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Full text of "Natural history"

L l B R A R Y 

AUG-6 1969 

THE CNTAP.SO INSTITUTE 
FOR STUDiES IN EDUCATION 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOKB, 1-L.D. 

EDITED BY 
tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

fE. CAPP8, PH.D., ix.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L, A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PLINY 

NATURAL HISTORY 

II 

LIBRl Ill-VII 



PLINY 

NATURAL HISTORY 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION 
IN TEN VOLUMES 

VOLUME II 

LiBRi m-vn 

BT 

H. RACKHAM, M.A. 

FEXI-OW OV CHIU3T'S OOLLKGE, CAMBIUDQB 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLXI 



First prinUd 1^42 
Reprinted 1947, 1961 



Printed in Oreat BrHain 



CONTENTS 



PAGB 

PREFATORY NOTT: vii 

INTKODUCTION. ... Ix 

BOOK lU 1 

BOOK IV 117 

BOOK V 217 

BOOK \T 337 

BOOK vn 505 

INDEX OF rEOPI.E 653 

OEOGRAPraCAL IMDEX 661 



PREFATORY NOTE 

Tins translation is designed to afford assistance to 
the student of the Latin text; it is not primarily 
intended to supply the EngHsh reader with a substi- 
tute for the Latin. 



vu 



uv 



INTRODUCTION 

This volume contains Books III-VII of Plinys 
Naturalis Historia. 

The detailed contents will be found in Plinys 
own outline of his work, which, with lists of the 
authorities used for each Book, constitutes Book I ; 
for Books III-VH see Volume I, pp. 28—41, of this 
edition. 

The subject of Books III-VI is the geography, 
physical, poHtical and historical, of the ancient 
world. 

Book III : Southern Spain ; Southem Gaul ; Italy ; 
the Western Mediterranean and lonian and Adriatic 
Islands ; the countries round the north of the 
Adriatic. 

Book IV : Greece and the rest of the Balkan 
Peninsula ; the islands of the Eastern Mediter- 
ranean ; the Black Sea and the countries west of it ; 
Northern Europe. 

Book V: North Africa; the Eastern Mediter- 
ranean and Asia Minor. 

Book VI : Countries from the Black Sea to India; 
Persia ; Arabia ; Ethiopia ; the Nile valley. 

The subject of Book VII is the human race — its 
biology, physiology and psychology. 



IX 



PLINY : 
NATURAL HISTORY 

BOOK III 



PLINII NATURALIS HISTORIA 
LIBER III 

1 I. Hactenus de situ ct miraculi'? terrae aqua- 
rumque et sidcrum ac ratione universitatis atque 
mensura. 

Nunc de partihus, quamquam infmitum id quoque 
existimatur ncc teniere sine aliqua reprehcnsione 
tractatum, haut ullo in gcncre venia iustiore, si modo 
niinime mirum est liominem genitum non omnia 
humana novisse. quapropter auctorem neminem 
unum sequar, sed ut quemque verissimum in quaque 
parte arbitrabor, quoniam commune ferme omnibus 
fuit ut eos quisque diligcntissime situs diceret in 

2 quibiis ipse prodebat.^ ideo nec culpabo aut co- 
arguam quemquam. locorum nuda nomina et 
quantadabitur brcvitate poncntur, claritatecausisque 
dilatis in suas partes ; nunc ^ cnim sermo de toto est. 
quare sic accipi velim ut si vidua fama sua nomina 
quaha fuere primordio antc uUas res gestas nuncu- 

1 V.l. prodibat. * V.l. nec. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 



BOOK III 

I, So much as to the situation and the marvels of 
land and water and of the stars, and the plan and 
dimensions of the universe. 

Now to describe its parts, although this also is aeography 
considered an endless task, not Hghtly undertaken °^ "^ ""^ 
without some adverse criticism, though in no field 
does enquiry more fairly claim indulgence, only 
granting it to be by no means wonderful that one 
born a human being should not possess all human 
knowledge. For this reason I shall not follow any 
single authority, but such as I shall judge most 
rehable in their several departments, since I have 
found it a characteristic common to virtually all of 
them that each gave the most careful description of the 
particular region in which he personally was MTiting. 
Accordingly I shall neither blame norcriticise anyone. 
The bare names of places will bc set down, and with 
the greatest brevity available, their celebrity and 
its reasons being deferrcd to their pi-oper sections; 
for my topic now is the world as a wliole. Therefore 
I should like it to be understood that I specify the 
bare names of the places without their record, as 
they were in the beginning before they had achieved 



PLINA': NATURAL HISTORY 

pentur, et sit quaedam in his nomenclatura quidem, 
sed mundi rerumque naturae. 

3 Tcrrarum orbis universus in tres dividitur partes, 
Europam Asiam Africam. origo ab occasu solis et 
Gaditano freto, qua inrumpens oceanus Atlanticus in 
maria interiora difFunditur. hinc intranti dextera 
Africa est, laeva Europa, inter has Asia ; termini 
amnes Tanais et Nilus. xv p. in longitudinem quas 
diximus fauces oceani patent, v in latitudincm, a 
vico Mellaria Hispaniae ad promunturium Africae 

4 Album, auctore Turranio Gracile iuxta gcnito ; T. 
Livius ac Nepos Cornelius latitudinis tradiderunt 
minimum ^ vii p., ubi vero plurimum, x : tam modico 
ore tam inmensa aequorum vastitas panditur. nec 
profunda altitudo miraculum minuit : frequentes 
quippe taeniae candicantis vadi carinas territant ; 
qua de causa limen interni maris multi eum locum 
appellavere. proximis autem faucibus utrimque 
impositi montes coercent claustra, Abyla Africae, 
Europae Calpe, laborum Herculis mctae, quam ob 
causam indigenae coluninas eius dei vocant, credunt- 
que perfossas exclusa antea admisisse maria et rerum 
naturae mutasse faciem, 

5 Primum ergo de Europa altrice victoris omnium 
gentium populi longeque terrarum pulcherrima, quam 
plerique merito non tcrtiam portionem fecere verum 

* Edd. : minuB. 

" Probably Tarifa. 

* Probably Punto del Sarinas. 



BOOK III. I. 2-5 

any history, and that thouirh their names are 
mentioned, it is only as forming a portion of the 
world and of the natural universc. 

The whole circuit of the earth is divided into three Three 
parts, Europe, Asia and Africa. The starting point 
is in the west, at the Straits of Gibraltar, where the Oibraiiar. 
Atlantic Ocean bursts in and spreads out into the 
inland seas. On the right as you enter from the ocean 
is Africa and on the left Europe, with Asia between 
them ; the boundaries are the river Don and the 
river Nile. The ocean straits mentioned are fifteen 
miles long and five miles broad, from the village 
of Mellaria " in Spain to the White Cape * in 
Africa, as given by Turranius Gracihs, a native 
of the neighbourhood, while Livy and Cornehus 
Nepos state the brcadth at the narrowest point 
as seven miles and at the widest as ten miles : so 
narrow is the mouth through which pours so boundless 
an expanse of water. Nor is it of any great depth, 
so as to lessen the marvel, for recurring streaks of 
whitening shoal-water terrify passing keels, and con- 
sequently many have called this place the threshold 
of the Mediterranean. At the narrowest pai-t of the 
Straits stand mountains on either side, enclosing the 
channel, Ximiera in Africa and Gibraltar in Europe ; 
these were the hmits of the labours of Hercules, and 
consequently the inhabitants call them the Pillars 
of that deity, and beheve that he cut the channel 
through them and thereby let in the sea which had 
hitherto been shut out, so altering the face of nature. 

To begin then with Europe, nurse of the race that Europe.- iu 
has conquered all the nations, and by far the lovehest ■^""'^ 
portion of the earth, which most authorities, not with- 
out reason, have reckoned to be not a third part but a 



PLIN\': NATURAL HISTORY 

aequani, in duas partcs ab amne Tanai ad Gadi- 
tanum fretum universo orbe diviso. oceanus a 
quo dictum est spatio Atlanticum mare infundens 
et avido meatu terras quaecunque venientem ex- 
pavere demergens resistentis quoque flexuoso lit- 
orum anfractu lambit, Kuropam vel maxime recessibus 
crebris excavans, sed in quattuor praecipuos sinus, 
quorum primus a Calpe Hispaniae extimo (ut dictum 
est) monte Locros, Bruttium usque promunturium, 
inmenso ambitu flectitur. 

In eo prima Hispania terrarum est Ultcrior appel- 
lata, eadem Baetica, mox a fme Murf;itano Citerior 
eademque Tarraconensis ad Pyrenaei iuj:^^. Ulterior 
in duas per longitudinem provincias dividitur, siqui- 
dem Baeticae laterc septentrionali praetenditur 
Lusitania anme Ana discreta. ortus hic in Lamini- 
tano agro Citerioris Hispaniae et modo in stagna sc 
fundcns modo in angustias rcsorbens aut in totum 
cuniculis condens et saepius nasci gaudens in Atlanti- 
cum oceanum elFunditur. Tarraconensis autem ad- 
fixa Pyrenaeo totoque eius a latere decurrens et 
simul ad Gallicum oceanum Hiberico a mari trans- 
versa se pandens Solorio monte et Oretanis iugis 
Carpentaniscjue et Asturum aBacticaatque Lusitania 
distinguitur. 

Bactica a flumine eam mediam secante cognominata 



" Nearly the present Andalusia; named from the river 
Bactis, the Guadalquivir. 

* Portugal, excluding the part botween tho Douro and the 
Minho. 

* Tho Guadiana (Arabic wadi, ' river '). 
^* Perhaps Alhambra. 

- i.e. from the Balcaric Channel to the Bay of Biscay. 

6 



BOOK III. I. 5-7 

half of the world, dividing the whole circle into two 
portions by a line drawn from the river Don to the 
Straits of Gibraltar. The ocean, pouring the Atlantic 
sea through the passage I have described, and in its 
eager progress overwhelming all the lands that 
shrank in awe before its coming, washes also those 
that offer resistance with a winding and broken coast- 
Hne : Europe especially it hollows out with a succes- 
sion of bays, but into four chief gulfs, of which the westem 
first bends in a vast curve from the Rock of Gibraltar, ^an"*""' 
which, as I have said, is the extremity of Spain, right 
to Locri on Cape Spartivento. 

The first land situated on this gulf is called Further The Spanish 
Spain or Baetica," and then, from the frontier at 
Mujacar, Hither Spain or the Department of Tarragon, 
extending to the chain of the Pyrenees, Further 
Spain is divided lengthwise into two provinces, 
Lusitania <> extending along the north side of 
Baetica and separated from it by the river Anas.*' 
This rises in Hither Spain, in the territory of Lamin- Physicai 
ium.<* and now spreading out into meres, now con- seoc^apfii/. 
tracting into narrows, or burrowing entirely under- 
ground and gaily emerging again several times over, 
discharges itself into the Atlantic Ocean. The 
Department of Tarragon adjoins the Pyrenees, 
running down along the whole of one side of the 
chain and also extending across from the Iberian 
Sea to the Galhc Ocean,* and is separated from Baetica 
and Lusitania bv Mount Solorius/ and by the ranges 
Df the Oretani and Carpentani and of the Astures.s' 

Baetica, named after the river Baetis which Andaiusia. 

f The Sierra Nevada. 

» The Sierra Morena, Mont de Toledo and Sierra de laa 
Asturias. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

cunctas provinciarum divite cultu et quodam fertili 
ac peculiari nitore praecedit. iuridici conventus ei 
rv', Gaditanus Cordubensis Astigitanus Hispalensis. 
oppida omnia numero clxxv, in iis coloniae ix, muni- 
cipia c. R. X, Latio antiquitus donata x.vvii, libertate 
VI, foedere iii, stipendiaria cxx. ex his digna 
memoratu aut Latino sermone dictu facilia, a 
flumine Ana, litore oceani, oppidum Ossonoba, 
Aestuaria cognominatum, inter confluentes ^ Luxiam 
et Urium, Hareni montes, Baetis fluvius, litus 
Curense inflexo sinu, cuius ex adverso Gadis inter 
insulas diccndae, promunturium lunonis, portus 
\'aesippo, oppidum Baelo, Mellaria, fretum ex 
Atlantico mari, Carteia Tartesos a Graecis dicta, 
mons Calpe. dein litore intemo oppidum Barbesula 
cum fluvio, item Salduba, oppidum Sucl, Malaca 
cimi fluvio, foederatoriun. dein Maenuba cum fluvio, 
Sexi cognomine Firmum lulium, Sel, Abdara, Murgi 
Baeticae finis. oram eam in universum originis 
Poenorum existimavit M. Agrippa ; ab Ana autem 
Atlantico oceano obversa Bastulorum Turdulorumque 
est. in universam Hispaniam M. Varro pervenisse 
Hibcros et Persas et Phoenicas Celtasque et Poenos 
tradit ; lusum enim Liberi patris aut lyssam cum eo 

^ Detlefacn. : inter fluentee. 



• Probably the Tinto. * IV. 119. 

• Cape Trafalgar. 



BOOK III. I. 7-8 

divides it in two, stands first aniony the whole of the 
provinces in the richness of its cultivation and in a 
sort of peculiar fertility and brilliance of vegetation. 
It comprises four jurisdictions, those of Cadiz, 
Cordova, Ecija and Seville. Its to^vns number in 
all 175, of which 9 are colonies, 10 municipaUties of 
Roman citizens, 27 towns granted early Latin 
rights, 6 free towns, 3 bound by treaty to Rome and 
120 paying tribute. Worthy of mention in this 
district, or easily expressed in Latin, are : on the 
ocean coast beginning at the river Guadiana, the 
town Ossonoba, surnamed Aestuaria, at the con- 
fluence of the Luxia and the Urium " ; the Hareni 
Mountains ; the river Guadalquivir ; the winding 
bay of the Coast of Curum, opposite to which is 
Cadiz, to be described * among the islands ; the 
Promontory of Juno "^ ; Port \'aesippo ; the town of 
Baelo ; Mellaria, the strait entering from the 
Atlantic ; Carteia, called by the Greeks Tartesos ; 
Gibraltar. Next, on the coast inside the straits, 
are : the town of Barbesula with its river ; ditto 
Salduba ; the town of Suel ; Malaga with its river, 
one of the treaty towns. Then comes Maenuba 
with its river ; Firmum Juhum surnamed Sexum ; 
Sel ; Abdara ; Murgi, which is the boundary of 
Baetica. The whole of this coast was thought by 
Marcus Agrippa to be of Carthaginian origin; but 
beyond the Guadiana and facing the Atlantic Ocean 
is the territory of the Bastuli and TurduH. Marcus 
Varro records that the whole of Spain was pene- 
trated by invasions of Hiberi, Persians, Phoenicians, 
Celts and Carthaginians ; for he says that it was the 
sport (lusus) of Father Liber, or the frenzy (Xvcra-a) 
of those who revelled with him, that gave its name to 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

bacchantium nomcn dcdisse Lusitaniae, et Pana 
praefectum eius universae. at quae de Hcrcule ac 
Pyrene vel Satumo traduntur fabulosa in primis 
arbitror. 

9 Baetis in Tarraconensis provinciae non, ut aliqui 
dixere, Mentesa oppido sed Tugiensi exoriens saltu 
(iuxta qucm Tader fluvius qui Carthaginiensem agrum 
rigat) Ilorci refugit Scipionis rogum, versusque in 
occasum oceanum Atlanticum provinciam adoptans 
petit, modicus primo, sed multorum fluminum capax 
quibus ipse famam aquasque aufert. Baeticae 
primum ab Ossigetania infusus amoeno blandus alveo 
crebris dextra lacvaque accohtur oppidis. 

10 Celeberrima intcr hunc et oceani oram in mediter- 
raneo Segida quae Augurina cognominatur, lulia 
quae Fidentia, Urgao quae Alba, Ebura quae 
Cerialis, Iliberri quod Liberini, IHpula quae Laus, 
Artigi quod luHenses, \'esci quod Faventia, Singili, 
Ategua, Arialdunum, Agla Minor, Baebro, Castra 
Vinaria, Cisimbrium, Hippo Nova, IHurco, Osca, 
Oscua, Sucaelo, Unditanum, Tucci Vetus — omnia 
Bastetaniae vergentis ad mare. conventus vero 
Cordubensis circa flumcn ipsum Ossigi quod cogno- 
minatur Latonium, IHturgi quod Forum luHum, 
Ipra, Isturgi quod Triuniphale, Sucia, et vvii p. 
remotum in mediterraneo Obulco quod Pontificense 
appeHatur, mox llipa, Epora foederatorum, SaciH 
MartiaHum, Onuba et dcxt ra Corduba colonia Patricia 
cognomine, inde primum navigabiH Bacte, oppida 
Carbula, Decuma, fluvius SingiHs, eodem Baetis latere 
incidens. 

10 



BOOK III. I. 8-10 

Lusitania, and that Pan was thc o-ovcrnor of the whole 
of it. The stories rehited of Hercules, Pyrene or 
Saturn I regard as absolutely mythical. 

The Guadalquivir rises in the province of Tarragon, The Tirer 
not at the town of Mentesa, as some authorities quin^' 
have said, but in the Tugiensian Forest bordered by 
the river Segura that waters the territory of Carta- 
o-ena ; at Lorea it avoids the Sepolcro de Scipion 
and, turning westward, makes for the Atlantic 
Ocean, giving its name to the province ; it is first 
of moderate size, but it receives many tributaries, 
from which it takes their glory as well as their waters. 
It first enters Baetica at Ossigetania, ghding gently 
in a picturesque channel past a scries of to^vns situated 
on both its banks. 

Between this river and the Ocean coast the most 
famous places inland are : Segida suruamed Augurina ; 
JuHa or Fidentia ; Urgao or Alba ; Ebui'a or CeriaHs ; 
Iliberri or Liberini ; Ihpula or Laus ; Artigi or 
Juhenses; Vesci or Faventia; SingiH, Ategua, 
Arialdunum, Agla Minor, Bacbro, Castra Vinaria, 
Cisimbrium,New Hippo, IHurco, Osca, Oscua, Sucaelo, 
Unditanum, Old Tucci— all of which are places in 
that part of Bastetania which stretches towards the 
sea. In the jurisdiction of Cordova in the neighbour- 
hood of the actual river are Ossigi surnamed La- 
tonium, Ihturgi or Forum Juhum, Ipra, Isturgi or 
Triumphale, Sucia, and 17 milcs inland Obulco or 
Pontificensc, then Ripa, Epora (a treaty town), 
SaciU Martiahum, Onuba, and on the riglit bank 
the colonv of Cordova surnamed Patricia. At this 
point the Guadalquivir first becomes navigable, and 
thcre are the towns of Carbula and Detunda, the river 
Xenil flowing into the Guadakpiivir on the same side. 



PLINY: NATURAL HrSTORY 

11 Oppida Hispalcnsis convcntus Celti, Axati, Arua, 
Canama, Evia, Ilipa cognominc Ilpa Italica, et a 
laeva Hispal colonia cognomine Romulensis, ex 
advcrso oppidum Osset (luod cognominatur lulia 
Constantia, \'ergentum quod luli Gcnius, Orippo, 
Caura, Siarum, fluvius Macnuba Baeti et ipse a 
dextro latere infusus. at inter acstuaria Baetis oppi- 
dum Nabrissa cognomine Veneria et Colobana, 
coloniac Hasta quae Regia dicitur et in mediterraneo 
Asido quae Caesarina. 

12 Singilis fluvius in Baetim quo dictum est ordine 
inrumpcns, Astigitanam coloniam adluit cognomine 
Augustam Finnam, ab ea navigabilis. huius con- 
ventus sunt reliquae coloniae inmunes Tucci quae 
cognominatur Augusta Gcmella, Iptuci quae Virtus 
lulia, Ucubi quae Claritas lulia, Urso quae Genetiva 
Urbanorum ; intcr (|uae fuit Munda cum Pompcio filio 
rapta. oppida libcra Astigi \'ctus, Ostippo, stipendi- 
aria Callet, Callicula, Castra Gemina, Ilipula Minor, 
Marruca, Sacrana, Obulcula, Oningis, Sabora, Ven- 
tippo. Macnubam amncm et ipsum navigabilem 
haut procul accolunt Olontigi, I.aelia, Lastigi. 

13 Quac autem regio a Baete ad fluvium Anam tendit 
extra praedicta Baeturia appellatur in duas divisa 
partes totidemque gentes, Celticos qui Lusitaniam 
attingunt, llispalcnsis conventus, Turdulos qui Lu- 
sitaniam et Tarraconensem accolunt, iura Cordubam 

" Gnaeus the eldest 8on of Pompcius Jlagnus was defeated 
at Munda (possibly near Cordova) 45 R.c, and soon afterwards 
captured and killcd ; thc town w as destroycd. 
12 



BOOK III. I. 1T-13 

The to^v^Tis of the jurisdiction of Hispalis are Celti, 
Axati, Arua, Canania, Evia, Ilipa surnamed Ilpa 
Italica ; on the left bank is the colony Hispal sur- 
named Honnilensis, while on the opposite side are 
the towTis Osset surnamed Juha Constantia, Ver- 
gentum or Juli Genius, Orippo, Caura, Siarum, 
and the river Maenuba, a tributary of the Guadal- 
quivir on its right. Between the estuaries of the 
Guadalquivir are the to\vns of Nabrissa, surnamed 
Veneria, and Colobana, with two colonies, Hasta, 
which is called Rcgia, and inland Asido, which is 
called Caesarina. 

The river Xenil, joining the Guadalquivir at the The Xenn. 
place in the list ah-eady mentioned, washes the colony 
of Astigi, surnamed Augusta Firma, from which point 
it becomes navigable. The other colonies in this 
jurisdiction exempt from tribute are Tucci, surnamed 
Augusta Gemella, Iptuci or Virtus JuHa, Ucubi or 
Claritas Juha, Urso or Genetiva Urbanorum ; and 
among these once was Munda, which was taken with 
the younger Pompey." The free towns are Old 
Astigi and Ostippo, with the tributary towns of 
Callet, Calhcula, Castra Gemina, Ilipula Minor, 
Marruca, Sacrana, Obulcula, Oningis, Sabora and 
Ventippo. At no great distance, on the Maenuba, 
another navigable river, are the settlements of 
Olontigi, Laeha and Lastigi. 

The region stretching from tlie Guadalquivir to the 
river Guadiana beyond the places already mentioned 
is called Baeturia, and is divided into two parts and 
the same number of races, the Celtici bordering on 
Lusitania, of the jurisdiction of Seville, and the 
Turduli, who dwell on the borders of Lusitania and 
the Tarragon territory, but are in the jurisdiction of 

13 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

petunt. Celticos a Celtiberis ex Lusitania advenisse 
manifcstum est sacris, lingua, oppidorum vocabulis 

14 quae cognominibus in Baetica distinguntur : Seriae 
adicitur Fama lulia, Nertobrigae Concordia lulia, 
Segidae Restituta lulia, Contributa lulia Ugultuniae 
(cum qua et Curiga nunc est), Lacimurgae Constantia 
lulia, Steresibus Fortunales et Callensibus Aeneanici. 
praeter haec in Celtica Acinipo, Arunda, Arunci, 
Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa, Saepone, Serippo. altera 
Baeturia, quam diximus Turdulorum et conventus 
Cordubensis, habet oppida non ignobilia Arsam, Mel- 
lariam, Mirobrigam Reginam, Sosintigi, Sisaponem. 

15 Gaditani conventus civium Romanorum Regina, 
Latinorum Laepia Regia, Carisa cognomine Aurelia, 
Urgia cognominata Castrum luliiun, item Caesaris 
Salutariensis ; stipendiaria Besaro, Belippo, Barbe- 
sula, Blacippo, Baesippo, Callet, Cappacum, Olcastro, 
Iptuci, Ibrona, Lascuta, Saguntia, Saudo, Usaepo. 

16 Longitudinem universam cius prodidit M. Agrippa 
ccccLXXv p., latitudinera cclvITi, sed cum termini 
Carthaginem usque procederent : quae causa magnos 
errores conputatione mensurae saepius parit, alibi 
mutato provinciarura modo alibi itinerum auctis aut 
diminutis passibus. incubuere maria tam longo aevo, 
alibi processere litora, torsere se fluminum aut 

14 



BOOK III. I. 13-16 

Cordova. That the Celtici came from the Celtiberi 
in Lusitania is proved by their reHgion, their language, 
and the names of their towns, which in Baetica are 
distinguished by surnames : Seria has the additional 
name of Fama Julia, Nertobriga that of Concordia 
JuHa, Segida that of Restituta Julia, Ugultunia that 
of Contributa Julia (in which now is also included 
the town of Curiga), Lacimurga that of Constantia 
JuHa, and Stereses the surname of Fortunales and 
Callenses that of Aeneanici. Besides these places 
there are in Celtica Acinipo, Arunda, Arunci, 
Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa, Saepone, Serippo. The 
other part of Baeturia, which -we have said belongs 
to the TurduH and to the jurisdiction of Cordova, 
contains the not undistinguished toMTis of Arsa, 
Mellaria, Mirobriga Regina, Sosintigi and Sisapo. To 
the jurisdiction of Cadiz belong Regina, with Roman 
citizens, Laepia Regia with Latin citizens, Carisa 
surnamed AureHa, Urgia surnamed Castrum JuHum, 
and also Caesaris Sahitariensis ; the tributaiy towns 
of Bcsaro, BeHppo, Barbesula, Blacippo, Baesippo, 
Callet, Cappacum, Oleastro, Iptuci, Ibrona, Lascuta, 
Saguntia, Saudo, Usaepo. 

The total length of Baetica according to Marcus DimensioTu 
Agrippa is 475 iniles, and its breadth 258 miles, but "^ ^'""'<'<^- 
this was when its bounds extended as far as Carta- 
gena: such extensions comparatively often give 
rise to great errors in the measurements of distances, 
as tliey sometimes eause alterations in the boundary 
of provinces and sometimes an increase or rcduction 
of the mileage of roads. During so long a period of 
time the seas have been encroaching on the land or 
the shores have becn moving forward, and rivers have 
formed curves or have straightened out their wind- 

15 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

correxere flexus. praeterea aliunde aliis exordium 
mensurae est et alia meatus : ita fit ut nulli duo con- 
cinant. 

17 IL Baeticae longitudo nunc a Castulonis oppidi 
fine Gadis ccl et a Murgi maritima ora xxV p. amplior, 
latitudo a Carteia Anam ora ccx.xxiv p. Agrippam 
quidem in tanta viri diligcntia praeterque in hoc 
opere cura, ciun orbem terrarum urbi * spectandum 
propositurus esset, errasse quis credat et cum eo 
divum Augustum ? is namque conplexam eum 
porticum ex destinatione et commentariis M. 
Agrippae a sorore eius inchoatam peregit. 

is IIL Citerioris Hispaniae sicut conplurium pro- 
vincianun alicjuantum vetus forma mutata est, 
utpote cum Pompeius Magnus tropacis suis quae 
statuebat in Pyrenaeo dccclxxvi oppida ab Alpibus 
ad fines Hispaniae ultcrioris in dicionem ab se 
redacta testatus sit. nunc univcrsa provincia divi- 
ditur in conventus septem, Carthaginiensem Tarraco- 
nensem Cacsaraugustanum Clunicnsem Asturum 
Luccnsem Bracarum. accedunt insulae quarum 
mentione scposita civitates provincia ipsa praeter 
contributas aUis ccxciii continet oppida clxxxix, in 
iis colonias xii, oppida civium Romanorum xiii, Lati- 
norum veterum xviii,foederatum ununi,stipendiaria 
cxxxv. 

19 Primi in ora Bastidi, post eos quo diccntur ^ 
ordine intus recedentes Mentesani, Oretani et ad 

^ Edd. : orbi. 

* Eackliam : dicitur. 



" Thc Porticus Octnviac, between thc Circus Flaminius and 
the Theatre of Marcellus. 

16 



BOOK III. 1. 16-111. 19 

ings. Moreover different persons take different 
starting-points for their measurements and foUow 
different lines ; and the consequence is that no two 
authorities agree. 

II. At present the length of Baetica from the 
frontier of the town of Cazlona to Cadiz is 250 
miles, and from the sea-front of Murgi 25 miles 
more ; its breadth from Cai-teia along the coast 
to the Guadiana is 234 miles. Agrippa was a very 
painstaking man, and also a very eareful geographer ; 
who therefore could believe that when intending to 
set before the eyes of Rome a survey of the world 
he made a mistake, and with him the late lamented 
Augustus ? for it was Augustus who completed the 
portico" containing a plan of the world that had 
been begun by his sister in accordance vnih the 
design and memoranda of Marcus Agrippa. 

III. The okl shape of Hither Spain has been con- Western 
siderably altered, as has been that of several provinces, ^" "" 
in as much as Pompey the Great on histrophies which 

he set up in the Pyrenees testified that he had brought 
into subjection 876 towns between the Alps and the 
borders of Further Spain. Today the whole province 
is divided into seven jurisdictions, namely those of 
Cartagena, Tarragon, Saragossa, Clunia, Astorga, 
Lugo, Braga. In addition there are the islands which 
will be mentioned separately, but the province itself 
contains, besides 293 states dependent on others, 
189 towns, of which 12 are colonies, 13 are towns of 
Iloman citizens, 18 have the old Latin rights, one is 
a treaty town and 135 are tributary. 

The first people, on the coast, are the Bastuli, and DUtricts. 
after them in the following order proceeding inland 
come the Mentesani, the Qretani, the Carpetani 

17 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

Tagum Carpetani, iuxta eos Vaccaei, Vettones et 
Celtiberi Arevaci. oppida orae proxima Urci, 
adscriptumque Bacticae Barea, regio Bastitania, 
mox deinde Contestania, Carthago Nova colonia, 
cuius a promunturio quod Saturni vocatur Caesaream 
Mauretaniae urbcm cxxxxxvii p. traiectus. reliqua 
in ora flumen Tader, colonia inmunis Ilici, unde 
Ilicitanus sinus ; in eam contribuuntiu- Icositani. 

20 mox Latinorum Lucentum, Dianium stipendiarium, 
Sucro fluvius et quondam oppidum, Contestaniae 
finis. regio Edetania amoeno praetendente se 
stagno, ad Celtiberos recedens. Valentia colonia 
fn p. a mari rcmota, flumen Turium, et tantundem 
a mari Saguntura civium Romanorum oppidum 

21 fide nobile, flumen Udiva. regio Ilergaonum, 
Hiberus amnis navigabili commercio dives, ortus 
in Cantabris haut procul oppido luliobrica, per 
ccccL p. flucns, navium per cctx a Vareia oppido 
capax, quem propter universam Hispaniam Graeci 
appellavere Ilibcriam. regio Cessetania, flumen 
Subi, colonia Tarracon, Scipionum opus, sicut 
Carthago Poenorum. regio Ilergetum, oppidum 
Subur, flumen Rubricatum, a quo Laeetani et 

22 Indigetes. post eos quo dicetur ordine intus rece- 
dentes radice Pyrenaei Ausetani, lacetani perque 



• Rather than surrender to Hannihal, tho SaRiintines set 
fire to their town and perishcd in the flames, 219 B.c. The 
town was rebuilt oight years later. 

i8 



BOOK III. iii. 19-22 

on the Tagus, and iiext to thcm the Vaccaei, the 
Vettones and the Celtiberian Arevaci. The to^vns 
nearest the coast are Urci and Barea that belongs to 
Baetica, then the district of Bastitania, next after 
which comes Contestania and the colony of New 
Carthage, from the promontory of which, called the 
Cape of Saturn, the crossing to Caesarea, a city of 
Mauretania, is 197 miles. There remain to be 
mcntioncd on the coast the river Tader and the 
tax-free colony of Ihci, from which the Ihcitan Gulf 
takes its name ; to this colony the Icositani are 
subordinate. Next come Lucentum, with Latin 
rights, Dianium, a tributar)' town, the river Sucro 
and in former days a to^NTi of the same name, forming 
the boundary of Contestania. The district of Ede- 
tania comes next, with a lovely expanse of lake in 
front of it, and reaching back to Celtiberia. The 
colony of Valencia three miles from the sea, the river 
Turium, Saguntum, also three miles from the sea, 
a town with Roman citizensliip, famous for its loyalty," 
and the river Udiva. The district of the Ilergaones, 
the river Ebro, rich in ship-borne trade, rising in the 
district of the Cantabri not far from the to^^Ti of 
Juhobrica, with a com-se of 450 miles, for 260 of which 
from the town of Vareia it is navigable for ships, and 
because of it the Greelcs have called the whole of 
Spain by the name of Iberia. Next the district of 
Cessetania, the river Subi, the colony Tarragon, 
which was founded by the Scipios, as Cartagena was 
by the Cartliaginians. The district of thc Ilergetes 
comes next, the town of .Subur and the river Ilubri- 
catum, after which begin the Laeetani and the Indi- 
getes. After them in the foUowing order proceeding 
inland from the foot of the Pyrenees are the Ausetani, 

19 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Pyrenaeum Cerrctani, dein Vascones. in ora autem 
colonia Barcino cognomine Faventia, oppida civium 
Romanorum Baetido, Iluro, flumen Arnum, Blandae, 
flumen Alba, Emporiae, geminum hoc veterum 
incolarum et Graecorimi qui Phocaeensium fuere 
suboles, flumen Ticer. ab eo Pyrenaea Venus in 
latere promunturi altero xL. 

23 Nunc per singulos conventus reddentur insignia 
praeter supra dicta. Tarracone disceptant populi 
XLii, quorum celeberrimi civium Romanorum Derto- 
sani, Bisgargitani, Latinorum Ausetani, Cerretani 
qui luliani cognominantur et qui Augustani, Edetani, 
Gerundenses, Gessorienses, Teari qui lulienses, 
stipendiariorura Aquicaldenses, Aesonenses, Baecu- 
lonenses. 

24 Caesaraugusta colonia immunis amne Hibero 
adfma ubi oppidum antea vocabatur Salduba, 
regionis Edctaniae, recipit populos lv, ex his 
civium Romanoruni Bilbilitanos, Celsenses ex colonia, 
Calagurritanos qui Nasici cognominantur, Ilerdenses 
Surdaonum gentis iuxta quos Sicoris fluvius, Oscenses 
regionis Suessetaniae, Turiassonenses ; Latinorum 
vcterum Cascantenses, Ergavicenses, Graccurritanos, 
Leonicenses, Osicerdenses; foederatos Tarracenses; 
stipendiarios Arcobrigenses, Andclonenses, Arace- 
litanos, Bursaonenses, Calagurritanos qui Fibula- 
20 



BOOK III. III. 22-24 

the Jacetani, the Cerretani along the Pyrenees, and 
then the Vascones. On the coast is the colony of 
Barcelona, sm-named Faventia, the Roman to^\Tis of 
Badalona and Iluro, the River Arnum, Blandae, the 
river Alba, Amporias, one part of which is inhabited 
by the origlnal natives and the other by Grecks 
descended from the Phocaeans, and the niver Ticer. 
From it Cabo de Cruz on the other side of the 
promontoiy is 40 miles distant. 

We will now take the jurisdictions in order and give Administra- 
noteworthy facts about them in addition to those diiiswns. 
mentioned above. Forty-two peoples are subject to 
the jurisdiction of the coiu-ts of Tarragona ; of them 
the best known are — with the rights of Roman 
citizens, the people of Tortosa and the Bisgargitani ; 
^vith Latin rights, the Ausetani, the Cerretani 
surnamed Juhani, and those surnamed Augustani, 
the Edetani, Gerundenses, Gessorienses, and Teari 
or JuUenses ; tributaries, the Aquicaldenses, 
Aesonenses and Baeculonenses. 

Caesaraugusta, a colony that pays no taxes, is Saragossa, 
washed by the river Ebro ; its site was once occu- 
pied by a to\vn called Salduba, belonging to the 
district of Edetania. It is the centre for 55 peoples ; 
of these with the rights of Roman citizens are the 
Bilbihtani, the Celsenses (once a cok)ny), the Cakigur- 
ritani (surnamed Nasici), the Ilerdenses belonging to 
the race of the Surdaones next to the river Sicoris, 
the Oscenses of thc district of Suessetania, and the 
Turiassonenses ; with the old Latin rights are the 
Cascantenses, Ergavicenses, Graccurritani, Leoni- 
censes and Osicerdenses ; bound by treaty are 
the Tarracenses ; tributary are the Arcobrigenses, 
Andelonenses, Aracehtani, Bursaonenses, Calagurri- 

VOL. XI, B 21 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

renses cognominantur, Conplutenscs, Carenses, 
Cincienses, Cortonenses, Damanitanos, Ispallenses, 
Ilursenses, Iluberitanos, lacetanos, Libienses, Pompe- 
lonenses, Segienses. 

25 Carthagincm conveniunt populi l.vs' exceptis in- 
sularum incolis : ex colonia Accitana Gemellense, ex 
Libisosana cognomine Foroaugustana, quibus duabus 
ius Italiae datum, ex colonia Salariense, oppidani 
Latii vctcris Castulonenses qui Caesarii luvenales 
appellantur, Saetabitani qui Augustani, Valerienses. 
stipendiariorum autem celeberrimi Alabanenses, 
Bastitani, Consaburrenses, Dianenses, Egelestani, 
Ilorcitani, Laminitani, Mentesani qui et Oretani, 
Mentesani qui ct Bastuli, Oretani qui et Germani 
cognominantur, caputque Celtiberiae Segobrigenses, 
Carpetaniae Toletani Tago Humini inpositi, dein 
Viatienses et Virgilienses. 

26 In Cluniensem conventum Varduli ducunt populos 
XIV, ex quibus Alabancnses tantum nominare 
libeat, Turmogidi iv, in quibus Segisamonenses et 
Segisamaiulienses. in eundem conventum Carietes 
et Vennenses v civitatibus vadunt, quarum sunt 
Velienses. eodem Pelcndones Celtibcrum iv populis, 
quorum Numantini fucre clari, sicut in Vaccaeorum 
XVII civitatibus Intcrcatienses, Palantini, Lacobri- 

27 genses, Caucenses. iam^ in Cantabricis vii populis 
luliobriga sola memoretur, in Autrigonuni x civitati- 
bus Tritium et Virovesca. Arevacis nomen dedit 

^ liackham : nam. 
33 



BOOK III. iii. 24-27 

tani surnamed Fibularenses, Conplutenscs, Carenses, 
Cincienses, Cortonenses, Damanitani, Ispallenses, 
Ilursenses, Iluberitani, Jacetani, Libienses, Pom- 
pelonenses and Segienses. 

At Cartagena assemble sixty-five peoples, not Cartagma. 
including inhabitants of islands : from the colony of 
Accitana Gemellensis and from Libisosana named 
Foroaugustana, to both of which Itahc rights have 
been given, from the colony of Salaria ; townsmen 
with the rights of old Latium, the Castulonenses, also 
calledCaesarii Juvenales.theSaetabitaniorAugustani, 
and the Valerienses. Of the tributary peoples the 
best kno^m are the Alabanenses, Bastitani, Con- 
saburrenses, Dianenses, Egelestani, Ilorcitani, 
Laminitani, Mentesani or Oi-etani, Mentesani or 
BastuH, thc Oretani surnamed Gcrmani, and the 
people of Segobriga, capital of Celtiberia, the people 
of Toletum on the Tagus, the capital of Carpetania, 
and then the Viatienses and the Virgihenses. 

To the jurisdiction of Corunna the Varduli bring corunna. 
fourteen peoples, of whom we would mention only the 
Alabanenses, and the Turmogidi bring four, including 
the Segisamonenses and the SegisamajuHenses. To 
the same jurisdiction go the Carietes and the Ven- 
nenses with five states, of whom tlie Vehenses form 
one. Thither too go the Pelendones of the Celti- 
berians vaih four peoples, of whom the Numantines 
were once famous, as among the seventeen states 
of the Vaccaei were the Intercatienses, Palan- 
tini, Lacobrigenses and Caucenses. Tlien among 
the Cantabrici, seven peoplcs, one state only, JuHo- 
briga, need be mentioncd, and Tritium and Viro- 
vesca among the ten states of the Autrigones. The 
Arevaci got tlieir name from the river Areva ; to 

23 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

fluviiis Areva ; horum vi oppida, Secontia et Uxama. 
quae nomina crebro aliis in locis usurpantur, prae- 
terea Segovia et Nova Augusta, Termes ipsaque 
Clunia Celtibcriae finis. ad oceanum reliqua ver- 
gunt \'ardulique ex praedictis ct Cantabri. 

28 lunguntur iis Asturum xxii populi divisi in Augus- 
tanos et Transmontanos, Asturica urbe magnifica; 
in his sunt Gigurri, Pescii, Lancienses, Zoelae. 
numerus omnis multitudinis ad ccxl liberonim 
capitum. 

Lucensis conventus populorum est xv, praeter 
Celticos et Lemavos ignobilium ac barbarae appella- 
tionis scd liberorum capitum ferme clxvi. 

Simili modo Bracarum xxiv civitates cclxxxv 
capitiun, ex quibus praeter ipsos Bracaros Biballi, 
Coelemi, Callaeci, I^quaesi, Limici, Querquerni 
citra fastidium nominentur. 

29 Longitudo citeriori Hispaniae est ad fincm Castu- 
lonis a Pyrenaeo dcvTi p. et ora paulo amphus, 
latitudo a Tarracone ad litus Olarsonis cccvii, e 
radicibus Pyrenaei, ubi cuneatur angustiis inter 
duo maria ; paulatim deinde se pandens, qua con- 
tingit ulteriorem Hispaniam tantundem et ainplius 
latitudini adicit. 

30 Metallis plumbi ferri aeris argenti auri tota ferme 
Hispania scatet, citerior et specularis lapidis, Baetica 
et minio. sunt et marmorum lapicidinae. universae 
Hispaniae Vespasianus imperator Augustus iactatum 

24 



BOOK III. iii. 27-30 

them belong six towns, Secontia and Uxama, com- 
mon names in other regions, also Segovia and Nova 
Augusta, with Termes and Corunna itself, the end of 
Celtiberia. The rest of the countiy stretches to- 
wards the ocean, and here are the Varduli of those 
alreadv mentioned and tlie Cant.ibri, 

Adjoining these are twenty-two peoples of the 
Astures, divided into the Augustani and the Trans- 
montani, ^\ith the splendid city of Asturica; these 
inchide the Gigurri, Pescii, Lancienses and Zoelae. 
The total number of the population amounts to 
240,000 free persons. 

The jurisdiction of Lucus contains 15 peoples, i-,ugo. 
unimportant andbearingoutlandish names, excepting 
tlie Celtici and Lemavi, but with a free population 
amounting to about 166,000. 

In a similar way the twenty-four states of Braga Braga. 
contain 285,000 persons, of whom besides the Bracari 
themselves may be mentioned, without wearjnng the 
reader, the BibaUi, Coelerni, Callaeci, Equaesi, Limici 
and Querquerni. 

The length of Hither Spain from the Pyrenees to THmensions 
the frontier of Cazlona is 007 miles, and a Httle more "spain. '" 
along the coast ; its breadth from Tarragon to tlie 
shore of Olarson is 307 miles, starting from the foot 
of the Pyrenees, where the countr}- forms the shape 
of a wedge between the two seas ; then gradually 
it videns out, and where it touches Further Spain it 
adds more than as much again to its breadth. 

Nearly the whole of Spain is covered with mines of Hinerais 
lead, iron, copper, silver and gold, Hither Spain pentnsuia. 
with muscovite mines also ; Baetica abounds in 
cinnabar as well. There are besides quarries of 
marble. His Majesty the Emperor Vespasian be- 

25 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

procellis rei publicae Latium tribuit. Pyrenaei 
montes Hispanias Galliasque disterminant promun- 
turiis in duo diversa maria proiectis. 

31 IV. Narbonensis provincia appellatur pars Gallia- 
rum quae interno mari adluitur, Bracata antea 
dicta, amne Varo ab Italia discreta Alpiunique vel 
saluberrimis Romano imperio iugis, a reliqua vero 
Gallia latere septentrionali montibus Cebenna et 
luribus, agrorum cultu, \iruruni morumque digna- 
tione, amplitudine opum nulli provinciarum post- 
ferenda breviterque Italia verius quam provincia. 

32 in ora regio Sordonum intusque Consuaranorum, 
flimiina Tetum, Vernodubrum, oppida Illiberis. 
magnae quondam urbis teiuie vestigium, Ruscino 
Latinorum, flumen Atax e Pyrenaeo Rubrensem 
permeans lacum, Narbo Martius decumanorum 
colonia xii p. a mari distans, flumina Araris, Liria. 

33 oppida de cetero rara praeiacentibus staguis. Agatha 
quondam Massiliensium et regio \'olcarum Tecto- 
sagum atque ubi Rhoda Rhodiorum fuit, unde dictus 
multo Galliarum fertilissimus Rhodanus amnis ex 
Alpibus se rapiens per Lcmannum lacum scgnemque 
deferens Ararem nec minus se ipso torrentes Isaram 
et Druantiam. Libica appellantur duo eius ora 

" From the linen breechea wom by the nativea. 
' L'£uing de Sigean. 

26 



BOOK III. III. 30-iv. 33 

stowed the rights of Latium on the whole of Spain 
when it had been storm-tossed by civil disorders. 
The frontier between the Spanish and the GaUic 
provinces is formed by the mountains of the P^Tcnees, 
with headlands projecting into the two seas on either 
side. 

IV. The part of the Gauls washed by the Medi- Southern 
terranean is entitled the province of Narbonne, geography, 
having pre\iously had the name of Bracata." It is ^^,-6^^""'^ 
di\ided from Italy by the river Var, and by the ranges 
of the Alps,a very secure protection for the Roman 
Empire, and from the rest of Gaul on the north by the 
Cevermes and Jura mountains. Its agriculture, the 
high repute of its men and manners and the vastness 
of its wealth make it the equal of any other province : 
it is, in a word, not so much a province as a part of 
Italy. On the coast there is the district of the Sor- 
dones, and more inland that of the Consuarani ; the 
rivers are the Tech and the Verdouble, and the towns 
Elne, the mere shadow of what was once a mighty city, 
and Castel Roussillon, which has Latin rights. Then 
come the river Aude, which flows from the Pvrenees 
through the lake Ilubrensis,'' Narbonne, a colony of 
the tenth legion twelve miles from the sea, and the 
rivers Herault and Lez. Apart from those mentioned 
there are but few towns, owing to the marshes that 
fringe the coast. There is Agde, formerly belonging 
to Marseilles, the district of the \'olcae Tectosages, 
and the former site of Rhoda, a colony of Rhodes, that 
has given its name to the Rhone, the most fertile river 
ofthetwo Gauls,which rushes from the Alpsthrough 
the Lake of Geneva,bringingalongthesluggish Saone 
and the Isere and Durance which are as rapid as itself. 
Of its mouths the two smaller are called Libica, 

27 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

modica, ex his alterum Hispaniense altenim Meta- 
pinimi, tertium idemque amplissimimi Massalio- 

34 ticum. sunt auctores et Heracleam oppidum in 
ostio Rhodani fuisse. ultra fossae ex Rhodano C- 
Mari opere et nomine insignes, stagnum Mastromela, 
oppidum Maritima Avaticormn, superque Campi 
Lapidei, Herculis proeliorum memoria, regio Anati- 
liorum et intus Dexivatium Cavarumque ; rursus a 
mari Tricorium et intus Tritollorum Vocontiorumque 
et Segovellaunorum, mox Allobrogum. at in ora 
Massilia Graecorum Phocaeensium foederata, pro- 

35 munturium Zao, Citharista portus, regio Camactuli- 
corum, dein Suelteri supraque Verucini. in ora 
autem Athenopolis Massiliensium, Forum luli octa- 
vanonmri coloniaquae Pacensis appellatur et Classica, 
amnis nomine Argenteus, regio Oxubiorum Ligauno- 
rumque, super quos Suebri, Quariates, Adunicates. 
at in ora oppidum Latinum Antipolis, regio Deciatium, 
amnis \'ariis ex Al})ium monte Caenia profusus. 

.36 In mediterraneo coloniae Arelate sextanonim, 
Baeterrae septimanorum, Arausio secundanorum, 
in agro Cavarum Valentia, Vienna Allobrogum. 
oppida Latina Aquae Sextiae Salluviorum, Avennio 
Cavarum, Apta lulia Vulgientium, Alaebaece Reio- 
rum ApoUinarium, Alba Helvorum, Augusta Tricas- 
tinorum, Anatilia, Aetea, Bonnani, Comani, CabelHo, 
28 



BOOK III. IV. 33-36 

one the Spanish, the otlier the Metapinian ; the third 
and largest is the Massahotic. Some authorities 
state that at the mouth of the Rhone there was once 
a tovm called Heraclea. Beyond are the canals 
leading out of the Rhone, famous as the work of 
Gaius Marius whose distinguished name they bear, 
Lake Mastromela and the to^\Ti of Maritima of the 
Avatici, and above are tlie Stony Plains, where 
tradition says that Herculcs fought battles, the 
district of the AnatiHi, and inland those of the 
Dexivates and Cavares. Returning to the sea we 
have the districts of the Tricoi-es and inland those of 
the Tritolli, Vocontii and Segovellauni, and afterthem 
the AUobroges. On the coast is Marseilles, fovmded 
by the Grceks of Phocaea and now a confederate 
city, then tJie promontoiy of Zao, the harbour of 
Citharista, the district of the Camactuhci, then the 
Suelteri and above tliem the Verucini. On the coast 
too are Athenopohs of the Massihans, Frejus, a 
colony of the eighth legion, called Pacensis and 
Chissica, a rivcr named Argenteus, the district of 
the Oxubii and Ligauni, beyond whom come the 
Suebri, Quariates and Adunicates. On the coast is 
the town of Antibes with I>atin rights, the district 
of tlie Deciates and the river Var, which rises in 
Mont Cenis in the Alps. 

The colonies in the interior are : Arles, the station 
of the sixth legion, Beziers of the seventh, Orange of 
the sccond, Valence in the territory of the Cavares, 
and Vienne in that of the Allobroges. The towns with 
Latin rights are Aix in the territory of the Salluvii, 
Avignon of the Cavares, Apt of the Vulgientes, Riez 
of the Rcii ApolHnares, Alba of the Helvi, Augusta 
of the Tricastini, AnatiHa, Aetea, the Bormani, the 

29 



PLINY: NATURAL IHSTORY 

Carcasum Volcarum Tectosagum, Cessero, Carpen- 
toracte Meminorum, Caenicenses, Cambolectri qui 

37 Atlantici cognominantur, Lorum Voconi, Glanum 
Libii, Lutevani qui et Foroneronienses, Ncmausum 
Arecomicorum. Piscinae, Ruteni, Samnagenses, To- 
losani Tectosagum Aquitaniae contermini, Tasgoduni, 
Tarusconienses, Umhranici, Vocontiorum civitatis 
foederatae duo capita Vasio et Lucus Augusti, 
oppida vcrc ignohilia xix sicut xxiv Ncmausensibus 
adtributa. adiccit formulae Galba imperator ex 
Inalpinis Avanticos atque Bodionticos, quorum 
oppidum Dinia. longitudincm provinciae Narbo- 
nensis ccclxx p. Agrippa tradit, latitudinem ccxlviii. 

38 V. Italia dehinc primique eius Ligures, mox 
Etruria, Umbria, Latium, ubi Tiberina ostia et Roma 
terrarum caput, 5cvi p. intervallo a mari. Volscum 
postca litus et Campaniac, Picentimun inde ac 
Lucanum Rruttiumque, quo longissime in meridiem 
ab Alpium paene lunatis iugis in maria cxcurrit 
Italia. ab eo Graeciae ora, mox Sallcntini, Pacdi- 
cuH,^ Apuli, Paeligni, Frentani, Marrucini, Vcstini, 
Sabini, Picentes, Galli, Umbri, Tusci, \'eneti. Carni, 

39 lapudes, Ilistri. Liburni. nec ignoro ingrati ac 
segnis animi existimari posse merito si obiter atque 
in transcursu ad Imnc modum dicatur terra omnium 
terrarum alimma eadem et parens, numine deum 
electa quae caelum ipsum darius faceret, sparsa 

1 Rackham (cf. 102) : Pediculi, Poediculi. 



" Now Toulouse. 

* Now Tara.scon. 

* Perhaf)s Vabrea. 
' bee § 102 n. 

30 



BOOK III. IV. 36- V. 39 

Comani, Cavaillon, Carcassonne of the Volcae 
Tectosages, Cessero, Cai-pentras of the Meminl, the 
Caenicenses, the Cambolectri sm-named Atlantici, 
Forum Voconi, Glanum Libii, the Lutevani also 
called Foroneronienses, Nimes of the Arecomici, 
Pezenas, the Ruteni, the Samnagenses, the Tolosani " 
of the Tectosages on the border of Aquitania, the 
Tasgoduni, the Tarusconienses,* the Umbranici,"^ the 
two capitals of the confederate state of the Vocontii, 
Vasio and Lucus Augusti ; and also unimportant 
to^\Tis to the number of 19, as well as 24 assigned to 
the people of Nimes. The Emperor Galba added 
to the list two peoples dwelHng in the Alps, the people 
of Avan^on and the IJodiontici, whose town is Digne. 
According to Agrippa the length of the province of 
Narbonne is 370 miles and the breadth 248. 

V. After this comes Italy, the first people of it itaiy: its 
being the Ligm-ians, after whom come Etruria, ^'^^^' 
Urabria and Latium, where are the mouths of the 
Tiber and Rome, the capital of the world, sixteen 
miles from the sea. Aftervvards come the coast of 
the Volsci and of Campania, then of Picenum 
and Lucania and the liruttii, the southernmost point 
to which Italy juts out into tlie sea from the almost 
orescent-shaped chain of the Alps. After the Bruttii 
comes the coast of Magna Graecia, followed by the 
Sallentini, PaedicuH,'' ApuH, PaeHgni, Frentani, 
Marrucini, Vestini, Sabini, Picentes, Gauls, Umbrians, 
Tuscans, Venetians, Carni, lapudes, Histri and Li- 
burni. I am well aware that I may with justice be 
considered ungrateful and lazy \1 I describe in this 
casual and cursoiy manner a land which is at once 
the nursHng and the mother of all other lands, chosen 
by the providence of the gods to make heaven itself 

31 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

congregaret imperia rittisque molliret et tot popu- 
lonmi discordes ferasque linguas sermonis com_ 
mercio contraheret ad coUoquia et humanitatem 
homini daret, breviterque una cimctarimi gentium 

40 in toto orbe patria fieret. sed quid agam? tanta 
nobilitas omnium locorum, — quos quis attigerit ? — 
tanta rerum singularum populorumque claritas tenet. 
urbs Roma vel sola in ea . . .* et digna iam tam 
festa cervice facies, quo tandem narrari debet opere ! 
qualiter Campaniae ora per se felixque illa ac beata 
amoenitas, ut palam sit uno in loco gaudentis opus 

41 esse naturae ! iam vero tanta ea vitalis ac perennis 
salubritas, talis caeli temperies, tam fertiles campi, 
tam aprici colles, tam innoxii saltus, tam opaca 
nemora, tam munifica silvarum genera, tot montium 
adfiatus, tanta frugum vitiumque et olearum fertilitas, 
tam nobilia pecudi vellera, tam opima tauris colla, 
tot lacus, tot amnium fontiumque ubertas totam 
eam perfundens, tot maria, portus, gremiumque 
terrarum commcrcio patens undique et tamquam 
iuvandos ad mortales ipsa avide in maria procurrens. 

42 neque ingenia ritusque ac viros et lingua manuque 
superatas commemoro gentes. ipsi de ea iudicavere 
Grai, genus in gloriam suam effusissimum, quotam 
partcm ex ea appcUando Graeciam Magnam! 

^ Lacunam MayhoJJ. 
32 



BOOK III. V. 39-42 

more glorious, to unite scattered empires, to make 
manners gentle, to draw together in converse 
by community of language the jarring and uncouth 
tongues of so many nations, to give mankind civihsa- 
tion, and in a word to become throughout the world 
the single fatherland of all the races. But what am 
I to do ? The great fame of all its places — who 
could touch upon them all ? — and the great renoA\Ti 
of tlie various things and peoples in it give me pause. 
In that Hst even the city of Rome alone, a . . . coun- Rome. 
tenance and one worthy of so glorious a neck, what 
elaborate description it merits ! In what terms to rhysieai 
describe the coast of Campania taken by itself, with ^anrciinmte 
its bhssful and heavenly lovehness, so as to manifest "/^'"'J'- 
that there is one region where nature has been at 
work in her joyous mood! And then again all that 
invigorating healthfulness all the year round, the 
cHmate so tempcrate, the plains so fertile, the hills 
so sunny, the glades so secure, the groves so shady ! 
Such wealth of various forests, the breezes from so 
many mountains, the great fertihty of its corn and 
vines and oHves, the glorious fleeces of its sheep, the 
stuidy necks of its bulls, the many lakes, the rich 
supply of rivers and springs flowing over all its surface, 
its many seas and harbours and the bosom of its 
lands oflering on all sides a welcome to commerce, 
the country itself eagerly running out into the seas as it 
were to aid mankind. I do not speak of the character 
and customs of its people, its men, the nations that 
its language and its might have conquered. The 
Greeks themselves, a people most prone to gushing 
self-praise, have pronounced sentence on the land by 
conferring on but a very small part of it the name of 
Great Greece ! The truth is that in this part of my 

33 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

nimirum id quod in caeli mentione fecimus hac 
quoque in parte faciendum est, ut notas quasdam 
et pauca sidera attinfjnmus. lep^entes tantum 
quaeso meminerint ad singula toto orbe edissertanda 
festinari. 

43 Est ergo folio maxume querno adsimilata, multo 
proceritate amplior quam latitudinc, in laevam se 
Hectens cacumine et Amazonicae figura desinens 
parmae, ubi a medio excursu Cocynthos vocatur, 
per sinus lunatos duo cornua emittens, Leucopetram 
dextra, Lacinium sinistra. patct longitudine ab 
Inalpino fme Praetoriae Augustae per urbem Ca- 
puamque cursu meante llegium oppichim in umero 
eius sitiun, a quo vehiti cervicis incipit flexus, dccies 
centena et viginti milia passuum, muhoque amphor 
meiisura ficret Lacinium usque, ni tahs obhquitas 

44 in hitus dcgrech vidcretur. hititudo eius varia est, 
quadringentorum decem mihum inter duo maria 
infcrum et supcrum amncsque Varum atque Arsiam, 
media autem ferme circa urbem Komam ab ostio 
Atemi amnis in Hadriaticum mare influentis ad 
Tiberina ostia c.\x.\vi, et paulo minus a Castro Novo 
Hadriatici maris Alsium ad Tuscum aequor, haud 
uUo in loco cc hititudincm excedcns. universae 
autem anil)itus a \'aro ad Arsiam ixxj xTJx p. efllcit. 

1.5 abest a cirrumdatis terris Histria ac Liburnia qui- 
busdam locis centcna miha, ab Epiro ct Illyrico 
quinquaginta, ab Africa minus ducenta, ut auctor 
est M. Varro, ab Sardinia centum viginti milia, ab 



" Shapcd like a crescent but with two curves and a pro- 
jcction lictwccn thcni on the inner sidc. 

* Thc tlircc projt( tions namcd arc now Piinta di Stilo, Capo 
dclle Colonne and Capo i\c\V Arnii. 

34 



BOOK III. V. 42-45 

subject also I must do what 1 did when I spoke about 
the heavens — touch upon particular points and only a 
few of the stars. I merely ask my readers to remem- 
ber that I am hastening on for the purpose of setting 
forth in detail all the contents of the entire world. 

In shape, then, Italy much resembles an oak leaf, Oeography 
being far longer than it is broad, bending towards the ^' 

left at its top and ending in the shape of an Amazon's 
shield," the projection in the centre being called 
Cocyntlios, while it sends out two horns along bays 
of crescent shape, Leucopetra on the right and 
Lacinium on thc left.'' Its length extends for 1020 
miles, beginning from Aosta at the foot of the Alps 
and passing through Rome and Capua in a winding 
course to the town of Reggio situated on its shoulder, 
where begins the curve, as it were, of the neck. The 
measure would be much greater if the line were 
carried on to Lacinium, but with that bend the line 
would seem to diverge to one side. The breadth 
varies, being four hundred and ten miles between 
the rivers Var and Arsa where they flow into the 
Mediterranean and the Adriatic, but about at the 
middle, in the neighbourhood of the city of Rome, 
from the mouth of the river Pescara, which flows into 
the Adriatic Sea, to the mouths of the Tiber, its 
breadth is 136 miles, and a Httle less from Castrum 
Novum on the Adriatic Sea to Palo on the Tuscan 
Sea, in no place exceeding a width of 200 miles. 
The circuit of the entire coast from the Var round to 
the Arsa is 2049 miles. Its distanccs from the 
countries that surround it are as follows : from Istria 
and Liburnia in certain places 100 niiles, from Epirus 
and Illyricum, 50 miles, from Africa, according to 
Marcus Varro, less than 200, from Sardinia 120, from 

35 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Sicilia MD, a Corcyra minus l\xx, ab Issa L. incedit 
per maria caeli regione ad meridiem quidem, sed, 
si quis id diligenti subtilitate exigat, inter sextam 
horam primamque brumalem. 

46 Nunc ambitum eius urbesque eniunerabimus, qua 
in re praefari necessarium est auctorem nos divimi 
Augustum secuturos, discriptionemque ab co factam 
Italiae totius in regiones xi, sed ordine eo qui litorum 
tractu fiet ; urbium quidem vicinitates oratione 
utique praepropera servari non posse, itaque interiore 
exin parte digestionem in litteras eiusdem nos 
secuturos, coloniarum mentione signata quas ille 
in eo prodidit numcro. nec situs originesque 
persequi facile est Ingaunis Liguribus — ut ceteri 
omittantur — agro tricies dato. 

47 Igitur ab amne Varo Nicaea a Massiliensibus 
conditum, fluvius Palo, Alpes populique Inalpini 
multis nominibus, sed maxime Capillati ; oppidum 
Vediantiorum civitatis Cemenilo, portus Herculis 
Monoeci, Ligustina ora. Ligurtmi celebcrrimi ultra 
Alpes Sallui, Deciates, Oxubi, citra ^'eneni, Turri, 
Soti, Vagienni,Statielli,Binbelli, Maielli,Cuburriates, 
Casmonates, Velleiates et quorimi oppida in ora 

48 proxime diccmus. flumcn Rutuba, oppidum Album 
Intimilium, flumen Merula, oppidum Album In- 
gauniun, portus Vadorum Sabatium, flumen Porcifera, 



• Now Lissa. aii island in the Adriatic. 

* About b.E., 80 the line, mcaut is S.S.E. 



36 



BOOK III. V. 45-48 

Sicily 1-|, from Corcyra less than 80, from Issa " 50. 
It stretches through the seas in a southerly direction, 
but a more careful and accurate calculation would 
place it between due south and sunrise * at midwinter. 

We will now give an account of a circuit of Administra- 
Italy, and of its cities. Herein it is necessary to andcities. 
premise that we intend to foUow the authority of his 
late Majesty Augustus, and to adopt the division that 
he made of the whole of Italy into eleven regions, 
but to take them in the order that will be suggested 
by the coast-hne, it being indeed impossible, at all 
events in a very cursory account, to keep the neigh- 
bouring cities together ; and so in going on to deal 
with the inland districts we shall follow the 
Emperor's alphabetical arrangement, adopting the 
enumeration of the colonies that he set out in that 
hst. Nor is it easy to trace their sites and origins, 
the Ligurian Ingauni, for example — not to mention 
the other peoples — having received gi*ants of land 
on thirty occasions. 

Therefore starting from the river Var we have Nice, Liguria. 
founded by the people of Marseilles, the river Pag- 
hone, the Alps and the Alpine tribes with many 
names, of which the chief is the Long-haired ; Cimiez, 
the town of the state of the Vediantii, the port of 
Hercules of Monaco, and the Ligurian coast. Of 
the Ligurians beyond the Alps the most famous are 
the Sallui, Deciates and Oxubi ; on this side, the 
Veneni, Turri, Soti, Vagienni, StatieHi, BinbelH, 
Maielli, Cuburriates, Casmonates, Velleiates, and 
the tribes whose towns on tlie coast we shall mention 
next. The river Royas, the town of Ventimigha, 
the river Merula, the town of Albenga, the port of 
Vai or Savona, the river Bisagna, the town of Genoa, 

37 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

oppidum Genua, fluvius Fertor, portus Delphini, 
Tigulia intus et Segesta Tigulliorum, flumen Macra, 
Liguriae finis. a tergo autem supra dictorum 
omnium Appenninus mons Italiae amplissimus 
perpetuis iugis ab Alpibus tendens ad Siculum 

49 iretum. ab altero eius latere ad Padum amnem 
Italiae ditissimum omnia nobilibus oppidis nitent, 
Libarna, Dertona colonia, Iria, \'ardacate, Industria. 
Pollentia, Correa quod Potentia cognominatur, 
Foro Fulvi quod \'alentinum, Augusta Bagicn- 
norum, Alba Pompcia. Hasta, Aquis Statiellorum. 
haec regio ex discriptione Augusti nona est. patet 
ora Liguriae inter amnes \'arum et Macram ccxi p. 

50 Adnectitur septima, in qua Etruria est ab amne 
Macra, ipsa mutatis saepe nominibus. Umbros 
inde exegere antiquitus Pelasgi, hos Lydi, a quorum 
rege Tvrreni, mox a sacrifico ritu lingua Ciraecorum 
Tusci ^ sunt cognominati. primum Etruriae oppi- 
dum Luna, portu nobile, colonia Luca a mari recedens 
propiorque Pisae inter amnes Auserem et Arnum 
ortae a Pelopidis sive a Teutanis, Graeca gente, 
vada Volaterrana, fluvius Caecina, Populonium, 

51 Etruscorum quondam hoc tantum in litore. hinc 
amnes Prile, mox Umbro navigiorum capax, et ab 
eo tractus Umbriae portusque Telamo, Cosa Volcien- 
tium a populo Uomano deducta, Graviscae, Castrum 
Novum, Pvrgi, ("aeretanus amnis et ipsum Caere 
inlus m. p. vii Agylla a Pelasgis conditoribus dictum, 

1 Thusci edd. 



• QvooKooi, from dvtiv (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. I. 30). 

* Now the Sercliio, a triltutary of the Amo. 
' Now the village of Vadi. 

' Now the Vaccina. 



38 



BOOK III. V. 48-51 

the i-iver Fertor, Porto Fino, Tigulia inland, Scstri di 
Levante, and the river Magra, which is the boundary 
of Liguria. Behind all the above-mentioned lie thc 
Apennines, the largest range of mountains in Italy, 
extending in an unbroken chain from the Alps to the 
Straits of Messina. On one side of the range, along 
the Po, the richest river of Italy, the whole country 
is studded with famous and flourishing towns : 
Libarna, the colony of Dertona, Iria, Vardacas, 
Industria, Pollenza, Correa surnamed Potentia, 
Forum Fulvi or Valenza, Augusta of the Bagienni, 
Alba Pompeia, Aste, Acqui. Under the partition of 
Auffustus this is the ninth reirion. The coast of Lie;uria 
extends 211 miles between the rivers Var and Magra. 

The adjoining region is the seventh, in which is Eiruria. 
Etruria, beginning at the river Magra, a district that 
has often changed its name. From it in ancient 
times the Umbri were driven out by the Pelasgi, and 
these by the Lydians, who after a king of theirs were 
styled Tvrrheni, but later in the Greek language 
Tusci," from their ritual of offering sacrifice. The 
first to^ra in Etruria is Luni, famous for its harbour; 
then the colony of Lucca, some way from the sea and 
nearer to Pisa, between the rivers Auser* and Arno, 
which owes its origin to the Pelopidae or to the 
Greek tribe of the Teutani ; then come the Marshes 
of \'olterra,'^ the river Cecina and Piombino, once 
the onlv Etruscan towTi on the coast. After these 
is the river Prile, and then the navigable river 
Ombrone, at which begias the district of Umbria, 
the port of Telamone, Cosa of the Volcientes, founded 
by the Iloman people, Graviscae, Castrum Novum, 
Pyrgi, the rivcr"^ and the town of Caere, seven 
miles inland, called Agylla by the Pelasgians who 

39 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Alsium, Fregenae, Tiberis amnis a Macra cclxxxiv p. 
Intus coloniae Falisca Argis orta (ut auctor est Cato) 
quae cognominatur Etruscorum, Lucus Feroniae, 

52 Rusellana, Seniensis, Sutrina. de cetero Arretini 
Veteres, Arretini Fidentiores, Arretini lulienses, 
Amitinenses, Aquenses cognomine Taurini, Blerani, 
Cortonenses, Capenates, Clusini Novi, Clusini Veteres, 
Florentini praefluenti Amo adpositi, Faesulae, 
Ferentinum, Fescennia, Hortanum, Herbammi, Ne- 
peta, Novem Pagi, Praefectura Claudia Foroclodi, 
Pistorium, Perusia, Suanenses, Saturnini qui antea 
Aurini vocabantur, Subertani, Statonenses, Tar- 
quinienses, Tuscanienses, \'etulonienses, Veientani, 
\'cscntini, Volaterrani, Volcentani cognomine Etrusci, 
Volsinienses. in eadem parte oppidorum veteinim 
nomina retinent agri Crustuminus, Caletranus. 

63 Tiberis antea Thybris appellatus et prius Albula 
e media fere longitudine Appennini flnibus Arre- 
tinonim profluit, tenuis primo nec nisi piscinis 
corrivatus emissusque navigabilis, sicuti Tinia et 
Glanis influentes in eum, novenorum ita conceptu 
dicrum, si non adiuvent imbres. sed Tiberis propter 
aspera et confragosa ne sic quidem praeterquam 
trabibus verius quam ratibus longe meabilis, fertur 
per cLp.,non procul Tiferno Perusiaque et Ocriculo, 
Etruriam ab Umbris ac Sabinis, mox citra xvi p. 

• Now Arezzo. * Cortona. 

• Chiusi. ^ Florence. 

• Fiesole. ' Volterra. 

Bolsena. 

40 



BOOK III. V. 51-53 

founded it, Alsium, Fregenae, and the river Tiber, 
284 miles from the Magra. Inland are the colonies 
of Falisca, founded according to Cato by the Argives 
and surnamed Falisca of the Etruscans, Lucus 
Feroniae, Rusellana, Siena and Sutria. The remain- 
ing people are the Arretini " Veteres, Arretini 
I"identiores, Arretini Julienses, Amitinenses, 
Aquenses surnamed Taurini, Blerani, Cortonenses,* 
Capenates, Clusini "^ Novi, Clusini Veteres, the 
Florentini <* on the bank of the Arno that flows 
by, Faesulae,* Ferentinum, Fescennia, Hortanum, 
Herbanimi, Nepi, Nine Villages, the Claudian 
Prefecture of Foroclodium, Pistorium, Perugia, the 
Suanenses, the Saturnini formerly called the Aurini, 
the Subertani, Statonenses, Tarquinienses, Tus- 
canienses, V^etulonienses, Veientani, Vesentini, 
\ olaterrani,-^ the Volcentani surnamed Etrusci, and 
Volsinienses.!' In the same district the territories of 
Crustumium and Caletra still keep the names of the 
ancient towns. 

The Tiber, the former name of which was Thybris, The nver 
and before that Albula, rises in about the middle of ^*'"'^" 
the Apennine chain in the territor}' of Arezzo. At first 
it is a narrow stream, only navigable when its water 
is dammed by sluices and then discharged, in the 
same way as its tributaries, the Tinia and the Chiana, 
the waters of which must be so collected for nine days, 
imless augmented by showers of rain. But the Tiber, 
owing to its rugged and uneven channel, is even so 
not navigable for a long distance, except for rafts, 
or rather logs of wood ; in a course of 150 miles 
it divides Etruria from the Umbrians and Sabines, 
passing not far from Tifernum, Perugia and Ocri- 
culuin, and then, less than 16 miles from Rome, 

41 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

54 urbis Veientem agrum a Crustumino, dein Fidenatem 
Latinumque a Vaticano dirimens, sed infra Arretinum 
Glanim duobus et quadraginta fluviis auctus, praeci- 
puis autem Nare et Aniene, qui et ipse navigabilis 
Latium includit a tergo, nec minus taraen aquis 
ac tot fontibus in urbem perductis, et ideo quam- 
libet magnarum navium ex Italo mari capax, reriun 
in toto orbe nascentium mercator placidissimus, 
pluribus prope solus quam ceteri in omnibus terris 

55 amnes accolitur adspiciturque villis. nullique fluvio- 
rum minus licet inclusis utrimque lateribus ; nec 
tamen ipse pugnat, quamquam creber ac subitus 
incrementis et nusquam magis aquis quani in ipsa 
urbe stagnantibus. quin inimo vates intellcgitur 
potius ac monitor, auctu semper religiosus verius 
quam saevus. 

56 Latiimi Antiquum a Tiberi Ccrccios scrvatum est 
m. p. L longitudine: tam tenues primordio imperi 
fuere radices. colonis saepe mutatis tenuere alii aliis 
temporibus, Aborigines, Pelasgi, Arcades, Siculi, 
Aurunci, Rutuli, et ultra Cerceios Volsci, Osci, 
Ausones, unde nomen Lati processit ad Lirim 
amnem. in principio est Ostia colonia a Romano 
rege deducta, oppidum Laurentum, lucus lovis 
Indigetis, amnis Numicius, Ardea a Danae Persei 
42 



BOOK III. V. 54-56 

separates the territorv' of Veii from that of Crustum- 
ium, and afterwards that of Fidenae and Latium 
from Vaticanum. But below the confluence of the 
Chiana from Arezzo it is augmented by forty-two 
tributaries, the chief being the Nera and the Severone 
(which latter is itself navigable, and encloses Latium 
in the rear), while it is equally increased by the 
aqucducts and the numerous springs carried thi-ough 
to the citv ; and consequently it is navigable for 
vessels of whatever size from the Mediterranean, 
and is a most tranquil trafficker in the produce of all 
the earth, with perhaps more villas on its banks 
and overlooking it than all the other rivers in the 
whole world. And no river is more circumscribed 
and shut in on either side ; yet of itself it offers no 
resistance, though it is subject to frequent sudden 
floods, the inundations being nowhere greater than 
in the city itself. But in truth it is looked upon 
rather as a prophet of warning, its rise being always 
construed rather as a call to religion than as a threat 
of disaster. 

01(1 Latium has preserved the original limits, ununi. 
extending from the Tiber to Cerceii, a distance of 
50 miles ; so exiguous at the beginning were the 
roots of the Empire. Its inhabitants have often 
changed: at various times it has been occupied by 
various peoples — the Aborigines, the Pelasgi, the 
Arcades, the Sicuh, the Aurunci, the IlutuH, and 
beyond Circello the \'o!sci, Osci and Ausones, owing 
to which the name of Latium came to be extended as 
far as the river Garigliano. To begin with there is 
Ostia, a colony founded by a Iloman king, the town 
of Laurentum, the grove of Jupiter Indiges, the river 
Nimiicius, arid Ardea, founded by Danae the mother 

43 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

67 matre condita. dein quondam Aphrodisiimi, An- 
tium colonia, Astura flumen et insula, fluvius Nym- 
phaeus, Clostra Romana, Cercei quondam insula 
inmenso quidem mari circumdata, ut crcditur Ho- 
mero, et nunc planitie. mirum est quod hac de 
re tradere hominum notitiae possumus. Thco- 
phrastus, qui primus externorum ahqua de Romanis 
dihgentius scripsit — nam Theopompus, ante quem 
nemo mentionem habuit, urbem dumtaxat a GalHs 
captam dixit, CHtarchtis ab eo proximus legationem 
tantum ad Alexandrum missam — hic iam phis quam 

58 ex fama Cerceiorum insulae et mensuram posuit 
stadia lxxx in eo volumine quod scripsit Nicodoro 
Atheniensium magistratu qui fuit urbis nostrae 
ccccxL anno. quicquid ergo terrarum est praeter 
X p. ambitus adnexum insulae post cum annum ac- 

59 cessit Itahae. aHud miracuhim a Cerccis palus 
Pomptina est, quem locum xxiv urbium fuissc 
Mucianus ter consul prodidit. dein flumen Aufen- 
tum, supra quod Tarracina oppidum Hngua Vols- 
corum Anxur dictuin, et ubi fuere Amyclae sive 
Amynclae a serpcntibus deletac, dein locus Spelun- 
cae, lacus Fundanus, Caieta portus, oppidum Fomiiae 
Hormiae dictum, ut existimavere, antiqua Laestry- 
gonum sedes. uUra fuit oppidum Pirac, cst colonia 
Minturnae Liri amne divisa Clani oHm ^ appellato, 

' Mayhoff: Glanico. 

" Thia was inferred from the idcntificatiun of tho namo with 
Homer'8 Circe. 

44 



BOOK III. V. 56-59 

of Perseus. Then comes the site of whnt was once 
Aphrodisium, the colony of Antium, the river and 
island called Astura, the river Ninfa, the Roman 
Buhvarks, Circello, once an island surrounded by a 
boundless sea," if we are to beheve Homer, but now 
surrounded by a plain. The facts that we are able 
to pubHsh for the information of the world on this 
matter are remarkable. Thcophrastus, the first 
foreigner to write ^Wth special care about the Romans 
— for Theopompus, before whom nobody mentioned 
them, merely states that Rome was taken by the 
Gauls, and CHtarchus, the next after him, only that 
an embassy was sent to Alexander — Theophrastus, 
I say, relying on more than rumour, has actually 
given the measurement of the island of Circello as 
80 furlongs in the volume that he \\Tote in the 
archonship of Nicodorus at Athens, which was the 
440th year ^* of our city. Whatever land therefore 
has been joined to the island beyond the circum- 
ference of 10 miles was added to Italy after that 
year. Another mar\'el not far from Circello is the 
Pomptine Marsh, a place which Mucianus, who was 
three times consul, has reported to be the site of 24 
cities. Then comes the river Aufentum, above which 
is the town of Tarracina, called Anxur in the dialect 
of the \^olsci, and the site of Amyclae, or Amynclae, 
the town destroyed by serpents, then the place 
called the Grottoes, Lake Fundanus, the port of 
Gaeta, the town of Formiae, called also Hormiae, 
the ancient abode, it has been thought, of the Laestry- 
gones. Beyond this formerly stood the town of 
Pirae,andstillexists the colony of Minturnae,through 
which runs the river Liris, once called Clanis ; and 

» 314 B.c. 

45 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Sinucssa, extremum in Adiecto Latio, quam quidam 
Sinopen dixcrc vocitatam. 

60 Hinc felix illa Campania est, ab hoc sinu incipiunt 
vitiferi colles et temulentia nobilis suco per omnis 
terras incluto, atque (ut veteres dixere) summimi 
Liberi Patris cum Cerere certamen. hinc Sctini et 
Caecubi protenduntur agri ; his iunguntur Falemi, 
Caleni. deinconsurgunt Massici,Gaurani Surrentini- 
que montes. ibi Leborini campi stcrnuntur et in 
delicias alicae poHtur messis. haec htora fontibus 
cahdis rigantur, praeterque cetera in toto mari 
conchyho et pisce nobih adnotantur. nusquam 
generosior oleae hquor est,^ hoc quoque certamen 
humanae voluptatis. tenuere Osci, Graeci, Umbri, 

61 Tusci, Campani. in ora Savo fluvius, V^olturnum 
oppidumcuniamne, Liternum, Cumae Chalcidensium, 
Misenum, portus Baiarum, BauH, lacus Lucrinus ct 
Avernus, iuxta quem Cimmerium oppidum quondam, 
dein Puteoh colonia Dicaearchea dicti, postque 
Phlegraei campi, Acherusia palus Cumis vicina. 

62 htore autem Neapolis Chalcidensium et ipsa, Parthe- 
nope a tumulo Sirenis appellata, Herculaneum, 
Pompei haud procul spectato monte \'esuvio, 
adluente vero Sarno amne, ager Nucerinus et ix p. 
a mari ipsa Nuceria, Surrentum cum promunturio 

> Mayhijf : ot. 
46 



BOOK III. V. 59-62 

Sinuessa, the last tovn in the Extension of Latium, 
and stated by some authorities to have becn once 
styled Sinope. 

Thcn comcs the favoured country of Campania ; Campania. 
in this valley begin those vine-clad hills with their 
glorious ^^nne and wassail, famous all the world over, 
and (as old writers have said) the scene of the severest 
competition between Father Liber and Ceres. From 
this point stretch the territories of Sezza and Caecu- 
bum, with which march the Falernian and those of 
Cahi. Then rise up Monte Massico, Monte Barbaro 
and the hills of Sorrento. Here spread the plains of 
Leborium. where the wheat crop is sedulously tended 
to produce dcHcious frumity. These shores are 
watered by hot springs, and are noted beyond all 
others throughout the whole of the sea for their 
famous shell and other fish. Nowhere is there nobler 
ohve oil — another competition to gratify man's 
pleasure. Its occupants have been Oscans, Greeks, 
Umbrians, Tuscans and Campanians. On the coast 
are the river Saove, the town of Volturno with the 
river of the same name, Liternum, the Chalcidian 
colony of Ciunae, Miseno, the port of Baiae, Bacolo, 
the Lucrine lake, Lake Averno near which fonnerly 
stood the to^^Ti of Cimmerium, then PozzuoH, formerly 
called the Colony of Dicaearchus ; after which come 
the plains of Salpatara and the Lago di Fusaro near 
Cumae. On the coast stands Naples, itself also a 
colony of the Chalcidians, named Parthenope from 
the tomb of one of the Sirens, Herculaneum, Pompei 
with Mount Vesuvius in view not far off and watered 
by the river Sarno, the Nucerian territory and nine 
miles from the sea Nocera itself, and Sorrento with 
the promontory of Minerva that once was the abode 

47 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Minervae Sirenum quondam sede. navigatio a 
03 Cerceis li de lxxx patet. regio ea a Tiberi prima 
Italiae servatur ex discriptione Augusti. 

Intus coloniae Capua ab xL p. campo dicta, Aqui- 
num, Suessa, Venafrum, Sora, Teanum Sidicinum 
cognomine, Nola ; oppida Abellinum, Aricia, Alba 
Longa, Acerrani, Allifani, Atinatcs, Alctrinates, 
Anagnini, Atellani, Aefulani, Arpinates, Auximates, 
Abellani, Alfaterni (et qui ex agro Latino item 
Hemico item Labicano cognominantur), Bovillae, 
Caiatiae, Casinum, Calenum, Capitulum Ilernicum, 
Cereatini qui Mariani cognominantur, Corani a 
Dardano Troiano orti, Cubulterini, Castrimoenienses, 

64 Cingulani, Fabienses in monte Albano, Foropopulien- 
ses ex Falerno, Frusinates, Ferentinates, Freginates, 
Fabraterni Veteres, Fabraterni Novi, Ficolenses, 
Fregellani, Forum Appi, Forentani, Gabini, Interam- 
nates Sucasini qui et Lirenatcs vocantur, Ilionenses, 
Lanivini, Norbani, Nomentani, Pracnestini urbe 
quondam Stephane dicta, Privernates, Setini, Signini, 
Suessulani, Telesini, Trebulani cognomine Ballienses, 

65 Trebani, Tusculani, Verulani, \'cliterni, Ulubrenses, 
Urbanates, superque lloma ipsa, cuius nomen 
alterura diccre nisi ^ arcanis caerimoniarum nefas 
habetur, optimaque et salutari fide abolitum enun- 
tiavit Valerius Soranus, luitque mox poenas. non 

' nisi add. Mommsen adl. C.I.L. 
48 



BOOK III. V. 62-65 

of the Sirens. From this place the distance by sea 
from Cerceii is 78 miles, This region, beginning from 
the Tiber, under the partition made by Augustus is 
regarded as the first region of Italy. 

Inland are the following colonies : Capua, so named 
from its forty miles of plain (campus), Aquino, Suessa, 
Venafro, Sora, Teano surnamed Sidicinum, and Nola ; 
and the to^vTis of AbelHnum, Aricia, Alba Longa, the 
Acerrani, the Alhfani, the Atinates, the Aletrinates, 
the Anagnini, the Atellani, the Aefulani, the Arpi- 
nates, the Auximates, the Abellani, the Alfaterni 
(both those that take their surname from the Latin 
territorjs and from the Hernican, and from the 
Labican), Bo\illae, Caiatiae, Casinum, Calenum, 
Capitulimi of the Hernici, the Cereatini who have the 
surname of Mariani, the Corani descended from the 
Trojan Dardanus, the Cubulterini, the Castrimoenien- 
ses, the Cingulani, the Fabienses on Mount Albanus, 
the Foropopulienses from the Falernian district, 
the Frusinates, the Fcrentinates, the Freginates, the 
Old Fabraterni, the New Fabraterni, the Ficolenses, 
the Fregellani, Forum Appi, the Forentani, the 
Gabini, the Interamnates Sucasini, also called the 
Lirenates, the Ilionenses, the Lanivini, the Norbani, 
the Nomentani, the Praenestini with their city once 
called Stephane, the Privernates, the Setini, the 
Signini, the Suessulani, the Telesini, the Trebulani 
surnamed Ballienses, the Trebani, the Tusculani, the 
Verulani, the Veliterni, the Ulubrenses, the Urban- 
ates ; and besides all these Rome itself, whose other 
name it is held to be a sin to utter except at the 
ceremonies of the mysteries, and when Valerius 
Soranus divulged the secret religiously kept for the 
weal of the state, he soon paid the penalty. It seems 

49 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

alienum videtur inserere hoc loco exeniplum religionis 
antiquae ob hoc maxime silentium institutae: nam- 
que diva Angerona, cui sacrificatur a. d. xii kal. lan., 
ore obligato obsignatoque simulacrum habet. 

66 Urbem iii portas habentem Romulus rehquit, ut 
plurimas tradentibus credamus, iv. moenia eius 
collegere ambitu imperatoribus censoribusque Ves- 
pasianis anno conditae dcccxxvi m. p. xiircc, con- 
plexa montes septem. ipsa dividitur in regiones 
quattuordecim, compita Larum cclx\'. eiusdem 
spatium mensura currente a mihario in capite 
Romani fori statuto ad singulas portas, quae sunt 
hodie numero xxxaii ita ut Duodecim semel nume- 
rentur praetereanturque ex veteribus vii quae esse 
desierunt, efficit passuum per directum xx.M.Dca.xv. 

67 ad extrema vero tectorum cum castris praetoriis ab 
eodem mihario per vicos omnium viarum mensura 
colhgit paulo amphus lx p. ; quod si quis altitudinem 
tectonmi addat, dignam profecto aestimationem con- 
cipiat, fateaturque nulhus urbis magnitudinem in 
toto orbe potuisse ei comparari. clauditur ab oriente 
aggere Tarquini Supcrbi inter prima opere mirabih ; 
namque eum muris aequavit qua maxime patebat 
aditu plano. cetero munita erat praecelsis muris 

" I.e. Vespasian and Titus, ■who was sahited Emperor after 
the siege of Jerusalem, and was assoeiated \rith his father in 
the govemment, and shared the duties of the censorship. 

» A.D. 73. 

* Chap)ei8 of the Lares Compitales stood at plaoes where 
two or more streets crossed. 

* These were double gates. 

50 



BOOK III. V. 65-67 

pertinent to add at this point an instance of old 
religion established especially to inculcate this silence: 
the goddess Angerona, to whom sacrifice is ofFered 
on December 21, is represented in her statue with a 
sealed bandage over her mouth. 

Romulus left Rome possessing three or, to accept Torngraphy 
the statement of the authorities putting the number 
highest, four gates. The area surrounded by its 
walls at the time of the principate and censorship 
of the Vespasians," in the 826th year ^" of its foundation, 
measured 13 miles and 200 yards in circumference, 
embracing seven hills. It is itself divided into 
fourteen regions, with 265 crossways v/ith their 
guardian Lares.<^ If a straight Hne is drawn from 
the milestone standing at the head of the Roman 
Forum to each of the gates, which to-day number 
thirty-seven (provided that the Twelve Gates "^ be 
counted only as one each and the seven of the old 
gates that exist no longer be omitted), the result 
is a total of 20 miles 765 yards in a straight line. 
But the total length of all the ways through the 
districts from the same milestone to the extreme 
edge of the buildings, taking in the Praetorians' 
Camp, amounts to a Httle more than 60 miles. If 
one were further to take into account the height of 
the buildings, a very fair estimate would be formcd, 
that would bring us to admit that thcre has been no 
city in the wholc world that coukl be compared to 
Rome in magnitude. On the east it is bounded by 
the Dyke of Tarquinius Superbus, a work among 
the leading wondcrs of the world, for he made it as 
high as the walls where the approach was flat and the 
city lay most open to attack. In other directions 
it had the protection of lofty walls or else of precipi- 

51 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

aut abruptis montibus, nisi quod exspatiantia tecta 
multas addidere urbes. 
GS In prima regione praeterea fuere in Latio clara 
oppida Satricum, Pometia, Scaptia, Politoriimi, 
Tellena, Tifata, Caenina, Ficana, Crustumerium, 
Ameriola, MeduUimi, Corniculum, Saturnia ubi 
nunc Roma est, Antipolis quod nunc laniculum in 
parte Romae, Antemnae, Camerium, Collatia, Ami- 

69 tinum, Norbe, Sulmo; et cum iis carnem in monte 
Albano soliti accipere populi Albenses, Albani, 
Aesolani, Accienses, Abolani, Bubetani, Bolani, 
Cusuetani, Coriolani, Fidenates, Foreti, Hortenses, 
Latinienses, Longulani, Manates, Macrales, Mu- 
nienses, Numinienses, OUiculani, Octulani, Pedani, 
Polluscini, Querquetulani, Sicani, Sisolenses, Toleri- 
enses, Tutienses, VimitcUari. Velienses, Venetulani, 

70 Vitellenses. ita ex antiquo Latio liii populi interiere 
sine vestigiis. 

In Campano autem agro Stabiae oppidum fuere 
usque ad Cn. Pompeium L. Catonem coss. pr. kal. 
Mai., quo die L. Sulla legatus bello sociali id delevit 
quod nunc in villam abiit. intercidit ibi et Taurania ; 
sunt morientes Casilini reliquiae. praeterea auctor 
est Antias oppidum Latinorum Apiolas captum a 
L. Tarquinio rege, ex cuius praeda Capitolium is 
inchoaverit. a Surrentino ad Silerum amnem xxx 
m. p. ager Picentinus fuit Tuscorum, templo lunonis 



■ The refcrcnce is to Tibur, Aricia and otiicr places 
absorbed in the spreading suburbs. 

* l.e. to share in sacrifices. 

' An old town betwecn Pompei and Sorrento. 

* m B.o. 
5« 



BOOK III. V. 67-70 

tous hills, except for the fact that the increasing 
spread of buildings has added a number of cities 
to it.'» 

The first region formerly included the following Latium, 
celebrated towns of Latium besides those mentioned : 
Satricum, Pometia, Scaptia, Politorium, Tellena, 
Tifata, Caenina, Ficana, Crustumerium, Ameriola, 
Medullum, Comiculum, Saturnia on the site of the 
present Rome, Antipolis, which to-day is Janiculum 
and a part of Rome, Antemnae, Camerium, Collatia, 
Amitinum, Norbe, Sulmo; and together with these 
the Alban peoples who were accustomed to ' receive 
flesh ' ^ on the Alban Hill, namely the Albani, 
Aesolani, Accienses, Abolani, Bubetani, Bolani, 
Cusuetani, Coriolani, Fidenates, Foreti, Hortenses, 
Latinienses, Longulani, Manates, Macrales, Muni- 
enses, Numinienses, Olliculani, Octulani, Pedani, 
Polluscini, Querquetulani, Sicani, Sisolenses, Toleri- 
enses, Tutienses, Vimitellari, Vehenses, Venetulani, 
Vitellenses. Thus 53 peoples of Old Latium have 
perished without leaving a trace. 

In the Campanian territory the town of Stabiae ' Campania. 
existed right dovm to April 29 in the consulship'' 
of Gnaeus Pompeius and Lucius Cato, when Lieu- 
tenant-General Lucius Sulla in the AlHes' War 
destroyed the place that has now been reduced 
to a farmhouse. Here also was Taurania, which has 
now perished ; and the remains of Casihnum are in 
process of disappearance. Furthermore, Antias 
records that the Latin town of Apiolae was captured 
by King Lucius Tarquinius, who used the spoils of 
it to begin building the Capitol. The 30 miles of 
Picentine territory between the district of Sorrento 
and the river Silaro belonged to the Etruscans ; it 

voL. II. C 53 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Argivae ab lasone condito insignis. intus oppidum 
Salerni, Picentia. 

71 A Silcro rcgio tertia et ager Lucanus Bruttiusque 
incipit, nec ibi rara incolarum mutatione. tenuerunt 
eum Pelasgi, Oenotri, Itali, Morgetes, Siculi, Grae- 
ciae maxime populi, novissime Lucani a Samnitibus 
orti ducc Lucio. oppidum Paestum Graecis Posi- 
donia appellatum, sinus Paestanus, oppidum Elea 
quae nunc Velia, promunturium Palinurum, a quo 
sinu recedente traiectus ad Columnam Regiam c 

72 m. p. ; proximum autem flumen Melpes, oppidum 
Buxentum Graeciae Pyxus, Laus amnis — fuit et 
oppidum eodem nomine. ab eo Bruttium litus, 
oppidum Blanda, flumen Baletum, portus Parthenius 
Phocensium, sinus Vibonensis, locus Clampetiae, 
oppidum Tempsa a Graecis Temese dictum et 
Crotoniensium Terina sinusque ingens Terinaeus. 

73 oppidum Consentia intus. in peninsula fluvius 
Acheron, a quo oppidani Acherontini ; Hippo, quod 
nunc Vibonem Valentiam appellamus ; portus Her- 
cuHs, Metaurus amnis, Tauroentum oppidum, portus 
Orestis et Medma; oppidum Scyllaeum, Crataeis 
fluvius, mater (ut dixere) Scyllae ; dein Columna 
Regia, Siculum fretum ac duo adversa promunturia, 
ex Itaha Caenus, e SiciHa Pelorum, xii stadiorum 

74 intervallo ; unde Rhegium xciii. Inde Appennini 

* The modem Repgio, ece § 86 note. 
' Now the Arconte. 

* Perhaps Punta dei Pezzo. 
' Capo di Faro. 

54 



BOOK III. V. 70-74 

was famous for the temple of Argive Juno founded by 
Jason. Further inland was Picentia, a town of Salerno. 

At the Silaro bejiriiis the third recrion, the Lucanian Pt '^*"-^ 
and Bruttian territory ; in this too there have been 
frequent changes of population. It has been 
occupied by Pehisgi, Oenotri, ItaU, Morgetes, SicuH, 
and mostly by peoples of Greece, and most 
recently by the Lucani, Samnite in origin, whose 
leader was Lucius. The town of Paestum (callcd 
Posidonia by the Greeks), the bay of Paestum, 
the town of Elea, now VeHa, Cape PaHnuro, from 
which across the bay that here stretches inland the 
distance to the Royal Pillar" is 100 miles. Next 
is the river Melpes, the town of Buxentum (the 
Greek name of which is Pyxus) and the river Laus — 
there was once a town also of the same name. Here 
begins thecoastof theBruttii,with the to^vnof Blanda, 
the river Baletum, the port of Parthenius, founded 
by the Phocians, the Bay of Vibo, the site of Clam- 
petia, the town of Tempsa (the Greek name of which 
is Temese), and Terina, founded by the people of 
Croton, and the extensive Bay of Terina ; and inland 
the to\vn of Cosenza. On a peninsula is the river 
Acheron,* which gives its name to the township 
of the Acherontians ; Hippo, which we now call 
Vibo Valentia; the Port of Hercules, the river 
Metaurus, the town of Tauroentum, the Port of 
Orestes, and Medma ; the to\vn of ScyUaeum and 
the river Crataeis, known in legend as the Mother 
of Scylla ; then the Royal Pillar, the Straits of 
Messina and the two opposing headlands, Caenus'^ 
on the Itahan and Pelorum "^ on the SiciHan side, the 
distance between them being li miles ; Reggio is 
ll^ miles away. Next comes tlie Apennine forest 

55 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

silva Sila, proinunturiuiu Leucopetra xv p. ab ea, 
Li Locri, cognominati a promunturio Zephyrio ; 
absunt a Silaro ccciii. et includilur Europae sinus 
primus. 

In eo maria nuncupantur: unde inrumpit, Atlan- 
ticum, ab aliis Magnuin ; qua intrat, Porthmos a 
Graecis, a nobis Gaditanum frelum ; cum intravit, 
Hispaniun quatenus Hispanias adluit, ab aliis Hiberi- 
cum aut Baharicum ; mox Gallicum ante Narbonensem 

75 provinciam, hinc Ligusticum ; ab eo ad Siciliam 
insulam Tusciun, quod ex Graecis alii Notium ahi 
Tyrreniun, e nostris plm-umi Inferum vocant. ultra 
Siciliam quod est ad Sallentinos Ausonium Polybius 
appellat, Eratosthenes autem inter ostium oceani 
et Sardiniam quicquid est Sardoum, inde ad Siciham 
Tyrrcnum, ab hac Cretam usque Siculum, ab ea 
Creticum. 

76 Insulae per haec maria primae omnium Pityussae 
Graecis dictae a frutice pineo, nunc Ebusus vocatur 
utraque, civitate foederata, angusto freto inter- 
fluente. patent xlvi, absunt ab Dianio dcc stadia, 
totidem Dianium per continentem a Carthagine 
nova, tantundem a Pityussis in altum Bahares 

77 duae et Sucronem versus Colubraria. Bahares 



" Sce § 5 fin. * Ulrvts. 

' Iviza ; thc modcrn numc of thc smallcr island is Formcntcra. 



56 



BOOK III. V. 74-77 

of Sila, and the promontory of Leucopetra 15 miles 
from it, and Epizephyrian Locri (called after the 
promontory of Zephyrium) 51 miles ; it is 303 miles 
from the rivcr Silaro. And this rounds off the 
first gulf " of Europe. 

The names of the seas that it contains are as Divisiomof 
follows : that from which it makcs its entrance is the j/Jf^''^ 
Atlantic, or as others call it, the Great Sea; the roncan. 
strait by which it enters is called by the Greeks 
Porthmos and by us the Straits of Cadiz ; after it has 
entered, as far as it washes the coast of the Spains 
it is called the Spanish Sea, or by others the Iberian 
or the Balearic Sea ; then the GaUic Sea as far as the 
Province of Narbonne, and afterwards the Ligurian 
Sea ; from that point to the Island of Sicily the 
Tuscan Sea, which some of the Greeks call the 
Southern Sea and others the Tyrrhenian, but most 
of our ovn\ pcople the Lower Sea. Beyond Sicily, 
as far as the south-eastern point of Italy Polybius 
calls it the Ausonian Sea, but Eratosthenes calls all 
the part betMcen the ocean inlet and Sardinia the 
Sardoan Sea, from Sardinia to Sicily thc Tyrrhenian, 
from Sicily to Crete the Sicihan, and beyond Crete 
the Cretan. 

The first of allthe islands scattered over these seas sixiy-four 
are called \nt\\ the Greeks the Pityussae, from the ''^^ing 
pinetrees * that grow on them; each of these '/'^■Sai«<»""- 
islands is now named Ebusus,"^ and in treaty with 
Rome, the channel between them being narrow. 
Their area is 46 miles, and their distance from Denia 
87| xniles, which is the distance by land from Denia 
to New Carthage, while at the same distanoe from 
the Pityussae out to sea are the two Balearic islands, 
and opposite the River Xucar hes Colubraria. The 

57 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

funda bellicosas Graeci G}Tnnasias dixere. maior 
c p. est longitudine, circuitu vero cccclxxv m. ; oppida 
habet civium Romanorum Palmam et Pollentiam, 
Latina Cinium et Tucim, et foederatum Bocchorum 
fuit. ab ea xxlx distat minor, longitudine xl, circuitu 
cl; civitates habet lamonem, Saniseram, Magonem. 

78 a maiore xii in altum abest Capraria insidiosa 
naufragiis, et e regione Palmae urbis Menariae ac 
Tiquadra et parva Hannibalis. 

Ebusi terra serpentes fugat, Colubrariae parit, 
ideo infesta omnibus nisi Ebusitanam tcrram in- 
ferentibus ; Graeci Ophiussam dixere. nec cunicolos 

79 Ebusus gignit populantis Baliarium messes. sunt 
aliae viginti ferme parvae mari vadoso, Galhae 
autem ora in Rhodani ostio Metina, mox quae 
Blascorum vocatur, et tres Stoechades a vicinis 
Massihensibus dictae propter ordinem quo sitae 
sunt. nomina singulis Prote, Mese quae et Pom- 
poniana vocatur, tertia Hypaea ; ab his Iturium, 
Phoenice, Phila, Lero et Lerina adversum AntipoHm, 
in qua Berconi oppidi memoria. 

80 VI. In Ligustico mari est Corsica quam Graeci 
Cyrnon appellavere, sed Tusco propior, a septen- 



" Their sUngcrs served as mercenaries under the Carthag- 
inians, and l&teT for Rome. 

* The Iles d^Hyfres. 

' Sainte Marj^erite de Lerins. 

* Saint Honorat de L#orins. 

58 



BOOK III. V. 77-vi. 80 

Balearic islands, formidable in warfare with the 
sling," have been designated by the Greeks the 
Gymnasiae. The larger island, Majorca, is 100 
miles in length and 475 in circumference. It contains 
towTis of Roman citizen colonists, Palma and Pollenza, 
towns with Latin rights, Sineu and Tucis ; a treaty 
town of the Bocchi, no longer existing. The smaller 
island, Minorca, is 30 miles away from Majorca ; 
its length is 40 miles and its circumference 150 ; 
it contains the states of lamo, Sanisera and Port 
Mahon. Twelve miles out to sea from Majorca is 
Cabrera, treacherous for shipwrecks, and right off 
the city of Palma He the Malgrates and Dragonera 
and the small island of El Torre. 

The soil of Iviza drives away snakes, but that of 
Colubraria breeds snakes, and consequently that 
island is dangerous to all people except those who 
bring earth from Iviza; the Greeks called it 
Snake Island. Iviza does not breed rabbits either, 
which ravage the crops of the Balearics. The sea is 
full of shoals, and there are about twenty other small 
islands ; off the coast of Gaul at the mouth of the 
Rhone is Metina, and then the island named Brescon, 
and the three * which the neighbouring people 
of Marseilles call the Row of Islands because 
of their arrangement, their Greek names being 
First Island, Middle Island, also called Pomponiana, 
and the third Ilypaea ; ncxt to these are Iturium, 
Phoenica, Lero,*^ and opposite Antibes Lerina,"^ 
on which according to local tradition there was once 
a toAvn called Berconum. 

VI. In the Ligurian Sea, but adjoining the Tuscan, Corsica and 
is the island of Corsica, the Greek name of which is fj^nds. 
Cyrnos ; it Ues in a line from north to south, and is 

59 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

trione in meridiem proiecta, longa passuum cL, lata 
maiore ex parte L, circuitu cccxxv ; abest a Vadis 
Volaterranis ExiT. civitates habet xxaii et colonias 
Marianam a C. Mario deductam, Aleriam a dictatore 
Sulla, citra est Oglasa, intra vero, et lx p. a Corsica, 
Planasia a specie dicta, aequalis freto ideoque 

81 navigiis fallax. amplior Urgo et Capraria, quam 
Graeci Aegilion dixere, item Igilium et Dianium 
quam Artemisiam, ambae contra Cosanum litus, et 
Barpana, Menaria, Columbaria, Venaria, Ilva cum 
ferri metallis, circuitus c, a Populonio x, a Graecis 
Aethalia dicta ; ab ea Planasia xxviii. ab his ultra 
Tiberina ostia in Antiano Astura, mox Palmaria, 

82 Sinonia, adversum Formias Pontiae. in Puteolano 
autem sinu Pandateria, Prochyta, non ab Aeneae 
nutrice sed quia profusa ab Acnaria erat, Aenaria 
a statione navium Aeneae, Homcro Inarime dicta, 
Pithecusa, non a simiarum multitudine (ut aHqui 
existimavere) sed a fighnis doliorum. inter Pausily- 
pum et Neapohm Megaris, mox a Surrento viTi 
distantes Tiberi principis arce nobiles Capreae 

83 circuitu xi m., Leucothea, extraque conspectum, 
pelagus Africum attingens, Sardinia minus vTTi p. 
a Corsicae extremis, etiamnimi angustias eas artanti- 
bus insuhs parvis quae Cuniculariae appellantur 

" The distance is really about 90 miies. 

' In Etruria, now Torre di Vada. 

' Now Ventotiene. 

■* //. II. 783, where however tiie more probable reading is 
(Iv 'Apt/xo'? — Arima is said to be a voleanic region in Cilicia 
or elsewherc. Virgil likc Pliny, rcad EtVapi'/xoij, as he calls 
the island Inarime, Aen. IX. 716; it is the modcrn Iscliia. 

• ttiOtjkoi. 

^ -nido^, TTiOaKvT], a jar. 

* Now Castel del Ovo. 

6o 



BOOK III. VI. 80-83 

150 miles long and at most points 50 miles broad : 
its circumference measures 325 miles ; it is 62 " 
miles from the Shallows of Volterra.* It contains 
32 states, and the colonies of Mariana founded by 
Gaius Marius and Aleria founded by Sulla when 
Dictator. Nearer the mainland is Oglasa, and inside 
that, and 60 miles from Corsica, Pianosa, so named 
from its appearance, as it is level with the sea and 
consequently treacherous to vessels. TJien La 
Gorgona, a larger island, and Capraia, the Greek 
name of which is Aegihon, and also Giglio and 
Gianuto, in Gi-eek Artemisia, both opposite the coast 
at Cosa, and Barpana, Menaria,Columbaria, Venaria, 
Elba with its iron mines, an island 100 miles round 
and 10 miles from Populoniimi, called by the Greeks 
Aethalia ; the distance between Elba and Pianosa 
is 28 miles. After these beyond the mouths of the 
Tiber and off the coast of Antium is Astura, then 
Palmarola, Senone, and opposite to Formiae Ponza. 
In the gulf of PozzuoU are Pandateria,'^ Prochyta 
(so called not after Aeneas's nurse but becaase it was 
formed of soil dcpositcd by the current from Aenaria), 
Aenaria (named from having given anchorage 
to the fleet of Aeneas but callcd Inarime in Homer'^ 
and Pithecusa (named not from its multitude of 
monkeys,"^ as some people have supposed, but from 
its pottery / factories). Between Posilippo and Naples 
is Megaris s ; then, 8 miles from Sorrento, Capri, 
celebrated for the Emperor Tiberius's castle — the 
island is 11 miles round ; Leucothea ; and out 
of sight, being on the edge of the African Sea, 
Sardinia, which is less than 8 miles from the end of 
Corsica, and moreover the channel is narrowed by 
the small islands called the Rabbit Warrens, and also 

61 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

itemque Phintonis et Fossae, a quibus fretum 
ipsum Taphros nominatur. 

84 VIL Sardinia ab oriente patens clxx.v\'Iii p., ab 
occidente clxxv, a meridie lxxviT, a septentrione 
cxxv, circuitu uLXv, abest ab Africa Caralitano pro- 
munturio cc, a Gadibus |xivi . habet et a Gorditano 
promunturio duas insulas quae vocantur Herculis, a 

85 Sulcensi Enosim, a Caralitano Ficariam. quidam 
haut procul ab ea et Berclida ponunt et Callodem 
et quam vocant Heras Lutra. celcbcrrimi in ea 
populorum Ihenses, Balari, Corsi oppidorum xviii, 
Sulcitani, Valentini, Neapolitani, Vitenses, Caralitani 
civium R., et Norenses, colonia autem una quac 
vocatur Ad Turrem Libisonis. Sardiniam ipsam 
Timaeus Sandaliotim appellavit ab effigie soleae, 
Myrsilus Ichnusam a similitudine vestigi. contra 
Paestanimi sinum Leucasia est a Sirene ibi sepulta 
appellata, contra Veliam Pontia et Isacia, utraeque 
uno nomine Oenotrides, argumentum possessae ab 
Oenotris Italiae, contra Vibonem parvae quac 
vocantur Ithacesiae ab UHxis specula. 

86 VIII. \'erum ante omncs claritate Sicilia, Sicania 
a Thucvdide dicta, Trinacria a pluribiis aut Trinacia 
a triangula specie, circuitu patens, ut auctor est 



" Perhaps Isola Rossa. 

* The Straits of Bunifaccio, Fretum Gallicum. 

* One of these islands now haa the narac of Torricella. 

62 



BOOK III. VI. 83-viii. 86 

by the islands of Caprera, and Fossa,*» from which 
comes the Greck name of the Straits * themselves, 
Taphros. 

VII. The east coast of Sardinia is 188 miles long, Sardinia. 
the west coast 175, the south coast 77 and the north 
coast 125; its circumference is 565 miles ; and at 
Cape Carbonara its distance from Africa is 200 
miles and from Cadiz 1400. It also has two islands 

off Capo Falcone called the Islands of Hercules, 
one off La Punta delFAlga called Santo Antiocho, 
and one off Cape Carbonara called Coltelalzo. Near 
it some authorities also place the island sof BereHs, *■ 
Callodcs and ihe one called the Baths of Hera. 
The best-known peoples in Sardinia are the Ilienses, 
Balari, Corsi (who occupy 18 towns), Sulcitani, 
Valentini, Neapolitani, Vitenses, Caralitani (who 
have the Roman citizenship), and the Norenses ; 
and one colony called At Libiso's Tower. Sardinia 
itself was called by Timaeus Sandahotis, from the 
similarity of its shape to the sole of a shoe, and by 
MjTsihis Ichnusa, from its resemblance to a footprint. 
Opposite to the Bay of Paestum is La Licosa, called 
after the Siren buried there ; and opposite Veha 
are Pontia and Isacia, both included imder the one 
name of the Oenotrides, which is evidencc that Italy 
was once in the possession of the Oenotri ; and 
opposite to Vibo are the small islands called the 
Isles of Ithaca, from the >vatch-tower '^ of Ulysses 
that stands there. 

VIII. But before all the islands of the Mediter- sidUj: 
ranean in renowi stands Sicily, called by Thucydides ^geography; 
Sicania and by a good many authors Trinacria or 
Trinacia from its triangular shape. The measure- 

ment of its circuroference, according to Agrippa, is 

63 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 



Agrippa, Dxxviii p., quondam Bruttio agro cohaerens, 
mox interfuso mari avulsa xv in longitudinem freto, 
in latitudinem autem md p. iuxta Columnam Regiam : 
ab hoc dehiscendi argumento Rhcgium Graeci 

87 nomen dedere oppido in margine Italiae sito. in 
eo freto est scopulus Scylla, item Charybdis mare 
verticosum, ambo clara sacvitia. ipsius triquetrae, 
ut diximus, promunturium Pelorum vocatur adversus 
Scyllam vergens in Italiam, Pachynum in Graeciam, 
ccccxL ab eo distante Peloponneso, Lilybaeum in 
Africam clxxx intervallo a Mcrcuri promunturio et a 
Caralitano Sardiniae cxc m. inter se autem haec 
promunturia ac latera distant his spatiis : terreno 
itinere a Peloro Pachynum cLXXXvi, inde Lilybaeum 
cc, inde Pelorum cxlii. 

88 Coloniae ibi v, urbes ac civitates lxiii. a Pcloro 
mare lonium ora spectante oppidum Messana civium 
R. qui Mamertini vocantur, promunturium Dre- 
panum, colonia Tauromenium quae antea Naxos, 
flumen Asines, mons Aetna nocturnis mirus incendiis : 
crater eius patet ambitu stadia viginti, favilla Tauro- 
menium et Catinam usque pervenit fervens, fragor 

89 v-ero ad Maroneum et Gcmcllos colles. scopuh 
tres Cyclopum, portus Uhxis, colonia Catina, flumina 
Symaethum, Terias. intus Laestrygoni campi. op- 

*» Now Reggio ; to the Greck ear it suggests ' Brcach ' as 
if from p-qyvvfii. 

^ § 73. * Now Capo di Passaro. 

^ Now Cape Bon, really only 78 miles from the Capo di 
Boco Marsala in Sicily. 

64 



BOOK III. viii. 86-89 

528 miles. In former times it was attached to the 
southern part of Italy, but later it was separated 
from it by an overflow of the sea, forming a strait 
15 miles long and l^ miles wide at the Royal 
Pillar; this monument of the formation of the ga]i 
is the origin of the Greek name of the town situated 
on the Itahan coast, Rhegium." In these Straits 
is the rock of Scylla and also the whirlpool of 
CharA'bdis, both notoriously treacherous. Sicily 
itself is triangular in shape, its points being the 
promontory mentioned before * named Pelorimi, 
pointing towards Italy, opposite Scylla, Pachynum'^ 
towards Greece, the Morea being 440 miles away, 
and Lilybaeum towards Africa, at a distance of 180 
miles from the Promontoiy of Mercury '^ and 190 
from Cape Carbonara in Sardinia. The following are 
the distances of these promontories from one another 
and the length of the coast hnes : frora Pelorum 
to Pachynum by land is 186 miles, from Pachynum 
to Lilybaeum 200 miles, and from Lilybaeum to 
Pelorum 142 miles. 

Sicily contains five colonies and sixty-three cities cireuit of 
and states. Starting from Pelorum, on the coast facing '^"'^* ' 
the lonian Sea is the town of Messina, whose denizens 
called Mamertines have the Roman citizenship, 
the promontor}'^ of Trapani, the colony of Taormina, 
formerly Naxos, the river Alcantara, and Mount 
Etna with its wonderful displays of fire at night : 
the circuit of its crater measures 2| miles ; the 
hot ashes reach as far as Taormina and Catania, 
and the noise to Madonia and Monte di Mele. 
Then come the three Rocks of the Cyclopes, the 
Harbour of Ulysses, the colony of Catania, and the 
rivers Symaethum and Terias. Inland are the 

65 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

pida Leontini, Megaris, amnis Pantacyes, colonia 
Syracusae cum fonte Arethusa (quamquam et 
Temenitis et Archidemia et Magea et Cyane et 
Milichie fontes in Syracusano potantur agro), portus 
Naustathmus, flunien Elorum, proniunturium Pachy- 
nmn, a qua fronte Siciliae flumen Hyrminum, oppidum 
Camarina ; fluvius Gelas, oppidum Acragas quod 

90 Agrigentum nostri dixere ; Thermac colonia ; amnes 
Achates, Mazara, H^-psa, Sehnuus ; oppidum Lily- 
baeum, ab eo promunturium ; Drepana, mons Eryx, 
oppida Panhormum, Soluus, Himera cmn fluvio, 
Cephalocdis, Aluntium, Agathyrnum, Tyndaris co- 
lonia, oppidum Myhie et unde coepimiis Pelorias. 

91 Intus autem Latinae condicionis Centuripird, 
Netini, Segestani, stipendiarii Assorini, Aetnenses, 
Agyrini, Acestaei, Acrenses, Bidini, Cetarini, Dre- 
panitani, Ergetini, Echethenses, Erycini, Entelhni, 
Enini, Egguini, Gelani, Galateni, Halesini, Hennen- 
ses, Hyblenses, Herbitenses, Herbessenses, Herbulen- 
ses, Hahcuenses, Hadranitani, Imacarenses, Ipanen- 
ses, letenses, Mutustratini, Magelhni, Murgentini, 
Mutycenses, Menanini, Naxi, Noini, Petrini, Paro- 
pini, Phintienses, Semehtani, Schcrini, Sehnunti, 
Symaethii, Talarenses, Tissinenses, Triocahni, Tyra- 
cinenses, Zanclaei Messeniorimi in Siculo freto 
sunt. 

92 Insulae ad Africam versae Gaulos, Melita a 
Camerina lxxxvii , a Lilybaeo cxiii, Cossyra, Hicron- 
nesos, Caene, Gal;ita, Lepadusa, Aclhusa quam ahi 

" Now Girgenti. 
* ' Hot springs,' now Termini. 
' Now 8an Juliano. 

•^ Tlie identification is uncertain, but Tauromenium wua 
said to be a colony from Naxoa. 

66 



BOOK III. VIII. 89-92 

Laestrygonian Plains. Then there are the to"\vns of 
Lentini, Megaris, the river Porcaro, the colony of 
Syracuse A\ith the Spring of Arethasa (althoiigh 
the territory- of Syracuse is also supplied with water 
by the springs of Temenitis, Archidemia, Magea, 
Cyane and Mihchie), the harbour of Naustathmus, 
the river Elorum, the promontory of Pachynum. 
On this side of Sicily are the river Hyrminus, the town 
of Camarina, the river Gclas ; the toMTi of Acragas, 
called Agrigentum " in our language; the colony 
of Thermae ; * the rivers Achates, Mazara, Hypsa 
and SeHnus ; the to^\Ti of Lilybaeum and the 
promontory to -which it gives its name ; Trapani, 
Mount Eryx,*^ the toMTis of Palermo, Solunto, 
Himera vrith its river, Cephaloedis, Aluntium, 
Agath)-mum; the colony of Tindari, the town of 
Melazzo, and the district of Pelorum from which we 
began. 

In the interior the towns having Latin rights are inienor; 
those of the Centuripini, Netini and Segestani ; 
tributaries are Asaro, Nicolosi, Argiro, the Acestaei, 
the Acrenses, the Bidini, the peoples of Cassaro, 
Trapani, Ergetium, Orchula, Er>^x, Entella, Castro 
Giovanni, Gangi, Gela, Galata, Tisa, Hermae, Hybla, 
Nicosia, PantaHca, Herbitenses, Saleni, Aderno, 
Imacara, Ipana, lato, Mistretta, Magella, Mandri, 
Modica, Mineo, Taormina,'' Noara, Petra, CoHsano, 
Alicata, Semehta, Scheria, Sclinunte, Symaethus, 
Talaria, Randazza, TroccoH, Tyracinum and Zancle, 
a Messenian settlement on the Straits of Sicily. 

The islands on the side towards Africa are Gozo, adjaceni 
Malta (which is 87 miles from Camerina and 113 '"''""'^ 
from Lilybaeum), PanteHaria, Maretino, Limosa, 
Calata, Lampedosa, Aethusa (written by others 

67 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Aegusam scripserunt, Bucion et a Solunte lx.w 
Osteodes, contraque Paropinos Ustica. citra vero 
Siciliam ex adverso Metauri amnis xxv ferme p. ab 
Italia septem Aeoliae appellatae, eaedem Liparaeo- 
rum, Hephaestiades a Graecis, a nostris Volcaniae, 
Aeoliae, quod Aeolus Iliacis temporibus ibi regnavit. 

93 IX. Lipara cum civium Romanorum oppido, dicta 
a Liparo rege qui succcssit Aeolo, antea Milogonis 
vel Meligunis vocitata, abest xxv ab Italia, ipsa 
circuitu paulo minor v m. inter hanc et Siciliam 
altera, antea Therasia appellata, nunc Hiera quia 
sacra Volcano est colle in ea noctumas evomente 

94 flammas. tertia Strongyle a Lipara vi ^ p. ad 
exortum sohs vergens, in qua regnavit Aeolus, quae 
a Lipara liquidiore tantum flamma difFert ; a cuius 
funio quinam flaf uri sint venti in triduum praedicere 
incolae traduntur, unde ventos Acolo paruisse existi- 
matum. quarta Didyme minor quam Lipara ; 
quinta Eriphusa,sexta Phoenicusa pabuloproximariun 
rehctae ; novissima eademque minima Euonymos. 
hactenus de primo Europae sinu. 

95 X. A Locris Itahae frons incipit Magna Graecia 
appellata, in tris sinus recedcns Ausonii maris, 
quoniam Ausones tenuere primi. patet lxxxvi, ut 
auctor est Varro ; plerique lxxv fecere. in ea ora 

* vi add. Deilcfsen. 

" Its modem narae is Volcano. 
68 



BOOK III. VIII. 92-x. 95 

Aegusa), Levanzo, Alicus (75 miles from Solunto), 
and Ustica opposite to Paropus. On the Italian 
side of Sicily facing the river Metaurus, at a distance 
of nearly 25 miles from Italy, are the seven islands 
called the AeoHan and also the Liparean : their 
Greek name is the Hcphaestiades, and the Roman 
Vulcan's IsUmds ; they are called Aeohan from King 
Aeolus who reigned there in the Homeric period. 

IX. Lipari, with a to\vn possessing rights of Iloman 
citizenship, takes its name from King Liparus, who 
succeeded Aeohis — it was previously called Milo- 
gonis or Mehgunis ; it is 25 miles from Italy, and its 
circumference measures a little less than 5 miles. 
Between it and Sicily is another isLand formerly 
called Therasia, and now Holy Island " because it is 
sacred to Vulcan, on it being a hill that vomits out 
flames in the night. The third island is StromboH, six voicanoes. 
miles to the east of Lipari ; here Aeolus reigned. 

It differs from Lipari only in the fact that its flame 
is more hquid ; the local population are reported 
to be able to foretell from its smoke three days 
ahead what winds are going to blow, and this is the 
source of the behef that the winds obeyed the orders 
of Aeolus. The fourth of the ishmds, Didyme, is 
smaller than Lipari. The fifth, Kriplnisa, and the 
sixth, Phoenicusa, are left to provide pasture for the 
flocks of the neighbouring isUinds ; the last and also 
the smallest is Euonymus. So far as to the first 
gulf of Europe. 

X. At Locri begins the projection of Italy called ^tagna 
Magna Graecia, retiring into the three bays of the 
Ausonian Sea, so called from its first inhabitants the 
Ausones. According to Varro its length is 86 miles, 

but most authorilics have made it 75. On this 

69 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

flumina innumera, sed memoratu digna a Locris 
Sagra et vestigia oppidi Caulonis, Mustiae, Consi- 
linum castrum, Cocvntlium quod esse longissimum 
Italiae promunturium aliqui existumant, dein sinus 
et urbs Scolagium, Scylletium Atheniensibus cum 
conderent dictum ; qucm locum occurrens Terinaeus 
sinus peninsulam efficit, et in ea portus qui vocatur 
Castra Hannibalis, nusquam angustiore Italia: xx 
p. latitudo est. itaque Dionysius maior intercisam 

96 eo loco adicere Siciliae voluit. amnes ibi navigabiles 
Carcinus, Crotalus, Semirus, Arogas, Thagines, 
oppidum intus PetiHa, mons CHbanus, promuntu- 
rium Lacinium, cuius ante oram insula x a terra 
Dioscoron, altera Cah^psus quam Ogygiarn appellasse 
Homerus existimatur, praeterea Tyris, Eranusa, 
Meloessa. ipsum a Caulone abesse lxx prodit 
Agrippa. 

97 XI. A Lacinio promunturio secundus Europae 
sinus incipit magno ambitu flexus et Acroceraunio 
Epiri finitus promunturio, a quo abest lxxv. oppi- 
dum Croto, amnis Neaethus, oppidum Thurii inter 
duos amnes Crathim et Sybarim, ubi fuit urbs 
eodem nomine. simihter est inter Sirim et Acirim 
Heraclea aliquando Siris vocitata. flumina Aca- 
landruin. Casuentum, oppidum Mctapontum, quo 

98 tertia Itahae regio finitur. meditcrranei Bruttio- 



" Capo dello Colonno. 

' /.c. sacred to Castor and Pollux. 

* Now the Mountains of Khimarra, ending in Capo Liii- 

gU' lt>l. 

" This ia less than half the aetual distance across the 
Adriatic ; and Pliny scems to include the Gulf of Tarentum 
with the Adriatic in the aecundtis Europae sinus. 

• Syharis. 

70 



BOOK III. X. 95-xi. 98 

coast are rivers beyond count ; but the places worthy 
of mention, beginning at I/Ocri, are the Sagriano 
and the ruins of the to^vn of Caulon, Monasteraci, 
Camp Consilinum, Punta di Stilo (thought by some 
to be the longest promontory in Italy), then the gulf 
and city of Squillace, called by the Athenians when 
founding it Scylletium. This part of the country 
is made into a peninsula by the Gulf of Santa Eufemia 
which runs up to it, arid on it is the harbour called 
Hannibars Camp. It is the narrov/est part of Italy, 
which is here 20 miles across, and consequently 
the elder Dionysius wanted to cut a canal across the 
peninsula in this place, and annex it to Sicily. Tiie 
navigable rivers iu this district are the Corace, AIH, 
Simari, Crocchio and Tacina ; it contains the inland 
town of Strongolo, the range of Monte Monacello, 
and the promontory of Lacinium," oif the coast of 
which ten miles out Hes the Island of the Sons of 
Zeus * and another called Calypsos Island, wliich is 
thought to be Homer's island of Ogygia, and also 
Tyris, Eranusa and Meloessa. According to Agrippa 
the distance of the promontory of Lacinium from 
Caulon is 70 rniles. 

XI. At the promontory of Lacinium begins the 
second Gulf of Europe ; it curves round in a large 
bay and ends in Acroceraunium,<^ a promontory of 
Epirus ; the distance froin cape to cape is 75 miles.'* 
Here are the town of Crotona, the river Neto, and 
the town of Turi between the river Crati and the 
river Sibari, on which once stood the city of the sarue 
name.*^ Likewise Heraclea, once called Siris, lies 
between the Siris and the Aciris. Then the rivers 
Salandra and Bassiento, and the town of Torre di 
Mare, at which the third region of Italy ends. The 

7i 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

rum Aprustani tanlum, Lucanorum autem Atinates, 
Bantini, Eburini, Grunientini, Potentini, Sontini, 
Sirini, Tergilani, Ursentini, Volcentani, quibus 
Numestrani iunguntur. praeterea interiisse Thebas 
Lucanas Cato auctor est, et Mardoniam Lucanorum 
urbem fuisse Theoponipus, in qua Alexander Epirotes 
occubuerit. 

99 Conectitur secunda regio amplexa Hirpinos, Cala- 
briam, Apuliam, Sallentinos ccL sinu qui Tarentinus 
appellatur ab oppido Laconum (in recessu hoc intimo 
situm, contributa eo maritima colonia quae ibi fuerat, 
abest cxxxvi a Lacinio promunturio) adversam ei 
Calabriam in peninsulam emittens. Graeci Messa- 
piam a duce appellavere et ante Peucetiam a Peucetio 
Oenotri fratre in Sallentino agro. inter promunturia 
c intersunt ; latitudo peninsulae a Tarento Brundi- 
sium terreno itinere xxxv patet, multoque brevius 

100 a portu Sasine. oppida per continentem a Tarento 
Uria, cui cognomen ob Apulam Messapiae,i 
Sarmadium, in ora vero Senum, CallipoHs, quae 
nunc est Anxa, lxxv a Tarento. inde xxxiii pro- 
munturium quod Acran lapygiam vocant, quo 
longissime in maria excurrit Itaha. ab eo Basta 
oppidtun et Hydruntum decem ac novem milia 
passuum, ad discrimen loni et Hadriatici maris, qua 

* ilayhoff : cognomen Apulae Mcssapia. 



* Capo di S. Maria di Luca. 



72 



BOOK III. XI. 9S-100 

only inland community of the Bruttii are the Aprus- 
tani, but in the interior of Lucania are the Atinates, 
Bantini, Eburini, Grumentini, Potentini, Sontini, 
Sirini, Tergilani, Ursentini and Volcentani adjoining 
whom are the Nuniestrani. Moreover it is stated by 
Cato that the tovm of Thebes in Lucania has dis- 
appeared and Theopompus says that there was once 
a city of the Lucaniaiis named Mardonia, in which 
Alexander of Epirus died. 

Adjoining this district is the second region ofTheheelof 
Italy, embracing the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia and \heAdriaiic 
the Sallentini with the 250-mile bay named after coasiofitcUy. 
the Laconian to-ttTi of Taranto (this is situated in the 
innermost recess of the bay and has had attached to 
it the sea-board colony that had settled there, and 
it is 136 miles distant from the promontory of 
Lacinium), — throwing out Calabria which is opposite 
to Lacinium to form a peninsula. The Greeks 
called it Messapia from their leader Messapus, 
and previously Peucetia from Peucetius the brother 
of Oenotrius, and it was in the Sallentine territory. 
The distance between the two headlands is 100 
miles ; and the breadth of the peninsula overland 
from Taranto to Brindisi is 35 miles, and considerably 
less if measured from the port of Sasine. The towns 
inland from Taranto are Uria, which has the surname 
of Messapia to distinguish it from Uria in Apulia, 
and Sarmadium ; on the coast are Senum and 
Gallipoli, the present Anxa, 75 miles from Taranto, 
Next, 33 milcs farther, the promontory callcd the 
lapygian Point," where Italy projects farthest into 
the sea. Nineteen miles from this point are the towns 
of Vaste and Otranto, at the boundary between the 
lonian Sea and the Adriatic, where is the shortest 

73 



PLLVY: NATURAL HISTORY 

in Graeciam brevissimus transitus, cx adverso 
Apolloniatum oppidi latitudine intercurrcntis freti 

101 L non amplius. hoc intervallum pedestri continuare 
transitu pontibus iactis primum Pyrrus Epiri rex 
cogitavit, post eum M. Varro, cum classibus Pompei 
piratico bello praeesset ; utrumque aliae impedivcre 
curae. ab Hydrunte Soletum desertum, dein Fra- 
tucrtium, portus Tarentinus, statio Miltopcs, Lupia, 
Balesium, Caelia, Brundisium L p. ab Hydrunte in 
primis Italiae portu nobile ac velut certiore transitu 
sicuti longiore, excipiente Illyrici urbe Durrachio 
ccxxv traiectu. 

102 Brundisioconterminus Paediculorum ^ager ; novem 
adulescentes totidemque virgines ab Illyriis xii 
populos genuere. Paediculorum ^ oppida Rudiae, 
Egnatia, Barium, amnes lapyx a Daedali filio rege, 
a quo et lapygia Acra, Pactius, Aufidus ex Hirpinis 
montibus Canusium praefluens. 

103 Hinc Apulia Dauniorum cognomine a duce Dio- 
medis socero, in qua oppidum Salapia Hanni>)alis 
meretricio amore inclutum, Sipontum, Uria, amnis 
Cerbalus Dauniorum finis, portus Aggasus, promun- 
turium montis Gargani a Sallentino sive lapygio 
ccxxxiv ambitu Gargani, portus Garnae, lacus 

* liackham {cf. 38) : Poediculorum, Pcdiculorum. 

" In Illyria. 

* Straits of Otranto. 

• A bastard formation from Trals. 

74 



BOOK III. \i. 100-103 

crossing to Greece, opposite to the town of Apol- 
lonia," separated by an arm of the sea * not more 
than 50 miles wide. King Pyrrhus of Epirus first 
conceived the plan of canying a causeway over 
this gap by throwing bridges across it, and after 
him Marcus Varro had the same idea when command- 
ing the fleets of Pompey in the Pirate War ; but both 
were prevented by other commitments. After 
Otranto comes the deserted site of Soletum, then 
Fratuertium, the harbour of Taranto, the roadstead 
of Miltope, Lecce, Baleso, Cavallo, and then Brindisi, 
50 miles from Otranto, one of the most famous places 
in Italy for its harbour and as offering a more certain 
crossing albeit a longer one, ending at the city of 
Durazzo in Illyria, a passage of 225 miles. 

Adjacent to Brindisi is the territory of the 
PaedicuH,'^ whose tweh-e tribes were the descendants 
of nine youths and nine maidens from the Illyrians. 
The towns of the Paediculi are Ruvo, Agnazzo and 
Bari ; thcir rivers are the lapyx, named from the son 
of Daedalus, the king who also gives his name to the 
lapvgian Point, the Pactius and the Aufidus, which 
runs down from the Hirpini mountains and past 
Canossa. 

Here begins Apuha, called Apuha of the Daunii, ApuHa, 
who were named after their chief, the father-in-law 
of Diomede ; in Apuha is the tovm of Salpi, famous 
as the scene of Hannibars amour with a courtezan, 
Sipontum, Uria, the river Cervaro marking the 
boundaiy of the Daunii, the iiarbour of Porto 
Greco, the promontory of Monte Gargano (the 
distance round Gargano from the promontory of 
Sallentinum or lapygia being 234 miles), the port of 
Varano, the lake of Lesiiia, the river Frcnto which 

75 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Pantanus, flumen portuosum Fertor, Teanum Apu- 
lorum itemque Larinum, Clitcrnia, Tifernus amnis ; 

104 inde rcgio Frentana. ita Apulorum genera tria : 
Teani a duce e Grais ; Lucani subacti a Calchante, 
quae nunc loca tenent Atinates ; Dauniorum praeter 
supra dicta coloniae Luceria, Venusia, oppida Canu- 
siiim, Arpi aliquando Argos Ilippium Diomedc 
condcnte, mox Argyripa dictimi. Diomedcs ibi 
delevit gentes Monadorimi Dardorumque et urbes 
duas quae in proverbi ludicrum vertcre, Apinam 

105 et Tricam. cetera intus in sccunda regione Hirpi- 
norum colonia una Beneventum auspicatius mutato 
nomine quae quondam appcllata Maleventimi, 
Ausculani, Aquiloni, Abellinates cognomine Protropi, 
Compsani, Caudini, Ligures qui cognominantur 
Corneliani et qui Baebiani, Vescellani, Aeclani, 
Aletrini, Abellinatcs cognominati Marsi, Atrani, 
Aecani, Alfellani, Atinatcs, Arpani, Borcani, Collatini, 
Corinenses et nobiles clade Romana Cannenses, 
Dirini, Forentani, Genusini, Herdonienses, Irini, 
Larinates cognomine Frentani, Mcrinates ex Gar- 
gano, Mateolani, Nerctini, Natini, Rubustini, Silvini, 
Strapellini, Turnantini, Vibinatcs, Venusini, Ulurtini. 
Calabrorum mcditerranci Acgetini, Apamestini, 
Argentini, Butuntinenses, Deciani, Grumbcstini, 
Norbanenses, Palionenses, Stulnini, Tutini. Sallen- 



" Apinae Tricaeque, ' Chatcaux en Espagnc' Martial 
14. 1 7 ; tricae ' triflea ' or ' tricks,' is probably a word of difTcrent 
orif^in. 

* The accusative of thc Greck MaAdcis wben Latinized 
Buggestcd to the Roraan ear ' ill come.' 

' By Hannibal, 216 B.c. 
** Porenza. 

• Ginosa; and nmong the following are the modem Noja, 

76 



BOOK III. \i. 103-105 

forms a harbour, Teanum of the Apuli and Larinum 
of the Apuli, Cliternia, and the river Biferno, at 
which begins the district of the Frentani, Thus the 
Apuhans comprise three different races : the Teani, 
so called from their chief, of Graian descent ; the 
Lucanians -wlio were subducd by Calchas and who 
occupied the places that ncnv belong to thc Atinates ; 
and the Daunians, including, beside the places 
mentioned above, the colonies of Lucera and Venosa 
and the to\\Tis of Canossa and Arpa, formcrlv called 
Argos Hippium when founded by Diomede, and 
afterwards Argyripa. Here Diomede destroyed 
the tribes of the Monadi and Dardi and two cities 
whose names have passed into a proverbial joke, 
Apina and Trica." Besides these there are in the 
interior of the second region one colony of the 
Hirpini formerly called Maleventum * and now more 
auspiciously, by a change of name, Beneventum, 
the Ausculani, Aquiloni, AbeUinates surnamed Pro- 
tropi, Compsani,Caudini, Ligurians with the surnames 
of CorneHani and Baebiani, Vescellani, Aeclani, 
Aletrini, Abellinates surnamed Marsi, Atrani, 
Aecani, Alfellani, Atinates, Arpani, Borcani, CoUatini, 
Corinenscs, Cannae celebrated for the lloman 
defeat,*^ Dirini, Forentani,'^ Genusini,* Herdonienses, 
Irini, Larinates surnamed Frentani, the Merinates 
from Monte Gargano, Mateolani, Neretini, Natini, 
Rubustini, Silvini, StrapelHni, Turnantini, Vibinates, 
Venusini, Ulurtini. Inland Calabrian peoplcs are 
the Aegetini, Apamestini, Argentini, Butuntinenses, 
Deciani, Grumbestini, Norbanenses, PaHonenses, 
Stulnini and Tutini ; inland Sallentini are the 

Savigliano, RapolJa, Bovino and Bitonto; others are now 
Ostuni, Veste, San Verato. 

77 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tinonim Aletini, Basterbini, Neretini, Uzentini, 
Veretini. 

106 XII. Sequitur regio quarta gentium vcl fortissi- 
marum Italiae. in ora l'rentanorum a Tifcrno 
flumen Trinium portuosum, oppida Histonium, 
Buca, Hortona, Aternus amnis. intus Anxani 
cognomine Frentani, Caretini Supcrnates et In- 
fcrnates, Lanuenses ; Marrucinorum Teatini ; Pae- 
lignorum Corfinienses, Superaequani, Sulmonenses; 
Marsorum Anxatini, Antinates, Fucentes, Lucenses, 
Marruvini ; Albensium Alba ad Fucinum lacum ; 

107 Aequicnlanorum Cliternini, Carseolani ; Vestiiiorum 
Angulani, Pcnnenses, Pcltuinates quibus iunguntur 
Aufinates Cismontani ; Samnitium quos Sabellos 
et Graeci Saunitas dixere, colonia Bovianum Vetus 
et alterum cognomine Undecumanorum, Aufidc- 
nates, Aesernini, Fagifulani, Ficolenses, Saepinates, 
Tereventinates ; Sabinorum Amiternini, Curenses, 
Forum Deci, Forum Novum, Fidcnates, Interam- 
nates, Nursini, Nomentani, Reatini, Trebulani qui 
cognominantur Mutuesoi et qui Sulfenates, Tiburtes, 

108 Tarinates. in hoc situ ex Aequicolis interiere Comini, 
Tadiates, Caedici, Alfatemi. Gellianus auctor est 
lacu Fucino haustum Mai-sorum oppidum Archippe 
conditum a Marsya duce Lydorum, itcm Vidici- 
norum in Piceno deletum a Romanis \'alerianus. 
Sabini, ut quidam existimavere, a religione et deum 
cultu Sebini appellati, Velinos accolunt lacus roscidis 

• Now thc Pcscara. 

* Now Pelino. 

' /.e. ' Sabini ' was origin.iUy ' Sebini ' from ai^as. 

78 



BOOK III. XI. 105-xii. 108 

Aletini, Basterbini, Neretini, Uzentini and Vere- 
tini. 

XII. There follows the fourth region, which in- Frcntaniand 
cludes the very bravest races in Italy. On the coast, ^'""'"'""- 
in the territory of the Frentani, after Tifernum are the 
river Trigno, affording a harbour, and the towns of 
Histonium, Buca and Hortona and the river Aternus." 
Imvard are the Anxani surnanied Frentani, thc Upper 
and Lower Carctini and the Lanuenses ; and in the 
Marrucine territoiy Chieti ; in the Paehgnian, the 
people of Corfinium,* Subequo and Sulmona ; in the 
Marsian, those of Lanciano, Atina, Fucino, Lucca 
and Muria ; in the Albensian region the town of 
Alba on Lake Fucino ; in the Acquiculan, Chternia 
and Carsoh ; in the Vestinian, Sant' Angelo, Pinna 
and Peltuina, adjoining which is Ofena South of the 
Mountain ; in the region of the Samnites, who once 
were callcd SabelU and by the Greeks Saunitae, the 
colony of Old Bojano and the other Bojano that 
bears the name of the Eleventh Legion, Alfidena, 
Isernia, Fagifulani, Ficolea, Supino, and Terevento; 
in the Sabine, Amiternum, Corrcse, Market of Decius, 
New Market, Fidenae, Ferano, Norcia, La Mentana, 
Rieti, Trebula Mutuesca, Trebula Suffena, Tivoh, 
Tarano. In this district, of the tribes of the Aequicoh 
the Comini, Tadiates, Caedici and Alfatcrni havc dis- 
appeared. It is stated by GelHanus that a Marsian 
town of Archippe, founded by the Lydian com- 
mander Marsyas, has been submerged in Lake 
Fucino, and also Valerian says that the town of the 
Vidicini in Picenum was destroyed by the Ilomans. 
The Sabines (according to some opinions called Sebini 
from their rehgious behefs and ritual <^) hve on the 
lush dewy hills by the Lakes of Vehno. Those 

79 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

109 coUibus. Nar aranis exhaurit illos sulpureis aquis 
Tiberim ex his petens, replet e monte Fiscello 
Avens ^ iuxta Vacunae nemora et Reate in eosdem 
conditus. at ex alia parte Anio in monte Trebanorum 
ortus lacus tris ainocnitate nobilis qui nomen dedere 
Sublaqueo defert in Tiberim. in agro Reatino 
Cutiliae lacuni, in quo fluctuctur insula, Italiae 
umbilicum esse M. Varro tradit. infra Sabinos 
Latium est, a latere Picenum, a tcrgo Umbria, 
Appciinini iugis Sabinos utrimquc vallantibus. 

lli) XIII. Quinta rcgio Piccni cst, quondam ubcrrimae 
multitudinis : ccclx Picentium in fidem p. II. venere. 
orti sunt a Sabinis voto vcre sacro. tenuere ab 
Aterno amne, ubi nunc ager Hadrianus et Hadria 
colonia a mari vT p., flmnen Vomanum, agcr Praetu- 
tianus Pahnensisque, item Castrum Novum, flumen 
Batinum, Truentum cum amne, quod sohim Libur- 
norum in Itaha rehcum cst, flumina Albuhi, Tessui- 
num, Ilclvinum quo finitur Practutiana regio et 

111 Piccntium incipit ; Cupra oppidum, CastcHum Firma- 
norum, ct supcr id colonia Asculum, Piceni nobihssima. 
intus Novana ; in ora Chiana, Potentia, Numana a 
Sicuhs condita, ab iisdcm colonia Ancona adposita 
pronuinturio Cunero in ipso flectentis se orae cubito, 
a Gargano clxxxiii. intus Auximates, Beregrani, 

^ Codd. avcs aut labens. 



