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Full text of "Northern Germany as far as the Bavarian and Austrian frontiers : handbook for travellers"



(Comp. p. xi.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 


English Money 

































































































































































































































































G* iT lUfU uT ^Va^e & Debc 







With 47 Maps and 81 Plans 





All rights reserved. 




FEB 2 01932 

'G-0. little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where then art wrong, after their help to call, 

Thee to correct in any part or all/ 


ihe Handbook for Northerx Germaxy, which is now issued 
for the fifteenth time and corresponds to the twenty-ninth German 
edition, is designed to assist the traveller in planning his tour and 
disposing of his time to the best advantage, to render him as fin- 
as possible independent of the services of hotel-keepers, commis- 
sionnaires, and guides, and thus to enable him the more thoroughly 
to enjoy and appreciate the objects of interest he meets with on 
his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from the 
personal observation of the Editor, and most of the country de- 
scribed has been repeatedly explored by him with a view to procure 
the latest possible information; but, as many of the data in the 
Handbook refer to matters which are constantly undergoing alter- 
ation, he will highly appreciate any corrections or suggestions with 
which travellers may favour him. Those already received, which in 
many instances have proved most useful, he gratefully acknowledges. 

The contents of the Handbook are divided into Four Sections 
(I. Berlin and Potsdam; II. North-Western Germany; III. Central 
G-ermany; IV. North -Eastern Germany), each of which may be 
separately removed from the volume by cutting the gauze backing 
visible on opening the book at the requisite pages. Linen covers 
for these sections may be obtained through any bookseller. — 
For that part of the Rhenish district which properly belongs to 
Northern Germany, the traveller is referred to Baedeker' s Hand- 
hook to the Rhine. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been bestowed, 
will, it is hoped, render material service to the traveller in plan- 
ning his tour. 

Time Tables. Information regarding trains, steamboats, and 
diligences is most trustworthy when obtained from local sources. 
The best German publications of the kind are the 'Reichs-Kurshuch'' 
(2 o#; published at Berlin), 'HendscheVs Telecfraph^ (2 Jl^ smaller 
edition 1 c^; these two issued eight times a year), and 'Storm's 
Kurshiich fur^s Reich' (80 pf.). 

Distances by road are given approximately in English miles; 
but in the case of mountain -excursions they are expressed by the 
time in which they can be accomplished by average walkers. A 
kilometre is approximately = 7s English mile; 8 kil. = 5 M. 
Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 metre = 
0,938 Parisian ft. = 0,971 Prussian ft.), and the Populations in 
accordance with the latest census. 



Hotels. The Editor lias endeavoured to enumerate not only 
the first-class hotels, but also others of more modest pretensions, 
which may be safely selected by the 'voyageur en gargon', with 
little sacrifice of comfort and considerable saving of expenditure. 
Hotel-charges, as well as carriage-fares and fees to guides, are liable 
to frequent variation, and generally have a strong upward tendency; 
but these items, as stated in the Handbook either from the personal 
experience of the Editor or from data furnished by numerous cor- 
respondents, will at least afford the traveller an approximate idea 
of his expenditure. The asterisks indicate those hotels which the 
Editor has reason to believe to be provided with the comforts and 
conveniences expected in up-to-date establishments, and also to be 
well managed and reasonable in their scale of charges. Houses of 
a more modest character, when good of their class, are described 
as 'o;ood' or 'verv fair'. At the same time. the Editor does not doubt 
that equal excellence may often be found in hotels that are un- 
starred and even unmentioned. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor begs to 
intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy towards 
travellers is the sole passport to his commendation, and that ad- 
vertisements of every kind are strictly excluded from his Hand- 
books. Hotel-keepers are also warned against persons representing 
themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 

R. = Room : also Route. 

B. = Breakfast. 

D. = Dinner. 

A. = Attendance. 

L. = Luncheon. 

S. = Supper. 

M. = English mile. 

ft. = English foot. 

m. = metre. 

R., L. = right, left. 

The letter d with a 
year of his death. The 
shows its height above 
the principal places on 
their distance from the 


omn. = omnibus. 

carr. = carriage. 

pens. = pension {i. e. 
board and lodging). 

rfmts. = refreshments. 

X. = Xorth, northern, 

S. = South, etc. 

E. = East. etc. 

W. = West, etc. 
date, after the name of a person, indicates the 
number of feet given after the name of a place 
the sea-level. The number of miles placed before 
railway-routes and highroads generally indicates 
starting-point of the route or sub-route. 

JC = Mark, 
pf. = Pfennig. 
K. = Krone. 
h. = Heller. 
PI. = plan, 
p. = page, 
comp. = compare, 
hr. = hour, 
min. = minute, 
ca. = circa, about. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 



I. Language. Money xi 

II. Passports and Custom House xii 

III. Railways xii 

IV. Cycling and Motoring Notes xiii 

V. Plan of Tour xiv 

YI. Hotels xvii 

VII. Post, Telegraph, and Telephone Offices xviii 

North German Art, by Professor Anton Springer . . xix 

Eoute I. Berlin and Potsdam. 

1. Berlin 1 

2. Potsdam and Environs 25 

H. North- Western Germany. 

3. From Cologne to Berlin via Hanover and Stendal 30 

4. From Cologne to Berlin via Hildesheim 41 

5. From Cologne to Berlin via Holzminden and Magdeburg . 48 

6. From Hagen (Cologne) to Cassel via Arnsberg 55 

7. From Cassel to Hanover 66 

8. From Eotterdam (Hook van Holland) to Hanover via Salz- 

bergen 69 

9. Hanover 71 

10. Hildesheim 79 

11. Brunswick , 84 

12. FromHamm toMunster,Emden,andNorddeichfN'orderney) 92 

13. The East Frisian Islands . 98 

14. From Hanover to Bremen 101 

15. Bremen 101 

16. From Bremen to Emden and Norddeich (Norderney) . . . 109 

17. From Hanover to Hamburg 112 

18. Hamburg, Altona, and their Environs 115 

19. From Hamburg to Cologne via Bremen and Miinster . . . 133 

20. From Hamburg to Kiel 134 

21. From Hamburg to Flensburg and Vamdrup (Copenhagen) 139 

22. The North Frisian Islands 142 

23. From Hamburg to Liibeck and to Stettin 145 

24. From Hamburg to Berlin 156 



Route Page 

25. From Berlin to Schwerin and "Wismar 157 

26. From Berlin to Stralsund 162 

27. Island of Riigen 166 

III. Central Germany. 

28. From Berlin to Dresden 173 

29. Dresden 175 

30. Saxon Switzerland 209 

31. From Dresden to Reiclienbacli via Chemnitz and Zwickau 221 

32. The Erzgebirge 226 

33. From- Dresden to Leipzig 232 

34. Leipzig 237 

35. From Berlin to i^Halle and; Leipzig 246 

36. From Hamburg to Leipzig via Magdeburg 249 

37. From Leipzig to Hof (Nuremberg, Ratisbon, Munich) or 

Eger 257 

38. From Leipzig to Hochstadt via G-era and Saalfeld .... 260 

39. From Leipzig to Bebra (Frankfort on the Main) and Cassel. 

Thuringian Railway 262 

40. From Xaumburg to Jena and Saalfeld 268 

41. "Weimar 271 

42. Gotha 277 

43. Eisenach and Environs 279 

44. From Eisenach to Coburg and Lichtenfels 283 

45. Coburg 286 

46. The Thuringian Forest 289 

47. From Berlin or Halle to Cassel via Xordhausen 303 

48. From Brunswick to Xordhausen and Erfurt via Borssum 

(Harzburg. Goslar) 307 

49. From Halle ^Leipzig) to Seeseu via Aschersleben and 

Goslar ( Hildesheim. Hanover) 310 

50. The Harz Mountains 312 

51. From Cassel to Frankfort on the Main 333 

52. From Gottingen to Bebra and Frankfort on the Main . . 338 

IV. North-Eastern Germany. 

53. From Berlin to Danzig via Stettin 344 

54. From Stettin to Heringsdorf. Swinemiinde. and Misdroy,, 348 

55. From Berlin to Danzig via Dirschau 351 

56. From Berlin to Thorn (Warsaw) 358 

57. From Dirschau (Berlin) to Konigsberg and Evdtkuhnen 

(St. Petersburg) ' 360 

58. From Berlin to Frankfort on the Oder and Poscn .... 368 

59. From Berlin to Breslau via Frankfort and Sagan or Kohlfurt 373 

MAPS. ix 

Eoute Viifrc 

60. Breslau 374 

61. From Berlin to Gorlitz and Zittau 381 

62. From Gorlitz to Grlatz 386 

63. The Griant Mountains 388 

64. From Breslau to Dresden 399 

65. From Breslau to Halbstadt (Chotzen) via iSalzbrunn . . . 401 

66. From Breslau to Glatz and Mittelwalde 403 

67. From Liegnitz to Konigszelt, Neisse, and Kandrzin . . . 406 

68. From Breslau to Oderberg (Vienna) and to Cracow .... 408 

69. From Breslau to Kattowitz via Oels 410 

Index 411 


1. Map of Northern Gtermany, before the title-page. 

2. The Environs of Potsdam: p. 25. 

3. The Rhenish -Westphalia N Coal District, from Duisburg to Dort- 

mund : p. 31. 

4. The Environs of the Hohensyburg: p. 33. 


The Teutoburgian Forest: p. 36. 

6. The Environs of Cassel : p. 59. 

7. Wilhelmshohe, near Cassel: p. 65. 

8. The Environs of Emden and the Island of Borkum: p. 97. 

9. The Islands of Norderney, Juist , Langeoog, and Wangeroog 

p. 98. 

10. The Environs of Hamburg: p. 129. 

11. The Mouth of the Elbe: p. 131. 

12. The Environs of Kiel: p. 137. 

13. The Environs of Elensburg : p. 141. 

11. Tlie Xorth Frisian Islands (Sylt, Fohr. Amniin) : ]). 113. 

15. The HoLSTEiN Switzerland : p. 152. 

16. The Environs of Schwerin: p. 158. 

17. The Island of Rugen: p. 167. 

18. The Environs of Dresden: p. 208. 

19. The Saxon Switzerland (Survey Map) : p. 210. 

20. The Saxon Switzerland from Wehlen to Schandau : p. 214. 

21. The Saxon Switzerland from Schandau toHerrnskretschen : p. 217 

22. The Eastern Saxon Switzerland: p. 219. 

23. The Environs of Bodenbach and Tetschen: p. 219. 

24. The Erzgebirge: p. 226. 

25. The Environs of Meissen: p. 233. 

26. The Elster Valley from Plauen to Greiz : p. 259. 

27. The Environs of Jena: p. 269. 

28. The Environs of Weimar: p. 273. 

29. The Environs of Eisenach: p. 282. 

30. The Environs of Liebenstein: p. 285. 

31. The Environs of Coburg: p. 287. 

32. The Thuringian Forest (Survey Map): p. 289. 

33. The Schwarza-Tal : p. 291. 

34. The Thuringian Forest, E. Part : p' 293. 

35. The Thuringian Forest, W. Part : p. 299. 

36. The Environs of Friedrichroda : p. 301. 

37. The Kyffhauser : p. 305. 

38. The Harz Mountains: p. 312. 

39. The Bode-Tal: p. 317. 


40. The EyviROKS of Goslar : p. 322. 

41. The Harz MouxxAiys from TVerxigerode to the Brocket: p. 325. 

42. The Harz Mou:^TAiys from Osterode to the Brockex: p. 332. 

43. The. ExTiRoxs of Daxzig: p. 357. 

44. The GiA^T Mouxtaixs : p. 388. 

45. The ExviRoxs of Schreiberhau : p. 392. 

46. Upper Silesia : p. 409. 

47. Eailwat Map of G-ermavt at the end of the book. 



1. Berlin 1 

2. Berlin (inn^r 

toioi) .... 9 

3. Beuthen .... 409 

4. Borkum .... 97 

5. Brandenburg . 54 

6. Bremen .... 101 

7. Bremen (inner 

tovm) .... 103 

8. Bremerhaven . 101 

9. Breslau .... 374 

10. Breslau (inner 

tmon) .... 376 

11. Brunswick . . 84 

12. Cassel 58 

13. Chemnitz ... 224 

14. Coburg .... 286 

15. Cuxhaven . . . 132 

16. Danzig 352 

17. Dessau .... 254 

18. Dortmund ... 33 

19. Dresden .... 175 

20. Dresden ri?i??€r 

toicn) .... 182 

21. Eisenach ... 279 

22. Eisleben. ... 305 

23. Emden 97 

24. Erfurt 265 

25. Flensburg . . . 141 , 

26. Frankfort on i 

the Oder. . . 369 | 

80. 81. Ground Plan 
Dresden, pp. 190, 203. 



Freiberg. . 

. 222 


Giessen . . 

. 336 


Gorlitz . . 

. 383 


Goslar . . . 

. 322 


Gotha . . . 

. 277 


Gottingen . 

. 67 



. 310 


Halle . . . 

. 250 



(railway and \ 

tramicay ma 

P) 115 



(inner tow 

nj 121 




Altona . . 

. 125 


Hanover (ge 


eral planj 

. 72 


Hanover (inn 


town) . . 

. 74 


Harzburg . 

. 325 



. 132 



. 79 


Jena .... 

. 269 


Kattowitz . 

. 409 


Kiel .... 

. 135 



. 363 


Leipzig . . 

. 237 


Leipzig (hm 


town J . . 

. 239 


Liegnitz . . 

. 373 


f the Picture 



50. Liibeck .... 145 

51. Liineburg . . . 113 

52. Magdeburg . . 50 

53. Marburg. ... 334 

54. Marienburg . . 361 

55. Miinden .... 67 

56. Miinster .... 92 

57. Nauheim ... 336 

58. Xorderney . , 98 

59. Osnabriick . . 70 

60. Plauen 258 

61. Posen 370 

62. Quedlinburg . 314 

63. Rostock .... 154 

64. Schandau ... 216 

65. Schleswig ... 139 

66. Schwerin ... 158 

67. Stettin 345 

68. Stralsund ... 165 

69. Thorn 359 

70. Wartburg ... 281 

71. Weimar .... 272 

72. Wernigerode . 325 

73. Westerland . . 143 

74. Wilhelms- 

haven .... 112 

75. TVismar .... 164 

76. Wittenberg . . 247 

77. Worlitz .... 256 

78. Wyk 143 

79. Zoppot .... 357 
and the Albertinum at 


I. Language. Money. 

Language. A slight acquaintance witli German is very desir- 
able for travellers who purpose exploring the more remote districts 
of Grermany, but tourists who do not deviate from the beaten track 
will generally find that English or French is spoken at the principal 
hotels and the usual resorts of strangers. If, however, they are 
entirely ignorant of the German language, they must be prepared 
occasionally to submit to the extortions practised by porters, cab- 
drivers, and others of a like class, which even the data furnished 
by the Handbook will not always enable them to avoid. 

Money. The German mark fc//^J, which is nearly equivalent to 
the English shilling, is divided into 100 pfennigs. Banknotes of 
20, 50, 100, and 1000 Ji are issued by the German Imperial Bank 
(^Deutsche Reiclishank^), and others of 100 and 500 ^, with a 
limited circulation, by four other chartered banks. There are also 
treasury-bills (' Reichskassen-Scheine^ ) of 5 c^ and 10 J6. The 
current gold coins are pieces of 10 i/l and 20 t^, the intrinsic 
value of which is slightly lower than that of the English half- 
sovereign and sovereign (1 1, being worth about 20 ^ 43 pf .). The 
paper currency is of the same value as the precious metals. The 
silver coins are pieces of 5, 3 (the old 'thaler' or dollar), 2, 1, and 
Y2 ^ (50 pf.). In nickel there are coins of 25, 10, and 5 pfennigs, 
and in copper there are pieces of 2 and 1 pfennig. 

English sovereigns and banknotes may be exchanged at all the 
principal towns in Germany, and napoleons are also favourably re- 
ceived (20 fr. := 16 s. = 16 ^ 20 pf., and often a few pfennigs 
more). Those who travel with large sums should carry them in the 
form of letters of credit or circular notes of 5^. or 10/., rather than 
in banknotes or gold, as the value of circular notes, if lost or stolen, 
is recoverable. The Travellers' Cheques issued by the chief Ameri- 
can express companies may also be recommended. 

Travelling Expenses. The expense of a tour in Northern Ger- 
many depends of course on a great variety of circumstances; but 
it may be stated generally that travelling in German/ is less expen- 
sive, and in some respects more comfortable, than in most other 
countries in Europe. The modest pedestrian, who knows something 
of the language, and avoids the beaten tracks as much as possible, 
may succeed in limiting his expenditure to 10-12s. per diem. Those, 
on the other hand, who prefer driving to walking, choose the most 
expensive botels, and employ guides and commissionnaires, must 
be prepared to expend 25-30s. daily. 


II. Passports and Custom House. 

Passports are now unnecessary in G-ermany, except for students 
who wish to matriculate at a Grerman university, but they are 
frequently useful in proving the identity of the traveller, in procur- 
ing admission to collections, and in obtaining delivery of registered 
letters. Cyclists and motorists are advised to carry passports. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London direct from the 
Foreign Office (fee 26-.) or through Buss, 4 Adelaide St.. Strand (inclusive 
fee 4s-.): C. Smith & Son, 23 Craven St.. Charing Cross (fee 46-.): Thomas 
Cook & Son, Ludgate Circus (fee 3s. M.) ; and Henry Blacklock & Co. 
('Bradshaw's Guides'). 59 Fleet St. (fee 5s.). — In the United States 
applications for passports should be made to the Bureau of Citizenship, 
State Department. Washington, D. C. 

CusT03i House formalities are now almost everywhere lenient. 
As a rule, however, articles purchased during the journey and not 
destined for personal use, should be declared at the frontier. 

m. Railways. 

Railway Travelling is less expensive in Grermany than in most 
other parts of Europe, and the carriages are generally clean and 
comfortable. The second-class carriages, with spring-seats, are 
sometimes as orood as those of the first class in Eno^land. Smokincr 
is permitted in all the carriages (in first-class compartments, however, 
only if all the inmates agree), except those 'Fiir Xichtraucher' and 
the coupes for ladies. The average fares for the different classes 
by ordinary trains (^Personen-Ziige' : often without first-class car- 
riages) and the so-called 'Eil-ZUge' (fast trains; are 1- -^d.^ ^/lod. 
and ^^d. per Engl. M. respectively (7, 4^ o. 3 pf. per kilometre). 
To these fares must, however, be added a stamp-duty, included in 
the prices of the tickets and varying from 5 pf. to 8 ^/l according 
to price and class. On express-trains {'Schnell-ZUge' : with three 
classes) and on through corridor-trains rD-Zilge', marked 'D' in 
the time-tables: sometimes with no third-class carriages), there is 
an additional tax varying fi'om 25 pf. to 2 ^. There is no reduc- 
tion in the fare of return-tickets. Xo one is admitted to the platform 
without either a railway -ticket or a platform -ticket (Bahnsteig- 
karte); the latter (10 pf.) may be obtained from the automatic 
machines placed for the purpose at all stations. The seats in the 
through corridor-trains are numbered and reserved like those of 
the American* parlor-car, and may be obtained in advance at the 
stations of departure fno fee). Each ticket is available for four days 
and permits the journey to be broken once without any formality. 

Xo Luggage is allowed free except smaller articles taken by 
the passenger into his carriage. The heavier luggage must be 
booked and a ticket procured for it. The charge per 25 kilo- 
grammes (55 lbs.) is 20 pf. up to 50 kilom. (31 M.), 50 pf. up to 300 
kilom. (186 M.), and 1 JC beyond 300 kilometres. Trunks should 



be at the station at least Y^ hr. before the train starts. Luggage 
once booked, the traveller need not enquire after it until he arrives 
at his final destination, where it will be kept in safe custody (24hrs. 
gratis), until he presents his ticket. When, however, a frontier has 
to be crossed, the traveller should see his luggage cleared at the 
custom-house in person. Porters are entitled to a fee, fixed by 
tarifi*, for carrying luggage to or from the cab. At most stations 
there is a left-luggage office for small baggage, where a charge of 
10 pf. per day is made for each package. 

The enormous wciglit of the trunks used l)y some passenp^ers not 
unfrequently inflicts serious injury on the porters who handle them. 
Travellers are therefore urged to place their heavy articles in the smaUer 
packages and thus to minimize the evil as far as possible. 

Circular Tour Tickets ('Zusammenstellbare Fahrschein-Hefte'; 
see the 'Reichs-Kursbuch', Sec. 433) for prolonged tours are not 
issued for distances under 600 kilometres (372 M.) ; those for distances 
up to 3000 kilom. (1860 M.) are valid for 60 days, for 3000-5000 
kilom. (3100 M.) for 90 days, and beyond that distance for 120 days. 
The journey can be broken without any formality at any of the 
stations. These tickets (issued in the form of books of coupons) 
must be ordered one day before the beginning of the journey on 
special forms to be obtained at the railway-stations or at the city 
offices of the railways. The rate of fare is the same as for ordinary 
tickets. The tickets are available by all trains, though an extra 
charge is made for the use of the international 'Luxusziige^ (marked 
'L' in the time-tables; 1st cl. only). 

Railway time throughout Germany is that of 'Mid-Europe', which 
is one hour in advance of Grreenwich time, and about 50 min. in 
advance of Paris time. 

IV. Cycling and Motoring JSTotes. 

Cycling is very prevalent in Germany, and the main roads are 
all good. In the part of Germany covered by the present volume 
excellent opportunities for cycling and motoring tours are afforded 
by Thuringia, the Harz, and the neighbourhood of Dresden. Some 
of the busier streets in towns are apt to be closed to the cyclist, and 
restrictions are often made on the use of the wheel in public parks. 
Adequate lamps, brakes, and bells (not whistles or horns) are re- 
quired by the authorities ; and the police have the right to demand 
the exhibition of the cyclist's club-ticket or passport. The rule of 
the road is to keep to the right in meeting, and to pass on the left 
in overtaking. Led horses must be met and passed on the side 
on which the man in charge is. 

Cycles accompanied by their owners are admitted to Germany duty- 
free. On the railways uncrated bicycles are carried as personal higgage 
when accompanied by the owner. On distances up to 100 kilometres 
(62 M.), however, the rider may take a bicycle-ticket ('Fahrradkarte"' ; 
20 pf.); he must then himself take his wheel to and from the baggage-car, 


and must also transfer it from one train to the other, if carriages are 
charged en route. Motor-cycles, however, must pay the luggage-rate. 

Motor Cars entering G-ermany are liable to a customs-duty of 
150 t^, whicli is returned when the car quits the country. The 
cars of foreign visitors need not display number-plates, but their 
owners must take out an official permission I'Erlaubniskarte'; up 
to 30 days 40 ^) and the drivers certificate must be countersigned 
by a German consul. The cars must be equipped with lamps, 
brakes, and horns (or whistles). Persons under 18 years of age 
are not allowed to drive automobiles or ride motor-bicycles. In 
populous districts the speed-limit is 9 M. (15 kil.) per hr. 

Among the best road-maps are those issued by Bavenstein <fc Liebetww 
(1:300,000). 3Iittelbach (1:300.000), and Ehhardt & Co. The German 
volume of the Continental Road Book of the Cyclists' Touring Club will 
be found useful. The Imperial Automobile Club (Berlin) issues official 
touring maps. 

V. Plan of Tour. 

The following sketch of the chief points of interest for a tour in 
Xorth G-ermany is intended rather as a specimen list than as a com- 
plete catalogue. It might easily have been considerably extended. 

To Berlin, the capital of the German Empire, a separate volume 
has been devoted {Baedeker's Berlin, 3rd edit., 1908); but mention 
may be made here of its characteristic interest as the greatest 
purely modern city in Europe, as well as of its museums, which rank 
among the first in the world for importance and scientific arrange- 
ment, and of its fine public buildings and statues, ranging from the 
creations of Andreas Schliiter (^Arsenal, Royal Schloss, Monument of 
the Great Elector). Schinkel ( Konigswache, Schauspielhaus. Schloss- 
Briicke, Old Museum), and Ranch (Statue of Frederick the Great), 
down to the imposing Reichstags -Gebaude '1884-94; and the new 
Cathedral ^completed in 1902). The Berlin ^season' is in Jan. and 
Feb., when the court is in residence, but for tourists spring is more 
attractive. The great reviews of the guards take place in May and 
at the beginning of September. — Potsdam^ with its wood -girt 
lakes and numerous royal palaces, also deserves a visit. 

Hamburg and Bremen are the chief seats of German maritime 
trade. The former, with its magnificent harbour 60 M. above the 
mouth of the Elbe, is the most important commercial city in the 
world after London and Xew York. Its collections of modern art 
are noteworthy. Bremen, the port of which is Bremerhaven. at 
the mouth of the Weser, 40 M. distant, retains more of the appear- 
ance of an inland town and has preserved more of its historical 
stamp than Hamburg. Lubeck. on the Baltic Sea, the third of the 
Free Cities of Germany, was in the middle ages the powerful head 
of the Hanseatic League (p. 146), but declined in importance when 
the discovery of America dislocated the previously existing trade- 



routes. Its imposing churches , its Kathaus, and its ancient gate- 
ways still testify to its mediseval greatness. The brick architecture 
of Liibeck is of great importance in the history of art; it was 
imitated in numerous towns in N. Germany. — Kiel is the chief 
naval harbour of Germany. -^ Schwerin, capital of the duchy of 
Mecklenburg -Schwerin, possesses a venerable brick cathedral, a 
fine modern palace, and a picture-gallery, rich in Dutch works. 

Hanover, once the seat of the dukes of Brunswick -Liine burg, 
who ascended the British throne in 1714, is now essentially a hand- 
some modern town, with varied industries. — Brunswick offers 
many points of interest to the art-lover. Burg Dankwarderode, re- 
cently restored, was a favourite abode of Henry the Lion (1139-95), 
the opponent of Emp. Frederick Barbarossa. The cathedral, founded 
about the same period, contains several contemporaneous works of 
art. The Gothic Rathaus, several Gothic churches, and numerous 
late -Gothic and Renaissance houses recall the prosperity of the 
town from the 13th to the 16th century. The ducal picture-gallery 
is especially strong in the Dutch School. — Several small towns in 
the Harz, the domain of the Saxon dukes who occupied the German 
imperial throne in the 10-1 1th cent., preserve works of art in the 
Romanesque style. Of these perhaps the chief is Goslar. — Hildes- 
heim richly repays a visit. Under its art-loving bishops of the 11- 
12th cent, the town became one of the chief seats of Romanesque 
art in Germany. The fine churches of that period abound in remark- 
able contemporary bronze works. Hildesheim is distinguished also 
for its wealth of timber-architecture of the 16th century. 

Westphalia is not so rich in works of art. But MUnster, the pro- 
vincial capital, contains a number of noteworthy churches, mostly 
in the Gothic style, a handsome Rathaus of the 14th cent., numer- 
ous picturesque old gabled houses, and aristocratic mansions 
('Adelshofe') in the baroque style. The W. portion of the province 
unites with the adjoining part of the Rhine province to form the 
most extensive industrial region in Germany. Essen, with a church 
dating in part from the Carlovingiau period, is the seat of Krupp's 
Cast Steelworks (no admission) ; Bochum and Dortmund are centres 
of the coal and iron industry; Solingen has been noted for its steel 
goods since the middle ages; and textile manufactures flourish at 
Elberf eld- Barmen, Milnchen-Gladhach, and Krefeld. 

For details concerning the Rhine districts we refer the traveller 
to Baedeker^ s Handbook for the Rhine. Here we may remind him 
of Cologne, with its magnificent Gothic cathedral; of Aachen (Aix- 
la-Chapelle), the minster of which is the most important archi- 
tectural monument in Germany of the time of Charlemagne; and 
of Coblenz, with the impressive monument to Emp. William I. 

The picture-gallery of Cassel is one of the most important of 
the collections that owe their origin to the art-loving German princes 


of the 18tli century. As in the case of many of these collections, 
the Dutch masters are especially well represented, and a visit to 
Cassel is essential for the study of these artists, especially of Rem- 
brandt and Frans Hals. The adjacent chateau of Wilhelmshohe has 
an extensive wooded park and fine fountains, which, however, play 
on certain days only in summer. 

Perhaps the most interesting points in Thuringia are Eisenach 
with the Wartburg, presenting an authentic picture of an early 
mediaeval princely castle; and Weimar , the far-famed 'Dichter- 
Stadt*, with its memorials of Goethe and Schiller. The beauty of 
G-erman forests can hardly be better seen than at Schivarzburg. 

Magdeburg, the chief town of the Prussian province of Saxony, 
is the leadinof beetroot suo^ar- market of Germanv. Its mediaeval 
prosperity is commemorated in the equestrian statue of Emp. Otho I. 
(1290i and in the Gothic cathedral. 

Leipzig, the second city of the Kingdom of Saxony, is famous 
as the centre of the German publishing trade, as the possessor of 
one of the most ancient and important universities in Germany, and 
(more recently) as the seat of the supreme law-courts of the Em- 
pire. The buildings of the supreme courts rank among the most 
important of the modern public edifices of Germany. The famous 
Gewandhaus Concerts (in winter) are mentioned at p. 238. 

Dresden, the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony, is one of thf 
favourite resorts of foreigners in Germany, and merits attention, 
not only on account of its art -treasures, but also for its situation 
and picturesque neighbourhood. During the reign of Augustus the 
Strong (1694-1733) it was one of the chief centres of German art; 
and the baroque and rococo buildings of that period lend the city 
its characteristic stamp to the present day. The Dresden school of 
sculpture rose to great brilliance in the 19th cent., in the hands 
of Rietschel (d. 1861;, Hahnel (d. 1891), and their pupils. The 
picture-gallery is one of the finest in the world. It possesses im- 
portant works of all schools, especially the Italian and Dutch; 
Haphael, Correggio, Titian, Rembrandt, and Jacob van Ruysdael 
are all here represented by world-famed masterpieces. The collec- 
tions of weapons and porcelain in the Museum Johanneum, and 
those of goldsmith's work and gems in the Green Yault are also 
important. Attractive excursions may be made from Dresden to 
Meissen, with an ancient castle and the oldest porcelain factory in 
Europe (Dresden china), and to the Saxon Sivitzerland. the moun- 
tainous region on the Elbe, extending to the borders of Bohemia. 
— Chemnitz^ in S. Saxony, is the centre of the Saxon textile in- 
dustry; its woven goods compete with those of England. 

Breslau. the chief town of Silesia, is another important com- 
mercial and industrial town, with a fine Rathaus dating from its 
zenith in the 14-1 5th centuTies. The Giant Mountains (Eiesen- 

HOTELS. xvii 

Gebirge), the crest of which separates Silesia from Bohemia, include 
the highest summit (Schneekoppe, 5260 ft.), in Northern Germany. 

In the KE. of Germany Danzig, the chief town of West Prussia, 
is of interest, both on account of its brick churches and of its sec- 
ular buildings in the baroque style of the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Of the other interesting edifices in the province, most belong to the 
period during which the knights of the Teutonic Order conquered 
and held sway over the territories of the heathen Prussians (18- 
15th cent.). The castle ot Marienburg is the noblest secular building 
of mediaeval Germany. Kmiigsherg, the capital of East Prussia, and 
Stettin, the capital of Pomerania, have little to oft'er the sightseer. 

For the tourist on foot Northern Germany comprizes many at- 
tractive and picturesque districts, such as the Saxon Switzerland, 
the Tharingian Forest, the Harz, tlie Giant Mountains, and the 
island of BUgen. — The favourite sea-bathing resorts are Herings- 
dorf and Misdroy on the Baltic, the island of Eilgen, the East 
Frisian and the North Frisian Islands, and Heligoland. 

A visit to the chief points in Northern and Central Germany may 
be accomplished in abont three weeks, as follows : Berlin and environs, 
4-6 days. — Liibeck, 1 day. — Hamburg, IV2 day. — Breineni, V2-I ^^Y- — 
Hanover, 1/2"! day. — Brunsivick, I-IV2 day. — Hildesheim, V2-I day. — 
Cassel, 1 day. — Eisenach, the Warthurg, and Weimar, VJ2 day. — 
Leipzig, V2-I day. — Dresden and environs, 3-4 days. — Eastern Germany 
lies outside the range of the ordinary tourist. — For the Rhine, see 
Baedeker''s Rhine. 

VI. Hotels. 

The first-class hotels in the principal towns and watering-places 
throughout Germany are generally good and somewhat expensive; 
but it sometimes happens that in old-fashioned hotels of unassum- 
ing exterior, particularly in places off the beaten track, the trav- 
eller finds more real comfort and much lower charges. 

The average charges in the first-class hotels are as follows: room 
(including light and attendance) 3-5 c^, plain breakfast l-V/U^^-, 
dinner 3-5 ^, pension (i.e. board, lodging, and attendance) 7-10 c^/. 
In some of the most luxurious houses and for extra accommodation, 
the charges are considerably higher. When not otherwise indicated, 
R. (room) is used in this Handbook to include light and attend- 
ance. — Small gratuities are expected by the portier, boots ('Haus- 
knecht'), chambermaid, and head-waiter ('Oberkellner'). The total 
amount of these may be reckoned at about 10 per cent of the bill. 

When the traveller remains for a week or more at a hotel, it is 
advisable to call for his account every two or three days, in order 
that erroneous insertions may be at once detected. A habit too 
often prevails of presenting the bill at the last moment, when mis- 
takes or wilful impositions cannot easily be detected or rectified. 
Those who intend starting early in the morning should therefore 
ask for their bills on the previous evening. 

Baedeker's N". Germany. 15th Edit. b 


Hotel -keepers who wish to commend their houses to British and 
American travellers are reminded of the desirability of providing the 
sedrooms with large basins, foot-baths, plenty of water, and an adequate 
bupply of towels. Great care should be taken that the sanitary arrange- 
ments are in good order, including a strong flush of water, and proper 
toilette-paper; and no house that is deficient in this respect can rank as 
first-class or receive a star of commendation, whatever may be its ex- 
cellencies in other departments. 

English travellers often impose considerable trouble by order- 
ing things almost unknown in G-erman usage; and if ignorance of 
the language be added to w^ant of conformity to the customs, 
misunderstandings and disputes are apt to ensue. The reader is 
therefore recommended to endeavour to adapt his requirements 
to the habits of the country, and to acquire if possible such a 
moderate proficiency in the language as to render him intelligible 
to the servants. 

Vn. Post, Telegraph, and Telephone Offices. 

Postal Rates. Ordinary Letters within Germany and 
Austria-Hungary, 10 pf. per 20 grammes (-3 oz.) prepaid; for 
foreign countries 20 pf. (for the United States 10 pf., if sent by 
direct steamer). Registered Letters 20 pf. extra. Letters by 
Town Post. 5 pf. up to 250 grammes (9 oz.). — Post Cards 5 pf., 
for abroad 10 pf. Reply post-cards 10 pf., for abroad 20 pf. — 
Printed Papers fDrucksachen)^ up to 50 gr. 3 pf., to 100 gr. 5 pf., 
to 250 gr. 10 pf. : for abroad 5 pf. per 50 grammes (1^ 4 oz.). 

Post Office Orders f Postanweisungen) within Germany, not 
exceeding 5 Jl, 10 pi: 100 ^, 20 pf.; 200 c^, 30 pf.; 400 Jl, 
40 pf.; 600 J6, 50 pf.; 800 ^l, 60 pf.; for Austria-Hungary 10 pf. 
per 20 Jl (minimum 20 pf.). The charges for post-office orders 
for foreign countries vary, and may be learned on application at 
any post-office (for the United Kingdom 20 pf. per 20 ^7/, for the 
United States 20 pf. per 40 Jl). 

Telegrams. The minimum charge for a telegram to Great 
Britain or Ireland is 80 pf.. to any other European country 50 pf., 
subject to which conditions telegrams are charged at the following 
rates per word: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Luxembourg 5 pf. : 
Belgium, Denmark, Holland, and Switzerland 10 pf. ; France 12 pf. ; 
Great Britain. Italy. Xorway, Roumania, and Sweden 15 pf. ; Greece 
30 pf . : Turkey 45 pf. : other European countries 20 pf. Telegrams 
to the United States cost from 1 ^/ 5 to 1 c^ 60 pf. per word. — 
Telegrams despatched and received within the same town are 
charged 3 pf. per word (minimum 30 pf.). — Urgent telegrams, 
marked D (i.e. dringend), taking precedence of all others, pay 
thrice the above tariff. 

Telephones. The urban service costs 10-20 pf. per 3 min., 
the inter-urban service from 20 pf. to 2 c^. 

North German Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Frofessor Anton Sj^ringer. 

Though many of the towns described in this Handbook have 
been at different epochs the scene of a varied and important art- 
istic activity, it is yet scarcely possible to speak of North German 
Art as an individual development. Not only is continuity of devel- 
opment wanting, but anything like a uniform cultivation of the 
different branches of art is also conspicuously absent. Painting, 
for example, has been neglected to a remarkable extent in compar- 
ison with its sister arts, and North Germany can boast few original 
pictures of importance. The art of this district is also much more 
recent than that of other parts of Grermany. On the Rhine, and in 
all other i}arts of the country where the Roman power was estab- 
lished, important buildings were erected in the earliest centuries of 
our era, and artistic handicrafts, such as pottery and glass-making, 
reached a state of considerable perfection. Even the art of the 
Carlovingian period (9th cent.), w^hich produced works of such ex- 
cellence at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), the second Rome, and in the 
Bavarian-Alemannian region, scarcely affected Northern Grermany 
at all. It was not till the time of the Saxon emperors (10-1 1th cent.) 
that art began to show some signs of active life in the ancestral 
possessions of the Othos, partly evoked by the emperors them- 
selves and transmitted by individual princes and bishops into wider 
circles, extending from Westphalia to the Elbe. Our knowledge of 
the art of this period is, however, based more upon tradition than 
upon an actual inspection of the monuments themselves, and the 
scanty remains of buildings of the 10th and 11th centuries now 
extant {e.g. at Quedlinburg and Gernrode) are subjects for the 
antiquarian rather than for the ordinary student of art. The archi- 
tectural remains of Lower Saxony dating from the 12th century 
are, however, more numerous, and are sufficient to prove that an 
independent and definite style of building had been developed there 
at a comparatively early period. 

It is customary to apply the name of Romanesque Style to 
the architecture prevalent in the W. half of Christendom from the 
10th century to the end of the 12th, or even (in Germany at last) 
till the 13th century, and we find the prototype of the churches 
then built in the early-Christian basilicas. The common object of 
the churches in different lands accounts for the similarity of their 
exteriors. But this similarity is by no means carried to the length 
of identity. The principal divisions demanded by the religious 

^ b* 


services are commou to all. but the detailed treatment of these 
parts varies very considerably. In all the space reserved for the 
congregation consists of a lofty and wide nave, flanked by two nar- 
rower and lower aisles, while the clergy and altar occupy a chancel 
or apse with a semicircular termination. In the larger churches 
these were supplemented by a iransept, often wider than the nave, 
which gave a cruciform shape to the whole. The vestibule and the 
towers may also be regarded as constant features, though the latter 
vary in number and position. 

Assuming, then, these necessary elements of the Eomanesque 
style, we have now to consider the features specially character- 
istic of th-e Lower Saxox ARCHiTECxrRE of the 11-1 2th centuries. 
In the first place we find no elaborate fagade or richly adorned 
portico at the entrance. The W. end of the church consists of a 
lofty and plain projection flanked by towers and usually unbroken 
by either door or window. The ordinary entrance, especially in 
the case of monastic churches, was at the side and led from the 
cloisters or cloister-garth into the interior. The upper wall of the 
nave is generally supported by pillars instead of columns, though 
an arrangement of alternate columns and pillars is not unusual. 
This latter arrangement indeed is an important characteristic of 
lower Saxon architecture, and as it is not due to any structural ne- 
cessity it must be referred to a sense of delight in rhythmical pro- 
portions, which finds additional expression in the decorations of 
the walls. Little or no attempt was made to produce buildings 
imposing through their mere mass or size, and structural skill 
developed but slowly. At first every part of the church, with the 
exception of the chancel and the crypt, was covered by a flat 
wooden ceiling: afterwards the aisles were also vaulted, but it was 
not till the l*2th cent, that the vaulting of the nave became the 
rule. On the other hand a lively sense for the decoration of the 
various members of the building is noticeable at an early period. 
The simple cubical capitals of the columns in the earliest period 
soon give way to more varied shapes, elaborately adorned with 
foliage and carvings. The cornices, friezes, and hood-mouldings of 
the interior also show the prevalence of this early-developed and 
refined feeling for ornament, in which the buildings of lower 
Saxony are superior to all others on German soil. Xeither the 
Rhenish churches, most of which are built of soft tufa, nor those 
of South Gfermany. in which the details are often singularly rude, 
can vie with them in this respect Among the causes of this ar- 
tistic development in Xorth Germany may be mentioned the fre- 
quent residence of the emperors in that part of their realm, their 
immediate participation in the work of founding and maintaining 
churches, and the wealth placed at the disposal of pious founders 
by the rich mines of the Harz Mountains. Qaedlinhi/i-g -dnd Merse- 


burgvfere intimately connected with Henry the Fowler, Magdeburg 
with Otho the Great, Goslar with Henry III. and Henry iv., and 
Konigslutter with the Emp. Lothaire, while the importance of towns 
like Hildesheim, Halhey^stadt,, and Brunswick was due to the same 
causes. The extant edifices of the 11th cent, are, of course, few in 
number, and those that have retained their original appearance still 
fewer. Alterations and additions were frequently undertaken in tlie 
following century and many of the old buildings were replaced by 
entirely new ones. 

