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North Carolina 
Historical Review 


Volume XXII Numbers 1-4 



Published by 

Corner of Edenton and Salisbury streets 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Selling Agents: 
F. W. FAXON CO., 83 Francis St., Bach Bay, Boston, Mass. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
David Leroy Corbitt, Managing Editor 


Robert Digges Wimberly Connor Walter Clinton Jackson 

Adelaide Lisetta Fries 


Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Chairman 
James Allan Dunn Mrs. George McNeill 

Clarence Wilbur Griffin Gertrude Sprague Carraway 

William Thomas Laprade Mrs. £adie Smathers Patton 

Christopher Crittenden, Secretary 

This review was established in January, 1924, as a medium of publication 
and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institutions 
by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The regular price 
is $2.00 per year. To members of the State Literary and Historical Association 
there is a special price of $1.00 per year. Back numbers may be procured at the 
regular price of $2.00 per volume, or $.50 per number. 


The North Carolina 
Historical Review 





Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jk. 



Clifton Oxendine 


William Patterson Gumming 


James Wesley Silver 



James A. Padgett 


Brooks's Walter Clark: Fighting Judge — By W. A. Mabry; Dab- 
ney's One Hundred Or eat Years: The Story of the Times-Pica- 
yune from its Founding in 19 U0 — By Culver H. Smith; 
Nuermberger's The Free Produce Movement: A Quaker Pro- 
test Against Slavery — By James W. Patton; Alden's John 
Stuart and the Southern Frontier: A Study of Indian Relations, 
War, Trade, and Land Problems in the Southern Wilderness, 
175J/.-1755 — By Thomas Perkins Abernethy. 




iv Contents 

NUMBER 2, APRIL, 1945 


Annie Sabra Ramsey 


Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr. 


PARTI 176 

Ellen Alexander Hendricks 

PART I 198 

James A. Padgett 


Mary Lindsay Thornton 


Lacy's Revivals in the Midst of the ears and Sweet's Revivalism 
in America, its Origin, Growth, and Decline — By Clement 
Eaton; Patrick's Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet — By 
James W. Patton; Williams's Tennessee During the Revolu- 
tionary War — By J. H. Eckenrode; Davenport's Ante-Bellum 
Kentucky, A Social History, 1800-1860 — By Clement Eaton. 


Contents v 

NUMBER 3, JULY, 1945 


Hubert McNeill Poteat 


Samuel Edwin Leonard 


Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr. 

PARTn 320 

Ellen Alexander Hendricks 

PART II 350 

James A. Padgett 


Simkins' Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolinian — By C. 
Vann Woodward; Fletcher's Lusty Wind for Carolina — By 
Hugh T. Lefler ; Crittenden's and Godard's Historical Socie- 
ties in the United States and Canada: A Handbook — By Vir- 
ginia Leddy Gambrell ; Godbold's The Church College of the 
Old South — By Frontis W. Johnston. 


vi Contents 





Jay Monaghan 


Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr. 

III 490 

James A. Padgett 


Lonn's The Colonial Agents of the Southern Colonies — By 
Lowell Ragatz; Bowers's The Young Jefferson, 17J+3-1789 — 
By J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton ; May's Principio to Wheeling, 
171 5-19 Jf.5: A Pageant of Iron and Steel — By Lester J. Cap- 
pon; Tucker's Indian Villages of the Illinois Country. Vol- 
ume II. Scientific Papers, Illinois State Museum. Part I. Atlas — 
By Thomas Dionysius Clark ; Hughes County Government in 
Georgia — By James C. Bonner. 


The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXII January, 1945 Number 1 



CRAVEN COUNTY, 1700-1800 

By Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr. 

part I 
Colonization of the Neuse 

U Men have a great Advantage of choosing good and commodious 
Tracts of Land at the first Seating of a Country or River. 

— John Lawson, 1709. 

The pattern of North Carolina's earliest colonization was 
shaped to a large extent by the character of the coastline. That 
great sea-wall, the sand banks which Nature has raised upon 
the coast, seemed to forbid any direct, frontal penetration into 
the rich lands behind it. The shallow sounds and uncertain shoals 
guarded jealously this fertile corner of the New World. The 
first attempt to pierce the barrier ended in 1587 in the Lost Col- 
ony. Thereafter the colonization proceeded in lateral, flanking 
thrusts that seemed to avoid any frontal assault upon this ele- 
mental wall. In the 1650s settlers pushed down behind the wall, 
so to speak, from Virginia and began the colony of the Albe- 
marle. A decade later came an attempt at colonization which 
moved around the other end of the wall, resulting in the earliest, 
and unsuccessful, settlements of the Cape Fear. 1 Thus there 
were attempts at colonizing both extremities of the coast, and 

1 These were not permanent. The first was by New England livestock raisers about 1660. 
In 1665 came the colonists from Barbados who abandoned their settlement and scattered to 
the Albermale, Virginia, and Massachusetts. Colonial Records of North Carolina, I, x (prefa- 
tory notes). 

C 1 ] 

2 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

the attempt in the Albemarle was successful. It was the lot of the 
coastal midlands of the Neuse and Pamlico rivers, however, to 
attract no colonists until much later. Not until half a century 
after the first permanent settlers had opened up the Albemarle 
did white men come to claim these valuable lands from the 
wilderness. And yet, paradoxically, despite this lateness of 
settlement, it was this region which produced the earliest towns 
in the province. Ensconced behind the middle and perhaps most 
formidable part of the wall of sea and sand, the land of the 
Neuse — for such is the subject of this study — remained until 
the opening years of the eighteenth century the abode of 
savages only, and then, by an unusual yet logical turn of events, 
gave birth, in New Bern, to the first important town culture to 
flourish in North Carolina. 

One may well wonder at the tardiness of settlers in claiming 
the lands of the Neuse. The Lords Proprietors of Carolina like- 
wise wondered, and as early as 1676 sharply inquired of the 
Albemarle County government why they, from the vantage 
point of being contiguous to the older colony of Virginia, had not 
pushed settlers farther southward. The Pamlico and Neuse 
"should have bin before this welplanted," the Proprietors wrote 
to the council and assembly on October 21, 1676. 2 A way should 
have been opened up by land they said, between the Albemarle 
and Ashley River settlements. They stated tartly that the 
neglect of the Neuse and Pamlico "has bine the Cause that 
heitherto wee have had noe more Reguard for you as lookinge 
upon you as a people that neither understood your own nor 
regarded our Interests." But they did not lay all the blame upon 
the government which the letter was designed to rebuke, for 
they admitted that previous governments, in attempting to link 
the two settlements and thus to "plant more southward," had 
been frustrated in their intentions "with great Violence and 
Injustice" by their fellow-inhabitants of the Albemarle. 3 This 
indicates that there had been abortive attempts prior to 1676 
toward colonizing the southern shore of Albemarle Sound. But 

2 Colonial Records, I, 228. 

3 These previous attempts had been checked by agents of the Proprietors "who did not 
want their trade with the Indians disturbed by further settlements among them," says 
R. D. W. Connor, in History of North Carolina, Colonial and Revolutionary Periods (Chicago 
and New York, 1919), I, 49. (Hereafter referred to as Connor, History.) 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 3 

it would have been an ambitious government indeed that would 
have sought at this time to send white men to live as far south 
as the Neuse. 

One cannot escape the feeling that the Proprietors, with a 
solicitous eye toward the profitable Ashley River settlement, 
were motivated in their desire for southward expansion chiefly 
by "our Interests" and not those of the struggling Albemarle 
colonists. Their directions to the government show that they 
were partly appreciative but not fully aware of the difficulties 
in the way of their easily spoken injunction to "plant more 
southward." They must have known that the Neuse and Pamlico 
were populated by numerous and strong Indian tribes, for in a 
recommendation for the setting up of "Plantationes and Townes" 
on the south side of Albemarle Sound, they pointed out that their 
plan for this settlement, being concerned with new territory on 
the Indian frontier, ' f more espetially requires that it bee in 
townes," presumably so the settlers, by grouping together, 
could protect themselves if the Indians attacked. 4 Unfortunately, 
towns, never a form of organization to which the early settlers 
naturally gravitated, 5 do not spring up at a word of command, 
even from the Lords who were true and absolute Proprietors of 
all Carolina. The Proprietors insisted energetically enough upon 
their plan for southward expansion. They must have anticipated 
some results, for on November 21, 1676, Thomas Eastchurch was 
made governor not only of Albemarle County (as all previous 
governors had been) but also of "such settlements as shall bee 
made upon the rivers of Pamleco and Newse." 6 Despite these 
high hopes and plans of the year 1676, no evidence is available 
that they produced any settlements on either river. 

What, then, were the causes of the failure? These grew out 
of, first, the events of the time; second, the physical or geo- 
graphical hindrances to southward expansion; and, third, the 
presence of powerful Indian tribes along the Neuse and Pam- 
lico. As to the first, the Albemarle government, always weak 
during the seventeenth century, was especially unable to push 

4 Colonial Records, I, 231. 

5 See C. L. Raper, "Social Life in Colonial North Carolina," in North Carolina Booklet, 
III, 10, ff. (Feb., 1904). 

6 Colonial Records, I, 232-233. 

4 The North Carolina Historical Review 

colonization at this period. The colony's energies were thrown 
not into the expansion urged by the Proprietors but against the 
enforcement of the Navigation Act passed by Parliament in 1673. 
This resentment, which flamed into the so-called Culpeper's 
Rebellion at the end of 1677, was obviously unfavorable to adding 
new territory to the colony. 7 As to the second cause, there 
lay in the path of expansion, athwart the most direct route, 
a wide sound and desolate wasteland which acted as a natural 
barrier to the southern regions. The Reverend John Blair, writing 
in 1704, gives us a picture of the relation of the region above 
Albemarle Sound to the land below it — a picture which is all the 
more impressive because it comes at a date when the Neuse and 
Pamlico were partly settled and not, as in 1776, a wilderness: 
You may also consider [writes Mr. Blair to the Society for the 
Propogation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts] the distance that the new 
colony of Pamtico [Pamlico] is from the rest of the inhabitants of the 
country, for any man that has tried it would sooner undertake a voyage 
... to Holland than that, for besides a pond of five miles broad, and noth- 
ing to carry one over but a small perryauger, there are about fifty miles 
desert to pass through, without any human creature inhabiting in it. 8 
I think it likewise reasonable to give you an account of a great nation 
of Indians that live in that [Bath County] government, computed to 
be no less than 100,000, many of which [sic] live amongst the English. 9 
Thus does the Reverend Mr. Blair testify on the third difficulty 
in the way of southward expansion. He appears to have over- 
estimated the number of Indians in the colony's midlands. 10 Even 
so, his exaggerated estimate of the aboriginal population prob- 
ably would have met the fearful expectations of the earlier 
Albemarle settlers, who must have regarded very reluctantly the 
prospect of attempting to hold lands then in the possession of 
such numerous Indian tribes. If, in 1704, Mr. Blair looked with 
such a cold eye on the southern regions, we may well wonder how 
much more indifference the Albemarle colonists displayed, a 
quarter of a century earlier, toward this terra incognita of the 
Neuse and Pamlico. 

7 Connor, History, p. 47 ff. 

8 On the map he made in 1738 for the Duke of Newcastle, James Wimble inscribed across 
Hyde Precinct the forbidding legend, "WILD DESERTS." 

9 Colonial Records, I, 603. 

10 Lawson estimated the population of the Indians "that are our Neighbours" as slightly 
more than 4,000. They could hardly have been more 6,000. Perhaps Blair took in more 
territory in his estimate than did Lawson. Frances Latham Harriss, editor, Lawson's History 
of North Carolina (Richmond, 1937), pp. 254-255. (Hereafter cited as Lawson, History.) 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 5 

By the year 1694, when John Archdale became governor of 
Carolina, there were a number of settlers on the Pamlico River. 
Archdale himself tells us that pestilence and inter-tribal war- 
fare about this time reduced the number of Indians in this 
section to the point where the white settlers were encouraged 
to move in and take possession of the lands along the Pamlico. 
During his term of office, Archdale wrote, the Pamlico tribe 
was decimated by a plague (probably smallpox) , and the Corany- 
nee (Coree?), who inhabited lands on Core Sound and on the 
Neuse, suffered severe losses in war with a neighboring tribe. 11 
In their instructions to Archdale, the Proprietors sought to 
encourage further colonization of this region. They requested 
him to let out lands on the Neuse and Pamlico at "moderate" 
quit rents, these rents to be not less than a half penny an acre. 12 

At this time there was set up the first political division in 
the Neuse-Pamlico area. Some designation was needed so the 
settlement in that part of the province might be distinguished 
from Albemarle County. Accordingly, writs, commissions, and 
other legal documents concerning these settlers pronounced them 
as being "of the Precinct of Pampticoe [Pamlico] in the County 
of Archdale." 13 Whether Archdale County was decreed by formal 
order of the council and whether, as it seems, it was so called 
in compliment to the governor who was a Quaker by religion 
and a Lord Proprietor by inheritance, do not appear from 
available documents. At any rate, the County of Archdale was 
shortlived and ended on December 9, 1696, by an order, at 
Archdale's direction, which set up the County of Bath. 14 Bath 
County was given the privilege of sending two members to the 
assembly, and these took their seats the following year. 15 The 
bounds of the county were left undefined and depended upon the 
extent of settlement. Since Neuse River was not at this time 
populated, Bath County contained all the territory south of 
Albemarle Sound which was inhabited — meaning, Pamlico River 
and its branches. As soon as settlers came to live on the banks 
of the Neuse, this amorphous county was to embrace them like- 

11 John Archdale, A New Description . . . of Carolina, in Historical Collections of South 
Carolinp, (New York, 1836), II, 89-90. 

12 Colonial Records, I, 391. 
1* Colonial Records, I, 4?2. 

14 Colonial Records, I, 472. 

15 Colonial Records, I, 574. 

(5 The Nobth Carolina Historical Review 

wise, conveniently spreading its boundaries as the white men 
spread their holdings. 16 

Further political divisions came as the territory attracted more 
settlers. On December 3, 1705, Bath County, "now grown popu- 
lous and daily encreasing," was made into three precincts. The 
north side of Pamlico River was divided into Pamlico and Wick- 
ham precincts. The south side became Archdale Precinct, "at 
present including all the inhabitants of Newse. ,, 17 Pamlico and 
Wickham subsequently became Beaufort and Hyde precincts, 
and between 1711 and 1712 Archdale was changed into Craven 
Precinct. There is available no record of the council's order 
making the change. It came, however, before the death of 
Governor Edward Hyde in September, 1712, 18 and some time 
during or after the year 171 1. 19 Craven Precinct was obviously 
named for William Lord Craven, 20 who became Lord Palatine 21 
in 1708 and died October 9, 1711. If it had not been called in his 
honor during the months preceding his demise, we may well 
suppose the Proprietors perpetuated his name in the New World 
as a memorial after his death. 

Thus developed the political unit which later became Craven 
County. But a political unit presumes civilized habitation, and 
the question arises as to who were the first white men to set 
foot on Neuse River soil. As usual that role may be assigned 
to the venturesome and ubiquitous Spaniards. There is positive 
indication of the presence of this race in the coastal midlands 
in the seventeenth century, but nothing that suggests any settle- 
ment by them in this part of the New World. A letter written to 
England by an early Virginian tells how he visited "Carolina or 

16 In 1709 Bath County was described as containing "most of that land which lies to the 
southward of Albemarle Sound to Pamlico River, and about thirty or forty miles more 
southerly to Neuse River." Colonial Records, I, 714. 

17 Colonial Records, I, 629. 

18 Colonial Records, I, 886 ; III, 453. 

19 Archdale Precinct still existed in 1711. Colonial Records, I, 792. 

20 Not to be confused with William Earl of Craven (1608-1697), the earlier Proprietor 
whose name was given to the County of Craven in South Carolina. The member of this 
family for whom Craven Precinct was named was William Lord Craven, of Combe Abbey, 
the second Baron Craven. He did not inherit the title of earl from his cousin, the earlier 
Proprietor, who was the first Baron Craven. He was born in 1668 the eldest son of Sir 
William Craven and Margaret, daughter of Sir Christopher Clapham, of Beamsley, County 
York, and died after serving three years as Lord Palatine. Burke's Peerage. 

21 Title of the eldest Proprietor. It received its name from the fact that Carolina was 
a "County Palatine," similar to the County Palatine ruled by the Bishop of Durham, who 
possessed many of the privileges of sovereignty, as did the Proprietors themselves. This is 
explained because of the identicalness of this name and that of the settlers of Craven 
Precinct, the German Palatines, from whose homeland the term "County Palatine" ultimately 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 7 

South Virginia" in 1653 and how his party traveled as far 
south as the land of the Tuscarora Indians, who told them that 
in their chief town dwelled a Spaniard who had been with them 
since the year 1646! 22 The Virginians did not go as far south 
as the Indian town and consequently did not see the Spaniard. 
Nor is there anything in the letter that tells how he happened 
to be where he was. If the Indians spoke the truth and there was 
actually a white man in the midlands of coastal North Carolina 
in 1646, we may suppose that his presence there was entirely 
fortuitous, perhaps due to his being shipwrecked off the treacher- 
ous coast. Whatever the reason for the presence of this unknown 
Spaniard, it is not important historically and can by no means 
claim equal rank with the coming of the first permanent settlers 
half a century later. 

These first settlers were English-speaking people. It is impos- 
sible to give the names of those who might be called unquali- 
fiedly "the first" of these colonists to make their home on 
the Neuse. Records of the earliest patents and land titles are 
incomplete, 23 and it is difficult to draw definite conclusions from 
the scattered and sometimes cryptic documents which are 
available. A few statements can, however, be made with 

The first settler on the Neuse had cleared his land and built 
his home by 1703. Whether his name was William Powell cannot 
definitely be said; but in a will made by Powell dated July 7, 
1703, he describes himself as being "of Neuse River in the 
County of Bath." 24 It is hard to believe that Powell and the wife 
he mentions in his will lived without neighbors in the wilds 
of this newly opened country. There must have been other set- 
tlers somewhere near them, but if so they left no evidence that 
they were living on the Neuse as early as 1703. By this time 
land-holding on the Neuse was not uncommon. In the same year 
he made his will Powell bought land on Neuse River which had 

22 Francis Yardley of Lynnhaven, Va., to John Farrar, in a letter dated May 8, 1654; 
". . . the Tuskarorawes emperor . . . desired them [ Yardley 's company] to go to his chief 
town, where he told them was one Spaniard residing, who had been seven years with them, 
a man very rich, having about thirty in family . . . ." Does this mean that his family was 
with him? Reprinted in F. L. Hawks, History of North Carolina ( Fayetteville, 1859), 
II, 15-20. 

23 Some early patents are missing from the Land Grant Office in Raleigh. Some of the 
earliest Craven Precinct records seem to have been destroyed by Indians. 

24 Beaufort County Deeds, Washington, N. C, I, 41. 

8 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

been taken up in November, 1702, by Thomas Lepper, 25 another 
settler, who perhaps by this time, certainly by 1706, 2G had 
acquired several tracts and had made his home on the Neuse. 
There is evidence tending to show that patents were being issued 
for lands on the Neuse by 1704 or 1705, though no such docu- 
ments have survived. 27 As a matter of fact, issues of patents 
must have been made earlier than that. In 1701 Farnifold Green 
is recorded as the possessor of a tract he called, from the Tusca- 
rora town of the same name, 28 "Nonawharitsa." 20 Was it on 
the Neuse or Pamlico? Green and his brother Titus settled on 
the north side of the Neuse prior to 1707. By that year the earliest 
extant land patents issued to Green refer to localities on the north 
side which bear his name. One grant is for 640 acres "at Greens 
Point in Powells Creek in Neuse." 30 (This creek, now known 
as Whitaker's Creek, undoubtedly was the one upon which Wil- 
liam Powell had settled. 31 ) Another grant is for 1,700 acres 
between Green's Creek and Smith's Creek. 32 Other grants link 
Farnifold Green indubitably to this area below the site of Oriental 
in what is now Pamlico County — an area that seems to have been 
unquestionably the cradle of Neuse colonization. It seems prob- 
able, therefore, that Nonawharitsa was in this area so consistently 
mentioned in documents relating to Green and his descendants. 
In his will made in 1711, Farnifold Green refers to his house as 
being near Piney Point on Lower Broad Creek. 33 Perhaps this 
tract was the one Green called Nonawharitsa, for in that area, 
especially near Whortonsville on the opposite bank of the creek, 
the remains of an Indian settlement have been turned up. 34 
If this admittedly tenuous assumption is correct and Green and 

25 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 25. 

26 Land Grant Records, Office of the Secretary of State, Raleigh, N. C, I, 243. 

27 A notation on one of the Gregg Papers, New Bern Public Library, s«ys : "Robert 
Shrieve Patent for 640 [acres] March 10, 1704." This is in a list of early Neuse patents. 

2S Lawson, History, p. 255. 

29 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 9. 

80 Land Grant Records, I, 164. 

31 Powell's Creek is no longer known by that name. That it was important in the early 
days of the Neuse is proved by the prominence which it is given on John Lawson's map 
of 1709, "Part of North America." An early patent refers to a certain grant as lying 
on Pearce's Creek and running west to Powell's Creek. Whitaker's Creek is the nearest 
stream west of Pearce's Creek and the placing of Powell's Creek there — in any event, in 
the Oriental area — agrees with the location shown on Lawson's map. Land Grant Records, 
I, 251. 

32 Colonial Records, V, 653-654. 

33 Quoted in B. H. Abee, Colonists of Carolina (Richmond, 1938), in chapter X dealing 
with Farnifold Green. 

34 Judge T. B. Woodard, of Stonewall, whose father owned land in this area, places a 
large Indian village site near it. Numerous artifacts have been turned up in plowing, 
he says. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 9 

his family had settled on Nonawharitsa, on the Neuse, in 1701, 
the colonization of this river must be placed back in the opening 
year of the eighteenth century and not inconceivably in the late 

The names of two Neuse settlers begin to appear in the records 
of the Neuse-Pamlico area as early as 1697. In that year Farni- 
fold Green is listed as a settler newly arrived in the province of 
Carolina. 35 William Hancock is mentioned for the first time in 
1697, so he too was in the Neuse-Pamlico area by that date. 36 
Other settlers coming from outside the colony entered for the 
most part between 1700 and 1702. William Brice, Robert Bruce, 
John Nelson, Sr., John Nelson, Jr., John Reed, Robert Shrieve, 
John Smith, and Stephen Sweetman all arrived during those 
years to make their homes in Carolina. 37 Therefore a great many, 
perhaps a majority, of those earliest settlers whose origin was 
outside the province, arrived in the Neuse-Pamlico region in the 
closing years of the seventeenth century and opening years of 
the eighteenth century. 

The question of where they came from is one to which a par- 
tial answer can be given. Some came from Maryland and Virginia. 
Farnifold Green was a native of Northumberland County, Vir- 
ginia. 38 Peter Worden, another Neuse settler, seems to have come 
from Maryland. 39 Pennsylvania probably also provided settlers 
for the Neuse. A few came directly from overseas like John Law- 
son, who arrived at Richard Smith's Pamlico plantation in 1701 
from England. 40 Stephen Sweetman came from Dorsetshire, 
England, and on arriving bound himself to work for four 
years as an indentured servant, probably to pay for his pas- 
sage. 41 It can safely be said that those who came from 
Europe were in a decided minority; undoubtedly the expense 
of an ocean voyage was something that few would-be mi- 

•35 Headrights were proved on him in that year. North Carolina Historical and Genealogical 
Register (J. B. S. Hathaway, editor), II, 299. 

36 In that year Hancock proved headrights on nine newcomers. North Carolina Historical 
and Genealogical Register, II, 299. 

37 Brice: Beaufort County Deeds, I, 34. Bruce: ibid., p. 11. Nelson: ibid., p. 31; Historical 
and Genealogical Register, I, 305. Reed: Beaufort County Deeds, I, 30. Shrieve: ibid., p. 84. 
Smith : ibid., p. 9 ; or Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 614. Sweetman : Beaufort 
County Deeds, I, 10-11. 

38 St. Stephen's Parish Register. Green was born in 1674. 

39 Historical and Genealogical Register, III, 83. 

40 Lawson, History, p. 60. Dr. S. B. Weeks believed Lawson's home was Yorkshire. 
Lawson, History, p. xv. 

41 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 10-11. 

10 The North Carolina Historical Review 

grants could, or would, afford. By far the majority of the 
settlers originated in America, a great many within the 
bounds of Carolina itself. John and Josias Slocumb were descend- 
ants of old Anthony Slocumb of Albemarle County, a Lord Pro- 
prietor's deputy, who died at an advanced age about 1690. 42 The 
names of Thomas Lepper, John Fulford, James Blount, and other 
Neuse inhabitants suggest kinships with families in the older 
part of the province. For example, there is a Thomas Lepper of 
Perquimans Precinct; and a marshal of Albemarle County of 
that name in the year 1680. 43 A James Blount settled in the 
Chowan Precinct area in 1669. 44 John Fulford is described as 
being "of Currituck Precinct" in 1704, so he must have migrated 
from Albemarle to Bath County. 45 There are several other 
examples of this suggestive identity of surnames, which seems to 
link the younger with the older part of the colony. 

So much for the ultimate origin of the Neuse settlers. In their 
movement toward new lands there is discernible also a more 
immediate origin for several. At least a few settled first on Pam- 
lico River, then moved on to the Neuse. This is strongly indicated 
by the number who sold out land holdings on the Pamlico. In 
1701 and 1704 Farnifold Green sold two Pamlico tracts, one of 
which he had entered in his name in 1698. 46 William Hancock 
also sold a Pamlico tract in 1704. 47 A deed of 1707 in the Beaufort 
County records refers to a stream on the north side of Pamlico 
River as "formerly known by the name of Slocumb's Creek." 48 
Could not the landowner who gave this creek its name have been 
one of the Slocumbs who settled on the Neuse? In 1701 William 
Brice bought land on Old Town Creek, Pamlico River, and sold it 
the following year. 49 John Nelson, Jr., bought a tract on that 
creek in 1700 and sold it in 1703. 50 Positive evidence of the move- 
ment of Thomas Lepper from Pamlico to Neuse is available. In 
1705 he sold a plantation "up Pamlico River . . . where I formerly 

42 Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 117, 139; III, 428. See also Slocumb will 
abstracts in the Historical and Genealogical Register, I, passim. 

43 Colonial Records, I, 316. 

44 Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 34. 

45 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 36. Fulford was in 1712, an inhabitant of the Core Sound 
section. Craven County Court Minutes. Session of January, 1713. State Department of 
Archives and History, Raleigh, N. C. 

4" Beaufort County Deeds, I, 3, 36. 
47 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 34. 
« Beaufort County Deeds, I, 70. 

49 Beaufort County Deeds, pp. 2, 16. 

50 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 8, 34. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 11 

lived." 51 At that time he must have been living in the Neuse 
area. At any rate, he was living on the river by 1707, for in that 
year he obtained a grant of 360 acres "back of his plantation 
in Neuse." 52 

Before telling where the earlier colonists settled or what lands 
they held, something should be said about their economic status 
and their motive for coming to this "new discovered Summer- 
Country," as Lawson called the pleasant lowlands of Carolina. 
They were, almost without exception, poor men. The majority 
were farmers — or, as they called themselves, "planters." Some, 
however, were in addition tradesmen or artisans. William Brice 
is referred to as a butcher. 53 George Bell and William Powell were 
shipwrights. 54 Richard. Hill was a tanner. 55 Stephen Sweetman 
styled himself simply "laborer" — in direct contrast to the very 
few who like Lawson and his friend Richard Smith could call 
themselves "gentlemen." 56 As to their motive in coming, it was 
quite simple. They wanted like all men to make a living and if 
possible to prosper. The frontier, as a counter-balance to its 
dangers and hardships, offered them cheap land and that demo- 
cratic opportunity which gave them more chance to grow affluent 
than they enjoyed in thickly settled regions. As Lawsons put it : 

Men have a great Advantage of choosing good and commodious Tracts 
of Land at the first Seating of a Country or River, whereas the Later 
Settlers are forced to purchase smaller Dividends of the old Standers, 
and sometimes at very considerable Rates; as now in Virginia and 
Maryland where a thousand Acres of good Land cannot be bought under 
twenty shillings an Acre, besides two shillings yearly Acknowledgement 
[quit rent] for every hundred acres ; which Sum, be it more or less, will 
serve to put the Merchant or Planter here into a good posture of Build- 
ings, Slaves, and other Necessaries, when the Purchase of his Land 
comes to him on such Easy Terms. 57 

The quit rent in Albemarle County was two shillings per hundred 
acres. The price of land at private sale was at least a shilling 
an acre, and good tracts brought considerably higher prices than 

51 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 30. 

52 Land Grant Records, I, 162. 

53 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 2. 

54 Beaufort County Deeds, p. 112, Colonial Records, II, 172. 

55 Craven County Deeds, New Bern, N. C, II, 619. 

56 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 10, 90. Lawson's name appears on the title page of his 
History as "John Lawson, Gent." This designation indicated an educated man. Most of 
the early settlers were, on the other hand, illiterate. 

57 Lawson, History, p. 81. 

12 The North Carolina Historical Review 

that. 58 The quit rent for land on the Neuse was only sixpence 
per hundred acres, and the price paid to the Lords Proprietors 
was only a shilling for every five acres. 59 That land was a hun- 
dred times more dear to buy and four times more costly to keep 
in the northerly provinces was a great inducement to Virginians 
and others to settle in Bath County. 

Most of the early Neuse River patents which have survived 
were issued in 1707 during the term of Deputy Governor Thomas 
Cary, whose first appointment came in 1705. By 1707 the banks 
of the Neuse on both sides were no longer wilderness. From a 
mile or so up the Trent River on downward, the branches of the 
Neuse were peopled, sparsely, it is true, by the hardy planters 
who had begun their homes in this new land. The north side of 
the river, especially near the site of Oriental, was the first 
to be settled, but by 1707 the southern bank, as far up as the 
site of New Bern, was being claimed by settlers or land owners. 60 

The coming of Farnifold and Titus Green to the north side has 
already been mentioned. Richard Durham (Dereham) and Capt. 
James Beard were two other early north-side landowners. They 
owned adjoining tracts in 1707 that probably were on the creek 
to which Beard gave his name. 61 In that year Edward Hays 
patented land on Beard's Creek. 62 and Thomas Yeates, a settler, 
on Green's Creek. 63 Capt. Edmund Pearce, another settler, took 
out land in 1708 on Pearce's Creek. 64 Likewise in 1708, Dudley 
Gording (Gordon?) patented a tract on Orchard Creek. 65 If Wil- 
liam Powell settled, as seems clear, on Powell's (Whitaker's) 
Creek, he was not the only landowner there. In 1708 Elizabeth 
Walker, "in [of] Neuse River," widow of James Walker, con- 
veyed to Lewis Johnson, another Neuse settler, Walker's land 
on Powell's Creek. The following year Johnson sold the same land 

M Based on an average of considerations mentioned in the Chowan County Deeds, Edenton, 
N. C, Book W, pp. 1-61, covering the early 1700s. 

59 Craven County Deeds, II, passim. 

60 Where possible settlers will be specified or distinguished from mere landowners. Those 
referred to as settlers are so called upon the authority of one of the following lists : ( 1 ) peti- 
tion of the inhabitants of Neuse for a court, Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 442 ; 
(2) petition for aid from Virginia, Colonial Records, I, 819-820; (3) list of Neuse settlers 
arrested. Colonial Records, II, 125. Several appear on these lists who are not mentioned in 
this study, no land grants to them having survived. 

61 Land Grant Records, I, 151. 

62 Land Grant Records, I, 151. 

63 Land Grant Records, p. 162. 

64 Land Grant Records, I, 251. He was "of Archdale Precinct." Beaufort County Deeds, 
I. 80. 

65 Craven County Deeds, IL 618. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 13 

to a fourth settler, Bryant Lee. 66 It must have been about this 
time that the other north-side creeks received the names by 
which they are known today, and they furnish practically the 
only clues to the rest of the settlers, of whom little or nothing 
is known. Christopher, Francis, or Thomas Dawson provided the 
name for Dawson's Creek. 67 John or Richard Smith must have 
given their surname to Smith's Creek. 68 Randolph Fisher, an- 
other Neuse inhabitant, held land at an early date on the north 
side of the river. In a deed of 1744, Fisher refers to the land 
"whereon I now live" as lying on Swift Creek. 69 He was living 
on the Neuse by about 1710. If he and his family were settled on 
Swift Creek at that early date, the north-side settlement extended 
at this time to a surprising extent upstream. 

On the south side, quite a few tracts were taken up on South 
River and near-by Adam's Creek. James Blount and David Jen- 
kins (both South River settlers), and Edmund Pearce and David 
Wharton all patented land on South River in or prior to 1707. 70 
John Mackey and Roger Hill settled there about 1710. 71 John 
Richard Hill also settled, it seems, on South River, 72 and Francis 
Hill settled on Adam's Creek, 73 which is now the dividing line 
between Craven and Carteret counties. Adam's Creek, reversing 
the usual custom, took its appellation from a Christian rather 
than a surname. Adam Ferguson and his son, Adam, Jr., were 
among the earliest, if not the first, settlers there. 74 In 1707 grants 
for land on Adam's Creek were issued to Christopher Dawson, 
John Keaton, and Thomas Lepper. 75 As early as 1706 Lepper 
had obtained a grant of land on Neuse River which seems to be 

66 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 143. Lee also owned land on Hancock's Creek in 1709 but 
except from the fact that he was a Neuse settler nothing is known of him. Beaufort County 
Deeds, p. 113. 

67 Nothing is known of Thomas Dawson beyond the fact that he was a Neuse settler, but 
Christopher and Francis owned much land on the north side. Land Grant Records, I, 156, 
165; IV, 3; V, 382. 

68 Perhaps the Richard Smith of Neuse was a son of Lawson's friend Richard Smith of 
Pamlico. Richard Smith definitely appears on a list of Neuse inhabitants. 

69 Craven County Deeds, III, 2. Where did Swift Creek get its name? A John Swift, Sr., 
and John Swift, Jr., the former "of Pennsylvania," are mentioned in the Craven and 
Beaufort records, but there is nothing to indicate that either owned land on Swift Creek. 
It is unlikely that the name was descriptive. 

70 Blount: Land Grant Records, I, 156. Jenkins: Land Grant Records, I, 243, 297. 
(Jenkins is called an inhabitant of Neuse in Beaufort County Records, I, 50.) Pearce: Land 
Grant Records, I, 243. Wharton: Land Grant Records, I, 157. 

71 Mackey: on Keeling Creek, Craven County Deeds, XIX, 284. Roger Hill: Land Grant 
Records, II, 356, 362; Colonial Records, I, 819-820. 

72 Land Grant Records, II, 362, 356. 

73 Land Grant Records, II, 355 ; Craven County Deeds, passim. 

74 Craven County Deeds, II, 624-625. 

75 Dawson : Land Grant Records, I, 156. Keaton : Land Grant Records, I, 164. Lepper : 
Land Grant Records, I, 162, 244. 

14 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the one on which his house stood and which probably was on 
Adam's Creek. 76 Joseph and Obedience Pittman, Thomas Jones, 
Thomas Lewis, Daniel McFarlin, and Robert Watson — most of 
whom were settlers there — had obtained tracts on Adam's Creek 
by 1715, some several years earlier. 77 

In this area but farther to the south and into the region which 
is now Carteret County, a widespread settlement early took root. 
This became known by the general, and not strictly geographically 
accurate, name of "Core Sound." John Nelson seems to have 
been one of the earliest, if not the earliest, of all settlers in this 
region. In 1708 he patented 260 acres "in Core Sound" on the 
north side of North River. 78 It is not clear whether this was 
John Nelson the younger or his father. By 1708, however, John 
Nelson, Jr., is spoken of as an inhabitant of the Neuse River area, 
so at that time or shortly thereafter he must have settled "in 
Core Sound." 79 James Keith also took up land on North River, 
for one of the creeks there is called for him. 80 John and Francis 
Shackelford, Edward and Enoch Ward, George Moy, Peter Wor- 
den, Benjamin Simpson, George Bell, and John Fulford all were 
early landowners, and most of them early settlers, of the Core 
Sound region. 81 This settlement did not begin quite as early as 
that on the north side of the Neuse, though its growth was so 
rapid that by 1710 it was a small colony and by 1722 had 
become a separate precinct. 82 

The lands on Clubfoot, King's, Hancock's, and Slocumb's creeks, 
upstream from Adam's Creek and South River, attracted many 

76 Lepper was granted 640 acres on Neuse, place unspecified, in 1706. Land Grant 
Records, I, 243. In 1714 he sold his "manor plantation," which he described as consisting 
of 640 acres. The grant "back of his plantation in Neuse," near John Keaton, is definitely 
on Adam's Creek. Craven County Deeds, II, 619 ; Land Grant Records, I, 162, etc. 

77 Pittmans: Craven County Deeds, XII-XIII, 4-5. Watson: Land Grant Records, II, 355. 
Others: Craven County Deeds, II, 624-625. 

78 Land Grant Records, I, 257. 

79 In a deed of 1708 John Nelson, Jr., and his wife Ann are referred to as being of 
Neuse River. This does not preclude the likelihood of their being in Core Sound at this time, 
for the designation "of Neuse" was often used loosely. Beaufort County Deeds, I, 160. 

80 In 1707 Keith is described as an arrival from Maryland. Beaufort County Deeds, I, 74. 
Nelson sold North River land to Keith in 1710. Beaufort County Deeds, I, 158. See also 
Carteret County Deeds, Beaufort, N. C, Book C, E., 264 ; and Land Grant Records, 

I, 300. 

81 John Shackelford (nothing is known of Francis) : Land Grant Records, II, 373. 
Edward Ward : Craven County Deeds, II, 603-604. Enoch Ward and George Moy : Craven 
County Deeds, II, 630. Worden : Carteret County Deeds, B, 103. Simpson : Colonial Records, 

II, 388. Bell : Carteret County Deeds, D, 123 ; Colonial Records, passim. Fulford : see page ..... 
note 45. Enoch Ward, John Nelson, and John Shackelford were named on the first vestry 
of St. John's Parish, of the Town of Beaufort, and these names and the others occur fre- 
quently in early Carteret history. State Records, XXV, 209 and passim. 

82 Christoph von Graffenried on his 1710 map of the Swiss and German settlement in 
Craven Precinct noted that Core Sound was "populated almost entirely by Englishmen" and 
furnished seafood of all kinds to the settlers. 

Eighteenth Century New Been 15 

purchasers prior to 1710. James Walker patented land on King's 
Creek in 1707. 83 In 1706 John Lawson bought 640 acres at the 
mouth of Clubfoot Creek, which was described as a stream 
"called in the indian tongue Hutosquoek." 84 He owned at least 
one other tract there, apparently purchased from Walker and sold 
in 1708 to Mrs. Sarah Dupius. 85 John or Josiah Slocumb had 
taken up lands on Slocumb's Creek in or prior to 1707, for in 
that year grants on "Slocumb's Creek" were issued to Edward 
Beecheine (Bitchenoe?) and Robert Coleman. 86 In the following 
year Dennis O'Dia patented land there. 87 There were also a 
number of early grants issued for land on Hancock's Creek, where 
William Hancock and his family, whose name became prominent 
in early affairs of the Neuse settlement, had settled in or prior to 
1707. In that year, in addition to his own patent of 720 acres on 
Hancock's Creek, his son, William Jr., received a 640-acre planta- 
tion "adjoining his father in Neuse." 88 About this time grants 
were issued or conveyances recorded involving land belonging to 
John Clark, Amy Thirel, Alexander Goodgroom, Edward Hays, 
Dutton Lane, and Bryant Lee. 89 A few years later Hancock's 
Creek was considered such a convenient gathering place for set- 
ters of the lower Neuse that the Laws of 1715 designated it as 
a voting point for inhabitants of the lower part of the river. 90 

Land-buyers and settlers were not slow in taking up tracts 
farther up the south side, even to within a few miles of the site of 
New Bern. In 1707 John Simmons purchased land at Mount Pleas- 
ant near Riverdale. 91 In 1707 and 1708 Thomas Harris, Charles 
Hopton, Thomas Morris, and William Hancock patented or con- 
veyed tracts at Green Spring. 92 Hanging Point, only two miles 

83 How or from whom did King's Creek get its name? It was called that in Walker's 
patent. Land Grant Records, I, 165. 

84 Land Grant Records, I, 251 ; Beaufort County Deeds, I, 24. 

85 Beaufort County Deeds, pp. 108, 111. Mrs. Dupuis must have been the wife of a 
Huguenot settler, probably of Pamlico River. 

86 Beecheine: Land Grant Records, I, 158. There is no record of his having settled on 
Neuse. Coleman : Land Grant Records, I, 148 ; Craven County Deeds, I, 89. Coleman was a 
settler. Despite the unmistakably early arrival of the Slocumbs on Slocumb's Creek, the 
earliest extant land grant to this family is dated 1716. 

87 Craven County Deeds, II, 606. In 1713 Dennis O'Dia, through his attorney, Robert 
Coleman, assigned this land to Nicholas Isler, a Palatine. Craven County Deeds, II, 607. 

88 Land Grant Records, I, 157 ; II, 274. 

89 Clark and Thirel: Land Grant Records, I, 253. Goodgroom: Land Grant Records I, 157. 
Hays: Land Grant Records, I, 164. Lane: Land Grant Records, p. 160. Lee: Beaufort County 
Deeds, I, 113. Lee and Clark were Neuse colonists, but of the rest little or nothing is known. 

90 Colonial Records, II, 114. 

91 Land Grant Records, I, 162. 

92 Land < Grant Records, p. 254. Robert Shrieve also owned land there. A deed of 1714 
refers to "Robt. Shrieves Creek" at Green Spring. Craven County Deeds, II, 621-622. 

16 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

from the site of New Bern, attracted land-buyers. 93 John Reed 
and Christopher Gold patented small tracts there in 1707. 94 

Nor did the settlement stop there. At least one family, and 
perhaps two or more, had settled by 1707 on the Trent River. 
This important tributary of the Neuse was being called by its 
present name in 1707, but it had been known by other names prior 
to that date. The Indians called it Chattooka. 95 It was known 
by the English at one time as Neuse Creek. Later this river (for 
it is a river and not merely a creek) was called the South Wales. 
A large grant on the south bank was called, after the river, the 
South Wales Patent. 96 Perhaps some colonist, thinking of his 
Welsh homeland, though hardly finding the scene similar to the 
southern Wales landscape, called the placid stream in memory of 
his boyhood home. As to how it acquired the name of Trent, we 
may only suppose that men of Lincoln or Nottingham renamed the 
river for the tributary of the Humber, the faraway Trent which 
the novelist Arnold Bennett has called the "calm and characteris- 
tic stream of middle England." By 1707 William Brice had ac- 
quired the first of a long series of grants on the Trent, on Brice's 
Creek — holding which were to make the Brice family, along with 
the Greens and Hancocks, the largest early landholders in the 
land of the Neuse. 97 Edmund Ennett, another Neuse settler, 
owned land on Brice's Creek and, like Brice himself, also owned 
land on Hanging Point. 98 In 1707 Robert Williams patented a 
tract on Raccoon Creek, several miles upstream on Trent from the 
mouth of Brice's Creek. 99 There is no evidence, however, that 
he settled at this rather advanced point, well into the area that 
is now Jones County. 

Hitherto there have been mentioned here the names of those 
who were known definitely to have settled in Craven Precinct 

93 Called after the Revolution Fort Point, 

94 Reed : Land Grant Records, I, 161. Gold : Craven County Deeds, II, 615 ; also Gregg 
Papers, New Bern Public Library. Both later sold these lands. 

95 Perhaps so called after the Neuse Indian village of that name at the juncture of the 
Neuse and Trent. Lawson refers to "a. River . . . called by the Indians Chattookau, which 
is the N. W. Branch of Neus River." Lawson, History, p. 59. In contrast, the Neuse seems 
to have been called that, probably after the tribe of Neuse Indians. 

96 This grant, to Frederick Jones in 1707 (it is mentioned just below) speaks of the 
Trent as "formerly called Nuse Creek . . . now called by ye name of South Wales [creek or 
river]." Land Grant Records, I, 247. 

97 Land Grant Records, I, 254. 

98 Land Grant Records, II, 254. Craven County Deeds, II, 604. 

99 Land Grant Records, I, 167. Raccoon Creek, sometimes known as Mansfield Brook, is 
four miles past the Jones County line. Reedy Branch is the border between Craven and 
Jones counties. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 17 

or those who took out lands and who may or may not have set- 
tled on them. There were still others, however, who may be called 
speculators or investors in the lands of the newly opened Neuse 
region. There must have been a considerable amount of this 
kind of land-buying, for a number of tracts, some of them quite 
large, were bought by men who themselves did not settle in 
Craven Precinct and who were at the time of their purchases 
inhabitants of some other part of the province, or indeed of 
some other part of the New World. From as far away as Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, men who could afford to do 
so bought lands on the Neuse, perhaps with a view to settling 
on them but more likely with the idea of holding them as an 
investment. John OTlee (Oflee), of Kent County, Maryland, 
owned land on the south side of the Neuse at a very early date ; 
and through John Nelson, Jr., whom he appointed his attorney, 
sold his holdings to David Jenkins in 1706. 100 John Swift, Sr., 
of Pennsylvania, bought a tract of 300 acres, probably on Hang- 
ing Point, from John Reed. This deed, made in 1710, was 
acknowledged in 1715 by William Hancock, executor of Reed's 
estate. 101 Many other land-buyers were residents of Albemarle 
County. A well-to-do gentleman like James Tooke, of Pasquotank 
Precinct, could very profitably put his money in these new lands. 
In 1713 Tooke, who was not only a landowner but a shipowner 
and merchant as well, 102 bought two of Thomas Lepper's Neuse 
River patents, issued in 1707 and totaling 1,160 acres. 103 In 
1713 John Harlow, of Chowan Precinct, bought a tract on a 
creek of Newport River. 104 Timothy Truelove, also of Chowan 
Precinct, patented 200 acres on Adam's Creek "during the usurpa- 
tin of Col°. Thomas Cary." 105 George Birkenhead, a Gary adher- 
ent during 1 the rebellion, 106 patented 300 acres at the head of 
Brice's Creek in 1707, a few months later selling this land to 
William Brice. 107 In 1706 Cary himself invested in a tract of 

100 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 49. 

101 Craven County Deeds, II, 622-623. In the State Records, (XXIII, 12) there is a refer- 
ence to a "Swift's Plantation" at the mouth of Hancock's Creek in 1715. The only grant to 
John Reed which is extant is for 300 acres and seems to be on Hanging Point. Land Grant 
Records, I, 161 ; also Gregg Papers. 

102 Colonial Records, II, 7JL, 86. 

103 Craven County Deeds, II, 620. 

104 Craven County Deeds, II, 605. Was Harlow's Creek named after him? The creek he 
bought land on is referred to as Fraly's Creek. 

105 Craven County Deeds, IV, 308. The "usurpation" was from 1708 to 1711. 

106 Colonial Records, I, 776-777. 

107 Land Grant Records, I, 254. 

18 The North Carolina Historical Review 

1,440 acres on the south side of the Neuse. He patented this tract 
and several others in Bath County in the name of his young son 
John. 108 William Glover, Cary's rival for power, and his son, 
Charles Worth Glover, in 1706 took out two patents totaling 
1,500 acres near Otter Creek on the south side of the Neuse, in- 
cluding the site, or part of the site, of the present-day Flanner's 
Farm. 109 The best known land patent of this early period is the 
South Wales Grant of 4,565 acres issued in 1707 to Frederick 
Jones, chief justice of the colony from 1717 to 1721. 110 This grant 
extended on the south side of the Trent between Island Creek and 
Brice's Creek, about half in what is now Jones County and about 
half within the present bounds of Craven. Its location is indicated 
in a general way on Lawson's map of 1709, where a notation call- 
ing attention to "Mr. Jones' " acres appears on the south bank 
of the Trent. In cases where the owners of such large tracts were 
able to find willing buyers, handsome returns were realized in a 
few years from the quick sale of these lands. One example of 
this concerns John Porter, of Beaufort Precinct, who patented 
a 7,000-acre island between Drum and Topsail inlets. He paid 
£70 for the land. Two years later he sold it to William Brice for 
£260, thus giving him a profit of several times his original 
investment. 111 

Few years had passed after the arrival of the first settlers 
before the Neuse area began to attract colonists of other than 
English nationality. In 1707 or 1708 a group of French families of 
Huguenot faith came from Virginia to live on the Trent River. 112 
Emigration to Virginia by these French Protestants had begun 
early in the seventeenth century and had swelled to considerable 
proportions after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. 
In 1700 part of a large embarkation of Huguenots settled twenty 
miles above the site of Richmond on the James River at a place 
called Manikintown from the extinct tribe of Manikin or Monocan 

108 Land Grant Records, I, 150. When Cary sold these, an act was passed confirming the 
purchasers' titles because the boy was a minor. Colonial Records, XXIII, 93-94. 

109 These patents, both in May, 1706, represent perhaps the oldest references to land 
grants that occur in the Craven records. Craven County Deeds, III, 291-293. 

no Land Grant Records, I, 247. The land remained in the hands of the Jones family, 
members of which settled on it subsequently, until late in the century. One of the finest 
parts of it, a 1,000-acre tract, was bought by Frederick Foy in 1785. Craven County 
Deeds, XXVI, 61. 

in Craven County Deeds, II, 631. 

112 Lawson, History, pp. 84-85. 

Eighteenth Century New Been 19 

Indians. 113 It was from this settlement that the families on the 
Trent came. 

About their motive in migrating there is some doubt. It is 
known that in 1707 the Manikintown colony underwent a heated 
dispute between the pastor, the Rev. Claude Philippe Richebourg, 
and his vestry over the question of whether Richebourg should 
be allowed custody of certain parish records. 114 Richebourg 
himself left Manikintown a few years later, serving as minister 
until June 15, 1711, after which he migrated with a number of 
his adherents to the Santee River in South Carolina to become 
pastor of the French at St. James Parish. 115 This dispute, which 
perhaps involved other religious matters also, may have driven 
some of the Manikintown French to the Trent River. It seems 
more likely, however, that the fundamental motive for their 
journey was economic. From the first the Manikintown colony 
had failed to be self-supporting. The Virginia council had seen the 
danger of a concentration of these refugees in one place, which 
would handicap them in farming and make them a drain on the 
public treasury. The council accordingly had decided upon a 
policy of encouraging them "for their advantage and interest 
to disperse themselves." 116 Lawson gathered some information 
on the difficulties of these people when he talked with Riche- 
bourg in 1708 while the latter was on a visit to the French colony 
at Bath Town, which had been founded three years earlier. 117 
"These French Refugees," he writes, "have had small Encourage- 
ment [success] in Virginia." 118 They tried to farm intensively 
on small, twenty-acre plots as they did in Europe instead of 
adopting the extensive farming suited to the wide savannahs 
of the New World. Their cattle died during the cold winter of 
piedmont Virginia, and land prices rose when the English took 
up tracts about them, "so that they were hemmed in on all 
Hands from providing more land for themselves or their Chil- 

113 R. A. Brock, editor, Documents, Chiefly Unpublished, Relating to the Huguenot Emi- 
gration to Virginia, Virginia Historical Society Publications, series V (Richmond, 1886), 

114 R. H. Fife, translator, "The Vestry Book of King William Parish, Va., 1707-1750." 
Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XI, 426-429 ; Calendar of Virginia State 
Papers, I, 114, 116. 

115 Fife, "The Vestry Book of King William Parish, Va.," p. 425 ; A. H. Hirsch, The 
Huguenots of Colonial South Carolina (Durham: Duke University Press, 1928), pp. 19, 134. 

116 Brock, Documents, pp. 48-49. 
H7 Lawson, History, p. 116. 

118 Lawson. History, p. 117. 

20 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

dren." 119 These troubles undoubtedly were the deciding factor in 

119 Lawson, History, p. 117. 

the migration of the French from Manikintown, some to Trent 
River in North Carolina and others later to the Santee in South 
Carolina, in the hope of finding a more prosperous location. 

Lawson praised these French for being "good Neighbors 
amongst us" and paid them the compliment of saying that they 
put the easy-going English to shame by their industry. 120 They 
planted flax and hemp and wove good linen cloth. They laid 
plans to cultivate grapevines and so to begin in North Carolina 
the wine-making they had started in Virginia in 1702. 121 They 
were much pleased, said Lawson, with the pleasantness of the 
Trent and by August, 1708, were expecting daily to be joined by 
other French from Manikintown. 122 

This French settlement is the "Lost Colony" of the midlands. 
Little is known about it, and Lawson provides almost all the 
available information. How many families there were, what were 
their names, the exact spot they settled on, and, above all, 
their ultimate fate — these are questions which no extant rec- 
ords answer. Those land patents which have survived pro- 
vide the name of only one man who seems to have been a 
member of the colony. He was Pierre Baudry, who in 1707 
received a grant of 550 acres somewhere on the Trent. 123 
Baudry is listed among the Manikintown settlers in 1700, 124 
so it seems probable that he was one of those of whom Lawson 
speaks, though positive evidence that he settled on the Trent is 
lacking. 125 French emigrants who arrived later left some docu- 
mentary trace of their presence in the Neuse region, but these 
first Huguenots bequeathed to posterity no records of them- 
selves. 126 Perhaps they stayed only a few years before moving 

120 Lawson, History, pp. 85, 117. 

121 Lawson, History, p. 117 ; Brock, Documents, Introduction. 

122 Lawson, History, pp. 84-85. 

123 Land Grant Records, I, 156. The bounds give no clue to the location of the tract. 

124 Brock, Documents, p. 22. 

125 Baudry is recorded as selling land in Perquimans Precinct in 1706. Colonial Records, 
I, 653-654. 

126 John Fonville, for example, who was quite prominent in early Craven affairs, was 
either a Manikintown settler or the son of a Manikintown settler. "Jean Fonuiele," member 
of the parish vestry, with a wife and one son, appears several times on the Manikintown 
lists. Brock, Documents, passim. The name of John Fonville appears on the tithables list 
of the parish until 1717, so it may be argued that he did not leave Manikintown until some 
time after that date. Fife, "The Vestry Book of King William's Parish, Va.," p. 26. The 
first mention of John Fonville as a Craven landowner is dated 1726. Land Grant Office 
Records II, 228. It is barely possible, of course, that a son of the elder Fonville, was a 
member of the Trent colony and that it was his father's name and not his which continued 
in the King William Parish records until 1717. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 21 

on to the Santee. This seems probable in view of the fact that 
though there are ample records concerning the Swiss and Ger- 
mans who only three years later colonized the Trent, there is 
nothing in such records to indicate that these later settlers had 
ever heard of the French Huguenots who preceded them. 127 
The explanation probably is that the French colony consisted 
of only a few families at most ; and that Lawson, in his enthusi- 
asm for the pleasant Carolina lowlands and his zeal to attract 
settlers, left the impression of a much more sizeable and more 
permanently established colony than actually existed. 

127 Graffenried in his voluble writings mentions no French on the Trent. 



By Clifton Oxendine 

In the days when the long leaf pines of Robeson County were 
being made to yield their treasured store of turpentine, resin, 
and lumber, those lumber-jacks who traveled from the sand 
ridges at the North into the verdant swamp lands around Pem- 
broke found there a people who for more than a century had 
roamed through those same pines, had silently sent their canoes 
gliding along the dark waters of the stealthy Lumber River, 
and had maintained on their respective acres of land a semblance 
of the customs and mores of days gone by. 

Recorded history fails to say just what the background of 
these people had been. But there are indications that in addition 
to the customs and traditions of their Indian forebears, English 
life and Christian teachings had influenced them. A conscious- 
ness of this joint heritage seems always to have been present 
in the minds of the Indians of Robeson County and to have been 
one of the characteristics that served to set them apart 
as a special people. 

The history of the founding of Pembroke State College for 
Indians is inseparable from the history of the Indians of Robe- 
son County. Prior to 1885 these people were not designated as a 
separate race, and consequently there were no separate state or 
county supported schools for them. 

Romance, tragedy, and mystery have for more than three 
hundred years been colorfully bound together in the word 
Croatan. 1 It is fair to suppose that to the average person the 
word bears but a hazy meaning, if any at all. Indeed little is 
known by the world at large concerning the peculiar and inter- 
esting people who bear the name, and not a great deal has been 
written about them. Yet in these people are found a very pathetic 
incident in early American history, ten years of as fierce guer- 
illa warfare as North Carolina ever knew, 2 and a present-day 
riddle concerning some 12,000 North Carolina citizens. 3 

i Woodrow Wilson, A History of American People, p. 30. 

2 Senate Document Number 677, 63 Congress, 3 Session, p. 66. 

S Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930. 

[ 22 ] 

Pembroke State College for Indians 23 

These people live in Robeson and adjoining counties of North 
Carolina about one hundred miles south of Raleigh and near the 
South Carolina line. Their original homeland in Robeson County 
embraced about one hundred square miles of territory lying on 
both sides of Lumber River and centered in what is now the little 
town of Pembroke. 4 Unlike other Indians over whom the federal 
government exercises protective supervision, these Indians have 
never been under federal control, nor have they received any 
help from the United States government. Other Indians may be 
thought of as wards of the government, while the Indians of 
Robeson County may be peculiarly thought of as wards of the 
state of North Carolina inasmuch as the state has complete 
control over them. 5 

Just where these people came from and who their ancestors 
were is an unsettled question. For the last fifty years these 
strange people have been knocking at the doors of the United 
States Congress, asking that their family tree be straightened 
out. During this period in their history they have been designated 
successively by the state of North Carolina as "Croatan 
Indians," 6 "Indians of Robeson County," 7 and as "Cherokee In- 
dians of Robeson County." 8 Recently a bill has been presented in 
Congress asking the national law-making body once and for all 
time to designate the Indians of Robeson County as Siouan 
Indians of Lumber River. 9 

Before 1835 the adult males of the tribe of Indians in Robeson 
County had exercised the right of franchise and a few of their 
children are said to have been admitted to the white schools, 
though most of them who received any schooling obtained it in 
"subscription" schools organized by themselves. In the revised 
state constitution of 1835 these people were disfranchised, 10 
and from that time until 1885 they were more or less neglected. 
Perhaps some of the reasons for this neglect were so much anti- 
slavery agitation, the Civil War, and Reconstruction with all of 

* The News and Observer, September 10, 1905. 

5 Clifton Oxendine, A Social and Economic History of the Indians of Robeson County 
(MS, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1934), p. 1. 

6 Laws of North Carolina, 1885, chap. 51, sec. 1, 2, 4. 

7 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1911, chap. 215, sec. 1. 

8 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1913, chap. 123, sec. 4. 

9 Senate Report Number 204, 73 Cong., 2 Sess. 

10 J. R. Swanton, Identity of the Croatan Indians (Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 
1933), p. 1. 

24 The Nokth Carolina Historical Review 

its perplexing problems. Under the new constitution of 1868 the 
Indians were given the franchise. 11 Their first demands were 
for schools for their children. Between 1868 and 1885 unavailing 
attempts were made to compel them to use the Negro schools, 
but they preferred to allow their children to grow up in 
ignorance. 12 

Robeson County's attitude in refusing educational facilities to 
the Indians can only be condoned when one calls to mind the 
memory of the bloodshed caused by the Indian outlaws who began 
their depredations during the closing years of the Civil War. 
For ten years the Indian outlaws terrorized a large section of 
the county. When this was over the Indians immediately cast 
part of their strength, politically at least, with the dominant 
political element of the county which was at that time Repub- 
lican. 13 

Thoughtful Democrats were slow to see the significance of the 
political power of the Indians. The Indians were voting against 
them and were demanding separate schools for their children. It 
took ten years for the Democrats of the county to see that in 
order to win the Indians' support they would have to do some- 
thing for them. 

The persistent claim of these people to an Indian heritage 
caught the interest of one of Robeson's leading Democrats. This 
was Hamilton McMillan, a scholarly Scot who lived in the upper 
end of the county. He had lived through the Civil War and 
through the bloody decade of the rise and destruction of the 
Indian outlaws. McMillan began to study these peculiar people 
and interested himself in their genealogy. After much careful 
study of their habits, customs, and traditions, he evolved the 
theory that they were descendants of Raleigh's Lost Colony, and 
his findings were published in a pamphlet. 14 

At this time McMillan represented Robeson County in the 
General Assembly, and he succeeded in having that body enact 
legislation supporting his theory. On February 10, 1885, the 
following bill was passed: 

i 1 Constitution of North Carolina, 1868, article 6, sec. 4. 
!2 Senate Report Number 20U, 73 Cong., 2 Sess. 
13 The News and Observer, February 21, 1926. 

11 Hamilton McMillan, Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony (Edwards and Broughton Printing 
Company, Raleigh, 1888). 

Pembeoke State College for Indians 25 

Whereas the Indians now living in Eobeson County claim to be 
descendants of a friendly tribe who once resided in eastern North Caro- 
lina on Roanoke River, known as Croatan Indians; 

Therefore; the General Assembly do enact; That said Indians and 
their descendants shall be hereafter designated and known as the Croatan 

That said Indians and their descendants shall have separate schools 
for their children, school committees of their own race and color, and 
shall be allowed to select teachers of their own choice, subject to the same 
rules and regulations for all teachers in the general school law. 

The treasurer shall procure from the County Board of Education 
the number of children in said county between the ages of six and 
twenty-one belonging to said Indian race, and shall set apart and keep 
separate their prorata share of said school funds, which shall be paid 
out upon the same rules in every respect as are provided in general 
school laws. 15 

The Indians appreciated this legislation by the state in their 
behalf. As a sequel in 1887 a bill was passed establishing the 
"Croatan Normal School" for the Indians of Robeson County. 
This act says in part : 

That W. L. Moore, James Oxendine, James Dial, Preston Locklear, 
and others who may be associated with them, and their successors are 
hereby constituted a body politic and corporate, for educational purposes, 
in the county of Robeson, under the name and style of the trustees of 
the Croatan Normal School and by that name shall have perpetual suc- 
cession to have and hold school property, including buildings, lands, and 
all appurtenances thereto, situated in the county of Robeson, provided 
such place shall be located between Bear Swamp and Lumber River in 
said county. 16 

The act set aside five hundred dollars for that purpose, but 
carried with it the stipulation that unless the Indians provided a 
building, the next session of the General Assembly would repeal 
the act. By public subscription among both whites and Indians 
enough money was raised and enough lumber and labor were 
given to erect a building that would have cost about one thousand 
dollars. The acre of land on which the structure was erected was 
bought from Rev. William Jacobs for eight dollars. This original 
site was one mile west of Pembroke and was just across the road 
from what is now New Hope Church. This school was the earliest 
beginning of what finally developed into Pembroke State College 
for Indians. 17 

15 Laws of North Carolina, 1885, chap. 51, sec. 1, 2, 4. 

16 Laws of North Carolina, 1887, chap. 400, sec. 1. 

17 Pembroke State College for Indians, Catalog, 1943, p. 9. (Hereafter cited as Catalog.) 

26 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The late Rev. W. L. Moore, of Old Prospect community, who 
had been a teacher in the county for several years, gave two 
hundred dollars toward the erection of the building. He also quit 
teaching for a year and gave his services in the interest of the 
school in order that the project might be completed within the 
two years required by the legislative act. 18 Moore was elected the 
first teacher of the normal school and began work in the fall of 
1887 with an enrollment of fifteen students. 19 Aside from his 
services in this school for a period of three terms, he filled a place 
of educational and spiritual leadership among the Indians of the 
county for about forty years. During this time he served as a 
teacher and was also the leading Methodist minister among the 

The legislature of 1889 raised the appropriation to one thou- 
sand dollars and granted this amount annually for the support 
of the school for many years afterward. 20 

Although the school was called a normal school no studies were 
attempted then or for many years after above the seventh grade. 
For almost two decades after it was begun there were not any 
students who completed the work as far advanced as the high 
school. 21 Finally in 1905, Rev. D. F. Lowry, who is now pastor of 
the Methodist Church in Pembroke, received the first diploma 
issued by the school for having completed the scientific course 
offered at that time. 22 

In 1909 the present site of the college at Pembroke was pur- 
chased and the legislature appropriated $3,000 for a new building. 
The late Professor H. L. Edens of Lumberton was principal and 
he moved the school to the new location. 23 Two years later the 
name of the school was changed when, on March 8, 1911, the 
legislature changed the name to Indian Normal School of Robeson 
County. 24 The following year the school had its first high school 
graduate, John A. B. Lowry, who is now a physician living in 
Crewe, Va. On March 11, 1913, the legislature again changed the 
name, this time to Cherokee Indian Normal School of Robeson 

is Catalog, 1936, p. 9. 

19 Catalog, 1928, p. 7. 

20 Catalog, 1928, p. 8. 

21 S. B. Smithy, Biennial Report to the Governor, Dec. 20, 1928, p. 2. 

22 Catalog, 1936, p. 11. 

23 Catalog, 1928, p. 8. 

24 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1911, chap. 215, sec. 1. 

Pembroke State College for Indians 27 

County. 25 The next year, under the principalship of 0. V. Ham- 
rick, two other students, Winnie Lee Bell and Ruth Sampson, 
completed high school. 26 

A girls* dormitory was built in 1916. This was the second build- 
ing erected on the present site and is now the oldest building on 
the campus, for the main structure which was erected in 1909 
was razed shortly after the present administration building was 
completed in 1923. 

Among the loyal supporters of the school during the early 
year of its development the name of Rev. 0. R. Sampson deserves 
special mention. Of all the friends and helpers, he touched the 
institution at more points, knew it more intimately, and served it 
longer as teacher and board member than any other man has 
done. Sampson's outlook on life was not limited by narrow cir- 
cumstances. He could visualize the great upward surge of human- 
ity. He did not believe that all the ills of his race could be cured 
by legislation but he foresaw a slow, orderly educational develop- 
ment of his people. For that reason he was interested in schools 
for the Indians. He served as principal of the Normal School for 
part of the term in 1899. Following this he became a trustee of 
the school and served on the board of trustees for nearly 
thirty years. During this time he became chairman of the board 
and continued to serve in that position with credit and distinction 
until his death in 1928. 27 

In 1918 Professor T.C.Henderson of Transylvania County, who 
had served the school as principal in 1900, became principal for 
the second time. Under his vigorous leadership the faculty was 
enlarged and new high school courses were offered. Vocational 
training for both girls and boys was organized. 

Shortly after this the school found a new friend in the legisla- 
ture, Judge L. R. Varser of Lumberton, who will be remembered 
along with Hamilton McMillan as a sincere friend of Indian Edu- 
cation. In 1921, under the terms of a bill sponsored by Judge 
Varser, the legislature appropriated $75,000 for the erection of 
a new and more modern building. This structure, which is the 

25 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1913, chap. 123, sec. 4. 

26 Catalog, 1928, p. 10. 

27 Catalog, 1943, p. 9. 

28 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

present administration building, was completed in 1923. Subse- 
quently four faculty homes and a boys' dormitory were built. 28 

As yet the school was not turning out a high school graduating 
class every year. In 1922 the institution had its fourth high 
school graduate, Lucy Manda Oxendine. The progressive policies 
of T. C. Henderson were carried forward under the steady hand 
of A. B. Riley from 1922 to 1926. The high school was given 
standard rating by the State High School Inspector in 1924. 29 
The graduating class of that year had seven members. From then 
until 1939, when the high school was separated from the normal 
school and moved to another building, there was a large grad- 
uating class of high school students each year. 

For a few summers prior to 1918 institutes were held for two 
weeks for teachers and prospective teachers for the Indian 
schools of the county. Professor T. C. Henderson and Miss Susan 
Jordan taught the first regular summer school in 1918 for a 
period of four weeks. 

Since that time regular six-weeks terms of summer school 
have been held annually except in 1922. 30 When the demand has 
been sufficient, summer schools have been operated for twelve 

Another advance in the work of the school came in 1926. The 
legislature by the act of 1887 had erected a normal school, yet no 
work of normal school level had been taught except during sum- 
mer schools, as most of the work had been in the elementary 
grades. At this time the sixth and seventh grades were being 
taught, notwithstanding the fact that other schools among the 
Indians were also doing work in these grades. On August 13, 
1926, the board of trustees with the approval of the State Board 
of Education added a regular two-year normal course to the 
curriculum. The board also recommended that the mixed prepara- 
tory courses previously offered be dropped. 31 In each year of the 
biennial period following 1926 one of the elementary grades was 
dropped so that by the fall of 1928 the school was only doing 
high school and normal school work. 32 

28 S. B. Smithy, Biennial Report to the Governor, Dec. 20, 1928, p. 4. 

29 Letter from J. Henry Highsmith, Supervisor of High Schools, to Principal A. B. Riley, 
Cherokee Indian Normal School, July 24, 1924. 

30 Registrar's files, Permanent Records, Pembroke State College for Indians. 

31 Minutes of Board of Trustees, August 13, 1926. 

32 S. B. Smithy, Biennial Report to the Governor, Dec. 20, 1928, p. 2. 

Pembroke State College for Indians 29 

On the resignation of Professor A. B. Riley, the trustees called 
Professor S. B. Smithy from the faculty of the University of 
North Carolina to take charge of the school. On the foundations 
laid by his predecessors he was able in the fall of 1926 to begin a 
real normal class with nine students. For this beginning normal 
class there was one full-time and one part-time instructor. The 
next year still further improvements were made both in the 
teaching personnel and in equipment so that the normal class 
could be carried through successfully. A still higher point of 
attainment came at the forty-first annual commencement, June 1, 
1928, when the first two-year normal class of ten members was 
graduated. The same year the State Board of Education gave the 
school the standard rating as a normal school. 33 

S. B. Smithy gave the Indians the best school they had had. He 
reduced the situation in the school itself to order ; discipline of a 
genuine type was put into effect. More than any other man he 
was responsible for standardizing the normal school. 34 In 1926 
it was a high school and elementary school combined ; in 1928 it 
was a standard normal school with no work below the high 
school level. 

Under Superintendent J. E. Sawyer, who succeeded Smithy 
in the fall of 1929, the school continued to advance in scholastic 
attainments. Before his resignation in 1935 the Cherokee Indian 
Normal School was offering two years of college work in addition 
to the regular normal school work. During Sawyers' administra- 
tion a new home economics building was erected, an athletic 
field was laid out and a grandstand built, the campus was en- 
larged through the purchase of additional land, and many 
improvements were made on the campus generally. 35 

In the summer of 1935 Mr. G. G. Maughon was elected as su- 
perintendent and served the school until 1940. During these 
years a department for teaching the deaf was organized, which 
after a period of three years of vital activity was discontinued. 
The gymnasium, a spacious building, modern in all details, 
was erected during the session of 1938-39. The building meets all 

33 S. B. Smithy, Biennial Report to the Governor, Dec. 20, 1928, p. 2. 

34 N. C. Newbold, letter to Judge L. R. Varsar, Lumberton, August 23, 1929. 

35 Catalog, 1943, p. 10. 

30 The North Carolina Historical Review 

requirements for indoor athletic sports and classes in physical 
education. 36 

Increased enrollment in the college necessitated the addition of 
new members to the teaching staff, and a full-time librarian was 
employed. In June, 1938, the first three-year college and normal 
diplomas were given. 37 

In the fall of 1939 the high school was separated from the 
college and moved to a new building on a separate site off the 
campus. This made possible further expansion of the college 
faculty and the addition of the senior year. 38 Thus the insti- 
tution launched by Hamilton McMillan many years before bur- 
geoned into bloom as a full-fledged standard four-year college, 
recognized as such by the state accrediting agencies. In June, 
1940, degrees were awarded to five members of the first graduat- 
ing class of the four-year standard college. 39 

Mr. Maughon resigned in the summer of 1940 and Dr. 0. H. 
Browne was selected from the teaching staff to serve as acting 
president. 40 Dr. Browne served in this capacity for two years. 

Recent developments in the college include the addition of 
departments of home economics, art, agriculture, and com- 
merce. Athletics play an important part in the activities of the 
college, with basketball, tennis, archery, and other sports in 
season. Since the gymnasium has been built much interest has 
been developed in basketball in the six Indian high schools in the 
county. Each school year a basketball tournament among these 
schools is held in the college gymnasium. Special work is stressed 
in the physical education department. The work in the special 
classes in physical education reaches a climax each spring in the 
presentation of the May Day pageant, an event which is rapidly 
growing in popularity throughout the entire area served by the 

In recent years much emphasis has been placed on dramatics 
and music. One year prior to Pearl Harbor attack, the college 
sponsored its first great pageant, the "Life Story of a People," 
with an all-Indian cast of over three hundred, 41 and it was pre- 

■8 Minutes of Board of Trustees, May 24, 1939. 

37 Catalog, 1938, p. 11. 

38 Minutes of Board of Trustees, April 13, 1939. 

39 Registrar's Files, 1940. Permanent Records, Cherokee Indian Normal School. 

40 Minutes of Board of Trustees, Sept. 6, 1940. 

41 R. C. Lawrence, "The Indian School at Pembroke," The State (Raleigh), March 20, 
1943, p. 3. 

Pembroke State College fob Indians 31 

sented again the following year. Due to the outbreak of the war 
the annual presentation of this pageant had to be discontinued 
but it is hoped that it will be resumed after peace comes. The 
music department of the college under the direction of Professor 
Ira Pate Lowry has recently inaugurated an annual music festival 
which has awakened an interest among the Indian schools of the 
county. Prior to the initiation of this program music in the 
Indian schools received very little attention, but now it has 
become a definite part of the schools. The college glee club and 
orchestra are greatly in demand for programs in churches, 
schools, and public meetings in the county. 

The name of the institution was changed by act of legislature 
in 1941 and is now Pembroke State College for Indians. 42 It is a 
standard four-year college maintained by the state for the 
Indians of Robeson County. It offers a wide range of courses lead- 
ing to the bachelor of arts and the bachelor of science degrees. 43 

With the organization of the two-year normal school in 1926, 
the library became a definite part of the school, but a full-time 
librarian was not employed until 1936. The library, which is 
housed on the first floor of the east wing of the main building, 
has over 7,000 bound volumes. The general reading room is well 
equipped with reference books, magazines, and daily papers. 

Pembroke State College for Indians is under the control of a 
board of trustees appointed by the governor of the state. 44 Dr. 
James E. Hillman of the State Department of Public Instruction 
serves jointly with the board of trustees as director. The institu- 
tion is manned by a staff of sixteen members, five of whom hold 
Ph.D. degrees, with the majority of the others having done 
work beyond the Master of Arts degree. Three members of the 
faculty are Indians, who have attained their rank by reason of 
their scholarship. 45 

Up to the beginning of the present war most students com- 
pleting the normal school entered the teaching profession. This 
brought about a rapid increase in trained teachers in the Indian 
schools. In 1926 from a group of approximately seventy-five 
Indian teachers, two held high school certificates, and none held 

42 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1941, chap. 323. 

43 Catalog, 1943, p. 11. 

44 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1925, chap. 306. 

45 R. C. Lawrence, "The Indian School at Pembroke," The State (Raleigh), March 20, 
1943, p. 3. 

32 The North Carolina Historical Review 

grammar grade or primary B certificates. 40 Today in the 
Indian schools of the county, which have 134 teachers, the major- 
ity hold class A certificates and only 4 teachers hold certificates 
lower than primary or grammar grade B. 47 

From the account given it is clear that real and lasting progress 
has been made among the Indians because of the work which the 
college has done along the line of teacher training. More than 
ever before the college is rendering a true service to the state 
and to the people whom it serves. It is well to note that in 1928 
the Cherokee Indian Normal School maintained the only standard 
high school for the more than 3,500 Indian school children in 
Robeson County. Today there are six standard Indian high schools 
in the county from which the college draws its students. 

The college has made its most notable contribution in helping 
the Indian boys and girls of Robeson County to prepare them- 
selves to take their rightful places in society. No greater evi- 
dence of this can be found than in the war records of its former 
students and alumni. During World War I the Indians of the 
county did not have over two men in service who had had any 
college training. Today Pembroke State College has former stu- 
dents and alumni serving in the armed forces in all parts of the 
world, and the college is proud of the 118 stars in its service 
flag. 48 

It is generally assumed by many scholars who have studied the 
question that the Robeson Indians are descendants of White's 
Lost Colony. But during the long period when most of them 
attended no schools and no records were kept, practically all 
traces of their ancestors were lost. Now, most of them do not 
know from whence they came. They are therefore a group unto 
themselves and for many years have been apparently neglected 
because they are a minority group in the county. In the course 
of time their first legal name, Croatan, became obnoxious to them. 
The name grew to be a term of derision, a synonym for a 
despised and distrusted people. To these people it came to mean 
something very different from what Hamilton McMillan intended 
it should mean when he had it written into the statutes of the 

*« S. B. Smithy, Biennial Report to the Governor, Dec. 20, 1928, p. 4. 

47 County Superintendent C. L. Green, Directory of Indian Teachers, 1943-44, p. 2. 

*8 War Records, Pembroke State College for Indians, 1943-44. 

Pembroke State College for Indians 33 

state in 1885. After much protesting against the name because 
of the sneering manner in which it was used by some of the local 
white people in referring to them, the state finally came to the 
rescue of the Indians by designating them as Cherokee Indians 
of Robeson County, and this is still their official name. 49 

The Indians of Robeson County have ■ made rapid progress 
since the state first made the appropriation in 1887 for a definite 
school for them. The initial appropriation for the first term of 
this school was $500 and the capital assets were worth about 
$1,000. From this meagre beginning the expenditures have grad- 
ually increased to well over $50,000 for the school term 1943-44, 
and the capital assets are now listed at slightly more than 

For many years the purpose of the college was to train teachers. 
But since the saturation point is rapidly being reached along this 
line, there has been a change within recent years. While contin- 
uing to train teachers for the secondary and elementary schools, 
major emphasis is now being placed on courses designed to pro- 
vide students with a standard liberal arts education. A diversity 
of course offerings makes it possible for a student to develop 
skills in a chosen field, and at the same time to obtain an all- 
around general education that will make his whole life richer and 
fuller. Both class and non-class activities are designed to give 
the student experiences in social and professional activities that 
lead to the development of personality. 51 

Pembroke State College is located on a campus of 35 acres, and 
much of the campus is within the limits of the town for which it 
is named. Pembroke, a village of about 1,000 people, is in one of 
the richest agricultural sections of North Carolina. 

In 1942 the Board of Trustees elected as president of the col- 
lege Dr. R. D'. Wellons, 52 for many years president of Lucknow 
Christian College in India. Dr. Wellons is a man of deep scholar- 
ship and far-sighted leadership, with a broad outlook for the 
future, and under him the college is reaching out for yet larger 
and better things. 

49 Clifton Oxendine, A Social and Economic History of the Indians of Robeson County 
(MS, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1934.) p. 57. 

50 State Auditor's Bureau of Institutional and Departmental Auditing, Raleigh, N. C, 
September 29, 1943, p. 3. (Typescript.) 

51 Catalog, 1943, p. 11. 

52 Minutes of Board of Trustees, August 17, 1942. 


By William Patterson Cummtng 

"I remember," wrote Sir Walter Raleigh, "a pretty jest of Don 
Pedro de Sarmiento, a worthy Spanish gentleman, who had been 
employed by his king in planting a colony upon the straits of 
Magellan, for when I asked him, being then my prisoner, some 
questions about an island in those straits, which might, me- 
thought, have done either benefit or displeasure to his enterprise, 
he told me merrily that it was called the Painter's Wife's Island ; 
saying, while the fellow drew that map, his wife sitting by desired 
him to put in one country for her, that she might in imagination 
have one island of her own." 1 Sir Walter Raleigh might well have 
added that the mapmakers of his century customarily filled up 
the blank spaces of the new lands they portrayed with their own 
imaginary geography or with the misconceptions of explorers. 
Thus throughout the sixteenth century appeared maps of the 
New World with Verrazanno's Sea, a great arm of the Pacific 
Ocean extending across the continent to within eighteen miles of 
the Atlantic and occupying the space on the Atlantic seaboard 
which we now call North Carolina ; by the first of the seventeenth 
century this sea was metamorphosed to a great lake, of unknown 
extent, which covered northern Georgia. By 1672 the Great Aren- 
osa Desert, 180 miles long, was added to the topography of pied- 
mont South Carolina; and the lake, variously called Apalache, 
Ushere, or Ashley, as well as the Arenosa Desert, is found in 
many maps of the foremost European geographers until as late 
as the middle of the eighteenth century. 2 

Correct cartographical representation of the New World was 
difficult even under the most favorable circumstances during 
the first two centuries after its discovery, owing to meagre infor- 
mation and inaccurate reports from explorers. For the geographer 
the nomenclature of the southeastern region of North America — 
that is, the area south of Virginia and east of the Mississippi — 

* This article is part of a study being made with the aid of a grant from the Social Science 
Research Council. 

i Walter Raleigh, The History of the World in Five Books, bk. II, chap. 23, sect. 4, in the 
Works of Sir Walter Raleigh, Kt. (Oxford, 1829), IV, 684. 

2 W. P. Cumming, "Geographical Misconceptions in the Cartography of the Southeast 
in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," Journal of Southern History, IV (1938), 

[ 34 ] 


Naming Carolina 35 

added another complication in the rivalry of the different nations 
who attempted to settle it. The first attempt at permanent settle- 
ment within the present limits of the United States was made on 
the Carolina coast by the Spaniards in 1526. They were followed 
by the French in 1562, who in turn were succeeded by the English 
in 1585. Thus to the original Indian names were added the Span- 
ish, the French, and the English. Sometimes cartographers 
attempted to add new information to an earlier Spanish-type 
map; sometimes they replaced the old names with new; and 
again they gave both or all, indiscriminately, making confusion 
worse confounded. The very name given to the southeastern 
area itself has undergone successive changes; and these muta- 
tions add to the general complexity. 

The most confused and confusing problem in the study of the 
nomenclature of this region has been to determine how and when 
the name Carolina was first applied to the country between 
the peninsula of Florida and the Virginia colony estab- 
lished at Jamestown. In 1663 Charles II of England granted, to 
eight men who had been of service to him in regaining the throne 
lost by his father, the proprietorship of a province (which 
Charles II named in his own honor Carolina) with a latitude 
from 31° to 36° N. and extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
This munificent gift cost him nothing, and two years later he 
extended the bounds south and north from 29° to 36^°. In spite 
of numerous claims and appearances to the contrary, the name 
Carolina apparently was not used for, or applied to, this region 
before this date, 1663. 

To examine the local use of the name and to clarify the prob- 
lems involved, it will be necessary to go back to the French 
attempts at settlement on the south Atlantic coast during the 
middle of the 16th century. In 1562 a French Huguenot settle- 
ment under Ribaut built a fort and began an abortive colony at 
Port Royal, on what is now Parris Island in South Carolina. 
This settlement was named Charlesfort. Two years later, in 1564, 
under Laudonniere, the French again came and built a fort, 
called la Caroline, or, in the commonly used form given in the 
Latin reports, Carolina, on St. Johns River in Florida, near the 
present site of Jacksonville. Historians of the Carolinas, such as 

36 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Ashe, 3 Oldmixon, 4 Governor Glen 5 of South Carolina, Dr. Alex- 
ander Hewat, ,; eighteenth century mapmakers like Delisle 7 and 
Homann, 8 and modern scholars like J. G. Kohl, !) have stated that 
the French called their colony Caroline or Carolina. These writers, 
however, have given no specific reference to documents for their 
statements, which can therefore be dismissed. In the numerous 
contemporary relations, reports, and maps published, two tempo- 
rary settlements, Charlesfort and la Caroline (or Carolina), 
are mentioned; but the country itself is called "Florida" or 
"Floride Francaise." 

In 1629 Charles I of England granted to Sir Robert Heath a 
charter for the land extending from 31° to 36° of latitude (the 
present Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina to Albe- 
marle Sound) and westward within those parallels to the Pacific, 
with the generosity characteristic of the kings of that period in 
granting land in the New World. In the charter printed in the 
Colonial Records of North Carolina, 1 ® transcribed from the 
originals in the British Public Record Office, both CarolAna 11 
and Carolina are used as the name of the province thus granted. 

3 T. Ashe, Carolina: or a Description . . . (London, 1682). Reprinted in A. S. Salley, 
editor, Narratives of Carolina (New York, 1911), p. 140. Mr. Salley pointed out the error 
in Ashe's statement in a note on page 140 ; later he corrected and greatly expanded this note, 
with copious illustrative quotations, in his The Origin of Carolina, Bulletin of the Historical 
Commission of South Carolina, no. 8 (Columbia, S. C, 1926). To Mr. Salley the present 
writer is indebted for several suggestions in the preparation of this article. 

4 John Oldmixon, The History of the British Empire (London, 1708), I, 325-327. Reprinted 
in Salley, Narratives of Carolina (New York, 1911), p. 319. 

5 James Glen, A Description of South Carolina (London, 1751). 

6 Alexander Hewat, An Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies of 
South Carolina and Georgia (London, 1779), I, 18. Reprinted in B. R. Carroll, editor, 
Historical Collections of South Carolina (New York, 1836), I, 23. 

7 Guillaume Delisle, "Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi . . ." dated June, 
1718. Delisle, the French royal geographer and founder of modern scientific cartography, 
has the legend across the face of what is now North Carolina, "Caroline, ainsi nominez en 
l'honneur de Charles IX par les Francois qui decouvrirent en prirent possession et si etab- 
lirent l'an 15. . . ." This map was designed for a political purpose, to invalidate the English 
claims in the imperial struggle for colonies between France and England ; but the authority 
of Delisle and the general excellence of this map gave it widespread popularity with both 
the French and the English. Delisle's map continued to appear in atlases until after the 
American Revolution. 

8 J. B. Homann, "Amplissimae Regionis Mississipi Sui Provinciae Ludovicianae. . . ." 
about 1737, in many Hoffman atlases. This map is fundamentally a copy of Delisle's map, 
referred to above. Delisle's inscription concerning Carolina has been translated into Latin. 

J. G. Kohl, National Intelligencer, July 22, 1864. "The French built on their Riviera 
May ... a fort which they called Fort Carojine or Carolina. Some mapmakers and geogra- 
phers applied this name, as an appellation of a country or territory, to the whole region. 
So we see, for instance, on a map of North America by Cornelis a Judaeis (1593), the 
whole French Florida called Carolina, in honor of Charles IX, King of France. [Kohl is 
incorrect ; Jode's "Carolina" is written below a fort drawn on the "R. Mayo."] So we 
may say that we have three kings as godfathers to this province : Charles IX, of France, 
Charles I, and Charles II, of England." Kohl was the first great historical cartographer 
in this country. 

10 The Colonial Records of North Carolina, I, 5-13. 

U Carolana Carolus, Latin form of Karl-\-ana, Lat. suffix meaning of or belonging to. The 
use of the suffix-ina, -ine is more common for the formation of feminine titles ; and for 
the -ana form, the euphonious variation -iana is more usual, as in Christiana. Possibly 
Charles I used the -ana to avoid any implied connection with the earlier French settlement 
at la Caroline. 

Naming Carolina 37 

But in the subsequent correspondence with Baron Sance over the 
colonization of some French Huguenots under this grant, a corre- 
pondence starting in 1629 and lasting for some years, the briefs 
of the letters made from the originals in the BPRO, as published 
in the Collections of the South Carolina Historical Society, 12 use 
Carolina only, and not CarolAna. In answer to a request for an 
examination of the original documents and a report on the form 
of the name, C. T. Flower, secretary of the BPRO, reports to the 
writer that he has had an examination made of Patent Roll 
C.66/2501/M26 (the Heath charter of 1629) and of the corre- 
spondence of Baron Sance concerning the French Huguenots, 
and that in both cases the only form in the Latin and English 
grants and in the Sance letters is CarolAna. 13 Thus the incorrect 
form "Carolina/' in the Colonial Records of North Carolina and 
in the Collections of the South Carolina Historical Society, which 
has misled modern scholars, is due to incorrect transcriptions or 
poor proofreading in these nineteenth-century publications. 

In 1654 Francis Yeardley, son of the Governor of Virginia, 
wrote to John Ferrar, formerly deputy treasurer of Virginia, about 
discoveries to the south of Virginia. In this letter, as first printed 
in the State Papers of John Thurloe (London, 1742), again by 
Peter Force in his Tracts (Washington, 1836), and finally by the 
secretary of the South Carolina Historical Commission, A. S. 
Salley, 14 Yeardley uses only Carolina, and not Carolana. Yeard- 
ley's letter of 1654 is found in the state papers of John Thurloe, 
secretary to the Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell, which 
are now preserved in the Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson A 14. 
In response to a request for a report, E. Lobel, Esq., Keeper of 
Western Manuscripts of the Bodleian, informs the writer that 
both within the letter and in the endorsement, only the form 
Carolana, not Carolina, is used. 15 Mr. Salley's modern anno- 
tated edition of Yeardley's letter does not go back to the original, 
but is apparently a reprint of a part of the incorrect text found 
in the State Papers of John Thurloe (London, 1742) . 

12 Collections of the South Carolina Historical Society, V (1897), 200 ff. 

13 Letter dated September 1, 1937. The English translation given in Colonial Records, I, 
5-13, is an unenrolled exemplification of 4 August, Charles I (7), in the Shaftesbury Papers 
and contains only the form "Carolana" in the original document. 

14 Salley, Narratives of Carolina, pp. 25-26. 

15 Letter of August 27, 1937. 

38 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In the New York Public Library is a MS map, dated 1657 and 
made in London by Nicholas Comberford, with the title "The 
South Part of Virginia now the North Part of Carolina." 1G But 
Mr. Victor Hugo Paltsits, former Curator of MSS and Chief of 
the Division of American History in the New York Public 
Library, has examined the map and states that the second line 
of the title, "now the North Part of Carolina," is added in darker 
ink in a later seventeenth century hand, and is not part of the 
original 1657 title. This conclusion 17 has been substantiated by 
the recent discovery of another copy of this map, also dated 1657, 
now owned by the Greenwich Maritime Museum, which is identi- 
cal except that it does not have this second line. 

In a widely used map made in 1657 by Nicholas Sanson, geog- 
rapher royal of France, the name Caroline appears halfway up 
along the coast of what is now South Carolina. This map of 
"Florida" by Sanson, which has Carolina at Port Royal, does not 
apply it to the region but refers to a marked settlement at the 
mouth of the river entering Port Royal. This is the location of 
Charlesfort, and is evidently the result of a confusion of Lau- 
donniere's fort "la Caroline" on St. James River and Ribaut's 
Charlesfort at Port Royal. 18 

Thus an examination of these documents before 1683 in which 
the name Carolina occurs shows that it was used only for the 
Laudonniere fort of 1564 and not for any region or settlement, 
and that the English grant to Sir Robert Heath was for Caro- 
lana, not Carolina. The name Carolina as applied to this area 
was first officially used in the fifth section of the First Charter of 
Charles II, where the King states: "and that the country . . . 
may be dignified by us ... we of our grace . . . call it the Province 
of Carolina." 19 

Two interesting MS documents in the British Public Record 
Office, turned up in this study of Carolina, throw light on the 

lr < W. P. Cumming, "Nathaniel Batts and the Comberford Map," American Historical 
Review, XLV (1939), 83, note 5. 

17 W. P. Cumming, "Nathaniel Batts and the Comberford Map," American Historical 
Review, XLV (1939), 83-84, note 5. 

18 Sanson's map continued to be used for various atlases until 1700 and influenced other 
maps. About 1660 Duval also published a map with the same mistake; so did Visscher in 
a map of North America published about 1700. Homann's "Virginia, Marylandia et 
Carolina" (1714), prolifically used in many atlases by Homann, Doppelmaier, Ottens, and 
others throughout the eighteenth century, incorporated the same error. 

W "First Charter granted by King Charles the Second to the Lords Proprietors of 
Carolina," reprinted in Colonial Records, I, 23. 

Naming Caeolina 39 

authoritarian origin of some early Carolina place names and are 
revealing as evidence of cartographical methods of nomencla- 
ture during the colonial period. 

In 1670 and 1671 John Ogilby, probably the foremost map- 
maker of his time in England, was preparing an English edition 
of Montanus' America, 20 and he decided to include a map of the 
recently established province of Carolina. He approached Peter 
Colleton, one of the Lords Proprietors, who wrote the following 
letter to John Locke, at that time secretary to Lord Ashley, the 
Earl of Shaftesbury, one of the most active of the Lords Proprie- 

To my honoured frend Mr. John Lock 

Mr. Ogilby who is printing a relation of the West Indies hath been 
often wth mee to gett a map of Carolina wherefore I humbly desire you 
to gett of my lord [Ashley] those mapps of Cape feare & Albemarle 
that he hath & I will draw them into one wth that of port Royall & 
waite vpon my lord for the nominations of the rivers, &c : & if you would 
do vs the favour to draw a discourse to be added to this map in ye nature 
of a description such as might invite people wth out seeming to come 
from vs it would very much conduce to the speed of settlemt. & bee 
a very great obligation to 

yr most faithful 

frend & servt 

P Colleton 21 

Locke the philosopher was also the author of the "Funda- 
mental Constitutions" of Carolina, a feudal and autocratic legal 
system which was accepted by the Lords Proprietors and which 
they attempted to enforce upon the settlers of their province. 
It, showed little political sense of the liberal laws needed for an 
American colony settled by Englishmen, and was unsuccessful in 
practice. It explains, however, how and why the nomenclature of 
the region should be referred to Lord Ashley, the Lord Chief 
Justice of the province. 

20 For a discussion of the complicated problem of Ogilby's part in the publication of 
this work and of the date of the Carolina map, see I. N. P. Stokes, Iconography of Man- 
hattan Island (New York, 1915-1928), II, 262, and W. P. Cumming, "Geographical Miscon- 
ceptions in the Cartography of the Southeast in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," 
Journal of Southern History, IV (1938), 484, note 20. 

21 British Public Record Office, Shaftesbury Papers, section IX, bundle 48, no. 82. 
Photocopy in writer's possession. 

40 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

On the back of the sheet which Colleton wrote, John Locke 
has written notes for the requested description of the new coun- 
try. This description is evidently the rather obvious propaganda 
chapter which Ogilby printed between pp. 204 and 212 of his 
America, published that year (1671). Among other notes by 
Locke on the back of Colleton's letter is a section listing the 
names of points along the Carolina coast. 22 

22 The list is apparently based largely on a letter to the Lords Proprietors by Robert 
Sandford, who explored the coast south of Cape Fear in 1666 ; Sandford's Relation of a 
Voyage on the Coast of the Province of Carolina is reprinted in Colonial Records, I, 118-138. 

Albemarle from S5Y 2 to 36^. This may refer to Albemarle River (now Albemarle 
Sound, formerly called Roanoke River) or Albemarle County, both so named shortly after 
the proprietary was granted. Compare Colonial Records, I, 120, 153, 155. General George 
Monk, Duke of Albemarle, was preeminently the restorer of Charles II to the throne and 
was first Palatine of Carolina. 

Ashley Ashley River. The present Ashley River ; named by Robert Sandford during his 
voyage along the coast in 1666. Compare Colonial Records, I, 137. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 
Baron Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury, was chief justice of Carolina. 

Berkeley. Berkeley Bay, between Cape Romain and Cape Fear, is the present Long Bay. 
Compare Colonial Records, I, 137. It was so named by Sandford in honor of Lord John 
Berkeley, Chancellor of Carolina, and his brother, Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia. 
The name was never applied, apparently ; it is not even given in Locke's MS map or 
Ogilby's First Lords Proprietors' Map. 

Carteret Cave Roman. The cape was renamed for Lord George Carteret, Admiral of 
Carolina, by Sandford in 1666. Compare Colonial Records, I, 138. The name soon reverted 
to Cape Romain, one of the two oldest and best known names along the entire coast. Cabo de 
Santa Elena and Cabo de Santo Roman were named during the Ayllon expedition and first 
appear on Juan Vespucci's World Map of 1526, now in the New York Hispanic Society 

Clarendon Cape Fear. Clarendon was the name of the county around the Cape Fear 
River (Colonial Records, I, 72) and on Ogilby's map (about 1672) was also the name for 
the river. Cape Fear River is the Rio de Principe of the early continental mapmakers, the 
Cape Fair-River of Hilton's Relation (1664), the Charles River of Home's Brief Description 
(1666) and the accompanying map, the "Charles River neere Cape Feare" of Robert Sand- 
ford's Relation and of the seventeenth century MS map in the Blathwayt Atlas, John Carter 
Brown Library, Providence, R. I., the Clarendon River of Ogilby's map (about 1672), and 
the "Cape Fear R or Clarendon R" of the Gascoyne Second Lords Proprietors' Map (1682). 
Locke's name, Clarendon, after the Earl of Clarendon, High of England and one of the 
Lords Proprietors, did not last long, for Cape Fear River continued to take its name from 
Cape Fear, first bestowed upon the cape in Sir Richard Grenville's narrative of 1585 and 
in John White's account of 1587. Compare also George Davis's "An Episode in Cape Fear 
History," South Atlantic Magazine (January, 1879), reprinted as "Origin of the Name, 
Cape Fear," in Sprunt, Chronicles, pp. 1-7. John Hilton explored the Cape Fear River in 
1662, naming about twenty branches, islands, and points on the river, many of them 
apparently after names of members of the expedition: Long Island (Anthony Long was 
on the ship with Hilton), Blower He (Pyam Blower was a master), Fabian River (Peter 
Fabian was a companion). Point Winslow, Goldsmith, Hory, Borges, and Brown suggest 
other unmentioned members of the expedition, as may Crane, Green, and Greenless. But 
these names, though they appeared on several manuscript and some printed maps for a 
few years, soon fell into disuse, as there was no permanent settlement made on the river 
for several decades. The only names given by Hilton for places along the Cape Fear River 
still in use are Turkey Quarter, Rocky Point, and Stag Park. Compare W. C. Ford, "Early 
Maps of Carolina," Geographical Review, XVI, no. 2 (April, 1926), 264-273, and Sprunt, 
Chronicles, p. 28. 

Colleton. "Ashpow als Colleton R" does not appear until Ogilby's map (about 1672). The 
Ashepoo River, lying about halfway between the South Edisto Inlet and Combahee River, is 
an unnamed river referred to in Sandford's Relation (Colonial Records, I, 129). It is shown 
as Colleton's River on Gascoyne's map (1682), but soon after this the name was dropped 
for the Ashpow or Ashepoo. Sir John Colleton, a Barbadoes planter, was high steward of 

Craven North Side of port Royal. Locke may refer to Craven County or to Craven River 
(called Combahee except on Ogilby's map, about 1672). The Earl of Craven was of the 
English Privy Council and first High Constable of Carolina. 

Edisto 32 d's SO m. S. C. "Orista was the Spanish interpretation of the name of the 
Indian tribe which the French called Audusta and the English subsequently Edisto." A. S. 
Salley, Origin of Carolina (Columbia, 1926), p. 20, n. 1. 

Port peril 32 d. 25m. Sandford's name for St. Helena Sound ; the name is found only 
here and in Sandford's Relation (Colonial Records, I, 129). 

Kiwaha 32d UOm. The name given to the country of the Kiawah by Sandford (Colonial 
Records, I, 127) ; the name referred to the country around the Ashley River but was 
apparently not subsequently used by Locke or the early mapmakers. 

Naming Carolina 41 

The map of Carolina referred to in Colleton's letter appeared 
in Ogilby's America, with the title "A New Map of Carolina, by 
Order of the Lords Proprietors." It has been known ever since 
as the First Lords Proprietor's Map, and was undoubtedly sold 
as a separate to would-be settlers for the new province. In the 
same bundle of papers with Colleton's letter to John Locke is a 
map, endorsed by Locke as "Carolina [16] 71" and with his nota- 
tions on it. 23 

A comparison of the two maps shows that this MS map is a 
rough early draft of Ogilby's map. It has many of the same 
names, given on no earlier map, which are found on Ogilby's 
map. Ogilby's map gives many more names than are found on 
Locke's draft; the names of the Lords Proprietors 24 are more 
frequently repeated. On this official printed map, reading from 
south to north, are Craven River, Craven County, Colleton River, 
Berkeley County, Ashley River, Ashley Lake, Cooper River, 
Porte Carteret, Cape Carteret, Clarendon River, Clarendon 
County, Albemarle River, and Albemarle County. 

Some of these names, such as Cape Carteret, Ashley River, 
and Albemarle River, were already in use by 1670, but the names 
of the counties would evidently be the result of some authorita- 
tive decision; and, from the title's "By Order of the Lords Pro- 
prietors," the official approval of the new names is indicated. 
Thus from Peter Colleton's letter, through Locke's notes and 
rough chart, the MSS in the BPRO preserve the successive steps 
in the nomination of places along the Carolina coast, many of 
which are still in use. 25 Other place names are given along the 
coast for the first time on any map; but the preponderance of 
the names of the Lords Proprietors shows the origin and au- 
thority for the nomenclature. 

One name on Ogilby's map deserves special comment; below 
Charles Town is a large island, named in honor of the secretary- 
philosopher "Locke Hand." But, alas, the island was a geographi- 

23 BPRO, M. P. 1/11 (formerly Shaftesbury Papers, IX, 48, no. 80). Photocopy in writer's 

z* Earl of Clarendon, Duke of Albemarle, Earl of Craven, Lord Ashley, John Lord 
Berkeley, Sir William Berkeley, Sir John Colleton, Sir George Carteret. 

25 The names of some of the places have been changed : Colleton River reverted to its 
earlier Indian name, Ashepoo ; Porte Carteret is Charleston Harbor ; Clarendon River is the 
Cape Fear ; Cape Carteret reverted to its old Spanish name of Cape Romain ; Ashley Lake 
is the non-existent Ushere Lake of John Lederer's map of 1672, which was incorporated with 
the rest of Lederer's imaginary geography and nomenclature on Locke's MS map and the 
Ogilby map and continued to be found on subsequent maps for eighty years and more. 

42 The North Carolina Historical Review 

cal error; between the Stono and the South Edisto are several 
islands, as the settlers discovered when they extended their ex- 
plorations. Ten years later, when the Second Lords Proprietors' 
map appeared (in 1682), a number of unnamed islands are delin- 
eated where Locke Hand was. Like the painter's wife island of 
Raleigh's story, the place was non-existent; and on modern 
maps John Locke, Ashley's secretary and English philosopher, 
has not even a swampy inlet or a tidewater creek named in his 
honor, though he was once Landgrave in the titled nobility of 
the fair province of Carolina. 


By James Wesley Silver 

Very few settlers came into the Old Southwest region that 
was to be Mississippi until after the Treaty of Paris (1783) 
had guaranteed the western country to the United States. From 
then until after the turn of the century, the blocking of the 
more natural routes by Indians led would-be Mississippians from 
North Carolina to devious journeys over the mountains and down 
the rivers. Some of these early Carolina pioneers must have 
traversed the Blue Ridge-Potomac-Ohio area 1 or used the Cum- 
berland Gap route to reach the Ohio River, 2 and a few may have 
come by sea. It seems more natural, however, for them to have 
crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains by the high passes in North 
Carolina and then to have followed the narrow valleys and 
gorges until they encountered the Tennessee River system. From 
Knoxville the rapids and sand bars of Muscle Shoals presented 
the chief obstacle to water travel all the way to the Ohio River, 
which shortly emptied into the Mississippi. By this course came 
the first coloney of North Carolinians to enter the lower Missis- 
sippi valley. 3 Some of the travelers left the Tennessee River for 
such land routes into northeastern Mississippi as the Natchez 
Trace, 4 although this ancient trail seems to have been more 
popular with returning Kentucky flatboatmen than with land- 
seeking immigrants. 5 For many years the Washington-New 
Orleans mails came by way of Knoxville, Nashville, and Natchez. 

* This is the first of a series of articles, to be published from time to time in this journal, 
on the part North Carolinians have played in the history of other states of the union, especially 
the Western states. The Editor. 

1 See John R. Commons, and others, editors, A Documentary History of American Industrial 
Society, II, 214, 215. 

2 William O. Lynch, "The Westward Flow of Southern Colonists before 1861," Journal 
of Southern History, IX (1943), 306. 

3 Albert James Pickett, History of Alabama (Charleston, 1851), II, 5-6; for a similar 
account of South Carolina emigrants, see Walter B. Posey, "The Early Baptist Church in 
the Lower Southwest," Journal of Southern History, X (1944), 161. 

4 George J. Leftwich, "Some Main Traveled Roads, Including Cross-Sections of the Natchez 
Trace," Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, Centenary Series, I (1916), 463-473. 

5 One large party which included sixty slaves ascended the Blue Ridge with their wagons 
and crossed over into the valley of the Tennessee. At Knoxville flatboats were constructed 
to float the party to the head of Muscle Shoals where the immigrants disembarked at the 
house of a Cherokee chief named Double Head. Horses had been brought from Knoxville by land 
and these were used to carry the impedimenta of travel to the famous Cotton Gin Port on 
the Tombigbee River. From there land and water transportation was used until the party 
reached its Mississippi destination. Several of the group were drowned when their make-shift 
river craft sank after striking a snag in the Tombigbee (Pickett, History of Alabama, II 

[ 43 ] 

44 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The fate of the Indians east of the Mississippi was sealed by 
the War of 1812, and from that date military defeat, forced 
treaties, and the federal removal policy gradually eliminated the 
red men as obstacles to transportation. This mean that Carolin- 
ians wishing to settle in Mississippi would be more likely to 
follow the fall line across the southeastern states. 6 With the 
Creeks in particular out of the way, Tennessee travel gave 
way to the easier transportation south of the Appalachians. 7 

The transition from buffalo trace to Indian path to pioneer 
trail or mail road gradually lightened the transportation burden 
of the migrants but at no time before the Civil War could travel 
in this area have been considered a pleasure. The greatest 
single obstacle was the crossing of the many southward-flowing 
rivers, although after the War of 1812 a fairly adequate system 
of ferries, causeways, and bridges had come into existence. 
Travel in extremely wet weather was well nigh impossible. 

From Augusta, Georgia, three paths led into the Indian 
country. The Upper Trading Path pointed to Tennessee through 
Cherokee territory, the Middle Path from Milledgeville followed 
the fall line through the Upper Creek nation, and the Lower 
Trading Path led into the "forked country" between the Flint 
and Chattahoochee rivers. 8 Even before the War of 1812 the 
wilderness between Georgia and New Orleans was being opened by 
the establishment of mail routes by way of St. Stephens and 
Fort Stoddert. 9 After the war the famous "three chopped way/* 
so known because of the triple blaze of its surveyors, became 
the most used of the immigrant trails into Mississippi. As 
the territory gradually filled up numerous through highways and 

6 Randle Bond Truett, Trade and Travel Atound the Southern Appalachians Before 1830, 
p. 138 ; Thomas P. Abernethy, The Formative Period in Alabama, 1815-1828, chap. III. 

7 John James Adubon describes a hypothetical group of travelers : "And I think I see them 
harnessing their horses, and attaching them to their waggons, which are already filled with 
bedding, provisions, and the younger children .... Their days journey is short and not 
agreeable .... The roads are bad, and now and then all hands are called to push on the 
waggon, or prevent it from upsetting. Yet at sunset they have proceeded perhaps twenty 
miles. Fatigued, all assembled around the fire, which has been lighted ; supper is prepared, 
and a camp being run up, there they pass the night. Days and weeks pass before they gain 
the end of their journey. They have crossed both the Carolinas, Georgia, and Alabama. 
They have been traveling from the beginning of May to that of September, and with heavy 
hearts they traverse the neighbourhood of the Mississippi. (Robert Buchanan, editor, Life 
and Adventures of Audubon the Naturalist, pp. 64-65). 

8 Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, A History of Transportation in the Eastern Cotton Belt, 
chap. II ; Truett, Travel Around the Appalachians, p. 48. 