" 29!) B.c. 

^" In tiine of dangcr tho produco of the next spring was 
vowcd to the gods; the childron then born in oarly timca 
pcrha])3 wcre sacrificcd, but latcr wero allowed to grow up 
and tiien driven across thc frontier to scttlc whcrevor Provi- 
dcni-e might lead thcm. 

3o 



BOOK III. XII. 109-X111. III 

lakes drain into the river Nera, which from these 
derives the river Tiber with its sulphm-ous waters, 
and they are replenished by the Avens which runs 
down from Monte Fiscello near the Groves of 
Vacuna and Rieti and loses itself in the lakes in 
question. In another direction the Teverone rising 
in Mount Trevi drains into the Tiber three lakes 
famous for their beauty, froni which Subiaco takes its 
name. In the district of Rieti is the lake of CutiUa, 
which is said by Marcus V^arro to be the central 
point of Italy, and to contain a floating island. 
Below the Sabine territory lies Latium, on one side 
of it Picenum, and behind it Umbria, while the 
ranges of the Apennines fence it in on either side. 

XIII. The fifth region is that of Picenum, which Picenum 
formerly was very densely populated : 360,000 
Picentines took the oath of allegiance to Rome." 
They derived their origin from the Sabines, who had 
made a vow to celebrate a Holy Spring.* The 
territory that they took possession of began at the 
river Aterno, where are now the district and colony 
of Adria, 6 miles from the sea. Here is the river 
Vomanus, the territories of Praetutia and Palma, 
also the New Camp, the river Batinus, Tronto with 
its river, the only Liburnian settlemcnt left in Italy, 
the river Albula, Tessuinum, and Helvinum where 
the region of the Praetutii ends and that of Picenum 
begins ; the town of Cupra, Porto di Fermo, and 
above it the colony of Ascoh, the most famous in 
Picenum. Inland is Novana, and on the coast Cluana, 
Potentia, Numana founded by the Sicilians, and 
Ancona, a colony founded by the same people on the 
promontory of Cunerus just at the elbow of the coast 
where it bends round, 183 miles from Monte Gargano. 

81 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Cingulani, Cuprenses cogrjomine Montani,Falarienses, 
Pausulani, Planinenses, Ricinenses, Septempedani, 
Tollentinates, Treienses, Urbesalvia PoUentini. 

112 XIV. lungetur his sexta regio Umbriam con- 
plexa agrumque Gallicum citra Ariminum. ab 
Ancona Gallica ora incipit Togatae Galliae cogno- 
mine. Siculi et Liburni plurima cius tractus tenuere, 
in primis Palmensem, Praetutianum Hadrianumque 
agrum. Umbri eos expulere, hos Etruria, hanc 
GalH. Umbrorum gens antiquissima ItaHae existi- 
matur, ut quos Ombrios a Graecis putent dictos 
quod in ^ inundatione terrarum imbribus super- 

113 fuissent. trecenta eorum oppida Tusci debcHasse 
reperiuntur. nunc in ora flumen Aesis, SenagaUia, 
Metaurus fluvius, coloniae Fanum Fortunae, Pisau- 
rum cum amne, et intus HispeHum, Tuder. de 
cetero Amerini, Attidiates, Asisinates, Arnates, 
Aesinates, Camertes, CasuentiHani, Carsulani, Do- 
lates cognomine Sallentini, Fulginiates, Foroflami- 
nienses, ForoiuHenses cognomine Concupienses, Fo- 
robrentani, Forosempronienses, Iguini, Interamnates 
cognomine Nartes, Mevanates, Mevanionenses, Mati- 
Hcates, Narnienses, quod oppidum Nequinum antea 

114 vocitatum est, Nucerini cognomine Favonienses et 
Camellani, Otriculani, Ostrani, Pitulani cognomine 
Pisuertes et aHi Mergcntini, Plestini, Sentinates, 
Sassinates, Spoletini, Suasani, Sestinates, SuiUates, 
Tadinates, Trebiates, Tuficani, Tifernates cogno- 
mine Tiberini et aHi Metaurenses, Vesinicates, 

^ in add. Mayhoff : an inundationi 7 Rackham. 



• From ofi^pos, a storm of rain. 
83 



BOOK III. XIII. iii-xiv. 114 

Inland are Osimo, Beregra, Ciiigula, Cupra surnamed 
Montana, Falerona, Pausula, Plalina, Ricinum, Sep- 
tempedum, Tollentinum, Treia, and the people from 
Pollentia settled at Urbisaglia. 

XIV. Adjoining to this will come the sixth region, umbriaiTiie 
embracing Umbria and the Gallic territory this side ' '"''^'^'^- 
Rimini. At Ancona begins the Galhc coast named 
GalHa Togata. The largest part of this district was 
occupied by Sicihans and Liburnians, especially the 
territories of Palma, Praetutia and Adria. They 
were expelled by the Umbrians, and these by 
Etruria, and Etruria by the Gauls. The Umbrians 
are beUeved to be the oldest race of Italy, being 
thought to be the people designated as Ombrii " by 
the Greeks on the ground of their having survived 
the rains after the flood. We find that 300 of their 
towns were conquered by the Etruscans. On this 
coast afe the present time are the river Esino, Sini- 
gagha, the river Meturo and the colonies of Fano 
and Pesaro with the river of the same name and 
inland those of Spello and Todi. Besides these there 
are the peoples of Ameha, Attigho, Assisi, Arna, 
lesi, Camerino, Casuentillimi, Carsulae ; the Dolates 
surnamed Sallcntini ; Fohgno, Market of Flaminius, 
Market of Julius, surnamed Concupium, Market 
Brenta, Fossombrone, Gubbio, Terni on the Nera, 
Bevagna, Mevanio, Matihca, Narni(the town formerly 
called Nequinum) ; the people of Nocera siu"named 
Favonienses and those surnamed Camellani ; Otricoh, 
Ostra ; the Pitulani surnamed Pisuertes and others 
surnamed Mergentini ; the Plestini ; Sentinum, 
Sassina, Spoleto, Suasa, Sestino, Sigello, Tadina, 
Trevi, Tuficum, Tifemum on the Tiber, Tifernum on 
the Meturo; Vesinica, Urbino on the Meturo and 

83 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Urbanates cognomine Metaurenses et alii Hortenses, 
Vettonenses, \'indinates, Visuentani. in hoc situ 
interiere Felignates, et qui Clusiolum tenuere supra 
Interamnam, et Sarranates cum oppidis Acerris 
quae Vafriae cognominabantur, Turocaelo quod 
Vettiolum, item Solinates, Suriates, Falinates, Sap- 
pinates. interiere et Arinates cum Crinivolo et 
Usidicani et Plangenses, Paesinates, Caclestini. 
Ameriam supra scriptam Cato ante Persei bellum 
conditam annis dcccci^xiii prodit. 

115 XV. Octava regio determinatur Arimino, Pado, 
Appennino. in ora flunus Crustumium, Ariminum 
colonia cum amnibus Arimino et Aprusa, fluvius 
Rubico, quondam finis Italiae. ab eo Sapis et Vitis 
et Anemo, Ilavenna Sabinorum oppidum cum amne 
Bedese, ab Ancona cv p. nec procul a mari Um- 
brorum Butrium. intus coloniae Bononia, Felsina 
vocitata tum ^ cmii princeps Etruriae esset, Brixillum, 
Mutina, Pamia, Placentia ; oppida Caesena, Clatema, 

IIG Foro Clodi, Livi, Popili, Truentinorum, Corneli, 
Licini, Faventini, Fidentini, Otesini, Padinates, 
Regienses a Lepido, Solonates, Saltusque Galliani 
qui cognominantur Aquinatcs, Tannetani, Veleiates 
cognomine vcteri Regiates, Urbanates. in hoc 
tractu interierunt Boi quorum tribus cxii fuisse 
auctor est Cato, item Senones qui ceperunt Romam. 

^ Mayhojf : vocitatum. 



" 171-167 B.c. 

* Proliably the Pisatello. 

* A Gallic tribe who settled South of thc Alps, and were 
conquered by Scipio Nasica in 191 B.c. They migrated to 
Bohemia, wluch takes its name from them. 

84 



BOOK III. xiv. 114-XV. 116 

Urbino of the Garden, Bettona, the Vindinates and 
the Visuentani. Peoples that have disappeared in 
this district are the FeHgnates and the inhabitants 
of Chisiolum above Interamna, and the Sarranates, 
together witli the towns of Acerrae sm-named 
Vafriae and Turocaelum surnamed Vettiolum ; also 
the SoHnatcs, Suriates, FaHnates and Sappinates. 
There have also disappcared the Arinates with the 
town of Crinivolum and the Usidicani and Plangenses, 
the Paesinates, the Caelestini. Ameria above- 
mentioned is stated by Cato to have been founded 
963 years before the war "■ with Perseus. 

XV'^. The boundaries of the eighth region are Gaiua 
marked by llimini, the Po and the Apennines. On (^EmiUa)." 
its coast are the river Conca, the colony of Rimini 
with the rivers Ariminum and Aprusa, and the river 
Rubicon,* once the frontier of Italy. Then there 
are the Savio, the Bevano and the Roneone ; the 
Sabine town of llavenna with the river Montone, 
and the Umbrian town of Butrium 105 miles from 
Ancona and not far from the sea. Inland are the 
colonies of Bologna (which at the time when it was 
the chief place in Etruria was called Felsina), Bres- 
cello, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and the towns of 
Cesena, Quaderna, Fornocchia, ForH, ForH Piccolo, 
Bertinoro, CorneHus Market, Incino, Faenza, 
Fidentia, Otesini, Castel Bondino, Reggio named 
from Lepidus, Citta di Sole, Groves of GalHus 
surnamed Aquinates, Tenedo, Villac in old days 
surnamed Regias, Urbana. Peoples no h>nger ex- 
isting in this region are the Boii,"^ said by Cato to 
have comprised 112 tribes, and also the Senones 
who captured Rome.'* 

•* 390 13. c. : their city Agedincum is now Sens. 

voL. II. r> ^5 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

117 XVI. Padus e ^cmio Vesuli montis celsissimum 
in cacumen Alpium clati finibus Ligurum Vagien- 
norum vlscndo fonte proflucns condcnsque se cuni- 
culo et in Forovibiensium agro iterum exoriens, 
nullo amnium claritatc inferior, Graecis dictus 
Eridanus ac poena Phaethontis inlustratus, augetur 
ad canis ortus liquatis nivibus, agris quam navigiis 
torrentior, nihil tamen ex rapto sibi vindicans 

118 atque, ubi liquit, ubertate largitor.^ ccc p. a fonte 
addens mcatu duo de lxxxx, nec amnes tantum 
Appenninos Alpinosque navigabiles capiens sed 
lacus quoquc inmensos in eum sese exonerantes, omni 
numero xxx flumina in mare Hadriaticum defert 
celeberrima ex iis Appennini latere lactum, Tanarum 
Trebiam Placentinum, Tarum, Inciam, Gabellum 
Scultennam, Rhenum, Alpium vero Sturam, Orgum 
Durias duas, Sesitem, Ticinum, Lambrum, Adduam 

ll!> Ollium, Mincium. nec ahus amnium tam brevi 
spatio maioris incrementi est ; urguetur quippe 
aquarum mole et in profundum agitur gravis terrae, 
quamquam diductus in flumina et fossas inter 
Ravennam Altinumque per cxx, tamcn qua largius 
vomit Septem Maria dictus facere. 

Augusta fossa Ravennam trahitur, ubi Padusa 

• V.l. linquit iibcrtatorn largitur. 



• Phaethon when driving the chariot of his father the Sun 
iost control of the horsea, and waa struck down by Jupiter to 
prevent his setting the carth on fire; Ovid, Mit. 11.47 (I. makes 
him fall into the Padua. 

86 



BOOK III. XVI. 117-119 

XVI. The source of the Po, which well deserves a ta* river 
visit, is a spring in the heart of Monte Viso, an fgurd^ 
extremelv loftv Alpine peak in the territorv of the tnbutaries 

igurian Vagienni; the stream burrows under- 
ground and emerges again in the district of Vibius 
Market. It rivals all other rivers in celebrity ; its 
Creek name was Eridanus, and it is famous as the 
scene of the punislmient of Phaethon." The melting 
of the snows at the rising of the Dogstar causes it 
to swell in volunie ; but though its flooding does more 
damage to the fields adjacent than to vessels, never- 
theless it clainis no part of its plunder for itself, and 
where it deposits its spoil it bestows bounteous 
fertiUty. Its length from its source is 300 miles, to 
which it adds 88 by its \vindings, and it not only 
receives navigable rivers from the Apennines and the 
Alps, but also immense lakes that discharge them- 
selves into it, and it carries down to the Adriatic 
Sea as many as 30 strcams in all. Among these the 
best-known are : flowing from the Apennine range, 
the Jactum, the Tanaro, the Trebbia (on which is 
Piacenza), the Taro, the Enza, the Secchia, the 
Panaro and the Reno ; flowing from the Alps, the 
Stura, Orco, two Doras, Sesia, Ticino, Lambra, Adda, 
Ogho and Mincio. Nor does any other river increase 
so much in volume in so short a distance ; in fact, 
the vast body of water drives it on and scoops out 
its bed with disaster to the land, although it is 
diverted into streams and canals between Ravenna 
and Altino over a length of 120 miles ; neverthe- 
riess where it discharges its water morc widely it 
forms what are called the Seven Seas. 

The Po is carried to Ravenna by the Canal of 
Augustus ; this part of the river is called the Padusa, 

87 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

vocatur quondam Messanicus appellatus. pvoxi- 
mum inde ostium magnitudincm portus habet qui 
Vatreni dicitur, qua Claudius Caesar e Britannia 
triumphans pracgrandi illa domo verius quam nave 

120 intravit Hadriam. hoc ante Eridanum ostium dictum 
est, ab aHis Spineticum ab urbe Spina quae fuit 
iuxta, praevalens, ut Dclphicis creditum est thcsauris, 
condita a Diomede. auget ibi Padum \'atrenus 
amnis ex Forocornehensi agro. 

Proximum inde ostium Caprasiae, dcin Sagis, dein 
Volane quod ante Olane vocabatur, omnia ea fossa 
Fla\ia quam primi a Sagi fecere Tusci egcsto amnis 
impetu per transversum in Atrianorum paludes 
quae Septem Maria appellantur, nobiH portu oppidi 
Tuscorum Atriae a quo Atriaticum niare ante 

121 appcHabatur quod nunc Hadriaticum. inde ostia 
plcna Carbonaria, ac ^ Fossiones PhiHstinae,^ quod aHi 
Tartarum vocant, omnia ex PhiHstinae fossae abunda- 
tionc nasccntia, accedcntibus Atesi ex Tridentinis 
Alpibus et Togisono ex Patavinorum agris. pars 
eorum ct proximum portum facit Brundulum, sicut 
Aedronem Meduaci duo ac fossa Clodia. his se 
Padus miscet ac per hacc cfTunditur, plerisque, ut 
in Aegjpto Nilus quod vocant Delta, triquetram 

* ac hic edd : post Fossiones aul om. codd. 

• Edd. : Philistina. 

88 



BOOK III. xvi. 119-121 

its name previously being Messanicus. The mouth 
nearest to Ravenna forms the large basin called the 
Harbour of the Santerno ; it was here that Claudius 
Caesar sailed out into the Adriatic, in what was a 
vast palace rather than a ship, when celebrating his 
triumph over Britain. This mouth was formerly 
called the Eridanus, and by others the Spineticus 
from the city of Spina that formerly stood near it, 
and that was beheved on the evidence of its treasures 
deposited at Uelphi to have been a very powerful 
place ; it was founded by Diomede. At this point 
the Po is augmented by the river Santerno from the 
territory of Cornehus Market. 

The next mouth to this is the Caprasian mouth, 
then that of Sagis, and then Volane, formerly called 
Olane ; all of these form the Flavian Canal, which was 
first made from the Sagis by the Tuscans, thus dis- 
charffinfj the flow of the river across into the marshes 
of the Atriani called the Seven Seas, with the famous 
harbour of the Tuscan to\\Ti of Atria which formerly 
gave the name of Atriatic to the sea now called the 
Adriatic. Next come the deep-water mouths of 
Carbonaria and the Fosses of PhiHstina, called by 
others Tartarus, all of which originate from the 
overflow of the Philistina Canal, with the addition 
of the Adige from the Trentino Alps and of the 
Bacchighone from the district of Padua. A part of 
these streams also forms the neighbouring harbour 
of Brondolo, as Ukewise that of Chioggia is formed 
by the Brenta and Brentella and the Clodian Canal. 
With these streams the Po unites and flows through 
them into the sea, according to most authorities 
forming between the Alps and the sea-coast the figure 
of a triangle, hke what is called the Delta formed 

89 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

figuram inter Alpes atque oram maris facere proditus, 

122 stadiorum ii ^ circuitu. pudet a Graccis Italiae 
rationem mutuari, Metrodorus tamcn Scepsius dicit, 
quoniam circa fontem arbor multa sit picea, quales 
Gallice vocentur padi, hoc nomen accepisse, Ligurum 
quidcm lingua amncm ipsum Bodincum vocari, 
quod significet fundo carentem. cui argumento 
adest oppidum iuxta Industria ^ vetusto nomine 
Bodincomagum, ubi praecipua altitudo incipit. 

123 XVII. Transpadana appcllatur ab eo rcgio unde- 
cima, tota in mediterranco, cui marina •^ cuncta 
fructuoso alveo inportat. oppida V^ibi Forura, 
Segusio, coloniae ab Alpium radicibus Augusta 
Taurinorum, inde navigabili Pado, antiqua Ligurum 
stirpe, dcin Salassorum Augusta Praetoria iuxta 
geminas Alpium fores, Graias atque Pocninas, — his 
Poenos, Grais Herculem transisse memorant, — 
oppidum Eporedia Sibyllinis a populo Roniano 
conditum iussis, — eporedias Galli bonos equorum 

124 domitores vocant, — Vercellae Libiciorum ex Salluis 
ortae, Novaria ex Vertamacoris, Vocontiorum hodie- 
que pago, non (ut Cato existimat) Ligurum, ex quibus 
Laen et Marici condidere Ticinum non procul a 
Pado, sicut Boi Transalpibus profccti liaudem 
Pompeiam, Insubres Mediolanum. Orumbiviorum 

' Edd. : V. * V.l. Industriam. * Mayhoff : maria. 

" Now Monte di Po. 

* Now the Little and Great St. Bernard passcs : the name 
of the fornur .survivcs in the 'Graian Alps.' 
' Now Pavia. 

90 



BOOK III. xvi. I2I-XVII. 124 

by the Nile in Egypt ; the triangle measures 250 
miles in circumference. One is ashamed to borrow 
an account of Italy from the Greeks ; nevertheless, 
Metrodorus of Scepsis says that the river has received 
the name of Padus because in the neighbourhood of 
its source there are a quantity of pine-trees of the 
kind called in the GalHc dialect padi, while in fact 
the Ligurian name for the actual river is Bodincus, 
a word that means ' bottomless.' This theory is 
supported by the fact that the neighbouring town of 
Industria," where the river begins to be particularly 
deep, had the old name of Bodincomagum. 

XVn. The eleventh region receives from the river GaiUa 
the name of Transpadana ; it is situated entirely Jaj^ta 
inland, but the river carries to it on its bounteous 
channel the products of all the seas. Its towns are 
Seluzzo and Susa, and the colony of Turin at the 
roots of the Alps (here the Po becoraes navigable), 
sprung from an ancient Ligurian stock, and next 
that of Aosta Praetoria of the Salassi, near the twin 
gateways of the Alps, the Graian pass and the 
Pennine,* — history says tliat the latter was the pass 
crossed by the Carthaginians and the former by Her- 
cules — and the town of Ivrea, founded by the Roman 
nation by order of the Sibylline Books — the name 
comes from the GaUic word for a man good at breaking 
horses — , VercelH, the towTi of the Libicii, founded 
from the Sallui, and Novara founded from Verta- 
macori, a place belonging to the Vocontii and now-a- 
days a village, not (as Cato thinks) belonging to the 
Ligurians ; from whom the Laevi and Marici founded 
Ticinum ^ not far from the Po, just as the Boians, 
coming from the tribes across the Alps, founded Lodi 
and the Insubrians Milan. According to Cato, Como, 

91 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

stirpis esse Comum atque Bcrgomum et Licini 
Forum aliquotque circa populos auctor est Cato, 
sed originem gentis ignorare se fatetur, quam 
docet Cornelius Alexander ortam a Graecia inter- 
pretatione etiam nominis vitam in montibus degen- 

125 tium. in hoc situ intcriit oppidum Orumbiviorum 
Parra, unde Bergomates Cato dixit ortos, etiam- 
num prodente se altius quam fortunatius situm. 
interiere et Caturiges Insubrum exsules et Spina 
supra dicta, item Melpum opulentia praecipimm, 
quod ab Insubribus et Bois et Senonibus delctum eo 
die quo Camillus V"eios ceperit Nepos Cornelius 
tradidit. 

126 XVIII. Sequitur decima regio Italiae Hadriatico 
mari adposita, cuius Vcnetia, fluvius Silis ex monti- 
bas Tarvisanis, oppidum Altinum, flumcn Li(|uentia 
ex montibus Opitcrginis et portus eodem nomine, 
colonia Concordia, flumina et portus Reatinum, 
Tiliaventum Maius Minusque, Anaxum quo Varanus 
defluit, Alsa, Natiso cum Turro, praeflucnte Aquileiam 

127 colnniam xv p. a mari sitam. Carnorum haec regio 
iunctaque lapudum, amnis Timavos, castellum 
nobile vino Pueinum, Tergestinus sinus, colonia 
Tergeste, xxxTTi ab Aquileia. ultra quam sex 
milia p. Formio amnis, ab Ravenna ciAxxfx, anticus 
auctae ItaUae terminus, nunc vero Histriae ; quam 

"• I.e. ' Orurabivii ' is understood to come from opos and /Sior. 

' In 39G B.r. 

' The inhabitants in the 5th c. a.d., to escape frora Attila 
and thc lluns, fled to thc adjoiniug isiandd, and founded 
Venico. 

■* Porhaps the Risaiio. 

' In the time of Angustus, before Islria was added to 
Italy. 

92 



BOOK III. .wii. 124-.W111. 127 

Bergamo, Incino and some surrounding peoples are 
of the Orumbivian stoek, but he confesses that he 
does not know the origin of that race ; whereas 
CorneHus Alexander states that it originated from 
Greece, arguing merely by the name, which he 
renders ' those who pass their lives in mountains.''' 
In this locahty a to\^Ti of the Orumbivii named 
Parra, said by Cato to be the original home of the 
people of Bergamo, has perished, its remains still 
showing its site to have been more loffcy than advan- 
tageous. Other communities that have perished 
are the Caturiges, an exiled section of the Insubrians, 
and the above-mentioned Spina, and also the excep- §120. 
tionally wealthy town of Melpum, which is stated by 
Comelius Nepos to have been destroyed by the 
Insubrians, Boii and Senones on the day* on which 
Camillus took Veii. 

X\'III. Next comes the tenth region of Italy, Venetia, 
on tlie coast of the Adriatic Sea. In it are Venetia,"^ 
the river Silo that rises in the mountains of Treviso, 
the town of Altino, the river Liquenzo rising in the 
mountains of Oderzo, and the port of the same name, 
the colony of Concordia, the river and port of llieti, 
the Greater and Lesser Tagliamento, the Stella, 
into which flows the Revonchi,the Alsa,the Natisone, 
with the Torre that flows past the colony of Aquileia 
situated 15 miles from the sea. This is the region 
of the Carni, and adjoining it is tliat of the lapudes, 
the river Timavo, Castel Duino, famous for its \vine, 
the Gulf of Trieste, and the colony of the same 
name, 33 miles from Aquileia. Six miles beyond 
Trieste is the river Formio,*^ 189 miles from Ravenna, 
the old frontier ^ of the enlarged Italy and now the 
boundary of Istria. It has been stated by many 

93 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

cognominatam a flumine Histro in Hadriam effluente 
e Danuvio amne eodemque Histro exadversum 
Padi fauces, contrario eorum percussu mari interiecto 
dulcescente, plerique dixere falso, et Nepos etiam 

128 Padi accola ; nuUus enim ex Danuvio amnis in mare 
Hadriaticum cffunditur. dcceptos credo quoniam 
Argo navis flumine in mare Hadriaticum descendit'^ 
non procul Tergeste, nec iam constat quo flumine. 
umeris travectam Alpes diligentiores tradunt, subisse 
autem Histro, dein Savo, dein Nauporto, cui nomen 
ex ea causa est, inter Aemonam Alpesque exorienti. 

129 XIX. Histria ut peninsula excurrit. latitudinem 
eius xL, circuitum cx\-v prodidere quidam, item 
adhaerentis Liburniae et Flanatici sinus, alii ccx5c\, 
alii Liburniae clxxx. nonnulli in Flanaticum sinum 
lapudiam promoverc a tergo Histriae cxxx, dein 
Liburniam cL fecere. Tuditanus qui domuit Histros 
in statua sua ibi inscripsit : Ab Aquileia ad Tityum 
flumen stadia mm.^ oppida Histriae civium Romano- 
rum Aegida, Parentium, colonia Pola quae nunc 
Pietas lulia, quondam a Colchis condita ; abcst a 
Tergeste cv. mox oppidum Nesactium et nunc 

^ descenderit 7 Raclcham. 
* mi Dellefsen : M. 



■ Ship'8 Harbour (doubtless euggeating aLso the portage). 
Emona on ita banks iater became a Koman colony, Julia 
Augusta, and is the modem Laibach, which is also the name 
of tho river. 

* Now the Golfo di Quarnaro. 

• C. Scmpronius, consul 129 b.c. 

' I.e. 25U miles; the MSS. give 1000 stades, i.e. 125 Roman 
miles. The Roman miJe waa a little shorter than the Englinh. 
' Perhaps Capo d'lstria. 
^ Beiieved to be Castel Nuovo. 

94 



BOOK III. xviii. 127-XIX. 129 

authors, even including Nepos, who Hved on the 
banks of the Po, that Istria takes its name from the 
stream called Ister flowing out of the river Danube 
(which also has the name of Ister) into the Adriatic, 
opposite the mouths of the Po, and that their currents, 
colhding from contrary directions, turn the interven- 
ing sea into a pool of fresh water ; but these state- 
ments are erroneous, for no river flows out of the 
Danube into the Adriatic. I beheve that they have 
been misled by the fact that the ship Argo came down 
a river into the Adriatic not far from Trieste, but it 
has not hitherto been decided what river this was. 
More careful writers say that the Argo Avas portaged 
on men's shoulders across the Alps, but that she had 
come up the Ister and then the Save and then the 
Nauportus,'' a stream rising between Emona and the 
Alps, that has got its name from this occurrence. 

XIX. Istria projects in the form of a peninsula. istna. 
Some authorities have given its breadth as 40 miles 
and its circuit as 125 miles, and the same dimensions 
for the adjoining territory of Liburnia and the 
Flanatic Gulf;'' othcrs make it 225 miles, and 
others give the circuit of Liburnia as 180 miles. 
Some carry lapudia, at the back of Istria, as far as 
the Flanatic Gulf, a distance of 130 miles, and 
then make the circuit of Liburnia 150 miles. 
Tuditanus,*^ who conquered the Istrians, inscribed 
the following statement on his statue there : From 
Aquileia to the river Keriko 2000 furlongs.^ Towns in 
Istria with. the Roman citizenship are Aegida,* 
Parenzo and the colony of Pola, the present Pietas 
Juha, originally founded by the Colchians, and 105 
miles from Trieste. Then comes the town of 
Nesactium,/ and the river Arsa, now the frontier of 

95 



PLINY: NATURAL IIISTORY 

finis Italiae fluvius Arsia. Polam ab Ancona traiectus 
CXA p. est. 

130 In mediterraneo rcgionis decimae coloniae Cre- 
mona, Brixia Cenomanorum agro, Venetorum autem 
Ateste et oppida Acelum, Patavium, Opitergium, 
Velunum, Vicetia, Mantua Tuscorum trans Padum 
sola reliqua. Venetos Troiana stirpe ortos auctor est 
Cato, Cenomanos iuxta Massiliam habitasse in 
Volcis. Feltini et Tridentini et Beruenses Raetica 
oppida, Raetorum et Euganeorum Verona,Tulienses 
Camorum ; dein, quos scrupulosias dicere non 
attineat, Alutrenses, Asseriates, Flamonicnses Vani- 
enses et alii cognomine Curici, Foroiulienses cogno- 
mine Transpadani, Foretani, Nedinates, Quarqueni, 

131 Tarvisani, Togienses, Varvari. in hoc situ interiere 
per oram Irmene, Pellaon, Palsicium, ex Venetis 
Atina et Caelina, Carnis Segcsta et Ocra, Tauriscis 
Noreia. et ab Aquileia ad xii lapidcm deletum 
oppidum etiam invito senatu a M. Claudio Marcello 
L. Piso auctor est. 

In hac regione et xi lacus incluti sunt amnesque 
eorum partus, aut ahimni si modo acccptos reddunt, 
ut Adduam Larius, Ticinum Verbannus, Mincium 



" Tho town of Flagogna. * Friuli. 

• Nadiii. ^* Quero. 



96 



BOOK III. XTX. 129-131 

Italy. The distance across from Ancona to Pola 
is 120 miles. 

In the interior of the tenth region are the colonies ^?^'y> . 
of Cremona and Brescia in the territory of the 
Cenomani, and Este in that of the Veneti, and the 
towns of Asolo, Padua, Oderzo, Belluno, Vicenza 
and Mantua, thc only remaining Tuscan town across 
the Po. According to Cato, the \'eneti are descended 
from a Trojan stock, and the Cenomani lived among 
the Volcae in the neighbourhood of Marseilles. 
There are also the Rhaetic towns of Feltre, Trent 
and Berua, Verona which belongs to the Rhaeti and 
Euganei jointly, and ZugUo which belongs to the 
Carni ; then peoples that we need not be concerned 
to designate with more particularity, the Alutrenscs, 
Asseriates, Flamonienses " Vanienses and other 
Flamonienses surnamed Curici, the Foroj uHenscs * 
surnamed Transpadani, Foretani, Nedinates,'^ Quar- 
queni,"^ Tarvisani,*^ Togienses, Varvari. In this district 
there have disappeared, on the coast-Hne, Irmene, 
Pellaon, Palsicium, Atina and Caehna belonging 
to the Veneti, Segesta and Ocra to the Carni, 
Noreia to the Taurisci. Also Lucius Piso states 
that a tovm 12 miles from Aquilcia was destroyed 
bv Marcus Claudius Marcellus, although against 
the wish of the Senate. 

This reffion also contains eleven famous lakes and Theiuaian 
the rivers of which they are the source, or which, ^*'*- 
in the case of those that after entering the lakes 
leave them again, are augmented by them — for 
instance the Arlda that flows through Lake Como, 
the Ticino through Maggiore, the Mincio through 
Garda, the Seo through the Lngo di Seo, and the 

• Treviso. 

97 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Benacus, Ollium Sebinnus, Lambrum Eupilis, omnes 
incolas Padi. 

132 Alpis in longitudinera |xi p. patere a supero mari 
ad inferum Caelius tradit, Timagenes xxv p. deductis, 
in latitudinem autem Cornelius Nepos c, T. Livius 
rn stadiorum, utcrque diversis in locis ; namque et 
centum milia exccdunt aliquando, ubi Germaniam 
ab Italia submovent, nec Lxx inplent reliqua sui 
parte graciles, veluti naturae providentia. latitudo 
Italiae subter radices earum a \'aro per \'ada Sabatia, 
Taurinos, Comum, Brixiam, Wronam, Vicetiani, 
Opitergium, Aquileiam, Tergeste, Polam, ad ^ Arsiam 
DccxLv coUigit. 

133 XX. Incolae Alpium multi populi, sed inlustres a 
Pola ad Tergestis regionem Fecusses, Subocrini, 
Catali, Menoncaleni, iuxtaque Carnos quondam 
Taurisci appellati, nunc Norici ; his contermini 
Raeti et \'indelici, omnes in multas civitates divisi. 
Raetos Tuscorum prolem arbitrantur a Gallis pulsos 
duce Raeto. verso deinde in ^ Italiam pectore 
Alpium Latini iuris Euganeae gentes, quanmi 

134 oppida xxxiv enumcrat Cato. ex his TriumpiUni, 
venaHs cum agris suis populus, dein Camunni con- 
pluresque similes finitimis adtributi municipiis. 
Lepontios et Salassos Tauriscae gentis idem Cato 

* ad a/id. liafk/uitn. * in add. Dalerampius. 

' The stade or furlong was J of a Roman mile. But it 
lonka as if the t-ext wore wrniij,', aa what follows secms to ehow 
that 100 mile« should he the highcr figure, and the estimate 
of 3UO0 stades attributed to Livy is improbably large. 

^' The name survives in Val Trompia. 

' Presumahly they acctipted membership of the Roman 
Empire for a pccuniary considenition. 

" Val Camonica. • \ al Levuntina. Val d'Aosta. 

98 



BOOK III. XIX. i3i-\x. 134 

Lambro through Lago di Pusiano — all of these 
streams being tributaries of the Po. 

The length of the Alps from the Adriatic to the Therange 
Mediterranean is given by Caehus as 1000 miles ; ''•'^"^'*'^*' 
Timagenes puts it at 25 miles less. Their breadth 
is given by CorneUus Nepos as 100 miles, by Livy 
as 375 miles," but they take their measurements 
at difTerent points ; for occasionally the Alps exceed 
even 100 miles in breadth, where they divide Germany 
from Italy, while in the remaining part they are as 
it were providentially narrow and do not cover 70 
miles. The breadth of Italy at the roots of the Alps, 
measured from the river Var through Vado, the 
port of Savo, Turin, Como, Brescia, Verona, Vicenza, 
Oderzo, Aqui^-^ia, Trieste and Pola, to the river Arsa, 
amounts to 745 miles. 

XX. The Alps are inhabited by a great many Aipine 
nations, but the notable ones, between Pola and the ^'^'^"- 
district of Trieste, are the Fecusses, Subocrini, Catali 
and Menoncaleni, and next to the Carni the peoples 
formerly called Taurisci and now Norici ; adjoining 
these are the Raeti and VindeHci. All are divided 
into a number of states. The Raeti are believed 
to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls ; 
their leader was named Raetus. Then, on the side 
of the Alps towards Italy, are the Euganean races 
having the Latin rights, whose towns listed by Cato 
number 34. Among these are the Triumpilini,* 
a people that sold themselves <^ together with their 
lands, and then the Camunni <* and a number of 
similar peoples, assigned to the jurisdiction of the 
neighbouring municipal towTis. Cato before men- 
tioned considers the Lepontii ' and Salassi / to be 
of Tauriscan origin, but almost all other authors give 

99 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

arbitratur; ceteri fere Lepontios relictos ex comi- 
tatu Hcrculis interpretatione Graeci nominis credunt 
praeustis in transitu Alpium nive membris ; eiasdem 
exercitus et Graios fuisse Graiarum Alpium incolas 
praestantesque genere Euganeos, inde tract;o no- 

135 mine ; caput eorum Stoenos. Raetorum Vennonen- 
ses Sarunetesque ortus Rhcni amnis accolunt, 
Lepontinrum qui Ubcri vocantur fontcm Rhodani 
eodem Alpium tractu. sunt praetcrea Latio donati 
incolae, ut Octodurcnses et finitimi Ccntrones, 
Cottianae civitatcs et Turi Liguribus orti, ^agienni 
Ligures et qui Montani vocantur, Capillatorumque 
plura genera ad confinium Ligustici maris. 

13t) Non ahenum videtur hoc loco subicere inscrip- 
tionem e tropaeo Alpium, quac talis est: 

Imp. Caesari divi Jilio Ang. pont. max., imp. xiv, 
ir. pot. xvii, S. P. Q. R., quod eius ductu auspiciisque 
gentes Alpinae ovmes quae a viari supero ad inferum 
periineba?it sub iviperium p. li. sunt redactae. Gentes 
Alpinac devictae Triumpilini, Camunni, Venostes, 

' ' Lipontius,' from AeiVtu. 

* The Little St. Bemard, under Mont Blanc; seo p. 90, 
note b. 

' From cvyfveioi or eOyerers. 
^* In Cantons \'alai8 and \'aud. 
' Centron in Savoy. 
f Near Moiit Cenia. 

' An arcii with a portion of this inscription rcmaining stood 
in fairly recent times near Nicaea in Alhania. 

* Adopted 80I1 of bis great-uncle Juhus Caesar. 
' 17 u.c. 

* Some of these are identifiable in the modern place-names : 
Venostes, Val Venosco; Isarohi, Val de Sarcho; Breuni, 
Val Brcgna; (jenaunes, Val d'Agno; Focunatea, Vogogna : 
Licatea, Augsburg on thc Lech; Brixentcs, Brixen; Seduni, 
Sion ; Medulli, Maurienne ; Ucenni, Bourg d^Oysana ; Caturiges, 
loo 



BOOK III. XX. 134-136 

a Greek interpretation to their name and believe 
that the Lepontii ave descended from companions 
of Hercules ' left behind ' " because their limbs had 
been frostbitten in crossing the Alps ; and that the 
inhabitants of the Graian * Alps were also Grai 
from the same band, and that the Euganei were of 
specially distinguished family, and took their name 
from that fact ; <^ and that the head of these arc 
the Stoeni. The Raetian tribes Vennones and 
Sarunetes hve near the sources of the river llhine, 
and the Lepontian tribe called the Uberi at the source 
of the Rhone in the same district of the Alps. There 
are also other native tribes that have received Latin 
rights ; for instance, the Octodurenses ^ and their 
neighbours the Centrones,* the Cottian states-^ and 
the Turi of Ligurian descent, the Ligurian Vagienni 
and those called the Mountain Ligurians, and several 
tribes of Long-haired Ligurians on the borders of the 
Ligurian Sea. 

It seems not out of place to append here the in- Arch of 
scription from the triumphal arch ? erected in the '^"^''*''' 
Alps, which runs as follows : 

To the Emperor Caesar, son ^ of Ihe late lamented 
Augusius, Supreme Ponlijf, in his fnurteenth year of 
office as Commander-in-chief and sevenieenth year' 
of Tribuniiial Authoriitj—erected by the Senate and 
People of Rome, to commemoraie that under his 
leadership and auspices all the Alpine races sireiching 
from ihe Adriatic Sea to ihe Mediterranean rverc 
broughl under the dominion of ihe Roman people. 
Alpine races} conquered—ihe Triumpilini, Camunni, 

Chorges; Brigiani, Brian^on; Nemaloni, Miolans; Eguituri, 
Guiliaumes; Velauni, Bueil. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

137 Vennonetes, Jsarchi, Breuni, Genaunes, Focunates, 
Vindelicorum gentes quatiuor, Cosuanetes, Rucinates, 
Licatrs, Catenates, Ambisontes, liugusci, Suanetes, 
Calucones, Brixentes, Leponti, Uberi, Nantuates, 
Seduni, Varagri, Salassi, Acitavones, Medulli, Lcenni, 
Caturiges, Brigiani, Sobionti, Brodionti, Nemaloni, 
Edenates, J'esubiani, Veamini, GalUtae, Triullati, 
Ecdini, Vergunni, Eguituri, Nematuri, OratelU, 
Nerusi, Velauni, Suetri. 

138 Non sunt adiectae Cottianae civitates xv quae non 
fucrant hostiles, item adtributae municipiis ic\je 
Pompcia. 

Hacc cst Italia dis sacra, hac gcntcs eius, hacc 
oppida populorum ; supcr hacc Itaha quae L. 
AemiUo Papo,^ C. AtiUo Regulo coss. nuntiato 
Gallico tumultu sola sine externis ulHs auxihis atque 
ctiam tunc sine Transpadanis cquitum l.\xx, pcditum 
Dcc armavit. rnctallorum omnium fertihtate nulUs 
cedit terris ; sed interdictum id vetcre consulto 
patrum Itahae parci iubentium. 
130 XXI. Arsiae gens Liburnorum iungitur usque ad 
flumcn Tityum. pars eius fucre Mcntorcs, Himani, 
Encheleae, Buni et quos CaUimachus Peucetios 
appcUat, nunc totum uno nomine lUyricum vocatur 
gencratim. populorum pauca etfatu digna aut faciUa 
nomina. conventum Scardonitanum pctunt lapudes 

*■ Edd. : Paulo. 



" 225 B.o. Regulus fell io action. 
roa 



BOOK III. XX. 137-XXI. 139 

Fenostes, Vennonetes, Isarchi, Breuni, Genaunes, 
Focunates,four tribes of the rindelici, the Cosuanetes, 
Rucinates, Licates, Catenates, Ambisontes, Rugusci, 
Suanetes, Calucones, Brixentes, Leponti, Uberi, Nari- 
tuates, Seduni, Varagri, Salassi, Acitavones, Medulli, 
Ucenni, Caturiges, Brigiani, Sobionti, Brodionti, 
Nemaloni, Edenates, Vesubiani, Veamini, Gallitae, 
Triullati, Ecdini, Vergunni, Eguituri, Nematuri, 
Oratelli, Nerusi, Velauni, Suetri. 

This list does not include the 15 states of the 
Cottiani which had not shown hostiHty, nor those that 
were placed by tlie law of Pompeius under the 
jurisdiction of the municipal towns. 

This then is Italy, a land sacred to the gods, and 
these are the races and towns of its peoples. More- 
over this is that Italy which, in the consulship " 
of Lucius Aemihus Papus and Gaius Atihus Regulus, 
on receipt of news of a rising in Gaul, single-handed 
and without any ahen auxiharies, and moreover at 
that date without aid from Gaul north of the Po, 
equipped an army of 80,000 horse and 700,000 foot. 
She is inferior to no country in abundance of mineral 
products of every kind ; but mining is prohibited 
by an old resolution of the Senate forbidding the 
exploitation of Italy. 

XXI. The race of the Liburni stretches from the ^.e. coa»t 
Arsa to the river Tityus. Sections of it were the "^ ■^'^'■*<"*«' 
Mentores, Himani, Encheleae, Buni, and the people 
called by Calhmachus the Pcucetii, all of whom are 
now designated collectively by the one name of 
Illyrians. Few of the peoples are worthy of mention, 
nor are their names easy to pronounce. To the 
jurisdiction of Scardona resort the lapudes and the 

103 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

et Liburnorum civitates xiv, ex quibus Lacinienses, 
Stulpinos, Burnistas, Olboncnses nominare non 
pigeat. ius Italicum habent eo conventu Alutae, 
Flanates a quibus sinus nominatur, Lopsi, Varvarini, 
inmunesque Asseriates, et ex insulis Fertinates, 

140 Currictac. Cetero per oram oppida a Ncsactio 
Alvona, Flanona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Orto- 
plinia, Vegium, Argyruntum, Corinium, Aenona, 
civitas Pasini, flumcn Tcdanium quo finitur lapudia. 
insulae eius sinus cum oppidis practer supra signifi- 
catas Absortium, Arba, Crexi, Gissa, Portunata. 
rursus in continente colonia lader quae a Pola clx 
abest, inde xxx Colentum insula, xvTn ostium Titii 
fluminis. 

141 XXII. Libumiae finis et initium Delmatiae Scar- 
dona in amne eo xTi passuum a mari. dein Tario- 
tarum antiqua regio et castellum Tariona, promun- 
turium Diomedis vel, ut alii, paeninsula Hyllis 
circuitu c, Tragurium civium llomanoruni marmore 
n()tum,Siculi in quem locum divus Claudius veteranos 

142 misit, Salona colonia ab lader cxTi. petunt in eam 
iura viribus discriptis in decurias cccxlii Dclmataei 
.\xv Deuri, ccxxxix Ditiones, cclxix Maezaei, Lii 
Sardcates. in hoc tractu sunt Burnum, Andctrium, 
TribuHum, nobilitata proeliis castella. pctunt et 
ex insulis Issaei, Colentini, Separi, Epetini. ab his 



" Sinus Flanaticup, scc § 129 note. 
" Capo di ^an Micolo. 



104 



BOOK III. XXI. 139-XX11. 142 

14 communities of the Liburni, of which it may not 
be tedious to name the Lacinienses, Stulpini, 
Burnistae and Olbonenses. In this jurisdiction 
states having Italic rights are the Alutae, the 
Flanates from whom the gulf " takes its name, the 
Lopsi, the Varvarini, the Asseriates who are exempt 
from tribute, and of the islands BerAvitch and Karek. 
Morcover alono: the coast startinjr from Nesactium 
are Albona, Fianona, Tersact, Segna, Lopsico, 
OrtopHnia, Viza, Argyruntum, Carin, Nona, the city 
of the Pasini and the river Zermagna, at which 
lapudia terminates. The islands of the gulf with 
tiieir towns are, besides the above specified, Absor- 
tium, Arba, Cherso, Gissa, Portunata. Again on 
the mainhmd is the colony of Zara, IGO miles from 
Pola, and 30 miles from it the island of Mortero, 
and 18 miles from it the mouth of the river Kerka, 

XXII. At the city of Scardona on the Kerka, 12 Daimaiia. 
miles from the sea,Liburnia ends and Dalmatia begins. 
Then comes the ancient region of the Tariotares 
and the fortress of Tariona, the Promontory of 
Diomede,* or as others name it the Peninsuhi of 
HylHs, measuring 100 miles round, Tragurium, a 
place possessing Roman citizensliip and famous for 
its marble, SicuH where the late lamented Chuidius 
sent a colony of ex-service men ; and the colony 
of Spalato, 112 miles from Zara. Spalato is the 
ccntre for jurisdiction of the Delmataei whose 
forces are divided into 342 tithings, Deuri into 25 
tithings, Ditiones into 239, Maezaei 269, Sardeates 
52. In this district are Burnum, Andetrium and 
TribuHum, fortresses that are famous for battles. 
Island peoples also belonging to the same jurisdic- 
tion are the Issaeans, Colentini, Separi and Epetini. 

105 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

castella Peguntium, Nareste, Onium, Narona colonia 
tertii conventus a Salona lxxxv p., adposita cogno- 
minis sui flu\io a mari xx p. M. V';irro lxxxix civitates 

143 eo ventitasse auctor est ; nunc soli prope noscuntur 
Cerauni decuriis xxiv, Daursi xvii, Desitiates ciii, 
Docleates xxxiii, Deretini xiv, Deraemestae xxx, 
Dindari xxxiii, Glinditioncs xliv, Melcimiani xxiv, 
Naresi cii, Scirtari lxxii, Siculotae xxiv, popula- 
toresque quondam Italiae Vardaei non amplius quam 
XX decuriis. praeter hos tenuere tractum eum 
Ozuaei, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae, Armistae. 

144 a Narone amne c p. abcst Epidaurum colonia. ab 
Epidauro sunt oppida civium Romanorum Rhizinium, 
Acruium, Butuanum, Olcinium quod antea Col- 
chinium dictum est a Colchis condituin, amnis 
Drino superque eum oppidum civium Romanorum 
Scodra a mari xviii ; praeterea multorum Graeciae 
oppidorum deficiens memoria nec non et civitatium 
vahdarum : eo namcjue tractu fuere Labeatae, 
Endirudini, Sasaei, Grabaei ; proprieque dicti Illyri 
et Taulanti et Pyraei. retinet ^ nomen in ora Nym- 
phaeum promunturium. Lissum oppidum civium 
Romanorum ab Epidauro c p. 

145 XXIII. A Lisso Macedonia provincia. gentes 
Partheni et a tergo eorum Dassarctae, montes 
Candaviae a Dyrrachio Lxxviii p., in ora vero Denda 
civium Romanorum, Epidamnum colonia propter 

• V.l. retincnt. 

" Now Almissa. * Now Mucarisea. 

* Now R&gusa Vecchia. ' Capo Kodoai. 

lo6 



BOOK III. xAii. i42-.\xiii. 145 

After these come the fortresses of Peguntium,*» 
Nareste * and Onium. and the colony of Narenta, 
the seat of the third centre, 85 miles from Spalato, 
situated on the river also called Narenta 20 miles 
from the sea. According to Marcus Varro 89 
states used to resort to it, but now nearly the 
onlv ones known are the Cerauni with 24: tithings, 
the Daursi with 17, Desitiates 103, Docleates 33, 
Deretini 1-1, Deraemestae 30, Dindari 33, Ghn- 
ditiones 44, Melcumani 24, Naresi 102, Scirtari 72, 
Siculotae 24, and the Vardaei, once the ravagers 
of Italy, with not more than 20 tithings. Besides 
these this district was occupied by the Ozuaei, 
Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae and Armistae. The 
colony of Epidaurum<^ is 100 miles distant from 
the river Naron. After Epidaurum come the 
following towns with Roman citizenship — Risine, 
Cattaro, Budua, Dulcigno, formerly called Col- 
chinium because it was founded by the Colchians ; 
the river Drino, and upon it Scutari, a towTi with the 
Roman citizenship, 18 miles from the sea ; and also 
a number of Greek towns and also powerful cities 
of which the memory is fading away, this district 
having contained the Labeatae, Endirudini, Sasaei 
and Grabaei ; and thc Taulanti and the Pyraei, 
both properly styled IUyrians. The promontory of 
Nymphaeum '^ on the coast still retains its name. 
Lissum, a town having the Roman citizenship, 
is 100 miles from Epidaurum. 

XXIII. At Lissum begins the Province of Mace- Westccatt 
donia. Its races are the Partheni and in their rear uonia!^' 
the Dassaretae. The mountains of Candavia are 
78 miles from Durazzo, and on the coast is Denda, 
a town with Roman citizenship, the colony of Epi- 

107 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

inauspicatum nomen a Romanis Dyrrachium appellata, 
flumen Aous a quibusdam Aeas nominatum, Apol- 
lonia quondam Corinthiorum colonia iv p. a mari 
recedens, cuius in flnibus celebre Nymphaeum 
accolunt barbari Amantes et Buliones. at in ora 
oppidum Oricum a Colchis conditum. inde initium 
Epiri, montes Acroceraunia quibus hunc Europae 
determinavimus sinum. Oricum a Salcntino ItaUae 
promunturio distat iXxx. 

14f3 XXIV. A tergo Carnorum et lapuduin, qua se 
fert magnus Hister, Raetis iunguntur Norici ; oppida 
eorum Virunum, Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum, luvavum, 
Vianiomina, Claudia, Flavium Solvense. Noricis 
iunguntur lacus Peiso, deserta Boiorum ; iam tamen 
colonia divi Claudi Sabaria et oppido Scarabantia 
luha habitantur. 

147 XXV. Inde glandifera Pannoniae, qua mitescentia 
Alpium iuga per mcdium IUyricum a septentrione ad 
mcridiem versa moUi in dextra ac laeva devexitate 
considunt. quae pars ad mare Iladriaticum spectat 
appeUatur Delmatia et lUyricum supra dictum; ad 
septentriones Pannonia vergit : finitur inde Danuvio. 
in ea ccloniae Aemona, Siscia. amnes clari et 
navigabiles in Danuvium defluunt Draus e Noricis 



" Now Durazzo. ' TUo Voioussa. 

« Now I'ollina. ■* In § 97. 

' Promuntiirium lapygium. 
Perhaps tbe Nouaicdler yee near Vienna. 

io8 



BOOK III. XXIII. i45-.\.w. 147 

damnum which, on account of the ill-omened sound 
of that name, has been renamed Dyrrachium" by 
the Romans, the river Aous,^ called by some Aeas, 
and the formcr Corinthian colony of Apollonia ' 
4 miles distant from the sea, in the territory of which 
is the famous Shrine of the Nyinphs, with the neigh- 
bouring native tribes of the Amantes and Buhones. 
Actually on the coast is the town of Ericho, founded 
by the Colchians. Here begins Epirus, with the Kpims. 
Acroceraunian mountains, at which we fixed '^ the 
boundary of this Gulf of Europe. The distance 
between Ericho and Cape Leuca*" in Italy is 80 
miles. 

XXIV. Behind the Carni and lapudes, alon»; the ^^'' ^pp^ 
course of the mighty Danube, the Raetians are 
adjoined by the Norici ; their towns are Wolk-Markt, 
Cilley, Lurnfelde, Innichen, Juvavum, Vienna, 
Clausen, SoHeld. Adjoining the Norici is Lake Peiso,/ 
and the Unoccupied Lands of the Boii, now however 
inhabited by the people of Sarvar, a colony of his 
late Majesty Claudius, and the town of Sopron 
Julia. 

XX\'. Tlien come the acorn-producing lands of ^annonia. 
the province of Pannonia, where the chain of the 
Alps gradually becomes less formidable, and slopes 
to the riglit and left hand with gentle contours 
as it traverses the middle of Illyria from north to 
south. The part looking towards the Adriatic is 
called Dalmatia and Illyria mentioned above, while 5139 
the part stretching northward is Pannonia, terminat- 
ing in that direction at the Danube. In it are the 
colonies of Aemona and Siscia. Famous navigable 
rivers flowing into the Danube are the Drave from 
Noricurn, a rather violent stream, and the Save 

109 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

violentior, Saus ex Alpibus Camicis placidior, cxx 
intervallo, Draus per Serretes, Sirapillos, lasos, 

148 Andizetes, Saus per Colapianos Breucosque. popu- 
lorum haec capita ; praeterea Arviates, Azali, 
Amantini, Belgites, Catari, Cornacates, Eravisci, 
Hercuniates, Latovici, Oseriates, Varciani, mons 
Claudius, cuius in fronte Scordisci, in tergo Taurisci. 
insula in Savo Metubarbis, amnicarum maxima. 
praeterea amnes memorandi Colapis in Saum 
influens iuxta Sisciam gemino alveo insulam ibi 
efficit quae Segestica appellatur, alter amnis Bacun- 
tius in Saum Sirmio oppido influit, ubi civitas Sirmien- 
sium et Amantinorum. inde .\lv Taurunum, ubi 
Danuvio miscctur Saus ; supra influunt V^^aldasus, 
Urpanus, et ipsi non ignobiles. 

149 XX\T. Pannoniae iungitur provincia quae Moesia 
appcUatur, ad Pontuni usque cum Danuvio decurrens ; 
incipit a confluente supra dicto. in ea Dardani, 
Celcgeri, Triballi, Timachi, Moesi, Thraces Pontoque 
contermini Scythae. flumina clara e Dardanis 
Margus, Pingus, Timachus, ex Rhodope Oescus, ex 
Haemo Utus, Asamus, leterus. 

150 Illyrici latitudo qua maxinia est cccxxv p. colligit, 
longitudo a flumine Arsia ad flumen Drinium dxxx ; 
a Drinio ad promunturium Acroceraunium clxxv 
Agrippa prodidit, universum autem sinum ItaHae 



' Despoto Dagb in the BalkaD chain. 
" The Great Balkan. 



IIO 



BOOK III. XXV. i47-xx\'i. 150 

from the Carnian Alps which is more gentle, there 
being a space of 120 miles between them ; the 
Drave flows through the Serretes, Sirapilh, lasi 
and Andizetes ; the Save through the Colapiani 
and Breuci. These are the principal peoples ; 
and there are besides the Arviates, AzaH, Amantini, 
Belgites, Catari, Cornacates, Eravisci, Hercuniates, 
Latovici, Oseriates and Varciani, and Mount Claudius, 
in front of which are the Scordisci and behind it the 
Taurisci. In the Save is the island of Zagrabia, 
the largest known island formed by a river. Other 
noteworthy rivers are the Culpa, which flows into 
the Save near Siscia, where its channel divides 
and forms the island called Segestica, and another 
river the Bossut, flowing into the Save at the town 
of Sirmich, the capital of the Sirmienses and Amantini. 
From Sirmich it is 45 miles to Tzeruinka, where the 
Save joins the Danube ; tributaries flowing into 
the Danube higher up are the Walpo and the Verbas, 
themselves also not inconsiderable streams. 

XXVI. Adjoining Pannonia is the province called Thelower 
Moesia, which runs with the course of the Danube -o<"»"*«- 
right down to the Black Sea, beginning at the con- 
fluence of the Danube and the Save mentioned 
above. Moesia contains the Dardani, Celegeri, 
TribaUi, Tiniachi, Moesi, Thracians and Scythians 
adjacent to the Black Sea. Its famous rivers are 
the Morava, Bek and Timoch rising in the territory 
of the Dardani, the Iscar in Mount llhodope °- and 
the Vid, Osma and Jantra in Mount Haemus.* 

Illyria covers 325 miles in width at its widest point, s.B. eoastof 
and 530 miles in length from the river Arsa to the fif^Y 
river Drin ; its length from the Drin to the Promon- 
tory of Glossa is given by Agrippa as 175 miles, and 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

et niyrici ambitu |xvTi|. in eo duo inaria quo dis- 
tinxiriius fine, lonium in prima parte, interius 
Hadriaticum quod Superum vocant. 

151 Insulae in Ausonio mari praetcr iam dictas mem- 
oratu dignae nullae, in lonio paucae, Calabro litore 
ante Brundisium quarum obiectu portus efticitur, 
contra Apulum litus Diomedia conspicua monu- 
mcnto Diomedis et altera eodem nominc a qui- 
busdam Teutria appcUata. 

Ill^Tici ora mille amplius insulis frequcntatur, 
natura vadoso mari aestuariisque tenui alveo inter- 
cursantibus. clarae ante ostia Timavi calidorum 
fontium cum acstu maris crcscontium, iuxta Ilis- 
trorum agrum Cissa, Pullaria et Absyrtides Grais 
dictae a fratre Medeae ibi intcrfecto Absyrto. 

152 iuxta eas Electridas vocavere in quibus proveniret 
sucinum quod illi electrum appellant, vanitatis 
Graecae certissimum docvunentum, adeo ut quas 
earum designent haut umquam constiterit. contra 
lader est Lissa et quae appcllatae, contra Liburnos 
Crateae aliquot nec pauciores Liburnicae, Celadus- 
sae, contra Surium Bavo et capris laudata Brattia, 
Issa civium Romanorum et cum oppido Pharia. 

<• /.e. tho eea eouth of the Straits of Otrauto, botween 
the south of Italy and tireoce. 

" South of the toe of Italy and east of Sicily. 

• Now Tremiti. 
^ Now Caprara. 

* Bagai di Monte Falcone. 

112 



BOOK III. xwi. 150-152 

the entire circuit of the Italian and Illyrian Gulf as 
1700 miles. This gulf, dehmited as we described ? 100. 
it, contains two seas. in the first part the lonian ° 
and more inland the Adriatic, called the Upper 
Sea. 

There are no islands deserving mention in the isiandjs s. of 
Ausonian Sea * besides those ah-eady specified, and is^^f ^2rt-" 
only a lew in the lonian — those lying on the coast «"«• 
of Calabria oti Brindisi and by their position forming 
a harbour, and Diomede's Island "^ ofF the coast of 
Apulia, marked by the monument of Diomede, 
and another island <^ of the same name but by some 
called Teutria. 

On the coast of Illyricum is a cluster of more than 
1000 islands, the sea being of a shoaiy nature and 
divided into a network of estuaries with narrow 
channels. The notable islands are those off the 
mouth of the Timavo, fed by hot springs * that rise 
with the tide of the sea ; Cissa near the territory 
of the Ilistri ; and PuUaria and those called by the 
Greeks the Absyrtidcs, from Medea's brother 
Absyrtus who was killed there. Islands near these 
the Grecks have designated the Electrides, because 
amber, the Grcek for which is electrum, was said to 
be found there ; this is a vcry clear proof of Greek 
unrcliability, seeing that it has never been ascer- 
tained which of the islands they mean. Opposite 
to the Zara are Lissa and the islands ah-eady 
mentioned ; opposite the Liburni are several called § 140. 
the Crateae, and an equal number called the Libur- 
nicae and Celadussae ; opposite Surium Bavo and 
Brattia, the latter celebrated for its goats, Issa with 
the rights of Roman citizenship and Pharia, on wliich 
there is a town. Twenty-five miles from Issa is the 

"3 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ab Issa Corcyra Melaena cognominata cum Cni- 
diomm oppido distat .vxv, inter quam et IUyricum 
Melite, unde catulos Melitaeos appellari Callima- 
chus auctor est. xv ab ea vii Elaphites. in lonio 
autem mari ab Orico xh ^ p. Sasonis piratica statione 
nota. 

> Brolier: M.M. 



• Now Curzola or Karkas ; the Greek name ' Black Corcyra ' 
is due to its pine forests. 

* More usuaiiy derived from the better-known Mehte, Malta. 



114 



BOOK III. xA-vi. 152 

island called Corcyra Melaena," with a town founded 
from Cnidos, and between Corcyra Melaena and 
Illyricum is Meleda, from which according to Calli- 
machus Maltese terriers get their name.* Fifteen 
miles from Meleda are the seven Stag Islands,"" and 
in the lonian Sea tweh'e '^ miles from Oricum is 
Sasena, notorious as a harbour for pirates. 

' So called from their combined outlines, Giupan forming 
the head, Ruda the neck, Mezzo the body, Caiemotta the 
haunches and Grebini or Petini the tail. 

* The MSS. give ' two.' 



"5 



BOOK IV 



LIBER IV 

1 I. Tf.htius Europae sinus Acrocerauniis incipit 
montibus, finitur Hellesponto, amplectitur praeter 
minores sinus pcfx] xxv passuum. in eo Epiros, Acar- 
nania, Aetolia, Phocis, Locris, Achaia, Messenia, 
Laconia, Argolis, Megaris. Attica, Boeotia, iterum- 
que ab aUo mari eadem Phocis et Locris, Doris, 
Phthiotis, ThessaHa, Magnesia, Macedonia, Thracia. 
omnis Graeciae fabulositas sicut et litterarum 
claritas ex hoc primuni sinu effulsit, quapropter 
paululum in eo commorabimur. 

2 Epiros in universum appellata a Cerauniis incipit 
montibus. in ea primi Chaones a quibus Chaonia, 
dein Thesproti, Antigonenses, locus Aornos et 
pestifera avibus exhalatio, Cestrini, Perrhaebi quorum 
mons Pindus, Cassiopaei, Dr)'opes, Selloc, Hellopes, 
Molossi apud quos Dodonaei lovis templum oraculo 
inlustre, Talarus mons centum fontibus circa radices 

3 Theopompo celebratus. Epiros ipsa ad Magnesiam 
Macedoniamque tendens a tergo suo Dassaretas 
supra dictos, Hberam gentem, mox feram Dardanos 
habet. Dardanis laevo TribalH praetenduntur latere 

" The firet half of this dcscription enumerates the coaatal 
countries of Greece beginning at the N.W. and going round the 
Pcloponnese and up the E. coast aa far as the Straita of 
Euripus between Euboea and the mainland; the second half 
of thc liat goes N. from that point and round the N. coaat of the 
Aegean to tbe Dardaneiies. 

* 'Kopvos, ' without birda.' 
Il8 



BOOK IV 

I. The third gulf of Europe begins at the Moun- Oreeeeand 
tains of Khimarra and ends at the Dardanelles. Its ^^^ouhe 
coast-Hne measures 1925 miles not including smaller Aegean. 
bays. It contains Epirus, Acarnania, Aetolia, 
Phocis, Locris, Achaia, Messenia, Laconia, ArgoHs, 
Megaris, Attica and Boeotia ; and again, on the side 
of the other sea, Phocis and Locris before-mentioned 
and Doris, Phthiotis, Thessaly, Magnesia, Macedonia 
and Thrace." All the legendary lore of Greece and 
Hkewise its glorous Hterature first shone forth from 
this gulf; and consequently we will briefly dwell 
upon it. 

Epirus in the wide sense of the term begins at the n.w.eoatt 
Mountains of Khimarra. The peoples that it con- "^ ^"^- 
tains are first the Chaones who give their name to 
Chaonia, and then the Thesproti and Antigonenses ; 
then comes the place caHed Aornos * with exhalations 
that are noxious to birds, the Cestrini, the Perrhaebi 
to whom belongs Mount Pindus, the Cassiopaei, the 
Drj'opes, the Selloi,the Hellopes,the Molossi in whose 
territory is the temple of Zeus of Dodona, famous for 
its oracle, and Mount Talarus, celebrated by Theo- 
pompus, with a hundred springs at its foot. Epirus 
proper stretches to Magnesia and Macedonia, and 
has at its back the Dassaretae above mentioned, a 
free race, and then the savage tribe of the Dardani. 
On the left side of the Dardani stretch the Triballi 

119 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

et Moesicae gentes, a fronte iunguntur Medi ac 
Denseletae, quibus Threces ad Pontum usque 
pertinentes. ita succincta Rhodopcs, mox et Ilaemi, 

4 vallatiir excelsitas, in Epiri ora castellum in Acro- 
ccrauniis Chimcra, sub eo Aquae Regiae fons, 
oppida Maeandria, Cestria, flumen Thesprotiae 
Thyamis, colonia Buthrotum, maximeque nobilitatus 
Ambracius sinus, d passuum faucibus spatiosum 
aequor accipiens, longitudinis xxxvTi, latitudinis xv. 
in eum defertur amnis Acheron e lacu Thesprotiae 
Acherusia profluens .xxxv passuum inde et mille 
pedum ponte mirabihs omnia sua mirantibus. in 
sinu oppidum Ambracia, Molossorum flumina Aphas, 
Aratthus, civitas Anactorica, locus Pandosiae. 

5 Acarnaniae, quae antea Curetis vocabatur, oppida 
Heracha, Echinus, et in ore ipso colonia Augusti 
Actium cum templo ApoUinis nobiH ac civitate 
libera NicopoHtana. egressos sinu Ambracio in 
lonium excipit Leucadium Htus, promunturium 
Leucates, dein sinus et Leucadia ipsa pacninsula 
quondam Neritis appellata, opere accolarum abscisa 
continenti ac reddita ventorum flatu congeriem 
harenae adtumulantium, qui locus vocatur Diorj^ctos 
stadiorum longitudine trium ; oppidum in ea Leucas, 
quondam Neritum dictum. deinde Acarnarmm urbes 



" This now gives ita name to the range. 

* Mow the Calama. 

* >iow an iBland, bantti Maura. 

I20 



BOOK IV. I. 3-5 

and the Moesic races, and joining them in front are 
the Medi and the Denseletae, and joininjj these the 
Thracians who extcnd all ihe way to the Black Sea. 
Such is the girdle that walls in the lofty heights of 
Despoto Dagh and then of the Great Balkan. On the 
coast of Epirus is the fortrcss of Khimarra " on the 
Acroceraunians, and bclow it the spring named the 
RoyalWater andthetowns of Maeandriaand Cestria, 
the Thesprotian river Thyamis,* the colony of Butrinto, 
and the veiy celebrated Gulf of Arta, whose inlet, 
half a mile wide, admits an extcnsive sheet of water, 
37 miles long and 15 miles broad. Into it discharges 
the river Acheron flowing from the Acherusian Lake 
in Thesprotia, a course of 35 miles, and remarkable 
in the eyes of people who admire all the achieve- 
ments of their own race for its 1000-foot bridge. 
On the gulf hes the town of Ambracia, and there are 
the Molossian rivcrs Aphas and Arta, the city of 
Anactoria and the place whcre Pandosia stood. 

The towns of Acarnania, which was previously 
called Curetis, are Heraclia, Echinus, and, on the 
actual coast, the colonv founded by Augustus, Act- 
ium, with the famous temple of Apollo, and the free 
city of Nicopohs. Passing fi-om the Gulf of Aml)racia 
into the lonian Sea we come to the coast of Leueadia 
and Capo Ducato, and then to the gulf and the 
actual peninsula «^ of I>cucadia, formerly callcd 
Neritis, which by the industry of its inhabitants was 
once cut ofF from lhe mainland and which has been 
rcstored to it by the mass of sand pilcd up against it 
by the violence of the winds; the place has a Greek 
name meaning ' canalized,' and is 600 yards long. On 
the peninsida is the town of Leucas, formerly called 
Neritus. Then come the Acarnanian cities of Alyzia, 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Alyzia, Stratos, Argos Amphilochicum cognomina 
tum, amnis Achelous e Pindo fluens atque Acamaniam 
ab Aetolia dirimens et Artemitam insulam adsiduo 
terrae invectu continenti adnectens. 

6 II. Aetolorum popuU Athamanes, Tymphaei, 
Ephyri, Aenienses, Perrhaebi, Dolopes, Maraces, 
Atraces, a quibus Atrax amnis lonio mari infunditur. 
Aetohae oppidum Calydon vTi d passuum a mari 
iuxta Evenum amnem, dein Macynia, Molycria, 
cuius a tergo Chalcis mons et Taphiassus. at in 
ora promunturium Antirrium, ubi ostium Corin- 
thiaci sinus minus m p. latitudine influentis Aetolos- 
que dirimentis a Peloponneso. promunturium quod 
contra procedit appellatur Rhion. sed in Corinthio 
sinu oppida Aetohae Naupactus, Eupahmna, et in 
mediterraneo Pleuron, Ilahcarna. montes clari in 
Dodone Tomarus, in Ambracia Crania, in Acarnania 
Aracynthus, in AetoUa Achaton, Panaetolium, 
Macynium. 

7 III. Proxumi AetoUs Locri cognominantur Ozolae, 
immunes. oppidum Ocanthe, portus ApoUinis Pha- 
estii, sinus Crisaeus ; intus oppida Argyna, Eupaha, 
Phaestum, Calamisus. ultra Cirrhaei Phocidis cam- 
pi, oppidum Cirrha, portus Chalaeon, a quo vil p. 
introrsus Uberum oppidum Delphi sub monte Parnaso 

8 clarissimi in terris oracuU ApolUnis. fons CastaUus, 
amnis Cephisus praefluens Delphos, ortus in Lilaea 

" ' Strong-smelling ' — so callcd either from their wearing 
undressed hides or from the asphodel growing in their country 
or from its vaporoua springs. 

122 



BOOK IV. I. 5-III. 8 

Stratos, and Argos surnamcd Amphilochian, and the 
river Achelous flowing from Mount Pindus and 
separating Acarnania froni Aetolia ; the continual 
deposits of earth that it brings down are linking the 
island of Artemita to the main land. 

II. The Aetohan peoples are the Athamanes, Aorthsid* 
Tymphaei, Ephyri, Aenienses, Perrhaebi, Dolopes, corinth. 
Maraces and Atraces in whose district is the source 

of the river Atrax that flows into the lonian Sea. 
The towns of Aetoha are Calydon on the river Evenus 
seven miles and a half from the sea, and then Macynia 
and Molycria, behind which are Mount Chalcis and 
Taphiassus. On the coast is the Promontory of 
Antirrhium, at which is the mouth of the Gulf of 
Corinth, less than a mile broad, whose channel 
separates the Aetolians from the Morea. The 
promontory that juts out opposite is called Rhium. 
Aetolian towns on the Gulf of Corinth are Lepanto, 
Eupalimna, and inland Pleuron and Hahcarna. 
Notable mountains are Tomarus in the district of 
Dodona, Crania in Ambracia, Aracynthus in Acarn- 
ania, and Achaton, PanaetoHum and Macynium in 
AetoHa. 

III. Next to the Aetolians are the Locrians, sur- 
named Ozolae," who are exempt from tribute, Here 
are the town of Oeanthe, the harbour of Apollo 
Phaestius and the gulf of Salona ; and inland the 
towns of Argyna, Eupalia, Phaestum and Calamisus. 
Beyond are the Cirrhaean Plains of Phocis, the town 
of Cirrha and the port of Chalaeon, seven miles inland 
from which is Delphi, a free town at the foot of Mount 
Parnassus and the seat of the oracle of Apollo, the 
most famous in the world. Here are the Castalian 
Spring and the river Cephisus flowing past Delphi ; 

123 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

urbe. quondam praeterea oppidum Crisa et cum 
Bulcnsibus AnticjTa, Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphisa 
immunis, Tithrone, Tithorca, Ambrysus, Mirana, 
quae regio Daulis appcllatur. deinde in intumo 
sinu angulus Boeotiae adluitur cum oppidis Siphis, 
Thebis quae Corsiae cognominatae sunt iuxta montem 
Heliconem. tertium ab hoc mari Boeotiae oppidum 
Pagae, unde Pcloponnesi prosiHt ccrvix. 
IV. Peloponnesus, Apia antea appellata et Pelas 
gia, paeninsula Iiaut ulU terrae nobiUtatc postfercnda, 
inter duo maria Aegaeum et lonium, platani folio 
similis, propter angulosos reccssus circuitu dlxiii p. 
colligit auctore Isidoro ; eadem per sinus paene 
tantundem adicit. angustiae unde procedit Isthmos 
appcllantur. in eo loco inrumpentia e diverso 
quae dicta simt maria a septentrione et exortu eius 
omnem ibi latitudinera vorant, donec contrario 
incursu tantorum aequorum in quinque milium 
passuum intcrvallum exesis utrimque lateribus 
angusta cervice Pcloponnesum contincat Hellas. 
10 Corinthiacus hinc, illinc Saronicus appellatur sinus ; 
Lecheae hinc, Cenchreae illinc angustiarum termini, 
longo et ancipiti navium ambitu quas magnitudo 
plaustris transvehi prohibet, quam ob causam per- 

" Tho modem name Morca moans ' like a mulberry leaf.' 

* This common noun, meuning a neck of iand, cume to be 
attached as a proper name to the neck joining the Morea to 
Central Grccce. 

* The harbour of Corinth. 

' The harbour on the Gulf of Egina. 

124 



BOOK IV. m. 8-iv. lo 

it rises at the city of Lilaea. There was also formerly 
the town of Crisa, and together with the people of 
Bulis there are Anticyra, Naulochus, Pyrrha, the 
tax-free town of Salona, Tithrone, Tithorea, Ambrysus 
and Mirana, the district also called DauUs. Then 
right up the bav is the sea-board corner of Boeotia 
with ihe towns of Siphae and Thebes surnamed the 
Corsian, near Mount Hehcon. The third town of 
Boeotia up from this sea is Pagae, from which projects 
the neck of the Morea. 

I\'. The Peloponnese, which was previously called isihmuso/ 
Apia and Pelasgia, is a peninsula inferior in celebrity 
to no region of tlie earth. It hes between two 
seas, the Aegean and the lonian, and resembles in 
shape the leaf of a plane-tree " ; on account of the 
angular indentations the circuit of its coast-hne, 
according to Isidore, amounts to 563 miles, and 
nearly as much again in addition, measuring the 
shores of the bays. The narrow neck of land from 
which it projects is called the Isthmus.* At this 
place the two seas that have been mentioned en- 
croach on opposite sides from the north and east and 
swallow up all the breadlh of the peninsula at this 
point, until in consequence of the inroad of such 
large bodies of water in opposite directions the coasts 
on either side have been eaten away so as to leave a 
space between them of only five miles, with the 
result that the Morea is only attached to Greece 
by a narrow neck of land. Thc inlets on eithcr 
side are called the Gulf of Lepanto and the Gulf 
of Egina, the former ending in Lecheae ' and 
the latter in Cenchreae."^ The circuit of the 
Morea is a long and dangerous voyage for vessels 
prohibited by their size from being carried across the 

125 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

fodere navigabili alveo angustias eas temptavere 
Demetrius rex, dictator Caesar, Gaius princeps, 
Domitius Nero, nefasto, ut oinnium exitu patuit, 

11 incepto. in medio hoc intcrvallo quod Isthmon 
appellavimus adphcata colli habitatur colonia Corin- 
thus antea Ephyra dicta sexagenis ab utroque Utore 
stadiis, e sumnia sua arce quae vocatur Acrocorinthos, 
in qua fons Pirene, diversa duo maria prospcctans. 
Lx.vxviii p. ad Corintliiacum sinum traiectus est 
Patras a Leucade. Patrac, colonia in longissimo 
promunturio Pcloponnesi condita cx adverso Aetoliae 
et fluminis Eveni, minus m p., ut diclum est, intervallo 
in ipsis faucibus sinum Corinthiacum Lx.xxv in 
longitudinem usque ad Isthmon transmittunt. 

12 V. Achaiae nomcn provinciae ab Isthmo incipit. 
antca Aegialos vocabatur propter urbes in litore per 
ordinem dispositas. primae ibi quas diximus Lecheae 
Corinthiorum portus, mox Olyros Pellenaeorum 
castellum, oppida HeHce, Bura, in quae refugere 
liaustis prioribus, Sicyon, Aegira, Aegium, Erineos. 

13 intusCleonae,Hysiae. Panhornms portus demonstra- 
tumque iam Rhium, a quo promunturio v absunt 
Patrae quas supra memoravimus, locus Pherae. 

" The projcct was rcnewcd in 1889 and complctcd in 1893, 
withovit disastrous rcsults cxccpt to the financcs of the 
criKinal promotcrs. The canai is aliout four milcs long. 

' Originally the district of Phthia in the south of Thessaly 
had this nanie. 

' The Sca-coast. 

** Headquarters of the old Achaoan Lcague. 

• Owing to an earthfjuako in 373 B.c. 
126 



BOOK IV. IV. lo-v. 13 

isthmus on troUeys, and consequently successive 
attempts were made by King Demetrius, Caesar the 
dictator and the emperors Caligula and Nero, to dig 
a ship-canal through the narrow part — an undertaking canal. 
which the cnd that befell them all proves to have 
been an act of sacrilege." In the middleof this neck 
of land which we have called the Isthmus is the 
colony of Corinth, the former name of which was 
Ephyra ; its habitations chng to the side of a hill, 
7| miles from the coast on either side, and the top of 
its citadel, called the Corinthian Heights, on which is 
the spring of Pirene, commands views of the two seas 
in opposite directions. The distance across the 
Isthmus from Leucas to Patras on the Gulf of Corinth 
is 88 miles. The colony of Patras is situated on the 
longest projection of the Peloponnese opposite to 
Aetolia and the river Evenus, separated from them 
at the actual mouth of the gulf by a gap of less than 
a mile, as has been said ; but in length the Gulf of §6. 
Corinth extends 85 miles from Patras to the Isthmus. 

V. At the Isthmus begins the province named Morca. 
Achaia.* It waspreviouslycalled Aegialos*^ on account 
of the cities situated in a row on its coast. The first 
place there is Lecheae the port of Corinth, already 
mentioned, and then come Olyrus the fortress of the 
people of Trikala, and the towns of Hehce** and Bura, 
and those in which their inhabitants took refuge 
when the former towns were swallowed up by 
the sea,' namely Basihca, Palaeokastro, Vostitza 
and Artotina. Inland are Klenes and Hysiae. Then 
come the port of Tekieh and Rhium already described, 
the distance between which promontory and Patras 
which we have mentioned above isfive miles ; and then 
the place called Pherae. Of the nine mountains in 

127 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

in Achaia novem montium Scioessa notissimus, fons 
Cymothoe. ultra Patras oppidum Olenum, colonia 
Dyme, loca Buprasium, Hyrmine, promunturium 
Araxus, Cyllenius sinus, promunturium Chelonates 
unde Cyllenen v p., castelhmi Phhum, quae regio ab 
Homero Araethyrea dicta est, postea Asopis. 

14 Inde Eliorum ager, qui antea Epioe vocabantur. 
ipsa Elis in mcditerraneo, et a Pylo xiii intus delu- 
brum Olympii lovis, ludorum claritate fastos Graeciae 
complexum, Pisaeorum quondam oppidimi, prae- 
fluente Alpheo amne. at in ora promunturium 
Ichthys, amnis Alphcus — navigatur vi — oppida 
Aulon, Leprium, promunturium Platanodcs, omnia 

15 haec ad occasum versa. ad meridiem autem Cyparis- 
sius sinus cura urbe Cj^parisso lx.\v circuitu, oppida 
Pylos, Methone, locus Hclos, promunturium Acritas, 
sinus Asinaeus ab oppido Asinc, Coronacus a Corone ; 
finiuntur Tacnaro promunturio. ibi regio Messenia 
duodeviginti montium, amnis Pamisus, intus autem 
ipsa Messene, Ithome, OechaUa, Arene, Pteleon, 
Thryon, Dorion, Zancle, variis quaeque clara tem- 
poribus. Imius sinus circuitus txxx, traiectus vero 

XXX. 

16 Dehinc a Taenaro ager Laconicus Ubcrae gentis 
et sinus circuitu cvi, traiectu x.vxviii. oppida 



• lliad, II. 57. 

* Destroyed by the Eleans in 572 B.c. 



128 



BOOK IV. V. 13-16 

Achaia the best known is Scioessa ; and there is also 
the spring of Cymothoe. Beyond Patras is the town of 
Kato-Achaia, the colony of Dynie, the places called 
Buprasiuni and Hyrmine, the promontory of Capo 
Papa, the Bay of Cyllene, the promontory of Cape 
Tornese 5 miles from Cyllene, the fortress of PhHus, 
the district round which was called Araethyrea by 
Homer" and afterwards Asopis. 

Then begins the territory of the Eleans, who were 
formerly called the Epioi. EHs itself is in the 
interior, and 13 miles inland from Pilo is the shrine 
of Zeus of Olvmpus, which owing to the celebrity 
of its Games has taken possession of the calendar 
of Greece ; here once was the town of Pisa,* on the 
banks of the river Rufia. On the coast are the 
promontorv of Katakolo, the river Rufia, navigable 
for 6 miles, tlie towns of Aulon and Leprium, and the 
promontory of Platanodes, all these places lying v/est- 
ward. Southward are the Gulf of Cyparissus with 
the city of Cyparissus on its shore, which is 75 miles 
round, the towns of Pilo and Modon, the place called 
Helos, the promontory of Capo Gallo, the Asinaean 
Gulf named from the town of Asine, and the Coronaean 
named from Corone ; the Hst ends with the promon- 
tory of Cape Matapan. Here is the ten-itory of 
Messenia with its 18 mountains, and the river Pyr- 
natza ; and inland, the city of Messene, Ithome, 
Oechalia, Sareni, Pteleon, Thryon, Dorion and 
Zancle, all of them celebrated at different periods. 
The gulf measures 80 miles round and 30 miles 
across. 

At Cape Matapan begins the territory of the free Sparta. 
nation of Laconia, and the Laconian Gulf, which 
measures 106 miles round and 38 miles across. The 

I2q 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Taenanim, Amyclae, Pherae, Leuctra, et intus 
Sparta, Therapne, atque ubi fuere Cardamyle, 
Pitane, Anthea, locus Thyrea, Gerania, mons 
Taygetus, amnis Eurotas, sinus Acgilodes, oppidum 
Psamathus, sinus Gytheates ab oppido ex quo 
Cretam insulam certissimus cursus. omnes autem 
Maleo promunturio includuntur. 

17 Qui sequitur sinus ad Scyllaeum ArgoHcus 
appellatur, traiectu l, idem ambitu clxii. oppida 
Boea, Epidaurus Limera cognomine, Zarax, Cyphans 
portus. amnes Inachus, Erasinus, inter quos Argos 
Hippium cognominatum supra locum Lernen a 
mari mm, novemque additis miUbus Mycenae et ubi 
fuisse Tiryntha tradunt et locus Mantinea. montes 
Artemisius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus ahique 
XI numero ; fontcs Niobe, Amymone, Psamathe. 

18 A Scyllaeo ad Isthmum Exxx p. oppida Hermione, 
Troezen, Coryphasium, appellatumque aUas Inachium 
aUas Dipsium Argos ; portus Schoenitas, sinus 
Saronicus oUm querno nemore redimitus, unde nomen 
ita Graecia antiqua appeUante quercum. in eo Epi- 
daurum oppidum Aesculapi delubro celebre, Spiraeum 
promunturium, portus Anthedus et Bucephalus et 
quas supra dixeramus Cenchreae, Isthmi pars altera 
cum delubro Neptuni quinquennaUbus incluto ludis. 

" This recurring use of loctix may imply that the town of 
the name had disappeared, though thla is more explicitly 
Btated in othcr cases. 

* From ita breed of horses. « Now the Gulf of Egina. 

' Dapco^iSfj, al hia TraAaioTTjTa K()(r]vvlai Spufj, Hcsychius; 
aapwviSas, Spvs, 8ia ro atoTjpoTa Kal avvtaTpafi.(j,€vov tov <f>Xoi6v 
<;^€iv, Schol. ad. Callimachum Jov. 22 ^ TroAAds f<f>vTT(pd( 
oapojviSas. 

' A mistake: the Isthmian, liko thc Nemean, Games were 
e\'ery two years : c/. Tavpo<f>6vw TpKrqpihi, Pindar, Ntm. VI. 40. 

130 



BOOK IV. V. 16-18 

towns are Kimaros, Amyclae, Chitries, Levtros, and 
inland Sparta, Therapne, the sites of the former 
Cardamyle, Pitane and Anthea, the place called " 
Thyrea, Gerania, the mountain range of Pente 
Dactyli, the river Niris, the Gulf of Scutari, the town 
of Psamathus, the Gulf of Gytheum called from the 
town of that name, from which is the safest crossing 
to the island of Crete. All these places are bounded 
by the promontory of Capo Sant' Angelo. 

The bay that comes next, extending to Capo SkyH, Ouif of 
is called the Gulf of Nauplia ; it is 50 miles across "^^^"^' 
and 162 miles round. The towns on it are Boea, 
Epidaurus surnamed Limera, Zarax, and the port 
of Cyphanta. The rivers are the Banitza and the 
Kephalari, between which hes Argos surnamed 
llippium,* above the place called Lerne, two miles 
from the sea, and nine miles further on Mycenae and 
the traditional site of Tiryns and the place called 
Mantinea. The mountains are Malvouni, Fuka, 
Asterion, Parparus and others numbering eleven ; 
the springs, Niobe, Amymone and Psamathe. 

From Capo Skyli to the Isthmus of Corinth is 80 Saronie 
miles. The towns are Hermione, Troezen, Cory- 
phasium and Argos, sometimes called Inachian Argos 
and sometimes Dipsian ; then comes the harbour of 
Schoenitas, and the Saronic Gulf,'^ formerly encircled 
with oak woods from which it takes its name, this 
being the old Greek word for an oak.*^ On it is the 
town of Epidaurus famous for its shrine of Aescula- 
pius ; the promontory of Capo Franco ; the ports of 
Anthedus and Bucephalus, and that of Cenchreae 
mentioned above, on the south side of the Isthmus, 
with the temple of Poseidon, famous for the Isthmian 
Games celebrated there every four' years. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

19 Tot sinus Peloponnesi oram lancinant, tot maria 
adlatrant, siquidem a septentrione lonium inrunipit, 
ab occidente Siculo pulsatur, a meridie Cretico 
urguetur, ab oriente brumali Aegaeo, ab oricrue 
solstitiali Myrtoo quod a Megarico incipiens sinu 
totam Atticen adluit. 

20 VI. Mediterranca eius Arcadia maxime tenet 
undique a mari remota, initio Drymodes, mox 
Pelasgis appellata. oppida eius Psophis, Mantinea, 
Stymphaluni, Tegea, Antigonca, Orchomenum, Phe- 
neirni, Pallantium unde Palatium Romae, Megale 
Pohs, Gortyna, Bucolium, Carnion, Parrhasie, Thel- 
pusa, Melaenae, Heraea, Pylae, Pallene, Agrae, 
Epium, Cynaethae, Lepreon Arcadiae, Parthenium, 
Alea, Methydrium, Enispe, Macistum, Lampia, 
Chtorium, Cleonae. inter quae duo oppida regio 

21 Nemea est Bembinadia vocitata. montes in Arcadia 
Pholoe cum oppido, item Cyllene, Lycaeus in quo 
Lycaci lovis delubrum, Maenalus, Artemisius, Par- 
thenius, Lampeus, Nonacris, praeterque ignobiles 
VIII. amnes Ladon e paludibus Phcnei, Erymanthus 
e monte eiusdem nominis in Alpheum defluens. 

22 rehquae civitates in Achaia dicendae Ahpheraei, 
Abeatae, Pyrgenses, Paroreatae, Paragenitae, Tor- 
tuni, Typanei, Thriusi, Tritienses. universae Achaiae 

" Apu/xa>87js, ' wooded.' 

* /.€. Mantinea, which was taken and partly dcstroyod by 
Aratus, and rcnained after Antigonus Doson, who had 
a«8ist«d him and who rcstored it. 

' There was anothcr place of the same name in Elis. 

■* From the viUage of Bembina there. 

132 



BOOK IV. V. 19-V1. 22 

So many are the bays that pierce the coast of the 
Peloponnese, and so many seas howl round it, inas- 
much as it is invaded on the north by the lonian Sea, 
lashed on the west by the Sicihan, and beset by the 
Cretan on the south, by the Aegean on the south-east 
and on the north-east by the Myrtoan which starting at 
the Gulf of Megara washes the whole coast of Attica. 

VI. Most of the interior of the Peloponnese is ^'^^'j"""-^ 
occupied by Arcadia, which on every side is remote 
from the sea; it was originally called Drymodes,* 
and later Pelasgis. Its towns are Psophis, Mantinea, 
Stymphalus, Tegea, Antigonea,* Orchomenus, 
Pheueus, Pallantium (from which the Palatium at 
Rome gets its name), Megalopohs, Gortyna, Buco- 
Uum, Carnion, Parrhasia, Thelpusa, Melaenae, 
Heraea, Pylae, Pallene, Agrae, Epium, Cynaethae, 
Lepreon in Arcadia,<= Parthenium, Alea, Methy- 
drium, Enispe, Macistimi, Lampia, Chtorium and 
Cleonae. Between the last two towns is the district 
of Nemea commonly called Bembinadia.<* The 
mountains in Arcadia are Pholoe,* with a town of 
the same name, Cyllene also with a town, Lycaeus 
on which is the shrine of Zeus Lycaeus, Maenalus, 
Artemisius, Parthenius, Lampeus, Nonacris, and 
also eight others of no note. The rivers are the 
Landona flowing iVom the marshes of Fonia and the 
Dogana flowing down from the mountain of the same 
name into the Alpheus. The remaining states in 
Achaia deserving of mention are those of the AH- 
pheraei, Abeatae, Pyrgenses, Paroreatae, Para- 
genitae, Tortuni, Typanei, Thriusi and Tritienses. 
Freedom was given to the whole of Achaia by 

• Thifl and the six following are now named Olono, ZjTia, 
Nomiai, lloihon, Turniki, Partheni, Zembi. 

m 



PLINY: NATUHAL HISTORY 

libertatem Domitius Nero dedit. Peloponnesus 
in latitudinem a promunturio Maleae ad oppidum 
Aegium Corinthiaci sinus cxc patet, at in transver- 
sum ab Elide Epidaurum cxx^-, ab Olympia Argos 
per Arcadiam lxviTi ; ab eodem loco ad Pylum iam 
dicta mensura est.^ universa autem, velut pensante 
aequorum incursus natura, in montes vi atque lxx 
attollitur. 

23 VII. Ab Isthmi angustiis Hellas incipit, a nostris 
Graecia appellata. in ea prima Attice, antiquitus 
Acte vocata. attingit Isthmum parte sui quae 
appellatur Megaris ab colonia Megara, e regione 
Pagarum. duo haec oppida excurrente Pcloponneso 
sita sunt, utraque ex parte velut in umeris Helladis, 
Pagaei et amplius Aegosthenenses contributi Mega- 
rensibus. in ora autem portus Schoenos, oppida 
Sidous, Cremmvon, Scironia saxa vT longitudine, 

24 Gerania, Megara, Eleusin; fuere et Oenoe et 
Prol)alinthos. nunc sunt ab Isthmo lv Piraeeus et 
Phalera portus muro v ^ recedentibus Athenis iuncti. 
libera haec civitas, nec indiga ullius praeconii 
amplius, tanta claritas superfluit. in Attica fontes 
Cephisia, Larine, Callirroe Enneacrunos, montes 
Brilessus, Aegialeus, Icarius, Hymettus, Lycabettus, 

* [ab eodem loco . . . mensura est] ? Rackkam. 

* Rackham : v muro. 



" Nero gave up hia family name of Domitius when adopted 
by Claudius to succeed him aa Emperor. 

* Viz. in § 14 ; but this irrelevant insertion lookB like an 
interpolation. The mcasurements of the Pcloponnese are 
given from south to north and then from west to ea.st, first 
at the widest point and afterwards farther south at the level 
of thc Gulf of Nauplia. 

»34 



BOOK IV. VI. 22-vii. 24 

Domitius Nero." The Peloponnese measures 190 
miles across from Cape Malea to the town of Vostitza 
on the Gulf of Corinth, and in the other direction 125 
miles from Ehs to Epidauros and 68 miles from 
Olympia through Arcadia to Argos. (The distance 
between Olympia and Pylos has been given already.') 
Nature has compensated for the inroads of the sea 
by the mountainous character of the entire region, 
there being 76 peaks in all. 

\TI. At the narrow part of the Isthmus begins Aittca, 
Hellas, called in our language Greece. In this the 
first region is Attica, named in antiquity Acte. It 
touches thelsthmus with thepart of it namedMegaris, 
from Megara, the colony on the opposite side of the 
Isthmus from Pagae. These two towns are situated 
where the Peloponnese projects, and stand on either 
side of the Isthmus, as it were on the shoulders of 
Hellas, Pagae and also Aegosthena "^ being assigned 
to the jurisdiction of Megara. On the coast are the 
harbour of Porto Cocosi, the towns Leandra and 
Cremmyon, the Scironian Rocks ^ six miles in length, 
Gerania, Megara and Levsina ; formerly there 
were also Oenoe and Probahnthos. There now are 
the harbours of Piraeus and Phaleron, 55 miles from 
the Isthmus, and joined by wall to Athens 5 miles 
away. Athens is a free city, and requires no further 
advertisement here as her celebrity is more than 
ainple. In Attica are the springs of Cephisia, 
Larine, and the Nine Wells of CalHrrhoe, and the 
mountains of Brilessus,' Aegialeus, Icarius, Hymettus 

* Just north of Pagae at the east end of the Gulf of Corinth. 
' Now Kaki Scala. 

* Believed to be another name for Pentelicus, now Mendeii, 
famous for its marble quarries. 

^35 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

locns Disos, a Piraeeo xlv Sunium promunturium, 
Thoricos promunturium, Potamos, Steria, Brauron, 
quondam oppida, Rhamnus pasrus, locus Marathon, 
campus Thriasius, oppidum Melita et Oropus in 
confinio Boeotiae. 

25 Cuius Anthedon, Onchestos, Thespiae Hberum 
oppidum, Lebadea, nec cedentes Athenis claritate 
quae cognominantur Bocotiae Thebae, duorum 
numinum Libcri atque HercuHs, ut volunt, patria. 
et Musis natale in nemore HeHconis adsignant. 
datur et his Thebis saltus Cithaeron, amnis Ismenus. 
praeterea fontes in Boeotia Oedipodia, Psamathe, 
Dirce, Epicrane, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, 
Gargaphie ; montes extra praedictos Mycalesus, 

2t) Hadyhus, Acontius. rehqua oppida inter Mcgari- 
cam et Thebas Eleutherae, HaHartus, Plataeae, 
Pherae, Aspledon, Hvle, Thisbe, Er}'thrae, GHssa, 
Copae, iuxta Cephisum amncm Lamiae et Anichiae, 
Medeon, Phlvgone, Acraephia, Coronea, Chaeronea. 
in ora autem infra Thebas Ocalee, Heleon, Scolos, 
Schoenos, Peteon, Hyrie, Mycalesos, Ireseum, 
Pteleon, Olvarum, Tanagra Hber populus, et in ipsis 
faucibus Euripi (|uem facit obiecta insula Euboea 
AuHs capaci nobiHs portu. Boeotos Hvantas anti- 

27 quitus dixere. Locri deinde Epicnemidii cognomi- 
nantur oHm Leleges appeUati, per quos amnis 
Cephisus defertur in mare ; oppida Opus, unde et 
sinus Opuntius, Cynus. Phocidis in Htore unum 



" In distinction from placea of the same name in Egypt, 
Phthiotis and Lucania. 

^ /.e. on tho promontory of Cnemides below Mount 
CnemiB. 

« Golfo di Talanti. 



136 



BOOK IV. VII. 24-27 

and Lycabettus ; the place called Ilissus ; the 
promontories of Capo Colonna, 45 miles from Piraeus, 
and Thoricos ; the former towns of Potamos, Steria 
and Brauron, the village of llhamnus, the place called 
Marathon, the Thriasian Plain, the town of Mehta, 
and llopo on the border of Boeotia. 

To Boeotia belong Anthedon, Onchestus, the free North-east 
town of Thespiae, Livadhia, and Thcbes, surnamed ^^*|^-'^ 
Boeotian,<» which does not yield even to Athens in 
celebrity, and which is reputed to be the native phice 
of two deities, Liber and Hercules. The Muses also 
are assigned a birth-place in the grove of Hehcon. 
To this city of Thebes also are attributed the forest 
of Cithaeron and the river Ismenus. Besides these 
Boeotia contains the Springs of Oedipus and those of 
Psamathe, Dirce, Epicrane, Arethusa, Hippocrene, 
Aganippe and Gargapliie ; and in addition to the 
mountains previously meniioned, Mycalesus, Hadyhus 
and Acontius. The remaining towns between the 
Megarid and Thebes are Eleutherae, HaHartus, 
Plataea, Pherae, Aspledon, Hyle, Thisbe, Erythrae, 
GHssa, Copae, Lamiae and Anicliiae on the river 
Cephisus, Medeon, Phlygone, Acraephia, Coronea 
and Chaeronea. On the coast below Thebes are 
Ocalee, Heleon, Scolos, Sclioenos, Peteon, Hyrie, 
Mycalesos, Ireseum, Pteleon, Olyarum, Tanagra 
Free State, and right in the channel of the Euripus, 
formed by the island of Euboea Iving opposite, Auh's 
famous for its spacious harbour. The Boeotians had 
the name of Hyantes in earlier days. Then come the 
Locri surnamed Epicnemidii,* and formerly called 
Leleges, through whose territory the river Cephisus 
flows dowTi to the sea ; and the towns of Opus, which 
gives its name to the Opuntian Bay,<^ and Cynus, 

137 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Daphnus, introrsus autem Larisa Elatea et in ripa 
Cephisi, ut diximus, Lilaea, Delphosque versae 
Cnemis et Hyampohs. rursus Locrorum ora, in 
qua Larumna, Thronium, iuxta quod Boagrius amnis 
defertur in mare, oppida Narj^cum, Alope, Scarphia. 
postea Mahacus sinus ab incoUs dictiis, in quo 
oppida Halcyone, Aeconia, Phalara. 

28 Doris deinde, in qua Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, 
Pindus, Cytinum. Doridis a tergo mons Oeta est. 

Sequitur mutatis saepe nominibus Haemonia, 
eadem Pclasgis et Pelasgicon Argos, HeUas, eadem 
Thessaha et Dryopis, semper a regibus cognominata : 
ibi genitus rex nomine Graecus a quo Graecia, ibi 
Hellen a quo Hellenes. hos eosdem Homerus 
tribus nominibus appellavit Myrmidonas et Hellenas 
et Achaeos. ex his Phthiotae nominantur Dorida 
accolentes ; eorvun oppida Echinus, in faucibus 
Sperchii fluminis Thermopylarum angustiae, quo 
argumento iv inde Heraclea Trechin dicta est. 
mons ibi CaUidromus, oppida celebrata Hellas, Halos, 
Lamia, Phthia, Ame. 

29 VTII. In 'niessaha autem Orchomenus Minyius 
antea dictus et oppidum Alimon, ab aliis Holmon, 
Atrax, Palamna, fons Hyperia, oppida Pherae, 
quarum a tergo Pieria ad Macedoniam protenditiu-. 



» Now the Gulf of Zeitoun. 
* From Tpaxys, ' rugged.' 



138 



BOOK IV. VII. 27-vin. 29 

The only town of Phocis on the coast is Daphnus, 
but inland are Larisa, Elatea, and on the banks of the 
Cephisus, as \ve have said, Lilaea, and, facing Delphi, 
Cnemis and Hyampolis. Then there is the Locrian 
coast, on which are Larumna and Thronium, near 
which the river Boagrius Hows into the sea, and the 
towns of Narj'cum, Alope and Scarphia. Afterwards 
comes the Mahan Gulf " named from its inhabitants 
and on it are the towns of Halcyone, Aeconia and 
Phalara. 

Then comes Doris, in which are Sperchios, Erineon, 
Boion, Pindus and Cj-tinum. In the rear of Doris is 
Mount Oeta. 

There foUows Haemonia, which has often changed 
its name, having been successively called Pelasgis 
or Pelasgic Argos, and Hellas, Thessaly and Dryopis, 
always taking its surname from its kings : it was 
the birthplace of the king named Graecus from 
whom Greece is named, and of king Hellen from 
whom the Hellenes get their name. These same 
people are called by three difFerent names in Homer, 
Myrmidons, Hellenes and Achaeans. The section of 
the Hellenes adjacent to Doris are named Phthiotae ; 
their towns are Akhino and Heraclea, which takes 
the name of Trechin ^» from the Pass of Thermo- 
pylae four miles away in the gorge of the river 
Ellada. Here is Mount Callidromus, and the 
notable towns are Ilellas, Halos, Lamia, Phthia and 
Arne. 

V^III. The places in Thessaly are Orchomenus, Thasaiv. 
formerly called the Minyan, and the town of Ahmon, 
otherwise Holmon, Atrax, Palamna, the Hyperian 
Spring, the towns of Pherae (behind which Hes 
Pieria spreading in the direction of Macedonia), 

139 



PLINTi': NATURAL HISTORY 

Larisa, Gomphi, Thebae Thessalae, nemus Pteleon, 
sinus Pagasicus, oppidum Pagasa, idem postea 
Demetrias dictum, Tricca, Pharsah campi cum civi- 
tate libera, Crannon, Iletia. montes Phthiotidis 
Nvmphaeus quondam topiario naturae opere spec- 
tabihs, Buzvgaeus, Donacoessa, Bromiaeus, Daphusa, 

30 Chimarone, Athamas, Stephane. in Thessalia quat- 
tuor atque triginta, quorum nobiUssimi Cercetii, 
Olvmpus Pierius, Ossa, cuius ex adverso Pindus et 
Othrys Lapitharum scdes, hi ad occasum vergentes, 
ad ortus PeHus, omnes theatraH modo inflexi, caveatis 
ante eos lxxv urbibus. flumina ThessaUae Api- 
danus, Phoenix, Enipeus, Onochonus, Pamisus, fons 
Messeis, lacas Bocbeis, et ante cunctos claritate 
Penius ortus iuxta Gomphos interque Ossam et 
Olympum ncmorosa convalle defluens D stadiis, 

31 dimidio eius spati navigabiHs. in eo cursu Tempe 
vocant v passuum longitudine et ferme sesquiiugeri 
latitudine ultra visum hominis attollentibus se dextra 
laevaque leniter convexis iugis intus vaUe luco ^ viri- 
dante. hac ^ labitur Penius, vitreus calculo, amoe- 
nus circa ripas gramine, canorus avium concentu. 
accipit amnem Orcon, nec recipit, sed olei modo 
supematantem, ut dictum est Homero, brevi spatio 

* Dtilejsen : sua luce (silva late Mayhoff). 

* ac Mayhoff. 

" The iugerum was about two-thirds of an acre, but was 
measured in an oblong 240 ft. iong by 120 ft. broad, so that 
hcrc prcsumably ita brcadth is meant, making tho gorge 160 ft. 
across. 

" II. II. 751 ff. 

01 T a.y.(}> ifnpTov TiTapTjCTio»' (pya viyLovro, 
6s p <s llijveio»' irpotti KaX^tppoov vScup, 

140 



BOOK IV. VIII. 29-31 

Larisa, Gomphi, Thessalian Thebcs, Ekn Wood, the 
Gulf of \'oIo, the town of Pagasa subsequently 
called Demctrias, Tricca, the Pharsahan Plains with 
their free city, Crannon, Iletia. The mountains of 
Phthiotis are Nymphaeus, once so beautiful for its 
natural landscape gardening, Buzygaeus, Donacoessa, 
Bromiacus, Daphusa, Chimarone, Athamas, Ste- 
phane. In Thessaly there are 34, of which the most 
famous are Cercetii, Pierian Olympus and Ossa, facing 
which are Pindus and Othrvs the abode of the Lapi- 
thae — these looking to the west ; and looking east is 
Pelion ; all form a curve Hke a theatre, and in the 
hollow in front of them lie 75 cities. Thessaly 
contains the rivers Apidanus, Phoenix, Enipeus, 
Onochonus and Pamisus ; the spring Messeis ; Lake 
Boebeis ; and before all ahke in celebrity the river 
Peneus, rising close to Gomphi and flowing down a 
wooded glen betwecn Ossa and Olympus for 62J 
miles, for half of which distance it is navigable. Part 
of this course is called the Vale of Tempe, 5 miles 
long and ncarly an acrc and a half " in breadth,with 
gently sloping hills rising beyond human sight on 
either hand, while the valley between is verdant with 
a grove of trees. Along it ghdes the Peneus, ghttering 
with pebbles and adorncd with grassy banks, melodi- 
ous with the choral song of birds. Into it flows the 
river Orcus, to wliich it gives no intimate welcome, 
but merely carries it for a brief space floating on its 
surface Hke a skin of oil, in Homer's phrase,* and then 

ouS' o y€ Ylrjveio) avn^uayiTai dpYVpoSivjj 
aAAa Te /uv Ka9vTrep9ev imppeei tjJt' eXaiov 
opKOv yap heLvov ^Tvyos vSaTos eariv a-noppoi^. 

Homer'8 opKov, ' a thing to 6wcar by,' is read by Pliiiy aa a 
proper name. 

141 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

portatum abdicat pocnales aquas Dirisque genitas 
argcnteis suis misccri rccusans. 

32 IX. Thessaliae adnexa Magnesia est, cuius fons 
Libethra, oppida lolciis, Ormcnium, PjTrha, Mcthone, 
OHzon, promunturium Sepias, oppida Castana, 
Spalathra, promunturium Aeantium, oppida Meliboca, 
Rhizus, Er}'mnae, ostium Penii, oppida HomoHum, 
Orthc, Iresiae, PcHnna, Thaumacie, Gyrton, Crannon, 
Acharne, Dotion, McHte, Phylacc, Potniae. 

Epiri, Achaiae, Atticae, ThcssaHae in porrectum 
longitudo ccccxc traditur, latitudo cciiic. 

33 X. Macedonia postea cl populorum, duobus incluta 
regibus quondamque terrarum impcrio, Emathia 
antea dicta. haec ad Epiroticas gentes in soHs 
occasum rcccdcns post terga Magnesiae atque 
ThessaHae infestatur a Dardanis : partem eius 
septentrionalem Paeonia ac Pelagonia protegunt a 
TribaUis. oppida Aegiae, in quo sepcHri mos reges, 
Beroca, et in regione quae Pieria appcHatur a 

34 nemore Aeginium. in ora Heraclea, flumen Apilas, 
oppida Pydna, Oloros, amnis HaHacmon. intus 
Aloritac, Vallaei, Phylacaei, Cyrrestae, Tyrissaei, 
PcHa colonia, oppidum Stobi civium Romanorum. 
mox Antigonca, Europus ad Axium amnera, eodem- 
que nomine per quod Rhoedias fluit, Scydra, Eordaca, 

35 Mieza, Gordyniae. mox in ora Ichnae, fluvius 

• I*liilip and Alcxandcr. 
142 



BOOK IV. viiT. 31-X. 35 

rejects it, refusing to allow the punitive waters 
engendered for the service of the Furies to mingle 
with its own silver flood. 

IX. Adjoining Thessaly is Magnesia, to which Coast n.e. 
belong the spring Libethra, the towns of lolcus, "-^ lessay. 
Ormenium, Pyrrha, Methone and Ohzon, Cape 
Sepias, the towns of Castana and Spalathra, Cape 
Aeantium, the to^vns Mehboea, Rhizus and Erymnae, 

the mouth of the Peneus, the towns HomoHum, 
Orthe, Iresiae, Pehnna, Thaumacie, Gyrton, Crannon, 
Acharne, Dotion, MeHte, Phylace and Potniae. 

The total length of Epii*us, Achaia, Attica and Dimmsions 
Thessaly is said to be 490 miles and the total breadth "•'' "''^*'*- 
297 miles. 

X. Next comes Macedonia, with 150 nations, and NoTth coast 
famous for two kings " and for its former world- %a''^'"^ 
wide empire ; it was previously called Emathia. J^ace<i<>«w. 
It stretches westward to the races of Epirus, at the 

back of Magnesia and Thessaly, and on this side is 
exposed to the inroads of the Dardani, but its 
northern part is protected from the TribalH by 
Paeonia and Pelagonia. Its towns are Aegiae, the 
customary burial place of its kings, Beroea, and in the 
district caHed Pieria from the forest of that name, 
Aeginium. On the coast are Heraclea, the river 
Platamona, the towns of Pydna and Olorus, and the 
river Vistritza. Inland are the Aloritae, VaUaei, 
Phylacaei, Cyrrestae and Tyrissaei, the colony of 
Pella, and the town of Stobi, which has the Roman 
citizenship. Then come Antigonea, Europus on the 
river Axius, and the town of the same name through 
which flows the Rhoedias, Scydra, Eordaea, Mieza 
and Gordyniae. Then on the coast Ichnae and the 
river Axius. The neighbours of Macedonia on this 

143 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Axius ; ad hunc fincm Dardani, Treres, Picrcs 
Macedoniam accolunt, ab hoc amne Paeoniae gentes 
Paroraei, Eordenses, Almopi, Pelagones, Mygdones, 
montes Rhodope, Scopius, Orbelus ; dein praeia- 
cente gremio terrarum Arethusii, Antiochicnses, 
Idomenenses, Doberi, Aestrienses, AUantenses, 
Audaristcnses, MorylH, Garresci, Lyncestae, Othryo- 
nei et hberi Amantini atque Orcstac, coloniae 
Bulhdcnses et Dienses, Xylopohtae, Scotussaci 

36 hberi, Heraclea Sintica, Tyinphaci, Toronaei. in 
ora sinus Macedonica oppithim Chahtstra et intus 
Pyloros, Lctc, medioquc htoris flexu Thcssalonice 
hberae condicionis (ad hanc a Dyrrhachio ccxlv), 
Therme, in Thermaico sinu oppida Dicaca, Pahnan- 
drea, Scionc, promunturium Canastracuni, oppida 
Pallcne, Phlcgra. qua in rcgione montes Ilvpsi/onus, 
Epitus, Algion, Elaeuomne, oj)pida Nyssos, Phry xelon, 
Mendae, et in Pahenensi isthrno quondani Potidaca, 
nunc Cassandrea colonia, Anthemus, Olophyxus, 

37 sinus Mecyberna, oppida MisceHa, Ampeh)s, 'J orone, 
Singos, Telos, fretum quo montem Atho Xcrxes 
Persarum rex contincnti abscidit in longitudine 
passuum md. mons ipsc a planitie excurrit in mare 
ad XXV ^ passuum, ambitus radicis ct colhgit. oppi- 
dum in cacumine fuit Acrathoon, nunc sunt Urano- 
pohs, Palaeliorium, Thyssas, Cleonae, Apollonia 

38 cuius incolae Macro])i cognominaiitur. oppidum 
Cassera, faucesque alterac isthmi, Acanthus, Stagira, 

* Dellefsen : in maria lxxv. 



" Now Monte Santo. 

* The MSS. give 7.5 milca; the actual lcngth is 40. 

* Long-lived. 

144 



BOOK IV. X. 35-38 

frontier are the Dardani, Treres and Pieres, and 
after the river Axius eome the Paeonian races of the 
Paroraei,Eordenses,Almopi,PelagonesandMygdones, 
and the mountains of Rhodope, Scopius and Orbelus ; 
then, in the fold of ground lying in front of them, 
the Arethusii, Antiochienses, Idomcnenses, Doberi, 
Acstrienses, Allantenses, Audaristenses, Morylli, 
Garresci, Lyncestae, Othryonei, and the free peoples 
of the Amantini and Orestae ; the colonies Bullidenses 
and Dienses; the Xylopolitae, the free Scotussaei, 
Heraclca Sintica, the Tymphaei, the Toronaei. On 
the Maccdonian coast of the gulf are the town of 
Chalastra and, farther in, Pylorus, Lete, and at 
the centre of the curve of the coast the free city of 
Saloniki (from there to Durazzo is 245 miles), Therme, 
and oi\ Ihe Gulf of Saloniki the towns of Dicaea, 
Palinandrea and Scione, Cape Paliuri, and the towns 
of Pallcne and Phlegra. The mountains in this 
district are Hypsizonus, Epitus, Algion and 
Elaeuomne ; the towns are Nyssus, Phryxelon, 
Mcndae, and on the Isthmus of Pallene what was 
formerly Potidaea but is nowthecolonyof Cassandrea, 
Anthemus, Olophyxus, Mecyberna Bay, the towns 
of Miscella, Ampelos, Torone, Singos, Telos, and the 
canal, a mile and a half in length, by which the 
Persian king Xerxes cut off Mount Athos " from the 
mainland. The actual mountain projects from the 
level plain into the sea for a distance of 25 miles,^ and 
its circumference at its base amounts to 150 miles. 
lliere was once a town on its summit called Acra- 
thoon ; the prcsent towns on it are Uranopolis, 
Palaehorium, Thyssus, Cleonae, and ApoUonia, the 
inhabitants of which are called Macrobii.*' Then the 
town of Cassera, and the other side of the isthmus, 

145 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Sithone, Heraclea, et regio Mygdoniae subiacens, 
in qua recedentes a mari Apollonia, Arethusa. in 
ora rursus Posidium et sinus cum oppido Cermoro, 
Amphipolis Hberum. gens Bisaltae. dein Macedoniae 
terminus amnis Strymo ortus in Haemo ; memoran- 
dum in septem lacus eum fundi priusquam dirigat 
cursum. 

39 Haec est Macedonia terrarum imperio potita 
quondam, haec Asiam, Armeniam, Hiberiam, Alban- 
iam, Cappadociam, Syriam, Aeg^^ptum, Taurum, 
Caucasiun transgressa, haec in Bactris, Medis, 
Persis dominata toto oriente possesso, haec etiam 
Indiae vnctrix per vestigia Liberi Patris atque 
HercuHs vagata, haec eadem est Macedonia cuius 
uno die Paulus Aemihus imperator noster lxxii 
urbcs direptas vendidit. tantam difFerentiam sortis 
praestitere duo homines. 

40 XI. Thracia sequitur, inter vaHdissimas Em*opae 
gentes, in strategias l divisa. populorum eius 
quos nominare non pigeat amnem Strymonem 
accolunt dextro latere Denseletae et Medi ad 
Bisaltas usque supra dictos, laevo Digerri Bessorum- 
que multa nomina ad Mestum amnem ima Pangaei 
montis ambientem inter Haletos, Diobessos, Carbi- 
lesos, inde Brysas, Sapaeos, Odomantos. Odrysarum 
gens fundit Hebrum accolentibus Cabyletis, Pyro- 
geris, Drugeris, Caenicis, Hypsaltis, Benis, Cor- 

41 pilHs, Boltiaeis, Edonis. eodem sunt in tractu 



" Alexandcr the Great and L. Acmilius Paullus, who 
conqucrcd the Macedonian nionarch PeraeuB at Pydna, 181 
B.c, and by the order of the Senatc gavc his soldiera 72 towns 
to pillage hecause they had sided with Perseu». 

^" The Roman praefecturae. 

146 



BOOK IV. X. 38-xi. 41 

Acanthus, Stagira, Sithone, Heraclca, and the district 
of Mygdonia lying below, in which at some distance 
from the sea are Apollonia and Arethusa, and on the 
coast again Posidium and the bay with the town of 
Cermorus, the free city of Amphipolis, and the 
tribe of the Bisaltae. Then comes the river Struma 
which rises in Mount Haemus and forms the boundary 
of Macedonia ; it is worth recording that it spreads 
out into seven lakes before it proceeds on its course. 

Such is Macedonia, which once won a world-wide 
empire, marched across Asia, Armenia, Iberia, 
Albania, Cappadocia, Syria, Egypt, Mount Taurus 
and the Hindu Kush, was lord over the Bactrians, 
Medes and Persians, owned the entire East, and even 
roamed in the tracks of Father Liber and of Hercules 
and conquered India ; and this also is the Macedonia 
72 of whose cities our general AemiUus PauUus 
pillaged and sold in a single day. So great the 
difference in her lot bestowed upon her by two 
individuals ! " 

XI. Next comes Thrace, one of the most powerful Thraet. 
nations of Europe, divided into fifty commands.'' 
Of its peoples those whom we ought not to omit to 
name are the Dcnscletae and the Medi, who Hve on 
the right bank of the river Struma right up to the 
Bisaltae above mentioned, and the Digerri and the 
various sections of the Bessi on the left bank, as 
far as the river Mesto that winds round the foot of 
Mount Pilat Tepeh, passing through the Haleti, Dio- 
bessi and Carbilesi, and then the Brysae, Sapaei and 
Odomanti. The race of the Odrysae owns the source 
of the Maritza, on the banks of which Hve the 
Cabyleti, Pyrogeri, Drugeri, Caenici, Hypsalti, Beni, 
CorpiUi, Bottiaei and Edoni. In the same district 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Staletae, Priantae, Dolongac, Thyni, Celaletae 
maiores Haemo, minores Rhodopae subditi. inter 
quos Hebrus amnis, oppidum sub Rhodope Ponero- 
poUs antea, mox a conditore PhiHppopoUs, nunc a 
situ Trimontium dicta. Haemi excelsitas vi passuum 
subitur. aversa eius et in Histrum devexa Moesi, 
Getae, Aodi, Scaugdae Clariaeque, et sub iis Arraei 
Sarmatae quos Areatas vocant Scythaeque et circa 
Ponti litora Moriseni Sithonique Orphei vatis 
genitores optinent. 

42 Ita finit Hister a septentrione, ab ortu Pontus ac 
Propontis, a meridie Aegaeum mare, cuius in ora 
a Strymone Apollonia, Oesyma, Neapolis, Batos. 
intus Phihppi colonia (absunt a Dyrrhacliio cccxxv) 
Scotussa, Topiros civitas, Mesti amnis ostium, mons 
Pangaeus, Heraclea, Olynthos, Abdera Ubera civitas, 
stagnum Bistonum et gens. oppidum fuit Tirida 
Diomedis equorum stabulis dirum ; nunc sunt 
Dicaea, Ismaron, locus Parthenion, Phalesina, Maro- 

43 nea prius Orthagurea dicta, mons Serrium, Zone ; tum 
lociis Doriscum x hominum capax : ita Xerxes ibi 
dinumerant exercitum ; os Hebri, portus Stentoris, 
oppidum Aenos liberum cimi Polydori tumulo, Cico- 



" Son of Priam and Hcciilja, murdercd for his trcasure by 
their son-in-Jaw Polymnestor, king of Thrace, Virgil, Aen. 
lU. 45. 

148 



BOOK IV. XI. 41-43 

are the Staletae, Priantae, Dolongae, Thyni, and the 
Greater Celaletae at the foot of the Great Balkan 
and the Lesser at the foot of Mount Rhodope. 
Between these tribes runs the river Maritza, and 
below Rhodope is the to^vn formerly called 
PoneropoHs, then Philippopolis aftcr its founder, and 
now Trimontiuni froni its site. To the summit of 
the Great Balkan is a journey of six miles. Its 
opposite side skiping down towards the Danube is 
inhabited by thc Moesi, Getae, Aodi, Scaugdae and 
CLiriae, and below them the Sarmatian Arraei caUed 
Arcatae, and the Scythians, and round the shores of 
the Black Sca the Moi'iseni and the Sithoni, the 
anccstry of the poet OrjDheus. 

Thus Thrace is bounded by the Danube on the 
north, the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara on the east, 
and the Aegean Sea on the south, on the coast of 
which after leaving the Struma we come to ApoUo- 
nia, Osima, Kavallo and Batos. Inland is the colony 
of Fihba, at a distance of 325 miles from Durazzo, 
Scotussa, the state of Topiros, the mouth of the river 
Mestus, the mountain of Pilat Tepeh, Melenik, Agia 
Maria, the free city of Abdera, the Lagos Buru and 
the pcople of the Bistoni. Here once was the town 
of Tirida, formidable on account of the stables of 
tlie horses of Diomedc ; and there now are the towns 
of Dicaea and Ismaron, the place callcd Parthcnion, 
Phalcsina, Marogna foi-merly called Orthagurea, 
Mount Serrium, Zone ; and then the place called 
Doriscus, a plain large enough to hold 10,000 men, 
as it was in detachmcnts of that number that Xerxes 
there counted liis army ; the mouth of the Maritza, 
the harbour of Stentor, the free town of Enos 
with the Funeral Mound of Polydorus," a district 

voL. II. p 149 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

num quondam regio. a Dorisco incurvatur ora ad 
Macron Tichos cxii p., circa quem locum fluviiLs Melas 
a quo sinus appellatur. oppida Cypsela, Bisanthe, 
Macron Tichos dictum quia a Propontide ad Melana 
sinum inter duo maria porrectus murus procurrentem 

44 excludit Cherronesum. namque Thracia altero 
latere a Pontico Htore incipiens, ubi Hister amnis 
inmergitur, vel pulehcrrimas in ea parte urbes habet, 
HistropoHn Milesiorum, Tomos, Callatim quae antea 
Cerbatis vocabatur. Heracleam habuit et Bizonen 
terrae hiatu raptam, nunc habet DionysopoHm 
Crunon antea dietam ; adluit Zyras amnis. totum 
eum tractum Scythae Aroteres cognominati tenuere. 
eorum oppida Aphrodisias, Libistus, Zygere, Rhoco- 
bae, Eumenia, Parthenopohs, Gerania, uV)i Pygmaeo- 
rum gens fuisse proditur: Calizos barbari vocabant, 

45 creduntque a gruibus fugatos. in ora a Dionyso- 
poli est Odessus Milesiorum, flumen Pannysis, oppi- 
dum Tetranaulochus. mons HacmUs vasto iugo 
procumbens in Pontum oppidum habuit in vertice 
Aristaeum; nunc in ora Mesembria, Anehialum, ubi 
Messa fuerat. Astice regio habuit oppidum An- 
thium, nunc est Apollonia. flumina Panisos, luras, 
Tearus, Orosines, oppida Thynias, Halmydesos, 
Develcon (cum stagno quod nunc Deultum vocatur) 
veteranorum, PhinopoUs, iuxta quam Bosporus. 



" Now the Gulf of Enos. 
» See § 92 n. 



BOOK IV. XI. 43-45 

formerly belonging to thc Cicones. From Doriscus 
the coast makes a curve of 112 miles to Long Wall, 
round whicli flows the Black Iliver that gives its 
name to the bay." The towns are Ipsala, Rodosto, 
Long Wall, so called because its fortifications extend 
between the two seas, from the Sea of Marmara to the 
Gulf of Enos, cutting oflT the projecting GaUipoH 
Peninsula. For the other side of Thracc begins at East coast 
the coast of the Bhxck Sea where the Danube flows ''/^''"■'"■«' 
into it ; and this region comprises its finest cities, 
Kostendsje, a colony from Nliletus, Temesvar and 
CoUat, formerly called Cerbatis. It formerly had 
Heraclea and Bizone, which was swaUowed up by an 
earthquake, and it stiU has the City of Dionysus, 
previously caUed Crunos, which is washed by the 
river Zyras. The whole of this region was occupied 
by the Scythian tribe caUed the Ploughmen, their 
to^^Tis being Aphrodisias, Libistus, Zygere, Rhocobae, 
Eumenia, Parthenopohs and Gerania, stated to have 
been the abode of the race of Pigmics : their name 
in the local dialect used to be Catizi, and there is a 
Ijchef that they were driven away by cranes. On 
the coast after the City of Dionysus come the Milesian 
colony of N^^arna, the river Daphne-Soni and the town 
of Four Roadstcads. The enormous ridge of the 
Grcat BaUian projecting into the Black Sea formerly 
had on its summit the to^vTi of Aristaeum, and on the 
coast now are Missiori and Akiah on the former site 
of Messa. The region of Astice had a town of 
Anthium, which is now ApoUonia.'' The rivers are 
the Panisos, luras, Tearus, Orosines ; the towns 
Tiniada, Midjeh, Zagora (with its marsh now caUed 
Deultum), a colony of veterans, and Phinopohs, near 
which are the Straits of Constantinople. From tlie 

151 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ab Histri ostio ad os Ponti passuum pliT fecere, 
Agrippa lx adiecit ; inde ad murum supra dictum 
CL, ab eo Cherronesus cxxvi. 

46 Sed a Bosporo sinus Casthencs, portus Senimi et 
alter qui MuHerum cognominatur, promunturium 
Chryseon Ceras in quo oppidum Byzantium libcrae 
condicionis antea I^ygos dictum ; abest a Dyrrhachio 
Dccxi p. : tantum patet longitudo tcrrarum inter 

47 Hadriaticum mare et Propontidem. amnes Bathy- 
nias, Pidaras sive Athid;is, oppida Selvmbria, Perin- 
thus latitudine cc pedum contincnti adnexa. intus 
Bizye arx rcgum Thraciae a Terci ncfasto invisa 
hirundinibus, rcgio Caenica, colonia PlaviopoHs ubi 
antea Caela oppidum vocabatur, et a Bizye L p. 
Apros colonia, quae a PhiHppis abest ctxxxTx. at 
in ora amnis Erginus, oppidum fuit Ganos ; descritur 

48 et Lysimachea iam in Cherroneso. alius namque 
ibi Isthmos angustias similcs eodem nomine et pari 
latitudine inlustrat ; duae urbes utrimque Htora haut 
dissimiH modo tenuere, Pactye a Propontide, Cardia 
a Melane sinu, haec ex facie loci nomine accepto, 
utracque conprchcnsae postea Lysimachea v p. a 
Longis Muris. Cherronesos a Propontide habuit 



• Constantinople, Stamboul. 

• Thc legendar}' king of Thrace, who violated Philomela the 
eieter of his wiie Procne. Philomela becarae a nightingale 
and Procnea swallow ; oraccording toanothcr account Philo- 
mela a swallow and Procne a nightingale. 

' Hexaniila now occupies the sito. 

' The word is regarded as a proper name, properly belonging 
to the lethmus of Corinth. 

• Like Corinth and Lechacum on their Isthmus. 
/ See§43. 

' Thi Crock for ' hcart,' KapSia. * Seo § 4.'}. 



BOOK IV. XI. 45-48 

mouth of the Danube to the outlet of thc Black Sea 
was reckoned as 552 miles, but Agrippa made it 60 
miles more ; and from that point to the wall above 
mentioned is 150 miles, and from there to the end 
of the Gallipoli Peninsula 126 miles. 

On lcaving the Dardanelles we come to the Bay of siantboul. 
Casthencs, the Old Men's Harbour and the other 
called the \Vomcn's Harbour, and the promontory of 
the Golden Horn, on whicli is the town of Byzantium," 
a free state, formcrly called Lygos ; it is 711 miles 
from Durazzo, so great being the space of land 
between the Adriatic and the Sea of Marmara. 
There are the rivers Bathynias and Pidaras or 
Athidas, and the towns of Selymbria and Perinthus 
which are connected with the mainland by an isthmus 
200 ft. wide. Inland are Vizia, a citadel of the 
kings of Thrace that is hated by swallows because 
of the outrage committed by Tereus,* the disti'ict of 
Caenica, the colony of Flaviopolis on the site of 
the former town callcd Caehi, and 50 miles from Vizia 
the colony of Apros, which is 189 miles distant from 
Phihppi. On the coast is the river Erkene, and once 
stood the town of Ganos ; Lysimachea " on the 
GaUipoh Peninsula is also now becoming deserted. 
But at this point there is another ^ Isthmus which OaiHpoii. 
marks similar narrows with tlie same name and is of 
about equal width ; and in a not dissimilar manner^ 
two cities occupied the shores on either side, Pactye 
on the side of the Sca of Marmara and Cardia on 
that of the Gulf of Enos,/ the latter city taking its 
name ? from the conformation of the place ; both were 
subsequently united with the city of Lysimachea, 
five miles from Long Wall.'' On the Marmara 
side of GalHpoH Peninsula were Tiristasis, Crithotes 

153 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Tiristasin, Crithoten, Cissam flumini Aegos adpositam; 
nunc habet a colonia Apro xxTi p. Resisthon ex ad- 

49 verso coloniae Parianae. et Hellcspontus vii ut 
diximus^ stadiis Europam ab Asia dividens rv inter 
se contrarias urbes habet, in Europa CaUipoHm et 
Seston et in Asia Lampsacon et Abydon. dein 
promunturium Cherronesi Mastusia adversum Sigeo, 
cuius in fronte obHqua Cynossema (ita appellatur 
Hecubae tumulus), statio Acliaeorum, et turris, 
delubrum Protesilai et in extrema Cherronesi 
fronte, quae vocatur AeoHum, oppidimi Elaeus. 
dein petenti Melana sinum portus Coelos ct Pan- 
hormus et supra dicta Cardia. 

50 Tertius Europae sinus ad hunc modum clauditur. 
montes extra praedictos Tliraciac Edonus, Gyge- 
meros, Meritus, Melamphyhos, flumina in Hebrum 
cadentia Bargus, Syrmus. Macedoniae, Thraciae, 
Hellesponti longitudo est supra dicta (quidam 
Dccxx faciunt), latitudo ccclxxxiv est. 

51 Aegaeo mari nomen dedit scopulus inter Tenum 
et Chium verius quam insula, Aex nomine a specie 
caprae (quae ita Graecis appehatur), repente e 
medio mari exiHens. cemunt cum ab dextcra parte 
Antandrum - navigantes ab Achaia, dirum ac pcsti- 
ferum. Acgaei pars Myrtoo datur; appellatur ab 
insula parva quae cernitur Macedoniam a Geraesto 

' [ut dixinnis] ? rM. - Dellcjsen : Andrum. 



" This has not in fact Ijeen said before. 
^ Kiiidbhas, a littlc aouth of Anzac. 



154 



BOOK IV. XI. 48-51 

and Cissa lying on the Goat's River ; and tliere is now 
Resisthos, 22 miles from the colony of Apros, 
opposite to the colony of Parium. Also the 
Dardanelles, which as we have said " divide Em-ope 
from Asia by a space not quite a mile across, have 
four cities facing one another on the opposite sides, 
GalHpoH and lalova in Kurope and Lamsaki and 
Avido in Asia. Then on GalUpoU there is the pro- 
montory of Capo Helles opposite to Jeni-Hisari, on 
the slanting side of which is the Bitch's Tomb (the 
name givcn to the funeral mound of Hccuba), the 
naval station of the Greeks in the Trojan war, and a 
tower, the shrine of Protesilaus, and at the point 
of the peninsula, which is caUed AeoUum, the town of 
Elaeus. Then as you make for the Gulf of Enos 
you have the harbours of Coelos * and Panormus and 
Cardia above mentioned. 

This rounds off the third Gulf of Europe. The 
mountains of Thrace, beside those already mentioned, 
are Edonus, Gygemeros, Meritus and Melam^ihyUus ; 
the rivers are the Bargus and the Syrmus, which fall 
into the Maritza. The length of Maccdonia, Thrace 
and the Hellespont has been mentioned previously § -16. 
(some make it 720 miles) ; the breadth is 38i miles. 

The Aegean Sea takes its name from an island, or Aegean Sea. 
more truly a rock suddenly springing out of the middle 
of the sea, between Tenos and Chios, namcd Aex 
from its resemblance to a she-goat — ai^ being the 
Greek word for the animal. In sailing from Achaia 
to Antandro, this rock is sighted on the starboard 
side, and it is a sinister threat of disaster. One 
section of the Aegean is distinguished as the Myrtoan 
Sea ; it takes its name frorn the small island of Myrtos 
sighted as you sail from Geraestus in the direction of 

155 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

petentibus haut procul Euboeae Carysto. Romani 
omnia haec maria duobus nominibus appcllant, 
Macedonicum quacumque Macedoniam aut Thraciam 
attingit, Graecicnse qua Graeciam adluit ; nam 
Graeci et lonium dividunt in Siculum ac Creticum 
ab insulis, item Icarium quod est inter Samum et 
Myconum, cctera nomina sinus dedere quos diximus. 

52 XII. Et maria quidem gentcsquc in tertio Europae 
sinu ad hunc modum se habent, insulae autem : 
ex adverso Thesprotiae a Buthroto xTi p., eadcm ab 
Acroceraimiis l, cum urbe eiusdem nominis Corcyra 
liberae civitatis et oppido Cassiope templocpie Cassi 
lovis, xcvii in longitudinem patcns, Homero dicta 
Scheria et Phaeacia, CaUimacho etiam Drepane. 
circa eam aliquot, sed ad Itaham vcrgens Otlironos, 
ad Leucadiam Paxoe duac, v discrctae a Corcyra, 

53 nec procul ab iis ante Corcyram Ericusa, Marathe, 
Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachie, Pythionia, Ptychia, 
Tarachie, et a Phalario Corcyrae promunturio 
scopulus in quem mutatam UHxis navem a simili 
specie fabula est. ante Loucadiam autem et 
AetoHam ^ permultae, quarum Teleboides, eaedem- 
que Taphiae ab incoHs appeHantur, Taphias, Carnos, 
Oxia, Prinoessa, ante AetoHam Echinades, AegiaHa, 
Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis, 

64 Pinara, Nystrus. ante eas in alto CephaUania, 
Zacynthus, utraque libera, Ithaca, DuHchium, Same, 
^ Mayhoff : Achaiam. 
• Now Magnisi, Kalamota and Kastos. 



BOOK IV. xi. 51-X11. 54 

Macedonia, not far from Carystus in Euboea. The 
Romans call all these seas by two names, the Mace- 
donian Sea wherever it touches Macedonia or 
Thrace and the Grecian Sea where it washes the 
coast of Greece ; while the Greeks divide the lonian 
Sea too into the Sicihan and the Cretan, named from 
the islands, and also give the name of Icarian to the 
part between Samos and Myconos, and the other 
Greek names are taken from the gulfs that we 
have mentioned. 

XII. So much for the arrangement of the seas and isiandsdcwn 
the nations in the tliird Gulf of Europc. The islands l^^^^^f 
are as follows : opposite to Thesprotia, 12 miles from 
Buthrotus and also 50 from Acroceraunia, Hes Corfu, 
with a city of the same name, a free state, and the 
towTi of Cassopo, and the temple of Jupiter Cassius ; 
the island is 97 miles long. In Homer it has the names 
of Scheria and Phaeacia, and in CalHmachus also that 
of Drepane. Several ishmds He round it, especially 
Fano on the side towards Italy and Paxo and Antipaxo 
towards Leucadia, both 5 miles away from Corfu. 
Not far from these, lying ofF Corfu, are Ericusa, 
Marathe, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachie, Pythionia, 
Ptychia and Tarachie, and off the promontory of 
Corfu caHed Capo Drasti the rock into which 
(according to the story, which is due to the similarity 
of shape) the ship of Ulysses was changcd. Off 
Leucadia and AetoHa are a very large number, 
among which those caUed the Teleboides, and also 
by their inhabitants the Taphiae, are Ta})hias, 
Carnos, Oxia, and Prinoessa;" ofF AetoHa are the 
Echinades, AcgiaHa, Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, 
Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis, Pinara, Nystrus. Off 
these out at sea He Cephallenia and Zante, both free, 

157 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Crocyle. a Paxo Cephallania qiiondam Melaena 
dicta X p. abest, circuitu patet xciii ; Same diruta 
a Romanis adhuc tamen oppida tria habet. inter 
hanc et Achaiam cum oppido magnifica et fertiUtate 
praecipua Zacynthus, ahquando appellata Hyrie, 
Cephallnniae meridiana parte xxv abest; mons 
Elatus ibi nobiUs. ipsa circuitu colligit xxxvi. 

55 ab ea Ithaca 3cv distat, in qua mons Neritus ; tota 
vero circuitu patet xxv. ab ea Araxum Peloponnesi 
promunturium xv. ante hanc in alto Asteris, Prote, 
ante Zacynthum xxxv in eurum ventum Strophades 
duae, ab aUis Plotae dictae. ante Cephallaniam 
Letoia, ante Pylum iii Sphageae, totidcm ante 
Messenen Oenussae. 

56 In Asinaeo sinu tres Thyrides, in Laconico Tega- 
nissa, Cothon, Cythera cum oppido, antea Porphyris 
appeUata — haec sita est a Maleae promunturio v 
passuum ancipiti propter angustias ibi navium ambitu ; 
in ArgoUco Pityusa, Arine, Ephyre ; contra Hermio- 
nium agrum Tricarenus, Aperopia, Colonis, Aristera; 

57 contra Troezenium Calauria d distans, Plateis, 
Belbina, Lasia, Baucidias ; contra Epidaurum Cecry- 
phalos, Pityonesos vi a continente, ab hac Aegina 
liberae condicionis xv, cuius xviii praenavigatio 

" So called from ita fir-trces ; now Scopo. 
* At the south of the Arpolid. 

158 



BOOK IV. XII. 54-57 

Itliaca, Dulichium, Same, and Crocyle. Cephallenia, 
formerly called in Greek the Black Island, is 10 
miles from Paxo, and measures 93 miles in circum- 
ference ; Same has been demoHshed by the Romans, 
but still possesses three towns. Between Same and 
the coast of Acliaia Ues Zante, distino;uished by its 
fine town and remarkable for the fertility of its soil; 
it was at one time called Hyrie. It is 25 miles from 
the southern part of Cephallenia, and on it is the 
celebrated mountain of Elatus." It measures 36 
miles in circumference. At a distance of 15 miles 
from Zante is Ithaca, on which is Monte Stefano ; 
its whole circumference mcasures 25 miles. The 
distance from it to the Pcloponnesian promontory of 
Araxus is 15 miles. Off Ithaca in the open sea are 
Asteris and Prote, and off Zante at a distance of 35 
miles to the south-east are the two Strophades, 
called by other people the Plotae. Off Cephallenia 
is Letoia, oif Pylos the three Sphageae and ofF 
Messene the three Oenussae. 

In the Messenian Gulf are the three Thyrides, and isiand$ 
in the Gulf of Laconia Teganissa, Cothon and Cerigo Qreecef 
with thc town of that name — the former name of 
this island was Porphyris ; it hes 5 miles from Cape 
Malea, ^vhich is dangerous to circumnavigate because 
of the narrowness of the strait. In the Gulf of 
NaupUa are Pityusa, Arine and Ephyre ; opposite 
the territory of Hermione * Tricarenus, Aperopia, 
Colonis and Aristera ; opposite that of Troezen, 
Calauria half a mile away, Plateis, Belbina, Lasia 
and Baucidias; opposite Epidaurus, Cecryphalos 
and Pityoncsus 6 miles from the mainland. Fifteen 
miles from Pityonesus is Aegina, a free state, which 
is 18 miles long as you sail past it, and 20 miles 

159 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

est, cadem autem a Piraeeo Atheniensium portu xx 
abcst, ante Oenone vocitata. Spiraeo promunturio 
obiacent Eleusa, Adendros, Craugiae duae, Caeciac 
duae, Selacosa ; et a Cenchreis ^ Aspis vn et in 
Megarico sinu Methurides iv, Aegila autem xv a 
Cythera, eademque a Cretae Phalasarna oppido xxv. 

58 Ipsa Creta altero latere ad austrum altero ad 
septentrioncm vcrsa inter ortum occasumque porri- 
gitur, centum urbium clara fama. Dosiades eam a 
Crete nympha, Hesperidis filia, Anaximander a 
rege Curetum, Phihstides Mallotes et Crates pri- 
mum Aeriam dictam, deinde postea Curetim, et 
Macaron nonnulh a temperie caeh appellatam 
existimavere. latitudine nusquam l excedens et 
circa mediam sui partem maxime patens longitudinc 
implet ccLxx, circuitu dlxxxix, flectensque se in 
Crcticum pclagus ab ea dictum qua longissima cst ad 
orientem promunturium .Samonium adversum Rhodo, 
ad occidcntem Criumctopon Cyrenas versus expeUit. 