Among the most important Romanesque buildings in Lower 
Saxony and the adjoining Thuringia are the following: the Lieb- 
frauen-Kirchen Vii Magdeburg and Halbei^stadt ; the ruined church 
of Paulinzella, in which the arches are borne by columns; the 
church at Wechselburg, interesting for the uniformity of its 
design and execution; the vestibule of the cathedral of Goslar, 
the only remaining fragment of the edifice; the Kaiserpfalz, 
also at Groslar, the most important secular work of the 11th cent.; 
the Wartburg, the chief secular building of the 12th cent.; the 
convent-church of Neuiverk; the Benedictine abbey of Konigs- 
lutter; and the two Cistercian churches of Loccum, near Minden, 
and Riddagshausen, near Brunswick, both of which belong to the 
13th century. To the latest Romanesque period belong the nave 
and transept of the cathedral of Naumburg, with their pointed 
vaulting and rich articulation of pillars. 

Even the cultivated traveller is, however, apt to leave the in- 
spection of such isolated works to the professional enthusiast. 
Such towns as Hildesheim and Brunswick on the other hand, 
contain a wealth of architectural interest, that will not fail to 
delight even the layman and put him in touch with the artistic 
spirit of mediaeval Germany. The numerous Romanesque churches 
and quaint timbered dwellings of both towns leave the imagination 
an easy task in realizing the everyday life of the old German 
burghers. Most of the timber buildings are, it is true, of recent 
construction; but it is well known that timber architecture is the 
most conservative of all and adheres most closely to the tradition- 
ary forms. The originator of the artistic activity displayed in 
Hildesheim was Bishop Bernward, who filled the episcopal office 
there from 993 to 1022. Several small objects of this period are 
preserved in the treasure-chambers of the Cathedral and St. Mag 
dalen^s Church. The bishop's principal creation, the aS'^. MichaeVs 
Church, was restored in the 12th cent, after a fire, but retains its 
original appearance essentially unaltered. There are a transept 
and apse at each end of the nave, and no fewer than six towers 
lend beauty and variety to the exterior. This church, like the 
Cathedral and St. Godehard^s, shows a mixture of columns and 
pillars in the interior, but the abbey-church in the suburb ol" 


Moritzberg is a purely columnar basilica. While the buildings of 
Hildesheim thus afford us a good insight into the nature of the 
early -Romanesque style, those of Bruxswick, dating from the 
time of Henry the Lion, supply admirable examples of the skill in 
vaulting acquired at a later period. Pillars alone are here used in 
supporting the body of the church, but the varied form given to 
these, according as they merely bear the arcades or are connected 
with the vaulting, is a reminiscence of the former alternative 
system of pillar and column. The vaults are destitute of ribs and 
form square compartments in such a way that only each alternate 
pillar is a supporter of the vaulting arch. The churches themselves 
are all distinctly cruciform in plan and gain great dignity from 
the two lofty towers at the W. end. The leading examples are 
the Cathedral and the churches of SS. Atidrew^ Martin^ and 
Catharine. The plastic ornamentation of the individual features is 
not as a rule so elaborate as at Hildesheim. but there are never- 
theless several fine sculptured portals. 

Though, as has been said above, the art of Painting was com- 
paratively little developed in X. Germany, it must not be supposed 
that it was altoofether neo^lected in the districts we have been con- 
sidering. Xo traces remain of the battle-scenes that Henry the 
Fowler is reported to have had painted in his palace at Mersehurg; 
but the painted wooden ceiling in St. Michael's at Hildesheim^ the 
extensive series of mural paintings in the Cathedral oi Brunswick^ 
those of the Xeuiverker-Kirche at Goslar and the Liehfrauen- 
Kirche at Halberstadt. and the relics of coloured decorations in 
the Westphalian Churches all seem to point to a considerable 
amount of practice in the use of the brush. It is now, of course, 
impossible to judge of the colouring of these works, but both the 
drawing and the composition reveal no ordinary degree of skill. 

In the department of Sctxpture, however. Lower Saxony can 
boast of much more important productions even in the early part of 
the middle aofcs. The enersfv with which mininor was carried on 
could not fail to have a great effect in developing the arts of metal- 
foundinof and nietal-workinof in all their branches. Hildesheim 
contains several monuments in cast metal reaching as far back as 
the episcopate of Bemward, and among the treasures of art in 
Brunswick are the Lion in the Burg-Platz. the seven-branched 
candelabra and the altar of the Duchess Matilda in the cathedral, 
and several other works in bronze, all dating from the time of 
Henry the Lion. The art of sculpture in stone did not lag behind, 
and by the end of the 12th or beginning of the 13th cent, it at- 
tained a pitch of excellence superior to that in any other part of 
Germany. A significant fact is the frequent use of the easily- 
worked stucco instead of stone, a j^roof of the early desire to re- 
move all merelv material hindrances to the attainment of a hio^h 


artistic ideal. Stucco reliefs are found, for example, mSt.MichaeVs 
Church at Hildesheim and the Liehfrauen-Kirche at Halherstadt. 
Among the finest sculptures in stone are reckoned the portal of 
the Cathedral at Paderhorn and the statues in the vestibule of 
Munster Cathedral^ both in Westphalia; in Lower Saxony the 
Tomb of Henry the Lion and his Wife in Brunswick Cathedral 
(early 13th cent.), and the Monument of Otho /., one of the ear- 
liest equestrian statues in mediseval art, and the W. portal of the 
Cathedral at Magdeburg ; and in Upper Saxony the works that 
adorn the pulpit at Wechselburg and the Goldene Pforte at 
Freiberg in the Erzgebirge. The painted wooden group of the 
Crucifixion above the altar at Wechselburg may be mentioned 
also. The zenith of late-Romanesque sculpture in Germany was 
reached in the sculptures in Naumburg Cathedral j the finest 
being the statues of the princes beside the choir-screen, which are 
distinguished by their lifelike and dignified appearance. Strictly 
speaking, these works fall outside the sphere of Lower Saxon 
art. But we shall not be far wrong if we assume that there was 
an art-movement from Lower Saxony towards the E. and S., and 
that the sculpture of Upper Saxony also had its foundations in 
N. Germany. 

The German coast-districts make their debut in art at a later 
period than the towns between the Harz and the Elbe. They 
occupy, however, an equally important position in the history of 
art on account of the remarkable development of their Brick 
Architecture. The first churches here were usually made of 
wood, sometimes of blocks of granite; and the novel material 
brought in its train novel forms and deviations from the tradi- 
tional style. The builders had to renounce a sharply defined pro- 
file in the individual members, as well as elaborate ornamentation 
with the chisel. The angular replaces the round, the slender col- 
umn gives way to the pillar, the rounded corners of the old capitals 
are bevelled ofi^. The larger surfaces are not relieved by projecting 
and receding members, but by moulded bricks, which are combined 
in various patterns and often in varied colours. The buildings in 
this 'Baltic Style' are by no means deficient in size or stateliness, 
as bricks are admirably adapted for vaulting large spaces, while 
their lightness makes it easy to attain a great height. At the 
same time it cannot be denied that the unrelieved outline often 
gives a heavy and even characterless appearance to the whole. 

This brick architecture was introduced into Lower Saxony from 
Lombardy and moved with the German colonists into Scandinavia 
and Russia. Romanesque architecture in brick may be studied to 
greatest advantage in the Mark of Brandenburg, the towns of 
which began to obtain some importance in the 12th century. 
Besides the Cathedral and Nicolai - Kirche at Brandenburg, 


we may instance the Cistercian Church at Dohrilugk and the 
Premonstrateusian Church at Jerichow, foundations of the two 
monastic orders which did such good service in opening up 
the Xorth of G-ermany to civilization. Parts of the naves of 
Lilbeclc and Ratzehurg Cathedrals, which were erected under 
the influence of the buildings of Brunswick, also date from the 
12th century. 

The golden era of brick architecture, however, begins with the 
centuries which are generally known in the history of art as the 
Gothic Period. But the Gothic style of the brick buildings of 
Xorth Germany is something very different from the 'Cathedral 
Gothic' which found its way in the course of the 13th cent, from 
France to the Rhine and thence to Central and Southern Germany, 
marking its course by a long series of imposing ecclesiastical edifices. 
The essence of French Gothic lies, as is well known, in its system 
of buttresses. The vaulting is not borne by the pillars of the 
nave alone, its outward thrust is counteracted by plain and flying 
buttresses. The solidity and unity of the exterior are lost in a 
multiplicity of detail. The building is. as it were, conceived as 
a mighty scaffolding of individual members all closely connected 
with each other. The intervening wall-spaces are considered, and 
in respect of ornamentation are treated, not as structural parts of 
the building but simply as a means of filling up the gaps in the 
frame-work. Even in the decorations the same idea is predominant. 
The tracery and mouldings of the windows and walls, the per- 
forated surfaces are all in harmony with this peculiar constructive 

This style of Gothic does not occur in Xorth Germany except 
sporadically, and as a rule only when favoured by external influences. 
The cathedrals of Magdeburg and Halberstadt may be adduced as 
examples. For buildings in brick this style of architecture was ob- 
viously not suitable ; and it would also seem that it did not appeal 
to the practical common sense of the Xorth German people, who 
wished to build for immediate use rather than for illimitable dura- 
tion. The use of bricks as building material was as antagonistic 
to the employment of buttresses as it was favourable to vaulting. 
In brick buildings it is impossible wholly to renounce the appear- 
ance of solidity and mass, and difficult to relieve the surfaces of 
walls by pillars and other details. The airy pinnacle and aspiring 
turret, the delicate ornamentation of open tracery are alien to the 
spirit of brick architecture, which has to content itself with an 
imitation of tracery in coloured bricks and with the arch-mould- 
ings of the Romanesque style. Altogether the contrast between the 
Romanesque and Gothic style is by no means so sharp here as 
elsewhere. The pointed arch, for instance, had naturalized itself 
long before the use of buttresses came into vogue. 


When we speak here of a transition style, we nuist remember 
that it is not a transition to the ordinary Gothic architecture but 
merely to that peculiar variety of it developed on the Baltic coasts. 
A large proportion of the churches are so-called 'Hallerikirche}(\ 
i.e. churches resembling halls. In these the traditionary dispro- 
portion between the nave and the aisles disappears, the latter being 
made as high and almost as wide as the former. This form of 
church is already met with in isolated examples in the 12th cent, 
and beyond the confines of the brick style of architecture, but it 
finds by far its most general adoption in the Gothic period and in 
the North of Germany. The degradation of the choir goes hand in 
hand with the development of this style of church. While the choir 
of a Franco-German Gothic building spreads out like a fan with 
its ambulatory and radiating chapels, the Hallenkirche terminates 
most congenially in a straight gable-wall. The pillars of the nave 
also become simplified and are often square or octagonal; at a later 
period they not infrequently jnerge in the ribs of the vaulting with- 
out a capital to mark w^here the pillar ends and the vaulting begins. 
It is palpable that the architects do not consider it part of their 
function to promote the ornamental enrichment of the interior by 
a delicate and elaborate system of architectural articulation; they 
leave the internal decoration to consist of the altars, wood-carvings, 
metal-work, and the like. The exterior of the church makes no 
attempt to hide the unassuming nature of the design, or the simple 
massiveness of the frame-work; but the appearance of rudeness and 
heaviness was avoided by the rich ornamentation of the gables and 
by a free use of coloured decorations. Glazed and coloured tiles, 
arranged in stripes and patterns, enliven the wall-surfaces and feast 
the eye in the portals and gables. 

The critic, however, must not do the North German buildings 
the injustice of comparing them Avith the vast cathedrals of the 
West, such as those of Cologne and Strassburg. The latter represent 
an entirely difl'erent school of art and are rooted in an entirely 
different conception of life. The power and charm of the brick 
buildings of North Germany — the territory of the Hanseatic 
League and the Teutonic Order — lie in their expression of well- 
considered strength, in their cheerful solidity, in their clear and 
definite intention. The purpose is never obscured, the essential 
never disguised by a mass of details. Here we may speak with 
justice of a national German architecture, in a sense which does 
not apply to the buildings of South Germany. Amid the general 
similarity of these brick buildings we can moreover distinguish 
several groups, defined by difference of style as well as by geogra- 
phical position. 

The large Marlen-Kirche at Liibeck, erected in the latter 
half of the 13th cent., adheres to the model of the great French 

xxvi XORTH &ERM.\X ART. 

cathedrals, and this may partly be accounted for by the jealousy 
of the bishop's cathedral felt by the merchants of Liibeck and their 
ambition to produce a church that would throw it into the shade. 
The nave towers high above the aisles; the termination of the choir 
is octagonal and it possesses an ambulatory and radiating chapels. 
This celebrated church was the model for the Cistercian Church 
at Doheran . the Schwerin Cathedral , the Marien-Kirche at 
Rostock, the Marien-Kirche at StralsuiuL and many others. 

Some of the Churches of Breslau {e.g. St. Elizabeth's), though 
quite outside the influence of the Liibeck building, show the same 
tendency to exalt the nave at the expense of the aisles. The 14th 
century was the golden age of architecture in Silesia, particularly 
in Breslau, and numerous important structures of this period testify 
to the fact. The different stages of development and varieties of 
style may here be studied with great convenience, for brick and 
freestone buildings, cruciform churches and 'Hallenkirchen', the 
simplest and the most complicated systems of vaulting are all found 
here side by side. It is a subject for regret that so few students 
of art bend their steps to the capital of Silesia. 

Another group of Gothic buildings meets us in the Mark of 
Braxdexbukoj. Of these the tvro conventual churches of Lehnin 
and Chorin. the latter now a ruin, the names of which occur so 
often in the history of Brandenburg, must first be mentioned. It 
must not, however, be therefore supposed that Brandenburg differs 
from the other districts of Xorth G-ermany in the prominence of 
its monastic buildings. The part played by religious establishments 
in the encouragement of mediaeval art cannot be lightly spoken of, 
but when a fuller and freer artistic life began in these northern 
regions, the power and influence of the great monastic orders were 
already on the wane. The preaching and mendicant friars were 
still active and influential, but they had neither the means nor the 
desire to raise structures of monumental importance. The great 
majority of the Gothic churches of Xorth Germany, and nearly all 
the most important ones, are town and parochial churches, founded 
by the citizens and standing in the closest connection with the civic 
community: and there is no doubt that this civil origin exercised 
a great influence upon their form and style. It explains, for instance, 
the modest dimensions of the choir, as it was not necessary to find 
room for a large number of clergy. The desire of the rich burgher 
to perpetuate his name accounts for the extraordinary number of 
private chapels in the town churches. These were often formed by 
continuinof the buttresses throuo-h the wall into the interior and 
occupying the spaces thus indicated between them. The singular 
mixture of boldness and sobriety, exemplified in the loftiness of 
the nave and towers on the one hand and the sparing use of super- 
fluous architectonic ornaments on the other, as well as the prefer- 


once shown lor the spacious, the airy, and the perspicuous, may 
also be ascribed to the dominant tendencies of the civic mind. It 
has long since been observed that the contrast between sacred and 
profane buildings is by no means so marked in North Grermany as 
in most other countries. 

Among the brick buildings of the Mark a prominent place is 
taken by the Church of St. Catharine in the town of Brandenburg. 
It is a 'Hallenkirche', and the decoration of the exterior shows the 
utmost richness attainable by the use of polychrome painting and 
coloured tiles. The buttresses, embellished with pointed gables, 
rosettes, and perforated work, are farther adorned with alternate 
bands of red and dark-green tiles. The art of sculpture was also 
freely laid under requisition for the adornment of the edifice, and 
more than 100 niches were made in the buttresses and filled with 
statues in terracotta. Among the other churches of the Mark in 
which a similar style of ornamentation is used may be mentioned 
the Mai^ien ' Kirche at Prenzlau and the Cathedral and the 
May^ien-Kirche at Stendal. 

Turning our eyes now to the extreme North, we find that while 
several churches (such as those dedicated to St. Nicholas at Lime- 
burg and Stralsundj as well as some in Mecklenburg) are evidently 
imitations of the proud Marien-Kirche at Llibeck, yet on the whole 
the form with nave and aisles of equal height is predominant, espe- 
cially towards the E. and in the later periods. In such churches 
as the Marien-Kirche at Danzig, the Jacobi-Kirche at Stettin^ 
and the Marien-Kirche at Colberg, wiiat strikes us most is their 
huge proportions. These are due not to an empty striving after 
mere size, but to the necessity of providing accommodation for the 
large parishes of populous towns. In architectonic decoration the 
churches of the Baltic Towns do not vie with those of Branden- 
burg. The lover of art will, however, find ample satisfaction in 
the fine brasses that cover the tombs (the best in the cathedral of 
Lilbeckj the Nicolai-Kirche of Stralsund, and the cathedral of 
Schiverin) and in the carved wooden altars, which are most frequent 
in Pomerania. 

The latest variety of North-GJ-erman brick buildings was devel- 
oped in the territories of the Teutoj^ic Order. Tradition and the 
nature of the material here caused the elaborate external decoration 
to sink into a subsidiary place, while a plain, massive, and severe 
exterior was encouraged by the fact that the churches generally 
formed part of the fortified posts of the knights. The only church 
of the Order that displays any great attempt at external embellish- 
ment is the picturesquely situated Cathedral of Frauenburg, which 
is also distinguished by the possession of a vestibule lavishly adorned 
with coloured tiles. The interiors of the churches, most of which 
have nave and aisles of equal height, are also simple and the pillars 


aucl piers are clinnsy. The ceilings, however, often consist of elaborate 
net-work or fau-vaulting. formed by an increase in the number of 
ribs and showino^ not onlv orreat technical confidence but also deliofht 
in a rich play of lines. The effect of this vaulting is enhanced by 
the contrast with the plainness of the rest of the edifice. It is not, 
however, the churches that first engage our attention in the lands 
of the Teutonic knights: it is in the castles or palaces that the 
aesthetic feeling of the Order finds its most characteristic expression. 
Just as the members of the Order combined the characters of knight 
and monk, so did their palaces partake of the double character of 
fortress and monastery. As in conventual establishments, the build- 
ings are grouped round a quadrangular court, surrounded by arcades, 
but the strong walls and towers, the moats, the turrets, and other 
apparatus of defence betoken military purposes, while the splendid 
architectonic decoration suggests the interior of a nobleman's res- 

The Order had strongholds of this kind at Heilsberg. Marien- 
icerder. Konigsherg '.rebuilt), Bossel, and many other places, 
but the most imposing of all was the Marienhurg. The inter- 
national relations of the Order suggest that we should find traces 
of foreign influence in their edifices. It is indeed not improbable 
that the liuofc mosaic relief of the Madonna on the outside of 
the church at the 3farienburg was executed by a Venetian 
master, and there is a similar work in the portal of the cathedral 
at Marienwerder. It is more difficult to guess at the original 
source of the fan-tracery vaulting in the -Remter' of the Marien- 
hurg. The 'Briefkapelle* of the Marien-Kirche at Liibeck has 
vaulting of similar construction and earlier date. It is possible 
that the elaborate net and star vaulting of England also had some 
influence upon the builders of Xorth Germany, where alone a sim- 
ilar system of vaulting has been developed, but this is a question 
that still awaits investigation. 

If the castles of E. and W. Prussia reflect the might and 
character of the Teutonic Order, no less do the Tavj/i Houses and 
Town Gates bear witness to the substantial prosperity of the 
North German towns. The brick buildings of the Hanseatic towns 
cannot, of course, vie with the hotels-de-ville of Belgium, and even 
the town halls of solid stone, such as those of Brunswick and 
Miinster. are inferior both in size and ornamentation to their 
Belgian prototypes, while the variety of outline afforded by the 
soaring clock-towers iheffrois) is entirely wanting. The two dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of the secular buildings of brick are the 
lofty gables, rising high above the roof and often erected merely 
as ornaments, and the polychrome decoration. As examples may 
be mentioned the town -houses of Liibeck. Bremen. Hanover, 
Brandenburg, Stargard. and Tangerniiinde. The Holsten-Tor 


at Luheck is esteemed the most important of the old town-gates, 
which were invariably flanked with towers, and there are similar 
gates at Wismar, Stendal, Tangermilnde, Brandenburg^ and a 
few other places. There is also no lack of tasteful private houses 
in brick (Greifswald, Stralsuiid^ Wismar) and in the timbered 
style (Bfnmswick, Halherstadt, Hanover)^ but the period of the 
Renaissance was the golden age of secular buildings, whether civic 
or palatial. 

The name and idea of a German Renaissance have only of 
late years become familiar in Germany itself and are scarcely 
known at all beyond its bounds. The term is used to comprehend 
all the creations of German art between about 1520 and 1640, 
especially those in the domains of architecture and the industrial 
arts. In regard to painting the name is somewhat less strictly 
limited, and even Diirer and the younger Holbein are ranked among 
the masters of the German Renaissance. Formerly critics were 
satisfied with the phrase 'Old German Style' and drew no sharp 
line of demarcation between these neglected later works and the 
products of the middle ages proper. Nuremberg, for example, 
long enjoyed the reputation of being the model of a mediaeval 
town, whereas, as a matter of fact, it owes its distinguishing 
character to the Renaissance. The old view, however, was not 
wholly in the wrong. For though the Italian Renaissance exercised 
great influence upon German art from the 16th century onwards, 
it is also true that the connection with the inherited native style 
was never wholly severed and that many elements of the Gothic 
manner of building were adhered to during the period of the 

The development of the German Renaissance took place some- 
what as follows. As early as the beginning of the 16th century 
German designers, painters, and engravers became alive to the 
beauty of the decorative works of Italy, especially of Northern 
Italy, and copied columns, pilasters, friezes, and mouldings used 
by Italian architects. Renaissance tendencies were also stimu- 
lated by the increasing interest in the material side of life in- 
spired in the races of the North by classical antiquity, and by the 
theoretic studies of size and proportion which German artists 
delighted to pursue. The sculptors and metal-workers gradually 
followed suit, and the forms of the Renaissance became familiar 
in bronze gratings, sepulchral monuments, and small plastic 
decorative works of all kinds. An ^arly example is the Memo 
rial Brass of Gothard Wigerinck in the Marien-Kirche at Llibeck, 
cast soon after 1518. Architecture itself at last also yielded 
to the new fashion. The kernel of the buildings, their articu- 
lation, and their ground -plans remained, however, unchanged. 
The tall and narrow gable still characterized the private house; 


the arrangement of the chateau, the grouping of the dwelling- 
rooms, recalls in many respects the mediceval castle. The influence 
of the new style was mainly confined to the ornamental details of 
the design, such as the cornices, friezes, pillars, and columns. 
Particular parts of the huildiug. such as the portals and bay- 
windows, were strongly emphasized in order to display the archi- 
tect's knowledge of the fashionable Italian art. The typical Italian 
palace, with its facade looking as if cast in a mould and with its 
strict harmony of proportion between the different stories and the 
individual details, was seldom reproduced on German soil, and 
when met with may be referred to direct Italian influence. It was 
not till about the beginning of the 17th century, when G-erman 
architects had begun to prosecute their studies in Italy, that the 
Italian palatial style became at all familiar in Germany. The pe- 
culiar character of the German Renaissance will, perhaps, be most 
justly appreciated, if we mark the following distinction between 
it and the Italian style of building. In Italy the chief weight is 
laid on the design; the harmonious disposition of spaces and sur- 
faces is striven after as the highest aim, and regularity may be 
called the predominant feature of Italian structures. In German 
buildings the connection of the individual members is often entirely 
extrinsic, and unity of design entirely wanting. On the other hand 
the execution of the details delights by its thoroughness and vari- 
ety of form and makes us forget the disjointed multiplicity of the 
design. It is quite in harmony with this distinction that the main 
charm of the buildings of the German Renaissance is found in the 
internal decorations of the rooms, and that it was the interest in 
old German furniture and domestic ornaments that formed the 
stepping-stone to the revival of a taste for German Renaissance 

In the period of the Renaissance Germany appears as a land 
open to influences of the most varied kinds. While the Italian style 
invaded it from the south and penetrated as far as Saxony and 
Silesia, the influence of French and Flemish works made itself 
equally evident in the west. This fact of itself proves that it is im- 
possible to speak of a uniform German Renaissance, since different 
parts of the country received their artistic impress from entirely 
different quarters. In addition to this, moreover, the Renaissance 
itself assumed different forms according to the style prevalent in 
the various territories it affected, while the mere material used, 
whether marble or stone or brick, was by no means without in- 
fluence in determining the limits imposed upon the new style. The 
use of columns, for example, is much more common in the districts 
where hewn stone is employed than in those where brick buildings 
are the rule. On the whole Xorth Germany, and particularly the 
domain of brick architecture, mav claim to have developed the 


Renaissance more consistently than other parts of the country, to 
have broken less abruptly with the past, to have adopted fewer 
utterly foreign elements, and to form the truest expression of a 
national taste in architecture. In the domain of ecclesiastical 
architecture the German Renaissance has naturally few proofs of 
its activity to show. Here much more exclusively than in princely 
or civic buildings its task was confined to rearrangements of in- 
teriors. Monuments, stalls, and altar utensils are the most impor- 
tant examples of Renaissance art in the churches. In Palaces and 
Chateaux the North of Germany is poorer than Silesia and Saxony. 
In Saxony mention must be made of the palace at Torgau, with its 
magnificent staircase, and the Royal Palace at Dresden, erected 
mainly by Kaspar Voigt under the superintendence of Hans von 
Dehn-Rotfelser. A short excursion from Dresden enables us to 
compare this structure of the Renaissance with the earlier Gothic 
castle of Meissen. In Silesia the handsome chateaux at Brieg 
(begun in 1544) and Liegnitz take the first place. We must, how- 
ever, remember that these edifices were mainly erected by foreign 
architects and must therefore be regarded rather as examples of 
the far-reaching Italian style than as creations of Teutonic art. 
The foremost place among the secular buildings of the period in 
the Baltic lands is due to the FilrstenJiof at Wismar. The newer 
wing dates from the second half of the 16th century, and the 
decorations on its exterior face are held to be in a diflferent style 
from those turned towards the inner court. A similar effective com- 
bination of stone and brick, borrowed from Dutch models, appears 
in other parts of North Germany, but the terracotta friezes and 
medallions of Wismar are unrivalled. 

The whole tenor of the history of North Germany makes us 
turn naturally to the Municipal Buildings as the choicest results 
of the Renaissance as well as of the Gothic period, in this part of 
the world. And our expectations are fully realized. The Renais- 
sance may be more picturesque and show greater variety in South 
and West Germany, but in the North it appears in such solid array 
that, until quite lately, whole rows of streets and whole quarters 
of the town showed an unbroken series of Renaissance fagades. 
Among civic buildings the palm must be given to the Rathaus of 
Liibeck. A colonnade, supported by polygonal pillars, has been 
placed in front of the building. The arches are slightly flattened, 
a not unusual feature in Renaissance buildings. The double windows 
are separated by pilasters, alternately ending in an Ionic capital 
and in a hernia, and three handsome gables, flanked with volutes 
and small obelisks, surmount the whole. The handsome flight of 
steps ascending from tlie street is supported by four pillars, and 
each of the square stones of which it consists is adorned with stellar 
ornamentation. The internal arrangements of some of the rooms 


are also most interesting, and tlie wooden panelling and marble 
chimney-piece of the -Kriegsstube' are excellent examples of the 
success with which the artistic handicrafts were then plied. A new 
colonnaded vestibule, with Gothic vaulting but Doric columns, was 
added in the late-Renaissance period to the JRathaus of Bremen. 
Above the vestibule is a balcony enclosed by an artistic balustrade 
and interrupted in the middle by a lofty gable. The plastic decor- 
ations skilfully conceal the lack of proportion in the outline. Other 
town -houses of architectural significance are those at Paderborn, 
Liinehurg, Emden, Danzig. Brieg. and Xeisse. With these may 
be coupled the arsenals of Danzig and Liibeck, the warehouses of 
BremenyRnd the guild-houses of Brunswick. 

It is, of course, useless to attempt a catalogue of the interesting 
Private Houses, and even a detailed description could convey no 
adequate conception of their singularly homelike charms. It is often 
only a single feature, such as a bow-window or an elaborate door- 
way, a tasteful frieze or an ornamented gable, that delights the eye 
of the connoisseur. The lighting and surroundings enhance the effect, 
a historical interest is added to the aesthetic, and the glamour of the 
past is shed on the realities of the present. A walk through the streets 
of a Xorth German town is indeed a feast of varied and permanent 
enjoyment for the traveller of refined taste in art. The Merchant 
Princes of Danzig, redeemed from provincialism and incited to 
luxury and display by their far-reaching commercial relations, ex- 
pended a special amount of attention on the internal comfort and 
external embellishment of their houses. They selected the most 
costly kinds of building stone, such as were seldom used for ecclesi- 
astical edifices, and took care that the pilasters between the windows, 
the spaces between the different stories, and the balustrades in front 
of the gable were all profusely adorned with reliefs cut in the stone 
and reproducing the antique models of capital and friezes. It almost 
seems as if these luxury-loving merchants had been affected by the 
light and splendour-loving character of their Slavonic neighbours, 
whose partiality for the Renaissance style is marked. One peculiar 
feature in these houses, significant of the easy comfortable life en- 
joyed by their inmates, is the so-called 'Beischlage', or raised land- 
ings surrounded with balustrades, in which the family could sit 
aloof from the tumult of the street but yet in sight of all that was 
ofoinof on and within easv reach of neio^hbourlv intercourse. The 
private dwellings of Llibeck and the other western Hauseatic towns 
are much soberer and less pretentious. Their solid magnificence 
is reserved for the interior {e.g. the house of the Kaufhute Corn- 
pagnie at Llibeck), while the brick facades, apart from the door- 
ways, are perfectly simple and invariably surmounted with the tradi- 
tional corbie-stepped gable. The inland towns of Lower Saxony, at 
a distance from the main arteries of modern traffic, have been 


more conservative in domestic architecture as in manners and 

Timber Architecture is found at its best in the towns last re- 
ferred to. The construction is intimately connected with that of the 
Gothic period, almost the only marked differences being a dimin- 
ution of the upper stories and a free use of Renaissance ornaments 
(masks, consoles, volutes, shells, fans, stars, etc.). In these build- 
ings the frame or skeleton consists of wooden beams and posts 
while the intervening spaces are filled up with clay or brick-work. 
The main uprights stand upon wooden sills or horizontal beams 
and are connected by tie-beams and stiffened by shorter cross or 
diagonal ties. The blank wall-spaces afforded ample opportunity for 
ornamentation, and the ends of the tie-beams, the braces, the sills, 
and other parts of the wooden frame -work w^ere freely enriched 
with carvings. The good examples of timber architecture in North 
Germany are too many to enumerate. Among the most important 
of the earlier period are the Rathaus of Wernigerode, the Bats- 
keller of Halberstadf, and the Alte Wage of Brunsivick. To the 
Renaissance period proper belong a great number of interesting 
structures at Halherstadt^ GoslaVj Bimnswick, Hanover^ Hameln^ 
Celle., Hoxter , St other g , and Hildesheim. The Knochenhauer 
Amtshaus at Hildesheim, dating from 1529, is a veritable gem of 
timber architecture. Above the five stories of the building proper 
rises a lofty roof, itself containing several other stories. The fagade 
is covered with figures and other ornamentation, in which painting 
and wood-carving vie with each other. Here and there a few motives 
are visible that would be more allowable in a Gothic building (such 
as the frieze of oak -leaves), but on the whole the designs of the 
'putti', the garlands, the small columns for candelabra, and the 
doorway evince a clear conception of the Renaissance ideal and an 
astonishing liveliness of fancy. The figures are treated with a good 
deal of humour, a characteristic which we find frequently recurring 
in the paintings and mottoes so freely used in the timber buildings 
of Lower Saxony. 

The prominent place assigned to Wood Carving in the timber 
style of architecture gave a great momentum to the development of 
this art, w^hich is alw^ays a natural growth in Alpine and coast dis- 
stricts. Shepherds and sailors alike find occupation and amusement 
for the idle months of winter in carving objects in w^ood. Among 
the numerous wood-carvers thus created by opportunity there must 
of course be some whose talents enable them to advance to higher 
work than the making of toys and pipes. A stroll through the 
Thaulow Museum in Kiel or the Museum of Industrial Art in 
Flensburg is enough to show what astonishing results in artistic 
cabinet -making can be produced even in a limited district like 
Holstein, The finest specimen of what may be called monumental 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. C 


wood-carviiig is the Altar of the Passion in the cathedral of Schles- 
wig. executed by Ha/is Bruggemann in 1521 after compositions by 
Albrecht Diirer. 

The art of Working ix Metal, particularh^ in brass, was also 
zealously cultivated, and the candelabra, cups, flagons, plates, and 
ofrilles of cast or hammered and embossed metal found in the old 
Hanseatic towns prove how conspicuous a place was taken by ob- 
jects of this kind in the domestic and ecclesiastical interiors of the 
period. For the productions of the Gtoldsmith's Art Xorth Grer- 
many seems to have looked to Augsburg and Nuremberg, which 
were at this time among the most important centres of this art 
in Europe. 

The most important Paixtixgs were also as a rule imported 
from other districts, particularly from the Netherlands, a land con- 
nected with North Germany by numerous ties of kinship and inter- 
course. It was. it is true, merely a happy accident that brought 
Memling's Last Judgement to Danzig^ but the Altar-piece of the 
Crucifixion in the Cathedral of Luheckj also from Memling's 
studio and dated 1491, seems to have been executed at the express 
commission of a Liibeck citizen. This picture, which, however, 
is unequal in execution, is one of the most elaborate works of 
the early Netherlandish school. North German painting in the 
15th and 16th cent, attained an independent development in West- 
phalia only, which boasts three important artists in Conrad of 
Soest 'ca. 1400, the Meister von Lieshorn ("ca. 1465; the 'German 
Era Angelico' 1. and Ludger torn Ring the Elder (1496-1547 1. Lower 
Saxony lagged almost wholly behind: JohannRap-Hon of Eimbeck 
(d. 1528; chief work at Halberstadt), its one artist of eminence, 
was prevented by his isolation from reaching a full maturity. The 
Wittenberg School, founded in S. Germany by Lucas Cranach the 
Elder «1472-1553> owes its still undiminished popularity more to 
its close connection with the champions of the Reformation than to 
its intrinsic merits. 

In the 17th cent., painting in N. Germany was entirely depen- 
dent on the Dutch Schools. Many Dutch painters here found a 
cordial reception and ample occupation, while the leading North 
German artists studied in Amsterdam. Among the latter may be 
mentioned Jiirgen Ovens (1623-78), a native of Tonning in Schles- 
wig and pupil of Rembrandt, some of whose altar-pieces are still 
preserved in the cathedral of Schleswig, and Chr. Paudiss ('ca. 
1618-67 .. another pupil of Rembrandt. We know also that some of 
the painters of Hamburg, which began to attain great wealth and 
commercial importance in the 17th century, formed themselves 
more or less upon the model of the Dutch school; among others 
J. Matth. Weyer d. 1690;. battle-painter, and Matthias Scheits 
(ca. 1640-1700;, the latter a pupil of Wouverman. Works by 


Michael Wilhnann (1629-1706) of Konigsberg, a pupil of J. Backer, 
are abundant in Silesia. And7\ Stech (d. 1697) is copiously re- 
presented in Danzig. The miserable political condition of Germany 
in the 16th century will go far to account for the fact that this ad- 
miration of the Flemish and Dutch masters excited few attempts to 
follow their example by independent production. The industrial 
arts, however, were still actively practised, and in their own sphere 
afford a complete view of the transition from the Renaissance to 
the Baroque style. 

The stylistic peculiarities of Baroque Art are not always easily 
distinguishable from those of the German Renaissance. The column 
in the latter, for example, still preserves its antique capital and as 
a rule it is also fluted. It generally stands, however, on a high base, 
the middle of which is adorned with a mask. The lowest part of 
the shaft is often encircled by a band of reliefs, resembling a metal 
ring, and it often assumes a curved or swelling form, especially when 
used as the support of a balcony. The piers often consist of 'rustica' 
masonry and diminish in width towards the top. Their edges aie 
sometimes raised so as to form a kind of frame, the flat surface 
within being decorated with branching vines. The keystones of 
the arches are often emphasized by a carved head or console. The 
sides of the gables do not always meet at the top, but break off short 
and leave the intervening space to be filled with a pyramid or some 
similar figure. The favourite ornaments are foliage and band- 
mouldings, the latter often represented as rolled up or intertwined. 
The ornaments constantly recall the work of the metal-founder, the 
carpenter, or similar artificers. When we try, however, to deter- 
mine the exact difference between the forms of the German Renais- 
sance and those of the Baroque style of the 17th century, we 
soon find that the two often insensibly merge into each other and 
that it is consequently impossible to draw a clear line of demar- 
cation. Among the main characteristics of the Baroque style may 
be instanced its exaggeration and overloading, its partiality for 
flowing and crooked lines, its sharp contrasts, its striving after 
effects of light and shade. Similar tendencies, however, are ob- 
servable in the 16th century. Columns, for example, supporting gar- 
lands of fruit, and curving gables are forms common to both styles. 
Perhaps the difference may be placed in a clearer light if we con- 
sider that while the germ of the powerful forms of the Baroque 
style already existed in the Renaissance period, we still find many 
echoes of the Gothic style in the latter, whereas the Baroque style 
is entirely based on ancient art. 

A new artistic era for North Germany opens towards the end of 
the 17th century in the building activity displayed in the capital 
of the vigorous and pushing state of Prussia. Berlin now first 
wins a place in the history of art. This remarkable and rapid ad- 


vance may be linked with the names of two architects, Johann 
Arnold Xehring (d. 1695) and Andreas Schiiter (1664-1714), and 
of two buildings, Xh^ Arsenal and the Old Palace. A characteristic 
feature of the movement was the fact that sculpture advanced ^a?'i 
jmssu with architecture, drawing its subjects mainly from the 
heroic myths or from idealizations of warfare. The trophies and 
the masks of dying warriors at the Arsenal, and the bronze statue 
of the Great Elector stand like symbols at the door of Berlin's 
artistic development and indicate the direction in which its future 
plastic triumphs were to be won. There was an interval of but 
a few years between the erection of the palace at Berlin and 
that of the Zicinger at Dresden, its only possible rival for the 
first place among the architectural creations of the century. No 
other building of the period in Germany can be compared with 
the works of Schlilter and Poppelmann (1667-1736i. The two 
great edifices also resemble each other in the fragmentary exe- 
cution of their original designs. In the plans themselves, however, 
lay an essential difi'erence. Schliiter's ideal was a magnificent 
Roman forum, Poppelmann aimed at the creation of a 'show 
palace", in which the pomps and pleasures of a luxurious court 
might find an adequate reflection. The impressions produced by 
the two buildings are thus markedly unlike. In Schliiter's work 
we recognize solid, somewhat heavy 'magnificence; in Poppel- 
mann's Zwinger. despite its splendour, the prevailing idea is that 
of careless pleasure, a revelation of the delights of the private 
life of kings. 

The contrast between the artistic tendencies of the two towns 
at the beginning of the ISth century goes still farther. In Berlin 
monumental sculpture attains a most promising stage; Dresden at 
once calls up the idea of Rococo Art and porcelain. Bottger's 
discovery not only infused new life into the art of ornamenting 
vases and pottery, but for a time, so long as the sculptor Kdndler 
modelled at Meissen, seemed to be on the point of entering the 
domain of pure art and of being applied to monumental sculpture. 
No advance, however, was made on the first attempts. The small 
world of the Rococo style found its fitting incorporation in the 
charming little figures of Dresden china; with the close of the 
Rococo period the art of modelling in porcelain lost its artistic 
importance and the real roots of its life. 