9 The wilderness condition before 1812 may be illustrated by the instructions to the builder 
of a post road in 1805 : "Whenever a log can be thrown across a creek or gut so as to permit 
the rider to walk over safely and swim his horse alongside, that method of bridging must 
be adopted." (Postmaster General to William Piatt, December 9, 1805, Post Office Department 
archives. ) 

North Carolinians In Mississippi History 45 

local roads came into general use. 10 Jackson's Military Road, 
for example, was of assistance in enabling travelers to reach 
other highways leading into Mississippi. Lesser known roads such 
as Gaines , Trace from Colbert's Ferry to Cotton Gin Port, the 
Robinson Road from Columbus, Mississippi, to Jackson, and the 
Bolivar Indian Trail which ran from Memphis to Mobile, were 
numerous. By the decade of the 1830's, which saw the greatest 
proportional influx of settlers into Mississippi, the land routes 
leading into the state had become well traveled thoroughfares. 11 
As hundreds of thousands of eager citizens of the Seaboard 
states hurried into the Old Southwest to take advantage of the 
seemingly unlimited reserves of lush cotton lands, Alabama, 
Mississippi, and Louisiana developed in strikingly similar 
fashion. 12 There is no 1790 census record of the trans-mountain 
region. 13 In 1800 Mississippi Territory boasted slightly more 
than 5,000 whites and almost 3,500 slaves, settlement being 
confined mainly to the Natchez region. Ten years later Louisiana 
Territory included 34,300 whites and about the same number of 
slaves, as well as 7,500 free Negroes. Mississippi Territory had 
only 23,000 whites and 17,000 slaves. By 1820 Louisiana was still 
comfortably in the lead (but only because of the division of 
Mississippi Territory) with 73,400 whites, 69,100 slaves, and 
10,500 free Negroes, while Alabama had come into second place 
with 85,500 whites, 42,000 slaves, and 600 free Negroes, and 

10 Leftwich, "Some Main Traveled Roads," pp. 466-468. 

H Francois Xavier Martin, then living in New Orleans, on March 11, 1811, wrote Colonel 
John Hamilton of Elizabeth City, North Carolina : "Your son has not deceived you in the 
idea he has given of the banks of the Mississippi. There are I believe no lands in the 
United States that repay so richl[y] the toils of the husbandman .... If you contemplate 
a removal I dare [say] you cannot do better than coming over .... the best season in the 
year is to start at the first of September from your house, & make the best of your way for 
Knoxville - if a horseback the shortest way is by Salisbury & Buncombe county - if you 
chose to come in a chair ... go to Salem, N. C. & from thence via Montgomery & Wyth 
Court Houses Va. to Knoxville, thence to Nashville - where you will wait for a few days 
for a caravan - that is to say a few companions to cross the Indian Nation .... The 
worst of the road for a chair is betwixt Knoxville and Nashville the roads there being 
stony and hilly. Between Nashville and Natchez, a distance of about 500 miles the road 
is not bad after you cross the Tennessee river. . . . October is a good month to cross the 
Indian country. . . the road is full of travelers and a company is easily had .... In the months 
of July and August the insects are very troublesome. ... If you started in the Spring you 
might take water at Knoxville or Nashville .... If you prefer a Souther [n] rout [sic] you 
might come to Athens or Milledgeville in Georgia thence to Col. Ben. Hawkins, the Indian 
agent among the Creek[s] — thence to Fort Stoddart — & thence to Natchez — this rout is be- 
tween 2 or 300 miles nearer but you have a greater portion of Indian country to travel thro' - 
the nation [s] you pass thro' are less civilized, the road worst and less traveled and the water 
courses frequent and much wider" (Documentary History of American Industrial Society, II, 

12 Mississippi Territory, created in 1798, was transformed into the states of Mississippi 
(1817) and Alabama (1819). The state of Louisiana, carved out of the Great Purchase 
of 1803, came into being in 1812. 

13 All population figures are taken from Compendium of the Seventh Census (Washington. 
1854), and from the census reports issued since that time, as indicated. 

46 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

Mississippi trailed with 42,200 whites, 32,800 slaves, and only 
450 free Negroes. The decade of the 1820 , s saw Alabama's 
greatest proportional gains with her total population jumping 
to 309,500 compared with 215,700 for Louisiana and 136,600 for 
Mississippi. With the thirties, however, came the opening of 
Mississippi's Indian lands, and the increase of her population 
to 352,400, but she still lagged far behind the 590,750 of Ala- 
bama. From 1840 to the Civil War the relative positions were 
held although Mississippi made small gains. In 1850 the popu- 
lations were: Alabama, 771,600, Mississippi, 606,500, Louisiana, 
517,800; and in 1860; Alabama, 964,200, Mississippi, 791,300, 
Louisiana, 708,000. By 1850 Alabama's slave population of 342,- 
800 outnumbered Mississippi's 309,900 and Louisiana's 244,800, 
but on the eve of war the slave population of Mississippi had 
surpassed somewhat Alabama's 435,000, and Louisiana remained 
far in the rear with 331,700. That means, of course, that the 
whites of Louisiana by 1860 outnumbered Mississippi's 353,900 
by about 3,500, but that both trailed Alabama's 526,400. The 
crest of the number of free Negroes in the Gulf States seems to 
have been reached by 1840 when Louisiana had 25,000, Alabama, 
2,000, and Mississippi 1,400. At the opening of the Civil War 
there were 18,600 in Louisiana, 2,700 in Alabama, but only 800 
in Mississippi. 

After the Civil War the relative positions of the three states 
as far as populations were concerned may be seen in the follow- 
ing table: 





































North Carolinians In Mississippi History 47 









































































It is of interest to look for the influence of North Carolina 
in the development of these three Gulf cotton states. Before the 
informative census of 1850 any guess as to the numbers or pro- 
portions of Carolinians coming into these regions would be only 
that and, as such, of little worth. There is no doubt that sev- 
eral hundred thousand people did leave North Carolina in the 
first three-quarters of a century of the nation's existence, that 
most of them moved into other Southern states, and that after 
1820 the great trend was in a southwesterly direction. It is 
reasonable to suggest that of the three states compared, Ala- 
bama received the greatest influx of Carolinians and Louisiana 
the least. To say that the Tar Heel state contributed greatly 

48 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to the growth of the Old Southwest would be stating a fact, but 
that is about as far as one can go. 

From 1850 the number of native North Carolinians resident in 
other states may be determined from the census returns but 
even these figures should be used with extreme care. For 
instance, a person born in Virginia but having lived for many 
years in North Carolina before migrating to Mississippi could 
not be so recognized. 14 Also the records are valuable only for 
one generation; a Carolinian become Mississippian in many 
a case must have made his contribution to his adopted state 
largely through his descendants but that fact could not be deter- 
mined from the census reports. Even the numbers of Missis- 
sippians born in North Carolina fail to tell the whole story be- 
cause, obviously, most of those so listed in 1870 would also be 
living to be recorded in 1880. 

Lest the inference be drawn that no conclusions are tenable, 
let us glance at the record. In 1850 the native North Carolinians 
(white and free colored) residing in Alabama, Mississippi, and 
Louisiana were 28,521, 21,487, and 2,923, respectively, and their 
proportions of the population (white and free colored) were 
6.4 per cent, 7.5 per cent and 1.1 per cent. 

In 1860 there were 23,504 North Carolinians (white and free 
colored) living in Alabama, 18,321 in Mississippi, and only 2,810 
in Louisiana. The following table illustrates the total picture 
since 1860 so far as it can be determined from the census records : 



Per Cent 

White Colored 




(white and free colored) 




13,430 14,511 




9,832 13,296 




6,728 16,585 



14 There is, for example, no way of giving North Carolina credit for the naturalist, 
Gideon Linecum, who was born in Georgia shortly after the family had removed from North 
Carolina. Linecum served as surveyor, school commissioner, and physician at Columbus, 

North Carolinians In Mississippi History 























Per Cent 







(white and 

free colored) 







































Per Cent 






(white and 

free colored) 






































These figures seem to indicate an amost exactly parallel Carolin- 
ian population influence on Alabama and Mississippi but a much 
smaller impact on Louisiana. In the case of the first two states 
there was a very real drop in numbers between 1850 and 1860. 
If the census reports had been more complete for the years of 

50 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

early southwestern development there is no doubt that they would 
record a tremendously larger proportion of North Carolinians in 
the populations of Mississippi and Alabama in their formative 
years. Just how great that influence was will probably never be 
known but it is safe to say that it was greatest in Alabama in the 
1820's and in Mississippi in the 1830's. The tables as given, it 
must be repeated, are of minor significance because they do not 
and cannot determine the numbers of descendants of Carolinians 
in the states studied. But the fact remains that after 1850, 
despite the thousands who left North Carolina for Mississippi, 
the total impact of native Carolinians on the Magnolia State, in 
comparison with its total population, was small indeed. 15 It is 
unfortunate that more complete statistics are not available for 
Mississippi's early years. 

A reasonably conclusive search reveals that about one hun- 
dred and thirty native North Carolinians have achieved some 
eminence in Mississippi history. The estimate cannot be exact 
because of the difficulty of determining border line cases in 
any except an arbitrary fashion. It is a truism that history 
neglects many really influential personages and brings to our 
attention many names best forgotten. But a man would have 
been obscure indeed if he had missed being named in the numer- 
ous histories and compilations of biographical sketches scanned 
for this article. 16 The possibility of omission due to lack of 
information has been somewhat augmented by the difficulty 
of deciding just what makes a Mississippian (or a North Caro- 
linian) . Clayton Rand in his Men of Spine in Mississippi 17 would 
go so far as to include as Mississippians not only De Soto and 
Andrew Jackson but Columbus as well. In this paper only those 
people who have had bona fide residences within the state for a 
period of years have been considered. (This at least has the merit 

15 Almost every census report after 1860 indicates a larger number of native Mississippians 
living in North Carolina. The figures are: 1860-97; 1870-334; 1880-531; 1890-400; 1900-578; 
1910-688; 1920-1,229; 1930-2,114. By 1930, then, half as many native Mississippians were 
living in North Carolina as were native Carolinians residing in Mississippi. When the 
whites alone are counted, the exchange between the states is almost exactly an even one, there 
being 1,782 transplanted Carolinians compared with 1,771 ex-Mississippians. 

16 The most important were : J. F. H. Claiborne, Mississippi as a Province, Territory and 
State (Jackson, 1880, 2 vols.) ; George H. Ethridge, Mississippi: A History (Jackson, 1940, 
4 vols.) Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, editors, Dictionary of American Biography 
(New York, 1928-1937, 20 vols, and index) ; Robert Lowry and William H. McCardle, A His- 
tory of Mississippi (Jackson, 1891) ; Memoirs of Mississippi (Chicago, 1891, 2 vols.) ; Dunbar 
Rowland, Mississippi, (Atlanta, 1907, 3 vols.) ; Dunbar Rowland, Mississippi, The Heart of 
the South (Chicago, 1925, 4 vols.) ; Who Was Who in America (Chicago, 1942). 

" Gulf port, 1940. 

North Carolinians In Mississippi History 51 

of evading the question of Jackson's birthplace.) The procedure 
followed necessitates the automatic elimination of such promi- 
nent figures as Daniel Govan (1829-1911), Confederate officer 
and one-time Mississippi planter; Robert S. Gould (1826-1904), 
Texas jurist who practiced law one year in Macon, Mississippi; 
James P. Henderson ( 1808-1858) , prominent Texas political figure 
who lived less than a year in Canton, Mississippi ; and the Louisi- 
ana jurist and historian, Francois Xavier Martin (1762-1846), 
who at one time held a federal judgeship for Mississippi Terri- 
tory. 18 These people from North Carolina were merely transients 
in the history of Mississippi. 

Of the one hundred and thirty figures selected, thirty-three 
became influential by means of a political career (twenty-one in 
state and eleven in national politics) ; thirty-two followed agri- 
culture as a major occupation; and the others devoted themselves 
to the following pursuits: business (mercantile, banking, trans- 
portation, processing), twenty-one; law, seventeen; medicine, 
sixteen; education, five; the church, five; and journalism, one. 
As a secondary occupation, eighteen were engaged in agriculture, 
sixteen in politics, fourteen in business, and nine in education. 
This ratio is about what one would expect in a non-industrial state 
such as Mississippi, and suggests that the chief roads to fame in 
this state have been politics, farming, business, law, and medi- 
cine. 19 

Other information available about prominent Mississippians 
from North Carolina is probably sufficient to indicate a general 
pattern. Incomplete figures record thirty-one Democrats, seven 
Whigs, five Republicans, and two Populists. There were sixteen 
Methodists, eleven Presbyterians, eight Baptists, and five Epis- 
copalians. Thirty-four had college educations, six more had at 
least finished academy or high school, while twenty-two had 
attended grade school, or less. Thirty-three are known to have 
moved directly to Mississippi, with nine living for a while in 
Alabama, five in Tennessee, two in Kentucky, and one in Georgia. 

18 Though born in France, Martin had played a prominent part in North Carolina history. 
See Dictionary of American Biography, XII, 335-336. 

19 North Carolinians were prominent among the early land speculators in Mississippi. 
See James W. Silver, "Land Speculation Profits in The Chickasaw Cession," Journal of 
Southern History, X (1944), 87. 

52 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Sixty-four participated in the Civil War. At least forty were 
members of some fraternal lodge. 

The typical Carolinian of prominence in Mississippi, then, was 
a politician, farmer, small business man, lawyer or doctor; he 
was a protestant and a member of some fraternal organization ; 
and the chances were better than even that he had received the 
benefits of a college education. If he were of the right age in the 
1860's he fought in the Civil War. In other words, the men from 
North Carolina in Mississippi were no different from those from 
other states. 

It has been in the political arena that most native North Caro- 
linians have achieved recognition in Mississippi. No less than 
four of the younger state's governors were born in North Caro- 
lina; it must be admitted, however, that none of these four 
political leaders has been suspected of greatness. Robert Wil- 
liams, the second governor of Mississippi Territory (1805-1809), 
was removed from office by President Madison. Hiram G. Runnels, 
a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1832 and a 
former state treasurer, became the state's seventh governor 
(1834-1836). Two administrations later, the office was held 
(1842-1844) by Tilghman Tucker, who also served in Congress for 
one term. Of the quartet the outstanding man was probably 
John H. McRae, who had participated in the federal Indian 
removal program, had been one of the original promoters of the 
Mobile and Ohio Railroad, and had been state speaker of the 
house, as well as United States Senator. He was elected governor 
of Mississippi in 1853 and again in 1855. In the territorial days 
two other North Carolinians achieved some recognition, Oliver 
Fitz as a judge, and Thomas H. Williams as secretary of the 
territory. Later Williams became United States Senator from 
Mississippi (1817-1829). North Carolinians in state politics were 
not confined to the very early days, for Hugh McQueen Street 
served his fourth term as speaker of the house as late as 
1911, and Robert Powell was a state legislator, judge, and the 
editor of the Mississippi State Reports from 1911 to 1924. 

Among the many eminent physicians who came from Carolina 
(usually by way of the medical schools of Philadelphia) to 
Mississippi, there should be mentioned four. W. S. Langley 

North Carolinians In Mississippi History 53 

(1809-1888), the founder and first head of the state insane 
asylum, later became superintendent of the institution for the 
blind. N. H. Whitfield graduated from the medical school of 
the University of Pennsylvania with first honors in 1847, and 
became an outstanding Confederate surgeon. C. B. Galloway 
was president of the Mississippi State Medical Association in 
1872-1873. Five years later, B. A. Vaughn held this position along 
with that of secretary of the section on practice of medicine and 
materia medica of the American Medical Association. Vaughn 
had been surgeon of the Fourteenth Mississippi Regiment, sur- 
geon-in-chief of the Confederate hospitals at Macon and Lauder- 
dale Springs, and, at the end of the war, surgeon for the state of 

Of the tens of thousands of North Carolinians who deserted 
the Tar Heel state for Mississippi, there are eight who deserve 
special attention. Mississippi has small claim to two of these men 
while most of the other six were often on the move, but all of 
them profoundly affected the development of the state. They are 
listed in chronological order. 

George Strother Gaines (1784-1873) was one of the most influ- 
ential pioneers and builders of Mississippi Territory and of the 
two states which were created from it. 20 In 1805 he was ap- 
pointed factor of the government trading house at St. Stephens, 
where "by adroitness, fair dealing, and kindly ministrations," 
his word became law among the Choctaws. These Indians listened 
to Gaines rather than to Tecumseh in 1811, through his influence 
signed the treaties ceding their territory, and insisted on his 
helping them select their lands in the West. After he resigned as 
government agent in 1819, Gaines dabbled in Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi politics, prospered as a merchant but not as a banker, 
and helped to promote the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. 

Francis Lister Hawks (1798-1866), famous Episcopal clergy- 
man and historian, lived for only a few years in Mississippi. 21 
Success in law and politics came before he turned to the study 
of theology under William Mercer Green, later bishop of Missis- 
sippi. In 1835 Hawks declined the office of missionary bishop of 

20 Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 93-94. Gaines was born in Stokes County, 
North Carolina. 

21 Dictionary of American Biography, VIII, 416-417. Hawks was born in New Bern, 
North Carolina. 

54 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the Southwest, but subsequently he moved to Mississippi where 
he again refused a bishopric. He was one of the original trustees 
of the University of Mississippi. In 1844 he moved on to the 
pastorate of the Christ Church of New Orleans which he in turn 
relinquished to become the first president of the University of 
Louisiana. Though an educator and preacher of great ability 
and unusual charm, Hawks will be longest remembered as his- 
torian and biographer. 

Kenneth Rayner (1810-1884), member of Congress from North 
Carolina from 1839 to 1845, almost received the vice presidential 
nomination instead of Fillmore in 1848. 22 After a stormy 
career he broke with the Whigs in 1860, but instead of supporting 
Jefferson Davis he secretly joined the peace movement of 
William Woods Holden. During Reconstruction he moved to Mis- 
sissippi, turned to the Alcorn faction of the Republican Party, 
and became its candidate for the supreme court of the state in 
in 1873. The next year he became a judge of the Alabama claims 
commission and the last seven years of his life were spent as 
solicitor of the United States Treasury. 

Certainly the most prominent Carolinian ever to become a 
Mississippian was Jacob Thompson (1810-1885). 23 He graduated 
from the University of North Carolina and then remained at 
Chapel Hill as a private tutor for more than a year before 
reading law at Greensboro. When the Chickasaw Cession in 
northern Mississippi was thrown open to settlement, Thompson 
moved to Pontotoc and later to Oxford. In 1837 he was defeated 
for the office of state attorney-general, but he soon was elected 
to Congress where he became chairman of the important com- 
mittees on public lands and Indian affairs. In 1850 Thompson was 
defeated for Congress but retained his prominence in the Demo- 
cratic Party. He seems to have had considerable influence with 
James Buchanan who appointed him Secretary of the Interior. 
Until the fall of Vicksburg he served as chief-inspector of 
Pemberton's army. During 1864, operating from a Canadian base, 
Thompson directed the activities of anti-Union groups in the 

22 Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 416-417. Rayner was born in Bertie County, 
North Carolina. 

23 Dictionary of American Biography, XVIII, 459-460 ; Claiborne, Mississippi as a Province, 
Territory and State, I, 447-466. Thompson was born in Leasburg, Caswell County, North 

Worth Carolinians In Mississippi History 55 

Old Northwest as well as engaging in numerous pro-Confederate 
plots against the North. He was charged with complicity in the 
assassination of Lincoln and was forced to live in Europe for 
several years. Probably in 1868 he returned to Oxford; he lived 
his last years in Memphis. 

Robert Andrews Hill (1811-1900) came to Mississippi after 
almost forty years 6f residence in Tennessee where he had 
engaged in legal practice. 24 Just before the Civil War he became 
probate judge in Tishomingo County, but seems to have taken 
no part in the conflict. He participated in Mississippi's constitu- 
tional convention of 1865 and the next year was appointed district 
judge by Andrew Johnson. In this position he did much to ease 
the rigors of reconstruction; although he enforced the federal 
law he did so with little oppression and hardship. He was instru- 
mental in keeping many cases in the civil rather than the mili- 
tary courts. Hill prepared the judiciary provisions of the state 
constitution of 1868. His last ten years were spent in retirement 
in Oxford, home of the University which he had long served 
as trustee. 

Edmund Richardson (1818-1896) as a boy of fifteen came to 
Brandon, Mississippi, where he clerked in a dry goods store for 
forty dollars a year. 25 Seven years later he entered the mercan- 
tile business in Jackson and by 1861 he owned five plantations. 
During the Civil War he went heavily into debt but within a year 
after its close he was again solvent. The New Orleans factorage 
firm of Richardson and May was soon handling a hundred thou- 
sand bales of cotton a year. In 1868 Richardson leased the 
Mississippi penitentiary to be used as a cotton mill. To employ 
all the convicts he acquired about fifteen plantations and became 
the largest cotton planter in the world. At one time he cultivated 
25,000 acres which produced annually 12,000 bales of cotton. He 
also entered the cotton oil and railroad businesses. In 1876 Rich- 
ardson, then known as the "Cotton King," was appointed com- 
missioner from the Southern states to the Philadelphia Centen- 
nial, and in 1881 he became vice president of the Atlanta Cotton 

24 Dictionary of American Biography, IX, 44-45 ; Memoirs of Mississippi, I, 922-929. Hill 
was born in Iredell County, North Carolina. 

25 Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 565-566 ; Memoirs of Mississippi, II, 665-669. 
Richardson was born in Caswell County, North Carolina. 

56 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Exposition. Three years later he was selected as president of the 
board of management of the World's Industrial and Cotton 
Centennial Exposition, held in New Orleans. In his last years he 
returned to Jackson. 

Evander McNair (1820-1902) entered the mercantile business 
in Jackson in 1843 but gave it up to serve through the Mexican 
War. 20 Jefferson Davis, his commanding officer, presented him 
with the silver spurs that Davis had worn during the campaign. 
McNair's business ventures in Mississippi and Arkansas were 
successful in the 1850's. At the outbreak of the war he organized 
a battalion of seven companies and became the commander of the 
Fourth Arkansas Infantry Regiment. In 1863 he was promoted 
to brigadier-general on the field of battle at Richmond, Kentucky, 
and the year 1865 found him a major-general. After the war 
McNair went into business in New Orleans but spent his last 
years in Hattiesburg. 

Hiram Rhoades Revels (1822-1901), in many ways the most 
interesting personality of the group, was born in Fayetteville, 
North Carolina, of mixed Negro and Croatan parentage. 27 He 
became a barber in Lincolnton but in 1844 left there for Indiana 
where he attended a Quaker school before entering Knox College. 
Ordained a Methodist minister, he engaged in missionary work 
among the Negroes in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee. He then became a pastor in Baltimore. 
During the Civil War he helped raise three Negro regiments 
and served as chaplain and provost-marshal with the Union forces 
in Mississippi. He organized several Negro churches in Jackson. 
After the war Revels settled in Vicksburg from which he went 
to the state senate and then, in 1870, to the United States Senate 
as the successor of Jefferson Davis. He was a Republican who 
did not co-operate with the Radicals, and except for his color, he 
would not have been noticed in his Washington post. In 1871 he 
became president of Alcorn University and in 1873 secretary of 
state, ad interim, of Mississippi. Two years later he helped the 
Democrats overthrow carpetbag government in Mississippi, 

26 Rowland, Mississippi, The Heart of the South, III, 519-522. McNair was born in Laurel 
Hill, Richmond County, North Carolina. 

27 Dictionary of American Biography, XV, 513 ; Samuel Denny Smith, The Negro in Con- 
gress, 1870-1901, pp. 12-25. 

North Carolinians In Mississippi History 57 

defending his action in a strong letter to President Grant. In 
1876 he was chosen editor of the Southwestern Christian Advo- 
cate and engaged in religious work until his death. 

These twenty North Carolinians who have been named, to- 
gether with the more than one hundred in addition whose careers 
have been studied, fail to demonstrate the real significance of 
the influence of the Old North State upon Mississippi history. 
That story can never adequately be told. It would consist of the 
tales of tens of thousands of humble folk so driven by the urge 
toward a better life that they were willing to brave the hard- 
ships of transplanting themselves into the virgin soil of the Old 
Southwest. These people moved to Mississippi largely in the first 
half of the nineteenth century. For the most part they left no 
recognizable record, but they and their descendants are Mis- 



Edited By 
James A. Padgett 


For many centuries the name Mordecai has been borne by 
outstanding men in various countries. Long before the Christian 
era Mordecai, a Jew and Benjaminite, was carried into cap- 
tivity by Nebuchadnezzar, returned to Jerusalem, but was again 
taken to Babylon. He was a member of the Sanhedrin, each 
member of which knew all of the seventy languages. His ability 
to understand these various languages enabled him to discover 
and report a plot of two eunuchs to murder Ahasuerus, King 
of Persia. Haman planned the death of all the Jews in the coun- 
try, but Esther, Mordecai's cousin, whom he had adopted and 
reared, risked her life to save him and her people. As prime 
minister, Mordecai supervised the execution of Haman. 

On August 1, 1298, Mordecai Ben Hillel, a descendant of out- 
standing scholars and noted teachers, his wife, and five children 
died martyrs in Nuremberg. Mordecai Astruc, a French liturgical 
poet, lived at Carpentras about the end of the seventeenth 

Mordecai Ben Eliezer Jonah was an Austrain commander and 
man of letters in the latter part of the sixteenth century and 
early seventeenth century. Mordecai B. Isaac of Carpentras, a 
noted French Talmudist, flourished in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. Mordecai Ben Jacob, who died in 1575, was an 
outstanding Polish translator. Mordecai Ben Jehiel, a noted 
Russian grammarian and scholar, was prominent in the early 
eighteenth century. Mordecai Ben Joseph of Avignon flourished 
as a Provencal Talmudist in the thirteenth century. Mordecai 
Ben Judah, a Polish ritualist, died in 1584. 

During early modern times many other men of this name took 
an active part in writing, teaching, and church activities in dif- 
ferent countries in Europe. 1 

1 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, VII, 642-644 ; The Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 7-15. 

[ 58 ] 

The Life of Alfked Mordecai 59 

In America quite a number of men of this name have become 
famous in various lines. Jacob Mordecai was born in Philadelphia 
in 1762, the son of Moses and Elizabeth Whitlock Mordecai, and 
died in Richmond, Virginia, in 1838. He began his business 
career under David Franks of Philadelphia. After living in 
New York, Richmond, and Petersburg, Virginia, he settled in 
Warrenton, North Carolina, about 1787. He was a merchant and 
scholar, but tobacco speculation forced him out of business. 
Encouraged by friends, he opened a boarding school for girls 
in this town in January, 1809. Had it not been for the valuable 
support given him by his oldest daughter, Rachel, his school 
might not have been such a noted success. His first wife was 
Judith Myers of New York. On her death, in 1796, he married 
her half-sister, Rebecca Myers. Of his many children six sons 
and seven daughters grew to maturity. His oldest son, Moses 
(born in 1785) became a leading member of the North Carolina 
bar; his second son, Samuel, became an outstanding merchant 
of Richmond, and wrote a history of that city; his third son, 
Solomon, who studied medicine in Philadelphia, became a popular 
physician in Mobile, Alabama ; his fourth son, George Washing- 
ton Mordecai (born in 1801), settled in Raleigh and became an 
eminent lawyer, railroad president, president of the bank of 
North Carolina, and worthy citizen; his fifth son, Alfred, rose 
to the rank of major in the United States Army; refused to 
fight or make arms and munitions for war against his own peo- 
ple in the South, resigned his commission, became an engineer 
on the Imperial Mexican Railway, and held other offices of profit 
and trust; his youngest son, Augustus Mordecai, took up farm- 
ing and settled near Richmond. Emma Mordecai (1812-1906), 
the youngest of Mordecai's seven daughters, devoted her long 
life to educational and religious work, in which she played a 
prominent part. 2 

Alfred Mordecai (whose autobiography is published herewith) 
was born at Warrenton, North Carolina, on January 3, 1804, the 
son of Jacob Mordecai, of Warrenton, and Rebecca (Myers) 
Mordecai of Newport, Rhode Island. His father was born in 
Philadelphia on April 11, 1762, but soon began to wander 

2 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, VII, 644 ; The Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 9. 

60 The North Carolina Historical Review 

around. Alfred was educated at the academy of his native town 
of which his father was founder and principal. It is doubtful if 
there were many youths in America who had better basic train- 
ing than he. On June 24, 1819, he was appointed a cadet at the 
United States Military Academy. Here he made an enviable 
record in every line of industry, graduating at the head of his 
class in 1823. He was assigned to the corps of engineers; was 
assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy in 
1823-24; and principal assistant professor engineering in 

In 1825 he was made assistant engineer in the construction 
of Forts Monroe and Calhoun at Norfolk, Virginia. He was 
then transferred to Washington, in 1828, as chief to the chief 
engineer, in which capacity he served for four years. He became 
captain of ordnance on May 30, 1832, and was on leave of 
absence in Europe in 1833-34. Until 1838 he commanded succes- 
sively at the Washington and Frankford, Pennsylvania, arsenals. 
In 1842 he became assistant to the chief of ordnance in Wash- 
ington, and from 1839 to 1860 he was a member of the ordnance 
board. In 1840 he was a member of a commission to visit the 
arsenals and cannon-foundries of the principal powers of 
Europe, and in 1842 was assistant inspector of arsenals and 
engaged in constructing ballistic pendulums. During the war 
with Mexico he commanded the Washington arsenal, and was 
brevetted major in 1848 for meritorious service on this duty. 
He was a member of the military commission to the Crimea in 
1855-57, and his observations, particularly on military organi- 
zations and ordnance were published by order of Congress 
in 1860 (Senate Executive Document, No. 60, 36th Congress, 
1st Session) . In 1849 he published the results of his research on 
European military affairs in Artillery for the United States 
Land Service. 

By the treaty with Mexico in 1848, she was to pay for damages 
done to American property within her country. One of the 
largest of these claims was known as the Gardiner claims. In 
1853 Mordecai was sent on a secret mission into the wilds of 
Mexico to ascertain the truth or falsity of them. This $500,000 
claim which had been paid by the government had to be refunded 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 61 

to Mexico. His trustworthiness was rapid by his being placed 
at different times at the head of three of the largest arsenals 
in the United States, namely, Washington, Frankfort, Penn- 
sylvania, and Watervliet, near Troy, New York. In 1860 he was 
a member of the board to revise the course of instruction at 
West Point. 

He was the author of numerous technical writings. In addi- 
tion to the two above listed, his most important writings are 
A Digest of the Laws Relating to the Military Establishment of 
the United States (1833) ; The Ordnance Manual for the Use of 
Officers of the United States Army (1841) ; Report of Experi- 
ments on Gunpowder (1845) ; and Second Report . . . (1849). 

When the Civil War broke out Mordecai was in command of 
the Watervliet Arsenal, West Troy, New York. Unwilling "to 
forge arms to be used against his aged mother, brothers and 
sisters in the South," he resigned his position and retired to 
private life in Philadelphia. He did not do this hastily. He was 
a soldier of unusual ability, who had enjoyed many positions of 
trust in the services of his country; but on the other hand he 
felt a keen obligation to his state. He was sent to Fortress 
Monroe in April, 1861, to examine some ordnance there, but was 
soon called back to New York. After the fall of Sumter he 
wanted some other position, not thinking that it was fit for a 
Southerner to be at the head of the greatest arsenal in the 
country. But on May 2, 1861, he received a letter refusing his 
request. Rather than make munitions to kill his own people, 
on May 8, 1861, he sent in his resignation and wrote his reasons 
for the press. 

The future looked very dark for him at this time, but he did 
not hesitate to do what he thought his duty. With the assistance 
of his daughters, who were teachers, he managed to live during 
the war by teaching mathematics in Philadelphia. On the other 
hand, his son, Alfred, who was just graduating from West Point, 
served in the Union armies during the entire war and died a 
brigadier-general in service. 

Soon after the close of the war, life opened up anew for 
Mordecai. He was invited to become assistant engineer on the 
Mexican Imperial Railway, which position he held from 1865 
to 1866, but the folding up of the job forced him to return to 

62 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the United States. From 1867 until his death he was treasurer 
and secretary of the Pennsylvania Canal Company, comprising 
the canals and coal companies under the Pennsylvania Railway. 
His wife was Sarah Hays of Philadelphia, where he raised a 
family of six children. In this city he died on October 23, 1887. 3 

Alfred Mordecai's son, Alfred (June 30, 1840- January 20, 
1920), followed in his father's footsteps. He was born in Phila- 
delphia on June 30, 1840; was graduated from West Point on 
June 24, 1861 ; was brevetted second lieutenant of topographical 
engineers; served as aide to General Howard; was in the first 
battle of Bull Run; was later transferred to the ordnance 
department ; became first lieutenant on March 3, 1863, and cap- 
tain on June 1, 1863; and was brevetted major in September, 
1863, for gallantry at the siege of Fort Wagner, South Caro- 
lina. In 1865 he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for his distin- 
guished services on the field and in the ordnance department. 
He became one of the best known ordnance men in the United 
States army; was twice instructor of gunnery at West Point; 
was in command of the arsenal at Leavenworth, Kansas, and of 
the New York Arsenal, Governors Island; was twice in com- 
mand at Watervliet Arsenal (1881-86 and 1898-99) ; served as 
superintendent of the armory at Springfield, Massachusetts; 
and was in command of the arsenal at Benicia, California. In 
1904 he retired from the army with the rank of brigadier- 
general. 4 

For more than a century after the coming of Jacob Mordecai 
into North Carolina his family and descendants played an 
important part in the history of the state. In many walks of 
life they could be found promoting the good of their country 
and community, and they were particularly noted for their legal 
ability. Especially prominent were the members of this family 
about Raleigh, where they greatly aided the development of that 

The Mordecai Papers in the Library of Congress were pur- 
chased from Mrs. Sara Miley (Mrs. John D. Miley), the grand- 

3 Dictionary of American Biography, XIII, 153-154 ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, IV, 389 ; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, X, 443 ; Mordecai Papers, 
Library of Congress ; Frances B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United 
States Army from its Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903, I, 724. 

4 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, VII, 242-244 ; The Jewish Encyclopedia, IX, 9. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 63 

daughter of Alfred Mordecai. In this collection are found about 
185 pieces, principally written by Alfred Mordecai to his wife, 
Sarah Hays Mordecai. In his memoirs are found his Essay on 
Mexico in 1865-66; a diary kept by Fanny Stone during the 
crisis in Egypt in July- August, 1882; and account books. The 
entire collection is bound in six volumes with some unbound 
material. In addition there are thirty-three pieces of printed 
material; eleven photographs, drawings, and maps; and a col- 
lection of invitations, visiting cards, and other items. 

The correspondence begins with a letter from his grandmother, 
Joyce Myers, written in 1806, and includes several letters of 
early family interest. Most of these letters he wrote to his wife 
while in Europe and in Mexico. There are twenty-one letters 
written from Europe in 1840; fifty-eight while he was there in 
1855-56 ; and thirty-seven from Mexico in 1865-66. 

Since Alfred Mordecai was a close observer of social, political, 
and military affairs, his letters furnish an account of important 
events which reflect the trend of the period in which he lived. 
His European letters provide interesting data concerning the 
places he visited, the way he spent his time when off duty, and 
the people with whom he associated. His letters from Mexico 
include accounts of various churches and military parades in 
which he either participated or was an onlooker. These letters 
contain the names of many noted Southerners, self-exiled to 
Mexico. Furthermore they reveal his close association with 
Matthew Fontaine Maury in Mexico at the time he unfolded his 
ill-fated colonization scheme for Confederates in Mexico and they 
throw light on his own decision to fight on the side of neither 
the North nor the South while his "heart bled" for his beloved 
Southland. These papers also reflect the unusual opportunities 
and responsibilities which came to Mordecai because of his 
exceptional abilities. 

Among his incoming letters are three from Jefferson Davis, 
two of which were written while the latter was Secretary of 
War. Others were written by men and women of prominence, 
including members of his own family of educators in North 

The printed material includes a Manual Di Artillerie a U 
Usage Des Officers D' Artillerie de la Republique Helvetique, by 

64 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

the Prince Napoleon-Louis Bonaparte (1836) ; five newspapers: 
two copies of the Troy Daily Whig, May 9, 10, 1861 ; two copies 
of Troy Daily Times, May 8, 9, 1861 ; one copy of the Cellar and 
Argus (Albany, New York), May 15, 1861; a copy of Poems 
Recited in Charter-House School, May 5, 1825; and addresses 
delivered at West Point, June 17, 1880, three copies, June 10, 
1886, six copies, and June 9, 1887, four copies, delivered by 
Alfred Mordecai, as the oldest living graduate present at the 

There is a map of the Valley of Mexico and the surrounding 
mountains, published by J. Disturnell, New York, 1847. Of the 
photographs all are personal except those taken of the military 
officers during the Crimean War. 5 

Ut Omnis Votiva pateat Veluti descripta tabella Yeta Senis 
Personal Memoranda 
Written for my children; chiefly from Memory. 

April 28 th - May 15 th 1879 - By Alfred Mordecai 

The "Family Register," which you have, gives you an account of my 
father's 6 family, from which you see that I was the third child & second 
son of my father by his second wife, & that I was born January 3 d 1804- 
By his first wife my father had three sons & three daughters, & by my 
mother, 7 three sons & five daughters, all of whom reached maturity, 
except one of the last who died an infant- My mother being the half 
sister of my father's first wife, her children never felt, that I am aware 
of, that we were not all strictly one family, & the confidential & affection- 
ate relations of brothers & sisters, between us, were never disturbed. 

At the time of my birth my father was a country "merchant," (as the 

5 Mordecai Papers, Library of Congress. These papers are in an excellent state of 
preservation, well written, and very easily read. 

G Jacob Mordecai, father of Alfred, was born in Philadelphia, on April 11, 1762, the eldest 
son of Moses and Esther (Whitlock) Mordecai. Moses was of Hebrew extraction and a 
native of Bonn, Germany, who came to America in 1760. He first settled in New York and 
then moved to Philadelphia, where he became a merchant and was one of the signers 
of the Non-Importation Agreement in 1765. Jacob was educated in private schools in 
Philadelphia. In 1774, as sergeant of a youthful rifle corps, he had the honor of escorting 
the first Continental Congress from Frankfort into Philadelphia. He was employed in the 
office of David Franks, where he obtained his mercantile knowledge. In 1781 he went to 
New York City and after spending several years in various places he settled in Warrenton, 
North Carolina. After the failure of his mercantile business he became one of the pioneer 
educators of the South. From 1809 to 1819 he operated a female academy at Warrenton 
with marked success. Thinking that he had accumulated enough to live on the remainder 
of his life, he sold his school, and retired in Richmond, Virginia, where he purchased a 
home, but having invested his earnings disadvantageously, he lost his competency, and hi* 
latter years were spent in "tilling the soil for the maintenance of himself and family." 
He died in Richmond, Virginia, on September 4, 1838. National Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, X, 442. 

7 His mother was Rebecca Myers Mordecai. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 
X, 442. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 65 

term was) in my native village, Warrenton, 8 N° Carolina; his "store," 
which I remember well after it had passed from his hands, was in the 
center of the village & my father's dwelling was on a lot adjoining the 
store- My earliest recollections are of playing as a child in the shady 
yard of the dwelling, & of mounting by an outside stair to a room, once 
the store where I began to learn to read when I was about four years 

In 1808 my father who had discontinued his mercantile business 
determined to open, with the assistance of some of the older children, 9 
who had all been well educated, an Academy for young ladies- 10 With 

8 Old Warrenton did not have more than half a dozen or fewer residencies of any claim 
to size or style. The streets and sidewalks, where they were laid out at all, were only 
wider roads of red mud in the winter and dust in the summer. The people had to use 
lanterns with lighted candles when travelling from one house to another and to prevent 
bodily injury due to falling into a pond of water or hole in the streets or on vacant lots. 
Here could be found Negro life in its entirety. As late as 1883 in the county they numbered 
nearly three to one over the whites, but the Negroes were reliable and intelligent. In the 
railroad era the town was reached by a branch line connecting it with Warren Plains, a 
distance of about three miles, but now modern highways have been constructed through the 
village. New Warrenton is quite a different place, with fine houses, paved streets, and 
electric lights. In 1779 old Bute County was divided into two counties, Warren and Franklin. 
Before Warrenton was incorporated, in 1779, the old stage line ran along the southern 
border of Colonel William R. Johnston's place. It later became the Kemp Plummer, Jr., 
residence. The two counties soon became quite a tobacco center and tobacco in hogsheads 
was often rolled to Petersburg or Richmond. During the first twenty-five years there were 
few houses built, but the act of 1779 required that one should be erected on each lot. The 
leading men did not live in the village, but on their plantations in the surrounding country. 
Lizzie Wilson Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, North Carolina, pp. 1, 6, 7, 9, 10-12. 

9 Ellen Mordecai was the oldest daughter of Jacob Mordecai, who was a resident of War- 
renton as early as 1792, where he engaged in business until he opened his school there. Ellen 
was one of his able assistants. She possessed a fine mind, was well educated, and learned 
much from reading the best literature and associating with educated and refined people. 
She possessed a fine sense of humor and keen wit. When a young woman, she began to 
write a number of sketches of old Warrenton and other places, calling the work "The History 
of Hastings," and in the main giving fictatious names to many of the principal characters. 
For some years after she ceased to live in Warrenton she continued to write it. It was never 
published, but it was bound and well preserved, and is now in the Southern Collection, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. Ellen Mordecai was never married and died 
in 1884, at the age of ninety-four. 

Mrs. Galespie was the oracle of the village. She, wore a green ribbon over the crown of 
her hat and kept it tied under her chin. Her hat was always made in the village of wheat 
straw. She collected and disseminated the news. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, 
pp. 13, 16, 26-27. 

10 In 1792 Jacob Mordecai moved from Petersburg, Virginia, to Warrenton, North Carolina, 
where he engaged in the mercantile business. He and his wife (Judith Myers) identified 
themselves with the people of the town and were highly respected and popular. They soon 
became valuable assets to the country village. For some years he was very successful, but 
in the end lost heavily in tobacco speculation and was forced to retire from the trade, 
sell his house, and seek other employment. Just then the Steward's House of the Warrenton 
Academy was completed and Mordecai was invited to take charge of it and to conduct the 
boarding department of the school. This he did for two years, but the work was so uncon- 
genial and unremunerative that he resigned. At this time some of the best people in town 
asked him to open a school for girls and after due consideration he agreed, and immediately 
set to work to provide quarters. 

On August 18, 1809, he advertised that his school would open with tuition, board, and 
room all for $105 per annum, but that drawing, music, books, quills, ink, and paper would 
be extra. Mordecai moved back to his old house and used his old storeroom for school. 
It proved too small, so the next year he purchased an unfinished house near the center of 
town and moved there. During the first year a storm blew down a new building, which was 
being erected. It fell against the school building and unroofed it. He added more buildings 
only to have them destroyed by fire on April 27, 1811. The carpenters had left and much 
of the new building was being used by the students. One girl wanted to keep her candle so 
as to finish a dress, but the Negress, who took them up each night, refused. The girl remem- 
bered that she had one in her trunk. She took it out and stuck it between the laths in 
the wall, without a candle stick. While sewing she went to sleep. It burned down and 
caught the lathes on fire, and when the family started to retire they saw the house in 
flames. As fast as a daughter could run, she hastened to the near-by academy and rang the 
bell. The boys at the Steward House helped save some of the furniture. People took the 
students into their homes. At the time there were about ninety students in the school. 
Oliver Fitts offered his large home for a school building. Two days later the school opened 
again. This residence was made the permanent home of the Mordecai Academy as long as 
it remained in Warrenton. At this time the people of Fayetteville, North Carolina, wanted 

66 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the view of enlarging the school he purchased a large lot of ground at 
the northern end of the village & erected on it a house capahle of con- 
taining a large boarding school, which was soon filled- I remember the 
general arrangement of the building, but my recollections of it are 
concentrated in the memory of the terrible calamity which occurred be- 
fore the workmen had quite completed their labors. In the night of April 
27 th , 1811, the house took fire, in consequence of the unpardonable heed- 
lessness of one of the scholars, reading in bed by the light of a candle 
without a candlestick and, there being no sufficient supply of water, the 
building was burnt to the ground- I slept, with one of my brothers, on a 
pallet bed laid down in the school room; we were roused by a servant & 
were wrapped up & taken over to the Boys' Academy which was quite 
near. The female scholars were distributed among the neighbors, & you 
may imagine the anxiety with which the roll was called the next morning 
at the several houses, & the happy fact ascertained that no one had 
perished in the flames. 

With wonderful confidence & perseverance my father imediately pro- 
cured another lot, at the opposite end of the village, with a large house 
on it, and "The "Warrenton Female Academy," having more than a 
hundred scholars, soon became well known in ]ST° Carolina, Virginia, 
S° Carolina & Georgia ; in all of which states & in others of the West & 
South West, there still remain Elderly women who retain grateful recol- 
lection of the benefit derived from the moral & intellectual instruction 
imparted to them at this Academy. 11 

My oldest brother Moses was at this time established as a successful 
lawyer in Raleigh, & my second brother Samuel as a merchant in Rich- 
mond- The principal instructors in this large school were my brother 
Solomon & oldest sister Rachel, & to them nearly all the children of my 

him to move his school there, but the climate was against it so Mordecai kept it in Warren- 
ton. He then bought the place from Fitts. 

The school had many unique customs. One of these was the daily hair-dressing and 
combing. At a set time each pupil went to the room of "Mammy," an old colored woman 
who lived in the old dormer-window house. Each student took with her a fine-toothed comb, 
brush, and small wooden block, with her name on it. After having her hair combed and 
dressed she deposited the block in a box, which blocks were later checked by Miss Ellen. 
Severe punishment was meted out to those who failed to report at the appointed hour for 
the beautification functions. Each and every day every girl went to the well in the yard 
with a tin pail and towel for her "daily morning bath," even if the water froze when it 
splashed on the face. 

When Mordecai had ninety boarding pupils he advertised that he could take no more. 
He did not have to cater to the whims of the young ladies or parents for students. Once a 
man received a letter from his two girls there that they were nearly starved and wanted 
to come home. The father made a trip to the academy for the purpose of taking them out 
of school. Arriving there just before dinner, he was invited to eat with the students. After 
partaking of the appetizing meal he said that he would not think of removing the girls, 
but Mordecai replied "Yes you will take them home, as I do not care to have such girls 
in my school." Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, pp. 133-142. 

11 This was not the only female school in Warrenton. As early as 1780 William Falkner 
and wife, Sarah came from London and in 1802 opened a school at Warrenton. This 
took place the same year that "The Moravian School" was begun. He was the founder 
of seminaries for young ladies in that section. It was a success from the very first. With the 
exception of three years it continued until Mrs. Falkner died on March 26, 1819. He died on 
December 6 of the same year. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, pp. 129-133. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 67 

mother are indebted for their scholastic education- 12 My mother's health 
was not very strong, & the younger daughters by my father's first wife, 
relieved my mother in a great measure, from the care of the large house- 
hold of pupils, & assisted her in supplying the physical wants of us 
younger children. 

I may say here that the great success attending the establishment of 
this School, although due in part to the manifest want, in that region, 
of such an institution, is very remarkable, when it is considered that my 
father was, by birth, education & conviction, an observer of the Jewish 
faith, & that his family was the only one of that religion to be found 
within a large circuit of his house; whilst, with slight exceptions, his 
pupils were members of Christian families. I believe that no serious 
embarrassment ever ensued, in social or other relations, from this dif- 
ference of religion, in our retired village. 

From the time of the fire & the removal consequent on it, my recollec- 
tion of all occurrences around me is very vivid, but few of them are 
worth recording here. I remember distinctly the great comet of 1811, 
which extended from the zenith nearly to the horizon, & was regarded as 
the precursor of the war with Great Britain, declared next year- In the 
same year, in a violent thunderstorm one of the chimneys of our house 
was either struck by lightning or blown down, & and that was the last 
time I can remember being afraid of lightning & thunder- 

12 Few if any of the early families of North Carolina, can boast of more illustrious men 
and women than this one. George Mordecai, a railroad president, was born in Warrenton, 
North Carolina, on April 27, 1801, the son of Jacob and Rebecca (Myers) Mordecai, and 
the half-brother of Moses Mordecai (1784-1824), a distinguished lawyer of Raleigh. George 
was educated in the classical school of Marcus George, of Warrenton, studied law in the 
office of his brother Henry, was admitted to the bar of North Carolina in 1822, and began 
to practice in Raleigh, where he soon rose to the head of the profession. In 1840 he was 
elected president of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, and in 1845 of the Bank of North 
Carolina. A man of benevolence and public spirit, he was interested in all that pertained 
to the welfare, progress, and prosperity of the city. He died in Raleigh on February 19, 1871. 

The children who assisted the father most in his school were Miss Ellen and Solomon. The 
latter was only fifteen years of age when he began. He was educated at Marcus George's 
Academy. He had a most kindly disposition and wonderful tact with the girl students. He 
had fine business qualifications and helped his father in that line. Mordecai always had the 
best teachers that he could procure in French, music (both vocal and instrumental), painting, 
drawing, and plain and fancy sewing. Of these teachers Miss Ellen became the best known. 
Her "History of Hastings" in manuscript was a masterpiece. As she never married she 
went with her father to his farm near Richmond and often visited Warrenton. Late in life 
she became an Episcopalian, before she died at a seaside resort in October, 1884, at the 
age of ninety-four. She wrote a book on the great spiritual conflict through which she 
passed before she left her Jewish faith. She was a woman of wonderful character, marked 
intelligence, and attractive personality. 

Rachel Mordecai married a certain Lazarus, of Wilmington, North Carolina, and removed 
to that city. She remained true to her faith, but became a Christian on her death-bed. 

Caroline Mordecai married Archilles Plunkett in 1820. Hs was a teacher of French in 
her father's academy. He was a Roman Catholic, but late in life his wife became a 
Unitarian. Plunkett was born and reared in Santo Domingo. In the uprising of the slaves 
there three of their loyal slaves warned them, which enabled them to escape with these three 
slaves and a few pieces of silver and nothing more. Jacob Mordecai opposed his children 
marrying gentiles for he was very loyal to his native faith. His oldest son Henry did not 
have much time to spend teaching in his father's school, for he was too busy getting ready 
for his life's profession. Not only in Raleigh, but all over the country, he was regarded as 
one of the best and most learned lawyers of his day. He married two daughters of Joel Lane 
of that city, and reared several sons and daughters. Solomon was a distinguished 
physician and philanthropist in Mobile, Alabama. The best known of the sons was Alfred 
the author of the autobiography here published. His son Alfred, after making an 
enviable record in the army was living in retirement in Washington in 1924. Montgomery 
Sketches of Old Warrenton, pp. 138-140 ; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, X 442 

68 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The association with my young companions, many of the female 
scholars & a few boys who were allowed to attend as day scholars; the 
Greek & Latin lessons I used to say to my brother whilst he was shaving, 
before breakfast, to economize his time; The tree under which I first 
read "The Lady of the Lake," (the very copy, I believe, which I have 
now,) & learned a great part of it by heart- these & a thousand other 
little things of the same kind crowd on my memory when I look back to 
the pleasant days of my childhood, almost unclouded by a sad recollec- 
tion- I cannot remember the time when I was not devoted to books & 
to study. Often in those young days have I risen before daylight to 
pursue my lessons, by the light of the fire with which old "Jenny" was 
baking her bread at the great oven in the yard, or by that of the fire 
which I myself kindled in the chimney with wood which I had collected, 
in play time, the evening before- I remember, particularly, preparing 
myself in this way for my examination in Blair's Rhetoric, & to this 
day I can repeat from memory many of the quotations conned at that 
time, as illustrations of the author's critical remarks. Although I was 
a healthy & sufiiciently active boy, it was often with great reluctance 
that I laid down "Miss Edgworth's Tales," or "The Arabian Nights," 
&c, to join my young companions in playing at Marbles, Hop-Scotch, 
& mumble-the-peg, or to shoot robins & other small birds with arrows 
fired from the Mulberry bows which "Old Cy," (Cyrus) used to make 
for us, in the intervals of his occupation of running a country Mill. 

One of the great rewards of application & good conduct was given by 
my good sister Rachel, in coming to the side of our trundle bed on Satur- 
day evenings & entertaining us with pleasant stories, until sleep "steeped 
our senses in forgetfulness"- In later days it was a great privilege to be 
allowed to sit in a low chair, or lie on the hearth rug, in winter evenings, 
whilst my father or some other member of the family would read aloud 
the charming Waverly Novels, as they came out. 

Among the earliest public events that impressed themselves on my 
memory were the occurrences of the War of 1812 : 13 Perry's Victory on 
Lake Erie 14 & the invasion of Maryland & the District of Columbia, 15 

13 The War of 1812 was brought on and supported by the West nominally for the benefit 
of the East when the East did not want it and did all it could against it. The causes were 
seizure and destruction of American commerce, impressment of American seamen, virtual 
blockade of American ports, aid to the Indians on the frontier, search of American ships, 
and orders in council. The only land battle of note won by the Americans was that of 
New Orleans on January 8, 1815, after the treaty of peace had been signed on December 24, 
1814. The Treaty of Ghent, which closed the war, did not even so much as mention any 
of the causes of the war. John Spencer Bassett, Short History of the United States, pp. 313-338. 

14 From green timbers Captain Oliver H. Perry constructed six ships on Lake Erie and 
soon had them well armed and manned. On September 10, 1813, he destroyed the British 
fleet which was slightly weaker than his own. He sent to Washington the following sen- 
tence : "We have met the enemy and they are ours. Two ships, two brigs, one schooner, 
and one sloop." Bassett, Short History of the United States, p. 324. 

15 With Napoleon defeated on the Island of Elba, England determined to make short work 
of the American war in the summer of 1814. Prevost prepared to invade New York 
by the way of Lake Champlain ; Admiral Cochrane and an army of 4,000 under Major- 
General Ross appeared at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay to take Washington and Baltimore. 
Ross landed at Benedict, opposite Patuxent, just forty miles from Washington. Without 
opposition he landed his troops and armament and unopposed marched on the city. The 
militia was called out and placed under General Winder, who had little determination. The 
militia fell back until they reached Bladensburg, just five miles from Washington. Here they 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 69 

with threats of hostile operations in Virginia- The last caused the tem- 
porary abandonment of Norfolk & Richmond by some of the inhabitants, 
& our relatives the Massie 16 & Myers 17 families of Richmond took 
refuge for a short time in our retired village- The family of M re 
Kennon 18 of Norfolk took up their residence also in Warrenton & an 
intimate friendship between them & our family, commenced then, has 
been continued without interruption- The news of the Battle of New 
Orleans was soon followed by the illuminations for the celebration of 
peace, & I was then interested in following on the map, by the aid of 
newspaper reports, the operations of Napoleon & the allied armies which 
terminated in the battle of Waterloo 19 & the march on Paris. 20 I was 

halted long enough to fire once or twice and then fled from the field, August 24, 1814. On 
the same day the British entered Washington, burned the capitol, White House, other public 
buildings, and a few private ones. Ross then took his men by water to Baltimore and 
landed on September 11, at North Point, just twelve miles from the city. On the next 
morning he was mortally wounded in a skirmish, but his men continued to advance. No less 
than 14,000 men defended the city and it did not fall, and even Admiral Cochrane with his 
gunboats failed to capture Fort McHenry. The Admiral said that he could not advance, 
although the army took the first line trenches. They decided to leave and sailed down the 
bay to leave a month later for Louisiana. But in the Southwest Jackson, on January 8, 
1815, defeated General Pakenham. Had Baltimore been taken Virginia would have been 
next. In fact, the coast along the bay was overrun for a considerable distance back and 
the militia was called out, but it did little good. Bassett, Short History of the United States, 
pp. 329-333. 

16 James William Massie (1799-May 8, 1869) was born and died in Ireland. He was one 
time a missionary to India and preached in England, Scotland, and Ireland. He visited the 
United States several times ; worked for the Union and freedom of the slaves ; and wrote 
several books on conditions in America and slavery. Nathaniel Massie (December 28, 1763- 
November 13, 1813) was born in Virginia and died in Ohio. He served in the Revolution; 
became a surveyor and locator of settlers in the West ; surveyed the first tract in the 
Virginia Military District of Ohio in 1791, and again in 1793-96 ; took up his own land in 
the town of Chillicothe ; and by the beginning of the nineteenth century he was one of the 
largest land owners in Ohio. For several years he was major-general of the state militia; 
was a member of the state senate for several terms and speaker one term; was in the 
constitutional convention in 1802 ; and ran for governor in 1807, but his opponent received 
the most votes. The opponent was declared ineligible, however, and the office was offered 
to Massie, but he declined it. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 249-250. 

17 Doubtless he refers to George Myers of England who emigrated to the United States 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century and settled in Virginia, where he acquired a 
large tract of land in Albemarle County and became a prosperous citizen. Hynam Myers came 
to America from Amsterdam and settled in New York City. The first Moses Myers settled 
in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1784, became an exporter under the title of Myers & Company, which 
became the foreign agent for the French government for the purchase of tobacco in America, 
and was vice-consul for Denmark at Norfolk in 1809, and consul for the Netherlands at the 
same place in 1819. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XV, 388 ; XX 25 ; 
Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 473-474. 

18 Beverley Kennon was born in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on April 7, 1793, the son 
of Richard and Elizabeth (Munford) Kennon. His father served in the Revolution; rose 
to the rank of brigadier-general in the Virginia troops ; was in the state legislature and 
speaker in 1801 ; and was first governor of the Territory of Louisiana. His mother was a 
daughter of Colonel Robert Munford of Mecklenburg County, Virginia. The family descended 
from Richard Kennon who came to Virginia before 1670, and settled at Conjurer's Neck in 
Henrico County. He was a large planter and merchant and became very wealthy. Beverly 
Kennon entered the navy in 1809 ; rose to the rank of captain in 1837. He died with Abel 
P. Upshar, Secretary of State, on the Princeton when the gun "Peacemaker" blew up on the 
Chesapeake on February 28, 1844. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 552. 

19 In 1812 Napoleon made his ever memorable march to Moscow with over 600,000 men, 
but lost most of them before he reached the Germanies in the fall of 1812. All during 1813 
he fought his enemies off until the battle of Leipsic, October 16-19, 1813. In the winter of 
1813-14 the allies closed in on him and forced him to abdicate in the early spring of 1814. 
He was sent to the Island of Elba, with a large pension and title of Emperor. A quarrel 
broke out in the Congress of Vienna among the allies, so Napoleon escaped from Elba on 
February 26, 1815 ; landed in France on March 1 ; reached Paris on March 20 ; but the allies 
under Wellington of England and Blucher of Prussia crushed him on June 18, 1815, in the 
memorable battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was then placed on the Island of St. Helena where 
he died, closely guarded by the British. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 722. 

20 On March 31, 1814, the allied armies reached Paris and placed a Bourbon, Louis XVIII, 
on the throne of France. He fled with the approach of Napoleon in March, 1815, but the 
allies entered Paris on a second time on July 7, 1815, and again placed Louis XVIII on 
the throne. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 722. 

70 The North Carolina Historical Review 

not twelve years of age at this time, but I had no doubt that my intel- 
lectual development, as regards knowledge acquired under the assiduous 
instruction of my indefatiguable teachers was a good deal in advance 
of my years- My brothers & sisters & myself had no instructors, except 
in French, out of our own family ; yet, when I ceased to receive it at the 
age of fifteen, I was well versed in the English language & literature, in 
geography & history & arithmetic, knew something of geometry & trigo- 
nometry, & had completed a great part of the collegiate course of Latin 
& Greek; having read in the latter language the whole of the Iliad- I 
could read French fluently & write it pretty well- Our instructor in that 
language was a refugee planter from San Domingo, M r Plunkett, 21 who 
afterwards married my sister Caroline- Another gentleman of the same 
class, M r La Taste, gave us lessons in dancing- M r Plunkett & one of 
his sons 22 also taught music to the young ladies in my father's school. 

One of our neighbors in Warrenton was W m R. Johnson, [sic'] 23 (com- 
monly called there Billy Johnson,) who was known all over the United 
States as a successful trainer of race-horses at a time when the racing 
business was pursued & patronised, as in England, by gentlemen- The 
Warrenton race course, attended by gentlemen & ladies in their own 
equipages, was a source of great amusement & interest to us youth, & 
"Arthur Taylor," the Jockey, stood only a little lower than his 
master in our estimation. 24 M r Johnson was the owner of the horse 

21 Achilles Plunkett, brother-in-law of Alfred Mordecai, opened a school in the old 
Mordecai school building on December 1, 1822, but he died in January, 1824. The school was 
prosperous, but his widow and stepson, John D. Plunkett, continued to run it only until 
the end of the year 1824. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, p. 143. 

22 This was John D. Plunkett. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, p. 143. 

23 Colonel William R. Johnston was quite a character in Warrenton, as well as one of 
the greatest sportsmen in the country. One day when mounting his mare to ride her to 
town he was struck by her beauty and symmetry and spoke to a Negro servant, who told him 
about how fast she could run in the pasture and how hard she was to "ketch." By the time 
he had reached the tavern he had planned to place a quarter-of-a-mile course on the 
edge of the village on his land. He met Kemp Plummer at his usual game of backgammon 
and they agreed to have the race between Plummer's Bessy and Johnston's nag. A sadler 
was engaged who made one of his best saddles. Most of the people in the town and many 
from the country attended the race. The Johnston mare was so promising that she received 
every advantage of education he could give her. She became a noted success. Colonel William 
R. Johnston later moved to Petersburg, Virginia, from the old Kemp Plummer place and 
was the most celebrated horse-racer of that day. The racetrack was a straight road from 
Johnston's gate, but later it was made into a half ellipse, a track between one-half and three- 
quarters of a mile, and ending at the beginning. For years it was used by gentlemen on 
stated occasions. The celebrated "Boston," the fastest four-mile racer in the United States, 
was trained here. The only four mile race he ever lost was near Boston to the celebrated 
little mare "Fashion." The people of Warrenton and the surrounding country remembered 
this race and the "Boston" as a contest between the North and South. Boston's stable 
was near a large holly tree on the Eaton place after Johnston moved there. Many years 
later General M. T. Hawkins, Peter B. Powell, Thomas H. Christmas, and others built a 
real race track at Warrenton. It was about a mile from town, a hundred yards or more 
from the old cemetery. It was built about 1850, and was a mile track in the form of an 
ellipse except that the last quarter was straight. In the spring and fall these contests drew 
racers and fans from Charleston, Columbia, Richmond, and other places. These were great 
events where the betting ran into large figures. After the war it could not be revived and 
only local horses participated. 

Launcelot Thorpe, an Englishman, died near Warrenton on July 16, 1806, and for several 
years he was engaged in bringing over English horses to Warrenton and other towns. 
Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, pp. 29-33. 

24 Warrenton was also much given over to cock fighting. These "Cocking mains" were 
usually fought between gentlemen of different counties or rival strains of birds. They were 
advertised in newspapers, at the crossroads, in the taverns, and at other public places. They 
were usually near a county town, however, and often lasted a week, when hotels, inns, 
gambling dens, and the like were filled to overflowing. Even small boys knew the different 
strains of the breeds of cocks. They were trained, dieted, and exercised for the fight. The 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 71 

"Henry" that ran a famous twelve mile race, on Long Island, with the 
Northern horse "Eclipse," about 1825- One of M r Johnson's sons mar- 
ried a daughter of John Swift, 25 former Mayor of Philadelphia, & the 
lady whom you know as "Truxy (Truxton) Johnson" is his daughter. 
Another Johnson 26 kept a tavern on the Court House Square, & his 
wife was a sister of Joe Gales 27 of the Ntl. Intelligencer, 28 & of our 
Washington friend M rs Seaton- 29 Mrs. J: dropped her H's worse that 
M rs S.- They all came from England- & one of the jokes on her was 
that she handed a pie to her servant & told her to "eat (heat) it for 
dinner," which she did accordingly- I will mention one other family in 
the village, that of M r Bragg, a carpenter & builder ; because one of his 

gaffers who fitted the gaffs were trained experts. Up to the middle of the fifties of the last 
century the pits or rings were located on a large vacant lot adjoining the town common, about 
fifty yards south of the town spring. Most of the gambling was done on credit as money 
was very scarce at that time, and the loser would give his notes which were sold at a 
great discount. About eight miles from Warrenton was located Shocco Springs, known far 
and wide for its drinking and gambling. 

Early Warrenton was also a noted dancing center. Several times a year professional dancing 
teachers came to the town to hold classes, which lasted from four to six weeks. Montgomery, 
Sketches of Old Warrenton, pp. 35-40, 48-49. 

25 John Swift, an attorney, was born in Philadelphia on June 27, 1790, and died there 
on June 9, 1873. He was the son of John White Swift (January 30, 1750-1819) and was 
admitted to the bar in 1811. He was an outstanding Whig leader in the city and was 
mayor from 1832 to 1838, 1839 to 1841, and 1845 to 1849. Many times he won the applause 
of the people by quelling several riots, even leading the police in person. Appleton's Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography, VI, 10. 

26 Next to the Arlington House on the north stood a two-story frame house with a large 
basement. Later O. P. Shell had a restaurant there and above it was a dry-goods store. Later 
John R. Johnson and his son William T. took over the business. In 1855 two men developed 
yellow fever in the annex to the Arlington House, which was on the second floor over the 
store. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, p. 93. 

27 Joseph Gales, Jr. (August 10, 1786-July 21, 1860), was born in England and was the 
eldest son of Joseph Gales, Sr. In 1795 he came to America with his father, a political 
refugee. He spent four years in Philadelphia and then moved to Raleigh, North Carolina. 
He attended private school in Philadelphia and the University of North Carolina. From his 
father he learned the printer's trade and shorthand, and his father also sent him to Phila- 
delphia and Washington to develop his skill as a reporter. In 1807, when he went to Wash- 
ington, he became a reporter for Samuel Harrison Smith, the editor of the National 
Intelligencer. In 1810 he became sole proprietor of the National Intelligencer. In 1812 
William W. Seaton, who had been associated with Joseph Gales, Sr., on the Raleigh Register, 
and, who had married the latter's daughter, Sarah, became a partner of Joseph Gales, Jr. 
They became reporters of the proceedings of Congress, one in the Senate and the other in 
the House. They also published the Register of Debates, Annals of Congress, American State 
Papers, and other documents. The wife of Joseph Gales, Jr., was Sarah Juliana Marie Lee, 
the daughter of Theodorick Lee of Virginia and the neice of "Light-Horse Harry" Lee. 
This union took place on December 14, 1813. Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 100-101. 

28 The National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser was established by Samuel 
Harrison Smith in Washington, District of Columbia, on October 31, 1800, as the official 
organ of Jefferson's party. Smith had set up the paper in Philadelphia some years before. 
The words Washington Advertiser were dropped from the title in 1810 and in 1813 it became 
a daily and continued until 1870. Smith sold it in 1810 to Joseph Gales, Jr., who in 1812 
took William W. Seaton in as partner, which partnership lasted until the death of Gales in 
1860. It continued the organ of the Republican party through the administration of John 
Quincy Adams, but it was a Whig paper during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. In 1870 
the daily and weekly merged and was moved to New York where it soon died. Dictionary of 
American History, IV, 60. 

29 Mrs. Seaton was Sarah Weston Gales, the daughter of Joseph Gales, Sr., and sister of 
Joseph Gales, Jr. William Winston Seaton (January 11, 1785-June 16, 1866) was born in 
Virginia, attended an academy in Richmond, and learned printing. For a while he edited 
The Virginia Pilot in Richmond, The Republican at Petersburg, and The North Carolina 
Journal at Halifax, and assisted Joseph Gales, Sr., in editing The Raleigh Register. On March 
30, 1809, he married into the family and in 1812 he joined his brother-in-law in Washington 
as associate editor of the National Intelligencer. Dictionary of American Biography, XVI, 

72 The North Carolina Historical Review 

sons was Capt. Bragg 30 who achieved distinction in the Mexican War, 
&as Genl. Bragg in the civil war. another son 31 stood high as a lawyer 
& Judge in Alabama- The father worked at Raleigh, & it was by the 
carelessness of one of his workmen, in repairing the State House, that 
the building was set on fire & the statute of Washington by Canova was 
destroyed- 32 

But my village gossip is diverting my attention from my own story- 
In 1817, when I was thirteen years of age, I accompanied my father 
on a stage journey to Richmond, V a , my first absence of more than a day 
from home- There was nothing memorable about the journey, unless 
it was what may now be thought the rather primitive nature of the 
"stage" wagon, open in front, with our baggage secured to a rack behind 
with leather straps- as the journey was made partly at night we had a 
small cord tied to our trunk & passed into our hands, that we might know 
if the trunk was cut off. The post office laws or contracts require that 
the mail should not be carried by a negro; so our skilful black driver 
was accompanied by a mail guard, in the shape of a white boy 8 or 10 
years old, who sat beside him, to save the law- This boy's name, I think, 
was Mice, & I believe that was really the family name- We returned 

30 Braxton Bragg was born in Warren County, North Carolina, on March 22, 1817. He was 
the son of Thomas and Margaret (Crossland) Bragg, and brother of Thomas Bragg, governor 
of North Carolina, United States Senator, and Attorney General of the Confederate States 
of America. Braxton graduated from West Point in 1837, when he became a second lieutenant. 
He assisted in moving the Cherokees to the West in 1838 ; served in the Indian wars in 
Florida from 1838 to 1842 ; was in the military occupation of Texas, 1845-1846 ; and then 
took part in the Mexican War. For meritorious services in this war he was brevetted 
captain on May 9, 1846, major on September 23, 1846, and lieutenant-colonel on February 
23, 1847. He acted as assistant inspector-general in 1849 ; was on garrison duty from 1849 
to 1853 ; became a major on March 3, 1855 ; and resigned from the army on January 3, 1856. 
He operated a sugar plantation in Louisiana from 1856 to 1861 ; was commissioner of 
public works of Louisiana from 1853 to 1861 ; and became chief of the Louisiana forces in 
1861. He was made brigadier-general in the Confederate army on March 7, 1861 ; was com- 
mander of the forces at Pensacola ; was raised to major-general on September 12, 1861 ; 
moved to the West where he took part in the battle of Shiloh ; became a full general on 
April 12, 1862 ; and later was made commander of the Department of the Mississippi. Hastily 
he marched from Tupelo, Mississippi, to Chattanooga, Tennessee ; entered Kentucky on 
September 5, 1862 ; and fought his way as far as Frankfort, where the Confederate pro- 
visional government was organized. Near Perryville, October 8, 1862, he won, but as the 
Federals were reinforced that night he was forced to retreat to Tennessee. During 1863 he 
fought in Tennessee, but after he lost the battle of Missionary Ridge on November 25, 1863, 
he was relieved of his command on December 2, 1863. On February 24, 1864, he was assigned 
to duty at the head of the government and charged with the conduct of military operations 
at the seat of government. In November, 1864, he commanded the forces in North Carolina 
and defended Fort Fisher. After the close of the war he became superintendent of the New 
Orleans water works ; was later chief engineer of the board for the improvement of the river, 
harbor, and bay of Mobile, Alabama ; became chief engineer of the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa 
Fe Railroad in 1874 ; and died in Galveston, Texas, on September 27, 1876. National Cyclopaedie 
of American Biography, XI, 218. 

31 John Bragg was born near Warrenton, North Carolina, on January 14, 1806 ; attended 
the local academy at Warrenton ; and was graduated from the University of North Carolina 
in 1824. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1830, and began to practice in Warren- 
ton. He served in the state house of commons from 1830 to 1834 ; moved to Mobile, Alabama, 
in 1836, where he practiced law; became judge of the tenth judicial circuit in 1842; was a 
member of the state house of representatives ; served in Congress as a state rights Democrat 
from March 4, 1851, to March 3, 1853 ; and refused to stand for reelection in 1852. He resumed 
the practice of law ; was a member to the state convention in 1861 ; and died in Mobile, 
Alabama, on August 10, 1878. Biographical Directory of The American Congress, 1774-1927, 
p. 729. 

32 Antonia Canova was born at Possagno, near Treviso, on November 1, 1757, and died 
at Venice on October 13, 1822. He was a celebrated Italian sculptor who began at the age 
of seventeen to produce wonderful statutes. In 1779 he obtained a pension from Venice 
and went to Rome. For the remainder of his life he remained in Rome, but often made 
trips to Europe, was in Paris three times — twice to execute commissions for Napoleon and 
his family and once after the battle of Waterloo, on a mission from the Pope to recover the 
works of art taken from Italy by the Emperor. Century Dictionary and Cyclopaedia, IX, 211. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 73 

home, after a pleasant visit & cordial reception from our relatives in 
Kich d - 

In 1818, my father thinking that the harrassing labors of himself & 
his older children had secured a sufficient provision for the future sup- 
port of the family determined to retire from the occupation of teaching, 
& he therefore sold the property & good will of the academy- 33 The 
purchasers were Joseph Andrews & his son-in-law Thomas Jones, (two 
of Fielding's novels.) of Philadelphia, who took possession of it in 1818. 
Our family moved to a smaller house, preparatory to a further removal 
to Virginia, where my father proposed to purchase a f arm- 

At this time the reform of the Military Academy at West Point had 
begun, under the able government of John C. Calhoun, 34 Secretary of 
War. & admirable organization instituted by Major Thayer, 35 conse- 
quently the academy was becoming generally known & it occured [sic] 
to my father to try to procure me an appointment of Cadet- These 
appointments were not yet in great demand, & mine was easily obtained 
through the kind & influential interposition of M r Nathaniel Macon then 
late speaker of the House of Representatives in Congress, & then United 
States Senator from our State, & a resident of Warren County ; (where, 
by the bye, he was generally known as "Nat. Mekins.") 

It turned out unfortunately, that the hard earned savings of years 
had not been well invested & my father's means of support were much 
smaller than he had expected- carrying out however his plan, he pur- 

33 In 1818 Mordecai sold all buildings and furniture of the academy to Joseph Andrews 
and Thomas P. Jones, A.M., men of good reputation from Philadelphia. They had a good 
business and employed five teachers besides instructors in music, drawing, and dancing. In 
1822, as these men could not meet their payments, they closed the school and returned it 
to Mordecai, and they opened a school in the neighborhood of the town. Achilles Plunkett 
then opened a school in the old buildings on December 1, 1822, but he died in January, 1824. 
His widow and stepson, John D. Plunkett, continued to operate the school until the close of 
the year. 

In 1825 the Reverend Elijah Brainerd and Reverend C. C. Brainerd bought the place from 
Caroline Plunkett. In 1827 C. C. Brainerd died and Elijah kept it open for a year, when 
Mrs. Plunkett again took over the school and taught it in 1829. She offered it for sale in 
1830, but it was not sold until 1834, when William Plummer bought it for a residence. He had 
just married Eliza Armistead from Edenton, North Carolina. Mrs. Plunkett then resided 
in a house on the east of her father's place and conducted a school at her home for years. 
From the very first of their residence in Warrenton Dr. Glouster, one of the earliest 
physicians of the town, was a great asset to the Mordecai family. His residence was not 
far from the school and he was the physician for the family of Mordecai. At the time of 
the fire he took some furniture of the school and as many of the girls as he could house. The 
daughter of Mordecai found at his home the desk in which the school records were kept. 
They used this register in their visit from house to house to check the students and found 
not one missing. Montgomery, Sketches of Old Warrenton, pp. 137, 142-144, 231. 

34 John Caldwell Calhoun was born in South Carolina on March 18, 1782, and died at 
Washington on March 31, 1850. He graduated from Yale College in 1804 ; studied law at 
Litchfield, Connecticut ; and admitted to the bar in 1807, commencing to practice in 
Abbeville, South Carolina. He served in the state legislature from 1808 to 1809 ; was a 
member of Congress from 1811 to 1817 ; was Secretary of War from 1817 to 1825 ; was Vice 
President from 1825 to 1832, when he resigned to go to the Senate ; served in the Senate from 
1832 to 1842 ; was Secretary of State from 1844 to 1845 ; and was in the Senate again from 
1845 until his death. He was one of the chief defenders of slavery, author of the doctrine 
of nullification, one of the chief instruments in the annexation of Texas, and a writer of 
some pretentions. Century Dictionary arid Cyclopaedia, IX, 204-205. 

35 Sylvanus Thayer of Massachusetts became a cadet at West Point on March 20, 1807 ; 
became second lieutenant on February 23, 1808 ; rose to captain of engineers on October 13, 
1813 ; was elevated to major on May 24, 1828 ; became lieutenant-colonel on July 7, 1838 ; was 
made colonel on March 3, 1863 ; became brigadier-general by brevet on May 31, 1863 ; received 
many other brevet ranks ; and died on September 7, 1872. Francis B. Heitman, Historical 
Register and Dictionary of the United States Army from its Organization, September 29, 1789, 
to March 2, 190S, I, 952. 

74 The North Carolina Historical Review 

chased a property, called Spring Farm, about six miles north of Rich- 
mond V a , to which the family removed in the spring of 1819, & which 
was their home for about eight years- In June of that year, when I was 
a little more than fifteen years old, I took leave of them, & went on 
board a little coasting schooner, to get my first experience of seasickness 
in a voyage to New York- My brother Sam. had furnished me with some 
claret wine which I tried to drink, & the experiment gave me such a 
disgust to that beverage that it was many years afterwards before I 
could taste it again. After putting in at Lewes, Del. on account of a 
storm, our little vessel reached Sandy Hook, & for what reason I know 
not, went through "The Kills," & at last landed me in the lower part of 
New York, where almost the first person I met was (oddly enough) 
Arthur Gloster, 36 of my native village, who had also received an appoint- 
ment to Mily. Acady., where however he did not remain many months. 
I soon found out my mother's brother, M r Benjn Myers, who was in 
business in N.York, & I think it was then that I staid a day or two with 
him & saw something of the city, which at that time extended little, if 
at all, above Canal Street- I remember that "The Sailors' Snug Harbor," 
(now on Staten Island,) stood on an eminence in the vicinity of that 
Street & Broadway; "Niblo's Garden," (The Metropolitan Hotel,) was 
enclosed by a fence, & quite out of town- The fashionable residences 
were on "The Battery" & "Bowling Green" & in the lower part of 
Broadway- My uncle took his meals at Bunker's Hotel, near The 
Bowling Green ; his modest rooms were in the lower part of Pine Street, 
& I well remember the fire place there, faced with blue Dutch tiles, con- 
taining a Scripture story, which would now, I supposed, be almost worth 
their weight - in silver, at least- if not more at the appointed time, 
June 14 th 1819. I went up the Hudson in a steamboat, of which there 
were not more than two or three, perhaps, then running, & was put on 
shore at West Point from a row boat attached to the steamer by a line, 
as was then the customary manner of making all but the principal land- 
ings- Having reported myself to Major Thayer, I was soon quartered 
with several of my class mates in a room in the old "North Barracks," 
& set to work at the preliminary drill- I can recollect the stiffness 
caused in my left arm by carrying for two hours a day the unaccustomed 
weight of the heavy old line musket- ll lbs which was the only one, then 
& for some years after, in use. Prepared as I was, by the faithful & kind 
instruction which I had received at home, my examination for admission 
presented no difficulty- I can remember that when the French teacher, 
M r Berard, 37 was examining us in grammar, he gave the boy next to me 
an example of a "reflective verb" & asked him to name the class to which 

36 Arthur Gloster of Warrenton, North Carolina, never became an officer in the United 
States army. 

37 Claudius Berard of France was appointed from Pennsylvania as teacher of French at 
West Point on January 3, 1815 ; became professor of French there on August 8, 1846 ; and 
died on May 6, 1848. Heitman, Register, I, 213. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 75 

it belonged, which he could not do : The question was passed to me & I 
answered it ; but I added that I knew it from the f rench & did not think 
that the designation was recognized in English grammar. This was 
pretty cool for a boy of 15, under the circumstances? The next day M r 
Berard sent for me to go to his house & questioned me about my studies, 
which seemed to surprise him ; for he said : "Why did you leave them, to 
come here?" I hope he was satisfied with the answer which he received 
in four years. In consequence of my father's removal to Virginia, about 
the time of my leaving home, my name was entered as from that State & 
so printed in the first Register after my admission. My friend M r 
Macon, determined, as he said, that Virginia should not steal "all the 
clever men from N° Carolina," took a good deal of trouble to obtain an 
order from the War Office to have the error corrected; much to the 
amusement of Major Worth 38 & some of the other officers. 

We had not been long in our first encampment, under Capt. John R. 
Bell, 39 then Commandant of Cadets, when the order came for us to 
make a march into the country; so we crossed the river to Cold Spring 
& marched to Poughkeepsie & Hudson- We stopped at Livingston 40 
Manor to pay our respects to the widow of Genl. Montgomery 41 who fell 
at Quebec- From Hudson we returned to West Point by water- whether 
on a steamboat or a sloop, I forget- & the next morning in Barracks, 
was the only time I ever missed Reveille roll call, having overslepped 
[sic] myself. In that encampment the last of the "Cadet Command- 
ments," E d .G.W.Butler, 42 used to drill the batallion, & the Capt of my 

38 William Jenkins Worth of New York became a first lieutenant on March 19, 1813 ; 
captain on August 19, 1814 ; major in ordinance on May 30, 1832 ; and colonel on July 7, 
1838. He received a number of brevet commissions including that of major-general on 
September 23, 1846, for gallantry and meritorious conduct in the several conflicts in the 
Mexican War about Monterey. He was presented with a sword by resolution of Congress 
of March 2, 1847, in testimony of the high sense entertained of his zeal and good conduct 
in storming Monterey, Mexico. He died on May 7, 1849. Heitman, Register, I, 1061. 

39 John R. Bell of New York became a cadet at West Point on June 15, 1808 ; was made 
second lieutenant of artillery on January 3, 1812 ; and rose step by step to the rank of 
colonel between October 28, 1814, and June 1, 1815. He became captain of artillery on 
October 10, 1814 ; was brevetted major on October 10, 1824 ; and died on April 11, 1825. 
Heitman, Register, I, 208. 

40 Robert Livingston, the first American ancestor, was born in Scotland on December 13, 
1654, and died in New York on April 20, 1725. His second son, Robert R. (August, 1718- 
December 9, 1775), erected a mansion on the Hudson on a 13,000 acre tract of land given 
to him by his father before he entailed the remainder of his manor of more than 160,000 
acres to his oldest son. His son, Robert R., Junior, November 27, 1746-February 26, 1813), 
the promoter of the steamboat, the purchaser of Louisiana, and one of America's most noted 
statesmen, erected a home just south of his father's. Both of these homes were called 
Clermont. Both were burnt in the American Revolution, but were erected on a more mag- 
nificant scale soon thereafter. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, III, 741-747. 

41 Richard Montgomery was born in Ireland on December 2, 1736, and died at Quebec, 
Canada, on December 31, 1775. He served in the French and Indian War in America; sold 
his commission in 1772 ; returned to New York in 1773 ; and married Janet, the daughter of 
Judge Robert R. Livington, the father of the more noted Chancellor Robert R. Livingston. 
He soon became a leader in New York politics and social life, but died storming Quebec on 
December 31, 1775. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 370-371. 

42 Edward George Washington Butler of Tennessee became a cadet at West Point on 
September 14, 1816 ; second lieutenant on July 1, 1820 ; first lieutenant on November 6, 1823 ; 
and resigned on May 28, 1831. He became colonel of dragoons on April 9, 1847 ; was honorably 
mustered out of service on July 31, 1848 ; and died on September 6, 1888. Heitman, Register, 
I, 269. 

76 The North Carolina Historical Review 

company was Andrew Donelson, 43 the nephew of Genl. Jackson & his 
private Secretary, when President- 
Habits of study & regular conduct made my academic duties easy & 
pleasant to me- French of course gave me no trouble- The Professor of 
Mathematics, M r Andrew Ellicott, 44 was then at a very advanced age 
& although he sometimes visited the "Section rooms," as our places of 
recreation were called, he took no active part in the instruction- I & some 
others used to humor his fancy of having examples in arithmetic & 
algebra worked on our slates in very small characters & presented to 

There were few graduates of the academy then capable or willing to 
act as instructors, & the want had to be supplied by cadets of the higher 
classes- Thus the teacher or even our highest section was a cadet, W m H. 
Bell, 45 of ~N° Carolina, whom your mother & some of you knew as the 
ordnance officer who relieved me in command of Washington arsenal, 
in 1855. 

At the general examination in June 1820, I was second in my class, & 
in the encampment which followed I was made a corporal, which made 
my military duties easier when we marched that summer to Philadel- 
phia- Major Worth had then relieved Capt.- Bell in the command of the 
"corps," & just before our departure he called for my equipment, to see 
what weight we boys had to carry- I do not remember exactly the 
weight, but with our heavy muskets, our knapsack filled with linen 
clothing, & our blanket & a stiff leather cap, we could not have been 
charged with much less than forty pounds ? carried by the Roman soldier 
of old- We went down to New York on a sloop- the prevailing river 
craft- & crossed over to Staten Island where we encamped some days; 
We then marched through Brunswick, Princeton & Newton, to Bristol; 
by water to Bridesburgh & over to Mantua where we encamped for some 
time, nearly on the ground now occupied by the mansion of Powelton; 
the site was then open fields or woods extending to the Schuylkill. The 
yellow fever prevailing in the City prevented our visiting it, & we saw 
the inhabitants only in our camp- My good brother & instructor, 
Solomon, was then pursuing his medical studies in Philadelphia & we 

43 Andrew Jackson Donelson was born near Nashville, Tennessee, on August 25, 1800, and 
died in Memphis, Tennessee, on June 26, 1871. He graduated from West Point in 1820 ; 
served in the army as second lieutenant until February, 1822 ; studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1823 ; and then became a cotton planter in Mississippi. In 1829 he became the 
adviser and private secretary of President Jackson. He later became charge to Texas ; 
worked through an agreement for the annexation of Texas ; became minister to Prussia in 
1846 ; acted as minister to the German Confederation in 1848-1849 ; was editor of The Union 
in Washington in 1851-1852 ; nominee for Vice President of the American Party in 1856 ; 
after this retired to his immense estates ; and practiced law in Memphis, Tennessee, sub- 
sequent to the Civil War. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, II, 199-200. 

44 Andrew Ellicott of Pennsylvania was a major in the Maryland militia from 1777 to 1779 ; 
became a professor at West Point on September 1, 1813 ; and died on August 29, 1820. 
Heitman, Register, I, 401. 

45 William Haywood Bell of North Carolina became a cadet at West Point on September 25, 
1816; was made third lieutenant of ordnance on July 1, 1820; was made second lieutenant in 
artillery on June 1, 1821, to take effect on July 1, 1820; was acting quartermaster from 
November 1, 1830, to July 31, 1831; was captain of ordnance on May 30, 1832; was made 
major on March 25, 1848 ; resigned on May 28, 1861 ; and died on December 20, 1865. 
Heitman, Register, I, 208. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 77 

had the pleasure of meeting. I saw some members of your mother's 
family, but not herself, as I happened to be out of camp when she visited 
it- She has an account of the march to Phil a which was prepared by one 
of the cadets & printed, & which you can consult if you have any curosity 
on the subject- 
On the opening of the next academic year I resumed my studies with 
increased interest, as they became more advanced, & at the close I main- 
tained my former standing- The leader of our class was W m T. Wash- 
ington 46 of the District of Columbia, who had brilliant mathematical 
abilities & talents, but was in a fair way to be spoiled by the favor shown 
to him and by the flattery of his superiors- His health was not robust & at 
the end of our school year he was permitted to go, on furlough, to 
Europe- He did not rejoin the class before the end of their term, but he 
received a commission in the army which he resigned after a short time- 
His subsequent brief career may be passed over in silence; he died in 
Greece, during the revolution. 

In the summer of 1821, my "furlough year," I paid a visit to my 
parents & relatives in Richmond : My sister Rachel had been married a 
few months before & had taken my younger sister Eliza with her to 
Wilmington, ~N° Carolina, where the later remained, under the excellent 
care & instruction of our sister, until she was grown up- Whilst I was 
at home, Major Thayer, with kind consideration for the gratification 
of my friends, sent me notice, "Officially," of my appointment as acting 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics. This appointment carrying with it 
increased pay, exemption from military duties (drills &c) & from inspec- 
tor's visits to my room, rendered my situation at the academy even easier 
than before, & as pleasant as it was possible to be- I was permitted to 
join the special mass of twelve cadets who were boarded by the Widow 
Thompson, in a house that stood on part of the ground now occupied 
by the Ordnance buildings- The walk over the plain in winter, in the 
face of the northern blasts & snow storms, was sometimes rather trying; 
but the temporary inconvenience was more than compensated by the 
comfort of a quiet room & neat table, to say nothing of female society; 
you can remember the three Misses Thompson in advanced age- In the 
absence of Washington I kept without difficulty, & perhaps with dimin- 
ished application, the place at the head of my class, during our third 
year. Regarded with favor by the officers of the academy, & well received 
in my visits to their families on Saturday evenings, & having pleasant 
associates among my companions, the time passed rapidly away- We had 
a set who called ourselves "The cold-water club" ; not that our potations 
were confined to that simple beverage : but if we committed any infrac- 
tion of the regulations, they were either unknown to the authorities, or 

4 6 William Thornton Washington of Virginia and Washington became a cadet at West 
Point on June 24, 1819 ; remained there until August 19, 1823 ; was brevetted second lieutenant 
and made second lieutenant of artillery on August 19, 1823 ; and dropped out on May 1, 1825. 
Heitman, Register, I, 1007. 

78 The North Carolina Historical Review 

winked at, on account of the good character of the members of our club, 
of whom I believe only Stephen Lee 47 & George Greene 48 Jno K. 
Findlay 49 & Saml. McCoskry 50 have borne me company, so far as the 
present day, in the journey of life- We never played at cards, or other 
forbidden games ; but at our social, buckwheat cake, suppers, in a small 
house just below Fort Clinton, segars [sic~\ were used, & I adopted, 
perforce as it were, the habit of smoking them in moderation; which 
however I discontinued in the course of a few years- Cards were never 
seen in my father's house & when I left there I did not know one card from 
another : My first lessons were taken from some young ladies, Misses 
Kingsley, who lived with their widowed mother in a cottage still stand- 
ing on the river bank, just above Corzens's Hotel. Their brother, 51 a 
graduate of the Mily Acady. was then one of the "practical officers," & 
a proverbially rigid enforcer of the Regulations; he was the father of 
M r K. who lives just below West Point. As an evidence of the good 
will of the officers towards me, & one which I always remembered with 
surprise, I will mention that at one time Lieut Dimmick [sic], 52 a prac- 
tical officer who occupied two communicating rooms in the "South Bar- 
racks," invited me to share them with him- Our friendships continued to 
his last days, when I assisted, a few years ago, in paying the funeral 
honors to his remains, in Philadelphia. 

My position as Asst. Profr. exempted me from camp duty, so that in 
1822 I paid another visit home; stopping, on my way, in Philadelphia, 
where my brother Solomon, having received his diploma of M.D., was 
an attending Physician at the Alms House, between 10 th & 11 th Streets 
below Spruce- It was then that I first became acquainted with your 
mother, at her father's house in an out-of-the-way part of the City— 

47 Stephen Lee of Kentucky became first lieutenant of the nineteenth infantry on March 
12, 1812 ; was transferred to the seventeenth infantry on May 12, 1814 ; and resigned on 
July 15, 1814. Heitman, Register, I, 625. 

48 Evidently George Greene did not graduate from West Point. Heitman, Register, I, 473. 

49 John King Findlay of Pennsylvania was appointed a cadet at West Point on July 1, 
1820 ; was brevetted second lieutenant of the third artillery on July 1, 1824 ; was made second 
lieutenant of artillery on July 1, 1824 ; resigned on May 13, 1828 ; and died on September 13, 
1885. Heitman, Register, I, 419. 

50 Samuel Allen McCoskry was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1804 ; was 
educated in the grammar school at Dickinson College ; entered West Point in 1820 ; remained 
there nearly two years ; and graduated from Dickinson College in 1825. He then studied 
law, was admitted to the bar, was soon made deputy attorney-general of his county, and 
built up a lucrative practice in six years. He studied theology under the Reverend H. U. 
Onderdonk ; was ordained on December 13, 1833 ; became rector of St. Paul's Church in 
Philadelphia in 1834 ; and at the end of two years was made the first Episcopal Bishop of 
Michigan. In 1836 he was also made rector of St. Paul's Church in Detroit; held both posi- 
tions for twenty-seven years ; and resigned on account of infirmaties, but serious allegations 
were made against his character which made him immediately abandon his diocese and leave 
the United States. This prevented an investigation, but he was deposed on September 3, 
1878, and died in New York City on August 1, 1886. National Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, V, 239-240. 

51 Alpha Kingsley of Vermont became an ensign of the first infantry on November 22, 
1803 ; second lieutenant on June 25, 1805 ; first lieutenant on January 20, 1808 ; captain on 
January 20, 1813 ; and vacated on June 30, 1814. He became district paymaster on February 
9, 1810, and was honorably discharged on June 15, 1815. Heitman, Register, I, 601. 

52 Justin Dimick, of Connecticutt and Vermont, became a cadet in West Point on October 
18, 1814, second lieutenant on July 1, 1819 ; first lieutenant on May 1, 1824 ; captain on 
April 6, 1835 ; major on April 1, 1850 ; lieutenant-colonel on October 5, 1857 ; colonel on 
October 26, 1861 ; and retired on August 1, 1863. He was brevetted with many honorary 
ranks, including that of brigadier-general on March 13, 1865, for long, gallant, and faithful 
service to his country. He died on October 13, 1871. Heitman, Register, I, 374. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 79 

Chestnut St above 12 th ! My journey this year was extended to Wilming- 
ton, with stops at my sister Caroline's (M rs Plunkett) in Warrenton, & 
my brother Mose's 53 in Raleigh- My sister Rachel had been my regular 
correspondent ever since I first left home & we continued to exchange 
the most confidential letters up to the time of her lamented death- 
Besides the unceasing affection manifested for me in her letters, I had 
frequent occasion to observe & admire the wisdom, foresight & sagacity 
by which they were marked & made serviceable to me as guides for con- 
duct in life- Her agreeable & admirable style of writing appears in her 
interesting letters to Miss Edgeworth, which you have read- 

My last year's course of Studies at the Academy was pursued by me 
with renewed ardor & industry, on account of the interest of the sub- 
jects & the interest imparted to them by the lessons of the instructor, 
Professor Crozet- 54 our class having entered the Academy soon after 
the reformation of the course of instruction, under Major, (1825 now 
Lieut. Col.) Thayer, it naturally fell to our lot to lead the way in many 
of the new studies, inaugurated by him, with the assistance of Profr 
Crozet, a graduate of the Polytechnic School in Paris- Thus in Mathe- 
matics we were the first to study the Differential & Integral Calculus- 
a feeble beginning was made by us in Chemistry in our third year; & 
Civil Engineering & the Principles of Machines were first taught to us 
by Profr. Crozet- In all these studies, except Chemistry, we had to use 
French text books- Lacroix, 55 Sganzin & Hackette- for want of any in 

At the final examination of our class, in 1823, I stood at the head, & 
soon after received the Commission of Second Lieutenant in the corps of 
Engineers- Having been notified of being detailed as Asst Professor of 
Philosophy at the Academy, I spent the intervening two months again 
at home. On my journey I was accompanied by my friend Dallas 
Bache, 56 who was on furlough that year, & I passed a few pleasant 

53 Moses Mordecai (1784-1824) became a distinguished lawyer of Raleigh, North Carolina. 
In his office his more famous brother, George, studied law and was admitted to the bar just 
two years before the death of Moses. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, X, 442. 

54 Claude Crozet was born in France, but was appointed assistant professor in West Point 
from New York on October 1, 1816. He became professor on March 6, 1817 ; resigned on 
April 28, 1823 ; and died in 1863. Heitman, Register, I, 342. 

55 Sylvestre Francois Lacroix was born in Paris in 1765, and died there on May 25, 1843. 
He was a noted French mathematician and writer. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 583. 

56 Alexander Dallas Bache of Pennsylvania entered West Point on July 1, 1821 ; was 
brevetted and became second lieutenant of engineers on July 1, 1825 ; resigned on June 1, 
1829 ; and died on February 17, 1867. He was born in Philadelphia on July 19, 1806, and 
was very precocious. He was sent to a classical school in Philadelphia. He was only fourteen 
when he went to West Point, but he graduated at the head of his class. Not one demerit 
did he receive during his four years there, a rare thing indeed. He was assistant professor 
of engineering at West Point during 1826 ; was assistant engineer in the construction of 
Fort Adams at Newport, Rhode Island, until 1829 ; was called to the chair of natural philosophy 
and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1828, where he remained until 1841, 
having resigned from the army on June 1, 1829 ; and became a noted scientist and writer. 
He was organizer and first president of Girard College in Philadelphia in 1836 ; since the 
college was not opened for some time he was principal of the high school, and superintendent 
of school, 1841-1842 ; established and for some years directed a magnetical and meteorological 
observatory in Philadelphia ; and became superintendent of the coast survey in November, 
1843, which position he held until his death. During the Civil War he greatly assisted the 
naval and military forces by placing the resources of the coast survey at their disposal, and 
from June to December, 1863, he was chief engineer for devising and constructing the 
defenses of Philadelphia, when it was threatened by the invasion of Pennsylvania by General 

80 The North Carolina Historical Review 

<lavs at his homo in Philadelphia: his father was Postmaster of that 
City, & he lived over the postoffice, on Chestnut Street below Fourth- 
The acquaintance commenced then with his excellent and charming 
mother laid the foundation of a friendship which continued to the end 
of her life & has descended, as you know, to succeeding generations in 
our respective families- I returned to New York by a steamer from 
Richmond : The yellow fever then prevailed in New York & the whole 
of the lower part of the City was cut off by a fence across it at the City 
Hall Park- as our steamer passed up the west side, & we looked at the 
deserted wharfs & streets, the appearance of desolation was complete & 
malancholy indeed. 

On returning to West Point I found that I had contracted the Ague 
& Fever, (probably on the James river,) from which I suffered great 
inconvenience for two years- The physician tried Peruvian Bark in sub- 
stance ; but my stomach would not retain enough of it to stop the chills- 
Quinine was just becoming known, but it was not on the list of supplies of 
the army Medical Department, & arsenic was at length used to check 
the disease in my case- During part of my illness Profr Douglass, 57 
who had succeeded his father-in-law Profr Ellicott in the Mathematical 
Department, &, on the resignation of Professor Crozet, had been trans- 
ferred to the chair of Engineering, took me to his house, where I was 
kindly taken care of by M rs D- for some weeks- 

At the next Academic vacation I determined to make an excursion 
to the western part of New York & see the Falls of Niagara. I stopped 
first at Catskill, where the Mountain House had been just opened- I 
went up to it in a gig & had to take shelter at the foot of the Mountain, 
from a heavy storm; when I reached the top the whole landscape was 
hidden by a sea of White Vapor ; but as the sun declined, a strong wind 
scooped out openings in the cloud through which portions of the country 
could be seen, until at the last setting sun lit up the whole of the 
extensive scene ; making altogether a beautifully varied picture- Arrived 
at Albany I found my troublesome disease returning in a worse form 

Lee. He was also ex-officio superintendent of weights and measures, and served until his 
death on the lighthouse board. He was one of the incorporators of the Smithsonian Institution 
in 1846, and was annually during his life re-elected by Congress. He was vice-president of 
the United States Sanitary Commission during the Civil War ; was president of the American 
Philosophical Society and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science ; and 
was one of the incorporators and first presiding officer of the National Academy of Sciences. 
The Royal Society of London, the Institute of France, the Royal Academy of Turin, the 
Imperial Geographical Society of Vienna, and many similar organizations included him among 
their honorary members. He published more than one hundred and fifty papers ; received 
several medals for his contributions to the field of science ; and the University of New York, 
the University of Pennsylvania, and Harvard gave him the degree of LL.D. Appleton's Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography, I, 127; Heitman, Register, I, 178. 

57 David Bates Douglass of New Jersey was appointed to the army from New York as 
second lieutenant of engineers on October 1, 1813 ; became first lieutenant on September 17, 
1814 ; and captain on March 31, 1819. He was made professor at West Point on August 
29, 1820 ; was brevetted captain on September 17, 1814, for distinctive and meritorious 
service during the siege of Fort Erie; resigned on March 1, 1831; and died on October 19, 
1849. Heitman, Register, I, 380. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 81 

& I went over to Saratoga for some days, until I thought myself able to 
resume my journey- Congress Hall was then almost the only hotel at 
the little village, which had just superceded Ballston as a watering 

At Troy I had to send again for a physician, who gave me a dose 
which made me sleep about 24 hours- From there, or from Schenectady, 
I adopted for greater ease of locomotion, the conveyance of a canal 
Packet on the Erie Canal- I liked very well this mode of travelling, 
which I used on several subsequent occasions, when not pressed for time. 
The monotony of the easy motion is relieved by an occasional walk 
whilst the boat is passing through locks, & with a pleasable companion 
or two & an amusing book, the time passes pleasantly enough- I can 
hardly class among the amusing books some 6 volumes of an incomplete 
copy of Sir Charles Grandison 58 which I found, on a rainy day, in the 
cabin of my boat in the Mohawk Valley; but it is the only time I ever 
read any of it, & it seemed to while away the hours that I could not give 
to fine scenery & pretty cultivation of that fertile valley- I continued 
my canal journey through the "long level," (of 70 miles, I think with- 
out a lock,) at the end of which I took the "Stage" route through the 
pretty towns & among the picturesque lakes of Western New York; 
turning aside to make a visit, by means of a farmer's wagon, to the 
little villages of Syracuse & Salina & their new Salt works, & stopping 
at Lockport, which consisted chiefly of a collection of shanties 
(chantier?) to shelter the workmen, who were making a deep cut 
through the rock, & building "Neptune's Staircase" the series of locks 
by which the canal was to reach the higher level of Lake Erie- In 
Rochester the aqueduct was built, but the stumps of forest trees were 
still standing in the Hotel yard & in some of the streets- From near 
Lockport a short trip on the canal again took me to the village of Black 
Rock, a little below the mouth of Buffalo creek on the Niagara River- 
My friend Lieut Sam. Smith, 59 the principal assistant Profr of Philo- 
sophy at the Mily. Acady. had fortunately given me a letter to M rs 
Porter, the wife of Genl. Peter B. Porter, 60 a prominent officer in the 
"late war," (as that of 1812 was called then,) who resided at Black 

58 Sir Charles Grandison was a novel published in 1753 by Richardson. Sir Charles Grandi- 
son, the hero, is in love with Harriet Byron whom he marries. Grandison is the faultless 
monster whom the world never saw. He is young, rich, graceful, and accomplished ; wonder- 
fully generous ; perfectly prudent, chivalrous, and respectful ; and free from vice and very 
religious. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 935. 

59 Samuel Stanhope Smith of Delaware became a cadet at West Point on November 11, 
1814 ; second lieutenant of artillery on July 24, 1818 ; first lieutenant on November 30, 1820 ; 
and died on September 10, 1828. Heitman, Register, I, 903. 

60 Peter Buel Porter was born in Connecticut on August 4, 1773; attended Yale College; 
studied law in the school at Litchfield, Connecticut ; began to practice in Canandaigua, New 
York, in 1795 ; was sent to Congress in 1808, where he took a strong stand for war against 
Great Britain ; became chairman of committee of foreign relations in 1812 ; and was mixed 
up in the affair over the John Henry Letters, in which $50,000 were wasted. In 1812 he 
resigned from Congress to enter the army. He declined the rank of brigadier -general, but 
became colonel ; fought bravely and effectively in western New York ; refused the offer of 
commander-in-chief of the army in 1815 ; served in Congress a few months at this time ; was 
a member of the Erie Canal Commission ; became Secretary of War on May 26, 1828 ; and 
died on March 20, 1844. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, V, 81-82. 

82 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Rock & whose family had large possessions there & at Niagara Falls- 
On the very day of my arrival, I think it was, after dining at Genl. 
Porter's hospitable house, 01 I was seized with a violent attack of dysen- 
tery which confined me for some weeks to my room at the Hotel- There 
was a young Medical man in the village who was very attentive to me, 
& the assistance of a more experienced physician was called in from the 
neighboring village of Buffalo- To them & the kind nursing of M™ 
Porter I was indebted for a release from a very serious illness. M rs P., 
was a Breckenridge & the widow of Grayson, before she married Genl. 
P., was an elegant & accomplished woman, & better, a woman of 
kindly disposition & warm heart; she continued always my good friend 
& occasional correspondent- When I was at Black Rock Genl. Porter 
was deeply engaged in forming a harbor there, hoping to make that point 
the terminus of the Erie Canal, instead of its rival Buffalo; but the 
latter soon took the precedence & maintained it, as you know. When able 
to travel I crossed the Niagara & went down on the Canada side to 
Forsyth's tavern, just above the Palls, which was almost the only place 
accommodation, on either side of the river, for visitors (not very 
numerous) to that wonder of nature. I saw it as well as my still feeble 
condition would allow, & then proceeded, on the American side, to 
Lewistown, & by the Lake shore road, through Rochester, to TJtica- 

After an excursion to Trenton Falls, in company with M r Alston 62 
of S° Carolina, a retired graduate of the Mily. Acady. I made my way 
not without some trouble from my malady, to Albany & back to West 
Point, where I remained another year, as Instructor in the Department 
of Engineering- under Profr Douglass- In 1824 the visit of Genl. 
Lafayette to this country, on the invitation of Congress, took place, & 
it was in New York, where I had gone to attend a grand fete given to 
him at Castle Garden, that I heard, from my uncle Ben., the sad news 
of the death of my oldest brother, Moses, at the Virginia W.S. [White 
Sulphur] Springs- Although he had not obtained the age of forty, he 
had stood high among the most eminent lawyers in North Carolina, & 
was regarded as one of the most prominent & useful citizens of the 
State- He had acquired a handsome fortune, in the practice of his pro- 
fession; but the attendance on the County Courts in the lower & less 
healthy parts of the State brought on a malarial disease which caused 

61 General Porter's house was known for its hospitality. While he was Secretary of War 
his home in Washington was a center of society, equally hospitable to Jacksonians and 
National Republicans. Mrs. Porter had been Letitia Breckenridge of Kentucky, whom 
Porter had married in 1818. In Washington she was declared to be "the most popular 
woman we have ever had here since Mrs. Madison." Dictionary of American Biography, 
XV, 99-100. 

62 Robert Franis Withers Allston of South Carolina became a cadet at West Point on 
December 12, 1817 ; was brevetted second lieutenant on July 1, 1821 ; resigned on February 1. 
1822 ; and died on April 7, 1864. He could refer to Joseph Waites Allston, of South Carolina, 
who became an ensign on June 29, 1813 ; third lieutenant on October 1, 1813 ; second lieutenant 
on June 30, 1814 ; first lieutenant on December 20, 1816 ; resigned on August 31, 1817 ; and 
died on August 13, 1834. Heitman, Register, I, 160. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 83 

his premature death- His loss was deeply felt by us, for we had always 
looked up to him, with a sort of affectionate reverence, as a kind & wise 
counsellor, & in looking back it was always hard for us to realize that he 
had died at so early an age. ' There was then no Hotel at West Point, & 
the few rooms at the disposal of the Steward, in one end of the Mess 
Hall building, could not accommodate many visitors; consequently we 
saw few strangers, even in summer, & hardly any in winter ; but we had 
a pleasant Bachelor Mess of officers, supplied with a good table by the 
Prince of Caterers of that day, W m B. Cozzens ; and afternoon rambles, 
for exercise, over the hills, followed by social evenings at one another's 
rooms, passed away the time not given to Academic duties or to study- 
It is curious to recollect the shout, almost of derision, which greeted, at 
even our military mess, the first announcement of Genl. Jackson as a 
candidate for the Presidency- D r Everett 63 , the oldest member of the 
mess, was almost the only one to predict that it would succeed with the 
people- One of the stories of the day was that, when it was mentioned to 
the General himself, he exclaimed: "A Hell of a President I should 
make." Perhaps many persons afterwards thought that his anticipations 
were realized- Very different was the reception of the news of the death 
of Byron; 64 many of us felt it as the loss of a personal friend- 

At this time my participation in those delightful Saturday dinners 
& evenings at M r Kemble's 65 hospitable cottage at Cold Spring, which 
I enjoyed, with various intervals, for fifty years; the last time being a 
few months before M r Kemble's death, after a useful & honorable life of 
ninety years- 

Perhaps you may expect me to say something on the subject of re- 
ligious differences among so many associates- I have often thought, with 
some surprise, of the fact that, by some sort of silent consent, in our 
meetings, when we were cadets, that subject was never broached, & the 
same reticence was observed among our companions as officers ; unless it 
may have entered indirectly in the free talks I sometimes held with Capt 

63 Josiah Everett, of New Hampshire, was appointed from Massachusetts as surgeon's 
mate of the twenty-first infantry on July 21, 1813, and was honorably discharged on June 
15, 1815. He was reinstated as surgeon's mate of the second infantry on September 13, 
1815 ; became post surgeon on August 10, 1818 ; surgeon on January 28, 1820 retained as 
surgeon (staff) on June 1, 1821 ; and died on July 14, 1832. Heitman, Register, I, 410. 

64 George Noll Gordon, Lord Byron, was born on January 22, 1788, in London. He became 
a noted poet, but after the Greeks began their revolt for freedom he cast his lot with them 
and died at Missolonghi, Greece, on April 19, 1824. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 199. 

65 Gouverneur Kemble was born in New York City on January 25, 1786, and died at Cold 
Springs, New York, on September 16, 1875. He was appointed consul to Cadiz by President 
Monroe, and subsequently visited the Mediterranean ports and transacted business for the 
United States relative to supplying the squadron during the Algerian War in 1815. Upon 
his return to the United States he set up at Cold Springs, New York, opposite West Point, 
the first foundry in the United States where cannon were made with an approach to per- 
fection. He served in Congress from 1837 to 1841 ; was a member of the New York con- 
stitutional convention in 1846 ; helped promote the Hudson River and Panama railroads ; and 
collected a valuable collection of paintings, which was his hobby. He was a close friend to 
Washington Irving and other leading men in various fields in the United States. General 
Winfield Scott said that Kemble was "the most perfect gentleman in the United States." 
Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, III, 511. 

