bifhop againft him r 
and in a third, aU with the fame fignature, confuted another 
writer, who, under the name of « nal Proteftant^ (till main- 
tained that ridiculous calumny. His antagonifts were effe<^ua)Iy 
jiibdued, and fuperiority to them was publicly acicnowledged by 
a fenfible and candid man wh(/ figned himfelf, and who really 
was, a Diffintting Minifler,* — Surely, as it is well obferved by 
•ur worthy biographers, * it is a very unwife piece of policy, in 
thofe who profefs themfelves enemies to popery, to take fo much 
pains to bring the refpe^ble names within its pale ; and to 
give it the merit of having gained over thofe who were the 
brighteft ornaments and firmeft fupports of the Pjroteftant 
caufe !'— 

* The condu£t which he obferved towards the feveral divi- 
iions and denominations of Chridians in this kingdom, was fuqh 
as (hewed his way of thinking to be truly liberal and catholic. 
The dangerous fpirit of popery, indeed, he thought, (hould 
always be kept under proper legal reftraints, on account of its 
natural oppofition not only to the religious but the civil rights of 
mankind. He therefore obfervied its movements with care^ and 
exhorted his clergy to do the fame, efpecially thofe who were 
fituated in the midft of Roman Catholic families ; againft whofe 
influence they were charged to be upon their guard, and were 
furnilhed with proper books, or inftrufiions for that purpofe. 
He Cook all fit opportunities of combating the errors of the 
church of Rome in his own writings * ; and the beil anfwers 
that were publifhed tofome of the late bold apologies for popery, 
were written at his inftance, and under his diredion. — 

• With the Dijfenters his Grace was fmcerely defirous of 
cultivating a good underftanding.— He confidered them ia 
general, as a confcientious and valuable clafs of men.— With 
lon\e of the moil eminent of them. Watts, Doddridge, Leland, 
Chandler, Lardner, he maintained an intercourfe of friendlhip 
•r civility. By the moft candid and conftderate part of them he 

♦ See particolarly his fermons on the rebellion in 174? ; on th» 
Troteftant workinjr fchools in Ireland; on the 5th of November ; and 
a great number of occafional pafTages to the fame purpofe, in x^rious 
parts of his le(turc9, jfermons, and other works* 

E 3 ^ T WW 

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54r. fii Lifi 9f Archhtfl>op Suhtr. 

was highly tcycrcnccd and eftecmcd; and to fuch among tbeii|' 
as needed help, he (hewed no lef^ kindnefo and liberality tha^ 
to thofe of his Qwn coftirtiMnion, 

^ Nor was his concern for the proteftant caufe cpn(u>ed ta hit 
own cbuntry. He wa^ well known as the great patron and' 
prote^Sor of it in various parts of Europe 5 from wheiice h^ had- 
freqvieilt applications fpr afliftance^ which never failed of being;^ 
favourably deceived. To feveral foreign Proteftants he allowed 
peniions, to others he gave occafional relief, and tft fome of their 
^iverfities was an annual benefafior.'— 

* la public affairs his Grace a6led the part 0/ aii honeft 
citizen, and .a worthy member of the Britifli legiflature. f^ovsk 
Ilia firft entrance into the Hoi^fe of Peers, his parUanientary: 
Condu£l was uniformly. upright and noblei He kept equally 
ddai! from the extremes of fadious petulance and fervile depen« 
flonce ; never wantonly thwarting adminiftration, from mouyef 
of party zeal, or private pique, or perfonal attachment, or a 
pafflon for popularity j nor yet going every lepgth with every 
ininifter, from views of intereft or ambition. He admired anq 
lov'd the conftttution of bis country, and wifhed to prcferve it 
linalter'd and unimpaired. So long as a due regard to this wa^ 
fiiaintained, he thought it'his duty to fupport the qieafures of 
government, but whenever they were evidently inconfiflent wit& 
the public welfare, he oppofed them with freedom and ii^mncfs. 
Yet hi? oppofition was always tempered with the utmoft 
fc'elity, refpccl, and decency, to the excellent prince yipon the 
throne^ and the mod candid allowances for the unavoidably 
frrors and infirmities even of the very heft mipiftcrs, and thei 
peculiarly difficult fituation of thofe who govern a free arid high 
Ijpirited p<x)p]e. He feldom fpoke in parliament, except where 
the irfterefl^ of religion and virtue feemed to require it ; but 
whenever lie did, he fpoke with propriety and ftrength, and 
ix^s heard with attention and deference. Though he nevei^ 
tttacli'd hlmfelf blindly to any fet of men, yet his chief politic^ 
^onnexionB were with the late D. of Nevrcaftlc, and L. Ch. 
Har(fwicke. To thefp he principally owed his advancement^ 
and he had the good fortune %o live long enough to Ihew 
his gratitude to them or their defcendentSv' — 

* During more than ten years that Dr. Seeker enjoyed the feq 
of Canterbury, he refided Conftantly at his archiepifcopal houfe 
at Lambeth. --A few moiiths before his 4eatb) trie dreadfu) 
pains he felt had compelled him to think of trying, the fiatfaf 
waters ; but that defign was fiopped by the fatal accjdejpt which 
put an end to his life, 

* Hjs Grace had been for niany years (ubjeA to the goutf 
which, in the latter part of his life, returned, with more fre- 
quency and yiolencc> and did not go off in a regular manner* 

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fit Life rfArcWJk^ Sniiri 55 

bat left the parts affeded for z long time very weak, aftd was 
facceeded by pains in difi^rent parts of the body. Aboot 
a year and a half before he died^ after a fit of the %p^U he 
was attacked with a pain in the arm, near the (boulder, which 
having continued about 12 months, a fimilar pain feized the 
upper and outer part of the oppofite thigh, and the arm foon 
became eaiier/ This was much more grievous than the former, 
as it quickly diiabled him from walking, and kept him i^ almoft 
continual torment, except when he was in a reclining pofition. 
During this time he had two or three iits of the gout ; but 
neither the gout nor the medicines alleviated thefe pains, which^ 
with the want of exercife, brought him into a general bad 
.'habit of body« 

« On Saturday July 30, 1768, he was feized, as he fat at 
dinner, with a ficknefs at his flomach. He recovered before 
night, but the next evening, while bis phyficians were attend- 
ing;, and his fervants raifing him on his couch, he fuddenljf 
cried out that his thigh-bone was broken. The Oiock was fo 
yiolent, rhat the fervants perceived the couch to (hake under 
liim, and the pain f6 acute and unexpe£^ed, that it overcante 
^e firmnefs he fo remarkably poflTeflTed. He lay for fome time in 
.great agonies ; but when the furgeons arrived and difcovered 
i^itb certainty that the bone was broken, he wa^ perfedUy re* 
(igned, and never afterwards aflced a queftion about the event. A 
(ever foon enfued } on Tuefday he became lethargic, and con<» 
tinned fa till about five o'clock on Wednefday afternoon, when 
)ie expired with great calmnefs, in the 75th year of his 

< On examination, the thigh- bone was found to be carious 
about 4 inches in lengthy and at nearly the fame diftance from' its 
bead. The difeafe took its rife from the internal part of the 
bone, and had fo entirely deftroyed its fubfiance, that nothing 
femaiiied at the part where it was broken but a portion of its 
outward integument; and even this had many perforations, one 
f>f which was large enough to admit two fingers, and was filled 
with a fungous fubftance ariiing from within the bone. There 
was no appeal ance of matter about the caries, and the furround- 
ing parts were in a (bun J ftate. It was apparent tha^ the torture 
which be underwent dunng the gradual corrofion of this bone, 
fnuft have been inexpreflibly great. Out of tendernefs to hts 
iamily he (eldom made ^ny complaints to them, but to his 
ph]r(icians l^e frequently declared bis pains were fo excruciating, 
that unlefs feme relief could be procurec), he thought it would 
be impo^ble fpr human nature to fupport them long. Yet he 
bore them for upwards of fix months with aftoniihing paticncs 
and fortitude \ fat up generally the greater pare of the day, ad* 
Daitted his particular fri^ds to fee him> mixed with his family 

fi 4 at 

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^ 56 TbiJjifi tflrAhiJbi^ Seeker^ 

at the ufual hour», fometimei with his ufual chearfalnefs ; aiil^ 
except ipme very ^ighc defefb of memory, retailed all his facul- 
ties and fenfes in their full vigour, till within a few days of his . 
death. He was buried, purfuant to his own dire^ons, in 
a covered pafl'age, leading froin a private door of the palace to 
the north door of Lambeth church ; and he forbad any monu- 
ment or q>iuph to be placed over him ! 

^ 3y bis will he appointed the reverend Dr. Daniel Burton^ 
canon of Chrift church, and Mrs. Catherine Talbot *, already 
meotioned in tb^ courfe of thefe memoirs, his executors ; and 
left 1 3,000 1. to the Drs. Porteus and Stinton, his chaplains, in 
trvft ; to pay the intoreft thereof to Mrs. Talbot and her 
daughter, during their joint lives, or the life of the furvivor; 
and after the deceafe of both'thofe ladies ; tlien 1 1,000 of the faid 
13,0001. are to be transferred to chariuble purpofes : among 
which are 1,000 to the fociecy for (he propagation of the gofpel, 
and ] ,000 tQ the fame fociety, for a bi(hop or biihops in the 
king*5 dominions in America.' 

The remainder of this valuable piece of biography is etnployed 
in delineating, at full length, the pidure, both perional and 
mental, of this eminent metr6poIitan i in which an idea of the ori- 
ginal is given, the moil advantageous that can well be conceived 
o( mortal man ; we doubt not, however, that Dr. Seeker really 
deferved all the honours that are here paid to his memory. To 
fome, no doubt, as out authors themfelves obferve, in their 
conclufion, the portrait here drawn of him will appear a very 
.flattering one; but it will, fay they, be much eafier to call 
than prove it fi;ch. ' * Nothing, they aver, has been advanced 
but what is founded on the moft authentic evidence, nor has any 
tircumfl^ance been defignedly ftrained beyond the truth. And 
if his Qrace did really live and ad in fuch manner that the moft 
faithful delineation of his conduct muft neceflarily have the air 
of a panegyric, the fault is not i|i the copy, but in the origin 
nal/ 

Our authors finally conclude with the following cefledion on 
the attacl^^ that have been made on this great man's charader, 
iiotwithdanding its uncommon defert : 

* After this plain reprefentation of fa£t.«, U cafm'>t be thought 
neceiTary to enter into a particular examination of the various^ 
falfchoods which his Cirace's enemies have fo induftrioufly cir* 
culaced, in order to fix, if poillble, fome ftain upon his repu- 

"' m »^— 1 ii M I I III I , 

* This lady, we ai^ie iDformed, was author of the little trad on the 
religious improvement rftkejtvtn dsys ofthi week, mentioned in our 
laft Month's. Catalogue. Thi^ excellent pcrfon did not long furvive 
the Archbiihop. She died OA the 9th of January laft, im ^e 491!^ 
year of her age* • - ^ ' 

* ' ^ation^ 

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KtnmcotCs Collation o/Hehrtw MSB. cfth Old Tijanunt. 57 

tation. It would be very unreafonable to expe£l that he, of a!l 

others, fo high in rank, and fo aflivc in the difcharge of hif 

duty, Ihould, amidft the pref^nt rage of defamation, efcape 

without his full (hare of cenfure ; and it would be very weak to 

apprehend the leaft ill confec^uences from it» There is fo little 

doubt from what quarter thofe invedives come, and to what 

caures thev are owing, that they do not appear to have made 

the flightelt impreffion on any unprejudiced mind, and for want ^ 

of ground to fupport them, are finking hourly into oblivion. 

If a life fpent like Archbilhop Seeker's, and a fpirit fuch as 

breathes through every page of his writings, are not a fufEcient 

coiWktation of all fuch idk calumnies, it is in vain to think that 

any thing elfe can be fo. All that his friends have to do, is to 

wait a little while, with patience and temper. Time never 

£iiil8 to do ampl^juftice to fuch chara£lers as his; which, if 

left to themfelves, will always rife by their own force, above the 

utmoft effbrts^ made to deprefs them, and acquire freSi luftre, 

evo-y day, in the eyes of all confiderate and difpaffionate men ! 

. We Ihall give an account Of the Sgrmom m our next. 

; ■ ■ ' ' ■ — ' ' ■ ' ■ * 

Art. IX. The Ten Annual AccounU of the CollaUon of Hebrew 

MSS. of the Old Teftament ; begun in 1760, and compleated in 

1769 ; By Benjamin Kennicott, D. D. F. R. S. Member of 

. the Koyal Society of Sciences at Goettingen 5 the Theodore 

Palatine Academy, ^t Manhcimj the Rc^al Academy of 

infcriptions, i(c. at Paris ; Keeper of the Radcliff Library, 

and Fellow of E^^eter Cqllege, ii> Oxford. 8vo. 26. 6d. 

Rivingtort> &c, 1770, 

WE have here an account of a work which does great 
honour to the erudition and induftry of thofe who have 
been immediately employed in its execution, and alfo to thofe 
who, with fo much liberality and public fpirit, have contributed 
to its fupport. Drl Kennicott has wifely thought himfelf 
obliged annually to lay before the fubfcrjbers a Oiort hiftory of 
the progress made in this undei tallying, and alfo of the ftate of the 
iubfcription, and this has been always attended (according to 
the method propofed by the deletes oftheprefs in the univerfity 
.of Oxford) with a certificate in favour of the collation, and of 
the diligence and care with which it was conduced, figned by 
Pr. Hunt, the royal profeflbr of Hebrew. Dr. Kennicott hav- 
ing now accompHfhed his great enterprife, prefixes to an account 
of the laft year, thofe of the nine preceding years ; and here 
prefents them all together to the public. 

In his introduAion we are informed, that, for fome years 
nfter be had learned the Hebrew language, be continued ftrongly 
prqudiced so favour of the integrity of our Hebrew text : taking 
^ tot granted^ he hpf that if the printed copies of the HebreiAr 

bible 

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5f Kcunicott'i CoMion of Hebrew MSS. rfthe OUT^ktmM. 

bible at all differed from the originals of Mofes dnd tbd prapbet9» 
(bip variations were v<;ry few and quite incoofiderabk. ^ But« 
he adds, in defiance of tbefe prejudices, I became convinced* ia 
the ye^r 1748, that oi^r Hebrew text had fufFered from trafi- 
fcribers, at leaft as much as the copies of other ancient 
writings ; and that there are now fuch corruptions in this {acred 
volume, as afFe£l the fenfe greatly in many mflancei. The 
particular chapter which extorted from me this conviction, and 
ivhipb was benevolently recommended to my perufal (for this 
yery purpofe) by the reverend Dr, Lowtb, now Lord Bifhop of 
Oxford, is the 23d chapter of the fecond book of Samuel* 

In confequence of this convi^ion a difTertation on this chap- 
iter was publiibed in 1753 : it was accompanied with an account 
0f fevcnty Hebrew MSS, which Dr^.Kcnnicott had then dif- 
covered, fpecifying alfo feveral inftances of their various read^ 
ingt, which he found to be numerous and important. 

In the beginning of 1760, our author fHihWttitd.aficond diJ/eT'^ 
tMton on the. print^ Hekrew text^ having then feen 1 10 MSS. of 
the whole, or parts, of the Hebrew bible. The additional dif- 
coveriea hereby made, engaged feveral eminent perfons , and 
particularly the late Archbi(hop of Canterbury, ftrenuoufly to 

Srfuade him to apply to this bufmefs of collating the MSS^ 
r. Kennicott confented and immediately entered upon tho 
cmploymefft 5 to affift and encourage which, a fubfcdption wa^ 
then opened, and has been ever fince annually continued, in si 
iioble and munificent manner, anfwerable to an undertaking ib 
<ruly valuable and worthy of fupport. But heft any perfona 
Ihould infer more from it than was really intended, and that the 
author may not be fuppofed to have promifed what was out of 
his po^er to perform, (1. e. to collate all the MSS. of tho 
Hebrew bible in Europe) he thinks it heceflary to ftate, that the 

plan was * precifely this to collate all the mSS^ of the Hebrnu 

bible in Great Britain and Ireland (all fuch as (hould be difcovered, 
and the ufe of which could be obuined if deftred ;} andy whil/i 
this work was carrying on (which it was fappofcd might require 
at leaft ten years) that cdlatims of as many of the befi foreign AISS^ 
fhould be procuredy as time and expence would allow,* Such was the 
propofal ; at to the manner in which it has been conduced 1 
how far properly, or the contrary — ^ this, we are told, ha^ 
been already (as far as nine years) fubmitted to the fuhfcribers z 
and the whole is here prefented to them^ and fubmitted alfo to al| 
others, who (ball perufe the ten annual accomts^ which fbllo^ in 
their order.* 

From thefe accounts M appears, that this great work> has not 
only been properly and honourably counter^anoed by his Majefty^ 
and by -numbers among the great and the learned at home, but 
•bat alfo met with y^ry confiderable favour and encouragemrent 

abroad^ 

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£enntc6tt^x Colfatm ofHtlrew MiS, eftht 014 Tejkmmu %% 

abroad, many collations of Hebrew MSS. having been coimiu|« 
nicated with great ffcedom and atteiition from moft of tk^ 
foreirn countries in Earope, a|)d that in ieveral jnftances wit^ 
pecuUar marks of xt{^&^ lK>tt) to the defign itfelf and (o thoif 
pBga^ed in its profecotion. 

. Africa has alfo furniihed h6r quota^^ ;ind Afia has, or it U 
fxpeAed will, contribute fon>e aigftance, and even Americ4 
feems likely to afford its aid^ for the Dodlor this year ac(|uaint9 
lift Wi^ an ,itift)nn?ft}on htely fent him by the reverend Dr, 
Cooper, prtfident of King's College, New York, in America, 
wbich is^ th^t a worthy and benevolent old gentleman, of the 
Jewifh perftiaGon, living in that city, is in poSeflion of a MS. of 
very great astiquity, concainins the whole Hcbeew bible, which 
be Would probably fend to England, if it was properlyvrequefted, 
^nd which, we «re told, has accordingly been done. 

As many, perhaps moft of our readers, have one way of 
soother feeil fbme or all of the nine annual accounts which 
tiftve been regularly publi(bed at their proper times, it wil) not 
be requifite for us to add f^irther particulars about them, but 
onJy to take nptice of the tenth with which t^e author dofes hi$ 
4e£^ i that is, fo far clofes it as to have accomplifhed, and 
rather exceede^l, what be at firft engaged for to the public s for 
ft appears that there are fome farther collations expeded froni 
abro»l, and alfo fome additions and improvements which he In- 
tends to piirftie bimfelf, and with the affiftance oJF others, in 
prder to render the work as complete and perfed as poffible. 
When we fay that the author h^ rather exceeded bis firft 
engageodents to the public, we refer to what he bimfelf tells us, 
tk^t this \MK)rk has hetn ^ greatly extended beyond the firft idea 
^ itt — not only by the additioq of feyeral other MSS. — but 
alfo by the addition of^ printed editions, of th^, whole Old 
Teftament ; and of^ printed editions of very large ports of it ; 
for in thefe twihie editions are contained near otn nundf'id w%i 
fac^ Amfi&fd vtxiey* In regard to thefe old printed iditiont^ it 
had been before obferved, that they differ greatly from the later 
obes, and Qgree moft with the oldeft and beft MSS. < The 
veiy nurneroiis and interefting variations, it is added, in ib many 
printed idki0kti efpecially the oldeft, as it was a kind of evidence 
totally uiie0cpeded| {o was it the more welcome, for appearing 
when a ccfHation of the MSS. was far advanced. The work 
bad before, while refting on the many differences in the MSS* 
been recommended only on the point of expediency y but whoi 
liipported alfo by the many diSerences in the printed copies, was* 
as it deoMnid^d to be, urged and prefled more ftrpngly, as ^ 
matter of hecMty.^ 

Dr. Kennicott endeavours to invalidate and confute fevtral 
|i%}eA]oiM iftbicfa haye bien Tai^^ againft his defign, after which ' 

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6o KennlcottV Collation of Hebrew MSS. of the Old Tefament: 

he lays before his fubfcribers fome particulars by which (he coH*^ 
eluding year has been diftinguKhed. The fim article he fpe- 
cifies, as an article of fin^lar honour, is, that the fubfcription^ 
fo far from finking towards the clofe of this long woilc, was in 
the year 1768 larger than at any, time before, and in the con* 
eluding year it has rifen abdve the year preceding : and thU 
augmentation, we are informed, is principally owing to th^ 
munificence of the Prince of Orange. 

After fome other particulars of this kind, a brief account is 
given of what has been, or will very (hortly be, performed in 
this undertaking ; that the reader may judge how far he has 
fulfilled the propofal which was firft made, and which has been 
given above. * The number of Hebrew MSS. preferved in 
our own kingdom, which have been collated on this occafion^ 
amounts to 140. The number of y^^r^/^ collations^ received 
already, or likely to be received foon, amounts to 113. And 
the collations of the whole^ or parts^ of the printed Hebrew bible^ 
are I2. Confequently the total of collations for the benefit of 
this work, is 265 ; probably mbre by above lOO, than have as 
yet been made of any other ancient book, even of the New 
I'eftament — though the Old Tcftamcnt is nearly three times 
larger than the^^wj the verfes in die former being 231 85, 
and in the latter being only 7959. And it will not perhaps be 
forgotten, Aat notwithftanding this great difference in the fize 
of thefe volumes of the Old and New Teftament, and the ftill 
greater difference in collating the Greek MSS. by whole words^ 
and the Hebrew MSS. \>yfingle letters ; yet did the New Tefta- 
Bicnt employ the very learned and very laborious Dr. Mill (here 
at Oxford likewife) not ten years only, but thirty/ * But, con- 
tinues . Dr. Kennicott, though the collation, thus undertaken^ 
ht now fini&ed ; there muff be an interval oifomeysorsy before 
this work can be preparedfor the prefs, and ot fome more years 
before it can be publi(hed. 

AH that I can (ay at prefent, with regard to the time which 
this preparation will require, is, that I am certain only of thefe 
two things. — Firft ; that (when the difficulty of fixing upon the 
mfi proper method fball have been got over) the fcleding, con* 
meiSing, adapting, tranfcribing, and re-tranfcribing fuch an 
infinity of materiaJs, will (if poflible) exceed in fatigue the 
paft collation. — Secondly ; that, if I (hould fix a period (which 
jjideed is not in my power) even that would fubjed me to as 
ijgid a flavery, as I have already experienced from fixing a for- 
mer term : and this at an advanced time of life, and under a 
broken ftate of health ; both which require much more exerctfe, 
^nd lefs intenfive application, then 1 have for the laft twenty 
▼ears allowed myfelf. But, as my patrms may in fome meafure 
judge^ from the preceding ftate of things, what expence ftfll 
iltoids my work abroadi in the wa^ of colUtion } and what 

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M B D I C A t^ tl 

opence may be neceflary for the purchafe of fome MSS. from 
Afia, where they cannot be collated : fince they fee alfo the 
voluntary but expenfive engagement I have entered into/or the 
further examination of the European MSS. and fince they will 
certainly 'Conclude, that this work cannot be prepared by me for 
the prefs, without feveral affiftants '^ it muft be, and it bere^ 
humbly fubmitted to the greater and more illuftrious among my 
fiatTMs^ upon what plan of fupport and encouragement I am now 
to proceed/ 

To this he adds an account of the whole amount of the Tub* 
Icription, which is upwards of nine thoufand pounds, and 
endeavours to defend himfelf againft the fuppofed whi/pers of 
detradion, which would infinuate how comfortable a thing 
a tnift of this kind muft be in the hands of any man, who had 
in great meafure the fecret difpofal of it. From the account 
here given, it appears, to ufe his own words, that ^ inftead 
of near 5000 1.-— which in the opinion of fome of my chief 
patrons, ought to have been referved to niyfelf — ^and which if I 
had meant to be my own pav-mafter, and not confulted the^ 
honour of my work, I might have fecured — ^I'find royfelf pof- ' 
fefled of about 500 1. in virtue of this fubfcripdon : after tm 
years fpent in recommending fuch a work to others, and another 
ten years fpent by myfelf in the execution of it.' Of this 590 L 
1; far as we can learn, the greateft part, if not the whole^ 

iy likely to be confumed in completing fome farther articles for 
'he collation, about which poper perfons are now employed, 

' As this is a work of great learning, labour, and importance^ 
we have been more particular in our account. Aflany may have 
no other method of being acquainted with it ; and /the more it 
is known and undeffiood, the more likely is it to be fupported 
and encouraged. 

MONTHLY CATALOGUE, 

For JULY, 1770. 

Medical. 
Art. 10. LiiUrs to the Ladies ^ on the Prefervatlon tf Health and 
Beauty. By a Phyfician. Small 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Robinfbn and 
Roberts. 1770. 

THE iirft. letter containing a kind of romantic accoant of oujr 
Author's particiilar qualifications for the tafk he has under- 
taken, we ihail lay it before oqr Readers. 

* So great is the influence of the female fex over the hearts of 
nankincC and of fuch importance the perfe^on of the fair, both 
natural and moral, to the happinefs of fociety, that every endeavour 
to promote t)ieir accompliihments ought to be regarded as a work of 
paolic utility. In what relates to the more qifcntial part of your con- 
dod. Ladies, you have already been in£enioii(ly and pathetically ad* 

dreir^dy 

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^i MonI* HtV CXtAtOGUBl 

ircGtd, in a courfe of tbrmons the mod animated that ever wortf 
ivrote ; ajid of which the elegance and putity mafl attract the ap- 
probation of all readers of fentiment and taile. Bat the great inftaa*^ 
ration of your attainmehts is yet but half finilhed. The corporeal 
may be itnproted, as well as the mental part : and, I prefeme, yea 
are io fenfible of the charms of exterior embellifbinenc, that I need 
not u(e any argument to induce you td th^ pradice of whatever faae 
a tctidchcy thereto. I propoii^ therefore, to profecOte this fubje^ in 
a feries of letters, wherein I fhall inform you not only of the moft 
approved ejicpeditnu for the prefervation and improvement of beauty, 
together with the inconveniences refulting from the improper me- 
thods ufed for that end ; but (hall alfo indrudl you in the ctire of ie-' 
veral complaints to which a life of pleafure and fafhionable gaiety 
render vou particularly^ fubje^. Upon this plan, my epiftles may 
be conftdcred as a verv proper fupplement to the ingenious predac* 
tlons abevis-mentioned : and if the author, who has gone before mc, 
has fumiihed yon with fuck noble precepts as may. make you all'> 
glorious within^ I ihall, in my capacity, teach you by what n^etbodl 
to becon^ all-gloripus without. How far I am qualified for this ar-^ 
dnous und6rt;^ing, will beil appear from the teHiioony of tlioie 
who (hall follow the rules I inculcate ; and by fuch a di^tetrminatioii 
\ willingly fobmit to be tried. In (he mean time, it may not be 
improper to inform you of the extraordinary opportunities I have en* 
joyed of acquiring a proficiency in the cofmetrc art. 

* When I had jud completed my academical education , an oppor- 
tunity o&red of traveUtng with a youlig geatlemaa of great fortanc^ 
in quality both of phyfician and companion. Mr. " ■ ■ * • " , beio|r 
of an amorous and roving di(jpofitiony and under the care'of tne mm 
ijidulgent guardtai^» it was determined that, befides making the 
grand tour, we ihould travel iato Turkey ; and, if we fou^ it prac-% 
ticable, continue our rgute even as far as Circaflia, to have Uie plea* 
fure of beholding a race of women fo much celebrated over the world 
for their extraordinary beauty. The idea of fo delightful z propofal 
flattered my youthful imagination no lefs than that of my ^end^ 
and with a genteel retinae we fet oiFon the pleafant expedition, the 
happieft of mankind. Five complete years did we roap over the va* 
rious regions of the Ottoman empire. When it was known to what 
profeffion I belonged, which, fbrefeeing the profpe^ it opened of 
gratifying my natural curiofity, I induflrioufly propagated, I was 
continually requcfted by the muiTulmen to give ^dvice for fome of 
the ladies in their harams, where, under the pretext of my compa* 
nion being alfo a fon of Efculapius, I often procured him to be ad- 
mitted into confultation. The familiarity which was allowed us by 
the women on thefe occafions, fooh improved into fo tlofe a friend- 
fhip, that they have often counterfeited an indifpofition, in order 
that the two foreign phyficians might be called to their a(Sflance. 

* We had not been long at Conftantinople when our reputatioa 
for curing female complaints became fo great, that by order of the 
grand (ignior, we were fent for to the feraglio, where never man be- 
fore had been admitted, except the fultan himfelf. Our foccefs od 
this important occafion Was fully anfwerable to the great opinion eiw 
tcrtained of oar abilities , and we had the honoar ef curing, at oof 

£rit 

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M B D I C A t« 4j 

Ifft vifit, fbar ladies of the fcragUo, of a calenture, which I nevei* 
obferved to prevail bat where the women are (hut up by themfclves* 
It was a fpecies of the diforder which is termed By phyficians the 
fknr uttrinus. For fome months, durii\^ which we remained in that 
mat metropolis, we had in the feraglio about three hundred and ^ 
forty patients, all mhfrefles to the fultan, and ladies of the moil ex- * 
aaifite beauty* In (hort, we were fo much hara/Ted, that we re- 
vived to leave the capital a little fooner than we intended, and pro- 
ieciite our journey to Circaifia. Before our departure,, we were ad- 
mitted to an audience of the grand iignior, who thanked us in the 
politeft manner for the fignal lervices we had performed in the fera- 
glio, and prefented each of us with his pidure fet with diamonds, 
together with feveral other jewels of immenfe value. As a farther 
teSimOny of his favour, he ordered that an efcort of twelve janiffa- 
ries (hould conftantly attend us during our (lay in the Turkifh domi- 
nions. We returned his fublime highneis our mod refpei6lful ac« 
knowledgmcnts, and took leave for a time of the Ottoman couri. la 
two months we arrived in CircaiCa, where our f<ime had already 
reached, by a caravan which had come fome weeks before to ieled 
fifty of the moil beautiful virgins for the ufe of the grand iignior. 
Having alfo feveral letters of recommendation from the ladies of 
the feraglio,. iuo.il of whom, were of that country, we were every 
where treated with the greatell cordiality and refpefl. To do jullice 
to the exquilite beauty of the CifcaiTian women the defcription would 
^pear hy|>erbolical ; and I can only fay, that it furpaifes the moflr 
loxariant imagination* We remained in this terreilrial paradife for 
the Ijpace of a twelvemonth, when we again returned by the way of 
Conuantinople. The beautiful objeds with which we had now httn 
fo converfant, had afforded me an opportunity of obferving the va- 
rious methods which they ufed for preferving thofe perfedions which 
nature had fo liberally bellowed upon them ; and there is certainly, 
no part of the world where the cofmetic art is either fo well i^nown, 
or fo carefully pradlifed, as in Turkey and Circaflla, For which 
reafon, during the whole time of our refidence in thefe countrie«, I 
was particularly inquiiitive into all the fecrecs of the toilet, which 
has often fubjedted me to a great deal of pleafant raillery. ** You, 
who are a phyfician, would the ladies fay, fmiling, have you con- 
fined your fiudies entirely to the art of preferving health, and wholly 
Dcgleftcd that of preferving beauty : We find that you admire that 
perfedlion^ and how then fho.uld you think it not worth cultivating f* 
Arc the women of your country endowed with unfading charms ; 
•r, don't they bathe ; don't they wafh, and ufe all the methods of* 
adorning themfelves, which you fee pradifed amongll us i But wc 
Aall teach y^i^ the cofmetic art, not only by example but precept* 
Wc (hali-fumifh you with the mod valuable receipts from the Periuu» 
Jnanufcrjpt, that when you return to your own country, the ladies of 
your haram may continue to inipire you with that pail.on which na- 
ture has formed you to gratify." Immediately on my return to Bri- 
t>io» I refolved on the publication of all that I had collected of that 
Mtore in the courfe of my travels, which I now infcribe to the Bri- 
UlhUdiw. I pretend not, however, to be the firil who has wrote 

Upon 

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^ Monthly Catalogue, 

lipon tins fubjed. It was attempted upwards of two thonfaiul yctra 
ago. Hcraclides of Tarcntum dedicated a trc^tifc on cofmetics to 
Antiochusy with whom he had ftUen in love. MoOiion and Mercu* 
lialis wrote on the blemilhes of the complexion. Artemifia, aueen 
ofCaria, who, for her tendernefs towards her huiband Mauiolus, 
will ever remain the admiration of future ages, alfo cultivated this 
fubjedL Afpada, the beautiful Perfian lady, who captivated the 
lieans of two kings, has left to the fair fcx a colIe^on of precepts 
for the prcfervation of health and beauty, of which we find feveral 
fragments in the works of ^tius. We have likcwifc a book on the 
lame/fubjed, entitled Cleopafrie Gra:corum Lihri, attributed to Cleo- 
patra the celebrated queen of Egypt, from which Galen has borrowed 
many compofitions. Therefore, if I have not the merit of being the 
£rft who has wrote upon the fubjedl, I have in my favour a circum- 
stance that is often decifive of an Author's merit, wbich is that of 
being the latcft.' 

How laughable, to confider thefe letters as a proper fupplcment to 
the Sermons to young IVomen ! 

The fubjeds of thefe letters are, freckles, pimples, th^ lips, teeth^ 
hair, fhape, faihion, cleanliness, feet and corns, embonpoint, lean-^ 
nefs and fatnefs» difeafes, luxury, exercife, . cards, theatrical enter- 
tainments, balls, concluiion. 

The letter on freckles is thus concluded : • But I ihall infiH no 
longer on this fubje^t, left I fliould incur the misfortune of thofe who 
have gazed too intenfely on the fpots in the fun/ 

The letter on the dienified fubje£t of corns, opens very heroically : 

* Warm with enthuiialm in the caufe of health and beautv, I might 
BOW indulge.an adventurous flieht, but I hunt not for blemifhes where 
all is perfection, and what modcfty has concealed, even imagination 

*^all not explore. I am now, therefore, ladies, to come to your 
pretty feet, and (hould I even kifs your toes, would not the homage. 
be more natural to beauty than to an old ecclefialtic V 

What a gallant, pert, loofe, flowery Gentleman it is ! 
Art. 1 1. Kemarks upon the Mortality cfthi Hormd Cattlr, contain* 
ing Dire^ ions for extirpating the Inftdion^ mr^ at Itaft^ for chfirmBing 
its Progrefs. Tranflated from the Low Dutch of Salomon dc Mon- 
chy, M. D. City Fhyfician at Rotterdam, and Fellow of the Hol- 
land Society of Sciences at Harlem. 8vo. IS. Cadell. 1770. 
Thefe Remarks are extracted from the 1 ith volume of the Harlem 
Tranfadions. 

The rcfult of Dr. de Monchy's enquiries, is this ; * that what dc- 
ferves the name of a prefervative beyond any thing hitherto known, 
and from yvhich, in a country or province, where the mortality hat 
appeared, incomparably more advantage mav be expedted> than from 
all experiments for difcovering a cure for the diflemper, is, that as 
ibon as the firll approaches of the ficknefs arc difcovercd, in milch 
cows, by the lanknefs of their bellies, and decreafc of tbcir milk, 
and in young beafls by their drowfinefs and a cough, immediately to 
feparate all fuch cattle from the found ones, and to daughter them 
as foon as poffiblc.* 
This is ccitainly a very good, but not a new piece of advice. 

• . * Art, 

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N O V S L 8» 65 

Art, 11. ATreatlfe of PoifiiiSi VigetnUe^ onimal^ Und mntral^ 
<ViHih their Curt. By John Cuoke, M. U. 1 .mo, 1 1* DiUy. 
1770, 

If any of our Readers (bould be pleafcd with tbe followijig paflage^ 
we can afTure them that here are many others equally excellent and 
entertaining : 

' — — ^To confider Opium here, and its various preparations, only af. 
a poifon, haying already treated of it elfewhtre among my^many oc« 
cafional medical writings in Magazines^ and other public papers, as 
a medicine ; which detached pieces (as to their fuccefs, and whoie 
bands they fall i/ito, I know not) put me therefore in mind of the 
Cumman Sibyl in Virgil, who ufed to write her prophecies on leavef 
of trees, and then trailed them to the wings of the wind, fbrtni* 
toufly to be difperfed about : which made i£neas requeft her, jfvith 
the following petition, and has caufed me to commit this, an ' my 
other piece on Cbildrtu's Di/ea/ts^ to pamphlets, that they may h^ 
always ready at hand for thofe that want them : 
— fyliis tamtum ue turmina mandu 
Ne turiata *vol£nt rapidii ludibria 'utntis : 
^ Jp/u canas •ro,—^^* 
The plain Englifh of this motley and disjointed pafTage, we appre- 
hend to be this ; that J^r. Cooke, male fibyl, or medical conj^urer, 
at Leigh in Eflex, having long indulged an itch for fcribbling ia 
news papers and magazines, has at length determined to publiih 
nothing but perfeft apd complete pamphlets. 
Art. 1 3. A candid and impartial State of the Evidence of a very 
great Probability^ that there is difcovercd, by Monf. Le Fevrty a 
regular Phyiician, refiding and pra^ifing at Leige in Germany, a 
Specific for the Gout, Containing the Motives which induced the 
Author to liflen to the PretenfiOns of the Liege Medicine ; with an 
Account of its Operations and Efieds in his own Cafe. To which 
is added, a Narrative of the Cafes of feveral other Patients, &c &c« 
By Edmund Marfhall, M. A. Vicar of Charing in Kent. 8vo* 

1 s. 6 d. Canterbury printed, for the Author, and fold by Griffia 
in London. 1770. 

Sub judice lis eft» 

Novels* 
Art. 14. The Memoirs of Mifs Arabella Bolton^ containing a 
genuine Account of her Sedudion, and the barbarous Treatment 

ihe afterwards received from the Hon. Colonel L 11, the pre- 

fent fuppofed M r for the County of Middiefex. Vol. II. i2mo. 

2 s. f d. Fell. 

. See our account of the iirft volume^ Rev. March, 1770, p. 251. 
Art. 15. Theodora^ a NoveL By the Right Honourable Lady 

Dorothea Dubois. lamo. 2 Vols. 6 s, Printed for the Auihor, 

and fold by Nicoll, &c. 

Ao advertifement prefixed to thefe Memoirs, effectually precludes 
all criticifm and cenfure. ' As 1 am impelled, fays the unhappy Wri- 
ter, * by tuare preffing moti<yei than a vain defire of applaufe, to fub- 
jeft thefe volumes to public inrpedion, I trull I fhall meet with that 
indulgence to which my fex, and unhappy circumilances, may unam* 

K)i\. July 1770. r biitcufy 

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€§ MoNT«L¥ CATAtOOUE, 

hitioujly entitle me.^ — The ftory is founded on the llraHge, roinantic, 
biit true aixl well-known incidents of the Angiefey family, of which 
the Writer is an unfortunate branch ; and who, being in neceflitous 
Ctrcumdances, has induftrioufly endeavoured to mend them, in fome 
fmall degree, by telling and en\bellilhing her haplefs tale. This i# 
not the firft time of her folicitina the attention of the public ; which 
Ihe has occaiionally done, not in profe only, but alfo in verfe :— 
but poor Lady Dorothea is not a very correct writer. She has, how- 
ever, laudably endeavoured to render her work (to ufe the words of 
her previous advertifement) * ufeful, as well as entertaining, by 
' flacin£^ Wirme in her lovelieft drefs, and marl^in^; Vice with every 
feature of deformity. For, Ihe adds, notwithftanding my diftreflcs, 
and the partiality 1 might naturally be allowed to have for my 
Theodora, I would much rather confign it to oblivii)!!, than be the 
means (as fome female Authors have been) of fluftiing t|ie C^eii of 
Innocence, or- centaml.'iating the mind of youth.' — ^And, therefcfre, 
we heartily wifh her luccefs. N, B, The ftory is not yet brought to 
a conclujion. 

Art. 10. The Scotchman ; or^ the World as it goes :* a Novel, By 
the Chevalier TreyfuC de Vergy, Counfellor in the ParHament.of 

• Paris, and Editor oi The Lo'vers. i2mo. 2 Vols. 5 s. fewed* 

• Brough. 

We were led, by the title of thefe volumes, to expeft a fatire on 
the Scotch ; and, upon our cafually opening the iirll of them, the 
following paiTage confirmed us in that idea. Young M*Into{h (about 
to gang to the fouthward to feek his fortune) is thus inftrudcd by 
his father : * I have told you the powers of gold, and not fpoke of 
thofe of a noble affurance : as you are a -Scotchman, I thought it 
necdlefs. Fortune which gave riches to England, endowed us with 
a natural unbluihing phyfiognomy, and a philofophical infenfibility 
for affronts, the impatient hanj^htinefs of the Englilh cannot endure. 
Honour being their idol, and Fortune ours, we eafily creep into the 
firil places of their government, and by obeying implicitly, right or 
wrong, the minillcrial mandates, poilefs the advantages they were 
born to enjoy *. 

But if ever this fafhionable ftrain of national abufc made any part 
of the Chevalier's plau, in refpecl o; his prefent performance, he 
iecms very early to nave loit fight of it, by deviating all at once into 
his old lafcivious path, which appears to be his natural and favourite 
walk of authorfhip ; fo that his rafca'ly hero, M*Into(h, is as much 
an Englifti, Irifii, German, or French rafcal, as a North Britifh one. 
—We do not perceive that any known chara<5ler is aimed at in thit 
performance. iX^lntoHi is reprefented as an agreeable, over-reach- 
ing, deceitful fcoundrel, like fifty other agreeable deceitful fcoun* 

drels that we moet with iu the fertile tields of modern romance. 

A third volume is to linifh the work. 

* This paflage affords room for fome very obvious remarks, in 
which, however> we ihiili not foreilall our intelligent Readers. 

Art. 

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PoETlCAti ^f 

Art. 17. The tSficrj efChar/es fFentworth^ Efq\ in a Series of 
Letters. Intcrfperfcd with a Variety of imp<nrtant Reflediooi, cal* 
calated to improve Moralitit, itnd promote theQ^coNOMY of 
- Human LiFe. lamo. 3 Vols. 7 s. 6d. bound. Becket. 

There is more of good fenfe, and of nattire, in this novel than we 
find in fifty of fuch productions as are continually obtruded Upon the 
public, under this denomination ; yet there are in it fome things to 
which we have ftrong objedions, particularly in the extraordinary ac* 
count here given of Mr. Gordon^ the Scotch Deift, who is iald to live 
in a ilate of nature among the Indians in Guiana. On the whoIe> 
this is a very uncommon produdion. Part of the hiftory> the Editor 
tells us, is founded in truth ; and we are inclined to believe him : 
but he profefles to have mentioned this, *• only to excufe fome dr- 
cnmftances which wo«ild have been coniidered as faults in a plan wholly 
fictitious.' The letters, he adds, are more replete with fenttmentB 
than incidents, and with amiable than vicious charaders. . To fome, 
fays he, * thefe circumftancet may appear imperfedtions ; to me they 
appear in a di^erent light :' and we are entirely of his opinion ; for^ 
as he farther obferves, * Novels that merely entertain, merit no en- 
couragement, becaufe they divert the mind from more ufeful obje^/ 
l^" From feveral circumftances which occur in this work, as well 
as from the iimilitude of manner in the writin?, there feenns no room 
to doubt but that this is the work of the ingenious Mr. Bancroft, who 
lately favoured the public with the Natural Hifiory of Guiana^ of 
which we gave an account in the 40th volume of our Review. 

Poetical. 
Art. 18. A ColUSiion of Hymns adapted to public Worjhip. I2mtf, 
3 s. Brillol, printed by Pine, and fold in London.by Buckland, &:c. 
The writers from whom moft of thefe Hymns are colleftcd, are 
Addifon, Watts, Doddridge, Merrick, the Author of the two volumes 
of Foitns on Suhje^s chiefly de^otionaU and others. There are, alfo^ 
as many original compofitions as make nearly a fourth part of the 
volume, which contains not lefs than 412 of thefe devotional pieces 
of poetry. To the whole is prefixed a recommendatory preface, 
figned JjHN Ash, Caleb Evans, and dated at Briftol, Sept. 27^ 
176;. 

Art. 19. An Elegy on the much lamented Death of William 
iJeclcford, Efq; late Lord-Mayor of, and Reprefentative in Parli»- 
mcnt fotr-^the City of London. 4to. is. Kearfley. 
Breathes alike the fpirit of Poetry and of Liberty, 

l*OLlTICAJL. 

Art. 20. The Patriots of J erufalem petitioning Artaxerxes for /?^- 
drefs of Grievances ; a Parody : Infcribed to the Supporters of the 
Bill of Rights. By the Author of Balaam and his Afs, 8vo. 1 u 
Griffin. 

The oppoiition made by Sanballat and his afTociates, to the admi- 
niftration of Nehemiah, has furniOied this dealer in parody^ cramp 
language, and hard words, with another + vehicle for his wit and 
iatire againfl the Patriots of the prefent age and nation. He is a 

m* — ^ ^ — »— 

+ Sec his Balaam and his Afs ; Review for March, page 246. 

Fa n \ "^* 

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€8 Monthly Catalocob, 

moft profound writer, and his work is more foporific than a dult afteiv 
noon-fermon in hot weather. 

Mathematics. 
-Art. 2r. TIh Mathematical Principles of Geography, Containing 
I. An Account of the various Properties and AffcAions of the 
Earth and Sea\ with a Defcription of the feveral Parts thereof; 
and a Table of the Latitude and Longitude of Places. If. The 
Ufe of the artificial and terreftrial Globe, in folving Problems! 
in. The Principles of fpherical and (jpheroidical Sailing ; with the 
Solution of the feveral Cafes in Numbers, by the common Tables, 
according to the fpheroidical Figure of the Earth. 8vo. 7 s. 
bound. Nourfe. 1770. 

This is the work of the very able Mr. Emerfon, and makes a part 
of his Courfe of Mathematics y i£c» The former volumes of which we 
have, mentioned as they have ilTued from the prefs. See particularly 
Rev. Vols. 37, 40, 41, and 42. 

Botany. 
Art. 22. Outlines of the natural Hijiory of Great Britain and Ire* 
land. Containing a fy Hematic Arrangement, and condfe Defcrip- 
tion of all the Animals, Veeetables, «nd Foffils, which have 
hitherto been difcovered in tnefe Kingdoms. By John Berkcn- 
hout, M. i). In , three Volumes. Vol. II. comprehending the 
Vegetable YiJm^om, 8vo. 5 s. Boards. Elmfley. 1770. 
In our Review (prMay 1769, p. 428,. we gave fome account of 
the firft volume of this ufcful work, which contained the Animal 
kingdom. The ingenious Author obferves, in his preface to the pre.- 
fent volume, that the ' youne Botanift is not to confider this book 
as a fufHcient fyftem of Enghih botany, but rather as an index to 
-that branch of natural hiflory ; as a pocket*companion in liis 
botannical refearches.* — The third volume, containing the fbfiile 
kingdom, he informs us, ' will be publiflied as foon as poflible.' 

Colonies. 
Art. 23. >^ fair Account of the late unhappy Dijlurhcnce at Bojion 
in NenM England \ extra^^d from the Deppfitions that have been 
made concerning it by Perfons of all Parties. With an Appendix 
containing fome Affidavits, and other Evidences relating to this 
Affair, not mentioned in the Narrative of it that has. been pob* 
liihed at Bofton. 8vo. is. 6 d. White. 

In our Review for May, p. 41 ;, we mentioned the * Narrati<ve of 
the horrid Maffacre in Bofton^'' printed by Order of the To<wn. The 
prefent account takes the other fide of the queftion, aud is intended 
to (hew, that the appellation of horrid maffacre is * a very grofs abufe 
of language, and highly injurious to the unhappy officer and foldiers 
who were concerned in this affair.* To fpeak of the reOllance made 
by t*wel*ve, foldiers againd more than an hundred people (armed with 
bludgeons and fticks) in defence of a poll which it was their duty to 
defend,— in the fame terms in which we ihould mention fuch preme- 
ditated a^s of fuch general dellru^Uon as the daughter of the Pro* 
teftanttcf France in »572, and of the Proteftants of Ireland in 1641, 
-^this appears to our Author (and furely not without reafon) to be 
a very unfair and unwariant^bie procedure. — He is a zealous advo- 
cate 

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Ml SCULL AV M OV 9. ^% 

catc for the foldkra Cms *weU as for th/e who fent them U Bofton) 
and endeavours to prove that their firing upon their aflailants was, 
if not wholly unavoidable, at leail highly excufeable ; that they were 
provoked to it by the moil unfufFerable infults ; that the people were ' 
entirely the aggrelTors in the quarrel, and that on them the blame 
ought to be laid for all the mifchief that happened, in confequence 
oi their feditious and outrageous behaviour. He fupports his repre- 
sentations by the afiidavits of 29 perfons ; mod of whom, however, 
it will be obferved^ by t^tiy attentive reader, are officers in the 
army. 

MiSCELLAKBOUS. 

Art. 24. Remarks on fotm Stri^ures lately publijhed^ entitled, . 

Obfervations upon the Statute Tit. XIV. De i eftitu et Habitu 

SchoUifiUo : with a brief State of the Controverfy which gave occa* « 

fion to them. 8vo. Oxford. 1 770. 

This is a well written pamphlet on a peculiar fubjed, and a fubjedl 
which at firfl view may appear very unimportant : for what in itfelf 
alone can feem lefs material, than the form of a fludent's cap, or 
whether it (hould be worn with a tiift or without ? But the prefetv^ 
tion of order, regularity and fubordi nation, which in fome (bcietles 
may be connected with thefe, otherwife trifling, obfervances» are 
points of very great moment. In this view the author conuders the 
fubjeft, and gives the following account of the occafion of his publi- 
cation. * In Lent term lafl, the Servitors of Chriil Church contrary 
to exprefs ilatute and immemorial ufage appeared in the academical 
habit of Foundationers. The Fonndacioners of feveral colleges, who 
had hitherto conformed to their ftatutetable habit, were juHly offended 
at this^ dngular innovation ; and, having lod the diRin£lion which the 
ilatute had eiven them, naturally looked out for a new one in the habit 
of a Batchdor. Theie fudden alterations attraded the notice of the . 
magiflrate : the Hebdomadal meeting took them into confideration, 
and recommended it to the Vice Chancellor and Proctors, ta put the 
flatute in execution, and reduce both orders to their proper habit. A . 
few days after fome members of the Hebdomadal meeting propofed a 
different meafure, which, after mature deliberation, was carried 
^ainft the fenfe of the fenior part of the Board by a fmall majority. . 
The fubftance of this refolution was communicated to the public in a 
printed paper.' But we are told that feveral members of Convocation 
objedtd to the regulations propofed, and applied to the Prpdiors to 
reprefs the innovations which the printed paper prefcribed : the , 
Proctors reported this to the Hebdomadal meeting, who obferved. 
upon it, ' that the printed paper referred to is not confidered as hav« 
ing the force of a ilatute^ A Moneo or Fmgramma was therefore, 
iflued declaring the ituit of the Itatute de vejiitu et habitu /cholaftico^ 
and requiring obedience to it. Notwithllanding this, it is faid, that 
on thelaft day of Lent term, an Undergraduate Foundationer appeared 
in the profcholium of the divinity fchool as a candidate for a Batche- - 
lor's degree in an irregular habit, which he was known to have worn • 
ever fince the publication of the programma. The houfe thought 
proper to repel him from his degree : this tranfa^ion is fuppofed to 
have given occaiQon to the ohjernjations which the writer proceeds 
tp conider*^ Havbg thus given an account of the fubjea of this 

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^0- MoUTHtY Catai.ooob> 

pampbfet, y/e fliall only add that it is, we think, written with fpirit, 

with good fcnfe and candor. 

Art. 25. Rtafonsfor an Ammdmmtofiht Statute of 28 Henry VIII^ 

^. ir. § 3. which gives to the Succeflbr in Ecclefiaftical Benefices, 

* all the Profits from the Day of the Vacancy : In a Letter to a 
Friend, from a Country Clergyman. 8vo. 1 s. Payne. 1770. 

' The particular fubjed of complaint here exhibited is^ that if a coul>- 
try clergyman dies near the time of harvcft, tho' he fhould himfelf 
have difcharged the duty df the parifh ten months out of the twelve, 
the expeded profits at this time fall, not to his family or imme- 
diate reprefentatives, but to his fuccefTor in the living : this is the 
determination of the ad of parliament mentioned in the title, which • 
ceatimieS' in force at the prefent day. This writJcr pleads ftrongly ft>r 
an-^anendment of the bi-ll in qtieflion, from the rules of juftice and 
equity, and from motives of humanity and coicipafiion, iince it 
often happens that the widow or femily are in very diftreffed circum- 
i^cesi and have peihaps been involved in great expences through 
the lingering iUneits of hira whom they have lofl, and that, it. may 
bo, juft ^ the time when they were hoping for the feafonable recruit, 
which .by the above injundion is fnatched from them. He argues, 
tha€ at t|ie time whea the bill was firft enjoined, the clergy were 
obliged to celibacy, which rendered the hard (hip much lighter, and 
besides, poflefled feveral emoluments, the fouroes of which, he fays, 
aW now wifely and nccellarily cut off. A faint attempt was ihade, we 
a#e tt^d, at' the beginning of this century to effeft an alteration, by 
feciM'iag a propoi^tionable fhare of the annual profits of livings to the 
eJceGtttors of incumbents, according to the time q{ their poflbffion : 
bw the fcheme, it is added, was unfortunately dropped almod as 
fton as propofed : and the want of fuccefs was attributed to Dr. 
Pridea«ix, his pamphlet being then firft publifhed in vindication.of 
the prefent law. There appears much truth and juftice in what our 
Author advances upon the fubj«d, but may it not happen, that a 
cforgymaw, whofe removal at fo unfavourable a time deprives his' 
fMnily of thit wekome affiftanee which they had in profpeft, did 
himfelf experience the comfort and benefit ofnhe provifion complained 
of When he firft took poflcffion of the living. But we will by no 
lAeans infift upon this as a fufficient plea in wvour jof the ad, what- 
ever there is in it oppreffive or unkind we heartily wi(h may be 
Ttaioved, a« we do, that the whole fyftem of the laws both civil and 
ceckfiaftical might undergo a ftrid review, and riot remain in that 
rttte of confufion and ambiguity which mu ft often occafion perplexity 
and diftrefe' to the fubjed ' • 

Art. 26. Xeniph^Ti's Hiflvry of the Affairs rf Greece. By the 
'» Tranilator of Thucydides. 4to, 10 s. 6d. boards. ' White, 

- 1770. 

The Tranflator of this valuable piece of Xenophon, tells us, in 
his prefiice, that he * looks upon himfdf as now difcharging a debt 
t6 the public* The fevourable reception, he adds, of his tranfladon 
of Thucydides, was urged, [with gratitude he mentions itj by the 
lAteEarl Granville, as an obligation upon him to copy, in the 
Englifli language, what Xenophon had written originally in Greek, 
in regard to the Peloponntfian war ; vix^ the continnatioa of ittilt 

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M 1 8 C E L L jl N K O U S. yt 

Ae naval power of the Athenians was demolifhed, a»4 the djC)(* 
of Athens furrendered to her foes. But, he continues, * as the flate* 
of Laceda?mon, efated with the coiifequential enlargement of her 
power, exerted it in- too haughty and imperious a manner, (he 
refentment of the other Hates was raifed, and a war enfued, in which 
Sparta was well nigh ruined, and the fovereignty of Greece trans* 
fcrrcd. The battle of Mantinea, in which the Thebans by loflng' 
Epaminondas lofl their all, clofed this eager ftruggle for fuprcmacy in 
Greece, and left its teveral Hates a commodious prey to' Phi/ip 
of Macedon. — In thi^ piece of Xenophon, the hiftory of Greece is 
continued from the time * Thucydides breaks off, down to that 
famous battle, including the fpace of hear fifty years.' 

The Doftor juftfy oblcrves, that * never had Hillorian who left liis 
work unfinifh^d, fo iltuftrious a contmuator as Thucydides found-in 
Xenophon. They were both men of excellent fenfe ; both lived 'in 
the times, and had co'mpetent krtowledge of the fafts they defcrilie. 
Ihey were boih Athenians, had. been generals, and were both in 
exile when they wrote their hiftories, but a man mol-e accompli (Tied 
in all refpedts th^A Xenophon^ will not eafily be found. He was the 
grcateft hero, and at the fame time the genteefeft ^Vriter of his age, 
Inllru<fled and formed by Socrates, he exemplified his ufeful phifo- 
fophy in the whole condu^ of his life; and it will be hard to decide 
\Vhich are mOft excellent in their kind, his hiflorical or his philoib^ 
phical writings. The f!yle of both hath that fweetnefs, chat eafe^ 
fhat perfpicuity, and that fimpHcity, which remain envied and 
tmeqiialled, and muft give al^ his Tranflators no fmali anxiety about 
their own fuccefs.' , 

After the warm commeadation given of Dr. Smith's tranilation of 
Tfiucydides, Rev, vol. vili. p. 170. it is witji concern thafwe find 
burfclves unable to fpeak in the like commendatory terms of the 
prefent performance ; which, fo far as we have compared it with tho 
original, fecms to be tolerably faithful; but the lartgoage abounds 
with the folecifrtis of converfation, nnd frequently falls beneath th« 
dignity of hiftory.— * Midias lo^gled aboht opening the gates,'— and 
* OercylHdes made all fail, and clAfped en his own leal :' — with many 
more, equally vulgar ; which we are imry to fee fall from the pen of 
a gentleman who has long been in poffelBon of a confrderable fharc of 
reputation in the Icarr.ed world. 
Arc. 27. A Qhrcumflantlal Nm-rativc of a late remaikable Trial, 

To which axe added. the Letters produced upon the Occafion. 8vo; 

IS. Love, 

The D. of C. and L. Gt— h^ve been of late, great friends to thq 
prefs ; though their produdions ar^ i>o dredit to it. 

' ♦ * 1 he Translator, in the life of Thudydides, p. 1-:, hath faid; — 
f* There is a chalm between where the hlftory of Thucydidek breaketh 
off, and the (ircciait hiftory of Aenophoii bfeginneth."— He faid this on 
the authority of Archbilhop Ufher, bo^ hatbfecn abunda*tFeafon fince 
to be dilfidenr of thie fact. The - Annaht Xemfhom^ ol'-tha^earned 
Podvyell feem to prove, from Y^ct,y of arguments, a CiOie con-? 
flexion betw^r^ ^^^: '^be chrondogy is therefore fet in the n^aiv 
gin§ ^cqofding lo'his elaborate and cleafadjuHmc^^t of the time.' 

:-..■: ■ ^' ^h ^ Art, 

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72 MONTHLT CATALOGltE, 

Art, 2«. 7i^ Trial of hh R H. the D. of C. July 5, i77C^f for 
Crim. Con. with Lad/ G— . Including all the Letters, &c. 8vo. 
IS. 6d. Walker. 

** Laws were made for every degree." 

B^GGAits Opera. 
Art. 29. A full and compute Hiftoryofhii R, H, th^D. of C. and 
Lady G. from their fird ^cauamtance to the final Determinatioii of 
the Caafe at the inflance of Ld« G. in the Court of King's Bench« 
for Crim. Con. &c &c. 1 ^mo. 2 Vols. 5 s. fewed. Brougb. 
•*— — And chronicle fraall beer.** 
Art. 30. The Genuine Copies of Letters which pafled between his 
R.H. theD. ofC. andLady G. Her Lady (hip's Letters to the hon.* 
Mifs V . and the anonymous L 'ttcrs iigned Jack Sprat, part of 
which were never before publilhed. To which is prefixed a clear 
and circumilantial Account of the Trial, Sec, 1 s, Wheble, 
** Clodio, the fcorn and wonder of our days.** 
Art. 31. Footers Prologue Dete£fed\ with a Miniature Profe Epi- 
lo^ue of his Manner in fpeaking. By I bilo-Tecbnicus Mlfor* 
Mtmides, 8vo. i s. Williams. 

The DeteAor undertakes to prove the occafional prologue fpoken by 
Mr.' Foote, at the opening the Hay -market Theatre, this prefcnt 
furomer, to be * vtxy dull^ nonfenfical, and indecent ,* but, whatever 
faults are in the text, they are palpably outdone in the comment. 
Art. 3^. Jtn EJfay on Laughter^ wherein arc di!p1ayed, its Natu- 
ral and Moral Caufes, with the ^rt^ of excitipg it. i^mo, 
London. Davies. 17 0. • 

This little effay attempts^ to exhibit a philofophical account of 
bttghter. The Author fuppofes himielf to have been prefent at a 
converfation, where Des- Touches, Fontenelle, and Montefijuiel^ 
flelivered their opinions (ya this fubje^. In the fpeech, which he has 
made for Des-Touch^s, he has endeavoured to imitate the graceful 

?uruy and copioufoefs of that writer; in what be has laid for 
ontenelie» he would fliew himfelf, artful and ingenious; and ii\ 
what he has put into the mouth of Montefquieu, he affe ts the 
beautifuUy-diverfified manner of that great man. But we mud not 
fay, that he has done jadice to thefe illufbrious authors. He is no 
wanting, hoi^ever, in vivacity, and may be re^ with fome degree of 

Jleafure. 1 he conclufion, which he iiie^s to eiUbliihy is, that felf- 
)ve is. the principle of laughter. 
Art. 33. EJfiys ufon Statural Hi/lory^ and other Mifcellaneous Suh- 
jeSs. )l.^ George Edwards, Fellow of the Royal Society, and of 
the Society of Antiquaries, London. To which is added, % 
Catalogue in generical Order, of the Birds, Beads, Fiihes, Infeds, 
pia][)ts, ^c, contained in Mr* Edwards's Natural tii^oi7» Svo. 
4 s. 6d. boards. I^obfon. 1770. 

T'his worthy m^n, we may truly fay, merits great refpeft an4 
Upplaufi^ from the public, for the indudry and attention he has emr 
» ■ ■ 

* The title page takes fio notice of this piece being a tranflatios 
from the French; which however, apjpe^s Uqv^ the I'nmflator'i 

« j>loy^ 



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Ml SCSI! AN E ads. * 73 

^oyed opbo'bit natural hiftoiyt-and the excellent manner in which 
Be has executed that variety of figures wi^ which he has prefented us* 
k is well known that he is no copyer^ all his drawings being made 
from the creatures themfeives, living or dead, and the faaie 'u to be 
iaid of the fruits^ plants, flowers, &c. of which he gives an account ; 
that he nay juftly fpeak of hk hiftory, as having * this peculiar 
advantage over works of chat nature, to be original in its figures, at 
well as defcriptions*' The greateft part of the eflays, which are 
cfbred in the prelent volume, have already appeared before the 
public, in his natural hiftorj ; but, the author adds, it was in a 
detached^ unconnected form, and at an expence perhaps rather too 
great for many who delight in natural hiflory. 

It was therefore, we are told, to accommodate fuch, and to affiH the 
curious in their refearches, or any future writer upon this lubjcdt, 
that the £ditor has been induced to this publication. Many will, we 
doubt not, read with pleafure the feveral accounts here coUedked, 
together with the refiedtions that are made upon them, which 
difeover the piety and benevolence of the author, at the Tame time 
that the whole are calculated to entertain and improve the minds of 
his readers. 

We cannot particularly point out what additions are here made to 
his worky but the following relation (extraded from Mr. Robinfon'a 
Natural HiAory of Wellmoreland, &c.; with Mr. Edwards's obferva- 
tions upon it, may furniOi out fome amufement to curious perfohs^ 
and to many it may be entirely new. 

* Mr. Robinfin fays *, '' that birds are natural planters of all fortt 
of wood and. trees: they difleminate the kernels upon the earcfa^ 
which, like nurleries brings them forth 'till they grow up to t&eir 
Baturai flrengtb and perfection. About twenty-five years ago, he 
adds, coming from Rofe-cadle early in the morning, I obl'erved great 
number of crows very bufy at their work, upon a declining ground* 
of a moify furface : I went out of my way on purpofe to view their 
labour ; and 1 found they were planting a grove of oaks. The man« 
ner of their planting was thus: ihpy firil made little holes in the 
earth with their bills, going about and about till the hole was deep 
enough, and then they dropped in the acorn, and co ered it with 
earth and inofs: the young plantation is now growing up to a thick 
grove of oaks, fit for ufe, and of height for the crows to build their 
nells in. 1 told it to the owner of the ground, who obferved them to 
fpring up, and took care to fecure their growth and riiing. The 
feafon was at the latter end o/ autumn, when all feeds were fully 
ripe." 

Mr. Robinfon, it is obferved by our Author, (eems to think, that 
providence (i^d given the crows this indind fblelv for the propagation 
, of trees ; but I imagine, fays Mr. Edwards, it was given them prin- 
cipally for their own prefervation, by hiding provifion in time of 
plenty, in order to fupply them in a time of fcarcity ; for it it 
pbferved, in ume pyes and daws kept about houfes, that they 
^ ' '» 

* Natmal hiftory of Wefimoreland and Cumberlandy part II. pago 

•^ . will 

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74 MofNTHtr CATALOGOSy 

will hide their meat when they have plenty, and fetch it from their 
hiding places when they want it : ib that fuch an inflind in thefe 
hird5 may anfwer a double purpofe, both their own fupport in times 
of need, and the propagation of the trees they plant; for, wherever 
they hide a great number of nuts or grain in the earth, we cannot 
fuppofe they find them all again, but. that as many will remaiit 
itt the plat of ground they make ufe of, as can well grow by one 
another.' 

Rblicious and Cowtroversial. 
Art. 34. Saint Paul at Athens: by Kenrkk Prefcot, D. D. 

* Mailer of Catherine-hall, Cambridge. 8vo. 2 8. fewed. BathuHl. 
1770. 

In this trcatife the behaviour of Saint Pan! at Athens is examined, 
sind his zeal, his eloquence, and his knowledge are much infilled' 
Opon. The critical parts of it are not deilitote of merit, but we muft 
obferve, that Dr. Prefcot does not write in the moft agreeable or 
engaging manner, and that there is nothing, perhaps, vnery important 
In his reafonings Of conclufions. St. Paul, we ihould think, has not 
been very fortunate in his panegyrill. 

Art. 35. -^ Review of Ecdefta/fical Hijiory^ fo far as it C6ncern9 
the Progrcirs, Dt'clen lions, and Revivals of Evangelical Doiftrine and 
Praflice; with a bref Account of the Spirit and xV ethods by 
which Vital and Experimental Religion have been oppofed in all 

* Ages of the Church. By John Newton, Curate of CMney, Backs. 
Svo. 5 s. bound. Dilly. i77^« 

* It is become a frequent piece of policy with authors, or bookfeHers, 
Or both, to advertile a work (which they propofe to them/ehes td 
Extend, and Continue, in detached parts) in foch a manner as to con- 
ceal from the readers of thoie advertifements, their real and covert 
tfeiign. They announce the publication of the book; in terms- that 
ifeem to fpeak it a finilhed performance, and thereby, no doubt, they 
fbmetimes take in an unwary purchafer, who can ill afford to bear the? 
expence into which he is thus trick'd, but to which he muft fubmit, or 
fit down contented with the ftrfl lofs, for which he has no other com-- 
^nfation than an odd volume, worth, perhaps, no more than it writ 

fetch at the trunk maker's. It is one part of the Reviewer's duty 

fo dete6l this difhoneft procedure, and to warn the public againft 
fuch illiberal deception — the prefent article affords an inllance of thU 
i^edes of artifice. 

Mr. Newton*s Review of F.cclefiaftical Hillory is fpccioufly adver- 
rifed* *' in one ^volume o^avoy price bound 5 s/* Now wht> that read3 
fuch advertifement, would imagine any other than that the work wai 
begun and ended within the limits acf one Svo. volume ? Some wary 
Curate, however, of 40I. per anh, (and who cannot afford to lay out 
much money in books) though far from fufpefting hir pioxis brother 
the Curate 6f Olney, may poffibly think there is no harm in being a 
ftttle cautious, and therefore he chufes to fee the bt)Ok itfelf before he 
ftuys it. He repairs, accordingly, to the boDkfeller*s, looks at thd 
tuTe-page, fees nothing in it of vol, i, as ii ufual Where all is fair 
fed ri^ht; tui:n» to the end, where an Index SLnd PrNia dare him' in 
the face ; then pays his crown, and goes home, rejoicing that J^q 

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RELKSIotr* mtd Controversial. 75 

lufcs got a pretty (bug compendicm of the Ecclefiaftical Hiftoiy of 
*• all Ages of the Church," at fo r^'&fonable a rate. But, arrived it 
las cloiet, behold our mortified putchafer, with lengthened fiKe^ 
pervfiRg the pi«fa<?e, and difedvering the fallacy ; — a firjt njohamr 
pnly, — -to be followed by — no mortal knows how many more, — • kS 
the Grca« Go4, who has the fovereign difpofal of all his creatares, 
fiiall be pleafed to afford me a competehe meafore of health and 
ability fer the fefrice.' Pref. p. ^ix. — «* In^d, brother Curate^ oi* 
Mr. Pablilher, one of yoa has played me a fc«rvy trick ; bat I (hall 
be aware of yo» %t the ftitwre!" and away goes the book v» 
the PhilobibIismf> in F^ocadilly, to be exchanged for Clarke oni thii 
Atmbat€», or Hoadly's Terms of Acceptance. 

Perhaps,' however, ihfis artifice rtay hate been thought a very 
ittno^ent one, by the party concerned; for the author ieepis Mf 
iDtimote, that, Ihould his phn never be cofnpleated, the purchafeiv 
of the prefcnt volume will, neVerthclefs, have a very good bargain i 
as, fays he, ♦ what Pn^w offer to the pubRc-^may fufficc to fliotr 
how fettle jolt ground there is for the inffn nations and invedlrvci^ 
which haV0 been fo pleiitifuUy thrown- out againft the preachers and 
profefTors of thofe doftrtnes which were once efteemed the Jife and 
glory of the Pwteftant name :' we fcppofo he mean« thofe tenets that 
are generally tompreherided under the terms crthod&x^^ and cai'vini/m^ 
But as to the inflmiation* and invcdives which are fometimes throwtt 
Out, by wkk^d and prophane perfbns, againft fome of the clergy, oif 
ficuUr accounts, it Will be well if Mr. N's notable fcheme of publi- 
cation cOntHbtttes muck toward working the geod effefl: whid» 
he fpeaks of. u - 

With refi>e«! to the merit of this work, as an Ectlefiaftical Hiftory, 
we have only t?o iay, tWit? the author is by no means diftitute of 
learning, ^akhough he wmes much in the llrain of thofe Divines who 
are in fo much req^eft with the Methodifts, &c* and to traders 
of that ftamp, his book will, no doubt< be very acceptable an4 
odijying,-^provided he-does not make it too voluminous and expen-- 
fivc. 
Art. 36. Criticat Rerharh upon an Excellent Treatife lately 

pnblffhed, cntituled, ^ A Syftem of Ecclefikllical Hiftory and 
.Morality." 8vo. 3d. Bladon, &c. 

■ Thefe remarks ^fOT to relate, without expreftly profeffing to dofo,- 
to a book in 8vo. entitled as aboye, written by George Adams, M. A.- 
and mentioned in our Review for July 1768. They are, by fome, 
thought to have been written by Mr. Adams hinlfelf ; but by whom- 
foevcr they were Written, they will fcarce be intelligible to any but 
fliofe who have an opportunity of comparing and conneftiug themr 
with the book itlelf: which is not the cafe with itj, at prefcnt. 
Art. 37. The Religion of Antichriji : or, Notes on the Book of 

the Revelation of John; and other Prophecies; refpeAing the 

Rife, Reign, Religi6n, and Ruin of the Man of Sin. 8vo. 2 s. 

Chater. I770. 

y/e apprehend the author of this pamphlet to be one of a new 
denomination of Chrifliani who have lately appeared under the name 
of Saudfjrranians* It has fonacwhat of their manner, and of that 

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jS ' MoKTHiy CaTAL060£» 

(JHrit Which Severely cond«mii9 the pride of the reft of raaakiiid,-aiKl' 
has reminded us of the philofopher, who boafled of his trampling 
npoD Plato's pride ; though . we think the prefent performance 
Somewhat lefs chargeable in this refped than fome others which have 
come from this fet of writers. 

The fubjed which is here brought Under confideration is very 
curiottSy and extremely difiicnlt; though it muit be acknowledged 
that there is a great and furpriztng reiembiance between fome paft 
events to which particular predi<fUons have by learned men fa«ea 
applied, and the defcriptions which are given in this myfterions 
book. The explications offered in the work before ns are generally 
conformable to what has been faid by one or other of the different, 
writers who have engaged in the fame employment, and from whom 
they appear indeed to have been principally coUe6^ : what feens to he' 
Tather peculiar to this author is his application of the term Amukrift^ 
which he regards as denoting not meerly the papal power, or anv 
leparate party, but a corrupt fpirit among ChriiUans in geno-aU 
thongh he particularly applies this with very great, but we wookL 
bope not with a fully juftifiable feverity, to the Chriftian Cltrgy. 

After coring an explanation of {otatfigmret which are ufed in the 
|M>ok of the Revelations, he thus proceeds : ' The application of fom« 
of thefo figures, and the prophecy whi^h contains them, to the 
Jungdom of the Clergy, will doubtleis be offenfive to the friends of 
^at kingdom. But as the author does not pretend to be of that 
number, but on the contrary profefTes to rejoice in its prefent deep 
eonfumption, and to pray for its complete deftrudUon; therefore he 
can fee no room or occaiion for any apology in behalf of the follow* 
ing page^; nntil the ofieafive things are proved to-be unfcriptnral. 
By the Kingdom of the Clemy is not meant meerly the power of the 
Pope, of the conclave, or of a general council : no, nor marly the 
honour, authority and influence of any national Clergy : but it 
includes all that power which any fort of Clergy have.afTumed over 
the perfons, properties, or confciences of men ; and of this as mnch 
may be found in the lowed clafs of DifTenters, as their circumftahcea 
will admit. To obj^ft to this, to any pvrpofo, it moft be fhewn. 
ihat the charapfier drawn for Antichrift in the New Teftament ought 
not to be applied to them, or if it be granted that that charader may 
be fo applied, it mufl be fhewn that the cenfure exceeds the fcrrp* 
ture limits. 

*■ That there are and have been Clergymen in the Roman and 
iji every Protefbnt Church, who in th^ir focial charaders, feparate 
from their clerical claims, have been ornaments to fociety, and an 
honour to humanity, is no objedion to this application off*, the 
prophecy ; which relates not to perfonal charaders, but to the nature 
and fpirit of their religious connexion. As a man may be a "v^ry 
good neighbour, and in other refpeds an ufeful member of fociety, 
^hile yet he is a rebel againU his King, fo a Clergyman may have 
many amiable qualifications, and yet be a member of Antichrifl. 
And yet, as it is not commonly thought that any order of men have 
been ufed to wear their charafler the worH fide outwards, it may feena 
that the general condudl of the Clergy in all ages as a body of me^ 
in civil fociety, will warrant .our faying of them the fevereft things 

that 

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RsLioiavii Mful CovmoYWRstAL. 77 

ftat words can exprefs. It h tliere fore enough for cor vindication, if 
k be mnted,. that* Clergjnoen, as /uchj are really as bad as th^ 
bave adwrays by their deeds appeared to be.' 

After many refle^ons on the oppofition bet\xreen the biafs of 
Itnmaii nature which leads meo to grafp at temporal dignities and 
ptcafares, and the fpirit of Chritlianity, he concludes, * that it b 
nor the religion of Jefas, however it may be dignified with his 
name, which admits of fuch profefTors in it who are fettiog their 
ai^Ctions on the riches, honours or pleafures of this world % and ftiU 
more obivioos, fays he, is this condufioa againfl fuch men, wbts 
make their pretence to Chriftianity the very means of obtaining 
thefe. For we may be very pofitive to aifert, that real Chriftianity, 
cannot be feen in the world in any other form than as Chrift and his 
apoftler left it. — A man, who knows nothing about what has pafled 
in the Chriftian world, if he reads the New Teftament with any 
attention, cannot fail to fee that the Chriftian religion muH be 
greatly corrupted, before it can be the prevailing vogue, or the path 
ID t:9&. and honour in any nation upon earth. A certain learned 
dignitary of the Church of Engknd has made the following curious 
dilcovery, and is himfelf an inltance of. the truth of his own obferva- 
don. " A further reafbn (fays he) for the abatement of the infiuencea 
of the fupporting fpirit of grace is the peace and fecurity of the 
Qiorch. There was a time when the powers of this world were 
combined together for its deflrudion. — But jww tU frtfejfion $f the 
Cbriftiam faitb it atUndtd *with eaft and honour \ and the convi^Uon 
which the weight of human teftimony and the conclufions of human 
reafon afford us oi its truth, is abundantly fnfficient to fnpport us in 
our religious perfeverance.'^ So; adds this writer, the tfifhop of 
Gloncefter tells his experience.— His Lordfliip might have reHoded 
that fome of the very oeft members of his own Church did not find 
their profefion attended with eaie ^nd honour in Queen Mary's days« 
which was long after fomething that was called Chriftianity had 
obtained all the eafe and honour that a national efUblifhment could 
nve it ; and confequently long afcer thofe confolations, which 
lupported the firfl fufferers, were, according to his account, with- 
drawn. Nor is it poffible to efcape the fanaticifm which the Biihop is 
fo zealous againft, without fuppofing that, fince the primitive times^ 
men have never fuffered for Chrillianity, but that was always the 
right fide, which was attended with eafe and honour. A plain man 
would be ready to wonder how this alliance between Cburch and 
State came to be brought about, and to fufped that it is not the (ame 
religion as the Author of Chriitianity had m view, when he fpake fo 
much of fnfiering for it. — What feems moil ihange is, that while the 
New Teftament fpeaks fo much about the future fortunes of the 
profeffion and pro^iTors of Chrifl's name, we (hould yet find no word 
• there about this friendly alliance, and its advantages; but rather 

very much againft expeding it.-- On thefe accounts, a man who 

takes the religion that he commonly {tt% profefled and pradli fed 
in this country, or in any other part of what is called the Chrif- 
tian world, to be real Chriliianity, mud be hraitened to find any 



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i 



^ MoNtNLY CxTAhOGVEf 

waort life for the greateft part of the New Teftament* than for ait 

old Almanac. We mutt either give up the New Teflameiu, or 

conclude that the profeflion of the religion it teaches is greatly 
corrupted. And this conclufion will be the more determinate, if we 
obferve the prcdidlions of the New Teftament, which contain the 
plaineil warnings of fuch corruption, and of the ea/e and hotuur 
])vith which // fliould be attended. — We may clearly fee that the love 
of this world was predided to be the fpring of an apoflacy from the 
faith, and that men would ufe the Chriflian profeuion to advance 
^cir living and ftation in this world. And whenever we fee a reli- 

irion called by the Chriflian name, whofe leaders are either in pof- 
ellion or puifuit of eafe and honour, we may fufped that it is the 
religion which Chrift and his apoHles gave fo frequent warnings of. 
At lead we muft fay, it has this to recommend it to worldly men, that 
it is free from that inconvenient, offenftve thing, the crofs of Chrift, 
^d has no occafion for the primitive felf-denial, nor for the fup- 
porting fpirit of grace. And if this profefTion (hould appear to be 
confident with, and fubfervient to the courfe of this world, as above 
defcribed, we fhall be in no hazard of a miflake in calling it the re- 
ligion of the man of fin,* 

Our Author then proceeds, under thefe views, to illuftrate St. 
faul's account of the man ofjin^ and afterwards to confider the Rt^g^ 
lations of St. John. We (hall leave our readers to make their own 
refledlions on the fpecimens of the work, which we have laid before 
them : they will no doubt think with us that matters are here drained 
too far, as is generally done by this kind of writers i they may alfo 
probably think that there is form truth in the account which is here 
given ; and fo far as there is truth, let it be acceptable, and prevail, 
from any and from every quarter. 

A dijfertation by another hand is added, on the fign of the prophet 
Jonah, founded upon the words which Chrid addrelfed to the Scribe* 
and Pharifees. The Writer atten.pcs to difcover feveral indances ia 
which Jonah was ay%« ; but t) our^h the rcfledions he makes are 
fuch as might be ufefully confide: cd by himfelf, there is by no means 
fufficient authority to prove that thefe things were really intended. 
The words of Chrid d»evv with fufficient clcarnefs what was hi* 
meaning. We expelled to have met with fome obfervations on the 
difficulty which rifes from the exprclfion of his being three days and 
three nights in the heart of the earth ; but nothing of this kind ap- 
pears ; It has been however obviated by more judicious and learned 
writers. 

Art. 38. Tlnee Sermons preached in S wallow- ftrcet Chapel. 
The firft, January 10, 177^, at the admiff.on of the Rev, Dr. 
John Trotter to the paftoral charge of the Scots congregation 
which meets in that place ; by the Rev. Wm. Langford, j5, D. 
The fccond on the Lord's day morning immediately following } 
by the Rev. Thomas Davidfon, Kl. A; and the lad in the aftemooa 
of that day ; by the Rev. John Trotter, D. D. 8vo. x $. Dilly. 
We have nothing particular to fay of thefe difcourfes, which were 
publidicdy we find» at the dcfirc of the congiegation to which they 

were 



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RELIGIOlIt Snd ^(yfifrtOy EMI At. 7^ 

«ere preached* To fome readers they are likely to prove acceptable 
and ierviceable. 

Art. 39." Sermons written by a Lady, tbc Tranflatrcfs of fout 
fel^A Tales from Marmontel. izmo. 2 s. d. (cwei, Dodfley. 

To fee a lady haranguing an audience from the pulpit would be 9 
fight perhaps rather too fingular to pleafe ; but furely a lady may^ 
without the leaft imputation or indelicacy, exhibit exhortations and 
rules of morality and piety from the prefs ; and if fhc chufes it, why 
may fhe not be permitted to throw them into the form* of fermons f 
Po&bly the very found ai jermons ivritten by a luify, may draw the atr 
tention of feveral, who would not by any other means be engaged to 
hearken to lectures of religion and virtue. 

The Authorefs tells us, in her preface, that a promife which wa$ 
once made, betwixt jeft and earncft, bva clergyman, that he woiild 
preach any fermon >yhich (he fhould write, firfl: led her to this kind of 
compofition : after which attempt Ihe proceeded till the feven were 
finiflied ; which are now laid before the public, agreeably to the ad- 
vice bf a friend, who we find imagined they might bring fome pe- 
cuniary advantage to herfelf. They are written upon the foilowitig 
fubje^s, covetoufnefc, revenge, the vanity of life, mirth, and cheer- 
fblnefs, detradlion, the duty of children to their parents, and the 
laft upon cdocation- The lady hopes that the young may be induced 
to perufe thein> ag^^ may learn from them fome ufeful leflbns ; and 
adds, * as a farther apology, let me obferve that political difputes 
now employ the tongues and pens of almoft all degrees of men, fo 
that they have no time to think of any thing elfe. The rage of pub- 
He virtue is fo great, that private virtue is almoft ^rgotten. When 
patriotifm and loyalty engage all the wits of the age, it is no wonder 
that a woman ihould take the lower department, and venture to write 
moral efiays. The candid will remember, that it is the work of a 
woman, and will not be very fevere in their criticifm.' 
Art. 40. A Difcourfe on the true Nature of the Chriftian Religion, as 

it Hands fupported on Scripture Authority, in Oppofitibn to the 

Doctrines of Arians and Methodifts. 4to, 1 s. No Bookfellci*s 

Name, Sold by Wilkie. 1770. 

This writer, whoever he is, feems to have a defire to do good, 
though poflibly he will get but little money by his publicatioil. The 
firft part of his pamphlet confifls chiefly of a great number of texts of 
fcripture, by which he propofes to ellablifli his readers in the belief 
of the divinity of our Saviour. In the fecond part he inlllls that true 
religion and true morality are infeparable; where are many good re- 
iledions and exhortations, founded in like manner upon a great va- 
riety of texts of fcripture. He laments that it is the prevailing me- 
thod of the prefent times to overlook and pafs by the plain doctrines 
of Chriflianity, which are given to make us wife unto falvation, for 
the fake of thofe which are obfcure and difficult. He laments like- 
wife, (and with too great juftice) the dilHcuky which perfons in lower 
ftations of life find to get a livelihood in the world, without fubmitting 
to cufloms and practices which are inconfiftent with confcicnce and 
doty ; and clofes the whole with long quotations from fcripture. 
Should he be miftaken, or diiFer from us in fome points, yet we 
think he means ib weU> that we can heartily wiih his great end 

may 

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to 8 S It Ife O K f • 

nay be anfweredt-^His difcotirre wears the form 6£ a fcrmon ; bu^ 
whether it was cirer preached, docs not appear* , _' 

' ^ SERMONS. ^" " 

L Pefbrf the Guardians of the AJ^Jum% at the Chapel, on the Queen's 
Birth Day, May iq, 1770. By Gregory Sharpe, LL. D. Mailer off 
the Temple, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Majetty. To which ia 
added, an Account of this Qharity, from the Inilitution to the pre* 
fcnt Time, i s. Dodfley. 

n. Tht Efiablijbment of the Church of EmgUnd dtfiudei upon tb€ 
Princifhs ofrtligums Liberty. At the triennial Vifitation of the Bifhop 
of London, at Chelmsford, May 22, 1770. By Nathaniel Forfter^ 
M. A. Reaor of All Saints, Colchefter» and ToUefhunt-Knight's, 
Eflcx. 4 to. I s. Wilkie. 

The very fenfible Author of this fermon endeavours to (hew, * that 
xeligious Liberty is not only confident with an efiabli(hment of reli- 
gion, but will alfoy if fuch eUabliOiment be (bunded upon rational 
and liberal principles, be mod effedually guarded and fupported by 
it ; that the religious efUblilhrnent of our own country is, in fad» 
founded upon thefe principles ; and that'it is, by a Angular effort of* 
wife policy, happily calculated to promote the peace and order o£ 
ibciety, while it protects and maintains invi^olate the j>erfonal rights 
of every individual.* 

HE. A Sermon to Tradefmcn. ]2mo. . 6d. CadeJl, &c. 1770. 

This is an agreeable fenlibie,' performai^ce, well adapted for the 
benefit of private perfons, and for the general fervice of fociety* We 
will ventu/e to recommend it (an4 it is but fhort) to the attentive 
perufal of all our Readers, particularly to thofe who are engaged in 
a trading and mercantile life. The prefent Hate of things amon^^ 
us greatly requires that fuch reflections and exhortations as thefe 
fliould be earnetily offered to and urged upon us. * The frequent 
bankruptcies, as the Author obferves, in this country, are truly 
alarming. Some wholefome feverities feem necefTary to check the . 
progrefs of this encreafi'ng evil. It calls for the vigorous and fpeedy 
mterpofition of the legiflative power. Thatjdiigrace which, in better 
times, was afiixed to a failure in bufinefs, deterred men, in fonze 
degree, from meafures tending to fo difrepu table an event. Tbia 
reltraint is now n6 more. Bankruptcy is fo common that it is 
fcarcely thought any diminution of charader. And we often fee 
perfons, whofe effeds bore but a fmall proportion to the claims of 
their creditors, immediately appearing as modifh and expenfive as 
ever,— It is not eafy to obferve iome men's eiirontery without feeling 
the emotions of indignation.' 

'^ ,*' The fecond Letter /• the Rrvin\iers, on the fubjeA of JgurH 
Pr/y>/r is under conhderation. 

B. N. s Letter of the icth of July, containing, like the red of his 
favours, nothing but unfupport d accufations, is unworthy of any 
farther notice than this brief acknowledgment that it has been re- 
ceived. If the Writer can make good his charge of Parti filiij and 
Mifrefreftntation againfl the Monthly Reviewers, why docs he not lay 
the matter before the Public ? 

The Hifioty of the Peace of Belgrade has "been delayed by an acd* 
dent I but it u propoied to gi^e an account of it in our next. 

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THE 

MONTHLY REVIEW, 

For AUGUST, 1770. 



Aax. T. TVartmU Tbeurltust &c. continued. Sec Review for 

July. 

1 A Grseably to our promife, we fhall now prefent our 
XjL Readers with a tranflation of Mr. Warton's learned and 
•curious diflertation on the Bucolic poetry. 

An enquiry into the origin of the Bucolic poetry, fays Mr. W. 
among the Greeks^ is difficult, and the path obfcure ; neither do 
.the monuments of ancient literature deliver any thing certain 
in that refped, or the . comments and conjedures of modern 
writers afford fufficient light to go by. Of a matter fo dubious, 
fo remote from all certainty, I (hall give the account which 
:&ems to me moft probable ; and if 1 appear to have left the 
old road, and taken one entirely new, the invefligation of 
truth muft be admitted my fole motive : far from me be the 
imputation of looking with contempt on the authority of anti- 
^qiutY,. and the judgment of men famed for erudition. 
■ If we view all the fpecies of poetry with attention, we (hall 
find that each of them arofe from Aender beginnings. No 
high diftindion of ingenuity, or depth of defign, feems to have 
marked the fird authors and inventors ; nor did they propofe 
to themfelves any thing very great. They ftruck out fomc firft 
principles, they laid fome foundations ; but the ftrudures ere<Sled 
on them were nothing like what we have in the prefent excel- 
lence and perfedion. In (hort, their greateft performances 
were rather the effeds of fome chance or accident, than of 
much thought and care. Who would believe that the majeftic 
excellence of Tragedy^ with all her weight of biiftnefs andjm- 
portance of perfons, with her power- to excite pur paffions and 
carry away our hearts, could have rifen out of a rude and ill- 
formed fong in praife of Bacchus ? In like manner, I do not 
fuppofe that the firft authors of Bucolic verfes ever dreamt of the • 
4i|efinition which we now have of that kind* of poetry, much 
; VdL. XLIII. G kfs 

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82 WartonV Tbeocrittts. 

lels did they defign to exhibit an image of ^ paftorftl Wfy 
abounding in all delights. Indeed, I cannot eafily admit the 
opinion of thofe who aflert that paftoral poetry took its rife in 
the firft ages of the world, when mankind were generally em- 
ployed in the care of flocks and herds, and lived in the fields, 
in the perfedion of eafe and leifure. For, if this be granted 
them, whence comes it to pafs that in fo long a fpace of time, 
namely, from thofe primeval and golden days, fo few paftoral 
>/ writers have been found ? Whence was it, (hat this moft an- 
cient fpecies of poetry was fo litttc exercifed, fo flcnderly im- 
proved ? That fo late as the times of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
under the hands of Theocritus, it attained its perfection, and 
anived at its maturity ? For the prefent, therefore, we fliall 
wave this fidion concerning the golden age (intending to con- 
fider it.more h\\j afterwards) and with it wo (hall difmi(s the 
fables and little hiftories that are handed about concerning the 
origin of the Bucolic poetry : l^iftories, wbofe truth is the more 
to be fufpeded and called in queftion, becaiife they diiFer fo 
much from each other. My opinion of the matter is, that the 
Bucolic poetry took its rife from the ancient Comedy, while 
'the latter was in its iimple and uncultivated ftate; or rather 
that it was a part or fpecies of it. It clearly appears, that 
Comedy had its origin in thofe freegames which were celebrated 
>/ by the inhabitants of the country, on their feftivals, after thejr 
had finiflied their labours. On thefe occaftons they indulged 
themfelves -in verfes of a rude, and, as it were, extemporaneous 
kind. Thefe verfes were in time fucceeded by the ftage and fet 
plays. In thofe feflive times the common people, looted from 
labour, and diflblvedin pleafure, in all the fpirit of licentioufiiefs 
attacked each other with mutual fcandal and reproach. The 
clear and well-known evidence of Horace appears to this 
point : 

Jgricola prifcij fortes^ parvoqui beatt^ 
Condlta po/i frumentM, Itvantei timpore fifto 
Corpus it ipjum animum^ fpt finis dura ftrentifttf , 
Cum fociis operum^ putrts it conjugi fidoy 
Tellunm porco^ Syhanum laSit piabanty 
Fhrihui it vino genium memprem hrevis avs, 
Fefccnnina ptr hunc inventa lieentia monntf 
Verfibus alternis opprobrim ruflica fiidit. 

The authority of Tibullus, too, is to be confidcrcd ^ 

Agricola ajfiduo primum laffatus aratro^ 

Cantavit certo ruftica Virba pede ; 
Et fatur aYtnti primum eft modulatus cvenA 

CarmiUy ut ornatos duarct ante dtos. 

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WartonV Thiocritus. tj 

And what fliould hinder them from introducing fhepherds, 
among others, to thcfe games, fince they too have their dwel- 
ling in the country, and are not lefs incKned to play, to fcur- 
rility and repartee ? Or from what other caufe do you imagine 
Paftoral could derive that dramatic form, that amoebean manner 
offpeaking, which is peculiarly adapted to it ? Should it not, 
moreover, be obferved, that (according to Epicharmus) Comedy 
was faid to be invented by the Sicilians, among whom, we 
are likewife informed, that the Bucolic poetry was firft found ? 
For hence we may conclude, that there is fome fort of relation^ 
or connexion at leafl^, between things which take then: rife ia 
one common country. 

To ftrengthen the probability of this opinion, I (hall ad- 
duce fome paffages from the writings of Theocritus himfclf. In 
the beginning of the third Idyllium the fbepherd Tityrus ufes 
the word x«jtxa(rJ'«, which denotes a kind of paftoral dance 
along with fong, and is peculiar to theatrical a£lion. The PoeC 
feems to have had the fame in view in the following verfe : 
ria fjt.Qi roci Scc(pPOH (Pt^t, GiruAi, ira ii r» ^tArga ; 

for the very ftrucSlure of it points out a fort of fong called 
4tp^ifji>oct which ufually accompanied the dance— ^ 

Tin ^01 rot ^o5x ; im [aoi rx ix ; tth [moi tx xx\X o'i'Kiya; 

nay, the term ^HKoXixfrfj^og itfelf fignifies a kind of fong and 
dance. Whence it appears, that there is here to be underdood 
fome a<^ion and exhibition. Befide, in the Idyllium juft men- 
tioned, which hath as much of the Bucolic genius as any one 
whatever, the manner of entering on the fcene, fo neceflary in 
.Comedy, is accurately obferved. The fcene is laid before the • 
cave of Amaryllis. The (hcpherd, before he begins to a£l, 
commits his (heep to the care of Tityrus. So in the ancient 
Comedy, the a£tors, when they come to the opening of the 
fcene, lay down the things which they happen to have in their 
hands, and order the xxoXh^oi to take them away. Thus it is 
in the Eiftjvrj of Ariftophanes ; and afterwards in Terence's 
Andria, 

Fos hac iniro auferte^ abite. 

The laft and moft important obfervation is, that in the fcurri- 
lous and indecent* expreffions which frequently occur in the 
Bucolics of Theocritus, we may difcovcr fome obfcure traces 
of that Fefcennina Jicentia^ with which the ancient Comedy, and 
the Mimi in particular, fo much abounded. 

The fum of what we have advanced, and defire to eftablifli, 
is this. In the infancy of Comedy, the perfons were ruftics, 
prone to throw out mutual reproaches. Among the reft, 
fliepherds were fomctimes introduced upon the fiage, and Pafto- 

G 2 lals 

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84 w znons i beocrttus. 

rals were aflcd. In proccfs of time, mean charaScrs were en* 
tireiy banifhed from the theatre, and charaders fomcwhat bet- 
ter made ufe of. Paftoral dialogues, however, remained ; and^ 
whether they were adled or not, they preferved fome veftiges 
of their ancient exhibition, and were in time eftabh'fhed as a 
fpecies of writing. Sometimes, after they had loft their place 
upon the ftage, thev took the form of mere narration, when 
the old dramatic caft appeared lefs expedient. By degrees all 
manner of barbarifm was driven out of this walk, as well da 
from that of Comedy. The poets obferved the delights and 
graces which the country had to boaft ; and it was difcovered 
that by clear defcription and happy imagery, a poem perfe^y in 
character might be compofed. Hence a moft agreeable kind 
.of verfe, reprefenting the a£lions and manners of paftoral life. 

I^offibly it may be afked, if this account of the origin of 
the Bucolic poetry be true, how comes it to pafs that in the 
authois of antiquity we have not the flighteft mention of the 
exhibiting and acfting of Paftorah ; that there remains no de- 
fcription of their ftage, their ma(k, their a<^ors, and other 
things neceflary on fuch occafions ? The principal reafon I 
would affign, is this : their fcene was very homely and unpo- 
lifbed; and, after the ancient Comedy aflumed a new form, 
ftepherds, with others of th^ fame ftamp, were foon either en- 
tirely excluded from the ftage, or the people, at leaft, were 
every day lefs and lefs inclined to call for their 'exhibitions. 
But if the reprefentation of paftorals continued longer, they bad 
only a fubordinate admiffion to the theatre, between the ads, 
I mean, in the manner of the Mimi: or, po0tbly, they found 
admidion on the ftage with another fpecies of the drama, as 
we ftiall obferve by and by. 

Nor are the critics of modern times altogether filent con- 
cerning the Paftoral ftage. Voffius, though h^ docs not fup- 
port his afTertion with any ancient teftimony, fays exprefly,. 
'* Scenamy in quam a poetts bucdlicis faftores agent es induarentur^ 
arbcribus conJlruSfam fuijfe.*^ The very learned Daniel Heinfms 
. fcems alfo to have underftood that there was a Paftoral ftage, 
though he has not affirmed it in fo many words : '* Oportuit 
arte quicunque aSlor hac faltaret mirum in modum lafcivire gejii" 
culaiione'^ And in another place, fpeaking of the beginning of 
the third Idyllium — ** ^€s omnia cum vehementijftmo j^Tj/Aar^tr/tAM 
it gejficulationey pedumque motu pronuncianturJ* And a little after^ 
*' In quibus omnibus refpirat et inter quiefcit a£for, Necejfe ejl itaque 
orationem toiam^ quia reprafentationi conformata efty ^r." I fliall 
add here a paflage from Vitruvius concerning the form and con- 
ftruflion of the Paftoral ftage, though I do it chiefly for the 
fake of fubjoirting the comment of rerrotius. ** Genera autem 
fcenarum funt tria \ unum quod dicitur tragicum^ alterum comitum^ 

tertium 



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VTzxtorCs Theocritus. 85 

Urtium fatyricum. Horum autem ornatus funt inter fe d'Jftmiks^ 
iijparique ratione : qmd tragica deformantur columnis^ f^J^^giis et 
J^nisj reUquifque regaUbus rebus 5 comica autem adificiorum priva* 
torum et marianorum habent fpeciem^ iffc. Satyrica vera $rnantur 
arborihus^ fpeluncis^ montibus^ reliquifque agrejiibus rebus^ in topia* 
rii operis Jpeciem deformatisJ'* The remark of Perrotius is this : 
** Pojjhn reddere Jcenam fatyricam^ fcenam pajioralem ; et verojimi'^ ■ 
liter ea ipfa ejl de qua vult hie loqui Fitruvius.** Hence, befidc 
the hints eiven above, you fee the reafon why the ancients have 
not defcribed a ftage for the Paftoral drama ; namely, becaufe 
that of Satyr gave it a place on hers. 

You fee this hypotbefis of ours, if admitted, annihilates 
that opinion concerning the golden age, which has been fo long 
and fo univerfally received. It may be proper, however, to 
confider what gave rife to that notion, and at the fame time 
to fhew how falfe and groundiefs it is. It is the cuftom of the 
Bucolic writers to reprefent the mod pleafing and beautiful 
images of things. With them all manner of fruits are in the 
moft luxuriant abundance : their paftures are the moft flourish- 
ing, and their lambs in the moft thriving condition. Whatever 
delights can arife from caves, rivers, and woods, come in to 
adorn their fcenes. In the mean time human kind are exhibited 
as Viappy beyond the lot of humanity, enjoying eafe and peace 
in the portion of fuperior beings ; amidft all the conveniencies 
and bleffings of the richeft country, burdened with no care ex- 
cept that of their {heep ; their entertainments love, poetry, and 
inufic ; their life undifturbed with crimes, and unfpotted with 
injuftice : circumftances thefe of fuperior happinefs, which can 
fcarce be fuppofed to have exifted in any time or place. Thefe, 
therefore, the grammarians, and Donatus at the head of them, / 
not being able to account for otherwife, referred, without any yy 
trouble, to fome fabulous or fortunate period, which they called 
the golden age. While, in this manner, they cut a knot not 
very difficult to untie, they feem to have been little acquainted 
with the powers, the nature, and intention of poetry in gene- 
ral, and of the Bucolic in particular. It' is well known that 
all poetry confifts in imitation. The defigii of the fiucolic 
poetry is to imitate the difcourfe and the actions of ibepherds. 
But as fhe profecutes thefe things in order to excite pleafure, {he 
thinks it not her bufinefs to exprefs the very or the real Truth, 
which fometimes might prove difagreeable and difgufting to 
the reader. She therefore invents (if I may be allowed to fay 
fo) a kind of ideal truth, which is not fo different from the 
real, but that rural fcenes and objects are ever kept in fight. 
In the mean time the Mufe paints them, not as they are, but 
9s fhe defires them to be. What was excellent ahd beautiful in 
nature, by a vronderful art of imitation fhe renders ftill more 

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y 



t6 ^ WzTton'sTheoertfus. 

beautiful and pcrfeft ; and her principal care is, to colIecSl what 
IS fcattered and far divided, and place it in one point of view : 
£o in the following defcription, 

SpeJunca^ vivique lacuSy ei frigida Tempe^ 
Mugitufque bouniy mollefque fub arbon fomnu 

In fliort, the Paftoral mufc fuppreffes and conceals whatever is 
mean and difguftful, employs her pencil on the moft pleafing 
obje£ts, and, by her enchanting touches, gives them an addi- 
tional bekuty, and heightens their charms. Hence thofc de- 
lightful images, thofe exquifite fcenes of happinefs, which wc 
fo much envy in the Paftoral life ! Of this mafterly feleQion 
confifts the Arcadia, the golden age, of which we have fomany 
fabulous defcriptions. It is, indeed, the nature of poetry in 
, general, in this refpefl, to reprefent fomething of a more per- 
^ ItQ. asra \ for from her glowing hand perfons. appear more illu- 
flrious, events greater, objetSs and aflions better than they arc 
in reality. 

The learned and judicious Trapp, whom I muft always men- 
tion with honour, not fufliciently attentive to this circumftance, 
in his Diiitrtation on Paftoral Poetry, falls into thefe erroneous 
fentiments. '* Pajiorale poema nojlr'u ataiis fcriptoribus minus 
(onvenit \ propter tnuiciam prorfus a primis mundi faculis rerum 
ft vita humana conditionenu Cum enim^ extra pJebem miferam 
atque vihonejlam nulli nunc fmi pa/lores ^ nimis dura et coaSfa vide* 
iur profopopoena ; vel pajioribus qui nunc funt elegantiam aut erudi- 
iionem quantwnvis exiguam offingere^ vel divites aut do^is fub ^a- 
Jiorum fpetie inducere. De faSio hac omnia veritati ejfe cmtraria 
univerjis notijfwium eji^ ideoque nullus fiSfioni rejiat locus ; ac proindi 
ipfum hujus poematis fundamentum tolli videtur, prout nojiris tempo* 
. ribus accowm:datur," For though wc grant that the ftate of 
things, and the condition of human life, are entirely changed 
from what they were in the firft ages of the world, and that 
there are now no (hepherds exifting but of the pooreft and moft 
unpolifhed of the people ; yet if we confider what the ufe and 
•defign of poetry is, namely, to exhibit things, not as they are 
; but as they ought to be, the Profopopoeia will not appear fo 
^ forced and hard. I confefs, indeed, that there are in Paftoral 
poetry many things contrary to truth, or at leaft very unlike 
it. But can we conclude from thence that there is no room 
for fidion ? In like manner, in Tragedy, there are reprefenta- 
tions contrary to or unlike truth and fafl: ; yet this docs not 
make the drama difagree With nature and propriety. If nothing 
were allowed to fidion in Tragedy, what man in his fenfes 
would write it ? For furely we do not find in real life heroes 
in bufkins, who talk in a magnificent manner in verfe. In one 
word^ both in this and the other fpecies^ poets imiute an ar- 

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W^rtonV Theocrituu Sj 

4c3)etype or pattern^ not fuch as they fe9 bot fuch as they could 
j^iOi to fee. 

The next thing is to confider the Dramatis Perfomey to 
^vbom the parts in the ancient Bucolic poetry of the Greeks 
•were given. They were either Bubuldy TJpUion^^ or Caprarii j 
the firft had the care of oxen, the fecond of (heep, and the 
third of goats. This diftinction, which has not hitherto been 
generally underftood, ought to be carefully remarked and at- 
tended to in the reading of Theocritus, the prince of Paftoral 
poets. The firft in rank were the Bubulci. From them indeed, 
cf old, Pafforals got the general name of Bucolics. They ap- 
pear, moreover, to have been greatly fvperior to thofe of the 
other claffes in point of wealth. In the twenty-fcventh Idyl- 
lium of Theocritus, Daphnis recommends himfdf to his miftrefs 
by his very reputable bufmefs of a Bubuhus : 

T»v vivuTOcv *EXiyriv Tlxpig r,^woc(rs €u}XoXo; aXXcg^ 

Afterwards he promifes to give her in dower, not only his 
herds, but woods and paftures too : 

Then his miftrefs, who was only a goatherd, fays, (he will go 
and fee thefe fuperior articles in the pofleflion of her Bubulcus : 
A»y£f £/x«* Co(rx£&* 7X 6wx^X« i^yx yoy\(ru. 

In the twentieth Idyllium, the man wonders at his being dif- 
dained by a young woman of the city, and exprefTes his indig- 
nation that his fuit fhould be rejeded becaufe he is a BubuUus: 

Euwxa it fj.Qvx ray feoxoAop »x tfiXxcn. 
}Ience alfo the following expoftulation in another place, 

■ > — K' «^ot' axouei 

*Xl? xaXo< AiOFiKTo? iv xyXKFi Tropriv tXxvvii. 
Oux iyyu) J'ot* Ku?rpif stt* ocH^i fxriyoLTO Sovta, 

m * • * » * *'• 

EvivfAtuv ie TK ^y ; Ov SovKoX^i ; curi 1,(Xmv» 

• -• » • * • • « • 
Kai TV, 'Pia, xXamg roy 6«xoX©»'# Ouxi St xa» tu, 
X2 ;^«*»fe> Siot, TTXiSx ionvo[A6y uvTOi tirXccy^B'fii j 

There is atfo greater dignity in the verfe of the Bubulci. In 
the eighth Idyllium, Daphnis begins hoiSxy 6coxoAtx<zv : which 
the Greek fcholiaft calls HSny ^)i)ioXoi^ dpfMoclnfrccv ; a fort of verfe 
that was fuitable to the better rank and more decent condition 
of the Bubulcus. In the ninth too, Daphnis is defired to fmg 
the Bucolic fong [CvxoXtc^o-J'iiv] as fomething of a fuperior 

G 4 nature ; 

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nature; and to begin firft in right of his ftation. The Uj&/- 
lioj or Shepherd, had the fecond place: the fame, who, ia 
the forementioned IdylHum, allowed Daphnis the privilege of 
beginning $rft. The (hepherds boafted of no extenfive poffef- 
iions, but lived happy in unambitious poverty. The Caprarii^ 
or Goat-herds, were of a ftill lower order. That their drefs 
was mean, and their perfons not very cleanly, may be gathered 
from the habit of Lycidas, in the feventh Idyllium. In the 
firft Priapus obje£is to Daphnis, that by not governing himfelf 
in his love, he imitated the diflblute manners of a goat-herd^ 
and no longer deferved the name of a Bubulcus : 

The fliepberd Polyphemus falls under the fame reproach : 

BxXXtl T0(, IIoXv(p»lJi£y TO TTOtfMViOV i TotXotTUX 

The poverty of the Caprarii is evident. It is particularly re- 
marked by Theocritus, where he introduces Lacon laughing 
at Comatas, becaufe his mafter Eumaras had not even a goat's 
fkin to fleep upon : 

Befide, the Caprarii were of a far more illiberal turn, and their 
manners much Icfs cultivated. They were always prepared to 
fquabble, and their difcourfe was ever obfcene and fcurrilous. 
We have a remarkable inftance of this, in the fifth Idyllium of 
Theocritus. Longus the Sophift herein imitates Theocritus : 
for, to {hew us the fimple and unpoliihed ftate in which this 
race of men lived, he reprefents a vile feducer declaring, that 
he hoped to delude Daphnis with eafe, and draw him to bis 
wifhes, becaufe he was a goatherd. 