51» Oppida eius insignia Phalasarna, Elaea, Cisamon, 
Pergamum, Cvdonea, Minoium, Apteron, Pantoma- 
trium, Amphomala, Rhithymna, Panhormum, Cytae- 
um, Apollonia, Matium, Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, 
Hierapytna, Lebena, Hicrapohs, et in mediterraneo 
Gortyna, Phaestum, Gnosus, Polyrrhenum, .Myrina, 
Lycastos, Rhamnus, Lyctos, Diimi, Asium, Pyloros, 
Rhytion, Elatos, Pherae, Holopyxos, Lasos, Elcu- 
thernae, Therapnae, Marathusa, Gytisos, et ahorum 

' Mayhoff: Selacosa, Dacenchrus. 

• Probably Cape San Sidero, not Cape Salomon, in spite of 
tbe name. 
' The Greek name survivca in the modem Capo Crio. 
' The modem Canca. 
' The aite is now occupied by Candia. 

i6o 



BOOK IV. xii. 57-59 

distant from Piraeus, the port of Athens; its name 
used to be Oenone. Offthe promontory of Spiraeum 
lie Eleusa, Adendros, the tvvo Craugiae, the two 
Caeciae and Selacosa ; and Aspis 7 miles from 
Cenchreae and Methurides in the Bay of Megara 
4 miles ; while Aegila is 15 miles from Cythera and 
25 from the Cretan town of Phalasarna. 

Crete itself stretches east and west with one side Crete. 
facing south and the othcr north ; it is celebrated for 
the rcnown of its 100 cities. Dosiades held the view 
that it took its name from the nymph Crete, daughter 
of Hesperis, Anaximander that it was named from 
the king of the Curetes, PhiHstidcs of Mallos and 
Crates that it was first called Aeria and then subse- 
quently Curetis ; its Greek appellation, ' the Island 
of the Blest,' is thought by some to be due to 
the mildness of its cHmate. Its breadth nowhere 
exceeds 50 miles, its widcst part being about the 
middle ; its length is fully 270 miles and its circum- 
ference 589 miles ; its longest side forms a curve 
towards the Cretan Sea which takes its name from it, 
its easternmost projection, Cape Samonium," point 
ing towards Rhodes and its westcrnmost, the Ram's 
Forehead,'' towards Cyrene. 

The important cities of Crete are Phalasarna, Elaea, 
Cisaraon, Pcrgamum, Cydonia,*" Minoium, Apteron, 
Pantomatrium, Amphomala, Rhithymna, Panhormum, 
Cytaeum, ApoUonia, Matium,'' Heraclea, Miletos, 
Ampclos, Hierapytna, Lcbcna and HicrapoUs ; and 
in the interior Gortyna, Phaestus, Cnossus, 
Polyrrhenum, Myrina, Lycastos, Rhamnus, Lyctus, 
Dium, Asium, Pyloros, Rhytion, Elatos, Pherae, 
Holopyxos, Lasos, Eleuthcrnae, Therapnae, Mara- 
thu-sa, Gytisos, and about 60 other towns of which 

i6i 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

cirfitcr lx oppidorum mcmoria cxtat. montes 

60 Cadistus, Idacus, Dictynnaeus, Cor}'cus. ipsa abcst 
promunturio suo quod vocatur Criumetopon, ut 
prodit Agrippa, a Cyrenarum promunturio Phycunte 
cxxv, item Cadisto a Malea Peloponncsi lxxx, a 
Carpatho insula promunturio Samonio lx in favonium 
ventum ; haec inter eam et Rhodum interiacet. 

61 Reliquae circa eam ante Peloponnesum duae 
Cor)-coe, totidcm Mylae, et latcre septentrionali 
dextra Cretam habcnti contra Cydoneam Leuce 
et duae Budroe, contra Matium Dia, contra Itanum 
promunlurium Onysia, Lcuce, contra Hierapytnam 
Chrysa, Gaudos. eodem tractu Ophiussa, Butoa, 
Ramnus, circumvectisque Criumetopon tres Acusa- 
gorus appcllatae. ante Sanionium promunturium 
Phocoe, Platiae, Stirnidcs, Naulochos, Ilarmedon, 
Zephyre. 

62 At in Helladc, etiamnum in Acgaeo, Lichades, 
Scai-phia, Corese, Phoc;isia conpluresque aHae ex 
advcrso Atticae sine oppidis et ideo ignobiles ; sed 
contra Eleusina clara Salamis. ante eam Psyttalia, 
a Sunio vero Helene v distans. dein Ceos ab ea 
totidem, quarn nostri quidam dixere Ceam, Gracci 
et Hydrusam, avolsam Euboeae ; quingcntos longa 
stadios fuit quondam, mox quattuor fere partibus 
quae ad Bocotiam vergebant eodem mari devoratis 

• Now Ra8 el-Sem. 

162 



BOOK IV. XII. 59-^2 

only the memory exists. The mountains are 
Cadistus, Ida, Dictynna and Corycus. The distance 
of the island at its promontory called the Ram's 
Forehead from the promontory of Cyrene named 
Phycus " is stated by Agrippa to be 125 miles, and 
at Cadistus from Malea in the Morea 80; at the 
promontory of Samonium it is 60 miles west of the 
island of Skarpanto, which Ues between it and 
Rhodes. 

The remaining ishinds lying round Crete are, uiandt of 
towards the Morea, the two callcd Corycos and the ^'^^^'- 
two called Myla ; on the north side having Crete 
on the right and opposite to Cydonea are Leuce and 
the two called Budroe, opposite to Matium is Dia. 
opposite to the promontor}- of Itanum are Onysia 
and Leuce, and opposite to Hierapytna Chrysa and 
Gaudos. In the same region are Ophiussa, Butoa and 
Rhamnus, and after rounding the Ram's Forehead 
the three callcd Acusagorus. OfF the promontory of 
Samonium are the Phocoi, Platiae and Stirnides, and 
Naulochos, Harmedon and Zephyre. 

Forming part of Hellas but still in the Aegean Sea isiands up 
are the Lichades, Scarphia, Corese, rhocasia, and a o/oreece. 
number of others facing Attica that have no towns on 
them and are consequently unimportant. Opposite 
Eleusis is the farnous island of Salamis. In front of 
it is Psyttalea, and, at a distance of 5 miles from 
Sunium, Helene. Then at the same distance from 
Helene is Ceos, called by some Romans Cea and by 
the Greeks also Hydrusa. This is an island that has 
been tom away from Euboea ; it was formerly 
62^ miles long, but more recently about four-fifths 
of it lying in the direction of Boeotia has also been 
swallowed up by the sea, leaving the towns of luhs 

163 



PLINY: NATIRAL HISTORY 

oppida habet reliqua lulida, Carthacam ; intercidere 
Coresus, Poeeessa. ex hac profectam delicatiorem 
feminis vestem auctor est Varro. 

63 Euboea et ipsa avoLsa Boeotiae tam modico inter- 
fluente Euripo ut ponte iungatur, ad meridiem 
promunturiis duobus, Geraesto ad Atticam vcrgente 
et ad Hellespontum Caphereo, insignis, a septentrione 
Cenaeo, nusquam latitudinem ultra xL extendit, 
nusquam infra mm contrahit, sed in longitudinem 
universae Boeotiae ab Attica ad Thessaliam usque 

64 praetenta in cl, circuitu vero ccclxv. abcst ab Helles- 
ponto parte Capherei ccxxv, urbibus quondam Pyrrha, 
Portlimo, Neso, Cerintho, Oreo, Dio, Aedcpso, Ocha, 
Qcchalia, nunc Chalcide cuius ex adverso in conti- 
nenti Aulis est, Geraesto, Eretria, Carysto, Oritano, 
Artemisio, fonte Arethusa, flumine Lelanto aquisque 
calidis quae Hellopiae vocantur nobilis, notior tamen 
marmore Carystio. antea vocitata est Chalcodontis 
aut Macris, ut Dionysius et Ephorus tradunt, ut 
Aristides Macra, ut Callidemus Chalcis aere ibi 
primimi rcperto, ut Menaechmus Abantias, ut 
poetae vulgo Asopis. 

65 Extra cam in Myrtoo multae, sed maxime inlustres 
Glauconncsos et Acgila et a promunturio Gcraesto 
circa Delum in orbem sitae, unde et nomen traxere 
164 



BOOK IV. XII. 62-65 

and Carthaea, while Coresus and Grassy Island have 
disappearcd. Varro states that this island used to 
export an exceptionally fine kind of cloth used for 
ladies' dresses. 

Euboea itself also is sundered from Boeotia by so 
moderate a channel, the Euripus, that it is joined 
to the mainland by a bridge. At the south end it 
has two marked promontories, Capo Mandih point- 
ing towards Attica and Kavo Doro towards the 
Dardanelles ; at the north it has Cape Lithadha. 
Its breadth nowhere exceeds 40 miles and nowhere 
contracts below two miles ; its length stretches along 
the whole of I5oeotia from Attica to Thessaly and 
measures 150 miles, while its circumference is 365 
miles. At its south-easternmost point its distance 
from the Dardanelles is 225 miles. Its notable 
cities were formerly Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos, Cerin- 
thos, Oreus, Dium, Aedepsos, Ocha and Oechaha; 
those now noteworthy are Chalcis (opposite which on 
the mainland is Auhs), Geraestus, Eretria, Carystus, 
Oritanum and Artemisium, as well as the Spring of 
Arethusa, the river Lclantus and the warm springs 
known as the Hellopiae. Euboea is, however, still 
better known for the marble of Carystus. It used 
formerly to be called Chalcodontis or according to 
Dionysius and Ephorus Macris, but Macra according 
to Aristides, and according to Calhdemus Chalcis, 
because copper was first discovered there ; according 
to Menaechmus its name was Abantias, while in 
poetry it is commonly called Asopis. 

In the Myrtoan Sea besides Euboea are many isiavds of 
islands, the best known being Glauconnesus and the ^Jj/^^*'"''' 
Aegila islands, and otF Capo Mandih the Cyclades, ?''o«p. 
lying round Delos in a circle which has given them 

165 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Cyclades. prima earum Andrus cum oppido abest 
.1 Geraesto x, a Ceo .vxxvTTi. ipsam Myrsilus Cauron, 
deinde Antandron cognominatam tradit, Calliniachus 
Lasiam, alii Nonagriam, Hydrusam, Rpagrim. patet 
circuitu xciii. ab eadem Andro passus mille et 
a Delo XV Tenos cum oppido in xv porrecta, quam 
propter aquarum aliundantiam Aristoteles Ilydrusam 

CG appellatam ait, aliqui Ophiusam. ceterae Myconus 
cimi monte Dimasto a Delo xv, Siphnus ante Meropia 
et Acis appellata circuitu xxviii, Seriphus xv, Prepe- 
sinthus, Cythnos, ipsaque longe clarissima et Cycla- 
dum media ac templo Apollinis et mercatu celebrata 
Delos, quae diu fluctuata, ut proditur, sola motum 
terrae non sensit ad M. Varronis actatem : Mucianus 
prodidit bis concussam. hanc Aristotclcs ita ap- 
pellatam tradidit quoniam repente apparuerit enata, 
Aglaosthenes Cynthiam, alii Ortygiam, Asteriam, 
Lagiam, Chlamydiam, Cyncthum, Pyrpilcn igne ibi 
primum repcrto. cingitur v passuum, adsurgit 
Cynthio monte. 

67 Proxima ei Rhene quam AnticHdes Celadusam 
vocat, item Artemiten, Celadinen; Syros quam 
circuitu patere xx prodiderunt veteres, Mucianus 

• A^Aoj, ' manifest.' 
i66 



BOOK IV. XII. 65-67 

thcir name. The first of these is Andro ^vith a town 
of the same name, 10 miles from Mandili and 38 fioin 
Ceos. Myrsilus tells us that Ceos was once called 
Cauros, and hiter Antandros ; CalHmacluis says it 
had the name of Lasia, others Nonagria or Hydrusa or 
Epagris. Its circuit measures 93 miles. At a distance 
of a mile from Andros and 15 miles from Delos is 
Tino, with a city of the same name ; this island is 15 
miles in length. Aristotle says that owing to its 
abundance of springs it once was called Hydrusa ; 
others give its old name as Ophiusa. The other 
islands are : Mykono, with Mount Two Breasts, 15 
miles from Delos ; Siphnus, previously called 
Meropia and Acis, 28 miles round ; Serpho 15 milcs 
round ; Prepesintlius ; Cythnos ; and by far the 
most famous of the Cyclades and lying in the middle 
of them, Delos, celebrated for its temple of Apollo 
and for its commerce. According to the story, Delos 
for a long time floated adrift ; also it was the only 
island that down to the time of Marcus Varro had 
never felt an earthquake shock ; Mucianus however 
states that it has suffered twice from earthquake. 
Aristotle has recorded that it owes its name " to 
its having suddenly appeared emerging from the 
water; Aglaosthenes, however, calls it the Isle of 
Cynthus, and others Quail Island, Star Island, Hare 
Island, Cloak Island, Dog Island, and Fiery Island 
becausc fire was first discovered there. It measures 
five miles in circumference. Its only eminence is 
Mount Cynthius. 

Next to Delos is Rhene, which Anticlides calls 
Celadusa, and also Artemites and Celadine ; Syros, 
stated by old writers to measure 20 miles in circuit, 
but by Mucianus 160 miles ; Olearos ; Paros, with 

167 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

CLX ; Olcaius ; rarus cum oppido, ab Delo xxxviii 
niarniore nobilis, quam primo Platean, postea 
Minoida vocarunt. ab ea vTi d Naxus, a Delo 
3cviii, cum oppido, quam Stronjfylen, deinde Diam, 
mox Dionysiada a vincarum fcrtilitatc, alii Siciliam 
Minorem aut Callipolim appellarunt. patet circuitu 
Lxxv p., dimidioquc maior est quam Parus. 

68 Et hactcnus quidcm Cycladas scrvant, cetcras quae 
secuntur Sporadas. sunt autem Helene, Phacusa, 
Nicasia, Schinusa, Pholcgandros, et a Naxo .xxxviii p. 
Icaros, quae nomen mari dedit, tantundem ipsa in 
longitudinem patens, cum oppidis duobus, tertio 
amisso, antea vocitata DoUche et Macris et Ich- 
thyoessa. sita est ab exortu solstitiaH DeH l, 
eademque a Samo xxxv, inter Euboeam et Andrum 
X passuum freto, ab ea Gcraestum cxTi d passuum. 

6'.t Nec deinde scrvari potest ordo ; acervatim ergo 
ponentur rcHquae : Scyros ; los a Naxo xviii, Homeri 
sepulchro vcncranda,longitudine xxTi, antea Phocnicc 
appcllata ; Odia; Olctandros; Gyara cum oppido, 
circuitu xv, abest ab Andro lxii ; ab ea Syrnos 
L.YXX ; Cynethus ; Telos unguento nobilis, a CaUi- 
macho Agathusa appeUata ; Donusa ; Patmus cir- 

70 cuitu XXX ; Corassiae, Lcbinthus, Gyrus, Cinara, 
Sicinus quae antca Oenoe ; HeracHa quae Onus ; 
Casos quae Astrabe ; Cimolos quae Echinusa; Melos 
cum oppido quam Aristides MimbHda appcHat, 



' The Scattcrcd Islands. 

* Now l'ira, 'Jctussa, Hacchia, Schinusa and Polecandro. 
' 'J liis is an ovcrstatcnicnt. 

•* Naraed from the son of Dacdahis, who fcll into the sea 
herc; now Nikaria. 

x68 



BOOK IV. xii. 67-70 

the town of that name, 38 miles from Delos, famous 
for its mai-ble, and originally called Platea and after- 
wards Minois. Seven and a half miles from Paros 
and 18 from Delos is Naxos with its town, which was 
called Strongyle and then Dia and afterwards the 
Island of Dionysus because of the fertihty of its 
vineyards, and by others Little Sicily or CalHpolis. 
Its circuit measures 75 miles and it is Jialf as large 
again as Paros. 

So far the islands are regarded as belonging to the isiands of 
Cyclades, but the remainder that follow are called ^Aegem. 
the Sporades." They are Helene, Phacusa, Nicasia, 
Schinusa, Pholegandros,* and 38 miles from Naxos 
and the same number of milcs in length,« Icaros,'* 
which has given its name to the surrounding sea ; 
it has two towns, a third having disappeared ; it was 
formerly called Doliche or Long Island, also Fish 
Island. It lies 50 miles north-east of Delos and 35 
miles from Samos ; between Euboea and Andros 
there is a channel 10 miles >vide, and the distance 
from Icaros to Geraestus is 112^ miles. 

After these no regular order can be kept, so the oiher isiatids 
remaining islands shall be given in a group : Scyro ; X?«jn^^ 
Nio, 18 miles from Naxos, venerable as the burial- 
place of Homer, 22 miles long, previously called 
Phoenice ; Odia; Olctandros ; Gioura, with a to^vn 
of the same name, 15 miles in circumference, 62 miles 
distant from Andros ; 80 milcs from Gioura, Syrnos ; 
Cynethus ; Telos, noted for its unguent, and called by 
Calhmachus Agathusa; Domisa; Patmos, 30 miles 
in circumference ; the Corassiae, Lebitha, Lero, 
Zinari ; Sikino, previously Oenoe ; Heraclia or Onus ; 
Casos or Astrabe ; KimoH or Echinusa ; Milo, with 
the town of that name, called by Aristides MimbHs, 

169 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Aristoteles Zephyriam, Callimachus Mimallida, Hera- 
clides Siphin et Acytan : haec insularum rotundis- 
simaest; Buporthmos ; Machia ; Hypere, quondam 
Patage, ut aUi, Platage, nunc Amorgos ; Polyaegas ; 
Sapyle ; Thera, cum primum emersit Calliste dicta : 
ex ea avolsa postea Therasia, atque intcr duas enata 
mox Automate, eadem Hiera, et in nostro aevo 
Thia iuxta easdem enata. distat los a Thera 
XXV p. 

71 Secuntur Lea, Ascania, Anaphe, Hippuris. Asty- 
palaea hberae civitatis, circuitus lxxxvui, abest a 
Cadisto Cretae cx3cv, ab ea Platea lx, unde Caminia 
XXXVIII ; Azibintha, Lamse, Atragia, Pharmacusa, 
Thetaedia, Chalcia, Calymna in qua oppidum, Coos, 
Eulimna, a qua Carpathum quae nomen Carpathio 
mari dcdit xxv. inde Rhodum Africo vento l; a 
Carpatho Casum vTi, a Caso Samonium Cretae pro- 
munturium xxx. in Euripo autem Euboico, primo 
fere introitu, Petaliae iv insulae, et in exitu Atalante. 
Cycladcs et Sporades ab oriente Utoribus Icariis 
Asiae, ab occidente Myrtois Atticae, a septentrione 
Aegaeo mari, a meridie Cretico et Carpatliio inclusae 
per Dcc in longitudinem et per cc in latitudinem 
iacent. 

72 Pagasicus sinus ante se habet Euthiam, Cicyne- 
thum, Scyrum supra dictam sed Cycladum et Spora- 

" Bctwccn Crete and Rhodes. 
» Sce § 2'J. 
170 



BOOK IV. XII. 70-72 

by Aristotle Zephyria, by Callimachus MimaUis and 
by Herachdes Siphis and Acytas — the most circular 
in shape of i'.\\ the islands ; Buporthmos ; Machia ; 
Hj-pere, formerly called Patage, or by others Platage, 
now Amorgo; Polyaegas; Sapyle ; Santorin, called 
Fair Island when it fii'st emerged from the water; 
Therasia subsequently detached from it, and 
Automate or Holy Island, which soon afterwards 
arose between the two, and Thia, which emerged near 
the same islands in our own day. The distance 
between Santorin and Nio is 25 miles. 

There follow Lea, Ascania, Namphi, and Hippm-is. 
StampaUa, a free state, measuring 88 miles in 
circumference, is 125 miles from Cadistus in Crete ; 
Platea 60 miles from StampaUa, and Caminia 38 
miles from Platea; Azibintha, Lamse, Atragia, 
Pharmacusa, Thctacdia, Karki, Kalymni with its 
town, Coos, EuUmna, and at a distance of 25 miles 
from it Skarpanto, which has given its name to the 
Carpathian Sea." From there to Rhodes, a south- 
west course, is 50 miles ; from Skarpanto to Casus is 
7 milcs, from Casus to Cape Samonium in Crete 30. 
In the Euripus between Euboea and the mainland, 
almost at the first entrance, are the four PetaUae 
Islands, and at its outlet Talanti. The Cyclades and 
the Sporades are bounded on the east by the Asiatic 
coasts of the Icarian Sea, on the west by the Attic 
coasts of the Myrtoan Sea, on the north by the Aegean 
Sea and on the south by the Cretan and Carpathian 
coasts ; these islands occupy an area 700 miles long 
and 200 miles broad. 

Across the mouth of the Gulf of Volo ^* Ue Euthia, /siands 0/ 
Trikeri, Skyro, previously mentioned, and in fact the ^ege^^ 
outermost of the Cyclades and Sporades, Gerontia 

171 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

dum extimam, Gerontiam, Scandiram ; Thermaeus 
Iresiam,Solymniam,Eudcmiam,Neam quae Minervae 
sacra est; Athos ante se iv, Peparethum cum oppido, 
quondam Evoenum dictam novem milia, Sciathum 
XV, Imbinim cum oppido iTxxxvTTi ; eadem abest a 
Mastusia Cherronesi xxTi p., ipsa circuitus lxii d 

73 perfimditur amne IHsso. ab ea Lcmnos xxTi, quae 
ab Atho Lx.xxvii ; circuitu patet cxv d p., oppida 
habet Hephaestiam et Myrinam in cuius forum 
solstitio Atlios eiaculatur umbram. ab ea Thasos 
Ubera vi, ohm Aeria vel Aethria dicta; indc Abdera 
continentis xxTi, Athos lxIi d, tantundem insula 
Samothrace Ubera ante Hebrum, ab Imbro xxxii, 
a Lemno .vxTi d p., a Thraciae ora xxxvifi, circuitus 
.xxxv-; attoUitur monte Saoce x p. ahitudinis, vel 
inportuosissima omnium. CalUmaclius cam antiquo 
nomine Dardaniam vocat. 

74 Intcr Cherronesum et Samotliracen, utrimque fere 
XV Haloncsos, ultra Gethone, Lamponia, Alope- 
conncsus haut procul a Coelo Chcrronesi ])ortu, et 
quaedam ignobiles. desertis quoque reddantur in 
hoc sinu quarum modo inveniri potuere nomina : 
Avesticos, Samos, Cissyros, Charbrusa, Calathusa, 
ScyUia, Dialcon, Dictaea, Melantliia, Dracanon, 

• Thia is nearly double the actuai distancc. 

* Cf. Sophoclcs (Schol. ad Thcocr. Id. G. 72) 'AOo)? a/cia^ei 
vuyra Arjiivias oAdj. Myrina at thc S.W. corncr of Lcmnos lics 
at a distance of ahout 50 milca duo S.E. of .Mount Athos, 
•which i3 G350 ft. high. 

« The text clamuurs for emendation — Wannington sug- 
gests M p. — unless indccd the figure rcally givea not the height 
of the peak but the lcngth of the path up it. Baedckcr, 
Medilerranean, p. ."iS.S, gives the highest point on .Saraothraco 
as 52."iO ft., a little undcr a mile, and the aititude of Mont 
Blanc 19 just undcr 3 mile.s English : tho Roman mile waa 
142 yards shorter than the EngUsh. 



BOOK IV. XII. 72-74 

and Scandira ; across the Gulf of Saloniki Iresia 
Solymnia, Eudemia and Nea, the last an island 
sacred to Minerva ; across the Gulf of Athos He four 
islands, Piperi with the town of that name and formerly 
called Evoenus, 9 miles ofF, Sciathos 15 miles, and 
Embro with its town 88 miles ; the distance bctween 
Embro and Mastusia on the GallipoH Peninsula is 
22 miles. Embro is 62i miles in circuit ; it is watered 
by the river IHssus. Twenty-two miles from Embro 
is StaHmene, wliich Hes 87 " miles from Mount yVthos ; 
its circuit measures 115 J miles, and on it are the towns 
of Hephaestia and Myrina — the market place of the 
latter is reached by the shadow of Mount Atlios * 
at mid-summer. Six miles from Stalimene is Thasos, 
a free state, formerly called Aeria or Aethria ; Abdera 
on the mainland is 22 miles from Thasos, and 
Athos 62| miles, and the island of Samothrace, a 
free state, off the river Maritza, is the same distance 
from Thasos, 32 miles from Embro, 22| from StaH- 
mene, and 38 from the coast of Thrace ; its circuit 
measures 35 miles, and on it rises Monte Nettuno, 
which is 10 miles high.'' Embro gives the worst 
ancliorage for vessels of all the islands. It is men- 
tioned by CaHimachus under its ancient name of 
Dardania. 

Between the GalHpoH peninsula and Samothrace, isiatuUo/ 
about 15 miles from each, is the island of Skopelo, ^'^'■^■'^^iieaii. 
and beyond it are Gethone, Lamponia, Alopeconncsus, 
which is not far from Coelos the port of GaHipoH, 
and some others of no importance. We may also 
specify the names of uninhabited islands in the Gulf 
so far as we have been able to ascertain them : 
Avesticos, Sarnos, Cissyros, Charbrusa, Calathusa, 
ScyUia, Dialcon, Dictaca, Melanthia, Dracanon, 

173 



PLINY: NATURAL IIISTORY 

Arconesus, Diethusa, Ascapos, Capheris, Mesate, 
Aeantion, Patcronnesos, Patcria, Calathe, Neriphus, 
Pclcndos. 

75 Quartus e magnis Europae sinus ab Hellesponto 
incipiens Maeotis ostio finitur. sed totius Ponti 
forma breviter conplectcnda est, ut faciUus partcs 
noscantur. vastum mare praeiacens Asiae et ab 
Euro])a porrecto Cherronesi Htore expulsum an- 
gusto mcatu inrumpit in terras, vii stadiorum, ut 
dictum est, inter\allo Europam auferens Asiae. 
primas angustias Hellespontum vocant ; hac Xcrxes 
Persarum rcx constrato in naxdbus ponte duxit exer- 
citum. porrigitur deinde tenuis euripus lxxxvi 
spatio ad Priapum urbem Asiac, qua Magnus 

70 Alexander transcendit. inde exspatiatur aequor 
rursusque in artum coit. laxitas Propontis appellatur, 
angustiae Thracius Bosporus, latitudine quingen- 
torum passuum qua Darius pater Xcrxis copias ponte 
transvexit ; tota ab Hellesponto longitudo ccxxxix. 

Dein vastum mare Pontus iMixinus, qui quondam 
Axenus, longe refugientes occupat terras magnoque 
litorum flexu retro curvatus in cornua ab his utrim- 
que porrigitur, ut sit plane arcus Scythici forma. 
medio flcxu iungitur ostio Macotii lacus ; Ciinnierius 
Bosporus id os vocatur, u quingentos passus hititu- 

77 dine. at inter duos Bosporos Thracium et Cim- 



" Tbe Inhospitable Sea (c/. VI. I), so describcd aa being 
stomiy, cold and witliout the shcltcr of islands on which Greek 
navigators wcrc accustonicd to rcly ; but the oniinous name 
was euphemisticaUy altered into Euxine, ' Hospitaljle.' 

* Shaped in two curves mecting in an angle at the middle. 
This describes the north coast of the Black Sea, tho central 
projcction being the Thracian Chcrsonese, the Crimea. The 
more or less straight south coast ia the bowstring. 

174 



BOOK IV. XII. 74-77 

Arconesus, Diethusa, Ascapos, Capheris, Mesate, 
Aeantion, Pateronnesus, Pateria, Calathe, Neriphus, 
Pelendos. 

The fourth of the great Gulfs of Europe begins at ^'ac*^ Sea. 
the Dardanelles and ends at the entrance of the Sea 
of Azov. But in order more easily to indicate the 
di^isions of the Black Sea we must glve a brief 
description of its shape as a whole. It is a vast body 
of Avater lying in front of Asia and shut out from 
Europe by the promontory of GalhpoU ; but it forces 
an entrance into the interior by a narrow winding 
channel, and separates Europe from Asia, as has been 
said, by a strait that is less than a mile wide. The V^^- 
first part of the narrows is called the Dardanelles ; 
here the Persian king Xerxes made the bridge of 
boats across which he led his army. From there a 
narrow channel 86 miles long extcnds to the Asiatic 
city of Priapus ; it was here that Alexandcr the 
Great crosscd. From this point the water bcgins to 
widen out, and afterwards narrows again. The wide 
part is called the Sea of Marmara and the narrows 
the Straits of Constantinople ; at the point where 
Xerxcs' father Darius conveycd his forces across by 
means of a bridge it is 500 yards wide, and its entire 
length from the Dardanelles is 239 miles. 

Then comes the vast extent of the Black Sea, 
formerly the Axenus," which cncroaclics on a large 
area of the continent, and with a great bend of its 
coasts curves back into liorns and from thcm strctches 
out on either side, producing exactly the shape of a 
Scythian bow.* In the middle of the curve it is 
joined by the mouth of the Sea of Azov ; this apcrture 
is called the Straits of Kertsch, and measurcs two and 
a half miles across. The distance in a straight Une 

175 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

merium directo cursu, ut auctor est Polybius, d 
intersunt. circiiitu vero totius Ponti viciens semel l, 
ut auctor est \'arro et fere veteres ; Ncpos Cornelius 
cccL adicit, Artemidorus vicies semcl et decem 
novem milia facit, Agrippa |xxv| xl, Mucianus |xxiv| 
XXV. simili modo de Europae latere mensuram alii 

78 [xTv] LxxTx determinavere, alii |xl|. ^L Varro ad luinc 
modum metitur : ab ostio Ponti Apolloniam clxxxvTi 
D p., Callatim tantundem, ad ostium Histri cxxv, ad 
Borjsthenem cct, Cherronesum Heracleotarum op- 
pidum ccclxxv p., ad Panticapaeum quod aliqui 
Bosporum vocant, extremum in Europae ora, ccxii d, 
quae summa efficit |xiii{ xxxvii d. Agrippa a Byzantio 
ad flumen Histrum i5xL, inde Panticapaeum dcxxxv. 

Lacus ipse Maeotis Tanain amnem ex Ripaeis 
montibus defluentem accipions, novissimum inter 
Europam Asiamque fmem, |xiv| vi circuitu patere 
traditur, ab aUis jxTj xxv. ab ostio eius ad Tanais 
ostium directo cursu ccclxxv esse constat. accolae 
sinus eius in mentione Thraciae dicti sunt HistropoHn 
usque. 

79 Inde ostia Ilistri. ortus hic in Gcrmania iugis 
montis Abnouae ex adverso llaurici GalUae oppidi, 
multis ultra Alpes milibus ac per innumeras lapsus 



» Thia name is applied vaguely to all the rangea of Xorthcrn 
Europe and Asia. Aa a mattcr of fact the Don riscs in the 
centre of E^uropcan Rusaia. 

* At Donaueschingea. 

<■ The Black Foreat. 

^ Xaniccl after the Raurici of Gallia Belgica; probably 
Aiigst ncar Baael. 

176 



BOOK IV. XTT. 77-79 

between the two straits, the Dardanelles and Kaffa, 
measures according to Polybius 500 miles. The whole 
circumference of the Black Sea according to Varro 
and the old authorities generally is 2150 miles, but 
Cornehus Nepos adds 350 miles, while Artcmidorus 
makes it 2119 milcs, Agrippa 2540, and Mucianus 
2425. There is a similar dififcrcnce of opinion as to 
the measurement of the European shore, some fixing 
it at 1479 miles and others at 1100. Marcus Varro 
gives the measurement as foUows : from the mouth 
of the Black Sea to ApoUonia 187^ miles ; from there 
to Collat the same ; to the mouth of the Danube 
125; to the Dnieper 250 ; to the to\\Ti of Cherronesus 
of the Heracleotae 375 miles ; to Kertsch, by some 
called Bosporus, the last point on the coast of Europe, 
212^ miles — the total making 1337i miles. Agrippa 
makcs it 540 miles from Istamboul to the river 
Danube and 635 miles from the Danube to Kertsch. 

The actual Sea of Azov, which receives the Don seaoj Azoi 
flowing down from the Ripaean Mountains," the 
river being the extreme boundary between Europe 
and Asia, is said to measure 1406, or according to 
other authorities 1125, milcs in circumference. The 
distance in a straight Une between the entrance of 
the Sea of Azov and the mouth of the Don is agreed 
to be 375 miles. Tlie inhabitants of thc coasts of § 4 1/. 
this great Gulf as far as Istere have been mentioned 
in our account of Thrace. 

We then come to the mouths of the Danube. Geographyo 
It riscs * in Germany in the range of Mount Abnoua,*' * """ '" 
opposite to the GalHc town of Rauricum,'' and flows 
for a course of many miles beyond the Alps, and 
through innumerable tribes, under the name of 
Danube ; then its volume of water increases enor- 

177 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

gentes Danuvi nomine, immenso aquarum auctu et 
unde primum Illyricum alluit Hister appellatus, lx 
amnibus receptis, mcdio ferme eorura niunero 
navigabili, in Pontum vastis sex fluminibus evolvitur. 
primum ostium Peuces, mox ipsa Peuce insula, in 
qua proximus alveus Sacer ^ appellatus xTx p. magna 
palude sorbetur. ex eodem alveo et super Histro- 
polin lacus gignitur lxiii passuum ambitu : Halmyrin 
vocant. secundum ostium Naracustoma appellatur, 
tertium Calon Stoma iuxta insulam Sarmaticam, 
quartum Pseudostomon, dein insula Conopon Dia- 
basis, postea Borion Stoma et Psilon Stoma. singula 
autem ora tanta sunt ut prodatur in xl passuum 
longitudinis vinci mare dulcemque intellcgi haustum. 

80 Ab eo in plenum quidem omnes Scytharum sunt 
gentes, variae tamen litori apposita tenuere, alias 
Getae, Daci Romanis dicti, alias Sarmatae, Graecis 
Sauromatae, eorumque Hamaxobii aut Aorsi, alias 
Scythae degeneres et a servis orti aut Trogodytae, 
mox Alani et Rhoxolani. superiora autem inter 
Danuvium et Hercynium saltum usque ad Pannonica 
hiberna Carnunti Germanorumque ibi confmium 
campos et plana Iaz)'ges Sarmatac, montes vero et 

81 saltus pulsi ab his Daci ad Pathissum amnem. a 
Maro, sive Duria est a Suebis regnoque Vanniano 

* Saccr (uld. Urliclis. 

' The mountains stretching round Bohemia and through 
Moravia into Hungary. 

178 



BOOK IV. XII. 79-8i 

mously and from the point where it first enters 
lUyria it is called the Hister ; aftcr receiving 60 
tributary rivers, nearly half of which are navigable, 
it is discharged into the Black Sea by six vast channels. 
The first of these is the mouth of Piczina, close to the 
island of that name, at which the nearest channel, 
called the Iloly River, is swallowed up in a marsh 
19 miles in extent. Opening from the same channel 
and above Istere spreads a lake measuring 63 
miles round, named the Saltings. The second is 
called the Xarakian Mouth ; the third, next the 
island of Sarmatica, Fair Mouth; the fourth, 
False Mouth ; then comes the island of Mosquito 
Crossing, afterwards the North Mouth and the Barren 
Mouth. These mouths are each of them so large 
that for a distance of forty miles, so it is said, the 
sea is overpowered and the water tastes fresh. 

From this point all the races in general are Popuiaiions 
Scythian, though various sections have occupied "Znube"'" 
the lands adjacent to the coast, in one place the 
Getae, called by the llomans Dacians, at another the 
Sarmatae, called by the Greeks Sauromatae, and the 
section of them called Waggon-dwellers or Aorsi, 
at another the base-born Scythians, descendcd from 
slaves, or else the Cave-dwellers, and then the 
Alani and Rhoxolani. The higher parts between 
the Danube and the Hercynian Forest " as far as 
tlie wintcr quarters of Pannonia at Carnuntum and 
the plains and level country of the German frontiers 
there are occupied by the Sarmatian lazyges, while 
the Dacians whom they have driven out hold the 
mountains and forests as far as the river Theiss. 
From the river Maros, or else the Dora if it is that 
which scparatcs thern from the Suebi and the 

179 



PLINYi NATURAL HISTORY 

dirimens eos, aversa Basternae tcnent aliique inde 
Germani. Atfrippa totum eum tractum ab Ilistro 
ad oceanum bis ad decies centcnuin ^ milium pas- 
suum in longitudinem, quattuor milibus minus 
cccc ^ in latitudincm, ad flumen V^istlam a desertis 
Sarmatiae prodidit. Scytharum nomen usquequa- 
que transiit ^ in Sarmatas atque Germanos ; nec 
aliis prisca illa duravit appcllatio quam qui extremi 
frentium harum ignoti prope ceteris mortalibus 
dcgunt. 

82 Vcrum ab Histro oppida Cremniscoe, Aepolium, 
montcs Macrocremni, clarus amnis Tyra, oppido 
nomen inponens ubi antea Ophiusa dicebatur. in 
eodem insulam spatiosam incolunt Tyragetae ; abest 
a Pseudostomo Histri ostio c.xxx. mox Axiacae 
cognomines flumini, ultra quos Crobyzi, flumen 
Rhode, sinus Sangarius, portus Ordcsos. et a Tyra 
cxx flumen Bory-sthencs lacusque et gens eodcm 
nomine et oppidum ab mari rccedens xv passuum, 

83 Olbiopolis et MilctopoHs antiquis nominibus. rursus 
Htore portus Achaeorum, insula AchiHis tumulo 
eius viri clara, et ab ea cx3t\' passuum paeninsula ad 
formam gladii in transversum porrecta, exercitatione 
eiusdem cognominata Dromos Achilleos, cuias longi- 
tudincm T7\\x tradidit Agrippa. totum eum trac- 
tum tenent Sardi Scytliac et Siraci. indc silvestris 
regio Hylaeum mare quo adluitur cognominavit ; 

* Jan : ccntum. 

* Mayhnff : varia codd. 
' Niebuhr : transit. 



•" A rhicf of tbc Vadi, mafle king of the Swabians by 
Germanicus, a.d. 19. 
* Now the Teligul. 

l8o 



BOOK IV. XII. 81-83 

Kingdom of Vannius," the opposite side of the eountry 
is oocupied by the Basternae and then other German 
tribes. Agrippa describes the whole of this area 
from the Danube to the sea as being 1200 miles in 
length by 396 in breadth, as far as the river Vistula 
in the direction of the Sarmatian desert. The name 
of Scythians has spread in every direction, as far as 
the Sarmatae and the Germans, but this old designa- 
tion has not continued for any except the raost 
outlying sections of these races, hving almost unknown 
to the rest of mankind. 

After the Danube come the towns of Cremniscoi -^'o'^''' <»air 
and Aepohum, the Macrocremni Mountains, and yca. 
the famous river Dniester, which gives its name to 
the town on the site which previously was called 
Ophiusa. A large island in the Dniester, inhabited 
by the Tyragetae, is 130 miles from the False Mouth 
of the Danube. Then come the Axiacae named 
from the river Axiaces,* and beyond them the Cro- 
byzi, the river Rhode, the Sangarian Gulf, the port of 
Ordesus, and 120 miles from the Dniester the river 
Dnieper and the lake and tribe of the same name, 
and the town 15 miles inland from the sea, the old 
names of which were Olbiopolis and Miletopohs. 
Returning to the coast, we come to the Port of 
the Achaeans and the Isle of Achilles, famous for 
the tomb of that hero, and 125 miles from it a penin- 
sula stretching out at a slant in the shape of a sword, 
and called the Race-course of Achilles from having 
been his exercising ground ; its length is given by 
Agrippa as 80 miles. The whole of this stretch 
is occupied by the Scythian Sardi and Siraci. 
Then there is a wooded region that hag given its 
name to the Forest Sea that washes its coast ; tlie 

VOL. TI. ^ ^^' 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Enoecadioe vocantur incolae. ultra Panticapes 
amnis qui Nomadas et Gcorgos disterminat, mox 
Acesinus. quidam Panticapen confluere infra 01- 
biam cum Borysthene tradunt, diligentiores Hypa- 
nim, tanto errore eorum qui illum in Asiae parte 
prodidere. 

84 Mare subit magno recessu, donec v passuum inter- 
vallo absit a Maeotide, vasta ambiens spatia mul- 
tasque gentes ; sinus Carcinites appellatur. flumen 
Pac}Tis, oppida Navarum, Carcine, a tcrgo lacus 
Buces fossa emissus in mare. ipse Buces a Coreto 
Maeotis lacus sinu petroso discluditur dorso. recipit 
amnes Bucem, Gerrhum, Hypanim, ex diverso 
venientes tractu : nam Gerrhus Basilidas et Nomadas 
separat, Hj^panis per Nomadas et Hylaeos fluit 
manu facto alveo in Bucen, naturali in Coretum : 
regio Scythia Sindica nominatur. 

85 Sed a Carcinite Taurica incipit, quondam mari 
circrunfusa et ipsa qua nunc campi iacent ; dein 
vastis attolHtur iugis. triginta sunt eorum popuH, 
ex iis mediterranei xxiii, vi oppida Orgocyni, Chara- 
ceni, Assyrani, Stactari, AcisaHtae, CaHordi, iugum 
ipsiun Scythotauri tenent. cluduntur ab occidente 

" On the west of the Tauric Cheraonese, the modern Crimoa. 
' The 7 tribes named with the 23 above make up the 30. 

182 



BOOK IV. XII. 83-85 

inhabitants are called the tribe of the Indigenae. 
Beyond is the river Somara, which forms the 
boundars' between the Nomad and Agricultural 
tribes, and then the Acesinus. Some authorities 
say that below Olbia the Somara flows into the 
Dnieper, but the more accurate make the Bug a 
tributary of the Dnieper — so erroneous it is to put 
the latter in a region of Asia. 

Here the sea runs in, forming a large gulf, until auifoj 
there is only a space of five miles separating it from '^^^ropou. 
the Sea of Azov, and it forms the coasthne of vast 
tracts of land and numerous races ; this is called the 
Gulf of Negropoh.<» Here is the river Pacyris, the 
towns of Navarum and Carcine, and behind them 
Lake Buces, which discharges into the sea by an 
artificial channel. Lake Buces itself is shut ofF by 
a rocky ridge from the Bay of Coretus in the Sea 
of Azov. Into it run the rivers Buces, Gerrhus 
and Bug, coming from different directions : for the 
Gerrhus separates the Nomads and the Basihdes, 
while the Bug flows through the Nomads and 
Foresters and discharges by an artificially made 
channel into the Buces and by a natural channel into 
the Coretus : this region has the name of Scythia 
Sindica. 

At the river Carcinites begins the Crimea, itself CHmea. 
also formerly surrounded by the sea where there are 
now low-lying stretches of land, though afterwards 
it rises in huge mountain ridges. The population 
includes 30 tribes ; of these 23 hve in the interior, 
6 towns are occupied by the Orgocyni, Characeni, 
Assyrani, Stactari, Acisahtae and Cahordi, and the 
Scythotauri * occupy the actual ridge. On the west 
side they are adjoined by the New Peninsula and on 

183 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Cherroneso Nea, ab ortu Scythis Sataucis. in ora 
a Carcine oppida Taphrae in ipsis angustiis peninsulae, 
mox Heracka Cherronesus Hbcrtate a Romanis 
donatum ; Megarice vocabatur antea, praecipui 
nitoris in toto eo tractu custoditis Graeciae moribus, 

86 V passuum ambiente muro. inde Parthenium 
promunturium, Taurorum civitas Placia, Symbolum 
portus,promunturium Criumetopon adversum Caram- 
bicon Asiae promunturium pcr medium Kuxinum 
procurrens clCxx intervallo, quae maxime ratio Scythici 
arcus formam efficit. ab eo Taurorum portus multi et 
lacus. oppidum Theodosia a Criumetopo cxxv p., a 
Cherroneso vero ctxv. ultra fuere oppida Cytae 

87 Zephyrium, Acrae, Nymphaeum, Dia ; restat longe 
vahdissimum in ipso Bospori introitu Panticapaeura 
Milesiorum, a Theodosia lxxxvii d p., a Cimmerio 
vero oppido trans fretum sito mm d, ut diximus, 
passus : haec ibi latitudo Asiam ab Europa separat, 
eaque ipsa pedibus plerumque pervia glaciato freto. 
Bospori Cimmerii longitudo ^ .\iT D passuum oppida 
habet Hermisium, Mvrmecium et intus insulam 
Alopecen. per Maeotim autcm ab extremo isthmo, 
qui locus Taphrae vocatur, ad os Bospori cclx longi- 
tudo colHgitur. 

88 A Taphris per continentem introrsus tenent 
Auchetae apud quos Hypanis oritur, Neuroe apud 

* PintianiLs : latitudo. 



Aia-burun, the southem point of the Crimea. 
Cf. § 76. 



184 



BOOK IV. XII. 85-58 

the east by the Satauci Scythians. The toA^-ns on the 
coast after Carcine are Taphrae at the actual neck 
of the pcninsula, and then tlie Heraclean Peninsula, 
a place on which Rome has recently bestowed 
freedom ; it was formerly called Megarice, and is 
the most highly cultured community in all this 
region owing to its having preserved the manners of 
Greece ; it is encircled by a wall measuring five miles. 
Then come the Virgin's Cape, Placia a citv of the 
Tauri, the port of Balaklava, Ram's Head Cape," 
jutting out into the middle of the Black Sea opposite 
to Cape Kerempi in Asia with a space bctween them 
of 170 miles, which is chiefly the reason that produees 
the shape of a Scythian bow.* After this come a 
number of harbours and lakes belonging to the 
Tauri. The town of Theodosia is 125 miles from 
Ram's Head and 1G5 from the Peninsula. Beyond it 
there were in former times the towns of Cytae, 
Zephyrium, Acrae, Nymphaeum and Dia; while by 
far the strongest of them all, the Milesian city of 
Kertsch, at the actual mouth of the Straits, still 
stands ; it is 87^ miles from Theodosia and 2| miles, 
as we have said, from the town of Cimmerium situated 
across the Straits — this is the width that here separ- 
ates Asia from Europe, and even this can usually be 
crossed on foot when the Gulf is frozen over. On 
the Straits of Kertsch, the length of which is 12^ 
miles, are the towns of Hermisium and Myrmecium, 
and inside the Straits is the island of Alopece. 
The coast of the Sea of Azov, from the place called 
Taphrae at the end of the isthmus to the mouth of 
the Straits of Kertsch measures altogether 260 miles. 
After Taphrae, the interior of the mainland is 
occupied by the Auchetai and the Neuroi, in whose 

185 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

quos Bor}'sthenes, Geloni, Thyssagetae, Budini, 
Basilidae et caeruleo capillo Agathyrsi ; super eos 
Nomades, deinde Anthropophagi, a Buce vero super 
Maeotim Sauromatae et Essedones. at per oram 
ad Tanain usque Maeotae, a quibus lacus nomen 
accepti, ultimique a tergo eorum Arimaspi. mox 
Ripaei montes et adsiduo nivis casu pinnarum 
simihtudine Pterophoros appellata regio, pars mundi 
damnata a rerum natura et densa mersa cahgine, 
neque in aho quam rigoris opere ^ gehdisque Aqui- 
89 lonis conceptacuhs. pone eos montcs ultraque 
Aquilonem gens fehx (si credimus), quos Hyper- 
boreos appehavere, annoso degit aevo, fabulosis 
celebrata miracuhs. ibi creduntur esse cardines 
mundi extremique siderum ambitus scmcnstri hice 
et una die ^ sohs aversi,^ non, ut imperiti dixere, ab 
aequinoctio vemo in autumnum : semel in anno 
solstitio oriuntur iis soles, brumaque semel occidunt. 
regio aprica fehci temperie, omni adflatu noxio 
carens. domus iis nemora lucique, et deorum 
cultus viritim gregatimque, discordia ignota et 
aegritudo omnis. mors non nisi satietate vitae, 
epulatis dehbutoque senio luxu, e quadam rupe in 
mare sahentibus * : hoc genas sepulturae beatissi- 

1 ilendalatet. 

* [et una die] SolTnsen. 

* V. l. adversi. 

* Cae-iariius : salientium. 



" See § 78. note. 

* The Latin text is comipt. 

l86 



BOOK IV. XII. 88-89 

territories respectively are the sources of the Bug 
and the Dnicper, the Geloni, Thyssagetae, Budini, 
BasiHdae and Agathyrsi, the last a dark-haired 
people ; al)ove them are the Nomads and then the 
Cannibals, and after Lake Buces above the Sea of 
Azov the Sauromatae and Essedones. Along the 
coast, as far as the river Don, are the Maeotae from 
whom the sea receives its name, and last of all in the 
rear of the Maeotae are the Arimaspi. Then come 
the Ripaean Mountains " and the region called 
Pterophorus, because of the feather-hke snow con- 
tinually falHng there ; it is a part of the world that 
Hes under the condemnation of nature and is plunged 
in dense darkness, and occupied only by the work of 
frost and the chilly hn-king-places of the north wind.* 
Behind these mountains and beyond the north wind The Hyper- 
there dweHs (if we can beHeve it) a happy race of ''^^""'" 
people caHed the Hyperboreans, who Hve to extreme 
old age and are famous for legendary marvels. Here 
are beHeved to be the hinges on which the firmament 
turns and the extreme Hmits of the revolutions of 
the stars, with six months' dayHght and a single day 
of the sun in retirement, not as the ignorant have 
said, fi-om the spring equinox till autumn: for these 
people the sun rises once in tlie year, at midsummer, 
and sets once, at midwinter. It is a genial region, 
with a delightful cHmate and exempt from every 
harmful blast. The homes of the natives are the 
woods and groves ; they worship the gods severaHy 
and in congregations ; all discord and aH sorrow is 
unknown. Death comes to them only when, owing 
to satiety of Hfe, after liolding a banquet and anoint- 
ing their old age with Uixury, they leap from a certain 
rock into the sea : this mode of burial is the most 

187 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

90 mum. quidam eos in prima parte Asiae litonim 
posuere, non in Europa, quia sunt ibi simili consuetu- 
dine et situ Attacorum nomine ; alii medios fecere 
eos inter utrumque solcm, antipodum occasus 
exorientemque nostrum, quod fieri nullo modo potest 
tam vasto mari interveniente. qui non alibi quam 
in semcnstri luce constituere eos, sercrc matutinis, 
meridie metere, occidente fetus arborum decerpere, 

91 noctibus in specus condi tradidcrunt. nec licct 
dubitare de gente ea: tot auctores produnt frugum 
primitias solitos Delum mittere Apollini, qucm 
praecipuc colunt. virgines ferebant eas hospitiis 
gentium pcr annos aliquot venerabiles, donec violata 
fide in proximis accolarum finibus deponere sacra ea 
instituere, hique ad conterminos deferre, atque ita 
Delum usque. mox et lioc ipsum exolevit. 

Sarmatiae, Scythiae, Tauricae, omnisque a Borys- 
thene amne tractus longitudo bccccLxxx, latitudo 
Dccxvi a M. Agrippa tradita est; ego incertam in 
hac tcrrarum parte mcnsuram arbitror. 

Verum instituto ordine reliqua huius sinus dican- 
tur ; et maria quidem cius nuncupavimus. 

• E.g. Herodotus iv. 32 ff. 
i88 



BOOK IV. XII. 89-91 

blissful. Some authorities have placed these people 
not in Europe but on the nearest part of the coasts of 
Asia, because there is a race there with similar customs 
and a similar location, named the Attaci ; others 
have put them midway between the two suns, the 
sunscts of the antipodes and our sunrise, but this 
is quite impossible because of the enormous expanse 
of sea that comes between. Those who locate them 
merely in a region having six months of dayhght 
have recorded that they sow in the morning periods, 
reap at midday, pluck the fruit from the trees at 
sunset, and retire into caves for the night. Nor is it 
possible to doubt about this race, as so many authori- 
ties " state that tliey regularly send the first fruits of 
their harvests to Dclos as offerings to Apollo, whom 
they specially worship. These offerings used to be 
brought by virgins, who for many years were held 
in veneration and hospitably entertained by the 
nations on the route, until because of a violation of 
good faith they instituted the custom of depositing 
their offerings at the nearest frontiers of the neigh- 
bouring people, and these of passing them on to 
their neighbours, and so till they finally reached 
Delos. Later this practice itself also passed out of 
use. 

The territories of Sarmatia, Scythia and Taurica, Measure- 
and the whole region from the river Dnieper are ??^'"'-^ 
stated by Marcus Agrippa to mcasure 980 miles in 
length and 716 in breadth ; but for my own part 
I consider that in this part of the world estimates of 
measurement are uncertain. 

But in conformity with the plan set out the remain- 
ing features of this gulf must be stated. Its seas 
we have specified. § 75/. 

189 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

92 XIII. Hellespontus insulas non habet in Europa 
dicendas. in Ponto duae, m d ab Europa, xTv ab 
ostio, Cyaneac, ab aliis Symplegades appellatae, 
traditaeque fabulis inter se concucurrisse, quoniam 
parvo discretae intervallo ex adverso intrantibus 
geminae cemebantur paulumque deflexa acie coeun- 
tium speciem praebebant. citra Histrum Apollonia- 
rum ^ una lxx\ a Bosporo Thracio, ex qua M. LucuUus 
Capitolinum Apollinem advexit. inter ostia Histri 

93 quae essent diximus. ante Borysthenen Achillea 
est supra dicta, eadem Leuce et Macaron appellata. 
hanc temporum horum demonstratio a Borysthene 
CXL ponit, a Tyra cxx, a Peuce insula L. cingitur cir- 
citer .\ p. reliquae in Carcinite sinu Cephalonnesos, 
Spodusa, Macra. non est omittenda multorum 
opinio, priusquam digredimur a Ponto, qui maria 
omnia interiora illo capite nasci, non Gaditano freto, 
existimavere haut inprobabiU argumcnto, quoniam 
aestus semper e Ponto profluens numquam reciprocet. 

94 Exeundum deinde est ut extera Europae dicantur, 

^ Rackham : Apollonitarum atU Apolloiiiatarum. 

" Later Sozopolis, now Sizeboli, see § 45 ; and for the other 
ApoUonia see VI. 32. 

" A colossal work about 50 ft. high, brought to Rome by 
M. Licinius LucuUus when he retired from his province of 
Macedonia in 71 B.r. After being carried in his triumph it 
was set up in the Capitol. 

190 



BOOK IV. XIII. 92-94 

XIII. In the Dardanelles there are no islands isiands o/ 
that deserve mention belonging to Europe. There s^a "^ 
are two in the Black Sea, 1| miles from the European 
coast and 14 miles from the mouth of the straits, the 
Fanari, called by others the Symplegades, these 
being the islands about which there is the tradition 
that they once clashed together : the story is due 
to the fact that they are separated by so small a 
gap that by persons entering the Black Sea 
directly facing them they were seen as two, and 
then when the line of sight became slightly oblique 
they gave the appearance of coming together. On 
this side of the Danube there is one of the islands " 
called Apollonia, 80 miles from the Thracian 
Bosphorus ; from this island Marcus Lucullus 
brought the statue * of Apollo of the Capitol. We 
have stated the places in the Delta of the Danube. § 79. 
OfF the mouth of the Dnieper is the Island of 
Achilles mentioned above, which also has the Greek § 83. 
names of the White Island and Island of the Blest. 
Modern investigation shows the position of this 
island to be 140 miles from the Dnieper , 120 from 
the Dniester, and 50 from the island of Peuce. It is 
about 10 miles in circuit. The remaining islands in 
the Gulf of Carcinites are Cephalonnesus, Spodusa 
and Macra. Before we leave the Black Sea, we must 
not omit the opinion held by many persons that all 
the waters of the Mediterranean are derived from this 
source, and not from the Straits of Gibraltar; the 
reason that they give for this view is not an improbable 
one — viz. that the tide is always flowing out of the 
Black Sea and never ebbing in the other direction. 

Next we must leave the Black Sea to describe the isiandsof 

- T-i 1 • ii_ T) • '^ Northern 

nuter regions 01 Europe, and crossmg tne Kipaean ocean. 

191 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

transgressisque Ripaeos montes litus oceani septen- 
trionalis in lacva, doncc pcrvcniatur Gadis, lcjjfendum. 
insulac complures sine nominibus co situ traduntur, 
ex quibus antc Scythiam quae appcllatur Baunonia 
unam abcsse dici cursu, in quam vcris tempore 
fluctibus electrum eiciatur, Tiniacus prodidit. reli- 
qua litora inccrta signata faina. septcntrionalis ^ 
occanus : Amalchium cum Ilecatacus appcllat a 
Parapaniso amnc, qua Scytliiam adUiit, quod nomcn 

9r) eius gentis lingua significat congclatum ; Philcmon 
Morimarusam a Cimbris vocari, hoc cst mortuum 
mare, inde usque ad promunturium Rusbcas, ultra 
dcinde Cronium. Xcnophon Lampsaccnus a Htore 
Scytharum tridui navigationc insulam esse inmcnsae 
magnitudinis Balciam tradit, candcm Pytheas 
B.asiliam nominat. fcruntur et Oeonae in quis ovis 
avium et avenis incolae vivant, aliac in quibus equinis 
pcdibus homincs nascantur Ilippopodcs ajipcUati, 
Panotiorum ^ ahae in quibus nuda aUoqui corpora 
pracgrandcs ipsorum aurcs tota contcgant. 

fi6 Incipit deinde clarior apcriri fama ab gente In- 
guaeonum quae cst prima in Gcrmania. mons 
Sacvo ibi inmcnsus ncc Ripacis iugis minor inmancm 
ad Cimbrorum usquc promunturium cfiicit sinum, 
qui Codanus vocatur rcfcrtus insuHs quarum claris- 
sima cst Scatinavia, inconpcrtae magniludinis, por- 

* Vel incerta. signata fama septcntrionalia . . . sed cf. 
§ 9G ««»7. 

' Sillig ex Isidoro (Phanesiorum alii e Solino) : fancsionim. 



" Sce p. 17G, notc a. 

* rrosiimahly thc iylands of tlio Baltic. 

* Hciigoland, or pcrhaps Burnholra. 

192 



BOOK IV. XIII. 94-96 

Mountains " must coast to the left along the sliore of 
the northern ocean until we reach Cadiz. In this 
direction a number of islands ^ are reported to exist 
that have no names, but according to the account of 
Timaeus there is one named Baunonia,<^ ly^^e? ^^ 
Scythia, at a distance of a day's voyage from the 
coast, on the beach of which in spring time amber is 
cast up by the waves. The rest of thcse coasts are 
only known in detail by reports of doubtful authority. 
To the north is the ocean ; beyond the river Para- 
panisus where it washes the coast of Scythia Heca- 
taeus calls it the Amalchian Sea, a name that in the 
language of the natives means ' frozen ' ; Philemon 
says that the Cimbrian name for it is Morimarusa 
(that is, ' Dead Sea ') from the Parapanisus to Cape 
Rusbeae, and from that point onward the Cronian 
Sea. Xenophon of Lampsacus reports that three 
days' sail from the Scythian coast there is an island 
of enormous size called Balcia ; Pytheas gives its name 
as Basiha. Also some islands called the Oeonae are 
reported of which the inhabitants hve on birds' 
eggs and oats. and others on which people are born 
with horses' feet, which gives them their Greek 
name ; there are others called the All-ears Islands in 
which the natives have very large ears covering the 
whole of their bodies, which are otherwise left naked. 
From this point more definite information begins 
to open up, beginning with the race of the Inguaeones, 
the first that we come to in Gcrmany. Here there 
is an enormous mountain, the Saevo, as big as those 
of the Ripacan range, which forms an enormous 
bay reaching to the Cimbrian promontory ; it is 
named the Codanian Gulf, and is studded witli islands. 
The most famous of these is Scandinavia ; its size 

193 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tionein tantum eius, quod notum sit, Hille^ionimi 
gente quingentis incolente pagis, quae alterum 
orbcm terrarum eam appcllat. nec minor est 

97 opinione Aeningia. quidam haec habitari ad Vist- 
lam usque fluvium a Sarmatis, Venedis, Sciris, Hirris 
tradunt, sinum Cylipenum vocari, et in ostio insulam 
Latrim, mox alterum sinum Lagnum conterminum 
Cimbris. promunturium Cimbrorum excmTons in 
maria longe paeninsulam efficit quae Tastris appella- 
tur. x.xiii inde insulae Romanis armis cognitae ; 
earum nobilissimae Burcana, Fabaria nostris dicta a 
frugis multitudine ^ sponte provenientis, item 
Glaesaria a sucino militiae appellata, a barbaris 
Austeravia, praeterque Actania. 

98 Toto autem mari ad Scaldim usque fluvium Germa- 
niae accolunt gentes haud explicabili mensura : 
tam immodica prodentium discordia est. Graeci 
et quidam nostri |xxv| oram Germaniae tradiderunt, 
Agrippa cum Raetia et Norico longitudinem dclx.vxvi, 
latitudinem ccxlviii, (XIV.) Raetiae prope unius 
maiore latitudine, sane circa excessum eius subactae, 
nam Gcrmania multis postea annis nec tota percognita 

99 est. si coniectarc pcrmittitur, haut multum ora 
deerit Graecorum opinioni et longitudini ab Agrippa 
proditae. 

Germanorum genera quinque : \'andiH quorum 
^ siniilitudine vulg. 



The capc of Skagen on thc north of Jutland. 
Burkhum, at tbc moutb uf tbe Ems. 



194 



BOOK IV. XIII. 96-xiv. 99 

has not been ascertained, and so far as is known, 
only part of it is inhabited, its natives being the 
Hilleviones, who dwell in 500 villages, and call their 
island a second world. Aeningia is thought to be 
equally big. Some authorities report that these 
regions as far as the river Vistula are inhabited by 
the Sarmati, Venedi, Sciri and Hirri, and that there 
i:i; a gulf named Cyhpenus, with the island of Latris 
at its mouth, and then another gulf, that of Lagnus, 
at which is the frontier of the Cimbri. The Cimbrian 
promontory projects a long way into the sea, forming 
a peninsula called Tastris." Then there are twenty- 
three islands known to the armed forces of Rome ; 
the most noteworthy of these are Burcana,'' called 
by our people Bean Island from the quantity of wild 
beans growing there, and the island which by the 
soldiery is called Glass Island from its amber, but 
by the barbarians Austeravia, and also Actania. 

The whole of the sea-coast as far as the German river Popuiation 
Scheldt is inhabited by races the extent of whose terri- Europe. 
tories it is impossible to state, so unhmited is the dis- 
agreement among the writers who report about them. 
The Greek writei-s and some of our own have given 
the coast of Germany as measuring 2500 miles, 
while Agrippa makes the length of Germany includ- 
ing Raetia and Noricum 686 miles and the breadth 
248 miles, (XIV.) whereas the breadth of Raetia alone 
almost excccds that figure ; though to be sure it was 
only conquered about the time of Agrippa's death — 
for Germany v/as expkired many years after, and that 
not fully. If one may be allowed to conjecture, the 
coast will be found to be not much shorter than the 
Greek idea of it and the length given by Agrippa. 

There are five Gerrnan races : the Vandals, who aermany, 

195 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

pars Burgodiones, Varinnae, Charini, Gutones ; 
altcrum genus Inguaeones, quorum pars Cimbri, 

100 Teutoni ac Chaucorum gentes ; proximi autem 
Rheno Istiaeones, quorum pars Sicambri ; mediter- 
ranei Hermiones, quorum Suebi, Hermunduri, Chatti, 
Cherusci ; quinta pars Peucini, Basternae supra 
dictis contermini Dacis. amnes clari oceanum 
deHuunt Guthalus, \'isculus sive Vistla, Albis, Visur- 
gis, Amisis, Rhenus, Mosa. introrsus vero nullo 
inferias nobihtate Hercynium iugum praotenditur. 

lul XV. In Rheno autem ipso, prope c in longitu- 
dinem, nobihssima Batavorum insula et Canncne- 
fatium, et ahae Frisiorum, Chaucorum, Frisiavonum, 
Sturiorum, Marsaciorum quae stemuntur inter 
Hehnium ac Flevum. ita appellantur ostia in quae 
effusus Rhenus a septentrione in lacus, ab occidente 
in amnem Mosam se spargit, medio inter haec ore 
modicum nomini suo custodiens alveum. 

102 X\'I. Ex adverso huius sitas Britannia insula clara 
Graecis nostrisque monimentis intcr septentrionem 
et occidentem iacet, Germaniae, GaHiae, Hispaniae, 
multo maximis Europae partibus magno inter\-aHo 
adversa. Albion ipsi nomen fuit, cum Britanniae 
vocarentur omnes de quibus mox paulo dicemus. 
haec abest a Gesoriaco Morinorum gentis litore 
proximo traiectu L. circuitu patere |xxxxviiT| €xxv 
Pytheas et Isidorus tradunt, xxx prope iam annis 

• Perhaps thc Oder. 

' Used as a general name for all the mountains of Southcrn 
and Central Germany. 

' Dionysiua Periegc-n-i, Tacuv tol ^tyidos ntpnLai.ov , ovbt rts 
oAAt} Ni^aot; €v 7Ta.aai.ai Bpcravvtcrtf iao(f>apil,(i. 

• lioulogne. 

• This \a an overetatement evcn if meaaured to the Roman 
fort of Rutupiae, Richborough. 

196 



BOOK IV. XIV. 99-xvi. 102 

include the Burgodiones, Variniiae, Charini and 
Gutones ; the second race the Inguaeones, including 
Cimbri, Teutoni and the tribes of the Chauci ; nearest 
to the Rhine the Istiaeones, including the Sicambri ; 
inland the Hermiones, including the Suebi, Her- 
munduri, Chatti and Cherusci ; and the fifth section 
the Peucini, and the Basternae who march with the 
Dacians above mentioned. Notable rivers that flow 
into the Ocean are the Guthalus," the Visculus or 
Vistuhi, the Elbe, the Weser, the Ems, the Rhine and 
the Meuse. In the interior stretches the Hercinian 
range* of mountains, which is inferior to none in 
grandeur. 

XV. In the Rhine itself, the most notable island is The Wdne. 
that of the Batavi and Cannenefates, which is almost 

a hundred miles in length, and others are those 
of the Frisii, Chauci, Frisiavones, Sturii and Marsacii, 
which He between Briel and VHeland. The latter 
give their names to the mouths into which the Rhine 
divides, discharging itself on the north into the lakes 
there and on the west into the river Meuse, while 
at the middle mouth between these two it keeps a 
small channel for its own name. 

XVI. Opposite to this region lies the island of iiritain. 
Britain, famous in the Greek records ' and in our 

own ; it lies to the north-west, facing, across a 
wide channel, Germany, Gaul and Spain, countries 
which constitute by far the greater part of Europe. 
It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about 
which we shall soon briefly speak were called the 
Britains. Its distance from Gesoriacum'^ on the coast 
of the Morini tribe by the shortest passage is 50 
miles.' Its circumference is reported by Pytheas and 
Isidorus to measure 4875 miles ; nearly thirty years 

197 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

notitiam eius Romanis armis non ultra vicinitatem 
silvae Calidoniae propagantibus. Agrippa longitu- 
dinem dccc esse, latitudinem ccc credit, eandem 

103 Hiberniae, sed longitudinem cc minorem. super 
eam haec sita abest brevissimo transitu a Silurum 
gente xxx. reliquarum nulla c.\.w amplior circuitu 
proditiu-. sunt autcm xl Orcades modicis inter se 
discretae spatiis, vii Acmodae, xxx Hebudes, et inter 
Hiberniam ac Britanniam Mona, Monapia, Riginia, 
Vectis, Silumnus, Andros, infra vero Sambis et 
Axanthos, et ab adversa in Germanicum mare sparsae 
Glaesariae ^ quas Electridas Graeci recentiores 

104 appellavere, quod ibi electrum nasceretur. ultima 
omnium quae memorantur Tyle, in qua solstitio 
nullas esse noctes indicavimus, cancri signum sole 
transeunte, nuUosque contra per brumam dies; 
hoc quidam senis mensibus contiiu'.is fieri arbitrantur. 
Timaeus historicus a Britannia introrsum sex dierum 
navigatione abesse dicit insulam .\Iictim in qua 
candidum plumbum proveniat ; ad eam Britannos 
vitiHbus navigiis corio circumsutis navigare. sunt 
qui et ahas prodant, Scandias, Dumnam, Bergos, 
maximainque omnium Bcrricen, ex qua in Tylen 
navdgetur. a Tyle unius diei navigatione mare 
concretum a nonnuUis Cronium appellatur. 

1 Edd., cf. § 97 : Glaeriae. 

" Probably the Grampian Hills. 
^ South \Valc8. 
' See97/wi. 

•* Possiblv XW. Norway. 

* Probably St. Michaers Mount ofiF Cornwall, in spite of tho 
distance stated. 
' Possibly Barra. 
» Poasibly Lewia. 

198 



BOOK IV. XVI. 102-104 

ago, its exploration was carried by the arnied forces 
of Rome to a point not beyond the neighbourhood 
of the Caledonian Forest." Agrippa beHeves the 
length of the island to be 800 niiles and its breadth 
300, and the breadth of Ireland the same but its 
length 200 miles less. Ireland Hes beyond Britain, ireiand. 
the shortest crossing being from the district ^" of the 
Silures, a distance of 30 miles. Of the remaining 
islands it is said that none has a circumference of 
more than 125 miles. There are the 40 Orkneys 
separated by narrow channels from each other, the 
7 Slietlands, the 30 Hebrides, and between Ireland 
and Britain the Islands of Anglesea, Man, Rackhn, 
White-horn, Dalkey and Bardsey ; south of Britain 
are Sian and Ushant, and opposite, scattered about 
in the direction of the German Sea, are the Glass 
Islands,*^ which the Greeks in more modern times have 
callcd the Electrides, from the Greek word for amber, 
which is produced there. The most remote of all 
those recorded is Thule,'* in which as we have y/'"'«- 
pointed out there are no nights at midsummer when ^^- '^^* 
the sun is passing through the sign of the Crab, and 
on the othcr hand no days at midwinter ; indeed 
some writers think this is the case for periods of six 
months at a tinie wilhout a break. The historian 
Timaeus says there is an island named Mictis * 
lying inward six days' sail from Britain where tin 
is found, and to which the Britons cross in boats 
of osier covered with stitched hides. Some writers 
speak of otlier islands as well, the Scandiae, Dumna, 
Bergos,/ and Berrice,? the largest of all, from which 
the crossing to Thule starts. One day's sail from 
Thule is the frozen ocean,called by some the Cronian 
Sea. 

199 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

105 XVII. Gallia omnis Comata uno nomine appillata 
in tria populorum gcncra dividitur, amnibus maxime 
distineta : a Scalde ad Sequanam Bclgica, ab eo ad 
Garunnam Celtica eademque Lugdunensis, inde ad 
Pyrenaei montis excursum Aquitanica, Aremorica 
antea dicta. univcrsam oram |.vvTi|l Agrippa, 
Galliarum inter Rhenum et Pyrenaeum atque 
occanum ac montes Cebennam et lures, quibus 
Narbonensem Galliam excludit, longitudinem ccccxx, 
latitudinem ccc.wiii computavit. 

106 A Scaldi incolunt extera Texuandri pluribus 
nominibus, dein Menapi, Morini, Oromarsaci iimcti 
pago qui Chersiacus vocatur, Britanni, Ambiani, 
Bellovaci, Bassi ; introrsus Catoslugi, Atrcbates, 
Nervi liberi, Veromandui, Suaeuconi, Sucssiones 
Hberi, Ulmanectes Hberi, Tungri, Sunuci, Frisiavones, 
Baetasi, Lcuci Hberi, TreveriUbcri antea,et Lingones 
foederati, Rcmi foederati, Mcdiomatrici, Sequani, 
Raurici, Helveti ; coloniae Equestris et Raurica. 
Rhenum autcm accolentes Germaniae gentium in 
eadem provincia Nemetes, Triboci, Vangiones, in 
Ubiis colonia Agrippincnsis, Guberni, Batavi et 
quos in insulis diximus Rlicni. 

107 XVIII. Lujrdunensis GaUia habet Lexovios, Velio- 
casses, Galetos, Venctos, Abrincatuos, Ossismos, 
flumen clarum Ligerem, sed paeninsulam specta- 
tiorem excurrentem in oceanum a fine Ossismorum 



" Cologne, nnmrd aftcr Agrippina (the wifeof Claudias), who 
wos liorn therc. 

" Hritiany, ending in Cape Finistero. 



BOOK IV. XVII. 105-XV111. 107 

XVII. The whole of Gaul included under the Gaul. 
general name of Long-liaired divides into three races 
of people, which are chiefly separated by the rivers: 
from the Scheldt to the Seine is Belgic Gaul, from 
the Seine to the Garonne Celtic Gaul, also called 
Lyonese, and from the Garonne to the projection 
of the Pyrenees Aquitanian Gaul, previously called 
Armorica. Agrippa reckoned the entire length of 
the coast at 1750 miles, and the dimensions of thc 
Gauls between the Rhine and the Pyrenees and thc 
ocean and the mountains of the Cevennes and Jura, 
wliich exclude the Narbonne division of Gaul, as — 
length 420 miles, brcadth 318 miles. 

The part beginning at the Scheldt is inhabited by Bdgium am 
the Texuandri, who have several names, and then the tcrn France. 
Menapi, the Morini, the Oromarsaci adjacent to the 
canton called Chersiacus, the Bretons, the Ambiani, 
the Bellovaci and the Bassi ; and more in the interior 
the Catoslugi, Atrebalcs, Nervi (a free people), 
Veromandui,Suaeuconi,Suessiones (free), Ulmanectes 
(free), Tungri, Sunici, Frisiavones, Baetasi, Leuci 
(free), Treveri (fonnerly free), Lingones (federated), 
llemi (federated), Mediomatrici, Sequani, Raurici, 
Helveti ; and the Equestrian and Rauric colonies. 
The races of Germany living on the banks of the 
Rhine in the same province are the Nemetes, 
Triboci and Vangiones, and among the Ubii the 
Colony of Agrippina," the Guberni, the Batavi and 
the people whom we have already mentioncd as § 101. 
dwelling on the islands of the Rhine. 

XVni. To Lyonese Gaul belong the Ijexovu, Centrai and 
Veliocasses, Galeti, Veneti, Abrincatui, Ossismi, the lyancet 
famous river Loire, and also the still more remarknble 
peninsula * that runs out into the ocean from the 

20I 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

circuitu dcxxv, cenice in latitudinem cxxv. ultra 
eum Namnetes, intus autem Aedui foederati, 
Camuteni focderati, Boi, Senones, Aulerci qui 
cognominantur Eburovices et qui Ccnomani, Neldi 
liberi, Parisi, Tricasses, Andicavi, Viducasses, Bodio- 
casses, Venelli, Coriosvelites, Diablinti, Rhedones, 
Turones, Atesui, Secusiani liberi, in quorum agro 
colonia Lugdunum. 

los XIX. Aquitanicae sunt Ambilatri, Anagnutes, 
Pictones, Santoni liberi, Bituriges liberi cognomine 
V^ivisci, Aquitani unde nomen provinciae, Scdibo- 
viates ; mox in oppidum contributi Convenae, 
Begerri, Tarbelli Quattuorsignani, Cocosatcs Sexsig- 
nani, Venami, Onobrisates, Belendi ; saltus P^Tcnaeus, 
infraque Monesi, Oscidatcs Montani, Sybillates, 
Camponi, Bcrcorcates, Pinpcdunni, Lassunni, Vel- 
lates, Toruates, Consoranni, Ausci, Elusatcs, Sot- 
tiatcs, Oscidates Campestres, Succasses, Latusates, 
Bjisaboiates, Vassci, Sennates, Cambolectri Ages- 

l(i9 sinates. Pictonibus iuncti autem Bituriges liberi 
qui Cubi appellantur, dein Lemo^ices, Arverni libcri, 
Gabales. rursus Narbonensi provinciae contermini 
Ruteni, Cadurci, Nitiobroges, Tarneque amne dis- 
creti a Tolosanis Pctrocori. 

Maria circa oram ad Rhenum septentrionalis 
oceanus, intcr Rhenum ct Sequanam Britannicus, 
inter eum et Pyrenaeimi Gallicus. insulac conplurcs 
^'^enetorum, et quae Veneticae appellantur et in 
Aquitanico sinu Uliaros. 

" Bclle lale, Morbihan and others. 



BOOK IV. XVIII. 107-XIX. 109 

boundary of the Ossismi and measures 625 miles 
round and 125 miles across at its neck. Beyond that 
neck are the Xamnetes, and in the interior the Aedui 
(federated), Carnuteni (federated), Boii, Senones, 
Aulerci (both those named Eburovices and those 
named Cenomani), Neldi (free), Parisii, Tricasses, 
Andicavi, Viducasses, Bodiocasses, VenelH, Corios- 
vehtes, Diabhnti, Rhedones, Turones, Atesui, and 
Secusiani (free), in whose territory is the colony of 
Lyons. 

XIX. To Aquitanian Gaul belong the Ambilatri, Souih-west- 
Anagnutes, Pictones, Santoni (free), Bituriges, also ^*'"^'"'""^' 
named Vivisci (free), Aquitani (vvho give their name 
to the province), Sediboviates ; then the Convenae 
together forming one town, the Begerri, the Tarbelh 
Quattuorsignani, Cocosates Sexsignani, Venami, 
Onobrisates, Belendi ; the Pyrenean pass; and 
below the Moncsi, Mountain Oscidates, Sybil- 
lates, Camponi, Bei'corcates, Pinpcdunni, Lassunni, 
Vellates, Toruates, Consoranni, Ausci, Elusatcs, 
Sottiates, Oscidates of the Plain, Succasses, Latusates, 
Basaboiates, Vassei, Sennates and the Cambolectri 
Agessinates. Joining on to the Pictones are the 
Bituriges called Cubi (free), then the Lemovices, 
Arverni (free), Gabales, and again, marching with 
the province of Galha Narbonensis, the Ruteni, 
Cadurci, Nitiobroges, and separated by the river 
Tarn from the people of Toulouse, the Petrocori. 

The seas roimd the coast are : as far as the Rhine 
the Northern ocean, between the Rhine and the 
Seine the British Sea, and between thc Seine and the 
Pyrenees the Galhc Sea. Thcre are a number of 
islands <» of the Veneti, botli those called the 
Veneticae and Oleron in the Gulf of Aquitania, 

203 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

110 XX. A Pyrcnaei promunturio Hispania incipit,^ 
anc^ustior non Gallia modo verum etiam semetipsa, 
ut diximus, inmensum quantum hinc oceano illinc 
Hiberico mari comprimentibus. ipsa Pyrenaei iuga 
ab exortu aequinoctiali fusa ^ in oceasum brumalem "^ 
brexnores latere septentrionali * quam meridiano ^ 
Hispanias faciunt. proxima ora Citerioris est eius- 
demque Tarraconensis situs ; a Pyrcnaeo per ocea- 
num Wsconum saltus, Olarso, \'ardulorum oppida, 
Morogi, Mcnosca, Vesperies, Amanum portus ubi 

111 nunc Flaviobrica colonia; civitatium novem regio 
Cantabrorum, flumen Sauga, portus Yictoriac lulio- 
bricensium (ab co loco fontes Hiberi xL p.), portus 
Blendium, Orgenomcsci e Cantabris, portus corum 
Vereasucca, regio Asturum, Noega oppidum, in 
paeninsula Pcsici ; et dcinde conventus Lucensis, a 
flumine Na\ialbione Cibarci, Egivarri cognomine 
Namarini, ladovi, Arroni, Arrotrcbae ; proniun- 
turium Celticum, amnes I-lorius, Nelo, Celtici 
cognomine Neri et super Tamarci quorum in pacnin- 
sula tres arae Sestianae Augusto dicatae, Copori, 

' incipit<(ibi) ? Dellejnen. * i\is& v.l. om. 

' brumali Detlefsen. * septcntrionali v.l. om. 

' brumalem breviores quam latere meridiano Mayhoff. 



" /.e. the eastem extremity of the Pyrcnees, Cape Creux. 

* l.e. than the sizc into which it widens out south and west 
of where the Pyrenees cut it off from France. Oceanus means 
the Bay of Biecay as part of the Atlantic; Hibericum Mare 
is the Guif of Lyons, SimLs Gallicus, which is more usually 
deacribed as part of Mare Balearicum, the name Mare Hiberi- 
cum being kept for the part of the Meditcrranean between 
the Balearic Isiands and the .Straits of Gibraitar. 

• Both text and mcAning are extremely doubtful. Possibly 
what is meant is that, whcreas the south of Spain ia all sea- 

204 



BOOK IV. xx. iio-iii 

XX. At the promontory " of the Pyrenees begins Spain. 
Spain, which is narrower not only than Gaul biit even 
than itself,'' as we have said, seeing how enormously 
it is pressed together on one side by the ocean and 
on the other by the Iberian Sea. The actual chain 
of the Pyrenees, spreading from due east to south- 
west, makes the Spanish provinces shortcr on thc 
northern side than on the southern.<^ On the nearest 
coast is situated Hither or Tarragonian Spain ; along 
the sea-coast '^ from the Pyrenees are the forest of 
the Vascones, Olarso, the towns of the Varduh, 
Morogi, Menosca, Vesperies and the port of Amanum, 
the present site of the colony of Flaviobrica ; then 
the district of the nine states of the Cantabri, the 
river Sauga, the port of Victory of the JuHobricenses ^ 
(from this place the sources of the Ebro are 40 miles 
distant), the port of Blendium, the Orgenomesci (a 
branch of the Cantabrians), their port Vereasueca, 
the district of the Asturcs, the town of Noega,/the 
Pesici on a peninsula ; and then, belonging to the 
jurisdiction of Lugo, startingfromthe river Navialbio, 
the Cibarci, tlie Egivarri surnamed Namarini, 
ladovi, Arroni, Arrotrebae ; the Celtic Promontory,? 
the rivers Florius and Nelo, the Celts surnamed Neri, 
and above them the Tamarci, on wliose peninsula 
arethe three Altars of Scstius dcdicated to Augustus, 

coast, part of the ndrthem boundary is formed by tho 
Pyrenees. That range, however, runs almost due east and 
west, though mountainous country does stretch from it S.W. 
across the peninsula. 

•^ I.e. along the Spanish coast of the Bay of Biscay going 
wcstward. 

• Now Santander. 
f Now Navia. 

* FiDistcrre. 

205 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

oppidum Noeta, Celtici cognominc Praestamarci, 
Cileni. ex insulis noniinandae Corlicata ct Aunios. 

112 a Cilenis conventus Bracarum Helleni, Grovi, 
castellum Tyde, Graccorum sobolis omnia ; insulae 
Siccae, oppidum Abobrica, Minius amnis Tv ore 
spatiosus, Leuni, Seurl)i, Bracarum oppidum Augusta, 
quos super Gallaccia ; flumen Limia; Durius amnis 
ex maximis Hispaniae, ortus in Pelendonibus et 
iuxta Numantiam lapsus, dcin per Arevacos Vaccae- 
osque disterminatis ab Asturia \cttonibus, a Lusi- 
tania Gallaecis, ibi quoque lurdulos a Bracaris 
arcens. omnisque dicta rcgio a Pyrenaeo metallis 
referta auri, argenti, ferri, plumbi nigri albique. 

113 XXI. A Durio Lusitania incipit : Turduli veteres, 
Paesuri, flumen Vagia, oppidum Talabrica, oppidum 
et flumen Aeminium, oppida Coniumbrica, CoUippo, 
Eburobrittium. excurrit dcinde in altum vasto 
cornu promunturium, quod aliqui Artabrum appel- 
laverc, alii Magnum, multi Olisipponense ab oppido, 
terras, maria, caelimi discriminans. illo finitur 
Hispaniae latus et a circuitu eius incipit frons. 

114 XXII. Septentrio hinc occanusquc Gallicus, occasus 
illinc et oceanus Atlanticus. promunturi cxcursum 
Lx prodiderc, alii xc, ad Pyrenaeum indc non pauci 
poTjL, et ibi gentem Artabrum, quae numquam fuit, 

" See p. 6, note 6. 

* A tribe deacended from them were in Farther Spain, III 8. 

• Capo de la Koca. 

<* I.e. the coast from Cape Roca at the mouth of the Tagua to 
the Straits of Gibraltar. Pliny thinks that thc coast from Cape 
Roca to Finistcrre faces north. 

2o6 



BOOK IV. XX. iii-xxii. 114 

the Copori, the to^\Ti of Noeta, the Celts surnamed 
Praestamarci, the Cileni. Of the islands must be 
specified Corticata and Aunios. After the Cilem", 
in the jurisdiction of the Bracae are the Helleni, the 
Grovi and Tyde Castle, all people of Greek stock; 
the Dry Islands, the town of Abobrica, the river 
Minho four miles wide at its mouth, the Leuni, the 
Seurbi, Augusta, a town belonging to the Bracae, 
above whom is Gallaecia ; the Limia stream and the 
river Douro, one of the largest in Spain, which 
rises in the district of the Pelendones and passing 
by Numantia then flows through the Arevaci and 
Vaccaei, separating the Vettones from Asturia and 
the Gallaeci froni Lusitania, and at this point also 
separating the Turduh from the Bracari. The whole 
of the district mentioned, from the Pyrenees onward, 
is fuU of mines of gold, silver, iron, lead and tin. 

XXI. From the Douro begins Lusitania : <* the Portugai. 
old TurduH,* the Paesuri, the river Vouga, the town 
of Talabrica, the town and river Agueda, the towns 
of Coimbra, Leiria and Eboro di Alcobaza. Then 
there runs out into the sea a promontory " shaped 
hke a vast horn, called by some people Artabrum, by 
otliers the Great Cape, and by many Cape Lisbon 
after the town ; this headland sharply divides tlie 
land and sea and chmate. This eape ends the side 
of Spain. and after rounding it the front "^ of Spain 
begins. XXII. On one side of it is the north 
and the GalHc Ocean, and on the other the west 
and the Atlantic. The distance to which this pro- 
montory projects has been given as 60 miles, and 
by others as 90 miles ; the distance from here to 
the Pyrenees many give as 1250 miles, and place 
here a race of Artabres, which never existed, 

207 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

manifesto errore : Arrotrebas enim, quos ante 
Celticum diximus promunturium, hoc in loco posuere 
litteris permutatis. 

115 Erratum et in amnibus inclutis. ab Minio, qucm 
supra diximus, cc (ut auctor est Varro) abest Ae- 
minius, quem alibi quidam intellegunt et Limaeam 
vocant, Oblinonis antiquis dictus multumque fabu- 
losus. ab Durio Tagus cc interveniente Munda ; 
Tagus aurifcris harcnis celebratur. ab co clx 
promunturium Sacrum e media prope Hispaniae 
fronte prosilit. |"xrv] inde ad Pyrenaeum medium 
colHgi V^arro tradit, ad Anam vero, quo Lusitaniam 
a Baetica discrevimus, cxxvi, a Gadibus cii additis. 

116 Gentes Celtici, Turduli et circa Tagum V^ettones; 
ab Ana ad Sacrum Lusitani. oppida a Tago memora- 
biHa in ora OHsippo equarum e favonio vento con- 
ceptu nobile, Salacia cognominata Urbs Imperatoria, 
Merobrica, promunturium Sacrum et alterum Cuneus, 
oppida Ossonoba, Balsa, MyrtiHs. 

117 Universa provincia dividitur in conventus tres, 
Emeritensem, Pacensem, ScaHabitanum, tota popu- 
lorum XLV, in quibus coloniae sunt quinque, munici- 

• Probably Punta de Sagrcs, 

2o8 



BOOK IV. xxii. 114-117 

the error being obvious; they have put here, with 
an alteration in the spelling of the name, the Arro- 
trebae, whom we spoke of before we came to the 
Celtic Promontory. ^ ni. 

Mistakes have also been made in regard to the 
important rivers. From the Minho, which we spoke 
of above, the distance to the Agueda according to § 112. 
Varro is 200 miles, though others place the latter 
elsewhere aiid call it the Limaea ; in early times it 
was called the River of Forgetfulness, and a great 
many stories were told about it. Two hundred miles 
from the Douro is the Tagus, the Mondego coming 
between them ; the Tagus is famous for its auriferous 
sands. At a distance of nearly 160 miles from the 
Tagus is Cape St. Vincent, projecting from nearly 
the middle of the front of Spain. The distance from 
Cape St. Vincent to the middle of the Pyrenees is 
stated by Varro to amount to 1400 miles ; from St. 
VMncent to the Guadiafia, which we indicated as the 
boundary between Lusitania and Baetica, he puts 
at 126 miles, the distance from the Guadiana to 
Cadiz adding another 102 miles. 

The peoples are the Celtici, the TurduH, and on the 
Tagus the V^ettones ; and between the Guadiana and 
Cape St. Vincent the Lusitanians. The notable 
towns on the coast, beginning at the Tagus, are : 
Lisbon, famous for its mares which conceive from viii. lee 
the west wind ; Alcazar do Sal, called the Imperial 
City ; Santiago de Cacem ; Cape St. Vincent, and the 
other promontory called the Wedge ; <» and the towns 
of Estombar, Tavira and Mertola. 

The wliole province is divided into three associa- organiiation 
tions, centred at Merida, Beja and Santarem. It o/S,"'' 
consists of 45 peoples in all, among whom there ai'e 

209 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

pium civium Romanorum, Lati antiqui iii, stipendia- 
ria XXXVI. coloniac Augusta Emerita Anae fluvio 
adposita, Mctellincnsis, Pacensis, Norbensis Caesa- 
rina cognomine (contributa sunt in eani Castra 
Servilia, Castra Caecilia) ; quinta est Scallabis quae 
Praesidium lulium vocatur. municipium civium 
Romanorum Olisippo Fclicitas lulia cognominatum. 
oppida veteris Lati Ebora, quod idem Liberalitas 

118 lulia, et Myrtilis ac Salacia, quae diximus. stipen- 
diariorum quos nominare non pigeat, praeter iam 
dictos in Baeticae cognominibus, Augustobricenses, 
Aeminienses, Aranditani, Axabricenses, BaLsenses, 
Caesarobricenses, Capercnses, CaurieiLscs, Colarni, 
Cibilitani, Concordienses, Elbocori, Interamnienses, 
Lancienses, Mirobricenses qui Celtici cognominantur, 
Medubricenses qui Plumbari^ Occlenses, Turduli qui 
Bardili et Tapori. 

Lusitaniam cum Asturia et Gallaccia patere 
longitudine dxl, latitudine dxx.\vi, Agrippa prodidit. 
omnes autem Hispaniae a duobus Pyrcnaei promun- 
turiis per maria, totius orae circuitu IxJv^ixl xxiv 
colligere existimantur, ab aliis |xxvi|. 

119 Ex advcrso Ccltiberiae conplures sunt insulae Cas- 
siteridcs dictae Graecis a fertilitate plumbi albi,^ et 
e rcgione Arrotrcbarum promuntiu"i Dcorum vi, quas 
aliqui Fortunatas appellavere. in ipso vero capite 
mox Baeticae ab ostio freti p. xw Gadis, longa, ut 

* albi add. Warmington. 
2IO 



BOOK IV. XXII. II 7-1 19 

five colonies, one municipality of lloman citizens, 
three with the old Latin rights and 36 that pay 
tribute. The colonies are Merida on the river 
Guadiana, Medellin, Beja, and Alcantara surnamed 
Caesarina (to this Trucillo and Caceres are assigned) ; 
and the fifth is that of Santarem, which is called the 
Garrison of Julius. The municipahty of Roman 
citizens is Lisbon, surnamed the Success of Juhus. 
The towns witli the old Latin riglits are Evora, which 
is also called the Generosity of Juhus, and Mertola 
and Alcazar do Sal which we have mentioned. Of §iic. 
the tributary towTis that deserve mention, besides 
those already specified in the hst of names of those m i3. 
belonging to Baetica, are Augustobriga, Aemia, 
Arandita, Axabrica, Balsa, Caesarobrica, Capera, 
Coria, Colarna, Cibihta, Concordia, Elbocox'ium, 
Interamnium, Lancia, Malabriga surnamed Celtic, 
Medubriga surnamed Plumbaria, Ocelum, the Tur- 
duH also called Bardih, and the Tapori. 

The dimensions of Lusitania combined with Asturia 
and Gallaecia are given by Agrippa as : length 540 
miles, breadth 536 miles. The provinces of Spain 
taken all together, measured from the two pro- 
montories of the Pyrenees along the sea hne, are 
estimated to cover by tlie circumference of the whole 
coast 2924 miles, or by others 2600 miles. 

Opposite to Celtiberia are a number of islands " rsianUs ufj 
called by the Greeks the Tin Islands in consequence ^"'* 
of their abundance of that metal ; and facing Cape 
Finisterre are the six Islands of the Gods, which some 
people have designated the Islcs of BHss. But 
immediately at the beginning of Baetica comes 
Cadiz, 25 miles from the mouth of the Strait, an island 

" Probably tbe Scilly Islands. 

211 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Polybius scribit, xii, lata fii. abest a continente 
proxima parte minus pedes dcc, reliqua plus vTi ; 
ij)sius spatium xv est. habet oppiduin civium 
Romanorum qui appellantur Augustani urbe lulia 
12u Gaditana. ab eo latere quo Hispaniam spectat 
passibus fere c altera insula cst m longa passus, m 
lata, in qua prius oppidum Gadium fuit ; vocatur 
ab Ephoro et Philistide Erjthea, a Timaco et Sileno 
Aphrodisias, ab indigenis lunonis. maiorem Ti- 
macus Potimusam a puteis vocitatam ait, nostri 
Tarteson appcllant, Pocni Gadir ita Punica lingua 
saepem significante ; Erythea dicta est, quoniam 
Tyri aborigines corum orti ab Erythro mari fere- 
bantur. in hac Gerj-ones habitasse a quibusdam 
existimantur quorum ^ armcnta Hercules abduxerit ; 
sunt qui aham esse cam et contra Lusitaniam 
arbitrentur, eodcmque nomine quondam ^ ibi 
appellatam.^ 

121 XXIII. Pcracto ambitu Europae rcddenda con- 
summatio est, ne quid non in expcdito sit noscere 
volentibus. longitudinem eius Artemidorus atque 
Isidorus a Tanai Gadcs |lxxvii| .vIv prodiderunt. 
Polybius latitudinem Europae ab ItaHa ad oceanum 
scripsit |.\1(L essc, etiam tum inconpcrta magnitudinc. 

122 est autem ipsius Italiae, ut diximus, |.\| .\x ad Alpes, 

' V.l. existimatur ruius. 

^ Jidd. quandam. 

* Caesarius : appellant. 

212 



BOOK IV. xxii. 119-XX111. 122 

according to Polybius's account measuring 12 miles 
in length and 3 miles in breadth. Its distance from 
the mainland at the nearest point is less than 233 
yards. but at other places it is more than 7 miles; 
the circuit of the island is 15 miles. It has a town 
whose population have the Roman citizenship and 
are called Augustans, the title of their city being 
Julia Gaditana. On the side facing Spain at a 
distance of about 100 yards is another island one 
mile long and one mile broad, on which the town of 
Cadiz was previously situated ; Ephorus and Philistus 
call this island Erythea, and Timaeus and Silcnus 
call it Aphrodisias, but its native name is the Isle 
of Juno. The larger island according to Timaeus is 
kno\vn as Potimusa from its wells, but our people call 
it Tartesos and the Punic name is Gadir, which is 
Carthaginian for a fence; it was called Erythea, 
because the original ancestors of the Carthaginians, 
the Tyrians, were said to have come from the Red 
Sea. This island is believed by some people to have 
been the home of the Geryones whose cattle were 
carried off bv Hercules ; but others hold that that 
was another island, lying off Lusitania, and that an 
island there was once called by the same name. 

XXIII. Having completed the circuit of Europe Dimensions 
we must now give its complete dimensions, in order °' "■^"p^- 
that those who desire this information may not be 
left at a loss. Its length from the Don to Cadiz is 
given by Artemidorus and Isidorus as 7714 miles. 
Polybius stated the breadth of Europe from Italy 
to the ocean as 1150 miles, but its exact magnitude 
had not been ascertained even in his day. The length 
of Italy itself up to the Alps is 1020 miles, as we 
stjitid; .",r.d from the Alps through Lyons to the 11143. 

voT,. TT. II 213 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

unde per Lugdunum ad portxim Morinorum Britan- 
nicum, qua videtur mensuram agere Polybius, |xi| 
Lxix ; sed certior mensura ac longior ad occasum 
solis aestivi ostiumque Rheni per castra legionum 
Germaniae ab iisdem Alpibus dirigitur, |3aT| xuii. 
Hinc deinde Africa atque Asia dicentur. 



214 



BOOK IV. xxiii. 122 

harbour" of fche Morini, the port on the British 
channel, the line of measurement that Polybius 
appears to take, is 1169 miles, but a better ascer- 
tained measurement and a longer one is that starting 
also from the Alps but going north-west through the 
Camp of the Legions in Germany to the mouth of 
the Rhine— 1243'miles. 

Next after this we shall speak of Africa and Asia. 

" Gesoriacum, now Boulogno. 



ar.'; 



BOOK V 



LIBER V 

1 I. Africam Guafx-i Libvam appollavere et mare 
ante eam Libycum. Aegypto finitur ; nec alia 
pars terrarum pauciores recipit sinus longe ab 
occidente ^ litorum obliqu(j spatio. populorum eius 
oppidorumque nomina vel maxime sunt ineffabilia 
praeterquam ipsorum linguis ; et alias castella 
ferme inhabitant. 

2 Principio terrarum Mauretaniae appellantur, 
usque ad C. Caesarem Germanici filium regna, 
saevitia eius in duas divisae provincias. pro- 
munturium Oceani extremum Ampelusia nominatur a 
Graecis. oppida fuere Lissa et Cotte ultra columnas 
Herculis, nunc est Tingi quondam ab Antaeo 
conditum, postea a Claudio Cacsare, cum coloniam 
faceret, appellatum Traducta lulia ; abest a Baelone 
oppido Baeticae proximo traiectu xxx. ab eo .\xv in 
ora Oceani eolonia Augusti lulia Constantia Zulil, 
regum dicioni exempta et iura in Baeticam petere 
iussa. ab ea xxxv colonia a Claudio Caesare facta 

^ [loDge ab occidente] Dalecamp. 



" Cape Spartel. 

" Prcsumably in mcmory of a prcvious colony ' trans- 
fcnrcd ' from Tangier to Spain in the time of Julius Caesar. 
' Arzilla, in the territory of Fez. 

2l8 



BOOK V 

I. TiiE Greeks give to Africa the name of Libya, i/nca. 
and they call the sea lying in front of it the Libyan 
Sea. It is bounded by Egypt. No other part of 
the earth has fewer bays or inlets in its coast, whicli 
stretches in a long slanting hne from the west. The 
names of its peoples and towns are absolutely un- 
pronounceable except by the natives ; and for the 
rest, they mostly reside in fortresses. 

The Ust of its countries begins with the two called Thetico 
Mauretania, which down to the time of the emperor '''""■'^"'"''"' 
Caliguhi were kingdoms, but by his cruelty were 
divided into two provinces. The outermost promon- 
tory projecting into the ooean is named by the 
Greeks Ampelusia." Beyond the Straits of Gibraltar 
there were once the towns of Lissa and Cotte ; but 
at the present day there is only Tangier, which 
was originally founded by Antaeus and subsequently 
entitled Traducta JuHa ^ by tlie emperor Claudius 
when he establislied a colony there. It is 30 miles 
distant from the town of Baelon in Baetica, where 
the passage across is shortest. On the Atlantic 
coast 25 miles from Tangier is JuHa Constantia 
ZuHl,'' a colony of Augustus, which is exempt irom 
the government of the native kings and included 
under the jurisdiction of Baetica. Thirty-five miles 
from ZuHl is Lixus, made a colony by the emperor 

219 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

3 Lixos, vel fabulosissime antiquis narrata : ibi regia 
Antaei certamenque cum Hercule, et Hesperidum 
horti. adfunditur autem aestuarium e mari flexuoso 
meatu, in quo draconis ^ custodiae instar fuisse nunc 
interpretantur ; amplectitur intra se insulam, quam 
solam e vicino tractu aliquanto excelsiore non 
tamen aestus maris inundant. exstat in ea et ara 
Herculis nec praeter oleastros aliud ex narrato illo 

4 aurifero nemore. minus profecto mirentur por- 
tentosa Graeciae mendacia de his et amne Lixo 
prodita qui cogitent nostros nuperque paulo minus 
monstrifica quaedam de iisdem tradidisse, prae- 
validam hanc urbem maioremque Magna Carthagine, 
praeterea ex adverso eius sitam et prope inmenso 
tractu ab Tingi, quaeque alia Cornelius Nepos 
avidissime credidit. 

5 Ab Lixo XL in ineditcrraneo altera Augusti colonia 
est Babba, lulia Campestris appellata, et tcrtia 
Banasa lxxv p.. Valentia cognominata. ab ea xxxv 
^'^olubile oppidum, tantundem a mari utroque distans. 
at in ora a Lixo L amnis Sububus praeter Banasam 
coloniam defluens, magnificus et navigabilis. ab eo 

* V.l. dracones. 

" Their golden apples were guarded by a serpent. 
' Cf. the nanie ' Serpentine ' in London. 
' Tho Wadi Draa. 

"* Thc original city, bo called in distinction from its colony 
in Spain, Carthago Nova. now Cartagena. 
' J.e. on the same meridian; this is of course a mistake. 



BOOK V. I. 2-5 

Claudius, about which the most marvellous legends 
are told by the old writers : this was the site of the 
palace of Antaeus and the scene of his combat with 
Hercules, and here were the sjardens of the Ladies 
of the West." As a matter of fact an arm of the sea 
stretches inland here ^vith a winding channel which, 
as people nowadays explain the story, had some 
resemblance to a guardian serpent ; * it embraces 
within it an island which, although the neighbouring 
district is considerably elevated, is nevertheless the 
only portion not flooded by the tides. On the island 
there also rises an altar of Hercules, but of the 
famous grove in the story that bore the golden fi*uit 
nothing else except some wild olive trees. No doubt 
less wonder may be felt at the portentous falsehoods 
of Greece put about concerning these serpents and 
the river Lixus'' by people who reflect that our own 
countrymen, and these quite recently, have reported 
Uttle less miraculous stories about the same matters, 
stating that this city is exceedingly powerful and 
greater than Great Carthage'' ever was, and more- 
over that it is situated in a Une with ^ Carthage 
and at an almost immeasurable distance from 
Tangier, and all the other details swallowed so 
greedily by CorneHus Nepos. 

In the interior, 40 miles from Lixus, is another 
colony of Augustus, Babba, called Julia. On The 
Plains, and 75 miles further, a third, Banasa, which 
has the surname of Valentia. Thirty-five miles from 
Banasa is tlie tovvn of Volubile, whioh is at the same 
distance from the coasts of the Atlantic and the 
Mediterranean. On the shore, 50 miles from Lixus, 
is tlie river Sebou, flowing by the colony of Banasa, 
a fine river available for naviffation. The same 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

totidem milibus oppidum Sala eiusdem nominis fluvio 
inpositum, iam solitudinibus vicinimi elephanto- 
rumque gregibus infestum, multo tamen magis 
Autololum gente, per quam iter est ad montem 

6 Africae vel fabulosissimum Atlantem. e mediis 
hxmc harenis in caelum attolli prodidere, aspenma, 
squalentem qua vergat ad litora oceani cui cognomen 
impos\iit, eundem opacum nemorosumque et scatebris 
fontium riguum qua spectet Africam, fructibus 
omnium generum sponte ita subnascentibus ut 

7 numquam satias voluptatibus desit. incolarum ne- 
minem interdiu cerni, silere omnia haut aHo quam 
solitudinum horrore, subire tacitam reUgionem animos 
propius accedentium praeterque horrorem elati 
super nubila atque in vicina lunaris circuli ; eundem 
noctibus micare crebris ignibus, Aegipanum Satyro- 
rumque lascivia inpleri, tibiarum ac fistulae cantu 
tympanorumque et cymbaloriun sonitu strepere. 
haec celebrati auctores prodidere praeter Herculi 
et Perseo laborata ibi. spatium ad eum inmensum 
incertumque. 

8 Fuere et Hannonis Carthaginiensium ducis com- 
mentarii Punicis rebus florentissimis explorare 
ambitum Africae iussi, quem secuti plerique a 

• Written in Punic and still extant in a Greek translation, 
see Vol. I, Index, Hanno, and Book I, § 169. 



BOOK V. I. 5-8 

nuinber of miles from the Sebou is the town of 

Sallee, situated on the river of the same name ; this 

town is on the very edge of the desert, and is beset 

by herds of elephants, but much more seriously 

harried by the Autololes tribe, through whose terri- 

tory lies the road to Mount Atlas, which is the sub- HountAtia 

ject of much the most marvellous stories of all the 

mountains in Africa. It is reported to rise into the 

sky out of the middle of tlie sands, a rugged eminence 

covered with crags on the side facing towards the 

coast of the Ocean to which it has given its name, 

but shaded by dense woods and watered by gushing 

springs on the side facing Africa, where fruits of 

all kinds spring up of their own accord with such 

luxuriance that pleasure never lacks satisfaction. 

It is said that in the day-time none of its inliabitants 

are seen, and that all is silent with a terrifying 

silence hke that of the desert, so that a speechless 

awe creeps into the hearts of those who approach 

it, and also a dread of the peak that soars above 

the clouds and reaches the neighbourhood of the 

moon's orb ; also that at night this peak flashes with 

frequent fires and swarms with the Avanton gambols 

of Goat-Pans and Satyrs, and echoes with the music 

of flutes and pipes and thc sound of drums and 

cymbals. These stories havc been pubUshed by 

celebrated authors, in addition to the labours per- 

formed in this region by Hercules and Perseus. It 

is an immense distance away, across unexplored 

country. 

There were also once extant some notes " of the /crpioration 
Carthaginian commander Hanno, who at the nxost If^^frLa!^ 
flourishing period of the Punic state was ordered to 
explore the circuit of Africa. It is Hanno whom 

233 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Graecis nostrisque et alia qiudem fabulosa et urbes 
multas ab eo conditas ibi prodidere, quarum nec 
memoria uUa nec vestigium exstat. 

9 Scipione Aemiliano res in Africa gerente Polybius 
annalium conditor ab eo accepta classe scrutandi 
illius orbis gratia circumvectus prodidit a monte eo ad 
occasum versas saltus plenos feris quas gcncrat 
Africa ; ad Humcn Anatim ccccxcvi, ab eo Lixum 
ccv Agrippa, Lixum a Gaditano freto cxii abesse ; 
inde sinum qui vocetur Sagigi, oppidum in pro- 
munturio Mulelacha, flumina Sububum et Salat, 
portum Rutubis a Lixo ccxxiv, inde promunturium 
Solis, portum llhysaddir, Gaetulos Autoteles, flumen 
Quosenum, gentes Velatitos et Masatos, flumcn 
Masatliat, flumen Darat, in quo crocodilos gigni. 

10 dein sinum ncxvi includi monlis Bracae promunturio 
excurrcnte in occasum, quod appcllotur Surrcntium. 
postea flumen Salsum, ultra quod Aethiopas Perorsos, 
quorum a tcrgo Pharusios. his iungi in mediter- 
raneo Gaetulos Daras, at in ora Aethiupas Daralitas, 
flumen Bambotum crocodiHs et hippopotamis re- 
fertum. ab eo montes perjictuos usque ad eum 
quem Theon Ochema dicemus. indc ad pro- 
munturium Hcspcrium navigatione dierum ac 

" In the Tliird Punic War, when Carthage waus destroyod, 
146 B.c. 

' Pcrhaps the Om-Rabya. ' Mount Kakulinia. 

224 



BOOK V. I. 8-IO 

the majority of the Greek and Roman writers have 
followed in the accounts that they have pubUshed 
of a number of cities founded by him there of which 
no memory or trace exists, not to speak of other 
fabulous stories. 

Scipio AemiHanus, during; his command in Africa," 
placed a fleet of vessels at the service of the historian 
Polybius for the purpose of niaking a voyage of dis- 
covery in that part of the world. After saiUng round 
the coast, Polybius reported that beyond Mount 
Atlas in a westerly direction there are forests teem- 
ing with the wild animals that Africa engenders. 
Agrippa says that to the river Anatis* is a distance 
of 496 miles, and from the Anatis to Lixus 205 
miles ; that Lixus is 112 miles from the Straits 
of Gibraltar and that then come the gulf called 
Sagigi Bav, the town on Cape Mulelacha, the rivers 
Sebou and Sallee, the port of Mazagan 224 miles 
from Lixus, then Capo Blanco, the port of Safi, the 
Gnetulian Free State, the river Tensift, the Velatili 
and Masati tribes, the river Mogador, and the river 
Sous, in which crocodiles are found. Then, he states, 
a gulf 616 miles across is enclosetl by the promontory 
of the Atlas chain projecting westward, callod Cape 
Ger. After this the river Assa, beyond which is the 
Aethiopian tribe of the Perorsi, and in their rear 
the Pharusii. Adjoining these in the interior are 
the GaetuUan Darae, and on the coast the Aethiopian 
Daratitae and the river Non, which is full of croco- 
diles and hippopotamuses. From the Non runs a 
line of mountains extending right to the peak"^ of 
which the Greek name is, as we shall state, the vi. 197. 
Chariot of the (iods. The distance from this peak 
to Cape Roxo he gives as a voyage of ten days and 

225 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

noctium decem. in inedio eo spatio Atlantem 
locavit a ceteris omnibus in extremis Mauretaniae 
proditum. 

11 Romana arma primum Claudio principe in Maure- 
tania bellavere Ptolcmaeum regem a Gaio Caesare 
interemptum ulciscente liberto Aedemone, refu- 
gientibiLsquc barbaris ventum constat ad montem 
Atlantem. nec solum consulatu perfunctis atque e 
senatu ducibus qui tum res gessere sed equitibus 
quoque Romanis qui ex eo praefuere ibi Atlantem 

12 penetrasse in gloria fuit. quinque sunt (ut diximus) 
Romanae coloniae in ea provincia, perviumquc 
fama ^ videri potcst ; sed id plerumquc fallacissimum 
cxperimento deprehenditur, quia dignitates, cum 
indagare vera pigeat, ignorantiae pudorc mcntiri 
non piget, haut alio fidei proniore lapsu quam ubi 
falsae rei gravis auctor existit. equidem minus 
miror inconperta quaedam esse equestris ordinis 
viris, iam vero et senatum inde intrantibus, quam 
luxuriae, cuius efficacissima vis sentitur atque 
maxima, cum ebori, citro silvae cxquirantur, omnes 

13 scopuli GactuH muricibus, purpuris. indigcnae ta- 

* V.l. faraae. 
226 



BOOK V. 1. ia-13 

nights; and in the middle of this space he places 
Moimt Atlas, which all other authorities give as 
situated at the farthest point of Mauretania. 

The first occasion on which the armed forces of Rcmun 
Rome fought in Mauretania was in the principate f,^'^'^ 
of Claudius, when King Ptolemy had been put to A/nca. 
death by CaUgula and his freedman Aedemon was 
seeking to avenge him ; and it is an accepted fact 
that our troops went as far as Mount Atlas in pur- 
suit of the routed natives. And not only were the 
ex-consuls and generals drawn from the senate who 
commanded in that campaign able to boast of having 
penetrated the Atlas range, but this distinction was 
also shared by the Knights of Rome who subse- 
quently governed the country. The province con- 
tains, as we have said, five Roman colonies, and, §^2fE. 
to judge by common report, the place might well be 
thought to be easily accessible ; but upon trial this 
criterion is discovered to be for the most part ex- 
ceedingly fallacious, because persons of high position, 
although not incHned to search for the truth, are 
ashamed of ignorance and consequently are not 
reluctant to tell falsehoods, as creduUty is never 
more easily let do^\Ti than when a false statement is 
attested by an authority of weight. For my own 
part I am less surprised that some things are outside 
the knowledge of gentlemen of the equestrian order, 
some of whom indeed nowadays actually get into 
the senate, than that anything should be unknown 
to luxury, which acts as an extremely great and 
powerful stimulus, inasmuch as forests are ransacked 
for ivory and citrus-wood and all the rocks of 
GaetuHa explored for the murex and for purple. 
The natives, however, inform us that on the coast 

227 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

men tradunt in ora ab Salat cL flumen Asanam 
marino haustu sed portu spectabile, mox amncm 
quem vocant Fut, ab co ad Dirim — hoc enim Atlanti 
nomen esse eorum lingua convenit — cc, interveniente 
flumine cui nomcn est Ivor; ibi pauca ^ extare circa 
vestigia habitati quondam soli, vinearum palmeto- 
rumque reh'quias. 

14 Suetonius PauHnus, quem consulem \idimus, 
primus Romanorum ducvun transgressus quoque 
Atlantem aliquot miliuni spatio prodidit de excelsi- 
tate quidem eius quae ceteri, imas radices densis 
altisque repletas silvis incognito genere arborum, 
proceritatem spectabilem esse enodi nitore, frondes 
cupressi similes praeterquam gravitate odoris, tenui 
eas obduci lanugine, quibus addita arte posse quales 
e bombyce vcstes confici. verticem altis etiam 

15 aestate operiri nivibus. dccumis se eo per\'enisse 
castris et ultra ad fluvium qui Ger vocatur per soli- 
tudines nigri pulveris, cmincntibus intcrdum velut 
exustis cautibus, loca inhabitabilia fervorc quaniquam 
hibemo tempore experto. qui proximos inliabitent 
saltus refertos elcphantorum fcrarumque et ser- 
pentium omni genere Canarios appellari, quippe 

^ ilayhoff : ibi favo, ibi fama cl alia. 



" Thc m(xlern Daran. 

* Consul 66 A.D., propraetor in Mauretania 42 a.d.; the 
father of the biographer of the Caesars. 

228 



BOOK V. I. 13-15 

150 miles from the Sallee is the River Asana, 
which is a tidal river but which is notable for its 
harbour; and then the river which they call the 
Fut, and 200 miles from it, after crossing a river 
named Ivor, the Diiis " range — tliat is agreed to be 
the native nanie for the Atlas ; and that in the 
neighbourhood are traces of the land having formerly 
been inhabited — remains of vineyards and palm- 
groves. 

Suetonius PauHnus, who was consul in our own 
times,^ was the first lloman commander who actually 
crossed the Atlas range and advanced a distance of 
many miles beyond it. His report as to its remark- 
able altitude agrees with that of all the other 
authorities, but he also states that the regions at 
the base of the range are filled vith dense and 
lofty forests of trees of an unknown kind, with very 
tall trunks remarkable for their glossy timber free 
from knots, and foliage Hke that of the cypress 
except for its oppressive scent, the leaves being 
covered with a thin downy floss, so that with the 
aid of art a dress-material like that obtained from 
the silk-worm can be made from them. The summit 
(the report continued) is covered with deep snow- 
drifts even in summer. Ten days' march brought 
him to this point and beyond it to the river called 
the Ger, across deserts covered with black dust 
occasionally broken by projections of rock that 
looked as if they had been burnt, a region rendered 
uninhabitable by its heat, although it was winter 
time when he explored it. He states that the neigh- 
bouring forests swarm with every kind of elephant 
and snake, and are inhal)ited by a tribe called the 
Canarii, owing to the fact that they have their 

229 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

victum eius animalis promiscuum his esse et dividua 
ferarum viscera. 

16 lunctam Aethiopum gentem quos Perorsos vocant 
satis constat. luba Ptolemaei pater, qui primus 
utrique Mauretaniae imperitavit, studiorum claritate 
memorabilior etiam quam regno, similia prodidit de 
Atlante, praeterque gigni herbam ibi euphorbeam 
nomine ab inventore medico suo appellatam, cuius 
lacteimi sucum miris laudibus celebrat in claritate 
visus contraque serpentes et venena omnia privatim 
dicato volumine. — Et satis superque de Atlante. 

17 Tingitanae provinciae longitudo clx.x est. gentes 
in ea: quondam praecipua Maurorum (unde nomen) 
quos plerique Maurusios dixerunt, attenuata bellis 
ad paucas recidit familias. proxima iUi Masaesylorimi 
fuerat ; simih modo extincta est. Gaetulae nunc 
tenent gentes, Baniurae multoque validissimi Auto- 
teles et horum pars quondam Nesimi, qui avolsi his 

18 propriam fecere gentem versi ad Aethiopas. ipsa 
provincia ab oriente montuosa fert elephantos, in 
Abyla quoque monte et quos Septem Fratres a 

" Milk-wort, Euphorbia antiguorum. 
* Or possibly ' dedicated to him personally.' 
« Now Djebel Mousa. 
230 



BOOK V. I. 15-18 

diet in common with the canine race and share ^vith 
it the flesh of wUd aninials. 

It is well ascertained that the next people are 
the Aetliiopian tribe called the Perorsi. Juba, thc 
father of Ptolemy, -vvho was the first ruler to hold 
sway over both the Mauretanias, and who is even 
more distinguished for his renown as a student than 
for his royal sovereignty, has published similar facts 
about Mount Atlas, and has stated in addition that 
a plant grows there called the euphorbia," named 
after his doctor who discovered it ; in a volume 
devoted solely to the subject of this plant* he sings 
the praises of its milky juice in very remarkable 
terras, stating it to be an aid to clear sight and 
an antidote against snake-bite and poisons of all 
kinds. — This is enough, or more than enough, about 
Mount Atlas. 

The province of Tangier is 170 miles in length. NoTihcoam 
It contains the following tribes : the Moors (from j^j^^J^"' 
whom it takes its name of Mauretania), by many Aigfria. 
writers called the Maurusii, wei-e formerly the lead- 
ing race, but they have been thinned by wars and 
are now reduced to a few famiHes. The next race 
to this was previously that of the MasaesyH, but 
this has been wiped out in a similar manner. The 
country is now occupied by the GaetuHan tribes, the 
Baiiiurae and the Free State, by far the most power- 
ful of them all, and the Nesimi, who were formerly 
a section of the Autoteles, but have spHt ofF from 
them and formed a separate tribe of their own 
in the direction of the Aethiopians. The province 
itself produces elephants in its mountainous district 
on the eastern side and also on Mount Ceuta and 
the range of peaks called the Seven Brothers ^' from 

231 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

simili altitudine appellant; freto imnrunent ii iuncti 
Abylae. ab his ora interni maris, flumen Tamuda 
navigabile, quondam et oppidum ; flumen Laud et 
ipsum navigiorum capax, Illiysaddir oppidum et 

19 portus, Malvane fluvius navigabilis. Siga opjndum 
ex adverso Malacae in Hispania situm, Syphacis 
regia, alterius iam Mauretaniae ; namque diu regum 
nomina optinuere, ut Bogutiana appelhiretur extuma, 
itemque Bocchi quae nunc Caesariensis. ab ea 
Portus Magnus a spatio appellatus, civium Roman- 
orum oppidum ^ ; amnis Mulucha, Bocchi Masae- 
sylorumque finis ; Quiza Xenitana (Peregrinorimi 

20 Oppidum) ; Arsennaria Latinorum, iii a mari ; 
Cartenna colonia Augusti legione ^ secunda, item 
colonia eiusdcm deducta cohorte praetoria Gunugu ; 
pronuinturium Apollinis oppichunque ibi celeberri- 
mum Caesarea, antea vocitatum lol, lubae regia a 
divo Claudio coloniae iure donata; eiusdem iussu 
deductis vcteranis Oppidum Novimi et Latio dato 
Tipasa, itemque a V^espasiano imperatore eodcm 
munere donatum Icosium ; colonia Augusti Rus- 
guniae, Rusucurium civitate honoratum a Claudio, 
Rusazus colonia Augusti, Saldae colonia eiusdem, 
item Igilgili ; oppidum Tucca inpositum mari et 

21 flumini Ampsagae. intus colonia Augusta quae 

* V.l. oppido. 

* 1. Mudler: legio. 

" Mauretania Caesariensis, now Algeria. 
* A Latinised adjective from ^(vos. 
' Perhaps Algiere. 
' Now the Wadi-el-Kobir. 

232 



BOOK V. I. i8-2i 

tlieir similarity of height ; these mountains join on 
to Mounh ( euta and overlook tlie Straits of Gibraltar. 
At the Scven Brothcrs begins the coast of the 
Mcditerranean, and next come the navigable river 
Bedia and the site of a former town of the same 
name, the river Gomera, also navigable for vessels, 
thc tov/n and harbour of Safi, and the navigable 
river Maluia. Oppositc to Malaga in Spain is 
situated the town of Aresgol, thc cajntal of King 
Sypliax, whcrc we reach the second Mauretania " — 
for these regions for a long time took the names 
of thcir kings, Further Mauretania being called the 
Lan(] of Bogut and simiharly the present Caesariensis 
the Land of Bocchus. Afler Aresgol come the port 
called from its size Great Harbour, a town with 
Roman citizenship ; the river Muhicha, tJie frontier 
betwecn the Land of Bocchus and 1 he MasacsyU ; 
Quiza Xenitana ** (' AUcnville ') ; Arzcn, a town 
with Latin rights, three miles from the sea ; Tenez, 
a colony of Augustus, wherc the Second Legion was 
settled, and Gunugu, Hkewise a colony of the same 
emperor and the settlcmont of a practorian cohort ; 
Cape Mestagan, and on it the famous town of 
Cacsarea,'^ previously called lol, thc capiial of King 
Juba, to which cok.nial rights were granted by his 
late ^Lajcsty Claudius ; New Tovvn, founded as a 
settlemcnt of veteran troops, and Tipasa, grantcd 
Latin rights by the same emperor's orders, and also 
Icosium given the same privilege by the empcror 
Vcspasian ; Rusguniae, a cokmy of Augustus, Rus- 
ucurium, given the honour of citizenship by Claudius, 
Rusazus, a colony of Augustus, Saldae, acolony of the 
same, IgilgiU Hkewise ; the town of Zucca, situated 
on tlie sea and the river Ampsaga.'' In the interior 

233 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

item Succhabar, item Tubusuptu, civitates Timici, 
Tigavae, flumina Sardaval, Aves, Nabar, gens 
Macurcbi, flumen Usar, gens Nababes. flunien 
Ampsaga abest a Caesarca cccxxii.i utriusque 
Mauretaniae longitudo [x| xxxviii, latitudo cccclxvTi. 

22 II. Ab Ampsaga Numidia est Masinissae clara 
nominc, Metagonitis terra a Graecis appellata, 
Numidae vero Nomades a permutandis pabulis, 
mapalia sua, hoc est domos, plaustris circimifcrentes. 
oppida Culhi, Rusiccade, et ab eo ad xlviii in medi- 
terraneo colonia Cirta Sitianorum cognomine, et 
aha intus Sicca, hberumque oppidum Bulla Rcgia. at 
in ora Tacatua, Hippo Regius, flumcn Armua, 
oppidum Tabraca civium Romanorum. Tusca fluvius 
Numidiae finis. ncc praeter marmoris Numidici 
ferarumque proventum ahud insigne ei. 

23 III. A Tusca Zeugitana regio et quae proprie 
vocetur Africa est. tria promunturia, Candidum, 
mox Apolhnis adversum Sardiniae, Mcrcuri adversum 
Sicihae, in altum procurrcntia duo efficiunt sinus, 
Hipponiensem proxinuim ab oppido (juod Hipponem 
Dirutum vocant, Diarrhytum Graecis dictum propter 
aquarum inrigua, cui finitimum Thcudalis immune 

24 oppidum, longius a htore ; dein promunturium 
ApoUinis, et in aUero sinu Utica civium Romanorum, 

^ ocxu Brotier. 



" Tho modom Constantine. Sitius scrved under Caesar, and 
receivcd a pjant of the place after the defeat of Juba. 

* A reaidenco or foundation of the Kinga of Numidia; 
thcre was also a small place named Bulla Mensa south of 
Carthagc. 

* ' Irrigated,' ' canalised.' 

234 



BOOK V. I. 2I-III. 24 

is the colony of Augusta, also called Succhabar, and 
Ukewise Tubusuptu, the independent cities of 
Timici and Tigavae, the rivers Sardaval, Aves and 
Nabar, the Macurebi tribe, the river Usar, and the 
Nababes tribe. Froni the river Anipsaga to Caesarea 
is 322 niiles. The length of the two Mauretanias is 
1038 miles and the breadth 467 miles. 

II. At the river Ampsaga begins Numidia, a Numidia. 
country rendered famous by the name of Masinissa. 

The Greelcs called it Metagonitis, and they named 
its people the Nomads, from their custom of fre- 
quently changing their pasturage, carrying their 
mapalia, that is their homes, about the country on 
waggons. The towns are Chollum and Sgigada, 
and in the interior about 48 miles from the latter 
the colony of Cirta, called Cirta of the Sitiani," and 
another colony further inland, Sicca, and the free 
town of King's Bulla.'' On the coast are Tagodet, 
King's Hippo, the river Mafragg, and the town of 
Tabraca, which has Roman citizenship. The boun- 
dary of Numidia is the river Zaina. The country 
produces nothing remarkable beside the Numidian 
marble and wikl beasts. 

III. Beyond the Zaina is the district of Zeugitana AfHca 
and the region properly to be called Africa. Three (^rvnmaand 
promontories run out into the sea, White Cape and ^'''^'''O- 
then Cape Farina facing Sardinia and Cape Bon 

facing Sicily ; tliese form two bays — the Bay of 
Hippo next the town called Hippo Dirutus, in Greek 
Diarrhytus,"^ which name is due to its irrigation 
channels, and adjacent to this, furlher from the 
coast, Theudahs, a town exempt from tribute ; and 
then Cape Farina, and on the second bay Utica, 
which has the rights of Roman citizensliip ; it is 

235 



PLINY: NATUIL\L HISTORY 

Catonis morte nobilis, flumen Bagrada, locus Castra 
Comelia, colonia Carthago Magnae in vestigiis 
Carthaginis, colonia Maxula, oppida Carpi, Misua 
et hberum Clypea in promunturio Mercuri, itcm 
Hbera Curubis, Neapolis. 

Mox Africae ipsius aUa distinctio. Libvphoenices 
vocantur qui Byzacium incolunt: ita appcllatur 
regio ccL p. circuitu, fertihtatis eximiae, cuni cente- 

25 sima fruge agricolis fenus reddente terra. hic 
oppida hbcra Leptis, Hadrumetinn, RiL^pina,Thapsus. 
indc Thenae, Aves, Macomades, Tacapc, Sabrata 
contingens Syrtim Minorcm, ad qiuxra Numidiae et 
Africae ab Ampsaga longitudo m-xxx, latitudo qua 
cognitum est cc. ea pars quam Africam appcUa- 
vimus dividitur in duas provincias, Vetrrcm et 
Novam, discretas fossa intcr Africanum scquentem et 
reges Thenas iisque perducta, quod oppidum a 
Carthagine abest ccxvi, 

26 IV. Tertias sinus dividitur in geminos, duarum 
Syrtium vadoso ac reciproco mari diros. ad 
proximam, quae minor est, a Carthagine ccc Polybius 
tradit, ipsam centimi miUum passuum aditu, tre- 
ccntorum ambitu. et terra autcm sidcrum obser- 
vatione ad eam per dcserta harcnis perque scrj^entes 
iter est. excipiunt saltus rcpleti ferarum muhitudine, 

" Scipio Africanus tho clder carapcd hero on landing in 
Africa 204 b.c. 
' See § 4 note. 

' Scipio Aerailianus, son of Aerailiue Paulus. 
' Micipsa and two other sons of Masinissa. 

236 



BOOK V. III. 24-iv. 26 

famous as the scene of the death of Cato. Then 
there is the river Merjerdah, the place called the 
Camp of CorneUus," the colony of Carthage on the CariUage. 
site of Great Carthagc,^ the colony of Maxula, the 
towns of Carpi. Misua and Clypea, the last a free 
town on Cape Mercury, where are also the free 
towns Kurbah and Nabal. 

Thcn comes another section of Africa proper. 
The inhabitants of Byzacium are called Libyphoeni- 
cians, Byzacium being the name given to a region 
measuring 250 miles round, a district of exceptional 
fertiHty, the soil paying the farmers interest at 
the rate of a hundredfold. Here are the free towns 
of Lempta, Sousa, Monastir, Demas, and then 
Taineh, Aves, ^Lahometa, Cabes and Sabart on the 
edge of the Lesser Syrtis ; from the Ampsaga to 
this point the length of Numidia and Africa is 580 
miles and the breadth so far as ascertained 200 miles. 
The part that we have called Africa is divided into 
two provinces, the Old and the New ; the division 
between these, as agreed between the younger 
Scipio '^ and the Kings,<* is a dyke running right 
tlirough to the to^™ of Tainch, which is 216 miles 
from Carthage. 

IV. The third gulf is divided into two bays, which TheGnifof 
are rendered formidable by the shallow tidal waters theauifof 
of the two Syrtes. The distance between the nearest '^'^''™- 
Syrtis, which is the smaller of the two, and Carthage 
is said by Polybius to be 300 miles ; and he gives 
its width across as 100 miles and its circuit as 300 
miles. There is however also a way to it by land, 
that can be found by observation of the stars, 
across a desert abandoned to the sand and swarm- 
ing with serpents. Next come forests filled with a 

237 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

et introrsus elephantorum solitudines, mox deserta 
vasta ultraque Garamantcs ab Augilis dieruni xii 

27 itinere distantcs. super illos fuere gcns Psylli, super 
quos lacus Lycomedis desertis circvmidatus. Augilae 
ipsi medio fere spatio locantur, ab Aethiopia quae 
ad occidentem vergit et a regione quae duas Syrtis 
interiacet pari utrimque intervallo. scd Htore inter 
duas Syrtis cci. ; ibi civitas Oeensis, Cinyps fluvius ac 
regio, oppida NeapoUs, Taphra, Habrotonum, Leptis 
altera quae cognominatur Magna. inde Syrtis Maior 
circuitu ucxxv, aditu autem cccxil ; accolit ^ gens 

28 Cisippadum. in intimo sinu fuit Ora Lotophagon 
quos quidam Machroas ^ dixere, ad Philacnorimi Aras : 
ex harena sunt hae. ab his non procul a continente 
palus vasta amnem Tritonem nomenque ab eo 
accipit, Pallantias appcUata Callimacho et citra 
Minorcm Syrtim esse dicta, multis vero inter duas 
Syrtis. promunturium quod Maiorcm includit 
Borion appellatur; ultra Cyrenaica provincia. 

29 Ad hunc finem Africa a fluvio Ampsaga populos 
Dx\'i habet qui Romano pareant impcrio ; in his 
colonias sex, praeter iam dictas Uthinam, Thuburbi ; 
oppida civium Romanorum xv, ex quibus in medi- 
terraneo dicenda Absuritanum, Abutucense, Abo- 

• Mayhoff: inde atoolit. 

* V.l. AJachroas. 



" Here denoting the denizens of Phazania, Fezzan, the 
largest oasis in the Sahara. 

* One legend gave it as her Mrthplace. 

238 



BOOK V. IV. 26-29 

multitude of wild beasts, and further inland desolate 
haunts of elephants, and then a vast desert, and 
beyond it the Garamantes ° tribe, at a distance of 
twelve days' journey from Aujelah, Beyond these 
was formerly the Psylh tribe, and beyond them 
Lake Lynxama, surrounded by desert. Aujelah 
itself is situated almost in the middle, at an equal 
distance on either side from the Ethiopia that 
stretches westward and from the region lying between 
the two Syrtes. But by the coast between the two 
Syrtes it is 250 miles ; here are the independent 
city of Oea, the river Cinyps and the district of that 
name, the toAVTis of NeapoHs, Taphra, Habrotonum 
and the second Leptis, called Great Leptis. Then 
comes the Greater Syrtis, measuring 625 miles 
round and 312 wide at the entrance, near which 
dwells the race of the Cisippades. At the end of 
this Gulf was once the Coast of the liOtus-oaters, 
the people called by some the Machroae, extending 
to the Altars of the Phihieni — these are formed of 
heaps of sand. After these, not far from tho shore 
of the mainland, there is a vast swamp into which 
flows the river Tritonis, the name of which it bears ; 
Callimachus calls it the Lake of Pallas.^ He places 
it on the nearer side of the Lesser Syrtis, but many 
writers put it between the two Syrtes. The promon- 
tory shutting in the Greater Syrtis is called Cape 
Trajuni ; beyond it is the province of Cyrene. 

Between the rivoi- Ampsaga and this boundary 
Africa contains 516 peoples that accept allegiance 
to Rome. These include six colonies, Uthina and 
Thuburbi, in addition to those already mentioned ; §§ 22, 24. 
15 towns with Roman citizenship, among which in 
the interior must be mentioned those of Absurae, 

239 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

riense, Canopicum, Chimavense, Simittuense, Thunu- 
sidense, Thuburnicense, Thinidriunense, Tibigense, 
Ucitana duo, Maius et Minus, ^'agcnse ; oppidum 
Latinum unum Uzalitanum ; oppidum stipendiarium 

30 unum Castris Corneliis ; oppida libera xxx, ex quibus 
dicenda intus AchoUitanum, Accaritanum, Avinense, 
Abziritanum, Canopitanum, Mclizitanum, Mate- 
rense, Salaphitanum, Tusdritanum, Tiphicense, Tuni- 
sense, Theudense, Tagesense, Tigcnse, Ulusubri- 
tanum, Vagense aUud, Vigense, Zamcnse. ex rehquo 
numero non ci\atates tantum sed pleraeque etiam 
nationes iure dici possunt, ut Natabudes, Capsitani, 
Musulami, Sabarbares, MassyH, Nicives, Vamacurcs, 
Cinithi, Musuni, Marchubi, et tota Gaetulia ad 
flumen Nigrim, qui Africam ab Aelhiopia dirimit. 

31 V. Cyrenaica (eadem Pentapolitana regio) inlu- 
stratur Hammonis oraculo quod a Cyrcnis abest 
ccccp., fonte Sohs,urbibus maxime quinquc,Berenice, 
Arsinoe, Ptolemaide, ApoUonia ipsaque Cyrene. 
Berenice in SjTtis extimo cornu est, quondam vocata 
Hesperidum supra dictiirurn, vagantibus Graeciae 
fabulis ; nec procul antc oppidum fluvius Leton, 
lucus sacer, ubi Hesperidum horti memorantur. 

32 abest ab Lepti ccclxxv ; ab ea Arsinoe Teuchira 
vocitata xliii, et dcinde Ptolemais antiquo nomine 
Barce xxii ; mox xl promunturium Phycuus per 



" From which Tunis takes its name. 
* The birthplace of St. Augustine. 



240 



BOOK V. IV. 29-v. 32 

Abutucum, Aborium, Canopicum, Chimavis, Simit- 
tuum, Thunusidum, Thuburnicum, Thinidrumum, 
Tibiga, the two towns called Ucita, the Greater and 
the Lesser, and Vaga ; one town with Latin rights, 
Uzalita ; one tributary tOAvn at the Camp of Cornelius ; 
30 free towns, of which must be mentioned ir\ the 
interior the towns of Achollita, Accarita, Avina, 
Abzirita, Canopita, MeUzita, Matera, Salapliita, 
Tusdrita, Tiphica, Tunisa," Theuda, Tagesa, Tiga, 
Ulusubrita, a second Vaga, Viga and Zama.*" Of 
the remaining number most can rightly be entitled 
not merely cities but also tribes, for instance 
the Natabudes, Capsitani, Musulami, Sabarbares, 
MassyU, Nicives, Vamacures, Cinithi, Musuni, 
Marchubi, and the whole of GaetuHa as far as 
the river Quorra, which separates Africa from 
Ethiopia. 

V. Notable places in the district of Cyrenaica Cymmica 
(the Greek name of Avhich is the Land of the Five "'^'^" ' 
Cities) are the Oracle of Ammon, which is 400 
miles from the city of Cyrene, the Fountain of the 
Sun, and especially five cities, Benghazi, Arsinoe, 
Tolmeita, Marsa Sousah and Cyrene itself. Benghazi 
is situated at the tip of the horn of the Syrtis ; it 
was formerly called the City of the Ladies of the 
West, mentioned above, as the myths of Greece 5 3. 
often change their locaUty ; and in front of the to\vn 
not far away is the river Leton, with a sacred grove, 
reputed to be the site of the gardens of the Ladies 
of the West. Benghazi is 375 miles from Leptis ; 
and Arsinoe is 43 miles from Benghazi, commonly 
called Teuchira, and then 22 milcs further Ptolemais, 
the old name of which was Barce ; then 40 miles 
on the cape of Ras Sem projects into the Cretan 

241 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Creticum mare excurrit, distans cccl p. a Taenaro 
Laconicae promunturio, a Creta vero ipsa ccxxv. 
post id Cyrene, a mari xi passuum, ab Phycunte 
ApoUoniam xxiv, ad Cherronesum lxxxviii, unde 
Catabathmima ccxvi. accolunt Marmaridae, a Parae- 
toni ferme regione ad Syrtim Maiorem usque poi-- 

33 recti ; post eos Acrauceles ac iam in ora Syrtis Nasa- 
mones, quos antea Mesammones Grai appellavere 
ab argumento loci, medios inter harenas sitos. 
Cyrenaicus ager xv p. latitudine a Htore et arboribus 
fertilis habetur, intus eodem spatio frugibus tantum, 
mox XXX latitudine et ccL longitudine lasari modo. 

34 Post Nasamonas Asbytae et Macae vivont; ultra 
eos Amantes xii dierum itinere a Syrtibus Maioribus, 
ad occidentem et ipsi versus harenis circumdati, 
puteos tamen haut difficile binum ferme cubitorum 
altitudine inveniunt ibi restagnantibus Maurctaniae 
aquis. domus sale montibus suis exciso ceu lapide 
construunt. ab his ad Trogodytas hiberni occasus 
plaga dicrum septem iter, cum qiiibus cornmcrcium 
gemmae tantiun quam carbunculum vocamus ex 

35 Aetliiopia invectae. intervenit ad soHtudines Africae 
supra Minorem Syrtim dictas versa Phazania, ubi 

* The distance is said to be really 264 milca. 
242 



BOOK V. V. 32-35 

Sea, 350 miles " distant from Cape Matapan in 
Laconia and 225 miles from Crete itself. After the 
cape of Ras Sem is Cyrene, 11 miles from the sea, 
from Ras Sem to the harbour of Cyrene being 24 
miles and to Ras El Tin 88 miles, from which it is 
216 miles to the Canyon. The inhabitants of this 
coast are the Marmaridae, reaching almost all the 
way from the region of El Bareton to the Greater 
Syrtis ; after these are the Acrauceles and then on 
the edge of the Syrtis the Nasamones, formerly 
called by the Greeks Mesammones by reason of 
their locality, the word meaning ' in the middle 
of the sands '. The territory of Cyrene for a 
breadth of 15 miles from the coast is thought to be 
good even for growing trees, but for the same space 
further inland to grow only corn, and aftenvards over 
a strip 30 miles wide and 250 miles long nothing 
but silphium. 

After the Nasamones, we come to the dwellings 
of the Asbytae and Macae ; and beyond them, 
twelve days' journey from the Greater Syrtis, the 
Amantes. These also are surrounded by sands in 
the western direction, but neverthcless they find 
water witliout difficulty at a depth of about three 
feet, as the district receives the overfiow of the 
waters of Mauretania. They build their houses of 
blocks of salt quarried out of their mountains like 
stone. From these it is a journey of 7 days in a 
south-westerly quarter to the Cave-dwellers, with 
whom our only intercourse is the trade in the precious 
stone imported from Ethiopia which we call the 
carbuncle. Before reaching them, in the direction § 26. 
of the African desert stated already to be beyond 
the Lesser Syrtis, is Fezzan, where we have subju- 

243 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

gentem Phazaniorum urbesque Alelen et Cillibam 
subegimus, item Cydamum e regione Sabratae. ab 
his mons longo spatio in occasum ab ortu tendit Atcr 
nostris dictus a natura, adusto similis aut solis 

36 repercussu accenso. ultra eum deserta, mox Thelgae 
oppidum Garamantum, itemque Dcbris adfuso fontc 
a medio die ad mediam noctem aquis ferventibus 
totidemque horis ad medium diem rigentibus, 
clarissimiunque Garama caput Garamantum : omnia 
amiis Romanis superata et a Cornelio Balbo triumph- 
ata, uni huic^ omnium externo curru- et Quiritium 
iure donato : quippe Gadibus genito cintas Romana 
cum Balbo maiorc patruo data est. et hoc mirum, 
supra dicta oppida ab eo capta auctores nostros 
prodidisse, ipsum in triumpho praeter Cydamum et 
Garamam omnium aliarum gentium urbiumquc 
nomina ac simulacra duxisse, quae iere hoc ordinc : 

37 Tabudium oppidum, Niteris natio, Milgis Gemella 
oppidum, Bubeium natio vel oppidum, Enipi natio, 
Thubcn oppidum, mons nomine Niger, Nitibrum, 
Rapsa oppida, \'iscera nntio, Dccri ojipichmi, flumen 
Nathabur, Tliapsagum oppidum, Tamiagi natio, 
Boin oppidum, Pcge oppidum, flumcn Dasibari ; 
mox oppida continua Baraciun, Buluba, Alasit, Galsa, 

^ Hardnuin : nnius. 