A single glance at the architectural activity of Berlin and 
Dresden is enough to dissipate the current view of the artistic 
poverty of the 18th century. In addition to this, however, most of 
the German Collections and Galleries were either founded or 
greatly extended in the same jDeriod. Even in the 16th century 
German princes possessed -Cabinets of Art', in which curiosities 
and objects of natural history lay in peaceful union with small ob- 


jects of art, paintings (chiefly portraits), and a few plastic works. 
In several collections the contents of the cabinets of arts which 
formed their nucleus are still distinguishable. At Brunswick a 
^Cabinet of Art and Natural History', in the old sense of the term, 
was established by Duke Charles I. as late as 1755; and from this, 
towards the close of the century, was evolved the Ducal Museum. 
Travel and residence in foreign countries, and above all the tempt- 
ing example of the kings and 'grands seigneurs' of France awoke 
a taste for art in the breasts of G-erman princes also, and led to the 
better arrangement of the old collections and to the foundation of 
new. Thus Landgrave William VIII. of Hesse laid the foundation 
of the Cassel Gallery^ while the collection of Schwerin owe their 
extent mainly to Duke Christian Lewis (1747-56). The collections 
at Gotha, begun by Duke Ernest the Pious (1640-75), were in- 
creased at the beginning of the 18th century by the art-treasures 
of Count Anton G-linther of Schwarzburg. The Dessau Collec- 
tions originated in a bequest of the Orange family in 1675. 
All these collections, and indeed almost all the galleries of 
Northern Germany, are rich in Flemish and Dutch paintings of the 
17th century, a feature which must be referred to the ancient 
kinship of the Netherlandish and North German races and not to 
mere external and accidental intercourse. The Di^esden Gallery 
alone, mainly the creation of King Augustus III., can boast the 
possession both of numerous gems of Netherlandish art and also 
of an equally excellent collection of Italian pictures. Berlin, how- 
ever, lagged behind in the work of forming large picture-gal- 
leries. Frederick the Great's interest was confined mainly to 
ancient sculptures and to the creations of the French school. The 
fine Museums of Berlin originated in the 19th century, a fact 
which accounts for the scientific arrangement by which they are 

The storms of the Napoleonic period sadly interfered with the 
peaceful development of art in Germany. Long after the conclusion 
of peace the poverty of the people prevented them from showing any 
great practical interest in art. This was the more to be lamented 
because the War of Liberation had powerfully excited the national 
imagination and because Prussia possessed two men who were 
eminently fitted to respond to the patriotic enthusiasm. The works 
of /S'c/iz/zW(1781-1841), and still more those of i?m(cA (1777-1857), 
of course, show unmistakable traces of the influence, direct or in- 
direct, of the ideas that led the nation to victory; but their effect- 
iveness would have been immeasurably superior if the economical 
condition of the state had enabled them to embody all their plans 
in worthy form. It was not till the fifth decade of the century that 
prosperity returned in sufficient measure to allow of some thought 
being bestowed upon the artistic embellishments of life. The rapid 


growth of the cities lias called into being an architectural activity, 
compared with which that of past centuries sinks into insignifi- 
cance. The most characteristic features of the latest development 
of art have been the resuscitation of the artistic handicrafts, the 
use of appropriate interior decoration, and the production of taste- 
ful furniture and household jrear. 

Uaedkkkk's X. (je 


1? Kied,a 

1 u n I 


Route Page 

. 1. Berlin 1 

2. Potsdam and Environs 25 

1. Berlin. + 

Arrival. A policeman, posted at the egress of each railway-station, 
hands the traveller a metal ticket with tlie number of a cab, on his 
stating whether he wishes a taximeter cab (vTaxameter-Droschke'), a first- 
class cab ('crste Klasse'), or luggage cab ('Gepackdroschke'). Travellers 
with luggage should entrust the summoning of the vehicle to a porter, 
as it is sometimes difficult, especially in the dark, to find the right cab. 
The ticket, however, should not be given up till seats are taken. Porter 
25 pf . for ordinary luggage ; 50 pf . or more for luggage above the usual 
weight. Cah Fares, see p. 5 (in addition to the fare an extra charge 
of 25 pf. is made in each case for the ticket securing the cab). ^Gexmck- 
(irosckken^ (see above), with two seats only, are necessary if the luggage 
weighs over 240 lbs. ; fares as for taximeter cabs (see p. 5), luggage 50 pf. 
per 110 lbs. 

Railway Stations. There are five terminus railway-stations at 
Berlin, exclusive of the 'Stadtbahn' (see below). 1. Anhalt Statiox 
(PI. Gr, 7), for Dresden, Prague, Vienna, Leipzig, Munich, Halle, Thuringia, 
and Frankfort on the Main. — 2. Potsdam Station (PI. G-, 6, 7), for 
Potsdam, Magdeburg, the Harz, the Lower Rhine, Cassel, Frankfort, Cob- 
lenz, Treves, and Metz. — 3. Stettin Station (PI. H, 3, 4), for Ros- 
tock (and Copenhagen). Stralsund, Stettin, and Danzig (via Stargard). — 

4. GoRLiTz Station (PI. L, 8), for the Spreewald, Cottbus, and Gorlitz. -— - 

5. Lehrte Station (PL G, 5), for all trains to Hamburg and slow trains 
to Lehrte (Hanover, Bremen, etc.). — The following five stations of the 
Stadtbahn (see below) are also used for general traffic: — 1. Silesian 
Station (PL L, 6) ; 2. Alexander-Platz Station (PL J, K, 5) ; 3. Friedrich- 
Strasse Station (PL H, 5) ; 4. Zoological Garden Station (PL D, 7) ; 
5. Ciiarlottenburg Station (PL B, 7). All trains for Breslau, Posen, 
Konigsberg, Russia, Cassel, and Frankfort on the Main run from these 
stations ; also the express trains of the Lehrte Railway (Hanover, Bremen, 
Cologne, London, and Paris). 

The Stadtbahn, or city railwav, which is 10 M. long from Westend 
(PL A. 5), on the W., to Stralau-Rummelsburg (PL X, 7), on the E., is 
primarily intended to relieve the street traffic within Berlin. The sta- 
tions have special platforms ('Lokal-Perrons') for intramural and suburban 
traffic. Trains run in both directions, at intervals of 2-5 minutes, from 
5 a.m. till after midnight. — The management of the traffic resembles 
that of the Underground Railway in London. There is no first class. 
Fares for any 5 stations 15 and 10 pf., beyond that distance 30 and 20 pf. 
Smoking is prohibited in the second-class compartments. 

The Elevated & Underground Electric Railway runs through 
the S. part of the city, from the WUliehn-Platz (PL B, 5) to the Nollen- 
dorf-Platz (PL E, 7) as an underground railway, then as an elevated to 

t For a detailed description of Berlin and Potsdam, the traveller is 
referred to Baedeker's Handbook for Berlin and its Environs (3rd edit., 

Baedeker's X. Germany. 15th Edit. 1 2 

•2 Boutc 1. BERLIN. Practical 

the Warschanci'-Briicke Station (PL M, 7;. Fiuiii tlic triangular ceutral 
.iuuction (coiup. PL G. 7, 8) a branch-line runs X. to the underground 
Ijlatform at the Leipziger-Platz (PL G, 6). From here the underground 
railway has recently been extended to the Spittelmarkt (PL J, 5). Tickets 
on the main line. 2nd class 15-35, 3rd class .10-25 pf.: trains every 
3-7 minutes. 

The Ringbahn is a railway forming a complete 'outer circle' round 
Berlin, and is divided into two parts, the 'Xord-Ring' and the 'Siid-Ring', 
on which trains run at intervals of 10-20 minutes. Owing to the distance 
of the Ringbahn stations from the places they serve, the tourist will 
generally find the tramways more convenient. Fares as on the Stadt- 
bahn (see p. 1^. 

Hotels (comp. Plan. p. 0;. We first mention the largest first-class 
hotels, all comfortably arranged, with central heating, electric light, lifts, 
baths, and first-class restaurants, and with corresponding charges (R. 
from 4. B. li,4-lV2- ^^^h '^^2-^^ I>- 0-6 c^). — *H6tel Adlox (PL a; G, 6), 
Unter den Linden 1. in the Pariser-Platz : *Kaiserhof (PL k : H, 6), 
Wilhelm-Platz & Zicten-Platz : Hotel Esplanade (PL e: G, 6;, Bellevue- 
8tr. 17 : *H6tel Bristol PL b : G, 6). Unter den Linden 5: *Contixextal 
Hotel (PL e; H. 5;, Xeustadtisfhe-Kirch-Str. 6. near the Friedrich-Strasse 
Station ; *Savoy B[otel (PL s ; H, 5). Friedrich-Str. 103 : *Monopol-H6tel 
(PL m; H. 5). Friedrich-Str. 100. opposite the Friedrich-Strasse Station; 
*Palast-H6tel PL p : G. 6}, Lcipziger-Platz 18, near the Potsdam Station: 
*Gra>-d-H6tel de Rome et du Xoed PL r: Ft. 5). Unter den Linden 39; 
*Furste:vhof (PL f : G. 6), Potsdamer-Platz; *Elite Hotel (PL t; H, 5), 
Xeustadtische-Kirch-Str. 9, near the Friedrich-Strasse Station : *Ce>-tral 
Hotel (PL h ; H. 5;. Friedrich-Str. 143, near the Friedrich-Strasse Station: 
*H6tel Excelsior. Koniggratzer-Str. 112. opposite the Anhalt Station 
(PL G, 7^. 

The following hotels are here arranged according to situation ; the 
prices quoted afford some guidance as to their relative standing and im- 
portance. Those in or near the Linden are best situated for ordinary 

Unter den Limlen (PL G, H. 5}. — S. Side: Xo. 17. Hotel AVest- 
MiysTER Tl. w: H, 5, 6), R. from 31/2. B. IV4, D. ^i/., J( : Xo. 3, *H6tel 
Royal. R. from 4. B. iv^. D. 41/., ^S : Xo. 20. Metropole, R! from 3. 
B. l\i Jt : Xo, 32, *CARLTO^- Hotel (PL 0; H. 5), R. from 31/.,, B, v;^, 
Ti.oJC. — N. Side : Xo. 46. Hotel Victoria (PL v: H, 5). corner of the 
Friedrich-Str.. R. 2-%. B. 1 .M : Xo. 68a. *H6tel Miijerva. R. 31/4-6, B. IV4, 
D. 31 . 2 .M. 

To the S. of the Linden. — AVilhelm-Str. 44, near the Leipziger-Str.. 
*Wilhelmshof, R. 21 .,-4. B. 1. D. 2V., .z^. — Behren-Str. : Xo. (U. Hotel 
Wi.vdsor; Xo. 45. Hotel Phoenix. R". 21/2-10. B. 1, D. 2i _, ^^. — Jager- 
Str. 17, corner of the Friedrich-Str., Schlosser's Hotel. R. from 3, 
B. I'^'^JC. — Friedrich-Str.: Xo. 178, corner of Jager-Str., *Kaiser-H6tel 
(PL d: H, 6j. R. from 31 .2. B. li 4, D. 21,2-4 JC : Xo. 180, corner of the 
Tauben-Str., Xurnberger Hof, R. from 3, B. IV4, D. 2-3 ^^C : Xo. 50, near 
the Schiitzen-Str.. Hotel Britannia. R. from 3, B. 1 <.#. — Prinz-Albrecht- 
Str. 9, near the Wilhelm- Str.. Prinz Albrecht, R. from 2^1^, B. I1/4. 
D. 4 ..)(. — Markgrafen-Str. 55. corner of the Gendarmen-Markt, Hotel 
DE France. R. 2-5. B. 1 ^^. — Charlotten-Str. 71, Hotel Brandenburg, 
R. 2-51 o, B. 1 .iC. 

To the X. of the Linden. Georgen-Str. 21, near the Friedrich-Str. 
Station. *Grand-H6tel de Rcssie. R. from 3, B. I1/4, D. 31/0 JC. — Friedrich- 
Str. : Xo. 96. Hotel Silesia, R. 2i ^-H/,. B. 1 .^: Xo.''93. Friedrichs- 
noF, R. 21/2-6, B. 11 4..^.- Xo. 101, TERinNus Hotel, R. 21/2-6, B. 11/4^^; 
Xo. 150. corner of the :Mittel-Str.. Rheiniscker Hof. R. 21/2-5, B. 1 .€ 
(these four near the Friedrich-Strasse Station). — Dorotheen-Str. : Xo. 22, 
BoROTHEENHOF, R. i-io. B. 1 c4^ ; Xo. 81. Prinz Friedrich Karl, R. from 
21 2. B. Ic*'. — Mittel-Str. : Xo. 5. Frankfurter Hof 6c Helvetia, R. 2-1 .#- 
B. 80 pf. : Xo. 16. Alexandra Hotel. R. from 2'.,. B. V'^.U: Xo. 57, 

Koir.'^. BERLIK. i- Route. 3 

lu'ar the Fiicdiich-Str., Stadt LokdOxV, R. 2V2-S, 13. 1 t/^; No. 61, Hotki. 
Du Pavillon, R. IV2-6 «/*!. — Neuc Wilhelm-Str. 10, Hotel Konigshof, 
R. 3-6, B. 1 c^. — Luisen-Str. 30, Hotel Kronprinz. — Am Zirkus 11, 
corner of the Schiffbauerdamm, Hotel Moskau. 

In the Old Toion, frequented by business-men. Alexander-Str. 46, 
Grand-Hotel Alexander-Platz (PI. 1 ; K, 5), R. 2V2-O5 H. 1 e.^. — Heiligo- 
j^cist-Str. 17, Hotel de Hambourg, R. 2-1, B. 1 j{>. 

Near the Potsdam and Anhalt Stations (PI. G, 7). Fursteniiof and 
Palast-Hotel, see p. 2. Potsdamcr-Platz 1, *Grand- Hotel Bellevuk 
& TiergartexV Hotel (PI. i ; G, 6), R. 31/4-71/2^ B- IV4, !>• 31/2 ^- — As- 
kanischer-Platz 1, Habsburger Hof, R. 3-8, B. Vj^cS. — Links-Str. 37, 
Sanssouci, R. from 2, B. 1 c^. — Konig-gratzer-Str. : Hotel Excelsior, 
see above: Xo. 21, Askaxischer Hor, R. & B. oVo-S, B. VJ^-ocS; No. 2.S, 
Westexd Hotel, R. 21/4-71/0, B. 1, I). 2 JC: No. 25, Deutscher Kaiser, 
R. 2-5, B. 1 .^. 

Xear the Lehrte Station (PI. F, G, 4, 5), Invaliden-Str. 84, Schwarz's 
Hotel. R. 2-5, B. 1 ^€. — Near the Stettin Station (PI. H, 3, 1), Invalidon- 
Str. 126, Nordischer Hof, R. 2-5, B. 1 JC. 

Hospices, so called, of a religious character, generally well spoken 
of. An addition of about 10 per cent of the total amount is made to th(^ 
bill in lieu of tips. — Hospiz des Westens, Marburger-Str. 4, R. 2V4-6V21 
B. 1, D. IV4-2, pens, from o ^. — Hospiz der Berliner Stadtmission. 
Mohreu-Str. 27, at the corner of the Gendarmen-Markt, R. 2-5, B. 1, 
D. 2-21/2 ^^- — Hospiz am Brandenburger Tor, Koniggratzer-Str. 5. - - 
Hospiz im Centrum Berlins, Holzgarten-Str. 10, R. 1^/4-4, B. 3/^, D. 11/2, 
pens. 5-8 tS. — Hospiz St. Michael, Wilhelm-Str. 34, near the Anhalt- 
Str., R. 21/2-61/2, B. 3/4, D. 2, pens. 6-10 Jl. 

H6tels Garnis (breakfast supplied in all ; some also with hot and 
cold cuisine). Mohrenhof (PI. G; H, 6), Fricdrich-Str. 66, R. 3-6, B. I1/4 .4. 
fair; Pariser Hof, Friedrich-Str. 209, R. 3-7, B. I1/4 JC; Stuttxjarter 
Hof, Anhalt-Str. 12, R. from S J{> ; Linden Hotel, Kleine Kirchgasse 2, 
R. from 2^i'.2JC, B. 80 pf.; Hotel Bauer, Unter den Linden 26, R. 23/^-6, 
B. 1 c^; Beyer's Hotel, Schadow-Str. la, R. 21/2-5, 'B.l JC; Zum Grunen 
Baum, Krausen-Str. 56, R. 2-3, B. 3/4 ^^; Kleiner Kaiserhof, Krausen- 
Str. 67, R. 21/0-7, B. 3/^ jc. 

"Wine Restaurants. — Unter den Linden, S. side: No. 1, '^Hotel 
Adlon (p. 2) ; No. 5, "^Hotel Bristol (p. 2) ; No. 32, corner of Chaiiotten-Str., 
^Astoria (Carlton Hotel, p. 2); No. 33, ^Restaurant Royal. N. side: 
No. 39, * Hotel de Rome (p. 2); No. 50, ^Bressel; No. 62, *Hiller. — Neu- 
stadtische-Kirch-Str. 6, ^Continental Hotel (p. 2). — Behren-Str. 26a, 
^Ewest. — Franzosische-Str. 48 , '■^Borcha.rdt. — • Wine Saloon in the 
^Kaiserhof (p. 2), entrance from the AVilhelm-Platz. — Potsdamer-Platz, 
"^'Hotel Fiirstenhof (p. 2). — Leipziger-Platz 18, "^ Palast-Hotel (p. 2). -- 
Friedrich-Str.: No. 100, *Monoiwl- Hotel (p. 2); No. 103, ^-Sacoi/ Hotel 
(p. 2); No. 143, ^Central Hotel (p. 2). — "^Restmirant at the Zoological 
Garden, see p. 23. — All these establisliments are of the first class and 
may be visited bv ladies. At most of them one may dine either a la 
carte or a prix fixe; dej. (11 to 2) 21/2-3 ^/i^, D. (3 to 8) 5-6 c^. Prices of 
wines generally high. The waiters expect a fee of 25-50 pf. from each 
person. — The following are somewhat less expensive. Behren-Str. 47, 
^Haus Trarbach, D. (1 to 5) 21/0 JC. — Unter den Linden: No. 29, *Hahel, 
much frequented for dejeuner ; "No. 56, *Zum TrepjKhen, J). 21/2-3 c^. — 
Friedrich-Str.: No. 96, Rheinische Winzersttihen, D. I1/2 ^/C; No. 95, Egge- 
hrecht; No. 80, Zum Rildesheirner, D. BJ^; No. 178, * Kaiser-Keller, in the 
Kaiser-Hotel (p. 2), D. 21/2 ci^. —Franzosische-Str. 18, *!>. 3Iitscher, Moselle 
wines, oysters, I). I1/2-2 t^/6. — Charlotten-Str. 49, near the Geudarmeii- 
Markt, *Lutter. — Markgrafen-Str. 48, near the Gendarmen-Markt, 
"^Trarbach Nachfolger, Rhenish and Moselle wines, D. 11/2^^. — Jager- 
Str.: No. 5, ^Haussmaun, D. IV2 <^? Rhenish cuisine. — Kronen-Str. 21, 
JTohn^s Oifster Saloon. — Leipzigor-Str. : No. 25, ^Kempinski (f; Co., 


4 noute 1. BERLIN. Practical 

oysters and lobsters, popular: Xo. 33. Steinert & Hansen, D. IV2 t.4(; 
Xo. 117. tirst floor. ^Traube, popular. — Bellevue-Str. 19, Rheingold, 
elaborately fitted up. popular. — Krausen-Str. 41. comer of the Donhoff- 
Platz. "^j' E. D. Becker's Sohnc ;?ood claret), D. 11/2^- — Potsdamer- 
Str. : Xo. 139. Euth d- Sohn ; Xo. 12, *Fredench (good claret); Xo. 127. 
Roland von Berlin. — Werderseher Markt 4. Kilhn, D. IV2 <.^- — Konig- 
Str. 4O5 ^3fitscJier ct- Casjyary, Eheuish and Moselle wines. 

Beer Restaurants. The following are restaurants where genuine 
('echt*' Bavarian litre generally 50. ^ o litre 30 pf .) and Pilsen (Bohemianj 
beer: or a good quality of lager [i.e. locally brewed) beer, with meals 
a la carte or a prix fixe (1-2 ,#. may be obtained. Most of them may 
be visited bv ladies, though smoking is eenerallv permitted. 

UxTEB DEX LixDEy: Xo. 13, Stadt Filsen (Pilsen beer), D. IV2 -*? 
with garden. — To the S. of the Lixdex : Behren-Str. 24, *Siechcn 
(Xuremberg beer). — Friedrich-Str. : Xo. 84. Augustiner-Bran ; Xo. 165, 
corner of the Behren-Str.. '^Pschorrhraii; Xo. 172, ^Sedlmayr 'Zum 
Spaten': Xo. 176. corner of the Jager-Str.. ^ Weihenstephan , D. I1/4 «^; 
Xo. 180. ^Tucher-Brdu (Xuremberg beer). — Franzosische-Str. : Xo. 25. 
corner of the Charlotten-Str.. Loiccnbrdu. — Kronen-Str. 55, MoncJishof 
(Kulmbach beer> D. 1 -A 10 pf. — Xiederwall-Str. 25, Mfinchner Bilrger- 
hrdu. — Leipziger-Str. : Xo. 85. near the Donhoff-Platz, Jlilnchener Eof- 
brdu: Xo. 109. Dortraundcr Unionbrdu. D. 1 ■.€. — Krausen-Str. 64, Zum 
Klausner (Pilsen beer). — Wilhelm-Str. 92, Architektenhaus. — Belle- 
Alliance-Str. 89. Wohlstatt (Xuremberg beer), D. 1 .€. 

Outside the Potsdam Gate (PL G. 6). Potsdamer-Platz : *Zum Schidt- 
heiss. with terrace. — Koniggratzer-Str. 123 a, Potsdamer Garten. — 
Potsdamer-Str. : Xo. 10. "^Alt- Bayern ; Xo. 124. Grosser Kurfurst. — 
Schoneberger Ufer 23, by the Potsdamer-Briicke. "^ Weihenstephany with 

To THE X, OF the Lixdex. Mittcl-Str. : Xo. 16, Saalburg ; Xo. 57, 
corner of Friedrich-Str. (1st floor). Erzlicanecl:. D. li'4-2i;'>../l(. — Dorotheen- 
Str.: >o. 81, "^Topfer: Xo. S^.' Sto.dt Berlin. — *Zit'm Franziskaner, 
Georgen-Str. 13, near the Friedrich-Strasse Station of the Stadtbahn, D. 
11/0 1^: Terminus, Friedrich-Str. 101 ; *Zum Eeid.elberger, in the Central 
Ho'tel.' Friedrich-Str. 143: Schunenw.nn , Luisen-Str. 46; *Printz, Alt- 
Moabit 138. near the Ausstellungs-Park. 

Ix THE Old Towx: *BatskeUer. in the Rathaus, with wine-room, 
D. 11 2-3 ■~^; Zum Prdlaten. in one of the arches of the Stadtbahn, Alex- 

Is THE TiERGARTEx: Zelt€ (comp. p. 23); *Cha7'lottenhof. near the 
Charlotten>iurger Chaussee; Tiergai-tenTiof, near the Tiergarten Station, 
all three with gardens. 

Automatic RESTAURAyrs in the Friedrich-Str, and other main streets. 
— Light luncheons also at Aschinger's Bierquellen. Friedrich-Str. 97, 88, 
151. r91. etc. 

TectEtariax Eatixg Houses : Friedrich-Str. 151, Kronen-Str, 47, etc. 

Caf^s in the Vienna st^'le : Bauer (PI. H. 5), Linden 26, corner of 
the Friedrich-Str. : ^Jci^ty. Bellevue-Str. 21, corner of the Potsdamer-Platz : 
Kaiserhof. see p. 2 : in tlie '^Jdonopol-Eotel (p. 2) ; Victoria Cafe, Linden 46 ; 
Klose, Beichsho.lhn. Leipziger-Str. 19 and 77: Kaiser- Cafe (also con- 
fectioner), FriedricTisJiof. Friedrich-Str. 176 and 11 ; Schiller, Markgrafen- 
Str. 55 ; in the Fdrstenhof (p. 2; : Bonw.nisches Cafi, Kurfiirstendamm 238 ; 
Mandel, Kant-Str. 165, these two near the Emperor William Memorial 
Church (p. 24). Luncheons and Vienna or Pilsen beer may be procured at 
all these cafes. Cup of coffee 25-30, "melange" (glass of milk, coffee, and 
whipped > cream) 40 pf . Baskets with cakes, etc., stand on the tables. 
The waiter expects 5-10 pf . per person. 

Confectioners (cup of coffee 30, chocolate 40-50. ices 50-60pf.): 
^Kranzhr. Linden 25. S. side, corner of the Friedrich-Str.; Schilling. 
Fnedri<h-Str. l'09. ronier of ihi Kor-h-Str. : Hillhrich. Leipziger-Str. 24: 



1. Route. 5 

TeUchow, Potsdamer-Platz 3 ; Gumpert, KOnig-Str. 22 ; Aschinger, Fried- 
rich-Str. 79a. — Frequented by ladies only: iialis, Friedrich-Str. 162. 

Cabs (Droscliken). Extra charge for drives from a railway-station, 
see p. 1. — The 'ordinary' cabs (2nd cl.) are not numerous and are not 
recommended to strangers. The following is the tariff of the Taximeter 
Cabs, within the limits of the police-district, which comprises also those 
parts of Charlottenburg, Schoneberg, and Rixdorff lying within the Ring- 

in winter.) 

by day 

1 or 2 pers. 

800 metres 


3-5 pers. 

at night 
1-5 pers. 

600 m. 
300 .. 

400 .. 
200 .. 

400 m. 
200 ., 

400 ., 
200 ., 

bahn. (Night-fares, 12-6 in summer, 12-7 
Horse Cabs. 

For the minimum fare of 70 pf . hirers 

are entitled to drive 

For each additional 10 pf 

Motor Cabs. 

For 70 pf. (electric motor cabs 80 pf.) 

For each additional 10 pf 

Outside the police-district: horse-cabs, 1-2 pers. by day 600 (3-5 pers., 
at night 1-5 pers., 400) metres for 70 pf., every addit. 300 ^200) metres 
10 pf . ; motor-cabs, day or night, 1-5 pers. 400 metres for 70 pf ., every 
addit. 200 metres 10 pf. — Waiting: 8 min. 50 pf., each 4 min. more 
10 pf., per hr. IV2 «^> motor-cabs 2 (3) JC. — Luggage: 22 lbs. inside the 
cab free; 23-55 lbs. 25 pf . ; 55-110 lbs. 50 pf. — Luggage-cabs, see p. 1. 

Circular Drives through the town : H. Kdse, starting at 10 a.m. 
and 3 p.m. from the Hotel Victoria, Linden 46; Union (motor-cars), 
starting at 10 and 3, from Linden 5. 

Electric Tramways and Omnibuses traverse the streets in all 
directions. — The tramway-cars arc marked with numbers or capital letters, 
which correspond with those on our plan at p. 1. The cars pass each 
other to the right and are entered or quitted on the iHght side only. 
The front platform does not communicate with the interior. The minimum- 
fare in all cases is 10 pf., rising by 5 pf. at a time according to the 
distance traversed. 

Post Offices. The Central Post Office (Hauptpost-Gehaude ; PL J, 5) 
is at Spandauer-Str. 19. Enquiries should be made at Heiligegeist- 
Str. 24, where also the Poste Restante and Money Order Office are to be 
found. Letters for Berlin (5 pf . ; post-cards also 5 pf .) should contain the 
district-initial fW., S., C, etc.) in their address. There is also a Pneu- 
matic Post ('Rohrpost') for the rapid transmission of letters (30 pf .) and 
post-cards (25 pf.) from one part of Berlin to another. — The Parcel Post 
Office {Packetpostamt ; PI. H, 5) is at Oranienburger-Str. 70. — Postage- 
stamps (Briefmarken) may be purchased from the letter-carriers. 

Telegraph Offices. The Central Office (PL H, 6), Oberwall-Str. 4a, 
and the offices at the six chief railway-stations are open day and night. 
The branch-offices are usually in connection with post-offices. Telegrams 
within Berlin cost 3 pf. per' word (minimum 30 pf.), to other parts of 
Germany 5 pf . and 50 pf . 

HeadPolice Office (Polizel-Prdsidium), Alexander-Platz 5 (PL K, 5). 
The Passport Office is at Eingang IV, beside the Stadtbahn. On the 
third floor at the same address is the Eimvohne7'-3Ieldeamt, where the 
address of any resident in Berlin may be obtained for a fee of 25 pf . 
The Lost Property Office is at Eingang II (Alexander-Str.). 

Baths. Admiralsgarten-Bad, Friedrich-Str. 102, with swimming 
basin (bath 3/^-11/2 JC) ; Augusta-Bad, Kopenicker-Str. 60 (at these Turkish 
and vapour baths); Verein der Wasserfreunde , Kdnniggratzer-Str. 19; 
Belle- Alliance-Bad, Ofneisenau-Str. 3 ; City-Bad, Dresdener-Str. 52. 

Shops. The best are in the Linden, the Leipziger-Str., the Friedrich- 
Str., and the vicinity. 

Picture Exhibitions. Annual Exhibition (Grosse Berliner Kunst- 
ausstellnng), Ausstellungs-Park (p. 22; PL F, 2), daily from the end of 

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8 Boi'tf! 1. BERLIN. Practical Notes. 

April till Oct. l^t. 10-8 ;after August 1st 10-7;: adm. 50 pf., on Mou. 
1 o€. — Exhibition of tlie Berliner Secession. Kurfiirsten-Damm 208. 
Charlotttenburg. in summer dailv, 9-T. winter 10-6 ; adm. 1 JC, Sun. 50 pf . — 
Kilnstlerhaus. Bellevue-Str. 3 (p'. 20: PL a, 6). daily 10-6 (Sun 11-2), adm. 

1 Ji. — Art Dealers and Show Rooms: Ed. Schidte ' Vnter den Linden 75: 
Keller d: Beincr, Potsdamer-Str. 122; Paul Cassirer, Viktoria-Str. 31: 
Wertheirn. entrance in the Voss-Str. ; Fritz G?/7'/?"ff. Potsdamer-Str. 113! 

Concerts {tickets and concert -lists at Bote d- Bock's, Leipziger- 
.str. 37\ Among the most famous are those of the Sing-Akademic ; 
the Cathedral Choir; Stern's Gesangverein : the Philharmonic Choir; 
the Symphony Soirees of the orchestra of the Royal Opera ; and the 
Philharmonic Orchestra. — Bands play in several popular resorts, such 
as the Zoological Garden (p. 23\ the Exhibition Park (p. 22), the garden 
of the Xci'j Opera House (see Ijelow), the beer-gardens outside the city- 
gates, etc. See notices on the advertisement-columns. 

Theatres. There are about twenty theatres at Berlin (plan may 
be consulted in the Berlin 'Adressbuch', or Directory; performances 
usually begin at 8 p.m.: Royal Theatre and Deutsches 'Theater at 7.30). 
Seats may be procured in advance at the box-offices or at the 'Invaliden- 
dank', Unter den Linden 24 (9-4.30; on Sun. 9-10 and 12-2). 

RoYAii Opera House (PL H. 5}. for operas and ballets. Average 
charges : best boxes 12 ^4C, orchestra boxes 10.. 1st balcony, front boxes, 
and parquet 8. proscenium, 2nd balcony and boxes 6, 3rd balcony and 
boxes 4, gallery 21/.2 c^ (standing room VJo JC). — Prices are raised for 
grand opera. 

Royal Theatre {Konigliches Schauspielhaus ; PL H, 6), for classical 
and modern dramas. Best boxes 10 JC ; 1st balcony-boxes and orchestra- 
fauteuils 8. 1st balcony-fauteuils. parquet-fauteuils.and parquet-boxes 6V-2' 
parquet 5^ o- balcony 4, 2nd balcony 21/2. gallery 1 JC. 

Xew Opera House {Xeues Opern-Theater ; PL F, 5), formerly KrolVs 
Theatre. Admission to the garden (concerts) 50 pf., sometimes 1 JC. 

Tickets for the royal theatres may be obtained in advance at the 
ticket-offices daily 10.15-1; booking-fee 50 pf. When very popular pieces 
are to be performed, a great number of the tickets are purchased by 
speculators, from whom they can be obtained only at exorbitant prices. 
In such cases the porter of the traveller's hotel will often be found 
useful in preventing excessive extortion. — The royal theatres are closed 
in July and August. 

Germax Theatre [Deutsclies Theater; PL G, 5), for dramas and 
comedies. Adm. from 8 t4( 20 pf. downwards. Box-office open 10-1.30. — 
LessixCt Theatre TL G-. 5), for modern dramas and comedies. Adm. 
from 8 i^ downwards. — Komische Oper (PL H, 5); seats l^j-lO JC. — 
Xeues Schauspielhaus, Motz-Str. 80 . for dramas and comedies; adm. 
from ^ ^4C 20 pf. downwards. — Hebbel- Theater, Koniggratzer-Str. 57. 
adm. from 8 ^4C downwards. — Berlixer Theater (PL H, 7), for dramas 
and comedies; adm. from 8 .„* 35 pf. downwards. — Residexz- Theater 
(.PL K. 5,, for modern comedies: adm. from 8 ,,^ downwards. — Theater 
BES Westexs (PL D. 7). for operas and operettas ; best seats 8 JC 20 pf . — 
Schiller- Theater -Ost (PL K, 6), for classical pieces; prices 90 pf.- 

2 t^ 70 pf . — Schiller-Theater-Charlottexburg : seats 50 pf .-2 JC- 10 pf . 

— Xeues Theater PL H. 5\ modern comedies and dramas : adm. IVo-SVo''^- 

— Metropol-Theater PL H. 6, "spectacular pieces with ballet; adm, 2- 
10 .A. — Xeues Operettex-Theater, Schiffbauerdajum 25; seats 2i;.2-8 JC. 

— LoRTzixc^ Theatre, Belle-Alliancee-Str. 7; Central Theatre, at these 
two popular operas and operettas. Luisex-Theater, Reichenberger-Str. 34, 
Thalia. Dresdener-Str. 72. at th.-se two popular pieces and farces. 

Variety Theatres and Music Halls. Winter garten of the Central 
Hotel (p. 2,; Apollo Theatre, Friedrich-Str. 218: Beichshallen- Theater. 
Leipziger-Str. 77: Walhalla-TTieater. Weinbergs-Weg 19 ; Passage and 
Castan's Panopticum (see p. 9). 

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Situation. BERLIN. ■?• Boutc. 9 

Circuses. Schumann (PI. G, 5), Busch (PI. J, 5), both iu winter 
only. — "Waxworks (with variety performances). Castaii's Panopticum, 
at the corner of Behrcn-Str. and Friedrich-Str. ; Passage Panopticum, in 
the Kaiser-Galeiic (p. 10); both daily, 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. (adm. 50 pf.). 

Popular Resorts. '"Zoological Garden (p. 23), daily, in summer 
from 6a.m. to 10.30p.m., in winter from 7 or 7.30a.m. till dusk; adm. 
1 t^, Sun., holidays, and evening-s 50 pf., 1st Sun. of each month 25 pf." 
(overcrowded) ; band usually in the evening-. — Exhibition Park (Aus- 
stellungs-Park), at Moabit (PI. F, 5), concerts daily in summer, during- 
the Exhibition ; adm. 50 pf. (Mon. 1 ^^). — Garden-concerts in summer at 
the New Ox)era House (p. 8). 

Military Reviews ('Paraden'J are held by the Emperor at the 
end of May and the beginning of Sept. in the Tempelhofer Fold (p. 21). 
Admission to the tribunes (tickets at the luvalidendank) 3-10 J6. Carriages 
require a permission from the Polizei-Prasidium (p. 5). — Guard Mounting 
at the Konigswache (p. 11) daily at 12.15 p.m. ; duriug the manoeuvres at 
2.45 p.m. 

Chief Sights (comp. table on pp. 6, 7) when time is limited: Walk 
through the liinden from the Brandenburg- Gate, past the Monument of 
Frederick the Great; cross the Schloss-Brllcke to the Cathedral and the 
Royal Palace ; see monuments of Frederick William III. (p. 12), Wil- 
liam I. (p. 13), and the Great Elector (p. 13); Gendarmen-Markt, with the 
Theatre (p. 18); Leipziger-Str. (p. 19); Wilhelm-Strasse (p. 19); Tiergarten 
(p. 22), Sieges-Allee (p. 22), Konigs-Platz, with the Eeichstag Building 
(pp. 21, 22); Emperor Frederick Museum (p. 15); the Old and New Museums 
(pp. 13, 14); the National Gallery (p. 14); the Arsenal (p. 11); Industrial 
Museum (p. 20); HohenzoUern Museum (p. 17); Ethnographical Museum 
(p. 20); Mausoleum at Charlottenburg (p. 24). A day should be devoted 
to Potsdam. 

IBmbassies and Consulates. British Ambassador, Rt. Hon. Sir 
William E. Goschen, Wilhelm-Str. 70 (office-hours 11-1); Consul-General, 
Dr. Paul von Schicabach, Behren-Str. 63 (10-12 and 4-5). — American Am- 
bassador, Dr. David J. Hill, Unter den Linden 68 (10-1); Consul-General, 
3rr. Alexander 31. Thackara, Friedrich-Str. 59 (10-3). 

English Church (St. George's) in the garden of Moubijou (PL H, 5 ; 
p. 17); services at 9 and 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. Chaplain, Rev. J. H. Fry, 
31. A., Savigny-Platz 7, Cliarlottenburg. — American Church, Motz- 
Str. 6. near the XoUendorf-Platz (PL E, 7); services at 11.30 a.m. Pastor, 
Rcc. Dr. L. H. 3IurUn. Bavreuther-Str. 39. 

Berlin (110-160 ft. above the sea-level), the capital of Prussia, 
residence of the Grermaii Emperor, and seat of the imperial govern- 
ment, as well as of the highest Prussian authorities, contains, with 
its immediate suburbs, about 3,000,000 inhab., including the gar- 
rison of 23,000 soldiers, and thus occupies the third place among 
the cities of Europe. Situated in the midst of an extensive plain 
on the navigable Spree, it is at the same time an important centre 
of the railway-system of Grermaiiy, one of the foremost seats of 
commerce in the country, and perhaps the greatest manufacturing 
town in continental Europe. The boundaries of the city enclose an 
area of about 25 sq. M. The buildings have filled up the whole of 
the Spree valley, which here averages about 3 M. in breadth, and 
are beginning to encroach on the surrounding plain, raised some 
30 or 40 ft. higher. 

l(j K'jt'.tc 1. BERLIX. Untcr chn Linden. 

The handsomest and bn^iest part of Berlin, which likewise com- 
prises the most interesting historical associations, is the long line of 
streets extending from the Brandenburg Grate to the Royal Palace, 
consisting of *Uiiter den Linden (PL Gr, H, 5), the Platz am 
Opernhaus, and the Platz am Zenghans. The Linden, a street 
198 ft. in width and about - 3 M. in length from the Brandenburg 
Gate to the Monument of Frederick the Great, derives its name 
from the avenues of lime-trees (interspersed with chestnuts) with 
which it is planted. It is to Berlin what Piccadilly to London, 
the corner of the Friedrich-Strasse being its most animated point. 

The "Brandenburg Gate f'Pl. G, 5, 6}, at the AV. end of the 
Linden, forms the entrance to the town from the Tiergarten. It 
was erected in 1789-93 by K. G. Langhans in imitation of the 
Propylfea at Athens, and has five different passages, separated by 
massive Doric columns. It is surmounted by a Qaadr iga of Victor y^ 
in copper, by Schadow, and flanked by handsome open Colonnades 
for foot-passengers (monuments outside the gate, see p. 22). — Be- 
tween the gate and the beginning of the Linden lies the Pariser- 
Platz. Xo. 5. on the X. side, is the palace of the French Embassy. 

U^TER DEN LixDEx, Xo. 1 (S. sidc), Is the Hotel Adlon (p. 2), 
built in 1905-1907. On the right, beyond it, diverges the hand- 
some ^ilhelm-Strasse (p. 19 1. Xo. 4, farther on, is the residence 
of the Minister of Beligion and Education : Xo. 7 is the palace 
of Xht JRussian Embassy. Xo. 73. on the opposite side, is occupied 
by the Minister of the Interior. 