*' £7ri3'cSa(» Siiyvi^ r(a ^afviity x»t visci^v u)tTa paiitoff tog 
€tiToAov." So in the fame Author, the country people exprefs 
their fears that the infants lately found by a poor man would 
be brought up Goatherds, though their prefent cloathing 
ibewed they had a right to better fortune. 

The three charadters in Paftoral life thus fettled and fepa« 
rately defcribed, I will add fome other marks and diftinSions^ 
whence not only new light, but alfo new graces, will be af- 
forded to feveral paflages in Theocritus. In the eighth Idyllium, 
the great beauty of the poem confifts in the diverfity of cha- 
rader between the Neatherd and the Shepherd. Daphni? feeds 
oxen, and Menalcas fheep ; and the allufions of both refpeft 
their proper bufinefs. The one never invades the other's pro- 
vince. To prove this more particularly, would be to write 
out the whole Idyllium. Yet it is worth while to confider with 

what 

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I WzTton^sTheocrsiuS. t^ 

what beauty and propriety the Neatherd draws his comptrirons 
I from his employment — *' Sweet is the heifer's voice, and fweeC 
her breath, &c/* Afterwards Menalcas fays, ** The teats of 
the Iheep are all diftended with milk, and the whole flock 
grows fat, when vif^ed by his beautiful miftrefs." Daphnit 
replies, " When his Milo leaves him, both his cows, and the 
perfon who feeds them, pine away." At laft the Goatherd, 
who is to judge of their performances, ftill entirely in charader, 
gives the viftor the goat without horns, near the kids, which 
the white dog bayed. In the ninth Idyllium, DajAnts the 
Neatherd boafts ot his handfome bed of flcins of white heifers, 
whom the fouth wind had blown down from a rock, where 
they were cropping the arbutus. To this Menalcas oppofes 
bis fleeces, the produce of his flock, which lay in great abun- 
dance at Ws head and feet in the cave. Thefe difl^rent cha- 
raders in rural life had alfo their difl^erent deities. The Goat- 
herds worfhipped Pan, as their preceptor in the art of finging 
or playing on the pipe. On the other hand, the Neatherds and 
Shepherd^ were the difciples of Apollo and the Mufes. In the 
firft idyllium, the (hepherd Thyrfis invites the Goatherd to his 
Pafloral feat, and defures him to play upon the pipe. The 
Goatherd anfwers. He could not do this at noon, while Pan, 
whom he reverenced as his god, was fleeping; but Thyrfis 
might do it, becaufe he did not lie under the fame religious 
I obligations. The Shepherd accordingly invokes the Mu(es, 
and intreats them to bf propitious to his lay. Thus too be 
concludes his fong— - 

Uvucoo TfltK M«ca»f . X2 X**?''''* ^o^*x» Mufreu* ' 
The (hepherd Thyrfis, moreover, promifes a he-goat to Pan, 
and a (he- goat to the Goatherd, the votary of Pan. In return, 
the Goatherd affigns the Mufes a flieep, and Thyrfis, the fer- 
vant of the Mufes, a Iamb from the fold. In the fifth Idyl- 
lium, the (hepherd Lacon fays. 

As to what Comatas had afierted in the preceding diftich, that 
he was dearer to the Mufes than Daphnis himfelf, it plainly 
proceeded from the vanity of the Goatherd. It deferves likewi^ 
to be remarked, that the Shepherds and Bubulci fwore by the 
ibrrows of Daphnis, as Lacon does in the fame Idyllium : while 
. Comatas, agreeably to the Goatherds oath, imprecates on ^im« 
[ (elf the punifhment of Melanthius in Homer. In the begin- 
nings of the Idyllia, Theocritus commonly marks the condition 
and degree of the fpeakers, and gives us notice, at the entrance of 
the drama, of what perfons it would confi(l. Neverthelefs, this 
'diftindlion vani(bed by degrees, and at length gave place to the 
general name and idea of Shepherd -, when the Poets ceafed to 

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^ WartonV Thiocritttsl 

write Paftoralr from real life. It is not to be found even in the 
poems of Mofchus and Bion. Theocritus, therefore, feems to 
have left us the only pattern of the general Bucolic poetry« 
At the fame time it is iafy to imagine, that the ancient Buco^ 
lies muft have derived much variety and grace from this pppo- 
iition of cbaraders. Hence a great and moft agreeable diver- 
fity of manners, fpeecbes, poetry, and mufic. Vireil is eu- 
tirely deftitute of this praife. All the modern Paftorals are 
equally deficient in this refped, and confequently tire the reader 
with a perpetual fimilarity, or rather famenefs, of charader* 

Nor do we think it proper to pafs by what is (aid con- 
cerning the Bucolic meafure, though we do not chufe to 
dwell upon it. In the compofition of his verfe, Theocritus 
daems to have ftudied to have the fourth' foot a Da£^yl ; .fo that 
when the two final feet are taken from it, it becomes the tragic 
Tetrameter. Thus, 

*A#u T» ro '\n,b\)fi9fi.a %ai i iriru^ — ;;— 
*A iroT« r»i^ 'ir%i,yo^i(ri fji^XurSirat 

All the verfes of the firft Idyllium, excapt twenty-feven, arc 
of this conilrudfon ; and all of the fecond, except nine. From 
thb circumftance Heinfius concludes that this kind of meafure 
is purely Bucolic ; becaufe in our Author's other works, his 
Ptolemy for ihftance, and his Charites, the verfe runs in a very 
different manner. The opinion of Valckenarius, who was (o 
able a judge, on this point, is the fame, as we find in his learned 
epiftle to Roveriiff. ** The Dadyl verfe- ought 'to be called Bu- 
colic, if, when the two laft feet are cut off, there remains a 
Tetrameter, clofed with a Dadyl, which terminates part of 
of the line, and confequently is Alcmanic." To which we 
may add, that the Bucolic verfe is moft efteemed, and certainly 
will run moft happily, if the firft word is a Dadyl, and makes 
a complete foot* 

As to the Greek Bucolic poets whofe works are come down 
to us, I pafs by Bipn and Mofchus, though very elegant and 
agreeable writers of Paftoral, and haften to Theocritus, who 
(as we have already obferved) firft excelled in this way. I am 
perfuaded that we cannot come to a truer judgment of this 
poet, than by briefly comparing him with Virgil. Now, I can- 
not but think Theocritus eminently happy, in felefting and 
applying thofe circumftances or adjunfts, which, though flight 
in themfelves, and for that reafon paffed over by other writers, 
paint the obje£l more diftin£)ly, and fet it in a clearer light. 
Many delightful and perfefily Paftoral traits of this kind, oc- 
cur in Theocritus, which Virgil, with his faftidious tafte, did 
not venture to transfer into the Latin poetry. PoffiWy, indeed^ 
the nice cars of the Romans would not have borne them. 

There 

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.Warton^ Thtocritus% ^ 

*lrh«tt M ttbAfeig wfcfch Thtoeritus fuppreflis or diflcmMfcs, «i 
poets of ttiOrt polite 9L^ti do ; on the contrary, he defcribes 
twtrj thing tninutdf. Hence it Is that we find Virgil dry and 
jejune, while Theocritus, -on the fame fubjeil, is full, copiout, 
tttrioas. The Roman, in his imitations, has given a neatneft 
to (bmt Images of the Sicilian, whofe original beauty confifted 
ill their watot of neatnefs. He gave a polifti to that whidi 
ought not t6 hav^ been polMbed. In Virgil there is perhaps ^ 
more correflnefs, precifion, and elegance, than in Theocricuft : / 
but Theocritus cxcek in the variety and ftrcngth of imagery^ 
and often in beauty t6o. Quiniilian had in his eye the more 
tultivated taftc of the Romans, and fome Paftorals 6^ Virgil 
ef the more refined fort, when he pafled that invidious, or, 
hoVi^vcr, unequitable judgment on Theocritus. •* The ruftic 
tnd paftoral mufe [of the Sicilian] is afraid to fliew her face, 
ftot only at court, but even in the city," In truth, Virgil's 
tnufe, in his Paftorals, is not dreft in the genuine but in an 
affeded fafhion ; he fupports, as it were, a borrowed charadcr ; 
while Theocritus appears in his own. The one exhibits (he 
manners of rural life in his own country ; the other adopts the 
manners of a foreign country. Virgil defcribes Paftoral affairs 
by imitation, Theocritus from the life. For though VirgiJ had, 
in Italy, fhepKerds before his tyts^ whofe pidure he might have 
drawn, yet the Paftoral life was in much greater efteem and 
perfedion in Sicily. Thfe care of their herds and flcxrks was 
matter of more attention in that country, becaufe^he fertility 
of the foil, fo fuitable to the breeding of cattle, made it a 
very important confideration. Hence, to Theocritus, a native 
of Sicily, Paftoral images were more frequent and more firong. 
Hence thofe numerous, and, I may fay, natural allufions, witti 
which we are fo much delighted in tnat Poet : for they were 
drawn from the very objeds which he daily faw and knew, and 
with which he was moft familiarly acquainted. Let us fee, 
by an example or two, how unhappily Virgil has introduce4 
Sicilian manners into the chara<Sler of Roman ftiepherds. 
* In Theocritus the Cyclops fings thus — 

ILoLi yof S'fjy vx iiSo^ z')(w MocKm^ co; fxs Xsyovr^^ 

Virgil makes Corydon fpeak in the fame manner — 

Nee fum adeo informU ; nuper me in litton vidi 
Cum pMidum vent is Jlaret mare. 

But though this agrees with the Cyclops, it wants propriety 
with refpeft to Corydon. Corydon, a common mortal, ftiould 
have made ufe of a fountain or river for a looking-glafe. On • 

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^ ,' Warton V Theocritus. 

ibe other hand, in Theocritus, everything is dctommodited 
to the perfon, the fituation, the character. The gigantic Cy- 
clops very properly takes the fea for his looking-glafs ; and the 
rather, becaufe he pafled much of his time on dbe (bore. Again, 
when Corydon fays, he has milk in great abundance, both in 
fummer and winter ; this is nothing extraordinary for a ihep- 
herd, who availed himfclf of ^11 the conveniencies of a regular 
domeftic life : but the favage life which Polyphemus led, re- 
quired that he fhould have fuch things provided for fome conG- 
derable time. As to Corydon's boaft of his fnow-white flocks, 
of his thoufand lambs wandering on the Sicilian mountains, 
and his (kill in rural mufic, thefe things I think far more 
fuitable to the Cyclops ; for his Paftoral wealth was mu^h better 
known, the ability with which he touched the pipe more re- 
markable, and his Paftoral charader more eminent. Of fuch 
an obfcure fliepherd as Virgil's Corydon, we were never taught 
to believe the fame. In like manner, Virgil applies the rough 
igff-ir^it; of Polyphemus, much lefs happily, to another fliepherd. 
In the Idyllium already cited, the Cyclops fays— 

HpaSr]v /xfv tyuySp xopa, rtv^ dvixoc irpuTOV 

Hv^ig c/Aa <rvv jxnrpt, d'lXoK* ^aKiy^ivet f 0AA« * 

££ opfo; jjpcv|/0(dai' iya f ifoif fiyiixoviuoy. 

Virgil turns it thus— 

Sepibus in no/iris parvam te rofcida maldj 
Dwt ego vejler eratn^ vidi cum matre legentem. 

Sca1iger» who, though much converfant in the writings of the 
ancients, never relimes any thing of antiquity, makes (his 
remark upon the paflage — ^' Nonne melius mala, quam folia 
hyacinthi ? Petuntur enim magis hyacinthi Jiores quam folia. Et 
in montibus infrequeniior hyacinthus** Yet I know not whether 
the leaves of the hyacinth do not convey a more rural idea than 
apples. There feems alfo to be fomething of an agreeable fim- 
plicity in fceking the leaves^ rather than toe flowers^ of the hya* 
cinth : and the feardhing for them on the wild mountains, 
forms a mdre rural image than the looking for apples in the 
hedges. Nor did Virgil fuccced better when he attempted his 
Cup from Theocritus. The veflVl which Theocritus dcfcribcs 
was not in ufe in Virgil's age or country, and therefore he 
might not underftand what kind of veflel it was. What dfc 
could be the reafon for his changing the large capacious bowl, 
whence the Sicilian fliepherds ufed to fwill in milk, wine, or 
other liquors, into two cups for the table? Befides, he has 
loaded the veflels thus contraded with a difproportionate quan** 
tity of fculpture. This error he fell into from a defire to imi- 
tate the beauties of Theocritus ^ and perhaps bis imiution 

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Mallet'x Northern Antiquities. 1^ j 

WouM have been a juft one, if he had confidered what fort ol 
veflel the Sicilian bard defcribed. 

. To cxprefs my fentiments in one word— Theocritus is Wee 
fome hurge and fertile pafture, abounding with falubrious herbs 
and beautiful flowers, and watered with rlch.ftreams: Virgil is 
like a garden laid out in elegant beds, where there is great 
plenty of flowers, difpofed with more art, and cultivated, with 
greater care, but flowers which were originally tranfplanted 
from that larger pafture. ; 

. Such is the diflertation on the Bucolic poetry, in which if 
too much is advanced upon conjedure, it muft be allowed that 
there is confiderable learning and ingenuity. We purpofe to 
clofe our account of this learned work with ftridures on the 
notes. 

[To be concluded in our next."} 

^ ^^___^^, 

Art* II. Northern Antiquities: or a Defcription of the Manners^ 
Cuftonu^ Religion and Laws of the ancient Danesy and other 
northern Nations ; induing thofe of our own Saxon Anceftors. 
With a TranJIation of the Edda^ or Sjftem of Runic Mythology^ 
and other Pieces^ from the ancient IJIandic Tongue. Tranflated 
from Monf. Mallet's Introduction aCHiJioire de Dannemarc^ Wr. 
With additional Notes by the Englifh Tranflator, and 
Goranfon's Latin Verfion of the Edda. 8vo. 2 Vols. 
Carnan and Co. 12 s. 1770. 

Tkl" Mallet's Account of northern antiquities is a work of 
great labour and very confiderable utility. The Tranf- 
lator, who is himfdf well verfed in that kind of learning, has 
executed his undertaking, not only »with fidelity, but with 
elegance : and in his preface he has given us proofs that the 
Teutonic and Celtic nations were ah origine two diftind people, 
though M. Mallet had confidered them as one. Upon the 
whole, we have it only to lament that learning made its pro- 
grefs into the north at fo late a period ; the confequence of 
which was, that its moft ancient writers, where they laboured 
under a want of materials, fupplied the defeat from imagina- 
tion. 

The account we have of the religion of the northern nations, 
before it departed from its ancient purity, is given in thefe 
terms : 

* It taught the belngofa fupreme God, mafter of the univcrfc, 
to whom all things were fubmiffive and obedient. Such, according 
toTacitaSy was the fapreme God of the Germans. The ancient 
Icelandic mythology calls him the author of every thing that ex- 
ifleth ; the eternal, the ancient, the living and aweful Being, the 
fearcher into concealed things, the Being that never changeth. It 
attributed to their deity an infinite power, a boundlefs knowledge, 
an incorruptible juflice. It forbad them to reprefetic this divinity 
under any coiporeal form. They were net even co think of con* 

fining 

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f f MalletV Northern JntiquitUsp 

foiyg |iH^. withiik the bclofure of walls, hut were taught that it was 
only within woods and confecrated foreils, (hat they cogld ferve hin> 
jroperly. There he feemed to reign in filcnce, and to make hirafelf 
Icit by the refpeft which he infpired. It was an injurious extrava- 
gance to attribute to this deity a human figure, to ere£t ftatues to 
nim, to fuppqfe him of any fex, or to reprefent him by images. 
From this fupreme God were fprung (as it were emanations of his 
divinity) an infinite number of fubaltern deities and genii, of which 
every ffat of the viiible world was the feat and temple* Tkefe in- 
telligences did not barely refide in each part of nature; they direfle'd 
)ts oper^ti^s, it was the organ or inilrument of their love or libera- 
^ty to mankind. Each element was under the guidance of (oma 
Jfcing peculiar to it. The earth, the water, the fire, the air, the fun, 
jnoon, and ftars had each their refpeftive divinity. The trees. 
forcfts, rivers, mountains, rocks, winds, thunder and tempefts had 
the fame : and merited on that fcore a religious worfhip, which, at 
firft, could not be direded to the yiiibfe objeft, but to the intelli- 
gence with which it was animated. The motive of this worftip w^ 
the fear of a deity irritated by the fins of men, but who, at the fame 
time, was merciful, and capable of being appeafed by prayer and 
repentance. They looked up to him as to the adive principle, which, 
by uniting with the earth or paflive principle, bad produced men, 
animals, plants, and all vifible beings ; they even believed that he 
was the only agent in nature, who jpreferves the feveral beings, ^nd 
difpofes of all events. To ferve tais divinity with facrifices and 
prayers, to do no wrong to others^ and to be brave and intrepid 
themfeives, were all the moral confequences they derived from thefe 
do^rines. Lalily, the belief of a future ftate cemented and com- 
pleted the whole building. Cruel tortures were there referved for 
luch as defpifed the ^ three fundamental precepts of morality, and 
joys without number and without end awaited every tvl^gions, juft, 
.and valiant man.' 

This religion is fuppofed not to have loft its original fimpli- 
city in Scandinavia till the coming of Odin. From bis time 
till the propagation of Chriflianity in that country, the exte- 
rior worfllip is thus defcribed : 

* They offered to Thor, during the feaft of Iuul, fat oxen and 
horfes ; to Frigga the largeft hog they could get ; to Odin horfes, 
dogs, and falcons, fometimes cocks, and a fat bull. When they had 
once laid it down as a principle that the effiifion of the blood of theie 
animals appeafed the anger of the gods, and that their juitice turned 
.afide upon the victims thofe jlrokes which were deftined for men.; 
their great care then was for nothing more than to conciliate their fa- 
vour by fo eafy a method. I^is the nature of violent defires and ex- 
ceiSve fear to know no beunds, and therefore when they would aik 
for any favour which ^they ardently wifhed for, or would deprecate 
fome public calamity which they feared, the blood of animals was 
not deemed a price fufhcient, but they began to fhed that of men. 
It is probable that this barbarous practice was formerly almofk uni- 
verfal, and that it is of a very remote antiquity : it w^ not entirely 
abolifhed among the northern nations till towards the ninth century, 
becaufe before that time they had not received the light of the gof- 

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Mallet'/ Northern Anfiqiiitttu ^| 

pcf, and were ignorant of thofe arts which had foftened the ferodtf 
of the Romans and Greeks whilft they were ftill pagans. 

The appointed time for theic facrifices was always determined by 
another fuperftitioas opinion which made the northern nations re* 
gard the number Three as facred and particularly dear to the gods^ 
Thus in every ninth month they renewed this bloody ceremony, 
which was to laft nine days, and every day they of&red up nine 
living vidlims whether men or animals. But the mod folemn facri^ 
^ces were thofe which were offered at ypfal in Sweden every ninth 
year. Then the king, the fenate, and all the citizens of any diA 
tindion, were obliged to appear in perfon, and to bring offerings, 
which were placed in the great temple defcribed above. Thofe wio 
could not come themfelves, fent their prefents by others, or paid the 
value in money to priefts whofe bofinefs it was to receive the oifeiv 
ings* Strangers flocked there in crowds from all parts : and none 
were excluded except thofe whofc honour had fuffcred fome fUin, ao^ 
efpecially fuch as had been accafed of cowardice. Then they chofe 
among the captives in time of war, and among the flaves in time df 
peace, nine perfons to be facrificed : the choice was partly regulated 
by the opinion of the by-ftandcrs, and partly by lot. ,The wretches 
upon whom the lot fell, were treated with fuch honours by all the 
. aiTembly, they were fo overwhclraed with careflcs for the prefect, 
and with promifes for the life to come, that they fometimes congra- 
tulated themfelves on their deHiny. But they did not al ways facri- 
:fice inch mean perfons : in great calamities, in a prefling famine 
for example, if the people thought they had fome pretext to impute 
the caufe of it to their king, they even facrificed him without hefit^ 
tion, as the highefl price with which they could purchafe the divine 
favour. In this manner the firll king of Vermland was burnt in ho- 
~DOur of Odin to put an end to a great dearth ; as we read in the 
hiftory of Norway. The kings, in their turn, did not ipare the blood 
of their fubjeds ; and many of them even fhed that of their chil- 
dren. Hacon king of Norway, offered his Ton in facrifice to obtain 
of Odin the vidlory over his cnc^my Harold. Aune king of Swe- 
den devoted to Odin the blood of his nine fons, to prevail on 
that god to prolong his life. The ancient hiftory of the North 
abounds in iimilar examples. Thefe abominable facrifices were ac- 
companied with various ceremonies. When the victim was chofen, 
they conducted him towards the altar where the lacred fire was kept 
burning night and day : it was furrounded with all forts of iron and 
brazen veiTcls : among them one was diftinguiihed ftom the reft hf 
its fuperior fize ; in this they received the blood of the vidUms. 
When they offered up animals, they fpeedily killed them at the foot 
of the altar; then they opened their entrails to draw auguries from 
them, as among the Romans : afterwards they dreifed the fleih to be 
ferved up in the feaft prepared for the aflembly. Even horfe-flefti 
was not rejeded, and the grandees often eat of it as well as the 
people. But when they were diipofcd to facriiice men, thofe whom 
they pitched upon were laid upon a great ftone, where th^y were in- 
ftantly either ftramgbd or knocked on the head. Sometimes they let 
cmt die blood ; for no prefage was more refpeded than that which 
they drew from the greater or lefs degree of impetuofity with which. 
the blood gafticd ibiUi» Hence the prie.t^ inferred what fucccfs would 
i ^ atitjnd 

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ff6 MalletV Northern Antiquities^ 

attend the enterprize which was the objefk of their facrifice. They 
aUb opened the body to read in the entrails, and efpecialiy in the 
hearty the will of the gods, and the good or ill fortune that was im- 
pending* The bodies were afterwards burnt, or fufpended in a fa- 
cred grove near the temple. Part of the blood was fprinkled upon 
the people, part of it upon the facred grove ; with the fame they 
alfo bedewed the images of the gods, the altars, the benches and 
walls of the temple both within and without. 

* Sometimes thefe facrifices were performed in another manner, 
^ere was a deep well in the neighbourhood of the temple : the 
chofen perfon was thrown headlong in ; commonly in honour of 
Goya, or the Earth. If he went at once to the bottom, the vidim 
liad proved agreeable to the goddefs, and fhe had received it : if it 
fwam a long time upon the furface, fhe refufed it, and it was hung 
up in a facred foreft. Near the temple of Upfal, there was a grove 
of this fort, of which every tree and every leaf was regarded as the 
moft facred thing in the world. This, which was named Odin's 
Grove, was full of the bodies of men and animals who had been fa- 
crificed. They afterwards took them down to burn them in honour 
of Thor, or the Sun ; and they had no doubt that the holocauft had 
proved agreeable, when the fmoke afcended very high* In what- 
ever manner they immolated men, the prieft always took care in con- 
fecrating the vidim to pronounce certain words, as, '* I devote thee 
10 Odin." " I fend thee to Odin." Or, " I devote thee for a good 
harveft 5 for the return of a fruitful feafon." The ceremony con- 
cluded with feaflings, in which they difplayed all the magnificence 
known in thofe times. The^ drank immoderately ; the kings and 
chief lords drank firfl healths in honour of the gods : every one drank 
afterwards, making fome vow or prayer to the fi;od whom they 
named. Hence came that cuftom among the firfl Chriftians in Ger-^ 
many and the north, of drinking to the health of our Saviour, the 
apoflles, and the faints ; a cuflom which the church was often obliged 
to tolerate. The licentioufnefs of thefe feafts at length increafed to 
ibch a pitch, as to become mere bacchanalian meetings, where, to 
the found of barbarous mufic, amidfl fhouts, dancing and indecent 
gedures, fo many unfeemly adions were committed, that the wifcH 
men refufed to aihd at them.' 

Under the article of government, the reafons why the northern 
nations preferved their liberty fo entire, deferves to be remarked : 

* This was owing to their climate and manner of life, which gave 
them fuch fh-ength of body and mind as rendered them capable of 
lone and painful labours, of great and daring exploits. ** Ac- 
cordingly we have fince found liberty to prevail in North America ; 
but not in the South." For the bodily ftrength of the northern war- 
riors kept up in them that courage, that opinion of their own va- 
lour, that impatience of affronts and injuries, which makes men hate 
all arbitrary government, and defpife thoie who fubmit to it. Beine 
lefs fenfible of pain than the more fouthern nations, lefs eafily mov^ 
by the bait of pleafure, lefs fufceptible of thofe paffions whidi fhake 
the foul too violently, and weaken it by making i^dependent on aQ- ' 
other's will, thev were the lefs a prey to ambition, which flatters 
and intimidates by turns, in order to ^ain the afcendant : their ima- 
i^ination more conftant than lively, their conception more ftcady than 

^ , 4»^ck, 

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MalletV Northern Antijuiim. 97 

, qolcky naturally reftfting; aovelties, kept them from falHig into 
thoie fnares, out of which they would not have known how to ' 
eicape. 

* They were free, becanfe fliey inhabited an uncultivated country,. 
. rude fbr^ and mountains ; and liberty is the fole treafure of an in- 
digent people ; for a poor country excites no avidity, and he who 
polFefres little, defends it eafdy. They were free, becaufe they wcire 
Ignorant of thofe pleafures, often fo dearly bought, which renc^r 
the protection of a powerful mailer neccflary. Triey were free, h^- 
caufe hunters and fhepherds, who wander about in woods through 

. inclination or neceffi^, are not fo eafily oppreffed as the timorout 
inhabitants of indofed towns, who are there chained down to the 
fete of their houfes : and becaufe a wandering people, if deprived of 
their liberty in one place, eafiiy find it in another, as well as their 
fnbfifience. Laftly, tney were free, becaufe knowing not the ufe of 
mtfhey, there could not be employed againft them that inftrument of 
ilavery and corruption, which enables the ambitions to colled and 
diftnbute at will the figns of Hches. 

* Further, that fpint of liberty arifing from their climate, and 
, froih their ruftic and military life, had received new ibength from 

the opinions it had produced ; as a fucker which ihoots forth from 
. the root of a tree, ftrengthens by embracing it. In elTed, tbefe 

people efteeming bevond all things the right of revengping an affront, 

the glory of defpiung death, and penming fword in nand, were 
, always ready to attack tyranny in the firft who dared to attempt it, 

and in whatever formidable fhape it appeared. 

* By thefe jneans was liberty preierved among the inhabitants of 
Germany and the North as it were in the budt ready to blofTom a^d 

' expand through all Europe, there to flourifli. in dieir feveral colonies. 
"this powerful principle exerted the more (Irength in proportion as it 
was the more preifcd. and the whole power of Rome having been un- 
able to deftroy it, it made that yield in its turn from the time it be- 
ffan to be enfeebled till it was entirely overturned. Indeed there was 
icarce a moment wherein the two oppofite powers preferved an even 
balance. As foon as ever that of Rome ceafed to be fuperior, it was 
defboyed. Its celebrated name, that name which had been fo long 
its fupport, was only a Ognal of vengeance, which ferved as it were 
to rally and af&mble at the fame indant all the northern nations : and 
immediately all thefe people breaking forth as it were by agreement, 
ov€Kurned this unhappy empire, and formed out of its rains limited 
monarchies ; Hateis not lefs known before by name, than by thdt 
fbna of government.' 

The account here given us of the ftate of population in thofe 
countries, is new and curious : 

* We have already obfcrvcd, that the inhabitants of Germany atid 
the north were accuflomed every fpring to hold a general affembly, at 
which every freeman appeared completely armed, and ready to go 
upon any expedition. At this meeting they confidered in what quar* 
tcr they fliould make war ; they examined whi^t caufes of complaint 
had been received from the feveral neighbouring nations, their power 
pt their riches, the eaiinefs with which they might be overcome, the 
profped of booty, or the ncceffit;^ of avenging fome injury. .When 

Itav. Avg. 1770. H they 

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' 9' Mallct^J Northim Anttquitia^ 

they had determined on the war, and fettled the plan of the cam« 
paign, they immediately began their march, farnifhed each of them 
with a proper quantity of'provifions ; and almoft every grown man 

• in the country made hafte to join the army thus tumultuoufly af- 
fembled. We are not to wonder after this, that there fhould iflae 
frem the north fwarms of foldiers, as formidable for their numbers 
as their valour ; and we ought not hadily to conclude from hence» 
that Scandinavk formerly contained more people than it does at 
prefent. I know what is related of the incredible multitudes of men^ 
which that country is faid to have poured forth ; but on the othtr 
hand, who does not know how* much nations and hillorians have 

. been, in all ages, inclined to exaggeration in this refpe^ ; fome be- 
ing defirous to enhance the power of their country, and others, when 
it has been conquered, being willing to fave its credit by making it 

. yield only to fuperior numbers; but the grcateft part have been 
guilty of enlargement from no other motive than a blind love of the 
marvellous, aumorifed by the difficulty of pronouncing with certainty 

, on a fubjed in which men often commit great miftakes even after 
long reiearches. Befides this, it is very probable that many parti- 
cular circumilances of thofe famous expeditions made by the Scan* 
dinavians, have contributed to countenance that name of *vagina 
gentium, which an hiftorian gives their country. For when thefc emi- 
grations were made by fea, the promptitude and celerity with which 
they could carry their ravages from one coaft to another, might eafily 
multiply armies in the eyes of the people they attacked, and who 

. heard, many different irruptions fpoken of almoft at the fame time. 
If, on the contrary, they ifTued forth by land, they found every where 
on their march nations as greedy of fame and plunder as themfelves, 
who joining with them, afterwards pafs for people of the fame origitial 
^th the firH fwarm which put itfelf in motion. It (hould alfo be con-^ 
fidered, that thefe emigrations did not all of them take place at the 
fame time ; and that after a nation was thus exhauded, it probably 
remained ina^ive until it had been able to recruit its numbers. The 
vaft extent of Scandinavia being in thofe times divided among many 
different people who were little knpwn, and only defcribed by fome 
one general name, as that of Goths, for inftance, or Normans, 
* (that is. Northern men)' it could not cxa^y be afcertained from 
what country each troop originally came, and ftill lefs to what de- 
gree of depopulation each country was reduced after lofing fo great 
a quantity of its inhabitants. But what in my opinion bell accounts 
for thofe numerous and frequent inundations of northern people^is that 
We have reafon to believe eptire nations of them engaged in enterprifeg 
of this fort : even the women and children fometimes marched in 
the rear of the armies, when a whole people, either by incon(lancy» 
by indigence, or the attraction of a milder climate, refolved to 

■ change their place of abode. Projeds of this kind, it is true, ap. 
pear very flrange to us at prefent ; but it is no lefs true that our an- 
ceilors the ^ Goths and* Celts oft engaged in them. In the time of 

* Csfar, the Helvetians^ that is, the ancient inhabitants of Swifferland, 
defirous to eftablifh themfelves in Gaul, burnt their houfes with their 
own hands, together with fuch of their effeds as were not portable, 
and followed by theinfvives and children, fct out with a xefolution 

•f 

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Mallct'j Northern Anilqultlei. 99 

«^f nevermore returning home. What a maltitude ihigbt not one 
ezped fuch a nation to form ? And yet Csefar remarks that ac* 
wording to the mufters of the Helvetians themfelves, found in their 
camp, they did not exceed three hundred and fixty thoufand in all, 
including old men, women and children : a number without difpute 
imally compared with that of the inhabitants of the iame country at 
.prefent. The expedition of the Cimbri had alfo been an entire 
tranfplantation of that people ; for it appears by the requefl they 
made to the Romans, that their view was to obtain new lands to 
iettle in. They, as well as the Helvetians, took with them their 
wives and- children : And accordingly Cimbria (at prefent Slefwick 
and Jutland) continued after this emigration fo depopulated, tliat at 
the end of two whole centuries, viz. in the time of Tacitus, it had 
•not been able to recover itfelf, as we have already remarked from 
this hiftorian, who had been himfelf in Germany. 

* The expedition of the Anglo-Saxons furnifhes us with proofs no 
lefs convincing than thofe 1 have mentioned. The firll Angles, who 
pafled into Bntain under the condud of Hengid and Horu, were a 
mere handful of men. The ancient Saxon chronicle inf^^rms us, that 
•they had only three veffel?, and it .fhould feem that their number 
•could not well exceed a thoufand. Some other fwarms having after- 
wards followed their example, their country was reduced to a mere 
defert, and continued deflitute of inhabitants for more than two cen- 
turies ; being ftill in this flate in the time of Bede,. from whom the 
.author of the Saxon chronicle borrowed this fa£t. Let any one judge 
after this, whether it was always out of the fuperfluity of its inha- 
bitants, as hath been frequently aflerted, that the North poured forth 
its torrents on the countries they overwhelmed. For my part I have 
not been able to difcover any proofs that their emigrations ever pro- 
ceeded from want of room at home : on the contrary, 1 £nd enough 
to convince me that their country could eafily have received an ad- 
ditional number of inhabitants. When Alboin formed the pro- 
ved of leading the Lombards into Italy, he demanded auxiliaries 
from the Saxons, his allies. Twenty thoufand Saxon^H with 
.their wives and children, accompanied the Lombards into Italy , 
and the kines of France fqit colonies of S.vabians to occupy the' 
country which the Saxons had left defert. Thus we fee the Saxons, 
who are thought to have been one of the moft numerous people of 
Germany, could not fend forth this feeble fwarm without depopu- 
lating their own country : but this is not all. The twenty thoufand 
Saxons difagrceing with the Lombards, quitted Italy, and returned 
back {^undimini(hed in number) into their own country, which they 
found pofTefled by the Swabians above-mentioned. This prefently 

f" ave rife to a war, notwithftanding all the remonftrances of the Swa- 
ians, who, as an ancient hiflorian aflTures us, demonilrated to the 
Saxons, that both nations might eafily ihare the country among 
them, and live all of them in it very commodioufly. I make no 
doubt but there were throughout all Saxony, as well as Scandinavia, 
vaft trads of land which lay in their original uncultivated (late, 
having never been' grubbed up and cleared. Let any one ^ead the 
dcfcrip.tion which Adam of Bremen gives of Denmark in the eleventh 

H 2 , century. 

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century, zvA he will be convinced that the coafts alone wtiie peopldl, 
but tha^thc interior parts formed only one rd& foreft. 

' From \vh^t has been faid, therefore, I think one may lafdy con- 
clude, \hat as aU were fbldiers among the ancient Scandinanans, 
they cotld eafily fill all Europe with die noife of their arms, and 
i-avage for a long time different parts of it, although the fum total 
bf the inhabitants ihoiild have beeamach IfTs than it is at prefent. 
If it was othcrwife', we mxsSi acknowled^, that this extreme popula- 
tion can be very ill reconciled, either with what hiftory informs as of 
the manners, cufloms, and principles of the ancient Scandinavians, 
or with the founded notions of policy with refped to what aakes 
the true profperity of a people. For we cannot allow them fuch a 
fuperiority over us in the number of the inhabitants, without grant- 
ing them at the fame time a proportionable excellence in their CBf> 
turns, manners, civil regulations, and conflitution of government* 
fes fo many efficacious caufes of the good Of bad date of all focieties, 
Und confequently Of their greater or lefs degree of population. But 
^\iO can perfuade himfelf, that thofe favage times when men fowed 
and reaped but little ; when they had no other choice bat that of the 
deflrudlive profeifion of arros^ or of a drowfy indolence no lefs de- 
ih;udive ; when every petty nation was torn to pieces either by pri- 
vate revenge and fedUons within, or by war with their neighbqurs 
from without ; when they had nb other fubMence but rapine, and 
"ho other ramparts but wide frontiers laid wade ; who, I fay, can be- 
lieve fuCh a ftate as this to be more favourable to the propagation of 
the human fpecies, that that wherein men's goods and perfohs are in 
«full fccurity ; wherein the fields are covered with labourers, and their 
cities rich and numerous flourtfh in tranquillity ; wherein the people 
are left to breathe during long intervals of peace, and there is never 
more than a fmall part dl the inhabitants to whom war is deftm^ve; 
and laflly, wherein commerce, manufadures, and ^e arts offier fb 
many refources, and fecond io well that natural propeniity to increafe 
and multiply, which nothing but the fear of indigence can check and 
re drain.' 

In the 2d vol. we are prefented with a tranflation ofihtEJda^ 
or Runic mythology, at large. But it has been fo apparently 
accommc dated by the writer to the Chriftian fyftem ; and where 
it. differs rrom that, is fo filled with childifh fancies^ that we 
can make no extra(^ from it. The good mif&onaries. In their 
zeal, made for the poor pagans, what is the mod difficult thing 
in the world to make. — They made — even a trinity. 

As for the fpecimens of the ancient poetry of the Norths 
they are but trifling. We find in them neither the fpirit nor 
imagination, which are fo vifible in the tranilations that Mn 
Macph non has given us from the Erfe. 

From the proverbs we have felefted the following, as ibme 
of the beft : 

^^ He who travelleth bath need of wifdom. One may do at 
heme whatever one will \ but be who is ignorant of good man* 

nersy 

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Lc BdAi'x HiJIory of tht Lmer Emphn. i C i 

nent, will only Atzw contempt lipon himfelf, when he ccmes 
to fit doWnwith men well inftrufted." 

*' There is nothing more ufelels to the Tons of the age, than 
to drink too much ale. The bird of oblivion fings before 
thofc who inebriate rhcmfelves, and fteals aw4y their lbu!s.'* 

*' Let not a man feek to know his deliiiiy, if he would 
ileep fedure and quiet." 

*' The deeping wolf gains not the prey } neither the drowfy 
man the viftory." 

*• They invite mc up and down to feaids, if I have need 
0tt\y of a light breakf^ft : my faithful friend is he who will give 
tne one loaf when he has but two." 

•* Whilft we live, let us live well : for be a man never fo 
rich, when he lights bi^ fire, death may perhaps enter his door 
before it be burnt out." 

" I know one thing alone that is out of the reach of fate : 
and that is the Judgment which is pafTed upon the dead." 
• 1 . I . — I .11 

Aet. JJI. Tl)e Hljiory of the Lower Empire, From the French 

of M* le Beau. Volume the Firft concluded. See our ia/L 

TfcJ^ Le Beau, in the courfe of bis work, departs not from 
^VJL ft ^^^ candour and impartiality which a good Hiftoriail 
ought conftantly to exercifc. Truth was the object of his 
refearches ; and he cannot be reproached with giving way to 
that fpitit of fyftem which induces fo many authors to be in- 
genioufly in the wrong, while they would afcribe a long feries 
of events to the operation of a particular caufe. The informa- 
tion be communicates is every where to be depended upon ; and 
his reSeAions are folid and judicious. 

The third book of his hiilory opens with an account of the 
firft war between Conftantine and Licinius. The former 
intendrnjg to beftow the title of Caefar upon BaiBanus, who had 
married his fifler Anaftatia, fent one of the great men of 
his court to Licinius, to obtain his confent. At the fame time 
. he communicated to him the defign he had formed of refigning 
to Baffianus the Sovereignty of Italy, which by this means 
wOutd make a line of feparation between the ftates of the two 
£mpeh>r8. This projeft was not relilhed by Licinius. To 
prevent the execution of it, he employed Senecion, a fubtle, 
crafty man, devoted to his will ; arid, who being brother to 
Baffianus, fucceeded fo far as to infpire him with miftruft, and 
induce him to rebel againft his brother-in-law and benefadior. 
The treafon was difcovered, and Baffianus was conviiSled and 
punilhed. Senecion, who was at the bottom of the whole, was 
at the court of Licinius. Conftantine required him to be 
delivered up ; but Licinius was not difpofed to comply with his 
requeft; and his refu(al was conftdered as a declaration of war. 

H 3 Such 

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102 Le Beau'5 Htjlorj i>fth Lowir Smfiiru 

Such, as we colle£k from our learned Hiftorian, wks the occafiott 
of the ^difFer^nce between thefe Princes. After relating the 
particulars of this war, and of the new treaty of partition^ 
which they entered into, he mentions the celebration of the 
Decennials, the fuppreffion of the Jewifli revolt, the judgment 
pronounced by Confiantine in regard to the Donatiils, and the 
mariy ufeful laws cnafled by that Emperor. But while Con- 
fiantine was employed in regulating the interior adminiftration 
of his ftates, the jeaioufy of Licinius laid the foundation of 
another war. Conftantine, when acting againft the Goths and 
Sarmatians, had entered Thrace and the lower Maefia, whicb 
belonged to his collegue. This Licinius confidered as a^ 
infringement of the treaty of partition ; and prepared to refent 
it. 1 his rupture, and its confequences, M. le Beau has ex-* 
plained with a minute exaxSncfs. 

His fourth book commences with the adventures of Hor- 
mifdas, a foreign Prince, who, having efcaped from a rigo-f 
rous confinement, took refuge with Conftantine. He then- 
proceeds to explain the condudt of. Conftantine, when, after 
the deftru£tion of Licinius and all his rivals, the whole Imperial 
power was united in his perfon. < This happy chadge, fays 
he, feemed to give new life to all the nations under the Roman 
dominion. T4ie members of this vaft Empire, which had long^ 
been divided in interefts, often torn in pieces by wars, and 
become as it were cftranged from each other, refumed with joy 
their ancient conne&ion; and the eaftern provinces^ hitherto 
jealous of the happinefs of the weft, promifed themfelves more 
tranquillity under a more equitable government.' About this 
time, a violent Herefy began to fpread itfelf, and to excite great 
troubles in Alexandria and throughout Europe. This was 
Arianifm, and our Author has given a very ftriking account 
of the rife and progrcfs of it. His charafter of Ariiis is well 
marked, and bears the impreiCon of a mafterly hand. Our 
Readers may not be difpleafed, that we prefent it to them ; 
leaving thofe who are acquainted with the hiftpry of the eccle- 
fiaftifal feuds of this period, to their own reflexions upon it; 
and recommending to them, at the fame time, to make due al- 
lowances for any prejudice under which the Author may havQ 
written, on account of the difference of religious principles. 

* The talents of Arius, fays hei, contributed to give credit to 
a dodrine, which of itfelf was conformable to the arrogant im- 
becillity of human reafon. He was the moft dangerous enemy 
the Church had yet feen iftuing out of its o^n bofom to«wage; 
war againft it. He was born in Cyrenaica ; fome fay at Alex- 
andria. VVcIl verfed iri human learning, penetrating, violent, 
fubtilc, fruitful in refources, ready in elocution, he was looked 
upon as an invincible difputant. Never was poifon better pre- 
pared 

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IfC Beau'f Hiflory 9f the Lower Empinl f OJ 

pared by the mixture of different qualities, fomc of which he 
had the- art to dlfguife, while he made a (hew of the others. 
His ambition was concealed under the veil of modefty, and his 
prefuoiption under a feigned humility. Cunning, and at the 
fame time impetuous, quick in difcerning the hearts of men, 
and fkilful in moving the fprings of them; full of evafions, 
formed for intrigue, nothing could appear more fimple, more 
foft, more frank and upright, more diftant from all cabal. His 
perfon was calculated to promote the impofition : a ftature tall 
and Aim, a countenance referved, pale, and mortified; an 
obliging carriage, an infmuating and perfuafive addrefs ; an 
appearance, which in every particular feemed to breath nothing 
but virtue, charity, and zeal for religion/ 

The greateft diforders were occafioned by Arianifm. All 
Egypt, from the extremity of Thebais to Alexandria, was in a 
dreadful confufion. Bifhops armed againft Bilhops; and the 
fury and infolence of the Heretics knew no bounds. It was 
neceflary that the Emperor fliould interfere in the difpute ; and 
he appeared at the council of Nice, where he diftinguifhed him- 
felf by his zeal and his eloquence. After difmiffing, for a 
time, the affairs of the Church, our Hiftorian narrates thofe 
tragical events which difgraced the latter years of Conftantine. 
His fon Crifpus was falfely accufed by his mother-in-law, of 
having an inceftuous paffion for her, and of having dared to de- 
clare it: and Conftantine, tranfported with rage, condemned 
him to death without trial. Informed of his innocence, and 
overwhelmed with remorfc, the unhappy father inceiTantly ac- 
cufed himfelf of an unjuft precipitation, and gave himfelf up to 
defpair. The death of Faufta which followed, and whofe too 
hafty punifhment had the appearance of cruelty, with the other 
executions, which the Emperor, at this time commanded, ex- 
cited a general horror. Rome became difagreeable to him, and 
he fled from it to return no more. Having defcribed thefe 
events, M. le Beau refumes his account of the affairs of the 
Church, and he gives us the following (hort fummary of what 
Conftantine did for the Chriftian religion, and of the (late in 
which he left it. * The Emperor confulted Chriftianity on the 
meafurcs he took for its advancement, and he employed no 
methods but fuch as it approved. He diftinguifhed thofe who 
profefled it, by favours ; he took pains to reduce paganifm to * 
contempt and oblivion, by (huttihg up, difhonouring> demolifh- 
ing the temples, ftripping them of their riches, laying open the ' 
artifices of the idolatrous Pricfls, and prohibiting facrifices, as 
far as he might without violence, and without endangering ^he 
charaflcr of father of ajl his fubjefts, even of thofe, who 
remained in error. Where he could not abolifh fuperftition, be 
fupprefTed the diforders. at leaft, which were the confequence of 
it. He made fevere laws to reftrain thofe horrible exceflTes, 

H 4 >which 

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1D4 Lc Bctu*j Hiflorj rftht Lcwir Empin. 

vhich nature difclaiins. He preached Jefus Chrift himfclf by 
his piety, his example, his conferences with the deputies of 
Infidel nations, and the letters which he wrote to the Barbarians. 
Far from paying to the Heathen gods the honour of placing his 
ftatue in their temples, as Socrates falfely aflerts, he forbad 
that abufe, according to Eufebius, by an exprefs law. Biihops 
he held in great veneration; and eftablifhed them in many 
places. ' He rendered the exterior form of wo/fhip auguft ana * 
magnificent. He fet up in every part the falutary fign of 
the crofs : every gate and every wall of his palaces exhibited that 
image. His coins no longer bore infer iptions expreflive of 
fuperflition : he was reprefented on them with his face lifted up 
towards heaven, and his hands extended in the pofture of a 
fuppliant. But he did not abandon himfelf to a headlong zeal ; , 
he chofe to refer to^time, circumftances, and above all to tdc. 
divine grate, the completion of God*s work. Temples were ' 
flill remaining at B!ome, Alexandria, Antioch, Gaza, Apame«> ' 
and in feveral other places, where the de(lru(Slion of them would 
have been attended with fatal confequences. , We have a law, 
which was pofted up at Carthage the day before his death, con- ' 
firming the privileges of the Priefts in Africa. It was refefved 
t9 Theodofius to give the final ftroke. Humanity and religion . 
itfelf are indebted to Conftantine for not having given martyrs . 
to idolatry.* 

In his fifth book, our learned Hiftori^n, after having coleA- 
cd under one view, whatever relates to the foundation of Con- 
ftd;itinople, and the principal changes that the transferring of 
tiie feat of Empire to this city, produced in the political fyftem,.* 
exhibits a detail of the events which happened from that aera , 
til] the death of Conftaniine. The incurfions of the Goths and 
Sarmatians into the lands of the Romans, and the war with the 
Perfians, are particularly defcribcd. The affairs of the Church 
and fome laws regarding epifcopal jurisdiction and the civil ad- 
miniftration are then explained ; and the volume concludes with, 
an account of Conftantine's behaviour during his illnefs, and 
with his character. The pidlure which M. le Beau has drawn 
of this Emperor is extremely juft and impartial ; and as it may 
fuggeft no improper idea of his manner and capacity, we may be 
allowed to give it a place in this article. 

* The whole Empire lamented this great Prince. His con- 
queds, his laws, the fuperb edifices, with which he had adofne^ 
all the provinces, Condantinople itfelf, the vrhgle of which was 
one magnificent monument ereded to his glory, had gained him 
the general admiration ; his liberality and love for his p>eople 
' had acquired him their afFe^ion. He was fond of the city of 
Jlheims, and it is undoubtedlv to hipi and not to his fon, that 
we ought to attribute the builajng of hot baths there at his own 
cxpence : the pofnpous elogium^ wl)icl) l^h^ ipfcrfp^pn of thefe 

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Le Tiem^il^/hfy of ibt tovDit' EhtfirK j^g 

taths bean, ernioolyht ^ppliAble to tbt tehcr: he had dis- 
charged Tripoli in Africa, and Nice in Bj^thynia from ceitaia < 
burchenfeme contfibati6ns, t6 which the pri^ceding Emporors 
had (u\nt&x!dr thefe ctttes for more than a century. He bad 
aceepted the title of Strategu^ or Praetor of Athens, a digMtf 
which fince Gallicanus was beconie fuperior to that of Archoni 
be caufed a large quantity of corn to be dii)ribttted theie 
annually ; and this donation was eftabliflied for ever. Rome 
fignalized itfelf beyond the other cities br the excefs of hc^ 
grief. She reproached herfelf with having oc^afioned thif' 
nrince many bitter affiidions,- and with having forced him to 
prefer Byzantium ; penetrated with regret (he accuM berfeJf -as 
the guihy iraufe of the elevation of her modem rivaL The 
baths and markets were fhut up ; the fpe£bcles and ail other 
public amufements were forbid ; the general converfacion was 
upon the lofs which they had fuftained. The people declared : 
aloud that they would have no other Emperors than the children • 
of Conftantine. Thev demanded with importunity, that the ' 
corpfe of tbdr EmperdFibouid be fcnt to them ; and their grief 
augmented when they learned, that it remained at Conftan* 
tinople. They paid honours to the pidure of him, in which he 
was reprefented as feated in heaven. Idolatry, everextravagant^ 
placed him among the number of thofe gods which he had over* 
thrown, and by a ridiculous confufion, feveral of his meda!s 
bear the thle of God with the Monagram of Chrift. I'n tber 
cabinets of antiquarians are prcferved others, fuch as Eufebiu^ ' 
dcfcribes: Conftantine is there feen feated in a car drawn by 
four borfes ; he appears to be drawn up to heaven by a hand, 
which comes out of the clouds. 

* The Church has paid him more real honours. Whilft the 
Pagans were making him a God, the Chriftians made him 
a Saint. His feftivals were celebrated in the eaft with that of 
Helena, and the fervice for him, which is very ancient among 
^he Greeks,' attributes to him n^iracles and cures. At Con* 
ftant'mople a monaftery was built under the name of Saint 
Conftantine. Extraordinary honours were paid to his tomb and 
to his ftatue, which was placed upon a column of porphyry. 
The fathers of the council of Chalcedon thought they did honour 
to Marcian, the moft religious of Princes, by faluting him with 
the name of the new Conftantine. In the. ninth century 
at Rome, they ftill recited his name at Mafs with that of 
Theodofius the iirft, and of the reft of the moft refpeded 
Princes. In England there were feveral Churches and altars 
dedicated to him. In Calabria there is the town of Saint Con«^ 
ftantine, four miles from mount Saint Leo. At Prague ija 
Bohemia, his memory was for a long time honoured, and fome 
of his relicks were preferved there* The invocations of Con* 
^ntine and of Helena have extended even to tj^uSaoirf ^ and the 

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io6 Lc BezuV Bi/i^ry $/ the Lowir Emfin. 

modem Greeks commonly gave him ihc title of equd to ibg 

jtpoftUs. 

^ Conftantine's failings will not fulFer us to fubfcribe to (b 
hyperbolical an elogium. The frightful fpe^cles of fo many 
captives devoured by wild beailsi t£e death of his fon who was 
innocent, that of his wife whofe too precipitate puni(hmenC 
1>ore the appearance of injuilice, fufficiently evince, that the 
l>)ood of barbarians fiill flowed In his veins ; and that, if he was 
good and merciful in his cbara^er, he became cruel and un-^ 
merciful through paffion. Perhaps be had fufficient caufe to 
put to death t£e two Licinii; but pofterity has a rigbt to con- 
demn Pfinces, who have not taken the trouble to juftify them- 
felves at their tribunal. He loved the Church ; it owes its 
liberty and fplendour to him ;. but eafy to be feduced, he tor- 
mented it when he thought to ferve it, relying too much upon 
his own underfianding, and repofing with too much credulity 
upon the good faith of 'wicked men who furrounded him; he 
delivered up to perfecution prelates, who, with greater reafen, 
deferved to be compared with the apoftles. The exile and 
depofition of the defenders of the faith of Nice, balance at leaft 
the glory of havipg afTembled that famous council. Incapable- 
himfelf of diffimulation, he too eafily became the dupe of 
Heretics and courtiers. Imitator of Titus Antoninus, and 
Marcus Aurelius, he loved, his people, and wifhed to be beloved 
by them; but this very fund of goodneis, which made him 
cherifli them, rendered them miferable; he fpared even thofe 
who pillaged them; quick and ardent in prohibiting abufes^ 
flow and backward in punifliing them ; covetous o/ glory, and 
perhaps rather too much in trifles. He is reproached with 
having been more addi^ed to raillery than becomes a great 
Prince. As for the reft, he was chafte, pious, laborious, and 
indefatigable ; a great general, fuccefsful in war, and deferving 
his fuccefs by his ihining valour, and by the brightnefs of his 
genius ; a prptedor of arts, and an encourager of them by his 
beneficence. If we compare him with Auguftus, we (hall find, 
that he ruined idolatry by the fame precautions, and the fame 
addrefs which the other employed to deftroy liberty. Like 
Auguftus, he laid the foundation of a new Empire; but lefs 
(kilful, and lefs politic, he could not give it the fame (lability: 
he weakened the body of the (bte by adding to it, in fome 
meafure, a fecond head in the foundation of Con(bntinople ; 
and tranfporting the center of motion and ftrength too near the 
caftern extremity, he left without heat, and almoft without life, 
the weilern parts, which foon became a prey to the Barbarians. 

* The Pagans were too much his enemies to do him iuftice* 
Eutropius fays, that in the former part of his reign, he was 
cq.ual to the moft accomplifhed Princes, and in the latter. to the 
mcaneft. The younger Victor who make* J)im to have reigned 

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NorthcoteV Marint Pra^c$ of Phu/U and Surgnj^ ttyjt 

fiore than one and thirty years, pretends that in the- firft tea 
years he was a hero,, in the twelve Aicceeding ones. a robber, 
and in the ten laft a fpendthrift. It is eafy to perceive wiih re^ 
fyeSt to thefe two reproaches of Vidor's, that the one relates ta 
the riches which Conftantine took from idolatry, and the other 
to thofe with which he loaded the Church/ 

The Tranflator of the volume before us, feems to have exe« 
piti^ his taik with a good deal of care. He has given the fenfe^ 
and in general the fpirit of his original ; bMt, we could have 
wifiied, that in fome places, he had b^n leis ambitious of 
adopting the French idiom and arrangement* 

A&T. IV. The Marine Pra^ice of Phyfic and Surgery^ including 
that in the Hot Countries. Particularly ufeful to all who vtfit the 
f,aft and Wejl Indies ^^ or the Coajt of Africa. To which are added 
Pbarmacoposia Marina^ and fome brief Dire^ions to be obferved 
hy the Sea-Surgeon in an Engagement^ Ifc. By William 
Northcote, Surgeon, many Years in his Majefiy's ServicCf 
In 2 Vols. 12 s. Boards. Becket. 1770. 

THIS is in faft a general PraSlice of Pbyjic and Surgery^ 
The firft volume contains the Chirurgical, the fecond the 
Medical part. The Pharmacopoeia is likewife a^^ffrr^/^irf, and 
might as. well have been called the Pharmacopoeia Terrena a«. 
the Phannacopoeia Marina. 

Mr. Northcote howevter appears to be a furgeon of judg-> 
ment and experience. We fliall tranfcribe .for our Readers 'z, 
IhoTt part of the work which may be more immediately con« 
fider'd as his own, vi%. 

Some brief dire^ons previous tOj and in an engagements (sfc. 

* When the enemy is in fight, and you are like to come to ait 
adion, as foon as all hands are called to quarters (if your cock- 
pit is not fufficiently large) you muft defire the firft lieutenant, 
livith the captain's permiffion, to order the carpenters to lay a 
platform for yOur wounded men ; if the cables will not be 
wanted, in onebf the cable tires, or otherwife in the after-hold, 
by clearing all manner of lumbar out of the way. On the 
top of a fmooth and even tire cafk, let there be deals or planks 
laiddofe together, over them an old fail, and upon that fome 
feamen's bedding from the purfer's ftore-room (for which you 
are to have the captain's order, if he will not otherwife deliver 
them) ready made up, and laid one by another to place your 
wounded men on after they are direft, that they may lay quiet 
without being difturbed. 

* If the ftkip be fmall, and there is no cock-pit, or fuch as yoa 
have riot room to perform your operations in, you muft, as near 
the after- hatchway as is convenient, have fome ca(k removed out 
(if there be not l^ight enough for you to ftand upright Qn the 

platform) 

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t»f Kttttt^x jfehrfe^ PraeUct ofP^ aikWSu^iif^ 

platform) that yott xAif bavte a; plat^ ofcigtif, Yitft* of't^ifvij 
feecfquare, to- receive arid drefs yottf WburidiU men; ttH^ftorh 
fhence to Uanti than to tbelr bed^f on olit fi J^ of thi^ plit^e let 
fterc be fiitcd a dtidSt of a ^tbptt Ifefght (if y6u Hive ritf dthef 
convement fcar).ttr perform -your opcrattensufdn 5 ahd onanb- 
ther juft by (or tabfe) la/ all your appamus; ftfcW as yoa^ 
Capital inffrumeots, needles, ligatures, lint, flour ih a b^L 
ftyptic, bandage, (flints, cotoprelfe, pled^eb fpr^ad v^im 
ydlow bafilicon; or feme othfer ptcfper di^ftlvfe ; thread, tajitf, 
tow, pins, rtewand old linen cl6th, abtfeketof water td pui 
your fpunges in, another empty to receive the blood in yout 
cpcrations ; a'diy fwab or two to diy the platform when necef^ 
fary ; a water-cwlr full of water near at hand; with one head 
knocked in, in readinefs for dipping out occafionaUy as it niay 
be wanted. You muft alfo have near you your un^. bafiL— e 
gum, elem. — fambucin; ol. lin,— ollvar. c. — terebmth^ balf. 
terebinth ; tinft. ftyp,' — thaebaic ; fp. c, c. per fe,— vol, aromat« 
^avend; c. Wine, punch, or grog, and vinegar in plenty. 

^ A number of large candles (houtd be immedtacely lighted, as 
toon as the engagement, begins, not forgetiing to have ybar 
mates and affiftants properly inftruded in what part they ace to 
aS, that every one may know his ftation, and what he has to 
do, to prevent confufton in time of adkion^ Here it is neceflary 
to obferve, that the ftirgeon ihould always take peculiar care to 
defire the firft officer to quarter a fufficient number of hands with 
him in the Cockpit, that he may want no affiftance in the day of 
battle, however bloody the engagement may be. 

* All things being ordered, and placed as above in readinefs, and 
the fnrgecm's and purfer's cabbih beds made up, to receive the 
captain, or anv of his commiffion officers, who may chance'to 
be wounded ; if you have any (ick on board, that cannot ftand 
to their quarters, let them be put down with their hammock 
and bedding into the hold, fore-cockpit, or flicet caUe tier, 
out of the way before the a^^ion begins j but be fnre to keep 
your platform entirely for the wounded men. Let one of your 
mates or affiftants go to them now and then to fee how they are } 
or elfe order one of the ftouteft of the convalefcentsjto come to 
you at times, if he is able, and acquaint you if any of them are 
worfe, and in cafe of faintnefs, to give them a little cordial, 
which he (hould have by him for that purpofe. 

^ When the a&icm is begun, if more than one wounded 
is brought down at a time always firft uke care of him who is 
in the moft immediate danger 1 but otherwife drefs them as thev 
come, without diftin£tion : if any is brought down with a limo 
oiF, or a violent haemorrhage, and yov happen to be in the! 
0iidft of an amputation, or other capital operation, and cannot 
shat ipftant attend, order your mate or affiftant (for the prefent) 

immediateljr 

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^bHEt]i.coltV -Miirm Pr^ia ^fPhjfic ^ Sm^^ 40§ 

4M«itdiiifedy to fix a tcHMviMrt oa >tlie loit, ta uftnio the flux 
4|f b^od firpm being fiMl to lihc p^ient, ^ do fvh^t elj(e yo|i 
mwf tbink necofl^, till you iisiv^ ^pUbni the opevatioir f i9fi 
jvcre about, ^lod Uk) tbe paticQt ^ bpd. 

< Never encourage thoie to ftay below (after tbeir .wouink, Uq. 
msc dmOt) wbo have been hut little bust; but iafift oo their going 
4ip again to their quarters, otberwiie threaten tp i;eport tbcqi 
when the engagement is pver. I have many tiines knowp 
cowardly hibters come tumbling down tbe bdder with moft 
violent groans and complamtS) thpugh at the (ame time th^ 
hsLwe received little or no hurt ; and all I could do or (ay woul4 
mot prevail on thm to make a fccond trial of their courage, nor 
go up aealn till tbe aAion was all over. Nay, I have been tol4 
^by thole quartered at die (ame gun) that fome dafiardly-fellows, 
•have aduadly put their feet, or ftood in tbe way of the carriage 
on purpofe to be hurt^ that tbey might have a i^aufible pretence 
^ g^ing do#ii to the dodor ; ifrhicb I muft own I have great 
reafon to believe, having fometimea met with fuch pontufions in 
the 1^ and feet^ occafioned (according to their own confeiSon) 
•by the carriage, but at the fame time {o flight aa waa fcarce 
worth mentioning I though fometimes very violent, at other 
<imrs diere was fcaroe any injury or CQntufion to be p^ceived^ 
aotwitbftandipg the mott grievous complaints of pain and 
•uneafinefa. 

« When you are entering on any capital opfsration, you ibould 
ufe your utmoft endeavours to encourage the patient (if he is 
Icnfible) by promifinj? him, in the foftdft terms, to treat hidn 
tenderly, and tp finim with tbe uto^oft eypedition i and indead 
you &oukl ufe expedition^ but not hurry : you ihould not make 
more hafte than the cafe requires, nor cut lefs than Is neceflkry^ 
'Or leave any mifchief unremedied ; for the negleding this critical 
jundure of taking off a limb, frequently rednces the patient to 
(o low a ftate> and fMbjeds die blood and juices to fuch an 
alteration, as nuift unavoidably render the fubfequent operationt 
if not entirely unfuccefaful, at leaft exceedingly dubious. 
Therefore, if a wiOHind be of fuch a defperate nature as to re« 
quire ampu^atioa (which is of^n tbe cafe in fea engagement^} it 
is certainly of .coniequence to perform the operation immediate!^ 
as foon as the man is brought down: and in wounds, even 
where no amputation is required, it is equally advifeabje not to 
defer tbe care ueceiTary to be t^kf n of th^m. 

* In regard to the wounded, you (hould a^ in all refpei^s ^as if 
wu were enlirely unaffeded by their groans and complaints; 
hut at th^ iaeKtyoe I would baye you behave with fuch cautipn^ 
as not to proceed rafhly or cruelly, and be particularly careful to 
avoid uDoecefiary pain. 

* When 

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*l iO NorflicoteV Aiarim Prailic9 ^ofPhjfic aHd Surgery. 

• When the adion is all over, you are then to go round yoaf 
patients, and examine if the wounds have bled any thing con- 
fiderably fince they were dreft ; and if the bawnorrhage ftill con- 
tinueS) remove the dreffings very gently and carefully^ and 
iq;>ply frefh ones. 

< It is not improper here io remark that the tourniquets (hould 
ftill remain on Ihc^ patients, who have had their limbs ampu- 
tated or ihot off; that they may be always in readinefs, in cafe 
of a frefli hemorrhage; anil in, cafe there be no affiftant prefent 
when it happens, the patient fiiould be inftruded himfelf how 
to tighten it, if he feels the wound bleeding, before help can be 
procured. You are likewife to fee that their wounded limbs, 
&c. lie eafy, and as they ought ; and that the patients are fup« 
ported with proper diet and medicines ftiitable to the fympto- 
snatic fever, &c. as mentioned under the various heads in The 
' Marine Surgeon. 

« As foon as poffible after the engagement is ended, and your 
wounded are all taken proper care of, acquaint the captain how 
many there are wounded, and the nature of their wounds, if 
they are like to prove mortal, &c. And defire-he will pleafe to 
order cradles forthwith to be made, zi many as you think 
neceiTary, wherein your wounded men muft be placed, with 
their bedding, in a proper birth by themfclves. The cradles arc 
firft to be well cleated^ and fecured to the deck and fides of the 
ihip, placed fo, as that you may eafily go between to drefs the 
people. 

^ As foon as the (hip arrives in a harbour, the iick and wounded 
muft be immediately fent on fliore, where their cures witt 
' be perfe£led in a much fhorter time than it is pofKble on board in 
an infalubrious air, and on fuch diet only as the (hip affords. 

* It is neceffary the furgcon of the (hip (hould give a more 
particular account of patients fent to an hofpital, than is the 
common pra£lce in the navy, of merely filling Ajp a fick ticket 
with the general name of a difeafe, &c. He ought to acquaint 
the furgeon, or his affiftant at the hofpital, of the peculiar con- 
ftitution of the patients, the manner they have been treated from 

-firft to laft, the fymptoms, &c. that have occurred ; and what- 
' ever other circumftances he (hould be informed of, in order to 
enable him to perform a more fpeedy cure.* 

We doubt not but that Mr. Northcote may have repeatedly 
acquitted himfelf with great propriety and addrefs on theie 

dreadful occafions. — —But ! good heavens I are thefe the 

ways of men ! a flaughter-houfe is a paradife, when com- 
pared with fuch premeditated fcenes of pain, horror, and de^^ 
ftrudlion* 



^ Art. V. 



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C tit 3 

Art. V. Tbi Orations o/Mfchines and Demofthenes on the Croxoni 
Xranflatcd into Englilh, with Notes, by T. Leland, D. D* 
Vol. IlL 8vo. 5 s. bound, Johnfton. 1770. 

TE'SCHINES and Dcmofthenes had aded a very dir- 
'^^^ tinguiihed part during that important contcft which 
Athens ndaintained againft the Macedonians. Their eloquence 
gave them great influence in the popular aflemblies of their 
ftate ; and, having adopted different fyftems of political con- 
duct, they were animated againft each other wlch the fierceft 
refentment. The defeat of Chceronea, and the unfuccefsfol 
meafures propofed by Demofthenes, ofiered a favourable oppor- 
tunity for iEfchines to attack him» He was reviled accordingly, 
bis errors were aggravated, and he was threatened with inqui- 
ries and impeachment. In this iituation it was. natural for his 
friends to endeavour to procure fome public declaration in his 
£ivour, which might filence his accufiprs. It was ufual with 
' the Athenians, when they meant to exprefs their fenfe of fupe« 
rior merit, to crown the perfon {o diftinguiihed, in fome popu«* 
lous afiembly, with a chaplet pf olive, interwoven with gold. 
This honour it was thought might be paid to Demofthenes at 
this particular jundure ; and it was agreed, that Ctefiphon, one 
of the moft zealous of bis friends, £ould move the fenate to 
prepare a decree, that a golden crown (hould be conferred upon 
him. The fenate confented to his motion; but before the 
matter could be referred to the people for confirmation, "iEf- 
chines commenced a futt againft Ctefiphon, as the firft mover 
of a decree repugnant to the laws. It was on this occaiion that 
. the fpeeches now offered to the public were pronounced ; and 
to their learned and ingenious Tranflator, we cannot refufe that 
approbation, which we formerly beftowed upon him *• 

Du Leland has endeavoured to attain that noble fpirit which 
chara^rizes thofe celebrated pieces of eloquence ; and in many 
places he has fucceeded in a great degree. The fentiments of 
thefc rival ftatefmen he has everywhere expreffed with accuracy} 
and where he has failed in point of force, we aire to afcribe it in 
, fome meafqre to the inferiority of our language. The notes 
which he has added to illuftrate the text are full of learning, 
good fenfe, and information. It has not been the. fortune of 
every ancient author to have had fo able a tranflator, as this in* 
telltgent Divine. 

^fchines, in. the firft part of his oration, appeals to the 
laws and ordinances of Athens; and here he is critical and co- 
pious. In the Idft part of it he enters on the public tranfadions 
of his country, and the minifterial conduct t f his adversary ; 

^ Sec our Review, Vols. xv. and xxiv. 

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jr 12 Lcland V Oratiffits of^chhus and Demdftbenn* 

and here he is eloquent^ The followiog (hort paiTages jjHiy be 
cited as examples of his merit, and of that of his tranflator : 

^ As to the calumnies with which 1 am attacked, I would 
prevent their efFe<ft by a few obfervations. I am informed that 
Denoofthenes is to urge, that the ftate hath received fervtces 
.from htm, but in many inftances hath been injured by nim i 
"the tranCadions of Philip, the conduct of Alexander, ail the 
oimes by them committ^, he means to impute to me» And 
ib much doth he rely upon his powerful abilities in the art of 
fpeaking, that he does not confine his accufations to any point 
of adminifiration, in which I may have been concerned ; to 
any coutirds which I may have publickly fuggefted : he traduces 
the retired part of my life, he imputes my filence as a crime. 
And that no one topic may efcape his officious malice, he ex- 
tends his accu&tions even to my condud, when aflbciated with 
tny young companions in our fchools of exercife. The very in- 
trodudion of his defence i^ to contain a heavy cenfure of this 
futt. I have commenced the profecution, be will fay, nM to 
•ferve the ftate, but to difplay my seal to Alexander, and to gratifjr 
the refentment of this prince a;^ainft htm* And (if I am truly 
informed) be means to a(k why 1 now condemn, the whole of 
his adminiftration, although I never oppofed, never impeached 
any one part of it feparately ; and why^ after a long courfe of 
time, in which I fcarcely ever was engaged in public bufmefii^ 
I now return to condud diis profecntion ? 

* I, on my part, am by no means inclined to emulate that 
piece of conduct which Demofihenes has purfued : nor am I 
alhamed of mine own. Whatever fpeechet I have made, I do 
not wifli them unfaid % nor, had I (poken like Demoftfaenes, 
could I .fupport my being. My fihsnce, Dennbfthenes, hath 
been occafioAed by my life of temperaoee. I am contented with a 
little : nor do I ^lefue any accefSon which miift be purchaied bjr 
iniquity. My filence therefore, and my fpeaking, are the re* 
fult of reafon, not extorted by the demands of inordinate 
paffions. But you are filent, when you have received your 
bribe ; wheil you have fpent it, you exclaim. And you fpeak 
not at fuch times as you think fitteft, not your own fentiments ; 
but whenever you are ordered, and whatever is dilated by thofe 
mailers whofe pay you receive. So that, without the leaft fenfe 
of (hame, you boldly aflert what in a moment after is proved to 
be abfolutely falfe. This impeachment, for inftance, which is 
intended not to ferve the ftate, bat to difplay my officious zeal 
to Alexandei:, was aAually coounenced while Philip was yet 
alive, before ever Alexander had afcended the throne, before 
you had feen the vifion ibout Paufanias, and before you had 
held your no6lurnal interviews with Minerva and Juno. Hoyr 
^en could. 1 have difplayed my ^eal to Alexander, unlefs vire 
had all feen the fame vifions with Demofthcnes f 

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l,eJarui V Orations of Efchims and DemtftheneU 113 

^ But, O yc, gods ! how can I reftraiii my indignation at 
<me thing, which Demofthenes means to urge, (as I have beea 
told) and which I (ball here explain ? He compares me to the 
Sirens, whofe purpoTe is not to delight their h^arersi but to 
Ueftroy them. Even fo^ if we are to believe him, my abilities 
in fpeaking, whether acquired by exercife, or given by nature^ 
all tehd to the detriment of thofe who grant me their atcentioiu 
«^I am bold to fa^, that no man hath a right to urge an alle* 
^tion of this nature againft me ; for it is fbameful in an ac« 
cufer not to be able to eftablifh his aflertions with full proof* 
But, if fuch muft be urged, furely it (hould not come fromi 
Demofthenes ; it (hould be the obfer^ation of fome military 
«ian, who had done important fervices, but was unfkilkd in 
4>ccch ; who repined at the abilities of his antagonift, con- 
&ious that he could not difplay his own at^ions, and fenfible 
-ttlat his accufer had the art of perfuading his audience to impute 
iuch adions to him as he never had committed. But when a 
man compofed entirely of words, and thefe the bittereft and 
^dft pompoufly laboured \ when he recurs to fimplicity, to art- 
jefs 4i^, who can endure it ? He who is but an inftrumenti 
take away his tongue, and he is nothing.' 

The ufc, which both orators have made of the great events 
'that occurred between the commencemerH and the final de« 
cifton of this important caufe, is particularly artfuK But in 
this refped, as wcU as in every other requiAte of oratorv, De- 
mofthenes feems to have exceeded his rival ; and Dr. Leland, 
we fhould imagine, has taken greater pains with his oration than 
'With chat of iEfchincs. This celebrated fpeaker endeavours, 
'in ihe'ftrft place, to ingratiate himfelf with his audience ^ and, 
':f9rthis purpofe, he enters into ja detail concerning public affairs, 
'flttd fcts his own fervices in the moft favourable pointof view. 
Having made fure of the afte^Stionsof his hearersyhe examines the 
points of law, which refpe£lthe articles of the accufation ; and 
thefe he runs over fpecdily, endeavouring all the while to im- 
'prefs a contempt of i^fchines, and an opinion of his own in« 
tegrity and importance. Laftly, he mentions his objedtions 
-tathe*charader of his profecutor ; and here^e has a fine oppor- 
tunity of comparing himfelf with him, and of reprefeming him 
and his adherents as corrupt citizens, who refpeiJed not the in- 
tefeft of the ftate, and who could not bear to look upon thofe 
-that had diftinguiftied themfelves. by their zeal and attention to 
■ its fights and profpertty, ^ The following extra£l from this 
»maftcrly oration may be entertaining to the reader : 

* We have heard his encomiums [fays Demofthenes, alluding 

.to the fpeech of iEfchines] on the great charaftcrs of former 

times ; and they are worthy of them. Yet it is by no means 

•juft (Athenians!) to uko advantage of your^ predikflion ta 

Rfiv, Aug. 1770* 1 ih« 

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1 14 Leland's Orations of Efchities and Demojlbenei. 

the dcccafed, and to draw the parallel between them and me 
who live among you. Who knows not that all men, whils 
they yet live, muft endure (bitie (hare of envy, more or lefe ? 
But the dead are not hated even by their enemies. And if this 
be the ufual and natural courfc of things, (ball I be tried, {ball 
I be judged by a comparifon with my predeceflbrs ? No, iEf- 
chines, this would be neither juft nor equitable. Compare mc 
with yourfelf, with any, the very beft. of your party, and our 
cotemporaries. Confider whether it be nobler and better for the 
ftatc to make the benefits received from our anceftors, great and 
exalted as they are, beyond all expreflion great, a pretence for 
treating prefent benefadors with ingratituue aud contempt; or 
to grant a due (1) a re of honour and regard to every man, who 
at any time approves his attachment to the public. — And yet, 
if I may hazard the aflertion, the whole tenor of ray condud^ 
muft appear, upon a fair inqui^^y, fimilar to that which the 
famed characters of old times purfued ; and founded on the 
fame principles : while you have as exaflly imitated the mali- 
cious accufers of thefe great men. For it is well known, that, 
in thofe times, men were found to malign all living excellence, 
and to lavilh their infidious praifes on the dead, with the fame 
bafe artifices which you have pradlifed. — You fay then, that I 
do not in the leift referable thofe great charaGers. And do you 
refemble them ? or your brother ? Do any of the prefent 
fpeakers ? I name none among them : I urge but this : let the 
living, thou man of candour, be compared with the living, 
and with thofe of the fame department : thus we judge, in every 
cafe, of poets, of dancers, of wreftlcrs. Philamon doth not 
depart from the Olympian games uncrowned, becaufe he hath 
not equal powers with Glaucus, or Kariftius, or any other 
wredlef of former times. No : as he approves himfelf fuperior 
to thofe who enter the lifts with him, he receives his crown, 
and IS proclaimed viftor. So do you oppofe me to the fpeakers 
of thefe times, to yourfelf, to any, take your moft favouriue 
chara<^er 5 ftill I affert my fuperiority. At that period when 
the ftate was free to chufc the meafures beft approved, when 
we were all invited to engage in the great conteft of pa- 
triotifm, then did I difplay the fuperior excellence of my coun- 
iiels, then were affairs all conduced by my decrees, my laws, 
my embaffies. While not a man of your party ever appeared, 
unlcft to vent his infolence. But when we had once expe- 
rienced this unmerited reverfe of^ fortune; when this became 
the place not for patriot minifters, but* for the flaves of power, 
for thofe who ftood prepared to fell their country for a bribe ; 
for thofe who could dcfcend to certain proftitutcd compliments; 
then, indeed, were you and your aflociafes exalted ; then did 
)^u ui'p!?y your magnificence, your ftate, your fplendor, your 

equipage : 

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Leiand'i Orations tfEfihina and Dimoflbems. i if 

equipage: while I was deprefled^ I confe(s it : yet flill fuperior 
to you all, in an afFedionate attachment to my country. 

* There are two diftinguifbing qualities (Athenians !) which 

the virtuous citizen fbould ever poflefs: (I fpeak in general 

terms, as the leaft invidious method of doing juftice to myfelf) 

a zeal for the honour and pre-eminence of the fiate, in his 

official conduit ; on all occafions, and in all tran factions, an 

afiedion for his country. This nature can beflow. Abiliiies 

and fuccefs depend upon another power. And in this aifedion 

you find me firm and invariable. Not the folcmn demand of 

my perfon, not the vengeance of the Amphi^ionic council 

which they denounced againft me, not the terror of their thrcat- 

enings, not the flattery of their promifes, no, nor the fury of 

thofe accurfed wretches, whom they roufed like wild beafts 

againft me, could ever tear this aflTe^lion from my breaft. From 

firft to lafl, I have uniformly purfued the juft and virtuous courfe 

of condu£^ ; aflertor of the honours, of the prerogatives, of the 

glory of my country ; ftudious to fupport them, zealous to ad* 

vance them, my whole being is devoted to this glorious caufe. 

I was never known to march through the city, with a face of 

joy and exultation, at the fuccefs of a foreign power ; embracing 

and announcing the joyful tidings to thofe, who, I fuppofed, 

would tranfmit it to the proper place. I was never known to 

receive the fucceflcs of my own country with tremblings, with 

fighings, with eyes bending to the earth, like thofe impious men, 

who are defamers of the ftate, as if by fuch condu£^ they were not 

defamers of themselves : who look abroad, and when a foreign 

potentate hath eftabliihed his power on the calamities of Greece, 

applaud the event, and tell us we fhould take every means to 

perpetuate his power. 

• Hear me, ye immortal gods! and let not thefe their de-- 
fires be ratified in heaven ! infufe a better fpirit into thefe men ! 
infpire even their minds with purer fentiments ! — This is my 
firft prayer. — Or if their natures are not to be reformed •, on 
them, on them only difcharge your vengeance I Purfue them 
both by land and fea ! Purfue them even to deflru£lion ! ^ut, 
to us, difplay your goodnefs, ih a fpeedy deliverance from im- 
pending evils, and all the bleffings of protedion and tranquil* 
lity !* 

Amidft ail the beauties which adorn thefe orations, there is 
one circumftance in them, which muft be confider^ as a t)lc- 
mifli by every modern reader. The abufe 'which the p«irtks 
throw out againft each other, is often of the moft illiberal kind, 
and refembles that low ribaldry which is now no where to be 
found but among the meaneft and moft difordeily daflcs of 
men. ** Thou traitor, thou vile placer, thou vile nr»ifcreant, thou* 
abjeft fcrivcncri*' thefe are fome of the pt>liic appcUatitms 

I 2 whilh 

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ii6 UruTj^s inuflratims of Natural Hi/lary: 

tvhich Demoftbcncs beftows on his rivaU But this dcfeft is fo 
be afcribed to the manners of the time's. The fame remark 
Will apply to the orations of Cicero againft Antony and Verre^, 
The point of honour, for which we are indebted to the U)fti* 
tutions of chivalry, has prevented this abufc from making its 
appearance In modern affemblics j wherein every thing is con- 
ducted ^Vith decency and good- man tiers. The leaft infringe- 
ment of that refjpedt which i? due to the rank and charaAer of 
a member, is confidcrcd by him as the groffeft affront ; and he 
has recourfe to his fword, which alone can recover his honour^ 
and give him fatisfa£lion. 

Upon the whole, we muft do Dn Leland the juftice to de- 
clare, that we are highly pleafed with the fpirit and accuracy 
of bis tranflation. It is indeed a great fatisfadion to us, 
amidft the many frivolous produdions, which come under our 
obfervation, to meet with a work, which difcovers ability, and 
1^ calculated to promote the liberal purpofes of information and 

literature. 

f _ - - 

Art. VI. lllttftrations of Natural Hifiory, JVherein are exhibited 
upwards of two hundred and forty Figures of Exotic Infers j aC" 
cording to their different Genera ; very few of which have hitherto 
teen figured by any Author. Engraved and coloured from Nature^ 
with the greatefl Accuracy y and under the Author's own Infpec^ 
tiony on fifty Copper-plates. With a particular Defcription of 
each Infeh : interfperfed with Remarks and RefieSiions on th$ 
Nature and Propel ties of many of theni. By D. Drury. ^tb. 
2I. 12 s. 6d. boards. White. 1770* 

W£ have looked into this volume with particular atten- 
tion, and equal pleafure. It is an excellent work ; 
jt will derive honour to the Author, and to this country, and 
will juftly entitle the name of Drury to rank with thofe of 
Merian, Roefel, Petiver, Edwards, &c. The figures of the va- 
rious fubjefls it contains appear to be drawn with great ac- 
curacy, and the colours glow with the mofl pleafihg refem- 
1)lance of life, in all the beauty of the gay originals. The 
defcriptions likewife appear to be very exact, and much in- 
duftr^, art, and ./kill have been ufed in this part of the per- 
formance, as well as in the engravings, and the colouring.. 
In his prefatory difcourfe *, Mr. Drury gives an account of 
his plan, and explains his reafons for not clafling the infccSs 
in fyftemaiic order. It is not, he obferves, his defign, in tbp 
prcfent work, to enter into the fcientific part of the fludy, by 
arranging the infeils according to any fyftem now eflablifhed y 

* The preface is written in Engliih and French ; as are alfo the 
djcriptioHi^ . • 

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Dr ury V lllujlratttms of Natural Hj/lcry^ 1 1 7 

noT has he given a fingle name to any one here figured, * This 
indeed/ he adds, ' muft be the confequenceof not following the 
fyftem of any author, unlefs I had formed one of my own ; for it is 
impoflible I (hould give names to them, particularly trivial ones. 
Without doing one or the other/ He therefore contents him* 
felf with calling an infecS' by the general appdlation of moth, 
butterfly, &c. And hence he prefumes he (hall * avoid all oc- 
cafion tor reflexion by the difciples of different authors, in not 
following the method eftabliflied by others ;' declaring that his 
defireof giving no room for exceptions of this kind, has induced 
him to follow no one whatever ; by which too he has left it in 
tlie power of every perfon to clafs them according to hi^ own 
fancy; and, as every one has thus an opportunity of follo^^ing 
his favourite author, none be hopes will object (o a method 
that will put it in his power to indulge his own inclination. 

He raodeftly alfo apprizes his readers, that this work can by 
no means be confidered as a complete one. ' The moft tranfi- 
tory view, fays he, will confirm this. Nor can 1, adds he, 
fake any merit to myfelf by its publication, unlefs the great 
care that has been taken to give juft and accurate figures of the ' 
fubjeSs, in which the different generical charaSers, according 
to the fcveral authors I am acquainted with, are truly reprc- 
fented, will entitle me to any.* He proceeds, — * Indeed the 
many opportunities I have had of obfervinu the great tendency 
all kinds of infedls have to decay and perifh, particularly moths 
and butterflies, firft gave me the hint of prefcrving them from 
oblivion, by thus delineating them upon paper. For thefe laffi 
are of fuch tender and delicate natures, that however pleafing 
they may be to our fight, they are not cafily to be prcferved 
with all their gay and flriking plumage. Our utraoft care can 
only fecure them to us a few years ; and if they are expofed to 
air or funfhine, we are quickly robbed of them ; the latter be- 
ing capable, in a few months, of entirely deftroying their co- 
lours, and the firft, in as fliort a fpace, will totally confunie 
every part of them, leaving nothing; behind but a little duft. 

* Hence it is that I have been induced to give figures of fo- 
reign infers ; in profecuting which, the reader will find many 
that have never been d^fcribed by any authpr ; and if the refcu- 
ing them, by this method, from the ravages of time ; if the de* 
light and amufement arifing from contemplating fubjeiis of this 
kind ; or if an attempt to promote and encourage this branch 
<)f natural hiftory.meets with the encouragement I hope for, I 
inuft affure the public, no labour on my fide (Ball be wanting 
to render it complete, by adding future volumes, as the fub- 
}cfts I (hall receive froni abrgad^ and my own leifurc, will en- 
able me to do. And this, I flatter myfelf, I (hall be able to 
accoa)plil}i by the means of a few ingenious gentlemeo, fiiuat^d 

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X 1 8 Drury V Illujirailons of Naiural Hljiory. 

in difFcrent parts of the world, uhofe correfpondencc I am ho- 
noured with, and by whofe affiftance 1 (hall be able to give 
Sometimes a tolerable hiftory of an inreft,oras much ofit as hath 
fallen within their obfcrvaiion ; by which means new fubjcdls 
of fpeculation, fome unnoticed circumftances in infe<ft-lifc, may 
arife, that cannot fail of being an acceptable cmbelliftimcnc* 

When Mr. Drury firft engaged in the bufincfs of defcribing 
the different inf.fts that compofe this work, he found himfclf, 
he tells us, furrounded with difficulties of fo unexpefled a na- 
ture, that he had more than once entertained thoughts of poft- 
poning, if not entirely relinquifliing fo arduous a talk, * No- 
thing, fays he, but the ftrong defire I had of promoting the 
ftudy of natural hilfory, could have led me to overcome a fenfe 
of my own incapacity of writing with that precifion which the 
public eye demands ; and therefore I have reafon to hope for 
the candid allowance of the ingenious, to faults which mighty 
perhaps, efcape fi;om the pen of a majler^ on a fubjc6t fo nevf 
as the prefent/ 

. Among the reft of the difficulties under whxh he laboured, 
he mentions that of not knowing what narhes to give to many 
colours found on the wings of the farinaceous tribe. * The 
want of ayJr/V/,' he obfcrves, ^ or ftandard for names to co- 
lours, is a matter much to be lamented in this kingdom. I know^ 
he adds, no Englifli author that has attempted it. Perhaps the 
arduoufnefs of the tafk may be the reafon it has not been done ; 
for if we form to ourfelves an idea of the difficulty of bringing 
forth that innumerable train of colours that is to be dope from 
only a yellow, a red, and a blue, we may partly judge of the 
labour that man has to undergo who fiiall attempt it. In my 
cafe, the great variety of tints to be found on the infefts, the 
harfhnefs of fome, the foftnefs of others, together with the 
manner of their running into one another, increafcs the diffi- 
culty, and renders defcription a matter of fuch labour, that 
nothing but the ftrongeft refolution and pcrfeverance could 
overcome.* 

In mentioning other authors who have treated on this agree- 
able and rationally amufing branch of natural hiftory,he obfervcs. 
that * the laft who publifbcd any figures of exotic fubjcits, was 
Mr. Petiv^r, who> in his Gazophyiacium^ delineated a great va- 
riety of all the different Orders ; many of them exceeding curious 
and uncommon^ beingcoUefled from various parts of the world : 
but thcv were fent forth uncoloured, and almoft undefcribed; 
circumftances that render them Icfs eftimabic, by the difficulty 
there is, in many inflances, of knowing what the author 
ineant. — But although many of the figures confift of mere out- 
lines, not exquifitely well engraved, his work is not without 
aerit; there are a great many very uncommoD fubjeAs exhi- 

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Drury'i lUuJiraiions of Natural Hiftory. 1 19 

bSted, that were not known to exift in nature, till beheld them 
foith to public view. It is> in ibort, a work that, at the fume 
time it manifefted his ddire for promoting his favourite fludy, 
Mfsis a proof of his afliduity, affording great room for fpeculationj 
and as the prefent is an improvement on his plan, I flatter my- 
Pslfitwiil not be unacceptable to the lovers of natural hiftory.' 

Mr. Drury mentions one advantage' in particular, arifing from 
the accuracy and juftnefs of his defcriprions, (which are all, he 
aflures us, taken from the natural fubje^i themfelves, and not, 
filom the coloured prints of them) viz. * thatif this work (hould, 
after the Author's deceafe, fall into the hands of a bookfcller, 
the public will not probably be peftered. with copies fo execrably 
coloured, as is generally the cafe, wiih books of this fort, after 
the author's death. The dfjcriptions will be fuch a guide for 
colouring the prints, that capital errors will not be able tr> find 
. admittance i the groflnel's of colouring a part yellow that ihould 
be red, or green that ought to be blue, would immediately be 
deteded ; and the publiflier, for his own fake, would un- 
doubtedly hp careful to have the prims juftly and accurately 
done.' 

When our author fird laid down the plan of this work, he 
tells us he had no intention of confining himfelf to fuch fub- 
jeAs as were nan-defer ipts^ but propofed to give figures of any 
exotic infers that might fall into his poiTeffion, or of which he 
could procure drawings. He was willing to promote this 
branch of natural hiitory by any method that lay within his 
fphere ; and to this he was the rather prompted, by the con* 
fideration of its being an attempt entirely novel in this nation, 
and conducted in a way different f'rom any yet purfued. ^But, 
fays he, .* a little recolledion convinced m^ 1 was wrong. I . 
was foon fenfible, that the giving figures already known and 
publifbed here, could do no fervice to the fiudy, or benefit the 
reader. It is poffible I might have given a better figure than 
that before publiilied ; the engraving might be fofter, more de* 
licate, and better becoming the Tubjw<^; or the colouring 
more exa£l or juft ; but this would not be improving the reader's 
judgment, or increafing his knowledge, in (bort, fiom that 
moment 1 altered my plan -, and it is owing to this miftake 
that a few figures are inferted in difFerent places, which have 
before made their appearance in England, either feparately or 
mixed with other fubje£ts. From that time I took care 
to delineate none that 1 was confcious had engaged the pencil 
o/any preceding author; but confined myfclf to fuch, whofe 
novelty and fir iking appearances could not fail to recommend 
them* To fuch non-defcripts I have paid the greattr(l de<r 
ference ; for, in fome of the plates^ among the butterflies and 
mothsyl have givcj(^ complete figures of both the uppLdr and tot- 

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1 2ft LtiUrs hy Arthur Capel» Earlo/Bfiju 

dtr fideb ; a pradice thit, a$ deviating from my general rule, I' 
fhould not have done, if the richnefi^ and foftneis of tbe colouring 
had not been fo extremely pleafing, as to render it fcarcely pof- 
fible to difpenfe with it. It is only t6 a few I have paid this* 
par^cuLr refpedl. In general I have given to the butterflies 
only figures of one half their under fiides, but whole upper ones ; 
anci of tbofe moths that have no reprefentations of their under 
fides, the reader may conclude there is no material difference 
]^etween their upper and under ones, or el ie that the Utter is 
too poor and n^ean to juftify the giving a figure of it.' 

For the ufe of thofe readers who having made no progrefs in 
the ftudy of natural hiftory, may therefore find it difficult to • 
underftand the feveraf hlames or Tarmi^ by which the different 
parts of iniecls are called, and which occur in every defcrip- 
tion, — the Author has given a plain and familiar explan;ation 
pf them, not only by methodical definitions, but by engraved 
figures ; the latter ferving to illuftrate the component parts of 
in fedts, as hfady antenna^ mouthy p^lph ^^^j tongue y jaws^ borm^ 
lie. To conclude, u'e are ferry that it is not in our power ta 
give any fpecimcns of the principal part of a work of this kind,, 
the Plates : for which we muft refer the curious reader to the 
book itfcJf, The very ingenious Author, in the beginning of 
his preface, laments that our countrymen in general (hew fo 
little attention to the- ftudy of natural hiftory; we hope he is 
fomewhat miftaken in the judgment he has formed of thisiia*. 
tion, in the refpeil here men tioixed ; and that the encourage^*. 
^ ment he may meet with, in the profecution of his prefent un«sr 
dertaking, \% ill prove one fortunate circumftance toward co*n-r 
vincing him of his error, 

^RT. VII. Letters written by bis Excellency Arthur Capely Earl of 
EJfeXj Lord Lieutenant of Irelajidy in the Year 1675. To wbich 
b prefixed an Hi/hrical Account of his Life. 4to. 16 s. Boards, 
Dodfley, &G. 1770. 

ARTHUR Capel, eldeft fon of Arthur Lord Capel, was 
Fj^ advanced to the dignity of Vifcount Maiden, and Earl of 
^LfTcx in i66i. His education had been neglected in bi$ 
younger years ; but, though it was late before he applied him* 
felf to the different branches of literature, he made a conftderable 
progrefs in them. In 1670, he was fcnt Ambaffador to Den- 
mark, where his manly and fpirited behaviour procured him 
reputation. At his return in 1672, he was fworn of the Privy 
CounciU and made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He aded ii| 
this capacity till the year 1677, when he was recalled for com- 
plaining, that payments were not regularly made in Ireland^ 
^nd for rcfufing to pafs tbe accounts of the Earl of Ranelagh, 
wHq had the m^ag^tp^nt of the revenue in th;^t i^ipgdom. ia 

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^ 3?!jeiir 1679, he was placed at the head of the treafury; 
% departmeaty which be filled fof feme months. When the 
iOiclufioii of the Duke of York was debated in the Houfe 
0^ Lofdt, be appeared againfl it : and be was one of the chief 
perfoa&» that occafion/ed the Duke of Monmouth's and the 
£arl of Sbaftibury's di%rac<. But when he perceived, that 
^ioiefiC meaAires were adopted, he turned againfl the court ; and 
wfaieo thf bill of exclufion was brought a (econd time into the 
Houfe of Lords he argued fcr it. In February 1680-1, he 
prefented to the King a petition*, fubfcnbcd by himfelf, and ' 
fifteen other Peers, in which they requeftcd, that the parlia- 
ment Qiight not fit at Oxford, but at WeAmuiiler. About 
this time, alfo, he aflbciated with the Duke oi Monmouth^ 
Lord Rufiel, Algernoon Sidney, and other pcrfons that were 
thought difa^cSed : and h^ rendered himfclf fo obnoxious to the 
court,, that he was ftruck out of the lift of Privy-Counfellors. 
In June 1683, he was accufed by the Lord Howard of Efcrick, 
of being concerned in the Rye- houfe confpiracy, and waa 
committed to the Tower ; where, it is doubttul, whether 
be killed himfelf, or was oDuruered. 

TTiefe are the chief circumfianccs concerning this Nobleman, 
which are mentioned by the Author of his life: and of hi^ 
letters, which are now publlihed, we are to offer fome account. 

The memorials and letters which have been drawn up, in th« 
courfe of their public tranfaftions^ by men who have a6led m 
tixe higher offices of the ftate, furnifli the fineft and moft 
authentic materials for hiftory. Candour, however, obliges ue 
to acknowledge, that the work before us does not throw any 
eonfiderabie light on the times to which it refers'. Many of the 
ktters are of iittle importance, and regard matters which the 
public is no wife interefted to know. A very fmall volume 
would have been Ai&ctent to have contained thoie of them which 
are of real value. In regard to compofition, they are written, 
for the moft part, with'eafe, and even elegance; and ihcy cer- 
tainly difeover, that the Author poiTefied acuteneis, and thofe 
felid parts which are proper for bufinefs. The following !e<ter 
may give fogie idea of his manner, and of the nature of that 
totertainment which is to be met with in this work. 

To the Lord Treafurer. 

B^ lori^ Dublin Cajite^ Fib. 16. 1674.5. 

<^ With much fatisfeSioA I have received the favour of your 
Lordfliip's moft obliging letter of the 28th January. I do well 
know that the many great aftiairs which are in your Lord{bip*t 
bands, carmot but hinder you from giving early difpatch tQ 
|tiofe of this country, which are of lefs moment ; and therefore 
HO^i whilft ray Lord Ranelagh is in England, your Lordibip 

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121 Letters by Arthur Czptly Earl ^EJex. 

may, by him, tell me your mind in matters relating to thr-^* 
kingdom: and having had fo many inftances to confirm th^ 
^iTurance of your Lordfhip's kindncfs, 1 cannot but reft fatisfied 
that I am poffefled of your Lord{hip*s favour, which is a things 
1 have ever been ambitious of. From my Lord Conway I 
underftand, that your Lordihip has been pleafed to move his 
Majefty to grant me a fum of money for the purchafe of Eflfex 
houfe, and that his Majefty has confented to it. Your Lordihip 
has therein laid a perpetual obligation upon roe, the thing being 
not only valuable in itfelf, but of twice its worth to m^, in re- 
gard of the convenience it will be to my family, and it gratify- 
ing my humour more than another matter of double the value; 
I have been acquainted with, all his Majefty's great minifters 
fince his happy reftoration ; fome of them had perfonal obliga- 
tions to have done me a kindnefs, but this I can fay, that 
none of them, tilt your Lordftiip, have ever endeavoured to be 
inftrumental in one of this fon -, and therefore your LordQiip 
may eaftly iudge at what price I fhall rate this your Lord(hip*8 
favour. 1 he reports of qiy remove have founded pretty loudly 
here 5 but, 1 confefs, I could never give the leaft credit to ir, 
being fully aflfured that his Majefty would have figntfied his 
pleafure to me, had it been fo : yet^ however, thefe difcourfer 
have ill efFe£l on the affairs of the kingdom, making the peo[^, 
whilft they expe£l a change, to grow refty and ftubbom againft 
the commands of the prcfcnt governor. 

^^ The propofals which 1 make, have generally fo good 
fuccefs in England, that I cannot but attribute it to yoac 
Lordftiip's kindnefs to me : and as I fhall never offer any but 
fuch as appear to me to be for the public good, fo I doubt not of 
the continuance of your Lordihip's affiftance in thofe things 
which I (hall advifc. 

^^ I am clearly of opinion, that it were beft a parliament did 
meet here before the farm of the revenue were abfolutely fet j 
but your Lordihip knows the fenfe his Majefty hath, how in-* 
convenient it may be to have one fitting in England, and 
another here at the fame time ; and a parliament here cannot 
well be called under five or fix months preparation, in regard o( 
the forms necef&ry thereunto ; for the bills muft be prepared 
and paiTed in council there, and remitted back hither, all 
which will require fome fpace of time ; therefore, if his Maje- 
fty have thoughts of a parliament in this kingdom before the 
expiration of the prefent farm, we muft prepare for it fpeedily, 
or otberwife it cannot be conveened in due time, I do heartily 
wifii his Majefty may find the good efte<^ cxpeded from the 
proclamation lately iflued ; and that the parliament in England 
may meet in good humour. I cannot conclude this TeUer 
without giving your Lordfliip thanks for your kiodoefs^ pb^ 

9nly 

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Bielfeld'i ElemtnU ofUnlverfdl Erudition. 123 

only to myfclf, but alfo to Mr. Harbord : it picafcth me much 
fhat he hath been of ufe to your Lrordfhip in the concerns j for 
as 1 do expe^ it from all who do relate to me, that they (hould 
^o your Lord(bip all the fervice within their power, (o (hall I 
wait every opportunity of evidencing the reality wherewith I am 
Your Lordihip's moft humble 

and moft obedient fervant, 

Essex.** 

♦^* There is neither table of Contents nor Index to thefc 
letters; for which omiiHon we thinic the Editor is, in toanc 
degree, reprehenfible. The book can never, with any conve- 
nience be confulted occafionally, for want of a clue to guide the 
reader to the particular letter, which he wants to turn to. 

r »■ ■ ! ■ ■ ■ ■ ... - . 

Art. VIll. The EUmmts of JJniverfal Erudition^ by Barm 
Biiljeldy Secretary of Legation to the King of Prujfia^ &c, 
Tranflated from the Jaft Edition printed at Berlin, by W. 
Hooper, M. D. 8vo. 3 Vols. Continued from our laft 
Month's Review, p. 17. 

IN the fecQnd book of this ufeful and ingenious publication^ 
thofe fciences are examined, which are derived from the 
imagination \ and this divifion of the work is introduced with 
ibme reflexions on the polite arts in general. Thefe arts have 
fleafure for their objeft ; and though the ground-work of fome 
of them belongs to thofe fciences, which ejcercife the under- 
ilanding, yet th^ exprefjion employed in them ari fes from the 
inventive faculty. ' The pi<Slure, in thefe cafes (to ufe an 
illuftration of our author) is defigned by Minerva, but the 
Mufes add the colouring, and the Graces the frame.' Under the 
denomination of polite arts, the Baron Bielfeld includes elo- 
quence, poetry, mufic, painting, fculpture, graving, archi* 
tecture, declamation, and dancing; and of each of thefe be 
has given a particular defcription. 

To the obfervations, which he has communicated concerning 
eloquence and poetry, he has prefixed fome preliminary remarks 
on grammar and rhetoric. The (ketch, which he has given of 
grammar is fenfible and judicious ; but, in our opinion, he has 
not treated this intricate fubjed, with fufEcient depth and pene- 
tration ; and he feems induftrioufly to have avoided all inquiry 
into the origin and progrefs of language, lie is more minute 
and copious in what he has obferved concerning rhetoric ; and 
perhaps he has given too much importance to it. A nice and 
icrupulous attention, we (hould imagine, to all the precepts, 
» which th^ critics have laid down for accurate and perfeA com- 
poGtion, would ferve rather to deprcfs than to affift genius. 
Thofe performances, in which they chiefly appear, have a 

degree 



byG00^( 



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fZ^ BIclfeldV Elements efVniverfal Eru£tiOTU . 

degree of pedantry and ridicule, which are difagreeable and 
difgufting. The good fenfe and tafte of an Author will dired 
him more eflT. (dually in the method and arrangement of his 
work, than any rules whatever, and will reftrain and guide him 
b(ftter, while he exerts his talents, and gives the reins to his 
fancy. 

Eloquence is divided by the Baron Bielfeld into political and 
facr^d i and this important fubjcS he has examined at con- 
fideraMe length and with particular care. Under the firft head, 
he has cOnftdered eloquence in general, and its precepts; the 
eloquence of the bar, or pleading ; the academic eloquence, or 
that which is employed in public difcourfes in fchools and 
wniveifities ; the eloquence which is ufed in haranguing the 
people; the eloqiience of Ambaffadors, or that which public; 
Mtnfi Ts make ulc of in their addrefies or congratulations, or in 
the difcourfes thry pronounce at the public audience? of Princes, 
or their Minifters j the eloquence th^t (hould be obferved by 
Sovereigns in their public a£ls ; and the various kinds of elo- 
q'lence that iliould be ufed in treatifes on different fubjeSs. 
Under ihc head of t'acrcd eloquence, he enumerates the different 
occafions, in which the orator muft neceflarily appear; and 
explains the nature of the fubje£ls which employ him, and the 
manner in which they ought to be treated. 

Of poetry, our ingenious author has difcourfed, with great 
delicary and tafte. The reflexions, in particular, with which 
he concludes this article, have fingular merit ; and he has 
flrongly combated in them that refpe£t for the models of anti- 
quity, which has fo frequently deprefled the fire and the genius 
of modern Poets. * Dilciplcs, fays he, of Apollo ! who live in 
the eighteenth century, and in the bofom of Europe, do not 
always attend to the hi arfe vokt of pedantry, nor think that all is 
gold v^hich (hines in antiquity. Do not imagine that Hebraic, 
Oriental, O^^cian, and Roman beauties are univerfally appli- 
cable to all ages and all climates :*be fatisfied that the ancients 
were riot inceiTanily excellent j on the contrary, they frequently 
erred ; and their works every where difcovcr thofe imperfe£lion§ 
which are natural' to the firft produftiors of every age whatever, 
B^ perfuadcd that there are ftill many thoufand new paths by 
yrhich you may attain the fummit of Parnaflus. Think th^c- 
fore for youifclves; and conftuntly remember for what age, 
and what people you write.* 

In the fciencq of mufic, our author appears to be well 
inf9rmed J and he is not afraid to cenfure thofo dazzling dif- 
ficulties, in which the prefent tafte makes the beauty of it te 
fonfift. A fhcrt extra£l from what be has faid on this lubjci^ 
may not be unacceptable to many of our readers. 