* V.l. curru extcmo (Jortasse curru uni huic omnium extomo 
Hnclham). 

244 



BOOK V. V. 35-37 

gated the Fezzan tribe and tlie cities of Mellulen 
and Zala, as well as Gadamez in the direction of 
Sabrata. After these a long range stretches from 
east to west which our people from its nature call 
the Black Mountain, as it has the appearance of 
having suifered from fire, or else of being scorched 
by the reflection of the sun. Beyond this mountain 
range is the desert, and then a tovm of the Gara- 
mantes called Thelgae, and also Bedir (near which 
tliere is a spring of which the water is boiling hot 
from midday to midnight and then freezing cold for 
the same number of hours until midday) and Garama, 
the celebrated capital of the Garamantes : all of 
which places have been subdued by the arms of 
Rome, being conquered by Cornehus Balbus, who 
was given a triumph — the only foreigner ever so 
honoured — and citizen rights, since, although a 
nalive of Cadiz, he together ■with his great-uncle, 
Balbus, was presented ^nth our citizenship. There 
is also this remarkable circumstance, that our writers 
have handed down the names of the towns mentioned 
above as having been taken by him, and have stated 
that in his own triuraphal procession beside Cydamum 
and Garama were carried the names and images of 
all the other races and cities, which went in this 
order : the to^^Ti of Tibesti, the Niteris tribe, the 
town of Milgis Gemella, ihe tribe or town of Febabo, 
the tribe of the F.nipi, the town of Thuben, the 
mountain known as the Black Mountain, the towns 
called Nitibrum and Rapsa, the Im-Zera tribe, the 
to^\Ti of Om-El-Abid, the river Tessava, the to^vn of 
Sava, the Tamiagi tribe, the town of Boin, the town 
of Winega, the river Dasibari ; then a series of 
towns, Baracum, Buluba, Alasit, Galsa, Balla, Misso- 

VOL. TI. I 245 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Balla, Maxalla, Cizania ; mons Gyri in quo gemmas 
nasci titulus praecessit. 
38 Ad Garamantas iter inexplicabile adhuc fuit 
latronibus gentis eius puteos — qui sunt non alte fodi- 
endi si locorum notitia adsit — harenis operientibus. 
proxumo bello, quod cum Oeensibus gessere initiis 
Vespasiani imperatoris, conpendium viae quadridui 
deprehensum est ; hoc iter vocatur Praeter Caput 
Saxi. finis Cyrenaicus Catabathmos appellatur, 
oppidum et valUs repente convexa. ad eimi ter- 
minvun Cyrenaica Africa a Syrti Minore [x] Lx in 
longitudinem patet, in latitudinem qua cognitum est 



DCCCX. 

39 VI. Quae sequitur regio Mareotis Libya appellatur 
Aeg}'pto contermina. tenent Marmarides, Adyrma- 
chidae, dein Mareotae. mensura a Catabathmo 
Paraetonium lxxx\'I. in eo tractu intus Apis interest, 
nobilis reHgione Aegypti locus. ab eo Paraetonium 
LXii D, inde Alexandriam cc. latitudo clxix est. 
Eratosthenes a Cyrenis Alexandriam terrcstri itinere 

40 Dxxv prodit. Agrippa totius Africae a mari Atlantico 
cum Inferiore Aegypto |xxxj longitudinem, Polybius 
et Eratosthenes dihgentissimi existimati ab oceano 
ad Carthagincm Magnam \xT\, ab ea Canopum, NiH 

246 



BOOK V. V. 37-vi. 40 

lat, Cizania ; and Mount Goriano, its effigy preceded 
by an inscription that it was a place where precious 
stones were produced. 

Hitherto it has been impossible to open up the 
road to the Garamantes country, because brigands 
of that race fill up the wells with sand — these do 
not necd to be dug very deep if you are aided 
by a knowledge of the localities. In the last war 
waged with the people of Oea, at the beginning of 
the principate of Vespasian, a short route of only 
four days was discovered, which is kno^vn as By 
the Head of the Rock. The last place in Cyrenaica 
is called the Canyon, a towTi and a suddenly 
descending valley. The length of Cyrenaic Africa 
from the Lesser Syrtis to this boundary is 1060 
miles, and the breadth, so far as ascertained, 810 
miles. 

VI. The district that follows is called Libya Libya. 
Mareotis ; it borders upon Egypt. It is occupied 
by the Marmarides, the Adyrmachidae, and then 
the Mareotae. The distance between the Canyon 
and Paraetonium is 86 miles. Between them in 
the interior of this district is Apis, a place famous 
in the Egyptian rehgion. The distance from Apis 
to Paraetonium is 62|- miles, and from Paraetonium 
to Alexandria 200 miles. The district is 169 miles 
in breadth. Eratosthenes gives the distance by 
land from Cyrenae to Alexandria as 525 miles. 
Agrippa made the length of the whole of Africa 
from the Atlantic, including Lower Egypt, 300 
miles ; Polybius and Eratosthenes, who are deemed 
extremely careful writers, made the distance from 
the Ocean to Great Carthage 1100 miles, and from 
Great Carthage to the nearest mouth of the Nile, 

247 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

proximum ostium, fxvT| xxVin feccrunt, Isidorus a 
Tingi Canopum Ixxxvj xcix, Artemidorus xl m 
minus quam Isidorus. 

41 \'II. Insulas non ita multas complectuntur hacc 
maria. clarissima est Meninx, longitudine xxv, lati- 
tudinc XXII, ab Eratosthcne Lotophagitis appellata. 
oppida habet duo, Meningen ab Africae latere et ab^ 
altero Thoar,ipsa adextro Syrtis Minoris promunturio 
passibus md sita. ab ea c p. contra lacvum Ccrcina 
cum urbe eiusdem nominis hbera, longa xxv, lata 
dimidium cius ubi phuimum, at in extremo non 
plus V — ^huic perparva Carthaginem versus Cercinitis 

42 ponte iungitur. ab his l fere passuum Lopadusa, 
longa VI ; mox Gaulos et Galata, cuius terra scorpiones, 
dirum animal Africae, necat. dicuntur et in Clupea 
cmori, cuius ex adverso Cossyra cum oppido. at 
contra Carthaginis sinum duae Aegimoeroe ; Arae 
autem, scopuli verius quam insulae, inter Siciliam 
maxime et Sardiniam ; auctores sunt et has quondam 
habitatas subsedisse. 

43 VIII. Interiore autem ambitu Africae ad meridiem 
versus superque Gaetulos, intervcnicntibus descrtis, 
primi omnium Libyes Aegyptii, deinde Leucoe 
Aethiopes habitant. super eos Aethiopum gentes 

^ al) add. Ruckliam. 
248 



BOOK V. VI. 40-vin. 43 

Canopus, 1628 miles ; Isidorus makes the distance 
from Tangier to Canopus 3599 milcs, but Artemidorus 
niakes it 40 niiles less than Isidurus. 

\ TI. These seas do not contain vcry many islands. isianiUoff 
The most famous is Zerba, 25 miles loncj and 22 miles 
broad, called by Eratosthenes Lotus Eaters' Island. 
It has two towns, Meninx on the side of Africa and 
Thoar on ihe other side, the island itself lying ofF 
the promontory on the right-hand side of the Lesser 
SjTtis, at a distance of a mile and a half away. A 
hundred miles from Zerba and lying off the left- 
liand promontory is the island of Cercina, with the 
free city of the same name ; it is 25 miles long and 
measures half that distance across where it is widest, 
but not more than 5 miles across at its end ; and 
joined to it by a bridge is the extremely small island 
of Cercinitis, which looks towards Carthage. About 
50 miles from these is Lopadusa, 6 miles long ; then 
come Gaulos and Galata, the soil of the latter having 
the property of kilUng scorpions, that pest of Africa. 
It is also said that scorpions cannot Uve at Clupea, 
opposite to which Hes Pantellaria with its town. 
Opposite the Gulf of Cartliage Ue the two Aegi- 
moeroi ; but the Altars, which arc more truly rocks 
than islands, are chiefly between Sicily and Sar- 
dinia. Some authorities state that even the Altars 
were formerly inhabited but that their level has 
sunk. 

VIII. In the interior circuit of Africa towards the Peopiesof 
south and beyond the Gaetulians, after an inter- ""* '"'*^''^- 
mcdiate strip of desert, the first inhabitants of all 
are the Egyptian Libyans, and then the people 
called in Greek tlie White Ethiopians. Beyond 
these are the Ethiopian clans of the Nigritae, 

249 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Nigritae a quo dictum est flumine, Gjrmnetes Pharusii, 
iam oceanum attingentes quos in Mauretaniae fine 
diximus Perorsi. ab his omnibus vastae solitudines 
orientem versus usque ad Garamantas Augilasque et 
Trogodytas, verissima opinione eorum qui desertis 
Africae duas Aethiopias superponunt, et ante omnis 
Homeri qui bipertitos tradit Aethiopas, ad orientcm 
occasumque versos. 

44 Nigri fluWo eadem natura quae Nilo ; calamum ac 
papyram et easdem gignit animantes iisdemque 
temporibus augescit. oritur inter Tarraehos Aethio- 
pas et Oechahcas ; horum oppidum Magium. qui- 
dam sohtudinibus interposuerunt Atlantas eosque 
iuxta Aegipanas semiferos et Blemmyas et Gampha- 
santas et Satyros et Himantopodas. 

45 Atlantes degeneres sunt huniani ritus, si credimus ; 
nam neque nominum ullorum inter ipsos appelhitio 
est, et solem orientem occidcntemque dira inpre- 
catione contuentur ut exitialem ipsis agrisque, neque 
in somno visunt quaha rehqui mortales. Trogodytae 
specus excavant ; hae iUis domus, xictus serpcntium 
cames, stridorque, non vox : adeo sermonis com- 
mercio carent. Garamantcs matrimoniorum exortes 
passim cum feminis degunt. Augilae inferos tantum 

* Od. I. 23 f. 

* It is not certain that this is the river now known by this 
name. 

* Herod. IV. 183 rtTpiyaai Kari nep al vvKTtpiBes. 

350 



BOOK V. VIII. 43-45 

named after the river which has been raentioned, § 30. 
the Pharusian Gymnetes, and then bordering on the 
Ocean the Perorsi whom we have spoken of at the § 10. 
frontier of Mauretania. Eastward of all of these there 
are vast uninliabited regions spreading as far as the 
Garamantes and Augilae and the Cave-dwellers — 
the most reliable opinion being that of those who 
place two Ethiopias beyond the African desert, and 
especially Homer," who tells us that the Ethiopians 
are divided into two sections, the eastward and the 
westward. 

The river Niger ^ has the same nature as the Nile : 
it produces reeds and papyrus, and the same animals, 
and it rises at the same seasons of the year. Its 
source is between the Ethiopic tribes of the Tarraelii 
and the Oechalicae ; the town of the latter is 
Magium. In the middle of the desert some place 
the Atlas tribe, and next to them the half-animal 
Goat-Pans and the Blemmyae and Gamphasantes 
and Satyrs and Strapfoots. 

The Atlas tribe have fallen below the level of 
human civilization, if we can beUeve what is said; 
for they do not address one another by any names, 
and when they behold the rising and setting sun, 
they utter awful curses against it as the cause of 
dLsaster to themselves and their fields, and when 
they are asleep they do not have dreams Uke the 
rest of mankind. The Cave-dwellers hollow out 
caverns, which are their dwelUngs ; they Uve on the 
flesh of snakes, and they have no voice, but only 
make squeaking noises,*^ being entirely devoidof inter- 
course by speech. The Garamantes do not practise 
marriage but Uve with their women promiscuously. 
The Augilae only worship the powers of the lower 

251 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

colunt. Gamphasantes nudi proeliorumque expertes 

46 nulli externo congregantur. Blemmyis traduntur 
capita abesse ore et oculis pectori adfixis. Satyris 
praeter figuram nihil moris humani. Aegipanum 
qualis vulgo pingitur forma. Himantopodes lori- 
pedes quidam quibus serpendo ingrcdi natura sit. 
Pharusi, quondam Persae, comites fuisse dicuntur 
Herculis ad Hesperidas tendentis. 

Nec de Africa plura quae memorentur occurrunt. 

47 IX. Adhaeret Asia, quam patere a Canopico ostio 
ad Ponti ostium Timosthcnes |xxvi| xxxviii p. tradidit, 
ab ore autem Ponti ad os Maeotis Eratosthenes |xv| 
XLV, univcrsam vero cum Acgypto ad Tanain Arte- 
midonis et Isidorus |T[ xiii dccl.^ maria eius conplura 
ab accolis traxere nomina, quare simul indicabuntur. 

48 Proxima Africae incolitur Aegyptus, introrsus ad 
meridicm recedens donec a tergo praetendantur 
Aethiopes. inferiorem eius partem Nilus dextera 
laevaque divisus ampiexu suo determinat, Canopico 
ostio ab Africa, ab Asia Pelusiaco, clxx passuum 
intervallo. quam ob causam inter insulas quidam 
Aegyptum retulere, ita se findente Nilo ut triquetram 

^ Varia edd. 

" These figurefl aro uncertain in tbo Lntin text. 
252 



BOOK V. VIII. 45-ix. 48 

world. The Gamphasantes go naked, do not engage 
in battle, and hold no intercourse with any foreigner. 
The Bleniniyae are reported to have no heads, their 
mouth and eyes being attached to their chests. The 
Satyrs have nothing of ordinary humanity about them 
except human shape. The form of the Goat-Pans 
is that wliich is commonly shown in pictures of 
them. The Strapfoots are people with feet Uke 
leather thongs, whose nature it is to crawl instead 
of walking. The Pharusi, originally a Persian people, 
are said to have accompanied Hercules on his 
journey to the Ladies of the West. Nothing more 
occurs to us to record about Africa. 

IX. Joining on to Africa is Asia, the extent of 
which from the Canopic mouth of the Nile to the 
mouth of the Black Sea is given by Timosthenes as 
2638 miles ; Eratosthenes gives the distance from 
the mouth of the Black Sea to the mouth of the 
Sea of Azov as 1545 miles ; and Artemidorus and 
Isidorus give the whole extent of Asia including 
Egypt as far as the river Don as 5013| miles.* It 
possesses several seas, named after the tribes on 
their shores, for which reason they will be mentioned 
together. 

The inhabited country next to Africa is Egypt, Egypi. 
which stretches southward into the interior to where 
tlie Etliiopians border it in the rear. The boun- 
daries of its lower part are formed by the two 
branches of the Nile embracing it on the right and 
on the left, the Canopic mouth separating it from 
Africa and the Pelusiac from Asia, with a space of 
170 miles between the two mouths. This has caused 
some authorities to class Egypt as an island, because 
the Nile divides in such a manner as to produce a 

253 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

terrae figuram efficiat ; ideoque multi Graecae 
litterae vocabulo Delta appellavere Aegyptum. 
mensura ab unitate alvei, unde se primum findit in 
latera, ad Canopicum ostium cxlvi, ad Pelusiacum 
cLvi est. 

49 Summa pars contermina Aethiopiae Thebais voca- 
tur. dividitur in praefecturas oppidorum quas 
nomos vocant — Ombiten, ApoUonopoliten, Hermon- 
thiten, Thiniten, Phaturiten, Coptiten, Tcntyriten, 
Diospoliten, AntaeopoUten, AphroditopoHten, Lyco- 
poHten. quae iuxta Pelusium est regio nomos 
habet Pharbaethiten, Bubastiten, Sethroiten, Tani- 
ten. rehqua autem Arabicum, Hammoniacum ten- 
dentem ad Hammonis lovis oraculum, Oxyryncliiten, 
LeontopoUten, Athribiten, CynopoUten, Hermo- 
poUten, Xoitcn, Mendcsium, Sebennytcn, Cabasiten, 
LatopoUten, HcUopoUten, Prosopitcn, PanopoUten, 
Busiriten, Onuphiten, Saiten, Ptenethum, Ptem- 
phum, Naucratiten, MeteUiten, GynaccopoUten, 
Menelaiten, Alexandriae regionem ; item Libyae 

50 Mareotis. HeracleopoUtes est in insula NiU longa 
p. L, in qua et oppidum HcrcuUs appeUatum. 
Arsinoitae duo sunt ; hi et Memphites usque ad 
summum DeUa perveniunt, cui sunt contermini ex 
Africa duo Oasitae. quidam ex his aUqua nomina 
pcrmutant et substituunt aUos nomos, ut Hcro- 
opoUten et CrocodilopoUten. inter Arsinoiten autem 
ac Memphiten lacus fuit circuitu ccL aut, ut Mucianus 

254 



BOOK V. IX. 48-50 

piece of land sliaped like a triangle ; and conse- 
quently many have called Egypt by the name of 
the Greek letter Delta. The distance from the 
point where the single channel first spUts into 
branches to the Canopic mouth is 146 miles and to 
the Pelusiac mouth 156 miles. 

The uppermost part of Egypt, mai-ching with 
Ethiopia, is called the Thebaid. It is divided into 
prefcctures of towns, called ' nomes ' — the Ombite, 
ApollonopoUte, Hermonthite, Thinite, Phaturite, 
Coptite, Tentyrite, Diospohte, Antaeopolite, Aphro- 
ditopohte and LycopoHte nomes. The nomes be- 
longing to the district in the neighbourhood of Pelu- 
sium are the Pharbaethite, Bubastite, Sethroite and 
Tanite. The remaining nomes are called the Arabic, 
Hammoniac (on tlie way to the oracle of Jupiter 
Ammon). Oxyrhynchite, Leontopohte, Athribite, 
CynopoUte, HermopoUte, Xoite, Mendesian, Seben- 
nyte, Cabasite, LatopoUte, IleUopoUte, Prosopite, 
PanopoUte, Busirite, Onuphite, Saite, Ptenethus, 
Ptemphus, Naucratite, MetelUte, GynaecopoUte, 
Menelaite — these forming the region of Alexandria ; 
and Ukewise Mareotis belonging to Libya. The 
HeracleopoUte nome is on an ishind of the Nile 
measuring 50 miles long, on which is also the town 
called the City of Hercules. There are two nomes 
called the Arsinoite ; these and the Memphite ex- 
tend to the apex of the Delta, adjacent to which 
on the side of Africa are the two Oasite nomes. 
Certain authorities alter some out of these names 
and substitute other nomes, for instance the Hero- 
poUte and CrocodilopoUte. Between the Arsinoite 
and Memphite nomes there was once a lake 
measuring 250, or according to Mucianus's account 

255 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tradit, ccccL et altitudinis quinquaginta passuum, 
manu factus, a rege qui fecerat Moeridis appellatus, 
inde lxii p. abest Memphis, quondam arx Acgypti 
regum, unde ad Hammonis oraculum xii dierum iter 
est, ad scissuram autem Nili, quod appellavimus 
Delta, XV. 

51 X. Nilus incertis ortus fontibas, ut pcr dcserta et 
ardentia et inmenso longitudinis spatio ambulans 
famaque tantum inermi quaesitus sine bcllis quae 
ceteras omnis terras invenere, originem, ut luba rex 
potuit exquircre, in monte inferioris Mauretaniae 
non procul oceano habet lacu protinus stagnante, 
quem vocant NiUdcn. ibi pisces reperiuntur ala- 
betae, coracini, sihiri; crocodilus quoque inde ob 
argumentum lioc Cacsareae in Isco dicatus ab eo 
spectatur hodie. praeterea observatum est, prout 
in Mauretania nives imbresve satiaverint, ita Nilum 

52 increscere. ex hoc lacu profusus indignatur fluerc 
per harenosa et squalcntia, conditque se ahquot 
dierum itinere, mox aho lacu maiore in Caesaricnsis 
Mauretaniae gente Masaesylum erumpit et homi- 
num coetus veluti circumspicit, iisdem animahum 
argumentis. iterum harenis reccptus conditur rursus 
XX dierimi desertis ad proximos Aethiopas, atque ubi 

256 



BOOK V. IX. 50-x. 52 

450, miles roiind, and 250 feet deep, an artificial sheet 
of water, called the Lake of Moeris aftcr the king 
who made it. Its site is 62 miles from Memphis, 
the former citadel of the kings of Egypt, and from 
Memphis it is 12 days' journey to the Oracle of 
Ammon and 15 days' journey to the place where 
the Nile divides and forms what we have called the 
Delta. 

X. The sources from which the Nile rises have TUe yue. 
not been ascertained, proceeding as it does through 
scorching deserts for an enormously long distance 
and only ha\ing been explored by unarmed investi- 
gators, without the wars that have discovered all 
other countries ; but so far as King Juba was able 
to ascertain, it has its origin in a mountain of lower 
Mauretania not far from the Ocean, and imme- 
diately forms a stagnant lake called Nihdes. Fish 
found in this lake are the alabeta, coracinus and 
silurus ; also a crocodile was brought from it by 
Juba to prove his theory, and placed as a votive 
oifering in the temple of Isis at Caesarea, where it 
is on view to-day. Moreover it has been observed 
that the Nile rises in proportion to excessive falls of 
snow or rain in Mauretania. Issuing from this lake 
the river disdaias to flow through arid deserts of 
sand, and for a distance of several days' journey it 
hides underground, but afterwards it bursts out in 
another larger lake in the territory of the Masacsyles 
clan of Mauretania Caesariensis, and so to speak 
makes a survey of the communities of mankind, 
proving its identity by having the same fauna. 
Sinking again into the sand of the desert it hides for 
another space of 20 days' journey till it reaches the 
nearest Ethiopians, and when it has once more 

257 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

itenun sensit hominem, prosilit fonte, ut verisimile 

53 est, illo quem Nigrum vocavere. inde Africam ab 
Aethiopia dispescens, etiamsi non protinus populis, 
feris tamen et beluis frequens silvarumque opifex, 
medios Aethiopas secat cognominatus Astapus, quod 
illarum gentium lingua significat aquam e tenebris 
profluentem. insulas ita innimaeras spargit, quas- 
damque tam vastae magnitudinis, quamquam rapida 
celeritate, ut tamen dierum v cursu, non breviore, 
travolet, circa clarissimam earum Meroen Astobores 
laevo alveo dictus, hoc est ramus aquae venientis e 
tenebris, dextra vero Astusapes, quod lateris signi- 

54 ficationem adicit, nec ante Nilus quam se totum aquis 
rursus concordibus iunxit, sic quoque etiamnum Giris 
ante nominatus per aliquot miha, et in totum Homero 
Aegyptus ahisque Triton. subinde insuhs impactus, 
totidem incitatus inritamentis, postremo inclusus 
montibus, nec ahunde torrentior, vectus aquis pro- 
perantibus ad locum Aethiopicum ^ qui Catadupi 
vocatur,^ novissimo catarracte inter occursantis 
scopulos non fluere inmenso fragore creditur sed 
ruere. postea lenis et confractis ^ aquis domitaque 
violentia, ahquid et spatio fessus, multis quamvis 

* Rackham : Aethiopum. 

* V.l. vocantur. 

* V.l. levia et confractus. 



• Od. iv. 477. 

* The northernmost, now the First Cataract. 



258 



BOOK V. X. 52-54 

become aware of man's proximity it leaps out in a 
fountain, probably the one called the Black Spring. 
From this point it forms the boundary Hne between 
Africa and Ethiopia, and though the river-side is not 
immediately inhabited, it teems with wild beasts 
and animal life and produces forests ; and where 
the river cuts through the middle of Ethiopia it 
has the name of Astapus, which in the native 
language means ' water issuing from the shades 
below.' It strews about such a countless number of 
islands, and some of them of such vast size, that in 
spite of its very rapid flow it nevertheless only flies 
past them in a course of five days, and not shorter; 
while making the circuit of the most famous of these 
islands, Meroe, the left-hand channel is called 
Astobores, that is ' branch of water coming out of 
the shades,' and the right-hand channel Astusapes, 
which means ' side branch.' It is not called Nile 
until its waters are again reconciled and have united 
in a single stream, and even then for some miles 
it still has the name of Giris which it had previ- 
ously. Its name in Homer" is Aegyptus over its 
whole course, and with other writers it is the Triton. 
Every now and then it impinges on islands, which 
are so many incitements spurring it forward on its 
way, till finally it is shut in by mountains, its flow 
being nowhere more rapid ; and it is borne on with 
hurr}'ing waters to the place in Ethiopia called in 
Greek the Downcrash, where at its last cataract * 
owing to the enormous noise it seems not to run 
but to riot between the rocks that bar its way. 
Afterwards it is gentle, the violence of its waters 
having been broken and subdued, and also it is 
somewhat fatigued by the distance it has raced, 

259 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

faucibus in Aegyptium mare se evomat, certis tamen 
diebus auctu magno per totam spatiatus Aegyptum 
fecundus innatat terrae. 

55 Causas huius incrementi varias prodidere, sed 
maxime probabiles etesiarum eo tempore ex adverso 
flantiimi repercussum, ultra in ora acto mari, aut 
imbres Aethiopiae aestivos iisdem etesiis nubila illo 
ferentibus e reliquo orbc. Timaeus mathematicus 
occultam protulit rationem : Phiahim appellari 
fontem eius, mergique in cuniculos ipsum amnem 
vapore anhelantem fumidis cautibus ubi conditur; 
venma solc per eos dies comminus facto extrahi 
ardoris vi et suspensum abundare ac ne devoretur 

50 abscondi ; id evenire a canis ortu per introitimi soUs 
in leonem, contra perpendiculimi fontis sidere stante, 
crun eo tractu absumantur umbrae — plerisque e 
diverso opinatis largiorem fluere ad septentriones sole 
discedente, quod in cancro et leone evenit, ideoque 
tunc minus siccari, rursus in capricornum et austrinum 



» Tho 80Uth-eaatern Mediterranean along tho coaat of Egypt. 
* These blow for forty days at midsummer. 

260 



BOOK V. X. 54-56 

and it belches out, by many mouths it is true, into 
the Egyptian Sea." For a certain part of the year 
however its volume greatly increases and it roams 
abroad over the whole of Egypt and inundates the 
land ^Wth a fertilising flood. 

Various explanations of this rising of the river have 
been given ; but the most probable are either the 
backwush caused by what are called in Greek the 
Annual Winds,* which blow in the opposite direc- 
tion to the current at that period of the year, the 
sea outside being driven into the mouths of the 
river, or the summer rains of Ethiopia which are 
due to the same Annual Winds bringing clouds 
from the rest of the world to Egypt. The mathe- 
matician Timaeus produced a verv recondite theory 
— that the source of the Nile is a spring called 
Phiala, and that the river buries itself in burrows 
underground and breathes forth vapour owing to the 
steaming hot rocks among which it hides itself ; but 
that as the sun at thc period in question comes 
nearer the river water is drawn out by the force 
of the heat and rises up and overflows, and with- 
draws itself to avoid being swallowed up. This, 
he says, begins to occur at the rising of the Dogstar, 
when the sun is entering the sign of the Lion, the 
sun standing in a vertical Hne above the spring, at 
which season in that region shadows entirely dis- 
appear — though the general opinion on the contrary 
is that the flow of the Nile is more copious when 
the sun is departing towards the north, which 
happens when it is in the Crab and the Lion, and 
that consequently the river is dried up less then ; 
and again when the sun returns to Capricorn and 
towards the south pole its waters are absorbed and 

261 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

polum reverso sorberi et ob id parcius fluere. sed 
Timaeo si quis extrahi posse credat, umbrarum 
defectus his diebus et locis sine fine adest. 

57 Incipit crescere luna nova quaecumque post 
solstitium est, sensim modiceque cancrum sole 
transeunte, abundantissime autem leonem, et residit 
in virgine iisdem quibus adcrevit modis. in totum 
autem revocatur intra ripas in libra, ut tradit Hero- 
dotus, centesimo die. cum crescit, reges aut prae- 
fectos navigare eo nefas iudicatum est. auctus per 

58 puteos mensurae notis deprehenduntur. iustum 
incrementum est cubitorum xvi. minores aquae 
non omnia rigant, ampliores detinent tardius re- 
cedendo ; hae serendi tempora absumunt solo 
raadente, illae non dant sitiente. utnmique reputat 
provincia ; in xii cubitis famem sentit, in xiii etiam- 
nima esurit, xiv cubita hilaritatem adferimt, xv 
securitatem, xvi delicias. maximum incrementum 
ad hoc aevi fuit cubitorum xviii Claudio principe, 
minimum v Pharsahco bello, veluti necem Magni 
prodigio quodam flumine aversante. cum stetere 
aquae, apertis moUbus admittuntur; ut quaeque 



• Even when the sun is in the south, so that if Timaeus^s 
explanation wero right, the Nile would be high all the year 
round. 

" II. 19. 

262 



BOOK V. X. 56-58 

its volume consequently reduced. But if anybody 
is inclined to accept the possibility of Timaeus's 
explanation that the waters of the river are di-awn 
out of the earth, there is the fact that in these 
regions absence of shadows goes on continuously at 
this season." 

The Xile begins to rise at the next new moon 
after midsummer, the rise being gradual and moderate 
while the sun is passing through the Crab and at 
its greatest height when it is in the Lion ; and when 
in Virgo it begins to fall by the same degrees 
as it rose. It subsides entirely within its bauks, 
according to the account given by Herodotus,* on thc 
hundredth day, when the sun is in the Scales. The 
view has been held that it is unlawful for kings or 
rulers to sail on the Nile when it is rising. Its 
degrees of increase are detected by means of wells 
marked with a scale. An average rise is one of 
24 feet. A smaller volume of water does not irrigate 
all localities, and a larger oTie by retiring too 
slowly retards agriculture ; and the Latter uses up 
the time for sowing because of the moisture of the 
soil, while the former gives no time for sowing 
because the soil is parched. The province takes 
careful note of both extremes : in a rise of 18 feet 
it senses famine, and even at one of 19| feet it 
begins to feel hungry, but 21 feet brings cheerful- 
ness, 22^ feet complete confidence and 24 feet 
delight. The largest rise up to date was one of 
27 feet in the principate of Claudius, and the smallest 41-6I a.d 
7^ feet in the year of the war of Pharsahis, as if the 48b.o. 
river were attempting to avert the murder of Pompey 
by a sort of portent. When the rise comes to a 
standstill, the floodgates are opened and irrigation 

263 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

liberata est terra, seritur. idem amnis unus 
omnium nullas exspirat auras. 

59 Dicionis Aegj^ptiae esse incipit a fine Aethiopiae 
Syene : ita vocatur paeninsula mille passuum ambitu 
in qua Castra sunt latere Arabiae et ex adverso 
insulae iv Philae, dc p. a Nili fissura, unde appcllari 
diximus Delta. hoc spatium edidit Artcmidorus, et 
in eo CCL oppida fuisse, luba cccc, Aristocreon ab 
Elephantide ad mare dccl. Elephantis insula intra 
novissimum catarracten fv p. et supra Syenen xvi 
habitatur, navigationis Aegyptiae finis, ab Alexandria 
DLXxxv p, — in tantum erravere supra scripti. ibi 
Aethiopicae conveniunt naves ; namque eas pHcatiles 
umeris transferunt quotiens ad catarractas ventum 
est. 

60 XL Aegyptus super ceteram antiquitatis gloriam 
XX urbium sibi Amase regnante [habitata] ^ praefert, 
nunc quoque multis ctiamsi ignobiHbus frequens. 
celebratur tamen Apolhnis, mox Leucotheae, Dios- 
poHs Magna, eadeni Thebe, portarum centum nobiHs 
fama, Coptos Indicarum Arabicarumque mercium 
Nilo proximum cmporiuni, mox Veneris oppidum ct 
iterum lovis ac TcntjTis, infra quod Abydus Mem- 

* Om. cum uno codice liackfiam. 

• 66!)--525 B.o. 
264 



BOOK V. X. 58x1. 60 

begins ; and each strip of land is so^vn as the flood 
relinquishes it. It may be added that the Nile is 
the only river that emits no exhalations. 

It first comes within the territory of Egypt at the 
Ethiopian frontier, at Assuan — that is the name of 
the peninsula a mile in circuit in which, on the 
Arabian side, the Camp is situated and ofF which 
He the four islands of Philae, 600 miles from the 
place where the Nile spUts into two channels — the 
point at which, as we have said, the island called the 
Deha begins. This is the distance given by Artemi- 
dorus, who also states that the island formerly con- 
tained 250 towns ; Juba, however, gives the distance 
as 400 miles. Aristocreon says that the distance 
from Elephantis to the sea is 750 miles — Elephantis 
is an inhabited island 4 miles below the last cataract 
and 16 above Assuan; it is the extreme Umit 
of navigation in Egypt, being 585 miles from Alex- 
andria — so far out in their calculations have the 
above-named authors been. Elephantis is the point 
of rendezvous for Ethiopian vessels, which are made 
collapsible for the purpose of portage on reaching 
the cataracts. 

XI. In addition to boasting its other glories of the cuiesof 
past Egypt can claim the distinction of having had ^^^'' 
in the reign " of King Amasis 20,000 cities ; and 
even now it contains a very large number, although 
of no importance. However, the City of Apollo is 
notable, as is also the City of Leucothea and the 
Great City of Zeus, also caUed Thebes, renowned for 
the fame of its hundred gates, Coptos the market 
near the Nile for Indian and Arabian merchandise, 
and also the Town of Venus and the Town of Jove 
and Tentyris, below which is Abydos, famous for 

265 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

nonis regia et Osiris templo inclutum, vii d p. in 

61 Libyam remotum a flumine. dein Ptolemais et 
Panopolis ac Veneris iterum, et in Libyco Lycon, ubi 
montes finiunt Thebaidem. ab iis oppida Mercuri, 
Alabastron, Canum et supra dictum Herculis. 
deinde Arsinoes ac iam dicta Memphis, inter quam 
et Arsinoiten nomon in Libyco turres quae pyramides 
vocantur, labvrinthus in Moeridis lacu nullo addito 
Mgno exaedificatus et oppidum Crialon.^ unum 
praeterea intus et Arabiae conterminum claritatis 
magnae, Solis oppidum. 

62 Sed iure laudetur in Htore Aegyptii maris Alex- 
andria a Magno Alexandro condita in Africae parte 
ab ostio Canopico .\Ti p. iuxta Mareotim lacum, qui 
locus antea Rhacotes nominabatur. metatus est 
eam Dinochares architectus pluribus modis memora- 
biH ingcnio, ~v p. laxitate insessa ad effigiem Mace- 
donicae chlamydis orbe gyrato laciniosam, dextra 
laevaque anguloso procursu, iam tum tamen quinta 

63 situs parte regiae dicata. Mareotis lacus a meridiana 
urbis parte euripo e Canopico ostio mittit ex medi- 
terraneo commercia, insulas quoque plures amplexas, 
xxx traiectu, ccL ambitu, ut tradit Claudius Caesar. 
alii schoenos in longitudinem patere xl faciunt, 

^ Crocodilon Hardouin ex IJdt. II. 147. 



" At XII. 53 Pliny gives the schoenus (a Persian measure) 
ae either 40 or 32 stadea (see p. 98, n. o), viz. nearly 5 or 
nearly 4 milea. 

266 



BOOK V. XI. 60-63 

the palace of Memnon and the temple of Osiris, in 
the interior of Libya 7| miles from the river, Then 
Ptolemais and PanopoUs and another Town of Venus, 
and on the Libyan side Lycon, where the Province 
of Thebes is bounded by a mountain range. Beyond 
this are the Towns of Mercury, and of the Alabastri, 
the Town of Dogs, and the Town of Hercules men- 
tioned above. Then Arsinoe's Town and Memphis 
already mentioned, between which and the Arsinoite 
district on the Libyan side are the towers called 
pyramids, and on Lake Moeris the Labyrinth, in 
the construction of which no timber was used with 
the masonry, and the town of the Criah. There is 
one place besides in the interior and bordering on 
the Arabian frontier which is of great renown, 
Heliopolis. 

But justice requires that praise shall be bestowed Aiexandria. 
on Alexandria, built by Alexander the Great on the 
coast of the Egyptian Sea on the side of Africa, 
12 miles from the Canopic mouth and adjoining Lake 
Mariout ; the site was pre\aously named Rhacotes. 
It was laid out by the architect Dinochares, who is 
famous for his talent in a variety of ways ; it covered 
an area spreading 15 miles in the shape of a Mace- 
donian soldier's cape, with indentations in its cir- 
cumference and projecting corners on the right and 
left side ; while at the same time a fifth of the site 
was devoted to the King's palace. Lake Mariout, 
which lies on the south side of the city, carries 
traffic from the interior by means of a canal from 
the Canopic mouth of the Nile ; also it includes a 
considcrable number of islands, being 30 miles across 
and 250 miles in circumference, according to Claudius 
Caesar. Others make it 40 schoeni " long and reckon 

267 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

schoenumque stadia xxx, ita fieri longitudinis cl p., 
tantundem et latitudinis. 

64 Sunt in honore et intra decursus Nili multa oppida, 
praecipue quae nomina ostiis dedere, non omnibus — 
XII enim reperiuntur, superque quattuor quae ipsi 
falsa ora appellant — sed celeberrimis vii, proximo 
Alexandriae Canopico, dein Bolbitino, Sebcnnj^tico, 
Phatnitico, Mendesico, Tanitico, ultimoque Pelusiaco. 
praeterea Butos, Pharbaethos, Lentopolis, Athribis, 
Isidis Oppidum, Busiris, Cynopohs, Aphrodites, Sais, 
Naucratis, unde ostium (juidam Naucratiticum nomi- 
nant quod aHi Heracleoticum, Canopico cui proximum 
est praeferentes. 

65 XII. Ultra Pelusiacum Arabia est, ad Rubrum 
Mare pertinens et odoriferam illam ac divitem et 
beatae cognomine inclutam. haec Cattabanum et 
Esbonitarum et Scenitarum Arabum vocatur, steriUs 
praeterquam ubi Syriae confinia attingit, nec nisi 
Casio monte nobilis. his Arabes iunguntur, ab 
oriente Canclilei, a meridie Cedrei, qui deinde ambo 
Nabataeis. Heroopoliticus vocatur alterque Aelani- 
ticus ^ sinus Rubri maris in Aegyptum vergentis, cl 
intervallo inter duo oppida, Aelana et in nostro mari 

^ V.ll. Laclaniticus et alia : Laeaniticus vel Aelaniticus 
JUayhoff coU. VI. 156, 165. 



" I.e. Arahia Petraea, adjoining Egypt. 
' Arabia Felix. 

' * Tent-dweliera ' (<•/. VI. 143), the modern Bedouins. 
268 



BOOK V. XI. 63-xii. 65 

the sckoenus as 30 furlongs, which makes the length 
150 miles, and they give the same figure for the 
breadth. 

There are also many considerable towns in the Townsof 
region of the lower parts of the Nile, especially those °^"^ " ' ^' 
that have given their names to the mouths of the 
river, though not all of these are named after towns — 
for we find that there are twelve of them, besides 
four raore that the natives call ' false mouths ' — but 
the seven best known are the Canopic mouth nearest 
to Alexandria and then the Bolbitine, Sebennytic, 
Phatnitic, Mendesic, Tanitic, and last the Pelusiac. 
Besides the towns that give their names to the 
mouths there are Butos, Pharbaethos, Leontopolis, 
Atliribis, the Town of Isis, Busiris, Cynopohs, 
Aphrodite's Town, Sais, and Naucratis, after which 
some people give the name of Naucratitic to the 
mouth called by others the Heracleotic, and mention 
it instead of the Canopic mouth wliich is next to it. 

XII. Beyond the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile is Arahia. 
Arabia," extending to the Red Sea and to the 
Arabia known by the siu-name of Happy * and 
famous for its perfumes and its wealth. This bears 
the names of the Cattabancs, Esbonitae and Scenitae*^ 
tribes of Arabs ; its soil is barren except where it 
adjoins the frontier of Syria, and its only remark- 
able feature is the El Kas mountain. The Arabian 
tribe of the Canchlei adjoin those mentioned on 
the east and that of the Cedrei on the south, and 
both of these in tlieir turn adjoin the Nabataei. 
The two gulfs of the Red Sea where it converges on 
Kgypt are called the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of 
Akaba ; between tlie two towns of Akaba and 
Guzzah, which is on the Mcditerrancan, thcre is a 

269 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Gazain. Agrippa a Pelusio Arsinoeii Rubri marls 
oppidum per deserta cxxv p. tradit. tam parvo 
distat ibi tanta rerum naturae diversitas ! 

66 XIII. luxta Syria litus occupat, quondam terrarum 
maxuma et plurimis distincta nominibus : namque 
Palaestine vocabatur qua contingit Arabas, et ludaea, 
et Coele, exin Phoenice, et qua recedit intus Dama- 
scena, ae magis etiamnum meridiana Babylonia, et 
eadem Mesopotamia inter Euphraten et Tigrin, 
quaque transit Taurum Sophene, citra vero eam 
Commagene, et ultra Armeniam Adiabene Assyria 

67 ante dicta, et ubi Ciliciam attingit Antiochia. longi- 
tudo eius inter Ciliciam et Arabiam cccclxx p. est, 
latitudo a Seleucia Pieria ad oppiduni in Euphrate 
Zeugma clxxv. qui subtilius dividunt circumfundi 
S}Tia Phoenicen volunt, et esse oram maritimam 
Syriae, cuias pars sit Idumaea et ludaea, dein 
Phoenicen, dein Syriam. id quod praeiacet mare 
totum Phoenicium appellatur. ipsa gens Phoenicum 
in magna gloria litterarum inventionis et siderum 
navaUumque ac bellicarum artium. 

68 XIV. A Pelusio Chabriae castra, Casius mons, 
delubrum lovis Casii, tumulus Magni Pompei. 
Ostracine Arabia finitur, a Pelusio Lxv p. mox 
Idumaea incipit et Palaestina ab emersu Sirbonis 
270 



BOOK y. xii. 65-xiv. 68 

space of 150 miles. Agrippa says that the distance 
from Pelusium across the desert to the town of 
Ardscherud on the Red Sea is 125 miles : so small a 
distance in that region separates two such different 
regions of the world ! 

XIII. The next country on the coast is Syria, ^yna- 
formcrly the greatest of lands. It had a great many 
divisions with different names, the part adjacent to 
Arabia being formerly called Palestine, and Judaea, 
and HoUow Syria,then Phoenicia and the more inland 
part Damascena, and that still further south Baby- 
lonia as well as Mesopotamia between the Euphrates 
and the Tigris, the district beyond Mount Taurus 
Sophene, that on this side of Sophene Commagene, 
that beyond Armenia Adiabene, which was previously 
called Ass)Tia, and the part touching Cihcia Antio- 
chia. Its length between Cihcia and Arabia 

is 470 miles and its breadth from Seleukeh 
Pieria to BridgetOAvn on the Euphrates 175 miles. 
Those who divide the country into smaller parts hold 
the \iew that Phoenicia is surrounded by Syria, and 
that the order is — the seacoast of Syria of which 
Idumaea and Judaea are a part, then Phoenicia, 
then Syria. The whole of the sea lying off the coast 
is called the Phoenician Sea. The Phoenician race 
itself has the great distinction of having invented the 
alphabet and the sciences of astronomy, navigation 
and strategy. 

XIV. After Pelusiimi come the Camp of Chabrias, idumaea, 
Mount El Kas the temple of Jupiter Casius, and the samaHa! 
tomb of Pompey the Great. At Ras Straki, 65 
miles from Pelusium, is the frontier of Arabia. 
Then begins Idumaea, and Palestine at the point 
wliere the Scrbonian Lake comes into vicw. This 

271 



PLIN^': NATURAL HISTORY 

lacus, quem quidatn cL circuitu tradidere : Herodotus 
Casio monti adplicuit ; nunc est palus modica. 
oppida Rhinocolura et intus Rhaphea, Gaza et intus 
Anthedon, mons Argaris. regio per oram Samaria, 
oppidum Ascalo liberum, Azotos, lamneae duae, 

69 altera intus ; lope Phoenicum, antiquior terrarum 
inundatione, ut ferunt, insidet collem praeiacente 
saxo in quo vinculorum Andromedae vestigia 
ostendunt ; colitur illic fabulosa Ceto. inde Apol- 
lonia, Stratonis turris, eadem Caesarea, ab Herode 
rege condita, nunc colonia Prima I-lavia a Vespasiano 
imperatore deducta, finis Palaestines clxxxix p. a 
confinio Arabiae. dein Phoenice, intus autem 
Samaria; oppida Neapolis, quod antea Mamortha 
dicebatur, Sebaste in monte, et altiore Gamala. 

70 XV. Supra Idumaeam et Samariam ludaea longe 
lateque funditur. pars cius Svriae iuncta Galilaea 
vocatur, Arabiae vero et Aegypto proxima Peraea, 
asperis dispersa montibus et a ceteris ludaeis lordane 
amne discreta. rehqua ludaea dividitur in toparchias 
decem quo dicemus ordine : Hiericuntem palmetis 
consitam, fontibus riguam, Emmaum, Lvddam, 
lopicam, Acrcbitenam, Gophaniticam, Thamniticam, 
Bethleptephenen, Orinen, in qua fuere Hierosolyma 



" Deucalion'8, not Noah'8, is mcant. 

* To be caten by the sea-monster, K-qroi, from which she 
waa rescued by Pcrscus. Tho monstcr secms to have been 
commcmoratcd in the local cult. 

272 



BOOK V. XIV. 68-xv. 70 

lake is recorded by some WTiters as having measured 
150 milcs romid — Herodotus gave it as reaching the 
foot of Mount El Kas ; but it is now an inconsider- 
able fen. There are the towns of El-Arish and 
inland Refah, Gaza and inland Anthedon, and Mount 
Argaris. Further along the coast is the region of 
Samaria, the free town Ascalon, Ashdod, the two 
towns named lamnea, one of them inland ; and the 
Phoenician city of Joppa. This is said to have 
existed before the flood;" it is situated on a hill, 
and in front of it is a rock on wliich they point out 
marks made by the chains with which Andromeda 
was fettered ; * here there is a cult of the legendary 
goddess Ceto. Next Apollonia, and the Tower of 
Strato, otherwise Caesarea, founded by King Herod, 
but now the colony called Prima Fla^ia estabUshed 
by the Emperor Vespasian ; this is the frontier of 
Palestine, 189 miles from the confines of Arabia. 
After this comes Phoenicia, and inland Samaria; 
the towns are Naplous, formerly called Mamortha, 
Scbustieh on a mountain, and on a loftier mountain 
Gamala. 

XV. Beyond Idimnaca and Samaria stretches the Judaea. 
wide expanse of Judaea. Tlie pai-t of Judaea adjoin- 
ing Syria is called Gahlee, and that next to Arabia 
and Egypt Peraea. Peraea is covered with rugged 
mountains, and is separated from the other parts of 
Judaea by the river Jordan. The rest of Judaea is 
divided into ten Local Government Areas in the 
following order : the district of Jericho, which has 
numerous palm-groves and springs of water, and 
those of Emmaus, Lydda, Joppa, Accrabim, Juiria, 
Timnath-Serah, Beth-lebaoth, tlie Hills, the district 
that formerly contained Jerusalem, by far the most 

273 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

longe clarissima urbium orientis, non ludaeae modo, 
Herodium cum oppido inlustri ciasdem nominis. 

71 lordanes amnis oritur e fonte Paniade, qui cogno- 
men dedit Caesareae de qua dicemus. amnis 

•moenus et quatenus locorum situs patitur ambitiosus 
accolisque se praebens velut invitus Asphaltiten 
lacum dirum natura petit, a quo postremo ebibitur 
aquasque laudatas perdit pestilentibus mixtas. ergo 
ubi prima convallium fuit occasio, in lacum se fundit 
qucm plures Genesaram vocant, xvi p. longitudinis, 
vl latitudinis, amoenis circumsaeptum oppidis, ab 
oriente luliade et Hippo, a mcridie Tarichea, quo 
nomine aHqui et lacum appellant, ab occidente 

72 Tiberiade aquis caUdis salubri. Asphaltites nihil 
praeter bitumen gignit, unde et nomen. nuUum 
corpus animahum recipit, tauri camehque fluitant ; 
inde fama nihil in eo mergi. longitudine excedit c p,, 
latitudine maxima Lxxv implet, minima v"i. prospicit 
eimi ab oriente Arabia Nomadum, a meridie Machae- 
rus, secunda quondam arx ludaeae ab Hierosolymis. 
eodem latere est cahdus fons medicae salubritatis 
Cahirroe aquarum gloriam ipso nomine praeferens. 



" The valley of the Jordan runa in a straight linc almost 
to the Dead Sea, but the stream itself windti in numeruus curves. 

274 



BOOK V. XV. 70-72 

famous city of the East and not of Judaea only, 
and Herodium with the celebrated town of the 
same name. 

The source of the river Jordan is the spring ofTheJordan 
Panias from which Caesarea described later takes DeadSea. 
its second name. It is a dehghtful stream, winding § 74. 
about " so far as the conformation of the locahty 
allows, and putting itself at the service of the people 
who dwell on its banks, as though moving with 
reluctance towards that gloomy lake, the Dead Sea, 
which ultimately swallows it up, its much-praised 
waters minghng with the pestilential waters of the 
lake and being lost. For this reason at the first 
opportunity afforded by the formation of the valleys 
it ^ndens out into a lake usually called the Sea of 
Gennesareth. This is 16 miles long and 6 broad, 
and is sldrted by the pleasant towns of Bethsaida 
and Hippo on the east, El Kereh on the south (the 
name of which place some people also give to the 
lake), and Tabariah with its salubrious hot springs 
on the west. The only product of the Dead Sea is 
hitumen, the Greek word for which gives it its 
Greek name, Asphaltites. The bodies of animals do 
not sink in its waters, even bulls and camels floating ; 
this has given rise to the report that notliing at all 
can sink in it. It is more than 100 miles long, and 
fully 75 miles broad at the broadest part but only 
G miles at the narrowest. On the east it is faced 
by Arabia of the Nomads, and on the south by 
Machaerus, at one time next to Jerusalem the most 
important fortress in Judaea. On the same side 
there is a hot spring possessing medicinal value, the 
name of which. Calhrrhoe, itself proclaims the 
celebriLy of its waLers. 

275 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

73 Ab occidonte litora Esscni fugiunt iisque qua 
noccnt, gcns sola et in toto orbe practer ccteras 
mira, sine ulla fcmina, omni venere abdicata, sine 
pecunia, socia palmaruin. in diem ex aequo con- 
venarum turba rcnascitur large frequcntantibus quos 
vita fcssos ad morcs eorum fortima ^ fluctibus agitat. 
ita per scculorum milia (incredibile dictu) gens 
aetcrna est in qua nemo nascitur: tam fecunda illis 
aliorum vitae paenitcntia est ! 

Infra hos Engada oppidum fuit, secundum ab 
Hierosolymis fertilitate palmetorumque nemoribus, 
nunc alterum bustum. inde Masada castellum in 
rupe et ipsum haut procul Asphaltite. et hactcnus 
ludaea est. 

74 XVI. lungitur ei latere Syriae Decapohtana rcgio 
a numero oppidorum, in quo non omnes cadcm 
observant, plurimi tamen Damascum cpoto riguis 
amne Chrysorroa fertilem, Philadelphiam, Rhaji- 
hanam (omnia in Arabiam recedentia), ScythopoUm 
(antea Nysam, a Libero Patre sepulta nutrice ibi) 
Scythis deductis, Gadara Hieromicc praefluente, et 
iam dictum Hippon, Dion, Pcllam aquis divitem, 
Galasam, Canatham. intercurrunt cinguntque has 
urbes tetrarchiae, rcgnorum instar singulae, et in • 
regna contribuuntur, Trachonitis, Panias (in qua 

1 Mayhojf : fortunao. * in v.l. om 

276 



BOOK V. x^-. 73-xvi. 74 

On the west side of the Dead Sea, but out of range 
of the noxious exhahitioiis of the coast, is the soHtary 
tribe of the Essenes, which is remarkable beyond all 
the other tribes in the ■whole world, as it has no 
women and has renounccd all sexual dcsire, has no 
money, and has only palm-trees for company. Day 
by day the throng of refugees is recruited to an 
equal number by numerous accessions of persons 
tired of Hfe and driven thither by the waves of 
fortune to adopt thcir manners. Thus through 
thousands of ages (incredible to relate) a race in 
wliich no one is born Hves on for ever : so proHfic 
for their advantage is other men's weariness of Hfe ! 

L}ing below the Essenes was formerly the town 
of Engedi, second only to Jerusalem in the fertiHty 
of its land and in its groves of palm-trees, but now 
Hke Jerusalem a heap of ashes. Next comes Masada, 
a fortress on a rock, itself also not far from the 
Dead Sea. This is the Hmit of Judaea. 

X\T. Adjoining Judaea on the side of Syria is The 
the region of DecapoHs, so called from the number ^"""p^^^^- 
of its to-wns, though not all writers keep to the same 
towns in the Hst ; most hoAvever include Damascus, 
A\ith its fertile water-meadows that drain the river 
Chrysorrhoc, Philadelphia, Raphana (all these three 
withdraA^-n toAvards Arabia), Sc}-thopoHs (formerly 
Xysa, after Father Liber's nurse, whom he buried 
there) where a colony of Scytliians are settled ; 
Gadara, past which flows the river Yarmak; 
Hippo mentioned already, Dion, PeHa rich with its§7i. 
waters, Galasa, Canatha. Between and around 
these cities run tetrarchies, each of them equal 
to a kingdom, and they are incorporated into king- 
doms — Trachonitis, Panias (in which is Caesarea § 7i. 

voL. II. K 277 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Caesarea cuin supra dicto fonte), Abila, Arca, 
Ampeloessa, Gabe. 

75 XVII. Hinc rcdeundum est ad oram atque 
Phoenicen. fuit oppidum Crocodilon, est flumen; 
memoria urbium Dorum, Sycaminum. promun- 
turium Carmelum et in monte oppidum eodem 
nomine, quondam Acbatana dictum. iuxta Cietta, 
Geba, rivus Pacida sive Belus, vitri fertiles harenas 
parvo litori miscens ; ipse e palude Cendebia a 
radicibus Carmeli profluit. iuxta colonia Claudi 
Caesaris Ptolemais, (juae quondam Acce, oppidum 

76 Ecdippa, promunturium Album. Tyros, quondam 
insula pracalto mari dcc passibus divisa, nunc vero 
Alexandri oppugnantis operibus continens, olim partu 
clara urbibus genitis Lepti, Utica, et illa Romani 
imperii aemula terrarumque orbis avida Cartha- 
gine, etiam Gadibus extra orbem eonditis : nunc 
omnis eiiLS nobilitas concliylio atque purpura constat. 
circuitus .\Tx est, in ora ^ Palaetyro inclasa ; oppidum 
ipsum XXII stadia optinet. inde Sarepta et Ornithon 
oppida et Sidon artifex vitri Thebarumque Boeo- 
tiarum parens. 

77 A tergo eius Libanus mons orsus md stadiis 
Zimyram usque porrigitur Coeles Syriae quae ^ 
cognominatur. huic par intervcniente valle mons 

* in ora? Mayhoff: intra. 

* Backham : quae Coeles Syriao aul quae Coele Syria. 

° Ta Aujpa and }L.VKanLi'ti>v ttoAi?. 

* Believed to have been named after Ptolemy I, who cn- 
liirgcd it. 
"^ Now Acre. 

•^ I.e. Ras el Abiad, ita modern name. 
' Fonnded by Cadmus, eon of Agenor King of Sidon. 

278 



BOOK V. XVI. 74 wii. 77 

with the spring mentioned above), Ahila, Arca, 
Ampeloessa and Gabe. 

X\'II. From this point we must go back to the Phoenida, 
coast and to Phoenicia. There was fbvmerly a town 
called Crocodilon, and there is still a river of that 
name ; and the cities of Dora and Sycamini," of which 
only the memory exists. Then comes Cape Carmel, 
and on a mountain the town of the same namc, 
formerly called Acbatana. Next are Getta, Geba, 
and the river Pacida or Belus, which covers its 
narrow bank with sand of a lcind used for making 
glass ; the river itself flows out of the marsh of 
Cendebia at the foot of Mount Carmel. Close to 
this river is Ptolemais,* a colony of the Emperor 
Claudius, formerly called Acce ; '^ and then the town 
of Ach-Zib, and the White Cape.'^ Next Tyre, Tyrcand 
once an island separated from the mainland by ' ' °^' 
a very deep sea-channel 700 yards wide, but now 
joined to it by the works constructed by Alexander 
when besieging the place, and formerly famous as 
the mother-city from which sprang the cities of 
Leptis, Utica and the great rival of Rome's empire 
in coveting world-sovereignty, Carthage, and also 
Cadiz, which slie founded outside the confines of thc 
world ; but the entire renown of Tyre now consists 
in a shell-fish and a purple dye ! Tlie circumference 
of tlie city, inchiding Old Tyre on the coast, measures 
19 miles, tlie actual town covering 2| miles. Next 
are Zarephath and Bird-town, and the mother-city 
of Thebes* in Boeotia, Sidon, Avhere glass is made. 

Behind Sidon begins Mount Lebanon, a chain ex- Mount 
tending as far as Zimyra in the district called Hollow 
Syria, a distance of nearly 190 miles. Facing 
Lebanon, with a valley between, stretches the 

279 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

adversus Antilibanus obtenditur quondam muro 
coniunctas. post eum introrsus Decapolitana regio 
praedictaeque cum ea Tetrarchiae et Palaestines tota 

78 laxitas ; in ora autem subiecta Libano fluvius 
Magoras, Bcrj-tus colonia quae Felix lulia appellatur, 
Leontos Oppidum, flumen Lycos, Palaebyblos, 
flumen Adonis, oppida Byblos, Botrys, Gigarta, 
Trieris, Calamos, Tripolis quam T}Tii et Sidonii et 
Aradii optinent, Orthosia, Eleutheros flumen, oppida 
Zimyra, Marathos, contraque Arados septem stadio- 
mm oppidum et insula duccntis passibus a continente 
dl^^tans ; regio in qua supradicti desinunt montes ; 
et interiacentibus campis Bargylus mons. 

79 XVIII. Incipit hinc rursus Syria, desinente 
Phoenice. oppida Came, Balanea, Paltos, Gabala, 
promunturium in quo Laodicea libera, Dipolis, 
Heraclea, Charadras, Posidium. dein promunturium 
Syriae Antiochiae; intas ipsa Antiochia Hbera, 
Epi Daphnes cognominata, Oronte amne dividitur ; in 
promunturio autem Seleucia libera Pieria appellata. 

80 super eam mons eodem quo alius nomine, Casius, 
cuius excelsa altitudo quarta vigilia orientem per 
tenebras solem aspicit, brevi circumactu corporis 
diem noctemque pariter ostendens. ambitus ad 
cacumen .\lx p, est, altitudo per directum iv. at 



• A celebrated grove dcdicated to Apollo. 
280 



BOOK V. x\ii. 77-.\viii. 80 

equally long range of Counter-Lebanon, which was 
formerly connected ^\ith Lebanon by a wall. Behind 
Counter-Lebanon inhind is the region of the Ten 
Cities, and with it the tetrarchies ah-eady men- § 74. 
tioned, and the whole of the wide expanse of Pales- 
tine; while on the coast, below Mount Lebanon, 
are the river Magoras, the colony of Beyrout called 
Juha FeHx, Lion's Town, the river Lycus, Palaeby- 
blos, the river Adonis, the towns of Jebeil, Batrun, 
Gazis, Trieris, Calamos ; Tarabhs, inliabited by people 
from Tyre, Sidon and Ruad ; Ortosa, the river Eleu- 
theros, the towas of Zimyra and Marathos ; and facing 
them the seven-furlong town and island of Ruad, 
330 yards from the mainland ; the region in whicli 
the mountain ranges above mentioned terminate ; 
and beyond some intervening plains Mount Bargylus. 

X^TIL At this point Phoenicia ends and Syria Sijria 
begins again. There are the to^vns of Tartus, 
Banias, Bolde and Djebeleh; the cape on which 
the free town of Latakia is situated ; and DipoUs, 
Heraclea, Charadrus and Posidium. Then the cape 
of Antiochian Syria, and inhmd the city of Antioch 
itself, which is a free tovm and is called ' Antioch 
Near Daphne,' " and which is separated from Daphne 
by the river Orontes ; while on the cape is the free 
town of Seleukeh, called Pieria. Above Selcukeh is a 
mountain having tlie same name as the other one, 5C8- 
Casius, which is so extremely lofty that in the 
fourth quarter of the night it commands a view of 
the sun rising through the darkness, so presenting 
to the observer if he merely turns round a view of 
day and night simultaneously. The winding route 
to the summit nieasures 19 miles, the perpendicuhn* 
height of ihe nuiuntain being 4 iniles. On the coast 

281 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

in ora amms Orontes natus inter Libanum et Antili- 
banum iuxta Heliopolim. oppida Rhosos — et a tergo 
Portae quae SjTiae appellantur, intervallo Rhosiorum 
montium et Tauri, — in ora oppidum Myriandros, 
mons Amanus in quo oppidum Bomilae. ipse ab 
Syris Ciliciam separat. 

81 XIX. Nunc interiora dicantur. Coele habet 
Apameam Marsya amne di\isam a Nazerinorum 
tetrarchia, Bambycen quae alio nomine Hierapolis 
vocatur, Syris vero Maljog — ibi prodigiosa Atargatis, 
Graecis autem Derceto dicta, coHtur — , Chalcidem 
cognominatam Ad Belum, unde regio Chalcidena 
fertiUssima Syriae, et inde Cyrresticae Cyrrum, 
Gazetas, Gindarenos, Gabenos, tetrarchias duas quae 
Granucomatitae vocantur, Hemesenos, Hylatas, 
Ituraeorum gentem et qui ex his Baethaemi vocantur, 

82 Mariamnitanos, tetrarchiam quae Mammisea apella- 
tur, Paradisum, Pagras, Penelenitas, Seleucias 
praeter iam dictam duas, quae ad Euphraten et quae 
ad Belum vocantur, Tardytenses. reHqua autem 
Syria habet (exceptis quae cum Euphrate dicentur) 
Arbethusios, Beroeenses, Epiphanenses ad Orontem, 
Laodicenos qui ad Libanum cognominantur, Leu- 
cadios, Larisaeos, praeter tetrarchias in regna 
discriptas barbaris nominibus xvn. 



" Astarte, Iialf woman, half fish. 
282 



BOOK V. xviii. 80-xix. 82 

is the river Orontes, which rises between Lebanon 
and Counter-Lebanon, near Baalbec. The towns 
are Rhosos, — and behind it the pass called the Gates 
of S}Tia, in between the Rhosos Mountains and 
Mount Taurus, — and on the coast the town of 
Myriandros. and Mount Alnia-Daoh, on which is the 
town of Bomitae. This mountain separates CiUcia 
from Syria. 

XIX. Now let us speak of the places inhind. iniand 
Hollow S^-ria contains the town of Kuhit el Mudik, '^^'^"'' 
separated by the river Marsyas from the tetrarchy 
of the Nosairis ; Bambyx, which is also named the 
Holy Citv, but wliich the Svrians call Mabog — here 
the monstrous goddess Atargatis," the Greek name 
for wliom is Derceto, is worshipped ; the place called 
Chalcis on Behxs,* which gives its name to the i-egion 
of Chalcidene, a most fertile part of Syria ; and 
then, belonging to Cyrrestica, Cyrras and the 
Gazetae, Gindareni and Gabeni ; the two tetrarchies 
called Granucomatitae; the Hemeseni, the Hylatae, 
the Ituraei tribe and a branch of them called the 
Baethaemi ; the Mariamnitani ; the tetrarchy called 
Mammisea ; Paradise, Pagrae, Penelenitae ; two 
places called Seleucia in addition to the place of that 
name already mentioned, Seleucia on the Euphrates S^'-*- 
and Seleucia on Belus ; and the Tardytenses. 
The remainder of Syria (excepting the parts that 
will be spoken of with the Euphrates) contains the 
Arbethusii, the Beroeenses, the Epiplianenses on 
the Orontes, the Laodiceans on Lebanon, the 
Leucadii and the Larisaei, besides seventeen 
tetrarchies divided into Idngdoms and bearing bar- 
barian names. 

* Porhaps tbe mountain Djebel el Sommaq. 

283 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

83 XX. Et de Euphrate hoc in loco dixisse aptissi- 
mum fuerit. oritur in praefectura Armeniae Maioris 
Caranitide, ut prodidere ex iis qui proxime viderant 
Domitius Corbulo in monte Aga, Licinius Mucianus 
sub radicibus montis quem Capoten appellat, supra 
Zimaram xn p., initio Pyxurates nominatus. fluit 
Derzencn primum, mox Anaeticam, Armeniae 

84 regiones a Cappadocia excludens. Dascusa abest a 
Zimara ia.xv p. inde navigatur Sartonam l, Meli- 
tenen Cappadociae xxiv, Elegeam Armeniae .\ 
acceptis fluminibus Lyco, Arsania, Arsano. apud 
Elegeam occurrit ei Tauras mons, nec resistit 
quamquam .xTi p. latitudine praevalens.^ Ommam 
vocant inrumpentem, mox ubi perfregit, Euphraten, 

8.5 ultra quoque saxosum et violentum, Arabiam inde 
hxeva, Orroeon dictaui regioneni, trischocua nicnsura 
dextraque Conimagenen disterniinat, pontis tanien 
ctiani ubi Tauruni expugnat patiens. apud Claucho- 
poUm Cappadociae cursum ad occasum solis agit ; 
priiiio hunc illic in pugna Tnurus aufcrt, viclusque et 
abscisus sibimet aHo modo vincit ac fractum exjiellit 
iii nieridiem. ita naturae dimicatio iUa aequatur 

^ V.l. jiraevalenti. 
284 



BOOK V. XX. 83-85 

XX. A description of the Euphrates also will come TheHver 
most suitably at this place. It rises in Caranitis, a "^ ^" 
prefecture of Greater Armenia, as has been stated 
by two of the persons who have seen it nearest to 
its source — Domitius Corbulo putting its source in 
Mount Aga and Licinius Mucianus at the roots of 
a mountain the name of which he gives as Capotes, 
tweh'e miles above Zimara. Near its source the 
river is called Pyxurates. Its course divides first the 
Derzene region of Armenia and then the Anaetic 
from Cappadocia. Dascusa is 75 miles from Zimara ; 
and from Dascusa the river is navigable to Sartona, 
a distance of 50 miles, to MeHtene in Cappadocia 
24 miles, and to Elegea in Armenia 10 miles, receiving 
the tributary streams Lycus, Arsania and Arsanus. 
At Elegea it encounters Mount Taurus, wliich how- 
ever does not bar its passage although forming an 
extremely powerful barrier 12 miles broad. The 
river is called the Omma wliere it forces its way 
into the range, and later, where it emerges, the 
Euphrates ; beyond the range also it is full of rocks 
and has a violent current. From this point it forms 
the frontier between the district of Arabia called 
the country of the Orroei on the left and Commagene 
on the right, its breadth being three cables' length, 
although even where it forces its passage through 
the Taurus range it j)crmits of a bridge. At Claudio- 
polis in Cappadocia it directs its course towards the 
west ; and there for the first time in this combat 
Mount Taurus carries the stream out of its course, 
and though conquered and cleft in twain gains the 
victory in another manner by breaking its career 
and forcing it to take a southerly direction. Thus 
this duel of nature becomes a drawn battle, the 

285 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

hoc eunte quo vult, illo prohibente ire qua velit. a 
catarractis iterum navigatur. xL p. inde Cgm- 
magenes caput Samosata. 

86 XXI. Arabia supra dicta habet oppida Edessam 
quae quondam Antiochia dicebatur, Callirrhoen a 
fonte nominatam, Carrhas Crassi clade nobiles. 
iungitur praefectura Mesopotamiae ab Assyriis 
originem trahens, in qua Anthemusia et Niceplioriuni 
oppida. mox Arabes qui Praetavi vocantur ; horum 
caput Singara. a Samosatis autem, latere Syriae, 
Marsyas amnis influit. Cingilla Commagenen finit, 
Imeneorum civitas incipit. oppida adhiuntur Epi- 
phania et Antiochia quae ad Euphraten vocatur,^ 
item Zeugma fxxTi p. a Samosatis, transitu Euphratis 
nobile: ex adverso Apameam Seleucus, idem utri- 

87 usque conditor, ponte iunxerat. qui cohaerent 
Mesopotamiae Rhoali vocantur. at in Syria oj^pida 
Europum, Thapsacum quondaui, nunc Amphipolis, 
Arabes Scenitae. ita fertur usque Suram locum, in 
quo conversus ad orientem relinquit Syriae Pahny- 
renas soHtudines quae usque ad Petram urbem et 
regionem Arabiac Felicis appellatae pertinent. 

88 Palmyra urbs nobilis situ, divitiis soli et aquis 
aniociiis, vasto undique ambitu harenis includit 

^ Itackham : vocantur. 

• See § 65 n. 
286 



BOOK V. XX. 85-xxi. 88 

river reachingthe goalof its choice but the mountaiii 
preventing it from reaching it by the course of its 
choice. After passing the Cataracts the stream is 
again navigable ; and 40 miles from this point is 
Samosata the capital of Commagene. 

XXI. Arabia above mentioned contains the towns Mesopo- 
Edessa, which was formerly called Antiochia, oTAe' ^*^"' 
Calhrrhoe, named from its spring, and Carrhae, Euphrates. 
famous for the defeat of Crassus there. Adjoining 
it is the prefecture of Mesopotamia, which derives 
its origin from the Assyrians and in which are the 
towns of Anthemusia and Nicephorium. Then 
comes the Arab tribe called the Praetavi, whose 
capital is Singara. Below Samosata, on the Syrian 
side, the river Marsyas flows into the Euphrates. 
At Cingilla the territory of Commagene ends and 
the state of the Imenei begins. The towns washed 
by the river are Epiphania and Antioch (called 
Antioch on the Euphrates), and also Bridgetown, 72 
miles from Samosata, famous as a place where the 
Euphrates can be crossed, Apamea on the opposite 
bank being joined to it by a bridge constructed by 
Seleucus, the founder of both towns. The people 
contiguous to Mesopotamia are called the llhoali. In 
Syria are the town of Europus and the town formerly 
called Thapsacus and now AmphipoHs, and an Arab 
tribe of Scenitae.'^ So the river flows on to the 
place named Sura, where it takes a turn to the 
east and leaves the Syrian desert of Palmyra which 
stretches right on to the city of Petra and the region 
called Arabia Felix. 

Palmyra is a city famous for its situation , for the rich- paimt/ra. 
ness of its soil and for its agreeable springs ; its fields 
are surrounded on every side by a vast circuit of sand, 

287 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

agros, ac velut terris exempta a reruni natura, privata 
sorte inter duo imperia summa Romanorum Partho- 
rumque, et ^ prima in discordia semper utrimque 
cura. abest ab Seleucia Parthorum quae vocatur ad 
Tigrim cccxxxvii p., a proximo vero Syriae litore 
ccin et a Damasco xxvii propius. 

89 Infra Palmyrae soUtudines Stelendena regio est 
dictaeque iam Hierapolis ac Beroea et Chalcis. ultra 
Palmyram quoque ex solitudinibus his aliquid obtinet 
Hemesa, item Elatium, dimidio propior Petrae quam 
Damascus. a Sura autem proxime est Philiscum 
oppidum Parthorum ad Euphraten; ab eo Seleuciam 
dierum decem navigatio, totidemque fere Babylonem. 

liO scinditur Euphrates a Zeugmate dlxxxxi p. circa 
vicum Massicen, et parte laeva in Mesopotamiam 
vadit per ipsam Seleuciam, circa eam praefluenti 
infusus Tigri ; dexteriore autem alveo Babylonem 
quondam Chaldaeae caput petit, mediamque per- 
means, item (juam Mothrim vocant, distrahitur in 
paludes. increscit autem ct ipse NiH modo statis 
diebus paulum difFerens ac Mesopotamiam inundat 
sole optinente .xx partem cancri ; minui incipit in 
virginem e leone transgresso, in totum vero remeat in 
XXIX parte virginis. 

91 XXII. Sed rede.Tmus ad oram Syriae, cui proxima 
est CiHcia. flumen Diaphanes, mons Crocodilus. 

' cst Mayhojf. 
288 



I 



BOOK V. XXI. 88-xxii. 91 

and it is as it were isolated by Natnre from the world, 
having a destiny of its own between thc two mighty 
empires of Rome and Parthia, and at the first moment 
of a quarrel betwcen them always attracting the 
attention of both sides. It is 337 miles distant from 
Partliian Seleucia, generally known as Seleucia on 
the Tigris, 203 miles from the nearcst part of the 
Syrian coast, and 27 miles less from Damascus. 

Below the Desert of Palmyra is the district of 
Stelendena, and Holy City, Beroea and Chalcis 
already mentioned. Beyond Palmyra also a part of §§8i,83. 
this desert is claimed by Hemesa, and a part by 
Elatium, which is half as far as Damascus is from 
Petrae. Quite near to Sura is the Parthian to^\Ti of 
PhiHscum on the Euphrates ; from Phihscum to 
Seleucia is a voyage of ten days, and about the same 
to Babylon. At a point 594 miles from Bridgetown, 
the Euphrates divides round the village of Massice, 
the left branch passing through Seleucia itself into 
Mesopotamia and falHng into thc Tigris as it flows 
round that city, while the right-hand channel makes 
for Babylon, the former capital of Chaldea, and 
passing through the middle of it, and also through 
the city called Mothris, spreads out into marshes. 
Like the Nile, the Euphrates also increases in 
volume at fixed periods with httle variation, and 
floods Mesopotamia when the sun has reached thc 
20th degree of the Crab ; but when the sun has 
passed through the Lion and entered Virgo it begins 
to sink, and when the sun is in the 29th degree of 
Virgo it retums to its channcl entirely. 

XXH. But let us return to the coast of Sy ria, Asta Minor: 
adjoining which is CiUcia. Here are the river ^oining'^ 
Diaphanes, Mount Crocodile, the Gates of Mount «(«tonj. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

portae Amani montis. flumina Andrncus, Pinarus, 
Lvcus, sinus Issicus, oppidum Issos, item Alexandria, 
flumen Chlorus, oppidum Aegaeae liberimi, amnis 
Pyramus, portae Ciliciae, oppida Mallos, Magirsos 
et intas Tarsos, campi Alei, oppida Casyponis, Mopsos 
liberum PjTamo inpositum, T}tos, Zephyrium, 

92 Anchiale ; anines Saros, Cydnos Tarsum Hberam 
urbem procul a mari secans ; regio Celenderitis cimi 
oppido, locus Xyniphaeum, Soloe Cilicii nunc Pom- 
peiopolis, Adana, Cibyra, Pinare, Pedalie, Ale, 
SeHnus, Arsinoe, lotape, Dorion, iuxtaque mare 
CorA-cos, eodem nomine oppidum et portus et specus. 
mox flumen Calycadnus, promunturium Sarpedon, 
oppida Holmoe, Myle, promunturium et oppidum 

Q.i Veneris a quo proxime Cypras insula. sed in conti- 
nente oppida Mysanda, Anemurium, Coracesium, 
finisque antiquus Ciliciae Melas amnis. intus autem 
dicendi Anazarbeni qui nunc Caesarea, Augusta, 
Castabala, Epiphania quae antea Oeniandos, Eleasa, 
Iconium, Seleucia supra amnem Calycadnum Tra- 
cheotis cognomine, ab mari relata ubi vocabatur 
Hermia. praeterea intus flumina Liparis, Bombos, 
Paradisus, mons Imbarus. 

94 XXIII. Ciliciae PamjihvHam omnes iunxere 
neglecta gente Isaurica. oppida eius intus Isaura, 
CHbanus, Lalasis ; decurrit autem ad mare Anemuri 
e regione supra dicti. simiH modo omnibus qui 



" Founded by Aloxander the Great to commemorate his 
victory over Darius; tho name survivcs as Scanderoon. 

290 



BOOK V, XXII. 91-XX111. q.\ 

Alma-Daarh, the rivers Androcus, Pinarus and Lyciis, 
the Gulf of Issos, the town of Issos, likewise 
Alexandria," the river Chlorus, the free town of 
Aegaeae, the river Pyramus, the Gates of CiUcia, 
the towns of Mallos and Magirsos and in the interior 
Tarsus, the Aleian Plains, the towns of Casyponis, 
Mopsos (a free town on the river Pyramas), Tyros, 
Zephyrium and Anohiale ; and the rivers Saros and 
Cydnos, the latter cutting through the free city of 
Tarsus at a great distance from the sea ; the district 
of Celenderitis with its town, the place Nymphaeum, 
Soloi of Cihcia now Pompeiopolis, Adana, Cibyra, 
Pinare, Pedalie, Ale, SeUhus, Arsinoe, lotape, 
Dorion, and on the coast Corycos, there being a town 
and harbour and cave of the same name. Then the 
river Calycadnus, Cape Sai*pedon, the towns of 
Holmoe and Myle, and thc promontory and town 
of \'cnus, a short distance from which Hes the island 
of Cyprus. On the mainland are the towns of 
Mysanda, Anemurium and Coracesium and the 
rivcr Melas, the formcr boundary of CiUcia. Places 
worthy of mention in the interior are Anazarbeni 
(the present Caesarea), Augusta, Castabala, Kpi- 
phania(pre\iously calledOeniandos),Elcusa, Iconium, 
and beyond the river Calycadnus Scleucia, called 
Seleucia Tracheotis, a city moved from the sea- 
shore, where it used to be called Hermia. Besides 
these there are in the interior the rivers Liparis, 
Bombos and Paradisus, and Mount Imbarus. 

XXIII. All the authorities havc made Pamphylia rsauria. 
join on to Cilicia, overlooking the people of Isauria. 
The inland towns of Isauria are Isaura, Clibanus 
and Lalasis ; it runs down to the sea over against 
Anemiuium above mentioned. Similarly all who § 03. 

291 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

eadem composuere ignorata est contermina illi gens 
Omanadxim quonmi intus oppidum Omana. cetera 
castella xliv inter asperas convalles latent. 

XXn'. Insident verticem Pisidae quondam appel- 
lati SohTni, quormn colonia Caesarea, eadem 
Antiochia, oppida Oroanda, Sagalessos. 

95 XX\'. Hos includit Lycaonia in Asiaticam iurisdic- 
tionem versa, cum qua conveniunt Philomelienses, 
Tymbriani, Leucolithi, Pelteni, Tyrienses. datur et 
tetrarchia ex Lycaonia qua parte Galatiae conter- 
mina est, civitatium xiv, urbe celeberrima Iconio. 
ipsius Lycaoniae celebrantur Thebasa in Tauro, Ide 
in confinio Galatiac atque Cappadociae. a latere 
autem eius super Pamphyliam veniunt Thracum 
suboles Milyac, quorum Arycanda oppidum. 

96 XX\T. Pamphylia antea Mopsopia appellata est. 
mare Paniphyliimi CiHcid iungitur. oppida Side et 
in monte Aspendum, Phmtanistum, Perga ; pro- 
munturium LeucoUa ; mons Sardemisus ; amnes 
Eurymedon iuxta Aspendum fluens, Catarractes, 
iuxta quem Lymessus et Olbia ultimaque eius orae 
Phaselis. 

97 XXVII. lunctum mare Lycium est gensque Lycia, 
unde vastos ^ sinus Taurus mons ab Eois veniens 
litoribus Chelidonio promunturio disterminat, in- 

^ Sillig : vastus. 
292 



BOOK V. xxiii. 94-.\.\vii. 97 

have written on the same subject have ignored the 
tribe of the Omanades bordering on Isauria, whosc 
town of Omana is in the intcrior. There are 44 othcr 
fortresses lying hiddcn among ruggcd valleys. 

XXIV. The crcst of thc mountains is occupicd by Pisidia. 
the Pisidians, formerly called thc Solymi, to whom 
bclong thc colony of Cacsarca also named Antioch 

and the towns of Oroanda and Sagalcssos. 

XXV. The Pisidians are bordered by Lycaonia, Lycamia. 
includcd in the jurisdiction of the pro\ince of Asia, 
which is also the centre for the peoplcs of Philomel- 

ium, Tymbrium, Leucolithium, Pelta and Tyriaeum. 
To that jurisdiction is also assigned a tetrarchy that 
forms part of Lycaonia in the division adjoining 
Galatia, consisting of 14 statcs, the most famous city 
l)eing Iconium. Notable placcs bclonging to Lycaonia 
itsclf are Thebasa on Mount Taurus and Ida on the 
frontier between Galatia and Cappadocia. At the 
side of Lycaonia, beyond Pamphylia, comc the 
Milyae, a tribe of Thracian dcscent ; their town is 
Ar)'canda. 

XX\ I. Pamphylia was previously called Mopsopia. Pamphylia. 
The Pamphyhan Sca joins on to the Sea of CiHcia. 
PamphyHa includes the towns of Side and, on the 
mountain, Aspcndus, Plantanistus and Perga, Cape 
Leucolla and Mount Sardcmisus ; its rivcrs arc the 
Eurymcdon flowing past Aspcndus and thc Catarrh- 
actes on which are Lyrnessus and 011)ia and PhascHs, 
thc last place on the coast. 

XXVII. Adjoining Pamphylia are the Sea of Lycia Mount 
and the Lycian tribc, at thc point where Mount '''''"'™*- 
Taurus coming from the Eastern sliorcs forms the 
Chclidonian Promontory as a boundary between 
vast bays. It is itself an immense range, and holds 

293 



PLINY: NATl RAL HISTORY 

mensus ipse et innumerarum gentium arbiter, dextro 
latcre septentrionalis, ubi primum ab Indico mari 
exsurgit, laevo meridianus, et ad occasum tendens 
mediamque distrahens Asiam, nisi opprimenti terras 
occurrerent maria. resilit ergo ad septentriones, 
flexusque inmensum iter quaerit, velut de indiLstria 
rerum natura subinde aequora opponente, hinc 
Phoenicium, hinc Ponticum, illinc Caspium et 

98 Hyrcanium contraque Maeotium lacum. torquetur 
itaque collisus inter haec claustra, et tamen victor 
flexuosus evadit usque ad cognata Ripaeorum 
montiimi iuga, numerosis nominibus et novis qua- 
cumque incedit insignis, Imaus prima parte dictus, 
mox Kmodus, Paropanisus, Circius, Cambades, 
Pariades, Choatras, Oreges, Oroandes, Niphates. 
Taurus. atque ubi se quoque exuperat Caucasus, ubi 
brachia emittit subinde temptanti maria similis 
Sarpedon, Coracesius. Cragus, iterumque Taurus ; 

99 etiam ubi dehiscit seque populis aperit portarum 
tamen nomine unitatem sibi vindicans quae aliubi 
Armeniae aliubi Caspiae aliubi Ciliciae vocantur. 
quin etiam confractus, effugiens quoque maria, 
plurimis se gentium nominibus hinc et illinc implet, a 
dextra Hyrcanius, Caspius, a laeva Parihedrus, 

• 'Himaeus' and 'Emodua' both mean 'Hiraalaya,' and 
ParopanisuB is Hindu Kush. 

294 



BOOK V. x.xvii. 97-99 

the balaiice bctween a countless nuiuber of tribcs ; 
its right-hand side, where it first riscs out of the 
Indian Ocean, faces north, and its left-hand side faces 
south ; it also stretches westward, and would divide 
Asia in two at the middle, were it not that in 
dominating the land it encounters the opposition of 
seas. It thcrefore recoils in a northerly dircction, 
and forming a curve starts on an immense route, 
Nature as it were designedly throwing seas in its 
way at intervals, here the Phoenician Sea, here the 
Black Sea, there the Caspian and the Hyrcanian, 
and opposite to them the Sea of Azov. Consequently 
owing to their impact the mountain twists about 
between these obstacles, and neverthcless sinuously 
emerging victorious rcaches the kindred ranges of 
the llipaean Mountains. The range is designated by 
a number of names, receiving new ones at each point 
in its advance : its first portion is called Imaus, 
then Emodus," Paropanisus, Circius, Cambades, 
Pariades, Choatras, Oregcs, Oroandcs, Niphates, 
Taurus, and where it overtops even itsclf, Cau- 
casus, while wherc it occasionally throws out 
arms as if trying to invade the sea, it becomes 
Sarpedon, Coracesius, Cragus, and once again 
Taurus ; and even where it gapes open and makes a 
passage for mankind, ncverthelcss claiming for itself 
an unbroken continuity by giving to these passes 
the name of Gates : in one place they are callcd 
the Armenian Gates, in anothcr the Caspian, and 
in another the CiHcian. Moreover when it has 
been cut short in its carecr, rctiring also from the 
sea, it fiUs itself on either side with the namcs of 
numerous races, on the right-hand side being called 
the Hyrcanian Mountain and the Caspian, and on 

295 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Moschicus, Amazonicus, Coraxicus, Scythicus appel- 
latus, in universum vero Graece Ceraunius. 

100 XXVm. In Lycia igitur a promunturio eius 
oppidum Simena, mons Chimaera noctibus flagrans, 
Hephaestium civitas et ipsa saepe flagrantibus iugis. 
oppidum Olympus ibi fuit, nunc sunt montana 
Gagae, Cor)'dalla, Rhodiopolis, iuxta mare Limyra 
cum amne in quem Arycandus influit, et mons 
Masicitus, Andria civitas, Myra, oppida Aperiac et 
Antiphellos quae quondam Habesos, atque in 
recessu Phellos. dein Pyrrha itcmque Xanthus a 
mari XV, flumenque eodcm nomine ; deinde Patara, 
quae prius Pataros, et in monte Sidyma, promim- 

101 turium Cragus. ultra par sinus priori ; ibi Pinara 
et quae Lyciam fmit Telmessus. Lycia lxx quondam 
oppida habuit, nunc xxxvi habet ; ex his celeberrima 
praeter supra dicta Canas, Candyba ubi laudatur 
Eunias nemus, Podalia, Choma praefluente Aedosa, 
Cyaneae, Ascandiandalis, Amelas, Noscopium, Tlos, 
Telandrus. conprehendit in mediterrancis et Caba- 
liam, cuius tres urbes Oenianda, Balbura, Bubon. 

i02 a Tclmesso Asiaticum mare sive Carpathium et quae 
proprie vocatur Asia. in duas eam partes Agrippa 
divisit. unam inclusit ab oriente Phrygia et Lyca- 
onia, ab occidente Aegaeo mari, a meridie Aegyptio, 
296 



BOOK V. XXVII. 99-xxviii. 102 

the left the Parihedrian, Moschian, Amazonian, 
Coraxian, Scythian ; whereas in Greek it is called 
throughout the whole of its course the Ceraunian 
Mountain. 

XX\'III. In Lycia therefore after leaving the Lyda. 
promontory of Mount Taurus we have the town of 
Siinena, ^lount Chimaera, which scnds forth flames 
at night, and the city-state of Hephaestium, which 
also has a mountain range that is often on fu*e. The 
town of Olympus stood here, and there are now the 
mountain villages of Gagae, Corydalla and Rhodio- 
poHs, and near the sea Limyra with tlie river of 
which the Arycandus is a tributary, and Mount 
Masicitus, the city-state of Andria, Myra, the towns 
of Aperiae and Antiphellos formerly called Habesos, 
and in a corner Phellos. Then comes Pyrrha, and 
also Xanthus 15 miles from the sea, and tlie river 
of the same name ; and then Patara, previously 
Pataros, and Sidyma on its mountain, and Cape 
Cragus. Beyond Cape Cragus is a bay as large 
as the one before ; liere are Pinara and Tehiiessus. 
the frontier town of Lycia. Lycia formerly contained 
70 towns, but now it has 36 ; of these the most 
famous besides those mentioned above are Canas, 
Candyba the site of the famous grove of Eunia, 
PodaHa, Choma past which flows the Aedesa, 
Cyaneae, AscandiandaUs, Amehis, Noscopium, Tlos, 
Telandrus. It includes also in its interior CabaHa, 
with its three cities, Ocnianda, Balbura and Bubon. 
After Telmessus begins the Asiatic or Carpathian 
Sea, and Asia properly so called. Agrippa divided 
this country into two parts. One of these he en- 
closed on the east by Phrygia and Lycaonia, on the 
west by the Aegean Sea, on the south by the 

297 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

a septentrione Paphlagonia ; huius longitudinem 
ccccLxx, latitudinem cccxx fecit. alteram deter- 
minavit ab oriente Armenia minore, ab occidente 
Phrygia, Lycaonia, PamphyHa, a septentrione pro- 
vincia Pontica, a meridie mari PamphyHo, longam 
ULXxv, latam cccxxv. 

103 XXIX. In proxima ora Caria est, mox lonia, ultra 
eam AeoHs. Caria mediae Doridi circumfunditur, 
ad mare utroque latere ambiens. in ea pronmnturium 
PedaHum, amnis Glaucus deferens Tehnedium, oppida 
Daedala, Crya fugitivorum, Humen Axon, oppidum 
Calynda. amnis Indus in Cibyratarum iugis ortus 
recipit lx perennes fluvios, torrcntes vero ampHus 

104 centimi. oppidum Caunos Hberum, dein Pyrnos, 
portus Cressa, a quo Rhodus insula passuum xx, 
locus Loryma, oppida Tisanusa, Paridon, Larymna, 
sinus Thymnias, promunturium Aphrodisias, op- 
pidum Hydas, sinus Schoenus, regio Bubassus ; 
oppidum fiiit Acanthus, aHo nomine Dulopolis. est 
in pronmnturio Cniilos Hbera, Triopia, dein Pegusa 

105 et Stadia appellata. ab ea Doris incipit. 

Sed prius terga et mediterraneas iurisdictiones 
indicasse conveniat. una appellatur Cibyratica ; 
ipsum oppidum Phrygiae est ; conveniunt eo xxv 
civitates celeberrima urbe Laodicea. inposita est 
Lyco flumini, latera adluentibus Asopo et Capro, 

2Q8 



BOOK V, xwui. io2-xxi.\'. 105 

Egyptian Sea, and on the north by Paphlagonia; 
the length of this part he made 470 miles and the 
breadth 320 miles. The other half he bounded on 
the east by Lesser Armenia, on the west by Phrygia, 
Lvcaonia and Pamphylia, on the north by the Province 
of Pontus and on the south by the Pamphylian Sea, 
making it 575 miles long and 325 miles broad. 

XXIX. On the adjcuning coast is Caria and tlien caria. 
lonia and beyond it AeoUs. Caria entirely surrounds 
Doris, encircHng it right down to the sea on both 
sides. In Caria are Cape Pedahum and the river 
Glaucus, with its tributarv the Telmedius, the towns 
of Daedala and Crya, the latter a settlement of 
refugees, the river Axon, and the town of Calynda. 
The river Indus, rising in the mountains of the 
CibjTatae, receives as tributaries 60 streams that 
are constantly floAWng and more than 100 mountain 
torrents. There is the free town of Caunos, and then 
Pyrnos, Port Cressa, from which the isLmd of Rhodes 
is 20 miles distant, the phice Loryma, the towns of 
Tisanusa, Paridon and Larymna, Thymnias Bay, 
Cape Aphrodisias, the toAvn of Hydas, Schoenus 
Bay, and the district of Bubassus ; there was formerly 
a town Acantlius, otherwise named Dulopolis. On a 
promontory stand the free city of Cnidus, Triopia, 
and then Pegusa, also called Stadia. After Pegusa 
begins Doris. 

But before we go on it may be as well to describe 
the back parts of Caria and the jurisdictions of 
tlie interior. One of these is called Cibyratica ; the 
actual town of Cibyra belongs to Phrygia, and is the 
centre for 25 city-states, the most famous being the 
city of Laodicea. Laodicea is on the river Lycus, 
its sides being washed by the Asopus and the Caprus ; 

299 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

appellata primo Diospolis, dein Rhoas. reliqui in eo 
conventu quos nominare non pigeat Hydrelitae, 
Themisones, Hierapolitae. alter conventus a Syn- 
nade accepit nomen ; conveniunt Lycaones, Appiani, 
Corpeni, Dorylaei, Midaei, lulienses, et reliqui 

106 ignobiles populi xv. tertius Apameam vadit ante 
appellatam Celaenas, dein Ciboton ; sita est in radice 
montis Signiae, circumfusa Marsya, Obrima, Orba 
fluminibus in Maeandrum cadentibus ; Marsyas ibi 
redditur ortus ac paulo mox conditur.^ ubi certavit 
tibiarum cantu cum ApoUine, Aulocrene est : ita 
vocatur convalUs .\ p. ab Apamea, Phrygiam petenti- 
bus. ex hoc conventu deceat nominare Metro- 
politas, DionysopoHtas, Euphorbcnos, Acmonenses, 
Peltenos, Silbianos ; reliqui ignobiles ix. 

107 Doridis in sinu Leucopolis, Hamaxitos, Eleus, 
Etene ; dein Cariae oppida Pitaium, Eutane, Hali- 
carnassus. sex oppida contributa ei sunt a Magno 
Alexandro, Theangela, Side, Medmassa, Uranium, 
Pedasum, Telmisum ; habitatur inter duos sinus, 
Ceramicum et lasium. inde Myndus et ubi fuit 
Palaemyndus, Nariandos, Neapolis, Caryanda, Ter- 
mera Hbera, BargyHa et (a quo sinus lasius) oppidum 

108 lasus. Caria interiorum nominum fama praenitet : 
quippe ibi sunt oppida Mylasa Hbera, Antiochia ulii 

' Rackham : conditua. 
300 



BOOK y. XXIX. 105-108 

its original name was the City of Zeus, and it was 
afterwards called llhoas. The rest of the peoples 
belonging to the same jurisdiction whom it may not 
be amiss to mention are the HydreHtae, Themisones 
and HierapoUtae. Another centre has received its 
name from Synnas ; it is the centre for the Lycaones, 
Appiani, Corpeni, Dorylaei, Midaei, Juhenses and 
15 other peoples of no note. A third jurisdiction 
centres at Apamea, previously called Celaenae, and 
tlien Cybotos ; Apamea is situated at the foot of 
Mount Signia, with the rivers Marsyas, Obrima and 
Orba, tributaries of the Maeander, flowing round it ; 
the Marsyas here emerges from underground, and 
buries itself again a httle later. Aulocrene is the 
place where Marsyas had a contest in flute-playing 
with Apollo : it is the name given to a gorge 10 miles 
from Apamea, on the way to Phrj^^gia. Out of this 
jurisdiction it would be proper to name the Metro- 
politae, Dionysopohtae, Euphorbeni, Acmonenses, 
Pelteni and Silbiani ; and there are nine remaining 
tribes of no note. 

On the Gulf of Doris are LeucopoHs, Hamaxitos, 
Eleus, Etene ; then there are the Carian towns of 
Pitaium, Eutane and HaHcarnassus. To the juris- 
diction of HaHcarnassus six towns were assigned by 
Alexander the Great, Theangela, Side, Medmassa, 
Uranium, Pedasum and Telmisum ; the last is 
situated between two bays, those of Ceramus and 
lasus. Next we come to Myndus and thc former site 
of Old Myndus, Nariandos, Neapolis, Caryanda, the 
free town Termera, BargyHa and lasus, the town 
that gives its name to the bay. Caria is especially 
distinguished for the famous Hst of places in its 
interior, for here are Mylasa, a free town, and 

301 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

fucre SjTnmaethos et Cranaos oppida ; nunc eam 
circumfluuiit Maeander et Orsinus. fuit in eo tractu 
et Maeandropolis ; est Eumenia Cludro flumini adpo- 
sita, Glaucus amnis, Lysias oppidum et Orthosia, 
Berecynthius tractus, Nysa, Trallis, eadem Euanthia 
et Seleucia et Antiochia dicta. adluitur Eudone 

109 amne, perfunditur Thebaide ; (luidam ibi Pygmaeos 
habitasse tradunt. praeterea sunt Thydonos, 
Pyrrha, Eurome, Heraclea, Amyzon, Ahabanda 
hbera quae convcntum eum cognominavit, Strato- 
nicea hbera, Hynidos, Ccramus, Troezene, Phorontis. 
longinquiores eodem foro disceptant Orthronienses, 
Ahdienses, Euhippini, Xystiani, Hydisscnses, Apollo- 
niatae, Trapezopohtae, Aphrodisicnses hberi. praeter 
haec sunt Coscinus, Harpasa adposita fluvio Harpaso, 
quo et Trallicon cum fuit adlucbatur. 

110 XXX. Lydia autem perfusa flexuosis Maeandri 
amnis recursibus super loniam procedit, Phrygiae ab 
exortu solis vicina, ad septentrionem Mysiae, meri- 
diana parte Cariam am])lectens, Maeonia antea 
appellata. celebratur maxime Sardibus in latere 
Tmoli montis, qui antea Timolus appellabatur, vitibus 
consito conditis ^ ; ex quo profluente Pactolo eodem- 
que Chrysorroa ac fonte Tarni, a Maeonis civitas 

111 ipsa Ilyde vocitata est, clara stagno Gygaeo. Sardi- 



* vitibus consito conditia Rackham: conditus au< conditia 
aut vitibus consitus. 

302 



BOOK V. xxix. loS-xxx. III 

Antiochia which occupies the sites of the former 
towiis of Symmaethus and Cranaos ; it is now 
surrounded by the rivers Maeander and Orsinus. 
This region formerly also contained Maeandropolis ; 
in it are Eumenia on the river Chidrus, the river 
Glaucus, the town of Lysias, and Orthosia, the 
district of Berecynthus, Nysa, and TralHs also called 
Euanthia and Seleucia and Antiochia. It is washed 
by the river Eudon and the Thebais flows througli 
it ; some record that a race of Pygmies formerly 
hved in it. Therc are also Thydonos, Pyrrha, 
Eurome, Heraclea, Amyzon, the free town of 
Alabanda which has given its name to this juris- 
diction, the free to^^Ti of Stratonicea, Hynidos, 
Ceramus, Troezene and Phorontis. At a greater 
distance but resorting to the same centre for juris- 
diction are tlie Orthronienses, Ahdienses, Euliippini, 
Xystiani, Hydissenses, Apolloniatae, Trapezopolitae 
and Aphrodisienses, a fi*ee people. Besides these 
places there are Coscinus and Harpasa, the latter 
on the river Harpasus, which also passes the site of 
the former town of Tralhcon. 

XXX. Lydia, bathed by the ever-returning Lydu 
sinuosities of the river \Laeander, extends above 
lonia; it is bordered by Phrygia to the east and 
Mysia to the north, and with its southern portion it 
erabraces Caria. It was previously called Maeonia. 
It is specially famous for the city of Sardis, situated 
on the vine-cLad side of Mount Tmolus, the former 
name of which was Timolus. From Tmolus flows 
the Pactolus, also called the Chi-ysorrhoas, and the 
source of the Tamus ; and the city-state of Sardis 
itself, which is famous for the Gygaean Lake, used 
to be called Hyde by the pe()])lc of Maconia. This 

Z02> 



PLIN^': NATURAL IIISTORY 

ana nunc appellatur ea iurisdictio, conveniuntque in 
eam extra praedictos Macedones Cadieni, Phila- 
delpliini, et ipsi in radice Tmoli Cogamo flumini 
adpositi Maeonii, Tripolitani, iidem et Antonio- 
poUtae — Maeandro adluuntur — , Apollonihieritae, 
Mysotimolitae et alii ignobiles. 

112 XXXI. lonia ab lasio sinu incipiens numerosiore 
ambitu litorum flectitur. in ea primus sinus Basilicus, 
Posideum promunturium et oppidum oraculum 
Branchidarum appellatum, nunc Didymaei ApoUinis, 
a litore stadiis .\.\, ct inde cl.\.\.\ Milctus loniae caput, 
Lelegeis antea et Pityusa et Anactoria nominata, 
super xc urbium per cuncta maria genetrix, nec 
fraudanda cive Cadmo qui primus prorsam orationem 

113 condere instituit. amnis Maeander ortus e lacu in 
raonte Aulocrene plurimisque adfusus oppidis et 
repletus fluminibus crebris, ita sinuosus flexibus 
ut saepe credatur reverti, Apamenam primum 
pervagatur regionem, mox Eumeneticam, ac dein 
Hyrgaleticos campos, postremo Cai-iam, placidus 
omnisque eos agros fertilissimo rigans limo, ad 
decunmm a Mileto stadium lenis inlabitur mari. 
inde mons Latmus, oppida Heraclea montis eius 
cognominis Carice, Myuus quod primo condidisse 
lones narrantur Athenis profecti, Naulochum, 
304 



BOOK y. x\\. iii-.wxi. 113 

jurisdiction is now called the district of Sardis, and 
besides the people before-named it is the ccntre for 
the Macedonian Cadieni, the Philadelphini, and tlie 
Maeonii themselves who are situated on the river 
Cogamus at the foot of Mount Tmolus, the Tripohtani, 
also called Antoniopohtae — their territory is washed 
by the river Maeander — , the Apollonihieritae, the 
Mysotimohtae and other people of no note. 

XXXI. At the Gulf of lasus lonia begins. It has a loma. 
M-inding coast, with a rather large number of bays. 
The first is the Royal Bay, then the cape and 
to^vn of Posideum, and the shrine once called the 
oracle of the Branchidae, now that of Didymaean 
Apollo, 2h miles from the coast ; and 22i miles from 
it Miletus, the capital of lonia, which formerly bore 
the names of Lelegeis and Pityusa and Anactoria, 
the mother of over 90 cities scattered over all thc 
seas ; nor must she be robbed of her claim to Cadmus 
as her citizen, the author who originated composition 
in prose. From the mountain Kake of Aulocrene 
rises the river Maeander, which washes a large 
number of cities and is replenished by frequent 
tributaries ; its windings are so tortuous that it is 
often believed to turn and flow backwards. It first 
wanders through the region of Apamea, afterwards 
that of Kumenia, and then the plains of HjTgale, 
and finally the country of Caria, its tranquil waters 
irrigating all these regions with mud of a most 
fertilising quality ; and it ghdes gently into the sea 
a mile and a quarter from Miletus. Next comes 
Mount Latmus, the towns of Heraclea belonging to 
the mountain so designated in the Carian dialect, 
Myus which is recorded to have been first founded 
by lonian cmigrants from Athens, Naulochum, and 

305 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Priene. in ora quae Troglea appellatur Gessus 
aninis. regio omnibus lonibus sacra et ideo Panionia 

11-4 appellata. iuxta a fugitivis conditum (uti nomen 
indicio est) Phygela fuit et Marathesium oppidum. 
supra haec Magnesia Maeandri cognomine insignis, 
a Thessalica Magnesia orta ; abest ab Epheso xv p., 
Tralhbus eo ampHus mmm. antea Thessaloche et 
AndroUtia nominata ; et Utori adposita Derasidas 
insulas secum abstuUt mari. intus et Thyatira 

11.") adluitur Lyco, Pelopia aliquando et Euhippia 
cognominata. 

In ora autem Matium, Ephesus Ama7X»num opus, 
multis antea expetita nominibus : Alopes cum 
pugnatum apud Troiam est, mox Ortygiae, Amorges ; 
vocata est et Smyrna cognomine Trachia et Hae- 
monion et Ptelea. attolUtur monte Pione, adluitur 
Caystro in CiHiianis iugis orto multosque amnes 
deferente et stagnum Pegaseum, quod Phyrites 
amnis expelUt. ab his multitudo limi est (juae terras 
propagat mediisque iam canipis Syrien insuhim adie- 
cit. fons in urbe CalUppia et templum Dianae 
conplexi e diversis regionibus duo SeUnuntes. 

IK) Al) Epheso Matium ahud Colophoniorum et intus 
ipsa Colophon, Haleso adfluente. inde ApolUnis 
Clarii fanum, Lebedos — fuit et Notium oppidum — , 

" I.e. the channcl botween tho islands and the shore haa dried 
up, and thoy are now part of Magneaia. 
*• ' Sillig reads Mantium (^iavT^lov, oracular Bhrino). 

306 



BOOK V. XXXI. 113-116 

Priene. At the part of the coast called Troglea is 
tlie river Gessus. The district is sacred with all 
louians, and is consequently called Panionia. Next 
there was formerly a town founded by refugees — 
as its name Phygela indicatc^ — and another called 
Marathesium. Above these places is Magnesia, 
distinguished by the name of Magnesia on Maeander, 
an ofFshoot from Magnesia in Thessaly ; it is 15 
miles from Ephesus, and 3 miles more from Tralles. 
It previously had the names of Thessaloche and 
AndroUtia. Being situated on the coast it has appro- 
priated the Derasides islands from the sea." Inland 
also is Thyatira, washed by the Lycus ; once it was 
called Pelopian or Euhippian Thyatira. 

On the coast again is Matium,* and Ephesus built 
by the Amazons, previously designated by many 
names — that of Alope at the time of the Trojan 
War, later Ortygia and Amorge ; it was also called 
Smyrna Trachia and Haemonion and Ptelea. It is 
built on the slope of Mount Pion, and is watered by 
the Cayster, whicli rises in the Cilbian range and 
brings down the waters of many streams, and also 
drains the Pegasaean Marsh, an overflow of the river 
Phyrites, From these comes a quantity of mud 
which advances the coastUne and has now joined 
the island of Syrie on to the mainland by the flats 
interposed. In the city of Epliesxis is the spring 
called Callippia, and a temple of Diana surroimded 
by two streams, both called ScHnus, coming from 
different directions. 

After leaving Ephesus thc-re is another Matium,*^ 
which belongs to Colophon, and Coloplion itself 
lying more inland, on the river Halesus. Then thc 
temple of Clarian Apollo, Lebedos — formerly there 

307 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

promunturium CjTcnaeum, mons Mimas cl p. 
excurrens atque in contincntibus campis residens. 
quo in loco Magnus Alexander intercidi planitiem 
eam iusserat vii m d p. longitudine, ut duos sinus 
iungeret Er\i;hrasque cum Mimante circumfundcret. 

117 iuxta eas fuerunt oppida Pteleon, Helos, Dorion, 
nunc est Aleon fluvius, Corynaeum Mimantis pro- 
munturium, Clazomenae, Parthenie et Hippi, Chytro- 
phoria appellatae cum insulae essent ; Alexander 
idemperduostadiacontinentiadnecti iussit. interiere 
intus Daphnus et Hermesta et Sipylum quod ante 
Tantalis vocabatur, caput Maeoniae, ubi nunc est 
stagnum Sale ; obiit et ArchaeopoUs substituta 
Sipylo et inde illi Colpc et huic Libade. 

118 Regredientibus inde abest .\n p. ab Amazone con- 
dita, restituta ab Alexandro, in ora Smyrna, amne 
Melete gaudens non procul orto. montes Asiae 
nobihssimi in hoc tractu fere expUcant se : Mastusia 
a tergo Smyrnae et Termetis Olympi radicibus iunctis 
in Dracone desinit, Draco in Tmolo, Tmolus in 

119 Cadmo, ille in Tauro. a Smyrna Hermus amnis 
campos facit ^ et nomini suo adoptat. oritur iuxta 
Dorylaum Phn,-giae civitatcm, multosque colUgit 
fluvios, inter quos Phrygem qui nomine genti dato a 

^ secat MayhoJJ. 



" An unknown town : or perhapa ' TermctiB,' another 
mountain. 

*> Perhaps tbe text should be altored to give ' cuts througb 
thc plains and givcs thcm its nanio.' 

308 



BOOK V. x\xi. 116-119 

was also the town of Notium — , Cape Cyrenaeum, 
and Mount Mimas which projects 150 miles into the 
sea and slopes do-\vTi into the plains adjoining. It 
was here that Alexander the Great had given orders 
for a canal 7^ miles long to be cut across the level 
ground in question so as to join the two bays and to 
make an island of Erythrae with Mimas. Near 
Erythrae were formerly the towns of Pteleon, Helos 
and Dorion, and there is now the river Aleon, 
Cor\'naeum the promontory of Mimas, Clazomenae, 
and Parthenie and Hippi, which were called the 
Chytrophoria when they were islands ; these 
Alexander also ordered to be joined to the mainland 
by a causeway a quarter of a niile in length. Places 
in the interior that exist no longer were Daphnus 
and Hermesta and Sipylum previously called Tantahs, 
the capital of Maeonia, situated where there is now 
the marsh named Sale ; ArchaeopoHs which replaced 
Sipylus has also perished, and later Colpe which 
replaced Archaeopolis and Libade which replaced 
Colpe. 

On retuming thence to the coast, at a distance of 
12 miles we come to Smyrna, founded by an Amazon 
and restored by Alexander; it is refreshed by the 
river Meles which rises not far off. The most famous 
niountains of Asia mostly He in this district : Mastusia 
behind Smyrna and Termes," joining on to the 
roots of Olympus, ends, and is followed by Mount 
Draco, Draco by Tmolus, Tmolus by Cadmus, and 
that range by Taurus. After Smyrna the river 
Hermus forms level plains* to whicli it gives its name. 
It rises at the Phrygian city-state of Dorylaus, and 
has many tributary rivers, among them the Phryx 
which forms the frontier between the race to which 

voL. ti. L 309 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Caria eam dLsterminat, Hyllum et Cr}'on, et ipsos 
Phrygiae, Mysiae, Lydiae amnibus repletos. fuit 
in ore eius oppidum Temnos, nunc in extremo 
sinu Myrmeces scopuli, oppidum Leucae in pro- 
munturio quod insula fuit finisque loniae Phocaea. 
12u Smyrnaeum conventum magna pars et Aeoliae quae 
mox dicetur frequentat, praeterque Macedones 
H\Tcani cognominati et Magnetes a Sipylo. verum 
Kphesum alterum lumen Asiae remotiores con- 
veniunt Caesarienses, MetropoHtae, Cilbiani inferi- 
ores et superiores, Mysomacedones, Mastaurenses, 
Briullitae, Hj^paepeni, Dioshieritae. 

121 XXXII. Aeolisproxima est, quondam Mysia appel- 
lata, et quae Hellesponto adiacet Troas. ibi a 
Phocaea Ascanius portus ; dein fuerat Larisa, sunt 
Cyme, M}Tina quae Sebastopolim se vocat, et intus 
Aegaeae, Itale, Posidea, Neon Tichos, Temnos. in 
ora autem Titanus amnis et civitas ab eo cognomi- 
nata; fuit et Gr}'nia, nunc tantum portus, oUm 
insula adprehensa ; oppidum Elaea et ex Mysia 
veniens Caicus amnis ; oppidum Pitane ; Canaitis 

122 amnis. intercidere Canae, Lysimachea, Atamea, 
Carene, Cisthene, Cilla, CocyHum, Thebe, Astyre, 
Chrysa, Palaescepsis, Gergitha, Neandros : nunc est 
Perperene civitas, Heracleotes tractus, Coryphas 
oppidum, amnes Grjdios, Ollius, regio Aphrodisias 
quae antea Politice Orgas, regio Scepsis, flumen 



310 



BOOK V, XXXI. 119-xxxn. 122 

it gives its name and Caria, and the Hyllus and the 
Cryos, themselves also augmented by the rivers of 
Phrygia, Mysia and Lydia. At the mouth of the 
Hermus there was once the town of Temnos, and 
now at the end of tho bay are the rocks called the 
Ants, the town of Leucae on a headland that was 
formerly an island, and Phocaea, the frontier town 
of lonia. The jurisdiction of Smyrna is also the centre 
resorted to by a large part of AeoHa which ^vill 
now be described, and also by the Macedonians 
called Hyrcani and the Magnesians from Sipylus. 
But Ephesus, the other great luminary of Asia, is 
the centre for theCaesarienses, MetropoUtae, Upper 
and Lower Cilbiani, Mysomacedones, Mastaurenses, 
BriulHtae, Hypaepeni and Dioshieritae. 

XXXH. Next is Aeohs, once called Mysia, and 
Troas lying on the coast of the Dardanelles. Here 
after passing Phocaea we come to Port Ascanius, 
and then to the place wliere once stood Larisa and 
where now are Cyme, Myrina which styles itself 
Sebastopohs, and inland Aegaeae, Itale, Posidea, New 
Wall, Temnos. On the coast are the river Titanus 
and the city-state named after it, and also once there 
was Gr}'nia, now only a harbour, formerly an ishmd 
that had been joined to the mainland ; the town of 
Elaea and the river Caicus coming from Mysia ; the 
town of Pitane ; the river Canaitis. Canae has dis- 
appeared, as have Lysimachea, Atarnea, Carene, 
CLsthene, Cilla, CocyUum, Thebe, Astyre, Chrysa, 
Palaescepsis, Gergitha. Neandros ; but there still 
exist the city-state of Perperene, the district of Hera- 
cleotes, the town of Coryphas, the rivers Gryhos 
and OUius, the district of Aphrodisias wliich was 
formerly PoUtice Orgas, the district of Scepsis, and 

311 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTOllY 

Evenum, cuius in ripis inlercidere Lyrnesos et 
Miletos. in hoc tractu Ide mons, et in ora quae 
sinum cognominavit et conventum Adramytteos 
olim Pedasus dicta, flumina Astron, Cormalos, 
Crianos, Alabastros, Ilieros ex Ida ; intus mons 

123 Gargara eodemque nominc oppidum. rursus in 
litore Antandros Edonis prius vocata, dein Cimmeris, 
Assos, eadem Apollonia ; fuit et Palamedium oppi- 
dum. promunturium Lectum disterminans Aeolida 
et Troada. fuit et Polymedia civitas, Chrj'sa et 
Larisa alia : Zminthium temphmi durat. intus 
Colone intercidit. deportant Adramytteum negotia 
ApoUoniatae a Rhyndaco amne, Eresi, MiletopoUtae, 
Poemaneni, Macedones Asculacae,^ PoUchnaei, Pio- 
nitae, CiUces Mandacandcni, Mysi- Abretteni et 
Hellespontii appellati et aUi ignobiles. 

124 XXXIII. Troadis primus locus Hamaxitus, dein 
Cebrenia ipsaque Troas Antigonia dicta, luinc 
Alexandria, colonia Romana ; oppidum Nee; Sca- 
niander amnis navigabiUs et in promunturicj quondam 
Sigeum oppidum. dein portus Achaeorum, in 
quem influit Xanthus Simoenti iunctus stagnumque 
prius faciens Palaescamander. ceteri Homero cele- 
brati, Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, Rhodius, vestigia 
non habent ; Granicus diverso tractu in Propontida 



' a Scylace Dellefsen. 

" Mayhoff: Mysia (iii Mysia iJ ermolaus). 



312 



BOOK V. xxxu. i22-.\xxiii. 14 

the river Evenus, 011 the banks of which stood 
Lyrnesus and Miletos, both now in ruins. In this 
region is Mount Ida, and on the coast Adraniytteos, 
formerly called Pedasus, which has given its nanie to 
the bay and to the jurisdiction, and the rivers 
Astron, Cornialos, Crianos, Alabastros, and Holy 
River coniing from Mount Ida ; inland are Mount 
Gargara and the town of the same name. On the 
coast again are Antandros previously called Edonis, 
then Cimmeris, and Assos, which is the same as 
Apollonia ; and formerly there was also the town 
of Palamedium. Then Cape Lectum which marks 
the frontier between the AeoHd and the Troad ; also 
there was once the city-state of Polymedia, and 
Chrysa and another Larisa : the temple of Zmintheus 
still stands. Colone inland has disappeared. 
Adramytteos is resorted to for legal business by 
the people of Apollonia on the river Rhyndacus, 
the Eresi, MiletopoUtae, Poemaneni, Macedonian 
Asculacae, Polichnaei, Pionitae, the Cilician Man- 
dacandeni, the Mysian peoples known as the Abret- 
teni and the Hellespontii, and others of no note. 

XXXIII. The first place in the Troad is Hamaxitus, The Troad, 
then come Cebrenia, and thcn Troas itself, formerly a'ifj^^i„g 
called Antigonia and now Alexandria, a Roman rcgions. 
colony ; the town of Nee ; the navigable river 
Scamander ; and on a promontory was formerly the 
town of Sigeum. Then the Harbour of the Achaeans, 
into which flows the Xanthus unitcd with the Simois, 
and the Palaescamander, which previously forms a 
marsh. Of the rest of the places celebrated in Ilomer, 
Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, Rhodius, no traces 
remain ; and the Granicu.s flows by a different route 
into the Sea of Marmara. However there is even 

3^3 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

fluit. pst tanien et nunc Scamandria civitas parva, 
ac MM D p. remotum a portu Ilium immune, unde 

125 omnis rerum claritas. extra sinum sunt Rhoetea 
litora Rhoeteo et Dardanio et Arisbe oppidis habitata. 
fuit et Achilleon oppidum iuxta tumulum Achillis 
conditum a Mytilenaeis et mox Atheniensibus ubi 
classis eius steterat in Sigeo ; fuit et Aeantion a 
RhodiLs conditum in altero cornu. Aiace ibi sepulto, 
XXX stadiorum intervallo a Sigeo et ipsa statione 
classis suae. supra Aeolida et partem Troadis in 
mediterraneo est quae vocatur Teuthrania, quani 
Mysi antiquitus tenuere : ibi Caicns amnis iam dictus 
oritur ; gens ampla per se, etiam cum totum Mysia 

126 appellaretur. in ea Pioniae, Andera, Idale, Stabu- 
lum, Conisium, Teium, Balce, Tiare, Teuthranie, 
Sarnaca, Haliserne, Lycide, Parthenium, Cambre, 
Oxyopum, Lygdamum, Apollonia, longeque clarissi- 
mum Asiae Pergamum, quod intermeat Selinus, 
praefluit Cetius profusixs Pindaso monte. abest 
haut procul Elaea, quam in litore diximus. Perga- 
mena vocatur eius tractus iurisdictio ; ad eam con- 
vcniunt Thyatircni, Mossyni, Mygdones, Bregmeni, 
Hierocometae, Perpereni, Tiareni, Hierolophienses, 
HermocapeHtae, Attalenses, Panteenses, Apollo- 

127 nidienses aliaeque inhonorae civitates. a Rhoeteo 
Dardanium oppidum parvum abest stadia lxx. 



BOOK V. xx.xiii. 134-127 

now the small city-state of Scamandcr, and 2h miles 
fi*om its harbour lUum, a town exempt from tribute, 
the scene of all the famous story. Outside the bay 
are the Rhoetean coasts, occupicd by the towns of 
Rhocteum, Dardanium and Arisbe. Formerly there 
was also the toAvn of Achillcon, founded near to the 
tomb of Achilles by the people of Mitylene and 
aftervvards rebuilt by the Athenians, where the 
fleet of Achilles was stationed at Sigeum ; and also 
there once was Aeantion, founded by the Rhodians 
on the other horn of the bay, which is the place where 
Ajax Avas buried, at a distance of 3f miles from 
Sigeum, and from the actual place where his fleet 
was stationed. Inland bchind AeoHs and a part of 
the Troad is the district called Teuthrania, inhabited 
in ancient times by the Mysians — -this is where the 
river Caicus aheady mentioned rises ; Tcuthrania was § i-i- 
a considerable independent clan, even when the 
whole district bore the name of Mysia. Places in 
Teuthrania are Pioniae, Andera, Idalc, Stabulum, 
Conisimn, Teium, Balce, Tiare, Teuthranic, Sarnaca, 
Hahsernc, Lycidc, Parthenium, Cambre, Oxyopum, 
Lygdamum, Apollonia, and by far thc most famous 
place in Asia, Pergamum, which is traversed by the 
river Selinus and bordered by the river Cetius, 
flowing down from Mount Pindasus. Not far away 
is Elaea, which we mentioned, on the coast. Thc§i2i. 
jurisdiction of this district is called the Pergamene, 
and it is the centre for the Thyatireni, Mossyni, 
Mygdones, Bregmeni, Hierocometae, Perpereni, 
Tiareni, Hierolophicnses, HermocapeUtac, Atta- 
lenses, Panteenses, Apollonidienscs and othcr city- 
states of no note. At a distance of 8j milcs 
from Rhoeteum is the small town of Dardanium. 

315 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

inde xviii promunturium Trapeza, unde primum 
concitat se Hellespontus. ex Asia interisse gentes 
tradit Eratosthenes Solymorum, Lelegum, Be- 
brycum, Colycantiorum, Tripsedorum ; Isidorus 
Arieneos et Capreatas ubi sit Apamea condita a 
Seleuco rege, inter Ciliciam, Cappadociam, Catao- 
niam, Armeniam et, quoniam ferocissimas gentes 
domuisset, initio Damca vocata.^ 

128 XXXIV. Insulariun ante Asiam prima est in 
Canopico ostio Nili, a Canopo Menelai gubernatore, 
ut ferunt, dicta. altera iuncta ponte Alexandriae, 
colonia Caesaris dictatoris, Pharos, quondam diei 
navigatione distans ab Aegypto, nunc a turri nocturnis 
ignibus cursum navium regens ; namque fallacibus 
vadis Alexandria tribus omnino aditur alveis maris, 
Stegano, Posideo, Tauro. in Phoenicio deindc mari 
est ante lopen Paria, tota oppidum, in qua obiectam 
beluae Andromedam ferunt, et iam dicta Arados, 
inter quam et contincntem l cubita alto mari, ut 
auctor est Mucianus, e fonte dulcis aqua tubo coriis 
facta usque a vado trahitur. 

129 XXXV. Pamphylium mare ignobilis insulas habet, 
Cilicium ex quinque maximis Cyprum ad ortum 
occasumque CiUciae ac Syriae obiectam, quondam 
novem regnorum sedem. huius circuitum Timo- 
sthenes cccc.txvii d p. prodidit, Isidorus ccclxxv. 

^ Rackham : Dameam vocatam. 



" From the Greek Sa/xd^o). 



316 



BOOK V. XXXIII, 127-XXXV. 129 

Eighteen miles from it is Cape Trapeza, from which 
point the Dardanelles start. A list of Asiatic races 
now extinct given by Eratosthenes inchides the 
Solynii, Leleges, Bcbryces, Colycantii and Tripsedi ; 
Isidore gives the Arienei and the Capreatae at the 
place where Apamea stands, foundcd by King 
Seleucus, between Cihcia, Cappadocia, Cataonia and 
Armenia. Apamea was originally called Damea " 
because it had subdued some extremely fierce tribes. 

XXXIV. Of the islands oflf the coast of Asia the isiandsoff 
first is at the Canopic mouth of the Nile, and takes coasL 
its name, it is said, from Menelaus's helmsman 
Canopus. The second, called Pharos, joined bya 
bridge to Alexandria, was settled by the Dietator 
Caesar; it was formerly a day's sail from Egypt, 

but now it carries a Hghthouse to direct the course of 
vessels at night ; for owing to the treacherous shoals 
Alexandria can be reachcd by only three channels 
of the sea, those of Stcganus, Posideum and Taiu"us. 
Then in the Phoenician Sea off Joppa Ues Paria, 
the whole of which is a town — it is said to have been 
the place where Andromeda was exposed to the 
monster, — and Arados, mentioned already ; between § 78. 
which and the mainland, according to Mucianus, 
fresh water is brought up from a spring at the bottom 
of the sea, which is 75 fect deep, by means of a 
leather pipe. 

XXXV. The Pamphyhan Sea contains some islands Cyprus. 
of no note. The Cihcian Sea has five of considerable 
size, among them Cyprus, which Hes east and west 

off the coasts of CiHcia and Syria ; it was formerly 
the seat of nine kingdoms. Its circumference is 
given by Timosthenes as measuring 427^ miles and 
by Isidore as 375 miles. Its length betwecn the two 

317 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

longitudinem inter diio promunturia, Clidas et Aca- 
manta, quod est ab occasu, Artemidonus clxii d, 
Timostlienes cc. vocatam antea Acamantida Philo- 
nides, Cerastim Xenagoras et Aspeliam et Ama- 
thusiam et Macariam, Astynomus Crypton et 

130 Colinian. oppida in ea ,\v, Neapaphos, Palaepaphos, 
Curias, Citium, Corinaeum, Salamis, Amathus, Lape- 
thos, Soloe, Tamasos, Epidaurum, Chytri, Arsinoe, 
Carpasium, Golgoe; fuere et ^- Cinjrria, Mareum, 
Idahum. abest ab Ancmurio Cihciae l; mare quod 
praetenditur vocant Aulona CiHcium. in eodem situ 
Eleusa insula est, et quattuor ante promunturium 
ex adverso SjTiae Chdes, rursusque ab altero capite 
Stiria, contra Neam Paphum Hiera et Cepia, contra 

131 Salamina Salaminiae. in Lycio autem mari Illyris, 
Telendos, Attelebussa, Cypriae tres steriles et Dio- 
nysia prius Charaeta dicta ; dein contra Tauri 
promunturium pestiferae navigantibus CheUdoniae 
totidem. ab liis cum oppido Leucolla Pactyae, Lasia, 
N}Tnphais, Macris, Megista cuius civitas interiit ; 
multae deinde ignobiles. sed contra Chimaeram Doli- 
chiste, Choerogyhon, Crambusa, Rhoge, Xenagora ^ 
VIII, Daedaleon duae, Crycon tres, Strongyle, et 
contra Sidyma Antiochi Glaucumque versus amnem 
Lagussa, Macris, Didymae, Helbo, Scope, Aspis, et 
(in qua oppidum interiit) Telandria proximaque 
Cauno llhodussa. 



Mayhojf: et ibi aut ot in. 
V.II. Genagora, Enagora. 



318 



BOOK V. XXXV. 1 29-131 

capes of Clidac and Acamas, the latter at its west 
end, is given by Artemidorus as 162^ and by Timos- 
thenes as 200 miles. According to Philonides it was 
previously called Acamantis, according to Xenagoras 
Cerastis and Aspelia and Amathusia and Macaria, 
and according to Astynomus Cryptos and Colinias. 
It contains 15 towns, New and Old Paphos, Cm-ias, 
Citium, Corinaeum, Salamis, Amathus, Lapethos, 
Soloe, Tamasos, Epidaurus, Chytri, Arsinoe, 
Carpasium and Golgoe ; and formerly there were 
also Cinyria, Mareimi and Idalium. It is 50 miles 
from Anemurius in Cilicia ; the sea lying between 
is called the Cilician Aulon. In the same neighbour- 
hood isthe island of Eleusa, and the four Clides oif 
the cape facing Syria, and again off a second head- 
land Stiria, and towards New Paphos Hiera and 
Cepia, and towards Salamis the Salaminiae. In the 
Lycian Sea are IUyris, Telendos, Attelebussa, the 
three barren Cyprian islands and Dionysia, formerly 
called Charaeta ; then opposite to Cape Taurus, 
the CheUdonian islands, the same in number, frauglit 
with disaster for passing vessels. Next to these 
the Pactyae with the town of Leucolla, Lasia, 
Nymphais, Macris and Megista, the city-state on 
which has ceased to exist ; and then a number of 
islands of no note. But opposite to Chimaera are 
Dolichiste, Choerogylion, Crambusa, Rhoge, the 
eight called the Xenagora ishinds, the two called 
Daedaleon, and the three called Cryeon ; Strongyle, 
and opposite Sidyma Antiochi and towards the river 
Glaucus Lagussa, Macris, Didymae, Helbo, Scope, 
Aspis and Telandria (the town on which has 
ceased to exist) and nearest to Mount Caunus 
Rhodussa. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

132 XXXVI. Sed pulcherrima est libera Rhodos. 
circuitii cxxv aut, si potius Isidoro credimus, ciii. 
habitata urbibus Lindo, Camiro, lalyso, nunc Rhodo, 
distat ab Alexandria Aegypti dlxxxiii, ut Isidorus 
tradit, ut Eratosthenes cccclxvTu, ut Mucianus b, a 
Cypro cL.vxvi. vocitata est antea Ophiussa, Asteria, 
Aethria, Trinacrie, Corymbia, Poeeessa, Atabyria ab 

133 rege, dein Macaria et Oloessa. Rhodiorum insulae 
Cai-pathas quae mari nomen dcdit, Casos Achne 
olim, Nisyros distans a Cnido .\v d, Porphyris antea 
dicta, et eodem tractu mcdia intcr Rhodum Cni- 
dumque Syme. cingitur xxxvii d ; portus benigne 
praebet viii. praeter lias circa Rhodum Cyclopis, 
Teganon, Cordylusa, Diabatae iv, Hymos, Chalce 
cum oppido, Teutlusa, Narthecusa, Dimastos, 
Progne, et a Cnido Cisserusa, Therionarcia, Calydne 
cum tribus oppidis Notio, Nisyro, Mendetero, et 
in Arconneso oppidum Ceramus. in Cariae ora quae 
vocantur Argiae numero xx, et Hyetusa, I^epsia, 

134 Leros. nobilissima autem in eo sinu Coos ab Hali- 
carnaso xv distans, circuitu c, ut plures existimant 
Merope vocata, Cea ut Staphylus, Meropis ut 
Dionysius, dein Nymphaea. mons ibi Prion ; et 
Nisyron abruptam ilU putant, quae Porphyris antea 

" Built about 408 b.c. by the three old towns conjointly, 
to scrvo as tho capital of the island. 

320 



BOOK V. x.xxvi. 132-134 

XXXVI. But the most beautiful is the free island Riiodes. 
of Rhodes, which nieasures 125, or, if we prefer to 
beHeve Isidore, 103 miles round, and which contains 
the cities of Lindus,Camirus and Ialysus,and nowthat 
of Rhodcs." Its distance from Alexandria in Egypt 
is 583 miles according to Isidore, 468 according to 
Eratosthenes, 500 according to Mucianus ; and it is 
176 miles fi-om Cj^rus. It was previously called 
Ophiussa, Asteria, Aethria, Trinacrie, Corymbia, 
Poeeessa, Atabyria after its king, and subsequently 
Macaria and Oloessa. Islands belonging to the 
Rhodians are Carpathus which has given its name 
to the Carpathian Sea, Casos, formerly Achne, 
Nisyros, previously called Poq^hyris, 15j miles dis- 
tant from Cnidus, and in the same neighbourhood 
lying between Rhodes and Cnidus, Syme. Syme 
measiu*es 37| miles in circumference ; it provides 
the welcome of eight harbours. Other islands 
in the neighbourhood of Rhodes besides those 
mentioned are Cyclopis, Teganon, Cordylusa, the 
four Diabatae, Hymos, Chalce with its town, 
Teutlusa, Narthecusa, Dimastos, Progne, and in 
the direetion of Cnidus Cisserusa, Therionarcia, 
Calydne with the three towns of Notiimi, Nisyrus and 
Mendeterus, and the town of Ceramus on Arconnesus. 
Off the coast of Caria are the Argiae, a group of 
twenty islands, and Hyetusa, Lepsia and Leros. But 
the most famous island in this gulf is that of Cos,which 
is 15 miles distant from HaUcarnassus and 100 miles 
in circumference ; it is gcnerally beUeved to have 
been caUed Merope, but according to Staphylus its 
former name was Cea and according to Dionysius 
Meropis and later Nyrnphaea. On Cos is Mount 
Prion ; and the island of Nisyros, formerly caUed 

321 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

dicta est. hinc Caryanda cum oppido ; nec procul ab 
Halicamaso Pidossus. in Ceramico autem sinu 
Priaponesos, Hipponesos, Pserema, Lampsa, Aemyn- 
dus, Passala, Crusa, Pjrrrhaeciusa, Sepiusa, Melano, 
pauhmnque a continente distans quae vocata est 
Cinaedopolis probrosis ibi relictis a rege Alexandro. 

135 XXX\'II. loniae ora Aegeas et Corseas habet et 
Icaron, de qua dictiun est, Laden quae prius Late 
vocabatur, atque inter ignobiles aliquot duas Came- 
litas Mileto vicinas, Mycalae Trogilias tres, Philion, 
Argennon, Sandalion, Samon liberam circuitu 
Lxxxvii D aut, ut Isidorus, c. Partheniam primum 
appellatam Aristotelestradit,postea Dryusam,deinde 
Anthemusam ; Aristocritus adicit Melampliyllum, 
dein Cyparissiam, alii Parthenoarrlmsam, Stephanen. 
amnes in ea Irnbrasus, Chesius, Hibiethes, fontes 
Gigartho, Leucothea, mons Cercetius. adiacent 
insulac Klnpara, Nymphaea, Achillea. 

136 XXX\III. Par claritate ab ea distat xciv cum 

oppido Chios Ubera, quam Aethaliam Ephorus prisco 

nomine appellat, Metrodorus et Cleobulus Chiam a 

Chione nynipha, ahqui a nive, et Macrin et Pityusam. 

montemhabetPelinnaeum,marmorChium.* circuitu 

cxxv coUigit, ut veteres tradidere, Isidorus Tx adicit. 

^ [maroior CUium] 'i Kackham. 
322 



BOOK V. xx.wi. i34-.\.\\-vni. 136 

Poi-phyris, is believed to have been severed from Cos. 
Next to Cos we come to Caryanda with its town ; and 
not far from Halicarnassvis, Pidossus. In the Ceramic 
Bay are Priaponesus, Hipponesus, Pserema, Lampsa, 
Aemyndus, Passala, Ci-usa, Pyrrhaeciusa, Sepiusa, 
Melano, and at only a small distance from the main- 
land the island named CinaedopoHs, because certain 
persons of disgraceful character were deposited there 
by Alexander the Great. 

XXX\'n. Oft' the coast of lonia are Aegeae and isianJs njy 
Corseae, and Icarus previously mentioned, Lade, i^alnos'"'^^^^' 
formerly called Late, and among some islands of no iv. g8. 
importancc the two Camelitae near Miletus, the 
three Trogihae near Mycala, Phihos, Argennos, 
Sandahos, and the free island of Samos, which 
measures 87i, or according to Isidore, 100 miles in 
circumference. Aristotle records that it was first 
called Parthenia, afterwards Dryusa, and then 
Anthemusa; Aristocritus adds the names Melam- 
phyllus, and later Cyparissia, others Parthenoarrhusa 
and Stcphane. Samos contains the rivers Imbrasus, 
Chcsius and Hibiethes, the springs Gigartho and 
Leucothea, and Mount Cercetius. Adjacent islands 
are llhypara, Nyniphaea and Achillea. 

XXX\'III. Nincty-four milcs from Samos is thc cviioj. 
equally famous free island of Chios with its town. 
This island Ephorus designates by its ancient name 
of Aethaha, while Metrodorus and Cleobulus call 
it Chia after the nymph Chione, though some say 
that name is derived from the Greek word for snow. 
Other namcs for it are Macris and Pityusa. It contains 
Mount Pchnnaeus, in wlnch Chian marble is quarried. 
Its circumfercnce amounts to 125 miles, according 
to old accounts, but Isidore adds 9 miles to that 

323 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

posita est inter Samum et Lesbum, ex adverso maxime 

137 Er}i;hrarum. finitimae sunt Tellusa quam alii 
Daphnusam scribunt, Oenusa, Elaphitis, Euryanassa, 
Arginusa cum oppido. iam hae circa Epliesum et 
quae Pisistrati vocantur Anthinae, Myonnesos, Diar- 
rheusa (in utraque oppida intercidere), Pordoselene 
eum oppido, Cerciae, Halone, Commone, Illetia, 
Lepria, Aethre, Sphaeria, Procu^ae, Bolbulae, Pheate, 
Priapos, Syce, Melane, Aenare, Sidusa, Pele, 
Drymusa, Anhydros, Scopelos, Sycussa, Marathusa, 

138 Psile, Perirrheusa, multaeque ignobiles. clara vero 
in alto Teos cum oppido, a Chio Lxxi d, tantundem ab 
Erythris. iuxta Zmyrnam sunt Peristerides, Carteria, 
Alopece,Elaeusa, Bacchina, Pystira, Crommyonnesos, 
Megale. ante Troada Ascaniae, Plateae tres, dein 
Lamiae, Plitaniae duae, Plate, Scopelos, Getone, 
Arthedon, Coele, Lagusae, Didymae. 

139 XXXIX. Clarissima autem Lesbos, a Chio lxv, 
Himerte et Lasia, Pelasgia, Aegira, Aethiope, Ma- 
caria appellata. fuit ix oppidis inclula: ex his 
Pyrrha hausta est mari, Arisbe terrarum motu 
subversa, Antissam Methymna traxit in se, ipsa ix 
urbibus Asiae in xxxvii p. vicina. et Agamede obiit 
et Hiera; restant Eresos, Pyrrha et libera Mytilene 
annis md potens. tota in.sula circuitur, ut Isidorus, 

140 cLxviii, ut veteres cxcv. moiites habet Lepctym- 

" ThJB was the harbour-suburb of the town of the same 
narae stated just above to have beon submerged: Strabo 
XIV. 618. 

324 



BOOK V. .\.\x\'iii. i36-x.\.\ix. 140 

figure. It is situated between Samos and Lesbos 
and directly opposite to Erythrae. Neighbouring 
islands are Tellusa, by other \\Titers called Daphnusa, 
Oenusa, Elaphitis, Euryanassa and Arginusa with its 
town. These islands bring us to the neighbourhood 
of Ephesus, where are also those called the Islands 
of Pisistratus, Anthinae, Myonnesus, Dian-heusa (the 
towns on both these islands have disappeared), 
Pordoselene with its town, Cerciae, Halone, 
Commone, Illetia, Lepria, Aethi-e, Sphaeria, Pro- 
cusae, Bolbulae, Pheate, Priapos, Syce, Melane, 
Aenare, Sidusa, Pele, Drymusa, Anhydros, Scopelos, 
Sycussa, Marathusa, Psile, Perirrheusa, and many 
others of no note. Out at sea is the famous island 
of Teos with its town, ll^ miles from Chios and the 
same distance from Erythrae. Near Smyrna are the 
Peristerides, Carteria, Alopece, Elaeusa, Bacchina, 
Pystira, Crommyonnesos, Megale. Oft' the Troad 
are Ascaniae, the three Plateae, then Lamiae, the 
two PUtaniae, Platc, Scopelos, Getone, Arthedon, 
Coele, Lagusae, Didymae. 

XXXIX. The most famous island is Lesbos, 65 Lesboa. 
iniles from Chios ; it was formerly called Himerte 
and Lasia, Pelasgia, Aegira, Aethiope and Macaria. 
It had nine noteworthy towns : of these Pyrrha has 
been swallowed up by the sea, Arisbe destroyed by 
eartliquake and Antissa absorbed by Methymna, 
which itself Ues near nine cities of Asia, along a 
coastline of 37 miles. Agamede and Hiera have 
also ceased to exist ; but there remain Eresos, Pyrrha" 
and the free city of Mytilene, which has been 
powerful for 1500 years. The circuit of the whole 
island measures 168 miles according to Isidore and 
195 miles according to old authorities. The mountains 

325 



PLINY: NATURAL IIISTORY 

num, Ordymnuni, Macistum, Creonem, Olympura. 
a proxima continente abest vn d p. insulae adpositae 
Sandalium, Leucae v, ex iis Cydonea cum fonte 
calido ; Arginussae ab Aege Tv p. distant, dein 
Phcllusa, Pedna. extra Hellespontum adversa Sigeo 
litori iacet Tenedus, Leucophrys dicta et Phoenice et 
Lyrnesos ; abest a Lesbo fivi, a Sigeo xii d. 

141 XL. Impetum deinde suniit Hellespontus, et 
mari ^ incumbit, vorticibus Hmitem fodiens donec 
Asiam abrumpat Europae. promuuturium id appel- 
lavimus Trapezam. ab eo x p. Abydum oppidum, 
ubi angustiae vii stadiorum ; deiiidc Percote oppi- 
dum et Lampsacum antea Pityusa dictum, Parium 
colonia quam Homerus Adrastiain appellavit, oppi- 
dum Priapos, amnis Aesepus, Zelia, Propontis (ita 
appelhitur ubi se dilatat mare), Humen Granicum, 

142 Artace portus ubi oppidum fuit. ultra insula quam 
continenti iunxit Alexander, in qua oppidum Mile- 
sioriun Cyzicum ante vocitatum Arctonnesos et 
DoHonis et Didymis, cuius a vertice moas Didymus. 
mox oppida Placia, Ariace, Scylace, quorum a tergo 
mons Olympus Mysius dictus, civitas Olympena. 
amnes Horisius et Rhyndacus ante Lycus vocatus ; 
oritur in stagno Artynia iuxta MiletopoHin, recipit 
Maceston et plerosque aHos, Asiam Bithyniamque 

^ Urlichs : mare. 



" Ono of tho Loucao, ' Wliite Islanda ' ; shouM its narao bo 
Acglo, ' liadianco * ? 
" 11. II. 828. 

326 



BOOK V. xx\ix. 140-XL. 142 

on Lesbos are Lepetymnus, Ordymnus, Macistus, 
Creone and Olympus. It is 7| miles distant from 
the nearest point of the mainland. Adjacent islands 
are Sandalium and the five Leucae, which include 
Cydonea with its hot sprinc^ ; four miles from Aege " 
are the Arginussae and then Phellusa and Pedna. 
Outside the Dardanelles and opposite the coast of 
Sigeimi Hes Tenedos, also called Leucophrys and 
Phoenice and Lyrnesos ; it is 56 miles from Lesbos 
and 12| from Sigeum. 