Farther along the S. side of the Linden follows (Xos. 22, 23\ 
near the Friedrich-Str., the Passage, or Kaiser-Galerie (PL H, 
5. 6;, an arcade with shops, the Panopticum -see p. 9), a cafe, etc., 
which leads to the corner of the Friedrich-Strasse and the Behren- 
Strasse. — Between the Friedrich-Str. and the Charlotten-Str. is 
the Cafe Bauer (Xo. 26: p. 4;. 

At the E. end of the Linden rises the *Statue of Frederick 
the Great PL H. 5), in bronze, an impressive and masterly work 
by Raucli. erected in 1851 (44 ft. in height). The pedestal is em- 
bellished with allegorical figures, scenes from Frederick's life, and 
figures of his contemporaries and officers. To the right of the mon- 
ument is the Palace of the Emperor Williani I. (PL H, 5, 6; 
adm., see p. 7), erected by K. F. Langhans in 1834-36, and now 
occupied by Prince Henry. The apartments of tlie Emperor and 
the Empress Augusta are preserved imchanged. 

Opposite the palace, in the so-called 'Academy Quarter', is the 
Royal Library (V\. H. 5; adm., see p. 6), erected in the rococo 
style from designs by Ihne and completed in 1909. It contains 
also the University Library and the Academy of Science (found- 
ed in 1700 by Frederick I. . 

Arsenal. BERLIN. i- ^^^<^^- 11. 

The University Buildings (PI. H, 5), formerly the palace of 
Prince Henry, brother of Frederick II., erected in 1748-66, and 
fitted up in 1809 for the then recently-founded university, were 
remodelled in the interior in 1891. The university is attended by 
ca. 8200 students and 1450 'hearers'. — The garden in front is 
adorned with statues of Helmholtz (d. 1894), the physicist, by 
Ilcrter, of TreitscMe (d. 1896), the historian, by Siemering, and 
of William (d. 1835) ^n(\. Alexandei^ von Humboldt (d. 1859), the 
former by Paul Otto, the latter by R. Begas. In the chestnut grove 
behind the University is a bronze statue, by Hartzer, of Mitscherlich 
(d. 1863), the chemist. 

The Old Bo7jal Lihrary (PL H, 5, 6), behind the Palace of 
Emp. William I., erected in 1775-80 and facing the Opern-Platz, 
is one of the most effective rococo structures in Berlin, though 
sometimes likened to a chest of drawers. The motto below the cor- 
nice, 'nutrimentum spiritiis', was selected by Frederick the Grreat. 

Opposite the Library is the Opera House (PL H, 5), erected 
hy Knohelsdoi^ff in 1741-43, and restored by K. F. Langkans after 
a fire in 1843. The interior was remodelled in 1895. The tympanum 
contains an admirable * Group in Zinc, by Rietschel: in the centre 
the muse of music; on the right the tragic and comic muses; on the 
left a dancing group with the Three Graces. Performances, see p. 8. 

Between the Library and the Opera House stands a marble mon- 
ument, by Schaper, to the Empress Augusta., unveiled in 1895. — 
In the background is the Roman Catholic Church of St. Hedtvig 
(PL H, 6), a simplified imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, erected 
by Frederick the Great in 1747-73, and improved in 1886-87. 

The square before the Opera House is embellished by five 
*Statues by Ranch, viz. those otBlUcher (d. 1819), Yorck(d. 1830), 
Gneisenait (d. 1831), Buloiv (d. 1816), and Scharnhorst (d. 1813). 
The pedestals are adorned vdth reliefs referring to the wars of 
1813-15. — The Royal Guard House (Kdnigsivache ; PL H, 5), 
built by Schinkel in 1816-18, is adjoined by three large cannon, the 
central one of which was brought from Fort Mont Yalerien at Paris 
in 1871 and has been christened 'Valeria'. At the back of the guard- 
house are the Ministry of Finance and the Singing Academy. 

To the E. of the guard-house, fronting to the S., is the *Arsenal 
{Zeughaus; PL H, 5), one of the best buildings in Berlin, begun by 
Neynng in 1694 and carried to completion by GrUnherg, Schluter 
(1698-99), and De Bodt (1706). It is a square structure, each side 
of which is 295 ft. in length, enclosing a quadrangle 125 ft. square. 
Above the principal portal is a medallion-portrait of Frederick I., 
in whose reign the building was erected. The exterior is richly 
adorned with sculptures by Schlilter^ among which the *Heads of 
Expiring Warriors on the keystones of the window-arches in the 
court are especially remarkable for the vigour of their expression. 

1-2 Bovtp 1. RERLiy. Cathrfh'oL 

lu 1877-80 the interior underwent a tliorougli alteration nndcr the 
superintendence of Hitzig, and it was re-oi)ened as d Military Mu- 
seum and Hall of Fame of the Prussia rf Army. The Hall of Fame 
is embellished with mural paintings bj- G-eselschap, Camphausen, 
Bleibtren, and A. von Werner, etc., and with sculptures by Schaper, 
Encke, and other modern artists I'adm., see p. 6). 

On the S. side of the Zeughaus-Platz is the Palace of the 
Cro-wn Pinnce 'PL H. 5 u which is connected with the so-called 
Palace of the Princesses by an arch over the Oberwall-Strasse. It 
owes its present form to the alterations made by Strack in 1857 on 
an earlier palace. From 1858 to 1888 it was the winter residence 
of the Crown Prince Frederick AVilliam (Emp. Frederick III.). 

The last house on this side is the Residence of the Command- 
ant of Berlin^ which is adjoined by the Schinkel-Platz, on the W. 
branch of the Spree. In the square are bronze statues of *SchinJ:el 
(d. 1841\ by Drake, Thaer (d. 1828., by Ranch, and Beuth (d. 1853 1, 
by Eiss; and on its. S. side rises the o\(\. Academy of Architecture 
(Bau-AkademieX built by Schinkel in 1832-35, now occupied by 
the Royal Photogrammetric Institute and the Royal Meteorological 

In a straight line with the E. prolongation of the Linden, and 
spanning the Spree, is the *SchIoss-Brucke (palace-bridge; 
PL J, 5), 106 ft. in width, constructed in 1822-24 from designs by 
Schinkel. It is adorned with eiglit groups in marble, over lifesizo, 
illustrative of the life of a warrior. 

Beyond the bridge extends the Lustgartex <PL J, 5 1. originally 
a garden belonging to the palace'. It is now planted with trees and 
is bounded by the Cathedral (E.), the Royal Palace (S.) and the Old 
Museum "X. : p. 13\ In the centre rises the equestrian Statue of 
Frederick William III., by J. Wolff, inaugurated in 1871. The 
pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures of Clio, Borussia, etc. 
Beyond the statue, in front of the steps of the Old Museum, is a 
huge Granite Basin, hewn out of a solid erratic block. 

The ^Cathedral (Dom: PL J, 5; open on week-days, 10-6 1, 
a huge structure in the Italian Renaissance style, built in 1894- 
1905 by Julias and Otto Paschdorff. not only dominates the Lust- 
garten and its environs, but with its lofty dome forms the distin- 
guishing feature of any general view of Berlin. 

The edifice, 3J.4 ft. in length. 246 ft. in breadth, and 374 ft. in height, 
is tripartite in the interior. The Church Proper, entered hy the lofty 
main entrance, is sitnated beneath the dome, which is 102 ft. in diameter. 
There are special galleries for the court, the ministry', and the organ and 
choir. — On the S. the church is adjoined by a Weddixg akd Baptismal 
Chapel. On the X. is a Memorial Chapel, whence a staircase descends 
to the HohenzoUeni Burial Vault, to which the existing coffins (87 in 
number) of members of the reigning family have been transferred. 

The E. branch of the Spree, behind the cathndral. is spanned 
bv the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Brilcke. 

Boyal Palace, BERLIN. ^. J^oute. 13 

The *Royal Palace {Schloss; PL Jj 5) is in the form of a 
rectangle 650 ft. in length and 380 ft. in depth, enclosing two large 
courts. It rises in fonr stories to the height of 98 ft., while the 
dome above it is 232 ft. high. 

The original building, a castle erected by Elector Frederick II. in 
1413-51, has been extensively altered and added to, notably in 1098-1710 
by Schliltcr and others, under King Frederick I. 

The two principal tacades are both by SckJutcr, but the best example 
of his work is seen in the *Inner Court, which is surrounded with arcades 
on three sides. Eosancfer von Goethe, Scliliitcr's successor, is responsible 
for tlie architecture of the outer court and for the W. fagade, with its portal 
in imitation of the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus. The spacious 
chapel in the W. wing, with its vast dome, was constructed in 1845-52, 
and a new period of building activity began under William II., wlio made 
the palace once more the actual residence of the reigning sovereign. — 
The rooms occupied by the imperial family are on the first floor over- 
looking the Schloss-Platz. A purple banner, on the X. side, indicates the 
Emperor's presence. — At Portal IV are the Horse Tamers, two largo 
groups in bronze, by Baron Clodt of St. Petersburg, presented by Emp. 
Nicholas in 1811. The outer court is adorned witli 8t. George and the 
dragon, a group in bronze by Kiss. 

*Interior. Admission, see p. 7. Yisitors enter from the Lustgarten 
by Portal IV, receive their tickets in the inner court , on the ground- 
floor to the left, and are conducted through the state rooms in parties 
every half-hour. Umbrellas and sticks are given up. As a general rule 
only the state apartments on the second floor overlooking the Lustgarten 
are shown. Among the finest of these 'ayq, WiQ^Rote Drap d'Or Kammer 
and the ^Ritter-Saal, both with fine rococo decorations by Schliiter (in 
the latter is a handsome sideboard, with gold and silver plate) ; the 
Schicarze Adler Kammer; the Rote Sanit Kammer; the former Chapel, 
now the Chapter Room of the Order of the Black Eagle; the Picture 
Gallery, 197 ft. in length, used as a banquet-hall; the ^-Weisse Saal, 
w4th its gallery; and the '^Palace Cho.pel. The walls of the apartments 
are hung with paintings by Camphauscn, Werner, Menzel, and others. 

Opposite the W. side of the Schloss stands the ^National Mon- 
ument to Emp. William I,, an imposing work by B. Begas 
(1897), representing the emperor on a horse led by the genius of 
Peace. At the four corners of the base are Victories, and on the 
two principal sides are reliefs of War and Peace. The monument is 
enclosed on three sides by a colonnade, tniding in corner-pavilions 
which bear colossal bronze '^ Quaclrigm, 

In the Schloss-Platz, to the S. of the Palace, is the Schloss- 
Brannen, a monumental fountain by E. Begas (1891), bearing a 
figure of Neptune, surrounded by the Khine, Oder, Elbe, and Vistula. 
— On the S. side of the Schloss-Platz are the Royal Stables (PI. J, 
5, 6), a handsome edifice by Ihne^ completed in 1900 (adm., see 
p. 7). — The adjacent Kurfilrsten-Brilcke (Bridge of the Elector; 
PI. J, 5), which leads to the Konig-Str. (p. 17), is adorned with 
Schlilter^s equestrian *Statue of the Great Elector (d. 1688), 
erected in 1703. This clever and artistic group is one of the few 
really good works of a period when art was generally in a very 
debased condition. 

The **01d Museum (PI. J, 5; adm., see p. 7), with an Ionic 

14 Boute 1. BERIJX. ^eic Mtmum. 

portico of eighteen columus approached by a broad flight of steps, 
was erected by Schinkel in 1824-28. The central part of the struc- 
ture, rising above the rotunda in the interior, is adorned at the 
comers with colossal groups in bronze: in front, the Horse Tamers 
of the Piazza del Quirinale at Rome, copies by Tieck: at the back, 
Pegasus refreshed by the Hora?, by ScJuevelbein and Hagen. The 
steps are flanked by two large groups in bronze: right, *Amazon on 
horseback, defending herself against a tiger, by Kiss; left, Fight 
with a lion, by A. Wolff. 

On the First Floor is the *Gallery of Antiquities, with Greek 
and Roman sculptures. — On the Secoxd Floor is the *Antiquariuin, 
a collection of small antique works of both ornamental and industrial 
art. Amojig the most notable are the Hildesheim Silver Treasure (Roman 
plate of thetime of Augustus), Antique Helmets, Bronze Figures, Archaic 
Yases. Greek and Italian Terracottas, and objects from Pergamon, Priene, 
and Bosco Reale. 

The *New Museum PI. H, J, 5), behind the Old Museum, was 
erected by Staler in the Pienaissance style in 1843-55. The exterior 
of this edifice is comparatively insignificant, its chief attraction 
consisting in the rich and artistic internal decorations. — The main 
entrance is on the E. side, opposite the Xational G-allery, but visit- 
ors usually approach by the comiecting passage from the Old Mu- 
seum. Admission, see p. 7. 

On the First Floor is the very extensive and valuable Collection of 
Casts. Among these are the casts of the sculptures discovered at Olympia 
in 1876-81. — The Grouxd Floor is occupied by the important Egyptian 
Museum. — On the Szco^fD Floor is the Cabinet of Engravings, 
(SOO.CKIK) i)lates;. including the Diirer Collection. Botticelli's illustrations 
to Dante, and engravings by Rembrandt. — The spacious Staircase is 
embellished with six magnificent wall-paintings by W. von Kaulbaxh, repre- 
senting important epochs in the history of mankind. 

The portico on the E. side of the Xew Museum accommodates 
for the present (until the completion of the new Pergamon Museum) 
the ^"Frieze of the great altar on the Acropolis of Pergamon (ca. 
180 B.C.). Admission by application to the inspector in the Xew 
Museum, first floor. Room XII. This valuable work of art, the 
largest extant monument of Greek sculpture, represents the contest 
of the gods and giants (jigantomachia;, and rivals in importance 
the Parthenon sculptures in the British Museum. 

A building to the X. of the New Museum contains the Collection 
of Antiquities from Western Asia. 

To the E. of the Xew Museum, in the centre of a square sur- 
rounded with Doric colonnades and embellished with statues, flower- 
beds, and a fountain, rises the ^National Gallery PL H. J, 5 >, de- 
signed by Stiller in accordance with a plan of Frederick William IV., 
and built by Strack in 1866-76. The building is in the form of a 
Corinthian temple, elevated on a basement 39 ft. in height. At the 
8. end is a portico of eight columns, and at the X. a semicircular 
apse. At the top of the imposing flight of steps in front of the S. 

Frederick Museum. BERLIN. J- Route. 15 

f'agade is an Equestrian Statue of Frederick William IV. ^ by 
Calandrelli (1886). The entrance is under the flight of steps. 

The collection in the National Gallery now contains over 1100 paintings 
and cartoons, 233 sculptures, and 30,000 drawings and water-colours ; all 
by modern, chiefly German, masters. The names of the artist and the 
subject are given on each work. Catalogue, I'/dt^; larger edition, with 
illustrations, 21/2 «.^. Admission, see p. 7. 

Beyond the Stadtbahn, at the N.W. end of the so-called ^Mu- 
seum Island', is the *Eniperor Frederick Museum (PI. H, 5), 
built by Ihne in the Italian baroque style in 1898-1903, and opened 
in 1904. The N.W. corner, with the main entrance, is rounded off 
into a semicircle, and surmounted by the main dome. Opposite the 
entrance is an equestrian Statue of the Emperor Fi-ederich III., 
by JVIaison. The museum contains sculptures of the Christian epoch, 
a picture-gallery, and a cabinet of coins. Admission, see p. 6. 
Official Guide, 50 pf. 

G-round Floor. From the Principal Staircase, in the middle of 
which is a bronze cast of the Statue of the Great Elector (see p. 13), 
we pass through a corridor to the Basilica, which contains a series of 
large altar-pieces by Fra Bartolomeo , Francia, Andrea della Robbia, 
L. Vivarml, Paris Boi'done, and others. — To the left of the Small 
Staircase are Rooms 11 & 12, in which has been erected the Facade of the 
Palace of 3rshatta (Asia Minor; 4-6th cent. A.D.). — On the left, in 
Rooms 9 & 10, are works of Persian and Arabian Art (carpets, etc.). — 
Rooms 4-8 contain Coptic, Byzantine, Ea7'ly- Christian, and Early Italian 
Works of Art. (On the end-wall of Room 7 is 2^ Mosaic from the Church 
of San Michele in Affricisco at Ravenna, dating from 545 A.D.). — From 
Room 4 we cross the Basilica to reach Rooms 17-26. Rooms 23 & 24 
contain German Sculptures of the Romanesque and Gothic Periods, and 
Early-German Paintings. Room 20: German Renaissance Sculptures and 
Carvings. Room 21 : German Sculptures of the Renaissance, Baroque, and 
Rococo Periods. Farther on is the section of coloured Italian Sculptures, 
with works hy Donatello and Luca della Robbia (Room 25), and Verrocchio 
(Room 22). — Rooms 15 & 16: Coins and Medals. 

Returning to the Entrance Hall, we ascend the stairs or take the 
lift (10 pf .) to the Upper Floor, which contains the *Picture Gallery. 
On the left are the German, Netherlandish, French, and Spanish schools ; 
on the right, the Italian school, and Italian sculptures in marble and 
bronze. In these rooms the old doors (chiefly from Genoa, Venice, and 
Florence), mantelpieces, furniture, and altars should be noticed. — On 
the left. Room 73 (Wesendonk Collection): 10. Moretto, Madonna; 243. 
Reynolds, Portrait of a lady. — Cabinet 72: *512-523. Hubert and Jan 
van Eyck, Twelve Panels from the x\ltar-piece of the Lamb (finished 
in 1432), the masterpiece of the early -Flemish school. — Cabinet 70. 
Dierick Bouts, 553. Elijah in the desert, 539. Feast of the Passover; 
523a, 525 d, *525a. Jan van Eyck, Portraits; 538a. Master of Flemalle, 
Crucifixion; 1617. Jean Foitquet, Esticnne Chevalier, with his patron 
St. Stephen. — Cabinet 68 and Room 69. Netherlandish Masters of the 
15-16th centuries: 535. Roger van der Weyden, Winged altar-piece: 
561. Quijiteyi Matsys, Madonna and Child; *1622a. Hugo van der Goes, 
Nativity. — Cabinet 67. Diirer , *557e. Portrait of Hieronymus Holz- 
schuher, senator of Nuremberg, *557g. Portrait of a young woman, 
557 f. Madonna with the siskin, 557 d. Portrait of Senator Muffel of Nurem- 
berg; 638b. Altdorfer, Rest on the Flight into Egypt; Hans Holbein the 
Younger, *586. Portrait of Jorg Gisze, 586 d. Portrait of an old man; 
583. Christoph Amberger, Sebastian Miinster, the geographer; 564a. 
L. Cranach tlie Elder, Rest on the Flight into Egypt. — Cabinet 65. To 

16 Iktutr- 1. DERLIX. FredrrkV Mi'^irvm. 

the right. 1629. Miclwcl Schongaucr, Xatkity. — Room 66: Works 
by Lucas Cranach. — Cabinet 62. Rnhens , 763. Boy with a bird, 785. 
Perseus delivering Andromeda. 762a. Portrait of Isabella Brant, his first 
wife. — Cabinet 59. Fran^ Hals, 800. 801. Portraits of a young man and 
a young woman, 801c. Hille Bobbe (the sailors" Venus), 801 g. Xurse and 
child: 791. Terhv.rg. Paternal admonition. — Cabinet 58: 750. Thomas' 
de Keyser, Family-portraits. — Cabinet 57. Bembrandt, *811a. Rem- 
brandt's brother, *828f. Vision of Daniel, 812. Saskia (the painter's first 
wife), *828e. Susannah at the Bath, *8281. Pastor Anslo and an aged 
woman, 828 h. Joseph and Potiphar's wife, 828b. Hendrickje Stoffels at 
a window. — Cabinet 56. To the left, *885g. J. van RuysdaeL Oak- 
forest: 861b. A. Cvyp. Cows at the river; *922c. A. van de Velde, Farm ; 
795. Jan Steen. Tavern-garden. — Cabinet 53: 819c. X. JIaes, Old woman 
peeling apples: J. van dcr Jleer of Delft . 912 c. Cavalier and girl drinking 
wine. 912b. Girl with^a necklace of beads; 820b. P. de Hoocli, Mother 
and child: 885 e. J. van JRuysdaeh Dunes near Overveen; 922b. A. van 
de Velde, River-scene ; 791 g. Terhurg, Lady playing the violoncello ; 795 d. 
Jan Steen. Christening. — TTe return through the corridor and enter 
Cabinet 55 (to the right), which contains small Dutch pictures. — 
Room 52: 826a. Ph. Konincl\ Large landscape: Rembrandt, 812a. Cap- 
ture of Samson, 802. Samson threatening his wife's father; 842a. A. van 
der Neer. Moonlight landscape ; 881. J. van Ruysdael, Stormy sea. — 
Room 51: 533 a. D. Bouts, Christ at the house of Simon. — Room 61: 
14. A. van Dyck, Portrait of a lady: 37. J. van Ruysdael, Torrent; 
Rembrandt . 32. Scourging of Chi-ist, 33. Portrait of himself. — Room 63. 
Rubens. 762b. Conversion of St. Paul, 776a. Xeptune and Amphitrite, 
781. St. Cecilia, 762c. Diana and n^.Tuphs surprised by satyrs; A.vajiDyck, 
782b, 782c. Portraits. 778. Pieta. — To maintain the historical sequence, 
we now return through Rooms 62-73 to the landing of the staircase and 
enter — 

Room 29 (to the right) : Earlv-Italian Schools. — Cabinet 30 : Florentine 
School of the 16th century. — Cabinet 31: *Works by the Delia Robbia 
family. — Cabinet 32: *Works hy Don a.tello, Deshderio, and Verrocchio: 
*60a. Fra Angelico, Last Judgment; 69. Fra Filippo Lippi, Madonna 
adoring the Child. — Cabinet 33: Italian Plaquettes. — Room 36: ^Italian 
Bronze and Marble Sculptures; in the middle. 233. Donatello, John the 
Baptist. — Room 37. To the right. SignorelU, 79a. Pan with shepherds 
and nymphs. 79c. Portrait: 1170. Marco Zoppo. Madonna and saints. — 
Room' 38. Botticelli, 106. Madonna enthroned. 1128. St. Sebastian, *102a. 
Madonna and angelic musicians; 96. Filippino Lippi. Crucifixion; 73. 
P. Pollaiuolo, Annunciation. — Room 64. Xine pieces of tapestry executed 
in Brussels, from the well-known cartoons of Raphael, now in' the South 
Kensington Museum. — TTe return through Room 37 and enter Room 34 
(left: 111. Turn. Madonna. — Cabinet 39. James Simon Collection: 
2. A. Bronzino, Portrait; 5. Jlantegna. Madonna. — Cabinet 40: Florentine 
Marble Sculptures of the 15th century. — Cabinet 42: 61. Fr. LauraJio, 
Bust of a Xeapolitau princess; G. Bellini, 28. Pieta. 1177a. Resurrection ; 
'20. Pseudo-Basaiti. Altar-piece, in four sections. — Cabinet 43 : 12 a. 
Giorgione. Young man ; *259 b. Seb. del Piombo, Portrait of a young Roman 
woman: 320. L. Loffo, Portraits of youths. — Room 44: 38.' i. Vivarini, 
Madonna enthi'oned; 15. Cimada Conegliano, St. Mark healing the cobbler; 
*1156a. C. Crivelli. Madonna enthroned. — Room 41: 44b. B. Montagnei, 
Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen. — Room 45: to the left, 90b. Leo- 
nardo da Vinci, Risen 'Christ ; 246. A. del Sario, Madonna enthroned ; 
on the end-wall, 209. JlicJia el Angel o, Statuette of the vouthful John 
the Baptist; 338a. Bronzino, Portrait; Raphael, *248. 'Madonna della 
Casa Colonna', 145. Madonna and Child with St. Jerome and St. Fi'ancis, 
*247a. 'Madonna del Duca di Terranuova"; *218. Correggio, Leda. — 
Room 46: 153. L. Lotto. Portrait: 197. Moretto. Adoration of the Virgin 
and St. Elizabeth; Titian, *160'a. Portrait of a girl, 163. Portrait of 
himself. 166. Portrait of his daughter Lavinia. — Room 47: il3a. Italian 

ChalPOv of Monhijov. BERTiTN. 1 . Route, 17 

Master (formerly ascribed to Yolazqucz), xVIessaiulro del liorro ; 151) b. 
TiepoUt, Martyrdom of St. Agatha; 372a. Agostino Caracci, Portrait of 
a woman. - Cabinet 18 : Frescoes by Tiepolo, from a villa near Treviso. — 
Room 49: *111. 3hfHUo, St. Anthony of Padna with the Holy Child ; *413e. 
Velazqnez, Portrait of a Spanish lady; 405b. Bibera, St. Sebastian. — 
Room 50: 478a. N. Ponssin, View of the Acqna Acetosa near Rome; 
Waftea9f , 474 a. Al fresco breakfast, 474 b. Open-air party; 405. Mignard, 
Maria Mancini; 189. Pesne, Frederick the Great as crown-prince; 1620. 
G.Dughct (surnamed Po/<mw), Roman mountain-landscape; 1038. Gains- 
borough, John Wilkinson; 191c. Choc/oiciccki, Dr. Hcrz. 

To tlic E. of the Fricdricli-Strasse Station, at Georgen-Str. 34, 
is the Ocean ographical Museum (PI. H, 5). Adrn., see p. 7; 
illustrated guide 50 pf. 

Opposite the Museuiii, on the other side of the Spree, rises the 
imposing Borse^ or Exchange (PL J, 5), erected in 1859-64 by 
Hitzig^ Avith a double colonnade and sculptures by R. Begas (ad- 
mission, see p. 6). — To the X. of the Exchange are the Mon- 
bijou-Platz, which is adorned with a marble bust of A. von Cha- 
misso^ and the royal Chateau of Monbijou (PL H, 5), erected 
in 1706 and afterwards enlarged. In the Monbijou garden is the 
tasteful little English Church (St. George's)^ erected in 1884-85 
from the designs of Kaschdorff (services, see p. 9). The Monbijou 
Palace contains the *Hohe\zollerx Museum, a collection of personal 
reminiscences of the Prussian rulers from the time of the Grreat 
Elector down to the present day. It affords a good survey of the 
progress of industrial art in the last two centuries (adm., see 
p. 6). — To the N.W., in the Oranienburger-Str., rises the New 
Synagogue (PL H, 4), built in 1859-66. Visitors are admitted 
daily, except on Sat. and festivals. 

In the Luisen-Str. is the Char He (PI. CI, 4), a large hospital 
founded in 1710, which serves also as a teaching institution in 
connection with the University. — In the Invaliden-Str. are the 
Agricultural Museum^ the '^Museum of Natural History j and 
the School of Mines, with a Museum of Mining (see pp. 6, 7). 
Farther to the W. are the G naden - Kirche (1895) and the new 
building (in construction) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy (PL 
Gr, 4), founded in 1795 for the training of army doctors and 
transferred to this site in 1909. This stands in the grounds of the 
Livalidenhaus^ built by Frederick the Great, near which is the 
Warrio7^s^ Momnnent^ commemorating those who fell in 1848-9. 

Berlin Old Town contains a number of other noteworthy build- 
ings. In the Konig-Strasse (p. 13) are the Central Post Office (PL 
J, 5; comp. p. 5) and the *Rathaus (PL J, 5), or Toivn Hall, an 
imposing brick edifice with a tower 243 ft. in height, built in 
1861-69 from the plans of WClsemann. The decorations of the 
interior repay a visit (adm., see p. 7). — The Church of St. Nicho- 
las, a little to the S.W., is the oldest church in Berlin. — The 

jS I^ot'.tc 1. BEELIX. FriediHch-Sfrassr. 

Kloster - Kirche ;P1. K, d) is one of the finest and best-preserved 
mediseval buildings in Berlin. At Xo. 36 Kloster-Str. (Pi. J, 5) is 
the interesting *Maseum of German National Costumes and 
Domestic Industries, founded in 1889 (adm., see p. 6). 

At the E. end of the Konig-Strasse is the Alexander-Platz 
'Tl. K. 5 1, in which stands a colossal copper figure of Berolina by 
Hundrieser (1895l To the right are the Folice Headquarters : to 
the left the Ahxander-Phdz Station, near which is the Central 
Market. — The Kaiser-AVilhelm-Str. leads hence back to theKaiser- 
AVilhelm-Briicke and the Lustgarten (p. 12). In the Neue Markt 
(PL J, 5), passed by this street, are the Lidher Monument . by 
P. Otto andR. Toberentz. and the Marien-Kirohe, iTstored in 1894. 

To the S. of the Linden begins the Friedrich-Stadt, the most 
regularly built quarter of Berlin. The most important streets in- 
tersecting it from X. to S. are the Fried rich-Strasse , the Wil- 
helm-Strasse to the ^. Tp. 19 1. and the Charlotten-Strasse and 
Markgrafen-Strasse to the E. The principal cross-streets are the 
busy Leipziger-Strasse (p. 19j and the Behren-Strasse (V\. H, 6), 
the latter containing several of the chief banks of Berlin. — The 
Friedrich-Strasse 'PL H, 4-7), the longest street in the inner 
town (2 3L fi-om the former Oranienburg Gate to the former Halle 
frate), is flanked with handsome and substantial business-houses, 
including the retail-depots of several important breweries. On the 
upper floor of the biulding of the Pschorr Brewery, at the corner 
of the Behren-Strasse, is Cast an' s Panoptikum (p. 9). 

Between the Charlotten-Str. and 3Iarkgrafen-Str., a little to the 
8. of the Linden, is situated the -Gexdarmex-Markt (PL H. 6i. 
in which rise the French Churchy the Xew Church (both dating 
from the beginning of the 18th cent., with handsome detached 
towers added in 1780-85 >. and the — 

••Schauspielhaus, or Boijal Theatre V\. H, 6), erected by 
Schinkel in 1819-21. to replace the original building which was 
burned down in 1817. The principal (E.) fagade is embellished 
with an Ionic portico, approached by a prominent flight of steps, 
under which are the entrances for the spectators. At the sides of 
the steps are two groups in bronze by F. Tieck. The summit of 
the principal part of the building is crowned with an Apollo in a 
chariot drawn by two griffins, a group in bronze by Bauch and 
Tieck: on the ^. summit of the building, corresponding to the 
Apollo, is a Pegasus in copper. The large X. tympanum contains 
the Triumph of Bacchus with Ariadne; the S. tympanum, Orpheus 
bringing back Eurydice, both by F. Tieck. 

In front of the steps of the theatre stands the Monument of 
Sr-hiUer. 19 ft. in height, in marble, by Begas. The pedestal is 

Wilhehii-Strassf. BERLIN. ■?• Huntc. 19 

iidoriied at the corners with allegorical figures of lyric and dramatic 
poetry, historical composition, and philosophy. 

To the W. of the Schauspielhaus is the Deutsche Reichshank, or 
German Imperial Bank (PI. H, J, 6), a Eeuaissance building of 1869-76. — 
At No. 5 Wall-Str. is Raven^'s Picture G-allery (PI. J, 6), a collection 
of about 200 works by modern French and German masters, including 
choice exam])lcs of the older Berlin and Diisseldorf schools (adm., seep. 7). — • 
In the Miirkische-Platz (PL K, 6), at the N.E. end of the Wall-Str., is 
the Brandenhurn Frovwcial MiiHeuin (Markische Provinzial-3Iuseuni), 
})uilt in 1901-1907 from plans by L. Hoffmann (adm., see p. 6). 

The Wilhelm-Strasse (PL G, H, 6, 7) leads from the Linden, 
near the Pariser-Platz, to the Belle-Alliance-Platz (p. 21). The N. 
half of this street contains mimerous ofiicial residences. No. 70 
on the right, close to the Linden, is the British Embassy; No. 72 
is the Palace of Prince George of Prussia (d. 1902). Opposite, 
No. 67, is Herr Pringsheim^ s House^ with a polychrome facade. 
No. 73, on the right, is the house of the Minister of the Imperial 
Household; No. 74 is the Imperial Home Office^ where the 
German Bundesrat meets. No. 65, to the left, is the residence of 
the Minister of Justice; No. 64, the Privy Chamber of Civil 
Affairs; No. 63, ihQ Ministry of State. Then on the right, Nos. 75 & 
76, the Foreign Office. No. 77 is the Imperial Chancellery and 
the Residence of the Chancellor ^ occupied bv Prince Bismarck 
from 1878 till March, 1890. 

On the opposite side of the street is the Wilhelm-Platz 
(PL H, 6), adorned with Statues of six heroes of the three Silesian 
wars of Frederick the Grreat: Schiverin^ who fell at Prague in 1757 ; 
Winterfeldt, Frederick's favourite, who fell at Moys, near Gorlitz, 
in 1757; Seydlitz, the hero of Rossbach, who died in 1773; Keith^ 
who fell at Hochkirch in 1758; the gallant Zieten^ who died in 
1786; and Prince Leopold of Anhalt- Dessau^ the victor at Kessels- 
dorf, who died in 1747. — On the N. side of the Wilhelm-Platz 
is the Palace of Prince Frederick Leopold (PL G, H, 6), erected 
in 1737 and remodelled by Schinkel in 1827-28. On the S. side 
(No. 1) is the Imperial Treasury (Beichs-Schatp:amt). 

The Yoss-Steasse (PL G, 6), leading to the Koniggriitzer-Str., 
here diverges to the right. At the corner (No. 1) stands the 
Preussische Pfandbriefbank ('Mortgage Bank') a noble structure 
in the Italian Renaissance style by Lucse, originally erected for 
Borsig, the manufacturer. No. 35, at the opposite corner, is the res- 
idence of the Minister of Public Works^ including the Imperial 
Office of Railivays. At Nos. 4 & 5 is the Reichs-Justizamt. 

A little to the S. of the Wilhelm-Platz diverges the busy 
Leipziger-Strasse (PL G, H, J, 6), which intersects the Friedrich- 
Strasse and is even richer than that street in palatial modern build- 
ings. It is about 1 M. in length from the Spittel-Markt, on the E., 
to the Potsdamer-PIatz, on the W. Near its E. end, in the Donhoff- 

20 BoiiU- 1. BERLIN. Leipzujer-Straaise. 

Platz, are the monuments of Baron vom Stein (d. 1831 ; comp. 
p. 41) and Prince Hardenherg (d. 1822l 

At the corner of the Mauer-Str. is the lieirhs-Postamt ^ or 
Office of the Postmaster General (PL H, 6), erected in 1871-73 and 
enlarged in 1893-98. The corner-wing contains the Postal Museum 
(adm., see p. 7). — Xo. 5, Leipziger-Str., to thcW. of theWilhelm- 
Str., is the War Office^ restored in 1847. Xo. 3 is the Herren- 
haus, or Prussian Upper Chamber^ completed in 1904 from 
designs by F. Schulze. It is connected with the new Lower 
Chamber ("p. 21). Xo. 1 is the Ministry of Commerce and In- 
dustry^ which contains the attractive depot of the Eoyal Porcelain 
Manufactory. At Xos. 132-137 is "^ Wert heim's Warehouse^ erected 
by Vessel in 1897-1904, an excellent type of the modern Grerman 

The Leipziger-Str. ends at the octagonal Leipziger- Platz 
(PL Gr, 6-, which is adorned with statues of Count Brandenharg 
(d. 1850j, by Hagen, and Field -Marshall Wrangel (d. 1877), by 
Keil. At Xos. 6-10 in this Platz is the Ministry of Agriculture^ 
Domains, and Forests: Xo. 13. on the X. side, is the Admiralty. 

The PoTSDAMER- Platz (PL G, 6), in which is the Potsdam 
Pailway Station (p. 1 ), flanked by the Ringhahn Station and the 
Wannsee Station, is another busy centre of traffic. To the left of 
the Potsdaoi Station is the staircase leading to the underground 
station of the Electric Railway (see p. 1;. — Xo. 3 in the Bellevue- 
Str., which leads hence to the X.W., is the Kilnstler-Haus (PL G, 6), 
the home of the Society of Berlin Artists (exhibitions, see p. 8). 

At the corner of the Konio-o^ratzer-Strasse and the Prinz- 
Albrecht-Strasse (PL G, 1\ to the S.E. of the Potsdamer-Platz, is 
the massive building of the ^Ethnographical Museum (Mu- 
seum furVolkerkunde ; PL G, 7), a Renaissance structure by Ende. 
On the groundfloor are the Prehistoric Collections and Dr. Schlie- 
mann's Trojan Collection. The upper floors are devoted to the Eth- 
nographical Collections. Admission, see p. 6. Official guide, 50 pf. 

Adjoining this institution, in the Prinz-Albrecht-Str., is the 
^Museum of Industrial Art (Kunstgewerhe-Maseum: PL G, 7), 
founded in 1867. containing a very extensive and valuable collec- 
tion of the products of many dift'erent countries, both ancient and 
modem. The exterior of the building, which is in the Hellenic Re- 
naissance style, is adorned with mosaics from the designs of Eivald 
and Geselschap. representing the principal epochs in the history of 
civilization. At the sides of the flight of steps ascending to the 
door are statues of Peter Yischer and Holbein, by Sussmann- 
Hellborn. Admission, see p. 6. Official guide, 50 pf. 

On the groundfloor arc the furniture, carvings, and tapestry. The 
first floor accommodates the collection of porcelain and glass, and the 
works in metal. The second floor contains the textile fabric^. 

Beichstags-Oehaudc. BERLIN. ^- Route. 21 

Opposite the Industrial Museum is the Prussian Chamber of 
Depvties (PI. G, 6), built in 1893-98 by F. Schulze. The large 
hall contains seats for 433 deputies. Cards of admission to the 
meetings may be obtained from 5 to 7 p.m. on the day before or, if 
there is room, on the day itself. The hall is shown to visitors on 
week-days out of session between 9 and 10 a.m. (fee). — The Prinz- 
Albrecht-Str. ends, on the E., at the Wilhelm-Str., in which (to the 
right) is the Palace of Prince Frederick Henry of Prussia. 

The S. limit of the Friedrich-Stadt is marked by the circular 
Belle- Alliaxce-Platz (PI. H, 7, 8), in the centre of which rises the 
Friedens-Sdule, or Column of Peace, 60 ft. in height, erected in 
1840, on the 25th anniversary of the peace of 1815. It is crowned 
with a Victory by Ranch, and is surrounded by marble groups of 
the four chief powers that took part in the victory of Waterloo. 

The site of the old Halle Gate (PL H, 8) is occupied by two 
monumental edifices by Strack. — Opposite the Halle Oate the new 
Landwehr-Kanal is crossed by the Belle Alliance B7'id(je^ on the 
buttresses of which stand marble groups of Navigation, Fishing, In- 
dustry,and Trade. Beyond the bridge begins the Tempelhof Quarter . 

AJDOut 55/4 M. outside the Halle Gate (several tramway-lines) is the 
Kreuzberg (PL Gr, H, 9), rising about 100 ft. above the city, of which 
it affords a fine ^Survey. The Natmial Monument of the War of Lib- 
eration, on the top, inaugurated in 1821, consists of an iron obelisk 
designed by Schinkel, with statues and reliefs by JRauch, TiecJc, and 
Wichmann. On the N. slope of the Kreuzberg extends the Victoria Park. 

In the Tempelhofer FeJd, an open piece of ground extending south- 
wards from the Kreuzberg to the village of TemjyelJiof, the annual man- 
oeuvres and reviews of the Berlin garrison have taken place since the 
days of Frederick William I. (1721; see p. 9). 

Outside the Brandenburg Grate (p. 10), at the entrance to the 
Tiergarten (p. 22), is the semicircular 'Platz vor dem Brandenburger 
Tor' (PL G, 5, 6), adorned with marble Statues of Emp. Fred- 
erick III. J by Briitt, and Empress Victoria^ by Grerth. The Fried- 
ens-AlUe leads hence to the right to the Koxigs-Platz (PI. Gr, 5). 

The *Monuinent of Victory ( Sieges- Sdule) in the centre, 
200 ft. in height, designed by Strack, and inaugurated in 1873, 
stands on a circular terrace approached by eight steps of granite. 

The massive square pedestal is adorned with reliefs in bronze. The 
^Mosaics, designed by A. von Werner, illustrate the restoration of the 
Cferman empire. Above, in the flutings of the column, are three rows 
of captured Danish, Austrian, and French cannon (60 in all). The summit 
consists of a capital formed of eagles, crowned with a Borussia, 18 ft. 
high, by Drake. (*View from the capital, 152 ft. high; adm., see p. 6.) 