84 The North Carolina Historical Review 

(afterwards General) Hitchcock, 66 on philosophical themes, to the study 
of which he was much addicted. The regulations of the academy re- 
quired regular attendance at services in the chapel on Sunday, to which 
we were marched as to any other duty- Neither I nor any one else 
objected, in my time, to sitting there whilst good M r Picton, 67 the 
Chaplain, uttered his Presbyterian Prayers & dull Sermons; although 
there were no doubt many, besides myself, who did not concur with him- 
I confess that, especially after I had the opportunity, as Asst Profr. to 
go alone to the chapel, & choose a corner seat, I often indulged in a nap 
there, or read some book which I could smuggle in my pocket- M r Picton 
was an excellent man & very friendly to me, & I was glad to visit his 
house, especially after his pretty daughter Mary (M rs Edmund Stevens) 
was grown up ; but he confined himself to his official duties as Chaplain 
& Professor of Ethics, & I think that it was acknowledged that a great 
mistake was made when, in 1825, he was removed to make room for the 
more eloquent & ambitious M r (Bishop) M c Ilvaine- 68 

I am dwelling, you may think, along time on the details of this part 
of my life, which was only a preparation for more active duties, & I am 
certainly loth to quit the recollections of the happy years I passed at 
West Point, up to the time when I had reached the age of manhood ; for 
I was just turned of twenty one when I was relieved from duty at the 
Military Academy- An important element of enjoyment there is the 
remarkable natural beauty of the scenery at West Point, the impression 
of which has not been effaced or weakened by the scenes of beauty which 

66 Ethan Allen Hitchcock became a cadet in West Point on October 11, 1814 ; was made 
a third lieutenant of artillery on July 17, 1817 ; and rose rapidly, receiving many brevet 
honors. He was born in Vermont, on May 18, 1798, and died in Georgia on August 5, 1870. 
He became a first lieutenant in 1818, adjutant in 1819, and captain in 1824 ; was instructor at 
West Point from 1824 to 1827, and commandant there from 1829 to 1833 ; was on frontier 
duty for the next ten years ; served in the Seminole War ; was acting inspector in General 
Edmund P. Gaines' campaign in 1836 ; was in the recruiting service ; was for some time 
on Indian duty ; became major in 1838 and lieutenant-colonel in 1842 ; and fought with Scott 
in all his important battles in Mexico. He was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general in 
1847 ; became a colonel in 1851 ; was commander of the Pacific military division from 1851 to 
1854 ; resigned in 1855 ; and resided in St. Louis where he devoted himself to his literary 
pursuits until 1861. After the Civil War broke out, he became a major-general of volunteers, 
with headquarters at Washington where he advised President Lincoln whose close friend 
he was. He was mustered out on October 1, 1867. He is the author of a number of works 
on various subjects. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, III, 217-218 ; Heitman, 
Register, I, 532. 

67 Thomas Picton of Wales and New Jersey was chaplain and professor of geography, 
history, and ethics at West Point from July 23, 1818, until he resigned on January 1, 1825. 
Here he educated his son, Dr. John Moore White Picton, who graduated from West Point 
in 1824. The latter was brevetted second lieutenant and became second lieutenant on July 
1, 1824, and resigned on March 1, 1832. This son later moved to New Orleans where he 
became a famous physician and died there on October 28, 1859. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, V, 6 ; Heitman, Register, I, 791. 

68 Charles Pettit McIlvaine, second president of Kenyon College and second Protestant 
Episcopal Bishop of Ohio, was born in New Jersey on January 18, 1799, son of a leading 
attorney and Senator. He graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1816 ; studied in 
the seminary at Princeton the next year ; here he organized the Sunday School of St. Mary's 
Church, one of the first Sunday Schools in the United States ; was appointed chaplain of the 
Senate in 1822 and 1824 ; and became chaplain and professor of ethics at West Point in 1825, 
which position he held for three years. In 1827 he refused to become president of William 
and Mary College in Virginia ; was appointed bishop of Ohio on September 10, 1831 ; left 
New York in April, 1833, for the West where he could help Kenyon College in Ohio. Here 
he acted as president of the institution while he was bishop. He often visited Europe; 
played a leading role in the church life of America ; and wrote many books, articles, and 
pamphlets on religious topics, as well as delivering many noted lectures in America and 
Europe. He died of influenza in Florence, Italy, on March 14, 1873. National Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, VII, 2. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 85 

I have beheld in extensive travels in Europe & America. Viewed in any 
of its various phases: When the morning sun illuminated the fair pic- 
ture of Newburgh & the mountains beyond, framed in the dark shadows 
of the intervening hills; or when, rising higher, his light was reflected 
by the great white sails of the "North Kiver Sloops," which in early 
days literally covered at times when the lake-like portion of the river 
above West Point; or when the same scene was shrouded in temporary 
gloom by the dark clouds of a thunder storm or spanned, as I once saw 
it, by the bright arch of a lunar rainbow ; or, when the storm had passed 
over & the setting sun cast the long shadows of the western hills over 
the green plain & the dark river; or, when the sides of the surrounding 
mountains were flecked with the shadows of passing clouds; or, when 
they were decked in the brilliant & varied hues of autumn, or clothed 
with the white mantle of winter; or, when spring 

"Came forth her work of gladness to combine, 
With all her reckless birds upon the wing;" 
Under all circumstances the beauty of the landscape was unsurpassed; 

"Time cannot wither it, 
Nor custom stale its infinite variety." 

In the summer of 1825, when relieved from duty at the Mily Acady, 
I was ordered to report for duty to Lt Col. Gratiot, 69 as Assistant Engi- 
neer on the fortifications in Hampton Roads. 

The Artillery School of practice had been recently established at Old 
Point Comfort, & the place was beginning to be a fashionable resort for 
people from Virginia & Maryland; with these resources & a good many 
friends in Norfolk, I was in no want of pleasant society to while away 
the time not devoted to my easy duties- M rs Gratiot's brother Henry 
Belin, my good friend ever 'since, was one of the clerks in our office, & 
the principal clerk was Eben. Eveleth, 70 whose widowed mother & and 
her family lived in Fort Monroe; at that time commenced the intimate 
association which has always existed between that family & ours. My 
valued & intimate friend James R. Irwin, 7 x one of our "cold water club" 

69 Charles Gratiot was born in Missouri in 1788, and died in Saint Louis on May 18, 1855. 
After two years he graduated from West Point in 1806 ; became second lieutenant of engi- 
neering that year ; was made captain in 1808 ; was chief engineer in Harrison's army from 
1813 to 1814, where he was brevetted colonel on May 15, 1814 ; and then superintended the 
forts on the Delaware and later at Hampton Roads. He was raised to lieutenant-colonel in 
1819 ; to colonel in 1828 ; and was brevetted brigadier-general on May 24, 1828, for meritorious 
service and general good conduct. For quite a while he was inspector at West Point, but 
was dismissed on December 6, 1838, for failure to pay into the treasury certain balances of 
money placed in his hands for public purposes. He was clerk in the land offiec in Wash- 
ington from 1840 to 1855, and died in St. Louis in destitute circumstances. Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography, II, 726-727 ; Heitman, Register, I, 470. 

70 Doubtless he refers to some member of the family of William Sanford Eveleth of Virginia 
and Washington, D. C. He became a cadet in West Point on July 22, 1813 ; was brevetted 
second lieutenant of engineers on March 4, 1815 ; became second lieutenant on October 31, 
1816 ; and was drowned in a shipwreck on October 4, 1818. Heitman, Register, I, 410. 

71 James R. Irwin of Pennsylvania became a cadet at West Point on July 1, 1821 ; was 
brevetted second lieutenant and became second lieutenant of artillery on July 1, 1825 ; became 
a first lieutenant on May 31, 1833 ; was regimental adjutant from October 10, 1836, to May 
23, 1838 ; was captain from May 16, 1842, to June 18, 1846 ; was promoted to captain and 
assistant quartermaster on July 7, 1838 ; was brevetted captain on August 21, 1836, for gal- 
lantry and good conduct in the war against the Florida Indians ; and died on January 10, 
1848. Heitman, Register, I, 565. 

86 The North Carolina Historical Review 

at the Academy, was also stationed there & occupied with me, a part of 
the time, a room in the snug little cottage appropriated to the junior 
engineer offieers- 

During the suspension of out door work, in the ensuing winter, I made 
my first visit to Washington, &, in company often with Major Worth, 
who happened to be there, I partook of the gay society of that city- 
M r Macon was still in the Senate, at a very advanced age, & I dined with 
him at the then famous Democratic Mess, At "Dawson's N° 2," on 
Capitol Hill- at the table were John Randolph & Thos. H. Benton- 
I remember M r Randolph saying to me : "M r Mordecai, I do not drink 
wine, but I will pledge your health in a glass of water."- This may have 
been one of his eccentric fibs ; for he has not been generally charged with 
that kind of abstinence. At another mess Major Worth & I dined with 
Sam. Houston, afterwards conspicuous in the conquest of Texas. 

During the next winter, early in 1827, I made a visit to Richmond, & 
to my sister M rs Lazarus in Wilmington : on the way I revisited the 
scenes of my childhood at Warrenton, where my sister M rs Plunkett, 
then a widow, & childless, occupied my father's old dwelling & kept a 
school there; my father's successors having given up the business- M r 
Plunkett's two sons & his daughter by a former marriage, removed to 
Tennessee, where they married, & one of his grandsons, D r Plunkett of 
Nashville, was appointed, on the 1 st of May 1879, (the Month in which 
I am now writing,) President of the Sanitary Council of the Mississippi 

During my visit to Wilmington M r Lazarus & I, made a trip in a little 
coasting vessel, to Charleston, accompanied by his son Marx, a remark- 
ably bright boy of 5 years old. 

My residence at Fort Monroe, although very pleasant, was not marked 
by any incident worthy of particular mention. One episode in it was 
that I accompanied Capt. Talcott in a preliminary survey for a new 
canal through part of the "Dismal Swamp;" 72 an expedition of which 
he reminded me when I joined him, in 1865, as his assistant on the Vera 
Cruz & Mexican Railroad. 

72 In the southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina is located a large tract 
of land comprising about seven hundred and fifty square miles known as the "Great Dismal 
Swamp." At its longest place it is about thirty miles long by ten miles wide. Originally it 
was covered with trees and dense undergrowth, but now part of it has been cleared and 
drained and devoted to agriculture. In its midst is Lake Drummond, about seven miles in 
length. The Dismal Swamp was originally a part of the Virginian estate of George Wash- 
ington and he supervised the digging of the "Washington Ditch," the first step in its 
reclamation. The Dismal Swamp Canal, connecting Chesapeake Bay with Albemarle Sound, 
was opened by 1828 and until the close of the Civil War was a famous historic waterway! 
After the war it was never so important in the development of that section of the country. 
It extends from Deep Creek, Virginia, to South Mills, North Carolina, a distance of twenty- 
two miles and is one of the most important links in the chain of inland waterways, extending 
from New York to Florida. It escapes the dangers of Cape Hatteras ; furnishes an inland 
route for small naval craft and revenue cutters ; and opens up 2,500 miles of inland navi- 
gation. Through this swamp runs the Washington Highway from Albemarle Sound points 
to Norfolk. Including the Little Dismal Swamp and still smaller swamps along the coast 
of North Carolina there are more than 2,000,000 acres covered by water or too low and boggy 
for farming. Americana, IX (1938), 167. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 87 

In November 1827 I went to my father's at Spring Farm, to be pres- 
ent at the marriage of my sister Eliza to our cousin Saml. H. Myers. 

In the Spring of 1828, on the recommendation of my friend Col. 
Gratiot, Genl. Macomb, 73 then at the head of the Engineer Department 
of the War Office, detailed me for duty as Assistant in his office; which 
was the beginning of a long official residence in Washington, & associa- 
tion with people in high positions in the general Government- On the 
death of Genl. Brown, 74 Genl. Macomb was appointed by President 
Adams, to the command of the Army, & Col Gratiot succeeded him as 
Chief Engineer- About the same time, Genl. Peter B. Porter, the hus- 
band of my kind friend at Black Eock, was appointed Secretary of War, 
in which position he continued during the short remainder of M r 
Adam's Administration- a circumstance which added much to my pleas- 
ure in that winter- With ample occupation in office hours I had abundant 
leisure for social enjoyment afterwards- Washington was a very differ- 
ent place then from the fine city which it has now become- The per- 
manent residents were people of moderate means, employed in the 
administration, or in supplying the wants of government employees; the 
salaries of even the higher officers were small, & this state of things 
produced an equality & simplicity in the style of living which placed 
social intercourse on a very easy &, I think, very pleasant footing- 
There were few, if any, large dwelling houses; the entertainments were 
very simple & unexpensive, & the hours early: I have sometimes gone 
home from a ball & taken up a book to pass an hour before bed time- 
I knew almost ever body in the city, & as it was not the universal 
fashion for people to leave town in the summer, there were many houses 
which I could visit socially at that season, as well as in the winter- 

73 Alexander Macomb was born in Detroit, Michigan, on April 3, 1782, and died in Wash- 
ington on June 25, 1841. He entered the army as a cornet of calvary on January 10, 1799 ; 
became a second lieutenant on March 2, 1799 ; was discharged on June 15, 1800 ; became cap- 
tain in 1805 ; major in 1808 ; lieutenant-colonel in engineers in 1810 ; and adjutant-general 
and colonel of the army in 1812. Fearing that he would not see active service he was trans- 
ferred to the artillery, and fought bravely and effectively as colonel in the Northwest during 
the War of 1812. In 1814 he became brigadier-general and was placed in command of the 
Northern frontier. He was brevetted major-general on September 11, 1814, for his successful 
fighting at Plattsburg, and received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal. In the 
reorganization of the army on June 1, 1821, he was retained as colonel and chief of engineers ; 
was elevated to major-general and general-in-chief of the army on May 24, 1828 ; and received 
many brevets and other honors. For a short time he took the field in 1835, but was soon 
relieved ; wrote articles and books on military affairs ; and made an enviable record. 
Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 155 ; Colonel William H. Powell, List of 
Officers of the United States Army from 1779 to 1900, p. 1447. 

74 Jacob Brown was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, on May 9, 1775, and died in 
Washington, D. C, on February 24, 1828. He taught school ; from 1796 to 1798 he was 
a surveyor of public lands in Ohio ; settled in New York where he conducted a school ; 
studied law ; and wrote political articles for the press. Later he purchased land in Jeffer- 
son County, New York, and established Brownsville, New York. He became a judge ; was 
appointed colonel of the militia in 1809, as he had been secretary to General Alexander 
Hamilton ; was raised to brigadier-general in 1810 ; and in 1812 he was made commander 
of the frontier from Lake Oswego to Lake St. Francis, a distance of 200 miles. In 1813 he 
made an enviable record for himself ; was made brigadier-general in the regular army on 
July 19, 1813 ; was raised to major-general on January 24, 1814 ; and received a gold medal 
from Congress for his bravery and meritorious conduct. New York City gave him the 
freedom of the city. After the war he commanded the northern division of the army, and, 
on March 10, 1821, he became general-in-chief of the army. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, I, 401. 

88 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In 1829 I was in Richmond for some days during the session of the 
Convention for revising the Constitution of Virginia: 75 such an assem- 
blage as it would be difficult- impossible- to collect that this day, per- 
haps in the whole country- Madison, Monroe, John Randolph, 
Tazwell, 70 Chapman Johnson 77 & a host of others- The tide of 
democratic influence could not be stemmed however, even by these able 
men, & the convention, unhappily as I think, lowered the qualifications 
of voters & prepared the way to the introduction of universal suffrage, 
from the lowest depths of which, as from the lion's den, there are, I fear, 
"nulla vestigia retrorsum"- I had never happened to hear M r Randolph 
in Congress, & I was delighted with this opportunity of hearing him 
utter, in his peculiar but charming style of enunciation, a few pointed 
and sarcastic remarks- 

My father had then, I think, sold his farm & taken up his residence 
in Richmond, where the family resided until after the death of my 
parents,- first on Church Hill & then on "Shockoe Hill," as the western 
part of the city was called. 

In the autumn of 1829 I was in Philadelphia & was at the marriage 
of your aunt Ellen Hays, & partook of the pleasant entertainments 
which followed it; her father then lived on 11 th St. below Walnut- 
Your mother made a visit to her & M r Etting in Baltimore & spent the 
winter with them- In the spring of 1830 she went to Washington to 
visit her friend Charlotte Meade who had married Capt James 

75 This was the convention which made the famous constitution of Virginia in 1830, 
replacing the antiquated constitution of 1776. However, it provided that, the planter-slavery 
faction should still have control of the affairs of the government. Thirty-one members in 
the house were given to the twenty-six counties west of the Alleghany Mountains ; twenty- 
five members to the fourteen counties between the Alleghanies and the Blue Ridge : forty-two 
representatives to the twenty-nine counties east of the Blue Ridge and above the tidewater ; 
and thirty-six members to the counties, cities, towns and boroughs lying upon the tidewater. 
In the Senate thirteen members were to come from the counties west of the Blue Ridge and 
the remainder of the thirty-two members of that body were from the tidewater and piedmont. 
In the apportionment of 1841 and every ten years thereafter no change could be made in these 
ratios for these various districts. Only those who had moderate property qualifications could 
vote ; the governor was to serve for three years and could not immediately succeed himself ; and 
the judges were selected for good behavior and could be removed only by impeachment. William 
MacDonald, Jacksonian Democracy, p. 263. 

76 Littleton Waller Tazewell was born in Virginia on December 17, 1774 ; graduated from 
William and Mary College in 1792 ; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1796 ; was in 
the state legislature from 1796 to 1800 ; was a Representative in Congress from November 
26, 1800, to March 3, 1801 ; served in the Virginia lower house in 1816 ; was one of the claims 
commissioners under the Florida cession of 1819-1820 ; declined to go to Great Britain as 
Minister ; and was Senator from December 7, 1824, to July 16, 1832. He served in the state 
constitutional convention of 1829 ; was governor of Virginia from 1834 to 1836, when he 
resigned to retire to private life ; and died on May 6, 1860. Biographical Directory of Congress, 
pp. 1602-1603. 

77 Chapman Johnson was born in Virginia on March 12, 1779, and died in Richmond, 
Virginia, on July 12, 1849. He graduated from William and Mary College in 1802 ; studied 
law at Staunton, Virginia ; was captain of a volunteer company in the War of 1812 ; and 
was later aide to General James Breckinridge. From 1815 to 1831 he was in the state 
senate; served in the Virginia convention of 1829-1830 as champion of the White Basis Party; 
and by 1824 had one of the most extensive legal practices in Virginia and moved to Richmond 
better to care for his business. Appleton'a Cyclopaedia of American Biography, III, 441. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 89 

Graham 78 of the army & occupied a house in the "Seven Buildings/' 79 
in one of which was the boarding house of M rs Freeman, where I 
lived during nearly all my bachelor residence in Wash 11 . We had a very 
friendly mess there, composed chiefly of officers of the army & others 
employed in the government offices- In Genl Graham's hospital house, 
as well as in many others, I was always cordially received, & my time 
passed very pleasantly- My friend Boyce 80 was aid-de-camp to Genl. 
Macomb when he brought his amiable & beautiful wife, to make a life- 
long home in the District of Columbia; I need not record, for your 
information & remembrance, the pleasure which we have all enjoyed in 
the friendly association with them which then began & has never been 
interrupted, in life— 

If I were to attempt to give you a very brief notice of the persons 
with whom I have been closely associated during a rather long & varied 
official & private life, my memoranda would form a voluminous work 
instead of a short notice of the principal events of my life- I shall 
therefore confine myself merely to the latter topics. 

My situation in Washington enabled me to make occasional visits to 
my relatives in Virginia & N° Carolina & to receive visits sometimes 
from them- In the autumn of 1830, I find from one of my Sister 
Rachel's letters, I went again as far as Wilmington- In the next summer 
my brother George joined me in Washington, when I was going with 

78 James Duncan Graham was born in Virginia on April 4, 1799, and died in Boston on 
December 28, 1865. He graduated from West Point in 1817 ; became third lieutenant on 
July 17, 1817 ; second lieutenant on October 14, 1817 ; and first lieutenant on September 
8, 1819. He was brevetted captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel at various times ; became 
major on July 7, 1838 ; lieutenant-colonel on August 6, 1861 ; and colonel on June 1, 1863. 
He was astronomer in the army in 1839 to 1840, in the dispute between the United States 
and Texas ; in 1840 was commissioner of the survey of the northeast boundary and along 
the New York and Maine frontier until 1843, when he was placed on a committee to define 
the boundary between the United States and Canada under the Treaty of Washington ; and 
in the Mexican War he held the same position. At the end of the war he was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel ; assisted in settling the disputed boundary between Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
and Maryland in 1850 ; was placed on a committee to settle the boundary line between the 
United States and Mexico in 1851 ; and then for next ten years was engaged in improving 
the harbors on Northern and Northwestern lakes. He discovered the existence of a lunar 
tide in 1858-1859 ; was a member of several scientific societies, became colonel of an engineer 
corps on June 1, 1863 ; and at the time of his death was supervising engineer of the sea 
walls in Boston harbor and of the improvements of the harbor works from Maine to the 
Chesapeake. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, II, 704 ; Heitman, Register, I, 468. 

79 Between numbers 1901 and 1913 on Pennsylvania Avenue, Northwest, stood the historic 
"Seven Buildings," dating from about 1800. Many prominent government officials, ministers 
of foreign legations, and private citizens have lived in this row. The corner building housed 
the State Department when John Marshall was Secretary of State ; later during 1815-1817 
it was occupied by President Madison and wife as a dwelling ; Vice-President Elbridge Gerry 
and Martin Van Buren also lived here ; and Major-General George B. McClellan had his 
headquarters in this house in 1861. Federal Writers' Project, Washington City and Capital, 
p. 641. 

80 William M. Boyce of Maryland was appointed to West Point from Pennsylvania on 
September 7, 1818 ; became second lieutenant on July 1, 1822 ; first lieutenant on June 30, 
1825 ; captain on October 25, 1835 ; resigned on November 14, 1836 ; and was killed in a 
railroad accident on August 29, 1855. Heitman, Register, I, 235. 

90 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

Col Totten sl on some engineering duty, in relation to forts in Baltimore 
<$: Boston- I remember we took a trip in a horse car, on the Bait. & Ohio 
Railroad as far as the Relay House, eight miles from Balt°- George 82 
& I made a delightful journey, (which you will find described in one of 
my letters to my sister R. which has been preserved,) through Connecti- 
cut & Massachusetts, by Bridgeport, Hartford, Springfield, Northamp- 
ton & Worcester to Boston- At Northampton our nephew Henry was a 
pupil in the "Round Hill" School kept by M r Bancroft, 83 the historian, 
& M r Cogswell, 84 the first Librarian of the Astor Library- In Hartford, 

81 Joseph Gilbert Totten was born in Connecticut on August 23, 1788 ; was reared by his 
uncle. Colonel Jared Mansfield ; accompanied that officer to West Point in 1802 ; graduated 
there in 1805 ; and became secretary of the national survey in Ohio. He left the army on 
March 31, 1806 ; became a second lieutenant on February 23, 1808 ; first lieutenant on July 
23, 1810; captain on July 31, 1812; major on November 12, 1818; lieutenant-colonel on 
May 24, 1828 ; and colonel and chief engineer on December 7, 1838. He became brigadier- 
general and chief engineer on March 3, 1863 ; and received brevet commissions of major, 
lieutenant-colonel, colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general, the last on April 21, 1864, 
and died the following day. Soon after he reentered the army in 1808 he helped construct 
Fort Clinton and Castle William in New York Harbor ; was chairman of engineers on the 
Niagara frontier in the War of 1812 as well as on Lake Champlain. His bravery and meri- 
torious conduct at Queenstown and Plattsburg won for him the rank of captain and brevet 
major and brevet lieutenant-colonel. He was a member of the board of engineers in 1816, 
and when General Bernard of France was invited to advise engineers Totten did not withdraw 
as did his colleagues and these two worked from 1819 to 1831 in improving the coast 
defenses. Totten constructed Fort Adams on Narragansett Bay and had general supervision 
over all the works east of New York. For a while he had his headquarters at Newport, but 
later moved them to Washington, whence every two years he made a tour of inspection of 
the entire range of coast defenses, examining every detail and giving special attention to 
casemates and their embrasures. Most of the early work on the coast defense was done 
under his direction and his work was of the highest order known to the science of the time. 
He was inspector of the military academy until his death. For his outstanding work as 
director of the engineering work about Vera Cruz in 1847, he received the brevet rank of 
brigadier-general. He was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution from its organization in 
1846 was harbor commissioner for Now York and Boston some ten years later ; was com- 
missioner of the lighthouse board from its inception in 1852 ; and in 1859 his sphere of 
work was extended to the Pacific coast. At the outbreak of the Civil War General Scott 
wanted Totten to take his place as commander of the army, but Totten thought himself too 
old for such a task; and when he was made brigadier-general on March 3, 1863, he was still 
on active duty. His best writings are translations from the French, but he wrote original 
books also. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 164-165 ; Heitman, Register, 
I, 966. 

82 For an account of George Mordecai see above page 67, note 12. 

83 George Bancroft (October 3, 1800-January 17, 1891) was born in Massachusetts: entered 
Harvard at the age of thirteen ; studied theology and philology at Gottingen in Germany, 
from which institution in September, 1820, he received the master's and doctor of philosophy 
degrees ; and returned to the United States to become a noted speaker and historian. He 
published his first book of poems in 1823 ; soon became an outstanding contributor to the 
North American Review; was known far and wide for the interesting sermons which he 
preached ; and specialized in history and economics. He was collector of the port of Boston 
in 1837 ; was Secretary of the Navy for the first eighteen months of Polk's term as Presi- 
dent ; established the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland ; was a strong supporter of 
Polk and the Mexican War ; was appointed minister to Great Britain in September, 1846 ; 
and spent much of his time while in England doing research and writing history, even going 
to Paris several times for records. At the end of three years he returned to the United 
States, and spent his winters in New York City and his summers at Newport, Rhode Island, 
where he turned out history by the yard. He was a Northern Democrat in the War ; opposed 
slavery and disruption of the Union ; was minister to Berlin from 1867 to 1874 ; had the 
German archives searched while he was there ; settled in Washington in 1874, where he was 
voted admission to the floor of the Senate ; and died in the Capital City on January 17, 1891. 
Dictionary of American Biography. I, 564-570. 

84 Joseph Green Cogswell was born in Massachusetts on September 27, 1786, and died in 
the same state on November 26, 1871. He graduated from Harvard in 1806 ; practiced law 
in Maine for some years ; was tutor in Harvard from 1813 to 1815 ; studied at the University 
of Gottingen from 1816 to 1818 ; and after travelling and studying for two more years 
in Europe returned to the United States in 1820. He was then made professor of geology, min- 
eralogy, and college librarian at Harvard ; with the aid of George Bancroft he set up the Round 
Hill School at Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1823, which he continued to operate for six years 
after Bancroft retired in 1830 ; and then he assumed charge of a similar institution at 
Raleigh, North Carolina. He edited the New York Review for some years, retiring in 1842 
when its publication was suspended. He became a close friend of John Jacob Astor. He, 
Washington Irving, and Fitz-Greene Halleck arranged with Astor to start the Astor Library. 
Irving wanted Cogswell to go to Spain as his secretary of legation and had him appointed, 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 91 

where we stopped one night, we heard the first low mutterings of a storm 
which, thirty years later, swept & desolated the land- Having nothing to 
do in the evening, we went to an "Abolition" Meeting which was adver- 
tised, being curious to learn the character of the proceedings. The 
speaker was W m Lloyd Garrison, & though the audience was small, the 
topics of discussion & their reception by the company impressed me 
with the belief that this was, as it prooved to be, "The beginning of the 
end." ! 

We were charmed with Boston & with the elegance & comfort of the 
Fremont House, just opened- the first of the fine Hotels on that system 
now common in our large cities- George left me there & after completing 
my work of examination at Fort Independence, I again joined Col. 
Totten at Newport, where he was superintending the construction of 
the Fortifications, & spent some days very pleasantly in that little town, 
as it was then; not being yet resorted to as a watering place. 

In the following winter Congress passed an act reorganizing the 
Ordnance Department, which had been merged in the Artillery at the 
reduction of the Army in 1821; and in the spring of 1832, a Board of 
officers of high rank was appointed by M r Cass, (who had succeeded 
Genl. Eaton 85 as Secretary of War under Genl. Jackson,) to select the 
members of the new corps, the lowest grade in which was that of Cap- 
tain. Genl. Gratiot presented as candidates for selection the names of 
two lieutenants of engineers; Mansfield's 86 & mine- The Board recom- 

but Astor did not want to lose him and made him superintendent of his embryo library. 
After Astor's death Cogswell went abroad and purchased the best books he could obtain. 
He also prepared an analytical and alphabetical catalog of the books in the library in eight 
volumes. In this position he remained until old age forced him to retire and he also resigned 
the position of trustee two years later. He was known to many great men in America and 
Europe and was a frequent contributor to magazines and periodicals. Appleton's Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography, I, 679. 

85 John Henry Eaton was born near Scotland Neck, Halifax County, North Carolina, on 
June 18, 1790 ; attended the common schools and the University of North Carolina from 
1803 to 1804 ; studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practice in Franklin, Tennes- 
see ; was in the state legislature in 1815 and 1816 ; and was a United States Senator from 
September 5, 1818, to March 3, 1821, and from September 27, 1821, to March 9, 1829 ; was 
Secretary of War from March 9, 1829, to June 18, 1831, when he resigned ; was governor 
of Florida Territory from 1834 to 1836 ; was minister to Spain from 1836 to 1840 ; and died 
in Washington on November 17, 1856. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 
II, 294 ; Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 932. 

86 Joseph King Fenno Mansfield was born in Connecticut on December 22, 1803 ; became 
a student at West Point on October 1, 1817 ; was assistant professor of natural philosophy 
for a short time there, while a student ; was brevetted second lieutenant and became second 
lieutenant on July 1, 1822 ; became first lieutenant on March 5, 1832 ; captain on July 7, 1838 ; 
colonel and inspector-general on May 28, 1853 ; brigadier-general on May 14, 1861 ; major- 
general of volunteers on July 18, 1862 ; and received many brevet ranks. For three years 
after his graduation from West Point he was engaged in engineering work along the 
Atlantic coast relative to the defense of the harbors and rivers ; was chief engineer under 
General Taylor in Mexico ; was wounded seven times at Monterey, for which bravery he was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel in 1847 for bravery at Buna Vista ; became inspector- 
general of the United States in May, 1853 ; after he became brigadier-general of volunteers 
in 1861 he was stationed at Washington, which city he fortified on all sides ; was later sent 
to the Newport News area ; and after helping capture Norfolk he was made military governor 
of Suffolk, Virginia. He was a member of the committee to attend the court of enquiry 
relative to the defeat at Bull Run ; and died on September 18, 1862, from mortal wounds 
received at the battle of Antietam, on the previous day, while leading his troops. National 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 179-180 ; Heitman, Register, I, 688. 

92 The North Carolina Historical Review 

mended me & my friend Huger 87 of the artillery, both Second Lieuten- 
ants, for appointments as Captains of Ordnance, & we were appointed 
accordingly- During the preceeding session of Congress, also the House 
of Representatives called on the Secretary of War 88 to prepare an "Act 
to reduce into one all the Acts relating to the Army," & Genl. Cass 
intrusted to me the performance of this work, under his direction- 
His family had remained up to this time at Detroit & he left Washington 
in the Summer, to join them there, taking me with him- M r Wilkins, 89 
the husband of our excellent friend 90 in Delancey Place, then a Senator 
in Congress, was one of our party in the journey, by stage coach, as 
far as his home in Pittsburg, & we had a delightful trip- I remember 
that, in crossing Laurel Hill, we found the sides of the mountain com- 
pletely browned, from the ravages of the Fourteen-Year Locust on the 
forest trees; presenting a remarkable aspect, for the middle of Sep- 

The year 1832 is memorable on account of the first appearance of 
Asiatic Cholera in this Country- It commenced in Canada & before 
I left Washington I fancied that I had felt its influence in a violent 
attack of Cholera Morbus; but it did not become epidemic there until 
after our departure- A considerable body of troops, destined for the 

87 Benjamin Huger of South Carolina was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1806, 
and died there on December 7, 1877 ; was appointed to West Point on July 1, 1821 ; was 
brevetted second lieutenant and made second lieutenant on July 1, 1825 ; became captain of 
ordnance on May 30, 1832 ; major on February 15, 1855 ; and was brevetted major on March 
29, 1847, lieutenant-colonel on September 8, 1847, and colonel on September 13, 1847, all 
for gallantry and meritorious conduct in the Mexican War. He resigned on April 22, 1861 ; 
became a brigadier-general in the Confederate States Army in 1861, which position he held 
until 1865 ; and spent much of his time in the ordnance division. From 1832 to 1839 he 
commanded at the Fortress Monroe arsenal ; was a member of the ordnance board from 
1839 to 1846 ; went to Europe on a military commission in 1840-1841 ; was again commander 
at the Fortress Monroe arsenal from 1841 to 1846 ; and became chief of ordnance in the 
army under General Scott in the Mexican War. For his noble conduct South Carolina 
presented him with a sword. He was again in command of the arsenal at Fortress Monroe 
from 1848 to 1851 ; was on a commission to devise a complete system of instruction for 
siege, garrison, seacoast, and mountain artillery ; commanded the armory at Harper's Ferry 
from 1851 to 1854 ; was made major on February 15, 1855 ; and commanded the arsenal at 
Pikesville, Maryland, from 1854 to 1860. He was in command of the Charleston arsenal 
from 1860 until his resignation on April 22, 1861, to enter the Confederate Army. He entered 
as a brigadier-general, but was soon raised to major-general and put in command at Norfolk 
before it was taken by the Federal forces ; led his division in the Seven Days battle about 
Richmond ; was relieved of his command on July 1, 1862, and sent to the department of 
the Trans-Mississippi, in the ordnance department, where he remained until the end of the 
war and then retired to a farm in Virginia. Heitman, Register, I, 551 ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography, III, 302. 

88 Lewis Cass was Secretary of War from August 1, 1831, to October 5, 1836, when he 
resigned to go to France as minister. Biographical Director of Congress, p. 794. 

89 William Wilkins was born in Pennsylvania on December 20, 1779 ; attended Dickinson 
College in Pennsylvania ; after studying law he was admitted to the bar in 1801 ; and began 
to practice in Pittsburgh. He was one of the organizers of the Pittsburgh Manufacturing 
Company in 1810 ; was first president of the Bank of Pittsburgh ; was president of the 
common council from 1816 to 1819 ; served in the state legislature in 1820 ; was president 
judge of the fifth judicial district in Pennsylvania from 1821 to 1824 ; was judge of the 
United States district court of western Pennsylvania from 1824 to 1831 ; and was defeated 
for Congress in 1826. He was elected to Congress in 1828, but resigned before qualifying ; 
was elected to the Senate by the Democrats and Anti-Masons, serving from March 4, 1831, 
to June 30, 1834, when he resigned; was minister to Russia from June, 1834, to December, 
1835 ; was in Congress from March 4, 1843, to February 14, 1844 ; Secretary of War from 
February 15, 1844, to March 6, 1845 ; in state senate from 1855 to 1857 ; and died in Penn- 
sylvania on June 23, 1865. Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 1701. 

90 His first wife was Catherine Holmes of Baltimore and his second was Matilda, the 
daughter of Alexander J. Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury during the latter part of 
Madison's administration. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VI, 9. 

The Life of Alfred Mokdecai 


prosecution of the "Black Hawk" War 91 in Wisconsin, under the com- 
mand of Genl. Scott, were attacked at Detroit by this fearful malady 
& suffered great loss there & on the voyage by Steamboats to Chicago- 
When our travelling party reached Lake Erie the worst was over in 
that vicinity, but at Cleveland we met the sad news that Genl. Cass's 
oldest & favorite daughter, Elizabeth, had fallen a victim to the 
pestillence ! 

Genl. Cass was so overcome by this affliction that he was hardly able 
to attend to business during his stay at Detroit- I assisted him in his 
correspondence &c, and I continued the special work assigned to me, 
so that it was ready for revision by the time we left there. 

I may have mentioned to you a circumstance not personal to me, but 
curious in the history of the North "Western Territory- The site of the 
City of Chicago was then known only as the Military Post of Fort 
Dearborn, 92 & when Genl-Scott's army passed through, my classmate 
Julius Kingsbury 93 laid the foundation of a subsequent large fortune 
by investing a few hundred dollars in the purchase of land which proved 
to be afterwards in the centre of the City- 

In returning to Washington I accompanied Genl. Cass & his family, 
by way of Lake Erie & the Erie Canal 94 to Schenectady; whence to 

91 The Black Hawk War in Illinois and Wisconsin was between the United States and 
the Sauk and Fox Indians led by Chief Black Hawk. In 1804 certain spokesmen of their 
tribe ceded to the government of the United States title to 50,000,000 acres of land com- 
prising the northwest half of Illinois and much of southwest Wisconsin and eastern 
Missouri. Black Hawk denied that the agreement was binding. Squatters pushed on the 
land and in 1831 some of them pre-empted Black Hawk's village, which caused him to 
threaten resistance. The army of regulars and Illinois militia was embodied, but before 
this Black Hawk yielded, and moved to the Iowa side of the Mississippi. Early in 1832 
he recrossed the river with several hundred men to join the friendly Winnebagoes and 
raised a crop of corn. General Atkinson ordered him to return to Iowa and as he did 
not comply with the order the war was on. Black Hawk slowly retired up Rock River ; 
the soldiers pursued — which led to numerous killings and minor acivities. Black Hawk 
soon saw the futility of the contest and made proffers of peace, but they were spurned. 
His followers were pursued to Bad Axe River, where, on August 3, 1832, they were prac- 
tically annihilated. At Fort Armstrong in September, General Scott compelled the Winne- 
bagoes to cede their possessions in Wisconsin and the Sauks and Foxes to cede all eastern 
Iowa as a punishment for the war. Dictionary of American History, I, 194-195. 

92 The history of Fort Dearborn between 1803 and 1836 is a fascinating story. By the 
treaty of Greenville in 1795 a tract of land six miles square was ceded to the United States 
about Chicago for a fort, and its establishment was decreed early in 1803, its construction 
was begun in July of that year, with John Whistler as commandant until 1810. It was 
abandoned in the War of 1812, but was reoccupied on July 4, 1816, and the second Fort 
Dearborn was begun. It was garrisoned until 1823, but in 1828 troops were placed there 
again. They were withdrawn again in 1831 but it was again garrisoned in the Black Hawk 
War. In 1833 Chicago began to grow rapidly and Fort Dearborn was finally evacuated in 
1836 and the military reservation later became Grant Park. Dictionary of American History, 

II, 115. 

93 Julius Jesse Backus Bronson Kingsbury of Connecticut was born in 1801 ; and died 
in Washington, D. C. He was a soldier of note ; entered West Point on June 24, 1819 ; was 
made second lieutenant on July 1, 1823 ; first lieutenant on September 13, 1831 ; and captain 
on February 13, 1837. He was made major of the sixth infantry on May 7, 1849 ; had been 
brevetted major on August 20, 1847, for gallantry and meritorious conduct in the battles 
of Contreras and Churubusco, Mexico ; was dismissed on January 27, 1853 ; and died on 
June 26, 1856. Heitman, Register, I, 601 ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 

III, 549. 

94 From early colonial days links with the western country had been urged by men of 
vision, but there was no attempt to connect the West with the east by means of cheap travel 
until after the Revolution. People soon began to push across the mountains into the fertile 
valleys of the Ohio and other western rivers. Americans early thought of canals and had 
actually constructed some short ones. The leaders in New York realized that real prosperity 
and prominence depended on a canal to the Great Lakes region. For years federal aid 
was implored, but it came not. On July 4, 1817, the work was begun and by 1820 the first 
section was finished. In the fall of 1825 the Erie Canal from Lake Erie to Albany was 

94 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Albany I had my first journey by locomotive on a railroad- After stop- 
ping at West Point for the Secretary to review the cadets & inspect the 
Academy, we returned to Washington- At the Hotel (Bunker's) in New 
York, I had a glimpse of Aaron Burr, who called to see Genl. Cass. 

In Washington, the Report on Army Legislation was completed & it 
was presented to the House of Representatives at the next session & 
printed; but no further action on it occurred- In November of 1832 I 
went to West Point as Judge Advocate of a General Court Martial of 
thirteen officers of high rank (Genl. Jessup, [sic] 95 President) for the 
trial of some cases of misconduct on the part of Cadets, which proved, as 
well as I can remember, to be of little importance- not "dignies vindere 
nodus"- On the completion of this duty I was ordered to report to Capt 
Symington for duty at Washington Arsenal, on the 1 st of January 1833 
I relieved him in the command of that Post. During the ensuing sum- 
mer, my sister Rachel, in company with her husband & my sister Eliza, 
made me a visit on their way to make an extended tour to the North, 
some account of which you may find in her letters to me which have 
been preserved- Eliza went only to Philadelphia, whence she returned 
to her husband in Petersburgh- 

In preparing the draft of the Bill on army Laws, I necessarily made 
first an abstract of the provisions of law then in force : Whilst at Wash n 
arsenal I put this into proper form & had it printed in a small volume, 
under the title of "A Digest of Military Laws," which was a useful com- 
pendium & book of reference for the army. 

Although patterns had been made, by Capt Symington, 96 of new 
gun carriages, &c, for field & garrison artillery, after the new French 
models, nothing further was done in relation to the matter, & there 
seemed little prospect, at that time, of early activity in the business of 
the Ordnance Department- On account of this inactivity, tho' my situ- 
ation at the Arsenal was pleasant enough, I determined to avail myself 
of what seemed a favorable opportunity of carrying out a long cherished 

completed, the first great canal in the United States was opened. Construction of the 363 
miles had been a herculean undertaking. The cost of $7,000,000 was met by loans ; the first 
year's income was about $1,000,000 ; and for many years the state enjoyed a tremendous 
canal surplus. The modern New York State Barge Canal was begun in 1905, largely followed 
the original route, and still bears a large percentage of the produce of the West to New York 
and thence to the markets of the world. Dictionary of American History, II, 225-226. 

95 Thomas Sidney Jesup was born in Virginia in 1788 and died in Washington, D. C, on 
June 10, 1860 ; became a lieutenant in 1808 ; was adjutant-general to General William Hull in 
1812 ; was elevated to the rank of major on April 6, 1813 ; became a lieutenant-colonel by brevet 
on July 5, 1814 ; colonel by brevet on July 25, 1814 ; lieutenant-colonel on April 30, 1817 ; adju- 
tant-general with the rank of colonel on March 27, 1818 ; quartermaster general with the rank of 
brigadier-general on May 8, 1818 ; was brevetted major-general on May 8, 1828 ; assumed 
command of the army in the Creek nation on May 20, 1836 ; succeeded General Richard K. 
Call on December 8, 1836, in Florida ; and on January 24, 1838, was wounded in action by 
the Seminoles at Jupiter Inlet, when Colonel Zachary Taylor took his place. Appleton's Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography, III, 431. 

96 John Symington of Delaware was appointed to West Point from Maryland on Septem- 
ber 10, 1813 ; became a third lieutenant on ordnance on March 2, 1815 ; second lieutenant on 
April 8, 1818 ; first lieutenant on May 17, 1820 ; captain of ordnance on May 30, 1832 major 
on March 27, 1842 ; and colonel on August 3, 1861. He retired from the army on June 1, 
1863; was brevetted captain on May 17, 1830, for ten years' faithful service in one grade; 
and died on April 4, 1864. Heitman, Register, I, 942. 

The Life of Alfred Moedecai 95 

purpose of visiting Europe- "With, the consent of Col. Bomford, 97 I 
therefore obtained from Genl. Cass a furlough for a year ; & in Septem- 
ber 1833, I left New York in a Sailing Packet for Liverpool, arriving 
there on the 19 th Octr, after a very favorable passage- For a minute 
account of my tour in Europe, I must refer you to my journal- letters 
to my sister Rachel, which were returned to me- The short railroad 
from Liverpool to Manchester, opened in 1830, was still the only one 
in Europe, & my journeys were therefore made by Stage Coaches, 
Diligences, &c, with more pleasure & better opportunity of seeing the 
country than the present rapid conveyances offer; & by untiring indus- 
try I visited, during my year of absence, the British. Isles, France, Italy, 
Switzerland, Germany, along the Rhine, & Belgium- 

My return voyage in the autumn of 1834, also in a sailing packet, 
was less fortunate than the voyage out, having occupied Forty days; 
miserable days to me, on account of suffering from sea sickness. After 
visiting the several members of my father's family, as far as Wilming- 
ton, I received orders to take command of the Frankford Arsenal where 
I relieved Col. Worth on 1 st Jany. 1835- Having little to do there 
except to improve the grounds I made occasional visits to the powder 
mills of Dupont 98 at Brandy wine & Garesche near Wilmington, I had 

97 George Bomford was born in New York in 1780, and died in Boston on March 25, 1848. 
He graduated from West Point on July 1, 1805, after entering the institution on October 
24, 1804 ; became a second lieutenant in engineers on July 1, 1805 ; first lieutenant on October 
30, 1806 ; captain on February 23, 1808 ; major and assistant commissary-general of ordnance 
on June 18, 1812 ; major in engineers on July 6, 1812 lieutenant-colonel in ordnance on 
February 9, 1815 ; was transferred to the first artillery on June 1, 1821 ; became colonel 
and chief of ordnance on May 30, 1832 ; had been brevetted lieutenant-colonel on December 
22, 1814, for meritorious service in the ordnance department ; and was brevetted colonel on 
February 9, 1825, for ten years' faithful service in one grade. From 1805 to 1808 he assisted 
in supervising the erection of forts in New York harbor ; from 1808 to 1810 assisted in 
erecting the forts in Chesapeake Bay ; from 1810 to 1812 was supervising engineer of the 
works on Governor's Island ; and from 1812 to 1815 was on the ordnance staff with the rank 
of major. He was assistant commissary-general of ordnance from June 18, 1812, and was 
attached to the corps of engineers on July 6, 1812. He introduced bomb cannons made on 
the pattern of his own invention ; was continued in the ordnance division even if he was 
in the artillery as colonel ; had command over the ordnance corps and bureau at Washington 
after he became colonel in 1832, which position he held until 1842, when he was made inspector 
of army, arsenals, ordnance, and ammunitions of war, in which capacities he continued until 
his death. In 1841 he conducted experiments to ascertain the expansive force of powder in 
a gun by firing bullets through tubes inserted in the sides. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, I, 309 ; Heitman, Register, 228-229. 

98 The history of powder manufacture in the United States is the history of the life and 
works of the Du Ponts de Nemours of France and the United States. In both countries 
they were noted scientists, economists, and manufacturers. Pierre Samuel Du Pont de 
Nemours was born in Paris on December 14, 1739, and died near Wilmington, Delaware, on 
August 6, 1817. He was the first of this family to emigrate to America. His son, Victor 
Marie, was born in Paris on October 1, 1767, and died in Philadelphia on January 30, 1827. 
He was in diplomatic service, mainly in America ; spent much time in business in New York ; 
and made a name for himself. Another son Eleuthere Irenee, was born in Paris on June 
24, 1771, and died in Philadelphia on October 31, 1834. He was a scientist, Lavoisier, the 
eminent French chemist, superintendent of the government powder-mills, offered to take 
him in charge. He went to the royal mills at Essonne to acquire a perfect knowledge of it. 
Here he remained until the first part of the French Revolution. On June 8, 1791, he was 
made superintendent of a publishing house which his father had founded ; three times he 
was thrown into prison and placed in the utmost peril ; on September 5, 1797, his father 
was imprisoned and his printing press destroyed ; but his family sailed to the United States 
in 1799. Some time after his arrival by accident his attention was called to the poor grade 
of powder made in the United States. This gave him the idea of erecting powder works to 
produce a better grade. He returned to France in 1801 and revisited Essonne to secure plans 
and models and returned to the United States in August with some of the machinery. 
Jefferson wanted the works set up in Virginia or Maryland, but on account of slavery 
Du Pont declined. In 1802 he bought a tract of land on Brandywine River, near Wilmington, 
Delaware, where he had plenty of waterpower. He arrived there with his family on July 19, 
1802, and, after many losses and disappointments, he surmounted all difficulties. His powder 
works, the largest in the United States at the time of his sudden death from cholera, were 
greatly increased by his sons and other descendants. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, II, 263-265. 

96 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

leisure to enjoy frequently the pleasant society of your mother's family 
& their connections, in Philadelphia- My father & my beautiful & 
charming youngest sister, Laura, made me a visit in 1835, & the latter 
remained some time in Philadelphia, for instruction, at M rs Hackley's 
school in Portico Row. Your mother accompanied your aunt Becky 
that year on a visit to Kentucky ; & in the summer M r Joe Gratz, Miriam 
Moses, Laura & I made a delightful tour through the interior of Penn- 
sylvania- It is worth while to mention that at Lancaster we hired a 
horse car (one horse) in which we made a very pleasant trip, by our- 
selves, on the rail road to Columbia (I believe)- The rest of the journey 
was, almost entirely, by canal & Stage Coach, (& inclined planes over 
the Mountains,) to Johnstown, back through Belief onte, Northumber- 
land, Manah Chunk & Eaton- 

On my return from this trip, I was appointed a member of a Mixed 
Board, of Artillery & Ordnance officers, who met at Watervliet Arsenal 
to determine the kind of guns to be used for field artillery, & I pre- 
pared the drawings of the bronze guns recommended by the Board- 

Your aunt Rosa Hays was married that autumn & my father came 
to Philadelphia for the purpose. After the wedding I accompanied my 
father & Laura, on their way home, to Washington, to present my draw- 
ings to the Ordnance Bureau. 

In 1836, on the 1 st of June, I was married to your dear mother, my 
faithful, loving & loved companion for 43 years. We made a visit to 
my parents, & to her sister Rosa, at Richmond, & then took up our resi- 
dence at Frankford Arsenal, where your mother suffered from a very 
serious attack of fever, not long after our return- Our time at the arsenal 
passed, after that, very happily, without any remarkable incident, until 
June 5 th 1837, when our first child, Laura was born. While at Wash- 
ington Arsenal I was taken care of by two excellent servants : Peter 
Marks, a fine looking colored man, who had been the body servant of 
President Monroe, & was set free on his master's death; and Eugenia, 
his wife, who was brought up in M r Jefferson's family at Monticello, 
& attended M r J. in his last illness- She had been taken to Washington 
by M r J's granddaughter, Miss Randolph" from whom I hired & pur- 
chased her, in order to prevent her leaving me & perhaps her husband. 
During my absence in Europe they remained at the arsenal with my 
friend Capt Richard Bache, 100 who succeeded me there, & on my return 
I took them to Frankford Arsenal, where they served me faithfully as 

»9 Thoman Mann Randolph (October 1, 1768-June 20, 1828) of Virginia was fourteenth 
governor of the state, and Representative in Congress from 1803 to 1807. He married Martha, 
the daughter of Thomas Jefferson. They lived with Jefferson both at Montecello and at the 
White House. Her slaves made up her large family. She supervised everything connected 
with the house and domestic needs of the slaves. It is to one of her daughters that Mordecai 
here refers. National Cyclopadeia of American Biography, V, 446-447. 

100 Captain Richard Bache of Pennsylvania became first lieutenant of the thirty-second 
infantry on April 17, 1813 ; was transferred to the artillery on May 17, 1815, was second 
lieutenant with the brevet of first lieutenant from April 17, 1813 ; became first lieutenant on 
June 15, 1817 ; was transferred to the second artillery on June 1, 1821 ; became captain of 
ordnance on May 30, 1832 ; and died on January 13, 1836. Heitman, Register, I, 179. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 97 

long as I remained there,- Eugenia became free, of course, by being 
taken to Pennsylvania, & after we left the arsenal, she & her husband 
lived in Frankford, where he died. She continued to live there, with a 
married daughter, & still evinces, by visits to my family, her affection 
& regard for "her people." Eugenia died at Frankford Jany. 13 th 
1885. Peter had died about 25 years before. [In the memoranda is a 
clipping from The Frankford Herald, 101 Philadelphia, Saturday, Janu- 
ary 17, 1885, giving the "Death of a Noted Woman," Mrs. Eugenia 

In September, of that year we went, with her [Laura], to Eichmond 
to attend a large meeting of my father's family- Most of the members 
of the family were assembled there- nearly all, I believe, except the 
family of my brother Solomon, who had settled & married in Mobile- 
We numbered about Twenty five, many of whom there met together 
for the last time- We called this the "Demps" time- My sister Ellen 
writes : June 2 nd 1879 : "The name had its origin in that of a negro man 
whom papa hired, before you were born, & who many years afterwards 
presented himself unexpectedly at our sister Caroline's after her mar- 
riage, &, strange to say, was immediately recognized by her- She told 
this at the family meeting on Church Hill, & the many repetitions of the 
name, & her emphatic exclamation: "Don't you remember Demps?" 
caused the adoption of the name for the meeting." 

In the summer of 1838, I was again appointed a member of a mixed 
Board to assemble at Watervliet Arsenal, for the purpose of deciding 
on the system of carriages for Field Artillery; when the Pattern after 
the French drawings were recommended & adopted- On the journey I 
was accompanied by my wife & child, & we passed some days very 
pleasantly, with your aunts Becky & Ellen, at Long Branch, then a 
small place with two or three Hotels patronized chiefly by Philadel- 
phians; with little show of expense- It was in September, during the 
session of the Board, that I heard of the death of my father- He had 
been for some time a sufferer from painful maladies; but he had not 
been long confined to his bed- While my father was lying ill, my sister 
Rachel came from Wilmington, hoping to see him again; but at my 
brother's in Petersburg she was herself taken ill, & her useful & valuable 
life was terminated, at the age of 50 years, on the 23 d day of June 1838 : 
What I have said, in these memoranda, & her interesting letters which 
you have read, will give you some idea of the great loss & affliction which 
all our family experienced in this sad event. Our father was spared the 
pain of knowing that she had departed before him- It is remarkable 
that her husband died suddenly, in the same house, three years after 
my sister's death. 

101 The Frankford Herald was a weekly newspaper, published in Philadelphia from 1854 
to 1915, when it ceased publication. Union List of Newspapers, p. 612. 

98 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Soon after the adjournment of the Board I was assigned, by direction 
of M r Poinsett, 102 Secretary of War, to duty in Washington, as Assis- 
tant to the Chief of Ordnance- Just as we were about to leave Phila- 
delphia, your grandfather Hays died very suddenly; your mother & I 
thus losing our fathers within a few weeks- They were both about 76 yrs 
of age. 

We had been settled but a few months, in the modest looking house, 
still standing at the corner of I. & 18 Sts, when our second child, Rosa, 
was born ; your grandmother Hays arrived at our house but a few hours 
previously. February 14 th 1839. 

As soon as the business of the ordnance office was brought into regular 
order, I began the preparation of the "Ordnance Manual/' a work much 
needed by the Ordnance officers & the army generally. Written in the 
intervals of office work, & interrupted by an official visit to Europe in 
1840, the book was not published until 1841- 

On the 4 th of July 1839, occured the shocking calamity of the sudden 
death of my youngest sister Laura- The notice of this sad event which 
you find in the "Family Register" was drawn up by my sister Julia, 
who never recovered, I think from the grief caused by this affliction. 

In 1839, the "Ordnance Board" was organized, for the purpose of 
examining & reporting on all matters relating to the armament & equip- 
ment of the troops, for field & garrison service &c. I was appointed a 
member of the Board, on which I continued to serve until I left the 
Army. The Board generally met once a year in Washington; the mem- 
bers were friendly to each other, & the meetings harmonious & pleasant, 
& the business interesting- The subject of the material of ordnance for 
the field service was not considered as definitively settled, owing to the 
opposition made by the iron founders to the adoption of bronze for that 
purpose, & in the spring of 1840, M r Poinsett, Secretary of War, (under 
the Presidency of M r Van Buren,) determined to send a deputation of 
the Ordnance Board, to visit the arsenals & cannon foundries of some 
of the principal powers of Europe, to investigate the subject- Major 
Baker, 103 I and Capt Huger, were selected for this service, & Major 

102 Joel Roberts Poinsett was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on March 2, 1779 ; spent 
his early childhood in England ; returned to America in 1788 ; was educated in Connecticut 
and in Great Britain, graduating from the University of Edinburg, Scotland, in medicine ; 
attended a military school in Woolich, England ; returned to South Carolina in 1800 ; studied 
law for a few months ; traveled extensively in Europe from 1801 to 1809, returning to the 
United States for short intervals ; was sent by Madison to South America in 1809 on a 
diplomatic mission to investigate the prospects of the revolutionary movements there ; re- 
turned to Charleston in 1816 ; was a member of the legislature there from 1816 to 1820 ; 
became president of the board of public works ; declined the offer of President Monroe to 
become commissioner to South America ; served in Congress from March 4, 1821, to March 7, 
1825 ; was minister to Mexico from 1825 to 1829 ; was Secretary of War from 1837 to 
1841 ; and died in South Carolina on December 12, 1851. Biographical Directory of Congress, 
p. 1419. 

103 Rufus Lathrop Baker of Connecticut became assistant deputy commissary of ordnance 
on March 12, 1813 ; was retained as first lieutenant of ordnance on February 8, 1815 ; became 
captain of ordnance on May 1, 1817 ; was transferred to the third artillery on June 1, 1821 ; 
was transferred to the first artillery on August 23, 1823 ; became captain of ordnance on 
May 30, 1832 ; was raised to the rank of major on July 6, 1838 ; and was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel on July 10, 1851. He was brevetted major on May 21, 1827, for 
ten years of faithful service in one grade ; was brevetted lieutenant-colonel on May 30, 
1848, for meritorious conduct particularly in prosecuting the war with Mexico ; and resigned 
on December 31, 1854. Heitman, Register, I, 184-185. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 99 

Wade, 104 a former officer of the Ordnance Dept, well versed in foundry- 
business, was associated with us- I gave up my house in Washington & 
took my family to Philadelphia, to remain with your grandmother 
during my absence, & our party sailed from New York, in a Steamer, 
early in April- For the particulars of this my second tour in Europe 
I must again refer you to my letters, addressed this time to your mother. 

I will only mention here that, a short time after our arrival in Eng- 
land, I had a very severe attack of innamatory rheumatism which de- 
tained me six weeks in Birmingham, where I was faithfully & tenderly 
nursed by my friend Huger : The other two members of the commission 
having pursued their journey we joined them at Stockholm, made a tour 
through Sweden, visited Eussia & returned through Northern Germany, 
the Ehine, Belgium & Erance, to England; returning home in Novem- 
ber- At Berlin I heard of the birth of my oldest son, Alfred, which 
occured whilst I was in Sweden: In November 1841 my second son 
Frank was born, in the house in the "Seven Buildings," where also he 
died in 1843 : (July 24 th ) He was a beautiful & engaging child. 

The winter of 1840, '41 we passed in a house on 13 th St, Washington, 
removing in 1841 to the "Seven Buildings/' whilst I resumed my place 
in the ordnance office- Lt. Col. Talcott 105 was then in charge of the 
Ordnance Bureau, Col. Bomford having been assigned, (for the purpose 
of removing him) by M r Poinsett, to special duty- In 1841 I got out the 
first edition of the "Ordnance Manuel- In the spring of 1842 I was 
relieved from duty in the office & ordered to accompany Col. Bomford 
on a tour of inspection of the Arsenals- During the long time that I was 
on duty in the War Department, first in the Engineer Bureau & then 
in the Ordnance, I had frequent occasion, in the absence of the chief 
of the Bureau, to hold personal intercourse with the ten or more twelve 
Secretaries who presided over the Department, successively, & with 
several of them I had quite confidential relations ; by all of them, I may 
say, I was treated with courtesy & regard- I remember that one day when 
I entered Gen. Cass's room, with some papers to be submitted to him, I 
saw that he had been annoyed by the confused statements of a high officer 
whom I met at the door; he said cheerfully: "I am always glad to see 
you, M r Mordecai ; you never come with your finger in your mouth." 

104 William Wade of New Jersey was appointed from Pennsylvania first lieutenant and 
assistant deputy commissary of ordnance on March 12, 1813 ; became captain of ordnance on 
February 9, 1815 ; was transferred to the fourth artillery on June 1, 1821 ; was brevetted 
major on February 9, 1825, for ten years faithful service in one grade ; was assigned to the 
ordnance corps on May 30, 1832, an assignment which he declined and withdrew from the 
service ; and died on January 24, 1875. Heitman, Register, I, 991. 

105 George Talcott of Connecticut was appointed second lieutenant in the twenty-fifth 
infantry on July 10, 1813 ; became first lieutenant on March 14, 1814 ; retained as captain and 
deputy commissary of ordnance on February 8, 1815 ; was transferred to the second artillery 
on June 1, 1821 ; became lieutenant-colonel of ordnance on May 30, 1832 ; and was made 
colonel and chief of ordnance on March 25, 1848. He was brevetted major on August 5, 
1823, for ten years faithful service in one grade ; and was given the brevet rank of brigadier- 
general on May 30, 1848, for meritorious conduct, particularly in the Mexican War. He 
was dismissed on July 10, 1851, and died on April 25. 1862. Heitman, Register, I, 943. 

100 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In our inspection tour Col. Bomford & I visited every arsenal in the 
country ; eating strawberries at New Orleans in the beginning of April & 
at Augusta, Maine, in July- At Mobile I had the pleasure of seeing again 
my brother Solomon who was living, with a large family, at his pretty 
country place at Summerville, a few miles from town- 

On my return to Washington I was assigned to the duty of construct- 
ing a Ballistic Pendulum 100 for experiments on Gunpowder &c- The 
iron work was made at West Point Foundry & in attending to its con- 
struction I spent some weeks very pleasantly at M r Kemble's & M r 
Parrott's- 107 The Pendulums were put up, as you know, at Washington 
Arsenal, of which my friend Symington was then in command; but I 
continued to live in the city- 
It was in 1843 that the dreadful accident occured on board the 
Steamer Princeton, by the bursting of a 12 Inch gun, which caused the 
death of several distinguished officers of the Government who had gone 
on an excursion down the Potomac, on the vessel- 108 Among the victims 
was Capt Beverly Kennon 109 of the Navy, a son of our old friend M re 
Kennon of Warrenton memory- 110 His brother came from Richmond 

106 The ballistic pendulum is a piece of apparatus invented by Benjamin Robbins for 
ascertaining the velocity of military projectiles and consequently the explosive force of 
gunpowder. A piece of ordnance is fired against a cast-iron case filled with bags of sand 
which forms the ball of the pendulum and the percussion causes the pendulum to vibrate. 
The distance through which it vibrates is measured on a copper arc by an index carrying 
a vernier, and the amount of vibration forms a measure of the force or velocity of the ball. 
This form of apparatus is now out of date. Century Dictionary and Cyclopaedia, I, 432. 

107 Robert Parker Parrott of New Hampshire was born on October 5, 1804, and died in 
Cold Springs, New York, on December 24, 1877. He entered West Point on July 1, 1820 ; 
was brevetted second lieutenant of the first artillery on July 1, 1824, and second lieutenant 
of the third artillery on the same day ; became first lieutenant on August 27, 1831 ; was 
made captain in ordnance on January 13, 1836 ; resigned on October 31, 1836 ; and retired 
to private life. He was an instructor in West Point from 1824 to 1829, in natural and 
experimental philosophy for the first two years and in mathematics for two years, and 
then for one year he was principal assistant in the former subjects. He was in the war 
against the Creeks in 1836, but resigned to become superintendent of the West Point Iron 
and Cannon Foundry at Cold Springs, New York. Here he devised and perfected the system 
of rifled cannon and projectiles that is known by his name. These were used extensively in 
the Civil War, and were first put to the test at Bull Run. They were made entirely from 
cast iron. He refused to profit greatly by his invention. From 1844 to 1847 he was judge 
of Putman County court of common pleas. Until 1867 he retained his connection with the 
West Point Foundry, after which he directed and was president of various industrial enter- 
prises. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 660-661 ; Heitman, Register, I, 772. 

108 On February 28, 1844, when the President John Tyler, all the members of his cabinet, 
many members of Congress, and other distinguished citizens, with several ladies, were on 
board the steamer of war Princeton, on a trial trip down the Potomac from Washington, 
as it got opposite Mount Vernon one of the largest guns on the Princeton, in firing a salute, 
burst, scattering its deadly fragments around. The Secretary of War, Abel P. Upshur, 
Secretary of the Navy, T. W. Gilmer, and David Gardiner of New York were killed, but no 
one else was seriously injured. According to Mordecai's account here given Captain Kennon 
was also killed. Harper's Encyclopedia of American History, VII, 297. 

109 Beverly Kennon became a midshipman on May 18, 1809 ; was appointed lieutenant on 
July 24, 1813 ; was promoted to commander on April 24, 1828 ; was made captain on February 
9, 1837 ; and was killed by accident on February 28, 1844. He was born in Virginia on 
April 7, 1793 ; made rapid progress in the navy ; served in the Algerine War ; was chief of 
the bureau of construction and repairs from March, 1843, until his death ; was a life-long 
friend of Upshur, with whom he died ; and by whose side he was buried in the Congressional 
Cemetery in Washington, D. C. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 552-553 ; 
Edward W. Collahan, List of Officers of the Navy of the United State and of Marine Corps, 
1775-1900. p. 311 ; General Register of the United States Navy and Marine Corps, 1782 to 
1882, p. 405. 

HO Beverley Kennon's parents were Richard and Elizabeth Beverley (Munford) Kennon. His 
father rose to the rank of brigadier-general in the Revolution ; served in the Virginia legis- 
lature ; and was the first governor of the Territory of Louisiana. His mother was a daughter 
of Colonel Robert Munford of Richland, Mecklenburg County, Virginia. His family descended 
from Richard Kennon who came to Virginia before 1670. National Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, IV, 552-553. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 101 

to attend to the interment & at his request, I had the little monument 
erected in the congressional cemetery, over the graves which contain 
Capt. Kennon's remains & those of his friend M r Upshur, 111 the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, who was also a victim of this disaster- 

In 1843, Congress having refused to make an appropriation for the 
expenses of a Board of Visitors at the Mily. Academy, a Board of Army 
officers of whom I was one, was sent to West Point to attend the Gen- 
eral Examination- Genl. Scott was the President of the Board; 

In September (7 th ) 1843, our third daughter Miriam was born in 
Philadelphia, at the house of her grandmother Hays. 

I think it was in 1844, & Genl. Grant was one of the graduates- that, 
for some special purpose, an unusual meeting of the Ordnance Board 
was called at Washington in the middle of a very hot summer- Your 
mother went with her sister Ellen, and Josephine & Laura, to Long 
Branch, & I remember the delight with which, after sweltering at Gads- 
by's Hotel, I hurried off to join them there, & plunge into the refreshing 
ocean bath. From there we made a short visit to West Point & returned 
to Washington- In the autumn of 1844 I again relieved my friend Sym- 
ington in the command of Washington Arsenal, where I continued the 
Experiments with the Ballistic Pendulum, the first Report on which 
was printed in 1845- 

November 16 th 1844, our fourth daughter Emma was born, very soon 
after our removal to the arsenal- She was an uncommonly beautiful 
child, & we were greatly distressed at her early death, in February 
(4 th ) 1846, at the arsenal- 

Before the completion of these Experiments, the discovery of Gun 
Cotton 112 [sic] was made in Germany, & the secret of its preparation was 
brought to this country by M r W m Robertson, an acquaintance of my 
brother's in Mobile- The secret was communicated to me confidentially, 
in order that I might prepare some of the gun cotton for trial in fire 
arms- You will remember how I used to burn little bits of it in the 
palms of your hands- After trial, I was obliged to report, greatly to M r 
Robertson's disappointment, that it was not suitable for use in Artillery 
or small arms, & my judgment has been confirmed by very extensive & 
elaborate trial of it, at great cost, in Europe; especially in Austria- 

111 Abel Parker Upshur was born in Virginia on June 17, 1790, and died near Washington, 
D. C, on February 28, 1844. He received a classical education ; studied law ; was admitted 
to the bar in 1810 ; and practiced in Richmond, Virginia, until 1824, when he removed to his 
estate in Northampton County, which county he represented in the legislature. In 1826 he 
was appointed a judge in the general court of Virginia ; was a member of the convention 
of 1829 ; was again elected judge in the same court, which office he held until 1841 ; and then 
became Secretary of the Navy. When Daniel Webster resignd in 1843 he became Secretary 
of State. In politics he belonged to the extreme state-rights pro-slavery school of the South. 
He was killed when the big wrought-iron gun, on being fired the third time, exploded on 
board the Princeton. Besides a number of essays Judge Upshur was the author of several 
legal and constitutional books. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VI, 213-214. 

H2 Guncotton is a general name for the nitrates of cellulose prepared by digesting cotton 
or other forms of cellulose in nitric acid or in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids. 
Various forms of this substance are made and used in ordnance. Century Dictionary and 
Cyclopaedia, III, 2658. 

102 The North Carolina Historical Review 

I continued in command of the arsenal, preparing material & ammu- 
nition for use in the war with Mexico, during the greater part of the 
war- In July 1847, whilst my brother Saml. was on a visit to us, we 
received news of the death of my brother Augustus, at his farm near 
my father's former place, Spring Farm- Your uncle & I reached his 
house just in time to attend his remains to the grave. Our third son, 
who was born in Philadelphia, September 8 th 1847, was named, after 
my brother, Augustus. 

In 1848 I received the Brevet of Major in the Army, "For meritorious 
Conduct"- 113 

In 1848, I was temporarily relieved from the command of the 
arsenal, in order to attend, at the Ordnance Office, to the preparation of 
elaborate, detailed drawings & description of the "Artillery for the Land 
service"- Field, Siege & Garrison- These having been completed, en- 
graved & printed in 1849, I resumed command of the arsenal where I 
had continued to reside- where our fourth son, & youngest child, Gratz, 
was born December 17 th 1849. 

In 1850, I prepared & published the Second Edition of the Ordnance 

In 1852, whilst I was on a visit to my mother's house in Richmond, 
I received an invitation to be one of the Judges at the Crystal Palace 
Exhibition in New York, which I accepted & acted on. In June 1853, 
whilst I was one day at the "Washington Navy Yard, making some 
experiments with Capt Dahlgren, 114 I received a summons to go to the 
War Office, where M r Davis, Secretary of War, informed me that he 
wished me to go on secret service to Mexico- Among the claimants for 
indemnity for damages inflicted on United States citizens by the Mexi- 
cans, there was a man named Gardiner, 115 who in conjunction with 
some persons in Mexico, obtained an award for a large claim (more 
than $500,000) for injury to his mining operations- This claim was, 
after the payment of the money, discovered to be fraudulent, & the object 

H3 On May 30, 1848, Alfred Mordecai was brevetted major for meritorious conduct in the 
performance of his duties in prosecution of the war with Mexico. Heitman, Register, I, 724. 

H4 John Adolph Dahlgren was born in Philadelphia on November 13, 1809 ; enlisted in 
the navy on February 1, 1826 ; passed midshipman on April 28, 1832 ; became a lieutenant 
on March 8, 1837 ; was made commander on September 14, 1855 ; was promoted to captain 
on July 16, 1862 ; became rear admiral on February 7, 1863 and died in Washington on 
July 12, 1870. He was one of America's most important naval officers, making many improve- 
ments in naval warfare, and was an outstanding Union man in the Civil War. National 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IX, 377-380 ; Thomas H. S. Hamersly, General Register 
of the United States and Marine Corps for One Hundred Years, 1782 to 1882, p. 188. 

115 The George A. Gardiner claim is illustrative of many fraudulent American claims. 
Thomas Corwin, a Kentuckian (July 29, 1794-December 18, 1865), held many offices. He 
was a Representative in Congress from March 4, 1831, to May 20, 1840, from Ohio, United 
States Senator from March 4, 1845, to July 20, 1850, and Secretary of the Treasury from 
July 23, 1850, to March 7, 1852. While in the Senate Corwin became attorney for Doctor 
Gardiner who had a large claim against Mexico. It was covered by the treaty of 1848 
between the United States and Mexico, providing that certain claims were to be adjusted 
and paid by the United States. In less than a year after being employed as attorney, 
Corwin in conjunction with his brother bought an interest in the claim for which they 
actually paid $22,000. Before he became Secretary of the Treasury, he disposed of this 
and other claims and transferred his shares. It would have been different had not Gardiner's 
claim turned out to be a "naked fraud upon the treasury of the United States," and had not 
Corwin realized a handsome profit for his share in the transaction. James Ford Rhodes, 
History of the United States, I, 298 ; Biographical Directory of Congress, p. 849. 

The Life of Alfred Moedecai 103 

of the mission proposed to me was to obtain evidence of the fraud, to be 
used on the trial of Gardiner who had been arrested. The party whom 
I took with me from Washington consisted of D r Cooper 116 of the 
Army Medical Staif, who had been for some years stationed on the 
Mexican frontier; M r Bowes, a gentleman who had resided in Mexico, 
& W m Leach, a faithful soldier of the detachment arsenal - At New 
York, after making such arrangements as appeared necessary for the 
land journey in Mexico, we embarked in the little United States Steamer, 
Vixen, Capt Swartwout, 1 1 7 & left the post under sealed orders; as it 
was necessary that the departure of the expedition should not be known 
in Mexico before our arrival there. We were detained some days at 
Havanna for repairs to the steam machinery; & there I found my gun 
cotton friend Robertson established as U. S. Consul- Proceeding to 
Tampico we procured horses, pack mules & a guide- Lieut Hanson of the 
Vixen obtained permission from the Captain to accompany me, & 
proved a very agreeable & useful addition to the party- Leaving Tam- 
pico in the rainy season we had a difficult & unpleasant journey, towards 
the South West, to the Village of Sagunillas where the mines were said 
to be located- If you can find my note book kept during the journey, 
you will find the details of it there. It is sufficient to say here that a 
horseback journey, of 500 miles on roads or paths not practicable for 
wheel carriages, we reached the city of Queretaro, whence, by diligence 
through the cities of Mexico, Puebla, & Jalapa, we again reached the 
sea coast at Vera Cruz, & after as little delay as possible there (in the 
latter part of July) we went in a steamer to New Orleans- In that City 
yellow fever had prevailed fearfully & the city was nearly deserted- 
Although we remained there but a few hours, our companion Hanson 
did not escape the infection, which caused his death soon after he had 
rejoined his vessel at Pensacola- At Mobile I had again an opportunity 
to see my good brother, who was then living still in his handsome house 
at Spring Hall which was aftewards unfortunately burnt- My sister 
M rs Plunkett was then living also at a little cottage in the city- At Rich- 
mond, I stopped a day to see my mother & her family, & I reached home, 
at the arsenal, towards the last of August- To escape the malarial fevers 

H6 George E. Cooper of Pennsylvania was assistant surgeon on August 28, 1847 ; was made 
major surgeon on May 21, 1861 ; became a colonel medical director on February 25, 1865, to 
June 30, 1865 ; was made lieutenant-colonel assistant medical purveyor on December 2, 1876 ; 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel on September 1, 1864 ; was brevetted colonel on March 13, 
1865, for faithful and meritorious service during the Civil War ; and died on April 13, 1881. 
Heitman, Register, I, 326. 

H7 Samuel Swartwout was born in New York City on May 10, 1804, and died in Brooklyn, 
New York, on February 5, 1867. He enlisted in the navy on May 10, 1820 ; became a past 
midshipman on June 4, 1831 ; was engaged in suppressing piracy in the West Indies from 
1834 to 1837 ; became a lieutenant on February 9, 1837 ; was inspector of provisions and 
clothing in New York navy yard from 1841 to 1845 ; cruised among the West Indies from 
1845 to 1847 ; spent three more years at the New York navy yard, when he was sent out 
with the coast survey in 1851 ; and became a commander on September 14, 1855. As com- 
mander of the Massachusetts in the Pacific squadron from 1855 to 1857 he had several 
engagements with the Indians in the Puget Sound area ; from 1861 to 1863 he commanded 
the Portsmouth of the Western Gulf blockading squadron in which he took part in the 
engagements about Forts Jackson and St. Philip on the lower Mississippi and the consequent 
capture of New Orleans ; he was then placed on waiting orders ; but when his health failed 
he was retired on May 10, 1866. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VI, 5. 

104 The North Carolina Historical Review 

there, I took rny family to Carlisle Springs, Penn a , & after a short visit 
to Philadelphia, we returned to the arsenal in October- Gardiner's trial 
took place a short time afterwards; he was convicted & he took poison 
in the court room & died in a few hours. 

In 1854 we again left the arsenal in the summer & spent some time 
quite pleasantly at Cocke's Tavern, on the old state road, near the foot 
of the Blue Ridge in Virginia- 

On the 31 st December 1854, I was promoted to be Major in the Ord- 
nance Department. 

Early in 1855, whilst I was temporarily engaged at the War Office, 
in reviewing the General Army Regulations, in connection with Capt. 
J no Lee, (Judge advocate General,) the Secretary of War, M r Davis, 
proposed to send me, with a company of officers, to visit Europe & wit- 
ness the military operations in the Crimea- 118 After Col. Mansfield, 
then Inspector General had declined the mission, for private reasons, 
Major Delafield of the 119 of the corps of Engineers & Capt McClellan 
of the Cavalry, were selected as the other members of the commission- 
Col. Robt E. Lee of the Cavalry was also spoken of, which I mention 
as worthy of remark ; because all those named had belonged to the Corps 
of Engineers. 

Eor the particulars of this my second official mission to Europe, I 
must again refer you to my letters to your mother. During the year of 
our absence we visited England, France, Germany & Russia; went 
through Vienna, by the unfinished Alpine Railroad to Trieste; thence 

H8 The Crimean War (1853-1856) was between Russia on one side and Turkey, England, 
France, and Sardinia on the other. It began on account of the demand of Russia for a pro- 
tectorate over the Greek subjects of the sultan. After Russia was defeated the Treaty of 
Paris, signed on March 30, 1856, formally ended the war. Century and Cylcopedia, 
IX, 291. 

H9 Richard Delafield was born in New York City on September 1, 1798, the son of John 
and Ann Delafield. He graduated from West Point in 1818, at the head of his class, having 
entered the school on May 4, 1814 : became second lieutenant in engineering on July 24, 1818 ; 
was made draftsman to the American boundary commission under the treaty of Ghent ; was 
raised to the rank of first lieutenant in 1820 ; became captain in 1828 ; was assistant engineer 
in the construction of Forts Monroe and Calhoun from 1819 to 1824 ; was engaged in improve- 
ments on the Mississippi ; was supervising engineer on the Cumberland Road ; and assisted 
in erecting Fort Delaware and in improving Fort Mifflin and the Delaware River, harbor, 
and breakwater. In 1838 he became a major and superintendent over West Point, in which 
capacity he made such improvements as greatly to increase the reputation of the school. 
From 1845 to 1856 he was supervising engineer of New York Harbor defense, of the New 
York harbor improvements, and of the New York lighthouse district. He was then made 
chief engineer of the department of Texas ; was on the board of improvement of rivers and 
harbors and for armaments fortifications ; was president of the committee for revision 
of the curriculum of studies of West Point ; and held other assignments. In 1855 he was 
senior member of a committee sent to the Crimea, during the war there, to report on the 
modern methods of warfare. He was assisted by Major Alfred Mordecai and Captain George 
B. McClellan. Each member of the committee made a separate report. That of Delafield 
was a massive quarto volume illustrated, containing a comprehensive treatise on the art 
of war in Europe in 1854-1856. After serving as superintendent of West Point for five years 
he asked to be relieved in 1861 ; was made lieutenant-colonel in 1861 and colonel in 
1803 ; was placed on Governor Morgan's staff in 1863 to assist in organizing and equipping 
the forces of New York and for supplying ordnance supplies for the Atlantic and Great 
Lakes defenses ; was in charge of the strengthening of the New York harbor fortifications ; 
and was on several important boards and commissions. On April 22, 1864, he became chairman 
of the United States engineers with the rank of brigadier-general and took up his residence 
in Washington. He was brevetted major-general on March 13, 1865, for faithful, meri- 
torious, and distinguished services in the engineering department during the Civil War. 
After his retirement from active service on August 8, 1866, until his death in Washington 
on November 5, 1873, he spent his winters in Washington and summers in New York City. 
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XI, 29-30 ; Heitman, Register, I, 365. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 105 

by water to Constantinople & the Crimea; back by the same route to 
Vienna & then through Northern Italy to Southern France, & from 
England again home in the spring of 1856- In leaving the arsenal for 
this journey I had turned over the command to Major W m . H. Bell, 120 
whom I have before mentioned as my first instructor in Mathematics 
at the Mily. Acady; & after my departure my family removed to Col. 
Graham's house on I. Street, in the City & afterwards to Philadelphia 
near your grandmother's. 

On my return we took a house near the War Office, in Washington, 
where we spent the following winter & spring- By the kindness of 
p res dt pi erce & Secretary Davis an appointment to the Mily. Acady. was 
given that winter to my son Alfred. 

1857, In the Summer of 1857 I was assigned to the command of 
Watervliet arsenal, opposite to Troy, where we spent more than three 
years very happily; enjoying the pleasant society of Troy & frequent 
visits from relatives & friends from a distance- I was occasionally 
called away by attendance on Ordnance Boards & Court Martial- The 
latter at S* Louis & New York- & in 1860 as a member of a Board of 
Officers convened in New York for the purpose of revising the course of 
studies at the Mily. Acady., with reference to the adoption of an Aca- 
demic Term of five years, instead of four, which did not take effect, on 
account of the Civil War. 

1861 In the spring of 1861, when the first gun was .fired in that 
Calamitous Conflict, I was with some other Ordnance officers, at Fort 
Monroe, making trials of a sea coast gun carriage. I had taken your 
mother & Laura with me to Richmond, & being ordered to return imme- 
diately to my post, I hastened back with them to Watervliet Arsenal- 
When Civil War became inevitable, unwilling to engage in it, for rea- 
sons peculiar to myself, I resigned my commission in the army, (being 
then a Major in the Ordnance Department,) & retired with my family 
to Philadelphia, which has been their home ever since- 

1865 Early in 1865 I was invited by my friend Col. Andrew Talcott, 121 
Chief Engineer of the Vera Cruz & Mexican Railway, to assist him in 
that work- after the close of Military operations in this Country I 
accepted Col. Talcott's offer, & before my departure for Mexico, I made 

120 William Haywood Bell of North Carolina became a cadet in West Point on September 
25, 1816 ; was made third lieutenant of ordnance on July 1, 1820 ; was transferred to the 
third artillery on June 1, 1821, with the rank of second lieutenant from July 1, 1820 ; was 
transferred to the fourth artillery on August 16, 1821 ; became assistant quartermaster on 
November 1, 1830 ; was captain of ordnance on May 30, 1832 ; was given the rank of major 
on March 25, 1848 ; resigned on May 28, 1861 ; and died on December 20, 1865. Heitman, 
Register, I, 208. 

121 Andrew Talcott of Connecticut became a cadet in West Point on March 14, 1815 ; was 
brevetted second lieutenant on July 24, 1818 ; became second lieutenant on August 14, 1818 ; 
and first lieutenant on October 1, 1820. He was brevetted captain on October 1, 1830, for ten 
years faithful service in one grade ; rose to the rank of captain on December 22, 1830 ; 
resigned on September 21, 1836 ; and died on April 22, 1883. Heitman, Register, I, 943 ; 
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XIII, 405. 

106 The North Carolina Historical Review 

a brief visit to the few remaining members of my father's family in 
Virginia & ~N° Carolina- My mother, my sisters Caroline & Eliza & my 
brother Samuel had died during the War; My brother George lived 
until 1871 ; & there now remains of my father's large family of children, 
only my sisters Ellen & Emma & myself. 

In June 1865, I sailed for Vera Cruz, but was unluckily detained a 
fortnight at Havanna, where I did not escape fever; though fortunately 
not yellow fever. 

My duties in connection with the Railway kept me in the principal 
Office in the City of Mexico ; & in the delightful climate of that elevated 
tropical region, I passed sixteen months very pleasantly. A considerable 
number of the Officers of the Confederate army had gone to Mexico at 
the close of the Civil War, & formed a friendly colony in the City; 
well received by Col. Talcott & his agreeable family at their charming 
Villa, the "Casa Amarilla," in Tacubaya- 

1866 Financial difficulties of the Railway Company in England, & 
the Collapse of the Imperial government and Erench occupation, in 
Mexico, caused a suspension of the operations on the Railway, when the 
work was well advanced towards completion, & in the autumn of 1866 
I returned home by way of New Orleans- 

At Mobile I had the satisfaction of a third & last visit to my brother 
Solomon ; he had been for some time totally blind, & he was then living 
in a cottage- near his house at Summerville, which had been accidently 

At Raleigh I again saw my brother George, also for the last time, 
until he was suffering from fatal illness, in Feby 1871. 
Novr 1 st I reached home just in time to attend, with your aunt Ellen 
Mordecai, the wedding of my son Alfred in Washn. Novr 1 st . 1866. 

1867 Not long after my return, in the summer of 1867, through the 
kind interposition of an old Army friend, Genl. Danl. Tyler 122 & other 

122 Daniel Tyler was born in Connecticut on January 7, 1799, and died in New York City 
on November 30, 1882. He graduated from West Point in 1819 ; became a second lieutenant 
of light artillery on July 1, 1819; was raised to the rank of first lieutenant on May 6, 1824; 
and resigned on May 31, 1834. He became colonel of the Connecticut infantry on April 23, 
1861 ; was made brigadier-general of the Connecticut volunteers on May 10, 1861 ; was 
honorably mustered out on August 11, 1861 ; became brigadier-general of volunteers on 
March 13, 1862 ; and resigned on April 4, 1864. From 1824 to 1826 he served in the Fortress 
Monroe Artillery School for practice, of which for a time he was adjutant. In April, 1829, 
he was admitted to the Artillery School of Practice at Metz, where he translated French 
and wrote on French military affairs. After his return to the United States he held many 
positions in the army before he resigned. In 1834 he was made president of an iron and 
coal company in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, and was sent to Great Britain to examine 
methods of coal mining and iron mills. Later he held many other positions in private 
industry. He fought during the Civil War on the Mississippi and in the East as colonel 
and brigadier-general ; travelled extensively in the South, in Cuba, and in Europe after his 
resignation in 1864 ; returned to the United States in 1872 ; founded large cotton and iron 
manufactures in Alabama ; and built the town of Anniston in that state. From 1873 to 1879 
he was president of the Mobile and Montgomery Railroad ; invested in Texas land ; and 
established "Capote Farm" of 20,000 acres, which was his winter residence. Appleton's Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography, VI, 192-193 ; Heitman, Register, I, 977. 

The Life of Alfred Mordecai 107 

friends, & the favorable consideration of it by M r Thomson, 123 
M r Scott 124 & Genl Wistar, 125 I received an appointment in the Office 
of the Pennsylvania Railway Company, which has afforded me the 
means of respectable support for my family; aided by the resources 
which my daughters derive from their laborious occupation, steadily 
& cheerfully pursued-"Many daughters have done virtuously, but you 
have excelled them all." 

This great reverse of fortune, in the evening of life, I have endeav- 
ored to bear with philosophical patience; solaced by the companionship 
of my affectionate wife & by the love & good conduct of our dear chil- 
dren; not without also the comfort afforded by the sympathy & regard 
of many kind & esteemed friends, in our retirement. 

123 John Edgar Thomson was born in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on February 10, 
1808, and died in Philadelphia on May 27, 1874. He was the son of John Thomson, the 
engineer who planned the first experimental railway in the United States, and received a 
thorough education and training in the profession by his father. In 1827 he was employed 
on a survey of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railway ; entered the service of the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad three years later as principal assistant engineer of the eastern division ; 
became chief engineer of the Georgia Railroad in 1832, and later general manager ; became 
chief engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1847 ; and in 1852 was elevated to the presi- 
dency of that road, which position he retained until his death. For the twenty-seven years 
he had charge of the Pennsylvania that railroad paid dividends every period except one 
half year in 1857. He had remarkable engineering ability and executive skill. He was also 
connected with other railroad enterprises and was director in many companies. Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VI, 99. 

124 Thomas Alexander Scott was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, on December 28, 
1824, and died in Derby, Pennsylvania, on May 21, 1881. He attended the village school ; clerked 
in a country store ; was clerk on a toll road in Pennsylvania ; and became connected 
with the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1850. In 1858 he became general superintendent of 
the road ; was made vice-president in 1859 ; and developed into one of the most enterpris- 
ing railroad men in the United States. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed 
to the staff of Governor Andrew G. Curtin, and became very energetic in equipping and 
supplying volunteers, and in speeding them to Washington. On April 27, 1861, he was asked 
to open a new line from Philadelphia to Washington, which he did in a short time. He 
became colonel of volunteers on May 3, 1861, and on May 23 was given charge of all govern- 
ment railroads and telegraph lines. On August 1, 1861, he was appointed Assistant Secretary 
of war, which office he was the first to hold. He was sent to organize transportation in the 
Northwest in January, 1862, and in March to perform the same duties on the Western rivers ; 
but he resigned on June 1, 1862, so as to devote his whole time to railroad affairs. On Sep- 
tember 24, 1863, he entered government service to superintend the transportation of two 
army corps to Chattanooga, Tennessee. He helped secure control of western lines for the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and in 1871, when a separate company was organized to manage 
these lines, he was made its president. He was also the president of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road from March, 1871, to March, 1872, and became president of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road in 1874, but failing health caused him to travel abroad in 1878, and he resigned on 
June 1, 1880. He was projector of the Texas Pacific Railroad and for many years its 
president. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, V, 439. 

125 Isaac Jones Wistar was born in Philadelphia on November 14, 1827. He was descended 
from Caspar Wistar, who emigrated from Germany in 1717, and erected the first glass 
factory in America. Isaac became a lawyer and practiced in Philadelphia. In 1849, with a 
small party from Georgia, he traveled across the plains to California, and after an adven- 
turous life on the west cost he spent several years in th employmnt of the Hudson Bay 
Company in the far Northwest. In a night attack by the Indians only he and one other 
of his party escaped, but he was seriously wounded. He then returned to California where 
he studied law and took up the work of a lawyer. In 1861 he raised a regiment of sixteen 
companies and took an active part in the war. He was wounded several times in the battle 
of Ball's Bluff ; became colonel soon after this ; was left on the field at Antietam as dead, for 
which he was made brigadier-general ; was made commander of the eastern division of Vir- 
ginia ; and was given a sword by the citizens of Pennsylvania. After the close of war he 
refused to remain in the army ; returned to Philadelphia ; became president of the Union 
(later Pennsylvania) Canal Company; and finally all the canals and coal companies under 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company were put under his charge, employing several thousand 
men. He was president of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences for four terms, 
and was president of the American Philosophical Society. He wrote several scientific papers ; 
held many honorary positions at home and abroad ; donated a fine building for the Anatomical 
Museum, first established in 1808, by his ancestor, Professor Caspar Wistar ; secured a 
charter and settled a liberal permanent endowment upon Wistar Institute of Anatomy and 
Biology, by far the most important collection of its kind in America — a very valuable asset 
to the University of Pennsylvania ; and was in every way a valuable citizen to his state 
and nation. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XII, 359. 

108 The North Carolina Historical Review 

1884 Octr 6 th My sister Ellen died at Buckrow Farm near Fort Mon- 
roe, V a , on the 6 th of October 1884; within one month of completing 
her 94 th year- 

On the 3 d of May 1885, our dear Alfred's wife, Sally Maynadier, 126 
died at M rs Edgar's (nee Carmichael) near the arsenal at Augusta 
Georgia, on her return from Florida, where her devoted husband had 
accompanied her, in hopes of relief from disease of the lungs. 

"Golden Wedding." 1886 June 1 st June 1 st 1886 completed Fifty Years 
of loving union with your dear mother- We had the happiness of the 
presence at our house, (1816 Delancy Place) of our three daughters & 
three sons, & our two granddaughters; their two brothers remaining at 
Governor's Island 1ST. York where there bereaved father is stationed. 

1886. June 1 st Six hundred notices of the Anniversary had been sent 
to our friends, far & near, & they were responded to by the most affec- 
tionate & touching replies & tokens of love & esteem from all quarters. 
Our rooms were profusely decorated with beautiful floral offerings, & 
they were fitted with a crowd of cheerful, happy faces, beaming with 
pleasure in the expression of good wishes & congratulations rare & 
interesting occasion; whilst the tables in a room above were covered 
with superb presents, as mementoes of the happy event- It is useless 
for me to try to express the grateful emotions which filled all our hearts 
to overflowing at these manifestations of affectionate regard, showered 
upon us by friends of early days, & by many among whom we came to 
Philadelphia almost as strangers in the later years of our married life- 
It was indeed a "Golden Wedding!" 

June 10 On the 10 of June I presided, for the third time, as the Senior 
member present, at the meeting of the association of Graduates of the 
Military Academy- a very pleasant gathering of friends at West Point, 
although but one of my surviving companions at the Academy was 
present on this occasion. 

[On June 9, 1887, Major Alfred Mordecai presided for the fourth 
time at the annual reunion of the association of graduates of the 
Military Academy at West Point, and delivered a most fitting address 
for the occasion. The printed address is filed in these memoranda.] 

126 Probably sbe was tbe daughter of William Maynadier (1806-July 3, 1871), who 
graduated from West Point in 1827 ; rose to the rank of colonel by 1863, and brigadier-general 
in 1865 ; and had service in both the Black Hawk War and Florida before the Civil War. 
In 1838, leaving the artillery, he became a captain of ordnance. In 1842 he was made 
principal assistant to the ordnance chief, and was a valuable asset in this work on account 
of his ability and long experience. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 276. 


Walter Clark: Fighting Judge. By Aubrey Lee Brooks. (Chapel Hill: Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press. 1944. Pp. x, 278. $3.00.) 

Walter Clark ranks as one of the outstanding jurists of North 
Carolina. For thirty-five years he served with distinction on the 
State Supreme Court, acting as chief justice from 1902 until his 
death in 1924. His biography is, therefore, not merely the story 
of one man but also an important chapter in the judicial history 
of North Carolina. 

The author was a fellow lawyer and personal friend of Judge 
Clark, and this volume is a warm-hearted eulogy of Clark the 
man, and a spirited defense of Clark the jurist. Mr. Brooks has 
written interestingly and well but without the objectivity of one 
less under the spell of his subject. 

Walter McKenzie Clark was a son of the old plantation South 
but became an ardent advocate of a new and more liberal South. 
Born in 1846, he spent his boyhood at Ventosa, the family estate 
on the Roanoke River in Halifax County. His education, mainly 
in private academies, was interrupted by the coming of the Civil 
War. "Little Clark" became a drill master at the age of fourteen 
and later saw active service in the Confederate Army. During the 
war, however, he studied law for about a year at the University 
of North Carolina and, in 1866, went North for more legal train- 
ing and to "see how the Yankees did it." His law practice, begun 
in Scotland Neck, was continued in Halifax and in Raleigh. He 
became a Superior Court judge in 1885 and held this position 
until his appointment to the Supreme Court in 1889. 

Precocious as a youth, Walter Clark developed into a brilliant 
and scholarly man. He set rigid moral and intellectual stand- 
ards for himself and was intolerant of laxity and inefficiency in 
others. On the bench he was an indefatigable worker and an 
independent thinker. Of the 3,235 opinions which he wrote, 371 
were dissenting opinions. To some of his contemporaries, Judge 
Clark was a radical; to others he was a liberal in an age when 
judicial conservatism was strong. He is especially noted for his 
advocacy of greater civil and political rights for women, of the 
legal protection of children, and of the welfare of labor. He was 
an uncompromising foe of what he regarded as dangerous 

[ 109 ] 

110 The North Carolina Historical Review 

monopolies. Some of his most spirited legal battles were against 
the old American Tobacco Company of the Dukes and against 
the railroads. Politically, Judge Clark experienced a few dis- 
appointments because he was thought by some to be tainted with 
Populism when Democratic regularity was a sine qua non of 

Clark opposed what he called "judge made law." He openly 
crusaded against life tenure for federal judges and against the 
practice of review by the Supreme Court of acts of Congress. 
Also, he sought a simplification of legal processes by every means 

Aside from his work on the bench, Walter Clark was a prolific 
writer. Numbers of his articles appeared in leading periodicals. 
His Code of Civil Procedure of North Carolina was widely read 
and cited. He edited the State Records of North Carolina and a 
five volume Civil War history of North Carolina. 

In writing his biography, Mr. Brooks did not make use of foot- 
notes nor did he include a bibliography, other than a compila- 
tion of Judge Clark's publications. There is an adequate index. 
The narrative is, in general, factually accurate. The date of 
Clark's appointment to the Supreme Court was given in one 
place (p. 59) as 1899 when it should have been 1889, but this 
error was probably typographical. 

There is a tendency on the author's part to regard Judge 
Clark's liberalism as being unique and in advance of the time. 
Without detracting from his achievements, it might have been 
pointed out more fully that the early twentieth century was the 
age of the Progressive movement and that the fight against the 
trusts and monopolies was a general fight. Judge Clark was, 
perhaps, North Carolina's leading crusader in this movement. 
Despite the laudatory character of the book, however, Walter 
Clark: Fighting Judge is a worthwhile contribution to the his- 
torical literature of recent North Carolina. 

W. A. Mabry. 

Mount Union College, 
Alliance, Ohio. 

Book Eeviews 111 

One Hundred Great Years: The Story of The Times-Picayune from Its 
Founding To 1940. By Thomas Ewing Dabney. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana 
State University Press. 1944. Pp. xii, 552. $4.00.) 

Even for an experienced newspaperman, writing the history 
of a newspaper is not an easy task, as Mr. Dabney humbly 
admits, and this reviewer sympathizes with anyone who under- 
takes it. There are two usual methods. One is to present the 
newspaper as biography and eliminate all matter that does not 
directly concern it * the other is to treat the newspaper as a rec- 
ord and review the matter found in its pages. Either method has 
is drawbacks. It is not easy to write the biography of an insti- 
tution unless it is identified with vivid personalities; such an 
account may be short but dull. On the other hand, recounting 
the subjects covered by a newspaper, while offering an interest- 
ing panorama of life, may lead the author too much into general 
history and away from that which is peculiar to the newspaper 
itself. Mr. Dabney has not confined himself to either method; 
he has used both, and also a blend of the two, but he has leaned 
heavily toward the second method. The result is a review of 
state, national, and world events, as well as local, that draws 
out the account and allows the story of the Picayune to get lost 
in general history. The paper's own history is scattered through 
the book and is not easily traceable either by chapter titles or 
the index. Only about a fourth of the chapters can be said to 
deal wholly or mostly with the newspaper itself. 

The book, then, is primarily local history rather than the his- 
tory of the newspaper. As such it is interesting reading, full of 
facts and good stories about New Orleans and Louisiana since 
the founding of the Picayune in 1837. Newspaper files have been 
drawn on as the major source of information. Other sources are 
not generally identified. There is no bibliography, but an eight- 
page appendix. There are few errors of fact or spelling. 

Both the history of the Picayune and the local history it un- 
folds were well worth writing. Interesting men and women have 
been identified with the Picayune and its successors - Lumsden, 
Kendall, Holbrook, the Nicholsons, "Pearl Rivers/' and "Dorothy 
Dix," and they have engaged the paper in many crusades for 
the betterment of New Orleans and Louisiana. The local history 
of the Crescent City for the last hundred years is intriguing, to 

112 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

say the least, if not startling, and the author has done a par- 
ticularly good job in reporting it. Little incidents and mighty 
events — duelling and gambling, floods and wars; adventurous 
men, patriotic or purchasable ; steamboating, railway and bridge 
building; celebrations, nocturnal entertainments, and outdoor 
sports ; cotton, coffee, and commerce ; street lighting, city beauti- 
fication, and sewage disposal ; carpet baggers, ballot box stuff ers, 
and Huey Long; charity, medicine, education, and journalism - 
all are artfully woven into the fabric of the life of the city below 
the levees. Particularly vivid is the story running throughout 
the book of the heroic, but sometimes awkward, struggle against 
pestilence and floods, neither finally conquered till the twentieth 

The writing is characterized by a delicate humor, restrained 
handling of controversial episodes, and good reporting. It is a 
readable and valuable book in social history. 

Culver H. Smith. 

University of Chattanooga, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

The Free Produce Movement: A Quaker Protest Against Slavery. By Ruth 
Ketring Nuermberger. Historical Papers of the Trinity College Historical 
Society, Series XXV. (Durham: Duke University Press. 1942. Pp. ix, 147. 

The free produce movement was an attempt to provide, for 
those who had scruples against using the products of slave labor, 
commodities such as cotton, sugar, coffee, and rice produced by 
free labor. Its period of greatest activity was during the years 
1826-1856 when over twenty-five societies were organized, cul- 
minating in the American Free Produce Association in 1839. 
Many prominent abolitionists sponsored the movement, and at 
one time it appeared that the idea might become a major factor 
in the abolition crusade. This anticipation failed to materialize, 
however, and the movement after 1845 was left mainly to 
Quakers, who adopted it as the form of antislavery protest least 
objectionable to their more conservative fellow-members. 

At no time did the societies have any strong financial backing. 
Quakers who supported the cause did not have the funds to de- 

Book Reviews 113 

velop it into a large movement, and the idea was not compelling 
enough to attract outsiders. Difficulties were also encountered 
in the search for supplies of free labor products. Cotton could be 
procured in considerable quantities from nonslaveholding farm- 
ers in the South, but there was always the problem of keeping 
it segregated at the gins, and special handling and shipping in- 
creased its cost. Efforts to establish a free labor gin in Mis- 
sissippi met with failure, as did ephemeral schemes for making 
sugar from potatoes, corn, and sorghum. Most free products 
were higher in price than ordinary goods and were usually of 
inferior quality. "Unfortunately," wrote Lucretia Mott, "free 
sugar was not always as free from other taints as from that of 
slavery ; and free calicos could seldom be called handsome, even 
by the most enthusiastic; free umbrellas were hideous to look 
upon, and free candies, an abomination." 

Mrs. Nuermberger's research has served to bring to light the 
history of this almost forgotten phase of the movement to abolish 
slavery. The sources for the study are few and scattered, but by 
diligent search and lucky accident she has been able to weave these 
together into a connected and well-documented account. Numerous 
references are made to North Carolina as a source of free labor 
products, and there is mention of a free produce society estab- 
lished about 1849 in Guilford County. 

James W. Patton. 

North Carolina State College, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Majority Rule and Minority Rights. By Henry Steele Commager. (New 
York: Oxford University Press. 1943. Pp. 92. $1.50.) 

In this volume, comprising three lectures delivered at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, Professor Commager examines the conflicting 
spheres of liberty and authority in the United States. After ana- 
lyzing the claims of judicial review as a bulwark of minority 
rights, he asserts that judges are no better qualified than legis- 
latures or executives to interpret vague and ambiguous clauses of 
the Constitution ; that there is no validity in the argument that 
judges are alone free from unconscious bias on questions of con- 

1 1 4 The North Carolina Historical Review 

stitutionality ; and that with a few exceptions it has been the Con- 
gress and not the courts that has served as the instrument for the 
realization of the guarantees of the bill of rights. 

The record of the Court is somewhat better in its dealing with 
state laws impairing civil liberties, but this does not convince 
Professor Commager of the desirability of entrusting to the one 
none-elective branch of the government the power to thwart the 
wishes of the majority. With Jefferson he argues that judicial 
review as a device to restrain majorities (he is not concerned 
with the function of judicial review as a harmonizer of the fed- 
eral system) is illogical and untenable, based upon the false as- 
sumption that the people either do not understand the Constitu- 
tion or will not respect it. He finds no persuasive evidence in our 
history that majorities are given to contempt for constitutional 
limitations or for minority rights. 

In place of judicial review, a solution of the problem is sug- 
gested in the Jeffersonian thesis that men need no masters - not 
even judges; that only where the safety valves of public discus- 
sion and experimentation and reconsideration are always open 
can there be assurance that both majority and minority rights 
will be served; in short, that there need be no fear from error 
"where reason is left free to combat it." 

The style of the lectures is clear and vigorous, the materials 
aptly chosen, and the argument cogently presented. 

James W. Patton. 

North Carolina State College, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier: A Study of Indian 
Relations, War, Trade, and Land Problems in the Southern Wilderness, 
1754-1775. By John Richard Alden. (Ann Arbor: The University of Michi- 
gan Press. 1944. Pp. 384. $4.00.) 

Professor Alden's work has all the appearances of a scholarly 
production. The footnotes are elaborate, the bibliography is 
extensive, and he has enlarged upon the errors of other writers 
in the field. Most of the references are to official documents, 
and one would naturally conclude that the author has gone to the 
roots of the matter and spoken the last work upon the subject. 

Book Reviews 115 

The sub-title indicates that the field, including "Indian relations, 
war, trade, and land problems in the Southern wilderness," has 
been covered in a very broad way. What we really have, however, 
is a study of British policy in regard to these subjects. There is 
nothing like an adequate treatment of Indian trade, land prob- 
lems, or the Southern frontier. 

Within the limits of the treatment, the author has done a 
meticulous job, but one lays aside the book with a disconcertingly 
vague notion as to what manner of man John Stuart was and 
as to the nature of his Indian policy. Professor Alden says that 
"he remained consistently loyal to his trust. — although he never 
entered the southern wilderness after his appointment as super- 
intendent/ ' The manner in which he carried out his trust pre- 
sents some baffling problems, though the author is hypercritical 
of those who have questioned Stuart's disinterestedness. This, 
however, does not dispose of various questions. For instance, on 
page 271 we find, "nor did a proposal made by Stuart in July 
(1768), that the Virginia-Cherokee boundary follow a straight 
line from ChiswelPs Mine to the mouth of the Kentucky River, 
meet with favor from Hillsborough." Two years later Stuart 
wrote to Hillsborough in regard to the Treaty of Lochaber that 
he had declined an offer by the Cherokees to grant more land to 
Virginia, and, says he, "if I had been certain that your Lordship 
would have forgiven it, I should not have done [i.e. accepted] 
it" (p. 280). Then on page 282 the author states that "Stuart 
believed in 1770, as he did in 1768, that no harm could result 
from the expansion of Virginia settlements to the Kentucky 
River." In this instance, Stuart's policy is no clearer than the 
author's analysis of it. 

On page 320 it is stated that "Stuart . . . advised Hillsborough 
that the Choctaws could not cede the eastern bank of the Mis- 
sissippi above the Iberville because they did not own it." This 
statement apparently satisfies the author; but if it is correct, 
then the United States showed very poor judgment in purchasing 
this area from the Choctaws at a later date. Space does not per- 
mit the enumeration of other examples of this sort of thing 
found throughout the book. 

The maps accompanying the volume are unsatisfactory. The 
line of 1767 as given on the map on page 102 does not accord 

116 The North Carolina Historical Review 

with the description of it given on page 221. Names of impor- 
tant rivers are omitted from the map on page 317, and the large 
folded contemporary map showing the location of Indian towns 
as of 1766 is inadequate. The author should have compiled an 
accurate map of these towns for a proper understanding of the 

Thomas Perkins Abernethy. 

The Univesitt of Virginia, 
Charlottesville, Va. 


On August 31 at Wilmington the USS Stokes was launched. 
The vessel is named for Stokes County, North Carolina. 

At Brunswick, Georgia, on August 31, there was launched the 
Casius Hudson, Liberty ship named for a man who did valuable 
work for the North Carolina agricultural extension service. 

District meetings of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
were held in various towns of the state, September 26-October 6. 
Mrs. Preston B. Wilkes, Junior, state regent, presented at these 
meetings the organization's plan for building libraries at the 
permanent military reservations in the state. 

The R. J. Reynolds, a Liberty ship named for the North Caro- 
lina tobacco magnate, was launched at Brunswick, Georgia, Sep- 
tember 30. 

The Woman's College of the University at Greensboro cele- 
brated Founders' Day on October 5. Mrs. W. T. Bost of Raleigh 
spoke in memory of Miss Laura N. Coit, who died last year after 
more than forty years of service at the Woman's College, and Dr. 
Mary Poteat, professor of English at Duke University, memorial- 
ized Dr. William C. Smith, who also served for many years on the 
College faculty. 

The 150th anniversary of the "Piney Grove" Presbyterian 
Church at Swannanoa was observed on October 10-11. 

The North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, held its annual convention in High Point, October 10-11. 
Dr. Christopher Crittenden delivered the principal address on the 
subject, "Let's Preserve Our Confederate Landmarks." 