XL. Here the current of the Dardanelles becomes riie 
stronger, and comes into coUision with the sea, under- anTMysia. 
mining the bar with its eddies until it separates Asia 
from Europe. We have already given the name of §127. 
the promontory here as Trapeza. Ten miles from 
it is the town of Abydus, where the strait is only 
7 furlongs wide ; then the town of Percote, and 
Lampsacus formerly called Pityusa, the colony 
of Parium, called by Homer* Adrastia, the tow^i of 
Priapos, the river Aesepus, Zeha, and the Sea of 
Marmara (the name given to the Straits where the 
sea widens out), the river Granicus and the harbour 
of Artace, where there once was a town. Beyond is 
the island which Alexander joined to the mainland 
and on which is the Milesian town of Cyzicus, 
formerly called Arctonnesus and DoUonis and 
Didymis ; above it is Mount Didymus. Then the 
towns of Placia, Ariace and Scylace, and in their 
rear the mountain called the Mysian Olympus and 
the city-state of Olympena. The rivers are the 
Horisius and the Ilhyndacus, formerly callcd tlie 
Lycus : this riscs in the marsli of Artynia near 
MiletopoHs, and into it flow the Macestos and several 
other rivers ; it forms the boundary between Asia 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

143 disterminans. ea appellata est Cronia, dein Thessalis 
dein Malianda et StnTmonis ; hos Homerus Hali- 
zonas dixit, quando praecingitur gens mari. urbs 
fuit inmensa Atussa nomine, nunc sunt xii civitates, 
inter quas Gordiu Come quae luliopolis vocatur, et in 
ora Dascylos. dein flumen Gelbes, et intus Helgas 
oppidum quae Germanicopolis,alio nomine Boos Coete, 
sicut Apamea quae nunc Myrlea Colophoniorum, 
flumen Echeleos anticus Troadis finis et Mysiae 

144 initium. postea sinus in quo flumen Ascanium, 
oppidum Bryalion, amnes Hylas et Cios cum oppido 
eiusdem nominis, quod fuit emporium non procul 
accolentis Phrygiae, a Milesiis quidem conditum, in 
loco tamen qui Ascania Phrygiae vocabatur ; qua- 
propter non aliubi aptius de ea dicatur. 

145 XLI. Phrygia Troadi superiecta populisque a 
promunturio Lecto ad flumen Echeleum praedictis 
septentrionaU sui parte Galatiae contermina, meri- 
diana Lycaoniae, Pisidiae Mygdoniaeque, ab oriente 
Cappadociam attingit. oppida ibi celeberrima prae- 
ter iam dicta Anc}Ta, Andria, Celaenae, Colossae, 
Carina, Cotyaion, Ceraine, Conium, Midaium. sunt 
auctores transisse ex Europa Moesos et Brygos et 
Thynos, a quibus appellentur Mysi, Phryges, Bithyni. 

146 XLII. Simul dicendum videtur et de Galatia, quae 
supoqjosita agros maiore ex parte Phr}'giae tenet 

• //. II. 856. 
328 



BOOK V. XL. i42-.\ui. 146 

and Bithynia. This district was formerly named 
Cronia, theii ThessaHs, and then Mahanda and 
Strymonis ; its inhabitants were called by Homer" 
the Halizones, as the tribe is ' girdled by the sea.' It 
once had a vast city namcd Atussa, and it now 
includes twelve city-states, among them Gordiu Come 
otherwise called JuHopoHs, and on tlie coast Dascylos. 
Then there is the river Gelbes, and inland the town 
of Helgas, also called GermanicopoHs, another narae 
for it being Boos Coete ; as also Apamea now known as 
Myrlea of the Colophonii ; and the river Echeleos 
which in early times was the frontier of the Troad, 
and at which Mysia began. Afterwards the bay in 
whicli are the river Ascanius, the town of BryaHon, 
the rivers Hylas and Cios, with the town also named 
Cios, formerly a trading station for the neighbouring 
district of Phrygia, founded by the people of Miletus 
but on a sitc formerly known as Ascania of Phrygia : 
consequently this is as suitable a place as any other 
to speak about Phrygia. 

XLI. Phrygia Hes behind Troas and the peoples purygia. 
already mentioned between Cape Lectum and the 
river licheleus. On its northern side it marches with 
Galatia, on its southern side with Lycaonia, Pisidia 
and Mygdonia, and on the east it extends to 
Cappadocia. Its most famous towns beside the ones 
already mentioned are Ancyra, Andria, Celaenae, § i^^^f. 
Colossae, Carina, Cotyaion, Ceraine, Conium and 
Midaium. Some authorities say that the Mysians, 
Phrygians and Bithynians take their names from three 
parties of immigrants who crossed over from Europe, 
the Moesi, Brygi and Thyni. 

XLII. At the same time it seems proper to speak Oaiatiam 
also about Galatia, which Hes above Phrygia and holds ^^"j"]"' 

329 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

caputque quondam eius Gordium. qui partem eam 
insedere Gallorum Tolistobogii et \^oturi et Ambitouti 
vocantur, qui Maeoniae et Paphlagoniae regionem 
Trogmi. praetenditnr Cappadocia a septentrione et 
solis ortu, cuius uberrimam partem occupavere 
Tectosages ac Toutobodiaci. et gentes^ quidem hae ; 
populi vero ac tetrarchiae omnes numero cxcv. 
oppida Tectosagum Ancyra, Trogmorum Tavium, 

147 Tolistobogiorum Pisinuus. practer hoscelebres Acta- 
lenses, Alassenses, Comenses, Didienses, Hierorenses, 
Lystreni, Neapolitani, Oeandenses, Seleucenses, 
Sebasteni, Timoniacenses, Thebaseni. attingit Ga- 
latia et Pamphyliae Cabaliam et Milyas qui circa 
Barim sunt et Cyllanicum et Oroandicum Pisidiae 
tractum, item Lycaoniae partem Obizenen. flumina 
sunt in ea praeter iam dicta Sangarium et Gallus, a 
quo nomen traxere Matris Deum sacerdotes. 

148 XLIII. Nunc rehqua in ora. a Cio intus in 
Bithynia Prusa ab Hannibale sub Olympo condita — 
inde Nicaeam xxv p. interveniente Ascanio lacu — , 
dein Nicaea in ultimo Ascanio sinu, quae prius Olbia, 
et Prusias, item altera sub Hypio monte. fuere 
Pythopolis, Parthenopolis, Coryphanta. sunt in ora 

1 TectosaKcs. nc ioto lTa.ctu gontos Mayhoff (scilicet nomiiut 
in hoc loco incertissime Iradunlur). 

330 



BOOK V. xLii. 146-XL111. 148 

lands that for the most part were taken from 
that coiintry, as was Gordium, its former capital. 
This disti-ict is occupicd by Gallic settlers called 
the Tolistobogii, Votm-i and Ambitouti, and those 
occupying the Maeonian and Paplilagonian region 
are the Trogmi. Along the north and east of Galatia 
stretches Cappadocia, the most fertile part of which 
has been occupied by the Tectosages and Touto- 
bodiaci. These are the races that inliabit the 
country ; the peoples and tetrarchies into which 
they are divided number 195 in all. The towns are 
Ancyra belonging to the Tcctosages, Taviima to the 
Trogmi and Pisinus to the Tohstobogii. Note- 
worthy people besides these are the Actalenses, 
Alassenses, Comenses, Didienses, Hierorenses, 
Lystreni, NeapoHtani, Oeandenses, Seleucenses, 
Sebasteni, Timoniacenses and Thebaseni. Galatia 
also touchcs on CabaUa in Pamphyha and the Milyae 
about Baris ; also on Cyllanicum and the district of 
Oroanda in Pisidia, and Obizene which is part of 
Lycaonia. The rivers in it beside those ah-eady 
mentioned are the Sakarya and the Gallus ; from 
the latter the priests of the Mother of the Gods take 
their name. 

XLIIL Now ve give the remaindcr of the places DUhyjiia. 
on this coast. Inland from Cios, in Bithynia, is Prusa, 
at the foot of Olympus, founded by Hannibal 
— from there to Nicaea is 25 miles, Lake Ascanius 
coming in between — ; then, on the innermost bay of 
the lake, Nicaea, which was formerly called Olbia, 
and Prusias ; then a second place also named 
Prusias at the foot of Mount Hj-pius. Places that 
exist no longer are PythopoHs, Parthenopohs and 
Corj^phanta. On the coast are the rivers Aesius, 

331 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

amnes Aesius, Br}'azon, Plataneus, Areus, Aesyros, 
Geodos qui et Chrysorroas, promunturium in quo 
Megarice oppidum fuit : undc^ Craspcditcs sinus 
vocabatur, quoniam id oppidum velut in lacinia erat. 
fuit et Astacum, undc et cx co Astaccnus idem sinus. 
fuit et Libyssa oppidum ubi nunc Hannibalis tantum 
tumulus; est et in intimo sinu Nicomedia Bithyniae 

149 praeclara. Leucatas promunturium quo inchiditur 
Astacenus sinus a Nicomedia xxxvii d p. rursusque 
coeuntibus terris angustiae pertinentcs usque ad 
Bosporum Thracium. in liis Calchadon Ubera, a Nico- 
media lxTi d p., Procorastis antc dicta, dcin Colpusa, 
postea Caecorum Oppidum, quod locum ehgere 
nescissent, vii stadiis distante Byzantio tanto feU- 
ciore omnibus mocUs sede. ceterum intus in Bithynia 
colonia Apamcna, Agrippenses, luUopoUtae, Bi- 
thynion. flumina Syrium, Laphias, Pharnacias, 
Alces, Serinis, Lilaeus, Scopius, liieros qui Bithyniam 

150 et Galatiam disterminat. ultra Calchadona Chryso- 
poUs fuit. dcin Nicopolis, a qua nomen etiamnum 
sinus retinet in quo portus Amyci ; dein Naulochum 
promunturium, Hestiae,^ templum Neptuni. Bosporos 
D p. intervallo Asiam Europae iterum auferens abest a 
Calchadone xTi d p., indc fauccs primae viii dccl p., 
ubi SpiropoUs oppidum fuit. tcnent oram omnem 

1 V.l.indQ. 

* Rackham {'Earla ct Mueller) : Estiae. 

" ' On tho fringe,' usedof tho laat porson in a Groek chorus. 
* Thia form ia well attested, though Chalcedon is moro ueual. 



BOOK V. xLii. 148-150 

Bryazon, Plataneus, Areus, Aesyrus and Geodos, 
another name for which is Chrysorrhoas, and the head- 
land on which formerly the town of Megarice stood : 
owing to which the gulf used to have the name of 
Craspedites," because that town Avas a sort of tassel 
011 its fringe. There was also formerly the tovm of 
Astacus, owing to which the gulf in question was 
also called Astacus Bay. Also there was a town 
called Libyssa at the place where there is now only 
the tomb of Hannibal ; and also at the far extremity 
of the bay stands the famous city of Bithynian 
Nicomedia. Cape Leucatas which shuts in Astacus 
Bay is 37| miles from Nicomedia ; and then the 
coasthnes come together again, forminjj narrows 
that extend as far as the Straits of Constantinople. 
On these narrows are the free city of Calchadon,* 
previously called Procerastis, 62| miles from Nico- 
demia, then Colpusa, afterwards Bhnd Men's Town 
— a name implying that its founders did not know 
how to choose a site, Byzantium a site so much more 
attractive in every respect being less than a mile 
away ! Inland in Bithynia are the colony of Apamea, 
Agrippenses, JuhopoHtae and Bithynion. The rivers 
are the Syrium, Laphias, Pharnacias, Alces, Serinis, 
Lilaeus, Scopius and Hieros, which forms the frontier 
between Bithynia and Galatia. Beyond Calchadon 
formerly stood ChrysopoUs. Then Nicopohs, from 
which comes the name still given to the bay contain- 
ing Port of Amycus ; then Cape Naulochum, Hestiae 
and Neptune's Temple. Then come the Straits of 
Constantinople, the channel half a mile wide which 
again separates Asia froin Europe, 12| miles from 
Calchadon. Then the mouth of the Straits, 8| miles 
wide, where once stood the town of SpiropoUs. The 

333 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Thyni, interiora Bithyni. is finis Asiae est popu- 
lorumque cclxxxii qui ad cum locum a fine Lyciae 
nunicrantur. spatium Hellesponti et Propontidis ad 
Bosporum Thracium esse ccxaxi.x p. diximus ; a 
Calchadone Sigeum Isidorus cccxxii d p. tradit. 
151 XLIV. Insulae in Propontide ante Cyzicum Ela- 
phonnesus, unde Cvzicenum marmor, eadem Neuris 
et Proconnesus dicta ; secuntur Ophiussa, Acanthus, 
Phoebe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, Halone cum oppido, 
Delphacie, Polydora, Artacaeon cum oppido. est et 
contra Nicomediam Demonnesos, item ultra Hera- 
cleam adversa Bithyniae Thynias quam barbari 
Bithyniam vocant. est et Antiochia et contra 
fauces Rhyndaci Besbicos xvTii p. circuitu ; est Elaea 
et duae Rhodusae, Erebinthote, Megale, Chalcitis, 
Pityodes. 



334 



BOOK V. xLiM. i5o-\Liv. 151 

whole ot the cuast is iniiabited by the Thynians and 
the interior by the Bithynians. This is the end of 
Asia and of the 282 peoples who can be counted 
betwcen the frontier of Lycia and this point. The 
length of the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmara 
to the Straits of Constantinople we stated above as iv.io. 
239 miles, and the distance from Calchadon to 
Sigeum is given by Isidore as 322| miles. 

XLIV. The islands in the Marmara are, Elaphon- isiandsin 
nesus off Cyzicus, from which is obtained the Cyzicus 'propo,uu 
marble — it is also called Neuris and Proconnesus — , 
and then Ophiussa, Acanthus, Phoebe, Scopelos, 
Porphyrione, Halone with its town, Delphacie, 
Polydora and Artacaeon with its town. Also off 
Nicomedia is Demonnesus, and also beyond Heraclea 
and off Bithynia Thynias, the native name of which 
is Bithynia. There is also Antiochia, and off the 
mouth of the Rhjmdacus Besbicos, an island 18 miles 
in circumference ; and also Elaea and the two 
Rhodusae, Erebinthote, Megale, Chalcitis and 
Pityodes. 



335 



BOOK VI 



LIBER VI 

I. PoNTUs EuxiNus, antea ab inhospitali feritatc 
Axiims appellatus, peculiari invidia naturae sine 
ullo fine indulgentis aviditati maris et ipse in ^ 
Europam Asiamque funditur. non fuerat satis 
oceano ambisse terras et partem earum aucta 
inmanitate abstulisse, non inrupisse fractis monti- 
bus Calpeque Africae avolsa taiito maiora absorhuisse 
quam reliquerit spatia, non per Hellespontum Pro- 
pontida infudisse iterum terris devoratis : a Bosporo 
quoque in aliam vastitatem panditur nulla satietate, 
donec exspatianti lacus Maeotii rapinam suam iun- 
gant. invitis hoc accidisse terris indicio sunt tot 
angustiae atque tam parva naturae repugnantis inter- 
valla, ad Hellespontum dccclxxv p., ad Bosporos duos 
vel bubus meabiU transitu — unde nomen ambobus, — 
etiam quaedam in dissociatione germanitas concors : 
alitum (juippe cantus canumque latratus invicem 
audiuntur, vocis etiam humanae conunercia, inter 
duos orbes manente conloquio, nisi cum id ipsum 
auferunt venti. 

1 V.l. iiitor 



" Sec IV. 76 note. Some of the ancients thovight that the 
name was diie to the inhospitable savagery of the natives. 

* /.€. double pacea, say 5 feet. 

' The Thracian and the Cimnierian Bosporus ; the name ' Ox- 
lord,' supposed to be due to lo, who as a cow traveraed tho 
former atrait, was also givcn to othcrs. 

33^ 



BOOK VI 

I. The Euxine or Black Sea, formerly because of its TUe Biaci- 
inhospitable roughness called the Axine," owing to a '^^''' 
pecuUar jealousy on the part of Nature, which here 
indulges the sea's greed wiihout any limit, actually 
spreads into Europe and Asia. The Ocean was not 
content to have encircled the earth, and with still 
further cruelty to have reft aw-ay a portion of her 
surface, nor to have forced an entrance through a 
breach in the mountains and rent Gibraltar away 
from Africa, so devouring a hirger area than it left 
remaining, nor to have swallowed up a fm*ther space 
of land and flooded the Sea of Marmara through 
the Dardanelles ; even bcyond the Straits of Con- 
stantinople also it widens out into another desolate 
expanse, with an appetite uasatisfied until the Sea 
of Azov links on its own tresj)ass to its encroachments. 
That this event occurred against the will of the earth 
is proved by the number of narrows, and by the small- 
ness of the gaps left by Nature's resistance, measuring 
at the Dardanelles 875 paces,* at the Straits of Con- 
stantinople and Kertsch the passage being actually 
fordable by oxen — which fact givcs both of them their 
name '^ ; — and also by a certain harmonious affinity con- 
tained in their disseverance, as the singing of birds 
and barking of dogs on one side can be heard on the 
other, and even the interchange of human speech, 
conversation going on between the two workls, save 
whcn the actual sound is carried away by the wind. 

339 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Mensuram Ponti a Bosporo ad Maeotium lacum 
quidam fecere |xiv| xxxviii d, Eratosthenes c minorem 
Agrippa a Calchadone ad Phasim \x\, inde Bosporum 
Cimmerium ccclx. nos intervalla generatim j^one- 
mus ^ conperta in aevo nostro, quando etiam in ipso 
ore Cimmerio pugnatum est. 

Ergo a faucibus Bospori est amnis Rebas, quem 
ahqui Rhesum dixerunt ; dein Syris, portus Calpas, 
Sangarius fluvius ex inclutis ; oritur in Phrj^gia, accipit 
vastos amnes, inter quos Tembrogium et Gallum, 
idem Sagiarius plerisque dictus ; Corahus, a quo 
incipiunt Mariandyni, sinus oppidumque Heraclea 
Lyco flumini adpositum — abest a Ponti ore cc, — por- 
tus Aconae veneno aconito dirus, specus Acherusia, 
flumina Paedopides, Callichorum, Sonautes, oppidum 
Tium ab Heraclea x3L\vTTi p., fluvius Bilhs. II. ultra 
quem gens Paphlagonia, quam Pylaemeniam aliqui 
dixerunt, inclusam a tergo Galatia, oppidum Mastya 
Milesiorum, dein Cromna, quo loco Enetos adicit 
Nepos Comehus, a quibus in Itaha ortos cognomines 
eorum V^enetos credi debere ^ putat, Sesamon 
oppidum, quod nunc Amastris, mons Cytorus a Tio 
Lxiii p., oppida Cimohs, Stephane, amnis Parthenius. 
promunturium Cerambis vasto excursu abest a 
Ponti ostio cccxxV, ut ahis placuit, cccl, tantundem a 



' Gflenivs : ponimus. 

• Mayhojf : cretlero (oa de re Deilefsen). 



340 



BOOK VI. I. 3-II. 6 

The dimension of the Black Sea from the 
Dai-danelles to the Sea of Azov is given by sonie 
authorities as 1438^ miles, but Eratosthenes makes it 
100 miles less. Agrippa gives the distance from 
Calchadon to the river Rion as 1000 miles and from 
that rivcr to the Straits of Kertsch as 360 milos, 
We shall state the distances in scctions as ascertaincd 
in our own limc. inasmuch as there has been dispute 
even about the mouth of the Straits of Kertsch. 

Well then, after the mouth of the Dardanelles is 
the river Rebas, called by some the Rhesus ; then 
Syris, and Port Calpas, and the Sakarya, a famous 
river wliich rises in Phrygia and into which flow 
some very large tributaries, among them the 
Tembrogius and the Gallas ; its name is commonly 
given as Sagiarius ; the Corahus where the Marian- 
dyni tcrritory begins ; the bay of Hcraclea, and thc 
town of that name on the river Lycus — it is 200 
miles from the mouth of the Black Sea, — the port 
of Aconae, of evil repute for the poison called aconif e, 
the Acherusian Cavern, the rivers Paedopidcs, 
Callichorus and Sonautes, the to\\Ti of Tium 38 
miles from Heraclea, and the river BilUs. H. Beyond Pnrhingonvi 
this river is the Paphhigonian race, called by some 
the Pyhiemenian, enclosed to the rcar by Gahatia, 
the Milesian town of Mastya, then Cronma, a place 
with which Cornehus Nepos connects thc Eneti, 
from whom he tliinks the Veneti in Italy bearing a 
similar name must be beheved to be descended ; 
the town of Sesamon, now called Amastris ; Mount 
Cytorus, 63 miles from Tium ; the towns of Cimolis 
and Stephane and tlie river Partlienius. The great 
projection of Cape Cerambis is 325 miles, or according 
to others 350 miles, distant from the mouth of thc 



M 



341 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Cimmerio aut, ut aliqui maluere, cccxu D. fuit et 
oppidum codem nomine et aliud inde Armine ; nunc 
estcolonia Sinope a Cvtoro clxiv ; flumen Evarchum,* 
gens Cappadocum, oppidum Caturia Zaccplum, amnis 
Halys a radicibus Tauri per Cataoniam Cappado- 

7 ciamque decurrens ; oppida Gamge, Carusa, Amisum 
liberum a Sinope cxxx, eiusdemque nominis sinus 
tanti recessus ut Asiam pacne insulam faciat, cc haut 
amplius per continentem ad Issicum Ciliciae sinum. 
quo in omni tractu proditur tres tanttun gentes 
Graccas iure dici, Doricam lonicam Aeoh'cam, 
ceteras barbarorum esse. Amiso iunctum fuit 
oppidum Eupatoria a Mithridate conditimi ; victo 
eo utrumque Pompeiopolis appellatum est. 

8 III. Cappadocia intus habet coloniam Claudi 
Caesaris Archelaidem quam praeterfluit Halys, 
oppida Comana quod Sahus, Neocaesaream quod 
Lycus, Amasiam quod Iris in regione Gazacena, in 
Colopene vero Sebastiam et Sebastopohm (haec 
parva sed paria supra dictis), rehqua sui parte 
Mehtam a Samiramide conditam haud procul 
Euphrate, Diocaesaream, Tyana, Castabala, Magno- 
pohm, Zelam et sub monte Argaeo Mazacum quae 

9 nunc Caesarea nominatur. Cappadociae pars 
praetenta Armeniae Maiori Melitene vocatur, 

' Hardoiiin : Vurecum. 

• The Kizil Irmak or Red Rivcr. 

* This Btrange belief goes back to Herodotus. The difitance 
acrose to the Gulf of Issus, Scanderoon, i.s at leaat 300 mile.s. 

' King of Pontus, finaliy dcfcated in 03 n.c, by Pompey. 

342 



BOOK VI. II. 6-ni. 9 

Black Sea, and the same distance, or, by an estimate 
which some prefer, 312i miles from the Straits of 
Kertsch. There was formerly also a to^vTi of the 
same name, and then another called Armine ; and 
at the present day there is the colony of S ,nrib, 
164 miles from Mount Cytorus ; the river Evarchus, a 
tribe of Cappadocians, the town of Caturia Zaceplum, 
and the river Halys " that flows down from the base of 
Mount Taurus througli Cataonia and Cappadocia; 
the to^\-ns of Gamge and Carusa, the free to-\\Ti of 
Amisus 130 miles from Sinab, and the bay of the 
same name which runs so far inland as to give to 
Asia the shape of a peninsula,'' the isthmus measuring 
not more than 200 miles across to the Gulf of Lssus 
in Cihcia. It is reported that in all this region there 
are only three races that can rightly be designated 
Greek, the Dorian, the lonian and the Aeolian, all 
the rest being tribes of barbarians. To Amisus was 
attached the town of Eupatoria, founded by Mithri- 
dates ; <^ after he had been conquered, the two places 
were united under the name of PompeiopoHs. 

III. Cappadocia contains in its interior a colony cappadoda. 
of Claudius Caesar named Archelais, past which 
flows the river Halys, and the towns of Comana on 
the Sahus, Neocaesarea on thc Lycus, and Amasia 
on the Iris in the region of Gazacena ; while in 
the Colopene region are Sebastia and Sebastopol, 
which are small towns but equal in importance to 
those mentioncd above ; and in the remaining part 
of Cappadocia are Melita, founded by Samiramis, 
not far from the Euphrates, Diocaesarea, Tyana, 
Castabala, Magnopohs, Zela, and under Mount 
Argaeus Mazacas, now named Caesarea. The part 
of Cappadocia adjaccnt to Grcater Armenia is called 

343 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Commagenis Cataonia, Phrygiae Garsauritis, Sar- 
gaurasana Cammaneni, Galatiae Morimene, ubi 
disterminat eas Cappadox amnis, a quo nomen 
traxere antea Leucosyri dicti. a Neocaesarea supra 
dicta Minorem Armeniam Lvcus amnis disterminat. 
est et Coeranus intus claras, in ora autcm ab Amiso 
oppidum et flumen Chadisia, Lycastum, a quo 

10 Thcmisc}Tena rcgio. Iris flumen defercns Lycum. 
civitas Ziela intus, nobilis clade Triarii et victoria 
C. Caesaris. in ora amnis Tlicrmodon ortus ad 
castellum quod vocant Phanorian jiraeterque radices 
Amazoni montis lapsus ; fuit oppidum codcm nomine 
et .nlia quinque, Amazonium, Themiscyra, Sotira, 

11 Amasia, Comana, nunc Matium ^ ; (I\") gentcs Cae- 
narum, Chalybum, oppidum Cotyorum, gentes 
Tibareni, Massyni notis signantes corpora, gens 
Macrocephali, oppidum Cerasus, portus Cordule, 
gentes Bcchircs, Buxcri, flumen Melas, gens Macho- 
rones, Sidcni flumcnquc Sidcnum quo alluitur 
oppidum Polemonium ab Amiso c.vx. inde flumina 
lasonium, Mdantliium, et ab Amiso lxxx Phamacea 
oppidum, Tripohs castehum ct fluvius, item PhilocaHa 
et sinc fluvio item LiviopoHs, et a Pharnacca c 

* Mantium Hermolati-a (cf. V. 115, IIG). 

" In the war against Mithradatea, 67 B.o. 

' Over Pharnaces, son of Mithradates — the victory (in 
47 B.c.) reported by Juliua Caesar to the scnate in the words 
VVth', vidi, vici. 

' Or perbaps ' Comana, which is now an Oracular Shrine.' 

344 



BOOK VI. III. 9-iv. .1 

Melitene, the part bordering uii Commagene 
Cataonia, that on Phrygia Garsauritis, that on 
CammaneneSargaurasana,that on Galatia Morimene, 
where the boundary between the two countries is 
formed by the river Cappadox, from which the 
Cappadocians take tlieir name — they were formerly 
called the Wliite Syrians. The boundary between 
Neocaesarea iibove mentioned and Lesser Armenia 
is the river Lycus. In the interior there is also the 
notable river Coeranus, and on the coast after Amisas 
the towTi of Chadisia with the river of the same name, 
and the town of Lycastus, after which the district 
of Themiscyra begins. The river here is the Iris, Themiscyra. 
with a tributary the Lycus. Inland is Ziela, the 
city-state famous for the defeat " of Triarius and the 
victory of Gaiiis Caesar.* On the coast is the river 
Thermodon, which rises at the fortress called Phano- 
rias and flows past the foot of the mountain Mason 
Dagh ; there was formerly a town of the same name 
as the river, and five others, Amazonium, Themiscyra, 
Sotira, Amasia and Comana, and now there is 
Matium;<^ (IV) the Caenares and Chalyl)os tribes, 
the town of the Cotyi, the tribes of the Tibareni and 
the Massyni — the latter practise tattooing, — the 
Longhead tribe, the town of Cerasus, the harbour 
of Cordule, the Bcchires and Buxeri tribes, the Black 
River, the Machorones tribe, the Sideni, and the 
river Sidenus which washes the town of Polemonium 
120 miles from Amisus. Then come the rivers 
lasonius and Melanthius, and 80 miles from Amisus 
the town of Pharnacea, the fortress and river Tripolis, 
the fortress and river Philocalia and the forlress of 
Liviopolis, which is not on a river, and 100 miles 
from Pharnacea the free tuwn of Trebizond, shut in 

345 



PLINY: NATURAT- HISTORY 

12 Trapezus liberum monte vasto clausum. ultra quod 
gens Armenochalybes, et Maior Armenia xxx p, 
distans. in ora ante Trapezunta flumen est Pyxites, 
ultra vero gens Sannorum Heniochoriun, flumen 
Absarrum cum castello cognomini ^ in faucibus, a 
Trapezunte cxl. eius loci a tergo montium Hiberia 
est, in ora vero Heniochi, Ampreutae, Lazi, flumina 
Acampseon, Isis, Mogrus, Bathys, gentcs Col- 
chorum, oppidum Matium, flumen Heracleum et 
promunturium eodem nomiiie, clarissimusque Ponti 

13 Phasis. oritur in Moschis, navigatur quanilibet 
magnis navigiis xxxviii D p., inde minoribus longo 
spatio, pontibus cxx pervius. oppida in ripis habuit 
conphira, celeberrima Tyndarida, Circaeum, Cygnum 
et in faucibus Phasim ; maxime autem inclaruit Aea, 
3cv p. a mari, ubi Hippos et Cyaneos vasti amnes e 
diverso in eum confluunt. nunc habet Surium 
tantum, et ipsum ab amnc influente ibi cognomi- 
natum usque quo magnarum navium capacem esse 
diximus. et aHos accipit fluvios magnitudinc nurnero- 
que mirabiles, inter quos Glaucum ; in ore eius 

14 insula est' sine nomine, ab Absarro lxx. inde aHud 
flumcn Charien, gens Saltiae antiquis Plithirophagi 
dicti et aUa Sanni, flumen Chobum e Caucaso per 
Suanos fluens, dein Rhoan, regio Cegritice, amnes 
Sigania, Thersos, Astelphus, Chrysorroas, gens 



' cognouiini 7 Mayhoff : oogiioiuine. 
• ilayhoff: insulae. 



346 



BOOK VI. IV. 11-14 

by a vast mountain range. Beyond Trebizond begins 
the Armenochalybes tribe, and 30 miles fui-ther 
Greater Armenia. On the coast before reaching 
Trebizond is the river Pyxites, and beyond Trebizond 
the Charioteer Sanni, and the river Absarrus with 
the fortress of the same name in its gorge, 140 miles 
from Trapezus. Behind the mountains of this dis- 
trict is Hiberia, and on the coast the Charioteers, 
the Ampreutae and the Lazi, the rivers Acampseon, 
Isis, Mogrus and Batliys, the Colchian tribes, the 
town of Matiimi, the River of Heracles and the cape 
of the same name, and the Rion, the most celebrated 
river of the Black Sea region. The Rion rises among vheriver 
the Moschi and is navigable for ships of any size ^^' 
for 38^ miles, and a long way further for smaller 
vessels ; it is crossed by 120 bridges. It had a 
considerable number of towns on its banks, the most 
notable being Tyndaris, Circaeus, Cygnus, and at 
its mouth Phasis ; but the most famous was Aea, 
15 miles from the sea, wliere two very large tributaries 
join the Rion from opposite directions, the Hippos 
and the Cyaneos. At the present day the only town 
on the Kion is Surium, which itself also takes its name 
from a river that enters the Rion at the point up to 
which we said that it is navigable for large vessels. 
It also receives other tributaries remarkable for their 
size and number, among them the Glaucus ; at its 
mouth is an island with no name, 70 miles from the 
mouth of the Absarnus. Then there is another river, 
the Charieis, the Saltiae tribe called of old the 
Pine-seed-eaters, and another tribe, the Sanni ; 
the river Chobus flowing from the Caucasas through 
the Suani territory ; then Rhoan, the Cegritic 
district, the rivers Sigania, Thersos, Astelphus and 

347 



PLINY NATURAL HISrORY 

Absilae, castellum Sebastopolis a Phasitle c, gens 
Sanicarum, oppidum Cygnus, flumen et oppidum 
Penius ; deinde multis nominibus Heniochorum 
gentes. 

15 V. Subicitur Ponti regio Colica. in qua iuga 
Caucasi ad Ilipaeos montes torquentur, ut diclum est, 
altero latere in Euxinum et Maeotium devexa, altero 
in Caspium et Hyrcanium mare. rehqua litora fere 
nationes tenent Melanchlaeni, Coraxi m-be Col- 
chorum Dioscuriade iuxta Ihivium Antliemunta nunc 
deserta, quondam adeo clara ut Timosthenes in eam 
ccc nationes dissimilibus Hnguis descendere prodi- 
derit ; et postea a nostris cxxx inteqoretibus negotia 

16 gesta ibi. sunt qui conditam eam ab Ampluto et 
Thelchio Castoris ac PoUucis aiu-igis putent, a quibus 
ortam Heniochorum gentem fere constat. c- a ^ Dios- 
curiade oppidum Heracleum distat, a Scbastopoh 
Lxx. Achaci, Mardi, Cercetae, post eos Serri, 
Cephalotomi. in intimo eo tractu Pityus oppidum 
opulentissimum ixh llcniochis direplum est. a tergo 
eius Epagerritae, Sarmatarum popuhts, in Caucasi 

17 iugis, post qucm Sauromatae. ad hos profugerat 
Mithridates Chiudio principe, narravitque Thalos iis 
esse confinis qui ab oriente Caspii maris fauces 

' Mayhoff : ca avU a. 



• Kstahlislied as king ol' Bosporus by Claudius in a.d. 41, 
but later rt-placed by hic ijruther Cotya. 

* t>ic- p. 3«>4, note 6. 

348 



BOOK VI. IV. 14-V. 17 

Chrysorrhoas, the Absilae tribe, the fortress of 
Sebastopol 100 niile.s from Phasis, the Sanicae tribe, 
the town of Cygnus, the rivcr and town of Penius ; 
and then tribes of the Charioteers 'WTth a variety of 
names. 

V. Below this lies the Black Sea district named CoUea. 
Colica, in which the Caucasus range curves round 
to the Ripaean Mountains, as we have previously v. 98. 
statetl, one side sloping down towards the Black Sea 
and the Sea of Azov, and the other towards the 
Caspian and Ilyrcanian Sea. The tribes occupying 
almost all the rcst of the coasLs are the Blackcloalcs 
and the Coraxi, witli the Colcliian city of Dioscurias 
on the river Anthemus, now deserted, but once so 
farnoiis that according to Timosthenes 300 tribes 
speakiiig different languages used to resort to it ; and 
subsequently bu.^^iness was carried on there by Roman 
traders with the help of a staff of 130 interpreters. 
Some people think that Dioscui*ias was founded 
by tlie charioteers of Ca.stor and Polhix, Ampliitus 
and TlielchiiLS, froni whom it is virtually certain that 
the CharioLeer tribe are descended. The town of 
Heracleum is 100 miles from Dioscurias and 70 miles 
from Sebastopol. The tribes herc are the Achaei, 
Mardi and Cercetae, and after these the Serri and 
Ceplialotomi. In the interior of this region was the 
extremely wealthy town of Pityus, which was sacked 
by the Charioteers. Behind Pityus are the Epagerri- 
tae, a Sarmntian people on the Caucasus range, and 
after them come the Sauromatians. It was with 
this tribe that Mithridates " took refuge in the 
principate of Claudius, and from him we learn tliat 
there is a neighbouring tribe, the Thali, who on the 
eastem side extend to the mouth * of the Caspian 

349 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

attinfferent ; siccari cas aestu recedente. in ora 
autem iuxta Cercetas flumen Icarus, Achaci ^ cum 
oppido Hiero et flumine, ab Heracleo rxxxvi. inde 
promunturium Crunoe, a quo suj%vcilium arduum 
tenent Toretae, civitas Sindica ab Hiero lxvii d, 
flumen Secheries. 

18 VI. Inde ad Bospori Cimmerii introitum LAX.xviii D. 
Sed ipsius paeninsulae inter Pontum et Maeotium la- 
cuiu excurrentis non amplior r.xvii d p. longitudo est, 
latitudo nusquam infra duo iugera ; Eonem vocant. 
ora ipsa Bospori utrimque ex Asia atque Europa 
curvatur in Maeotim. oppida in aditu [Bospori 
primo] 2 Hermonasa, dein Cepoe Milesiorum, mox 
StratocUa et Phanagoria ac paene desertum Apaturos 
ultimoque in ostio Cimmerium, quod antea Cerberion 
vocabatur. VII. Inde Maeotis lacus in Europa 
dictus. 

19 A Cimmerio accolunt Maeotici, HaH, Scrnes, Serrei, 
Scizi, Gnissi. dein Tanain amnem gemino ore 
influentem incolunt Sarmatae, Medorum (ut ferunl) 
suboles, et ipsi in multa genera divisi. primi Sauro- 
matae Gynaecocratumenoe, Amazonum conubia ; 
dein Naevazae, Coitae, Cizici, Messeniani, Coto- 
bacchi, Cetae, Zigae, Tindari, Tliussegetae, Tyrcae 
usque ad soHtudines saltuosis convallibus asperas, 
ultra quas Arimphaei qui ad Ripaeos pertinent 

20 montes. Tanaim ipsum Scythae Sinum vocant, 



* He.rmolaui : acuoHiiui tl alia codd. 

• Mayhoff. 



35° 



BOOK VI. V. 17-VI1. 20 

Sea, where, he tells as, the channel dries up at low 
tide. On the coast of the Black Sea near the Cercetae 
is the river Icarus, and the Achaei, witli their Holy 
Town and River, 136 miles from Heracleuni. Then 
comes Cape Cruni, after which a steep cHff is occupied 
by the Toretae, and then the city-state of Sindica, 
67^ miles from Holy 'I"own, and the river Seclieries. 

VI. The distance from the Seciieries to the entrance straiu o/ 
to the Straits of Kertsch is 88^ miles. But the '^'^"''^- 
actual peninsuhi projecting between the Black Sea 
and the Sea of Azov is not more than 67| miles long, 
its breadth being nowhere below 80 yards ; it is 
called Eone. The actual coast of the Straits on 
both the Asiatic and the European sides curves into 
the Sea of Azov. The towns at its entrance are 
Hermonasa and next the Milesian town of Cepi, 
then Stratocha and Phanagoria and the almost 
deserted town of Apaturos, and at the extreme end 
of the mouth Cimmerium, the former name of which 
was Cerberion. VII. Then comes the Sea of Azov, 
which is held to be in Europe. 

After passing Cimmerium, the tribes inhabit- The Don 
ing the coast are the Maeotici, HaU, Sernes, Serrei, coa.^n ** 
Scizi and Gnissi. Next come the two moutlis ^n/<»td. 
of the river Don, where the inhabitants are the 
Sarmatae, said to be descended from the Medes, 
and themselves divided into a number of sections. 
The first of these are the Matriarchal Sauromatae, 
the husbands of the Amazons ; then the Naevazae, 
Coitae, Cizici, Messeniani, Cotobacchi, Cetae, Zigae, 
Tindari. Thussegetae and Ty''^''^^» which brings us to 
uninhabited deserts intersected by wooded glens, 
beyond which are the Arimphaei, who reach to the 
Ripaean Mountains. The Don itself is called by the 

351 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Maeotim Temarundam, qiio significant matrem maris. 
oppidum in Tanais quoque ostio. teniiere finitima 
primo Cares, dcin Clazomeni ; et Maeones, postea 
Panticapaeenses. sunt qui circa Maeotim ad Cerau- 
nios montes has tradant gentes : a litore Napras, 

21 supraquc Essedonas Colchis iimctos montium cacu- 
minibus. dein Camacas, Oranos, Autacas, Mazama- 
cas, Cantiocaptas, Agamathas, Picos, Rymosolos, 
Acascomarcos, et ad iuga Caucasi Icatalas, Imado- 
chos, Ramos, Andacas, Tydios, Carastaseos, Authian- 
das ; Lagouni amnem ex montibus Catlieis in quem 
defluat Opharus, ibi gentes Cauthadas, Opharitas ; 
amnes Menotharum, Imityen ex niontibus Cissiis; 
infra ^ Agdeos, Carnas, Oscardeos, Accisos, Gabros, 
Gegaros, circaque fontem Imityis Imityos et Apar- 

22 taeos. alii influxisse eo Scythas Auchetas, Ather- 
neos, Asampatas, ab his Tanaitas et Inapacos viritim 
deletos. ahqui flumen Ocharium labi per Canticos 
et Sapeos, Tanain vero transisse Satharcheos Herti 
cheos, Spondolicos, Synhietas, Anasos, Issos, Cataee- 
tas, Tagoras, Caronos, Neripos, Agandeos, Meanda- 
raeos, Satharcheos Spalaeos. 

23 VIII. Peracta est int(»rior ora a Cio amne omnesque 
accolae, nunc reddatur ingens in mediterraneo situs,^ 

■ Mayhojf : iiitor. * ^faykuj/ : siiius. 



BOOK VI. VII. 20-VIII. 23 

natives the Sinus, and the Sea of Azov the Temarunda, 
which means in their language ' the mother of the 
sea.' There is also a town at the mouth of the Don. 
The neighbouring districts were fii-st occupied by 
the Carians, then by the Clazomenii and Maeones, 
and afterwards by the Panticapaeans. Some give 
the following list of tribes round the Sea of Azov 
near the Ceraunian Mountains : starting from the 
coast tlie Naprac, and higlier up the Essedones, 
joining on to the Colchians on the tops of the moun- 
tains. Then the Camacae, Orani, Autacae, Maza- 
macae, Cantiocaptae, Agamathae, Pici, IlymosoH and 
Acascomarci, and near the Caucasus range the 
Icatalae, Imadochi, Rami, Andacae, Tydii, Carastasei 
and Authiandes ; the river Lagous flowing do^vn 
from the Cathean Mountains, with its tributary the 
Opharus, where are the Cauthadae and Opharitae 
tribes ; the rivers Menotharus and Imityes flowing 
from the Cissian Mountains ; below these the Agdaei, 
Carnae, Oscardei, Accisi, Gabri and Gegari, and 
round the source of the Imityes the Imityi and 
Apartaei. Other writcrs say that the Scythian 
tribes of the Auchetae, Athcrnei and Asampatae 
have spread into this country, and have destroyed 
the Tanaitae and Inapaei to a man. Some state 
that the river Ocharius runs through the Cantici 
and Sapei, but that the Don has passed through 
the Hertichean tribe of Satharchei, the Spondolici, 
Synhietae, Anasi, Issi, Cataeetae, Tagorae, Caroni, 
Neripi, Agandei, Meandaraei and Spalaean Sathar- 
chei. 

VIII. We have gone ovcr the inner coast of Asia TheimeHor. 
from the river Cius and all the tribcs dwelUng on it ; 
let us now give an account of the vast region that lies 

353 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

in quo multa aliter ac veteres proditurum me non eo 
infitias, anxia perquisitis ^ cura rebus nuper in eo 
situ gestis a Domitio Corbulone regibusque inde 
missis supplicibus aut regum liberis obsidibus. 

24 ordiemur autem a Cappadocum gente. longissime 
haec Ponticarum omnium introrsus recedens Minorem 
Armeniam Maioremque et Commagenen laevo suo 
latere transit, dextro vero omnes in Asia dictas 
gentes, plurimis superfusa populis magnoque impetu 
scandens ad ortum solis et Tauri iuga transit Lycao- 
niam, Pisidiam, Ciliciam, vadit super Antiochiae 
tractum, et usque ad Cyrresticam eius regionem 
parte sua quae vocatur Cataonia contendit. itaque ibi 
longitudo Asiae |xii'| I efficit, latitudo dcxl. 

25 IX. Armenia autem Maior incipit a Parihedris 
montibus, Euphrate amne, ut dictum est, aufertur 
Cappadociae et, qua discedit Kuphrates, Meso- 
potamiae haut minus claro amne Tigri. utrumque 
fundit ipsa, et initium Mesopotamiae facit inter duos 
amnes sitae ; quod interest ibi tenent Arabes Orroei. 
sic finem us(jue in Adiabenen perfert ; ab ea trans- 
versis iugis inclusa latitudinem in laeva pandit ad 
Cyrum amnem transversa Araxen, longitudinem vero 
ad Minorem usque Armeniam, Absarro amne in 

^ Rackham : porquisita. 



" I.e. when it runs the fartheat to the west. 
* A translation of ' Meaopotamia '. 



354 



BOOK VI. VIII. 23-ix. 25 

in the interior. I do not deny that my description 
of it will diffcr in many ]ioints from that of the old 
Avriters. as I have devotcd nuich care and attention to 
ascertaining thoroughly the reccnt events in that 
region from Domitius Corbulo and the kings sent from 
lliere as suppliants or king's chiklren sent as hostages. 
We will however begin with the Cappadocian tribe. 
This extcnds farthest into the intcrior of all the 
peoples of Pontus, passing on its left-hand side Lesser 
and Cireater Armenia and Commagene and on its 
right all the tribes of Asia mentioned above ; it 
spreads over a very large number of peoples, and 
rises rapidly in elcvation towards the east in the 
direction of tlie Taurus range, passing Lycaonia, 
Pisidia and CiHcia, and thcn advances above the 
district of Antiochia, the part of it called Cataonia 
reaching as far as the departmcnt of Antiochia 
named Cyrrestica. Consequcntly the length of Asia 
at this point is 1250 miles and its breadth 640 
miles. 

IX. Greater Armcnia bcgins at the Parihedri Greater 
Mountains, and is separatcd fnim Cappadocia, as we ^'■'"""''- 
have said, by the river Euphratcs and, when the v. 83. 
Euphrates turns aside," from Mesopotamia by the 
equally famous river Tigris. Both rivers rise in 
Armenia, and it forms the beginning of Mesopotamia, 
the tract of country lying between these two rivers ; * 
the intervening space is occupicd by the Orroean 
Arabs. It thus extends its frontier as far as Adiabene, 
where it is enclosed by rangcs of mountains that 
stretch across it; here it spreads its width on the 
left, crossing the Aras, to the river Kur, while its 
length reaches right to Lesser Armenia, from which 
it is separated by the river Absarrus, which flows 

355 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

Pontiun defluente et Parihedris montibus qui 
fundunt Absarrum discreta ab illa, 

26 X. Cyrus oritur in Heniochis montibus quos alii 
Coraxicos vocavere, Araxes eodem monte quo 
Euphrates vi p. intervallo, auctusque amne Usi et 
ipse, ut plures existimavere, a Cyro defertur in 
Caspium mare. 

Oppida celebrantur in Minore Cacsarea, Aza, 
Nicopolis,in Maiore Arsamosata Euphrati proximum, 
Tigri Carcathiocerta, in excelso autem Tigranocerta, 

27 at in campis iuxta Araxen Arlaxata. universae 
magnitudinem Aufidius (iuiiu]ungicns centcna milia 
prodidit, Claudius Caesar longiludinem a Dascusa ad 
confinium Caspii maris PviTi| p., latitudinem dimi- 
dium cius a Tigranocerta ad Hibcriam. dividitur, 
quod certum cst, in pracfccturas, quas strategias 
vocant, quasdam ex his vel singula regna quondam, 
barbaris nominibus c,\x. claudunt eam montes ab 
oriente, sed non statim, Cerauni, nec Adiabene regio. 

28 quod interest spatii Cepheni tenent ; ab his iuga ultra 
Adiabeni tcncnt, pcr convalles autem proximi 
Armeniae sunt Mcnobardi et Moscheni. Adiabenen 
Tigris et montes invii cingunt. ab laeva eius regio 
Mcdorum est ad prospectum Caspii maris ; ex 

• The Aras formcd a separato mouth of its own in 1897. 
3.56 



BOOK VI. IX. 2 5-\. 28 

into the Black Sea, and by thc Parihedri Mountains in 
which the Absarrus rises. 

X. The source of the Kur is in the Heniochi The river 
Mountains, which are called by some persons the ^"^" 
Coraxici ; while the Aras rises in the same moun- 
tains as the Euphratcs, at a distance of six miles from 
it, and after being augmented by tlie river Usis, 
itself also, in the opinion of the majority of writers, 
joins the Kur and is carried by it down into the 
Caspian Sea." 

The notable towns in Lesser Armenia are Caesarea, f.essrr 
Ezaz and Nicopohs; those in Greater Armenia are •'"'"'""'• 
Arsamosata, which is near the Euphrates, Kharput on 
the Tigris and Sert on the high ground, with Artaxata 
in the plains adioining the Araxes. Aufidius gives 
the circumference of the whole of Armenia as 5000 
miles, while Claudius Caesar makes its length from 
Dascusa to the edge of the Caspian Sea 1300 miles 
and its breadth from Sert to Hiberia half that amount. 
It is a well-known fact that it is divided into 120 
administrative districts with native names, called 
in Greek military commands, some of wliich were 
formerly actual separate kingdoms. It is shut in on 
the east, but not immediately, by the Ceraunian 
Mountains and similarly by the Adiabene district. 
The intcrvening space is occupied by the Cepheni, 
and next to them the mountain district beyond is 
occupied by the Adiabeni, while along the valleys the 
peoples adjoining Armenia are the Menobardi and 
Moscheni. Adiabene is encircled by the Tigris and 
by impassable mountains. The district on the left 
of Adiabene belongs to the Medcs, as far as the point 
where the Caspian Sea comes into view ; this sea 
derives its water from the Ocean, as we shall say in 

357 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

oceano hoc, ut suo loco dicemus, infunditur, totumque 
Caucasis niontibus cingitur. 

Incolae per confinium Armeniae nunc dicentur. 

29 XI. Planitiem omnem a Cyro usque Albanorum 
gens tenet, mox Hiberum discreta ab his amne 
Alazone ^ in Cyrum Caucasis montibus defluente. 
praevalent oppida Albaniae Cabahica, Hilieriae 
Hermastus iuxta flumen et^Neoris. regiones^Thasie 
et Thriarc usque ad Parihedros montes; ultra sunt 
Colchicae solitudines, quarum a latere ad Ceraunios 
verso Armenochalvbes habitant et Moschorum 
tractus ad Hiberum aninem in Cyrum defluentem et 
infra eos Sacasani et deinde Macerones ad flumen 
Absarrum. sic plana aut devexa optinentur ; rursus 
ab Albaniae confmio tota montium fronte gentes 
Silvorum ferae et infra Lupeniornm, mox Diduri et 
Sodi. 

30 XII. Ab iis sunt Portae Caucasiae magno errore 
multis Caspiae dictae, ingens naturae opus montibus 
interruptis repente, ubi fores additae* ferratis 
trabibas, subter medias amne diri odoris fluente 
citracjue in rupc castello quod vocatur Cumania com- 
munito ad arcendas transitu gentes innumeras, ibi 
loci terrarum orbe portis discluso, ex advcrso maxime 
Hermasti oppidi Hiberum. a portis Caucasis per 

* UcrmolaUrS e Strah. : Ocazane. * ct aM. Rackham. 

* Rackham : rogio. * K/. obditae. 



" Probably the pass of Dariel, nearly in the centre of the 
Caucasus range; also called Sarmaticae Pylae. Anothcr 
important pass is betwcen the chief north-eastem spur of the 
range and the Caspian Sca, near Derbend; it was called 
Albaniae or Caapiae Pylae. 



Annentan 
:oast.t. 



BOOK VI. X. zS-xn. 30 

the proper place, and is entirely surrounded by the § S6. 
Caucasus Mountains. 

We sliall now mention the pcoples dwelling along 
the border of Armenia. 

XI. AU the plain from the Kur onward is oc- The 
cupied by the race of the Albani and then that of thc 
Hibcrcs, separated from the Albani by the river 
Alazon, which flows down from Mount Caucasus into 
the Cyrus. Important towns are Kablas-Var in 
Albania and Hermastus on the river and Neoris in 
Hiberia. The districts of Thasie and Thriare reach 

to the Parihcdri Mountains, and beyond them is 
the Colchian desert, on the side of which towards 
the Ceraunii dwell the Armenochalybes, and the 
country of the Moschi reaching to the river Hiberus, 
a tributary of the Kur, and below them the Sacasani 
and then the Macerones reaching to the river 
Absarrus. This gives the population of the plains 
or mountain slopes ; then after the frontier of Albania 
the whole face of the mountains is occupied by the wild 
tribes of the Silvi and below them those of the Lupenii, 
and afterwards the Diduri and Sodi. 

XII. Onleavingtheseonecomestothe Gatesof the a Caucasian 
Caucasus," which many vcry erroneously call the '"''"• 
Caspian Gates, an enormous work of Nature, who 

has here suddcnly rent thc mountains asundcr. Here 
gates have been placed, with iron-covered bcams, 
under the centre of which flows a river emitting a 
horrible odour ; and on this side of it on a i-ock 
stands the fortress called Cumania, erected for the 
purpose of barring the passage of the innumerable 
tribes. At this spot therefore the world is divided 
by gates into two portions ; it is just opposite the 
Hiberian town of Hermastus. licyond the Gates of 

359 



PLINY: NATURAI, HISTORY 

montes Gurdinios Valli, Suani, indomitae gentes, auri 
tamen mctalla fodiunt. ab his ad Pontum usque 
Heniochorum plurima genera, mox Achaeorum. 
ita se habet terrarum situs ^ e clarissimis. 

31 AHqui inter Pontum et Caspium mare ctclxxv p. 
non amphus interesse tradiderunt, Cornclius Nepos 
ccL : tantis iterum angustiis infestatur Asia. Claudius 
Caesar a Cimmerio Bosporo ad Caspium mare cL pro- 
didit, cacjue perfodere cogitasse Nicatorem Seleucum 
quo tempore sit ab Ptolomaeo Cerauno interfectus. 
a portis Caucasiis ad Pontum cc esse constat fere. 

32 XIII. Insulae in Ponto Planctae sive Cyaneae sive 
Symplcgades, deinde Apollonia, Thynias dicta ut 
distingucrctur ab ea quae est in ]"l.uropa — distat 
continente p. m, cingitur iii — ct contra Pliarnaceam 
Chalceritis, quam Graeci Ariam dixerunt Martique 
sacram, et in ea volucres cum advenis pugnasse 
pinnarum ictu. 

33 XIV. Nunc omnibus quae sunt Asiae intcriora 
dictis Ripacos montes traa^cendat animus dextraque 
litore oceani incedat. tribus hic partibus caeli 
adluens Asiam Scythicus a septentrionc. ab oricnte 

' linckhnm (cf. § 23): pinua. 



" Cf. § 7. 

' In rcality thc shortcst distancc across is ncarly GOO milcs. 

« Tlie Urek-.Taki. 

<* At the mouth of the Danulic. IV. 4.">, 1)2. 

' .Sce Wl. 



360 



BOOK VI. Mi. 3o-.\iv. 33 

the Caucasus among the Gurdinian Mountains are the 
V^aUi and the Suani, races never yet quelled, who 
nevertheless work gold-mines. After tlicse, right 
on to the Black Sea, are a largc number of tribes of 
Charioteers and then of Achaei. Such is the present 
state of one of the most famous regions in the workl. 
Some authoritics have reported ihe distance 
between tlic Black Sea and tlie Caspian as not more 
than 375 miles, while Cornelius Nepos makes it 250 
miles: by such narrow straits is Asia for a second 
time " beset. Claudius Caesar gives the dis- 
tance from tlie Straits of Kertsch to the Caspian Sea 
as 150 miles,* and statcs that Seleucus Nicator at 
the tune when he was killed by Ptolcmy Ceraunus 
was contempkiting cutting a channel through this 
isthmus. It is practically certain that the distance 
from the Gates of the Caucasus to the Black Sea is 
200 niiles. 

XIII. The islands in the Black Sca are the Planc- njack Sea 
tae,<^ otherwise named the Cyaucae or Symplegadcs, '^*''""''*- 
and then ApoUonia, called Thynias to distinguish 

it from the island'' of the same name in Europe — 
it is a mile away from the mainhmd and three 
miles in circurnference — and opposite to Pharnacea ^ 
Chalceritis, called by the Greeks the Isle of Ares 
and sacred to the god of war ; they say that on it 
there were birds which used to attack strangers with 
blows of their wings. 

XIV. Having now com])k>ted our description of the Haces mmh 
interior of Asia let us in imagination cross tlie llipaean ^^j^ ""^^ 
Mountains and proceed to the right along the shores 

of the Ocean. Tliis washes the coast of Asia towards 
three points of the compass, under the name of Scy- 
thian Ocean on the north, Eastern Ocean on the east 

361 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Eous, a meridie Indicus vocatur; varieque per sinus 
et accolas in conplura nomina di^iditur. verum 
Asiae quoque magna portio apposita septentrioni 

34 iniuria sideris rigens vastas solitudines habet. ab 
extremo aquilone ad initium orientis aestivi Scythae 
sunt ; extra eos ultraque aquilonis initia Hyperboreos 
aliqui posuere, pluribus in Europa dictos. primum 
inde noscitur promunLurium Celticae Lytharmis, 
fluvius Carambucis, ubi iassata cum siderum vi 
Ripaeorum montium deficiunt iuga, ibique Arim- 
phaeos quosdam accepimus, haut dissimilem Hyper- 

35 boreis gentem. sedes illis nemora, alimenta bacae, 
capillus iuxta feminis virisque in probro existimatur, 
ritus clementes. itaque sacros haberi narrant invio- 
latosque esse etiam feris accolarum populis, nec ipsos 
modo sed illos quoque qui ad eos profugerint. ultra 
eos plane iam Scythae, Cimmerii, Cissi, Anthi, 
Georgi et Amazonum gens, haec usque ad Caspium 
et Hyrcanium mare. 

36 XV. Nam et inrumpit e Scythico oceano in aversa 
Asiae, pluribus nominibus accolarum appellatum, 
celeberrimum ^ duobus Caspium et Hyrcanium. non 
minus hoc esse quam Pontum Euxinum Clitarchus 
putat, Eratosthenes ponit et mensurani ab exortu 

' Rackham : celoberrimis aut Celtiberium et. 

• l.e. Xorth-eaat. 
362 



BOOK VI. XIV. 22-\v. 36 

and Iiulian Ocean on tlie soxith ; and it is subdivided 
into a variety of designations according to the bays 
that it forms and the people dwelHng on its coasts. A 
great portion of Asia however also, adjoining the north, 
owing to the severity of its frosty cHmate contains 
vast deserts. From the extreme north-north-east to 
the northernmost point at which the sun rises in 
summer" there are the Scythians, and outside of them 
and beyond the point where north-north-east begins 
some have placed the Hyperboreans, who are said 
by a majority of authorities to be in Europe. After 
that point the first place known is Lytharmis, a 
promontory of Celtica, and the river Carambucis, 
where the range of the Ripaean Mountains termin- 
ates and with it the rigour of the chmate relaxes ; 
here we have reports of a people called the Arim- 
phaci, a race not unHke the Hyperboreans. They 
dwcU in forests and hve on ben*ies ; long hair is 
deemed to be disgraceful in the case of women and 
men ahke ; and their manners are mild. Conse- 
quently they are reported to be deemed a sacred race 
and to be left unmolested even by the savage tribes 
among their ncighbours, this immunity not being con- 
fined to themsehes but extended also to people who 
have fied to them for refuge. Beyond them we come 
directly to the Scythians, Cimmerians, Cissi, Anthi, 
Georgi, and a race of Amazons, the last reaching to 
the Caspian and Hyrcanian Sea. 

XV. For the sea actually forces a passage from riie caipian 
the Scythian Ocean to thc back of Asia, where the %Zt)^^ 
inhabitants call it by a variety of names, but it is best Ocean. 
known by two of them, as the Caspian Sea and the 
Hyrcanian. CHtarchus is of opinion that the Caspian 
is as large as the Black Sea ; Eratosthenes also gives 

363 



PLIN^^ NATURAL HISTORY 

et meridie per Cadusiae et Albaniae oratn vcccc 
stadia, inde per Atiacos, Amarbos, Hyrcanos ad 
ostium Zoni fluminis iTnDccc, ab eo ad ostium 
laxartis mmcccc, quae summa efficit |xv| laxv p. 

37 Artemidorus hinc detrahit xx\- p. Agrippa Caspium 
mare gentesque quae circa sunt et cum iis Armeniam, 
determinatas ab oriente oceano Serico, ab occidcnte 
Caucasi iugis, a meridie Tauri, a septentrione oceano 
Scythico, patere qua cognitum est cccclxxx in longi- 
tudinem, in latitudinem ccxc proditlit. non desunt 
vero qui eius maris universum circuitum a freto 
[xxV| tradunt. 

38 Inrumpit autem artis faucibus et in loiigitudinem 
spatiosis, atque ubi coepit in latitudinem pandi 
lunatis obliquatur comibus, velut ad Maeotium lacum 
ab ore de^cendens, sicilis, ut auctor est M. \'arro, 
similitudine. primus sinus appellatur Scythicus. 
utrimque enim accolunt Scythae et per angustias 
inter se commeant hinc Nomades et Sauromatae 
multis nominibas, illinc Abzoae non paucioribus. ab 
introitu dextra mucronem ipsum faucium tenent 
Udini Sc}-tharmn populus ; dein per oram Albani, ut 
ferunt, ab lasone orti, unde ^ quod mare ibi est * 

:i9 Albanum nominatur. haec gens superfusa montibus 
Caucasis ad Cyrum amnem, Anneniae confinium 
* Mayhoff : ante. ' ihi eat Mayhoff : est atU abcst. 

• Thia really discharges into the Aral Sea, not into the 
Caspian. 

* /.e. the imaginary paaeage by whjch it waa supposed to 
communicate with the Scythian Ocean. 

364 



BOOK VI. XV. 36-39 

its dimensions on the south-east side along the coast 
of Cadusia and Albania as 725 miles, from there 
through the territories of the Atiaci, Aniarbi and 
Hyrcani to the mouth of the river Zonus 600 miles, 
and from there to the mouth of the Syr Daria " 
300 miles, making a total of 1575 miles. Artemi- 
dorus subtracts 25 miles from this total. Agrippa 
states that the Caspian Sea and the races surrounding 
it, includmg Armenia, bounded on the east by the 
Chinese Ocean, on the west by the ranges of the 
Caucasus, on the south by those of the Taurus and on 
the north by the Scythian Ocean, so far as is known 
extend 480 miles in length and 290 miles in breadth. 
But there are some authors who give the entire cir- 
cuit of the sea in question from the straits'' as 2500 
milcs. 

Its waters make their way into this sea by a narrow 
mouth of considerable lengtli ; and where it begins 
to widen out it curves obHquely with crescent- 
shaped horns, as though desccnding from the mouth 
to the Sea of Azov, in the Ukeness of a sickle, as 
Marcus \'arro states. Tlie first part of it is called 
the Scythian Gulf, because the inhabitants on both 
sides are Scythians, who liold communication across 
the narrows, on one side being the Nomads and the 
Sauromatae, who have a variety of names, and on 
the other the Abzoae, wilh just as many. Starting 
at the entrance, on the right-hand side the actual 
point of the mouth is occupied by the Scythian tribe 
of the Udini ; then along the coast are the Albani, 
said to be descended from Jason, after whom the sea 
at that point is called the Alban Sea. This race 
overflows the Caucasus Mountains and, as previously § 29. 
stated, comes down as far as the river Kur, whicli 

365 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

atque Hiberiae, descendit, ut dictum est. supra 
maritima eius Udinorumque gentem Sarmatae, 
Utidorsi, Aroteres praetenduntur, quorum a tergo 
indicatae iam Amazones et Sauromatides. flumina 
per Albaniam decurrunt in mare Casus et Albanus, 
dein Cambyses in Caucasis ortus montibus, mox 
Cyrus in Coraxicis, ut diximus. oram omnem a Caso 
praealtis rupibus accessum negare^ per ccccxxv p. 
auctor est Agrippa. a Cyro Caspium mare vocari 
incipit ; accolunt Caspi. 

40 Corrigendus est in hoc loco error multorum, etiam 
qui in Armenia res proxime cum Corbulone gessere. 
namque hi Caspias appellavere portas Hiberiae quas 
Caucasias diximus vocari, situsque depicti et inde 
missi hoc nomen iascriptum habent. et Neronis 
principis comminatio ad Caspias portas tendere 
dicebatur, cum petcret illas quae per Hiberiam in 
Sarmatas tendunt, vi\ ullo propter oppositos montes 
aditu ad Caspium mare. sunt autem aliae Caspiis 
gentibus iunctae, quod dinosci non potest nisi comi- 
tatu rerum Alexandri Magni. 

41 XVI. Namque Persarum regna, quae nunc Par- 
thorum intellegimus, inter duo maria Persicum et 

1 Matjhojf (acceaau caroro coll. XII. 33 Jan) : cormpta. 
366 



BOOK VI. XV. 39-xvi. 41 

forms the boundary between Armenia and Hiberia, 
Above the coastward parts of Albania and the Udini 
tribe stretch the Sarmatae, Utidorsi and Aroteres, in 
the rear of whom we have alrcady indicated the § 35. 
Amazons and Sauromatides. The rivers running 
down to the sea through Albania are the Casus and 
the Albanus, then the Cambyses, which rises in the 
Caucasus Mountains, and then the Kur, rising in the 
Coraxaci, as we have said. The whole of the coast § 26. 
from the Casus is stated by Agrippa to be formed of 
very lofty chffs which prohibit landing for 425 miles. 
The sea begins to have the name of Caspian from 
the mouth of the Kur, the coast being inhabited by 
the Caspii. 

In this place we must correct a mistake made by NorOiern 
many people, even those who recently served with ?<"*'*• 
Corbulo in the war in Armenia. These have given 
the name of Caspian Gates to the pass in Hiberia, 
which, as we have stated, is callcd the Gates of the§ 30. 
Caucasus, and maps of the region sent home from 
the front have this name written on them. Also the 
expedition threatened by the Emperor Nero was 
spoken of as intended to pcnetrate to tlie Caspian 
Gates, whereas it was really aimed at the pass that 
gives a road through Hiberia to Sarmatia, the 
mountain barrier atfording scarcely any access to the 
Caspian Sea. There are however othcr Caspian 
Gates adjoining the Caspian tribes ; the distinction 
between the two passes can only be estabhshed by 
means of the report of those who accompanied the 
expedition of Alexander the Great. 

XVI. Tlie kingdom of the Persians, which we CountrUs 
now know as Parthia, hes between the two seas, the ^^'IZlafa 
Persian and the Caspian, on the hcights ot" thc ^rmenia. 

367 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Ilyrcanium Caucasi iugis attoUuntur. utrinique per 
devexa laterum Armeniae Maiori a frontis parte 
quae vergit in Commagenen Cephenia, ut diximus, 
copulatur, eique Adiabene Assyriorum initium, cuius 
pars est Arbilitis, ubi Darium Alexauder debellavit, 

42 proxima ^ Syriae. totam eam Macedones Mygdo- 
niam cognominaverunt a similitudine. oppida Alex- 
andria, item Antiochia quam Ncsebin vocant ; abest 
ab Artaxatis dccl p. fuit et Ninos inposita Tigri 
ad solis occasum spectans, quondam clarissima. 
rehqua vero fronte, qua tendit ad Caspium niare, 
Atrapatene ab Armeniae Otene regione discreta 
Araxe ; oppidum eius Gazac, ab Artaxatis ccccl p., 
totidem ab Ecbatanis Medorum, quorum pars sunt 
Atrapateni. 

43 XVII. Ecbatana caput Mediae Seleucus rex 
condidit, a Seleucia Magna dccl p. a Portis vero 
Caspiis ivx ; reliqua Medorum oppida Phazaca, 
Aganzaga ^, Apamea Rhagiane cognominata. causa 
Portarum nominis eadem quae supra, interruptis 
angusto transitu iugis ita ut vix singuhi mecnt 
plaustra, longitudine \ni p. toto opere manu facto. 
dextra laevaque ambustis similes inpendent scopuli, 
sitiente tractu per xxvni p. ; angustias impcdit 
corrivatus saUs e cautibus Hijuor atque eadem 

' V.l. proxime. 

* Pliazaca, Aganzaga Hardouin cnll. Plol. VI. 2 : Phizgan- 

368 



BOOK y\. xvi. 4i-\vn. 43 

Caucasiis range. Greater Armenia, which occupies 
the front of the mountain sloping towards Comma- 
gene, is adjoined, as we have said, by Cephenia, §28. 
which Hcs on the descent on both sides of it, and this 
bv Adiabene, where the land of the Assyrians begins ; 
the part of Adiabene nearest to Syria is Arbilitis, 
where Alcxander conquered Darius. The Mace- 
donians have given to thc whole of Adiabenc the 
namc of Mvgdonia, from its likcness to Mygdonia in 
Macedon. Its towns are Alcxandria and Antiochia, 
the native name for which is Ncsebis ; it is 750 miles 
from Artaxata. There was also once the town of 
Nineveh, which was on thc Tigris facing west, and was 
formerly very famous. Adjoining thc other front of 
Greater Armenia, which stretches to the Caspian 
Sea, is Atrapatene, separated from the district of 
Otene in Armenia h\ the Aras ; its chief tovm is 
Gazae, 450 miles from Artaxata and the samc 
distance from Hamadan, the city of the Medes, to 
which race the Atrapatcni bclong. 

XVII. Hamadan, thc capital of Media, which was iiedia. 
foundcd by King Scleucus, is 750 miles from Great 
Selcucia and 20 milcs from the Caspian Gatcs. The 
other towns of Media are Phazaca, Aganzaga and 
Apamea, called Rhei. The reason for the name 
' Gates ' is thc same as that stated above : the § so. 
range is here pierccd by a narrow pass 8 miles long, 
scarccly broad enough for a single line of waggon 
traffic, the whole of it a work of enginecring. It is 
overhung on either side by crags that look as if they 
had bccn exposed to the action of fire, tlie countrv 
over a range of 28 milcs being entirely w.atcrless ; 
the narrow passage is impedcd by a stream of salt 
water that coUects from thc rocks and fmds an exit 

369 



PLim^ NATURAL HISTORY 

emissus. praeterea serpentium multitudo nisi hieme 
transitimi non sinit. 

44 Adiabenis conectuntur Carduchi quondam dicti, 
nunc Cordueni, praefluente Tigri, his Pratitae irap' 
bSov appellati, qui tencnt Caspias Portas. his ab 
latere altero occurrunt deserta Parthiae et Citheni 
iuga ; mox eiusdem Parthiae amoenissimus situs 
qui vocatur Choara. duae urbes ibi Parthorum 
oppositae quondam Medis, CalHope et alia ^ in rupe 
Issatis ; ipsum vero Parthiae caput Hecatompylos 
abest a Portis cxxxTfi p. — ita Parthorum quoque 

4.'> regna foribus discluduntur. egressos Portis excipit 
protinus gens Caspia ad Htora usque, quae nomen 
portis et mari dedit ; laeva montuosa. ab ea gente 
retrorsus ad Cyrum amnem produntur ccxxv p., ab 
eodem amne si subeatur ad Portas dcc ; hunc enim 
cardinem Alexandri Magni itinerum fecere ab his 
Portis ad Indiae principium stadia xvdclxxxx pro- 
dendo, inde- ad Bactra oppidum, quod appellant 
Zariasta, mmmdcc, inde ad laxartem amnem v. 

46 XVIII. A Caspiis ad orientem versus regio est 
Apavortene dicta, et in ea fertiHtatis inclutae locus 
Dareium. mox gentes Tapyri, Anariaci, Staures, 
Hyrcanj, a quorum litoribus idem mare Hyrcanium 
vocari incipit a Humine Sideri ; citra id amnes Mazi- 

* alta ? Rackham. * inde add. Rackham, 

° Or ' which haa the namc of Zariasta ' : see § 48 note. 
37° 



BOOK VI. XVII. 43-xviii. 46 

by the same way. Moreover the number of snakes 
renders the route impracticable except in winter. 

Joining on to the Adiabeni are the peoplc formerly 
called the Carduchi and now the Cordueni, past whom 
flows the river Tigris, and adjoining these are the 
' Roadside ' Pratitae, as they are called, who hold 
the Caspian Gates. Running up to these on the other 
side are the Parthian deserts and the Citheni range ; 
and then comes the verv'^ agreeable locahty, also 
belonging to Parthia, called Choara. Here are the 
two Parthian towns formerly serving for protection 
against the Medes, CaUiope and, on another rock, 
Issatis ; but the actual capital of Parthia, Heca- 
tompylos, is 133 miles from the Gates — so effectively 
is the Parthian kingdom also shut off by passes. 
Going out of the Gates one comes at once to the 
Caspian nation, which extends down to the coast: 
it is from this people that the pass and the sea obtain 
their name. On the left there is a mountainous 
district. Turning back from this people to the river 
Kur the distance is said to be 225 miles, and going 
up from the river Kur to the Gatcs 700 miles ; for 
in the Itinerarics of Alexander thc Great this pass is 
made the turning-point of his expcditions, the distance 
from these Gates to the frontier of India being given 
as 1961 miles, from the fronticr to the towTi of Balkh, 
which is the name given to Zariasta," 462 miles, and 
from Zariasta to the river Syr Darya 620 miles. 

XVHI. Lying to the east of the Caspians is the Region 
region called Apavortene, in which is Dareium, a ''"a^ans'. 
place noted for its fertility. Then there are the 
tribes of the Tapyri, Anariaci, Staures and Hyrcani, 
from whose shores the Caspian beyond the river 
Sideris begins to be called thc Hyrcanian Sea ; 

371 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ris. Straor, omnia ex Caucaso. sequitur regio 
Margiane apricitatis inclutae, sola in eo tractu viti- 
fera, undique inclusa montibus amocnis ambitu 
stadiorum md, difficilis aditu propter harenosas 
solitudines pcr cxx p., ct ipsa contra Partliiae tractum 

47 sita. in qua Alexander Alexandriam condiderat ; 
qua diruta a barbaris Antiochus Seleuci filius eodcm 
loco restituit Syrianam intcrfluente Margo qui corri- 
vatur in Zotha lacu ^ ; maluerat illam Antiochiam 
appellari. ui-bis amplitudo circumitur stadiis uxx. 
in hanc Orodes Romanos Crassana clade captos 
deduxit. ab huius excelsis per iuga Caucasi pro- 
tcnditur ad Bactros usquc gcns Mardorum fcra, sui 
iuris. sub eo tractu gentes Orciani, Conimori, 
Berdrigac, Harmatotropi, Citomarae, Comaiii. Mur- 

48 rasiarae, Mandruani ; flvmiina Mandrum, Chindrum, 
ultraque Chorasmi, Gandari, Paricani, Zarangae, 
Arasmi, Marotiani, Arsi, Gaeli quos Graeci Cadusios 
appellavere, Matiani ; oppidum Ileraclea ab Alcx- 
andro conditum, quod deinde subversum ac restitu- 
tum Antiochus Achaida appellant ; Drebices quorum 
medios finis secat Oxus amnis ortus in lacu Oaxo ; 
Syrmatae, Oxyttagae, Moci, Bateni, Saraparae; 
Bactri (juorum oppidum Zariasta, cjuod postea 

1 V.l. Zothalo ; is. 

• Now Mcrv. * Sce V. 86. 



BOOK VI. xviii. 46-48 

while on this side of the Sideris are the rivers Maziris 
and Straor, all three streams rising in the Caucasus. 
Next comes the Margiane country, famous for its 
sunny climate — it is the only district in that region 
where the vine is grown ; it is shut in all round by a 
beautiful ring of mountains, 187 miles in circuit, and 
is difficult of access on account of sandy deserts 
stretching for a distance of 120 miles ; and it is 
itself situated opposite to the region of Parthia. 
In Margiane Alexander had founded a city " bearing 
his name, which was destroyed by the bar- 
barians, but Antiochus son of Seleucus re-estab- 
hshed a Syrian city on the same site, intersected 
by the river Murghab, which is canaUzed into 
Lake Zotha ; he had preferred that the city should 
be named after himself. Its circuit measures 8| 
miles. This is the place to which the Roman 
prisoners taken in the disaster * of Crassus were 
brought by Orodes. From the heights of Merv 
across the ridges of the Caucasus right on to the 
Bactrians extend the fierce tribe of the Mardi, an 
independent state. Below this region are the 
tribes of the Orciani, Commori, Berdrigae, Ilarmato- 
tropi, Citomarae, Comani, Murrasiarae and Man- 
druani ; the rivers Mandrum and Chindrum, and 
beyond them the Chorasmi, Gandari, Paricani, 
Zarangae, Arasmi, Marotiani, Arsi, Gaeh (called 
by the Greeks the Cadusii), and Matiani ; the town 
of Heraclea, founded by Alexander and subsequently 
overthrown, but restored by Antiochus, who gave it 
the name of Achais ; the Drebices, whose territory is 
intersected by the river Amu Darya rising in Lake 
Oaxus ; the Syrmatae, Oxyttagae, Moei, Bateni, 
Saraparae ; and the Bactri, whose town was called 

voL. II M 373 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Bactra,^ a fluniine appellatiim est. gens haec 
optinet aversa montis Paropanisi exadversus fontes 

49 Indi ; includitur flumine Ocho. ultra Sogdiani, oppi- 
dum Panda et in ultimis eorum finibus Alexandria ab 
Alexandro Magno conditum. arae ibi sunt ab 
Hercule ac Libero Patre constitutae, item Cyro et 
Samiramide atque Alexandro : fmis omnium eorum 
ductus ab illa parte terraruin, includente fluniine 
laxarte, quod Scythae SiUm vocant, Alexander 
militesque eius Tanain putavere esse. transcendit 
eum amnem Demodamas, Seleuci et Antiochi regum 
dux, quem maxime sequimur in his, arasque ApolHni 
Didvmaeo statuit. 

50 XIX. Uhra sunt Scytharum popuU. Persae illos 
Sacas in universum^ appellavere a proxima gente, 
antiqui Aramios. Sc^iihae ipsi Persas Chorsaros et 
Caucasum montem Croucasim, hoc est nive candidum. 
multitudo populorum innumera et quae cum Parthis 
ex aequo degat ; celeberrimi eoruni Sacae, Massa- 
getae, Dahae, Essedones, Astacae, Rumnici, Pestici, 
Homodoti, Histi, Edones, Camae, Camacae, Euchatae, 
Cotieri, Authusiani, Psacae, Arimaspi, Antacati, 
Chroasai, Oetaei ; ibi Napaei interisse dicuntur a 

61 Palaeis. nobiUa apud eos flumina Mandragaeum et 

^ Rackham, cf. % 4.5 : Zariafites . . . Bactrum. 
* Gelen. : inversos, invursum, universos. 

" Or ' whose town is Zariasta, which was afterwards called 
Bactra, from the river.' Authoritiea differ aa to which was 
the name of the rivcr. Cf. § 45. 

374 



BOOK VI. .wiii. 48-xLx. 51 

Zariasta from the river, but its name was afterwards 

changed to Balkh." This race occupies the oppo- 
site side of the Hindu Kush over against the 
sources of the Indus, and is enclosed by the river 
Ochus. Beyond are the Sogdiani and the town of 
Panda, and on the farthest confines of their territory 
Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great. At 
this place there are altars set up by Hercules and 
Father Liber, and also l)y Cyrus and Samiramis and 
by Alexander, all of whom found their Umit in tbis 
region of the world, where they were shut in by the 
river Syr Darya, which the Scythians call the Sihs 
and which Alexander and his soldiers supposed to be 
the Don. But this river was crossed by Demo- 
damas, the general of King Seleucus and King 
Antiochus, whom we are chiefly following in this part 
of our narrative ; and he set up altars to Apollo 
Didymaeus. 

XIX. Beyond are some tribes of Scythians. To seythian 
these the Persians have given the general name 
of Sacae, from the tribe nearest to Persia, but old 
WTiters call them the Aramii, and tlie Scythians 
themseh'es give the name of Chorsari to the Persians 
and call Mount Caucasus Croucasis, which means 
' white with snow.' There is an uncountable 
number of tribes, numerous enough to Hve on equal 
terms with the Parthians ; most notable among 
them are the Sacae, Massagetae, Dahae, Essedones, 
Astacae, Rumnici, Pestici, Homodoti, Histi, Edones, 
Camae, Camacae, Euchatae, Cotieri, Authusiani, 
Psacae, Arimaspi, Antacati, Chroasai and Oetaei ; 
among them the Napaei are said to have been 
destroyed by the Palaei. Notable rivers in their 
country are the Mandragaeus and the Caspasus. 

375 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Caspasum. nec in alia parte niaior auctorum incon- 
stantia, credo propter innumeras vagasque gentes. 
haustum ipsius maris dulcem esse et Alexander 
Magnus prodidit et M. Varro talem perlatum 
Pompeio iuxta res gerenti Mithridatico bello, magni- 
tudiiie haut duhie influentium amnium victo sale. 

52 adicit idem Pompei ductu exploratum, in Bactros 
septem diebus ex India perveniri ad Bactrum flumen 
quod in Oxum influat, et ex eo per Caspium in Cyrum 
subvectas ^ et v non aniplius dierum terreno itinere 
ad Phasim in Pontuni Indicas possc devehi merces. 

Insulae toto in eo niari niultae, volgata una maxime 
Zazata. 

53 XX. A Caspio mari Scythicoque oceano in Eoum 
cursus inflectitur ad orientem conversa Htorum fronte. 
inhabitabihs eius prima pars a Scythico promunturio 
ob nives, proxima inculta saevitia gentium. Anthro- 
pophagi Scythae insident humanis corporibus ves- 
centes ; ideo iuxta vastae sohtudines ferarumque 
multitudo haut dissimilcm hominum inmanitatem 
obsidens. iterum deinde Scythae iterumque deserta 
cum beluis, usque ad iugum incubaiLs inari quod 

* Gelen. : subvectos. 
" The second wos againat Mithridates, 74-65 b.o. 



BOOK VI. XIX. 5i-.\x. S3 

And in regard to no other region is there more 
discrepancy aniong the authoritics, this being due 
as I beheve to the countlcss numbcrs and the 
nomadic habits of the tribcs. The water of the 
Caspian Sea itself was said by Alexander the Great 
to be SAvect to drink, and also Marcus Varro states 
that good drinking water Avas conveyed from it for 
Pompcv whcn he was operating in the neighbourhood 
of the rivcr during thc Mithridatic War;" doubtless 
the size of the rivers flo^ving into it overcomes thc 
salt. Varro further adds that exploration imder the 
leadership of Pompey ascertained that a seven days' 
journey from India into the Bactrian country rcachcs 
the river Bactrus, a tributary of the Aniu Darya, and 
that Indian merchandize can be convcycd from the 
Bactrus across the Caspian to tlie Kur and thence 
with not more than five days' portagc by land can 
rcach Phasis in Pontus. 

lliere are many islands in all parts of the Caspian 
Sea, but only one of thcm, Zazata, is particularly 
notable. 

XX. After leaving the Caspian Sca and the The Fanher 
Scj-thian Ocean our course takes a bend towards ^''*'* 
the Eastern Sea as the coast turns to face eastward. 
The first part of thc coast after the Scythian pronion- 
tory is iminhabitable on account of snow, and the 
neighbouring region is uncultivated because of the 
savagerj' of the tribes that inhabit it. This is the 
country of the Cannibal Scythians who eat human 
bodies ; consequently the adjaccnt districts are 
waste deserts thronging with wild beasts lying in 
wait for human bcings as savage as themselves. 
Then we come to more Scythians and to more 
deserts inhabited by wild beasts, until we reach 

. 377 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

vocant Tal>im ; nec ante dimidiam ferme longitu- 
dinem eius orae quae spectat aestivom orientem 

54 inhabitatur illa regio. primi sunt hominum qui 
vocantur^ Seres, lanicio silvarum nobiles, perfusam 
aqua depectentes frondium canitiem, unde geminus 
feminis nostris labos redordiendi fila rursusque tex- 
endi : tam multipHci opere, tam longinquo orbe pe- 
titur ut in publico matrona traluceat. Seres mites 
quidem, sed et ipsi feris similes coetum reliquorum 

55 mortalium fugiunt, commercia exspectant. primum 
eorum noscitur flumen Psitharas, proximum Cambari, 
tertium Lanos, a quo promunturium Chryse, sinus 
Cirnaba, flumen Atianos, sinus et gens hominum At- 
tacorarum,2 apricis ab omni noxio adflatu seclusa 
collibus, eadem qua Hyperborei degunt temperie; 
de iis privatim condidit volumen Amometus, sicut 
Hecataeus de Hyperboreis. ab Attacoris gentis 
Thuni et Focari, et, iam Indorum, Casiri introrsus ad 
Scythas versi— liumanis corporibus vescuntur; No- 
mades quoque Indiae vagantur huc. aliqui ' ab 
aquilone contingi ab ipsis et Ciconas dixere et 
Brisaros. 

56 XXI. Sed undc plane constent gentes, Hemodi 

' V.l. noscantur. 

* Attacoramra ? Brotier : Attacorum. 

* huc. aliqui ? Mayhoff : huic cui (sunt qui edd.). 

' Tho substance referred to, tliough confused with silk, is 
probably cotton made into calico or muslin. For silk see 
XI. 76. 



BOOK VI. XX. 53-xxi. 56 

a mountain range called Tabis which forms a cUfF 
over the sea ; and not until we have covered nearly 
half of the length of the coast that faces north-east 
is that region inhabited. The first human occupants CMna. 
are the people called the Chinese, who are famous 
for the woollen substance " obtained from their 
forests ; after a soaldng in water they comb off the 
white down of the leaves, and so supply our women 
with the double task of unravelHng the threads and 
weaving them together again ; so manifold is the 
labour employed, and so distant is the region of the 
globe drawn upon, to enable the Roman matron to 
flaunt tran-sparent raiment in pubHc. The Chinese, 
though mild in character, yet resemble ^vild animals, 
in that they also shun the company of the remainder 
of mankind, and wait for trade to come to them. The 
first river found in their territory is the Psitharas, next 
the Cambari, and third the Lanos, after which come 
the Malay Peninsula, the Bay of Cimaba, the river 
Atianos and the tribe of the Attacorae on the bay of 
the same name, sheltered by sunbathed hills from 
every harmful blast, with the same temperate cHmate 
as that in which dwell the H}^erborei. The Attacorae 
are the subject of a monograph by Amometus, while 
the Hyperborei have been dealt with in a vohune 
by Hecataeus. After the Attacorae there are the 
Thuni and Focari tribes, and (coming now to natives 
of India) the Casiri, situated in the interior in the 
direction of the Scythians — the Casiri are cannibals ; 
also the Nomad tribes of India reach this point in 
their wanderings. Some writers state that these 
tribes are actually in contact with the Cicones and iv. 43. 
also the Brisari on the north. 

XXI. We now come to a point after which there india. 

379 



PLINY: NATUllAL HISTORY 

montes adsurgunt, Indorumque gens incipit, non 
Eoo tantum mari adiaoens verum et meridiano quod 
Indicum appellavimus. quae pars orienti est adversa, 
recto praetenditur spatio ad flexum et initio Indici 
maris |xvni| lxxv coUigit, deinde quae se flexit ^ in 
meridiem, fxxivj lxx\', ut Eratosthenes tradit, usque 
ad Indum amnem qui est ab occidente finis Indiae. 

57 conplures autem totam eius longitudinem xl dierum 
noctiumque velififo navium cursu determinavere, et 
a septentrione ad meridiem |xxviifj L. Agri])pa longi- 
tudinis |'xxxni|, latitudinis [xxTiT| prodidit. Posi- 
donius ab aestivo solis ortu ad hibernum exortum 
metatus est eam, adversam GaUiae statuens, quam 
ab occidente aestivo ad occidcntem hibernum meta- 
batur, totam a favonio ; itaque adverso ^ eius venti 
adflatu iuvari Indiam salubremque fieri haut dubia 

58 ratione docuit. alia illi caclifacies, alii siderum ortus, 
binae aestates in anno, binae messes media inter 
fllas hieme etesiarum flatu, uostra vero bruma lenes 
ibi aurae, mare navigabile. gentes ei urbesque 
innumerae, si quis omnes persequi velit. etcnim 
patefacta est non modo Alexandri Magni armis 
regumque qui successere ei, circumvectis etiam in 
Hyrcanium mare et Caspium Seleuco et Antiocho 
praefectoque classis eorum Patrocle, verum et aUis 

^ Mayhoff : doindo qua (ard se) flexit. 
* V.l. advcrsum (-sam Ilardouin). 

380 



BOOK VL xxi. 56-58 

is complete agreement as to the races^ — the range of 
moiintains called the Himalayas. Here begins the 
Indian race, bordering not only on the Eastern Sea 
but 011 the southern also, which we have designated 
the Indian Ocean. The part facing east stretches § 33. 
in a straight hnc until it comes to a bend, and at the 
point where the Indian Ocean begins its total length 
is 1875 miles ; while from that point onward the 
southerly bend of the coast according to Eratosthcnes 
covers 2475 miles, finally reaching the river Indus, 
which is the western boundary of India. A great 
many authors however give the entire length of 
the coast as being forty days' and nights' sail and 
the measurement of the country from north to south 
as 2850 miles. Agrippa says tliat it is 3300 miles 
long and 2300 miles broad. Posidonius gives its 
measurement from north-east to south-east, making 
tlie whole of it face the west side of Gaul, of 
which he gives the measurement from noi*th-west 
to south-west ; and accordingly he shows by an 
unquestionable Une of argurnent that India has the 
advantage of being exposed to the current of tlie 
west wind, which makes it healthy. In that coun- 
try the aspect of the heavens and the rising of the 
stars are difFerent, and there ai*e two summers and 
two harvests yearly, separated by a winter accom- 
panied by etesian winds, while at our midwinter it 
enjoys soft breezes and the sea is navigable. Its 
races and cities are beyond counting, if one wished 
to enumerate all of them. For it has been brought to 
knowledge not only by the armed forces of Alexander 
the Great and tiie lcings who succeeded him, Seleucus 
and Antiochus, and their admiral of the fleet Pat- 
rocles having sailed round even into the Hyrcanian 

381 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

auctoribus Graecis, qui cum regibus Indicis morati, 
sicut Megasthenes et Dienysius a Philadelpho niissus 

59 ex ea causa, vires quoque gentium prodidere. non 
tamen est diligentiae locus, adeo diversa et incredi- 
bilia traduntur. Alexandri Magni comites in eo 
tractu Indiae quem is subegerit scripserunt v oppi- 
dorum fuisse, nullum mm minus,^ gentium ix,^ 
Indiamque terliam partem esse terrarum omnium, 
multitudinem populorum innumeram, probabiU sane 
ratione : Indi enim gentium prope soli numquam 
migravere fmibus suis. coHiguntur a Libero Patre 
ad Alexandrum Magnum reges eorum cliii annis 

60 vi.ccccLi — adiciunt et menses iii. amnium mira 
vastitas : proditur Alexandrum nullo die minus 
stadia dc navigasse Indo nec potuisse ante menses v 
enavigare adicctis paucis diebus, et tamen minorem 
Gange esse constat. Seneca etiam apud nos tenip- 
tata Indiae commentatione lx amnes eius prodidit 
gentes duodeviginti centumque. par labos sit 
montes enumerare ; iunguntur inter se Imavus, 
Hemodus, Paropanisus, Caucasus, a quibus tota 
decurrit in planitiem inmensam et Aegypto similem. 

61 Verum ut tcrrena demonstratio intellegatur, 

* Dellefsen : cogiminus (Coo minua Jan). 

* ix, Detlefsen ; mm 7 Mayhoff. 

• Or perhaps ' nono with a population of less than 2000 ' ; 
but the tcxt is doubtful, as is that of tho foliowing nunieral. 

^ Imavus and Hemodus constitute tho Uimalayas and 
Paropaniflus is the Hindu Kush. 

382 



BOOK VI. xxi. 58-61 

and Caspian Sea, but also by other Greek authors 
who have stayed as guests wth the Indian kings, 
for instance Nlegasthenes, and Dionysius sent by 
Philadelphus for that purpose, and have also reported 
as to the strength of these nations. Nevertheless 
there is no possibihty of being exact as to this matter, 
so discrepant and so difficult to beheve are the accounts 
given. Those who accompanied Alexander the 
Great have A\Titten that the region of India subdued 
by him contained 50CH) towns, none less than two 
miles in circuit," and nine nations, and that India 
forms a third of the entire surface of the earth, and 
that its populations are innumerable — which is 
certainly a very probable theory, inasmuch as the 
Indians are almost the only race that has never 
migrated from its oa^ti territory. From the time 
of Father Liber to Alexander the Great 153 kings 
of India are counted in a period of 6451 years and 
three months. The rivers are of enormous size : 
it is stated that Alexander saiHng on the Indus did 
never less thar 75 iniles a day and yet could not 
reach the mouth of tlie river in less time than five 
months and a few days over, and nevertheless it is 
certain that the Indus is smaller than the Ganges. 
Seneca also, who among our own wTiters essayed 
an account of India, gives its rivers as 60 in number 
and its races as 118. It would be an equally laborious 
task to enumerate its mountains ; there is a con- 
tinuous chain formed by Imavus, Hemodus, Paro- 
panisus * and Caucasus, from which the whole country 
slopes down into an immense plain resembling that 
of Eg>-pt. 

However, in order to give an idea of the geo- ^'ortfiem 
graphical description of India we will follow in the 

383 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Alexandri Magni vestigiis insistemus.^ Diognetus et 
Baeton itinerum eius mensores scripsere a portis 
Caspiis Hecatompylon Parthorum quot diximus milia 
esse, inde Alexandriam Arion, quam urbem is rex 
condidit, dlx.w, Prophthasiam Drangarum cxcix, 
Arachosiorum oppidum dlxv, Hortospanum clxxv, 

62 inde ad Alexandri Oppidum l. (in quibusdam 
exemplaribus diversi numeri reperiuntur) — hanc 
urbem sub ipso Caucaso esse positam ; ab ea ad 
flumen Copheta et oppidum Indorum Peucolatim 
ccxxxvii, unde ad flumen Indum et oppiduin Taxilla 
LX, ad Hydaspen fluvium clarum cxx, ad Hvpasim non 
ignobiliorem cxcxc ^ qui fuit Alexandri itinerum 
terminus exuperato tamen amne arisque in adversa 
ripa dicatis. epistulae quoque regis ipsius con- 

63 sentiunt his. rehqua inde Seleuco Nicatori peragrata 
sunt : ad Sydrum clxix, lomanem amnem tantun- 
dem (aliqua excmphiria adiciunt v passuum), indc 
ad Gangen cxiid, ad Rhodaphan dlxix (aHi cccxxv in 
hoc spatio produnt), ad CalHnipaza oppidum tLxvii 
d (aHi cLXv),^ inde ad confluentem lomanis amnis et 
Gangis dc.vxv (plerique adiciunt xiiid), ad oppidum 
PaHbothra cccc.xxv, ad ostium Gangis dcx.xxvid. 

64 gentes quas memorare non pigoat a montibus 
Hemodis (quorum promunturiuin Imaus vocatur 
incolarum Hngua nivosum sic * sigmficante) Isari, Co- 
siri, Izi et per iuga Chirotosagi multarumque gentium 

^ Rackham : insiBtimus aui insistamus. 
' Mayhoff : \ xxv|r.cccxc codd. 

* Warmington : CCLXV codd. 

* aic add. Mucller. 



' § 44. * Now Herat. Now Kandahar. 

384 



BOOK VI. XXI. 61-64 

footsteps of Alexander the Great. Diognetus and 
Baeton,thesurveyors of his expeditions,writethat the 
distance from the Caspian Gates to the Parthian City 
of Hecatompvlos is the number of milcs that we stated 
above ; " from thence to the city of Alexandria * of 
the Arii, which Alexander founded, 575 miles, to 
the city of the Drangae, Prophtliasia, 199 miles, to 
the tovm " of the Arachosii 565 miles, to Kabul 
175 miles, and thence to Alexanders Town 50 miles 
(in some copies of this record we find different 
numbers) : this city is stated to be situated imme- 
diately below the Caucasus ; fi*om it to the river 
Kabul and the Indian town of Peucolatis 237 
miles, and thence to the river Indus and the town 
of TaxiHa 60 miles, to the famous river Jhelum 
120 miles, to the not less notable Beas 390 miles 
— this was the terminus of Alexander's journeys, 
although he crossed the river and dedicated altars 
upon the opposite bank. The king's actual dis- 
patches also agree with these figures. The re- 
maining distances after the Beas were ascer- 
tained by the exploration of Seleucus Nicator ; 
to the Sutlej 169 miles, to the river Jumna the same 
(some copies add 5 miles), thence to the Ganges 
112^, to Rhodapha 5G9 (others give 325 miles in this 
space), to the town of Calhnipa/.a 167^ (others 165), 
thence to the confluence of the river Jimina and 
the Ganges 625 (a great many add 13^), to the town 
of Patna 425, to the mouth of the Ganges 637|. 
The races worth mentioning after leaving the 
Hemodi Mountains (a projection of which is called 
the Imaus, which in the vernacular means ' snowy ') 
are the Isari, Cosiri, Izi, and spread over the range 
the Chirotosagi and a number of tribes with the 

385 



PLIISri': NATURAL HISTORY 

cognomen Bra^manae, quoriim Mactocalingae ; flu- 
mina Prinas et Cainnas, quod in Gangen infliiit, 
ambo navigabilia ; gentes Calingae mari proximi et 
supra Mandaei. Malli quorum mons Mallus, finisque 
tractus eius Ganges. 

65 XXII. Hunc alii incertis fontibus ut Nilum rigan- 
temque vicina eodem modo, alii in Scythicis montibus 
nasci dixerunt, influere in eum xix amnes, ex his 
navigabiles praeter iam dictos Crenaccam, Rhamnum- 
bovam, Casuagum, Sonum. alii cum magno fragore 
ipsius statim fontis crumpere, deiectumque per 
scopulosa et abrupta, ubi primum molles planities 
contingat, in quodam lacu hospitari, inde lenem 
fluere, ubi minimum, vTn p. latitudine, ubi modicum, 
stadiorum c, altitudine nusquam minore passuum xx, 
novissima gente Gangaridum Calingarum : regia 

66 Pertalis vocatur. regi ljc peditum, equites m, 
elephanti dcc in procinctu bellorum excubant. 
namque vita mitioribus populis Indorum multi- 
pertita degitur: tellurem exeicent, militiam alii 
capessunt, merces alii suas evehunt externasque 
invehunt, res publicas optumi ditissiinique temperant, 
iudicia reddunt, regibus adsident. quintum genus 
celebratae illis ^ et prope in religionem versae sa- 

' illis ? Mn>jhoff : illi azt/ illic. 
386 



BOOK VI. XXI. 64-xxn. 66 

name of Bfagmanae, among them the Mactocalingae ; 
the rivers are the Prinas and Cainnas, the latter a 
tributary of the Ganges, both of them navigable ; 
then the tribes of the Calingae nearest the sea, and 
further inhind the Mandaei, the MalH occupying 
Mount Mallus, and the river Ganges, which is the 
boundary of this region. 

XXII. The Ganges is said by some people to rise The Gangea 
from unk.no^\Ti sources like the Nile and to irrigate "^^ 'feiwns. 
the neighbouring country in the same manner, but 
others say that its source is in the mountains of 
Scj^hia, and that it has nineteen tributaries, among 
which the navigable ones besides those already 
mentioned are the Crenacca, Rhamnumbova, 
Casuagus and Sonus. Others state that it biu"sts 
forth ^Wth a loud roar at its very source, and after 
faUing over crags and chffs, as soon as it reaches 
fairly level country finds hospitality in a certain lake, 
and flows out of it in a gentle stream ^vith a breadth 
of 8 miles where narrowest, and 12^ miles as its 
average width, and nowhere less than 100 feet deep, 
the last race situated on its banks being that of the 
Gangarid Cahngae : the city where their king hves 
is called Pertahs. This monarch has 60,000 infantry, 
1000 cavalry and 700 elephants always equipped 
ready for active service. For the peoples of the 
more civihsed Indian races are divided into many 
classes in their mode of Hfe : they cultivate the land, 
others engage in military service, others export 
native merchandise and import goods from abroad, 
while the best and wealthiest administer the govern- 
ment and serve as judges and as counsellors of the 
kings. Tliere is a fifth class of persons devoted to 
wisdom, which is held in high honour with these 

387 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

pientiae deditum voluntaria semper morte vitam 
accenso prius rogo finit. unum super haec est semi- 
ferum ac plenum laboris inmensi — a quo ^ supra dicta 
continentur — venandi elephantos doraandique ; his 
arant, his invehuntur, haec maxime novere pecuaria, 
his mihtant dimicantque pro finibus : dilcctum in 

67 bella vires et aetas atque magnitudo faciunt. insula 
in Gange est magnae amphtudinis gentem continens 
unam nomine Modoffahnjjam. ultra siti sunt Modu- 
bae, MoUndae, Uberae cum oppido eiusdem nominis 
magnifico, Modressae, Praeti, Aclissae, Sasuri, 
Fassulae, Colebae, Orumcolae, Abah, Thalutae: 
rex horum peditum E, equitum Iv, elephantorum iv 
in armis habet. vaUdior deinde gens Andarae, 
plurimis vicis, xxx oppidis quae muris turribusque 
muniuntur, regi praebet peditum c, equitum n, 
elephantos m. fertilissimi sunt auri Dardae, Setae 

68 vero et argenti. sed omnia in India prope, non 
modo in hoc tractu, potentia claritateque antecedunt 
Prasi ampHssima urbe ditissimaque Palibothra, unde 
quidam ipsam gentem Palibothros vocant, immo vero 
tractum universum a Gange. regi eorum peditum 
bc, equitum \xx, elephantorum ix per omnes dies 

* V.l. e quo. 



" The t«xt is UDcertain ; perhaps the sense is ' by which 
are supported.' * TLo anciont Andhraa. 



388 



BOOK VI. XAii. 66-68 

people and almost elevated into a religion; those 
of this class always end their Ufe by a voluntary 
death upon a pyre to which they have previously 
themsehes set Hght. There is one class besides 
these, half-wild people devoted to the laborious 
task — from which the chisses above mentioned are 
kept away " — of hunting and taming elephants ; 
these they use for ploughing and for transport, 
these are their commonest kind of cattle, and these 
they employ when fighting in battle and defending 
their country : elephants to use in war are chosen for 
their strength and age and size. There is a very 
spacious island in the Ganges containing a single 
race named the ModogaUnga race. Beyond it are 
situated the Modubae, the MoUndae, the Uberae 
with a magnificent town of the same name, the 
Modressae, Praeti, AcUssae, Sasuri, Fassulae, 
Colebae, Orumcolae, AbaU and Thalutae : the king 
of the Litter tribe has an arniy of 50,000 infantry, 
4000 cavalry and -iOOO elephants. Next come the 
Andarae,'' a more powerful tribe, with a great many 
viUages and thirty towns fortified ■with walls and 
towers ; they furnish tlicir king with 100,000 infantry, 
2000 cavalry and 1000 elejjhants. The country of 
the Dardae produces gold in great quantity, and that 
of the Setae silver also. But almost the whole of 
the peoples of India and not only those in this 
district are surpassed in power and glory by the 
Prasi, with their very large and wealthy city of 
Patna, from which some people give the name 
of PuUbothri to the race itself, and indeed to the 
whole tract of country from the Ganges. Their 
king maintains and pays a standing army of 60,000 
foot, 30,000 horse and 9000 elephants, from vvhich 

389 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

stipendiantiir, unde coniectatio ingens opum est. 

69 ab his in interiore situ Monaedes et Suari, quorum 
mons Maleus in quo umbrae ad septentrionem cadunt 
hieme, aestate in austrum, per senos menses. sep- 
tentriones eo tractu semel anno adparere, nec nisi 
quindecim diebus, Baeton auctor est, hoc idem 
pluribus locis Indiae fieri Megasthenes. austrinum 
polum Indi Diamasa vocant. amnis lomanes in 
Gangen per Palibothros decurrit inter oppida Methora 

70 et Chr}-sobora. a Gange versa ad meridiem plaga 
tinguntur sole populi, iam quidem infecti, nondum 
tamen Aethiopum modo exusti ; quantum ad Indum 
accedunt tantum colorem ^ praeferunt. Indus statim 
a Prasiorum gente, quorum in montanis Pygmaei 
traduntur. Artemidorus inter duos amnes |xxi| 
interesse tradit. 

71 XXIII. Indus incolis Sindus appellatus in iugo 
Caucasi montis quod vocatur Paropanisus adversus 
solis ortum effusus et ipse undeviginti recipit amnes, 
sed clarissimos Hydaspen quattuor alios adferentem, 
Cantabam tris, per se vero navigabiles Acesinum et 
Hypasim, quadam tamen aquarum modestia nus- 
quam latior L stadiis aut altior xv passibus, amplissi- 
mam insulam efficiens quae Prasiane nominatur et 

72 aliam minorem quae Patale. ipse per |xii|a, 

» V.l. colore (colore prae <8e> ferunt DetU/sen). 
' The InduB DelU. 



BOOK VI. XXII. 68-xxiii. 72 

the vastness of his wcalth may be conjectured. 
Further up country from these are the Monaedes 
and the Suari, in whose domain is Mount Maleus 
upon which shadows fall towards the north in winter 
and towards the south in summer, for periods of 
six months alternately. According to Baeton the 
constellation of the Great Bear is only visible in this 
region one time in the year, and only for a period of 
a fortnight ; and Megasthenes says that the same 
thing occurs in many other places in India. The 
Indian name for tlieir southern region is Diamasa. 
The river Jumna runs through the PaUbothri country 
into the Ganges between the towns of Muttra and 
Chr}'sobora. In the region to the south of the 
Ganges the tribes are bro^vTied by the heat of the 
sun to the extent of being coloured, though not as 
yet burnt black Uke the Ethiopians ; the nearer they 
get to the Indus the more colour they display. We 
come to the Indus immediately after leaving the 
Prasii, a tribe in whose mountain regions there is said 
to be a race of Pygmies. Artemidoni'; gives the 
distance from the Ganges to the Indus as 2100 miles. 

XXIII. The Indus, the native name for which is The indus. 
Sindus, rises on the east side of a ridge of Mount 
Caucasus called Hindu Kush ; in its course it receives 
nineteen tributaries, the best known being the 
Jhelum which brings with it four other streams, 
the Cantaba which brings three, and the Chenab 
and the Beas, themselves navigable rivers. Owing 
however to a certain Umitation in its supply of water 
the Indus is nowhere more than 6| miles wide or 
75 feet deep ; and it forms an island of considerable 
size named Prasiane and another smaller one named 
Patale." The main river is navigable for a distance 

391 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

passuum parcissimis auctoribus navigatur et quodam 
solis comitatu in occasum versus oceano infunditur. 
mensuram orae ad cum ponam, ut invenio, genera- 
tim, quamquam inter se nullae congruunt : ab ostio 
Gangis ad promunturium Calingon et oppidum 
Dandaguda dcxxv, ad Tropina |.\n| xxv, ad Perimulae 
promunturium, ubi est celeberrimum Indiae em- 
porium, dccl, ad oppidum in iiisula quam supra 
diximus Patalam ixxx. 

73 Gentes montanae inter eum et lomanem Caesi, 
Caetriboni silvestres, dein Megallae (quorum regi n 
elephanti, peditum equitumque numerus incertus), 
Chrysei, Parasangae, Asmagi, tigri fera scatentes ; 
armant peditum xxx, elephantos ccc, equites dccc, 
hos Indus includit montium corona circumdatos et 
solitudinibus. dcxxv infra solitudines Dari, Surae, 
iterumque soHtudines per cL\xxvii,plerumque harenis 
ambientibus haut alio modo quam insulas mari. 

74 infra deserta liaec Maltaecorae, Singae, Moroae, 
Ilarungae, Moruni. hi montium qui perpetuo 
tractu oceani in ^ ora pertinent incolae Hberi et regum 
expertes multis urbibus montanos optinent coUes. 
Nareae deinde, quos claudit mons altissimus Indi- 
corum Capitalia. huius incolae alio latere late auri 

* in a/ld. Mayh>jJ. 
392 



BOOK VI. XXIII. 72-74 

of 1240 niiles according to the most moderate 
accounts, and it discharges into the ocean after 
following the sun's course in some measure westward. 
I will give the measurement of the coast-Hne to thc 
mouth of the river by stages as I find it, although 
none of the various reports of it agree with one 
another ; from the mouth of the Ganges to the Cape 
of the CaUngae and the town of Dandaguda 625 miles, 
to Tropina 1225 miles, to the Cape of Perimula, where 
is the most celebrated trading-place of India, 750 
miles, to the town of Patala on the island which 
we have mentioned above, 620 miles. 

Between the Indus and the Jimina are the 
mountain tribes of the Caesi, the forester Caetriboni, 
and then the Megallae (whose king possesses 500 
elephants and an uncertain number of infantry and 
cavalry), the Chrysei, the Parasangae and the 
Asmagi, whose district is infested by the wild tiger; 
they have an armed force of 30,000 foot, 300 elephants 
and 800 cavalry. They are bounded by the river 
Indus and surrounded by a ring of mountains and 
by deserts. Below the deserts at a distance of 625 
milcs are the Dari and Surae, and then descrt again 
for a distance of 187 miles, these pkices for the 
most part being surromided by sands exactly as 
islands are surrounded by the sea. Below these 
deserts are the Maltaecorae, Singae, Moroae, 
Rarungae and Moruni. These peoples are the 
inhabitants of the mountains that stretch in a 
continuous range on the coast of the ocean ; they 
are free people having no kings, and they occupy 
the mountain slopes with a number of cities. Next 
come the Nareae, who are shut in by the Capitaha 
range, the highest of the mountains of India. The 

393 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

75 et argenti metalla fodiunt. ab his Oratae, quorum 
regi elephanti quidem x, sed amplae vires peditum, 
Suarataratae — et hi sub rege clephantos non alunt 
fiducia equitum peditimique — Odonbaeoraes, Ara- 
bastrae Thorace urbe pulchra fossis palustribus 
munita per quas crocodih humani corporis avidissimi 
aditum nisi ponte non dant. et ahud apud illos 
laudatur oppidum Automuha, inpositum htori quinque 
amnium in unum confluente ^ concursu, emporio 
nobih ; regi eorum elephanti mdc, peditum cE, 
equitum v. pauperior Charmarum rex elephantos 

76 Lx parvasque rehquas vires habet. ab his gens 
Pandae, sola Indorum regnata fcminis. unam 
Hercuh sexus eius genitam fcrunt ob idque grati- 
orcm, praecipuo regno donatam. ab ea deducentes 
originem imperitant ccc oppidis ; peditum cl, 
elephantes D. post hanc trecentarum urbium seriem 
Derangae, Posingae, Butae, Gogaraei, Umbrae, 
Nereae, Brangosi, Nobundae, Cocondae, Nesei, 
Palatitac, Salobriasae, Orostrae Patalam insulam 
attingentes, a cuius extremo htore ad Caspias portas 
I XIX I XXV produntur. 

77 Hinc deinde accolunt Indum adverso eo scandente ^ 
demonstratione Mathoae, Bohngae, GaHitalutae, 

* V.l. confluentium. 

' MayhoJJ : adversufl eos cadente (soandente Urlichs). 

394 



BOOK VI. xxin. 74-77 

inhabitants of the other side of this mountain work 
a wide range of gold and silver mines. Next to 
these come the Oratae, whose king has only ten 
elephants but a large force of infantry, the 
Suarataratae — these also though ruled by a king 
do not keep elephants but rely on cavalry and 
infantr}' — the Odonbaeoraes and the Arabastrae, 
whose fine city Thorax is guarded by marshy canals 
which crocodiles, creatures wth an insatiable 
appetite for human flesh, render impassable save 
by way of a bridge. Another town in their country 
is also highly spoken of, Automula, which is situated 
on the coast at the point of confluence of five rivers, 
and has a celebrated market ; their king possesses 
1600 elephants, 150,000 foot and 5000 horse. The 
king of the Charmae is not so wealthy, having 60 
elephants and small forces of the other kinds. The 
race next to these is that of the Pandae, the only 
people in India ruled by queens. They say that 
only one child of the female sex was born to Hercules, 
and that she was in consequence his favourite and 
he bestowed on her a specially large kingdom. 
The queens deriving their descent from her rule over 
300 towns, and have an army of 150,000 foot and 
500 elephants. After this Ust of 300 cities we have 
the Derangac, Posingae, Butae, Gogaraei, Umbrae, 
Nereae, Brangosi, Nobundae, Cocondae, Nesei, 
Palatitae, Salobriasae and Orostrae, the last people 
being adjacent to the island of Patala, the distance 
from the extreme point of which to the Caspian 
Gates is given as 1925 miles. 

From this point onward the tribes dwelling on the 
Indus — our enumeration proceeding up stream — 
are the Mathoae, Bolingae, Gallitalutae, Dimuri, 

395 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Dimuri, Megari, Ardabae, Mesae, Abi, Suri, Silae, 
mox deserta in cct, quibus exuperatis Organagae, 
Abortae, Bassiiertae, et ab his solitudines prioribus 
pares. dein Sorofages, Arbae, Marogomatrac, Um- 
britae Ceaeque quorum xii nationcs singulisque 
binae urbes, Asini trium iirbium incolae : caput 
eorum Bucephala Alexandri rcgis equo, cui fuerat 

78 hoc nomen, ibi sepulto conditum. montani supcr 
hos Caucaso subiecti Sosaeadae, Sondrae ; trans- 
gressisque Indum ct cum eo decurrentibus Samara- 
biae, Sambraccni, Bisanibritac, Orsi, Andiscni, 
Taxilae cum urbc cclcbri. iam in plana demisso 
tractu, cui univcrso nomcn Amcndnc, popuh quat- 
tuor, Pcucohtae, Arsagahtae, Geretae, Assoi : etenim 
plerique ab occidcnte non Indo amne determinant 
sed adiciunt quattuor satrapias, Gedrosos, Arachotas, 
Arios, Paropanisidas, ultimo fme Cophetc fluvio, 

79 quae omnia Ariorum esse ahis placct. nec non ct 
Nysam urbcm plerique Indiae adscribunt montem- 
que Mcrum Libero Patri sacrum (unde origo fabuhie 
lovis femine editum), item Aspaganos gentem vitis 
et lauri et buxi pomorumque omnium in Graecia 
nascentium fcrtilem. quae memoranda ac prope 
fabulosa de fortilktate terrae et gcncre ^ frugum 
arborumquc aut ferarum ac volucrum et ahorum 
animahum trathintur suis quaeque locis in reliqua 

* genoribus vel generationc ? Rnrkham. 

39(J 



BOOK VI. xxiii. 77-79 

Megari, Ardabae, Mesac, Abi, Suri and Silae ; 
then 250 miles of desert ; and after traversing that, 
the Organagae, Abortae and Bassuertae ; and next 
to these an uninhabited stretcli equal in extent to 
the preceding one. Then thc Sorofages, Arbae 
and Marogomatrae ; the Umbritae and Ceae com- 
prising tweh'e tribes and cach race possessing two 
cities ; the Asini inhabiting three cities, their chief 
place being Oxhead, founded to be the bui-ial- 
place of King Alexander's charger bearing that 
name. Mountain tribes above these under the 
Hindu Kush range are the Sosaeadae and Sondrae; 
and crossing the Indus and foUowing it down-stream 
we come to the Samarabiae, Sambraceni, Bisambritae, 
Orsi and Andiseni, and the Taxilae with their famous 
city. Then the region slopes down to level ground, 
the whole having the name of Amenda ; and there 
are four tribes, the PeucoHtae, Arsagahtae, Geretae 
and Assoi ; indeed, most authorities do not put the 
western frontier at the river Indus but include 
four satrapies, the Gedrosi, Arachotae, Arii and 
Paropanisidae, with the river Kabul as the final 
boundary — the whole of which rcgion others con- 
sider to belong to thc Arii. Moreover most people 
also assign to India the city of Nisa and Mount 
Merus which is sacred to Fathcr Liber (this being 
the place from which originatcd the myth of the 
birth of Liber from the thigh of Jove), and the same 
as to the Aspagani tribe, a district producing the 
vine, the bay and the box and all the kinds of fruit 
indigenous to Greece, Remarkable and almost 
fabulous reports as to fertihty of soil and variety 
of crops and trees or wild animals and birds and 
other living creatures will be recorded in their 

397 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

parte operis commemorabuntur, quattuor satrapiae 
mox paulo, ad Taprobanen insulam festinante animo. 

80 Sed ante sunt aliae : Patale quam significavimus 
in ipsis faucibus Indi, triquetra figura, ccxx p. 
latitudine ; extra ostium Indi Chryse et Argyre, 
fertilis metallis, ut credo : nam quod aliqui tradiderc 
aureum argenteumque his solum esse haut facile 
crediderim. ab his xx p. Crocala et ab ea xu Bibaga 
ostreis ac conchyHis referta, dein Coralliba viii a 
supra dicta, multaeque ignobiles. 

81 XXIV. Taprobanen alterum orbem terrarum esse 
diu existimatum est Antichthonum appellatione : 
ut insulam esse liqueret Alexandri Magni aetas 
resque praestitere. Onesicritus classis eius prae- 
fectus elephantos ibi mainres bellicosioresque quam 
in India gigni scripsit ; Megasthenes flumine dividi, 
incolasque Palaeogonos appellari, auri margaritarum- 
que grandium fertihores quam Indos. Eratosthenes 
et mensuram prodidit, longitudinis vTi stadium, 

82 latitudinis v, nec urbes esse sed vicos dcc^ incipit 
ab Eoo mari inter ortum occasumque solis Indiae 
praetenta et quondam credita xx dierum navigatione 
a Prasiana gente distare, mox, quia papjTaceis 

* Dco <L> Siegelin ex Adiano. 

' Suggeating the inhabitants of another land-mass balanc- 
ing our own in the eouthcm hemisphere — but not on tho 
opposit« Bide of the earth : thero is of course no suggcstion 
of the Antipodes. 

* Ceylon is really 271^ miles long and 137J broad, 

' An Indian race on the Gangea. 



BOOK VI. .xxiii. 79-xxiv. 82 

several places in the remainder of the work, and the 
four satrapies will be described a little below, as at 
present our mind hastens on to the island of Ceylon. 

But before Ceylon come some other islands : indian 
Patale, which we have indicated as situated at the 5*71'.' "' 
very mouth of the Indus, an island of triangular 
shape, 220 miles in breadth ; and outside the mouth 
of the Indus Chryse and Argyre, both of which I 
beheve to be rich in minerals — for I find it hard to 
beUeve the statement of some ^\Titers that they 
only have gold and silver mines. Twenty miles 
beyond these is Crocala, and 12 miles further Bibaga, 
which is full of oysters and other shell-fish, and then 
Coralliba 8 miles beyond the above-mentioned 
island, and many of no note. 

XXn^ Ceylon, under the name of the Land of the Ceyion. 
Counterlanders," was long considered to be another 
world ; but the epoch and the acliievements of 
Alexander the Great supplied clear proof of its 
being an island. Onesicritus, a commander of 
Alexandcr's navy, wTitcs that elephants are bred 
there of larger size and more warhke spirit than in 
India; and Megasthenes says that it is cut in two 
by a river, that the inhabitants have the name of 
Aborigines, and that they produce more gold and 
large pearls than the Indians. Eratosthenes further 
givcs the dimensions * of the island as 875 miles in 
length and 625 miles in breadth, and says that it 
contains no cities, but 700 villages. Beginning at 
the eastern sea it stretches along the side of India 
from east to west ; and it was formerly beheved to 
be a distance of 20 days' sail from the nation of the 
Prasii,<= but at later times, inasmuch as the voyage 
to it used to be made with vessels constructed of 

399 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

navibus armamentisque Nili peteretur, ad nostrarum 
na\ium cursus vii dierum intervallo taxata. mare 
interest vadosum, senis non amplius altitudinis 
passibus, sed certis eanalibus ita profundum ut nuUae 
anchorae sidant : ob id navibus utrimque prorae, ne 
per angustias alvei circumagi sit necesse ; magnitudo 

83 ad terna milia amphorum. siderum in navigando 
nuUa observatio — septentrio non cemitur; volucres 
secum vehunt emittentes saepius, meatumque 
eanim terram petentium comitantur. nec plus 
quaternis niensibus anno navigant : cavent a solstitio 
maxime centum dies, tunc illo mari hiberno, 

84 Hactenus a priscis memorata. nobis diligentior 
notitia Claudi principatu contigit legatis etiam ex ea 
insula advectis. id accidit hoc modo : Anni Plocami, 
qui Maris Rubri vectigal a fisco redemerat, Hbertus 
circa Arabiam navigans aquilonibus raptus praeter 
Carmaniam, xv die Hippuros portum eius invectus, 
hospitali regis clementia sex mensum tempore 
inbutus adloquio percontanti postea narravit Ro- 

85 manos et Caesarem. mirum in modum in auditls 



" The big two-handled clay wine-jar Berved as a standard 
meaaure of a ship^s capacity, as with us the ton. 

400 



i 



BOOK VI. XXIV. 82-85 

reeds and with the rigging used on the Nile, its 
distanee was fixed with reference to the speeds made 
by our ships as seven days' sail. The sea bctween 
the island and the mainland is shallow, not more 
than 18 feet deep, but in certain channels so deep 
that no anchors hold the bottom : for tliis reason 
ships are used that have bows at each end, so as to 
avoid the necessity of coming about while negotiating 
the narrows of the channel ; the tonnage of these 
vessels is as much as three thousand barrels." The 
Cingalese take no observations of the stars in navi- 
gation — indecd, the Great Bear is not visible ; but 
they carry birds on board with them and at fairly 
frequent intervals set them free, and foUow the 
course they take as they make for the land. They 
only use four months in thc year for voyages, and 
they particularly avoid the hundred days foUowing 
midsiunmer, when those seas are stormy. 

So far the facts stated have been recorded by Orographt, 
the early vTiters. We however have obtained more "'(/f„giogy „, 
accurate information during the principate of Ceyion. 
Claudius, when an embassy actually came to Rome 
from the island of Ceylon. The circumstances were 
as follows ; Annius Plocamus had obtained a contract 
from the Treasurj' to coUect the taxes from the Red 
Sea; a freedman of his while saihng round Arabia 
was carried by gales from the north beyond the 
coast of Carmania, and after a fortnight made the 
harbour of Hippuri in Ceylon, where he was enter- 
tained with kindly hospitahty by the king, and 
in a period of six months acquired a thorougli 
knowledge of the language ; and afterwards in reply 
to the king's enquiries he gave him an account of 
tlie Romans and their emperor. The king among 

401 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

iustitiam ille suspexit, quod paris ^ pondere denarii 
essent in captiva pecunia, cum diversac imagines 
indicarent a pluribus factos. et hoc maxime sol- 
licitatus ad amicitiam legatos quattuor misit principe 
eorum Rachia. ex his cognitum d esse oppida, 
portum contra meridiem adpositum oppido Palaesi- 
mundo omnium ibi clarissimo ac regio,- cc plebis. 

86 stagnum intus Megisba ccclxxv p. ambitu, insulas 
pabuli tantum fertiles complexum; ex eo duos 
amnes erumpere, Palaesimundum iuxta oppidum 
eiusdem nominis influentem in portum tribus alveis, 
quinque stadiorum artissimo, xv amplissimo, alterum 
ad septentriones Indiamque versum, Cydara nomine. 
proximum esse Indiae promunturium quod vocetur 
CoHacum, quadridui navigatione medio in cursu 

87 Solis insula occurrente; mare ibi * colore perviridi, 
praeterea fruticosum * arboribus, iubas earum guber- 
nacuUs detcrgentibus. Septentriones Vergihasque 
apud nos veluti in novo caelo mirabantur, ne lunam 
quidem apud ipsos nisi ab octava in xvi supra 
terram aspici fatentes, Canopum hirere noctibus, 

1 V.l. pari. 

* V.l. rcfiia (iae aul -iam edd.). 
^ ibi ? Huyhoff: in aut id. 

* V.l. fructuosum. 



• Perhapa a titlo, Rajah. 

' Tliia Beema to be a description of mangrove-swamps. 



402 



BOOK VI. XXIV. 85-87 

all that he heard was remarkably struck with 
admiration for Roman honesty, on the ground that 
among the money found on the captive the denarii 
were all equal in weight, although the various 
figures on them showed that they had been coined 
by several emperors. This strongly attracted his 
friendship, and he sent four envoys, the cliief of 
whom was Rachias." From them we learnt the 
following facts about Ceylon : it contains 500 towns, 
and a harbour facing south, adjacent to the town of 
Palaesimundus, which is the most famous of all the 
places in the island and a royal residence, with 
a population of 200,000. Inland (we were told) 
there is a marsh named Megisba measuring 375 
miles round and containing islands that only produce 
pasturage ; and out of this marsh flow two rivers, 
Palaesimundus running through three channels 
into the harbour near the town that bears the same 
name as the river, and measuring over half a mile 
in breadth at the narrowest point and nearly two 
miles at the widest, and the other, named Cydara, 
flowing north in the direction of India. The nearest 
cape in India (according to our informants) is the one 
called Cape Comorin, at a distancc of four days' sail, 
passing in the middle of the voyage the Island of 
the Sun ; and the sea there is of a deep green colour, 
and also has thickets of trees growing in it,* the tops 
of which are brushed by the rudders of passing 
vessels. The envoys marvelled at the new aspect 
of the heavens visible in our country, with the 
Great and Little Bear and the Pleiads, and they told 
us that in their own country even the moon only 
appears above the horizon from the 8th to the 16th 
day of the month, and that Canopus, a large and 

403 



PLINY: NATURAI. HISTORY 

sidus ingens et clarum. sed maxinie mirum iis 
erat umbras suas in nostrum caelimi cadere, non in 
suum, solemque ab laeva oriri et in dextram occidere 

88 potius quam e diverso. iidem narravere latus 
insulae quod praetenderetur Indiae x stadiorum 
esse ab oriente hiberno ; ultra montes Hemodos 
Seras quoque ab ipsis aspici notos etiam commercio : 
patrem Rachiae commeasse eo : advenis sibi Seras ^ 
occursare. ipsos vero excedere hominum magni- 
tudinem, rulilis comis, caeruleis oculis, oris sono 
truci, nullo commercio linguae. cetera eadem quae 
nostri negotiatores : fluminis ulteriore ripa merces 
positas iuxta venaUa tolli ab iis si placeat permutatio, 
non aliter odio iustiore luxuriae quam si perducta 
mens illuc usque cogitet quid et quo petatur et 
quare. 

89 Sed ne Taprobane quidem, quainvis extra orbem 
a natura relegata, nostris vitiis caret : aurum argen- 
tumque et ibi in pretio, marmor testudinLs simile, 
margaritae gemmaecjue in honore ; multo praestantior 
est 2 totus ^ luxuriae nostra * cumulus. ipsorum 
opes maiores esse dicebant, sed apud nos opulentiae 

* Hardouin : advcnis ibi feras. 
' Mayhoff : praestantioros et. 

= V.l. totius. 

* Warmington : nostrae. 



" /.c, towarda tbe north, not the south. 



404 



BOOK VI. XXIV. 87-89 

brilliant star, lights them by night. But what 
surprised tliem most was that their shadows fell 
towards oiu* skv and not towards theirs," and that 
the sun rose on the left-hand side of the observer 
and set towards the right instead ofvice versa. They 
also told us that the side of their island facing 
towards India is 1250 miles long and lies south-east 
of India ; that beyond the Himalayas they also face 
towards the country of the Chinese, who are known to 
them by intcrcourse in trade as well, the father of 
Rachia ha\-ing travelled there, and that when they 
arrived there the Chinese always hastened down to 
the beach to meet them. That people themselves 
(they told us) are of more than normal height,andhave 
flaxen hair and blue eyes, and they speak in harsh 
tones and use no language in deaHng with travellers. 
The remainder of the envoys' accoimt agreed with 
the reports of our traders — that commodities were 
deposited on the opposite bank of a river by the 
side of the goods offered for salc by the natives, 
and they took them away if satisfied by the barter, — 
hatred of luxury being in no circumstances more 
justifiable than if the imagination travels to the 
Far r.ast and reflects what is procurcd from there 
and what means of trade are cmployed and for what 
purpose. 

But even Ceylon, although banished by Nature ciiujaUse 
beyond the confines of the world, is not without a^j*"^* 
the vices that belong to us : gold and silver are cusumu. 
valued there also, and a kind of marble resembUng 
tortoise-shell and pearls and precious stones are 
held in honour ; in fact the whole mass of luxury is 
there carried to a far higher pitch than ours. They 
told us that there was greater wcaltli in their own 

VOL. II. Q 405 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

maiorem usimi : servom nemini, non in diem aut 
interdiusomnum, aedificia modice ab humo exstantia, 
annonam numquam augeri, non fora litesve esse, coli 
Herculem, eligi regem a populo senecta clementiaque 
liberos non habentem, et si postea gignat, abdicari, 

90 ne fiat hereditarium regnum. rectores ei a populo 
xxxdari,nec nisi pluriimi sententia quemquam capitis 
damnari ; sic quoque appellationem esse ad populum 
et septuaginta iudices dari ; si liberent ii reum, 
amplius xxx iis nuUani esse dignationem, gravissimo 
probro. regi cultum Liberi Patris, ceteris Arabum. 

91 regem, si quid delinquat, morte multari, nullo 
interimente, aversantibus cunctis et commercia etiam 
sermonis negantibus. festa venatione absumi : gratis- 
simam eam tigribus elephantisque constare. agros 
diligenter coli, vitis usum non esse, pomis abundare. 
esse et in piscatu voluptatem, testudinum maxime, 
quarimi superficie familias habitantium contegi: 
tanta reperiri magnitudine. vitam hominum centum 
annis modicam. 

' A long robe with a train 
406 



BOOK VI. XXIV. 89-91 

country than in ours, but that we made more use of 
our riches : with them nobody kcpt a slave, every- 
body got up at sunrise and nobody took a siesta 
in the middle of the day ; their buildings were of 
only moderate height ; the price of corn was never 
inHated; there were no lawcourts and no Htigation; 
the deity worshipped was Hercules ; the king was 
elected by the people on the grounds of age and 
gentleness of disposition, and as having no children, 
and if he afterwards had a chikl, he was deposed, 
to prevent the monarchy from becoming hereditary. 
Thirty Governors, they told us, were assigned to the 
king by the people, and capital punishment could 
only be inflictcd by a vote of a majority of these ; 
and even then there was a right of appeal to the 
people, and a jury of seventy members was appointed 
to try the case, and if these acquitted the accused 
the thirty Governors were no more held in any 
esteem, bei ng utterly disgraced. The king's costume 
was that ° of Father Liber, and the other people wore 
Arabian dress. If the king committcd a deUnqueney 
he was punished by being condemned to death, 
though nobody executed the sentence, but the whole 
of the pcople turned their backs on him and refused 
to have any communication with him or even to speak 
to him. Holidays, they told us, were spent in hunting, 
tiger hunts and elephant hunts being always the 
most popular. Agriculture was industriously prac- 
tised, but the vine was not grown, although orchard 
fruit was al)undant. They were also fond of fishing, 
especially for turtle, the shells of which were used 
as roofs for family dweUings — they were found 
of so large a size. They looked upon a hundred 
years as a moderate span of Ufe. 

407 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Haec conperta de Taprobane. 

92 XXV. Quattuor satrapiae quas in hunc locum 
distulimus ita se habcnt. a proximis Indo gentibus 
montana. Capisene habuit Capisam urbem quam 
diruit Cyrus ; Arachosia cum flumine et oppido 
eiusdem nominis, quod quidam Cufim dixere, a 
Samiramide conditum ; amnis Erymandus praefluens 
Parabesten Arachosiorum. proximos his a meridie 
ad partem Arachotarum faciunt Dexendrusos, a 
septentrione Paropanisidas, Cartana oppichim sub 
Caucaso, quod postea Tetragonis dictuni. haec 
regio est ex advcrso Bactriae ; Arianorum ^ deinde 
cuius oppidum Alexandria a conditore dictum ; 
Syndraci, Dangalae, Parapinae, Cataces, Mazi; 
ad Caucasum Cadrusi, oppidum ab Alexandro 

93 conditum. infra haec omnia planiora.^ ab Indo 
Ariana regio ambusta fervoribus desertisque cir- 
cumdata, multa tamen interfusa opacitate cultores 
congregat circa duos maxime flu\"ios, Tonberon et 
Arosapen. oppidum Artacoana, Arius amnis qui 
praefluit Alexandriam ab Alexandro conditam : 
patet oppidum stadia xx.\ ; multoque pulchrius sicut 
antiquius Artacabcne, iteruni ab Antioclio munitum, 

1 Mayhoff : adverso Bactrianorum. 
* Mayhoff, cf. § 92 : omnia ora. 

• Now Kandahar. ♦ Now Herat. 

408 



BOOK VI. xxiv. 91-XXV. 93 

This is the information that was given to us about 
Ceylon. 

XXV. The folloMinof is the arraneement of the North- 
four satrapies which we deferred to this place jran, <tc. 
in our account. After leaving the races nearest to § '^- 
India, you come to the mountain districts. That 
of Capisene formerlv had a city named Capisa, which 
was destroved bv Cyrus ; next Arachosia, with a 
river and toyn\ " of the same name — the town, which 
was founded by Samiramis, being called by some 
%\Titers Cufis ; then the river Erymandus, flowing 
past the Arachosian town of Parabeste. Next to 
the Arachosii \\Titers place the Dexendrusi on the 
south side, adjoining a section of the Arachotae, 
and the Paropanisadae on the north ; and beneath 
the Hindu Kush the town of Cartana, later called 
Tetragonis. This region is opposite to Bactria, and 
then comes the region of the Ariani, whose town is 
called Alexandria * after its founder; the Syndraci, 
Dangalae, Parapinae, Cataces and Mazi ; near the 
Hindu Kush the Cadrusi, whose town was founded by 
Alexander. Below these places the whole country 
is more level. In the direction of the Indus is the 
Arian region, which is scorched by glowing heat 
and encircled by deserts, yet extending in the district 
between them with plenty of sliade, it is occupied 
by numerous farmers, settled especially on the 
banks of two rivers, the Tonberos and the Arosapes. 
There is a town, Artacoana, and a river, Arius, which 
flows past Alexandria, a town founded by Alexander 
which covers an area of nearly four miles ; and 
the much more beautiful as well as older town 
of Artacabene, the fortifications of which were 
renewed by Antiochus, covers an area of ^\ 

409 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

94 stadia qiiinquaginta. Dorisdorsigi gens ; amnes 
Pliarnacotis, Ophradus ; Prophthasia ; oppidum Zara- 
spadum, Drangae, Euergetae,^ Zarangae, Gedrusi; 
oppida Peucolis, Lyphorta, Methorcum ; deserta ; 
amnis Manain, Acutri gens, flumen Eorum, gens 
Orbi, flumen navigabile Pomanus Pandarum finibus, 
item Cabirus Suarorum, ostio portuosum, oppiduni 
Condigramma, flumen Cophes. influunt in euin 

95 navigabiUa Saddaros, Paro>pus, Sodamus. Arianae 
partem esse Daritim aliqui volunt, mensuramque 
produnt utriusque longitudinem |xi.v| l, latitudinem 
dimidio minorem quam Indiae. aUi Gedrusos et 
Sires posuere per cx.v.wiii p., mox Ichthyophagos 
Oritas propria, non Indonmi Hngua loquentes per 
cc p. (Ichthyophagos omnes Alexander vctuit piscibus 
vivere.) deinde posuere Arbiorum gentem per cc p. 
ultra deserta, dein Carmania ac Persis atque Arabia. 

96 XXVI. Sed priusquam generatim haec perse- 
quamur indicari convenit quae prodidit Onesicritus 
classe Alexandri circumvectus in mediterranea 
Persidis ex India, enarrata proxime a luba, deinde 
eam navigationem quae his annis comperta servatur 
hodie. 

Onesicriti et Nearchi navigatio nec nomina 
habet mansionum nec spatia ; primumque Xylinepolis 

^ Hardouin e Strabone : Ariotae. 
410 



BOOK VI. XXV. 93-xxvi. 96 

miles. Then the Dorisdorsigi tribe; the rivers 
Pharnacotis and Ophradus ; Prophthasia ; the town 
of Zaraspadum, the Drangae, Euergetae, Zarangae 
and Gedrusi ; the towns of Peucolis, Lyphorta and 
Methorcuni ; a space of desert ; the river Manain, 
the Acutri tribe, the river Eorus, the Orbi tribe, 
the navigable river Pomanus at the frontier of the 
Pandae and the Cabirus at that of the Suari, forming 
a good harbour at its mouth ; the town of Condi- 
gramma and the river Kabul. Navigable tributaries 
of the Kabul are the Saddaros, Parospus and 
Sodamus. Some hold that Daritis is part of Ariana, 
and they give the dimensions of both as — length 
1950 miles, breadth one half that of India. Others 
place the Gedrusi and Sires as covering an area of 
138 miles, and then the Fish-eating Oritae, who do 
not spcak the Indian language but have one of their 
own, covering a space of 200 miles. (Alexander 
made an order forbidding a fish diet to all the 
Fish-eaters.) Next they put the race of the Arbii, 
covering 200 miles. Beyond them there is a region 
of desert, and then come Carmania, Farsistan and 
Arabia. 

XXVI. But before we go on to a detailed account Voyageo/ 
of these countries, it is suitable to indicate the facts o!,'e"crUus. 
reported by Onesicritus after sailing with the fleet 
of Alexander round from India to the interior of 
Farsistan, and quite recently related in detail by 
Juba, and then to state the sea-route that has been 
ascertained in recent times and is followed at the 
present day. 

The record of the voyage of Onesicritus and 
Nearchus does not include the names of the official 
stopping places nor the distances travelled ; and 

411 



am 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ab Alexnndro condita, unde ceperunt exordium, 
iuxta quod flumen aut ubi fuerit non satis explanatur. 

97 haec tamen digna memoratu produntur : Arbis ^ 
oppidum a Nearcho conditum in navigatione et 
flumen Arbium - navium capax, contra insula distans 
Lxx stadia ; Alexandria condita a Leonnato iussu 
Alexandri in fmibus gentis ; Argenus portu salubri ; 
flumen Tonberura na\igabile, circa quod Parirae; 
deinde Ichthyophagi tam longo tractu ut xxx dierum 
spatio praenavigaverint ; insula quae Solis appellatur 
et eadem Nympharum Cubile, rubens, in qua nulluni 

98 non animal absumilur incertis causis; Ori gens; 
flunien Carmaniae Hyctanis portuosum et auro 
fertile. ab eo primum Septentriones apparuisse 
adnotavere, Arcturum neque omnibus cerni noctibas 
nec totis imiquam ; Achaemenidas usque illo tenuisse ; 
aeris et ferri metalla et arrenici ac mim cxerceri. 
inde promunturium Carmaniae est, ex quo in adversam 
oram ad gentem Arabiae Macas traiectus distat 
v p. ; insulae tres, quarum Oracta tantum habitatur 

99 aquosa a continente .vx\' p., insulae quattuor iam in 
sinu ante Persida — circa has hydri marini vicenum 
cubitorum adnatantes terruere classem — , insula 



* Hardouin : ab iis aul ab his aut abies. 

* MayhnJJ : Nabrum. 



412 



BOOK VI. XXVI. 96-99 

to begin with, no sufficiently clear account is 
given of the position of the city of Timbertown, 
founded by Alexander, -which was their starting 
point, nor is the river on which it stood indicated. 
Nevertheless they give the foUo^ving places worth 
mentioning : the town of Arbis, founded by Nearchus 
during his voyage, and the river Arbium. navigable 
by ships, and an island opposite to Arl)is, 8| miles 
distant ; Alexandria, founded in the territory of 
this race by Leonnatus at the order of Alexander ; 
Argenus, with a serviceable harbour; the navigable 
river Tonberum, in the neighbourhood of which are 
the Parirae ; then the Fish-eaters, covering so wide 
a space of coast that it took 30 days to sail past them ; 
the island " called the Isle of the Sun and also the 
Couch of the Nymphs, the soil of which is red in 
colour, and on which all animals without exception 
die, from causes not ascertained ; the Ori tribe ; 
the Carmanian river Hyctanis, afFording harbourage 
and producing gold. The travellers noted that it 
was here that the Great and Little Bear first became 
visible, and that Arcturus is not visible at all on some 
nights and never all night long ; that the rule of the 
Persian kings extended to this point ; and that 
copper, iron, arsenic and red-lead are mined here. 
Next there is the Cape of Carmania, from which it 
is a passage of five miles to cross to the Arabian 
tribe of the Macae on the opposite coast ; three 
islands, of which only Oracta, 25 miles from the main- 
land, has a supply of frcsh water and is inhabited ; four 
islands quite in the gulf, off the coast of Farsistan — - 
in the neighbourhood of these the fleet was terrified 
by sea-serpents 30 ft. long that swam alongside — ; 

" Now Ashtola. 

413 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Aradus, item Gauratae, in quibus Gyani gens ; flumen 
Hj^peris in medio sinu Persico, onerariarum navium 
capax ; flumen Sitioganus, quo Pasargadas septimo 
die navigatur ; flumen navigabile Plirj-stimus ; insula 
sine nomine. flumen Granis modicarima navium ^ 
per Susianen fluit, dextra eius accolunt Deximontani 
qui bitimien perficiunt ; flumen Zarotis ostio diflicili 
nisi peritis ; insulae duae parvae. inde vadosa 
navigatio palustri similis per euripos tamen quosdam 
peragitur; ostium Euphratis ; lacus quem faciunt 
Eulaeus et Tigris iuxta Characen, inde Tigri Susa. 