* « The 

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BidfeldV Elemnts ofXJnlverfal Erudition. 125^ 

• nflie compofcr fhouTd conftantly endeavour to ejcprefs fome- 
thing, and not produce mere empty founds, that ftrike the ear, 
but make not the leafl: imprefiion on the heart, W hen there is 
nothing in mufic but mere harmony, it wants iis moft eflential 
quality, it becomes a mechanical art> it dazzles, but cannot 
siffed the mind. This is a reflexion which the greaieft part of 
modern compofers never make. Charmed with the trick they 
have €f marrying foiinds that Teem not to have been made for 
each other, they feek f6r nothing more. The defign of the 
polite arts is however, as we have frequently faid, to excite 
pleafing fenfations in the mind; and of -doing this, mufic is 
greatly capable. The tones are alone fufficient to affcft the 
heart with the fenfations of joy, tendernefs, love, grief, rage, 
ind defpair. In order to do this, it is neceflary to invent fomc 
theme oriimple melody, that is proper toexprefs each paffion or 
fentiment; to fuftain that kind of language throughout the 
whole piece; to prepare the hearers bjT degrees .for the principal 
a£Hon ; and laflly to labour to give that principal a6^ion all the 
art and all the force of which it is fufceptible. All this is to be 
underftood of the moral fenfations, where.it is fcarce poffible ta 
imitate nature too clofely, wherea*; a too minute -imitation of 
material objefts becomes cold and infipid. It is eafy^ for exam- 
ple, to comprehend a compofer's meaning, when he begins a 
piece of inft rumen tal mufic with a quick unitbn, which is followed 
by a tumultuous paflage, performed principally by the bafe, an<I 
which, in the midft of the greateft tumult, is fometime^ 
fuddenly interrupted by a general paufe ; arid the whole piece 
perhaj>s ends abruptly, when it was leaft expe^Hed. ' It is- ea(y 
to perceive, that he here means to exprefs the paffion of ra^e. 
The pleafing fentiments are flill more eafily exprefled, more 
readily conveyed to the human heart. They, who attend to the 
cffefls of a concert, and are capable of difcerning,* may.eafily 
difcovcr, from the looks of the fenfible part of 'the audience,. 
the efFefts of the interior fenfations. All this is meant of in- 
ftrumental mufic alone : when the compofer ha« wurds to ex- 
prefs, it is ftill more eafy to produce tKe prop6r to les. Exam- 
ples are frequently more inftruftive than precej)ts. We fliall 
propofe thofe of one matter only. All the fonatas and othejc 
pieces of Corelli are chef-d'oeuvres and. models; every compo- 
fer who (hall carefully fludy them, will find them of infinite 
utility, and by them form his tafte. It is not in perforn ine 
difficulties that the beautiful confifts* Sooner or later nature 
will prevail; it is that which the compofer fhould at all times 
confuft, whether it be a concert, fonala, trio, or any piece 
whatever that he compofes for an inftrumem. Each inftrument, 
moreover, has its bounds, its excellencies and defeats, which 
axe likewife ta be confulted. A flute, fur example, «i a rural 

jnltrufient. 

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126 Bielfcld'i Elements ofXJmverfal Eruditiom 

inftrumcnt, that is not capable of rendering paflTagef, the 
arpeggio, in the manner of the violin, and it is ftriving againfk 
nature to attempt it. As each inflrument therefore has its 
peculiar beauties, the cpmpofcr {hould know them, and endea- 
vour to afford opportunities in which they may be diTplayed/ 

In the chapter, in which the Baron Bielfeld has exhibited 
a general hiftory and defcription of painting, he is fufficiently 
minute, and has communicated many valuable obfervations. 
He has delineated, in particular, the fubjeSs of two hiflorica} 
pictures, of which no painter hath as yet ventured to undertake 
the execution ; and as, in thefe, there is fomething great and 
noble, we cannot but indulge ourfclves in the pleafure of 
abridging the account he has given of them. The one was to 
reprelent Dido abandoned by ^neas. In the back part of the 
pifturc was to be feen Carthage in flames. On one fide of the 
fore- ground was to be feen the Queen in defpair, and ready to 
throw herfelf on the pile, which is already on fire. On the 
other fide are feen ^neas and his followers, in their gallies, 
lowing on the fea, and retiring by the force of their oarb ^ and 
with a mournful filence marked in their countenances. The 
country appears rough and barren; nothing is feen but arid 
fands, with here and there a folitary palm tree half burned up. 
The air is darkened with thick clouds, and the fea enraged. ' 
Every objefl has the look of grief and terror. The companion 
and contrail to this piflure was to reprcfent the voyage of 
Cleopatra, when (lie failed down the river Cydnus, in a vcffcl, 
^hofe bead was of gold, the fails of purple, and the oars of 
filver ; and was furroundcd by a number of mufical inftruments, 
that kept time to the found of the oars. She is feen repofing 
under a canopy of gold tiffue, and in a drefs that is at once 
highly fuperb and elegant. YoUng children furround her, and 
excite with fans the refrelhing breeze. The moft beautiful of 
her ladies, in the habits of the Nereides and Graces, are 
d.flributed about the different parts of the veffel. The time and 
place of this fcene (hould be, when this Queen landed before the 
city of Tarfus; the inhabitants of which taking her for the 
goddefs Venus, came foith to hieet her, and to do her homage 
by burning the richeft perfumes on the borders of the river. The 
(ky (hould appear ferene and bright, the fea calm, and the banks 
of the river Ihould be cmbellifhed with flowers and myrtles.— 
Perhaps, in our own country, there are artifts who are equal to 
the tafk of doing juftice to thefe defigns. That bold and mafterl y 
pencil^ which defcribes Samfon in diftrefs, could well exprcis 
the defpair, the paffion, and the horror that (hould reign in the 
former. 

Of fculpture and the other fubjefls which employ our author 
in bis f<;cond book, he has treated, with an attention, which 

their 
' I 

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KclfeH V Ehmenis of Unlverfal Erudition. 1 27 

their importance required ; and his remarks on them, he has 
accompanied, with diredions, which cannot fail of being highly 
ufeful to the induftrious ftudent. 

In the third book of his work, he examine^ thofe fcicnces 
which exercife the memory. The qbjeft, in this divifion, 
which is of the greateft confequence, and on which he bellows 
the greateft care, is the icience of hiftory. His obfervations on 
this head he has introduced with (bme pertinent reflexions on 
hiftoric faith : and when we have fet before pur Readers a 
brief extra£l from what he has faid on this fubjeA, they will be 
enabled to judge for themfelves of the merit of his performance, 

* Hiftoric faith is founded entirely on human teftimohy, and 
that foundation is unfortunately very weak. What aflurancef. 
have we that the witncfles of events have never been deceived ? 
or even that they have never been willing to be deceived ? The 
fame, and ftill more, may be faid of biftorians, who have been 
very rarely witnefles of the fafls they reUte, but have taken 
them merely from report. Now, if we fuppofe thefe /a£ls to 
be certain, we muft conclude that thefe witneiles and biftorians 
were angels ; for it is not in the nature of man to be infallible. 
The more witnefles. likewife any prodigy has, for the mod 
part, the more'reafon is there to fufpe£l it : for the multitude 
are conftantly inclined to deceive themfelves ; are fond of the 
marvellous, andfdrown the voice of the fmall number of the' 
dilcerning part of mankind. We have feen the miracles of the 
blefled Abbe Paris, that were attefted by thoufands of witnefles, 
whofe veracity was indifputable, and yet they have at laft been 
proved to be nothing more than artful impoftures. 

* The imperfe£iion of the frame of man, the weaknefs of 
his difcernment, and the errors of his judgment, on one fide, 
and theftrength of his paffions on the other, render his tefti- 
mony conftantly equivocal and fufpicious. Hear the accounts 
of two general officers that have been in the fame battle ; read 
the Gazettes that relate the events which have happened in our 
own days, and frequently before our eyes, and judge how far 
you can depend upon the real truth of thofe fads. This being 
the cafe, you may eaflly determine what decree of credit is to 
be given to thofe marvellous relations, which are fuppofed t9 
have happened among nations lefs enlightened than we arej in 
thofe ages, when learning was quite in its infancy, before 
printing was invented, and when the propagators of falfe re- 
ports flood in no dread of the feverity of criticism. Let thefe 
and many other n^exions, that we pafs over in filcnce, fet due 
bounds to your hiftoric faith. 

^ The paflions likewife, to which human nature is liable, 
conftantly caft a veil over the truth. It is an ancient faying, 
that an hiftorian ought to have no reli ion^ and no country. 

He 

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TzB BicIfcW V Ekmenti ofVniverfid Erudki4n% 

He IS, however, conftantly cither a friend or an enemy of €h* 
prince or hero whofe feiftory he relates \ he is prejudiced for or 
againft a country, a people, a religion, a party or goverhtncnt- 
Pa^on continually guides his pen. We cannot read without 
indignation all that Tacitus writes againft Tiberius, whofe pro- 
fefled enemy be was. Let Tiberius perform the moft innocent, 
moft ji»ft and honourable a£^ions, Tacitus would find means to 
make them appear odious 5 though he frequently did it in a very 
aukward manner. Thucidydes, Xcnophoh, and Jofephus, were 
lexcellent Wftorians ; but if thofe peopk, who were the enemies 
of the Jews and Greeks, had found hiftorians of equal ability 
with their antagonifts, it is likely that the aftions of the feve- 
ral heroes would have been fet before us in very difFetent lights. 
Notwithftanding the rcfpeft that is due to the fathers of the 
church, we cannot fay that they were -entirely free from paffions. 
They gave to Conftanttne the furjiame of Greats who was 
rfoubtlefs one of the greateft dtilts that ever exifted ; but he wa^ 
*a friend and protector of the Cbriftian priefts. The Emperor 
Julian they reprefented as a monfter, and a rnan of mean abili- 
ties 5 whereas he was one of the greateft men that hiftory has 
recorded, his unfortunate apoftacy excepted. Judge after this 
of the credit that is due to hiflorians, 

' The ftatefman and the fcholar, the man of the world and ^he 
' man of genius, nevertheless, will and ought to make himfelf 
acquainted with hiftory. He ought even to know it in the 
manner it has been tranfmitted to us, with all its fables, errors, 
and falfelmods. He ought to know, for example, all that the 
ancient hiftorians have related of the labours of Hercules ; of 
the expcditFon of the Argonauts ; of the ftege of Troy, icc'Scc* 
-though he do not give the fame credit to thcfe as to thcGofpeh 
it is of little import to us whether thefe relations be true or 
not, either in fubftance or rn circumftance j it is fuiHcient that 
we know in what manner hiftory relates them, Thefe marvel- 
lous ftories even fometimes furnifti afllftance, pleafing ideas and 
'allufions, to poetry and eloquence. The ftr}^ veracity of fa«^ 
*idoes not appear to become intcrefting to us, but in proportioiv 
'as hiftory approaches thofe ages that immedtjiteVy precede the 
^prefent 5 for the titles, the poiTefltons, and pretehfferis of mo- 
^rn princes and nations, are entirely founded on 'thdi hiftofi- 
'^al fa<as, and on the minutfeft circiHAfl?ancts'thathsVe attended 
•them, llie real influence of thcfe fafts and events bn the in- 
•terrf^s of modern nations, can go very little further back than 
'the time of Charlemaghe. The principal points are, to deter- 
mine in what ftate that monarch found Eurofpe; wh^at wefo 
'tlien the rights of the people ; after what manner he coitquered 
-f hem ; by whit method he eftabliflied the Weftern empir^ ; 
what rights he ihfdreby accpmed; anti What aretbe rcvohrribn^ 

tt»t 

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tHM have happened tn the world fh>m that pekriod down to the 
prefentday.' 

, On the whole, the performance before ns muft be allowed 
tp exhibit the moft accurate^ and the oioft comprehenfive me- 
thod of education and ftudy which has hitherto been offered to 
the pubJic. The found judgment, the difccrnmcnt, and the 
emditipn, of the Author are equally to be admired ; and he has 
every where exprcffed himfelf with precifion and perfpicuity* 

Dr. Hooper, in tranflating this work, has ^ndeavoured to 
jBCiitatd the polite and agreeable manner of Baron Bielfeld^ and 
feems to have executed his taflc with fidelity. 

Art4 IX. The principal Prophecies of the Old and New Tefia'- 
men^s j partictlarly ibcfe in the Revelation of St. Johni compared 

- and explained. Containing^ L An Account of the future Idola- 
try of the Jtws^ and /A«V Captivity. II. The Fall of Bzhj'- 
Ion. III. The Rife^ and fall of Antichrift. And IV. The' 
State ' of the Miliehium. By Samuel Hardy, Reftor of 
Littk Blackenham, in Suffolk, and Le£^urer of Enfield, in 
Middiefex. 8vo. 6 s. fewed. Pcarch. 1770. 

THE prophetical books of Scripture have ev^r been re-* 
garded as one principal evidence to fupport the truth of 
revelation, and are certainly a fource of great infirudion and 
entertainment. They have often employed the pens of men^ 
Eminent for learning and abilities, who have fometimes been fuc- 
ctefsful in illuftrating and explaining them : and we flill hgve fre- 
quent publications of the fame nature, tho' far from being always 
the produd of the fame learning or judgment : in fome cafes, 
indeed, tbey have rather tended to difgrace and injure, the c^uife 
i/^hich the writer might mean to defend. Some parts of thefc 
writings are very aenifrmatical and obfcure ; it requires a cor- 

, ttSk imagination, as well as an intimate acquaintance with an- 
cient and mgdern learning, to comment upon them 10 advan« 
tage: there is greatVo'>m for imagination andenthufi/m to in* 
dulge their conjpflurei) and reveries j and after all that the labour 
Qf.^tl^emoft fkilful and judicious expositor can tlf 6^, it will 
ftiJI remain very <loubtful, in feveral inftanccs, whether they 
Mavip hit upon the true interpretation. 

' We fuppofe thai the difTcrtations, which are here offered t<y 
the pMblic have been delivered from the pulpit, as they have the, 
air ^nd form of fucb cotnpofitions. Among feveral obferyationt 
QO, pifophecy, in the introdudioa to his work, the author in-, 
fiftisi upon' the improbability tliere was, with regard to many of 
the levents foretold, that they (hould ever have talcen place ^ and 
Hf rc_ embraces the opportunity, to ccnfurc fome of tbofe who 

' Jiiive attacked the evidences of Chriftianity. 
•Ksv. Aug. i77c^. JC • 'Now 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



t go tUrif '$H ihi Prsphechs ef thi Oli and Iftw Teflamenii- 

. ^.Noff thefe, fajt be, (referring to fome unlikely cirtum* 
ftances which bad been predidcd) with many other minute par- 
ticulars, had Seen foretold for fome ages !-*>Neither chance then, 
Ivor tanjpiracy^ could here have any hand in their completion : 
and therefore, no being but he who foreknows all events witb 
certainty, viz. The great and mighty God, ceuld polBbly foretell 
them -^Hence we fee the extreme vanity^ and prodsghus felly of 
that .modern philofipher *, as they call him, who in his ftrangc 
Slid impradicable fyftem of education^ has cautioned his pupil 
againft giving heed to prophecies. 'Tis well that he had fuch 
an opinion of them* as to think fuch a caution needful ! For 
bi€ own part, be fays, before he would be convinced b^ any 
prophecies, he would fit down,, and calculate what cha^nces there, 
were, that the events predi&ed might not happen in the natural 
ceurfe of things/ The man, I fuppofe, had hfard that there h a 
branch of the mathematics^ which the mathematicians call the 
do^Jrine of chances. But here they have fome certain data .to go 
upon, let this man was blockhead enougt^* fhow hberall] * to 
think of applying that dodrine to prophecies^ though, in that 
iafe\ he Can have no data in the world to proceed upon ! Ala? f 
poor man I he knows not what he has undertaken. He woulcl 
iDeet'vtrith a variety of cafes; fome of which are mentioned* 
a(bove« But one of them» I apprehend, would take up more of 
his tiilie, than a man of his vivacity would chufe to fpare upon 
fo dry a fubjedt.— I fliall therefore mention only that one cafe \ 
atnd that fhall be concerning the cafting lots upon our Saviout*s 
iiefture. — We muft juft inform him, that it was foretold above a' 
ihoufand years before it was fulfilled j — and then we (ball leave hint 
to his calculations ! — Obferving only, that 'tis pity he' ftiould 
either eat or drink till he had finilhed them ! But what a head^ 
and what a heart, muft that man have upon whom the comple-^ 
tton oF a prophecy, though delivered above one thoufand years^', 
can have no efFedt ;— but he muft enter upon his calculations T— 
6ood Lord ! what will become of our religion, if fohn James* 
Ihouhl continue to write againft prophecies ; and if David Hume^ 
Efqi (hould repeat his attack againft miracles I' 

This is talking vei7 cavalierly; and the exclamation in thfe^ 
raft'fentence, we fuppofe, is not intirely agreeable to the decency of. 
the clerical chara£^er. . Mr. Hardy ftiould be reminded, that ^ir, 
miic^lefs the afFe<Stati(^n of it, is not argument ; and a fneering^^ 
dontffhptuous manner ilifcovers neither the fcholar, the gernte- 
ifkiff, nor the ChriftPan. Some readers will atfo think him not 
quite happy in the particular fa£l he has here chofen, and thac^ 
the predidion, to which he rclfers, is not fo perfpicuous and deter- 
minate as (bme ochers which n>ight have been felcded. But. 

Jb . S-: r ' i' 1— ^ '' '-^ 

.f/Johsx j£mes/-^tttai«S» ^^ fuppofe, Mr. RoufTcaa* 

dbyLfOOglC 



Digitized t 



fhbaglr he^ has ibmstihlbs aSbmed a! iiiperciKoas air, hp fiibmiti 
his work with ii^itty tfy the judgn^cnt and csindour of the publici 
dechring it to >hkTe>becm'4iis eMftravburto promote the glorj^ 
yfodj and.the>be»efir;b6 hisfdlbiw^rhrifUans : .'The ddign itf 
felf, fayi beysJK'laudable; andiurel amj that mj ir\teiitioni itc 
vprighr and fifKere»^-4*When itheti[ mjf readers fliall coofidcr the 
great iaarportahi^e/ o£ tbt^ ^hjla&ii--*^ ohfcuri^ . of fomr poro^ 
'phecre9^r^--and 4he diAcuby^ miloU^^tmi tfaeji irill inakf 
all favourable alb'wSuices Cor ahyi^HUket, and even errbFSythcjf 
may roeet'witbV^ /I ;-:".. i-j/i.-: L::.- /jh-:-. ^.: , ': 

: Ovir Adthoi: fceiis'^ddftodsitw ibd^vMriifcIf as th^ orthod$9 
ffivinc, and fiamctioiesy we^thmk^difco^era t^e higb^cburchm^l 
but, though he dui not be^-anked wnhi writers of thcf ftftratvyte 
appears to:have beftomdatolxfidef able Jabour and attention iipoit 
the carious* and diffic«Itciilqain^& on >Wbich' .he has: Jsen:iein«> 
ployed. Whh' regard.' tor. fedie'jii^phefjk^i^ he vent bcea to op^ 
jpofewfaat has: bcea the general opihionV.lfijpported by thc"Axf# 
frage of very. learned, oieny oondenmig their .expEcation^ aaid 
acoHiiplilbmeAr: : thus ■'oontemibg^ thQ >pF«di£lions ad XjbsiSt^ 
which are domihonly fuppofed tb hiit received their fulfilment 
in the defl7u£tioa<if:Jenifaktii.by Tituk^ ^.^Fhis pro» 

phecy:was^ellv0red.Vtry^4i]^yonQnaly\'tOr'ft^ the iGaiti^ 

attd iiope ^f i& ^pifUt^ and to yenddr their confidedQeiJA him« 
a^peciaily after^ his ^r^unseAiof]^ fteitdyiaiidonfhakeiiL And it 
broiir own fault, if vre-snake not'this xi/e of it at iiiivdj dofi 
For^the prophecy, aa^' I believe, toneerns.ftf, and the genera^ 
tions'.tbatare/i»2fr/, as well a^ it*: concerned the Apcfihi\ ixA 
contains irrefiftable perfuafions to pedeverance in our warfarcti^ 
•^You will perceive ;hen, thatlahri for .extending this pro-i 
phecy of our blefl^ Saviour V king btyond the deftmdion of Ji^ 
ntfalem hy Titus.* ' ' 

\ Before he produces his ii^uoaents in defence of this fup^^ 
pofition, he confiders, tbe.obfedion whidi arifes againQ it froai 
ihtexpn/s words of Chrift ; Virily I fay trntoyou^ this generatioil 
JlnO not p(rfs awdy till tdl be fulfilled \ which are fuppofed to fig** 
diff, a great part of thofe who are now living ihall not dig brf&ri 
tf// thcS? things fiyail boiaccomplifhed. It is infiftedi that the 
wbrd yaid here tranilated gtner^tioxj does ofisn fignify a nati§ti 
«r roee tfpeopU^iot which fome autborities are offered ; it is fu>^. 
iher added, that its 4»7iA and ^rrr^ meaning muft be deterd^ined 
by fome other woid;that is joined vrith it in the/rm^ fentence^ 
de in the cotsttxt^ or perhaps in fiftnt parallel paffage of Scriptltre % 
^nd having then endeavoured to prove that the farther Gcee|l 
womd^ here traaflated pafs moay^ muft fignify deJlruBion and ^'*. 
ribUdiftru^ion^ he. con)c)udes that y^uaczn have no otbet 
waitings in this place, than that of a nation or people. * If, 
ky hej we take the werd in this fenfe> what a noblcjrQjpbecy 

^ ^ • Digitized by GoOg^'* 



)Uivtrwie^l\n^oompwkmibt die othec> for^tljlc .piflage'vndrfl 

cb^fidfrstion wiU tbeikiberarvilnir^ y^^Icteiivatul.^^ 

i-^^at jM JnuT, nptwitbftanding tUei^^dftdicaiaatpes the^ 

Ibouid meet with^ and'the confeqaont difpcfffion-of them aplotig 

all nations, fliould iret cecbatn aifa^le^ and Jbe .^fttf prtjiived 

kiSfiic of the inalice and rage of the HatioosLt^mthir coafthio 

tioq too Jieiiders thc'Mgrmiit^-^ d^e praphchs csonifriai^ r it n 

yUidUIecl by thatof.fttiie prophet ;^^hutgM nuAe aJuUtMdtfa^ 

T^utatBSy yet IwUim^ ^luik a.piU.miirf^iUuAf^^ ' . ..i; 

But though Mr. Mede, and after him Dr. S^Joet^ have g^nn 

tA tnterpfetation Hkfc vthat which tfib->a«tkfat pleada foi^ ind 

fxKm i^honhHfie ifbp{^ofe he n^^ved the hint, there ia jetgboA 

])eb|eat&fiblid?e«thatiwe^hiiTft atrU&and genuifie;fenie 6f tbd 

text'in:our£0inmQniverC6]). ' f ^Bot^heprodeeda^ifthb ihopld 

besought infufficknittj 'let a»feewhetb^ thi^lbintcahiiot bb 

deteniiii»d% tht prvfhecjf \tji^. In the firft phceiheh, v^emiv 

•bferye; that i( tbi'2l£jruifton hf Jtrufabtn^.ht thai cmimg of 

the:Son.of.Man, wUfcl>' our Saviour fpaldeo^ i^tn thai coving 

itt^the clmidrof heavqn^ isi^tbatdtflruilun.vciyxQzhwt hkppme4 

atjif^ahd thtjake^thnek But if ire qontpai'e the three Eyaivr 

gelifts ; tcgetKei;^ :wbo ,hffvd vnidoubteidlyl^related the fanrn-Jpr^^ 

fbiGf^ wfa ikdl prc<tmly'4ki> convinced. that, Jtbis ia oot.tni^ 

f^or evident \t \^ ix^ti %l4 MaithiVk and St.4ft&ri, tfaat-Atv 

mmingol Axt Son of^Affaa'Aall htimmtdiatify ifier that tribulfi« 

Uon which they fpake of: and thia makea it iiTq;M>ffible tolioui 

9ur Saviow^s tomngy and confequently ^cprtpbtcy itfilf^ tothd 

MiftruPian of J&^Jaian^i rF-Bt- upon the interpretatioa now iin^t 

der conCderation, oar Saviour came^ not aftir the dfiftnic«5 

tton^ l^ut he came to Afirif/ And indeed, if we limit bb coming 

to /^fl^erent^ whxt&nfe yfis tbo.fim turmd into darknifs^a^ tie^ 

moon into tloodf, immediately after that trib'ulation, aa the 

£vangeUfts\aifiire ua they flkall bel Blsfidea, when our Saviour 

told the Jewiih fanhedbim,— >£#nctf^>tf//jtf fa ito Son of Mm 

fating on the right- hand of poaver^ and coming in tho clouds ofbea^ 

vm^ it is acknowledged, and indeed it Cannot hot be acknow«v. 

kdged, that he then appealed to ^eprophoqr. of Dtf»i//; and 

applied it to himfelf. And I tfainlc it can (caroe be doubted 

whether that appearance will be Jofs ififihli than that whidk $9 

prnphefied of by ~ Zechariah^'^ thtj^ Jhall. look on iim ttflbaia 

ihuf pitrcidf And why thai Aould that appearance which ift 

mentiotted by St. Luko^ be judged invijikk^ iince the words hf^ 

made afe x>f are plahily^^wi!^ ^^--^and imf^all thoyfu ihi Som ofi 

Adffn coming in a cloud ^itb powot and groat gJary I '^t or my pan^f 

I can fee no reafon why theft worda ase not to be intcrpretedr 

111 I f ■ ■ I ■ ill ■■■■■! ■ I,, I ill • 

♦ Jerefti. 3Cxx/ti. " ' *,.'*'*^* 

. t* Kp. Hardy is ibangely miftakea here, aa ntithar of the ttxtf he^ 
have the word. lie recites. .^^^^^^^^ ''^%,ralh 



UnAUf. 4itt^ if) vtkta be ^^nbvM^fkiUriba r/di<{iyMb^tkM . 
hit aming wasikk nf the/dctftrufiieoief^^Wx^/ov r ftir. i&€#iw)0t 
te preteiid«d^dttt bb x:4iiitng waslMK t^^: Biit ^riheriithfitt/ 
ati'tMs^ If Cbiufti«bir4aine.wh^a.y<ri^/««Lvi^a$';d , 

vr« ^/ttv^lbofe mr^vdKr;««^t)ien all the figns of hiai coming iifcofe^ 
t5 be^/V tcrtbat deftniAion. To' eneottoa now ^oori (^iNAf 
f%n«y-— bis copiing was to be preceded kj eafAqmkei m^i\(St%^ 
ptaces^-^/ pi/lilmcii^'*^^-Mid hj jfmSn^s. But here I an) afraid 
hiflory' win fimpoe ftipport the prophecy ^ . ^ 

Oar expofitor endeavottra to fliew, that though fome'Aidi 
cahnoftles mig;tit precede tbctieftrudibn of Jeruialeoi, j^ t^e/ 
yfi9Pt either fii difant in reiped of time, or at fiieh cemota 
places, or otherwifefoinconfideiiable, that they can hardly he 
looked upon as y^s^ of the apprbj^ng fate of the Jewi& * 
people. * Then he adds, as to fdfiCbi^s and prophets i tfMc> 
ia>poAors, as Jefephus informs us, did adfe, but none of thofe. 
who appeared did bv any means anfwer the charader of tbofe. 
^hom CbrSft did (ay fhbuld come.. For the falfe prophets^ 
wbkh i# Tpalqe of, were to 4o fuchfigns and wonders^ Jtbat^'^ 
ifiiio^rtpoj^Aij they Jhoiddiieehe'tum the jeleQ* Factb^,-it is* 
fatd,-^« If ^1^ SOvUur^s ^^^if linuted to the deftrudion* of * 
yerufahm^ then the figns of his cobing muft be figns of " *• : 
ftrtt^hm: But this fl^ty cdhtradifibr the text: F(nr teben 
tbefi thingt iegin to tome to pafs then look upj faid our Savfour to- 
the Jew«» and iift lip ■ your htads^ for your redemption draufitb\ 
nigh. But no iuchiv/^^/n?)! has yet happened, and therefore 
the figm of it frecedod mt the deflru^ion (f Jerufalem. Upontbe 
whole then we may fefoly conclude, that a longferies of time is 
inclufdied in om Saoi$ur\ prophecies now under confideratieai- 
and that all of them are ivot yet fulfilled.* 

Tbore rs a fliew of argxunent in what is here* ur^, but* 
It is eaflly perceived, with regard to the laft quoted tes^t^ 
which the writer has accommodated to hts purpofe,.that itiSK- 
ceives a verv good interpretation, when regarded, aa addreiledt 
totheapoftles of Chrift, and not to the Jews in general, jmnh- 
li^hom it does not appear that he was then convecfing. .We 
can by no means confider Mr. Hardy as one of the moft able 
and judicious expofitors of Scripture ; but, as we do not reooW 
left that the view he gives of the fubjed has, of late years at 
leaft, been offered to the public, we- were .wilGng to lay ic 
brief y before our readers. The labours of many peirfoiis emi-' 
liemly qualified for focft enquiries, have been, as we apprehend^ 
fticcdsfully employed in illuflrating the predifiion in queftiooy 
as priocipc^ly regaling the deftruftion of Jerufalem by Tiaasr 
There is a moft MmaHfiible and flriking correfpondeace hetwete 
Ifafc fOfe^efts of 'tMi prophecy and the circumftances which pre* 
QcM^ttid'ad^onlpttnied that great event. But pur author ap^ 
peart ifb W'^om 'of ^Ibofe c writers %ho wiU nU make aipsoper 
*:":'. K 3 ^ Digitized by Goallowanoi 



^tttifaflce (0r the mettpbbrical partt of tbe.defiBci^toii, buf* 
AcHi genenlly t» exipe& tb»t:^ fhouiLht JiteraUy folfiUed/ 
When he reads, that ihifimfludlbi darkoud^ aadtbi moon m^] 
fhi'hor light, and they?«ri IhaU fall iiroia heaven^ hefeefl(U«ta; 
cotickid05 that there muft AeceflarUy be a{ipearances of thia ba« 
lar^i'not conftdering, as hath been fully ihewnrin the prefent* 
€k(b, thac fuch phrafes are often ^nljr btghly figuratiwc^ and. 
ufed to fignify great calamities, or the total overthrow of.fiates 
and kingdoms: thus lifcewife it has been fufficientlyproved^. 
that the words thefign of the Son of Man in hiovent and again, the 
^onof Man anting in the clouds of h^avmy may properly be explained^ . 
asdenoting the executionoffomefignal judgments, which in other; 
paits of Scripture is fometimes reprefented by phrafes of a liice,kind. 
The f^jne obferva^ion may be applied to aU thofe occurrences, . 
which the predidlon mentions, as pointing out the approaching 
defiriuS^ionf ; that there were fuch occurrences at that timie» we. 
fst well alRired from ancient hiftory, and had farther paiticu*; 
lars cpnopfning them been recorded, it is probable they would/ 
hctfe been found yet more fully to anfwer to; the prophetic. dii-/ 
icripcio|t ; at the* (ame time it is reafonabk to allow fbmewhfit\ 
%^ the ftrong and figurative. (lyle, in which difcourfea of this. 
Jrind are generally delivered, , 

Our author proceeds to (hew the certaifity of ^e. future eon^. 
wrfion and rejioratim of the Jews, which he fqppofes is foretold, 
^n this predidion of Chrift. ^ There is a matter, fays he, as 
insontiftihU, as it is truly wonderful ; and that is tl^e; preftrva^, 
tion of the Jotus. For whether we confider' thofe jcalamitits at: 
the memorable fiege of JerufaUm^ or at thefinal di{perfion of 
them by Hadrian^ we (hali find them great beyond dofc^ription, 
and without exampIe.-^Since that timi^ they 4i'ave been ox-;, 
pofed ^to frequent daughters, baniihments and profcriptidins. 
They have been driven from one kingdom to another, from one. 
pation to another people, fo that tY^tfotoi ofthnrfdt bttvohai 
wo reft. And all this whi]e>r— though they have continued' 
without a head to govern them,— though they have been wilh- 
put a king, and without a prince ;—thoMgh they have had 
sieither teraphim nor facrifice for almoft ieventeen hundred 
years; ytt they ftill remain a people amoifg all the nations 
irhitber God hath driven them ; aind all thofe nations know it* 
Oth^r nations have been conquered ; hut 17^9^ of them have beei\ 
thttxpreftrvid. The confuerors and the oonquorei havt been foon 
n^ixid together ; and one name has been common (6 them both !. 
Tjmt the Jews^ though they have been /i/zt^A^ , they have no| 
htokprjaien utterly y and. though they have [been 4^^fo44mong 
gff natiom^ yet in no one nation have they bma )oft^* / 
-'This, which he conftdont as a miracujoua preiervation, -b^ 
^fo conchides, is an argument in f#vouf of.iheir refton^i^Oy 
{ncvem fhich ke l^m toi^Qve, Crofp «.v«<ioty^»f ii^^ml 
*•' • " ^ ' . Digii f rcdiOiofli, 



Hardy ^ thi Profkecut jf th Old OBd New Tfflamaa. 135 

fredidions^ mull afiuredly uke place: he enquires into^t 
time in which it 4f likely to be efFeded, and from divers ac* 
counts in Daniel and St. Jcbn^ according to the interpretajtion 
he gives, fuppofes there is /great reaion to believe that the 
coming of the Son of Man vrill not be delayed much above; 
two hundred years, from, this time,' and be adds, ^ in all pro«^ 
bability, the nrft converfion of the Jews will happen Ung.bi^, 
fort the commeocement of the Millenium,* Viz imagines, that 
there ^ are at this time in the world fime of thofe ftgni and 
Ukens which Chrift did (zy JhouJd comt ; — Famines^ for inftanqe^ 
and earthjuaiis in divers plaaSy though, afccr all, he fccms ta 
doubt whether thefe are ' thofe of which our Savioui* fpoke^ for 
they J he adds, are to be figns of the redemption of the Jews^ 
from their lafi and final captivity.* He, as we think, Ln* 
cifuUy, apprehends, though others before him have been of 
the fame opinion, that the converfion of St. Paul was a type 
of the converfion of his countrymen the Jevts^ which therefore 
10 this conne£tion he particularly confiders ; and farther en- 
deavours to illuftrat^ the fubje6i, by a miracle of Chrift'st 
yfhtn he walked upon the fea, and fupporced Peter in the ftorm i 
he thinks. * we may eafily eafily fee what was prfifigured in that 
famous miracle ;' though he has no kind of foundation on whichi 
to build fuch a fuppofition. Such unauthorized cbnjedures' 
yreaken the force of thofe parts of a work which are more 'ioWl 
^d rational. 

The next fuppofition which this writer forms, and which he 
ftrenuQufly labours to fupport, is, that ^ the Jews^ after they 
are reftbred tp their country, will once more fall into idolatry/ 
He coQclvides this to be ipoft certainly evident from fome paf- 
fages of Scripture which he produces, in which they are threac-p 
ened with judgments for their idolatrous practices, after which, 
be fays, according to thefe accounts, they are to be received 
into favour, which fhall laft for ever* — * But, we are told, 
fince their 1^ idolatry, Judah hath been received into favour^ 
which was not everlafiing^'^So fure therefore as that favour has 
i^t been vouchfafed, and Judah has not been idolatrous for more 
fjian two thoufand years«— ib fure it is that the puniihment, 
from .which they slx^ finally jSLnd eternally to be releafed, has not 
^n yet infliSod. But it appears from this prophecy % that 
^e puniflunent will be infiided for idolatry. — Therefore that 
idolatry is future^* Oi)e prophecy in Jeremiah, among o.hers^ 
which foretels a time of great diftrefs, fo great that they fhould 
be reduced fo e^t the fle/h of their fons and of their daughters^ &c. 
ijiis, be offers as an argument to fupport his aflertion^ and a{ks» 
y when pr wkere^ I would know,— in what f|ege, or at whett 

, * f jM^cul^ly Xfaiah, ch. bcv. $6« , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1 jff ' Brevts ad Jfrtm OfgtianJr lntrodu5ihl ' * 

time was it that the Jews were fo diftrelled/ The xtzAy anrwet* • 
feems tebe, that this was the cafe wh^n Jerufalem was be- 
ficgcd and deftrojed by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 
and again many yeirs afterjUnder'f itus tbeRoman emperor. But 
the latter of thefe he confidently rejefls, in this connexion; and* 
as to the former, he takes little if any notice of it, though the 
prophet Jeremiah, in his pathetic lamentations over the ruins of 
Jis country, docs exprefsly and affedlingly bewail this par^icular- 
inftance of their dreadful diftrefs and extremity. But we (hould; 
io the author the juftice to add, that he will have it, that thefe 
lamentations, together with the feveral predictions he produces^ 
defcribe fome calamKies, yet future^ which fliall befall the peo-. 
pleof Ifrael, and will be infliSed on them on account of their 
fevcrting hereafter fo idolatry. The following part of the book" 
is employed upon the Revelations of St. John, concerriirig;^ 
which alfo be forms fome peculiar corijedture?; particularly htf 
aflerts, * that the Babylon againft vf\i\c\i Ifaiah and Jeremiah pro- 
phefied, is not that Babylon which was taken bjr Cyrus i but ttiat 
Sabylon which is threatened by St. John* But we can attend 
him no farther. We have been thus far particular, becaufe there 
are in the work a few things out of the common road : the Au- 
llhor difcovers fome learning and application ; but, at the fame' 
time, by extending his conjedlures fo far, he feems father likely 
to weaken than fupport the caufe of Chriftianity. We mav 

{'uft add, that this writer intermingles pradicd reffeAions witn 
lis other obfcrvations, in fome of which we meet with the terms, 
ficrtfice^ altar, &c. which when applied as they here arc, to tho 
Lord's Supper, have undoubtedly a greater tendency to incrcaCe 
ignorance and fuperftition, and lead perfons aftray from the 
truth, than to advance real knowledge and piety. 

Art, X, Brevis a4 Artem Cpgitandi IntroduSiio : 4td injiltuendt^ 
Judicium ornandumque Ingenium Studiofa Juventutis accomodata* 
izmo. 2s. 6d. fewed. Law. 1770. 

THIS Writer in a Latin preface exprei&s his hope, that itr 
an age favourable to arts and fciences., a ihort introdudion 
to the art of thinking, delineated in a new method and order,' 
may be both ufeful and pleafant to the ftudious youth. .* All 
perfons, fays he, think, judge and reafon, but numbers, in 
how wretched a manner 1 whether it be the fault of the under* 
Aanding or the corruption of the will, or poffibly both, pre- 
judices of each kind, like fo many phantoms, haunt mankind 
in public and private Iife> and hence arife falfe reaibiniiiga 
abounding; with a variety of evils, to the great detriment bTfeV 
crety. The bufinefs of morality is, the direSion of the wtiH ^ 
logic, that of the underftanding;. Theprefent treatife^ we art 

told^ 

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i; 



^revis ict Artem Cogitandt IntfoduhtS. i j4 

told, not only includes a few rules for guiding*thc uhd'erftanA* 
ing, but alfo fome other obfervations wliich May be ufeful Utk 
informing and ai&ftin^ the judgment and );)oUibrng the genius; 
as it contains the elements of rhetoric, Murlf^rudence/hiftbi'yJ 
criciciim and tafte. Here we hive a delrneattorx olF the hiimaxi 
mitidf, which, like a geographical map, may Inftj^ud the reade^ 
In his journey : the Aiithor obferVfe$ thaj he.hks equally isiudica 
irder and coiidfenefij left too nluch prolixity fhbuld produce c6a^ 
ftdioB and difguft/ 

This is the account our Author gives of |il5 ictempt. In th< 
^nrofecutioh of it he has chofeh fo thrbw hi^ ohfervation^ int6 4 
o^echetical form, fupJ>ofing,*wt irtagirit; that this niethtwf Isi 
moft likely to fix the truths be ^ould eu^lifhln the mind of tho 
|leader.. . ,^ ^ I'S 

In tracing the origin of our ideas, heconTi^ers feverat di/Tcrf 
rent accounts which have been propofed^ bat feeqss generaHy 
to prefer and approve what Mr.' Locke ^bas dSered on the fub-^ 
jefiL Spe^ifg of thf s great man, he (bbjolns a ihoft relatront 
of what a certain member of the academy at Berlin has veni 
tured Co affert concerning him ; in which 'be hath, as omf 
Writer obftrves, iQi9 cak^ miftaken his fubjcfl ; fhewn that he 
did not underibnd Mr. Locke; and, indeed, brought difgr^cc 
upon himlelf rather than upon him whom he intended to cen- 
fure. Locke (fays the perfon here meaht, in an academical 
oration delivered at Berlin on the 12th OfTebruary, 1764, 
whether induced to it by envy or by grief and vexation I know 
liot) is the worft of all fophifts, void of judgment or genius, at 
wretched Philofopher who has condemned the works of Car*>> 
tefius, certainly for this reafon, becaufe he did not underftand 
ihenl. After reading him three or four times I have been very 
^atly grieved to find that he is not a Philofopher of the high 
reputation which has been reprefented. Sunt verba^ it is 
juftly added here, acadimtci ftifradiSii^ fomntantis abfque dubio i 
fed jmnium ejus non eft verum. * Thefe are tie Words of the 
above mentioned academic, no doubt when be was in oi^e of his 
dreams, but his dream is by.no means true.' 

This little fyftem of logic agrees with Mr. Ldcke concerning 
innate ideas, and in regard to the foul's always thinking, which 
fiippofition is without any hefitation condemned as a Carteilan 
dream : but though the ftrange opinion of father Malebranche^ 
fbat wejii all things in God^ is difcarded; there is yet a fuppofi- 
tion ^advanced whibh is fomewhat allied to his fcheme, and 
appeafjsf to be uhnecdfary ; it Is that of a natural revelation, as it 
is here termed, by whitli the Supreme 'Being commanicates 
lileas to the human iliirid'; to, this he ref^rk In The courfe x>f hii 
work as the Origin or fcdndation of oO? idbs, anfl hence hip 
ufcs <oint ^xpreffions^ like' thofc of ^ MtH^nncbe^ vi^heft^li^ 

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^sikft of < the 4quI>)ci ujpioa of the fo\il^ th^c it is united^p God 
revealing bimie]^ fmcc it gains that idea which the Suj^reme 
Bei^S produces in the fubftance of the mind* and is alfo united 
to the body in which) as in a prifon, it is cnclorcd/ , But^ 
allowing that tbe powers of the human mind and the manner of 
its acquiring ideas is moft truly wonderful, and no fubjed more 
furprizine and myfterious can be prefented to the conUdkfation 
of man, thai) man himfelf, ftill is it npt fufficient to all the pur* 
pofes of trtltli anc( philofophy, to conclude that the |;reat 
Creator has fo formed thi fiul^ and in fMcb a manner conneded 
^ iRrith the body, as to have a natural capacity of receiving id^a3« 
^d afterwards applying them to proper purpofes, 'without fup- 
pofing an immediate' revelation requifite for there being at firft' 
profluced? 

In another part of this work that confiders the fecondary and 
fenfible qualities of bodies, which have been abundantly proved 
by Pbilofophers not to have any real exiftence in ^utw^d 
^eds, it is obfcrved, that when we conceive of them at 
aaually exifting either in the organs of tbt finfes or in bodily fiib^; 
fiances, we form our judgment not from the inftind of nature,^ 
biit from prejudice i and this defefl, it follows, is to be 
attributed to original fin, hicqui defeSfus eft iMturf pofcato 
triginali vittata. Should the fuppofi^ioh here made have ^er^ 
acknowledged as fadl, it mud at leaft be (aid, th^t the^ fubjefl 
IS anticipated, fince, while the profefled defign is to inSryd' the 
pupil in the art of thinking, he is led to take for granted a point 
on which this art i$ to be employed, and the uuth or iaJfity of 
which may materially aiFtd his enquiries. 

In the other parts of the book, our Author treats farther 
Yipon the feveral kin/js of ideas, on the nature of evidence, on, 
fyllogiims, judgment, wit, invention, compofition, the drama^ 
cpopea, and various other fubjeds \ his obferyations on which 
may be agreeably apd lnfiru£tively confidered by thofe who aro 
acquainted with the languae^ in which he writes, for he hag 
chofen to clothe his ideas in Latin, though we think we have yet 
more full and ufeful treatifes of this kind in our own tongue, of 
fome of which the Writer has no doubt availed himfelf in Uie 
prefent performance. 

ArI'. XI. jtn EJJiy on the Cure of the Hydrocele of th0 funka 
' Vaginalis Tejlis. By Jofeph El/e, Surgeon to St. 'thpmas's 
Hofpital. 8vo. is. 6d. Wilkie. 1770. 

T' H £ cure, of that morbid colleflion of a watry fluid, 
. which is often found accumulated between the, /</;7^^ v^- 
ginalisp aiid the iM^ic^ i^Mginoa of the teflisy has beeri artet^pted 
vutb very mdiiTerent luccefs, both bv ine ancients ^d toe^ipq- 
jlffDf^ who nave uff4 9r fecommexvded jbr ibis {>urp<;re the j)unc« 
,-_... ' ' ' ^ " ' ' .' W% 

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I^Ue «ff tbi OtTi if the HjirottU^ C^«. %y^ 

of the tunica vaginalis I thtf ufe df the fttoit; tbeinclfioiir 
or fimple diladon of that membrane from one extremitjr of it' in 
tiie Oliver; the excifion of a part of it, and fometiniea of tb^ 
whole of it, when found thick or indurated,-^^ moft tedious 
9im1 crticl operation; and laftljr, the applicaiion cf a large 
smnftic. Of thefe different mttthods fome have produced onljr 
9 tempCHrary or palliative relief ; while thpfe by wUch a ra** 
dkal cure has been at laft effeded, have genertmy been attended 
with great pain and inconveniences, and have Ibmetitnea becii 
prodtiSive.of very alarming daqger, both to the fiin^oas of Che 
1^/5, and the life of the patient* In Ihort, uncertainty and a 
too frequent inefficacy have been the general aod ackoowIedgcA 
Tice of them alL 

In this pradical treatife, the ingenious author points out a 
new, or rather a confiderable improvement of the laft^mentioned 
9Mhod of cure of this difeaie by cauftic j aod which, from an. 
c;xperietKe of feVerat years, he affirms 10 boveafy, rafe,.and 
tfl&cacious. He does not afluoie the inventioo to himftlf, noi^ 
4an he ppCtively affirm who firft brought it Jnto uie. .It har 
long been pra^Ufed in St. Thomas's hofpital, alid confequentlf 
in the prefence of many witncfles ; yet it appears, he oblferv^s* 
to be known to very few perfons. For this circufofiance the 
author endeavours to account, , by obferving that thofe young 
furgeons who, during a ibort a^ttendance at the hofpital, have 
feen perbaps only one or two cafes treajted in this manner, 011 
their fettling afterwards in the country, where opportunities o£ 
pradifing this method feldom occur, have not had the courage 
to adopt it, ^ becaufe writers of great eftimation had declared 
againft the life of cauftics in general :' though the procefs nowi 
recommended * .is exceedingly different from what is defcribed 
in books.' This impediment to the extenfion of the knowledge 
pf this method, the author modeftly adds, * might have been 
overcome, ;ind the knowledge of it rendered general, if thofe 
gentlemen, who were heft qualified to give an account of it, 
could have conquered their averfion of fubmitting to the public 
eye their fentiments on this, and other fubjeSs of the fame m^' 
jure.* 

A Ihort and general account of this new procefs, of the pro^ 
greffiyc fymptoms attending it, and of its event, will be fuffi- 
cient in this pla^re. A cauftic, fo fmall as to produce an efchar 
no larger than a ihilling or a half-crown, is laid on the ante- 
rior ax^ ififerior. part of the fcrotum \ where it is fuffered to re« 
main a few hours, or fo long a time as may be judged necefl^u-y 
to enable it to reach, s^ed^ and, if poffibk, penetrate through 
|he twiUa vaginalis* In fix, twelve, or twenty-four houfSj 
Mid fometim^ not till two or three days after the application of 
|be caufb'c, the patient begins to complain of a pain in the 
jknfum anf) loins | his p^ilfe 1;>ecoQKS' fomewhat quicker, and 

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rtrf Eflc on the Cure ofih S^rcceBi %^? 

be> feeis femi&-e6nca)'*pa}n^ ' Thcfe ^pt<)t^ 
wAM aii4 iiKKMifid€¥«bk, ftldom raqfoire any tftacoation or in- 
mjial mcdiokiM, of contina^ lox%^ than tweAty-'^fbur of foity^ 
m^t hoursv" WithSi^thk time,- a tenfion and foardck«fs are fehr 
ia the /^<^x^ >at^AM^ing t6 'lAie figure of ^etvnita Viigi9iaiif9 
and wbick^e.^vkkntly produced by the artificial inflammackMi- 
loduced, hf tHil 96t\on of the cauHit upon that ' membrane^ 
diroughoiic its .whole ciLtcnu In a fevr days the efchar gfow» 
tooTe and cottars away, expofmg to view the mnica vapnaEs^ 
which daily proj6<!ls * more and more through' ikvt opening. 
When it appears ready to burft, the contained fluid mof be lee 
out with a- lancet^: though that operation is not neceCary. The 
intire membrane now fuppurates, and comes away dailv inr 
ftmgfas along with Ibe contained fluid, durrng the fpace of wxt% 
five, or fix weefcs : the hard tumor of the fcrotum proportionably 
kfiTens, and at lafl, on the catling of the hft flough, ditappeais; 
and the wounds veiy fpeedily cicatrifes. The cicatrix adheres to 
the body of the tefticle, which receives no injury from fh« 
cauftic, nor has ever been expofed, either to t^t dreffings, or 
to the anions of the air, during the whole procefs. 

To thefe laft-mentioned ci]k:umf):ances the Author prificipal)y> 
attributes the mildnefs of the fymptoms cpnfequent upon tbk 
method of treating the diforder j and which in his own public and 
private pradice has, he afSrms, in every inftance been fuccefsfiil : 
adding that the patients had nevar felt very extraordinary pain. 
Of ever appeared to be in danger, during the proiecution of it i 
and that he thinks it highly pfotiabte that, whenever the cauftio 
reaches the tunica vaginalis^ h is infellible. He ihentions Mr* 
Girk as having treated the difeafe in this manner, during nine- 
teen years in St. Thomas's hofpital, and in a very extenfive pri* 
vate pradice, without ifieeting with one cafe attended with any 
appearance of danger. The fame is affirmed of Mr. Baker, 
during a courfe of twenty-nine years praflice in St. Thomas's 
hofpital and elfewbere. With both too it has been as fuctefsful 
mfhen tried ou the aged as on the young. Th^ permanency of 
the cures eflFeded by it cannot, we imagine, admit of a doubt ; 
if, as the Author afrerts,the whole fubftanceof the tunica vaginalis^ 
on the proper application of this fmall cauftic, inflames, fup* 
purates, and domes away in /loughs : for as this encyfted dropfy^ 
as it has been called, is produced by a local diforder, folelycon* 
fined to the vefTels of this particular membrane, it mufl: necef* 
hn]j and radically be removed, by the intire defiru<Slion and 
lemoval of the feat of it. 

I The Author anfwers (bme obje&ions which have been, or 
nay be, ioiade to the mode hei^ defcribed and redbdnmended s 
attd ^ves three or four cafes, taken from a great miiifber, a« 
fpecimens of this new mode of pradJice; forthe. further par^ 
ticalarsof which, after having given this general-4dea of it^^^ 

^' Digitized by Google ^^ 



teatlrt p^iAl tof tbofe. who bf pr^flfen are iniweftcd in tiui 
{ubjt€t^ tt» or tkiay be in a conditton to avail themfelvei of xlm 
iifeful, ipn^k^ and well-authcqttcajt^ informaiioo containod 

ia it. -. :. ,^ ■ ij • ' ' , ^ : / . J., : '• r 

AmT. XH. Ohfervatims iipM.Mx Pott's ^erUrsii > Rematks fH 

- Frv^uTiTy&Cy It'hh.a BdJIfanpt cMcknfi^ ihi Curt cf cPtii^ 
I fetrnJ OijfMaiiHS i infwhidi.ibimfBtdMrtb9d$ftf6iriMhgU^^ 

t 40/; th T^Mtoti mtd Ugansmt^ h kriffif cotMerAcL i . Br Thomaa 
: Kirfckuid^ Siirgebn. 8vo^ is« ^xi. JBecket aoddbetiondr^ 

- 17^0.. ' P-.r '^ ' • : • ' f' . ., . . y .; . J ., \-i 

^Tp H^^E Obferv^ibhs appear' under the fdrmf i6F- three IcK 
• X tfts addffflcd.td a jftoung' fdrgeon, inftcn<fin^ to fettfc fit 
the couritr^.'-'^ t« the firft,* WhJdi is very ihort; the Aurtiot cx^ 
preflb^MS^fiitf^c^lirobkfibn <rf''Mi*. Pott's toethbrf' of reducing 
and rctriirfii|nfra*ured Kmbsi Of the gcnerat ttid leading 
principles of 'this e^ccfellent and Very important innovation m 
tbis braincfi erf tJre-art of furgiiry, ire formcrl3r endeavoured to 
donvey an.Sde^' to^ our read^s iii gencfral, in familiar and inteV 
lrgibfcterms^*fc ' Mr. Kirkhnd dbfehres t6 hfe tJoVrefpondehtf- 
tttat fome' of the improvements'-i^commend^d- in that treatiftr 
Have *ccri g^riadiially taking pla^<^ fbr fbmc tffric ^rfft ; but owns 
tbat^th^ putfin't the fraftured Kmb into a bent ^oifitii^j in orde^ 
to faciKt^ \\S redudion, and to retain tt when reduced, and 
thus bringing* the mufcles attached to it into a flateof relaxattbnr 
atod hon-rcfiftance, isa'praSice intirclv new, -for the knoW-' 
ledge of which we are oWrgcd to Mr. Pott, and liis coHeagiie 
Mr. Sharp 5 and aUwoi tbat the former of thefe gend'emen if 
the firft writer Who has fcicntifically demonftrated the principled 
dn which this tapital impcovement is founded. .. - > 

'' In our afccotjntof Mr. Pott's remarks, &fc; w^ 'mentioned 
onlv in gericrai terms (as^'we, hbt long bcfoi^i had occafioir 
to (peat to thcfamd fiibjcft t) bis opinion concer;nfng the pro-* 
jkiety, or indeed neceffity, of fpeedy amputation, in compound 
frudures fo unhappily circumftanced, that-by rtie delay incurretf 
in attempting to prefcr^^e the' Jftw^, the Itu of tbe patient ii 
brought into the m6ft ioHninem'ha^ard. That Author had db-i 
ferved, that kkhbugh IJmbs fo fliattered and wounded as toren^ 
der ampytatibn the only probabte means for the prcfervatkm rf 
• life, arc now akd then faved 5 yet that fuch fortunate events, or^ 
as he fern^s them, efcapes, are much too rare to be admitted ar 
precedentSj on which the general prafHce fhouM in fuch cafet 

•i— f ' : .^^ 

' * Sec Monthly Review, Vol. xl. June 1769, page 465. 
^* f See our account of M. da la Martiniere^s refutation of M. Bib* 

%B Appendix to our 38th Volume, page 589. 

be 

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f4f l^\t\L^vtiii^tOhfir^^ 

"te regulated; arid, upon the whole, affirms that thftruA^ty of' 
fuch attempts fail. In the fecond of thefe letters, Mr* Km 
ftrongly ftipports the contrary opinion, and declares that * as far 
astiecanjAidge of this matter, immediate amputation in.com^ 
pound fradures ought not to take place, where the joints hare 
not fuflfercd violently by the injury, unleis the mufcles and ten- 
ons are fo cryihed, or otherwtfe deftroyed, as to make putre-^ 
hSidn not z phbahliy bat an rneritable confequence ;' or un- 
hSs it evidently appears from an anatooiical conJider2|ti6it of the 
fiumdions of. the injured parts, 5 that when the mortified BtOk^ 
UciT is digefted off,, the Umb cannot be made ufisfu^;!' aodtKat 
even when the joints themfelves have received coniiderahle in- 
jury, ifonly part*pf the ligaments is torn, the fra^red: head 
^ the bone may be taken away, and the patient may often be 
^red, JTo ^ to have a tolerable good limb. And as the nealbn-^ 
uigsof ^r,,Pptt,^nd of thofe who maintain thecomman}y;re«i^ 
ceived do<^r|ne oa-tbis fuljjeiS^, are founded on experience,^ Mr. . 
|C. appeals likewife to the fam^ authority, in oppofition to tjheoi*. 
By his connexions with fSsveral of his^ profei^pn, Jie^has be-, 
come acquainted not only with, the Tuccefs of i|iaiiy4iirgeont 
in fimilar cafes, whofe fituation affords them only-common ac-. 
cidents; but qf. feveral likewife who, as well as htmfelf, have^ 
ha^lthe care of the workmen in collieries, lead-mjflff^ &Cj wher^ 
the moft violent injuries of this kind frequently happ^. * In* 
^efe places, he continues, the bones are, for th^ moft^partj.; 
fotonly broken into many pieces, and their qttremities/nowi 
^iid then feparated, fo as to come away, but they are ,aUp9ftea 
forced into the ground, the principal arteries fometime» <^vided, 
and the mufcles, &c. are frequently lacerated,, and cruihed 
^ith immenfe weights, even fo much that coal, jQeck, &c in 
greit quantities, is driven into the very fubftance of the flefb, fo 
a^ to render the accident as formidable as poilible ^ and y^t it is 
^notorious fyA that, where the part is not abfolutely deft^oyed, 
thefe defperate' cafes feldom fa^ of being cured, without the; 
lob of the limb/ From hence be infers t^at < much mpre may 
be expe£led from the refources.of i\ature than fome imagine, 
l^eo^fe the. efcapes with life and^ limb are not very rare, but 
nio^l frequently happen/-^Mr. :KL. next informs his yo^ng cor-. 

E" ident^ thathe is. certain he< will have much ip^e fatif. 
n, aiui acquire more reputatioii from the diifcfci^ing pari 
^nkind,. in prcferving a limb, than in taking.it off '/-^-un- 
^u^)tedly«^if the fatisfadion, and the iclat^ refulting, to^ hin^ 
^op Ifmh preferved by his (kill and aifiduity are i)pt <nunped or 
(arnllhed by too great a number of iivfs thrown. away ia.acr'. 
quiring them. The civic crown wfis anciently adjudged to the 
01^ who faved the life of a citizen. He undoubtedly will ^a^e 
ft* better. claim t6 civic honours, who prefexVes, though he (m^ 

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Kirkland V Offervatim M fHfs HmdHis on fraSNris. u^f 

lilates, a citizen ; th^n l^b* who faves the hgs of fodie^ at the* 
expcnce of the /ft/^j of others. • . ^ 

In onfcr to recortcHe the deduaion$ -from- experience, ohH 
which Mr Pott founds his rca^nings, with the contrary crfpc-^ 
riences'of our Author and his friends, Mr. IC who does not 
€fall' in queftion either the judgment t)r humanity of that gen*' 
deman, fappofes that the ill fuccefs attending the attempts' tc^ 
fave both hfe and limb, in bad Compound fra^hiret, of which 
Mr. Pott complains, is princtpaily ta be attributed to the par^* 
ticular iituation of his patients ; crowded in a large* bofpttalyi 
breaching a contaminated air, loaded with putrid exhalation^ 
from difeafed bodies, and fubjeded to fome other inconvenien* 
cles, which account for the rapid mortifications and great dif* 
charges of matter, that io often fruftrate the attempts to cure 
fraSures of this kind, thus circumftanced, with what iuSgment. 
foeyer they priay have been conduced. This obfervatiqn, con- 
fidered in a general view, undoubtedly carried fome weight 
with it i but we doubt whether it be applicable ad bomiium : 
as we do not apprehend that Mr. Pott's pra£tice is confined to 
St. Bartholomew's^ or bis opinion on this fubjed folely Reduced 
from the events of ca(es treated at that hofpitJaU 

Notwithftanding thefe ilridures, we do not pretend to take 
any decifive part on one fide or the other of this queftion, 
which is certainly one of the moft critical, complicated and 
important problems in furgery ; and where the bell method of 
proceedrbg, as we have formerly obfervcd on this very occafion, 
can ortly^oe afcertained by the moft extenfive experience. As 
cxperieiice, however^ which has been appealed to in favour of 
both fides of this queftion, is found at variance with itfdf, we 
would recommend to the furgeon, who unhappily often finda 
himfelf obliged pra^naify to determine it, and that too very 
fpeedity, to refled, that the lofs of a limb, and the lofs of life» 
are two^ evils of very difFerent magnitudes ; and that, on ac- 
count bf the great and very evident difparity between them, % 
hi^h degree of probability of faving the former will be requflite 
to juftrfy him in attempts which may bring on the lofs of the 
latter. 

• The Reader will find fome judicious praSical remarks and 
obfervatfons, on . the fubje<5l of compound fradures, in the 
odier ^arts of this letter, as well as on diflocations, in t^e 
third and laft : in both which Mr. K. treats of fonie particulars 
which are not difcuflcd in Mr. Pott's Gemral Remarks ; and dit 
ifenta from hini in others. Thefe Obfcrvations are terminated 
by a Poftfcript, in which the Author warmly approves of the 
pra£Kce recommended by Mr. Gooch in his Cafes and Retnarks 
ht Surgiryy of fawing off the head of the bon^, in oompound 
laxacieos ; where it is thought advifable to attempt the faving 

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of the limb, uodef the threatening cjpcuinftances vflfl). wbicfe 
cafes of that kind are ufually attended. Tfothe inftances o^^ 
c;ui;eseffeded.. by. thefe^ means V and. •related in tbat exi^eUen^ 
treatlfe^. Mr. K^. add& a regent cafe .thus JTucce&fufly treated hy: . 
hi^felf. The perfornpance is;clQk'4 Y^^ f^^^ very p^rtineiit 
rei|eaipns on thi ab^fiye application qf ;the oil of turpentine' to^ 
iir^ujidsof the tepdon$ and ligamencs : a method. of treatment 
which Ae Author confiders, i^otwithftar^dijig the faiiftilon of 
2uiti(}uity, and the general praAice^ as founded on niiftaken 
principle^) and as tnghly pernicious* 

J\jiT..XIII. ffBe ^tudcnt\s Vade Mecupi. Containing an Account 

* cf Knowledge and it's general Divijiori^ WV. &f^. ff^ithpireSiions' 

fio^h proceed in , the Study of each Branch of Learnt fi^y dnd an 

jfccomi of the ir^^^'r Books iole read upon each SubjeSf. By 

William Smith, M. D. 8vo. ^s. 'OweA. 1770. 

WITH wbateyy eafe and cxpedjtiop, It may be jicmght, 
the tafk of damnatory ^iticifm may ,bc performed, wc 
^c aeverthelei^ obliged to'confef^ th^t there are authors in the^ 
^prld, who are pofleiTed of fuch an uncommon fpeed and alar 
crity in tranfgrefl^ng, that ^ find it extremely difficult to keep 
pace with them in. the neceflary tafk of condemning their pro- 
^i^dions. In the foremoft ranks of this hafty and prolific tribe 
of literary culprits, ftands the Author of theprefent performance^ 
^ven while we were animadverting on bis Treatife on lhtN$rv€%^ 
^n advertifemeot printed at the. end of it was continually Aaring 
us in the face, informing us that .his New and General tyftem 
(if Phyftc^ was then in the prefs. Scarce bad we got through the 
i({|graiceful tafkof pail^ng a juft and well fupported cenfuic upon 
that wofk> which we clofed with £ome falutary and well meant 
adyice to fhe Author : — while we were pluming ourfelves on 
t)ie. expectation of the good effedUit might produce upon bim^ 
Xh<^ public, 9n|d Out felves^ our Aioft-livcd hopes were at once . 
4jt(bed by thefudden and almoft immediate appearance of the 
^titdent's Vadi Mecum. We fliall therefore abftain from offering 
4PJC mor? 0f our ill-timed advice to this hafty Writer, who, i^^ 
bis rapid courfes to the prefs, has twice already diftanted U8» 
:tnd: whom we abfolutely defpair of overtaking a third time. 
Hj»s types probably are alteady fet for a new wo^-k \ — and yet,, 
fliould the brat'be of ^e fame complexion with its elder bro- 
thers, we could wiOv the Doctor would give us an opportunity^ 
for his and all our fa)c^6« to ftifle the little monfter now in its 
mhryo fiate, rather than reduce us hereafter to the hard necef* 
iky of cruibing it, ifluing, in full maturity, from the prefs. 

Xa the prefent per'ormance, in which the Author, in hit 
title, modeftly profeflcs to fup^ly to his young ftudent, * ai 
much as may be, the want of ^ xegular univerfity education,* 

the 
5 

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Smith^i Stuflcnt*^ Vadt Mecum. 145 

the lio^lor undertakes to direft him in the acquirement of the 
jprincipal branches of knowledge, human and divine. And at 
all the r«quifues to this extenfive acquifition cannot poflibly be 
contained within the compaft of a work of this fmall fiie, he 
points out to him the proper books to be read on each (ubjedi. 
He firft treats of knowledge in general ; then of hiftory^ and of 
phibfophy. An account of the iiiftitution of fociety, and the 
Aature of government, and of the heathen idolatry, and its 
analogy to revelation, are given in the two fncceeding chap- 
ters. In the fixth he treats of the different fyftems bf philofo- 
phy, and gives a fbort account of the moft eminent philofophers 
bf different ages \ who are all, to a man, from Thales and Py- 
thagoras down to Newton, eclipfed * by that light of the agc> 
and difpeller of darknefs, the ever great and memorable Mr; 
Hutchinfon/ He terminates the woft with a chapter on ma- 
^h^natks ; but towards the laft page, and not before, he gives 
his ftudent hopes of more lajl wor^s ; telling him that be will 
* fay fomethmg on fpherical trigonometry, conic feSions, aftro- 
kiomy^ &c« and metapbyiics,' in fome future Volume or volumes* 
This intimation however does n«t appear in the title, which 
feems to promife^ to the unfufpe(S^ing purchalbr, the poiTeifion of 
SI complete and finifhed work. Whether we ought, favourably^ 
to confider this as an accidental omidionj or rather as a piece 
of author- craft, fimilar to one which we took notice of and re- 
t>rehended laft month ♦, we fhall not dctertnine ; but ihall leave 
the Do£tQr's young dlfciple, who may have already purchafed 
the Student's Fade Mecum^ in full poflcffion of all the comfort* 
pr difquiet, which may arife to him from this allured profpe<H: 
of a feqUeL 

We cannot help Condemning both the plan and the execution 
bf this work, which in fome parts of it contains matters 
highly repfchcnfible J in others, is ftuffed with the uncouth 
gibberifh of the Huichinfonians : while the fcanty information 
it contains onother fubjeds is conveyed in fuch a vague and 
unfatisfaftory manner, as can conduce very little to the inftruc-. 
tion or improvement of his young reader.- But we ihall give 
a fcort fpecimen or two on the fubjefls of government, hiftory, 
und philofophy, from which the Reader mav judge for himfelf. 
Hear firft a part 0/ what this excellent Infiruttor fays on the fub* 
je<a of government. 

He tells his young ftudent, who muft doubtlcfs form excellent 
notions of the nature and defign of government under fuch a 
tutor, that kings are in fcripture ftilcd gods, * to denote that they 
arc not made by men,* but * deirive their power from God alont^ 
and confequently not from the people ^' that they are accord- 



• See Monthly Review, July, page 74. 
Key. Aug, ijjo* L 

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146 Smith'j Studenfs Vade Mecam* 

ingly accountable for the ufe of their power * to none but Gocf, 
— and own no fuperior upon earthy* — * as they are no 
human ordinance or inftituticn.' The truth of this dodlrine, 
he adds, * is attefted by the joint confent of all unbiafled learned 
men ; — that both fathers and fchoolmen, laymen and divines, 
lawyers and poets, fcripture, councils, and canons, the^laws of 
naturiy and eftabliflied laws of /A/j land, the dodtrine of the 
church of England, and the teftimony of both univerfities, have 
given their fufFrages for the fame, as grounded upon the moft 
folid reafon, and have declared that refiftartce is deftruSive of 
all government, the publice peace, and the bands of human fo- 
ciety/ — In fhort, from the days of Noah, wha, * being fole 
heir of all the world,' did, according to the author, * by his 
laji will and /£/?^w^/;/,* eftablifh monarchical dominion, (inde- 
pendent of the eleflion pr confent of the people, and without 
entering into capitulation with them) down to the days of 
James 1. and the * royal martyr,* we (hould be puzzled to find 
fuch a weak and abfurd ftickler i^ra viribus) as our jure divim 
doclor, in fupport of 

The right diviney in kings^ of doing wrong. 

As no fuch right, however, is at prefent cither aflumcd or 
acknowledged in this country, we would advife the doSbr, for , 
more reafons than one, incontinently to (hip himfelf off for ihofc 
happy regions where it is ajfumed at leaft : — to the dominions, 
for inftance, of his fublime highnefs at the Porte, or to thofe of 
another of Noah's legatees^ who keeps his awful court at Me- 
quin z \ — and we heartily wifh him a good voyage, and much 
comfort and fecurity after his landing. 

In his directions to his fludent, with regard to the works 
proper to be confultcd by him on the fubjedt of hiftory, after 
giving a lift of titles of books, fuch as may be found and had 
gratis in almoft any bookfeller's catalogue, he at laft, in very 
homely phrafe ' aJvifts the young man, in the lump, * to read 
as mai.y as he can la)' his hands upcn\ — in an honeft way^ — he 
fliould have added. Some few woiks indeed the Doflor cha- 
radterifes, and fhews himfelf a moft excellent judge of their 
merits. North's exafnen f the reign of, king Charles II. he recom- 
mends as ♦ a book that merits the higheft praife, and ought to 
be [irir\ti:d ^ in letters of gold/' This is admirable? we cannot 
help bcrftovving a frefli note of admiration at what the author 
fays of Dr. Robertfon, and of his hiftory of Charles V. At page 
29, hv talks of ihe Do£^or*s * artfully taking an opportunity 
egregio^fy to imp of e on his ignorant readers.* He had before ac- 
cufcd him of no lefs a crime than downright literary thievery, 
and to a very capital amount. * The firft volume oi this book/ 
f:'vs the author, ^ h Jomewhat curious; the other two are bor- 
iowcd from Voltaire, wiih whom he has made fo free, as not 

Oiily 

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Smith'y Studenfs Vade Mecum. " 147 

enly to take his account pf fa6ls from him, but the moft of his 
obfervations in natural hiftory !' — Without condefcending to 
contravert or eveti to inquire into the matter of fadi, we own 
we know not whether moft to admire this convi(^ed * arch- 
plagiar/s modefty, or his adroitnefs, in pitching on fo elevated 
a literary chara^er as Dr. Robinfon's, with a view, no doubts 
to keep his own (hameful arid notorious prafiiices this way in 
countenance. Now for a tafte of his philofophy, and we have 
done. ■ 

Were we to fuppofe our groat forefather Adam to revifit the 
earth, and to ftep into Mr. Owen's ihop, and take up the 
StudenCsVade Mecum^ we cannot help figuring to ourfclves the 
aftoni&ment of the old gentleman on finding himfelf there de* 
fcribed as perfec^jy well acquainted with the true or Copernican 
fyftem of the world, and poflcfled of an Orrery^ compared with 
which all your modern orreries and planetariums are mere 
baublei. * The whole univerfe,' faya the Doctor, * waa too 
large a field for a folitary creature to range in queft^of know- 
ledge ; — therefore paradife was fo planted from the center to the 
circumference, as to reprcfent the motions^ courfcs, diftances, 
&c. in the heavens, by way of plan of the celeftial fyftem in 
ininiatuie.* 

But howy our young ftudent inquires, does the DoSfor know all 
this? Pray^ is he the wandering Jew that J have heard my old 
nurfe talk about? — No, my dear Sir, the wandering Jew muft 
undoubtedly be a very knowing Being^and has feen a great deal 
of the wot Id; and to be fure it is a long time ago fince he 
firft fet out upon his travels : but he is a man of yefterday with 
regard to thefc very ancient matters. This fuperb orrery was 
grubbed up long before he commenced traveller, and he knows 
no m(i;e, we will be bound to affirm, of the old ground plot 
kA paradife, than you or we do. The Doftor muft either have 
got this knowledge by oral tradition from fome more ancient 
wanderer, orfurely he muft himfelf have been in the garden of 
Eden foon after the creation, and have walked there alon^ fide 
of Adam and his new bride, [01 fenfual companion^ as the DotSor 
fomewhat irreverently terms our great-grandmother) and have 
been a wrapt fpeftator of the paradifiacal trees and bufties figuring 
iq this planetary dance around them. He gives his teftimony, you 
fee, with all the confidence and expiicitnefs of an eye- witnefs. 

This may appear to fome a very bold and extravagant fuppo* 
fition : but how, in the name of wonder, unlefs he had a phi- 
lofophical tete a tete^ or two with Adam himfelf,* could he pof« 
libly know that he was an adept in theHutchinfonian philofophy^ 

* See our accounts of his two former works in Vol. xxxix. and 

. . . * \a z an4 

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f 4B La!igicr*i tUfficiatms for the Piau tf B^tgraJi. 

tnd had at his fingers ends all the iiiyfteries of j&'z^ ligbty 4md 
fiiritj as be afirms at page 105 ? 

Newton^ the Doctor owns ^ difcovered a veiy pregnant ge- 
Biiis> and had a wonderful capacity in making calculations :' 
but * he placed too much truft in experiments,' < and expeded 
too great difcoveries from his prifm, hoU in a windcw^-^ps^u: of 
eompafles, ice' Accordingly, < taking the wrong fcenty be 
fpent a life of drudgery — in fearch of truth/ without attaining 
it. He juft faved bis credit however, it feems, before he went 
out of the world : for he had got/ the Dodor tells us, ^ fomc 
knowledge of the thre$ conditions of the air ^ (fire^ light y andfpirit 
again !) before his death.' — ^We own we have heard fomewhat 
of the dotage of this exalted genius in tbelaft period of his life;, 
but did not imagine that he ever arrived at fuch a pitch of in- 
fanity as is here imputed to him. , 

After this account and thefe fpecimens of this work, we can- 
not imagine any of our Readers fo uninfornted, as to ftand in 
need of our giving a formal charader of it. Let the youngeft 
and raweft ftudent, who from its title and fize nuiy be tempted 
to purchafe it as an ufeful and cheap compendium of univerfal- 
knowledge, only read thefe few pages ; and he muft be igno«. 
rant and obftinate indeed,' and very uncivil too» by the bye, if 
he does not doff his hat, and make his beft bow to the Monthly 
Reviewers for faving him four fhiUings. 

Art. XIV. The Wflory of the Negociatiom for the Peace conduded 
ut Belgrade^ September 18, 1739, between the Emperor y Ruffia, 
and the Ottoman Porte y by the mediation and tauUr the GMorafOtt 
of France. Shewing die Grounds of the prefent War between thg 
KuJJians and the Turks. Tranflated from the French of M. 
L'Abbe Laugief, 8vo. 5 8« 3 d. boards. Murray. 1770. 
'T* HIS work is valuable, whether we confider the importance 
^ of its fubjed, or the talents of the Author. The Abbe 
Laggier traces to theur fource the events he relates ; and, while 
he difplays a fuperior eloquence and impartiality, heiexercifes a 
political fagacity and penetration, of which few hiftorians have 
furniflied an example. We are not here prefented with meagre 
annals, or an hiftorical (keleton; the pidures exhibited aiefull^ 
iuftru^ive, and mafterly : and few publications baveappeared^ 
of lace years, which are more intitled to the public approba- 
tion. 

The ingenious Author opens his performance with a very ac* 
curate delineation of thofe political views, which kindled the 
flame of difcord between the Ruffians and Turks. The arts 
which the latter employed to prevent this war, the different ftepi 
which they took towards a negociation, and the reafona winch 
inclined them to pacific meafures^ arc then fully explained* . 

When 

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LaugicrV Negeerationi for tbt Piaa of Belgrade. 145 

When hoftilities are commenced, the councils ci the Ottoman 
tnintftry are timid and irrefolute ; and the war is profecuted 
without vigour. But a fmal] glimpfe of profperity, giving the 
Turks a' momentary confidence) they pa& from de(pondenc]F 
* to prefumption. It is not Ung, however, before they (blicit 
the mediation of France ; and the courts of Vienna and Pe* 
terfburg accepting of this mediation, the French ambaflador 
enters into terms with the minifters of the Porte. But the 
Turks, confident or undetermined, according to circumftances, 
difcover the greateft inilncerity of cooduA y and the negocia* 
tion is broke ofF. Elated with the fuccefs of their arms, they 
rife in their pretenfions, and they attempt, though ineffectually, 
to break the alliance between the courts of Peterfburg and 
Vienna. A fecond negociation is opened, and the grand Vizie/ 
appoints plenipotentiaries to confer with the French ambafladoc 
Many conferences are held 5 but nothing is agreed upon. At 
length, the Marquis de Vileneuve, in the quality of ambaflador 
plenipotentiary, has an audience with the Grand Signior. He 
receives inftrudions from his own court, and from thofe of 
Vienna and Peterfburg 5 he arrives before Belgrade j all diffi<« 
culties are got over, . and a peace is concluded. 

Befide the great hiftorical objefls, which are prefented by oue 
hiftbrian, he has thrown a ceniiderable light on the political re- 
lations of the empires which form the communication of Eu«* 
rope with Afia. He informs us, that the Turk's, who in gene* 
ral are reputed an ignorant people, are acute w*th regard to their 
interefts, are well inftruded in the views and fyftcms of other 
courts, and difcovei, in their public condud, all that refinement 
and policy, which appear in nations whofe geniu« has receive4 
the moft favourable cultivation. 

Of the Ruffians, he has given a very advantageous account. 
He deicribes therii as purfuing with courage the projedts of 
Peter I. in order to add to their power and confideration by 
extending their commerce; as opening, by the Caljpian Tea, 
with Perfia and the Mogul, fuch communications, as they al- 
ready poflfefs by means of the Baltic, with all the dates of 
Europe; and, as endeav'^uring to find, by the Bldck Sea, a 
new and more advantageous fource, even to the center of th^ 
Mediterranean. * To what a height of power, fays he, may 
not this empire one day attain, fhould heaven fend them an- 
other Peter Alexiowitz, joined to a criiis favourable for pulhing 
their dcfigns !* ^ 

We cannot but remark, to the honour of the Marquis de VIl- 
lepeuve, who bore a principal (hare in the franfa<^ions which 
are recorded in this hifiory, that he aded the part of a moft 
able negociator. He had the art to conciliate the efteem of a 
nation^ whofe pejudices are very oppofite to the manners of 

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Europe; and though the revolutionr of the Turkifli govcrrt-^ 
mcnt (ubjecJied him to the neccffity of negociating with feveral 
Viziers, whofc genius, charafter, and views, were extremely 
different, he yet acquitted himfelf with a capacity which gave 
equal fatisfadion to all. 

In brief, we niay (afely pronounce, that the work before us 
b a model of hiAorical compoiition ; and that it muft be 
ranked with thoferare and valuable produdions which wiil 
^efcend to pofterity. 

MONTHLY catalogue; 

- For A U G U S T, 1770. 

D R A M A T I C. 
Art. 15. A Woriio the Wife ; a Comedy. By Hugh Kelly, Au- 
thor of Falfe Delicacy. 8vO. 5 s. Dodfley, &c. 1770. 
THIS comedy ft^nds as a memorial' of ah attempt to reftrain 
the prefs, contrary to the eftabliftied laws of this country, by 
a party who pretiend to be the champions of Liberty, who have ufed 
the prefs, or rather abuled it, with a licence beyond all example^ 
and who would clamoiir againil a reflraint of it by law &s the moib 
periiicloos pKfafure which the mod pernicious minil^er could adopt. 

\\. \\ now publithed by fubfcription, becaufeit was driven from the 
flage without being hcjard : the pretence was that Mr, Kelly, who 
jnahag'ed a news- paper called the Public Ledger, had inferted in that 
paper, efiays and paragraphs in favour of government, written by 
nimfelf ; had refufed to infert any that were written againft it by 
Others; and that in confiderationof this fervicehehad a pcniion from 
the crown. 

. Admitting this charge to be true, the preventing the exhibition 
of the Author's pliy, and arbitrarily depriving him of the reward of 
his labour* was an ad as injurious, tyrannical, and oppreiCve, as 
any that marks the flayery of the wretched inhabitants of Fez and 
Morocco, with this aggravation, that in Fez and Morocco iuch ads 
are confonaot \o the laws of government, and that here they arc not 
Itfs an infult upon the il^te than an injury to the fubjcft. 

The common definition of a Freeman is, a man fuhjeft only to 
Known and eflablilhed laws, and not liable to be punifhed in his 
perfon or eftate by refcntment or caprice : thofe who deprived Mr. 
Kelly of ^yt or fix hundred pounds, the probable profit of his play, 
without pretending that he had broken any known or eflablilhed 
law, did not treat him as a freeman \ and whatever may be their pre- 
tences it is raanifeft that they adl- upon llaviQi principles. 

' But Mr. Kelly abfolutely denies the charge. For the falfehood of 
one part of it he appeals to the very newspaper iifeif upon which it 
is founded. In this paper, he fays, many pieces will appear on 
both fides of the qucftion ; alfo an.exprefs detlaration, that it fhould 
ever be open to all parties, as far as their pieces fhould neither be 
too dangerous, nor too abfurd for the prefs ; and a call upon the 
advocates of Mr. Wilkes to favour it with pxodudlions in his defence. 

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N O V 1 L 8. 151 

To the other part of the charge he anfwers, that what he has 
>pmtten in behalf of government is from convidion ; and he declares 
that he never folicited or received a fingle (hilling, cither as a 
reward for any fervice, or a compenfadon for that bread which he 
and his family have loft in its defence. 

After this account of the motives from which * A Word to the 
Vife,' was driven from the ftage, it is fcarce neceflfary to fay -that it 
is not, in any degree, a political performance : it is written with ^n 
experimental knowledge of the ftage, and abounds with turns and 
fituations which pleafe in the reprefentation, where only they can 
have their full effed, much more than in the clofet. It has gene- 
rally been fuppofed that a multiplicity of incidents, varied wi.hout 
inconfiflency, and complicated without confufion, probable, however 
uncommon, and exciting both intereft and curioiity, requit^e very 
little farther knowledge or art to be made a good play : but this is 
rather the excellence of a novel than a drama : a play may produce 
the greateft effect in reprefentation, without including a ftory that 
would pleaie as a narrative ; without a rigorous degree of probabi- 
lity, or brilliant fallies of wit : its fucceis will depend rather upon 
the fcenes themfelves, than the art with which they are introduced 
or connected ; upon contrail of charafler, miftakes among the cha- 
radtersy iituations of ferious or ridiculous diflrefs, and the general 
drain of the dialogue whether tragedv or comedy. * A Word to the 
Wife,' examined by this rule, will be foun4 to have confiderable 
merit ; at the fame time that it inculcates not only honei^y but ho- 
nour, and affords a leffon to young people equally ufeful and 
ftriking. 
Art. 1 6. TiTi Lame Lover ; a Comedy, In three ASfs. Ai It is 

performed at the Theatre Royal in the Hay Market, B/ Samuel 

Foote, Efq; 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Elmlley, &c. 1770. 

Two or three fummers ago this Son of Drollery diverted himfslf 
atid the public at the expence of the learned body of Warwick-Lane. 
The gettriemen of the long robe now furnifh their (hare of the enter- 
tainment. — When Foote bids us laugh, it is impoffible for us to keep 
our mufdes. 
Art. 17. 7 he Magic Girdle ; a Burlctta. Taken from the 

French of M, RoulFcau. Set to Mufic by Mr. Barthelemon, and 

performed at Marybone Gardens. 4to. 1 s. Becket. 

This might be very entertaining at Marybone Gardens ; but it 
feems to us rather infipid in Grubflreet, where it has not the advan« 
tagc of Mr. Barthclcmon's mufic. 

Novels. 
Art. 18. Tlje Life^ JUventureSy Intrigues and Amours of the cele^ 

brat ed Jemmy Tnvitcher. Exhibiting many ilriking proofs to what 

Bafcneis the human Heart is capable of defcending. The Whole 
* faithfully compiled from authentic Materials. 8vo. 2 s. Pamphlet. 

Brough. 

It is needlefs to inform our Readers ^ivho is the noble Peer here 
mtTLtuhy Jemmy Ttvitc her y or by what unpopular means he unfor- 
tunately acquired this ignoble nick- name. Every news-paper is 
daily crammed with thefe witticifms on our Great folk, ard they are 
fo undifguifedly cxprelied, according to the brazen-faced £ithxon of 

L + the 

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15Z MONTHJ^Y CaTAIO«U1, 

the times, that the dulleft reader underflands them» without c^nuMftt 
or gloflary. 

The Memoirs here pretended to be given, from * authentic mate^ . 
Tials/ of this rake of quality *, Have aJl the moil unqueftionable ap- 
pearance o{ JiBion^ the. mere inventions of fome hackney adventure- 
maker ; and a very duU one into the bargain. 
Art. 19. CQnJiauUa\ ar, the Dl/ire£id Friend* lamo. 3 s,. 
Johnllon, 1 770. 

This Novel merits fome didinftion from t;he common performances 
of the kind, of which the prefs is (o prolific. It would be no eafy' 
matter for any writer to tell a ilory in fo few words, which would 
keep the Reader's attention more awake, or more furprize him with 
unexpeded incidents. In brief, though this romance is comprized 
in one volume, it is full of buiinefs ; and, in other hands than thofe 
of Simon Stantiijh, the profclTed compiler, might, with eafe, have 
been fpun into four, — The fentiments it contains are chade and 
laudable; efpecially thofe of the worthy old clergyman, who is one. 
of the principal charaders. 

After faying fo much in fevour of Conflantia (which, from us, 
who are fo repeatedly furfeited with Novels, will be confidered as no 
fmall compliment) it mud be remarked, that the Hory of ConHantia's, 
parentage and birth exceeds all probability, in an inftance wherC: 
nothing lefs than pofitive fad could warrant the relation^ Her 
grandfather. Count Lacey, being in the French fervice, took an 
officer prifoner at the battle of Dcttingcn, who converted I^acey's 
diaughter from Popery, and married her. For (his apoflacy the 
whole family is apprehended, and cruelly ufed. Lacey, however, 
on account of his lervices, obtains his eolargemeot, white the young 
couple, perfifting in the Proteilant faith, are burnt at Paris^ (an un- 
likely place for fo recent an inftance of cruelty) and their afhcs are 
thrown into the Seine* 

Simon Standiih is probably indebted to Fox, the old martyrologift* 
for the hint of Conftantia*s being born at the ftake, while her mother 
was in the agonies of death. The circumftance is Jhocking in Fox ; 
it is alfo ab/urd in the Novel : — and the Author might, with almofi 
equal appearance of ppobability, have told us that within thefe 30 
years two perfons were burnt at Smithfield for heref/, as at Paris. 
Art. 20. 7he Adventures of a Bank Note. i2mo, 2 Vols. 5 9. 
fewed. Davies. 

Some parts of this work are very laughable, others are licentious ; 
and the whole, as the good old Baxter would have laid« fhews that 
thfe Writer has more genius than grace. 

POBTICAL. 

Art. 21. Pcems and Tranjlations^ by a young Gentleman of Ox- 
ford. 4to. 9S. Robin fon and Roberts. 1770. 
This colle^ion contains an Imitation of the lafl Chorus of the b^ 
cond Aft of Seneca's Troades : an Elegy, defcribing an Evening in 
the Country as an £mblem of Life ; an Ode, defcribing the Spni^, 
and comparing * the fucceflive periods of Life to the Seaibnt of toe 

■ 1 r , , , ' , 

• Who, this Author fays, * I/w/, a monument of suPEaiOR 

ABILITIES, yaoSTiTUTED TO THE WORST OF PUEfOSPS.* 

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Poetic Alt j^j 

Year ! an loojtation of the 22d Ode of the id Book of Horace : the 
Snake and the Worm, a Fable, ilUfh-attng the PaHacf of apparent 
Profperity : an Imitation of the 3d and 25th Odes of Anacreon : an 
imitadoB of the 14th Ode of the fecond Book of Horace, and of his 
fecond %mkU. 

In thele pkce^ there is not nrach to cenfure, but nnfbrtnnatelf 
there » no*Wng to commend : the verfification is rather above me* 
diocrity, but alt other charafteriftics of poetry are wanting, except 
fomt feebk reilc^ons of imaj^ery and fentiment that have beeir 
tranfinicted horn one writer otverff^ to another, ever fince verfei 
lULYt been written. 

The foilomng veries, which begin the Imitation of the Chorns^ 
are extracted as a fpecimen : 

' ^y, from the yawning gr«ve, where DapkneTs dwtHs^ 

Do wand'ring gho^ dtfert their hallow'd cells ; 

Stalk o'er the tombs, or thro' the cloiAers fteal. 

When, midnight bells reibimd a dtimal peal i 

Or is't a fable artfully deiign'd, 

To ibed its horrors on the gnihy mind ? 

When the fad wife has dos'd the languid tyee^ 

And with our hopes the fleeting fpirit flies ; 

When fated man his tranfient courfe has nUt 

And feels no more the ever-genial fan ; 

Say, what avails the compals of the tomb. 

If (hiv ring ghofts thus haunt the nuu'ky gloom ? 

Qr arc our caresabforb'd in friendly dea£j 

And with each forrow flits the parting breath ; 

Or fhudd'ring placed on Death's tremendoos ihofe^' 

Ijcap into nothing, and exifl no more 1 

Where'er bright Phoebus beams his fulgent rwy^ 

And grants a longer or a fhorter day ; 

Where'er old Ocean's foaming billow^roar, 

And'roih impetuous on the yielding fhore } 

His irou power unfeeling Time difplays, 
. And feems to lengthen, though he crops our days.* 
Of thefe verfes the firft two are defedive in conflni^Hon. ' Do 
wandering ghofls deiert their cells /ram the grave?' is i flrange 
qneftiofi/ We think the fbiirth verfe inaccurate, becaufe though 
bells may JhnMl a peal, a peal can be ^founded only bv fomething 
dfe : bells may refoand, and a peal may refound, but oeUs cannot 
infovnd a neal. 
The i4tk verie 

' And with each forrow flits the parting breath ?* 
we think does not convey the Author's fenfe, which we fnppofe to be 

And flits each forrow with the parting breath ? 
The qtieftion is not whether the parting breath, like unrt loft eumdif 
flits with every forrow, but whether all our forrows pafs away with 
cor lafl breath. 

The verb /rtf/, which begins the 16th i^eife, has no nominative 
cafe.— But we fliall not mnltiply critical remarks on a performance 
ir)»d» wmot jnOify the labpuTt 

•Art* 

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154 Monthly Cataloguf^ 

Art, 22. 7^ Fitnah Advocate j a Poem. By W. Woty. 410*^ 
2 s. Flexney. 1770, 
Ned Ward once waited on the Earl of Oxford with an encomiam» 
upon which his Lordihip expoilulated with him in a very pathetic 
manner : '^ Good Mo Ward, what have I done that you (ho«ld ufe 
me thus ?" ** How, my Lord, how ? — Have I abufed your Lordihip ?" 
'' No, but you have praifed me, and that is worfe/' 
Art. 23. A Colle^lon of Poems. In four Volumes. By fcveral 
Hands. Vol?. III. and IV. 8vo. 6 s. fewed. Pearch. 
In our Catalogue for September 1 768, we inferted the two pre* 
ceding volumes. of this collection. What was (aid of them may be 
faid of thefe, and with the ftridleft regard to truth. 
Art^ 24. An Elegiac Poem on the1>eath of William Beckford^ 
Efq; late Lord-Mayor of the City of London. 8vo. 6 d. Swan. 
Elkanah Settle, the city poet of the laft age, rifen from the grave 
to deplore the untimely death of the o/^/ immurtal* Lord-Mayor of 
London. 

Come Ihed the fear, come heave the mournful figh ! . 
Ah ! why* yelGods ! (houid William BecKFORo die ? 

Anon. 

Miscellaneous. - 

Art,. 2 5. u/ Plan of an Englijh Grammar- School Education* With 

an introduAory Inquiry, whether by the Rnglilh Larrgnage alone, 

without the Embarrailment of Latin and Greek, the Briti(h Youth 

in general cannot be thoroughly accompliihcd in, e^viry Part of 

ofefnl and polite Literature^ and qualified to make a mOre early, 

advantageous and elegant Figure in Life. Addreffed to the ferious 

Coniideration of every feniible Parent and Teacher in Great 

Britain. By James Buchanan. 12 mo. is. Dilly. 1770. 

That the general cuftom of forcing children on the ftudy of the 

Latin grammar, as foon as they can read, and before they underfland, 

Bnglifh, tends to cramp their natural powers, and furnifh them with 

a knowledge which moft of them having no ufe for, forget in much 

lefs time than they gained it, will be eafily granted as a known truth ; 

but will this conceflion juHify the extenfive principle inculcated in the 

t»cle-page of this perform'ance ? Indeed, when Mr. Buchanan has fo 

f^r reformed polite education, as to free it from the embarradlnent of 

the learned languages, he may then maintain that Britijh youth im 

general can be ihqreughly accompUJhed in every part of ufeful ami 

polite literature y by the mere knowledge of their mother tongue : until 

this is effeded, however, his inquiry may be fufficiently refolved by a 

fhort negative. 

' Ancient literature, as he obferves, is mere lumber in the heads of 
tradefmen and n^iechanics, as fuch ; and by the lofs of time in acquir- 
ing it, keeps more ufeful knowledge out : but what are we to infer 
from the following interrogatories ? « 

. • The words, thus emphatically printed, are not in the Elegy ; 
but are here introduced as a |ei.eral reprehenfion of thofe lamenubte 
poems and fermons which ablurdJy bewail the natural death of aa 
old man. 

-'Let 

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, M 1 1 c X 1 1 A.N E o t; »• f5j 

* Lfet t9 aflc, in what language do the Peers and Commons afTembled 
in parliament ferve their King and country ? Do they harangue or 
VIebate in Latin ? Do our divines pray, preach, or inrtrmdl in Latin f 
Do our lawyers plead in Latin P Do our merchants keep their bucks, 
or write their letters in Latin ? No, far from it. h is in Englifh the 
nobility and gentry defend their country, and ferve their Prince in 
parliament ; in £ngli(h the divines indrudt, the lawyers plead, and all 
ranks of people write their letters, and tranfad all their affairs.' 

This is very true, and what then? As it appears thus far, the 
learned languages are as ufelefs to all thefe ranks of life as to barbers 
and flioemaRers ! It would be a droll circumilance Oiould we conceive 
the next generation to be poiTtfTed of tranflations made by their 
andeflors, and be fo totally dependent on them, as to lofe fight of the 
originals ! Happily for the future reputation of our country, we are 
relieved from this ridiculous apprehenfion by the concluding fentencc 
• of the work ; in which Mr. B. clofes with Mr, Locke in faying^ 
* that Latin and Greek ought to be the ftudy of every gentleman, as, 
from long eflablifhed cullom, ^e who is a Granger to them, cannot hi 
/aid to baiH a liberal education ^ or a place among the learned.' Here 
we have the inquiry mentioned in the title, rcfolved in a few words; 
but then it fubverts both tenor and purport of the inquiry as carried 
on in the introduction to the plan : and from the manner of dating 
it in the title, it can fcarcely be imagined that the Author intended 
it fhonld terminate in the negative. 

As for the plan itfelr, which might be fuppofed to recommend 
9 conrfe of £ngliih' claflics to dire£t the fludies of youth in acquiring 
a pure knowledge of language and flyle ; it being merely a trad on 
the rules of profody and elocution, which are commonly treated of ia 
all grammars, there is, fo far, little to obferve on it ; the rules being 
often profefledly and much oftner materially, taken almoil verbatim 
from Sheridan and other writers, particularly from Mafon's little 
ingenious pamphlet on elocution. 

Art. 2^. The Life and /idventures of Mademoifdle de la Sarre. 
Containing a great many Incidents prefumed to be new, as not 
occurring in the common Courfe of Life ; by Thomas Crowley, 
Efq; umo. is. 6d. fewed. Rotterdam, printed by Stephen 
Hebert. 1751- Lately imported and adverlifed by E. Jphnfon, 
in Ave Mary Lane. 

W hcther Thomas Crowley, Efq; was the original author of tl^ia 
work, which we apprehend was f>ft publiftied in the French lan- 
guage,^ or whether he is only the tranflator of it into Englifh^ 
we cannot determine. The preface informs us, that * whoever 
has a laudable ambition to acquire more than a competent knowledge 
of the fecret but fure means made ufe of by Providence in ac- 
complifhing its vaft defigns, will (by mature refledion) find in the 
fequel of this treatife wherewithal to gratify his curiofity.* The Au- 
thor intimates great objedions which he had againft this publicatiqn ; 
however, he fays, * being at laft importuned by a judicious and warm 
^iendy not to refuie communicating to the right-judging world, 
what the ra(h and cenforious one may condemn,— I gave into hit 
lyay of thinking, and thereupon refolved to publilh the following ac- 
count, 

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J56 Monthly CATAEocufi, 

toant, which fliall be fet off with all its circumftanee^, to thd beft of 
my knowledge and remembrance/. 

The ftory is not told in the moft elegant language, nor is the wmic 
the moft accurately printed ; but it contains an account of a very ex- 
traordinary lady, a native of Fr9<vencey whofe uncommon genius and 
improvements acquired great refpeft and efteem, and at length ad* 
▼anced her to aftation much beyond chat which her birth ttA fortune 
leemed to give her reafon to hope for. We arc not preiented with n 
great variety of incidents, or very interefiing particulars, nor is the 
relation fet off in the agreeable manner with which manyof onr »#- 
nftU are written, but it appears probable that this is a trrn accouat : 
«— although the philofophical, moral, and religious reafonings and 
obfervations which are here coUefled are far fupcrior to what can be 
generally expedted from young ladies in any rank of life. 

Her parents, we are told, were bleft with a decent fufiiciency of 
worldly riches, and by refufing to comply with the boundlefs de- ^ 
floands of luxury had it always in their power to beftow, in the mod 
bonntifnl manner, a liberal education on their children. At the clofe 
of her twelfth year, it is fai J, Mademoifelle de la Sarre was initiated 
into metaphyfics and natural philofophy: her ideas, it is added, 
were fo diftiUtSt, and the method (he obferved in linking them iR> ac-» 
corately nice, that the academy of Marfeilles, as fhe entered upon 
ker fifteenth year, ftiled her, (we do not admire our Author's phrafe) 
tht clean^ clear thinker. To prove her claim to this title, great part 
^ the book is taken up with feveral letters, on Providence, on the 
reafonablenefs of a future life, and on various other fubjeds ; written^ 
to the late Mlfi de Fontaine^ ^ who by his witty licentiournefs, and 
mwiuieldy bulk, gave the wo^d full room to believe, that he was 
deeply immerfed in mannali/m/ 

Thcfe little eflays, though they have fome peculiarities, are not 
enthuiiaftic, but 3xe written with modefty and learnino;, with good 
fenfe and piety ; they are particularly linking as coming from the 
pen to which they are afcribed, and may contribute to the entertain* 
ment and improvement of thofe who can reliih fuch kind of fobjeds. 
The other parts of the booK have nothing very remarkable, any fnr- 
tiier than as it will afford pleafure to every generous and benevolent 
mind to fee great worth and merit rewarded in the prefent life* 

Madame de ,1a Sarre was happily married to the Marquis de R<mge* 
montf and died in 1746, at the age of 35 ; fhe left behind her three 
ions and four daughters. 
Art, 27. jfn Addrefs to the twelve Judges ofEnghndy in beha^of 

infol'uent Debtors ; to which is added, An Invitation to infolvent 

Debtors, and a Hint to Gentlemen eminent in the Law. 8vo. i s, 

Wilkie. 1770. 

There is a great deal of humanity difplayed in this pamphlet, bat 
the arguments and the reafoning employed in it, are without fbrce, 
and proceed on chimerical principles. If the methods it fuggefts in 
order to remedy the evils complained of were to have place, all trade 
would be at an end; for all credit would ceafe, and, an inlet would' 
be opened to the ^offcft frauds and chicanery. 

^ , When 

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MiscELiAtifiotli; i^f 

When we fanrey die filth and the horrors of a prifon, we are moved 
with a tender fympathy for its unfortunate inhabitants ; but when we 
omfider the public utility, we acknowledge the juftice of their fate. 
As men, we pity them ; as the members of a community, we fhould 
not wiih to rciKOve the refbraints of their condition. In what the An^ 
thor obferves concerning the treatment which they meet with while 
under confinement, and the impofitions to which they are fubjeded,» * 
there may be ^ome truth ; and it is an objed worthy the attention of 
the judges of England. 

Art. z8. Tbi New Pnfint Stati of Great Britain. 8vo. 
6 s. bound. Almon. 1770. 
Then 16 nothing of any importance in this publication, but what 
has already been communicated to the public by better writers. After 
what Camden, Chauncy. Dugdale, Plot, and other authors of emi* 
nence have wriuen concerning the counties of England, and after 
what Sir Henry Spelman, Mr. Selden, Baron Gilbert, and Dr. Black* 
ftOAe, have observed concerning its confUtution and its laws, there 
was little neceffity that this writer (hould treat of thefe fubjeds. If 
he had been able to abridge with judgment the remarks of thefe great 
men, his compilation might have been of fome uie. But as it ftanda- 
at prefent, it can anfwer no valuable intention. 

it is with regret we obferve, that in the courfe of our periodical 
laboors* «)e moft &bmit to perofe ib many performances of thij 
clafs. Litarature, in the prdent age, feems to be reduced to a 
manofii&ttnei; and while the labourer, in this department, regards 
only the pecuniary recompence he is to acquire, books multiply, with* 
out fervin|^ the jparpofes of infoitnation or tafte. That pafiion for 
fame, which inipircu the authors of antiquity, and which made 
Montefquiea b^ow twenty years on t^ fpirit of lanus^ feems, in a 
great meafuie, to be loft. Hence it is that we have treatifes on the . 
Itate and confUtution of Great Britain, that have no merit to re- 
commend them, fyftems of hul^andry, by thofe who have feldom, 
if ever, feen a^lough, and diilertations on points of philofbphy, by 
men who never looked into Locke, or into Hume. 
Art. ^. An Ap^^gjfur the Condu^ of Lady Grofvenor. Addreffed 
to the Ladies* 8vo. i s. Thompfon. 
Meanly as the world may think of lady G. no one, we believe, 
v«cill fuppofe that ihe could poliibly have authorifcd this abfurd and. 
impudent apology for her condod. But there are wretched fcribblers 
who, to earn a Ihilling, would not fcraple to apologize for every hu- 
man crime that hath been committed, from the murder of Abel, 
down to the laft burglary recorded in the annals of Bow-fb-eet. 
Art. 30. Remarks on the Trial in the Court of King's- Bench^ 
wherein the Right Honourable Lord Grofvenor was Plaintiff, and 
his R. H. the D— < of C— d Defendant, for unneceflary Com- 
munication with the Plain tifiPs Lady. By Thomas Grayhurlt, of 
dM Middle Temple, £fq; 8vo. i s. Anderfon. 
Mr. Grayhurft» if this be the Author's real name, or Mr. Grub- 
firaet, it matters not which, (but the laft feems to be the-moft proper 
name) maintains, with the above apologid, that lady G. is a very in- 
aoceat lady ; that * the illiberal treatment hi:* R. H. has endured 
«poa thii occafion^ it anmerited, and that damages are brought in 

agabft 

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158 Monthly Catalogue^ 

againft him without damages received* — by lord GroArcnor, we 

* juppofe he means ; if he means any thing ferioujly^ which' may be 
juftly queftioned by every one who obferves the catch-penny print he 
has prefixed to thefe very fagacious remarks. 

Art. 31. The genuine 7>/W between the R. H. George Onflow, 
Efq; and the Rev. Mr. John Home, at Ouikiford, Aug 1, 1770, 

• before Lord Mansfield, for printing two libels againll, and fpeak- 
ing defamatory words of Geo. Onflow, Efq; one of the reprefen- 
tatives for the county of Surry. Together with the libels, and all 

. the letters that palled relative to this affair. Taken in fhort^hand. 
8vo. 1 s. Williams. 

This is the fccond trial had upon the above-mentioned occafion : 
lor the iirll, fee Review for May ialt, p. 409. The jury have now 
given the plaintiff 40c 1. damages. 

Art. -^2. The Farmer's Queries and Refolutions concerning the Game. 
Written in the fecond Year of the Affociation for preferving the 
Game: but never before publifhed. \ 4to. 6d. Ipfwich, printed 
and fold by I ongman, &c. in J^^ondon. 

The game laws, and the aflbciation in fupport of thera, are here 
attacked by the farmers, both ferioufly and with ridicule. The ridi- 
cule feems to be well pointed, and the ferious arguments appear to be 
juftly founded. 

Art. ;^3. yf Survey of the Britijh CuJioms\ containing the Rates 
of Merchandice as eilabliihed by 1 2 Car. II. c. 4. 11 Geo. I. c. 7. 
and other Statutes ; with Tables of the net Duties, Drawbacks, 
Bounties, &c. payable thereon, under all Circumflances of Im* 
portation and Exportation. Alfo a diftindt and pradical Ac- 
count of the feveral tranches of the Revenue called Cuftoms. 
With an Appendix, containing an Abftraft of all the Laws now in 
force relative to the Cufloms. The whole continued to the end of 
the feflion of 9 Geo. I'f. By Samuel Baldwin, of the Cuftom- 
houfe, London. 4to. 109. 6d. boards. Noarfe. 1770. 
The continual alterations to which the laws relating to trade are 
fubje<fl, prevent, as Mr. Baldwin hints, any furvey of the cuftomt 
from being long intitled to the repute of a complete fyftemof the du- 
ties and regulations of merchandice. In this view it is that he offers 
. tbe prefent work as an amendment of preceding writers on this com- 
plicated fubjefl, particularly Saxby, whofe booK appeared in 1757** 
Though he profefles that he at the fame time took the opportunity by 
enlarging his page to a quarto fize, to improve the difpofition of the 
various articles under the cufloms, fo as to render the whole more 
dear and perfpicuous to view. But as Mr. Baldwin {e^ms aware of the 
fipduacing nature of the cuftoms, he might perhaps have prolonged 
the time of being difcarded in his turn, as he expreffes it, had ho pofi- 
poned the publication of his laborious work, unti) he faw the termi- 
nation of our American difputes; as the cudoms lately eftablifhed 
there, may be expefted in a Ihort time to undergo material altera- 
tion : this however affedls but a fmall part of the fubjed. 

• See Review, Vol. xvii. p. ij^t 

Nothing 

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Miscellaneous* j^^ 

Nothing further need be faid of a performance confiding merely of 
cxtrafts and abftrafts of the ftatutes difpofed in tables, the corredneft 
of which muft be determined by experience. 

Art. 34. Thoughts upon Jeveral inter ejling SuhjeHs^ viz. On the 
Exportation of, and Bounty upon Corn, on the high Price of Pro- 
vifions, on Manufadures, Commerce, &c. Being a full Anfwer 
to a Pamphlet lately publifhed, intitled * The Expediency ofafnt 
Exportation of Com at this Time ^ Sec, In which it is proved the 
Fads advanced by the Author are falfified, and his Conclufions er- 
roneous and falfe. With a Poftfcript containing fome Remarks oa 
the Bounty on Checks, printed Linens, and Cottons, &c. and on 
Bounties in general. By Mr. Wimpey. 8vo. i s. Crowder, &c. 
Great writers, like great talkers, are very liable to inconfiftency, 
and to be deteded by any who think it worth their attention to watch 
their progrefs. Mr. Wimpey, though he thinks lefs favourably of the 
bounty on exported corn than we have hitherto done ; appears to be 
coBverfant in the fubjeds which employ his thoughts in the animad* 
yerfions on the trad mentioned in the above title. We have fo freely 
given our fentiments on this contefled point, the bounty, when it hat 
come before us, that we (hall decline entering on it again, though ib 
far as concerns that fuhjeil, we think Mr. W.'s opinion might admit 
.of fome flridures: but the controverfy is between Mr. Wimpey and 
Mr. Young, and to their decifion we leave it. 
Art. 35« A Second f Letter to the Monthly Reviewers on tbeSubji^ 
of/fgur's Prayer 9 ivith an Epiflle Dedicatory to the luhole Body of the 
Clergy of England^ efpecially thofe of the MitropoUs^ and an Admoni* 
tory Preface to the Readers (f every Denomination ofChrtJiians. 8vo. 
6 d. Cooke. 