The Southern Council on International Relations held its Fifth 
Conference in Chapel Hill on October 11. "Victory in the Peace," 
"The South and Inter-Americanism," and other topics in the 
international field were discussed by a number of prominent 

[ 117 ] 

118 The North Carolina Historical Review 

A memorial monolith was unveiled at the grave of Governor 
Thomas Burke near Hillsboro, October 15, when Governor J. 
Melville Broughton, Dr. Archibald Henderson, and others deliv- 
ered addresses. 

A portrait of Governor Locke Craig was presented to the state 
in the Senate Chamber of the Capitol, October 16. Mr. D. Hiden 
Ramsey of Asheville delivered the principal address. 

The annual meeting of the Wachovia Historical Society was 
held in the Wachovia Museum on October 24. Following the 
meeting Salem Tavern, which has been acquired and restored by 
the Society, was formerly opened. 

North Carolina, along with the rest of the nation, celebrated 
Navy Day on October 27. Public addresses and other kinds of 
celebrations were held in various towns of the state. 

At the annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association in 
Nashville, Tennessee, November 3-4, Dr. Charles S. Sydnor of 
Duke University presided at a session on "The Rural South," and 
Dr. J. G. deRoulhac Hamilton of the University of North Carolina 
presided at a session on "Aspects of Southern Life." 

"The Christian Reveille," a historical play by Reverend C. C. 
Ware, was presented at the centennial convention of the North 
Carolina Disciples of Christ at Atlantic Christian College, Wilson, 
November 8-10. The drama tells the story of the beginnings of the 
denomination in the state, and includes as characters David Cald- 
well, Henry Patillo, Thomas Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. 

Mr. L. D. Corbitt and Dr. Christopher Crittenden attended the 
annual meetings of the Society of American Archivists and the 
American Association for State and Local History at Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, November 8-10. Dr. Crittenden read a paper, "The 
State Archivist Looks to the Future." 

Judge Robert W. Winston died at Chapel Hill on October 14 at 
the age of eighty-four. Closing a distinguished career as lawyer 

Historical News 119 

and jurist at the age of sixty, he re-entered the University of 
North Carolina, his alma mater, as a freshman. In the years that 
followed he won fame as a biographer of Thomas Jefferson, Robert 
E. Lee, Andrew Johnson, and others. 

Dr. G. E. Mowry, who was on leave from the University of 
North Carolina to work for the War Production Board, has accept- 
ed an endowed professorship of American history at Mills College, 
Oakland, California. 

Dr. J. C. Sitterson of the University of North Carolina is on 
leave working for the War Production Board. 

Professor Howard K. Beale of the University of North Carolina 
has secured a one-year extension of his leave in order to do fur- 
ther research on the life of Theodore Roosevelt. 

Professor Tinsley L. Spraggins of Saint Augustine's College 
served during the summer as a junior archivist on the staff of 
The National Archives in Washington, working in the War Rec- 
ord Division, Army Branch. 

The October issue of The Shane Quarterly, published by the 
School of Religion, Butler University, Indianapolis, contained an 
article, "John James Harper," by Professor C. H. Hamlin of 
Atlantic Christian College. Dr. Harper was the principal founder 
of the college. 

Members of the history department of Appalachian State 
Teachers College hold responsible places in the war program of 
Watauga County. Prof. V. C. Howell is chairman of the Selective 
Service Board. Dr. D. J. Whitener is director of the War Records 
Committee, chairman of Civilian Defense, and publicity agent 
of OPA in Watauga. At present he is preparing a pamphlet 
history of Watauga County for the Boone Chamber of Commerce. 
Prof. W. M. Grubbs' syllabus for college students on "Consumer 
Education during War" has been adopted by OPA for use in all 
the southern states. 

120 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Members of the combined history and social science depart- 
ments at the North Carolina College for Negroes this year are 
Joseph H. Taylor, history and government; John Hope Franklin, 
history; Nathan Pitts, sociology and economics; and Helen G. 
Edmunds, history. 

Dr. John Hope Franklin, professor of history at North Carolina 
College for Negroes, read a paper, "James Boon, Free Negro 
Artisan," at the annual meeting in Boston of the Association for 
the Study of Negro Life and History. 

Dr. Joseph H. Taylor, chairman of the department of history at 
North Carolina College for Negroes, was elected president of the 
North Carolina Negro College Conference at its nineteenth annual 
meeting in Greensboro. 

Mr. J. Neal Hughley, of the social science department of North 
Carolina College for Negroes, is a General Education fellow at 
Columbia University during the current academic year. 

Miss Evelyn Underwood of Waynesville, a master of arts from 
the University of North Carolina, is a member of the history 
department at Mars Hill College. 

Reprints of the sixteen-page bibliography, "Writings on 
Archives and Manuscripts, July 1942-June 1943," which was pub- 
lished in The American Archivist, October, 1943, may be pur- 
chased for twenty-five cents a copy from Dr. Lester J. Cappon, 
secretary of the Society of American Archivists, Alderman 
Library, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. 

The state's war records program is continuing to arouse inter- 
est. Miss Charlie Huss, the Department's collector of records, and 
other members of the staff have made talks on the subject to 
groups in various towns of the state. Large quantities of mate- 
rials are being received. 

Dr. E. S. Pomeroy of the University of North Carolina has 
published "The Territory as a Frontier Institution," The His- 

Historical News 121 

torian, autumn, 1944 ; and "Sentiment for a Strong Peace, 1917- 
1919," South Atlantic Quarterly, October, 1944. 

Mr. B. H. Wall, formerly instructor at the University of North 
Carolina, in September became assistant professor of history at 
the University of Kentucky. 

Professor H. K. Beale, on leave from the University of North 
Carolina, on October 24 delivered the Funk Foundation History 
Lecture at Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, on the sub- 
ject, "The Secret Diplomacy of Theodore Roosevelt." 

Miss Beth Crabtree, in charge of the search room of the State 
Department of Archives and History since November, 1942, 
resigned in October to accept a position with the Fitchburg Public 
Library, Fitchburg, Mass. She has been succeeded by Mrs. Joye E. 
Jordan, native Pennsylvanian, graduate of Indiana (Pennsyl- 
vania) State Teachers College, and for several years a teacher in 
the jpublic schools of Akron, Ohio. 

Miss Margaret C. Norton, Illinois state archivist and president 
of the Society of American Archivists in 1943-44, was reelected 
president at the eighth annual meeting of the Society held in 
Harrisburg, Pa., on November 8 and 9. Dr. Christopher Critten- 
den, secretary of the State Department of Archives and History 
at Raleigh, was named vice president. Dr. Lester J. Cappon, of 
the University of Virginia, and Miss Helen Chatfield, Archivist of 
the Treasury Department, Washington, D. C, were reelected sec- 
retary and treasurer, respectively, and Dr. Howard Peckham, of 
the William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was 
elected to the council for a five-year term. 

The council of the Society of American Archivists made Hilary 
Jenkinson, secretary and principal assistant keeper of the public 
records, Public Records Office, London, and Joaquin Llaverias, 
long-time director of the National Archives of Cuba, Habana, 
honorary members of the Society. There has previously been only 
two other persons elected to honorary membership, the President 

122 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Victor Hugo 
Paltsits, keeper of manuscripts at the New York Public Library 
from 1914 to 1941 and a pioneer in archival science in the United 

The library of the Woman's College of the University at 
Greensboro is building a collection of original music manuscripts 
by North Carolina composers. Recent acquisitions are from Mrs. 
Crosby Adams of Montreat, Dr. Hubert McNeill Poteat of Wake 
Forest College, Dean H. Hugh Altvater of the Woman's College 
school of music, and Miss Elizabeth Holmes of the piano depart- 
ment of Radford College, Virginia. 

The law library of the North Carolina College for Negroes, 
Durham, has purchased in New York a 30,000-volume library. 

Books received include Donald Dean Parker, Local History, 
How to Gather It, Write It, and Publish It (Social Science Re- 
search Council) ; Rembert W. Patrick, Jefferson Davis and His 
Cabinet (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1944) ; 
Inglis Fletcher, Lusty Wind for Carolina (Indianapolis: Bobbs- 
Merrill Company) ; Christopher Crittenden and Doris Godard, 
Historical Societies in the United States and Canada: A Hand- 
book (Washington: The American Association for State and 
Local History. 1944) ; and Samuel Cole Williams, Tennessee dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War (Nashville: The Tennessee Historical 
Commission. 1944). 

Accessions of manuscripts include the papers (thirty-two linear 
feet) of Reginald A. Fessenden relating to many subjects, includ- 
ing his experiments in wireless telegraphy, wireless signalling, 
multiplex telegraphy, the incandescent lamp, generating and stor- 
ing power from natural sources such as the sun's rays, and pro- 
viding tanks with devices for making smoke screens, presented 
by his son, Colonel R. K. Fessenden of Madison, Connecticut; a 
letter from George Mordecai of Raleigh to his brother, Samuel 
Mordecai of Petersburg, Virginia, describing the disastrous 
Raleigh fire of 1838, given by Miss Patty Mordecai of Raleigh; 
the minute book of the corporation of Elizabeth City, 1853-1867, 

Historical News 


valuable in part because it covers the period of occupation of the 
town by United States troops during the Civil War, purchased; 
the minutes of the court of pleas and quarter session of Wake 
County, 1777-1784, loaned ; materials relating to the North Caro- 
lina Press Association, given by Mr. Clarence W. Griffin of 
Forest City. 


Mr. Alonzo T. Dill, Jr., is an associate editor of the Norfolk 
Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk, Virginia. 

Mr. Clifton Oxendine is dean of the Pembroke State College 
for Indians, Pembroke* North 'Carolina. 

Dr. William Patterson Cumming is a professor of English in 
Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina. 

Dr. James Wesley Silver is an associate professor of history 
and acting head of the History Department at the University of 
Mississippi, University, Mississippi. 

Dr. James A. Padgett's address is 406 A Street, S. E., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

[ 124 ] 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXII April, 1945 Number 2 


By Annie Sabra Ramsey 

The growth and development of the state agency whose func- 
tion it is to regulate public service companies and corporations 
may be taken as a fairly accurate index of the growth and devel- 
opment of North Carolina itself. The history of no other state 
department so clearly reflects its business and industrial life and 
the standard of living attained by its population. 

The North Carolina Utilities Commission may be briefly defined 
as that arm of the state government which is "vested with all 
power necessary to require and compel any public utility or pub- 
lic service corporation ... to provide and furnish to the citizens 
of the state reasonable service of the kind it undertakes to fur- 
nish, and fix and regulate the reasonable rates and charges to 
be made." 1 With the increase in population and the commercial 
development of North Carolina, there has necessarily been a cor- 
responding increase and broadening of the functions of this 

Strictly speaking, the history of the Commission begins in 
1891 with the establishment of the first state agency for the 
supervision and regulation of public utilities, the Board of Rail- 
road Commissioners, created by an act of the General Assembly 
of that year; however, the economic condition which called for 
the creation of this Board had its origin in the period immedi- 
ately following the Civil War when the exhausted South had 
been reduced economically to the position of a tributary province. 
"Bankers and brokers obtained credit from the East and passed 
it on to the merchants who parceled it out to the farmers/' 2 Land 

1 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1933, chap. 134. 

2 R. D. W. Connor, North Carolina, Rebuilding an Ancient Commonwealth, II, 425. 

[ 125 ] 

126 The North Carolina Historical Review 

was not acceptable as security. The farmer, before he could 
plant his crops, was obliged to mortgage them to the merchant 
who would supply him throughout the year with food and clothes 
for himself and his family, and fertilizer and farm implements 
for the cultivation of his crops — in fact, with all of the material 
commodities necessary for his home and farm from needles and 
thread and kitchen utensils to hoes and rakes, harness and plow. 
Unplanted crops, as is easily understood, were not a good risk, 
and the merchants' charges were exorbitant, — from 20 to 50 
per cent above prevailing cash prices. 3 Then, too, high tariffs, 
voted by Congress from time to time to protect business and 
industry, raised the prices of many of the things farmers were 
forced to buy, but did nothing to advance the prices of the 
products they sold. 

The railroads in the early days of their existence had been 
encouraged to incorporate and to extend and improve their lines 
by concessions such as exemption from taxation and the granting 
of free rights-of-way. By 1880 the growth in the business and 
industrial activity of this country had greatly increased the 
business done by the railroads. They were in a flourishing condi- 
tion and justification for special privileges no longer existed. The 
relief allowed the railroads added to the financial burdens of the 
farmer. In North Carolina his taxes were raised at practically 
every session of the General Assembly. The railroad companies 
sold stock to the farmers and others, and later "threw the roads 
into bankruptcy, 'froze out' the small stockholders and reor- 
ganized with a few insiders in possession and control." 4 And 
these were not the only grievances against the railroads. Rates 
were high, and discrimination in rates as well as many other 
unfair practices were employed. 

Soon after the Civil War organizations for the benefit of those 
engaged in agriculture, such as the Patrons of Husbandry, the 
Grange, and the Alliance, sprang up in the West and these spread 
to other agricultural states. The Grange, the first to appear in 
North Carolina, was organized in this state in 1873, but it was 
short-lived and by 1880 had ceased to function. The Grange 
"never developed much strength anywhere in the South, because 

3 Connor, North Carolina, II, 42*. 

4 Connor, North Carolina, II, 426. 

Utility Regulation in Worth Carolina 127 

that section was primarily concerned at that time with the 
overthrow of the carpet-bag regime." 5 Somewhat later, in the 
'eighties, the widespread and ever-increasing discontent of the 
farmers in the West and South produced more virile associa- 
tions such as the Agricultural Wheel in Arkansas, the Texas 
State Alliance in Texas, and the Farmers' Union in Louisiana. 
In North Carolina the Grange was revived and other agricultural 
groups came into being. In the South and Southwest these various 
organizations united and became the powerful National Farmers' 
Alliance and Industrial Union with more than three million 

In 1887 under the leadership of Colonel Leonidas L. Polk, 
former Commissioner of Agriculture and editor of the Progres- 
sive Farmer, North Carolina joined the ranks and organized the 
North Carolina Farmers Alliance. 6 Colonel Polk possessed in a 
marked degree the "spirit of push and go-ahead-itiveness" re- 
quired to launch such an organization. 7 In 1889 he was elected 
president of the National Alliance and became a power on the 
side of the farmers. By 1891 the Alliance in this state had 90,000 
members. 8 

Several attempts were made during the eighties to curb the 
abuses of the railroads, but these were put down by the powerful 
industrial and commercial interests whose representatives domi- 
nated the legislatures. In 1888 the Farmers Alliance succeeded 
in getting the Democratic party to include a plank in its plat- 
form "demanding the creation of a railroad commission with 
power to fix rates, prevent unfair discriminations, and otherwise 
regulate railroads," but the railroad companies, as in the past, 
were too strong for the farmers and prevented passage of the 
bill. This failure roused the farmers to redoubled efforts. In 
1890 they elected many of their own members, and the General 
Assembly of 1891 is known in North Carolina history as "the 
farmers' legislature." 

Marion Butler, a young senator from Sampson County, himself 
a farmer and later an outstanding figure in the nation in the 
Populist party, was author of the bill which created the Board 

5 Connor, North Carolina, II, 429. 

6 Hugh T. Lefler, editor, North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries, p. 373. 

7 North Carolina Historical Review, XX (1943), 207. 

8 Lefler, North Carolina History, p. 373. 

128 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of Railroad Commissioners, one of the most worthwhile and far- 
reaching achievements of the North Carolina Alliance as well 
as one of the most important pieces of legislation enacted dur- 
ing the quarter century. 9 

The act provided for a board of three commissioners (one of 
these to act as chairman) to be elected by the General Assembly. 
The term of office was six years although the terms of these 
commissioners elected by the General Assembly of 1891 were to 
be one for two, one for four, and one for six years. The Board's 
most important function at that time, as its name implies, was 
the regulation and supervision of railroads; however, it exer- 
cised equal authority with regard to steamboat, canal, telegraph, 
and express companies. No member of the General Assembly 
and no person having any interest in a railroad, steamboat, or 
other transportation company, or in any telegraph or express 
company, was eligible for membership. 10 

The statute required the railroad companies to file schedules 
of their rates with the Commission, and to post them in the sta- 
tions. The Board was to fix "just rates for freight and passenger 
tariffs," to make rules for the handling of freight, and to arbi- 
trate in controversies. In addition, it was to prescribe joint 
through rates, a wise provision as these were causing much 
trouble in neighboring states. In 1890 the only commissions with 
power to make joint rates for connecting railroads and to appor- 
tion them between the participating carriers were those of Geor- 
gia and Mississippi ; 1 1 thus North Carolina was the third state 
to confer this authority upon its board. It was empowered to 
investigate complaints relative to interstate rates on freight and 
to refer these to the Interstate Commerce Commission if changes 
or adjustments were deemed necessary. 

The approval and consent of the Board were requisite for 
relocation or abandonment of stations; and it could require 
repairs, and additions or changes in stations when, in its opinion, 
these would promote the security, convenience, and accommo- 
dation of the travelling public. 

It was given the right to investigate the books and files of 

9 Marion Butler was author also of the law establishing the State Normal School for 
Women and the law establishing the legal rate for interest at six per cent. 

10 Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1891, chap. 320. 

11 Maxwell Ferguson, State Regulations of Railroads in the South, p. 195. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 129 

-the companies, and to subpoena witnesses. The companies were 
given the right to appeal from the decisions of the Board to a 
superior court, and from thence to the state supreme court. The 
Board was required to submit an annual report to the governor. 

As previously mentioned, the Railroad Commissioners not 
only supervised and regulated railroad companies, but also steam- 
boat, canal, telegraph, and express companies, and the provisions 
of the act, in so far as they were applicable, were made to apply 
to these companies. 12 

Jin an act to provide for the assessment of property and the 
collection of taxes, the Commission was constituted a board of 
appraisers for railroads. 13 

On the day that the "farmers' legislature" adjourned, March 9, 
it enacted yet another law relating to the Railroad Commission 
by which it was "created and constituted a court of record" and 
as such it was given "all the powers and jurisdiction of a court of 
general jurisdiction as to all subjects embraced in the act creat- 
ing such Railroad Commission heretofore passed." 14 This potent 
addition to preceding legislation greatly enhanced the authority 
and effectiveness of the Board. 

The Board of Railroad Commissioners was the first commis- 
sion in the South with regulatory powers over corporations other 
than railroads. 15 The statutes by which this precursor of the 
Utilities Commission was created and its duties and powers 
defined, provided an excellent foundation for the building up of 
the present important state department which has under its 
jurisdiction the many and diverse types of utilities essential to 
our modern way of life. 

The General Assembly of 1891 elected the following commis- 
sioners : James W. Wilson, chairman, Burke County ; T. W. Mason, 
Northampton County, and E. C. Beddingfield, Wake County. All 
three of these men appear to have been exceptionally well quali- 
fied to assume the responsibilities and to cope with the difficul- 
ties that membership on the Board imposed upon them. Wilson 
was described at the time his election was announced as "a gen- 
tleman of experience in railroading, having been engaged in 

12 Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1891, chap. 320. 

13 Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1891, chap. 323, s. 44. 

1 4 Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1891, chap. 498. 

15 Maxwell Ferguson, State Regulations of Railroads in the South, p. 167. 

130 The North Carolina Historical Review 

railroad matters all his life." The article went on to say that he 
had constructed the Western North Carolina Railroad "whose 
engineering problems were among the most difficult in this 
country," and referred to him as one of the most eminently prac- 
tical men of his time. Mason was characterized by the same 
writer as a farmjer, lawyer, scholar, and a gentleman "without 
fear and without reproach." Beddingfield, young, successful, and 
popular, had served in the legislature of 1889. At the time of 
his election to the Board he was secretary of the State Farmers' 

In 1891 there were sixty-seven railroads operating in the state 
with a total of 3,432 miles of track. Twelve counties, six of these 
in the mountains and four on the coast, were not entered by any 
railroad. 16 The taxable property of the companies was assessed 
at $18,423,298.28. ! 7 

The North Carolina statute had been patterned to a consid- 
erable extent after the laws creating the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and the Georgia Commission. The latter had been 
in operaton for twelve years, and prior to April 1, the date set 
for the Board to enter upon its duties, Wilson paid a visit to the 
Georgia Commission and studied the methods and procedure em- 
ployed by that agency. Immediately after taking office, he and 
his associates made a careful study of existing classifications and 
rates and set up standard classifications for the state. Within a 
few months rates, both freight and passenger, had been mate- 
rially reduced. According to the report to the governor for 1891, 
the standard rates put into effect at that time were lower than 
those in any other Southern state. By 1893 telegraph rates had 
been reduced about 50 per cent. 18 In a few years time the rail- 
roads were made to bear their share of the public burden of taxa- 
tion and by 1896 one-eighth of the taxes of the state were paid by 
the railroads. 19 The Commission added also to the state's revenue 
by collecting taxes from the Pullman Company and from out-of- 
state steamboat companies operating in North Carolina waters. 20 

In 1893 telephone companies, 21 and in 1897 street railway 

16 Report of Board of Railroad Commissioners, 1891, p. 6. 

17 Report of Board of Railroad Commissioners, 1891, p. 4. 

18 Biennial Message of Governor Thomas M. Holt to the General Assembly, 1893, p. 45. 
1° Report of Board of Railroad Commissioners, 1896, p. iii. 

20 Biennial message of Governor Holt to the General Assembly, 1893, p. 46. 

21 Public Laws, 1893, chap. 512. 

Utility Regulation in Nobth Carolina 131 

companies "except those operating entirely within the limits of 
a municipality and not engaged in the hauling of freight," were 
brought under the jurisdiction of the Commission. 22 

The Board of Railroad Commissioners operated effectively for 
eight years — with a minimum of friction, for there was only one 
appeal, and that was settled in the federal courts in favor of 
the Board. Considering the highly antagonistic attitude of the 
railroad companies at the time the department began to func- 
tion, this was a remarkable record. The Commission, as stated 
in the report covering its first year of service, had "in all mat- 
ters endeavored to adopt a conservative course as a friendly 
umpire between the railroads and the public," and the harmonious 
relations which were maintained are attributable to the fine 
judgment, tact, and executive ability of Chairman Wilson and 
his associates. 

In 1897 Republican Governor Russell, a man of strong parti- 
sanship and prejudices, suspended two of the commissioners from 
office, Chairman Wilson and a relative of his, S. 0. Wilson. The 
governor wrote Chairman Wilson a letter in which he made cer- 
tain allegations as to his connection with the Southern Railway, 
and required him to show cause why he should not be removed 
from his position. Although Wilson denied the allegations and 
also the authority of the governor to remove him, in the contro- 
versy which followed the courts upheld the governor, 23 and, as 
Maxwell Ferguson says, "Thus, unfortunately, were lost to the 
Commission the services of one of the most distinguished and 
reputable men in North Carolina." 24 L. C. Caldwell succeeded 
Wilson and served as chairman until January, 1899. 

In order to expel the incumbents 25 and put in new commission- 
ers of its own choosing, the legislature of 1899 abolished the 
Railroad Commission and in its stead created the North Caro- 
lina Corporation Commission with more comprehensive powers. 
This was the first corporation commission in the entire United 
States. 26 

In the 'nineties public service agencies had increased and 

22 Public Laws, 1897, chap. 206. 

23 Report of Board of Railroad Commissioners, 1897, pp. xxxv-xxxvi. 

24 Maxwell Ferguson, State Regulation of Railroads in the South, p. 170. 

25 Elected by General Assembly of 1897. 

26 Maxwell Ferguson, State Regulation of Railroads in the South, p. 170. 

132 The North Carolina Historical Review 

expanded, and already there were evidences of quickening in the 
economic development of the state. "The morning of the new 
century calls. There is work to be done. Our industries are to be 
multiplied, our commerce increased." So said that far-sighted and 
practical idealist, Charles Brantley Aycock. 

The jurisdiction of the Corporation Commission included rail- 
road, steamboat, canal, express, telegraph, and telephone com- 
panies, building and loan associations, banks, and sleeping car 
companies. It consisted of three commissioners. The first three 
were elected by the General Assembly of 1899. The act, however, 
provided that at the general election in November, 1900, the com- 
missioners should be chosen by the electorate, one for two, one 
for four, and one for six years. At the expiration of each of 
the terms and at each general election thereafter, a commissioner 
was to be elected for a term of six years. 27 

'The legislature of 1899 elected Franklin McNeill, chairman, 
Eugene C. Beddingfield, and Samuel Rogers. McNeill was de- 
scribe by a contemporary as "one of the ablest men at the Wil- 
mington bar." Although he was not a candidate for the office, 
his election was urged by the leading business men of Wilming- 
ton. Beddingfield, elected when the Railroad Commission was 
organized, had served acceptably for six years until succeeded by 
Dr. Abbott of Pamlico County. He was a member of the state 
Democratic executive committee and had proved conservative 
and honest and a wise party leader. Rogers had been for many 
years clerk of the superior court of Macon County. In 1894 he 
was appointed by President Cleveland collector of internal revenue 
of the Western District. He was described in The News and 
Observer, issue of March 5, 1899, as a "safe, conservative, honest 
all-round business man." 

In 1901 the Corporation Commission was made a board of 
state tax commissioners with general supervision over tax listers 
and assessing officers. 28 In 1905 the supervision of building and 
loan associations was transferred to the State Insurance Depart- 
ment. 29 In 1909 the assessing of corporations up to that time 
assessed by the Auditor was made the duty of the Commission. 30 

27 Public Laws, 1899, chap. 164. 

28 Public Laws, 1901, chap. 7. 

29 Public Laws, 1905, chap. 435. 

30 Report of Corporation Commission, 1909, p. iv. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 133 

Perhaps the most important achievement during the chair- 
manship of McNeill (1899-1912), accomplished with what may 
be described as the militant assistance of Governor Glenn, was 
a reduction in standard passenger fares. In North Carolina the 
railroads were required to furnish, in addition to separate accom- 
modations for Negroes, two types of passenger service, first and 
second class, which increased, of course, the number of coaches 
required for the trains. Passenger fare, first class, was 3Vi cents 
per mile, second class, 2% cents per mile, 31 while the average 
passenger fare, including all classes of travel by rail, throughout 
the country was about 2 cents per mile. 32 The Commissioners 
believed that if only one class of service was required, the rate 
could be reduced. In 1905 Governor Aycock had recommended 
this change to the General Assembly, but the bills introduced 
failed of passage as the legislators could not agree upon a rate 
for the one class of service. In 1906 and 1907 there was a move- 
ment over the entire country against the rates charged by the 
railroads. In its report for the year 1906 the North Carolina 
Commission called attention to the fact that passenger traffic 
and earnings had increased during the past two years and it again 
urged the adoption of one class of service and the reduction from 
the rate of 3^4 cents to 3 cents per mile. 

In 1907 Governor Glenn included in his message to the General 
Assembly a proposed flat rate of 2% cents per mile for passenger 
travel, and the issue of mileage books by the railroads at 2 cents 
a mile. A sharp struggle followed which lasted for two years in 
which both parties to the controversy had recourse to the courts. 
The "financial crisis" that had "come upon the country" hastened 
the final adjustment which came in 1908. 33 Governor Glenn con- 
vened the General Assembly in extra session for the consideration 
of railroad rates. In accordance with his proposal, the intrastate 
rate was reduced to 2% cents per mile on condition that the rail- 
roads lower their interstate rate of 3 cents per mile to 2% cents, 
and that mileage books be issued at 2 cents per mile. The Cor- 
poration was given the power, "after the rate had been in 
operation a reasonable length of time, to prescribe such changes 

31 Report of Corporation Commission, 1904, p. 

32 214 I.C.C., p. 185. 

33 Public Laws, Extra Session, 1908, chap. 144. 

134 The North Carolina Historical Review 

— subject, of course, to appeal — as would make it reasonable and 
just." This rate remained in effect until June 30, 1918, when 
under order of the Director General of Railroads it was changed 
to 3 cents per mile. 34 

In 1912 McNeill was succeeded as chairman by Edward Llewel- 
lyn Travis, a prominent lawyer of Halifax County, clerk of the 
superior court of the county, and for a number of years chair- 
man of the Democratic executive committee. The Commission 
was fortunate in again securing as chairman a lawyer of out- 
standing reputation and fine character. When Travis was first 
suggested for the position, the carriers "kicked mightily. This 
man had been the most terrible attorney in damage suits against 
the Seaboard and Coast Line in all North Carolina," .they said. 
They were unable to understand why the late James H. Pou was 
in favor of his election. "What we want," Pou said, "is to get 
him on the Commission where he will have to rule impartially, 
and then we want to take him out of the courts as attorney in 
damage actions against us." 35 Travis served from January, 
1912, to August, 1918. 

For some years prior to 1912 great dissatisfaction had existed 
in the state with regard to the differences between freight rates 
to Virginia cities and those to North Carolina cities. The low 
rates in Virginia operated to build up trade there at the expense 
of the jobbers and wholesale merchants in North Carolina. The 
Corporation Commission had protested to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission from time to time and had exerted every 
means in its power to bring about a more equitable situation. 
The General Assembly of 1907 had authorized the Commission 
to file suits with the Interstate Commerce Commission for the 
correction of discriminations in interstate rates. A suit filed in 
1908 against the Norfolk and Western Railway attacking its 
interstate freight rates to Winston-Salem and Durham was 
decided in favor of the Commission. The order was appealed and 
was affirmed by the United States Commerce Court in 1912. 
Although reductions were less than the Commission had hoped 
for, the winning of this case encouraged it to file three other 
suits. These, however, were withdrawn for the following reason: 

34 General Order No. 28. 

88 W. T. Boat, in Greensboro Daily News, Feb. 9, 1941. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 135 

Chairman Travis was convinced that "an adjustment might 
be reached if the representatives of the state and the carriers 
would sit down together and talk over the differences informally 
and in detail, instead of attempting to deal at arms' length." 
The legislature of 1913 had appointed a special rate commission 
to investigate intrastate freight rates and prescribe such changes 
as were deemed necessary. At a meeting of this legislative com- 
mission and the carriers, he urged this view of the matter. The 
carriers agreed that their differences might be solved best 
through conferences rather than through litigation. In his nego- 
tiations with the carriers, Travis had the assistance of Mr. A. J. 
Maxwell, at that time clerk of the Commission. 

In his report to the governor, 1913, Travis says: "We assured 
the carriers of our willingness to undergo any amount of labor 
to work out a just solution of this important matter, and in con- 
ference after conference we have contended with them, giving 
careful consideration to their views, and earnestly pressing upon 
them our views and the rights of the shippers of North Caro- 
lina." 36 The result was that by September, 1913, substantial 
gains had been made by the Commission. To quote further from 
its 1913 Report: 

The reductions offered apply to a very large territory, embracing the 
Buffalo-Pittsburg zone, and all territory west thereof and north of the 
Ohio Eiver, and all territory west of the Mississippi Kiver to the Pacific 

The reductions offered will save the shippers of the state, according to 
estimates made by the carriers based on their earnings for 1912, about 
$2,000,000 per year, and are the largest and most comprehensive conces- 
sions in freight rates ever made by the railroads to any state at one time. 

It is one of the greatest achievements in railroad regulation ever 
gained by any state by any means, and has been done in a remarkably 
short time and at insignificant expense as compared to the magnitude 
of the matter. 

It does not settle all questions in dispute, but those not agreed upon 
are left open so that anything omitted can be later adjusted, and the 
agreement as to those settled remains in force for two years. 

This will afford a reasonable time for the trial of this adjustment to 
see what its effect will be upon the roads, and what the benefits will be 
to the state. At the end of that such changes may be made as experience 

Report of Corporation Commission, 1913. p. vi. 

136 The North Carolina Historical Eeview 

may show to be wise, and alterations in transportation conditions may- 
require. 37 

This was the first break in the old rate relations and it opened 
the way for future effort along the same line. Speaking broadly, 
the final result was the extension to the entire state and to 
points outside of the state of the advantages gained through the 
case against the Norfolk and Western Railway which was set- 
tled in 1912. 

The Special Rate Commission set up by the legislature of 1913 
for the revision of intrastate rates 38 held numbers of hearings 
and sessions during 1914. The testimony of the principal carriers 
and other interested parties was taken in great detail. The Com- 
mission ' 'completely revised the intrastate freight rates of the 
eight railway systems of North Carolina of more than seventy- 
five miles in length, and adopted the Southern Classification as 
the official classification of the state." The classification and rates 
went into effect in October, 1914, but there was tremendous oppo- 
sition from the carriers. The rates for the short lines (those less 
than 75 miles in length) which contended that much of the traffic 
formerly handled by them could no longer be handled under the 
restriction of the long and short haul act, did not go into effect 
until 1915 after relief from long and short haul law had been 
afforded by the Corporation Commission. 

North Carolina, with its exceptional industrial advantages 
"consisting of a good climate, an abundant supply of water for 
commercial purposes, raw materials at hand, and a plentiful sup- 
ply of native labor," furnished ideal conditions for industrial de- 
velopment. As early as 1898 one of the first three hydro-electric 
plants in America from which electricity was to be transmitted 
any distance, was built at Idols on the Yadkin River, nine miles 
from Winston-Salem. 39 The many advantages, coupled with the 
cheapness, of this kind of power were quickly realized. Other 
plants were established and thus began the building up of a 
gigantic hydro-electric system supplemented by steam power. 
Factories and mills appeared around the plants whose transmis- 

37 Report of Corporation Commission, 1913, p. xxxix. 

38 Public Laws, 1913, chap. 22. 

39 W. S. Lee, Influence of Power Development on Economic Life of the State (typescript 
speech at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1928). Files of Department of Conservation and 
Development, Raleigh. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 137 

sion lines radiated in every direction. New enterprises sprang 
into existence, and in the words of Governor Glenn, "the rattle 
of the loom, the hum of machinery and the scream of the steam 
whistle" made "sweet music to the industrial ear." 

Because of the increase in population and the phenomenal 
development of the business and industrial life of the state, the 
functions of the Corporation Commission varied considerably 
during the thirty-five years of its existence. The legislature of 
1913 greatly enlarged its jurisdiction by placing under its author- 
ity water-power and hydro-electric companies, 40 and also electric- 
light, power, water, and gas companies which were not munici- 
pally owned. 41 

The rising prosperity of the state was indicated by a steady 
growth in the number and resources of its banks. In 1899 when 
the Commission was established there were eighty banks under 
its authority with total resources of $13,222,501.12. 42 By 1927, 
eighteen years later, there were 422 including 25 branch banks, 
with total resources of $117,484,690. 43 The legislature of 1917 
authorized the Commission to appoint a full-time bank examiner 
and as many additional bank examiners as might be necessary 
for the thorough examination of every bank or banking business 
at least once a year, or as often as was deemed necessary. It was 
authorized also, of course, to appoint as many clerks and stenog- 
raphers as would be needed to operate this division of the depart- 
ment. 44 The banking laws were far less stringent than the Com- 
mission thought they should be and it had made repeated efforts 
to bring about the enactment of comprehensive and adequate 
legislation with regard to this subject, but without success; how- 
ever, up to the time of the first World War, the number of bank 
failures and the resultant losses to depositors had been com- 
paratively small. 

In the early days of World War I, when the railroad, tele- 
graph, and telephone companies were taken over by the federal 
government, President Wilson issued a special appeal to state 
commissions to treat their utilities fairly and maintain them at 

40 Public Laws, 1913, chap. 133. 

41 Public Laws, 1913, chap. 127. 

42 Report of Corporation Commission, 1899, pp. 4, 339. 

43 Typescript in files of Commissioner of Banks, Raleigh. 

44 Public Laws, 1917, chap. 165. 

138 The North Carolina Historical Review 

their maximum efficiency as part of the national equipment for 
the prosecution of the war. All federal agencies in charge of 
utilities increased utility rates because of the increased expense 
of operation, and thus in many cases prevented receiverships 
that would have been inevitable otherwise. Only one North Caro- 
lina railroad company was placed in the hands of a receiver. 45 
During this period the Commission heard and determined a great 
number of cases involving utility rates, and in practically all 
instances increases of 10 per cent or more were approved. There 
was an enormous increase in the demand for telephones. In order 
to discourage the use of private telephones, the federal govern- 
ment requested the state commissions to make the installation 
charge $15. Although North Carolina complied, which multiplied 
the usual charge by five, the companies were unable to supply the 
demand for the service. 

Travis resigned as chairman of the Commission, effective Au- 
gust, 1918, and was succeeded by W. T. Lee, a successful mer- 
chant of Waynesville, and a member of the Commission since 
1910. In 1903 Lee had been appointed by Governor Aycock a 
member of the board to investigate the affairs of the Atlantic 
and North Carolina Railroad. He had served in the legislature 
from 1894 to 1909, had been chairman of the old tenth congres- 
sional district, was a member of the state Democratic executive 
committee, and was thoroughly conversant with public affairs. 
He served as chairman of the Corporation Commission from 
August, 1918, to April, 1933. 

The legislature of 1901 had made the Corporation Commission 
a State Tax Commission also. 46 In 1921, twenty years later, the 
powers and duties of the State Tax Commission were trans- 
ferred to the State Department of Revenue. 47 

When deflation set in following World War I, the banks were 
unable to make collections. Their deposits had shrunk, collateral 
security had become worthless, and there were many failures. 
The General Assembly of 1921 passed a new banking law, based 
upon a bill drawn up by the Department, which was much more 
stringent than that already in operation. It afforded better pro- 

45 Carolina and Yadkin River Railroad. Report of Corporation Commission, 1921-1922, p. 3 
M Public Laws, 1901, chap. 7, s. 2. 
47 Public Laws, 1921, chap. 40. 

Utility Kegulation in North Carolina 139 

tection to depositors; and greatly increased the powers of the 
Commission with regard to banks. It authorized appointment of 
a Chief State Bank Examiner (also assistants, clerks, etc.) 
whose duty it was to examine thoroughly at least once each year 
every state bank. 48 Mr. Gurney P. Hood, the present Commis- 
sioner of Banks, in an address in 1937, called attention to the 
fact that "Prior to 1921 the State Supervisor of Banks had no 
authority to disapprove a charter, and it is interesting to note 
that 114 banks were chartered in 1919 and 1920, while only 15 
were chartered in 1921 after the legislature authorized the Su- 
pervisor of Banks to pass on all proposed charters." 49 

In 1923 industrial banks (there were seventeen in North 
Carolina) 50 were placed under the jurisdiction of the commis- 
sion. 51 

In 1922, when a serious coal strike developed, the federal gov- 
ernment delegated authority with regard to state supervision 
and distribution of coal to the states affected. The North Caro- 
lina Council of State promptly placed this responsibility on the 
Corporation Commission which in turn imposed it upon its chief 
clerk, R. 0. Self. "By assuming authority that did not exist to 
control distribution; by perfecting within a week a widespread 
organization; by promptly utilizing every resource, including 
assumption of liability for payment of many thousands of dollars 
worth of coal, 52 and with the cooperation of all users and local 
distributors of coal, an actual calamity was narrowly averted, 
and there was an even distribution of supply barely sufficient to 
keep industries going, and to prevent actual distress." 53 

The use of automobiles in North Carolina, as elsewhere, had 
been steadily increasing for some years past. The General Assem- 
bly of 1915 had passed an act setting up a highway commission 
with an annual appropriation of $10,000 which was to cooperate 
with the counties in road building. In 1919 a new commission 
was established, but without increased powers. The program for 
the construction of a state system of good roads really got under 

48 Public Laws, 1921, chap. 4. 

49 Gurney P. Hood, Chartering of Banks (typescript dated March 25, 1937). Files of 
Commissioner of Banks, Raleigh. 

50 Report of Corporation Commission, 1923, p. 16. 
ci Public Laws, 1923, chap. 225. 

62 Underwritten by the retailers and the banks of the state. 
53 Report of Corporation Commission, 1921-1922, p. 7. 

140 The North Carolina Historical Review 

way with the act of 1921 which provided for 5,500 miles of hard- 
surfaced and dependable highways to connect county seats, prin- 
cipal towns, and state institutions. 54 

In 1921 there were 149,000 automobiles in the state and by 
1925, with the road building program well advanced and with 
industrial and agricultural activity at a higher level than ever 
before in the history of the state, this number had jumped 
to 340,000. 55 Competition with the railroads in the transporta- 
tion of passengers and freight was intense with certain advan- 
tages on the side of the motor vehicles, for bus and truck com- 
panies did not have tracks to lay and to keep up, nor did they 
have to purchase charters. 

The General Assembly of 1925 gave the Commission jurisdic- 
tion over persons and corporations transporting freight and pas- 
sengers for hire over state highways. The statute required each 
person or corporation, before operating a motor vehicle for hire 
upon the public highways of the state, to apply for and obtain 
a franchise certificate which set forth proof of public convenience 
and necessity for the operation ; and also to procure and file with 
the Commission acceptable liability and property damage insur- 
ance. Other requirements were in general analogous to those 
pertaining to railroads. 56 

It appears to have been high time for such a law, if we judge 
from the first report of the Commission after its passage. It 
describes conditions as follows : "Many lines [bus] were found to 
have more than one operator, some had several. This had re- 
sulted in a war between the competitors which had reached 
considerable proportions and in many places Bedlam reigned su- 
preme. This condition placed a premium upon fearless and law- 
less drivers and recklessness generally." 

The Commission eliminated parallel service and brought about 
the discharge of reckless and drunken drivers, schedules were 
reduced thereby ruling out unnecessary equipment, and various 
other things were done to lessen the hazard and increase the 
safety of the highways. 57 

54 Public Laws, 1921, chap. 2. 

55 Connor, North Carolina, II, 583. 

56 Public Laws, 1925, chap. 50. 

57 Report of Corporation Commission, 1925, p. 5. 

Utility Regulation in Worth Carolina 141 

The same legislature that placed motor vehicles operating for 
hire under the authority of the Commission added another very 
important function, administration of the capital issues law 
which up to this time had been a duty of the Commissioner 
of Insurance. 58 Under its provisions the governor was authorized 
to designate a member of the Commission as the Commissioner 
to act. Commissioner A. J. Maxwell was so designated, and he 
appointed I. M. Bailey as Assistant Commissioner. The securities 
of twelve corporations, totaling $741,000, were registered during 
the first year of the operation of the law, dealers and salesmen 
were registered, licenses of certain companies were cancelled, 
and work was done through conferences to assist in better and 
clearer financing. 59 In 1927 a new and more stringent law was 
substituted. The biennial report of 1927-1928 stated: "The De- 
partment does not hesitate to say that the activity under the 
Capital Issues Law has contributed materially to the protection 
of the investing public in the state of North Carolina. ... It is 
in advance of the Uniform Law, now before the Commission on 
Uniform Laws, and represents the experience of many states in 
connection with the regulation of securities. It is a valuable asset 
to the development of the state of North Carolina." 60 

During the twenties there were many important cases involv- 
ing railroad rates, intrastate and interstate, freight and passen- 
ger. In 1918, when W. T. Lee was made chairman, A. J. 
Maxwell who had served as clerk since 1913, was elected to fill 
the vacancy on the Commission. Lee found in him an experienced 
and able assistant in the arduous duty of dealing with that dis- 
cordant subject, railroad rates. 

Passage by Congress of the Transportation Act in 1920 in- 
creased the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
with respect to railroad rates. The difference in rates of passen- 
ger fares prescribed by the General Assembly and those pre- 
scribed by the federal Commission gave rise to a case, known as 
the North Carolina Case, which was decided adversely to the 
Corporation Commission on February 12, 1921. 

58 Public Laws, 1925, chap. 190. 

59 Report of Corporation Commission, 1921-1922, p. 13. 

60 Report of Corporation Commission, 1927-1928, p. 17. 

142 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The real question was whether the Interstate Commerce Commission 
had the authority under the Transportation Act of 1920 to declare a rate 
unreasonable because, in its opinion, it did not yield sufficient revenue to 
the carriers. 61 

The decision was not appealed since there were already two 
similar cases pending in the United States Supreme Court. In 
the Wisconsin case, decided April 22, 1922, the Court said: 

The new measure [the Transportation Act] imposed an affirmative 
duty on the Interstate Commerce Commission to fix rates and to take 
other important steps to maintain an adequate railway service for the 
people of the United States .... If that purpose is interfered with by 
a disparity of intrastate rates, the Commission is authorized to end the 
disparity by directly removing it. 62 

The Interstate Commerce Commission, although it has final 
authority in determining issues that arise because of conflicts 
between intra- and interstate rates, continues to cooperate with 
the states as regards the fixing of rates ; however, the decision in 
the North Carolina case, the principle of which was sustained by 
the United States Supreme Court in these other cases, limited 
the power of state commissions with respect to railroads. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission, with a great number 
of cases pending in the way of complaints relative to rates to and 
from the Southern and Southeastern states, instituted in 1922 
a general investigation of rate structure known as the Southern 
Class Rate Investigation. 63 During 1922 and 1923 it held hearings 
in various Southern cities and all of the state commissions 
affected were given opportunity to participate in the discussions. 
The decision of July, 1925, which based rates on the distance 
principle and not so much on the basing point, group, or blanket 
rates system as heretofore, was revised because of objections 
to certain features and the revised plan went into effect in Jan- 
uary, 1928. 

This plan "caused to be put in force in the whole South east 
of the Mississippi, interstate mileage class rates which that Com- 
mission [I.C.C.] declared reasonable also for intrastate applica- 
tion within each of the states." 64 Many of the states adopted 
these rates. North Carolina did not as its proximity to Official 

61 Report of Corporation Commission, 1921-1922, p. 13. 

°2 United States Advocate Opinions, April 1, 1922, pp. 236-242. 

63 I.C.C. Docket no. 13494. 

64 Report of Corporation Commission, 1929-1930, p. iv. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 143 

Territory where lower rates generally were in force would have 
made the new rates unfair to shipping interests, and would, in 
many cases, have compelled the use of motor trucks. The Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, in the Virginia State Corporation 
Commission's case, held that North Carolina intrastate rates 
were discriminatory against the new interstate mileage rates 
between Virginia and North Carolina points, and ordered intra- 
state rates raised to the interstate level. 65 The Corporation Com- 
mission after consulting the shippers and obtaining legal advice, 
petitioned the federal Commission to set aside this order and 
allow it to proceed in the regular way to put the new mileage 
rates into effect. The petition was granted, and the state retained 
its jurisdiction in purely intrastate rate matters. 

The Southern Class Rate Case adjusted rates to and from 
eastern points and to and from Southern points to the advantage 
of North Carolina in greater degree than had ever before been 
accomplished, but these adjustments were by no means adequate 
and the pertinaceous subject of freight rates continued to harass 
shippers and commissioners. 

The period of the depression, which so drastically affected 
transportation and utility companies, slowed down the activities 
of the Commission. Except for some progress in the reduction 
of freight rates, the years 1928 to 1933 were not marked by 
achievement. The only change of special importance was that 
the Banking Division, with 262 banks and 83 branch banks 
under its authority 66 and a staff of twelve employees, 67 was made 
an independent state agency by the General Assembly of 1931 
which created the position of Commissioner of Banks. 68 Gov- 
ernor 0. Max Gardner appointed Mr. Gurney P. Hood to that 
office which he still holds. 

The three-member Corporation Commission, established in 
1899 to supersede the Railroad Commission, was abolished by the 
legislature of 1933, effective January 1, 1934, which created in 
its stead the office of Utilities Commissioner. The first commis- 
sioner was to be appointed by the governor with the consent of 
the senate for a term of one year ; thereafter he was to be elected 

65 I.C.C. Docket no. 16321. 

66 Report of Corporation Commission of Condition of State Banks, 1930, p. 

67 Report of Corporation Commission, 1930, p. ii. 

68 Public Laws, 1931, chap. 243. 

144 The North Carolina Historical Review 

quadrennially by popular vote. The act provided for appointment 
by the governor of two associate commissioners whose duty it 
was, when called upon by the Commissioner, to sit with him at 
hearings and help him in making decisions. They had no fixed 
annual salary, but were paid by the day for their services. 69 

Besides the act creating the office of Utilities Commissioner, 
another major act relative to the regulation of utilities was 
passed by the General Assembly of 1933. 70 Among the most im- 
portant of the provisions of this second act was the power con- 
ferred upon the Commission to control security issues of utility 
companies. This law gave to the Commission "full power to pro- 
tect the financial integrity of the utilities and the public interest." 

Mr. Stanley Winborne, a member of the Corporation Commis- 
sion since February, 1930, was chosen by Governor J. C. B. 
Ehringhaus for the position of Utilities Commissioner. A native 
of Hertford County, he had served as mayor of Mufreesboro in 
1909 and 1910, was county attorney from 1911 to 1914, had three 
times represented the county in the General Assembly, and in 
1921 was senator from the first district. 

Governor Ehringhaus ignored the political pressure brought to 
bear on him with regard to the selection of the associate commis- 
sioners and amazed and pleased the public by appointing Dr. 
William Louis Poteat, president emeritus of Wake Forest Col- 
lege, and Dr. Frank W. Hanft of the law faculty of the University 
of North Carolina. 

Dr. Poteat, best known for his scholarship and for his advocacy 
of prohibition and of the theory of evolution, enjoyed as much as 
anyone in the state the confidence and esteem of its citizens. The 
governor in making this appointment said, "Dr. Poteat belongs 
to all of North Carolina and his presence on the Commission re- 
moves any reason for representation of each section." He ac- 
cepted the appointment, but when Judge Stacy read the oath 
required for the position, found that he was disqualified by the 
fact that he was a stockholder in a utility company which was 
regulated by the Commission. 

Governor Ehringhaus shortly afterward appointed Mr. 
Fred L. Seely, another prominent citizen of the state whose inter- 

na Public haws, 1933, chap. 134. 
70 Public Laws, 1933, chap. 307. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 145 

est and activity in public affairs had demonstrated his fitness for 
the office. Mr. Seely, a native of New Jersey, came South when 
a young man. He was founder of the Atlanta Georgian which he 
published as a "crusading newspaper" until it was purchased in 
1912 by William Randolph Hearst. He had built North Carolina's 
magnificent resort hotel, the Grove Park Inn, was president of 
the Biltmore Industries, manufacturers of the famous Biltmore 
homespun, was a member of the Board of Directors of the 
Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, and was connected with a 
number of other leading industries and organizations. 

Dr. Hanft, a native of Minnesota, had made public utility mat- 
ters the subject of much study. "The Control of Public Utilities 
in Minnesota" was the title of the thesis submitted for his doc- 
tor's degree received in June, 1931, from the Harvard Law School. 
He was not without political experience. Before coming to North 
Carolina, he was offered, and refused, the nomination for gover- 
nor of Minnesota. 

Both of these men had given attention to public questions and 
both were exceptionally well qualified to serve as associate com- 

Four years of experience in the old Corporation Commission 
had convinced Mr. Winborne that the general public was paying 
far too much for the services furnished by utility companies. 
Although the state at this time stood fourth in the list of states 
showing the developed water power of the nation, its use of elec- 
tricity was less than its position near the head of this list would 
indicate. The newly appointed Commissioner shocked the com- 
panies and gladdened the ears of consumers by the issuance the 
day after he took office of an order which prohibited a utility 
company from increasing its capital stock or from using any part 
of its surplus in the payment of dividends on its common stock 
except upon the proper showing of the necessity therefor and 
upon the authority of the Commission. The order set also maxi- 
mum percentage limits on dividends allowed and rates of depre- 
ciation. This order "for the first time in the history of North 
Carolina, called for a halt in the utility practice of paying divi- 
dends that are not earned and setting up the deficits so incurred 
as investments upon which greater dividends can be earned from 

146 The North Carolina Historical Review 

a people required to pay higher and higher rates upon such 
mounting investments of financial fiction." 71 

The primary reason cited by Mr. Winborne for these burden- 
some rates was lack of comprehensive information as to the 
actual value of the investments of utilities, which, he said, had 
blocked every move for adequate rate adjustments in the past. 
Wide discrepancies existed in the valuations set up by the com- 
panies for rate-making bases and the sums upon which they paid 
taxes. The legislature of 1934 voted an annual appropriation of 
$10,000 for obtaining the needed information and an additional 
$25,000 was to be allowed annually in the discretion of the gov- 
ernor for further investigation in this field. 72 

The years following the creation of the office of Utilities Com- 
missioner were marked by outstanding achievement in the reduc- 
tion of electric rates. Mr. Winborne held conference after con- 
ference with the officers of the power companies in regard to 
reductions, resulting in agreements whereby all rates and charges 
for electricity were reduced. These were the beginning of a 
series of reductions. Thousands of homes that had never been 
able to afford this service before were being furnished with 
electricity under the new low rates. The output up to this time 
had been consumed almost entirely by industry and the urban 
population, but with the establishment in North Carolina in 
1935 of the Rural Electrification Authority, the transmission 
lines of the power companies were brought to the farming dis- 
tricts. The federal funds loaned through this agency, which sup- 
plied also cooperative management, helped to speed up the exten- 
sion of service to rural areas. In 1934 there were 10,000 farms 
using electricity and by June, 1939, there were 60,000. 73 More 
electric machines and appliances were reducing labor in the homes 
and on the farms. By 1937 consumption of electricity furnished 
by the major power companies in this state to the residential 
customer exceeded the national average by 114 kilowatt hours. 74 

The only fight in the history of the state, aggressive and tena- 
cious, for lower telephone rates was waged by the Commissioner 
in 1935 and 1936. A reduction of $290,000 to the subscribers of 

71 News and Observer, Jan. 3, 1934, p. 1. 

72 Public Laws, 1933, chap. 519. 

73 Archibald Henderson, North Carolina, the Old North State and the New, II, 623. 

74 Figures compiled by Rate Analyst, Utilities Commission. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 147 

one company alone was effected. Reductions were obtained from 
other companies aggregating a total annual saving to telephone 
subscribers in North Carolina of over half a million dollars. A 
substantial saving for customers was also accomplished by reduc- 
tion in gas rates. 

The legislature of 1937 transferred administration of the capi- 
tal issues law from the Utilities Commission, where it had been 
placed by the legislature of 1925, to the office of the Secretary 
of State. 75 In this way the Commission was relieved of responsi- 
bilities not connected with its primary concern of utility and rate 

Untenable rate situations relative to states bordering on Offi- 
cial Territory, including North Carolina, occasioned by the South- 
ern Class Rate Investigation, 76 resulted in cases "of an epochal 
character" affecting North Carolina interests. Outstanding among 
these was a case brought by the Corporation Commission in 1928 
against the Akron, Gaston and Youngstown Railroad Company 77 
et al., upon recommendation of the Transportation Advisory Com- 
mission. This case sought reductions between points in North 
Carolina and Virginia and points in North Carolina and all points 
lying in Official Territory to the North and Mid-West. The Com- 
mission employed expert legal counsel and made a vigorous 
effort to bring these rates to the Official Territory level. The 
decision in 1935 was only a partial victory, for the reductions 
effected accomplished but a fraction of the adjustment sought. 

In July, 1939, a case of major importance to North Carolina 
and all Southen states was instituted by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission on its own motion. This case 78 is still before the 
federal Commission. It seeks re-examination of the entire rate 
structure in the South and the states east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains in view of changes in conditions which have taken place 
since the decision in the Southern Class Rate Investigation. The 
Southern commissions have been dissatisfied with the rates pre- 
scribed in the schedules resulting from that case. The record sub- 
mitted by the Southern Governors' Conference "establishes that 
the section of the country lying east of the Mississippi River 

75 Public Laws, 1937, chap. 194. 

76 I.C.C. Docket no. 13494. 

77 I.C.C. Docket no. 21665. 

78 I.C.C. Docket no. 28,300. 

148 The North Carolina Historical Review 

should be considered one territory for rate-making purposes, in 
which a maximum first-class scale should be set up and made sub- 
ject to uniform classification ratings." 

When the Office of Utilities Commissioner was created by the 
legislature of 1933, the North Carolina Law Review made the 
somewhat caustic comment, 'The act contracting the commis- 
sion makes incongruous company for the act expanding its pow- 
ers and duties." And these expanded powers and duties included 
a vastly increased volume of public service and utility regulation 
for at that time the use of transportation and communication 
facilities, of water power and electricity, was greater than ever 
before. Normal growth coupled with the increase in construction 
projects caused by the cooperation of the government through 
CWA, PWA, ECW, and other federal agencies had stepped up the 
demand for these utilities. The Emergency Defense Program 
even more sharply accellerated this demand. In a few years time 
the need for administrative assistance for the Commissioner had 
become imperative. To provide this, the General Assembly of 
1941 abolished the Office of Utilities Commissioner and replaced 
it with the Utilities Commission, consisting of three full-time 
members. These were to be appointed by the governor with the 
consent of the senate for terms of six, four, and two years re- 
spectively, and their successors for terms of six years. 79 

Governor Broughton appointed the former Utilities Commis- 
sioner chairman of the newly created body for a term of six 
years. Mr. Fred C. Hunter, a prominent lawyer of Charlotte 
and formerly judge of the recorders court of Mecklenburg 
County, and Dr. Harry Tucker, professor of engineering at State 
College, were appointed commissioners. 

Mr. Hunter, exceptionally well educated, had attended Musk- 
igum College in Ohio, and had graduated at the University of 
North Carolina where he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
He had also attended Washington and Lee University at Lex- 
ington, Virginia, and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 

Dr. Tucker, an authority on motor vehicle transportation, was 
the author of a number of articles dealing with that subject. 
He served as commissioner until his death in February, 1942. 

79 Public Laws, 1941, chap. 97. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 149 

He was succeeded in April of that year by Mr. Robert Grady 
Johnson, attorney at law, of Burgaw. 

Mr. Johnson was senator from the Ninth District in 1929, rep- 
resented Pender County in the legislature in 1931 and in 1933, 
and was Speaker of the House for the session of 1935. He had 
served as a member of the Board of the State Highway Commis- 
sion and as superintendent of the State Prison. At the time of 
his appointment as commissioner, he was chairman of the Board 
of Alcoholic Control. 

The Commission has functioned in its present form for four 

It is difficult to realize that one hundred and fifty years ago the 
greater number of the public services over which the Utilities 
Commission has authority, such as railroads, motor vehicle car- 
riers, telephone, telegraph, and power companies, did not exist. 
In 1891, when the Railroad Commission was established, many 
of these were still unknown. There were twelve counties in the 
state that were not entered by any railroad. The taxable value of 
the railroad property at that time was only $18,423,298 80 while 
for the fiscal year ending July 1, 1941, the taxable value was 
$151,835,626. 81 The revenue from franchise taxes on motor 
trucks and buses was $142,435 for the fiscal year, 1925-26, just 
after these came under the jurisdiction of the Commission. 82 
In 1940-41 it was $860,806. 8 3 In 1900 all of the industries of 
North Carolina had a combined output valued at less than $85,- 
000,000. 84 In 1939 this output was valued at $1,421,329,578. 85 

Through the use of its natural resources, especially water 
power which has been converted into hydro-electric and steam 
power plants, North Carolina has become the leading industrial 
state in the South. 86 The increase in population and in wealth 
that this has brought about has given the farmers markets for 
their produce. An adequate system of state highways and other 

80 Report of Board of Railroad Commissioners, 1891, p. 2. 

81 Valuation of State Board of Assessment, 1941. 

82 Biennial Budget Report for 1929-31, p. 62. 

83 Biennial Budget Report for 19^3-^5, p. 34. 

84 W. S. Lee, "Influence of Power Development on the Economic Life of the State," 
(typescript, speech delivered at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1928). Files of Department of 
Conservation and Development, Raleigh. 

85 Typescript, "Census of Manufacturers for North Carolina in 1939," in files of Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development, Raleigh. 

86 Thorndike SavilJe, The Power Situation in North Carolina, Circular no. 10, North Caro- 
line Geological and Economic Survey. 

150 The North Carolina Historical Review 

improved transportation facilities have made these markets eas- 
ily accessible. In 1941 North Carolina ranked second in the list of 
Southern states showing income from crops. 87 

The standard of living of the people of the state has kept pace 
with economic progress. Travel by rail and bus, and utility serv- 
ices which were once the luxuries of the prosperous, are now 
enjoyed by the many. "From a rural neighborhood in which 
illiteracy and poverty played their inevitable roles" North Caro- 
lina has become a "close-knit community 88 of prosperous indus- 
trial enterprise, modern farms, and wide-awake towns and cities. 

Governor Clyde R. Hoey has said that the supreme test of the 
character of our government is the measure and quality of its 
service to the people. 89 It may be said also that the supreme test 
of the character of any department or agency of our government 
is likewise the measure and quality of its service to the people. 

The North Carolina Utilities Commission undertakes to insure 
to the public, in so far as this is possible under its authority, the 
following : 

1. Safe and prompt service. 

2. Adequate terminal facilities for carriers. 

3. Equitable rates; that is, as low rates as may be consistent with 
reasonable profits in order that public utilities may be enjoyed 
by as great a number of citizens as possible. 

4. Protection to companies, corporations, and individuals from un- 
fair competition and unscrupulous practices. The Commission 
holds formal hearings upon any matters within its jurisdiction, 
either upon its own motion or upon petition whenever it considers 
it to be in the public interest; however, many controversial mat- 
ters are settled through correspondence and in conference. 

5. Continuation of the vigorous and relentless fight against the dis- 
criminatory freight rates which have so handicapped North 
Carolina and the South. 

Through its jurisdiction over transportation and communica- 
tion, power and utility companies, the Commission is geared to 
the commerce and industries of the state. Since the creation in 
1891 of its earliest forerunner, the Board of Railroad Commis- 
sioners, just as the state itself, it has gone through a process of 

87 The Blue Book of Southern Progress, 19 U2, p. 33. 

88 Governor O. Max Gardner's message for Home-Coming Week of the North Carolina 
State Fair, October 12-19, 1929. Leaflet, p. 1, in State Library, Raleigh. 

89 D. L. Corbitt, editor, Addresses, Letters and Papers of Clyde Roark Hoey Governor of 
North Carolina, 1937-1941, p. 4. 

Utility Regulation in North Carolina 151 

evolution. Its powers have been extended to include new public 
services and there has been also a corresponding broadening of its 
functions with respect to many of these services. 

The present three-member Utilities Commission, created in 
1941, is headed by an experienced chairman whose record of 
service includes four years membership in the Corporation Com- 
mission, and seven years as Utilities Commissioner. Mr. Win- 
borne has carried the work forward with energy and effective- 
ness. He has now the benefit of the counsel and of the active 
assistance of the other two commissioners, Mr. Hunter and Mr. 
Johnson. He has also the administrative aid of the chief clerk, 
Mr. Charles Z. Flack; the assistant chief clerk, Miss Elsie G. 
Riddick; the director of traffic, Mr. H. M. Nicholson; the assis- 
tant director of traffic, Mr. F. A. Downing ; and the rate analyst, 
Mr. Edgar Womble. Miss Riddick has been a member of the 
staff for forty-eight years, having been employed as a stenog- 
rapher in 1897. 

The people of North Carolina may look forward to the future 
confident that the Utilities Commissioners will, in spite of the 
difficulties and problems arising from the prosecution of the war 
— or from whatever source — in the words of the oath required 
of them by the statute creating this important department of 
the state's government, "well and truly" perform the duties of 
the office and "do equal and impartial justice to the public and to 



CRAVEN COUNTY, 1700-1800 

By Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr. 


H We are in a very good and fat land. I am in hopes that within 
a year I shall have over a hundred head of horses, cattle and swine. 

— Letter of Hans Ruegsegger, 1711. 

By the time colonists had made their way along the lower 
banks of the Neuse and even up along the Trent River, it would 
have been strange indeed if no settler had chosen land at the 
point where the two rivers meet. It was a very desirable site. 
Long before the coming of the white man, about twenty families 
of Neuse Indians had claimed it for their village Chattooka, which 
was situated on the tip of the peninsula-like projection. 1 They 
were not alone there by 1705, for in that year there was at least 
one white settler living on "the fork at Neuse," as the records 
then refer to this point between the Neuse and Trent. 2 

This settler was the venturesome John Lawson. The record 
of his grant has been lost, but that he had one there is certain. 
In a letter dated August 7, 1705, and addressed to the Albe- 
marle County government, Lawson refers to the "entry of 640 
Acres of Land I built on" as being at "y e fork of Neus River." 3 
He adds that his party in surveying this tract had to go up the 
main river and then up the Trent, and he mentions also that the 
claim had been filed in the office of the Secretary of the province. 

1 John Lawson, History of North Carolina, p. 131. Vincent H. Todd and Julius Goebel, 
Christoph von Graffenried' s Account of the Founding of New Bern (Raleigh: North Carolina 
Historical Commission, 1920), pp. 226, 373-374. This contains an introduction followed 
by the French and German versions of the Graffenried account, as well as certain other 
Graffenried MSS and letters of Swiss settlers in New Bern. (In future references, the 
MS or document quoted from will be named followed by the page number of the Todd and 
Goebel publication. When reference is made to the introduction, the citation will be "Todd 
and Goebel, intro.," followed by the page number.) 

2 Colonial Records of North Carolina, XXII, 291, passim. 

3 Historical and Genealogical Register, III, 266. He seems to have acquired additional 
land there later because he sold 1,250 acres at the Neuse-Trent fork to Graffenried and his 
colonizing associates. See below, page 164. 

[ 152 ] 


Eighteenth Century New Bern 153 

An incidental remark in his History sheds more light on Lawson's 
home in the wilds of the Neuse. He tells us that he "built a House 
about half a Mile from an Indian town at the fork of Neus-River, 
where I dwelt by myself, excepting a young Indian Fellow, and 
a Bull-Dog, that I had along with me." 4 He had "not then 
been so long a Sojourner in America," Lawson adds. As to the 
location of this cabin, he says that it "stood on pretty high 
Land and by a Creek-side." This creek still bears the name Law- 
son's Creek. Although the location can be called elevated only in 
comparison with the flatness of the surrounding acres, there may 
still be seen today the hummock-like rises and marshy banks 
which formed the setting for Lawson's solitary cabin. 5 

While Lawson was living with his Indian servant and his dog 
at this isolated outpost of the New World, events were taking 
place in Europe which were to alter profoundly the destiny of 
the man, his cabin, and the peaceful Indian village nearby. 

In the early years of the century some citizens of the city of 
Bern, Switzerland, conceived the idea of sending a colony of their 
countrymen to America. It may be that this plan first occurred 
to Franz Ludwig Michel, an adventurer and soldier belonging to 
a prominent Bern family. 6 Michel made two journeys to America 
between the years 1702 and 1704, and at the conclusion of his 
first one late in 1702 he related his experiences to friends in Bern, 
among whom were Johann Rudolf Ochs, 7 a seal and stone en- 
graver by trade, and Georg Ritter, 8 an apothecary and council- 
lor of the city government. They talked of settling a Swiss col- 
only in Pennsylvania. On Michel's second trip to America the 
idea possessed him more ardently than ever. In a letter to Ochs 
written in 1704 he dwelled on the prestige his fatherland would 
gain by planting a colony in America, and repeated significantly 
his contention that the English government would aid the small- 
er nation in its effort to populate some of the vast territories of 

4 Lawson, History, p. 131. 

5 Near New South Front Street and Pembroke Road. 

6 He belonged to the family Michel von Schwertschwendi. His father, David Michel, 
born in 1634, was Lord of Ralligen, became a member of the council of Bern in 1673 
and prefect of Gottstatt in 1684. Franz Ludwig seems to have served in the armies of 
Louis XIV. W. J. Hinke, translator, "Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel" and 
other Michel manuscripts, Virginia Magazine, XXIV, 1 n. 

7 Ochs went to Pennsylvania in 1705, became a Quaker and settled in London. He was 
author of the Amerikanische Wegweiser (Bern, 1711), a travel volume on America. Hinke, 
"'Report," p. 289 n. 

8 Georg Ritter is said to have visited America twice. Hinke, "Report," p. 297 n. 

154 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the New World. 9 On March 19, 1705, MichePs friends petitioned 
the mayor and council of Bern to assist them in their plan by 
recommending it to the English envoy in Switzerland, who in 
turn would request the aid of his government. The plan called 
for transportation at crown expense of four or five hundred Swiss 
to Pennsylvania "or on the frontiers of Virginia. ,, The proposals 
stipulated that the colony, in honor to the city, should be named 

The Bern government lent its support to the scheme, not out 
of consideration for the glory of Switzerland, as Michel with 
his military mind had argued, but because it saw an opportunity 
to rid the canton of what seemed to be two highly undesirable 
classes of population. 11 One of these was a pauper class, the 
home-less Landsassen who were property-less squatters and en- 
joyed no rights of citizenship. The other was a religious element, 
the Baptists, Anabaptists, and Mennonites (Tdufer and Wieder- 
taufer) . These sects were considered undesirable because of their 
apostasy from the common forms of worship, but the Mennon- 
ites were regarded as especially dangerous to both church 
and state because of their refusal to bear arms and the com- 
munistic tendencies of their living habits. 

While the proposals of Ritter, Michel, and their friends were 
making their slow way through the channels of Swiss and Eng- 
lish government, another Bernese, who was destined to become 
the leader of the colony in the New World, appeared as a figure 
in the plan. He was Christoph von Graffenried, a spendthrift 

Graffenried was born in 1661, the son of Anton von Graffenried, 
Lord (Herr) of Worb, who held the governorship first of Aelen 
and later, in his old age, of Murten. 12 When Christoph was quite 
young his mother died and his father married again. At the age 
of seven he began his education but made little progress in his 
studies. He became a student at the University of Heidelberg but 
was forced to leave there because of a duelling scrape. At Leyden 

9 "I have already had opportunity to remark sufficiently," Michel writes, "how willingly 
the English government would consent to this." Hinke, "Report," p. 296. 

10 Hinke, "Report," pp. 297 ff. 

n A. B. Faust, "Swiss Emigration to the American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century," 
American Historical Review, XXII, 21-23. 

12 Thomas P. DeGraffenried, History of the DeGrafj enried Family From 1191 A.D. to 1925 
(New York, 1925), p. 59. This work uses the Gallicized form DeGraffenried but the Swiss- 
German von is the correct one in the case of New Bern's founder. 

Eighteenth Centuky New Bern 155 

he studied law, history, and mathematics for two years, and later 
in life remarked that if he had pursued his early education with 
as much industry as he had put forth at Leyden, he would have 
achieved a more secure place for himself in manhood. His edu- 
cation, such as it was, complete, Graffenried went to London 
upon being promised by an English friend of his father the posi- 
tion of an aide to the Duke of Carlyle, envoy at Constantinople. 
He arrived in the city with only ten ducats in his pocket and too 
late to see the Duke, who had already sailed for the Levant. The 
incident was prophetic of the man's future impecuniousness and 
ill-starred opportunities. 

In England the young Swiss cut a brief and expensive figure 
in social life. He made the acquaintance of the Duke of Albe- 
marle, the Lord Proprietor, and was presented at court to Charles 
II himself. 13 The Duke on one occasion designated Graffenried 
and another young friend to represent him at the conferring of 
degrees by Cambridge University, of which the Duke was chan- 
cellor, and it was then that Graffenried received his degree of 
masters of arts, an honorary culmination to his irregular and 
indifferent years of schooling. Living beyond his means, he wrote 
his father saying he wished to marry and demanding the rest of 
the legacy left him by his mother, a bequest equivalent to 
£20,000, of which only half then remained. Old Anton, knowing 
his son's weakness, refused and commanded him to return home. 
He then relented somewhat and, keeping Christoph on a strict 
allowance, permitted him to go to Paris, where through the 
Marshal von Erlach he was presented to the Dauphin and Louis 
XIV. From there he went to Lyons and thence to Bern where he 
arrived sometime during 1683, thus ending amid his father's 
reproaches his youthful years of travel, study, and extravagance. 

In the following year Christoph was wed to Regina Tscharner 
at Worb. In 1691 was born their first son, who was named for his 
father. 14 Thereafter children came regularly. Debts piled up and 
the legacy dwindled away. After occupying several positions of 

13 Graffenried later speaks of knowing the Lords Proprietors, the Duke of Beaufort, and 
Sir John Colleton, whom he calls "my special friend." German Version, pp. 252, 257. 

1 4 Christopher II went to America, married, and became the father of Tscharner 
DeGraffenried, from whom descend nearly all of the American family, among them the 
novelist Ellen Glasgow and the journalist John Temple Graves. DeGraffenried, History of 
the DeGraffenried Family, pp. 12, 13, 70, 202. 

156 The Worth Carolina Historical Review 

no great consequence, Graffenried won election in 1702 as gov- 
ernor (Landvogt) of Yverdon in Neuchatel province, a position 
from which he expected a good income. 15 Like most politicians, he 
soon found that the expenses of his office were nearly as large as 
its revenues. An uprising in Neuchatel forced upon him the 
expense of a garrison of soldiers, and his tax revenues declined 
because of the disturbance. When his term ended in 1708, Graff- 
enried returned to Bern a broken man. With a large family de- 
pendent upon him, he was "compelled to do something," he tells 
us, "to satisfy the creditors." 16 It was these "troubles of Neu- 
chatel," as he euphemistically puts it, which drove Graffenried to 
seek to mend his fortunes in the New World. 17 

While in Bern he met and conversed with Michel, who de- 
scribed to him "what fine lands there were [in America] and 
how cheap, what liberty, what great, good and increasing trade 
[and] what fine rich silver mines he had discovered and found" 18 
— in short, all the glories, real and fancied, of the land across the 
sea. Impressed by Michel's enthusiasm, Graffenried determined 
to enrich himself if possible from the hidden and undeveloped 
wealth of the New World. Michel claimed to have taken up land 
on the Potomac River in Virginia, and there it was that they 
hoped to find rich silver ore. 19 About this time the Swiss colon- 
ization venture was being organized as a stock enterprise under 
the name Georg Ritter and Company. Whether Graffenried in- 
tended from the first to buy shares in this, or whether he meant 
to confine his activities solely to silver prospecting, is not clear. 
He needed money before anything could be done. To avoid being 
detained by his creditors, he left secretly for England, hoping to 
raise funds through his friends there. 20 

Up until this time, the colonization project had been concerned 
solely with Swiss settlers, "undesirables" for whose transporta- 

15 W. F. von Muelinen, "Christoph von Graffenried, Landgraf von Carolina," Neujahrsblatt 
Herausgegeben vom Historischen Verein des Kantons Bern fur 1897 (Bern, 1896), p. 16. 

16 German Version, p. 223. 

17 From Worb in 1735 he wrote to his son in America : "The troubles at Neuchatel were 
very fatal to me on many accounts." DeGraffenried, History of the DeGraffenried Family, 
p. 146. The phrase also occurs in the German Version, p. 223. 

18 German Version, p. 223. Compare William Byrd's statement: "The Spaniards had 
lately discovered Rich Mines in their Part of the West Indies, which made their Maritime 
Neighbours eager to do so too. . . . Happy was He, and still happier She, that cou'd get 
themselves transported, fondly expecting their Coarsest Utensils, in that happy place 
[America], would be of Massy Silver." W. K. Boyd, ed., William Byrd's Histories of the 
Dividing Line (Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Commission, 1929), p. 2. (Hereafter 
cited as Byrd's Histories.) 

19 Hinke, "Report," p. 302. 

20 Muelinen, Christoph von Graffenried, p. 18. German Version, p. 223. 

Eighteenth Century New Been 157 

tion the promoters were to obtain financial backing. Lawson, who 
had made the acquaintance of Michel on one of the latter's trips 
to the New World, was aware of the scheme the Swiss soldier had 
in mind. In his History Lawson comments rather cold-bloodedly 
on the value Swiss settlers would have as a buffer against the 
Indians and French of the interior. 21 Lawson wrote of the pos- 
sibility of settling them in the mountains of Virginia or Pennsyl- 
vania, in which, he pointed out, they would be completely at 
home. But he seems to have had no idea that any Swiss would 
ever settle on the North Carolina coast. 

Events in Europe were to prove Lawson's assumption wrong 
and change the entire character of the Michel-Ritter project. 
These events evolved from the Palatine migrations beginning in 
1708 when thousands of Germans from the upper Rhine or Pala- 
tinate and neighboring provinces began to desert their homes 
and seek passage to the New World. The causes of the migration 
were manifold. Chief among these was the devastation and im- 
poverishment of the upper Rhine by the French under Louis 
XIV. The end of the Thirty Years War in 1648 had left the 
Palatinate prostrate, but scarcely had reconstruction been ac- 
complished before there came the incursions of 1674 and 1688. 22 
In May, 1707, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the 
French armies again laid waste these peaceful homes on the 
Rhine, this time under the leadership of Marshal Villars. "He 
did not forget to tax the enemy wherever he went," writes a 
contemporary French observer. 23 "He gathered immense sums — 
treasures beyond all his hopes. Thus gorged, he could not hope 
that his brigandage would remain unknown. He put on a bold 
face and wrote to the King that the army would cost him nothing 
this year." Such was the "sordid and prodigious" looting of the 
Palatinate, as even Villars* countryman was forced to call it. 

On top of this tragedy came another. At the end of the 1708 a 
winter of unprecedented severity set in. The rivers were frozen 
over, and the almost Arctic cold lasted into the fourth month of 
1709. 24 Vines and orchards, on which most of the Rhenish in- 

21 Lawson, History, pp. 334-335. From long service in the mercenary armies of Europe, 
the Swiss had a reputation for being excellent fighters. 

22 W. A. Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration (Philadelphia, 1937), p. 3. 

23 Duke of Saint-Simon, Memoirs of Louis XIV and the Regency, translated by Bayle St. 
John (Akron, 1901), I, 99. 

24 Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration, p. 4. 

158 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

habitants depended for a living, were killed by the cold, and the 
price of bread soared when the wheat crop was curtailed. 25 If the 
Palatinate had enjoyed wise and conscientious government, the 
burden of the blight might have been lightened, but such was 
not the case. Imitation of the lavish French court by the petty 
Palatinate princes had for years laid a heavy hand on the peas- 
antry, so that the Palatines could expect no help from their 
temporal masters. In the midst of their misery came a ray of 
hope to these people: the New World. Agents for Pennsylvania 
and Carolina distributed enticing advertising in the broken 
provinces, hoping for settlers to people the sparsely populated 
land. 26 A German pastor, the Reverend Joshua Kocherthal, wrote 
and circulated a book in the German language extolling the 
glories of the New World (which, incidentally, he had not then 
visited) and hinting that Queen Anne of England would be 
willing to rehabilitate the Palatines by granting them passage to 
America. 27 

England was naturally the nation to which the Palatines would 
look for help. Besides being the foe of powerful France, England 
was regarded as the protector of the Protestant cause, and there 
were many Protestants among the Palatine refugees. But relig- 
ion was not a fundamental cause of the migration, though some 
writers have charged that persecution was the reason they left 
their homes. As a matter of fact there were both Catholics and 
Protestants among the Palatines, and though it was convenient 
for partisans of the Palatines to minimize the former element 
and emphasize the latter in their appeals for English assistance, 
it is not true that Catholic persecution drove these Germans 
from their native land. 28 The Elector of the Palatinate, John 
William, Duke of Newburg, was indeed a Catholic but in 1705 he 
had decreed liberty of conscience in his realm. 29 Many of the 
refugees, furthermore — "most of them," according to one con- 

25 Saint-Simon's Memoirs, I, 61 ff. 

26 Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration, p. 12 ff. 

27 This book, first printed in 1706, had by 1709 reached its fourth edition. The title was 
Aus8fiihrlich und umstdndlicher Bericht von beruhmten Landschaft Carolina, in dem 
engeUdndi8chen Amerika gelegen. 

28 This point is carefully discussed by Knittle (Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigra- 
tion, pp. 6-11), who shows conclusively that any religious difficulties were produced not by 
persecution but by the clash of the various sects among themselves. 

29 Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration, p. 9. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 159 

temporary writer — were ruled by Protestant princes. 30 The cry 
of persecution was one calculated to win English sympathies, 
which in so far as the Queen herself was concerned were espe- 
cially susceptible at this time to an appeal for aid. Queen Anne's 
consort, the Lutheran Prince George of Denmark, died in Oc- 
tober, 1708, and the funeral sermon preached for him stressed 
his interest in the Protestant cause. The Queen's natural interest 
in relieving these poor "Protestants" fell in line also with the 
prevailing economic theory of the day, which attached a high 
value to density of population. This interest was also consonant 
with the desire of the Pennsylvania and Carolina Proprietors to 
increase the population, and therefore the wealth, of their Amer- 
ican domains. Early in 1709, to prepared for the absorption of 
the migrating Palatines, Parliament enacted a law permitting 
the naturalization of foreign Protestants. 

In 1708 a small party of some forty Palatines had migrated 
under the leadership of the Reverend Kocherthal to New York, 
where they founded Newburgh on the Hudson River. As suffering 
in Germany increased in the winter of 1708-1709, the migration 
gathered momentum. By the middle of 1709 a thousand refugees 
a week were arriving at Rotterdam after desperate trips down 
the Rhine. Through the influence of the Duke of Marlborough, 
the victor of Blenheim, these families were taken from their 
improvised camps at Rotterdam and sent to England aboard the 
returning transports which had brought troops to the Low 
Countries to fight the French. Soon England had more than ten 
thousand of these refugees on her hands. The squares and 
taverns of London were crowded and the banks of the Thames 
were covered by the tents of these homeless wanderers, the feed- 
ing and clothing of whom presented a serious problem to the 
Crown's war-depleted treasury and to the private charity of 
sympathetic Englishmen. Some were returned to the continent, 
and all kinds of schemes were advanced to make the thousands 
that were left self-supporting. Suggestions as to places they 
might colonize included the Rio de la Plata in Brazil and the 
islands of Nevis and St. Christopher in the West Indies. Ulti- 
mately many were sent to Ireland and to New York, where it was 

30 Quoting from a letter written in 1709 by an English gentleman who visited a Palatine 
encampment near London. Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration, p. 8. 

160 The North Carolina Historical Review 

planned that they should manufacture naval stores for the Brit- 
ish government. 

The Lords Proprietors of Carolina were anxious to obtain 
colonists from among the Palatines. While still in Rotterdam, 
the Palatines had seen distributed among them, by agents of the 
Proprietors, handbills which promised them each one hundred 
acres in Carolina quit rent free for ten years. On July 16, 1709, 
the Proprietors petitioned the Board of Trade to take Palatines 
between fifteen and forty-five years of age as colonists provided 
the Crown paid the expense of transporting them, which, it was 
calculated, would be more than £10 per person. 31 It was unneces- 
sary, however, for the Proprietors to attempt the direct coloniza- 
tion of their province. Graffenried, Michel, and Ritter undertook 
that venture for them. 

The Swiss promoters, who assumed a semi-official position be- 
cause they were in a sense acting for the Bern government, 
attempted at first to obtain land in Virginia, a crown colony, 
over which Switzerland could hold some sort of extraterritorial 
rights. The Queen, however, refused to grant lands under an 
arrangement which would diminish her own sovereignty. The 
promoters obtained some lands in Virginia but shifted the in- 
tended location of their colony to Carolina because of the cheap- 
ness of the land and the fact that the Proprietors offered them 
special privileges unobtainable in Virginia. 32 Michel began the 
negotiations with the Proprietors, who agreed on April 28, 1709, 
to sell ten thousand acres between the Neuse and Cape Fear at 
£10 per thousand acres. 33 They allowed a twelve-year option on 
one hundred thousand acres more and agreed, as a special privi- 
lege, to confer the title of landgrave upon whoever of the com- 
pany should purchase five thousand acres. It is at this point that 
Graffenried first appears definitely linked with the enterprise. 
On August 4, 1709, he paid £50 for five thousand acres and was 
made a landgrave. 34 A few days later he was formally given a 
coat-of-arms and invested "in Robes of Scarlet interlaced with 

31 Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration, pp. 24 ff. Todd and Goebel, 
intro., p. 44. 

32 French Version, p. 361. These privileges gave them a minor sort of "sovereignty" 
over their lands. See below, pages 162, 163. 

33 Colonial Records, I, 707. 

34 A copy of his commission made by H. A. Brown, Jr., in 1896 from the original in 
possession of the DeGraffenried descendants hangs in the New Bern City Hall. It is dated 
July 28 but was issued August 4. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 161 

Gold, To be by . . . [him] worne on all great and solemn oc- 
casions." 35 Besides being Landgrave of Carolina, he was made 
Baron of Bernburg and Knight of the Purple Ribbon. With this 
impressive array of titles, Graffenried assumed direction of the 
entire project, Michel figuring to a lesser extent in the arrange- 
ments. Graffenried accepted his honors with pound-wise reserve. 
"But the bad part of it is," he wrote, "that with these titles there 
is not a proportionate revenue." 36 

Graffenried's personal resources for this venture were ex- 
tremely slim. He must have raised from his friends some amount 
above the £50 paid to the Proprietors, but he does not explain 
how much he obtained or how he obtained it. It was not neces- 
sary, however, for him or the rest of the promoters to finance the 
transportation of their colonists. In the case of the Swiss, the 
promoters were to be paid forty-five thalers a head for every 
Mennonite they succeeded in bringing to America, and five hun- 
dred thalers more for a group of about one hundred paupers. 37 
The promoters had seen an opportunity to realize a similar return 
and to increase the number of tenants in their colony by includ- 
ing Palatines in it. With the blessing of the Lords Proprietors, 
who apparently had abandoned their proposal to the Board of 
Trade now that a private company was interested in the same 
object, Graffenried and Michel entered into an agreement on 
October 10 with the crown Commissioners for the Settlement of 
the Palatines — "as well for the benefit of the said Christopher 
de Graffenried and Lewis Michel as for the relief and support 
of the said poor palatines." 38 To Graffenried and Michel the 
Crown paid £5 10s. each for 650 Palatines "for their transporta- 
tion to North Carolina . . . and for their comfortable support 
there." To the Palatines the crown supplied twenty shillings 
worth of clothes each. In return, Graffenried and Michel were to : 

(1) transport the Palatines and feed them during the voyage; 

(2) set aside 250 acres for each family free of quit rent for five 
years and thereafter to be held for a rent of two pence yearly; 

(3) supply them with provisions for the first year, this subsidy 

35 A copy of the document giving Graffenried his coat-of-arms, also made by Mr. Brown 
from the original in possession of the family, likewise hangs in the City Hall. 

36 French Version, p. 362. 

37 Bern Ratsmanuale, XLI, 229, 281. Quoted in Faust, "Swiss Emigration," p. 23. 

38 This contract is reprinted in Hawks, History of North Carolina, II, 54-58. 

162 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to be repaid by the Palatines after three years ; (4) provide for 
each family within four months two cows, two calves, two sows, 
two ewes, and two lambs, the value of these likewise to be repaid 
by the Palatines; and (5) give to each family gratis, farm tools, 
axes, and other implements necessary for making a home in the 
wilderness. Michel and Graffenried were also required to give a 
bond of £5,000 for the faithful performance of their obliga- 
tions. 39 Although a working capital had been provided by the 
Swiss and English governments in the form of transportation 
money, it is obvious from the contract that the enterprise de- 
manded considerable resources. 40 The promoters themselves did 
not have such resources, and the crown, which had been told that 
at least £10 would be needed per person, was able or willing to 
put up only half that sum — and this not only for transportation 
of the Palatines but ironically for their "comfortable support" 
in the New World ! Thus from the very first the financial struc- 
ture of the colony was extremely shaky. 

Graffenried as the chief figure in the project next purchased 
for his fellow promoters (though he completed the transaction 
personally) the 2,000 acres which had been offered to Michel at 
£10 per hundred acres. At a meeting on September 3, 1709, the 
Proprietors received his note for £100 due on January 1, 1710. 
It was agreed that Michel should have 2,500 acres. An important 
question — how the colonists should be provisioned until they 
could begin to make crops — was decided also at this meeting. 
The Proprietors declined to appropriate money for their support 
or to purchase outright the necessary supplies. Instead, they 
decided to order the Receiver General of the province, Chris- 
topher Gale, to furnish the colonists with such provisions as he 
had on hand. 41 Graffenried and Michel were to pay the Pro- 
prietors after two years for these supplies. Graffenried seems to 
have received subsequently an order for £1,500 colonial currency 
worth of provisions, for which he was to repay the Proprietors 

39 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, German Version, p. 286. 

40 Graffenried mentions this contract briefly, saying it was "too long to insert here." 
Nor does he quote from it accurately. He mentions a cow and two swine as the only live- 
stock he was required to furnish. He ignores completely the fact that Michel was also a 
party to the contract. French Version, p. 363. 

41 Colonial Records, I, 717-718. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 163 

with £1,000 sterling. 42 ("A great cheat," wrote one Carolina 
resident in disgust, "for £1000 sterling is worth £3000 here in 
our pay.") 43 When their obligation became due, Graff enried and 
his backers paid in cash for the land they had purchased, a total 
of 17,500 acres including the 10,000 acres plus the lands set aside 
for Graff enried and Michel. 44 

Before planting so large a colony on a faraway continent, 
Graffenried read and informed himself about the New World. He 
must have been acquainted with Lawson's book, which appeared 
in London in 1709, and without doubt he talked at length with 
Lawson himself, who was in London in that year seeing to its 
publication. 45 Graffenried probably was familiar also with Koch- 
erthal's Bericht, and he mentions specifically the accounts of 
Blome and Hennepin. 46 He is careful to say that in assembling 
his colony he worked in close collaboration with the Commission- 
ers for the Settlement of the Palatines. He chose "healthy, in- 
dustrious people" and men of various crafts; accumulated a 
supply of "all kinds of necessary tools" and of "good food" ; and 
saw to it, he thought, that good ships and crews were provided 
to transport the colonists on their voyage. The crown Commis- 
sioners, he says, inspected and passed on these ships. The Com- 
missioners and the Proprietors appointed the Chief Justice, the 
Surveyor General, and the Receiver General of Carolina as "over- 
directors" of the colony, though what their responsibilities were 
is something of a mystery. At length, after much preparation, 
the Palatines sailed from Gravesend in January, 1710, after 
listening to an exhortation by Graffenried and a sermon by the 
pastor of the Reformed Church at Gravesend. 47 A convoy of 
English warships escorted them part of the way. Graffenried 
then returned to London to complete certain business transac- 
tions and to await the arrival of the Swiss, whom Michel was 
to conduct from Bern. 

42 At the meeting of September 3 it was provided that repayment should be at the rate 
of "£ 50 per cent [i.e., £ 50 above every £ 100] discount," but no specific sum such as 
£ 1,500 was mentioned. Details of the loan evidently were completed later. 

43 The Rev. John Urmstone to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, July 17, 1711. 
Colonial Records, I, 775. 

44 French Version, pp. 362-363. 

45 Lawson, History, p. 85. 

46 German Version, p. 261. Todd and Goebel, intro., pp. 31-32. 

47 German Version, pp. 224-225. 

164 The North Carolina Historical Review 

One of these business transactions was the acquisition of min- 
ing rights in Carolina. On April 6, 1710, the Proprietors granted 
Graffenried and Michel a thirty-year lease on any mines they 
should discover, the ore to be divided among the Proprietors, the 
crown, and the promoters. 48 (In addition, the promoters held 
mining rights in Virginia and Pennsylvania.) 49 Another transac- 
tion was the signing on May 18 of the formal contract creating 
Georg Ritter and Company and incorporating Graffenried into 
the reorganized enterprise. 50 By this time the promoters had 
acquired more land. They had bought 1,250 acres from John 
Lawson at the Neuse-Trent fork. 51 This, plus the lands previ- 
ously purchased, gave them a total of 3,000 acres. 52 These lands, 
with the mining rights, made up the assets of the company. The 
capital was to consist of twenty-four shares worth £300 each or 
a total of £7,200. As repayment for the Pennsylvania "mines" 
contributed by him, Michel was to have the yield of these for 
the first three years. 

In the fourth year [says the contract] Mr. Ritter and Mr. von 
Graffenried, since they have more of the expenses [italics not in origi- 
nal], shall take out according to the amount of their shares contributed. 

From this it would appear that Graffenried and Ritter had con- 
tributed most of the operating capital. Michel, for his "mines," 
and Ritter, for certain unspecified expenses, were each credited 
with a share. Graffenried, for the purchase of his 5,000 acres as 
well as for "expenses incurred through the Palatines and others," 
was also given a share in the company. The other members of 
the company were to pay for their stock "before the next ap- 
proaching September [1710]." This enterprise, according to the 
contract, was to engage in mining and export trade. 

Meanwhile, the Swiss colonists had encountered obstacles. 
They left Bern early in March. 53 Of the forty-three men and 
eleven women in the Tdufer band, thirty-two were released at 

48 Colonial Records, I, 723. 

49 Todd and Goebel, intra., p. 47. Business Contract, German Version, pp. 293-294. 

50 Business Contract [between Michel and Graffenried, on the one hand, and Georg Ritter, 
Peter Isot, Albrecht von Graffenried, Johann Anthoni Jarsing, Samuel Hopt, and Emanuel 
Kilchberger, on the other], German Version, pp. 292-296. There is nothing in Christoph von 
Graffenried's biographies to indicate what, if any, kin he was to Albrecht von Graffenried. 

M German Version, p. 293. 

62 They also held the option on 100,000 acres, and Graffenried speaks of 25,000 acres on 
the White Oak River though this seems to have been merely part of the option. French 
Version, p. 362. 

S3 Letter of Samuel Jacob Gabley, German Version, p. 308. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 165 

Mannheim owing to age and sickness. 54 At Nimwegen on the 
Dutch border, where the expedition arrived early in April, the 
remaining twenty-two gained their liberty when Dutch Men- 
nonites succeeded in preventing by protest their forcible de- 
portation. 55 Thus, only the hundred Landsassen or paupers kept 
on to England, where they arrived early in June and proceeded 
to Newcastle-on-Tyne, there to await the coming of their leader. 

Graffenried left London immediately after the signing of the 
contract. He stayed in Newcastle several weeks during which he 
prepared for the voyage of the hundred Swiss. At the beginning 
of July the hopeful colony sailed away with a Yankee captain at 
the helm and with warships of Russia, which happened to be 
sailing nearby, as a convoy through the privateer-infested wa- 
ters about England. 56 After a two-month voyage, Graffenried 
and his fellow-townsmen landed in September at Hampton, Vir- 
ginia, from whence they proceeded up the Nansemond River to 
obtain wagons and other equipment for the overland trip into 
Carolina. In the latter part of the month, they reached the banks 
of the Neuse. 57 

Graffenried found the Palatines in dire straits. They told a 
harrowing tale of death and suffering on their voyage. Buffeted 
by wintry storms, they were on the sea for thirteen weeks before 
they landed in Virginia. 58 Evidently their provisions had run 
short. Salt food and close confinement did their deadly work. One 
ship filled with vital supplies was plundered at the mouth of the 
James River by a French privateer operating almost within can- 
non shot of an English warship which lay helpless and dismasted. 
And as if these misfortunes were not enough, a fever epidemic 
swept through the hapless Germans when they came to land. 59 
At length, reaching the plantation of Thomas Pollock on the 
Chowan River, they had bought from Pollock some bare necessi- 
ties and had proceeded through the sounds to Neuse River, where 
Surveyor General Lawson had settled them at the fork of 

54 Faust, "Swiss Emigration," p. 23. 

55 Ernst Muller, Geschichte der Bernischen Taufer (Frauenfeld, 1895), pp. 252, 278. 
Quoted in Faust, "Swiss Emigration," p. 23. 

56 French Version, pp. 364-365, 366. 

57 French Version, p. 369. Letter of Samuel Jacob Gabley, Todd and Goebel, Founding of 
New Bern, p. 309. 

58 German Version, p. 225. 

59 Graffenried attributes the fever to the starved colonists' eating too much fruit and water 
on landing. Perhaps the fever was shipfever or typhus. 

166 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Neuse. 60 Close confinement on the sea and the epidemic on land 
had taken a frightful toll : one half of the 650 colonists had died 
before even reaching their new home. 61 

Nor was this the end of their misfortunes. Almost all fell ill 
during the hot summer, and all without exception were weakened 
by privation. Many had sold their clothes to the neighboring 
English in return for food. 62 The Bernese settlers, who had 
crossed the ocean without tragedy, looked on this disease, pov- 
erty, and despair with understandable misgivings, and some 
perhaps wanted to turn back. 63 Graff enried acted quickly in this 
emergency. He sent to Pennsylvania for flour and to Virginia 
for other necessaries, none being obtainable at this time from 
the Carolina government, which was verging on civil war be- 
cause of political and religious dissension. 64 Corn, salt, lard, rum, 
and salt meat began to arrive, and the colonists faced the winter 
with more hope. 

The heat of the summer and early fall in this new and strange 
climate must have undermined the Palatines' strength as much 
as lack of ready supplies and the ill effects of their voyage. 
Graffenried roundly blames Lawson for not allotting to the 
colonists their land immediately and for placing them "on the 
south side of this point of land along the Trent River, in the 
very hottest and most unhealthy portion." 65 This seems unfair 
to Lawson, for he could hardly have laid out the colony in the 
absence of its leaders. Graffenried forgets that if the south bank 
had been so "unhealthy," an able frontiersman like Lawson 
would hardly have chosen this spot for his own dwelling. His 
censure of Lawson looks strange indeed when one considers that 
Graffenried chose practically the same site for the town he called 
for his beloved Swiss city. 66 

60 German Version, p. 226. 

61 The appalling mortality also occurred in the transportation of Palatines to New York. 
Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration, pp. 146-149. Why was this? Too 
low an allowance per person, unscrupulous ship captains, overcrowding, all bear a share 
in the blame. Todd censures the Crown Commissioners almost exclusively. But Graffenried and 
Michel was actually responsible for the Palatines' transportation by the terms of the contract. 
Both they and the Commissioners had inspected the ships. The blame is therefore difficult 
to fix. It would seem that all, promoters, Commissioners, and shipmasters, bear a share of 
the responsibility for these deaths. 

62 German Version, p. 226. Graffenried blames in particular one "N.R.," an unidenti- 
fiable Englishman who bought many of the Palatines' effects. French Version, pp. 370-371. 

63 French Version, p. 370. 

64 German Version, pp. 227-228. 

65 German Version, p. 226. 

66 Another illogicality is that Graffenried charges that Lawson wanted the benefit of the 
Palatines' clearing for his own land. What land? Lawson could have owned only a few 
acres nearby at the most, since he had sold 1,250 acres to the company. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 167 

Another complaint made by Graffenried was that Lawson had 
sold the 1,250 acres as "unencumbered" land whereas it was 
held by the Indians under King Taylor. This was a not unusual 
situation ; most of the desirable tracts were held by Indians, and 
the white settlers frequently found it necessary to pay the 
Indians as well as the Lords Proprietors for their holdings. 67 At 
first, wrote Graffenried, the Indians were hostile "because they 
were incited ... by jealous traders." Very sensibly Graffenried 
purchased from the natives enough land on the point for his 
cabin, but, seeing friction develop between the colonists and 
their Indian neighbors, he decided to buy the whole fork and 
induce the tribe to move farther up the Neuse. 

And so [he writes] we decided upon a day to make our agreement. 
The kinglet dressed himself in his best, but in such a grotesque fashion 
that he seemed more like an ape than a man. He came with seventeen 
fathers of families. They went out into an open field and placed them- 
selves in a circle on the ground. I also put on whatever would glitter 
most, had a chair brought for me, and taking to my side an interpreter, 
a savage who spoke English well, I broached the matter and the object 
of this assembly. After having represented my reasons to them they 
also told their own, and to speak without partiality they had better 
reasons in their opposition than I. Nevertheless we came to an agree- 
ment. I made them several small presents of little value, and as pur- 
chase price for this land in question I gave to the king two flasks of 
powder holding four pounds, a flask holding two pounds, and with that 
1,000 coarse grains of buckshot ; to each of the chiefs a flask of powder 
and 500 lead shots [a marginal note on the MS says "some rather 
coarse shot"]. After that I had them drink well on rum . . . and the 
agreement was made. 68 

This solemn occasion was marred by an exceedingly foolish act 
on the part of Michel, who, having got drunk with some Eng- 
lishmen who had dined with him and Graffenried, snatched off 
the chief's head-dress and abused one of the tribesmen. Graf- 
fenried had a difficult time reassuring the Indians and regaining 
their confidence. He promised to keep Michel away from them 
and sent him to survey some lands on the White Oak River on 
which they were considering settling an extension of the colony. 
When he completed this mission, Graffenried dispatched him to 

67 The minutes of a court "at Pamlico" November 22, 1704, list payments to Indians for 
land. Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 441. Graffenried claims to have paid three 
times for the site of New Bern : to the Proprietors, to Lawson, and to the Indians. 

68 French Version, p. 374. 

168 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Pennsylvania to survey the silver mines. Soon after the agree- 
ment with King Taylor, Graffenried visited Coree Town ten 
miles up the Neuse and assured that tribe of his intention to 
dwell in peace among them. 

Appeasing the Indians and struggling to provide for the infant 
colony left Graffenried little time to devote to the establishment 
of the town. It was not long, however, before he had Lawson lay 
it out according to plan. He explains this episode in some detail : 

Since in America they do not like to live crowded, in order to enjoy 
a purer air, I accordingly ordered the streets to be very broad and the 
houses well separated one from the other. I marked three acres of land 
for each family, for house, barn, garden, orchard, hemp field, poultry 
yard and other purposes. I divided the village like a cross and in the 
middle I intended the church. One of the principle streets extended 
from the bank of the river ISTeuse straight on into the forest and the 
other principle street crossed it, running from the Trent River clear to 
the Neuse River. After that we planted stakes to mark the houses and 
to make the first two principal streets along and on the banks of the 
two rivers, mine being situated at the point. 69 

The first structures built were a storehouse or "proprietor's 
house" and Graffenried's lodging, referred to as being on the 
point between the Neuse and Trent. 70 "A good number" of 
colonists began to fell timber and build houses, and Graffenried 
began to concern himself with formally naming the infant town. 
This was done, he tells us, "in great solemnity." 71 The name of 
the river was joined to that of the founder's city, and "Neuse- 
Bern" — "Bern on the Neuse" — soon became known to the Eng- 
lish as New Bern. 72 

Only a small part of the colony — twenty families, according to 
a notation by Graffenried on his map 73 — seems to have inhabited 
the town. In accordance with his belief that "artisans are better 
off in a city than on plantations," Graffenried encouraged only 
craftsmen to settle in the town. 74 There were with the colony 
several carpenters, a mason, a locksmith, a blacksmith, one or 

69 French Version, pp. 374-377. 

70 German Version, p. 287. 

71 French Version, p. 378. 

72 Neu=Bern, the German equivalent of New Bern, does not have a sound very similar 

to the English words. Therefore it seems clear that Neuse-Bern the Indian word plus 

the name of the Swiss city suggested the name New Bern to the English. The naming 

is related only in the French Version : "11 S'agissoit de doner un nom a la Ville ce que nous 
fimes en grande Solennitee, et nous joignimes au nom de Neuws celuy de Berne, ainsi fust 
babtisee Neuberne." French Version, pp. 341, 378. 

73 This is the map of 1710, referred to immediately below. 
7* French Version, p. 377. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 169 

two shoemakers, a tailor, a miller, an armorer, a butcher, a 
weaver, a turner, a saddler, a glazier, a potter and tilemaker, 
one or two millwrights, a physician, a surgeon (i.e., barber), 75 
and a schoolmaster. 76 Even this sizeable representation of trades 
was not sufficient to care for the needs of the four hundred 
colonists. Graff enried wrote the company to send a bookkeeper 
and other artisans to people the town. In inviting these to Amer- 
ica, he adds, providing us with a glimpse of the psychological 
effects of the New World, an understanding should be had with 
them before sailing, "for when they get here they immediately 
become puffed up, want to be masters themselves." 77 

The greatest single lack was that of a pastor. The devout 
Swiss were especially perturbed by this situation. One of these 
settlers wrote with profound emotion to his kinsmen in Switzer- 

But one thing lies heavy on us which I cannot write without weeping, 
namely the lack of a true and zealous pastor. For we have indeed cause 
to complain with Asaph, our sign we see no more, no prophet preaches 
to us any more, no teacher teaches us any more. We have, indeed, 
prayers in our houses every Sunday, but the zeal to cleanse away the 
canker of our old sins is so small that it is to be feared it will consume 
everything to the foundation, if the pitying God does not come to our 
help. 78 

Graffenried did not intend that home services should take the 
place of public worship. He had intended to build a church in the 
middle of town, and the map he drew shows he also planned to 
build another up the Trent River. 79 The construction of neither 
of these churches was undertaken. By permission of the Church 
of England, Graffenried himself performed the rites of marriage 
and baptism. He also delivered sermons, reading them, he says, 
"after the English fashion." Under arrangement with the Church 
of England, a clergyman was to come once a year from Virginia 

75 Graffenried wrote to the company : "Thomas the barber and surgeon [evidently an inden- 
tured servant] wishes to finish out only his two years here. It will, therefore, be well to 
send a good surgeon." Report to Georg Ritter and Company, Todd and Goebel, Founding 
of New Bern, p. 292. 

76 French Version, p. 377. 

77 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 284. 
Compare Letter of Christen Engel, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 316. 

78 Letter of Christen Janzen, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 318. 

79 This map accompanied the Report and is entitled "Plan der Schwytzerischen Coloney 
zu Carolina Angefangen im October 1710 durch Christophel von Graffenriedt und Frantz 
Ludwig Michel." A good reproduction is contained in both Todd and Goebel's and Muelinen's 
monographs. An English translation by R. H. Jente, head of the University of North 
Carolina German Department, has been used in this work. 

170 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to administer communion. This clergyman seems to have made 
one visit and to have preached on that occasion in English and 
French. 80 From the beginning there was no question but that 
the colonists would submit to the organization and institutions, 
if not conform to the worship, of the established church, which 
was then gaining its first real foothold in the province. In April, 
1711, Graffenried, with the design of obtaining regular min- 
isterial comfort for the colony, formally requested the Bishop 
of London, who was in charge of foreign missions, to receive him 
and his colonists into the Church of England. 81 The Bishop of 
London recommended to the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel that it allow "a stipend for a chaplain to read Common 
Prayers in High Dutch," but nothing further seems to have 
been done. 82 

Religion and crafts belonged to town life. A more important 
part of the colony, however, lay outside the town. This was the 
farm land upon which the settlers were to depend (once the 
initial period of subsidization was over) for their food and trade. 
Very sensibly, Graffenried made it one of his first acts to allot to 
each family its 250-acre farm. 83 According to his map, these 
farms extended on both sides of the Trent River up to and 
including Mill Creek and its tributaries, several miles beyond the 
site of present-day Pollocksville. A few of the colonists also held 
farm lands on the Neuse. The names of the Swiss families (but 
not those of the Germans) were noted on the map. Along the 
Neuse were the "Wahrney brothers," "Jac. Ziorien," and "Sam- 
uel Huntziger." On the Trent were "Casper Zobrist," "Hopf," 
"Haberstich," "Nussbaume," "Muller," "Berger," and, next to 
William Brice's land, which is also indicated, one Johann Jacob 
Botschi, who styled himself "Clerk of Court and Captain in 
Carolina." 84 Along Mill Creek and its branches were "Hans 
Riigsegger," "Bendicht Kupfer Schmidt," "Chrissy Engel," 
"Christian Bautzle the tanner," "Rudy Kistler," "Peter Reuti- 
ger," "Christian Janssi," "the brothers Ziorien," "Johan Wyss- 

80 French Version, p. 377. 

81 Colonial Records, I, 156. 

82 Colonial Records, I, 831. 

83 German Version, p. 227. 

84 On the map he is called "Landschreiber [Clerk] Botschi," but in a letter he signs 
himself "Landscreiber und Haubtmann in Carolina." Letter of Johann Jacob Botschi, Todd 
and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, pp. 209, 312. 

Eighteenth Century New Been 171 

mer," "Peter Zuleman," and others. This rather numerous 
though scattered series of farms was almost a separate town 
in itself. Along Mill Creek, a chapel or church was to have been 
built; and not far from it a water mill and a sawmill were 
begun. 85 There was only one water mill in the province, Graff en- 
ried wrote; most of the Carolinians used hand mills. 86 
(Although Graffenried makes no mention of it, there was a 
horsepowered mill on the Pamlico River which had been pur- 
chased and set up in 1707 by Christopher Gale, John Lawson, 
and Maurice Llewellyn.) 87 Finally, at the junction of Trent River 
and Mill Creek, Graffenried caused to be constructed a hexa- 
gonal blockhouse and a series of redoubts which extended from 
the blockhouse along the northward bend of the Trent. These 
were for protection in case of Indian attack. 

Some special form of government was necessary, in addition 
to the regular English administration, for so large a trans- 
plantation of Swiss and Germans. The "special privileges" which 
the Lords Proprietors had granted Graffenried as inducements 
to settle in their province had anticipated the requirements of 
this "foreign" colony. The Proprietors promised that although 
the colonists' disputes with the English were to be settled in 
English courts, the disagreements among themselves should be 
settled before Graffenried. 88 They also allowed "right of city 
and market or fair at New Bern" — a typical Old World institu- 
tion. 89 Most important of all, they permitted, theoretically at 
least, liberty of religion and freedom from all English taxes 
except the quit rent. Such a quasi-sovereignty was a highly im- 
portant concession. 