100 festos dies ibi agentem Alexandrum invenerunt 
septimo mcnse postquam digressus ab iis fuerat 
Patalis. tertio navigationis. sic Alexandri classis 
navigavit ; postea ab Syagro Arabiae promunturio 
Patalen favonio, quem Hippalum ibi vocant, peti 
certissimum videbatur, |xiii| xxxii p. aestimatione. 

101 secuta aetas propiorem cursum tutioremque iudicavit 
si ab eodem promunturio Sigerum portum Indiae 
peteret, diuque ita navigatum est, donec conpendia 
invenit mercator, lucroque India admota est ; quippe 
omnibus annis navigatur sagittariorum cohortibus 
inpositis ; etenim piratae maxime infestabant. 

* navium<capax>c<id. vei. 

' The name of the explorer who discovered the proper use 
of monsoona between Arabia and India. 

414 



BOOK VI. XXVI. 99-1 oi 

the island of Aradus and that of Gauratae, both 

inhabited by the Gyani tribe ; at the middle of the 

Pcrsian Gulf the river Hj-peris, navigable for mer- 

chant vessels ; the river Sitiogauus, up which it is 

seven days' voyage to Pasargadae ; the navigable 

river Phrystimus ; and an island that has no name. 

The river Granis, carrying vessels of moderate size, 

flows through Susiane, and on its right bank dwell the 

Deximontani, who manufacture asphalt ; the river 

Zarotis, the mouth of which is difficult to navigate 

except for those familiar with it; and two small 

islands. Then comes a shallow stretch of water like 

a marsh which nevertheless is navigable by way of 

certain channels ; the mouth of the Euphrates ; 

a lake formed in the neighbourhood of Charax by 

the Eulaeus and the Tigris ; then by the Tigris they 

reached Susa. There after three months' voyaging 

they found Alexander celebrating a festival ; it was 

seven months since he had left them at Patala. 

Such was the route followed by the fleet of Alexander ; Sea-rmte 

but subsc(juently it was thought tliat the safest Hne is {TTndia. '" 

to start from llas Fartak in Arabia with a west wind 

(the native name for which in those parts is Hippalus ") 

and make for Patale, the distance being reckoned 

as 1332 miles. The following period considered it 

a shorter and safer route to start from the same cape 

and steer for the Indian harbour of Sigerus,'' and for a 

long time this was the course followed, until a mer- 

chant discovered a shorter route, and the desire for 

gain brought India nearer; indeed, the voyage is 

made every year, with companics of archers on board, 

because these seas used to be very greatly infested 

by pirates. 

* Probably Jaigarlx. 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Nec pigebit totum cursum ab Aegj-pto exponere 
nunc primum certa notitia patescente. digna res, 
nullo anno minus hs|d[^ imperii nostri exhauriente 
India et merces remittente quae apud nos centiplicato 

102 veneant. mm p. ab Alexandria abest oppidum 
luliopolis. inde na\-igant Nilo Coptum cccix p. qui 
cursus etesiis flantibus peragitur xii diebus. a 
Copto camelis itur, aquationum ratione mansionibus 
dispositis : prima appellatur Hydreuma xxii ; se- 
cunda in monte diei itinere ; tertia in altero Hydreu- 
mate a Copto Lxxxv ; deinde in monte ; mox ad 
Hydreuma Apollinis a Copto clxxxiv ; rursus in monte ; 

103 mox ad Novum Hydreuma a Copto ccxxx. est et 
aliud Ilydreuma vetus — Trogodyticum nominatur — 
ubi praesidium excubat deverticulo duum niiliiun; 
distat a Novo Hvdreumate vii. inde Berenice 
oppidum, ubi portus Rubri maris, a Copto cclv^Ti p. 
sed quia maior pars itineris conficitur noctibus 
propter aestus et stativis dies absumuntur, totum a 
Copto Berenicen iter duodecimo die peragitur. 

104 na\igare incipiunt aestate media ante canis ortum 
aut ab exortu protinus, veniuntque tricesimo circiter 
die Ocelim Arabiae aut Canen turiferae regionis. 

1 V.l. Idl]. 



» Say £425,000, taking mille aeaterUum as £8 lOa. gold. 
* I.e. ' Watering Place.' 
' Ncar Ras Benas. 
** Hisn Ghorab. 

416 



BOOK VI. XXVI. 101-104 

And it ^vill not be amiss to set out the whole of Sea-rouu 
the voyage from Egypt, now that rehable knowledge to^Tndia^ 
of it is for the first time accessible. It is an import- 
ant subject, in view of the fact that in no year 
does India absorb less than fifty million sesterces <* of 
our empire's wealth, sending back merchandise to 
be sold \vith us at a hundred times its prime cost. 
Two miles from Alexandria is the town of Juliopolis. 
The voyage up the Nile from there to Keft is 309 
miles, and takes 12 days when the midsummer 
trade-winds are blowing. I'"rom Keft the journey 
is made A\ith camels, stations being placcd at intervals 
for the purpose of watering ; the first, a stage of 22 
miles, is called Hydreuma*; the second is in the 
mountains, a day's journev on ; the third at a second 
place named Hydreuma, 85 miles from Keft; 
the next is in the mountains ; next we come to 
Apollo's Hydreuma, 184 miles from Keft; again 
a station in the mountains ; then we get to New 
Hydreuma, 230 miles from Keft. There is also 
another old Hydreuma known by the name of 
Trogodyticum, where a guard is stationed on outpost 
duty at a caravanserai accommodating two thousand 
travellers ; it is scven miles from New Hydreuma. 
Then comes the town of Berenice,<^ where there is 
a harbour on the Red Sea, 257 miles from Keft. 
But as the greater part of the journey is done by 
night because of the heat and the days are spent at 
stations, the whole journcy from Keft to Berenice 
takes twelve days. Travelling by sea begins at 
midsummer before the dogstar rises or immediately 
after its rising, and it takes about thirty days to 
reach the Arabian port of Cella or Cane'' in the 
frankincense-producing district. There is also a 

417 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

est et tertius portus qui vocatur Muza, quem Indica 
navigatio non petit, nec nisi turis odorumque Ara- 
bicorum mercatores. intus oppidum, regia eius, 
appellatur Sapphar, aliudque Save. Indos autem 
petentibus utilissimum est ab Oceli egredi ; inde 
vento Hippalo navigant diebus XL ad primum empor- 
ium Indiae Muzirim, non expetendum propter vicinos 
piratas qui optinent locum nomine Nitrias, neque est 
abundans mercibus ; praeterea longe a terra abest 
navium statio, lintribusque adferuntur onera et 
egerunlur. regnabat ibi, cum proderem haec, 

105 Caelobothras. alius utilior portus gentis Ncacyndon, 
qui vocatur Becare; ibi regnabat Pandion, longe ab 
emporio in ^ mediterraneo distante oppido quod 
vocatur Modura ; regio autem ex qua piper monoxvHs 
lintribus Bpcaren convehunt vocatur Gsttonara. 
quae omnia gentium portuumve aut oppidorum 
noniina apud neminem priorum reporiuntur, quo 

106 apparct mutari locorum status. ex India renavigant 
mense Aegvptio Tvbi incipiente, nostro Decembri, 
aut utique Mechiris Aegyptii intra dicm sextum, 
quod fit intra idus lanuarias nostras ; ita evenit ut 
eodem anno remeent. navigant autem ex India 
vento \'ohurno et, cum intravere Rubrum Mare, 
Africo vel Austro. 

* V.l. om. in. 



" See above, § 100. 

* Probably Pigcon Island. 

• In fact, it waa with the N.E. monsoon. 



418 



BOOK VI. xxvi. 104-106 

third port named Mokha, which is not called at on 
the voyage to India, and is only used by merchants 
trading in frankincense and Arabian perfumes. 
Inland there is a town, the residence of the king 
of the district, called Sapphar, and another called 
Save. But the most advantageous way of sailing to 
India is to set out from Cella ; from that port it 
is a 40 days' voyage, if the Hippalus ° is blowing, to 
the first trading-station in India, Cranganore — not a 
desirable port of call, on account of the neighbouring 
pirates, who occupy a place called Nitriae,* nor is it 
specially rich in articles of merchandise ; and further- 
more the roadstead for shipping is a long way from 
the land, and cargoes have to be brought in and 
carried out in boats. The king of Muziris, at the date 
of publication, was Caelobothras. There is another 
more serviceable port, belonging to the Neacyndi 
tribe, called Porakad ; this is where king Pandion 
reigned, his capital being a town in the interior a 
long way from the port, called Madura ; while the 
district from which pepper is conveyed to Becare 
in canoes made of hollowed tree-trunks is called 
Cottonara. But ail these names of tribes and 
ports or towns are to be found in none of the previous 
writers, which seems to show that the local condi- 
tions of the places are changing. Travellers set sail 
from India on the return voyage at the beginning of 
the Egyptian month Tybis, which is our December, 
or at all events before the sixth day of the Egyptian 
Mechir, which works out at before January 13 in our 
calendar — so making it possible to return home in 
the same year. They set sail from India with a south- 
east wind,<^ and after entering the Red Sea,continue 
the voyage with a south-west or south wind. 

419 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Nunc revertemur ad propositum. 

107 XXVII. Carmaniae oram patere duodeciens quin- 
quaginta milia passuum Nearchus scripsit, ab initio 
eius ad flumen Sabim c p. ; inde vineas coli et arva 
ad flumen Ananim x.w milium spatio. regio vocatur 
Armvsia ; oppida Carmaniae Zetis et Alexandria. 

XXVni. Inrumpit deinde et in hac parte geminum 
mare in ^ terras, quod Rubrum dixere nostri, Graeci 
Erythrum a rege Er^thra, aut, ut alii, solis reporcussu 
talem reddi existimantes colorem, alii ab harcna 

108 terraque, alii tali aquae ipsius natura. sed in duos 
dividitur sinus. is qui ab oriente est Persicus 
appellatur, jxxvj circuitu, ut Eratosthenes tradit. 
ex adverso est Arabia, cuius [xv] longitudo ; rursus 
altero ambitur sinu Arabico nominato, oceanum qui 
influit Azanium appellant. Persicum introitu v 
latitudinis ahi,^ alii iv fecerunt ; ab eo ad intimum 
sinuxn recto cursu \5iT\ xxv propemodum constat esse, 

109 et sitimi eius humani capitis effigie. Onesicritus et 
Nearchus ab Indo amne in sinum Persicum atque 
illinc Babylonem Euphratis paludibus scripscrunt 
1 \vii| esse. 

In Carmaniae angulo Chelonophagi, testudinum 

^ V.l. ovi. in. * alii add. Rackham. 



' I.C., forms two t^ays in succession, the Red Sea and 
thd Persian Uull, both iucluded here under the name of Hubrum 

Marc, 

420 



BOOK VI. x.wi. io6-\\vni. loo 

We will now return to our main subject. 

XX\'II. Xearchus writes that the length of the Carmania. 
coast of Carmania is 1250 miles, and the distance 
from its beginning to the river Sabis 100 miles; 
and that from that river to the river Ananis, a space 
of 25 miles, there are vineyards and arable land. 
The district is called Armysia ; and towns of Car- 
mania are Zetis and Alexandria. 

XXVIII. Moreover in this region the sea then The Red 
makes a double inroad " into the land ; the name 'persian 
given to it by our countrymen is the Red Sea, while ^'"'^- 
the Greeks call it Erj^thrum, from King Erythras, or, 
according to others, in the behef that the water is 
given a red colour by the reflexion of the sun, while 
others say that the name comes from the sand and 
the soil, and others that it is due to the actual water 
being naturally of such a character. However, this 
sea is divided into two bays. The one to the east 
is called the Persian Gulf, and according to the 
report of Eratosthenes measures 2500 miles round. 
Opposite is Arahia, with a coastline 1500 miles in 
length, and on its other side Arabia is encompassed 
by the second bay, named the Arabian Gulf; the 
ocean flowing into this is called the Azanian Sea. 
The width of the Persian Gulf at its entrance some 
make five and others four miles ; the distance in a 
straight line from the entrance to the innermost 
part of the Gulf has been ascertained to be nearly 
1125 miles, and its outhne has been found to be in 
the Hkeness of a human head. Onesicritus and 
Nearchus write that from the river Indus to the 
Persian Gulf and from there to Babylon by the 
marshes of the Euphrates is a voyage of 1700 miles. 
In an angle of Carmania are the Turtle-eaters, 

421 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

superficie casas tegentes, carne vescentes ; a fliunine 
Arabi promunturium ipsuxn inhabitant, praeter 
capita toto corpore hirti coriisque piscium vestiti. 

110 ab horum tractu Indiam versus Cascandrus deserta 
insula in oceano l p. traditur, iuxtaque eam freto 
interfluente Stoidis quaestuosa margaritis. a pro- 
munturio Carmanis iunguntur Harmozaei; quidam 
interponunt Arbios, ccccxxi p. toto Htore. ibi 
Portus Macedonum et Arae Alexandri in promun- 

111 turio, amnes Siccanas, dein Dratinus et Salsum. ab 
eo promunturium Themisteas ; insula Aphrodisias 
habitatur. inde Persidis initium ad flumen Oratim 
quo dividitur ab Elymaide. contra Persidem insu- 
lae Psilos, Cassandra, Aracha cxim monte praealto 
Neptuno sacra. ipsa Persis adversus occasum sita 
optinet Htore dl p., etiam in luxum dives, in Par- 
thorum iam pridem translata nomen. 

Horum de imperio nunc in paucis. 

112 XXIX. Regna Parthorum duodeviginti sunt omnia ; 
ita enim dividunt provincias circa duo, ut dixinuis, 
maria, Rubrum a meridie, Hyrcanium a septentrione. 
ex his XI quae superiora dicuntur incipiunt a confinio 
422 



BOOK VI. xxviii. 109-XXIX. 112 

who roof their houses ^vith the shells and live on the 
flesh of turtles. These people inhabit the promontory 
that is reached next after leaving the river Arabis. 
They are covered all over, except their heads, ^vith 
shaggy hair, and they wear clothes made of the skins 
of fishes. After the district belonging to these 
people, in the dircction of India there is said to be 
an uninhabitcd island, Cascandrus, 50 miles out at 
sea, aiid next to it, with a strait flowing between, 
Stoidis, with a valuable pearl-fishery. After the 
promontory the Carmanians are adjoined by the 
Harmozaei, though some authorities place the Arbii 
between them, stretching all along the coast for 421 
miles. Here are the Port of the Maccdonians and 
the Altars of Alexander situated on a promontory ; 
the rivers are Siccanas and then the Dratinus and 
the Salsum. After the Salsuin is Cape Themisteas, 
and the inhabited island of Aphrodisias. Here is 
the beginning of Farsistan, at the river Tab, which 
separates Farsistan from Elymais. Off the coast of 
Farsistan lie the islands of Psilos, Cassandra and 
Aracha, the last with an extremely lofty moun- 
tain, and consecrated to Neptune. Farsistan itself 
occupies 550 miles of coast, facing west. It is 
wealthy even to the point of luxury. It has long ago 
changed its name to Parthia. 

We will now give a brief account of the Parthian 
empire. 

XXIX. The Parthi possess in all eighteen king- Panhia. 
doms, such being the divisions of their provinces on 
the coasts of two seas, as we have stated, the Red §4i. 
Sea on the south and the Caspian Sea on the north. 
Of these provinces the eleven designated the Upper 
Kingdoms begin at the frontiers of Armenia and the 

423 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Armeniae Caspiisque litoribus pertinent ad Scythas, 
cum quibus ex aequo degunt. reliqua vii regna 
inferiora appellantur. quod ad Parthos attinet, 
semper fuit Parthyaea in radicibus montium saepius 

113 dictorum qui omnes eas gentes praetexunt. habet 
ab ortu Arios, a meridie Carmaniam et Arianos, ab 
occasu Pratitas Medos, a septentrione Hyrcanos, un- 
dique desertis cincta. ulteriores Parthi Nomades 
appellantur. citra deserta ab occasu lu-bes eorum 
quas diximus, Issatis et Calliope, ab oriente aestivo 
Pyropimi, ab hiberno Maria, in niedio Hecatompylos, 
Arsace, regio Nisiaea Parthyenes nobilis, ubi 
Alexandropolis a conditore. 

114 Necessarium est hoc in loco signare et Medorum 
situm terrariunque faciem circumagere ad Persicum 
mare, quo facilius dein reliqua noscantur. namque 
Media ab occasu transversa obUque Parthiae occur- 
rens utraque regna praecludit. liabet ergo ipsa ab 
ortu Caspios et Parthos, a meridie Sittacenen et 
Susianen et Persida, ab occasu Adiabenen, a septen- 

115 trione Anncniam. Persae Rubrum mare semper 
accoluere, propter quod is sinus Persicus vocatur. 
regio ibi maritima Cyropolis,^ qua vero ipsa sul)it ad 
Medos Climax Megale appellatur, locus arduo montis 

* Ilermolaus e Ptolemaeo : Cyribo aut Ceribobus et alia. 
424 



BOOK VI. xxix. II 2-1 15 

shores of the Caspian, and extend to the Scythians, 
■\vith whom the Parthians live on terms of equaUty. 
The remainingsevenkinijdoms are called the Lower 
Kingdoms. So far as the Parthi are concerned, 
there has aUvays been a country named Parthyaea 
at the foot of the mountain range, already men- 
tioned more than once, which forms the boundary s 41. 
of all these races. To the east of Parthyaea are the 
Arii, to tlie south Carmania and the Ariani, to the 
west tlie Pratitae, a Median race, and to the north the 
Hyrcani ; and it is surrounded on all sides by desert. 
The more remote Parthians are called the Nomads. 
Short of the desert on the west side are the Parthian 
cities mentioned above, Issatis and CaUiope ; north-§44. 
east is Pyropum, south-east Maria, mid in the middle 
Hecatompylos, Arsace, and the fine disti-ict of 
Parthyene, Nisiaea, containing the city named 
AlexandropoUs after its founder. 

At this point it is necessary also to indicate the Oeo^aphy 
geographical position of the Medes, and to trace a„^ paHhia. 
the formation of the country round to the Persian 
Sea, in order that the rest of tlie account that 
follows may be more easily understood. Media Ues 
cross^vise on the west side, meeting Parthia at an 
angle, and so shutting off both groups of Parthian 
kingdoms. Consequently it has the Caspian and 
Parthian people on its east side, Sittacene, Susiane 
and Farsistan on the south, Adiabene on the west, 
and Armenia on the north. The Persians liavc ahvays 
Uved on the shore of the Red Sea, which is the 
reason why it is called the Persian Gulf. The coastal 
region there is called CyropoUs, but the Greek name 
of the place where it runs up towards the Medes is the 
Great Staircase, frora a steep gorge ascending the 

425 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ascensu per gradus, introitu angusto, ad Persepolim 
caput regni dirutam ab Alexandro. praeterea liabet 
in extreniis fmibus Laodiceam ab Antiocho conditam. 

116 inde ad orientem Magi optinent Phrasargida castel- 
lum, in quo Cyri sepulchrum ; est et horum Ecbatana 
oppidum translatum ab Dario rege ad montes. inter 
Parthos et Arianos excurrunt Paraetaceni. his a 
gentibus et Euphrate infcriora regna includuntur ; 
rehqua dicemus a Mesopotamia exccpto mucrone 
eius Arabumque populis in priore dictis volumine. 

117 XXX. Mesopotamia tota Assyriorum fuit, vicatim 
dispersa praeter Babylona et Ninum. Macedones 
eam in urbes congregavere propter ubertatem soli. 
oppida practer iam dicta habet Seleuciam, Laodi- 
ceam, Artcmitam ; itcm in Arabum gentc qui Orroei 
vocantur et .Mandani Antiochiam quae a praefecto 
Mesopotamiac Nicanore condita Arabs ^ vocatur. 

IIS iuiiguntur his Arabes introrsus Eldamari, supra quos 
ad Pallacontam fiunicn Bura oppidum, Salmani et 
Masei Arabes ; Gurdiaeis vero iuncti Azoni, per cjuos 
Zerbis fluvius in Tigrim cadit, Azonis Silices montani 
et Orontes, quorum ad occidentem oppidum Gauga- 
^ Rackham : Arabis aut Arabes. 



" To distinjriiish it from severai other citics of the sarae 
name ; its site is not known. 

426 



BOOK VI. XXIX. 115-XXX. 118 

mountain by stages, with a narrow entrance, leading 
to the former capital of the kingdom, PersepoHs, 
which was destroyed by Alexander. Right on the 
frontier the region also possesses the city of Laodicea, 
founded by Antiochus. To the east of Laodicea 
is the fortress of Phrasargis, occupied by the Magi, 
which contains the tomb of Cyrus ; and another 
place belonging to the Magi is the toAvn of Ecbatana 
which King Darius transferred to the mountains. 
Between tlie Parthi and the Ariani projects the 
territory of the Paraetaceni. The Lower Kingdoms 
are enclosed by these races and by the Euphrates ; 
of the remaining kingdoms we shall speak after 
describing Mesopotamia, with the exception of the 
point of that country and the Arabian peoples 
mentioned in the preceding volume. v. 86 fif, 

XXX. The whole of Mesopotamia once belonged Mesopo- 
to the Assyrians, and the population was scattered ""'"''• 
in villages, with the exception of Babylon and 
Nineveh. The Macedonians collected its population 
into cities, because of the fertiUty of the soil. Besides 
the cities already mentioned it has the towns of 
Seleucia, Laodicea and Artemita; and also, in the 
territory of the Arabian tribe called the Orroei and 
Mandani, Antioch, which was founded by Nicanor 
when Governor of Mesopotamia, and which is called 
Arabian Antioch." Adjoining these, in the interior, 
are the Arabian tribe of the Eldamari, above whom 
on the river Pallaconta is the town of Bura, and the 
Arabian Salmani and Masei ; but adjoining the 
Gurdiaei are the Azoni, through whose country 
flows the Zerbis, a tributary of the Tigris, and 
adjoining the Azoni the mountain tribe of the 
Silices and the Orontes ; west of whom is the town 

427 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tnela, item Suae in rupibas. supra Silicas Sitrae, 
per quos Lycus ex Armenia fertur, ab Sitris ad 
hibemum exortum Azochis oppidum, mox in cam- 
pestribus oppida Dios Pege, Polytelia, Stratonicea, 

119 Anthemus. in vicinia Euphratis Nicephorion, quod 
diximus ; Alexander iussit condi propter loci oppor- 
tunitatem. dicta est et in Zeugmate Apamea ; 
ex qua orientem petentes excipit oppidum Caphrena 
munituni, quondam stadiorum Lxx aniphtudine et 
Satraj)arum Regia ajjpelhxtum quo tributa cun- 

120 ferebantur, nunc in arccni redactum. durant ut 
fuere Thebata et ductu Pompei Magni terminus 
Romani imperi Oruros, a Zeugmate ccl.^ sunt 
qui tradunt Euphraten Gobaris praefecti opere 
diductum esse ubi - diximus findi, ne praecipiti cursu 
Babyloniam infestaret, ab Assvriis vero universis 
appeUatum Narmalchan, quod significat regium 
flumen. qua dirivatur oppidum fuit Agranis e 
maximis quod diruere Pcrsae. 

121 BabylonChaldaicarum gentium caput diu summam 
chiritatem inter urbes obtinuit in toto orbc, propter 
quam reliqua pars Mesopotamiae Assyriaeque 
Babylonia appellata est, l\ p. amplexa ii' muris 



* Loo Mueller. * Muellcr : diductum ubi esse. 

' II add. Mayhoff. 



42S 



BOOK VI. XXX. 118-121 

of Gaiigamcla, and also Suae on a cliff. Above the 
Silices are the Sitrae, tlirough whom flows the Lycus 
from its source in Armenia, and south-east of the 
Sitrae the to^ATi of Azochis, and then in level country 
the towns of Zeus's Spring, Pol}i:elia, Stratonicea and 
Anthemus. In the neighbourhood of the Euphrates 
is Nicephorion, mentioned above ; it was founded v. sc. 
by order of Alexander because of the convenience of 
the site. \Ve have also mentioned Apamea opposite v. 8c. 
Bridgetown ; travelling eastward from which one 
comes to the fortified town of Cnphrena, which 
formerly measured 8| miles in extent and was callcd 
the Court of the Satraps, being a centre for the collec- 
tion of tribute, but which has now been reduced to a 
fortress. Thebata i-emains in the same condition as 
it was formerly, and so does the place which marked 
the limit of the Roman Empire under the leader- 
ship of Pompey, Oruros, 250 miles from Bridgetown. 
Some writers record that the Euphrates was diverted 
into an artificial channel by the governor Gobares at 
the place where we have stated that it divides, in v. 89. 
order to prevent the violence of its current from 
threatening damage to the district of Babylonia ; and 
that its name among the whole of the Assyrians is 
Narmalchas, which mcans the Iloyal River. At the 
point where the channel divides there was once a 
very large town named Agranis, which was destroyed 
by the Persians. 

Babylon, which is the capital of the Chaldaean DabyUm. 
races, long held an outstanding celebrity among the 
cities in the whole of the world, and in consequence 
of this the remaining part of Mesopotamia and 
Assyria has received the name of Babylonia. It has 
two walls with a circuit of 60 miles. each wall being 

429 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

duccnos pedes altis, quinquagenos latis, in singulos 
pedes ternis digitis mensura ampliore quam nostra, 
interfluo Euphrate, mirabili opere utrobique. durat 
adhuc ibi lovis Beli templum — inventor hic fuit 

122 sideralis scientiae : cetero ad solitudinem rediit 
exhausta vicinitate Seleuciae ob id conditae a Nica- 
tore intra xc lapidem in confluente Euphratis fossa 
perducti atque Tigris, quae tamen Babyloiiia cog- 
noniinatur, Hbera hodie ac sui iuris Macedonumque 
moris. ferunt ei plcbis urbanae dc esse, situm vero 
moenium aquilae pandentis alas, agrum totius 
oricntis fertihssimum. invicem ad lianc exliaurien- 
dam Ctesiphontem iuxta tertium ab ea lapidem in 
Chalonitide condidere Parthi, quod nunc caput est 
regnorum. et postquam nihil proficiebatur, nuper 
Vologesus rex aHud oppidum Vologesocertam in 

123 vicino condidit. sunt etiamnum in Mesopotamia 
oppida : Hippareni,^ Chaldaeorum doctrina ^ et 
hoc sicut Babylon, iuxta fluvium qui cadit in Narra- 
gam unde civitati nomen (muros Hipparonorum 
Persae diruere) ; Orcheni quoquc, tertia Chaldaeo- 
rum doctrina, in eodem situ locantur ad meridiem 
versi ; ab his Notitae et Orothophanilae et Gnesio- 
chartae. 

* Rackham: Hipparcnum. 

* doctrina clarum (•dd. vel. 

" The name Baal or Bd is interpreted by Eusebius as 
meaninp; ' heaven '. 

* With this use of doclrina cf. studium generale, ' uni- 
versity '. 

430 



BOOK VI. xxx. 1 21-123 

200 ft. high and 50 ft. wide (the Assyrian foot 
measures 3 inches more than ours). The Euphrates 
flows through the city, with marvellous embank- 
ments on either side. Thc temple of Jupiter Belus " 
in Babylon is still standing — Behis ■\vas tiie discoverer 
of the scicnce of astronomy ; but in all other respects 
the place has gone back to a desert, having been 
drained of its population by the proximity of Seleucia, 
founded for that purpose by Nicator not quite 90 
miles away, at the point where the canaUsed 
Euphrates joins the Tigris. However, Seleucia is 
still described as being in the territory of Babylon, 
although at the present day it is a free and indepen- 
dent city and retain.s the Macedonian manners. 
It is said that the population of the city numbers 
600,000 ; that the plan of the walls resembles the 
shape of an eagle spreading its wings ; and that its 
territory is the most fertile in the whole of the east. 
For the purpose of dra^nng away the population of 
Seleucia in its turn, the Parthians founded Ctesiphon, 
which is about three miles from Seleucia in the 
Chalonitis district, and is now the capital of the 
kingdoms of Parthia. And after it was found that 
the intended purpose was not being achieved, another 
town was recently founded in the neighbourhood by 
King Vologesus, named Vologesocerta. There are 
in addition the foUowing towns in Mesopotamia : 
Hippareni — this also a school* of Chaldaean learn- 
ing hke Babylon — situated on a tributary of the 
river Narraga, from which the city-state takes its 
name (the walls of Hippareni were demohshed 
by the Persians) ; also Orcheni, a third seat ^ of 
Chaldaean learning, is situated in the same neighbour- 
hood towards the south ; and next Notitae and 
Orothophanitae and Gnesiochartac. 

431 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

124 Euphrate navigari Babylonem e Persico mari 
ccccxii p. tradunt Nearchus et Onesicritus, qui vero 
postea scripsere ad Seleuciam ccccal, luba a Baby- 
lone Characen clxxv d, fluere aliqui ultra Babylona 
continuo alveo, priusquam distrahatur ad rigua, 
LXAXvii, universo autera cursu |xii| p. inconstantiam 
mensurae diversitas auctorum facit, cum Persae 
quoque schoenos et parasangas alii aha mensura 

12.J determinent. ubi dcsiit alveo munire, ad confinium 
Characis accedente tractu, statim infestant Attah 
latrones, Arabum gens, ultra quos Scenitae. ambitu 
vero Euphratis Nomades Arabiae usque ad deserta 
Syriae, unde in mcridiem flecti eum diximiis, soli- 

12G tudines Palmyrenas reUnquentem. Selcucia abest 
a capite Mcsopotamiae Euphrate ^ navigantibus 
lxi| XXV p., a Mari Rubro. si Tigri navigetur, cccxx, 
a Zeugmate dccxxiv. Zeugma abest Seleucia Syriae 
ad nostrum htiis clxxv. haec est ibi latitudo ter- 



rarum inter duo maria, Parthici vero regni dccccxviii. 

XXXI. Est etiainnum oppidum Mesopotamiae in 

ripa Tigris circa confluentes, quod vocant Digbam. 

^ Mayhoff : Euphrat«n. 

" See p. 266, n. o. The parasang was 30 stades, say 3J 
miles. 

' Including the Persian Gulf, p. 420, n. a. 

432 



BOOK VI. xxx. 124-XXX1. 126 

Nearchus and Onesicritus report that the Euphrates The 
is navigable from the Persian Sea to Babylon, a ^"pf^raies. 
distance of 412 miles ; but subsequent wTiters say 
it is navigable up to Seleucia, 4-10 miles, and .Tuba 
from Bab)'lon as far as Charax, 175^ miles. Some 
report that it continues to flow in a single channel 
for a distance of 87 miles beyond Babylon before it is 
diverted into irrigation-channels, and tliat its entire 
course is 1200 miles long. This discrepancy of 
measurement is due to the variety of authors that 
have dealt -w-ith the matter, as even among the 
Persians difFerent wTiters give different measuremcnts 
for the length of the schoenus " and the parasang. 
Where it ceases to afford protection by its channel, 
as it does wlien its course approaches the boundary 
of Charax, it immediately bcgins to be infested by 
the AttaH, an Arabian tribe of brigands, beyond 
whom are the Scenltae. But the winding course 
of the Euphrates is occupied by the Nomads of 
Arabia right on to the desert of Syria, where, as we 
have stated, the river makes a bend to the south, v. 87. 
quitting the uninhabited districts of Palmyra. The 
distance of Seleucia from the beginning of Mesopo- 
tamia is a voyage by the Euphrates of 1125 miles ; its 
distance from the Red Sea, if the voyage by made by 
the Tigris, is 320 miles, and from Bridgetown 724 
miles. Bridgetown is 175 miles from Seleucia on 
the Mediterranean coast of Syria. This gives the 
breadtli of the country lying between the Mediter- 
ranean and the Red Sea.'' The extent of the kingdom 
of Parthia is 918 miles. 

XXXI. Moreover therc is a town belonging to The Tigris. 
Mesopotamia on the bank of the Tigris near its 
confluence with the Euphrates, the name of which 

433 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

127 sed et de Tigri ippo dixisse convcniat. oritur in 
regione Armeniae Maioris fonte conspicuo in planitie ; 
loco nomen Elecrosini ^ est, ipsi qua tardlor fluit 
Diglito, unde concitatur, a celeritate Tigris incipit 
vocari — ita appellant Medi sagittam. influit in 
lacum Aretissam, omnia inlata pondera sustinentem 
et nitrum nebulis exhalantem. unum genus ei 
piscium est, idque transourrentis non miscetur alveo 
sicut neque e Tigri pisces in lacura transnatant ; 

128 fertur autem et cursu et colore dissimilis, trans- 
vectusque occurrente Tauro monte in specum mer- 
gitur subterque lapsus a latere altero eius erumpit. 
locxis vocatur Zoaranda ; eundem esse manifestum 
est quod demcrsa perfert. alterum deinde transit 
lacum qui Thespitcs appellatur rursusquc in cuniculos 
mergitur et post x\n p. circa Nyniphacum redditur. 
tam vicinum Arsaniae fluere cum in regione Archene 
Claudius Caesar auctor est, ut cum intumuere 
confluant nec tamen misceantur, leviorque Arsanias 
innatet mmmm ferme spatio, mox divisus in Euphraten 

* liackham: Elcgosine. 
434 



BOOK VI. XXXI. 126-128 

is Digba. But some statement about the Tigris 
itself may also be suitable here. The source 
of the Tigris is in a region of Greater Armenia, 
and is clearly visible, being on level ground ; the 
name of the place is Elegosine, and the stream 
itself in its comparatively sluggish part is named 
DigUtus, but where its flow accelerates, it begins 
to be called the Tigris, o^ing to its swiftness — 
tigris is the Persian word for an arrow. It flows 
into Lake Aretissa, heavy objects thrown into which 
always float on the surface, and which gives oiF 
nitrous vapours. The lake contains a single species 
of fish, which never enters the current of the Tigris 
floAving through the lake, as hkev\ise the fish of the 
river do not swim out of its stream into the water 
of the lake ; but the riveir travels on in a distinct 
course and v\ith a difFerent colour, and when after 
traversing the lake it comes against Mount Taurus, 
it plunges into a cave, gHdes underground, and 
bursts out again on the other side of the moxmtain. 
The name of the place where it emerges is Zoaranda ; 
and the identity of the stream is proved by the fact 
that objects thrown into it are carried through the 
tunnel. Then it crosses a second lake called Thes- 
pites, and again burrows into underground passages, 
re-emerging 22 miles further on in the neighbourhood 
of Xymphaeum. According to Claudius Caesar, the 
course of the Tigris in the Archene district is so close 
to that of the Arsanias that when they are in flood 
they flow together, although without intermingHng 
their waters ; that of the Arsanias being of less 
specific gravity floats on the surface for a distance 
of nearly four miles, after which the two rivers 
separate, and the Arsanias discharges into the 

435 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

129 mergatur. Tigris autem ex Armenia acceptis 
fluminibus claris Parthenia ac Nicephorione Arabas 
Orroeos Adiabcnosque disterminans et quam dixi- 
mus Mesopotamiam faciens, lustratis montibus 
Gurdiaeorum circa Apameam Mesenes oppidum, 
citra Seleuciam Babyloniam cx.\v p, divisus in alveos 
duos, altero meridiem ac Seleuciam petit Mesenen 
perfundens, altero ad septcntrioncm flexus eiusdem 
gentis tergo campos Cauchas secat, ubi remeavere 

VSO aquae, Pasitigris appellatus. postea recipit ex 
Media Choaspen, atque, ut diximus, inter Seleuciam 
et Ctesiphontem vectus in Lacus Chaldaicos se fundit 
eosque lxTi p. amplitudine implet. mox vasto alveo 
profusus dextra Characis oppidi infertur mari Pcrsico 
X p. ore. intcr duorum amnium ostia xxv p. fuere, 
ut alii tradunt, vn,^ utroque navigabili ; sed longo 
tempore Euphraten praeclusere Orcheni et ^ accolae 
agros rigantes, nec nisi per Tigrim defertur in mare. 

131 Proxima Tigri regio Parapotamia appcUatin-. in 
ea dictum est de Mesene — oppidum eius Dabitha ; 
iungitur Chalonitis cum Ctesiphonte, non palmetis 
modo verum et olea pomisque arbusta ^. ad eam 
pervenit Zagrus mons ex Armenia inter Mcdos 

* xva ? RackluiTn. 

* ut aid del. et cdd., ct <alii> ? Rackham. 

* Dctlefsen : arbustis. 

" It seema morc probable that the altemative figure waa 17. 



BOOK VI. XXXI. 1 28-131 

Euphrates. The Tigris hoAvever after receiving as 
tributaries from Armenia those notable rivers the 
Parthenias and Nicephorion, makes a frontier between 
the Arab tribes of the Orroei and Adiabeni and forms 
the region of Mesopotamia montioned above ; it§25. 
then traverses the mountains of the Gurdiaei, flowing 
round Apamea, a town belonging to Mesene, and 
125 miles short of Babylonian Seleucia spHts into 
two channels, one of which flows south and reaches 
Seleucia, watering Mesene on the way, while the 
other bends northward and passing behind the same 
people cuts through the plains of Cauchae ; when 
the two streams have reunited, the river is called 
Pasitigris. Aftervvards it is joined by the Kerkhah 
from Media, and, as we have said, after flowing§i22. 
between Seleucia and Ctesiphon empties itself into 
the Chaldaean Lakes, and broadens them out to a 
width of 62 miles. Then it flows out of the Lakes 
in a vast channel and passing on the right-hand side 
of the tOAvn of Charax discharges into the Persian 
Sea, the mouth of the river being 10 miles wide. 
The mouths of the two rivei-s used to be 25 miles 
apart, or as others record 7 " miles, and both were 
navigable ; but a long time ago the Euphrates was 
dammed by the Orcheni and other neighbouring 
tribes in order to irrigate their lands, and its water 
is only discharged into the sea by way of the Tigris. 

The country adjacent to the Tigris is called Para- Ttte Tigris 
potamia. It contains the district of Mesene, men- ''^?"^- 
tioned above ; a town in this is Dabitha, and adjoining § 129. 
it is Chalonitis, with the town of Ctesiphon, a wooded 
district containing not only palm groves but also 
oHves and orchards. Mount Zagrus extends as far 
as Chalonitis from Armenia, coming between the 

voL. 11. P 437 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Adiabenosque veniens supra Paraetacenen et Persida. 
Chalonitis abest a Perside ccclxxx p. ; tantum a 
Caspio mari et a Syria abesse conpendio itineris 

132 aliqui tradunt. inter has gentes atque Mesenen 
Sittacene est, eadem Ai"belitis et Palaestine dicta. 
oppidum eius Sittace Graecorum, ab ortu et Sabdata, 
ab occasu autem Antiochia inter duo flumina Tigrim 
et Tomadotum, item Apamea, cui nomen Antiochus 
matris suae inposuit ; Tigri ^ circumfunditur haec, 

133 dividitur Archoo. infra est Susiane, in qua vetus 
regia Persarum Susa a Dario Hystaspis filio condita. 
abest ab Seleucia Babylonia ccccL p., tantundem ab 
Ecbatanis Medorum per montem Carbantum. in 
septentrionali Tigris alveo oppidum est Barbitace; 
abest a Susis cxxxv p. ibi mortalium solis ^ aurum 
in odio ; contrahunt id defodiuntque, ne cui sit in 
usu. Susianis ad orientem versus iunguntur Oxii 
latrones et Mizaeorum xl populi liberae feritatis. 

134 supra eos parent Parthis Mardi et Saitae ii qui 

praetenduntur supra Elymaida, quam Persidi in ora 

iunximus. Susa a Persico mari absunt ccL p. qua 

subiit ad eam chassis Alexandri Pasitigri, vicus ad 

lacum Chaldaicum vocatur Aple, unde Susa navi- 

gatione lxii d p. absunt. Susianis ab oriente proxi- 

mi sunt Cossiaei, supra Cossiaeos ad septentionem 

^ Gronovius : Tigria. 

* Pintianus : boU (soli auri miro odio contrahunt Mayhoff). 



BOOK VI. xxxi. 131-134 

Medes and the Adiabeiii above Paraetacene and 
Farsistan. The distance of Chalonitis from Farsistan 
is 380 miles, and some persons say that by the shortest 
route it is the same distance from the Caspian Sea 
and from Syria. Between these races and Mesene 
is Sittacene, which is also called Arbelitis and 
Palaestine. Its town of Sittace is of Greek origin, 
and also to the east of this is Sabdata and to the 
west Antiochia, which hes between the two rivers, 
Tigris and Tornadotus, and also Apamea, which 
Antiochus named after his mother ; this to^vn is 
surrounded by the Tigris, and the Archous intersects 
it. Below is Susiane, in which is situated Susa, the 
ancient capital of the Persian monarchy, founded by 
Darius son of Hystaspes. Babylonia is 450 miles 
from Seleucia, and the same distance from Ecbatana 
of the Medes, by way of Mount Carbantus. On the 
northern channel of the Tigris is the to\vn of Barbitace, 
which is 135 miles from Susa. Here are the only 
peo))le among mankind who have a hatred for gold, 
which they collect together and bury, to prevent any- 
one from using it. Adjoining the Susiani on the east 
are the brigand Oxii and the forty independent and 
savage tribes of the Mizaei. Above these and subject 
to the Partliians are the Mardi and Saitae stretching 
above Elymais, which we described as adjacent to§iii. 
Farsistan on tlie coast. The distance of Susa from 
the Persian Gulf is 250 miles. Near where the fleet 
of Alexander came up the Pasitigris to the city of 
Susa is a village on the Chaldaic lake called Aple, 
the distance of which from Susa is a voyage of Q2^ 
miles. The nearest people to the Susiani on the 
east side are the Cossiaei, and beyond the Cossiaei 
to the north is Massabatene, lying below Mount 

439 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Massabatene sub monte Cambalido, qui est Caucasi 
ramus, inde mollissimo transitu in Bactros. 

13.J Susianen ab Elvmaide disterminat amnis Eulaeus 
ortus in Medis modicoque spatio cuniculo conditus 
ac rursus exortus et per Massabatenen lapsus. cir- 
cumit arcem Susorum ac Dianae templum augustissi- 
mum illis gentibus, et ipse in magna caerimonia, 
siquidem reges non ex alio bibunt et ob id in longinqua 
portant. recipit amnes Hedyphon praeter Asylum 
Persarum venientem, Adunam ex Susianis. oppi- 
dum iuxta eum Magoa, a Charace xv p. ; quidam hoc 
in extrema Susiane ponunt solitudinibus proximum. 

136 infra Eulaevun Elymais est in ora iuncta Persidi, a 
flumine Orati ad Characem ccxl p. ; oppida eius 
Seleucia et Sostrate adposita monti Chasiro. oram 
quae praeiacet Minorum Syrtium vice diximus 
inaccessam coeno, plurimum limi deferentibus Brixa 
et Ortacia amnibus, madente et ipsa Elymaide in 
tantum ut nullus sit nisi circuitu eius ad Persidem 
aditus. infestatur et serpentibus quos flumina 
deportant. pars eius maxume invia Characene 
vocatur ab oppido Arabiae claudente regna ea; 
440 



BOOK VI. xxxi. 134-136 

Cambalidus, which is a spur of the Caucasus range ; 
from this point is the easiest route across to the 
country of the Bactri. 

The territory of Susa is separated from Elymais Susa. 
by the river Karun, which rises in the country of 
the Medes, and after running for a modcrate distance 
underground, comes to the surface again and flows 
through Massabatene. It passes round the citadel 
of Susa and the temple of Diana, which is regarded 
viiih tlie greatest reverence by the races in those 
parts ; and the river itself is held in great veneration, 
inasmuch as the kings drink water drawn from it 
only, and consequently have it conveyed to places 
a long distance away. Tributaries of the Karun 
are the Hedyphos, which flows past the Persian 
town of Asylum, and the Aduna coming from the 
territory of the Susiani. On the Karun lies the 
town of Magoa, 15 miles from Charax — thougli 
some people locate Magoa at the extreme edge of 
the territory of Susa, close to the desert. Below 
the Kariin on the coast is Elj^mais, which marches 
with Farsistan and extends from the river 
Oratis to the Charax, a distance of 240 miles ; its 
towTis are Seleucia and Sostrate, situated on the 
flank of Mount Chasirus. The coast lying in front, 
as we have stated above, is rendered inaccessible § 99. 
by mud, Hke the Lesser Syrtes, as the rivers Brixa 
and Ortacia bring do^^Ti a quantity of sediment, and 
the Elymais district is itself so marshy that it is only 
possible to reach Farsistan by making a long dctour 
round it. It is also infested with snakes carried down 
by the streams. A particularly inaccessiblc part of 
it is called Characene, from Charax, a town of Arabia 
that marlcs the frontier of these kingdoms ; about 

441 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

de quo dicemiis exposita prius M. Agrippae sententia. 

137 namque is Mediam et Parthiam et Persidem ab 
orientc Indo, ab occidentc Tigri, a scptentrione 
Tauro, Caucaso, a meridie Rubro mari terminatas 
patere in longitudinem |xiii| xx p., in latitudineni 
DcccxL prodidit, praeterea per se Mesopotamiam 
ab oriente Tigri, ab occasu Euphrate, a septentrione 
Tauro, a meridie mari Persico inclusam, longitudine 
Dccc p., latitudine cccl.v. 

138 Charax oppidum Persici sinus intimura, a quo 
Arabia Eudaemon cognominata excurrit, habitatur 
in colle manu facto inter confluentes dextra Tigrim, 
laeva Eulaeum, fi ^ p. laxitate. conditum est primum 
ab Alexandro Magno colonis ex urbe regia Durine 
quae tum interiit deductis miUtumque ^ inutilibus 
ibi relictis ; Alexandriam appellari iusserat, pagum- 
que Pellacum a patria sua qucm proprie Maccdo- 

139 num fecerat. flumina id oppidum expugnavere. 
postea restituit Antiochus quintus regum el suo 
nomine appellavit ; iterum quoque infestatum Spao- 
sines Sagdodonaci fihus, rex finitimonmi Arabum, 
quem luba satrapen Antiochi fuisse falso tradit, 
oppositis moHbus restituit nomenque suum dedit 

' m aiU VI edd. * V.l. om. que. 

" The fipure should perhaps be emended to 3 or even 6. 

* Or pcrhaps * thcse settlers being invalided soldiera who 
had been left at Durine '. 

* J.e. Charax Spaosinou. 

442 



BOOK VI. xxxi. 136-139 

this tovm we will now speak, after first stating the 
opinion of Marcus Agrippa. According to his account 
the countries of Media, Parthia and Farsistan are 
bounded on the east by the Indus, on the west by 
the Tigris, on the north by the Taurus and Cau- 
casus mountains, and on the south by the Red Sea, 
and cover an area 1320 miles in length and 840 
miles in breadth ; he adds that the area of 
Mesopotamia by itself, bounded by the Tigris on 
the east, the Euphrates on the west, Mount Taurus 
on the north and the Persian Sea on the south, is 
800 miles in length by 360 miles in breadth. 

The town of Charax is situated in the innermost Charax 
recess of the Persian Gulf, from which projects the 
countrj' called Arabia Felix. It stands on an 
artificial elevation between the Tigris on the right 
and the Kariin on the left, at the point where these 
two rivers unite, and the site measures two " miles 
in breadth. The original tovm was founded by 
Alexander the Great Mith settlers brought from the 
royal city of Durine, which was then destroyed, 
and vrith ^ the invalided soldiers from his army who 
were left there. He had given orders that it was to 
be called Alexandria, and a borough which he had 
assigned specially to the Macedonians was to be 
namcd Pellaeum, after the place where he was born. 
The original to\\Ti was destroyed by the rivers, but 
it was aftervvards restored by Antiochus, the fifth 
lcing of Syria, who gave it his own name; and when 
it had been ajrain damajired it was restored andnamed 
after himself<= by Spaosines son of Sagdodonacus, 
king of the neighbouring Arabs, who is WTongly 
stated by Juba to have been a satrap of Antiochus ; 
he constructed embankments for the protection of 

443 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

emunito situ iuxta in longitudinem vi p., in latitu- 
dinem paulo minus. primo afuit a litore stadios 
X et maritimum etiam ipsa portum habuit, luba 

140 vero prodente l p. ; nunc abesse a litore cxx legati 
Arabum nostrique negotiatores qui inde venere 
adfirmant. nec ulla in parte plus aut celerius pro- 
fecere terrae fluminibus invectae ; magis illud ^ 
mirum est, aestu longe ultra id acccdente non 
repercussas. 

141 Hoc in loco genitum esse Dionysium terrarum 
orbis situs recentissimum auctorem, quem ad com- 
mentanda omnia in orientem praemiserit divus 
Augustus ituro in Armeniam ad Parthicas Arabicas- 
que res maiore fiUo, non me practeriit, nec sum 
obhtus sui quemque situs dihgentissimum auctorem 
visum nobis introitu operis ; in hac tamen parte 
arma Romana sequi placet nobis lubamquc regem 
ad eundem Gaium Caesarem scriptis voluminibus de 
eadem expeditione Arabica. 

142 XXXII. Arabia, gentium nulU postferenda ampU- 
tudine, longissime a monte Amano e regione CiUciae 
Commagenesque descendit, ut diximus, muUis 
gentibus eorum deductis illo a Tigrane Magno, 
sponte vero ad mare nostrum Utusque Aegyptium, 

^ illud Rackham : id. 

• The empcror'8 adopted son, his grandson Gaius. 
444 



BOOK ^'I. XXXI. i39-xx.\ii. 142 

the town, and raised the level of the adjacent ground 
over a space of six miles in length and a little less in 
breadth. It was originally at a distance of Ij miles 
from tlie coast, and had a harbour of its own, but 
when Juba pubHshed his work it was 50 miles inland ; 
its present distance from the coast is stated by Arab 
envoys and our own traders who have come from the 
place to be 120 miles. There is no part of the world 
where earth carried down by rivers has encroached 
on the sea further or more rapidly ; and what is more 
surprising is that the deposits have not been driven 
back by the tide, as it approaches far beyond this point. 

It has not escaped my notice that Charax was the 
birthplace of Dionysius, the most recent Avriter 
dealing with the geography of the world, who was 
sent in advance to the East by his late majesty 
Augustus to write a full account of it when the 
emperor's elder son " was about to proceed to Armenia 
to take command against the Parthians and Arabians ; 
nor have I forgotten the view stated at the m. 2. 
beginning of my work that each author appears to 
be most accurate in describing his own country ; 
in this section however my intention is to be guided 
by the Roman armies and by King Juba, in his 
volumes dedicated to the above-mentioned Gaius 
Caesar describing the same expedition to Arabia. 

XXXII. In regard to the extent of its terri- Arabia. 
tory Arabia is infferior to no race in the world ; 
its longest dimension is, as we have said, the slope v. 85. 
down from Mount Amanus in the direction of 
Cilicia and Commagene, many of the Arabian races 
having been brought to that country by Tigranes 
the Great, while others have migrated of their own 
accord to the Mediterranean and the Egyptian coast, 

445 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

nt docuimus, nec non in media Syriae ad Libanum 
montcm penetrantibus Nubeis, quibus iunguntur 

143 Ramisi, dcin Teranci, dein Patami. ipsa vero 
paeninsula Arabia intcr duo maria Rubrum Persi- 
cumque procurrens, quodam naturae artificio ad 
similitudinem atque magnitudinem Italiae mari 
circumfusa, in eandem etiam caeli partem nulla 
diffcrentia spectat, haec quoque in illo situ felix. 
populos eius a nostro mari usque ad Palmyrenas ^ 
solitudines diximus, reliqua nunc inde peragemus. 

Nomadas infestatoresque Chaldaeorum Scenitae, 
ut diximus, cludunt, et ipsi vagi, sed a tabcrnaculis 

144 cognominati quae cihciis metantur ubi libuit. deinde 
Nabataei oppidum incolunt Pctram nomine in con- 
valle, paulo minus li p. amplitudinis, circumdatum 
montibus inaccessis, amne interfluente. abest ab 
Gaza oppido Utoris nostri vc, a sinu Persico dcxxxv.* 
huc convenit utrumque bivium, eorum qui ex Syria 
Palmyram petierc et eorum qui a Gaza venerunt. 

145 a Petra incoluere Omani ad Characcn usquc oppidis 
quondam claris ab Samiramide conditis Abaesamide 
et Soractia ; nunc sunt solitudines. dcinde est 
oppidum quod Characenorum regi paret in Pasitigris 
ripa, Forat nomine, in quod a Petra conveniunt, 
Characenque inde xu p. secundo aestu navigant. 

* Edd. Palmyrenae, -rene (an Palmyrenes? Mayhoff). 

* Dcxxxv {vel Dccxxxv) Wanninxjlon : cxxxv. 

" Perhaps we sbould reud 735; the MSS. give 135. 
446 



BOOK VI. XXXII. 142-145 

as we have explained, and also the Nubei penetrating v.65. 
to the middle of Syria as far as Mount Lebanon 
adjoining ■vvhom are the Ramisi and then the Teranei 
and then the Patami. Arabia itself however is a 
peninsula projecting between two seas, the Red 
Sea and the Persian Gulf, some device of nature 
having surrounded it by sea with a conformation 
and an area resembling Italy, and also with exactly 
the same orientation, so that it also has the advantage 
of that geographical position. We have stated the 
peoples that inhabit it from the Mediterranean to 
the deserts of Pahnyra, and we will now recount 
the remainder of them from that point onward. 

Bordering on the Nomnds and thc tribes that 
harry the territories of the Chaldaeans are, as we 
have said, the Scenitae, thcmselves also a wandering v. 65, 86. 
people, but taking their name from their tents made ^^" ^"^* 
of goat's-hair cloth, which they pitch wherever they 
fancy. Next are the Nabataeans inhabiting a to^wTi 
named Petra ; it lies in a deep valley a Uttle less 
than two miles wide, and is surrounded by in- 
accessible mountains with a river flowing between 
them. Its distancc from the town of Gaza on the 
Mediterranean coast is 600 miles, and from the 
Persian Gulf 635 miles." At Petra two roads meet, 
one leading from Syria to Palmyra, and the other 
coming from Gaza. After Petra the country as far 
as Charax was inhabited by the Omani, with the once 
famous towns of Abacsamis and Soractia, founded 
by Samiramis ; but now it is a desert. Then there 
is a town on the bank of the Pasitigris named Forat, 
subject to the king of the Characeni ; tliis is resorted 
to by people from Petra, who make the journey 
from there to Charax, a distance of 12 miles by 

447 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

e Parthico autem regno navigantibus vicus Teredon 
infra confluentem Euphratis et Tigris ; laeva fluminis 

146 Chaldaei optinent, dextra nomades Scenitae. quidam 
et alia duo oppida longis intervallis Tigri praena\igari 
tradunt, Barbatiam, mox Dumatham, quod abesse 
a Petra dierum x navigatione. nostri negotiatores 
dicunt Characenorum regi parere et Apameam, 
sitam ubi restagnatio Euphratis c\im Tigri confluat, 
itaque mohentes incursionem Parthos operibus 
obiectis inundatione arceri. 

147 Nunc a Charace dicemus oram Epiphani prinium 
exquisitam. locus ubi Euphratis ostium fuit, flumen 
salsum, promunturium Caldone, voragini simiHus 
quam mari aestuarium ^ per Lorae,^ flumen Achenum, 
deserta c p. usque ad insulam Icarum,^ sinus Capeus 
quem accolunt Gauloj^es et Gattaei, sinus Gerraicus, 
oppidum Gerra v p. amplitudine; turres habet ex 

148 sahs quadratis molibus. a htore L regio Attene ; 
ex adverso Tyros insula totidem milibus a Htore, 
plurimis margaritis celeberrima cum oppido eiusdem 
nominis, iuxtaque altera minor a promunturio eius 
3m D p. ultra magnas aspici insulas tradunt ad quas 

* aestuarium add. Mayhoff. * V.L oro. 

' Hermolaus : Barum. 

* Bahrein. 
448 



i 



BOOK VI. xxxii. 145-148 

water, using the tide. But those travelhng by water 
from the kingdom of Parthia come to the village 
of Teredon below the confluence of the Euphrates 
and the Tigris ; the left bank of the river is occupied 
by the Chaklaeans and the right bank by the Scenitae 
tribe of nomads. Some report that two other towns 
at long distances apart are also passed on the voyage 
down the Tigris, Barbatia and then Dumatha, the 
latter said to be ten days' voyage from Petra. Our 
merchants say that the king of the Characeni also 
rules over Apamea, a town situated at the con- 
fluence of the overflow of the Euphrates with the 
Tigris ; and that consequently when the Parthians 
threaten an invasion they are prevented by the 
construction of dams across the river, which cause 
the country to be flooded. 

We \vi\\ now describe the coast from Charax The Persim 
onward, which was first explored for King Epiphanes. ^"abianside. 
There is the place where the mouth of the Euphrates 
formerly was, a salt-water stream; Cape Caldone; 
an estuary more resembUng a whirlpool than open 
sea, stretching 50 miles along the coast ; the river 
Achenum ; 100 miles of desert, extending as far as 
Icarus Island ; Capeus Bay, on which dwell the 
Gaulopes and the Gattaei ; the Bay of Gerra and the 
town of that name, which measures five miles round 
and has towers made of squared blocks of salt. 
Fifty miles inland is the Attene district ; and opposite 
to it and the same number of miles distant from the 
coast is the island of Tyros," extremely famous for 
its numerous pearls, with a town of the same name, 
and next another smaller island 12^ miles away 
from the cape of Tyros. It is reported that beyond 
Tyros some large islands are in view which have 

449 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

non sit perventum, huius ambitum cxii d p., a Perside 
longius abesse, adiri uno alveo angusto. insula 
Ascliae, gentes Nochaeti, Zurazi, Borgodi, Catharrei 

149 nomades, flumen Cjtios. ultra navigationem incon- 
pertam ab eo latere propter scopulos tradit luba 
praetermissa mentione oppidi Omanorum Batrasa- 
vaves et Omanae, quod priores celebrem portum 
Carmaniae fecere, item Homnae et Attanae, quae 
nunc oppida maxime celebrari a Persico raari nostri 
negotiatores dicunt. a flumine Canis, ut luba, mons 
adusto similis, gentes Epimaranitae, mox Ichthyo- 
phagi, insula deserta, gentes Batliymi, Eblythaci 
montes, insula Omoemus, portus Mochorbae, insuhie 

150 Etaxalos, Inchobrichae, gens Cadaei ; insulae sine 
nominibus multae, celebres vero Isura, Rhinnea et 
proxima in qua scriptae sunt stelae lapideae Htteris 
incognitis ; Coboea portus, Bragae insulae desertae, 
gens Taludaei, Dabanegoris regio, mons Orsa cum 
portu, sinus Duatas, insulae multae, mons Tricory- 
phos, regio Chardaleon, insulae Solanades, Cachinna, 
item Ichthyophagorum. dein Clari, htus Mamaeum 
ubi auri metalla, regio Canauna. gentes Apitami, 
Casani, insula Devade, fons Corahs, Carpliati, insulae 

151 Alaea, Anmamethus, gens Darae ; insulae Chelonitis, 

■ I.t., on thc Arabian side of the Peraian Gulf. 
* I.e., the Cynoa, § 148 fin. taken to mean kwos- 

45° 



BOOK VI. XXXII. 148-151 

never been visited ; that the circumference of Tyros 
measures 112^ miles ; that its distance from Farsistan 
is more than that ; and that it is accessible only by 
one narrow channel. Then the island of Ascliae, 
tribes named Nochaeti, Zurazi, Borgodi and the 
nomad Catharrei, and the river Cynos. According to 
Juba the voyage beyond on that side " has not been 
explored, because of the rocks — Juba omits to 
mention Batrasavave, the town of the Omani, and 
the town of Omana which previous -vvriters have 
made out to be a famous port of Carmania, and also 
Homna and Attana, towns said by our traders to be 
now the most frequented ports in the Persian Gulf. 
After the Dog's River,* according to Juba, there 
is a mountain looking as if it had been burnt ; 
the Epimaranitae tribes, then the Fish-eaters, an 
iminhabited island, the Bathymi tribes, the Ebly- 
thaean Mountains, the island of Omoemus, Port 
Mochorbae, the islands of Etaxalos and Inchobrichae, 
the Cadaei tribe ; a number of islands without 
names, and the well-known islands of Isura and 
Rhinnea, and the adjacent island on which there 
are some stone pillars bearing inscriptions •wTitten 
in an unkno^vn alphabet ; Port Coboea, the un- 
habited Bragae islands, the Taludaei tribe, the 
Dabanegoris district, Mount Orsa \nth its harbour, 
Duatas Bay, a number of islands, Mount Three 
Peaks, the Chardaleon district, the Solonades and 
Cachinna, also islands belonging to the Fish- 
eaters. Then Clari, the Mamaean coast with its 
gold-mines, the Canauna district, the Apitami and 
Casani tribes, Devade Island, the spring CoraHs, 
the Carphati, the islands of Alaea and Amnamethus. 
the Darae tribe ; Chelonitis Island and a number of 

451 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Ichthvophagon multae, Odanda deserta, Basa, 
multae Sabaeorum. flumina Thanar, Amnum, insulae 
Doricae, fontes Daulotos, Dora, insuhie Pteros, 
Labatanis, Coboris, Sambrachate et oppidum eodem 
nomine in continente. a meridie insulae multae, 
niaxima Camari, flumen Musecros, portus Laupas; 
Scenitae Sabaei, insulae multae, emporium eorum 

152 Acila, ex quo in Indiam navigatur; regio Amithos- 
catta, Damnia, Mizi Maiores et Minores, Drymatina, 
Macae; horimi ^ promunturium contra Carmaniam 
distat L p. mira res ibi traditur, Numenium ab Antio- 
cho rege Mesenae praepositum ibi vicisse eodem die 
classe aestuque reverso iterum equitatu coiitra 
Persas dimicantem et gemina tropaea eodem in loco 
lovi ac Neptvmo statuisse. 

153 Insula in alto obiacet Ogyris, clara Erythra rege 
ibi sepulto; distat a continente cxxv p., circumitur 
cxii D. nec minus altera clara in Azanio mari Dios- 



curidu, distans a Syagro extumo promunturio cclxxx. 
Reliqui in continente a noto etiamnum Autaridae, 
in montes vii dienim transitus, gens Larendani et 
Catapani, ricbbanitae pluribus oppidis sed maximis 
Nagia et Thomna templorum lxv : haec est ampli- 
154 tudinis significatio. promunturium, a quo ad con- 

* Outschmidt : drimati naumachaeorum aut alia. 



' Scc V. 65, n. * Ras Musandam. 

' Ras Fartak in Arabia. 



BOOK VI. XXXII. 151-154 

islands of the Fish-eaters, the uninhabited Odanda, 
Basa, a number of islands beloiiging to the Sabaei. 
The rivers Thanar and Aninuni, the Doric Islands, 
the Daulotos and Dora springs, the islands of Pteros, 
Labatanis, Coboris and Sambrachate ^vith the town 
of the sanie name on the mainland. Many islands 
to the southward, the largest of which is Camari, 
the river Musecros, Port Laupas ; the Sabaei, a 
tribe of Scenitae," owning many islands and a 
trading-station at Kalhat which is a port of embarka- 
tion for India ; the district of Amithoscatta, Damnia, 
the Greater and Lesser Mizi, Drymatina, the Macae; 
a cape* in their territory points towards Carmania, 
50 miles away. A remarkable event is said to have 
occurred there : the governor of Mesene appointed 
by King Antiochus, Numenius, here won a battle 
against the Persians with his fleet and after the tide 
had gone out a second battle with his cavalry, and 
set up a couple of trophies, to Jupiter and to Neptune, 
on the same spot. 

Out at sea off this coast lies the island of Ogyris, 
famous as the burial-place of King Er}i-hras ; its 
distance frcrm the mainland is 125 milcs and it 
measures 11 2^^ miles round. Equally famous is a 
second island in tlie Azanian Sea, the island of 
Socotra, lying 280 miles away from the extreme 
point of Cape Syagrus.<= 

The remaining tribes on the mainland situated Theresto/ 
further south are the Autaridae, seven days' journey '^ *"' 
into the mountains, the Larendani and Catapani 
tribe, the Gebbanitae with several toAvns, of which 
the largest are Nagia and Thomna, the latter with 
sixty-five temples, a fact that indicates its size. 
Then a cape the distance between which and the 

453 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tinentem Trogodytarum l; Thoani, Actaei, Chatra- 
motitae, Tonabaei, Antiadalei et Lexianae, Agraei, 
Cerbani, Sabaei Arabum propter tura clarissimi ad 
utraque maria porrectis gentibus. oppida eorum in 
Rubro litore Merme, Marma, Corolia, Sabbatha, 
intus oppida Nascus, Cardava, Camus et quo merces 

1C5 odorum defenint Thomala. pars eorum Atramitae, 
quorum caput Sabota lx templa muris includens ; 
regia tamen ^ omnium Mareliabata sinum obtinet - 
xcvi, refertum insulis odoriferis. Atramitis in medi- 
terraneo iunguntur Minaei ; mare accolunt et 
Aelamitae oppido eiusdem nominis, iis iuncti Chacu- 
latae oppido ^ Sibi quod Graeci Apaten vocant, Arsi, 
Codani, Vadaei oppido magno Barasasa, et Lechieni ; 
Sygaros insula quam canes non intrant expositique 

156 circa litora errando moriuntur. sinus intimus in 
quo Laeanitae, qui nomen ei dedere. regia eorum 
Agra et in sinu Laeana vel, ut alii, Aelana ; nam et 
ipsum sinum nostri Laeaniticum * scripsere, aUi 
Aelaniticum, Artemidorus Alaeniticum, luba Leani- 
ticum.^ circuitus Arabiae a Charace Laeana colUgere 

* V.l. tamcn eat. 

* V.l. obtinciit. 

* oppido ? .Mayhoff : oppidum. 

* ilayhoff, cf. iG5, V. 65 : Aelaniticum. 

* Mayhoff, cf. Plol. VI. 6. 18 : Lac-niticum. 



■• ' Both namos seem to survive in the name Hadramaut 
454 



BOOK VI. xxxii. 154-156 

mainland in the Cave-dwellers' territory is 50 miles ; 
then the Thoani, the Actaei, the Chatramotitae," 
the Tonabaei, the Antiadalei and Lexianae, the 
Agraei, the Cerbani and the Sabaei,* the best 
knoAVTi of all the Arabian tribes because of their 
frankincense — these tribes extend from sea to sea.<^ 
Their towns on the coast of the Red Sea are Merme, 
Marma, Corolia, Sabbatha, and the inland towns are 
Nascus, Cardava, Carnus, and Thomala to which 
they bring down their perfumes for export. One 
division of them are the Atramitae,'* whose chief 
place is Sabota, a walled town containing sixty 
temples ; the royal capital of all these tribes however 
is MareUabata, which hes on a bay measuring 94 
miles round, studded ^\1th islands that produce 
perfumes. Adjoining the Atramitae in the interior 
are the Minaei ; and dwelUng on the coast are also 
the Aelamitae -Nvith a town of the same name, and 
adjoining them the Chaculatae with the to^vTi of 
Sibis, the Greek name of which is Apate, the Arsi, 
the Codani, the Vadaei ^vith the large to^vn of 
Barasasa, and the Lechieni ; and the island of 
Sygaros, into which dogs are not admitted, and so 
being exposed on the seashore they wander about 
till they die. Then a bay running far inland on which 
hve the Laeanitae, who have given it their name. 
Their capital is Agra, and on the bay * is Laeana, or 
as others call it Aelana ; for the name of the bay 
itself has been written by our people ' Laeanitic ', 
and by others ' Aelanitic ', while Artemidorus gives 
it as ' Alaenitic ' and Juba as ' Leanitic '. The 
circumference of Arabia from Charax to Laeana is 

* Of Yemen. ' I.e. from the Red Sea to tho Arabian. 

• The Gulf of Akaba. 

455 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

proditur |xlvi| lxv p., luba paulo minus |XLl putat ; 
latissima est a septentrione inter oppida Heroeum 
et Characen, 

157 lam ^ et reliqua mediterranea eius dicantur. 
Nabataeis Timaneos iunxerunt veteres ; nunc sunt 
Taveni, Suelleni, Araceni, Arreni oppido in quod* 
negotiatio omnis convenit, Hemnatae, Avalitae 
(oppida Domata, Haegra), Tamudaei (oppidum 
Baclanaza), Cariati, Acitoali (oppidum Phoda), ac 
Minaei a rege Cretae Minoe, ut existimant, originem 
trahentes, quorum Carmei. oppidum xvv p. Maribba, 
Paramalacvun, et ipsum non spernendum, item 

158 Canon. Rhadamaei (et horum origo Ilhadamanthus 
putatur, frater Minois), Homeritae Mesala oppido, 
Hamiroei, Gedranitae, Phryaei, Lysanitae, Bachy- 
litae, Samnaei, Amaitaei oppidis Messa et Chenne- 
seri, Zamareni oppidis Sagiatta, Canthace, Bacas- 
chami Riphearina oppido, quo vocabulo hordeiun 
appellant, Autaei, Ethravi, Cyrei Elmataeis oppido, 
Chodae Aiathuri in montibus oppido xxv p. (in quo 
fons Aenuscabales, quod significat camelorum), 

159 oppidxun Ampelome, colonia Milesiorum, Athrida 
oppidum, CaHngi, quorum Mariba oppidum significat 
dominos omnium, oppida Pallon, Murannimal iuxta 
flumen per quod Euphraten emcrgere putant, gentes 
Agraei et Ammoni, oppidum Athenae, Caunaravi 



JJetlrfsen : nam. 

Mayhoff : oppiduin in quo. 



456 



BOOK VI. XXXII. 156-159 

said to amount to 4665 miles, though Juba thinks 
it is a little less than 4000 miles ; it is ^videst at the 
north, between the towns of Heroeum and Charax. 

The rest of its inland places also must now be 
stated. Adjoining the Nabataei the old authorities 
put the Timanei, but now there are the Taveni, 
Suelleni, Araceni, Arreni (with a town which is a 
centre for all mercantile business), Hemnatae, 
Avalitae (with the towns of Domata and Haegra), 
Tamudaei (town Baclanaza), Cariati, AcitoaH (town 
Phoda), and the Minaei, who derive their origin, as 
they believe,from King Minos of Crete ; part of them 
are the Carmei. Fourteen miles further is the town 
of Maribba, then Paramalacum, also a considerable 
place, and Canon, to which the same applies. Then 
the Rhadamaei (these also are behevcd to descend 
from Rhadamanthus the brother of Minos), the 
Homeritae with thc town of Mesala, the Hamiroei, 
Gedranitae, Phryaei, Lvsanitae, Bachylitae, Samnaei, 
the Amaitaei with the towns of Messa and Chenne- 
seris, the Zamareni with the towns of Sagiatta and 
Canthace, the Bacaschami with the town of 
Riphearina (a name which is the native word for 
barley), the Autaei, Ethravi, Cyrei with the 
town of Elmataei, Chodae with the town of 
Aiathuris 25 miles up in the mountains (in which 
is the spring called Aenuscabalcs, which means ' the 
fountain of thc camels '), the town of Ampelome, a 
colony from Miletus, the town of Athrida, the Calingi, 
whose town is named Mariba, meaning ' lords of all 
men ', the towns of Pallon and Murannimal, on a 
river through which the Euphrates is beheved to 
discharge itself, the Agraei and Ammoni tribes, a 
town named Athenae, the Caunaravi (which means 

457 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

(quod significat ditissimos armento), Chorranitae, 
Cesani, Choani. fuerunt et Graeca oppida Arethusa, 
Larisa, Chalcis, deleta variis bellis. 
ICO Romana arma solus in eam terram adhuc intulit 
Aelius Gallus ex equestri ordine ; nam C. Caesar 
Augusti filius prospexit tantum Arabiam. Gallus 
oppida diruit non nominata auctoribus qui ante 
scripserunt : Ncgranam, Nestum, Nescam, Magusum, 
Caniinacum, Labaetiam, et supra dictam Maribam 
circuitu vi, item Caripetam, quo longissime processit. 

161 cetera explorata retulit : Nomadas lacte et ferina 
came vesci ; reliquos vinum ut Indos palmis ex- 
primere, oleum sesamae ; numerosissimos esse 
Homeritas ; Minaeis fcrtilcs agros palmetis arbusto- 
que, in pecore divitias ; Cerbanos et Agraeos armis 
praestare, maxime Chatramotitas ; Carreis latissimos 
et fertilissimos agros ; Sabaeos ditissimos silvarum 
fertihtate odorifera, auri metallis, agrorum riguis, 
mcllis ceraeque proventu: de odoribus suo dicemus 

162 volumine. Arabes mitrati degunt aut intonso crine, 
barba abraditur praetcrquam in superiore labro ; 
aUis et haec intonsa. mirumque dictu ex innumeris 
popuUs pars aequa in commerciis aut latrociniis 

458 



BOOK VI. XXXII. 159-162 

' very rich in herds '), the Chorranitae, the Cesani 
and the Choani. Here were also the Greek towns 
of Arethusa, Larisa and Chalcis, but they have been 
destroyed in various wars. 

AeHus Gallus, a member of the Order of Knights, Erpeduion 
is the only person Avho has hitherto carried the ooWu**"* 
arms of Rome into this country ; for Gaius .Caesar 
son of Augustus only had a ghmpse of Arabia. 
Gallus destroyed the follo\\ing towns not named by 
the authors who have wTitten previously — Negrana, 
Nestus, Nesca, Magusus, Caminacus, Labaetia; as 
well as Mariba above mentioned, which measures §159. 
6 miles round, and also Caripeta, Avhich was the far- 
thest point he reached. The other discoveries that 
he reported on his return are : that the Nomads hve 
on milk and the flesh of wild animals ; that the rest 
of the tribes extract wine out of palm trees, as the 
natives do in India, and get oil from sesame; that 
the Homeritae are the most numerous tribe ; that 
the Minaei have land that is fertile in palm groves 
and timber, and wealth in flocks ; that the Cerbani 
and Agraei, and especially the Chatramotitae, excel 
as warriors ; that the Carrei have the most extensive 
and most fertile agricultural land ; that the Sabaei 
are the most wealthy, o^nng to the fertility of their 
forests in producing scents, their gold mines, their 
irrigated agricultural land and their production of 
honey and wax : of their scents we shall speak in [!ook xn. 
the volume dealing ^vith that subject. The Arabs 
wear turbans or else go with their hair unshom; 
they shave their beards but wear a moustache — 
others however leave the beard also unshaven. 
And strange to say, of these innumerable tribes an 
equal part are engaged in tradc or live by brigandage ; 

459 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTGRY 

degit ; in universum gentes ditissimae, ut apud 
quas maximae opes Romanorum Parthorumque 
subsidant, vendentibus quae e mari aut silvis capiunt, 
nihil invicem redimentibus. 

163 XXXIII, Nunc reliquam oram Arabiae contrariam 
persequemur. Timosthenes totum sinum quadridui 
na^ngatione in longitudinem taxavit, bidui in latitu- 
dinem, angustias vn d ^ p., Eratosthenes ab ostio 
|xii| in quamque partem ; Artemidonis Arabiae latere 

164 [xvTi| L, Trogodytico vero |"xi| lxxxiv d p. Ptolomaida 
usque; Agrippa \x\'u\ xxxTi sine difFerentia laterum. 
plerique latitudinem cccclxxv prodiderunt, faucisque 
hiberno orienti obversas alii iv, alii vn, alii xTT patere. 

165 Situs autem ita se habet : a sinu Laeanitico alter 
sinus quem Arabes Aean vocant, in quo Heroon 
oppidum est. fuit et Cambysu inter Nelos et Mar- 
chadas deductis eo aegris exercitus. gens Tyro, 
Daneon Portus, ex quo navigabilem alveum perducere 
in Nilum qua parte ad Delta dictuni decurrit, lxii d 
intervallo, quod inter flumen et Rubrum Mare 
interest, primus omnium Sesostris Aegypti rex 
cogitavit, mox Darius Persarum, deinde Ptolemaeus 

* Numeros in §§ 163 sq. varie tradunt codd. et edd. 

" Prceumably a MS. error for ' forty *. 
460 



< 



BOOK VI. xxxn. 162-xxxni. 165 

taken as a whole, they are the richest races in the 
world, becaiise vast wealth from llome and Parthia 
accunmlates in their hands, as they sell the produce 
they obtain from the sea or their forests and buy 
nothinjT in return. 

XXXIII. We vdW now foUow along the rest of the The consta 
coast lying opposite to Arabia. Timosthenes esti- sea.^ 
mated the length of the M'hole gulf at four « days' 
sail, the breadth at two, and the width of the Straits 
of Bab-el-Mandeb as 1\ miles ; Eratosthenes makes 
the length of the coast on either side from the 
mouth of the gulf 1200 miles ; Artemidorus gives the 
length of the coast on the Arabian side as 1750 
miles and on the side of the Cave-dwcller country 
as far as Ptolemais 1184+ miles ; Agrippa says that 
there is no difference between the two sides, and gives 
the length of each as 1732 miles. Most authorities 
give the breadth as 475 miles, and the mouth of the 
gulf facing south-west some make 4 miles widc, 
others 7 and others 12. 

The lie of the land is as follows : on leaving the 
Laeanitic Gulf there is another gulf the Arabic name 
of which is Aeas, on which is the town of Heroon. 
Formerly there was also the City of Cambyses, 
between the Neli and the Marchades ; this was the 
place where the invaUds from the army of Cambyses 
were settled. Then come the Tyro tribe and the 
Harbour of the Daneoi, from which there was a project 
to carry a ship-canal through to the Nile at the CancU/rom 
place where it flows into what is called the Delta, sea/° 
over a space of 62+ miles, which is the distance 
between the river and the Red Sea ; this project 
was originally conceived by Sesostris King of Egypt, 
and latcr by the Pcrsian King Darius and then again 

461 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Sequens, qui et duxit ^ fossam latitudine pedum c, 
altitudine xxx, in longitudinem xxxiv d p. usque ad 

166 Fontes Amaros. ultra deterruit inundationis metus, 
excelsiore tribus cubitis Rubro Mari conperto quam 
terra Aeg^qiti. aliqui non eam adferunt causam, 
sed ne inmisso mari corrumperetur aqua Nili, quae 
sola potus praebet. nihilominus iter totum terreno 
frequentatur, a mari Aegv-ptio, quod est triplex : 
unum a Peltisio per harenas, in quo nisi calami 
defixi regant via non reperitur subinde aura vestigia 

167 operiente; alterum ii ultra Casium Montem, quod 
a Lx p. redit in Pelusiacam \nam — accolunt Arabes 
Autaei ; tertium a Gerro, quod Agipsum ^ vocant, 
per eosdem Arabas^ lx propius, sed asperum monti- 
bus et inops aquarum. eae omnes ^iae Arsinoen 
ducunt conditara sororis nomine in sinu Carandra a 
Ptolomaeo Philadelpho, qui primus Trogodyticen 
excussit, amnem qui Arsinoen praefluit Ptolomaeum 

168 appellavit. mox oppidum parvum est Acnum — alii 
pro hoc Philoterias scribunt — , deinde sunt Asarri, 
ex Trogodytarum conubiis Arabes feri, insulae 
Sapirine, Sc)i;ala, mox deserta ad Myoshormon, 

^ V.l. qui eduxit. * V.l. Adipsum. 

' Brotier : Arabes. 



" A variant gives ' the Not Thirsty route '. 
' Ardscherud near Sucz. 



462 



BOOK VI. XXXIII. 165-168 

by Ptolemy the Second, who did actually carry a 
trench 100 ft. broad and 30 ft. deep for a distance 
of 34i miles, as far as the Bitter Springs. He was 
deterred from carrying it further by fear of causing 
a flood, as it was ascertained that the level of the 
Red Sea is 4i ft. above that of the land of Egypt. 
Some persons do not adduce this reason for the 
abandonment of the project, but say that it was 
due to fear lest making an inlet from the sea would 
pollute the water of the Xile, which affords to 
Egj^pt its only supply of drinking-water. Neverthe- 
less the whole journev from the Egyptian Sca is 
constantly pcrformed by land, there being three 
routes : one from Pelusium across the sands, a route 
on which the only mode of finding the way is to 
follow a line of reeds fixed in the sand, as the wind 
causes footprints to be covered up immediately ; 
another route beginning two miles beyond Mount 
Casius and after 60 miles rejoining the road from 
Pelusium — ak)ng this route dwell the Arab tribe of 
tlie Autaei ; and a third starting from Gerrum, 
called the Agipsum " route, passing through the same 
Arab tribe, which is 60 miles shorter but rough and 
mountainous, as well as devoid of watcring-places. 
AU these routes lead to Arsinoe,* the city on Caran- -i/ncan coojii 
dra Bay founded and named after his sister by ° 
Ptolemy Philadclphus, who first thoroughly explorcd 
the Cave-dweller country and gave his own name to 
the rivcr on which Arsinoe stands. Soon after comcs 
the small town of Aenum — other writers give the 
name as Philoteriae instcad, — and then there are 
the Asarri, a wild Arab tribe sprung from inter- 
marriage with the Cave-dwellers, the islands of 
Sapirine and Scytala, and then desert stretching 

463 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ubi fons est Ainos, mons Eos, insula lambe, portus 
multi, Berenice oppidum matris Philadelphi nomine, 
ad quod iter a Copto diximus, Arabes Autaei et 

169 Gebadaei. XXXIV. Trogodytice, quam prisci 
Midoen, alii Midioen dixere, mons Pentedaotylos, 
insulae Stenae Dirae aliquot, Halonesi non pauciores, 
Cardamine, Topazos, quae gemmae nomen dedit. 
sinus insuhs refertus, ex his quae Matreu vocantur 
aquosae, quae Eratonos sitientes ; regum his prae- 
fecti fuere. introrsus Candaei, quos Ophiophagos 
vocant, serpentibus vesci adsueti ; neque aha regio 

170 fertiUor est earum. luba, qui \idetur dihgentissime 
persecutus haec, omisit in hoc tractu (nisi exem- 
plarium vitium est) Berenicen alteram quae Pan- 
chrysos cognominata est et tertiam quae Epi Dires, 
insignem loco : est enim sita in cervace longe pro- 
currente, ubi fauces Rubri Maris vn d ^ p. ab Arabia 
distant. iasula ibi Cj^tis, topazum ferens et ipsa. 

171 ultra silvae sunt,^ ubi Ptolomais a Philadelpho condita 
ad venatus elephantorum, ob id Epi Theras cogno- 
minata, iuxta lacum Monoleum. haec est regio 
secundo volumine a nobis significata, in qua .\lv 

* V.l. fv D, c/. § 163. * MayhoJJ: ultra ailvaa. 

" Abu Schaar. 
» See § 103. 

' Zebirget Island. The stone i.s really chrysolit^, not topaz. 

** So called from the neighbouring mines of Jebel Allaki 

from whicb the Egyptiana obtained their chioi eupply of gold. 

464 



BOOK VI. xxxiii. 168-XXXIV. 171 

as far as Myoshormos,'* whcre is the spring of Ainos, 
Mount Eos, lambe Island, a number of harboxirs, 
the town of Berenice * named from the mother of 
Philadelphus, the road to which from Coptus \ve have § 103. 
described, and the Arab tribes of the Autaei and 
Gebadaei. XXXIV. Cave-dwellers' country, called Trogodyuce 
in former times Midoe and by other people Mi- 
dioe, Mount Five-fingers, some islands called the 
Narrow Necks, the Halonesi about the same in 
number, Cardamine, and Topazos,'^ which has given 
its name to the precious stone. A bay crowded 
with islands, of which the ones called the Islands of 
Matreos have springs on them and those called 
Erato's Islands are dry ; these islands formerly 
had govemors appointed by the Idngs. Inland are 
the Candaei, who are called the Ophiophagi because 
it is their habit to eat snakes, of which the district 
is exceptionally productive. Juba, who appears to 
have investigated these matters extremely carefully, 
has omitted to mention in this district (unless there 
is an error in the copies of his work) a second town 
called Berenice which has the additional name of 
All-golden,<^ and a third called Berenice on the Neck, 
which is remarkable for its situation, being placed on 
a neck of land projecting a long way out, where the 
straits at the mouth of the Red Sea separate Africa 
from Arabia by a space of only 7^ miles. Here is 
the island of Cytis, which itself also produces the 
chrysolite. Beyond there are forests, in which is 
Ptolemais, built by Ptolemy Philadelphus for the 
purpose of elephant-hunting and consequently 
called Ptolemy's Hunting Lodge ; it is close to 
Lake Monoleus. This is the district referred to by 
us in Book II, in which during the 45 days before 11. 8S, 

465 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

diebus ante solstitium totidemque postea hora 
sexta coiisumuntur umbrae, et in meridiem reliqiiis 
horis cadunt, ceteris diebus in septentrionem, cum 
in Berenice quam primam posuimus ipso die solstitii 
sexta hora umbrae in totum absumantur nihilque 
adnotetur ahud novi, bcii d ^ p. intervallo a Ptole- 
maide : res ingentis excmph locusque subtihtalis 
inmensae, mundo ibi dcprelienso, cum indubitata 
ratione umbrarum ]'!,ratosthenes mensuram terrae 
prodere inde coiiceperit. ^ 

172 Hinc Azanium mare, promunturium quod ahcjui 
Hippalum scripsere, hicus Mandalum, insuhi Coloca- 
sitis, et in aho muUae in quibas testudo phiruma. 
oppidum Sacae, insuha Daphnidis, oppidum Aduhton 
— Aegyptiorum hoc servi profugi a doniinis condidere. 

173 maximum hic einporium Trogod}i^arum, etiam 
Aethiopum — abest a Ptolemaide ii ^ dierum naviga- 
tione ; dcferunt phu-imum ebur, rhinocerotum 
cornua, hippopotamiorimi coria, chehum * testu- 
dinum, sphingia, mancipia. supra Aethiop.is Aroteras 
insulae quae Ahaeu vocantur, item Bacchias et 
Antibacchias et Stratioton. hinc in ora Aethiopiae 
sinus incognitus, quod miremur, cuin ulteriora 
niercatores scrutentur; promunturium in quo fons 

174 Cucios, expetitus navigantibus ; ultra Isidis portus, 

» D (uid. ) Matjhoff, cf. II. 183. » V.l. ceperit. 

* V.l. V. * choliuin {xi^n-ov) Mueller : celtium. 



• In § 168; two othera in § 170. 

* Or pcrhape ' the place was the scene of infinitely protbund 
rosearch '. 

' 'A8oi'Ai? or 'ASouAt, now ZuJa. The vernacular name 
seems to have suggested ' unenslaved,' and tho spurious 
genitivc WhovXnwv is Latinized below, § 174, as ' Adulitarum.' 

466 



BOOK VI. XXXIV. 1 71-174 

midsummer and the same number of days after 
midsummer shadows contract to nothing an hour 
before noon, and during the rest of the day fall to the 
south, while all the other days of the year they fall 
to the north ; on the other hand at the first Berenice 
mentioned above," on the actual day of the summer 
solstice the shadow disappcars altogether an hour 
before noon, but nothing else unusual is observed — 
this place is 602|^ miles from Ptolemais. The phen- 
omenon is extremely remarkable, and the topic is 
one involving infinitely profound research,'' it being 
here that the structure of the world was discovered, 
because Eratosthenes derived from it the idea of 
working out the earth's dimensions by the certain 
method of noting the shadows. 

Next come the Azanian Sea, the cape whose name n.e. A/nca. 
some writers give as Hippalas, Lake Mandalum, 
Colocasitis Island, and out at sea a number of islands 
containing a large quantity of turtle. The town of 
Sacae, the island of Daphnis, Freemen's Town,"^ 
founded by slaves from Egypt who had run aMay 
from their masters. Here is very large trading 
centre of the Cave-dwellers and also the Ethiopians 
— it is two days' sail from Ptolemais ; they bring 
into it a large quantity of ivory, rhinoceros horns, 
hippopotamus hides, tortoise shell, apes and slaves. 
Beyond the Ploughmen Ethiopians are the islands 
called the Isles of AHaeos, and also Bacchias and 
Antibaccliias, and Soldiers' Island. Next there is a 
bay in the coast of Ethiopia that has not been 
explored, which is surprising, in view of the fact 
that traders ransack morc remote districts ; and a 
cape on which is a sj)ring named Cucios, resorted 
to by seafarers ; and further on, Port of Isis, ten 

467 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

decem dLeriim remigio ab oppido Adulitarum 
distans ; in eum TrofTod\-tis ^ mvrra confertur. insulae 
ante portimi duae Pseudopvlae vocantur, interiores 
totidem Pylae, in altera stelae lapideae litteris 
ignotis. ultra sinus Abalitu, dein insula Diodori et 
aliae desertae, per continentem quoque deserta, 
oppidum Gaza ; promunturium et portus Mossylites, 
quo cinnamum devehitur: hucusque Sesostris exer- 

175 citum duxit. aHqui unum Aethiopiae oppidum 
ultra ponunt in Htore Barajraza. 

A MossvUte promunturio Atlanticiun mare in- 
cipere vult luba, praeter Mauretanias suas (iadis 
usque na\igandxmi coro ; cuius tota sententia hoc in 
loco subtrahenda non est. a promunturio Indorum 
quod vocetur Lepte Acra, ab aliis Depranum, proponit 
recto cursu praeter Exustam ad ^ MaUchu insulas 
|xv| p. esse, inde ad lociun quem vocant Scaeneos 
ccxxv p., inde ad insulam Sadanum cl; sic fieri ad 

17C apertiun mare jx\iii| lx.w p. reUqui omnes propter 
ardorem soUs navigari posse non putaverunt ; quin 
et commercia ipsa infestant ex insuUs Arabes 
Ascitae appellati, quoniam bubulos utres binos 
instementes ponte piraticam exercent sagittis vene- 

» Trogodytica? c/. XIT. 69, Rachham. 
» ad Sol. : et. 



* See § 172 n. 

* Sce XII 69. 

* Pcrim Island. 

* Ranicses II. Kinp of Epypt 13.3.1 b.c, sulidued Ethiopia, 
a great part of Asia, Thr.ue and Scythia : Herodotus II. 102 II. 

* On hia Ethiopian expedition. 

' Broach in N.W. India is meant. 

» Really African : a common confusion in early eources 
ueed by Pliny. 

468 



BOOK VI. XXXIV. 174-176 

days' row distant from Freemen's Town," and a 
centre to- Avhich Cave-dwellers' myn-h * is brought. 
There are two islands ofF the harbour called the 
False Gates, and tAvo inside it called the Gates, on 
one of which are some stone monuments with 
inscriptions in an unknown alphabet. Further on is 
the Bay of Abalitos, and then Diodorus's Island <^ 
and other uninhabited islands, and also along the 
mainland a stretch of desert ; the town of Gaza ; 
Mossylites Cape and Harbour, the latter the port 
of expKjrt for cinnamon. This was the farthest 
point to which Sesostris "^ led his army.« Some 
writers place one Ethiopian town on the coast beyond 
this point, Baragaza./ 

Juba holds that at Cape Mossyhtes begins the 
Atlantic Ocean, navigable with a north-west wind 
along the coast of his kingdora of the Mauretanias 
as far as Cadiz ; and his wliole opinion must not 
be omitted at this point in the narrative. He puts 
forward the view that the distance from the cape in 
the Indian? territory called in Greek tlie Narrow 
Head, and by others the Sickle, in a straight course 
past Burnt Island to Malichas's Islands is 1500 miles, 
from there to the place called Scaenei 225 miles, 
and on from there to Sadanus Island 150 miles — 
making 1875 miles to the open sea. All the rest of 
the authorities have held the view that the heat of 
the sun makes the voyage impossible ; moreover 
actual goods conveyed for trade are exposed to the 
depredations of an Arabian tribe Uving on the 
islands : who are called the Ascitae ^* because they 
make rafts of timber placed on a pair of inflated 
oxhides and practise piracy, using poisoned arrows. 

* From aoKos, a wine-skin. 
VOL. TI. Q 469 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

natis. gentes Trogodytarnm idem luba tradit 
Therotlioas a venatu dictos, mirae velocitatis. sieut 
Ichtlnophagos, natnntes ceu maris animalia, Ban- 
genos, Zangenas, Thalibas, Saxinas, Sirecas, Daremas, 

177 Doniazenes. quin et accolas NiH a Syene non 
Aethiopum populos sed Arabum esse dicit usque 
Meroen, Solis quoque oppidum, quod non procul 
Memphi in Aegypti situ diximus, Arabas conditores 
habere. sunt qui et uUeriorem ripam Aethiopiae 
auferant adnectantque Africae. (ripas autem in- 
coluere propter aquam.)^ nos relicto cuique intelle- 
gendi arbitrio oppida quo traduntur ordine utrimque 
ponemus a Syene. 

178 XXXV. Et prius Arabiae latere gens Catadupi, 
deinde Syenitae, oppida Tacompson (quam quidam 
appellarunt Thaticen), Aramum, Sesamos, Andura, 
Nasarduma, Aindoma Come cum Arabcta et Boggi- 
ana, Leuphitorga, Tautarene, Meae, Chindita, Noa, 
Goploa, Gistate, Megada, Lea, Remni, Nups, Direa, 
Patigga, Bagada, Dumana, Radata (in cjuo fehs 
aurea pro deo colebatur), Boron, in mediterraneo 

179 Mallo proximum Meroe. sic prodidit Bion. luba 
aliter : oppidum munitum ^ Mega Tichos inter 
Aegyptum et Aethiopiam, quod Arabes Mirsion 
vocaverunt, dein Tacompson, Aramuni, Sesamum, 
Pide, Mamuda, Corambim iuxta bituininis fontem, 
Amodata, Prosda, Parenta, Mania, Tessata, Galles, 

* ripas . . . aquam secl. Mayhoff, alii posl .Meroen vel 
habere tr. 

* Mayhoff : Munto et alia. 



" Thia Bentence is probably misplaced or interpoiatcd. 
470 



BOOK VI. xxxiv. i76-xx\-A\ 179 

Juba also speaks of some tribes of Cave-dwellers 
called tlie Jackal-liunters, because of their skill 
in hunting, who are remarkable for their s^\iftness, 
and also of the Fish-eaters, who can s^nm Uke 
creatures of the sea ; also the Bangeni, Zangenae, 
Thahbae, Saxinae, Sirecae, Daremae and Doma- 
zenes. Juba states moreover that the people 
inhabiting the banks of the Nile from Syene as far 
as Meroe are not Ethiopian but Arabian tribes and 
also that the City of the Sun, which in our description 
of Egypt we spoke of as not far from Mcmphis, had v. ci. 
Arab founders. The further bank also is by some 
authorities taken away from Ethiopia and attached 
to Africa. (But they lived on the banks for the sake 
of the water.") We however shall leave this point 
to the reader to form his own opinion on it, and shall 
enumerate the towns on either bank in the order 
in which they are reported, starting from Syene. 

XXXV. And taking the Arabian side of the Nile EtMopia 
first, we have the Catadupi tribe, and then the Syeni- ''^;^'?'^ 
tae, and the towns of Tacompson (which some have MeroL 
callcd Thalice), Aramum, Sesamos, Andura, Nasar- 
duma, Aindoma \'illage with Arabeta and Bongiana, 
Leuphitorga, Tautarene, Meae, Chindita, Noa, Gop- 
loa, Gistate, Megada, Lea, Remni, Nups, Direa, Pa- 
tinga, Bagada, Dumana, Iladata (where a golden cat 
iLsed to be worshipped as a god), Boron, and inland 
Meroe, near Mallos. This is the account given by 
Bion. Juba's is different : hes.iys that thereis aforti- 
fied town called the Great Wall between Egypt and 
Ethiopia, the Arabic name for wliich is Mirsios, and 
then Tacompson, Aramum, Sesamos, Pide, Mamuda, 
Corambis near a spring of mineral pitch, Amodota, 
Prosda, Parenta, Mania, Tessata, Galles, Zoton, 

471 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Zoton, Graucomen, Emeum, Pidibotas, Endonda- 
cometas, Nomadas in tabernaculis\iventes,Cystaepen, 
Magadalcn Parvam, Prumin, Nups, Dicelin, Patin- 
gan. Breves, Magus Ncos, Rgasmala, Cramda. 
Denna, Cadeum, Mathena, Batta, Alanam, Macua, 
Scammos, Goram, in insula ab iis Abale, Androcalim, 
Serem, Mallos, Agocem. 

180 Ex Africae latcre tradita sunt eodem nomine 
Tacompsos altera sive pars prioris, Mogore, Saea, 
Aedosa, Pelenariae, Pindis, Magassa, Buma, Lin- 
tuma, Spintum, Sidopt, Gensoe, Pindicitor, Agugo, 
Orsum, Suara, Maumarum, Urbim, Mulon (quod 
oppidum Gracci Hypaton vocarunt), Pagoartas, 
Zamnes (unde elephanti incipiant), MambH, Berressa, 
Coetum. fuit quondam et Epis oppidum contra 
Meroen, antequam Bion scriberet deletum. 

181 Haec sunt prodita usque Meroen, ex quibus hoc 
tempore nulliun prope utroque latere exstat ; certe 
sohtudines nuper renuntiavere principi Neroni 
missi ab eo miHtes praetoriani cum tribuno ad 
explorandum, inter reHqua bella et Aethiopicum 
cogitanti. intravere autem et eo arma Romana divi 
Augusti temporibus duce P. Pctronio et ipso equestris 
ordinis praefccto Aegypti. is oppida eorum ex- 
pugna\it quae sola invenimus quo dicemus ordine : 
Pselcin, Primi, Bocchin, Forura Cambu.sis, Atteniam, 
472 



BOOK VI. x.\xv. 1 79-181 

Graucome, Emeus, Pidibotae, Endondacometaej 
Nomad tribes living in tents, Cystaepe, Little Maga- 
dale, Prumis, Nujis, Dioelis, Patingas, Breves, New 
Magus, Egasmala, Cramda, Denna,Cadeus, Mathena, 
Batta, Alana, Macua, Scammos, Gora, and on an 
island ofF these places Abale, Androcalis, Seres, 
Mallos and Agoces. 

The places on the African side are given as Tacomp- 
sus (either a second town of the same name or a 
suburb of the one previously mentioned), Mogore, 
Saea, Aedosa, Pelenariae, Pindis, Magassa, Buma, 
Lintuma, Spintum, Sidopt, Gensoe. Pindicitor, Agugo, 
Orsum, Suara, Maumarum, Urbim, Mulon (the town 
called by the Greeks Hypaton), Pagoartas, Zamnes 
(after which elephants begin to be found), Mambli, 
Berressa, Coetum. There was also formerly a town 
called Epis, opposite to Meroe, which had been de- 
stroyed before Bion wrote. 

These are the places that were reported as far as 
Meroe, though at the present day hardly any of them 
still exist on either side of the river ; at all events 
an exploring party of praetorian troops under the 
command of a tribune lately sent by the emperor 
Nero, when among the rest of his wars he was 
actually contemplating an attack on Ethiopia, 
reported that there was nothing but desert. Never- 
theless in the time of his late Majesty Augustus 
the arms of Rome had penetrated even into those 
regions, undcr the leadership of PubHus Petronius, 
himself also a member of the Order of Knighthood, 
when he was Governor of Egypt. Petronius cap- 
turcd the Arabian towns of which we will give a list, 
the only ones we have found there : Pselcis, Primi, 
Bocchis, Cambyses' Market, Attenia and Stadissis, 

473 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Stadissim, ubi Nilus praecipitans se fragore auditum 

182 accolis aufert ; diripuit et Napata. longissime autem 
a Syene progressus est dccclxx p. nec tamen arma 
Romana ibi solitudinem fecerunt : Aegvptiorum 
bellis attrita est Aethiopia vicissim imperitando 
serviendoque, clara et potens etiam usque ad Troiana 
bella Memnone regnante; et Syriae imperitasse 
eam nostroque litori aetate regis Cephei patet 
Andromedae fabulis. 

183 Simili modo et de mensura eius varia prodidere, 
primus Dalion ultra Meroen longe subvectus, mox 
Aristocreon et Bion et Basilis, Simonides minor 
etiam quinquennio in Meroe moratus cum de Aethio- 
pia scriberet. nam Timosthenes classium Philadelphj 
praefectus sine mensura dierum lx a Syene Meroen 
iter prodidit, Eratosthenes bcxxv, Artemidorus dc, 
Sebosus ab Aegj^pti extremis |xvi| Lxxii,unde proxime 

184 dicti |xii| L.i verumomnishaec fmitanuperdisputatio 
est, quoniam a Syene dccccxlv ^ Neronis exploratores 
renuntiavere his modis : a Syene Hieran Sycaminon 
Liv, inde Tama Lxxii^ regione Evonymiton Acthio- 
pum, Primi cxx, Acinam lxiv,^ Pitaram xxTI,^ Ter- 

* Numeroa varie tradunt codd. 



* The numerals throughout this passage vary considerably 
in the MSS. 

474 



BOOK VI. XXXV. 181-184 

where there is a cataract of the Nile the noise of 
which afFects people dwelling ncar it with deafness ; 
he also sacked the town of Napata. The farthest 
point he reached was 870 niiles from Syene ; but 
nevertheless it was not the arms of llome that made 
the country a desert : Ethiopia was worn out by 
alternate periods of dominance and subjection in a 
series of wars ^nth Egj^pt, having been a famous 
and powcrful country even down to the Trojan 
wars, when Memnon was king ; and the stories about 
Andromeda show that it dominated Syria and the 
coasts of the Mediterranean in the time of King 
Cepheus. 

Simihn-ly there have also been various reports as 
to the dimensions of the country, which were first 
given by Dahon, who sailed up a long way beyond 
Meroe, and then by Aristocreon and Bion and 
Basilis, and also by the younger Simonides, who 
stayed at Mci-oe for five years while writing his 
account of Ethiopia. Furtlicr, Timosthenes, who com- 
manded the navies of Philadelphus, has stated the 
distance from Syene to Meroe as sixty days' journey, 
without specifying the mileage per die?n, while 
Eratosthencs gives it as 625 miles and Artemidorus 
as 600 miles ; and Sebosus says that from the extreme 
point of Egypt to Meroe is 1672 miles, whereas thc 
authors last mentioncd giveit as 1250 " miles. But all 
this discrepancy has recently been ended, inasmuch 
as the expcdition sent by Ncro to explore the 
country liave reported that the distance from Syene 
to Meroe is 945 miles, made up as follows : froni 
Syene to Holy Mulberry 54 miles, from there to 
Tama 72 miles through the district of thc Ethiopian 
Euonymites, to Primi 120 miles, Acina 64 miles, Pitara 

475 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTOllY 

gedum ciii.i insulam Gagauden esse in medio eo 
tractu ; inde primum visas aves psittacos et ab altera, 
quae vocetur Articula, animal sphinijion, a Tergedo 
c^Tiocephalos. inde Nabata lxxx, oppidum id parvum 
inter praedicta solum, ab eo ad insulam Meroen 

185 ccciA. herbas circa Meroen demum \iridiores, 
silvarumque aliquid apparuisse ^ et rhinocerotum 
elephantorumque vestigia. ipsum oppidum Meroen 
ab introitu insulae abesse lxx p., iuxtaque aliam 
insulam Tadu dextro subeuntibus alveo, quae portum 

i86 faceret ; aedificia oppidi pauca. regnare feminam 
Candacen, quod nomen multis iam annis ad reginas 
transisset ; ^ delubrum Hammonis et ibi religiosum 
et toto tractu sacella. cetero cum potirentur rerum 
Aethiopes, insula ea magnae claritatis fuit. tradunt 
armatonmi ccL dare sohtam, artificum* iTi. alii ^ 

187 reges Aethiopum xlv esse ' hodie tradimtur. uni- 
versa vero gens Actheria appellata est, deinde 
Atlantia, mox a Vulcani filio Aethiope.' animalium 
honiinumque monstrificas etfigies circa extremitates 
eius gigni minime mirum, artifici ad formanda 
corpora effigiesque caelandas mobilitate ignea. 

* Numeros varie IradurU codd. 

* V.l. viridiores eilvarum apparuisse. 
' Rackluim : transit aut transiit. 

* elephantum Dclltfsen. 

* Mayhoff : alare rtu< alere. 

* 6880 (ee) Mayhojf : et. 

' V.l. Aetliiope Aethiopia. 

• Perhaps the text should be altered to ' elephanta '. 
476 



BOOK VI. xxxv. 184-187 

22 miles, Tergedus 103 miles. The i-eport stated 
that the island of Gagaudes is half-way between 
Syene and Meroe, and tliat it was after passing this 
island that the birds called parrots were first seen, 
and after another, named Articula, the sphingion 
ape, and after Tergedus dog-faced baboons. The 
distance from Tergedus to Nabata is 80 miles, that 
little town being the only one among those mentioned 
that survives ; and from Nabata to the island of 
Meroe is 360 miles. Round Meroe, they reported, 
greener herbage begins, and a certain amount of 
forest came into view, and the tracks of rhinoceroses 
and elephants were seen. The actual town of Mero6 
they said is at a distance of 70 miles from the first 
approach to the island, and beside it in the channel 
on the right hand as one goes up stream lies another 
island, the Isle of Tados, this forming a harbour; 
the town possesses few buildings. They said that 
it is ruled by a woman, Candace, a name that has 
passed on through a succession of queens for many 
years ; and that rehgious ceremonies take place in a 
temple of Hammon in the town and also in shrines of 
Ilammon all over the district. Moreover at the time 
of the Ethiopic dominion this island was extremely 
celebrated. It is reported that it used to furnish 
250,000 armed men and 3000 artisans.« At the 
present day there are reported to be forty-five other 
kings of Ethiopia. But the whole race was called 
Aetheria, and then Atlantia, and finally it took its 
name from Aethiops the son of Vulcan. It is by no 
means surprising that the outermost districts of this 
region produce animal and human monstrosities, 
considcring the capacity of the mobile element of 
fire to mould their bodies and carve their outHnes. 

477 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ferunt certe ab orientis parte intima gentes esse 
sine naribus, aequali totius oris planitie, alias supe- 

188 riore labro orbas, alias sine linguis. pars etiam ore 
concreto et naribus carens uno tantum foramine 
spirat potumque calamis avenae trahit et grana 
eiusdem avenae sponte provenientis ad vescendum. 
quibusdam pro sermone nutus motusque mem- 
brorum est ; quibusdam ante Ptolomaeum Lathyrum 
regem Aegypti ignotus fuit usus ignium. quidam 
et Pyginaeorum gentem prodiderunt inter paludis 
ex quibus Nilus oriretur. in ora autem ubi dice- 
mus ^ continui montes ardentibus similes rubent. 

18'J Trogodytis et Rubro Mari a Meroe tractus omnis 
superponitur, a Napata tridui itinere ad Rubrum 
litus, aqua pluvia ad usum conpluribus locis servata, 
fertilissima regione quae interest auri. ulteriora 
Atabuh Aethiopum gens tenent; dein contra 
Meroen Megabarri, quos aliqui Adiabaros nomina- 
vere, oppidum habent Apollinis ; pars eorum 

190 Nomades, quae elephantis vescitur. ex adverso in 
Africae parte Macrobii, rursus a Megabarris Mem- 
nones et Dabelli dierumque xx intervallo Critensi. 
ultra eos Dochi, dein Gymnetes semper nudi, mox 
Andcrae, Mattitae. Mesagches : hi pudore ^ atri 



» MayhoffcoU. § 197 : desiimua (c/. § \lZfin.). 
• Mayhoff : hipdores (Kypsodores X>e/ie/«en). 



478 



BOOK VI. x.x.w. 187-190 

It is certainly reported that in the interior on the 
east side there are tribes of people without noses, 
their whole face bcing perfectly flat, and other tribes 
that have no uppcr lip and others no tongues. Also 
one section has the mouth closed up and has no 
nostrils, but only a single orifice through Avhich it 
breathes and sucks in drink by means of oat straws, 
as ■well as grains of oat, which grows \n\d there, for 
food. Some of the tribes communicate by means of 
nods and gestures instead of speech ; and some were 
unacquainted with the use of fire before the reign of 
King Ptolemy Lathyrus in Egypt. Some writers 
have actually reported a race of Pygmies Hving among 
the marshes in which the Nile rises. On the coast, 
in a region whicli we shall describe later, there is a § 107. 
range of mountains of a glo\ving red colour, which 
have the appearance of being on fire. 

After Meroe all the region is bounded by the Cave- 
dwellers and the llcd Sea, the distance from Napata 
to the coast of the Red Sea being three days' 
journey ; in scveral places rainwater is stored for the 
use of travellers, and the district in between produces 
a large amount of gokl. The parts beyond are occupied 
by the AtabuU, an Ethiopian tribe ; and then, over 
against Meroe, are the Alegabarri, to wliom some 
give the name of Adiabari ; they have a town 
named the Town of Apollo, but one division of them 
are Nomads, and live on the flesh of elephants. 
Opposite to them, on the African side, are the 
Macrobii, and again after the Megabarri come the 
Memnones and Dabelli, and 20 days' journey further 
on the Critensi. Beyond these are the Dochi, next 
the Gymnetes, who never wear any ckithes, then the 
Anderae, Mattitae and Mesanches : the last are 

479 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

coloris tota corpora rubrica inlinunt. at ex Africae 
parte Medimni, dein Nomades cynocephalonmi 
lacte viventes, Alabi, Syrbotae qui octonum cubito- 

191 rum esse dicuntur. Aristocreon Libyae latere a 
Meroe oppidum Tollen dierum v itinere tradit. 
inde dierum xii Aesar oppidum Aegyptiorum qui 
Psammetichum fugerint (in eo produntur annis ^ ccr 
habitasse), contra in Arabico h\tere Dlaron oppidum 
esse eorum. Bion autem Sapen vocat quod ille 
Aesar, et ipso nomine advenas ait significari ; caput 
eorum in insula Sembobitin, et tertium in Arabia 
Sinat. inter montes autem et Nilum Simbarri sunt, 
Palugges, in ipsis vero montibus Asachae multis 
nationibus ; abesse a mari dicuntur dierum v itinere ; 
vivunt elephantorum venatu. insula in Nilo Sem- 

192 britarimi reginae paret. ab ea Nubaei Aethiopes 
dierum viii itinere (oppidum eorum Nilo inpositum 
Tenupsis), Sesambri, apud quos quadrupedes omnes 
sine auribas, etiam elcphanti. at ex Africae parte 
Ptonebari, Ptoemphani qui canem pro rege habent, 
motu eius imperia augurantes, Harusbi oppido longe 
ab Nilo sito, postea Archisarmi, PhaUiges, Marigarri, 

193 Chasamari. Bion et alia oppida in insulis tradit : 
a Sembobiti Meroen versus dierum toto itinere xx, 

* Kdd. vet. : prodonto ae. 
480 



BOOK VI. XXXV. 190-193 

ashamed of their black colour and smear themselves 
all over ^vith red clay. On the African side are thc 
Medimni, and then a Nomad tribe that Hves on the 
milk of the dog-faced baboon, the Alabi, and the 
Syrbotae who are said to be 12 ft. high. Aristocreon 
reports that on the Lybian side five days' journey 
from Meroe is the town of Tolles, and twelve days 
beyond it another town, Aesar,belonging to Egyptians 
who fled to escape from Psammetichus (they are said 
to have been Hving there for 300 years), and that the 
town of Diaron on the Arabian side opposite belongs 
to them. To the town which Aristocrates calls Aesar 
Bion gives the name of Sapes, which he says means 
that the inhabitants are strangers ; their chief city 
is Sembobitis, situated on an island, and they have 
a third town named Sinat, in Arabia. Between 
the mountains and the Nile are the Simbarri, the 
Palunges and, on the actual mountains, the numerous 
tribes of Asachae, who are said to be five days' 
journey from the sea ; they live by hunting elephants. 
An island in the Nile, belonging to the Sembritae, is 
governed by a queen. Eight days' journey from this 
island are the Nubian Ethiopians, whose to%vn 
Tenupsis is situated on the Nile, and the Sesambri, in 
whose country all the four-footed animals, even the 
elephants, have no ears. On the African side are the 
Ptonebari ; the Ptoemphani, who have a dog for a 
king and dinne his commands from his movements ; 
the HariLsbi, whose town is situated a long distance 
away from the Nile ; and afterwards the Archisarmi, 
Phalliges, Marigarri and Chasamari. Bion also 
reports other towns situated on islands : after 
Sembobitis, in the direction of Meroe, the whole 
distance being twenty days' journey, on the first 

481 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

proximae insulae oppidum Semberritarum sub regina 
et aliud Asara ; alterius oppidum Darden ; tertiani 
Medoen vocant, in qua oppidum Asel ; quartam 
eodem quo oppidum nomine Garroen. iiide per 
ripas op))ida Nautis. Madum, Demadatin,^ Secande, 
Navectabe cum agro Psegipta, Candragori, Arabam, 

194 Summaram.* regio supra Sirbitum, ubi desinunt 
montes, traditur a quibusdam habere maritimos 
Aetliiopas, Nisicathas, Nisitas, quod significat ternum 
et quaternum oculorum viros, non quia sic sint, sed 
quia sagittis praecipua conteniplatione utantur. ab 
ea vero parte Nili quae supra Syrtes Maiores oceanum- 
que meridianum protendatur Dalion Vacathos esse 
dicit phivia tantum aqua utentis, Cisoros, Logon- 
poros ab Oecalicibus dierum v itinere, Usibalchos, 
Isbelos, Perusios, Ballios, Cispios ; rehqua deserta. 

195 dein fabulosa : ad occidentem versus Nigroe, quorum 
rex imum oculum in fronte habeat, Agriophagi 
pantlierarum leonumque maxime camihus viventes, 
Pamphagi omnia mandentes, Anthropophagi hu- 
mana carne vesccntcs, Cynamolgi caninis capitihus, 
Artabatitae quadrupedcs, ferarum modo vagi, dcinde 
Hespcrioe, Perorsi et quos in Maurctaniae confmio 
diximus. pars quaedam Acthiopum locustis tantum 
vivit fumo et salc duratis in annua aUmenta; hi 
quadragesimum vitae annum non excedunt. 

* Post Demadatin codd. secundum coUocat, nempc gloss. 
(Secundum, Collocat edd.). 



' Two wonls follow in the MSS. which appear to be a 
topographicai notc, Ijut which cditors print as namcs of towns, 
as they do the words that follow Navectabe, which are here 
rendered ' with ' and ' territory '. 

* Porhaps the real namo was Tcttarabatitao. 

482 



BOOK VI. xxxv. 193-195 

island reached, a town of the Semberritae, gov- 
erned by a queen, and another town named Asara ; 
on the second island, the town of Darde ; the third 
island is called Medoe, and the to^vn on it is Asel; 
the fourth is Garroe, with a town of the same name. 
Then along the banks are the towns of Nautis, Madum, 
Demadatis," Secande, Navectabe with the territory 
of Psegipta, Candragori, Araba, Summara. Above 
is the region of Sirbitum, where the mountain range 
ends, and which is stated by some WTiters to be 
occupied by Ethiopian coast-tribes, the Nisicathae 
and Nisitae, names that mean ' men with three ' 
or ' "snth four eyes ' — not because they really are 
hke that but because they have a particularly keen 
sight in using arrows. On the side of the Nile that 
stretches inland from the Greater SjTtes and the south- 
ern ocean DaUon says there are the Vacathi, who use 
only rain-water, the Cisori, the Logonpori five days' 
joumey from the Oecahces, the Usibalchi, IsbeU, 
Perusii, BalUi and Cispii ; and that all the rest of the 
country is uninhabited. Then come regions that are 
purely imaginary : towards the west ai-e the Nigroi , 
whose king is said to have only one eye, in his fore- 
head ; the Wild-beast-eaters, who Uve chiefly on the 
flesh of panthers and Uons ; the Eatalls, who devour 
everj-thing ; the Man-eaters, whose diet is human 
flesh ; the Dog-milkers, who have dogs' heads ; the 
Artabatitae,* who have four legs and rove about 
Uke wild animals ; and then the Hesperioi, the 
Perorsi and the people we have mentioned as in- v. 
habiting the border of Mauretania. One section of 
the Ethiopians Uve only on locusts, dried in smoke 
and salted to keep for a year's supply of food; 
these people do not Uve beyond the age of forty. 

483 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ire Aethiopum terram universam cimi mari Rubro 
patere in longitudinem | xxi | lxx p., in latitudinem 
cum superiore Aeg}'pto |xii| xcvi Agrippa existima- 
vit. quidam longitudinem ita diviserunt : a Meroe 
Sirbitum xii dierum navigationem, ab co^ xii ad 
Dabellos, ab his ad oceanum Aethiopicum vi dierum 
iter. in totum autem ab oceano ad Meroen dcxxv 
p. esse inter auctores fere convenit, inde Syenen 

197 quantum diximus. sita est Aethiopia ab orientc 
hibemo ad occidentem hibernum meridiano cardine. 
silvae, hebeno ^ maxime, virent, a media eius parte 
imminens niari mons excelsus aeternis ardet ignibus, 
Theon Ocliema dictus a Graecis ; a quo navigatione ^ 
quadridui * promunturium quod Hesperu Ceras 
vocatur confine Africae iuxta Aethiopas Hesperios. 
quidam et in eo tractu modicos colles amoena 
opacitate vestitos Aegipanum Satyrorumque pro- 
dunt. 

198 XXX^T. Insulas toto Eoo mari et l'pliorus con- 
pluris esse tradidit et Eudoxus et Timosthenes, Clit- 
archus vero Alcxandro regi renuntiatam unam ^ adco 
divitem ut equos incolae talentis auri permutarent, 
alteram ubi sacer mons opacus silva repertus esset, 
destillante arboribus odore mirae suavitatis. contrn 
sinum Persicum Cerne nominatur insula adversa 

' Backliam : oa. 

* hiberno Detlefsen. 

* Dellefscn : navipatio. 

* qundridui ad edd. i^et. 

* unam add. Rackham. 

" The figures in this section are again uncertain, cf. § 183». 

* I.e., it is an isosceles triangle witb its (very obtuse) apex 
pointing north. Previous edd. take meridiano cardine with 
foUowing words. 

' Mount Kakulinia. 

484 



BOOK VI. xxxv. 196-XXXV1. 198 

The length of the whole of the territory of the 
Ethiopians including the Red Sea -svas estimated by 
Agrippa as 2170" niiles and its breadth including 
Upper Egypt 1296 miles. Some authors give the 
folloAving divisions of its length : from Mcroe to 
Sirbitus 12 days' sail, from Sirbitus to the Dabelli 12 
days' sail, and from the Dabelli to the Ethiopic Ocean 
6 days' journey by hmd. But authorities are virtually 
agreed that the whole distance from the ocean to 
Meroe is 625 miles and that the distance from 
Meroe to Syene is what we have stated above. The § I84. 
conformation of Ethiopia spreads from south-east to 
south-west \dth its centre Une running south.* It 
has flourishing forests, mostly of ebony trees. 
Rising from the sea at the middle of the coast is a 
mountain*^ of great height which glows with eternal 
fires — its Greek name is the Chariot of the Gods ; 
and four davs' voyage from it is the cape called the 
Hom of the West, on the confines of Africa, adjacent 
to the Western Ethiopians. Some authorities also 
report hills of moderate height in this region, clad 
\\-ith agreeable shady thickets and belonging to the 
Goat-Pans and Satyrs. 

XXXVT. It is stated by Ephorus, and also by isiaiuUoff 
Eudoxus and Timosthenes, that there are a large ^Z"'^''- 
number of islands scattered over the whole of the 
Eastern Sea ; while CUtarchus says that King 
Alexander received a report of one that was so 
wealthy that its inhabitants gave a talent of gold for 
a horse, and of another on which a holy mountain had 
been found, covered with a dense forest of trees 
from which fell drops of moisture having a marvel- 
louslv agreeable scent. An island op))Osite the 
Persian (^ulf and lying off Ethiopia is named Cerne ; 

485 



FLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Aethiopiae, cuiiis neque magnitudo neque interval- 
lum a continente constat ; Aethiopas tantum populos 

199 habere proditur. Ephorus auctor est a Rubro Mari 
naWgantis in eam non posse propter ardores ultra 
quasdam columnas (ita appellantur parvae insulae) 
provehi. Polvbius in extrema Mauretania contra 
montem Atlantem a terra stadia viii abesse prodit 
Cernen, Nepos Cornelius ex adverso maxime 
Carthaginis a continente p. x, non ampHorem cir- 
cuitu ii. traditur et alia insula contra montem 
Altantem, et ipsa Atlantis appellata ; ab ea ii dierum 
praenavigatione soUtudines ad Aethiopas Hesperios 
et promunturium quod vocavimus Hcsperu Ceras, 
inde primum circumagente se terrarum fronte in 

200 occasum ac mare Atlanticum. contra lioc quoque 
promunturium Gorgades insulae narrantur, Gorgonum 
quondam domus, bidui navigatione distantes a 
continente, ut tradit Xenophon Lampsacenus. 
penetravit in eas Hanno Poenorum imperator 
prodiditque hirta feminarum corpora, viros pemici- 
tate evasisse; duarumque Gorgadum cutes argu- 
menti et miraculi gratia in lunonis templo posuit 

201 spectatas asque ad Carthaginem captam. ultra has 
etiamnum duae Hesperidum insulae narrantur ; 
adeoque omnia circa hoc incerta sunt ut Statius 



" Hanno called these natlTea gorillas, but they were really 
chimpanzees or baboons. 

486 



BOOK VI. XXXVI. 198-201 

neither its size nor its distance from the mainland has 
been ascertained, but it is reported to be inhabited 
solely by Ethiopian tribes. Ephorus states that 
vessels approaching it from the Red Sea are unable 
because of the heat to advance beyond the Columns 
— that being the name of certain small islands. 
Polybius informs us that Cerne Ues at the extremity 
of Mauretania, over against Mount Atlas, a mile 
from the coast ; CorneUus Nepos gives it as being 
nearly in the same meridian as Carthage, and 10 
miles from the mainland, and as measuring not more 
than 2 miles round. There is also reported to be 
another island ofF Mount Atlas, itself also called 
Atlantis, from Avhich a two days' voyage along the 
coast reaches the desert district in the neighbour- 
hood of the Western Ethiopians and the cape 
mentioned above named the Horn of the West, §197 
the point at which the coastUne begins to curve 
westward in thc dircction of the Atlantic. Opposite 
this cape also there are reported to be some islands, 
the Gorgades, which were formerlv the habitation of 
the Gorgons, and which according to the account of 
Xenophon of Lampsacus are at a distance of two 
days' sail from the mainland. These islands were 
reached by the Carthaginian general Hanno," who 
reported that the women had hair all over their 
bodies, but that the men were so swift of foot that 
they got away ; and he deposited the skins of two of 
the female natives in the Temple of Juno as proof of 
the truth of his story and as curiosities, where they 
were on show until Carthage was taken by Rome. 
Outside the Gorgades there are also said to be two 
Islandsof the Ladiesofthe West ; andthe wholeof the 
geography of this neighbourhood is so uncertain that 

487 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Sebosus a Gorgonum insulis praenavigatione Atlantis 
dierum xl nd Hesperidum insulas cursum prodiderit. 
ab his ad Hesperu Ceras unius. nec Mauretaniae 
insularum certior fama est : paucas modo constat 
esse ex adverso Autololimi a luba repertas, in quibus 
Gaetulicam purpuram tiuguere instituerat. 

202 XXXVII. Sunt qui ultraeas Fortunatas putent esse 
quasdamque alias quarum ^ numero idem Sebosus 
etiam spatia conplexus lunoniam abesse a Gadibus 
DccL p. tradit, ab ea tantundem ad occasum versus 
Pluvialiam Caprariamque ; in Pluvialia non esse 
aquam nisi ex imbribus ; ab iis ccl Fortunatas contra 
laevam Mauretaniae in viii horam solis, vocari 
Invallem a convexitate et Planasiam a specie, Invallis 
circuitu ccc p. ; arborum ibi proceritatem ad cxl 

203 pedes adolescere. luba de Fortunatis ita inquisivit : 
sub meridiem positas esse prope occasum, a Pur- 
purariis dcxxv p., sic ut ccl supra occasum navigetur, 
dein per ccclxxv ortus petatur primam vocari 
Ombrion nullis aedificiorum vestigiis, habere, in 
montibus stagnum, arbores similes ferulae ex quibus 
aqua exprimatur, e nigris amara, ex candidioribus 

204 potui iucunda ; alteram insulam lunnniam appcllari, 

* V.l. quorum : Mayhnff quo in. 



" The Canaries. * Fuortoventura. 

' Ferro. •* Gomera. 

* The Island of Tcneriffc. f Grcat Canary Island. 
» I.e., ita level surface. * See § 201 fin. 

* The Greek name of Pluvialia, § 202. 



488 



BOOK VI. XXXVI. 2oi-\.xxvii. 204 

Statius Sebosus has given the voyage along the coast 
from the Gorgons' Islands past Mount Atlas tothe Isles 
of the Ladies of the West as forty days' sail and from 
those islands to the Horn of the West as one day 's sail. 
Nor is there less uncertainty with regard to the report 
of the islands of Mauretania : it is only known for 
certain that a few were discovered by Juba ofF the 
coast of the Autololes, in which hc had estabUshed a 
dyeing industrj' that used Gaetuhan pur])le. 

XXXVII. Some people think that beyond the The 
islands of Mauretania Ue the Isles of BUss,"* and f^and^!^ 
also some others of which Sebosus before mentioned 
gives not only the niimber but also the distances, 
reporting that Junonia* is 750 miles from Cadiz, and 
that PluviaUa"^ and Capraria "^ are the same distance 
west from Junonia ; that in PluviaUa there is no 
water except what is suppUed by rain ; tliat the 
Isles of Bliss are 250 miles W.N.W. from these, to 
the left hand of Mauretania, and that one is called 
InvalUs ^ from its undulating surface nnd the other 
Planasia/ from its conformation,? InvalUs measuring 
300 miles round ; and that on it trees grow to a 
height of 140 ft. About the Isles of Bliss Juba has 
ascertained the following facts : they lie in a south- 
westerly direction, at a distance of 625 miles' sail 
from the Purple Islands,'' provided that a course 
be laid north of due west for 250 miles and then 
east for 375 miles ; that the first island reached is 
called Ombrios,' and there are no traces of buildings 
upon it, but it has a pool surrounded by mountains, 
and trees resembling the giant fennel, from which 
water is extracted, the black oncs giving a bitter 
fluid and those of brighter colour a juice that is 
agreeable to drink ; that the second island is called 

489 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

in ea aediculam esse tantum uno ^ lapide exstructam ; 
ab ea in vicino eodem nomine minorem, deinde 
Caprariam lacertis grandibus refertam ; in con- 
spectu earum esse Ninguariara, quae hoc nomen 

205 acceperit a perpetua nive, nebulosam ; proximam ei 
Canariam vocari a multitudine canum ingentis 
magnitudinis (ex quibus perducti sunt lubae duo) ; 
apparere ^ ibi vestigia aedificiorum ; cum omnes 
autem copia pomorum et avium omnis generis 
abundent, hanc et palmetis caryotas ferentibus ac 
nuce pinea abundare ; esse copiam et mellis, pap^Tnim 
quoque et siluros in amnibus gigni ; infestari eas 
beluis, quae expellantur ^ adsidue, putrescentibus. 

206 XXXVIII. Et abunde orbe terrae extra intra 
indicato colligenda in artuin mensura aequorum 
\1detur. 

Polybius a Gaditano freto longitudinem directo 
cursu ad os Maeotis |x.vxiv| xxxvii d prodidit, ab 
eodem initio ad orientem recto cursu Siciliam |xiij 
L, Cretam cccExxv, Rliodum clxxxvii d, Chelidonias 
tantundem, Cj^jrum ccxxv, inde Syriae Seleuciam 

207 Pieriam cxv, quae computatio efficit |.\xiii| xl. 
Agrippa hoc idem intenallum a freto Gaditano ad 
sinum Issicum per longitudinem directam |xxxiv| XL 
taxat, in quo liaud scio an sit error numeri, quoniam 

' uno (uld. Sillig. 

* Mayhoff : apparent. 

3 expuantur <(aestu> Dellefsen. 

490 



BOOK VI. XXXVII. 204-xxxviii. 207 

Junonia, and that there is a small temple on it built 
of only a single stone ; and that in its neighbourhood 
there is a smaller island of the same name, and then 
Capraria, which swarms with \arge Uzards ; and 
that in view from these islands is Ninguaria, so 
named from its perpetual snow, and wrapped in 
cloud ; and next to it one named Canaria, from its 
multitude of dogs of a huge size (two of these were 
brought back for Juba). He said that in this 
island there are traces of buildings ; that while they 
all have an abundant supply of fruit and of birds of 
every kind, Canaria also abounds in pahn-groves 
bearing dates, and in conifers ; that in addition to 
this there is a large supply of honey, and also papyrus 
grows in the rivers, and sheat-fish ; and that these 
islands are plagued Nvith the rotting carcases of 
monstrous creatures that are constantly being cast 
ashore by the sea. 

XXXVIII. And now that we have fully described DimensioTis 
the outer and inner regions of the earth, it seems andliraits. 
proper to give a succinct account of the dimensions 
of its various bodies of water. 

According to Polybius the distance in a straight 
line from the Straits of Gibraltar to the outlet of the 
Sea of Azov is .3437^ miles, and the distance from 
the same starting point due eastward to Sicily 1250 
miles, to Crete 375 miles, to Rhodes 187i miles, to the 
Swallow Islands the same, to Cyprus 225 miles, and 
from Cyprus to Seleukeh Pieria in Syria 115 miles 
— which figures added together make a total of 
2340 miles. Agrippa calculates the same distance in 
a straight Une from the Straits of Gibraltar to the 
Gulf of Scanderoon at 3440 miles, in which calcu- 
lation I suspect there is a numerical error, as he has 

491 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

idem a Siculo freto Alexandriam cursus |xiii| l 
tradidit. universus autem circuitus per sinus dictos 
ab eodem exordio coUigit ad ^ Macotim lacum |clv| 
ix ; Artemidorus adicit dcclvi, idem cum Maeotide 
fcLxxml xc p. esse tradit.^ 

208 Haec est mensura inermium et pacata audacia 
Fortunam provocantium hominum. 

Nunc ipsarum partium magnitudo conparabitur, 
utcumque difticultatem adferet auctorum diversitas; 
aptissime tamen spectabitur ad longitudinem lati- 
tudine addita. est ergo ad hoc praescriptum Europae 
magnitudo . . . longitudo^ |lu\xxi| XLViii.* Africae 
(ut media ex omni varietate prodentium sumatur 
computatio) efficit longitudo |.\xxvii| xcviTi, latitudo, 

209 qua colitur nuscjuam uccL^ excedit ; sed quoniam in 
Cyrenaica eiiis parte dccccx eam fecit Agrippa, 
deserta eius ad Garamantas usque, qua noscebantur, 
complectens, universa mensura quae veniet in 
computationem ^ [xLvnlviii efticit. Asiae longitudo 
in confesso est [lx| iii dccl, latitudo sane computetur 
ab Aethiopico mari Alexandriam iuxta Nilum sitam, 
ut per Meroen et Syenen mensura currat, |xvinl 

210 lxxv. apparet ergo Europam paulo ininus dimidia 

1 KZ. intra. * (^.)Mayhoff : tradidit. 

* J.dcunam slatuit et longitudo add. Pintianua. 

* Numeri (ut alibi) incerii. 
' Rackham : CCL. 

* V.l. comparationem (cf. VII. 132). 

" Scholara have taken tho words to mean ' by adding the 
breadth to the length ', and have cbarged Pliny with thinking 
that this would give the area"! 

^ Tho word ' length ' is a conjcctural insertion, tho figures for 
the brcadth iircceding it having also apparently been omittcd 
by a copyist. 

492 



BOOK VI. xxxviii. 207-210 

also given the length of the route from the Straits 
of Sicily to Alexandria as 1350 miles. The Avhole 
leiigth of the coastUne round the bays specified, 
starting at the same point and ending at the Sea of 
Azov,amounts to 15,509 miles — although Artemidorus 
puts it at 756 miles more, and also reports that the 
total coastUne including the shores of Azov measures 
17,390 miles. 

This is the measurement made by persons throAving 
out a challenge to Fortune not by force of arms, but 
by the boldness they have displayed in time of 
peace. 

We will now compare the dimensions of particular Dimen$io7i 
parts of the earth, however great the difficulty "lniij^^t^ 
that will arise from the discrepancy of the ac- 
counts given by authors ; nevertheless the matter 
will be most suitably presented by giving the 
breadth in addition to the length." The following, 
then, is the formula for the area of Europe . . . 
length *> 8148 miles. As for Africa — to take the 
average of all the various accounts given of its 
dimensions — its length -svorks out at 3798 miles, and 
the breadth of the inhabited portions nowhere 
exceeds 750 miles ; but as Agrippa made it 910 
miles at the Cyrenaic part of the country, by in- 
cluding the African desert as far as the country of 
the Garamantes, the extent then known, the entire 
length that will come into the calculation amoimts 
to 4708 miles. The length of Asia is admittedly 
6375 miles, and the breadth should properly be 
calculated from the Ethiopic Sea to Alexandria on 
the Nile, making the measurement run through 
Meroe and Syene, which gives 1875 miles. It is 
consequently clear that Europe is a little less than 

493 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Asiae parte maiorem esse quam Asiam, eandem altero 
tanto et sexta parte Africae ampliorem quam Afri- 
cam. quod si misceantur omnes sunnnae, liquido 
patebit Europam totius terrae tertiam esse partem et 
octavam paulo amplius, Asiam vero quartam et 
quartamdecimam, Africam autem quintam et insuper 
sexapesimam. 

211 XXXIX. His addemus etiamnum unam Graecae in- 
ventionis scntentiam^ vel exquisilissmae subtilitatis 
ut nihil desit in spectando terrarum situ, indicatisque 
regionibus noscatur et quae ^ cuique earum societas 
sit sive cognatio dierum ac noctiuni, quibusque inter 
se pares umbrae et aequa mundi convexitas. ergo 
reddetur hoc etiam, terraque universa in membra 
caeH digeretur.'' 

212 Plura sunt autem segmenta mundi quae nostri 
circulos appellavere, Graeci parallelos. principium 
habet Indiae pars versa ad austrum ; patet us{|ue 
Arabiam et Ilubri Maris accolas. continentur 
Gedrosi, Carmani, Persae, Elvmaei, Parthyene, Aria, 
Susiane, Mesopotamia, Seleucia*cognominata Baby- 
lonia, Arabia ad Petram * usque, Syria Coele, Polu- 
sium, Aegj^pti inferiora quae Cliora vocatur, Alexan- 
dria, Africaemaritima.Cyrenaicaoppidaonmia.Thap- 
sus, Hadrumetum, Clupea, Carthago, Utica, uterque 
Hippo, Numidia, Mauretania utraque, Atlanticum 
mare, Columnae Herculis. in hoc caeH circumplexu 
aequinoctii die medio umbilicus quem gnomonem 
vocant seplem pedes longiLs umbram non amplius 
quattuor pedes longam reddit, noctis vero dieique 

^ acientiam codd. plurimi. 

* et cuiu qua cwld. plurtmi (et cum qua cuique aidoruiu 
Mayhojf). ' V.l. tcrraequ» univorsae . . . digerentur. 

* Warmington : Petras codd. 

494 



BOOK VI. xx.wni. 2io-x.\xi.\. 212 

one and a half times the size of Asia, and two and 
one sixth times the width of Africa. Combining 
all these figiires together, it Mdll be clearly manifest 
that Europe is a httle more than -}^ -\- |th, Asia 
i + TT*^' ^^^ Africa ^ -(- /o^tli, of the whole earth. 

XXXIX. To these we shall further add one Dinsionof 
theory of Greek discovery showing the most re- sur/ace mto 
condite ingenuity, so that notlung may be wanting Paraiuu. 
in our sur%'ey of the geography of the world, and so 
that now thc various regions have been indicated, 
it may be also learnt what alhance or reiationship 
of days and nights each of the regions has, and in 
which of them the shadows are of the same length 
and the Morld's convexity is equal. An account ^vill 
therefore be given of this also, and the whole earth 
will be mapped out in accordance with the consti- 
tuent parts of the heavens. 

The world has a number of segments to wliich 
our countrymen give the name of ' circles ' and which 
the Greelcs call ' parallels '. The first place belongs 
to the southward part of India, extending as far as 
Arabia and the people inliabiting the coast of the 
Red Sea. This segment includes the Gedrosians, 
Carmanians, Persians, and El\Tnaeans, Parthyene, 
Aria, Susiane, Mesopotamia, Babylonian Seleucia, 
Arabia as far as Petra, Hollow Syria, Pelusium, 
the lower parts of Egypt called Chora, Alexandria, 
thecoastal parts of Africa, all the towns of Cyrenaica, 
Thapsus, Hadrumetum, Clupea, Carthage, Utica, 
the two Hippos, Numidia, the two Mauretanias, 
the Atlantic Ocean, the Straits of Gibraltar. In 
this latitude, at noon at the time of the equinox a 
sundial-pin or ' gnomon ' 7 ft. long casts a shadow 
not more than 4 ft. long, while the longest night 

495 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

longissima spatia xiv horas aequinoctiales habent, 
brevissima ex contrario x. 

213 Sequens circulus incipit ab India vergente ad 
occasum, vadit per medios Parthos, Persepolim, 
citima Persidis, Arabiam citeriorem, ludaeam, 
Libani montis accolas, amplectitur Babylonem, 
Idumaeam, Samariam, Hiei'osolyma, Ascalonem, 
lopen, Cacsarcani, Phoenicen, Ptolemaidem, Sido- 
nem, Tyrum, Berytum, IJotr}^n, TripoHm, Byblum, 
Antiochiam, Laodiceam, Selcuciam, CiUciae mari- 
tima, Cypri austrina, Cretam, Lilybaeum in SiciHa, 
septentrionaha Africae et Numidiae. umbiUcus 
x\xv pedum aequinoctio ^ umbram xxiv pedes longam 
facit, dies autem noxque maxima xiv horarum 
aequinoctiaUum est accedente bis quinta parte unius 
horae. 

214 Tertius circuhis ab Indis Imavo proximis oritur; 
tendit per Caspias Portas, Mediae proxuma, Cataon- 
iam, Cappadociam, Taurum, Amanum, Issuin, Cilicias 
Portas, Solos, Tarsum, Cyprum, Pisidiam, Pam- 
phyUam, Siden, Lycaoniam, Lyciam, Patara, Xan- 
thum, Caunum, Rhodum, Coum, Hahcarnassum, 
Cnidum, Dorida, Chium, Delum, Cycladas medias, 
Gythium, Malean, Argos, Laconicam, EUm, Olym- 
piam, Messeniam Pcloponnesi, Syracusas, Catinam. 
SiUciam mediam,Sardiniae austrina,Carteiam,Gades. 
gnomonis c unciae umbram Lxxvii unciarum faciunt. 
longissimus dies est aequinoctiaUum horarum xiv 
atque dimidiae cum tricesima unius horae. 

' Rackham : umbilicua aequinoctio xxxv pedum. 
496 



BOOK VI. xxxix. 212-214 

and the longest day contain 14 equinoctial hours," 
and the shorfcest on the contrai-y 10. 

The next parallel bcgia'; with the western part 
of India, and runs through the middle of Parthia, 
Persepohs, the nearest parts of Farsistan, Hither 
Arabia, Judaea and the people hving near Mount 
Lebanon, and embraces Babylon, Idumaea, Samaria, 
Jerusalem, Ascalon, Joppa, Caesarea, Phoenicia, 
Ptolemais, Sidon, Tyre, Berytus, Botrys, Tripohs, By- 
blus, Antioch, Laodicea, Seleucia, seaboard CiUcia, 
Southern Cj-prus, Crete, Lilybaeum in Sicily, North- 
ern Africa and Northern Numidia. At the equinox 
a 35 ft. gnomon throws a shadow 24 ft. long, while 
the longest day and the longest night measure 14f 
equinoctial hours.* 

The third parallel begins at the part of India 
nearest to the Himalayas, and passes through the 
Caspian Gates, the nearest parts of Media, Cataonia, 
Cappadocia, Taurus, Amanus, Issus, the Cihcian 
Gates, SoU, Tarsus, C}^rus, Pisidia, PamphyUa, 
Side, Lycaonia, Lycia, Patara, Xanthus, Caunus, 
Rhodes, Cos, HaUcarnassus, Cnidus, Doris, Clnos, 
Delos, the middle of the Cyclades, Gythium, Malea, 
Argos, Laconia, EUs, Olympia and Messenia in 
the Peloponnese, Syracuse, Catania, the middle of 
Sicily, the southern parts of Sardinia, Carteia, 
Cadiz. A gnomon 100 inches long throws a shadow 
77 inches long. The longest day is 14^^ equinoctial 
hours. 

" The Boman hour only corresponded in length to the 

modem hour (;',th of day plus night) at tho equinoxes, since 
they divided ihe periods from sunrise to sunsct and from 
sunset to sunriso each into 12 hours all tho year round. 
^ See preceding note. 