Little can be learnt from this performance except that the Author 
IS angry. The caufe of this anger we muft indeed take to ourfelveff^ 
but with as little contrition as if we had deteded a man firft in put- 
ting off bad money, and then coming in diiguife to vouch for its 
goodnefs. 

' This Author wrote fome verfes called ** Ambition, an EjKdle to 
Paoli ;" we faid the verfes were bad : fee vol. xl. p. 339. He thcii 
wrote a panegyric upon his own veries, and abufed us for our oen- 
fure, at the fame time declaHng that he had no connedlon with the 
Author of them. We deteded him in this defpicable artifice, tracin|^ 
him in his panegyrick on his verfes, by the fame nonfenfe for which 
we had condemned them: fee vol. xli. p. 192. He took occafipn 
alfo to cenfure us for foaie obfervations on Agur's Prayer, which we 
accidentally introduced in our account of fome poems written by a 
bookfeller at Glouceiler ; we exhibited his own words, and fubmitted 
it to our Readers whether they did not contain a mixture of blaf* 
phemy and nonfenfe. Thefe to be fure are dreadful provocations, 
and he is now probably crying out with Jonah, ** I do well to be 
angry." We will not fay with the patriarch, '* Curfcd be his anger 
for it is cruel," but rather pitied be his anger for it is foolifh. He 
feems indeed to be confcious himfcif that it is impotent: for having 
fligmatifcd the Reviewers as Deifls, he excites the whole body of the 

• Review, Vol. xlii. p. 232. 

f For the /"/^ Letter, fee Review, Auguft, 1769. ' 

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i66 MoNTHtY CATALOCtjg, 

clergy td attempt theii* deftru£iion, not fo much for the Konodr ahd 
interefts of religion, for he Teems to think thofe motives not fuffidenti^ 
as to preferve their emoluments, which he fays, whether religion be 
a fable or reality, mud ftand or fall with it. Cruih then the Re- 
viewers, asDeiiis, gentlemen of the cloth, even though you yourfelves 
ihould be Deifb, that you may continue to have tythes of all, and 
that the Author and Encomiafl of the Epiille to Paoli may be re- 
venged. Such is the grayer of this good man, and a mod feniible 
and charitable prayer it is. We apprehend however^ with great fub^ 
miffion, that not to appropriate the prayer of Agur, is no more a 
joft ground for the charge of Deifm, than not to appropriate the 
prayers ofDavid when he imprecates blindnefs and baldnefs, hunger 
and nakednefs, famine and the fword, upon his enemies and their 
children. We have faid that a good man will deprecate poverty 
rather becaufe it would render his benevolence impotent, than his 
corrupt propeniities fafe ; and that " give me riches'* is, in tht 
mouth of a good man, a good prayer, becaufe it alks power to 
pradife a cardinal and chrillian virtue, the giving alms, to which 
we are exhorted by him \^ho has faid it is more bleiTed to give than 
to receive. In confequence of thefe fentiments he imputes to us aa 
addrefs to the Supreme Being in the highed degree impious and ab- 
furd, and then charges us with blafphemy. He reprefents us at 
praying in thefe terms : " I befeech thee do not give me poverty, 
/or then I Jhall he only laughed at ; nor yet a mere mediocrity, for 
fhat will he no hetter than my daily breads — a petition hardly fit foi* a 
dormoafe"— But eive me riches in abundance, and then^ though t 
Jboidd defirve to he hanged^ e'very body will full off' their hats; I Ihrfll 
ha'Ui all I *want in this ivcrld, and he treated like a gentleman in the 
mtxtJ* We fay poverty may well be deprecated as a want of power r# 
do good : he makes us deprecate poverty that we may not incur con^ 
Hmpt : we fay riches may well be afked as an ability to confer hap^ 
fine/s upon other r ; he makes us pray for riches as a means of fuch 
felfijh gratifications as nvill make us defewe to be hanged. We fay that 
fuch treatment can proceed only from folly or from malice^ and* we 
appeal to all mankind for the truth of our aiTertion. 

It has been obfervcd that, by quoting only part of a fentence, an 
infpired writer may be reprefented as the preacher of Atheifm. 
•• The fool hath faid in his heart there is no God." So fays David j 
but fuch a quoter as the Letter-writer, by taking only the laH part 
ftf the text, may make David fay, •• there is no God." We hav4 
Ikid, " iKxznot lefs ah/urd to fuppofe parfon and harlot to be fyno- 
fiimotts terms, than harlot and fidler : upon which, fays our worthy 
and ingenious Author, ** if, in the exquifite language of thefe mo^ 
- dels ol critical politenefs and elegancy, a parfon and a harlot ari 
, Jjpionimous^ fo likewife are the Reviewers and an Infidel.** It muft 
however be remarked^ that he has not been able to impute to us the 
alfertion that the words parfon and harlot are fynonimoiis, merely by 
omitting part of what we faid, and therefore he has falfified what he 
has taken. The words ** a parfon and a harlot ate fynonimous, * he 
has marked as a quotation ; but our words are, *^ fuppofe parfon and 
h^>lot to be fynonimous terms. Go thy way, we are not angry but 
grieved^ as well for thy folly as thy fault : vice itfelf ^Oaki dot cx« 

clud^ 

4 Digitized by Google 



Political. J6r 

dude pky, thou haft our compaffion therefore, not only as a dunce 
bat as a liar, and fo fare thee well* 

Art. 36. A Diffirtation on Rivers and Tides. Intended to dc- 
monlb-ate in p^eneral the Effcft of Bridges, Cuttings, removing of 
Shoals, and Embankments : and to inveftigate in particular the 
Confequences of fuch Works on the River Thames. B/ Robert 
Erfkine, Engineer. Svo. 6d. Wilkie. 

A performance well worth the confi deration of all thofc whofe at- 
tention is direded, cither by duty or public fpirit, to the means of 
rciloring and prcferving the navigation of the Thames. 

Political. 
Art. 37. Confiderations on the Expediency of admitting Reprefenta' 
ti*ves from the American Colonies into I he Britijh Houfe of Commons, 
Svo. 1 8. White. 

It is propofed in this publication, that about fourfcore commiA 
fioners from the colonies (hould be admitted into the Britifh hdufo of 
Commons ; to be chofen annually, to counterbalance the inconve* 
niency of their rempte distance from their conftitueiits, who by thii 
means will have a frequent check over them, that will prefcrve their 
attention to the in^erefts of the places for which they ferve : that 
their reprefcntative power, to prevent accidents, fhould continue after 
the expiration of the year,' until the new commiffion fhould renew 
thfiir power, or new commiffioners arriving fhould fuperfede them : 
ftnd that no law relating to the colonies fhould pafs until one year 
after the firft reading of the bill. Thcfe are the outlines of this pk'n 
of reprefentation, which is propofed in a difpaffionate fenfible man- 
ner; and could it be digefted into a feafible regular fyftem, fo as 
to obviate the objections arifing from the interpofition of a vail ocean, 
it might happily tend much toward that confummation which is fo 
devoutly to be ivified. 

Art. 38. An Analyjts of the Thoughts on the Caufe of the prefeftt 
'DifcontentSyOndoftheOhfer'oationsonthefame. 8vo. is. Ro- 
bin fon and Roberts. 

This Writer charges the Author of the Thotjg hts • with having no 
deiign to deftroy the influence^ which, in the room of prerogative, is 
producing the prefent difcontents, becaufe he hopes his friends will 
one day avail themfelves of it. This influence, our Author thinks, 
can only be deflroyed by the independency of parliament* which the 
author of the Thoughts gives up as chimerical, reJQ^ing ever/ 
fcheme which has hitherto been propofed for that purpofc, and 
fuggcfting no other. The fecurity of the people he transfers from 
rcprefentatives uncorruptly chofen, to a minifter of a particular 
party, rank, and conne£Uons, and intimates that in his party Only 
• fuch a mihiflcr is to be found. 

• The People, fajs this Writer, have an undoubted right to claim 
and fecure the moft confiderable portion of importance in the flate, 
without the intervention of men of popular weight and charafter : 
^eir help is Wally no better than incumbrance and intrufionf The 
managers for government, and the pofT^fTors of immediate and per- 
fonal favour, are equally to be miftrfarilfed. Thofe who have a con- 

• See Review fqr May, p. 379. 
*^Jltv.-Ang. 1770. M Digitized by Gocfidcratioft 



i6a MoKTHiY Cataiocue, 

iidcratjon independent of the court, are entitled to o^ coriJidenCtf. 
The time will come when that influence, which has been long pof- 
feffed as in a fort of mortmain and unalienable domain, (hall return 
again to the great ocean from whence it arofe, and circulate among 
the people. The true lovers of Liberty will always view in an invi- 
dious light the method of governing by men of felfiih and corrupt 
principles. Government is now carried on without any concurrence 
on th^ part of the people: the court will continue to ailume the 
unlimited and uncontrouled ufe.of itsown vad influence, under the 
fole dire£lion of its own private favour, according to the Author's 
interefted plan.' 

He proceeds to aik h6w the Author can prove "that George II. 
maintained the dignity of his crown, conne<fled with the liberty of 
his people, not only unimpaired, but impro<vcd^ for the fpace of thirty- 
three years ? We have not yet forgot, fays he, the fyftem of Sir Ro- 
t)ert Walpole, or the idminiilration of the Pelhams." He imme- 
diately adds, ** the Author of the Thoughts has good realbns to wiih 
that the influence of the crown may be always employed in fupport- 
ing the minillera, of flate, and in carrying on the public buflnefs 
according to their opinions. His fcheme is defeated if any party in- 
tercepts the favour, protection, and confidence of the crown in its 
pafTage to the minifters, and if it comes between them and their im- 
portance in parliament : But if that party is intended as the fupport^ 
jnot the controul, of the adminiftration which he has devifed, will 
the King be more honoured and aggrandized by the councils of a 
ininiflcr, than by the infmuation of a courtier ?" It is evident, con- 
tinues this Author, that the fole intention of the Writer of the 
Thoughts is to perfuadc the people that his party, and theif mea- 
fures, can alone afford us any profpedl of relief. 

The Author then aflcs, *' What degree of eflimation in their coun- 
try had the Writer of the Thoughts and his friends obtained before they 
were put forward into the great trulls of the (late ? What pledge and 
fecurity has the public, that they will, not abufe chofc trulls, if they 
icome in again? Some men ought, to be afhamed to vilify an im- 
portance, which has begun with oflice, and enabled them to acquire 
a fmall fhare in the commercial interefl of the kingdom, in the de- 
spicable chara^er of flock-jobbers. I fhould like to know what th? 
Author means by the mere Vulgar, whom he ^He^ls fo much to 
defpife?" 

This Author having declared his opinion that no change of men 
can reconcile the flrength of^ government with the rights of the 
people, fuppofes that this ftrength would be effedlually rcftrained by 
an annual parliament. The Author of the Thoughts has declared, 
that of all modes of influence a place under government is the leafl 
difgraceful : when thb paragraph was written, fays the Analyfer, the 
mafk of patriotifm dropped off. 

As to Mrs Macau lay > this Writer wiihea flie had not given to an 
injured; people the appellation of an enraged populace, and thlnka 
her too (paring of her Obfervations on the baneful tendency of the 
Thought. This 6,ti%^ he has endeavoured to fupply ; with wiiaC. 
6tcceioDttfi be left to the determination of the Reader, 

.MEnicA-u 

"" ' * Digitized by ^ 



m 6 d i c a l. l a w, 1 63 

Medical. 
Art. 39. The London Pra^ice of PbyftCy for the Ufe of Phjficiani 

at^d younger FraSit i oners. Wherein the Definition and Symptoms of 

Difeafes are laid down, and the prefent Method of Civc. With 

the Dofe* of Kfcdicine now given.' Aifo an Index ; and a Table 

for computing the Quantity of Porgativea, Opiates, and Mercurials 

in thfe Compoiitions of the London DiJ^n/atory. 8vo. 4 s. d, 

ftwed. Johnfton, &Cw 1769. 

A tolerably good compilation. 
Art. 40. The Ladies new Difpenfatonyj and Family Phyjician* 
. fzmo. 2s. 6d. fewed. Johnfon and Payne. 

Calculated to promote quackery among the ladies, and to )nake 
patients for the phyHdans. 

Law. 
Art. 41. The Nature and Extent of the Bujtnefs in the Office of 

Pleas in Lincoln's Inn, both ancient and modern : nvith the Rules and 
. Methods of Pra^ice^ Precedents. Reports of Cafes , and other' Matt er$ 

in Ufe there ; calculated and colleBed for the InJlruSlion of Solicitors^ 

And others the Suitors in the Lohju Branch of the Court of Exchequer. 

By Philip Buxton, Secondary, and firlt Attorney in the faid Office. 

In two Volumes. 8vo. Vol. I. 7 s. 6d. Worral, &c. 1770. 

This appears to be a very ufeful and ncccITary book for all who 
have any bufinefs to tranfadl in the court it relates to, which is as- 
much as the nature of this article reouires to be faid of it. But be- 
fore we quit the fufajedl, it is impouibie to avoid lamenting, with 
the Author, the want of attention to the records of this court ; efpe- 
cially if the fame negligence can be fuppofed to extend to the like 
articles in other departments. Mr. Burton fays — * What became of 
the records before Edward the Second's reign, except the two bundles 
of rolls of the twenty-fecond and twenty-fifth of Edward the Firft, 
I can no ways account for ; but I hope they will be found among 
fome of the old boxes or preffes, which have been for many years 
paft unfearchcd and unthought of, among the repoiitories in the 
court of Exchequer at Weftrainfter.' 

Again — • The inconveniency of the fituation of fhe old records of 
the cdice, I muft own, are a difcouragement to the moil iaduflrioas 
refearchers after truth, being in a common paffage leading to the 
court of Exchequer, where there is no de'lk, no feat, nor fufEcient 
light to affiil him in fuch enquiries ; and nvhere the locks cannot turd 
with the kty^ nor the duft be difcharged from the rolls, without calling 
in the affiAance of fome dillant fmith and houfewife.' He elfewhere 
complains, that the hafte the fearchers of thefe rolls make to hurry 
from fo difagreeabl^ a place, occafions thefe records to be left in 
(ach a diforderly manner, that dull, damps, and mice,, make fataJl 
depredations in them. 

If it could be fuppofed that there are no ^eHbns to whofe cuftody 
and care the records of public offices were underflood to be com* 
aiitted, it would be a great grievance that none fuch were appointed ; 
and if there are any iuch, it is a much greater grievance thfij the 
emoluments of their appointments (hould engrofs fo much of their 
tiane^ as to leave no leifure to attend to the duties of them. 

M % Botany^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



164 Mo^T-HtY CaTALOCUE, 

B O T A N Y.* 

Art: ^2. The Vegetable S;i/i€m. By Dr. Hill, Vol. XVI. Fo1?0. 
Royal Paper, i 1. 1 1 s. 6 d. Boards. Baldwin, &c. 1770. 
This great work, hegun under the higheft au/pices, in 1762, ha« 
been more than once mentioned in our Review : fee vols. 37, 38, 
*nd4». The increnious and indefatigable Author has continued ic 
pretty regularly, at the rat^ of a volume every fix months. Each 
volume is given as pcrfci^ in itfelf;^ and the whole, which, wc are 
informed, is now far advanced towards its concluiion, is intended 
to form an hiflory of • the plants of all the earth; with the figure! 
of every one of them from nature, and its hiftory and defcription.* 
There are a few fets coloured at feven guineas each volume ; and 
two other editions are now carrying on, one in 4to. another in 8vo« 
It is, indeed, a prodigious undertaking ; and the Author may, per- 
haps, be juliified in ftyling it a library of the fcience\ 
Reiigious and Controversial. 
Art. 43. The Proteftant Diflcnter's Anfwcr to the Rev. Dr, 
Prieftley's Free Aadre/s on the Subject of the hordes Supper^ upon 
icriptural and rational Principles. With fome occaiional Remarks 
on b^is Letter to the Rru, Mr. Fen, and on Bi(hop Hoadley's Plaim 
^jiccount^ 8vo. IS. 6 d. Backland, {cC. ' 

Dr. Prieflley's Free Addrefs is by much tw fret for this Writer ; 
who feems alio to be no lefs difTatisfied with the freedom of Hoadley's 
rational and liberal account of the Sacrament. The views of this 
facred inftitution which have been given by fuch writers as Mr. 
Henry, of the lad, or Mr, Vcn, of the prcfent age, feem for more 
a,^reeable to this Anfwcr er^ and are, in his opinion, much more con- 
formable to the Scriptures. But though wc deem our Proteftant Dif. 
fenter, in fome refpeds, rather too narrow in his fentiments, on the 
prefcnt fubjedt, yet we muft obferve in his favour, that in general 
he exprefTes himfelf with more candour and decency than is ufoal 
with polemical writers ; and (hews himfelf to be a man of fcnfe» as 
well as a.ierxous ChriiHan.. 

Art. 44. Additions to the Addrefs to Proteflant Diffcntcrs, oq 
the iubjeA of the Lord's Supper, with fome CorreAions of it 5 and 
a Letter to the Author of the Proteftant Diflenter'^ Anfwer to it% 
By Jofeph Prieftley, IL.D. F.R.S. ' 8vo. 1 5» Johnfoii. 
That every man feels more, for himfelf than others feel for 
him, 16 clearly exemplified in this pamphlet. We thought, and 
have (aid, in the preceding article, t\i^ t)[it ^mfant Dijffenter haa 
ihewn a degree of moderation and temper not very common with 
Controvertifts ; yet Dr. P. Complains of the unfaimefs and difrefped- 
fbl treitment he hath met from this antagonift $ fome inftances of 
which he points out ; but whkh^ tons, who are continaally obliged 
to perufe 10 much Billing/gate oratory, appear to be more peccadillos. 
The Do6lor however has rtianHefted his good fcnfe, as well as can- 
door, by availing himfelf of whatever he thinks may have been rea- 
{bnably ur^ed againft bis ptrformanc^, in order x% render it moro 
corred apd perfect 

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ReUGIOUS /Vu/.CoNTROVEftSIAL. 165 

Art. 45 • Dz(ftrephes Re^admomfied : or, fome Remarks on- the 

Second Edition of a Letter from the Author oi Pietas Oxonienfis to 

the Rev. Dr Adams of ^^^rrw/^^r^.— wherein Dr. Adams, the 

Church of England, and fome Evangelical Do^lrines are vindicated 

from the Mifreprefcntations of the Letter- writer. By a Parifhionci 

of St. Chad's, and Author of Diotrephes Admonijbed, 8vo, 1 s. 

White, &c. ' 

In our Review for May lad, we endeavoured to give our readeti 

ibme idea of this Writer s abilities, in refpeft of the controverfy ia 

which he has engaged bimfelf. We alfo, in the fame number of ouf 

work, mentioned the reply of his an tagonift, "entitled Tht Admonijhtr 

admomfind.^ an anfwer to which is given in the pref^t publication, 

by way oi fojlfiript to the Remarks on the /econd idition ef a letter,^ t. 

We are unwilling to enter into the particulars of a controverfy, 

which would be apt to, ivire dra^iv us much farther than our limit! 

can allow: to the difgull, perhaps, rather than theedibcation of tho 

majority of our Readers. We fhall therefore only fev^ on the prcfcnt 

occaiion, that thofe who are dcfirous of farther information on the 

fnbjedl, will find, in the perufal of this yery fcnfible pamphlet, ail 

the fatisfa&ion that can be expedied from a view of one fide of the 

qnedion in debate ; the Author having now entered farther into the 

doQriuAl points than he had done in his former admonition. 

Art. 46. The firji of a Serus of Letttrs to the Author of Pietas 

Oxonienjisy in Anfwer .to his Letter to the Rev. Dr. Adams. 8vo. 

jd. White. 

Adverti/ment prefixed : 
* Part of Ac following letter being printed offi when Diotrephes 
admonijhed C2Lmc out; the writer was willing; to wait the event of that 
publication. But finding ^tdoBrinal parts of the controverfy, either 
wholly overlooked, or but (lightly touched in the Admonijher admo^ 
monipedy he thinks there is Hill occafion for him to go on with hii 
dcfign, and hopes it may help to promote the end for which he firll 
undertook it.' 

The Writer appears to be a perfon of confiderable abilities ; and s 
judicious aflerter of the ufe of reafon in matters of religion, and in 
the interpretation of the Scriptures. The author of the preceding 
article fpeaks of his produi5lion in terms of high approbation. Hi« 
purpofe is to make each of the following point? the fubje£l of a fe- 
paratc letter, to be addrefTed loPietas Oxonitnfis * as occafion permits^ 
and as ourfelves, fays he,or our readers may be able to bear them, 'viz; 
L On the ufe of reafon in religious enquiries.. 11. On originaf 
fin, and free-will. III. On the demerit of fin, and God's method of 
pardoning and faving finners. IV. On the articles, fubfcriptions, 
&c. &c. — ^This firft letter of the intended feries is employed on the 
firft of thefe he»ds. The Writer ferioufly profefles, and eameftly re- 
commends to his antaeonifl, moderation, Chriftian meeknefs, and 
decent behaviour, in the profecution of this debate ; all which we 
greatly ajpprove, but arc forry to obferve that he has himfelf in fome 
degree violated his own good rule, particularly in a note, p. ii« 
W&rc he ttfi»» fcvoral pbrafes, not very fuitable to the dove-like fpiric 
of brotherly love, and mutttal forbearance^ with which he fo laadably 
ieu oot» 

Art* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



j66 Monthly Catalocuh, 

Art. 47. Pietas Snhpienji$ : Or, an Anfwer to the firft of the 

Scries of Letters addreued to the Author of Phtoi Ogconienfis^ 

Svo. 1 s. Dilly, ^c. 

The Writer of the promifcdy^mj is here treated with no fmall de- 
cree of coDCempc, by the per fon to whom his firft letter is addrcfled 5 
who fi^cms, indeed, to have thought him fcarcc worth an anfwer;— 
however. he has anfwered him, and that with his ufual acutencfs and 
^irit.-'Ailonifhing it is that fo able a difquifitor ihould, in any de. 
crce, be an enemy to reafon, — the ** Candle of the Lord.** — But 
he here denies the charge ; and afferts that he only fpoke againft the 
abufc of reaibn, withoot meaning to fuperfode the ufe of it. ' Let 
reifon, fays he, take the proper place oi fuhordination^t and then 
ihe is certainly a good and a ufeful guide ; and yet (he adds, and, 
we are afraid, fpoils all again,) * I cannot be too explicit in declaring, 
that after all the great things which have b^en fpoken by fome, of the 
/eafoo and wifdom of the heathen, manifexled in their difcoveries of 
the one fuprcme Being, the inaker and governor of all things ; yet 
itill tbty kneuj itot God^ but were abfolutely A9eo', Atheifts, 'without 
Gad in the *world\ inafmuch as Be that ackno^wledgeth not the Son^ hath 
not the Father j and bejidts Chrift there is no God; and therefore it ia 
l^eally of little confequeace whether a man be a worfhipper of the fua 
and moon, Jupiter and Diana, or of that great Creator in one perfon^ 
which pagan Philolophers, Mahometans, Deiib, Arians, and Soci^ 
nians pay their adoration to. For all who do not wqrihip the triune 
God of the Scriptures, Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, that God <wbo 
m/as in Chrift reconciling the tucrld unto himfdf^ muft neceflarily wor- 
ihip a creature of their own fancy ; and are to all iatentt and par- 
pofes atheids and idolaters.' 

There is no occafion for any comment on the above curious para- 
graph. Let it remain as a glaring monument of the feofe and noa«> 
lenie of I'o inconfiftent a creature as Man ! 

We arc iincerely glad to find that this * vain debat^ at which Infi-. 
dels chuckle, and Catholic Chriftians fhake their heads, is likely to 
^ome to a fpeedy end ; for this Writer, in his pollfcript, hath formally 
renounced it^ in the following explicit terms : ^ As I do not choofe 
to confume the remaining part of a (hort life in vain janglings and 
ynedifying difputes ; I am come to a refolution not to read, much 
Jefs to anfwer any of your future epiftles. — Therefore behold, Sir, 
you have the whole field of battle to yourfelf, make good ufe of it ; 
and after you have fought as many hours by Shrewsbury Clock 
as ever you pleafe ; Falftaff-\\kc, you may carry off the breathlcfs 
Pietas on your back, and make the world believe your fword hadi 
flain him.' 

• This reminds us of a paiTage in a private letter from a friend, 
on the fubjeft of myllcry, — * What, after ail, is their fubftitution of 
that fenfelefs word myfterj in the place of reafon better than modeftly 
defiring you to put out your natural eyes, in the room of which you 
are prefented with artificial ones of their own makings with which yoa 
are confefledly to fee nothiftg> wi with whicb^ too» themfelves allow 
ihey fee as little ? ' 

^ Art, 

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Religious oral CoKTKorrsLsiAZ, tif 

Art- 4S. Thi Church $f England vinScated fr9m th^ rigid Notions 
ofKZal^inifm ; or, fome Obfervations on a Lcjtcr from the Aachor 
cjf Pietas Oxonienjis to the Rev, Dr. Adams, of Shrewfburj. 
To which is added, A Letter to the Rev. Mr. Romaine, in An- 
. fwer to hi^ Letter to !' r. Adams. 8vp. 2 s. White, Sec, 
Another very formidable opponent of Pietas Oxcnienfis ; who is 
icre moft fevefcly chaftifed for his alleged illiberal treatment of br. 
A. in particular, and of the clergy of our eilabliihment in genera). 
Exduiive, however, of all that is merely perfonai to the feveral par- 
ties engaged in the prefcnt coatrovcrfy, this able Writer's principal 
▼icw, is not only to vindicate the church of England from the impu* 
tation ef Calvinifm, but to make it evidently appear, to the fatif* 
faftion of c\cry fair enquirer, that a latitude of interpreting the ai> 
tides and homilies was allowed from the beginning ; and that more« 
over, many of our mofl pious and learned divines have always fub« 
fciibed in a fenfe totally dilferent from the rigid ideas of Calvin's 
theology.— He had obferved, he fays, in peruiing the firft of thefc 
/£ruj of Uttrs and Diotrephes rcadmonijhed^ that neither of thefQ gen- 
tlemen (whofe performances, by the way, he much approves) have as 
yet ' fully treated of the matter of fubfcription to our articles and 
liturgy,' on which the champion for Calvinifm fcems to lay the greateit 
ftreis, and to fpcak with the moft ' prefuroing con&|dence,' he judged 
it expedient to offer fome obfervations which may be of ufe, both as 
a vindication of the clergy who differ from Pietas Oxonienfis in fcnti* 
meots, and as a defence of the much*injured charadVer of Dr. Adams. 
* For, from thence, fays he, you [P. O.l may evidently be con- 
vinced* that fubfcription in a fenfe yciy contrary to your fentimenis, 
is not only authorized by the tacit allowance both of church and 
ffate for more than a century paft, but that our greateft Divines have, 
for a much longer time, almoft conftantly maintained opinions con- 
trary to yours ; and alfo that your notions are, in many reipeds, 
contradi£h)ry to the dearefi tefiismry oi o^r articles, liturgy, and jr«*r 
moft &vottrite writers.' — The learned Vindicator, however, docs 
not reft the matter on this footings but refers it to iiigher fandions ; 
lor he calls upon his antagonift, if he would not be thought a wil- 
ling Have to a particular fed or party, to * come out on fair and pro- 
pet- ground,' and examine his ' principles in religion, not by the de- 
dfions of fallible men, but the undoubted word of God.'— * After all 
your furious declamations, fays he, the Scriptures alone mull be the 
ftandard of a right or an erroneous faith.' 

But, notwithftanding this fair and laudable challenge, our Author 
Coni«:ire8 that the talk in which he is engaged is an unpleafing one, 
for tliat he has but fmall encouragement to hope for the amendment 
md-refbrmation of a perfon of the temper and difpofition manifeRed - 
by his opponent. He feems indeed to have received the moft unfa* 
yourable impreflion of Fietas Oxonienfis \ obferving^ in another place, 
t)iat he has feldom, if ever, met with fo malignant a 'writer. Perhaps, 
however, much of his difiike of him may be owing to his utter aver- - 
fion to the* religious principles for which that gentleman is fo ftrenuous 
an advocate ; for he fcarce knows how to fpeak of the narrow, dam- 
natory tenets of Calvin with any degree of temper ; yet the fevercA 
thinj^ hf ^ha^Mie faid againft the religious fyftem of that rieid re- 

^formof*^ 

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iffft .C0RltESl»0NDfiNCt. ' 

former, 'is in tlie words of the learned and worthy 'Dr. Jfortin J 
who, in his DiffhtationSy ftyles it " a fyftem, conEiting of htimaa 
creatures without Jiberty, d'.^rines without fenfe, faith without rca^ 
fon, and a God without mercy *' 

In his (hort letter to Mr. Romaine, printed on thfc lafl leaf of this 
pamphlet, he calls upon that gentleman to publifh the fermon which 
he preached at St. Chad s, and which may be confidered as the fonri- 
dation of this controverfy. U that fermon, he obferves, fhall appear 
in its principles to be agreeable to the word of God, and to the doc- 
trines of that apollolical church, of which Mr. R. is a minifter, it 
will, of iifcif, prove to be a much beoter and more folid vindication 
of the preacher, xhan all the calumnies of his friends againft Dr. 
Adams ; which he doubts not, Mr. R. as a Chriftian, muft highly 
condemn. — This is charitable in our Author; but it ieems to argue 
his Vane of acquaintance with the Methodifls, Hutchinfonians, and 
others in connedion with them ; for if we are not much miilaken, ift 
is a diftingaiihing feature in the charadler of their preachers, abun- 
dantly to declaim and rail againd the clergy of the eflablifhmenc,. 
cfpecially the mofl catbolic and rational of them . 

'CORRESPONDENCE. 

W£ think ourfelves greatly obliged to A. B. for his candid and 
friendly hint, concerning the fpritely but trite infidelity of 
Voltaire, in his Gofpel of the Day, of which we have given' an ex- 
traft in our laft Appendix; but we cannot believe that the fuppreC- 
fion or Concealment of any cavil or fophiftry, is neceffary to the 
qilabliihment of a divine revelation. If we considered the Bible, or 
the religion founded upon it, as the invention of man, which for 
political purpofes it was neceffary to countenance and fuppori, not- 
withftanding real abfurdities and inconiiflencies, we fhould certainly, 
to the \itmoft of our power, conceal or fupprefs any work in which 
thofe abfurdities and inconfiftcncies were expofed. If the Bible be a 
divine revelation, all objedions againil it muAr be grocnuiteis, and' 
all arguments fophiftical. To fuppoie that gronndlefs obje^ons, 
and fophiftical argument, can injure revelation, is to foppofe that 
there can be (Ironger evidence in favour of falfehood than of truth, 
when they are both offered to the mind ; and that God, having 
wrought a miracle to'fave fouls, will fufier his purpofe to be fraftrated 
by ifallacious fubtilty and witty conceits. We think we cannot do 
more honour to Chridianity than by fuppofing that argumentative 
oppoixtion, in whatever ferm, can do no more mifchief to the reve« 
lation on which it is founded, than to the rules or inftiti»tes of geo* 
metry and arithmetic. 

ERRATA. 

The Reader is dcfired to cOired the following material irrnUt in tbe 
Accounts of Mr. Hamilton's Etirufcan Antiquities^ and the Rtcbercket 
Pkilojhphiqmes^ &c. in our laft Appendix, viz. 

P. 5 1 1 , 1. 6 from the bottom, for bold tranflation, read iM. 

P. 519, oar. 4, 1. ^, for faireft vafes, r.fineft. 
' P. 526, I. 34, for Labrader as in JJ^, r. Attica. 

P. 53F, L 5 of the «*/«, for titaify conftitutcd, r. perfiBfyk 

1; 7. ibid. {oTfcr/ialj infulated, p. /f^^/. Google 



THE 

MONT'HLY REVIEW, 

For SEPTEMBER, 1770. 



^RT. I. A Commentary on thi Books of tht Old and New Tejlameni. ' 
^ In tvbUh art inferted^he Notes and ColUSIions of^ohn Locke^ Efqi 
Daniel fFaterland^ D. D. the Right Honourable Edward ^arl^ 
of Clarendon^ and other learned Perfons. IVith praSlical Im^ 
pfovements. By Willmm Dodd,'LL. D. Prebendary of Bre- 
con, and Chaplain in Oxdlnary to bis Majefty, Folio. 3 
Vols. 61. 6s. bound. Davis, &c. 1770. 

TT is not furprifiog that books, presented to us tinder the 
I cbaradct affigned to the Old and Now TeOament, ihould 
have employed the pens and talents of great numbers, in tbofe^ 
countries that have been acquainted with them. The venerable 
ibunp of high antiquity, which thefe writings undoubtedly bear, 
ifiuft naturally recommend them to perfbns of. learning, and. 
all who value the remains of ancient times, fhould we fuppofe 
them Aot to be regarded on other accounts ; and, £arther, the 
languages in which they are written, the hiflorical relations 
they give, the various fubjeds 011 whieh.they treat, the different 
kinds of compofition,— -thefe, and other particulars of a like na- 
ture, mufl render the ftudy of thein an agreeable employment 
to the curious and inquifitive mind, exclufive of yet weightier 
reafons : but when they are confidered as ofFered to us under 
the fandion of divine authority, they then become truly intereft* 
ing and important to mankind; nor can we wonder that fa 
much attention and induftry have been frequently befiowe4 
upon them. It is indeed true^ that had a conliderable part of 
tbofe publications, to which the facred books have given rift, 
never appeared, the world would have fuftained no great lofs, 
•kbeir as to edkkation or entertainment; nay, in feveral in- 
ftai>ce8, fuch an omiffion bad been a real benefit to fociety : 
aHfd in regard even to the commentaries and illuftratioos which 
have been produced by men of ikill and capacity, it mMft be 
f vKfied, that they have in fome instances . claihed with each 



1 70 Dodd*i Commentary on the Old andUeU) Tijlamittti 

other, and tended more tb darken and perplex, than toeluci* 
da[te or enforce the text and the fubjeSa of ^kripture. 

The labours of learned and worthy men have, neverthelefs, 
been by no means thrown away ;. they.nave been, fiill are, an4 are 
likely yet farther to be, produ<Stive of great advantages. Many 
who have applied to thefe iludies have gained to themfelves 
laMng honour, while they«have contributccUeflentMl femcepto. 
t]|e caufe of literature, {>iety, and truth. • At the fame time 
fome have regarded it as a lucrative employment, and from this 
principle, without an adequate (hare of learning, or any difpoC* 
tion for the applicatioh requiiite to fuch an undertakings have 
availed themfelves of the works of others ; and having, with 
little difficulty, thrown together their collections, in fomewhat 
perhaps of a different form, which might give them an air of 
novelty, and is very eafily accompliftitrd, they have fent them 
fqrth \>y piece- meal into the world, as well knowing this was 
the moft promifmg method of advancing the great end propofed* 

It has been very difgufting to the friends of truth and fcience 
to fee fubje^s of this kind debafed to thefe venal purpofes, and 
confidently puffed ofF as of high confequence and general utility ; 
for though, no doubt, fome ufeful obfervations have, by thefe 
means, been huddled together, yet the world has often been 
impofed on by fuch pradices j praflices which tend to injure 
inftead of ftrving the caufe of real knowledge; and which 
might, if too far encouraged, opeii a way for the Jntrodu(%on 
of ignorance and fuperftiiion. 

/Wc will not fuppofe that Dr. Dodd is to be ranked with 
fuch mercenary writers, but (hall conclude, according to his 
own profeiEon, that * nobler motives have animated his foul,' 
and that he has ^ the infelt fatisfadion arifine from a cpnfciouf- 
nefs of meaning .well ;' though the manner m which his Com* 
mentary has been delivered out to the world, the refervation 
of the preface till the whole was finifhed, by which means 
fome obfervations that are feleded from the works of others 
may have been confidercd as the fruit of the Author's own 
ftudy, and other particulars, might have given it rather a doubt* 
ful air. It feems a part of juAice due to him to add, that 
While he difchinis a principal regard to felfifli and fecular mo- 
tives, he at the fame time expreiTes his hope, that ' no ieniible 
and receding perfon will think that a clergyman employs his 
feifure hours improperly, who endeavours to fupply the defi* 
ciency of preferment or fortune, by publications calculated xm 
inftrud or improve mankind.' 

What merit accrues to Dr. Dodd^ from the prefent perform- 
ance, is that of a Compiler ; for it does not appear that he draws 
his obfervations from the pure and original fountains of know* 
Itdge I indeed he ^ fcarccly confidcrs himfelf in any other light 

that 

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Dtidd'i Commidary on tht OUw^'Mew t^oMtti I t ; | 

tbafi that of a l)oreCo])e£tor ;' ahd, fvtkw^ < while I foe around 
oiev iay» he, the man]elearned and iiklru^ve volttm^sof my able 
coddjutn-s in tbis^undeftaking, I feci aa iti ward fatisfat^iion iri 
having collectbd fbc mj countryn^ffi fuch an ample fund of 
iaftrudive and important mattti:^ fitchiacompT^hicpfiy^yariet^ 
of fcripture intelligence^ as no One worl^i i prprmnj^.i:aa.^up- 
I^y; and which therefbr^^/aa^bcingi the^,prc¥lAice.(oiirj([bc joint 
labours qf the beft btblidal writers and.exporLtor3):QdQ&ot fail to 
hove a iingiikT.morit» \n the eftitnate q^ candid and jjudicious 
pexfoos*^ Should it .therefore be: alkeflj wh^liCQuki .influence 
him, among the. gfteatJiraiiety of Comtp^nts^ri^ 9)i^.rthe:Bab}e, to 
exhibit another ? we afctoid in:tbfi.prefii?ie:» tb^tSbatiing.becn 
employed, at a'veny ear}y period of Jif^.in a piiofeflipn which 
demands a peculiar attention iO dve (acped, wrjitings, be had 
given himfelf up td* diis iludy, and (termed a. plan for a large 
and extcnfive work on the Bibl^i to which he borp fiontinual 
regard, but fearful of eoterifng tod haflily on tbe publication of* 
a-dcfign of fo much in^portance, be ftill delayed from year to 
year the offer of pr6pofals, direSirtg his ftudies. to the work< 
always intent to jteprove and make it perfe6l.' We arc how-r 
ever informed,: that the multiplicity of undertakings ;ofdiis na- 
ture, whatever was their merit, would certainly haye-prciyented 
his adding to the number, but for the following;^ accid^0c ; 
• The manuicripts of Mr. Locke, fays he, which had lo«g 
been confined -to Lord Mafham's library at Oates^ ^ycre put * 
iftto my hands*; among thefe were two of Mr, Locke's Bibics , 
interleaved, containing. fever al obfervations of his own, amidft* 
a variety of colleSions from different Commentators, The 
poffeffion of thefe papers induqed me, to propofe to pre&nc 
this work to the pUDlic* 

Soon after his de(ign came to be generally known^ Dr. 
AfkeVir communicated to him an interleaved Bible of Dr. Daniel 
Waterland's, in which he bad correflcd our verfion throughout^ 
appearing to have read it accurately with a view to a new tran^ . 
flation. From what quarter * a curious MS. of Lord Claren-' 
don's, containing remarks on the facred books, written in his 
own hand,' w»$ obtained^ is not fpecified. The Reverend Mr. 
Tenant of Iden in Suflex furnilhed our Colledor with tbe. 
Bible of Dr." Beaumont, formerly Mafter uf Peter-Houfe ia 
Cambridge, and King's Profeffor of Divinity in that univerfuy. 
But, though Mr, Locke's name is ufed in the title-page (fome- 
what oddly, by the way, in connexion with Dr. Water- 
land's) to recommend this work^ and the Reader may be led 
to cxpefi fome original obfiM^vations of other learned mep which 
have never before been offered to the public, Dr. Dodd 
acknowledges himfelf obliged to fay, in regard to Mr. 
JLocke's and Dr. tij^aumoni's fiibIeS| that his e;spe(iations were 

N % 4xi- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



172 Etodii^i VmmriMtfk ibt Old anihhw T^dwent. 

ii(Mpp6kiHii £nce, upon* eonfuhing the principal commenta* f 
t6r8) H^ fourth' the remsHes of thefe learmxl men hoc only exf^ 
pftiltd with e()ual forcey but greatly* improved and' enlarged^ 
One other MS*, h here mentioned) contaiinngconei^aiis of the 
vdrfton of the New Teftanient throughoot, S( which, be fays, 
*-he had avj^ed himfel/ ifittch ;' hut by whom it was written * 
he doied 'ik>t actjuatnt us* He acknowledges alfo the civility of 
fdme friends who have eemnuinicated obiervations on partiat-* 
lar pMftges «nd te3f tt, and proceeds to fpeak of the coounenta* 
ries, the beA 'writings in idhrinity, fermons,' books of travels, 
&c. in our own and other languages, which have been con-*. 
Midi and from which contributions have been gathered, either' 
by hiiMMf 0/ others, for the advancement of his work. He* 
declares! that 'he has * Tonight fet* tnit^ wkh the utmoft inge« 
nuiry ;- and here, though he has before fpoken of himfelf, ac-, 
cording to the true charader in which he chiefly appears, as a 
Colte<^or^ he adds, * It has always been a mauer of confcience. 
v^ith me, to cenfider mvfelf as a Commentator or Expofitor—? 
of a book, containing the immediate revelation of God's will 
to man ! and with this4mpreffion on my mind, it was certainly- 
impoifible, knowingly or wilfuDy^ at any time to mifreprefent' 
one fingleTyllable of this facred word.' 

The ^refiajce is concluded in the important language of a 
juftly celebrated writer, ** I difmifs ihis work with frigid tran- 
quillity, as having myfclf Iktl© to hope or fear from human 
cenfure, or human praife (many of thofe whom:! moft wiflied 
to pleafe^ having funk into the grave finceit was begun, and 
fuccfcfs and mifcarriage being, in this view, empty founds • j") • 
* yet, he, adds, I difinift it with no frigid /r^af/ff/f with a view 
to its happy influence on my Readers ;' perfcAlv aflured, that^ 
if they Will perufe it with the'damJouf and attention with which 
it was compiled, they will reap the nr>oft folid advantages from it/ 

This is a brief view of the account which our Author gives 
of his {Performance. It will not be expe£led that we fhould par-- 
ticularfy and minutely have examined thefe three large folia 
volumes : all that we can do, is to lay before our Readers fome^ 
general obfervations whiih have occurred to us in turning them 
over, and to give a few extrads by which they may be we, ia 
fome meafure, to judge for themfclves. 

The greater part of what may be regarded as new, viz. th» 
remarks of learned men whieh have not been before publifhed,^ 
^ Teems to be taken from Dr. Waterland's manufcript j but wc 
may look over feveral pages and not find the names of Locke^ 
or Clarendon, or Waterland ; and when the latter is mentioned,' 
if often is in a quotation from his Scripture Vindicaiid, Th9 

• Sec Dr. Jahnfim's Preface to his DifUoaary* 

notcSi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ly^i^iGommntary on the OTddni tfew Tefiammt. I7 J 

iiofes here glVcri from' his irrterleav^d BfWe are generdly (hort^ 
biit appear to be ijfefal and worthy of atrerition, though th^ 
fonndatfon of his criticifm, and the particular reafon for the 
alterations propofed, are very feldom affigned and cxamirtedi 
Pr. Dodd fayj, * he flatters himfelf that many paflagcs of 
Scripture will appear to be much improved by thefe corriiSfon? ; 
for though, he adds, fome of them may be thought rather ftiff 
and harm, the greater part, it muft be allowed, drc iiccorate 
Imd juft, and will be found extremely ufefirl, in caTe our fu* 
periors in the church (bould at any time thinlc of corredin|^ 
efr mtproving the cftablifhed verfiom* 

The method he obferves in his Commentary i^, to ^ive firfll 
the text of Scripture, according to tKc tranflation tlrat w in ge- 
neral ufe among us, under which are placed pir'altel ^exts anj 
the marginal readings; and the remainder of the page is em- 
ployed iff explications, illuftrations, and obfervations of various 
kinds, feleded from many different writers ; for though fcveral 
of thefe notes have the air of reflexions which this Author has 
made in the courfe of his own (ludy, we apprehend, if atten- 
tively examined, it will commonly be found that they are almofl 
literally tranfcribejl from one or other of thofc works with 
which the books of the Old and New Teftament have fiirniihedi 
the #orld. This is'the cafe alfo witfi the praftical impi'ovements, 
which would^ to niany readeb, be peculiarly acceptable, but 
ace, in fome parts of thefe volumes, dealt out with a ^very 
fparing hand, and thofe which are offered, are chieflv compila- 
-tion^ The fame is to be faid of the two Diflertations which 
accompany this expofition ; that upon the Gofpels in particular, 
is in great meafure an extrad from the work$ of Dr. Doddridge ; 
efpccially when he comes to fpeak of the infpjration of Scrip- 
ture, the long paflage which follows is almoft verbatim in the 
language of that writer. It is true Dr. Dodd does at lirft men- 
tion the name of Doddridge : but had we not feen the works of 
that eminent writer, we mould have concluded, as others per- 
haps may do, that they were merely quoted fbr the dtfiiliiioi^ 
of the term i^iratUn \ for it is thus exprefled, < By infpiration we 
mean with l5r. Doddridge,' &c. and what follows might natu- 
rally be taken for our Author's own illuflration and refledion^ 
en the fubiedt Doddridge, together with others, is alfo referred 
to at the dofe; but it is fomethinR queflionable whether this is 
Intircly fufficjent to vindicate our Cojleftor from the imputation 
of having intended at leaft a fmall degree of deception. Yet 
(hould he fall juflly under any cdnfur^ of ttiis kind, we moil at 
fhe fame time acknowledge, that there are a great many excd- 
lent arid valuable remarks and reflefliotifi gathered together, 
which all perfbm who have it in thrfr poWer may coiifu^ with 
©y9b improyeaiefH. for the far greater pait^ they zx^i\oX fuch 

N*y* * Digitized by Gobgle ^% 



174- po4d'j Commintary mthe Old and Nnu T^fiaffunf. 

|is are the cflV<3t of whim, fancy, or enthufi^fm, but folid and 
ufeful ; as. ipighf be Qxpe<^ed when it is confidered that the 
mod eminent Authors in this particular department, ^re here 
)aid under coptribution* 

At the end of the dillert^tion on the Pentateuch, are fome re-* 
marks ox^ the Scriptures by the htc G fiber t WeJU LL. D. to 
whofe papers Dr. Dodd had accefs ; but as they were but few, 
and only a fmall part of a larger work, in which little prc^refs 
was made, he has properly chofen to give them altogether ia 
the place we have mentioned. 

We may begin our extradls with the notes on Genefis, chap* 
i. ver. J. . 

* In iht beginning]. This word occurs in feveral parts of Scrip* 
ture, and is generally ufed for the beginning of any thing, 
whether x)f //W, as here, and in Proverbs viii. 22, or oizyear^ 
Pent. xL 12, or a reign^ as Jer. xxvi. i; See Siockii clavis, 
and Calafio. Several writers, particularly amongft the ancients^ 
|iave conceived that Chrift was meant by this word. Mr« 
J^ockeV note upon it is as follows ; In the beginning^ vel per prin" 
cipium^ i. e. bv the Mefliah, fee Apoc. iii. 14. Col. i. 15, 16. 
John xiii. i. t Cor. viii. 6., Ephef. iii. 9. Heb. i. 2. Tb^ 
Chaldee paraphrafe, called Jerufalem, tranilates it in Wifdom. 
Many ChriAian writers apply this toChrid, the u;//2^0;n of God, 
by whom he made the world, i Cor. i. 24. That God, by 
Chrift, 9rpated the world^ fome of thefe texts which Mr. Locke 
quotes, unqueftionably prove ; the reft, in my judgment, refer 
pnly to the humanity of Chrift, the fir fi born of every creature ; 
but none of them prove, or can prove, that n^2^N1 rajbitb^ 
which fignifies (imply tha- beginnings is ever applied to our Re- 
deemer : and therefore I conceive, that in this place it exprefles 
f he beginning oftim^^ 'Eg Off y^f, firm the beginnings is ufed in 
the fame feple by Hefiod, in (lis Theogony, ver. 45. And of 
fbis opinion are Bp. P^rick, Calmet, Le Clerc, and others. 

< (^od^ Tlje word uDNI^K 4^iiniy or ^lohimj which wc render 
God, bath in our tim^s been the fubjedt of much difpute. 
pome ytxy ftrei)oufly aiferting that it is not oply a plural noun» 
implying a plurality of perfop^ in the divine nature ; but alfo, 
that, being derived frpm a word fignifying to/weary it exprelTe^ 
*' the facred coyepanters of the redemption n^utually bound by 
a conditional oath, or execration, to the performance of thei^ 
feveral parts in the ceconpmy of grace.'* Opinions, which others 
have as ftrcnuoufly controverted, averring, that the word im- 
plies, not a plurality of perfons in the Godhead, much lef^i 
three perfons bound by a. conditional execration. It is not for 
me to decide in fuch a controverfy : thofe who are inclined to 
fee the arguments on both fides, will find them in the workd 
of Mr. Hutchinfon and of his defenders, ^nd in tbeDiflertatipn^ 
^ I?r. Sharp. 1 fubjoii; Mr. Lp^ke's note. * •♦ ElohiTh fiunifies 

almighties^ 



t)odd*s psmmMafy on the Old and New TeJiamenU 175 

eilmghtiesy or almighty powers. The word is of plural termi- 
nation, but the Hebrew language often exprefles the fuperlative 
degree by a word of plural termination. It is owned that £&- 
him is of fo general a fignification, as to denote fometimes the 
propheUy the angelsy fometimes the magiflracy^ fometimes the 
gods of the nations. To infer more divine perfons from the 
word Eioiim^ fays Calvin, is a drained glofs, which doth not 
prove the Trinity, but rather introduces Sabclllanifm. Joan." 
Drufliis largely oppofes the opinion, that E/ohim is deiigned to 
intimate the Trinity of divine perfons. Elohim is of a Angular 
Cgnification : i Sam. xxviii. 13, 14. I faw Elohim. What form, 
is HE of ? jfn old man cometh up." Such is Mr. Locke's note ; 
who to the paflage from Sanjucl, might have added Pfalm xlv. 
^, compared with Heb. i. 8, for a proof that Elchim is iifed in' 
2i JinguLr fignification, TTjy throne^ oh Elohim j is for ever and 
ever : words which St. Paul afTures us are applied to the Son, 
Unto the Son he fdith^ thy throne^ oh God, is for ever and ever. 
For my own part, I think myfelf bound to declare, that the 
doflrinc of the Trinity, in my opinion, by no means wants the 
fupport of the word Elohim : if it did, it would furely ftand on a 
y^ty weak and tottering foundation. We (hould be^careful what 
proofs we advance, and lay much (IreCs upon in capital points 
of doftrine, Xmce weak arguments always prejudice the caufe 
they are brought to fupport/ ' , 

Thus the'Dodor eipbraces an opportunity, which be had 
an undoubted right to do, of declaring his orthodoxy in the 
point alluded to, though it happens that he feems, as to the ' 
immediate meaning of the word in queftion, to agree with Mr. 
Locke. But he foon afterwards informs us that he is no Hut- 
chinfonian 5 when having taken notice of Mr. Parkhurft's * 
Lexicon, he writes as follows : * I (hould be extremely happy 
to produce, more frequently, the authority of my learned friend, ' 
from his ingenious Lexicon ; but truth is fuperior even to 
friendfliip : and not being able, after the moft impartial exami- - 
nation, to agree wiih him in fentiment refpe£ling the Huichiri- 
fonian fyflem upon which his work is built, I can only recom- * 
mend it as a performance of as great induftry as ingenuity, and . 
in which I am perfuaded the Author has delivered what arc the 
the fincere and genuine dictates of his honeft mind.' 

We were rather furprized to find, among the general reflec- 
tions oh the charaSer '6f Jofephy with which the book of Genefis 
is concluded, after foveraj-fenfiljle aad proper remarks, an ac- 
count of the refemblance' between Jofeph and Jefus Chrijl drawn 
oiit into thirteen particulars : a fer'jous mind may perhaps amufe 
and improve itfelf by fuch kind of imaginations, but after all 
they are fanciful, and as they are unwarranted, tend to lead 
ppifons altr^ from the truth : fuch comparifobs do not agree ' 
* * N 4 ■ r^ T with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC: 



\j6 Dodd'j Comnuntary on the Old Und New ^MJiamint. 

v/ith the name of Mr. Locke and others who principally form 
fhis Work, although the prefent inftance appears to' have the 
(andion of the elegant and learned Mr. Rollin, who^ in thef 
third volume of his Belles Lettres, p. 125, as here quote^^ 
^hpught fit to offer fuch fuppofed fimilitude to the world. 

As Lord Clarendon's MSS. and Dr, Watterland's Bible, we 
are told, were not communicated till the greater part of the 
ftotes on Genefis were printed off, their remarks on this book 
aire given in an appendix, from whence we will here tranfcribc 
fome of their obfervations. 

* Chap. i. ver. 2. Wai without form and void,} _ TVas wajte, and^ 
wild. Waterland. 

' Ver. 6. In the midji of the waters.] Between the waters. Wa- 
terland. 

* Ver. 7. jfnd divided the waters^ f^c] Methinks the f^ncy 
of thofe men, and particularly of Mr. Hobbes, who very im- 
iSertinently endeavour to find put the place and fituatioti 'of 
ifeaven and hell, and determine that both the one and the 
other are upon the fame level with the earth, is contradi£te4 
by the very words and expreffion of the creation in this place 5 - 
for if God divided the waters that were above the firmament^ 
from the waters which were under the firmament, and callecf 
the firmament heaven, and the waters above the firmanient earth, 
being become dry )and, it is not poflfible th^t the heaven and 
Jhe earth can be upon that levcl.^ Lord Clarendon. 

* Ver. 16. To rule the night ': be made thenars alfo.] To rule the 
W£bt and thejlars. Waterland. 

* Ver. 29, 30. For meat,] For food. Waterland. 

' Chap. ii. ver, 2. And on the feventh day God ended} And by 
thefeventh day God had ended. Waterland. 

* Ver. 4. Tbefe are the generations.] This is tbf original. Wa- 
terland. . " 

' ' Ver. 8. And the Lord God planted.] Now the LordGod^kad. 
planted, Waterland. 

* Ver. 12. There is bdellium.] There is pearl. Boch, ton^. i, 
p. 17. Waterland. 

* Vir. 13. Land of Ethiopia.] LandofCuJh (Arabia Deferf a.) 
Waterland* 

* Ver, 14. Goeth toward the eaft ^ Affyria,] Goeth before AJ^its. 
Waterlandf 

* Chap. lit. ver. 6. And when the woman faw.] And the WO9 
manfaw. Waterland. 

* She took of tt'f. J And Jhe took of^ ife. I do not know but 
that we may ftfcly believe, without troubling ourfelv^ with 
enquiring into the quality and oqalification of tl}e tempter, tliat 
the temptation proceeded from the pride and corruption of her 
#Wa heart, and that tbei^efore flie did eat, becaufe (he was ex« 

' ' " J''^% 

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Podd'i Cffiman^rj m the Old an^J^fVf.X^iimeni* f. 7^ 

pre&lj fprbid to «at ; . aadth^t (he eafily preyaijied with her buC- 
%axA (who co^ld npt h^ve forgotten God's command) to com- 
ply wit^ her importunity and humour ; which many huib^dfs 
have dpf\e lli^e, ag^inft the light of their pw^ copfci^nre, ajD^ 
which makes up the full kind ^d meafuri; qf difolxD^lieQcey m 
formed, jdeliberated ijifohedience, which m.adc it juft in God 
to puniih with that feverity which ^e in^i^led upon }t, 2^ 
which he lyoul^ not h^ve done, if tbey h,ad had any excufe for 
It. Lord Clarendon. 

* Chap, xxvii. vtr. 9. Maki, tfiem.} Af^J^e. of them^ Water*- 
^d. 

^ ViT. 2\. jfnd he fa'id.] Bui hi fai(L Waderland. 
*Vir* 39' Thefatnefs.yOftkefatnefi. Waterland.' 

* Vir. 40. And i^ Jball conn to pafs^ when thoujhak have the d$f 
mimony 4bfit thoujhah.] But there fiall bf a time% when thou fiuttf 
hrvepovifer an^lJhalt. Waterland. 

* Fer^ 41. AndEfau hqtU Jacobs ^c.'\ What was Ihe birth- 
right whi(;h.£fau fold to Jacobs and whajt he 'got by it, hatl^ 
t>een long a quefiion ; or wba^ prejudice Efau received by being 
cozened of his bleflin^ by hisi brother, which put him into, ip 
much choler, that he is rcfolved to kill him, is'notdetermipe4f 
That neither the one 91: the other gave thj? younger brother f 
precedence? and title to the father's estate (which, poffibly, Efau 
apprehei^ded it <o be, wh^n he defcrj;ed killing his brother ti^ 
after his father's death, as then, he (bould knov^ what his father 
]iad left him) appears by Ifaac's giving all hq ha^d to £(au, an4 
by Jacob's behaviour towards bis elder brothipr : and God'f 
bleifings upon Efau for the prcfent, and for a long time af^er^ 
were niuch more eipipent ^n4 notorious than upon Jacob; fof 
be made him a great rrmce,. and twelve 0,ukes a^nd Princes 
iprung from him> who contiued and flouriihed in gre^t royaIt]|( 
fpr many hundred years \ fp that it is very probable that Efau 
blmfelf did not know what he bad loft, nor Jacob what he ha4 
got by thofe purchafes. Nor doth it any wher^ fo clearly ap<*- 
jkar, as. in the bleffin^ that J^cob received from his fathc;r,^ 
when he f^nt him to Fadan- Aram, which was never known ta 
Efau ; Qpd Almighty blff$ th^e^ i(c. and give thee the hlejjing of 
Abraham^ andte thee^ anfl toothy feed with thee^ ihatihou may eft inherit^ 
the larid^ wherein thou art ajlranger^ which God gave unto Abraham*. 
See chip, xxviii, 3, 4«. So that the bjrth-right, and the ksi, 
ble^ng leems to be qpthing but this title to the land of! Ca«- 
|iaan, wMch came not into pofle(Son till near five hundre4 
years after Ifaac's death ) which, it maybe, if Efau hadknpwnn 
wopIdDot tiiuch.have, troubled him, fpr whp cares for a.reyer- 
uon afcer fiye. hundred 'years i Lord Clarendon.' 

*' Is noj this laft reflexion, of his Lordihip's fompwha^ in ao, 
I0fidel4j^ain.^ for if the lofs wliich Efau fuftained was fo very^ 

immaterial. 

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17^ Dedd'x Commentary en the Old and New Teftameni. 

immateriaU why is it reprefcnted in the Scripture as greatly 
important i We may add here a note taken from the Univerial 
Hiftory, which is given in the Commentary upon this twenty^ -^ 
feventn chapter of Genefis. " The writers of the Univerfal 
Hiftory remark, that whofoever narrowly obfcrves Jacob's life. 
tfter $e had obtained his father's blefling, will own, that ie 
confifted in nothing Ifefs than wordly felicity, of which he en- 
joyed as little as atiy nmn whatever. Forced from his home 
into a far country, for fear of his brother ; deceived and op* 
•preffcd by his own uncle, and forced to fly from him after a 
Servitude of twenty-one years ; in imminent danger either of 
being purfued and brought back by Laban, or murdered by .^a 
enraged brother : thefe fears are no fooner over, but the baJTe- 
|ie(s of his eldeft fon in defiling his couch; the treachery and 
cruelty of the two next to the Shechemites; and hftly, the 
lofs of his beloved wife, and fuppofed untimely end of his fon 
Jofephj all thefe overwhelmed him with fre(h fucccffions of 

Srief; and, to complete all, his being forced by famine to 
efcend into Egypt> and to die in a ftrange land ; thefe, anj 
many more, are fufficient proofs that his father's bleffing was 
of a quite different nature, and confifted chiefly in thefe tw6 
particulars, viz, the pofleflion of the land of Canaan, in right 
of primogeniture, which his brother had fold him, and which 
father belonged to his pofterity than to himfelf ^ the other and 
snore glorious one was, that of the Mefliah*s being born of hia 
race, and not of that of Efau. As to the ftratagem by which 
this bleffing was obtained, though it appears fomewhat hard 
and unjuft at firft fight ; yet if we confider that thefe two bro- 
thers were defigned by providence, as types, viz. £fau of the 
Jews (who ^rc afterwards to be rejected for preferring a car- 
nal and imaginary kingdom and Meffiah to a fpiritual one^ 
which IS, in fa£l, preferring a mefs of pottage to the nobleft 
birth- right) and Jacob of the Gentiles, who were to be ad- 
mitted into that kingdom which the former had rejeded ; if we 
confider further, that this alienation from one brother to ano«- 
ther, had nothing to do with a future ftate, but was confined 
wholly to the prefent ; if we confider thefe things, we fhall 
not want the fubtleties of the fchools to juftify an aftion which 
was determined and conduced by a divine hand, unl^fs men 
will affirm', that God could not in juftice make fuch an aliena- 
tion ; an aflertion fo bold and abfurd, that we do not think any 
man of fenfe and common modefty would venture to maintaia 
k, or would defervt an anfwer, if he did." 

In the expofition of the twenty-ninrh chapter of Exodus, we 

meet with feme reflections of Lord Clarendon's on the confe- 

cration of Aaron and his fons to the prieft's office ;— * God, 

fays he,— fct afidc a chbfen people, who and who alone rfiighc 

- . perforin 

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Dodd'x Cmmemary m tbi OU and Nta Tt/bmmi. ]«P9 

perform the prieft's office in his fervice; — the next care wbicii 
he took, after he had adorned the place of his worfliip with aU 
poffible luftre and magnificence, was to provide fuch omi)- 
nients and habits for the perfons who ferved, as might make 
them remarkable above other men : — and God vouchfafed tm 
be as particular and punctual in his dire^^ions for the matter 
and form of thofe garments, as well for the fons, the inferior 
priefts, as for Aaron the high prieft himfelf, as he had been for 
the ariy the tabernacle^ and the akar. All which, mcthinks, 
fliould be a fufficient argument, at lead a fufficient motive^ 
that particular places ihould be iet afide, and adorned too, for 
the public fervice of God ; and for the diftindion between dw 
perfons dedicated to his particular fervice, and qualified for 
that purpofe, and the very habits appropriated to them, and th^ 
general ranks and clafles of other men who are not under the 
lame obligations/ 

Several other remarks of the fame kind lare added, and 
are very fuitable to the pompous fpirit which Lord Clarendon 
difcovered ; but furely to argue from the peculiar conftitu- 
tion of the Jewifli worfhip as a diredory under the Chriftian 
difpenfation, fo greatly different, is unreafonable and trifling ! 
Pofitive orders were delivered to the people of Ifrael from 
the Supreme Legiflator concerning thefe fubjeds; particu* 
Jar and valuable ends were to be anfwered by the appointments, 
which were therefore binding upon them, but have now loft 
their force : the Qhriftian fcheme exhibits no fuch diredions, 
though a regard to decency and propriety may didate fome plain 
obfervances as requifite to order, and lubfervient to the great 
purpofes of public worfhip and true religion. Arguments of the' 
kind here propofed might be ufed to defend the ceremonies and 
fopperies of the church of Rome : and we apprehend that Lord 
Clarendon, Archbifhop Laud, and fome others of the fame 
fiamp at that time of day, might, by fuch' fpecious but ^round^ 
lefs realbnings, fupport themfelves in their opinions of royal 
* pnrcgativiy arbitrary power ^ the Lord's anointed^ and the facred 
hierarchy: but it would have been very agreeable to Dr. Dodd's 
undertaking and chari6ler» when he chofe to publifli refle&ions 
of this kind, to have guarded them by fome confiderations 
which might prevent their mifleading his reader, or indu? 
cing him to imagine fotne extraordinary and inherent fandity 
in veftments, places, forms, or perfons, by which men have 
been often diverted from attending to that real virtue and 
goodneis which only is of intrinfic worth, and by their ten- 
dency to advance which, alone it is, that the others can have 
any value, 

* Pfalm cxxvii. Vtr. 2. /t is vain^ ifc.] It is vain for youy ye 
that rife early^ and (aU faie rtjl \ that eat the bread of fatigue : 
it is thus he giveth jieep So Ins beloved. Mudgej who obfervcs 

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,tlto flbU'i tUmmiikmy'milii Old mid Nko Yi/fmiit. 

ABt the vordsy k h (bus hi givMj and behalJ^ itilihi next Vtttm- 
.(m be Aiggci^fl in the note on the title) evkfently point to m^ 
fifticiibr pet fe» {tnd certain funQy) wbom God bad bkAed^ 
wkhoM wfau^ aU endeavours are vain. Dr. Waterland ren-» 

iMK^9 tbepaffiige, ** A is ^ainfir you U rife $tf^ {^r.-<*unle(s 
tbe Lora bif 6 your endeavomrB ; tohinas bt givfth to his beloved 
tmi^whilt ihtj fi$ef^* The pfeiin meaning feems to be, that 
6od afibrd^'or beftows to bis hibvsd^ or to good men, reft and 
c o Mfa rt of life \ and witbsl pvovides as mucti weatth For them 
end ibcir families, and indeed much more t6an they can pro* 
cafe who itiocffimtiy hani&, fitigtfe, and deny tbemfelves tbe 
«[^0fm»t8.of flU tbe worldly comforts, in order to enrich their 
feifterity/ * 

< I£uab,. chap. lai. v^r. 1 1, 12. Hh hatdm tfDwfndi] The 
fmtenci upon Dumah, Waterland. Tbe neightxmrtng nations 
Miilung the people of God f6r the common calzfrnties to 
whifib they were expofed together with them, though they 
boafted tbem&lvQS Co be the ele£t aAd favotirite people of the 
Lord^ ; the prophet introduces the lilumeans tn £e time of a 
common calamity, enquiring of a Jewiib prophet into the qua^ 
li^ and -duration of tbat calamity; not quite irreligioufly^ but 
dottbtliilly. The prophet, by whom is meant Ifoiah htmfelf, 
nrfHrms tbem, that tbe calamity (bould foon pafs from Judea, 
ttid that the light of the Utormng fliould arife io the Jews, while 
tbe Idiimeans fikmbl be oppreflfed with a new and unexpected 
affii^ion i fo that what fiiould be a time of light to the Jews, 
fiioalcl be to them a time of darknefs. The prophet forefeeing 
that tbey would fcarcely believe bis words, admoniflles ttiem 
tiot tbe matter is iixed, as they would find the moite accurately 
tbey enquired into it. The fcene of the prophecy muft be fixed 
to tbe time of the Babylonilh captivity. The prophecy, befides 
the inieriptioti, contains two parts, the^iyfrefpeds the perfon of 
fbe prophet, ver, 11 ; xh» fecond^ tbe matter itfelf ; naiAely, the 
chquiry of ibme perfon or perfons amongft tbe Idumeans con<* 
cerning tbe ftate of their common calamity, and the anfwer of 
the prophet to their enquiry. Out ofSeir^ or Mount Seir, means 
Idumea, What of the night f means. What have yoii certain to 
tell as of the ftate of the night ? How far is it advanced ? Dd 
you obferve nothing of the morning approaching^ and about t6 
4rive away this trooblefome darknefs of the night ? i. e. What 
do you obferve of <mr prefent diftrefs and calamity ? Is there 
any appearance of its departure, and of the approach of the 
momiiig of' deliverance i The prophet anfwers enigmatically, 
the morning cometh^ i. e. deliverance to the Jews ; and the nighty 
^— to tbe Idumeans; •• To them I will give light; yob I will 
leonre in darknefa/' So St. Jerome and tbq Cbaldee paraphrafc. 

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Dbdd*i Ommffaaiy ^n ike Ofd^mdKtw Vf/limem. iff 

Spne conceive thit the Uft cliofisis an exhorttitHihtt0 tile Uu^- 
means ta oohfider their ways, to repent, and turn to Go4« 
The Chaldee parophraft has it, ^ if you are to be converted^ 
convert whtie you )iave it iti your power/ Dr. Warerl^bnd^ 
after Sdrultens, renders the 12th. verfe, The UMtcbman Jiudi the^ 
fim^img is comt^ and mow nighty if yt will fwill with tiafs^ fwelti 

In the commentary on St. Matthew's gofpel, cfaap^ iv. ««^. x« 
the following^ obfenration is niade«— ^ It may be proper juft^' 
bbferve, that a bte ingenious writer has endeavoured to Aeir- 
that this very, remarkable tranfadion (tbe temptation of ChriA)' 
was not real^ but vifionary \ groiindiDg his arguments u^ the* 
many difficufties which occur to our underftondings in the line* 
ral account of it* I conceive that by the fame arguments ic 
would be eafy to prove ahnoft any part of the faciod - ftory to 
be vifionary* • There is no intimation of any thing of this Ajct- 
IB cKe facred^hiftorians $ die detail of h&% is plain and in their 
vtfytX manner : it is pofitively (aid, that Jifit$ was ied up^ that' 
heyi^!tfd^rthat he hungandi &c. &c. Nor does there apfiear' 
aay thing. in tbe letter whereupon to ground tbe idea^ that' 
ytAutt ti htxt related ivas not real. That the whole eveat was' 
mcftwonderMl and extraordtnacy ^Ire readily allow 3 and maf 
as readily allow, that fron the very Ibort narrat;ion we have of- 
it, it is not pOffible for us to enter completely into the wbote' . 
meantngand purport of it. ^ut this ihould be no objedion 
againft oar receiving and acknowledging the truth of the iwSty 
which tbe more miniculous it is, tbe more it requires tbe fub>-' 
miffion of ocir fattb, and the humbte adoration of our minds*' 
See Farmer'a Enquiry into tbe Temptations of Chrift/ More* 
is added on this fubje£t tmder wr. S, but we muft not give a* 
further account of it. ' 

« Cfaap« xiii. ver. 58. Jndhi did mi numy mighty works tberey " 
hoiauji of Mir ufiidiif} We are not to underftand tbefe words^ 
as if the power of Chrift was here difarmed ; but oniy that^ 
they brought but few fuk peopU to him for a cure, ^ark vi. 5* 
He did not judge it convenient to obtrude his miracles upon 
them, and fo could not honourably and properly perform them. 
On the fame principle it is that falthy iiv fome cafes, though 
not in alf, is tnade the condition of receiving a cui^. Compare 
ch. ix. 29. Mark ix. 23. and Ads xiv. 9. Chrift faw proper 
to make lt> fo here, as he well might, oonfidering what the 
Naserenes muft undoubtedly have heard of him from other 
places, and what they had tbemfelves confeffed but juft before^ 
of mighty woris being wrought by his bands ; which fliews in- 
deed that their unbelief did not fo much confift in a doubt of 
bis miraculous power, as of his divine miffion, which, to an 
unprejudioed perfon's mind^ that powcf fo abundantly proved. 

In 

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iSi I>odd*i CmmMary $n the Old and New TiftatnM^ \ 

In this view, therefore, it is hard to fay how he could virlth 
hpndur have laviflied away bis favours on fo unworthy a people. 
Dr. Clarke explains this. He c6uld not do any mighty works 
there confiftendy with his rule and method of a£iing, vol. ix« 
ftrm. iii. We find that tRis note (excepting the little addi-^ 
tion of Clarke's) b literally traqfcribed from Doddridge on* 
Mark vi. 6, who is indeed referred to, together with Olearius. • 
.;* 1 Peter, chap. iii. ver. 19. By which alfo he wenty ^c.'\ By 
which fpir it alfo he^ goings pnachedunto thefpirits in prifom. Thac 
is, our Lord, bythefpirit^ inspired Noah, and thereby conftituted 
him a preacher of righteoufnefe unto thofe who were difobe«« 
dient in that age. See Gen. vi. 3, &c. The infpiration of the 
prophets feems every where to be afcribed to the Holy Spirit of 
Godi which is the principal reafon for our undtrftanJine tm 
ifVfujbu&Ti, the Spirity in that fenfe, ver. i8. That our Lord 
isiparted the Spirit unto the Old Teftament prophets, feech. i« 
l^i, and as he had ghry with the Father hefere the world was\ as 
by him God made the worlds and feems to have rgovem^ his 
church and people in the early ages ; he might have p6wer to 
impart the Spirit unto Noah and other prophets, before his 
cpming in the fleih. The word geing may be either looked 
upon as redundant — as that and other like words are in the 
Scriptures and other Authors ;-^-or as God is reprefented as 
doing what he did by his Spirit in the prophets (Neh. ix. 30. 
Ifai« xlviii. j6. Zech. vii. j2.) fo our Lord is reprefented as 
coming (or going) and doing what others did, in his name, and 
by that Spirit which they had received from him. And in like 
manner he may here again be reprefemed as going, and preach- 
ing to that wicked generation which perifiied in the flood i 
becaufc he gave the £//>// to Noah, and thereby infpired him 
to preach to them. He preachid by thzt Preacher of Righteottfnefs^ . 
in whom was his Spirit, which thenftrove with man. Compare 
a Pet. ii. 5, with Gen. vi. 3. Benfon. For the full explica-^ 
tion of this paiTage, fee the remarks at the end.' 

The moft learned and celebrated Writers on the New Tefta* 
ment, as well as the Old, are in one way or another prelled 
into this Author's fervice, and that frequently when their 
jtames are not noticed. Doddridge is very confpicuous, among 
others, as in the notes, fo efpecially in the pradical refleftions. 
How far it is quite fair and honourable to make fo very free 
with the works of others, particularly of more modern Writers, 
. and that too fometimes in fuch a manner thac the obfervations 
may be regarded as the Compiler's own, we will leave otheri 
to determine. Befide this, we apprehend it not improbable, 
though we have notbeeo able for ourfelves exadly to examine, 
that amidft fuch a variety of Authors, and of different fenti- 
mentSy it may be found that there are foooc inconfiftencies, 

when 

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VoltaircV Age of Lewis. XK \t%^ 

wHen fpipe parts of the colleflion are carefully compaced wijh 
ethers. Thcfe arc objefKons from which Dr, Dodd will vio-^ 
dicate his work as well as he can : we muft> neverchelds, ob-* 
ftnre, that the compilation appears, to us, td be fuch as Inajr. 
I^rove very acceptable and ferviceable to tfaofe who are defiroua 
of being Virell acquainted with the Scriptures. 

^ • . 1 1 1 I I ■ ' * 

A»T- II- The Jgi of Louis XV. being tie Sequel of the Age tf 

L9u\s XIV* Tranflated from the French of M. dc Voltaire. 

.2 Vols. i2mo. 68. fewed. Kearfiey. 1770. 

A Lively and rapid narrative, which holds out fads Xo our 
obfervation, but leaves us to rcfle6t upon them, a nuni* 
ber of anecdotes, which are curious from the circumftances 
or the perfons to which they relate, and the recentnefs .of the 
occurrences and tranfaftions recorded, render the prefent per* 
formante extremely intcrcfting and agreeable. 

It commences vrith a delineation of the ftate of Europe oti 
the death of Louis XIV. From this period, the views and 
negociations of its feveral powers underwent a total change* 
The regency of the Duice of Orleans, and the fyftem of the 
famous Law, employ next the attention of our Author. The 
latter, which was fo fatal to France, he has explained at con- 
fiderabie length. Law, from a Scotchman, was converted inta 
a Frenchman by naturalization ; from a Proteftant into a Ca- 
th<^c ; from a mere adventurer into a lord, poQeiTed of a noble 
fortune ; and from a banker into a minifter of ftate. The par-* 
liaraent of Paris, which ventured to oppofe his projeds, was. 
banilhed to Pontoife^ and, whs^t is fmgular, he bimfelf, thd 
iame year, loaded with public execration, was obliged to fly 
from the country he meant to enrich, and had nearly ruined. 

The adminiflirations of the Cardinals Dubois and Fleury are 
well illufirated by our Hiftorian ; and, of the abdication of 
Vidor Amadeus, he has fpoken in the following terms : 

• Savoy exhibited at this time a remarkable example to the 
world, and an intcrcfting leflbn to fovereigns. The King o^ 
Sardinia, Duke of Savoy, Vi£lor Amadeus, fometimes the ally 
and at others the enemy of France and of Auftrla \ he -whom 
vncertainty had impofed on the "world as a politician, tired oi 
bufinefs and of himfclf, in the year 1730, at the age of fixty- 
four, capricioufly abdicated his crown, though the firft of hi» 
family who had worn it ; of which abdication he as capricioufly 
repented a year afterwards. The fociety of a miftrefs, novW 
)>ecome his wife, 'devotion, and idlenefs, could not facisfy a. 
mind chat had been for fifty years paft engaged in the affairs of 
Europe. He difplayed fuHy the weaknefs of human nature, 
and how difficult it is to gratify the heart either with or with* 
iOut the throne. 

*No 

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3ft{4 Voltaire*} Age oftnbit jtVi 

^ No \th ttian' four (bvereigns have in this age jkhixcztd 
their thrones : Chriftma, Cafiayr, Philip V, and Vi^or Ama*^ 
deui. Philip V. refumed t^e government agaipii bis ioclina- 
libn* Cafimir never thought of ic« Chriftlna was inclined to 
it for {bme time, on account of fotxie affront (he bad (offered 
at Rome. Amadeus alone took a rclolution to remouht, by 
fbrce, that throve which his difqiiiet had'odcafioned him to quit*- 
The confequence of this refoltition and attempt is well known. 
His fon Charles-Emanuel would have acquired a gldry far above 
tjiat of kings, in reftoring to his father the crown be received 
at his hands, on his fimple demand^ if the circumfiances of 
the times had permitted ; but it ^as faid tfiat an ambitious 
iniftrefs only was defirous of reigning^ fo tha^ to prevent the 
fatal confequences, the whole councU were compelled to caufe 
the very nian to be arretted who had been their fovereign^ He 
died foon after in prlfon. It is falfe that the court of France 
would have fent twenty thou(and men, to prote^ the father 
againft the fon, as was reported in the memoirs of thofe times* 
Neither the abdication of this Kbg, his attempts to regain the 
iceptre, his imprifonment, nor his death, canfed the leaft emo* 
tion in the neighbouring nations. It was a terrible event, at- 
tended with no confequenccs. A general peace prevailed even 
from Ruffia to Spain, when the death o^ Augufi^s IL King of 
Poland, £le£lor of Saxony, replunged Europe in thofe diuen- 
tions and misfortunes from which it is feldom exempted/ 

Of all the great events^ which are related in this worky it 
is fomewhat remarkable that the Author has confidered at the 
inoft Angular the enterprizes, the fucceflT^f and the misfortunes 
of Prince Charles *£d ward in England. He ha^, accordingl/t 
treated of them in a minute detail ^ and concerning this past 
ef his fubjedl he poifefled, perhaps, the lead authentic infor^^ 
mation. 

But our Ingenious HiOorian has not entirely confined bid at* 
tention to the political concerns of Europe, He has trea^d of 
die progrefs of the^human mind during the period of which he 
writes ; and an extract from what he has faid on this head 
may be acceptable to our Readers, as it will afford thefn a pro- 
per fpecimen of this moft intereffing, tho* fmall, part of his work. 

^ A whole order, fays he, aboiiihed by the fecular power> 
the difcipline of others reforn^d by this power, the divisions 
alfo between the magiftracy and the eplifcopal authority, pl^dnl^ 
difcover how much prejudices are diflipated, how far the know* 
ledge of government is extended, and to what degree our. un* 
derftandings are enlightened. The feeds of this knQwledg# 
^ere fown in the laft century j in the prefent they are everjf 
where fpriing up, even in the remoteft provin^e% -with. that 
true « eloquence which was fcarce known but at Parisi but 

which 

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Voltailc*! Jgi ofLMis ^. Hi 

Which has fuddenlj flouriflied in mtttj country tdwttS ; Witnefs 
the difcourfes * that have been delivered both from the bar, and 
the ailembly chambers of feme parliaments ; difcourfes which 
are the mafter- pieces of fentiment and eXpreffion, at leaft in 
inany refpeds* Sihce the times of the Caguefeaus, the only 
models were in the capital, and very rare. A fuperior reafort 
fias extended itfelf in our days, from the foot of ihc Pyrenean 
hills to the north of France. Philofophy, by rendering the 
tnind more juft, and baniibing the abfurdities of far*fetched 
conceits^ has made more than one province the competitors of 
the capital. , 

• In general, the bar has beft uilderftood that uniVerfal jii- 
rifprudence, drawn from nature^ which raifcs itfelf above all 
the laws of convention^ or of fimple authority : laws, ofteil 
diSated by caprice, or through the force of money ; dangerous 
t-efources rather than ufeful laws, which arc continually jarring^ 
and rather forming a chaos than parts of a legiflation. 

* The academies have been extremely ferviceablc^ by ac- 
cuftoming young gentlemert to reading j and excityigj by pre* 
tniums, their genius by emulation. * 

* Pure natural phiJofophy has illuftrated the lieceflary arts ^ 
and tbefe arts have already begun to heal the Wounds of the 
ftate, caufed by two fatal wars. Stuffs are manufadtured in i, 
cheaper manner, by the ingenuity of one of the moft celebrated 
mechanics f. Another academician, ftill more ufeful % by the ob- 
jeds that he; has embraced, has brought agriculture to a miich 
greater perfedion ; and a difcerning minifter has at lad per- 
mitted the exportation of corn ; a necelFary commerce forbid 
too long a time, and which ought to be limited as well as en • 
couraged. 

• Another aeademician || has (hei^rt the moft adyantageooii 
means of furnishing the inhabitants of Paris with water, which 
hitherto had failed them } a project which can only be rejcded 
either through poverty, negligence, or avarice. 

* A phyfician has at 1 aft found out the fecret **, fo long time 
ibvgbt for, of making fea water potable. He need do no mor^ 
than to rendtt his experiment fo eafy, that it may at all times 
%c profited by without too much expence. 

• If any invention can fupply the want of knowledge of the 
longitude, which is refufed us, it is that of the moft ingenious 
watchmaker of France §, who difputes this invention with 



A ■'■->- ^■ww^ 



• See the difcourfes of M. de Nfontclar, La CUabca 8> de CalUl- 
ion, de Servant, and. others. 

\ Mr. Vaucanfoir. % Mr, Dahamch J Mr. Dv« 

parcieux. •• Mr. Poiflbnicr. h Mr. le Roi. 

R£y« $ept. i779« O Eaglandi 

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i86 VoUair<?i Age ofUwls XV. 

England. But wc muft wait till time puts her feal to all thrfe 
difcovcries : there is not an invention but has its utility and 
inconveniencies ; a difcovery which can be difputed, or an 
opinion whiqh may be cuntefled, as thofe great monuments 
of the fine arts in poetry, eloquence, muTlc, architecture, 
fculpture, and 4)ainting, which at once engaged the approba- 
tion of the whole world, and injured that pofterity by an eclat 
which nothing can obfcure. 

* We have already fpoken of the celebrated repofitory of 
human knowledge, which has appeared under the title of Die- 
tlonaire Encyclopfdique, It is an cverlafting honour to the na- 
tion that the officers, both of fea and land, ancient magtftrates, 
phyficians well (killed in nature, the truly learned although 
nominal Dodors, men of letters, whole tafle has refined their 
knowledge, geometricians, and phyficians, have ail contributed 
to this work, as ufeful as it is difficult, without any view of 
intereft, without even feeking after fame, fince many of the 
. Authors keep their names a fecret : in (hort, without commu- 
nicating their intelligences together, and confequently exempt 
from the fpirit of party. 

' But what is yet more honourable for the country is, that 
in this immenfe colleflion its beauties triumph over its imper- 
feftions, which has not before happened. The persecutions 
that it has undergone are not altogether fo honourable for 
France : the fame unfortunate fpirit of forms, mixed with pride, 
envy, and ignorance, which occafioned the fuppreffion of the 
art of printing in the time of Louis XI. public fpedacles in 
the reign of Henry IV. the beginnings ot found philofophy 
under Louis XlII. and even emetics and inoculation : this 
fame fpirit, I fay, an enemy to all inftruflion, and to every 
thing that can advance our knowledge, gave almoft mortal 
firokes to this memorable undertaking : it has even been the 
means of rei^dering it not fo good as it fhould have been, in 
putting on -thofe Shackles with which reafon muft never be 
confined, becaufe temerity, and not difcreet boldnefs, ihould 
be reprov/d, without which the human underftanding can 
never ma|fe any progrefs. It is certain that the knowledge of 
nature, lind the dilbelief of the ancient fables honoured witk 
the naqiie of biftory ; found metaphyfics, freed from the im- 
pertinences of the fchools, are the produce of this age, and 
human reafon is greatly improved.' 

. We ihall conclude this article with remarking, that the pub« 
lication before us is not equal to M. Voltaire's Age of 
Louis XIV. to which it Is given as the fequel. 



Art. III. 



y 



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t i87 ] 

"ART. in. The Hiflory of thi Reign of George the Third, King of 
' Great Britain, <^c. to the Conclujion of the SeJJion of Parliament 
• ending in May I J JO. To which is prefixed, a Review of the 
late ff^ar. 8vo. 6 s. bound. Evans. 

TO record the tranfadlions of our own times, is a ta(k of 
all others the moft difficult. The*^Jiftorian, in this 
cafe, hurried away by his pailions, or mifled by an information 
which he fancies to be juft, frequently retails fiftion for truth, 
and becomes the panegyrift of a faction. The monuments on 
which he builds his narration are the produdions of writers, 
who have no other view but to defend, or condemn, the mea- 
fures of adminiftration, or of the people. It is only, perhaps, 
after fome ages have rolled away, and after party prejudices are 
loft, that the events of the prefent reign will be recorded with 
fidelity and exadnefs ; and that hittory, while it fliall beftow 
its approbation on thofe worthy patriots and ftatefmcn who 
have aded from public and conftitutional views, (hall cenfurc, 
with candpur and impartiality, thofe corrupt minifters who have 
proceeded only on venal and arbitrary p'rinciples. 

The Author of this work feems to have been fenfible of the 
force of fuch general remarks as thefe. He pretends only to 
the merit of having collected all the different arguments and 
reafonings which have been ufed for and againft adminiftration, 
and of having prefcnted them under one view to his reader, 
We muft do him the juftice, however, to obferve, that he has 
frequently accompanied thefe arguments and reafonings with 
remarks which are extremely acute and ingenious. He appears 
to be intimately acquainted with what the Authors of antiquity 
have written concerning liberty and goveriiment ; and perhaps 
he has, on feveral occafions, employed their fentiments to en- 
rich his volume. We (hould imagine, at the fame time, that 
he may have imbibed from them too large a proportion of that 
love of equality and independence, which, though of the 
^reateft advantage in a pure repubUc, is not altogether (o 
fuitable to the genius and fpirit of a limited 'monarchy. But 
however much we may be difpofed to differ from our Author in 
fome particulars, our candour leads us to acknowledge, that he 
has every where expreffed himfelf with ftrcngih ^nd perfpicuity, 
and that his eloquence has given charms to topics which are 
naturally harlh and unpleafant. His review of the late war 
difcovers a capacity for hiftorical narration ; and the work it- 
felf deferves to be read with attention, both on account of the 
importance of its fubjed, and of the ability with which it is 
written. 

After having ftated the terms of the laft treaty of peace which 
was concluded with France, our Hiftorian fets himfelf to exa- 

O a mine 



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l88 The Hiftory of the Rxign of Giorge HI. 

mine into the merits of it ; and this examination we Ihall place 
before our Readers, as a fpccimen from which they may form 
for themfelves a judgment of his political principles, and of his 
capacity : 

* That we may be able to eftimate properly the merits of this 
treaty, it muft be remembered that there are four things which 
determine whether a p^ace be good or bad. Thefe are the al- 
liances which it procures, the indemnification which it make^, 
the permanence which it promifes, and the necejlity which 
forces its acceptance. 

^ The firft head needs little difcuflion. The peace brought 
us no new ally ; but it deprived us of the only one that we 
could boaftj and then we flood fricndlefs in Europe* Such 
was the fyftem of politics embraced by thefe minifters ! Our 
anceftors grew great by another. 

* In the fecond ingredient of a good peace this treaty is no 
lefs defeSive : it affords no compenfation. All our acquifitiond 
hardly produce a revenue fufficient to defray the expencc of 
their cftablifhments, much lefs any aid towards the reduction of 
our debts. A good miniftry, inftead of reftoring Goree, would 
have for this purpofe infifted on the renewal of the affiento or 
contrafl for fupplying the Spanifh Weft Indies with Negroes* 
We had as much right to demand it as at the treaty of Utrecht, 
and we had incomparably more in our hands for its purchafe. 
What floods of treafurc would have poured in upon the king- 
dom from this fource ! Proper management would have direfled 
its courfe into a public channel, and replcniihed an exhaufted 
exchequer. Such a capital ftrokc in politics would have been 
of infinitely more fervice than all the tricks of finance, and thp 
boaftcd fchemes of oeconomy, by which fome narrowmindei 
ftatefmen would bring a few pepper-corns into the treafury. 
But the peace- makers, not fatished wiih negleding this effen* 
tial point, retained neither Martinico nor Guadaloupe, which 
would have greatly incrcnfcd our duties, our trade, and navi- 
gation. Thro' the want of fugar land the Englifli are greatly in- 
ferior to the French in thib lucrative branch of curimerce : they 
are not only beat out of foreign markets, but fuffcr all the in- 
conveniences of a monopoly at home. The retention of either 
ifland would have removed thefe difadvantages, and withal en- 
fured us a ceitain, fpecdy, and confiderable fupply. And, 
ti^hat is not to be forgot, our acquifitions upon this plan would 
be double their intrinlic value, as France muft iofe whatevef 
we gained : whereas In North America the cncreafe of our 
trade cannot diminifh that of the enemy. Indeed, the cefBoh 
of thefe territories will not only hurt us by the lofs of , the direft 
trade to themfelves, but by the lofs of (hat trade, which, were 
they in our hands, we muft neceflarily carry on with Africa 

for 

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The Hiftory oftU Reign, of Gaorg^ IIU 189 

for Haves, and with our American colonies for provifions and 
other necefiaries. All thefe advantages will now center with 
our, rivals. Wc muft not liften to thofe vifionary ftatcfmen, 
who would xperfuade us that America is abundantly able tofup- 
ply all the deficiencies of our trade in other parts of the world. 
if the variety of its climates, and the encreafe of people (hould 
ever put it in its power to furnifh us with every Weft Indian 
commodity, and to purchafe all our manufa<Stures, that xra is 
too diftant to anfwer our prefeqt neceffities. But who does not 
fee that long before that period America will, like all tho 
powerful colonies that ever exified, fbake off its dependence^ 
and make us regret that we totally exterminated the French, 
and rendered our protedion no longer neceflary? Extenfive 
territories and numerous fubjedls are undoubtedly defirable 
objects to a nation that would be great and powerful. But 
let them be fubjeS; let them be, like the Weft India iflands, 
incapable of fubfifting without the, affiftance of the mother 
country. 

. * The determination of the fecond point necelTarily deter* 
mines the third. For how can a peace, that reftores the moft 
Valuable pofteffions, and confequently the ftrength of a rival, 
be permanent ? The Newfoundland fifliery is yielded in a much 
more extenfive and unlimitedl manner than it was granted by 
Pift. As if our minifters were refolved to leave room for chi- 
canery and contention, the French are allowed to fifti within, 
three leagues of tb? coaft in the gulph and river of St. Lau- 
rence. What armaments, what expence,. what vigilance, can 
fecure the obfervation of this article ? 'It muft be as fertile a 
fource of quarrels and complaints as the fifliery itfelf will be 
an excellent nurfery of young feamen to man, in due ti^pe, 
their Weft India fleets, or to render their navy formidable. It 
ii idle to pretend that the good faith of France is guarantied by. 
our pofreffion of the continent, becaufe it furnifhes thefe iflands 
with provifions. The events of tjie laft war prove the reverfc, 
Martinico made as ftout a refiftance as if the French had been 
ilill maftcrs of Canada: it was fupplied with provifions from 
other quarters. The defencelefs and naked condicion of our 
Ipgwood cutters muft be equally productive of war ; for it is 
not words, but the power of repelling force by force that can 
prevent hoftilities. The King of Spain pledges his royal word 
that the logwood cutters lliall not be molefted. Dki ever ne- 
gociators accept of fuch a riJiculous fecurity ! Pitt infifted on 
the acknowledgment of our right to this branch of commerce, 
and declared that, before he would relax on this or any other 
article, he would fee the Tower of London taken fword in 
hand. But he, alas ! no longer dire£ted our councils ; elfe 
the family compa^. the moft odious and formidable Gonfpiracy j 

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190 The Htjiory of the Reign of George II L 

that ever was formed agalnft the liberties of Europe, w6uld 
never have been pafled over ip filencc. We had materials ia 
our hands to break the whole fabric in pieces, and to deftroy 
for ever a combination, which is particularly defigned againft 
this kingdom. Inftead of firmly preffing this point, our minifters 
recognized the compaS in all its p^ts : for our plenipotentiary, 
with the knowledge of his principals at home, treated with 
thofe who managed the intereft of the two crowns as if they had 
been one ; the Spanifh minifter receiving his inftrudlions, hot* 
from Madrid but from Verfailles, which faw the whole Spanifll 
monarchy melted down into its cabinet. lA order to confoli- 
date and ftrengthen the friendlhip which exifted between the 
two courts they allowed them, contrary to the treaty of Utrecht, 
to make exchanges in the Weft Indies. After duly confidering 
all thefe circumitances, what reafon have we to think that the' 
peace will be lafting ? 

* But perhaps we were under a neceflSty of concluding a' 
peace.? Perhaps all our refources were exhaufted, while thofc' 
of France were ftill frefli? Such was the language of tlie 
peace-makers ; but with what juftice let the ftatc of our trade," 
ihJpping, manufaftures, and revenue, declare. It appears 
from w ciiftomhoufe books that our foreign trade, the 
caufe and pneafure of our domeftic trade, was encreafed more 
than one-fifth above what it had ever been in any former pe- 
riod. The Britifh (hipping had likewife encreafed : it amounted 
to ninety thoufand tons more than in the beftyear of the prtce,* 
and fixty thoufand tons of foreign (hipping were added. The' 
whole annual balance of our commerce with foreigners, and 
with Our colonics, exceeded four millions ftefling. How then' 
could our manufactures have decayed, except trade can be car-] 
ried on without commodities and manufactures? The fad is,, 
that they had not decayed, but flouri(hed beyond their ufual* 
extent, as may be proved 'from the entries in various parts of 
the kiqgdom. Could then our manufacturers emigrate, and 
defert to foreign countries ? That is impoflible, for manufactures 
require h«nds. Indeed, why (hould they ertiigraie ? To be better 
paid, fed; or cloathed ? It will be difficult to find a country, 
where they can enjoy thefe bleffings in fo large a proportion 
as in England. But perhaps they deferted us in order to live 
cheaper ? That may poflibly be granted, when it is (hown that 
by living cheaper any more is meant than that the fame quan- 
tity of labour will procure more of the necefTaries and conve- 
niences of life in one country than in another, and that any 
country is fuperior to England in that refpeCt. It will be dif- 
ficult to perfuade our common people that they have worfe 
hou fes, worfe fires, worfe cloaths, worfe provifiofts than a 
French manufacturer. Why then (hould they ^igrate ? Thi»Ie 



Thi Hifiory of the Reign of George III. 191 

truth 18, that none had emigrated hut fuch as had been decoyed 
by high premiums, and the profped of becoming, from journey- 
men, the heads of large and flourifliing manufai^ories : a thing 
which will happen to every country famous for excellent work- 
men. As our manufadurers had not deferced, fo neither had 
our revenues from confumption decreafed. The two. daring 
taxes laid fucceffively on malt and beer, objects which before 
bad been immenfely loaded, div not impair the confumption : 
on the contrary, it grew under them. How then can it be 
pretended that we were in want of men to carry on the war ? 
An increafe of revenue and trade is a proof of an increafe of 
people. , The difficulty and expence of recruiting our armies . 
aro(e more from the additional hands then employed in our 
encreafed trade than from depopulation. But perhaps France 
was in a more flouriflaing condition { Perhaps her fuperior 
riches and credit rendered peace neceffary ? l^othing can be 
more grouodlefs. Her trade was almoft annihilated. She had 
hardly any (hi|)s at fea but privateers. Her m^nufaflurcs muft 
therefore have decayed, her people decreafed, and her revenue 
dwindled away. As a proof, fbe had turned bankjupc. Still' 
however (he borrowed ; but (he borrowed at exorbitant intcreft. , 
Her credit, though low, was not entirely annihilated. The 
intereft of her debt, great parr of which was unfpnded, amounted 
to fevcn millions ftcrling. Her ftocks fold for little more than 
half their original value, and her fupplies were greatly inferior 
to the demands of government Her people were reduced to 
the utmoft diftrefs and defpair by the nuotber and weight of 
their taxes. Nothing can exceed the moving complaints of 
their parliaments on this fubjed : they (hew that had it pleafed 
our minifters, we might have forced them to accept any terms 
of peace. Spain, their laft hope, was now incapable of re- 
pleni(hing her own co(Fers, much lefs of repairing their ex-, 
haufted finances. Her communication with South America, 
the fource of her wealth, was cut off: great part of that wealth 
was feizcd, and the road was open and eafy for the feizure of 
the remainder. Having failed in her firft attempt upon Portu- 
gal, when furpriz^d naked and unprepared, (he had little pro- 
(pe<^ of fuccefs againft that kingdom, now that it ftood col- 
lected in itfelf, revived by reftored difcipline and fuccefsful re- 
(iftance. 

* What then could induce our minifters to conclude fuch 
an inadequate, unfecure, and^ inglorious peace, when all our 
enemies lay proftrate at our feet ? What but humanity, which 
would not allow them to ruin thofe enemies who had never fpared 
us ? Inftead of taking advantage of the conqucft of the Havannah, 
which the French and Spani(h ambafladors thought decifive of 
their fate : infiead of bumbling the houfc of Bourbon for ever, and 

O 4 Digitized by GoOglegivinj 



V 

l^t jfrMIJi^'^ecktr's Sirmms tnfiviral Subfeifs. 

giving it the finifliing blow, they allowed it to rtfe once moi^t 
that wc^ might once more have the glory of fpilling ocetns of 
))uman blood, and conquering it, if we can. What a Chriftian 
fJifpofition ! What heroic courage ! They nurfeid in their bo(bm 
vipers whofe (lings will be mortal to Britain/ 

The fame good fenfe and fpirit which appear in this extract 
are to be found, in general in ^e performance before us ; and 
we cannot clofe this article wit^Rit remar)(ing, that it is per- 
haps, on the whole, the mofl valuable of thofe political com* 

pofitiont which have lately been offered to the public. 

■II ■■ ' ■ ■■■-■■■ I .,. , . I ,. I I ij 

^T. JV, Sirmons en fiveral SubjiGs. By Thomas Seeker, 
IjL. D. late Lord Archbifbop of Canterbury. 8vo. 4 Vols, 
1 1. bound. Rivington, &c. 
TJ AVINGf in two former articles, [fee Rev. June and July] 
^^ taken a pretty large view of Dr. Seeker's life and charader^ 
we now proceed to his fermons, according to our promiie. An4 
here we flmll not long detain our readers, as few of them can be 
fuppofcd to be unacquainted with his Grace's manner of preach* 
ing, and as we have hatl occafion, niore than once, to give our 
Sentiments concerning it. 

Tbpffp who read fermons merely from a principle of curiofity, 
who are fond of having fome faihionable contfoverfy dlfcufled, 
itmt difiicuir pafTage of fcripture explained and i]luftrated, fome 
favourite fj^ecutation enlarged 0|), or pbrafible hypothecs pro^ 
pofed \ thofe who take plcafure in fiich difcourfes only as con^ 
tain lively and pathetic addrelTes to the heart and aflfeaions, in 
elegant and fprightly compofitions, which abound with fl/iking 
fentiments and beautiful imagery ; fuch readers will find little 
in thefe fer^nons to fuit their taue. But thofe who are rather 
defirous of reforming their condufi and amending their hearts, 
than of gratifying their imagination; thofe who are better 
picafed with ufefttl thzn with entertaining difcourfes ; who prefer 
folid inftrudlion to Aipcrficial amufement ; in a word, all who 
fmccrely wifli to know and pradife their duty in the various cir- 
puipftances and Situations of life, will find their account in' a 
frequent and attentive perufal of the (ermons now before us. 
Moil of them are, indeed, yery ufeful and judicious difcourfes, 
containing many excellent obfervations on human life, and the 
inanner^ and principles of the age we live in. The preacher- 
always exprefles himfelf with plainnefs and perfpicuity ; often 
with great force, fometimcs with elegance; and there are 
feyeral pafTages in his fcrmons, which clearly (hew the truth of 
an pbfervatlon made in the review cf his life and ih^ra^ity viz^' 
fhat he might eafily have acquired the reputation of a fine writer,* 
had he net fucrifipe^l it to tl|ip much iiobler ambition of being an 
Iffuf^onc, . . , 

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JrdMMp Sedoer*! Sirmtns mfiv&al SnijiOf. I93 

The difcouHb art chieflv pndical \ the fubjeds are welt 
cfaoftoy aad diey are treatea in fucfa a roanner as fliews the 
Author to have been a perfon of juft difcemnient, fotinil 
Jttdgmeiit) and good learsiag,— *— The following fpecimen taken 
from the fermon on i THEsa. v. 21, 22.— -^^^w all things r 
hMfaft^ ho. cannot be diiagreeablc to any of our Readers who 
are of a ferious tum» and majr ferve to convey fome idea of the 
fljle and manner of this eminent preacher, to fuch, if anr 
fttcb thofe be, as are unacquainted with it; 

* Some prejudices, either right or wrong, will take hold of 
OS venr ibon. And tbereibre it is fit, that, as finr as we can, we 
fboula examine the foundation of our early opinions ; but with 
equity, with candour, not with a refolution beforehand to fin4 
fault : for as they aife never the truer for our being educated in 
than, they are never the falfer either. But indeed the education 
of many hath placed them fo very little in the way, either of- 
receiriflg prgndices, or hearing arguments in favoir of religion ; 
that they have need to begin with throwing off prejudices toite- 
di&d vantage; and flionld fufped that much more may be fxA 
for it, than the little, which bath come to their knowledge. It 
is probable, that they might have fome improffions of piety, 
fuch as they were, made upon them by the fitperintendants of 
their childhood ; and it is poi&blf , that (bmething may have been 
added fince to thefe irapreflioBS, .by their attendance^ if hap}^* 
they have been fiifiesed to attend on public inftru^ion. But at : 
Ibon as they b^in to fee a little niore of the world, and obferve 
what pafles around them, what a number of things will tbe^ 
meet with, likely to ghre diem a much ftronger bias, towards in* 
fidelity, than the forms of a common education have given.tfaem 
towards faith ! they will find but too manydeclaoed unbdievers, 
TsaA even teachers of unbeliefs very many, who, if th^do not 
exprefely deny Chriftianity, {peak and ad as if they deipifed it; 
and few, in comparifon, thac voochfafe it a^fcrious and uniform 
regard. The abufes of religion they will hear miA invidtoufly 
magnified ^ the benefits of it moft artfully and malicioufly.de* 
predated ; the public worfliip of God condemned, as idle for-» . 
mality ; the private^ as entbufiaftic folly ; the mtnifters of his 
word reprefented as objeds osly of contempt: or abhorrence: 
and the coofequence hath been,, that, by thinking of us in 
a manner, which, with all our faults, God forbid we ibould 
deferve, multitudes are come to. think of the gofpel, that we 
preach, in a manner, which t^xv certainly ought not, did we 
deferve ever fo iH. When prcjuoices from without, like thefe, 
are added to the vehement ones within, which vanity forms 
;igainft every thing that would humble it, and paffions and 
appetites againft everything that would retrain them ; it is eafy 
to perceive, where 0ie (laxiger of partiality lies; and what pre. 

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194 ' JrMiJhop Seeker V Sermons on fever al StAjeSfs* 

poffcffions the company they have kept, the books thcv hav^ 
read, the lives they have led, make neceilary to be bantihed by * 
too many, if they would become fair enquirers. 

^ Let it therefore be examined, on what foundation the 
notions, that we have learned, of religion and virtue (land* 
But let it be examined alfo, on what foundation the prevailing ^ 
notions, which contradid religion and virtue ftand. For to lay ' 
it down as a maxim, that thefe are well grounded, and difcard 
the former merely dn that prefumptton, is monftroufly unreafon- 
able. We own it to be highly proper, that men fhould jrfk 
themfclves, why they believe : but it is equally proper for them to ' 
aflc, why they difbelieve. Undoubtedly they (hould not be bigots 
and zealots : but then they (hould not be fo againft religion, 
any more than for it. Implicit faith is wrong : but implicit in- 
fidelity is ye^ more fo. And whatever fault may be found with ' 
the truft, which it is faid the goodly repofe in their fpiritaal * 
guides; it is full as poffible, and perhaps in proportion full 
as frequent, for the ungodly to follow one another on to their* 
lives end, with their eyes clofe fhut, each in the moft fervile 
reliance on what his leader ttlls him; only with the ridiculous 
addition of admiring moft immoderately, all the way, their own . 
wonderful freedom of thought). 

< By fuch confiderations as thefe, men (houU prepare tfadr 
minds for beginning to inquire. And when they do begin, it is 
an important rule,' not to be too hafty in drawing conclufions, t 
especially bold ones. Viewing things on every fide, obfer.ving . 
how far confequences reach, and proceeding to colled and bear - 
evidence, till reafon faith there needs no more, is grievous 
labour to indolence and impatience, and by no means anfwers 
the ends of conceit and,affis6tatioiu A (honer way therefore is 
commOffily taken. Some objedion of minute philofophy ftrikes. 
tbeir thoughts unexpeiStedly, or copes recommended to them as 
highly fafbionable : and whether a folkl anfwer can be given to 
it, they never a(k. Some argument, urged in favour of reli* 
gion, proves or feems to be a weak one : and, without more 
ado, they infer, that the reft are no ftronger. Some things, 
which have been generally received, they fiml or apprehend are 
falfe or doubtfol ; and therefore nothing, they imagine, is cer-* 
tain. Some text of fcripture, poffibly tranfcribed or tranflated 
amifs, is hard to defend, or to reconcile with fome other ; and 
therefore they flight the whole. Some dodrine, which revda-. 
tion is faid to teach, appears hard to underftand or admit, or is 
capable of a ludicrous turn : and therefore immediately they. 
reje£l, not only that, but others not in the leaft conne&ed with.: 
it; throw afide at once the intire fyflem; and, it may be,, 
plunge headlong into vice. Yet, all the while, revelation per- 
haps doth not teo^h this dodrine, and they are offended (blely at 

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Arcbhijhop Seeker*^ Sermons on fever al SuhjeSJs. 195 

a phantom of their own drefling up ; or perhaps teaches it with 
greac reafon, for any thing which they can ever prove to tjie 
contrary. For in a nature fo unfearchable as that of God, and 
a fcheme fo vaft as that of his univerfal government, there muft 
be many things, which creatures of our limited faculties cannot 
approach towards comprehending ; and, merely for want of 
comprehending, may fancy to be full of incredibilities, which, 
could Wc but know more, or would wc but remember that we 
know fo little, would inftantly vanifl). In matters therefore, 
which we underftand fo very imperfeftly, to fet up human ima- 
gination againft divine authority j to rely on crude notions, that' 
things are impoffible, which proper teftimony (hews to be true in 
hSt ; or that God cannot be, or do, what, by his own declara* 
tions, he is, and hath done, betrays a dijpofition widely diftani;^ 
from the modefty which becomes us. 