Graffenried tells us that when New Bern was founded he 
decreed a market once a month and a fair once a year. Further- 
more, he made "several regulations and ordinances as well for 
the military as for the civil affairs." 90 As to what these ordi- 
nances were there is no indication. This one-man government 
was quite simple and strongly feudal in character. As a Land- 

85 These are indicated on the map. 

86 German Version, p. 228. Compare Byrd's Histories, p. 304. 

87 Beaufort County Deed Records, I, 187. 

88 The Proprietors reserved the death penalty to themselves. French Version, p. 363. 
8 & The significance of this "right" is not entirely clear. 

90 French Version, p. 378. 

172 The North Carolina Historical Review 

grave, Graffenried was a member of the nobility which had been 
planned for the province in 1669 by the philosopher John Locke, 
secretary of the Earl of Shaftesbury, who was one of the original 
Proprietors. The Fundamental Constitutions, as Locke's air-castle 
system of government was called, were never fully put into effect. 
They provided among other things for leet courts — that is, 
feudal courts presided over by the local land-barons. Todd 
believes that Graffenried adapted part of the Fundamental Con- 
stitutions to the use of the colony and that the government of 
New Bern "was the nearest approach to Locke's ideal ever es- 
tablished in this country — the only one founded on the Grand 
Model." 91 There is no doubt about Graff enried's relationship to 
the colonists being a feudal one. He observes that they owed him 
fidelity and he owed them protection. 92 He exercised his privilege 
of punishing wrong-doers and mentions sentencing a Palatine 
blacksmith to a day's log-sawing for disobedience, stealing, and 
using profane language. 93 On one occasion he invoked the feudal 
right expressly given in the Fundamental Constitutions to land- 
graves, casiques, and lords of manor, of permitting his people to 
leave their farms and look for work. 94 It is doubtful, however, 
that any serious attempt was made by Graffenried to revive 
Locke's Utopian order. It seems rather that the exigencies of the 
frontier forced the colonists into a serf-like obedience to their 
leader, on whom they were completely dependent until they 
could become self-sustaining. But there is nothing, in the letters 
of the Swiss, for example, to indicate that they regarded them- 
selves as bound irrevocably and hereditarily to the soil of an 
overlord, as Locke's Constitutions provided. 95 On the contrary, 
they had every expectation of becoming prosperous freeholders 
in their own right. At most, the feudal character of the govern- 
ment was temporary. The frontier, with its inspiration of inde- 
pendence resulting from cheap land, would in time have ended 
such an arrangement even if events that are discussed elsewhere 
had not interposed. 

91 Todd and Goebel, intro., p. 70. 

92 French Version, p. 363. 

93 German Version, p. 235. 

94 Todd and Goebel, intro., p. 69. 

95 "All the children of leet men, shall be leet men, and so to all generations." Article 
XXIII of the Fundamental Constitutions. Colonial Records, I, 187 ff. 

Eighteenth Century New Been 173 

During the early months of the settlement, the colonists seem 
to have been in fairly hopeful spirits. Few complaints are made 
in the letters of the Swiss written in the spring of 17 ll. 96 Cer- 
tain manufactured goods were needed, principally knives, axes, 
linen cloth, mill stones, household utensils, and specialized tools 
such as "a small hub auger to bore plow wheels." 97 Other 
articles, likewise scarce in the New World, were wanted for the 
Indian trade. Three or four times the cost could be made on iron 
pots, copper kettles, metal tobacco pipes, brass hoe rings, knives, 
hornpipe stems, and other trinkets. 98 "The Indians buy such 
things," wrote one Swiss, "for as much as one desires." 99 

The hardships of the journey had nonetheless left their mark. 
For old people and children the voyage had been difficult and 
often fatal. 100 Many of the women had died and left the men, as 
one settler put it, "with no wives to wash and mend for us." 101 
The Swiss were consequently very cautious about urging their 
homefolk to follow them. In only one of the letters did the 
writer advise that the journey was "easily to be made," and even 
he explained that this journey should be undertaken only by 
those who could supply themselves properly with dried fruit 
and meats for the sea voyage. 102 All of the others agreed in 
general with the attitude expressed by Samuel Jacob Gabley, who 
wrote that he "would not cause anyone to come here, nor . . . 
advise it, because of the costly and difficult journey over the 
fearful and wild sea." 103 "Whoever has not the guidance of 
God [die Anleitung von Gott] ," wrote Hans Rugsegger, "he may 
stay in Switzerland." Poor Hans indeed believed himself to be 
at the ends of the earth, for he wrote his letter "Out of India or 
America, in the Island of North Carolina, on the river Neuse!" 104 

96 The colonists had one serious complaint not mentioned in these letters — lack of livestock. 
This will be discussed in the next instalment of this article. 

97 Letter of Jacob Wahre, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 310. Letter of 
Christen Engel, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, pp. 314-315. Letter of Christen 
Janzen, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 319. Report to Georg Ritter and Com- 
pany, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 289. Memorial [Relating to Carolina], 
Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 304. 

98 Letter of Michael Ziorien, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 313. 

99 Letter of Christen Engel, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 315. 

100 Letter of Jacob Wahre, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 310. 

101 Letter of Christen Janzen, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 319. Letter 
of Hans Rugsegger, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 307. Letter of Christen 
Engel, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 314. The wives of both Engel and Janzen 
died but the latter was fortunate enough to find a wife and remarry. 

102 Letter of Christen Janzen, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 319. 

103 Letter of Samuel Jacob Gabley, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 308. 

104 Letter of Hans Rugsegger, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, pp. 307, 308. 

174 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Despite this realization of being separated from their native 
land by thousands of miles of stormy ocean, the colonists ap- 
peared to be content in that first springtime of their new home. 
The powerful lure of independence and the expectation of be- 
coming well off erased to a great extent the memory of past 
hardships and the prospect of future ones. For this was a 
continent where a man 

. . . can get as much land as he has need of. He can keep as much cattle 
and swine as he is able, and the swine become, of themselves, fat and 
good to butcher. 105 

It was a rich country, and a free one. — 

We are in a very good and fat land. I am in hopes that within a 
year I shall have over a hundred head of horses, cattle and swine. If one 
would present me with the whole lowland, in order that I should go 
back to Switzerland and take up my former service, I would not do it 
on account of the freedom of conscience. 106 
As for the fearful voyage, it was over now. — 

The journey is certainly hard and was hardest for me. But after the 
rain comes sunshine. And now we are, the Lord be praised, all as well 
as we have never been before. 107 

1 'After the rain comes sunshine." Though there were many 
handicaps unknown to the simple settlers, the enterprise seemed 
to be making progress. Michel had purchased a sloop, the Re- 
turne, and Graffenried began to plan for an extensive trade with 
the West Indies. 108 He hoped to export pork, beef, flour, cask 
staves, and hoops to Barbados ; to bring cotton, sugar, rum, and 
molasses to Carolina ; and occasionally to voyage to the Madeiras 
for wine, or to England with rice, hides, and naval stores which 
would be exchanged for manufactured goods badly needed in 
America. 109 The Returne made at least one trip to Bermuda 
early in 1711, bringing back salt, molasses, corn, sugar, and 
other supplies. 110 Graffenried actually planned to enlarge the 
enterprise by locating additional settlers on the White Oak 
River. He sent Botschi the clerk abroad "expressly to recruit 

105 Letter of Jacob Wahre, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 309. 

106 Letter of Hans Riigsegger, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 306. 

107 Letter of Christen Engel, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 315. 

108 It was typical of Graffenried that he should tell the company that Michel bought the 
sloop "in my absence . . . since I would not dare to venture so much [£ 200 was the price] ." 
and then in his account written in later years should claim credit for the purchase himself. 
Report to G^org Ritter and Company, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 287. 
French Version, p. 379. Colonial Records, I, 867. 

109 Memorial, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 305. 

no Report to Georg Ritter and Company, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 287. 
French Version, p. 379. 

Eighteenth Century New Bern 175 

people." 111 He boasted somewhat prematurely that his colony in 
a year had made more progress than the English in four 
years. 112 He was proudest of all of the city — the "little city," 
[Stdtti], he called it with the affectionate diminutive of his 
native tongue. Its situation, he wrote, "could not be finer, more 
cheerful and convenient." 113 The governor and members of the 
council bought lots in it, and from, as far away as Virginia and 
Pennsylvania land-buyers took up holdings in the infant town. 114 
So propitiously did the founding take place that Graffenried 
thought immediately of the possibility of moving the seat of 
government from Little River in Perquimans Precinct to New 
Bern. F)or at Little River, the meeting place of the Assembly, 
Graffenried observed there were only a few scattered houses 
"where we were badly lodged and had no security," whereas 
New Bern, with its fortifications and easily defended site, was 
the most potentially secure place in the entire province. 115 

This was indeed a prophetic observation, though one of tragic 
irony. New Bern did become the seat of government, though 
Graffenried did not live to see it. Instead, he learned within a 
pitilessly short time how insecure from Indian attack the town 
actually was. 

in Report to Georg Ritter and Company, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, 
p. 289. 

H2 German Version, p. 228. Evidently Graffenried dates the opening up of the south side 
of the river from 1707. 

113 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 284. 

114 French Version, Todd and Goebel, Founding of New Bern, p. 378. 
H5 French Version, p. 378. 


Paet I 
By Ellen Alexander Hendricks 

"Drunkenness may be called an endemic vice of Carolina. The 
climate disposes to it, and the combined influence of religion and 
education too often fail [sic] to restrain it." 1 Thus wrote Dr. 
David Ramsey in 1809, speaking of the state of South Carolina. 
Can legislation accomplish what religion and education fail 
to do ? An effort toward control by the legislature of South Caro- 
lina in 1892 created the South Carolina dispensary system and 
a muddled political situation that, even after the passing of half 
a century, Carolinians blush to review. 

In theory, the South Carolina dispensary system had a two- 
fold purpose : to reduce the evils of the liquor traffic by taking it 
out of private hands, and to retain the entire profits for state 
and municipal purposes. A review of the legislative measures on 
liquor traffic from colonial days until the passing of the Dis- 
pensary law in 1892 indicates that these purposes were in step 
with the general laws on the question. 

The earliest regulative measures were designed against unre- 
stricted sale. As early as 1683 the colony had passed an act to 
prevent unlicensed taverns and punchhouses. 2 Later acts placed 
further restrictions on the private retailer and brought with 
it more revenue to the state through the license system. 

Until the first decade of the nineteenth century, temperance 
advocates generally had refused to consider restrictive legislation 
as a proper means of effecting their cause. The State Temperance 
Society of South Carolina had undertaken to persuade men to 
be sober, and disclaimed utterly "all sectarian or political combi- 
nations, and all dependence upon, or intention to seek legislative 
aid." 3 To this attitude Judge O'Neal, president of the state or- 
ganization, attributed the failure of the extensive campaign 
staged by the anti-license people in 1839 for repeal of the liquor 
laws. 4 

Many temperance followers were convinced that the lure of 
profits to be gained from the liquor traffic was nullifying their 

1 David Ramsey, The History of South Carolina, II, 391. 

2 Standard Encyclopedia of the Alcolohic Problem, VI, 2488. 

8 The Permanent Temperance Documents (Columbia, 1846), I, 427. 
4 John Allen Krout, The Origins of Prohibition, p. 274. 

[ 176 ] 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 177 

efforts, and they turned to legislation to aid them. They stressed 
prohibition by law as the aim of their organization and were 
developing a strong influence on the law-making body when all 
law and order was brought to a halt by the Civil War and Recon- 
struction periods. During the carpetbagger rule the open 
saloons flourished without much interference from the state. 

With the return of order in 1876 there was a united con- 
structive work for temperance which resulted in a number of 
special acts for different localities in the state. By the end of the 
ISSO's there were six counties and more than sixty towns and 
villages in South Carolina under the no-license provisions by 
special acts. The law as it existed in 1889 provided that no 
license should be granted outside the incorporated cities, towns, 
and villages, and that it should be unlawful for any person to 
sell liquors without such license. Licensees paid one hundred 
dollars to county treasurers, and were permitted to keep saloons 
apart from taverns and eating-houses. The sellers were made 
responsible for injury to the person or property of any in- 
temperate, minor, or insane person to whom they sold intoxi- 
cating drink. Public drunkenness was forbidden; and saloons 
were required to close their doors at six o'clock of the evening. 

It remained for prohibition to assume a definite shape under 
the leadership of Lysander D. Childs, prohibition advocate from 
Richland County, who had early in life taken a decided stand for 
prohibition. He entered political life as a Democrat in 1888 when 
he was elected to the legislature from Richland County. He soon 
became a prominent advocate of prohibition, introducing a bill 
for its establishment in 1889. Sentiment for the measure was so 
strong that it was defeated by only eight votes. In 1890 Childs 
was again elected to the Legislature, and again he introduced 
his bill providing for absolute prohibition. The bill passed the 
house but was defeated in the senate. 5 

Encouraged by this success, the prohibition advocates from 
various sections of the state issued the following notice: 

Whereas, the traffic in intoxicating beverages is one of the most pro- 
lific causes of degradation and ruin to the individual, property, and 
wretchedness to the home, disorder, pauperism, and crime to the com- 
monwealth and an enormous drain upon our already impoverished peo- 

5 Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of South Carolina, 1891, p. 238. 

178 The North Carolina Historical Review 

pie; and whereas the agitation of last winter in the General Assembly- 
has placed the issue squarely before the Democratic party in South 
Carolina ; 

Therefore, we the undersigned, at the urgent solicitation of a large 
number of people, invite all Democratic voters favoring the prohibition 
of the liquor traffic to meet in Columbia, May 26, at 6 o'clock p.m. in the 
Hall of the House of Representatives, there to form and adopt the best 
plan for presenting the question to the people at the coming election 
through the regular Democratic organization. 6 

The convention met on the date scheduled. There were eighty- 
nine delegates present, representing twenty-three counties. It 
was decided by the convention that Childs should canvass the 
state in the interest of prohibition, that a state executive com- 
mittee should be appointed to arrange a campaign in the interest 
of prohibition, that a county executive committee should be 
appointed for each county whose duties it should be to arrange 
public meetings in which the subject should be discussed by the 
people, and that the members of the convention should organize 
prohibition clubs among the Democratic voters friendly to the 
cause of prohibition, for the purpose of educating the public 
mind in the principles of temperance and the advantages of 

The following address was issued to the people: 

The Prohibitionists of South Carolina in convention assembled, ack- 
nowledging Almighty God as the source of all power in government, do 
hereby in the name of God and humanity issue to the people of South 
Carolina this address. The liquor traffic — as now fostered by the Gov- 
ernment, protected by the laws, entrenched by long usage, and tolerated 
beyond the bounds of endurance, imposing enormous, avoidable and 
economic burdens upon individuals, families, and the State; the mother 
cause of poverty, vice and crime; the nucleus for impurity, anarchy and 
death — is in either high or low license, unscriptured in principle and 
contrary to good government and should be utterly prohibited by law. 

Therefore, we appeal to the people who have the inalienable right to 
govern, and who have the right to be heard in all measures affecting them 
socially, financially and politically, but who have not heretofore fully 
exercised this right in this question to come to our aid. 

We call upon all lovers of righteous government in the State to use 
every effort for the prohibition of this traffic in this State. 

"We recommend that the people demand that all candidates for the 

6 The State, May 13, 1892, p. 8. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 


House and Senate place themselves on record on this question to the end 
that the prohibition votes of the county may be intelligently cast. 7 

Through the influence exerted by the prohibitionist forces, the 
Democratic executive committee permitted a separate box to be 
placed at each polling place of the primary election for the pur- 
pose of determining the public sentiment on the question of pro- 
hibition. Twenty-seven of the thirty-five counties declared for a 
general prohibitory law. The returns of the vote was 40,338 for 
prohibition ; against prohibition, 30,197. There were about 20,000 
more votes cast for candidates than were cast on the prohibition 
question. 8 

Fearing the strength of Childs, Richland County, decidedly in 
favor of continuing the license system for handling the liquor 
traffic, failed to return him to the legislature. In spite of his fail- 
ing to be reelected to the legislature, Childs was determined to 
get a prohibition measure before the house in 1892. He called a 
meeting of the state prohibition executive committee of which 
he was chairman, and drew up a bill providing for strict prohibi- 
tion. He was uncompromising in his demands, preferring to have 
"no prohibition law passed at all until he could get an effective 

The bill thus prepared was introduced into the house by Rep- 
resentative E. C. Roper. With the amendments offered by Repre- 
sentative S. A. Nettles, it passed the house by a vote of fifty- 
seven to thirty-seven, 9 and was sent to the senate for consid- 

Affairs at this point took a peculiar turn, and can be under- 
stood only in light of the unique political situation in the state. 
This situation centered around Benjamin R. Tillman, governor 
from 1890 to 1894, whose popularity among the farm elements 
had made him virtual dictator. 

Tillman was born in Edgefield County, South Carolina, August 
11, 1847. He was educated at Bethany, South Carolina, and made 
the most of his scant educational opportunities by reading all the 
books in the library that his brother George had accumulated at 

7 The State, May 27, 1892, p. 1. 

8 The State, Sept. 13, 1892, p. 8 ; also B. R. Tillman, "The South Carolina Liquor Law," 
North American Review, CLVII, 140 ; D. D. Wallace, History of South Carolina, II, 359. 

9 The News and Courier, Dec. 22-25, 1892. 

ISO The North Carolina Historical Review 

their home. Joining the Confederate Army in 1864, he suf- 
fered a severe illness that kept him from military service and 
left him with the handicap of the loss of an eye. 

Among the early influences that shaped his political philosophy 
was the career of Martin Gary, an Edgefield man who had won 
distinction for his services in the Confederate Army and who had 
entered politics after 1876. Tillman vigorously championed his 
cause in the Edgefield convention of 1880, when he ran for gov- 
ernor. Gary was defeated by Johnson Hagood, the Hampton 
candidate. Tillman, as well as Gary, felt keenly this defeat, and 
blamed his failure to secure office to the ' 'Aristocratic oligarchy" 
in the state. 10 

In the county convention of 1882 Tillman took a leading part 
and was elected to the state Democratic convention of that year. 
It was not until 1885, however, that he really became a figure in 
the political situation in his state. He had contented himself as 
an Edgefield farmer until the years between 1881 and 1885 
brought a series of crop failures that forced him to sell much of 
the land he had purchased. He then determined to find a remedy 
for the evils that discriminated against the agricultural elements. 

His first move was to provide a system by which the farmers 
could get an agricultural education; to this end he organized 
numerous county and agricultural clubs. "Every newspaper," says 
Dr. Simkins, "had something to say about him ; a few gave praise ; 
some knew not what to say; many condemned him." 11 

His second move was to call a convention of farmers at Colum- 
bia, April 29, 1886. He kept himself from that time on constantly 
before the public eye. He delivered addresses, published letters 
defending the farmers' convention, and took an active part in the 
political conventions. By 1886 his popularity among the farmers 
had grown to such an extent that his name was mentioned as a 
possible candidate for governor. 12 

He had, however, created a large number of political enemies, 
and but for his offensive, dictatorial methods, the legislature 
might have granted to the agriculturing class many of the 
reforms requested in 1886. The realization that his manner- 

W Francis Butler Simkins, The Tillman Movement in South Carolina, p. 21. 
U Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 64. 
12 Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 70. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 181 

isms were handicapping the progress of the movement would 
have caused Tillman to retire from active politics had there not 
been the need for a strong leader and had he not felt that he was 
the only man who could take that lead. 13 

In 1888 he canvassed the state, and inspired enthusiasm every- 
where; even in Charleston where he criticized the people for 
their aristocratic conservatism and rudely insulted the city, he 
was listened to without effective interruption. He secured the 
lower house and might have controlled the Democratic state 
convention if the election of delegates to the nominating conven- 
tion had been postponed until after the canvass. 14 

Tillman had aroused, by his ability to write, to speak, and to 
act, a feeling among the agricultural masses that enabled him to 
win the election for governor in 1890. He won by a majority vote 
of 59,159 over a vote of 14,828 for A. C. Haskell. 15 The campaign 
had for the first time in the history of South Carolina brought 
the candidates for governor together in a county-to-county 

During his first administration, Tillman lacked the control 
over the legislature that would have enabled him to secure for 
the state all that he recommended in his reform program. He 
resolved to replace the men who opposed him with men who fol- 
lowed his dictates. He set about electing Tillmanites to such offices 
as became vacant, and by 1892 he had accomplished his purpose 
of securing a majority in the legislature who favored his reform 
program. His reelection that year was an overwhelming victory ; 
his opponent for the governorship, J. C. Sheppard, carried only 
five of the thirty-five counties. In the new legislature only eight 
of the thirty-six senators and twenty-two of the one hundred and 
twenty-four representatives were anti-Tillmanites. 16 With this 
majority in both branches of the General Assembly Tillman was 
able to pass over conservative opposition the reforms that had 
failed in previous sessions. 

This was the situation as it existed when the prohibitionists 
were attempting to pass the measure providing for state-wide 

13 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 341. 

1 4 Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 95. 

15 Reports and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina, 1890, 
I, 604. 

16 Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 170. 

182 The North Carolina Historical Review 

prohibition. The Roper bill had passed the house and was before 
the senate for consideration. 

Governor Tillman up to this point had not interfered with the 
progress of the bill, although it was generally known that he 
did not believe that prohibition could be enforced. In his message 
of 1892 he had minimized the value of the vote cast for prohibi- 
tion at the primary election as "an abstract proposition without 
definite legislation being indicated," and receiving "a majority 
of the votes on the subject, although not a majority of the total 
votes cast," thus indicating "a wish on the part of a large number 
of people that there should be some restrictive legislation in 
regard to the liquor traffic." The problem demanded solution. 
"Granting the possibility of doing something towards abolishing 
the nuisance of bar-rooms," he continued, "I would call your 
attention to the law now in force at Athens, Georgia, by which 
a dispensary for the sale of liquor is provided and which, after 
trial, is pronounced a success by the prohibitionists them- 
selves." 17 

The idea of the dispensary system thus recommended to the 
General Assembly had first been introduced into America in 
1891 when the Georgia legislature granted to Athens a local 
dispensary system. 18 The principle of eliminating the element 
of private profit by placing the sale of whiskey in the hands of 
salaried agents had been used in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden, 
as early as 1865. 19 Athens had built her program around that 

T. Larry Gantt, a former resident of Athens, brought the 
Athens system to the attention of Tillman, and, according to Dr. 
D. D. Wallace, converted him to the belief that the dispensary 
was the best solution of the liquor problem. 20 The principle 
involved was to minimize the evils of drink and engross the 
profits by a state monopoly. 

The preparation of a dispensary bill had received no notice. 
The introduction, therefore, of such a measure, offered by John 
Gary Evans, of Aiken, as an amendment to the Roper-Nettles 

17 Message of Governor Tillman, Nov. 22, 1892, in Senate Journal, p. 24. 

18 Leonard Stott Blakely, The Sale of Liquor in the South Columbia University Studies, 
LI (1912), 16. 

19 A. F. Fehlandt, A Century of Drink Reform in the United States (Cincinnati, 1904), 
p. 259. 

20 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 359. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 183 

prohibition bill came as a complete surprise. Evans informed 
the senate that Governor Tillman desired the passage of the bill 
he introduced. "All night long," says W. W. Ball, "the opposition 
filibustered against the dispensary bill. There were motions to 
adjourn, other dilatory motions, roll-calls and at one o'clock 
Senator George Lamb Buist took the floor. He spoke four hours 
and at six in the morning of a new calendar, but not legislative 
day, the minority surrendered." 21 The bill had been introduced 
on December 21 and was ratified on December 24. The measure 
had passed the senate by a majority of eighteen to thirteen. 22 It 
was accepted by the house, and written on the statute books as 
a state law. 23 

In accounting for the passing of this measure Dr. Simkins 
says: "Tillman was able to effect his wish because of his hold 
upon the popular imagination and because a majority of the 
Legislature, who owed their positions to him, feared that he 
might order their defeat in the next election. Operating from 
his office in the lower regions of the State House, he, through per- 
sonal admonitions administered individually in the strongest of 
language, forced the more recalcitrant of his partisans to support 
the bill." 2 * 

The act provided for a Dispensary State Board of Control to 
consist of the governor, the Comptroller-General, and the Attor- 
ney-General. The governor was to appoint a State Commissioner 
to operate the system at the annual salary of $1,800. 25 The State 
Board of Control was to appoint county boards of control who 
should in turn appoint one dispenser for each county, to do 
business at the county seat, except that there might be three for 
Columbia and ten for Charleston. 

The Commissioner was given the task of purchasing all liquors, 
and making sales to dispensers. He was not to receive for such 
liquors sold to them more than fifty per cent above the net cost. 
It was required of him to make a printed quarterly report of all 
liquor sold by him. The rules and regulations for purchases were 

21 W. W. Ball, The State That Forgot — South Carolina's Surrender to Democracy (Indian- 
apolis, 1932) p. 248. Mr. Ball was an Anti-Tillmanite, with very decided views, and must 
be recognized as such when referred to throughout this monograph. 

22 Senate Journal, 1893, p. 497. 

23 Acts of South Carolina, 1892, p. 63. 

24 Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 188. 

25 The commissioners' salary was increased to $3,000 by an act of 1893, and, again, 
decreased by an act of 1895 to $2,500. 

184 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to be made by the State Board of Control. The Board was given 
the duty of supervising the institution. 

Each county board of control was to consist of three persons 
whose duty was to make rules for the best management of the 
sale of intoxicating liquors in the respective counties, and to ap- 
point dispensers and dispensers' assistants. The members of the 
county board were to meet once a month or more often, on the 
call of the chairman, and each member was to receive two dollars 
per day and five cents mileage each way, but should not receive 
compensation for more than thirty days in any one year. 

The county dispensers were to be appointed by the county 
board upon application, filed at least ten days before the time 
for appointment. To be eligible for the position, the applicant 
had to prove that he did not drink, and had never been before a 
judge for violating the law relating to intoxicating liquors. He 
was required to file with the county board and with the clerk of 
court a petition signed by a majority of the freeholder voters of 
the incorporated town or city in which the permit was to be 
used. He was to take office upon oath to purchase, keep, and 
sell intoxicating liquors as provided by law. He was required to 
keep a strict account of all liquors received, and was subject to 
removal by the county board. His salary was to be determined by 
the county board. 

All profits, after paying all expenses of the county dispenser, 
were to be paid one-half to the county treasurer and one-half to 
the municipal corporation in which the dispensary was located, 
such settlements to be made monthly. 

A person desiring to purchase liquor was required by law to 
file an application with the dispenser. If the applicant was given 
to using liquor in excess or was intoxicated at the time of applica- 
tion, he was to be refused a sale. The place of sale was confined 
to certain localities. No minor could make a purchase at the 
dispensary. No wines or liquors were permitted to be sold from 
the dispensaries except in packages as received from the State 
Commissioner, and no bottles were to be opened in or around 
the dispensary. Liquors and wines were not to be sold on Sun- 
days except for medical purposes upon prescription of a physi- 
cian. The doors were not to be opened for business before the 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 


sunrise and were to be closed at sundown. The governor was to 
appoint a constable or constables to see that the provisions of the 
law were observed. 26 

The duty of formulating rules for dispensaries had been con- 
ferred upon the State Board of Control, consisting of Governor 
B. R. Tillman, Attorney-General D. A. Townsend, and Comp- 
troller-General W. H. Ellerbe. The following regulations were 
issued : 

First. County dispensaries will be open for the sale of liquor at 7 
o'clock, a.m., April 1, to October 1, and close at 6 p.m. The rest of the 
year the hours will be from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. In cases of illness only, 
sale may be made at night. 

Second. No loafing will be allowed around a county dispensary. 

Third. When the applicant for the purchase of liquor is unable to 
write, he or she, can make a cross mark and the same attested by the 
county dispenser will be received as if made in accordance with the act. 
Applications must not be filled for one person oftener than once a day. 

Fourth. Applications can be filled on written orders made in good 
faith, when the name of the applicant is authorized to be signed by the 
county dispenser and persons known to said dispenser, or his identity 
is established to his satisfaction. 

Fifth. County dispensers can carry on their legitimate business in 
•connection with the sale of liquors in the same store, by paying a pro- 
portionate share of the rent, but this does not affect the time of closing 
as fixed in the rules. All liquors must be sold for cash and money de- 
posited in bank each night. 

Sixth. A member of the county board of control must be present 
when a shipment to a county dispensary is opened to certify to any 
breakage of bottles in transport, else no claim of that kind will be 
allowed by the State Commissioner. 

Seventh. All packages containing bottles of liquor, wine or beer must 
he opened carefully so as to be returned to the State Commissioner with- 
out injury and the same must be shipped back at once. Any loss or 
damage will be charged to the county dispenser. 

Eighth. Any liquor not in stock at the county dispensary will be pur- 
chased by the state dispenser on application through county dispenser 
or furnished from Columbia. 

Ninth. If the county board of control or county dispenser, suspects 
any of infringing the law, a state constable will be detailed at once to 
investigate and make arrests upon application to the Governor. The 
same will be done when notice comes to the Governor from any reliable 

26 Acts of South Carolina, 1892, p. 63. 

186 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Tenth. Prices of the various brands of liquors on sale will be kept 
posted in a conspicuous place in each county dispensary. Any deviation 
from these prices, if reported, will cause dismissal of county dispenser. 

Eleventh. Dispensaries will not be established at more than one place 
in a county until after consultation with the State Board of Control 
and by its permission. 

Twelfth. The quarterly expense account of each county dispensary 
must be approved by each county board and submitted to the State 
Board for endorsement before it is paid by the country treasurer. County 
dispensers are required to conduct their business with the same economy 
as similar stores are run under private ownership. They will be allowed 
assistance only when the magnitude of the business warrants it and the 
State Board will issue the permit to employ a clerk upon proper 

Thirteenth. Alcohol will be kept in stock at Columbia or ordered 
from the distillery by the State Commissioner when the order comes 
through the county dispenser for barrel packages. 

Fourteenth. In counties where no dispensaries are or can be estab- 
lished the county board of control can receive no compensation. Their 
appointment is for the purpose of soliciting their aid in enforcing the 

Fifteenth. Any rules in addition to these, formulated by a county 
board will be submitted to the State Board for approval before they are 

Sixteenth. County dispensers may provide refrigerators and ice with 
which to cool beer. The State Board will contract for same and then 
it can be ordered direct. 27 

After the first month's statements were submitted, complica- 
tions made it necessary to add the following rule: 

Seventeenth. County dispensers are not required to enter individual 
names in the 'Dispenser's Record Book of Liquors sold, etc.,; Form 6'; 
all that is necessary is to enter the aggregate number of names of per- 
sons who have bought liquors, and who have filed their request in Form 
8, the kinds of liquors sold, the quantity, kind, number of packages 
of each kind, amount of money received thereof and the amount of stock 
on hand of each kind must be made to the county auditor and all the 
request books that have been used during the month must be deposited 
with that officer. A similar report showing aggregates as above will be 
made by the county board of control. 

Each night the county dispenser shall enter in 'Form 9,' the aggregate 
of the day's sales as shown in 'Form 6.' Whenever purchases are made 
from the State Dispensary the invoice will be copied in the same book 
and at the end of the month the book must be balanced and stock taken 
by the dispenser. At the end of every quarter a member of the county 

27 The State, May 21, 1893. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 187 

board must be present when the stock is taken and report any discrep- 
ancies in books and amount on hand. 28 

The law had been passed under unusual conditions and was 
destined for a difficult enforcement. The urban element naturally- 
resented the discriminating legislation that Tillman was forcing 
upon them. Columbia and Charleston were particularly hostile 
towards Tillman and opposed all his movements. There were also 
the liquor interests to be considered. Those persons engaged in 
selling whiskey, advertising it, or drinking it were not willing 
to abandon an old practice without a struggle. There was a 
third group, the prohibitionists, who were not willing to accept 
any compromise on the drink problem. 

Before the time arrived for the act to be put into effect, the 
enemies of the Dispensary plan began a fight on the constitu- 
tionality of the law. It received its first judicial construction 
March 1, 1893, by Judge Charles Henry Simonton in the case of 
Cantini v. Tillman, in the Circuit Court of the United States for 
the District of South Carolina. The case arose when Geromic 
Cantini and Anania Cantini, who were doing business as import- 
ers and venders of spirituous, vinous, and malt liquors in Charles- 
ton, applied for a writ of injunction and a writ of subpoena to be 
directed to Benjamin R. Tillman and W. T. C. Bates, governor 
and treasurer of South Carolina, respectively, to appear before 
the court to show cause why they, the complainants, should sus- 
pend operation without due compensation from the state. The 
complainants attempted to prove that the Act of 1892 violated 
both the Constitution of the United States and that of South 

In answer to the questions involved in the case Judge Simonton 
drew the following conclusions : 

We have seen that the right to sell intoxicating liquors is not a right 
inherent in a citizen, and is not one of the privileges of American citi- 
zenship; that it is not within the protection of the fourteenth amend- 
ment; that it is a right reserved by the states, and not delegated to the 
general government. In its lawful exercise, the states are absolutely 
sovereign. Such exercise cannot be affected by any treaty stipulations. 29 

The act was brought in review before the Supreme Court of 
South Carolina in the case of State ex. rel. Hoover v. Town 

28 The State, August 11, 1893. 

29 Cantini v. Tillman, 54 Federal Reporter, p. 

188 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Council of Chester, and State ex. rel. Groeschal and Co. v. same. 30 
Major S. P. Hamilton of Chester, representing the saloon keepers 
of Chester, appeared before the Supreme Court with a petition, 
on January 25, 1893, to require the town council to show cause 
why a writ of mandamus should not be granted to require them to 
issue licenses for a year. Mr. V. J. Pope rendered the unanimous 
court decision, which, in conclusion, declared "that said act, being 
in effect an act to regulate the sale of spirituous liquors, the 
power to do which is universally recognized, it is quite clear that 
there is nothing unconstitutional in forbidding the granting of 
licenses to sell liquors except in the manner prescribed by the 
act." The petitions for mandamus were dismissed, and all saloons 
were required to close their doors on July 1, 1893. 31 

Over 600 licensed saloons were closed, 32 and twenty county 
dispensaries began operation. The Agricultural Hall at Columbia, 
a large two-story building with cellar, was used as the state dis- 
pensary. D. H. Traxler was appointed first commissioner. A su- 
perintendent, a bookkeeper and assistant, a freight and office 
clerk, and fifty-four men and women to wash, fill, cork, stamp, 
seal, label, and pack goods were put to work. 33 

Desiring to use to the best advantage the $50,000 which the 
legislature had appropriated for purchase of the initial stock, 
Governor Tillman and Commissioner Traxler went to Louisville 
and Cincinnati to supervise the purchase. Tillman told a distiller, 
"If I catch you monkeying with your agreements, I will quit you 
and won't buy a gallon." 34 He studied brands and methods of dis- 
tilling until he felt that he knew more about liquors than "any 
man in South Carolina." 35 

He obtained credit from the Mill Creek Distillery Company, 
Cincinnati, and ordered the greater quantity of his opening stock 
from there. The liquors were sent to the state dispensary where 
they were bottled and made ready for distribution to the county 
dispensaries. The bottles bore a neatly shaped palmetto tree, and 
just below this tree and in the space on each side were the words, 

30 Hoover v. Chester, 39 South Carolina Statutes at Large, p. 307. 

31 The State, May 6-May 17, 1893. 

32 D. L. Colvin, Prohibition in the United States, p. 295. 
83 Reports and Resolutions, 1893, I, p. 447. 

34 Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 191. 

35 The State, April 15, 1895 (Tillman quoted). 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 


"South Carolina," blown into the bottles. The different qualities 
of whiskey were designated by the number of stars on the pack- 
ages. The grades ranged from one to four stars, the latter being 
the finest brand sold. Liquors purchased ranged in price from 
twenty-three cents per gallon to five dollars and forty-eight 
cents per gallon (Cognac Brandy) . During the first quarter, Com- 
missioner Traxler reported the purchase of 96,747.46 gallons, 
costing $129,611.55. 36 

The law made the establishment of retail dispensaries compul- 
sory in courthouse towns upon petition of a majority of town 
freeholders. County after county petitioned for dispensaries 
until, by November 1, 1893, there were fifty-one 37 and the num- 
ber continued to increase. There were various means used to 
secure the majority necessary for establishing a local dispensary. 
In the first place, Tillman, determined to see that the dispensary 
plan was put into operation throughout the state, threatened: 
"I will make the places that won't accept the dispensary dry 
enough to burn. ... I will send special constables if I have to 
cover every city block with a separate man." 38 The means used 
to secure a majority of freeholders were not always above re- 
proach. "In one town," says Ball, "a quarter of an acre of swamp 
was conveyed to forty whites and blacks who were thus created 
freeholders, and the required majority was obtained." 39 

The opponents of the system began an insolent defiance of the 
law on the very day that the dispensary opened. From July 1 
until November 17, eighty-eight cases were brought to court as 
an outcome. 40 In his report to the General Assembly in Novem- 
ber, 1893, Attorney-General D. A. Townsend stated, "The litiga- 
tion of the present year has been great, and far in excess of many 
years together." 41 

Said Governor Tillman of the situation: 

Prohibitionists who are so radical in their views that the uncharitable 
call them 'cranks' have been found shoulder to shoulder with bar-keepers 
and whiskey dealers in opposing it (the dispensary) ; while many 
eminent divines have lent their aid and endorsement, others are bitter 

36 Reports and Resolutions, 1893, I, p. 459. 

37 Report of the State Dispensary, in Reports and Resolutions, 1893, I, 459. 

38 New York Sun, July 9, 1893, cited by Simkins, The Tillman Movement, p. 192. 

39 Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 249. 

40 The State, November 17, 1893. 

41 Reports and Resolutions, 1893, I, 165. 

190 The North Carolina Historical Review 

in their denunciation. The whiskey men are more bitter in their oppo- 
sition to it than they have ever been toward prohibition. 42 

The leading newspapers within the state and outside the state, 
with few exceptions, were hostile towards the law. The State, 
which fought the Roper prohibition bill as an act unsupported 
by public sentiment, 43 condemned the new law, not on the 
grounds of prohibition, but as a revenue act. Said a leading edi- 
torial, "As well monopolize cotton factorage or any commercial 
business which promises profit. There is no morality in it; that 
pretense is abandoned when the State becomes principal in the 
enterprise. 44 

A. B. Williams, editor of the Greenville News, after reviewing 
the operations of the Athens, Georgia, Dispensary, concluded 
that the "dispensary system as proposed by the Evans bill will 
not work satisfactorily — as a money-making machine it will be a 
failure ; it will not throw the bulk of the liquor business into the 
hands of the State but into the hands of a disreputable and irre- 
sponsible few." 45 

The editor of the Spartanburg -Herald, after interviews with a 
number of prominent citizens in regard to the law, stated, "It 
may be set down as tolerably certain that Spartanburg will never 
have a dispensary. A majority of the freeholders of this city, 
whose signatures are necessary, will never consent for the State 
to do that which they conscientiously believe to be wrong in the 
individual. 46 

The News and Courier of Charleston declared, "The dispensary 
act undoubtedly is a monopoly that seriously restrains trade 
and commerce among the several States and with foreign 
nations" 47 

The New York World was very bitter in its attack. "The at- 
tempt," said the editor, "to engage in the liquor traffic and to 
monopolize it will fail, as all such efforts to reverse the relations 
of the government to citizens deserve to fail. The legitimate 

42 Tillman, "History of the South Carolina Liquor Law," in North American Review, 
CLVIII, 140. 

43 The State, December 13, 1892. (N. H. Gonzales, editor of The State, opposed any of 
Tillman's moves. He had originated the paper for that purpose, February 18, 1891.) 

44 The State, December 24, 1892. 

45 The Greenville News, January 5, 1893. 
40 The Spartanburg-Herald, January 1, 1893. 

47 The News and Courier, October 10, 1895, J. C Hemphill, editor. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 


functions of Republican government and the rights of individuals 
are alike overlooked by the fanatics and ignoramuses who try to 
crystalize their crankiness in law." 48 

The Richmond Times, The Chicago Record, The Atlanta Con- 
stitution, The Wilmington Star, The Memphis Appeal- Avalanche, 
and The Savannah News express, respectively, the following opin- 
ions: "Bad as South Carolina class and confiscatory legislations 
are, it is, at any rate, not so ridiculous as that which makes her 
undertake to do all the bar-keeping in the State. This is socialism 
and paternalism in its most rampant form and the results will be 
watched with extreme interest by all outsiders." 49 "The State 
has arranged for a perfect liquor trust and has hedged about the 
traffic with radical measures. Railroads cannot carry other than 
State liquors, and in case of violation everyone connected with 
such carriage is held liable to punishment. Henceforth, if drunk- 
enness shall cause crime in South Carolina, the State will stand 
convicted of being 'particeps criminis\" 50 "The South Carolina 
experiment is a menace to good government. It is socialism pure 
and simple." "It is pretty evident from the discussions on this bill 
when it was pending and the action of the City Council of Charles- 
ton that this law is not supported. Such a law not enforced is 
worse than no law at all." "It is a curious experiment in liquor 
legislation, and we would not believe that such a scheme was pos- 
sible outside of opera bouffle." "The wisdom of the law is ques- 
tionable. Those of the people of South Carolina who brought about 
the passage of the Dispensary law are doubtless very much in 
earnest in their efforts in behalf of temperance, but it is pretty 
safe to say that they are going to be greatly disappointed." 51 

The opposition based its argument against the system chiefly 
upon the following reasons: First, our people are opposed to 
monopoly. Second, our people are against spies (constables), re- 
formers, and sneaks. Third, the law as a step toward prohibition 
is a sham and a fraud. Fourth, the law will not bring the revenue 
which was the chief inducement to its passage. Fifth, the force of 
spies will absorb all the profits. Sixth, consumers, under constitu- 

48 The State, July 15, 1893. 

49 The State, April 17, 1893. 

50 Public Opinion, V, 271. (This periodical contains editorials from leading newspapers 
on the Dispensary, published from 1886 to 1906.) 

51 The State, January 9, 1893-April 17, 1893. 

192 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tional provisions, could get cheaper liquor. Seventh, contraband 
goods will be smuggled in. Eighth, interstate railroads will not 
consent to lose the revenues. Ninth, freeholder voters will not 
consent to dispensaries in many counties. Tenth, it will be im- 
possible to convict violators of the law. 

The prohibitionists generally opposed the law which they be- 
lieved, according to the opinion of their leader, L. D. Childs, to 
be "no good as a step toward prohibition." Their attitude may be 
summarized by a quotation addressed to the state prohibition 
executive committee. 

The dispensary law makes the sale of liquor as a beverage by the State 
practically without limitation as to use and quantity in order that the 
profits therefrom, blood money as it is, shall go to enrich the revenue 
of the State and counties. It seems, therefore, that the duty of all true 
Prohibitionists will be first to use their influence to prevent the estab- 
lishment of dispensaries by refusing themselves and inducing others to 
refuse to sign the petitions which are necessary to their establishment. 52 

Tillman and his followers defended the system on the grounds 
that it was a compromise act and the best available solution of 
the liquor question. Their chief arguments in its favor may be 
summarized as follows: First, the system is a police measure 
whose purpose is to promote sobriety, to preserve health, and to 
provide for the safety of citizens. Second, a pure article is guar- 
anteed as it is subject to chemical analysis. Third, gambling dens, 
pool rooms, and lewd houses are separated from the sale of liquor. 
Fourth, the element of personal profit is destroyed, therefore 
removing the incentive to increase sales. Fifth, the local whiskey 
rings have been broken up. Sixth, if men will drink, the state 
might as well receive the revenues as any private agents. Sev- 
enth, the consumer obtains honest measure of standard strength. 
Eighth, whiskey is sold only in the day time, under regulation of 
the board. 

Tillman's belief in the system appears to have been from the 
beginning its strongest merit among those who believed in him, 
and the biggest reason for its being. Ball says that, "In the earlier 
stages some of the Reformers had voted both ways. Lifelong 
Prohibitionists betrayed principles and supported the bill because 

62 The State, February 8, 1893. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 


it was a Tillman measure, and one, it was said, never forgave the 
Captain for seducing him by persuasion." 53 

The hatred whch surrounded the institution from the time of 
its creation was intensified by its enforcement. The constables 
became the most obnoxious group of people in the state. The 
press denounced them as "spies" and "sneaks." Story after story 
of their unwarranted actions was published. One of the most 
spectacular was that of the murder of a Negro named Palmer in 
Spartanburg County. According to reports Bladon and another 
constable had raided the house of this Negro, and without cause 
had shot him in the back when he attempted to run away. The 
Negro died. Bladon was convicted by a jury of two conservatives 
and ten Tillmanites. Before the judge had pronounced sentence, 
Tillman, without asking information from any court official, tele- 
graphed a pardon. 54 Another constable was reported to have 
slapped a woman's face, and to have received a pardon from 
Tillman when convicted for the offense. 

The public's resentment of the constabulary force reached its 
climax in the Darlington riot. As Tillman said years afterwards 
in reviewing the situation: "Any interference with the estab- 
lished customs of a free people will be attended with poular dis- 
turbance, whose extent and violence will be proportioned to the 
abruptness of the change, the degree of liberty to which the 
people have been accustomed, and the ability and shrewdness 
of the leaders of opposition." As the people were accustomed to 
free thinking, he continued, "enforcement of a new law, however 
wise and just its terms, was bound to be accomplished by scenes 
of great violence." 55 

The conflict came about in the following manner. On March 28, 
1894, the town of Darlington had received a letter from; the gov- 
ernor stating that the dispensary profits would be withheld after 
April 1. The cause of such action was that the police of Darling- 
ton were obstructng the constables in the discharge of their 
duties. Governor Tillman stated his belief that the letter aroused 

63 Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 248. 

54 House Journal, 1893, p. 36 ; Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 251 ; also Newberry Observer, 
September 26, 1905. 

55 Wallace, History of South Carolina, p. 360, citing Tillman papers, Scrapbook No. 37, 
typed MS, University of South Carolina library, Columbia. 

104 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the anger of the people of Darlington, 56 but Mayor Dargan 
scoffed at the idea as "an assumption" on the governor's part. 57 
Whether or not the letter had any direct connection with the 
uprising, the fact remains that the town and the authorities of 
the enforcement of the Dispensary law were not on terms that 
would stand a great deal of strain. 

The facts about the uprising are variously colored by different 
accounts, but it seems that some twenty-three constables had 
been sent to Darlington to search for contraband liquors. Rumors 
spread that the constables were there for the purpose of search- 
ing private houses without warrants. A number of men gathered 
on the streets for the "protection of liberty." Governor Tillman 
sent a military company from Sumter to Darlington to protect 
the constables in the performance of their duties. Without any 
resort to force, the crowd scattered and the military company 
returned home the following morning. Four constables went to 
one depot, nineteen to another to leave the city that afternoon. 
Two young men, citizens of Darlington, got into a fight at the 
depot where the main body of constables was. Constables McLen- 
don interfered in behalf of Floyd, and Rogers, the second member 
of the wrangling party, went up town and brought back a small 
group of armed men. Chief of Police Dargan interfered when 
Rogers renewed the quarrel. Rogers accused McLendon of caus- 
ing him to get whipped. A shot was fired, and a small skirmish 
ensued. One constable and two citizens were killed, and several 
citizens and constables wounded. The constables fled to the woods 
nearby. The town bell was rung and a number of armed citizens 
turned out to search for the constables. 58 

The citizens of Florence and Sumter soon joined in the search. 
The train on which the four constables who had not taken a part 
in the skirmish were riding was fired upon as it was leaving the 
town. A man from Florence reported that on his way up to 
Columbia at each station men rushed into the train yelling, "Are 
there any spies on board ?" At some stations, he reported, armed 
men lay in wait for constables, and in Florence men stood around 

56 Tillman, "Our Whiskey Rebellion," North American Review, CLVIII, 513. 

57 Mayor Dargan, "Reply to Our Whiskey Rebellion," North American Review, CLIX 54. 
5S Numerous newspaper articles, Tillman Scrapbook, No. 2, University of South Carolina 

library, Columbia 

The South Carolina Di&pekcaey System 19 b 

the telegraph office where messages between Tillman and Dar- 
lington were being received, and cursed Tillman. Some of the 
citizens were desirous of attacking Tillman who, they said, was 
responsible for the muddle. 

Excitement started in Columbia about 5:30 o'clock. Men quit 
their business to go on the streets to try to find out every fact. 
Rumors of the wildest nature filled the air and were spread from 
one end of the city to the other. 

Governor Tillman ordered out five companies of militia — three 
at Columbia, one at Manning, and one at Sumter. All five com- 
panies refused to comply. Every military company in the state 
was ordered to get ready to come to Columbia. Out of those re- 
ceiving direct orders, thirteen of the town companies and the 
entire fourth brigade, composed of the troops of Charleston, 
refused to turn out. The following reply came from Charleston 
in response to the orders : 

"No company of this command will sustain the constabulary 
in their methods of enforcing the Dispensary law. This brigade 
will uphold and defend the honor of the State but will not lend 
itself to foment civil war among our brethren. Huguermir, Briga- 
dier General." 59 

The Weekly Register reported on April 2, 1894, that 15,000 
soldiers and hundreds of volunteer citizens were in Columbia 
ready to go to Darlington. Special provisions were made for the 
arrival of the soldiers, and General R. N. Richbourg of Columbia 
was put in command. The troops were protected from the citizens 
by placing them at the State Penitentiary pending service. De- 
tachments of troops were placed around the State Dispensary 
and the State House to prevent threats of destruction from mate- 

Governor Tillman ordered railroads and telegraph companies, 
except those being used in the service of the state, to cease opera- 
tions. Martial law was declared in Darlington and Florence, and 
300 men were sent to put down the so-called insurrection. The 
trouble had occurred on Friday, March 30, at four p.m. It had 
taken Tillman until Sunday to muster sufficient forces to settle 
the strife. When the soldiers arrived in Darlington, they found 

59 The State, April 1, 1894. 

105 The NoiSth Carolina Historical Review 

that the* citizens had quieted down and that further action was 

On April 5 Tillman issued a peace proclamation, as follows: 
"The commanding general has just informed me that the insur- 
gents have dispersed and that peace and order are restored, and 
that the civil authorities are now able to employ and enforce the 
law." 60 

This episode had been expensive to the state. The transporta- 
tion of soldiers had cost over a thousand dollars; two dispen- 
saries, at Darlington and Florence, had been destroyed ; and three 
lives lost. The malice and hatred of a system had divided the peo- 
ple of the state, and a spirit of lawlessness had prevailed. It was 
one of the ugliest manifestations of defiance to authority in South 
Carolina history. 

Almost immediately after and as a direct result of the Darling- 
ton riot, Charles S. McCullough, a resident and freeholder of 
Darlington, in conjunction with other freeholders, brought before 
the courts a case to test again the constitutionality of the Dis- 
pensary Act. 61 

George Just Brown, J. P. Kirven, and W. P. Carter had been 
appointed as county board of control for Darlington County. The 
board had named June 7, 1893, as the day for applications for 
county dispenser. John Buckner Floyd filed his petition for ap- 
pointment. On June 17 the county board met in Darlington and 
appointed him. He was then accused by the citizens of Darling- 
ton of having issued false bond, and a committee was appointed 
by the freeholders to make up a list of the citizens of the town 
to inspect the petitions of applicants for the position, and to see 
that they complied with the law. 

Action was brought by the freeholders of the town to declare 
the act unconstitutional, null, and void, and to declare the permit 
to Floyd null and void. The case was referred to the state Supreme 
Court then composed of three judges, Chief Justice Henry Mc- 
Iver and Judge Samuel McGowan, conservatives, and Judge Y. P. 
Pope, reformer. 

The opinion of the court rendered by Chief Justice Mclver 

co Tillman, "Our Whiskey Rebellion," North American Review, CLVIII, 513-519 ; Mayor 
Dargan, "Reply to 'Our Whiskey Rebellion,' " North American Review, CLIX, 54-59 ; The 
State. April, 1894 (inclusive). 

81 McCullough v. Brown, 41 S. C. p. 220. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 


answered the question, "Is the Dispensary Act in conflict with 
any constitutional provision of the State or of the United 

"The manifest object of the act," he declared, "is that the 
State shall monopolize the entire traffic in intoxicating liquors 
to the entire exclusion of all persons, whomsoever, and, this, too, 
for the purpose of profit to the State, government agencies, 
counties, and municipal corporations." 

He pointed out that the act violated those sections of the 
state constitution that guaranteed that no persons be deprived 
of their liberty or property "but by judgment of his peers or the 
law of the land," that it could in no manner be conceived as a 
police regulation, and that the legislators had no constitutional 
right "to embark the State in a trading enterprise." "We feel 
constrained to say," he concluded, "that the act is clearly uncon- 
stitutional, except in so far as it forbids the granting of licenses 
to retail spirituous liquors beyond the 30th of June, 1893." 

Justice Pope, dissenting, attempted to prove that the state 
operated the business for the benefit of all her citizens, and that 
the business was not, therefore, a monopoly. 

Upon authority of the decision rendered by the court in this 
case, the Dispensary program was suspended on April 21, 1894, 
thus creating an accidental prohibition law. Governor Tillman 
declared the decision to mean nothing more nor less than free 
liquor, and that anybody could open a bar-room at any cross roads 
or anywhere else in the state and sell liquor without license. 62 
The general interpretation of the decision rendered by the court 
was that no liquor should be sold within the state and that all 
penalties provided for selling liquor without a license should 
apply to the sale of liquor in any manner. 

The three Supreme Court justices rendered unanimous deci- 
sions in cases against the city council of Florence that, under the 
law, there was no authority invested with the power to grant 
licenses for the sale of spirituous liquors within the limits of the 
state. Thus prohibition was definitely established and prevailed 
until August 1, 1894, when Governor Tillman again forced the 
state to accept his decision on the liquor question. 

[To be concluded] 

62 The State, April 23, 1894. 


Edited By 
James A. Padgett 


Since a sketch of the life of Alfred Mordecai was published in 
the January number of this journal,* there would be no point in 
repeating such information here. It may be well to remind the 
reader, however, that Mordecai, born in Warrenton, North Caro- 
lina, in 1804, was graduated from the United States Military 
Academy in 1823, and thereafter served as an officer in the Army 
until the outbreak of the Civil War. At that time, unwilling to 
take part in the conflict against his own people, he resigned his 
position and retired to private life in Philadelphia, where for a 
brief period he made a living by teaching mathematics. With the 
end of the conflict he found a new opportunity when he accepted 
a position as assistant engineer of the Imperial Mexican Railway, 
and the letters which follow (from the Mordecai Papers in the 
Library of Congress) give an account of his trip to Mexico and 
his life in the capital of that country. 

Mexico at that time was passing through one of the most color- 
ful periods of its kaleidoscopic history. During the American 
Civil War, when the United States government was unable to 
enforce that part of the Monroe Doctrine which opposes the 
extension of the sway of European states to any part of America, 
the French under Napoleon III had set up a Mexican Empire, 
supported by French troops, under the Hapsburg Archduke 
Maximilian, brother of the Emperor of Austria. For a time 
all went well and Maximilian, liberal and talented, set out to 
develop the resources of the country. One of the major projects 
was the completion of the Imperial Mexican Railway, which 
engaged the attention of Mordecai. 

The letters give an interesting picture of the Mexican capital 

* See James A. Padgett, editor, "The Life of Alfred Mordecai as Related by Himself," 
The North Carolina Historical Review, XXII (1945), 58-108, especially the introduction. 

1 For an account of the life of Alfred Mordecai see James A. Padgett, editor, "The Life 
of Alfred Mordecai as Related by Himself," North Carolina Historical Review, vol. XXII, 
No. 1 (January, 1945). 

[ 198 ] 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 199 

at that time. Many former Confederate officers had sought to 
retrieve their fortunes there, so that Mordecai saw many former 
friends or friends of friends. He was a keen observer, and his 
comments on life and customs in the city are well worth pre- 

But the Mexican wheel was about to make another turn. Soon 
after the end of the American Civil War the United States gov- 
ernment had brought strong pressure to bear on France to with- 
draw from Mexico, and reluctantly the French complied. This 
left Maximilian without adequate support and he was soon to 
be captured by the Mexicans and executed. Meanwhile the Im- 
perial Mexican Railway had gotten into financial difficulties, and 
Mordecai, seeing the handwriting on the wall, left the country 
after a stay of only a little more than a year. Returning to Phila- 
delphia he became treasurer and secretary of the Pennsylvania 
Canal Company, a position which he continued to hold until his 
death in 1887. 


17' E.4 th st. 8;51 A. M. 

June 17/65 
My dearest wife 

Laura's watch enables me to be thus exact in time of writing- I 
hardly expected to have the pleasure of hearing from you to-day, but 
of the 4 letters which the post man has just left, two were for me (yrs 
& M r Seabrook's) & the other two from Sister Ellen to R. M., written 
a few days after I left & sending enclosures to forward- After my 
painful parting from you all, yesterday morning, I thought, with you : 
"How could I think of doing such a thing" ; but we must now hope for 
the best from it & trust that happier hours may be in store for us- 
I had a pleasant trip over here in the cool morning, & by 11 o'clk was 
engaged in my little arrangement - D r Yeile calling at Mr Ws to enquire 
found me at Talcott's 2 office, & when my business down town was done, 

2 Andrew Talcott was born in Glastonbury, Connecticut, April 20, 1797, and died in 
Richmond, Virginia, April 22, 1883. He entered the United States Military Academy at 
West Point on March 15, 1815, from which institution he was graduated on July 4, 1818, 
and at that time he was appointed brevet second lieutenant of engineers. During 1818- 
1819 he served as assistant engineer in the construction of the fort at Rouse's Point ; was 
appointed second lieutenant of engineers on August 18, 1818 ; and later was made aide 
on the staff of brevet Brigadier-General Atkinson. He was engineer on the expedition sent 
to establish forts on the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers ; was brevetted first lieutenant 
in 1820 ; was assistant engineer in the defenses of Hampton Roads, Virginia, from 1820 
to 1821 ; was engineer in charge of preliminary operations for fortifying Brinton's Point, 
Newport, Rhode Island, and the present site of Fort Adams and New Utrecht Point, New 
York, now the site of Fort Hamilton. During 1824-1825 he was engineer in charge of the 
construction of Fort Delaware, Delaware ; and on March 15, 1825, he was appointed engi- 
neer of the Dismal Swamp Canal, in Virginia. During 1826-1828 he was engaged on Fort 

200 The North Carolina Historical Review 

he was at Mr M's door at 2 o'clk, with a nice carriage- We went up to 
the vessel, received my baggage there from the local express & after 
making the necessary arrangements, the Dr proposed that we should 
take a drive, instead of going to the house- So we had a charming drive 
all over the central Park which is nearly the finest thing of the Kind, 
by far, that I have ever seen- as we returned, between 5 & 6, we met 
all the handsome equipages going out, & really it was almost like 
London- My uppermost thought, in seeing all this wealth & comfort, 
& comparing it with the condition of my suffering friends at the South, 
is of the horrible wickedness of people, who could not be content with 
so many blessing without destroying poor Naboth's vineyard- 3 I cannot 
divest my mind of the thought that some terrible retribution yet awaits 

I am sorry to hear about the arrangements with regard to Alfred, 
for I feel sure he will not like them; but perhaps he may put up with 
them, & it may be the means of pleasure to you & the girls sometimes- 
If he should go there soon you could not do better than pass a part of 
the Summer with him- Dr Y. will write to you very soon; he says he 
would prescribe petroleum oil for your lips- I shall not have time to 

Monroe, Hampton Roads, Virginia ; on Fort Calhoun, Hampton Roads, from 1828 to 1834 ; 
and was brevetted captain on October 1, 1830, and made captain of engineer corps on 
December 22, 1830. From 1828 to 1835 he was astronomer for determining the boundary 
line between the states of Ohio and Michigan ; and during this period of service he invented 
the astronomical instrument and the method of finding latitude by zenith distances, both 
of which bear his name. From 1834 to 1836 he was superintendent of the improvements on 
the Hudson River, and having resigned his commission in the army on September 21, 1836, 
he took up general practice as a civil engineer. During 1836-1837 he was adjunct chief 
engineer of the New York and Erie Railroad, in charge of the western division ; during the 
two following years he was superintendent of the delta improvements on the Mississippi 
River ; and subsequently he was commissioner for the exploration and survey of the northeast 
boundary of Maine and New Hampshire. He was also on the board of naval officers and 
engineers to examine and report on navy yards and dry docks at Pensacola, Florida, and 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire ; was appointed chief engineer of the Richmond and Danville 
Railroad Company on July 25, 1844 ; was surveyor and astronomer for the determination 
of the northern boundary of Iowa from 1845 to 1855 ; was appointed superintendent of the 
repairs of the United States Mint at Philadelphia on March 1, 1852 ; was chief engineer 
of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad from 1855 to 1856 ; and during the following 
year he held the same position on the Mexico and Pacific Railway from Vera Cruz 
to the City of Mexico. In 1861 he was elected chief engineer of the state of Virginia, 
with charge of the river, coast, and harbor defenses, and he retained that position until 
the Confederate government assumed the work, at which time he returned to Mexico and 
assumed charge of the Mexico and Pacific Railroad, holding that position until the change 
in the Mexican government in 1867, when he was removed from office. He visited New 
York during that time to procure supplies for the continuance of the work, and was 
arrested by government officials as a spy and confined in Fort Lafayette. The charge against 
him was that he had planned and built the fortifications about Richmond, Virginia. He was 
subsequently imprisoned in Fort Adams, Boston harbor, and detained there until General 
John E. Dix assumed charge of the eastern military department, who, upon being assured 
of Talcott's loyalty, released him. After this he went abroad for a season and then returned 
to Richmond, Virginia, where he spent the remainder of his life in quietness except during 
the time when he was in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a member of the American 
Philosophical Society and an honorary member of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XIII, 405. 

3 Naboth, in Old Testament history, was a Jesreelite, who was put to death by Ahab, 
who coveted his property. He owned this fine vineyard which Ahab coveted and seized 
at the instigation of Jezebel, who caused Naboth to be stoned to death. Hence Naboth's 
Vineyard means any greatly coveted thing. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 719; 
Webster' 8 New International Dictionary (1934), p. 1623. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 201 

write to Alfred; 4 you must do it for me- Miss Maury is not expected 
back until July; the first letter from her was received yesterday; but 
I have not had time to read it- I can imagine however her acct of the 
journey, &c 

5 Hanover st. II 58 A. M. 

I have been on board the steamer & seen all my things right- few 
passengers & plenty of room- Tell the girls that the best opinion of 
bankers whom I have consulted is to hold the P° C a Bonds- The Nash- 
ville City Bonds nothing can be done with at present, so they must be 
held- Send your letters under cover to Rutson Maury who will forward 
them- Write in time for the New line of the 1 st & 15 th of the Month 
& pay the foreign postage 10 cents- that is put a ten cent stamp on yr 
letter- Tell Laura that the watch seems to go very well so far- The wind 
is no longer in the East, & the weather has grown hot again ; & that all 
promises favorably for the voyage- Try to keep up your spirits & 
reciprocate the endeavors of yr friends to cheer you- 

Ever faithfully 

Yr afft husband 

A. Mordecai 
Dearest love to all our children. Let Mr Seabrook know that I rec'd 
his letter. 

June 23 d /65 8J A.M. off Cuba. 
My dear "Wife 

Here I am in sight of the island of Cuba, after a voyage which has 
been very prosperous in all but the speed of our ship ; for we ought easily 
to have been here twenty four hours ago-The delay has been caused by 
defect in the boiler, & I anticipated it when I found that we sent off by 
the pilot boat at Sandy Hook some engineers who had been at work on 
the machinery to the last moment; but we have some prospect of being 
in before the sailing of the Vera Cruz packet to-day & if so I shall 
not care for the delay, as the time is better passed at sea than in the 
harbor of Havanna, at this season- It was a beautiful afternoon when 
we left New York harbor, with just enough breeze to freshen the air; 

4 Alfred Mordecai, Jr., the son of Alfred Mordecai, was born in Philadelphia on June 
30, 1840 ; was graduated from West Point Military Academy on June 24, 1861 ; and was 
brevetted second lieutenant of topographical engineers. He was soon elected as aide to 
General Howard ; saw action in the battle of Bull Run ; was soon transferred to the ord- 
nance department; became first lieutenant on March 3, 1863; was raised to captain on 
June 1, 1863 ; and was brevetted major in September, 1863, for gallantry at the siege of 
Fort Wagner, South Carolina. Two years later he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for distin- 
guished services on the field and in the ordnance department. He was one of the best 
known ordnance men in the United States army ; was twice instructor of gunnery at 
West Point ; commanded the arsenal at Leavenworth, Kansas, and the New York Arsenal, 
Governors Island ; was twice in command at Watervliet Arsenal (1881-1886 and 1898-1899) ; 
was superintendent of the armory at Springfield, Massachusetts ; was in command of the 
arsenal at Benicia, California ; was inspector of ordnance in 1904, being attached to the 
ordnance department in Washington ; and died on January 20, 1920. The Jewish Encyclopedia, 
IX, 9. 

202 The North Carolina Historical Review 

but the easterly winds which had prevailed for some days had left a 
swell on the oeean which caused our light loaded vessel to roll some- 
what uncomfortably-I did not become sick however, until the next day 
& not at all since, tho' not perfectly comfortably. It is an unprecedented 
thing for me not to have been absent from the table for a single meal 
in a six days voyage on the Atlantic, tho' my appetite has been rather 
dainty, to be sure-. The eating arrangements would suit you, if you 
were w r ell enough to enjoy them- A cup of coffee, if you choose, before 
you are out of your berth; breakfast at 8- lunch, with soup, cold meat, 
sardines, cold slaw & raw onions, at 1- Dinner at 4 & tea at 8- Jose- 
phine's bottle of good brandy & one of port wine from Mr. Maurdy 
have been very serviceable to me- The sun is kept off by a large awning 
& there is always some breeze to be caught on deck, but below I am 
somewhat reminded of my trip in the view- sometimes taking up my 
dressing gown & pillow or without indulging,) I pass the night in the 
saloon over the companion way, where there are cushioned seats- last 
night I stretched myself on the awning which had been folded & laid 
against the railing in the rear part of the ship & there I passed the 
night under the canopy of stars- The night was not as bright as the last 
one I passed in that manner off the Island of Ithaca 5 & the promontory 
of Leucadia; 6 but the soft balmy tropical air made it delightful; this 
morning my clothes were as dry as when I laid down. The influence of 
the sea checked immediately the complaint which I had when I left 
home, & the soft air has removed all symptoms of rheumatism- There 
are very few passenters, about a dozen, mostly Cubans; one lady, the 
wife of Genl. Jno G. Walker 7 of the Confed. army & herself the first 
cousin of Capt Baylor- 8 She went by sea, with a child 6 mo. old & a nurse 
from New Orleans to New York for the sake of getting to Havanna on 
business & expects to return to N. Y. tomorrow; in hopes to sail very 
soon with her husband for Europe- Since we have been in the narrow 

5 Ithaca is one of the Ionian Islands, Greece, just two miles northeast of Cephalonia. The 
surface is mountainous ; the chief place is Vathy ; it is famous as the reputed home of 
Ulysses ; has a population of 10,000 people ; has thirty-seven square miles of area ; and is 
fourteen miles long. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 535. 

6 Leucadia or Santa Maura is one of the Ionian Islands, Greece, just west of Acarnania, 
from which it is separated by a narrow channel. On its hilly mountainous surface the 
people produce currents, wine, and oil. It has an area of 110 square miles and is twenty- 
three miles long. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 896. 

7 John Grimes Walker was born in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, on March 20, 1835 ; 
graduated from Annapolis in 1856 ; and rose rapidly in the Union Navy. He took part in 
the capture of New Orleans and Vicksburg, Mississippi ; by July 25, 1866, he was a com- 
mander ; served at the Naval Academy from 1866 to 1869 ; became a captain on June 25, 
1877 ; was raised to commodore on February 12, 1889 ; became a rear-admiral on January 
23, 1894 ; and retired, after forty years service, by law on March 20, 1897. Appleton's Cyclo- 
paedia of American Biography, VI, 328. 

8 Thomas Gregory Baylor of Virginia became a cadet in West Point on July 1, 1853 ; was 
brevetted second lieutenant of ordnance on July 1, 1857 ; became second lieutenant on 
January 25, 1861 ; was raised to first lieutenant on February 4, 1861 ; to captain on March 
3, 1863; to major on March 7, 1867; to lieutenant-colonel on May 29, 1879; to colonel on 
December 4, 1882 ; and died on September 15, 1890. He was brevetted major on September 
1, 1864, for gallantry in the capture of Atlanta, Georgia ; lieutenant-colonel on December 
21, for gallantry in the capture of Savannah, Georgia ; and colonel on March 13, 1865, 
for gallantry in the campaign of Atlanta, Savannah, and the Carolinas. Francis B. Heit- 
man, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army from its organization, 
September 29, 1789, to March 3, 1903. I, 201. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 203 

sea between Florida & the Bahamas, the sea has been literally "like a 
Mill pond/' & one might imagine oneself on a smooth river- ~No incident 
has marked our voyage, & it is surprising how few living things one 
sees on an ocean teeming with life- a few "mother Carey's chickens" 
skim the surface on their untiring wings; now & then a "school" of 
flying fish rise & scapper over the water, like a covy of patridges on 
the land; a "shoal" of porpoises roll their unweidly [sic'] bodies, just 
appearing above the surface- I ought not to have omitted the "Portu- 
guese man of war" (Nautilus) with its transparent violet sails. Yes- 
terday we caught, with a line over the stern, two Spanish mackerel & 
a Baracouta, fish wieghing 15 to 20 pounds, with smooth skin, which 
change color, in dying especially the Baracouta, almost like the Dol- 
phin- The Baracouta was dressed for dinner; but altho' served up with 
nice tomato sauce I found it rather dry & unpalatable- Augustus would 
have watched with interest, particularly last night in this warm latitude, 
the beautiful appearance of the wake of our ship- Being a propellor, 
the motion of the screw agitating the water, produces a brilliant white 
foam, as if a strong light were thrown on the water, whist the illumina- 
tion is increased & beautified as with the splashes of innumerable fire 
flies, and globes of light, shining in the midst of the water- I never saw 
the phospherence of the sea to more advantage, lying as I was just 
over the stern of the ship- Many times, in the evening, I thought that 
Laura would enjoy being with me; of the rest I am not so sure, for I 
fear they partake too much of my own tendency- I shall not close this 
until we get in, that I may tell you of my luck with regard to the 
English packet- I trust that you have before this recovered your confi- 
dence & will try to bear with fortitude what is now inevitable- Believe 
that I love you & all our children dearly & that my efforts shall not 
be wanting that we may be again united- 

Ever truly Yr afft husband 
Let sister Ellen & George know A. Mordecai 

that you have heard from me- 

12.M. Just passed the Moro- 9 The Y.Cruz packet is in port, so I shall 
no doubt get off this afternoon- once more, adieu- 

P.S. Havanna, June 24/65 

The most vexatious thing that ever occurred to me in all my travels, 
I think happened yesterday- We had hardly cast anchor in this harbor 
when we saw the Y. Cruz packet close to us, getting under way, & noth- 
ing could induce the stupid (or worse) Cuban officials to allow us 
(another passenger & me) to put our things aboard of her, without 

9 Moro or Moro Castle (Castle of the Promontory) is a fort at the entrance to the harbor 
of Havana, Cuba, celebrated in the history of the island. The dungeon beneath it has 
frequently been used for political prisoners. It is also the name of a castle at Santiago, 
Cuba, similarly situated. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 708. 

204 The North Carolina Historical Review 

going to the custom house— So we had the mortification to see the 
steamer go off, & here I am for probably 10 days at least- To increase 
my disappointment the Corsica in which I had requested Mr M to 
engage my passage, arrived here some hours before us, altho' having 
touched at Nassau, which was the reason Mr M. preferred the Liberty- 
The only consolation I got was: "perhaps it is all for the best"; but I 
can't see it- The inconvenient expense to which this exposes me is one of 
the most annoying circumstances- I am at a comfortable (for Havanna) 
new Hotel, opened by an American- The rooms surround a court cov- 
ered, (when necessary,) witb glass, with a little fountain in the mid- 
dle- My room, in the upper gallery,, has a pitch of about 16 ft; a door 
& 2 windows down to the floor, each about 10 ft high; The windows 
almost without glass, resemble doors, except in being guarded outside 
by heavy iron gratings- I got through last night very comfortably, 
leaving my windows open & could bear a sheet over me before morn- 
ing- The days of course very hot- I shall see Mr Miles after break- 
fast & perhaps may go into the country : I could almost have cried yes- 
terday with vexation; However there is nothing to be done but summon 
what patience I can- The queer style of shingles here transport me to 
the old continent at once- Again, adieu, My dearest wife & hope for 

Yr afft Alfred. 

Havanna, Sunday June 25/65 

I closed a letter to you yesterday, my dear wife, more annoyed than 
I cared to express at the stupid & unnecessary delay I am suffering 
here— But for the vexation & loss of time & money, I perhaps would not 
say suffering, notwithstanding the heat of a vertical sun; for we are 
just within the tropic & yesterday was St John's day 10 or midsummer, 
when the sun just begins to turn south again- The last St John's day 
that I had occasion to mark was the year of our oldest son's birth 
(1840) & only a few days before that event- I landed at Gothenburg & 
was taken by a kind friend to a gentleman's seat in the country, where 
before night we were glad to have a little fire lighted in the stove see 
my journal letters- Today I am to go with M r Miles to dine with a 
friend of his family, Mr Lambden, about the same distance from town, 
all our study will be to keep from melting with the heat- It is not 
that the extreme heat is greater than with us; to-day for instance the 
therm, is about 85°, but then it was nearly that at sunrise & not very 
much lower all night- However the absence of the sun & the presence 
of the sea modifies the air, if not the temperature, very much at night, 
& by 11 or 12 sleep is quite possible- There is or ought to be, no going 
out in the day time, so after a short walk to the Jesuit's church near by, 

10 Saint John the Baptist's Day is June 24. Brittawnica, XI, 259-260. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 205 

I sit down, in a pleasant draught, in my room, to bestow my tediousness 
on you & our dear children, until Mr Miles calls for me— If I held the 
lively & graphic pen of M de Calderon, 1 x I could amuse you & fill many 
duet sheets as this with observations on the novelties which even a 
cursory glance at this city brings to notice— Every thing, except the 
mere existence of men & animals, or almost every thing, is so different 
from what it is with us : the streets, the dwellings, the hotels, the 
equipages, the costumes, the shops, the habits of daily life, the vege- 
tables world, all differ from ours, as much as the language- The 
streets, are very much improved since my former visit, by the opera- 
tions of Yankee contractors for paving, of whom my host at the hotel 
S ta Isabel & one of his guests, are the chief- They are very narrow, 
but better paved than those of Phila, well lighted with gas, & guarded 
by old fashioned watchmen, each carrying a spontoon 12 & a small 
lantern, civil & obliging to strangers— The scene last & every evening 
at the Prado, 13 or great drive, outside of the old walls, is such as, not 
having been in Spain, I hope never seen equalled in any European 
city- It seemed as the whole population of Havanna, at least all the 
male part, had assembled there, to take the air, to listen to the music 
of the large military band at the foot of Queen Isabella's 14 statue, 
& to enjoy their innocent cool drinks at the numerous places of enter- 
tainment which stood invitingly open, near the great Town theatre- 
The ladies, in their light, gauze looking dresses, without hats, drive 
under the rows of palm trees, in the odd looking, but picturesque 
Volants, 15 or other open carriages; or else these equipages form lines 
around the promenaders, who can thus have an opportunity of accost- 
ing their acquaintances— Many of the rich people have gone, at this 
season to enjoy themselves at Saratoga or in Europe ; but a great many 
come from the country which is not so enjoyable now, on account of 
the liability to rain & mud— The rainy season has not been punctual 
this year, but will no doubt soon begin- In passing along the streets, as 
you look through the iron bars of the large open windows, you may see, 
in every house, rows of cane seat chairs, generally "Boston rockers," 

H Madame Frances Inglis Calderon de la Barca was born in Scotland about 1810. Sbe was 
the wife of Senor Calderon de la Barca, a Spanish diplomat and a celebrated Scottish 
American writer, best known for her Life in Mexico, first published in 1843. Century Dic- 
tionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 204. 

12 Spontoon is a kind of half-jpike, formerly borne by subordinate officers of the infantry, 
hence a policemen's club or truncheon. Century Dicitionary and Cyclopedia, VII, 5854. 

!3 The Paseo or Alameda de Paula was originally laid out in 1772. It and the new 
Avemda del Puerto makes a beautiful Prado. This is a broad thoroughfare from fifteen 
to thirty-seven metres in width and leads to the narrow streets of the business section. 
It traverses the edge of the city for several miles and makes a most beautiful drive and 
promenade. The Prado has been rechristened the Paseo de Marti in honor of the "Apostle 
of Cubian Independence." Its sides are lined with fine houses and magnificent club-houses. 
Brittannica, XI, (1937), 259-260. 

14 Isabella I, surnamed "The Catholic," was born at Madrigal on April 22, 1451, and 
died at Medina del Campo on November 26, 1504. She was Queen of Castile from 1474 
to 1504, the daughter of John II of Castile, and was married in 1469 to Ferninand of 
Aragon, conjointly with whom she succeeded her brother, Henry IV, as monarch of Castile 
in 1474. She finished expelling the Morescoes from Spain and equipped Columbus for the 
voyage to the New World in 1492. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 532. 

15 A volant or volanta is a two-wheeled covered Cuban vehicle with very long shafts. 
Noble's New Spanish-English and English-Spanish Dictionary (1928), p. 504. 

206 The North Carolina Historical Review 

arranged on the tiled floors of the lofty white washed, or water painted 
rooms, & the ladies in their cool looking dresses, fanning themselves, 
literally "for dear life"-a shirt & white pantaloons are the usual male 
costume- as for covering for the female head, other than their abun- 
dent hair, I have seen none except a lace looking shawl, worn, I think, 
also by colored women, who go mighty fine in the streets- the shops, which 
are generally small, all stand fully open, & two or three idle looking 
men lounge in them on rocking chairs, &c- of customers, I think, very 
few, but all the goods look neat & well displayed- Something about them 
reproduces what I should imagine of Pompeii; so completely south 
European are they in general appearance, tho' not Roman in wares. 

June 27 th . I was up this morning about sunrise, but by the time I 
was dressed the air was already too hot (82°) to admit of walking out, 
so after taking a cup of coffee & looking at the 1ST. Y "World" of the 
21 st . I seat myself to talk to you until breakfast. Before 3 o'clk on 
Sunday Mr. Miles called for me & we went out about 8 miles westward 
to the little town of Marianao, where his friend Mr. Lambden lives, 
in spacious "Marble halls" which he rents for the summer. What [sic] 
with daughters, sons-in-law & grand children, we sat down about 20 to 
dinner, in a sort of Veranda on the shady side of the court yard- they 
are plain, friendly people, who have made a fortune here by intelligent 
enterprise, & who, I believe, would willingly enjoy it elsewhere; but 
Mrs. L., being a Cuban, could not reconcile herself to Balt e life— In the 
evening some of the mothers & children went to the Theatre- imagine 
the Theatre at Marianao 16 in midsummer. Mr M. & I returned at 
9 o'clk to Town- The dinner, as you might suppose among Americans, 
Scotch, &c had nothing Cuban about it, except the room- You will hard- 
ly believe that I have not yet seen an orange, nor until yesterday tasted 
a banana; It is not the fruit season, & perhaps fortunately, for it might 
not be prudent to indulge in it much- oranges & bananas are not ripe 
& pine apples just beginning to be. This is curious, for there is no 
climatic division of seasons, & vegetation in general proceeds, amid 
perpetual summer, without regard to the calendar; but still, I suppose, 
some trees & plants must have a sort of rest- The fruit of the temperate 
zone, if placed here, go on producing until the trees or plants exhaust 
themselves in a short time- 
Yesterday morning I joined Mr Miles, about sunrise, at the station 
of his Rail R for a trip of about 45 miles to the little town of Guines, 17 
near the S. side of the island- The day was fortunately overcast & I 
had a very pleasant ride, over a nearly level & very fertile region. 
Few dwellings are to be seen, except at the stations ; but the whole aspect 

16 Marianao is a town a short distance southeast of Havana. In 1899 its population was 
5,406. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, X, Atlas, index, p. 216, and map No. 68. 

17 Guines is a small town southwest of Havana, Cuba. In 1899 it had a population of 
8,149. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, X, index, p. 140, Map, No. 68. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 207 

of vegetation is new, scarcely a tree or a shrub being seen that is known 
to us, out of the green house, except some roses, Crape Myrtles & a few 
other flowers, in the little gardens, "few & far between"-The broad 
fields of indian corn, planted thick for fodder, & sugar cane, (very few 
about here,) are ornamented with rows of the graceful bamboo, looking 
like great clumps of green prince's feathers, & the various kinds of 
palms with their diversified, oriental foliage, the broad leaved banana, 
(or plantain as it is called here,) the "aguacate", a forest looking fruit 
tree, & many others; all left to the care of nature, whom man thinks it 
unnecessary to aid in this luxuriant clim- A foreigner, accustomed to 
the ornamental culture of the temperate zone, must be always thinking, 
at least I am, of the magnificent beauties which a little pains in orna- 
mental gardening would produce; but here such a task is very rare, as 
I am told & can readily believe- so true is it apparently, in these fa- 
vored countries, as in the "land of the cypress & myrtle," that "all but 
the spirit of man is divine"- I was pleased with an exception in the 
little town of one story houses where I passed the day yesterday- 
Guines- The "plaza," instead of an open paved square, is divided into 
four little squares, enclosed by fences & beautiful hedges, & thickly 
planted with flowering shrubs, among which I noticed the crape myrtle, 
the cape jasmine, & a superb kind of althea with broad crimson or scar- 
let flowers, besides others, unknown by name, which we see in our hot 
houses - with all this, the untidy, unthrifty appearance of the streets 
& houses, inseperable perhaps from the lassitude of the climate, makes 
one regret the neatness & comfort of home- The aim of existence is to 
enjoy it with the least possible labor; to sit fanning, in a rockg chair, 
to doze, to eat- not to drink for of that, in an injurious way, they can- 
not be accused- One falls readily into such habits,-Called at 9 to break- 
fast, I found such a bill of fare as would make us a very ample dinner ; 
Even for my share I selected broiled fish, potatoes, scrambled eggs, corn 
& wheat bread, (always excellent,) with a desert of bananas, finishing 
with coffee- Eed wine is on the table, at will, but I take little & only 
for fear of the water— plenty of Boston ice- When we stopped for re- 
freshments on the road yesterday, instead of mint julips &c, the tables 
were spred with fruit of many kinds, & asking a boy to cut off the top 
of a green cocoa nut I refreshed myself with its sweet and wholesome 
milk, enough to fill a very large tumbler : it does not look like milk, by 
the bye, as in the ripe fruit, but is almost as clear as water, tasting like 
eau sucre, with a dash of cocoa nut- The fruit is thrown away, when 
emptied & therefore full price is asked, I suppose, for this liquor- 10 
cents- this & a few bananas are a very pleasant & wholesome prepara- 
tion for breakfast - Our people despise these as half civilized, & yet in 
one point of civilization, the preparation of food, how superior they 
are to us: Compare the heavy lumps of dough, the tough beef steak, 
or tougher rasher of bacon of a Pa or N.Engld tavern, with the light 

208 The North Carolina Historical Review 

rolls, tender chops & palatable stews, which I had for breakfast & dinner 
yesterday, at my country inn ! To say nothing of the comparative 
civility in the manners of the host— in this case, he was however a 
Cubanized Frenchman- M r Miles left me during the heat of the day, 
to attend to his R.R. business, & seeing some well thumbed volumes, 
I took up an illustrated copy of Monte Cristo, 18 in Spanish, which I 
read nearly half through, in my rocking chair, before I rejoined Mr M. 
to return to town in the evening- I went out partly to see if I could 
find a cooler & cheaper place to pass the idle week before the steamer 
sails for V.C. ; but the solitariness of the Village was rather discourag- 
ing, & at a frequented place I should gain nothing in economy- I 
thought you might be more content too to think of me in the country; 
but I am quite well & have no fears, which is a great security- The 
city is full of people, even of Americans many, & you hear little of 

Wednesday, June 28 th When I left you yesterday I had a curious com- 
mentary from my landlord on the manner of doing things in Hav a . I 
asked him to have a few pieces washed for me : "Well, said he, there is 
no certainty that you will get them back at any particular time, and 
unless you need them, I advise you not to send them"- So I must take 
my soiled linen to Mex°, because there is no certainty that a H a . woman 
will wash half a doz pieces in eight days— Observe that, from my win- 
dow, I can see a woman hanging out clothes on the roof of an adjoining 
house, & by the time she gets around her lines the first pieces are nearly 
dry enough, under the broiling vertical sun, to be taken off- I passed 
yesterday in my room, beguiling a great part of the day, (I am almost 
ashamed to say,) with one of the Dumas 19 obscure romances, which the 
bar keeper lent me- the night was very likely cooler & pleasanter than 
you may have had at the same date, in your little back room— Drawing 
my bed out into the draft between my opposite windows, & having no 
fear of the soft, dry air, I passed the night very comfortably- Using 
no light in my room I have been scarcely troubled by mosquitoes, I have 
never drawn my nice, gauze-like canopy over the bed- I am now writing 
at about 7£ having been out at sunrise for a stroll through the market 

!8 Monte Cristo is a small uninhabited island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging: to 
Italy. It is situated twenty-seven miles south of Elba. Monte Cristo, the principal character 
in Alexandre Dumas' novel, "Le Comte de Monte Cristo," was originally Edmond Dantes, 
an innocent youth, unjustly imprisoned. He escaped and became immensely wealthy and 
carried out an elaborate system of revenge in the various disguises of the Count of Monte 
Cristo, Lord Wilmore, and the Abbe Busoni. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 701. 

19 Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, known as Alexanare Dumas Pere, was born at 
Villers-Cotterets, Aisne, France, on July 24, 1802, and died at Puys, on December 5, 1870. 
His father was the natural son of Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, a rich colonist of 
Santo Domingo, and a Negress whose name was Dumas. Hence his father's name was 
General Alexandre de la Pailleterie Dumas. He went to Paris in 1823, where he got a 
clerkship, and soon began to write plays ; took an active part in the revolution of 1830 ; 
and after 1833 spent his time travelling and writing. In 1844-1845 he published Le Comte 
de Monte-Cristo. So famous did he become that many books were published under his 
name with which he had little or nothing to do. He is said to have published a novel every 
twelve days for forty years. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 343 ; Robert L. Ripley, 
Believe it or Not, passim. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 209 

& the shady Plaza de Armas, 20 or public square near the water, where 
Columbus celebrated his first Mass on the island- The place is marked 
by a little monumental chapel, & a tree is pointed out as a scion of one 
which stood there in the time of the Great Admiral- His remains rest 
in the cathedral near by- 

In the market, I saw along with the tropical fruits, many of our 
vegetables, but poor & diminutive, except the onions- egg plants not 
much larger than goose eggs, & tomatoes not so large as hen's eggs— 
The fish are various & nice; but meat disgusting, as you may suppose. 
The oxen however, used for draught, are quite fine looking animals, 
reminding me somewhat of Italy, only wanting the large horns of the 
Italian cattle- Phil a Esting would have been delighted, I dare say, with 
a pet which I saw at Guines : a pretty little Italian greyhound, with 
only three legs, & not a sign of the fourth, which had never existed: 
He ran about with as much ease apparently as if complete; stopping 
occasionally to stand on the two legs of one side- 
But it is time for me to stop, for I almost fear that I am imposing on 
you, in my idleness- I will entrust this letter to the unfortunate 
"Liberty"; the absurd name of which in a U. S. steamer, ought to have 
been a sufficient warning to me- I shall have another opportunity to 
send still another dispatch to you from here, but I will promise not to 
make it a long one- You may now have a pretty good idea of my 
"course of time," & I can imagine yours- I hope you have attended to 
my instruction & accepted the kind offers of our good friends, the 
Ingersolls, to whom & others, remember me- Ever truly & afftly Y r A. 

Havanna Thursday, June 29/65 

After closing my letter to you, my dear wife, for the "Liberty" yes- 
terday, I had hard work to get through the day, alone in my room- 
A smart shower of rain, almost the first in the City, (for the country 
has had enough,) for weeks, did not keep me in more than the sun 
would have done, & it seemed to refresh the air, so that the Prado & 
the fine music in the starlight evening were quite pleasant. M r Mile's 
office & rooms are on the Prado, & finding him at home I fortified 
myself for to-day by borrowing a Vol. of Plato 21 a story of Henri 
Conscience, whoever he is; translated into French, but from what lan- 
guage I know not (Flemish). This morning I tried to anticipate the 

20 One of the most important of the old landmarks of Cuba is the Palace of the Spanish 
Governors, now the office of the Ayuntamiento or city government. "This fine old pile stands 
on the site of the original parish church on the eastern side of the Plaza de Armas, the old 
centre of the colonial city." The palace was erected in 1773-1792, and remodelled in 1835 
and 1851. It was the scene of the surrender by the Spanish government of the sovereignty 
of the island to the United States at the close of the Spanish-American War. Brittannica, 
XI (1937), 259-260. 

21 Plato, formerly Aristocles. was born at Aegina in 429 or 427 B. C. and died at Athens 
in 347 B. C. This famous Greek philosopher was a student of Socrates and the teacher of 
Aristotle, and the founder of the Academic School. He is perhaps the most famous man 
who ever lived except Christ. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 812. 

210 The North Carolina Historical Review 

sun, but the tropical twilights are so short that, by the time I was 
dressed & out, he was very nearly ready to show himself- Here & there 
a shop was open, & a few nicely dressed women, with their black or 
red shawls were to be seen going to early mass ; but the market, to which 
I directed my steps, was crowded enough- It is curious how extremes 
meet; this market, outside of the old walls & beyond the Prado, is the 
very copy of one near my hotel in St Petersburg : a large square sur- 
rounded by small shops & arcaded on the outside, which here serve to 
protect from sun & rain, as there from frost & snow- But altho' the 
Russians are not distinguished for the virtue of cleanliness, they are 
saints as compared with this Spanish race- Filth & garbage aggravate 
the distaste produced by the uninviting appearance of the productions 
offered for sale, & yet, in the hands of our Phil a vendours, what a show 
they would exhibit ! You would fare badly for fish dinners here ; for it 
seems to me that the fish, tho large and numerous, are nearly all devoid of 
scales (perhaps cleaned)— By the time I returned to my hotel the city 
was all awake, & at 6 o'clk the therm, stood at 80°; so after eating 
three or four bananas & drinking a cup of coffee, here I am housed for 
the day, with no interruptions in prospect, (except the periodical bless- 
ing of breakfast & dinner,) until comes "still evening on, & twilight 
gray has with her sober livery all things clad"- but a tropical twilight 
would hardly have suggested that expression to Milton; 22 so rapid is 
the transition from sunset to dark night- This is the second feast day 
since I have been here; that of S 1 Peter & S fc Paul- 23 Every day is 
devoted to some Saint or Martyr, & it is amusing to read, every morning, 
in the newspaper, a notice of the religious celebrity or celebrites to whom 
the day is dedicated- But I am forgetting my promise not to inflict 
on you this time a letter of many sheets- I must tell you, however, of 
a little piece of good luck yesterday— We sit at meals at little tables for 
six ; the person on my left hand is, as you may have guessed, Mr Smith ; 
but yesterday a new comer took the seat on my right, & entering into 
conversation, I found he is from Mobile & could tell me of my brother 
& his family there- My brother was the physician of this Mr Moore's 24 
father, & Mr M. told me that the D r was in good health, as well as all 
his family. The explosion, which was very destructive to the ware- 
houses & cotton perhaps, did not do much damage to private dwellings, 

22 John Milton was born in London, England, on December 9, 1608, and died there on 
November 8, 1674. He was not only one of the most famous poets in the world, but a 
noted statesman also. His best production is Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. Cen- 
tury Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 688. 

23 As early as the fourth century a feast was celebrated in the memory of Saints Peter 
and Paul, on the same day, although they were not on the same day in the East as at 
Rome. As early as the third or fourth century it was June 29. The Catholic Encyclopedia, 
XI, 761. 

24 John Creed Moore of Tennessee became a cadet at West Point on July 1, 1845 ; was 
brevetted second lieutenant on July 1, 1849 ; became second lieutenant of artillery on Sep- 
tember 10, 1850 ; was made first lieutenant on October 18, 1853 ; resigned on February 28, 
1855 ; and was a brigadier-general in the Confederate States Army from 1861 to 1865. 
Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army from 
its Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903, p. 722. 

Life of Alfeed Mordecai in Mexico 211 

besides breaking windows, &c- M r M. is bound also to the city of Mexico, 
to seek bis fortune : being an exiled Confederate officer. 
Friday, June 30 th Our son Alfred's birthday- I trust he is well, & that 
God has softened his heart towards his fellow countrymen & relatives 
of the South- Mine bleeds daily to think of them- let me try not- What 
a blessing is the daily revolution of the earth, I thought that one more 
had taken place than there has, until someone at breakfast asked if 
it was Friday : however, to-morrow the steamer sails from 1ST- Y- which 
is, I hope, to relieve me from this absurd position- But when I alluded 
to the revolution of the earth I was thinking of the relief afforded by 
the succession of night- As I sat last evening enjoying the pleasant 
breeze on the balcony of the large front sitting room, I wondered whether 
you were as pleasantly situated- A gentleman came in with a glass 
globe containing some pieces of sugar cane, covered with the beautiful 
fire flies which frequent that plant- Their fixed light is from two spots 
on the head, like eyes; but in flying they show a large light from the 
under part of the body, like ours, only 3 or 4 times as large- One eve- 
ning on the Prado I was struck with the appearance in the dark of a 
brilliant opal, on the body of a lady in a passing volanta, it was formed 
by a large fire fly or glow worm, giving a bluish green light- This morn- 
ing I took my early walk towards the harbor & the plaza de Armas- 
No hour is too early or too late for the licensed vendors of lotery tickets, 
to whom people are naturally attracted by the list of prizes published 
every few days; some of $5,000, 10,000, &c & rare one even of $100,- 

000 in that of this week- Sunday, July 2 d - When taking my early morn- 
ing Walk towards the Harbor, I was rather surprised to see the Man- 
hattan coming in from V. Cruz- She will sail to-morrow & will take 
this letter. Thus she will be almost back to N". York before I sail from 
here for V.C !- I have nothing new to tell you; my time merely passes', 
a little early & late is the only variation of a day of listlessness & 
lounging- fortunately some part of the house is always cool, at least 
bearable, & there are few guests to prevent my going about in the 
freest dishabille- It may give you an idea of the natural warmth of the 
human body here to tell you that, just before going to bed, I bathe my 
neck and arms, (& often sponge my whole body) in ice water, without 
the slightest feeling of inward chilliness, being almost immediately in 
a glow again : There are no baths yet in this house- I have seen scarcely 
any one, out of the house, except Mr Miles who dined here & sat with 
me on the pleasant front balcony evening before last- He expects to 
visit the "States" this summer & will easily find you out, being, you 
know, connected with the Feltus's 

Monday July 3 d Once more then I must send my adieu from Havanna : 

1 hope the last for a long time- I might have heard oftener from you 
during my detention here, for several steamers have come from N".Y : 
one due to-day- I have some hope of finding a letter on board of the 

212 The North Carolina Historical Review 

one in which I shall embark for V.C., altho' I have been thoughtless 
enough not to mention opportunity my former letters. I imagine you 
all going on as usual, at this hot season: the dear girls enjoying relaxa- 
tion from their routine work, & Augustus, I hope about this time setting 
off for his engineering tour to the mountains : Little Gratz quiet & use- 
ful as ever, not forgetting my injunction to give a short time, every 
day, to study- As for you, my dear,- I can picture to myself perfectly 
your looks & your thoughts ; regretting sadly that they must be so often 
mournful- Mine too you may imagine; alone & without occupation— I 
depend on you or one of the girls writing occasionally to sister Ellen, 
to let her know how I am (not) getting on- I shall not write to her 
until I reach the city of Mexico. As soon as I get to V.C. I will let 
you know how to address my letters- Once again, farewell : my dearest 
wife : I need not bid you always to love 

Your ever faithful & affte husband- 
A. M. 

Vera Cruz July 15/65. 

You would be disappointed, my dearest wife, to see me sitting down 
to begin a letter to from there, instead of setting off immediately for 
the city of Mexico; but you must not be uneasy- We did not get off 
from Havanna until the morning of the 9 th , & then we had a very good 
run over here, stopping a few hours at Sisal in Yucatan, and making 
this port last night, too late to come in; so that we missed the train 
to-day— I was sick only the last day, yesterday, from the rolling of 
the ship, from which my head is not yet quite free; it is therefore 
perhaps just as well to have a day's rest before commencing the tedious 
land journey to Mex°- M r Oropeza, the Secy of the R. R. office here, 
met me on my way to the Hotel & immediately secured places for me, 
M r Davison & M r Moore, in the Diligence which leaves to-morrow 
morning— M r Davison found me out on the voyage from Havana & 
handed me your parcel, containing new evidences, (of which I have 
found so many among my things,) of the kind thoughtfulness of your- 
self & my dear daughters- I was glad indeed, altho' I did not get a 
letter, to have so much later intelligence from you; almost as late as 
I could have had- 

Here, as at Havanna, you do not hear much about sickness, though 
I dare say there are cases. People eat, drink & laugh & go about their 
business as usual ; The day is showery & rather pleasant. There are two 
coach loads of passengers going up to-morrow from our steamer : several 
women & children among them- 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 213 

You will be sorry to hear that I learnt from one of the passengers, 
an acquaintance of Col. Talcott & of Mr Spiller, that news of the death 
of the latter gentelman in England reached N". York just before the sail- 
ing of the Vera Cruz- Mr Oropeza had not heard of it, so M r Sullivan, 
the gentleman referred to, may bring the first news of it to the Talcotts : 

I have just written a note to Mr Miles to let him know how I am 
getting on- You must be sure & tell Josephine how kind & attentive Mr 
M was to me in Hava n ; her letter proved a real piece of good fortune 
to me- M r M. had just taken new & very pleasant rooms when I left, 
& thought that he would remain at Hav. all the year- 

I shall now begin to think of hearing from you, as I can let you 
know how to direct to me, when I see M r O. again: & the Vera Cruz 
leaves to-morrow on her return trip- It seems a long time to wait for 
her again, but I hope you may have sent a letter through M r Vischer 
Talcott : I ought to have thought of that- Farewell, my dear wife & 
children, & may Heaven bless you all is the prayer of 

Yr afTe husband & father 

A. Mordecai 

P.M. Mr Oropeza called whilst I was at the bath and left me a pack- 
age from Mr Maury containing your letter & enclosures & his long mem. 
about capt Hawks' [sic] 2 5 letter- I am as much astonished as you could 
have been at your discovery of it & you will be again surprised to hear 
that I can give no explanation of the matter & scarcely recollect any thing 
about the letter from beginning to end- I only trust it & and the money 
have come to light in some way- my head is not clear enough today 
to make any thing out of it. I can hardly get through Mr M's long state- 
ment— Your letter is so distressing to me too, as to increase my con- 
fusion, & I hardly know what I am doing. Please try to avoid as much 
as possible dwelling on your own grief; I shall go crazy- You had 
better not write every day or so very often. Make little mem. of what 
you want to tell me & wait until near steamer day to write- I am very 
much distressed at M r Warren's death- so sudden & such a loss. I am 
glad Alfred is pleased— There is some comfort- I need all that I can 
get, I assure you- 

Write by the American steamers & direct to the care of G. P. Oropeza, 
Vera Cruz- You can pay the foreign postage at your end- 

25 Henry F. Hawkes of Massachusetts and Ohio became a first lieutenant of the 12th 
Ohio Infantry on September 26, 1861 ; was promoted to the rank of captain on June 30, 
1862 ; became captain of commissary of subsistence volunteers on November 21, 1862 ; was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel of volunteers on December 2, 1865, for faithful service in the 
subsistence department ; was honorably mustered out of service on December 8, 1865 ; and 
died on June 25, 1886. Heitman, Register, I, 512. 

214 Tite North Carolina Historical Review 


Mexico July 20 th 1865 
Chief Engineer's Office. 
N°. l. 

Here you see me at length, my dearest wife duly installed at my desk, 
in the old Capital of the Aztecs. 26 It is curious enough, as Talcott was 
just saying to a member of the British Legation who stepped in- that 
we having begun our civil engineering, some forty years ago, in the 
Dismal Swamps 27 of Virginia, should be terminating it together in 
Mexico- I reached here day before yesterday (Tuesday the 18 th ) about 
daylight, after a horrible journey, as I anticipated, in which I was not 
cruel enough to wish for you or any one else belonging to me- My head 
& hand are scarcely steady yet, after two comfortable nights' rest- I 
wrote you a short letter from Vera Cruz merely to inform you of my 
safe arrival there, in good health- For fear of alarming you I was not 
quite ingenuous with regard to my last few days at Havanna-The day 
after I wrote last from there, after I had been more than ten days 
in the city, feeling perfectly well, I was taken sick, with some fever- 
I took perhaps an overdose of oil & became very weak in consequence, 
so that at the breakfast table next day I became quite faint & had to 
be carried up stairs; after that I was careful to avoid any exertion & 
did not leave the house until I went to embark— Mr Taylor, the hotel 
Keeper, was very kind in having things prepared for me; but you may 
suppose I missed your tender & skillful hand in nursing- Mr Miles was 
with me morning & evening & came to pack my things & do all that I 
wanted as kindly as possible. On Saturday afternoon, 8 th July, I went 
on board the V. Cruz, expecting to sail that day, but she did not set 
off until the next morning, & the night passed in the nasty, though 

26 Aztecs or Aztecas is derived from Nahuatl Aztlan, place of heron or perhaps from the 
Heron Clan. The name Aztecs has been much misused, every sedentary tribe having been 
conceived to be descendants of the people so named. They were a band of Indians who 
drifted into the valley of Mexico, probably from the north, and who, harrassed by tribes 
of their own linguistic stock, which had preceded them and settled on the shores of the 
lagoons of Mexico, finally fled to some islands in the midst of the lagoons for security. 
They increased in strength and numbers and then turned on their neighbors. In the fifteenth 
century the confederacy between the Aztecs, the Tezcucans, and the Tecpanecans, became 
at last formidable to all the Indians of Central Mexico, and so continued to 1519, when 
Cortez ended the confederacies of the valley plateau of Mexico. It is assumed the Aztecs 
and Pueblos have a kindred language. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 103. 

27 In southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina is a large area of about 
750 square miles, known as the "Great Dismal Swamp." At its longest place it is about 
thirty miles long by ten miles wide. Originally it was covered with trees and dense 
undergrowth, but now part of it has been cleared, drained, and devoted to agriculture. 
In its midst is Drummond's Lake, about seven miles in length. Part of the Dismal Swamp 
once belonged to George Washington and he supervised the digging of the "Washington 
Ditch," the first step in the Swamp's reclamation. In 1899 the Dismal Swamp Canal, 
connecting the Cheseapeake Bay with Albemarle Sound, was opened. After the close of 
war it was never so important in the development of that section of the country. It extends 
from Deep Creek, Virginia, to South Mills, North Carolina, a distance of twenty-two miles, 
and is one of the most important links in the chain of inland waterways extending from 
New York to Florida. It escapes the dangers of Cape Hatteras ; furnishes an inland route 
for small naval crafts and revenue cutters ; and opens up 2,500 miles of inland navigation. 
Through this swamp runs the Washington Highway from Albemarle Sound points to Nor- 
folk Including the Little Dismal Swamps and still smaller swamps along the coast of 
North Carolina there are more than 2,000,000 acres covered by water or too low and boggy 
for farming. Americana (1938), IX, 167. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 


spacious, harbor of Havanna, was anything but servicable to me— After 
a day or so at sea however my feverish feelings went off, notwithstand- 
ing the heat of the weather : The Capt. was very kind indeed ; gave me 
up his own bed, in an airy room on deck, for one night, & other nights 
I passed on a couch in the Saloon, over the companion way, not occupy- 
ing my berth below at all- By the time we reached V. Cruz I was well 
& I passed quite a pleasant day there, at the same house where I stopped 
12 yrs ago during the yellow fever season- In the evening Mr Davidson 
& I walked out with M r Oropeza, went to a coffee house & took an excel- 
lent cup of chocolate, just as if we were in the safest place possible- M r 
O. took charge of my letter for which went all right I hope by the 
return of our steamer, & early the next morning he accompanied us to 
the R. Road Station— The road is working sixty miles, over the low 
country, but when we got half way we found that a very heavy rain, 
which I had listened to with apprehension the night before, had washed 
away a part of the track & it caused us a detention of four hours, 
which proved very inconvenient on the rest of the Journey- However 
with traveller's patience we submitted cheerfully, & in the village of 
Sorledad, 28 built of reeds & thatch, we found a Frenchman & his wife 
who got us an excellent breakfast- It was 2 o'clk before we commenced 
the ascent to the high lands, in the Diligence, by a stupendous mountain 
road, of which the views of the Lommering R. Road may give you some 
idea- After surmounting this ascent the road was almost impassible 
from mud, & it was 9 o'clk before we reached Cordora, 29 about 25 miles. 
Here we insisted on stopping for the night, as it was worse than useless 
to attempt to travel such roads in the dark- We continued our journey 
however all the following night & on the afternoon of the third day we 
reached the handsome city of Puebla, 30 where to my great satisfaction 
I learned we were to pass the night- You must not suppose that the 
suffering from heat or dust, such as we should have experienced in July 
at home, was added to the discomfort of jolting & pommelling in the 
coach : even on the rail road, in the "tierra caliente," or hot country, I 
had to throw an overcoat over my shoulders- I had reduced my baggage 
to the modest amt of my two bags, my shawl & poncho, leaving the 
trunks at the R.R. Terminus, to be sent up how & when it may please 
fortune- The road is every where strewed with wagons (loaded) aban- 
doned happily until a drier season- The wet season has set in early 
& worse than usual, they say; I should just have missed it, or nearly 
so, by the Manhattan, or without any detention in Havanna- But I was 
going to speak of this wonderful climate- You could hardly believe that, 
clothed in my full flannel suit, with the thick undershirt which I wore 
in winter, my heavy waterproof boots "a perfect blessing" & nothing 

28 Sorledad must be the same as Rio Sarabia of today. It is west of Vera Cruz, near the 
foot hills. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, X, atlas map, no. 65. 

29 Cordora or Cordoba is not far from the east coast of Mexico, but it is two or three 
hundred miles from Vera Cruz. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, X, atlas map no. 65. 

30 Puebla is about four-fifths of the distance from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. Century 
Dictionary and Cyclopedia, X, atlas map, no. 65. 