497 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

215 Quarto subiacent circulo quae sunt ab altero latere 
Imavi, Cappadociae austrina, Galatia, Mysia, Sardis, 
Zmyrna, Sipylus mons ^, Tmolus mons, Lydia, Caria, 
lonia, Trallis, Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Chios, 
Samos, Icarium mare, Cycladum septentrio, Athenae, 
Megara, Corintlius, Sicyon, Achaia, Patrae, Isthmus, 
Epirus, septentrionalia Siciliae, Narbonensis GalHae 
exortiva, Hispaniae maritima a Carthagine Nova et 
inde ad occasum. gnomoni \xi pedum respondent 
umbrae x\i pedum. longissimus dies habet aequi- 
noctiales horas xiv et tertias duas unius horae. 

216 Quinto continentur segmento ab introitu Caspii 
maris Bactria, Hiberia, Amienia, Mysia, Phrygia, 
Hellespontus, Troas, Tenedus, Abydos, Scepsis, 
Ilium, Ida mons, Cyzicum, Lampsacum, Sinope, 
Amisum, Heraclea in Ponto, Paphlagonia, Lemnus, 
Imbrus, Tliasus, Cassandria, Thessalia, Macedonia, 
Larisa, Amphipolis, Thessalonice, Pella, Edesus, 
Beroea, Pharsalia, Can,stum, Euboea Boeotum, 
Chalcis, Delphi, Acarnania, Aetolia, Apollonia, 
Brundisium, Tarenlum, Thurii, Locri, Regium, 
Lucani, Neapolis, Puteoli, TiLscum mare, Corsica 
BaHares, Hispania niedia. gnomnni septem pedes, 
umbris sex. magnitudo dici sunmia horarum aequi- 
noctialium xv. 

217 Sexta comprehensio, qua continetur urbs Roma, 
amplcctitur Caspias gentes, Caucasum, septentrio- 
nalia Armeniae, Apolloniam supra Rhyndacum, 
Nicomediam, Nicaeam, Calchedonem, Byzantium, 
Lvsimacheam, Cherronesum, Mehmem Sinum, Ab- 
deram, Samothraciam, Maroneam, Aenuin, Bessicam, 
Thraciam, Maedicam, Paeoniam, Illyrios, Durra- 
chium, Canusium, ApuHae extuma, Campaniam, 

' mons arid. — vel Tmolus [monfl] — Rackham. 

498 



BOOK VI. XXXIX. 215-217 

Under the fourth parallel lie the regions on the 
other side of the Imavus, the southern parts of 
Cappadocia, Galatia, Mysia, Sardis, Smyrna, Mount 
Sipylus, Mount Tmohis, Lydia, Caria, lonia, TralHs, 
Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Chios, Samos, the 
Icarian Sea, the northern part of the Cychides, 
Athens, Megara, Corinth, Sicyon, Achaia, Patras, 
the Isthmus, Epirus, the northern districts of Sicily, 
the eastcrn districts of GalHa Narbonensis, and the 
coast of Spain from New Carthage westward. A 
21-ft. gnomon has 16-ft. shadows. The longest day 
has H§ equinoctial hours. 

The fifth diWsion, bcginning at the entrance of 
the Caspian Sea, contains Bactria, Hiberia, Armenia, 
Mysia, Phrygia, the Dardanelles, the Troad, Tene- 
dos, Abydos, Scepsis, IHum, Mount Ida, Cyzicus, 
Lampsacus, Sinope, Amisus, Heraclea in Pontus, 
Paphlagonia, Lemnos, Imbros, Thasos, Cassahdria, 
Thessaly, Macedon, Larisa, AmpliipoHs,Thessalonica, 
Pella, Edesus, Beroea, Pharsalia, Carystum, Euboea 
belonging to Boeotia, Chalcis, Delphi, Acarnania, 
Aetolia, Apollonia, Brindisi, Taranto, Thurii, Locri, 
Reggio, the Lucanian territory, Naples, Pozzuoli, 
the Tuscan Sea, Corsica, the Balearic Islands and the 
middle of Spain. A 7-ft. gnomon throws a 6-ft. 
shadow. The longest day is 15 equinoctial hours. 

The sixth group, the one containing the city of 
Rome, comprises the Caspian tribes, the Caucasus, 
the northern parts of Armenia, Aj^ollonia on the 
Rhvndacus, Nicomedia, Nicaea, Clialcedon, Byzan- 
tium, Lysimachea, the Chersoncse, the Gulf of 
Melas, Abdera, Samothrace, Maronea, Aenos, 
Bessica, Thrace, Maedica, Paeonia, Illyria, Du- 
razzo, Canosa, the edge of Apulia, Campania, 

499 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Etruriara, Pisas, Lunam, Lucam, Genuam, Liguriam, 
Antipolim, Massiliam, Narbonem, Tarraconem. 
Hispaniam Tarraconensem mediam et inde per 
Lusitaniam. gnomoni pedes ix umbrae viii. longis- 
sima diei^ spatia horarum aequinoctialium w addita 
IX parte unius horae aut, ut Nigidio phxcuit, quinta. 

218 Septima divisio ab altera Caspii maris ora incipit, 
vadit super Callatim, Bosporum, Borysthenen, 
Tomos, Thraciae aversa, Triballos, Illyrici reUqua, 
Hadriaticum mare, Aquileiam, Altinum, Venetiam, 
Vicetiam, Patavium, \'eronam, Crcmonam, Raven- 
nam, Anconam, Picenum, Marsos, Paelignos, Sabinos, 
Umbriam, Ariminum, Bononiam, Placentiam, Medio- 
lanum omniaque ab Apennino, transque Alpis 
GalHam Aquitanicam, Viennam, Pyrenaeum, Celti- 
beriam. xmibiHco xxxv pedum umbrae xxxvi, ut 
tamen in parte \'enetiae exaequetur umbra gnomoni. 
amplissima diei spatia ^ horarum aequinoctialiura 

219 XV et quintarum partium horae triuni. 

Hactenus antiquorum exacta celebravimus. se- 
quentium diligentissimi quod superest terrarum supra 
tribus adsignavere segmentis ; a Tanai per Maeotim 
lacum et Sarmatas usque Bor\'sthenen atque ita per 
Dacos partemque Germaniae. (jallias oceani Htora 
amplexi, quod esset horarum xvi, alterum per Hyper- 
boreos et Britanniam horarum xvir, postremum Scy- 
thicum a Ripaeis iugis in Tylen, in quo dies continua- 

220 rentur, ut diximus, noctesque per vices. iidem et ante 

^ diei add. Beda. 

* Mayhoff: ampliBsima dies. 



• Imaginarv mountaina in unknown north Europe and Asia. 
» See IV. 104 n. 



500 



BOOK VI. XXXIX. 217-220 

Etruria, Pisa, Luna, Lucca, Genoa, Liguria, An- 
tibes, Marseilles, Narbonne, Tarragon, the middle 
of Tarragonian Spain ; and then runs through 
Lusitania. A 9-ft. gnomon throws an 8-ft. shadow. 
The longest day-time is 15,^, , or, according to Nigidius, 
15i equinoctial hours. 

The seventh division starts from the other side 
of the Caspian Sea and passes above Collat, the 
Straits of Kertsch, the Dnieper, Tomi, the back 
parts of Thrace, the TribalH, the remainder of Illyria, 
the Adriatic Sea, Aquileia, Altinum, Venice, Vi- 
cenza, Padua, Verona, Cremona, Ravenna, Ancona, 
Picenum, the Marsians, Paelignians and Sabines, 
Umbria, Rimini, Bologna, Piacenza, Milan and all 
the districts at the foot of the Apennines, and across 
the Alps Aquitanian Gaul, Vienne, the Pyrenees 
and Celtiberia. A 35-ft. gnomon throws 36-ft. 
shadows, except that in part of the Venetian district 
the shadow and the gnomon are equal. The longest 
day-time consists of 151' equinoctial hours. 
, Up to this point we have been setting forth the 
results worked out by the ancients. The rest of the 
earth's surface has been allotted by the most careful 
among subsequent students to three additional 
parallels : from the Don across the Sca of Azov and 
the country of the Sarmatae to the Dnieper and so 
across Dacia and part of Germany, and including 
the GaUic provinces forming the coasts of the Ocean, 
making a parallel \\-ith a sixteen-hour longest day ; 
the next across the Hyperboreans and Britain, with 
a seventeen-hour day ; the last the Scythian parallel 
from the Ripaean mountain-range * to Thule,* in 
which, as we said above, there are alternate 
periods of perpetual dayHght and perpetual night. 

voL. n. l^ 501 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

principia quae fecimus posuere circulos chios : pri- 
mum per in^ulam Meroen et Ptolemaidem in Rubro 
Mari ad elephantorum venatus conditam.ubi longis- 
simus dies xii horarum esset dimidia hora amplior, 
secundum per Syenen Aeg}-pti euntem, qui esset 
horarum xiii ; iidemque singulis dimidia horarum 
spatia usque ad ultimum adiecere circulis. 
Et hactenus de terris. 



502 



BOOK VI. XXXIX. 220 

The same authorities also place two parallels before 
what we made the starting point, the first running 
through the island of Meroe and Ptolemy's Lodge 
built on the Red Sea for the sake of elephant- 
hunting, in which parallel the longest day will be 
12^ hours, and the second passing through Syene 
in Egypt, with a 13-hour day ; and they also add 
half an hour to each of the parallels up to the last. 
So far as to the geography of the world. 



503 



BOOK VII 



LIBER VII 

Mundus et in eo terrae, gentcs, maria, flumina^ 
insignia, insulae, urbes ad hunc modum sc habent. 

Animantium in eodem natura nuUius prope partis 
contemplatione minor est, etsi ne hic ^ quidem 
omnia exsequi humanus animus queat.^ 

Principium iure tribuctur homini, cuius causa 
videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura magna,* saeva 
mercede contra tanta sua munera, ut non sit satis 
aestimare, parens rnelior homini an tristior noverca 

2 fuerit. ante omnia unum animantium cunctorum 
ahenis velat opibus, ceteris varie tegimenta tribuit, 
testas, cortices, spinas, coria, villos, saetas, pilos, 
plumam, pinnas, squamas, vellera; truncos etiam 
arboresque cortice, interdum gemino, a frigoribus et 
calore tutata est : hominem tantum nudum et in 
nuda humo nataU die abicit ad vagitus statim et 
ploratum, nullumque tot animalium aUud pronius ^ ad 
lacrimas, et has protinus vitae principio ; at Hercule 
risus praccox ille et celerrimus ante xl diem nulU 

3 datur. ab lioc lucis rudimento quae ne feras quidem 

* flumina add. Mayhoff. * ne hic add. Mayhoff. 

' V.l. nequeat. * [magna] ? Rackham. 

^ pronius add. edd. vel. 

• ' Great ' is perhaps to be omitted, as an int€rpolated gloss 
on aaeva. 

506 



BOOK VII 

The above is a description of the world, and of the 
lands, races, seas, important rivers, islands and cities 
that it contains. 

The nature of the animals also contained in it is Zooiogy. 
not less important than the study of almost any other 
department, albeit here too the human mind is not 
capable of exploring the whole field. 

The first place will rightly be assigned to man, for Manthe 
whose sake great "* Nature appears to have created 'specul bui 
all other things — though she asks a cruel price for all dependeui on 
her generous gifts, making it liardly possible to judge 
whether she has been more a kind parent to man or 
more a harsh stepmother. First of all, man alone of 
all animals she drapes with borrowed resources. On 
all the rest in various wise she bestows coverings 
— shells, bark, spines, hides, fur, bristles, hair, 
do^^Ti, feathers, scales, fleeces ; even the trunks of 
trees she has protected against cold and heat by 
bark, sometimes in two layers : but man alone on 
the day of his Ijirth she casts away naked on the naked 
ground, to burst at once into waihng and weeping, 
and none otlier among all the animals is more prone 
to tears, and that immediately at the very beginning 
of hfe ; whereas, I vow, the much-talked-of smile of 
infancy even at the earUest is bestowed on no child 
less than six weeks old. This initiation into the 

507 



PLINV: NATURAL HISTORY 

inter nos genitas vincula excipiunt et omnium 
membrorum nexus ; itaque feliciter natus iacet 
manibus pedibusque devinctis flens, animal ceteris 
imperaturum, et a suppliciis vitam auspicatur unam 
tantum ob culpam, qiiia natum est. heu dementiam 
ab liis initiis existimantium ad s\iperbiam se genitos ! 

4 Prima roboris spes primumque temporis munus 
quadripedi siniilem facit. quando homini incessus ! 
quando vox ! quando firmum cibis os ! quam diu 
palpitans vertex, summae inter cuncta animalia 
inbecillitatis indicium ! iam morbi, totque medicinae 
contra mala excogitatae, et hae quoque subinde 
novitatibus victae ! et cetera sentire naturam suam. 
alia pernicitatem usurpare, alia praepetes volatus, 
alia nare : hominem nihil scire nisi doctrina, non 
fari, non ingredi, non vesci, breviterque non aHud 
naturae sponte quam flere ! itaque multi extitere 
qui non nasci optimum censerent aut ^ quam ocissime 

5 aboleri. uni aniniaiitium Uictus est datus, uni 
luxuria et quidem innumcrabilibus modis ac per 
singula membra, uni ambitio, uni avaritia, uni 
inmensa vivendi cupido, uni superstitio, uni sepul- 
turae cura atquc etiam post se dc futuro. nulH 
vita fragiHor, nulH rerum omnium libido maior, nuUi 
pavor confusior, nulH rabics acrior. denique cetera 

' aut <natum> ? Rackfiam. 

" Cf. XII. 104. 
508 



BOOK VII. I. 3-5 

light is followed by a period of bondage such as 
befalls not even the animals bred in our midst, 
fettering all his hmbs ; and thus when succcssfuUy 
born hc hes witli hands and feet in shackles, weep- 
ing — tlie animal that is to lord it over all the rest, 
and he initiates his hfe with punisliment because of 
one fault only, the otfence of being born. Alas the 
madness of those who think that from these begin- 
nings they were bred to proud estate ! 

His earhest promise of strength and first grant of Man's 
time makes him hke a four-footed animal. When ^^'^J^^^'" 
does man begin to walk ? when to speak ? when is his divisions. 
mouth firm enough to take food ? how long does his 
skull throb," a mark of his being the weakest among 
all animals ? Then his diseases, and all the cures 
contrived against his ills — these cures also sub- 
sequently defeatcd by new disorders ! And the fact 
that all other creatures are aware of their own 
nature, some using speed, others swift flight, others 
swimming, whereas man alone knows nothing save 
by education — neither how to speak nor how to walk 
nor who to eat ; in short the only thing he can do by 
natural instinct is to weep ! Consequently there have 
been many who beheved that it were best not to be 
born, or to be put away as soon as possible. On 
man alone of hving creatures is bestowed grief, on 
him alone luxury, and that in countless forms and 
reaching every separatc part of liis frame ; he alone 
has ambition, avarice, immeasurable appetite for 
hfe, superstition, anxiety about burial and even 
about what wiU happen after he is no more. No 
creature's hfe is more precarious, none has a greater 
lust for all enjoyments, a more confused timidity, a 
fiercer rage, In fine, all otlicr hving creatures pass 

509 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

animantia in suo genere probe degunt : congregari 
videmus et stare contra dissimilia — leonum feritas 
inter se non dimicat, serpentium morsus non petit 
sei-pentis, ne maris quidem beluae ac pisces nisi in 
diversa genera saeviunt : at Hercule homini plurima 
ex homine sunt mala. 

6 I, Et de universitate quidem generis himiani magna 
ex parte in relatione gentium diximus. neque enim 
ritus moresque nunc tractabimus innumeros ac 
totidem paene quot sunt coetus hominum ; quaedam 
tamen liaud omittenda duco, maximeque longius ab 
mari degentium, in quibus prodigiosa aHqua et 
incredibiUa multis visum iri haud dubito. quis 
enim Aethiopas antequam cerneret credidit ? aut 
quid non miraculo est cum primum in notitiam venit ? 
quam multa fieri non posse priusquam sunt facta 

7 iudicantur ? naturae vero rerum vis atque maiestas 
in omnibus momentis fide caret si quis modo partes 
eius ac non totam conplectatur animo. ne pavones 
ac tigrium pantherarumque maculas et tot animalium 
picturas commemorem, parvum dictu sed inmensum 
aestimatione, tot gentium sermones, tot Hnguae, 
tanta loqucndi varietas ut externus alicno paene non 

8 sit hominis vice ! iam in facie vultuque nostro cum 
sint dccem aut paulo phira membra, nullas duas in 
tot milibus hominum indiscretas effigies existere, 

" In thc geographical books. 



BOOK VII. I. 5-8 

their time worthily amon<j their own species : we 
see them herd together and stand firm against other 
kinds of animals — fierce Uons do not fight among 
themselves, the serpent's bite attacks not serpents, 
even the monsters of the sea and the fishes are only 
cruel against diffcrent specics ; whereas to man, I 
vow, most of his evils come from his fellow-man. 

I. And about the human race as a whole we have Man's raciai 
in large part spoken in our account of the various l^iriduai 
nations." Nor shall we now deal with manncrs ra^-ieties. 
and customs, which are beyond counting and almost 
as numerous as the groups of mankind ; yet there 
are some that I think ought not to be omitted, and 
especially those of the people Hving more remote 
from the sea ; some things among which I doubt 
not will appear portentous and incredible to many. 
For who ever beheved in the Ethiopians before 
actually seeing them ? or what is not deemed 
miraculous when first it comes into knowledge ? 
how many things are judged impossible before they 
actually occur ? Indeed the power and majesty of the 
nature of the universe at every turn lacks credence 
if one's mind embraces parts of it only and not the 
whole. Not to mention peacocks, or the spotted 
skins of tigers and panthcrs and the colourings of so 
many animals, a small matter to tell of but one of 
measureless extent if pondered on is the number 
of national languages and dialects and varieties of 
speech, so numerous that a forcigner scarcely counts 
as a human being for someone of another race ! 
Again though our pliysiognomy contains ten features 
or only a few more, to think that among all the 
thousands of human beings there exist no two 
countenances that are not distinct — a thing that no 

511 



PLIXY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

quod ars nulla in paucis numcro praestet adfcctando ! 
nec tamen ego in plerisque eorum ohstringam fidem 
meam, potiasque ad auctores relepabo qui dubiis 
reddentur omnibus, modo ne sit fastidio Graecos 
sequi tanto maiore eorum diligentia vel cura 
vetustiore. 
9 IL Esse Scytharum genera, et quidem plura, quae 
corporibus humanis vescerentur indicavimus — id 
ipsum incredibile fortasse ni cogitemus, in medio 
orbe terrarum [ac SiciHa et Itaha ^] fuisse gentes 
huius monstri, Cyclopas et Laestrygonas, et nuper- 
rime trans Alpis hominem immolari gentium earum 

Ki more soUtum, quod paulum a mandendo abest. sed 
iuxta eos qui sunt ad septentrionem versi, haut 
procul ab ipso aquilonis exortu specuque eius dicto. 
quem locum Ges Clithron appellant, produntur 
Arimaspi, quos diximus, uno oculo in fronte media 
insignes. quibus adsidue bcllum esse circa metalla 
cum grApis, ferarum volucri gcnere. quale vulgo 
traditur, eruente ex cuniculis aurum, mira cupiditate 
et feris custodientibus et Arimaspis rapientibus, 
multi sed maxime inlustres Herodotus et Aristeas 
Proconnesius scribunt. 

11 Super alios autem Anthropophagos Scythas in 
quadam convaile magna Imavi montis regio est quae 
vocatur Abarimon, in qua silvestres vivunt homines 
aversis post crura plantis, eximiae velocitatis, pa.ssim 

^ V.l. ab Italia et Sicilia : secl. Maijhqff. 



■ The MSS. add ' and in Italy and Sicily,' or * away from 
Italy and Sicily.' 

* I.e. the extreme limit of the world; tho KXeWpov waa a 
wooden or iron bar with which a door was mado faat. 

« III. 116, IV. 13, 27. 



BOOK VII. I. 8-II. II 

art could sup]>ly by counterfeit in so sniall a number 
of specimens ! Nevertheless in most instances of 
these I shall not niyself pledge my own faith, and 
shall preferably ascribe the facts to the authorities 
who will be quoted for all doubtful points : only do 
not let us be too proud to foUow the Greeks, because 
of their far greater industry or older devotion to study. 

II. We have pointed out that some Scythian tribes, Cannibais 
and in fact a good many, feed on human bodies — a <in<i ^>^vages 
statement that perhaps may seem incredible if we iv. 88, 
do not reflect that races of this portentous character 
have existed in the central rcgion of the world," 
named Cyclopes and Laestrygones, and that quite 
rccentlv the tribes of the parts beyond the Alps 
habituallv practised human sacrifice, which is not 
far removed from eating human flesh. But also a 
tribe is reported next to these, towards the Nortli, 
not far from the actual quarter whence the North 
Wind rises and the cave that bears its name, the 
place called the Karth's Door-bolt'' — the Arimaspi 
whom we have spoken of already, people remarkable iv. 88, 
for having one eye in the centre of the forehead. " "' 
Many authorities, the most distinguished being 
Herodotus'^ and Aristeas of Proconnesus, write that 
these people wage continual war around their niines 
with the griflins, a kind of wild beast with wings, as 
commonly reported, that digs gold out of mines, 
which the creatures guard and the Arimaspi try to 
take from them, both with remarkable covetousness. 

But beyond the other Scythian cannibals, in a 
certain large valley in the Himalayas, there is a 
region called Abarimon where are some people dwell- 
ing in forests who have their feet turned backward 
behind their legs, who run extremely fast and range 

513 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

cum feris vagantes. hos in alio non spirare caelo 
ideoque ad finitimos reges non pertrahi neque ad 
Alexandrum Magnum pertractos Baeton itinerum 

12 eius mensor prodidit. priores Anthropophagos, quos 
ad septentrionem esse diximus, decem dierum itinere 
supra Borj^sthenen amnem, ossibus humanorum 
capitum bibere cutibusque cum capillo pro mantelibus 
ante pectora uti Isigonus Nicaeensis. idem in Alba- 
nia gigni quosdam glauca oculorum acie, pueritia 
statim canos, qui noctu plus quam interdiu cernant. 
idem itinere dierum tredecim supra Borj'sthenen 
Sauromatas tertio die cibum capere semper. 

1:5 Crates Pergamenus in Ilellesponto circa Parium 
genus hominum fuisse, quos Opliiogenes vocat, 
serpentium ictus contactu levare solitos et manu 
inposita venena extrahere corpori. Varro etiamnum 
esse paucos ibi quorum salivae contra ictus serpentium 

14 medeantur. simiUs et in Afirica Psyllorum gens fuit, 
ut Agatharchides scribit, a Psyllo rege dicta, cuius 
sepulchrum in parte Syrtium maiorum est. horum 
corpori ingenitum fuit virus exitiale serpentibus et 
cuius odore sopirent eas, mos vero Ubcros genitos 
protinus obiciendi saevissimis earum eoque genere 
pudicitiam coniugum experiendi, non profiigientibus 
adulterino sanguine natos serpentibus. haec gens 

5H 



BOOK VII. II. 11-14 

abroad over the country with the \dld animals. It 
is stated by Baeton, Alexander the Great's route- 
surveyor on his journeys, that these men are unable to 
breathe in another cHmate, and that consequently 
none of them could be brought to the neighbouring 
kings or had ever been brought to Alexander. Ac- 
cording to Isogonus of Nicaea the former cannibal 
tribes whom we stated to exist to the north, ten days' 
journey beyond the river Dnieper, drink out of human 
skulls and use the scalps with the hair on as napkins 
hung round their necks. The same authority states 
that certain people in Albania are born with keen grey 
eyes and are bald from childhood, and that they see 
better by night than in the daytime. He also says 
that the Sauromatae, thirteen days' journey beyond 
the Dnieper, always take food once every two days. 

Crates of Pergamum states that there was a race Tribes 
of men round Parium on the Dardanelles, whom *J^'akTbi{es"' 
he calls Ophiogenes, whose custom it was to cure 
snake-bites by touch and draw the poison out of 
the body by placing their hand on it. Varro says 
that there are still a few people there whose spittle 
is a remedy against snake-bites. According to the 
writings of Agatharchides there was also a siniilar 
tribe in Africa, the PsylU, named after King Psyllus, 
whose tomb is in the region of the greater Syrtes. 
In their bodies there was engendered a poison that was 
deadly to snakes, and the smell of which they em- 
ployed for sending snakes to sleep, while they had 
a custom of exposing their children as soon as they 
were born to the most savage snakes and of using 
that species to test the fidehty of their wives, as 
snakes do not avoid persons born with adulterous 
blood in them. This tribe itself has been almost 

515 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

ipsa quidem prope internicione sublata est a Nasa- 
monihiLs qui nunc eas tenent sedes, genus tamcn 
hominum ex iis qui profugerant aut cum pugnatum 

15 est afuerant hodie ^ remanet in paucis. simile et in 
Italia Marsorum genus durat, quos a Circae filio 
ortos ferunt et ideo inesse iis vim naturalem eam. et 
tamenomnibus hominibuscontrasej-pentes inestvene- 
num : ferimt ictum saHvae ut fervcntis aquae con- 
tactum fugere ; quod si in fauces penetraverit, etiam 
mori, idque maxime humani ieiuni oris. 

Supra Nasamonas confincsque illis Machlyas 
Androg}'nos esse utriusque naturae inter se vicibus 
cocuntes CalUphanes tradit. Aristoteles adicit 
dextram mammam is virilem, laevam muUebrem esse. 

16 in eadem Africa famiUas quasdam effascinantiun» 
Isigonus et Nymphodorus tradunt, quorum laudatione 
intereant prata,arescant arbores,emoriantur infantes. 
esse eiusdem generis in TribalUs et Illyris adicit 
Isigonus qui visu quoque cffascinent interimantque 
quos diutius intueantur, iratis praecipue ocuUs ; 
quod eorum malum faciUus sentire puberes ; nota- 
bilius esse quod pupiUas binas in singuUs habeant 

17 ocuUs. huius generis et feminas in Scythia, quac 
Bitiae vocantur, prodit ApoUonides, Phylarchus et 
in Ponto Thibiorum genus multosque aUos eiusdem 
naturae, quorum notas tradit in altero ocido geminam 
pupiUam in altero equi efUgiem, eosdem praeterea 

^ Rackham : hodieque. 
" Agrius, whosc father waa Ulyssos. 



BOOK VII. II. 14-17 

exterminated by the Nasaniones who now occupy 
that region, but a tribe of mcn descended from those 
who had escaped or had been absent when the fighting 
took place survives to-day in a few places. A 
similar race hngers on in Italy also, the Marsi, said 
to be descended from the son^* of Circe and to possess 
this natural property on that account. However, 
all men contain a poison available as a protection 
against snakes : people say that snakes flee from 
contact with sahva as from the touch of boiUng 
water, and that if it gets inside their throats they 
actually die ; and that this is especially the case 
with the sahva of a person fasting. 

Beyond the Nasamones and adjacent to them and wuh 
Calhphanes rccords the Machlyes, who are Androgyni "guaHHes."^'' 
and perform the function of either sex alternately. 
Aristotle adds that their left breast is that of a man 
and their riglit breast that of a woman. Isogonus and 
Nymphodorus report that there are families in the 
same part of Africathat practise sorcery,whose praises 
cause meadows to dry up, trees to wither and infants 
to perish. Isogonus adds that there are people of 
the same kind among the Tribahi and the IUyrians, 
who also bewitch with a glance and who kill those 
they stare at for a longer time, especially with a kjok 
of anger, and that their evil eye is most felt by adults ; 
and that what is more remarkable is that they liave 
two pupils in each eye. Apollonides also reports 
womcn of this kind in Scythia, who are called the 
Bitiae, and Phylarchus also the Thibii tribe and many 
others of the same nature in Pontus, whosc dis- 
tinguishing marks he records as being a double pupil 
in one eye and the hkeness of a horse in the other. 
aiid he also says that they are incapable of drowning, 

517 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTOllY 

non posse mergi, ne veste quidem degravatos. haut 
dissimile his genus Pharmacum in Aethiopia Damon, 
quorum sudor tabem contactis corporibus efferat. 

Is feminas quidem omnes ubique visu nocere quae 
duplices pupillas habeant Cicero quoque apud nos 
auctor est. adeo naturae, cum ferarum morem 
vescendi humanis visceribus in homine genuisset, 
gignere etiam in toto corpore et in quorundam 
oculis quoque venena placuit, ne quid usquam maU 
esset quod in homine non esset. 

19 Haut procul urbe Roma in Faliscorum agro 
famiHae sunt paucae quae vocantur Hirpi ; hae 
sacrificio annuo quod fit ad montem Soractem ApoUini 
super ambustam ligni stniem ambulantes non 
aduruntur, et ob id perpetuo senatus consulto mi- 
litiae omniumque aHorum munerum vacationem 

-0 habent. quorundam corpori partes nascuntur ad 
aHqua mirabiles, sicut Pyrro regi poUex in dextro 
pede, cuius tactu Henosis medebatur; hunc cremari 
cum reHquo corpore non potuisse tradunt, condi- 
tumque loculo in templo. 

lil Praecipue India Aethiopumque tracttis miracuHs 
scatent. maxima in India gignuntur animaUa : 
indicio sunt canes grandiores ceteris. arbores qui- 
dem tantae proceritatis traduntur ut sagittis superiaci 
nequeant et [facit ubertas soli, temperies caeH, 
acjuarum abundantia],^ si Hbeat credere, ut sub 
una fico turmae condantur equitum ; harundines 
» Sed. DeOefsen. 

" Thia clausc seems to be an interpolation. 
518 



BOOK VII. II. 17-21 

even when weighed down with clothing. Damon 
records a tribe not unHke these in Ethiopia, the 
Pharmaces, whose sweat reUeves of diseases bodies 
touched by it. Also among ourselves Cicero states 
that the glance of all women who have double pupils 
is injurious everywhere. In fact when nature 
implanted in man the wild beasts' habit of devouring 
human flesh, she also thought fit to implant poisons 
in the whole of the body, and with some persons in 
the eyes as well, so that there should be no evil any- 
where that was not present in man. 

There are a few famihes in the Faliscan territory, 
not far from the city of Rome, named the Hirpi, 
which at the yearly sacrifice to Apollo performed on 
Mount Soracte walk over a charred pile of logs with- 
out being scorched, and who consequently enjoy 
exemption under a perpetual decree of the senate 
from mihtary service and all other burdens. Some 
people are born with parts of the body possessing 
special remarkable properties, for instance King 
Pyrrhus in the great toe of his right foot, to touch 
which was a cure for inflammation of the spleen ; it 
is recorded that at his cremation it proved impossible 
to burn the toe with the rest of the body, and it was 
stored in a chest in a temple. 

India and parts of Ethiopia especially teem with orimtai 
marvels. The biggest animals grow in India : for |,"','d c 
instance Indian dogs are bigger than any others. cusiomn 
Indeed the trees are said to be so lofty that it is not 
possible to shoot an arrow over them, and [the rich- 
ness of the soil, temperate chmate and abundance 
of springs bring it about "J that, if one is willing to 
beheve it, squadrons of cavahy are able to shelter 
beneath a single iig-tree ; while it is said that reeds 

519 



nuinslrosihes 

CUTIOUS 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

vero tantae proceritatis ut singula internodia alveo 

22 navigabili ternos interdum homines ferant. multos 
ibi quina cubita constat longitudine excedere, non 
expuere, non capitis aut dentium aut oculorum ullo 
dolore adfici, raro aliarum corporis partium : tam 
moderato solis vapore durari ; philosophos eorum, 
quos g\'mnosophistas vocant, ab exortu ad occasum 
perstare contuentes solem inmobilibus oculis, ferventi- 
bus harenis toto die alternis pedibus insistere. in 
monte cui nomen est Nulo homines esse aversis 

23 plantis octonos digitos in singuhs habentes auctor 
est Megasthenes, in multis autem montibus genus 
hominum capitibus caninis ferarum pelhbus velari, 
pro voce latratum edere, unguibus armatum venatu 
et aucupio vesci ; horum supra cxx fuisse prodente 
se. Ctesias scribit et in quadam gente Indiae feminas 
semel in \ita parere genitosque confestim canescere ; 
idem hominum genus qui Monocoh vocentur ^ 
singuhs cruribus mirae pernicitatis ad saltum, 
eosdem Sciapodas vocari, quod in maiori aestu humi 
iacentes resupini umbra se pedum protegant ; non 
longe eos a Trogodytis abesse, rursusque ab his 
occidentem versus quosdam sinc cervice oculos 

24 in unieris habentes. sunt et satyri subsulanis 

^ Sillig : vocarentur. 



WoVOKwXoi. 

Douhtless a kind of monkey. 



520 



BOOK VII. II. 21-24 

are of such height that sonietimes a single section 
between two knots will niake a canoe that will carry 
ihree people. Itisknown that many of the inhabitants 
are more tlian seven feet six inches high, never spit, do 
not suffer from headache or toothache or pain in the 
eyes, and very rarely have a pain in any other part 
of the body — so hardy are they made by the temper- 
ate heat of the sun ; and that the sages of their race, 
whom they call Gymnosophists, stay standing from 
sunrise to sunset, gazing at the sun with eyes un- 
mo\ing, and contiime all dav long standing first on 
one foot and then on the other in the glowing sand. 
Megasthenes states that on the moimtain named 
Nulus there are people with their feet turned back- 
wards and with eight toes on each foot, while on 
many of the mountains there is a tribe of human 
beings with dogs' heads, who wear a covering of wild 
bea>ts' skins, whose spcech is a bark and who hve 
on the produce of hunting and fowling, for which they 
use their nails as weapons ; he says that they 
numbered more than 120,000 when he pubhshed his 
work. Ctesias writes that also among a certain 
race of India the women bear chiklren only once in 
their hfe-time, and the children begin to turn grey 
directly after birtli ; he also describes a tribe of men 
called the Monocoh" who have only one leg, and who 
move in jumps with surprising speed ; the same are 
called the Umbrella-foot tribe, because in the hotter 
weather they he on thcir backs on the ground and 
protect themselves with the shadow of their feet ; 
and that they are not far away from the Cave- 
dwellers ; and again westward from these there are 
some people without necks, having their eyes in 
their shouklcrs. There are also satyrs* in the 

521 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Indorum montibus (Catarcludorum dicitur regio), 
pernicissimum animal, iam quadripedes, iam recte 
currentes humana effigie ; propter velocitatem nisi 
senes aut aegri non capiuntur. Choromandarum 
gentem vocat Tauron silvestrem, sinc voce, stridoris 
horrendi, hirtis corporibus, ocuUs glaucis, dentibus 
caninis. Eudoxus in mcridianis Indiac viris plantas 
esse cubitalcs, feminis adeo parvas ut Struthopodes 

-5 appellentur. Megastliencs gentem inter Nomadas 
Indos narium loco foramina tantum habentem 
angiiium modo, loripedem, vocari Sciritas. ad ex- 
tremos fines Indiae ab oriente circa fontem Gangis 
Astomorum gentem sine ore, corpore toto liirtam, 
vestiri frondium lanugine, haUtu tantum viventem et 
odore quem naribus trahant; nuUum illis cibum 
nullumque potum, radicum tantum florumque varios 
odores et silvestrium malorum, quae secum portant 
longiore itinere ne desit olfactus ; graviore paulo 

.'6 odore haut difficulter exanimari. Super hos extrema 
in parte montium Trispithami ^ Pygmacique nar- 
rantur, ternas spithamas longitudine, hoc est ternos 
(iodrantes, non excedentis, salubri caelo semperque 
vemante montibus ab aquilone oppositis ; quos a 
gruibus infestari Homerus quoque prodidit. fama 
cst insidentes arictum caprarumijue dorsis armatos 
sagittis veris tempore universo agmine ad mare 
descendere et ova pullosque earum aUtum con- 

* Z/ardouin(t.e. montium mspithami): montium spithami. 

« Iliad, 111.6. 
522 



BOOK VII. II. 24-26 

mountains in the east of India (it is called the 
district of the Catarcludi) ; this is an extremely 
swift animal, sometimes going on all fours and some- 
times standing upright as they run, Uke human 
beings ; because of their specd only the old ones 
or the sick are caught. Tauron gives the name of 
Choromandae to a forest tribe that has no speech but 
a horrible scream, hairy bodics, keen grey eyes and 
the teeth of a dog. Eudoxus savs that in the south 
of India men have feet eighteen inches long and the 
women such small feet that they are called Sparrow- 
feet. Megasthenes tells of a race among the Nomads 
of India that has only holes in the place of nostrils, 
hke snakes, and bandy-legged ; they are called the 
Sciritae. At the extreme boundary of India to the 
East, near the source of the Ganges, he puts the Astomi 
tribe, that has no mouth and a body hairy all over; 
thev dress in cottonwool and Uve only on the air they 
breathe and the scent they inhale through their 
nostrils ; thcy have no food or drink except the difFer- 
ent odours of the roots and flowers and wild apples, 
which they carry with them on their longer journeys 
so as not to lack a supply of scent ; he says they can 
easily be kiUed by a rather stronger odour than 
usual. Beyond these in the most outl^nng mountain 
region we are told of the Three-span men and Pygmies, 
who do not exceed three spans, i.e. twenty-seven 
inches, in height ; the cUmate is healthy and always 
spring-Uke, as it is protected on tlie north by a range 
of mountains ; this tribe Homer " has also recorded 
as being beset by cranes. It is reported that in 
springtime their entire band, mountcd on the backs 
of rams and she-goats and armed with arrows, goes 
in a body down to the sea and eats the cranes' eggs 

523 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

sumere, ternis expeditionem eam mensibus confici, 
aliter futuris gregibus non resisti ; casas eorum luto 

27 pinnisque et ovorum putaminibus construi. Aristo- 
teles in cavernis vivere Pygmaeos tradit, cetera de 
his ut reliqui. Cyrnos Indorum genus Isigonus 
annis centenis quadragenis vivere tradit, item 
Aethiopas Macrobios et Seras existimat et qui 
Athon montem incolant, hos quidem quia viperinis 
carnibus alantur, itaque nec capiti nec vestibus eorum 

28 noxia corpori inesse animalia. Onesicritus quibus 
locis Indiae umbrae non sint corpora hominum 
cubitorum quinum et binorum palmorum existere, et 
vivere annos cxxx, nec senescere sed in ^ medio 
aevo mori. Cratcs Pergamenus Indos qui ccntenos 
annos excedant Gymnetas appellat, non pauci 
Macrobios. Ctesias gentem ex his quae appellctur 
Pandae, in convallibus sitam annos ducenos vivere, 
in iuventa candido capillo qui in sencctute nigrescat ; 

29 contra alios quadmgcnos non excedere annos, 
iunctos Macrobiis, quorum feminae semel pariant. 
idque et Agatharchides tradit, praeterea locustis eos 
ali et esse pernices. Mandorum nomen his dedit 
CHtarchus, et Megasthenes trecentos quoque eorum 
\icos adnumerat, feminas septimo actatis anno 

30 parcre, senectam quadragesimo accidcre. Arte- 
midorus in Taj)robanc insuhi longissimam vitam sine 
uUo coqjoris languore traduci. Duris Indorum 

1 Mayhoff: ut. 
» About eigbt foet. 



BOOK VII. II. 26-30 

and chickens, and that this outing occupies three 
months ; and that othcnvise they could not protect 
theinseh-es against the flocks of cranes that woukl 
grow up ; and that their houses are made of mud 
and feathers and egg-shells. Aristotle says that the 
Pvginies live in cavcs, but in the rest of his statement 
about them he agrees with the other authorities. 
The Indian race of Cvrni according to Isigonus hve 
to 140 ; and he holds that the sanie is true of the 
Long-Hved Ethiopians, the Chinese and the inhabi- 
tants of Mount Athos — in the last case because of 
their diet of snakes' flesh, wliich causes their head 
and clothes to be free from creatures harmful to the 
body. Onesicritus saj^^s that in the parts of India 
where there are no shadows there are men five cubits 
and two spans" high, and people hve a hundred and 
thirty years, and do not grow old but die middle- 
aged. Crates of Pergamum teUs of Indians who 
excecd a hundred vears, wliom he calls Gymnetae, 
tliough manv call them Long-livers. Ctcsias says that 
a tribe among them called the Pandae, dweUing in 
the mountain valleys, Uve two hundred years, and 
have white hair in their youth that grows black in 
old age ; wherciis others do not exceed forty years, 
this tribe adjoining the Long-Uvers, whose women 
bear children only once. Agatharchides records this 
as weU, and also that they Uve on locusts, and are 
very swift-footed. Clitarchus gave them the name 
of Nlandi ; and Megasthcnes also assigns them three 
hundred \iUages, and says that the women bear 
children at the age of seven and old age comes at 
forty. Artemidorus says that on the Island of 
Ceylon the people Uve very long lives without 
any loss of bodily activity. Duris says that some 

525 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

quosdam cum feris coire mixtosque et semiferos esse 
partus, in Calingis eiusdem Indiae gente quinquenncs 
concipere feminas, octavum vitae annum non 
excedere, et alibi cauda villosa homines nasci pernici- 
tatis eximiae, alios auribus totos contegi. 

Oritas ab Indis Arabis fluvius disterminat. hi 
nullum ahuni cibum novere quam piscium, quo 
unguibus dissectos sole torreant atque ita panem ex 

31 iis faciunt,^ ut refert CUtarchus. Trogodytas super 
Aethiopiam velociores equis esse Pergamenus Crates, 
item Aethiopas octona cubita longitudine excedcre, 
Syrbotas vocari gentem eam. Nomadum Aethiopum 
secundum flumen Astragum ad septentrioncm 
vergentium gens Menisminorum appellata abest ab 
oceano dierum itinere viginti ; animahum quae 
cynocephalos vocamus lacte vivit, quorum armcnta 
pascit maribus interemptis praeterquam subohs 

32 causa. in Africae sohtudinibus hominum species 
obviae subinde fiunt momentoque evancscunt. 

Haec atque taha ex hominum genere ludibria sibi, 
nobis miracula, ingeniosa fecit natura. et singula ^ 
quidem quae facit in dies ac prope horas quis enu- 
merare valeat ? ad detegendam eius potentiam 
satis sit inter prodigia posuisse gcntes. hinc ad 
confessa in homine pauca. 

33 III. Tergeminos nasci certum est Horatiorum 
Curiatiorumque exemplo; super inter ostenta ducitur 

^ V.l. faciant. 
* V.l. ex aingulis. 
526 



BOOK VII. II. 30-111. s3 

Indians have union ■\vith -wild animals and the ofF- 
spring is of mixed race and half animal ; that among 
the Cahngi, a tribe of the same part of India, women 
conceive at the age of five and do not Uve more than 
eight years, and that in another part men are born 
with a hairy tail and extremely swift, while others 
are entirely covered by tlicir ears. 

The river Arabis is the frontier between the 
Indians and the Oi'itae. These are acquainted with 
no other food but fish, which they cut to pieces with 
their nails and roast in the sun and thus make bread 
out of them, as is recorded by Chtarchus. Crates 
of Pergamum says that the Cavemen beyond Ethiopia 
are swifter than horses ; also that there are Ethiopians 
more than twelve feet in height, and that this race 
is called the Syrbotae. The tribe of the Ethiopian 
nomads along the river Astragus towards the north 
called thc Menismini is twenty days' journey from 
the Ocean ; it hves on the milk of the animals that 
we call dog-headed apes, herds of which it keeps in 
pastures, kiUing the males except for the purpose of 
breeding. In the deserts of Africa ghosts of men 
suddenly meet the traveUer and v.inish in a moment. 

These and similar varieties of the human race 
have been made by the ingenuity of Nature as toys 
for herself and marvels for us. And indeed who 
could possiblv recount the various things she does 
ever}' day and almost every hour ? Let it suffice for 
the disclosure of her power to have included whole 
races of mankind among her marvels. From these 
we tum to a few admitted marvels in the case of the 
individual human being. 

III. The birth of triplets is attested by the case Exceptionai 
of the Horatii and Curiatii ; above that number is "^J^^ WrW*. 

527 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

praeterquam in Aegypto, ubi fetifer potu Nilus 
amnis. proxime supremis divi Augusti Fausta quae- 
dam e plebe Ostiae duos mares totidemque feminas 
enixa famem quae consecuta est portendit haud 
dubie. reperitur et in Peloponneso quinos ^ quater 
enixa, maioremque partem ex omni eius vixisse 
partu. et in Aegjpto septenos uno utero simul 
gigni auctor est Trogus. 

34 Gignuntur et utriusque sexus quos Hermaphroditos 
vocamus, oHm androgynos vocatos et in prodigiis 
habitos, nunc vero in deliciis. Pompeius Magnus 
in ornamentis theatri mirabiles fama posuit effigies 
ob id dihgentius magnorum artificum ingeniis 
elaboratas, inter quas legitur Eutychis a viginti 
hberis rogo inlata TralHbus enixa xxx partus, 
Alcippe elepliantum, quamquam id inier ostenta 
est, namque et serpentem peperit inter initia Marsici 

35 belh ancilla et multiformes pluribus modis inter 
monstra partus eduntur. Claudius Caesar scribit 
hippocentaurum in Thessaha natum eodem die 
interisse, et nos principatu eius allatum ilH ex 
Aegypto in melle vidimus. est inter exempla in 
utcrum protinus reversus infans Sagunti quo anno 
urbs 2 deleta ab Ilannibale est. 

^ quinos] Sabellius coU. Arist. h. an. 7, 5, 1 : binos. 
- urbs add. Backham. 



• The Social War, 91-88 B.c. 

* 218 B.c. 



528 



BOOK \U. ni. 33-35 

considered portentous, exeept in Egypt, where 
drinking the water of the Nile causes fecundity. 
Recently on the day of the obsequies of his late 
Majesty Augustus a certain woman of the lower 
orders named 1'austa at Ostia was deUvered of two 
male and two female infants, which unquestionably 
portended the food shortage that followed. We 
also find the case of a woman in the Peloponnese who 
four times produced quintuplets, the greater number 
of each birth surviving. In Egypt also Trogus 
alleges cases of seven infants born at a single 
birth. 

Persons are also born of both sexes combined — 
what we call Hermaphrodites, formerly called 
androgyni and considered as portents, but now as 
entertainments. Pompey the Great among the 
decorations of his theatre placed images of celebrated 
marvels, made with special elaboration for the pur- 
pose by the talent of eminent artists ; among them 
we read of Eutychis who at Tralles was carried to 
her funeral pyre by twenty children and who had 
given birth 30 times, and Alcippe who gave birth to 
an elephant — although it is true that the latter case 
ranks among portents, for one of the first occurrences 
of the Marsian War" was that a maidservant gave 
birth to a snake, and also monstrous births of various 
kinds are recorded among the ominous things that 
happened. Claudius Caesar writcs that a hippo- 
centaur was born in Thessaly and died the same day ; 
and in his rcign we actually saw one that was brought 
here for him from Egypt preserved in honey. One 
case is that of an infant at Saguntum which at once 
went back into the womb, in the year * in which 
that city was destroyed by Hannibal. 

529 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

.'16 I\'. Ex feminis mutari in mares non est fabulosum. 
invenimus in annalibus P. Licinio Crasso C. Cassio 
Longino coss. Casini puerum factum ex virgine sub 
parentibus, iussuque harispicum deportatum in insu- 
lam desertam. Licinius Mucianus prodidit visum 
a se Argis Arescontem, cui nomen Arescusae fuisset, 
nupsisse etiam, mox barbam et virilitatem provenisse 
uxoremque duxisse ; eiusdem sortis et Zmymae 
puerum a se visum. ipse in Africa vidi mutatum in 
marem nuptiarum die L. Constitium civem Thysdri- 

37 tanum. . . .^ editis geminis raram esse aut pucr- 
perae aut puerperio praeterquam alteri vitam, si 
vero utriusque sexus editi sint gemini, rariorem 
utrique salutem ; feminas celerius gigni quam mares, 
sicuti celerius senescere ; saepius in utero moveri 
mares, et in dextera fere geri parte, in laeva feminas. 

38 V. Ceteris animantibus statum et pariendi et partus 
gerendi tempus est : homo toto anno et incerto 
gignitur spatio, aHus septimo mense, alius octavo et 
usque ad initium undecimi ; ante septimum mensem 
haut umquam vitahs est. septimo non nisi pridie 
posterove pleniluni die aut interlunio concepti 

* Lacunam Urlichs. 



• 171 n.o. 

' Some worda seem to bave been lost in tho Latin here. 



53° 



BOOK VII. IV. 36-v. 38 

IV. Transformation of females into males is not an ctiange of 
idle story. We find in thc Annals that in the "'"^' 
consulship'' of Pubhus Licinius Crassus and Gaius 
Cassius Long-inus a girl at Casinum was changed 

into a boy, under the observation of the pai*ents, 
and at the order of the augurs was conveyed 
away to a desert island. Licinius Mucianus has 
recorded that he personally saw at Argos a man 
named Arescon who had been given the name of 
Arescusa and had actually married a husband, and 
then had gro^ra a beard and developed mascuhne 
attributes and had taken a wife ; and that he had 
also seen a boy vrith. the same record at Smyrna. 
I myself saw in Africa a person who had turned into a 
male on the day of marriage to a husband ; this was 
Lucius Constitius, a citizen of Thysdritum. . . .^ 
(It is said that) at the birth of twins neither the 
mother nor more than one of the two children usually 
hvcs, but that if twins are born that are of different 
sex it is even more unusual for either to be saved ; 
that females are born more quickly than males, just 
as they grow older more quickly ; and that movement 
in the womb is more frequent in the case of males, 
and males are usually carried on the right side, 
females on the left. 

V. All the other animals have a fixed season both Human re- 
for copulation and for bearing offspring, but human vroducucm. 
reproduction takes place all the year round and the 
period of gestation varies — in one case it may exceed 

six months, in another seven, and it may even cxceed 
ten ; a cliild born before the seventh month is usually 
still born. Only those conceived the day before or 
the day after full moon, or whcn there is no moon, 
are born in the seventh month. It is a common thing 

531 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

39 nascuntur. tralaticium in Aegypto est et octavo 
gigni, iam quidem et in Italia tales partus esse vitales 
contra priscorum opiniones. variant haec pluribus 
modis : Vistilia Gliti ac postea Pomponi atque 
Orfiti clarissimorum ci\ium coniunx ex his quattuor 
partus enixa, septimo semper mense, genuit Suillium 
Rufum undecimo, Corbulonem septumo, utrumque 
consulem, postca Caesoniam Gai principis coniugem 

40 octavo. in quo mensiimi numero genitis intra 
quadragensimum diem maximus labor, gravidis 
autem quarto et octavo mense, letalesque in his 
abortus. Masurius auctor est L. Papirium praetorem 
secundo herede lege agente bonorum possessionem 
contra eum dedisse, cimi mater ]iartum se tredecim 
mensibus diceret tulisse, quoniam nuUum certum 
tempus pariendi statutum videretur. 

41 VI. A conceptu decimo die dolores capitis, 
oculorum vertigines tenebraeque, fastidium in cibis, 
redundatio stomachi indices sunt hominis inchoati. 
meUor color marem ferenti et facilior partus, motus 
in utero quadragensimo die. contraria omnia in 
altero sexu, ingestabile onus, crurum et inguinis levis 

42 tumor, primus autem xc die motus. sed plurumum 
languoris in utroque sexu capillimi germinante partu 



BOOK Vll. V. 38-vi. 42 

in Egypt for children to be born even in the eiglith 
month ; and indeed in Italy also for such cases to 
live, contrary to the belief of old times. These 
matters vary in more ways also. Vistilia the wife 
of GHtius and subsequently of Pomponius and of 
Orfitius, citizens of the highest distinction, bore these 
husbands four children, in each case after six months' 
pregnancy, but subsequently gave birth to SuilUus 
Rufus after ten months and Corbulo after six — both 
of these became consuls, — and subsequently bore 
Caesonia, the consort of the Emperor Gaius, after 
seven months. Infants born in this number of 
months are weakest in health during the first six 
weeks, the mothers in the fourth and eighth months 
of pregnancy ; and abortions in these cases are 
fatal. Masurius states that Lucius Papirius as 
praetor in a suit for an estate brought by an heir 
presumptive gave judgement for the defendant; 
the plaintiffs case was that the heir apparent's 
mother said that he had been born after thirteen 
months' pregnancy, and the ground for the judgement 
was that there appeared to be no fixed pcriod of 
pregnancy. 

VI. On the tenth day from conception pains in the Pregnaney. 
head, giddiness and dim sight, distaste for food, and 
vomiting are symptoms of the formation of the 
embryo. If the chikl is a male, the mother has a 
better colour and an easier dehvery ; there is move- 
ment in the womb on the fortieth day. In a case of 
the other sex all the symptoms are the opposite : 
the burden is hard to carry, there is a sHght swelHng 
of the legs and groin, Imt the first movement is on 
the ninetieth day. But in the case of both sexes 
the greatest amount of faintness occurs when the 

vOL. II. S 533 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

et in plenilunio, quod tempus editos quoque infantes 
praccipue infestat. adeoque incessus atque omne 
quicquid dici potest in gravida refert, ut salsioribus 
cibis usae carentem unguiculis partum cdant, et si 
respiravere difficilius enitantur; oscitatio quidem in 
enixu letalis est, sicut sternuisse a coitu abortivum. 
4.'{ VII. Miseret atque etiam pudet aestimantem quam 
sit frivola animalium superbissimi origo, cum plerisque 
abortus causa odor a lucernarum fiat extinctu. his 
principiis nascuntiu* tyranni, his carnifex animus. 
tu qui corporis \iribus fidis, tu qui fortunae muncra 
amplexaris et te ne alumnum quidem eius existimas 

44 sed partum, tu cuius imperatoria^ est mens, tu qui 
te deum credis aliquo successu tumens, tantine perire 
potuisti ? atque etiam hodie minoris potes, quantulo 
serpentis ictus dente, aut etiam ut Anacreon poeta 
acino uvae passae, aut ^ ut Fabius Senator praetor 
in lactis haustu uno pilo strangulatus. is demum 
profecto vitam aequa lance pensitabit qui semper 
fragilitatis humanae memor fuerit. 

45 \TII. In pcdes procidere nascentemcontra naturam 
est, quo argumento eos appellavere Agrippas ut 
aegrepartos; qualiter M. Agrippam ferunt genitum, 
unico prope felicitatis exemplo in omnibus ad hunc 
moduni genitis — cjuamquam is quoque adversa 
pedum vaHtudine miscra iuventa, cxercito aevo 

^ Urlichs : cuius semper tinctoria {a%U in victoria). 
* aut add. Rackham. 

■ Aegre partua \b Buggested as the etymology of Agrippa. 
534 



BOOK VII. VI. 42-vin. 45 

embryo begins to grow hair ; and also at the full 
moon, which period is also specially inimical to 
infants after birth. The gait in walking and every 
thing that can be mentioned are so important during 
pregnancv that mothcrs eating food that is too salt 
bear children lacking nails, and that not holding 
the breath makes the delivery more difficult ; indeed, 
to gape during deUvery may cause death, just as 
a sneeze foUowing copulation causes abortion. 

\ll. One feels pity and even shame in reaHzing AboTtion. 
how trivial is the origin of the proudest of the animals, 
when the smell of lamps being put out usually causes 
abortion ! These are the beginnings from which 
are born tyrants and the pride that deals slaughter. 
You who put confidence in your bodily strength, 
you who accept fortune's bounty and deem yourself 
not even her nursehng but her ofFspring, you whose 
thoughts are of empire, you who when swelUng with 
some success beUeve yourself a god, could you have 
been made away with so cheaply ? and even to-day 
you can be more cheaply, frora being bitten by a 
snake's tiny tooth, or even choked by a raisin-stone 
Uke the poet Anacreon, or by a single hair in a draught 
of milk, Uke the praetor Fabius Senator. Assuredly 
only he who always remembers how frail a thing man 
is wiU weigh Ufe in an impartial balance ! 

\TII. It is against nature to be born feet foremost ; Dduery 
this is the reason why the designation of ' Agrippa ' 
has been appUed to persons so born — meaning ' born 
with difficulty ' " ; Marcus Agrippa is said to have 
been bom in this manner, almost the soUtary instance 
of a successful career among aU those so born — 
although he too is deemed to have paid the penalty 
which his in'egular birth foretold, by a youth made 

535 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

inter arma mortisque adeo obnoxio accessu, infelici 
terris stirpe omni sed per utrasque Agrippinas 
maxime, quae Gaium, quae Domitium Neronem 
principes genuere totidem faces generis humani, 

46 praeterea brevitate aevi quinquagesimo uno raptus 
anno in ^ tormentis adulterinrum coniugis socerique 
praegravi servitio, luisse augurium praeposteri 
natalis existimatur. Neronem quoque paulo ante 
principem et toto principatu suo hostem generis 
humani pedibus genitum scribit parenseius Agrippina. 
ritus 2 naturae capite hominem gigni, mos est pedibus 
efFerri. 

47 IX. Auspicatius e necata ' parente gignuntur, sicut 
Scipio Africanus prior natus primusque Caesarum a 
caeso matris utero dictus, qua de causa et Caesones 
appellati. simili modo natus et Manilius qui Cartha- 
ginem cum exercitu intravit. X. \'opiscos appcllabant 
e geminis qui retenti utero nascerentur altcro 
interempto abortu — namque maxima etsi rara circa 
hoc miracula existunt. 

48 XI. Praeter mulierem pauca animalia coitum novere 
gravida, unum quidem omnino aut alterum super- 
fetat. extat in monimentis medicorum et corum* 
quibus taliaconsectari curae fuit uno abortu duodecim 

^ [in] ? Rackham. ' Ilardoinn -. ritu. 

• V.l. enecta. * eorum add. Rackham. 

• The two Aghppinas. ' Julia. ' JuliuB. 



BOOK VII. vin. 45-M. 48 

unhappy by lameness, a lifetime passed amidst 
warfare and ever exposed to the approach of death, 
bv the misfortune caused to the world by his whole 
progeny but especially due to his two daugliters" 
who became the mothers of the emperors Gaius 
CaHgula and Domitius Nero, the two firebrands of 
mankind ; and also by the shortness of his Hfe, as he 
was cut off at the age of fifty during the agony 
caused him by his wife's ^ adulteries and diu-ing 
his irksome subjection to his father-in-law Augustus. 
Nero also, who was emperor shortly before and whose 
entire rule showed him the enemy of mankind, is 
stated in his mother Agrippina's memoirs to have 
been born feet first. It is Nature's method for a 
human being to be born head first, and it is the 
custom for him to be carried to burial feet first. 

IX. It is a better omen when the mother dies in 
giving birth to the child ; instances are the birth of the 
elder Scipio Africanus and of the first'' of the Caesars, 
who got that name from the surgical operation per- 
formed on his mother ; the origin of the family name 
Caeso is also the same. Also Manilius who entered 
Carthage with his army was born in the same manner. 
X. The name \'opiscus used to be given to cases of a 
twin born after being retained in the womb when the 
other twin had been kihed by premature deHvery — 
for extremely remarkable though infrequent cases 
of this occur. 

XI. Few animals except woman ever have sexual 
intercourse when pregnant — at all events super- 
fetation only occurs with animals in very few cases. 
In the records of tlie medical profession and of 
writers who have been interested in collecting such 
occurrences, there is a case of miscarriage in which 

537 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

puerperia egesta. sed ubi paululum temporis inter 

49 duos conceptus intercessit, utrumque perfertur, ut 
in Hercule et Iphicle fratre eius apparuit et in ea 
quae gemino partu altcrum marito similem alterum- 
que adultero genuit, item in Proconnesia ancilla 
quae eiusdem diei coitu alterum domino similem 
altcrum procuratori eius, et in alia quae unum iusto 
partu, quinque mensium allcrum edidit ; rursus in alia 
quae septem mensium edito puerperio insecutis 
tribus 1 mensibus geminos enixa est. 

50 lam illa vulgata sunt ^ : varie ex integris truncos 
gigni, ex truncis integros eademque parte truncos ; 
signa quaedam naevosque et cicatrices etiam regene- 
rari, quarto partu aliquorum ^ originis nota in brachio 

51 reddita* XII. (in Lepidorum gente tres, intermisso 
ordine, obducto membrana oculo genitos accepimus) ; 
similes quidem alios avo, et ex geminis quoque 
alterum patri alterum matri, annoque post genitum 
maiori similem fuisse ut geminum. quasdam sibi si- 
miles semper parere, quasdam viro, quasdam nuUi, 
quasdam feminam patri, marem sibi. indubitatum 
exemplum est Nicaei nobilis pyctae Byzanti geniti 

* Dellefsen {viz. ni) : in. 

* yiayhoff : ast av.t et. 

* Barbarus : Dacorum. 

* Mayhoff : redditur. 



BOOK VII. XI. 48-xii. 51 

twelve infants were still-born at once. When, 
however, a moderate interval of time separates tvvo 
conceptions, both may be successful, as was seen in 
the instance of Hercules and his brother Iphicles and 
in the case of the woman who bore twins of whom 
one resembled her husband and the other an 
adulterer ; and also in that of the maidservant of 
Marmara who, as a result of intercourse on the same 
day, bore one twin resembhng her master and 
another resembling his steward, and that of another 
woman who bore one twin at the proper period and 
the other a five-months' child, and again of another 
who after bearing a seven months' child was delivered 
of twins three months later. 

It is also well known that sound parents may have TTansmU- 
deformed childrcn and deformed parents sound 7acterisiics. 
children or children with tlie same deformity, as the 
case may be ; tliat some mai-ks and moles and evcn 
scars reappear in the offspring, in some cases a birth- 
mark on the arm reappearing in the fourtli generation 
XII. (we are tokl that in the Lepidus family three 
children were born, though not all in succession, with 
a membrane over the eyes) ; and indeed that other 
children have resembled their grandfather, and that 
also there has been a case of twins of which one 
resembled the father and the otlier the mother, and 
one of a child who resembled his brother hke a twin 
although born a year later. Also that some women 
always bear children like themselves, some bear 
children hke their husbands, some children with no 
family hkcness, some a female cliild hke its fathcr 
and a male child hke themselves. One unquestioned 
instance is that of the famous boxer Nicaeus, born 
at Istamboul, whose mother was the offspring of 

539 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

qui adulterio Aethiopis nata matre nihil a ceteris 
colore differente ipse avum regeneravit Aethiopem. 

52 Simihtudinum quidem inmensa reputatio est et in 
qua credantur multa fortuita pollere, visus, auditus 
memoriae ^ haustaeque imagines sub ipso conceptu. 
cogitatio etiam utriuslibet animum subito transvolans 
effingere simihtudinem aut miscere existimatur, 
ideoque plures in homine quam in ceteris omnibus 
animahbus differentiae quoniam velocitas cogita- 
tionum animique celeritas et ingeni varietas multi- 
formes notas inprimunt,^ cum ceteris animaiitibus 
inmobiles sint animi et siiniles omnibus singuhsque 

53 in suo cuique genere. Antiocho regi Syriae e plebe 
nomine Artenio in tantum simihs fuit ut Laodice 
coniunx regia necato iam Antiocho mimum per eum 
commendationis regnique successionis peregerit. 
Magno Pompeio \'ibius quidam e plebe et Pubhcius 
etiam ser\itute hberatus indiscreta prope specie 
fuere similes, ihud os probum reddentes ipsumque 

54 honorem eximiae frontis. quahs causa patri ciuoque 
eius Menogenis coci sui cognomen inposuit (iam 
Strabonis a specie oculorum habenti vitium imi- 
tata et in servo), Scipioni Serapionis — is erat suarii 

* Backhain : memoria. 

* Mayhojf : imprimit aul imprimat. 



" Or pcrhaps ' the rost of her family,' or ' othor half-breedfl.' 
* Antioehua III, theGreat, 223-187 B.c. Valeriiis Maximus, 
IX. 14, says that the king'9 mimic was a member of the 
royal family. and that he pretended to be the king lying ill 
in bed and the pubhc were admitted to 8oe him ; so Laodice 
securexl acceptance for her ston,' that the king on hia death- 
bed had coramended her and his children to the protection 
of the peopie. 
' ' Croas-eyed.' 

540 



BOOK VII. XII. 51-54 

adultery with an Ethiopian but had a complexion 
no difFerent from that of other women," whereas 
Nicaeus himself reproduced his Ethiopian grand- 
father. 

Cases of Ukeness are indeed an cxtremely wide sub- causes of 
i ect , and one which includcs the beUef that a ff reat many !r,?!^-L. 
accidental circumstances are influential — recollections 
of sights and sounds and actual sense-impressions 
received at the time of conception. Also a thought 
suddenly flitting across the mind of either parent is 
supposed to produce Ukeness or to cause a combina- 
tion of features, and the reason why there are more 
diiferences in man than in aU the other animals is 
that his swiftness of thought and quickness of mind 
and variety of mental character impress a great 
diversity of patterns, whereas the minds of the other 
animals are sluggish, and are aUke for aU and sundry, 
each in their own kind. A man of low station Cases of 
named Artemo so closely resembled Antiochus,'' king \l^i^"[ated^ 
of Svria, that the royal consort Laodice after she had persons. 
murdered Antiochus successfuUy made use of him 
to stage a play of her being recommended for 
succession to the throne. Pompey the Great had 
two doubles almost indistinguishable froni him in ap- 
pearance, a plebeian named Vibius and one PubUcius 
who was actuaUy a Uberated slave, both of wliom 
reproduced that noblc countenance and the actual 
dignity of his magnificent brow. A similar re- 
semblance was the reason that saddled Pompey's 
father also with the surname Menojjenes, that beinor 

o ' o 

the name of his cook, when he already had the 
surname Strabo <^ from the appearance of his eyes, 
which actuaUy copied a defect in his slave ; and a 
Scipio received the surname Serapio in a similar way, 

541 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

negotiatoris vile mancipium. eiusdem familiae Sci- 
pioni post eum nomen Salutio mimus dcdit, sicut 
Spinther secundarius tertiariusque,^ Pamphilus col- 
legio Lentuli et Metelli consulum, in quo perquam 
inportune fortuitum hoc quoque fuit, duorum simul 

55 consulum in scaena imagines cerni. e diverso L. 
Plancus orator histrioni Rubrio cognomen inposuit, 
rursus Curioni patri Burbulcius, itemque Messalae 
censorio Menogenes, perinde histrioncs. Surae 
quidem proconsulis etiam rictum in loquendo contrac- 
tionemque Hnguae et sermonis tumultum, non 
imaginem modo, piscator quidam in Sicilia reddidit. 
Cassio Severo celebri oratori Armentarii murmillonis^ 
obiecta simiUtudo est. modo in Annaea ' domo 
Gallionem a Castellano Uberto non discernebant, 
nec a Sannio mimo Paride cognominato Agrippinum 

56 senatorem. Toranius mango Antonio iam triumviro 
duos * eximios forma pueros, alterum in Asia genitum 
alterum trans Alpes, ut geminos vendicHt : tanta 
unitas erat. postquam deinde sermone puerorum 
detecta fraude a furente increpitus Antonio est, 
inter aUa magnitudinem preti conquerente (nam 
ducentis erat mercatus sestertiis), respondit versutus 
ingenii mango id ipsum se tanti vcndidisse, quoniam 
non esset mira simiUtudo in uUis eodem utero editis, 

* Vvlg. secandanim tertiarumque. 

* Vel armentarii Murmillonis. 
' Dttkjscn : in ea. 

* duos add. Rackham. 



* Or ' tho cowherd Murmillo.' 



542 



BOOK VII. xii. 54-56 

Serapio being a low chattel belonging to a dealcr in 
hogs. Another Scipio of a later generation received 
his name from an actor Sahitio, just as Spinther and 
Pamphihis who played second and third roles re- 
spectively gave their names to the colleagues in the 
consulship Lentuhis and Metellus, a situation which 
also (most inappropriately) resulted incidentally in the 
counterfeit presentations of two consuls being seen 
on the stage at once. Fice versa, Lucius Plancus an 
orator gave a surname to a player Rubrius, whereas 
Burbuleius gave his name to Curio senior and like- 
wise Menogenes to the former censor Messala, both 
aUke being actors. A fisherman in Sicily not only 
resembled the proconsul Sura in appearance but 
actually reproduced his gape while speaking and his 
tongue-tied stammering utterance. The famous 
orator Cassius Severus was taunted for his Hkeness to 
the gladiator Armentarius.'* Recently in the house- 
hold of Annaeus people used to mistake GalUo for the 
freedman Castellanus and the senator Agrippinus 
for the actor Sannius, surnamed Paris. The slave- 
dealer Toranius sold to Antony after he had become 
one of the triumvirate two exceptionally handsome 
boys, who were so identically aUke that he passed 
them off as twins, although one was a native of Asia 
and the other of a district North of the Alps. Later 
the boys' speech disclosed the fraud, and a protest 
was made to the dealer by the wrathful Antony, 
who complained especiaUy about the large amount 
of the price (lie had bought them for 200,000 
sesterces) ; but the crafty dealer repUed that the 
thing protested about was precisely the cause of his 
having charged so much, because there was nothing 
remarkable in a Ukeness between any pair of twin 

543 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

diversarum quidem gentium natales tam concordi 
figura reperiri super omnem esse taxationem ; 
adeoque tenipestivam admirationem intulit ut ille 
proscriptor, minis ^ modo et contumelia furens, non 
aliud in censu magis ex fortuna sua duceret. 

57 XIII. Est quaedam privatim dissociatio corporum, 
et inter se sterilis ubi cum aliis iunxere se, gignunt, 
sicut Augustus et Livia ; item alii. aliaeque feminas 
tantum generant aut mares, plerumque et alternant, 
sicut Gracchorum mater duodeciens, Agrippina 
Germanici noviens ; aliis sterilis est iuventa, aliis 
semel in vita datur gignere ; quaedam non perferunt 

68 partus, quales, si quando medicina naturam - vicere, 
feminam fere gignunt. divus Augustus in reliqua 
exemplorum raritate neptis suae nepotem vidit 
genitum quo excessit anno M. Silanum, qui cum 
Asiam obtineret post consulatum Neronis principis 

59 successione, veneno eius interemptus est. Q. Metel- 
lus Macedonicus, cum sex liberos relinqueret, xi 
nepotes reliquit, nurus vero generosque et omnes 

60 qui se patris appellatione salutarent xxvii. in actis 
temporum divi Augusti invenitur duodecimo con- 

* lihenanus : animus. 

* Detlefacn : medicina et cura. 



" I.e. all but one of hi3 grandchildren wero married. 

" 4 B.C. 



544 



BOOK VII. XII. 56-xiii. 60 

brothers, whereas (he said) to find natives of difFerent 
races so precisely alike in appearance was something 
above all appraisal ; and this produced in Antony so 
convenient a feeUng of admiration that the great 
inflictor of outlawry, who had just been in a fury of 
threats and abuse, considered that no other property 
that he possessed was more suited to his station ! 

XIII. Particular individuals may have a certain Exceptionai 
physical incongruity between them, and persons whose f^tiiiiy^ eu. 
union is infertile niay have children when they form 
other connexions — for instance Augustus and Livia, 
and similarly others. Also some women have only 
female or only male children, though usually the 
sexes come alternately — for instance in the case of 
the mother of the Gracchi this occurred twelve times, 
and in that of Germanicus's wife Agrippina nine 
times ; some women are childless in youth ; on some 
parentage is bestowed once in a hfetime ; certain 
women are always deUvered prematurely, and those 
of this class, if ever they succeed in overcoming this 
tendency by the use of drugs, usually bear a female 
child. One of the many exceptional circumstances 
connected with his late Majesty Aiigustus is that he 
Uved to see his daughter's grandson, Marcus Silanus, 
who was born in the year of his death ; Silanus, 
after succeeding the emperor Nero as consul, held 
the province of Asia, and during his office Nero 
despatched him by poison. Quintus Metellus 
Macedonicus, leaving six children, left eleven grand- 
childrcn, but including daughte«s-in-law and sons-in- 
law the total of those who greeted him by the title 
of father was twenty-seven." In the annals of the 
period of his late Majesty Augustus is found a 
statement that in his twelfth consulship,'' when 

545 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

sulatu eius L. que SuUa collega a. d. iii idus Aprilis C. 
Crispinium Hilarum ex ingenua plebe Faesulana cum 
liberis viii, in quo numero filiae duae fuere, nepotibus 
xx\ii, pronepotibus xviii, neptibus viii, praelata 
pompa cum omnibus his in Capitolio immolasse. 

61 XIV. Mulier post quinquagensimum annum non 
gignit, maiorque pars xl profluvium genitale sistit. 
nam in viris Masinissam regem post lxxxvi annum 
generasse filium quem Methimannum appellaverit 
clarum est, Catonem censoriimi octogesimo exacto e 

62 fiha Saloni chentis sui : qua de causa ahorum eius 
hberum propago Liciniani sunt cognominati, hi 
Saloniani, ex quis Uticensis fuit. nuper etiam L. 
Volusio Salurnino in urbis praefectura extincto notum 
est e Corneha Scipionum gentis Volusium Saturninum 
qui fuit consul genitum post lxii annum. et usque 
ad Lxxv apud ignobiles vulgaris reperitur generatio. 

63 XV. Solum autem aninial menstruale muher est ; 
inde unius utero quas appeUaverunt molas. ea est 
caro informis, inanima, ferri ictum et aciem respuens ; 
movetur sistitque menses, ut et partus, ahas letahs 
ahas una senescens ahquando alvo citatiore excidens. 
simile quiddam et viris in ventre gignitur, quod 
vocant scirron, sicut Oppio Capitoni praetorio viro. 

546 



BOOK VII. XIII. 60-.YV'. 63 

Lucius Sulla was his colleague, on the 9th April a 
freeman of hunible station at Fiesole named Gaius 
Crispinius Hilarus went in procession preceded by 
eight children, including two daughters, twenty- 
seven grandchildren, eighteen great-grandchildren, 
and eight granddaughters bv marriage, and with all 
of tliese in attendance offered saci-ifice on the Capitol. 

XI\'. A woman does not bear children after the age .417^ 0/ 
of fifty, and with the majority menstruation ceases at -^^" "*'' 
40. As for the case of men, it is well known that 
King Masinissa begot a son when over 86, whom he 
called Methimannus, and Cato the ex-censor had a 
son by the daughter of his cHent Salonius when he was 
81 : this is the reason whv this branch of his family 
l^ears the surname of Salonianus, although that of 
the other branch is Liciniaiuis ; Cato of Utica be- 
longed to the Salonian branch. Recently also 
Lucius Volusius Saturninus, who died while holding 
the office of City Praefect, is known to have had a 
son, by CorneUa of the Scipio family, born after 
he was 62, Volusius Saturninus, who was consul. 
Parentage even up to the age of 75 is commonly 
found in the lower classes. 

X\^ Woman is, however, the only animal that has Menttma- 
monthly periods ; consequently she akjne has what '"^" 
are called moles in her womb. This mole is a 
shapeless and inanimate mass of flesh that resists 
the point and the edge of a knife ; it moves about, 
and it checks menstruation, as it also checks 
births : in some cases causing death, in others 
growing okl with the patient, sometimes when the 
bowels are violently moved being ejected. A similar 
object is also formed in the stomach of males, called 
a tumour, as in the case of the praetorian Oppius 

547 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

64 sed nihil facile reperiatur mulierum profluvio magis 
monstrificum. acescunt superventu musta, sterile- 
scunt contactae fruges, moriuntur insita, exuruntur 
hortorum gcrmina, fructus arborum [quibus insidcre] ^ 
decidunt, speculorum fulgor adspectu ipso hebetatur, 
acies ferri praestringitur, eboris nitor, alvi apium 
moriuntur, aes etiam ac ferrum robigo protinus cor- 
ripit odorque dirus aera, in rabiem aguntur gustato eo 

65 canes atque insanabiU veneno morsus inficitur. quin 
et bituminum sequax alioquin ac lenta natura in 
l.ncu ludaeae qui vocatur Asphaltites certo tempore 
anni supernatans non quit sibi avelH ad omnem 
contactum adhaerens praeterquam filo quod tale 
virus infecerit. etiam formicis, animaU minimo, 
inesse sensum eius ferunt, abicique gustatas fruges 

66 nec postea repeti. et hoc tale tantumque omnibus 
tricenis diebus malum in muHere exsistit et trimenstri 
spatio largius, quibusdam vero saepius mcnse, sicut 
aHquis numquam. sed tales non gignunt, quando 
haec est generando homini materia, germine e 
maribus coaguH modo hoc in sese glomerante, quod 
deinde tempore ipso animatur corporaturque. ergo 
cum gravidis fluxit, invaHdi aut non vitales partus 

67 eduntur aut saniosi, ut auctor est Nigidius. XVI. 
(idem lac feminae non corrumpi alenti partum si ex 

' Scdusit Rackham. 

• The Dead Soo. 
S48 



BOOK VII. XV. 64-xvi. 67 

Capito. But nothing could easily be found that 
is more remarkable than the monthly flux of women. 
Contact with it turns new wine sour, crops touched 
by it bccome barren, grafts die, seeds in gardens 
are dried up, the fruit of trees falls otf, the bright 
surface of mirrors in which it is merely reflected 
is dimmed, the edge of steel and the gleam of 
ivory are dulled, hives of bees die, even bronze 
and iron are at once seized by rust, and a horrible 
smell fills the air ; to taste it drives dogs mad and 
infects their bites with an incurable poison. More- 
over bitumen, a substance generally sticky and 
viscous, that at a certain season of the year floats 
on the surface of the lake of Judaea called the 
Asphalt Pool,'» adheres to everj^thing touching it, 
and cannot be drawn asxmder except by a thread 
soaked in the poisonous fluid in question. Even that 
very tiny creature the ant is said to be sensitive to 
it, and throws away grains of corn that taste of it 
and does not touch them again. Not only does this 
pemicious mischief occur in a woman every month, 
but it comes in larger (juantity every three months ; 
and in some cases it comes more frequently than 
once a month, just as in certain women it never 
occurs at all. The latter, however, do not have 
children, since the substance in question is the 
material for human generation, as the semen from 
the males acting like rennet collects this substance 
within it, which thereupon immediately is inspired 
with Hfe and endowed with body. Hence when this 
flux occurs with women heavy with child, the off- 
spring is sickly or still-born or sanious, according to 
Nigidius. XVI. (The same writer hokis that a 
woman's milk does not go bad while she is suckUng 

549 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

eodem \iro rursus conceperit arbitratur). incipiente 
autem hoc statu aut desinente conceptus facillimi 
traduntur. fecunditatis in feminis praerogativam 
accepimus inunctis medicamine oculis salivam infici. 

68 Ceterum editis primores septimo mense gigni den- 
tes, priusquc in superna fere parte, haud dubium 
est, septimo eosdcm decidere anno aliosque suffici, 
quosdam et cum dentibus nasci, sicut M'. Curium, 
qui ob id Dentatus cognominatus est, et Cn. Papirium 
Carboncm, praeclaros viros. in feminis ea res 
inauspicati fuit exempU regum temporibus : cum ita 

69 nata esset Valeria, exitio civitati in quam delata 
esset futuram responso haruspicum vaticinante, 
Suessam Pometiam illa tempestate florentissimam 
deportata est, veridico exilu consecuto. (quasdam 
concreto genitali gigni infausto omine CorncHa 
Gracchorum matcr indicio est.) ahqui vice dentium 
continuo osse gignuntur, sicuti Prusiae regis Bithy- 
niorum fihus superna parte oris. dentes autem in ^ 

70 tantum invicti sunt ignibus ut ^ nec crementur cum 
reliquo corpore, iidemquc flammis indomiti cavantur 
tabe pituitae. candorem trahunt quodam medi- 
camine. usu atteruntur, multoque prius ^ in ahquis 
deficiunt. nec cibo tantum et aHmentis necessarii, 

' in add. Mayhnff. 

* ut add. Maylwff. 

* Sabdliua : primum. 



" In Latium ; conquerod by the Romans undor Tarquinius 
Priscus. It revoltod in 503 n.c. and was rotakon by Sp. Cassius 
in the following year and dostroyed. 

550 



BOOK VII. XVI. 67-70 

a baby if she has become pregnant again from the 
same male.) It is statcd, however, that the casiest 
conceptions are when this condition is beginning or 
ceasing. We have it recorded as a sure sign of 
fertiUty in women if when the eyes have been 
anointed with a drug the saliva contains traces 
ofit. 

Moreover, it is known that children cut their first nentition 
teeth when six months old, the upper ones mostly ' '^*"' 
coming first, and that the first teeth fall out and are 
replaced by others when they are six years old ; 
and that some children are born having teeth — two 
distinguished instances are Manius Curius, who 
received the surname Dentatus in consequence, and 
Gnaeus Papirius Carbo. In the regal pcriod this 
occurrence was considered a sign of bad luck in 
females : Valeria was born with teeth, and the 
soothsayers in reply to inquiry prophesied that she 
would bring disaster to any community to which 
she was taken ; she was deported to Suessa Pometia," 
at that period a very flourishing place, the eventual 
result verifying the oracle. (Some females are born 
with the genitals closed ; this is proved by the case 
of Cornelia the mother of the Gracchi to be a sign 
of bad luck.) Some infants are born with a ridge 
of bone instead of teeth ; this was the case as regards 
the upper jaw with the son of Prusias, King of 
Bithynia. The teeth are so far indestructible by 
fire as not to burn when the rest of the body is 
cremated, but although they resist fire they are 
corroded bv a morbid stateof the saliva. A certain 
drug gives them whiteness. Use wears them down, 
and in some people they decay much before this. 
Nor are they only necessary for food and nourish- 

551 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

quippe vocis sermonisque regimen primores tenent, 
concentu quodam excipientes ictum linguae serieque 
structurae atque magnitudine mutilantes molli- 
entesve aut hebetantes verba et, cum defuere, 

71 explanationem omnem adimentes. quin et augixrium 
in hac esse creditur parte. triceni bini viris adtri- 
buuntur excepta Turdulorum gente ; quibus plures 
fuere longiora promitti vitae putant spatia. feminis 
minor numerus, quibus in dextra parte gemini 
superne a canibus cognominati fortunae blandimenta 
pollicentur, sicut in Agrippina Domiti Neronis matre ; 

72 contra in laeva. — (Hominem prius quam genito dente 
cremari mos gentium non est.^) — sed mox plura de 
hoc. cum membratim historia decurret. 

Ilisisse eodem die quo genitus esset unum homi- 
nem accepimus Zoroastren, eidem cerebrum ita 
palpitasse ut inpositam repelleret manum, futurae 
praesagio scientiae. 
7.3 In trimatu suae ^ cuique dimidiam esse mensuram 
futurae staturae ^ certum est. in plenum autem 
cuncto mortaHum generi minorem in dies fieri pro- 
pcmodum observatur, rarosque patribus proccriores, 
consumente ubertatem seminum exustione in cuius 
\ices nunc vergat acvom. in Creta terrae motu 
rupto monte inventum est corpus stans xlvi cubi- 
torum, quod aUi Orionis ahi Oti esse arbitrabantur. 

' Hominem . . . est posl pituitao § 70 trans/ercndum War- 
mington. ' Kackham : buo. 

' futurao Btaturae Rackham : futuras aut staturae. 

• This scntence would come in better four lines from the 
bottom of p. ^FA. 

' Orion, a giant hunt«r, transported to hoaven, gave his name 
totheconstellation; Otus wasagiganticsonof Posoidon. Bones 
of elephants, maatodons, whales, otc., discovored in alluvial 
tracte have in the past becn supposod to be the bones of giants. 

552 



BOOK VII. XVI. 70-73 

ment, as the front teeth regulate the voice and speech, 
meeting the impact of the tongue with a kind of 
harmony, and according to their regularity of arrange- 
ment and size clipping or modulating or else duUing 
the words, and when they are lost preventing all 
clear articulation. Moreover this part of the body 
is beheved to possess prophetic powers. Males 
(excepting the Turduli tribe) have 32 teeth ; there 
have been cases of men with more — tliis is thought to 
foretell a longer term of hfe. Women have fewer ; 
with them two dogteeth on the right side of the 
upper jaw are a promise of fortune's favours, as in 
the case of Domitius Nero's mother Agrippina; on 
the left side the opposite. — (It is the universal 
custom of mankind not to cremate a person who dies 
before cutting his teeth.") — But more of this later 
when our researches go through the parts of the 
body seriatim. 

It is recorded of only one person, Zoroaster, that he Eicevtionai 
laughed on the same day on which he was born, ^'■'''^''«"y- 
and also that his brain throbbed so violently as to 
dislodge a hand placed on liis head — this foretelling 
his future knowledge. 

It is known that at the age of three a person'8 numan 
measurement is half his future stature. But it is *'?"!''*. . 
alniost a matter of observation that with the entire 
human race the stature on the wliole is becoming 
smaller daily, and that few men are taller than their 
fathers, as the conflagration that is the crisis towards 
which the age is now verging is exhausting the 
fertiUty of the semen. When a mountain in Crete 
was cleft by an earthquake a body 69 feet in height Gxanu and 
was found, which some people thought must be that 
of Orion and others of Otus.* The records attest 

553 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

74 Orestis corpus oraculi iussu refossuni septem cubi- 
torum fuisse monimentis creditur. iam vero ante 
annos prope mille vates ille Ilomerus non cessavit 
minora corpora mortalium quani prisca conqueri. 
NacNii Pollionis amplitudinem annales non tradunt, 
sed quia populi concursu paene sit interemptus, vice 
prodigii habitam.^ procerissimum hominem aetas 
nostra divo Claudio principe Gabbaram nomine ex 
Arabia advectum novem pedum et totidem unciarum 

75 vidit. fuere sub divo Augusto duo - semipede addito, 
quorum corpora eiu-s miraculi f^ratia in conditorio 
Sallustianorum adservabantur hortorum ; Pusioni 
et Secundillae erant nomina. eodem praeside 
minimus homo duos pedes et palmum Conopas nomine 
in deliciis luliae ncptis eius fuit, et minima'' mulier 
Andromeda Hbcrta luHae Augastae. Manium Maxi- 
mum et M. TulHum equites Romanos binum cubi- 
torum fuisse auctor est M. \'arro, et ipsi vidimus in 
locuHs adservatos. sesquipedales gigni, quosdam 
longiores, in trimatu inplentes vitae cursum, haud 
ignotum est. 

76 Invenimus in monumentis Salamine Euthymenis 
fiHum in tria cubita triennio adcrevisse, incessu 
tardum, sensu hebetem, puberem etiam factum, voce 
robusta, absumptiun contractione membrorum subita 
tricnnio circumacto. ipsi non pridem vidimus eadem 
ferme omnia praeter pubertatem in fiHo CorneH 

^ Rackham : habitum. 

* duo supplevil liackham. 

* minima suppleinl Rackham. 



• By the Spartans, who then gained thu victory in their 
long war with Tegea, 654 B.c. (Uerodotua I. 65 ff.). 

554 



BOOK MI. XVI. 74-76 

that the body of Orestes dug up " at the command of 
an oracle measured 10 ft. 6 in. Moreover, the famous 
bard Homer nearly 1000 years ago never ceased to 
lament that mortals were smaller of stature than in 
the old days. In the case of Naevius PoUio the 
annals do not record his height, but thcy show that 
it was deemed portentous, because he was almost 
killed by the people flocking round him. The tallest 
person our age has seen was a man named Gabbara 
brought from Arabia in the principate of liis late 
Majesty Claudius who was 9 ft. 9 in. in height. 
Under his late Majesty Augustus there were two 
persons 6 in. taller, whose bodies on account of this 
remarkable height were preserved in the tomb in 
Sallust*s Gardens ; their names were Pusio and 
Secundilla. WTien the same emperor was head of the 
state the smallest person was a dwarf 2 ft. 5 in. high 
named Conopas, the pet of his granddaughter JuHa, 
and the smallest female was Andromeda, a freed- 
woman of Julia Augusta. Marcus Varro states 
that the Knights of Rome Manius Maximus and 
Marcus TulHus were 3 ft. high, and we have ourselves 
seen their bodies preserved in coffins. It is a matter 
of common knowledge that persons are born LS in. 
high and some taller, who complete their hfes course 
at the age of three. 

We find in the rccords that at Salamis the son of 
Euthymenes grew to 4 ft. 6 in. in his third year ; 
he walked slowly, was dull of sense, became sexually 
quite mature, had a bass voice, and was carried off 
by a sudden attack of paralysis when he turned 
three. We ourselves recently saw almost all these 
features except sexual maturity in a son of the Knight 
of Rome Comelius Tacitus, Deputy Finance Minister 

555 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

Taciti equitis Romani Belgicae Galliae rationes 
procurantis. eVTpaTreXoi? Graeci vocant eos, in 
Latio non habent nomen. 

77 X\'n. Quod sit homini spatium a vestigio ad 
verticem id esse pansis manibus inter longissimos 
digitos observatum est, sicuti vires ^ dextra parte 
maiores, quibusdam aequas utraque, aliquis laeva 
manu praecipuas, nec id umquam in feminis, mares 
praestare pondere, et defuncta viventibus corpora 
omnium animalium, et dormientia vigilantibus, 
virorum cadavera supina fluitare, feminarum prona, 
velut pudori defunctarum parcente natura. 

78 XVHL Concretis quosdam ossibus ac sine meduUis 
vivere accepimus ; signum eorum esse nec sitim 
sentire nec sudorem emittere, quamquam et voluntate 
scimus sitim victam, equitemque Romanum lulium 
Viatorem e Vocontiorum gente foederata in pupillari- 
bus annis aquae subter cutem fusae morbo prohibitum 
umore a medicis naturam vicisse consuetudine atque 
in senectam caruisse potu. nec non et alii multa 
sibi imperavere. 

79 XIX. Ferunt Crassum avum Crassi in Parthis 
interempti numquam risisse, ob id Agelastum 
vocatum, sicuti nec flesse multos, Socratem clarum 
sapientia eodem semper visum vultu, nec aut hilaro 
magis aut turbato. exit hic animi tenor aliquando in 

^ V.l. virea quibusdam. 



• I.e. with the arms stretchod out sideways. 

* Tho • triumvir,' who fell at Carrhae 63 u.O. 



556 



BOOK VII. .wi. 76-xix. 79 

in Belgic Gaul. The Greeks call these cases 
' perverts,' but in the Latin country there is no 
name for them. 

XVII. It has been noticed tliat a man's height from //'"'""' 
head to foot is equal to his full span " measured from and weight. 
the tips of the middle fingers ; likewise that the 
right-hand side of the frame is the stronger, though 

in some cases both sides are equally strong and 
there are people whose left side is the stronger, 
though this is never the case with women ; and that 
males are the heavier; and that the bodies of all 
creatures are heavier when dead than when ahve, 
and when asleep than when awake ; and that men's 
corpses float on their backs, but women's on their 
faces, as if nature spared their modestv after death. 

XVIII. Cases are recorded of persons living whose varyingneed 
bones were sohd and without marrow ; and we are told ofiiquid. 
that their distinguishing mark is insensibihty to 

thirst and absence of perspiration, although we know 
that thirst can also be subdued by the will, and that 
a Knight of Rome of the alhed tribe of the Vocontii 
named JuHus Viator, suffering from dropsy when a 
minor, was forbidden hquid by the doctors and 
habituated himself to defeat nature, going without 
drink till old age. Moreover other persons also 
have exercised many kinds of self-control. 

XIX. It is stated that Crassus the grandfather o{ pecuiiar 
Crassus ^ who fell in Parthia never laughed, and was """^^*- 
consequently called Agelastus, and that Ukewise there 

have been many cases of people who never wept, 
and that the famous philosopher Socrates always 
wore the same look on his countenance, never gayer 
and never more perturbed. This temperament 
sometimes develops into a kind of rigidity and a 

557 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

rigorem quendam torvitatemque naturae duram et 
inflexibilem, affectusque humanos adimit, quales 

80 aTraOel? Graeci vocant multos eius generis experti, 
quodque mirum sit, auctores maxime sapientiae, 
Diogenen Cynicum, Pyrrhonem, HeracUtum, 
Timoneni, hunc quideni ctiam in totius odium gcncris 
humani evectum. sed haec parva naturae insignia 
in multis varia cognoscuntur, ut in Antonia Urusi 
niunquam expuisse, in Pomponio consulari poeta 
non ructasse. quibus natura concreta sunt ossa, 
qui sunt rari admodum, cornei vocantur. 

81 XX. Corpore vesco sed eximiis viribus Tritanum in 
gladiatorio ludo Samnitium armatura celebrem, 
fihumque eius militem Magni Pompei et rectos et 
traversos cancellatim toto corpore habuisse nervos, 
in brachiis ctiam manibusque, auctor est Varro in 
prodigiosarum virium relatione, atque etiam hostcm 
ab eo ex provocatione dimicantem inermi dextera 
superatum et postremo correptum uno digito ^ in 

82 castra tralatum. at Vinnius Valens mcruit in prae- 
torio divi Augusti centurio, vehicula cum culleis 
onusta donec exinanirentur sustinere soHtus, car- 
penta adprehensa una manu retinere obnixus contra 
nitentibus iumentis, et aUa mirifica facere quae 
insculpta moniniento eius spectantur. idem M. 

83 Varro : ' RusticeUus,' inquit, ' Hercules appellatus 
mulum suum toUebat, Fufius Salvius duo centenaria 

1 uno digito hic Mayhoff: ante superatum codd. 
' Cf. § 78 abovo. 

558 



BOOK VII. XIX. 79-xx. 83 

hard, unbending severity of nature, and takes away 
the emotions natural to humanity ; persons of this 
sort are called ' apathetic ' by the Greeks, who have 
known many men of the kind, and among them 
surprising to say, chiefly founders of schools of 
philosophy, Diogenes the Cynic, Pyrrho, HeracUtus, 
Timo — the last indeed going as far as to hate the 
whole human race. But these small pecuharities of 
nature are kno\vn to occiu' variously in many per- 
sons, for instance in the case of Drusus's daughter 
Antonia never spitting, in the poct and ex-consul 
Pomponius never belching. Persons whose bones are 
by nature soUd," a rather rare class, are called ' horny.' 

XX. \'arro in his account of cases of remarkable ExcepHonai 
strength records that one Tritanus, famous in the ^^''"^^- 
gladiatorial exercise with the Samnite equipment, was 
sUghtly built but of exceptional strength, and that his 
son, a soldier of Pompey the Great, had a chequered 
criss-cross of sinews aU over his body, even in his 
arms and hands ; and moreover that once he clial- 
lenged one of the enemy to single combat, defeated 
him without a weapon in his hand, and finaUy took 
hold of him with a single finger and carried him off" 
to the camp. Vinnius Valens served as captain in 
the Imperial Guard of the late lamented Augustus ; 
he was in the habit of holding carts laden with wine- 
sacks up in the air until they were emptied, and of 
catching hold of wagons with one hand and stopping 
them by throwing his v.eight against the efforts of 
the teams drawing them, and doing other marveUous 
exploits which can be seen carved on his monument. 
Marcus Varro Ukewise states : ' RusticeUus, who was 
nicknamed Hercules, used to Uft his mule ; Fufius 
Salvius uscd to walk up a hidder with tAvo hundred- 

559 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

pondera pedibus, totidem manibus, et ducenaria duo 
umeris contra scalas ferebat.' nos quoque vidimus 
Athanatum nomine, prodigiosae ostentationis, quin- 
genario thorace plumbeo indutum cothurnisque 
quingentum pondo calciatum pcr scaenam ingredi. 
Milonem athletam cmn constitisset nemo vestiffio 
educebat, malum tenenti nemo digitum corrigebat. 

84 Cucurrisse mcxl stadia ab Athenis Lacedae- 
monem biduo Phidippidem,^ magnum erat, donec 
Anystis cursor Lacedaemonius et Philonides Alex- 
andri Magni a Sicyone Elim uno die mcccv stadia 
cucurrerunt. nunc quidem in circo quosdam clx 
passuum tolerare non ignoramus, nuperque Fonteio 
et Vipstano coss. annos viii gcnituni a meridie ad 
vesperam lxxv passuum cucurrisse. cuius rei 
admiratio ita demum solida perveniet, si quis cogitet 
nocte ac die longissimum iter vehicuHs Tib. Neronem 
emensum festinantem ad Drusum fratrem aegrotum 
in Germaniam ; ea fuerunt cc passuum. 

85 XXI. Oculorum acies vel maxime fidem excedentia 
invenit exempla. in nuce inclusam IHadem Ilomeri 
carmen in membrana scriptum tracHt Cicero. idcm 
fuisse qui pervideret cxxxv passuum. huic et 
nomen M. Varro reddit, Strabonem vocatum ; soH- 
tum autem Punico beHo a Libybaeo SiciHae pro- 
munturio excunte classe e Carthaginis portu etiam 
numerum navium dicere. CaUicrates ex ebore 

* Salmasiua : Philippidem. 

" The courior sent to ask for aid against tho Persian invadera, 
490 B.c. (Hcrodotus VI. 105). The distances are given here 
in rough figures, tho stade bcing taken as 200 yards, and the 
millf, passus as IGOO yards. (Elsewherc, in topographical 
paBsagcs, the usunl rendcrings ' furlong ' and ' mile ' are 
employed.) * ' Cross-eyed.' 

560 



BOOK VII. XX. 83-xxi. 85 

pound weights fastened to his feet, the same weights 
in his hands and two two-hundred-pound weights on 
his shoulders.' We also saw a man named Athanatus, 
who was capable of a miraculous display : he walked 
across the stage wearing a leaden breast-plate 
weighing 500 pounds and shod in boots of 500 
pounds' weight. When the athlete Milo took a 
firm stand, no one could make him shift his footing, 
and wlien he was hokling an apple no one couki 
make him straightcn out a finger. 

Phidippides's" running the 130 miles from Athens 
to Sparta in two days was a mighty feat, until the 
Spartan runner Anystis and Alexander the Great's 
courier Philonides ran the I-IS miles from Sicyon to 
Ehs in a day. At the present day indeed we are 
aware that some men can last out 128 miles in the 
circus, and that recently in the consulship of Fon- 
teius and Vipstanus a boy of 8 ran 68 miles between 
noon and evening. The marvellous nature of this 
feat will only get across to us in full measure if we 
reflect that Tiberius Nero completed by carriage 
the longest twenty-four hours' journey on record 
when hastening to Germany to his brother Drusus 
who was ill : this measured 182 miles. 

XXI. Keenness of sight has achieved instances Excepiionai 
transcending beiref in the highest degree. Cicero "''*'• 
records that a parchment copy of Homer's poem The 
Jliad was enclosed in a nutshell. He also records a 
case of a man who could see 123 miles. Marcus Varro 
also gives this man's name, which was Strabo,* and 
states that in the Punic wars he was in the habit 
of tclling from the promontory of Lilybaeum in Sicily 
the actual number of ships in a fleet that was passing 
out from the harbour of Carthage. Callicrates 

561 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

formicas et alia tam parva fecit animalia ut partes 
eoi-um a ceteris cerni non possent. Mvrmecides 
quidam in eodcm genere inclaruit quadriga ex 
eadem materia quam musca integeret alis fabricata 
et nave quam apicula pinnis absconderet. 

86 XXII. Auditus unum exemplum habet mirabile, 
proelium quo Sybaris deleta est eo die quo gestum 
erat auditum Olvmpiae. nam nuntii ^ Cimbrieae 
^ictoriae Castoresque Romanis ^ qui Persicam 
victoriam ipso die quo contigit nuntiavere ^isus et 
numinum fuere praesagia. 

87 XXIII. Patientia coq-)oris, ut est crebra sors 
calamitatum, innumera documenta peperit, clarissi- 
mum in feminis Leaenae meretricis, quae torta non 
indicavit Harmodium et Aristogitonem tvrannicidas, 
in viris Anaxarchi, qui simiH de causa cum torqueretur 
pracrosam dentibus Hnguam unamque spem indici 
in tvranni os expuit. 

88 XXI\'. Memoria necessarium maxime ^itae bonum 
cui praecipua fuerit haut facile dictu est tam multis 
eius gloriam adeptis. Cvrus rex omnibus in exercitu 
suo militibus nomina reddidit, L. Scipio populo Ro- 
mano, Cineas Pyrrhi regis legatus senatui et equestri 
ordini Romae postero die quam advenerat. Mithri- 

' nuntii add. Jan. 

* Rackham (Romam Rhcnanus) : Romani. 



" Fought at the river Sagra in S. Italy, the Locrian scttlers 
defoating Crotona. 560 B.c. 

• Won by Marius at Campus Raudius 101 b.c. For the 
report convej-ed by a miracuJous noise of battle in the sky, see 
U. 148. 

• I.e. Castor and his brother Pollux. 

' Won by Aemilius Paulus at Pydna, 168 b.o. 

• At Athens, 514 b.c. 

562 



BOOK VII. xxi. 85-\\iv. 88 

used to make such small ivory models of ants and 
other creatwres that to anybody else their parts were 
invisible. A cerlain Myrmecides won fame in the 
same department by maldng; a four-horse chariot of 
the same material that a fly's wings would cover, 
and a ship that a tiny bee could conceal with its ^\ings. 

XXII. There is one marvellous instance of the Exceptionai 
transmission of a spoken message : the battle « that of"our!df'"' 
resulted in the destruction of Sybaris was heard of 

at Olympia on the day on which it was fought. For 
the messengers who brought news of the victory *" 
over the Cimbri and the brothers Castor '^ who 
reported the victory «^ over Perseus to the Romans 
on the very day on which it happened were visions 
and warnings sent by the divine powers. 

XXIII. Bodily cndurance, so fertile of disasters is ExcepUonai 
fate, has produced countless examples, the most '^"'■'"^- 
famous in the case of women being that of the harlot 
Leaena who on the rack refused to betray the 
tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogiton,^ and among 

men that of Anaxarchus/ who when being tortured 
for a similar reason bit off his tongue and spat the 
only hope of betrayal in the tyrant's face. 

XXIV. As to memor}'. the boon most necessary for Exceptional 
life, it is not easy to say who most excelled in it, so "'^""^- 
many men having gained renown for it. King Cyrus 

could give their names to all the soldiers in his 
army, Lucius Scipio knew the names of the whole 
Iloman people, King Pyrrhus's envoy Cineas knew 
those of the senate and knighthood at Ilome the day 
after his arrival.? Mithridates who was king of 

f A philosopher in the court of Alexander, put to death by 
Nicocreon Kang of Salamis for his freedom of speech. 
» 280 B.c. 

563 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

dates duarum et viginti gentium rex totidem linguis 
iura dixit, pro contione singulas sine interprete 

89 adfatus. Charmadas quidam in Graecia quae quis 
exegerit volumina in bibliothecis legentis modo 
repraesenta^it. ars postremo eius rei facta et in- 
venta est a Simonide melico, consummata a Mctro- 
doro Scepsio, ut nihil non iisdem verbis redderetur 

90 auditum. nec aHud est aeque fragile in homine : 
morborum et casus iniurias atque etiam metus sentit, 
ahas particulatim, ahas universa. ictus lapide obhtus 
est htteras tantum ; ex praealto tecto lapsus matris 
et adfinium propinquorumque cepit obhvionem, ahus 
aegrotus servorum etiam, sui vero nominis Messala 
CorAinus orator. itaque saepe deficere temptat ac 
meditatur vel quieto corpore et vahdo ; somno 
quoque serpente amputatur, ut inanis mens quaerat 
ubi sit loci. 

91 XXV. Animi vigore praestantissimum arbitror gen- 
itum^ Caesarem dictatorem ; nec \irtutem constan- 
tiamque nunc commemoro, nec subhmitatem omnium 
capacem quae caelo continentur , sed proprium vigorem 
celeritatemque quodam igne volucrem. scribere aut 
legere, simul dictare aut audirc solitum accepimus, 
epistulas vero tantarum rerum quaternas pariter 

92 dictare hbrariis aut, si nihil ahud ageret, septenas.^ 
idem signis conlatis quinquagiens dimicavit, solus 
M. Marcellum transgressus, qui undccjuadragiens 

* y.ll. gentium, Gaium. 

' \'.l. om. librariia — scptenas. 

' Some manuscriptfl omit the last clause 
564 



BOOK VII. XXIV. 88-xxv. 92 

tweiity-two races gave judgements in as many 
languages, in an assembly addressing each race in 
turn without an intei^preter. A pei-son in Greece 
named Charmadas recited the contents of any 
volumes in hbraries that anyone asked him to quotc, 
just as if he were reading them. Finally, a memoria 
technica was constructed, wliich was invented by the 
lyric poet Simonides and pcrfected by Metrodorus 
of Scepsis, enabhng anything heard to be repeated 
in the identical words. Also no other human faculty 
is equally fragile : injuries from, and even appre- 
hensions of, diseases and accident may afFect in some 
cases a single field of memory and in others the 
whole. A man has been knoA\Ti when struck by a 
stone to forget how to read and write but nothing 
else. One who feU from a very high roof forgot his 
mother and his relatives and friends, another when 
ill forgot his servants also ; the orator Messala 
Corvinus forgot liis own name. Similarly tentative 
and hesitating lapses of memory often occur when 
the body even when uninjured is in repose ; also the 
gradual approach of sleep curtails the memory and 
makes the unoccupicd mind wonder where it is. 

XX\'. The most outstanding instance of innate men- ExcepHmai 
tal vigour I take to be the dictator Caesar ; and I am andcharacter 
not now thinking of valour and resolution, nor of a of JuHus 
loftiness embracing all the contents of the firmament 
of heaven, but of native vigour and quickness winged 
as it were with fire. We are told that he used to 
write or read and dictate or listen simultaneously, 
and to dictate to his secretaries four letters at once 
on his important affairs — or, if otherwise unoccupied, 
seven letters at once." He also fought fifty pitched 
I)attles, and alone beat the record of Marcus Mar- 



VOL. II. 



565 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

dimicavit^ — luim praeter civiles victorias undeciens 
centenu et nonaginta duo milia liominuin occisa 
proeliis ab eo non equidem in gloria posuerim, tantam 
etiamsi ^ coactam humani generis iniuriam, quod ita 
esse confessus est ipse bellorum civilium stragem non 
prodendo. 

93 lustius Pompeio Magno tribuatur dcccxlvi naves 
piratis ademisse : Caesari proprium et peculiare 
sit praeter supra dicta clementiae insigne qua 
usque ad paenitentiam omnes superavit ; idem 
magnanimitatis praebuit exemplum cui comparari 

94 non possit aliud. spectacula enim edita effusasque 
opes aut opervun magnificentiam in hac parte 
nimierare - luxuriae faventis est : illa fuit vera et 
incomparabilis invicti animi subhmitas, captis apud 
Pharsaliam Pompei Magni scriniis epistularum 
iterumque apud Thapsum Scipionis concremasse ea 
optima fide atque non legisse. 

95 XX\'I. Verum ad decus imperii Romani, non solum 
adviriuniuspertinetjVictoriarumPompei Magnititulos 
omnes triumphosque hoc in loco nuncupari, aequato 
non modo Alexandri Magni reruni fulgore, sed etiam 

96 Herculis prope ac Liberi patris. igitur Sicilia re- 
cuperata, unde primum Sullanus in reip. causa 
exoriens auspicatus est, Africa vero tota subacta et 
in dicionem redacta, Magnique nomine in spolium 

* Detlefsen : etiam (et incoactam ? Mayhoff). 

* Mayhoff : enumerare. 



566 



The conqueror of Syracuse, 212 n.o. 



BOOK VII. xx\'. 92 -XXVI. 96 

cellus'' who fought thirty-nine — for I would not myself 
count it to his glory that in addition to conquering 
his fellow-citizens he killed in his battles 1,192,000 
human beings, a prodigious even if unavoidable 
wrong inflicted on the human race, as he himself 
confessed it to be by not pubUshing the casualties 
of the civil wars. 

It would be more just to credit Pompey the Great 
with the 846 ships that he captured from the pirates ; 
while to Caesar let us assign, in addition to the facts 
mentioned above, the pecuhar distinction of the 
clemencv in which (even to the point of subsequent 
regret) he surpassed all men ; also he afforded an 
example of magnanimity that no other can parallel. 
For while to count under this head the shows that he 
gave and the wealth that he squandered, or the 
magnificence of his pubhc works, would display 
indulgence to luxury, it showed the genuine and 
unrivalled subUmity of an unconquered spirit that, 
when Pompey the Great's despatch cases wcre 
captured at PharsaUa and again those of Scipio at 
Thapsus, he scrupulously burnt thern and did not 
read them. 

XXVI. But it concerns the glory of the Roman .ichierements 
Empire, and not that of one man, to mention in this nanimityoj 
place aU the records of the victories of Pompey the ^'ompf^y- 
Great and aU his triumphs, which equal the briUiance of 
the exploits not only of Alexander the Great but even 
almost of Hercules and Father Liber. WeU then, 
after the recovery of Sicily, which inaugurated his 
emergence as a champion of the commonweaUh 
in the party of SuUa, and after the conquest of 
the whole of Africa and its reduction under our 
sway, and the acquirement as a trophy therefrom of 

567 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

inde capto, Eques Ilomanus, id quod antea nemo, 
curru triumphali revectus et statim ad solis occasum 
trangressus, excitatis in Pyrenaco tropaeis, oppida 
DCCcLxxvi ab Alpibus ad finis Hispaniae ulterio- 
ris in dicionem redacta victoriae suae adscripsit et 
maiore animo Sertorium tacuit, belloque civili quod 
omnia externa conciebat extincto iterum triumphales 
currus Eques Romam ^ induxit, totiens imperator 

97 ante quam miles. postea ad tota maria et deinde 
solis ortus missus infmitos retuHt ^ patriae titulos 
more sacris certaminibus vincentium — neque enim 
ipsi coronantur, sed patrias suas coronant ; hos ergo 
honores urbi tribuit in dehibro Minervae quod ex 
manubiis dicabat : 

Cn. Pompeius Magnus imperator bello xxx annorum 
confedo fusis fugatis occisis in deditioncm acceptis homi- 
num centiens victens semel lxxxiu depressis aut captis 
navihus dcccxlvi oppidis castellis MDXxxrii/ in fdem 
receptis terris a Maeotis ad liubrum inare subactis 
votum merito Minervae. 

9S Hos est breviarium eius ab oriente. triumphi 
vero quem duxit a. d. iii kal. Oct. M. Pisone M, 
Messala coss. praefatio haec fuit : Cum oram viari- 
timam praedonibus liberasset et imperium viaris populo 

' V.l. Romanus. 

• Jiackham : miasus hos rettulit ant missus inlinitos. 



• With Sertori>is, endcd 71 u.c. 

* At Olympia etc. 

' On the Sea of Azov. ^ 62 B.o. 



568 



BOOK VII. XXVI. 96-98 

the title of The Great, he rode back in a triuraphal 
chariot though only of equestrian rank, a thing which 
had never occurred before ; and imniediately after- 
wards he crossed over to the Wcst, and after erecting 
trophies in the Pyrenees he added to the record of 
his victorious career the reduction under our sway of 
876 toA\-ns from the Alps to the frontiers of Further 
Spain, and with greater magnanimity refrained 
from mentioning Sertorius, and after crushing the 
civil war " which tlu'eatened to stir up all our foreign 
relations, a second time led into Rome a procession 
of triiunphal chariots as a Knight, having twice 
been commander-in-chief before having ever served 
in the ranks. Subsequently he was despatched to 
the whole of tlie seas and then to the far east, and 
he brought back titles without hmit for his counti-y, 
after the manner of those who conquer in the sacred 
contests * — for these are not crowned with ^vreaths 
themsehes but crown their native land; conse- 
quently he bestowed these honours on the city in 
the shrine of Minerva that he was dedicating out of 
the proceeds of the spoils of war : 

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Commander in Chief, 
having completed a thirty years' rvar, rouied, scattered, 
slain or received the surrendcr of 12,183,000 people, 
sunk or iaken 816 ships, receivcd the capitulation of 
1538 toivns and forts, subdued the lands from the 
Maeotians <^ to the Red Sea, duly dedicaies his ojfering 
voived to Minerva. 

This is his summary of his exploits in the east. But 
the announcement of the triumphal procession that 
he led on September 28 in the consulship <^ of Marcus 
Piso and Marcus Messala was as follows : 

After having rescued ihe sea coast from pirates and 

569 



PLIN\^ NATURAL HISTORY 

Romano restituisset ex Asia Ponto Armenia Paphla- 
gonia Cappadocia Cilicia St/ria Scythis Indaeis Albanis 
Iliberia insula Creta Basternis et super haec de rege 
Mithridate atque Tigrane triumpkavit. 

99 Sunima summarum in illa gloria fuit (ut ipse in 
concione dixit cum de rebus suis dissereret) Asiam 
ultimani provinciarum accepisse eandemque mediam 
patriae reddidisse. si quis e contrario simili modo 
velit percensere Caesaris res, qui maior illo apparuit, 
totum profecto terrarum orbcm enumeret, quod 
infinitum esse conveniet. 

lOj XX\'n. Ceteris \irtutum generibus varie et multi 
fuere praestantcs. Cato primus Porciae gentis tres 
summasinhomine res praestitisse existimatur,ut esset 
optimus orator, optimus imperator, optimus senator, 
quae mihi omnia, etiamsi non prius, attamen clarius 
fulsisse in Scipione Aemiliano ^-identur, dempto 
praeterea plurimorum odio quo Cato laboravit. 
itaque sit proprium Catonis quater et quadragiens 
causam dixisse, nec quemquam saepius postulatum 
et semper absolutum. 

101 XXVin. Fortitudo in quo maxime extiterit^ inmcn- 
sae quaestionis est, utique si poetica recipiatur fabu- 
lositas. Q. Ennius T. Caecilium Teucrum fratremque 
» enituerit ? (c/. § 123) Mayhoff. 

57° 



BOOK VII. xxM. 98-xx\iii. loi 

restorcd io ihe Roman People the command of the sea, 
he celehrated a triumph over Asia, Po7itus, Armenia, 
Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Cicilia, Stjria, the Scythians, 
Jen-s and Albanians, Iberia, the Island of Creie, ihe 
Basternae, and, in addition to these, over King Mithridates 
and Tigranes. 

Thc crownin<j pinnacle of this glorious record was 
(as he himself deelared in assembly when discoursing 
on his acliievements) to have found Asia the remotest 
of the provinces and thcn to have made her a central 
dominion of his country. If anybody on the other 
side desires to review in similar manner the achieve- 
ments of Caesar, who showcd himself greater than 
Pompey, he must assuredly roU off the entire world, 
and this it will be agreed is a task without limit. 

XX\'II. There have been various and numerous Eariier cases 
cases of eminence in the other kinds of excellence. "Qf^^' 
Cato the first of that name in the Gens Porcia is achievement. 
dcemed to have exemplificd thc three supreme human 
achievements, excelling alike as orator, as general 
and as senator ; all of which distinctions seem to 
me to have been achieved though not previously 
yet with greater brilHance in the case of Scipio 
Aemilianus, and that moreover without the very 
wide unpopularity that handicapped Cato. So it 
may be counted an exceptional fact about Cato that 
he took part in forty-four actions at law and was 
sued more frequently than anybody else and always 
acquittcd. 

XX\TII. What person has possessed the .iiost out- 
standing courage is a subject of unending enquiry, 
at all events if the legendary testimony of poctry be 
accepted. Quintus Ennius had a particular admira- 
tion for Titus Caecilius Teucer and his brother, 

571 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

eius praecipue miratus propter eos sextum decimum 
adiecit annalem. L. Siccius Dentatus, qui tribunus 
plebei fuit Sp. Tarpeio A. Atemio coss. haud multo 
post exactos reges, vel numerosissima suffragia habet 
centiens \-iciens proeliatus, octiens ex provocatione 
\ictor, quadraginta quinque cicatricibus adverso 

102 corpore insignis, nulla in tergo. idem spolia cepit 
x.vxiv, donatus hastis puris duodeviginti, phaleris 
viginti quinque, torquibus tribus et octoginta, 
armilUs clx, coronis xxvi (in iis civicis xiv, aureis 
octo, muraUbus tribus, obsidionaH una), fisco 
aeris, x captivis et viginti simul bubus, imperatores 
novem ipsius maxime opera triumphantes secutus, 
praeterea (quod optumum in operibus eius rcor) 

103 uno ex ducibus T. RomiHo ex consulatu ad populum 
convicto male acti imperii. rei mihtaris ^ haut 
minora forent CapitoUni decora, ni perdidisset iUa 
exitu vitae. ante decem et septem annos bina 
ceperat spoUa ; primus omnium eques muralem 
acceperat coronam, sex civicas, xxxvii dona ; 
XXIII cicatrices adverso corpore exceperat; P. 
Ser\'iUum magi?trum equitum servaverat, ipse vul- 

104 neratus umerum, femur; super oninia CapitoUum 
summamque rem in eo solus a GaUis scrvaverat, si 
non regno suo ser\-asset. 

^ V.l. malo imperatae rei militaris. 

• 454 B.c. 

^ A spcar without a hrad w.is bcstowcd as a military 
decoration, cspecially for saving thc lifc of a felJow-citizen. 

« M. Maoliua ; he was finally Buspected of aspLring to reatore 
tbe monarchy, and waa flung from the Tarpcian Rock, 384 b.o. 



BOOK VII. xx^aii. 101-104 

adding Book X\'I to his Annals on their account. 
Lucius Siccius Dentatus, Tribune of the Plebs in 
the consulship ** of Spurius Tarpeius and Aulus 
Aternius not long after the expulsion of the kings, 
scores an exceedingly hirge number of votes, as 
having fought in 120 battles, been challengcd to 
and having won eight single combats, and having 
the distinction of 45 scars in front and none at all 
on his back. He also captured spoils 34 times, had 
bestowed upon him 18 spear-shafts,* 25 breast-badges, 
83 necklets, 160 bracelets, 26 cro^wns (including 14 
civic crowns, eight of gold, three mural crowns, one 
siege-rescuc crown), a bag of money, ten prisoners 
of war and with them 20 cows ; also he followed 
in the triumphs of nine generals whose victories 
were chiefly due to his aid, and in addition — and 
this in my opinion is his finest achievement — pro- 
cured the conviction in the People's Court at the 
termination of his consulship of one of his leaders 
Titus Romilius on the charge of maladministration 
of his office. The military distinctions of Capi- 
toHnus "^ would be not inferior, if he had not cancelled 
them by the conchision of his career. He had 
twice captured enemy's spoils beforc he was seven- 
teen years old ; he had been the first of any one to 
receive a mural croA\Ti as a Knight, as well as six 
civic cro^\Tis and 37 gifts ; he had received 23 wounds 
on the front of his body ; he had rescued Publius 
Servilius Master of the Horse, when himself wounded 
in the slioulder and thigh ; above all he had alone 
saved the Capitol and the fortunes of the state 
therein from the Gauls «^ — if only he had not saved 
Lt to make himself king. 

<* 390 B.c. 

573 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Verum in his sunt quidem virtutis opera magna, sed 
maiora fortunae : M. Sergio, ut equidem arbitror, 
nemo quemquam hominum iure praetulerit, licet 
pronepos Catilina gratiam nomini deroget. secundo 
stipendio dextram manum perdidit, stipendiis duobus 
ter et vicies vulneratus est, ob id neutra manu, 
neutro pede satis utilis, animo tantum salvo,^ pluri- 
mis postea stipendiis debilis miles. bis ab Hannibale 
captus — neque enim cum (juolibet hoste res fuit — , 
bis vinculnrum eius profugus, in viginti mensibus 
nullo non die in catenis aut compedibiis custoditus. 
sinistra manu sola quater pugnavit, duobus equis 

105 insidcnte eo suffossis. dextram sibi ferream fecit, 
eaque religata proeliatus Cremonam obsidione 
exemit, Placentiam tutatus est, duodena castra 
hostium in Gallia cepit, quae omnia ex oratione eius 
apparent habita cum in praetura sacris arceretur a 
collegis ut debilis, quos hic coronarum acervos con- 

106 structurus hoste mutato ! etenim plurimum refert 
in quae cuiusque virtus tempora inciderit. quas 
Trebia Ticinusve aut Trasimenus civicas dcdere ? 
quae Cannis corona merita, unde fugisse virtutis 
summum opus fuit ? ceteri profecto victores hominum 
fuere, Sergius vicit etiam fortunam. 

^ Dellefsen : uno tantum servo (salvus Mayhoff). 

' The four defeats of the Roman armies with which Han- 
nibars invasion began, 218-216 B.c. At the last of the four, 
Cannae, ono consul fell, and the other, Varro, escaped with 
thc remnant of his forccs, and afterwards was thankcd by 
the Senat« for not despairing of the Stato. 

574 



BOOK VII. XXVIII. 104-106 

But, although these cases exhibit great achieve- ExpioUsof 
ments of valour, yet they involve still gi-eater ^^^^' 
achievements of fortune ; whereas nobody, in my 
judgement at all events, can rightly rank any 
human being above Marcus Sergius, albeit his 
greatgrandson Catiline diminishes the credit of his 
name. Scrgius in liis second campaign lost his right 
hand ; in two campaigns he was wounded twenty- 
three times, with the result that he was crippled 
in both hands and both feet, only his spirit being 
intact ; yet although disabled, he served in numerous 
subsequent campaigns. He A^as twice taken prisoner 
by Hannibal (for it was with no ordinary foe that 
lie was engaged), and t^vice escaped from HannibaKs 
fetters, although he was kept in chains or shackles 
on every single day for twenty months. Ple fought 
four times with only his left hand, having two horses 
he was riding stabbed under him. He had a 
right hand of iron made for him and going into 
action with it tied to his arm, raised the siege of 
Cremona, saved Piacenza, captured twelve enemy 
camps in Gaul : all of which expkiits are testified 
by his speech dehvered during his praetorship when 
his colleagues wanted to debar hini from the sacri- 
fices as infirm — a man who with a different foe would 
have accumulated what piles of wreaths ! inasmuch 
as it makes the greatest difference with what period 
of history a particular man's valour happens to 
coincide. What civic vvTcaths were bestowed by 
Trebbia or Ticino or Trasimeno ? what crown was 
won at Cannae, where successful flight was valour's 
highest exploit ? " All other victors truly have 
conquered men, but Sergius vanquished fortune 
also. 

575 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

107 XXIX. Ingeniorum gloriae quis possit agere de- 
lectum per tot disciplinarum genera et tantam rerum 
operumquevarietatem ? nisiforteHomero vate Graeco 
nullum felicius extitisse convenit, sive opcris forma ^ 
sivc materie aestimetur. itaque Alexander Magnus — 
etenim insignibus iudiciis optume citraque invidiam 

108 tam supcrba censura peragetur — inter spolia Darii 
Persarum regis unguentorum scrinio capto quod 
erat de ^ auro raargaritis gemmisque pretiosum, 
varios eius usus amicis demonstrantibus, quando 
tacdebat unguenti bellatorem et militia sordidum, 

Immo Hercule,' in(|uit, ' librorum Homcri custodiae 
detur,' ut pretiosissimum humani animi opus (juam 

109 maxime diviti opere servaretur. idem Pindari vatis 
familiae penatibusque iussit parci cum Thcbas rape- 
ret, AristoteHs philosophi patriam suani crcdidit,-^ 
tantaeque rerum claritati tam benignum testi- 
monium miscuit. Arcliilochi poctae interfectores 
Apollo arguit Delphis. Sophoclem tragici cothurni 
principem defunctum scpehre Liber pater iussit, 
obsidentibus mocnia Lacedaemoniis, Lysandro eorum 
rege in quiete saepius admonito ut paterctur humari 
dehcias suas. requisivit rex, qui supremum diem 
Athenis obissent * nec difficulter ex his quem deus 
significasset intellexit, pacemque funeri dedit. 

1 Sirack : fortuna. 

' V.ll. erat, erato : erat celato ? Dellefsen. 

* V.l. patriam condidit (Aristotolis Philippus patrlam con- 
didit LongoL). 

* Urlichs : obisset. 

* The restoration aa well as tho destruction of Aristotle'8 
birthplace, Stagira, ia usually ascribed to Philip, but one 
account says that he restorcd it at tho rcquest of his young 
Bon Alexander. 

» In 406 B.c. 



BOOK VII. xxix. 107-109 

XXIX. Who could make an lionours class-Iist of Ca-wo/ 
geniuses, ranging througli all thc kinds of systems and ",'»*«!■""' 
all the varieties of subject and of treatment? unless inpveiry, 
perhaps it is agreed that no genius has ever 
existed who was more successful than Homer the 
bard of Greece, whether he be judged by the form 
or by the matter of his work. Consequently Alex- 
ander the Great — for so lordly an assessment will 
be effected best and least invidiously by the most 
supreme tribunals — when among the booty won from 
the Persian King Darius there was a case of unguents 
made of gold and enriched with pearls and precious 
stones, and when his friends pointed out the various 
uses to which it could be put, since a warrior soiled 
with warfare had no use for perfume, said, " No, by 
Hercules, rather let it be assigned to keeping the 
works of Homer " — so that the most precious achieve- 
ment of the mind of man might be preserved in 
the richest possible product of the craftsman's art. 
Alexander also gave orders at the sack of Thebes 
for the household and home of the poet Pindar to 
be spared ; and he felt the native place of the philo- 
sopher Aristotle to be his own, and blended that 
evidence of kindhness with all the glory of his 
exploits." Apollo at Delphi exposed the murderers 
of the poet Archilochus. When Sophocles the 
prince of the tragic buskin died,'' Father Liber gave 
orders for his burial though the Spartans were 
besieging the city walls, the Spartan king Lysander 
receiving frequent adnionitions in dreams ' to permit 
the interment of the darHng of the god.' The king 
enquired what persoiLs had expircd at Athens and had 
no difKculty in understanding which among them the 
god meant , and he granted an ar mistice forthe funeral. 

577 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

110 XXX. Platoni sapientiae antistiti Dionysius tyran- 
nus alias saevitiae superbiaeque natus vittatam navem 
misit obviam, ipse quadrigis albis egredientem in 
litore excepit. viginti talentis unani orationem 
Isocrates vendidit. Aeschines Atheniensis summus 
orator, cum accusationem qua fuerat usus Rliodiis 
legisset, legit et defensionem Demosthenis qua in 
illud depulsus fuerat exihum, mirantibusque tum 
magis fuisse miraturos dixit si ipsum orantem audi- 
vissent, calamitate testis ingens factus iuimici. 

111 Thucydiden imperatorem Atheniertses in exilium 
egere, rerum conditorem revocavere, eloquentiam 
mirati cuius virtutem damnaverant. magnum et 
Menandro in comico socco testimonium regum 
Aegypti et Macedoniae contigit classe et per legatos 
petito, maius ex ipso regiae fortunae praelata litte- 
rarum conscientia. 

112 Perhibuere et Romani proceres etiam exteris testi- 
monia. Cn. Pompeius confecto Mithridatico bello 
intraturus Posidonii sapientiae professione clari 
domum forem percuti de more a Uctore vetuit, et 
fasces Htterarum ianuae summisit is cui se oriens 
occidensque summiserat. Cato censorius in illa 

" The younger Dionysius of Syracuse was visited by Plato 
soon after his accession in 367 n.c. and again a few years 
later. 

* In Ctesiphonlem. 

' De corona. 

^ In 424 n.c. Thucydides was in command of an Athenian 
flect that unavoidahly arrived too lato to save Amphipolis 
from capture by the Spartan Brasidas. He avoided impeach- 
ment by going into exile. He seema to have retumed to 



BOOK VII. XXX. IIO-II2 

XXX. The tyrant Dionysius,<» who was in other mat- and in phHo- 
ters by nature given to cruelty and pride, sent a ship l^r^Jt^y and 
decked with garlands to meet Plato the high priest drama. 
of wisdom, and as he disembarked received him at 
the coast in person, in a chariot with four white 
horses. Isocrates sold a single speech for 20 talents. 
The eminent Athenian orator Aeschines, after read- 
ing to the citizens of Rhodes the speech'' that he 
had made in prosecuting, also read Demosthenes's 
speech<^ in defence that had driven him into exile 
at Rhodes, and on their expressing admiration said 
that tliey would have admired it even more on 
the actual occasion, if they had heard the orator 
himself : thus his disaster coastituted him a powerful 
witness for his enemy's case. Thucydides as mih- 
tary commander was sentenced to exile by the 
Athenians but as historian was recalled : ^ they 
admired the eloquence of a man whose valour they 
had condemned. High testimony was also born to 
Menander's eminence in comedy by the kings of 
Egypt and Macedon when they sent a fleet and an 
embassy to fetch him, but higher testimony was 
derived from himself by his preferment of the con- 
sciousness of hterary merit to royal fortune. 

Roman leaders also have borne witness even to Roman 
foreigners. At the conclusion of the war with ^^eek 
Mithridates Gnaeus Pompey when going to enter ?«»»«*» 
the abode of the famous professor of philosophy 
Posidonius forbade his retainer to knock on the door 
in the customary manner, and the subduer of the 
East and of the West dipped his standard to the 
portals of learning. Cato the censor, on the occa- 

Athens in 403, when there was a general amnesty after the 
restoration of the democracy. 

579 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

nobili trium sapientiae procenim ab Athenis legatione 
audito Carneade qiiamprimum legatos eos ccnsuit 
dimittendos, quoniam illo viro argumentante quid 

113 veri esset haut facile discerni posset. quanta morum 
commutatio ! ille semper ahoquin universos ex Itaha 
pellendos censuit Graecos, at pronepos eius Uticcnsis 
Cato unum ex tribunatu mihtum philosophum, 
altcrum ex Cypria legatione deportavit ; eandemque 
hnguam ex duobus Catonibus in iho abegisse, in hoc 
importasse memorabile est. 

114 Sed et nostrorum gloriam perccnseamus. Prior 
Africanus Q. Ennii statuam sepulchro suo inponi 
iussit, clarumque illud nomen, immo vero spohuin 
ex tertia orbis parte raptuni, in cinere supremo cum 
poetae titulo legi. Divus Augustus carmina Vergihi 
cremari contra testamenti eius verecundiam vetuit, 
maiusque ita vati testimonium contigit quam si ipse 

115 sua probavisset. M. Varronis in bibhothcca, quae 
prima in orbe ab Asinio PoUionc ex manubiis pub- 
hcata Romae est, unius viventis posita imago est, 
haud minore, ut equidem reor, gloria principe oratore 
et cive ex iha ingenioruin quae tunc fuit multitudine 
uni hanc coronam dante quam cum eidem Magnus 

116 Pompcius piratico ex beUo navalcm dedit. innu- 

■ In 155 B.c, to dc[)recate tbe fine impoBed on Athena for 
the drstruction of Orojms. 

* It is not known who this was. As to the second 
philosophor at all events, it appcars that it was his statue 
that Cato brought to Romo ; this was Zeno, the founder of 
the Stoic school: sec XXXIV. c. 19 ad fin. 

580 



BOOK VII. XXX. 112-116 

sion when the famous embassy of the three leaders 
of philosophy -was sent from Athens," after hearina; 
Carneades advised that these envoys shoiild be sent 
away as soon as possible, because when Carneades 
was diseoursing it Mas ditiicult to distinguish where 
the truth lay. ^\Tiat a complete change of fashion ! 
The Cato in question always on other oecasions 
recommended the total banishment of Greelcs from 
Italy, whereas his great-grandson Cato of Utica 
brought home one philosopher ^* from his mihtary 
tribunate and another from his mission to Cyprus ; 
and of the two Catos the formcr has the distinction 
of having banished and the otlier of having intro- 
duced the same language. 

But let us also pass in review the glory of our own nima^u of 
countrymen. The elder Africanus gave orders for a ^^ininence'^ 
statue of Quintus Ennius to be placed on his own 
tomb, and for that famous name, or rather trophy 
of war won from a third part of the world, to 
be read above his last ashes together Avith the 
memorial of a poet. His late Majesty Augustus 
overrode the modesty of VirgiVs will and forbade 
the burning of his poems, and thus the bard achieved 
a stronger testimony than if he had commended his 
own works himself. In the Hbrary founded at Rome 
by Asinius Polho, tlie earhest hbrary in the world 
estabhshed out of tlie spoils of war, the only statue 
of a hving person erected was that of Marcus \'arro, 
the bestowal by a leading orator and citizen of lliis 
crowning honour on one only out of the multitiide 
of men of genius then existing constituting no iess 
a distinction, in my own opinion, than whcn Poni])ey 
the Great gave to that same Varro a naval crown 
for his conduct in the war with the pirates. There 

581 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

merabilia deinde sunt exempla Romana, si persequi 
libeat, cum jilures una gens in quocumque genere 
eximios tulerit quam ceterae terrae. sed quo te, 
M. TuUi, piaculo taceam, quove maxinie excellentem 
insigni praedicem ? quo potius quam universi populi 
illius sciscentis ^ amplissimo testimonio, e tota vita 

117 tua consulatus tantum operibus electis? te dicente 
legem agrariam, hoc est alimenta sua, abdicarunt 
tribus, te suadente Roscio theatralis auctori legis 
ignoverunt notatasque se discrimine sedis aequo 
animo tulerunt, te orante proscriptorum liberos 
honores petere puduit, tuum Catilina fugit ingenium, 
tu M. Antonium proscripsisti. salve primus omnium 
parens patriae appellate, primus in toga triumphum 
linguaeque lauream merite, et facundiae Latiarumque 
htterarum parens atque, ut dictator Caesar hostis 
quondam tuus de te scripsit, omnium triumphorum 
laurea adepte ^ maiorem, quanto plus est ingenii 
Romani terminos in tantum promovisse quam 
impcrii. 

118 XXXI. Rehquis animi bonis praestitere ceteros 
mortales : sapientia, ob id Cati, Corcuh apud 

119 Romanos cognominati, apud Graecos Socrates 

^ Dcllcfsen : genti, gentis (gentium Wdzhofer). 
' adopte om. v.l. 



' 63 n.c. 

^' Of Rullus, for distribution of public lands. 

■= L. Roscius Otbo : his law, in 67 n.c. reserved for the 
Equites the 14 rows beliind the patricians in the theatre. Tliia 
unpopular legi.slatiun four ycars iater, whon Cicero was consul, 
led to rioting which it took all hia eloquciico to allay. 

•* I.e. ' brainy,' cor being the seat of tho intellect. 'Catus 
Aelius Sextus ' is quoted from Eonius by Cicero, Tusc. I, 18; 



BOOK VII. XXX. 116-XXXT. 119 

is a countless series of llonian examples, if one chose 
to pursue them, since a single race has produced 
more men of distinction in every branch whatever 
than the whole of the other countries. But what 
excuse could I have for omitting mention of you, 
Marcus TulHus ? or by what distinctive mark can I 
advertise your superlative excellence ? by what in 
preference to the most honourable testimony of that 
whole nation's decree, selecting out of your entire 
hfe only the achievements of your consulship ? " 
Your oratory induced the tribes to discard the 
agrarian law,'' that is, their own HveUhood; your 
advice led them to forgive Roscius "^ the proposer of 
the law as to the thcatre, and to tolerate with 
e<|uanimity the mark put upon them by a distiiic- 
tion of seating; your entreaty made the children of 
the men sentenced to proscription ashamed to stand 
for office ; your genius drove CatiHne to flight ; you 
proscribed Mark Antony. Hail, first recipient of 
the title of Father of the Country, first winner of a 
civiHan triumph and of a wreath of honour for 
oratory, and parent of eloquence and of Latium's 
letters ; and (as your former foe, the dictator Caesar, 
wrote of you) winner of a greater laurel wreath thaix 
that of any triumph, inasmuch as it is a greater 
thing to have advanced so far the frontiers of 
the Roman genius than the frontiers of Rome's 
empire. 

XXXI. Persons who have surpassed the rest of Eminent 
mortal kindin the remaining gifts of the mind are : in >'"■ '"'"p '"''• 
wisdom, the people who on this account won at Rome 
the surnames of Wise and Sage,'' and in Greece 

Corculum (hcre pluralised in the masculine) was thc sumame 
given to Scipio Nasica, consul 162 and 155 b.c. 

583 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

oraculo Apollinis Pytliii praelatus cunctis. XXXII. 
Rursus mortales oraculorum societatem dedere Chiloni 
Lacedaemonio tria praecepta eius Delphis consecrando 
aureis Htteris, quae sunt haec : nosse se quemque. 
et nihil nimium cupere, comitemque aeris alieni 
atque litis esse miseriam. quin et funus eius, cimi 
victore fiHo Olympiae expirasset gaudio, tota Graecia 
prosecuta est. 

XXXIII. Divinitas et quaedam caeUtum societas 
nobilissima ex feminis in Sibylla fuit, ex viris in 
Melampode apud Graecos, apud Romanos in Marcio. 
120 XXXIV. Vir optumus semel a condito aevo 
iudicatus est Scipio Nasica a iurato senatu, idem in 
toga candida bis repulsa notatus a populo. in summa 
ei in patria mori non licuit, non Ilercule magis c]uam 
extra vincula illi sapientissimo ab Apolline iudicato 
Socrati. 

XXXV. Pudicissima femina semel matronarum 
sententia iudicata est Sulpicia PatercuH fiHa, uxor 
Ful\i Flacci, electa ex centum praeceptis quae 
simulacrum Veneris ex SibylHnis Hbris dcdicaret, 
iterum reHgionis experimento Claudia inducta 
Romam deum matre. 



" Sulpicia, daughter of Scr%'ius Sulpiciua Paterculus and 
wifc of (juintus Fulvius Flaccus. was in 114 b.c. chosen as the 
chaatest woman in Rome to dedicatc a statue of \'enu8 Verti- 
cordia, which waa to be orected to raise the standard of 
feminine morals (Valerius Maximus viii. 15. 12). 

* Claudia Quinta, a Roman matron, accused of unchaatity. 
A statue of Cybole iii 204 b.c. wa.s boing brought from Pessinus 
to Rome, and the vessel conve^ing it grounded at the mouth 
of the Tiber. The soothsayers announced that only a chaste 



BOOK VII. xxxi. ii9-xxx\^ 120 

Socrates, whom Pythian Apollo's oracle placed before 
all other men. XXXII. Again, partnership with the 
oracles was bestowed by mortals on the Spartan 
Chilo, by canonizing in letters of gold at Delphi his 
three precepts, which arethese: Knowthyself; Desire 
nothing too mnch ; The comrade of debt and litigation 
is miserii. Moreover when he expired from joy on 
his son's being victorious at Olympia, the whole of 
Greece followed in his funeral procession. 

XXXIII. The most famous instances of the gift and duiners. 
of divination and so to speak communion with the 
heavenly beings are, among women, the Sibyl, and 
among men, Melampus in Greece and Marcius at 

Rome. 

XXXIV. Scipio Nasica was judged by the verdict ThenobUst 
of the senate on oath to be once for all the noblest '"^"' 
man since the foundation of time, although he was 

twice branded by the nation with defeat when a 
candidate for office. At the end he was not per- 
mitted to die in his native land, any more in truth 
than the great Socrates, whom Apollo judged to be 
the wisest of mankind, was allowed to die freed from 
fetters. 

XXXV. The first case of a woman judged by the Thenobiest 
vote of the matrons to be the most modest was woman. 
Sulpicia," daughter of Paterculus and wife of Fulvius 
Flaccus, who was elected from a previously chosen 

list of 100 to dedicate the image of Venus in ac- 
cordance with the Sibylline books ; and on a second 
occasion, by the test of relrgion, Claiidia,* when the 
Mother of the Gods was brought to llome. 

woman could movo it. Claudia coming forward took hold of 
the rope and at once pulled the vesael forward (Livy XXIX. 
14, Ovid Fasli IV. 395). 

585 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

121 XXXVI. Pietatis exempla infinita quidem toto 
orbe extitere, sed Romae unum cui comparari 
cuncta nonpossint. humilis in plcbe et ideo ignobilis 
puerpera, supplicii caiisa carcere inclusa matre cum 
impetrasset aditum, a ianitore semper excussa ante^ 
ne quid inferret cibi, deprehensa est uberibus suis 
alens eam. quo miraculo matris salus donata filiae 
pietati est ambaeque perpetuis aUmentis, et locus ille 
eidem consecratus deae, C. Quinctio M*. Acilio coss. 
templo Pietatis extructo in illius carceris sedc, ubi 

122 nunc MarcelU theatrum est. Gracchorum patcr 
anguibus prehensis in domo, cum respondcretur ipsum 
ncturum alterius sexus interempto : Immo vero, 
inquit, meum necate, CorneUa enim iuvenis est et 
parerc adhuc potest. hoc erat uxori parcere et re 
publicae consulere ; idque mox consecutum est. M. 
Lepidus Appuleiae uxoris caritate post repudium 
obiit. P. RutiUus morbo levi impeditus nunciata fratris 
repulsa in consulatus petitione iUco expiravit. P. 
Catienus Philotimus patronum adeo dilexit ut heres 
omnibus bonis institutus in rogum eius se iaceret. 

^ Salmasius : excussa aul excurrant aul excurante. 