* Befidee, were the difficulties which attend the fyftem of* 

religion, more confiJerable than they are ; yet we Ihould take| 

notice, that^ difficulties attend the contrary fyftem alfo; and' 

confider, fince one muft be true, which is molt likely to be fo.^ 

If there be objeftions againft a Creation and a Providence j are' 

there not greater againft. fuppofing, that the world could have' 

exifted without being created, or continue all this time without 

' a Providence? If there be fomewhat fcarce conceivable in the 

doftrfne of a future life and judgment : yet upon the whole, 

which of the two is moft probable, that a wife and good God' 

will finally recompenfe men according to their wbrks, or that he" 

will not ? If there be things in the gofpel-revelation, for which 

it is hard to account, is it To hard to account for any thing upon 

earth, as how it (hould come to have fuch aftoniining proofs, 

internal and external, of being true, if it be really falfe ? They* 

who think the creed of a Chriftian fo fi range and myfterious," 

let them thinka while, what the creed of an Infidel muft be, if* 

he would only lay afide his general pretences of impofture 

and enthufiafm and credulity and bigotry, which thrown out at 

random will difcredit all evidence of hiftory alike ; and anfwer in* 

particular, how, on his own hypothefis, he accounts for all' 

the feveral notorious fads, on wnich*our religion is built. I anv' 

perfuaded, there hath never appeared yet amongft men (o incom-" 

prehenfible a colle£lion of tenets, as this would produce. Mtn 

may indeed be too eafy of belief: but it is juft as great a weak* 

ncfs to be too full of fufpicion. Reverence for antiquity may 

impofe upon us : but fondnefs for novelty may do the fame 

thing. Undoubtedly we (hould be on the watch againft pious 

frauds: but againft impious ones t(5o. For whatever diftiontfty 

the advocates of religion have been eitiier juftly or unjuftly 

charged with; the oppofers of it have given fu!l proof, ac Icaft 

of $5cir inclination not to come (hort of ihem. Whoever 

Digiti: thcreforigle 



tpS The Farmer* s Guide in btrifig andjtocitng Farm$» 

tbcrefore would proceed in t!hc right path, muft be attentive to 
the dangers on each fide. 

* Perhaps this may feem to require more pains than moft per- 
Ions are capable of. But of an upright difpofition every one 13 
capable : and with this, common abilities and leifure will fuffice 
to judge concerning the neceflary points of faith and pradice. 
Few indeed, or none, can judge of any thing without relying 
ill fome meafure on the knowledge and veracity of others. And 
what muft we think of human nature, or what will become of 
h\iman fociety, if we can take nothing on each other's word ? We 
fiu>uld hearken to no one indeed, who aflerts plain abfurdities. 
And we (bould always judge for ourfelves as far as we can. But 
we {bould not affeft to do it farther. Where we vifibly wane, 
cither parts or learning or time for it, as we frequently do in 
#6rldly affairs of great moment, no lefs than in religion, we are 
toth allowed and obliged to Jepend on others. Only we muft 
cibferve tbefe two dire^ions : that we firft pay a due refped to 
that legal authority, under which Providence hath placed us : 
and then chufe, according to the beft of our underftandings^ 
the worth ieft and wifeft and moft confiderate perfons to be our 

Tbere are many paflages in thefe difcourfes which tt would 
give us pleafure to infert; many pertinent obfervations, ex- 
prefled with perfpicuity, ftrength and conclfenefs, which, we 
aire confident, would be agreeable to almoft evenr clafs of 
readers ; but we muft here conclude with obferving that, what- 
ever bbjejiions may be made to his Grace's manner of preaching;;^ 
k has n>any peculiar advantages to recommend it, and is ad* 
mirably cakulated to awaken and keep up attention : and to 
ihakc deep and durable imprei&onseipon every ferious and con« 
{derate mind* Religious tnftrudion, he fays with great truths 
Joes not in the teaft attain its proper end, unlefs it Influences 
ibeii to forget the preacher, and think of themfelves : unlefs it 
raifes in them, not a fuperficial complacency, or an idle admi- 
ration ; but an awful folicitude about their eternal welfare, and 
that a durable one. 

Art, V, The Farmer^s Guide in hiring and Jiociing Farmi. CofH 
, iaining an Examination of many' SubjeSfs of great Importance 
both to the (ofnmon Hujbandman^ in hiring a Farm \ and to e 
Gentleman on taking the Whole or Part of his Eftate into his own 
Wands, Particularly^ the Signs whereby to judge of Land i the 
P$int5 to be attended to in hiring a Farm ; the ^antUy of Land 
of every Sort proportioned to a given Svm of Money ; the mjj/l ad' 
vantageous Method of difpofing of any Sum from 50 /. to 20,C00 /. 
in Hujhandry on cultivated or uncultivated Soils j the Means of 
rendering Agriculture as prcfitable to Gentlemen as to common Far^ 

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The Farmer^ s Guide in hiring andficding Farmf. 197 

wurSy mnd as heneficiol a Frofefjion as any other ; Hints to thtfi 
Gentlemen who farm for FUaJnre alone. Alfe^ Plans of Fitrm-- 
yetrds^ tfW Sextons of the necejfary Buildings. By the Authdr 
of the Farmer's Letters* 8vo. 2 Vols. 10 s. € d. Boards. 
Nicoll, &c. 1770. 

THIS is a very important fubje£^, and demands the ic* 
rious' attention of every perfon who ri&s his property, 
aiMl beftows his time and labour, in the cultivation of a farm. 

Pliny, the naturalift, is very particular in his catitions, axvl 
quotes the fage advice given by Cato, on this head« — Iq the par- 
diaib of land (and it is much the fame thing in refpefl to the 
lenting of a farm) the wary old Roman warns the adventurq: 
in fuch undertakings, againft being too rafli and eager; and 
counfels him to look well around him, to fee in what manofc 
the prcmifes are fitpated, how they are vvatered, what ways 
and avenues are about the eftate, what heart the land is in, 
what kind of culture hath been bellowed upon it by the former 
occupier, what grounds are contiguous, what fort of neighbours 
it hath, &c. &c. 

Now, althou^ it can hardly be fuppofed that any perfo^ 
who is about to purchafe or rent a farm can be unacquainted 
with at leaft the general out-line of pradical huibandry, yet, ;^ 
Mr. Young, the indefatigable Author of t|^is work, rei^arks, 
inftrudions founded on experience, will not be given in vaio, 
a they only ferve to < remind them of points of importance ia 
perhaps the moft critical moments of their lives/ 

With regard to gentlemen, he ftrongly aflerts that fome work , ' 
of this kind is abiolutely necefiary for their ufe, when thc;jr 
either take a part of their eftates into their own hands, or hire 
farms of others. ^ Not having, fays he, (o clofe and imme- 
diate a fpur as direfi neceffity to make them cautious and pen^- 
toting, they are more apt than the common farmer to overlook 
the want of fome points of confequence, and to be too much 
ftnick with the appearance of others. Add to this, that many 
gentlemen who make farming a bufinefs or a pleafure are at iirft 
totally ignorant of moft things concerning it : hence the necef- 
(Uy of being guided by their fervants ; a iituation which may 
prove beneficial \ but which I would advife none to truft to : 
Can it be doubted that a work of this fort will to them prove 
abetter guide than a fooliib, prejudiced, or perhaps knaviih 
affiftant V 

The Author aflures his Readers that he docjs not prefume t;o 
infirud them on points in which he himfeif is (fevoid of expe- 
rtence» * I now live, fays *hc, in the third farm that I have 
hired ; the three almoft as difFercint firom each other as poffible, 
and fituated in different counties/: in fearching for the two lafl 
8 I viewed 

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198 The Farmir's Guidi in hiring and Jlockhg Farmi. 

. I viewed and treated for, near I believe an hundred. — -Thus I 
may in Tome meafure aiTert thefe iheets to be the tranfcript of 
experience.* 

Certainly there is no part of an hufband man's life of fuch 
critical importance. to himfelf as the time of his hiring his farm. 
Courage, fays Mr. Young, and caution, are then as neceflary 
■ to him as to a general at the head of an army. .' If the firft 
predominates^ he is in danger of feeing imaginary advantages 
which do not exift in reality ; and of overlooking a thoufand 
fmal! objeftions, feparately of trivial confequence, but united, 
of material importance. If he is extremely cautious, he will 
afluredly view and reje£t many farms before he fixes himfelf, 
and in all probability fome among tbem that are advantageous, 
and perhaps more fo than that which he at laft hires ; not be- 
caufe he approves it, but for want of time to examine more/ 

• Farms, our Author obferves, arc fometimes to be had at a 
fliort warning, when a man is allowed only the time fuflicient 
to view it, with others perhaps at his elbow ready to bid if he 
rejeds ; fcarce any confideration allowed : fuch farms are frc- ' 
quently the moft beneficial of all, as they muft be let by a 
certain day, and confequently the hirer> if he has quicknefs as 
well as prudence, may have advantages unknown in ^other 
cafes. 

^ But in fuch 9 fituation how much is requifite to make a 
good judgment fpeedily ! Common farmers almoft always fail 
in fuch critical moments. Their caution lofes them many an ' 
excellent bargain.' 

Jn fuch a cafe as this Mr. Young's book may be of confi- 
derable ufe, as he afTures us that he * has had an eye particularly 
to th^ farmer's want of time to confider ; and has thrown out 
many cautions and hints for their ufe, at periods too fhort for 
their own ideas to come fully into play.* 

' To take one walk over a farm, which confequently can ' 
be only at one feafon-^to difcover at once the nature of the 
foil — to fee into i(6 evils, as well as advantages, by figns pecu- 
liar to every feafon — to guard againft the deceit occafioned by 
feafons favourable to particular foils — to compare the covenants 
expcftcd in the leafe, with the nature of the land — to obferve 
the ftate of the fences, borders, bogs, barren fpois, &c". etc. 
that an eftimate may at once be made of extraordinary labour- 
to minute the fields which muft be particularly favoured to 
ameliorate them after an exbaufting tenant — to remark the ftate 
of the roads — to gain information of tythe, taxes, poor, and a 
multiplicity of other circumftances, which may be a(ked as a 
man walks over the fields, and minuted in his pocket-book as 
fae goes— to calculate the repairs (if he is to do them) of the 

buildings, 



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The Farmer's Guide in hiring andjiocking Farms. . 199 

buildings, and to remark all the works the landlord muft fipifli 
previous to figning the leafe — Laftly, to calculate whether the 
funo of money he is pofleflcd of is fufficient for the bufinefs.— 
Thefe and a vaft number of other points come at once upoa 
him, to be canvafled by a judgment cool but clear and fpirited. 

* A gentleman farmer has all thefe points, and many more 
to confider. He fliould at once be able to reduce to calcula- 
tion the difference between himfelf and a connmon farmer in 
the fum to be appropriated to flock a given number of acres-— 
He fliould, if abfolutcly profit is his view, confider on what 

. foils he had better apply his money — to thofe already improved 
or fuch as yet remain uncultivated ; in cafe he determines upon 
the latter, the whole range of bufinefs ought at once to be prcr 
fent with him ; that he may proportion the land to his money. 
— In a word, he*will, in any fituation, require an uncommon 
attention either in himfelf or affiftant. 

' The point of all others, both with the gentleman and com- 
mon farmer, which I hold to bo the moft important, is the 
properly proportioning the farm to the fum of money to be 
expended. 

* I have calculated a great number of eftimates to fliew the 
moft beneficial manner of difpofing any fum from 50 L to 
20,000 1. in agriculture ; and this with a view for gentlemen 
to difcover that farming may be made as profitable a bufinefs 
for the employing large fums of money, as manufaSlures or 
trade, 

' The very ingenious Mr. Wallace here furniflies me with 
an idea, which has great merit. **^It would be, fays he, 
of great advantage that rich men, inftead of breeding all their 
children to fome of the liberal profeflions, or to the army, or 
merchandice, or fonie of the more genteel mechanic employ- 
ments, would educate fome of them for agriculture. Maiiy 
things recommend fuch a plan ; could young gentlemen once 
be brought to a juft tafte of life, and to relilh fo ufeful an em- 
ployment *•" 

* This excellent conduft never being pradifed, I attribute 
to the unfuccefsfulnefs of fo many (in requeft of profit) gen- 
tlemen farmers : parents are fearful that their children's fortunes 
{hould be quickly fquandered upon a bufinefs in which the 
methodical forms, fo highly advantageous to trade, fuch as a 
regular apprenticeihip, and accounts, are totally overlooked. 
The few that hare applied to agriculture for profit, having 
been quite devoid of all previous knowledge, have moftly failed : 
-*Had they fo applied to law, phyfic, or trade, would it riot 
have been the fame ?— Why is more to be expeSed of agricul- 

* DifTertation on the Numbers of Mankind, p. 152. 

turc 

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aoo Motiro*/ Treaitfi on Mtmrat ff^aiehi 

ture than of any other bufinefs in the known world ? viz. Hiaf 
its profefTors are inftantaneoufly and by intuition to acquire a 
complete knowledge of it. Hence it is that no ridicule (and 
very juftly) is more frequent in the country, than that upon 
unfuccefsful gentlemen ^rmers. 

* It was the hope of preventing fuch ill fuccefs in future^ 
that partly animated me to the following underuking ; in 
which I flatter myfelf that I have ^proved hufbandry to be a 
moft profitable employment, and for conftderablc fums of mo- 
ney, when executed with knowledge, fpirit, and prudence :— 
lut I know not of any bufinefs wherein thefe are not requifite/ 

Having premifed the foregoing circumftances, the Author 
exprefles bis hope that thofe who read his book will not tod 
hafttly condemn thofe principles which may y firft appeal* cdn- 
tradi£tory to fome eftablifhed notions, but which^ on a little 
citamination, may be *foand nisichef inconfiftent with them* 
felves, nor incompatible with even common management. 

* If, fays hej I have proved the points which in my fubjcft 
tre of confequence to be clearly known, I flatter myfelf 1 have 
employed my time foriiewhat to the benefit of the community. 
One thing I muft be allowed to add^ which is — that I write 
merely from my own ideas : — not one book ever yet publifhed 
lias furniifaed me with a fingle page/ 

With rcfpcd to the general fubjeSs and principal points dif- 
cufied in thefe volumes, they afe briefly Enumerated in the fore- 
going copy of the ample title-page. 

. I X .' * — " i. 

Art. VI. J Treatife m Mineral Heaters. By Donald Manrbi 
M. D. Phyficlan to his Majefty's Army, F. R. S. &c. 8vo. 
2 Vols. IDS. 6d. Boards^ Wilfon, &c, 1770. 

THIS work (hould rather have been called a Cdmpilation 
' than a Treatife^ as it is collefted from what the Engliih, 
French, German, and Italian Authors have written on the fub- 
je£l of Mineral Waters. 

Dr. Monro has undergone the labour of perufing a great variety 
of Authors, and has methodically reduced, within a moderate 
compafs, what is diffufed through a great number of volumes. 
We (hall give out Readers the account of the waters at 
Spaw. 

* Spawis fitoat^din the biftioprick of Liege, feven feagae& foutli 
call from the town of Liege. 

* There are in and near co this place feveral fprings which aflbrd 
jfinc brilk chalybeate waters, which we fhall confider the more p«t^ 
^icularly, as they are the bell known and the moft drank ia Grest 
JPritain of any of the foreign mineral waters. 

* Dr. Lucas has given us the inx)ft particulars and feeroingly the beft 
analyils of thefe waten, and therefore we fliali here give an abfbafi 

from 

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Monf Q V tnattfe fijg Mineral Prater's L aof 

bom hi^ €i£iy ; aad, ^t the fame time» take notice in what he dif- 
fers from other authors who have wrote oo the fame fi^bje^ 
*- The moil remarkable waters ^t Spaw are, 

1, The Pohoun, iltpated in the middle of the vil^ige. - 

2, Snu^jfniert^ a mile and a half eaft from it. 
. 3. Grotfieck^ near (o the Sauveniere, 

4» Tomnelft, iituated a little to the left of the road to the Sauve^ 

5. WartrotCt near to the Tonnelet. 

6. Geronft^rre^ two miles fouth of Spaw. 

7. $aru or Ni'oifit^ in the 4iftnft of Sarts. 

S. Qbi<vrQn or Bru^ in the principality of Stavetot. 
9. 10. Couve and Bever/e. > 
- 14, Sig$f > All near Malmedy^ 

12, Ginmont. \ 

From tbefe we (ball fele& the 

POHOUW. 
^ The Pohonn being a flow deep fpring, its water is apt to fhew 
ttieif4ifiereatly ; but it may be looked upon to be in its 'mod per* 
fed apd natural ftate in cold dry weather, when it appears colour- 
lefs, pellocidy and inodorous ; aqd imprints a fub-acid chalybeate 
taftc with an agreeable fmartncfs on the mouths At fuch times 
whea lifted out of the well, it does not appear to fparkle, but 
covers the glaft on the infide with fmall air bubbles, after landing 
ibme littk tune ; however, if it be agitated, or poured out of one 
glais into aoother, k then fparkies. 

* In wet, or moift, and warm weather, the water of this fpring 
becomes wh^ifli and turbid, and (hews fewer air hubbies y and fome>- 
^mes a kind of murmuring noiie is heard in the well. 

'* It is, as we have already obferved, in its greateft perfe£fcion when 
taken up in cc4d dry weather; and though charged with mineral 
particles, is near as light as diftilled water : for Dr. Lucas fays, that 
a veflcl which weighed iix ounces, two drachms and forty-five grains, 
wIkb filled with diftilled water, only weighed one grain more when 
fiUed with Pohoun water ; but by ftanding till its volatile mineral 
Ipirit evaporated, it increafed two grains in its fpeciflc gravity. 

' The heat of the water was to that of the atmofphere, when ex- 
suaincd by Prints double tubed pocket thermometer, cpnfh-ufied on 
Fahrenhei^s fcale, as 52 or 53 to 6-jt and variations to 8^. 
r * Thia water, when expofed to a very gentle heat, fceros to boil 
aad throw up a quantity of air bubbles, as it does when put under 
the exhaufted receiver of an air pump. If thefe bubbles be viewed 
ISk the fun-beams, a little mill will be feen for fome Seconds over 
the . furface of the water, whence a cold air will be perceived to 
Mke, though the water be growing warm. 

* Thefe waters^ as well- as moft others of the chalybeate clais, 
have been called by the name of Acidulx, but Dr. Hofiinah thinks, 
that they fhould rather have been called Alkalicae, becaufe they 
ferment, or caufe an ebullition with acids, and turn fyrup of violets 
green-; however. Dr. Lucas has proved (if his experiments are &ith« 
fully i«lated) that they juAly deferve theaame QiAcidula^ 

RiVi Sept. 1 770, P * He 

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202 MonroV Trtatifi on Mineral tVaters. 

^ * He pot a tea-fpoonfu) of fyrup of violets to two okinccs of the 
Pohoun water» jud as i: was taken up from the fountain, and im* 
mediately upon mixture it flruck a rofe purple, which inftantly va- 
niihiogy lek it of a pale blue ; in a minute after k changed to a fea 
green, £rft on the furface, and prefently all over: till in about fif- 
teen minutes it appeared of a bright green, which gradually deep- 
"ened to a grafs green ; and. appeal^ io at the end of eight hours, 
and then ^re a fky coloured changeable pellicle. Dr. Lucas fays, 
that bv this experiment, we learn that the water as drawn from the 
fountain is impregnated with a fine volatile acid, which foon -flies 
off, and leaves the water in a neutral Hate, impregnated with irbn, 
and the fbfiil alkali, when it immediately tinges the wa^r of » green 
colour. . . 

* Dr. Limbourg, who publiflied an account of the Spaw waters in 
f7<74, fays (in p. 13^. §. 135.) that the fyrup of violets doeis not at 
iirfl give any fign of either acid or alkali, but that after iome time 
the alkali being difengaged from its acid, gives the fyrup a green 
€ol6ur. * 

' Dr. Lucas dipped a piece of paper, dyed with the toumfol, inix> 
the water taken immediately up irom the fountain ; it changed it 
firfl to a crimfon, and then to a pale red colour, which is only to 
be done by acids. 

* As a further proof of this predominant acid, he threw half an 
ounce of filings 0/ iron into a quart of water, as it was taken Iron 
the fountain, and immediately an extraordinary intefiine motion was 
produced ; and the water after this tinged more readily,^ as well as 
more deeply with the ihi'ufioh of galls, than it, did in its higheft per- 
fection at any time at the fpring. Upon filtrating the waur, and 
weighing the filings of iron, they were found to have loft abont fix 
grains or their weight. By allowing another quart of waner, with 
a like quantity of filings of iron in it, to remain in an open Ttflcl 
for eight days, it loft its property of tinging with galls and its <;ha« 
Ivbcatie tafte ; he then filtrated off the water, and found that the 
filings of iron were mixed with a fine ruft of iron, and had^ gained 
one grain in weight. The ruft or ochre which was mixed with the 
filings, he favs, was that part of the iron which had beendiflblved 
by the volatile acid joined to the natural iron of the water, both* of 
which had precipitated when the volatile acid of the wattr had 
evaporated. 

' < Dr. Limbourg (ibid page 89.) fays, if a piece of iron be throiyn 
into the Spaw water, that the acids of the water quit the original 
ferruginous particles that were diflblved in it, and attack the new 
piece of iron that is put into it, and preferves its quality of tinging 
with galls for fevcral days, even though expofed to the open air. 

* AH acids, both vegetable and mineral, raife an. inteftine 
motion with the Pohoun and other Spaw waters, 9ind the ftrong vi- 
triolic add caufes a ftrong fermentation, which has been brought as 
a proof of their being alkaline ; but Dr. Lucas obferves, that this 
fermentation 1: encireiy cccafioned by the fi.xed acids diftodgiog the 
volatile, with which the waters are impregnated ; which, he (ays, is 
evidently proved by no eUiilition following on the mixture of thefe 

a^ds. 

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MonfoV Treatife in MtmralWatiru 20 j 

•eids^ after the native volatile acid is evaporated, and the waters 
are more of an alkaline nature, than they were in their original 
ftate. 

* Upon mixing an alkaline ley with thi« water, no feniible ebuU 
lition was to be obferved, but there followed a precipitation of two 
diierent forti of matter, the one a white earth, the other an opaqu« 
ochre; and when the water which remained was evaporated, Dr. 
Lucas obtained a particular prifroatic chryilallized fait, which had a 
bitter nitrous taHe and appearance ; it hardly ftood the humidity of 
the air, and parted with a fubtile volatile fluid, both by the afFufion 
of the ftrong vitriolic acid, and by the force of fire, which, the 
Dodor fays, (hews the temporary union of a mofl volatile acid fluid 
with a fixed alkali *• 

' The recent Pohoun water, as well as all the other Spaw waters* 
curdles ivith foap, but mixes fmoothly with milk, whether it be cold» 
or of a boiling heat : and they kill fiflies put into them, in lefs than 
two minutes. 

* Ten pints of this water filled a large cucurbit, till within eight 
or ten inches of the top, which was put on a furnace, and a receiver 
being fitted to it, and properly luted, a fire was applied gradually.. 
The water fparkled and bubbleid with a crackling noife, and had all 
the appearance of boiling, long before the glafs was fcnfibly warmed ; 
the bubbles rofe three or foar inches above the farface of the water, 
and as the air and mineral fpirit efcaped, the watery particles fell 
■back again into the general mafs. This f^arkling, and bubbling, 
continued till the water fame near to a boiling heat, but after this 
they feniibly decreafed. By this time the water was in fome meafure 
decompofed ; it grew firft milky, and by degrees more and more 
turbid tiU it became quite muddy, and of a brown colour; but be- 
fore it came to this, a variegated pellicle arofe and covered the 
whole {krface of the water, and at the fides it coated the glafs with 
ochre. 

* tn the didillation it exhibited nothing different from common • 
water ; the fiiSi ounce that came over fhewed figns of being impreg— 
nnted with a volatile acid, by firiking a rofe purple with fyrup of 
Tiolets and blue paper, which foon vanifhed ; by curdling ibmewhat . 
a folution of (bap; by caufing a flight ebullition with a folution of. 
the volatile alkali ; and by turning milky with the folutiona of filver 
and J of lead. After two or three ounces had come ove^, it feemed' 
to differ little from fimple water, producing no perceptible effe£ls. . 

* The remaining^ liquor filtrat^, ibruck ablue, and then a green 
with the fyrup of violets. 

* • This (alt obtained by the mixture of a ^xqA alkali with the 
Pohoun watv* feems to be different from any got by a njixture of 
glkalies with any of the fixed acids ; and if the experiment is fairly 
related, it ih^ws that there is a greater difference between the fixed 
vitriolic acid, and what is faid to be a volatile vitriolic acid that 
exids in mineral waters, than is generally imagined. The fame atka* 
Unefah mixed with fpiric of vitriol would have produced a taitarus 
vittiolatui. 

Pi * Dr, 



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jtOJf. Monro'; Treatife on Mtrural Waters. 

* Dr. Limbourg, in his Treatifc on the Spaw Waters, tells us, 
that Mr, Chrouct, having diuiiled tjicfe waters in. a tin vcffei, found 
a (wect and white faccharum faturni in the capital, from the vok-. 
tile acid having eroded the tin, or rather the lead which was mixed 
uith it. And that Mr. Dc Prcfleaux obtained a liquor whith gave a 
purple colour to fyrup of violets : but hq adds, that he himfelf 
having repeatedly dilti lied this water (fee p. 87.) never could obtain 
any fuch liquor which gave proofs of an acid; but on the contrary, 
that the v\atcr which came over was limpid, infipid, and difagree- 
able, and changed the colour of the fyrup of violets flowly to a 
green : he fa.s, perhaps his having made too hafty a fire may have 
been the occaiion of his want of fuccefs in fcarching for an acid. 

' Ten pints of the water put over the fire in a large open veffwl, 
and let ftand till they cadie to a boiline^ heat, lofl their property of 
tinging with galls, and dropped all their iron in form of an ochreoui 
earth; they were then paffcd through a filtre, and the ©chrc being , 
feparated, was found to weigh about ten grains. 

* Upon evaporating this water, which had been deprived of its 
volatile and chalybeate principles, it at firft appeared to be full of 
minute flakes, like flowers of benzoin, and then threw up a pellicle, 
which brolce and funk to the bottom ; this pellicle was fuccecded by 
another, and that by a third, ^c. till the whole was reduced to Ary^ 
r!ft(s. The liquor, a? it was reduced to about an eighth or tenth 
part, appeared of a pale white wine colour. The reiiduum, when 

'dried, weighed twenty grains, which, when examined, was found to 
be compofed of an al'saline fait, and earth partly calcareous, partly 
feienitical ; and the whole coloured with an oily matter, common to 
all waters. 

* From the whole, we fee that this water is highly impregnated 
with a mineral fpiric and air ; and that twenty pints contain fuch a 
quantity of a fine acid, as is fufHcient not only to keep fufpended 
the principles with which it is impregnated, but likewife further to 
diflblve fixty grains of the filings of iron, beiidcs what of the fubtile 
acid may have evaporated, di^^ing the time of the operation. 

* The folid contents, which, Dr. Lucas fays, amount to aboat 
fixty grains in the twenty pints, are compofed of twenty grains of a 
martial earth ; twenty-two grains of other earths, of which thirteen 
grains are calcareous, nine grains feienite ; and eighteen of a fofitl. 
alkaline fait, which are mixed with a fmall portion of an oily 
matter. ' 

J * Dr.Ltmbonrg, .befides the principles here mentioned, fufpe^s a 
mixture of fea fait, and of a fmall portion of a Glauber fait; for 
he fays, the fait of this water thrown into fpirit of nitre, forms an 
aqua regia, and the tafle of the fait, and form of its chryftals give 
a fufpicion of its containing- a portion of a Glauber fait. Moll 
authors have allcdged, that all the Spaw waters contain likewife a 
fulphureous principle from their fmell ; but this is certainly no 
more than what is common almoil to all chalybeate waters, and 
a/ifes from a mixture of that fubtile vapour, which always accom- 
panies the folution of iron by the vitriolic acid» and hoc from a mix- 
ture of a true and fab&anud fulphur, 

*Dr. 

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MonroV Tnattfi pn Mitwral Wattrs^ 2oy 

* Dr. HuCty (vid* p. 323.) obfcrvcs, tkat the quantity of foHd 
contents, obtained b^ evaporation from the Pohoun water, variet 
^try confiderably at aiffercnt times : he fays, that a gallon yielded 
at one trial thirty-two grains, in a fecond thirty- feveh, in a third 
ibrty-eight, and in a fourth eighty.' 

We ihall add, what is colleftcd concerning the medic;d 
virtues 

Of Spaw Waters in general, 

* From' what has been faid of thefc celebrated waters of Spaw, it 
is evident, that they are all compounded of the fame principles, and 
of the fame materials, though in different proportions, and that all 
of them abound with a fine mineral fpirit and elaftic air; and con- 
tain more or lels iron, a calcareous and lelenitical earth, a foflil 
alkaline, and perhaps fome porrion of a marine fait, and an oily 
matter common to all waters ; which are all kept fufpended, 5if- 
folved, and in a neutral flate, by means of a fine volatile vitriolic 
acid. 

' From a review of their contents, we cannot imagine that tlieir 
virtues principally depend on the fmall quantity of folid matter's 
they coataip, but mud believe that thefe depend raolHy on theii: 
fubtile mineral fpirit and volatile vitriolic acid, diffufed througfi 
fuch a quantity of pure element, which is rendered mere a6live 
and penetrating, both in the ftomach and bowels, and when taken 
up into circulation and carried through the ^inuteft veffels and 
glands of the body, by means of that unall portion of iron, earth, 
fait, and oily matter with which they are impregnated. 

* A courfe of thefe waters has been found ufeful in cafes of an 
univerfal languor and wesknefs, which proceed from too great a 
relaxation of the ftomach, and of the fibres in general, and where 
the conftitution has been weakened by difcafes, or by too fedentary 
a way of life ; in weak relaxed grofs habits ; in the end of the goat 
and rheumatifm, where the conftitution needs to be repaired ; in 
fuch afthmatic diforders and chronic coughs as proceed from to6 
great" relaxation of the pulmonary veflels ; in cafes where the blood 
is too thin and putrefcent, occafioned'by irregularities, or by fcorbutid 
or other putrid diforders ; in hyfterical and hypocondriacal com- 
plaints, where the fibres are too irritable and. relaxed, and where thd 
habit in general needs to b^ reftorcd ; in paralytic diforders ;' in 
gleets ; in the fluor albus, and in other inordinate difcharges, which 
proceed from weaknefs, or too great a relaxation of any particular 
part ; in female obilrudlions, and in moil oxher cafes where a flrength- 
ening aiid brilk (limulating refolving chalybeate remejiy is wantedj 
and where there are no confirmed obilru6tions, or fo muph heat and 
fever as to contra-indicate their ufe. 

* But however ufeful they may be in fuch cafes, yet they are not 
fo in all ; for they commonly difagree, arid often do hurt where 
there is much heat and fever; in hedtic fevers, in ulcerations of the 
lungs, and of other internal parts, particularly where there is no 
free outlet to the matter, and in moft confirmed obllruftions attended 
with fever. 

* And they often do hurt in hot, bilious, and plethoric confHtu- 
tionij when ufcd before the body is cooled by proper evacuations. 

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206 MoTiToUTnatifi en Mineral TVaurs. 

* As the Spaw waters arc impregnated with different propcftbni 
of the fame ini^tenalsy the/ may be chofen differently according to 
the intentions we have in view. The Poboun is the moft charged 
with the iron » and at the fame time contains an alkaline fait and 
fuperabnndant acid, and abounds with a fine mineral fpirit. The 
To/inelrf and Gerenfterre are weaker chalybcates, but are briiker and 
rather more {piritous« The Grocjheck^ Sau*vemere, and WixrtrvKf are 
ftill weaker cnalybeates. The Sigt is an extremely weak chalybeate, 
but highly impregnated with a calcareous and felenitical earth, and 
contains a greater proportion of a mineral alkaline fait. And the 
Geromont is likcwife a weak chalybeate, and contains a great deal of 
calcareous and felenitical earth, and above three times as much al- 
icaline fait as any of the others. 

* The feafon for drinking the Spaw waters is in J[uly and Augoft. 

* The emptying the firS paflages is a neceflary preparation xp 
their ufe, as is bleeding in plethoric habits, and where there is much 
heat. 

* And in many diibrders, Dr* Lucas fays, warm bathing is 
amongft the bcft preparatives, efpecially with people of a rigid fibre ; 
ibr it foftens and relaxes the fibres, and removes obflru6Uons from 
the elandular and cutaneous vefTels ; and hence a courfe of bathing 
at Aix la Chapelle, or at Chaude Fontaine, is often premifed to a 
courfe of the Spaw waters, and in fome cafes of obffinate obilruc- 
tions, warm bathing is interpofed at proper intervals during the courfe ; 
however, the conflitution of the patient and the nature of the dif- 
order can only determine when this is proper. In other cafes where 
the„ fibres are too lax, the cold bath may be ufed'to aifift the opera- 
lion of the waters, and to forward the cure. 

* The quantity to be drunk mufl be different according to the age, 
the conilitution, and the other circumflances of the patient. They 
are taken from a^ill to three or four pints in the day, at repeated 
draughts ; and they arc commonly continued from three or four 
^yeeks to (\x or eight, or even to two or three months or iiiore. 

* When they lye cold on the ftomach, a few carvy feeds, or car- 
damoms, or other aromatic may be taken with them. And in i<ime 
jparticular cafes, a little yrann water may be mixed juft before 
prinking. 

* When a patient is coftivc, a little Rochelle or other falts, or 
fome grains of rhubarb may be mixed dccafiohairy with the firft 
ilaffes of the water in the morning. 

* Where there is too much heat, the faline draughts, fal poly- 
chrell; nitre, or vegetable acids may be given, and a cool rcgimon 
purfued while the patient drinks the waters. I have known ten, 
fifteen, twenty, or thirty drops of elixir of vitriol," taken two or three 
^mes a day in a glafs of Spaw waters, remove remitting and inter- 
mitting feverifh complaints, which had refifled the force of other 
remedies. And Dr. Lucas fays, that fometimes In lilcers of the kid- 
neys, and of thcbthcr internal organs, when there has been a free 
outlet to the matter, that a courfe of thefc waters has been found 
extremely ufeful iii Hrengthening and healing the ulcerated parts.' 



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^Gb^^t 



[ a07 ] 

Art. VII. A Botanical Diffionary ; or Elements (fSji/!ematk and 
PhilefTpbical Botany. Cimtaming Defcriptiom of the Paris of 
Plants ; an Explanation of the fcientific Terms ufed by Morifon^ 
Rayy Tournefort^ Linmeus^ and other eminent Botanijis j a Iref 
Analyfis of the principal SyJIems in Botany \ a critical Enquiry into 
the Merits and DefeSfs of the Linnaan Method cf Arrangement 

' and Dijlribution of the Genera ; Defcripiitns of the various Tribes^ 
'or natural Families of Plants^ their Halnt and StruSfure^ Fir" 

• tuesj fenjible ^alities^ and a^conomical Ufes ; an impartial Exa^ 
mination of the Doctrine of the Sex of Plants ; with a Difcujjion 
of feveral curious ^eftions in the vegetable Oeconomjy conneSfed 
with Gardening. , The Wh:h forming a complete Syjlem of Bota^ 
nical Knowledge^ calculated for the Ufe of Students in that Science. 
By Colin Milne, Reader on Botany and Natural Hiftory in 
London. i2mo. 5 s. Boards. Griffin. 1770. 

THIS work is dedicated to the Duke of Northumberlan^f. 
The Author had been appointed to aflift Lord Algernoon 
Percy in his itudies, and, during that time, applied himfelf 
diligently to the fcience of plants. The Dictionary he here 
offers to the world appears to be compofed with great attention 
and care; it contains a variety of valuable and entertaining ex- 
plications and obfervations. on this curious branch of knowledge^ 
and is likely to be very beneficial to thofe who chufe to Employ 
themfelves in thefe innocent and pleafing enquiries. 

Mr. Milne takes notice of, and explains, many particulars 
relative to various plans that have been adopted in this pirt of 
fcience ; but while he prefers fomc to others, he is not fo ri- 
gidly attached to any as not, when there is occaiion, to object 
to fome parts, or differ from the mod confiderable names, if it 
is to b^ done with juftice and reafon. The forming a proper 
method for the due arrangement of plants and vegetables, fo 
\ery neceffary for making advances in this (ludy, has been a 
matter of prodigious difficulty. Our countryman Ray*propofed 
ai method extremely elaborate, which, fays this Writer, * collefts 
ipore natural claffes than any artificial fyilem I am acquainted 
with ;' it is however, he adds, * extremely difficult in practice, 
and therefore ftudied more for curiofity than ufe. It would 
have fucceeded better, fays Mr. Adanfon, if Ray had been as 
great a botanift, as he was a learned writer and judicious com- 
piler.' 

. The fcheme afterwards publilhed by Pjtton de Tournefort, 
receives great and juft applaufe from our Author; though he 
does not fpeak of it as equal to that of Linnaeus. 
. * That Linnaeus's method, he obferves, at firft gained but 
little approbation was certainly owing to the great reputation 
which Tournefort's h'ad obtained, and which nothing but the 

P 4 bigheft 

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2o8 Milne*/ Aiianical DiSlmarf. 

bigfaeft fenie of fo^rior ingenuity, dnerit, and induftiyv cetdd 
pofTiblydiminifli. .Without entering at prefent into the detail - 
of the refpedtive merits of thefe two illuftrious botanifts, let 
us endeavour to derive inftrudlion from the divcrfity of their 
principles and methods* The order of nature is alone without 
imperfedion : but that order we have not yet been able to ^e- 
te£t. Every artificial method has neceflarily defeats, voi()st 
and obfcure points/ But two methods, fuch as thoie of Tour- 
nefort and Linnasus, fo well conceived, fo judicioufly executed, 
and founded upon c^fervation, muft enlighten each other mu- 
tually. They cannot err on the fame fubjcd \ if the one wan- 
ders but for a moment, the other immediately fees him in the 
right path. A multiplicity of methods and obfervations com- 
pared together, leads us to diftinguifli plants under a great 
number of relations,, and confequently.conduds u$ with greater 
cafe to their knowledge/ 

Mr. Milne entirely agrees with Linnaeus as to the dpflrine 
oT the fexes of plants, which he thinks is fupportcd by incon- 
teftable arguments, and wants only the confirmation of farther 
experiments to gain univerfal belief. A brief hiftory is given 
of this dodlrine, which, in fome degree, is to be traced to the* 
time of Theophraftus ; and alfo an agreeable view of the ar-' 
guments againft or in its favour, which will both inftruft and 
. entertain ihofe who wilh for fome acquaintance with thefe fub*- 
jefts. Under the term capriJicaUo (from capricusy a wild fig;)^ 
be relates the very lingular manner in which fecundation is, 
in this inftance, effefted. In fig trees, we are told, there is' 
no communication between the male and female flowers, they ' 
are inclofed within the fruit : but it is faid, * ar very fmall kind 
of gnat, of a black colour, no where to be fecn but about thefe 
trees (he fpeaks of thofe growing in the iflands of the Archi- 
pelago, &c.) makes a pun<51ure into the figs, at the time of 
their flowering, and there depofits, along with its eggs, the 
duft or fecundating vapour of the ftamina of the male or wild 
fig, in which it bad been formerly inclofed.' He adds an ac- 
count of the advantage which the inhabitants of the Archipelago 
inake of this obfervation ; and proceed^ to anfwer this queftion, 
** How happens it that the fruit of our fig-trees ripen if the 
flowers are of one fex only, and have no afliflance from the 
male; for it is liot pretended that there are any male fig-trees 
in this country ?" — To this he replies, that fruit not thus im- 
pregnated often, drops off before it ripens, but though it may 
neverthelefa fwell ahd come to an appearance of perfeflion, as 
it certainly does, yet the feed of this fruit will not vegetate 
when fown, and therefore fig-trees in this country caq only be 
Propagated by layers, fuckers, or cuttipgs. 

This 

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Miln€*j Bfianicat Dt^^$rtitry, ^ iM. 

Thrs eafrtficatlon^ w it is termed, he confiders i% a ftrong 
argument in fupport of the doctrine of L/innaeus. But though 
he affcnts tb fii5 doftrine, and fpeaks highly bi his fexual ryiteoi 
as refined and ingenious, and eftablifhed by indefatigahle'iifbo. rj 
be alfo feys, Vhen he gives an analyfis of this fyftem, that * its 
principal merit h in its uniformity. — Its facility, whrch has, 
been fo highly extolled by fonw, exifts only in theory ; for in 
pradice it is found to be of all others the moft difHcuIt and in- 
tricate. None of the clafles are complcatly natural, though 
ftmrc might have been rendered fuch without any material 
violence to the principles, of the method/ 

We fhall finifli this article with an extraft from what is (aid 
concerning the fenfitrve plant, virhich falls here unde. the term 
kmentacaa ('from hmtnium^ z colour ufcd by painters) which' 
name is alloned 'bedaafe many of the genera fn this order fur- 
nifh beautiful tinftures that are much ufed in dying : the par- 
ticular genus of the order, to which the iacacia, &c. with the 
fcnfitive plant are afligned, is called mimofa. After feveral ob- 
fervarfons upon it, drawn from experiments which the Author 
himfelf or others have made, We have the following account : 
' Different from all the kinds of fenfitive plants hilhcno 
known is tho d'tomsd fnufcipula^ or Venus's moufeirap ; a plant 
which has juft been difcovered in thefwamps of North Amcrida^ 
and is now in the poflcffion of that very eminent botanift iVtr. 
James Gordon, nurferyman at Mile-End. The plant is of 
very low growth, and rifes with a naked ftalk : it is garni£hed 
at the bottom with eight or nine fimple leaves with winged 
fbot-ftalks, which proceed immediately from the' root. In t^e 
figure and fenfibility of thefe leaves confiits the oddity of the 
plant. Each leaf is almoft round, but furniflieJ at its ma gin 
with a fet of long teeth, or feelers, not unlike the anicnme or 
horns of many infe£ls. This leaf, as I faid, runs out into a 
foot ftalk, which is not of equal breadth throughout, but en- 
larges towards the top. Upon touching the leaves in cold- 
weather no fenfible contraftion enfues ; in warm weather, and 
particularly at noort, it is very ftrong. But what is moft re- 
markable of this plant is, its rare way of deftroying flies and 
other infe£ts which approach it, A fly no fooner touches the 
upper furface of the leaf than the two lobes approach and crufh 
tnc-infcil to death ; the teeth or feelers at the margin no doubt 
contributing to haften that event. I have myfelf, frequently,* 
with wonder, fcen this experiment fucceed. No accurate trials 
have yet been made with refpeft to the intenfity of the con- 
tradion at different times, and the difference of aptitude or dif- 
pofition rn the plant to recover its former dire<Sion. To con- 
dude, the caufe of this and the other motions of plants is 
laerely external. The inotions thcrafelves, therefore, are not 

fpontaneous. 

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tio Hill MT tbi CtnflruQm ofTtmbtr. 

(pontaneous, as in perfed animals, which have that caufe Ac* 
pendant on their choice and will. 

, * The negroes in Senegal call a large fpecies of feniidve 
plant, which grows in that country, guerackiao ; that is, good- 
morrow ; becaufe, fay they,* when you touch it, or draw near 
to fpeak to it, the plant immediately inclines its leaves to wi(h 
you, as it were, a good morrow, and to Qiew that it is feniible 
of the politencfs done to it. In the fame country is produced a 
f)nall fenfitive plant, that is rampant, not fpinous, and which 
Mr. Adanfon affirms to be infinitely more delicate and fenfible 
than all the other fpecies.' 

*»* Of the Hlflolre Natural de Senegal^ par M. Adanfon^ our 
Readers have bad two accounts ; firft as a foreign article. Rev. 
vol. xviii. p. 473 J afterwards we gave a farther view of this 
furious work from the EngUfh tranflation of it. Rev. voU xx. 
P-364- 

Art. Vm. neConftru^ionof Timber from its earfy Growth I ex^ 
plained by the Aftcrofcope^ and proved from Experiments in a great 
l^ariiUf of Kinds : in five Books. On the Parts of Trees i their 
Veffels ; and their Encreafe by Growth ; and on the different Dif 
pofttion of thofe Parts in various Kinds ; and the P articular ittet 
in ih'eir Feffeis. With Figures of their various Appearances ; of 

' the Injlrument for cutting them ; and of the Microfcope through 
which they were viewed. By John Hill, M, D. Member of 
the Imperial Academy. Folio. Roval Paper, 1 1. 5 s. in 
Sheets. Printed for the Author, and fold by R. Baldwin, 
Becket, &c. 1770. 

THIS diligent enquirer into the arcana of Nature, here 
offers to the public the refult of feveral curious refearches 
and experiments which he had privately made, and which alfo 
be has exhibited before feveral fpedators. What is propofed in 
this work is, to fbew the conftrudion of timber, thie number, 
nature, and offices of its feveral parts, and their various arange- 
ments and proportions in the different kinds : and thefe difqui- 
fitions are made, not merely as a matter of amufement, but 
with the view of pointing out a way of judging, from the ftruc- 
ture of trees, the ufes they will beft ferve in the affairs of life | 
and of adding fomething to their ftrength. 

In profccuttng thefe enquiries with tolerable exadnefs, it 
was necefTary to have feveral pieces of difierent kinds of wood of 
an extreme thinnep; alfo magnifying powers, very great and 
very clear: the Author has therefore thought it vain to lead 
men into an attempt of following his experiments, without firft 
acquainting them with the machine by which the pieces were 
cut, and the microfcope through which they have been viewed. 
T^be cjvtting engine is^ we are told, an invention of tl^ it^- 

Aioua 

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Hill M the CanJlruSlton ofTi^htm 4if 

-Hious Mr. Cummings. The two or three firft were perfcfted 
innder bis owQ hand, and they are now made for general ufe hj 
- J4r. RamAlen. The microfcppe was made, it is faid, by dire^ion 
0f the noble perfon who is pleafed to be the patron of this work^ 
#ih1 its Author *$ by Mr. Adams in Fleet-ftreet. Each of thefe 
inftruments, with the method of ufmg them, is particularljr 
d^fcribed, and plates of them are annexed for the farther infar* 
inatton of the inquifitive Reader. 

The compofition of wood, the Dodlor tells us, is beft leeii 
in a (hoot of two years and a half growth, and the moft diftind 
and pleafing view of the feveral parts, as they lie together, it 
(o b^ qbtaip^ by placing a very thin llice, cut tranfsrerfely from 
fiich a (hoot, before the fifth glafs of the refleding microfcope. 
/The whole flicc confifts of feveral concentric circles, of different 
fubftance. With vefiels alfo of different kinds, interfperted among 
them. The parts are thefe : i. the rind ; 2. the bark; 3. the 
blea ; 4. the wood; 5. the corona, or circle of propagation | 
45. the pith. Thefe lie imm^iately within, or under one an- 
other ; and in, among, or between thefe are difpofed the vefleb 
which feed the whole, and fome of which contain the juices 
that give the tree its peculiar qualities and virtues.— -The tree, 
it is added, in which thefe feveral circles lie in the happieft way 
fpr pbferuation, is the fcarlet oak of America* If a flice be on 
from a two years and a half ihoot of this tree, in May, tbe 
parts and veffels enumerated, — will be feen with great diftind- 
xitb and precifion. Where this tree is not at hand, fuch m 
flice of the common Engliih oak will very well fupply its place^ 
the parts lying very nearly in the fame manner. 
• The firft book minutely confiders thefe conftituent parts of 
timber as mentioned above, and is concluded with the follow* 
ing wcwrds : * Thus ends the examination of the feveral conftt- 
t^nc parts of timber. Thefe are all: they are efKrnrial ; for 
they are found, in all kinds; ^and they are here reprefented as 
they have appeared, m repeated obfervations to the Author, 
•to his noblj^ patron, and to many aflemblies of philofophic 
frieiKls. Nothing \% enlarged, nothing altered from what the 
fight received ii> thofe feveral views : if in any part that has 
been yet deceived t» let it not he imputed to purpofed roifre- 
preTentation. Nothing is feigned ; if in any thing he has erred. 
Reader ! thou art a tpaO) anq p^rdpn human frailty/ 

• Wb fuppofe the Earl of Bute is the perfen here meant 1 but there 
Is no dedication, nor infcription of the work, printed with it : at 
Ifeafl, tlicie is none in the copy now before us. 
' t This part xiH the paragraph ieems to he fomewhat obfcurely ex« 
piefied ; but the words are the Author's. 

r- - - I - •- . ... . . . I.. . ^ r^^ 

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its CavcrhHTi Experiments ^k Heat In Kvlng Animals. 

The fecond book examines the vcflels of trees, the tliird their 
encreafe by growth, the fourth confiders the different di^po^ 
fitlon of the parts in various trees, and the fifth and laft, the 
particularities obfervable in the veflels of trees. All (hefe fui^- 
jeds are accompanied by a number of copper- plates, which 
feem to be very carefully executed, to explain and illuflrate 
them. 

The enquiry and the obfervations refulting from it, are, no 
do'ibt, highly curious and entertaining, and may poffibly be ap- 
plied to public utility in the affairs of life; but we could have 
"wiHicd to have feen this point more particularly confidered and 
evinced ; which, perhaps, this'affiduous naturalift nwy do, in the 
ct>nrfc of his farther publications. 

Art^ IX. Experiments on the Caufe of Heat in living Animals^ 
and Velocity of the nervous Fluid, By John Caverhill, M. D. 
M. R. C. P. F. R. S. 8vo. is. 6 d. Scott, Noteman, &c. 
1770. 

WH E N a man of ingenuity ftrikes out a new phyfiolo- 
gical theory on any particular fubjed, he feldom re- 
m^rns long contented with confining his new principles to the 
f«>le purpofe for which he found it convenient to aflume them. 
In the Author's Treat ife on the Gout, publiibed laft year, he 
propofed a fmgtilar fyftem to account for the produAion of that 
diftempei*. It is one part of his bypothef>s that the arthritic 
challc-ftones are compofed of earth, fecreted in the brain for 
the fupport of the folids, which * defcends through the nerves 
in a highly diluted ftate, and pafles through the mufcles to the 
bones, where it naturally is depofited,^ and conftitutes the offi* 
fi^k matter ; and that the fwelling by which a gouty paroxyijai 
is generally terminated, is partly produced by the extravalatioa 
of this fuppofed earthy fubftance, iflliing out from the extre«> 
mittes of the ruptured nerves. ♦ ' 

This nervous earth the Author has pitched upon as ithe imv 
mediate caufe producing animal heat, by its mechanical attri* 
tion or frifVion againft the fides of the nervous tubes through 
wbich it pafTes. Defirous of finding fome method of verifying 
this ftrange fuppofition, it occurred to him that if animal heat 
was produced in this manner, an animal deprived of tbe hii> 
•fiucnce of a certain number of nerve$, muil of confequence be 
deprived of the ihare of heat produced by them. He accord* 
iogly fell to work upon this idea, and, in a longcourfe of ex* 
periments on living animals, deftroyed a qonfiderable numbef 
of nerves in each, or otherwife cut off their communic^ation 
with the brain ; and, by means of the tbermooDCter, diiipoveref 
- - • that 

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Caverhiiri ExperiminU/on He^ in living Jninials. ar j 

th^t the animals bccaitie colder aft^r the operatioiit whiph like* 
wife fooner 6r later brought on the death of the fubjeia. 
. Without mjf-fpending ovr own or our Reader's tinjc with a 
Ipng or formal refutition of the Author's inconfequentiai de* 
dudtions from his experiments, wetihall obfervp that if the 
Dodor, inftead of deftroying part of the nerves of all thcfe ani- 
mals, had at once mercifully cut off the head of any one of 
the miferable vidlims to this hypothefis, or had taken out its 
brains, the cold which would very foon have followed either of 
thefe operations, would have fumiih^d nearly as firong a proof 
of the rruth of this fyftem, as that which was the confequencc 
of a partial deftru<Stion of the nerves in his numerous expori«« 
onents. By means of the nervous influence, fenfation^ mufcu^ 
Jar motion, in fhort, all the aniqfial fundlions and their ef{eda,and 
0(»nfequently heat among the reft, are either immediately pro- 
duced, or arc nearly or remotely aflTeded : hut furcly it,d£K& 
not neceflTarily follow, becaufe an animal becomes cpldcr after 
the deftruflion of a confiderable part of its nerves, that there- 
fore animal heat is immediately produced by them, much Jefs 
t^at it is generated by chalk, or any other earth or fubftance, 
ruBblrig' againft the fides of thefe canals. 

Were we, for argument's fake — though we are almoft aflianied 
tb befto^ art argument upon the fubjed — to grant that the 
Author's fwppofed nervous earth were as hard as flint, and the 
nervous canals as rigid as fteel, fome fmart percuflion, or con- 
fiderable velocity^ would be rcquifite to produce heat, from their 
ma!ual attrition : but the Author, who docs not in other rc- 
fpefts feem deficient in ingenuity, has neverthelcfs moft unac- 
countably ^ut it out of his power to avail himfiflf of thefe very 
liberal tonteifions of outs : for in the laft chapter, in which he 
treats of the velocity bf the nervous ^uid (as he fometimes in- 
GOfifSftetitly terms it) be infers from the experiments there re- 
latM, that it moves only at the rate of about one inch in twenty^ 
fmr hmn ;— fo that iii a man of the middle fize, for inftance, 
this fluggifh, frigid matter muft take more than two months 
ill ftfcepiiig h-om hi^ brain to his great toe !— -A fnail would 
make the complete tour of the globe, and (to borrow a part of 
the Author's theory for a moment) would fet it on fire as he 
wc*t along, before this nervous matter had crawled over the 
tenth part of a degree. 

We chim no fmall degrfee of rterit with our Readers in hav- 
ing, for their information, read the numerous and cruel ex- 
periment^ related in this pamphlet throughout ; the pcrufal of 
which wa^ attended with a continual ihudder at the repeated 
recital of fuch a number of inftances of the moft deliberate and 
unrelenting iiruelty, exercifed on feveral fcores of rabbits, ia 
order to afccrtain the truth of this ftrange and" extravagant by- 
: pothefis. 

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SI4 Trie&Iey^s Jddiitions ts the Hi/lory^ He. of EU&rtctij. 

potbcfit. At tvtry page we read of awls ftuck between the 
tfetubra^ and into the fpinal marrow of living rabbits, who ex- 
liibity at the time, every fymptom of exquiiite pain, and live 
ID, 12, and even 19 days afterwards : their bladders fometimea 
burfiing, in confeauence of their lofing the power of expelling 
the urine accumulated in them, unlefs when the unfeeling 
operator, not out of tendernefs, but to protra£l the miferable 
life of the fufFering animal as long as poi&ble, in order to ren- 
der the experiment more complete, thought proper to prefs it 
out, from time to time, with bis hands. — But we fpare the fen- 
fibility of our Readers, which muft be already hurt by this 
brief relation of thefe immoral experiments, as we think we may 
jufily term them : for furely there are moral relations fubfifting 
between man and his fellow-creatures of the brute creation ; 
and though drovers and draymen do not attend to or refped 
them, Jt oecomes.not philofophers, much leis phyficians, thus 
Sagrantly to violate them, 

■■ ■ ■■ ■ II ■■■■■■< I !■ — — ■ ■ )■ ■ . 

Art. X. Additions to the Hiftory and pnfent State of Ele£tricity^ 
• with original Experiments. By Jofeph Prieftley, LL. D. 
F.R.S. 4to. as. 6d. Dodfley^&c. 

TH £ Additions which the very ingenious Author of the 
Hidory of £le6lricity has made to that work, and in*. 
lert'ed into their proper places in (he fecond edition of it, pub i 
liflied fome time ago, he has here printed feparately for the be \ 
nefic of thofe who are poflfefled of the iirft edition. Each of 
thefe additional articles is accordingly marked with the num- 
ber of the page to which it ftands related in that work. The 
fir(i part of thefe additions contains the fubftance of various 
eledtrical obfervations and experiments, principally extraSed 
f/om foreign books which are very little known in England, 
and which have been communicated to the Author in confe- 
cjuenceof the requeft which he made for that purpofe at the 
end of his Hiftory. The majority of thefe articles are taken 
from works written In the Gernian tongue, with wbieh few of 
the literati in this country are acquainted. To acquire a know- 
ledge of their contents, the Author moft courageoufly, and very 
meritoriqufly, undertook the ta(k of learning that crabbed lan- 
guage. The new materials with which he was hereby fupplied, 
he obferves, though not of the iirft importance, are, many of 
them, very curious, and have amply repaid him for his trouble 
in learning it. We may venture, on the behalf of the nume- 
rous cultivators of this branch of fcience in this country, to re- 
turn thanks to the fpiritcd and indefatigable Author for fo 
ftriking a proof of his zeal, and of bis attention to the propa-/ 
gat;oa or diiFufton of it. 

Thefe 

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Ftrgufoii*^ IntroiuQioH t9 E&Brkkj^ (^'c, 21 f 

' Thefe mifcellineous additions are followed by three fedions 
of original experiments made by himfelf. In the firft are re- 
laced thofe in which all the prifmatic colours were produced 
on* the fur&ces of metals, by ftrong eledrical explofions, and 
of which we have already given a Oiort account in our laft 
volume [June, page 420.] extrafled from the 58th volume of 
the Philofophical TranfaSions, where they were firft publifhed. 
The next fedion contains a concife relation of certain appear- 
ances, which, though perfcdiy analogous to fome of the known 
effeds of lightning, feem hitherto to have efcaped the notice of 
eledricians, and which arc produced by what the Author terms 
^ the Jaural ffrce of an eledrical cscplofion, on bodies phced in 
the neighbourhood of its path. In the ladd is given an account 
of feveral curious experiments, made with aviewof dctcrminmg 
the diredion, force, and other affedtions of the eledric matter, 
ia its courfe through, or over the furfaces of, bodifs. The 
Reader, in particular, will here meet with one very (ingular 
experiment (which fumiflies an exception to, or at leaft a mo- 
dification of, an univerfally received ele^rical axiom) in which 
the dedric explofion forces a pafTage even through air, at the 
£ime time that a perfed and continued metallic circuit of na 
great length is open to it. 

■ ' — ■ ■ ' H 

\ Art. XI. jfn Inirsdu^Jkn to EU^rUity^ &c. lUufirattdwithCcp^ 
[ - P^r-pl^^^* By James Fergufon," F. R. S. 8vo. 4 s. Ca- 
dell. 1770. 

THIS little treatifc, as the Author modcftly and very pro- 
perly obferves, ♦ is written chiefly for thofe who fcarce 
know how to make the common ele£trical experiments, or-^how 
to keep a machine in good order for that purpofe.' It is di« 
vided into fix fe£lions ^ in the firft of which he gives a very 
(hort account of eledricity in general. The fecond and third 
contain a defcription of the elciSlrical machine, in wfilck the 
globe is put in motion by wb^el work, and of the apparatus 
belonging to it. Under this laft head the Author defcribeg 
and delineates three fmall models of machines which he 
has execBtedi th^ firft rcprefents a clock, which (hews the 
apparent diurnal motion of the fun and nrKx>n» and the moon's 
age and phafes -, the fecond is a kind of orrery, (hewing the 
earth's diurnal motion, the moon's age, &c. and the third is a 
model of a common mill for grinding corn. Thefe little ma- 
chines, however, have no other relation to eledricity than as 
they are put in motion by the blaft proceeding from the point 
ofan eledrified body. A few diredions are given in the fourth 
fediion with regard to keeping an electrical machine in order; 
In the fifth he defcribes feveral of the common evper)ment?i 
and clpfes the work with a (hort account of mejlical tledrictty. 

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2 1 6 Fci^u fon*/ Introdu&lon to EkSrjdtj^ iic. 

One member of the electrical apparatus defcrihcd kk this 
book, is new to us, and merits a £hor( dcfcription.. It ii tho 
invention of the ingenious Dr. Lind, and is caJkd the Thuffder^ 
bo.^je.^ The intention of it is to illufttate the manner by iirbich 
buildings receive damage from ligbtnLng» and to evince cbo 
utility of metallic conduftors in preftrring them from it*. In a 
flat board of wood, half an inch tbick, mapied fo as Co rcprc-* 
^nt the gable-end of a houfe, a fq.uare hole a quarter of an 
inch deep, and three quarters wide, is cut, which receives a 
fquare piece of wood of the fame thickne& with the depth of 
|he hole, and of fuch a fize as to go eafily into it* A wirc^ 
with a knob at the upp^r eitd, extends fcom^ the top of cbo 
gablc-bpard to one of the upper corners of the hole; while 
another, wire is extended from cbe oppofite corner to the hot* 
torn of the board. Another piece of wire is likewrfe laid in to 
the jittl€«fquare piece of wood in a diagonal direction. If ths 
latter be placed within the hole in <4ch ^ manner, as x\k7t the 
three wires form a continued met^Hc conxmunication from the 
top to the bottom of the board, the charge of a jar pafles hann"» 
ledy from one extren»ity of it to the other, without difoooipo-* 
fing the apparatus, in the leaft : but. if the fquare piece be turned 
one quarter round, fo that there be a dtfcontiouity ofthclwire^ 
on the exploiion of the jar it is driven with violence out of the 
hole, to a notable diftance from the gaUe-board. 
. This e;cpeximent^ we (hall obfervc, eadiibits a very txz&. re- 
prefentation in miniature of one of the appearances noticed by 
R^Ir. Wilfoa, in his account oi the effeflrs of the Jigbtning on 
Bt, Bride's church ♦ j where one ftone^ in particular, of 70 

f>Qun<Js weight, was, by the eleSrical exploGon, dfiveiv out 
fom the fleeple, and projeded 150 feet from thence, lb as to 

jfall through the roof of a houfe at that diftance from it.-- > 

We would advife the gentlemen of that pariHi to makic a 
party to Mr. Fer^fon*^ (who gives lefiures on electricity, and 
other branches cf experimental philofopby) to view Dr. Lind's 
thunder 4}ouje flruck Jby artificial lightning, firft in a cooduSiog, 
and then in a non*condu6ling (late, and to mark the diflFeient 
appearances. This experiment fpeaks (o ti^ cye^ as weUbas to 
the underflanding \ and we therefore recomtnend it to tJbeir in^ 
ipe£lion.— And Ihould cither of the worfliipful wardens, or any 
of the gentlemen of the veftrv, live within 15.0 or 200 fee^ 
horizontal diftance,. from the Ipire of St. Bride's, we own that, 
till fomething is done in this bufinefs, and thia great atid un« 
provided Thunder-house is put into a coeduding date, we 
0iall, for more reafons than one, be under muich concern foi 
their heads. 

• Philofophical Tranfadionsy vol. liv. page 232. 

3 Art. XII. 

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t i»7 ] 

Art. XIT. Dtrenlons for bringing over Seeds and Plants from ihif 
Eaji Indies y ^and other dijiant Countries ^ in a ^t ate of Vegetation^ 
i^c* To which are added y the Figure and Botanical Defer ipt'ion 
of a new Senfitive Plants &c. By John Ellis, F. R. o. 4ta,' 
2S. Coloured 3 s. Davis. ^ '770' 

JN this ufeful and well intended, publication, the ingenious 
Author gives inftrudions to captains of (hips, fea^fucgeons^ 
or other curiQus perfons, with regard to the beft means of col- 
letting feeds and plants in diftant countries, and of preferving 
them during the voyage hither, or to our American colonies, 
in a vegetating ftate. He takes notice of the difappointments 
ivith which many of the attempts of this kind have beep at- 
tended, ir\ve(ligates fheir probable caufes, and points out the 
propereft methods of fiicceediag. We have already mentioned 
the Authpr> fuccefs in pre^rving the acorn in » ftate fit for 
vegetation, througl^ut thj^ feafon, by coating it with wax *• 
The g(eat variety of^for^^n vegetable productions, ufeful in 
medicine, die|:, or the arfe^ require, as may naturally be fup-. 
pofed, different kinds of jnanagement and precautions in their 
colleflioii and pr&(eryation, adapted to their refpedjve qualities. 
As we cannot. but conclude that thofe \yho may be in a capa- . 
city of fecoi^ding the. Author's views, will pot fail to confult 
the paqnphlec itfelf,, we fhall Qot particularize any of^thefe di- 
re^lops, — which are terminated by a catalogue of about four- 
icofe plaiits, apcompanied with ihort but ufeful obfervations 
demoting |heir place of ;growfh, niethod of culture, ufe, &c« 
Thefe articles may be. coi)fid€red as fo many botanical deftderata^ 
many of which the readers of this publication may, by the in- 
flrut^ons here gjven, l>e enabled to fupply. 

As a n^atter of general curiolity, wc cannot pafs over the. « 
deTcription of a newly difcovered j'enfttive planty contained in a 
letter from the Author to Linnaeus, at the end- of this work. 
The plant is a native of the fwannps in North Carolina, and has 
lately been introduced alive, in confiderable quantities, into this 
country, where it is like]y to become a fettled inhabitant of, 
biir' garden*. It is here tqrmed Diomsa Mufcipula^ or Venus' s fly* 
trapy and appears, from the Author's account of it, to be the,^ 
moft animated of all tKe fenfitive tribe of vegetables. Its fenfi- 
bilt^, or perhaps irritability rather, exifts in its leaves ; each 
of which exhibits, in miniature, the figure of a rat-trap with 
teeth, clofing on every fly or: other unfortunate infefl, who is. 
tempted to tafte the fweet liquor, which is fuppofed to be fe- * 
creted in certain minute red glands that cover its inner furface. 
But before it has bad time to tafte it, . the, lobes of the 

*. Monthly Review, March 1770^ p. 191* 
Rev. Sept. .77b. : •• . <i. ■•;;,,-,,Go6|^^""- •^' 



a 1 8 BaretcFi Joume^from lonion t9 Gema, ifc. 

kiives rire up» and inclofe and grafp the tnv;u)ec ; while all his 
efforts to difengage hinifelf are rendered fr^itlefs, and h^ is C>ofi 
deprived of his forfeited life by the adion of three finall ^rcft 
'fpines, fixed near the middle of each lobe, which efledually 
puts an end to ill his ftruggles ^ Nor do the leaves, we are 
told, ever open again white the dead animal continues there/ 
The pldnt, however, is not poflefled of fufficient intelKgcnc^ 
to diftingdih an ammal from a vegetaMe or mineral {tibftaace; 
for it will inclofe and gfafp a iir»w<>r a pin as ftrongly as an 
ihfca. 

The Author fuppofes that, in the conftrudton and motivf 
powers of the leaves of this plant, nature may hare bad feme 
¥iew towards its nourtfliment^ by forming th^ upper joii^t of 
t^ch leaf like a fnochine to catch food, and by having laid S 
bait upon the middle of it to entice the imhappy infed diat 
becomes its prey. In ibort, according to his idea, %re mav 
eonfider the Dionaa Mufdpuhi^ as a carwvorous vigitaUi. 

There is undoubtedly greatfcope for conjcdure in our en- 
quiries into final caufes, or in our endeavours lo afcertiin the 
intentions of Nature in- many of her operations. That whicl^ 
the Author fuggefts, mav be f he true one : while it may, per* 
haps, be equally probable that Nature has armed and animated 
this phtnt in this manner, merely for the prefenration of its 
blood and juices agatnft the depredations ot infers \ and we 
may accordingly eonfider its motions as the exertions of a kind 
of vegetable i^irUi^ if we may be allowed the expreffion, and 
29 the refult of a principle of feif^prefervation, with which the 
fiibjeds of the vegetable, as well as the animal, kingdom ap- 
pear evidei>t)y to be endued. 

Art. XIII. A Jwmey from London ta Genoa^ ikrougb EngUmdy 
Bortugal^ Spattt^ emd France. By Jofeph Barecti, Secretary fos 
Foreign Correfpondence to the Royal Academy of Painting, 
Sculpture, and ArchiteAure. Svo* 4 Vols* ifrs* feviroi^ 
Davies, 2cc. 1770. 

• T HAVE not a better apology to offer, fays tjiis Author, in 

* J his pre£ace, for my confidence in prefenting this enlight- 
ened natron with thefe volumes, than tfaa^ the accoumt of 
Spain hitherto puUtftied in the Engliih famgu^|e, are in geno*. 
ral adjudged tp be very imperfect' He proceeds to fey, • th^ 
he has fpared no pains to carry his reader along with himj^ to 
make him fee what he faw, bear what he heard^ feel what htr^ 
felt, anid even think and fancy whatever he thouj^ht and Capcied 
Itimfelf.* In this he fays, he has foI}o\yed the inftrudlioQS oi^ 
Kis moft revered friend' Dr. Samuel- Johnfon, who exhorted him 
to write daily, and with alt poffible minutenefs : he fays, he is 

. ^' l^ttU another tditmi^ 410. >I. as, i^ bgards. 

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forifciousof hartng often pafljrd from hfs fubjcS to htipfclf j 
but that he has, notwithftanding^ laboured pfect^ hirrd to gWi 
his reader a tolerably juft idea of Spain^ by exhibiting as ^eU 
the face of the country, as the manners of its inhabitants. 

Of the egotifm in this booik-^e fhall fay little, becaufe ik 
w6uld not be thought liberal to reproach a, man with a fault 
which he has confeli'ed, and for which, in fome degree, he has 
apologized: but^e cannot forbear to obferv.*, that if tho& 
parts of his work irt which he has deviated from his fubjeft 
to himfelf were taken away, a very fmall proportion would 
retfiain, 

■ The apology which heofFcrs * for prefimting this enlightened 
nation with chefe four volwnrici,* has relation to very little m6rk 
than two of them. The whole firft volume, the firft fixty pages 
of the fecond, and the laft 230 pages of the fourth, coniaia 
not a fingle'word about Spain ; and if the beft apology that be 
can make for his account of Spain, is the imperfeAion of other 
accounts, we think he would find it very difficult to make any 
apology at all for the narrative of hid journey from London to 
'Falmouth, or his voyage from Falmouth to iJilbon, which take 
up a very confiderable par-t of one volume. By his Account of 
Portugal, Genoa, and France, he has equally exa<Eted a tax 
ior his account of Spain, but it will be more willingly paid. 

I'he form of this work is a feries of letters fuppoifed to hav^ 
been written by the Author to bis brother in Italy ; but he haa 
not been careful to make them agree with the declaration in 
-his preface. In his preface iie fays, that be wrote daily, and 
with minutenefs, by the exhortation of Dr. Johnfon, who even 
pointed out the topics which would moft intcreft or delighe» 
with a v'uw to a ^uhiication. Iti the letters he deplores his folly 
in going through Portugal, merely to gratify an idle curiofity^ and 
pretends to write * rather to divert the difagreeable efFedt of a 
difjkgreeablc journey upon his fpirits, than with a view to prove 
ioftrufling or entertaining.' Inconfiftcncics of the fame kind 
occur in other places. The language is uncommonly correft 
and pure, coniidering that the Author is an Italian, though ic 
IS probable that his brother does not underftand a word m it. 
ThcT- Aannerhowevcr, in general, is by no means equal to that 
pf his letters oa Italy; in them it was natural, manly, and 
fbirible^ in thefeit is often afFeflcd, puerile, and feeble-j al- 
moft every page abounds with the impertinences of a petty im- 
portance, afttf is, rather the conceited prattle of aaalkative cox- 
comb^ than the plain narrative of a fenfiWe traveller. 

As fbonras he larided at Lifbon he fent to enquire after one 
Batifte, at Frenehrttan^, vfba had been his fervant in London* 
Tbis man bad married a girl wbonr he had courted in England ; 
- - - Q^% - and 

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ft20 Baretti'i Journey from London to Genoa^ 6f f. 

and the followine is Barctti's account of his interview with \m 
yalet and his valet's wife : 
... * Lifbon, Aug. 31, 1760. 

* To-day was Sunday ; and how do you think I have fpent the af- 
ternoon ? I will icll you by and by. Let me firft {aiy fomething of 
the morning. 

* I got up about nine ; and while I was bufying myfelf about fomc 
lufcious grapes, behold Batifie alighting from a fine Spanifli horfe, 
and a moment arfter hhixjife from a chaife drawn by two mules, and 
led by as fine a blackamoor as King }arba in Metafiefio% Dido. Ah j 
How do you do my little PoUy /* And abruptly kilTed her in the face 
of the fun, pcrfedly forgetting that I was in Portugal, where women 
mufl not be kiifed in the face of the fun. But one is fo glad to fee 
old friends !' 

What does the Reader think of the jocularity of Signor 

Barctti, who firft invites his reader \o hear how he fpent his 

afternoon, and then tells him he {hall hear fomething clfe firft? 

Or of his apoftrophe to my Utile Polly^ and his kifling her in tBe 

face of the fun ? 

As a contraft to this affefled pertnefs we tranfcribe, with 
much greater pleafure, the Author's farewell to this country, 
after h«iving ^-elided in it ten years. 

' • My blood runs warmer and my heart beats quicker, when I 
think that after fo long a feparation f am going to fit down again 
to a domeflic meal with one of my brothers fronting me, and one 
at each fide of me ! • ' 

* Now therefore, England^ farewelH I quit thee with lefs regrety 
becaule I am returning to -my native country after a very long ab- 
fjncc, confidering: the fhortnefs of lite. Yet I cannot leave thee 
without tears. May heaven guard and profper thee, thou illuftrious 
woihcr of polite men and virtuous women ! Thou great mart of li- 
terature ! Thou nurfcry cf invincible foldiers, of bold navigators, 
and ingenious artifts, farewell, farewell ! I have now forgotten all 
the crofTes and anxieties I have undergone in thy regions for the 
fnace oF ten years': but never will I forget thofe many amongft thy 
ions who have affifted me in ray wants, encouraged me in my difH- 
cuhies, comlortcd me in my adverfities, and imparted to me the 
i ght 6f their knowledge in the dark and intricate mazes of life ! 
raifwelK imperial England, farewell, farewell!* 

This paffage is mafculine, figurative, and pathetic, and 
proves tiiac where the Author is difgufting, his abilities are 
perverted by his tafte. 

His work, however fpun out with a lucrative view, contains 
many curious particulars, and many judicious obfervations. 

At the houfeof Mr. O'Neal, a wine- merchant on the Tagus^ 
he la^ two Negroes fwimming, and for a trifling gratuity made 
them fing fevcral fongs in their Mofamhique language, which he 
(iifcovcreJ to be in ihyme: upon this incident he makes thp 
toliowing pertinent xcoiark ; 

* Several 

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BarettiV yourneyfrom London to GenoOy ISc. Vll^ 

* Several writers both of Italy and of England have afHrmed,* that. 
Thyme is a monkifli invention ; but I think them widely miftflkcn. - 
it is not to be foppofed that the Africans were raught rhyming by 
miflionariesy who have other bufinefs when in thofe regions^ than, that 
of teaching rhyme or blank'vcrfe to the natives, I heard once in- . 
ytnice fome Arabian fongs which were in rhyme, and there isja 
French account of Arabia (wrote by a traveller whofe name I cafin^ft 
at prefent recollcft) in which fome poetry of that wandering nar.- 
tion is preferved, all in rhyme. One Gages an Engli/hman (vyho " 
fwggeftcd to CromiueB the fcheme of taking Jamaica from the Spa- ^ 
niards) in a printed account t^i America has given ns an oXdiMexichn^ 
fong (words and mufic) which is in rhyme, and compofed long btf-^ 
fore Columbus was born. Thefe and a multit>ide of other fach ttar - 
fons have convinced me, that rhyme 10 no aonkiih.iavencion,- bocz 
one of the natural eiTentials of the poetry of aJ] nations ancient z& * 
well as modern. Greek and Latin only cji^cep^ed, whofe verfes \^%\ ; 
feet inflead of rhymes. It is therefore blank verfe that is to be con--, 
fidered as not natural to poetry, and to be deemed an ii^yention,, as^ , 
it really wa5, and not a very ancient one/ ^ "> 

The inns in Portugal, which are called E/iaUages*^ are thd ; 
moft wretched hovels that can be imagined j they fwarnl with" 
rats, which fally through the chinks of the floor and cieling,' ' 
and with fleas and other vermin which cover a narrow ih^t, ^ 
the only bed, which is fpread upon the grpund, and from \ 
which they make excurfions to other parts of the room.' ' * ' ' 

Batifte, knowing thefe particulars, provided his niafter with * 
a Jarge bag, which he was to convert into a bed by filling it * 
with clean dry ftraw, when clean dry ftraw was to be hacj : 
arid upon this, he fays, he paflTed many a comfortable night. ^ 

We are forry to fee that our Author has not loft the^(|)iHt * 
of flavcry, which he brought from his native tountry, by livfng .' 
in England. When he was at Aldeagallc^a^ about ten or t\^elve ^ 
miles from Lifbon, on ttie other fide of the Tagus, he Vvalked * 
out in th€ evening by moonfliine, and faw by the fide of the ' 
river many a happy couple, fome fitting on the banks,, fon/e' 
walking backward and forward, all whifpering, all huggffig,' ^ 
all enjoying each other in the cool of the evening. This Cghif , 
infpired him with fuch exalted ideas of the felicity of thefe pooT^ 
people, who he fuppbfes might go fuppcrlefs to fucK a KeS ^ 
as his ftraw bag, that he cries out, * Wh^ do the Englifli fiun, 
foreigners with their Liberty ! Is it liot Liberty to wander by; 
the river-fide zt Aldeagallega^ telling a genrle maid whatever* 
comes uppermoft, without a thought of Mmijiry^ Politics^ jt5r* * 
FaSiion? Happy Aldeagallegans ! Go on in this way fbr ev^, 
and never think nor enquire how the money of the nation is ' 

mtr ' ^ ^ - j^ 3^^_ 



p. 



• It is with great reafon, fays the Author, that the Porto^utofe 
call tlieir inns Railages ^ tha^ is Stables; — .• there is room enough in 
them fbr raules, afles, and other quadrupeds : httt dipeis naroom' 
at ^I % the reception of fuch bipeds as I am.'D'a"^^ by v^OOgle 



If an anci^i^t Roman coul4 ^ the iahabitanc pf ipodrrn 
It^ly thus infinuatini: (ha^t 9^\ Liberty, for which ic is wor;Ui' 
wbiie 10 conti^nd, coafifts i;^ walking by paira in the oioou- 
(bijw, be would probably ht\ yet more indignatbit and con^ 
tempt than we do. Thus, fays Baretti, live the Portuguefr^ 
without thinking much of to-morrow \ that plaguy To-morrow^ 
which, with Libtrfy^ is always uppermoft in the head of ar| 
fngiijhman. How much is every ^ngliibman obliged to, our 
Alvtbof foi; this generous attem^pt to cure him of his folly ! 

Hav^ig continued at Lifbon, or pear it, from the 30th of 
Auguft tp th^ ^yth of September, h^ (ct out for Madrid, lie 
is- guilcy of a fault which fcarce any. traveller has efcaped, 
and wiiich feme feem to have aie6led) of ufing fofeign terms 
without exphinine them. He fays he agreed with the Golejfeiro^ 
to carry him to Madrid in fifteen days, without telUng u« th^t 
tbey are drivers of a carriage, or telling ur what fort of car- 
f iage they drive. There are, be 6ys, neither poft-ch^jfcs. noy 
il^- poaches between the capitals of Portugal and Spain ; thofe \ 
w]iodb not go on mule-back) or on foot, muft have fi^ch ^ 
Toitur^ 9s hii, of which he fays nothing more than that 'it ia 
pretty ^yeU hung, and tolerably neat;, whether it is clofc/or 
f)^n, wb^tber it bas two wheels or four, and how ,maoy per-i 
fons it carries^ he has left his reader to gucfs : probably it may 
repsmbl;^ qui: Cafajh^ which is manifeftly a corruprioa of tl^e 
name of that carriage of which the drivers are called Calcffiiro^^ - 

Wc (hall i^ot attend our Author in his journey from Portugal, 
to Spain, in his account of which little is recorded, exqept 
that having called a beggar-wench impudent buHcy, two Tel* 
|giwa accolced him fo roughly, that he thought proper to |)rer 
JTe^it a piftol, ^tnd precipitately to make his efcape during the 
conftef nation which immediately followed : that ^ his whol^ 
foul was abforbed in dtlighi' by the dancing of foqie tagged 
fejiows at a fair : and that he fell defperately in love with one 
of the wenches, who, after dancing with them, went to fleep 
upon the ground in a, gallery, in the account of this ]ove af- 
fl&r, as well as in other places^ he has mani£e(t]y imitated the' 
0Htnner of Steme, as he has that of Johnfon in his former per- 
fomunce ; but though as an imitator of Johnfon he is refpe^- 
nl^le, he is difgufting and ridiculous as an imitator- of Sterne. 
He puts us in mrnd of the fable of the afs, who endeavQure4 
to nieafe by playing the fgme trick3 as the lap-dog. 

Thp Author cnter^ Spain by crofiing a torrent called Cay^; 
nod after travelling^ about.a league he entered Badajo^, anciently 
P^ Augujla^ by a flone bridge over the river Guadianoy which 
he fays« if it was a little wider, would do boiiour to the Th^es 
itfelf. 

In dpain the inns are called Pofadas \ the Author did not find 
^bc^ mucl^ beutr (ban the Eftulkin of Portugal 3 bui of that 



BiittHV Jmirmffrdtn Lffhitn t$ Gemm^ (fe^ $%j 

wb^rt he put. op, cajled tkt Safita Lufia^ be ftyt the w«IJ| 
wtri (bun4, the roof, not cr^cked^ ami. .che floor not. paved 
with pehUes lik# a ftreet; .the wiodiyws however b^d onljp 
wooden flhitters^ whieh made it impoffible to exclude tb<f raio^. 
the windy or the coldy without excluding the light i .there wai 
DO c&eft of drawevspir loofcingrglars i the chairs >tocter#dy;apd 
the tabfes were greafy } bt|t itAuA of a dirty mat on tbi: flooc# 
he found a bed ftuffed with wooK" 

From B^fizM the Author proceeded to Tahvirola^ and from 
TalaviTdJa to^MiriJa. He fays that Mirida was once tb^ m^tro*; 
polis of Ltifitimea^,znd ctXM Aumfta Emerita: fbat it was in 
ancient timet a ilourifliing colony of the Romans, and (hat 
iftany antiquities are to be feen there :; none of thefe antiquitiea 
however did be feey and though his hoft told him the; bridge 
was iLoman» he hs^ not tinu to verify his aflertion. When a 
n^n travels profeffedty to fee, and relate what he iees^ it is 
ftraage to hear hin> fay that he went through places where se- 
markable thingl were to be feen, without (ceing (hem/<r want 
rftime^ 

At Meaxarasy his next ftage, be faw the ruins of a Moorilb 
caitie, and leceived the hiftory of it from a prieft, not one word 
of whidi however he has told his reader i but infiead of it ha« 
inferted a tir^me account of his diftributing farthings, which 
be called -for ^ with a moft imperious voice,' among a company 
of ragged children» and of his partiality to the girls, efpecially 
to one who was a name(ake of the wench that bad captivated 
him at the fiair* 

He proceeded through bad roads, ftopping at wretched iimst 
where nothing couM be procured but lodging and light, parry^ 
ing with hiA a= flcin bag^ calUd a Botrad)t^ which held about 
five gallons of wine, and which he frequoitly cooled in a fiream' 
as he went along ; bnt he defcribes nothing. The Moors, he 
fayV'Ufed^to bbild on the topi of the mountains, where much 
is^to be feen, but he faw nothing. He fays thst an attentive 
* aifd curious traveller might ftill glean about this couptry fufili* 
cient maierials'for an interefling account of that people, by de^- 
fofibing with cxa^nefs tfaofe ruins of their former habitations 
/ which fiill exift^ by fearcbing^ for tradition) in the old fongs^ 
both'Spanilb aUd Arabic, that bave ftill a run among the people, 
or lie concealed in their libraries, and forming dedu&ions' of 
what was once, from what is (lill left. Something of this kind 
we hoped would have been done in this work, and aje very 
ibrry for our total difapfpointment. 

The vfixdit province of Eftrtsmadura is, he fays, extremely 
fertile,' but ver/ thinly ihhabiteti, and confequently in an un- 
ciUtivatedftafek The people eat little, are covered with ragi, 
and lodg/s meanly } yet they are happy, iatisfied with the pre* 

0,4 icnt. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC _ 



%t^ Biretti*/ Journey frwn'^Lmdm to iSenoa^ bfc, 

fent, and carelefs of the future. The mountains of this pro* 
vincc contain marble, but not a finglc edifice has-been raifed 
fince the Moors were driven out of the countfy. After a very 
tirefomc account of an embargo being'laid on hb chaire» in con^ 
fequence of one of the drivers having ftabbed a man in a quaff^' 
rcl, and of a dialogue between him and the Corregidor*, wh^n 
he applied to have it taken off, he informs us that he arrived 
at Toledo. 

• In his way to this place he fet out on foot before his carriage 
was ready, and took a lad with him for a guide : the lad, 
according lo the cuftom of the country, took his guittar with 
him, and played as they went on. Our Traveller, having 
liftened fome time to his mufic, afked him if he Could flng, 
and he replied by a long firing of ftanzas of four lines<* Called 
Seguediilasy -which were foon difcovercd to be madc.cxtem^re, 
though with fuch readiriefs, that the mind feemed to hatve'bWn ' 
opprtffed by keeping them in. A converfatioif immMlafely 
commenced, in which it appeared that this ruftic bai^ couid 
not read, and that he knew none of the poetical compofitions,.- 
dalled \y the Spaniards Romances^ which *are to be found in 
books. Our Traveller immediately recollcfled other fongs that* 
he had heard, which muft have been alfo extempore, though* 
he did not dare to indulge the fufpicion at that time, for fcar 
of appearing ridiculous in his t>wn eyes. Thus, fa^-s he, I 
difcovered that Spain fwarms with extempore fingers or poetsy' 
though of the many whb'have givert us accounts of Spain, 
none ^ver dropped the leaft hint about it, nor has ahv Spanlfti 
writer let foreignefrs into this extraordinary charafteriftic of his 
nation* I always thought, fays Haretti, that the faculty of 
fmging extempore belonged exdufively to the Italians, or t% 
fpeak more correilly, to the Tufcans, but now I am furc of' 
the contrary. * ' • • 

The extempore ftanzas of this Spanilh minftrel were fome- 
timcs happy and elegant, though in general the thoughts were 
fnnplc, and the words uncouth ; but the fecond and fourth 
lines however alwaxs rhymed, and fometimes with great exad- 
nefs, though not the firft and third. We have tragfcrihed the 
two firft ftanzas, for the entertainment of fuch of our Readers 
as underftand Spanifh, .and for fuch Readers only our Author 
feems often to have written: 

Tin redo de pojffo 
PUn de manana 
$i la gente no mitnti 
Es CO fa fana. 



La Luna J} a dorado ^ 
rias ejirellas ' 
Hazien^onos favor ei^ 
Alumhran be lias. 



* Of thefc ftanxas, which allude to the moon that wits theat 
Ihining very biight, the Author has given us np verfioiu 

• Hi| 

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^ti^^s Journey fnmLonckntaGinoay life. aVj 

ft-H>s inn at Toledo ^was called La Sangre de Cbrlftcy upon 
^hich he remarks, that the Spaniards apply relrgious expref«> 
4ons in a very (hocking manner. An inn, which in any town 
of England would fcarcely be thought a fit habitation for the 
k>woft of mankind, is here called the BUod of Chrlfl. 

' Our Authol*, befuies that he is perpetually ufing terms which 
lie doc» not explain, has thought fit to illuftrate what he fav 
i/1 Spiainv.by -references to what is to be feen in Milan. The 
cathedral at Toledo, he fays, is a Gothic edifice almofl as big. 
as. that of Milan', and certain pnfatm of the nmfs refemble 
t])of4^ that are pra£lifed an ^ the Mitamfe church, Th\s may be 
very rai!sfa<Slory perhaps to : bis brothers, but to the £ngli(h> 
Reader it is vox et f$ete^44 /ML 

. The. mere enum^ation of ith^ riches of this cathedral, he: 
ijiys, wopld require a large .volumer It contains federal grand' 
^Qnum^nt?, ^d a.Ktft ximnber of pidi^res, one of which is 
of St. Chriftopher, fo large, that the toe is as big asa manes' 
body. ' Her was toW f Ha|5ifafe librfaryrcontains an Smmenfe trea- 
f>u:e of literatures bpfehe could not flay to fee it. 

: The fecond gtand edifice 'in Toledo is the aichreptfcopil pa«*' 
lace ; but this our Traveller dfd not go to .fee. He faw how<-' 
a^er the remains of % oroyal palaoe called the Jkizar^ whick 
i^ built on the edge of an aJmoft porpendicular hill, about 6rt' 
hundred feet higher than the Tagus^ *^htch runs beneath it*- 
It was ruined 'in the fucceffion war, and in faiQf a cei^ry mere 
the very-remains of it will, probably, ^e fwept away. 

. Our Author difmifTes Toledo bv feyipg that there are, f>ro- 
bably, many things in it very well worth fome account, which 
be did not fee. Such articles of intelligence certainly rentier a 
hook of Travels very entertaining and infiru^ve. > 

. The palace and gardens of Aranjuea he did fee, and of thefe 
Ive gives a very pleafing account. ' A poet, fays he, would 
f^y that Venus and Love confulted here with Catulloe and Fe^** ^ 
tiS^rch about t^uilding a rural manfian foi'Pfyche, Lefl>iSi, Laura^ 
or fome Spanifb Infanta.'. 

His particular defcription juflifies this getteral account; but; 
If e fball not make ouf e)ara«^ here, because the defcription of 
a palace and gardens has no retrofpe^ to the hiilory of a coun^-.' 
tvfy does not exhibit the general face of it, nor delineate the 
manners of the inhabitants, which are the three great objeda 
of a ^aveller. 1 he gardener, however, among other bufts^ i 
fbewed ope which he (aid reprefented a Raman ^mpiror^ called > 
Hamtiial the Carthaginian \ and there is a gardener of our 
own country who always Oiews a ftarue, which he fays repre« 
fqnts 2XkOi\i^t Roman Emperor ^ called the Marquis of Jurelius* 

The village of Aranju^z is no lets pleating than the palace, 
garden, and park ^ every, hoofe is |iew and white, with windon^ 

dbyG(5ogle 



Digitized t 



tku h^ £[^^ flMttcis plaoid mtbouty and the AretU ire 
all flrak. The King gives grout^to scny body that will build^' 
pvoi^ided tfa^ will coi&rai to. the ^an, which requires great 
HfiifofBiity. It has now tho/uft two thouftnd inbabitsnts, and 
is ftill encre^ing«. The ICi«g and Ceurt pafii h^e the moiith*^ 
qI May and Jane $ bot hiveryhod w^adier dke^t^ is faid to 
pffo^uce agoes. &lr» CHirke* £sys no more of thi» tenwdAit 
paradife than that tbt palace is tcbrdU iSfiu^ mi tbcr garden* 

G#i0a out of Aramues die Traveller pafles a verf r^MsH^ 
aUe bridge.: it confifti of five botts ib contrived and paidted^ 
a0» wkkauta.vei7AaJTOW to(^>odioo^ tsf be taken fbr aftin^ 
i bridge of four arches. Thefe boats ave, upon psrtieullar otei-' 
findisy neiMved Ughes up the riMr^ andi friaeed in facb a man* 
Her a» t» repneiiwe a qradrangcriar fesdfidasioiiv Whieb^' for Ae^ 
diireffionrt>f the Coofir is IboietkiM iUiMrinatedV a«« mttdi'iF 
fiAe Arw. 

Whew oarTnwcHer entered^ MadridV ht srti ftrtttdk^ he ikft^ 
with the moft hpn-iWet fteneb heftad dVtr fiiolr^ Jillllllg* fiMl* 
iHtateclefii heaps ofordwriytogailalsoiif, aMd* fesi«>y I<Wrkig 
wajF ibv 1^ fe:>t paifoiger : Iw tfberelbi^ de^rtnkied^ t6 go liMe' 
oBtv and Inwe* the place foon*. It i» pitjn fits joutM^ had noC' 
fasea dofeisedi a. year or twor^ for Madrid is now, and> hai- been* 
fise fsan^ onrof the oleatftft ttowot m Dunope. 
: The fiatlowing inftniAiosis m a tiwettor am^iidt only* of stxf 
great ufe,^ but giw. the Reader ar good aif idetf of S^aln arid 
Spaniai^m geaeml^ as anf thing tttat our Aotbdrlias reeolidetl. 
Bfefore you tot out from Lifbonr obtain % paflpoit frdm the' 
Sacpetani of State, for want of which you will certainty b^ feiit 
backf if not claj^sed up in prifon. Shew the paflpoit to the' 
c9iAoa:ihoureiofltQeiai' and flip a filver coin into the hand of one ^ 
of' them, and the^ wilt probably not open your trunks r dlte' 
cave^ towBterv-to/have nothing thai pays cuftom, nonew^tlrtSt 
ncnai handkeithiofe» new fteeUngs, new (hoes, ifor tStm^ atfy* 
thing, though apparently for youp own ulK You idutf be psar*' 
ttjaulartyfoanlul'to take lio^book^ 

Hire the GciUffeins wHo live at Aldftigsllega, and ndt' at' 
I>ifiMn: they aiebefl: acquainted with the Madrid rbad. 

Voar bargain with thefe fellbws n«uft be in writing. Thd* 
bifro^as-ctaafaf with* two maili^s^ from Aldeaga)i^ga' to Ma^ 
drid is ten pounds^fixteen fhlilingsin fuomiei-^ and ih winfte^' 
twelvw gaiiiev^^ If you. wiflu to « go through Tokdb ahd Aran^^- 
jofas makrit* a^oodditioa'^ and if the drivers prmndUhat-th^' 
^ flntti Inraityparttyf thrjostrney; wanrthe affiftahoei oP obctw; 
^o itat' give tbsmmoney om that- aecotinti but ftajr tilt yoit- 

^ Aadies of X^etteri conceroiag $pain : ferR^. vtf. xxrpi» ipn t^^ 
come 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ceitie to the ^Ue^> iftd pay thofer df whom tke ox6ii are 
bircij. .1 

to cany «»aiidr coQii«ni«iidi(;i 09 » ^g i^ame)^ IfoAoul theceftm 
^ providing Qi^&lf with a bed a«<l iAv^ pUcf % «/ 1utch#n-fiinKb» . 
4i^» u (omM people ba<l ^vifed niP«, I <^q& tQ t^ke m^ icbvice «^ 
to c^^ag>, aikd w<>ttld ))^ve nptH?^ e;yt49<vdiMry but. a ^w ^g 
»iidfteets« $lK>ald you l^e inore deUcat^, yoa i^y hgve.a kni&« 
Q>oQA» 2u^ ^Ict ^ dthilt!)^^ gM, f&iQe towels^ a pot to boil meatp 
wi a hamd csfidltllk viri^ K>me wax tapers. , 

^ If 3ro^ kave a ftf^aht wh» can ^ft^ t^ cook, 1^ nradt tke bet* ' 
tor ; ,if sot; fop mqft Ailc as iMett as you c&n. At tile eiUfiaget 
aui4 'foM«l yoo w9i $9d iageitoral) ncKOtkop vidnabv bat a mefs ^ 
f^ffiofvofmot iiiii,jn4i4s (4y ^i p¥^^ a^Kt jFnwoi^ i(<AMjl boiled ia 
oU aod waiter,^ watb- a ftrong dofe. of peppei^f ^^id & dtfli «( iiMcilW 
and /trMmiis (ficckjijb and pikhards) fea&ned likewUe with poppec 
and oi)^ I^ a«^ qifaee «t buit^ ^iU }iOtit iM duiiflg; t]u» whole 
journey excej>t a^ Arapjuez. This at leaft w;^ my cafe., if yoa have 
no.mind to pu^ V|) witj^ fdc^ daititijps. be C34:efulw^ever you come 
to a town or vilhige to buy meat, mwh» and game. GLune cipe- 
cialiy I-Jbond-ift abendance wherever I Abpped, am} excellent par- 
tridgeiL above alh New^laitk eggf you will often ftrid lifcewif^. If 
yoa have no iervanV therq is aUva^ ibme woman who'v^dtv^ 
yoa a^/ thiQg for a ftnall rowajti : in.ai behgUng manner^ *th tvue'; 
W wM iig/Mfiee^ tihat^ Their way, ofroafliing m, to truft the meat 
or bird on the point of % %)«t^ ^8fid«-^it, and Jtitr» k rotind and 
romid over.e.fi«me vutifi ofi mkmujj.ot thyme^ ovhick abound ereiy 
where in Alleitfcjo and:BJlrQmAdur»»J-^T--^ 

* if yoo ti^^el in a^ proper, iealbn, as was. my cafe, provide yoor* 
fe)f with a baikcc You meet then with grapes, £gs« mclona^ and 
other fruit in the noigbbparhood of almoft every habuation. Pill 
your bafltet with them* apd they- will be of ufe againft the heat» 
whicji qften provoa traiibJf feme. The pcafaiits» mth in Poitegal 
and Spain, I have fottnd very kind. They woidd fiU my bofliet with 
l^itb the b^ft fJNiit thtyrhad arl went by their meyatxia, and be 
tiiaiikfbl for a. realj nay^ fime were foigenerDut as tonefttft moaq^^ 
though they had given me whati would have fi)ld ibri gsiMeat m Sne-> 
land. It is. one of the. bieffings of unfrequented rentona, that toe 
pcafants are. hofpitablc '• but where eveiy. triBe may. b^ taraed^'im* 
money, money will be«expeded for every trifle. 

i Whether yoU h^ve. a bed, or only a iti^w. bag, ' take cai^e to havt^ 
the room well fwept where you are to . lie, and have yonr couch 
pk^Ced at a diftance ftom the walls ; or you will, have yoor deep in« 
termpted hf vaerious.kindi of inleds, which propi^ate>wohd^fkl!)r 
inifo wanp ai>d podra^QQUBtryi 

* Son^ Pfop^ areraf^ to figure dangon. in ditant regionfr ftaey- 
^ fobbers iwarining on ^^^y noad^ amLciit%>thrQat8 ac evefy>ian« F^ 

my pfur( I never met.with any in wf* various rambin thipogh feveod 
rtg^ons of J^ttfope. However, it will be prudent to carry, piftbla^ 
and f<>. pifce th^mim the chaife, thatv^thcy may eafily be ieen^ Hai^ 
them in your Wdi e^ x^" alightf that people^may tafce opcice h9»^ 
WfU y^VI ve prepared a^^aipfi any at(^k.' 

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jStfe Btrctti'i y$urneyfrom London to Genoa^ t^c. 

' ' Above all do not forget a good Borracho : good wine is to be ' 
feund at almoft every place in Portugal and Spain ; fill it with 
tbe beft, and in warm weather plunge it into fome brook or 
river : the running waters from Aldeagallega to Madrid are * 
' very cold, and will refrefli the wine in a few minutes. Take " 
care, however, that the drivers do not drink as often as they * 
chufe ; if they do they will become impertinent, and probably 
flcep on their mules, to the danger of your neck* , 

"The beggars in Eftremadura, belides alking charity, ofFpr 
greafy crucifixes and Madonas to kifs. To thefe beggars give 
nothing, except you refolve alfo to kifs their images. If: you 
give them gbod words, inftead of money, they will eafily be 
repreffed ; but if you jgive any thing, and refufe to kifs, you 
will have a great deal of foul language, be your alms ever fo 
liberal. 

At Madrid our Author, had two friends, Don Felix d' Abreu, ; 
who was feveral years Envoy Extraordinary from Spain to Eng- 
land, and the Britifli Conful General. Don Felix took him 
to feme of his relations, and with our Author's account of his « 
reception by them, and the entertainment to which he was in* 
troduced, we fhall difmifs him for the prefent month. 

* They all jrcccivcd me in fach a manner, as to make me give up 
at OQce my old notion, that the Spaniards were a grave, over-civil, - 
and rcferved people. As foon as the firft compliments were over, 
both men and ladies talked round with much Volubility and fpright- 
jinefs, and Teemed to confider meat once as an old acquaintance. 
Another of my notions was, that the Spaniards are jealous ; but 
about thirty ladies whom I faw to-night at a Tertulia^ behaved with 
fiKh alertnefs, fpoke and were fpoken to with fuch an unconcerned- 
jiefs by every man there, that I cannot fbfter any longer that notion 
neither. That there arc Spaniards fubjcft to the paffion of jealoufy, 
is probable ; but that it is one of their charafteriftics to be fubjedl to 
iti I have ,feen already enough of them to contradi6l it, I am con- 
£4ent that you will be of my mind on reading the following account 
o£4he ^fuiia at which I have afiifted to-night. 

* -Jt.is a ^ilom amongfi the Spanifh ladies to have their friends at 
th^cir houfes/eycral times every month, fome oftener, and fome fei- 
domer. 

* When a lady intends this, fhe fends notice to her female ac- 
quaintancey that on fuch a night fhe (hail have a Tertuita. The 
notice implies an invitation. She that receives fuch a meflage, fails 
not to tell her male- acquaintance, that on fuch a night fhe ihall be 
at fuch a Tertulia, and this likewife implies an invitation. A coufin 
of Doii feli)^ had the goodnefs to explain to me this piece of Spanifh 
manners, as we both attended her at a Tertulia. ^ 

.On our alighting out of her coach I could not help obferving, 
that the gate of the lady's houfe where Ihc carried us, was wide ^ 
open,: and no porter or any body there to guard it, as is ufual in 
England at every door you intend to enter. Two fervants who rode 

• behind 

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Baretti^i journey from London to Genod^ (ffc. ^f. 

-1)eldiid her coach with flambeaax, lighted us up a large fUir-cafe. 
T2ie mafter of the houfc received us. at the door of his firft apartment, 
handed oar lady to the room where his wife was with thofe of her 
female, acquaintance that had got thither before us ; and having feen 
her in, came back to us to pay me fuch civilities as are generally 
ofed to (bangers. 

' * The room where Don Felix and I were Introduced, was full of 
gentlemen almoft all in laced coits. Some flood, fome fat, fame 
talked, and fome eazed, as it happens in large companies. Half aa 
hour after, feveral fervants who had iK^aited on the ladies in the 
miilrefs's chamber with rinfreico's> brought fome to us. The ce^ 
r^mony of ferving them, was this. A ^tman firit; put a filver-plate 
into the hands of each man prefent ; then another prefented iilver 
cup-boirds loaded with' bifcuits made of fugar, after a manner I 
never faw elfe where. They are full of hojlows like a fponge, and 
extremely light. Each of us took one along with a glafs of lemonade; 
and brought it to our plate : then dipping it into the lemonade, in 
which it inftantly diiTolved, drank the lemonade out. Chocolate 
then was diftribute^ round, which being drank, the fervants came 
for the empty diihes and the filver-plates. 

* We then continued in converfation for another half hour ; when» , 
behold ! the lady of the houfe comes oat of her room followed by 
all tlie ladies (he had with her. We formed ourfelves in two rows 
ope on each £de of them. As the lady went by me her hufband 
prefented me to her as a (Iranger, which procui:ed me a 'cheerful 
fiittile and (bme very pretty words. ; 

'' ' None of the ladies went by but had fomething relpe^lful or af? 
fe^ionate faid to her by fome man or other, and their anfwers raa 
in the fame (Irain. At the end of the room in which we were, there 
was another', where the ladies entered pell-melJ, without making 
the leaft ceremony at the do9r, but the neareft getting in diredly, 
whether young or old, married or unmarried. 

* As foon as they were in, we followed, and found them all fitting 
on the Efirado^ which is a continued feat that runs round the room 
dofe to the wall. 

* In a corner of that room there was a large table covered with 
as many difhes as itcetrfdjiold, filled with various eatables. A large 
Perigord-pafty in the middle^ a couple of roafted turkeys on the (ides 
of .the pafty, with ham, foWls, game, faufages, fallads, caparrones 
(a kind of capers as big as filberts) zihrero (a kind of cheefe froitf 
the kingdom pf Galicia) &c. &Ct In (hort, this was a cold collatioa 
no lefs plentiful than elegant. 

* The matter, with the help of fome of the company, ^1 ftanding, 
quickly fell a carving, while the remainder of us fnatched napkins 
oot of a heap of them that was on another table, ran to fpread them * 
on the ladies knees ; then went back for plates, knives, and forks ; 
placed them on their napkins ; then went to get fuch vidtuals as 
they bid us to get ; then Hooping or kneeling by them while they 
weie eating, amufed them as well as. we could, faying what cana 
uppermoft, with fuch hilarity and pleafaatnefs, that I ne^er jwas 
prefent at a&y fcene more delightfuL . . ^ 

* jAi^ion^i , 

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t36 W^tiah*t f%ikriimt^ t6Hti\jii€i. 

< Aiaongil ft many ladkn yoti may eafilf Unzgin^ thilt fbnnliff tti4^ 
weiey who had neither youth nor beauty. Yet none had reafon M 
lament the abfence of eithel-, ^9 they were all Teryed without the 
leat apjpaKnc pridi)e^on» whkh I thought a very rettiarkabte piece 
•fSnunfl) poiitenefi. No iervant meddled with them dnriog. that 
kind of (upper. They all ate heartily, and the greatefl: part dr&nlt 
water. , 

* The mer^ meal bdng fended (And a mttrf one it wai) thfejr all 
got up, and ftiil following the lady of the houfe, went out of that 
room into a muth larger, leAnng usf ail behind. They wer^ titsf 
fooner gone, than we Ml on the retnn^hts with ft eheerfulef^ nb 
where to be met with but in (M> counttyi The moft^ jolly f^t of Ye*' 
netians would have apjieaftd grave k c«lnt>af tfen tf my S^aniafdf 
at the Teitulta. 

* The rule is to have a eoncert after fup^r. partly compofed of 
hired mbficiansi and |>trt}y of the gen^^eti who can blow or fin^e^ 
any inftruroent« 8ome of the ladies wonld! alfo have ftng, And m 
ball would hA¥t followed, as the conftiruent parts of ft tertuHA kte 
the Aipper, the concert, and the ball. But as the Queen is jiift 
dead, muiic and dancing were ferbofn# ftiiki ttconrfehAd i!ocards^i6 
cpafume the evtAing. Several eardtatbfes were ^iftced ilk the roomg^ 
and we played at MrnnlliMy a fkfhionftble game here, not uiilike ^m- 
MtU. The lady of the houfe did me the hbffonf, cs a ftrttnger, to 
chnie me for hfr partner, and langhed pettily 6S t few blunders I 
committed as a novice at that game. But, as ^ as t couM fccp 
neither ladies nor gentlemen minded much their «ftrds« the Soamafda 
deUghting aiach mors in talking thftft ia phying. No card'^ittoiiey 
was pat under the candleftic, as thait if no futh caftom in thi« 
town. 