216 The North Carolina Historical Review 

over my head but dear Laura's crocheted Scotch Cap, not even an 
umbrella, I would walk for miles, under the bright & vertical sun, over 
the lofty mountain passes, or floundering in the mud on the plains, 
not only without suffering, but really with pleasure, not perspiring a 
drop- It is true on arriving here I found my complexion a little florid 
& my hands somewhat browned, (wearing no gloves since I left home,) 
but not at all burnt- At sea I frequently regretted that I had forgotten 
to provide myself with a fan, & it was not until arranging my baggage 
in V. Cruz that I found one which you or one of my good daughters 
had put in- in the same way I came across a pair of new braces, & 
several other things quite acceptable : but here apparently the fan will 
be in no demand- To continue my journey, which I can now look back 
upon with some complacency- At Puebla, in sight of the snow peaks 
towards the Capital, we thought our difficulties were over; but we 
counted without appreciation of the descent into the valley, which 
proved to be about the worst of the journey- taking the whole night to 
make the last 15 miles or so; the greater part of the time being spent 
in the mud holes— about 8 miles off I got out of the coach to keep it out 
of a hole & seeing what appeared in the dark a smooth piece of ground, 
I plunged knee deep into a ditch filled with water- if it had been clean 
water, well enough ; but a Mexican ditch ! however the water is very 
nearly the temperature of the air & I had not much apprehension, 
recollecting former experience ; so I sat grimly down with my boots full 
of Water, for about 3 hours or more- At last about half past three in 
the morning we drove into the court yard of my former quarters, the 
Hotel Iturbide, 31 (having left our coach broken down sticking in the 
mud,) & after some delay I got a place to take off my wet things; & 
here appeared again the dryness of the air, when it is not raining- as 
soon as I awoke, after sunrise, I put out my things on the balcony & by 
the time I was ready to dress my pants were dry, & I could, if necessary, 
have worn my boots without much inconvenience; I have them on now, 
none the worse apparently for the soaking— One thing struck me on the 
road, in contrast with what I should have experienced in our "civilized" 
country; at whatever time of day or night we came to a place for 
changing horses (10 miles) we could always get a good cup of chocolate 
or coffee, with excellent bread, & at the usual eating places, a breakfast 
or a dinner; the former sometimes at 2 o'clk in the afternoon, and the 
latter at midnight- Well, after resting awhile at the Iturbide, M r Sulli- 
van took Mr Moore & myself to the "Tivolidi Eliseo," where in a bower 
in a pleasant garden, we had a very nice breakfast about 12 o'clk, after 
which I was set down at this office, & welcomed by Col. Talcott. The 
morning was bright as usual, but I recollected old times, & at 3 o'clk 
sure enough, the thunder began to growl & the black clouds to collect, & 
I found use for my poncho & hat cover for the first time- A little after 

31 The Iturbide Palace is one of the historic buildings of the city and is now used as a 
hotel. Brittamica, XV (1937), 398. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 217 

5 o'clock Talcott took me with him by the horse car to his very pleasant 
house at Tacubaya 32 where I am now staying- The rail way cars, nicer 
than yours in Phi la were completely shut up, & no one wanted a window 
opened- M rs T. & all the young ladies, were at dinner, except the young- 
est, Miss Fanny, the one who was to marry M r Spiller- she was quite 
unwell, but I saw her yesterday at dinner; They are all in black, but 
not gloomy; that is they are very quiet & make no demonstrations of 
their grief- all the daughters resemble their mother- M rs Southgate, a 
married daughter is also here, with four children; her husband is just 
now absent- Their house is beautifully situated, on high ground, & the 
view which opened to me when the rising sun shone into the window of 
my pleasant room, the next morning, was one of the most beautiful I 
ever saw— In the foreground the village, beyond which the green plain, 
with rows of trees stretches off towards the city- On the left the hill of 
Chapultepec, crowned now with the expensive Imperial palace, 33 & 
further on, the domes & towers of the churches, which are nearly all 
that can be seen of the city, (The houses being low- Beyond that the 
landscape is closed by the Mountains which bound the valley, crowned 
by the snow peaks of Popocatapetl 34 & Jatacihuate- imagine all this 
lighted by a bright sun, with a few clouds floating in the sky at this 
season, & you cannot help saying that the country & the climate are all 
that nature could have made of beautiful- of man, it is best to say but 
little — I have not yet looked for quarters, but must soon, not to be 
spoiled by the comfort & in fact luxury of my present ones- The Col 
& his son & I breakfast early for this country, & come in the 9 15 train 
to town, going out at 5 18 to dine at 6- The ladies breakfast, if they 
please, at 10 or 11- or with us, if they have returned from their ride 
on horseback, which some of them take every morning- 
There are Many Americans (U.S.) at present- In this office M r 
Andrews 35 a son of Paymaster Genl A. is employed; also young 

32 Tacubaya is less than eight miles from the center of the city and today is one of the 
principal suburbs of the city. Americana XVIII, (1938), 802. 

33 The National Palace fronts on Plaza Mayor and has a frontage of 675 feet on the 
east of the Plaza and covers 47,840 square yards or nearly ten acres. It contains the 
executive offices of the government, State Chamber, General Archives, National Museum, 
Observatory, and Meteorological Bureau. It occupies the site of the residence Monte- 
zuma, which was destroyed by the Spaniards and that of Hernando Cortez, which was 
destroyed in 1692. It has three entrances on the Plaza and over its main gateway hangs 
the "liberty bell," rung by Hidalgo on the night of September 16, 1810, to call the people 
of Dolores to arms, and even now it is rung at midnight on each recurring anniversary 
by the President himself. Brittannica (1937), XV, 398. 

34 Popocatepetl (smoking mountain) is a volcano forty miles southeast of the City of 
Mexico. It is surmounted by a crater 2,000 feet in width, and is one of the highest peaks 
in North America (17,550 feet). Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 819. 

35 Timothy Patrick Andrews was born in Ireland in 1794, and died on March 11, 1868. 
He rendered good service in Commodore Barney's flotilla in Patuxent River in the War 
of 1812 ; was later in active service in the field ; became paymaster in 1822 ; and resigned 
in 1847 to take command of a volunteer regiment he had raised for the Mexican War. He 
distinguished himself in the battle of Molino del Rey ; was brevetted brigadier-general for 
his gallantry and meritorious conduct in the battle of Chapultepec ; and on the close of the 
war and abandonment of the volunteers he was retained by an act of Congress as pay- 
master. In 1851 he was made deputy paymaster-general, and during the Civil War, on the 
dealth of General Larned, Colonel Andrews succeeded him as paymaster-general of the army, 
which position he retained until he retired on November 20, 1864. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, I, 76. 

218 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Newton of Norfolk- I have seen Capt. Maury, 36 Genl. Stone, 37 Genl. 
O. Wilcox, 38 Genl Kirby Smith, 39 &c- This morning I asked at a hotel 
for M rs Anol Iturbide, 40 & the man pointed her out just entering the 
courtyard- I walked up to her & said: "D° you know me? - After some 

36 Dabney Herndon Maury of Virginia became a cadet at West Point on July 1, 1842 ; 
was brevetted second lieutenant in the mounted riflemen on July 1, 1846 ; became second 
lieutenant of the third artillery on July 1, 1847, but was transferred to mounted riflemen 
on February 19, 1848; became first lieutenant on January 27, 1853; was regimental adjutant 
from September 15, 1858, to April 10, 1860 ; was brevetted captain and adjutant-general 
on April 17, 1860 ; was brevetted first lieutenant on April 18, 1847, for gallantry and 
meritorious service in the battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico ; and was dismissed on June 25, 

1861. He was a major-general in the army of the Confederate States of America from 
1861 to 1865, and died on January 11, 1900. Heitman, Register, I, 697. 

37 Charles Pomeroy Stone (September 30, 1824-January 24, 1887) was born in Massa- 
chusetts and died in New York City. He graduated from West Point in 1845 ; was with 
Scott in the Mexican War ; resigned in 1856, being first lieutenant ; was employed by a 
private association as chief of a commission for the exploitation of the Mexican state of 
Sonora ; and became colonel of the District of Columbia volunteers on April 16, 1861. He 
became a colonel in the regular army in July, 1861 ; brigadier-general in volunteers in 
August, 1861 ; and played a leading role in the Civil War. In the first battle of Bull Run, 
when Colonel Edward D. Baker, under Stone, was killed, his colleagues blamed Stone for his 
death. Baker was a Senator, a fact which turned the eyes of the nation upon Stone. He 
was also accused of cruelty and many other offenses, which led to his arrest on February 8, 

1862, and imprisonment for fifty da3's in Fort Lafayette in New York harbor. He was not 
even told why he was arrested ; was released on August 16, 1862 ; after months of un- 
assignment he was sent to General Banks in May, 1863 ; and on April 4, 1864, he was 
mustered out of volunteer service, and as colonel he was not assigned. He was later assigned 
to the army of the Potomac, but sick and disgusted he soon resigned, September 13, 1864. 
From 1865 to 1869 he was an engineer for the Dover Mining Company, Goochland County, 
Virginia ; from 1870 to 1883 he served in the Egyptian army, becoming chief of staff and 
lieutenant-general; for a year he was chief engineer for the Florida Ship Canal Company; 
and he was later chief engineer for laying the foundation of the Statue of Liberty in 
New York harbor. Dictionary of American Biography, XVIII, 72. 

38 Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox was born in Wayne County, North Carolina, May 29, 1826, 
and died in Washington, D. C, December 2, 1890. He studied at Cumberland College at 
Nashville, Tennessee ; graduated from West Point in 1846 ; served in the Mexican War, in 
the battles of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Chapultepec, and Mexico City ; was made a first 
lieutenant on August 24, 1851 ; was an instructor in West Point from 1852 to 1857 ; spent 
a year in Europe on sick leave ; became a captain on December 20, 1860 ; and was sent 
to the New Mexico border. On June 8, 1861, he resigned from the army ; soon became a 
colonel in the provisional army of the Confederacy ; joined General Joseph E. Johnston 
on July 16, 1861 ; and served in Virginia until the end of the war. He became brigadier- 
general on October 21, 1861 ; was made major-general on August 9, 1863 ; and took part in 
most of the major battles in Virginia. He declined to become a brigadier-general in the 
Egyptian army after the close of the Civil War ; in 1886 became chairman of the railroad 
division of the general land office in Washington, D. C, and was a writer of note. Appleton't 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VI, 504. 

39 Edmund Kirby Smith was born in Florida on May 16th, 1824, and died on March 
28, 1893. He graduated from West Point in 1845 ; served in the Mexican War ; was instruc- 
tor in West Point from 1849 to 1852 ; became a captain in 1855 ; was raised to a major in 
1861 ; but resigned when Florida left the Union. He became a colonel in the Confederate 
army on April 6, 1861 ; was rapidly promoted until he was lieutenant-general in 1862, and 
general in 1864 ; was wounded in the first battle of Bull Run ; commanded in the depart- 
ment of the Tennessee in 1862 ; received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on February 
17, 1863 ; and was sent west of the Mississippi to command the Trans-Mississippi Depart- 
ment and to organize a government there. He opened up the blockade trade with Europe ; 
was the last to surrender his army at the close of the Civil War. He then became president 
of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company ; was chancellor of the University of 
Nashville from 1870 to 1875 ; then became professor of mathematics in the University of the 
South, which position he held until his death. He was noted for his work in the field of 
botany. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VIII, 132-133. 

40 Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph of Hapsburg (July 6, 1832-June 19, 1867) 
was selected by Napoleon III of France to be Emperor of Mexico. This move grew out of 
the attempt of England, France, and Spain to collect some claims from Mexico. The largest 
of these was for a Swiss banker who had become a citizen of France. It is claimed that 
this claim was multiplied several times. When the real purpose of Napoleon became ap- 
parent, the other two nations withdrew and left the occupation to France. Maximilian 
needed no encouragement and accepted the offer as soon as it was made on September 18, 
1861. In 1856 he had gone to northern Europe by the way of Belgium and Holland. He 
visited France ; was entertained at St. Cloud by Napoleon for fifteen days ; and on a second 
trip on July 2, 1857, a representative of the imperial ambassador to Belgium asked and 
obtained for him the hand of Princess Maria Carlota Amalia, daughter of the Belgian King 
Leopold I. She was only sixteen years of age and it is stated that on account of some unfor- 
tunate affair which developed between the two relative to his sexual relations, he lived 
in complete chastity as far as his wife was concerned. Magner, Men of Mexico, pp. 400-401 ; 
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 667. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 219 

hesitation she did recognize me, & was glad to see me- her husband 41 
& boy 42 were with her; 43 the boy is quite handsome- The mother a 
trifle thinner, but not very much changed- asked after you all & sent her 
love, very kindly- 

This morning after breakfast, I read over again M. Maury's letters- 
It is very curious that I cannot recall the faintest recollection of Capt. 
Hawkes's letter, I have an indistinct recollection of a letter to Govr 
Manly, 44 & yet I met him, I believe, in Raleigh- I hope the money has 
been recovered- I do not know how you are to send packages to me at 
present; it is so difficult to get anything up from V.C.- I am not aware 
of wanting anything, when I get my baggage- I wrote to you to send 
letters under cover to "G. P. Oropesa, Imperial Mex. Bail Way office, 
Vera Cruz"— Write by each of the American steamers- Make your 
letters as full as possible about private affairs of family & friends; at 
the same time as light as you can - I cannot learn exactly the arrange- 
ments, but postage is very heavy: for instance your package which Mr 
Maury directed to me at Vera Cruz had three 10 ct U.S. stamps on it, 
& yet M r O. paid in Vera Cruz 62J cts on it- You must enquire whether 
you can prepay to V.C. or rather whether prepayment goes for any- 
thing- M r O. will keep a postage acct for me- Tell Josephine with my 
love that her bottle marked "Sam Esting" came all the way to Mexico : 
I brought it about half full from Havanna after which I drank no 
more, but some of fellow passengers, who did not stand the journey as 
well as I did, emptied it on the road up, & at last I forgot it at the 
Diligence office- M rs T. asked me how I thought my family would like 

41 Charlotte (Marie Charlotte Amelie Auguste Victorie Clementine Leopoldine) was born 
at Laeken, near Brussels on June 7, 1840, the only daughter of Leopold I of Belgium and 
Louise, Princess of Orange. On July 27, 1857, she married Maximilian, Archduke of 
Austria, and accompanied him to Mexico, but in 1866 she was sent by Maximilian to secure 
assistance from Napoleon III and Pope Pius IX. Failing in her mission and seeing the 
ultimate fall of her husband she became hopelessly insane. In 1879 she was confined in the 
care of her family near Brussels. She remained insane until her death which took place only 
a few years ago. James A. Magner, Men, of Mexico, pp. 398-401 ; Century Dictionary and 
Cyclopedia, IX, 237. 

42 Since Maximilian had no children eventually he decided to provide for royal succession 
by adopting the two grandsons of the Emperor Augustin Iturbide. In September, 1865, he 
conferred the title of Princess of Mexico and liberal allowance upon the only surviving 
daughter of Iturbide, and placed in her care the five-year-old son of Don Angel de Iturbide, 
Don Augustin, whom he proposed to make heir to the throne. The other grandson, Don 
Salvador, was sent to Europe to be educated. Don Augustin, whose father had married 
an American and died several years before, remained in the United States after the fall of 
the Empire, and died in Washington, D. C, in 1925. The other boy remained in Europe 
and married into a wealthy Polish family. Magner, Men of Mexico, pp. 400-401. 

43 Augustin de Iturbide was the grandson of Emperor Augustin de Iturbide (September 
27, 1783-July 19, 1824) ; was born in 1863; was adopted by Maximilian in 1865 and made 
heir to the Mexican throne. After the fall of Maximilian and his execution, the adopted 
son was taken to the United States where he received part of his education, and later 
returned to his native country. In 1906 he was serving in the Mexican army. Century 
Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 536. 

44 Charles Manly was born in Chatham County, North Carolina, on May 13, 1795, and 
died in Raleigh, North Carolina, on May 1, 1871 ; graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1814 ; and after studying law was admitted to the bar in 1816. In 1823 he was 
appointed reading clerk in the house of commons ; was clerk of a committee in Washington 
for the adjudication of claims against the British government for property taken in the 
War of 1812 ; was principal clerk in the North Carolina house of commons from 1830 to 
1848, when he was elected governor ; but he was defeated for the same office in 1850, after 
the Whigs nominated him. He later went to California ; was a candidate for governor 
there ; returned to North Carolina where he became military governor of a few counties 
in the eastern part ; but when the people failed to rally behind him he resigned. Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 189. 

220 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to come here; I shall say little about it yet awhile- I trust you are 
all well, & getting on comfortably- 

July 21 st . There have been two days without rain, but this afternoon 
it has returned with its former punctuality- Everybody rides now in 
the morning- Driving in this morning, in an English "drag," we met 
many parties on horseback, among others, the Empress looking young 
& pretty as she galloped by— I ventured yesterday to try one of my thin 
flannels, but a rheumatic sort of pain across the breast soon admon- 
ished me to change for a thick one- I sleep under two thick blankets- 
the therm, in the parlor stands at about 65°, day & night - When you see 
M r Robinson please tell him that his instruments are safe in Y.Cruz 
for the present- You will have to arrange about Gratz's school in due 
time. I should not care about his studying any more of Elementary 
Geometry or Algebra, but think he might extend his Mathematics to 
Trigonometry, & take up N't. Philosophy & Mechanics to some extent; 
review Astronomy in a general way; chemistry, & some drawing; Book 
keeping, with practice in writing & some instruction in composition,— 
Not all these at once, but to be kept in view- Our dear girls, I suppose, 
had better try their school another year, or until I can see my way 
clearly- I am sorry to say so- 

July 22 d - When we went out to dinner yesterday we found a fire 
lighted in the parlor; the room is a little larger & loftier than the 
parlor at Watervliet Was- The wood fire diffused a pleasant warmth & 
raised the therm, to 68°- I close this for the Diligence Mail, to save the 
"Extraordinary" postage, not expecting to have any thing particular to 
say in the next 3 days- With best love to the dear children 

yr afft Alfred 

I do not write to sister Ellen yet— If it is not too much trouble I 
would ask the girls to make a copy or extract of this letter & send her. 


July 22 1865. 
Chief Engineer's Office. 

My dear wife 

I have written you fully about my journey from Y. Cruz & shall 
send my letter by the Mail for the N. York Packet of the 28 th - I write 
this time by Genl. Stone who will go in the same packet, merely as 
an extra precaution, to let you know that I have arrived here & am 
perfectly well : Staying at present at Col. Talcott's pleasant & beau- 
tifully situated house at Tacubaya, 4 miles off, with which we are con- 
nected by horse railway- I got here on the morning of the 18 th , after 
a fatiguing journey, from which I am however quite recovered- 

Life of Alfbed Moedecai in Mexico 221 

Please send the enclosed note to M r Levis, & if he gives you any draw- 
ings &c, for me, send them by express to "S. Y. Talcott Esqr 80 Broad- 
way, N. York." addressed inside to me at this office- He will pay the 
expenses- You had better write a line by mail to say that the things 
are sent- 

Ever truly 

Y r Afft husband 

A. Mordecai 


Chief Engineer's Office. Mexico July 24 th 1865 

N°. 2 

My dear Wife 

As the government has arranged to sent an "extraordinary" 
(express) to meet the N.Y. steamer at the latest day, I vail myself of 
it to send you a third letter for the steamer which sails on the 28 th ; one 
I gave to Genl. Stone to drop in the P. O. at N.York, & one, my regular 
letter, I sent by the ordinary mail yesterday- This is a business letter- 
Col Talcott is, I should say, exceedingly liberal; he proposes to allow 
my salary to begin from the time I left home, & to pay all my expenses 
out- This I think I shall not ask, for I consider the delay at Havannah 
to be due to my own fault, or that of my agent— Still, I shall feel 
authorized to commence from the 1 st July, the time when I might have 
left home to reach here as I did- This liberality, be it observed, is real, 
as the engineering work is done by contract, at a certain rate per mile, 
between the Co y & the two engineers, Talcott & his English associate- 
It will enable me to make you a remittance by the steamer of the 14 th 
August, which will reach you in time for the house rent & other 
expenses- In the mean time, as our son Alfred was kind enough to 
offer me his assistance, I will ask him to take up my draft on Maury, 
Bros 5, Hanover st, IS" Y. by paying them $40 in gold, which I drew 
for my expenses at Havanna- I left no personal debt, that I know, in 
Phil a , except a few dollars to Mogu, whom I could not find at his shop, 
& except a great debt of gratitude to many kind friends who have 
cheered & assisted me during the last four dreary years ; This debt I beg 
you will take every opportunity to acknowledge, by assurances of the 
obligation which I feel towards those friends, the recollection of whose 
kindness makes my eyes run over whilst I write- 

I am still staying at Col. T's— he goes away, on his line, the day after 
to-morrow, leaving me already in charge of this office- If I can only 
fulfil his reasonable expectations & perform the duties in a manner 
satisfactory to myself I shall require nothing but the presence of my 
wife & children, or some of them, to make me well contented here, but 

222 The North Carolina Historical Review 

it is premature to think of this yet- I shall make some arrangement in 
a day or two, perhaps to-morrow, for a room in the city, & I think my 
expenses need not exceed some $70 or $80 a month- My baggage has 
not come up, & my old blue bucks, "my only pair," as Burns says, are 
getting alarmingly thin- in other respects the contents of my carpet bag 
do very well, & the clothing which I have brought will be ample, when 
I get it- 
July 25 th - To-day the carrier goes down, & to-day also, I hope, the 
N.Y. steamer arrives at V. Cruz, & brings me a letter from you. The 
postage, 57 cts, which I pay on this letter ought to take it to you, please 
let me know if there is any additional charge made in PhiK— Yester- 
day Genl. Ledbetter, [sic] 45 whom you may remember in connection with 
Miss Jauney of Wash n , arrived here, & Genls Preston, 46 Magruder 47 
& others probably last night; making altogether quite a crowd of refu- 
gees from the south- Nearly all, like myself, "bachelors bewitched"- I 
need hardly say now much & how often I wish I were not in that 
situation- I wake at my usual early hour, & as we gentlemen do not 
breakfast until after 8, I have some time to look over Prescott's 48 his- 
tory of the conquest, & to take a stroll in the garden among the pro- 
fusion of the same brilliant & beautiful flowers with which the poor 

45 Danville Leadbetter of Maine became a cadet in West Point on July 1, 1832 ; was made 
a second lieutenant of the first artillery on July 1, 1836 ; was transferred to the engineer 
corps on November 1, 1836, with the rank of brevet second lieutenant of July 1, 1836 ; was 
transferred to the first artillery on December 31, 1836, with the rank of second lieutenant 
as of July 1, 1836 ; was transferred to the engineer corps on July 31, 1837, as brevet second 
lieutenant as of July 1, 1836 ; was made first lieutenant on July 7, 1838 ; was elevated to 
captain on October 16, 1852 ; and resigned on December 31, 1857. On the outbreak of the 
Civil War he entered the Confederate army and served as brigadier-general from 1861 to 
1865. He died on September 26, 1866. Heitman, Register, I, 621. 

46 John Smith Preston was born in Virginia on April 20, 1809, and died in South Carolina 
on May 1, 1881. He graduated from Hampden-Sidney College in 1824 ; studied in the 
University of Virginia during 1825-1826 ; and then read law at Harvard. He married the 
daughter of General Wade Hampton in 1830 ; became a well known orator ; collected valuable 
paintings and sculptures ; and was a sugar-planter in Louisiana. He favored succession ; 
made a noted record in Mexican War ; served on the staff of General Beauregard from 
1861 to 1862 ; worked in the conscript department as a brigadier-general ; and went to 
England soon after the close of the war, where he remained for several years. He later 
returned to the United States and delivered public lectures. His robust, handsome personal 
appearance (he was more than six feet tall) made his lectures more impressive. He was 
severely criticised by the press for his address at the commencement of the University 
of Virginia, in which he upheld the right of secession. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, V, 115. 

47 John Bankhead Magruder was born in Virginia on August 15, 1810, and died in 
Texas on February 19, 1871. He graduated from West Point in 1830 ; served in the Mexi- 
can War ; was brevetted major for gallantry in the battle of Cerro Gordo and lieutenant- 
colonel for gallantry at Chapultepec, where he was severely wounded ; and continued in 
the army after the close of the war, serving in various places. When Virginia seceded he 
resigned his captaincy and entered the Confederate army ; was made brigadier-general after 
the battle of Big Bethel and given command of the Confederate forces in the Peninsula ; 
was raised to the rank of major-general ; 'and took an active part in the Seven Days Battle 
in 1862. He was made commander in the department of Texas on October 16, 1862 ; took 
Galveston on January 1, 1863 ; continued in command of Texas until the close of the Civil 
War, when he entered the army of Maximilian in Mexico as major-general, in which com- 
mand he remained until the overthrow of the Emperor ; and then returned to the United 
States and lectured on Mexico. In 1869 he settled in Houston, Texas, where he remained 
until his death. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 175. 

48 William Hickling Prescott was born in Massachusetts on May 4, 1796, and died in the 
same state on January 28, 1859. While he was a student at Harvard a piece of bread thrown 
by another student injured one of his eyes, and shortly he became almost blind. He made 
careful research and by the use of a special writing case he wrote excellent history. His 
test known works are The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, The Conquest 
of Peru, The Conquest of Mexico, and The History of the Reign of Phillip II. Century 
Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 825. 

Life of Alfked Mordecai in Mexico 223 

Mexicans used to smother their presents to the Spaniards— In five min- 
utes the girls could collect enough, including all sorts of beautiful 
roses, to decorate every room in the house- But I must close, with re- 
peated love to all from 

Yr Afft Alfred. 

Mexico August 3 d 1865. 
My dear Sister 

Although my letter cannot go from V. Cruz until the 14 th , I will 
take advantage of leisure time at my office to begin an answer to your 
welcome & satisfactory letter received by the last steamer from N". 
York- I asked Sara to give you the substance of my letters from 
Havanna & to ask the girls to copy for you my first letter from here, 
so that you will have heard all about the voyage, my detention at H. - 
my journey to this city. I remained about a week at Col. Talcott's de- 
lightful place at Tacubaya, & when I came away the Col & M rs T. both 
expressed a wish that I should return there in a short time— They have 
now all their large family at home except Charles's wife & children, & 
Randolph & his wife, who will all come out in the autumn: The sons 
are all assisting their father on the R.R. & M r Southgate, the husband 
of the married daughter, who also lives at the Col's, is a sub-contractor 
on the road; they have 4 children— So when they are all together there 
is a pretty large family & require all the big house ; but the young men 
are a good deal absent on the road, & M rs T. & the three married daugh- 
ters are going away in the Autumn, to spend the Winter I believe in 
the U.S. & Europe- One of the daughters, Fanny, was engaged to be 
married to M r Spiller, an English gentleman who called at my house 
in Phil a on his way to England to make arrangements for his settle- 
ment; but just before the time for returning here, he was taken ill & 
died- of pneumonia I believe- I dare say that the projected journey 
of the ladies is partly on her account, as her health is quite delicate- I 
gave some description in my letter to Sara, of the beautiful prospect 
from their house at Tacubaya ; but no description & no picture can con- 
vey an idea of the ever varying beauties of the view, which at this sea- 
son of sunshine, clouds & rain changes almost every hour- I think it 
is the loveliest inland prospect I have ever seen- and then this charming 
climate ! I said the other day that the daily variations, although regu- 
larly returning, take me, as it were, by surprise, like the sight of a 
great train on a R.R. which I cannot, even now, look at without a 
renewed feeling of admiration- I rise pretty early & go out for a walk, 
in perfect security that I shall not be interrupted by rain; The sun 
generally shining so brightly that I am willing to walk on the shady 
side of the street, where I may see, at an optician's shop, the ther- 
mometer standing at about 15° Centigrade^GO Fahr. at 8 o'clk- It is 

224 The North Carolina Historical Review 

hard in spite of daily experience, to realize that there is to be rain in 
the course of the day; but I do not fail in going to the office, to have on 
my thick boots, & my water proof poncho & hat cover, with me- & sure 
enough about 2 o'clk however bright the sun may have been shining, 
the clouds begin to collect on the surrounding mountains & sometimes 
the thunder to growl, the wind being just enough to keep the clouds 
in motion, & a little later the rain comes down, frequently in torrents, 
for about 2 hours- Very often it is over before 5 oclk, the hour at which 
we leave the office, but sometimes it comes whilst we are at dinner, & 
by dark or before it ceases, the stars (& now the moon) shine out & if 
I have any place to go to, I may sally out with certainly that there will 
be no more rain, & before morning the pavements are again dry & ready 
for the early "promeneurs" on foot, on horseback or in carriages- I 
have now quite a comfortable room at the San Carols, a Hotel or rather 
lodging house, lately opened by a man who went from here as a servant 
to one of our officers & spent some time in the U.S. I sleep under two 
blankets, with my door & window closed ; the floor is of tiles, but covered 
with a good Brussels carpet; it is in the third story which is the prin- 
cipal & best, with lofty ceilings & a terraced roof also tiled, over my 
head- The houses are built as usual in Southern Europe, round a court ; 
on the lower or ground floor are shops, offices, stables &c ; the next story 
or eutresol, if there are three, is rather low pitched & used for common 
bed rooms, servants' rooms, &c- but in large handsome houses the second 
is often the principal story, for parlors &c- Com. M. F. Maury 49 has 
a room near mine which he occupies with two young Conf. midship- 
men; Newton of Norfolk & Wilkinson, son of Com. Wilk n of S° C a : 
We & Genl. Wilcox form a mess & have our meals brought from a Mex. 
cook shop; a cup of coffee (extra) early in the morning, breakfast at 9 
& dinner at 5- the two meals are much alike, stewed meats, chicken & 
always "frijoles" (beans) with cafe au lait & plenty of good bread- 
We live very plainly, but we pay only $19 a month; My room costs $35 
a M°, but pretty good lodging can be had from $16 to 25.- I shall per- 
haps hire a room & furnish it myself, which is said to be cheaper- the 
rooms are attended to by men & not by chamber maids, about whom you 
enquire- I am still without my luggage. & my only suit is the light 
cloth one or rather blue flannel, which I wore at Raleigh; I wear a 
thicker undershirt than I have ever been in the habit of wearing in the 
U.S. in the winter, & yet I could willingly, sometimes in the morning 
& evening, put on a thicker suit. A Mexican scarcely ever goes out 

49 Matthew Fontaine Maury was born in Spottsylvania County, Virginia, on January 14, 
1806, and died in Lexington, Virginia, on February 1, 1873. He became an outstanding 
scientist and naval man. From 1844 to 1861 he was superintendent of the hydrographical 
office and national observatory in Washington, D. C, but on the outbreak of the Civil War he 
entered the Confederate navy, and emigrated to Mexico at the close of the war. He was 
a leader in the navy of Maximillian in Mexico ; later became professor of physics at the 
Virginia Military Institute ; was the first man to give a complete description of the Gulf 
Stream and the first to mark out specific routes to be followed by ships in crossing the 
Atlantic ; and was a writer of note. The best of his books is Physical Geography of the 
Sea, published in 1855. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 667. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 225 

without has poncho or blanket shawl- The women, of all classes, with a 
reboze or scarf, thrown over the head & shoulders; a cap or bonnet is 
never seen, but on a European, or when they are riding on horseback, 
when they use a felt or a straw hat : I know you would like that- 
I returned a short time ago from the Alameda, or public promenade, 
where the French band plays 3 times a week, & all the ladies who were 
walking had only the scarf or worked veil on their heads- The Mexican 
dandies, with their ornamented jackets & trousers, their wide brimmed 
hats, & the gay, silver, (or plated) mounted trappings of their horses 
are quite picturesque. 

My office, which you ask about, is the same as Col. TV, it & some 
others connected with the R. R. are on the ground floor of one of M r 
Escandon's town houses; another one of his, at the corner near us, 
is a curious looking house, plated outside with figured porcelain tiles, 
& formerly belonged to Cortez, or I rather suspect, one of his descen- 
dents- Our room has but one window, which is closed at this moment, 
& no fire place ; yet it is never warm, nor will it be cold in winter ; the 
temp, in doors is almost uniformly 65°, or thereabouts- My work is a 
good deal like what I have been formerly accustomed to, altho' in a 
new line, & I hope I may be able to answer Col. T's expectations as to 
the assistance I can give him; Satisfied on this point I can be well 
contended here ; The separation from my family & a sort of feeling that 
I am deserting a part of my duties to them, are serious drawbacks, the 
removal of which I must leave to time & circumstances. The relief from 
the daily torment of seeing & knowing the horrors that are perpetrated 
in the U. S. is greater than you can imagine, & in spite of some solitary 
hours, especially in the evening, I can feel that even cheerfulness is 
returning- I have been out but two evenings, once to see the Iturbides, 
who lived long in U.S. & one of whom married a lady of my acquain- 
tance in Geo. Town; one to M rs Yorke's, whom I saw in my last visit 
to Paris, & who is settled here for the present : She is from N*. Orleans, 
& one of her daughters recently married a French officer here- There 
are a great many Confederate officers here & more anxious to come— 
The question of employing them, & of doing something to facilitate & 
encourage agricultureal emigration, especially from the South, occupies 
much of the attention of the Govt just now; but their movements are 
slow, & I doubt if I shall be able to communicate to George any defi- 
nite information by the next steamer : I shall do so as soon as possible. 
Col. T. has been most kind in giving employment to as many of the 
refugees as he can find room for, & in aiding others in every way that 
he can. Young Newton & Wilkinson, whom I mentioned, are attached 
to one of the eng g parties & now working in this office. The only word 
I cannot make out in your letter is the name of the remedy that Huston 
M. recommended to me- I remember his speaking to me about it, but 
I required nothing of the kind from the day I left N.Y., nor have I 

226 The North Carolina Historical Review 

since; my health here is excellent & the water (I drink nothing else) 
agrees with me perfectly, being filtered rain water, always cool, altho' 
no ice is used habitually. What ice is used for ice cream is brought, 
I suppose, from the snow mtns & if so must be expensive- I wish you 
could see the profusion of flowers of all sorts, tropical & temperate, at 
two beautiful seats, Near Col. T's, which I visited last Sunday- One 
of them was Escandon's 50 the rich man of the country, the originator 
of the R.R., owner of mines, &c, &c; the other a banker's Mr Barron, 
also very wealthy- Their places are kept up with great neatness, & 
seem to contain all sorts of luxuries, even to cages for Monkeys & fiercer 
animals; but the plants & flowers are perfectly darling, & then they are 
always in bloom- The trees are filled with singing birds; As for fruits, 
Miss Mary Talcott & I were putting down the names of such as we could 
recollect, & which were found together at almost any time in the market. 
Almost all the fruits of the temperate zone, except gooseberries, along- 
side of oranges, pine apples, Bananas, cocoanuts, Mengoes, pomegran- 
ates, Grenaditas, lemons, limes, Guavas, Tunas (fruit of the prickly 
pear much used,) Sapotes (several kind) Cherimoyas, Aguacates (a 
substitute for butter,) olives Our fruits grow in this valley; they are 
fine looking but not high flavored- By going some 20 miles towards the 
S. you descend into a lower region, from which come the tropical pro- 
ductions, & where sugar, & coffee are produced - But I was going to 
say something about Rutson & his indefatiguable kindness- He has 
written to me giving an account, in his minute way, of the adventures 
of a letter for Capt. Hawkes, which it seems I took to Raleigh, cont g 
some money, & it is curious that I have not the slightest recollection 
of it- Sara found the letter in my drawer after I sailed & mailed it for 
Rutson, since which nothing has been heard of it- very queer- Your 
congratulations to M rs T. about domestic arrangements seem to be pre- 
mature, as I know she has had great trouble lately in getting a cook; 
owing partly to her living in a country home- They require many ser- 
vants; their stable has 12 stalls, & not enough- I make no remarks on 
some of the personal parts of your letter, which will be almost forgotten 
before you receive my answer- You remember Chas. Lamb's 51 letter 
to his friend in Australia- but you know how I appreciate kind remem- 
brances, like Lucy Plummer's. I have a letter from M rs Butler, which 
accomp d yours- I wrote to her just before leaving Phila. Sara mentions 

50 Manuel Escandon was a noted financier of Mexico of this period. He supported the 
liberal faction while he apeared to favor conservatives. He was free with his gifts to 
men in need. After Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna lost out completely Escandon left him 
a bequest of 14,000 pesos, but this soon disappeared. Magner, Men of Mexico, pp. 347, 348. 

51 Charles Lamb was born in London on February 10, 1775, and died in Edmonton on 
December 27, 1834. He received a good education and then became a clerk in the South 
Sea House and later in the India House. In 1796 Mary Lamb, in a fit of insanity, killed 
her mother, which resulted in her being placed under the guardianship of her brother 
Charles. He was a schoolmate and friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who first published 
some of Lamb's poems with is own. He was assisted by his Sister Mary in much of his 
work. He is better known for his Tales from Shakespeare and for his other stories than 
for his poems. Mary Lamb lived until 1847, thirteen years after the death of her brother. 
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 587. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 227 

Edward's visit to her & the death of his youngest child- with you, I 
cannot lament- 

Aug 4 th — Your request put me in mind that I intended to be weighed, 
to see if I had recovered my loss by sickness- I weighed last evening 
163 lbs , nearly as much as I ever did- Since writing the above I have 
been called to the custom house to receive my baggage, which has at 
length arrived, apparently in good order, by express wagon; having 
been forwarded from the Rail E station where I left it, on the 17 th 
July- at the average rate of less than 18 (12 [written just above]) 
miles a day- It was the first time I had been out in the middle of the 
day; The sun nearly vertical at 12 o'clk, was shining brightly, & the 
therm, at my optician's door, alth' exposed to the effect of radiation, 
stood at 75°- Now, at 3 P. M. the usual clouds have gathered for rain. 
August 7 th - I shall close this letter to-day, to give it, as you did yours, 
plenty of time to get to the place of shipment- I can add nothing about 
the business of emigration as things are still unsettled- A gentleman, 
late Minister here from Eccador [sic] called this morning whilst we 
were at breakfast to say something about lands there; but they would 
cost too much at private purchase, & it is too far off & expensive to 
reach & withal sickly no doubt- 

I am rather hurried now, but I believe I have omitted nothing that 
I wanted particularly to say- I am very well & only wish that you 
could enjoy this charming climate & comparative freedom from anxiety- 
My best love to George & sister Nancy, Miss Mildred, Ellen & all 

Ever y r affecte brother A. Mordecai 
My baggage I found in excellent order- 
Aug* 3 rd 1865. 
N° 1- Miss Ellen Mordecai 

Ealeigh North Carolina U. States 

[To he concluded'] 


By Mary Lindsay Thornton 

Bibliogrophy and Libraries 

Hussey, Minnie Middleton. The woman's collection . . . 1937-1943, 
compiled by Minnie Middleton Hussey and Roseanne Hudson. 
[Greensboro, N. C. Library of Woman's College of the University of 
North Carolina] 1944. iv, 121 p. pa. $1.00. 

Wilson, Louis Round. Library planning; a working memorandum 
prepared for the American library association. Chicago, American 
Library Association, 1944. 93 p. pa. Apply. 

Religion and Philosophy 

Bynum, Curtis. Destiny. [Asheville, N. C. The Stephens Press, 
c. 1943] 29 p. pa. $ .25. 

Johnson, Talmage Casey. Look for the dawn! Nashville, Tenn., The 
Broadman Press, 1943. 173 p. $1.25. 

Jordan, Gerald Ray. We believe, a creed that sings. Nashville, Tenn., 
Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, [c. 1944] 135 p. $1.00. 

Kirkland, Winifred Margaretta. The first Christmas. New York, 
Fleming H. Revell Company, [1943] 29 p. $.75. 

Lacy, Benjamin Rice. Revivals in the midst of the years. Richmond, 
Va., John Knox Press, 1943. 167 p. $1.50. 

Moore, Hight C, editor. Points for emphasis; a vest pocket commen- 
tary on the International Sunday school lessons .... Nashville, 
Tenn., The Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, 
1944. Annual, pa. $.35. 

Moore, John Monroe. The long road to Methodist union .... New 
York, Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, [1943] 247 p. illus. $2.00. 

Ownbey, Richard L. The Christian's religion, its meaning and mis- 
sion. New York, Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, [c. 1932] 178 p. pa. 

Ownbey, Richard L. Evangelism in Christian education. New York, 
Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, [c. 1941] 160 p. pa. $.60. 

Poteat, Edwin McNeill. Four freedoms and God. New York, Har- 
per and Brothers, [1943] 155 p. $1.50. 

1 Books dealing with North Carolina or by North Carolinians, and a few selected pam- 
phlets, published during the year ending August 31, 1944. A few of earlier date, omitted 
from previous bibliographies, are included. 

[ 228 ] 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1943-1944 229 

Turner, John Clyde. Soul winning doctrines. Nashville, Tenn., Sun- 
day School Board of Southern Baptist Convention, c. 1943. 133 p. 
pa. $.60. 

Economics and Sociology 

Barbee, Jennie M. Historical sketches of the Raleigh public schools, 
1876-1941-42. [Raleigh, 1ST. C. Barbee Pupils' Association, 1943] 
109 p. illus. Apply. 

Basso, Hamilton. Mainstream. New York, Reynald & Hitchcock, 1943. 
xii, 246 p. $2.50. 

Brownell, William A. Learning the multiplication combinations, by 
William A. Brownell and Doris V. Carper. Durham, N. C. Duke 
University Press, 1943. (Duke University research studies in educa- 
tion, no. 7) 177 p. pa. $2.00. 

Evans, William Franklin. Federal contracts with land titles, a 
treatise on administering federal statutes in relation to the real estate 
laws of the states. Charlottesville, Va., The Michie Company, 1944. 
xxi, 256 p. $6.00. 

Gillin, John Phillip. An introduction to sociology, by John Philip 
Gillin and John Lewis Gillin. New York, The Macmillan Company, 
1942. viii, 806, p. illus. $3.75. 

Hendricks, William C, editor. Bundle of troubles and other Tarheel 
tales by workers of the Writers' program of the Work projects ad- 
ministration in the State of North Carolina. Durham, N. C. Duke 
University Press, 1943. ix, 206 p. illus. $2.50. 

Larkins, John Rodman. The Negro population of North Carolina, 
social and economic. Raleigh, North Carolina State Board of Chari- 
ties and Public Welfare, [1944] 79 p. illus. pa. Apply. 

Lunsford, Bascom Lamar. It's fun to square dance, Southern Appa- 
lachian calls and figures, by Bascom Lamar Lunsford and George 
Myers Stephens. [Asheville, Stephens Press, c. 1942 ] [16] p. illus. 
pa. $.25. 

North Carolina Bankers' Association. Trends in North Carolina 
banking, 1943. Raleigh, N. C. c. 1944. 34 p. pa. Apply, Secretary, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

North Carolina. Governor, 1937-1941 (Clyde R. Hoey). Addresses, 
letters and papers . . . edited by David Leroy Corbitt .... Raleigh, 
N. C, Council of State, 1944. xxxi, 869 p. illus. Apply State De- 
partment of Archives and History, Raleigh, N. C. 

230 The North Carolina Historical Review 

North Carolina. Laws, Statutes, Etc. The general statutes of North 
Carolina of 1943. . . Charlottesville, Va., The Michie Company, 
1943-1944. 4 v. $75.00; in N. C. $45.00. 

North Carolina. University. Controller. The business consolida- 
tion of the University of North Carolina . . . report of the Controller 
to the President and the Board of trustees, May twenty-sixth, 1944. 
[Chapel Hill] 1944. [14] p. pa. Apply. 

North Carolina. University. President, 1930- (Frank Porter Gra- 
ham). A ten year review, the University of North Carolina, 1934- 
1944; reports of the President, and the Deans of administration of 
the University, State College and the Woman's College. [Chapel Hill, 
1944] [71] p. pa. Apply. 

Odum, Howard Washington. Race and rumors of race; challenge to 
American crisis. Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina 
Press, [1943] x, 245 p. $2.00. 

Paschal, George Washington. History of Wake Forest College. Wake 
Forest, N. C. Wake Forest College, 1935-1943. 3 v. $2.00 a volume, or 
$5.00 for the set. 

Simpson, William Hays. Life in mill communities. Clinton, S. C, 
P. C. Press, [1943] 105 p. illus. $3.00. 

Textile Workers Union of America. Research Dept. Substandard 
conditions of living; a study of the cost of the emergency sustenance 
budget in five textile manufacturing communities in January-Feb- 
ruary, 1944. New York, The Textile Workers Union of America, 
CIO, c. 1944. 94 p. Apply. Comparison of N. C. and the New 
England states. 


Davis, Harry Towles. Poisonous snakes of the eastern United States, 
with first aid guide, by Harry T. Davis and C. S. Brimley. Raleigh, 
North Carolina State Museum, [1944] 16 p. illus. pa. $.10. 

Huddle, John Warfield, editor. A laboratory manual for beginning 
students in general geology, edited by John W. Huddle and John 
C. McCampbell .... Chapel Hill, N. C. [Ann Arbor, Mich., Litho- 
printed by Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1944] 99 p. illus. $1.96. 

Jacobson, Nathan. The theory of rings. New York, The American 
Mathematical Society, 1943. vi, 150 p. $2.25. 

Stevens, Ross Oliver. Talk about wildlife, for hunters, fishermen and 
nature lovers. Raleigh, N. C, Bynum Printing Company, [1944] 
229 p. illus. $2.50. 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1943-1944 231 

Applied Science and Useful Arts 

Bullock, Benjamin E. Practical farming for the South. Chapel Hill, 
The University of North Carolina Press, 1944. xvii, 510 p. illus. 

Cruikshank, James Walker. North Carolina forest resources and in- 
dustries .... Washington, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1943 
[i. e. 1944] 76 p. illus. pa. Apply, Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington, D. C. 

Forbus, Wiley Davis. Eeaction to injury; pathology for students of 
disease .... Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1943. xix, 
797 p. illus. $9.00. 

Eocky Mount Mills, Eocky Mount, N. C. Highlights in the progress 
of cotton spinning. Eocky Mount, N. C, Eocky Mount Mills, [1944] 
64 p. illus. Apply. 

Sparkes, Boyden. Zero storage in your home. New York, Doubleday, 
Doran and Company, 1944. 149 p. $2.50. 

Thomas, Eoy Hilman. Dairy farming in the South, by Eoy H. 
Thomas, P. M. Eeaves, and C. W. Pegram. Danville, 111., The 
Interstate, [c. 1944] 374 p. illus. $2.00. 

Fine Arts 

Leighton, Clare Veronica (Hope). Give us this day. New York, 
Eaynal & Hitchcock, 1943. 86 p. 10 full page drawings. $2.50. 

McCall, Adeline (Denham). Timothy's tunes. Boston, Boston Music 
Company, 1944. $1.50. Juvenile. 

Vardell, Charles Gildersleeve. Organs in the wilderness. Winston- 
Salem, N. C. [Salem Academy and College] n.d. 15 p. pa. Apply. 

Weaver, Burnley. The Smokies coloring book. Asheville, N. C, The 
Stephens Press, c. 1943. [12] p. illus. pa. $.25. Juvenile. 


Burch, Viola S. Designs in my quilt. Boston, B. Humphries, inc. 
[1943] 62 p. $1.50. 

Dunn, Adele Brenizer. Jingles in a jiffy, North Carolina A-B-C-'-S. 
[Wilmington, N. C. ?] National Society of the Colonial Dames of 
America in the State of North Carolina, [1943?] [26] p. port. pa. 

Elfreth, Emily Allen. War echoes. Southern Pines, N. C. [Privately 
Printed, c. 1944] 38 p. Apply Author. 

232 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Gholson, Edward. Musings of a minister. Boston, Christopher Pub- 
lishing Company, [c. 1943] 101 p. $2.00. 

Pope, Frederick Russell. Within a Quaker college and other last 
poems, edited by Dorothy Lloyd Gilbert. Guilford College, N. C, 
Guilford College Press, 1943. 87 p. pa. $.50. 


Gilbert, Dorothy Lloyd. In faith and in unity; three scenes in the 
life of Guilford College and North Carolina Yearly Meeting .... 
[Guilford College, 1ST. C, 1942] 26 p. illus. pa. Apply. 

Smith, Betty, editor. Twenty prize-winning non-royalty one-act plays ; 
with a foreword by Henry T. Netherton. New York, Greenberg, 
publisher, Inc., 1943 xiii, 377 p. $2.50. 

Ware, Charles Crossfield. Centennial play: Christians' reveille, a 
drama of the beginnings of North Carolina Disciples of Christ. 
Wilson, N. C. North Carolina Christian Missionary Convention, 
[1944] 30 p. pa. Apply Author, Wilson, N. C. 

Fiction 2 

Burt, Katharine Newlin. Captain Millett's island. Philadelphia, 
Macrae-Smith Company, 1944. 256 p. $2.00. 

Gholson, Edward. Prom Jerusalem to Jericho. Boston, Chapman & 
Grimes, [c. 1943] 122 p. $2.00. 

Kjelgaard, James Arthur. Rebel siege. New York, Holiday House, 
[1943]. 221 p. illus. $2.00. Juvenile. 

Moore, Bertha B. The triplets sign up. Grand Rapids, Mich., William 
B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1944. 66 p. $.60. 

Pennell, Joseph Stanley. The history of Rome Hanks and kindred 
matters. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1944. 363 p. $2.75. 

Pridgen, Tim. West goes the road. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 
Doran and Company, Inc., 1944. 226 p. $2.50. 

Wilder, Robert. Mr. G. strings along. New York, G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, [1944] 217 p. $2.50. 

Literature other than Poetry, Drama, or Fiction 

Allen, Don Cameron. The star-crossed Renaissance, the quarrel about 
astrology and its influence in England. Durham, N. C, Duke Uni- 
versity Press, 1941. xi, 280 p. $3.00. 

2 By a North Carolinian, or with the scene laid in North Carolina. 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1943-1944 233 

Craig, Hardin, editor. Machiavelli's The prince ; an Elizabethan trans- 
lation, edited, with an introduction and notes, from a manuscript in 
the collection of Mr. Jules Furthman. Chapel Hill, The University 
of North Carolina Press, [1944] xli, 177 p. facsims. $3.50. 

Gohdes, Clarence. American literature in nineteenth century England. 
New York, Columbia University Press, 1944. ix, 191 p. $2.50. 

Green, Paul Eliot. The hawthorn tree; some papers and letters on 
life and the theatre. Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina 
Press, [1943] ix, 157 p. $2.00. 

Howell, Almonte Charles. Military correspondence and reports. New 
York McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1943. vii, 190 p. 


[Ferguson, Sue Ramsey Johnston] A syllabus of historical sketches 
showing the curious commixture of the ancestors of James Rufus 
Ferguson at Liledoun, and an account of James Rufus Ferguson's 
christening on May 17, 1944 .... No place, Privately printed, [1944] 
[26] p. illus. pa. Apply, Mrs. R. S. Ferguson, Taylorsville, N. C. 

History and Travel 

Adams, Nicholson Barney. The heritage of Spain, an introduction to 
Spanish civilization. New York, H. Holt and Company, [1943] 
331 p. illus. $4.00; educational edition, $2.50. 

American Automobile Association. Guide to the Carolinas, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee; what to see, where to stop. Washington, D. C, 
American Automobile Association, c. 1944. 120 p. illus., maps. pa. 
Apply Carolina Motor Club, Greensboro, N. C. 

Fries, Adelaide Lisetta. 3 The road to Salem. Chapel Hill, The Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press, [1944]. x, 316 p. illus, $4.00. 

Goerch, Carl. Down home .... Raleigh, N. C, Edwards and 
Broughton Company, 1943. 375 p. illus. $3.00. 

Parris, John A. Springboard to Berlin, by John A. Parris, Leo Disher 
[and others] New York, The Thomas Y. Crowell Publishing Com- 
pany, 1943. 401 p. illus. $3.00. 

Peattie, Roderick, editor. The Great Smokies and the Blue Ridge; 
the story of the southern Appalachians .... New York, The Van- 
guard Press, [1943] x, 372 p. illus. $3.75. 

3 Mayflower award, 1944. 

234 The North Carolina Historical Review 

United Daughters of the Confederacy. Ncrth Carolina Division. 
Prize essays, 1941-1942 .... Mrs. W. L. Johnson, historian. [Raleigh, 
N. C, Edwards and Broughton Company] n. d. 143 p. illus, pa. Apply. 

Watters, Fanny C. Plantation memories of the Cape Fear country 
Asheville, N. C. Stephens Press, [1944] 45 p. illus. $1.00; $.75 pa. 

Autobiography and Biography 

Brooks, Aubrey Lee. Walter Clark, fighting judge. Chapel Hill, The 
University of North Carolina Press, [1944] x, 278 p. illus. $3.00. 

Gill, Everett. A. T. Robertson, a biography. New York, The Mac- 
millan Company, 1943. xvi, 250 p. illus. $2.50. 

Johnson, Gerald White. American heroes and hero-worship. New 
York, Harper and Brothers, 1943. 284 p. $3.00. 

Johnson, Gerald White. Woodrow Wilson, the unforgettable figure 
who has returned to haunt us. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1944. 
293 p. illus. $2.00. 

Jones, Joe. I-B soldier, Private Joe Jones. New York, Harper and 
Brothers, [1944] ix, 162 p. $2.00. 

Murrett, John C. Tar Heel apostle, Thomas Frederick Price, co- 
founder of Maryknoll. New York, Longmans, Green, [1944]. 260 p. 
illus. $2.50. 

Nolan, Jeannette (Covert). O. Henry; the story of William Sydney 
Porter .... New York, J. Messner, Inc., [1943]. vii, 263 p. illus. 
$2.50. Juvenile. 

New Editions and Reprints 

Akers, Susan Grey. Simple library cataloguing. 3rd edition. Chicago, 
American Library Association, 1944. 197 p. $2.25. 

A Brief description of the province of Carolina on the coasts of Floreda, 
reproduced in facsimile with an introduction by John Tate Tanning, 
together with a most accurate map of the whole province. Charlottes- 
ville, The Tracy W. McGregor Library, University of Virginia, 
1944. 23 p. pa. Apply. First edition was published: London, Robert 
Home, 1666. 

Fletcher, Inglis (Clark). Men of Albemarle. Garden City, New 
York, Sun Dial Press, 1943. $1.00. 

Garrison, Karl C. The psychology of exceptional children. Revised 
edition. New York, The Ronald Press Company, 1943. xiii, 351 p. 
illus. $3.25. 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1943-1944 235 

Grimes, John Bryan. The history of the great seal of the State of 
North Carolina, by J. Bryan Grimes .... revised by D. L. Corbitt. 
Ealeigh, N. C, State Department of Archives and History, 1943. 
40 p. illus. Apply. 

Groves, Ernest Rutherford. The American woman, the feminine 
side of a masculine civilization. Revised and enlarged edition. New 
York, Emerson Books, Inc., 1944. 472 p. $3.50. 

Groves, Ernest Rutherford. Sex fulfillment in marriage; introduc- 
tion by Robert A. Ross. New York, Emerson Brooks, Inc., 1943. 
xiv, 319 p. $3.00. 

Hargrove, Marion. See here, Private Hargrove; foreword by Maxwell 
Anderson. Garden City, N. Y., The Sun Dial Press, [1943] xi, 
211 p. $1.00. 

Holmes, John Simcox. Common forest trees of North Carolina, how 
to know them. Fifth edition. Raleigh, North Carolina Department 
of Conservation and Development, 1944. 87 p. illus. Apply. 

James, Bessie (Rowland). Courageous heart; a life of Andrew Jack- 
son for young readers. Popular edition. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill 
Company, 1943. 273 p. illus. $2.00. 

Smith, Betty. A tree grows in Brooklyn. Philadelphia, The Blakiston 

Company, 1944. 376 p. $1.49. 
— Same with title : Tree in the yard. London, William Heinemann, 

Ltd., 1944. 372 p. 10s 6d. 

Smith, Egbert Watson. The creed of the Presbyterians. Revised edi- 
tion. Richmond, Va., John Knox Press, [c. 1944] 214 p. pa. $.75. 

Stephens, George Myers. The Smokies guide .... Asheville, N. C. 
Stephens Press, c. 1942. [64] p. illus. pa. $.50. 

Wolfe, Thomas. Of time and the river. Garden City, N. Y., The Sun 
Dial Press, 1944. 912 p. $1.49. 

Wolfe, Thomas. You can't go home again. Garden City, N. Y., Sun 
Dial Press, [1942] 743 p. $1.49. 


Revivals in the Midst of the Years. By Benjamin Rice Lacy, Jr. (Rich- 
mond, John Knox Press. 1943. Pp. 167. $1.50.) 

Revivalism in America, its Origin, Growth and Decline. By William 
Warren Sweet. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1944. Pp. xv, 192.) 

In these studies of American revivalism the authors have wisely- 
provided the historic framework for understanding their growth 
and significance. President Lacy of Union Theological Seminary- 
has gone back to revivals in Biblical times and to Scotch-Irish 
revivals, while Professor Sweet of the University of Chicago has 
given a broad and mature view of the phenomena of American 
revivals. The Reverend Mr. Lacy, who is primarily interested in 
the role of the Presbyterian Church in the evangelical movement, 
abandons at times the chair of the historian for the pulpit of the 
preacher. Nevertheless, he has written some very informative 
chapters on the Great Awakening, "The Revival of 1800," and 
"The Revival in the Confederate Army." In analyzing the causes 
of the Great Revival he has emphasized the influences of post- 
war immorality following the American Revolution, the effect of 
western emigration, the formalism of religion in the older parts 
of the country, and the infiltration of "French infidelity." H]e 
seems to have confused the philosophic and ethical religion of 
deism, which was really a liberating influence in the intellectual 
life of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, with irre- 
ligion or atheism. His study makes a real contribution in present- 
ing the influence of Hampden-Sydney College (spelled Hampden- 
Sidney by Professor Sweet) in the development of the Great 
Revival of 1797-1805. A few minor errors occur, such as placing 
the date of Washington's first inaugural on March 4th instead of 
April 30th, 1789, and misspelling the name of McCulloch, the 
land speculator of colonial North Carolina. 

Professor Sweet has written a very readable and well-balanced 
narrative and interpretation of the revival movement in America 
from the colonial days to the modern period. Although he leans 
rather heavily on secondary works in some of his chapters, his 
study has the quality of freshness and of intelligent synthesis. 

[ 236 ] 

Book Eeviews 237 

He draws vivid portraits of some of the leading revivalists, but 
I do not think he over-emphasizes their importance or neglects 
the deeper social forces which they expressed. His study clearly 
demonstrates the fact that emotion in religion is a fundamental 
part of religious growth, and the excesses of the earlier revival 
movements should not discredit the value of the emotional ele- 
ment of religious idealism. That revivalism was the most effec- 
tive way of reaching the common man by the church becomes 
apparent in this excellent book. 

The author attempts to supply an answer to the riddle of why 
American Calvinism with its doctrine of predestination could 
produce ardent evangelism. His answer of "personalized Calvin- 
ism," however, leaves the mystery still unsolved. It is a curious 
anomaly of human nature that large bodies of men can hold to a 
theory of religion or of politics while their experience and their 
practice flatly contradict it. Jonathan Edwards is generally known 
as a relentless logician, denying the freedom of the will, and 
terrifying sinners with the vision of an angry God, but Mr. 
Sweet presents a less known side of Edwards, his advocacy of 
emotion in religion. At the conclusion of his volume the author 
assesses objectively the evils and the virtues of revivalism and 
discusses the waning of revivalism in modern times. Although 
he gives a fascinating picture of Dwight L. Moody, he mentions 
only by name the great Southern evangelist, Sam Jones, who 
combined a Lincolnesque type of humor with revivalism, raised 
$750,000 from his audiences, and whose career is so colorful and 
significant that a study of him should be made by a competent 

Clement Eaton. 

Layfayette College, 
Easton, Pa. 

Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet. By Rembert W. Patrick. (Baton Rouge: 
Louisiana State University Press. 1944. Pp. x, 401. $3.75.) 

Between 1861 and 1865 a total of fourteen men (not including 
three ad interim appointees) occupied the six executive positions 
commonly called the Confederate Cabinet. Today, with certain 
exceptions, these men are relatively unknown. Even their names 
have been forgotten by most Southerners except those of the old 

238 The North Carolina Historical Review 

school; and their trials and errors, successes and failures are 
usually dismissed by historians, both Northern and Southern, 
with a few passing remarks, for the most part derogatory. 

After several years of research, Professor Patrick has pro- 
duced a volume that goes far toward rehabilitating the reputa- 
tions of these statesmen of a lost cause. He effectively disposes of 
the widely accepted charge that the Cabinet secretaries were re- 
duced by the Confederate President to the status of "mere 
clerks." Nor does he concur in the view that, with the exception 
of Benjamin, the Cabinet was an inefficient aggregation of 
mediocrities. It was a varied group with contrasting personalities, 
but composed of men of education and of experience in govern- 
ment, patriotic and zealous in their will to achieve the independ- 
ence of the South. A few members were miscast for the parts 
they were called upon to play, but these were soon weeded out of 
the administration. In such men as Benjamin, Seddon, Memming- 
er, Mallory, Reagan, and Watts, the Confederacy is shown to 
have possessed a group of excellent administrators who stood 
head and shoulders above the average of their contemporaries 
and who compare favorably with the Cabinet members of the 
United States, during the war and at other times. 

It is the author's emphatic conclusion, therefore, that the col- 
lapse of the Confederacy cannot justly be attributed to defects 
of the Southern civil administration. More correctly, he suggests, 
it was the defeat of the Confederacy that led to the failure of the 
Cabinet, and it was this failure that has beclouded the real 
merits, the ability, and the high-mindedness of the men who 
headed the Southern government's executive departments. 

As the title would indicate, the book is much more than a 
review of the experiences of the various Confederate secretaries. 
The role of the President, the conditions under which both he 
and the Cabinet were forced to labor, and the organization and 
functioning of the respective departments are described in detail. 
In the last-named category, the treatment of the Confederate 
Post Office Department is of particular interest. An introductory 
chapter analyzes succinctly the situation that led to secession, 
and there is appended a diverting account of "court life" at the 
two Confederate capitals. 

Book Keviews 239 

The author manifests a noteworthy facility for combining care- 
ful scholarship, discriminating analysis, and clear and forceful 
statement of conclusions. A few errors in proofreading ("1861" 
for 1851 as the date of the removal of Wade Keyes to Montgom- 
ery, p. 311 ; Mrs. Robert "Standard" for Stanard, p, 338 ; and Mrs. 
"Giraud D." for Mrs. D. Giraud Wright, p. 381) do not affect the 
soundness and value of a work that should be received with 
gratitude by all students of Confederate history. 

James W. Patton. 

North Carolina State College, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Tennessee During the Revolutionary War. By Samuel Cole Williams. 
(Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, Nashville. 1944. Pp. 

The contributions to our Revolutionary history are constantly 
growing. Only ,a few years ago Dr. DeMond's excellent mono- 
graph, The Loyalists in North Carolina during the Revolution, 
appeared from the Duke Press. Judge Williams has done a some- 
what similar work for Tennessee in the Revolutionary period. 

At the beginning of the Revolution all that western country 
was in a state of flux. It is interesting to know, as Judge Williams 
points out, that Tennessee was originally a part of Virginia ; that 
is, Kentucky extended indefinitely southward. In 1776 repre- 
sentatives of the Watauga settlement requested to be incorpo- 
rated regularly in Virginia. Meeting with no response from Vir- 
ginia, the Watauga men turned to North Carolina. That seems 
to be the process by which Tennessee, for a brief term of years, 
became a part of the Old North State. 

The author tells, in an effective way, of the conditions existing 
at the opening of the Revolution. Chapters deal with the Chero- 
kee Invasion and with the campaign against the Chickamauga 
Indians. Indeed Indian history is fully and accurately presented. 
The settlement on the Cumberland which had so much to do with 
the development of Tennessee — Robertson and Donelson and their 
associates — finds large space. A graphic chapter describes the 
Indians' attempt to destroy this vital Cumberland settlement. 
"Nolichucky Jack" Sevier, the Virginian who did more than any 

240 The North Carolina Historical Review 

other man to mould Tennessee, passes across the pages in color- 
ful fashion. Isaac Shelby, who turned against Virginia and 
forced the separation of Kentucky, also figures largely. 

Exceedingly interesting is the history of the King's mountain 
expedition. Mankind has been so diminished relatively by being 
herded in masses in such human ant-hills as New York that we 
don't understand today how important the average citizen was in 
those times of the thinly-settled border. The frontier leaders in 
the late summer of 1780 combed the valleys for hundreds of 
miles in Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in order to 
collect — 1,100 men ! Those 1,100 virile individualists, armed with 
their long rifles, overwhelmed Ferguson's loyalist militia at 
King's Mountain in October, 1780, paving the way for the 
redemption of the South. King's Mountain was followed by 
Cowpens and Guilford Courthouse, and these pointed directly to 
Yorktown. Admirably led — not commanded — by Colonel William 
Campbell, of Virginia, that expedition of frontiersmen across the 
mountains to destroy Ferguson was a complete success. 

Judge Williams, long a justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court, 
has added an admirable book to his list of publications. He is a 
scholar of approved quality, able to use his tools to good advan- 
tage. The footnotes are as valuable as the text. The style is sim- 
ple but good; one finds the book interesting as well as instruc- 
tive. The Tennessee Historical Commission, in publishing it, has 
contributed an important monograph to American history. The 
few illustrations, mostly of documents, are excellent. 

H. J. Eckenrode. 

Division of History and Archaeology, 

Virginia Conservation Commission, Richmond. 

Ante-Bellum Kentucky, A Social History, 1800-1860. By F. Garvin Daven- 
port. (Oxford, Ohio: Mississippi Valley Press. 1943. Pp. xviii, 238. 

This volume by Professor Davenport of Transylvania College 
presents a good starting point in analyzing the recent writing of 
the social history of the South. Alabama in the Fifties has been 
described by Minnie C. Boyd, Ante-Bellum North Carolina by 

Book Reviews 241 

Guion G. Johnson, Confederate Mississippi by J. K. Betters worth, 
and South Carolina before the Civil War by Rosser H. Taylor. 
Only the volume by Mr. Bettersworth has a strong sense of 
unity and logical development. His task, however, was much sim- 
pler than that of the social historians cited above, for his period 
of research is more limited, and he has described the impact of a 
war upon the economy and social life of the people of a single 
state. The social historians have a tremendously difficult task 
of selection, and few of them have developed a definite point of 
view or frame of reference. Professor Davenport, for example, 
undertakes to describe the social history of Kentucky with merely 
a brief mention of the Negroes and slavery (only fifty lines in 
the entire book devoted to that topic). It seems incredible that 
one could get a true picture of the social history of Kentucky, 
1800-1860, with such an omission. His survey of Kentucky history 
ends with a vivid description of a sad old man, George Prentice, 
editor of the Louisville Journal, grieving that his sons had joined 
the Confederate army. Between that scene and his opening chap- 
ter on "Country Folks," Professor Davenport has dealt with a 
miscellaneous assortment of topics, education, medicine, natural 
science, religion, humanitarian movements, art, and belles let- 
tres. He has shown little connection between these subjects, but 
he is not unique in this respect, for the other social historians 
mentioned above have in greater or less degree followed this 
practice. The question, therefore, arises, is this lack of a coherent 
pattern the fault of the writers or due to the immaturity of 
social historiography? 

Ante-Bellum Kentucky is a pleasantly written book, possessing 
a quiet sense of humor and tinctured with nostalgia. Further- 
more, it has the virtues of candor and freedom from provincial 
state pride. Professor Davenport has included in his book an 
excellent chapter on the history of Transylvania University and 
other Kentucky colleges of the ante-bellum period. His discus- 
sion of the treatment of the criminals, the deaf, the blind, and the 
insane is a real contribution to Southern history. Unfortunately 
his account of the Kentucky press is very inadequate, especially 
since it neglects a consideration of the anti-slavery newspapers. 
He does not exaggerate the aristocratic tradition of the state, 

242 The North Carolina Historical Review 

but I believe he should have devoted more attention to the com- 
mon people. He could have strengthened his work greatly by a 
realistic investigation of landholding in Kentucky, such as Ows- 
ley, Blanche, Clark, and Bonner have done for other states of the 
South. The role of the common man in politics in the Old South 
needs much illumination, but Professor Davenport proceeds on 
the assumption, apparently, that politics is not a proper subject 
for the social historian. Ante-Bellum Kentucky is, nevertheless, 
based on a wide reading of source material and throws a kindly 
and fair light on the generation of Southerners that built the 
attractive civilization of the Old South. 

Clement Eaton. 

Layfayette College, 
Easton, Pa. 


A portrait of Thomas Walter Bickett, governor of North 
Carolina, 1917-1921, was unveiled in the senate chamber of the 
state capitol on November 11. 

On November 23, Thanksgiving, the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf at Morganton celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. 

The twentieth annual meeting of the Society of Mayflower 
Descendants in North Carolina was held in Charlotte on Decem- 
ber 2. 

The State Literary and Historical Association, the North Caro- 
lina Folk-Lore Society, the State Art Society, the Archaeological 
Society, and the Society for the Preservation of Antiquities 
held their annual sessions in Raleigh, December 6-7. All meet- 
ings, unless otherwise stated, were at the Sir Walter Hotel. As 
in the previous year, the forty-fourth annual session of the 
State Literary and Historical Association was shortened and only 
two sessions instead of the customary three were held. On Thurs- 
day morning, December 7, Mr. Aubrey L. Brooks of Greensboro 
spoke on "Walter Clark's Philosophy in Action," Dr. H. M. Wag- 
staff of Chapel Hill read a paper, "A Footnote to Social History," 
Rev. Douglas L. Rights of Winston-Salem reviewed North Caro- 
lina books and authors of the year, and a business meeting was 
held at which the following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: president, Aubrey L. Brooks, Greensboro; first vice presi- 
dent, Everett Gill, Wake Forest; second vice president, Cecil 
Johnson, Chapel Hill; third vice president, Nannie M. Tilley, 
Durham; secretary-treasurer, Christopher Crittenden, Raleigh. 
At the final meeting on Thursday evening, Mr. Macon R. Dunna- 
gan of Raleigh announced that The Road to Salem, by Dr. Ade- 
laide L. Fries, had been adjudged the best original work by a 
North Carolinian during the year, and presented a replica of the 
Mayflower Society Cup to Miss Fries. Dr. Hubert M. Poteat of 
Wake Forest then delivered the presidential address, "White 
Unto Harvest," and Honorable John Fulbright, Congressman 
and Senator-elect from Arkansas, spoke on "Prospects for 

[ 243 ] 

244 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The thirty-third annual session of the North Carolina Folklore 
Society took place on Thursday afternoon, December 7, with 
the following program: "Some Latin- American Folklore and 
Folkways," Ralph S. Boggs, Chapel Hill ; "The American Dialect 
Society and Its Work," George P. Wilson, Greensboro ; "A Passel 
of Mountain Songs," Bascom Lamar Lunsford, South Turkey 
Creek; "Progress toward Publication of the Brown Collection," 
Newman I. White, Durham; and a business meeting. 

The North Carolina State Art Society held its eighteenth 
annual session on Wednesday and Thursday, December 6-7. On 
Wednesday evening, at the Sir Walter Hotel, with Governor J. 
Melville Broughton presiding, Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arring- 
ton gave "Presidential Greetings," and Mr. Rensselaer W. Lee, 
of the American Council of Learned Societies Committee on the 
Protection of Cultural Treasures in the War Areas, delivered an 
illustrated lecture, "The Effect of the War on Renaissance and 
Baroque Art," after which, in the State Art Society Gallery, 
Library Building, a reception was held and there was shown the 
Thomas Eakins Centennial Exhibition, from the galleries; of 
M. Knoedler and Company, Incorporated, New York City. On 
Wednesday afternoon in the same room a business meeting took 
place and lated that afternoon in the Attorney General's office 
a session of the board of directors was held. 

The annual session of the Archaeological Society of North 
Carolina took place on Wednesday afternoon, December 6, with 
the following program: "Museums and Archaeology," Harry T. 
Davis, Raleigh ; The Guarani Indians of South America," Guiller- 
mo Tell Bertoni, Asuncion, Paraguay ; and "The Catawba Culture 
of the Carolinas," Douglas L. Rights, Winston-Salem. 

The sixth annual session of the North Carolina Society for the 
Preservation of Antiquities was held on Wednesday afternoon, 
December 6, with the following program: presidential address, 
McDaniel Lewis, Greensboro; "Let's Save the Nash-Kollock 
School Building," Mrs. J. G. Parker, Hillsboro; and three talks 
under the general title, "The Program to Restore Tryon's Pal- 

Historical News 245 

ace," as follows : "A Citizen's Share in the Movement," Mrs. J. E. 
Latham, Greensboro; "The Interest of the State," Governor J. 
Melville Broughton, Raleigh; and "The Part of the Department 
of Conservation and Development," Paul Kelly, Raleigh. The ses- 
sion was ended by a business meeting. 

On December 17 St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Charlotte 
celebrated its one-hundreth anniversary. 

On January 13 the First Presbyterian Church of Reidsville 
celebrated its 70th anniversary. 

On January 15 the one-hundred-fiftieth anniversary of the 
opening of the University of North Carolina was celebrated by a 
joint session of the General Assembly. Addresses were delivered 
by Governor R. Gregg Cherry, President Frank Porter Graham 
and Dean Robert Burton House of the University, President 
Clarence Addison Dykstra of the University of Wisconsin, and 
Representative Victor S. Bryant of Durham, chairman of a legis- 
lative committee to arrange the celebration. 

Robert E. Lee's birthday, January 19, was commemorated by 
exercises in the house of representative chamber of the state 
capitol, arranged by the Johnston-Pettigrew Chapter, United 
Daughters of the Confederacy. Former Governor J. Melville 
Broughton delivered an address. 

Exercises celebrating the one hundreth anniversary of the 
State School for the Blind and the Deaf in Raleigh were held at 
the school on January 23. Speakers included Honorable Josephus 
Daniels of Raleigh, former Governor J. Melville Broughton of 
Raleigh, Mr. W. G. Scarberry of Columbus, Ohio, president of the 
National Association for the Blind, and Governor R. Gregg 

The Wake County committee for the collection of war records 
met in the Fred A. Olds Room of the Hall of History on January 
31 with Mrs. R. N. Simms of Raleigh, chairman of the committee, 
presiding. A special exhibit of war records, which had been ar- 
ranged in connection with the meeting, was kept on display for 

246 The North Carolina Historical Review 

several days. It consisted of a sampling of the approximately 
75,000 war items collected thus far, including newspapers from 
military areas in North Carolina and elsewhere, photographs, 
church bulletins, reports from clubs and civic organizations, let- 
ters from service men, posters and scrapbooks by school children, 
handbills, and placards, menu cards from restaurants and hotels, 
recordings of radio broadcasts, and many other items showing 
social and economic conditions during the war. 

On February 3 The Asheville Citizen celebrated its seventy- 
fifth anniversary. The first issue of what was then a weekly 
newspaper was published on February 3, 1870, by Randolph 
Abbott Shotwell. 

On February 12 the University of North Carolina celebrated 
the one-hundred-fiftieth anniversary of the arrival of the first 
student, Hinton James, who had walked all the way from Wil- 

Washington's birthday, February 22, was celebrated by special 
exercises in the senate chamber of the state capitol, conducted by 
the Caswell-Nash Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Senator Hugh G. Mitchell of Iredell County delivered an 

Dr. W. T. Laprade, professor of European history and chair- 
man of the department of history at Duke University, has been 
appointed managing editor of the South Atlantic Quarterly, to 
succeed the late Henry R. Dwire. 

Mrs. James Edwin Woodward of Wilson has been re-elected 
president general of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Mr. George Bauerlein, Junior, resigned as assistant professor 
of history at North Carolina State College, effective March 1, 
in order to enter business in Alabama. 

Dr. Preston W. Edsall, formerly connected with the North 
Carolina State College Army Training Program in history, accept- 
ed a position as professor of government at East Carolina Teach- 
ers College, effective January 1. 

Historical News 247 

Mr. Bradley D. Thompson, for more than two years associate 
professor of history at Davidson College, returned in February 
to Harvard University in order to complete his graduate work 

Due to prolonged illness, Dr. B. B. Kendrick continues on leave 
of absence from the Woman's College of the University. His 
address is 478 Dresden Avenue, Gardiner, Maine. 

Dr. E. E. Pfaff is on leave from the Woman's College of the 
University again this year, serving as director of the Southern 
Council on International Relations. Supplying for Dr. Pfaff is 
Dr. Richard Bardolph, who recently completed his graduate work 
at the University of Illinois. 

Dr. Grace Hennigan, last year a member of the staff of the 
Woman's College of the University, is now serving with the 
American Red Cross in England. 

Dr. Fletcher M. Green returned on March 1 from Harvard 
University to the University of North Carolina. 

Dr. Loren C. MacKinney of the University of North Carolina 
is chairman of the editorial board of the humanities volume of 
the University sesquicentennial publications. The volume will be 
entitled, A State University Surveys the Humanities. 

During the winter quarter Dr. Hugh T. Lefler of the University 
of North Carolina taught a graduate course at the North Carolina 
College for Negroes in Durham. 

Miss Jane Zimmerman, formerly a member of the history 
department of the Woman's College of the University, with the 
aid of a Rosenwald fellowship is continuing her graduate studies 
at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 

Miss Margaret Moser Heflin, who did her undergraduate work 
at the Woman's College of the University and who took her mas- 
ter's degree at the University of Chicago, is now a member of 
the history department of the former institution. 

248 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Dr. Elizabeth Cometti of the Woman's College of the Uni- 
versity, with the aid of a Social Science Research Council grant- 
in-aid, is engaged in a research project dealing with emergency- 
legislation during the American Revolution. 

Dr. H. M. Wagstaff of the University of North Carolina in 
January won the Short Story Writers' contest conducted by the 
Charlotte Writers' Club. 

Books received include Albea Godbold, The Church College of 
the Old South (Durham: Duke University Press. 1944) ; Josephus 
Daniels, The Wilson Era: Years of Peace — 1910-1917 (Chapel 
Hill : The University of North Carolina Press. 1944) ; and Francis 
Butler Simkins, Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolina (Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1944). 

Various war items have been added to displays in the Hall of 
History, including Japanese articles of clothing and equipment 
from Kiska and Attu, a B-29 Superfortress model, items from 
Guadalcanal and Hawaii, and captured German insignia and 

A Confederate museum has been established in one of the 
rooms of the Mint Museum of Art in Charlotte. 

A campaign has been launched to raise $50,000 for a building 
to house the library and manuscript collection of the Historical 
Foundation of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches at 

The Quarterly Review of Literature, launched in Chapel Hill 
in 1943, is published by Warren Carrier, instructor of Spanish, 
and Ted Weiss, instructor of English, both of the University of 
North Carolina. 

Accessions of the State Department of Archives and History 
include thirteen transfiles of the correspondence of Governor J. 
Melville Broughton, 1941-1945, and eighteen manuscript boxes 
containing the report and supporting papers on conditions at the 

Historical News 249 

State Hospital in Morganton, during the Broughton adminis- 

The North Carolina General Assembly at its session early this 
year increased the appropriation of the Department of Archives 
and History from $27,812 for 1944-1945 to $43,519 for 1945-1946 
and $31,919 for 1946-1947, and in addition provided for an em- 
ploy ees J bonus contingent upon the availability of funds. The 
General Assembly also enacted a bill "To Re-define and Clarify 
the Functions and Duties of the Department," which, as its title 
indicates, makes no radical changes in the work of the agency, 
but merely combines and restates in one act the provisions which 
previously were contained in a number of different acts. 

The Manuscripts Division of the Duke University Library has 
acquired manuscripts of Charles L. Van Noppen, which include 
sketches written for an additional volume of S. A. Ashe and 
others, editors, Biographical History of North Carolina (8 vol- 
umes; Greensboro, N. C: 1905-1907). The subjects of these 
articles (showing the name' of the author where it is given) 
are as follows : 

Alderman, Edwin Anderson (1861-1931). Educator. By C. 
Alphonso Smith. 

Alexander, John Brevard (1834 ). Physician. 

Alexander, Sydenham Benoni (1840-1921). Farmer and Con- 

Allen, William C. (1859 ). Educator and author. By Ruth 


Amis, Thomas. Revolutionary leader. (By S. B.Weeks?.) 

Armfield, Eugene Morehead (1869 ). Banker. By S. A. 


Armfield, Robert Franklin (1829-1898). Congressman. By Min- 
nie Hampton Eliason. 

Armfield, Wyatt Jackson (1843 ). Banker. 

Armstrong, Charles B. (1861- ). Textile manufacturer. 

By W. E. Christian. 

Arrington, Archibald Hunter (1809-1872)). Congressman. By 
S. A. Ashe. 

250 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Atkinson, Thomas (1807-1881). Bishop (Episcopal). By S. A. 

Bagge, Traugott (1729-1799). Merchant. By Adelaide L. Fries. 

Baskerville, Charles (1870-1922). Chemist. By "J. H. B." and 
F. P. Venable. 

Bassett, John Spencer (1867-1928). Historian. By [W. K. 

Battle, John Thomas Johnson (1859- ). Physician. By 

[M. DeL.] Haywood. 

Bechtler, Christopher (1782-1842?). Goldsmith. By S. B. 

Beddingfield, Eugene Crocker (1862 ). Lawyer and poli- 

Bellamy, John Dillard (1854 ). Politician. 

Bennett, Risden Tyler (1840-1913). Lawyer. 

Bernard, William Henry (1837 ). Editor. By S. A. Ashe. 

Blacknall, Oscar Williams (1852 ). Author. 

Blackwell, William Thomas (1839-1903). Tobacco manufac- 
turer. By Jas. A. Robinson. 

Blades, James B. (1888 ). Lumberman. By A. D. Ward. 

Bledsoe, Moses Andrew (1822-1905). Lawyer and farmer. 

Bowman, Jacob Weaver. Lawyer. 

Boyd, James Edmund (1845 ). Lawyer, federal judge. 

Bridges, John Luther (1850 ). Lawyer and farmer. By 

Robert White, Jr. 

Brown, Henry Alfred (1845 ). Baptist minister. By Rich- 
ard Tilman Vann. 

Brown, Peter Marshall (1859 ). Real estate dealer. By 

S. A. Ashe. 

Bryan, Henry Ravenscroft (1836 ). Lawyer. By S. A. 


Bryan, James Augustus (1839 ). Lawyer. 

Bryan, John Herritage (1798-1870). Congressman. By Henry 
R. Bryan. 

Buchanan, E. John (1828-1899). Physician. By S. A. Ashe. 

Burkett, Charles William (1873 ). Editor and educator. 

By "H." 

Historical News 251 

Burton, Robert Oswald (1811-1891). Methodist minister. By 
John N. Cole. 

Busbee, Charles Manly (1845-1909) . Lawyer. 

Busbee, Fabius Haywood (1848-1908). Lawyer. By S. A. Ashe. 

Butler, Bion H. (1857 ). Editor. 

Caldwell, Joseph (1773-1876). Educator. By Kemp P. Battle. 

Caldwell, Tod R. (1818-1874). Governor. By George S. Wills. 

Carlyle, John Bethune (1859 ). Educator. By E. W. Sikes. 

Carson, Samuel P. (1798-1938). Congressman. 

Chamberlain, Joseph R, (1861 ). Manufacturer. By S. A. 


Cheshire, Joseph Blount (1850-1932). Episcopal bishop. By 
S. A. Ashe. 

Clark, Henry Toole (1808-1874). Governor. By J. B. Cheshire. 

Clark, Thomas (1741-1792). Revolutionary officer. By Fanny 
DeBerniere (Hooper) Whitaker. 

Clark, William Willis (1856 ). Lawyer. 

Clarke, Mary Bayard (1827-1886). Poet. By Bessie Lewis 

Clingman, Thomas Lanier (1812-1897). Senator. By George 

Cobb, William Henry Harrison (1841 ). Physician. 

Coleman, Charles Thaddeus (1837-1895). Confederate officer 
and engineer. By A. C. Avery. 

Coltrane, Daniel Branson (1842 — ). Textile manufacturer. 

By Elizabeth Corbett and Paul B. Means. 

Cook, Arthur Wayland (1876-1940). Lawyer. By G. S. Brad- 

Coon, Charles Lee (1868-1927). Educator. By R. D. W. Connor. 

Cooper, John Downey (1849-1921). Tobacconist and textile 
manufacturer. By Thomas M. Pittman. 

Corbitt, Richard Johnson (1873 ). Manufacturer of trucks 

and buggies. By T. T. Hicks. 

Cotten, Lyman Atkinson (1874-1926). Naval officer. By Edwin 
T. Parker and C. S. Carr. 

Council, John Pickett (1855 ). By K. B. Council. 

252 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Cowles, Calvin Josiah (1821-1907). Politician. By William S. 

Cowles, Henry Clay (1842-1914). Court clerk. By Minnie 
Hampton Eliason. 

Cowles, William Henry Harrison (1840-1901). Congressman. 
By J. B. Armfield. 

Crenshaw, John Martin (1822 ). By John B. Carlyle. 

Croom, Hardy Bryan (1799-1837). Botanist. By S. B. Weeks. 

Crossan, Thomas Morrow (1819-1865). Naval officer. By M. 
DeL. Haywood. 

Crowell, John Franklin (1857-1931). Educator. 

Culpepper, John (1644- ). Surveyor general. By S. B. 


Cuming, William (1724-1796). Legislator. By S. B. Weeks, 

Curtis, Moses Ashley (1808-1872). Botanist. By Archibald 

Daniel, Joseph John (1784-1848). Jurist. By R. H. Battle. 

Daniel, Robert. Early settler. By S. B. Weeks. 

Davidson, Adam Brevard (1808-1888). Contractor. 

Davis, Joseph Jonathan (1828-1892). Congressman. By S. A. 

Davis, Orin Datus (1851 ). Banker. By J. Rumple. 

Deems, Charles Force (1820-1893). Methodist minister. By 
S. B. Weeks. 

DeGraffenried, Christopher (1661-1743). Colonizer. By S. B. 

DeRossett, Moses John (1726-1767). Revolutionary patriot. 
By S. A. Ashe. 

DeRossett, William Lord (1832 ). Revolutionary patriot. 

Dillard, John Henry (1819-1896). Lawyer. By George Wills. 

Dinwiddie, James (1837-1907). Educator. By M. DeL. Hay- 
wood and S. A. Ashe. 

Donnell, Robert. By Addie Cabe (Donnell) Van Noppen. 

Dortch, William T. (1824-1889). Senator. By Henry G. Connor. 

Drane, Robert Brent (1800-1862). Episcopal minister. By 
S. A. Ashe. 

Historical News 253 

Dudley, Edward Bishop (1789-1855). Congressman. By David 
W. Roberts. 

Duffy, Charles (1808-1892). Physician. By J. L. Nicholson and 
O'H. Laughinghouse. 

Duffy, Francis (1847 ). Physician. By Richard H. Lewis. 

Duffy, Rondolph (1855 ). Lawyer. By B. F. Long. 

Duke, Angier Buchanan (1834-1923). Sportsman. By John 
N. Cole. 

Dunn, William Arrington (1856-1905). Lawyer. By Richard 
Tillman Vann. 

Eastchurch, Thomas ( 1677) . Governor. By S. B. Weeks. 

Edwards, William J. (1859-1916). Banker and railroad builder. 
Elliott, Warren Grice (1848-1906). Lawyer. By G. B. Elliott. 
Englehard, Joseph A. (1832-1879). Editor and politician. By 
S. A. Ashe. 

Ewart, Hamilton Glover (1849-1918). Congressman. 

Faircloth, William T. (1829-1900). Judge. By S. A. Ashe. 

Ferguson, Garland Sevier (1843 ). Lawyer. By S. A. 


Fisher, Charles (1789-1849). Congressman. By S. B. Weeks. 

Fisher, Charles Frederick (1816-1861). Confederate soldier. 
By S. B. Weeks. 

Fowle, Daniel G. (1831-1891). Governor. By S. A. Ashe. 

French, Robert Strange (1815-1872). Lawyer. By S. A. Ashe. 

Fries, Adelaide Lisetta (1871 ). Historian. By Mrs. Lind- 
say Patterson. 

Fry, John Walker (1854 ). Railroad builder. By S. A. 


Gales, Joseph, Sr. (1761-1811). Editor. By S. B. Weeks. 
Gales, Seaton, Jr. (1828-1878). Editor. By M. DeL. Haywood. 

Gaston, Alexander ( 1781). Physician. By DeL. Haywood. 

Gattis, Samuel Mallett (1863 ). Lawyer. 

Gilliam, Donnell (1861-1908). Lawyer. 

Glasgow, James ( 1820). Land speculator. By M. DeL. 


254 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Glover, William ( 1711?). Governor. By S. B. Weeks. 

Goodloe, Daniel Reaves (1814-1902). Author. By S. B. Weeks. 

Graham, John Washington (1838 ). Legislator. 

Graham, William A. (1804-1875). Governor and Secretary of 
the Navy. By Walter Clark. 

Graves, Ralph Henry (1817-1876). Educator. By Frank Nash. 

Green, John Ruffin (1832-1869). Tobacco manufacturer. 

Gulley, Needham Yancey (1855 ). Educator. By E. W. 


Guthrie, William A. (1846 ). Lawyer. 

Hall, Clement. Episcopal minister. By S. B. Weeks. 

Hall, Enoch ( 1755-). Jurist. By S. B. Weeks. 

Hall, James (1744-1825). Presbyterian minister. By S. B. 

Hanmer, Daniel. Colonial lawyer. By S. B. Weeks, 

Harnett, Cornelius. Colonial lawyer. By R. D. W. Connor. 

Harris, Charles Wilson (1771-1804). Educator. By Paul B. 

Harris, Edward ( 1813) . Jurist. By M. DeL. Haywood. 

Hart, Thomas. Revolutionary leader. By Frank Nash. 

Harvey, Thomas. Deputy governor. By S. B. Weeks. 

Hassell, James. Early settler. By S. B. Weeks. 

Hawks, Francis Lister (1798-1866). Historian. By Collier Cobb. 

Haynes, Raleigh Rutherford (1851-1917). Textile manufac- 
turer. By Clyde R. Hoey. 

Haywood, Ernest (1860 ). Lawyer. 

Heartt, Dennis (1783-1870). Editor. By Frank Nash. 

Hedrick, Jones Tilden (1876 ). Merchant. By Zeb B. 


Henderson, Archibald (1768-1822). Lawyer. Archibald Hen- 

Henderson, Barbara (Bynum). Poet. By Eliza Polk McGehee. 

Henderson, Leonard (1722-1833). Jurist. By R. W. Winston. 

Henderson, Richard (1735-1785). Jurist. By Archibald Hen- 

Henley, Peter ( 1758). Jurist. By S. B. Weeks. 

Heyer, Matthew Johnston (1854 ). Banker. 

Historical News 255 

Hill, Theophilus Hunter. Poet. By Henry Jerome Stockard. 

Hill, Thomas N. (1838-1904). Jurist. By S. A. Ashe. 

Hoke, John Franklin (1820-1888). Soldier. By M. DeL. Hay- 

Hoke, Michael (1810 ). Lawyer. By M. DeL. Haywood. 

Hoke, William Alexander (1851-1925). Jurist. By S. A. Ashe 
and M. DeL. Hjaywood. 

Holmes, Theophilus Hunter (1804-1880). Soldier. By S. A. 

Howe, Robert (1732-1782). Revolutionary leader. By S. B. 
Weeks and John D. Bellamy. 

Iredell, James (1788-1853). Governor. By M. DeL. Haywood. 

Ives, Levi Silliman (1797-1867). Episcopal minister. By J. B. 

Ivey, Thomas Neal (1860-1923). Methodist minister. By M. T. 
Plyer and S. A. Ashe. 

James, Fernando Godfrey (1857 ). Lawyer. By Thomas J. 


Jarvis, Thomas ( 1694?). Early settler. By S. B. Weeks. 

Jenkins, Laban Linebarger (1864 ). Banker. By S. A. 


Johnson, Kate Ancrum (Burr) (1881 ). Social worker. By 

Nell Battle Lewis. 

Johnson, Livingston (1857-1931). Baptist minister. By Hight 
C. Moore. 

Johnson, Norman H. (1880 ). Editor and lawyer. 

Jones, Milton Luther (1852) ) . Railroad builder. By Archi- 
bald Johnson. 

Justice, Michael Hoke (1844 ). Lawyer. 

Kerr, John (1811-1879). Congressman. By Frank Nash. 
Kinchen, John. Revolutionary leader. By S. B. Weeks. 
Knight, Tobias. Colonial official. By S. B. Weeks. 

Lambeth, John Walter (1868 ). Furniture manufacturer. 

By Archibald Johnson. 

256 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Leach, James Madison (1815-1891). Congressman. By S. B. 

Lehman, Emma A. (1841-1922). Educator. By Adelaide L. 

Lewis, Richard Henry (1850-1926). Physician. By W. S. 

London, Henry Armand (1846-1918). Lawyer. 

Lyon, Chatham Calhoun (1850- ). Lawyer. By E. P. 


McAlister, Alexander Worth (1862 ). Underwriter. 

McConnell, James Rogers (1887-1917). Soldier. By George H. 

McGilvary, Daniel (1828- ). Presbyterian minister. By 

S. A. Ashe. 

McKee, James (1844 ). Physician. 

McKimmon, Jane Simpson (1868 ). Home demonstration 

agent. By Nell Battle Lewis. 

Maclaine, Archibald ( 1791). Merchant and Revolution- 
ary leader. By S. B. Weeks. 

McMullan, Thomas Shelton (1868 ). Physician and author. 

McRae, James Cameron (1838-1909). Jurist. By S. A. Ashe. 

Mann, Julian Smith (1863 ). Superintendent of State 


Manning, John (1830-1899). Lawyer. By Francis P. Venable. 

Marshall, Matthias M. (1841 ). Episcopal minister. By 

S. A. Ashe. 

Martin, William Joseph (1830-1896). Educator. By Henry Louis 

Maule, William. Early settler. By S. A. Ashe. 

Meares, Oliver Pendleton (1828-1906). Lawyer. 

Meredith, Thomas (1797-1851). Baptist minister. By B. F. 

Miller, Robert Morrison, Jr. (1856 ). Textile manufac- 

Miller, Thomas ( - ). Deputy governor. By S. B. 


Mills, John Haymes (1831-1898). Editor. By F. P. Hobgood, Jr. 

Montgomery, John ( 1744). Lawyer. By S. B. Weeks. 

Historical News 257 

Montgomery, William James (1834 ). Judge. 

Moore, Hight C. (1871 ). Baptist minister. By Henry 

Jerome Stockard. 

Mordecai, George W. (1800-1871). Banker. By M. DeL. Hay- 

Morrison, Robert Hall (1798-1889). Educator and Presbyterian 
minister. By W. A. Withers. 

Morton, William Dennis (1842 ). Presbyterian minister. 

By S. A. Ashe. 

Mountcastle, George Williams (1871 ). Banker. By Zeb V. 


Murdoch, Francis Johnstone (1846 ). Episcopal minister. 

Nash, Henry Kolloch ( 1897) . Lawyer. By Frank Nash. 

Nash, Leonidas Lydwell (1846-1917). Methodist minister. By 
Thomas M. Pittman. 

O'Kelly, James (1735-1826). Minister. 

Osborne, Adlai (1744-1815). Revolutionary leader. By S. A. 

Osborne, Edwin Augustus (1837 ). Lawyer. By S. A. 


Osborne, Francis Irwin (1853 ). Lawyer. By S. A. Ashe. 

Palin, John. Jurist. By S. B. Weeks. 

Patten, John ( 1787) . Revolutionary soldier. By M. DeL. 


Pearson, Richmond (1852-1907). Congressman. By S. A. Ashe. 

Pender, William Dorsey (1834-1863). Soldier. By S. B. Weeks. 

Phillips, Samuel Field (1824-1903). Lawyer. By R. H. Battle. 

Pollock, Tomas ( 1722). Colonial official. By S. B. Weeks. 

Pool, John (1826-1884). Lawyer. By S. B. Weeks. 

Pool, Solomon (1832-1901). Educator and Methodist minister. 
By S. B. Weeks. 

Pou, James Hinton (1861-1935). Lawyer. 

Pressly, George W. (1870 ). Physician. By J. H. Way. 

Price, Charles (1846-1905). Lawyer. By Paul B. Means. 

258 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Pritchard, Thomas H. ( 1896) . Baptist minister. By E. W. 


Pruden, William Dossey (1847 ). Lawyer. By T. J. 


Ramsay, James Graham (1823-1903). Physician. By R. D. W. 

Ramseur, Stephen Dobson (1837-1864). Confederate leader. By 
Walter Clark. 

Randall, William George (1860-1905). Artist. By Collier Cobb. 

Raper, Charles Lee (1870 ). Historian. 

Ravenscroft, John Stark (1772-1830). Episcopal bishop. By 
S. A. Ashe. 

Ray, John Edwin (1852-1918). Educator. By S. A. Ashe. 

Rayner, Kenneth (1810-1884). Congressman. By J. G. deR. 

Reed, William. Colonial governor. By S. B. Weeks. 

Reid, Christian (1846-1920). Novelist. By Archibald Hender- 

Reilly, Laura Holmes (1861-1941). Club woman. By Mrs. H. P. 
Shumway and Mrs. Philip N. Moore. 

Rhodes, John Melanchton (1849 ). Textile manufacturer. 

By John J. George, R. L. Fritz, and Enoch Hite. 

Rhyne, Abel Peterson (1844 ). Textile manufacturer. By 

L. M. Hoffman. 

Rhyne, Daniel Efird (1849 ). Textile manufacturer. By 

L. M. Hoffman. 

Rice, Nathaniel ( 1753). Jurist. By S. B. Weeks. 

Robinson, William S. O'B. (1852 ). Lawyer. (By M. DeL. 


Rockwell, Kiffin Yates (1892-1916). World War I aviator and 
hero. By George Tayloe Winston. 

Ross Martin. Baptist minister. By B. F. Riley. 

Royall, William (1823-1893). Educator. By F. P. Hobgood. 

Royster, Beverly S. (1865 ). Lawyer. By M. DeL. Hay- 

Royster, Hubert Ashley (1871 ). Physician. By S. A. Ashe 

(and M. DeL. Haywood.) 

Historical News 259 

Scales, Alfred Moore (1870 ) . Lawyer. 

Schenck, David (1855-1902). Lawyer. By Paul W. Schenck. 

Seymour, Augustus Sherrill (1836-1897). Lawyer. By Frank 

Sharpe, William. Lawyer. By S. B. Weeks. 

Sherrill, Miles Osborne (1841-1919). Librarian. By F. Sherrill. 

Shuford, Alonzo Craige (1858 ). Congressman. 

Siewers, Nathaniel Shober (1845-1901). Physician. By Edward 

Sikes, Enoch Walter (1868-1941). Educator. By George W. 

Simmons, William Gaston (1830-1889). Educator. 

Smith Charles Alphonso (1864-1924). Educator. By Edwin P. 

Smith, Egbert Watson (1862-1944). Presbyterian minister. By 
A. M. Scales. 

Smith, Henry Louis (1859 ). Educator. 

Smith, Jacob Henry (1820-1897) . Presbyterian minister. By 
Wm. P. McCorkle. 

Smith, Samuel Macon (1851-1910). Presbyterian minister. 
By R. C. Reed. 

Smith William ( -1743). Lawyer. By S. B. Weeks. 

Snow, William Henry (1825-1902). Manufacturer. By G. S. 

Spencer, Samuel (1738-1794). Revolutionary leader. By M. 
DeL. Haywood. 

Stanford, Richard (1767-1816). Congressman. 

Steel, Elizabeth Maxwell ( 1790). Revolutionary heroine. 

By Archibald Henderson. 

Stevenson, James C. (1847-1907). Confederate blockade run- 
ner and business man. By Charles M. Stedman. 

Stewart, Kate (1844 ). Teacher. By Fred A. Olds. 

Stokes, Montford (1760-1842). Governor. By M. DeL. Haywood. 

Strange, Robert (1796-1854). Lawyer. By S. A. Ashe. 

Strange, Robert (1824-1877). Lawyer. By S. A. Ashe. 

Strudwick, Edmund (1802-1872). Physician. By Hubert Roy- 
ster and Frank Nash. 

260 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Strudwick, Frederick Nash (1833 ). Lawyer. By Frank 


Swindell, Frederick. Methodist minister. By R. F. Bumpas. 

Thompson, Cyrus (1855-1930). Physician and politician. 

Thompson, David Matt (1844 ). Educator. 

Thomson, William S. (1866 ). Lawyer. By W. S. Thomson. 

Timberlake, Edward Walter (1854 ). Jurist. By S. A. 


Thrash, Jacksie Daniel. Club woman and civic leader. By Dan- 
iel Albright Long. 

Tufts, James Walker (1835-1902). Manufacturer. By Bion H. 

Tufts, Leonard (1870 ). Sportsman and capitalist. By 

Bion H. Butler. 

Venable, Abraham Watkins (1790-1876). Lawyer. By Frank 

Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934). Chemist. By E. Alex- 

Waddell, Hugh (1735-1773). Soldier. By S. A. Ashe. 

Wait, Samuel (1789-1867). Educator and Baptist minister. By 
E. W. Sikes. 

Warren, Edward (1828 ). Physician. By S. B. Weeks. 

Warren, Edward Jenner (1826-1876). Lawyer. By Robert M. 

Watson, Alfred Augustine (1818-1905). Episcopal minister. 

Webb, Edwin Yates (1872 ). Lawyer. 

White, Hugh Lawson (1773-1840). Senator. By Mrs. Mary 

White, James (1748-1821). Early settler of Tennessee. By Mrs. 
Mary Davis. 

White, John. Colonizer. By S. B. Weeks. 

Whitehead, Zollicoffer Wiley. Railroad man. By James G. 

Whitsett, William Thornton (1868-1934). Educator. By J. Y. 

Historical News 


Wilkes, Jane Renwick (Smedberg) (1827-1913). Philanthropist. 
By Mrs. John Van Landingham. 

Williams, Alfred (1805-1896). Merchant. By Ernest Haywood. 

Williams, Henry Horace (1858-1940). Philosopher. By W. D. 

Williams, Isham Rowland (1891 ). Soldier and lawyer. 

By Peter Mclntyre. 

Williams, Joseph (1748-1827). Revolutionary leader. By Mrs. 
Mary Davis. 

Williams, Louis Hicks. Soldier. By Peter Mclntyre. 

Williams, Marshall McDiarmid. Soldier. By Peter Mclntyre. 

Williams, Mary Lyde (Hicks). Artist. By Peter Mclntyre. 

Williams, Vigininus Faison. Lawyer. By Peter Mclntyre. 

Williamson, John Gustavus Adolphus. Diplomat. By S. B. 

Wilson, James W. (1832 ). Engineer. By Collier Cobb. 

Wilson, Thomas Johnston (1815-1900). Lawyer. 

Wingate, Washington M. (1828-1879) . Educator. 

Winston, John R. (1839-1888). Farmer and Confederate sol- 
dier. By Mrs. W. E. Holbrook. 

Wittkowsky, Samuel (1835-1911). Merchant. 

Wooten, Thomas Jones (1840 ). Soldier and merchant. By 

S. B. McLean. 

Worthington, Dennison ( 1904). Confederate soldier. [By 

Mrs. Home. ?] 

Woodard, Frederick A. (1854-1915). Congressman. By Henry 
G. Connor. 

Wright, Charles C. (1862 ). Educator. By C. G. Gilreath. 

Yates, Matthew R, Baptist missionary. By B. F. Riley. 
York, Brantley (1805-1891). Educator. By E. C. Brooks. 


Miss Annie Sabra Ramsey is secretary to the chief clerk of the 
North Carolina Utilities Commission, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr., is an associate editor of the 
Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk, Virginia. . 

Mrs. Ellen Alexander Hendricks, a former teacher of English, 
is accountant clerk at AAF Base Unit, Moody Field, Valdosta, 
Georgia. Her address is 1800 Williams Street, Valdosta, Georgia. 

Dr. James A. Padgett's address is 406 A Street, S. E., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Miss Mary Lindsey Thornton is in charge of the North Carolina 
Collection in the Library of the University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

[ 262 ] 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXII July, 1945 Dumber 3 


By Hubeet McNeill Poteat 

We may be very sure that there are in North Carolina many 
solid, substantial citizens who when they note in their newspapers 
the announcement of the annual meeting of the State Literary and 
Historical Association will be moved to satirical reflection and 
utterance. They will remark with fine scorn that the highbrows 
are at it again, that the professors have escaped from their 
cages, that the lobby of the Sir Walter is sizzling with four- 
dollar words, that Fayetteville Street is no place for ordinary 
folks, that there's an exhibit of bald domes in Raleigh, that Wake 
County air seems unusually stuffy, that such a gathering entails 
a scandalous waste of time and money, and so forth and so forth 
and so forth. The wretched professor, indeed, has long been a 
particular and favorite target of editors, cartoonists, and wags. 
He is habitually presented as a sort of vague and ineffectual 
booby, wandering abstractedly about, with glasses perched pre- 
cariously on the end of his nose and a mortarboard teetering on 
his head ; or as an absent-minded and wholly unrealistic imbecile, 
utterly unconcerned with actual life; or as a sort of wretched 
mole, burrowing about in his musty books and never coming 
up into the light of day. His title, too, is often an object of 
mirth — only partly because it has been borrowed by astrologers, 
ventriloquists, and performers upon the xylophone. 

Whether we like to do so or not, we may as well admit frankly 
that this sarcasm, directed at us as an Association or as indi- 
vidual professors and devotees of culture, is not without founda- 
tion. I therefore choose to depart this evening from the mos 
maiorum — the precedent set by my predecessors — and to address 
you very practically, on the subject, "White Unto Harvest." 

1 Presidential address delivered at the annual session of the State Literary and Historical 
Association of North Carolina, Raleigh, December 7, 1944. 

[ 263 ] 

264 The North Carolina Historical Review 

A year ago, when you did me the high honor of electing me to 
the presidency of this Association, the distinguished editor of 
The News and Observer graciously invited me to make that 
journal the organ of the Association. I thanked him, period; 
there was nothing further I could do. During the year I have 
suggested to our able secretary and to the members of the execu- 
tive committee that in my opinion this Association and its affili- 
ated societies ought to exert a more active and positive influence 
upon the life of our great state ; that we should not content our- 
selves with an annual meeting, no matter how learned or bril- 
liant the papers presented for our edification may be ; that it is 
high time for us to descend from the remote and inaccessible 
Everests of our alleged intellectual aristocracy, that we may 
walk the streets and the byways and minister to the needs of 

In 44 B.C. Marcus Tullius Cicero published his essay On the 
Nature of the Gods. In the introduction he writes thus : "If any- 
body would like to know what consideration impelled me to liter- 
ary tasks of this sort so late in life, I can explain the matter to 
him with the greatest ease. ... I decided that for the good of 
the state, philosophy ought to be presented to our citizens, for 
I felt that the honor and reputation of our city were vitally con- 
cerned in having matters at once so important and so stimulating 
set forth in the Latin language." 

Late in the same year he published his De Officiis, character- 
ized by Frederick the Great as "the finest work on morals which 
ever has been or ever can be written," and recently described by 
President Butler as "the best textbook for the statesman of to- 
day and tomorrow." I quote a striking passage: "Let us agree, 
therefore, that those duties which arise out of fellowship are in 
more intimate accord with nature than those that owe their 
origin to cognition. This can be proved as follows : if it should 
fall to the lot of the wise man to live, in affluence, a life of leis- 
urely contemplation of things thoroughly worthy of his pains- 
taking consideration, but if, meanwhile, he were absolutely de- 
nied the society of his fellow men, he would perish. . . . That 
wisdom, then, which I have called the highest wisdom is the 
knowledge of things human and divine, in which is included 

White Unto Harvest 265 

the apprehension of the fellowship of gods and men and the ties 
which unite man to man. If these ties are strong, and their 
strength cannot be questioned, then those duties which spring 
from fellowship must be loftiest of all. For the contempla- 
tion and comprehension of nature, if one's life be destitute of 
action, is, as it were, defective and inchoate. Now the fairest 
consummation of action is attained in the bringing of happiness 
to mankind; it is therefore vitally connected with the bonds of 
fellowship which unite the human race. Ergo, communitas must 
be placed on a higher level than cognitio. Every good man be- 
lieves this and proves his belief by his deeds. For there is nobody 
so strenuously occupied in the investigation and observation of 
nature but that, in the midst of his reflections upon matters in 
the highest degree worthy of his thoughtful attention, if tidings 
were suddenly brought him of some impending national disaster, 
or of the need or danger of a relative or a friend, he would put 
down and cast from him all those intellectual exercises, even 
though he fancied he was numbering the stars or calculating the 
magnitude of the universe." 

But, say some of us in reply to Cicero, we love the gracious 
domains of art and literature, of music and history and philoso- 
phy, and we would walk therein undisturbed by the howling 
world and its demands ; we would slake our thirst at quiet, brim- 
ming fountains, for we believe with Keats that 

"Beauty is truth, truth beauty/ -that is all 
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know ; 
we find the ways of men filled with unseemly din and strife, and 
our spirits are disquieted within us; we much prefer the lovely 
gardens where the great minds of all the ages pour out their 
treasures upon us and we are at peace. So, precisely, said the 
Epicureans — whom Cicero heartily despised for their categorical 
and dogmatic egocentrism, their ataraxia — complete and utter 
freedom from care and worry and from the importunate claims 
of altruism and patriotism alike. 

Those erudite pundits who write fat books on the history of 
philosophy are fond of setting Epicureans against Stoics, like 
two opposing football lines, usually to the great advantage of the 
Stoics. But whereas the Epicureans, strangely enough, displayed 
genuine missionary zeal in the propagation of their system, the 

266 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Stoics were content to discuss virtue, the supremacy of the will, 
obedience to the inner voice, within their own learned societies, 
with little or no interest in Fayetteville Street. Thus all their 
eloquent diatribes against slavery got the slaves exactly nowhere, 
for, following time-honored philosophical precedent, they began 
at the top and stayed at the top. Compare that procedure with 
t{ie method of the Man of Nazareth who went straight to the 
oppressed, exploited dregs and pariahs of humanity with the 
sublime doctrine of the brotherhood of man. We need not won- 
der that, as St. Mark tells us, "the common people heard him 
gladly/' Moreover, His example and His teaching are still, after 
the passage of the long centuries, the hope and inspiration of 
our wretched, war-racked world, while Zeno and Chrysippus and 
Cleanthes and Epicurus are names in textbooks. 