" 150 B.o. 
586 



BOOK VII. XXXVI. I2I-I22 

XXXVI. Of filial atfection tlicre have it is true Eminence in 
been unlimited instaiices all over the world, but affecHon. 
one at Rome with which the whole of the rest 
could not compare. A plebeian woman of low 
position and therefore unknown, who had just given 
birth to a child, had permission to visit her mother 
who had been shut up in prison as a punishment, and 
was always searched in advance by the doorkceper 
to prevent her carrying in any food ; she was 
detected giving her mother sustenance from her 
own breasts. In consequence of this marvel the 
daughter's pious affection was rewarded by the 
mother's release and both were awarded mainten- 
ance for hfe ; and the place where it occurred was 
consecrated to the Goddess concerned, a temple 
dedicated to Filial Affection being built on the site 
of the prison, where the Theatre of Marcellus noAV 
stands, in the consulship "^ of Gaius Quinctius and 
Manius AciUus. In the house of the father of the 
Gracchi two snakes were caught, and in reply to 
enquiry an oracle declared that he himself would 
live if the snake of the other sex were killed ; " No," 
said he, " kill my snake : Corneha is young and still 
able to bear children." This meant, to spare his 
wife and think of the pubHc interest ; and the result 
prophesied soon followed. Marcus Lcpidus after 
divorcing his wife Appuleia died for love of her. 
Pubhus Rutihus when suffering from a shght illness 
received news of his brother's dcf<i-at in his candi- 
dature for the consulship, and at once expired. 
Pubhus Catienus Philotimus loved his patron so 
dearly that he threw himself upon his funeral 
pyre, although left heir to the whole of his 
property. 

587 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

123 XXXVII. \'ariarum artium scientia innumerabiles 
enituere, quos tamen attingi par sit florem hominum 
libantibus : astrologia Berosus, cui ob divinas praedic- 
tiones Athenienses publice in gymnasio statuam 
inaurata lingua statucre ; grammatica Apollodorus, 
cui Amphictyones Gracciae honorem habuere, 
Hippocrates medicina, nnm ^ vcnientem ab IUyriis 
pestilentiam praedixit discipulosque ad auxiUandum 
circa urbes dimisit, quod ob nieritum honorcs ilH (juos 
Hercuh decrevit Graecia. eandem scientiam in 
Cleombroto Ceo Ptolomaeus rex Megalcnsibus 

124 sacris donavit centum talentis servato Antiocho rege. 
magna et Critobulo fama est extracta Philippi rcgis 
oculo sagitta et citra deformitatem oris curata orbitate 
luminis, summa autem Asclepiadi Prusiensi condita 
nova secta, spretis legatis et polHcitationibus Mithri- 
datis regis, reperta ratione qua vinum aegris medetur, 
relato e funere homine et conservato, sed maxime 
sponsione facta cum fortuna ne medicus crederetur 
si umquam invahdus ullo modo fuisset ipse : et vicit 
suprema in senecta lapsu scalarum exanimatus. 

125 Grande et Archimedi geomctricae ac machinahs 
scientiac testinionium M. MarcelU contigit interdicto 
cum Syracusae caperentur ne violaretur unus, nisi 

* Dellefscn ; modicinam. 

" Antiochua Soter, second of tho Soleucid Kings of Syria 
280-261 B.c. 

* This accident happened to Philip of Macedon at the siege of 
Methone, 354 B.o. 

588 



BOOK VII. xwvii. 123-125 
XXXVII. The people who have achievcd distine- Eminmtmen 

-.11 11 ^ii ■ • of science, 

tion m the knowledge 01 the various sciences are medinne 
innumerable, but neverthelcss they must be touched «"^ '»'■'• 
©n wlien we are cuning the flower of mankind : in 
astronomy, Berosus, to whom on account of his 
marvellous predictions Athens officially erected in 
the exercising ground a statue with a gilt tongue ; 
in philology, Apollodorus, wliom the Amphictyons 
of Greece honoured; in medicine, Hippocrates, who 
foretold a plague that was coming from Illyria and 
despatched his pupils round the cities to render 
assistance, in return for which service Greece voted 
him the honours that it gave to Hercules. Tlie same 
knowledge in the case of Cleombrotus of Ceos was 
rewarded by King Ptolcmy at the Megalensian 
Festival with 100 talents, after he had saved thc Hfe 
of King Antiochus." Critobulus also has a great 
reputation for having extracted an arrow from 
King Phihp's eye,'' and having treated his loss of 
sight without causing disfigurement of his face ; but 
the highest reputation belongs to Asclepiades of 
Prusa, for having founded a new school, despised the 
envoys and overtures of King Mithridates, discovered 
a method of preparing medicated wine for the sick, 
brought back a man from burial and saved his hfe, 
but most of all for having made a wager \nth 
fortune that he should not be deemed a physician 
if lie were ever in any way ill himself : and he won 
his bet, as he lost his hfe in extreme okl age by 
falhng dowTLstairs. 

Archimedes also received striking testimony to 
his knowledge of geometry and mechanics from 
Marcus Marcellus, who at the capture of Syracuse 
forbade violence to be donc to him only — had not 

589 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

fefellisset imperium militaris imprudentia. laudatus 
est et Chersiphron Gnosius aede Ephesi Dianae 
admirabili fabricata, Philon Athenis armamentario 
CD ^ na\ium, Ctesibius pneumatica ratione et hvdrau- 
Hcis organis repertis, Uinochares metatus Alexandro 
condenti ^ in Aegypto Alexandriam. idem hic im- 
perator edixit ne quis ipsum alius quam Apelles 
pingeret, quam Pyrgoteles scalperet, quam Lysippus 
ex aere duceret, quae artes pluribus inclaruere ex- 

126 empHs. XXXVIII. Aristidis Thebani pictoris unam 
tabulam centum talentis rex Attalus Hcitus est, 
octoginta emit duas Caesar dictator, Mcdeam et 
Aiacem Timomachi, in tcmplo Vcneris Genetricis 
dicaturus. Candaules rex Bularchi picturam Magne- 
tum exiti, haud mediocris spati, pari rependit auro. 
Rhodum non incendit rex Demctrius expugnator 
cognorninatus, nc tabulam Protogenis crcmaret a 

127 parte ea muri locatam. Praxiteles marmore nobiH- 
tatus est Gnidiaque Venere praecipue, vesano amore 
cuiusdam iuvenis insigni, et Nicomedis aestimatione 
regis grandi Gnidiorum aere aHeno permutare eam 
conati. Phidiae luppiter Olympius cotidie testi- 
monium perhibet, Mentori CapitoHnus et Diana 
Ephesia, quibus fuerc consecrata artis eius vasa. 

128 XXXIX. Pretium hominis in servitio geniti maxi- 
mum ad hunc diem, quod equidem conpererim, fuit 

1 MayhoJJ: M. 

^ Ritschl : condente. 



" Doubtloss on a panol of wood. * roliorcptcs. 

' Thero were three kinga of this name, who camo to the 
throne of Bithynia in 278, 149 and 91 b.c. respectively. There 
appeara to be no ovidonce to show which of tho throo is hero 
alluded to. 

590 



BOOK VII. xx.wii. i25-.\.\.\i.\. 128 

the ignorance of a soldier foiled the command. 
Others who won praise were Chersiphron of Gnossus 
who constructed the wonderful temple of Diana at 
Ephesus, Philo who made a dockyard for 400 ships 
at Athens, Ctesibius who discovered the theory of 
the pneumatic pump and invented hydraulic engines, 
Dinochares who acted as surveyor for Alexander 
when founding Alexandria in Egypt. This ruler 
also issued a proclamation that only Apelles should 
paint his picturc, only Pyi-goteles sculpture his 
statue, and only Lysippus cast him in bronze : there 
are many celebrated examples of these arts. 
XXXVIII. King Attalus bid 100 talents for one 
picture by the Theban paintcr Aristides ; the dic- 
tator Caesar purchased tAvo by Timomachus for 80, 
the Mcdea and the Ajax, to dedicate them in the 
temple of Venus Genetrix. King Candaules paid 
its weight in gold for a picture" of considerable size 
by Bularchus representing the downfall of the 
Magnesians. King Demctrius surnamed Besieger 
of Cities ^ refrained from setting fire to Rhodes for 
fear of burning a picture by Protogenes stored in 
that part of the fortification. Praxiteles is famous 
for his marbles, and especially for his Vemis at Cnidos, 
which is celebrated because of the infatuation that it 
inspired in a ccrtain young man, and bccause of the 
value set on it by King Nicomedes,<^ who attempted 
to obtain it in return for discharging a large debt 
owed by the Cnidians. Daily testimony is borne 
to Phidias by Olympian Jove, and to Mentor by 
Capitoline Jove and by Diana of Ephesus, works 
that have immortalized the tools of ihis craft. 

XXXIX. The highest price hitherto paid, so far as ExcepiionaX 
I have asccrtained, for a person borii in slavcry was f/ar«/'^ 

591 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

grammaticae artis Daphnin Attio Pisaurensevendente 
et M. Scauro principe civitatis IIi. dcc licente. ex- 
cessere hoc in nostro aevo, nec modice, histrionis 
reditu ^ libertatem suam mercati, quippe cum iam 
apud maiores Roscius hi><trio IIi. n annua meritasse 

129 prodatur, nisi si quis in hoc loco disiderat Armeniaci 
belU paulo ante propter Tiridaten gesti dispensa- 
torem, quem Nero IIi. |cxx.\| manuniisit. sed 
hoc pretium beUi, non hominis, fuit, tam Hercule 
quam hbidinis, non formae, Paezontem e spadonibus 
Seiani IIi. [d| mercante Clutorio Prisco. quam 
quidem iniuriam lucri fecit ille mercatus in luctu 
civitatis, quoniam arguere nuUi vacabat. 

130 XL. Gentium in toto orbc praestantissima una 
omnium virtute haud dubie Romana extitit. feUcitas 
cui praecipuafuerit homini non est humani iudicii, cum 
prosperitatem ipsam alius aho modo et suopte ingenio 
quisque determinet. si verum facere iudicium volu- 
mus ac repudiata onini fortunae ambitione decernere, 
nemo mortahum est fehx. abunde agitur ^ atque 
indulgenter a fortuna deciditur ^ cum eo qui iure dici 
non infehx potest. quippe ut aha non sint, certe ne 
lassescat fortuna metus cst, quo semel recepto sohda 

131 fehcitasnon est. quid quod nemo mortaUum omnibus 
horis sapit? utinamque falsum hoc et non ut a vate 

* DcUefsen : reddi (sed hi Mayhoff). 

* Edd. : igitur. 



' indulgente fortuna deciditur ? Broticr. 



592 



BOOK VII. xxxix. 128-XL. 131 

when Attius of Pesaro was selling a sldlled linguist 
nanied Daphnis and Marcus Scaurus, Head of the 
State, bid 700,000 sesterces. This has been exceeded, 
and considerably, in our own time by actors when 
buying their own freedom by means of thcir earnings, 
inasmuch as already in the time of our ancestors 
the actor Roscius is said to have earned 500,000 
sesterces a year, — unless anybody expects a mention 
in this place of the commissary in the Armenian 
war carried on not long ago for Tiridates, whom Nero 
hberated for 13,000,000 sesterces. But this was the 
price paid for a war, not for an individual, just as in 
truth when Clutorius Priscus bought one of Sejanus's 
eunuchs Paezon for 50.000,000, this was the price of 
lust and not of beauty. But Clutorius got away 
■\\ith this outrageous affair during a period of national 
mourning, as nobody had time to show him up. 

XL. The one race of outstanding eminence in virtue 
among all the races in tlie whole world is undoubtedly 
the Roman. WTiat human being has had the greatest Who is the 
happiness is not a question for human judgement, manHndi 
since prosperity itself different people define in 
different ways and each according to his own tem- 
perament. If we wish to make a true judgement 
and discard all fortune's pomp in deciding the 
point, nonc among mortals is happy. Fortune deals 
lavishly and makes an indulgent bargain with the 
man whom it is possible justly to pronoimce not 
unhappy. In fact, apart from other coasiderations, 
assuredly there is a fear that fortune may grow 
weary, and this fear once entertained, happiness has 
no firm foundation. What of the provei'b that none 
among mortals is wise all the time ? And would 
that as many men as possible may deem this proverb 

593 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

dictum quam plurinii iudicent ! vana mortalitas et ad 
circumscribendam se ipsam ingeniosa conputat more 
Thraciae gentis, quae calculos colore distinctos pro 
experimento cuiusquc dici in urnam condit ac 
supremo dic separatos dinumerat atque ita de quoque 

132 pronunciat. quid quod ipse ^ calculi candore illo 
laudatus dies originem mali habuit ? quam multos 
accepta adflixere imperia ! quam multos bona per- 
didere et ultimis mersere suppliciis ! ista nimirum 
bona, si cui inter - ilhi hora in gaudio fuit ! ita est pro- 
fecto, ahus de alio iudicat dies et tantum ^ supremus 
de omnibus, ideoque nuUis credendum est. quid quod 
bona mahs paria non sunt etiam pari numero, nec 
laetitia ulla minimo maerore pensanda? heu vana 
et imprudens diligentia ! numerus dierum conputa- 
tur,* ubi quaeritur pondus ! 

133 XLI. Una feminarum in omni aevo Lampido Lace- 
daemonia reperitur quae regis filia, regis uxor, regis 
mater fuerit, una Berenice quae filia, soror, mater 
Olynipionicarum, uaa famiha Curionum in qua tres 
continua serie oratores exstiterint, una Fabiorum in 
qua tres continui principes senatus, M. Fabius Am- 
bustus,FabiusRulHanus filius,Q. FabiusGurgesnepos. 

134 XLII. cetera exempla fortunae variantis innumera 
sunt. etenim quae facit magna gaudia nisi ex malis, 

' ipse ? Mayhojf : iste. 

* V.l. l)ona cuin interim. 
" Mayhoff : tamen. 

* Edd. vet. (cf. VI. 209) : comparatur. 



" Really there were many, amoog them Olympias, mother 
of Alexander the Groat. 

594 



BOOK VII. XL. 131-XU1. 134 

false, and not as the utterance of a prophet ! Mor- 
tahty , being so vain and so ingenious in self-deception, 
makes its calculation ufter the nianner of the Thracian 
tribe that puts stone counters of different colours 
corresponding to each day's experience in an urn, 
and on the last day sorts theni and counts them out 
and thus pronounces judgement about each indi- 
vidual. \Miat of the lact that the very day com- 
mended by that stone of brilhant whiteness contained 
the source of misfortune ? How many men have 
been overthrown by attaining power ! How many 
have been ruined and plunged into the direst tor- 
ments by wealth ! Wealth forsooth it is called if a 
man has had an hour of joy while surrounded by it. 
So doubtless is it ! Diiferent days pass verdict on 
diHerent men and only the last day a final verdict 
on all men ; and consequently no day is to be 
trusted. What of the fact that goods are not equal 
to evils even if of equal number, and that no joy 
can counterbalance the smallest grief .^ Alas what 
vain and fooUsh appHcation ! we count the number 
of the days, when it is their weight that is in ques- 
tion! 

XLI. Only one " woman can be found in the whole ri>rtun^'s 
of history, the Spartan Lampido, who was daughter, """"'"'«'J'- 
wife and mother of a king; only one, Berenice, who 
was daughter, sister and mother of Olympic winners ; 
only one family, the Curios, that has produccd three 
orators in unbroken series, only one, the Fabii, three 
successiveChiefsoftheSenate, MarcusPabiusAmbus- 
tus, his son Fabius Rulhanus and his grandson Quintus 
Fabius Gurges. XLII. All other cases are instances 
of changing Fortune, and are beyond counting. For 
what great joys does she produce except when 

595 



PLIXY: NATURAL HISTORY 

aut quae mala inmensa nisi ex ingentibus gaudiis ? 
XLIII. servavit proscriptum a Sulla M. Fidustium 
senatorera annis xxxvi, sed iterum proscriptura : ^ 
superstes Sullae vixit, sed usque ad Antonium, 
constatque nuUa alia de causa ab eo proscriptuni 

135 quam quia proscriptus fuisset. triumphare P. Ven- 
tidium de Parthis voluit quidem solum, sed eundem 
in triumpho Asculano Cn. Pompei duxit puerum, 
quamquam Masurius auctor est bis in triumpho 
ductum, Cicero mulionem castrensis furnariae fuisse, 
phirimi iuventam inopem in caliga mihtari tolerasse. 

136 fuit et Balbus Comehus maior consul, scd accusatus 
atque de iure virgarum in eum iudicum in consihum 
missus, primus externorum atque etiam in oceano 
genitorum usus illo honore quem maiores Latio 
quoque negaverunt. est et L. Fulvius inter insignia 
exempla, Tusculanorum rebellantium consul, eo- 
demque honore, cum transisset, exornatus confestim 
a p. R., qui solus eodem anno quo fuerat hostis 
Romae triumphavit ex iis quorum consul fuerat. 

137 unus hominum ad hoc aevi Fehcis sibi cognomen 
adseruit L. Sulla, civih nempe sanguine ac patriae 
oppugnatione adoptatus.^ et quibus fehcitatis in- 
ductus argumentis ? quod proscribere tot miHa 
ci\ium ac trucidare potuisset ? o prava interpretatio 

^ Sillig : proscriptum. * adoptatum Ilardouin. 

" The figure seems incorrect : Fidustius was proscribed in 81 
B.C., and Antony'8 power only began after Caesar'8 assassina- 
tion in 44 u.c. 

* Balbus bom in the island of Gades (Cadiz) served under 
Pompey in Spain and was established by him at Rome. 
Accused 56 b.c. of iJlegally assuming citizenship, he was de- 
fended by Cicero and acquitted. Octavian made him consul 
40 B.c. — Only aliens could be sentenced to flogging. 



BOOK VII. xLii. 134-XL111. 137 

following on disasters, orwhat immeasurable disasters 
except when followinf:^ on enormous joys ? XLIII. 
She preserved the senator Marcus Fidustius for 36 " 
years after his proscription by Sulla, but only to pro- 
scribe him a second time : he survived Sulla, but he 
Hved to see Antony, and it is known that Antony 
proscribed him for no other reason than that he had 
been proscribed before ! It is true she willed that 
Pubhus \'entidius should alone win a triumph from 
the Parthians, but she also in his boyhood led him 
captive in Gnaeus Pompeius's triumph after Asculum 
— albeit Masurius states that he was led in triumph 
t^^ice, and Cicero that he was a mule-driver for an 
army bakcry, and many authorities say that in his 
youth he supported his poverty bv foot-slo^ging in 
the ranks ! Also the elder Cornehus Balbus was 
consul, but he was impeached and handed over to a 
court of justice to decide as to his legal Habihty to a 
flogging — he being the first foreigner and actual 
native of the Atlantic coast to have held an honour * 
refused bv our ancestors even to Latium. Lucius 
Fulvius also is one of the notable examples, having 
l)een consul of the Tusculans at the time of their 
revolt and after coming ovcr ha\ing been at once 
honoured with the same office by the lloman nation : 
he is the only man who ever in the same year in 
which he had been Rome's enemy won a triumph 
from the people whose consul he had been. Lucius 
SuHa is the sole human being hitherto who has 
assumed the surname Fortunate, in fact achieving 
the title by civil bloodshed and by making war upon 
his coimtry. And what tokerus of good fortune 
were his motive ? His success in exihng and slaugh- 
tering so many thousands of his feUow-countrymen ? 

voL. II. U 597 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

et fiituro tempore infelix ! non melioris sortis tunc 
fuere pereuntes, quorum miseremur hodie cum 
1.18 Sullam nemo non oderit? age, non exitus vitae eius 
omnium proscriptorum ab illo calamitate crudclior 
fuit erodente se ipso corpore et supplicia sibi gig- 
nente ? quod ut dissimulaverit et supremo somnio 
eius, cui inmortuus quodammodo est, credamus ab 
uno illo invidiam gloria victam, hoc tamen ncmpe ^ 
felicitati suae defuisse confcssus est quod Capitolium 
non dedicavisset. 

139 Q. Metellus in ea oratione quam habuit supremis 
laudibus patris sui L. MeteUi pontificis, bis consulis, 
dictatoris, magistri equitum, xvviri agris dandis, 
qui primus elephantos ex primo Punico bello duxit 
in triumpho, scriptum rehquit decem maximas res 
optumasque in quibus quaerendis sapientes aetatem 

140 cxigerent consummasse eum: voluisse enim pri- 
marium bellatorem esse, optimum oratorem, fortissi- 
mum imperatorem, auspicio suo maximas rcs geri, 
maximo honore uti, summa sapientia esse, summum 
senatorem habcri, pecuniam magnam bono modo 
invenire, multos Hbcros reHnquerc et clarissimum in 
civitate essc ; hacc contigisse ei nec ulH aHi post 

141 Romam conditam. Longum est refellere et super- 

* [nempe] T Mayhojf. 



• Plutarch, Sulla 37. gives a difieront account — that shortly 
beforo his death he dreamt that his doad son camo to him and 
beaought him to ceaao from anxiety and to go with him to join 
his dead mothor Metclla and to hvo in happinusa with her. 



598 



BOOK VII. xLiii. 137-141 

O what a false meaning to attach to the title ! How 
doomed to misfortune in the future ! Were not his 
victims more fortunate at the time when dA-ing, 
whom we pity today when Sulla is universally hated .'' 
Come, was not the close of his hfe more cruel than 
the calamity of all the victims of his proscriptions, 
when his body ate itself away and bred its own tor- 
ments ? And although he dissembled the pangs, 
and although on the ev idence of that last dreani " 
of his,wliich mayalmost besaid to haveaccompanied 
his death, we beheved that he alone vanquished odium 
by glory, nevertheless he admitted forsooth that this 
one thing was wanting to his happiness — he had not 
dedicated the Capitol. 

Quintus Metellus, in the panegyric that he de- Kren 
livered at the obsequies of his father Lucius Metellus ~.f' "" 
the pontifF, who had been Consul twice, Dictator, interrupted 
Master of the Horse and Land-commissioner, and mUfwttme : 
Avho was the first person who led a proccssion of '^' ^«'«"♦- 
elephants in a triumph, having captured them in the 
first Punic War.has left it inuTitingthat his father had 
achievedthe ten greatest and highest objects in the 
pursuit of which wise men pass their Hves : for he had 
made it his aim to be a first-class warrior, a supreme 
orator and a very brave commander, to have the 
direction of operations of the highest importance, 
to enjoy the greatest honour, to be supremely wise, 
to be deemed the most eminent member of the 
senate, to obtain great wealth in an honourable way, 
to leave many children, and to achieve supreme dis- 
tinction in the state ; and that these things had fallen 
to his father's lot, and to that of no one else since 
Rome's foundation. It would be a lengthy matter 
to refute this, and it is superfluous to do so as it is 

599 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

vacuum abunde uno casu refutante : siquidem is 
Metellus orbam luminibus exegit senectam amissis 
incendio cum Palladium raperet ex aede Vestae, 
memorabili causa scd eventu misero. quo (it ut 
infelix quidem dici non debeat, felix tamen non 
possit. tribuit ei p. R. quod nulli alii ab condito 
aevo, ut quotiens in senatum iret curru veheretur 
ad curiam, magnum ei et sublime, sed pro oculis 
datimi. 

142 XLIV. Huius quoque Q. Metelli qui illa de patre 
dixit filius inter rara fclicitatis humanae exempla 
numeratur. nam praeter honores amplissimos cogno- 
menque Macedonici aquattuor filiis inlatus rogo.uno 
praetore, tribus consularibus (duobns trimnphaHbus), 
uno censorio, quae singula quoquc paucis contigere. in 

143 ipso tamen flore dignationis suae a C. Atinio Labeone, 
cui cognomen fuit Macerioni, tribuno plebis, quem e 
senatu censor eiecerat, revertens e campo meridiano 
tempore, vacuo foro ct CapitoHo, ad Tarpciuni raptus 
ut praecipitaretur, convolante quidem tam ^ numerosa 
illa cohorte quae patrem eum appeUabat, sed, ut 
necesse erat in subito, tarde et tamquam in exse- 
quias, cum resistendi sacroquesanctum repellendi ius 
non esset, virtutis suae opera et censurae periturus, 

^ tum ? Mayhoff. 
600 



BOOK VII. xLiii. 141-XLIV. 143 

abundantly rebutted by a single accidcntal mis- 
fortune : inasmuch as this Metellus passed an old 
age of bhndness, having lost his sight in a fire when 
saving the statue of Pallas from the temple of Vesta, 
a memorable purpose but disastrous in its result. 
Conscquently though he must not be pronounced 
unhappy, still he cannot be called happy. The 
nation bestowed on him a privilege given to no one 
else since the foundation of time, permission to ride 
to the senate-house in a chariot whenever he went 
to a meeting of the senate — a great and highly 
honourable privilege, but one that was bestowed on 
him as a substitute for sight. 

XLIV. The son of this Metellus who made those 
remarks about his father is also counted among the 
exceptional instances of human happiness. Besides 
receiving an abundance of high honours and thc 
surname of Macedonicus, he was borne to the tomb 
by four sons, one a praetor, three ex-consuls (tAvo 
winners of triumphs), one an ex-censor — things that 
even separately have fallen to few men's lot. Never- 
theless at the very height of his distinguishcd career, 
when coming back from the Field at midday, the 
market place and Capitol being empty, he was 
carried off to the Tarpeian Rock by Gaius Atinius 
Labeo, surnamed Macerio, tribune of the plebs, 
whorn when censor he had ejected from the senate, 
with ihe intcntion of hurhng him down the chiF; 
the numerous company of persons who called him 
their father did it is true hasten to his aid, but as was 
inevitable in this sudden emergency, too late and 
as if coming for his funeral, and as he had not 
the right to resist and to repel tlie hallowed person 
of a tribune his virtue and his strictness would have 

601 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

acgre trihuno qui intercederet reperto a limine ipso 

144 mortis revocatus, alieno beneficio postea vixit, bonis 
inde etiam consecratis a damnato suo, tamquam 
parum esset faucium reste ^ intortarum expressique 
per aures sanguinis poena exacta.^ equidem et 
Africani sequentis inimicum fuisse inter calamitates 
duxerim, ipso teste Maccdonico, siquidem dixit : 
ite filii, cclebrate exequias ; numquam civis maioris 
funus videbitis. et hoc dicebat iam Baliaricis et 

145 Dalmaticis,^ iam Macedonicus ipse. verum ut illa 
sola iniuria aestimetur, qui< liunc iure felicem dixcrit 
periclitatum ad libidinem inimici, nec Africani sal- 
tem, perire ? quos hostis vicisse tanti fuit ? aut quos 
non honores currusque illa sua violentia fortuna 
retroegit, per mediam urbem censore tracto — 
etenim sola haec morandi ratio fuerat, — tracto in 
CapitoHum idem * in quod triumphans ipse de eorum ^ 

146 exuviis ne captivos quidem sic traxerat? maius 
hoc scelus feHcitate consecuta factum est, peri- 
chtato Maccdonico vel funus tantum ac tale perdere 
in quo a triumphalibus hberis portaretur in rogum 
velut exequiis quoque triumphans. nulla est pro- 

* Ruhnken : certe. 

* V.l. pocnam exaetam csse. 
' Beroaldxis : Diadematis. 

* Mayhoff: ille. 

* Caesariu-8 : deorum (? dci omatua Alayhoff). 

* As praetor in 148 n.c. ho carriod on war in Macedonia 
against the usiirpor Andriscus whom he dcfeatcd and took 
prisoner. His eldest son, wlien consul 123 b.c, subduod tho 
Balearic lalanda, and his nephow, consul 119 B.c, the Dalma- 
tians. 

* He had not becn exccuted out of hand in order that this 
further indignity might be inflicted on him. 

6o2 



BOOK VII. xLiv. 143-146 

resulted in his destruction, but ■with difficulty another 
tribune was found to intercede, and he was recalled 
froni the very threshold of death ; and subsequently 
he lived on the charity of another, as his own property 
had immediately been confiscated on the proposal 
of the very man whom he had himself caused to be 
condemned, just as though the penalty exacted from 
him of having his throat tied in a rope and the 
blood forced out through his ears were not sufficient ! 
Although for my own part I should also reckon it as a 
disaster to have been at enmity with the second 
Africanus, on the evidence of Macedonicus himself, 
inasmuch as he said, " Go, my sons, celebrate his 
obsequies ; you will never see the funeral of a greater 
citizen ! " And he said this to sons who had already 
won the titles of Balearicus and Dalmaticus, while 
he himself was already Macedonicus." But even if 
only that injury be taken into account, who could 
rightly pronounce happy this man who ran the risk 
of perishing at the will of an enemy, and him not even 
an Africanus ? Victory over what enemies was worth 
so much ? or what honours and triumphal ears did 
not fortune put into the shade by that violent stroke — 
a censor dragged through the middle of the city (for 
this had bcen the sole reason for delaying ^*), dragged 
to that same Capitol to which he himself had not thus 
dragged even prisoners when he was triumphing over 
the spoils taken from them ? This was rendered a 
greater crime by the happiness that followed, as it 
placed Macedonicus in danger of losing even that 
ffreat and fflorious funeral in which he was carried to 
tlie pyre by his children who had themselves won 
triumphs, so that even his obsequies were a triumphal 
procession. Assuredly it is no firnily founded 

603 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

fecto solida felicitas quam contuiuelia ulla vitae rupit, 
nedum tanta. quod superest, nescio morum gloriae 
an indignationis dolori accedat, inter tot Metellos tam 
sceleratam C. Atini audaciam semper fuisse inultam. 

147 XL\'. Indivo quoque Augusto,quem universamor- 
talitas in hac censura nuncupet, si diligenter aesti- 
mcntur cuncta, magna sortis hiunanae reperiantur 
volumina : repulsa in magisterio equitum apud avun- 
culum et contra petitionem eius praelatus Lcpidus, 
proscriptionis invidia, collegium in triumviratu pessi- 
morum civium, nec aequa saltem portione, sed 

148 praegravi Antonio, Philippensi proelio morbidi ^ fuga 
et triduo in palude argroti et (ut fatentur Agrippa ac 
Maecenas) aqua subter cutem fusa turgidi latcbra, 
naufragia Sicula et alia ibi quoque in spehmca occul- 
tatio, iam in navah fuga urgente hostium manu 
preces Proculeio mortis admotae, cura Perusinae 
contentionis, sollicitudo Martis Actiaci, Pamionicis 

149 bellis ruina e turri, tot seditiones militum, tot anci- 
pites morbi corporis, suspecta MarceHi vota, pudenda 
Agrippae ablegatio, totiens petita iasidiis vita, 
incusatae Hberorum mortes ; luctusque non tantum 
orbitate tristis, adulterium fihae et consiha parricidae 

* Jan : morbi. 



" Julius Caesar, 4C b.c. 

" His grandchiidrcn, Luciiis and Gaius, sons of Julia and 

Agrippa, whom he adoptcd as hia eons ; their romoval was 
perhaps contrivod by Livia, but Augustus was suspccted of 
compHcity, to ensure the succession of Tiberius. 
' Julia. 

604 



BOOK VII. xLiv. 146-XLV. 149 

happiness that any outrage in a man's career has 
shattered, let alone so great an outrage as that. For 
the rest I know not whether it counts to the credit of 
our morals or increases tlie anguish of our indignation 
that among all the many MetclH that criminal 
audacity of Gaius Atinius for ever went un- 
punished. 

XLV, Also in the case of his late Majesty Augustus, cttequered 
whom the whole of mankind enrols in tlie Ust of Augustua. 
happy men, if all the facts were carefully weiglied, 
grcat revolutions of man's lot could be discovered: 
his failure ■with his uncle " in regard to the office of 
Master of the Horse, when the candidate opposing 
him, Lepidus, was preferred; the hatred caused 
by the proscription ; his association in the trium- 
virate with the wickedest citizens, and that not ^vith 
an equal share of power but with Antony pre- 
dominant ; liis flight in the battle of Phihppi when 
he was suffering from disease, and his three days' 
hiding in a marsh, in spite of his illness and his 
swollen dropsical condition (as stated bv Agrippa 
and Maecenas) ; his shipwreck ofF Sicily, and there 
ako another period of hiding in a cave ; his entreaties 
to Proculeius to kill him, in the naval rout when a 
detachnient of the enemy was ah-eady pressing close 
at hand ; the anxiety of the struggle at Perugia, the 
alarm of the Battle of Actium, his fail from a tower in 
the Pannonian Wars ; and all the mutinies in his 
troops, all his critical illnesses, his suspicion of 
Marcellus's ambitions, the disgrace of Agrippa's 
banishment, the many plots against his life, the 
charge of causing the death of his children * ; and his 
sorrows that were not due solely to bereavement,his 
daughter's<^ adultery and the disclosure of her plots 

605 



PLINY: NATURAL HLSTORY 

palam facta, contumeliosus privigni Neronis secessus, 
aliud in nepte adulterium, iuncta deinde tot mala, 
inopia stipendi, rebellio IUyrici, servitiorum delectus, 
iuventutis pcnuria, pestilentia urbis, fames Italiae, 
destinatio cxpirandi et quadridui media maior pars 

150 mortis in corpus recepta ; iuxta haec Variana clades 
et maiestatis eius foeda suggillatio, abdicatio Postumi 
Agrippac post adoptionem, desiderium post relega- 
tionem, inde suspicio in Fabium arcanorumque prodi- 
tionem, hinc uxoris et Tiberi cogitationes, suprema 
eias cura. in summa deus ille caelumque nescio 
adeptus magis an meritus herede hostis sui fiUo 
exccssit. 

151 XLV^I. Subeunt in hac reputationc Delphica oracula 
velut ad castigandam hominum vanitatem deo emissa. 
duo sunt haec : Pedium felioissimum, qui pro patria 
proxrme occubuisset ; iterum a Gyge rege tunc 
amphssimo terrarum consultum,^ Aglaum Psophi- 
dium esse fehciorem. senior hic in angustissimo 
Arcadiae angulo parvum sed annuis victibus large 
sufficiens praedium colebat, numquam ex eo egressus 
atque, ut e vitae genere manifestum est, minima 
cupidine minimum in vita maH cxpertus. 

* V.l. CODBUlti. 



• Tiberius Claudius Nero, afterwards the emperor Tiborius, 
6011 of Livia by her first marriage and so stepson of Augustus ; 
and ho aUo bocamo hia son-in-law by marrj'ing Juiia aftor the 
death of Agrippa. He hved in retirement at llhodea for 
Beven yeara. 

6o6 



BOOK VII. xLv. 149-.XLV1. 151 

against her father's life, the insolent withdrawal of 
his stepson Nero," another adultery, that of his 
grand-daughter * ; then the long series of mis- 
fortunes — lack of army funds, rebellion of Illyria, 
enUstment of slaves, shortage of man power, plague 
at Rome, famine in Italy, resolve on suicide and 
death more than half achieved by four davs' starva- 
tion ; next the disa^ter of Varus <^ and the foul 
slur upon his dignity ; the disowning of Postumius 
Agrippa after liis adoption as heir, and the sense of 
loss that followed his banishment ; then his suspicion 
in regard to Fabius and the betrayal of secrets ; 
afterwards the intrigues of his wife and Tiberius 
that tormented his latest days. In fine, this god — 
whether deified more by his OAvn action or by his 
merits I know not— departed from life leaving his 
enemy's son his heir. 

XLVI. In this review there come to mind the Oracuiar 
Delphic oracles sent forth by the god as if for the tJS."^ 
purpose of chastising the vanity of mankind. Here 
are two : ' The happiest of men is Pedius, who lately 
fell in battle for his country ' ; and secondly, when 
the oracle was consulted by Gyges, then the 
wealthiest king in the world, ' Aglaus of Psophis is 
happier.' This was an elderly man who cultivated 
an estate, small but amply sufficient for his yearly 
provision, in a very shut in corner of Arcadia, and 
who had never left it, and being (as his kind of hfe 
showedj a man of very small desires experienced a 
very small amount of misfortune in hfe. 

* Julia, daufrhter of Julia and Agrippa, wifo of L. Aemiliua 
Pauliis ; banished b}' Augustus for adultor}' with D. Silanus. 

' Quintihua Varus and his army annihilated at Saltus Teuto- 
burgonsis by German robela under Arminius, 9 B.o. 

607 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

152 XLVII. Consecratus est vivus sentiensque eiusdem 
oraculi iussu et lovis deorum summi adstipulatu 
Euthymus pycta, semper Olympiac victor et semel 
victus. patria ei Locri in Italia ; imaginem eius ibi ^ et 
OHTnpiae alteram eodem die tact.os^ fulmine Callima- 
chum ut nihil aliud miratum video oraculumque ^ 
iussisse * sacrificari, quod et vivo factitatum et 
mortuo, nihilque de eo mirum aHud quam hoc 
placuisse dis. 

153 XLVIII. De spatio atque longinquitate vitae homi- 
num non locorum modo situs verum et tempora ac^ 
sua cuique sors nascendi incertum * fecere. Hesiodus, 
qui primus aliqua de hoc prodidit, fabulose, ut reor, 
multa hominum aevo praeferens ' cornici novem 
nostras adtribuit aetates, quadruplum eius cervis, id 
triphcatum corvis, et rehqua fabulosius in phoenice ac 

154 Nymphis. Anacreon poeta Arganthonio Tartesiorum 
regi CL tribuit annos, Cinyrae Cvpriorum decem 
annis ampHus, Aegimio cc. Theopompus Epimcnidi 
Gnosio CLvii, Hellanicus quosdam in Aetoha 
Epiorum gentis ducentos ^ explere, cui adstipulatur 
Damastes memorans Pictoreum ex his praecipuum 

153 corpore viribusque etiam ccc vixisse, Ephorus 
Arcadum reges tricenis annis, Alexander Cornehus 

* Sic ? Mnyhoff: ibi imaginem eius aut ibi imaginem eius ibi. 

* liackham : tactam. 

' Mayhofft : ad euraque aut deumque. 

* iussisse <(ei)>? Rackham. 

' Detlefsen : verum exempla ac. 
•■• incertum <iudiciuoi> ? Mayhoff. 
' Mayhoff : rcfcrens. 

* Mayhuff : duccuta. 



" Not in tho eitant works of Hoaiod. 

6o8 



BOOK VII. xLvii. I52-XLVIII. 155 

XLVII. By the comniand of the same oracle and 
\rith the assent of Jupiter the supreme deity, 
Euthymus the boxer, who won all his matches at 
Olympia and was only once beaten, was made a 
saint in his lifetime and to his own knowledge. His 
native place was Locri in Italy ; I noticed that 
CalHmachus records as an unparalleled marvel that 
a statue of him there and another at Olympia were 
struck by lightning on the same day, and that the 
oracle commanded that sacrifice should be offered 
to him ; this was repeatedly done both during his 
lifetime and when he was dead, and nothing 
about it is surprising except that the gods so 
decreed. 

XLVIII. As to the length and duration of men's iJvmnn 
Hfe, not only geographical position but also dates and ug'^d%iT 
the various fortunes allotted at birth to each individual ''«'■'''n'- 
have made it uncertain. Hesiod, who first put forth 
some observations " on this matter, placing many 
creatures above man in respect of longevity, ficti- 
tiously as I think, assigns nine of our Hfetimcs to the 
crow, four times a crow's life to stags, three times a 
stag's to ravens, and for the rest in a more fictitious 
style in the case of the phoenix and the nymphs. The 
poet Anacreon attributes 150 years to Arganthonius 
king of the Tartesii, 10 years more to Cinyras king 
of Cyprus, and 200 to Aegimius. Theopompus gives 
157 to Epimenides of Cnossus. Hellanicus says that 
some members of the clan of the Epii in Aetolia 
complete 200 years, and he is supported by Damastes 
who records that one of them, Pictoreus, a man of 
outstanding stature and strength, even lived 300 
years ; Ephorus records Arcadian kings of 300 years ; 
Alexander Comehus says that a certain Dando in 

609 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Dandonem quendam in Illyrico d vixisse, Xenophon 
in periplo Lutmiorum insulae regem dc, atque ut 
parce mentitus filium eius dccc. quae omnia inscitia 
temporum acciderunt ; annum enim alii aestate 
determinabant et alterum hieme, alii quadripertitis 
temporibas, sicut Arcades quorum anni trimenstres 
fuere, quidam lunae senio ut Aegyptii. itaque apud 
eos et singuli milia annorum vixisse produntur. 

156 Sed ut ad confessa transeamus, Arganthonium 
Gaditanum lxxx annis regnasse prope certum est ; 
putant quadragensimo coepisse. Masinissam lx 
annis regnasse indubitatum est, Gorgian Siculum 
c\'iii vixisse. Q. Fabius Maximus lxui annis augur 
fuit. M. Perperna et nupcr L. Volusius Saturninus 
omnium quos in consulatu sententiam rogavcrant 
superstites fuere, Perperna viii reliquit ex iis quos 

157 ceasor legerat : vixit annos lxxxxviii. qua in re et 
illud adnotare succurrit,unum omnino quinquennium 
fuisse quo senator nullus morcrctur, cum Tlaccus 
et Albinus censores lustrum condidcre, usque ad 
proxumos ceasores, ab anno urbis dlxxix. M. Valerius 
Corvinus centurn annos iniplevit, cuius inter primum 
et sextum con.sulalum xlvi anni fuere. idem sella 
curuli semel ac viciens sedit, quotiens nemo aHus ; 
aequavit eius vitae spatia Metellus pontifex. 



• /.e. who had been membera of the Senate during their 
consiilshipi 

6io 



BOOK VII. xLviii. 155-157 

IlljTia lived 500 years. Xenophon in his Coasting 
Voyage says that a king of the island of the Lutniii 
Hved to 600, and — as tJiough that were only a modest 
fabrication — that his son livcd to 800. All of these 
exaggerations were due to ignorance of chronology, 
because some people niade the year coincide with 
the summer, the winter being a second year, others 
marked it by the periods of the four seasons, for 
example the Arcadians whose years were three 
months long, and some by the waning of the moon, 
;is do the Egyptians. Consequently with them even 
individuals are recordcd to have Hved a thousand 
years. 

But to pass to admitted facts, it is almost certain 
that Argathonius of Cadiz reigned for 80 years ; his 
reign is thought to have begun in his fortieth year. 
It is not questioned that Masinissa reigned 00 years 
and that the Sicilian Gorgias Hved 108 years. 
Quintus Fabius Maximus was augur for 63 years. 
Marcus Perperna and recently Lucius Volusius 
Saturninus outlived all the persons whose votes in 
debate they had taken as consuls " ; Perperna left 
only seven of those whom as censor he had elected — 
he lived to 98. In this matter it occurs to me to note 
also that there has only been a single five-year 
period in which no senator has died, from when 
Flaccus and Albinus as censors performed the 
purification ceremony to the ncxt censors — begin- 
ning 175 b.c. Marcus Valerius Cor\inus completed 
100 years, and there was an interval of 46 years 
between his first and sixth consulships. He also 
took his seat in the curule chair 21 times, which is a 
record; but his length of Hfe was equalled l)y the 
pontifex Metellus. 

5ii 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

158 Et ex feminis Livia llutili lxyxxvii annos excessit, 
Statilia Claudio principe ex nobili domo lxxxxix, 
Terentia Ciceronis ciii, Clodia Ofili cxv, haec 
quidem etiam enixa quindeciens. Lucceia mima c 
annis in scaena pronuntiavit. Galeria Copiola embo- 
liaria reducta est in scaenam C. Poppaeo Q. Sulpicio 
coss. ludis pro salute divi Augusti votivis annum civ 
agens ; pi*oducta fuerat tirocinio a M. Pomponio 
aedile plebis C. Mario Cn. Carbone coss. ante annos 
xci, a Magno Pompeio magni theatri dedicatione 

159 anus pro miraculo reducta. Sammulam quoque cx 
annis vixisse auctor est Pedianus Asconius. Minus 
miror Stephanionem, qui primus togatus ^ saltare 
instituit, uti'isque saecularibus ludis saltavisse, et 
divi Augusti et quos Claudius Caesar consulatu suo 
quarto fecit, quando lxiii non amphus anni inter- 
fuere, quamquam et postea diu vixit. in Tmoh 
Montis Cacumine quod vocant Tempsin CL annis 
vivere Mucianus auctor est, totidem annorum * 
censum Chiudi Caesaris censura T. FuUonium Bono- 
nicnsem, idque collatis censibus quos ante dctulerat 
vitaeque argumentis — etenim curae principi id 
erat — verum apparuit. 

160 XLIX. Poscere videtur locus ipsesiderahsscientiae 
sententiam. Epigenes cxii annos inpleri ncgavit 

* tog;it;is Salirlliu.<!. 

« MaykoJJ (cl. 161): aiiiioa. 

" C)r posBibly *had a stagc-oaroer of a hundred yoare.' 
* A.u. 8. « 82 B.c. 

6l2 



BOOK VII. xLviii. i58-xLi.\. i6o 

Also arnong women Livia wife of Rutilius e^- LongevUy oj 
ceeded 97 years, Statilia a lady of noble faniily "'<""^"- 
under the Emperor Claudius 99, Terentia Cicero's 
wife 103, Clodia Ofilius's wife 115; the latter 
also bore 15 children. The actress Lucceia de- 
livered a recitation on the stage at 100." Galeria 
Copiola the actress of interludes was brouglit back 
to the stage in the consulship of Gaius Poppaciis and 
Quintus Sulpicius,* at the votive games celebrated 
for the recovery of his late Majesty Augustus, when 
in her 104th year ; she had been brought out at her 
first appearance by Marcus Pomponius, aedile of the 
plebs, in the coasulship <^ of Gaius Marius and Gnaeus 
Carbo, 9J years before, and she was brought back 
to the stage when an old woman by Pompey the 
Great as a marvel at the dedication of the big 
theatre. Also Pedianus Asconius states that Sam- 
mula lived 110 years. I am less surprised that 
Stephanio, who first introduced dancing in national 
costume, danced at both secular games, both those 
of his late Majesty Augastus and those celebrated 
by Claudius Caesar in his fourth consulship, as 
the interval was only 63 years, although he also 
Uved a long time afterwards. Mucianus is the 
authority for one Tempsis having lived 150 years at 
the place called Mount Tmolus Heights ; and the 
census of Claudius Caesar gives the same number 
of years for Titus FuUonius of Bologna, which has 
been verified by comparing the census returns he had 
made previously and by the facts of his career — for 
the emperor gave his attention to this matter. 

XLIX. The topic seems of itself to call for the view scimtijic 
held by astronomical science. Epigenes declared that J^^^pX!" 
it is impossible to Hve 112 years ; Berosus said that 

613 



PLINY: NATURAL HL«^TORY 

posse, Berosus excedi xcvi. durat et ea ratio qiiam 
Petosiris ac Necepsos tradidere (tetartemorion 
appellant a trium signorum portione) qua posse 
in Italiae tractu cxxiv annos \-itae contingere 
apparet. negavere illi quemquam xc partium 
exortivam mensuram (quod anaphoras vocant) trans- 
gredijCt has ipsas incidi occursu maleficorum siderum 
aut etiam radiis eorum solisque. Aesculapi rursus 
secta, quae stata vitae spatia a stellis accipi dicit, 

161 quantum plurimum tribuat incertum cst ; rara autem 
esse dicunt longiora tempora, quandoquidem mo- 
mentis horarum insignibus lunae dierum, ut vii 
atque xv quae nocte ac die observantur, ingens 
turba na^^catur scansili annorum lege occidua, quam 
climacteras appellant, non fere ita genitis uv annum 
excedentibus. 

162 Prinium ergo ipsius artis inconstantia declarat 
quam incerta res sit. accedunt experimcnta ^ 
recentissimi census quem intra quadriennium Im- 
peratorcs Caesares \'cspasiani pater filiusque cen- 
sores egerunt. nec sunt onmia vasaria excutienda : 
mediae tantum partis inter Apenninum Padumque 
ponemus exempla, cxx annos Parmae tres edidere, 

163 Brixilli unus, cxxv Parmae duo, cxxx Placentiae 
unus, Faventiae una niulier, cxxxv Bononiae L. 
Terentius M. fiHus, Arimini vero M. Aponius cxl, 
Tertulla cxxxvii. citra Placentiam in coUibus 

• V.U. add. exempla aut et exempla. 



" I.e. Titns. The dato was a.h. 74. 



614 



BOOK VII. xLix. 160-163 

116 years can be exceeded. Also the theory handed 
do^NTi by Petosh-is and Necepsos is still extant (it is 
called the Theory of Quarters, from its dividing iip 
the Zodiac into groups of three signs) ; this theory 
shows it possible to attain 121: years of life in the 
region of Italy. These thinkers declared that 
nobody exceeds the ascendant measure of 90 degrees 
(what is called ' risings '), and stated that this period 
itself may be cut short by the encounter of male- 
ficent stars, or even by their rays and by those of 
the sun. Again it is uncertain what is the greatest 
longevity allowed by the school of Aesculapius, 
which says that fixed periods of Hfe are received froni 
the stars ; however, they say that longer periods 
of hfe are rare, inasmuch as vast crowds of men are 
born at critical moments in the hours of the hmar 
days, for example the 7th and the 15th hour counting 
by night and day. who are liable to die under the law 
of thc ascending scale of years, called ' gradations,' 
persons so born rarely exceeding their fifty-fourth 
year. 

At the outset therefore the variations in the Census-enses 
science itself show how uncertain the matter is. ' ""■ 

In addition there are the expericnces of the last 
census, held within the last four years by the 
Emperors Caesar Vcspasian father and son* as 
Censors. Nor is it necessary to ransack all the 
records : we will only produce cases from the middle 
region between the Apennines and the Po. Three 
persons declared 120 years at Parma and one at 
Brescello ; two at Parma 125; one man at Piacenza 
and one wonian at Faenza 130 ; Lucius Terentius son 
of Marcus at Bologna 135; Marcus Aponius 140 and 
Tertulla 1.37 at Rimini. In the hills this side of 

615 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

oppidum est Veleialium, in quo cx amios sex 
detulere, quattuor vero centenos vicenos, unus cl, 

164 M. Mucius M. filius Galeria Felix. ac ne pluribus 
moremur in re confessa, in regione Italiae octava 
centenum annorum censi sunt homines liv, cen- 
tenum denum homines xiv, centenum vicenum 
quinum homines duo, ccntenum tricenum homines 
quattuor, centenum tricenum quinum aut septenum 
totidem, centenum quadragenum homines tres. 

165 Alia mortaUtatis inconstantia : Ilomerus eadem 
nocte natos Hectorem et Polydamanta tradidit, 
tam diversae sortis viros ; C. Mario Cn. Carbone iii 
coss. a. d. V. kal. lunias M. Caehus Rufus et C. Licinius 
Calvus eadem die geniti sunt, oratores quidem 
ambo, sed tam dispari eventu. hoc etiam iisdem 
horis nascentibus in toto mundo cotidie evenit, 
pariterque domini ac servi gignuntur, reges et 
inopes. 

166 L. P. Cornehus Rufus, qui consul cum M'. Curio 
fuit, dormiens oculoruin visum amisit, cum id sibi 
accidere somniaret. e diverso Pheraeus lason de- 
ploratus a medicis voniicae morbo, cum mortem in 
acie quaereret, vulnerato pectore medicinam invenit 
ex hoste. Q. Fabius Maximus consul apud flumen 
Isaram proeUo commisso adversxis Allobrogum 
Arvernorumque gentcs a. d. vi. id. Augustas, cxxx 
perduelHum caesis, febri quartana liberatus est in 

167 acie. incertum ac fragilc nimirum est hoc munus 
naturae, quicquid datur nobis, malignum vero et 
brevc etiam in his quibus largissime contigit, uni- 



• Iliad xviii. 249 fiF. 
* 82 Bn. ' 121 n.o. 



6i6 



BOOK VII. xux. 163-L. 167 

Piacenza is the toAvnship of Veleia, where six declared 
110 years, four 120, one (Marcus Mucius Felix, son 
of Marcus, of the Galerian tribe) 150. And, not to 
delay ^dth further instances in a matter of admitted 
fact, the census registered in the eighth region of 
Italy 54 persons of 100 years of age, 14 of 110, 2 of 
125, 4 of 130, the same number of 135 or 137, 3 of 
140. 

Other instances of the fickleness of mortal fortunes stHking 
are these : Homer" has recordcd that men of such }^,"„° •, 
diverse fates as Hector and Polydamas were born on Hajitiudff*. 
the same night ; Mareus CaeHus llufus and Gaius 
Licinius Cah'us, both orators but with such different 
success, were born on the same day, May 28 in the 
consulship ^ of Gaius Marius and Gnaeus Carbo — 
the latter's third. Taking the entire world, this 
happens daily even to persons born at the same hours 
— masters and slaves, kings and paupers come into 
existence simultaneously. 

L. PubHus Cornelius Rufus, who Avas consul with 
Manius Curius, lost his sight while asleep, when 
dreaming that it w.as happening to him. In the 
opposite way, Jason of Pherae being ill with a tumour 
and given up by the doctors sought death in battle, 
but was wounded in the chest and so obtained a cure 
from the enemy. In the battle against the clans of 
the Allobroges and Arverni on the river Isfcre, on 
August 8, when 130,000 of the foe werc killed, the 
consul ' Quintus Fabius Maximus got rid of a 
quartan ague in action. In fact whatever be this 
gift of nature that is bestowed upon us, it is uncertain 
and insecure, indeed sinister and of brief duration 
even in the case of those to whose lot it has fallen 
in most bounteous measure, at all evonts whcn we 

617 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

versum utique aevi tenipus intuentibus. quid quod 
aestiniatione nocturnae quietis diniidio quisque spatio 
\itae suae vivit, pars aequa mnrti similis exigitur aut 
poenae, nisi contigit quies ? nec reputantur infantiae 
anni qui sensu carent, non senectae in poenam vivacis, 
tot periculorum genera, tot morbi, tot metus, tot 
curae, totiens invocata morte ut nullum frequentius 
1G8 sit votum. natura vero nihil hominibus brevitate 
vitae praestitit meHus. hebescunt sensus, membra 
torpcnt, pracmoritur visus, auditus, incessus, dentis 
etiam ac ciborum instrumenta, et tamen vitae hoc 
tempus adnumeratur. est ^ ergo pro miraculo, et id 
solitarium reperitur exemplum Xenophili musici, 
centum et quinque annis \ixisse sinc ullo corporis in- 

169 commodo. at, Hercule, reliquis omnibus per singulas 
membrorum partes qualiter nullis aUis animalibus 
certis pestifer calor remeat lioris aut rigor, neque 
horis modo sed et dicbus noctibusque trinis quadri- 
nisve, etiam anno trjto. atque etiam morbus est 
aHquantisper 2 sapientiam mori. morbis quoque 

170 enim quasdam leges natura inposuit : quadrini 
circuitus febrem numquam bruma, numquam hibernis 
mensibus incipere, quosdam post sexagensimum 
vitae spatium non acccdere, aHis ^ pi:bertate dc}ioni, 
feminis praecipue ; senes minime sentire pestilentiain. 
namque et universis gentibus ingruunt morbi et 
generatim modo servitiis modo procerum ordini 
aHosque per gradus. qua in re observatum a meri- 

' ePt aJd. Rackhatn- 

• Alcialus : alitfuis per. 

* Ma,y}toJf : alios. 

6i8 



BOOK VII. L. 167-170 

regard the whole extent of time. Wliat of tlie fact 
that, if we take into account our nightly pcriod of 
slumber, evervbody is alive for only a half of his 
life, whereas an equal portion is passed in a manner 
that resembles death, or, in default of slumber, 
torture. And vre are not counting in the years of 
infancy that h\ck sensation, nor those of old age that 
remains ahve to be tormented, nor all the kinds of 
dangers, all the diseases, all the fears, all the anxieties, 
with death so often invoked that this is the commonest 
of pravers. But nature has granted man no better Bretit!/ o/ 
gift than the shortness of Hfe. The senses grow dull, /"" '"^''^- 
the hmbs are numb, sight, hearing, gait, even the 
teeth and ahmentary organs die before we do, and 
yet this period is reckoned a portion of hfe. Con- 
sequently it is virtually a miracle — and this is the 
sohtarv instance of it found — that the musician 
Xenophilus lived to 105 without anv bodily disable- 
ment. But assuredly with all the rest of men, as in 
the case of none of the other animals, morbid heat or 
else stifFness returns througli the several portions of 
the hmbs at fixed hours, and not only at certain hours 
but also every three or four days or nights, even all 
the year round. And moreover the death of the 
intellect in some measure is a disease. For nature has 
imposed certain laws even upon dise.tses : a four-day- 
period fever never begins at mid-winter or in the winter 
months, and some people are not attacked by it when 
over the age of 60, while willi others, particularly 
women, it is discarded at puberty ; and old men are 
least susceptible to plague. For diseases attack not 
only entire nations but also particular classes, some- 
times the slaves, sometimes the nobihty, and so 
through other grades. In this respect it has been 

619 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

dianis partibiis ad occasum solis pestilentiam semper 
ire nec umquam aliter fcre, non hieme, nec ut ternos 
excedat menses. 

171 LI. lam signa letalia : in furoris morbo risum, 
sapientiae vero aegritudine fnnbriarum curam et 
stragulae vestis plicateras, a somno moventium 
neglectum, praefandi umoris e corpore effluvium, 
in oculorum quidem et narium aspectu indubitata 
maximc, atque etiam supino adsidue cubitu, 
venarum inacquabili aut formicante percussu, quae- 
que alia Hippocrati principi medicinae observata 
sunt. et cum innumerabilia sint mortis signa, 
salutis securitatisque nulla sunt, quippe cum 
censorius Cato ad filium de validis quoque observa- 
tionem ut ex oraciilo aliquo prodiderit senilem 

172 iuventam praematurae raortis esse signum. mor- 
borum vero tam infinita est multitudo ut Pherecydes 
Syrius serpentium multitudine ex corpore eius erum- 
pente expiraverit. quibusdam perpetua febris est, 
sicut C. Maecenati ; eidem triennio supremo nullo 
horae momento contigit somnus. Antipater Sidonius 
poeta omnibus annis uno die tantum natali corripie- 
batur febre et eo coasumptus est satis longa senecta. 

173 LII. Aviola consularis in rogo revixit et, quoniam 
subveniri non potuerat praevalente flamma, vivus 
crematus est. similis causa in L. Lamia praetorio 
viro traditur ; nam C. Aelium Tuberonem praetura 
functum a rogo relatum Messala Rufus et plerique 

620 



BOOK VII. L. lyo-Lii. 173 

observed that plague aiways ti-avels from southern 
quarters westAvard and almost never otlienvise, and 
that it does not spread in winter, nor during a period 
exceeding thrce months. 

LI. Again, signs of approaching death are : in a simsof 
case of insanity laughter, but in delirium toying with deatZ"'^' 
fringes and inaking folds in the bed-clothes, disregard 
of persons trying to keep the patient awake, making 
water, while the most unmistakable signs are in the 
appearance of the eyes and nostrils, and also in lying 
constantlv on the back, in an irregular and excessively 
slow pulse, and the other symptoms noted by that 
prince of medicine Hippocrates. And whereas the 
signs of death are innumerable, there are no signs 
of health being secure ; inasmuch as the ex-censor 
Cato gave an as it were oracular utterance addressed 
to his son about healthy persons also, to the effect 
that senile characteristics in youth are a sign of 
premature death. But so imhmited is the number of 
diseases that the Syrian Pherecydes expired with a 
swarm of maggots bursting out of his body. Some 
people suifer from perpetual fever, for instance Gy.ius 
Maecenas : the same had not an hour's sleep in the 
last three years of his Ufe. The poet Antipater of 
Sidon used to have a yearly attack of fever 011 one day 
onlv, his birthday, and this at a fairly advanced age 
carried him off. 

LI I . The ex-consul Aviola came to life again on the 
funeral pyre, and as the flame was too powerful for 
it to be possible to come to his assistance, was burnt 
aUve. A similar cause of death is recorded in the 
case of the ex-praetor Lucius Lamia, while Gaius 
Aehus Tubero, a former praetor, is recorded by 
Messala Rufus and most authoritles to have been 

621 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tradunt. haec est conditio mortalium : ad has et 
eiusmodi occasiones fortunae gignimur, ut de homine 

174 ne morti quidem debeat credi. rcperimus inter 
exempla Hermotimi Clazomenii animam relicto 
corpore errare solitam vagamque e longinquo multa 
adnuntiare quae nisi a praesente nosci non possent, 
corpore interim semianimi, donec cremato eo inimici 
qui Cantharidae vocabantur remeanti animae veluti 
vaginam ademcrint ; Aristeae etiam visam evolantem 
ex ore in Proconneso corvi effigie, cum ^ magna quae 

175 sequitur hanc ^ fabulositate. quam equidem et 
in Gnosio Epimenide simili modo accipio, puerum 
aestu et itinerc fessum in specu septem et quinqu- 
aginta dormisse annis, rerum faciem mutationenique 
mirantem velut postcro die experrectum, hinc pari 
numero dicrum scnio ingruente, ut tamen in septi- 
mum et quinquagesimum atque centesimum vitae 
duraret annum. feminarum sexus huic malo videtur 
maxime opportunus conversione volvae, quae si 
corrigatur, spiritus restituitur. huc pertinet nobile 
illud apud Graecos volumen Heraclidis septem diebus 
feminae exanimis ad vitara revocatae. 

176 Varro quoque auctor est xx viro se agros dividente 
Capuae quendam qui efferretur feretro ^ domum 



' liackhatn : quae aul que aut om. 
Mayhoff : hac. Amvion {vel tOTo) : foro. 



622 



BOOK VII. Lii. 173-176 

recovered from the pyre. This is the law of 

mortals : we are born for thcse and similar accidcnts 

of fortune, so that in the case of a human being no 

confidence must be placcd even in death. Among 

other instances we find that the soul of Hermotimus Disemhodied 

of Clazomenae used to leave his body and roam '""''■'• 

abroad, and in its wanderings report to him from a 

distance many things that only one present at them 

could know of — his body in the meantime being only 

half-conscious ; till fmally some enemies of his named 

the Cantharidae burncd his body and so deprived his 

soul on its return of what may be called its sheath. 

We also read that the soul of Aristeas at Proconnesus 

was seen flying out of his mouth in the shape of a 

raven, witli a great deal of fabulous invention that 

follows this. This inventiveness I for my part also 

receive in a similar Avay in tlie case of Epimenides of 

Cnossus — that when a boy, being weary with the 

heat and with travel, he slept in a cave 57 years, 

and when he woke, just as if it had been on the 

following day, was surprised at the appearance 

of things and the change in them; and afterwards 

old age came on him in the same number of 

days as he had slept years, though nevertheless 

he lived to the age of 157. The female sex 

seems specially hable to this malady, caused by 

distortion of the womb ; if this is set right, the 

breathing is restored. To this subject belongs the 

essay of Heraclides, well known in Greece, about 

the woman recalled to life after being dead for 

seven days. 

Also V^arro records that when he was acting as one liecoi-eryof 
of the Twenty Commissioners and apportioning lands ^ppaTmUy 
at Capua a pcrson being carried out on a bier to burial '**"<'• 

62% 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

remeasse pedibus ; hoc idem Aquini accidisse ; Romae 
quoque Corfidium materterae suae maritum funere 
locato revixisse et locatorem funeris ab eo elatum. 

177 adicit miracula quae tota indicasse conveniat : 
e duobus fratribus equestris ordinis Corfidiis maiori 
accidisse ut viderctur expirasse, apertoque testa- 
mento recitatum heredem minorem funeri institisse, 
interim eum qui videbatur extinctus plaudendo 
concivisse ministeria et narrasse a fratre se vcnisse, 
commendatam sibi filiam ab eo, demonstratum 
praeterea quo in loco defodisset aurum nuUo conscio, 
et rogasse ut his funebribus quae comparasset 
efferretur. hoc eo narrnnte fratris domestici propere 
adnuntiavere examinatum illum ; et aurum ubi 

178 dixerat repcrtum est. plena praeterea vita est his 
vaticiniis, sed non conferenda, cum saepius falsa sint, 
sicut ingenti exemplo docebimus. Bello Siculo 
Gabienus Caesaris classium ^ fortissimus captus a 
Sexto Pompeio iussu eius incisa cervice et vix co- 
haerente iacuit in Htore toto die. deinde, cum 
advesperavisset, gemitu precibusque congregata 
multitudine petiit uti Pompeius ad se veniret aut 

^ classiarius Caeaariua. 



" Between Sextus Pompeius and Octavian 38-36 B.c 
CJabionus is only known from thia passage. 

624 



BOOK VII. Lii. 176 178 

returned home on foot ; and that the same thing 
occuned at Aquino ; and that also at Rome his 
maternal aunt's husband Corfidius came to hfe again 
after his funeral had bcen arranged for -with an under- 
taker, and that he himself superintended the funeral 
of the relativ^e vho had made the arrangement. He 
adtLs some marvellous occurrences that it would be 
suitable to have set out in their entirety : that there 
■svere two brothers Corfidius, of the rank of knights, 
to the elder of whom it happened that he appeared 
to have expired, and when his will was opened the 
younger brother was read out as his heir, and set 
about arranging his funeral ; in the meantime the 
brother who appeared to be dead summoned the 
servants by clapping his hands and told them that 
he had come from his brother, who had entrusted his 
daughter to liis care, and had also shown him where he 
had without anybody's knowledge hidden some gold 
in a hole dug in the ground, and had asked that the 
preparations that he had made for his brother's 
funeral might be used for himself. While he was 
telHng this story his brother's servants hurriedly came 
with the news that their master was dead ; and the 
gold was found in the place where he liad said. More- 
over hfe is full of these prophecies, but they are not 
worth collecting, because more often than not they 
arc false, as we will prove by an outstanding example. 
In the SiciUanWar» the bravest man in Caesar's navies 
Gabienus was taken prisoner by Sextus Pompeius, 
by whose order his throat was cut and almost severed, 
and so he lay a whole day on the shore. Then on 
the arrival of evening, a crowd having been gathered 
to the spot by his groans and entreaties, he besought 
that Pompey should come to him, or send one of his 

625 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

aliqiiem ex arcanis mitteret, se enim ab inferis 

179 remissum habere quae nuntiaret. misit plures 
Pompeius ex amicis, quibus Gabienus dixit inferis dis 
placere Pompei causas et partes pias : proindc even- 
tum futurum quem optaret ; hoc se nuntiare iussum ; 
argumentum fore veritatis quod peractis mandatis 
protinus exspiraturus esset. idque ita evenit. post 
sepulturam quoque visorum exempla sunt, nisi quod 
naturae opera, non prodigia, consectamur. 

180 LIII. In primis autem miraculo sunt atque 
frequentes ^ mortes repentinae (hoc est summa vitae 
fehcitas) quas esse naturalcs docebimus. phirimas pro- 
didit Verrius, nos cum delectu modum servabimus. 
gaudio obiere praeter Chilonem, de quo diximus, 
Sophocles et Dionysius Siciliae tyrannus, uterque ac- 
cepto tragicae victoriae nuntio, mater illa Cannensi 
fiho incolumi reviso contra nuntium falsum, pudore 
Diodoniis sapientiae dialecticae professor, lusoria 
quaestione non protinus ad interrogationem ^ 

181 Stilponis dissoluta. nulhs evidentibus causis obiere : 
dum calciantur matutino, duo Caesares, praetor et 
praetura perfunctus dictatoris Caesaris jiater, hic 
Pisis exanimatus, ille Romae, Q. Fabius Maximus 
in consuLitu suo pridie kal. lan., in cuius locum C. 
Rebilus paucissimarum horarum consulatum petiit, 
item C. Volcatius Gurges senator, omnes adeo sani 
atque tempestivi ut de progrediendo cogitarent ; Q. 
Aemihus Lepidus iam cgrediens incusso polhce hmini 

^ liackluim : frequenter aui frequentia. 
• F.Z. ab interrogationo. 



" § 119. 
626 



BOOK VII. Lii. 178-L111. 181 

personal staff, as he had come back from the lower 
world and had some news to tell him. Pompey sent 
several of his friends, who were told by Gabienus that 
the gods below approved Pompey's cause and the 
righteous party, so that the issue would be what 
Pompey desired ; that he had had orders to bring this 
news, and that a proof of its truth would be that as 
soon as his errand was accomphshed he would expire. 
And this so happened. There are also cases of 
persons appearing after burial — save that our 
subject is the works of nature, not prodigies. 

LIII. But most miraculous and also frequent, are Suddm 
sudden deaths (this is hfe's supreme happiness), ,3^^^^ o^ 
which we shall show to be natural. Verrius has <<""• 
reported a great many,but we will preserve modera- 
tion with a selection. Cases of people who died of 
joy are (besides Chilo about whom we have spoken)" 
Sophocles and Dionysius the tyrant of Sicily, in both 
cases after receiving news of a victory with a tragedy : 
also the mother who saw her son back safe from 
Cannae in contradiction of a false messagc ; Diodorus 
the professor of logic died of shame because he could 
not at once solve a problcm put to him in jest by 
Stilpo. Cases of men dying from no obvious causes 
are : while putting on their shoes in the morning, 
the two Caesars, the praetor and the ex-praetor, 
father of the dictator Caesar, the latter dying at 
Pisa and the former at Ilome ; Quintus Fabius 
Maximus on 31 Dcccmber in the vear of his consul- 
ship, in whose place Gaius Rcbihis obtained the 
office for only a few hours ; also the senator 
Gaius \'olcatius Gurges — all of these men so healthy 
and fit that they were thinking of going out for a 
walk ; Quintus Aeniilius Lepidus who bruised his great 

627 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

cubiculi ; C. Aufustius egressus cum in scnatum iret 

182 offenso pede in comitio. legatus quoque qui Rhodi- 
orum causam in senatu magna cum admiratione 
oraverat in limine curiae protinus expiravit progredi 
volens, Cn. Baebius Tamphilus praetura et ipse 
functus cuni a puero quaesisset horas, Aulus Pompeius 
in Capitolio cum deos salutasset, M'. luventius Thalna 
consul cum sacrificaret, C. Servilius Pansa cum staret 
in foro ad tabernam hora diei sccunda in P. fratrem 
innixus, Baebius iudex dum vadimonium differri 

183 iubet, M. Terentius Corax dum tabellas scribit in 
foro ; nec non et proximo anno, dum consulari viro 
in aurem dicit, Eques Romanus ante ApoUinem 
eboreum qui est in foro Augusti, super omnes C. 
luhus medicus dum inunguit specillum per oculum 
trahens, A. Manhus Torquatus consularis cum in 
cena placentam adpeteret, L. Tuccius medicus 
Sullae ^ dum mulsi potionem haurit, Appius Saufeius e 
balineo reversus cum mulsum bibisset ovumque sor- 
beret, P. Quintius Scapula cum apud Aquilium 
Gallum cenaret, Decimus Saufeius scriba cum domi 

184 suae pranderet. Cornehus Gallus praetorius et T, 
Hetereius Eques Romanus in venere obiere, et quos 
nostra adnotavit aetas duo equestris ordinis in eodem 

Dtthjaen : Valla. 
628 



BOOK VII. Liir. 181-184 

toe in the doorway of his bedroom just as he was 
going out ; Gaius Aufidius wlio after he had gone out 
hit his foot against something in the Comitium when 
he was on his way to the senate. Also an envoy who 
had pleaded the cause of Rhodes in the senate to 
the general admiration, just as he wantcd to leave 
the senate-house expired on tlie threshold ; Gnaeus 
Baebius Tamphilus, who had liimself also held the 
praetorship, dicd just aftcr asking his footman the 
time ; Aulus Pompeius died on the Capitol after 
paying reverence to the gods, Manius Juventius 
Thalna the consul while offering sacrifice, Gaius 
Servilius Pansa while standing at a shop in the 
market-place, leaning on his brother Pubhus's arm, 
at seven o'clock in the morning, Baebius the judge 
while in the act of giving an order for enlargement 
of bail, Marcus Terentius Corax while writing a note 
in the market-place ; and moreover last year, a Knight 
of Rome died while saying something in the ear of 
an ex-consul, just in front of the ivory statue of Apollo 
in the Forum of Augustus ; and, most remarkable of 
all, the doctor Gaius JuUus died from passing the 
probe through his eye while pom-ing in ointment, 
the ex-consul Aulus Manhus Torquatus while helping 
himself to a cake at dinner, Lucius fuccius, Sulla's 
doctor, while drinking a draught of mead, Appius 
Saufeius when he had drunk some mead and was 
sucking an egg after coming back from the bath- 
house, Publius Quintius Scapula when out to dinner 
with Aquilius Gallus, Decimus Saufeius the clerk 
when lunching at home. Cornelius Gallus, ex- 
praetor, and Titus Hetereius Knight of Rome died 
while with women ; and, cases remarked on by our 
own generation, two members of the Order of Knight- 

voL. II. X ^29 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

pantomimo Mystico tum fornia praecellente. opta- 
tissima tamen securitas mortis in M. Ofilio Hilaro 

185 ab antiquis traditur : comoediarum histrio is, cum 
populo admodum placuisset natali die suo convivium- 
que haberet, edita cena calidam potionem in pultario 
poposcit, simulque personam eius diei accoptam 
intuens coronam e capite suo in eam tran.stulit, tali 
habitu rigens nullo sentiente, doncc adcubantium 
proxumus tepescere potionem admoneret. 

186 Haec felicia exempla, at contra miserorum in- 
numera : L. Domitius clarissimae gentis apud Mas- 
siliam victus, Corfmii captus ab eodem Caesare, ven- 
eno poto propter taedium vitac, postquam biberat, 
omni ope ut viveret adnisus est. invenitur in actis 
Felice russei auriga elato in rogum eius unum e 
faventibus iecisse se, frivolum dictu, ne hoc gloriae 
artificis ^ daretur, adversis studiis copia odorom cor- 
ruptum criminantibus. cum ante non multo M. 
Lepidus nobilissimae stirpis, quem divorti anxie- 
tate diximus mortuum, flammae vi e rogo eiectus 
recondi propter ardorem non potuisset, iuxta 
sarmentis aliis nudus crematus est. 

• aurigia Detlefsen. 

• 49 B.o. * § 122. 

630 



BOOK VII. Liii. 184-186 

hood died^vlien with the same ballet-dancer Mysticus, 
the leading beauty of the day. However, the most 
enviablc case of a peaceful end is one recorded by our 
forefathers, that of Marcus OfiUus Hilarus : he was 
an actor in comedy, and having had a considerable 
success with the pubHc on his birthday and while 
giving a partv, when dinner was served called for a hot 
drink in a tankard, and at the same tinie picked up 
the mask that he had worn on that day and while 
gazing at it transferred the wreath from his own 
head to it, and in this attitude lay quite stiff with- 
out anybody noticing, imtil the guest on the next 
couch warned him that his drink was getting 
cold. 

These are happy instances, but there are countless suidde. 
numbers of unhappv ones. Lucius Domitius, a man 
of very distinguished family, who was defeated at 
Marseilles and was taken prisoner, also by Caesar, 
at Corfinium," grew tired of Ufe and drank poison, 
but afterwards made every effort to save his Ufe. 
It is found in the official records that at the 
funeral of FeUx the charioteer of the Reds one 
of his backers threw himself upon the pyre — a 
pitiful story — and the opposing backers tried to 
prevent this score to the record of a professional by 
asserting that the man had Aiinted owing to the 
quantity of scents ! Not long beforc, the corpse of 
Marcus Lepidus, the man of distinguished family 
whose death from anxiety about his divorce we have 
recorded above,'' had been dislodged from the pyre 
bv the violence of the flame, and as it was impossible 
to put it back again because of the heat, it was burnt 
naked with a fresh supply of faggots at the side of 
the pyre. 

631 



PLIN^': NATURAL HISTORY 

187 LIV. Ipsum cremare apud Romanos non fuit 
vetcris instituti ; terra condebantur. at postquam 
longinquis bellis obrutos erui cognovere, tunc insti- 
tutum. et tamen multae familiae priscos servavere 
ritus, sicut in Cornclia nemo ante Sullam dictatorem 
traditur crematus, idque voluisse veritum talionem 
eruto C. Mari cadavere. [sepultus vero intellegitur 
quoquo modo conditus, humatus vero humo 
contectus.]! 

188 LV. Post sepulturam variae * manium ambages. 
omnibus a supremodie eadem quae ante primum, nec 
magis a morte sensus uUus aut corpori aut animae 
quam ante natalem — eadem enim vanitas in futurum 
etiam se propagat et in mortis quoque tempora ipsa 
sibi vltam mentitur, alias inmortaHtatem animae, 
ahas transfigurationem, alias scnsum inferis dando et 
manes colendo deumque faciendo qui iam etiam 
homo esse desierit — ceu vero ullo modo spirandi ratio 
ceteris animalibus distet, aut non diuturniora in vita 
multa reperiantur quibus nemo similem divinat 

189 inmortalitatem. quod autem corpus animae per se? 
quae materia ? ubi cogitatio illi ? quomodo visxis, 
auditus, aut qui tangit ? quis usus ex iis ^ aut quod 
sine iis bonum ? quae deinde sedes quantave multi- 

1 SecL Mayhoff. 

* vanae JJetlcfsen. 

' Mayhojf : usus eius. 



' Thie sentenco reads like an interpolated note on vocabu- 
lary. 

6j2 



BOOK MI. Liv. 187-LV. 189 

LIV. Cremation was not actually an old practice at cremation, 
Rome : the dead used to be buricd. But cremation '"'^'""^ "^- 
was instituted after it became known that the bodies 
of those fallen in wars abroad were dug up again. 
All the same many families kept on the old ritual, for 
instance it is recorded that nobody in the family of 
the Cornehi was crematcd before Sulla the dictator, 
and that he had desired it because he was afraid of 
reprisals for having dug up the corpse of Gaius 
Marius. [But burial is understood to denote aiiy 
mode of disposal of a corpse, but interment means 
covering up with earth ".] 

L\ . There are various problems concerning the BcUefin 
spirits of the departed after burial. All men are in ^'^ 
the same state from their last day onward as they were 
before their first day, and neither body nor mind 
possesses any sensation after death, any more than it 
did before birth — for the same vanity prolongs itself 
also into the future and fabricates for itself a lifc 
lasting even into the period of death, sometimes 
bestowing on the soul immortality, sometimes trans- 
figuration, sometimes giving sensation to those 
below, and worshipping ghosts and making a god of 
one who has already ceased to be even a man — ^just 
as if man's mode of breathing were in any way 
different from that of the other animals, or as if 
there were not many animals found of greater 
longevity, for which nobody prophesies a similar 
immortaHty ! But what is the substance of the soul 
taken by itself? what is its material? where is its 
thought located ? how does it see and hear, and with 
what does it touch ? what use does it get from these 
senses, or what good can it experience without them ? 
Next, what is the abode, or how great is the multitude, 

633 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tudo tot saeculis animarum vel ^ umbrarura ? pueri- 
lium ista deliramentorum avidaeque numquam de- 
sinere mortalitatis commcnta sunt. simils et de 
adservandis corporibus hominum ac reviviscendi 
promisso Dcmocriti vanitas, qui non revixit ipse. 

190 quae malum ista demontia est iterari vitam morte? 
quaeve genitis quies um(juani si in sublimi scnsus 
animae manet, inter inferos umbrae ? perdit pro- 
fecto ista dulcedo credulitasque praecipuum naturae 
bonum, mortcm, ac duplicat obituri dolorem etiam 
post futuri aestimatione ; etenim si dulce vivere est, 
cui potest esse vixisse ? at quanto facilius cer- 
tiusque sibi quemque credere, specimen securitatis 
futurae ^ antegenitali sumere expcrimento ! 

191 LVI. Consentaneum videtur, priusquam di- 
grediamur a natura hominum, indicare quae cuiusque 
inventa sint. emere ac vendere ^ iastituit Liber pater, 
idem diadema, regium insigne, ettriumphum invenit, 
Ceres frumenta, cum antea glande vescerentur, eadem 
molere et conficere in Attica (ut alii,* in Sicilia), ob 
id dea iudicata. eadem prima lcges dcdit, aut* ut 
alii putavere Rhadamanthus. 

192 Litteras semper arbitror Assyriis fuisse, sed aHi 
apud Aegyptios a Mercurio, ut Gellius, alii apud 

vel ? MayhojJ : vclut. 

futurae add. Rackham. 

vendere <Mercurius, vindemiare) Mayhnff. 

Rackham (ut alii ct Mayhoff) : aut alia, aul et alia. 

aut add. liackha^n. 

634 



BOOK VII. Lv. 189-LV1. 192 

of the souls or shadows in all these ages ? These are 
fictions of cliildish absurdity, and belong to a mor- 
tality greedy for hfe unceasing. Similar also is the 
vanity about preserving men's bodies, and about 
Democritus's promise of our coming to Hfe again — 
who did not come to Ufe again himself! Plague 
take it, wliat is this mad idea that hfe is renewcd by 
death ? what repose are the generations ever to have 
if the soul retains permanent sensation in the upper 
world and the ghost in the lowcr? Assuredly this 
sweet but credulous fancy ruins nature's chief 
blessing, death, and doubles the sorrow of one about 
to die by the thought of sorrow to come hereafter 
also ; for if to hve is sweet, who can find it sweet to 
have done Uving ? But how much easier and safer 
for each to trust in himself, and for us to derive our 
idea of future tranquilUty from our experience of it 
before birth ! 

LVI. Before we quit the subject of man's nature it Aruand 
seenis suitable to point out the various discoveries of wl^and 
dilferent persons. Father Liber instituted buying *y «^>'om 
and selUng," and also invented the emblem of 
royalty, the crown, and the triumphal procession, 
Ceres discovered corn, men having hitherto Uved on 
acoms ; she also invented grinding corn and making 
flour in Attica (or, as others say, in Sicily), and 
for this was deeraed a goddess. Also she first gave 
laws, though others have thought this was done by 
Rhadamanthus. 

I am of opinion that the Assyrians have always had 
writing, but others, e.g. Gellius, hold that it was 
invented in Egypt by Mercury, while others think it 

" The text should probably be filled out to give ' Mercury 
inatituted buying and ecUing, and Falhcr Liber the vintage.' 

635 



PLIN\': NATURAL HISTORY 

Syros repertas volunt ; iitrique ^ in Graeciam attu- 
lisse e Phoenice Cadmum sedecim numero, quibus 
Troiano bello Palameden adiecisse quattuor hac 
figura Z^^X, totidem post eum Simonidem mehcum, 
YHn®, quarum oninium vis in nostris recognoscitur. 
Aristoteles decem et octo priscas fuisse et duas ab 
Epicharmo additas ^Z quam a Palamede mavolt. 

193 Anticlides in Aeg^'pto invenisse qucndam nomine 
Menon tradit, xv annorum ante Phoronea antiquissi- 
mum Graeciae regem, idque monumenlis adprobare 
conatur. e diverso Epigenes apud Babylonios 
Dccxxx annorum observationes siderum coctihbus 
latercuhs inscriptas docet, gravis auctor in primis, 
qui minimum, Berosus et Critodemus, ccccxc ex 
quo apparet aeternus htterarum usus. in Latium 
eas attulerunt Pelasgi. 

194 Laterarias ac domos constituerunt primi Euryalus 
et Hyperbius fratrcs Athenis ; antea spccus erant pro 
domibus. Gelho Toxius Caeh fihus lutei aedificii 
inventor placet, excmplo sumpto ab hirundinum 
nidis. oppidum primum ^ Cecrops a se appeUavit 
Cecropiam quae nunc est arx Athenis ; ahqui Argos 
a Phoroneo rege ante conditum volunt, quidam et 
Sicyonem, Aegypti vero multo ante apud ipsos 

195 Diospohn. tegulas invenit Cinyra Agriopae fihus 

^ V.l. utiquc. * primum ? add. Mayhoff. 

636 



BOOK VII. Lvi. 192-195 

was discovered in Syria ; both schools of thought 
believe that Cadmus imported an alphabet of 16 
letters into Greece from Phocnicia and that to these 
Palamedes at the time of the Trojan war added the 
four characters Z»I"I>X, and after him Simonides the 
IjTic poet added another four YHOC"), all represent- 
ing sounds recognized also in the Roman alphabet. 
Aristotle holds that the primitive alphabet contained 
18 letters, and that 4^ and Z were added by Epi- 
charmus more probablv than Palamedes. Anti- 
clides records that a person named Menos invented 
the alphabet in l''gA'pt 15,000 years before Phoroneus, 
the most ancient king of Greece, and he attempts to 
prove this by the monuments. On the other side 
Epigenes, an authority of the first rank, teaches that 
the Babylonians had astronomical observations for 
730,000 years inscribed on baked bricks ; and those 
who give the shortest period, Berosus and Crito- 
demus, make it 490,000 years ; from which it appears 
that the alphabet has been in use from very ancient 
times. It was brought to I>atium Ijv the Pelasgi. 

Brick-kilns and hoiises wcre first introduced by 
the brothers Eur}'ahis and Hyperbius at Athens ; 
previously caves had served for dweUings. GelHus 
accepts Toxius son of Uranus as the inventor of 
buikiing with clay, the example having been taken 
from swallows' nests. Cecrops named after himself 
the first town, Cecropia, which is now thc Acropolis 
at Athens ; though some hold that Argos had been 
founded before by King Phoroneus, and certain 
authorities say Sicyon also, but the Egyptians hold 
that DiospoHs was founded in their country long 
before. Tiles were invented by Cinyra, son of 
Agriopa, as well as mining for copper, both in the 

X2 637 



PLIXY: NATURAL HTSTORY 

et metalla aeris, utrumque iii insula C^-pro, item 
forcipem, martulum, vectem, incudem; puteos 
Danaus ex Aegj^pto advectus in Graeciam quae 
vocabatur Argos Dipsion ; lapicidinas Cadmus 
Thebis, aut ut Theophrastus in Phoenice ; Thra- 
son muros, turres ut Aristotelcs Cyclopes, Tirynthii 
ut Theophrastus ; Aegyptii textiha, inficerc lanas 

196 Sardibus Lvdi, fusos in lanificio Closter fihus Ara- 
chnae, hnum et retia Arachne, fuUoniam artem Nicias 
Megarensis, sutrinam Tychius Boeotius ; medicinam 
Aegyptii apud ipsos volunt repertam, alii per Arabum 
Babylonis et Apolhnis fihum, herbariam et medica- 

197 mentariam a Chirone Saturni et Philyrac fiho. aes 
conflare et temperare Aristoteles Lydum Scythen 
monstrasse, Theophrastus Delam Phrygem putant, 
aerariam fabricam ahi Chalybas ahi Cyclopas, ferrum 
Hesiodus in Creta eos qui vocati sunt Dactyh Idaei. 
argentum invenit Erichthonius Atheniensis, ut alii 
Aeacus, auri metalla et flaturam Cadmus Phoenix ad 
Pangaeum montem, ut ahi Thoas aut Aeacus in 
Panchaia aut Sol Oceani fihus cui Gelhus medicinae 
quoque inventionem ex metallis assignat. plumbum 
album ^ ex Cassiteride insula primus adportavit Mida- 

198 critus. fabricam ferrariam ^ invenerunt Cj^clopcs, fig- 
hnas Coroebus ^ Atheniensis, in iis orbem Anachar- 
sis Scythes, ut alii H^^pcrbius Corinthius ; fabricam 

' album add. Wnrmington. 
' Gdenius : ferrc.im. 
* Ccramus Wilamowilz. 



' I.e., iSpinner, son of Spidor. 

* An imaKin.ary island in tho Indian Occan. 

* Comwall and the Scillies. The MSS. givo ' lead. 



638 



BOOK VII. ivi. 195-198 

island of Cypx-iis, and also thc tongs, hammer, crow- 
bar and anvil ; wells by Danaus who came from 
Egypt to Greece to the region tliat used to be called 
Diy Argos ; stone quarrying by Cadmus at Thebes, 
or according to Tlieophrastus, in Plioenicia ; walls 
were introduced by Thrason, towers by the Cyclopes 
according to Aristotle but according to Theophrastus 
by the Tii-ynthians ; woven fabrics by the P^gyptians, 
dyeing wooUen stuffs by the Lydians at Sardis, the 
use of the spindle in the inanufacture of wooUen by 
Closter son of Arachne," linen and nets by Arachne, 
the fuller's craft by Nicias of Megara, the shoemaker's 
by Tychias of Boeotia ; medicine according to the 
Egj^ptians was discovered among themselves, but 
accoi-ding to others through the agency of Arabus son 
of Babylon and Apollo ; and the science of hei'bs and 
drugs was discovered by Chiron the son of Saturn and 
Philyra. Aristotle thinks that Lydus the Scythian 
showed how to melt and work copper, but Theo- 
phrastus holds that it was the Phrygian Delas ; 
manufactures of bronze some ascribe to the Chalybes 
and others to the Cyclopes ; the forging of iron Hesiod 
ascribes to the people called the Dactyli of Ida in 
Crete. Erichthonius of Athens, or according to others 
Aeacus, discovered silver ; mining and smelting gold 
was invented by Cadmus the Phoenician at Mount 
Pangaeus, or according to others by Thoas or Aeacus 
in Panchaia,* or by the Sun, son of Oceanus, to whom 
Gellius also assigns the discovery of mcdicine derived 
from minerals. Tin was first importcd by Midacri- 
tus from thc island of Cassitcris.'^ Working in iron 
was invented by the Cyclopes, potteries by Coroebus 
of Athens, the potter's wheel by the Scythian 
Anacharsis, or according to others by Hyperbius of 

639 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

materiariam Daedalus, et in ea serram, asciam, 
pei-pendiculum, terebram, glutinum, ichthyocollam ; 
normam autem et libellam et tornum et clavem 
Theodorus Samias, mensuras et pondera Phidon 
Argivus, aut Palamedes ut maluit Gellius ; ignem e 
sihce P}Todes CiHcis filius, eundem adservare ferula 

199 Prometheus, vehiculum cum quattuor rotis Phryges, 
mercaturas Poeni, culturam vitium et arborum 
Eumolpus Atheniensis, vinum aquae miscere ^ Sta- 
phylus Sileni filius, oleum et trapetas Aristaeus Athe- 
niensis, idem mella; bovcm et aratrum Buzyges 
Atheniensis, ut alii Triptolemus ; rcgiam civitatem 

200 AegA^ptii, popularem Attici postTheseum. tyrannus 
primus fuit Phalaris Agraganti. servitium invencre 
Lacedaemonii. iudicium capitis in Areopago pri- 
mum actum est. 

ProeHum Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fusti- 
bus, quos vocant phalangas. clupeos invenerunt 
Proetus et Acrisius inter se bellantes, sive Chalcus 
Athamantis fiHus, loricam Midias Messenius, galeam, 
gladium, hastam Lacedaemonii, ocreas et cristas 

201 Cares. arcum et sagittam Scythem lovis fiHum, 
aHi sagittas Persen Persei fiHum invenisse dicunt, 
lanceas Aetolos, iaculum cum ammento Aetolum 
Martis fiHum, hastas veHtares Tyrrenum, eundem * 
pilum, Penthcsileam Amazonem securim, Pisaeum, 
venabula et in tormentis scorpionem, Cretas cata- 
pultam, SjTophoenicas balHstam et fundam, aeneam 

* miscere ? Mayhx>ff : misceri. 

* eundem add. Mayhoff. 



• I.e. Ox-yoker. 
640 



BOOK Vir. Lvi. 198-201 

Corinth. Carpentry was invented by Daedalus, 
and with it the saw, axe, plumb-line, gimlet, glue, 
isinglass ; but the square, the plummet, the lathe and 
the lever by Thcodorus of Samos, measui-es and 
weights by Phidon of Argos, or, as Gelhus preferred, 
Palamedes ; fire from flint by Pyrodes son of Cihx, 
the storing of fire in a fennel-stalk by Prometheus ; 
a vehicle \vith four wheels by the Phrygians, trade 
by the Phoenicians, viticulture and arboriculture by 
Eumolpus of Athens, diluting wine with water by 
Staphylus son of Silenus, oil and oil-mills by Aristaeus 
of Athens, honey by the same ; the ox and the plough 
by Buzyges " of Athens, or, as others say, by Tripto- 
lemus ; monarchical government by the Egyptians, 
repubhcan by the Athenians after Theseus. The 
first tyrant was Phalaris at Girgenti. Slavery was 
invented by the Spartans. Capital trials were first 
carried on in the Areopagus. 

The Africans first fought with clubs (called poles) weajxmsof 
in a war against the Egyptians. Shields were in- Zvention of. 
vented by Proetus and Acrisius in making war 
against each other, or else by Chalcus son of Athamas ; 
the breastplate by Midias of Messene, the helmet, 
sword and spear by the Spartans, greaves and helmet- 
plumes by the Carians. The bow and arrow is said 
by some to have been invented by Scythes son of 
Jove ; others say that arrows were invented by 
Perses son of Perseus, lances by the Aetohans, the 
spear slung with a thong by Aetolus son of Mars, 
spears for skirmishing by Tyrrhenus, the javehn by 
the same, the battle-axe by Penthesilea the Amazon, 
hunting-spears and among missile engines the 
sc"orpion by Pisaeus, the catapult by the Cretans, the 
ballista and the shng by the Syrophoenicians, the 

641 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

tubam Pisaeum Tyrreni, testudines Artemonem 
'202 Clazomenium, equom (qui nunc aries appellatur) 
in muralibus machinis Epium ad Troiam ; equo vehi 
Bellorophontem, frenos et strata equorum Pelc- 
thronium, pugnare ex equo Thessalos qui Centauri 
appellati sunt habitantes secundum Pelium montem. 
bigas prima iunxit Phrygum natio, quadrigas Erich- 
thonius. ordinem cxercitus, signi dationem, tes- 
seras, vigilias Palamedes invenit Troiano bello, 
speculanmi significationem eodem Sinon, inducias 
Lycaon, foedera Theseus. 

203 Auguria ex avibus Car a quo Caria appellata ; 
adiecit ex ceteris animalibus Orpheiis, haruspicia 
Delphus, ignispicia Amphiaraus, extispicia avium 
Tiresias Thebanus, interpretationem ostentorum 
et somniorum Amphictyon, astrologiam Atlans 
Libyae filius, ut alii Aeg^^ptii, ut alii Assyrii, sphaeram 
in ea Milesius Anaximander, ventorum rationem 

204 Aeolus Hellenis filius ; musicam Amphion, fistulam 
et monaulum Pan Mercuri, obliquani tibiam Midas 
in PhrAgia, geminas tibias Marsyas in eadem gente, 
Lydios modulos Amphion, Dorios Thamyras Thrax, 
Phrygios Marsyas Phr}'x, citharam Amphion, ut alii 
Orpheus, ut alii Linus. septem chordis prinium 
cecinit iii ad iv primas additis Terpander, octa- 
vam Simonides addidit, nonam Timotheus. cithara 
sine voce cecinit ThamjTis primus, cum cantu 
Amphion, ut alii Linus. citharoedica carmina con- 
posuit Terpander. cum tibiis canere voce Troeze- 

642 



BOOK VII. Lvi. 201-204 

bronze trumpet by Pysaeus son of Tyrrhenus, 
tortoise-screens by Artenio of Clazomenae, among 
siege-engines the horse (now called thc ram) by 
Epius at Troy ; horse-riding by Bellerophon, reins 
and saddles by Pelethronius, fighting on horse- 
back by the Thessahans called Centaurs, who dwelt 
along Mount Pelion. The Plirygian race first 
harnessed pairs, Erichthonius four-in-hands. Mili- 
tary formation, the use of pass-words, tokens and 
sentries were invented by Palamedes in the Trojan 
war, signalHng from watch-towers by Sinon in the 
same war, truces by Lycaon, treaties by Theseus. 

Auguries from birds were invented by Car, from .lugvrt/, etc., 
whom Caria got its name ; Orpheus added auspices ''"'^°''"'!' °J- 
derived from the other animals, Delphus divination 
from victims, Amphiaraus divination from fire, 
Tiresias of Thebes divination by inspecting birds' 
entrails, Amphictyon the interpretation of portents 
and dreams ; Atlans son of Libya, or as others say 
tlie Kgyptians and others the Assyrians, astronomy, 
Anaximander of Miletus the use of a globe in as- 
tronomy, Aeolus son of Hellen the theory of winds ; 
Amphion music, Pan son of Mercury the pipe and 
single flute, Midas in Phrygia the slanting flute, 
Marsyas in the same nation the double flute, Amphion 
the Lydian modes, the Thracian Thamyras the Dorian, 
Marsyas of Phrygia the Phrygian, Amphion, or 
others say Orpheus and others Linus, the harp. 
Terpander first sang with seven strings, adding three 
to the original four, Simonides added an eighth, 
Timotheus a ninth. Thamyris first played the harp 
without using the voice, Ampliion, or according to 
otliers Linus, accompanied the harp with singing ; 
Terpander composed songs for harp and voice. 

643 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

nius Ardalus instituit. saltationem armatam Curetes 
docuere, pjorichen PjTrus, utramque in Creta. 

205 versum heroum Pythio oraculo debemus ; de poe- 
matuni oriffine niagna quaestio ; ante Troianum 
bellum probantur fuisse. prosam orationcm con- 
dere Plierecydes Syrius instituit Cyri regis aetate, 
hi^toriam Cadmus Milesius, ludos gymnicos in 
Arcadia Lycaon, funebres Acastus in lolco, post eum 
Thcseus in Isthmo, Hercules Olympiae ; athleticam 
Pytheus, pilam lusoriam Gyges Lydus ; picturam 
Aegj^pti et in Graecia Euchir DaedaU cognatus ut 
Aristoteh placet, ut Theophrasto Polygnotus 
Atheniensis. 

206 Nave primus in Graeciam ex Aegypto Danaus 
advenit ; antca ratibus navigabatur inventis in Mari 
Rubro inter insulas a rege Erythra. rcperiuntur 
qui Mysos et Troianos priores excogitasse in Helle- 
sponto putent cum transirent adversus Thracas. 
etiamnunc in Britannico oceano vitihs corio circum- 
sutae fiunt, in Nilo ex papyro ac scirpo et harundine. 

207 longa nave lasonem primum navigasse Philostcpha- 
nus auctor est, Hegcsias Parhalum, Ctesias Samira- 
min, Archemachus Aegaeonem, biremem Damastes 
Erythraeos fecisse, triremem Thucydides Aminoclen 
644 



BOOK VII. Lvi. 204 207 

Ardalus of Troezcn instituted singing to the flute. 
The Curetes taught dancing in armour, Pyrrhus the 
Pyrrhic dance ; both of there were in Crete. Hexa- 
meter verse we owe to the Pythian oracle, but as 
to the origin of poetry there is much debate, t.hough 
it is pro\ed to have existed before the Troj^m War. 
Pherecydes of Syria instituted prose composition in 
the period of King Cyrus, Cadmus of Miletus history ; 
gT,'ninastic games were started by Lycaon in Arcadia, 
funeral games by Acastus in lolcus, and subsequently 
by Theseus at the Istimius and by Hercules at 
Olympia ; \vresthng by Pytheus, the sport of ball- 
throwing by Gyges of Lydia ; painting by the 
Egyptians, and in Greece by Euchir the kinsman of 
Daedalus according to Aristotle, but according to 
Theophrastus by Polygnotus of Athens. 

Danaus first came from Egypt to Greece by ship ; Navigation, 
before that time rafts were used for navigation, oj.'^"^'"* 
having been invented by King Eiythras for use 
between the islands in the Red Sea. Persons are 
tound who tliink that vessels were devised earher on 
the Hellespont by the Mysians and Trojans when they 
crossed to war against the Thracians. Even now in 
the British ocean coracles are made of wicker with 
hide sown round it, and on the Nile canoes are made 
of papyrus, rushes and reeds. The first voyage made 
in a long ship is attributed by Philostephanus to 
Jason, by Hegesias to Parhalus, by Ctesias to 
Samiramis, and by Archemachus to Aegaeo. Further 
advances were as follows : — 

Vessel Inventor AutJwnty 

double-banked galley the Erythraeans Damastes 

trireme Aminocles of Thucydides 

Corinth 

645 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Corinthium, quadriremem Aristoteles Carthaginien- 

208 sis, quinquereniem Mnesigiton Salaminios, sex 
ordinum Xenagoras Svracusios, ab ea ad decemremem 
Mnesigiton Alexandrum Magnum, ad duodecim 
ordines Philostephanus Ptolomaeum Soterem, ad 
quindecim Demetrium Antigoni, ad triginta Ptolo- 
maeum Philadelphum, ad xl Ptolomaeum Phi- 
lopatorem qui Tryphon cognominatus est. onera- 
riam Hippus Tyrius invenit, lembum Cvrenenses, 
cumbam Phoenices, celetem Rliodii, cercyrum Cyprii ; 

209 siderum observationem in navigando Phoenices, 
remum Copae, latitudinem eius Plataeae, vela 
Icarus, malum et antennam Daedalus, hippegum 
Samii aut Pericles Atheniensis, tectas longas Thasii — 
antea ex prora tantum et puppi pugnabatur. rostra 
addidit Pisaeus Tyrreni, ancoram Kupalamus, candem 
bidentem Anarcharsis, harpagones et manus Pericles 
Atheniensis, adminicula gubernandi Tiphys. classe 
princeps depugnavit Minos. 

Animal occidit primus Hvperbius Martis fihus, 
Prometheus bovem. 

210 LVTI. Gentium consensus tacitus primus omnium 
conspiravit ut lonum Htteris uterentur. L\TII. 
veteres Graecas fuisse easdem paene quae nunc 
sunt^ Latinae indicio erit Delpliica antiqui aeris (quae 
est hodie in Palatio dono principum) .Minervae dicata 

' Gelenius : sint. 
646 



BOOK VII. Lvi. 207-Lviii. 210 



Vesscl 




Jnventor 


Authorily 


quadrireme 
quinquereme 




the Carthaginians 
the Salaminians 


Aristotle 
Mnesigiton 


galieys of six 


banks 


the Syracusans 


Xenagoras 


up to ten baiilcs 


Alexandcr the Great 


Mnesigiton 


up to twelve 




Ptolemy Soter 


Philosteph- 
anu3 


up to fifteen 




Demetrius son of 

Antigonus 


ditto 


up to thirty 
up to forty 




Ptolemy Philadel- 

phus 
Ptolemy Philopator 
surnamed Tryphon. 


ditto 
ditto 



The freight-ship was invented by Ilippus of Tyre, the 
cutter by the Cyrenians, the skiff by the Phoenicians, 
the yacht by the Rhodians, tlie yawl by the Cyprians ; 
the Phoenicians invented observing the stars in sail- 
ing, the \o\\n of Copae invented the oar, the city of Pla- 
taea the oar-blade, Icarus sails, Daedalus mast and 
yard, the Saniians or Pericles of Athens the cavalry 
transport, the Thasians decked longships — previously 
the marines had fought from the bows and stern only. 
Pisaeus son of Tyrrenus added beaks, Eupalamus the 
anchor, Anacharsis the double-fluked anchor, Pericles 
of Athens grappHng-irons and claws, Tiphys the 
tiller. Minos was the first who fought a battle with a 
fleet. 

Hyperbius son of Mars first killed an animal, 
Prometheus an ox. 

L\'1I. The first of all cases of tacit agreement be- iinention o/ 
tween the nations was the convention to employ the "'"""^ 
alpliahet (jf the lonians. LVIII. Tl>e practical iden- 
tity of the old Greek alphabet with the present Latin 
one will be proved by an ancient Delphic tablet of 
bronze (at the present day in the Palace, a gift of the 

647 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

[in bibliotheca] ^ cum inscriptit>ne t;'Ii: NAY2IK- 
PATH2 ANE0ETO TAI AI02 KOPAI TAN AEKA- 
TAN . . . 

211 LIX. Sequens gentiiun consensus in tonsoribus 
fuit, sed Romanis tardior. in Italiam ex Sicilia venere 
post Romam conditam anno ccccliv adducente P. 
Titinio Mena, ut auctor est Varro ; antea intonsi 
fuere. primus omnium radi cotidie instituit Afri- 
canus sequens. divos Augustus cultris semper usus 
est. 

212 LX. Tertiusconsensusfuit inhorarumobservatione, 
iam hic ^ ratione ^ accedens, quando et a quo in Graecia 
reperta, diximus secundo volumine. serius etiam hoc 
Romae contigit : xii tabulis ortus tantum et occasus 
nominantur, post aliquot annos adiectus est et 
meritties, accenso consulum id pronuntiante cum a 
curia inter Rostra et Graecostasim proxpexisset 
solem. a columna Maenia ad carcerem inclinato 
sidere supremam pronuntiavit, sed hoc serenis tantum 

213 diebus, usque ad primum Puiiicum bellum. princeps 
Romanis solarium horologium statuisse ante undecim 
annos quam cum Pvrro bellatum est ad aedem Quirini 
L. Papirius Cursor, cum eam dedicaret a patre suo 
votam, a Fabio Vestale proditur ; sed neque facti 
horologi rationem vel artificem significat nec unde 
translatum sit aut apud quem scriptum id invenerit. 

214 M. Varro primum statutum in publico secundum 

» Secl. Mayhojf. - V.l. hinc. 

^ V.l. ratioiiem. 



" Text and mcaning are doubtful. 

'' n. 187. 

' Begun 281 b.c. 



648 



BOOK VII. Lviii. 2IO-LX. 214 

emperors) dedicated to Minerva, with the foUowing 
inscription : Tithe dedicated hy Nausicrates to the 
Daughter of Zeus. . . . 

LIX. Tlie next agreement bctween nations was in 
the matter of shaving the beard, but with the Ilomans introductum 
this was later. Barbers came to Ilome from Sicily in "Z*'""^'»^- 
300 B.c, according to Varro being brought there by 
Pubhus Titinius Mena ; before then the Romans had 
been unshaved. The second Africanus first intro- 
duced a daily shave. His late Majesty Augustus 
never neglected the razor. 

LX. The third agreement was in the observation 
of the hours (this now being an addition made by systcmsof 
theor\'),° the date and inventor of which we have stated ^""pivio ■ 
in Book II.'' This also happened later at Rome : in svn-diais. 
the Twelve Tables only sunrise and sunset are 
specified ; a few years later noon was also added, 
the consuls' apparitor announcing it when from the 
Senate-house he saw the sun between the Beaks and 
the Greek Lodging. When the sun sloped from the 
Maenian Column to the Prison he announced the last 
hour, but this onlv on clear days, down to the First 
Punic War. We have it on the authority of Fabius 
Vestalis that the first sundial was erected 11 years 
before the war"^ with Pyrrhus at the Temple of 
Quirinus by Lucius Papii-ius Cursor when dedicating 
that temple, which had been vowed by his father; 
but Fabius does not indicate the principle of the sun- 
diaVs construction or the maker, nor where it was 
brought from or the name of the writer who is his 
authority for the statement. Marcus Varro records 
that the first public sun-dial was set up on a column 
along by the Beaks during the Fir-^t Punic War after 

649 



PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY 

Rostra in columna tradit bello Punico primo a M'. 
Valerio Messala cos. Catina capta in Sicilia, deporta- 
tum inde post xxx annos quam de Papiriano horo. 
logio traditur, anno urbis cccclxxxxi. nec con- 
gruebant ad horas eius liniae, paruerunt tamen 
ei annis undecentum, donec Q. Marcius Pliilippus qui 
cum L. Paullo fuit censor diligentius ordinatum iuxta 
posuit ; idque munus inter censoria opera gratissime 
215 acceptum est. etiam tum tamen nubilo incertae 
fuere horae usque ad proximum lustrum ; tunc 
Scipio Nasica collega Laenatis primus aijua divisit 
horas aeque noctium ac dierum, idque horologium 
sub tecto dicavit anno urbis dxcv : tamdiu populo 
Romano indiscrcta hix fuit. 

Nunc praevertemur ^ ad reHqua animaha, primum- 
que terrestria. 

* Mayhoff : revertemur aut revcrtumiir 



650 



BOOK VII. Lx. 214 

Catania in Sicily had been taken " by the consul Manius 
Valerius Messala, and that it was brought from Sicily 
thirty years later than the traditional date of Papi- 
rius's sundial, b.c. 264. The Hnes of this sundial did 
not agree with the hours, but all the same they 
followed it for 99 years, till Quintus Marcius PhiUppus 
who was Censor with Lucius Pauhis placed a more 
carefuUy designed one next to it, and this gift was 
reccived as one of tlie most welcome of the censor's 
undertakings. Even then however the hours were 
imcertain in cloudy weather, until the next lustrum, 
when Scipio Nasica the colleague of Laenas instituted 
the first water-clock dividing the hours of the nights 
and the days equally, and dedicated this time-piece in 
a roofed building, b.c. 159. For so long a period the 
divisions of daylight had not been marked for the 
Iloman pubUc. 

We wll now turn to the rest of the animals, 
beginning with land-animals. 

« 263 B.c. 



651 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



Notea are added to supplement the information conlained in thetal 



AbsTTtdS, III 151 

Acrisius, king of Argos, brother of 

Proetus, VII 200 
Aeacus, son of Jove, king of Aegina, 

VII 197 
Aegaeon, VII 207 
Aegimius, VII 154 
Aetryptii, VII 200 
Aelius Gallus, prefect of Egypt, in- 

vaded Arabia 24 B.C., VI 160 
Aelius Tubero, praetor 124 B.C., VII 

173 
Aemilius Lepidus, Q., consul 21 b.c, 

VII 181 
Aemilius PauIIus Macedonicus, con- 

quered Perseua of Macedon 1G8 B.c, 

IV 39 
Aeneas, III 30 
Aeolus, ni 02, VII 203 
Aescbines, VII 109 
AescuJapius, son of Apollo, famous 

phvsician, VII ICO 
Acthiops, VI 187, VII 6, 51 
Aetolus, VII 201 
Afri, VII 200 
Africanus, P. Cornelins Scipio, de- 

feated Hannibal at Zama 201 B.c, 

VII 47, 114 
Africanus, P. Comelius Scipio Aemili- 

anus, grandson by adoption of 

preceding, destroyed Carthage 140 

B.C., V9, VTI 100, 144, 211 
Agatharchides, grammarian of Alex- 

andria 180 B.C, VII 14, 29 
Agelastus, VII 79 
Aglaua, VII 151 
Agriopa, VII 195 
Agrippa, great general under Augus- 

tus, organized survey of Roman 



empire, III 8, IG, 8G, IV 77, 81, 83, 

91, 08, 10.5, V 9, 40, 102, VI .S, 33, 

39, 57, 13G, 19G, 207, 2(19, VII 45 
Agrippinae, daughter and grand- 

daughter of the above, VII 45 f., 

57, 71 
Agrippinus, VII 55 
Aiai, VII 12G 
AJbinus, VII 167 
Alcippe, VII 34 
Alexander, V G2, 7fi, VI, 47, 51, 58, 

61, 77, 82, 95 f., 100, 110, 138, 198, 

VII 11, 81, 95, 107, 125, 207 
Alexander Cornelius, VII 155 
Allobro^jes, Gallic tribe bctween Rhone 

and Is6re, VII IGG 
Amasis, king of Egypt 569-525 B.C., 

V 60 
Amar.ones, VTI 201 
Aminocles, shipbuilder, visited Samos 

e. 704 B.C, VII 207 
Amoraetus, Greek writer of unknown 

date, VI 55 
Amphiaraus, mythical Oreek seer, 

VII 203 
Amphictyon, mythical king of Attica, 

VII 203 
Amphictyones, federation of Greek 

stat«s, met at Delphi, VII 123 
Amphitus, VI 16 
Anacharsis, Thracian saee, visited 

Solon at Athens, VII 198 
Anacreon, Ivric poet of Teos, fl. 540 

B.c, VII 44, 153 
Anaiarchua, philosopher of Abdera, 

fl. 340 B.C, VII 87 
Anaximander, physical philosopher, 6. 

610 B.C, VII 203 
Andromcda, daughter of Ethiopian 



653 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



kiDg Cepheug, resctied from aea- 

monstcr b_v Pcrecua, VI 182 
Andromeda iiberta, VII 75 
Ajmius Plocamus, VI 84 
Anthropophagi, VII 11 
Anticlides, Athenian gcographical 

writcr, c. 300 B.C., VII 193 
Antipatcr, author of epigrams in 

Greek Anthology, /f. 100 D.C., VII 

172 
Antiocbus the First, king of Syria, 

bom c. 324 B.C., VI 47, 139, VII 

53 
Antonia, niece of Augustus and sister- 

in-law of Tiberius, bom c. 36 B.c, 

VII 80 
Antonlus, VII 50, 117, 134, 148 
Anystis, VII 84 
Apelles, Qrcck paintcr temp. Alei- 

ander the Great, VII 125 
Apollo, VII 15, 108, 118, 129, 191 
Apollodorua, Athenian scholar, VII 

123 
Apolloaides, author, tcmp. Tiberius, 

VII 17 
Aponius, VII 1C3 
Appuleia, VII 122 
Arabus, VII 190 
Arachnc, VII I9r. 
Archemachus, of Euboca, wrote a 

work about Kuboca, \TI 207 
Archilochus, satiric poet of Paros, c. 

700 B.C., VII 109 
Archimedcs, b. 2S7 B.C., VII 125 
Arganthonius, king of Tartcssus in 

Spain, Gth c. u.c, VII ISG 
Arimaspi, IV 83. VI 50, VII 10 
Aristaeus, bcncficcnt dcity, son of 

Uranus and Ge, VII 199 
Aristcas, epic poet, /f. tctnp. Croosus, 

VII 10 
ArisUdes, IV C4, 70, Vll 125 
Aristocreon, gcogranhcr, perhaps 

identical with Stoic philosopher, 

3rd c. B.C, VI 183, 191 
Aristogiton, VII 87 
Aristotclcs, IV e5 f., VII 15, 27, 108, 

192, 195. 197, 205, 207 
Anncntariiis, VII 55 
Artcmidorus of Kphcsus, traTcller and 

geographer mo n.C, IV 77, V 47, 5!), 

129, VI 36, 16C, 163, 183. 207, \ai 30 
Artemo, Spartan, built military cn- 

gincs for Pericles in war against 

Samoe 441 B.c, VII 201 



Artemo. a Syrian, VTI 63 
Arverni, Gallic tribp, VII 166 
Asclupiades, physician of Prusias in 

Hithvnia, canie to Rome c. 50 B.O., 

VII 124 
Asinius Pollio, orator, poet and his- 

tx)rian, 6. 76 B.C., VII 115 
Astynomus, Greek writcr otherwise 

unkiiDwn, V 129 
Ateriiius, VII 101 
Athamas, Icgendary king of Orcho- 

nienus, son of Aeoliis, VII 200 
Athanatus, VII 83 
Atlans, lcgendary king and astrono- 

mer, ideiititied with the mythical 

Atlas, VII 203 
Attalus, king of Pergamum 241-197 

n.c, VII 12G 
Attius, tragic poet, 6. 170 B.C, VII 

128 
AuOdius, historian, praetor 103 B.C., 

VI 27 
Aufustius, VII 181 
Auini.Hu8, VI 141, 181, VII 33, 57, 

114, 147, 158, 211 
Aulus Pompeius, VII 182 
Ausoncs, primitive inhabitanta of 

Gentral and Southcm Italy, III 

95 
Aviola, consul suffcctus 33 B.C, VII 

173 

Bacbius, praetor 191 B.C, VII 182 

Bacton, VI Cl, 69, VII 11 

Baibus, naturalizcd Spaniard, consol 

40 li.c, VII 135 
Bellcrophon, mythical hero who, 

mountcd on Pegasus, killcd tho 

Chimacra, VII 202 
Berenicc, VII 133 
Berosus, pricst, historian and astrono- 

mer of Babylon, 3rd c. n.c, VII 123, 

160 
Itj.iD of Soli, wrote on Ethiopia, VI 

191 
Buccphalus, VI 77 
Balarchus, painfer of Asia Minor, i'. 

Candaulcs, VII 126 
Burbiilciua, VII 55 
Cu7.vge8, mythical invcntor of ox- 

yoke, VII 199 

Cadmus, mvthical inventor, brother 

of Europa", VII 192, 195, 197, 204 
CacclUuB, VII 101 



654 



INDEX OF PROPLE 



Caelius, III 132, VII 105 

Caelus, VII 194 

Caesar, J., IV 10, V 128, VII 91, 93, 

117, 126, ISl, 186 
Caesones, VII 47 
Caesonia, VII 39 

Calchus, mTttiical inventor, VII 200 
CaUicrates, Spartan sculptor, VII 85 
Callidetnus, IV 64 
Callimacbus, III 139, IV 65, 70, VII 

152 
Calvus, orator and poet 82-47 B.C., 

VII 165 
Campani, III 60 
Candaules, ktng of Lydia, d. 716 B.C., 

VII 126 
Cantharidae, VII 174 
Car, mythical king of Megara, VII 203 
Carneades, Academic philosopher at 

Athens, ambassador to Rome 155 

B.C., VII 112 
Castcllanus, VII 55 
Castor, VI Ifi, \ll 86 
Cati, VII 118 
Catienns, VII 122 
Catilina, \~Sl 104, 117 
Cato, III 51, 114, 116, 124 f., 133 f., 

VII 61, 100, 122 f. 
Cecrops, legendary first king of Attica, 

VII 194 
Celtae, III 8 
Celtiberi, III 13 
Ccres, goddoss of corn, III CO 
Chalybcs, \ai 197 
Charmadas, VII 89 
Chersiphron, architcct, early 6tb c. 

B.C., VII 125 
Cbilo of ^parta, one of the seven wisc 

men, VII 119, 180 
Chiron, centaur physician, VII 196 
Cicero, VII 18, 85, 110, 135, 158 
Cineas, came to Rome as envoy of 

PTrrhus 280 n.C, VII 88 
Cinyras, legendary Cyprian hero, VII 

154, 195 
Circe, VII 15 
Claudia, sistcr of Appius Claudius 

Pulcher, consul 212 B.C., VII 120 
Claudius, emperor A.D. 41-54, III 

119, 141, V 11, 58, 63, 75, VI 27, 

31, 84, VII 35, 74, 158 f. 
Cleobulus of Lindua in Rhodes, one 

of the seven sages, 6th c. B.C., V 136 
Cleombrotus, VII 123 
Clitarchus, historian, wrote history of 



Alexander's Asiatio expedition, 

which he accompanied, III 57, VI 

30, 19S, VII 129 
Clodia, VII 158 
Closter, spinner, son of Spider, VII 

196 
Clutorius, VII 129 
Conopas, VII 75 
Cnidii, VII 127 
Consitius, VII 36 
Corbulo, see Domitius Corbulo 
Corbulo, son of Vistilia, VII 42 
Corculi, VII 118 
Corfidius, VII 176 
Cornelia, VII 02,69 
Coniclius Nepos, historian, friend of 

Oicero, III 132, V 4, VI 5, 31, 199 
Conielias, Rufus, VII 166 
Crassu.s, defeated by Parthians at 

Carrhae 53 B.C., VI 4 7 
Crates, Crnic philosopher at Atbeiis, 

fl. 330 B.C, IV 58, VII 13, 28, 31 
Crispianus, VII C(t 
Critobulus, VII 124 
CriUidcmu.s, VII 193 
Ctesias of Cnidus in Caria, fl. 400 B.C, 

wrote on Persia and India, VII 23, 

28, 207 
Ctesibias of Aleiandria, meohanical 

engincer, bom c 250 B.C., III 126 
Curetes, aborif,'ine3 of Acamania and 

priests of Zeus in Crete, VII 204 
Curiatii, v. Uoratii, VII 33 
Curio, VII 55, 133 
Curius, VII 68, 166 
Cyclopes, VII 9, 195 IT. 
Cyms, founder of Persian empire, d. 

529 B.C, VI 92, VII 88 

Daci, VII 50 

Dactyli, VII 197 

Daedalus, VII 198, 205, 209 

Dalion, VI 183, 194 

Damastcs, Oreek historian, contemp. 

of Uerodotas, VII 154, 207 
Damon (otherwise unknown), VTI 17 
Danae, III 50 
Danaus, VII 195 
Dando, VII 155 
Daphnia, VII 128 
Dardi, III 104 

Darius, VI 133, 165, VII 108 
Daunii, III lo4 
Delas, VII 197 
Delplms, son of ApoIIo, VII 203 



655 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



Demetrins Poliorcetee, king of Macedon, 

6. 338, d. 283 B.O., IV 10, VII 120 
Demosthencs, VII HO 
Diana, VII 125, 127 
Dinocharcs, Macedonian architcct 

temp. Alexanderfname alsoappeare 

as L)inocrat«\ V C2, VTI 125 
Diodorus, fourth liead of Mpfjarlan 

school of philosophy, llvcd at court 

of Aleiandcr, VII 180 
Diogenes, VI Cl, VII 80 
Diomcdes, Oreek hcro in Trojan war, 

III lU-1, 1211 
Dionysius, gcographical cxplorcr em- 

plojed by Auguslus, VI Ml 
Dionysius, 300 A.D., author of Periegc- 

sis, a world-gcography in Qrcek 

heiamcters, IV 64, VI B8 
DiouTsius the Elder, tyrant ot 

Syracuac, d. 368 B.C., VII 180 
Dioepolis, lcpcndary Kgyptian archi- 

tect, VII i;it 
Domitius Corbulo, general under 

Tiberius and Nero, V 83, VI 40 
Domitius, L., great-great-grandfather 

of ■Nero, VII 186 
Drusus, VII 80, 84 
Duris of Samos, historian, 4th-3rd c. 

B.C., VII 30 

Ennins, 239-161 B.C., founder of Ijatin 

heiameter epic poctry, VII 101, 114 
Bphorus, IV 120, VI ]o8, VII \:A 
Epicharmus of Oiw, b. 510 B.O., Dorian 

comic poct, VII 192 
Epigenes of Bvrantium, astronomer, 

date uncertain, VII 160, 193 
Epii, old name of Aetolta.nfl, IV 13, 

VII 164 
Epimenidcs, Cretan poct and prophet, 

visited Athens and bv mystic rites 

stopped a plague 596 B.C.,VII 1 54, 1 73 
Epiphanes, sumamo of Antiochus IV 

and Antiochus XI, kings of Svria, 

VI 147 
RpiuB, VII 202 

Hratosthenes of Oyrcne 2 76-196 B.C., 
gcographer and man of science, V 
40 f., VI 3, 36, GG, 81, 108, 163, 1 71. 183 

Erichtbonius, mythical king of Athens, 

VII 197, 202 

Erytbras, mytbical king of Egypt, 

VII 206 
Euchir, mythlcal invcntor of painting 

in Greece, VII 206 

6^6 



Endozus of Cyzicus, traveller, ^. 210 

B.O., VI 198 
Euryalus, othcrwisc unknown, VII 

193, 194 
Euthymenes, VII 76 
Euthymus, VII 162 

Fabius, VII 41, 133, 156, 106, 181, 

213 
Fausta, VII 33 
Fclix, VII 180 
Kidustius, VII 134 
FUcrus, VXI 129, 157 
Fonteius, VII 84 
Fuflus, VII 83 
Fullonius, VII 159 
Fulvias, li., consul 322 B.C., V I 136 

Gabbara, VII 74 

Qabienus, Vll 178 

Qaius (Caligula), cmperor 4.D. 37-41, 

V 2, 11, VI 10, 141 
GaiuB Cacsar Augusti lilius, VI 100 
Galpria, VII 158 
Galloi, VII 55 
Gallus, r. Aelius, VI 160 
Qcllianus, III 108 
Gcllius, Aulus, antiquarian writer, e. 

k.n. 117-180, VII 192, 194, 197 f. 
Gcrmanicus, nephow of Tiberius aud 

father of Calijjula, VII 57 
Glitus (unknown), VII 39 
Qorgias of Leontini in Sicily, 6. 480 

B.O., rhetorician and sophist, taught 

at Athens, VII 150 
Qraccbi, VII 57, 121 
Gvgea, king of Lydia 716-678 B.f)., 

"VII 151, 205 

Hannibal, VII 104 

llanno, Carthaginian magiatnite and 

narjgator, author of Periplus, V 8 
nareni, III 7 
llarmodius, with Aristoglton killod 

Hipparchus at Athens 614 B.C., VII 

87 
Hecataeus, IV 49, VI 69 
Ilector, VU 165 
Ile^esias of Magnesia, historian, fl. 

280 B.C., VII 207 
llellanicuB of iUtylenc, carly Greek 

historian, born c. 490 B.O., VII 154 
Ilellen, mythical king of Phthia in 

Thessaly, ancestor of all the 

Hellcncs, VII 203 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



Heraclidea, historiun, e. 225 n.C, IV 

70. VII 175 
Heniclitus of Kphesus, phvsical philo- 

sopher,/?. 513 B.c, VIl"80 
Hercules, III 8, IV 39, V 7, VI 76, 

89, VII 49, 93, 123, 205 
HermoUtnus of Clazomenae, early 

Greek phiiosopher, VII 174 
Herodes.kingof Judaea 40-4B.C, V69 
Herodotus, V 57, 68, VII 10 
Hesiodus, VII 15.3, 197 
Hetereius, VII 184 
Hippocrates of Cos, celebrated physi- 

cian, bom c. 4G0, died c. 357, VII 

123, 171 
Hippas, otherwise unknown, VII 208 
Homerus, IV 28, 31, V 43, 53, 141, 

143, VII 85, 107, 165 
Horatii, three Roman brothers, fought 

and defeated three brothers Curiatii 

of Alba in reign of Tullus Hostilius, 

VII 33 
Hyperbius, threo mytbical inventors, 

VII 194, 19S, 209 
HjBtaspes, Tagus o£ Thessaly, 344 

B.C, VI 133 

lason, aatrap of Persia under Cam- 

byses, VII 16G 
lason, leader of the Argonauts, VII 

207 
Icarus, son of Daedalus, VII 209 
Illyrii, VII 123 
Iphiclns, VII 49 
Isidorus of Charax, geographer, temp. 

early Romun Kuiperors, IV 121, V 

40, 47, 127, 132, 136, 140, 175 f. 
Isigonus, VTI 12, 16, 27 
laba, king of Numidia and later 

Mauretania under Augustus, writer, 

V 16, 61, VI 96, 124, 139, 141, 156, 

203 
luno Argiva, III 70 
lupitcr Olympius, VII 127 
Inventius, oonsul 163 B.C, subducd 

Corsica, VII 182 

Labeo, tr. pleb. 197 B.C, VII 143 
Lacnas, rensor 595 B.C, VII 215 
Lacstrygoues, cannibal tribe visited 

by Ulysses, Od. X 81, III 89 
Lamia, friend of Horaoe, ooiisul A.l>. 3, 

VII 173 
Lampido, daughter ot Leotychides, 

king of Sparta 490 B.O., VII 133 



Laodice, wife of Antiochos the Second, 

king of Syria 261-246 B.C, VII 

63 
LaUiyrus, VI 188 
Lentulus, VII 64 
Lepidi, VII 51, 122, 127, 186 
Liber, III 8, 60, IV 39, V 83, VI 69, 

91, VII 95, 108, 191 
Libya, VII 203 
Licinius, V 83 
Linus, VII 204 
Liparus, III 93 
Livia, VII 67, 158 
Liviua, III 4, 132 
Lucceia, VII 158 
Lutmii, VII 155 
Lvcaon, traditional king of Arcadia, 

"VII 202 
Lydi, III 50 
Lydas, VII 197 
Lysander, Spartan commander, re- 

duccd Athcus 404 B.C, VII 109 
Lysippus, sculptor temp. Alexander, 

VII 125 

Macedonicus, v. Metellus 

Macerio, v. Labeo 

Maecenas, Horace'3 patron, VII I4S 

172 
Magnetes of Magnesia under Mt. 

Sipylus in Asia Minor, shattered by 

earthquake in reign of Tiberius, VII 

126 
Magnus, v. Pompeius, On. 
Mamertini, III 88 
ManiIius,consuI 149 B.C, during Third 

Punic War, VII 47 
Manius, VII 75 
Manlius, VII 183 
Marcellus, consul 222 B.C and four 

times later, conqueror of Syracuse 

in Seoond Punic War, III 131 
Marcius, Italian seer whose prophetic 

verses were Qrst discovered in 213 

B.C, VII 119 
Marcius Philippua, censor 164 B.c, 

VII 214 
Marius, i!>. 157 n.c, seven times con- 

Bul, III 33, 80, VII 187 
Marsyas, lcgendary musician, VII 

204 
Marsvas (otherwise unknown), III 

108 
Masinissa, king of Numidia during 

Second Punio War, VII 61, 166 



657 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



Masiirius, VII 40, 135 

Media, VII 126 

Megasthenes, enroy of Seleucus 

Nicator, founder of Syrian mon- 

arcliy 31. B.C., as amf'aiisador to 

king of Prasii, wrote Indicij, VI 68, 

69, 81, VII 22, 25, 29, 53 
Mclampus, earliest propbetic and 

medical man, VII 119 
Memnon, VI 182 
Menaechmns, sculptor, fl. 500 B.C., IV 

64 
Menander, Atbcnian comic poet, 6. 

322 n.c, VIHll 
Menes, VII 193 
Menogenes, VII 55 
Mentor, famous silver-chaser, earlv 

4th c. B.C, VII 127 
Mercurius, VII 191 
Mi^sala, VIT 90, 98, 173 
Metellos, VII 54, 59, 139, 167 il. 
Metliimannus, VII 61 
Metrodorus of Scepsis, philosoplier 

and statesman under Mitbridatcs 

Eupator, king of Pontua 120-63 

B.C, III 122, V 136 
Midas, kinR of Phrvgia, VII 204 
Midias, VII 200 
Milo of Croton, athlctc, late 6th c. 

B.C, VII 83 
Minerva. VII 97, 210 
Minos, legcndarv king of Cnoesus in 

Crete, VII 2iiU 
Mithridates, king of Pontus 120-«3 

B.C, VII 88, 98 
Mnesigiton, VII 208 
Monadi, III 104 
Monocoli, VII 23 
Muclanus, consul a.u. 52, 70 and 75, 

historian, III 69, IV 60, 77, V 60, 

128, Vn 159 
MociuB, VII 163 
M^rrmecides, sculptor of Miletus or 

Athens, VII 85 
Myrsilus of I^lios bistorian of un- 

cert&in date, III ab, IV 65 
Mysticus, VII 184 

Naeviu-"? Pollio, II 74 

Nearcbus, admiral of Aleiander. wrotc 
biotorv of vovat^ from Indus 
to Persiao Gulf, VI 96, 107, 109, 
124 

Neceperjs, VII 10<J 

Nepos, tee Comeliua Nepos 



Nero, rv 10, VI 40, 181, 184, VII 45, 

71, 129 
Nero, tee Tiberius 
Nicaeus, VII 51 
NiciaP, VII 196 
Nirodorus, III 58 

Nicomedes, kines of Bithynia, VII 127 
Nvmiihodonis, historian, temp. Philip 

and Aiexander, VII 16 
NyBa, V 74 

Oceanus. VII 197 

Otilius. VII 158, 184 

Olympionicae, VII 133 

Onesicritus, accompanied Nearcbns, 
wrotc bistorv of Asiatic campaigns, 
VI 81, 90, 109, 124, VII 28 

Orestes. VII 74 

Orion, VII 73 

Orpheus, IV 41, VII 203 

Orfitius. consul A.D. 48, VII 39 

Osci, III 60 

Otus, son of Poseidon and brother of 
Ephialtes, VII 73 

Paezon, VII 129 

Palamedcs, Greek bero in Trojan war, 

ezecuted on fictitious cbarge of 

treason, VII 192, 202 
Palladium, VII 141 
Pampbilus, VII 64 
Pan, III 8, VII 204 
Pandion, VI 105 
Papiriiis Cursor, commandcd in 

i^econd Samnite War, Bve timcs 

coniiuland twicedictator, VII 40,213 
Papirius Carlo, consui 113 B.C., V1I68 
Parhalus, VII 207 
Paris, VII 55 
Partbi, VII 135 
Paterculus, VII 120 
Patr<x:le8, VI 53 
Paulus, consul 219 B.C., III 138 
reiJianus Asconius, 6. 2 n.C. scbolar. 

wrote commentary on speecbes of 

Cicero, VII 159 
Pediculi,III 101 
Pedius, VII 151 
PolasKi, III Wj 
Peletbronius, VII 202 
Pentheeilea, VII 201 
Pericles, VII 209 

Perpenna, consul 92 B.C, VII 150 
Perses, last king of Macedonia de- 

featcd in war with Uomo 171-lCJ 

B.C, III 114 



658 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



Perees, son of Perseus and Andromeda, 

legendary founder of Persian nation, 

VII 201 
Pereeus, Argive hero, III 56, V 7, VII 

201 
PetoBiris, Egyptian priest, with 

Necepsos founded astrology, VII 

ICO 
Petronius, VI 1 81 
PhaJaris, tyraut of Agrigcntum 57U 

B.C., VII 2iX) 
Pherecydes of Syros, Gth c. B.C., 

philosopher, teacher of Pythagoras, 

VII 172, 205 
Phidon, icing of Argos, 8th c. B.C., 

VII 198 
Philemon, IV 95 
Philippides or Phidippides, Athenian 

courier, ran to Sjiarta in three days 

to a«l£ aid against Persians, 490 B.C., 

VII 84 
Philippus, VII 124 
Philistides, IV 53, 120 
Philonides, courier, VII 81 
Philostephanus, Alexandrian geo- 

grapher 240 D.C., VII 207 
Philvra, VII 196 
Phoroneus, VII 103 f. 
Phylarchus, Qrcck historian 270 D.O., 

VII 17 
Pictoreua, VII 154 
Pindarus, VII 109 
Pisaeus, VII 201 
Piso, III131 
Pittheus, king of Troozen, son of 

Pelojis, VII 205 
Plancus, friend of Julius Caesar, VII 

55 
Plato, VII 110 
Pollui, VI IG 
Polvbius, historian, h. 204 B.C., IV 77, 

119, 121 f., V 9, 4G, VI 199, 206 
Polydamas, VII 1G6 
Polygnotus, painter, mid 5th c. B.C., 

VII 205 
Pompeius, Aulus, VII 182 
Pompeius, Cn., III 18, 101, V 58, C8, 

VI 51, VII 34, 53. 80, 93 fl., 112, 

115 
Pompeius, Seitus, VII 178 
Pomponius, VII 39, 80, 158 
Porcia gen3, VII 100 
Posidonius, Stoic philosopher of 

Rhodes, ambassador to Komo 80 

B.C., VI 57, VII 112 



Praxiteles, Athenlan sculptor, i. 390 

B.c, VII 127 
Proetus, king of Tirvns, VII 200 
Proractlieiii;, VII 199, 209 
Protogoncs, painter at Uhodes, fl. 

332-300 B.C, VII 126 
Prusias, kingof Rithynla 228-180 B.C., 

VII 69 
1'sammetichus, king of Egypt, c. 666 

B.O., VI 191 
PsophidivL^^, VII 151 
Psylli, earliest known inhabitants of 

Cyrenaica in N. Africa, VII 14 
Ptoiemaeus, successive kings of Egvpt, 

VI 165, 167, 188, VII 124, 208 " 
Ptolemaeus, son of luba the Younger, 

succeeded him as king of Maure- 

tania, put to death at Rome 40 

A.D., V IG 
Publiciius, VII 53 
Pusio, VII 75 
Pyrgotelos, gem-engraver under Alei- 

ander the (ireat, VII 125 
Pyrodes, VII 199 
Pvrrho of Elis, founder of Sceptical 

"sohool, VII 80 
Pvrrhus, king of Epirus, b. 318 B.C., 

"lll 101, VII 20, 88, 204, 231 
Pytheas, navigator, explored west and 

north Europe, lat€ 4th c. B.C., IV 

95 

Rachias, VI 85, 88 

Rebilus, 0. Oamnlus, Caesarian geii- 

eral, VII 181 
Rhadamanthus, Cretan prince, judge 

in llades, VII 191 
Romilius, consul 455 B.C, VII 102 
RomuliLS, III 6G 
Roscius of Ameria, defended by 

Cicero on charge of murdering his 

father, 80 B.C. VII 117 
Roscius Q., actor, VII 198 
Rusticelius, VII 83 
Rutilius, VII 122, 158 

Salo, VII 61 
Samiramides, VI 92 
Samiramis, VII 207 
Samnuilla, VII 159 
Sannius, VII 55 
Saturnas, III 8, VII 190 
Saufeius, VII 183 
Scapula, P. Quintius, VII 183 
Scaurus, VII 128 



659 



INDEX OF PEOPLE 



Sciapodes, VU 23 

Scipio Africanus, Aemilianus, see 

AiricaDus 
Scipio, L., \1I 88 
Scipio Nasica, jorist, consul 191 D.C., 

VII 120,215 
Scylla, monster guarding Straits of 

Mcssina, III 73 
Scytlies, VII 201 

Seboeus, Statius, geographer, VI 1 83 
Secundilla, VII 75 
Seianus, minister of emperor Tibcrius, 

executed for trcason 31 A.D., VII 

129 
Seleuciis, first king of Syria 312-280 

B.C., VI 19 
Seneca, philosopher, Nero'8 adviser 

and victim, VI GO 
Serapio, VII 51 
Sergius, VII KU 
Scrtorius, headed rlsing in Spain, 

resisted Metellus aud Fompeius for 

five years, assassiuated 72 B.C., VII 

96 
Servilius, VII 103, 182 
Sesostris, Ramses II, great king of 

Bgypt, VI IC5 
Seitus Pompeius, VII 178 
Sibylla, VII 119 
Siccins, VII loi 
Silanns, consul A.n. 4fi, proconsul of 

Asia, A.D. 54, VII 58 
Silenus, Roman liistorian, 2nd c. B.C., 

IV 120 

Siienus, satyr-ILkc attcndant of Dionv- 

8US, VII 199 
Simoiiides, lyric poet of Ceoa 666-4G7 

B.C., VI 183, VII 192 
Sinon, leader in plot of wooden horse 

to capture Troy, VII 202 
Sirenes, III 62 
Socrates, VII 79, 118 
Sol, VII 197 
Sophocles, VII 180 
Spaosines, VI 1 39 
Spinther, VII 64 
Spurius, VII 101 
Staphylua, VII 199 
Statilia, VII 153 
Stephanio, VII 169 
Stilpo of MeL'.ira, philosopher, VII 180 
Strabo, VII 54, 85 
Suetonius Paulinus, conaul C6 B.O., 

commanded in Britain undcr Nero, 

V 14 

66o 



Suilliiis Rufus, consul 46 A.D., ban- 
ished for corruption, VII 39 

Sulla, III 70, 80, VU 60, 131, 137, 187 

Sullanus, VII 96 

Sulpicia, VII 120 

Sura, L. Licinius, friend of Trajan, 
VII 55 

Tacitus, tho historian, VII 76 

Tader, III 9 

Tarquinius, L., Priscus, fifth klng o( 

Rome, III 70 
Tarquinius Supcrbus, seventh and 

last kin(? of Romc, IU 67 
Tauron, VII 24 
Telchius, VI 16 
Terentia, VII 168 
Terentius, unfciiown, VII lfi3 
Tereus, legendary king of Thrace, IV 47 
Tcrpander of Lcsbos, 700-C5O B.C., 

father of Oreck music and lyric 

poetry, VII 2(i4 
Tertulla, VII 1G3 

Thamyras, legendary bard, VII 204 
Thamyris, possibly identical with 

Thaimyras, VII 204 
Theodonis, sculptor aud architect, fl. 

600 B.C., VII 1<JH 
Theophrostus of Lesbos, pupil and 

Buccessor of Aristotle, III 57, 98, 

rv 2, VII 151, 195 
Theopompus, historian, pupil of 

Isocrates, 6. 378 B.O., III 57, 98, 

IV 2, VII 154, 195 
Thcseus, VII 200, 202, 205 

Thoas, king of Ijcmnos, son of Diony- 

sus and Ariadne, VII 197 
Thrason, VII 195 
Thucydides, III 8G, VII 111, 207 
Tibcrius, VII 84, 149 
Tigraues, king of Armenia, son-in-law 

of Mithridates, surreudcred to 

Pompey G6 B.O., VII 98 
Timaeus, 362-256 B.C., wrote history 

of Sicily, III 85, IV 04, 104, 120, 

V 53 f. 
Timagencs, III 132 
Timo, VII 80 

Timomachus of Hyiantium, t«mp. J. 
Cacsar, VII 126, cf. XXXV 136 

Timosthenes of Hhodes, admiral un- 
der Ptolemy Philadelphus, e. 280 
B.C., wrote on harbours, V 47, 129 

VI 18, 1C3, 183, 198 

Tiphys, helmsman of the Argo, VII 209 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



Tircsias, legendarv augur, blind, VII 

203 
Tiridatcs, king of Parthia, VII 129 
Titinius, VII 211 
Toranius, VII 56 
Triariiis, defeated bv Mithridates in 

Pontus G8 B.C., Vl"l(j 
Triptolemus, mythical hero of Eleusis, 

VII 199 
Trispithanii, VII 26 
Tritanus, VII 81 
Trogus Pompeius, tcmp. Augustus, 

wrote universal history, VII 3.3 
Tuditanus, consul 129 b!c., III 129 
Tullius, ^^I 75 
Turduli, III 8, 13, VII 71 
l^irraiiius Gracilis, AXiican geographer, 

III 3 
Tusci,III 51,60, 70 
Tyrrheni, III 50 
Tyrrhenus, VII 201 

Valeria, VII CS 

Valerius Corvinns.commanded against 

Gauls, Etruscans and Samnites, 4th 

c. B.C., VII 157 
Valerius Messala, VII 214 
Valerius Soranus, poet,