* About eleven the c^mpftny began to deal <fw«y sXm SpitpmcUy 
as wt fay in Italy ; that is, without giving the feaft wstningof theit 
going either to the mailer or miHreis of the houiii/ 

[To be concluded hf okt mxt. ] 



T' f f1 tt 



Art, XIV. tVarton's Theocritus^ iic. concluded. See Revktfi 
for July and Auguft. 

THOUGH tbc Scholia 00 Tbaocrkus are m^ k nnomfwi 
aa tbofe on iiome other Greek Authors, ibcy wit not left 
valuable. Thcf boaft foimr of cbe moft difKif^feed Mmei 
among tbt fcllool crifica and reftorers. The pftMApil ohdtt^ 
ipations of thefc M*. Warton has mth great iJboMt coflcfted 
anddigeiled, and has, at the fame time, enftc'bed the coniaioq 
treafury with contributions of his own.' The only part th^ 
remains for us to take in the caulci is to Offfer iuch oUervatioua 
as may occuc to us- in the pasuia| of. the na(e», and td i^ccoftd 
them fer the learned Edtcof 's future ufe <r re^eftmv without 
SMich iiDlkitnde qtber for their bowGMr nst dtlgnKse^ *- ' 

Tl» Mte Off tbat' paila^ iff- the fntt Id^tiaiti, Wll«i« tlur 
Goatherd rcfufestofing through feaf of (Wftrrbin^ the reft of 
kit god Pan at oooti^day, is- cuiious : 

^ • J4$ndm 

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Warton'/ TbMtiMf . concluded. ft^/g 

* Miridm q^JMntmuviUrss gdtrikanJUiiM^ V^Pf^ qtdfam* 
man tunc tempcris capere d€(ff arbitmioBtur^ Hinc pq/lw uofier m* 
gat jM Hun ^ula cantrip quia jam meridiii iffet^ et Pan^ poftg^ 
T^tknumm dormint. Htm M/md CaKmacbum^ lavantHus PaUadi 
H Chariclm nfrnph^^^ pamdi *' |Uf<rae/ACp*K« / u^ i^ ««T;;^ia'* 
waoBtem^ fdlicet^ miridimia qtdis occuparety occurrmu Tirefias^ A 
tsk foiinus^ Oiulis iopteiatun Hymn, in Lavacr. Pallad. v^ji^ 
foq. Ea d$ caufa mtridii temphm aliqutd intrare mfa$ cndekifttp 
MS famrnm d$9ntm turbwwtt. Propuna Pythagmci it SapiitOiS 
4ipud Egjpt0Sf Hi quit tm^kntm portam pratmim Vicsm tdirH^ 
9ikihwU. fitm §mm JU^o^ <okndum effi dium. Wnc it in^<* 
mmIki EUaiy Reg^ m. i8; €wn i£H jam muridiiSj itludibai ilSi 
pJioi^ diantf d^ttati ViCi mt^on': Dius mtim i/iy it forfitaW Iq^ 
fmiturj out in divirforio tfi^ aid in iti'mn^ out arte dirmit ut 
9xdtetwr. Jtijf^idtur l^ec^ Etknicorum fuptrftitiiy Pf. xcu 6^ 
VU dUitur homo pius^ tf cvjus ift in da^fidmiay fhi non metuin a 
iouf^^in jA^nf^t^m^ fuimadmodtm Siptuaginta Virterunt intiT'^ 
fMttu jbo- fuoqui Lu€anm^> di Luco MaffiHinJt^ Pbarfal. iib. iiu 

Nm ilkm atkm popuU prcpi^ri fnfiuntmtiy 
Sid iiffiri iUsj tmdh cmm Phitbus in axi ejl^ 
Aiatbgktm^if Mrutinit'^pavit ipfi faiirdis 
c JtMffiim^ domnumqui tinut dipinndiri hui. 

That tbe ancient Heathens afcribcd fleep to their gock is w«Ii 
knowoy ai)4 that ibey fuppofed ihem to be aileep at mid-day 
lA particu]4r« tbi^ P^C^ge in Theocritus is a^. clear proofs but 
we cannot |gree with Mr* Warton that this was the reafoo why 
Pythagoras enjoined filepce in the worfhip of the gods^ for w^ 
40. Aot find that this ii^un^on was limited to any partitntlar 
hour of worflup. That profound Philqfopber h^d probably a 
moral reafon for it. He knew that the folemnity of fileoce 
would add to the influence of religion : and it is not unliicely 
that the feft of Diffenters, whom we call Quakers, have fome 
mfohs of the fiune kiiid for the taciturnity of their meetings. 
9b th^t aft k viay, Ae fuperftition here alluded to feems to have 
piovailed as ww in> tho northern as in the eaflern theology i^ 
and to hav^ enteicd ifitp the Celtic and DriiidicaL worihip. 
ilmiAh ba^a puridiii' drmdarum lucos impum intrarts. There 
wiaa ftiH foiMthiiig ia^red in the hour of mid-day ; and that 
ibmechiAg is ffiU fftk. The low samKs of people obfecve it eretv 
now with filence and folemnity. The woodbman fufpen^s hi9 
fc«^e|., ^fwt tb^ dNtOmt IU9 ftuL 

Jd the following pafiage> 

■■■■ n >-i»rmttJW^> 9-^11 mim9^^ . 

Mr, 

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%^ Wartonfi Thiocritusj concluded.' 

Mr. Warton propoTes to read the laft line thus : 

The fox would not quit the boy till he had left him nothing 
cither to eat or to drink. In our opinion this alteration is not 
€m\y unnecellaryt but weakens the idea of the original. If w« 
admit that the word axp«Tirof fignifies one who drinks unmixt 
wine, it . is certainly very properly and firongly contrafted by 
^ifpoio*!. KxS'i^fiV axfxris'oy an Cfl^otvi may well enough be 
rendered* ^^ to place a drunkard among empty pots/' There is 
apparently fomething of a proverbial turn in the expreffion, but 
it is pl^ainly no more than this, that '* he will leave the young 
wine- bibber a dry jug." AxpaTir^, therefore, ; we would hj. 
all means leave ftanding. 

In the paftoral elegy on the death of Daphnis^ introduced 
in the firft Idyllrum, Mr.Warton has juftly obferved an in- 
fiance wherein Theocritus has (hewn himfelf greatly fuperior to 
Virgil.. It is in the fenfibility exprefTed by jjie cattle belonging 
to the refpedlive fwains on the-diftrefs of their mafters. Virgil 
lays (imply, ** JlarU it oves circum j" his (heepftand around him: 
Theocritus reprefents the whole herd of Daphnis as aflibmbled, 
and mourning at his feet : *' tro^Aa ii iroLf irovin Coif," &c. 
A little after this we meet with a humorous anecdote,, which, 
however^ we muft give as we find it in the Latin. 

* jtudivi ex doSfo quodam amicOj qui per Siciliam infulam iter'fa'^ 
iiens^ ibidem cum Vetera monumental turn populi mores accuratiu} 
hruejUgaverat^ inter confejfionis articuloSy a Jiculis' caprariis apud 
monies vitam fcUtariam dc^entibuSy etiamnum per facerdotes proprios 
rite foUre exigiy an rem cum hircts fuis habuerint.* 

With regard to the long note, and the fuppofed difcovcrfes' 
nade by Heinfius on that paiTage in the firft IdylKum, 

^ /a ii re xtafoc 

Uo^ocv uyac XP^^^^» ^^' ^^^' ^2, 83, 84. 
it ftands yvUh us for nothing ; aa, contrary to the idea of all the 
critics, we are of opinion that the a X6ip«^ meana kat e^ox^v^ 
the goddefs Diana. It is certain that the fpeech /he makes 
b perfe^Iy in charader, and fhe is properly enough preceded 
by Mercury, and followed by Venus. . From what milerable 
perplexities, and wild conjedures* might the commentatorr 
and interpreters have faved themfelves> had thisi occurred *toe 
them ! . 

V. 102 and 103, of the firft IdylHum, from a fiate of non-^ 
fenfe, are extremely well reftored, , , ^ 

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Warton'j Theocrliusj concluded,, 23J 

O t^entts odio/oy i5fc, nunc diets omnemfchm^ fe, omnes JPis^ mihl 
intercidiffe^ 

The third vcrfe of the fecond Idyllium is not lefs happily 
altered. 

Cpa^ovokra for Ca/iuv nvrx^ is one of thofe emendations that 
carry, internal proofs of their authenticity. Simactha fays', {he 
will call home, by the power of her incantations, her dilatory 
hufband. 

Mirch critical debate has been occafioncd by the following 
paflage : ^ * 

— Tu J* ApTfjtAi x«i TOV tv atot 
KivnfTtiq Txix[4,ocifix, — Id. ii. v. 33. 

Some MSS. have ^xfixfMocvToc^ and to this reading, though 
contrary to the fentiments of our ingenious Editor, with the 
learned Cafaubon, we would give the- preference. We fee not 
the propriety of Hecatefs being called upon to move Rhada- 
manthus,*one of the infernal judges, any more than Minos or 
.^acus, I3efides, it was a received do^ma in the Heathen 
' theology, that thofe judges were inflexible even to the Fates. 
Neither do we know oy what authority Heinfius calls Rhada- 
manthus the Stygian Jupiter, in his interpretation of this paf- 
fage. The fequel of the verfe, moreover, fufliciently confirms 
the reading of adamant, 

< Tu J* ccprsfMi xxi tov tu iSx 

Kivfia-tig ^afxi^avTay xa* «*Tf m^ oc<7pxXti aXAo. 
O Diana, who, in the infernal regions, canft move even 
adamant, or whatever elfe is moft firm and foHd, &c. 

At that fine fcene where the filence of Nature is rcprefented, 
during the procefs of the cnchantrefs,' ' 

Hvifif (Tiyx juiv rokTOf, &c.— Id, ii. v. 38. 

Mr. Warton introduces the following bcantifui night-piece 
from ApolloniusRhodius,' which," as it is not very generally 
• itnown, we fhall give tranfiated tt> our Readers : 

NuJ fASv tTTiH* fTi yxixv xyvt xvtfx^' Oi^fvi Vovrw 
Naurai «f *EXtxnv rtxai' x^tfxq flptwvoc 

£^pO&X9V ex VfiCOl/' UTTMiO i% XftI TIC oSiTVi^ 

H^fl x^* TuAawpflc ffXt^iTo, xai T^yx irxiiooy 
Miilipa T£9woT'i;v xiivov icij^ xuim ixxXimrtVm 
Ovh xufwy uAa^ti ff x)kx irroAiy, a flpoof iwt 
\i'XJ^,i\V ciyn ii (JLiXxivofXivriv t^ip opf vijv. 
AAAa /x«X' tf [Aftiuxy-^-^ 

Night oit the earth ppur'd darkneis ; on the iea 
The wakefome failor to Orion's liar . 
And Helice turn'd heedful. Sunk to reft,- 
Rbv. Sept. 1770, R . .' ' Th$ 

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434 VT'irton'sTheocritMSf co'nclu^eJ. 

The traveller forgot his toil ; his charge. 

The centinel ; her death-devote4 babe 

The mother's painlefs bread. The village dog 

Had ceas'd his troublous bay : each bufv tumult 

Was buQi'd at this dead hour ; and ^arknefs flept, 

Lock*d in the arms of Eience. She aloDe, 

Medea, flept not 

We ai:e fMrprijed that Mr. Warton (h^uld quote and p:^9 
without cenfure that egregious^ blunder of Reifk'e, when he in- 
^tcrprets ^thc.wofd /AtjA^ or.^aA'i in the ^hird IdyL y. 41. Ky 
ovis, as a more paftoral idea^ when the ftory of Hippotpenes 
and his apples is known evem to thofe who know ndthlng 
bcfidc. ....... .V 

,. Idyjl. V. 1. 17, feeros tobe rightly rcftorcd. It has hitherto 
been reid, 

It now ftands, 

ffoc in loQO^r$j^ dturif, pofui y rayra?, Ae Ufefa futdamkiiilaiai 
it hoc fn carmine multa^ ^uar/ivis in tertio flufa^ ^ifuient ab aHione* 
Co7natam% dum dictbai — 9 ravrixf ra^ XiiAVxSacq^^Digifo mmftrafji 
Tujpicor troximam nymph'arum domuWy Jhc^aullum ; aut eerie NojU- 
fim voifATivmot ^fiotva, — ^a LMidas fnemorat TafentirfUs in /pl- 
grammatt. SedSacellunu ne me conje^ofem futes ^ikum^ P^tgiutiS 
refpexity dum ira^alat Bum locum. 

Novimus it qui /<— — r 
lEt quo (fcdfaciki nympha riferc) SaceJTo. 

Virg. St. iii. '^^. 

We cannot pa& over th« following nqtc ; 

Id.v. ytf.^l.'TiivtiiMx\»xulif» — ] if /W Virg. Ec. vii. 4y. 
■ Somm moUior herha. 

. SjV itiam babemusTopttisjQmnoj!^o\\\otes. WyU. atyi, 125* 
Similitirj fumma quidm fimvitotij Antipater^ in Jimhologia rlanu* 
4ea. L-i. c. xxix, i. 

PueUa Hquefcentibus tueus ccuGs moilius famm^ 

Cm profiSb fiuri rejfakdh hci^fiiti ijte PbpU itejlratis verfi^ 
tulut^ 

Th^ fleepy eyt tliat told the lAelti^^ (bol. 

Idyll. V. vcr. 56. iiTii^liak /^f^irof.] Jrdiphanes in Chrjjidi^ 
itj^ud Atbmeeum. L.iv« p. 172. 

-— — T£(r(rftf re J*auX'iiJJ?Jlp 
E;(iM*i,fuf (oV) X4(i fAaytifot fw^iKx^ 
Km iniM9fyoi /i^\ito( airsm nafxg» 

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WsiXtosi's ThfccrituSi concluded, ijjj 

* — -— Tibidna j\iatuor 

Conduha fmty et cogui duodedm * , 

j/f fotidem Oinuurg iqua Jibl miilU fcdthas petunU 

XJhi fdlicity ilia miilis fa^phx tiTbts hidh nm ita'famliariier in* 

Now tj^efi; mMsfctfph^fj or /caphider^v^ith -w^lch Mr. War- 
ton (kys^we are urtacquairitcd, we taTce to be nothing "but ftra^ 
%h>es. It'fsTcmafkSblc'ftiat it\ the north of Ehghnd any vfcficl 
made in^he &me fprm, apd of the famp materials, is chHedia 
'jS^j^Vap{)arert"i^^ theHvord^^te. 1'he W6rd iSafr^ixr^jUfj, 

ih tSfe^nxty-ffcbr'th vcrfc of the fame Idylllum, fc^ins to be the 
patent t)"f another provinchil word, Viz. boyfier^ which 'lignifics 
^to be ctamdr6us. ■ t 

The j&^fd \t.iK\'xj^bLKAti the nincty-iTfth terfc of the fifth Idyl- 
lium, we agree\vith Mr. Wirtcfn, refers to the tiftc and n^t 
to the doloiir 6f the fruit \ and that 'A«^p<>p,Mn the fttfic ?erfc, 
IS *a better reading than Xifrtovy as it fixes a dilWgVceabk idea on 
the axuXoi, and of coirrfe' gives the (>rerei-eiice to the opipaXt^t^. 

We cannot, hoWever, confetit to'thechiitiging of x(»iiXo7^\ 
ver. 134 of ibc fameldyllium, tp x«6«Aoirr\ becaufe we do iit)t 
Tee "why the alftinn %ould W'b'c referred to the gtrl. Why it 
fhoald be'rcferred to hTertfitfre is more than one rcafcm; In the 
firft place it is more agreeable to the phrafeology of thc'Gr^k ; 
-And in the next place the goatherd is ^ reprefented . in .another 
^£tioPi pfefepting \\er with,a pigeon. **^ 1 Jo nojt love Alcipge, 
iiys-he, becaufe when 1 gave her a pigeon iHe !^d nM tikellie 
by the ears and k^^s me." This is fuiply. more natural than to 
lay, ** I do "riot love Alcippe, becaufe ihe dtd not kifs me when 
I took her by the ckrs aiHl j^avfe Hei* a1)igeOn?* 

In Che iixth Wylliam.the learned Editor has ftdleii inraa Ca- 
pital miftake; inKronfequenceof Which the ak^ratioh he pro- 
■ p6fcs ih the twelfth verfe of xap^'a^aKrap, ft>r Xflt;^A«C^if«> 
Wiild bean abfurdity. In confcqucnce of the fame AMftike 
too be lofes fight of a very great beauty In the paRbral fc^rfe, 
which is that of the {hepherd*s dog barking at his owh Ibaddw 
in the fea. tie miftakes the dog for the nymph. ** The d^g 
t>ark5, fay$ the ihepberd» as he looks at the fea, for the. pi^re 
;gently 'heaving waves refled his -ibadow as he.runsf iXow ^e 
Itore. It is impcdible that m fuivu ^icicf^cy hr aiyi»XoM So^M 
ifefcr to Galatea, who, in the next verfe but Ohe, is repi^enCed 
as 'hot yet come out of the water. Such inadvei»tenccs, in fo 
targe a Work, are excufable ; but it is fomething* Jlrange that fo 
remarkable a circun[iftance in the pairitlrig, *2ts th^t of the dog 
talking at ^is own fiiadow^ i!bou!d h^ve efcaped the Very ing;e« 
niRps, Editor. 

* In the book, dfom, 

Ri ^ To 

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^tjp Monthly Catalogue^ 

To the many rcftorations of the text which Mr. Warton has 
made, we (hall beg leave to add one of our own, at leaft to 
recommehd it to bis confideration. In the ninth Idyllium, vcr# 
*|2, 13, ftand thus in the common edition : 

Tw Si ^ipivi fp})yoyrog tyto ro(r<ro\f [AtXiSaivu) 

On which, in the prefent edition, we have the following 
*notc: 

^ V. 13. ipwvTi.] Stephanus tpm t*. Undevidetur eUcuiffi ReiJkiuSf 

quod hgindumnullus dubitaty tpuv r^./c,^^ quantum Tu^ amorecaptus^ 

^curasyiffc." Subaudito iMiMSxtHi;. Fiorentina legit tpaurot. Cam^ 

mode pojjis eiiam refcribere fpwv t«. Senfu fnanifejlo. SchoKafta 

- certe pra oculis habibant hodiernam le^ionem^ qui v. irac^iig fubiif 

. telligi monent, ha effity quantum amant piieri^ ^c, 

I'o come at the right reading here it is not neceflary to alter 
, one letter. Only inftead of ipwv ti, read tpuvtij the dual par- 
. ticiple, and the whole is perfectly clear, " I care no more for 
, the heat of fummer than two lovers care for the words of their 
; parents." 

Many other matters occur in the courfe of thcfe learned notes 
: which merit obfcrvation^ but it is ^ime for us to difmifs this 
. article. 

;monthly catalogue. 

For S E P T E M B E R, i;;©. 

MlSCELLANBOUS. 

• Art» 15. J Defence of his Royal Highmf the Duke of CtmberlaneU 

By a Member of Parliament, 8vo. is. Evans. 

, f N this perfprmance the capacity and talents of the Dukeof Cum« 
X bcfland are very highly extolled ; and we find him feriodly placed 
in the fame rank with Csfar, Ariftidcs, Plato, and Socrates. The 

\ cenfure and reproach which have been fo profufely lavifhed on him 
arc afcribed to the envy of his fuperior excellence. His defamers^ 

• it is fuppofed, ftruck with their own inferiority, affedt to delpife a 
character to which they cannot afpire. A pailion for gallantry is 
here conildered as infeparable firom the feniibility of a great mind ; 

' and the Author, io his ardour to apologize for the noble obje^ of 

: Jiis admiration, becomes an advocate for the moll licentious defires. 

But, wi>ile he pleads in the defence of vice, he difcovers neither wit 

. nor ingenuity, and it is impoffible to pcrufc his work without the 

• utmoft indignation. The ftyle and manner of the treatife before us 
^ fufiiciently point out the peifon to whom the public is indebted for 

h ; and it is by no means furpriiing, that the Author of fome late 
grofs and indelicate novels, fhouid compofe the eulogium of adultery 

' and thePukS of Cnmberhnd. • 

4 

' * - Art. 

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MiSCBLLANB (TV S. ajf ; 

Art. 16. Confideraiions an Imprifonrmnt far DSty fully proving thtit 

the confining of the Bodies of Debtors is contrary to Common Law, Magita 

Charta^ Statute Law, jufice, Humanhy, and l^olicy, i^c. By James \ 

Stephen. 8vo. is. 6 d. Evans. 1 770, 

The unfortunate fituation of the Author of this pamphlet has en- 
gaged hUn' to enquire concerning the lav(rs under which he fi^ffers ; 
and, tho* a deUre of perfonal freedom may have had a confiderable'j 
influence in determining hb condufions, yet, it mud be. confeiTed, 
that ther^ appears a great deal of truth and reafon in many of the 1 
obfcrvatioiis which he has made. But, while we willingly acknow- 
ledge that he is not defective in ability, we mull condemn the inde- * 
tency with which he has treated feveral refpe^able names. Hcj; 
fhould not have wandered from his fubje^, to indulge himfelf in ii\- 
ve^ve and abufe. .-, 

Art. i^. A Voyage through Hill^ by the Invincible Man ©f War, 

Capt. Single-Eye, Commander. 8vo. '4 s. bound. Richardfon 

and Urquhart, • . 

In this ridiculous produdion we perceive the workings of adiilem'* 
pered imagination. Religion feems to be the chief fubje<^ on whicJi . 
the Author intended to communicate his fentiments ; but the Reader ; 
who looks into his performance will be fhocked. with the blaiphemy • 
and foperftition which it will, by turns, prefent to him. 
Alt. 18. Les Loiftrs du Chev. D'Eon en Angleterre^ ^fur divers. 

Sujets importansy csfc. Vols. !• and 11. 8vo. 1 2 s., London, 

Becket, &c. 1770. 

The Chevalier D Eon propofcs that his work fhould extend to, it 
leaft, twelve volumes ; and in thefe he is to communicate his re- , 
flexions and fentiments on the moll important topics oFjurifprudence, 
government^ and hiftory. The two volumes, which he has now ' 
prefented to the public, contain a defcription of Poland, and the re- 
fearches which he has made concerning the kingdoms of Naples and 
Sicily ; and, though the details he exhibits are not always inftru^live, ' 
yet it is impoflibie not to be pleafed with the fprightlinefs of his ' 
manner, and the graces of his llyle. Thofe who read for amufement 
will receive much pleafure from his performance; but \hore who • 
would add to their llock of information and knowledge will, perhaps, 
have occafion to regret that the fads and obfervations he places be- * 
fore them are fo little intereiUng from their confequence, or their 
novelty. ' . " ' 

Art. 19. Injlitutes of Moral Philofophy. For the Ufe of Students 

in thje College of Edinburgh, By Adam Fergufon, LL. D. 121110./, 

3 s. bound, .fidinborgn printed, and fold byWilfon in London. 

Thefe Inftitutes are divided into feven parts, befide the introJuc- * 
tion. The fubjeft of the firft part is the natural hillory of n.ah ; cf 
the fecond, the theory of mind ; and of the third, the knowledge ' 
pf God. In the fourth the Author ircats of moral laws, and their * 
xnoft general applications; in the hfth, of jurifprudence; "in "the^ 
fixth, of cafttiiU-y ; and in the fevehth, of politics. Each of xh€(c 
parti is fubdividcd into chapters, and thefe again into feftions.— ^ 
The work, though intended for the ufe of lhi(knts, inay be read with . 
great advantage Jby thofe who have carefully ftudied, and are well 
^quainted with morals, as it contains th& f^o&oi^eC^XS^C^^^*^ 

R 3 iaofc 



tabt thottgfiti on a great variety of very: ofe^l an4 imfbrti^f 

Aru 2P. TJ)i Cfifi cf' JameS' Butbtj Efq\ lati {mOffiar in, U$ 
Majefifs Narvjt n/ff^inghii Cpnmakns ^'Uji$blbgH9uJe ofOmond. 
Svtf. 1 s. 6 d; EVansv' 1770. ' 

Re1ate6, principally, to fome ^aw:*proceedil»g» now depending in. 
the Ci^rt of Chancery in Ifclafid^ in ivktdi the Author )s iiiteiieiled 
io' poinr<]^^ pr6percy.-^Irappear« that fome d^ogs bad be^ thrt>HMa 
oat by hir opponents to th^ prejudioe of Mr. B;*s charafter, wkich 
determined mm to publiHi this'recitat of hi^ hard ca(a^ in^ order to 
viiidicare his injured fcpuration. 

A^t* ^i. A Lfttcr from a Gentleman atOtnflarttinople to his FrUnd^ 

'inhfindm: Goniaitiing a foccin^fcAecoanr of the celebrated' Pro- 

ibbitcy of Jcbmet Almap^ which has thrown the Tur"ks iittd* lb many 

Ter. CIS, slid becii orife cRrdf Moti^ o^'the Ru^ans p^fent Ex- 

pedkion*-<^A^orri&d uri^ a PirOntifpkoe^ te^9^S/tx^^\^Hi4roglyr 

fbics, 8vo. 6 d. Smith, - " ■ 

-This Author mufbhavc thought very contcmptibty of A« public, 

—or he could never liave imagined ^bat fo mm^a^ bare-ficed' 

an impofition', as thfs Letter, could poffibty have gone down. It iW 

really ix)ore abfurd than Canning, or the Cock-Lan<e GKolt. 

Religious and Controversial, 
Art. 22- Remarks on fever al fate Publications relative to thf Dlf" 

Jenters. In a Letter to Dr. Prie/Iey. By a'piff^hterl Svo* is. 

Bladoo, 177©. • 

l)r. Pf ieflley Iharcs the fate of moft controverfial wrjters, that of 
being attacked by perfons of. different pHnci|^les or denominatidns, 
aid lomciimcs by thofe of his own, we meiaas aProteftaiicXJiflen- 
te/. It has been thought that the fpiiit and. beat, parucujarly of 
religious controverfy, which in fome cafes has been extended fp far 
as to overthrOMT its own purpofc,, and to render perfons rather indif- 
ferent to than zealous about the truth, hath bven of later ^'cars confi- 
derably checked and cooled, but it feems now to be upon the revival. 
It is, perhaps, ho\vever, extremely difficult, nearly impoffible,* to Vn- 
ter upon and continue long in it, without a degree of partial arid, 
reprovable zeal» or without uttering in hiib forae exprefllons or fen- 
tipaents whidi may prejudice the Author and his caufc. Even Dr. 
Prieftley, a learn^ed and able writer, has found' himfelf obliged to 
'n^ake coBceiHohs^ which coi^cefTions indeed have brought him great 
honour as to the' candour and integrity of his heart ; and have alfo 
ihewn, that however fuperior he has been to his antagonilts, he has 
derived fome advantage from them. His prefcnt opponent, after 
bearing teHimony to his merit as a man, and as a writer, exprc/Tes 
his concern that ' feveral things in his late publications, feem to, 
difcover a degree of precipitation, inattention to real life, and ve1ie» 

^ Our Author is the fon of M^jor William Butler» 'who was a aa* 
tural fon of James late Duke of OrdiOnd* by, it is faii, -a leufy •f 
^f^tinSioh, whofe ttanie has been concealed, thtough a regard to de«' 
liiacj^. When Mr. James iucler was in Ute* navy;^ he haa the cdm« 
inanaitfih#V4iitttrcfl«eteo^w*r. C c^i 

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RELIGI0U3 and Controtersial. '239 

raence of temper^ wHicb he fean will he of ll(tle advantage to the 
dfeft tbfe liddAr nibiant'to fcrvc/ 

'The pamphletflf pdbliSied under. Dr. ^utSXtf% name, and hem 
examined, are, * Remarks pioL £>me Paragfap)is in YXt^ Blackftone'l 
Commentaries; &c. relating to chb Di&nters*' * Confiderations on 
Chnrth Aathority, occalioned by Dr. BalguyU Sermon on that Sub* 
jeft :' and ^ A View of thfc Principles anifCottdiift of Proteltant Dif- 
fenters, with reijpeft to -the Cml and Bcdefiaflkal Contontion of 
England.' Beftd^ thefo there is one other which this Author take4 . 
int6 <dolifideration, entitled; < A {itt Addreis to Proteiiant Dii&ntert, 
ib fuch ^ ;' the ftyle and manner of which, fays he, bears a ftrildng 
fefem*blance to thbfe of the publications julb mentioned ; and ta 
which, as you have acknowledged f, your featiments concerning tho 
fef^-a^, and on moft other fubjeds relating to the Diflenters, ire 
^tthfuUy exprelled.' • 

This anonymoufs Writer profefTes bimOflf the friend of religions 
liberty, and thfe right oJF private judgment, &s the unalienable inhe>* 
Htance of every 'nan : he declares him(elf on thefe principles a 
Diflenter, and he gl6ries in the name. But allowing the Diflent^ 
in^ xnfeteft to be th^ caufe of liberty, he ict% no pariicalar pto« 
pnety in reminding ^ %voittd of it at this time : * Did not, he telli 
us, die prevalence of good fenfe and moderation, both in the fupe- 
rior and the loWter clalres of mankind, lechre as from all d^n^er of 

Serfecution, one might fear left fucb iU-timed zeal ihould rou£ the 
eeping lion, and put an end to the tranquillity which we 4t prefent 
enjoy, and which we cannot value at too high a rate/ 

He accufes the Dofb^r of partiality to the Diilenters, and injuftice 
to the eftabli^ed Church; and he labours to prove this by a particular 
difcoflion of the compartfon drawn betiVeen the Church of England 
and the DiiQsnters, and the cenfores caUb upon the former, in the 
pamphlets under confideration : * concerDiog which I muft* &ys he« 
take the liberty to ik^, that T am fe^ful kfl they flu>ald contribute 
jbmething towatcb promoting a fpirit of cenforiou(he6, and .revivin|[ 
that alienation ajAd diiafie^on between the different feds of Chrij^ 
tians, which, to the honour of the prefimt age, feem to be gradually 
dying away/ 

The charge of idolatry, which he thus defines, * To pay to infc- 
fior and derived beings^ knowing them to be fuch, thofe honoprs 
#hich zxt due to the Sopreme ^ower ;'— this heavy charge againfl th< 
Chhrch of England, he thinks, * ihould either. have be^ totally 
iupprefTed, or ihould have' had fome better fupports than poiitive 
af&ttions and vehement cehfares/ Might his dehnition be admitted 
is' jufl, it Would, we &rppore, remove the cenihre as to thoie who 
do really embrace the Atnanafian fcheme, and with regard to others 
who cannot confent to this hypothecs, he apprehends th^ inay> in 
.&e time of WoHhip, pa& over the o&niiye paj^ages without ni^cd^ 
6r accommodate them to their own vieWs of the fubjed* But our 
Author appears to have great eaie and latitude as to particular fta? 
tinients and inodes of wbrihipl'^hen expreffing his approbation^of 
^caiibnal conformity, h^ tana proceeds ; * You will &y perhapt 

* Thefe have all beeft mentioned in our late Reviews* 
■f View^i &c. page 3t» ' 

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J49 Monthly Catalogue, 

that upon the fame principles a.inan might innocently join in pub* 
lie worfhip, with any (eik of Chri^ans, and even with JcWs and Ma- 
hometans. And, fuppofing this* con fequencc be allowed, what ia 
there in it fb alarming and dreadful ? Snppofing a man is in a Popifh 
or Mahometan country, where there is no other public worlhip thaa 
that of the Romiih orTurkiih church; if he thinks that he can find 
any thing good in the eftabliihed devotions, or i:eap any advantage" 
irom attending upon them, wherein confifts the mighty crime of oc-. 
cafional conformity ? And if occafional conformity, in fuch a fitua- 
tion, may be excufed and even vindicated, I apprehend that, in the 
iame. circumftanccs, conftant conformity is likewise defensible.' So 
fXtenfive is the freedom and charity of this Remarker. 

The pamphlet is written, on the whole, in a lively and a^eeabl& 
manner : there arc poffibly fome things in it which Dr, Pric^ley and 
Others, who are for altering long received opinions, and opinions by 
ibme coniidercd as facred, may attend to with advantage ; but the 
Writer has certainly entered the lifts with an antagoniil who is too 
powerful for him. . It is unneceilkry for us to add any thing farther 
upon the performance. The Dodor, with his ufual expedition, 
has fcnfr. forth his Riffyf of which we are to give fome account ia 
the next article. 
^n, 23. Letters to the Author of Remarks on frveral late Pj4blica^ 

tians relative to the L ijenten^ l£c» By Jofcph Prieftley, LL. D. 

F. H^. S. - 8vo. IS. Johnfon. 

Dr. P. begins his defence with exprefling his grief th;^ he find* 
himielf under a neceffity of giving pain to a perion of his opponent's 
fade, and feemingly nice feelings, * but it is now too late, favs he^ 
to give much attention to thole polite accompU/hiaents^ which you fa 
ftrongly recommend. In Head of flattery, therefore, exped nothing 
but franknefs and fincerity.' 

At the clofe of Letter I. he fays, * There may be fome who will 
think me too precipitate in this Anfwer to your Letter, and fome 
may blame me for anfwering it at all ; but I chuTe to do it, becaufc 
it will give me an opportunity pf being a little more explicit on 
fome of the fubjedls on which you have defcanted. If I were tq 
add another reafon, it would be that I was willing to take the firfl 
opportunity of>noticing a m<w ffecies of Ri/Jenters^ that I was fenfibla 
had been fome time ipringing up among us, con fitting chieriy of 
yoeng gentlemen and fine ladies, who have as little of thk Jfirit 33 
they have of the external appearance of the old Puritans ; but whofe 
principles were never exhibited to the public before. Jn your per- 
formance the world has the firft opportunity of examining the depth 
of them, and I had »n inclination to report to the public what that 
depth wally is.' This is indeed farcaftical and contemptuous ; an4 
thtfftmbfpirit runs through the whole ferics of J^ptters. It is true 
fhat the gentleman with whom he contends had afforded him too 
many opportunities for indulging this humour of writing ; but as he 
has fo evident^ a fuperiority, it may be queftioned whether hp has no^ 
tether exceeded in tiie ufe of that advantage which had been affOrdej 
^im- Heinfifts in oppofition to one great principle on which th^ 
fnonymous i,ettcr ia founded, and even froua/omeconceffions which 
appear in that Letter itfelfi that a vindicatiQ^ of the J^iiTenters^ and 

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^,£ - ,, . Religious and CoNTiwvEVaiAt. ^41 

of the HpTe of religious liberty, is at this tnne peculiarly iealbnable; 
and he proceeds to conAder diilindtiy the di^erent topics wM which 
the pamphlet prefents us; among^ others, the charge of idolatry ralied 
againil the eftablifh^d Church is b^ no means negie^cd : this charge 
he with freedom and confidence renews, and endeavours tO'fupport, 
after he has, with fbme dcrifion, exploded the definition of idolatry^ 
which we have mentioned in the foregoing article. 

We might give feveral^ extracts from the;fc Letters, which we 
^oubt not would be acceptable to bur Readers ; but the limits of 
our work will not aliOw it. We (hall prefent them with a /hort vieur 
of what he fays on occafional conlbimity, becaufe it is a Tubje6t 
which conflicutes a remarkable part of the Letter to which this 
pamphlet is a reply. * 

* To make myftlf, fays he, more thoroughly acquainted witk 
your principles of Diifenting intereA, I turn to what you fay on ths 
lubje^ of occafional conformity, where! find you are of opinion, 
that a man is not to conjider luhat Antichrifii'an errors he may cmh» 
tevance, in anj place cfnvor/jrfy hut nvkere he^has the clear eft froJ^B 
of perjonal impro'vement and plea/ure* In this maxim. Sir, T beiiev# 
you have the merit of being quite 'original ; for I do not find that 
It was at all known, either to any of the reformers from Popery, or 
to our forefathers- the old Puritans. If I be at all acquainted with 
their hillory, their firft confideration was that mode of worlhip 
which was moft agreeable to the Scriptures and the will of God j 
their per/onal improvement was but a fecondary confideration with 
them ; and their pUafure no confideration at all. When their fa- 
-vourite places of worfhip were (hut up, they thought it their duty to 
attend public worfhip in thofe places which they moft approved, 
provided there was nothing ^jir/«/ in the fervice; and upon this prin- 
ciple they frequented the eftabliflied churches. Fut though they 
might have gone as fpeSlators. of the method in which the • worihip 
of i.odi is conducted by any of the human race, they did not think 
with you, that they might innocently join in puhlir ivorjhip luith any fe3 
efChriftians, and much lefs with je^vs or Mahometans, This would 
have appeared to them, however it may appear to you, teccetdietgy 
alarming and dreadful. To communicate with the Church of Rome 
would have appeared to them ah aft of idolatry,* and to frequent the 
T»»rki{h Mofque, tho' there fliould have been no ChriUian Church io 
the <:6untry, would have appeared to them a renouncing of Ch'ri/^ 
tianity. They would as foon have changed the Lord's Supper fbf 
circumcifion. In thofe circumftanccs they would have thought it 
their duty to (hew their abhorrence of the national worlhip, and 
even to be fingular in fuch a caufe, though at the rifque of every 
thing that was dear to them, and of life itfelf. With ft{^tdL to the 
Church of Rome, though yoo nfay call it a Chriftian Churchy the 
0I4 Reformers and Puritans would have applied to themfclvea the 
words of that awful voice from heaven, in the book of Revelation, 
xviii. 4. Cemtout of her my people ^ that ye be net partakefs of htrfins^ 
find that ye recei've not of her plagues, - . 

* ^s to the countenance that a man may gi*ve to Antichriflian errors^ 
f>J his example^ in thefe cafes, you fay, that it /> not to he confix 
^dj tetaufe it is yer^ little injluence thft Ins example fan home. 

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44* ' ' Uomn^x Pj^TA^QGUE, 

ll/lpyir iiAi j^pj^ear? to ^e to l^^ 4 ^ery dangerous maxVn* ^^^ ^^ 
1^ XDort or Ub influeDCCy ai^d it is o£^at importance tbac every 
UCign Oi^uld attend to it^ and govern his cpndudl by it. Of the twO|^ 
^erefore^ I would rat|ier chufp to give a man an idea o£ his im- 
portance, in this refpcft, j>eing greater, rather than of its Vlng 
}p§f, than it really is ; $9ce a ieoie of dignity a^d importance is ^ 
great incentive to w<pfthy actions.' * 

J}je, Prieftky clofes his Letters with rcmarkins^ the oddity of hit 
(tuatipn in this conteil: 'I cannot, iayshe, ^ake nijr leave 9^ you» 
without obferving tlM|t there is fomet^ing finguiar in my fate as a[ 
Wnter. I attack the prejudices of the Diffenters, and behold a 
^Cgy^^ of the Cl^Qrc|i o( ^.qgland ftands u^ in their clefence ; an^ 
when in defending the principles of the ]>iflenters I anavoid^^blx 
l!o^e foo near t^e Church of Bngland, a pifTenter appears' \n their 
bekal^ A(l this is the a^orp lingular, as it can hardly ^ fuppo/c^ 
(hat there was any thing of this kin4 concerted betweei^i J^f. Veiii| 
suid you, or that ygu Bie^^t to ackao^ledge aqy oj^ligajjioij^ jP.^r 
Yenn for his defence of the pUTei^^ers. The ixiqre fenjiblJe E^ij* 
tera. however, I understand, only think ^enuelves oblige^ to^l^« 
Y^X^n for his goo4 mtfnfion. \ almoft fufped t^t the mem^r^ of 
the Church of 6oglan4 will d^i^^ theii; pbligations to yoi|'to^e of 
% fimilar oafure ; ao4 1 bfgin to fea^, |B(li (in* 9r4er to <XMnpiet^ 
tJie analogy of thefe i:em?i;kable f^^lks) as a |)i|(eA^r better flnaled m 
|he controyerfy, h^ t^aken up the csuife tnat Mr. Venn Was ^i^j^aaa) 
to, in dc^nce of the CfifTeqle^s ; iome member of the Church of 
JEoglandf thorough^ y^rfisd i|i the mei;its of the argnm^t, d^oold^ 
ao Uke manner, ^pla^tyoji in behalf of the eftabliftmenV I'^ji^^* 
Jiowcv^r, tQ (bake ©y.han^s 9t ^\ controyerfy as ^n ^ I decently 
can ; and \ 4o not knovtf w)jet|ier I can hit upbn a tetter dl^^J^t 
(br this purpofe thaa ^ p^r my di^erent ant^gonilts <Mie again^ 
^jiothexy and fiqce i( fp i^.apppns that you are more oppo^^ to or 
Another, than any qf ypu are to me, 1, may as well flip afide an 
leave yon ciigaged tpgcthcj, You, Sir, for inftanc^, attack me 
<me fide* ^i^d ^lr• Yenil ^n4 the liondon IVf inifter oji the other^ ^n 
I think ipyielf to be in s^ decent kind of middle way between youl 
$tandiiig thus betufeen two ^res, (here caq be no cowardice in re- 
^i^eating ; and thep, if you \it diipoiied to continue the engagemea,^ 
^00 cannot do better than eombat one another. 

< The difiiculty wiU b^ which of thefe two chan^pions to n^tc^ 
yoo with. I fuppofe yoi^ would think yourfe^difgraced t>y being com^ 
ifi((fdwith Mr. Venn ; aiid, indeed, his n^anner is xqiiik too u^cntU- 
mmii ^^ y^^* ^^^ ^ ^ ^^^4 that you would be oiifer^atc^iqd. wid|i 
^e other. You wpu}d w^P^ V^th more elegance indeed, an4 turi^ 
^t Sner and better rqimded peuo4s ; but then, $ir, )ie is far bettcf 
frijl^ in ' lo^c and mftafh^s ; an4 tl^is weapon wou{d be like ^ 
fcytbe among your flowery of Ofajory. 

* I ihall bc^ leave tp cbnfilu4c \yitb your own words, p. 67. ^e^ 
fuia^ni fifrnfii^ tbi frfv4ipg rpg^rhy you 'will not, I tkink, com/iiir 
them as ^wholly untucejfaryy or intirely dt/approve of this tf tempt to prl^ 
yent tfjtpxoidbk ^^nf^m^fiei^of^your inadvertence. \ ^11 alio extern 
^yfelf /i/^ry >^^;{)r, p. 7$^ if th§le r^mairks may, i|i tjie lealj 4^pee. 

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P O 5^ T 1 p A !• ' ^3 

coQtribate. ta perfu^ yQu,. (pr the fatwr^, np^ ^q Iff ^3>^rncdfabpf, 
gethcr l?y tl^ unfle(firaffiing 'virtue^ difcretioc.' 
' Rr. PricjlJ^y, is, witjiput doujjt, a naaAerly Wjrjl^^r, and has, pjr- 
ticttUrly^ diikoyered^ his acutentfjs and abilities i^ the prefent per- 
^jnriaji^e : t^o obi^^rj^ations, }>owevery we thinif may be made, viz« 
iv T^a)^ Hf*^ilft hi?, if pcrfuadc^d of the reci^itu^e; ojt. thofc principles 
]ieJ^ tJiQpght fii tQ. cin,b|acc, he does, no? al.v^ays make, that foil 
allowance to thoHp w^hfi^ wii;h eq^aldiligepc^ and lef^rning, may bq 
20 different fentiments, which might be expected from a'profeffed 
enquirer after truth, 'and an advocate fbflTberty^ II. It may be 
rcitiarked that our Author,. In the courfc of h?8 difpute, nas taken 
ilPlicc of] Uic: diffrrew. ipaligiiyy of iml andj amopg 

other things, he fays, ' there are ^e kennefs an^ 

IfWdnejOi, thftol^fta;o/\xhich is thjp, grfl p fenfy^l ap- 

petites, Thcfp.v^ces are in themfelve ht witlj th6' 

diifteft regard to hbnelly, veracity, and ough if there 

ihould be n9 other metjiod of grati/yinj uf at the eV 

jxincc of honclly or humanity, tliefe mig conte(t'— It 

ipay Ijere be alkedj'is it honeft or iuimal a confume ir^* 

<lrun kennefs that, money which ought to ^ .^^ _ the ailiflance 

of hisifainily Or neareftVelatives ^ Or to idle aWayliis time in any 
kinds of luxury and extravagance, by which, meanft he may injure' 
Aumb^^s wi(h whom h< is imhi^iately cohne^d^. and I^jcon^e him- 
ftffburticnfome to* the cpmhiunity ? Is it honeft or humane to cor- 
nipt finipHcity,' to betray modcft. virtue, to'blaift a reputation, and 
brin^ forjfow ^nd diftrefs u^oiv^a.iingle perfon, or a family, which 
can perhaps ncir^ be repaired ? Such and other evils arc the known 
oDnicquenccs which fome times flow from the vices men^tioned^ and 
this in ipme i^flances where perfops appear, in other refpedls, W 
have honcfty and generoiity. Wc are Well perfnaded. that Ik. PrielU 
ley entertains th^ fame fentiment^ and- leaves fome room ibr itin 
what is faid here ; but expre^ons of this kind (hould not be deli- 
vered baflily, or without a fuitable guard: there are inftances in 
which it may be worth while to attend to the defff^ftd wtuiy dif- 
cretibn. 

Poetical. 
Art. 24. Falfehood in Fejbion \ or^ the Vizard Uunmajkid : A Sa^ 

tire. .To which are added, the loyal Free-Mafon ; an Ode : And 

the Choice of a Wife, in the Style of Lord C— if-rri Svo. is. 

Bladon. 

A fatirc on Wilkes and his partizans : the poetry neither excellent 
sor contemptible. The Free-Mafon*s pde ie foi^ewhat prophane ; 
and the verfes on the Choice of a Wife arc. not in the flyie. of Lord 
^hefterfield. 
Art. 25. Thi Art of dr effing the Hair ; a Pjoem : Humbly injcribed 

to the Mimhers of the T. N, Club. By E. P* Philocofm, arid late 
' Hair-dreffer to thefeid Society. 4to. 1 s. 6d. Carhan, &c. 

Though the Author of this poem aiFefls to ajppear under the cha-» 
x'a^^r of a hair-dreiTer, it is evident that he is not unacquainted 
with the internal cuhivatton -of the head; for his poem is more fpi- 
fited, corce^l, and harmonious than moft pampKbts of this kind 
that come under our rcviewt 

Art. 

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i44 Monthly Catalogi^e, 

Artv 26* Reflexions in ihe Ruins of an ancient CatbedraU Ta* 
which, is added, an Elegy on Winter. 410. is. Newbcry* 
The greateft part of the deicriptive vcrfifiers might fave them (elves 
and us much unnecefTary trouble, would they lay it down as a rale' 
that nothing in this kind of poetry will do where the Writer is not* 
capable of placing his objefts in an uncommon light. The only 
inftance that the Author of thefe verfcs has given as of hie capacity 
in this re(pe£l, appears in the following hcmiflichs ; 

' The 'whijiling winds 
Sing in the vaults ' j ■ 

The winds whiftling and fmging at the fame time is all that we* 
find extraordinary in his poems. 

Art. 27. ^ Po£m infcribed fo the Memory of the Rs. Hon, William 
Beckfordy E/q\ late Lord Mayor of London^ Dedicated to John PFilkes, ' 
E/q; i2mo. 6d. Baldwin. . ' . 

The fubjedl is not rendered ridicolpus jn the hands of tlfis • Wri- 
. ter ; though we obferve nothing in the poem, worth extradin^ for 

the notice of our Readers. There is fopiething in the dedication about 

hireling Re'viewuer \ the caufe ^nd meaning of which is bell known' 

to the Author. . . 

D R ^A M A T I C. 

Ar^ 28. The Noble Pedlar ; a Burletta. As performed at Mary'" 

hone Gardens Set to Muiic by Mr. Barthelemon. 410. i s. 

NiQolK . . . 

Ourplan obliges us to. infert theie things^ and, what is wor(e, 
with regard to our own eafe and fatisiadion, it obliges. us to read, 
thexp : Need we fay more ?....- ♦ . 
,Ar^. 29. Majejiy mijled\ aitragtdy^.^ 8vo% 18, 6 d. Jordatu 

This tragedy, which is dedicated to the freeholders of Middleicx, 
owes its being to the prefent poHticahcontemioiis. Edward, the Se- 
cond, and his fevourite Spencers^,, afe the principal char^ders. . The. 
fiyle is altog^thei- new, and the coMrtlinefi^ of ^e addrefs is hardly 
imitable. Queen Ifabella, who is of the anti-minifterial party^ tells, 
one of the Spencers, fhe will make hii^ as nSad as a colt : 

rit probe thy foul> and, if thou haft not loft . 

The fenfe of feeling, make thee wince and fiouike. 

Spencer, in return, bids her Majefty go f**t. * ' • ^ 

Madam proceed, and give your pailion vent. 

Young Spencer, who pimps for the. King, ^ds means to* bring a 
beautiful lady to court, whofe name is Emilia ; and, on her ftrft. 
viHt, entertains her, and the ladies her attendants, in the following' 
Ryle : '* Ladies^ pray chufe what pleafes your palates ; I am forry 
that his M^jefty*s comipands oblige me tp leave fuch good compapy 
—Fill the glaiTes: Ladies, good health to you, and particalarly to 
to ^ofe who want good hu^nds." At length the lady in queftion 
is introduced to the King. She kiiles his hand : the King falls upon 

^ See the Elegiac Poem on the Dei^h.of Mr. Beckfprd, memtioned 
in our laft ^^onth's Catalogue^ . . 

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Po CI T 1 C A L.—— B O T A K T. 245 

Aer lips : fhe criesi " Wha^ means your'Majefty ?'* He proceeds as 
faft as poflible to ravifh her — fhe fcreams— the Qoeeii comea^in, and 
fcolds like a baiket woman— And fo, ' 

For us, and for our tragedy, &c. 

Political. 
Art. 30. Jn impartial Addrefs upon ike Public ConduSi of Mr. 
Aldirman Wilkes^ Jince his Enlargemtnt from the Kiag^s Bench PrifoM^ 
April 18, 1770. ByT. Underwood, late of St. Peter's Coll^e^ 
Cambridge, Author of the Impartialift, Lihertyy A W^ord to the 
Wtfe^ &c. 8vo. 18. Rofon. 

We are not forry to fee that Mr. Underwood has, at length, refolved 
to eiye us his impartial fentimeDt&.in plain profe : and we have the 
fatisfa£Uon to afTure the public, that what he has here offered 
.to their confideration is^ by.no means fo unimportant as thofe who 
. are only acquainted with- his poetical talents may be iapt to imagine. 
:His prcfent defign is to take a review of Mr. WiJkes*s public beha- 
viour iince his enlargement . from the King's Bench, prifon ; and that 
behaviour he concludes to have been grofsly fadioas» . and highly in- 
. flammatory. In fhort, our honeil Impartialiil is a zealoas opponent 
.of the Wilkes's men and Middlefex Freeholders; yet, we dare be 
fwom for him, he is no miniftcrial hireling. 

Art. 31. A Dialogue between a Country Farmer and ajurymarty on 
the ^ubjcd ofUbels, 8vo. 6 d. Flexney. 
Contains fome pertinent remarks on the cuftomary modes of pro- 
fecuuons for Liiels^ and on the Liberty of the Pir^s ': the whole tend- 
ing to prove that LiBeriy^ and the Rights of Juries^ to i>e ' the bul- 
•, warkof the Englifli confiitution.*. This is a matter, of the highefl: 
GonCequence to the political welfare of thb country ; and,. therefore, 
, we carnefUy exhort every Briton, who Xs liable to {exy^ upon juries, 
. to make himfelf mafl^r of the fubjed, as far as his ability and op- 
. portunities.wiU allow* . . ; . 
Art. 32. The Debates and Proceedings of, the Britijh Houfe of 
CoiMMons, from 1746, to the Death of his latt Majefiy^ George II, in 
1760. In 3 Vols. By the Edioors of the former Collections pf 
•' .'Parliamentary Debates. 8vo. i^t. Boards. Almon.. 1770. 
Thefe Tolnmes. are the 3d, 4th, and 5 th, of Almon's colledioa : 

• the firft and fecond were announced to the public in the 35th vol. of 
. our Review, p. 74. There is no occahonto add any thing to what was 

there laid of this compilement. 

BoT A NY. 

Art. 33. Herbarium Britannicum.- Exhibens Plantas Britanma 
indigenas, fecundtm Methodum Jkralem mnjam digefas* Cum Hifo- 
ria^ Defer iptioney CharaBeiibus Specif cis, Firibus, et U/is, Tabulis 
tends illuftratum, Auftore Johannc Hill, Medici naeDo^Ore, Aca- 
demia; Imperialis Nature Curio/briim Diofcoride qtmr to, &c. Two 
Vols. 8vo. iSsr. Bec!<et, «cc. 

' Beiicc the great work, which" £>r. Hilf is publiftiing periodically, 

• ^fixteenth volume of which we announced to the world in our laft 
Keview, he has found time for fevcral other occafional performances 
In the ikme way. Of the two volumes here oflfcred, the firft made its ap- 
pearance in the lafl year.; the feeonU was publiflied about two months 

w • ' • ago. 

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«46 MoNTlfur Cataxoguf, 

ago. , Thcjr gfve an'ftccOilnt of the native j>rinfs ofBritaJn^ digeftefl 

J!if<^K^i9g.to AACw^method; cbnuining a dei^ipdoh ot thefe plafttate 

their fpecific charaders, their virtues knd ufes, illuftratod widi idaoir 

copper-plates. No perfon, wrf^uppofe,^ is better gualified for a work: 

of this nature than our ingemous and laborious Author ; and nnany 

who have a tafle for fudh Rudi«,'or iare nefcelfarily pblijged to attend 

.tb^tKtm, inaty'do ilbuKt 4>e pieced with tltis COlleiaittn, btft fe^tAl 

.win tic Cttt'offifrdm fcceiving Hay advalnta^e by it, on accoant iifthe 

^langua^e in which it is writteb ; there bfcing nbthiifg Xrtore in ^£Yl|li{h, 

' thaa j uii . the bmmes .brthe 'Jplaiits : the '{i^rtTcu tar*ddbrip^iui bf wm , 

the places in which it may be capered thdy will be iminil, %eir 

iqtiklities hitd uYe, muH lie- ail tioiioealeci' from him «^oi9tinac%i]aUited 

with the Latin tongue, thoof h the herbs ahd BoWers deliife^Eted <fe 

the growth.of his own cbnntiy. , 

. Art. .34. Fsrhies tf Eritijh thrhs. With the Htftdrjr, Dcferip- 
tion, and Figures, Of thefeVerallCin^s; ain Accotint of 'tHe Dif- 
cafes they Will cure ; the Method of ^^Ivlftfe thein*; and Man*^ih^ht 
of the Patient in eacli Difeafe : Cdntsliriing the Cures bf Coh- 
fomiptions by Coltsfoot Tea, ^Hc6tic Pfeiet's ^ the Dalfy, C^jts 
by Leaves of Chamomile, anti A^cs by its Flbivers, A R<d6om- 

- . mendatbn of the feidens Cernna, to fup^y the Place tff tHe 

Ceylon Acmella, fo celebrated in the G/avel; 6ut not to be Intd 

. with; us,_ And a Csrfe, with all its ClrcttWlfemics krid Symptoifts, 

of the Hopping X^odgh, cHred by a-l^a of tht frefli Root of 

- pkcamfane. The whole illcfftratiig thaHniportant Truth, *that 
the Planer, of. onr oWn Cptnjtry will core al^l its Diieafes. '^o 
Which are added Cautions afainft the Two Othofiiia^, defti^^fiVe 
of Sheep. A Woilc inteirded to be ttfefol to the'SicIc, ih'd^'to tli<4r 
iPriends; to Private PandKds; sthd to the Cha^itaHte who w6old 
help their Neighbours. N"*. 1.-^ To he codcinii^d 6ccali«]fnaHy, 
as new Virtues are difcovered in iPl^ttts ; or nftgtedteii or dbubt^ 
ful ones afcertained by Experience. By John Hill, 'M. ]!>. 8^. 
1 $. 6 d. Baldwin,' &c. 1770. 

Botany becomes a truly. Ufeful and valoal^e (cience> wheait is 

..purfued not merely as an amuieinent, but a|)plied tothe pur^fes of 
life and health. It appears a rational and probable fuppoiition that 

: tjie native plants of panicular countries contain virtues fiiited w the 
difeafes of thofe countries^ .though at the -fame thne foreign iiffiftance 

ciA very deftrable and ibmetimes necelFary, if it, can be obtained. 
Phyiic has Been too much involved in .'myllery and axX^ knd endea- 
vours feem to have been irfcd to draw off our attention from the pro- 

, vifionwhi^' nature has in4de,. and tocjl^pft>dethe ^otiQns whioh Itiid 

, been conceived of the benefit and ejQEcacyof certain .plants; fo th^ very 
few perfons in common life have (kilt or refbiution to apply 'fhein to 
thofe ufes fOr which it is mod likely we have been furhii^ed ,with 

. them. Dr. Hill, whatever ccnfures may have been, wxtli fomc 
ju%ice, thrown upon him, is undoubtedly well qualifed to ailHl his 
countrymen in this benelicial part of knowledge. The Hiftory of 
Briti{h Plants, in^thc two volumes mentioned in the foregoing artide, 
is CQn£ned to th<f fervice of a few, by the janguage in which it'is^x- 

, liibited : that work, we are now told, was wrinen in Latin, becapfe 
it was principdlly intended for the ufe of pbyiiciaQS. In theprefent 

undertakiiig 

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^nciert'akin| lie ^ropofcfs to deliver 'an accodnt of the vihnes q£ oifr 
baBve pjant5> with ruks for idttiimderihg tUesb; fitted fbr^^enerli 
l^iVice) and in.bar own tongne ; and io fyy down the whole more ac 
large than was needful for thofe who are already acquainted s^t&tfte 
pradice of phyfic. The lortg v^bofe title, which the Writer has 
^pr^xed to thi^ }dnu>jilc^ i^y have xatBer an air of qtiackery zpd 
puffing; but this performauc^ is to ber^arded as a (pechnen of, ana 
introdu£Uon to, a larger work jdf the fame nMnr^, which ^o^1d if be 
con tinned^, with the requilite attention* ;^rdmifei we think ;to,i>e/if 
general otility. It is ve'rjr deiirable ^hat ^it fhould be JEncdndty 
plain, and full, and. at, the iame time (b coiuriyedin regarid to ex- 
pence, as may accommodaite the greater nqmbf^r of pnj'<;hafo|t Th^ 
Atrthor profefles his fenfe of favours rec^iv^d ^m the public, and 
his hojie that for anct, thcmotive to the empldymejat lie nofnf uqi^- 
takes will not be miftaken, ' for, fays be,« tl^fe who iee the.n^jto^ 
and price, of the prefent publication, will ndt foppofe *ti^ dij^ted l^ 

ihtereft.' ..... ...^ . . . , 

The plan upon which ,he intends to.ptoceed !»» firft to btin^ tl|e 
read^ pcrfedly^acqaainted iidth the plaftt that is tiscommended to be 
ufed ; andr to prevent errors,., to give a ignh and hiftoty not only of 
ike nghz kind, but of ail others . of th^L f^ait name* and general 
nature, which might be miftaken f^ it, though.they have no parti- 
colar virtoe, or perhaps, even contrary qualities : next, the difeafe, 
in wHidi ^e herb thus known may be ferviceable, is to be explained ; 
and the hift care itriil be to.dire£t in what manSner the falntary plant 
may be tieft ufed. Befide the Englifh name of every herb, the Latin- 
one is added, which it is eameftly recommended to all perfons jto 
ttccQ^om tliemTelves to n& ; becau^, it is faid, .' liie Ei^tiih names 
of herbs t^t equivocal, the fame word being offen nfea as k name 
!br many different plants ; but in the Latin all is Certain.* 

* It will be happy, fays Dr. Hill, if, \sy thde taeans, xhe knci^- 
fedge of 'plants become more genWai. The fhidy t>f ^em is plea* 
ilant, 2^d the exercife of it is healthfai: he who feeks the herb for 
his cui^j will ofteA £nd it half effefked by die walk : ahd wh^n he is 
acquainted with the ufefid kinds may be more than his own phy.fici«in. 
This kuowlcUy is not to be fbn^t for in the old hcrbah; they con- 
tain but a fmsul p^t of it, ^hd what they hold is loctced up in Obfcn- 

. my^rr^J^T^ ^^ the herbals of Gerard Parkinfon» or the more ancient 
Turner, a^d you (hall, find, in m^nv inftances. Virtues of {he '^moil 

. exalted lqn4f related of, herbs,, w^ich if you were to eat daily as 

. .iallad^ would canfe no^ ^Iteration ^n the b^y.* 

In the.^de-page wc'obfeire, that A'e ;B/V|^^ or drooping 

. b^mf j^gri^ukyf »s ?nentioned as fitted Jtb ftpply the place of the 
J^cmeUa. fti.the account given of it, ft apf^ars tliat the plant is 
common about the ditches [n Ireland, but Tcarce wit*h u^ and it is 

, added, * tWs is one of thf very many Bfiufli plants concerning the 
virtues Of which, we ar^ perfefltly^ ignorajit. No one has yet tried it : 
bat.tfaerft.are re^^fgi^s tq luppofc Its quijhties ai*e eminent^ .9^*^'* ^^ 
not fond of it. This often is a mark of great medicinal virtues, as 
well as fometimes of mifchicvouspbwers. — fhcre is' a plant, of Ceylon, 

.. iczV^.J<miM, n Id^i.of yerMfia, diftmguifhcd beyond all things 
in the cure' of the gravcL Tnis has its very tafte and fnr.rtl and 

lavAr : 

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348 S X R M o ff's. 

flavor: and cliymiAiy has (hewn t&elr near 're{emblaiice/ This is 
strongly recommended to farther enquiry, and we are aiTured wilj 
Bot want its place' among thofe to oe examined by the Author of 
-diefe obfervations* . ; . , 

L ^ w. . 
Art# 35. The Law ef DamagBS. By Jofcph Sayer, Serjeant at 
I^aw. 8vo. '4 «. bound. Uriel, &c. '770. 
In oar Catalogue for June I'-dg, Art. 15, we commended to our 
law readers this Author's Lvw of Cdfts. The £ivonrable reception 
'given to that treatife, Mr. Sayer, in his preface, informs us, en- 
couraged him to publish the pr^fent work ; of which the following 
is his own brief account : and it is very. jud. 

* As damages, fays he, are a coniiderabie objeiEl, in every mixed 
and every perfonal adion, a complete and accurate knowledge of the 

' law relative thereto, is very ufeful to ail perfons engaged in the pro- 
fefTion of the law, and particularly to thofe who are concerned in 
the managemant of caufes. The defign of this book is to af&il in the 

' acquiring of fuch knowledge. 

* That recourfe may be readily had to any part of the fubjcd^ 
every part thereof, which is in any degree exteniive, has a diitind 
chapter alligned to' it. A few things, not conftdtrable enough for 

• diftin(t chapters, are comprized in a general one. ' .* . 

^ The chapters', as far as the mature of the fubjed.woald admit, 
are fo ranged, that the matter of the preceding ones is introdU^ry 
to what is contained in the fucceeding ones ; and the* matter of the 
lUcceeding ones illadrates or- confirms what is contained in the pre- 
ceding ones. 

* In the courfet)f the work fuch remarks and obfervationa are in-^ 
Icrted, as were, in the Author's judgment, necc/Tary or proper.f . , 

As we obferved, in our account of this gentleman's Treatife of CcJls^ 
fo likewife in refpeft of his.prcfent compileme^it, we thihk the profef. 
fors of the law have confiderable obligacicms to the Author for the 
labour he has bellowed :in bringing together, and me(hpdicaUy 
digefhttg, thofe important materials which lay fcattered, among a 
tremendous heap of folios. 

S E R M O .N S. - . . 

I. True CompaJJi^n exefnplifcd ht the Infiitution of pnbUc Infirmarks. 
— In the Cathedral thurcn of Worccftcr, July 26, 1770; Being the 
AnniverfaryMeetlng of the Governors of the Worcefter Infirmary. 
By John Rawlins, A. M, Re£lor of Leigh, Miniffer of Badfey and 
Wickamford, and Chaplain to Lord Archer. Rivington. 

II. The Ch'n.ian Religion agreeahk to the natural Powers andPrin^ 
eiples of Man, — At a Vintation held at Ludlow, June i'2,--i770. By 
Robert Clive, M. A. Archdeacon of Salop. Crowder, '&c. ^ 

III. At the Ciiupch of Dis, in the County of Norfolk, July «8, 
1770, on conftituting- the Royal Alfred Lodge of Free a(nd Accepted 
Mafons. By Itihn Smith, M. A. Mafter df the Free Grammar School 
at Bottefdale m Stifl'olk. Nicdill,-&c. 

%♦ The Account of the Jewijb Jharim' of 4hc RefurreShn^ &c 

printed in 1767", is received. • '- •' 

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M I^M^fc— Am 



THE 

MONTHLY REVIEW, 

For OCTOBER, 1770. 



' AR*r, I. Some Account of thi late Peter CoUinfin^ Fellow of ibi 
Royal Society y and of the Society of the Jhtfiquarians^ London y in 
a Letter to a Friend. 

THIS Letter was never publifliedi but having procured 
it by the favour of a friend, we ihalU as far as we are able, 
concur in the laudable deftgn of the Author; arid record tht 
jufeful life of an amiable man ; that others, feeling the involun- 
tary reverence which is paid to merit, may endeavour, like him, 
rtomalce ^^ their works prai'e them," and thtil render detradion 
impotent, and encomium unneceflary. 

Mr. Peter Collin fon was of an ancient family in the North, 
and the great grandfon of Peter Collinfon, who lived on his 

S'aternal eftate called HiigafHally or Height of Hugal^ near Win- 
erhiere-lake, in the parifli of Stavely, about ten miles from 
.Kendal ^in W.eftmoreland. What was his father^s profeffiont 
or where lie lived, does not appear. 

X He ws^s born in the year 1693, and bred to trade as a whole-* 
(ale dealer in what is called Mah^s Mercery \ a brother, whofe 
name was James, feems al b to have been bred to the fame bu- 
finets, probablv by their father. 

Peter and James became partners, which was a fortunate 
circumftance for them both, becaufe living in great harmony, 
and their bufinefs not requiring their prefence together, they 
had both leifure to attend their particular ftudies and purfuits, 
whether of pleafure or improvement. 

Peter, while a youth, had difcovered a ftrong attachment to 

natural hiftory: in/e£ls and their feveral metamorphofes em* 

ployed maqy of thofe hours, which, at his time of life, are ge- 

, A^r^Uy. Ipent upon other objei^. Plants alfo engaged his atten* 

tioh, and he very early began to make dried fpccimens. 

While he was yet a young man his diligent curiofity, with 
.fefoc^ to thef<^ Q^Cjf^i procured hi;n the acquaintance of the 

YaL. XLIII« ' S Digitized by Gt)( HlOft 



250 St>fM Account of the late Mr. Peter Cottififen. 

inoil eminent naturalifts of that time, particularlyx>f Derhaiiv 
Woodward^ JJale, Lloyd, and Sir Hans Sloane. He contraded 
a friendlhip alfo with the late Sir Charles Wager, who enriched 
Sir Hans's colledion, nuw conftitutitig the Britifii Mufeum^ 
with many curiofitics, which, being excited by Mr. Collinfon, 
he picked up iii the courfe of his many voyages, encouraging^ 
alio the commanders under him, who were ftationed in different 
parts of the globe, to procure whatever was rare anfl valuable 
in every branch of natural hiftory, for the fame kind and liberal 
purpofe. * 

•Among the vaft variety of articles in that immenfe treafury 
of Nature, there were very few with the hiftory of which Mr; 
Collinfon was not well acquainted, his familiarity with Sir 
Hans being fuch, that he vifited him at all times, and conti* 
nued to dolb till his death. 

Befidi his acquaintance with natural hiftory, his knowledge 
of the antiquities of his own country was very confiderable. In 
December 1728, when he was about five and thirty years old^ 
he was elefled a member of the Royal Society, and was a mem- 
ber of the Si cicty of Antiquarians from its firft inftitution. 

To the Royal Society he was one of the moft diligent and 
ufeful members it had ; he not onlv fupplied many curious ob* 
iervations himfcl^ but he promoted and preferved a moft cx- 
tenfive correfpondence with the learned and ingenious of all 
countries. The Antiquarians alfo he furnifhed with many cu- 
rious articles of intelligence and obfervation with refped to the 
particular objeds of their enquiry, as well at home as abroad* 

Wherever he was, or however fcemingly engaged, nothing 
that deferved his notice at any time efcapect him, and hd mi- 
nuted down every ftriking hint that occurred either in reading 
,or converfatioo. With Aich hints converfation perhaps ftirniflied 
him flill more than books ; for there was fcarce a man of 
learning and ingenuity, whatever was his profeflion, in Eng- 
land, that was not of his acquaintance ; and of the foreigners 
who came hither, either for improvement or pleafure, thofisr 
who were eminent for their knowledge of natural hiftory, or 
proficiency in any art or fcience, were conftantly recommended 
to his notice ana friendihip ; among thefe was the celebrated 
Linnaeus, with whom, during his refidence in Etigland, Mr* 
Collinfon contrafied an intimate friendfliip, which was reci* 
j)rocally encreafed by a multitude of good offices, and comiriixed 
without any diminution to' the Ia(t. 

Thefe recommendations were i\\t natural confequtncca of his 
extenfive foreign correfpondence, which he maintained with 
thegreatefl puntSiuallty. He acquainted the learned and fog^- 
nious in dift^nt parts of the globe with the difcoyeries and im« 
provenidnis that were made here in various braAch^ of know* 

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SmiJccotmt tfihe late Mt. Ptter C$IlkfiH* '2|r 

-kdge ; and there is fcarce any part of the worM Froni wUch ht 
did not receive informations of the fame kind in retorn. 

From this correfpondence of Peter Coliinfon, his native 
country has, in many inftances,' derived great advaiuage and 
'honour. 

In the year 1730 a fubfcriptton library was fet on foot at 
Philadelphia in America, to which Mr. CoHinfon made feveral 
valuable prefents, and procured others from his friends. The 
library-company foon found themfelves in pofleffion 0/ a very 
CDBfiderable annual fum, which was to be laid out in books ; 
and being in want of a judicious fnend in London to tranfaft 
the btifinefs for them, Mr. CoIIinfon voluntarily and cheerfully 
-undertook the fervice, and for more than thirty years affifted in 
the choice of books, and took the whole care of colleding and 
(hipping them, without expeifting or accepting any coniidera- 
timi for his trouble. The (ucceis of this library, which was 
^greatly owing to his kind countenance and good advice, en- 
couraged the fetting others on foot in different places upon 
tiie fame plan, and there are now upvvards of thirty fubfifting 
in the feveral colonies, in fumiOiing which the catalogue of the 
.fifft library has been very much refpeded and followed, and 
the ufeful knowledge which the books of Mr. CoMinfon's re-< 
commending iiltroduced into one province in America, is now 
in a great meafure difFuied through them all. 

To the diredors of this library, among whom was Dr. Frank** 
lin, Mr. CoIIinfon tranfinittad die eariieft account of every new 
Eufopean improvement in agriculture and the arts, and every 
philosophical difcovery : iti 1 745 he <bpt orer an account of 
fofne new experhnents in eiedricity, which had then been made 
in GerinaAy, with a glafs tube, and fomc direfiions how it 
might be uied fo at to repeat them. 

This was the firft notice that Dr. Frankim had of that 
cnrious fubjefi, which, encouraged by the friendl3r reception 
that Mr* CoIIinfon gave to his letters concerning it, he pro- 
fccuted with a fuccefs that has made him eminent in ^cty 
country in Europe, aild procured to his own the honour of 
having firft reduced (Aienomena to fcience, with refped to this 
gr6at natural agent, powerfully and perpetually operating, 
though hitherto krarce known to exift. 

Thefe letters were publiflied in a feries, while the experi- 
ments which they relate were going on, and have been re- 
printed in a late edition of Dr. Franklin^s difcoveries^ and im- 
provements. See Reviews for March and April, 1770.^ 

Perhaps, fiiys the Author of this Letter, in fome future pe- 
rkid, the account which Mr. CoHinfon procured of the ma- 
jia^ment of flieep in Spain, with re^d to their migrations 
from t^ OiountiiRS * the plains, and bt^ffom th^ plains 
i * • S a Digitized by Google t« 



352 Some Account rf tht Uti Mr. Piter ColUnfen. 

to the mountains, which he ptibli(hed in the Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine for May and June 1 764^ may not be confidered among 
the leaft of the benefits that have accrued from his extenfivc 
and inquificive correfponden^. 

When America is better peopled^ the mountainous parts 
more habitable, the plains unloaded of their vaft forefts^ and 
cultivated, the fineft fheep in the world may poifibly cover the 
plains of Carolina, Georgia, and £aft and Weft Florida, in the 
winter months, and retreat to the mountains as the fummer 
heats . encreafe and dry up the herbage. We are at prefent ut- 
ter ({rangers to this oeconomy, which might, perhaps, be prac- 
tifed with advantage even in England, with this difference, 
that the bills (bould be chofen for the refidence of thefe ani- 
mals in winter, proper (belter being made for them, and the 
wetter low- lands relerved for their pafture in fummer. 

So long ago as the year 1740 he was confiderable amonfi; tho(e 
who were beft acquainted with botany and natural hiftory in 
England. Hrs colledion was very large ; his fpecimens were 
well chofen : he had a botanical garden at Mill- Hill near En- 
field, which, at that time, contained many curious plants, not 
to be found in any other, the number of which was continually 
encreafing till his death. 

This colledion and garden brought him acquainted widi 
many perfons of. rank and diftin£);ion in this kingdom, who 
were diftingui(bed by their tafte in planting and horticulture, 
or defirous to make rural improvements. With fome of thefe 
he frequently fpent a few days, at their feats, commending and 
cenfurtng what he approvefl and difapproved in the defigns they 
were carrying on, with an^ integrity and tafte that did equal 
honour to the fimplicity of his manners and the reditude of 
his judgment* Frequent opportunities, during a long life, hsid 
furni(hed himi ^itb an extenfive experience of the tSt&s of 
diflFerent methods of cultivation, and of the particular foil a^ 
afpe£( which were beft adapted to different plants and trpes ; how 
beauties might be beft improved, and incurable defeds hidden : 
by this knowledge he often prevented young planters from com- 
mittmg capital miftakes, redified others, into which they had 
been mifled, either by the ignorant or the defigning, and pre- 
vailed upon many ot his friends to adopt this rational amuf!?- 
ment, arid pei'fevere in it, to the mutual advantage of them- 
felves and their country. I never knew an inftance, faid Col- 
lidfon, in which the purfuit of fuch pleafures did not eithec 
find temperance and virtue, or make them. • 

He was the firft that introduced the great variety pf feeds 
and (hrubs which are now the principal ornammts of cvjBcy 
garden $ and it is owing V>iti^ inquifitive induftry:tbat (b many 
fedons cf the firft di(tia<£iipR s^e now able t^ fee^ in their oni^ 

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S$mi JkcomA of the late Mr. Peter CetUnfom' 2 53 

4oilu^a^ groves that hs(ve been tranrplanted from the weftern . 
continent^ flourifli with the (amt luxuriance as tbofe which arc 
i|idigenott8 to Britain* 

* America j$ by OQ.od^aAS lefs behqlden to him for improve-^ 
iment than her mother country. Such are the limits of human 
Xnowledge^ that he who knows moft, is only bed able to a(k 
queftiooe. Mr. Coliinfon had read every performance that was 
'vp'itten with refped to the natural hiftory and produce of all 
Wr fettiements, and indeed of all the fetdeipcnts of other na- 
tions in America. .This enabled him to malce pertinent en- 
quiries after every thing that was curious and ufeful^. which 
excited a curiofity in . thi^fe countries, and with it a tafte for 
natural hiftoryand botanical refearcbes, fo that whatever has' 
appearicd there pf this fort, is chiefly owing to.Mr. Coliinfon 's 
enquiries and encouragement. Thus he produced botanifis in 
America, from whom he was continually receiving new feeds^ 
in exchange for whicb^ after furnishing his own garden, and 
tbe gardens of his fri^nd^^ he procured others from diiFerent 
regions, having correspondents not in diilant parts of Europe 
only, but in Afia, and even at Pekln. . 
; As his mercantile builnefs was tranfaded chiefly with Nqrth 
America^ he interef^ed himfelf in whatever might contribute to 
its advantage. He ufed to obferve to the Virginians that their 
prefent ftaple is tobs^cco; a plant of which the confumption 
depends wholly upon the caprice of cuftom and fafhion, and 
hfe therefore frequently urged them to think of fomething more 
pieroEianent, fomething o^ceflfary to the natural fubfiftence or 
enjoyment of life. , He^obferved that vines would thrive as well 
10 their country as tobacco 1 but, faid he, do not keep them 
dole to the ground, afi we are forced to do for the fake of a 
little more fun and heat : your fummer heats exceed, as much 
as ours fall (hort } allow your vfnes therefore longer ftems ; let 
them be trained to ^nd fupported by trees, and hide their fruit 
among the foliage as they do in the warmer parts of Europe. 
On this pccafton pur Author obferves, that in moft of our 
northern and fouthern colonies there is a great variety of native 
grapes, growing wild in thq woods, and twining among the 
tcees and buihcis for fupport : that^ feveral of thefe are capable 
of producing a rich gqod .wine, as appears by experiment, and 
that where the attempt has failed the fault has been not in the 
ftfuit) but in the want either of flcill or care in making the 
y(^t» I:have mylelf, fays he, tafted fome very good wine from 
tne wild uncultivated grape of America, which has been haftily 
made without experience, smd fent over to England. It is rea- 
fonable therefore to conclude, that if proper care was taken tp 
ifliprpye the grape by cultivation, and the wine by a diligent 

S3 and 

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254 S^^ Account 0/ th hn M^^ Pi$m CoOlnfuu 

and-fldTfid procets hi the making k, America migbt 
one of the mofl celebfatfd wine councfits upon earth* 

Mr. Collinfon was alfo of opinion that flax, hemp, zvA iXk%'- 
might be cultivatec) in our AmericaDr cotonies with eqtMl ad* 
vantage to them and to ut. ,- 

He was a remarkable inftance that he who is never idlc^' 
need, never be in a htirry : he was always doing fometbittg« aikl* 
therefore he tranfa&ed all his domcftic and mercantile affairs^ 
and preferved his extend ve and multrfaridiis correspondence' 
with a cjmet regularity^ and fflent difpatch, tiiat equally pre- 
vented erobarraffinent and delay. The blamdefs fimplicity of' 
his manners, and the careful ^economy of his timer, kept hit' 
mind perpetually ferene» and (eivnity is always caftly improved 
into chcarfulncft. The confcioofneft that his purf«it& were t^ 
only innocent but uieful, and the refpeS and Icindne^ with' 
which his charader infpii^ alt who approached hitti) kindled* 
g pleafure in his bofom wKich always ^ne 01^ in bis coun* 
tenance, and enlivened his converfafiion : it cofifiAed, however^ 
not in* rallies of fancy, but difitifrons of cnrioas knowledge} io 
that there was the fame kind of diffisnevTce between tiftcning to' 
theconvlrfation of ^tier Cbllinfon, •ad-beartng the jokes and 
florfes that fo oftcp " fct the tafWe ina roar/' as between walk*- 
ing over a^ beautiful kind^9pe, and feeing a puppet (bew-* 
- His llature was below the mid(He ftze, and bis -foody waii. 
rather corpulent: his habit was plain, having been bred f 
Quaker ; his afped kind and liberal, and his temper open abd 
communicative. He wa<^ an oeconomifty but bis oecoMOiy was ^ 
by no means fevere : hfe h^d a heart th^t fympathifrd with di« 
ftrefs, and a hand that w«s always open to rtiievt it. As kit 
pure and rationa) pfeafures faved btm-ffioai the fefliio^bk kA^ * 
lies which generally encroaeh far upoft the nighty be rofe vcrf 
early in the morning. Wben he was in Lcmdon be applied to 
the bufinefs of his connting<^hou(e ; when in the country, he wa« ' 
aimed continually enrrploy^d in his garden^ obferving and affift- 
ing the progrefs of vegetation, which equally coniribttted to 
his pleafure and His healtfa.- 

He was in the higheft degree fend bdtb of lowers and frric^ 
Of fruit he always made the prindpiiil part of his mtal ( snd -hi^^ 
houfe was never without flowers, from th^ early foow-drop^to ' 
the autumnal cyclamen. 

Nocwithftanding his temperance be waa ftmetimes attaoked 
by the gout ; but in other refpe^ be enjoyed perftft heateh| 
and great equality of fpiritt. 

In the autumn of the year 1 768 be went to vifit Lord Fetre, - 
f6r whom he had a (ingular regard, at bia hoafe in E§tx ; and 
Vjrhflp.he w^ there, be VW f^T^ wH)| 4 tPt«} fupprtfllon of\ 

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AceMunt ofthi CharaSter and Manmrs of the French^ 255 

urine, which, baffling all the efforts of medicine, pur an end to 
his life 01^ the 1 ith dajr of Auguft, juft as be hftd arrived at the ^ 
75th year of his age. ... 

Inclofed 10 his will was found a paper importing, " that he 
hoped he (hould leave behind him a good name, which he va- 
lued more than riches ; that he had endeavoured not to live 
ufelefly j and that his conftant aim through life had been to 
be a friend to mankind." 

The margins of all the books of natural hiftory whieh were 
Ibund in his library, and they were not few, were filled with 
judicious remarks ; and among his papers were many obferva- 
tions on various fubje£ts, and curious anecdotes relative to the 
If ate of botany, planting, and horticulture, in this country, which, 
if digefted and given to the prefs, with extrads from his lite- 
rary correfpondence, would be a moft valuable additbn to pub- 
lic knowledge. 

He left alfo a vaft treafure of dried fpecimens of plants, and* 
fome v^ry curious growing in his garden, in greater perfeftion 
perhaps than in any other fpot. ' 

Without any pretenfions to what is generally called learning, 
he knew more both of nature and of art, than nine in ten of 
thofe who pride themfelves in having it. His time had been 
fpent not in learning the names of things in different languages,' 
but in acquiring the knowledge of their nature and properties, 
their prbdu^ion and ufe. Without public ftation, he was thf 
means of hatiortal advantages ; he had an influence that 
wealth cannot give, and will be honoured when titles are for** 
gotten : and let it be remembered, as an incitement to others, 
that whoever is equally diligent in the improvement of time, 
and exerts his abilities, whatever they may be, with the fame 
effort, and in purfuits equally laudable, will become eminent 
at what time or in what place foever he may live ; becaufe the 
generality of itiankind, in all ages, and in all countries, if 
not felfilh and vicious, diffipaced and idle, content themfelves 
with negative Virtues, md feldom afpire to the glorious labour 
of doing good. 

Art* IL An dcemf^ rfihi Cham&irmd Manmrs pftbe French^ 
ttnik pccqfimal Oifervatiom m tJ^ Bn^Jb. tf vo. 2 Vols. 8 s« 
fewed. Dilly. 1770.* 

iN the introdufHon to this work the Author obferves, that 
to form a jiift idea of the prefent manners and characters of 
J French, It is ncceffary to refer them into their caufcs, by 
tracing back their literature and other national circumftances. 

The Author, in this part of his work, does not go far back. 

He divides the bifiory which he exhibits into three epochas, 

* S 4 the 



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256 Account rfthe CharaSer and Manners of the French. 

the firft beginning with the i6tb century, the fecood including 
the reign of Louis XiV. and the third the time iince the death 
of that prince. 

In the ii)ft, which he calls the ^e of Learnings claffical 
learning and the polite arts, having been revived in Italy, were 
brought into France, under the prote£iion of Francis I. who 
was contemporary with our Henry VIIL but the only objedls 
of ftudy, at this time, were the Greek and Roman literature, 
fchool divinity, Ariftotle's philofophy, and the Fathers. This 
asia, therefore, was fertile in editors and commentators, who 
generally wrote in Latin ; but the number of original authors 
was fmail, and, except the great Thuanus, they were of fmall 
note. The nation in general was little polifted ; fur what im- 
provement could the bare inielligence of dead languages pro- 
duce ? As the minds of the people were unenlightened, their 
manners were rude, and their civil wars rendpred them fierce 
^nd cruel in their diverfions, which confified wholly in the 
mock-iights called tilts and tournaments. But the morning of, 
t)iat improvement, which took place under Louis XIV. began 
tp dawn under the Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarine. 

Ip the fecond cpocha called the age of Genius^ the knowledge 
pf things was cultivated inftead of the knowledge of words ; 
^nd the ijluftrious names, fays oyr Author, which graced th«3 
memorable period, are fo familiarly known among us, that it is 
not neceflary to enumerate the feveral branches of knowledge 
which were then either. brought to perfe^ion, qr greatly im* 

f proved, or the arts which were cultivated with the moft briU 
iant fucceft. Men were infpired with a profitable emulation,, 
and in&ead of contending in iield^ of blood, upd^r a (h^nieful 
(ubferviency to their nobles, they began to relilh the fruits of 
peace, and engage in commerce^ which^will always produce a 
certain degree of independance, an(], as far as it goes, defiroy 
the diftindions of vajtal and lord, 

The age of genius was fucpeedpd by that of Tajie. This 
was diftinguifhed by a "ftudipi^s refinement, in every ^xt an4 
improvement which royal patronage had countenanced. Every 
o\>]t&. was examined with the moft fedulous attention i-anol 
p .laces, furniture, equipage, and drci^, were regulated by a kind 
pf internal fehfe, which was fuppofed intqitively tQ diftingui(b 
the la(( refinements of elegance and beauty, and which waf 
called Tai^e, apd ^ecam? as it were the motto of the times. 

The Author proceeds to enumerate the particulars that firft 
(Irike an £pgli(hm^n ^pon his vifitfng France^ Amopg thefe 
are the poverty of the populace, who are unfpeaka^ly more 
mife'rab^e than perfon§ of the fame clafs in England* In Pari:'^ 
jadeed, their apparel has a more decent appearance, but in their 
i^tfn?fft4«c?s, and plight of t)ody^ }t js ^afy %q tra^c the want 

of 

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Jtccoma oftbi Cbara^ir and Manners tftli French. 257 

cif that nourilhment which renders the loweft of our rabble 
ruddy and plump. In the country throughout all France the 
wretchednefs of the peasants forms a lamentable contraft to the 
gaiety that fs fo much afieded in the capital. The great num- 
ber of clergy alfo is a ftriking novelty ; but our Author judi« 
ciotifly obferves, that in their different habits they have only 
preferved the prevailing manner of dreffin^ among the lower 
clafs at the time when their orders were inftituted ; the fame as 
the boys brought up in Chrift*s Hofpital and Bridewell among 
us : the drefs of thefe boys was the common drefs of the time 
when the (bcie^ies to which they belong were inftituted. The 
fcapulary, which is common to almoft all monaftics, was the 
rough covering of thofe who performed manual labour^ to which 
the Monks formerly dedicated great part of their time ; and 
the habit of the Capuchins was that of the poorer fort in Italy 
at the time of their foundation. 

The fecular clergy are, according to our Author, more men 
of the world than any other denomination in fociety ; but they 
are very unequally provided for, pluralities and finecures being 
as common in France as in England. 

In the article of eating, the Author fays the French differ 
irom us principally in that their fet meals are more frequent, 
and that confequently they eat lefs at a time $ and though the 
quantity, upon the whole, is much the lame, jtheir food is of 
a lighter quality, which he thinks ^may give a more equal flow 
of animal fpirits. 

The people of rank in France are fond of ftate, and foretgnerr 
are aftoni(hed when they meet our nobility walking the ftreets 
in an undrefs. Thofe perfons in France who can keep a car- 
riage are feidom feen abroad out of it, and thofe who cannot» 
may be met in the ftreets fauntering in fwords and full drefles 
as if they were going to court. 

The whole employ of a French man of falhion, fays our Au* 
thor, is intrigue^ or as it is called gallantly ; and he fuppofes 
the padion which is principally gratified by it to be vanity. 
This propenfity to diffipation he fuppofes to proceed, in great 
meafure, from the frame of their government, which makes 
them not dare to meddle with public affairs. In England, fays 
Montefquieu, libertinifm is more prevalent than gallantry; 
{n France gallantry is more prevalent than libertinifm $ the rea* 
fon feems to be that in gallantry a decree of deference and con« 
defcenfion is necefTary, to which the -Frenchman is haUtvited 
by living under awe and reftraint, and which, in a free ftatr, 
^IJ not be learnt. 

* The French fcrupuloufly conform to eftablifhed manners and 
cuftoms ; in England almoft every man has a manner and cuftom 
pf hi$ own } tbc^Frcnch ^P} in ^ncral^ have an exceffive and 

abfurd 

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abfurd regard to fecondarjr qualifications^ fuch as ikill in fiog^^ 
jng, dancing, mufic* and fome of a much {nferior kind : tbefe^^ 
fays the Author, have in France more weight of recommenda*. 
tion. than can well be imagined* In f rance^ *' that a man 
fi prtfenti parfakiment bien is the higheft praife, though in plain 
Englifli it means no more than that bt comes into company with a 
goodgraci. 

According to our Author every thing in France^ except the 
formal tranfadions of things by pennMuifliip, is in the hands of; 
the womeq^ of whofe morning vifitors he gives the fame ac-' 
count that has been given by others. Of the clergy^ the mili- 
tary, the abb6s, the lawyers, and farmers of taxes, little is faid 
that is not almoft univerfally known. The Author having 
obferved that the French make great account of dancing and 
fencing enters into a kind of hiuory of duellings and a diiTer*. 
tation upon the pradice, which might well have been fpared. 
The tame fubmiflion of the French to arbitrary government is 
well known ; but, (ays this Author, it fliould not be nvade. 
matter of reproach, for the caufes that have effeded the difpa- 
rity between the political circpmftances of the French and Eng- 
li(h ar& fuch, as will effedlually operate in all nations, inatten^ 
it on to the defigm of thofe who firji began to encroach on the righto, 
of the people^ or perhapi a forbearance to oppofe them with vigour^ 
from a notion that they would be attended with no bad confequence^y^ 
and were only temporary evils that would ceaje of ihemf elves* Warned 
by this example, fays the Author, let us, inftead of reproach*^ 
ing odiers, take care of ourfelves. 

The French aiTociate more than we do : iecluded from poli«, 
tics by the nature of their government, and fcom drinking by 
conftitution and babit,^ they naturally have recQUrfe to conver* 
{atioD on literary fubjeds, in which the ladies always bear a 
principal part, having a much more general knowledge of the 
matter than in Eneland. There are regular meetings at al- 
moft every houfe of their gentry, in which the company fits in 
judgment on the performances of the day, in confequence of 
which many topics are fiarted which give occafion to wit and 
fentiment, and employ alike the judgment and the fiuicy. 

Thefe methods of pafling, or rather improving time., arofe 
from a cuftom introduced at court during the regency of Anne 
the mother of Loais XIV. who held s^ilemblies r^^olarly in 
the evenings to unbend the mind after the fotigtaes of the day 
by agreeably converCition. They were further eftablifhed by 
the induence of Madam de Montefpao^ the miftrels of Louia 
XIV. and Madam de Maintenon his wife, who were women o^ 
i&ne underftandingt and a . literary ti^rn. On this occft^oo 
the Author mentions the French language in comparifon witt^ 
g^ri ; tbc Frencbj be faysi icgm to be 4 language of phrafes, 

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M&iam du Boc^V Ltturs toncermng Englandi He. a5f 

AeEngliib a- language of words; the French deab in hinta 
and circumlocution, the £ngli{h comes to the point at once % 
the French feems the beft adapted to company and converfa« 
tion, the Englifh to bufineis and difpatch. This obfervatio» 
ieems to be very judicious. 

In France the relation between mafter and fervant is pecu- 
liarly happy : the fervant is fubifiiffive> and the mafter is kind. 
The French charge ut with an haughty afperity bordering on 
iniblence and hruulity with refped to our fervants, and it moft 
be coofelled not without fome reafon. 

Upon the whoIe» we cannot help faying of this performance 
what thf Author obferves has been faid of a French feaft, that 
il\% parvum in mulio* All the national differences of chara6ier» 
government, bufinefs, and pleafure, might haye been defcribed^ 
with every refledion which they could naturally produce with, 
reipeft to their origin and influence, in at moft a fourth part 
of theie two volumes; which, however, contain many obfer** 
vatians and particulars well worthy of being known. 

Art. III. Letters concerning Englandy Holland and Italy, By the 
celebrated Madam du Bocage, Member of the Academies o£ 
Padua, Bologna, Rome and Lyons. lamo. a Vols. 5$^ 
fcwed, Dily. 1770. 

XO travel with pkafure through a country, where there are 
no unknown objects to entertain you, it is nece/Tary at • 
that you ikould have a Rightly companion. Such is 
Madam du Bocage. So much has been faid of the countries 
tluough wkkh ibe has pafled, that (be has hardly any thing 
iKw to piRfcnt you with, but then (he makes you amends by 
her goo^-hvmour and vivacity, uid when fl^e has tired you with 
a dull jditrney, (he treats you with a fong. Her poetry, indeed, 
bat (bmrad greatly from the inelegance of her Tranflator, who 
haa been capable of fuch lines as the following : 
In vigour and the prime of life, 
llad many young ones by his wife 

Nay, he does not always khoW even how to pronounce pro* 
per names ; for inftance : 

Where then could VxzKUdis my body fee. 
That Art and Nature thus &> well agree \ 
His tranflation of the profe, too, is inanimate and fervile.— ^ 
H^werer, in compliment to Madam du Bocage, we (hall pre« 
iiflt our Readers with one of her letter^, addrei&d to her fi^r : 

NapJiSy OSi0b€r 1 5, 1757, 

* I hare at length vt(ited HercUlanebm ; your laft letter made 

(AC rccelleft'the defire I always had to fee that city, which was 

f g c fe r ttd b]^ the fiune accident that overwhelmed it, in the year 

}dwih^S^W»:/*i\^f iatbc fijUbi:on(iitAup of Titus. The 

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'^6 Madam Ju BocageV tiftirs eoncermng England^ iftk 

Duke d' Elbcsuf, who is ftill living at Paris, difcovered it fir' 
feventeen hundred and thirty-fix, in caufing a well to be dug at 
bis feat at Portici. He found under a vault columns and 
ftatues of marble, which he fent to Vienna to Prince Eugene^' 
and afterwards gave up the place to the* King. His Siciliair 
Majefty caufed workmen to dig for the fpace of fevetal miles 
between mount Vefuvius and the fea ; and a fubterraneous citj 
was difcovered, which according to the infcriptions, dated 
thirteen hundred and forty-two years before the Chriftian acra, 
was founded by Hercules. Paganifm, which afcribes miracles- 
to that hero, informs us, that during the games celebrated at 
the foot of mount Vefuvius, in commemoration of his vidories 
over Geryon and Cacus, he fixed his mace in the earth, which 
immediately became a fruitful olive tree, fiy this prodigy he 
was encouraged to build at the fame place, Heraclea, which, 
according to Dionyfius Halicarnafienfis was inhabited fuccef* 
fivcly by people of fcveral different nations, the Ofci, the 
Etrurians, the Pela(^, the Samnites and the Romans. Upon 
digging in that fpot, was found a ftreet fix fathoms broad, with 
covered porticos on each fide, a theatre and an edifice, thought 
to be the Forum Herculaneum ; at the bottom of the court, 
iUrrounded by galleries three fteps high, were the ftatues of 
Nero and Germanicus, greater than the life. From the nitches 
painted in frefco, were taken excellent pidurcs of Tbefeus and 
Hercules. Figures of bronze and marble, adorned the walls at 
the bottom of the colonnades of the courts the periftile divided' 
into five arches led thither by its extremities, and under each 
vault of this entrance was to be feen an Equeftrian ftatue. Tbt 
admired figure of Nonius Balbus, in one of the courts of Porticf, 
may rival the beft in this tafte. The pillars were of brick, 
covered with ftucco, which is frequent in Italy. Oppofite lo 
this monument rofe two temples ; andfeveral h^ufes with mar- 
ble porches of the fame architeSure, thecielings painted with, 
grotefque figures in red ; paved wi^ ^Mpfaic work, and fur- 
nifhed with inftrun^^nU for facrificing, for.furgery, for the 
Icitchen, with fpoons, lamps, candle-fticks, chrvftal-flagons 
ftill full of water, dice to play with, rines for the hngers, ear- 
rings, eggs, nuts, all in their natui:s^l colours, corn, bread re- 
duced to a coal without lofing its form ; tablets covered with 
wax, with the necefTary implements for writing; fifliing nets 
which are fit for ufe, a fun dial, a va^ number of manUfcripts 
rolled up, pretty nearly of the colour, and in the form of rolls 
of tobacco. Do not tbink that I faw tbefe precious relicks 
wherd they were found* You know mv averfion for the habi- 
tation of the Gnomes: I took but a fliort walk in thisfiA- 
terraneous city, the fmoke of the flambeaus ahnofi: blinded me|. 
I felt it cold, and looked in vain for the remarkable pieces of 
antiquity tbi^ ba4 been raaovcd firooi itr l/poftnunai^ ^ 



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MiJamJu Boc^qV Litters c6mtming England^ &V. %6t 

«Mth anew in queft of antiquities, they were obliged to fill the 
pits that had been formerly dug : it would give latisfadion to 
the curious eye, that the whole place had been cleared ; but the 
lava,' from iixty to eighty feet deep, with which the roofs arc 
covered, renders the work impra^icable. This river of fire 
compofed of melted minerals, and which flows flowly, has filled 
one fide of the town with liquified lead as it were : The remain- 
ing part is buried under a fort of cement of afhes and water^ 
which has penetrated the edifices, without injuring thean. 
Where ihould fuch numerous ruins be placed ? How can they be 
removed ? The csre taken bv the King to range in order in his 
cabinets, the feveral curiohties which have been dug up, to 
caufe them to be engraved and defcrtbed, convince me that he 
would, had it been poffible, have facilitated to the curious the 
means of vifiting the remains of this ancient city throughout. 
As I could make but inconfiderable difcoveries in it, I quickir 
departed - for fear of catching cold, and went to amufe myi^ 
with a view of the ruins in tne galleries of Portici* It is to be 
wiihed thefe, antiquities were removed to a greater diftance ; I 
am apprehenfive that mount Vcfuvius will one day again burjr 
thefe treafures, which were at an enormous expence dug up 
from the centre of the earth, where this Volcano had plunged 
them. The j^lates which are made by order of the court, will 
give you a more adequate idea of them, than it is poffible for me 
to do. 

* Though amongft the ftatues found here, they have fome 
fiood ones ; there are much more compleat figures to be ieeo at 
Rome and Florence : but with regard to ancient paintings, of 
which very few remain ; thefe two cities muft yield to Portici* 
Amongft others they boaft greatly of that of Thefeus, who flew 
the minotaure, which (hews that this art was well underftood bf 
the ancients ; the head of the hero is well defigned : a naked 
.Hercul^y a fatire embracing a nymph, common fubjeds with 

G inters, attra<^ the attention likewife ; as alfo Apollo, and the 
ufes with their names and tevenJ attributes which were never 
before exa£Uy afcertained by any antient monument : the Cen- 
taur Chiron leated, and teaching Achilles to play upon the lyre, 
is very ffariking; the attention which a fcholar of a good dif- 
pofition gives to the leflbns of a mafier of reputation ^ and the 
tender care which a mafter takes of a child of the utmoft im^ 
portance, are beautifully exprefled. We behold there in little 
pidures, which are tolerably well done, a loaf exadUy refem- 
hling a real one^ a flaik filled with water admirably imitated^ 
a bixik confifting of two rolls y a port folio» much like one of 
ours ; the mode of dreffing in that age ; joiners, Ihoe-makers, 
with die tools of their feveral trades j rope-dancers, centaurs 
carrying ^fftig/^ on their backs ^ a goofe plucked of its feathers 

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cxadly in nature; wild fowl, fruits, theatrical maficft, g^tfl^t 
chimeras, figures of men and women with birds taik| and a 
chariot drawn by a parrot, and guided by a givrfbopfer. The 
plans of architedure mark therein an idea of the dimtnution of 
objeds ; but do not difcover a thorough knowledge of the rules 
of perfpcdive. To prefervc the colours » which are tarniflied) 
lis foon as* ever they are expofed to the air, the Chevalier 
•Venutt has given the compofition of a varni(h, with the mediod 
•of applying it. Green and bitie colours, which the ancients 
were thought to be ignorant of, are confpi^uoOs in thefe pic- 
tttres; the bowers .and thickets reprefented in them as adorned 
with jet d'eaus, has undeceived me in the notion that this ad- 
mirable artifice was unknown to thern. How gt^eat a pieafure 
is it to fee in antique paintings and fculptures, the gardens, 
manners, habits and attitudes of people who died fo many hiifi- 
drcd years ago ! Many of them refemUe the defcriptions which 
have been given of them by the poets ; whether thefe borrowed 
their idea from ftatuaries, or fculptors and painters fDrmed 
-theirs upon the defcriptions W poets. The Greek and Roman 
fiatues, often entirely naked, and- always fo in the neck and 
afms, have a more compofed attitude, and a greater appearance 
of ferenity than ours, whofe ornaments and variety of attitudes 
Aviate too much from the noble fimplicity of nature. Shall 
then that levity^ with which ,our nation is reprcuKrhedy and 
which feems charaderifed in our pidures and ftatues, pafs in 
this manner to the eyes of the latcft pofterity ?— I (hall now re- 
turn to the utenfils of the Herculaneans, it is eafjr to fee that 
like us they had them of all forts ; ruft has almoft deftroyed the 
iron machines; but time has not been able to wear out the 
copper ; chirurgical inftruments are made of it ; but k feettis 
probable that well tempered fteel was not known to the ancients. 
What I examined with greateft attention in thofe curious cabr- 
nets, is the manner of decyphering manuferipts ready to turn to 
duft. The (irft leaves of thefe rolls, written on one fide only, 
are not eafily unfolded. For this purpofe they m2ke ufe of a 
fort of a frame, like thofe ufed by weavers of tapeftry hai^ings» 
'that ftands upon a defk, on which this black worn parchment 
(which is covered with linnen, or oily paper) is gradually ex- 
tended by a vice ; when a wonl is unfolded, it is immeduiteljr 
written down ; the word following fuggefts to the copycr any 
term that is wanting between ; no points or commas help bim 
to make out the fenfe. The indefatigable hiduftry and learning 
of Meffiears' Mazzochi and Piaggio make up for this. When 
the firft part of it is unfolded, a finalhr number of boles fa 
fufficient for carrying on die work, which ha%}iitherto pfroduced 
only Greek books upon muGc, phyfic, moralitgaiTd rhetoric. 
There is ftiU a great-numbcr to come, itom wnVt tbe-Lkerati 

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liope to acquM til the information they wifh ^r. If this 
teamed labour waa to reftore to us the loft books of'Livy^ 
Diodorus Siculus and Tacitus, how greatly fhould we be 
obliged to 'the eruptions of mount Vefuvius for having buried 
thefe treafures under ground, and thereby iheiterec) then) from 
die ravages of time, and barbarian ignorance ! 

• This renowned Volcano has received our homage. M. 
lyOflfun ^as (b good, not only to accompany us thither, but 
to give us fucb an entertainment as was never ferved up at fo 
high a place. The hermitage of a Frenchman, the only inha- 
bitant of this mountain, was our dining-room. Elegant difhes 
and excellent wines, by no means conformable to the Cmplicicy 
of the place, were brought from the plain upon thefe craggy 
rocks. A laborious journey, occafioned by curiofity, ended 
with a feaft. The company filled three coaches, wbic)i con- 
veyed us beyond Porttci ; afterwards ailes carried us an afcent 
of tw6 li^gues, 'acro£i fertile vineyards, which produce the 
LacRyma Christi. How much did this excellent grape, and 
the wit of my fellow-travellers contribute to make me fupporc 
the fktigue of the journey ! From the foot of the hill which 
Crbwns the Volcano, and tt (haped iike a fugar-loaf ^ fifty men 
drew, or rather carried us to the inflamed fummit. Though 
I had beto precautioned to drefs myfii^lf warmly, I was not 
-fMtitwdv lb to bear the cold upon this high mountain ; if ic 
bad not Deen for tiiy footman's great coat^ I fliould have 
heeh frozen upon a fiery mount, though the meridian fiin ftione 
in all its luftre. About noon we a(^oached the mouth of the 
gulph : I made but a fliort ftay there, for I was almoft fuff(K. 
cated by the keen ^ind ; we defcehded a foot in an inftant, or 
Vithef I Aided along with the help of my bufldn-boots, my legs 
being half buried in the afhes. The afles carried us back tq 
dine at the hermitage. Our numerous caravan fcattered upon 
heaps of drofs formed by the lava, was a fight diverting enough* 
Tht^ entertainment was excellent for perfons who wanted to 
hare their appetites fliarpened and excited by delicacies ; but 
little fuired to fuch as had been made keen by fatigue. We eat 
too greedily, anti Were ahnoft all of us taken ill. Few travel- 
lers feale this terrible mountain With impunity. Many infcrip- 
'itons upon the road give notice that it is dangerous and difficult* 
Bii< this far from deterring the curious, is a new incentive to 
•them to vifit tU The glory which rrfultl from furmounting 
dangers, -makes us hire them. Even a fimple narrative of the 
ravages caufed by this fiery gulph amufes the ^ftoniflied imagi- 
nation, by throwing the foul of the hearer into an agitation, 
-There is liot at more ftriking one^ than the defeription lef^ us by 
"PBny the jtunger, at the time of Titus, where he gives an 
Recount tMhe dteth of hts uhok, who was ftifled by this 

\* , . ^ Digitized by ^ VolcanO, 



t64 NiW Edit, of Sir John SacWingV tTorh^ 

Volcano. . Its fury flecps for the preftnt> its wakinfi^ is to be 
dreaded. Frequent eruptions, of which you will find a de- 
fer iption in feveral aiKhors, often change the outward appear-* 
ance of this mountain, which ftands by itfelf, and is thought 
by the vulgar to be inhabited by devils. Dicano cbe lutini vi 
fono Jpeffo travagHati dai diatoU^ fpeffi feniono uUulatiy terrori di 
grandifftmo fpavento. ^' They fay that elves are ofcen poflefled 
with devils \ they often hear bowlings, and a variety of honid 
noifes." 

We have la^ly feen feveral fine ftatuea at Lord Holland's 
feat at Kingfgate, which were taken out of Herculaneum and 
prefented to his Lordfliip by the King of the Two Sicilies. The 
figures of .Cleopatra, Diana, and the Medicean Venus, in par- 
ticular^, are admirable. 