The Konigs-Platz is bounded on the E. by the *Reichstags- 
Gebaude (Hall of the Imperial Diet: PL a, 5), built in 1884-94 in 
the florid Italian Renaissance style, from the designs of Paul Wallot, 
at a cost of 22,000,000 marks (1,100,000^.1 The central struc- 
ture is covered by a huge glass dome, bearing a lantern encircled 

22 BoHte 1. BEKLIX. Turgartcn. 

with columns and surmounted by an imperial crown r225 ft.). At the 

corners are four towers. 195 ft. high, on which are figures typifying 
the industries and occupations of the G-erman people. Between these 
are the names of the G-erman princes reigning in 1871. 

The chief (W.) facade has a portico borne by six columns. To 
the right and left of the door are reliefs of the Rhine and the Vistula, 
by 0. Lessing: above the door is a figure of St. Greorge (with the 
features of Bismarck), by Siemeriug ; in the pediment is a relief by 
Schaper^ representing Art and Industry protected by Grermanic 
warriors; on the apex of the pediment is a colossal Germania, led 
by two genii, by B. Begas. — The S. portal is used by members 
of the Diet, the E. portal by the Court and the Federal Council. 

Yisifors to the Interior (adm., see p. 7) enter by Portal Y, on the X. 
side, and are led to the Promenade Hall, the Beading and Writing Booms, 
the Bestauranf. the Hall of the Diet, the South Vestihnle, the Waiting 
Booms of the Federal Council (Bundesrat), the East Vestibule, etc. 

At the corner of Sommer-Str. and the Reichstags-Ufer is the official 
residence of the President of the Reichstag, erected after Wallot's designs. 

In front of the W. facade rises the -National Monument to 
Bismarck, by B. Begas (1901). The colossal bronze figure of the 
chancellor stands upon a granite pedestal, which is surrounded by 
four groups: Atlas bearing the globe (front), Siegfried forging the 
imperial sword (back). Constitutional Authority trampling upon 
Sedition (right,', and Statecraft seated on a sphinx (leftj. 

To the X. of the Konigs-Platz lies the Alsex-Platz (PL G-, 5), 
adorned in 1904 with a bronze statue of Field-Marshal Count 
Boon (d. 1879), by Magnussen. To the W. are situated the ex- 
tensive premises of the General Staff, where Moltke died in 1901 ; 
to the X.'W^. is the Austrian Embassy . The Moltke- Briicke, 
reached by the Moltke-Str. between these, leads over the Spree to 
the Ausstellungs-Park or Exhibit ion Bark (9\. F, 5;, with 
the building in which the annual exhibitions of the Academy are 
held in summer ip. 5). — On the right, just beyond the bridge, is 
the German Colonial Museum (adm., see p. 6). 

On the ^. side of the Konigs-Platz is Kroll's Establishment^ 
now used as the Xeiv Opera House fp. 8). In front of it stands a 
Monument to Moltke. by Uphues, erected in 1905. 

The *Tiergarten iPl. E, F, G-, 5, 6), the largest and most 
attractive park near the city, lies to the W. of the Brandenburg 
Gate, and is bounded on the X. by the Spree, and on the S. by the 
Untere Friedrichstadt. It is about 2 M. in length and ^ ^ M. in 
breadth, and covers upwards of 600 acres of ground. The Sieges- 
Allee and the roads skirting the park on the S. and E. are fashion- 
able promenades in the afternoon. 

The *Sieges-Allee, or Avenue of Victory (PI. G-, 5, 6), which 
loads to the S. from the Konigs-Platz to the Kemper-Platz, has been 
adorned, at the expense of the emperor, with 3*2 mi\Yh]e Statues of 

ZooloyicaJ Gardvu. .r)i:RLIN. ■?• lionie. 23 

Frtissian Rulers, behind cacli of w liicli is a semicircular marble 
bench with terminal busts of two eminent contemporaries. 

On the N. margin of the Tiergarten, about ^'2 ^' ^^ ^^^ ^- ^^ 
the New Opera House (p. 22), on the Spree, are the popular 'al fresco'' 
restaurants known as the Zelfe (^. e. Tents, from their original con- 
struction). — Farther to the W. is the royal chateau of Bellevve 
(PL E, 5), witli a park behind which is the Bellevue Station of 
tlie Stadtbahn (Grosse Stern). Near the Tiergarten Station, on 
the W. side of the Tiergarten, is tlie Emperor Fredei^ick Memorial 
Church (1895). 

The pleasantest parts of the Tiergarten are the Seepark (PI. 
D, E, 6), on the W. side, and the neighbourhood of the Rousseati 
Island (PL F, 6), wliere numerous skaters display their skill in 
winter. The finest statue in the Tiergarten is the marble *Mon- 
nment of Frederick William III. (PL F, 6), executed by Drale 
in 1849, the pedestal of which, 18 ft. in height, is adorned with 
charming reliefs representing the enjoyment of nature. The cor- 
responding -^ Statue of Queen Louisa (PL F, 6), by Encke, was 
erected in 1880; the reliefs on the pedestal represent woman's 
work in war. Beside the Groldfish-Teich, a little to the W. of the 
Sieges-Allee, is a Monument to Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, 
by Siemering (1904). The Monument to Goethe, by Schaper, 
facing the Koniggratzer-Str. (PL Gr, 6), was erected in 1880; on 
the pedestal are allegorical figures of Lyric Poetry, Tragic Poetry, 
and Science. To the S., in the Linne-Str., is a Monument to Lessiny 
(PL G, 6), by 0. Lessing (1890). On the S. the Tiergarten is boiinded 
by the Tiergarten- Strasse (PL F, 6), containing many handsome 
villas. On the N. side, opposite the end of the Hildebrandt-Str., 
is a Monument to Richard Wagner^ by Eberlein (1903). — The 
remoter parts of the Tiergarten should be avoided after dark. 

The *Zoological Garden (PL D, E, 7; adm., see p. 9; guide 
25 pf.), opened in 1844, may be reached by tramway from tlie 
Brandenburg Gate, the Opern-Platz, etc., or by the Stadtbahn or 
the Elevated Line to the 'Zoologischer Garten Station', It contains 
one of the finest collections of animals in the world, and the regular 
concerts attract numerous visitors (see p. 8; good restaurant). 

The Charlottexburg Koad (tramway) leads from the Branden- 
burg Gate across the Tiergarten to (3 M.) Charlottenburg. There is 
a station of the Elevated & Underground Railway at the Knie (see 
p. 24). Those who use the Stadtbahn should alight at the Tier- 
garten Station and take the tramway thence, or go on to Westend., as 
the Charlottenburg station is far from the town. Near the Tiergarten 
Station is the Royal Porcelain Factory (PL D, 6; adm., see p. 7). 

Charlottenburg, a town with about 265,000 inhab., is prac- 
tically part of Berlin, though it retains an independent municipal- 
ity. It owes its origin to Sophia Charlotte, wife of Frederick I. 

24 ^OHtc 1. BERLIN, Charlottenhurg. 

Beyond the canal-bridge, to the left, rises the Technical Acad- 
emy (PL C, D, 6), a large and imposing building, embellished with 
sculptures (2300 students'. It contains the Architectural Museum^ 
the Beuth-Schi nkel-Museurn . and several other collections. 

A little to the S. are the School of Art and the Academy of 
Music. Thence the Hardenberg-Str. leads to the * Emperor 
William Memorial Church (PL D, 7), a late-Romanesque edifice 
fl891-95i, with a lofty tower and an elaborate interior (open on 
week-days 9-1 and usually also 3-6. free> 

The Berliner-Strasse makes a bend to the right (the so-called 
'Knie') and then leads straight to the Royal Palace, passing, on 
the right, the large Rathaus (1905). It ends at the Luisen-Platz. 
with statues of Frederick III. and Prince Albert. 

The Royal Palace (PL A, 5 . erected by SchlUter in 1695-99, 
was enlarged by E. von Goethe (p. 13) in 1701-7 and provided with 
its effective dome. The right wing was added by Knohelsdorff in 
1742. Frederick III. spent part of his last illness here (March- 
June, 1888}. 

At preseut only the apartments formerly occupied by Frederick I.. 
ill the central part, next the garden, are shown (adm., see p. 6). The 
rococo decorations are well worthy of inspection. 

The entrance to the pleasant Pcdace Garden^ laid out by the 
eminent French landscape-gardener Le Xotre in 1694, is near the 
small guard-room, adjoining the ^. wing. Crossing the orangery 
to the right, turning to the left and skirting it on the farther side, 
and following an avenue of pines to the right, we reach (8 min.i 
the *3lArsoLEUM: (Tl. A, 5 ; tickets at the Palace), erected by Gentz 
in the Doric style, where Queen Louisa (d. 1810) and her husband 
Frederick TTilliam III. ( d. 1840 > repose, together with their second 
son. Emp. William I. id. 1888 > and the Empress Augusta (d. 1890). 

The recumbent figures of the first-named pair, executed in marble by 
Fauch\s masterly hand, are strikingly impressive. The beautiful figure 
of the queen, executed at Carrara and Rome in 1812-13. was placed here 
in 1815 and at once established the sculptor's fame. The figures of Emp. 
William and his consort are by Eucke. 

The Gninewald, a royal forest to the S.W. of the city, is a fav- 
ourite resort of the Berliners. and is traversed by the suburban trains of 
the Stadtbahn to Potsdam. At its beginning, near the station of nalen- 
see, is tlie fashionable Villa Colony of GruneiL'ald. 

2. Potsdam and Environs. 

Railway from Berlin to Potsdam < three lines i in ^ r^ hr. ; 
more than 50 trains daily 'fare by the suburban trains from the 
Potsdam and Friedrich-Strasse stations 85 or 50 pf.). 

a. Maix Lixe from the Potsdam Statian (TL G-, 7; pp. 1, 20). 
The suburban trains run without intermediate halt to (13^2 ^^-J 
Xeu-Babelsherg, (16 M. Potsdam. (17 M.i Charlottenhof {^j^ M. 





^w,L> ^1."^.;; ' ' ^^<^ ''"*^ 

i^^( iTmlh'^wrniili iiisl 1 1 



l\actical Notf'H. 


Ttonte. 25 

'., M. from the New 

from Sanssouci)^ and (IS^'o M.) WUdpark 
Palace, p. 27). 

b. Via Wannsee, from the Wannsee Station (PL Gr, 7). — 
Stations: l^/^ M. Grossgorschen- Strasse ; 3 M. Friedenau. — 
41/2 M. Steglifz^ the station for the Botanical Garden (adm., see 
p. 6); 51/2 M. Gross-Lichterfelde^ with the Koyal Cadet School; 
71/2 M. Zehlendorf; 9^/2 M. Schlachtensee ; IO1/2 M. Nikolassee; 
12 M. Wannsee; 141/2 M. Nen-Bahelsherg (2M. from the chateau); 
16 M. Noivaives-Nenendorf ; 16^2 ^I- Potsdam. ~ From Neu- 
l^abelsberg a stealner plies hourly in summer on the Griehnitz-See 
to Klein-Glicnicke (p. 28) and (\ 4 hr. ; fare 20 pf.) Babelsberg. 

c. Trains for Potsdam also start from the stations (K platforms) 
of the Stadtbahx (see p. 1). After passing Gruneivald the line 
unites at Nikolassee with that above described. 

Potsdam. — Palast- Hotel, Humboldt -Str. 1, beside the fStadt- 
Schloss, R. from 8, B 1, D. 3 ^; Stadt Konigsberg, Brauer-Str. 1, with 
a veranda on the Havel, R. from 21/25 B. 1, D. 'i JC, these two very fair; 
EiNSiEDLER, Schloss-Str. 8; Eisenbahn-Hotel, near the railway-station, 
with a garden on the Havel, R. 2-3, B. ^/4, I). 2 JC; Deutsches Haus, 
Schloss-Str. 6, R. 2Vo-l, B. 1, D. 1-U JC. 

Hestaurants. ^Railway Restaurant, J). 3 JC, — In the town: ^Zum 
Schultheiss, in the Palast-Hotel (see above) ; Residenz-Restaurant, Nauener- 
Str. 15, D. l^l^JC; Hormess (wine-room), Nauener-Str. 34a. — In the en- 
virons: *Wackermann's Hohe, on the Brauhausberg, D,2ufC; Caf6 8ans- 
souci, outside the Brandenburg Gate; ^Wildimrk Station (see ji. 27), 
D. 11/2 <^; ^Glienicke (Fernaii), on the Berlin highroad, D. from 'd JC; 
Btlrgershof, in Glienicke (steamboat-pier), D. from l^jo^S; Bahelsberg, 
opposite the main entrance to the park, D. ^^J^JC. 

Post and Telegraph Office, by the canal, at the corner of the 

Cabs. First class (for 1-2 persons only) : per drive within the town 
75 pf . ; outside the town per Vi hr- 75 pf ., V2 hr. IVi J^, ^U hr. IV27 1 ^^' 
2 JC, for each additional y^ hr. 50 pf . more, 
whole day 12 t/^. 

Second class : for 1/4 lir. ...... 

V2 hr 


3 pers. 

1-5 pers. 

— 50 

— 75 
1 — 
1 50 

1 „ 

— 75 
1 — 
1 25 
1 75 

1 25 
1 50 

1 75 

2 25 

1 hr 

Luggage 25 pf. 
Fares by time: 6 hrs. 12 ^, 12 hrs. 15 t^, for 1-5 persons. Double 
fares at night. — There are also Taximeter Cabs. 

Tram^ways. From the Railway Station to the Wilhelm-Platz (Kaiser- 
Brlicke) and thence: 1. To Glienicke (p. 28); 2. To the Brandenhnrger Tor 
(near Sanssouci) and CharlottenJiof (pp. 26, 27); 3. To the Allee- Strasse, 
near the New Garden (p. 28). 

Steamboats in summer. From the Lange Briicke (p. 26) to Gliefiicke 
(p. 28), Sakroiv, Moorlake, the Pfauen-Insel, and Wamisee (see above), 
several times every afternoon, a pleasant trip. 

Plan of Excursion. Hurried travellers should content themselves 
with a general view of Potsdam and a visit to the palaces of Babelsberg 
and Sanssouci. AVe take the train to Neu-Babelsberg and the steamer 
thence to Klein- Glienicke and then walk to "^Babelsberg, afterwards 
going on through the park, via the Gerichtslaube and the Flatoic-Tnrni 
(*Yiew), to the ferry to Potsdam (1-3 pers. 50 pf.). After visiting the 

26 Route 2. POTSDAM. Toim Palace. 

Town Palace wc take the tramway to the 13raiideiibuig Gate, visit the 
Friedens-Kirche. and walk to *Sa72SSOuci. Return via the Orangery and 
through the park, either to the station of Wildjyarl:. or to the Luisen-Str., 
where we join the tramway to Potsdam station. 

The Royal Palaces are usually open from 10 to 6 (Sun. 11-6) in 
summer, 10-4 in winter: tickets (25'pf. for each pers.) are obtained at 
the entrances. The Xew Palace is shown only between the middle of 
Jan. and the beginning of May. — The Fountains of Sanssouci usually 
play in summer on Sunday, from noon till 7 p.m. The great fountain 
also plays on Tuesday and Thursday, 3-7 p.m. — Smoking is prohibited 
in the royal gardens, except at Babelsberg and at the Orangery. 

Potsdam (61.500 inhab., garrison 7000'. the capital of the pro- 
vince of Brandenburg, is charmingly situated on the Potsdamer 
Werder, an island in the HaveU which here expands into a series 
of lakes and is bounded by wooded hills. The town is of Slavonic 
origin, but was of no importance until the Great Elector founded 
his palace in the neighbourhood. It is indebted for its modern 
splendour to Frederick the Great, who generally resided here. Pots- 
dam is the cradle of the Prussian army, and the military element 
fesjDecially the j^icked men of the guards i is conspicuous in its streets. 

The handsome Lange Brilcke, which leads from the station to 
the town, is adorned with eight typical figures of Prussian soldiers 
by Herter (1895/, while on the Freuudschafts-Insel is a bronze 
equestrian Statue of Emp. William /., by the same artist (1900). 

— The *TowTi Palace ( castellan in the X.E. angle of the court >. 
originally erected about 1660. but dating in its present form from 
1751, is interesting for its reminiscences of Frederick the Great. 

— To the S. of the palace is the Lustgarten, with statues and groups 
of the beginning of the 18th cent., busts of Bliicher and other heroes 
of the wars of liberation, by Ranch, and a bronze Statue of Fred- 
erick William /., by Hilgers, erected in 1885 on the side next the 
parade-ground, where he used to drill his gigantic grenadiers. 

In the Altmarkt , to the X. of the palace , rise the Church of 
St. Nicholas, erected in 1830-37 from a plan hj Schinkel, with a 
dome added in 1842-50, and the Batham (1754). the gable of which 
is adorned, with a gilded fi'gure of Atlas bearing the globe. — A 
vault under the pulpit of the Garrison Church (open in summer, 
10-6; entr. by Portal B; 25 pf.\ more to the W., contains the re- 
mains of Frederick the Great and of his father Frederick William I., 
the founder of the church ('1731-35). 

The Wilhelm-Platz is adorned with a Statue of Frederick Wil- 
liam III., designed by Kiss (1845). 

Outside the ( W.) Brandenhurg Gate, erected in 1770, an avenue 
to the right leads to the Park of Sanssouci. On a height near the 
gate is a Statue of Emp. Frederick III., by Bormel (1903). At the 
entrance to the park, 1^2 ^^' fi'om the station, rises the "^Fried- 
ens-Kirche, or Church of Peace, in the early-Christian basilica 
style, designed by Persius ^1)^50: sexton in the building to the left). 

Sanssoncl. POTSDAM. ^- f^onfr. 27 

lu the Atrium stand Ranch's Group of Moses, Aarou, and Hur, and 
a copy of Thoi'valdsen's Risen Christ. — The somewhat bare Interior 
of the basilica, borne by sixteen Ionic columns in black marble, con- 
tains, in front of the chancel, the burial-vaults of Frederick William IV. 
(d. 1861) and Queen Elizabeth (d. 1873). The apse is adorned with an 
old Venetian mosaic. — On the N. side of the atrium is the Mausoleum 
of Emp. Frederick III. (adm. 25 pf.), erected in imitation of tlic 
chapel of Innichen in Tyrol. The marble *Sarcophag:i of the emperor 
(d. 1888) and empress (d. 1901) and those of their sons Waldemar and fSif^is- 
mund are by R. Begas. In the altar-niche is a *Pieta by Rietschel (1815). 

Entering the *Park of Sanssouci and bearing to the right, 
\vc soon reach the Great Fountain (p. 26), the water of which rises 
to a height of 130 ft. The twelve figures surrounding the basin arc 
by French sculptors of the 18th century. The equestrian Statue 
of Frederick the Greatj to the S., is freely copied from Kauch's 
celebrated work (p. 10). — A broad flight of steps, 66 ft. in height, 
ascends from the great fountain to the — 

*Palace of Sanssouci, a building of one story, erected by 
Knobelsdorff for Frederick the Grreat in 1745-47, and that mon- 
arch's almost constant residence. His rooms are still preserved 
almost imaltered (castellan at the back). — The Picture Gallery 
(fee), in a separate building, contains a few good works by Rubens, 
Yan Byck, Rembrandt, etc. 

The way to the Orangery leads past the famous Windmill, the 
owner of which is said to have refused to sell it to Frederick the 
Great (now royal property). 

The Orangery, an extensive structure in the Florentine style, 
330 yds. in length, was completed in 1856 from plans by Hesse. 
In front of the central building is a marble Statue of Fred. Wil- 
liam IV., by Blteser (1873). On the terrace are the interesting 
astronomical instruments from the former Jesuit college at Pekin, 
cast in bronze by Chinese artists in 1673 and brought to Europe by 
the German troops in 1901. — The interior is adorned with paint- 
ings and sculptures. Extensive view from the towers. 

Those who are pressed for time may return hence to the rail- 
way, either direct through the park to the Villa of Charlottenliof 
(altered in 1826 by Schinkel), which is %M. from Wildpark Station 
(p. 25), or via the (20 min.) Neue Palais. 

To the W. of the park of Sanssouci rises the New Palace, 
built by Frederick the Great in 1763-69. It is now the summer- 
residence of Emp. William II. (comp. p. 26). Many of the 200 apart- 
ments are richly decorated. Emperor Frederick III. died here in 
a room facing the park, 15th June, 1888. -— To the S. extends the 
WildiJarlc (station, see p. 25). 

To the N. of Potsdam, about Vo M. from the Nauener-Tor, is 
the colony of AlexandroiuJca , built in 1826 by Frederick Wil- 
liam Til. for the accommodation of the Russian musicians who were 

og Route 2. POTSDAM. Bahelsberg. 

at that time attached to the 1st Regiment of Guards. — On the 
Prrs-GSTBERG, which rises in the vicinity, stands a handsome orna- 
mental building, the towers of which (152 steps) afford an extensive 
view of the environs. — To the E. of Alexandrowka lies the Xeue 
Ctartex. or Xew G-arden. at the X. corner of which is the Meierei 
a*estaurant^ or dairy, jjrettily situated on the Juugfern-See. In the 
E. part of the garden, on the Heilige See, rises the Marble P.\xace, 
begun by Fred. William II. (1786-96) and completed by Fred. Wil- 
liam IV. '1844\ It contains numerous art-treasures. Adm.. seep. 26. 

At Klein- Glienicke (restaurants, see p. 25), on the Berlin 
road (tramway, see p. 25), on the left bank of the Havel, are the 
Chateau ''on the left) and (on the right) the Palace of Prince Fred- 
eric): Leopold, the latter originally a hunting-lodge of the Great 
Elector. Admittance is seldom granted to the palaces or to the 
large park. — Farther on. to the left, rises the Bottcher - Bei^g , 
surmounted by a Loggia, commanding a fine panorama. 

In the vicinity is the landing-place of the steamboats plying on 
the Griebnitz-See to and from Xeu-Babelsberg (p. 25). About ^/^ M. 
farther on is the entrance to the park and the palace of Babels- 
berg, a visit to which occupies l\'o hr. 

The picturesque chateau of *Babelsberg was erected in the 
English Gothic style by Schinhel in 1835. was extended in 1843- 
49 by Strack. and is being again enlarged for the Crown Prince. 
It stands in a beautiful park, laid out by Prince Piickler. 

The *IxTERioR of the chateau is simply hut tastefully decorated, aud 
contains numerous works of art. Emp. William I. invariably spent part 
of the summer here, and his study and bedroom are shown to visitors. 
Behind the palace is a monument with the Archangel Michael, by Ki88. 

To the S.W. stands the Gerichtslaube. a Gothic portico origin- 
ally attached to the old Eathaus in Berlin i view). — To the S. rises 
the Flafoic-Turni (*Yiewi. — A boat to cross the Havel to Pots- 
dam is usually to be found a little to the W., downstream. 

The *Brauhausberg 'Restavrant, see p. 25). to the S. of the main 
railway-station of Potsdam, commands a beautiful view of the town and 
the wide expanse of the Havel, finest by evening-light. Adm. to the 
Belvedere 10 pf. — Farther to the S., on the TelegrapJienbery, stands 
the Astro-Physical Ohsercatory. an admirably-equipped institution, built 
in 1875-78 (adm. Frid.. 3-6: custodian in the main building). Here also 
are the Geodetic Listitutr- and the Mete orologi col-Magnetic Observatory. 


Route Page 

3. From Cologne to Berlin via Hanover and Stendal. . . 30 

From Essen to Diisseldorf via Kettwig 32. — From 

Essen to Hagen 33 

Hohen-Syburg 34 

From Herford to Wallcnbriick; to Detmold and Alten- 

beken 36 

Grotenbiirg. Externsteine 37 

From Wunstorf to Uchte. Stcinhuder Meer 38 

From Hanover to Leipzig via Magdeburg 39 

Tangermiinde. From Stendal to Bremen 40 

4. From Cologne to Berlin viit Hildesheim 

From Hagen to Dortmund ; to Siegen 41 

From Lctmathc to Iserlohn and Frondenberg. Dechenhohle 42 

From Soest to Brilon ; to Hamm 43 

Lippspringe 44 

From Hameln to Hanover ; to Lohne 46 

5. From Cologne to Berlin via Holzminden and Magdeburg 48 

Corvey 48 

6. From Hagen (Cologne) to Cassel via Arnsberg .... 55 

From Brilon- Wald to Paderborn 56 

From Warburg to Marburg 57 

From Cassel to Wilhelmshohe 65 

7. From Cassel to Hanover 66 

From Miinden to Hameln. Valley of the Weser ... 67 

8. From Rotterdam (Hook van Holland) to Hanover via 

Salzbergen 69 

9. Hanover 71 

10. Hildesheim 79 

From Hildesheim to Goslar 83 

11. Brunswick 84 

12. From Hamm to Mlinster, Emden, and Norddeich 

(Norderney) 92 

From Norden to Sande 97 

13. The East Frisian Islands 98 

14. From Hanover to Bremen 101 

15. Bremen 101 

From Bremen to Geestemiinde and Bremerhaven . 108 

16. From Bremen to Emden and Norddeich (Norderney) . 109 

From Oldenburg to Osnabruck ; to Wilhelmshaven . . Ill 

17. From Hanover to Hamburg 112 

From Celle to Langwedel 113 

From Ltineburg to Biichen 114 

18. Hamburg, Altona, and their Environs 115 

I. Hamburg 115 

a. Binnen-Alster. Altstadt. Neustadt. Promenades. 
St. Pauli 120. — b. The Harbour 124. — c. Museums. 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 3 


Route Page 
St. George. Horn 126. — d. The Aussen- Alster. 
Xorthern Quarters. Ohlsdorf Cemetery. Wandsbek 129. 

II. Altoua 130 

Ottenseu. Stellingeu. From Altona to Blankenese . 131 

From Hamburg to Cuxliaven and Heligoland . . . 131 

19. From Hamburg to Cologne via Bremen and Munster 133 

20. From Hamburg to Kiel 134 

From Elmshurn to Hover-Schleuse 134 

Environs of Kiel. Baltic Ship Canal 137. 138 

From Kiel to Flensburg 138 

21. From Hamburg to Flensbui'gandVamdrup (Copenhagen) 139 

The Danewerk 139 

From Schleswig to Kappeln 140 

Flensburg Fjord. Gliicksburg. Sonderburg. . . . 141. 142 

22. The North Frisian Islands 142 

23. From Hamburg to Lubeck and to Stettin 145 

From Liibeck to Travemiinde ; to Kiel. — From Eutin 
to Orth. From Malente-Gremsmiihlen to Lutjenburg 151, 152 

From Biitzow to Rostock 153 

From Rostock to Wismar : to Greifswald 155 

24. From Hamburg to Berlin 156 

From Biichen to Lubeck. Eatzeburg 156 

From Ludvrigslust to Xeu-Brandenburg 156 

From Neustadt to Wismar 157 

From Paulinenaue to Xeu-Ruppin 157 

25. From Berlin to Schwerin and Wismar 157 

From Schwerin to Rehna 161 

26. From Berlin to Stralsund 162 

a. Via Xeu-Brandenburg 162 

From Lowenberg to Prenzlau. Rheinsberg 162 

From Xeu-Strelitz to Rostock and Warnemiinde (Copen- 
hagen) 163 

b. Via Angermunde 163 

From Stralsund to Rostock 166 

27. The Island of Riigen 166 

a. From Stralsund to Sassnitz (Trelleborg) via Bergen. 
Stubbenkammer. Arkona 166. — b. From Bergen to Put- 
bus and Lauterbach 169. — c. From Putbus to Binz and 
Gohren 169. 

3. Prom Cologne to Berlin via Hanover 
and Stendal. 

366 M. Railway in 9-17 hrs. {express fares 47 ^ 80, 29 JC 20, 18 JC 70 pf . ; 
ordinary 45 ^ 80. 27 JC 20. 17 JC 70 pf.) ; comp. RR. 4, 5. — From Cologne 
to Hanover (203 M.}. express in 43/^-6, ordinarv trains in 9V2-11 trs. (ex- 
press fares 27 JC 10, 17c^40pf., 11^; ordinary 25 ^^ 10, 15c^40pf, 10 .4^;. 

The first part of this line traverses the Rhenish -We8tphalia?i Coal 
Measures, which extend to the E. from the Rhine as far as Unna and 
Xamen. about 32 M. in length and 9-14 M. in width. They arc among 
the most productive in the world, surpassing those of England and sur- 
passed only by those of Pennsylvania, and yield 80 million tons of coal 
annually. These enormous deposits of coal have formed the basis for 

DUISBURG. 3- Route. 31 

a corresponding development in the production of iron and steel. The 
Rhenish -Westphalian coal-district now produces annually over 5,000,000 
tons of pig iron, forming about 40 per cent of the total out])ut of Germany 
and nearly 10 per cent of that of the world. The innumerable chimneys 
on both sides of the line testify to the enormous industrial activity of 
the district. The population is very dense, frequently averaging 1800 per 
Engl. sq. mile. 

From Cologne to (24 M.) Dilsseldorf^ see Baedeleys Rhine. 

391/2 M- Duisburg (* Europdischer Hof\ R. 2, D. 1 c^; Prinz 
Begent, R. 2-4 ^/l ; Berliner Hof., R. 3-5 .^J, an ancient town, 
situated bet\Yeen the Rhine and the Ruhr^ is a rapidly-increasing 
manufacturing place, with 212,000 inhab. (including the incorpor- 
ated towns of Ruhrort and Meiderich), and one of the chief depots of 
the Ruhr coal-traffic. Its united harbours now form one of the largest 
inland ports of the world. The Salvator - Kirche dates from the 
15th century. In the Burg-Platz is a monument to Gerhard Me?^- 
cator, the geographer, who died here in 1594; on the Kaiserberg 
is an equestrian Statue of Emp. William /., by Reusch (1898); 
and in the Schweden-Allee is 2i Bismarck Monument (1905). Comp. 
Baedeker^s Rhine. — The train now crosses the Ruhr. 

Beyond Duisburg a few of the through-trains run to Dortmund 
via — 

44 M. Oberhausen (Rail. Restaurant ; Ho f von Holla7id; 
Central J R. 2-3 ^ ; Reichskrone)^ a modern town with 52,000 in- 
habitants. It is the junction of the Cologne-Minden, Cologne-Ham- 
burg, and Wesel-Emmerich lines. It is the seat of the Gutehoffnungs- 
hiltte, one of the largest iron and steel works in the Ruhr district. 

At Oberhausen our route unites with the direct through-route from 
London to Berlin via Flushing. Passengers leaving London (Victoria, 
Holborn Viaduct, or St. Paul's), either in the morning or evening, reach 
Berlin in 22 hrs. The stages of the journey are as follows: from London 
to Queenhoro' IV4 hr. ; from Queenboro' to Flushing by steamer 63/^- 
71/2 hrs. ; from Flushing to Oberhatisen 51/2 brs. ; from Oberhausen to Be7-lin 
8 hrs. Comp. Baedeker's Belgium and Holland and Baedeker's Rhine. 

51 M. Altenessen (33,500 inhab.) is the junction for (31/2 ^^0 
^ssm (p. 32). — 56 M. Gelsenkirchen (Bahnhofs-Hotel; Ber- 
liner Hof), a great coal -mining centre with 150,000 inhab. (incl. 
Bismarck, Schalke, and other contiguous villages). — 59M. Wanne 
(Hintzen, R. «& B. 2 c^J, with 30,600 inhab. and large coal-pits, is 
the junction for Osnabriick, Bremen, and Hamburg (see R. 20). — 
73 M. Dortmund (p. 33). 

Most of the express -trains of this line run to Dortmund via 
Muhlheim and Essen. 

441/2 M.Miilheim an derRuhr (Retze, R. 2\/^-3^/2, D. 21/2-//, 
very fair; Monopol)^ a prettily-situated town with 95,000 inhab., 
surrounded by coal-pits and iron-works. The Grosse Kirche dates 
from the 13-1 5th centuries. 


32 Boutc 3. ESSEN. From Cologne 

As Essen is approached we gain a view to the left of Krupp's 
Cast Steel Worl's, a vast establishment of worldwide celebrity. 
The factory, to which visitors are not admitted, supplies many rail- 
way and steamboat companies in Europe and other parts of the 
world with rails, wheels, etc., and several of the great powers of 
Europe and Asia with steel guns. The works at Essen alone employ 
35.000 workmen, wliile nearly as many more are engaged in other 
plants belonging to the Kmpp Co. The works were founded in 1810 
by Friedrich Krupp (d. 1826) and owe their celebrity mainly to 
Alfred Krupp 1812-87 . who began the manufacture of steel guns 
about 1850. 

51^,0 31. Essen. — Hotels. ^Rheinischer Hof, Royah at the 
principarstation : "^Essener Hof : "^Berliner Hof. R. 2V2-3V2- B. 1. I). 2-3 JC. 
— £:az.vtr-C'«/"e. Koppstadt-Platz: Saalbau. — Post & Telegraph Office, 
opposite the Central Railway Station. 

Essen^ a town with 230,000 inhab., founded at the end of the 
9th century. Being the central point of a great coal-mining district 
(see p. 30). it has increased rapidly within the last fifty years (in 1854 
there were 10.500 inhab. only), and is surrounded by lofty chim- 
neys in every direction. 

From the Railway Station the Kettwiger-Str. leads to the Burg- 
Platz. with a Statue of Emp. William I. and the Municipal 
Museum. On the X. side of the square stands the *Mixster, one 
of the most ancient churches in Germany. It was restored in 1881-86. 
The AV. choir dates from the 10th cent.; the crypt under the E. 
choirs dates from 1051: the Gothic nave and choir were completed 
in 1316: the sacristy is of 1554. 

The INTERIOR contains an altar-piece by B. de Bruyn (1527), a large 
seven-branched candelabrum of the 10th cent., an ancient marble column, 
and th6 sarcophagus of St. Altfrid (13th cent.). The Goldene Kammer, 
or treasury, contains several curious and valuable Romanesque works of 
art of thellth cent, (sacristan, Berg-Str. 17). 

To the X.^. of the Minster is the handsome Hathaus^ with a 
Statue of Alfred Krupp ('see above;, by Schaper, in front of it. 

Several of the other Churches of Essen are handsome modern 
buildings, and the Business Offices are often imposing. In front 
of the Railway Offices is a Statue of Bismarck, by Felderhoff (1899). 

Essen is also a station on the railway from Diisseldorf to Dortmund 
via Lintorf (see p. 34). Branch-line to Altenessen, see p. 31. 

From Essex to Dusseldorf via Kettwig, 23 M.. railway in 3/^-1 hr. 
Beyond .21/2 M.) Rellingliausen the train passes through a tunnel into the 
Ruhrtal. — 51/2 M. "Werden 'Deutscher Kaiserj , an ancient town with 
14,000 inhab.. was formerly the seat of a Benedictine abbey, now used 
as a penitentiary. The main tower dates from the 10th cent., and the 
rest of the church is in the transition style of the 12-13th centuries. In 
the crypt is the burial-vault of St. Ludgerus (d. 809). — 8 M. Kettwig 
{Schk'sen : 6100 inhab.), with old-established cloth-factories, is prettily 
situated. Branch-line to MulTieini an der Ruhr (p. 31). — We now quit 
the Ruhr valley by the Hochstrasser Tunnel (500 yds. long). — 18 M. 
Rath. — -l?)^' Diisseldorf, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

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to Berlin. DORTMUND. 5. Bonte. 33 

From Essen to Hagen, 29 M., railway in IV2 hr. — 3 M. Steele 
(Post, R. 2V2 '^), an old town on the Ruhr, surrounded by coal-mines 
(pop. 13,000), is the junction of a branch-railway to Vohwinkel. — 91/2 M. 
Hattiyigen ; 121/2 M. Blankenstein, one of the prettiest places in the valley 
of the Ruhr, with a ruined castle (1227) ; 23 M. Volmarstein, opposite 
"Wetter (p. 41); 241/2 M. Herdecke (p. 41). — 29 M. Hagen, see p. 41. 

From Essen some of the ordinary trains run to Bochum via 
Steele (see above) and Hontrop^ but all the express-trains run via 
Kj'ay and Wattenscheid, 

6IV2 ^- Bochum (Kaiserhof ; Neuhauer., R. 2^l<^-4: Ji; 
Middelmann^ R. & B. 272-^ ^; cab, 1 pers. 60, 2 pers. 75 pf.), an 
important industrial place with 128,000 inhab., possesses very ex- 
tensive cast-steel works and several large factories, foundries, and 
coal-pits. The early-Grothic Peter- Paid-Kir che contains a font of 
the 12th cent, and a Romanesque shrine. The town possesses mon- 
uments to Emp. William I. and Bismarck. 

65 M. Langendreer (Burghof; pop. 24,000), the junction of a 
line to Hagen (p. 41). 

73 M. Dortmund. — Hotels. ^Romischer Kaiser (PI. a; C, D, 3), 
R. 23/^-6, B. 11/4, D. 21/2-4 ^; *Linde7ihof (PL b; C, 3), R. 21/2-5, B. 1, 
D. 11/2-3 t^, near the main railway-station; Middendorf (PL c; C, D, 3), 
Briick-Str. 10 ; Kolnischer Hof (PL e ; D, 4), Kolnische-Str. 7 ; Breiter 
Stein (PL f ; C, 3), Briick-Str. 37, R. & B. 21/^, D. I1/4 JC; Rheinischer 
Hof (PL g; C, 3), Kaiserhof (PL h; C, 3), both near the main station. — 
Beer at the tfnioyibrdu and the Krone, in the market-place ; Stade's, 
Beten-Str. 5; Ratskeller (in the Rathaus), etc. Wine at the Rheingold, 
Siid-Wall 12, at Hoblich's, Yiktoria-Str. 8, and at Ldhnemann's, Brau- 
haus-Str. (PL C, D, 4), all with restaurants (D. I1/2-2 J^). — Hansa-Cafe, 
Westenhell-Weg 40; Vienna Cafe, Briick-Str. (PL C, D, 3); Cafe Metro- 
pole, cor. of the Briick-Str. and Reinoldi-Str. (PL C, D, 3). 

Post Office (PL C, 4), Hiltrop-Wall 10. 

Taximeter Cab for 1-2 pers., per drive (800 metres) 60 pf., each 
400 m. more 10 pf . ; 3-5 pers., 600 m. 60 pf., each 300 m. more 10 pf . ; at 
night and beyond the city-limits, for 1-5 pers., 400 m. 60 pf., each 200 m. 
more 10 pf. — Carriage (Markische-Str. 9; PL D, 5) to the (I1/2 hr.) 
Hohen-Syburg and back 12 J^. 

Electric Tramways. Seven lines run through the town and extend 
to Fredenbaum, the Kronenburg, Horde, Dorstfeld, Korne, etc. 

Dortmund (260 ft.), the largest city in Westphalia, with 
185,000 inhab., is the centre of an important mining district, with 
numerous foundries. Mentioned in history as early as 899, it after- 
wards became a free imperial and fortified Hanseatic town, and in 
1388-9 successfully resisted a siege of 21 months by the Archbishop 
of Cologne and 48 other princes. The site of the ancient walls is now 
occupied by promenades, and the town wears a modernized aspect. 

The Brlick-Str. (PI. C, 3) leads from the station to the *Reinoldi- 
KiECHE (PL D, 3), an imposing structure in the transition style 
of the 13th cent., with a choir of 1421-50, and a W. tower dating 
from 1662-1701. The interior (restored in 1898; sacristan, Fried- 
hof 3, first floor; 50 pf.) contains stained glass (1546), late-Grothic 
choir-stalls (ca. 1450), a font of 1469, and a brazen reading-desk of 

34 Boute 3. DORT^klOTB. Froiu Cologne 

the 15tli century. Adjacent (Ostenhellweg 19) is a Gothic House 
of the 15th cent, (restored in 1896: restaurant), perhaps originally a 
guild-house. — The *Mariex-Kieche (PL D, 3: sacristan, Marien- 
Kirchhof 2) is a Romanesque structure of the end of the 12th cent., 
with a Grothic choir of 1350; the high-altar-piece is by a master of 
the early Cologne school. — The Rathafs (PL C, D, 4), in the 
market-place, originally a building of the 13th cent, but afterwards 
much altered, was entirely rebuilt in 1899 in the oriHnal stvle. 
On the groundfloor are the prehistoric collections of the Municipal 
Museum (see belowi. — The Roman Catholic Probstei-Kieche 
(PL C. 4\ a Gothic edifice finished in 1354, contains a beautiful 
late -Gothic Tabernaculum i restored in 1890 1 and an interestins: 


but badly-preserved altar-piece by Victor and Heinrich Diinwegge 
of Dortmund (^1521). — The Petri-Kirclie (PL C, 3), completely 
restored, contains a late-G-othic altar-piece. In the Su-d-Wall, op- 
posite the Grymnasium PL D. 4). is a bronze Statue of Bismarck^ 
Ijy "^andschneider !l903'. — At the corner of the Hansa-Str. and 
the Konigs-^Vall is the Municipal Museum (PL C, 3; on week-days 
10-4. on Sun. & holidays 11-1: free on Wed., Sat., & Sun., at other 
times 50 pf. i, with art-treasures from churches and monasteries in 
Dortmund, antiquities, costumes, furniture, coins, and the like. 