Well, here we are in this pleasant room. We have come from 
homes of culture, blessed with carefully chosen libraries; from 
college and university campuses, where we revel in stimulating 
intellectual fellowship; from the secluded sanctum of the his- 
torian, the poet, the novelist, the playwright, the philosopher, 
where Pallas Athene, Apollo, and the Muses speak softly and 
persuasively to our eager ears. Presently we shall return to our 
ivory (or Gothic) towers, grateful for the blessing of com- 
munion with kindred spirits, and happily immerse ourselves once 
more in nirvana — like the gods in Tennyson's Lucretius, who 
dwell in 

The lucid interspace of world and world, 
Where never creeps a cloud, or moves a wind, 
Nor ever falls the least white star of snow, 
Nor ever lowest roll of thunder moans, 
Nor sound of human sorrow mounts to mar 
Their sacred, everlasting calm! 

Pray do not misunderstand me : I revere as profoundly as you 
those towering souls who have forsaken the joys of human 
society in their utter devotion to scientific research; to their 
sacrifices at the fragrant altars of literary and artistic inspira- 
tion ; to patient, self-obliterating meditation upon the high mys- 
teries that lie beyond the reach of our human vision. I am trying 
to say to you that we who know and love these giants who, in 
Lucretius's great phrase, have ranged "far beyond the flaming 

White Unto Harvest 267 

bastions of the universe," must acknowledge and strive more 
fully to discharge the inescapable obligation that is ours to medi- 
ate to our less fortunate brothers and sisters the priceless treas- 
ures which have stirred and warmed, inspired and guided our 
own minds and hearts. If greed is the fundamental sin, then 
selfishness, its blood brother, wallows hard by. "He who lives 
only to benefit himself," writes Tertullian, "confers on the world 
a benefit when he dies." 

The day of the ivory tower is no more, if, indeed, it ever was, 
save in the imagination of men and women who out of vanity, 
indifference, sloth, or sheer aversion consider themselves so far 
above hoi polloi as to be perfectly content to sit like sculptured 
Buddhas in splendid — and tragic — isolation, grandly undisturbed 
when the man in the street feeds his soul on husks, confuses (in 
Hugo's words) the constellations of profundity with the stars 
which the duck's feet make in the soft mud of the pond, gulps 
the lethal pills of demagogy, or prostrates himself in worship be- 
fore a horrid anthropomorphic monster. 

There are three fields especially in which I believe our influ- 
ence, as individuals and as an Association, ought of right to be 
felt mightily — public taste, politics, education. I shall speak with 
utter conviction, but not, as Cicero once wrote of a certain philo- 
sophical bigot, as if I had just descended from a council of the 

The good old Latin maxim, De gustibus non est disputandum, 
is perfectly familiar to me. I am not suggesting that we should 
dispute about the tastes of our fellow citizens, but that we should 
patiently and tactfully avail ourselves of every possible oppor- 
tunity of improving, elevating, and refining them. The great 
American game is neither football nor bridge; it is the highly 
lucrative sport of feeding the great public what it wants or can 
be beguiled and cajoled into thinking it wants. For example, I 
never fully comprehended Isaiah's words, ". . . precept upon 
precept, precept upon precept, line upon line, line upon line, 
here a little, and there a little," until the manufacturers of tab- 
lets, salves, lotions, pills, and other such truck took to the air 
waves. The endless and exasperating reiteration of their sup- 
posedly alluring patter is a frank and disturbing indication of 

268 The North Carolina Historical Keview 


their estimate of the intelligence of American citizens. And the 
programs whch are so unceremoniously and so frequently inter- 
rupted by silky-voiced apes (in Nell Battle Lewis's precisely de- 
scriptive words), caroling, "Buy our medicine; you'll be glad you 
did," and the like drivel — the programs, I say, are in large 
measure pitched on the same level and addressed to the same 
fifth-grade mentality — skilful build-up by the announcer, syn- 
thetic applause, and all the rest of the shoddy devices with 
which we are all, to our sorrow, only too familiar. 

The accursed saxophone, illegitimate progeny of the clarinet 
and the trombone, came out of Germany, as did many another 
evil thing; it is surely one of the grimmest of all the ironies of 
fate that its inventor, one Saxe, died in abject poverty and was 
buried in the potter's field. But when the saxophones moan and 
the music gets sweet or hot, as the case may be, we behold female 
adolescents of all ages squealing and swooning, we stare in 
amazement at the appalling antics of rug-cutters and jitterbugs 
and hepcats, we contemplate sadly the devastating carnage 
wrought upon infantile humanity when the crooners begin to 
moo and bleat, and we wonder whether life is really worth living. 
It will surprise most of you, and I sincerely hope it will shock 
all of you, to learn that the love of God, the life and crucifixion 
and resurrection of Jesus, the glories of Heaven, and other 
such subjects, are being widely dealt with on exactly the same 
plane. If you don't believe me, listen some Saturday evening to 
a pair of whining hillbillies, gargling, to the accompaniment of 
a guitar, "Tune in on JESUS, the only radio station that's never 
off the air," hearken to the stamping of feet, the whistling, the 
yelling that follow the rendition of the blasphemous rubbish, 
and give thanks that the longsuffering of the Deity is infinite. 

Public taste in the matter of periodical literature may well be 
examined for a moment. You have seen the popular and pulp 
magazine statistics — and in all conscience they are dishearten- 
ing and disturbing. If catering at the lower levels is the great 
American game, then boredom is unquestionably the great Ameri- 
can malady. H. L. Mencken, indeed, goes so far as to say that the 
"basic fact about human existence is not that it is a tragedy, 
but that it is a bore." It was Matthew Arnold, I believe, who 

White Unto Harvest 269 

defined culture as "the ability to perceive and the capacity to 
enjoy what is excellent. ,, If that fine statement is true, then 
boredom, like any other weed, springs from untilled, neglected 
soil. He who in the morning of life has failed to establish the 
habit of feeding his soul with good things will go through the 
whole of his little day with boredom clinging to him like an evil 
spirit from the realms of nether darkness, and his energies will 
be devoted chiefly to a frenzied search for something — anything 
— that will kill time. Horace, wise and gentle observer of men, 
asks pertinently, "What exile from his native land has ever 
succeeded in escaping from himself?" Seneca echoes the Hora- 
tian inquiry : "You wish to know why your flight helps you not a 
whit? Because you take yourself along." Even Emerson once 
packed his trunk and sailed to Naples, only to discover that there 
beside him was "the stern fact, the sad self, unrelenting, identical, 
that I fled from." 

Now one of the most highly favored avenues of refuge from 
boredom leads straight to cheap reading matter. Every month 
millions of copies of magazines that present "true" stories are 
sold, and I am told that most of the readers who gulp the sorry 
trash so avidly actually believe that the stories are true. Vica- 
rious excitement and vicarious thrills thus help to fill dull hours 
with a pathetic, specious glow of happiness. For the same reason 
there is an enormous market for those pictorial journals which 
record in palpitating detail the goatish capers of the morons of 

Too long, ladies and gentlemen, far too long, have we sipped 
the nectar of the gods in our ivory towers, sublimely indifferent 
to the fact that the vast majority of our fellow men are content- 
edly guzzling swill and garbage. The time has come for us to 
admit, sorrowfully but frankly, that part of the blame is ours 
and to begin to discharge the obligation which our love of the 
best and finest achievements of humanity lays upon us in- 
escapably — the obligation to be channels through which these 
blessings may reach "the wilderness and the solitary place," so 
that "the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." 

In the second place, I suggest to you that the members of this 
Association ought to make their influence felt in the field of 

270 The North Carolina Historical Review 

politics and government. Once upon a time there was a certain 
tinpot tyrant named Benito Mussolini ; his most famous recorded 
dictum was to the effect that the people haven't sense enough 
to govern themselves. In order to introduce some measure of 
truth into the statement, let us rewrite it thus: "At times the 
people act as though they lacked sufficient intelligence to govern 
themselves." For example, at the polls, where with tragic fre- 
quency they elect to office tub-thumping alley cats, slick peddlers 
of economic tripe, cavorting vaudeville clowns, and downright 
crooks and criminals. And why? Simply because great num- 
bers of our fellow citizens have never taken the trouble to cul- 
tivate the fine art of doing their own thinking and thus fall an 
easy prey to every faker who appears with his wares and his 
patter. Once upon a time there was a Roman emperor who drove 
all the philosophers out of the capital city. There can be no doubt, 
I think, that the principal reason for this piece of highhanded 
cruelty was that Domitian knew that the chief business of phi- 
losophers was to teach men to think, and he no more wanted to 
live in an atmosphere of independent intelligence than does 
Adolph Schickelgruber today. 

I wish some member of this Association would write a book on 
"The Peril of the Plausible." Time and again in the history of 
our country the people have gone a-whooping after some per- 
suasive rascal, adept in all the tricks of the great American 
game, referred to above, who was selling gold bricks so artfully 
put together as to defy detection by any save the keenest eyes — 
isolationism, for example. Well, we need more keen eyes look- 
ing level and steadfast out of keen, trained minds which habitu- 
ally do their own thinking. No matter what subject you teach 
in your classroom, my professorial brethren and sisters, your 
great task, your magnificent opportunity, your heaven-blessed 
duty is to train the boys and girls before you to think straight. 
Woodrow Wilson once asked a Princeton student a tough ques- 
tion. The lad replied hesitantly, "Well, er, professor, I think. . . ." 
"Thank God!" said Wilson. 

One further point, please, in the political field. That grand old 
romancer Livy has reminded us that the primary reason for the 
study of history is that we may learn how other men and na- 

White Unto Harvest 271 

tions dealt with their problems and solved their difficulties and 
thus may see our own way more clearly. Polybius deemed the 
Roman republic to be almost a perfect realization of Aristotle's 
ideal commonwealth; certainly it was one of the most remark- 
able of all man's achievements in democracy; yet, it gradually 
slipped into oligarchy, then stumbled and fell into anarchy, and 
finally plunged into its grave, mainly because the citizens had lost 
interest in it. Cicero, writing to a friend during the tense and 
terrible opening days of the civil war between Caesar and Pom- 
pey, remarks that he has been moving about the country, talking 
to the farmers and to the people in the small towns; they care 
not a whit, he discovers, which of the two great political gladia- 
tors wins, so long as they, their fields, their little homes, and 
their miserable bank accounts are unmolested. A hundred sixty 
years later the greatest of all the world's satirists, Juvenal, 
snarls sardonically that Romans are interested in only two 
things: food and amusement. 

Now history has the disquieting habit of repeating itself. We 
Americans have a firm foundation for our faith in the future of 
our mighty Union ; but if that faith ever opens the door to com- 
placency and indifference, no man can tell how soon our republic, 
too, will pass into the shadows. I am not urging that we abandon 
our cultural pursuits and rush into the political arena; I am 
insisting that our country has every right to expect and indeed 
to demand that you and I shall take an alert and intelligent in- 
terest in public affairs ourselves and, so far as in us lies, strive 
to impress indelibly upon the rising generation, in home and 
school, an unshakable conviction that this nation will remain 
great and free only so long as its citizens are ready, willing, and 
equipped to contribute each his share to its unfolding glory. 

In conclusion, I invite your attention to some problems pre- 
sented by contemporary educational ideas and practices. During 
the past few years the Progressive Educators have emitted such 
a vast volume of noise that even the most secluded recluse must 
be aware that they have taken over American grammar school 
and high school education, lock, stock, and barrel. In his address 
at the opening of Columbia University on September 27, Presi- 
dent Butler dealt vigorously with their tenets and their pseudo- 

272 The North Carolina Historical Review 

scientific monkeyshines. "We face," said he, "an extraordinary 
situation due to that most reactionary [italics, mine] philosophy. 
How any such preposterous doctrine ever received a hearing by 
intellectual minds is difficult to understand, but its effects are 
evident in the reports of undisciplined youth. This plan of action 
or rather non-action would . . . first of all deprive the child 
of his intellectual, social and spiritual inheritance and put him 
back in the Garden of Eden to begin all over again the life of 
civilized man. He must be asked to do nothing which he does 
not like to do. He must be taught nothing which he does not 
choose to learn. He must not be subject to discipline in good 
manners and sound morals. In other words, he must be let alone 
to do what he likes in this amazing twentieth century in order 
that what has been called his individuality may grow naturally 
and without guidance or discipline." No clearer statement, 
ladies and gentlemen, of the fatuous folly of progressivism 
could possibly be made. 

The fundamental racial virtue on which the greatness of Rome 
was securely founded was pietas, which means primarily obedi- 
ence to law. The progressives will have none of it. In a certain 
school in New York City recently a bright little lass tripped into 
her classroom one fine morning and said, "Please, teacher, do 
we have to do what we want to do today?" An instructor in one 
of our army camps — a man who was decorated for bravery in 
the First World War — made a few weeks ago this statement: 
"I had a fine time until the new 18-19-year-old draftees came 
along. My life is now in constant danger. . . . These boys have 
never had 'No' said to them. They have never been made to obey 
an order." Precisely. And so the average boy or girl of today 
steps out of the high school with only two permanent posses- 
sions — the habit of superficiality and an astounding ability to 
dodge difficulties. 

The most brilliant piece of satire I have read in a long time 
comes from the gifted pen of Dr. Edgar W. Knight and was 
published in the April 1 issue of School and Society. I recom- 
mend it to you, ladies and gentlemen. Knight deals devastat- 
ingly with those holy progressive shibboleths, "the integration of 
personality" and "the co-ordination of experiences"; pours a 

White Unto Harvest 273 

withering fire upon the contempt of the progressives for such 
antiquated subject-matter courses as grammar, spelling, and 
mathematics; and rakes mercilessly their everlasting and gen- 
erally silly experimentation. Incidentally, Dr. Thomas H. Briggs 
once told me that he had published an offer of a prize of fifty 
dollars to anybody who would give him a sensible definition of 
the integration of personality; Dr. Briggs added that he still 
held the prize money. 

One of the more interesting results of the progressive theory 
and practice is that the government finds it necessary to spend 
many millions of dollars for the training of young soldiers and 
sailors and airmen in fundamentals which should have been 
acquired in school and which were not acquired because the 
wretched little boys had to have their experiences co-ordinated 
and their personalities integrated, and so there simply wasn't 
time for the three R's. 

Since September, 1942, no foreign language, ancient or mod- 
ern, has been required for graduation from North Carolina high 
schools. In days such as these that fact is surely amazing enough 
in itself; but the explanation offered by a member of our State 
Department of Public Instruction is almost beyond belief. He is 
reported to have said : "Foreign languages are the chief cause of 
failure among high school students ; they are therefore too diffi- 
cult for our boys and girls and will henceforth be omitted from 
the requirements for graduation." That statement goes straight 
down the progressive line: make the pathway smooth and easy 
for young feet; never require any child to study a subject which 
he finds either dull or difficult; let him "express himself ' by 
choosing what he will do and what he will not do ; let there be no 
law for anybody. Small wonder the terrifying increase of juve- 
nile delinquency haunts our dreams at night. 

One further point, please : our current system of grammar and 
high school education lives and breathes on tests and measure- 
ments, surveys and projects, graphs and curves, charts and sta- 
tistics. Now all these elaborate and mystical devices for the utter 
confusion of the judicious not only consume a vast deal of time 
and effort and a staggering amount of money ; they also implant 
in the mind of youth a profound and disturbing respect for pen- 

274 The North Carolina Historical Review 

cil, ruled paper, and percentage table. Moreover, during the past 
twenty years there has been a heavy emphasis laid upon science, 
at all educational levels. Our boys and girls have learned the 
importance of analysis and synthesis, of exact verification, of 
detailed reports on observations, of irrefutable proof. Thus 
the study of real science, which has produced so many magnifi- 
cent results, has united with constant exposure to pseudo- 
science to develop and foster in young people a conviction that 
nothing is real, nothing desirable, nothing even tolerable, which 
cannot be presented in a graph, examined through a microscope, 
and duly described and classified, or subjected to the scrutiny 
and evaluation of the mathematician or the chemist or the physi- 
cist. In other words, the young men and women of today are 
quite apt to shrug their shoulders at goodness as a vague and 
nebulous will-o'-the-wisp ; to regard morality as a purely relative 
matter, dependent upon too many environmental and hereditary 
considerations to be of genuine importance; and to sneer at 
ideals as so much transcendental buncombe. 

They are ready to believe in the presence of proof, but they 
are losing faith — the willingness to accept as true the unprov- 
able (and Tennyson has reminded us that nothing really worth 
proving can ever be proved), the inner perception of unseen 
realities, the "deep-lying capacity to apprehend the eternal world 
and to respond to its appeal." 

Surely one of the sublimest concepts that ever took form in a 
human brain was Plato's doctrine of ideas. Material things which 
are grasped by the senses, said that mighty philosopher, are 
neither real nor permanent ; the only realities are qualities which 
speak to the mind and soul — love, mercy, justice, beauty, truth ; 
thoughts are greater than things — which are only "the shadows 
of ideas thrown upon the screen of experience." St. Paul restates 
this grand concept thus : "For the things which are seen are tem- 
poral ; but the things which are not seen are eternal. " 

Our young people need to ponder a blazing passage in the 
second chapter of Zechariah: "I lifted up mine eyes again and 
looked, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hand. 
Then said I, Whither goest thou? And he said unto me, To 
measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what 

White Unto Harvest 275 

is the length thereof. And, behold, the angel that talked with me 
went forth, and another angel went out to meet him, And said 
unto him, Run, speak to this young man, saying, Jerusalem shall 
be inhabited as a city without walls for the multitude of men 
and cattle therein: For I, saith the Lord, will be to her a wall 
of fire round about, and will be the glory in the midst of her." 
In other words, you can't measure Jerusalem. No, and neither 
can you compress George Washington into a chemical formula, 
or weigh Abraham Lincoln, or compute Robert E. Lee, or put 
Martin Luther into a test tube, or set up an equation for Jesus 
of Nazareth. 

I say to you again, ladies and gentlemen, the day of the ivory 
tower has passed. Come ye out into the ways of men, bearing 
your precious gifts of culture and intelligence, courage and faith. 
"Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white 
already unto harvest." 




By Samuel Edwin Leonard 

The Eastern Carolina Training School for Boys is truly a "war 
baby." History repeats itself following a war in that crime is on 
the increase until adjustments from war times to peace times are 
miade. Soldiers are taught just the opposite of civil peace time 
pursuits. They are taught to fight physically and mentally. They 
are taught to kill. In peace times a man's life is forfeited when 
he commits murder. In war times, he is decorated by the govern- 
ment. A soldier's method of living is not conducive to honesty 
and he thinks little of the value of property whether it belongs 
to him or to the other fellow. When the war ends, these men with 
this type of training and indoctrination are scattered through the 
populace of the entire country. They are our heroes. They not only 
can do almost as they please, but their examples are quickly 
taken up by the boys and girls in their communities. Thus we 
have Army-taught men teaching and being imitated by the ris- 
ing generation. It is but natural that adult crime and particu- 
larly juvenile delinquency should increase by leaps and bounds. 
This condition caused the legislature of 1923 to expand the facili- 
ties for handling delinquents by creating a new school. 1 

North Carolina was slow in getting started in its juvenile insti- 
tutional program. While it was one of the original thirteen colo- 
nies, many of the states thought of today as young in comparison 
to North Carolina had training schools long before this state. For 
instance, a training school in Iowa opened in 1868; in Kansas, 
1881; in Missouri, 1889; in Nebraska, 1881; and in South Da- 
kota, 1887. North Carolina had no training school until 1909 
when Jackson Training School 2 was opened and then it existed 
as a very small unit for several years. 

1 Public Laws of 1923, chap. 254. 

2 Public Laws of 1907, chap. 77< 

[ 276 ] 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 277 

During and following World War I the state made tremendous 
strides in welfare work. In 1917 the legislature passed a state- 
wide welfare law 3 and in 1919 this law was strengthened by 
making county welfare organizations compulsory in most of the 
counties in the state. 4 It was during this time that Jackson 
Training School was building rapidly to take care of the increased 
demands and by 1920 no less than 500 boys were being trained 
there. This could not meet the demand of the welfare agencies 
and the state either had to increase the capacity at Jackson or 
establish a new school. Upon a careful study and with expert 
advice from leading sociologists of the country, it was very wisely 
decided to establish a new school rather than carry the old school 
above the 500 mark. Thus a bill was drawn up and passed in the 
1923 legislature establishing Eastern Carolina Training School. 5 

It was also during this period (1918) that Samarcand, a school 
for girls, was established. 6 This came about also on account of 
war conditions. At the same time, (1921) the Morrison Training 
School, a school for Negro boys, was established, 7 not because of 
war conditions necessarily, but because of the growing demand 
for many years for a school for Negro boys. 

The statute establishing the new school for white boys was 
somewhat different from that of the Jackson Training School in 
that boys between sixteen and eighteen could be committed to this 
school from superior and other courts having jurisdiction. This 
was to take the place of an intermediate institution generally 
known in the North as a reformatory. Later this age was raised 
to twenty. 8 It, however, would accept boys from juvenile courts 
as well and most of its boys have been received from these courts. 
The older boys and the younger boys are separated as to housing 
arrangements and, to a large extent, in their education and work. 

The school was definitely established in eastern Carolina by 
the bill which states that "The Board of Trustees shall select a 
suitable site not farther west than 20 miles of the main line of 
the Atlantic Coast Line Railroads. 9 The initial appropriation 

3 Public Laws of 1917, chap. 170. 

4 Public Laws of 1919, chap. 46. 

5 Public Laws of 1923, chap. 254. 

6 Public Laws of 1917, chap. 255. 

7 Public Laws of 1921, chap. 150. 

8 Public Laws of 1937, chap. 116. 

9 Public Laws of 1923, chap. 254. 

278 The North Carolina Historical Review 

was $5,000 for maintenance and $25,000 "for the purpose of pur- 
chasing a suitable site and for the erection of the necessary- 
buildings. " 

A Board of Trustees was appointed by the governor and on 
February 8, 1924, this Board held its first meeting in Rocky 
Mount with all members present. The Board consisted of R. T. 
Fountain, Rocky Mount, who was named chairman ; S. C. Sitter- 
son, Kinston, named secretary; J. C. Braswell, Rocky Mount, 
treasurer; C. F. Strosnider, Goldsboro; and W. G. Lamb, Wil- 
liamston. The Board, upon its organization, decided to give pub- 
licity to the desirability of obtaining a site for the school and to 
ask that cities and communities make bids for its location. Offers 
were received from New Bern, Delway, Wilmington, Wilson, 
Goldsboro, and Rocky Mount. A committee was appointed to visit 
all of these sites and report to the next meeting of the Board 
which was held in Goldsboro, April 21, 1924. 10 In an executive 
meeting at which time all sites and offers were freely discussed, 
the Board decided to accept the offer made by Rocky Mount of 
117.58 acres of land representing approximately $12,000 in cash. 
The site was three and one-half miles north of Rocky Mount on 
United States Route 301, and the double-track main line of the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad actually runs through the property, 
thus fulfilling the conditions laid down in the statute. The build- 
ing site is well drained being approximately sixty feet higher than 
Tar River a short distance away and rolling enough to lend 
itself to beautification. Wilson, Berryman, and Kennedy were 
selected as architects and not only a building itself was planned 
but the entire quadrangle of a completed campus was also blue- 
printed. The contract price for the building was $26,280 and the 
building was finished in the spring of 1925, and was named the 
Fountain Building in honor of the chairman of the Board of 

With the completion of the first building, the next responsi- 
bility of the Board was the selection of the superintendent. The 
selection was made without publicly asking for applications. 
Samuel E. Leonard, at that time with the State Board of Chari- 
ties and Public Welfare, was asked to be the first superintend- 

10 Minutes of Board, Feb. 8. 1924. 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 279 

ent. 11 He had had two years' experience with the State Board, 
four years as a county superintendent of public welfare, and 
eight years in the public schools. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Mr. Leonard reported for duty August 
10, 1925. 

Much had to be done before the first boy could be accepted. 
There were no screens, no water, no electricity, no sewer connec- 
tion, and no furniture or furnishings for the building. There 
were no barns or stables, sheds or shelters of any kind. There 
was no stock or farm implements. The superintendent had no 
assistance, so the staff had to be selected and employed. The 
Board stood back of the superintendent in all of his plans and 
urged dispatch in getting ready for the opening. A contract was 
let for a septic tank for sewage disposal. Another contract was let 
for the complete screening of the building. Still another contract 
was let for the drilling of a deep well. The superintendent was 
the chief carpenter and with what help he could get he renovated 
a pack-house for a barn and stables. Another small building found 
on the place was moved to a proper location and converted into a 
shop and tool shed. A new poultry house was built. 

While this was going on, orders had been placed for household 
and kitchen furniture and furnishings and for the necessary farm 
implements, and two fine Percheon horses were bought. All this 
took time and it was January 18, 1926, when the first boy ar- 
rived 12 Even then the water system was not in operation, for the 
contract for drilling a deep well ended without a water supply. 
There was no electric line near enough to supply current and to 
add insult to injury the couple employed two months before 
resigned and left the day before the first boy arrived. The su- 
perintendent and his wife were in full charge of the training 
school at its opening. Water for drinking purposes was gotten 
from a spring nearby and water for flushing stools and other 
purposes was hauled from a nearby branch and placed in barrels. 
For lights, we used kerosene oil lamps. Truly the Eastern Caro- 
lina Training School, although less than twenty years old, reaches 
back to the pioneering stage. 

11 Minutes of Board, April 8, 1925. 

12 First Report of the Eastern Carolina Industrial School for Boys (1927), p. 8. 

280 The North Carolina Historical Review 

As has been noted, the school was really one building. The 
capacity of this building was thirty, but with the handicaps of 
no water, no lights, and no staff the boys were ordered in very 
slowly. Eight boys composed the first group and it was more 
than two months before any other boys were received. In fact, 
the population was held at this number until after the drilling 
of a second well at which time water was obtained in sufficient 
quantity for the one building. 13 

There was little or no program. The superintendent had full 
charge and directed the work from day to day. A farm worker 
and a matron were employed to assist with the boys. But the 
work planned from day to day consisted largely of doing the work 
necessary to keep the family going. With our two horses, we did 
farm work on a small scale and raised many vegetables during 
the first sumjmer. Two cows were purchased which gave us our 
milk supply. A hog was purchased to be fattened and killed in the 
fall for pork. A small flock of chickens furnished eggs and meat 
for the tables. There was no laundry and much time was spent 
washing and ironing in the old-fashioned way. There was a large 
pot in which the clothes were boiled and tubs were made by saw- 
ing barrels in two. A small shop was maintained for the purpose 
of sharpening and repairing simple farm tools, but there was no 
thought of operating it for training purposes. As the site selected 
was in an open field, planting of shrubbery and general land- 
scape planning had to be done from; the start. Some shrubbery 
was given by the people of Rocky Mount, but much of the shrub- 
bery now seen on the beautiful campus was started in a propaga- 
tion nursery at the school. Seedlings were purchased from nur- 
series, cuttings were planted and in many cases seed; and in 
the course of a few years, we had all the shrubbery needed to 
beautify the campus. Religious instruction was emphasized and 
from the arrival of the first boy to the present time, Wednesday 
night prayer meetings have been conducted by the boys them- 
selves and Sunday School has been conducted each Sunday morn- 
ing. The local churches contributed to a fund with which to pur- 
chase a bus which for several years took our boys to town each 

13 First Report (1927), p. 9. 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 281 

Sunday for church services. 14 The citizens of Rocky Mount have 
always taken much interest in the boys at the training school. 

For the first year it was necessary for the superintendent to 
live in a two-room apartment in the Fountain Building. Though 
a small appropriation had been made with which to build a cot- 
tage for the superintendent, the amount was not sufficient to erect 
a suitable home, and only by drafting the plans and building the 
house himiself did the superintendent have enough funds with 
which to purchase the materials. So during the first year, the 
superintendent and his boys built the superintendent's cottage. 15 
This job, consisting of carpentering, painting, brick laying, elec- 
tric wiring, and plumbing, made a very nice project for the train- 
ing of the boys. The house stands today as the superintendent's 
home and as an example of what can be done in an emergency. 
Even to this day only the brick dormitories, the central building, 
and the shop building have been built by contractors. All other 
buildings on the campus, consisting of barns, stables, granaries, 
tool houses, and other structures, have been erected by the boys 
under the supervision of the staff members. Furthermore, most 
of the wooden buildings on the place are constructed of lumber 
from trees cut on our own farm, sawed at our own sawmill, 
and prepared for use at our own planing mill. Incidentally, 
this has saved much money to the state, but it was not done en- 
tirely for a money-saving purpose. Some of the finest training 
that can be given to boys is the natural work that comes to hand 
in the operation of a farm home. 

There were few trained social workers at that time as there 
was little demand for them. The great school of social work at 
the State University had not started turning out its well trained 
graduates, so that we were running the training school, to a 
large extent, on a trial-and-error method. It is quite interesting 
to note that most of the boys who first came to the Eastern Caro- 
lina Training School have turned out very well, the percentage 
making good being higher than at a later date. This leads me to 
make the statement that it is not always fine equipment that 
makes for the best training. The foregoing has shown that we 

14 First Biennial Report of the Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School for Boys, 
p. 13. 

15 First Biennial Report, p. 8. 

282 The North Carolina Historical Review 

had little or no equipment. By that very fact, we had to depend 
on ourselves to make up for the physical tools that we wanted so 
much. The few people, whom we called our "staff," were selected 
with great care. In fact, to the present day the men and women 
who work with the boys at the Eastern Carolina Training School 
have been selected for their interest in and ability to work with 
boys. Experience in teaching, in scouting, in recreation work, and 
in"liking" and "getting along" with boys have been considered 
important attributes. But there has always been one "must" in 
connection with the employing of anyone, man or woman, and that 
is that the applicant must be an active Christian worker. These 
boys have been sent to us because they haven't had Christian 
homes and Christian parents. If the state is going to take charge 
of them and place them in a training school by court order, then 
the state should maintain a home of high Christian ideals which 
give the boy the training that he missed in his own home and by 
missing caused his downfall. We have often spoken of the train- 
ing school as a "heart training school" and it is quite a proven 
fact that unless the heart of a boy is reached, the training is 
usually of a superficial nature and does not last. From the begin- 
ning, it has been the superintendent's privilege to give a Bible to 
each boy upon entering the school. To most of these boys, this is 
the first Bible they ever had and to many of them, upon their re- 
lease, it was the first Bible in their home. A large number of our 
boys have joined one of the churches in Rocky Mount during 
their stay at the training school. 16 Upon release, church letters 
are sent to the home pastors and the boys are placed in the right 
environment with the right kind of people taking interest in 
them. Most boys make good at the training school. Most boys, 
upon release, go home with a firm belief that they will make 
good. Few boys realize that when they get back to the home 
comjmunities many people have little or no confidence in them 
and are ready to give them a kick instead of a helping hand. It is 
with this thought in mind that the training school tries to put 
the boy in a helpful environment and the home pastor and his 
church people should be the ones to be helpful to the boy. 

16 Biennial Reports, passim. 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 283 

When the state legislature of 1927 assembled, the training 
school was filled to its capacity of thirty and applications were 
piling up. With this pressure, the legislature appropriated money 
for the erection of two more dormitories which would make room 
for a population of ninety boys. The maintenance appropriation 
was increased in proportion. As soon as this money was available, 
architects were employed and a contract was let for two new 
dormitories. 17 When they were finished and equipped, one was 
opened immediately to care for the applications on hand. With 
the opening of this building, an unexpected problem presented 
itself and that was a water problem. The well, which had been 
furnishing water for one building, was found not to have a 
sufficient flow for the second building, and we found ourselves 
without water again. This was doubtless a blessing in disguise, 
for with this emergency the governor made avaiable money from 
the Contingency and Emergency Fund and permitted us to nego- 
tiate a contract for an eight-inch water main to be connected with 
the city of Rocky Mount, three and one-half miles away. 18 The 
cost of this contract was more than $28,000 but that solved the 
water problem, for all time to come and substantially decreased 
insurance rates, since hydrants were placed on the campus. With 
an abundant water supply, the third building was soon opened 
and filled with boys. It is to be noted that although we had dormi- 
tory space for ninety boys, the legislature had not yet taken into 
consideration any training program, only providing eating and 
sleeping space and a farm on which to work. Temporary arrange- 
ments were made in one of the dormitories for some classroom 
work, a small room for an office, and a small room; for an infirmary 
containing two beds. At this time an office secretary was employed 
and the superintendent was relieved of some of the detailed work 
in the office. 

With the capacity now at ninety and with a staff of twelve 
men and women including the superintendent, some semblance 
of a program could be devised and certain departments of work 
could be set up. There were a farm supervisor, a dairyman, and 
a shopman. The farm acreage was increased by the purchase of 

1 7 First Biennial Report, p. 8. 

18 First Biennial Report, p} 8. 

284 The North Carolina Historical Review 

a farm lying next to the training school farm. 19 Tools were still 
extremely limited but with a cooperative staff and with frequent 
staff meetings, we were giving the boys everything we had. Evi- 
dently the Raleigh authorities were quite well impressed with 
the work done, for the next General Assembly appropriated 
enough funds for three more dormitories making the capacity 
180! 20 The appropriation this time included enough for a small 
shop and laundry building. Still there was no thought on the part 
of the legislature for administration, health, school, recreation, 
or an assembly room for entertainment and religious services. 
The little shop and laundry building was the first step beyond 
the mere dormitory thinking and this little building was used in 
a big way. Modern steam laundry equipment was purchased 
and simple shop tools were acquired that would permit us to 
care for our meager farm machinery and also teach the boys some 
mechanics. It was at this time that an excellent builder was 
added to our staff and with the purchase of a small sawmill 
(there was much timber on the place), we were able to prepare 
lumiber in quantities sufficient to erect our barns, sheds, and a 
wood-shop building. A hammer and saw are always attractive to 
a boy and we had no trouble giving the carpenter and manual 
training instructor all the help he could use. With the erection of 
these necessary farm; buildings, the training school began to 
take on the appearance of an active and useful institution. Still 
there was no activities building and the Board and management 
decided to work for a central building before any more dormi- 
tories were requested. 

The beautification program for the campus and buildings was 
continued along with the building program. The "campus" was 
now shaping itself into a quadrangle with a beautiful open center 
for grass and shrubs. The Work Projects Administration con- 
structed for us concrete sidewalks and curbs for the quadrangle 
of the campus. Shortly thereafter the State Highway and Public 
Works Commission surfaced our roadways, thereby eliminating 
dust and mud. The State Budget Bureau provided funds for cam- 
pus lighting and an underground system of cables was laid giving 
a beautiful white-way effect for the campus. 

19 First Biennial Report, p. 8. 

20 Second Biennial Report, p. 23. 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 285 

The Eastern Carolina Training School is located in an excellent 
farm section. Since North Carolina is largely an agricultural 
state, a large percentage of our boys come from farms. Much of 
the training naturally falls in general farming, the handling and 
keeping up of machinery, and stock raising. A 500-acre farm 
adjoining our tract became available and the legislature appro- 
priated sufficient money to purchase it, which added to our pres- 
ent tract made 675 acres. 21 Likewise, appropriations were made 
to fence this farm, and this became a project within itself. 
Reinforced concrete posts were made in our shop. Fifty-seven- 
inch woven wire of numjber nine gauge with stays six inches apart 
was used for all outside fencing. With this increase in acreage 
and the ability to grow feed stuffs, stock raising was expanded 
to include dairy and beef cattle, hogs, and sheep. Besides being 
a fine training program in farming and stock raising for the boys 
themselves, the farm has reduced tremendously the cost of main- 
tenance of the school. The boys are always given from two to 
three pints of milk a day and much mfilk is sold to the Southern 
Dairies. No meat has been purchased for more than twelve years 
either in the form of fresh meat or salt pork. The gardener ar- 
ranges it so that there is not a month in the year that we do not 
eat vegetables from the garden. The summer months furnish the 
tables almost entirely with vegetables, and sweet and Irish pota- 
toes and molasses are made in sufficient quantities to last the 
entire year. Grain, feed, and hay are stored each year in suffi- 
cient quantities to take care of all our needs. An excellent cold- 
storage system, is used to preserve meats and vegetables in large 
quantities and a quick-freezing and hardening room is used in a 
small way for meats, fruits, and ice cream,. 

It was not until 1938 and 1939, through the help of the Public 
Works Administration, that we were able to erect our fine central 
building which filled the long-felt needs for our well rounded 
program. This handsome building, erected at the cost of $100,000 
and occupied in August, 1939, 22 completes the quadrangle of the 
campus and stands at the head of it centrally located to the dor- 
mitories, the shops, and the barns. With the erection of this 

21 Public Laws of 1935, chap. 306, sec. 1. 

22 Seventh Biennial Report, p. 21. 

286 The North Carolina Historical Review 

structure and with the large addition to the shop building, the 
construction program at the Eastern Carolina Training School is 
complete unless additional room is needed for increased popula- 
tion. This building has large, airy, and pleasant offices for the 
administration department. All records of the institution from 
its beginning are housed and kept in a vault. There are an infirm- 
ary ward and a clinic room equipped with first-aid materials and 
also an excellent fluoroscope. There is a nurses' room in connec- 
tion with the infirmary. The building is in the form of an H 
and in the connection center is the auditorium with windows on 
the two sides. This is comfortably arranged with seats and stage 
and all services are conducted here. The further wing of the H 
is the gymnasium, which is equipped with modern apparatus, a 
basketball court with parquet floor, and bleachers permanently 
built in on one side which will seat all the boys for any per- 
formance. Under the bleachers there is ample room, for storage 
of playing equipment. Showers and team rooms are in the base- 
ment as are also the storage room for commodities for the kitch- 
ens and the sewing room. Opening from the lobby is the staff's 
library which contains books on a wide range of subjects with 
a shelf pertaining to work with delinquents. 

On the second floor there are beautiful and commodious class- 
rooms. These have polished hardwood floors and slate black- 
boards, and are equipped with chair desks and the necessary 
teaching equipment. There is also a chapel with piano for 
morning programs as well as for use in practicing for plays. 
The miost beautiful room on this floor is the library museum. 
This room has shelving space for countless thousands of books, 
a librarian's desk, and reading tables. The museum exhibit is 
housed in nine large glass cases and contains a rather complete 
exhibit from World War I and various relics of bygone days and 
articles picked up here and there. The museum part of this room 
makes the library much more attractive to the boys and they are 
always glad to go there even if they are not interested in reading 
a book or a magazine. There is a well appointed, fully furnished 
apartment on this floor for the assistant superintendent, consist- 
ing of living room, breakfast room, kitchenette, bedroom, and 
bath. This building, in use constantly for the various activities 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 287 

connected with the training school, is the structure that has been 
needed since the beginning of the school. All the equipmjent need- 
ed for every angle of training school work is now provided at the 
Eastern Carolina Training School. There is now a question of 
employing a sufficient number of well trained people to give the 
necessary training for the boys sent there. 

It might be well to describe one of the dormitories. We are 
proud of the fact that no two are alike either outside or inside. 
Each building was constructed from an individual blueprint and 
yet each building houses the same number of boys and is used for 
the same purpose. 

Each building is supervised by two men and one woman known 
as cottage officers and matron. The matron has charge of the 
housekeeping and the kitchen and is on duty during the day. The 
men divide their duties in looking after the boys during the 
morning, afternoon, and night. There are no night watchmen on 
the campus, no lights are left burning, and everybody goes to 
bed. From this standpoint the place is run just as any farm 
home. The staff members are housed in apartments and single 
rooms in a section upstairs in the building. A call bell with a 
buzzer is available to the boys if an official is needed during the 

The boys sleep in four bedrooms containing from six to nine 
comfortable beds. During the evening they have a reading room 
with books, magazines, and radio and in the basement a large 
play room containing ping pong tables, card tables, and other 
play apparatus. Each boy has a steel locker and there are toilet 
and shower facilities in the basement. Each building is heated 
with a furnace and hot water system, the furnace being fed by a 
stoker. Thus we see a dormitory as a complete unit generally 
known as the "cottage system." Boys are selected for these 
buildings according to size and mental ability. Since this school 
takes boys up to twenty, division is made at sixteen and all boys 
below that age are on one side of the campus and all boys above 
are across the campus. The programs of the two groups are con- 
siderably different. One outstanding difference is that boys six- 
teen and above are permitted the privilege of smoking while in 
the building. Each dormitory has an open playground in the back 

288 The North Carolina Historical Review 

which the boys use freely without hindrance or supervision dur- 
ing the mornings and in the evenings until dark. 

A little more than four years ago a mimeographed school 
paper was started by the staff for the encouragement of the boys. 
This paper was named "The Tar Heel Boy" and usually runs from 
six to ten pages. 23 It is bound in red covers with a cover design 
appropriate to the season. The red covers with the white sheets 
inside correspond to our school colors of red and white. It is gen- 
erally known among the boys as the "Red Book." It has been 
published monthly since its beginning and is now in its fifth 

In addition to an editorial prepared by a member of the staff, 
there are school notes, building notes, work notes, and alumni 
notes most of which are written by the boys themselves. One of 
the significant features is the monthly honor roll of boys pub- 
lished in the back. This list includes all boys who have been on 
the weekly honor roll each time during the month. These boys 
whose names appear in the list are given a copy of the Red Book 
in a little ceremony conducted at the Sunday School hour the 
first of each month. Those boys having missed an honor roll 
during the month do not get their names published in the book, 
neither do they get a copy of their own to send home to their 

This Red Book has proved its worth many times over. The boys 
like to see their names in print. They like to have their little 
articles published whether it be a description of their work, a 
little poem, or a joke. It instills pride when they can mlake the 
monthly honor roll and get a book of their own. Occasionally a 
boy completes his course at the Eastern Carolina Training School 
and has to his credit as many Red Books as there have been 
months that he has spent at the training school. Those are the 
records we hold up to all the boys and we believe many have been 
inspired by such records. 

It has been the purpose of the management at the Eastern 
Carolina Training School to impress on everyone connected with 
the school that the whole set-up is for the boy. All the boys sent 
to the school are sent by courts, which means that these boys 

Staff Meetings Minutes, Apr., 1940. 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 289 

have made mistakes and in some instances mistakes which they 
could not possibly overcome in their home communities. They are 
sent to the school not for punishment for what they have done, 
but for a chance to learn to live. Accordingly, the school is 
organized as nearly on a home basis as is possible for an insti- 
ution. The building of thirty boys is broken up into groups much 
like a family. The cottage parents are urged to stand "in loco 
parentis" and as such should enter into the life of the home as a 
father and mother. The boys are taught to be natural and 
normal in this cottage life. They are not regimented but are 
permitted to go about the building almost at will. They talk all 
they want to and if they desire rough and loud play, they are 
permitted to carry it on in the basement. If they desire to sit 
quietly, a reading room is provided. If it is daylight, the yard is 
open to them. 

The boys have a chance to select their work. Twice a year boys 
are given the privilege of signing up for their preference in work 
and, generally speaking, the boys are given their first choice. 
There is a wide range of work available. The biggest job, natu- 
rally, is the farm and more boys are occupied there than any- 
where else. They carry on the work in all departments, however, 
and no hired labor has ever been employed at the training school. 
The boys do the cooking, the sewing, the laundry work, the dairy 
work, the shop work, both mechanical and wood work, the feed- 
ing of stock, in fact, every type of work to be found at a farm 
home. Much of our work is by machinery, for we have three 
tractors. There are a dozen horses in the barn and during the 
cultivating season boys have an opportunity of learning to plow 
in the old-fashioned way. Even the milking is done by electricity 
and the milk is handled in a modern way by pasteurizing and 
bottling. In the shop all repair work is done including lathe work 
and acetylene welding. In the laundry there are modern machines 
for washing, drying, and ironing. Thus when a boy leaves the 
Eastern Carolina Training School he has learned to do things by 
doing. Too, he has learned to do things the modern way, the 
mechanical way. When he starts working in a laundry or dairy 
or shop, he knows the machines and can run them. 

Another thing of great importance to a boy coming to the 
training school is his health. Many of these boys are considerably 

290 The North Carolina Historical Review 

impaired in health brought about, to a large extent, by dissipa- 
tion. They have no regular habits of eating and sleeping. Their 
diet consists of what they want instead of what they need. They 
eat candy and drink soft drinks to excess and many of them 
know the taste of whiskey and cigarettes. While the boy may 
have been picked up for stealing a bicycle for a little ride, it isn't 
often realized that the stealing of the bicycle was the result of 
something that went before. It is this something that we work on 
at the training school. It isn't unusual for a boy to gain ten 
pounds during his first month at the training school. A large 
percentage of the clothing the parents send their boys has to be 
returned because it is too small. One boy who had been away 
from the training school for a while wrote me and stated that I 
could make a good living by advertising the training school for a 
health resort. The place is a health resort not by virtue of its 
location, but because of the regular routine which the boys fol- 
low. They eat three meals a day at the proper time and composed 
of the proper food. When night comes, they go to bed and sleep 
through the night. When day comes, they are ready for a day of 
outdoor work. That is the best twenty-four-hour prescription any 
doctor can give. As a result we have had few health problems, 
and since the school was established we have had only one 
death from natural causes and that was a boy who came with 
rheumatic fever which was a death warrant before he arrived. 24 
We feel that the triangle is not complete until we can touch 
the boy's life in a spiritual way. That does not mean in a goody- 
goody or sissy way but in a way that will cause him to want to 
be a real man. Ambition is the spark that causes many a man to 
accomplish his goal. We try to fire our boys with an ambition to 
be somebody, to be individual to think things out for them- 
selves, and to be right always. We insist on their doing their jobs 
well even though it takes them a long time to do it. We want 
them to be helpful and not only do their part but be willing to 
help the other fellow. That is Christianity in its highest state 
and that is the Christianity that we want to get the boys to 
accept. If we can teach a boy something to do with his hands, 
build up his body to be strong and well, and imbue him with a 

24 Fourth Biennial Report, p. 4. 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School 291 

control which we call Christianity, we feel that he is safe any- 

We do not reach all boys. Some are mentally unable to grasp 
the vision. Most of those who are mentally alert can be reached, 
but occasionally there is a boy who seems physically and mentally 
fit for life but who seems to have in his very nature something 
that disqualifies him for decent living. I have always felt that 
somewhere there is somebody who could reach that particular 
boy, so instead of the boy failing, I have always felt that I failed. 
But work as we will there seems always to be a small class of 
our boys doing post-graduate work in our state prisons. 

The school has handled in these years more than 1,400 boys. 
Fifteen per cent of these boys are now in the armed forces of 
their country. At the present time we have six gold stars on our 
service flag representing six known casualties. The number of 
gold stars may grow. It is a fine thought, however, to realize that 
a large percentage of these boys are in these services or in other 
places of trust and industry on the home front and that they are 
there by virtue of the Christian influences brought to them in 
their year or more of training at the Eastern Carolina Training 
School. It can be imagined that many of them instead of follow- 
ing such a life could have been criminals and incarcerated in the 
prisons of our country. Fortunate, indeed, have been miany of 
the boys who because of mistakes were committed to the train- 
ing school where they really learned to live. Because of that 
training, many have gone home and improved the home life. 
Surely the Eastern Carolina Training School, along with the 
other training schools of the state, are really character-building 

The legislature of 1943 passed a bill which combined all the 
correctional institutions of the state under one board known as 
the Board of Correction and Training. 25 This bill automatically 
repealed the bills setting up the several schools of the state as to 
Board management. The new set-up called for a Board of eigh- 
teen mtemibers, twelve men and six women. The Board members 
were to be selected from the eastern, middle, and western sec- 
tions of the state on a proportional basis and the length of term 

25 Public Laws of 1943, chap. 776. 

292 The North Carolina Historical Review 

was arranged so that three appointments would be made each 

The bill further provided that upon the organization of the 
Board a paid executive should be employed by the Board known 
as the Commissioner of Correction. This Commissioner was to 
have a headquarters office in Raleigh and would be the executive 
officer who would keep in direct touch with all the schools and 
with the Board. 

The Eastern Carolina Training School, as one of the correc- 
tional institutions of the state, came under this new Board. At 
its organization meeting held in Raleigh October 7, 1943, the 
Board unanimously selected Samuel E. Leonard as Commissioner 
of Correction. 26 This meant the first break in the line of man- 
agement since the beginning of the Eastern Carolina Training 
School in 1925. The Board immediately selected William D. Clark, 
the efficient assistant superintendent, to take over the manage- 
ment of the school. Mr. Clark came to the training school in 1928 
and has been with the school ever since. Because of this long 
service, he was familiar not only with the physical plant but also 
with the program in its entirety. Mr. Clark took charge of the 
school December 1, 1943, as its second superintendent. 

26 Minutes of Board of Correction and Training, Oct. 7, 1943. 



CRAVEN COUNTY, 1700-1800 

By Alonzo Thomas Dill, Je. 


f[ There hath by ye permition of Allmighty God for our sins and 
Disobedance bin a most horred Massecre Committed by ye tuskarora 

— Neuse Settlers' Petition, 1712. 

In 1709 the Reverend William Gordon observed that all three 
of the precincts on the Neuse and Pamlico contained only as 
many inhabitants as any one of the older and better settled pre- 
cincts of Albemarle County. 1 Therefore there could have been, at 
most, no more than 1,500 inhabitants in all of Bath County, and 
by far the majority of these were on the Pamlico River. 2 The 
town of Bath, which had been founded in 1705 as the first in the 
province, consisted of twelve houses or perhaps sixty persons. 3 
Although the Neuse region at this time was so inconsequential 
in its own right as to be almost a part of the Pamlico settlement, 
it was nevertheless showing signs of acquiring the institutions 
of English civilization. By 1708 the Neuse settlers were repre- 
sented in the assembly, for William Hancock was listed in that 
year as a member of the lower house. 4 But despite this legisla- 
tive recognition, the Neuse region remained dependent on the 
Pamlico River colony for its judicial, religious, and perhaps 
economic life as well as for its contact with all the intangible 
qualities of civilized habitation. 

With the arrival of the more than 400 Swiss and Palatines in 
1710, this situation changed overnight. The Neuse became al- 

1 Colonial Records, I, 715. 

2 Pasquotank Precinct contained at this time about 1,300 and Chowan about 1,400 persons. 
Connor, History, I, 82-83. 

3 Colonial Records, I, 715. 

4 Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 304 ; II, 225. Under the law of 1705 each of the 
Bath County precincts had been given two members. It is not certain who the other 
member for Archdale was. 

[ 293 ] 

294 The North Carolina Historical Review 

most as populous as the Pamlico, and New Bern, with its twenty 
families, or perhaps 100 persons, sprang up to rival if not out- 
strip the town of Bath. The need for improved communication 
arose, and the inhabitants of the Pamlico, in a petition of about 
1711 requesting the council for better road-maintenance, ad- 
mitted the activity of the Neuse region in "continually having 
Inhabitants coming thither" and even in attracting strangers, 
who, owing to the obscurity of parts of the road, were "in 
a great deficulty to finde [their] way thither without a guide." 5 
About this time the settlers of the Neuse, desirous of having 
their own religious establishment, petitioned the council for 
the appointment of a vestry. 6 Still another petition sought the 
setting up of a court. 7 This petition for a court, which is signed 
by twenty-eight names, is the oldest list of Neuse settlers in 
existence. It bears the names of George Bell, William Brice, 
John Clark, Francis Dawson, Christopher Dawson, Randolph 
Fisher, John Fulford, Edward Gatling, Richard Graves, Farni- 
fold Green, Titus Green, George Groves, William Hancock, Lewis 
Johnson, Bryant Lee, John Nelson, Jr., Francis Shackelford, 
John Shackelford, John Slocumb, Josiah Slocumb, John Smith, 
Richard Smith, Stephen Sweetman, Edward Ward, Enoch Ward, 
James Woodard, Peter Worden, and Thomas Yeates. 

This "humble petition" for a court — which must have been 
acted on favorably by the council, for a court was meeting on the 
Neuse at least by January, 1713, if not earlier — gives us an in- 
teresting picture of these early colonial times and of the dis- 
comfort suffered by the Neuse settlers in their periodical jour- 
neys to the assizes at Bath Town. They asked the council 

... to Ease us of that long and tedgous [tedious] jurney to bath town 
where we are forct to Expose our Selves and our neighbours to a great 
deale of Charg and inconveniance for passage over y e River and when 
wee with a great deale of hardship doo cum there y 6 ordinary [inn] 
keepers have not beads to Lodge us in which constrains us either to be 
burthinsum to y e gentel-men in town or Else to lay by y e fire side which 
y r Hon rs Cannot Chuse but imagine to be great Hardship. 

5 Undated petition of not later than 1711 signed by Levi Truewhitt, James Leigh, Thomas 
Durham. Humphrey Legge, and John Lawson. Historical and Genealogical Register, III, 286- 
287. This is reprinted from the original now in Albemarle County Records, vol. II, State 
Department of Archives and History, Raleigh. 

8 Undated petition of not later than 1711, unsigned. Historical and Genealogisal Register, 
I, 442. Albemarle County Records, vol. II. The first vestry was not appointed until 1715. 

7 Undated petition of not later than 1712. It may be found in full in the Albemarle County 
Records, vol. II, though the Register mentions it in only an abbreviated form and has one 
of the signers as Thomas instead of Christopher Dawson. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 295 

Such were some of the difficulties faced by the inhabitants of 
the Neuse in maintaining touch with their law and government. 
With the coming of the Palatines and Swiss and the growing 
influx of new English settlers, they must have indeed welcomed 
the prospect of becoming a populous, well-to-do, and (to some 
extent) self-sufficient colony instead of a mere outpost on the 
Indian frontier. 

Such a dream was not to be realized for many long years. Mis- 
fortune and tragedy of the most terrible sort visited the Neuse 
just when its people saw before them the promise of growth 
and progress. The development of the region was cruelly re- 
tarded. The reasons for this were manifold, but they all de- 
veloped from, first, the international dissension known as Cary's 
Rebellion and, second, the Indian uprisings called the Tuscarora 

Cary's Rebellion grew out of the lords proprietors' first at- 
tempts, beginning in 1702, to set up the long-neglected estab- 
lished Church in North Carolina. 8 In 1705 Colonel Thomas Gary, 
a prominent South Carolinian, was appointed deputy governor 
of North Carolina. Upon protest of the Quakers and other dis- 
senters, who found him too inclined for their taste toward the 
Church party, Cary in 1707 was ordered by the proprietors 
to be removed from office. Cary, however, suddenly deserted 
the Church party and secured the support of the Quaker- 
controlled assembly of 1708. He defied the removal order and 
continued in office, while his rival for power, William Glover, 
fled to Virginia, leaving Cary to be denounced as a "usurper" 
by the Church faction. Not until the arrival of Edward Hyde in 
Virginia in August, 1710, did the Church party feel its chance 
had come to strip Cary and the dissenters of power. Unfortu- 
nately, the governor of Carolina, under whom Hyde was to be 
the deputy administering the northern province, died before 
Hyde's arrival from England, so Hyde had no commission from 
him, although he did have private letters confirming his appoint- 
ment. 9 These the Cary party refused to recognize. 

8 This discussion of the rebellion is based on Connor, History, II, chap. VI, and S. B. 
Weeks. The Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina, John Hopkins Univer- 
sity Studies, Tenth Series, V-VI (Baltimore, 1892). 

9 On December 7, 1710, the proprietors decided to name Hyde the first governor of North 
Carolina independent of the South Carolina administration. His commission as such was 
not issued, however, until January 24, 1712. Connor, History, I, 97. 

296 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In such a heat of factionalism did Graffenried and his Swiss 
arrive in the fall of 1710. No sooner had he reached the North 
Carolina border than a delegation of Quakers, seeking to attract 
him to their cause, visited him and besought him as a landgrave 
to take over the government during this dubious interregnum. 10 
Graffenried replied he did not wish to meddle in the dispute. He 
said he himself recognized Hyde as the rightful head of govern- 
ment — an answer which only angered the Quakers. 11 By then 
betaking himself to the home of Thomas Pollock, an ardent 
Church adherent, Graffenried still further stamped himself as 
an establishmentarian, though, he makes clear, he refused to join 
any connivance against Cary. He did, however, threaten Cary by 
letter that he would throw his support to his opponents if he did 
not come to terms. Such a precarious "neutrality" resulted in 
Graff enried's irritating both factions. Meanwhile, the Palatines 
were in dire need. Hyde was unable to help them, and Cary, who 
held the revenues of the province, refused to pay out the funds 
which had been promised by the lords proprietors for their 
support. 12 

Graffenried solved his dilemma by borrowing from Pollock 
to buy the provisions which he ordered from the northern prov- 
inces. To his impecunious company he explains eloquently his 
decision : 

If in the beginning when I saw that everything was failing, I had 
left these poor people in the lurch and retired elsewhere, or had let 
them die of hunger, I should have lost the five thousand pounds [his 
bond to the Royal Commissioners] and should have been hanged 
without mercy; and where would my conscience have been as I did it? 
Could I do differently than I did ? . . . . Now it is a question of how to 
work myself out of this labyrinth that I may not come to disgrace, and 
we all be compelled to lose together. . . . Colonel Pollock, as the strictest 
creditor, could take possession of everything. 13 

He goes on to implore his associates to raise by some means, even 
by the sale of additional shares, the funds to which they had 
committed themselves. Of the £7,200 capital, a total of £2,400, 
or an entire third, still had not been raised. 14 

10 German Version, p. 228 ; French Version, p. 370. 

11 German Version, p. 229. 

12 Colonial Records, I, 780, 791 ; French Version, p. 371. 

13 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, p. 286. 
H Todd and Goebel, intro., p. 48. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 297 

Such a situation was certain to produce discontent among the 
colonists and to weaken their confidence in Graffenried's leader- 
ship. He was unable to obtain for them the livestock which they 
had been promised. 15 Pollock for some reason could not supply 
the colonists' needs in this respect. 16 By May, 1711, Graff enried 
had obtained a few head of livestock, but these were far short 
of the number needed, and there was talk among the Palatines 
of complaining -to the royal commission. 17 So outspoken did 
their threats become that Graffenried said at one time he feared 
for his life. He considered deserting the colony and taking, as 
he called it, "the shortest way out." 18 

In his despair a false hope came with the visit to New Bern 
of Cary himself, who evidently was seeking to strengthen his 
position. Cary was indeed in need of allies, for when the assem- 
bly had met in March many of his followers had left him, thus 
enabling Hyde to obtain a small majority, who proceeded to 
enact legislation designed to repress the Quakers and nullify the 
effects of the "usurpation." Over a bottle of Madeira wine at 
Graffenried's lodging, Cary craftily promised his host £500 worth 
of provisions and cattle, pretending to expect nothing in return 
and to leave the issue regarding Hyde in status quo. 19 All the 
while (so Graffenried charges) Cary was working to align the 
neighboring English and Indians against the Swiss and Pala- 
tines. Cary's promised goods and cattle never arrived, and soon 
after Cary's visit Governor Hyde peremptorily summoned Graff- 
enried, as if he were dubious of his loyalty, to sit in the council 
(as befitted a landgrave) and consider how to end the continued 
resistance of the dissenters. Emboldened by Hyde's failure to 
come and attack him on his fortified Pamlico River plantation, 
Cary on June 30 sailed up the Chowan in an armed brigantine and 
laid siege to Hyde, Graffenried, and all the attending Hyde 
faction. A lucky shot from ashore clipped off the brigantine's 
mast and put Cary to flight. 20 Hyde then dispatched Graffen- 
ried to Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood in Virginia, 

15 German Version, p. 228. 

16 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, p. 288. 

17 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, pp. 287, 288. 

18 Report to Georg Ritter and Company, pp. 287, 288. ". . . the shortest way out would 
be to withdraw into some island or into the mountains, or even go over into Canada to 
the French." 

19 German Version, p. 230. 

20 German Version, p. 231. 

298 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and Spotswood promptly sent a company of marines to Cary'a 
stronghold on the Pamlico. 21 At the sight of the Queen's sol- 
diery, Cary fled, later to be apprehended in Virginia, tried in 
England, and freed. Thus ended the rebellion in July, 1711, 
three years after the beginning of this tangled "usurpation." 

Graffenried had every reason to believe that upon the ending 
of the rebellion the province would take some steps to succor 
his failing colony. Hyde seemed willing to help, but the revenues 
at his disposal were very limited. 22 Graffenried appealed to the 
assembly to assist the colony by a loan upon the same terms as 
that promised by the proprietors, but his request was refused, 
he says, "under pretext that this civil war had made it impossible 
for them to do it." 23 He returned sadly to New Bern. There a 
new misfortune awaited him. Yellow fever was raging among 
the colonists. Many were ill and several were dead, including 
two Swiss servants Graffenried had brought from Bern. 24 

Without doubt [writes Graffenried] it was the great heat which came 
the three months of June, July, and August that was the cause of it; 
our people coming from a cold and mountainous country were not yet 
accustomed to this flat country and this hot air. Yet there was no 
lack of physicians and surgeons who took care of them. These after- 
wards also became sick. But the principal cause of it was that in my 
absence they had neglected my orders for diet which I had given at 
first on my arrival in America when I found the Palatines so ill. It 
was by the good advice of persons who had made a long stay in Caro- 
lina that I had instructed them not to drink too much fresh and cold 
water, but to boil it with some sassafras, of which the woods are full, 
and afterwards to let it cool off and to drink as much of it as they 
wished. I used it in the morning with a little sugar in place of tea and 
it did me much good. 25 

Graffenried's advice to drink boiled water was a sensible enough 
precaution and one that must have saved his colony from the 
ravages of typhoid, but his prescription for yellow fever was not 
so instinctively correct : 

When this fever attacks you [he advises] the best remedy is, in place 
of going first of all to bed, to run until you sweat in great drops and 

21 German Version, pp. 232, 233. 

22 German Version, p. 234. 
28 German Version, p. 234. 

24 French Version, p. 372. 

25 French Version, p. 372. 


even fall over from weariness. You must not stop there but arise and 
continue until you can go no farther. 26 

If many of the colonists followed this well-intentioned though 
fatal advice, the toll of the fever must have been considerably 
higher than it would have been otherwise. 

At the end of this harrowing summer, the Indian massacre 
broke in all of its fury. Before describing the causes of this 
greatest of all the tragedies that were visited upon the people of 
the Neuse, something should be told of the New Bern colonists' 
attitude toward the red men prior to the outbreak of open war- 
fare between them. There seems to have been absolutely no in- 
herent, instinctive animosity between the red men and the 
Europeans. The Swiss found them "clever and sociable" (ver- 
standig und vertreglich) , 27 They did not regard them as "wild," 
for they were fond of coming to the New Bernians and buying 
clothes from them, in return for which the natives supplied veni- 
son, leather, bacon, beans, and corn. 28 Indeed it is probable that 
without help from the Indians the settlers would have starved. 
The English must have shared this ability of the Swiss to get 
along with the natives. If Lawson can be regarded as in any 
sense their spokesman, his understanding and even admiration 
of the Indian character — their patience, willingness, and sense 
of justice — should be ample proof that there was no natural 
hatred between these aborigines and the white men who came 
to live in their ancestral lands. 29 The hostility that arose was 
the result of several conditions — conditions which might have 
been avoided by the whites. 

When the Indian massacre came without apparent warning 
on September 22, 1711, the attitude of the North Carolinians 
was, in the words of Thomas Pollock, that the Indians had struck 
"without any cause that we know of." 30 It was believed widely 
not only in North Carolina but beyond the bounds of the prov- 
ince that the massacre was entirely unprovoked. In Virginia 
Spotswood wrote, in some indignation, that the blow had come 
"without any previous declaration of War or show of discon- 

26 French Version, p. 373. 

27 Letter of Samuel Jacob Gabley, p. 308. 

28 Letter of Christen Janzen, p. 317. 

29 Lawson, History, passim. 

30 Colonial Records, II, 24. 

300 The .N.orth. Carolina Historical Review 

tent." 31 From the injured innocence implied in such a view of 
the massacre, and no doubt believed sincerely by those who like 
Pollock and Spotswood either did not know or did not take the 
trouble to find out conditions on the North Carolina frontier, 
one would guess that there had been no previous Indian trouble 
along the Neuse and Pamlico. Such was not the case, for in 1703 
there had been much Indian unrest culminating in a minor up- 
rising of the Corees. 32 Even then the Tuscarora and Bay River 
Indians, allies in the wars beginning in 1711, were said to be 
"in more than ordinary familiarity of late." 33 An effort was 
made to stop the sale of ammunition and rum to the natives, but 
it met with no success. 34 In view of this recent history of Indian 
trouble, it is hard to see why Spotswood and Pollock should have 
regarded the 1711 massacre as an event without a cause. Obvi- 
ously the Indians, not being an articulate people, had made little 
impression by this previous "show of discontent." Their tem- 
perament was that of men slow to anger, and it was therefore 
deceptive to the unobservant. "They will endure a great many 
Misfortunes, Losses, and Disappointments," writes Lawson, 
"without showing themselves, in the least, vexed or uneasy." 35 
But accompanying this stoical forbearance was another trait 
which was to prove for the whites a terrible one. "The Indians 
are very revengeful," says Lawson, "and never forget an Injury 
done, till they have received Satisfaction." 36 

What were the grievances of the Indians ? First, there was the 
steady encroachment of the whites on their territory. As early 
as 1701, the Tuscarora were complaining that the Pamlico set- 
tlers were threatening them for hunting near their plantations. 37 
This was a serious matter for this tribe, who were so numerous 
(Lawson himself having seen 500 "in one hunting quarter") 
that they were hard pressed to feed themselves. Meat was scarce 
in their villages and frequently corn was all they could provide 
for themselves. Though the growing influx of the whites was 
sufficiently alarming to the Indians, the fact that their land 

81 R. A. Brock, ed., The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood (Richmond. Virginia 
Historical Society, 1882), I, 116. 

32 Historical and Genealogical Register, II, 204. 

88 Historical and Genealogical Register, II, 194. 

34 Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 437. Lawson, History, 214. 

35 Lawson, History, p. 208. 
86 Lawson, History, p. 212. 
37 Lawson, History, p. 57. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 301 

claims were frequently disregarded gave them greater cause for 
indignation. Pamlico Precinct court records show that the white 
man's expressed willingness to pay the Indian for his land did 
not always mean willingness to pay the red man's price. 38 
According to Graffenried, even the fair-minded Lawson advised 
that the natives might be chased off the site of New Bern with- 
out payment. 39 The fact that Graffenried did pay them for this 
land probably saved his life when the Indians struck; and the 
fact that they did not execute him is a good indication that the 
blame for the Indian outbreak lay elsewhere than on the Swiss- 
German colony. 40 Graffenried maintains strenuously, and prob- 
ably correctly, that the Indians had no grievance against him or 
his settlers. 41 Of course, the arrival of over 400 colonists at one 
time may have made the Indians apprehensive over this mass 
colonization. They may have feared that unless they resorted to 
force they would in a short time be crowded out of the few 
hunting grounds that were left to them in eastern North Caro- 
lina. In principle, however, the Swiss and Palatines were no 
more to blame for the massacre than the English. They were 
only the latest evidence of a trend that had been going on for 
years, a trend which meant the gradual occupation of all Indian 
lands by the ever-increasing white men. 

This encroachment gave rise to countless petty disputes. Many 
of them arose because of the proximity of white and Indian 
settlements. Quite frequently an English colonist would claim 
land on or very near the site of an Indian village. Farnifold 
Green owned land near the Tuscarora town Nonawharitsa. 42 
William Hancock took up a tract near another Tuscarora village, 
Heeruta. 43 There are several examples of English claims on or 
near the Corees' territory, including one of Governor Hyde 
himself. 44 In cases where the whites lived near the Indians, 

38 Minutes of November 22, 1704 : "Henry Hoborn says he owes the Indians for his land 
and would pay them in Reason, but they will not take less than 7 pounds 13 shillings and 6 
pence and noe less." Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 441. "The people are all willing 
to pay the Indians for the lands, but they demand such great prices, that they cannot buy 
of them." Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 441. 

39 French Version, p. 373. 

40 Graffenried's Letter to Hyde, p. 275. 

41 Graffenried's Letter to Hyde, p. 275. 

42 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 9. 

43 Craven County Deeds, I, 285. 

44 Colonial Records, II, 316-317. Richard Graves patented land near Coree Town in 1714, 
presumably after the Indians there had been decimated in the bloody fighting that began in 
1711. Land Grant Office, II, 367. 

302 The North Carolina Historical Review 

there were disputes over strayed livestock, cattle wounded by 
Indian hunters, and damaging brush fires started by native 
woodsmen. 45 In addition to these, there were many other sources 
of quarrels. The natives accused Hancock of taking a gun from 
an Indian by force, and complained that William Brice "dealt 
too hard" with them. 40 Often such disputes arose out of stupid 
disregard for Indian customs. Graffenried tells of an incident 
which nearly cost him the Neuse Indians' friendship. At Chat- 
tooka there was a dome-like shrine woven of twigs, in which the 
Indians placed offerings before two grotesquely carved wooden 
idols — one painted red and white, the other black and red. 47 
"They represented thus by the first image a good divinity, and 
by the other the devil, with whom/' observes Graffenried dryly, 
"they are better acquainted." 48 One of the Swiss, seeing the 
black and red colors of his native Bern on the evil idol, clove 
this image in two with his axe and boasted to his family that 
he had split the devil at one blow. Graffenried placated, with a 
gift of brandy, the angry Indian who came protesting, and used 
all his tactful persuasion to assure the natives that such a thing 
would not have happened if the idol had not been an evil divinity ! 
From the complaint that William Brice "dealt too hard" with 
the Indians, one gathers that Brice, in addition to being a 
planter, was also a trader — and traders had acquired an un- 
enviable reputation for dishonesty among the Indians. Fre- 
quently the natives were cheated or ill-used. Byrd mentions the 
"dictorial Authority" of these men. "These petty Rulers," he 
writes, "don't only teach the honester Savages all sorts of De- 
bauchery, but are unfair in their dealings, and use them with 
all kinds of Oppression." 49 Cheating an Indian, a heathen, was 
regarded by many settlers as a perfectly justifiable right, even 
perhaps a Christian privilege. Such an attitude doubtless 
grew out of the feeling expressed so ingenously by the Swiss 
settler who learned that the Indians bought trinkets "for as 
much as one desires!" 50 That the Indians regarded the tricks 

45 Compare Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 441 ; also suit of William Brice against 
an Indian who failed to return his mare, Historical and Genealogical Register, III, 81-82. 
Indian treaties tell of many sources of dispute. Compare Graffenried's Treaty, pp. 281-282. 

46 Colonial Records, I, 990. Compare German Version, pp. 234, 235. 

47 Letter to Hyde, p. 277. 
« Letter to Hyde. p. 278. 
4» Byrd's Histories, p. 302. 

50 Letter of Christen Engel, p. 315. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 303 

of the trader as a grievance is proved from the treaty they con- 
cluded with Graffenried after the outbreak of the war. It pro- 
vided specifically that goods should be sold to them "at a reason- 
able and cheap price." 51 In addition to blankets, kettles, and in- 
nocuous ornaments, the traders sold the savages guns, ammuni- 
tion, tomahawks, and knives. 52 To add danger to these deadly 
wares, there was the white man's habit of supplying the Indian 
with rum — which of course made all quarrels worse. 53 

Perhaps the greatest of all the Indians' grievances was the 
native slave trade, which flourished on the frontier. On the pre- 
text of teaching the young braves a trade the white men sold 
many of them into bondage. The Indians' hatred of this bar- 
barous custom is amply shown by Lawson's statement that they 
would part with anything for roanoke or wampum "except their 
Children for Slaves." 54 The Indian was not averse to hiring 
himself to the white man. "Some of them hunt and fowl for us 
at reasonable Rates," wrote Lawson. 55 But the kidnapping of 
their young for a lifetime of alien servitude was regarded by 
them with understandable bitterness and indignation. This 
infamous trade reached such proportions that in 1705 Penn- 
sylvania forbade the further "importation of Indian slaves from 
Carolina" because it had "been observed to give the Indians of 
this province some umbrage for suspicion and dissatisfac- 
tion." 56 That the Neuse settlers engaged in this despicable prac- 
tice is a matter not of speculation but of fact. Like an accusing 
witness, there has survived a document which proves this and 
which is dated ironically only a few months before the Indian 
massacre : 

North Carolina. This my noat shall oblige Mrs. Will Brice my 
Heirs or Execrs to pay unto Will Lewis or his orderes by the last of 
this Instant one Indian aged between 20 and 35 and to bee delivered 
at his one plantation being in Pamlicough River. 

In consideration hereof this Indian not being delivered By the last 
of this Instant I the said Brice doe oblige mee Selfe to pay unto Will 

•51 Graffenried's Treaty, pp. 281-282. 

52 Byrd's Histories, p. 298. 

53 Byrd's Histories, p. 290. An interesting letter written by Lawson in 1701 tells of an 
incident in which some Englishmen gave a party of Indians "3 clay potts full of Rum" 
despite one native's warning, which was fully realized, that if they made the Indians drunk 
"they would be rude." Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 598. 

54 Lawson, History, p. 206. 

55 Lawson, History, p. 87. 

56 Quoted by O. M. McPherson. compiler, Indians of North Carolina, Senate Document 
No. 677, 63rd Congress (Washington, 1915), p. 183. 

304 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Lewis or his orders fourteen pounds one halfe in Corrant Silver money 
and the other halfe in drest Skinnes at two shillings per pound the 
the said money and skinnes to be delivered at the said Lewis plantation 
in Witness hereof I have seat my Hand & Seal Anno Domini 1710-11 
March ye 5th. Thestes, Will Harris; Swan Swanson. 

[signed] Wm. Brice. 57 

Even among the whites, Brice and William Hancock, two of the 
most prominent inhabitants of the Neuse, had the unsavoury 
reputation of being motivated in their dealings with the Indians 
chiefly by considerations of financial gain. 58 Though there is 
no evidence that Hancock like Brice was a slave trader, it is 
practically certain that Brice was not the only hard-fisted 
frontiersman who was guilty of this "business." So firmly estab- 
lished and apparently irrestible was this practice in Bath County 
that after the massacre one Prichard Jasper is recorded as hav- 
ing sold into slavery one of the very friendly Indians who had 
spared and helped to protect the lives of him and his people! 59 
Certain contemporary observers name still another cause for 
the massacre which must be discussed along with those already 
mentioned. It was believed by prominent North Carolinians that 
the Indians were actually incited to murder and pillage by white 
men themselves, though this charge is directed at the followers 
of Cary and (what is even more suspect) comes from their oppo- 
nents in the rebellion. Pollock hints at such a grave accusation. 60 
So does Graffenried, who mentions as a cause of the outbreak 
"the slanders and instigations of certain plotters against Gov- 
ernor Hyde." 61 Spotswood, who probably received his infor- 
mation from either Pollock or Hyde, writes as follows: 

I will not affirm that the invitation given these savages some time 
ago by Col° Cary and his Party, to cutt off their fellow subjects (tho 
that heavy charge is proved by divers testimonys and firmly believed 
in Carolina) has been the only occasion of this Tragedy. . . , 62 

Yet, says Spotswood, it is reasonable and plausible that the civil 
dissensions should have encouraged the Indians — which with- 

57 Historical and Genealogical Register, III, 270. 

58 Compare letter of Thomas Pollock, Colonial Records, II, 298. 

59 Colonial Records, II, 55. 

60 Colonial Records, II, 40. 

«* German Version, pp. 230, 234. 

« 2 Spotswood's Letters, I, 116, 117. See also Colonial Records, I, 810, 811. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 305 

out doubt they did. One can only be extremely reluctant to be- 
lieve that Cary or his adherents encouraged the Indians to such 
a pitiless massacre. Fortunately, there is evidence that speaks 
in their favor. First, there is the lapse of time between end- 
ing the rebellion and the outbreak. If Cary wished to bring 
down the Indians upon his political opponents, why did the 
natives not attack before their alleged ally was stripped of 
power? Second, it is very difficult to believe that any sect so 
earnest and opposed to violence as the Quakers would have 
joined in such an incitation or even abetted it by standing aloof 
and silent. Surely these dissenters, who in many ways were 
more God-fearing than their political opponents, would not have 
failed to warn their fellow inhabitants if there had been any 
league between Cary and any warlike coalition of savages. 
Third, there is testimony from the Indians themselves that no 
white man urged them to the massacre. Colonel John Barnwell, 
of South Carolina, who commanded the force from that prov- 
ince which came to North Carolina's rescue, writes as follows 
concerning his questioning of Indian prisoners taken by his 

I inquired whether any white men had incited them to it, they 
unanimously answered no, only that y e Virginia traders told them that 
the people Massacred were outlandish [i.e., foreigners — the Swiss and 
Palatines] and not English, and so they doubted not but soon to make 
peace with the English and that they were then about it. 63 

Such evidence, recorded by an impartial observer, seems effec- 
tively to clear the dissenters of the charge proffered against 
them by Spotswood and others, who were too remote from the 
scene of the Indian troubles to know the true situation. There is, 
however, in Spotswood's observation this fragment of truth, that 
the civil dissensions did provide an opportune moment for the 
Indians to strike. With factionalism still smouldering, the natives 
saw their chance to sweep down upon a divided province. 64 
Furthermore, this costly internal quarrel, together with a 
drought during the summer of 1711, resulted in short crops 

63 "Journal of John Barnwell," Ludwell MSS., Virginia Historical Society, Richmond ; 
Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, V, 398. The journal is printed in vols. V, 
pp. 391-402, and VI, pp. 42-55. 

64 Colonial Records, II, 40. 

306 The North Carolina Historical Review 

throughout the country. 05 Ill-provisioned and tragically at odds, 
the North Carolinians fell an easy prey to the tomahawks of the 

So secret did the Indians keep their plans that a few days 
before the massacre Graffenried and Lawson, accompanied by 
two Negroes and two natives and loaded with fourteen days' pro- 
visions, began a trip of exploration up the Neuse and into the 
heart of the Tuscarora country. 06 Christopher Gale was to have 
accompanied them but fortunately failed to do so because of the 
sickness of his wife and brother. 07 One of the Indian guides, 
either losing his way or deliberately informing the savages of 
the white men's coming, wandered off to Cotechney, the chief 
town of the Tuscaroras on Contentnea Creek. 08 After three 
days' journey, Graffenried and Lawson were taken prisoner. 
Mistaking Graffenried for Governor Hyde, the Indians were so 
jubilant with what they believed was this important capture, 
that they ran for hours that night, forcing their panting pris- 
oners to keep up with them, so they might reach Cotechney as 
quickly as possible. 09 At the Indian town the next morning, 
the two captive white men were brought before the Indian king 
Hancock, who ordered them not to be bound since they had not 
yet been tried. 70 That night envoys from allied Indian villages 
came into Cotechney for a grand council over which Hancock 
presided. With great dignity the Tuscarora chief appointed a 
young brave as "prosecutor" to represent and defend the inter- 
ests of the Indian people. 71 Hancock himself, according to the 
ritual of Indian justice, formed the questions to be put to the 
captives, and upon their answers the merits of the issue were 
solemnly debated. Graffenried could not help admiring the dig- 
nity of this native court : 

I have seen many notable assemblies, have myself been present at 
some; but I have wondered at the gravity and good order of these 
heathen, their silence, obedience, respect toward those in authority; no 
contradiction except by turn, and that only once and with great decency. 

65 Spotswood's Letters, I, 137. 

66 Letter to Hyde, p. 263. 

67 Colonial Records, I, 825-826. 

68 Letter to Hyde, p. 264. This town is shown on a map in the work of John Brickell. 
The Natural History of North-Carolina (Dublin, 1737). 

69 Letter to Hyde, p. 265. 

70 Letter to Hyde, p. 265. Chiefs like Hancock and Taylor assumed an English name in 
their dealings with the whites. 

71 Letter to Hyde, p. 266. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 307 

One could not in the least observe any passion, and there was time 
enough given for reply. In fine everything was done with a propriety 
wliich would bring conviction and put many Christian magistrates to 
shame. The trial was conducted also in as orderly a manner as could 
ever be with Christian judges, and I have heard such sensible reasons 
given by these savages and heathens that I was amazed. 72 

The first question put to the white men was concerning the ob- 
ject of their journey, and on receiving the answer that it was a 
trip of exploration, the king then asked why they had not paid 
their respects to him and communicated their project to him 
before coming. 73 (From this one gathers that Graff enried had 
failed to make friends with the Tuscarora as he had with the 
Neuse and Corees. In his writings he mentions no previous con- 
tact with this important tribe.) After this the general question 
of Indian treatment at the hands of the whites came up. The 
Indians maintained that they had been "very badly treated and 
detained [as slaves] by the inhabitants of the Pamtego, Neuse, 
and Trent Rivers, a thing which was not to be longer endured." 74 
Lawson was accused of abetting this ill-treatment, but after con- 
siderable deliberation it was decided to release both captives. 

The next day Graffenried and Lawson prepared to return 
down-river, but just before they were to leave, some newly 
arrived chiefs requested to hear the white men's defense and to 
question them further. 75 Accordingly, another examination was 
held in Hancock's hut two miles from the village. Unluckily for 
Lawson, King Taylor was present and reproached the surveyor 
general for some wrong. Whereupon (says Graffenried) Lawson 
became excited and quarreled heatedly with the Indians. Imme- 
diately both of them were seized and bound, stripped of their 
hats and wigs, and relieved of their pocket effects. 70 A council 
of war was held, and the two captives were condemned to die. 
At daybreak they were led back to the great open space upon 
which the council had gathered once more. Seeing an Indian who 
could speak English, Graffenried asked him the cause of the con- 
demnation. The Indian answered that it was because Lawson 

72 Letter to Hyde, pp. 275-276. 

73 Letter to Hyde, p. 266. 

74 Letter to Hyde, p. 266. 

75 Letter to Hyde, p. 266. 
70 Letter to Hyde, p. 266. 

308 The North Carolina Historical Review 

had quarreled with Coree Tom, the chief of the Coree, and be- 
cause Lawson and he, Graffenried, had threatened to get revenge 
on the Indians. 77 Graffenried pleaded with the Indian to tell 
the other natives that he was not involved in the quarrel and 
had made no threats. The Indian went his way, with Graffen- 
ried anxiously waiting and hoping he would intercede for him. 

That afternoon the war dance began, with the white men 
bound and bareheaded and seated in the middle of the council 
clearing. 78 An old gray Indian, a conjurer-priest, hovered about 
a large fire, and near by stood another savage who from his dig- 
nified and terrible visage and keen axe looked to be the execu- 
tioner. At intervals the natives dropped out of the wild dance 
and ran into the forest, emerging with faces daubed by paint. 
Two Indians sitting on the ground beat incessantly on a drum 
"and sang so strangely to it," says Graffenried, "in such a 
melody, that it would provoke anger and sadness rather than 
joy." 79 When darkness fell the dancing stopped, and the Indians 
went into the forest and gathered fuel for the great fires which 
they lighted. Once more the solemn council assembled, and 
Graffenried made a short speech in English, telling the natives 
that he was under the protection of the great queen of England, 
who would certainly avenge his death. 80 Thereupon one of King 
Taylor's subjects spoke in behalf of Graffenried. The council 
seemed impressed and sent messengers to consult with neighbor- 
ing villages. Graffenried passed the night in prayer. 81 Just 
before dawn the messengers returned. Graffenried's bonds were 
removed, and one of the captors whispered in his ear, in broken 
English, that he was to be spared but that Lawson must die. 
He was then led into a hut, while his companion was put to a 
secret and perhaps agonizing death. 82 

The day after Lawson's death Graffenried was told that the 
Tuscarora, the Mattamuskeet, Bay River, Pamlico, Neuse, and 

77 Letter to Hyde, p. 267. Compare Barnwell: "I examined several of the prisoners (as to) 
who provoked the Enemy to commit these Murders, and all agree in one story that the 
beginning of the Quarrel arose about an Indian that the White men had punished for a 
small fault committed in his drink." "Journal of John Barnwell," Virginia Magazine, V, 398. 

78 Letter to Hyde, p. 267. A sketch by Graffenried, very crude, which shows the scene 
during his captivity, is reproduced in T. P. DeGraffenried's family history. 

79 Letter to Hyde, p. 268. 

80 Letter to Hyde, p. 269. 

81 Letter to Hyde, pp. 268-269. 

82 Letter to Hyde, p. 270. Gale believed Lawson died by having pine splinters stuck all 
over his body and lighted. Colonial Records, I, 836. One of the Negroes, according to 
Graffenried, said Lawson's throat was cut with his own razor. Letter to Hyde, p. 270. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 309 

Coree tribes, having mustered 500 warriors, intended to make 
war on the whites. Powerless to warn his colony, Graffenried 
could obtain only a promise that those in the town would be 
spared although no mercy would be shown to settlers on the plan- 
tations up the Trent. 83 A few days later, the Indians returned 
with prisoners, among them a young Swiss or Palatine boy whose 
family, like many another, had been wiped out. Frantic to know 
what had happened, Graffenried begged for his freedom, prom- 
ising a ransom of valuable goods and signing a treaty of neu- 
trality for the Palatines and Swiss. This treaty provided that 
the colony should take up no more land and should allow the 
Indians to hunt where they pleased except near livestock or 
houses. 84 It guaranteed them merchandise "at a reasonable 
and cheap price." At this time there arrived by a trader a letter 
from Governor Spotswood demanding Graff enried's release. 85 
At length, after they had consulted with the northern Tuscarora 
villages, the Indians released Graffenried from his six-weeks' 
captivity. 86 Footsore and exhausted, he stumbled into the little 
settlement to the amazement of his colonists, all of whom 
believed him dead. 87 

Warfare of the crudest sort had broken out between Indians 
and whites. At dawn on September 22 the Indians, dividing into 
small parties, had swooped down upon the settlers' plantations, 
scalping, murdering, and taking prisoners, burning houses and 
fields and destroying livestock, leaving behind them sixty Eng- 
lish and more than sixty Swiss and Palatines dead and muti- 
lated. 88 Twenty or thirty prisoners were taken, among them 
fifteen Palatines. 89 All normal activity came to a standstill as 
the terrified survivors deserted their fields and shut themselves 
indoors in fear of the marauding Indians. One Neuse inhabitant, 
Farnifold Green, wrote to friends in Virginia, "we are forc'd 
to keep garisons and watch and Gard, day and Night." 90 The 
leaderless Swiss and Palatines, thinking like Spotswood that 
Graffenried had been "Tomahawk'd and tortured at the first 

83 Letter to Hyde, p. 270. 

84 Letter to Hyde, p. 271. Graffenried's Treaty, pp. 281-282. 

85 Letter to Hyde, p. 272. Spotwood's Letters, I, 118. Colonial Records, I, 808. 

86 Letter to Hyde, pp. 271, 275. 

87 Letter to Hyde, pp. 261, 262. 

88 Letter to Hyde, p. 262. Spotswood's Letters, I, 116. Colonial Records, I, 810, 924. 

89 German Version, p. 235. Calendar of Virginia State Papers, I, 151. 

90 Calendar of Virginia State Papers, I, 151. 

310 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Public War Dance," 91 joined the English in making a costly 
and futile attack on the Indians, who repulsed them easily in 
their disorganized state and thus gained confidence that they 
could perpetrate fresh horrors with impunity. 92 

When Graff enried returned like one from the dead, he found 
New Bern deserted. The surviving Palatines and Swiss had 
left the town and crossed the Trent to the plantation of William 
Brice, under whose protection they had placed themselves. 93 
Brice was one of the few settlers who had built a fort on his 
plantation, and into this stronghold he gathered a garrison of 
Swiss, Germans, and English. 94 Some of the colonists returned 
to Graffenried's leadership, but he never again won his former 
position of authority. What was worse, he became an object of 
suspicion for refusing to make war on the Indians. 95 He would 
not yield up to the vengeful settlers the Indian who came to 
obtain the ransom, and he advised against declaring war on the 
natives as long as provisions were lacking and the fifteen Pala- 
tines remained in enemy hands. 96 Aided by Brice, a blacksmith 
whom Graffenried had punished for stealing and whose effects 
he had impounded, some of the Palatines raised an open mutiny 
against the landgrave and drew up twenty articles accusing him 
of various malfeasances 97 The blacksmith's tools, so valuable 
for repairing firearms, were the object of a plot begun by Brice, 
who was evidently as determined to have them for the use of his 
garrison as Graffenried was to retain them for the defense of 
the town. 98 Backed up by thirty or forty settlers, twenty of 
whom were Palatines, Brice approached the town and demanded 
its surrender. Graffenried, however, had been warned by a Pala- 
tine boy who had overheard the plot, and he was ready for the 
mutineers. He threatened boldly, as a landgrave of Carolina, 
to see that they were punished by the next assembly. 99 He re- 
fused to yield the blacksmith's tools or to join Brice's men in 

91 Spotswood's Letters, I, 118. 

92 Letter to Hyde, p. 274. Compare Colonial Records, IV, 955. 
M Letter to Hyde, p. 262. 

94 in a deed of 1770 this fort is referred to as being near a graveyard on the east side 
of the mouth of Brice's Creek. Craven Records, XVIII, 165. 

95 Spotswood's Letters, I, 142. 
9'» German Version, p. 235. 

97 German Version, p. 236. Graffenried does not specify the charges against him. Un- 
doubtedly one was his failure to furnish livestock. 
9* German Version, p. 236. French Version, p. 382. 
99 German Version, pp. 236-237. French Version, p. 382. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 311 

attacking the Indians. So far, says Graffenried, the Indians had 
respected the treaty of neutrality, but when Brice began his 
reprisals, among them the roasting alive of a Bay River chief- 
tain, they refused to spare the New Bern colony and slew "out- 
landers" and English alike. 100 

This was the death blow to Graffenried's venture. Impugned 
by his own colonists, he went before the assembly to defend 
himself from the accusing articles. The governor and council 
supported him, but the lower house, in which there were dis- 
senters who still resented his opposition to Cary, met in stony 
silence his explanations and gave him no satisfaction to his de- 
mands that his honor should be cleared, though indeed, as he 
points out, no accuser came to face him in the legislature. 101 
Beset by Indians, hopelessly in debt, and with provisions dwind- 
ling, Graffenried and his loyal settlers fortified themselves 
throughout the winter in New Bern while he laid plans to re- 
settle the colony in Virginia and begin again. 102 

The story of the progress of the Indian war is one that be- 
longs to the history of the whole province, whose condition at 
this period was one of shameful abjectness. Due to the short 
crops and Indian forays, food was lacking and ammunition was 
scarce. It was literally true that the savages, thanks to the 
Indian traders, were better armed than were the whites. 103 The 
militia of the colony showed an inglorious apathy toward the 
call to put down the uprising, and desertions were common, "to 
y e great weakening of its strength." 104 It was a task to feed 
the civilian inhabitants, much more an armed force. Farnifold 
Green, as an emergency measure, was appointed commissary of 
Bath County to "supply the army with anything that is to be 
had." 105 Debts piled up — private ones contracted by the colo- 
nists, who were forced to suspend their planting, and public 
ones which resulted in the province's first issue of paper 

100 German Version, p. 238. 

101 French Version, pp. 382-383. 

102 German Version, p. 240. Spotswood's Letters, I, 143. Spotswood recommended that the 
Board of Trade encourage Graffenried to bring his colonists to that province. 

103 Colonial Records, I, 811, 843. 

10* German Version, p. 240. Historical and Genealogical Register, I, 438. Colonial Records, 
I, 873. A curious fact is that militiamen were actually known to send substitutes to fight 
for them. In 1715, upon testimony of William Brice, Edmund Ennett proved that he had 
been promised a cow and calf by David Wharton in return for fighting in Wharton's stead. 
Craven County Court Minutes, session of January, 1715, State Department of Archives and 
History, Raleigh. 

105 Colonial Records, I, 879. 

312 The North Carolina Historical Review 

money. 106 Except for pitch or tar, exports nearly ceased, for 
all grain and pork were needed to feed the population. 107 

But although the whole province felt the effects of the Indian 
war, the Neuse and Pamlico settlers suffered most intensely. 
"The people of this country," writes Pollock, "are greatly impov- 
erished : them at news and Pamtico having most of their houses 
and household goods burnt, their stocks of Cattle, hogs, horses 
&c, killed and carried away and their plantations ruined/' 108 
As the months of violence wore on, the plantations became not 
peaceful farms but armed forts with garrisons. 109 One after 
another the settlers fell beneath savage bullets or tomahawks. 
Robert Shrieve was "dangerously wounded." 110 Farnifold Green 
was murdered with one son, one white servant, and two Negroes, 
though another son mercifully escaped with only a wounded 
shoulder. 111 Peter Foundgill perished with all his family at the 
hands of the blood-crazed savages. 112 It is no wonder that the 
outbreak was spoken of as "almost depopulating a whole 
County." 11 * 

Sunk in misery and hopelessness, the stricken province ap- 
pealed for aid to Virginia in a petition of which Graffenried was 
one of the signers. 114 The "pore distressed inhabitants of Neuse 
River" themselves requested the sister province for troops in a 
separate petition. 115 There is a note of pitiful contriteness in 
their admission that the catastrophe had befallen them "by y e 
permition of Allmighty God for our sins and Disobedance." A 
"Mr. Farguson and Mr. Graves" — Adam Ferguson and Rich- 
ard Graves — were delegated to go before the Virginia council to 
request assistance. 116 Spotswood, however, refused to go to 
the aid of the proprietary province with crown troops unless 
the troops could be guaranteed provisions, and this the North 

106 Connor History, I, 108-110. 

107 Colonial Records, I, 873. 

108 Colonial Records, I, 873. 

109 Colonial Records, II, 2. This mentions a garrison at Shackelford's plantation in 1713. 
Brice's garrison has already been mentioned. 

no Colonial Records, II, 200. 

in Colonial Records, V, 653-654. 

H2 Colonial Records, I, 864. 

113 Colonial Records, I, 837-838. 

114 Colonial Records, I, 837-838. 

H5 Colonial Records, I, 819-820. Calendar of Virginia State Papers, I, 154-155. The 
signers: Benjamin Sim(p)son, John George, William Hancock, John Slocumb, Martin Hop- 
kins, William Brice, Richard Hill, Robert Bruse, Thomas Dawson, Francis Hill, Roger Hill, 
Farnifold Green, Thomas Wilson, James Blount, Adam Ferguson, Jr., and Robert Watson. 

116 Colonial Records, I, 836. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 313 

Carolinians were unable to do. 117 At length, South Carolina 
came to the rescue, dispatching thirty white soldiers and nearly 
500 friendly Indians under command of Colonel John Barn- 
well. 118 Early in 1712 Barnwell marched on Hancock's strong- 
hold near Cotechney. Eager for vengeance, the Palatines and 
other Neuse militia, sixty-seven strong, joined Barnwell's force. 
"I exhausted all Pamlico garrisons to procure them 10 shott a 
man," writes Barnwell, "leaving not a single Bullet I could hear 
f» ii9 According to Barnwell, however, the desire for revenge 
outran the Palatines' courage, for when Indian shot began to hail 
about them they ignominously turned about and fled. 120 Be- 
cause of the presence of captives in the fort, whom the Indians 
began torturing within the white men's hearing, Barnwell was 
unable to smash the stronghold but instead, after a ten-day 
siege, agreed to a peace for which he was ungratefully criti- 
cized. 121 Yet, even as his critics admitted, if Barnwell had not 
come to North Carolina, "in probability News and pamtico had 
been deserted." 122 The treaty of peace stipulated that the In- 
dians should plant only on Neuse River and abandon their claim 
to lands between the Neuse and Cape Fear. 123 It also provided 
for delivery to the whites of King Hancock, who was summarily 
executed. 124 

Graff enried, meanwhile, during the terrible winter of 1711- 
1712, had written to Spotswood that he would be "constrained 
to abandon the Swiss and Palatines' Settlement, without speedy 
Succours, the people being already in such despair that they 
have burnt their own houses rather than be obliged to stay in a 
place exposed to so many hardships." 125 When all the provisions 
stored in New Bern had been exhausted, Graffenried went to 
Albemarle County and obtained a shipload of corn, powder, lead, 
and tobacco. 126 As fate would have it, this ship caught fire on 

H? German Version, p. 243. Spotswood's Letters, I, 171. 

118 Desertions reduced this force considerably after it had arrived. "Journal of John 
Barnwell," Virginia Magazine, V, 393 ; VI, 44. 

119 Virginia Magazine, VI, 43. 

120 The Indians, says Barnwell, "deservedly shott Sevll of them in their arses." Virginia 
Magazine, 45. His opinion of Graffenried and Michel was quite different from the evident 
contempt in which he held their colonists. He refers to the former as "the wise Baron" and 
to the latter as "a Swiss brave gentleman," probably referring to Michel's conduct of 
himseif in the attack on the Cotechney fort. Virginia Magazine, p .48. 

121 Virginia Magazine, pp. 46, 51. Spotwood's Letters, I, 147. Colonial Records, I, 875. 

122 Colonial Records, I, 875. 

123 "Journal of John Barnwell," Virginia Magazine, VI, 52-54. 

1 24 Calendar of Virginia State Papers, I, 156-157. 

125 Spotswood's Letters, I, 133, 137. 

126 German Version, pp. 240, 242. French Version, p. 383. 

314 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the return trip. Graffenried then went to Virginia, intending 
to explore the falls of the Potomac and settle there with a hand- 
ful of loyal Swiss, who were to follow him under the guidance of 
Michel. 127 From Spotswood he obtained assurance that Michel 
and his band, who were to come up in the little sloop, would 
be convoyed from North Carolina to Virginia, but Michel failed 
to meet the warship sent out by Spotswood, pleading that the 
sloop had gone aground and was unseaworthy. 128 Fearing, 
and correctly so, that Michel too was deserting him, Graffenried 
returned to North Carolina to confer with Governor Hyde. He 
arrived just in time to fall ill, with the members of the gov- 
ernor's household, of yellow fever, which during the summer of 
1712 raged throughout the province. "The people there/' writes 
Spotswood, "have been so harrassed by the Indian Enemy, that 
their Fatigues have brought among them a Pestilential Distem- 
per, which sweeps away great numbers, and so many of the 
Council have suffered therein that Collo. Hyde writes he cannot 
find a member to advise with . . . nor Assembly that will meet 
to do business." 129 Hyde himself died of the fever, and Graffen- 
ried was again offered the governorship pro tempore. He re- 
fused it, however, and Thomas Pollock assumed the office in- 
stead. 130 

On his return from Virginia, Graffenried was being watched 
impatiently by his creditors. 131 An English merchant, to whom 
a resident of Carolina, probably Pollock, had sold one of his 
notes, wished to have him arrested, and the Baron was forced to 
hide himself from the bailiffs in the house where he was stay- 
ing. 132 Disquieting suspicions came to him regarding Michel, 
who quite understandably seems by this time to have lost all 
confidence in Graffenried. He heard that his associate was plan- 
ning to desert him and lead the rest of the settlers to a new 
location in South Carolina. 133 He began to suspect, too, after 
his explorations in Virginia, that the silver mines were purely 
imaginary. 134 Worst of all, the Indian warfare broke out again. 

127 German Version, pp. 242, 246. 

128 German Version, p. 248. 

129 Spotswood's Letters, I, 137. 

130 German Version, p. 252. 

131 As early as July, 1711, Urmstone wrote that Graffenried "had no credit in England." 
Colonial Records, I, 775. 

132 German Version, p. 254. 

133 German Version, p. 250. 

1 34 German Version, p. 251. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 315 

Barnwell's force of Indians and whites, getting nothing but criti- 
cism in return for their peace with the Tuscarora, determined to 
reap what profit they could from that thankless expedition, and 
so proceeded to take prisoner, as slaves, a large number of peace- 
ful natives whom they enticed to Coree Town. 135 Upon this 
provocation, the Indians committed two fresh massacres and 
continued their marauding through the autumn of 1712. 136 
So critical was the situation that Spotswood thought the Caro- 
linians "must be forced to abandon all their Settlements on 
Neuse and Pamlico Rivers." 137 The New Bern colony was 
hopelessly scattered and estranged from Graffenried's leader- 
ship. Unable to go anywhere unshadowed by the bars of debtor's 
prison, Graffenried made up his mind to sail for Europe. The 
Palatines bitterly complained long afterward that in his pack- 
ing he "carried off from our Settlements all that he could con- 
veniently come at." 138 He proposed to seek money from his 
associates with which to pay his notes. He even pretended to 
hold out some hope of returning to the colony, though he must 
have known in his heart it was an irreparable failure. 139 "I had 
scruples," he confesses, "about abandoning the colony." — 

When I considered how much I owed to God, especially for such a 
marvelous rescue, and how disastrously and adversely everything had 
gone with me, I could well guess that it was not God's will that I should 
remain longer in this land. And since no good star shone for me I 
finally took the resolution to go away, comforting myself that my 
colonists would probably get along better among these Carolinians who 
could help them better at the time than I. Herewith, and because I had 
no great hopes in myself, I departed, for what I did was not with the 
intention of entirely abandoning them, although a greater part had 
given me cause to, but in case I received favor of an audience with her 
Royal Majesty the Queen of England, also more assistance at Bern, 
I could with joy and profit come to them again. 140 

On Easter, 1713, after a stay with Spotswood in Williamsburg, 
Graffenried sailed for England. 141 In London, where he visited 
Sir John Colleton, the lord proprietor, he met the forty German 

135 German Version, pp. 244-245. 

136 Spotswood's Letters, I, 169 ; II, 

137 Spotswood's Letters, I, 171. 

138 Colonial Records, IV, 955. 

139 German Version, pp. 254-255. 

140 German Version, p. 255. 

141 German Version, p. 256. 

316 The North Carolina Historical Review 

miners whom he and Michel had engaged some time previously. 
To ease his disappointment over the abandonment of the project, 
Graffenried busied himself that winter to obtain employment for 
them, which he finally secured through Spotswood, who engaged 
them to work some newly discovered iron mines on the Rappa- 
hannock River. 142 Not until late in 1714 did Graffenried reach 
Bern. 143 Bankrupt and broken in spirit, he did not summon 
courage to speak to his old father for ten days after arriving. 144 
Meanwhile, the Indian savageries dragged interminably on. 
In December, 1712, a second force from South Carolina arrived 
on the Neuse under command of Colonel James Moore, who in 
the following spring led some thirty-three whites and about 1,000 
friendly Indians against the stubborn Tuscarora. 145 The sav- 
ages had fortified themselves at Cotechney and particularly at 
another stronghold, Nohoroco, which at length yielded to assault. 
Moore took Nohoroco on March 23, 1713. No fewer than 800 na- 
tives were killed or captured, and 200 of these were roasted alive 
in a single flaming redoubt. 146 At this frightful loss the Tusca- 
rora surrendered Cotechney, and in fear of their lives began to 
migrate back to New York, whence they had come, to rejoin the 
Five Nations of the Iroquois, of whom they had previously been 
the Sixth. The power of the Tuscarora was thus broken, but even 
that did not end the Indian troubles. In May of 1714 their allies, 
the Coree, returned to the warpath and continued desultory 
forays throughout the following year. 147 Constant patrol had to 
be kept between the Neuse and Pamlico rivers. 148 Brice's plan- 
tation was again garrisoned, and for a time all the weary horrors 
of the Tuscarora uprising were resurrected. 149 For three more 
years the province was kept in this discouraging state of uncer- 
tainty and alarm. 150 As late as 1718 parties of rangers were 
maintained to police the Neuse region against the maurauding 
Indians. These rangers were stationed not only on the lower 
reaches on Neuse River, Bay River, and Core Sound but actually 

142 Spotswood's Letters, II, 70. The settlement was named Germanna. 

143 German Version, p. 260. 

144 DeGraffenried, Graffenried's Treaty, p. 141. 

145 S. A. Ashe, History of North Carolina, I (Greensboro, 1908), 190. 

14R S. A. Ashe. History of North Carolina, I (Greensboro, 1908), 190. German Version, 
p. 245. Colonial Records, II, 30. 

147 Ashe, History, I, 193-195. 

148 Colonial Records, II, 180. 

149 Colonial Records, II, p. 200. 

150 Colonial Records, II, p. 289. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 317 

upon and about the site of New Bern itself 151 Small wonder it 
is, under these circumstances, that many years had to elapse 
before Graffenried's "little city" began to prosper. 

The Indian uprisings were a blow from which the Neuse- 
Pamlico region was a long time in recovering. Indeed, they 
nearly proved the death knell of all settlements there. The sus- 
pension of trade and farming and the accumulation of debts 
were well-nigh disastrous, but there was yet another handicap 
under which the hapless settlers labored. This was the uncer- 
tainty and trouble involving land titles, a situation which dated 
from Cary's Rebellion and which was greatly intensified by 
the Indian wars. The use of blank patents was one grievance. 
These orders for land were frequently signed by the governor 
before being issued and the blanks were later filled out with the 
name of the owner and the amount of acreage by the surveyor 
general or his deputy. This practice, which sometimes resulted 
in patents being issued twice for the same land, was bad 
enough. 152 But when the Church party gained control of the 
assembly in 1711, they added another complication. One of the 
acts passed to nullify Cary's administration provided that all 
oersons who had bought land of Cary were required within two 
months after the passage of the act to swear to their holdings 
before certain appointed commissioners, who in Craven (Arch- 
dale) Precinct were Lionel Reading and William Brice. 153 
Because most of the Neuse lands had been patented under Cary's 
"usurpation," this provision of the law was irksome, if not 
actually burdensome, to the settlers, who were put to the trouble 
of re-establishing their lawful claims under penalty of disposes- 
sion. That some lost their lands is not unlikely. There seem to 
have been a few settlers who, arriving during the Cary troubles 
and finding no unanimously recognized government, simply squat- 
ted on the lands of their choice without title from Cary or any- 
one else. 154 

The unsettled state of things during and following the Indian 
wars naturally affected land-holding and especially land-hold- 

151 Colonial Records, II, pp. 309, 316. 

152 Albemarle County Records, vol. II, contains an undated petition by Farnifold Green 
complaining of sucb a dual claim, for which Green blamed John Lawson, deputy surveyor. 
Compare Colonial Records, III. 51-52. • 

153 Colonial Records, I, 791-794. Weeks, p. 60. 

154 Colonial Records, I, 786. 

318 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ing in the newly settled Neuse area. Recognition of this was 
taken by the government, which, on account of the Indian 
troubles, extended the length of time in which settlers might pay 
for their lands. 155 Furthermore, there were cases where the 
Indians' pillaging had destroyed private and public land records. 
The "office" of Craven Precinct, the first courthouse, was burned 
down by the savages, and the Craven court minutes show that 
legal action was necessary in one case for a landowner to estab- 
lish that his deed had been recorded but destroyed. 156 Possibly 
there were other similar cases of which no evidence has re- 
mained. The Beaufort County deed records give another in- 
stance of how the Indian troubles confused land titles. In about 
1718 the widow of a Neuse settler, seeing that the papers of the 
rightful owners had been burned in their dwellings by the In- 
dians in September, 1711, attempted to withhold from them a 
tract of 2,000 acres, contending it had never been sold by her 
deceased husband. 157 Fortunately for the true owners, they 
were able to produce records from the court at Bath Town 
which foiled the scheming widow in her effort to regain the 
property her husband had sold. 

Since the uprisings had borne so heavily upon the families of 
the Neuse, it was only natural that the work of reconstruction 
should center in that area. Some years afterward, "the General 
Court House in Craven Precinct" — which seems to have re- 
place the "office" burned by the Indians — was made headquar- 
ters for commissioners who were directed to settle "the pub- 
lick accounts which have since the yeare of the Massacre in 1711 
have been unadjusted." 158 This act of assembly was designed 
to rectify the result of local officials' laxness in not keeping cor- 
rect account of supplies they had issued from public storehouses. 
Nothing could show more vividly the demoralization in govern- 
ment which the Indian hostilities brought to Bath County. 

The Indian wars left deep wounds, and the scars were long in 
healing. The horrors of September the Twenty-Second and the 

155 Colonial Records, II, 125, 204. 

156 John Slocumb, one of the justices, was required to swear to the existence of the deed 
from John Keaton to Adam Ferguson, Sr., which was destroyed in the fire. Craven Court 
Minutes, Session of June (?), 1715, p. 17 of rebound minutes. A copy of this item also 
appears in the Craven County Deeds, II, 626. 

157 Beaufort County Deeds, I, 315-317. 

158 Historical and Genealogical Register, III, 279-281. This act is undated and badly worn. 

Rebellion and Indian Warfare 319 

years of terror that followed were not to be soon forgotten. By 
a law of 1715 which remained in force until 1741, that awful 
date was appointed as a Day of Humiliation, to be kept each year 
with fasting and prayer. 159 Such was the contriteness of the 
settlers. Such was the chastening visited upon them for their 
"sins and disobedience. ,, 

159 Colonial Records, XXIII, 3. 


By Ellen Alexander Hendricks 

Part II 

A month after the closing of dispensaries in response to the 
Supreme Court decision declaring the law under which the sys- 
tem operated unconstitutional, Governor Tillman announced that 
the act of 1893 would go into effect on August 1, 1894. A review 
of the act of 1893 shows the two acts (that of 1892 and that of 
1893) to be almost identical in content. The case of McCullough 
v. Brown had not, however, included the latter act in its deci- 
sion. That was a loop-hole for Tillman and he used it. The 
dispensaries opened, as Tillman had planned, on August 1. 