Art. IV. The Works of Sir John Suckling. Containing his Poems^ 
Lfturs^ and Plays, izmow 2 Vpjs. 5 s. fewed. Davies. 
1770- 

SIR John Suckling was one of the fineft and mpft accom- 
pliihed ^ntlemen of bis time. He had the genius and 
gallantry of Catullus, the wit and fpirit of Alcibiades, and the 
political i^gacityof Pericles. Congreve, in his poetical capa- 
city, has given him the chara^riftics of nature and eafei but 
without propriety. His poems are more diftingui(bed by a pecu- 
liar vivacity of fancy. In cafe he was infeiirpr to Waller, in 
nature to Denham, and by Sedley he was excelled in both* 
But in wit he had no equals except Waller and Cowley { and 
though not fo eafy as the former, be is much' lefs affected, ]e& 
ftudious of brilliance, and lefs laboured than the latter. In his 
dramatic attempts be hi|d not much fucceft. He knew how to 
enliven, but not how to intereft; and you are under no more 
concern for his charaAers than for the figures of a puppet-lbew. 
His letters in point of wit, gallantry, and vivacity, are not equal* 
led except by Waller's letter on the marriage of his Sacharifia. 
I'hus much we owed to the memory of a writer who has often 
given us pleafure, upon this new and handfome, though not 
accurate Edition of his works. But there is fomething more 
eflential which we owe to the public, or rather, as good citizens, 
to the well*being of the fiate. It is the following: letter from 
Sir John Suckling to Mr. Henry German, in the beginning of 
parliament 1640, which we (hall give our Readers without a 
comment, and fincerely wiih it may be moft attended to whefe 
it ought to prove mofl efie£tual : 
Sir, 
< That it is fit for the King to do fometbiji^xtraordinary at 
this prefent, is not only the opinion of the ^pft|^ut the ex- 
pectation. Men obftrve him more now than at ol^cimes \ for 

)cM»Jcfty 



Nrw EeBt. of Sir John SucklingV Woris. l6j 

Majefty in an eclipfe, like the fun, draws eyes that would not 
fo much as have looked towards it, if it had fbined out, and 
appeared like itfelf. To lie dill now, would, at the heft, (hew 
, btit a calmnefs of mind, not a magnanimit/; fince in matter of' 
government, to thmk well (at any time, much lefs in a very 
a^ive) is little better than to dream well. Nor muft he ftay to, 
2St 'till his people defire, becaufe ^tis thought nothing relifbes 
elfe; for therefore hath nothing reli(hed with them, becaufe the 
Eing hath for the mofl part ftaid *till they have defired, done 
nothing but what they have or were petitioning for. But, that 
the King fhould do, will not be fo much the queftlon, as what 
he ihould do. And certainly, for a King to have right counfel 
given him, is at all times ftraoge, and at this prefent impoflible. 
His party, for the mott part, (I would that were modeftly faid,' 
and it were not all) have fo much to do for their own'preferva- 
tion, that they cannot (without breaking a law in nature) in-, 
tend another's. Thbfe that have courage have not perchance 
innocence, and fo dare not (hew themfelves in the King's bufi- 
&e(s; and if they have innocence, they want parts to make 
tbemfelves confidcrable; fo confequently the things they under-, 
take. Then, in court, they give fuch counfel as they believe 
the King inclined, determine his good by his defires^ which is 
a kind of fetting the fun by the dial, intereft which cannot err^ 
by pa(Gons which may. 

^ In going about to (hew the King a cure, now a man (hould 
firft plainly (hew him the difeaie. But to Kings, as to foxpe 
kind of patients, it is not always proper to tellhow ill they be, 
and it is too like a country clown not to (hew the way, unlefs 
he know from whence, and difcourfe of things before. 

* Kings may be miftaken, and counfellors corrupted ; but 
true intereft alone (faith Monfieur de Rogan) cannot err. It 
were not amifs then to find out the intereft j for fetting down 
right principles before conclufions, is weighing the fcales before 
we deal out the commodity. 

^ Certainly the great inrereft of the King is, an union with 
bis people, and whofoever hath told him other wife (as the 
icripture faith. of the devil) was a feducer from the firft. If 
there ever had been ,any one Prince in the whole world that 
made a felicity in this life, and left fair fame after death, 
without the love of his fubjeds, there were fome colour to 
defpife it. 

* There was not among all our Princes a greater courtier of 
the people than Richard the Third, not fo much out of fear, as 
out of wifdom. And^ (hall the worft of our Kings have ftrivcn 
for that ? And (hali not the beft ? (It being an angelical thing 
to Mia love-) ^ fy 

lUv. ^^^ff^ T « There 

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466 ifiw EdSt. of Str jOm SuAYingVrFdrtf^ 

* There are two things in which the people expcfb to Be fatSe-^ 
fied, religion and juftice -, nor can this be done by any little z€ts'^ 
but by royal and kinsly refolutions. 

< If any (hall think that by dividing the fadions (a good role 
at other limes^ he (hall maftcr the reft now, he will be ftrangelf 
deceived ; for in the beginning of things that would do muchv 
but not when whole kingdoms are refolved. Of thofe now that 
lead thcfe parties, if you could take off the major number, the 
lefler would govern, and do the fame things ftill ; nay, if yoa 
could take off all, they would fet up one, and follow him. 

*• And of how great confequence it is for the Kin? to refume 
this right, and be the author himfelf, let any body judge ; fince^ 
as 0)mineus faid, thofe that have the art to pleale the people, 
have commonly the power to raife them. 

^ To do things fo that there fliall remain no jealoufy, is very 
jieceffary, and is no more than really reforming, that is, plea- 
fing them. For to do things that ftiall grieve hereafter, and yet 
pretend love (amongft lovers themfeUres, where there is eaiieft 
faith) will not be accepted. It will not be enough for the Kingf 
to do what they defire, but be nraft do fomething more ; I meaxv | 
(by doing more) doing fomething of his own, as thro\Whg away \ 
things they call not for, or giving things thev expeOed not. 
And when they fee the King doing the fame thmgs with them,. 
K will take away all thought and apprehenfion that he thinks 
the things they have already done, ilk 

* Now if the King ends the differences^ and takes away fiiP- 
fieSt for the future, die cafe will fall olit to be ho worfe than- 

. "when two duellifts enter the field, where the worfted party (the 
#ther having no ill opinion of bim) hath his fword given him 
again, without further burty after he is in the other's power. 
iSut otherwife it is Hot fafe to imagine what may follow, for the 
|ieople are naturally not valiant^ and not much cavalier. Now ^ 
it is the nature of cowards to- hurt where they can receive none. ' 
They will not be content (while they fear and have the upper 
hand) to fetter only royalty, but perchance (as timorous fpirits 
ufe) wHl not think themfelves fafe while that is at all. Anil 
poffibly, this is the prefent flate of things. 

* In this great work (at leaft to make it appear ^trkR zrdt 
lafting to the kingdom) k is neceffary the (^een really join •, 
for if (he ftand ak)of, there will ftill be fufpicipns ; it being a 
received opinion in the world, that flie hath a great intereft ia' 

the King's favour and power. And to invite her,, ftie is to j 
confider with hcrfelf, whether fuch great virtues .and eminent 
excellencies (though they be higRly admired and valoed by 
thofe that know her) ought to reft fatisfied with fo narrow a 
payment as the eftimatioa of a few } And whether it be tot 
■ * . -* . • more 

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New Edit, tf Sir John Suckling*/ fF$ris. ^67 

more proper for a great Queen to arrive at univerfal honour and 
love, than private efleem and value ? 

^ Then, bow beeoming a work, for the fweetnefs and fbft- 
nefs of her foiX, is compofingof differences, and uniting hearts i 
And how proper for t Queen> reconciling King anH people ? 

^ There is but one thing remains, which whifpered abroad, 
bufies the King's mind much (if not difturbs it) in the midft of 
thefe great reiblutions, and that is, the prefervation of fome 
fervants, whom he thinks fomewhat hardly torn from him of 
late ; which is of Co tender a nature, 1 fhall rather propound 
fomething about it, than refolve it« 

• The fuft query will .be, whether, as things now ftand, 
(kingdoms in the balance) the King is not to follow nature, 
where the confervation of the more general ftill commands and 

{ governs the lefs. As iron, by particular fympathy, fticks to the 
oadftone, but yet if it be joined with a great body of iron, it 
quits thoib particular afFe(5lions to the loadfVone, and moves with 
the other, to the greater, the common center. 

• The fecond will be, whether, if he could preferve thofe 
minifters, they can be of any ufe to him hereafter? Since no 
Qian is fer-ved with greater prejudice, than he that omploys fuf« 
pe£ted inftruments, or not beloved, though able and >de(erving 
in themfelves. 

• The third is, whether, to preferve them, there be any other 
way than for the King to be firft right with his people ? Since 
the rule in philofophy muft ever hold good. Nihil dat quod mn 
habit. Before. 4he. King have power to fave, he mufl have 
power. 

• Laftly, whether the way to preferve this power be not to 
give it away ? For the people of England have ever been like ' 
wantonS) which pull anj tug as long as the Princes have pulled 

' with them, as you may fee in Henry III. King John, Edward 
II. and indeed, all the troublefome and unfortunate reigns ; but 
when they have let it go, they come and put it into their 
hands again, that they may play on s as you may fee in Queen 
EL'zabeth. 

. ^ 1 will conclude with a prayer (not that I think it needs at this 
preient. Prayers are to keep us from what may be, as well as 
to preferve us from what is) *^ That the King be neither too 
fenfible of what is without him, nor too refolved from what is 
within him." To be fick of a dangerous ficknefs, and find 
no pain, cannot but be with lofs of underftanding; ('tis an 
aphorifm of Hippocrates) and on the other fide, Opiiiiaftric is a 
fullen porter, and (as it was wittily faid of Conflancy) (huts 
out oftentimes better tilings than it lets in.' 
* Such an exquifHe knowledge of mankind, and fuch found 
policy in a man who died at the age pf eight and twpity, 

• X 2 Digitized by C^lQ^ggle 



268 Beattk $n th^Natun and IrmuiahilHj tf Truth. 

would be fomething wonderful, did we not confider the nufi»» 
rable education of our more modern men of fortune. * 

Art. V, ConcMdtt ef tbi Recount of Mr. Beatti€*s Effay #« #A» 
• Nahan and Immutability of Truth. 

IN our Review for June laft, we gave a general charader of 
this EfTay, together with an account of the manner in 
which the ingenious Author treats his fubjed ; we Aow pro- 
ceed, according to our promifey to give a further view of the 
work, with fuch extra^ asy we doubt not, will juffifjr the 
charter we gave of it. 

Our Author undertakes to prove^ by a fair indu^on of par- 
ticulars, that common fenfe is the fixed and invariable ftandard 
of truth. In this indudion he does not comprehend every fort 
of evidence, and every fpecies of reafoning ; but endeavours to 
inveftigate the origin of thofe kinds of evidence whrch are the 
moft important, and of the moft extenfive influence m fcience^ 
and in common life, beginning with the fimpleft and moft ob<* 
vious, and advancing gradually to thofe which are more com* 
plicated or lefs perfpicuous. 

He fets out with treating of mathematical reafoning ; goes 
on to confider the evidence of external fenfe, that of internal 
fenfe, or confcioufnefs, and that of memory ; and then pro* 
ceeds to treat of reafoning from the tftcSt to the caufe, of pro* 
bable or experimental reafoning, of analogical i;eafoning, and 
of faith in teftimony. 

The concluflon from this induction, Mr. Beattie obferves, 
will perhaps be acknowledged by fome to be felf-evident^ or at 
kaft to ftand in no great need of illuftration, and liiight have 
teen proved to others a priori in ver}' few words ; but to the 
greatet part of readers,' a detail of particulars, he thinks, may 
be neceffiiry, in order to produce that fteady and weU-grotindea 
convidion which it is his ambition to eftablilh. 

• I know not but it may be urged as an objedion to this dodrine^ 
fays hCy that, if we grant common fenfe to be the ultimate judge 
in all difputesy a great part of ancient and modem philofophy be- 
comes nfelefs. I admit the objedion with all my heart, in its full , 
force, and with all its consequences ; and yet I muft repeat> that if 
common fenfe be iuppoied falladoos, all knowledge is at an end ;. and 
that even a demonftration of the ^lacy would itielf be fallacioos and 
frivolous. .For if my feelings deceive me in one cafe, how fhall I 
know that they do not deceive me in another ? When a philofopher 
demonflrates to me, that matter exifis not but in my mind, and, 
independent on me and my faculties, has no exiftence at all ; be- 
fore I' admit his demopftration, I muil diibelieve all my fen^, aad 
diilruit every principle of belief within me^s before I admit his de* 
jnonftration, I muft be convinced, that I and ail mankind are fools ; 
that our Maker made us iiich, and from the beginning intended jK> 
io^pdl^ on us ; and that it was not tiU about the fijc thouikiidth yea-i 



Beattie $n the Nature and ImmutabiBif $f Truth. i/Sg 

• of die world when this impoftare was difcovered ; and then difco- 
vered^ sot by a divine revelaciony not by any rational inveiUgation 
of the laws of nature, not bv any inferenc;e from fimner truths of 
acknowledged authority, bat by a pretty play of Englifh and French 
words, to which the Icanied have given the name of metaphyseal 
reaibning. Before I admit this pretended demonllration, I mud 
bring myfelf to believe what I find to be incredible ; which feems to 
me not a whit lefs difficult than to perform what is impoffible. And 
when all this is done, if it were poflible that all this could be dose, prqf 
what is fcience, or trato, or falfehood ? Shall I believe nothing ? or 
Aall I believe t^cry thing ? Or am I capable either of belief, or «£ 
difbelief ? or do I exiH f or is there fuch a thing as exiftence ? 

' The end of all fcience, and indeed of every ufefiil pnrfuit, is to 
make men happier, by improving them in wifdom and goodneft. C 
heg^ leave to auc, wiiether the prefent race of men owe any part of 
their happinefs, wifdom, or virtae, to what metaphvficians have 
written in proof of the aon-exiftence of matter, ana tne neceffity of 
lioman adions ? If it be anfwered. That our happinefs, wifdom, 
and virtue, are not at all influenced by fuch controverfies, then I 
mnft affirm, that all fuch controverfies are nfelefs. And if it be 
true, that they have a tendency to promote wrangling, which of all 
kinds of converiation is the mofl nnpleafant, and the moft unprofit- 
able; or vain polemical difputation, which cannot be earned oq 
without wafte of time, and proftitntion of talents ; or fceptictffll» 
which tends to make a roan uncomforuUe in kimfelf, and unferr 
viceable to others >-^^eni muft affirm, riut all fuch controverfies 
are both ufeiefs and nlifchievous ; and that the world would be 
more wife, more virtuous, and more happy^ without them.— But it 
Ss faid, that they improve the underfianding, and render it more 
capable of difcovering truth, and detediag error — ^Be it fo : — but 
though bars and locks render our houfes fecure, and though acute- 
nels of hearing and feeline be a valuable endowment, it will not 
follow, that thieves are a public bleffing ; or that a man is intitled to 
my gratitude, who quickens my touch and hearing, by patting out 
my tyci, 

* It is farther faid, that fuch controverfies make us fenfible of the 
weahnefs of human reafon, and the imperfe^Hon of human know- 
ledge; and for the fanguinanr principles of bieotry and enthnfiafm, 
fub^tute the milky ones of (cepticifm and moderation. And this is 
conceived to be of prodigious emolument to mankind ; becaufe a 
firm attachment to religion, which a man may call bigotry if he 
pleales, doth often give rife to a perfecuting fpirit ; whereas a per- 
fect indifference about it, which fome men are good-natured enough 
to call moderation, b a principle of great good- breeding, and gives 
so fort of difiarbance, either in private or public life. This is a 
plea on which fome of our modern iceptics fcem to plume themfelvet 
not a litde. And who will venture to arraign the virtue or the fa. 
racity of thefe proje^rs ? To accomplifh fo great .efieAs by meant 
R> fimple, to prevent fuch dreadful calamities by fo innocent ah ar- 
tifice,— doth it not difplay the perfedlion of benevolence and wifdom ? 
Truly I can hardly imagine fuch another fcheme, except perhaps the 
following : Suppofe a jmyficiah of the Sangrado fohool, oat of zeai 

T 3 fbr 

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£ 



f ^ Beattte 9ff ihi Nature and^JmnmiMky (f frtuhr 

for t))e intereft. of the faculty, and the public good» to prepare ^ 
bill to be laid before the parliajnent« in thefe words : *' That wherea* 
good healthy efpecially when of long (landing, hath a tendency to 
prepare the human frame for acute and inflammatory diflempers, 
which -have been known to give extreme pain to the unhappy pa- 
tient, and fometimes even to bring him to the grave ; and whereas 
the faid health, by making us bri& and hearty, and happy, is apt 
lilfOi on Tome occafions, to majce us diforderly and licentious, to th^ 
great detriment of glafs windows, lanthorns, and watchmen : Be it 
uierefore enabled, That all the inhabitants of thefe realms, for the 
(If ace of government, and the repofe of the fubje£k, be compelled, 
on pain of death, to bring their bodies down to a conAimptivc habit^ 
•tid that henceforth no perfon prefume to walk abroad with a cane^i 
l^n pain of having his head broke with it, and being fet in the 
ftocks for £x months ; nor to walk at all, except with crutches, to 
be delivered at the public charge to each perfon who makes aflidavit, 
that he is no longer able to walk without them," &c.— He who can 
eradicate convidion from the human heart, may doubtlefs prevent 
jail the fatal effe^s.of enthufiafm and bieotry; and if all human 
bodies were thrown iato a confumption, I believe there would be ao 
tend of rioti as well asi inflammatory di^afes. Whether the inconve- 
~ nienciesi Or the remedies, be the moil intolerable, might perhaps 
|>ear a qaeilio!n. Bigotry, enthufiafm, and a perfecutlng fpirit, are 
yery dangerous and mifchievous ; univerfal fcepticiiin. would, I am 
furt, be equally fo, if it were to infect the generality of mankind. 
But what has religion and rational convidion to do with either ? 
Nothing more than good health has to do with acute diflcmpers, and 
rebellious infurredlions ; or than the peace of government, and tran- 
quillity of the fubje^, have to do with a gradual decay of our muf- 
cular fteOi. True religion tends to make men great, and good, and 
hapi^ ; and if (b, its dodriaes can never be too firmly believed, nor 
beidJn too high veneration. And if trtith be at all attainable in 
philofophy, 1 cannot fee why we (hould fcruple to receive it as fuch, 
when we have attained it ; no^ hoyv it can promote candour, good- 
breeding, and humanity, to pretend to doubt what we do and mufi 
believe, t'o profefs to maintain do^nes of which we are confcious 
that they ihock our underilanding, to differ in judgment from all the 
world except a hw metaphyfical pedants, and to account thofe prin-p 
ciples difputable "which other men think the moft indifputable, and 
mod facred, Conviction, and ileadinefs of principle, is that which 
gives dignity, uniformity, and fpiri(, to human condudl, and with^ 
out which our happinefs can neither be lailing nor Uncere. It con-r 
ftitutes, as it were, the vital ilamina of » great and manly charader; 
whereas fcepcicifm betrays a weak and fickly underilanding, and a 
levity of mind, from which nothing can be expected but inconflfloiKe 
and folly. In conjundlion with ill-nature, bad tailc, and a bard 
beart, fle^dinefs and ilropg convi^lion will doubtlefs make, a l>a4 
man, and fcepticifm will make a worfe : but good-nature, elegant 
talle, and fufccptibility of temper, when united with £rmne^ of 
mind, 'become doubly refpe^ble and lovely ; whereas no man cai^ 
a6t on the principle^ of fcepticifmj without incurring univerial 
contempt.' 

• Bui 

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Btattie. cH 4hf Natmreemd IwnutaiiSty tfTru^^ %f% 

• But granting that ^Jl legitimate reafoning, whether of cer- 
tain or of probable evidence, doth finally refolve it&lf into 
principles of common fenfe, which we muft admit as certain^ 
or as probable, upon their owa authority ; that therefore com- 
oion fenfe is the foundation and the ftandard of all juft reafon- 
iiig; and that the genuine fentiments of nature are never erro- 
neous :— yet by what .criterion (hall we kpow a fentiment of 
nature from a prejudice of educaliion, a dictate of common fenfi^ 
from thefkUacyof an inveterate opinion? — At what point muft 
ceafon flop in its inveftigations, and the dilates of commoa 
ienfe be admitted as deciuve and final ? 

*■ It is much to be regretted^ fays our Author, that tMs matter has 
l)eeQ fo little attended to : for a full and fatisfadory difcuffion of ic 
would do more real fervioe to the philofophy of human nature, than 
all the fyftems of logic in the world ; would ^t once exalt pneuma- 
tology to the dignity of fcience, by fettling it on a firm and un- 
'Chan|;jeable foundation ; and would go a great w^ to banifh fophi- 
ftry from fdence, and rid the world of fcepticifnu This is indeed 
the grand defideratum in logic ; of no lefs importance to the moral 
fdences, than the difcovery of the longitude to navigation. That 
I fhall fully fblve this difficulty, £ am not fo vain, nor fo ignorant, 
as to imagine. But I humbly hope I (hall be able to throw fome 
light on the fubjeft, and contribute a little to facilitate the progrefs 
ot thofe who may hereafter engage in the fame purfuit. If I can ac- 
compliih even this, I fhall do a fervice to truth, philofophy, and 
mankind : if I Ihould be thought to fail, there is yet fomething me* 
ritorions in the attempt. To have fet the example, may be of con- 
sequence. N 

* I fhall endeavour to.condo^ the reader to the conclufion I have 
formed on this fubjed, by the fame fleps which led me to it ; a me- 
thod which I prefume will be more perfpicuous, and more fatisfkc^ 
jtory, than if! were firfl to lay down a theory, and then to affi|;n the 
reafons. By the way, I cannot help exprefCn^ a wiih, that this me* 
chod of invefUgation were lefs uncommon, and that philofophers 
would fometimes explain to us, not only their difcoveries, but alfo 
che procefs of thought and experiment, whether accidental or in« 
tentional, by which they were led to them. 

' * If the boundai-y of reafon and common fenfe had never been 
fettled in any fcience, I would abandon my prefent fcheme as alto* 
gether defperate. But when I reflet, that in fbme of the fciences it 
hath been long fettled, with the utmoft precifion, and to nniverfal 
fatiefiidion, I conceive better hopes, and flatter m3rfelf, that it may 
perhaps be pofiible to fix it even in the philofophy of the mind. The 
^iences in which this boundary has been long fettled and acknow* 
ledged, are, mathematics, and natural philofophy; and it is re- 
markable, that more truth has been difcovered in thofe fciences 
^an in any other. Now, there is not a more efFcdtual way of learn* 
ing the rules of any art, than by attending to the pradlice of thofe 
who have performed in it mofl fuccefsfully : a maxim whicA I fup« 
pofe no le& applicable to the art of invedigating truth, than to the 
mechanical and the fine arts. Let us fee, then, whether, by at* 

T 4 tending 

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%jt Beattie $n the Natwn and Immutability of Truth. 

tendlDg to the practice of mathematicians and natur^ philoibphery, 
as con traded with the pradice of thofe who have treated of the hu- 
man mind, we can make any difcoveries preparatory to the folutioa 
of this difficulty.' 

Our Author goes on to (hew, that in natural pbllofophy, as 
well as in mathematics, no argumentation is profecuted be- 
yond felf-evideht principles ; that as in the latter all reafon* 
ing terminates in intuition, fo in the former it is ultimately re- 
folvible into the evidence of fenfe. And as, in mathematics, 
that is accounted an intuitive axiom, which is of itfelf to clear 
and evident, that it cannot poffibly be illuftrated or inforced.by 
any medium of proof, and which mufb be believed, and is in 
fad believed, by all, on its own authority ; fo, in natural phi* 
lofophy, that is accounted an ultimate principle, undeniable 
and unqueftionable, which is fupported by the evidence of a 
well-informed fen&, placed fo as to perceive its obiecSb. In 
mathematics, that is accounted falfe dodrine which is incon* 
fiftent with any felf-evident principle; in natural philofophy, 
that is'rejeded which con trad ids matter of fad, or, in *other 
words, which is repugnant to the appearances of things as per** 
ccived by external fenfe. 

If the fame criterion of truth, by wh^eh mathematics and 
natural philofophy arc regulated, were univerfally adopted by 
philofophers of the mind, the fcience of human nature, inftead 
pf being, as at prefent, a chaos of ambiguity and contradidion, 
would, our Author thinks, acquire a confiderable degree of 
certainty, perfpicuity, and order. If truth be sit all attainable 
in this fcience, it mud; be attained by the fame means as in 
thofir other fciences. All that we know of truth and falfebood 
if, that our conftitution determines us in (bme cafes to believe, 
in others to difbelievQ ; and that to us is truth which we feel 
that we muft believe ; and that to us is falfehood which wc 
feel th^t we mud difbelieve. 

In the philofophy of human nature, therefore, as well as in 

ShjrfiQs and- mathematics, thofe dodrines, our Author fays^ 
lould be rejeded, which contradid matter of fad, that is, 
which are repugnant to the appeara^ices of things, as perceived 
by external and internal fenfe j and thofe principles (hould be 
accounted ultimate, undeniable, and unqueftionable, which 
itre warranted by the evidence of a well-informed fenfe, placed 
in circumftances favourable to a diftind perception of its 
objfd. 

* But what, continues he, do you mei^n by a njiHlUinforined fenfi ? 
|iow (hall I know, that any particular faculty of mine is not defeci> 
live, depraved, or fallacious? —Perhaps it is not eafy, at Icaft it 
lyould furniih matter for too long a digrcffion, to eive an unexcep- 
tionable anfwer to this queftion. Nor is it at prefent abfolutelv ne« 
ceijkry \ becaofe h will appear in the ftquei, th&t/ however dimcuh 

\% 

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Bcattie on ibe Natun and Immutability of Truth. Jyjf 

it may be in fome cafes, to diftin^ifh a firft principle intuiti^ety. 
^et there are certain marks, by which thofe reafonings that tend to 
the fubreriion of a firil principle, may be dete^ed, at leaft in all 
cafes of importance. However, we fhall offer a remark or two in 
«nfwer to tho quefHon ; which, though they Ihoald not appear in 
every refpeA une^eptionable, may yet throw light on the fubjeft, 
and, ferve to prepare the mind of the reader ior foi^e things that 
ate to follow. 

* Firft, then, ifl wanted to certify myfelf conconing any part]<> 
ipolar fenfe or percipient faculty, .that it is neither aepraved nor de* 
iedive, I would attend to the. feelings or fenfations commonicated 
by it ; s^nd obferve, whether they be clear and definite, and fuch as 
I am, of my own accord, difpofed to confide in without hefitation, 
as true, genuine, and natunu. If they are fuch, ;I fhould certainly 
^6t upon them, till I had fome pofitive reafon to think them falla* 
cions. Secondly, I confider, whether the fenfations received by this 
faculty be uniformly fimilar in iimilar circumftances. If they are 
not, I fhould fufpe^, either that it is now depraved, or was formerly 
fo ; a^d ifl had no other criterion to direA me, fhould be much at 
a lofs to know whether I ought to truft the former or the latter 
experience ; perhaps I fhould diflmft both. If they are uniform, if 
my prefent and my pafl experience 60 exactly coincide, I fhall then 
be (tifpofed to think them both right. Thirdly, I confider, whether, 
in adin^ upon the fuppofition that the faculty in queftion is well« 
informed, 1 have ever been mifled to my hurt or inconvenience ; if 
not, then have I good reafon to think, tnat I was not miftaken when 
I formed that fuppofition, and that this faculty is really what I iup» 
pofed it to be. Fourthly, If the fenfations communicated by this 
Kiculty be incompatible with one another, or irreconcile^ble to tht 
perceptions of my other faculties, I fhould fufped a depravation of 
the former : for the laws of nature, as far as my experience goes, 
are perfedly confident ; and I have a natural fug|j[eflion that they are 
nniv^rfally fo. It is therefore a prefumption, th^t my faculties are 
well-informtd, when the perceptions of on^ are quite confiflent with 
thofe of the refl, and with one another. In a flate of folitude I muH 
fatisfy myfelf with tkefe criteria ; but when I go abroad into the 
world, I have accefs to another criterion, which, in many cafes, will 
be reckoned more dedfive thaii any of thefe, and which, in conppr-. 
rence with thefe, will be fufficient to banifh doubt from ewtiy ra- 
tional mind. I compare my fenfations and notions with thofe of 
pther men ; and ifl find a perfed coincidence, I fhall then be fatif^ 
fied that my fenfations are according to the taw of human liature, 
and therefore right. — To illuflrate all this by an example : 

* I want to know whether my fenfe of feeing be a well-informed 
fiiculty. Pirfl, I have reafon to think that it is, becaufe my eyes 
communicate to me fuch fenfations as I, of my own accord, am dif^ 
pofed to confide in. There is fomething in my perceptions of fight 
fo difUnfl, and fo definite, that I do not find myfelf in the leafl dif- 

S:>fed to doubt whether things be what my eyes reprefeyit them, 
ven the obfcorer fuggelHons of this faculty carry along with them 
their own evidence, and my belief. I am confident, diat the fun 
^ liHK>A arc rouod as the^ appear to be, that die rainbow is aiched, 

tha^ 

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fg*l4r battle -$» ibe Nctur^ and Jwrna^ilhy of TruAs 

tbat ^rafs is meo, faow wiiite^ and the heavens azqre; and thif 
} ihoind have believed, though I had paiTed all vorj days in folitade* 
i»nd never known.any thing of other animals, or their fenfes. Se- 
condly, I ^d that my notions of the vifible qualities of bodies are 
ihe fame now they have alvirays been. If this were not the caie» 
if where I faw greennefs yefterday I were to fee yellow to-day, | 
^ould be apt to fuppofe, diat my fight had furred fome deprava* 
tion, except I had reafon to think, that the objeds had really 
changed col^r. B(it indeed we have fo Hcong a tendency to believe 
our tenfes, that I doubt not but in fuch a cafe I ihould be more dii^ 
pofed to fufpeft a change in the objedl than in my eye-fight: muck 
would depeiwi on the circumftances of the cafe. We rub our eyet 
when we want to look at any thing with accuracy ; for we know by 
experience^ that motes, and cloudy fpecks, which may be removed 
\xf rubbing, do fometimes float in the eye, and hurt the (ight. But 
at the alteration of the vifible qualities in the external obje^ be fuch 
dl3 we have never experienced from a depravation of the organ, w9 
ftoold be inclined to truft onr eye-£ght, rather than to fuppofe^ 
fhat the external objed has remained unaltered. Thirdly, No evil con* 
/equence has ever happened to nae when aflinof upon the fuppoiition, 
that my faculty of feeing is -a well-informed fenfe; whereas, if I 
were to a£l on the contrary fuppofition, I ihould foon have occalion 
to regret my fcepticiim. I fee a poll in my way ; by turning a little 
a£de, I pafs it unhurt : but if I had fuppofed my fight fallacious; 
lind gone ftraight forward, a bloody nofe, or fomething worfe, misht 
Jiave been the confequence. If, when I direct my courfe obliquely^ 
\ji order to avoid the poll that feems to fland dire£lly before me, | 
yyere to run my head full aeainft it, I fhould inflantly ^fufpefl a de- 
pravation in my eye*fight : out as I never experience any misfortune 
pf this kind, I believe that my fenffs of feeing is a well-informed 
faculty. Fourthly, The perceptions received by this fenfe are per- 
fectly confident with one another, and with the perceptions received 
by my other faculties. When I fee the appearance of a folid body 
in my way, my touch always confirms the tefUmony of my fight ; if 
it did not, I fhould fufpe6t a fallacy in one or other of thofe fenfes» 
perhaps in both. When I Ic^k on a line of foldiers, they all feem 
fianding perpendicular, as I myfelf fland ; but if the men at the 
extremities oif the line, without leaning againft any thing, feemed to 
form an angle of forty-five degrees with the earth's furface, I fhould 
ceruinly fufped fome unaccountable obliquity in my vifion. LafUy^ 
after the experience of feveral years, after all the knowledge I have 
been able to gather, concerning the fenfations of other men, from 
reading, difcourfe, and obfervation, I have no reafon to think their 
fenfations of fight different from mine. Every body who ufes ;the 
£nelifh language calls fnow white, and grafs green ; and it would 
be in the higheH degree abfnrd to fuppoiS, that what they call th^ 
fenfation of whitenefs, is not the fame fenfation which I call by that 
name. Some few perhaps fee diiferentlv from me. A man in the 
jaundice fees that rofe yellow which I lee red ; a fhort-fighted man 
fees that pidure confufedly at the diflance of three yards, which I 
fee diHin^y. But far the greater part of mankind fee as I do, an4 
4iA:witty from thofc &w ixidividttals , whofe khta of feeing X tbere- 

ibre 

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Beat^ en iUNatun ml LtpmtkAtStj.rf-Trnif: pLjg 

fore cOBfider a^ lefs perfect, than mine* Naf » thoarh the gtntTB,Uty 
of mankind were all fhort-fighted, ftill it wonld be true, that we 
who are not fo, have the moft pei^d fight ; for our fight is rnoiv 
accurate in its perceptions, qualifies us better for the bufinefs of Hfe^ 
and coincides more exactly, or at leafl more immediately, with th^ 
fenfations received by the other fenfiss. Yet the fhort-figheed, as well 
as they who have the acutefl fight, believe the declaration of this 
fenfe, as foon as they are placed in a fituation &vourable to acca<^ 
rate obfervation : all the difference is, that it is more difficulty and 
often more inconvenient, for the former to place themfelves in fucb 
a fituation. Still it ought to be remembered, that a pirftQ fenfi an4 
a 'well- informed fen/e zit not fynonymous terms* We call a fenfo 
nvellinformeJy in oppofition to one that is deframid qx fallacious ^^^ 
ferfoaion and imperfiaion of fenie are relative terms, dut imply % 
CMipariibn, either between difierent men, in refpedl of the acute-» 
nefs of their fenfes and faculties ; or between any ienfe, as it appean 
in a particular man, and the degree of acutenefs which is found to 
bdcmg to that fenfe as it appears in the generality t)f mankind. X 
have two telefcopes, one of which gives a diftinft view of an c^je^ 
fU two, and the other at four miles diiUnce : both are equally nunUU 
informed (if I may fo fpeak) that is, equally true in their reprefen-^ 
tations ; but the one is much more imperfoQ than the other. 

M do not at prefent ofier any further iilnfb-ations of thefe criteria 
bf a well-informed fenfe. The reader who examines them by die 
rules of common prudence, will perhaps be fadsfied with riiem : at 
leaft I am apt to think, th^t fisw will fufped the veradtyof thcit 
fiiculdes when they fbind this tef(. Let it not be fup^o^ that I 
mean to infinuate, that a man never trufts his faculdes till he firft 
examine them after this manner : we believe our fenfes previou/ly ta 
9II reflexion or examination; and we never dilbelieve them, but 
upon the authority of our fenfes placed in drcumitances more fa« 
vourable to accurate obfervadon. If the reader is not fatisfied with 
thefe criteria, it is no ereat matter. The queftion concerning a 
well-informed fenfe will be found not a little perplexing to one who 
attempts to anfwer it in words. 1 offer thefe remarks rathec as hints 
to be attended to by other adventurers in this part of fcieace, thaa 
as afblution of the difficulty. If it were not that I prefnme fome 
advantage may be derived from them as hints, I (hould have omitted 
diem altogjetber ; for on them the dodrine I mean to eflabliih dotb 
XfOi depend.' 

. Our Author having fhewn that mathematicians and natural 
philofopbers do, in e&£l, acknowledge thedifiin&ion between 
common fenfe and reafbn, as expbined by him ; admitting the 
dif^atea of the former as uldmate and unqueflionable princi** 
pies, and never attempting either to prove or difprove them by 
feafpning, proceeds to (hew that a very different plan af in«> 
yefligadon has been adopted by modern fceptics. Before h^ 
enters on this part of his tafk, however, he makes fome ger 
peral obfervations, and takes a iboft view of tbe life and pro^ 
|rcfs of modern fk^pticiim* 

In 

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%J^ Seattle on the Kaiure and Immutability of Truth. 

In order to prove that erroneous, abfurd, and felf-contra- 
(didory notions have been the confequence of not attending ta 
the diftin^on of reafon and common fenfe, he confines him<^ 
ielf to two inftances, viz. the non>exiftence of matter, and the 
celebrated queftion concerning liberty and neceffity. He con- 
fiders the natural effects produced upon the mind by the rea« 
fonings that have been urged In favour of thefe dodrines, 
and the confequences refulting from the admiffion of fuch rea- 
fontngs. He proves, and, in our opinion, in a very clear and 
fatisfadory manner, that the dodlrines injended to be eftablifhed 
bv fuch reafohings are contradiftory to the general belief of 
iifl men in all ages ; — that, though enforced and fupported witb 
lingular fubtlety, ^nd though admitted by fome profeiled phi« 
Jofophers, they do not produce that convi£lion which found 
reafoniiig never, fails to produce in the intelligent mind ;-^ 
and, laftly, that realty to believe, and to ad from a real belief 
of fuch do^tnes and reafoninge, muft be attended with fiital 
tonfequences to fcience, to virtue, to human fociety, and to 
all the important interefts of mankind. 

In the ^aft part of his work, our Author anfwers objedions ; 
and {hews that the principles he fupports are perfedly confifteot 
wi|h the iptereft of fcience, and the rights of mankind. — Some 
perfoQS, he tells us, may think it an obje£lion to his work^ 
that it recommends a method of confutation which is not ftridly 
according to logic, ^nd which adtually contradicts fome of the 
cftablHhed laws of that fcience. Now he readily acknowledges, 
that many of the maxims of the fchool- logic are founded in 
truth and nature ; that many of its rules and diftin£Hons are 
extremely ufeful, not fo much for ftrcngthening the judgment, 
as for enabling the difputant quickly to comprehend, and per- 
fpicuoufly to exprefs, in what the force or fallacy of an argu* 
ment confifts. — The tendency of the fchool-logic, however, he 
juftly obferves, is to render men difputatious and fceptical^ 
adepts in the knowledge of words, but inattentive to fa^ and 
experience. It makes them fonder of fpeaking than thinking, and 
coafequently ftran^rs to themfelves ; folicitqus chiefly about 
rules, names, and diftin6tions, and therefore leaves them neither 
leifure nor inclination for the ftudy of life and manners. In a 
word, it makes them more ambitious to diftinguifh themfelves 
SIS the partifans of a dogmatift, than as inquirers after truth.-— 
The captfous turn of an habitual wrangler deadens the under* 
Handing, fours the temper, and hardens the heart. By ren- 
dering the mind fufpicious, and attentive to trifles, it weakens 
the fagacity of inftind, and extinguiflies the fire of imagina- 
tion ; it transforms converfation into a ftate of warfare ; and 
^cftrains tbofe lively (allies of fancy, fo eflFedual in promoting 

good- 
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Beittie an iht Naiurt and InmuMiUty $f Truths tjf. 

i;ood-humoury .which, though often erroneous^ are a thoulaad 
times m^re valuable than the dull corre<3ners of a inood-a]id<*> 
figure difciplinatiall. 

Mr. Beattie goes on to explain the nature of that mitaphy/a 
which he conceives to be repugnant to true philofophy, and 
which, he thinks, the friends of truth ought folicitoufly .to 
guard againft. This explanation leads him to fome very per- 
tinent and ufeful remarks, which throw additional light upon 
his fubjcft. — Having, in the courfe of his work, given feverat 
inltancesof Mr. HuMB*s metaphyfical fpirit, towards the clofe 
of it he confiders one inftance at fome length, in order to have 
an opportunity of confuting a very dangerous error, and, at 
the fame time, of difplaying the difference between naetapbyfi-* 
cal and philofophical inveftfgation. 

Mr. Hume telk us, that moral, inteHetaual, and corporeal 
virtues — that juftice, genius, and bodily ftrcnsth, arc virtues 
of the fame kind ; that they are contemplated with the very 
lame fentiments, and known to be virtues by the very fame 
criterion. Strange, nay ridiculous, as this opinion may apr 

Gar, Mr. Hum£ has taken a great deal of pains to prove it* 
r. Beattie demonftrates, that this very important error hath 
arifen, cither from inaccurate obfervation, or from Mr. Humb'# 
being rmpofed on by words not well underftood, or rather front 
both caufes; It woold give us pleafure to lay the whole of 
what Mr. JBeattie fays upon this fubjefl before our Readers; 
but we muft content ourfelvcs with part of it. 

* The word wrtut hath indeed great latitude of fignification. It 
^otes any quality of a thing tending to the happhiefs of a perci- 
pient being ; it denotes that quality, or perfection of qualities, by 
which a thing is fitted to anfwer its end ; fometlnies it denotes 
power or agency in general ; and fometimes any habit which im- 
proves the Acuities of the human mind. In the firll three fenfes we 
Afcribe virtue to the foul, and to the body, to brutes, and inanimate 
things; in the laft,.to our intelledlual as well as moral nature. 
And no doubt inftances may be found of ambiguity and want of 
precifion, even in the heft moralifts, from an improper u(c of thi% 
word. Yet I believe this attempt of Mr. Hu me's is the firft that hathi 
been made to prove, that among thefe very difierent forts of virtues 
there is linle or no difierence. Oar Author feems indeed to have a 
fingular averfion to that kind of curiofity which, not fadsfied witl\ 
knowing the names, is induftrious to difcover the natures of thbgs. 
When he finds two or three different things called by the f^me name» 
he will rather write fifty pages of meuphyfic to prove that they are 
the fame, than give himfelf the trouble to examine them fo as to 
fee what they really are *. ^ Is it not flrange, that a man of fcience 
ihould ever have taken it into his head, Siat the chara6teriftic of 4 
genus is a fufficient defcription of a fpecies ? He might as well have 
» ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ 

f See another mnarkable infta&cei p. 256—260 ofthis Eifay. 

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tlj^ Btettie cfn the Ifatttre aki Tmmutahittfy of Trutbl 

Ibppofedy dist» becauie perception and feTf-niotion belong to afllii 
xnai life in general, it is therefore a fnftcient definition of man, to 
call him a felf-moving and percipient creature ; from which profound 
prindple it dearly foUowt, that man is a beaft, and that a beail is 
a man. 

* By foch reafonivg as Mr. Hums hath ufed on the prefent oc^ 
cafion, it would be eafy to prove any dodkrin^. The method is this : 
-—and I hope thofe who may hereafter chufe to adonifh the world 
with a fyftem of metaphyfical paradoxes, will do me the honour and 
die jnftice to acknowledge, that I was the fir<(l who unfolded the whole 
art and myftery of that branch of manufadure within the compafs 
efoae fliort RECIPE. — ^Take a word (an ab(ha£l-term is the moft 
convenient) which admits of more than one fignification ; and, by 
ihe help of a. predicate and copula, form a propofition, fuitable to 
your fyilem, or to your humour, or to any other thing you pleafe, 
except truth. When laying down your premiiies, you are to ufe the 
name of the quality or fubje£k, in one len(e ; and, when inferring 
your conclufion, in another. You are then to urge a few equivoc^ 
fafts, very (lightly examined (the more flightly the better) as a fur- 
ther proof of the faid conclufion ; and to fhut up all with citing 
fone ancient authorities, either real or fictitious, as may bed foit 
your purpofe. A few occafional ftriftures on religion as an uaphi'* 
Jdfophicai thing, and a fheer at the Wb9U Dtttj •/ Man *, or any 
•ther good book, will give your diflertation what many are pleafed 
t»cali'a HhtrmL turn ; and will go near to convince the world, tha£ 
youare a caildid philoibpher, a manly free-thinker, and a very fine 
writer. . • i 

< It is to no purpofe that our Author calls this % verbal difpute« 
and fometisies condeicends to foften matters by an cdmofi^ or (bme 
fuch evaiive word. His dodrine obviouily tends to confound all our 
ideas of virtue and duty, and to make us coniider ourfelves as mere 
machines, ad6d ujpon by external and irrefi{lible impulfe, and not 
more accountable for moral blemiflies, than for ignorance, want of 
underftanding, poverty, deformity, and difeafe. If the Reader 
think as fcnoufly of the controverfy as I do, he will pardon the 
length of this dtgrefllon. 

* I hope it now appears, that there is a kind of metaphyfic^ 
which, whatever refpettable names it may have aflumed, deferves 
contempt or cenfure from every lover of* truth. If it be detrimental 
to fcience, it is equally fo to the affairs of life. Whenever one en» 
ters on bufineis, the metaphyfical fpirit mull be laid afide, ot1ierwi(e 
it will render him ridiculous, perhaps deteftable. Sure it will not 
be (aid, that any portion of this fpirit is neceffary to form a man 
for Rations of high importance. For thefe, a turn to metaphyfic 
^ould be as efFeaual a difqualification as want of underflandbg^ 
The meuphyfician is cold, wavering, diftruftful, and perpetually 
ruminates on words, diftinftions, arguments, and fyftems. He at- 
tends to the events of life with a view chieRy to the fyftem that; 
happens^for the time to predominate in his imagination, and to 
which he is anxious to reconcile every appearance. His obfervation 

'■ ■ ' . ' ' ' ' ' ■ ' 

* See Hume's EfTays, Vol. ii. p. 388. edit«.i767. 

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BuCftfC iH tkt Jfoiuft (tfti IfMltttabtnfj dfinH9^ ^^^f^ 

}s therefore pardal and inaccurate, becavfe he contemptales nttnvor 
through the medium bf his ferourite theofy, which 13 always falfe ^ 
to that experience, which enlarges, afcertains, and methodifes, th« 
knowledge of other men, fcrves only to aggravate the nataral dark- 
iiefs and con^on of his. His Hterary flodies are conduced with 
the iame fpirit, and produce the feme cffedb.— Whereas to the ad- 
Jhiniftration of ^reat affairs, truth and fteadinefs of principle. Con*', 
ibancyofnrind, intuitive fagacity^ extrehie quicknefs in apprehend-' 
ing the prefent and anticipating rhe future, are indifpeBlal>Iy nece^ 
iary. Whatever tends to weaken and unfettle the mind, to cram{r 
the imagination, to fix the attention on minute and trifling objeds^ 
and withdraw k from thofe enlarged profpeds of nature and man- 
kind, in which trae genias lo^es to expatiate ; whatever hath this 
tendency, and furely metaphyfic hath it, is the bane of genius^ and 
cf every thing that is great in human nature, 

* In the lower walks of life, our theorift will be oflener the ob- 
jefl t)f ridicule than of deteflation. Yet even here, the man is to b# 
pitied, who, in matters of moment, happens to be connedled with 
a flanch metaphyfician. Doubts, difputes, and conjedlures, will be 
the plague of his life. If his affociate fbrm a fyflem of a6lion or in- 
a6tion, of doabt or confidence, he will flick by it, however abfurd^' 
as long as he has one verbal argument onaufwered to urge in de- 
fence of it. In accounting for uie condud of others, he will re}e^ 
obvious caofes, and fet htmfelf to explore fuch as are more remote 
and refined. Making no proper allowance for the endlefs vartetio» 
of human character, he will fuppoii? all men influenced, like himfel^ 
by fyftem and verbal argument : certain caafes, in his judgment, 
muft of neceffity prodace certain effeds ; for he has twenty reafona 
j^ady to oSer, by which it is demondrable, that they cannot fail a 
and it is well, if experience at laft convince him, that there was %■ 
Aiall verbal ambiguity in his principles, and that his views of man* 
kind were not quite fo extenfive as they ought to have been. In a 
word, unlefs he be very good-natured, and of a paflive difpofition^ 
lis reflnemehts will do more harm than even the fliff* flupidity of an 
idiot. If inclined to fraud, or any fort of vice, he will never be at 
a lofs for an evaflon ; which, if it fhould not fatisfy his alTociate, will 
perpkx and plague him moft eifedtually. I need not enlarge ; the 
Reader may conceive the Tt^. To aid his fancy, he will find fbme' 
traits of this charadler, in one of its mofl amufing and leaf! difan-ee^r 
able forms, delineated with a maderly pencil in the perfon of old 
£fquire Shandy. 

* It is adonifhing to confider, how little mankind value the good 
within their reach, and how ardently they purfue what nature hath 
]$laced beyond it ^ how blindly they over^rate what they have no ex- 
perience of, and how fondly they adnvire what ^hey do not under- 
hand. This verbal metaphyfic hath been dignified with the namelyf 
JcitnUy and verbal metaphyfician s have been reputed philoibphers, 
and men of genius. Doubtlefs a man of genius may, by the fafhion 
of the times, befeduced into thefc lludies : but that particular caft 
4lf mind which fits a man for them, and recommends them to his 
^oice, is not genius, but a mfnate and feeble underlianding; ra^ 

jpaMa 

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)ike Beatti« on tb» Natun and ImmutabiSty of Trutbk 

yabk Indeed of being ^ade, by long pradice, expert in the nanage^ 
Sfi^t of words^ but which never did, and never will, qualify an^ 
Jhan for the difcovery or illuftration of fentiment. For what it 
genius ? What^ but found judgment, fenfibility of heart, and a ta- 
fek^t /or accurate and extenilve obfervation. And will found jud?-' 
ment prepare a man for being impofed on by words ? will feniibi- 
lity of heart render him infennble to his own feelings, and inatten- 
tive to thofe of other men ? will a talent for accurate and extenfive 
obfervation, make him ignorant of the real phenomena of nature, 
and, confequently, incapable of detecting what is falfe or equivocal 
in the reprefentation of fa£ks? And yet, when fadls are fairlv and 
fully reprefented ; when human fentiments are flrongly felt, and per- 
fpicuoufly defcribed ; and when the meaning of words is afcertained, 
and the fame word hath always the fame idea annexed' to it, — there 
is an end ofmetaphyfic. ^ 

* A body is neither vigorous nor beautiful, in which the fize of' 
ibme members is above, and that of others below, their due pro- 
portion ; every part muft have its proper fize and ftrerij^th, oihcrg^ifc- 
the refult of the whole will be deformity and weakneib. Neither if* 
real genius confident with a difproportionate (Irength of the leafon- 
ipg pow^s above thofe of tafle and imagination. Thofe minds in 
whom all the faculties are united iii their due proportion, are faf' 
iuperioF to the puerilities of metaphyfical fcepticifm. They truft to' 
tKeir own feelings, which are drong and deciHve, and leave no room'^ 
, for hefitation, or doubts about their authenticity. Thejr fee through* 
mpral fubje^s at one glance ; and what they fay, carries both the 
heart and the underftanding along with it. When one has long 
drudged in the dull and unprofitable pages of metaphyfic, how 
pleafing the tranfition to a moral writer of true gtnius ! Would you 
know what that genius is, and where it may be foi^nd ? Go to 
Shakefpeare, to Bacon, to Montefquieu, to RoufTeau ; and when 
you haye&udied them, return, if you can, to Hume, andHosBEs, 
and MALEBRANCHE/and Leibnitz, and Spinosa. If, while you* 
learned wifdom from the former, your heart exulted within you^ 
and rejoiced to contemplate the fublime and fuccefsful efforts of hu- 
sian incellefl ; perhaps it may now be of ufe, as a leHbn of humi- 
lity, to have recourfe to the latter, and, for a while, to behold the 
pidure of a foul wandering from thought to thought, without know- 
ing where to fix ; and from a total want of feeling, or a total igno- 
rance of what it feels, midaking names for things, verbal dilUnc- 
tions'and analogies for real diiFerence and fimilitude, and the obfcure' 
infinuation> of a bewildered underftanding, puzzled with words, and' 
perverted with theory, for the fentiments of nature, and the di£latcs 
of reafon. A metaphyfician, exploring the receffes of the human 
heart, hath juft fuch a chance for finding the truth, as a man with 
nJjcrofcopic eyes would have for finding the road. The latter might 
aroufe himfelf with contemplating the various mineral firata that are 
diffufed along the expanfionofa necJlc's point, but cf the face of • 
nature he conld make nothing : he would ftart back with horror from 
the caverns yawning between the mountainous grains of /and that lie 
belbce him ^ but the real gulf or inoantain he could not fee at all.* 

Ouf 

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Seattle m the Natkrt ahd ImmutabiVtij of^ruth. 2»i 

*- Our Author contlud^ his work with pointing out fome of 
the confequences of met^phyfical fcepticifni, and we cannot 
l-eEft the temptation of lading part of what he fays before out 
Readers : 

* When a fceptic, fays he, attacks one principle of common fepfe, 
lie doth in efird attack all ; for if we are made diftruflful of tba 
veracity of inilindllve convidion in one inftance, we muil, or at leaft 
wc may, become equally diftruftful in every other. A little fcepti- 
dfm introduced into fcience will foon aflimilate the whole to its 
own nature; the fatal fermentation, once begun,, fpreads wider 
and wider every moment, till all the mafs be transformed into rotten- 
nefs and poifon. 

* There is no exaggeration here. The prefent fbate of the ab- 
ilradt fciences is a melancholy proof, that what I fay is true. This 
is called the age of reafon and philofbphy ; and this is the age of 
avowed and dogmatical atheifm. Sceptics have at lafl grown wear/ 
of doubtinj^ ; and have now difcovercd, by the force of their great 
talents, that one thing at leafl is certain, namely, that God, and re- 
ligion, and immortality, are empty founds, l^his is the final triumph 
of our fo much boaited philofophic fpirit ; thefe are the limits of 
the dominion of error, beyond which we can hardly conceive it 
fotkh\t for human fophiflry to penetrate. Exult, U Metaphyfic, at 
the confummation of thy glones. More thou canft not hope, mor« 
thou canft not deiire. Fau down, ye mortals, and acknowledge the 
ftnpendoos blefiing : adore thofe men of gr^at talents, thofe daring 
Spirits, thofe patterns of modefty, gentlenefs, and candour, thofe pro-» 
digies of genius, thofe heroes in beneficence, who have thus laboured 
«— to ibip yon of every rational conlblation, and to make your con- 
dition ten thoufand 'times worfe than that of the beafls that perifli. 

* Why can 1 not exprefs mvfelf with Icfs warmth ! Why can I not 
dcvife an apology for thefe philofophers, to fcreen them from this 
dreadful imputation of being the enemies and plagues of mankind ! 
—Perhaps Aey do not themfelvcs believe their own tenets, but p\ib- 
li(h them only as the means of getting a name and a fortUne. But 
I hope this is not the cafe ; God forbid that it fhould ! for then the 
enormity of their guilt would furpais all power of language ; we 
could only gaze at it, and tremble. Compared with fuch wicked* 
hefs, the crimes of the thief, the robber, the incendiary, would al* 
moft difappear. Thefe facrificc the fortunes or the lives of fome of 
their fellow- creatures, to their own necefiity or outrageous appetite ; 
but thofe would run the hazard of facrificini^, to their own avarice or 
vanity, tlie happinefs of all mankind, both here and hereafter. No; 
I cannot fuppole it : the heart of man, however depraved, is not 
capable of fuch infernal malignity.— Perhaps they do not forefec 
Ihe confequences of their do^rines. Berkeley mo.t certainly did 
toot. — But BfiRKBLBY did not attack the religion of his country, dicf 
not feek to undermine the foundations of virtue, did not preach or 
Recommend Atheifm. He erred ; and who is free from error ? but 
his intenti6ns were irreproachable ; and his condud as a man, and 
a ChrilUa;i, did hoiiour to human nature. — Perhaps our moderi^ 
fceptics are ignorant, that, without the belief of a God, and the 
hope of immortality, the msferies of human life would often be In- 

jk^Y. O^. r770t U fupporuble. 

' • Digitized by^* * 



282 Beattie en the Nature, and Immutability oftruih. 

fupporuble. But can I fuppoie them in a fta^ of total andxmriiiK 
cible dapidity, utter (Iraogers to the human hearty and to human 
aiFairs ! Sure they would not thank me for fuch a fuppofition. Yet 
this I muft fappofe, or I muii believe them to be the moft cruel, 
the moft perfidious, and the mod profin;ate of men. 

* Carelled by thofe who call themfclves the great, ingrofifed hf 
the formalities of life, intoxicated with vanity, pampered with ada- 
lation, diilipaced in the tumult of bufinefs^ or amidtt the viciffitodes 
of folly, they perhaps have little need and little reHfli for the con- 
folations of religion. But let them know, that in thi foiitary fccnes 
of life, there is many an honcfl and tender heart pining with in- 
curable anguifh, pierced with the fharpeft fling of diiappointment, 
bereft of friends, chilled with poverty, racked ^ith difeafe, icourged 
by the opprefTor ; whom nothing but truft in Providence, and the 
hope of a future retribution, could prcfcrve from the agonies of de- 
fpair. And do they, with facrilegious hands, attempt to violate 
this lall refuge of the mifera^)k, and to rob them of the only com- 
fo/t that had furvived the ravages of misfortune, malice, and 
tyranny ! Did it ever happen, that the influence of their execrable 
tenets difturbed the tranquillity of virtuous retirement, deepened the 
gloom of human diflrefs, or aggravated the horrors of the grave t 
Is it pofTible, that this may have happened in many inftances t Is it 
probable, that this hath happened, or may happen* in one fingle 
inftance ? — Ye traitors to human kind, ye murderers of the human 
foul, how can you anfwcr for it to your own hearts 1 Surely every 
fpark of your generofity is extinguilhed for ever, if this confidera- 
tion do not awaken in you the keenefl remoHc, and make yoa wifli 
in bittcrnefs of foui--But I remonflrate it vain. All this huiQ hav6 
often occurred to you, and been as often tt)tQitd as utterly frivo- 
lous. Could I enforce the prefent topic by an appeal to your van|ty>. 
I might pofnbly make fome impreflion : but to plead with yOn on 
the principles of benevolence or generofity. Is to addrefs you in a 
language ye da not, or will not, underdand; and as to the fhamt 
of being convicted of abfurdity, ignorance, or want of candour, yc 
have long ago proved yourfelves fuperior to the fenfe of it. 

* But let not the lovers of truth be difcouraged. Atheifm can- 
not be of Ibng continuance, nor is there much danger of its be- 
coming univerfal. The inftuerice of fome eonfpicuous charaders 
hath brought it too much into faihion ; wh^ch, in a thoughtlefs and 
profligate age, it is no difficult matter to accomplifh. But when men 
have retrieved the powers of ferious reflection, they will find it a 
frightful phantom ; and the mind will return gladly and eagerly to 
its old endearments. One thing we certainly know ; the faftion of 
iceptical and metaphyfical fyHems pafTeth fpeedily away. Thofe un- 
natural produdlions, the vile efFufion of a hard and flupid heart, 
that miltakes its own refllefsnefs for the adivity of genius, and its 
Owni captioufhefs for fagacity of underllanding, may, like other 
monfters, pleafe a while by their fingularity ; but the charm is foon 
"over; and the fucceeding age will be aftonifhed to hear, that their 
forefathers were deluded, or amufed, with fuch fooleries. TJie mca- 
fure of fcepticifin feems indeed to be full ; it is time for truth tO 
, vindicate iis rights^ aad we Uuft they fliall yet be completely viodi- 

cattd. 

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Criltcul Effays: -^ - ^ 

cated. Such are the hopes and the earnefl wiOies of ona» who hath 
firldom made controverfy his ftudy, who never look pleaftire in ar* 
gQfnentation, and who utterly difdaims all ambition of being reputed 
a liibtle ^(JMitsMit ; but who, as m friend to human nature, would 
account it his honour to be inftramental in promoting, though by 
neauB ttapleafant to himfelf,. the cattfe of irirtne aad true fcieitce» 
asd IB bringing to co&tcmpt that fc^ptical fcphiAiy which is .equjdl^ 
{abverfiv;e qf both.' 

Wi& have now laid before our Readers Aich a view of tbp 
Effay as is fufHcient, we apprehend, to juflify the ch^a^ter >^ 
have given of it. After, a repeated peruiai, we cannot help 
looking upon it as a ve/y iogeoiuus, judicious, and ufeful per- 
foroiapce. Our Authgr's manner of ^rea^ng the modern fc^p-* 
tic&» efpecially Mr. Hume, gives great offence, we are told) 
to many Headers. In what light the generality of ^eaderf 
<:onfider this matter we know not^ ^s for us, though we bav(^ 
the fmcereft refped for Mr. Hum£*s diftioguiihed abilities, yet 
we cannot think that he is treated with any g^eaxer degree of 
freedom or Severity than he deferves : nay, farther, we think ic 
impo0ible for any Writer, endowed with £enfibiUty of heart, th? 
love of mankind, and a regard for the imereils of virtue and le^ 
ligionV to exprefs bimfelf with lefs warmth than Mr. Beattie ha$ 
Oooe. 

f ■ ■ ' ' ' ' ' ■ , ■ - 

' Art. VI. Critical Ejfays. 8vq. 3 s, Ridley. 1770. 

TH £ firft of jthefe EfTays cont^ilis .obfe;rvationa on the 
fublime of Longinus, with examples from the fciuptures^ 
^4 modern writers : the fbco^id treau of the influence of go* 
vernment on the mental faculties ; the th^rd^ fourth, and laft^ 
^^ on the fourth, fifth» and fixth books of Vigil's Mfi^. 

Tbi$ Author obferves in his pcefftce that di^Gardin of Cri" 
ticifm ba3 almoft 'pqnftantly bee^ over- run with the wuds of iV/- 
managemeMty and that the earlier lahounrs^ who have ranged its 
walks with a methodi£al exaHnefi^ have facrificed beauty to de- 
coroif) while the finical conceits of modern refinement have 
iuimei them into an optn lawn^ preferring only in favourite cor- 
ners foooe inelegant ornaments^ The former, fays he, to fpea]^ 
literally, have, ^ith Ariftotle, cramped the imagination within 
the trammels of rule ; and the latter have, by indulging a cri- 
tical a.Se4^tron^ created elegance hut deftroyed majcfty. 

Whether the Author, by the words " garden of criticifm/' 
niean3 to reprefent criticifm itfclf as a garden, or to intimate 
that literature is a garden of which criticifm has the culture^ 
is not very clear : but in either caie It is abfurd to reprefent ic 
as over-run yNith: weeds in confequence of its being ill-managed: 
weeds are the effeft of neg}e6t, and not of induftry ill appjiied ^ 
and can never, without the utm^ft incongruity of metaphor^ 
be fuppofed to over-riin a garden whofe walks ar^ ranged by 
I^iMTirs with a mUbodicaUxaSfnefs. It is equally iacongruous to 

U 2 "^'^'"''^^ reprefent 



iKf^ Crtttcaf £fiysi 

reprefent &ttcal com$its as turhidg walks to a hwn^ and nc^ a^ 
froJucing hut prejirvitig otdy fome inelegant ornaments. Finicaf 
conceits^ if they muft bq perfonified» would be more naturally 
employed in turning a lawn into walks, and placing inelegant 
ornaments where they found none. When our Author quits 
metaphor, and fpeaks Kterally, be is not more fortunate : for, 
explaining his metaphorical by his literal language, we (halt 
find that ikgance may be crtattd by leaving indegant ornanunts. 
Finical conceits leave inelegami cmamentSp fays he ; and critical 
zikStztiow creates elegance. 

' It may weH be inferred, that he who cannot ftc his way 
through a page will be^mally bewildered in a book r and our 
Readers wHl probably be fatisned without a farther account o/ 
Eflays on die fubKme by an Author, who, in the firft page of 
his pcefaCt, deviates from common fenfe. 

The notbn fupported in the Eflay on the influence of go« 
ment on the mental faculties, is, that ' genius is uncohtrouled by 
climate, said unlimited by government ;* and that * where go* 
Vemment has^ apparently given a check to the efforts of the 
miderftanding, it has rather turned it from literary to adive 
purfuitis/ But the Author has rather written a defultory decla^ 
mation on this fubjeA than difcufled it by a feries of argument 
tation. An is fiiilian obfcurity and digrelEon : and what U 
affirmed hi one page feems to be denied in another ; fo that a» 
iieither analvfis nor epitome canbemadts of it, we muft refer 
fuch of our Readers as defire to know more of it to the book. • 
" In the two'firft of the Eibys oh Virgil the Author propofes 
io coflfider hkn in what he calls his * pathetic character,' by 
a view of the ftditieus iuBtorj of Dido, and with refpe^ to 
his * defcriptive talents' in the reprefentation of the games* 
The laft confifia of thoughts on the gates of STeep, He is of 
•pinion riiat an epic* poem fliotsld include every fpecies of poetry ; 
that therefore the potbetit and deicriptive were neeeflary to the 
JEneid, which are happily exhibited ra the epifodes of Dido^ 
and the games ; that tiK defcent of iEneas is reprefented as « 
vifion, and that the fix verfes beginning with Stmt gemmee Semin 
fortay and ending with emittit eiuma, afe fparions, and (bould 
be expunged. 

< The £pic Mnfi^ £iys our Author, conrprehends every other 
/^ecies of poetry. She roams through the imiverfe for matter, 
and lays open every paffion in colottrs the mofl expreffive ' fb^ 
amufement and morality. Tbcfe piSfures are arrayed in a ekefs 
the beft adapted to the feveral reprefentattons. The whole con-> 
lains an excellent aflemblage : the fadnefs tff elegiac tender- 
Aefs leads us to the regions of pity and defpair: paftoral mild" 
nefty drawn front the fountain ef Natur^ fleab us into die valf 
•f virtuous 0mplicity« 

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^ SmltbV PqftfmUi #85 

.When tliofe wlu> pretend to critical precifion coftTaund the 
^mu$ of an art with fpecimena of the art itfelf, and having con-*' 
^dcced a mufe as a fpeci^ of poetry comprehending all others^ 
repreient this compreheniive fpicm ts roaming through the uiu- 
verfe for matter ^ and arirapng piffur.es in a df'e/s adapted tor n^ 
frefintatiom ; when they firft confider paftorai niildnefs as a ^« 
foftj then reprtfent her as being drawn from a fountain, and 
then zsJIeaBng us into a vadley, what can w^ fay but that th^ 
Jiave miftaken their talent, and mif-fpent -their time:. 

■ ■ I ■ I I ■ ■■ * ■ n ■■ I I I p ■ I H ^ 

Art. VII/ Six Pq/iorals^ uidelice.t, /. Tin Country Lovers. 
11. The Cmteji. lU. mnOr. IV. Two B^s. V. The Cm- 
plaint. VL The Happy Meeting. To iwbicb a9» added^ tw§ 
Paftoral Songs. By George Smith, LancMcapc Painter, at 
Chichefter in Suflex. 4to. 2s. Dodfley. 1770.. 

TH £ Author, well known for the excellent per&naanosi 
of Ills, pencil, apologizes for his having afiumed the pen, 
^ritb a oiodefty and difidence.that never fail to diftinguiQl the 
ingenious : ^ My profeffion, fiiys be, aft a landfcape painter, in;, 
fduced me to ftudy Nature very attentively ; and the tbeautifal 
icenes I often examined, Airniihed me with a great varjety of 
ideas, many of which, I flatter myfelf, are new^ ; but as I never 
made the art erf writing my particular Audy, I have not always 
Won able to convey my ideas to the Reader with the f:ume 
feroe that I received them from the book of Nature. Whatever 
de&ds, therefore, .may be<fomid in ,tbe language i hope will 
be forgiven.' 

The Reader will naturally condude, froni this account of 
^e work, that it is chiefly defcriptive: it is not, however, to* 
tally without incidents : the paftorals very much refemble Mc; 
Pope's, .as well in the general idea upon which they are formed^ 
as the liarmony of the verfification, which, in many parts, is 
:little inferior, though it is not equally uniform. The follow*- 
ing pi£hire could be drawn only at the door of a litde farm, 
where few writers of paftoral have feen the fun rife. 

See, fays the ruftic Jover, whofe team waits to take bis nriftrefs 
$^*i)^t market town, * * 

* Already o'er yon hilk the fon appears 

And throagh.the fruit-trees gilds the yoking fteers# 

See' on the kitchen wal]» with ballads gay, 

The early fun-beams quiver through the fpray, 

*%Cit ^vt exaaiy when they gild the tack 

That holds this corner of the almanack.* 

The image of the fun's, firft rays gilding the oxen as they 
are putting into .the yoke through the ftraggiing branches of a 
fruit-tree, and markipg the hour by ballads and almanacks ftuck 
fil 'dH kitchen wall, are equally natural, ftriking, and new. 

U 3 The 

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The fblldwing addrefs is lialile to no •l>jC(5ion bar fuch as 
Mvc been made to Mr. Pope's paftorals, which are fiill ad- 
ihired, and will be foj as long as an car for true poetical har- 
mony remains among us : 

* Come then, my fair one, blcfs my kind retreat;. 
My tufted daifies long to kifs thy feet. 

My oaks, in whifp'ring fighs, lament thy flay. 
And chiding rit'lcis mourn thy long delay. 
Gay to thy wifh my ftirnb-drcfsM cottage glows. 
With lilachs, woodbines, and the bluihing rofe. '• 
Ah ! come and hear the muiic of the rills, 
Thek tuneful murmuri don^ti the ilony hills. 
Thefe foft tranfptrent waters, fweet and cooI» 
O'er (hining pebbles haften to my pool, 
Wbofe chryftal bofom.uBdidurb'd with foam^ 
Refleds the fhadow of my peaceful home. 
Inhere, pleas'd with died, my ducks in idle freaks^ 
WjU deck the dancing (hades with filver ftrcaks : 
My cattle there from paflure come to drink, 
There wait the milker's hand befide the brink.' 
Ah ! when wilt thon on my delightful green. 
At early mora and ev^ninga clofe be i^ 
To dram the fwelling udders of my kine. 
And join thy dear, £y pleafing tailks with mint?^ 

It if unneceiTary to remark that in this extradl the language 
n pure, and the verfification excellent ; pr that the fhadow of 
the cottage refleded from the pool> and the ducks marking the 
grafs with fmall (hining tracks of water, are images truly rural 
tnd pidarefque« 

We do not remember that any other Author has marked the 
declining year as a time 

^^—^"^ 7 * when days nor hot nor cold 

Adorn the juicy pepin's rind with gold. 
When from the chimney tops at op'ning day 
The playful fwallo^Vs iing a parting lay ; 
Gathering in flocks to crofs the wat'ry main. 
Till flow'ry April brings them back agab.' 

The fifth paftoral, called the Complaint of Daphnis, a foli- 
loquy, fccms to be more equally fupported than the reft. The 
fcene is the fide of a wood near the fea, and the poem opens 
with the following dcfcription : 

* The night was dill — the filver moon on high 
Dappl'd the mountains from a cloudy iky : 
Silent as fleecy clouds through asther fail 
Before the gentle-breathing fammer's gafe^ 

So, through the mift^ vale, in twilight grey. 
The fleepy waters fofHj paisM awa/ ; 

Vheit 

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Smith's Pajl^ab.^ %^ 

When DapbmSf ftretch'd upon a gmffy bed 
yVbove his dewy pillow raisM his head ; 
And, taming up his melancholy eycs^ 
Pour'd out his forrows to the lift'ning ikies.* 

The moon dappling the mountains is a rural image, finely 
conceived and expref]^, and the failing of a fleecy cloud through 
Che expanfe above, is the bappieft example of motion without 
found that could be imagined. 

The (hepherd's complaint of having been forfaken by his 
mifirefs, is interrupted by the breaking of the day, which is well 
«xprelled; 

* The day-light breaks^ the duiky Ihadows fly» 
And clouds turn fcarlet in the morning iky.' 

He is foon after fuppofed to hear the village bells proclaim 
tbe marriage of bis rival, which renders bis complaint ftill more 
pathetic: 

* Ah I how ihall I my faithlefs beauty fee « 
, Sport with a rival where ihe toyM with me ! 

To diflant plains I'll ^y the hated fight ; 
' No more my fertile fields afford delight ! 
My much loV*d hofne, my native cot adieu, 
Where, lodg'd with peace, my fathers hoary grcWt 
Parewell ye oaks that now with age decline^ ' 
Yet never heard of any grief bM mine \ 
Farewell my little farm, my herds, my iheep» 
Ye fliallew itreams that murmurM me to ileep, 
1*11 climb yon miily hill — far hence I'll rove— 
Celia farewell I — farewell the fweets of love ! 
Now ceafe, my flute — my iighs, no more depart 
In plaintive mufic, from my dying heart.* 

This farewell to 2l native cottage^ where his anceftors haJ 
grown boan in the uninterrupted peace of fimplicity and inno- 
cence, and to the oaks, which, though now declining, . had * 
never feen any furrow but bis own^ are equally rural, poetical^ 
and pathetic. 

In the next pailoral the Author introduces a fhepherd giving 
.an account of his having once kept a flock by the fea fide : this 
incident furniihed him with feveral new images, which he has 
very happily reprefented. 

The fight of a boy who was playing at a diftance, introduces 
the following verfes : 

* Like him, in early youth, the crook I bore. 
But near the boiflerous fea's refoundin^ ihore. 
Where ikimming mews o'erlpok their nlhy prey, ' 
And the big porpoiie ploughs his foamy way. 
How often there have I forgot my iheep. 

In culling fliells, fmooth poiiihed, from-the deep % 

Which, join'd with fea-weed, look'd fo lovely fair 

My flcipping lambs feem'd proud the wreath to wear(f 

Oft have I foKow'd as the waves withdrew. 

And they, earning. wonW my fcet P^XCooglj-ilf 



%t9 JnothiT LeitiT in Matter if Llhet 

Till the laft funbeams in the water play'd 
And I grew fearful of my lengthened fhade. 
But ah I how mach more pleafant is this plain, 
Than the bleak mountains near the treelefs main ? 
Here, from the fummer's heat, in groves we hide. 
Where birds rejoice, — and gentle waters glide.* 

* The epithet* /f^^/(/r is remarkably happy when applied byn 
Ihcpherd to the fea, in a contraft with the plains on (hore. 

Of the two fongs it is not neceflary to fay any thing, as they 
have neither remarkable excellence nor dcfcft j and having al- 
ready obferved that the padorals tbemfelves are unequal, it 
would be invidious to exhibit bicmiflics, for which general 

m^rit will sitone, and the Author has fo ingenuoufly apologised* 

- ^ 1 ■ -- 

Art, VIII. 4noihcp Letter to Mr, Ahmn in Matter of Liheh 

8vo. 25. 6d. Almon. 1770. 
^TpHE Author of this performance, though an enemy to the 
-*- pKcfent fyftcm of party- writing, which attacks rather the 
conftitution, than thofe who have the direSion of it, is yet 
afraid, that the officers of the law, from a defire of repreffing 
the viruience of fadlious writers, may overlook the line of 
juftice, and fubftitute artificial for real conviction. He confi- 
ders it as highly requifite that the propagators of dangerous 
produdions ihould be profecuted ; but, it (hould ever, he ima* 
gines, be an objed of the care of judges, to beware of intro^ 
ducing by their fubtikies and diftinaions, a code of libel-polity^ 
ifi^hich may hereafter be employed to infringe the liberty of the 
prefs, that beft and only bulwark of manly freedom and liberal 
ici^ce. 

The remarks which he has made on the famous profecution, 
the King agairfl Bear^ muft be allowed to be extremely acute and 
fatisfaftory. Notwithftanding the rcfpeSable authority of Lord 
Chief Juftice Holt, who preTided in the King's bench when 
this cziq W98 triedi he feemsi to have dearly jrefolved his deter-^ 
mination of it into rnere fophiftry ; and we cannot but think 
with him, that the ftern virtue of that great man yielded, in 
this inftance, to his partiality for King William, to whofn he 
owed his promotion. 

In what he has remarked concerning the cafe, the King agaln/l 
Woodfall^ there appears much accurate difcernment and j lift 
obfcrvatioft. A friend to thofe rights, with which the jbibjeds of 
Great Britain are inverted by the form of their government, he 
would check that drain of legal interpretation, which leads to 
a diflruft of the uprightnefs of judicature by the fubltitution of 
jefuitical cafuiftry in the place of eqgity and comn^on feofe. 
♦ Diftrufl, fays he,, will beget diflike and contempt. Nothing 
cap fopport 'penal jud^ments^ where the frcedoip pf the prefa i^ 

too. 

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QMceitiied; and liberty^ or fuppofed Ji)>erty at flake, twt-their 
being grounded on an exprefs convidion (of the very crimei 
charged) by the clear verdi^l of a jury. Conftru&ive guilt, tho 
cnoature of the bendi, will not be endured. It will make the 
fbat of juftice (hake under the judge who profiounces it/ 

To his judicious reflexions concerniirg libels, our Author hat 
iiibjoined fome interefting confiderations on commitments and 
attachments for a'contempt of courjt ; and, from this part of hia* 
work, we beg leave to prefent our readers with the following 

< I Udce it that any difobedience or oppofition to, or mifufer 
of, the procefs or orders of a court of law^ is puntfliable by* 
immediace commitment, becaufe no court can either maint^a 
or execute the trail repofed in it by the conftitution, without 
£>me penal compulfion on the party fo offending. An attach-^ 
ment ought to go dire^ly. The juftice of the kingdom would 
otherwife ftand ftill. Every perfon is interefted in there being 
fitch a vindidive power. It flows of neceffity from the nature of 
a t:ourt of juftice, and is eflential to it, as it could not do ita^ 
duty without it. This power or prerogative is therefore a necef*- 
fary incident to it at common law$ and there is no flatute or 
pohtive law, nor any requifite to warrant it* Wherefore, if 
any party to a. caufe, officer of the law, or other perfoo, 
obftrud the execution of procefs, or the proceedings of the 
court, or hinder others from conforming thereto, do otherwife, 
than is enjoined or commanded by their precept, or forbear to 
do what their procefs, rule, order, judgment, or decree require, 
he ought to be forthwith attached. And for this reafon tbo^ 
old law as cited by Br^is from the year books, fays, contempt* 
JbaU hi anfwi^ed in proper perfon^ and not by attormy. 

* However, Lord Chief Baron Gilbirt (or Bacon the abridger). 
not attending to this neceflity for fuch power, and finding that 
libels were called now-a-days contempts, feems to be at a lofs^ 
how to reconcile immediate attachment with the principles of 
the conftitution, and with the grand charter, which fays, 
nuBw liber bom$ imprifonetur^ nifi per Ugale judicium pariumfmrum^ 
vel per legem tetra^ and therefore fuppofes long practice alone 
fecures its footing in the law* He has been mifled bv aflbciat- 
ing the lawful attachment for adual, with the unlawful for 
cooftrudive contempt. The former is abfolutely necefl!ary for 
themaiptenanceof public polity, and therefore legal; the other- 
is unnepefEiry, warranted by no pofitive law, and therefore 
illegal. The latter is indeed a dominion fb extraordinary, fo 
^ien from the conftitution of this country, and fb privatory of 
the fubjeA*s rightto a trial-by jury for every mifdemeanour, that 
it dafhes with the whole fyftem of our. law. Without aa 
ins«cdia{e power ^f co^tipn, wbcre procefs is refxfted, th^ 

wurw 

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990 Jnother LeffeT in^ MiOti^ 4fUUt. 

courts couM not go on. But in^ dchtr taib^ no pdnifliMiettt 
cfLti be inflidtdi but through the mediam af ii juiy. - With f*- 
(ptOi to court< martUi,* Arc, theyderire ^ir exift^not fl^dM 
ftatute, 4s well as th^ ftanding forces ^hith they tOfltl^ttt.' 
There is indeed in Ficzherberfs naiurd hretftum no mciUion of 
2lny attachment but for the furtherance of juftice and the re- 
ftratnt of injuftice) Which could not be if the ufe of it now con- 
tended for were either common or legal* Howerer, as op|^^ 
fition to procefs im^lfes tHHltempt, and ji defpifing of the aulko* 
tity and dignity of the court from whence it iffiies, this ma)r 
Kave givdtt rife to m notion that every thing which betdkens adi/ 
flight or difapprobation even of the ways of reafofttitg 6^ Ak^ 
Aieanor of any judge, is Kkewife ^ cMempt tf the tourt witbte 
rile meaning of the law by that term, and will enable them t6 
:^tach a party guilty thereof, although fuch flight or <li(iip]^ro« 
bation tK tbeir fentiments or condu<ft be expref&d merely in 
difcourfe^ or in fome publication of the prefs, ahd doei not 
adually interrupt or diftUrb their judicial proceedings. Ikit 
riiis, 1 apprehend, is m grbfs miftake, Afd an abi^ bf th6 
power of attachment) which ia permitted to them fhdttl nothinjf 
but abfolute necefiity. Upon that feoi^ ^irione thii pinal au^ 
tllority begun, has been praAifed, and can be eftabliflied tn 
pjitt of the \kvf of the Und. For, it JkaU not lit in any en^f 
ftwer fo-diffot ihi rules t>f'd court of jujiicei er to render them in^ 
effe&ueA\ ne^ierthelefsy the contempt fnuft he certain and not douktfkt} 
for elft a forty may perchance be wrongfidiy committed^ which the 
cottrt will be cautious not to do,- In three words, a contempt of 
the court means fome efficient contempt of the law, that is, a 
WithAttding of ks procrfs, and not an idle contempt of the? 
perfons, underftandings, or demeanor of its temporary officers;, 
exprelfei out 6{ court and merely in words, whether written or 
HRwritten. It is the defeating of the proceedings of the na- 
tional courts, by an affault upon the judges, parties, or juries, 
or by ralfing fuch a difturbance as to prevent juftice beibg fairly 
and (bberly dont ; or elfe the defeat by fotne means 6r oth^r of 
their procefs. And it is nothing elfe. 

« THe fuppofmg of a man to be amenable by attachment 
for any conftruftive contempt which does not impede 1^1 
proceedings, is* as foreign to the idea of this conftitution, as the 
fuppofal that a man can be bound to furety of the peace for any 
thing (before judgment) but aSual violence ; that is, forr any 
cJonftruAive breach of the peace. They both proceed uport ih€ 
feme principle ; the abfolute neccffity of foitiething being done 
immediately; the one for the prevention of interruption td 
national juftice, the other for the preiervatten of the lives and 
properties of individuals. The great prevailing luminary of the 
hw, in bis prefent perielton> ever looking at the principles of 

things^ 

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The ConfeJJtontti: iJ^t 

thtrtgs, Will not (I truft) difcftecm this way of rcafoning. In- 
deed, I fhould ^ucft he would treat the notion of confidcring 
any penman^ printer or bookfellcr (under the arbitrary deiiomi* 
nation of a libeller) as an adual breaker of the peace, or as an 
aSaal contemner of the court,' as a delufion, vox et praterea 
nihil \ and would tell the pcrfon who (hould argue to that cnd^ 
and defire an attachment, that there was no force or violence in 
either, but what was the work of fancy, a mere lufus of the 
imagination. It is Irrdeed only by cpnftru£Hon, and as having 
»n evil tendency, that the one is ftyled a breach of the peace, 
and the other a contempt of the court, in the track of legal dlf. 
tourfe. The man who writes abufively, intends, perhaps, 
f though I believe rarely) to create fome public difturbance; 
and he who traduces, refie6ts upon, or calls in qaeftion die 
juftnefi of any judgment, may be fuppofed to aim at diminKh- 
ilig the authority of the court, or of the perfons of its judges ; 
but not being immediate outrages, or the ufe of force, either to 
fubdue any individual, or to withfbnd the execution cf any law, 
they do not require inftant fuppreiSon, and may well wait for a 
trial by jury, whofe bufinef<r it will be to confider both the ten- - 
dency and intent of the arraigned words or writings, and to 
pronounce whether the fame be advifcd, malicious, and con- 
trary to the peace of our Lord the, King, and the good order of 
bis realm ; or no more than pertinent and juft remarks on the 
Errors and malcfeazance of his political Minifters or Law-Mag{« 
ftrates/ 

With regard to literary merit, it muft be confefTed, that the 
work before us does not difplay any marks of tafte in its 
Author, and that, in its manner, it is rather loofe and 'defui- 
tory. But though, it poflefles not the ornaments of ftyle, and 
the advantages of arrangement, it is yet refpcflable from the 
(pirit which it breathes i and the matter which it communicates. 

Art. IX. The Confeffional : — thi Third Editiomnlargid i with the 
Pnfacts to the rirji and Second Editions ; an Advertifment and 
inany Additions occajioned by fome Publications Jince the Second \ xind 
an Index. 8vo. ys. Bhdon. 1770, , 

IT Is matter of great pleafurc to us, and, we doubt not, to 
every finccre friend to religious liberty, to fee the Editions of 
fo capital a work as the Confessionai, multiply fo faft. This 
circumftance affords a ftrohg prefumption that the worthy 
Author's defign is generally approved, and that there is a much 
greater number of intelligent and judicious Readers, who ear- 
neftlywifb to fee a reformation of our ecclefiaftical fyftem, than 
fome ambitious and interefted Churchmen are willing to allow. 
There is little probability, indeed, notwithftanding all that has 
been faid in behalf of a reformation by many able and learned 
Writers^ that any fteps will foon be taken towards accomplifh- 

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ing fo defirable an end ; the Author of the CobrFfss^oN^fp^* 
]lbwever, has the fatisfadlion to reflet that he has borne an 
honourable teftimony to the caufe of truth, that, by his means^ 
;the principles of Proteftantifm and Chriftian liberty are better 
vnderftood, and a more general attention paid to them ; and 
there Is little reafon to doubt but that the good feed be has 
fown, though at prefent it may feem to be totally buried and 
corrupted, will (pring up and flourifh in due feafoa. 

In regard to the additions to this third pnUication of the 
Confessional, we are told in an advertifement prefixed to it^ 
ihat they are fuggefted chiefly by occafions given fince the ap- 
pearance of the fecond Edition^ an4 are of importance only to 
tuch as are apt to take it for granted that the defenders of public 
inftitutions muft needs be in the rigbt in e^ery things 
The advertifement concludes in the foUowmg manner : 
« It has been faid, that the Author of iht Confeffiorud is an ene- 
my to all eftablifbmentsi a4id fome people, it feems, think it 
incumbent upon him to be explicit upon this head. lie does 
%iOt think fo himfelf ; but as the explanation required oiay be 
brought within a fmall compafs, he wiU give it. 

< He thinks, in the fiift place, that the Chriftian religion is 
perfe£lly adapted in all its parts, to the ftate and condition of 
man ; and is, fo far, a perfeSf religion ; bqt being in itfelf a 
religion of the greateft fimplicity and liberality, its excellency 
Qiuft be debafed, in proportion as it is incorporated with fuper- 
ftitious modes of worihip, and rdlri£live forms of do£lrine. In 
the firft inftances, he thinks- the Clirifiian religion has been 
onuttidj in the other cramped^ by human cftabliihments ; and 
the longer it remains in fuch unnatural coBneiSbionfi^ theinc^e 
probable will be its tendency to de(lru£lion^ 

< He is not of opinion that the Chriftian religion, *^ b]( being 
kept intirely feparate from worltily interefts," or, in other 
Vords, profeflcd by individuals without refped to tempofal 
emoluments, would " be neglefled, or perifli in oblivion,'' 
becaufe he is perfuaded it is enjoined to be'fo kept, and (o pro- 
fc&d by the gracious author of it. Hence it follows, that 
human eftablifhmcnts are not mcefary to its fuppont. A ^ertaun 
Writer hath .faid, that '* if men were not to (p^ak^ their minds 
in fpite of edablifhments, truth would foon be banifhed from.the 
earth." And the very fame may be faid of pitty and rigbteouf^ 
mfs. So little is the Chriftian religion indebted to fa.umaoL 
cftablifliments for its fupport. 

< Where is the moft bigoted formalift who will venture to fay 
he is z friend to thofe national cftablifliments, whic;h are *^ /«.- 

fallibly produfiive of deftruflion to the Chriftian religion ♦ ?"* 

• See The Free Enquiry into the Nature and Origin o/'Evil, p. 192. 
i Why 

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Tke donfeffjoHial. ap j 

Why then fhall the Author of the Confefflonal be retrained from 
laying, he is an enemy to fuch eftablUhments ? If the quefUon 
were to be, whether the Chriftian religion or the national efta- 
blifliaient flioukl be deAroyed ? He hopes and believes he fhould 
have the honour of voting with the whole hierarchy of the 
Church of England. But he is not for having things come to 
any fuch extremity. Whatever he may think of particular 
eftabtifhrnentS) he thinks there are none of them fo bad,, but 
that rt may be reformed by being brought back to the terms o£ 
the original record (to which all Chriftian eftablifhments appeal) 
with refpe£l to thofe points in which it has deviated from it ; 
namely^, by difchargtng all fuperfluous traditions, and fyftem* 
atical dodrines, with which the Chriftian religion hath been 
incumbered by the craft or the vanity of men prefuming to be 
wife above what is written. 

* Two things have been faid to this : ift. That this is not 
to be expeded of the prefent generation : and I fmd fome men 
have been called vijmariesj even for talking of it. — But why fo J 
It is no more than ought to be expeded of any generation of 
Chriftians ; and every man fo perfuaded, may, both lawfully 
and laudably, iblicit it from thofe who have the power, and 
who cannot, modeftly be fuppofed not to know that it is their 
duty. 

* adly. The other thing oflfered by way of filencing thcfe 
teazers of eflablifhments^ is, that their demands are vague aii4 
not explicit. ** Tdl us only what you would have, ^nd you 
(ball either be gratified, or we will give you unanfwerable rea-* 
fons why not.'* — This, it feems is thc/irt of our prefent anti- 
reformers ; and he muft be a little hardy who wou}d attempt 
to ftorm it. The Author of the ConfeJJionat is. no fuch adven- 
turer, though he hath been called too peremptory for an enquirer^ 
To conciliate the mind of the worthy pcrfon who thought him 
fo, be begs leave to exprefs his demands in that Genueman*s 
own^wordsj viz. *• An ccctefiaftical conftitution, calculated 
to comprehend all that hold the fixed and fundamental princi- 
ples and points of faith, in which all ferious and fincere Prote- 
ftants, of every denomination, are unanimoufly agreed, and to 
exclude thofe only that hold the peculiar tenets that eflentially 
dtftinguiih all true Proteftantifm from Popeiy.*' To the efta- 
blifliment of this ecclefiaftical conftitution the Author of The 
Confejfimal never will be an enemy/ 

We have nothing further to add in regard to this third edition 
ef the Confession AL, but to renew our acknowledgments to 
the Author for the great fervice he has done to the Proteftant 
ctufe — May it ever hive fuQh manly^ fpirited^ and able advo^ 

cates ! 

r - 

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• [ ^9+ ] 

AltT. X. A "Jmrney^frtm London to Genoa^ through inglani^ 
Portugal, Spah, and France^ By Jofeph Baretti, continued 
firom page 230. 

THERE are more churches and religious foundations in 
Madrid, in proportion to its fize, than in any other city 
in the world except Rome. There are five hofpitals for the 
relief of foreign nations ; one for the Italians, one for the 
French, one for the Portuguefe, one for the Flemifb, and the 
other for the Iri(b, under which denomination the EngliQi and 
Scotch are included. 

There is aifo a general hofpital, which contains no lefs than 
fifteen hundred iron beds, diilributed through foreral large 
rooms and long galleries. Every body is received without fo« 
licjtation or condition ; and there are porters who£e only bufi- 
Aefs is to fetch whatever fick perfon fends for them. The 
houfe is kept remarkably clean, and every patient, among other 
particles of maintenance, is allowed a large diih of chocolate, 
with a ilice of bread, or a fweet bifcuit, for breakfaft. 

Thefe hofpitals are fuperintendcd by a number of parifhioncn 
of the higher rank, united into what is called a Confradia^ the 
fame as a Confraternita in Italy. 

* Among thefe Confradias there is One called La Santa Herman^- 
dad^ the Holy Brotherhood, or more commonly La Confradia 
de Pan y Huevos, the Brotherhood of Briad and Eggs : feveral 
of the members of this Conffadia, headed by fome grandee, or 
other very confiderable perfon, ramble about the ftreet3 of th^ 
city during the firft part of every night, tQ coIleiS the houfe* 
lefs poor of both kn^s^^ who lay themfelves dawn to fleep uo« 
der the porches of churches, or entrance of houfes. Thofe 
whom they find in this diftrefsful condition they carry to fome 
hofpital to fleep, and give them the next morning a penr^ kaf 
and a couple of oggs. If they are in health they arc then dif- 
mifled, and if they are difeafed are kept to be cured. ^ I wi(h, 
fays our Author, fomething of this kind might be eftabliflied 
in London, where the houfelefs poor are pretty numerous/ 
But it is certain that to prevent 04r poor from being hou/tlefs^ 
no new eftablifliment is neceiTary. We need only carry the 
laws already fubfiiUng into execujtion, and con^l tbo£e for 
whom provifion is made to accept of the provifion. 

The celebrated Countefs d* Jnois^ who wrote a little book 
called Lad/s Travels into Spain, (ays, that every bafiard, 
brought up in the hofpital ere^edfor foundlings at Madrid, ia 
cpnfidered by the Spanifh law as a gentleman, and the Auchors 
of the Di^wnnatre Enctclopediqui, have recorded this aiTertioa 
as a fad. But our Author fays it is wholly falfe, and that ^ 

* baftard 

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B v^tti'i Jimrjir/Jrom London to Gmoa, £^r. ijj 

bi^ftard at Madrid is the fame forlorn outcaft ojf the law as at 
ether places. 

The churches at Madrid, which our Author did not find fo 
magnificent as he expe&ed, haVe many decorations which are 
pot admitted in any oiher country. The walls are generally 
covered with fmall and artlefs work of the chiflel and pencil, 
diftributed as chance directed, at lead without (nuch fymmetry 
or order i the altars are ftuck with little nofegays of natural 
or artificial flowers, and the church is. hung round with cages 
of canary birds, whofe inceflant chirping cannot but divert the 
attention of thofe who go to hear mafs. There are neither 
pews, benches, nor chairs, but the floors are covered v^rith 
firaw mats, upon which men and women kneel promifcuouily, 
whether they be, fays our Author, grandees or cobbers, duchefies 
or waflier women. 

Women of all ranks, when they go to church, carry their 
ro&ries in their hands, that every body may fee them: they 
wear alfo a black petticoat, -which covers their gowns from the 
waift downwards, and is called a BafquinOy and a muflin or 
camliric veil, which hides their hesds and the upper parts of 
their bodies, called a Mantiila ; {o that in this drefs it is im- 
poiSble that a woman (hould be known even by her hufband. 

The gentlemen drefs after the French manner, wearing their 
hats undef their arm \ but men of the lower clafs wrap them- 
felves up to the eyes in a brown cloak that reaches to th<r 
ground, called a Capa^ and wear their hair concealed under a 
cotton cap, with a broad flapped hat called a Sombr^o over it : 
the King hates to f<;e a man wrapped in a wide clo^k, with 4 
flapped hat, but the people care little ibr his dlfapprobation* 

Our Author (ays that there is much more Spani& literature 
tiian is generally imagined, and that the books written in the 
fourteenth century diiFer but very little, with refpe£l to the 
words and phrafes, if^rom thofe that are written now. The 
poetical language of Spain, however, differs more from its 
profe, than its profe from Italian. The dramatic poets of this 
• country are very numerous 5 but the principal are Lope de Vega 
and Calderon de Barca. De Vega has left more than 300 dra« 
matic pScces, and is faid to have written as many more. Ano- 
ther imagination, fays our Author, fo fertile in plots and cjiia- 
radters has never exifted. Calderon has left one hundred and 
thirty plays, befides one hundred Autos Sacramentales^ a kind of 
religious drama, in which Pagan deities, Chriflian faints, tbc 
Virgin Mary, women, angels, and devils, with a great variety 
W allegorical charaders, are brought together in a flrange mix- 
ture that no mortal but a- Spaniard or Pprtuguefe could bear. 

Thefe ylutos in the reprefentation are generally preceded by 9 
ioialler piece called a Loa^ fomething of the fame kind. It is 

remarkable 

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4^6 Baretti*i ^ouimeyfrom London to Gin$a^ ^c: 

temarkable that as btit of late years women liave "appeared upoit 
the ftage in England, fo but of late years men have ap][)eare<( 
upon the ftage in Spain : and in the Pope's dominions and ifl 
Portugal no woman appears upon the ftage how. 

The reprefentation of Jutos znd Loas has been forbidden fined 
eur Author was in Spain. 

Notwithftandiftg numerous oddities, incongruities, and ab- 
furdities, in thefe and other dramatic pieces, our Author fays, 
that he who takes them up will always find it difficult to lay 
them down. ^ He ranks de Vega and Calderon with the firft 
clafs of poetical ^ehiufTes, and fays that he has often beeil 
Ivarmed, even into enthufiaCm, by the copioufnfcfs aiid origina- 
lity of their invention, their art in entangling and difentahglinz 
(heir plots, their vaft variety of charaftei's, their niimberlels 
fentiments, the force and elegance of their expreffions, and 
their facility of verfification. 

He dbferves that in a large number of Spanifti plays thtf 
devil bears a very confpicuous part; and he gives a (ketch of 
one called the Devil turned Preacher^ yi\i\c\i^ however t^xxMt^ 
gant, Teems to abound witfi contrivance and humotir. 

Befides Autos^ Loas^ Tragedies, Comedies, and TiiigiMromc- 
dies, the Spaniards have a kind of Farce of o^e a£l, or, ac-' 
cording to their divifion, of one day^ Called a Sainete ; and a 
fetit pieced two ads or days, called the Zanuiila^ .which ad- 
mit of mufic, and are often uing thtoughout. 

None of their dramatic pieces confift of more than three 
days ^ but the loWeft of all are called Entnmes and M^cigar^a^ 
• which confift only of a few fcehes. The excellency of thefc 
pieces is rated by their buffboni^ ; and our Author hsls giveit 
a (pecimen of one called the Parifii Clerk, Which is fomethtng 
like the drollery praflfifed formerly at our fairs. 

The Spaniards have tranflatlons of the Greek and Latin daf- 
fies, and five thick quartos by ^tuedo^ of whofe Works littl^ 
is known out of Spain, «cept the Vifions of Hell. One work 
of Quevedo is mentioned by our Author, called the Life of the 
Gran Tacano^ which he fays is a pi^ure of the wicked and 
ioweft vulgar, fcarcely to be matched in anv language. , Tacani 
Sgnjfies'a low cheat or trickfter. A tranuation of this book 
would probably give us a very good idea of the living manners 
of Spain, and find many readers. 

Among other things in a very good review of the prefent 
^ate of literature in Spain, the Author nienttons an account 
of the Arabic MSS. ih the Efcurial, one volume of which Is 
Juft publifhed. 

In the library of the Efcurial the Arabic MSS. are very inn» 
mcrous : they were partly colleded by PhiMp the fecond, and 
partly procured by accident. When he made bis intention «f 

ydoogle ^ 



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BtrettlV youfruyfrm London U GenoH^ 6ft'. l^f 

calleSing Arabic MSS. known, manjr people pfcfcntcd him 
with fuch as they happened to have in their pofleflion j and 
many additions have been lince made of books which the Mo-' 
rifcos had concealed at the time of their expulfton, 2lnd werd 
not permitted to carry with them. But no lefs than three thou- v 
fand Arabic books of phyftc, philofophy^ and politics^ finely 
illuminated and fairly written, were taken on board two (hips 
that contained the wardrobe of Zidan King of Morocco, by Go- 
vernor Pedro de Lara^ who was cruifing near Sallee on the Bar* 
bary coaft. This faS is related in a «* Hiftory of the Life an(f 
Adlions cf Philip III.** which is preferved in the King's library 
at Madrid. The Author of the book is not known, but the 
fa£k is fupported by very good authority. 

Many of thefc curious MSS. were deftroycd by fire in thd 
year 1671. The account of thofe that remain is undertaken at 
the King's command by Doctor Michael Cafiri, his librarian aC 
the Efcurial, and a Syro-Maronite by birth. The volume al- 
ready publi(hed is in folio, of about 550 pages, and the MSS* 
noted in it amount to 1628, arranged under the following 
heada : Grammatics y Rhetmci^ PoeSfij Philohgici et Mijcellortei^ 
Lixu^graphij Philofopbi^ Ethici it Politics^ Medid^ ad Mijicriam 
NaturaUm piriinentes^ Theoh^rd^ Dogmaitdy ScholaJHd, Morales^ 
(fc. Cbri/iiani. 

' By this book, fays our Author, ^ Cajtri appears to be a Ou-^ 
pendous mailer of the Oriental tongues, and full* fraught witl^ 
the mod: extenfive erudition.* A few of the very curious no* 
tices which it contains, he has given us, but is moft particular 
under the poetical article. The MSS. under this divifioo 
amount to 22f, of which 31 are in foh'o, 105 in quarto, and 
the remaining 85 in 8vo. Cafiri fpeaks in high terms of thia 
poetry, and apologizes for the disadvantage undet^ which it 
muft appear in fome fpecimens which he has turned into Latin 
profe. 

The following particulars concerning the Arabians and their 
poetry, which Cafiri has related in a digreflion on the fubjeS;^ 
are very curious : 

In the poetry of the Arabs there is not the leaft mixture of 
Gfcciaii mythology : they have fables of their own, adapted to 
their own genius and religion. They call the metrical part of 
their poetry Schitr^ that is hair, or hair-fkin ; and compare its 
ftrudure to the flruAure of a tent made of goat's hair, or goat's 
(kins, and compacted with chords and fbkes, for which reafoti 
a verfe is called Bait^ a boufe, as being a firu^lure of finifiied 
ixietre, and as it were a complete bulldine. 

An Arabic verfe confifls of long and Uiort ivllables, out of 
which they form fou^ feet, which they diftinguim by the names 

9,Ry. OSt, 1770% X #f 

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098 Barctti'i "Journey from London to Genoa^ (ic. 

of the Bght chords the heavy or grave chords the conjoined Jlaki^ 
and t\it disjoined Jiake\ xht chords 'ZT\di Jiakes follow each other 
alternately, and from their different combination their different 
poems are denominated. Arabic poetry does not require metre 
only, but rhyme ; fo ignorant are thofe who pretend that 
rhyme is a monki(h invention : the rhym^ is fometimcs alter- 
nate and fometimcs fucctffive. 

Each verfe confifts of, two hemiftichs, each bemiftich is called 
a door or gute^ both dif elding door or double gate ; the former part 
of the hemiftrch is called the accefs^ the latter the propcfition^ and 
the laft fyllable of the latter bemiftich is called the fulfationy or 
kmcking. 

The original word which is rendered propofiiion^ is derive4 
from a word fignifyiog to offer or prefent any thing, and has 
been tranflatcd paius ient^rii^ the veftibule of a te^u. Thus 
do ihe Arabians, in the language of Milton, ** buHd thdr rhpru^ 

It is remarkable that th^ Arab^ bad no drama, nor. dramatic 
poetry. There is in the Efcurialone or two comedies writtei^ 
in Arabic, of which Cafin\ in thii extrad, fays he will fpeal^ 
elfewhere, but what he fays of them elfewh^re our Author has not 
noted, except that they are not theatricaK It is alfo remark- 
able that among the many poetical cor)i()6ntiQi^s of the Arabs 
colledled in the Efcurial, there is not one epic. 

The Arabic poets, "whofe works -are preferved iii the E(i:u- 
/lal, are not all natives of Spain ; fonre were of Africa^ fomf 
pf Afia, and fome wrote even before th? time of Mahomet. 

In fome Spanifl) and Latin letters of the unfortunate Antonio 
Perex^ who was Secretary to Philip the Second, printed at Pa- 
tis without a date, there is, fays our Author, on the 4>ack of 
l>. 93, mentiorved < a book written >in an old hand^ attributed 
to Solomon, ^hich is depofited in the Efcurial library, an4 
was brought, with fome othets, by the Emperor Charles the 
Fifth, from the pillage of Tunis/ 

- Our Author acknowledges that he Is indebted to tht learned 
Mr. Wheeler, Profeflbr of Poetry iu Oxford, for much,©f ttic 
linglilh tranflation of his extrafts from Cafiri, which mak^ a 
Konfiderable patt of alettejf ftippbfed to^.haVe been written to.his 
brother from Madrid ; and there is fon)e reafon to believe tbsit 
the copy of Cafiri's work, fVom which our Author took.bb 
^cxtrafls, was procured. by him after bis return to England. 
. He fays the Kirtg of Spain's geographer Do« Thomas 
Lopez, is completing a fet of Spaaifli maps, which, it is faid, 
:wiU be very accurate: that the King en<;ourages learning and 
the arts, and has conceived and exectftted many defigns of grent 
^public utility, which (hews him to be a good King, Wo are 
^lad of this opportunity to bear teftimony agaioft the illiberal 

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'B^i^ttVsyourfuy from London to Genoa ^ bfc. 299 

abufe which, in the vaft torrent of defamatory falfchood that 
muft for ever difgrace this period of our hiftory, has been lately 
thrown upon him in fomc of our news-papers. 

Madrid, though not a trading city, is very opulent, and con- 
tains a gre^t number of people who have no other bufinefs than 
to contrive how to fpcnd their time agreeably. As the inter- 
courfe between the fexes is the chief fource of plcafure among 
msnkmd, many are the inventions of this people to facilitate 
that intcrcourfc. 

The ladies in Spain have Cictjbeos under the name o^Cortejo5\ 
bttc they have improved upon the Italians, for every lady here 
b«$ three Cortejosy ttnder the different denominations of Anos^ 
Efirtdjos^ and Santos, They are all chofcn annuallv by lot* 
The Ano is fo called, bccaufe he is chofen on the faft day of 
the (year, the word fignifying y/^r ; the Ejirechoy which fignifiea 
doft friend^ is chofen on Twelfth-day ; and the Santo on Chrift- 
mas^Eve. The manner of chufmg thefe feveral Cortcjos, who 
differ only in name, is this, the names of the gentlemen and 
ladies preffent, whether married or fingle, are written upon bits 
of paper, ^ and feparatcly thrown into two hats, the youngeft 
perfQft in company "then draws a gentleman's name with one 
faand^ and a lady's with the other: when they draw for Eftre- 
chos ft is cuftomary to put into the hats that contain the 
names little copies of verfes of the epigrammatic kind, which 
are drawn with them j and if they fquare with the^porfonal 
charaftcr of the gentleman or lady whofe name comes up with 
them, they occafion much mirth. When they draw {or Santos^ 
the names of faints are put into the hats inftead of verfes, and 
'the gentleman is to pay a particular devotion to the faint whofe 
name comes up with the lady's, and fhe lady to the faint whofe 
name comes up with that of the gentleman. The Cortrjo chofen 
on Chrlftmas-£ve is called a Santo from this cuftom. 

The Cortcjo, of whatever denomination, acquires a right td 
ettl^ftr. his ladj's houfe at any hour, and to dine with her when 
he pleafes, without previous invitation : he pays her a re^lat 
coftfffliip, and becdmes in a manner a part of her family. 

It is eafy to fee that this cuftom is much lefs liable to bt 
abiifed to matnefu) pHirpofes than th^t of iCici/ieos in Italy. The 
connexion between the lady and her Gortejos continues but i, 
year, when they are exchariged for others by a new lot : as three 
have the feme privilege, there is no opportunity nor pretence 
foir privacy : and as every lady has three Cortejos^ every gentle- 
man h''Cbrtejoy under different denominations, to three ladies 5 
ft>i- his* being chofen Jno to one, is no impediment to his being 
Efirecho to a fecond^ ahd Santo to a third. Add to this, that the 
names of-hufband andwife are frequently drawn together, fo 
th^ they are BJircchos to each other ; and that not only the 

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300 Birctti'i "Joumtffrtrft LinJon U GiMti^ tfc. 

gates but every door of their apartments are open from morhin'g 
till night, ail friends and acquaintance coming in and going 
out without afking leave, and the numerous fervants entering 
as freely as the miftrefe or matter, which is very different from 
the retrejt of a lady and her Cicilbeo to a Caftm^ where they 
remain locked up together for great part of the night, and none 
dares to approach them* 

A lady in Spain receives morning vifitors fitting up in her 
bed, with a fmal) table before her on which ihe takes choco- 
late ; the gentlemen fit round her upon ftools. fome continually 
coming and going without introdu<^ion even, by a fervant. 
When (he chufes to rife they are defired to retire, but are foon 
fummoned to attend her at her toilet, from which they are dif« 
milled when (he goes to mafs, which a woman of chara^er 
.never mifics. The e{labli(hed modes of life in Spain are fuch 
4hat a woman can never be private, at leaft can never carry 
on an intrigue, without changing or breaking through them^ 
which cannot be done without the total lofs of reputation. No 
gentleman even rides in a coach with a lady alone; a fervaot 
out of livery always takes his place in the carriage, and this 
/orm is not difpenfed with, though the gentleman and lady are 
hufband and wife. 