About 11 oM. to the X. of the market is Fredenhaiun (beyond PL B, 1), 
with a large park: about 1 M. to the S.E. is the Kronenhurg, two 
pleasure -resorts (tramways, see p. 33). — The Kaiser-Wilhehn-Haiii 
(PL E, 7), a park just beyond the Kronenburg, contains various mon- 
uments and affords fine views. 

Dortmund is the seat of the Harpea Mining Co., which employs 
25.000 men. — To the W. of the town are the large iron-works of the 
Dortmund Union, employing upwards of 12,000 hands ; to the X.E. are the 
Hoscli Iron d- Steel Works (8200 hands) ; and to the X.W. are the works 
of the Dortnurnd and Ems Canal (PI. A, 1; opened in 1899), which joins 
the Dollart at Emdeu 'p. 97) after a course of 150 M. 

The *Hohen-SybiLrg (comp. Map, p. 33) may be reached from Dort- 
mund by carriage (p. 33), by electric tramway, or by railway. The tram- 
way leads via Horde and Westhofen (p. 42; 35 pf.) to the lower station 
(25 pf.) of the cable-railway (return-fare 25 pf .) which ascends to within 
7 min. of the top. Those who go by railway alight either at (20 min.) 
LottriagTiausen or (1/2 hr.) Wittbrducke, whence the top is reached on 
foot in I-I1/.2 hr. — The hill (790 ft.) played an important part in the 
wars of Charlemagne with the Saxons, and the ruined castle on the top 
was built by Emp. Henry TV. To the W. of the castle stands the Kaiser 
TViLHELM MoxuMEXT .1902), dcsigucd by H. Stier and executed bj- A. and 
K. Doundorf, with bronze statues of Emp. William I., Emp. Frederick III., 
Prince Frederick Charles. Bismarck, and Moltke. — Good view of the 
Ruhr and Lenne valleys. 

Branch -lines run from Dortmund to Witten and Hagen (p. 41), to 
Sterkrade via TTanne (p. 31), to DUsseldort (p. 31) via Lintorf, and to 
Gronaii via DUlmen (p. 134). 

83 M. Kamen (Goldner Stern: Konig von Preussen), with 
10,600 inhab.. is the junction for Unna (p. 42j. 

93 M. Hamm < Railway Restaurant ; Rheinischer Hof: 
Victoi'ia, R. & B. 23^. D. 1^ „ '-^^'. ^^<^th near the station: Central), 

to Berlin. BIELEFELD. 3. Route. 35 

with 38,400 inliab., once the fortified capital of the County of Mark, 
which in 1609 was annexed to Brandenburg, has considerable 
manufactures of iron. The large Protestant Church was built in 
the 13th and 14th cent., the Roman Catholic Church in 1510. 
About 1 M. from the town (electric tramway) are the thermal baths 
of Bad Hamm (Kurhaus; Kur-Hotel; Feldhaus, B. from 2^2 ^J- 
Hamm is the junction of lines: N. to Milnster (p. 92), Emden (p. 97), 
and Norddeich (p. 98), S.E. to Soest (see p. 43), and S.W. to Unna (p. 42). 

The train crosses the Lippe. — 106 M. Neu-Beckum , the 
junction for a branch-line to (4M.) Beclcum (Post; TOOOinhab.) and 
(21 M.) Lippstadt (p. 43). Ill M. Oelde. Near (117 M.) Rheda 
the Ejus is crossed. 

124 M. Qiitersloh (Barkey), with 7400 inhab., is a silk and 
cotton making town. The ^PumpernickeV of this district, a dark 
brown bread made with unsifted rye-flour, is considered extremely 
nutritious. — Beyond (132 M.) Brackwede (9600 inhab.; Deutsches 
Haus), to the right, is the 'Kolonie Bethel', for epileptic patients. 
Brackwede is the junction of a line to (33 M.) Osnabruck (p. 70). 

135 M. Bielefeld. — Hotels. *Gra7id-Hdtel Geist, opposite the 
station, R. from 21/2, D- 2^/2 JC; Drei Kronen, Obern-Str. 25, R. from 21/2? 
D. 21/4 c^,' Deutsches Haus, Obern-Str. ; Kaiserhof (R. 2V2-4, B- 1, !>• IV2- 
2V2 ^), Post, Westfdlischer Hof, these three in the Bahnhof-Str. ; Teuto- 
burg, Obertor-Wall 24, R. 2-3, D. 2 JC, very fair. — Restaurants. Geist 
(see above ; wine) ; Rathauskeller, in the Rathaus (see below ; D. l^/o J^) ; 
Modersohn, cor. of the market-place and the Altstadter Kirch-Str. ; Berg- 
lust Restaurant, at the foot of the Sparenburg (see below), with view of 
the town; Kaiser-Cafe, Nieder-Wall. — Taximeter Cabs. Fare 50 pf. for 
1-2 pers. up to 1000 metres, for 3-4 pers. up to 750 metres, or for 1-4 pers. 
up to 500 metres at night (11-7 ; in winter 10-8) ; 10 pf . more for each 
additional 500, 375, or 250 metres. — Electric Tramway through the 
chief streets. — Post & Telegraph Office, Herforder-Str. 

Bielefeld (394 ft.), with 75,000 inhab., is the central point of the 
Westphalian linen-trade, which was introduced here by Dutch set- 
tlers in the 16th century. The Altstadter Kirche. has a finely carved 
altar (16th cent.), and the Neustddter Kirche^ restored in 1902, 
contains two 14th cent, tombs. In front of the Rathaus is a statue 
of Emp. William I. The castle of ^Spai^enhiirg (575 ft.; restau- 
rant), reached hence in 10 min., was erected in the 12th cent, and 
restored after a fire in 1877; it deserves a visit (fee; fine view). The 
* Johannisherg (restaurant), 1 M. to the W., and the Hunenhurg 
(IY4 br.) are other good points of view. Light railway to (9Y2 ^0 
Enger (p. 36). 

143 V2M. Herford (236 ft. ; Stadt Berlin, Alter Markt, K. 21/2, 
B. 2Y2 t^5 well spoken of; Rorig^s Hotel, at the station; Central 
Hotel, Kurflirsten-Str., R. & B. 2^/4, D. l^j^^Jl; Stadt Bremen; 
Kaiserhof), situated at the influx of the Aa into the Wer7^e, with 
28,900 inhab., contains some fine old dwelling-houses. In front of 
the station is a bronze Statue of the Great Elector, by Wefing 

36 Route 3. DETMOLD. Prom Cologne 

(1902). The fine Wittekind Fountain (1899) stands in the Willielm- 
Platz (8 min. from the station). To the S. of this is the Munster- 
Kirche, a Romanesque structure of the beginning of the 13th cent., 
with a Gothic apse of the 15th cent.; it contains a font of the 
15th century. The Marien-Kirche (outside the town), rebuilt in 
the 13th cent., is a handsome building with remains of old stained 
glass, a stone altar of the 14th cent., and an old carved-wood altar. 

From Herford to Wallexbruck. 11 M.. light railway in 1 hr. — 
51/2 M. Enger ^Herzog Wittekind j. with 3100 inhab., was the seat of 
Charlemagne's obstinate opponent, the 8axon Dulx:e Wittekind, after he 
became a Christian. His bones are still preserved here in the Abbey Church, 
which was built in the 12th cent, but afterwards much altered. The 
bronze figure of Wittekind, in front of the church, is by Wefing (1903). 

From Herford to Detmold and Altexbekex, 35 M., railway in 
2 hrs. — 5 M. Salzuflen (5800 inhab.: Kur-Hotel), with salt-baths and a 
large starch-factory. — 12 M. Lage (5500 inhab.; Freitag; Reichskrone), 
a small town in a hilly district on the Werre. To the right the mon- 
ument of Arminius (p. 37) is visible. A branch-railway runs hence to 
(46 M.) Hameln (p. 46) via (51/2 M.) Lemgo (325 ft.; 'WUlker; Stadt 
Leingo\ a town of 9000 inhab., with a Romanesque church altered in the 
Gothic style about 1290 and many gabled houses of the 16th century. — 
17 M. Detmold, see below. — 23 M. Horn-2Ieinherg ; 29 M. Hinlmig- 
hausen (p. 45; Teutoburger Hof). — 35 ^i. Altenbeken (p. 45). 

Detmold. — Hotels. ^ Stadt Frankfurt, Lange-Str. 65, R. 2-31/2, 
B. 1, D. 21 4, pens. 5-71/2 c^: Kaiserhof, opposite the station, R.&B. from 
3. pens, from 5 JC : Deutsches Haus : Fiirst Leopold: Lippischer Hof, 
Hornsche-Str.. R. 2-3.^; Teutoburger Hof , Exter-Str., R.&B. 2-3, D. 11/2^. 
— Restaurants at the hotels : also, Meier. Lange-Str. 19 ; Neuer Krug, 
with garden. D. at both I1/2 ^^- — Carriage to the Arminius Monument 
(Hermanns-Denkmal) 8 <,^ ; to the Monument and the Externsteine 18 JC, 
driver 2 ..4. — Electric Tramway from the railwaj'-station through the 
town to (5 M.) Johannaberg (40 pf.^ and to (21/2 M.)'Hiddesen (20 pf.). 

Detmold (440 ft.) , the capital of the principality of Lippe, with 
13.200 inhab.. is situated in the pretty valley of the Werre. The Residenz- 
Schloss, 1/2 M. to the S.E. of the railway-station, a Renaissance structure, 
dating from the 16th cent., contains an ancestral hall, a collection of 
valuables, and some fine tapestry (tickets 30 pf .). On the N. side of the 
Schloss-Platz is a statue of Count Ernst (d. 1904), Regent of Lippe, by 
Wefing (1907). In the market-place is the tasteful Donop-Brunnen (by 
Holbe; 1902}. A little to the W. is the house (Wehm-Str. 5) in which 
Ferdinand Freiligrath, the poet (1810-76), was born. In the Hornsche-Str. 
are a Natural History Mu-^euni (open 10-12 and 1-5 : 50 pf.) and Xhe Library 
(110,000 vols.; open on ^Ved., 2-4, and Sat., 12-1). 

Detmold is the most convenient starting-point for excursions in the 
Teutoburgian Forest (Teutoburger Wald), a hilly region about 90 M. 
long and 5-10 M. broad, extending X.W. from near Warburg on the Diemel 
to the neighbourhood of Rheine. The S.TT. portion of this region is covered 
with fine forests, but the lower X.W. portion is occupied by barren 
moors. The highest point is the Volmerstod (1535 ft.). The chief points 
(Monument of Arminius. Berlebeck S^^rings, Externsteine) may be visited 
in one dav from Detmold. For farther details, see Der Teutoburger Wald, 
by H. Thorbecke (16th ed.. Detmold. 1907 ; II/.2 .^). — The precise position 
of the battlefield in the Saltus Teutoburgiensis, where in the year A.D. 9 
Arminius the Cheruscan gained a signal victory over the Roman general 
Varus, is disputed : recent authorities have been inclined to locate it 
near the Dorenschlucht, about 6 M. to the "W. of Detmold, but Mommsen 
looks for it in the "Wiehen-Gebirge, near the estate of Barenau, 71/2 M. 
to the E. of Bramsche (p. 111). 




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i: 115.000 

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Uli^l. Miles 

to ^Berlin. OEYNHAUSEN". 3. Route, 37 

On the *Grotenburg (1263 ft. ; Zum He^^mannsdenkmal, R. & B. 3, 
D. 2V2t^), about 3 M. to the S.W. of Detmold, rises the colossal Hermanns' 
Denkmal oy Monument ofArminius, executed byErnst von Bandcl (d.l876) 
and inaugurated in 1875. Upon an arched substructure, 100 ft. in height 
(constructed in 1838-16), stands the figure (56 ft.) of the Prince of the 
Cherusci, with raised sword. The gallery of the monument (adm. 25 pf.) 
commands an admira])le panorama. — The *Externsteine ( Externsteine 
Inn, Kaiserhof, R. 1=V4-2V2? ^- ^V'i ^)y ^-3 hrs' drive from Detmold, are 
a curious group of five rocks 100-130 ft. in height, protruding from the 
earth like gigantic teeth (fine view; 10 i)f.). In one of the rocks is a 
grotto, at the entrance to which is a remarkable relief of the Descent 
from the Cross (about 1115). 

151 M. Lohne (Hotel zur Guten Hoffnung), the junction for 
Hameln (see p. 46) and for Osnabriick and Rheine (R. 8). 

154 M. Bad Oeynhausen. — Hotels. "^Kur-Hotel, R. 4-12, 
D. 3-4, pens. 10-15 JC ; *Vogeler, R. 21/2-6, B. 1, D. 3-4, pens. 6V2-II -^; 
Pavilion, R. «& B. from 31/4, D. 21/2 '-S, both opposite the station; Victoria, 
R. 2-4, D. 2, pens. 6V2-8V2 ^- — Restaurants at the N. Railway Station, 
the Ktirhaus, and the hotels. 

Visitors' Tax 20 .'fC, 2 pers. 30 JC, each addit. pers. 5 JC (first three 
days free). Bath 13/^ JC. — A band plays thrice daily near the Kurhaus. 

Bad Oeynhausen^ or Rehme (230 ft.; pop. 4300), a watering- 
place with about 15,000 patients annually, is pleasantly situated 
on the right bank of the Werre^ an affluent of the Weser. In the 
Kur-Park are the Kurhaus^ the Theatre^ a covered Promenade^ 
and the Bath Houses^ with the warm saline springs (77°-93° Fahr.). 
Favourite walks to the Siel and Nadelwehr (1^4 M.), to Eiding- 
hausen (IY4 M.), to Bergkirchen (3^/4 M.), and other points. 

The train crosses the Weser near the village of Haiisberge, and 
soon enters the Weserscharte^ or Porta Westphalica, a narrow 
defile by which the Westphalian mountains are quitted. 

160 M. Porta. — Hotels. Kaiserhof, with garden, R. from IV2, 
D. 21/2, pens. 41/2-7 tS; Nolting, R. 2-4, D. 2, pens. 5-6 JC, very fair; 
Wittekindsburg , these three on the left bank. Grosser Kurfilrst, with 
view-terrace ; Kaiser Friedrich, with garden, both on the right bank. 

The railway-station is on the right bank, at the foot of the 
Jacohsherg (615 ft.), on the top of which is a Bismarck Column 
(1902), commanding an extensive view. On the opposite bank of the 
Weser ^ which is crossed by a chain-bridge, rises the Wittekindsherg 
(820 ft.), on which is (25 min. from the Kaiserhof) an imposing 
^Monument to Emperor William /., designed by Bruno Schmitz, 
and including a colossal statue by Zumbusch. About 5 min. below 
the monument (to the W.) is an inn, and 18 min. above it, also to 
the W., is a belvedere; 8 min. farther on (down hill) is the Witte- 
kindsburg Hotel (see above) and 3 min. beyond that is the Mar- 
gareten- or Wittekinds-Kapelle. 

164 M. Minden. — Hotels. Victoria Hotel, R. & B. 3-6, D. 21/4, 
omn. 1/2-^; Stadt London, R. 2V2-3V2> B. 1^^, both good; Westfdlischer 
Hof, R. & B. 21/4, D. 11/4-2 JC. — Restaurants Tonhalle, Stift, and Victoria- 

38 ^oide 3. BrCKEBURG. From Cologne 

halle. — HaHge's Wine Rooms. — Post Office. Grosse Domhof. — Light 
JRailway to the Porta Westphalica (p. 37) hourly in 25 min. (fare 20 pf.)- 

Minden <'148 ft.i, an old town witli 27.000 inliab., lies on both 
banks of the Weser. which is crossed here by two bridges. From the 
Main Railway Station, which lies on the right bank of the Weser, 
we follow the Victoria-Str. and Kaiser-Str. to (12 min.) the Wese?" 
Bridge (view of the Porta Westphalica). Xear the W. end of the 
bridge are a Statue of the Great Elector I'l 640-88), by Haverkanip, 
and a War Monument. The Roman Catholic * Cathedral is a well- 
proportioned edifice, of which the tower dates from 1062-72, the 
nave from the end of the 13th cent., and the choir from 1377-79 
(sacristan, Dom-Str. 12). Rich window-tracery. The cathedral treas- 
nry contains valuable works of art. The Bathaus^ in the market- 
place, has arcades of the 15th century. 

From Minden to Uchfe (p. 39), 18 M.. light railway in I1/2 hr. At 
(41/0 M.) Todtenhausen a monument commemorates the Battle of Minden 
(Aug. 1st., 1759), in which the French were defeated by an Anglo- 
Hanoverian army under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. 

1681 ., M. Biickeburg 197 ft.; Bahnhofs-Hotel, R. from 2, 
D. 11 2-3 'Jt; Deutsches Haus, R. 2-4, B. 1 ,, D. 1^ ^-S .^, both 
good; Berliner Hof; Ratsleller\ the capital of the principality 
of Schaumburg-Lippe, is a dull town, with 5700 inhab.. a palace, 
and a pleasant park. The Protestant church, in the baroque style, 
erected in 1613, bears the appropriate inscription, ^Exemplura 
Religionis Xon Structurae\ 

The '^Papenbrink (994 ft.), 4 M. to the S. (we follow the Rinteln road 
to Klein-Bremen, and beyond it turn to the left), commands an extensive 
panorama. The descent may be made to Rinteln (p. 46) via Todenmann 
in 1 hr. — About 3^,2 M. to the W. of Biickeburg are the small sulphur- 
baths of Nammen: and 41/2 M. to the S.E. are those of Eilsen (see below). 

176 M. Stadthagen /Stadt Bremen; Stadt London), an ancient 
town (6000 inhab. I with an old chateau and Rathaus il6th cent.), 
chalybeate baths, and many timber-buildings. 

From Stadthagen a branch-railway runs to (12 M., in 1 hr.) Rinteln 
(p. 46;, via (8 M.) Eilsen fRinne, R. from 21/2 'JC: Kurhaus), with sulphur 
and mud baths. From Eilsen a walk of 4 hrs. may be taken via the 
Luhdener Klippen. Steinbergen, and Arensburg to the Paschenburg (p. 46). 

From 1 186 M.' Haste a branch-line runs via the baths of Xenn- 
dorf I'Hot. Cassel; Hot. Hannover) to (15 M.) Weetzen (p. 46). — 
190 M. Wunstorf(^o]).VoOO', Bahnhofs-Hotel; Ritter), the junction 
for Bremen (p. 101 1, with a monastery founded in 871 (now occupied 
by a community of noble ladiesi. 

From ^Vr:^STORF to Uchte. 32 M.. lieht railwav in 3 hrs. — ^/^ M. 
Wunstorf- Stadt. — 5 M. Steinhude (pop. 1750: Strand Hotel), on the E. 
bank of the Steinhuder Meer, a lake 3 M. in width. On an artificial 
island in this lake launch in 10 min. ; 25 pf.) Count Wilhelm zur Lippe 
(d. 1777) erected the Wilhelmstein , a small model fortress, where he 
established a miltary school. The fortress contains a collection of can- 
non and weapons of' various kinds. — 12^ o M. Bad Rehburg ^Eerzog 
von Cambridge, R. 11/2 -2V2 «^; ^if^iicke: visitor's tax 10 JCj, on the E. 
side of the Lhccumer Berg (528 ft.), is a pleasant watering-place, with 

to Berlin. STENDAL. 5. Bonfe. 39 

mineral baths and whey-cure. — I8V2 M, Loccum has a Cistercian convent, 
founded in 1163, with a Romanesque church. Tliis now belongs to a 
Lutheran seminary, and the lecture-room has been adorned with good fres- 
coes by Edw. von Gebhardt. — We cross the Weser. — 32 M. Uchte, see p. 38. 

203 M. Hanover, see p. 71. 

From Hanover to Leipzig via Magdeburg, 165 M., railway in 5-6 hrs. 
(fares 24^10, 17^^90, 12 c^ 50 pf.). — At (10 M.) Lehrte (see below) 
tlie line diverges from the Stendal and Berlin line and runs via (16 M.) 
Hdmelerwald (branch to Hildesheim, p. 83) and (22 M.) Peine (Tilllmann) 
to (33 M.) Gross-GleicUngen (p. 47) and (38 M.) Brunswick (p. 84). From 
Brunswick to (91 M.) Magdebui'g, sec pp; 47, 48; from Magdeburg to 
(165 M.) Leipzig, see R. 36b. Through-carriages by this line run to Dresden 
and Vienna. 

213 M. Lehrte^ the junction of the Harburg (R. 17), Bnmswick 
(see above), and Hildesheim (15 M.; p. 79) lines. 

From (238 M.) Isenbilttel branch-railways run to (19 M.) Brun- 
swick (p. 84) and to (22 M.) Wittingen and (341/2 M.) Wieren (p. 40). 

246^2 ^^' Fallerslehen^ where the poet Hoffmann von Fallers- 
leben (1798-1874) was born, is the junction of a branch -line to 
(I81/2 M.) Brunswick (p. 84). — 252 M. Vorsfelde, to the left of which 
is Schloss Wolfshurcj ; 258 M. Oebisfelde^ the junction of lines to 
(27 M.) Brunswick, to Magdeburg (p. 49), and to Salzwedel (p. 40); 
27672 M. Gardelegen (Deutsches Haus, R. 2, D. l^/g ^), an old 
town with dilapidated walls and a Romanesque church (8200 inhab.). 

296 M. Stendal. — Hotels. Rudolphi, Breite-Str. 11 ; Schwarzer 
Adler, Kornmarkt 5, R. from 2, D. 11/2-2^^; Prinz Leopold von Bay em, 
Breite-Str. 81, R. from 21/4 JC; BaJinhofs-Hotel, by the station, R. 13/^- 
21/4, D. l^/^JC. — HaiipVs Restaurant; Rail. Restaurant; Vienna Cafe. 
— Tramway from the station through the town to the Uenglinger Tor 
(10 pf .). 

Stendal^ on the Uchte, a town with 33,300 inhab., founded in 
the 12th cent, by Albert the Bear, was once the capital of the Alt- 
mark. From the Railway Station we follow the Bahnhof-Str., pass- 
ing a bust of 6r. Nachtigal (1834-85), the African traveller (born at 
Eichstedt, near Stendal), to (12 min.) the T angermilnder Tor, a 
gate dating from ca. 1460. Thence we proceed to the left, along 
the Hospital-Str., to the Cathedral (verger. No. 12 Hall-Str.), a 
noble late-Gothic structure, founded in 1188 and restored in 1893. 
The nave dates from 1423-66, and the W. portions with the towers, 
in the transition style, are from 1257. The choir contains fine 
stained glass of 1480. The Grothic cloisters (13th and 15th cent.) 
are now fitted up as a Provincial Museum (open free on Sun., 11-12, 
and Thurs., 2-3; at other times on application to the keeper, Weber- 
Str. 15). The imposing late-Grothic Marien-Kirche was completed 
in 1447. Adjacent is the late-Grothic Rathaus, in front of which 
is a Roland's Column of 1525. To the E. of the Marien-Kirche 
is a bronze statue of the celebrated archaeologist Winckelmann 
(1717-68), a native of Stendal. The * Uenglinger Tor, to the KW. 
of the town, is a richly decorated brick structure of ca. 1440. 

40 Boute 3. SALZ^VTEDEL. 

A branch-railway runs from Stendal to (6 M.. in V^^^O Tangermtlnde 
(Schicarzer Adlerj, a town with 12,800 inhab., picturesquely situated on 
the lofty bank of the Elbe. It was long the residence of the Margraves 
of Brandenburg, and is remarkable for its highly ornate brick-buildings 
of the 14th and 15th centuries. It is surrounded by a wall, still in fair 
preservation. From the Raihcay Station we proceed via the Bismarck-Str. 
and the cemetery to the Hiihnerdorfer Toi\ a town-gate of 1470. A little 
to the S. are the remains of the Burg, which was destroyed in the Thirty 
Years' War. It was built by Emp. Charles IV.. a bronze statue of whom 
(by L. Cauer; 1900j stands in the Burg-Platz. We now descend to the 
river and then ascend from the Rosspforte to the old town, with the 
Stephans-Kirche (Prot.), erected in the Gothic style under Charles IV. 
and in the 15th cent, (key at Pfarrhof 5; 1-5 pers. 50 pf.). In the 
market-place, to the W. of the church, is the *Rathaus, a picturesque 
brick building with a fine gable (2nd half of 15th cent. ; restored in 1850). 
Farther to the S.W. are the Schrot-Turm (154 ft. in height) and the 
Xeustddter Tor (1415-40). 

From Stendal to Bremex. 145 M. , in 31/2-6V2 ^^^- Country ilat 
and uninteresting. The most important station is (35 M.) Salz'wedel 
(Deutscher Hof, Schwarzer Adler, R. 2-21/4, D. 23/^ jcj. on the navigable 
Jeetze, one of the oldest places in the Mark (11,100 inhab.), containing 
several interesting buildings. The chief of these are the AmtsgericM 
or District Court, the old Rathaus (end of the 15th cent.), containing a 
collection of antiquities (open free on Sun. in summer, 11.30 to 1); the 
3Iarien~Kirche, of the 13-14th cent.; the Katharineii-Kirche, begun in 
1247, altered in the 15th cent.; the Lorenz-Kirche (Rom. Cath.), of the 
13th and 14th cent.: and a number of late -Gothic timber buildings. 
Branch-line to Oebisfelde, see p. 39. — 58 M. Wiei^en. — 56 M. Uelzen 
(p. 113) is the junction for Hamburg and Hanover. — From (99 M.) 
Soltau (pop. 4860; Meyer's Hotel; a branch-line runs to (28 M.) Buch- 
holz (p. 133), and another through the Liineburg Heath via Walsrode to 
Hanover (54 M.). — 109 M. Visselhouede is connected by a branch-line 
with (91/2 ^^■) Walsrode, — At (127 M.) Langwedel our line joins that 
from Hanover (p. 101). — 145 M. Bremen, see p. 101. 

From Stendal to Hamburg (120 M.) and to Magdeburg (36 M.), see 
R. 36 ; to Wittenberge, see also R. 36. — Light railway to Arneburg (9 M.). 

Beyond 301 31.* Hdmerten the train crosses tlie Elbe. — 
304 M. Schonhausen (Filrst Bismarck; Rail. Restaurant^ 
both unpretending), the property of the Bismarck -Schonhausen 
family since 1562, and the birthplace of Prince Bismarck (1815-98). 
The mansion is not accessible, but the 'Museum' contains gifts 
presented to the prince lopen until dusk, fee; closed on Sun.). 

317\ 2 ^' Rathenoiv (Deutsches Haus; Grosser Kurfiirst), a 
town of 23,100 inhab.. on the right bank of the Havel^ manufac- 
tures glass and spectacles. It has statues of Emp. William I., 
General von Rosenberg, and the Great Elector. Branch -line to 
Xeustadt (p. 157) and light railway to (9^2^-) P^^li^^^^^^(P- ^^^)- 
— Several unimportant stations. 

3541/2 ^- Spandau ( Friedrichshof ; Kaiserhof, both at the 
station i, at the confluence of the Spree and the Havel, with 70,000 
inhab., is strongly fortified and contains extensive military establish- 
ments. The imperial military reserve fund of six million sterling 
is kept in the imposing old Julius Tower in the Citadel. See 
Baedeker's Berlin and its Environs (1908). 

366 M. Berlin, see p. 1. 


4. Prom Cologne to Berlin via Hildesheim. 

368 M. Railway in 9V2-1^V4 l^i's. (express fares 47 JC 80, 29 JC 20, 1% JC 
70 pf. ; ordinary fares 45 JC 80, 27 JC 20, 17 Ji 70 pf .)• Dining and sleeping 
cars are attached to the principal (D) trains. 

From Cologne to (44 M.) Hagen via (28 M.) Elherfeld, (30 M.) 
Barmen J and (35 M.) Schwelm, see Baedeker^ s Bhine. 

44 M. Hagen. — Hotels. In the town: Glitz, R. 21/4-3, B. 3/^, 
D. I1/2-2V2J omn. V2 «^? "^'CiT fair; 3Ionopol. Near the railway-station: 
Limenschloss, R. 21/2-8, B. 1, D. 11/2-21/2-^; Rotner, R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 1 1/2-3 c^, 
very fair; Russmann ; Victoria; Deutsches Haus. ■ — Restaurants at 
the Romer (wine), Glitz, Limenschloss, and Monopol hotels ; Rail. Restau- 
rant, very fair; Ratskeller. — Cafes. Hohenzolleni ; Tigges. — Post & 
Telegraph Office, at the main railway -station. — Tramways from the 
rail, station through the town to Eckesey, Haspe, Cabel, Hohenlimburg, 
and Iserlohn. 

Hagen (365 ft.), a flourishing town with 85,000 inhab., extends 
along the valleys of the Volnie and Ennepe and contains large 
iron-works and textile mills. The chief object of interest for the 
stranger is the *Folkwaxg Museum, which contains pictures 
(French and German school), sculptures, Japanese and Chinese 
objects, old furniture, and collections of natural history and eth- 
nography (open on week-days 9-1 and 2 till dusk. Sun. 11-1; adm. 
1 ,Jl). — The Rathaus and the Artisan Colony may also be 

From Hagen to Dortmund, 20 M., railway in 1 hr. — The train 
follows first the Ennepe and then the Volme and next crosses the Ruhr 
by a lofty viaduct. — 21/2 M. Herdecke (Zweibrucker Hof, R. & B. from 
2V2 ^)7 3. town of 5200 inhab., the junction of lines to Diisseldorf (p. 32), 
Essen (p. 32), and other points. About 5 M. to the N.E. is the Hohen- 
Syburg (p. 34). — We now skirt the Kaisbcrg (r.), where Charlemagne is 
said to have once encamped; the tower on the top (adm. for 1-4 pers. 
50 pf .) is a monument to Baron Stein , the eminent Prussian minister 
(d. 1831). — The train again crosses the Ruhr. — 5 M. Wetter (pop. 8000; 
Strandes), picturesquely situated on a height, with a ruined castle and 
a belvedere. Volmarstein (p. 33) lies about IV2 M. to the S. — 91/2 M. 
"Witten (Konig von Preussen; Dimnehacke, R. & B. from 3, D. IV2-2 e^J, 
an industrial town with 35,800 inhab., pleasantly situated on the Ruhr. 
Fine view from the Helenenturm (1/4 hr.). Electric tramways run to Bochum 
and other points. — 20 M. Dortmund, see p. 33. 

From Hagen to Siegen, 66 M. , railway in 2-31/2 hrs. This line 
(Ruhr-Sieg-Bahn) connects the busy and picturesque valley of the Lenne 
with the coal-measures of the Ruhr. — 11 M. Hohenlimburg (400 ft.), a 
small town with 12,800 inhab., is commanded by the chateau of Prince 
Beutheim on a precipitous wooded height (*View from the top). — 13 M. 
Letmathe (423 ft.; Bohe , R. 2-4 J^), with 6300 inhab. and a large zinc- 
foundry near the station, is the ] unction for Iserlohn and Frondenberg 
(see below). — 19 M. Altena (522 ft. ; Markischer Hof, R. 2-3 JC; Post) is 
a picturesquely- situated little tow^n, with the ancestral 8chloss of the 
old Counts von der Mark. Pop. 14,000. The grounds on the hills to the 
S. of the castle afford beautiful views. Conspicuous war-monument. — 
From (38 M.) Finnentrop (770 ft.) a branch diverges to Olpe (1070 ft.) 
and (201/2 M.) Rotemilhle. — 66 M. Siegen (Deittscher Kaiser, R. from 2, 
D. 21/40^; Goldner Lotve, R.&B. 2c^80pf., both very fair), a busy old 
mining town (25,200 inhab.), with two castles of the extinct Princes of 

42 P^oi'.te 4. SOEST. From Cologne 

Xassaii-Siegen, Rubens (1577-1640) was born here while his parents were 
living in exile. Comp. also Baedeker's Rhine. 

At Betzdorf, lOV-, ^I- beyond Siegen, the line unites with the Cologne 
and Giesseu railway (see Baedeker's Rhine). 

From Letmathe to Iserlohn and Froxdexberg. 151/2 ^-5 branch- 
line in IV4 hr. The train crosses the Lenne. To the left rise two detached 
rocks styled the 'Pater' and "Xonue". near which is the Gn'irmanns-Hdhle. 
— 1V_> M. Dechenhohle. The ^Dechen-Hohle, a highly-interesting 
stalactite cavern (admission in summer. 1-3 pers. 1 c^ 20, 4 or more pers. 
40 pf. each), lighted with electricitv, extends about 330 vds. into the hill. 

31^ M.'iserlohn (810 ft. ; Sander, R. 2^^ J6, good; HohenzoUern, 
R. & B. 3-5 .JC : Schi'jan). with 29,600 inhab., is one of the most important 
manufacturing places in Westphalia, the chief products being iron and 
brass wares, needles, and wire. The picturesque environs are crowded 
with factories of every kind. The Stadt-Kirche contains a fine carved 
altar of the 15th century. Xear the station is the Alexander-Hohle, a 
place of popular resort, whence a pleasant walk, commanding admirable 
views, may be taken along the Kidturiceg. — 151/2 ^- Frondenberg {^. 55). 

The train crosses the Ruhr jnst below its confluence with the 
Lenne. From (50 M.i Westhofen (fWittekind) an electric railway 
ascends to the tower of Hohen-Syhurg (p. 34), which rises on an 
abrupt hill to the left (return-fare 45 pf.). 

521 ^^ 3x. Schwerte (Sternherg: Kaiserhof, R. 21/2-4, B. 11/2- 
2iy2 ^/^y. an industrial town of 13.100 inhab., with a Romanesque 
church, altered in the early-Gothic period (carved altar of 1523; 
stained-glass windows of the 14-1 5th cent.}, is the junction for the 
line to Arnsberg and Cassel iR. 61. 

From (58 M.) Holzwickede a branch diverges to (IO1/2 M.) 
Dortmund (p. 33). — 63 M. Unna (Strube; Xiemeijer, R.' 2-3, 
D. 1^ 4 ^), a town of 16,300 inhab., with salt-works, the junction 
for Hamm and Dortmund (R. 3). 

A branch-line runs hence to (6 M.) Kamen (p. 34) via (21/2 M.) Unna- 
Konigsborn, station for Konigsborn (Karhaus, R. 3-5. B. 1. D. 21/2; 
pens. 5-6 JCj, with thermal saline springs. 

81 M. Soest. — Hotels. Overiceg, R. 21/2-4, B. 3/^, D. from I1/2, 
omn. 1/2 ^- ^'^I'v fair: Vosicinkel. R. & B. 2^/4, omn. 1/2 ^; Central. — 
Railway Restaurant. D. (12-2j l^j^JC; Andernach's Kornstubchen, Thomii- 
Str. 31. with c[uaint old equipment. 

Soest (320 ft.), an old town with 17,700 inhab., in the fertile 
Soester Borde. is mentioned in documents as early as the 9th cent, 
and afterwards became a fortified Hanseatie town of much im- 
portance. The town is still partly surrounded by a broad rampart 
and contains some interesting frame-houses. 

From the Bailway Station we proceed to the S. to (12 min.) 
the Bathau.s, an edifice of 1701, with interesting archives. Opposite, 
to the AV., is a bronze Statue of Entp. William /., by Geyer (1888j. 
To the S. rises the Romanesque Cathedral of St. Patroclus^ dating 
from the 12th cent., with a facade recalling those of the municipal 
buildings of Italy (sacristan, Osthofen-Str. 1). The mural paintings 
in the choir ^restored) were executed in the second half of the 
12th centurv. The sacrist v contains chasubles of the 15th cent., an 

to Berlin. PADERBORN. 4. Route. 43 

embroidered cushion of the 12th cent., and an altar-cross by Ant. 
Eisenhoidt. — The Petri-Kirche, to the W. of the cathedral, also 
dates from the 12th century. — The Chapel of St. Nicholas^ a 
little to the S. (shown by the cathedral verger), contains mural paint- 
ings (restored) of the best Romanesque period (1231); the altar- 
piece, the masterpiece of Conrad of Soest (early 15th cent.), is now- 
kept at the deanery. — In the Kasernen-Str., No. 22, is the Btirghof 
or Lohof a Gothic residence of 1559, with a Renaissance balcony 
of 1601. The adjacent Burghof Chapel (Romanesque; 12th cent.) 
now serves as a museum. — The Osthof en-Tor (1526), on the E. 
side of the town, is the only surviving town-gate. — The church 
of St. Maria zur Hohe or Hohne-Kirche contains mural paint- 
ings of about 1250 (restored). — A little to the N. is the Gothic 
Wiesen-Kirche ('St. Mary of the Meadow'), founded in 1314, com- 
pleted in the 15th cent., and restored in 1850-52 (sexton, Wiesen- 
kirchhof 10). The picturesque apse should be observed. The church 
contains an altar-piece of 1473 (Westphalian School) in the N. 
aisle, and another (with wings), formerly ascribed to Heinrich 
Aldegrever but now to Gert van Lon. The stained glass in the 
window (15th cent.) over the N. side-entrance represents the Last 
Supper, at which the Westphalian ham, the staple dish of the 
country, takes the place of the Paschal lamb. On the S. wall, to 
the right of the pulpit, hangs a curious embroidered altar-cloth 
of the 14th century. 

Drilggelte, on the road to Arnsberg (p. 56), 7 M. to the S. of Soest, 
possesses a curious twelve-sided chapel of the middle of the 12th century. 

From Soest to Brilon, 34 M., branch-railway through the Mohne- 
Tal in 2 hrs. — 19 M. Belecke (see below); to Lippstadt and Warstein, 
see below. — 31 M. Brilon, see p. 56. 

From Soest to Hamm (p. 34), 15 M., railway in 35-40 minutes. This line 
forms part of the direct route from Cassel to Miinster and Emden (R. 12). 

84 M. Sassendorf (Lohofer), with small salt-baths. — 94 M. 
Lippstadt (Koppelmann, R. from 2 t//l ; Bahnhofs- Hotel) ^ a town 
with 15,500 inhab., on the Lippe. The extensive Marien-Kirche is 
in the transition style of the 12-13th centuries. 

A branch-line diverges here to (16 M.) Belecke (branch to Brilon and 
Soest, see above) and (19 M.) Warstein (Bergenthal), near which are the fine 
stalactite Bielstein Caverns (adm. 75 pf.). — From Lippstadt to 3Iunster 
and to Beckicm, see p. 35. 

121 M. Paderbom. — Hotels. Weisser Schican, R. 2Vi-4, D. 
21/4, omn. V2 ^7 good cuisine; Gerhaulet, R. & B. 2^12 JC: Westfdlischer 
Hof, R. 2-3, D. 2 JC; Union, R. I1/2-2V2, B. 3/^ JC; Bahnho fa-Hotel. — 
Raihvay Restaurant. — Wine at Kirchmeyer's and Gortz's. — Tramicay 
from the main railway-station via the Bahnhof-Str., the Friedrich-Str., 
and Neuhauser-Str. to Neuhaus and (5 M.) the Sennelager. 

Paderhorn (394 ft.), an ancient town with 27,800 inhab., where 
Charlemagne held a diet in 777, has been an episcopal see since 
795 and a town since 1000. A few towers of the old fortifications 
still stand, but the ramparts have been converted into promenades. 

44 ^oute 4. PADERBORX. From Cologne 

From the Main Railway Station we proceed past the Herz- 
Jesu-Kirche and the Franciscan Convent (17th cent.) to the i}!^ hr.) 
Bathaus, a stone building of the 13th cent., with a W. facade of 
1612-16 (restored in 1877-80). The interior contains a beautiful 
hall, a fine staircase, and a collection of antiquities (Sun., 11-12). 