In October there was an effort to close the dispensaries again 
by court decision. The case arose in Aiken when J. V. George, 
county dispenser, and G. T. Holley, his clerk, applied to Judge 
Aldrich for a writ of prohibition "to restrain the mayor and 
aldermen of Aiken from proceeding further in the trial of peti- 
tioners on the charge of violating an ordinance prohibiting the 
sale of liquors without a license." 63 

Judge Aldrich held under authority of the decision rendered 
in the case of McCullough v. Brown that the act of 1893 was a 
violation of the state constitution and therefore null and void. 
He ruled, however, that the act was not in violation of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, the amendments thereto, or the 
interstate commerce laws of the United States. 64 

Both relators and respondents appealed; the former, on the 
grounds that the judge erred in holding the act of 1893 null 
and void, and in permitting respondents to question the consti- 
tutionality of the act; the latter, on the grounds that the judge 
erred in not holding the Dispensary act null and void as in viola- 
tion of the Constitution of the United States and the national 
interstate commerce laws. 

When the testing case was thus forced before the Supreme 
Court, Judge Samuel McGowan, a conservative, had been re- 
placed by Lieutenant Governor E. B. Gary, Tillman's right-hand 

88 The State, August 19, 1894. 

841 State v. Aiken, 42 S. C, p. 222. 

[ 320 ] 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 321 

man and a reformer. The act was declared constitutional, Judges 
Pope and Gary concurring, Chief Justice Mclver dissenting. 65 

In delivering the decision of the court, Judge Gary pointed out 
that the conclusions arrived at in the case were in conflict with 
the decisions rendered in the case of McCullough v. Brown. 66 
The principles governing the case, he declared, were : First, that 
liquor in its nature is dangerous to the morals, good order, health, 
and safety of the people, and is not to be put on the same footing 
with ordinary commodities of life, such as corn, wheat, cotton, 
and potatoes. Second, that the state, under its police power, can 
itself assume entire control and management of those subjects, 
such as liquor, that are dangerous to the peace, good order, 
health, morals, and welfare of the people even when trade is one 
of the incidents of such entire control and management on the 
part of the state. Third, that the act of 1893 is a police measure ; 
that there is nothing to show its primary object is raising rev- 
enue ; and that as a police measure a tax levied for its enforce- 
ment would be as lawful as a tax to raise funds to build a state 
house or a railroad. Fourth, that under a decision of the United 
States Supreme Court, liquor was held to be a subject of com- 
merce, and the state was given the power to legislate until Con- 
gress saw fit to interfere and supersede the state law ; that since 
the Wilson Act of Congress was intended to deprive liquor of 
its national character as a subject of commerce, making it local 
in its nature and subject to the police power of the state, the act 
did not violate the Constitution of the United States. 

"These conclusions," said Justice Gary, "are in conflict with 
the case of McCullough v. Brown. That case, therefore, and 
those decided upon its authority, are overruled in so far as they 
are antagonistic to the principles upon which this case is 
decided." 6 ^ 

In spite of the relentless warfare so constantly and vigorously 
waged against the dispensary, it gained rapidly. By the end of 
the Tillman-Traxler administration, the dispensaries had in- 
creased in number to sixty-nine. The total profit for this period 
of operation was $125,328.60, 68 of which $110,348.80 had gone 

65 State v. Aiken, 42 S. C, p. 222. 

66 state v. Aiken, 42 S. C, p. 228. 

67 State v. Aiken, 42 S. C, p. 253. 

68 Reports and Resolutions, 1894, p. 532. 

322 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to the state and the remaining $14,979.60 to the counties and 

On February 1, 1895, the administration of the law was placed 
in the hands of F. M. Mixson, commissioner, and John Gary- 
Evans, governor. A great deal of the hostility that had sur- 
rounded Tillman as administrator died out. 

One of Governor Evans's most successful moves to con- 
trol the system was made in Charleston. From the moment the 
Evans bill became law, Charleston had fought the dispensary, 
first, because it was Tillman's plan, and, second, because it inter- 
fered with the established methods of dealing with drink. Her 
attitude had been manifested when on the day that the dispen- 
sary began operation, July 1, 1893, an effigy of Tillman had been 
suspended from a lamppost at the corner of King and Calhoun 
streets, a dispensary bottle tied around his neck. "When the 
dozen retail dispensaries opened, unlawful saloons by fifties 
and hundreds slaked the thirst by the drink," said Ball. 69 

The disregard of the law and the failure of the police authori- 
ties to cooperate with the state constables forced Governor Evans 
to place Charleston under a system known as the "metropolitan 
police system." Three Charleston citizens were appointed com- 
missions of police, and they in turn appointed J. Elmore Mar- 
tin chief. The city council likewise appointed men of their 
choice. The conflict weakened the system and the citizens of 
Charleston, resenting the outside authority by a governor who 
was obnoxious to them, strove to regain control of the local 
government. The result of this conflict appears to have been 
more law and order in Charleston and fewer "blind tigers," 
as illicit liquor dealers were called. "The increase in the volume 
of the business in the past three months or more seems," said 
The State, "to indicate that the 'blind tiger' has at last been 
driven back into his lair." 70 

For the first time in the history of the institutioin several 
writers and newspaper editors came out in praise of the opera- 
tion of the system. In an article submitted to The Arena on 
"The South Carolina Dispensary," R. I. Hemphill said : 

69 Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 249. 

70 The State, March 12, 1895. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 323 

But after two years of firm enforcement the saloon-keepers have lost 
heart and are leaving all sections of the State. . . . The seventy-five con- 
stables at first appointed have been reduced to thirty-five . . . stationed 
on the border line of South Carolina and Georgia to seize incoming 
contraband whiskey. . . . The dispensary is a great improvement on 
any solution of the liquor question that has ever been known in this 
section of the country. It has diminished drunkenness, decreased crime, 
reduced court expenses, promoted morality, rescued many of the fallen 
and restored happiness to many homes. Every day" the law grows in 
popular favor. ... It is one of the coming reforms and South Carolina 
is leading it. 71 

One correspondent of The Greenville Mountaineer proclaimed 
it "one of the best statutes enacted yet by a State of America or 
Europe for the prevention of excess in the use of alcoholic bev- 
erage." 72 

While some of the friends and converts were singing praises, 
many were indignantly demanding reform lest both the dispen- 
sary and the Reform party fall into ill repute. 73 As a result of 
this repeated request "to do something," the legislature ap- 
pointed an examining committee. Their investigation revealed 
a shortage from a number of county dispensaries. 

Investigation likewise revealed that the accusations directed to- 
ward the Board of Directors were not without grounds. Commis- 
sioner F. M. Mixson had turned down an offer of $30,000 from 
the Lanahan Liquor Co., and Columbia was found swarming with 
liquor drummers lobbying the legislature or the Board. 74 Some 
few years before this time when M. C. Butler had accused Till- 
man of accepting rebates, Tillman had publicly scoffed at the 
idea. "When I used to go hunting varmits," he had said, "and the 
dogs would run around in a patch and nothing would come out, 
the darkies would say 'they's just running h'ants.' Well, Butler 
has just been running h'ants." 75 The investigators were on a 
much better trail than one made by h'ants. 

The legislature made provisions for heavier fines for violations, 
provided for compulsory weekly as well as monthly reports, and 
made solicitors, constables, deputy constables, deputy sheriffs, 

71 R. I. Hemphill, "The South Carolina Dispensary," The Arena, XII, 414. 

72 Tillman Scrapbook, No. 11. 

73 The State, May 5, 6, 7, 1897 ; B. L. Coughman in Columbia Register, May 4, 1897. 

74 Official Reports, 1895-1897. 

75 T. J. Kirkland, "Tillman and I," The State, June 21, 1929. 

324 The North Carolina Historical Review 

sheriffs, and trial justices subject to suspension for failing to per- 
form any duties designated by the Dispensary act. Affidavits to 
be acceptable were to contain a statement setting forth the facts 
and grounds and belief upon which the affiant based his belief. 

The law also ran into conflict on the question of interstate 
commerce in 1895. Early in the year Judge Nathan Goff issued 
a temporary injunction restraining "all State authorities and 
their employees, officers and agents from interfering in any way 
with liquor shipped into the State from points outside the State 
either in transit, at the point of destination, or in the hands of 
consignee." 70 The ground for the injunction was that the Dis- 
pensary law was unconstitutional in many particulars and 
essentially because of its violation of the interstate commerce 
laws of the United States. 

Governor Evans declared that Judge Goff's injunction would 
be disregarded, and that the state would continue to seize every 
gallon of whiskey that arrived within the state. 77 Commissioner 
Mixson sent circular letters on April 25, 1895, to state con- 
stables containing three kinds of certificates, "one to carry goods 
out of the State, and one to bring goods into the State, the other 
to ship goods from point to point in the State." He gave special 
instructions to the constables to be particularly vigilant to catch 
any package going from place to place in the state not bearing 
the proper certificate and in taking packages shipped into or 
out of the state unless properly stamped. 78 

This disregard of Judge Goff's authority was halted by a deci- 
sion rendered by federal Circuit Judge Simonton in the case of 
Donald v. Scott, Holly, and other state constables. The com- 
plaint in the case was that state officers were seizing liquors 
intended for personal use, on the grounds that such action was 
in conflict with the United States Constitution in that it dis- 
criminated aganst citizens and interfered with free commerce. 
The complaint, further, sought to prove that the act was not 
lawful exercise of police power. 79 Judge Simonton declared null 
that portion of the Dispensary law prohibiting the importation 

76 The State, May 7, 1895. 

77 The State, May 8, 1895. 
W The State, May 7, 1895. 

79 Reports and Resolutions, I, p. 221 (report of Attorney General for year ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1895). 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 325 

of liquor for personal use. He concluded that the sale of liquor 
could not be regulated or controlled because being merchantable 
in itself, it was beyond the scope and power of police laws, and 
that the dispensary law being neither a prohibition law nor a 
law for inspection was not enacted in the lawful exercise of the 
police power and was therefore invalid as to imported liquor, 
by virtue of the Wilson act of 1890. The decision allowed the 
importation of liquors into the state for personal use. The writ 
of injunction was modified by Judge Simonton to the extent of 
allowing the state constables to seize liquors imported preten- 
sively for personal use, when it was actually for sale, and when 
there were any suspicious cirmumstances connected with the 

The courts tried case after case where constables were charged 
with seizing liquors intended for personal use. In most of the 
cases the accused were dismissed on the ground that the facts 
connected with the importation were such as to show that the 
liquors in question were intended for sale and not for personal 

Commissioner Mixson and Constable Beach were ordered 
arrested under a warrant issued by United States Commissioner 
Reid, charged with a conspiracy to defeat the Interstate Com- 
merce act of July 2, 1890. Commissioner Reid rendered an 
opinion that the people had rightly interpreted Judge Simonton' s 
decision, that those people were entitled to their liquor without 
interference, and that he held the defendants in contempt of 
Judge Simonton's order of injunction and required a bond for 
their appearance at trial. 80 

Mixson was also involved in several cases in an effort by com- 
plaints to bring perpetual injunction restraining state dispen- 
sary authorities from carrying on business. Governor Evans, 
too, was charged with conspiracy to defeat the interstate com- 
merce laws by establishing a monopoly in the whiskey business 
in restraint of trade. 81 

Judge Simonton next held the provisions of the act of 1895 
that prohibited the taking of orders for liquors to be shipped into 

80 The State, June 6, 1895. 

81 Numerous newspaper reports, June 6-December 13, 1895. 

320 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the state to its citizens as unconstitutional. 82 The effect of this 
decision was to allow traveling salesmen of liquor dealers out- 
side the state to come into the state to take orders, and to fill 
them by shipment of the liquors. 

The Dispensary act of 1896, enacted on March 6, sought to 
evade Judge Simonton's decision by requiring that all liquors 
entering the state be purchased by a board of control to be 
elected by the Legislature for the term of five years and that 
such liquors as entered the state be tested by the State Chemist 
for purity. 83 The Attorney-General ordered that all seizures 
of imported drinks for private use cease until the law should 
be acted upon. On June 4, 1896, Judge Simonton rendered a 
decision that "so much of the Dispensary law as refers to the 
seizing, testing and confiscation of liquors, ordered for personal 
consumption by the residents of this State is in conflict with 
the Constitution of the United States, and is therefore null and 
void." He held that a resident had the right to order his liquor 
from beyond the state, and to receive it without having it inter- 
fered with in any manner. 84 

Governor Evans immediately issued orders to the constables 
to make no more seizures under the new Dispensary law until 
the ruling could be tested by the United States Supreme Court. 
On January 18, 1897, Chief Justice Fuller of the United States 
Supreme Court closed the question of the individual's right 
when he announced the Court decision to be "that the prohibi- 
tion of the importation of the wines and liquors of other states 
by citizens of South Carolina for their own use is made absolute 
and does not depend on the purity or impurity of the articles." 85 

In Washington Benjamin Tillman, who had been elected to 
the United States Senate in 1894, was making an effort to force 
through an amendment to the Wilson act in order to enable the 
Court to maintain the right of the state to regulate the liquor 
traffic as it saw fit. He met with bitter opposition among his own 
state delegation, so hostile were they towards any plan advocated 
by Tillman. 86 

w Reports and Resolutions, 1897, p. 40. 

*3 Acts of South Carolina, 1897, p. 40. 

M The State, June 5, 1896. 

*5 The State, January 20, 1897 ; Scott v. Donald, 165 United States Reports, p. 58. 

88 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 381. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 327 

Decision after decision was handed down by the United States 
Supreme Court and circuit court weakening the Dispensary law. 
In the case of Vandercook Co. v. Bahr the right of non-resident 
manufacturers and dealers to import into the state their liquors 
and to sell them in original packages was the issue at stake. 
Judge Simonton held "That, as the State engaged in the liquor 
traffic and sold liquor as a beverage for profit and the sale of 
liquors was not declared to be against the health and morals of 
the people, the Dispensary law did not come within the pro- . 
visions of the Wilson Act of Congress, passed in 1890, as it was 
not lawful exercise of the police power insofar as it prohibited 
such sale in original packages." 87 

In the same month, May, 1897, the question of the right of 
non-resident manufacturers and dealers to store and sell liquors 
and the right to do so through citizens of the state as agents was 
decided in the case of Moore v. Bahr; it was held that they en- 
joyed both rights. 88 

Under authority of this decision a horde of outside liquor 
dealers opened up liquor businesses known as "original package" 
stores. The Dispensary law was paralized through the con- 
stables' fear of imprisonment for contempt, and all liquor agents 
operated unmolested. 

Many cases in court attempted to test the validity of these 
"original package" stores. Some of the questions involved were: 
What is an original package? Do the contracts under which 
residents are selling create lawful and bona fide agencies? Are 
the importers required to observe the provisions of the Dispen- 
sary law regulating the sale of liquors as the valid exercise of 
police power, such as selling not less than one-half pint, allowing 
liquors opened and drunk on the premises, and selling on Sun- 
day? Are the principals responsible for the acts of the agents 
in violating the lawful police regulations? Can liquors be sold 
by non-resident manufacturers and dealers in original packages 
in towns in which the sale of liquor was prohibited by law? 

Judge Simonton held an "original package" to be the package 
delivered by the importer to the carrier in that place for ship- 
ment in the exact condition in which it was shipped. If a single 

87 Reports and Resolutions, 1897, p. 14 (report of Attorney General Barber). 

88 Reports and Resolutions, 1897, p. 18 ; The State, May 1, 1897. 

328 The North Carolina Historical Review 

bottle was shipped, or if in packages of three or more bottles, 
or if in jugs, these were the original packages. 89 

He held that a contract between the importer and person sell- 
ing in the state by which the seller was to get a portion of the 
profits as his compensation constituted a lawful and bona fide 
agency ; that any agent appointed in this state must conform to 
such requirements of the Dispensary law as that no sales could 
be made between sundown and sunrise, and none in less than 
packages of one-half pints; that no liquor was to be drunk on 
the premises, to be sold to minors or drunkards, or to be sold 
on Sunday ; that no liquors could be sold by agents of importers 
in original packages in towns in which the sale of liquor was pro- 
hibited by law. 

As to the responsibility of principals for the acts of their 
agents, Judge Simonton held that when the agents violated any 
of the provisions of the Dispensary law which were enacted in 
the lawful exercises of the police power, such as the restrictions 
listed above, the circuit court of the United States would not 
interfere by law of injunction. 90 

Owing to the adverse decisions of the courts, the State Board 
of Control took advantage of an "implied right" in Section 4 of 
the Dispensary law of 1897 and established beer dispensaries to 
contest the field of the illegitimate traffic in "original pack- 
ages/' 91 

The beer dispenser divided a storeroom with a flimsy partition 
into two rooms with an open door between them. In one he sold 
beer. In the other were cheap pine tables and chairs provided 
for the purpose of drinking. "This," says Ball, "was virtually 
a reopening of the saloons." 

The state took an appeal to the United States Supreme Court 
to determine whether the provisions of the Dispensary law, 
approved March 5, 1895, and amended March 6, 1897, were in 
lawful exercise of police power of the state. That is, whether 
the terms of the Dispensary Act, as amended, providing for the 
inspection of all liquors brought into the state for use or sale 
were lawful exercise of the police power of the state. 92 

88 The State, August 8, 1897. 

80 Summary by Wm. A. Barber, Attorney-General, in Reports and Resolutions, 1897, p. 44. 

83 Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 253. 

M The State, March 8, 1898. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 329 

On May 9, 1898, the Supreme Court at Washington handed 
down its decision, sustaining the constitutionality of the Dispen- 
sary law in all its features with the limitation only as to impor- 
tation for personal use. 93 All doubts as to the future legal status 
was thus removed. The constabulary was reorganized and 
"original package dealers" closed their shops. 

The second big problem to be met by the State Board of Con- 
trol came in February, 1898, when the federal court of appeals 
decided the Vance v. Wesley case against the state. The case, 
commonly known as the "Agriculture Hall" case, had arisen 
when the state took possession of the Agriculture Hall in Colum- 
bia in February, 1893, for the purpose of establishing a state 
dispensary there. Edward B. Wesley, a citizen of the state of 
New York, instituted his action in the Circuit Court of the 
United States for the district of South Carolina against J. E. 
Tindal and J. R. Boyles, citizens of South Carolina, to recover 
the possession of the lot on which the Agriculture Hall was 
located. The Attorney General filed a suggestion that the prop- 
erty belonged to the state, and that the suit was, in effect, a suit 
against the state ; and thereupon moved that the court dismiss the 
plaintiff's suit. The court overruled the motion, and the state 
obtained a writ of error from the Supreme Court of the United 
States. The court affirmed the judgment of the court below. 94 
The defendants, Tindall and Boyes, sued out a writ of error for 
this court to the judgment so entered against them. The judg- 
ment of the lower court was again affirmed. 95 

The mandate of the Supreme Court was then filed in the circuit 
court, and Wesley caused to be issued a writ for the delivery of 
the possession of the property to him. 

Commissioner S. W. Vance tendered his petition asking for a 
stay of the writ of possession on the grounds that he was in 
possession of the property in question as Commissioner ; that he 
did not acquire the property from Tindal and Boyles; and that 
the alleged sale of the property was made under power conferred 
by an act of the General Assembly of South Carolina, approved 
December 24, 1890. 

93 Vance v. Vandercook, No. 1, 170 U. S. p. 438. 

94 South Carolina v. Wesley. 155 U. S. p. 542. 

95 Tindal v. Wesley, 167 U. S., p. 204. 

330 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The plaintiff, Wesley, in answer to the petition said, in sub- 
stance: First, that the petition did not state any fact which 
would justify the court in granting the relief prayed for. Sec- 
ond, he denied that Commissioner Vance was there as a state 
commissioner, and alleged that the petitioner's possession was 
wrongful, having been derived by succession from Tindal and 

Judge Goff rendered the following decision in the case : 

The claim of the petitioner is absolutely without merit, for the prop- 
erty, the possession of which he claims, was by direction of the General 
Assembly sold, and the proceeds of the sale appropriated by law to a 
special purpose. The petitioner, by his own showing, was not the law- 
ful tenant. ... So far as we can see from the record, and from the 
statutes of South Carolina, he is a mere interloper. . . . The judgment 
of the court below is affirmed. 

The effect of the decision was to deprive the state dispensary 
of a plant in which to operate. There was no building in Colum- 
bia near the railroad tracks, either for sale or for rent, efficiently 
equipped in which to handle the business of the dispensary. The 
Board was forced to accept the terms offered by Wesley. They 
paid him $10,000 for back rent, and made temporary arrange- 
ments to pay one hundred and seventy-five dollars per month 
for rent so long as the dispensary operated from the building. 
Perceiving that the expenses thus incurred amounted to more 
than an out-and-out purchase, the board bought a warehouse on 
Gervais Street on April 1, 1898, for the sum of $18,000, to 
which the state dispensary was removed. 96 

In the face of these difficulties the prohibitionists put on a 
special drive against the dispensary in 1897 and 1898. The state 
executive committee sent to over 20,000 people the following 
letter : 

Dear Sir : The executive committee after a careful survey of the con- 
ditions in our State, regard it a favorable opportunity to urge the claims 
of prohibition to the attention of our people. The existing system, in- 
augurated in direct opposition to the expressed will of the majority, 
having utterly failed to meet the expectations of its friends, and proven 
successful as a promoter of lawlessness, fraud and crime, has sealed its 

96 Reports of State Board of Control, in Reports and Resolutions, 1899, II, 487 ; also 
The State, February 17, 1898. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 331 

own doom, and the next Legislature will be called upon to deal with the 

We confidently ask your active personal cooperation in securing names 
to petitions asking the Legislature for prohibition. . . . 


L. D. Childs, chr. 

The petition enclosed was as follows : 

The undersigned voters of , S. C, believing that the 

continuance of the sale of alcoholic liquors as a beverage within this 
State, under the sanction of its laws, is the source of its pauperism, 
misery and crime which exists, a positive hindrance to all material 
and industrial prosperity, and a foe to morality and religion, would re- 
spectfully petition the General Assembly at its next sessioin to enact 
such legislation as will prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxi- 
cating liquors as a beverage. 97 

They introduced a forceful bill into legislature in 1897 and 
again in 1898. 98 In the campaign of 1898 they put out a strong 
ticket, headed by C. C. Featherstone, and applied to state Demo- 
cratic executive committee to be allowed to run their convention 
ticket in the primary." The privilege was refused and Feather- 
stone continued in the campaign as an independent. He was 
strong enough to cause Ellerbe to bargain with N. G. Gonzales, 
editor of The State, to favor as a solution to the liquor problem 
local option between high license, dispensary, or prohibition in 
return for the support of The State. When elected, Ellerbe only 
feebly fulfilled his promise, and The State published the details 
of the whole affair including letters from Ellerbe. 100 

The question had reached a climax and as Governor Ellerbe 
stated in his annual message in 1899, "Nothing connected with 
the administration of the government" at the time was "of so 
much interest and importance as the Dispensary law." Further- 
more he stated, "It must be firmly and permanently established 
or completely done away with." 101 

Judging from the letters made public by The State in reply to 
a circular letter sent to the members of the General Assembly on 

97 The State, August 20, 1897. 

98 House Journal, 1897, 1898. 

99 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 392. 

100 The State, January 11-June 3, 1899. 

101 The State, January 11, 1899 ; House Journal, 1899, p. 20. 

332 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the question of the opinion of the people on dispensary, prohi- 
bition, or high license, sentiment during this period was about 
equally divided between the dispensary and prohibition. There 
was very little support given to high license. 102 The prohibi- 
tionists, fearing a return to high license and the barroom, ad- 
dressed the Assembly to the effect that they preferred the dis- 
pensary to local option. 103 All action on the question was there- 
fore postponed for another year. 

Again in 1900 the chief issue of the campaign was the liquor 
question. The contest was waged between Col. James A. Hoyt, 
who stood for general prohibition, and Governor Miles B. Mc- 
Sweeney, who stood for a reformed dispensary. (Governor Mc- 
Sweeney, a country editor from Hampton, had gone into office 
to fill Governor Ellerbe's unexpired term on June 2, 1899.) 104 

Benjamin Tillman was the greatest force in the campaign. He 
wished reelection to the Senate, the endorsement of the dispen- 
sary, and the election of McSweeney for governor. He took an 
active part in the campaign in order to defend as forcefully as 
might be the dispensary. He associated high license with "blind 
tigers" and accused the high license people of using prohibiton 
as the "Trojan horse." He urged the people to quit voting for 
personal preference and to settle the issue. 105 

Characteristic of the manner in which he conducted the fight 
for the dispensary were his remarks to a delighted audience at 
Barnwell: "You love your liquor and you are going to have it. 
You love it just as you do your girls." 106 

Sermons, editorials, and open letters made public by the press, 
especially The State and The News and Courier, condemned the 
dispensary as a scheme "to break the hearts of wives and daugh- 
ters, to blacken and ruin homes and to make vagabonds and out- 
casts of the sons." These opponents argued that the dispensary 
had put illegal sale of liquor as well as legal sale, in excess ; that 
the law had always been and would continue to be unduly vio- 
lated ; that dispensers' salaries, being proportioned to the volume 
of sales, offered an incentive to push sales; and that the dispen- 

102 The State, October 2-October 10, 1898. 

103 The State, February 9, 1899. 

104 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 392. 

105 The State, July, 1900 (broadly discussed during the whole month). 
103 The Nevjs and Courier, September 4, 1900. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 333 

sary failed to give promised returns in revenue and should, 
therefore, be replaced by a more saticfactory system. 

McSweeney was reelected, chiefly because of Tillman's influ- 
ence. In his annual message to the General Assembly he took the 
stand that prohibition was not practical and that local option 
was even worse. 107 During his administration he directed his 
attentions toward reforming the dispensary system, and the hos- 
tilities towards it diminished temporarily. In his annual mes- 
sage of 1902 he was able to review with satisfaction the opera- 
tions of the system during the first year of his administration 
and to state his belief that the dispensary might be considered 
the fixed policy of the state for dealing with the liquor problem. 108 

There were, however, forces still at work with the purpose of 
ultimately destroying the prestige of the system. These oppo- 
nents sought to place its defects before the public. They at- 
tacked the 1901 amendment 109 which permitted the establish- 
ment of distilleries and breweries in Columbia and Charleston 
as another tendency towards monopoly, and the amendment that 
raised the bonus to communities by using surplus funds for 
school purposes as a bid to get the people to accept and patronize 
the system. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, organized in South 
Carolina in 1880, was by this time wide awake and active while 
other opponents seemed on the wane. Mrs. Lilian M. N. Stevens, 
of Portland, Maine, president of the National Temperance 
Union, made a visit to South Carolina to speak on the subject 
of the dispensary. She condemned the system as a compromise 
with evil and placed it in the same class with other license sys- 
tems. Carrie Nation, the famous prohibitionist, noted chiefly 
for her power to destroy liquor shops with a hatchet, made a 
visit to the Columbia "blind tigers" (illegal liquor shops), but no 
windows were smashed as was expected. The State reported 
that "The illicit liquor dealers only suffered the cuttings of a 
sharp tongue." 110 

In the latter part of 1902 the church conventions endorsed the 
criticisms that were being made by the prohibitionists. The 

107 House Journal, 1900, p. 32. 

108 The State, January 15, 1902. 

109 Acts of South Carolina, 1901, p. 85. 
HO The State, February, 1902. 

334 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Methodist Conference held in Greenville, in the late fall adopted 
a suggestion made by one of its bishops that no member of the 
Methodist Church could become a dispenser without violating 
the church discipline. The Baptist convention adopted the criti- 
cism of a special committee on temperance and decided to go on 
record as approving prohibition. They determined, however, 
to treat the issue as a political and not a religious question. 111 

Weary of professional politicians, the public welcomed the 
candidacy of Duncan C. Heyward in 1902. For the first time 
since 1892, the liquor question was not made the chief issue of 
the campaign. Theoretically, Heyward was opposed to the liquor 
business. "This sentiment of the best people," according to the 
new governor's concept, was not for violation of the law as it was 
written. He, therefore, planned a strict enforcement. 112 

In his annual messages Heyward spoke of "smooth operation" 
of the law, but the corruption and violations told another story. 
"Social clubs" flourished as drinking places with liquor imported 
by members under interstate commerce protection. 113 Charleston 
in 1903 developed the practice of fining the blind tigers twenty- 
five dollars every three months, or six times as high if they hin- 
dered the public revenue by purchasing their supplies elsewhere 
than at the dispensary. "On these terms," says Dr. Wallace, 
"the tiger and the law lay down together, barring occasional 
spats, with a virtual license income to the city of about $7,500 a 
year." 114 

In the face of violations that the state could not or did not 
prevent, the people became more desirous of adopting a local 
option plan. The legislature met the demand by passing the 
amendment known as the Brice act. The amendment provided 
for twenty days notice to be given to the inhabitants for a vote 
of "dispensary" or "no dispensary" before establishing one in 
any county. 115 By a majority vote a dispensary could be voted 
out. The primary purpose of this act was to provide the method 
by which counties might remove dispensaries already established 
and to provide the means of enforcing the law in such counties 

m The State, November 28-December, 1902. 

112 The State, February 9. 1902. 

H3 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 419. 

114 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, 420. 

115 Acts of South Carolina, 1902, p. 1105. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 335 

by levying a tax of one-half mill. The Blake amendment to the 
Brice act further provided that any county voting out a dispen- 
sary "should not thereafter receive any part of the dispensary 
school fund." 

The constitutionality of the Brice act was questioned in court 
by several counties on the grounds that it violated the laws of a 
uniform and equal rate of taxation, and that it violated the con- 
stitutional provisions in depriving any county voting out the dis- 
pensary from receiving any portion of the surplus funds that 
remained of the dispensary school funds. Ira B. Jones, chief 
justice, rendered a decision, applying to all suits, that the act 
did not violate the constitutional provision requiring a uniform 
and equal rate of taxation. The Blake amendment with regard 

to school funds he declared unconstitutioinal. 

The Brice act was the first of the fatal blows to the Dispen- 
sary law. 

Many of the farmers and mill workers who had supported the 
dispensary at first had become disgusted by 1904 and supported 
the Brice law. Ball relates the following amusing and enlight- 
ening story : 

'How is it that you are working for prohibition?' I asked Dunk 
Watts, planter, when a Brice-law election was to be held in Laurens. 
'You who though an anti-Tillmanite, were, to my disgust, a dispensary 
man a year ago — and you have a demijohn in your sideboard now?' 

'Yes/ he said, 'I was a dispensary man; when the bars closed there 
were not nearly so much whooping and hollering and shooting by men 
riding by my house at night and I thought it was a good thing. That 
was ten years ago, cotton was worth six cents a ponnd; my negroes had 
about a quarter apiece. When they went to town on Saturday evenings, 
they were all right Sunday morning for they could not buy more than 
half a pint of 'fuss x.' Now cotton is worth fifteen cents a pound and 
be d — if I can get my darkies sober before Wednesday.' 116 

The situation had become so very bad that even Tillman de- 
clared that he would go over to the other side if the legislators 
did not provide for reforms. This extract from a letter written 
to the Hon. Theodore D. Jervey, Charleston, December 29, 1904, 
conveys his sentiment: 

H6 Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 256. 

336 The North Carolina Historical Review 

I am very disgusted with the present situation in Dispensary matters 
and I do not feel very much confidence in seeing things bettered at the 
coming session of Legislature. The enemies of the law have set about to 
destroy it by putting it in the hands of men who have not kept them- 
selves above suspicion, and the demoralization now evident is due to 
this fact. If we can not lift the system to a better level and restore 
confidence among the people it is doomed. 117 

Leading citizens began to feel more keenly the moral influ- 
ence of a state institution run by men who deliberately and will- 
fully violated the mandates of the law. The chief criticisms were 
directed toward the increase in crime and the demoralization of 
character. The churches again took up the controversy and made 
it a chief topic at conferences and a favorite subject for ser- 
mons. Bishops W. A. Chandler of Georgia condemned the sys- 
tem "as a force that pours liquor down the people to come out 
in two streams — one negro education, the other white ignor- 
ance." 118 Rev. J. C. Brunson proposed a plan to the state Baptist 
convention by which the people could get rid of the Dispensary 
law. He advocated voting out the dispensary, submitting local 
option to the people, and disfranchising any man who should get 
the habit of drinking in excess. 

The anti-dispensary newspapers referred the people of the 
state to beer dispensaries, 119 hotel privileges, and clubhouse viola- 
tions as a stream of deliberate disregard of the principles for 
which the Dispensary law professed to stand. They further 
emphasized the fact that taxes had not been reduced as dispen- 
sary advocates had promised. 

There was nothing tangible upon which to base the belief of 
corruption and graft in the operations of the system until 1905. 
Reports, chiefly by press agents, of the handsome presents, 
samples of fine liquors, and rebates being accepted by officials, 
and of the handling of contraband liquors by dispensers brought 
numerous requests to the legislature for a thorough investiga- 
tion. On January 31, 1905, a resolution was passed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly providing for the appointment of three senators 
and four members of the house "to investigate the affairs of the 

117 Tillman manuscript. University of South Carolina, library, Columbia. 
H8 The State, July 14, 1905 (taken from a speech delivered at the District Conference 
of the Methodist Churches at Columbia). 

11 9 Numerous press notices during the years 1905-1906. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 337 

State Dispensary." The committee was empowered to send for 
papers and persons, to swear witnesses, to require attendance of 
any parties whose presence should be deemed necessary, to ap- 
point an accountant and a stenographer, and to investigate all 
transactions concerning the dispensary and its management. 
The committee might take testimony within or outside the state, 
and were to have access at all times during their services to all 
the books and vouchers and other papers of the dispensary. 120 

The following questions were to be used for a basis of the 
investigation : 

First, had the houses represented by agents who were near 
relatives of the members of the Board of Directors received 
large orders at each purchase? 

Second, was it a fact that members of the Board of Directors 
were, or had been, agents for certain wholesale houses from 
which large purchases were made? 

Third, was it a fact that parties to whom large orders were 
given were not wholesale dealers but brokers, and that the 
orders were filled by third persons, thus making the state pay the 
commission of the middleman? 

Fourth, was it necessary to purchase the large quantity of 
liquors ordered in December, 1904, to fill demands, and especially 
the new and fancy goods purchased which were unknown to the 

Fifth, were the extraordinarily heavy purchases made, neces- 
sary to the best interest of the dispensary system? 

Sixth, what was the financial standing of the business, and 
was it run on the best principles for the interest of the law as 
originally passed and amended? 

Seventh, was it a fact that the state through the dispensary 
was violating the constitution of 1895, in that it was selling 
whiskey in less quantities than one-half of one pint? 

Eighth, was it a fact that the state was selling five's in case 
goods to its customers and charging them for one quart? 

Ninth, was it a fact that certain agents were traveling over 
the state and offering special inducements to county dispensers 
to "push" certain brands of liquors, and if so, was it a fact 
known to the members of the State Board of Directors? 

120 Reports and Resolutions, 1905, p. 467. 

338 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Tenth, was it a fact that certain requirements of the law were 
dispensed with by the county dispensers by order of, or with 
the consent of, the members of the State Board of Directors? 

Eleventh, had the whiskey recently purchased been ordered 
out from the dealer, or had it been held in reserve for future 

Twelfth, what was the indebtedness of the dispensary for 
liquors which had been bought but not delivered? 

Thirteenth, was it a fact that excessive freight had been paid 
to railroads for transportation of liquors into the state, when 
said liquors could have been shipped into the state for less ? 

Fourteenth, was there any warrant of law or authority for the 
establishment and conduct of what is commonly known as "beer 
dispensaries" as they have been conducted? 121 

The committee was composed of Senators J. T. Hay, chairman, 
Cole L. Blease, and Neils Christensen, Jr., and Representatives 
T. B. Fraser, A. L. Gaston, D. A. Spivey, and J. Fraser Lyon. 
Christensen and Lyon, young men of twenty-nine and thirty-four 
serving their first terms, took the lead and uncovered a state-wide 
system of graft. 

The investigation was begun at Spartanburg on August 8, 
1905. The intention of the legislature had leaked out and the 
majority of the dispensers were prepared. Persons who were 
called as witnesses in a number of cases were advised as to what 
course to take and were obstinate about bringing out facts that 
would prove violators guilty. 

Sufficient evidence was produced, however, to convince the 
committee that members of the county board, with C. C. Smith 
taking the lead, had elected the dispensers who were willing 
to pay most for the job. Dispensers testified to having paid 
from $275 to $450 for appointments, and of having been advised 
by the county board to make as much money as possible in dis- 
regard of the law. 122 The beer dispensers had been offered 
attractive inducements to purchase from The Atlanta Brewing 
Company; Dunwoody was manager of the company and Smith 
was receiving ample compensation for the business. It was dis- 

121 Re-ports and Resolutions, 1905, p. 468. 

122 Reports and Resolutions, I, 1906, p. 973 (testimony taken at Spartanburg, Sumter, 
and Columbia). 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 339 

covered also that dispensers had not only accepted but actually- 
solicited complimentary liquors, and in many instances, personal 
gifts from dealers. They had often sold the liquors thus received 
from the dispensary shelves for their own profit. Liquors were 
being sold to "blind tigers" from the dispensaries. 123 

The corruption in Spartanburg had involved the editor of the 
Spartanburg Journal, Charles H. Henry, who though he gave 
"the lie" to all who accused him, was declared to have sold for 
$400 a section of his paper to the dispensary officials. A number 
of dispensers testified to having contributed twenty-five dollars 
each for that purpose. 124 

The testimony taken at Sumter, beginning on September 5, 
1905, told practically the same story of corruption and graft 
among the persons operating the dispensaries. 125 

The committee concentrated the greater part of its investiga- 
tion on the financial conditions of the system and the methods 
used in the general management by officials. This testimony was 
taken in Columbia from August 22, 1905, through January, 
1907. 126 It was during these hearings that Commissioner F. M. 
Mixson testified that one liquor house had offered him a bribe 
of $30,000. It was further revealed that this same concern had 
employed one of the State Senators as its attorney. It was re- 
vealed that the State Board had not purchased liquors entirely 
on bids, sealed and opened at board meetings as required by law ; 
instead single members had made purchases from houses that 
offered the greatest personal gains. 

It was found that bottles and labels as well as liquors had been 
purchased at a great loss to the state, through either carelessness 
or premeditated dishonesty. Labels had been purchased in lots 
of 21,000,000 and there were enough on hand to last eight and 
a half years. There was an overstock of at least $266,000 worth 
of liquors when inventory was taken on January 15, 1907. Bot- 
tles had been contracted for, rather than purchased by bids. A 
certain Packman of the Bodine Glass Works produced records to 
prove that the Carolina Glass Company was guilty of a con- 
spiracy with a Board of Control to defraud the state ; he showed 

123 Reports and Resolutions, I, 1906, p. 1056. 

!24 Reports and Resolutions, I, 1906, pp. 979-1076. 

125 Reports and Resolutions, I, 1906, pp. 1385-1391. 

12 6 Reports and Resolutions, I, 1906, p. 1121. 

340 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

where the Board had made purchases from the Carolina Glass 
Company in preference to other companies which had offered 
considerably lower bids. 127 

The proof of these corruptions was not easy. The members 
of the investigating committee, particularly Neils Christensen 
of Beaufort, J. Fraser Lyon of Abbeville, and D. A. Spivey of 
Horry County, had worked diligently and relentlessly, visiting 
liquor houses in various cities and gathering information from 
every available source. Those who attempted to bring out the 
truth about the grafters were threatened with violence. The 
most outstanding of these threats were directed towards Lyon. 
On one occasion a director went so far as to threaten murder. 
B. R. Tillman had termed Lyon a "liar, infamous slanderer, and 
blackguard" when an effort had been made to prove that he, 
Tillman, had accepted rebates and a gift of a piano while con- 
nected with the Dispensary. 128 An editor who had dared to con- 
trast the poverty of one Dispensary official before his connection 
with the system with his prosperity after had a severe beating. 129 

With such facts as these staring the public in the face, some 
definite action was bound to result from the election that was 
pending. The campaign issue was "Dispensary" or "no Dispen- 
sary." The results of the election would speak for the people. 
Tillman pled for the life of the system as the only sane solution 
of the whiskey question. 130 He urged that the institution be con- 
trolled by the governor, Attorney-General, and Comptroller- 
General, with bids once a year in triplicate deposited with the 
Chief Justice, the Speaker of the house, and the Directors, to be 
opened in the presence of the Dispensary committee of both 
legislative houses, the year's purchase being ordered from the 
lowest bidders. He pointed with pride to the system as a sure 
means of reducing taxes. He appealed to the tendency of many 
to regard drinking as a necessity, and pointed to prohibition 
as an undue restriction on personal liberty. He opposed the 
Brice law as unfair, condemned the high license system, and 
placed the alleged mismanagement of the dispensary upon the 

1 27 Reports and Resolutions, 1906, III, p. 453 (tesimony taken at Columbia). 

128 The State, July 10, 1906. 

12* Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, p. 420. 

130 The State, April 1, 12, 13, 26; May 17; July 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 20, 25, 26, 
August 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1906; Tillman Scrapbook, No. 11. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 341 

shoulders of the conservatives in the legislature. He emphasized 
the benefit to education derived from the revenue feature, quoted 
favorable treasury reports to show that the system was a success 
financially, and read to his audiences reports from clerks of 
court indicating a decrease in crime, thus proving that the sys- 
tem was not a moral detriment as its opponents claimed. As elec- 
tion day drew near, he warned the people that a conspiracy had 
been formed against them to get rid of the Dispensary so that 
high license and the old barroom elements might gain control. 

Tillman's opponents emphasized, in turn, the general tendency 
toward crime while the system was incorporated within the 
state, pointed out the lack of enforcement of the law and the 
corrupt administration, and declared that "even the money 
obtained for the support of schools corrupted the morals of the 
children and thereby lost its usefulness." 

The following extract from the News and Courier is typical of 
the condemnation by the foes of the dispensary: 

Gross corruption festers everywhere; it is too palable and too impu- 
dent; and to prate of cleansing and rehabilitating this thing, born as a 
make-shift and subterfuge, nourished for partisan advantage, and 
through all its years reeking with ever increasing offence, is to trifle 
with facts, to deny the obvious, and to fight on the side of a public 
crime. 131 

Martin F. Ansel had adopted in his platform as candidate for 
governor the following statement of his views on the question: 
"I am in favor of local county option. I am opposed to the 
system of a state dispensary. Let each county speak for itself 
whether it desires that liquor be sold in that county or that 
liquor shall not be sold therein." 

The election returns not only were in favor of Ansel, anti- 
Dispensary candidate for governor, but also brought to the legis- 
lature a majority anti-Dispensary legislators. Governor Ansel 
urged the legislature to enact a law abolishing the state Dis- 
pensary system, and to give the people the right to decide for 
prohibition or county dispensary. The Carey-Cothran local 
option bill was introduced and passed by both branches of the 
General Assembly without a great deal of opposition. It be- 

13 1 The News and Courier, December 5, 1906. 

342 The North Carolina Historical Review 

came the established law on February 16, 1907. The state Dis- 
pensary was abolished and provisions were made for "winding 
up" the business. 132 

The Board of Directors were dismissed and a commission was 
appointed and empowered to sell all property except real estate 
belonging to the State Dispensary, to collect assets, to return 
liquors illegally bought, to determine the legality of purchases 
by investigating contracts for liquor, to employ counsel, ac- 
countants, etc., to take testimony in such proceedings and in- 
quire into the past management and control, and to take unto 
themselves all powers conferred on the investigating committee 
of 1906. After deducting expenses, the commission was to turn 
over to the state any surplus funds together with a full report 
of proceedings, a listing of all properties, and a statement of all 

The first step taken by the commission was to employ the 
American Audit Company to check the books of the system. It 
was found that the books were in a chaotic condition. Arbitrary 
entries or entries which were unsupported and unauthorized 
had been distributed throughout the journals amounting to ap- 
proximately $100,000. A great number of invoices covering 
purchases had not been entered on the books. Shipments had 
gone to dispensers for which the dispensers had not been charged. 
There were duplicate invoices amounting to $3,523.32. "While 
the omission can easily be accounted for in an absolute lack of 
system, carelessness and neglect/' said the committee in sub- 
mitting the report, "these reasons would hardly apply to the 
year 1905, when in our opinion, invoices aggregating over 
$200,000 were omitted from the books with intent." 133 

It was estimated that county dispensaries owed the state $40,- 
976.76 for unpaid accounts. Counties which had voted out the 
dispensary under the Brice law were in arrears $22,880.89 for 
law enforcement. Houses with which the Board had carried 
on trade were due the state $612,968.86 for overcharges on 
liquors and supplies. 

There were fifty-one liquor houses filing claims against the 
state for credits to the Board amounting to about $600,000. 134 

132 Acts of South Carolina, 1907, p. 480. 

133 Reports and Resolutions, 1907, III, p. 586. 

134 The State, May 22. 1909. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 343 

Not being satisfied to pay these claims without further assurance 
that the State owed the debt, the commission undertook to make 
a thorough investigation of the circumstances and conditions of 
the sales of liquors to the Dispensary officials. Letters were sent 
to liquor firms requesting that books, invoices, and other papers 
be turned over to the commission, pending payment of claims. 
Certain liquor concerns, especially the Wilson Distilling Com- 
pany and the Fleishman Company, protested against this pro- 
ceeding and refused to produce their books. The two companies 
complained to Judge J. C. Pritchard of the fourth United States 
district and petitioned for an injunction against the commis- 
sion's further procedure and also for a receiver to take charge 
of the affairs of the Dispensary. 135 

Both of these petitions Judge Pritchard granted, and orders 
were made enjoining the respondents, except by order of the 
court, from disposing of the fund of $800,000, which came into 
their possession as the commission appointed and organized by 
the legislature on February 16, 1907. The banks in which the 
commission had deposited the Dispensary funds, as well as the 
commission, were restrained from paying out any of the Dis- 
pensary money except upon the order of the receivers appointed 
by Judge Prichard. 

The commission in obedience to this order refused to pay 
over to Attorney-General Lyon the $15,000 ordered by the Legis- 
lature to be paid for the purpose of prosecuting cases against 
those charged with fraud in connection with the Dispensary. 136 
Lyon appealed to the supreme court of South Carolina. 137 His 
petition asked for a writ of mandamus requiring the commis- 
sion to comply with his demand for payment of the funds as 
appropriated. He alleged that the custody by the commission 
v of state funds was sufficient to make the payment of the sum. 
The commission admitted the refusal to make the payment, and 
gave as justification of the refusal the decision of the United 
States circuit court. 

Judge C. J. Woods rendered the decision of the supreme court. 
He said that "the State has not consented that any court should 

135 Wilson Distilling Co. v. Murray and Fleishman Co. v. same. 161 Fed. Rep. p. 162 

136 South Carolina States at Large, 1909, no. 568. 
13T State v. Murray, 60 S. C, p r 928. 

.°.44 The Noeth C'akolina Historical Review 

adjudicate the debt set up against it for liquor sold to it, nor has 
it consented that $800,000 of its public funds held by its fiscal 
officers shall be administered by any court, and hence the federal 
court had no jurisdiction to pass the order restraining the re- 
spondents from paying out such funds. . ." and that the peti- 
tioners were entitled to the writ of mandamus requiring the re- 
spondents to pay the sum of $15,000, for the use of the attorney- 

The commission asked the United States circuit court in Rich- 
mond to dissolve the injunction. 138 Judge James F. Boyd, of 
Greensboro, North Carolina, denied the petition. In giving the 
opinion of the court he stated that, although the legislature had 
given both title and possession of the funds in question to the 
commission, the state had no authority over so much of the funds 
as were necessary to pay the just debts. He further declared: 
"While it is true that the commissioners were empowered to 
investigate the transactions connected with the management and 
control of the State Dispensary before its abolishment, they were 
not empowered to determine any issue of fact, enter any judg- 
ment or conclude any part that might be investigated as to any 
right or interest involved." 

The case was finally appealed to the United States Supreme 
Court and received a hearing in April, 1909. 139 The decision 
rendered by Judge E. D. White stated that the commission as 
created by the legislature was a direct representative of the 
state. To sue it or to proceed against it in a court was, therefore, 
a proceeding against the state and a violation of the eleventh 
amendment to the federal Constitution. In conclusion, Judge 
White declared: "Deciding as we do that the suits in question 
were suits against the State of South Carolina, and within the 
inhibition of the eleventh amendment, the decree of the Circuit 
Court of Appeals is reversed, and the cause remanded to the 
Court with instructions to dismiss the bills of complaint." 

The commission was thus left free to proceed with investiga- 
tions that would enable it to determine the overcharges due by 
whiskey dealers to the state, and to settle accounts. The difficul- 
ties encountered in getting the whiskey houses to turn over 

138 Murray v. Wilson Distilling Company, 164 Fed. Rep., p. 1, 
»W Murray V. Wilson Distilling Company, 213 U. S. p. 151. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 345 

books continued, and the commission was unable to complete 
its work in the time allotted by the legislature. 

The report to the governor in 1910 showed a grand total of 
receipts from February, 1907, to January 12, 1910, of $974,- 
586.55. The amount received from sales and collections was 
$845,368.48; of this amount $153,386.50 had been refunds on 
overcharges. 140 The commission had cost the state $7,077.54. The 
committee ended this period of its work with a spirit of rejoicing 
that its task was over. "In coming to the close of this unfortu- 
nate business/' they wrote, "we desire to express our satisfac- 
tion of having reached the end of a business that has been bur- 
densome in detail and responsibility, annoying in the extreme, 
in that we were compelled to go contrary to the wishes cf the 
claimants, and we were frequently unjustly misrepresented by 
the public prints, and disgusting in the revelations of corrup- 
tion which had so deplorably permeated the business that it 
renders fumigation, figuratively speaking, necessary to approach 
the subject with comfort. . . . 

"We congratulate you [Governor Ansel] and the State on be- 
ing delivered in your administration from baneful effects of 
the most corrupt institution which ever existed in this State as 
a part of the State Government while our own people were con- 
trolling public affairs. " U1 

On February 23, 1910, the legislature passed a measure pro- 
viding for the continuance of the commission, authorizing and 
empowering it to "pass upon, fix and determine any and all 
claims of the State against any and all persons, firms, or corpora- 
tions heretofore doing business with the State Dispensary," 
fully to investigate transactions, to make settlement of all claims 
in favor of the state, to collect, and to receipt claims. All funds 
owed to sundry liquor houses by county dispensaries should 
first be applied to the payment of claims in favor of the state 
found by the commission to be due. 

The excellent work of the commission ended when in March, 
1911, Cole L. Blease, as newly-elected governor, appointed a 
new commission to take the place of the old one. The chief duty 

140 Reports of the State Dispensary Commission of South Carolina, January 12, 1910. In 
South Carolina Dispensary Pamphlets, University of South Carolina library. 

1 41 Report of the State Dispensary Commission of South Carolina, January 12, 1910, p. 8. 

346 The North Carolina Historical Review 

devolving upon the new commission was to settle the Richland 
Distilling case involving judgment of about $750,000. Their first 
action was to dismiss the law firm that had aided the old com- 
mission in gathering information on overcharges, and to pass a 
resoluton whereby the firm by agreement of 1907 was to turn 
over all information. The firm refused to comply with the 
resolution. The commission next demanded that ex-commis- 
sioner W. J. Murray turn over vouchers for disbursement of 
money taken by the former commission. Murray refused to com- 
ply. Now the act of 1908 had empowered the state Dispensary 
commission to investigate the past conduct of the officers of the 
dispensary and had conferred on the commission the right to 
require the production of papers relevant to any investigation, 
and provided that any person refusing to act on notice of the 
committee to produce the books should be guilty of contempt. 
By authority of this act, Murray was adjudged guilty of con- 
tempt and ordered imprisoned. He applied to the supreme court 
of South Carolina for writ of habeas corpus. 142 The court ruled 
that the vouchers claimed were private property, and that under 
the provision of the act of 1908 stating that an order must not 
deprive the custodian of the papers of his possession and control 
except for examination in the particular investigation, the 
vouchers could not be taken from the old commission. Murray 
was discharged. 

Having failed to command the cooperation of the persons in a 
position to furnish information necessary to successful opera- 
tion, the new commission was unable to function. It was dis- 
solved by joint resolution of Legislature in 1912. 143 The final 
report showed that the total cash received by both commissions 
amounted to $1,091,338.86. Total expenses of the commissions 
were $285,506.84, and total cash paid to liquor and beer dealers 
was $388,640.23. 144 

Attorney-General Lyon had succeeded in bringing a number of 
true bills against officials charged with mismanagement of 
Dispensary affairs. Among the cases tried were those charging 
James S. Farnum with bribery in the sums of $1,575 and $1,125, 

142 State v. Murray, 71 S.E. p. 465. 

143 s. C. Stats, at Large, XXVII, p. 1093. 

144 Reports and Resolutions, 1912, III, p. 747. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 347 

the bribe being alleged to have been given to Joseph B. Wylie, a 
member of the State Board ; the case against Farum, Rawlinson 
(a Director), Wylie, and Black for a conspiracy to cheat and 
defraud the state out of $4,800; and indictments for conspiracy 
on the parts of Dispensary officials and dealers to defraud the 
state of $22,500 in "the label deal," and $133,000 in acceptance 
of and payment of rebates. 145 

Attorney-General Lyon had a great deal of difficulty in secur- 
ing witnesses, and convictions were rare. On November 4, 1910, 
an editorial in The State struck the keynote of the situation in 
the following editorial extract : "The officers of the law are doing 
their duty and doing it well. If they do not succeed it will not be 
their fault. The fault will lie with the people. If the grafters 
go scot free, the reason will be that this commonwealth ("Grand 
Old South Carolina") is without the virile honesty to put them 
in stripes." Action against the offenders gradually died out after 
Cole L. Blease became governor. "South Carolina," said Mr. Ball, 
"had experienced no more than a spasm of virtue." 146 

As a kind of anti-climax to the disturbances that had sur- 
rounded the dispensary and its "winding up," came the back- 
firing of Governor Cole L. Blease. A notice by one of the papers 
that the commission had discussed in a special meeting the new 
governor's attitude had incurred his disfavor to the extent that 
he advised the General Assembly to appoint a committee to 
investigate the actions of the commission. "If they have done 
no wrong" he said, "I see no reason why they should fear any 
harm from me. If they are guilty of wrong doing, it is up to you 
to investigate them." 147 

The General Assembly responded by passing an act "to pro- 
vide for an investigation of the State Dispensary Commission, of 
the Attorney-General, of the investigating committee of 1905, 
and any other persons in any way connected with the investiga- 
tion and winding up of the State Dispensary." 148 The governor 
vetoed the act after the adjournment was too near to pass it over 
his veto. In the next session the act was passed over his veto 
by a vote of thirty-six to three in the senate and unanimously in 

145 The State, September 11, 1909. 

146 Ball, The State That Forgot, p. 258. 

147 House Journal, 1911, p. 190. 

148 Stats, at Large, XXVI, p. 1041. 

348 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the house. 149 The governor refused to present grounds for criti- 
cizing the commission. 

Meanwhile Governor Blease, supported by the commission 
which he had appointed in 1911, sought to indict T. B. Felder, 
the Atlanta attorney who had helped Attorney-General Lyon 
to unearth the legal proof of corruption and graft, on the 
grounds that he had sought to encourage one of the Board of 
Directors to practice a policy of graft 150 Felder, in turn, charged 
Governor Blease with a series of crimes and challenged him to 
sue for damages. 'The disgusting exhibition," says Dr. D. D. 
Wallace, "dragged through the campaign of 1912, and culmi- 
nated in a legislative committee of Governor Blease's enemies, 
aided by Felder and Burns' detectives, failing to fasten any 
crime upon the Governor." 151 

Returning briefly to the laws governing the traffic of liquors, 
we find that county after county had voted out the dispensaries 
under the local option plan, until, by 1909, there were only 
twenty-one counties in which dispensaries were in operation; 
there had been one hundred and twenty-two dispensaries open 
in 1906. The counties retaining the system were almost all in 
the lower part of the state: Abbeville, Aiken, Bamberg, Barn- 
well, Beaufort, Berkeley, Calhoun, Charleston, Colleton, Dor- 
chester, Fairfield, Florence, Georgetown, Hampton, Kershaw, 
Lee, Lexington, Orangeburg, Richland, Sumter, and Williams- 
burg. 152 In 1909 the legislature passed a law providing for 
state-wide prohibition, but permitting counties in which the dis- 
pensaries were in operation under local option to vote on the 
question of whether or not the system would be retained. Six 
counties, i.e., Charleston, Beaufort, Georgetown, Richland, 
Aiken, and Florence, voted to retain the dispensaries. Charles- 
ton went five to one for the dispensary, while the other five coun- 
ties had a bare majority. 153 A popular state- wide referendum in 
1915 abolished the county dispensaries by votes of 35,000 to 
15,000 in favor of state-wide prohibition. 154 

149 Senate Journal, January 11, 1912, pp. 809-814. 

150 Reports and Resolutions, 1912, III, p. 745. 

151 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, p. 431. 

152 News and Courier, November 4, 1908. 

153 The State, AuRust 81, September 4, 8. October 15, 1909. 

154 Wallace, History of South Carolina, III, p. 423. 

The South Carolina Dispensary System 349 

It is difficult to point out the causes for the failure of the Dis- 
pensary system. The offense to the moral sense of the people of 
the state more than any other was the cause of its death. Had 
the system operated as its originators declared it would, for the 
purpose of limiting drink, instead of as a business monopoly, it 
would have benefited the state by helping to destroy the political 
influence of local whiskey rings in towns and cities, by reducing 
disorderly conditions in saloons, gambling dens, and houses of 
ill fame. Even considered from its most objectionable angles, 
it was a step forward, and there are men still living who declare 
it a better solution to the liquor problem than any other tried by 
the state, while others shake their heads and declare that the 
state never fell into graver error than when she presented men 
with such an opportunity to line their pockets with public money. 


Edited by James A. Padgett 

Part II 


Chief Engineer's Office. Mexico, Aug 10 th 1865. 

My dear Wife 

I sent you a letter by the ordinary mail, enclosing the First of a Bill 
of exchange for £40 : In this which will go by the extraordinary I 
enclose the second of the same bill, which you will ask Mr Levy or 
Robinson to negotiate for you- for that purpose both copies will be 
required- The Third I shall not send unless these are lost- 

You may read the accompanying letter to George, if you choose, & 
forward it- Nothing new since I closed my first letter. Did I thank you, 
(or one of the girls) for the pretty watch case sent by Mr Davison? 52 
I nailed it up this morning by my bedside. This looks like a very meagre 
thing to send so far, but I hope the contents will make some amends- 

Ever truly & faithfully 

Yr. Afft husband 

A. Mordecai 

Tell Rosa I am picking up some stamps for her- does she continue 
to collect them?- If Augustus is not on his survey, I hope he is taking 
lessons in riding & swimming, or in swimming now & riding in cooler 
weather. I enclose also a note for R. M. for you to send him- I cannot 
say, to forward- I send the letter under cover to you, to save postage 
here- this letter with its enclosures, by the "extraordinary," costs 83 
cts to N.Y. & each of the enclosures, if sent separately, would cost 57 
cts- by the ordinary mail 25 cts less- 
E. stands for Escandon 

Aug 11- The mail by the French steamer is in, but not letters or news 
from the U.S.- The TsT.Y. steamer is due to-day at Y.C. but this letter 

52 George Davidson was born in England on May 9, 1825 ; came to the United States in 
1832 ; and became an outstanding astronomer. He was superintendent of the coast survey 
on the west coast, in which branch of the government he spent much of his time, even 
remaining for years after 1850 ; did the same work on the Atlantic coast from 1861 to 1867 ; 
was made chief engineer for a survey of a ship canal across the Isthmus of Darien in 1866 ; 
was sent to Alaska in 1867 to make a report of the resources and geography of the country 
pending purchase ; and spent most of his life in astronomical, coastal survey, and geodetic 
work. From 1877 to 1884 he was regent in the University of California ; was professor there 
for years ; and was well known as an authority on astronomy, as well as a scientist and 
orator. Appleton'8 Cyclopaedia of American Biography, II, 86-87. 

[ 350 ] 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 351 

must go this morning- our two midshipmen have gone to join a party 
of engr s on the K. K. Judge Perkins, of Louisiana, a very intelligent 
gentleman, apparently, takes their place at our little mess- 
It is remarkable how little need I have had for my poncho ; the rainy 
season is less regular than usual, & the rain is either over or has not 
yet come on generally when I go to my lodging at 5 o'clk. & I do not go 
out afterwards unless it clears up- Did I mention that young Newton 
is a cousin of Nina Newton, who went to the girl's school, being the son 
of Major Newton's 53 brother- 

This beautiful bright morning the therm, about 8 o'clk was at 61°- 
I can't get over the charm of the climate- 
Once more adieu, my dearest, 

Y r affte Alfred 

N°^S Mexico, July 28 th /65 

Having some time to-day I commence my letter to you, my dear wife, 
tho' I have nothing very particular to say & it will be a fortnight before 
this can go. The N. Y. packet was announced by telegraph yesterday 
& I shall get my letter tomorrow; not quite so promptly as Monte- 
zuma 54 used to get his fish from the Gulf, but still very well at this 
season of bad roads- I am still without my baggage, tho' I have heard 
that it is, like John Gilpin's hat & wig, 55 "upon the road."- I took a 
room two days ago at the San Carlos Hotel, which is nearby a lodging 
house, but a new one opened by a man who went from here as a servant 
to an offr of our army & spent some time in the U.S.. My room is the 
one which Genl Stone left, & is quite comfortable : I pay $35 a month 
for it. At present I take my meals with a little mess in Maury's room 
close to mine, where they are brought to us from a Mexican eating house 

53 John Newton was born in Virginia on August 24, 1823, and died in New York City on 
May 1, 1895. He graduated from West Point in 1842 ; and spent much of his early life teach- 
ing there and assisting in the construction of forts on the Atlantic coast. He became cap- 
tain on July 1, 1856 ; was made chief engineer in Pennsylvania in 1861 ; and was soon trans- 
ferred to the same kind of work about Washington and in Virginia. He became a brigadier- 
general of volunteers on September 23, 1861 ; was raised to the rank of major-general of 
volunteers on March 30, 1863 ; took part in many battles in Virginia, Georgia, and Florida ; 
was mustered out of service in January, 1866 ; and received many honors such as major- 
general in volunteer service by brevet, and brigadier-general and major-general in regular 
service by brevet. On December 28, 1865, he was made lieutenant-colonel in the regular 
service and continued in the army after the close of the war until he retired on August 27, 
1886. On August 31, 1887, he was made commissioner of public works in New York City, 
which position he held until November, 1888. He was well known as an engineer and scien- 
tist. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, IV, 508-509. 

54 Montezuma or Moteczuma was called Montezuma II. He was born in 1477 or 1479 and 
died on June 30, 1520. He was the Aztec chief and emperor of Mexico at the time of the 
Spanish conquest. This cruel warrior was held as a hostage by Cortez after the Indians had 
received the Spanish conqueror royally and given him presents. After his captivity he was 
deposed by his men and when he appeared on the walls to plead to his men he received stones 
and arrows and died four days later from wounds received at the hands of his own people. 
Soon he became a mythical personage, almost a god, and principal deity, but the people 
never worshipped him. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 702. 

55 John Gilpin was a ballad by William Cowper, published in 1785, but was anonymously 
printed in 1782. John Gilpin was the hero who rode a wild horse, lost his hat and wig, and 
could not stop his horse at the right town going or coming back. Century Dictionary and 
Cyclopedia, IX, 549. 

358 The North Carolina Historical Review 

at the reasonable rate of $10 a month; nothing very sumptuous, as you 
may suppose, but sufficient, with good bread & coffee, at breakfast & 
dinner- Our mess consists of Maury & two young men, Newton & Wil- 
kinson of Norfolk, who room with him, Genl. Wilcox & myself- I rise 
at my usual hour, being unable to sleep late, & take a stroll, as the 
mornings are always fine, calling at a coffee house for a cup of coffee 
or chocolate with a roll, to last me until our 9 o'clk breakfast- after 
returning to my room I have still an hour or two to read (Prescott's 
Mexico at present,) By 10 o'clk I am at the office where I remain until 
5 P.M. when we have dinner- It is dark before we rise from table, & 
my evenings are rather solitary- I read as late as I can & go to bed 
early- In my walk yesterday morning I entered the market, but having 
on my shoes, I was debarred from going through its filthy lanes until 
I had my thick boots- This morning I went through it, but the place is 
not attractive enough to induce a frequent repition of the visit- A 
stranger cannot avoid, however, being struck with the variety of vege- 
table productions which you have often heard me speak of- oranges, 
bananas, pine apples coca nuts, mangoes, guavas, ahuacates (a substitute 
for butter) Lapotes, maumea apples, mixed with pears, peaches, straw- 
berries, & all our usual garden vegetables; but the three first named 
fruits are nearly all that I can care much about here; those of our kind 
are large, but tasteless, & I would not exchange fruits with the Tropics 
by any means- 

Since I last wrote to you the Am. force here has been increased by 
the arrival of Genls Preston, Magruder, Walker 56 & some others- Genl. 
W. is the gentleman whose wife & child came with me in the Liberty & 
returned to N.Y. He went this morning with Preston, to V. Cruz, to 
embark for Havanna- Col. & M rs T. were both very kind in expecting 
me to go back before long to Tacubaya, which I suppose I shall do, as 
Host of the Col's family (ladies) are going abroad, i.,e. to U. States & 
England) in Septr-I have never seen a more united & afte family- It 
consists, at present, besides Col and M rs T., of their daughter (Harriet) 
M rs Southgate & 4 small children, 3 other daughters, Mary, Anne & 
Fanny, & three sons, Charles, Richard, & George, all engineers- Charles 
left his wife & children in Geo. Town. They will come out, I suppose, 
with the youngest son Randolph & his wife, in the autumn- M r South- 
gate is a subordinate on the R. Road, working not very far from here- 

56 Francis Amasa Walker was born in Massachusetts en July 2, 1840 ; graduated from 
Amherst; joined the Massachusetts volunteers on August 1, 1861, as a sergeant-major; became 
assistant adjutant-general on September 14, 1861, with the rank of captain ; became adjutant- 
general with the rank of major on August 11, 1862 ; and was made colonel on December 23, 
1862. He was captured on August 25, 1864, and sent to Libby prison ; due to broken [health, 
after being restored, he resigned on January 12, 1865 ; became brigadier-general of volun- 
teers by brevet on March 13, 1865; was a teacher for two years; was assistant editor of the 
Sprin.gfi.eld Republican from 1867 to 1869 ; became chairman of the Bureau of Statistics 
in the Treasury Department in 1869, a position which he held for some time, and then other 
offices in Washington in the government ; became president of Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology in 1881 ; and held many other offices of profit and trust. He was a famous scholar, 
author, and writer. He died in Massachusetts on January 5, 1897. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, VI, 325. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 353 

July 29 th - The "extraordinary" has arrived with your welcome letter 
to the 12 inst. one from Sister E. to the 5th & a few lines from R. M. 
He has no doubt that the missing was purloined at the Phil a office; I 
think the P. Master in Phil a ought to be informed of the matter & 
enquire into it- ask some one who knows him to do so- I am much 
pleased to know that you had a visit from Alfred & that you are all well- 
You need not trouble yourself to send me extracts of newspapers- I am 
only too glad to forget or to be ignorant of such things as would be con- 
tained in them, & I shall get as much of the public news as I care about 
from the papers which are rec'd here or from the gossip among our 
people- Your letters will tell me of anything of personal interest to 
me- Write as fully as you please about yourself, our children & my 
personal friends- I am very glad that you saw Edmund & that he is 
employed: "Whom the Gods love (in the U. S.) die young." Sister E's 
letter is on one sheet, but written with her usual closeness & fullness : I 
shall write to her by the next steamer, so you need not send any extracts 
from this. When Alfred is settled, if he has good arrangements for 
housekeeping, I see no objection to you lending him the silver he may 

I called last evening to see M rs Iturbide & saw also M r I's two brothers 
& sisters one sister is living at a boarding house in Green St- M rs I. 
desired her love to you- 

Aug. 7 th - When I went to spend the day (Sunday) yesterday at Col. 
T's I was able to put on my new blue suit, my baggage having arrived 
in good order, by express wagon, in less than 20 days from where I left 
it, near V. Cruz.- Nothing was injured by the rough journey, except 
my Windsor soap, which got a little mashed between my writing case & 
the side of the trunk- Since my last date I have been going on as regu- 
larly as I used to do in Wash all day in the office; contented & even 
cheerful- You talk of therm, at 95°-when I went to the custom house 
for my baggage about 12 o'clk, the sun shining brightly right over head, 
the term, at the opticians stood at 75°- Chas. Talcott's family & prob- 
ably Randolph & his wife are coming out in the steamer of 1 st Sept r - 
Can't you come with them? You can at least communicate with Char's 
wife in Geo Town & send letters to "N.Y. for her ; tho' the mail will be 
quicker from V.C. I wish you could send me your photograph & those of 
all the childen by her- If you have a good opportunity you may send 
me Sam Esting's gold chain, in case I should be invited out, which I 
have not been & don't care to be- I do not think of anything necessary 
in the way of clothing- My new suit being a little thicker than the old, 
is just the thing- 

In enclose with this the first of a bill of exchange on London for £40, 
which in your "elastic currency" as Col T calls it ought to produce you 
at least $300 Mr Robinson & Mr Levy will negotiate it for you- I shall 
send the second of the same bill by the extraordinary & the third by the 

354 The North Carolina Historical Review 

next steamer- it is merely a commercial form, to provide fr accident. 
Kiss & bless our dear children for me- If you were only all with me 
how happy I could be here; but as I said before, we must not think of 
that just now- Try to keep up your spirits & theirs, & believe always in 
the true love of Y r affectionate husband, A. Mordecai 

Having my writing case I shall write at my room & not feel hurried 
by neglecting official business, send enclosed to M r Weel. 


Chief Engineer's Office. 

Send the enclosed to George- after reading it if you choose. 

Mexico August 12 th 1865. 
N"°. 4 

My dear Wife 

Immediately after sending off my note to you yesterday, I went 
out to a grand breakfast given by my traveling companion, Mr O' Sulli- 
van, 57 at the "Tivoli del Eliseo," The garden where I breakfasted with 
him on the day day of my arrival- We sat down about 12 & I did not 
get back to my office until 3- there were about 20 persons ; half of them 
being confederate refugees of distinction, & the rest, persons of some 
note; among them Gen. Urago, Comdg the Mex army proper- He had 
been more than once an exile in the U. S. & in a toast, he gracefully 
acknowledged the kind reception he had met with there- Odd enough, 
the next man to him was Magruder, who had entertained him at New- 
port, in one of his exiles. I sat next to Judge Perkins & am much pleased 
with him- His wife was M rs Bailey (formerly Miss May of Petsbg,) 
the widow of Judge Bailey, whom you remember when we were at the 
arsenal at Wash 11 - That remarkable daughter of hers lived just to grow 
up- the mother is now in Y a - In comparing notes about Mexico, Judge 
P. said that after he had written his letter to his wife he was almost 
afraid to send it, lest she should think that he is too happy here- I 
told him that was exactly my case, & that I fully expected to find some 
remarks of that kind in your letters, after you received mine from here- 
in the evening we had another social meeting at the house of M r Mas- 
seras, who was formerly an editor of the "Courier des Estats Unis" at 
N.Y. & now of the "Ere Nouvelle" here- He is a member of the Com- 

5 7 John Louis O'Sullivan was born on a British man of war in the Bay of Gibraltar in 
November, 1813. His father was the United States consul to the Barbary States at the time of 
his birth and his parents resided at the garrison, but on the outbreak of a plague they 
moved on board the ship. John was educated at a military school at Lorize, France, at West- 
minster School, London, and at Columbia College, New York, where he tutored for two years. 
He was a member of the New York legislature from 1841 to 1842 ; carried on a fight to 
abolish capital punishment ; was a regent of New York University from 1846 to 1854 ; was 
minister to Portugal from 1854 to 1858 ; became associated with the magazine literature of 
the country ; and had a fine knowledge of ancient and modern languages. National Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography, XII, 337. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 355 

mission to consult about the colonization, & one object of the meeting 
was to talk over that subject, after which we had a pleasant game of 
cards, & he invited us to meet at his house every Thursday evening, 
which will be quite pleasant, as the evenings are the hardest times- 
One of the young gentlemen who have just come in with an engineer- 
ing party, from the field, is Mr Lambert of Alexandria, whose father is 
or was a partner of M c Kenzie you may mention him to the Eveleths, 
tho' I suppose he writes home 

Aug. 14 th - The "N. Y. steamer was announced yesterday by telegraph- 
My friend Gregory promised a quick trip but it seems he has been dis- 
appointed- We shall get letters to-morrow- Having been engaged yester- 
day (Sunday) morning, with a few other gentlemen, in trying to aid 
the Govt in preparing its colonization measures. I did not get out to 
Tacubaya until afternoon- It was a bright day & the therm, in the sun 
soon rose to 115°, but the Plaza was crowded with people waiting to 
see a man walk across it, in the air, on a tight rope two or three hun- 
dred yards long; & in the walking there to take the car (without an 
umbrella,) I scarcely felt the moisture on my forehead- This is the 
third day without rain, & the sun makes itself felt the more, but at 9 
o'clk my optician's therm was at 64°- Whenever "three or four are 
assembled together" the wonders of the climate are apt to be discussed, 
as on Saturday evennig- One gentleman who has lived here 24 years 
said that since, he had known but one gale of wind- That are no mos- 
quitoes or other troublesome insects, so far as I have found yet, & no 
flies- Maury says he counted 13 in his room; but his room is a large 
one, one of the street cries is : "Flies for birds,"- I shall regret the rainy 
season, when it is over, I believe ; for the rain does not annoy me, & the 
dust, I fear, will, as it did on Saturday, when there was a little breeze 
as I went to my lodgings in the afternoon- I am afraid you will be 
tired with my frequent subject of the climate, so I will say no more 
about it until some new phenomenon presents itself; such as an earth- 
quake, for instance- But I wished for you & the girls yesterday after- 
noon, to enjoy the lovely landscape & soft air at Tacubaya. Wilcox & I 
came in, under a bright starlight, at 9 o'clk. 

My messmate, Judge Perkins, is intimately acquainted with the 
Ingrahams- 58 Alfred was at his house in Rich d last winter, & although 
in private the effect of his losses & sufferings would be seen, he never 

58 Duncan Nathaniel Ingraham was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on December 6, 
1802, and died in Charleston on October 16, 1891. He entered the United States Naval 
Academy in 1812 ; served in the War of 1812 and in the Mexican war ; became commander 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, in 1850 ; became commander of the St. Louis in 1852 and 
went to the Mediterranean, where he made himself famous in the Martin Koszta affair, for 
which Congress voted him a medal and South Carolina a sword, and his admirers in New 
York a medal. Austria demanded an apology from the United States, but it was not given. 
He became chairman of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography of the Navy Department. 
He commanded The Richmond in 1860. When South Carolina seceded he returned to New 
York, resigned his commission, and entered the Confederate Navy ; became a commander 
and was assigned to duty at Richmond as chief officer of ordnance ; later he was in charge 
of the naval forces about Charleston ; and after the war he retired to private life and took 
no active part in public affairs. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VIII, 336-337 

56 The North Carolina Historical Review 

saw li i in appear to more advantage in company. (He(Alfred) said that 
the enemy had done him about as much injury as they could & that with 
the remnant of his property he could still live at home- his pigs had 
somehow escaped death & he had cows & chickens- his wife cooked & 
his daughters washed &o- three girls all that are left of their children- 
Aug. 15 th - The "extraordinary" has made an extraordinary trip, or 
else the newspaper misstated the time of his departure from VC, for I 
had the pleasure this morning, on coming to the office, to find my letters, 
from you, my dear wife, & from our sweet Laura, & to hear that you 
are all doing well k I hope enjoying yourselves- I hope Laura went 
with M sr W. to Newport; it would be such a pleasant excursion for a 
couple of weeks- You have found out by this time why I did not write 
by the last steamer from Hav ; I was afraid you would guess the reason, 
but I think if you will read attentively my letter by the preceding 
steamer, you will see that I did not intend to write again from there- 
If it had not been for alarming you about the yellow fever I should not 
have hesitated to tell you that I was unwell; but I asked M r Miles not 
to mention it- I was afraid that you would be hurt by my remarks on 
your letter rec'd at V. C. & I am very glad you took them so amiably- 
Consequently I am going to make another disagreeable request : that 
you will write a little more legibly & not in such a hurry- You used to 
write so neatly, & now there are some words that I cannot make out 
at all- I hope my writing does not give you the same trouble- I have 
had almost to learn a new hand, for my offl letters being copied by the 
press require a large hand & plenty of ink- Last Sunday as I sat, in 
my usual place, next to M rs Talcott at dinner, I was very much gratified 
by her telling me how much the Col. is satisfied with my assistance- 
"Just the man for the place"- If your letters are in danger, as you say, 
of running into too great length, how will it be with mine, when I am 
on the 3 d page & the steamer a fortnight off- I must say a word more 
about postage &c- Your letter & Laura's, coming separately, were each 
charged in V.C. with 62% cts postage; what for I can't make out; not 
the postage up here, for they come under cover to Col. T. One letter 
under half an ounce is the same- My last to you cost only 57 cts instead 
of 83 as I expected- Letters cannot be sent by any other steamers than 
the U. S. unless consigned to some one in Hav. to forward- I am sure 
you had a pleasant visit to my good & charming friend M rs Ingersoll, 59 
& I hope you said something kind to her & her husband for me : Do the 

59 She must have been the widow of Charles Jared Ingersoll (October 3, 1782-May 14, 
1862), who was a lawyer, Congressman, United States district attorney, legislator, and 
author. She could have been the wife of the brother of the above named man, Joseph Reed 
Ingersoll (June 14, 1786-February 20, 1868), who was a noted Congressman, lawyer, minister 
to England, and writer. Two other members of the same family, but of the next generation, 
were famous writers. They were Edward, the son of Jared Ingersoll and Edward, the son of 
Charles Jared Ingersoll. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Ameican Biography, III, 347-348. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai jn J^exico 357*' 

same to M rs Biddle 60 when you see her & to all the kind friends who 
enquire about me- I shall be quite curious to see how you take my first 
letters from here - Tell Laura, with my love k thanks for her letter, 
that she must take this as an acknowledgement for the present- I am 
very glad Aug. has got to work & hope he had a chance to go to the 
Mtns also- But tell the children not to let my silence to them prevent 
them from writing to me, whenever they fell inclined. 

This is double fete day: one of the church holidays & Napoleon's 61 
day, which Louis Nap. has adopted- So there has been Mily. Mass & 
review; There is to be a dinner at Chapultepec, & a ball at Marshal 
Bazaine's- 62 I merely saw the troops assembled before breakfast- Col T. 
& some of the ladies are going to the ball; so is "my friend Maury"- 
Tell Laura, (I was going to say before,) with thanks for her offer, that 
I cannot think of any thing wanting to my comfort- except the com- 
pany of all of you- When I was putting on Hose's neck ribbon for the 
first time on Sunday, I looked into my work bag to see if perhaps you 

co She must have belonged to the noted Biddle family of Philadelphia. Clement Cornell 
(October 24, 1784-August 21, 1855) was an outstanding soldier, sailor, and lawyer. James 
Biddle (1783-October 1, 1848) was an outstanding naval officer and patriot. John Biddle 
(March 9, 1789-August 25, 1859) was a soldier, delegate to Congress from Michigan, and regis- 
ter of the Detroit land office. Nicholas Biddle (January 8, 1786-Febrary 27, 1844) was known 
as a financier and business man. Richard Biddle (March 25, 1796-July 7, 1847) was known 
for his legal ability. Charles John Biddle (1819-September 28, 1873) was a soldier. Thomas 
Biddle (November 21, 1790-August 29, 1831) was also a soldier. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography., I, 255-258. 

61 Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte) was born in Paris, on April 20, 
1808, and died near London, on January 9, 1873. He was Emperor of France from 1852 to 
1870. He was the son of Louis, King of Holland, and the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, 
Emperor of France. He lived in exile from 1815 to 1830 ; took part in a revolt against the 
Pope in Romagna in 1830-1831 ; tried to start a revolt among the French soldiers at Stras- 
bourg in 1836 ; sought to invade France in 1840, for which he was imprisoned, but escaped 
in 1846 ; and returned to France in the revolution of 1848. He was a member of the National 
Assembly in 1848 ; became President of France in 1848 ; by a coup d'etat on December 2, 
1851, he became President for ten years ; and, on December 2, 1852, after a plebiscite in 
November, he was made Emperor. He took part in the Crimean War on the side of Turkey 
against Russia, 1854-1856 ; helped Italy against Austria in 1859 ; was the instigator and 
main force in the war in Mexico to institute a monarchy from 1862 to 1867 ; was the main 
instigator of the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871; but he was captured on September 2, 
1870, at Sedan, and was held prisoner until 1871. He retired to England where he lived a 
retired life and continued his writing. Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, IX, 722. 

62 Francois Achille Bazaine was born at Versailles, Frances, on February 13, 1811, and 
died in exile in Madrid, Spain, on September 23, 1888. For years he fought in Algeria and 
Morocco, and by the time he was in the Crimean War he was a general. He was also in the 
thick of the battles in the war between the Italians and Austrians when Napoleon III backed 
Italy. In 1862 he commanded in Mexico the first divison of the French army, and, by defeating 
Comonfort, compelled the surrender of Puebla, on May 18, 1863, shortly after which the 
French entered the capital. On October 1, 1863, he succeeded Forey as commander-in-chief, 
acting as civil administrator of the occupied districts ; and the rank of marshal was con- 
ferred on him in 1864. In February, 1865, he captured the town of Oaxaca, together with 
an army of 7,000 men under Diaz. He is generally believed to have been plotting with the 
enemies of the Emperor for personal ambitions. He married a rich Mexican lady whose family 
espoused the cause of Juarez. In February, 1867, he withdrew with his forcse from the 
capital, declaring Maximilian's position untenable, and soon embarked at Vera Cruz. On his 
arrival in France, though exposed to violent public denunciations, he took his seat in the 
senate, and was appointed commander of the third army corps, and in October, 1869, he 
became commander-in-chief of the imperial guard at Paris. At the beginning of the Franco. 
Prussian War in 1870 he was placed in command of the third army corps, near Metz. He 
soon became commander of the main army and hoped to retreat, but he was attacked before 
he had time to get away and was forced to retire into the fortifications. Finding escape 
impossible and annihilation or capitulation inevitable he surrendered his army of 173.000 to 
the Germans on October 27, 1870. He was charged with treason, defended himself, but was 
condemned to degregation and death, but all the members of the court signed an appeal for 
mercy, and President MacMahon commuted the sentence to twenty years seclusion. He was 
sent to the fortress in the island of St. Marguerite, but through the efforts of his wife 

he escaped at midnight on August 9, 1874. He took residence in Spain where he resided in 
very reduced circumstances. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, I, 202. 

358 . Thk North Carolina Historical Review 

had i)iu in my black pin, Miss E's present; wanting something to fasten 
my ribbon with, & you had all been so thoughtful for me- The fan lias 
never been unrolled & I don't know that I have seen one- I knew noth- 
ing of Am. Levy's affair- it could hardly have occurred before I left 

Sunday Aug. 20 th A presentation at court, even in this one-horse empire, 
is I suppose worth mentioning- Maury, who is very thick with the Im- 
perial family, told me, the other day, that the Chief of the Mily Cabinet 
had asked him for the names of our people who wished to be presented 
to the Emp r , & he & Judge Perkins asked me to put down my name; 
Talcott also thought it was well; so I consented. Consequently, on Fri- 
day evening we had notice that we would be rec'd the next day at IOV2 
A.M. So, putting on my Saturday evening club suit, I went on foot with 
Genl. Price 63 of Missouri, (a quiet, modest gentleman, of fine presence) 
Genl Wilcox 04 & five others- Maury had gone before, to a consultation 
on emigration, & was ready to introduce us, when we were ushered into 
the reception room, where there were only the Emp r & Empress- The 
Emp r shook hands with each of us (quite republican) & then made a lit- 
tle address in French, welcoming us to the country, & hoping that we 
should find a residence here agreeable; that he was doing all he could 
to make it so & to facilitate the settlement of those who should wish to 
emigrate ; asking nothing of them but to obey the laws & to improve the 
lands, &c. As most of the party did not understand French, the Empress 
interpreted his remarks, & after a few more friendly expressions, he dis- 
missed us: His manner is easy & pleasant ; he is tall, but not very hand- 
some; The Empress is quite pretty, (for one of her rank,) & of very 
pleasing manner- ~No nonsense about either of them; dressed like any 
other lady & gentleman- She speaks English very well indeed, also 
German; French of course; & Spanish, no doubt, well. She says that 
she thinks in Eng. Germ, or french, according to the subject matter- 
I wish you would have seen a cage of about a dozen beautiful hum- 
mings birds, of various kinds, which a man offered for sale, as we re- 

03 Sterling Price was born in Virginia on September 11, 1809, and died in St. Louis, 
Missouri, on September 29, 1867. He was educated at Hampden-Sidney College ; became a 
lawyer ; moved to Missouri ; served in the state legislature in 1840-1844 ; was a member of 
Congress from 1844 to 1846; was in the Mexican War; was left in charge of New Mexico 
by General Kearney ; and was governor of Missouri from 1853 to 1857. He was bank com- 
missioner from 1857 to 1861 ; became a major-general of Missouri state guard on May 18, 
1861 ; and with aid from the Confederacy and the State of Arkansas he won over Nathaniel 
Lyon, but later had to retreat. He continued to fight in the Southwest until the close of the 
war, after which he went to Mexico, but returned to Missouri in 1866. Appleton's Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography, V, 118-119. 

84 Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox was born in Greene County, North Carolina, on May 29, 1825. 
He graduated from West Point in 1846 ; participated in all the battles fought by General 
Quitman in the Mexican War ; fought in Indian wars in Florida and Texas ; was an instruc- 
tor in West Point; traveled in Europe for a year inspecting military institutions; and 
returned to publish some of his observations. He was in Arizona when his state, Tennessee, 
left the Union. He immediately resigned his commission ; was made colonel in an Alabama 
regiment; and rose rapidly to brigadier-general. From Appomattox he went to Mexico where 
he received social courtesies from Maximilian and Carlotta ; and returned to the United 
States in 1866, and engaged in the United States War Department. He left the manuscript 
of the "History of the Mexican War" and notes for a history on the American Civil War. 
He never married and died in Washington, D. C, on December 2, 1890. National Cyclopaedia 
of American Biography, XI, 512-513. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 359 

turned to our lodgings; I told him we had no women to take care of 
them & declined the purchase- They live caged but a few days, I believe- 
Col. Talcott has gone down the road, so that I am left in charge of 
the office, & find myself using the very same designation (Ast. to Chf 
Eng r ) that I did nearly 40 yrs ago, under Genl Gratiot! 05 - The boys 
are all away too, at their work; so that when I went out to Tacubaya 
this morning to breakfast, with my mess mates, there was no gentleman 
in the house but Mr Southgate, the Col's son in law- 
Tuesday Aug. 22 d - I am going to send this by to-morrow's (ordinary) 
mail, & will not write by the "extraordinary" unless something new 
occurs- I have nothing to add, except to suggest a subject for some re- 
flection of which you, no doubt, have never thought- That of your com- 
ing out here- I do not like the thought of taking the boys away from 
school, especially Augustus, at this important time for them; but it 
occurred to me that you might possibly make some arrangement so that 
you & one of the girls could join me, if only for a visit of a year- If the 
girls have a school worth keeping up- you might leave them in the 
house, & why should not Uncle Henry stay there to take care of them? 
If their school is not worth while, perhaps you could break up & sell the 
heavy furniture; the house you could readily rent. If you should do 
this, you might bring 2 girls or one & Gratz- I think we shall take a 
very nice house for the office, in which I shall furnish a room & could 
have two- You would get meals from a restaurant. You ought not to 
leave IT. S. until middle of Octr, when the roads will be good- 

Ever truly & afftly 

Y rs Alfred. 

Mexico, August 29 th 1865. 
Fo 5. 

My dear Wife 

The "extraordinary" brought me this morning your welcome letter 
to the 13 th , with several others- I am delighted to find that my first 
letters from here have removed the unpleasant feelings caused by others 
written when I was unwell, anxious & dispirited ; & also that you do not, 
as I had anticipated, scold me for being too happy here. All remains 
with me as when I closed my last to you by the regular mail; except 
that, Col. T. being absent, I have rented & moved into our new office, 

65 Charles Gratiot was born in Missouri in 1788, and died in St. Louis on May 18, 1855. 
He graduated from West Point in 1806 ; became a second lieutenant of engineers ; served in 
the War of 1812 as captain and chief engineer of Harrison's army during 1813 and 1814 ; 
was brevetted colonel ; defended Fort Meigs in 1813 and other places in the Northwest ; and 
became a major of engineers in 1815. He superintended the erection of forts on the Delaware ; 
later superintended the erection of forts at Hampton Roads, Virginia ; became lieutenant- 
colonel in 1819 ; was made colonel in 1828, and was placed in charge of erecting forts about 
Washington ; and was brevetted brigadier-general on May 24, 1828. The same year he was 
made inspector at West Point, which position he held until December 6, 1838, when he was 
dismissed for failure to pay into the treasury certain balances of money placed in his charge 
for public purposes. He was clerk in the land office in Washington, D. C, from 1840 to 
1855, and died in destitute circumstances in St. Louis. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American 
Biography, II, 726-727. 

360 The North Carolina Historical Review 

a very nice cheerful suite of rooms- The other half of the same floor 
is at present occupied by M r Soule 66 & his family; but as we have dif- 
ferent stairs, it is just like living next door, with you. I wrote you to 
think about coming here & I hope you will really consider the matter 
carefully & see whether it is not possible- I did not at first, think of 
your doing so for a year; but I do not now relish the idea of so long 
a separation from you & all our children. Thank my dear Laura for 
her kind offer to pay the draft for me to R.M., The first letter that 
I saw was one from kind M rs Butler, sent to E.M. : on the outside of the 
envelope he mentioned George being in N.Y. so that I was not so 
much surprised as I should otherwise have been at your mention of 
his visit ; but I was very much pleased that he made it & that you found 
him so cheerful. The only disappointment that I felt to-day was that 
none of my letters say anything about the probable arrangements of the 
family in Raleigh; but from Sister E's silence on that subject I con- 
clude that no change is contemplated at present- M rs Butler's letter is 
in her usual affectionate style- I cannot characterize it in any other 
way- She begins : "Your kindness Dear Mr. M. should never surprise 
me, but no one except you or your sister would have thought, the very 
day before your departure, of writing to friends 3000 miles away. On 
the eve too of the beginning a new phase of life. How generous & how 
worthy of all we have known of you & yours is your beginning life anew, 
in so very laborious a profession & in a new country for the sake of 
your family. I need not say with what deep interest we shall hear of 
your welfare & success in Mexico"- Her letter, by the bye, & a neatly 
written note from M r J. F. Fisher, 67 are great contrasts to some of my 

06 Pierre Soule (August 31, 1801-March 26, 1870) was born in the French Pyrenees, was 
destined for the church, but left college and turned to politics. He was exiled because he was 
anti-Bourbon ; returned to college and studied law * and became a Republican representative. 
He was arrested in April, 1825, and sentenced to prison, but escaped and made his way to 
England, then to Haiti on September 5, 1825, and to Baltimore in October of the same year. 
After trying Baltimore and New York he went to New Orleans ; then travelled through 
Tennessee and Kentucky ; was a gardener for a while ; and then trekked back to New 
Orleans, where he rose to prominence in several fields. He was a member of the state con- 
vention in 1844 ; served in the state senate in 1846 ; was a member of the United States 
Senate for three months in 1846-1847 ; was elected again in 1848, but resigned on April 11, 
1853 ; and became minister to Spain on April 7, 1853, in which capacity he continually 
made errors. He sought to acquire Cuba ; made himself very obnoxious by joining James 
Buchanan and John Y. Mason on October 18, 1854, in signing the famous Ostend Manifesto, 
which said that the United States should purchase Cuba from Spain and if she refused to 
sell it we should take it if we possessed the power ; and was forced to resign on December 
17, 1854. He returned to his legal practice; defended William Walker, the noted Nicaraugan 
filibuster in 1857 ; and became interested in a canal at Tehuantepec, Mexico. He opposed 
secession, but went with his state when it left the Union ; was arrested in June, 1862, by 
Benjamin F. Butler, but was paroled in November ; returned through the blocade to New 
Orleans; and assisted the Confederacy in Richmond from September, 1863, to June, 1864, in 
the face of strong opposition from Jefferson Davis, who would not promote him any 
further than honorary brigadier-generalship. In 1865 he and ex-Senator William M. Gwin 
of California united in a project to settle Confederate veterans in Sonora, Mexico, but he 
lost his mind so completely that in 1869 he was declared insane, and died on March 26, 1870. 
Dictionary of American Biography, XVII. 405-407. 

< 17 Joshua Francis Fisher was born in Philadelphia on February 17, 1807, and died there 
on January 21, 1873. He graduated from Harvard in 1825; studied law and was admitted to 
the bar in 1929, but never practiced ; helped incorporate the Pennsylvania Institute for the 
Blind ; and was its president for one year. Three times he toured Europe and reported on 
the care of the blind there ; was one of the most noted and proficient members of the Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society ; was one of the earliest leaders in proposing minority represen- 
tation ; and became an outstanding political thinker and orator. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, II, 46C. 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 361 

letters- One from brother Sol; written by Susan it was almost impos- 
sible to decypher, & I cannot at all make out the Name of the Engineer 
to whose kindness for Augustus is indebted for his trip to the moun- 
tains- I hope he has enjoyed it; by the time this letter reaches you he 
will be again at his studies, with renewed zest, I hope. M r Wimmer 68 
from whom I have heard twice, enquires after him, & whether he is not 
coming here- I shall be very glad to get Rosa's letter, & Miriam's & 
the boys' too- It is my bed time & I hear the rain falling copiously, 
which reminds me that this has been one of the few days when I have 
had to use my waterproof arrangements- They make me feel very 
independent. Remember me kindly to the Brinleys 60 & congratulate 
them for me on the young Farley. Tell M r B. I am not without a 
cheerful game of whist or euchre, with some very pleasant Southern 
gentlemen in the same Hotel- I am very much struck with their quiet, 
unassuming manners, correct conduct & unaffectedly religious tone of 
thought. Judge Perkins was quite surprised to hear of M rs Ingraham's 
being in Phil a - Good night- 

Friday Septr 1 st - At length the weather has distinguished itself 
sufficiently to demand special mention- On the two days before yester- 
day, the afternoon rains had been unusually copious & in fact had 
hardly confined themselves to the afternoons, & some uneasiness was 
expressed as to the effect of them on the embankments which retain the 
water of the higher lakes to the north of the city; but last evening the 
flood surpassed all my former experience- Having got through the 
business of the day I fortunately left the office about 4 o'clk, to see about 
the photographs which I enclose; The rain had just commenced, but 
at 5, the man who brought our dinner had to wade, through an "tro- 
cious pour," as he expressed it, with the water half leg deep even on the 
side walks- By the time we has finished dinner I called my compan- 
ions to see from my balcony the whole street converted into a river, 
with the people splashing through it nearly or quite knee deep; the 
water soon began pouring into the doors of the house & our little 
"patio," or court yard, was converted into a lake : Two of our gentle- 
men, the oldest after me, had gone out as usual to their dinners & 

68 Sebastian Wimmer was born in Bavaria on January 5, 1831 ; received his education 
there in engineering ; arrived in New York on June 2, 1851 ; and migrated to Pittsburg, 
where he studied bookkeeping. He was assistant engineer on the Allegheny Valley Railroad 
from 1853 to 1857 ; held the same position on the Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Railroad 
from 1858 to 1859 ; and worked on other roads including the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad. 
In 1865 he was engaged in building the Cumbres de Maltrata division of the Imperial and 
Mexico City Railroad for an engineering company, having been sent there by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company. After 1868 he was back in Pennsylvania and environs constructing rail- 
roads. He was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1874. In 1882 he was sent to 
Mexico by a New York syndicate to examine the Mexican Central Railroad, and for years 
after this he continued to survey and act as chief engineer of various railroad projects. 
In 1904 he was associate chief engineer of the Wabash Railroad. National Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography, XII, 365-366. 

69 Francis Brinley was born in Massachusetts on November 10, 1800 ; took great interest in 
railway building and other national improvements ; served in the state legislature, five terms 
in the house and one in the senate ; was a writer on various subjects ; and died in Rhode 
Island on June 15, 1889. George Brinley was born in Boston on May 15, 1817 ; was educated 
in the best schools of his city ; spent much of his life collecting rare books ; and died in 
Bermuda on May 14, 1875. Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, I, 377. 

S6S The North Carolina Historical Review 

came home with their boots & stockings in their hands & their trousers 
rolled above the knee, in true Mexican style- Wilcox had to content 
himself with a sofa in Maury's room for the night; but about bed time 
the rain bad ceased cV: this morning the the sun is again shining out & 
the water has run off so that the streets are passable, thought not 
tempting for my mornnig walk- Tell Rose that the first thing I do in 
the morning, after cleaning my teeth, is to use her fruit knife to cut 
an orange, which I reserve from my dinner- I eat very little fruit, 
notwithstanding its abundance; it is better to be careful of it- One 
annoyance I must, in candor, admit against Mexico : that of fleas, which 
it seems almost impossible to escape from, even in our new & clean 
house, One or tw T o of these pests getting inside of a stocking actually 
excoriate my ancles [sic], & almost recall my experience of a Crimean 
camp- I am told they have a great aversion to pennyroyal, & I am going 
to see if I can find some of the essense of that herb here- 

I gave my waterproof arrangements a pretty severe trial on the day 
before the great rain, having left my office just as the afternoon rain 
commenced- I did not get wet under my poncho, but I could feel that 
it was not dry inside when I took it off, although it was alright next 
morning after hanging a little while on my balcony which looks to the 
east, & the window of which invariably admits the morning sunshine- 
Probably the cloth is not of the very best kind, but I am told that these 
heavy rains sometimes permiate even the india rubber coats- such was 
not my experience with the one I wore on my former journey- I sent 
you a photograph of my aspect in rain costume, & also another which 
I hope you will not find quite as sad as the one I left with you- You 
must not think me extravagant in this matter of photographs; they are 
made without charge, by a photographer who works for the Railway 
Wednesday, Septr 6 th - Col. Talcott returned on Sunday, looking very 
well- His family were getting very impatient for his return, for Miss 
Nannie has engaged herself, in his absence, to an Austrian officer, about 
the Emperor : Major Boteslawski, an agreeable & clever person, well 
connected, &c, as it appears- he is unfortunately very hard of hearing, 
in consequence of a wound in the neck, received in the Italian cam- 
paign- It has been a sudden affair, the acquaintance having been formed 
since I came here, & they expect to be married in a couple of months- 
M rs T's trip to U.S. & Europe, with the other two single daughters, is 
therefore put off until November. 

Sept 7 th - I close my letter for to-morrow's mail, as there is none on 
Saturday & Sunday may be too late; I can always write again by the 
extraordinary if there is anything to require it- I shall send you a re- 
mittance by the steamer at the end of this month, hoping, in the mean 
time, to hear of the receipt of that which I sent the middle of August- 
I enclose a note for M r J. F. Fisher, in answer to one from him; read 
it if you choose & send it to him- 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 363 

My children must not suppose, from my little mention of them that 
[I do not] often & anxiously think of them - Let me know all about 
them- how [Augustus got] his engineering trip & how Gratz likes his 
school & what he is studying: & ho[w the girls] are getting on- about 
this time I begin to count the days to the arrival [of the] JST.York 
steamer, which I trust will continue to bring me favorable news fro[m 
y]ou all- God bless you all, my Dear Wife & children & restore again 
to you 

Your loving husband & father 

The photographs may look better when mounted. A Mordecai. 

M 18 Alfred Mordecai 
1825 DeLancey Place 
Philadelphia Pa United States. 

Vapor Mexico- Americano. 

JSTo 6. Mexico, Septr 14 th /65 

My dear Wife 

This letter comes a little out of place, for we have a great disappoint- 
ment this month on both sides; the despatch from V. Cruz yesterday, 
instead of announcing the arrival of the N". Y. steamer stated that she 
was detained in N". Y. & would not arrive until after the 18 th - Charles 
Talcott was there expecting his family- My letter of the 7 th will there- 
fore probably go out with this, as it was directed for the Vapor 
Americano- Nothing special has happened in the mean time, & I am as 
well as usual- When I was dining at Tacubaya on Sunday M rs T. asked 
me to accompany them on Tuesday to the opera, where they have a 
box, & the Col. never goes : so I went, but I must say that the principal 
pleasure was that of escorting the ladies- The house is a very good 
one; the troop a second rate Italian one, I should think, & the piece was 
the unpleasant & unnecessary opera of Rigoletta- Yesterday I received, 
through the politeness of Miss Nannie's fiance, a ticket for Saturday 
evening the 16 th , the anniversary of Mexican Independence, when the 
Emperor takes the house, & I believe all the theatres, & distributes 
tickes gratis- There will be also a grand mass, Military procession, &c- 
On Sunday morning, before going to breakfast (11 o'clk) at Tacubaya, 
I went with Judge Perkins to hear the Mily mass in the Cathedral, 
which is always attended by a large body of French troops, & is a very 
interesting & striking performance; rather better than the opera, I 
think- The building is a very large one; a side church attached to is 
larger I believe, than the Catholic Cathedral in Phil a - it is rather 
gorgeous with guildings &c, but impressive on the whole & the fine large 
band, the troops & officers making an imposing service, & I wished for 
you to see & hear it- 

364 The North Carolina Historical Review 

I don't know whether our newspapers copy the stories about robbers 
which are circulated here. The country is certainly in an unsettled 
state; but you must not believe all the stories, if you see them; this 
morning's paper contains a contradiction of one of the worst which 
we have had lately- Still they do occur, & I was amused at first to see 
even the railway conductor to Tacubaya carrying a belt with a pistol- 
When I came in on Sunday evening the only other passenger was a man 
with a musket, who I suppose was there for a guard, as he slept all the 
way to town- You have heard me speak of the habitual courtesy of 
these people of all classes : I was a little puzzled the other day with a 
manifestation of it in a letter which Maury received from a gentleman 
having a request to make to him- The letter was headed "At your 
house, 11 th Septr," and at the close of it: "your house" is ~N° so & so 
in such a street- This it seems is the usual form of polite address- 
putting your house at the disposal of your correspendent- In my walk 
this morning I saw a man, who was driving a lot of donkeys, loaded 
with manure, stop to speak to a servant who was standing at the door 
of a house : "Beunos dias, Senior/' (Good Morning, Sir) said the 
donkey driver. The other took off his hat, and whilst holding it off his 
head, answered : "How do you do, Sir ; how have you passed the night ;" 
with as much politeness as if the fellow's blanket on a stone or earthen 
floor had been a "thrice driven bed of dawn"- 

Another telegram from Y. Cruz to day informs us that the steamers 
have changed their days of leaving JST. York to the 8 th & 23 d , so I sup- 
pose your letter to me will be up to date, when it comes; there was no 
notice given here- Col. Talcott told me this morning that he was coming 
in with Mrs T. to the opera to-night & that there was a place for me, 
so I think I shall go, as Wilcox declines taking my place- It is some- 
times a little hard getting through the evening until bedtime; there are 
few good books to be had here, & reading by a single candle, as I am 
now writing, is at best rather trying- The girls, I suppose, would think 
three evenings a week well spent at the opera; but when the troop came 
here I had not the slightest idea or inclination to enter the theatre- 

I must tell you of a report in circulation, apparently on good au- 
thority, which if true will produce a curious example of the ups & downs 
of life- It is said that the Emperor & Empress of Mexico, who have no 
children, have adopted the little son of Angel Iturbide & — queen, so 
that he is to be regularly announced at some Imperial! M rs I told me 
a week or two ago, that her sister in law, Miss Iturbide is to reside, as 
a Princess of Mexico, at the Palace, where they are fitting up handsome 
apartments for her - The rest are to leave here soon- If the report 
is true I suppose the son goes to Europe to be educated under proper 
auspices. Wilcox who has just come in from a visit to M rs I. confirms 
the story: the son is to remain here & the mother is to have $30,000 
a year! as I understand it- 

Life of Alfred Mordecai in Mexico 365 

Sunday, Septr 17 th - Yesterday was quite a brilliant day- I did not get 
up at 5 oclk to hear the music on the Plaza, but strolling out at my 
usual hour for a morning walk I was just in time to see Marshall 
Bazaine attended by his staff & escort, going to the Cathedral- The 
large Plaza, was occupied by the troops, French Austrians Belgians & 
Mexicans (to make them in order of importance) chiefly cavalry- 
After a short time the train of handsome Imperial carriages came along 
bringing the ladies of the court, & the Empress in grand state coach- 
Very much like that which the Mayor of London parades in on Lord 
Mayor's day- Then the Emperor & suite on horseback all in grand 
costume— We all entered the Cathedral where a short mass was said by 
the Archbishop &c in niche & crosier & full toggery, & a hymn was 
played & sung by the opera (I thought) - Altogether such a spectacle as 
cannot be seen any where else in America, & really very grand- What 
struck me more than anything else, or as much, was the absence of 
people- The plaza is very large to be sure, but it was strictly reserved 
for the Mily, & yet the streets & balconies around were by no means 
crowded & I moved about & got into the church without difficulty. 
There were various amusements in the day in which I did not partici- 
pate; but in the evening I put on my best clothes, with a white cravat, 
(or one that passed for white,) & went to the Opera- I found Col. T. 
waiting at the entrance for the carriage - Miss Nannie was taken sick 
the previous night at the opera, & altho' better she was not able to 
come; so her fiance remained behind also & her mother kept them 
company- Miss Fanny alhto' better & more cheerful, does not go out; 
so there were only M rs Southgate & Miss Mary- After escorting them 
to the box I took my place for .the first act in the pit to get a better 
view- The house was brilliantly lighted, with extra chandeliers & 
Chinese lanterns, & decorated with flowers & colored lamps- It was 
soon filled up, but not crowded inconveniently; The pit occupied en- 
tirely by gentlemen, in uniform or full dress & the ladies in the boxes 
very handsomely dressed, with diamonds &c; diplomats in coats stiff 
with gold embroidery, & they & the Military with all their orders & 
decorations- When the Emperor & Empress were announced the cur- 
tain rose & presented the whole troop ; the audience stood up & remained 
standing, while the troops sang the National Hymn, & at the same time 
showers of various colored papers came fluttering down from the upper 
tier, containing a political address to the Empress- The whole effect 
was the most beautiful I ever saw in a theatre- The performance con- 
sisted of an act of Traviata & one of Ernani, & was over before 10 
o'clk, when with perfect politeness & decorum, & without any rush or 
pressure the pit was emptied & the ladies retired to their carriages- 
No applause, except a little on the entrance of the Sovereign, no noise 
or confusion- just a genteel large party of ladies & gentlemen assembled 
for amusement- I have said little about the Mexican ladies, for I have 

366 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Been little of them, except is this way- Some handsome, rather oriental 
looking, not to say Jewish, faces; but generally not much beauty in 
Native women or Men- Edmund Myers would pass very well for one 
of the better looking Mexicans- I was at a small birth night party, the 
other evening, given by an Englishman (M r Gibbon) who has lived a 
long time here, so his wife, a good specimen of Mexican women- The 
son is a clerk in our office- It was a very nice party, with dancing &c, 
very much as in N.Y. or Phila a - The Talcotts were there & also the 
British Minister & his daughter who is, I believe, the only lady among 
the diplomats; apparently a very "nice young person"- There were 
many bald heads in the pit of the theatre, but mine was the only white 

The 16 th was further celebrated by the publication of several impor- 
tant decrees; one establishing a Hospital for Invalids; one for a Mili- 
tary school, & one recognizing the grand children of Iturbide- one in 
Paris & one here- as Princes of Iturbide, & the daughter, a princess- 
The Emperor takes charge of the education of the young princes & the 
princess lives in the palace, as one of the guardians of Angel's child- 
The brothers & Angel's wife go away; not to return, I understand- I 
should like very much to sell the Mily School my books, as the nu- 
cleus of a Library, & shall offer them, if I can- I thought of this be- 
fore I came away & ought to have made a catalogue of them- I won- 
der if Augustus & Gratz could not do it for me- on Sundays- M r Inger- 
soll would let them have a room in one of his offices, which he offer