The environs of Madrid are verv unpleafant ; fcarce a habi* 
tation, or even a tree, is to be (een as far as the fight can 
reach, the whole profped^ is barren and defert. Many wooden 
croiTes however are planted on one fide of the road, about fifty 
'yards difbnt from each other, which the Jefuits ufc in what 
they call making the Via Cruets. To make the f^a Cruets two 
or three Jefuits walk gravely before a great multitude of low 
people^ flop before every crofs fucce(fively» and ^11 kneeling 
devoutly in the duft, fay aloud feven Pattrs^ and feven Aves at 
each, with a. kind of (bort prayer called a M/fttry^ the words of 
;which commemorate the feveral falls of our Saviour, as he was 
barbaroufly puihed up Mount Calvary by the wicked JewSf 
with his heavy crofs upon his (boulders. 

This mummery is pra<91fed very frequently in t;he afternoon^ 
and fomething of the fame kind is done in various parts of Italy, 
except that infiead of performing the Via Crucis in a road, it is 
there done in a church. 

About two leagues from Madrid there is a village called 
Fuencarral^ in the neighbourhood of which is made a very fine 
Mufcadine wine : to this place the ladies and their CofUjas g^ 
jn parties to mergndar as they call it, that is, to eat a fallad 
and tafie the wine : while this, little entertainment is getting 
ready they commonly dance and.fing, or walk about with % 
cboet fulne(3 and vivacity almoft peculiar to tbemfelvcs* 

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Baretti*^ Journey from Lwubn to ^enoa^ tSc. 301 

• We did not intend that this article Ihould have Oretched into 
another month, but curious particulars have fo much encrcafed 
as we went on,, that we muft difrnifs our fubjcft at prefent with 
the following account of the King of Spain, in which 01 ny 
particulars are very Angular, and many very laudable. 

* Thij day, fays pur Author, I have fecn the King ; and I muft fay 
that a prominent nofe, a piercing eve, and a ferene countenance, 
make him look much better than his coin repre(t;nts him. i ht\e 
feeo feveral portraits of him, even ooe by his favourite Mengi .- but 
neither MengSy nor any other painter, had given me a true idea of 
hii face, which is pleafin^, though made up of irregular features. . 

* As to his perfon, it is of a good fxze, and his walk quite Bcur- 
ionian ; that is, ered and fleady. He appears to be robuil, and £ 
am told that he has a great deal of bodily Itrength. His complexi n 
is quite foo-burnt, which is undoubtedly the confequcnce of bis 
pa^oo for the chace. In this rcfpeil he is a true Meleagcr. No de- 
gree of heat or cold can keep him from this exercife. You may 
poUibly think it worth the while to read an account of the life he 
leads ; and here it is, as I had it from people who have been daily 

-witnelTes of it for many years. 

* Every day in the year he gets up about fix, and exaflly at fevcn 
comes out of hts bed-room in his night-gown. He iinds waiting ia 
the anti-chamber a Gtutilhomhre de Cdmara, a Maysrdomo dt Sem ina, 
a phyiician, a fnrgeon, and feveral other regular attendants, with 
whom be interch^ges words while drefling. The Gentilhomhre^ 
kneeling on one knee, prefents a di(h of chocolate, which the King 
drinks almoft cold. He then difmifTes foms of them with a nod, 
enters his private chapel, and hears a mafs : then retires to a clofet, 
to ivhich no. body is ever admitted, and there reads or writes, cfpc- 
cially on thofe days that he does not intend to go a-hunting in the 
morning. 

' About eleven he comes out of the clofet to meet the whole xoyal 
family. They all kifs his hand, or offer to do it, lowering a knee. 
He embraces them all, kiffing the Princes at the cheek, and the 
PrincefTes on the forehead. 

' The royal family withdraw after a little chit-chat, and he gives a 
momentary audience to his confefTor : then fpeaks to thofe minillers 
of ftate, who have any bufinefs to communicate, ,or paper to fign. 
Then the family AmbaflTadors come in ; that is, the French and the 
Neapolitan, With them the King interchanges words for a quarter 
of an hour ; feldbm more. Juft againft the time that he is going to 
dine, the other AmbaiTadors and foreign Miniilers come in«. Bxa^^ty 
at twelve he iits down to uble, ^liite alone now that his Queen i^ 
dead. The Ambailador^ and foreign Miniilers, his own Minmers of 
State, the great officers of his army, and feveral other great perfon- 
ages, pay wir court while he falls to eating, and all thofe whom the 

fuaids luive pernutted to get in, croud round the table to fee him 
ine. The dardina)-patriarch of the Indies fays graced not as Car- 
dinal or Patriarch^ but as his chief Chaplain. 

* The ceremony of the uble is this. The Mayordomo Mayof ftands 
on the i^9^% right hand, and a captain of his body- guards on hi» 

X 3 left- 

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301 Barcttri Jmrmyfrom Lwdon to OenttJty life. 

left. One of the weekly Mayordcmos^ two Geutilb&mbra de CiiMta^ 
and a croud of pages and fervants attend proinifcuouQy. One of the 
tvyo Genlilhomhns carves, the other gives him drink. The difhes, all 
covered, are broui^ht in one by one in an uninterrupted fuAeffion by 
pages, and each dilh is put into the hands of the carving Gentilbombre^ 
who takes it with one hand, uncovers it with the other, and prefents 
it to the King. The King gives a nod of approbation or difapproba- 
tion at every difh. . Thofe that are approved, the Gentilhombre places 
upon the table : the reft are carried back. Many however are the 
difhes approved, which dill arc- not touched as the King eu.ts only of 
the plaineft, and always with a good appetite. 

* The Gtntilhombre who gives nim drink, pours firft a few drops of 
wine and water in a filver-falver that has a beak, and drinks that him- 
felf ; then kneels on one knee, and pours of both to the King, firfl 
the water, then the wine, which is always Burgundy. 

* When the King h^s drank his firll glafs, the Ambafl^dors and 
foreign Minifters, who flood the while and all in a row on the King's 
right hand, make their bows, and go to pay their refpeds to the reft 

^of the royal family that are all at their dinners, each in his or her own 
apartment, the Prince of Allurias alone, Don Luis alone, the Infanta 
alone, and the two younger Infantes together. All thefe tables are 
fumptuous. — 

* Near a hundred difhes are generally ferved to the King, of which 
^bout forty are laid upon the table. When they are removed, an ample 
defert fucceeds : but he feldom tafles of it, except (bmetimes a little 
bit of cheefe and fome fruit. The laft thing tha^ is prefented is a 
glafs of canary-v/inc with a fweet bifcuit. He breaks the bifcuit in 
two, (let ps it in the wine, and eats it, but never drinks the wine. 

' * A moment before he rifes from tabh, which lafts near an hour, 
tlie Ambafladors and foreign Miniflers return, pafs before him, and 
go into an adjoihing room, where they wait for his coming. With 
theip he converfes about half an hour upon indifferent matters, 

* He then re-enters his private apartment to put on his hunting- 
drefs ; that is a grey frock of coarfe cloth, made at Segovia on pur- 
pofe for him, and a leather waiftcoat* The leather breeches he al- 
ways outs on when he gets from bed, efpfcially on thofe days that ho 
fntends to go a- hunting. Light boots, a hat flapped before, and 
ftrong leather gloves complete this drefs. While the boots are putting, 
pn, the Sommelier dt Corps (Duke of Lo/ada) gives him a difh of 
coffee. Between one and two he fteps into his coach drawn by fix or 
eight mules, and away with his brother Don Luis, the males gallop- 
ping v^tre a ferre. Half a dozen of his body-guards precede the 
coach on horfe-back, and three footmen nde behind it. 

' No bad weather, as I fald, li ever an obftacle to his going out on 
Jun^ing-4ay6, not even a ftorm of hail accompanied by thunder ancj 
lightning, pon Luis, who is his conflant Attendant in the coach, it 
the only pfr(bn allowed to Ere at the game on thefe daily hontingi. 
^ut on folemn huntings fome of the grandees who ^ait on hrm at nio 
chace, are granted the fame privilege. However of late the folcmn 
huntings are b^cpipe f^r^^ beca\ifip th0 (xpenCe of (hcQiivas fbnnd coo 

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* A Uttle after Ain-iet ha generally comes back, carrying as much 
^ the feather-game in his bands as be can hold. As to tKe quadru- 
peds he has killed, fuch as ftags, deer, wild-boars, wolves, fox'^s, 
i^Q, they are brought to the palace in carts. He furve> s the whole, 
orders it to be weighed in his preieDce* and rejoices when there is 
smchf moft particularly wheo he has killed a wolf or two. Ic is but 
ftidom that he takes the Prince of Alturias to hunt with him. 

* When the game is weighed and ordered tp the J^itchen, he goes to 
pay a fliort yifit to the Queen-Mother; then gives a private audience 
to that Miniiter, whofe day it happens to be, as each of them has his 
fixed day of private audience. The Minifter brings his papers in a 
bag, and ofi'ers to his infpedion thofe that are to the purpofe of hit. 
errand. If the Minifter's bufinefs leaves him any time, he plays at 
Mrvtrfiao {a, ^zme at cards fo called) with three of his courtiers, gene- 
rally the Duke de JLofada SomnulUrs de.CoKpi^ Duke d' Arcos Cafitan, 
df la QdTnpania Efpanola^ and another grandee whofe name I have 
forgotten. He never plays for any^thing, having recourfe to this ex- 
pedient merely to confume a quarter of an hour, or half an hour that 
be muA wait for his fupper, At nine he fits down to it, attended only, 
by bis courtiers: then goes to bed, to get up again next day to the 
fame round of occupations, and with the fame fcrupulous nicety of 
method in the diftribution of them, feldom or never to be altered, 
except on poll-days, when, inftead of gojng to hunt, be pafFes fome 
more time, both morning and afternoon, in the private dofet, 
writing to his fon at Naples, to his brother at Parma, to his fiflers in 
Turin and Lifbon, and very often likewife to Marquis Tanucci and to 
the Prince of Santo Nicandro^ the firft of whom he has made chief 
Minifter, and the fecond Ayo^ or governour, to his Sicilian Majefty. 

^ If on poft-days he has any time left, it is employed in hisJabora- 
tory ; that is, in the completed turner's fbop that ever exifted* He 
is a moft expert turner, and works toys to perfe^on. The fliop 
contains many turning engines of rare invention, fome of which were 
presents fromtiie King of France, and ibme contrived by Count 
GaxKo/a^ one of the greateft mechanifts of the age. By him bis Maje^ 
fly is attended When working in the laboratory. 
• * As to his perfonal chara^er, he was certainly a good huft)and when 
bis Qneen was alive» Never once did be fwexve from conjugal 
fidelity, nor ever bad any miftrefs public or private. His brothers 
were always his beft fnendi and moft ^miliar companions; and as to 
bis children there is no need of faying that be always proved a kind 
father. He is rather an eafy, than an afie^onate mafter, never de- 
fcending to great familiarity with has' fervaAts, yet always fatisfy'd 
with what they do. Tbcy fay ihalt be never betrayed any great love 
to any body oat of hh cMn^ lami^ ttO iiiore than hatred. It bap* 
pened once, v that -be^^deleAid'One- of his moft familiar domcftics in a 
lye, and forbad him bis prefence, but ftill -continued bim bis falary^ 
Hk'c^itverfati^Hs geWaliy cbearful; but. d ways as chafte as bis 
cbsdlad^ iHe repeies inuJcbQonfidence.ip:hia.jchief MiniRers, efpe- 
q«My,Mi»jiiis gy<ri!faef^ wh^. has fctubd fHe;^ef^s of prepoflefilijg. 
liW'AlfifftYftttr'yrtf Ws IjWK^ .aibyities J yet ijeithcr Sjuillacf, nor ^ 
lM9|(fo>9}j^^]iyasf;vff,afavc^]jme, when, by a fav6i;rite we mean a man* 
pi^j(}c4jb>;a Sovpcigatpibe clofcft intimacy of friendfliip.— 

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304 Barctti^i Journey from London to Gima, (fe, 

• The King ufcs cvcrv body with a fort of condefcenfion thtt may 
be called civility, which imprefles his fervants with a ilrong feofe of 
real refpe^t, independent of his kingfhip* as the rigidity of his morab 
gives them no room for the leaft contempt. His method of fpendin^ 
time, fo unalterably regolar, may appear fomewhat dull : but is cer- 
tainly laudable^ and it is quite neceflary that a King Ihould have hit 
Miniflers and his fervants exafUy appriied of the hours, and even the 
minutes, that they are to approach him for the difpatch of bufinefs ia 
their refpeftive ftations and em{>loyments. 

* Every body here agrees, that his Majefty is far from wanting 
knowledge of men or thmgs. He has read much, and never pafies a 
day without looking into a book, Befides his native tongue, be 
(peaks Italian and French with the greateft fluency and propriety, nor 
is he ignorant of the Latin. They fay, that he knows his own as 
well as other Princes intereft full as well as any of his Minifters, and 
does not fpare any expence to be early informed of whatever p^es in 
ptirope and out of Europe that may affe^l him any way. 

' Since he came to this throne, he never would faffer any Italian 
opera to be performed either at Madrid or Aranjuez, as was pradifed 
in the former reign.* 

His Majefty, bcfidci retrenching this abfurd article of ex* 
pence, has lefletied that of his ftables, fo that he has much re* 
duced the vaft debt with which he found hinnfelf encumbered, 
by which means, if not interrupted by war, Mr. Baretti fup- 
pofes the whole would be difchargcd in about 20 years. He vifits, , 
die Queen- mother every day, and treats her with the pro*, 
foundeft refpcft. 

* On every gala-day, his Majefly puts on a new fuit, and as rich as 
art can make it : but all his £ne cloaths are conflantly made after the 
fiiCiion that was ufed in liis younger years, and he always appears im- 
patient to undreis, being never eafy, until he refomea his grey fix>ck 
and leather waiflcoat* He was always en enemy to all fort of inno- 
vation, and fo (leady in uniformity, that he wore for above twenty 
years a filver watch. His Queen infilled ofteq upon bis changing it 
tor a better, but to no purpofc. Yet, to get rid of her imporiunity, . 
and ince^Tant jokes, refolved at lalt to have a gold-cafe to it, which 
he made himfelf on the lathe. 

* When he refolved to give the kingdom of Naples to his Ion, every 
body expe^ed that he would fend to Spain all the antique monuments 
that bad been dug out of Herculaoey m. But little did they know him 
that formed fuch conjedlures, as on the fame day that he crowned that 
fon, he went to the place where thofe- numoments were depofited, 
and there left a rin^ he had worn many yw»> wUcb had been found 
in thofe ruins, faying, that he had no«^ no right tQ ,any thing that 
belonged to another Monarch.^ 

The place where the King hunts ii calUd the ParJo^.ibi^ 
fttuation 4s very romantic, having an eafy bill oaone fidi^ an^L 
An exteflfive foreft all round ; the trees are chiefly ^feciiotki^? 
and their fweet acorns iifford pl^nty-qf food-lo t^4niYii(DefaUf • 
animals that live in It. When t!?e I^ing is thcrfe, thf ,fiei|ti%' 
bpuriog p^afants get up before' ddjr, at' the ringing;. oiFtheif- 

^burgh 

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DuffV Critical OlfirvationSf He* 305 

church bellsy and men, women, and children, run about the 
country, hooting and beating the bufhes, in order to fright the 
game towards the Pardo, that the King may have plenty, for 
which each of them is paid two reals, about eleven- pence fter- 
ling a day. It is.faid that the King can hit the fmalleft bird ot^ 
the wing with a fingle ball. 

[To be concluded in our next,'\ 
I III II <■■■■■■ » 

Art. XI. Critical Obfervaiiom on the fVritings of the moft cele^ 
brated Original Geniufes in Poetry. Bang a Sequel to tht EJfay on 

' Original Genius. By W. Duff, A. M. «vo. 5 s. lewcd, 
Becket. 1770. 

WERE the elements of genius like thofe of virtue, rc- 
folvable into fixed principles, and capable of a moral 
definition, inveftigations of this nature would btf no iefs ufeful 
than curious. The boundaries might be fixed where fame and 
diftin£lion fhould begin, and they would not be laviflicd or 
withheld at the caprice of fafliion, or the viciffitude of tafte. 
But a faculty infinitely various and uncircumfcnbed, that ap. 
pears to be rather the refult and emanation of the other faculties 
fhan to have any diftinft exiftence, can never be defcribed in 
Its mode, however it may be indicated by its effeds: for even 
in the latter cafe nothing is reducible to certainty. Where 
tafte then is to be the criterion, the afFe£tation of laying down 
rules is altogether impertinent. The man that prefcribes rules 
to his own tafte, but Ul confults truth and nature, and he that 
prefcribes tbenot t9 the tafte of others arrogates, a fuperiority of 
difccrnment to which he is rarely found intitlcd. Of the truth 
of thefe obfervations the pages before us 'prefei>t a thoufand in<- 
ftances. 

The Eflay on Original Geniu^, to which this work is a fe^, 

quel, our Readers will find mentioned in Review, vol. xxxvi. 

p. 435. In that work the principles and ingredients of original 

genius were .confidered, not, as we then, obferved, with any 

originality of fentiment, for this writer is,, jn that refped, a 

mere compiler ; in this the remarks contained in the former 

volume are exemplified; ^n<) it is intended ^ to (hew, that the 

diftinguifhiog properties of original genius in poetry, are found. 

in the compofitioiis of the moft eminent poets, both ancient 

and modern/ This is a very curious propofition. If the pro-^ 

perties of original genius ere not to be found in the works of 

original genius, where are they to be fought ? To prove that 

thp moft eminent poets,' fince the creation of the world (which 

this writer affirms on hrs own knowledge to have happened fix 

thoufafld years ago) to maintain that they were the beft poets 

and the moft diftinguMbed for original genius, is certainly a 

©oft upm^rciful waftc of time. Yet notwiihftanding there 

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jo6 ^M^ Critical OhfervatUni\ bfc. 

have been To mariy original geniufes fince the creation, we art 
told, a little Turther, that there have been only three complete 
ones ; and thefe are Homer, Shakefpeare and Offian. How in!* 
jurious is this audacious affertion, and invidious diftindion, to 
the m'emory of thofe immortal men who have ever ftood in thi 
firft rank of fame ! Ye Maros, Taffos, Miltons, what punilh* 
incnt (hall we affign to this reptile critic, who is burrowing be- 
neath your tombs? Nay Homer hinflfelf, though one of his 
complete original geniufes, is extremely faulty, and wanted 
much of Mr. Duff's critical acumen to make him ftill more 
complete. His incidents are * ludicrous and improbable,' 
p. 12. and, as to conftftency of charader, it is ' notorioufly 
violated,' p. 19. but in Oflian's portion there fball be no ac- 
curfed thing. He is not fo much as charged with one fault. 
In the point of incidents, indeed, he is acknowledged inferior 
to Homer, but then that was no defeft of his. It was owing to 
the different ftate of fociety in bis time. Whereas Homer fre- 
quently (hewed himfelf incapable of making a right ufe of th€ 
incidents with which his period fo eafily fupplied him. Thus 
Offian by the mod abfurd partiality, poflibly of national pre- 
^ileSion, is placed above the father of poetry *. Undoubtedly, 
he has his merit ; but his defeds are great. There is a difguflw 
ing uniformity in his imagery. Take away his aerial machi^ 
nery; firip him of his winds and clouds, and what has he 
left ? In the fentimental part too, he is extremely penurious^ 
and by no means comparable to Hon>er, whofe rich and benig- 
nant vein, like a perennial fountain, feems> in that refpeS, 
inexhauftible. 

The Authors on .whom Mr. Duff ha« made his critical 
obfervations, and from whom he has taken his fpecimens of. 
original genius, are Homer, Ol&an, Shakefpeare, Spencer^ 
Milton, Ariofto, and Taffo. — The obfervations on Shakefpeare 
are infufferably trite and tedious. Beauties are pointed out» 
and paflages fde<5ted, that had been a thoufdnd times quoted and 
pointed out before* There is a difguftful identity and repe- 
tition in the mode of criticifm through t)ie whole book, and the 
word adduced is adduced fo often^ that the eye isikk of feeing it^ 
and the ear of hearing it. 

It is a certain rule that whatever is abominably (hocking to 
, nature ought neither to be exhibited in poetry nor in painting. 
It is on this principle that Horace fays, 

Nee pueros coram populo Medea trucidet. ' ^ 

And it is on the fame principle tlut pi^r 3pencer*8 poegi 0/ th^ 

* Yet la another .pa^t of ^$ bpokb^ aficfts to leave ti^ Iftp^riority: 



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Accma (^ the Jewijh Do^iju of the JU^$a%eiu 507 

Fairy Queen is frequently laid d9\^n alreoft as ibon as it h Udcea 
^. Thus when he tells us that envy 

■ Still did chaw 
Between his cankered teeth a venomous toad» 
That all the poifon run about his janv.-*— 

the firength of the defcription by no means make^ amends for 
the loathfome efteft it produces. In fhort, whatever is (hock* 
ing to delicacy is repugnant to the genius and intention of 
poetry. But this has not occurred t6 Mr, DufF, who fays, that 
Spencer has with * peculiar propriety made envy chew a toad/ 
The great matters of antiquity fell not into this error. Ovid, in 
his fine defcription of envy, though he properly inspires us with 
averfion and deteftation, does not fliock our delicacy with fuch 
naufeous circumftances as ooze from the pen of Spencer. 

The extrafts from Milton ; and the ftridlures thereupon 
labour under the fame objeftion with thofe from Shakefpeare : 
they have been frequently quoted, and better criticifed, before. 

In the remarks on Ariofto, Mr. DufF obferves on the meta- 
morphofis of leaves into fliips, and of ftones into armed fteeds, 
that both circumftances are * far removed beyond the utmoft 
verge of credibility* in which we entirely agree with him; but 
hope he will not expedl our thanks for the acutenefs of the 
obfervation. As his principal end is to point out originality of 
genius and invention, it is unfortunate for him here, that he is 
ignorant which was prior in point of time, the Orlando Furiofi or 
the Gierufahmme Libcrata^ and of courfe whether the Armida of 
Taflb, or the Alcina of Ariofto was the Archetype. — But we 
{hall difmifs this article, fufficiently difgufted with the famenefs 
and dry verbofity of long repeated criticifms. 

Art. XIL Somi Account of the Jewifl) DcrSirint of the Refurree^ 
tion of the Dead, Tending to explain feveral Pajfages of Holy 
Writ \ and^ in particular^ that Claufe ^ St. Peter's Relation c^ 

. the Converfion of Cornelius, which has been fuppofed to exclude 
the virtuous Heathens from Happinefsy and may^ on that Ac^ 
county he thought to he a gfeat Obje£tioa to Chri/lianity. SvO, 
xs. 6d. Johnfon, &c, 1767. 

'TpH IS pamphlet, which wc muft confider as a very fenfible 
' ^ performance, though it has been fo long printed, had till 
now, by fomc means or other, very undefignedly efcaped our 
notice, 

• The Author having obferved that * the refurreaion of the 
dead is an article of faith among the modern Jews as well ais 
Chi-tftians,' proceeds to fiiew that it had greater antiquity 
iqipng the- Jew?- than the time of our Saviour's appearance: 

whic^ 

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JCS Acc9unt dfihe *fevatjh Do^rine of the Refurngflon. 

^bich feems fufficiemly evident by the quotations produced 
from the New Teftament, and from the book of Maccabees *.* 
The next enquiry, which is concerning the fuhjeSis of the re- 
furredion, is attended with greater difficulty : upon canvaffing 
the fentiments of fome Jewim writers, he concludes, that the 
opinions of their Dodors may be reduced to tbefe three — * The 
rcfurreiaion bf the jujl Jews only-^The refurredHon of the 
unjuji as well os the jufl^ but of that Jingle nation — The refur- 
redion of the Jews^ with fome GentUes that were eminent in 
tieir generation for piety.* And he apprehends that the no- 
ton which chiefly prevailed among the Jews^ at lead about 
the time of Chrift, was that the unjuft as well as the juft 
fiiould arife, but they limited this hdpe to Ifrael. 

After fome farther ingenious remarks upon this part of tbe 
fubj^ft, he proceeds to take notice of a text of St. Paul's wri- 
tings, where it is faid concerning Jefus, *' who hath abolijbed 
^d^athy and hath brought life and immortality to lights through the 
Gofpel." * With what propriety and force, fays he, might 
the apofile fay this, if we confider that the Gentles, whatever 
they thought of the exiftence and confcioufnefs of the foul in 
tbe feparate ftate after death, had afluredly «^ »?m» of a refur- 
reflion, nor had the Jews for them^ thinking a refurreftion to 
be the prerogative of their nation, and limited to thofe that 
were circumcifed ? Chrift Jefus then revealed fomcthing really 
new, and that had been, to that time, unknown, when he dif- 
covered unto men that there (hould be no difierence made be- 
tween the circumcifion and the uncircumcilion, and that both 
were entitled to the refurre£lion j to immortality and Itfe^ that 
IS.* The manner in which this fentence is finiOied, ^ivcs it 
the appearance of being imperfefl ; but, without animadvert- 
ing upon this, let us obferve that the Writer adds, * This is 
an eafy and a natural interpretation of a pafiage, which has oc* 
cafioned a good deal of embarraflinent, and led fome people 
into ftrange aflertions. I remember in particular to have feen 
a difcourfe preached before a venerable audience, which, by con- 
founding the notion of a refurredion to immortal life with tbe 
•immortality of the foul, .fuppofed from thefe words that there 
was no notion of a future ftate, either among Gentiles, ^r Jiws^ 
till the time of our Lord, and that the denying this would be, 
what in us lies, putting an $ni to tbe Gojpel^ and making our 
preaching vain^ and the faith of the Chri/iian world vain : how 
aftonifliing !* The htc Bifhop Sherlock's obfervation upon the 
text is allowed to be more juft, though not fully fatis/a^ry. 

, * Thoie who think it worth while to know the fentiments of the 
Reviewers in regard to the belief of the ancient Jews concerning a 
fotur? ftate« may turn to oar 14th vol. p. 157^ 

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Jccoum tfihijiwtjh DtSrlnt of the RtfrmSflm* jof 

The B.ifbop fuppofes the word (f^oAJ^iit in the text cannot figtiifjr 
bringing to lights but illuflrating or cieering up« * This confe- 
quence, odr Author adds^ however by no means follows, fince 
1 have Aewn, that with refpeft to the refurrr<aion of the Gen* 
tiles to life and immortality, Chriii difcovercd to men ibm^- 
thing th;K was abfolutely new^ which neither Gentiles nor Jews 
had thought of. And as the Bi(hop*s conclufion, in relation 
to the meaning of the word (pcJli^ciy, is not, as he fuppofcd, 
neceilary, fo there is this objection againft it, that fuch a fenfe 
of the word doth not feem to be fo fpirited and digmfying^ as 
Qne would imagine it ihould be in this paflage of the Apoftle ; 
though I will not take upon me to fay, as fome hav6 done, 
" that it was a trivial nicety^ %nd beneath the dignity of an apo- 
ftolic pen, to compare the evidences of a future fiate before 
the publication of the Gofpel with the evidences which tho 
Gofpel brings, in which they have glanced, as I fuppofe, at 
this criticifm of the Bifhop's.— Nothing in the explanation I 
have given can, on the contrary, hinder the full affent of the 
thoughtful mind to it, that I know of,'unlefs it be a fuppofitioii 
that the Heathens themfclves had an expedation of the refur* 
le^iion of the body/ 

Thi» leads our Author into an examination of what has been 
affirmed concerning the Egyptians^ by the Abbot Mafirier^ in 
an account oi Egypt publi&ed at Paris in 1735* Should it be 
flowed that the Egyptians^ who were ariciently fuch a diflin^ 
guiihed part of the Gentile world, and the inflxu^ors of other 
nations in religion and fciences, believed a refurredion, ^ how 
could Chrift Jefus, it is afked, be faid to bring it to lighc^ 
with refped to the riling of the Gentiles from the dead, which 
I have been fupp^fing was the meaning of St. Paul V It is re- 
plied, « in the iirft place, that this no ways affeSed thofe to 
whom St. Paul preached, or among whom Timothy miniftrcd. — 
Secondly, had St. Paul written to Timothy in Egypt^ he niight 
have faid the fame thing to him concerning that people with 
great propriety, though we fuppofe the reprefentation of Maf* 
crier perfe<31y juft : for it is one thing to imagine a dead b<>dy 
ibould arife, and another thing to have jujl grounds to believe 
iti one thing for deuitful priejfis to make the fuperftitious and 
ignorant fancy fuch a thi^g, and another to have the fame Holy 
Spiritj that ajfured the Jews of a refurreftion to life, ajj'ure the 
dentins of it alfo, whith was the thought of St. Paul.^ 
. This laft confideration we fliould fuppofe gives a very proper 
account of the text^ whether it be regarded as relating in ge« 
neral to a future life, or only to the refurrection of the body : 
ibat which was Qtterly uncertain, and extremely obfcure, as it 
muft be ailgwed this dodripe of a life to come was in the 

Heathen 

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J f d Jccwfrt oftBi yefmJbDoSinne if the RefurttSikn. 

Heathen world, is prefented U us in a clear light and with fair 
affiirance by the Chriftian revelation. 

Thi» Writer thinks cbe two confiderations above-hientioned 
perfeSly fatisfying ; but he produces a third, whj<5h, if ju{t, 
is certainly much to his purpofe; v'lx. that it is greatly to 
be queftioned whether the French Abbot is cxaft in his re- 
prefentation of the Egyptian doflrine of a future reJiirreSfion of 
their embalmed bodies, fince it is certain, we arc told, that in 
fome other points he is not the moft iccurtte writer In the 
world. After fome reflexions on the belief of the ancient 
Egyptians, which appear to difcrcdit "the atcount of the French* 
Author, we are brought to the confideration of the claufe re- 
ferred to in the title-page of this work, which is to be found* 
Ai^sxi. 13, 14. containing the diredlon given by an anget 
to Cornelius^ a Roman centurion, to fend for the apoftle Peier^ 
^ who, it is added, iball tell thee words, wkerei^ thou arnl 
all thy houfe fhall be saveit.'* It ftould feem, it is here faid, 
from this pafTage, that notwithftanding the iinafable charadier 
of Cormiiu$i the knowledge of the Gofpel was neccflary to his 
SALVATION. * I have no where, the Writer proceeds, feen a 
clear explanation given of thefe words, — which fcem to be dam^ 
KQtory oi the nipft virtuous Heathens who live and die ignorant 
of the Gofpel — This fatisfa^ion however, if I miftake noti 
may be derived from the recgived Jezvijh do^riney of the refur- 
rc^iion's not being univerfal^' and the confiderihg the hfftoryof 
the converfion oi Com^iius in this light may deliver the niinds of 
men from fuch mifapprehet^fions as might fit^ertbrow the faith of 
ibme, and di/irefs many mbre. For when St, Peter telletb thtf 
believing Jews at Jerufalem, that the angel who appeared to 
Cornelms comforted him with an affurance that PiUr (hould tell 
him words whereby he and all his houfe (hould be faved, we are 
not necejfarily obliged to fuppofe that Peter, or thofe to whom 
be apologized for his condu^, underftood any thing more by 
that term than an ttncircumcifed Romanes partaking, along with 
his friends,- of the peculiar prerogatives Of the Ifraelites, and 
in particular of the bleflednefs of the refurrcftion, which it had 
been before tifual to fuppofe never were granted to any of ano* 
thcr nation, without their Coming to the obftrvation of afl %bt 
law of Mofes ; nor indeed is it pnibable that any thing farther waa 
intended by that word.' 

Thefe obfervations are followed by feveral others to fupport 
this fenfe of the word, in the paffage in queftton, and a few be- 
fide ; though there are others in which it is allowed to have 'i, 
yet more extenfive and important meaning. 

The pamphlet is concluded with a juft and curious obferva- 
tion, which (hews the Writer's attention to thefe fubje^s, and 

is 

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Account ofibi Jewifl) Do^rim oftbt Rtfarr^Sticn^ 3 t i 

is worthy of being confidercd by others : * arid that is, the dif- 
ference which appears between the Sadducees and the difct* 
pies of Jcfus, in the way in which each refpei^ively departed 
from the fcheme received by the hdy of the Jcvviih natioq. with 
regard to there points. — The Sadducees wholly denied the re- 
furredion; the difcipjes of Jefus. owned the dodrine, birt de« 
nicd its being a prerogative of the Jewifli people. The Smdrfu- 
cees did not even allow of any Ji ate of confcioufnefs after death, 
or at leaft of any apparitions of angels and fpirits ; the religion 
of Jefus admitted the iirft, and did not contradi<^ the notion of 
the appearance of fpirits, bnt difcountenanced the bringing them 
into influence the minds of 1^^^ in l-eligious matters.' 

This Writer fuppof^s that as the badducees, according to 
Jofephusy were perfons of the, greatefl rank and wealth among 
the Jews, they were alfo perfons of % refined education, of lai^e 
acquaintance with <tbe world, who converfed freely with the 
learned of the Gentiles, as well as perufed their philofophie 
^itines* a»d that they might very poffibly be engaged, in part 
^t leaft, in this train of thinking, by an inclination to recom- 
mend thcmfelvcs at much as they could to the Gentiles. — ^ The 
tfoftrineof the joys and forrows^ fays he, of departed /ptrit$ in 
the unieen world* though believed by the common people among 
th^ Romans and Greeks^ as well as among the Jews, was, as it 
is well known, extremely ridiculed among the Gentiles of 
figure «nd philofophie education, and as. to a njurre^ion from 
ibi gravi it was wliat the Gentile philosophers made the moft 
cxceptibn againft of any thing, and derided as one of the vaineft 
Aopes mortals could entertain/ As it appears that Jews of rank 
•did in other inftances employ methods to recommend themfelves 
to the Gentiles, he. fuppofes the)rn>ight alfo in this : ' Jefus 
and his apoftles, on the other hand, it is added, by teaching 
With fomuch fteadinefs and clearness the rcfurret^ion, and thf 
concioufnefs of feparate fpirits, demonftrate that a catching at 
the applaufe of the learned GentileSy or a philofophie kidlfp^-^ 
fition to admj^ pf any difEculties^ did not infl:ueiKe them ia 
their teachings* Were they then of a more vulgar turn,, and 
imprefTcd by popul^ prejudices \ I^pi in the leaft. They rofe 
equally above the prejudice of the>R^«^</ and of the W^^^r* They 
Emitted the do^lrine of the refurrei^ion, they made it a main 
article of t)ie religion they taught; but m diredk oppofition to 
'the genius of the comrnpn people of that country, they affirmed 
it wsw .?w prtrogpfiv^ of the Jewifli people. — They departed then 
f rom tlie ^Mi^^r ^/W^/ii of the Jews, and were greatly fuperior 
to natwnal prejudues ?nd popular fupifftiii^s. They were equally 
above the exc^es of r^nement ani compkifanttif and the mtraSl^ 
ahilify of the aad^nt philofophie tem|}er, and therefore could 
•not but be diftiii^Milhed.&om the .Saddu(^s» though tbey de^ 

^ parted 

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31 2 Stacfehou fc'i Piew of ancient Hijhry^ Ut* 

parted too from the common doftrine of the Jevrilh peojfl^; 
What muft wc thhik of mean'ztid unlettered men that rofe abovd 
the wcaknefles of the polite and illiterate hoth ; above the mean^ 
nefs of national attachments^ and the imperfe^ions of a contrary 
kind^ If it is not an abfolute proof, it muft at leaft be admit-* 
ted to be a prejudice in their favour, and difpofe us ' to believe 
JUJh and blood did not reveal thefe things to them^ but the Father^ the 
father of all, the Giver of Lii^E 5 and if it fhould be fo, they 
muft^ have been blejfed in receiving thefe inftriiftions, and thep 
alfo muft be hlejjid chat receive thefe revelations from th^^ with 
due fubmiffion/ 

We may juft obfer*vc, on the whole, that the Writer of t\M 
pamphlet manifefts great iligenuity ahd candour of mind, with 
a confiderable (hare of learning ; and that he appears equally 
folicitous to giv^ the juft- ^plication of Sciripturc, and to dit* 
cover THE trCth : the <n6ft.ftnportaht of all difcovcries ! 

■ . ■ ■ .i I , .fV 1 ^ •■ 1 ■' • • , .ill 

Art. XIII. A general Vieiv of 'ancient Hijlory^ Chronology^ and 

^ Geography : Containing^ I. ^Ttfio hiJioricalanddironohgicalCburtr^ 

'. Hf herein the four great Mbnaftii'esj with the^hief Heads of tbi 

Grecian and Roman Hifloriesare reprefented in ofteView. IL A 

geographical Defcriptian of Egypt ^ Afwy Greeie^ Italy ^ and Gout 

- {L » A'^Caefiperuiium ofamierH Hijlory^ eorrefponding to the Chart s^ 

• emd inctuding- the principal Occurrences from thr EftabUflment^ 

' the JJJyrtan Monarchy to the End' of the Roman State. Tm 

Whole being deftgned to cpWDey to ibe Mind a clear Idea of tho 

Order and Sttcceffion ofEveniSy and to lay a proper Foundation fft 

reading ancient Hijiory with Pieajure and Improvement y ana is 

particularly calculated for 'the InftruSfton of Youth. By Thomas 

Staelchoiife, A.M. 4ta. 4s. 6d. Boards* • K« Davis^ 

Dodfleyy &c. 1770. 

SOME acquaintance with geography and chronology are 
very recfuifite to the reading of hiftory with ftitisfadion and 
advantage. In rejgard to the former, fome care is ufually taken 
about it in the education of youth $ though even a3 to this 
branch of learning, ancient geography is often too much negleded ^ 
but in relation to the latter, it is hardly attended to, or very 
ilightlv in comparifon with its importance: for the knowledge 
of hiftory which any perfon attains will be very confufed if he 
it utterly ignorant of Chrortology ; it will be lefs pleafant and 
edifying, and he will find it difficult, if not impradicable, \tk 
an agreeable manner, to communicate what be has gained fbr 
the inftrudion or entertainment of others. It muft be. owned 
that it is rather a dry and difficult part of fcience, though much 
more fo to fome perfdns than to others ; but thofe views of it 
which are fufficient for the general purpofes of reading and con* 
verfation) may be attained by a moderate flxarc of application : 

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Sucklioufc*i Fsnv rf amini Uifiwj^ tic. 31 j 

ind as to its more intricate and difputable parts, it is notal*^ 
ways necefiary to enter deeply into them. 
, The publication before u^ is intended to afford affiftance, 
particularly to youth,. in tbefe branches of ftudy: ^ It is true^ 
Hire are told in the preface, many helps have already been af- 
forded for this purpofe % but yet there is ftill tog much reafon 
to acknowledge, that young perfons are frequently bewildered 
at their firft fetting out, for want of being affifted in the proper 
arrangement of events ; and guided, as by a clue, through the 
feveral maz^s and intricacies which perplex and ftop them ia 
their way. Hence they often take a diilike to hiftory in general,, 
and retain only fome unconne£led fragments of it, inftead of ac* 
cun^ulating a flock of uGcful knowledge/ It was to obviate fuch 
inconveniencies that ]^.' Stackhoufe drew up the prefent plan 
of ancient iiiftory, for the improvement of fome young perfons 
of diflini^ion whom he attended and inflrufled, and which he 
now puUiflies for more general ufe. It is his aim to fketch^ 
as it were, the outlines ofhiflpry, and prefent them in a chro*<> 
nological fucceffion to the learner's view, on fuch a compre- 
henfive plan as may enable him, by feeing the order aqd con* 
nedlion of all the parts, to attain a clear and diftinA idea of the 
whole, and fa be properly prepared to read ancient hiftory with 
pleafure and advantage. ^ Having made trial of this method^ 
it is faid, with his own pupils, he has found the e6e£t anfwer* 
able to bis expectation and wi&es/ 

' In his chronology he follows the Rev. Mr. Kennedy •, who 
fixes the birth of Chrift to the year of the world 4C08, which 
is generally limited to the year 4004 ; his reafon for this, he 
tells us, is becaufe Kennedy appears to him to have proved his 
aflertions. He adds an account of the method he obferved.ia 
the ufe of this book, and alfo of fome Authors whom he would 
recommend to a' careful perufal, when the learner is acquainted 
with the geography of the countries, and has repeatedly gone 
through the hiftory, as here direfted, till he is pcrfedl in it. 
The preface is concluded with an extra£l from Rollin, for re« 
gulating the judgment of beginners in reading hiftory ; thefe 
remarks are indeed very valuable, and worthy of the higheft: 
regard. 

In the work ItfelP we are firft prefented with a fynopfis of 
the four ^reat monarchies, the AiTyrian, Perfian, Grecian, and 
Roman, m which is alfo given an account of the Kings of If- 
racl and Judah. This is followed by a particular fynopfis of 
the Grecian and Roman ftates. A few further pages are em** 
jfloyed upon ancient geography. We then come to his 

^ * Complete Sydem of Aflronox&ical Chroncdogy, 1762. See Re« 
view, vol. xxviii. p. 429, 

* Rbv. Ofitt 1770. Y tont* 

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^l^* Littrary drtidi Jrm Dmmarh^ 

compaidiuiii of ancient hiftory; in which the computation of 
time is formed by the years cf the world btfore^ and the yeaiv 
aftir the birth of Chriit* It begins with the Ailyrian empire^ 
founded, as- is fuppofed, bv Nimrod ; : viz» 

* fief. Ch, 2234. Wild beafb are faid to have i^cafioned 
the invendoaof arms, which men afierwards turned againft on^ 
another to gradfy their ambition and chirft of dominion* The' 
firft <tf tfaeie conquerors recorded in hifiofy was Nimrod, the- 
great grandfon of iMoah ; who fet upr the thront of his kingdom 
at Baby ton, in the b^coit place where the Tower of Babel had 
been begun.* 

The compendium iiniihes with the Roman monarchy, carry* 
ing us down to the year ^ Af. Ch. 1447, ^hen Conftantine Pa- 
]eofogus came to the throne, under whomyConftantinopIe being 
befieged and taken by theTurks,^ the£aftern empire was ut** 
terly deftroyed, anno 1452/ 

The geografhical defcriptiohs, and alfo the accounts of an*«* 
cient hiAory in.chis work, are attended with lines, in thefhort 
method of Dr. Grffs MmoriaTecbnied^ for the affiftance of the- 
memory* 

We ihall only (ay farther that die Author ieems to have exe-^- 
cuted his plan with care ; and, as the defign is undoubtedly a^ 
good one, we believe his performance- will be found very 
ufeful for the inftru&ion of youth, or the affiftance ol any per- 
fons who wiih to make fome attainments in this kind of know- 
ledge. 

'■ ^^. A a T. XIV. " ^ 

Literary Article from Denmark. 
Copenhagen the 'jth of Aaguft^ I770» ^^ Society of Sciencef 
ixamined the DiJJ'ertaUons which appeared in Competition fhr the' 
Prizes propofed in an Ajfemhly of the '^th of May^ 1769, upon 
BubjeSfs of Natural Phitofophy^ Mathematiay Mecbamcsy an£ 
Hipry. - ' ' . / 

IT was founds that notwithftanding the accuracy and. tng6«>« 
noity witl^ which the diflertation pn the fubje<ft ia qxechar^ 
flics, viz, ^^ the beft conJiruBion of fire^engineiy* was treated^ thei 
Author had not^ however, fuldJiol all that the matter in qnef- 
4ion required* 

/ The (bltition of the hiilorlcal queftioo, viz. <^ the influenoc 
of the Crufades in £arope, efpecially the northern ptrts of it/^^ 
Ifjfas equally unfaU3fa^ry. 

The qitfilion in maihematics, ^^ Whether the n^ean motiona 
of the planets areconftant ?'' was fo amply and folidly difeuiled|^. 
by the Pxoftffor Friftm-^ Milw> ibat die priscf \fn readily ad^ 
judged to iiim« ' 

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tit0'^ JrtUk from Btnmarh Jt| 

So timt Do prize having bee^ diftributed for the mechanical 
and hifflorical problems, it was concluded in another kflcmbly^ 
of the nth of September^ that the following quefiions ihould 
t>e propofed : 

In Mechanics and Natural PiiiiosophV* 

Quest. L The beft conftrudlon of a fire-engine, fo that the 
cylinder, communicating tubes, valves, compreflbrs of air, if any^ 
orifices,^ leather pipes, fcrews to fit them, the whole apparatus in 
tkattj may not only have its due power but the j ufteft propon iona 
ta the hydraulic laws^ fo as likewife that the levers, with their 
fulcrums or props, may be fo adapted to the indraught and djf» 
charge of the waters, that the whole machine may be as fimpla 
as poffible, and need the leaft repairs ; be conveniently move* 
able, and eafily introducible into the narroweft lanes and paf« 
&ges ; and, upon the whole, the beft that can be imagined to 
be employed with fuccefs in cxtinguiihing fires. 

Quest. II. Whether it is only by it^ere accident of fituation^ 
that is to fay, from thq elevation or depreffion of the lands thro^ 
which rivers flow, that the ftreams take their diredion, or whether 
any general caufe may be aifigned for their courfe rather tending 
to fome cardinal point of the world than to others ? 

Historical. 

Quest. L To fliew clearly and fuccinSly, from the njonu« 
roents of the .middle age, and from fa<St§ themfelves, what 
change in commerce, in military fciences, arts, inftitutes, man^ 
ners of £urope, and efpecially in the northern parts of it, waf 
introduced by the Crufades undertaken for the recovery of th^ 
Holy Land ? 

(^est. II. At what time, upon what occafion, an^ by what 
means the cuftom of flavery was firft diminiflied, and, at lengthy 
abQliihed in Europe, and efpecially in D*nmark and Norway f 

Mathematical. 
To determine the nature of the folar fpots, and particularly 
from the moft accurate and mod modern obfervations, to evince 
whether they are permanent, or whether they are generated on 
the furfacf of the fun^ and confumed in it f 

The learned, whether foreigners or Dane!^ (excepting fuch 
•0 are members of the Society) are defired to write m the Da- 
iii(b, Latin^ French, or German languages : no diflertation irt 
any other language being admiffible. 

The prize for rcfpeflively the bieft and i^ioft fatisfafltory differ- 
tation, is z, gold medal, of the value 0\ one hundred Danifh 
crowns (about fifteen pounds fterling). 

The differtations, written in a legible hand, are to be di« 
rcfled, poft-paid, to M*. Hielmftiern^^ Counfcllor of the Ccn* 

Ya fei;enc^ 

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3^8 'MoKTttLY CATALOCUtj 

fercnecs to the King, and Secretary to the Society. Thefime 
within which the treatifes muft be fent to the Society, is fixed 
for the laft of Qdobcr 1771, after which no piece will be ac- 
cepted. 

The adjudication of the prFzc* will be made towards the latter 
«iS of the month of January, in confequence of which the So- 
ciety wiU take care ro impart their refolutions. 

The Authors are alfo defined, in Ucu of thcirnamc^ to put a 
motto or feptence to their difiertations, and annex, at the fome 
time, a note fealed up, containing the fame motto or fentence, 
with their name and addrefs. 

Such as defire to have their treatifes of this year returned 
them, are to apply for that purpoC; to M. Hielmfti^rnc before 
the end of the year. . ^ 

M O N J H L Y C A T A L O G U E, 

For OCTOBER, 1770. 

Religious and Controversial. 
Art. 15. Dijaurfis on various Suhje^s and Occajions^ By Benja- 
min WiUiams. 8vd. j 5. Saliibory printed. Sold by Becket, 
&:c. in London. 1770. 

THESE are feitiible praflical Difcourfes, written with judgment* 
accuracy, and fpiric. They are certainly fitted to inftrud and 
to enlighten the under^anding, though, perhaps, they have not a fof- 
ficient degree of that pathos which appears reauiute to affcd the 
heart, and leave thofe imprefHons opon the mind which have a pro- 
bable tendency to amend and improve our converfation and beha* 
yiour. The Author difcovers himfelf to be a. true friend to religion 
and liberty, >^ile he places our faith, as Chriflians and Prote(lants» 
en its fole foundation, the Scriptures, and, with the great Chilling-^ 
worth, difcards whatever, on any fide of the queltion, is not firmly 
fixed upon this bafis. But, fays he, ' amidft fo many and variotti 
interpretations, ivifat is truth ? Or which is the true fcnfe of- Scrip* 
ture ? No man upon earth, I apprehend, can infallibly determine. 
However, this ought to give no degree of pain to an hotieft enquirer 
after Chriftian knowledge : for though it is morally impoilible that 
^ny man (hould know with indubitable certainty in all cafts that this 
or the other explication of the facred writings is the true one, vet 
integrity^ or an honeft weli-difpofed mind is a fure infaUihli guide 
to all ff^r/^erry truth ; or abundantly fufiicient to make any man vyife^ 
through the faith of Chrifl, fo far«8 is requisite to his falvation.* 

This topic he farther illullrates and confirms in oneof iiis difcoaries; 
juiliy inferring that this lays a foundation for the exercife of mode- 
ration, candour, and love among ChrifUans; and forely it ought to 
teach every perfbn, however clear he thinks his own convldion on 
anv particular fubjeA, not to be peremptory and pofitive on points 
\^\\z\i will admit of debate, but ^to fpeak or write upon them with 
iBodefty and charity, 

5 We 

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Religious and CoKxaovBiLsiAL. fij 

Wc obfcrvc that there are three difcourfes in this work on a text 
t>f Scripture which is here rendered fomewhat diiFerently from the 
common verfion, i Peter ii. 7. UntQyou therefore who hJitvSy he is 
am HONOUR ; bat though the original word may allow this alteration, 
the Author does not criticize opon it, or AifBciently give his reafons 
why he ihould herein differ from the tranflation in general ufe among 
OS. Other fabjcdts here confidered are, ^ith, true Chriftianity, 
Chriftian felf- denial, the fervent deiirc of virtae an inBUlible means 
of happiness, the apoftolic rule of preaching, &c. toother with iieveral 
difcoarfes on particular occaiions : the lad of which, being a farewell 
fermon, may poffibly bethought to have rather too much of decla- 
mation and harangue. 

Art. 1 6. An Abridgement of the facred Wtftory : being an eafy In-- 
tri^Qiott t0 the reading of the Holy Bible. 1 2 mo. 1 s. bound. 
Main, &c. 1770. 

Thi* is a well-meant performance, addreiTed to * the governors and 
truftees of charitable communities, particularly fuch as have the care 
of children:* The Author expreflcs his joy not only, in the infti- 
tuttons for aflfbrding temporal relief for the poor, butthat they are in 
fome good degree calculated to cultivate the knowledge of plain 
virtue, to cheriih the fpirit of truth and indaflry, and provide for 
the inJlru£lion and eternal benefit'of our fellow-creatures. ' Short- 
lighted politicians, he fays, may advance what doctrines they pleaie ; 
bat the principle which at any time retrains os, from giving inflruc- 
tions of piety to the poor, it not lefs impglitic in. a .<woridly fenfe, 
than it is irreligious in the fight of heaven. Ignorance, efpecialiyin 
a land of freedom, creates a ferocity of manners, and an impatience 
of control, than which nothing can be more injurious to govern* 
ment: but pure rebgion has a aaturai tendency to civilize the mind| 
—and promote the general intereft of (bciety.* This little book feems 
very well fitted to the intention of conveying in an eafy manner 
a knowledge of the icriptures to voung or uncultivated minds. 
Art. 17. The Toung Dijfenting Mtni/ier^s Companion and DireQory \ 
or a Variety of Forms and Dtre^ions for adminiftring the Ordi- 
nances of Baptifm and the Lord's Supper. With proper Offices for 
Barial of the Dead ; and Prayers foited to Funeral Occafions. To 
which is added an Appendix; in which a few Dire^ons are given, 
and friendly Advice offered, to young Perfons, upon their Entrance 
into the Miniftry ; with a 6cw Prayers for particular Seafons. By 
Kobert Robinfon. 8vo. 38. Bacicland. 1770. 
* We are told by this Author that he had himfelf received eonfider* 
able advantage at hb entrance into the miniflry, from (a book now 
almoft forgotten) the Diredory for the public worfhip of God agreed 
upon by & afTembly of Divines at Weftminftert 4^«» ^645 ; and has 
often thoueht that Something of the fame kind, futted to the preient 
fbite and time; might be acceptable and nieful to his younger bre* 
threo. He 'acknowledges himfelf indebted, for feveral.paiTages and 
paragraphs^ to different writers of eflabliihed reputation : ne ex* 
prefles his hope that the difficulties attending a performance of thia 
nature, will befpeak the candour of the judicious ; and adds, that he 
had no apology to make for attempting it, but only that it has not 
beeo attempted by fome abler haad. 

Hi Th^ 

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p8 MonTHLY CXTAtOOim, 

The ddTgn of thU publication it a g6od one, and the Writo /pCftks 
modeflly of its cxecation : we wiih we could fay that it came nearer 
to that idea we have formed of a work of this nature : it is deledive 
we think in fpirit and fervour, and fome parts <^ it are unequal to 
others ; a minifter of fenfe and knowledge* and tinder the inflaedce 
of religion, may, we apprehend, generally produce compofitions for 
thefe occafions more animated and more likely to be ufefnl to his 
hearers. The Writer does not appear to be any party-man ; and not- 
withftapding the foregoing remark,' we believe that a youne mimfter 
may receive fbme diredion and advantage from confulting uds work, 
and be benefited by attending to the advice given at the dofe of the 
volume. We may juft obferve that a book fomething of the ikma 
nature and tendency, though withodt any particular forms for thtfe 
parts of the minifterial office, was publifhea fome years-ago * by the 
judicious Mr. John Mafon. 
Art. 1 8* MfMaticns upon the jfitributis of God and the Naiuft of 

Man. 8vo« is. I^aw, &c. 1 770. 

The motto whi^ the Writer prefixes to his p^phlet \i a quoutioii 
from that valuable work, Dr. Butler's Analo^y^ viz. ^ the opinion of 
t^ecefTity feeins to b^ the very bafis, upon which Infidelity grounds it« 
ielf ;' from whence we had at firft tonduded that it was the defign of 
this little publication to oppofe the do^rine of Neceffity, but the 
words which immediately follow the above quotation convinced us of 
the contrary : * an attempt, therefore, fays this Author, to remove 
infidelity from that bafis, ^d to ground religion upon it, may not be 
irfelefs.'. 

Qertably the idea of religion is not utterly incompatible with the 
Icheme of neceffity or predeftination ; there may be nambersof beings 
(and happy are they !) who live and tSt upon the ruie<.of reditude 
9nd goodnefs from an invincible obligation of their-natares. But for 
thofe who are not religious, or very imper&Aly (oi thcfc prindplet 
are not very animating : nay, it is probable that not a few oerfbns, oa 
this perfuafion, may give thenifelves no concern updn 'die fubjed, 
i>^t wait for a time when the deiired work may be accompllihed for 
them, without their folicitude or exertion. We cannot therefore fee 
v/bat real benefit is likely to arife from theie publications ;. but if the 
plan be founded in truth, this performance was unavoidably necef- 
fitated, as are alfo our refle^ons, and neither the Author or ourfelVes 
have any liberty to write one tittle more or lefs than we have written* 
|n (hort, all^creatqres are mere machines, wbofe anions and thoughts, 
faults or virtues, with the coni<iquences arifing from them> are the 
ible effe^s of an o^eruling, all-commanding, delHny. 

It is true that this Writer, and others who embrace the fame 
Icheme, would with great juftice reject the wordsySi/r, and V<^/ffy, in 
their common acceptation, becaufe they believe, what alone. epoi> 
every fuppofition can give fatisfiidioa to .the mind of man* that a 
Being of infipite wifdom and goo^ln^fs has formed, and prefides.oVeri 
the whole : this is the bafis of the fabric, and is indeed a very pleafing 
reileflion ; but how will they reconcile it with the thought that fnch 
numbers of beings ihould fn0er, and iaikt fo greatly! fbr a^iona 
' ' i ' ■ ' ■ . ■■ _ ■■■» I li 11 ■> 

.^ f Sec Review, vol. 3pii. p. 189, 

"> vLich 

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RELXQiotja snd GoN?ritorsRsiAL. ^9 

vriddi tbejrccmld not pdffbly avoid, and for whkh therefore tiiey are 
in no Yenie theiubje^ of blame? For we are here told, ^ that the 
order or courfe of things, conitibng of a chain of caufes and effi?ds> 
is nnak»able,.and that every a^ion of evecy being* and every change 
in natnre^ is ahfolutely fixt and determined with refpedt to time, place, 
ihanner, and every other conceivable circiunftance;'-^that, the pro- 
portions which are held to 4eaionilrate the exigence of 6od» as 
clearly and fully demonflrate that he is the real caufe of every, a^ of 
the wtll;-^«nd that, if evil is not the produdion of God, it -will then 
follow there is fomething produced in the world, which is .not tht 
rSbOi of God's power ; but if his power does not extend. to all things, 
it is not infinite : and then there will be alfo ef%£ls without a ca^ife, 
•r fomething produced by nothing.* 

There is an obutous anfwer upon the i>ppofite fcheme to -this 
method of reafoning, but our Author's conclufion is, ' thut there ta 
no real abiblute vice, evil^ or imperfe&ion in the imiverfe. MA 
God, who furveys, and who alone can poffibly furvey the whole of 
beinj^, and the whole of every particular being, not facceilively or 
jpartially, bat at once fees that every thing which he has made, ia 
very good* ^xiA he perfeflly approves of all his works.* He appre-* 
hctids that mifery will be at lail annihilated, and pofitive happinjsfy 
iUcceed; * wiuch, lays he, may go on increafing without end: or if 
it is limited, until their created nature has attained the greateiljper* 
iedion and happinefs it is capable of.' This iinal happinefs of , all 
mankind, he fuppoies^ may be inferred not only from the perfe^ 
nature of God, but alfo from the promifes to be found in revelation, 
'At the (bne time he adds ' thefe conclufions, lam fenfibie» difagree 
with fome do^lrines, which are fuppofed to be contained in the 
icriptures ; if they really are contrary to any dodrine therein con- 
tained, I am coavinced they are falfe.' 

It is very evident that it was ncviir intended, that man fhould account 
for the Great Creator*s works or methods of goyernmenc. Nothing 
more clearly (hews this, than the infufficicncy of all that has been faid 
and written upon the fubjctSIs of prefcicnce, human liberty, and other 
points of the like kind, which remain after all as obfcure and diihcult 
as c^er. . Our Author appears to beone of thofc worthy and philofo- 
phical perfons who perplex themielves upon metaphyfical and intricate 
enquiries, and would gladly reconcile all objedlions and difhculcies to 
the fyftem which they have formed : for it is plain, though it is the 
prevailing pradice, at prefeut, to decry what is called Jjaftematictd 
dtwnitj, that every contemplath^e mind does form fome fyftem to it- 
felf, and is for making truth and fad bend and conform to it : but, 
neverthelefs, our fyllems do not fucceed : tl^re are fo many defedive 
links in the chain, fo many dreadful ch^fnis in the ichemes we form, 
that YJtTj little. fatiafedion arifes, any farther tl«in perfons are pleafed 
with their own reafonings and imaginations : the government of the 
Vorld is *under an ininitely bettor direction, and it has not been 
neceflary.toacqnaiBt^tt8with all the. particular methodic by which it is 
fondodtfd. There .are fome general, important truths which are 
eafily known, in which che':mind can rell, and which if men ad 
npon^indue atteniii^ to their proper place -and fphere, they need not 
doubt- but they iloU £ud mercy and acceptance with the Supreme 

Y 4 and 

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3W Monthly CATAtoourt 

snd Gracious GoTernor. We (hall only fay fkrtlier conoerdtn^ tittf- 
pamphlet, thac we (hould not have thoaghc from its title, tluht iu 
fubjefl was altogether that which we find it to be. 
Art. 19. Fifteen Letters concerning ConfeJ/ions cf Faitb^ and Sub* 
. fcriptiwu ttt AnicUs of Religion in Proteftant Churches ; occafioned bjr 

perafal of the Confeffional, The Secood Edition. To which at 
' added a Poftfcrift to the Author of an Anpwtr to the faid Letters* 

8ro. 2 9. d^. White. 1770. 
' We have already fpoken of thcfc letttn : fee Review for September 
1 ~6S, p« 23^. alfo of the an/kvers to them ; for which fee the November 
following, p. 412. Likewife January 1769, p. 71 ; and September 
laft, p. 226. — In the poilfcript to this fecond Edition of the letters, 
the Author fUll maintains his ground againfl the Anfwerer ; and we 
do not wonder at it : the woncier would be, to find a controverfialiil 
convinced. 

Art. 20. J Second Letter to the Reverend Dr. Prieflky. Gratis; 

Bladon. 

The public attention has been no donbt a good deal engaged by 
this combat between Dr. Prieftlyrand his new antagonift. Wc gave 
an account of the firft letter, and of the reply to it which fo quickly 
fWlowcd in our laft Review. Here we have an anfwer to Dr. 
Prieftley's reply, contained in four odtavo pages : an omen we truft that 
the controverfy between thefe gentlemen will foon dwindle into 
nothing ; for we do not imagine that it has, or will anfwer any very 
valuable end. This letter, figned a Dijfenttr^ expreiies an high 
approbation of the refolution Pr. Prielllv had declared, * of (haking 
his hands of all controverfy as foon as ne can conveniently;' which 
the Writer hopes to fbrwanl by doing what is in his power to bring 
the debate between them to an immediate iifue. The ftrokes of 
humour he pafTes by, and alfo the perfonal refleStions^ * which, fays he^ 
you have thrown Out I fuppofe, to prevent me from charging you with 
flattery^ and to convince the world, that you are a plain JpcAen mam.* 
The charge of inconfiftency, he is perfuaded, the reader, by taming 
to the refpe^ive pafTages, will be convinced, is without foundation ^ 
as they will alfo, it is faid, judge how careful Dr. Prieftly is to make 
fair quotations, by turning to the paiTage on diveriions, p^ 44, 49, 
Remarks. 

As is frequent in matters of controverfy, the fubjedl appears to be 
in a great meafure transferred from the particular point la difpute, 
to complaints of an improper and unfair manner of arguing. The 
Author however candidly acknowledges that his definition of idolatry 
was inaccurate, and at the fame time adds, ^ but I am not yet able to 
reconcile myfelf to the idea of charging a whole body of reformed 
Chriilians with this crime; nor can I fee with what propriety thofe, 
who, in all their public devotions, declare that they believe in ono 
God the Father Almighty, can be termed idolaters.' He concludes 
with faying, * after 2l that hath pafied between us, I am (HU of 
opinion, that difcretion is a nfeful quality, and that moderaiion and 
charity are amiable virtues ; and that I may not be in danger of bein^ 
iepa rated from fuch good company, I Ihall ^m this time drop my 
.|>ublic correfponden^c with ^ro^; lifter havin|( taken the liberty to 

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Law. jtr 

irmnAyovL 6f a ttiaxiniy by whu^h I am defirods afways to reflate 
my Own condo^, Nb quid nimis.* > 

Law. 
Art. 21. 71&/ wi&<7fr Proceedings at larger in, a Caufe on an ASfion 
Brought by the Right Hon, Richard Lord Gro/venor againft his Royal 
Highne/s Frederic Henry Duke of Cumberland^ for criminal Cowverfa^ 
tion nviih Lady Grofn^enor, Tried before the Right Hon. William 
Lord Mansfield, in the Court of King's Bench, on the 5 th of Joly, 
1770. Containing the Evidence, verbatimy as delivered by the 
Witnefles ; with all the fpecches and arguments of the Counfel 
and of the Court. Faithfully taken in Shoi^ Hand by a BarriHer* 
Folio. ' 3 s. Wheble. 

Although this appears to be a genuine publication, according to 
its title-page, yet it is not properly authenticated by the counfel by 
whom the fpeeches and arguments were delivered, or by the court. 
And had thefe fpeeches, &c. curious and valuable as they are, beea 
rcvifed by the learned and eloquent ipeakers, they, probably, would 
■have been more correft. The inaccuracies which we have noticed, 
are not, indeed, many or important ; but w^e cannot attribute to Lord 
.Mansfield, Mr. Wcdderburn, or Mr. Dunning, fuch vulgarifms as-*— 

* She had laid in this bed:' DunniIag. What had (be laid? 
We fay the hen has laid an tgg in her neft : but what had Lady 
Grofvenor laid in the bed ? 

♦ The room where he was to lay:' Wedderburn. Inflead of 
the room where he was to lie. The fame fault occurs in Lord Manf. 
field's fpecch — * the fdom where fhc was to lay ;' Again, * There 
was no appearance of laying [lying] on it.' And, again, * ,Thtf 
fame objedion lays to he>.' Hisf Loi'dfhip too, is frequently made to 
mter that vile contra^oa * don't,' for do not: which would be ta- 
ther expeded from the mouth of a hair dreiier, or a milliner's appren- 
tice. 

Mr. Wedderbum u/es /«^/^/i/iV«a^ for inadvertently ; a novelty 
which it will require fome time for an Englifh ear to be accuiiomed 
to before it wiU be thoroughly reconciled to either its fooud or 
ftru^hirr. 

• There arc fcarce any two people whofe conduft of life hits b^en 
fo prudent as not to £nd themfelves in the predicament the defendant 

fttmds'^ \ to be called upon, &c.' Dunning. Thelamenefs in the 
firft member of this fentence might have been thought owing to fome 
miilake of the fhort-hand writer ; or to have been an eri^or of the 
pfcfs ; but we find other defefts of the fame fort. Thus Giddings's 
ilory is * perfedly credible, and happening juil in the way and courfe 
fuch things mnft be naturally cxpeded f .' Other parages pf this 
kind might be cited—— 

• This I could have told you was not evidence, which in my opi- 
nion was tangeaUe to it :' if the jury underftood wh^t Mr. Dunning 

" ■ ' " ' — " — ~~ — ' " — ■ I * 

; f We apprehend in <wbich ihouid have been inferted, after predi- 
inent. 

f To make it good EngliOi, this pafiage flioald be—* happening 
jttft in the way and courfe in which fuch things mufi naturally be exr 
fcAed to baffen^ or occur. 

meant 

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3ti MoNTHLir Gataloous, 

piduit by tiiis hard w0rd, in hh addreft to ihemf they ^were eefw 
tainly a very Itamed jury ; which is not a very oommoii cafe* 

We only mention thefe Iktle /lips on account of the influence 

which ^be eloquence of the bar may be Aippofed to ^ have ppon our 

language. The ecntlemen of the long robe will, thercfiire', ever be 

careful how they lufifer any pleadings to pais upon the public, on- 

|der the authority of their names ; and they will, e(pecially, difdaiD 

10. rob the poor people who write parafraphs for the news-papers, of 

their property in lome of the Itarnid phrafes above-mentioned, in 

which, laid, for /tz/o,-— lay, for /;>, &c. &c. perpetually occur* 

fitt. 21, Reports of Cafes argued and adjudged in the K'nigU Courts 

at Wejhninfter. In two Parts. Part I. Contuning Cafes in the 

Courts of Kins;'6 Bench, &c. b^inning in Hilary .Term, in the 

i6th Year of the Reign of George II. and ending in Hilary Term 

in the 26th.«^Part H. Containing Cafes in die-0>u?t of Common 

Pleas, &c. b^inning in Hilary Term, in the 26th Yeai- of the 

Reien of George II. and ending in Tiinity Term, in the 9th Year 

of the Reign of his prefent Majeily. By Geoige Wilian, Seijeant 

at Law. Folio. 11. 16 s. bound. Worral, &c. 1770. 

> In our 33d vol. p. 107. feq* we gave our (pinion, pretty fully, on 

the nature and utility of our Report-Books. The pre;fent publication 

appears to have been well-digeited, the Cafes feem to be very dearlj 

ftated, and the Judgments of the Courts accurately recorded. The 

Author has given Tables of the principal matters^ with the mamH of 

thi Cafesy and fome account of tjie Judges, Serjeants, and nucdt 

eminent Counfel attending the Bar, during the periods jVjcited in the 

title, as above. 

..Husbandry. 
Art. 23. The, Rational Farmer ^ or a Treatife m Jgrioubure amd^ 
Till^ ; wherei n many Errors of Common Management are poiated 
out, a new, more improved, and profitable Syilem fu||eftcd and 
deferibcd ; iiirerfperfed with many occafional and interring Obfer- 
vations. By Matthew Peters, Member of the Dublin Society tot 
• the Encouragement of Huibandry, and other ufefui Arts. Svo. 
2S. 6d. Newport [Ifle of Wight] Printed, and fold byFlcxney 
' in London. 

' The many fenfible ^bfervations contained. in this tra^, are (bIH* 
tient to juftify the titl& aflumed hy the Author ; who appears to -be. 
bimfelf an attentive, refle^ag pra^ifer of the art which he here 
undertakes to teach to others.-*-^ I hope,* fays he, p. 76. • our 
obfervations thas far agree with the chara^er of the Ratitmal Farmer^ 
jproceeding on experience, and confolting htsiatereft; an iatereft 
which, while cpnne^ed with the ibcial virtues, ^e cannot be ■ MO 
afliduous to culcivato.'— While many occupations tendotify tonfekft 
fpleudofor lazy pride, the farmer, in every indance of >)tt9-4iiigtnt 
employment, is a public benefador, andxo9\firms the tmch *^ feff- 
love and focial are the fame." 

The remark that the diligent farmer <^ hufbandmtm,. h a public 
benefadlor, is undoubtedly jud, and will be univerfally. aiTented lo» 
although every man may not happen to think of him fo highly at 
Cowky doesjwho, aa here-quoted by Mr. Peters, obfcrves, that 

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MiSCBlXANBOtlS. ^5 

^^ die Aree firfi aien in tbe^woiU, are a'VardeMer, AHufiaadman^ anj 

Mathematics. 
Art* Z4. An BpU<mi df Natuf^l tmd Expertjrtental Pbihfiphy^ tn^ 

chniii^ GtdgrMpfyy nvitb thiUfoof the GJobts^ faff. lie. By Btxq^ 

nun Donn» Mafter of the Mathematical Academy at Brilbl. i zmo* 
• 2s. gd. fewed. Kcatfley. 

' A very ^m)pcr Mtmorhil-hok^ as Mr. Donn obfervts both in hil 
title and pi^ace, for young peifons of either fex, who attend'pablic 
le^ores ; and whofe * fleeting -ideas foon vuidfi^ idt want of inch a 
bobk» to which they may have recourfe^ in onler to refrefh thdf me- 
mories. This compendium is chiefly defigned for the nfe of dioie 
who attend the philofophical lednres of the Aathor. It is an epi- 
tome of his ledares at large, which he ^pdfes alfo to give to the 
worlds af^r he hadi, as time will permit, rendered them mOre ex- 
tenfive and complete. They will appear in his intended courfe of 
mathematical leamidg, of which two volumes are already pubii&ed: 
See Review, vol. xix. page i. ' 

Miscellaneous. 
Art. 25. Obfervations on federal Pqffages extra^ed from Mr. Ba^ 

rettVs Journey from London to Genoa, lie. By James Fitz-Henry«^ 

8vo. IS. 6 d. Bladon. 

There is a certain fet of induftrioas Literati in this great town, 
Who never lofe ah opportunity of filfing up a convenient namber of 

f»ages. A popular book always fbrnilhes one of thofe opportunities : 
t may be anfivered, it may be criticifed^ or it may admit ofsifefueL 
Mr. Baretti's Journey through Portugal and Spain is a popular bdok ; 
but not being of a fort to be eafily anfwered, or to have a iecond 
part made for ity there was nothing left for the faithful Satellite of 
the prefs to do, but to animad*vert upon if. Accordingly we have 
here a very reafonable eighteen penny-worth of obfervations ; from 
which the fbllowing extracts may ferve as competent fpecime ns : 

Baretti. 
** The cdcbratcd'Rouflfciu never hedrd of fuch a place, I fuppofe 
• -i-(the Eddiftone light- houfe) ^riie would have begged the employ 
of lamp- lighter there ; he who hates fo much all conveife with man- 
kind. It is impoffibljcto imagine a prdperer manfion for a philofb*- 
pher fo tnoch out of hnmoui with the wicked world." 

• ' *OBS^RVAT0ft. 

^ 'Every candid and ' impartial reader Of thefe fdtirical llroket 
againft th€'fbiloJif/rber'GfGene*vam\l, I believe, think that there is 
more petulance than propriety *in them.-»-Ic is by no means clear 
ihzt Rodjktu bates edi con^irfi nvifh mankind^ though he has great 
fti^On to ^ Out of bwnour^'v^ feveral of hiB filb^v-creatures, for 
the trcatm^t which he has deceived from them. The exhibition of 
ym, thewforc, in fo ludicrous and fb falfe a light, by our Lctter- 
i^mitt^ was, if nOfill'iiatared, ill-judged. As a man, RouJJeauxz, 
I apprehend, mot 7^ ani^bie than Mr. Baretti, and as an Author- 
read Emilias.' 

BARETTI. 

. ** Too many ane the things that a man ought to have ftudied, 
#o-be properly ijnalified ftr a writer of ti'avds." 

^ Pasea* 

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3*1 'Monthly t^ATAiocuF^ 

OBSBRVATaft*. 

* When a man (ets oat upon his trAvels with a defign (o give »> 
acc<Hint of the places through vAdek he pailes, and of the various 
pbjeds of all kiftdd which attrad bis attention duriiig his excurfiv^ 
progrefsy he has not, methinks, an ardaous ta(k to perform ; hit 
chief bufinefs is to commit, faithfully, to paper what nas ^uck his 
eyes, and not to miilead the minds of his readers by any unfair re- 
jnarks. — Every man, furely, h qualifatl for the execution of fuch a 
tafk, though he may not be able to make his Uttirs or his narraiiv$ 
entertaining as well as informing. The writer of travels, who is 
difpofed to relate, with fidelity, what he has feen and heard, need 
jkot ftudy much with his pen in his hand. If he has no intention to 
4iee$*vc the purchafers of his oucri, be may write with all the eafe 
imaginable; but he muft izk.t /omi pains, he mufl^iu^, if he de- 
£res to impbfe upon their underftandings by fiditions, that is, fai/$ 
Tcprefcntaiions. — How far Mr. Baretti has been a faithful Narrator 
of his travels, I will not prefume to determine ; but he has declared 
(page 1 8.) that ** Travellers mull exaggtrate if they will prove tnUf 
tainingP 

Baretti. 

** The preachers of England only endeavour to perfuade iinners 
t)Ut of their wickedncfs, but the Spanilh fright them out of it." 

OaSERVATaR. 

"* • Terrifying preachers arc not confined to Spain. Many of ooi 
Methodilt orators have recourfc to the bugbear (lyle, in order to 
carry on their defigns again ft the underflandings of their audience 
with the more fucccfs ; and they are but too fuccefsful.— To driv^ 
men to poyerty and defpair is a ftrange way of making them good 
Chriftians.' 

Baretti. 

** The kingdom of Arragon was re- conquered from the Morifcos 
by its own inhabitants, and cleared of thofe Mahometans before any 
other of the Spanifh provinces : and as no Prince in Chriilendom 
}aicl then any claim to it, or if any did, it was difregarded, the 
Arragonians chofe themfelves a King, as many legends and ro- 
mances inform us, rather than hillory, the events of thofe times being 
very much involved in obfcurity. In (lead, however, of making a 
jioble prefent of their kingdom to the man whom they firft raifed to 
their throne, the Arragonians impofed fuch conditions upon him 
^hat made it- fcarce worth accepting : one- of thofe conditions was, 
that his authority fhould be controuled by a magiHrate called El 
jufticia^ whofe power was, in efiedl, much greater than the royal : 
on the acceffiop of every King to the crown, the jufiicia came to 
fpeak thefe words to his mock Majeily ; — < Nos que valemos tanto 
como vos, OS bazemos nueAro rey y fenor, con tal que gnardeis 
nueflros fueros y libertades : fi no, no :* that is, ' We, who are as 
good as you, chufe you for our King and Lord, on condition that 
you proted our laws and liberties : if not, we chufe you not.*' 
Observator. 

< Whether this anedote relating to the Arragonians is to be relied 
upon or no, it deferves particular attention ; and as Mr. Baretti has 
thought proper to mention thofe Sfmnifi f§v€rs ofUbtrtj in a ladicroiu 

^ manner. 

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MlSCKlliAXtOUti f 2^. 

manner, t ihall, as an Eng liihniftn» freely reprehend him a little for 
the aCcCvery of principles too favourable to arhUraty po'wer. Mr.^ 
fiaretti, I fuppofe, would have had the Arragonians inveiled their* 
Kii)g with ifHtimittd Auibority.*^T\it\t cre<wfi would have been thea a 
Hoili pre/ent indeed ; but they would have (hewed no re|^ard for their 
own welfare by foch a donation : — and, furely, they did not render 
k unworthy of any man*8 acceptance by making the pofleilion of it 
depend upon the nohUne/s of his behaviour :r-oy letting him know 
that he would ceafe to be their KiMg^ when he ceafed to be their 

. There is good fenie in moft of thefe obfervatlonst though fome of 
them are but trivial, and plenteoully tktd out with quotations from 
various Authors, chiefly poets, of our own country. 
Art. 26. A ntw Latin Accidence i or, a complete Introdu(3!on to 

the feveral Parts of Latin Grammar, in Engliih Profe : As nearly 

as poflible upon the Plan of Lilly. i2mo« 1%, I.owndes. 1770. 

The Author * of this compilation tells us, that, amidH the nume- 
rous publications of the iame kind, he has not been happy enough 
to meet with one Englifh fyflem, that feemed tolerably cdculated lor 
common uie, otherwife he would have avoided the trouble and ridi* 
cule of employing his time upon the hackneyed fubjed of grammar* 
He mentions feveral of his fellow-labourers, in this introduSory part 
of learning, who, if they have acknowledged excellencies, have alfo 
f rrors and defefb, which coniiderably detra£k from the ufefulnefs of 
their refpedive performances. It is a diiHcult matter to throw to- 
gether thefirft rudiments of learning, intelligently and fully, for the 
inilru^on of youth,; and be at the fame time conformable to the idea 
tutors have^ upon the fubjeft. We are greatly indebted to thofe who 
eilabiifhed the firft plans upon this part of education, though they 
have been amended and improved by the labours of their fucceffors. 
Our Grammarian fays, that he has certainly no pretendons to fet up 
for a literary jeformcr ; but he hopes, and we believe, that * he has 
the merit of iavoiding grofs faults, of being as concife as is neceiTary,* 
and of deviating as little as poilible from the ellablilhed methods of 
our beft fchools.' 

We cannot entirely agree with the Author, that there was not be- 
fore one Englifh fyftem tolerably fitted for common ufc, becaufe num- 
bers have made a very great proficiency in the knowledge of the Latin 
tongue with thofe helps that have been already afforded : yet aS far 
as we can judge, this Grammar, on fome accounts, af^pears fuperiQr 
tb mof!, as a firft introdudlion to this language, and will, we believe, 
be very well approved by thofe who are defirous to make the trial i 
though his announcing it at once as a complete fyftem, is, perhaps, 
aJTuming too much. 

Art.. 27. Hhe Margate Guide. Containing a particular Account 
of Margate — the Ifle of Thanct, &c. &c. 8vo. i ». Newbery, 
. Ufeful to thofe who go to Margate, and enteruining to thofe who 
f^y at home. 

* We have feen an advertifement of this Accidence^ with the 
Author's name, viz. the Rev. Mr. Owen, Rcdor of Warrington, and 
Mailer of the f^ee-fchooi there. 

Poetical. 

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326 MONTHLT CATALfQUf 9 

PoETlCAtb 

Att. 2%. Thi Lwis rf Mirtil^ Sm »f AMs. APaJhral 9^ 
3 8* fewed* Evans. 1 770. 
In the preface we are told^ that this is a tranflation Horn thtf 
French^ and> for audit we know, it maj be trae. It is charafierifed 
at leaft b^ that fillyt airy, trifling fpirit of romance which diftin* 
guiihes the Bergers and Btrgeres on the banks of the Seine. There 
the vifionary dreams of fabalous antiquity may poflibly pleafe ; but 
we have little reliih for them. Love, with os, is a more ferious and 
fubftantial thing. As to the fubje^ of this work, Mirtil takes his 
crook and his pipe, fets out to debauch the (hepherdefles, and after 
£nging feveral fongs, and enjoying (evefal miftrefTes, receives extreme 
vndtion (lee plate vi.) and dies, it may be hoped, a good Catholic. 
The flyle is of that mongrel kind, half verfe, half profe, which we- 
Lave fo often condemned, and which it is impoffible for a perfon who 
lias any ear to read with patience* 

Art. 29. Poems on feveral Occafions^ written hy Dr. Thomas Pdf'^ 
tuUt late Jlrcbieaeon of Clogher^ and puhlijhei by Mr, Pope^ <with 
the Llfif of Zoilaj, and his Kemarks on Homer* s Battle of the Frogt 
and Mice ; a new Edition. To ivhich Is prefixed^ the Life of Dr. 
Parnell^ written hyDr. Goldfmith. 8vo« 3 s. 6 d. fewed. Davies. 

fortunate both in his Editors and his hme, 
n particular, has confulted in a very proper 
fuch poems as he thought unwortny of 
have poor Shenilone, and many others, oeeii 
re much pleafed, too, to fee that Dr. Gold« 
:n Life of Parnell, has obviated, or at lead 
idalous anecdote, very ill-naturedly recorded 
May every man of Parncirs genius and ami- 
th fuch defenders of his fame! 
7flfttr; or^ Feelings of the Heart • Attempted 
eylar. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Dodfley. 1770. 
ling to apprehend from our (entcnce, for fhc 
has very ingenioufly put it out of our power to review her poems, 
she has adopted, without acknowledgment, fo much of the property 
of others, that it is impoflible for us to fay what is her own. 
Art.,31. Margate in ACmaturei or^ the New Margate Guide. 
8vo. IS. 6 d. Rofon. 
There Have beeq many imitations of the veiy ingeniau&Mr. Anily's 
New Bath Guide ; this is the £IIieil of theqi all. 

Novel. 

Art. 32. Th^ Predi^ion-j or^ the Hijiory of Mfs Lucy MaxweO. 
By a Lady. umo. ^Vols. 7 s* 6 d. iewed*. Chater,^c. 
There is more of No^eithsitL of Nature in this work.— But we^ for- 
bear to criticife the production of a Lady's pen ^ efpeciaily as, what-^ 
ever are its defedls, it is friendly to the caufe of virtue and morality :"* 
which is more than can be faid in &vonr of many of the romances of 
this age an4 country. 

^f The pieces in this edition are the fame ^th thofe in Pope's. . 

SERifONS. 

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C 3*7 ] 

S E R M O N S* 

L Meihodifiied Dtceit.-^Vxwk^di at St. Matthe^v^ Bethoal-Green^ 
April 29, 1770. By Haddon Smithy Curate of the faid Chardu 
€vo. dd.V'Turpin. 

Thit difcmirfe» we ai^ told, was not compofed with the leaft m- 
t^tion of its being {Mimed, but is now made public ^t the defire of 
ttaay who heard it. Some time before its being preached, a Method 
<M preacher, it 19 faid, in a chanty iermon at Bethnal-Greeii» 
finuigly maintained the hypothefis of eledion and reprobation. The. 
Aathor founds his fubjed on, 2 Cor. iv. 2. Not 'walking in, cr€iftine/s^ 
mmr bimdling tht ^U9rd of God dueit/uUj ; this heairy charge ofJecat 
and cra/y he thinks juflly falls upon the Methodi^cal preachers, and 
lie labours to prove it from the explications they give of feyeral parts 
of the fcfiptures ; togiether with the general flrain of thfiir difconrfes^ 
while they zxtfulmiHating againft the eftabJifhed clergy, and humaji 
learping, and at the fame time magnifying themfelves oa accoant ci 
their miraatkiu converiions, which were effeded by an irrefiftiblc 
force at fuch a particular time and place. Among other articles oa 
which he attacks them, that oi ek^Uon will without doubt be fuppofed 
to fall under coafideratioa : * when, favs he, all the places of fcrip* 
tare, which mention any thing of an euSioM, are taken in cm wiw^ , 
and carefully compared with their contexts, as they ought to be ; 
it evidently appears, that the tU^ion there mentioned is not meant of 
' fmrticular peffims ele^d to eUrnal lif$\ but of whole churches and. 
naticns to. be God's peculiar people % as the Jews were of old, and 
Chrifliaits are, now ** this he apprehends he could eafily make appear 
from the places where any thing of eleQien is mentioned. Among^ 
other paffages the Bth chapter of the epiftle to the |lomans, ver. 28, 
and the two following, are meatioAed : tie 28th verfe he paraphrafes as 
follows ; ^ fmr ^jue Ano*w that ail things nMork together for good^ to thttn 
thai Uyue Oidy to them luho are the c a L l t D according to his purpofe : as the 
£rfl Chrifiians were, to a more than ordinary itate of affiiSiions and 
fi^trings for the iake of the gofpel^ according to God's purpofe of 
placing thoie la a poji of danger^ who he foreknew would be able to 
jfiand it.' We only take i^otice of this as having fomething rather 
£Agular in the fuppoiition, that the calling, fpoken of in the text, 
was to fufferii>g and affli^Uon. 

The clergy of the Church of England labour under one unhappy 
difiicuhy when they combat the Methodifb upon thefe points, which 
is, that the eftahlijhed articles of belief appear fometimes favourable 
to thofe whom they oppofe. Our Author feems to have an appre- 
henfioa of this kind, ai^ therefore clones what he has to offer upon 
this particular topi<; with faying, / let it aot be thought . that I am 
here contradicting the 17th article of our Church : that article men-* 
tions nothing of aa abfolute determination of men to bafpinefs or 
snijkry^ without any regard to their eUiions, And therefore no man is 
obliged to put 2Lfen/e upoa the article contrary to the fcriptures. And 
as tnofe who preach this dodxine, do not examine all the texts and 
contexts 0/ fcripture concerning it,, they, in this refpe(5l, handle the 
word of God deceitfully.* Yet we prefume, though we are by no 
means difpofed to debate about it, that the 17th article does intend 
fomething mote than a nmtimal or general ele^ion, which this Writer 
►tflMginc to be that which is designed by this word in fcripture. 

■•• • ■ " • Digitized by GOO^B? 



9^8 CoRRKSPOTTDENCfi. ^ 

The articles of the Church fall again a little in his way when jfie 
Js confidering the freedom of the human will, * to be/ure^ fays he, it 
is the doSrine of fcripture, and an article of out Churchy that with- 
out the Holy Spirit preventing us, we can do nothing; but this docs 
not imply, but nvhat God gives a fufficicnt portion of his ffirit to 
every man, to enable him tochufe that which is gopd. And if God 
n<ves it to every man, then every man muft have it in his power to 
turn to God if he will. But whofoever does not put the fame fenfe ^ 
upon the artidti that they do, however contrary it may be to the in- 
tention of the compilers, 'why to be fur e, if they are Clergymen, they 
are perjured, as one had the ajfurance to fay in this pulpit ; and if they • 
are laity ^ they are not yet regenerated, and of courfc not in a ftatc Of'' 
falvatioi). Very charitable truly l» , , ,. ./- 

The'cenfures which are here pafled are, without doubt, but too fax 
in regard to many of that tribe of preackf rs Mr. Smith attacks. The * 
difcourfe is fcnfible and well intended, though wfittcn rather too 
haftily and with too great negligence of ftyle for one that wai to be 
made public. We cannot wonder that the treatment which worthy 
and upright men fcJmetimes meet with from the Metbodtfte fhould ex-"- 
cite their difpleafurc, yet we think this ferihon might, perhaps, be 
inore beneficial to the caufe he efpoufes, did it difcover lefs of hdat 
and rcfentment ; bccaufe feme readers may be led to attribute diis to ,. 
private or perfonal concern in the fubje6t. , 

Mr. Smith laments the injury which is done, as he fuppofes, tp 
religion and chriftianity, with regard to Deip and Libertines, by the 
mifrcprefentatitens of thefe cnthufiafts^ wholie manner of talking upon 
thefe fubjefts, he thinks, may juftly be ridicorcd. * The dark and 
confufed difeouries, fays he. of an enthufiaft, jiiftifies the laughing at 
them. For no one can be ferious in 2l farce, or avoid ridiculing that 
which is in itfelf ridiculous.' But, he adds, * thus the religion of Chrift 
is blafphemed by the extravagance of thofe, whofe religion, as an ex- 
cellent writer expreffe* it, is but tht fpe^rt of religion murdered bjr 
ignorance and enthufiaftn.' 

We may clofe the article with juft obferving that nothing will be 
more likely to confute cnthufiafls, and confine the iaity to more re- 
gular focicties, than its appearing that the clergy arc themfelvcs 
tincere, diligent and earneft in their endeavours to promote real and 
valuable truths, and to ferve the beft interefls of nwinkind : we think we 
may infer from this fermon, and fome others which we have fccn, by 
the fame Author *, that Mr. Smith is to be ranked in the number of 
fnch worthy and confcicntious divines. 

II. The Saint entered into Peace, -^2^1 the Tabernacle, near Moor- 
fields, London. Occafioned by the Death of the Rev. Mr. Thomaa 
Adttos, in Rodbcrow, Gloucefterfhire, Aug. lo, 1770. By the 

Uev. Torial j ofs. Keith, &c« ^ ^ 

CORRliSPONDENCE. 

THE Rev. Mr. Tournay, Author of AnEpiftlc to PaoK, hath 
affnrcd us that he is not the Author of either of the TtvoLet-- 
•ters relating to that Epiftle, and to Agnr's Prayer, alluded to in our 
Review for Auguft f. Mr. Toumay, therefore, is not affcfted by 
any thing that is faid of the Author of the Letters : who, hv not de- 
nying in the fecond, the foggcftion in our remarks on the fr/, hatk 
treated t he Author of the Epiftlc as ill as he hath treated us. 
^ • See his volume of Sermons, Review, vol. xlii. p. 159. 

t Cat. Art. 3S* Digitized by GoOgle 



THE 

MONTIlLY REVIEW, 

Pot N O V E M B E R, 1770. 



Art. I. A Revkw of the Cbaraders rf the principal Nathns in 
Europe* Svo. 2 Vols. 8 s* 6d. Hoards. Cadelh 1770. 

WE <:an0ot; but coofider the delineation of characters, as a 
fp^cies of writing better calculated to difplay the inge- 
nuity of %n\A[utbor in forming refined difiin£lion$, and contrw- 
ing theof) in ftriking points of oppofition, than to furni(b a clear 
idea Qf't^:pet>ple ^^fcrit^d \ the Reader .being much oftener 
an^ufed than informed* Nor is the danger of embarraffing the 
Reader t^ie onlymifchief refulting from high-wrought deicrip- 
tioQs r a writer is often, bewildered in his own labyrinth. When 
charadera are too curioMfly analyfed, the feveral parts are liable 
to clafli .v^ish each other, inilead of contributing to unite in one 
fonneAed judgment* And £hould the Author, which is far 
from impifopable, write under any previous bias, a falfe light is 
caft on the whole. 

. Thefc phfervations are applicable to- this Tpecies of writing 
on a general view : it rofaains to inquire in what manner the^ 
particular work now before us is executed. The Author has ge« 
nsrally given a fair, tbough prolix, exhibition of the peculiar 
chara£tecjflics which diAinguifh one nati6n from another, and 
he accoorits- for them from their polifical fituations under their re- 
fpe£Uve forms of government, in a manner which {hews him 
to be a man of enlarged fentimen ts : for though the coi^itu- . 
tional difpofitions of the refpecSive nations may be fuppofcd 
primarily to operate on their political eflabJifliments, yet thefe are 
not (o permanent as to be wholly accounted for from this caufe, 
but much more frequently influence the difpofitions of thofe 
who live under them. The difquifition indeed, in every in« 
ftance, is br no means eafy and d>vious ; climate, though our 
AuthcM* will foaroely allow it, accounts for many peculiarities ; 
local circutnftances may cither co-operate with| or counteraA its 
Voi..XUa. Z influence i ■ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC ^^^^^ 



330 lUviiW of the Chrn'oilirs 9f At frhuipul ITatwu in Eur9f9. 

influence; even the genius of neighbouring governments may 
^Ifo contribute to form the charader of a people : and the ope« 
ration of* thefe three caufes will hardly be difputed in the m«- 
ftance of the inhabitants of the Uni^ Provinces. 

The chara£ters delineated in thefe volumes are thofe of the 
Englijhj the French j Italians j Spaniards^ Germans^ and Dutch: 
the fccond volume being dedicated to 'the tw4 IsAcer. 
Thefe dharafiers are intf^uced hf a brief r^trofped of their 
former hiftory, brought ()own to the prefent circumftances of 
the people ; and though they are rendered very ent^taining^ 
by the m^ny p^fa-ticfalars That afe noticed, w^ csomofbuf confider 
them as rather too diiFufivcly extended, and too finely fpun ; 
the inconveniencies of which vi^e have already binted, and may 
have occafion to illaftrate by fomc few inftances. 

The length of thefe chara£ters will acoount for our not entpr* 
sng into a complete examination of any one i efpeciaUy .4s Qthejr 
latr writers have attended more tp the jpepple in a pbilpfopbical 
view, than was ufual with travellers of older date* Therefore 
having acknowledged the merit of the work in a gen<^al view> 
we ihall exhibit fome fpecimens ; and thefe may afford occafion 
for particular remarks ; of which our Readers wHl form %}uA^^ 
ment for tKemielves, * 

Our own nation comes firft in order : ant whether En^Kfli* 
men, who are parried, are competent judges of their owa tm^ 
chara£br or not; they may at leaft give their cipiiitOii of their 
own pidure as drawn by a coantrvman* 

Though our charadef 6n the whole, «s giVM b^ lhi» Author^ 
is not di&dvantageous, yet, in Ibtne particfiiars, his cenferes in«- 
dilate a bias in favour of regal power, aiid prerogative, con* 
tr^ed perhaps among our continental^ nei^bours, better trained 
th^n we are, to the virtue of ready and implicit obedience. 

The Author obferves— *• There is no people, aeoordiog to the ana* 
nimous avowal of foreigners, over whoiii piej«dloes have b little ifl^ 
fluence as the Engltih. Many even of thmtt a moderate portion 
whereof is occafiooaiiy beneficial to the toflamanityt have been rooted 
eut without the leaft mercy. The refped due; to roTalqr, for inftaace, 
of which it is certainly better to hiive a. little /«• mmch,^ than much 
too little, is rather becoming obfolete. Noblenefs of birth is held 
much cheaper than it is neceffary or proper It ihould be^ and the 
bars of dillinfUon between the ditferent dafies of the cOmmuAity ar€ 
not Urong enough to refift the impertinence of the vulgar; too wan^ 
tonly ready to recall to notice the level on which nature has placed 
all mankind, and very unwilling to yield aay precedence to ranll 
and dignity of nation.' 

Why fhould our countryman, on the authori^ of foreigners^ 

plead in behalf of prejudices ; a UttU of which wiH foon tdtro*f 

duce a great deal more I Why .fhould ^ have a^ liuk m much 

refped for royalty i Have we not ftnart^d a litik tm wmeb for that 

» fropenfiiy. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 







kevttw ^ftbe Cbafd^ers ofthi prirutpal Nations in JEnrcpe. J31 

jpropenfity^ ever to adopt it again ? On what principles Ibould 
nobienefs of birth beheld in higher eftimation than i$ commonly 
afforded to it ? Why is it impertinent in the vulgar ' to recall to 
notice. the level on which natare has placed all mankind?' 
What is the natural confequence of forgetting the natural rights 
of niankind ? — But as the Author is rather deciding than aivr 
guing, theie queries will probably incur the cenfureof /rn^/r* 
^enu; and w^ Ihall be happy if we Can get excufed on the 
plea of its being a national failing. He h^^ given an ingenious 
and candid dedu£lion of our national freedom ; but the admif- 
lion of fuch principles, as thofe above, only tend to carry us 
l)ack to that fervility, whicb^he juftly remarks, to be founded/ 
in ignorance. 

He farther urges this want of reverence for high birtb> inthc 
following paflage ^ 

* Without abetting thofe (lavifli maxima that onoeoeffiffiiy or ua- 
defervedly exalt any individuals above others it may be'afleited thait 
no danger ca^ accrue to public freedom, and that no plb^on need 
«|>prehend any diminution of his importancct by aliowiag honorary 
diftindions to thofe whom fortune has placed above him ; fiace the 
leaft refledion teaches that fuch conceffiont are purely formal and ex- 
terior, and far from interfering with Kis real welfare ; on the con- 
trary promote it, by that dilatation of foul which the ^great, if not 
totally loft to all fentiment, cannqt help feeling, when they aft 
treated with a becoming deference ; and by that Ixuiigaity of heart» 
that defire to prove ferviceable, which naturally accompanies, an4 
is indeed produced by, Co agreeable a fenfation.' 

Thus when this c/uty otpayinga larger (hare of honorary dl- 
ftn&ions to particular families is fulfilled, we are toberdpaicl 
by the dilatation ofjiul it. is to produce ! But the fuperior op* 
portunities of diuinguifhing themfelves by noble deeds, whic$ 
great perfons poiTefs, are much furer means of attaining perfonal 
I^fpe4^ to add a luftreto family dignity^ than this method of 
puffing them up is likely jta effed. How adulation will dilati 
the fouls of nobility, where it is fufficiently applied, our Author 
faimfelf fhall inform us :• 

* This idea of excellence fuperior to ,the reft of mankind, a 
Frenchman gives the fullcll fcope to, when, fpeaking of perfons of 
birth; the countlefs numbers of whom, difperfed over all Franc^, 
inftead of convincing men of the futility of fuch kind of ifterit, is on 
the contrary, through the moil unaccountable delufion, efteemed by 
the natives a proof of the'illuilrioufnefs of their nation. One often 
hears the individuals of a provroce ennmerating the many noble fa- 
milies it contains, and glorying over the inhabitants of thofe which, 
however more populous, rich, and commercial, have not fuch high 
names to boafl of« This in&tuation is fo nniverfally prevalent, that 
even 4oiQ<^ics think themfelves intitled to notice and regard in pro* 
portion to the quality and grandeur of their mailers ; thofe who hap^ 
pen to bebng to the principal families, ar^ as ^ roud^f their livery*. 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 



Jjl Rmw afthiCharaSfers of the principal Natimt in Europe 

as if it were a badge of hojaoar and di(Un£lion ; and pretend to a^ 
much deference at lead, as a hon bourgeois^ a fubftantial citizen.* 

Again, our treatment of the clergy expofes us to the follow^ 
ing animadverfion : 

« Our difregard for ecclefiaftics, to give it the fofteft term, i> 
another charge brought againft as by. foreigners, and chiefly by thofe 
of the Romifli communion ; who think our behaviour in this refpe£t 
the more reprehenfibk, as the veneration they profefs for their own 
clergy borders as muck upoa excefs the other way. But however 
they may be to blame, it muft be conleft there is but too muck 
room for this accufation ; and fuch a condud natorally tends to have 
fo pernicious an efied upon our morals, that impartiality obliges 
one to pafs condemnation on a large body af our countrymen, and 
inatiy of thofe not of the vulgar, for this heinous trefpafs not more 
againft decency and good manners, than all found policy. 
*" * Natwithftanding feme of the clergy may render them&lves un* 
worthy of their doih {sls no profeffion whatever is exempt from fucK 
as difgrace' it) yet far the greater number are men of virtue ^nd 
exemplary lives ; and were it only for their learning, of which, ia 
the opinion of all intellisent foreigners, as well as in our own, th^ 
poflefs a more coniiderable ftock than the clergy of any other coun* 
uy, they are amply intitled to our notice and regard, as contri« 
buting fo lareely to fupport the literary honour of the nation, and 
enriching it daily with fo many valuable produdions.* 
* Now^ as our Author deals much in affertions, we will 
hazard one; viz. that our morals will fland the comparifon 
^ith thofe of any nation of his eledion, where clergymen are 
treated more conformably to his idea of iitnefs or propriety. It 
may be true, perhaps, that we know no refpeft due to holy 
charaders, beyond what a fuitable hoHnefs of manners will 
claim : and if this correfpondence of manners with the alTumed 
charafter is not found, our Author, who is fo well acquainted 
with the difpofition of the Englifh, need not be told the con- 
clufions they will draw. Our clergy are complimented on their 
fuperior learning, we believe it is but doing them juftice j as 
many therefore as improve their five talents to ten, are in no 
danger of lofing their- reward in England : fliould any of them^ 
on. the other hand, hide their facred talent, and purfue the 
things of this world j the freedom from prejudices, with which 
we are charged, enables us to give fuch a proper reward alfb. 

After admitting that deferved cenfures may be pafled on the 
clergy for having, in former days, efpoufed the caufe of arbi<» 
trary power» he adds : < But if objedions lie againft them on 
ihis fcore, it fliould not, on the other hand, be forgotten Ihat 
the firft legal ftand againft the iniquitous defigns of James the 
Second, was made by the heads of the church of E'hglaniJ, 
who took the lead in relifting him, at a time when it was faf 
froni.clear that he would meet with the rcvcrfe of fortune ^bat 
ftpTtiy after befel him/ 

ft 

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RttniW of the CharaSlirs of the prtmtpal Nations iH Europe. 33 J 

. It was vtry clear, that if the heads of the church of Engird 
'United with the people,' the crown could not perfift in the mea- 
fure^ then purfued. Whether the defire of preferving church 
power at home, rather than of configning it back to Rome, 
had not fomc influence on the conduft of the clergy at that 
lime, let our Author enquire. If power of any fpecics is in 
danger of ever being unduly exerted, it is of no importance to 
the afs whofi panniers he carries. The duty of the people is to 
Jce that they are not overloaded by any body. 

', After all, to bring the point to a ihort ifliie ; what is this 
want of veneration which our Author fo much complains of? 
He certainly knows human nature too well not to be fenftblc 
that whoever poflefles power, whether civil or ecclefiafticai, is 
tpmptcd to extend it as /ar as it will ftretch ; confequently in a 
nation which, forms any pretenfions to the juft rights of man- 
kind, a jealous circumfpe£tion will always accompany the ve- 
neration with which the governed regard the governing. 
Enough power ftill remains for a juji exercife of it ; hut if ever 
mfe are brought to pay that HttU too much regard to power^ which 
our Author contends for^ farewell ail pretenfions to a free go« 
vernment I 

We mjuft be a terrible people if the following ftridures have 
any foundation broad enough for them to ftaod on : 

* The ufual extravagances which heat of youth and warmth of 
paflions univerfally in^ire, arc in this country carried to lengths 
unheard of elfe where. The flrangeft exccffes of all forts equally 
prevail among the high and the low. Our daily papers are full of 
them, not a few originals in their kind ; but hianv of them are oU 
ten attended with the moft fcrious confequences ; jthofe aridng froni 
intoxication efpeciaUyy are fomecimes terrible. It is even faid tHat 
in the brutal fury of drunkenneis men have gone (o far as to aflb- 
ciate themfehres by mvtual oath ibr the dedradtion of the firfl oPtheir 
fellow-creatures who might vnhappily fall in their way, and have too 
faithfully kept theif word. 

/ Ceruin it is that a pronenefs to miichief is among us too com* 
mbnly the refult of a debauch ; our reflive* impatient fpirit, at all 
times averfe to much pontroul, becomes then incapable of anjr.' 

Now would not any foreigner imagine on reading this paf- 
fage — but flop ! every poifon is faid to furnilh its own anti- 
dote; and a paiTage within a few pages of the former will cor- 
reifl the maUgnity of it better th^a any thing we cai> utg^ 
againft it : 

* Oir all the accu^tions prcjudicehas formed againft this nation* 
tKere is none mbre void of truth, than that which the French, of all 
Aur neighbours, are perpetually urging, agginft ui^ (if indeed it may 
not be affirmed tHey areihe original inventors and propa^tors of it) 
$he charge of a ferocious difpofition, prone to indulge itielf in ftenes 
of t^lopd and batbvit]^. If by this, jdiey wooid meao no more tiian 
}^»n4fipis4i^ ovf lower daffcs for paftimes of tj^^ roughs gymnaftic 

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334 R^ifVf ofihi Charaflirt rftbi principal Jt^miof^ lit Europ^^ 

idnd, the combats of animals, and (bmetimes of gladiators, tl^ere 
is no denying, ihat, till very lately, exhibitions of this kind were 
highly favonxed, and even met with encouragement and apblaaie 
from no few of the better (brt. Neither can it be diflenfbled that 
conntenance is ftill given to feme remains of Aofe boifteroas . and 
iiKlegant amnfements. Bat if the French, or any other mifrepreien- 
Xtn of our cuftoms and manners, led away by fu^h appearances, in- 
fer from thence, that we are of a fanguinary, crael temper, they cer? . 
tainly go wide of the mark. Humanity is an appendage, which np 
foreigner well informed, and converfant in our ways and real char 
rader, was ever backward in allowing ul. All our la^s and civil 
regulations powerfully favour and fecond fuch a fpirit. There are ^ 
few inffances of private, and none or public or legal cruelty among;' 
w, comparativdy with thofe exercifed in other countries.' 

As tht before mentioned horrid drunken affociations are not 
excepted in this defence of our humanity^ w^ will pafs them 
over. 

Our Author repeats the frequent charge of fuicide on the 
£ngli(h, which is fo often copied by one Writer from another, 
^ The moft fatal of thofe habits for which we deferve to be ftig- 
snatized, is that amazing propenfity to felf»deilnidion, whici^ 
diliinguiflies us in fo deplorable a manner from every other civi- 
lized nation.' Mercy on us! what between drunken aflbciatioDa 
to kin others, and this amazing propenfity to kill ourfelves, it 
IS a wonder that (o many of us remain alive ! But, ferioufly -^ 
the Writer in a pa(ra|e above has appealed to our news-papers 
a$ full of inflances of the extravagance of the paffions among 
us 5 and with regard to fuch accufations, it may be fufficient to 
repeat what we lately obferved on a fimilar occafion ; that if the 
foreign Gazettes defcended to fuch minute domeilic occurrence^ 
as our numerous papers of intelligence do, this and many other 
lligmas might be transferred to the continent. It has been faidy 
by one of our late travellers^ that there is fcarcely a night pafles 
bur perfonsy more or le&, are found murdered in the flreets of 
Paris, which the Panfians look on as things of courie. If the 
like Happened in Ldndon for one week's continuance, the whole 
petropoKs would be in a conflernation. 

it is flrange what lengths Writers will go when a principle 
^s once adoptedi. Thus we are told, < the fair fex are not in 
the lesift inferior to the men in that horrible fpecies of intrepi- 
diiiy, and