A little farther on, on the X. side of the market-place, stands 
the CathedpvAl, which has been repeatedly ravaged by tire, and was 
restored in 1891-93. The crypt and the massive W, tower belong 
to the original Romanesque building (ca. 1143); the rest dates from 
the 13th century. The principal *Portal, on the S. side, is adorned 
with Romanesque reliefs of the Crucifixion, the Virgin Mary, saints, 
and dignitaries. The sculptures on the lower part of the S. side 
of the E. transept, from the early-G-othic period, consist of New 
Testament subjects and of a frieze with animals from the old 
Grerman lore. 

Interior (sacristan. Dielen 2). In the X. transept are a finely-carved 
late-Gothic altar and ciborium of the 15th century. The choir contains 
the monuments and brasses of several bishops and a small relief in ala- 
baster (12th cent.?). In the treasury is the silver Beliquary of St. Li- 
boi'iiis. placed here in 1627 as a substitute for one carried off by Duke 
Christian of Brunswick in 1621. Other valuable objects of art are a 
reliquary of 1100,. two silver chalices of the 12th and 15th cent., and 
silver statues of SS. Kilian and Liborius, of the 14th century. 

On the N. side of the cathedral is the old Chapel of St. Barthol- 
omew^ erected in 1009-36 by Italian builders, restored in 1852, 
and containing dome-like vaulting, borne by slender columns. Be- 
neath the cathedral and on its X. side the Pader takes its rise 
from various springs, which account for the name of the town, 
Pader-Born^ or 'source of the Pader'. Some of them, such as the 
^^aschpader. near the Kaiser-Karl-Bad, are quite warm. — The 
Protestant Church (Ahdinghof-Kirche), a flat-roofed basilica with 
two towers, originally built in 1031, was destroyed in 1806 and 
rebuilt in 1871. The Busdorfs-Ki7^che (14th cent.) was originally 
erected on the model of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Jerusalem. By the choir is a large Romanesque candelabrum, with 
seven branches. 

The Inselhad Sanatorium, with mineral springs (60° Fahr.), is 1 M. 
to the ]Sr.W. of the market-place. 

Paderborn is connected by railway with (7 M.) Lippspringe (460 ft. ; 
Kurhaas, open in summer only, R. 2-8. D. 21/0-^0^; Wegener: Schlepper ; 
Braclx:mann . R. I1/2-2 c^), a' watering-place with 3100 inhabitants. It 
possesses a. nitrogeuons thermal s-piing (Arminius-Quelle : 70° Fahr.), con- 
taining Glauber's salts, which is beneficial in the case of chest-complaints 
(visitors" tax, 1 pers. 18. 2 pers. 30 J^). The sources of the Lippe burst 
copiously from the earth here at two places; one of these. 1/2 M. to the X. 
of the Kurhaus, was called the Jordan, in commemoration of the baptism 
of Charlemagne's Saxon converts : the other rises near the mineral spring, 
below the lofty ruins of the old castle, which was founded before 1310 
by the Paderborn Chapter. — From Lippspringe via (2 M.) Schlangen to 
the Externsteine (p. 37), 8 M. ; from Schlangen the old highroad leads 
through fine avenues of oaks to (71/2 M.) DetnwJd (p. 36), 

to Berlin. PYRMONT. ^. Route. 45 

Other branch -railways run from Padcrborn to (27V2 ^^O Bielefeld 
(p. 35) and to (41 M.) Br lion (see p. 56). 

The railway now crosses the Dune Viaduct^ 84 ft. high, im- 
mediately beyond which is another, 114 ft. high, crossing the Beeke 

124 M. Altenbeken (879 ft.), the junction for Kreicnsen and 
Magdeburg (R. 5), for Herford via Detmold (p. 36), and for (23 M.) 
Warburg (p. 56) and Cassel (R. 6). 

The train now passes through the Egge Hills by a tunnel 1 M. 
long. 129 Y2 M. Himmighausen (p. 36); 143 M. Schiede?' (Skidrio- 
burg), with a chateau and park of the Prince of Lippe. The train 
crosses the Emmer. 1487^ ^^- Lilgde^ with a late -Romanesque 
church (to the right). 

149 M. Pyrmont. — Hotels. ^Furstliches Kur-Hotel, R, from 3, 
B. IV4, D. 31/2, 8. 21/4, board 6V2, omn. 1 JC; '^Grosses Bade-Hotel, Brunnen- 
Platz, R. from 21/2, B. I1/4, D. 3, pens, from 7 ^; Rasmusseji, Haupt-Allee, 
R. 3-5, B. IV4, D. 23/^-4, pens, from 10^; Krone, R. & B. 23/4-5, D. 2V2, 
pens, from 6 JC : Lipplscher Hof; Waldecker Hof, R. & B. 23/4-31/2, D. 
13/4-2, pens. 5-7 c^; Vietmei/er, R. 2-3, D. IV-j, pens. ^'^I^-^^^I^JC, these four 
in the Brunnen-Strasse. — Restaurants. Kurhaus ; Knierim ; Giftbude. — 
Pension Villa Schilcking, 7 ^: ChristUches Hospiz, from 41/2 <^; and 
others. — Furnished Apartme)its numerous. — Visitors' 2\ix (after a 
week) 20 JC, each addit. member of a family 10 JC. — Brine Bath 13/4-21/2, 
Chalybeate Bath 13/4-21/2, Mud Bath 31/2-41/2 -^- — The Raihvay Station 
(restaurant) is about I1/4 M. to the S. of the town; tramway (branch-line 
to the Solbadehaus) 20 pf., cab with one horse 1, with 2 horses l^j.^JC. — 
English Church Service in August. 

Pyrmont (394 ft.), a pleasant little town (3900 inhab.) in the 
valley of the Emmer , at the foot of the Bomberg, with mineral 
springs which have been known since the 16th century, is a fav- 
ourite watering-place, visited by about 25,000 patients annually 
(season, May-Oct.). The principal springs are the chalybeate Hawpt- 
quelle and the JSalzhrunnen, a saline sjDring near the station. The 
water has exhilarating and refreshing properties. The Haupt-AUee^ 
an avenue extending from the Hauptquelle to the chateau of Prince 
Waldeck, flanked with the Kurhaus, theatre, cafes, and shops, 
is the chief rendezvous of visitors. About ^j^ M. to the N.E. of 
the Hauptquelle is the Dunsthohle^ which exhales carbonic acid 
(fee). — Excursions may be made to the Bombei^g (10 b3 ft.; cable- 
tramway to the foot in 5 niin., return-fare 25 pf.), the Konigs- 
herg, Friedenstal (pens, from 4^/2 zJl)^ and the Schellenherg. 

Beyond Pyrmont the train crosses the Emmer. 153 M. Welsede. 
At (I56Y2 M-) Emmei^tal (branch-line to Vorwohle, 20 M., in 
2 hrs.) it quits the valley of the Emmer; on the hill rises the (3 M.) 
chateau of Hdmelschenburg , a handsome Renaissance edifice of 
1588-1612. We then cross the Weser and the Hamel, passing the 
chateaux of Hastenbeck (right), where the Duke of Cumberland was 
defeated by the French in 1757, and Ohr (left). 

Baedeker's N. Grermanv. 15th Edit. 4 

46 Route 4. HA]\IELN. From Cologne 

161 M. Hameln. — Hotels. ^Schaper, Bahnhof-Platz, R. 2-4, 
B. 1. D. 13,4-2^; Moyiopol. Deister-Str. : Thiemann, Sonne, both in the 
Oster-Strasse; Bremer Schliissel, on the Weser, R. 11/0-21/4, D. 1 1/2-2 t^, 
well spoken of. — Railway Restaurant : LieckerVs Wine Rooms, Oster- 
Str. 42: Cafe Bornemann. cor. Pyrmonter-Str. & Brlickenkopf. — Post 
Office, Oster-Str.. near the station. — Taximeter Cabs. — Omnibus to 
the town 20 pf. — Motor Launch (in summer) to the Ohrberge (1/2 hr.). 

Hameln^ an ancient town with 21,300 inhab., is pleasantly 
situated on the right bank of the Weser , above the influx of the 
Hamel. The salmon-fishery here is important. 

From the Railway Station, on the E. side of the town, the centre 
is reached via the Bahnhof-Str. and Deister-Str. In the Oster-Str., 
the W. prolongation of the latter, is the Ratten f anger haus (No. 28), 
a Renaissance edifice of 1602. 

The name refers to the old legend called the 'Rat Catcher of Hameln', 
made familiar to English readers by Browning's ballad. It has been ex- 
plained in various ways. One of the latest theories is based on the 
alleged fact that some of the youth of Hameln were seized in 1284 with 
the "dancing mania' ('cTioreomania'j, left the town, and never returned; 
but it is possibly a distorted recollection of the Children's Crusade of 
1211. An inscription on the Rattenfangerhaus records the legend, and in 
the Thiewall is the Rat Catcher Fountain, by Fasterling (1885). 

At the end of the Oster-Str. 1X0. 2) is the Hochzeitshaus. In 
the market-place are the Gothic ^larkt-Kirche, the Rathaus (with 
a museum of local antiquities), and the Renaissance Dempter House 
(Xo. 7; 1607). The Biicker-Str. leads hence to the S. to the hand- 
some Minster (Prot.), dedicated to St. Boniface, which was founded 
in the 11th cent., rebuilt after a fire in the 14th cent., and thor- 
oughly restored in 1870-75. Close by, to the "W., is the bridge over 
the Weser. 

The *Klut (855 ft.), a hill on the left bank near the town, once 
fortified, is a good point of view and a favourite resort (cafe, etc.). On 
the right bank are the forester's house of (I1/4 hr.) Heisenkiiche and the 
summer-resort of Friedrichswald (pens. 4. Jc). 

Steamboat in summer from Hameln to Miinden, see p. 67. 

From Hameln to Haxover, 33 M., railway in about I1/2 hr. — 12 M. 
Springe (Mej^er's Hotel), with a large deer-park belonging to the emperor. 
In the foreground rise the wooded Deister Hills. — At (23 M.) Weetzen 
diverges a branch-line for Haste (p. 38). Beyond (29 M.) Linden we cross 
the Leiue. — 33 M. Hanover, see p. 71. 

From Hameln to Lohne. 33 M., branch-line in l-li/^hr., descending 
the beautiful vallev of the Weser. — l^^'^ M. Rinteln (pop. 5300; Stadt 
Bremen. R. & B. 2i V3, D. li/o-2 .^), formerly the capital of the County 
of Schaumburg, with a stone bridge across the Weser, was the seat of a 
universitv from 1619 to 1809. Branch-railway to Eilsen and Stadthagen, 
see p. 38\ The Paschenburg (1110 ft.; *View) is situated 6 M. to the 
N.E.. and the Papenbrink (p. 38) 41/2 M. to the X. — 25 M. Vlotho (pop. 
4700) : 29 M. Oeynhausen (p. 37). — 33 M. Lohne (p. 37). 

Our line now diverges from that to Hanover (see above) and runs 
to the E. (right) to (179 M.) Elze (see p. 69). At (183 M.) Nord- 
stenimen (p. 69) we again diverge to the right and run towards the 
E. to (201 M.) Hildesheim (see p. 79). Beyond Hildesheim the 
train runs towards the X.^V. , passing some unimportant stations. 

to Berlin. HELMSTEDT. 4. Route. 47 

221 M. Gross- Gleidincjen is the junction of a line to (38 M.) Haiio- 
ver (p. 71), via Peine and Lehrte (p. 39). 

226 M. Brunswick (p. 84; *Rail. Restaurant)^ junction for 
the Harz line (R. 48) and for Hanover (p. 71) and Seesen (p. 49). 
The train skirts the ducal park and the chateau of Alt-Richmond 
(comp. p. 92). 

241 M. Konigslutter (673 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; JStadt- 
keller)^ a small town (3300 inhab.) on the Lutter, with a church 
of the 12-15th cent., and the modernized Schloss Lutter. — Above 
the town and the village of Oherlutter is the former Benedictine 
Abbey of SS. Peter and Paul, founded in 1135 in an earlier nun- 
nery by Emp. Lothaire II., and now a lunatic asylum. The * Ckurchj 
a Romanesque basilica, has a heavy W. fagade with two low towers, 
which was added in the Gothic period. On the exterior of the choir- 
apse is a Romanesque frieze with curious hunting-scenes; and on 
the tower above the crossing is another frieze (15th cent.) with 
various representations. The church contains the tomb of Lothaire, 
his wife Richenza, and his son-in-law, Duke Henry the Proud, a 
reproduction (1708) of the original Gothic tomb destroyed in 1690. 
The Romanesque Easter candlestick (13th cent.) is interesting. The 
remains of the handsome Cloiste^^s (ca. 1200) should be observed. 

A pleasant excursion may be made from Konigslutter to Schoppoi- 
stedt (pop. 3500; Deutsches Hans), past the Tetzel Monument. 

251 M. Helms tedt (Petzold; Erhprinz; Ratskeller Restau- 
rant) , an ancient town with 15,400 inhab., was in 1576-1810 the 
seat of a university. On the way from the station to the town is 
the Benedictine abbey of St. Ludgerus^ founded in the 9th cent, 
and secularized in 1803, the Church of which (partly rebuilt in 
1556 and 1890) contains remains of the old pavement (1150; covered 
by the present flooring). The lower part of the adjacent double 
chapel probably dates from the Carlovingian era; the upper is of 
the 11th century. Farther on is the Stephans-Kirche (13-15th cent.), 
containing interesting tombs and carvings (interior restored in 1906). 
The "^Juleum, or old university building, in the Renaissance style 
(1592-97), has a tower (164 ft.), two fine gables, and handsome 
portals. The town boasts of several handsome dwelling-houses of 
the 16-1 7th centuries. To the W. of the Gothic Neumdrker Tor 
(15th cent.) is the suppressed Augustine nunnery of Marienherg, 
founded in 1176, now a school for ecclesiastical embroidery. The 
church (key in the small house opposite the W. front) is Romanesque, 
with a Gothic choir. The tower-chapels contain interesting mural 
paintings (middle of 13th cent.) and antependia (13-14th cent.). — 
A little farther on are the dolmens known as the Lilbhensteine. 

About 21/4 M. to the S.E. of Helmstedt are Bad Helmstedt and the 
Clara-Bad, two small watering-places with mineral springs. 

The old Cistercian convent of Mariental, 41/2 M. to the N. of Helm- 
stedt, possesses an interesting Romanesque church of the 12th century. 


48 P^oute 5. HOXTER. From Cologne 

From Helnistedt a branch-railwav rims to the S. to (14 M.) Oebis- 
felde (p. 39). 

262 M. Eilslehen . the junction for Holzminden i'p. 49) and of 
branch-lines to (15^ \ M. i Blumenberg (p. 311) and (20 M.) Neu- 
haldenslehen. — 278 M. Sudenhurg[\i. 50), a suburb of Magdeburg. 

280 M. Magdeburg < p. 49 1 : thence to (368 M.) Berlin, see R. 5. 

5. From Cologne to Berlin via Holzminden 
and Magdeburg. 

359 M. Railway iu 113 ^-12 hrs. ^express-fares 47 JC 80. 29 JC 20. 18 JC 
70 pf.: ordinary fares 45^80, 27^20, 17.^ 70 pf.). — Sleeping ears 
are attached to the night-tiains. 

From Cologne to (124 M.) Altenheken, see R. 4. 

130 M. Driburg i661 ft.: Schaper : Englischer Hof, R. 2-3, 
pens. 5-6 -Jn. a place with 2700 inhabitants. About ^/o M. to the 
E. (omn. from the station 50 pf.^i lies Bad Dinhiu^g, among wooded 
hills, with chalybeate springs and good baths (lodgings at the bath- 
ing establishment, with 200 rooms: visitor's tax 12 t//^;. Excursions 
may be made to 1^ 4 M.i the Tburg, (4 M.) Neuenheerse^ with an 
old abbev-church. and other points. 

137i\, M. BraM .Preussischer Hof). From (14:4. M.) Otthergen 
a branch-line diverges to Xordhausen (p. 305) via Carlshafen (p. 57). 
Xortheim p. 69i. and ^ulften -p. 306). On the hill to the right 
are the white buildings of Schloss Fiirstenberg (p. 67). 

150 M. Hoxter (Berliner Hof, R. & B. 3-4, D.2 Ji; Stadt 
Bremen, R. 1^ ^-3. D. 2 ..^; Beichspost. R. & B. 2-2% ^;, an old 
town with 7700 inhabitants. The Protestant Church of St. Kilian, 
with two towers and a rectangular choir, was consecrated in 1075, 
rebuilt in the Grothic style in 1391. and restored in 1882. It con- 
tains a pulpit of 1595 and a font of 1631 (by Berent Kraft). Ad- 
jacent is the Minoriten-Kirche. also Protestant, but at present un- 
used, a fine Gothic edifice of ca. 1400, with one low aisle /^on the 
S. side; apply to the verger of St..Kilian's). The Roman Catholic 
Nicolai-Kirche, in the market-place, contains a lectionary with an 
ornamental metal cover of the 14th centuiy. Among the interest- 
ing Renaissance timber-buildings is the Heisferhofvrixh the restored 
Tillij House in the AVesterbach-Strasse. The Bathaus, originally 
of 1466. dates in its present shape from 1613. — Steamers ply on 
the Weser from Hoxter to Munden and Hameln (see p. 67). Dili- 
gence daily to Vorden and (16 M.i Sfeinheirn. 

An avenue of chestnut-trees, passing the station, leads from Hoxter 
to (1 M.) Corvey rDreizehn Linden. E. 11/2-1^4^ T>- from I'^UJC), once 
the most celehrated Benedictine abbey in X. Germany, founded by Louis 
the Pious in 822 and suppressed in 1803, now a principality belonging to 
the Duke of Eatibor. The abbots were of princely rank. The castellated 
building, with its numerous towers, farm-offices, and church, encloses 

to Berlin. SEESEN. •'>. Boidc. 49 

several courts. In the upper cloisters are portraits of all the abbots. 
The chateau (adm. by ticket obtained at tlie hotel, 1-5 pers. IV2 JC) con- 
tains a fine library of 60, 000 vols., of which Ifoffmcum vort Fallersleben 
(p. 39), who is buried behind the church, was custodian from 1800 to 1874. 

The train now crosses the Weser; on the left bank Jies Corvey 
(see p. 48). — 155 M. Holzminden {Reichskrone, R. 2-2 1/21 ^' 
1^/2-2 c//, good; Deatsches Haus^ R. & B. 2^2 ^^7 '<^^ the station), 
a town with 9900 inhab,, possesses a modern school of engineering. 
To the S. stretches the JSolling, a woody plateau rising up to 1730 ft. 
Railway to Scherfede, see p. 56. — Beyond Holzminden we have a 
passing glimpse of the Hoop-Tal^ with the old Cistercian convent 
of Amehnifjsborn (founded in 1123). 

182 M. Kreiensen (Railway Restaurant, D. 2, R. from 
2 cx^J, the junction of the Hanover and Cassel line (R. 7). — 186 M. 
Gandersheim (pop. 2800; Weisses Ross, R. 172"^ ^<^), ^m old town, 
formerly the seat of a nunnery founded in 853. Fine Romanesque 
abbey-church, dating from the end of the 11th century. 

195 M. Seesen (Kroriprinz , R. IV2-2V2, D. 1^4 c^, good), 
one of the oldest places on the margin of the Harz Mts. (4900 in- 
hab.). From Seesen to Brunswick and to Nordhausen and Erfurt, 
see R. 48; to Halle and Leipzig, sec R. 49. 

199^2 ^^- Neuekrug, the junction of a branch-line to Grrauhof 
(p. 83) and Vienenburg (p. 312). — 207^2 ^' Rinfjelheim, junction 
for the branch -line from Hildesheim to Groslar (see p. 83). — 
2131/2 M. Salzgitter (Ratskeller; pop. 2000), with salt-baths. 

220 M. Borssum (Rail. Restaurant), the junction of the Brun- 
swick and Harzburg line (p. 308); 234^2 M- Jerxheim., the junction 
of the line from Brunswick to Oschersleben (p. 301) and Magdeburg. 
— 2411/2 M. Schoningen (Stadtkeller ; Schwarzer Adler), a 
small town (9300 inhab.), has some interesting wooden houses 
of the 17th cent., one of 1593, the remains of a ducal Schloss (15- 
17th cent.), and an early-Gothic church (15th cent.). — At (252 M.) 
Eilslehen our line unites with that from Brunswick (p. 48). 

271 M. Magdeburg. — Hotels. Near the Station: ^Central 
Hotel (PI. a; B, C, 4), R. from 21/2, B. II/4, D. I1/2-3 Ji ; Continental 
Hotel (PL b; C, 4), R. from 21/2, B. 1 JC, very fair; Fiirst Bismarck 
(PI. c; C, 4), R. from 2, B. 1, D. l^jr^-2^UJC; Koch's Hotel (PI. d; B, 4); 
Milller (Pl.e; C, 4), R. 2-3 c^, well sjioken of. — In the Town: *Magde- 
burger Hof (PL f ; C, 4), Alte Ulrich-Str. 4, R. from 3, B. IV4, D. 21/2- 
31/2 JC; Weisser Schwan (PLg; D, 4), Breite Wcg 160, R. 2Vr4:, B. 1, 
D. 23/^^; Citij Hotel (PL h; C, 4), Alte Ulrich-Str. 3, R. 2V2-5, D. 2 JC ; 
Stadt Prag (PL k ; D, 4), Bar-Platz lb, R. IV2-2V2, B. 1, D. 11/2-21/2-^; 
Kaiserhof (PL 1; C, 4), Kutscher-Str. 21. 

Restaurants. Wine: "^Bathanskeller , Alte Markt 15 (PL D, 4); 
^Dankicarth & Bichters, Breite Weg 55, D. (1-3) 2 JC; ^Fuhrmann, 
Himmelreich-Str. 4 (PL C, 4); Letzerich, "Wcinfass-Str. 5a; Zuin Stein, 
Stein-Str. 6 ; 'Est EsV, Pralaten-Str. 1. — Beer : *Fursten7iof, Kaiser-Str. 94, 
by the Stadt-Theater (PL C, 4); ^Central Bestaurant, Central Hotel; 
*Franzi8kaner, Breite Wcg 174, D. (12-3) l^j^-'^JC; Franke, Schoneck-Str. 1, 
D. VI2JC; SchuWieiss, Breite Weg 39, J). IJC; Stadt Prag (see above), 

50 Route 5. jVIAGDEBURG. From Cologne 

D. 1^'2<^' Wih'zhtirger Hofbrdu, Alte Markt 29; Automatic Bestaur ant ^ 
Alte Markt 12 and Breitc We2r26. — Cafes. HohenzoUern. Peters, National^ 
Breite TVeg 140, 20, and 12^. Dom, Oranien-Str. 12. 

Baths^ Spielgarten-Str. 5a (PI. A. 3, 4) and Fiirsten-Str. 23 b (PI. D, 4, 5). 

— River Baths, in the Alte Elbe. 

Theatres. Stadt- Theater (PI. C, 4), see p. 51; WiJhelm- Theater 
(PL D. 4 •. Victoria fPl. F. 4). a summer-theatre in the Werder: Central 
(PL D. 2 . Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz. variety theatre. — Circus (PLD, E, 2), 
Konig-Str. 62. — Concert Rooms. Furstenhof, Kaiser-Str. 94; Theater- 
Garten, at the Stadt-Theater : Herrenkrug (p. 54}: Friedrich-Wilhelms- 
Garten (p. 53). 

Post & TelectRaph Office (PL C. 5). Breite Weg 204. 

Taximeter Cabs. Per 1000 metres within the town, for 1-2 pers. 
50 pf.. each 500 m. addit. 10 pf . : 750 m. for 3-4 pers. within, or 1-2 pers. 
outside the town 50 pf., each 375 m. addit. 10 pf . ; at night (11-8), for 
1-4 pers. within the town 500 m. 50 pf.. each 250 m. addit. 10 pf . ; waiting 
10 pf. for each 5 min. : 35 lbs. of luggage free, 55 lbs. 25 pf. 

Electric Tramways (with numbers corresponding to the following 
list). 1. Sudenhurg 'V\. A. 8)-Kaiser-"Wilhelm-Platz (PL D. 2)-New Neu- 
stadt. — 2. 5wcA:a?/-Breite-We2r- Kaiser -TVilhelm-Platz-A^^^' Neustadt. 

— 3. Trf-sff/vV^Tjof-Alte-Markt^PL D, ■i)-Friedrichstadt. — 4. Olven- 
stedter-Str.-AlXQ yLd^T^X- Grosse-Werder. — 5. Leipziger-Str. (PL A. 8)- 
Hasselbach-Platz (PL B, 6) -Alte- Markt - OZ<Z Neustadt. — 6. Rathaus 
(PL D. -i -Herrenkrug. — 7. Rinsr Line. Central Station fPl. B. 4)-Kaiser- 
Wilhelm-Platz (PL D. 2)-Bottcher-Platz (PL E, F. 1)-Hasselbach-Platz 
(PL B, 6)- Central Station. 

I'nited States Consul, Frank S. Hannah; vice-consul, J. L. A. 
Burrell. — Brit. Vice-Consul, E. Drake. 

Chief Sights (i/., day). From the station by tramway to the Kaiser- 
Wilhelm-Platz (p. 52): 'on foot by the Breite Weg (p. 52), Alte Markt 
(p. 52). and Fiirsten-Wall to the Doni-Platz (p. 52; Cathedral, Liebfrauen- 
Kirche). Hence by the Augusta-Str. to the Gruson Hot Houses in the 
Friedrich-TTilhelms- Garten (p. 53), and thence by tramway to the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum (p. 51). 

Magdeburg (135 ft.;, tlie capital and seat of government of the 
Prussian province of Saxony, the headquarters of the 4th Army 
Corps, and a fortress of the first rank, with 240.000 inhab. (includ. 
suburbsi. is chiefly situated on the left bank of the Elbe, which is 
here divided into three arms. It consists of the town proper and 
the five suburbs of Sudenhurg and Buckau. to the S., Xeustadt, to 
the X., Wilhelm stadt. to the W., and Friedrichstadt, to the E., 
on the right bank of the so-called Alte Elbe. An island in the river 
is occupied by the Citadel ^1683-1702 1 As the point of intersection 
of numerous railways. Magdeburg is also one of the most important 
commercial towns in X. Grermany. It is the headquarters of the 
German sugar -industry, and the cultivation of the beetroot from 
which the suofar is obtained is carried on verv extensively in the 
neighbourhood. The chief of its numerous industries are iron- 
founding and machine-making. 

Magdeburg, which was founded as a commercial settlement at the 
beginning of the 9th cent., is chiefly indebted for its early prosperity 
to^Emp. Otho the Great (936-973) and his consort Editha (see' p. 53). who 
founded a Benedictine monastery here in 937. In 968 the town was raised 
to the rank of an archiepiscopal see. In the 13-15th cent. Magdeburg was 
a flourishing and powerful commercial place, with supremacy over an 


r i^^, ^ Ni s; "^ s; •< v; Cl J. J .-- ^ L-; ;£ c> « r; 
s— fjj-:«9-i-^:at-»ci2 — — — — — -^ — — 

ikru^ 1 3 Vs Km 


to Berlin. MAGDEBURG. 5. Route. 51 

extensive territory, and a member of the Hanseatic League. The turbulent 
citizens gradually threw off the archiepiscopal yoke , and towards the 
close of tlie 15th cent, compelled the prelates generally to reside else- 
where. As early as 1524 they eagerly espoused the cause of the Re- 
formation. During the Thirty Years' War Magdeburg suffered terribly. 
In 1629 it successfully resisted the attacks of Wallenstein during seven 
months, but it was taken by storm by Tilly in 16.'31, and almost wholly 
destroyed. Otto von Guericke, the inventor of the air-pump, was burgo- 
master of the town from 1646 to 1680. After the Reformation the see 
was presided over by the Protestant archbishops, and at length in 1680 
became incorporated with the Mark of Brandenburg. 

The chief street of the new quarter near the railway-station is 
the Kaiser-Strasse (PL B, C, 6-3), which is flanked with handsome 
and substantial buildings. Near the station is the Theatre (PI. C, 4), 
in front of which is a bronze bust of the poet Karl Immermann, 
a native of Magdeburg (1796-1840), by Echtermeier (1899). — 
Farther to the S. is the — 

*Kaiser Priedrich Museum (PL C, 5), a tasteful edifice by 
F. Ohmann (1906), with a statue of the Emperor (by W. von 
Glilme?') in front of it. Its collections of the arts and handicrafts 
have been admirably arranged in chronological order by the Director, 
Dr. Volbehr, It is open free on Tues.-Sat., 11-2 & 3-5 (winter 11-3), 
and on Sun. and holidays, 11-12; adm on Mon. 50 pf. Illustrated 
catalogue, 50 pf. 

Ground Floor. We first visit four rooms illustrating the History 
OF Magdeburg: la. Guericke Room (comp. above); lb. Guild Room; 
2. Room with coins, documents, old views, and mural paintings hy A. Kamjjf ; 
2a. Chapel. — Rooms 3-1-1 illustrate the phases in the Development of 
THE Private House. R. 3 is Gothic, with Tyrolese fittings (15th cent.). 
R. 4. Household fittings of the 15-16th centuries ; R. 5. Renaissance, with 
ceiling and panelling from S. Tyrol (1590); R. 6 is of the 17th cent.; R. 7 
is in the Italian baroque style, witli mirrors ; RR. 8 & 8a, 18th cent. ; R. 9, 
style of Louis XVI., from S. Italy; R. 10, Empire; R. 11, style of the 
2nd quarter of the 19th cent. ('Biedermeier') ; RR. 12 & 13 belong to the 
period of the conscious revival of older fashions and illustrate the 
developments of the ceramic and textile arts; R. 14, modern period. — 
In RR. 15-20 are the Plaster Casts; in the side-rooms to the left, small 
plastic originals (15-19th cent.). 

Upper Floor. The staircase is hung with tapestry. At the top is 
a bronze replica of Lederer^s Fencer (original at Breslau). To the left 
are two Reading Rooms (21, 22), with engravings. R. 23 contains the 
Exhibition of the Graphic Arts; adjacent is the collection of costumes. 
— On the other side is the Gallery of the Older Painters (RR. 24-26). 
R. 24: Four works by Lucas Cranach the Elder. R. 25: Nos. 6, 7. Jan 
van Goyen , Landscapes ; 14. Rubens , Adoration of the Magi (sketch) ; 
19. Mich. Sioeerts , Youths at dinner; 22. Karel du Jardin, Gamblers; 
A. van Ostade, 28. Poultry-yard, 29. Pig-killing. R. 26. Works by 
Menzel and other masters of the middle of the 19th century. — R. 27. 
Water-carrier (marble), by Schaper. — Farther on Modern Paintings 
AND Sculptures. Rotunda.' Bronzes by Const. Meunier. — R. 28. Works 
by Dettmann (1), Bocklin (4), Corinth (6), Thoma (8), Lenbach (9), and 
Bracht (10). — R. 29. Works by Ztigel (1), Uhde (3), Hofmann (4), and 
Leistikow (6). — R. 30. Works by Gebhardt (2) and Seffner. The cab- 
inets to the left contain portraits by Leibl. — R. 33. Cartoons by 
Sascha Schneider; Man of Sorrows (bronze), by Hudler; Head of John 
the Baptist (marble), by Rodin. — Through a Reading Room (34) we 

52 P^oide 5. MAGDEBURG. From Cologne 

now reach the Room of Drawdtgs (35). — Above the Rotunda (p. 51) is a 
Cabiset of Coiss. 

The Breite TTeg (PI. B, C, D, 6-2), the principal business-street of 
Magdeburg, intersects the old town from X. to S., beginning at the 
Kaiser-Wilheliu-Platz, which is adorned with an Equestrian Statue 
of Emp. William I. (PL 6: D, 2), by Siemering (1897 j. TheBreite 
Weg contains numerous handsome shops, and many of the houses in 
it date from about 17(M). To the left, about V 4 M. from the Kaiser- 
Wilhelm-Platz, is the Gothic Katharinen-Kirche PL B. 3), with a 
tower of the 17th century. The inscription on Breite Weg Xo. 146, 
^Qedenke des 10. Mai 16S1\ is a reminiscence of the capture of 
the town by Tilly. The Miinz-Str., diverging to the W. a little 
farther on, contains the Reichshank (PL 17) and a gable (adjoin- 
ingi with some sculptures from the house of Burgomaster Guericke 
ip. 51). On the opposite side of the Breite Weg is the Alte Markt 
(PL D, 4), with the Ratham, built in 1691 and enlarged in 1865. 
In front of the Rathaus rises the *Monuineiit of Emperor 
Othb I. !(PI. 10), an equestrian figure. 8 ft. high, on a pedestal 
18^ 2 ft. in height, erected by the municipality about 1290. At the 
comers are four men in armour, and beside the emperor are two 
allegorical female figures. The statues are all in sandstone and of 
life-size. At the S. end of the Alte Markt is the Exchange (end of 
17ih cent.)). — In the little square to the X. is a statue of Otto von 
Guericke (PL 3; p. 51), by Echtermeier (19071 The Sparkasse or 
Savings Bank (PL D, 3, 4) contains the Public Library (10-2; 
26,000 volumes). In front of the Johannis-Kirche (PL D, 4) stands 
a bronze Staiue of Lather (PL 9), by Hundrieser, erected in 1886. 

Farther on, in the S. part of the Breite ^eg, is the imposing 
new Past Office (PL C, 5), nearly opposite which is the Breite-Str., 
leading to the Dom-Platz PL C. D, 5). On the S. side of this 
quiet square stands the * Cathedral PL C, 5), or Church of SS. 
Maurice and Catharine^ a noble structure (length 390 ft., breadth 
of nave 70 ft. ), erected after the destruction by fire (1208) of the 
Benedictine church of Emp. Otho I. (p. 50). To the first quarter of 
the 13th cent, belong the lower part of the choir and some of the 
nave-piers, with their extraordinarily varied Romanesque capitals, 
the details of which are essentially German in spirit. The upper 
part of the choir and the early-Gothic ambulatory (ca. 1225; are 
due to the master of Maulbronn. About the same time every 
second nave-pier was remored and the aisles widened. After 1274 
the nave was completed in a pure Gothic style, with retention of 
the wide intercolumniation. The W. towers were not finished till 
1520; that to the X. is 340 ft. in height: that to the S., begun in 
1307, is destitute of finial. Verger in the cloisters (p. 53; 1 fjf). 

The Choir, which contains richly carved stalls, is separated from 
the nave by a late-Gothic Screen (1445). The antique columns below the 
painted figures of saints and Saxon emperors (early 13th cent.) are sup- 

to Berlin. MAGDEBURG. 5. Route. 53 

posed to have been previously utilized in the earlier church of the Emp. 
Otho I. 'd. 973}. who reposes beneath a simple marble slab in the choir. — 
The Retko-Choir contains the tomb 1447 of Otho's consort Editha ^d. 947 . 
daaj?hter of Edmnnd of England, two fine brasses, the painted figure of 
St. Maurice, and a curious Chapel il3th cent.; with painted figures of 
the imperial pair, — In the S. Traxsept are a Madonna and the tomb of 
Archbp. Otho of Hesse (d, 1361). both in the Gothic style and painted. — 
The Xave contains nnmerous other monuments of about 16CK). Pulpit in 
alabaster. 1597. — In the Lady Chapel beneath the towers is the ^Mon- 
ument of Archbishop Ernest d. 1513;. one of the earlier works of the 
celebrated Peter Yischer of Nuremberg, completed in 1495; on the sarco- 
phagus reclines the archbishop, on the sides are the Twelve Apostles. SS, 
Maurice and Stephen, and a variety of decorations. Here also is a large 
candelabrum, cast in 1494. probably by P. Yischer. — The stained-glass 
windows are modem. — Outside the portal of the X. transept is the 
so-called *Paradies-Pforte, a Gothic porch with figures of the Ten Virgins 
'originally painted) and of the Old and Xew Covenant [ca. 1275;. 

The Tower '438 steps; commands a fine view, to which, however, 
that from the gallerj- <'166 steps} is almost equal. The handsome *C7o/*/er» 
12-14th cent.; entr, on the E. side of the cathedral) are partly Gothic. 
partly Romanesque; they contain old sgraffito embellishments'. To the 
E. of the cloisters is the *Sepultur, an old burial-hall, in the Gothic 

Th- Museum of Natural History and National Anti- 
quities PI. I). 5 . Dom-Plaiz 5, occupies the old Princes* Palace. 
to which varions additions have been made. — To the S. of the 
Museum are two Government Buildings 'PI. 15 «&: 16 . 

A little to theX. of the cathedral rises theLiebfrauen-Kirche 
PI. D, 5: sacristan, Grosse Kloster-Str. 4 or Church of Oor Lady. 
begun about 1070 as a cruciform Eomanesque basilica, altered and 
added to in the Gothic style about 1240. and restored in 1890-91. 
The Romanesque *Cloisters «12th cent." and the abbey-buildings 
have been converted into a school (entr.. Regierungs-Str. 4'. 

The Furstenicall V\. D, 5 . on the Elbe, a favourite walk, affords 
a good view of the cathedral-choir. At its S. end are pleasure- 
grounds, with the Military Headquarters PL C. 61 and a bust of 
Fr. Friesen «P1. 2: born at Mao^deburof in 1785*, a figure of some 
prominence in the War of Liberation. — In the Bismarck-Platz 
tPl. C, 6- is a bronze Statue of Frince BismarcJ:. bv Echtermeier 
1899 . 

The Friedrich-Wilhelms-Gaetex ,P1. C, 8» includes the 
grounds of the once celebrated Kloster Bergen, founded in 937, 
suppressed in 1810. and destroyed in 1812. The eminence on 
which the latter stood is now occupied by a restaurant with ball- 
rooms, etc. In the S.W. part of the park are the *Gruson Con- 
servatories -open in summer 8-12 and 2-7. TTed. 8-11 and 1-3: 
in winter to dusk. Wed. 10-4: free on Wed., 1 ^ on Mon.. 30 pf. 
on other days . containing cacti, agaves, palms, and ferns, a Vic- 
toria Regia house, and an aquarium. On the S. side lies the manu- 
facturing town of Burkau p. 50 «. with numerous villas and the 
large Gruson Iron Works 4000 hands . now belonging to the 

54 Route 5. BRANDENBURG. From Cologne 

Krnpp Co. 'p. 32 ». — Opposite, on the right bank of the Elbe (ferry i, 
is the Rote Horn (PI. D, E, 8), a favourite park with two restau- 
rants (Steamer from the Strombriicke, PI. E 4; 10 pf.). 

At the N. end of the city is the Koxigix-Louisex-Gtarten (PI. D, 
1, 2;, with a Statue of Queen Louise, by Gotz (1901). A little to 
the E. is a Bust of Gutenberg (PL 4), also by Gotz (1901). 

On the right bank of the Elbe, 2 M. helow Magdeburg, lies the 
*Herrenl'rug .steamers from the Petriforder, PL E, F, 4, fare 10 pf.; 
tramway, see p. 50). 

The country between Mao-deburof and Brandenburo: is uninter- 
esting. Beyond (277 M.) Magdehurg-Xeustadt we cross the Elbe. 

286M.*5;/?T/ (Lachmund; Schulterblatt i, with 23,500 inhab., 
has large cloth-factories, founded by French Protestants who settled 
here after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. — From 
(312 M.) Genthin a branch-line runs to Schonhausen (p. 40). 

321 M. Brandenburg. — Hotels. Schwarzer Bar (PI. a; D, 3); 
Schwarzer Adler (PI. b; D. 3), R. lV>-3, B. l^U JC, both good; Branden- 
hurger Hof (PL e: D. 2). R. lVo-2. D. l-Ujo JC: Schwan (PL c; D, 2); 
Dresdener Bof (PL d: E. 4\ R. from IV'-, c^." — Wixe Rooms. Cramer, 
Steiu-Str. 8 (PL D, 3); Wiesike, Plauer-Str. 19 (PL C, 2). — Restaurants. 
Ahlert's Berg (V\.C. i\ with garden and open-air theatre: Grave's Berg, 
opposite: SfacZfj^a;-^' (PL D. 3i. Stein-Str. 42 : WiUielms- Garten, Schiitzen- 
Str. 5 (PL E, 3. 4). — CAFis. Graf. Haupt-Str. 71 (PL D. 2): Osl'e. 
Molkenmarkt (PL D, 2. 3). — Cabs. Per drive. 1-2 pers. 50 pf., at night 
1 c*;, trunk 25 pf. — Tramways through the chief streets. — Post Office 
(PL 8; D, E, 3), St. Annen-Str. 

Brandenburg, a town with 51,900 inhab. (including a garrison 
of 3600 men) and numerous factories, lies on the Havel, which here 
forms a broad lake called the Plauesche See and divides the town 
into the Altstadt. Xeustadt, and Dom-Insel. 

Brandenburg occupies the site of Brennahor. a stronghold of the 
Slavonic Hevelli. which was taken by Emp. Henry I. in 927. It after- 
wards again fell into the hands of the Wends, but was taken in 1150 by 
Albert the Bear, Count of Ascania, who thenceforth styled himself Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg. The town was the seat of an episcopal see from 
949 to 1544. Several interesting old buildings still exist. 

From the main station (PL E, 4) we proceed by the Schiitzen- 

Strasse and St. Annen-Strasse to the (1/4 hr.) Rathaus (PL C, 3), 

dating from the 15th cent., hut rebuilt in 1720. Near it stands a 

Eoland (1474; see p. 104i, 18 ft. in height. A little to the W. rises 

the "Church of St. Catharine (PL D. 3; sacristan, Katharinen- 

Kirch-Platz 4\ a late-Gothic brick edifice of the first half of the 

15th cent., with a W. tower of 1585. The elaborate ornamentation 

of the exterior is worthy of careful inspection, especially that of 

the Corpus Christi chapel, adjoining the nave (comp. p. xxvii). In 

the interior are a fine old altar of 1474, in carved wood, recently 

gilded and painted, a bronze font of 1440, and plaster models of 

the twelve apostles, the originals of which are on the Church of St. 

to Berlin. BRANDENBURG. 5. Route. 55 

Nicholas at Helsingfors. — We next follow the Stein-Str. to the 
Steintor'Turm (PL 15, D 3 ; 100 ft. high), dating from the 14th cent, 
and containing the collections of the Historical Society (key in the 
Real-Gymnasium). We then return to the Rathaus and cross the 
Molkenmarkt and the Miihlendamm, passing the Muhlentor-Turm 
(1417) and the early-Gothic Petri-Kapelle (PI. 7 ; 13th cent.), to the — 

Cathedral (PI. E, 1 ; sacristan, Zielgasse 52), originally a late- 
Romanesque basilica of the early 13th cent., rebuilt in the Gothic 
style in the 2nd half of the 15 cent., and restored in 1892. Over 
the N. transept is a fine crow-stepped gable, and on the W. portal 
are reliefs from the Beast Fable. In the choir is a good reredos of 
1518, from Lehnin (see below), with carved figures and admirable 
paintings. The small museum in the S. transept contains statuettes 
of angels (1441), which served as candelabra, mediaeval vestments, 
and winged altars. In the sacristy are charters and codices, in the 
Romanesque crypt columns with late-Romanesque capitals. 

The Grillendamm (PL D, E, 1) leads hence to the Altstadt, 
where the church of St. Godehard (PL C, D, 1 ; sacristan, Kirch- 
Platz 11), partly Romanesque of ca. 1200 and partly Gothic of 
the 15th cent, (interior restored in 1905), and the old Altstadt 
Rathaus (PL 1; C, 2), of the 15th cent., are the most interesting 

Fine view from the Marienberg (PL B, 1), an eminence (200 ft.) to 
the N.W. of the town, on which rises a tower 114 ft. in height, designed 
by the architect Stier, and adorned with reliefs by Siemering and Calan- 
drelli, erected to the memory of about 4000 Braudenburgers who fell in 
the wars of 1864, 1866, and 1870-71. 

A light railway runs from Brandenburg (station beyond PI. D, 1) to 
(21 M.) Nauen (p. 157). 

The first station beyond Brandenburg is (330 M.) Gross-Kreutz, 
connected by a light railway with (7^2 ^0 Lehnin (Preussischer 
Hof), with the fine church of the old abbey of Himmelpfort, 
founded in 1180 and restored in 1871-79. — As we approach 
Potsdam, we obtain a fine view of the Havel, which the line crosses. 

343 M. Potsdam, and thence to (359 M.) Berlin, see R. 2. 

6. Prom Hagen (Cologne) to Cassel 
via Arnsberg. 

I26V2 M. Railway in 31/2-6 hrs. (fares 15 c^ 90, ^ JC 60, 6 c^ 40 pf. ; 
express 17 JC 90, 11 c^ 60, 1 JC 40 pf.). — From Cologne to Cassel, 171 M., 
express in 51/4 hrs. (fares 21 JC 90, 14 JC 20 pf., 9 JC). Views to the right. 

From Hagen to (8^2 ^0 /Schwerte, the junction for Soest and 
Altenbeken, see R. 4. The line ascends the valley of the Ruhr. — 
18 M. Frondenherg (413 ft.; Wildschiitz, R. & B. 27^-3 ^), with 
3300 inhab. and a Cistercian church begun in 1225. Branch-line 
to Iserlohn and Letmathe, see p. 42 ; to Unna, see p. 42. 

o6 Route 6. ARNSBERG. 

30^2 ^^- ^eheim-Hmten. Schloss Herdringen, II/2 M. to tlie 
\V.. is the seat of Coant Fiirstenberg, the owner of some exquisite 
goldsmith's work by ]\Ieister Anton Eisenhoidt of Warburg (1585- 
16l8j. Near Arusberg the train crosses the Ruhr and passes through 
a tunnel below the castle-hill. 

351., M. Arnsberg Bail. Restaurant; Hasemann: Kur- 
Hotel. R. 2-4 .//; Helmert. ^.kB. from 2, J). 1\.-,^// : Lindenhof: 
Bahnhofs-Hotel ), once the capital of the ancient Duchy of West- 
phalia, with 9200 inhab. and the old abbey of Weddinghausen 
(founded in llTOi, is prettily situated on a height skirted by the 
Ruhr. The hill (804 ft.) to the X., crowned with the ruins of a 
castle which was blown up in 1762. commands a charming prospect. 
Another excellent point of view is the Eichholz, a beautiful park 
on the S. side of the town. 

The winding river is crossed five times between Arnsberg and 
Meschede. — 48 M. Meschede i860 ft.: Hartungi, an ancient town 
(3300 inhab.) with a late-Gothic church. 

Near (53V 2 M.; Bestwig (Bahnhofs-Hotelj opens the narrow 
valley of the Valme, with lead and silver mines. — From (57V/2 M.) 
Olsherg il217 ft.: Kahlei an excursion may be made to the *Kahle 
Astenherg 2730 ft.', a fine point of view. Beyond Olsberg, on the 
hill to the right,- are the huge Bruchhauser Steine. The train now 
quits the Ruhr and penetrates the watershed between the Rhine 
and Weser by a long tunnel. — 62 ^ ^ ^^- Brilon-Wald. 

A branch-line runs hence to (ST^/., M.) Paderhorn (p. 4:B), via (41/2 M.) 
Brilon :i490 ft. ; Rosenhaum, R. & B. 21/4. D. incl. wine i^'i.^JC), a town 
with 5000 inhab.. mentioned as early as the year HOC. Brilon possesses 
a large Romanesque church with a late-Gothic choir; the sculptures on 
the X. portal are Romanesque (1150). Branch-line to Soest, see p. 43. 

The line then descends the narrow Hoppeke-Tal. 78 M. Xieder- 
Marsherg or Stadtherge 'Post: Klokei. a town of 4400 inhab., with 
a large lunatic asylum and important copper-works, lies near the 
foot of a hill, on which is situated the old town of Oher-Marsherg 
(pop. 1300 1. once a strong fortress, but destroyed during the Thirty 
Years War. This was the site of the ancient Saxon fortress Eres- 
burg, near which stood the most celebrated of the 'Irmensiiulen', 
or columns dedicated to the Germanic deity Irmin. The castle and 
column were destroyed by Charlemagne in 772. The church of 
St. Peter dates from the 12th and 13th centuries: in front of it 
stands a Roland's Column ip. 104 1. The *Chapel of St. Nicholas is 
an interesting structure in the transition style. 

88 M. Scherfede (Rail. Restaurant), the junction of a line to 
i30 M.) Holzminden (p. 49i. passing Wehrden and FUrstenherg. 

94 M. "Warburg fDodt. R. & B. 2^ ..-3. D. 2 ^^J, an ancient 
town (5300 inhab. r on the Diemel. is the junction of the railway to 
Alfertbeken ip. 45). About 3 M. to the left rises a conical hill, sur- 
mounted by the ruined tower of the castle of Desenberg. 

CASSEL. 0. Rmdr. 57 

From Warburg to Marburg, H7 M., railway in 5 hrs. — The chief 
intermediate station is (151/2 M.) Arolsen (892 ft. ; Filrstenhof, R. & B. 
21/2-5, pens. A-1 JC; Wal decker Ho f), with 2800 inhab., charmingly situat- 
ed, the scat of Prince Waldeck, father-in-law of the late Prince Leopold 
of England (Duke of Albany) , with a valuable collection of Porapeian 
antiquities and Spanish firearms. ~ 1()V2 M. Frankenherij (Rail. Restau- 
rant ; Schmidtmann, R. I'^j^JC) has a 14th cent, church, adjoined by a beau- 
tiful Gothic Lady Chapel (ca. 1380). — At (62 M.) Sarnau we join the line 
from Creuztal to Marburg, see p. 336. 

Beyond Warburg we obtain a view to the right of tlie pleasant 
valley of the Dieniel. — 106^/\, M. Ililmme is the junction of a 
branch-line to (IQi/o M.) Carlshafen (Schwan, R. & B. 272-8 .^ : 
Kurhaus), a small town prettily situated on the Weser, whence 
steamers ply in summer to Hanieln and Miinden (see p. 67). 

110^ 2 ^^- Hofijeismar (pop. 4900; Hessischer Hof), with a min- 
eral spring and baths; 114 M. Grehenstein (pop. 2300), with an an- 
cient castle and watch-towers. — About 2 M. to the W. of (119^2 M-) 
MmcheJiof, in a beautiful park, lies the chateau oi^Wilhelmstal, 
built in 1753-67, containing handsome rococo decorations and 
several pictures by Tischbein. The fountains play in summer on 
Thurs. & Sun., 3.30 p.m. — 126V2 M. Cassel. 


Hotels. Near the Station : *Schirmer (PL c ; D, 1), Friedrich-Wilhelm- 
Platz, R. from 3, B. I1/4 JC ; *Hotel Royal (PL b; D, 1), R. 3-6, B. I1/4, 
D. 3-4 cS ; *H6tel du Nord (PL a ; D, 1), both opposite the station ; Preusse 
(PL g; D, 1), Kurfiirsten-Str. 4; Casseler Hof (PL i; D, 1), Kurfiirsten- 
Str. 2, R. from 21/2, B. 1, D. 1^1^-2^12 JC, well spoken of; Monopol (PL h; 
D, 1). — 1)1 the Inner Town: *K6nig von Preussen (PL e; E, 1), in the 
Konigs-Platz, R. 3-6, B. IV4, D. 3-4 JC, first-class but somewhat old- 
fashioned ; Central Hotel (PL f ; C, 2), HohenzoUern-Str. 23 ; Hot. Golze 
(PL k; E, 1), Spohr-Str. 6, R. IV2-2V2, D. 2 c^; Deutscher Kaiser (PL d; 
D, E, 1), Bahnhof-Str. 1, R. 2-3, D. 1V2-3 JC ; Thuringer Hof (PL n ; E, 1), 
R. IV2-2 Ji. — Hotels at Wilhelmshohe, see p. 65. 

Pensions. Frau Schneevoigt, Obere Konig-Str. 2 (PL D. E, 2 ; pens. 
4-6 c^); Fran Siunpf, Humboldt-Str. 22 (PL C, D, 3 ; 41/2-71/2-^)- 

Restaurants (in addition to the above-mentioned hotels). ^Filrsten- 
berg, in the Hot. du Nord, D. (12-2) 2-3 c^ ; "^Gerhardt, Obere Konig-Str. 28 
(PL D, 2), D. (12-3) 11/2 ^•, Palais -Bestaurant, Obere Konig-Str. 30, 
D. iy.i-2JC; Kaletsch, Hohenzollern-Str. 28 (PL B, C, 1, 2), D. IV2 ^•, 
RatskeUer , in the New Rathaus (p. 60); Filsener Urquell, D. IV2 ^^ ; 
Automatic Restaurant, Wilhelm-Str. 25 (PL D, 2) ; Stadtpark, Wilhelm- 
Str. 6, concert every evening in summer. — Wine. Le GouUon, Untere 
Karl-Str. 14; Marqraf, Hohenzollern-Str. 34; Wipj)Unger, Oberste Grasse41. 
— Cafe-Restaurant in the Karlsatie, p. 64; concert several times a week. 

Caf^s (also beer). SchmoU, Obere Konig-Str. 15 (PL D, E, 2); Resi- 
denz, Konig-Str. 39. — Confectioners. Jung, Friedrichs-Platz 2, near 
the theatre; Paulus, Stande-Platz 3 (also beer at these two). 

Taximeter Cabs. Within the town (incl. Karlsaue), 1-2 pers., per 
drive of 800 metres (V2 M.) 70 pf., each addit. 400m. 10 pf . ; 3-4 pers. per 
600m. 70 pf., each addit. 300ni. 10 pf . ; at night (10-7) 1-4 pers. per 400m. 
70 pf. (each addit. 200m. 10 pf.) and 75 pf. "extra. — Outside the town, 
1-4 pers. per 400m. 70 pf. (each addit. 200m. 10 pf.); to Wilhelmshohe 
4 or 5 ti( extra (there & back 2 JC extra). — Waiting, 10 pf. per 4 min., 
IV2 "^ per hour. 

Carriage and Pair (bargain advisable) to Wilhclmshbhe and back: 

58 Route 6. CASSEL. Practical Notes. 

to the Palace 9, to the Octagon 15 JC, all inclusive. — To Wilhelmgtal 
(p, 57; lV-2 hr.) and back. IIJC: returning via Wilhelmshohe IS Ji. 

Electric Tramways. 1. From the Konigs-Platz (PL E, 1) via the 
TVilhelmshoher Allee ^Pl. A-D. 2) to Wilhelmshohe (25 min. ; 20 pf . ; name- 
boards white). — 2. From the HoUdndische-Strasse (beyond PL E, 1) to 
Mulang (35 min. : white and red). — 3. From Bettenhausen (bej'ond PI. F, 2) 
to the Raihray Station (PL C, D, 1) and the Germania-Sti\ (PL A, 2; 
red), — 4. From the Holldndische-Strasse (see above) to the 3Iarlt-Platz 
(green and red;. — 5. From Rotenditmold (bevond PL D, 1) to the Frank- 
furter-Str. (PL C, D, 3 ; green). — 6. From the'Ba.ilv:ay Station (PL C, D, 1) 
to Wilhelmshohe (25 min. : vellow). — Horse Cars from the Altmarkt 
(PL F, 1) to Wolf Sanger (p. 64), 10-20 pf. 

Steamboats to Wolfsanger (p. 64) and Graue Katze (p. 64), twice 
a dav 30 pf. : to Miinden (p. 66), when the river is deep enough. Quay 
at the Finkenherd (PL F, 1,. 

Riv-er Baths. SohVs Badeschiff, and others, in the Fulda. — Warm 
Baths, Erdmann. Mauer-Str, lb (PL E. 1). 

Post and Telegraph Office, Hohenzollern-Str. , opposite the 
Central Hotel ^Pl. C, 2;. 

Theatres. Hof -Theater (PL E, 2), Friedrichs-Platz (closed in July & 
Aug.): Besidenz-Theater. Stande-Platz 3 (PL D. 1, 2). — Variety Theatre, 
at the Kaiserhof Hotel. Bahnhof-Str. 24. 

The 'Fremdeni-erkehr-Verein, Kleine Rosen-Str. 4 (PL D, 1), is an 
institution for giving information to strangers. 

English Church ^St. Alban's), Murhardt-Str. ; chaplain, Rev. Jas. 
W. Thomas. 3/. A.. Hohenzollern-Str. 82; services (alternately with Grot- 
tingen when the university is in session) at 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m. 

U. S. Consular Agent, Herr G. C. Kothe. 

Principal Attractions (one day): Konigs-Platz (p. 59), Friedrichs- 
Platz (p. 59;. Schone Anssicht (p. 60;', '^Picture Gallery (p. 60), KarUaue 
(p. 64): excursion to Wilhelmshohe (p. 65) in the afternoon. 

Cassel (440-690 ft.), an important railway-centre, formerly tlie 
capital of the Electorate of Hesse, and since 1866 the seat of govern- 
ment of the Prussian province of Hessen-Xassau and headquarters 
of the 11th Army Corps, lies on the Fulda, which separates the 
Altstadt from the small Unter - Xemtadt ; the two together con- 
stitute -old' Cassel, with its gable-houses (mostly of the 17th cent.). 
To the S.'W. of the Altstadt are the Ober-Xeustadt (the 'Fursten- 
stadt' of the 17-18th cent.) and the new West-Vie7^tel or Hohen- 
zoUernsfadt. The population, which in 1864 was 35,980, is now 
about 150.000. includinof a o^arrison of 5000 men. The manufac- 
tures of locomotives, turbine-wheels, railway-carriages, surgical in- 
stilments, and fine tools are important. 

From the Railway Station (PI. D, 1) the short Kurfiirsten- 
Strasse leads to the S.E. -rightj to the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz 
'PI. D, 1), in the middle of which is the Loicenhrunnen^ an orna- 
mental fountain by Schneider (I88I1. with figures of the rivers 
Werra, Fulda, Lahn, and Eder by Echtermeier. On the N.W. side 
(corner of Kurfiirsten-Str. i is the Gewerbehalle (PI. 3), with an in- 
dustrial and technological museum (open free, 10-1), adjoined by the 
School of Industrial Art (PL 61. — To the S.W. of this square is 
the Stande-Platz 'PL D, 1. 2i. with its double avenue of limes, in 

M 1 
</> f [ 

^ VKi^rw M 




i«V i^ 


Friedrichs-Platz. CASSEL. 6. Route. 59 

which are the Stdndehaus (House of the Estates) and the Kunst- 
haiis (Hall of Art), containing an exhibition of modern pictures 
(daily 10-2, in summer also 4-6; Sun. 11-2; 50 pf.; closed in July 
& Aug.). — From the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz the Kolnische 
Strasse leads to the E. to the Konigs-Platz (PI. E, 1), the starting- 
point of the electric tramway to Wilhelmshohe (see p. 58). 

A little to the N.E., in the Martins-Platz, rises the Protestant 
Church of St. Martin (PI. E, 1), in the Gothic style, of the 14th 
and 15th cent., judiciously restored in 1842. The towers were re- 
built in 1889-92. Sacristan, Hohentor-Str. 23. 

Choir. The Monurnent of Philip the Generous (d. 1567) and his wife 
the Landgravine Christina of Saxony (d. 1549), erected in 1568-70 by Elias 
Godefroy and Adam Beaumont, in black marble with alabaster reliefs, 
stands in the apse. By the S. wall of the choir is a monument to Prince 
Philip of Hesse, son of the Landgrave Moritz (1592-1632), who fell in 
the battle of Lutter am Barenberge. 

To the S. of the church is a Statue of Landgrave Philip the 
Generous^ by Ever ding (1899). — No. 24 in the neighbouring Wilde- 
mannsgasse (PL F, 1) is the house in which the Brothers Grimm 
(p. 60) lived in 1805-14 and wrote their fairy-tales. Good view^ of 
'old' Cassel (p. 58) from the Fulda Bridge (PL F, 1, 2). 

The Obere Konig-Strasse (PL D, E, 2), which leads to the S.W. 
from the Konigs-Platz, is the chief business-street of the town. It 
passes the Friedrichs-Platz and the Opern-Platz (see below), and 
terminates at the Wilhelmshoher-Platz (p. 64). 

On the E. side of the spacious Friedrichs-Platz (PL D, E, 2), 
between the Altstadt and the Ober-Neustadt, stands the Royal 
Palace, which was built in 1767 and enlarged in 1826 (open on 
week-days 9-6, Sun. 11-6, in winter 9-4 & 11-4; entr. in the Konig- 
Str.; 25 pf.); the interior is luxuriously fitted up in the 'Empire' 
style. On the same side of the square are the Museum Fridericia- 
num (see below), the Royal Military School^ and the Roman Cath- 
olic Church (PL 5 ; containing a St. Francis from Rubens's studio). 
On the S. side is the new Court Theatre (Hof -Theater ; PL E, 2), 
by Karst & Fanghauel. In the centre rises the Statue of Land- 
grave Frederick II. (PL 2), a prince who in 1776-84 sent 12,000 
of his subjects to aid the English in America in consideration of a 
sum of 22 million dollars. — The N.W. part of the Friedrichs- 
Platz is named the Operx-Platz, with a bronze statue of Louis 
Spohr (PL 10), who was conductor of the orchestra at Cassel from 
1822 to 1859, by Hartzer (1883). 

The Museum Friderieianum, erected by S. L. Dury in 
1769-79 under Landgrave Frederick II., contains a few good an- 
cient sculptures and collections of plaster-casts, coins, prehistoric 
relics, etc. It is open free on Thurs., 10-1, and in summer on Tues. 
and Wed. also, 3-5 (entrance in summer by the principal portal, in 
winter at the back, through the court); at other times on application 

60 Boutc 6. CASSEL. Xatu red History Museum. 

to the custodian, who lives in the little house by the S.E. passage 
at the back of the museum. 

I. Hall, of the Founder?;. 1. Bust of Landgrave Frederick II. ; on 
the right and left, busts of the Napoleonic family, some of them by Ca- 
nova (?). — II. Semicircular Room, containing the Ancient Sculptures. 
Victor, after Polyclctus : Athena, after Phidias ; archaic statue of Apollo : 
replica of the Doryphoros of Polycletus (inaccurately restored); Head of 
a Diadumenos, a later Attic adaptation of that of Polycletus. — The 
rooms to the right and left of R. I contain the extensive collection of 
Plaster Casts. Beyond those on the right (S.E.) we reach Room V (the 
first entered in winter), which contains small objects of ancient art, terra- 
cottas . and a collection of antique coins. On a pedestal: *Bronze Sta- 
tuette of Victory, a Greek work. — The rooms on the other side (N.W.) 
of R. I contain antiquities, mostly found on Hessian soil. 

The Library (open daily, 10-1) . occupying a large hall on the first 
floor, in front, contains 200,'000 vols, and 1600 MSS. {e. g. a unique MS. 
of the "Hildebrandslied*. 8th cent.). A representative selection of the MSS. 
and bibliographical rarities is shown on Mon. and Thurs., 11-12.30 (also 
at other times for a fee of 25 pf.). Jacob and William Grimm were 
librarians here for about 15 years. 

At Xo. 2 Steinweof. behind the Military School ('p. 59), stands 
the Natural History Museum lopen free on Mon. and Thurs. 
10-1, in summer also, on Tues. and Sat. 3-5, at other times by fee 
to the custodian I, including the oldest herbarium in Grermany, formed 
in 1556-9*2, and an ethnographical collection. An inscription on the 
X. outside wall records that Papin here made his first important 
experiments on the application of steam-power (1706), and ?i Mem- 
orial Fountain was erected to him in 1906. — The Steinweg ends 
in the Schloss-Platz. on the E. side of which rise the Law Courts 
and Government Offices (PI. E, F, 2), while the S. is closed by the 
Aue-Tor (PI. E. 2i. built in 1782 and transferred from the Fried- 
richs-Platz to its present site in 1907. It is embellished with two 
bronze *Reliefs by Siemering (the farewell and return of the war- 
riors'*, placed here in commemoration of the victories of 1870-71. 

The Ober-Xeustadt (p. 58), erected after 1688 for the Hu- 
ofuenots, has straiirht, Dutch-lookino; streets and low houses, mostly 
adorned with balconies. The Church (Franzosische Kirch^; PL 
D, 2) is in the form of a long octagon, with a huge dome. A little 
to the W. is the Mess-Platz, with the Old Rathaus (PI. D, 2 : 1770), 
opposite which (with its front on the Obere Konig-Str. ) is the New 
Rathaus (PL D, 2i, an edifice in the German Renaissance style by 
Roth 1 1905-9>. 

Along the S.E. boundary of the Xeustadt runs the Schone Aus- 
sicHT (PL D, E, 3, 2 i affording a beautiful view of the Karlsaue 
(p. 64), the valley of the Fulda, and the distant hills. The large 
Bellevue Schloss, the residence of King Jerome in 1811-13, is now 
that of the general in command of the 11th Army Corps. 

At the end of the street rises the ^Picture Gallery (PL D, 3), 
a handsome Renaissance edifice erected in 1871-77 from plans by 
Dehn-Rotfelser. The plastic embellishments are by Hassenjjflug, 

Picture Gallery. CASSEL. ^- Route. 61 

Echtermeier ., and Brandt. — The First Floor, reached by a 
marble staircase, contains the valuable collection of over 800 pic- 
tures, founded by Landgrave William VIII. in the early part of the 
18th century. Admission free: Sun. 11-1, Tues., Wed., Frid., & Sat. 
10-1; in summer on Mon. and Thurs. also, 3-5; at other times on 
application to the custodian, to be found either in the building or 
at Frankfurter-Str. 41 (PL D, 2; fee 50 pf.). Catalogue 50 pf. 

Among the best Italian works in the gallery are a fine portrait 
by Titian (No. 488, Room IV), painted about 1550, and a vigorous 
Tintoretto (No. 497, R. IV). — The Flemish and Dutch depart- 
ments contain numerous gems. The Enthroned Madonna with saints 
by Van Dyck (No. 119, Room I), obviously composed under the in- 
fluence of Rubens, the portraits by him (Nos. 118, 120-129, various 
rooms), a family-piece by the Antwerp master Gonzales Coques 
(No. 151, Cab. 7), and the Barber s Shop by David Teniers the 
Younger (No. 147, Cab. 10) are all specimens of the golden era of 
the Flemish school. — In works by Hals and Rembrandt, Holland's 
tW'O greatest masters, the Cassel gallery is probably the richest in 
Germany. Among those of Frans Hals, the master of Haarlem, 
the following deserve special notice. His Laughing Toper (No. 216, 
Cab. 11) and above all the Cavalier w-ith the broad -brimmed hat 
(No. 219, Cab. 12; a late work) afford admirable specimens of his 
humorous and dashing style. His Tw^o Young Musicians (No. 215, 
Room II) and the portraits of a Dutch gentleman and his wife 
(Nos. 213, 214, Room I) also display the master's individuality, but 
are comparatively tame in execution. Of Remhrandfs pictures the 
most striking is his Jacob blessing the sons of Joseph (No. 249, 
Cab. 8), painted in 1656, a marvel of artistic skill and profound 
religious sentiment. The Woodcutter's Family (No. 240, Cab. 14) 
show^s the master's familiarity with idyllic subjects. Among the 
portraits the palm is carried off by one of Saskia, the happy young 
wife of the painter (No. 236, Room III), dating from 1634. To the 
same period belongs a portrait of the master himself in a helmet 
(No. 237, Room I). The early portrait of himself (No. 229, Cab. 8) 
and that of the old man with the golden cross (No. 231, Cab. 11) 
are w^orks of the painter's first Leyden period. The tw^o old heads 
in Cabinet 14, Coppenol, the w^riting-master (No. 234, Cab. 7), and 
Krul, the poet (No. 235, Room JI), w^ere painted soon after his 
removal to Amsterdam (1631). To his later period (1655-58) belong 
the Spear Bearer (No. 245, Room III), the studies of old men's 
heads in Cab. 8, his own portrait (No. 244, Cab. 8), and that of 
Nicholas Bruyningh (No. 243, Cab. 14). Rembrandt's landscapes, 
particularly the Mountain and the Winter Scene (Nos. 242, Room I; 
241, Cab. 8), are also well worthy of inspection. — The Dutch 
masters Ph. Wouverman, Jan Steen, Adr. van Ostade, Metsu, 
and Terhurg are also admirably represented. 

Baedeker's N. Germany, loth Edit. 5 

62 Boute 6. CASSEL. Picture Gallery. 

The Staircase is embellished with 8 marble statues, by Echtermeier . 

of the nations most prominent in the history of art. 

Room I (with RR. II and III. Xetherlands School of the 17th cent.). — 
To the right : 115. Fr. Snyders, Still-life; 346. Ph. Wouverman, Peasants 
resting: *139. Tenters the Younger, Boors plaving cards; *213, *214. 
Frans Hals ^d. 1666), Portraits ; 27?'. A. van Ostade (d. 1685), Topers : 
**242. Bembrandt (l'607-69). Mountain-landscape with a ruin (1650); 119! 
A. van Dyck (d. 1641). Virgin and Child with saints; 141. (to the left 
of 242), Teniers the Younger. Ecce Homo. — 112. Antwerp School (be- 
ginning of the 18th cent.), Adoration of the Shepherds ; *101. Jac. Jordaens 
(d. 1678), Pan sharing the meal of a peasant. — 124, Van Dyck, Family 
portraits; *2S1 . Bembrandt. His own portrait in a helmet (1634); above, 
9S. Bubens, Diana and her nymphs surprised by satyrs ; S4:2. Ph.Wouve?'- 
man, Ridinsr-school ; *123. Van Dyck. Family portraits. 

Room fl. Right Wall: *235. Bembrandt] Jan Krul, the poet (1633); 
418. S. de Vlieger, Sea-piece ; above, *108. Jordaens. Twelfth Night ('le 
Roi boit') ; *215. Frans Hals. Two young musicians ; *92. Bubens, Nicolas 
de Respaigne, in Oriental dress ; *239. Bembrandt, Portrait of a man (1639 ; 
freely retouched); 351. Ph. Wouverman, Peasants resting; *398. Jacob 
van Buysdael (d. 1682 . Mountain-scene with waterfall; 246. Bembrandt {T)^ 
Portrait. — Jordaens. *103. Education of Bacchus, 105. Porridge-eater; 
397. Jac. van Buysdael, Landscape; 439. J. D. de Heem, Still-life; 399. 
5'. van Buysdael, Landscape. — 292. Caspar Xetscher (d. 1684). Mas- 
querade: 185. Jan Lys. The quartet: 171. ./. B. Huysmans, Ideal land- 
scape; 128. 129. A. van Dyck. Portraits: 152. Gonzales Coques, Family 
portraits; M. d'Hondccoeier. Hen and chickens; 91 (above), Bubens, 
Victorious Mars (an allegorical work) ; 186. Jan Lys, Mora-players ; 109. 
J. Jordaens, Triumph of Bacchus. 

Room III. Right Wall: 102. J. Jordaens, Satyr and peasant; 272. 
Abr. van den Tempel, Portrait : 86. Bubens, Jupiter and Callisto (1613) ; 
**236. Bembrandt, Saskia van Ulenburgh. the painter's first wife (1634?); 
116a. Fr. Snyders. Game: 262. B. Fabritius, Mercury and Argus. — 
*245. Bembrandt. Spear Bearer (also known as 'the Sentinel'; 1655); 
88. Bubens, Meleager bringing the head of the Calydonian boar to 
Atalanta : 83 (above), A. Janssens, Diana and her nymphs (game by 

Room IV. Italian and Spanish Schools. To the right: 484. Bacchiacca, 
Portrait, with a skull and a landscape-background ; *504. Paolo Vero7iese(?), 
Cleopatra: *497. Tintoretto (d. 1594). Portrait; 511. Moretto. Adoration 
of the Shepherds; 476. M. Cerezo, John the Baptist. — *488. Titian, 
Portrait of Giov. Franc. Acquaviva, Duke of Atri(?), of the master's 
later period .injured). — *590. Bibera. Mater Dolorosa (1638); 482. School 
of Filippino Lippi. Crucifixion (in tempera). — 485. Florentine Master 
(16th cent.). Portrait. — In an adjoining Cabinet (20; left): 431-434. 
J. de Wit, The Seasons (grisaille). — From Room IV we now enter (left) ■ — 

Cab. 1. To the left: 459. Nic. Poussin, Bacchic scene in a wood. 
To the right, 462. Lairesse, Bacchic festival. 

Cab. 2-4 contain unimportant works. 

Cab. 5. 539. Copy after Baphael, Holy Family in a landscape; 567. 
Ag. Carracci, Ecstasy of St. Francis. 

Cab. 6-14. Netherlands School of the 17th century. In Cab. 6: 329. 
P. van Laer, Quack; 181. (over the door), G. van Honthorst, Satyr and 

Cab. 7. To the right. *125. Van Dyck, Snyders, the artist, and his 
wife; 97. Corn, de Vos (d. 1651), Solomon Cock of Antwerp ; no number, 
Bubens. St. Francis with the Stigmata; 212 (above), Bavesteyn, Portrait; 
107. J. Jordaens, Family group. — **234. Bembrandt, Coppenol, the 
writing-master (ca. 1632); 218. 217. Fr. Hals, Portraits; Xetscher, 294. 
Lady and parrot, 293. Old lady; *151. G. Coques, Young scholar and his 
sister; *127. Van Dyck, Isabella van Assche (?). 

Cab, 8. To the right. 611. Ad. Elsheimer, Landscape with Mercury 

Picture Gallenf. OASSEL. 0. Route. 63 

and Argus ; 223. Th. de Keiiser, Landgrave William IV. of Hesse ; 257, 
258. Gerard Dou, Rembrandt's parents; *393. A. van der Neer, Sunset; 
229. Rembrandt, Portrait of himself (ca. 1627). — *275, 21Q.Adr. van Ostade, 
Peasants drinking; Remhrayidt, *238, 247, 248. Portraits, *241. Landscape 
in winter (1636), 244. Portrait of himself (ca. 1659). — **249. Rembrandt, 
Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh in presence of their father Joseph 
and their mother Asenath (1656). 

Cab. 9. To the right. *369. Paul Potter, Cattle (1648); 299. Gabr. 
Metsu, Lady and game-dealer; 222. Th. de Keyser, Portrait; 420, 421. 
W. van de Velde, Sea-pieces ; 396a. S. van Ruysdael, Mouth of a river ; 
**289. Ger. Terburg (d. 1681), Woman playing a lute ; 126 (above), A. van 
Dyck, Syndic Meerstraten of Brussels; *374. Adr. van de Velde, Seashore. 

Cab. 10. To the right. *147. Teniers the Younger, Barber's shop ; 
Jordaens, 104. Childhood of Jupiter, 106. Moor and horse; 90. Rubens, 
Grirl with a mirror; 232, 233. Rembrandt, Studies of heads. — *122. 
Van Dyck, The painters L. and C. de Wael; Teniers, 148, 142, 143. 
Peasant-scenes, 144. Dentist. — *87. Rubens, Flight into Egypt (1614); 
145, 146. Teniers the Younger, Archduchess Isabella (?) entering Brussels 
and Yilvorde. 

Cab. 11. To the right. 231. Rembrandt, Portrait of an old man with 
a gold cross (1630); *301. Metsu, The lute-player; *296. Jan Steen, Twelfth 
Night (1668). — *377. J. Weenix, Dead hare; Ph. Wouverman, 356. 
Peasant and grey horse, *355. Harvest-wain. — 361. Ph. Wouverman, 
Battle; 300. Metsu, Lady and beggar-boy; *210. Nic. Kmipfer, The Seven 
Works of Mercy ; *16 (above) , Frans Hals, Laughing toper (ca. 1640) ; 
*288. Terburg, Lady and gentleman playing. 

Cab. 12. To the right. 368. Paid Potter, Cattle; 371. Karel du 
Jardin (d. 1678), Quacks. — 385. J. van Goyen, Eiver-scene. — 196. 
C. van Poelenbtirgh, Landscape (cattle by N. Berchem)-, 341. Ph. Wouver- 
7nan, Return from the hunt; *219. Fr. Hals, Man in a broad-brimmed 
hat (ca. 1660). 

Cab. 13. To the right. 67, 69. Pieter Neefs the Elder, Church- 
interiors. — 49, 50, 51. Ja7i Brueghel, Landscapes. 

Cab. 14. To the right. 84. Rubens, Drunken Hercules; 121. Van Dyck, 
Italian nobleman. — Rembrandt, *230. Portrait of his father, **240. The 
Woodcutter's Family, a Holy Family in the homely Netherlandish style 
(1646) ; 232, 233. Portraits. — 380 (above 240), M. d'Hondecoeter, Cock-fight; 
*118. Va7i Dyck, Portrait of Wildens, the artist. — **243. Rembrayidt, 
Portrait of Nicholas Bruyningh (1658). 

Cab. 15. German and Netherlands Schools of the 16th century. To 
the right, 17, 18. B. Bruyn, Portraits ; 16. Lucas Cranach the Elder, 
Judith; 7 (above), Hans Baldung Grien, Hercules and Antaeus. — 26. 
Master of the Death of the Virgin, Man with a rosary ; 19 (above), 
Cranach the Younger, Nymph resting at a spring; 6. Dilrer, Elsbeth 
Tucherin (1499). — 42. Mc. Neufchatel, Portrait; 33. Jan van Scorel, 
Family-group; *37. Sir Anthony More {'?), William the Silent of Orange. — 
In the middle of the room is a table-top with allegorical paintings by 
M. Schaffner of Ulm. 

Cab. 16 contains German and Netherlandish works of the 17-18th cent- 
uries. — Cab. 17. Paintings by J. H. Tischbein (1722-89), court-painter 
of Landgrave William YIII. of Hesse, and other German artists of the 
17-18th centuries. — Cab. 18. On the middle wall, 116. Frans Snyders, 
Birds. — From Cab. 19, which contains a few modern paintings (also 
743. Thos. Gainsborough, Landscape) we enter the beautiful vaulted — 

*LoGGiA, with busts of painters and allegorical mural paintings. 
The windows command a view of the Karlsaue, the valley of the Fulda, 
and the Meissner (p. 338). 

The Art Collections of the Ground Floor are open free on 
Men. & Thurs., 10-1; in summer also on Wed. and Sat., 3-5; at other 
times on appHcation to the custodian (comp. p. 61). Catalogue, 50 pf. 

64 P^oute 6. CASSEL. Karlsaue. 

We first reach the Collection of Casts, chiefly of modern, mediaeval, 
and Renaissance sculptures. From the 1st Gallery \re enter Room I. 
the Hessian Temple of Fame, containing flags, trophies, weapons, and 
the like. — The following rooms contain the valuahle ^Collection of 
Arts and Crafts. Room II : "SVorks in gold and silver, watches and 
clocks, miniatures. — Room III : Objects in ivory and amber, and gems. — 
Room IV: Objects in wax. bronze, and porcelain. — Room Y: Objects 
in glass, stone, clay, and wood. — ■ Room YI : Majolicas, mosaics, and 
scagliola work (imitation mosaic). — Rooms YII. YIII : Ceramics. — 
Room IX: Coins and medals. 

The buildiug is surrounded with pleasure-grounds, in which is 
a bust to E. von Mailer id. 1880; , the first Prussian governor of 
Hesse. Fine view from a pavilion farther on. A stone bridge across 
the Frankfurter-Str. brings ns to the Weinberg Parle (P\. D, 3j, 
with the Jfurhard Public Library (130,000 vols. ; open 9-1 & 5-7 ; 
closed on Sat. afternoon and Sun.i. — In the adjacent Wilhelms- 
hoher-Platz (PL D, 2) are a Monument to Emp. William I. (PL 4j, 
by K. Begas (1898), and the Ober-Prdsidium. 

At Xo. 3 Luisen-Str.. in the ^Yest-Viertel (p. 58), is the Bose 
Museum (PL B. 2 . containing ornaments, coins, and portraits of the 
Hessian ducal family (^open free, "Wed. &; Sun. 11-1 ; catalogue 20 pf.). 

The *Karlsaue or Aue (PL D. E, 3), bounded by the Fulda on 
the E., the favourite promenade of the inhabitants, was planned in 
the French style in 1709. and contains beautiful trees. Descending 
from the Friedrichs-Platz ip. 59 j, we soon reach the large Orangery 
(PL E, 3), built in 1701-11. The pavilion adjoining it on the W. 
is the "^Marmorbad, a bathroom erected in 1720-28, adorned with 
marble statuary, chiefly by P. E. Monnot, a French sculptor. Ad- 
mission on Mon.. Wed., and Sat. 10-12. Sun. 11.30-1; or by gi^'ing 
the custodian, who lives in the W. corner-pavilion of the orangery, 
a fee of 50 pf. In the vicinity, below the Schone Aussicht (PL D, 2), 
rises a Monument iPl. D, 3;, by Kaupert. representing a sleeping 
lion, erected in 1874 to the memory of Hessians who fell during 
the French domination. — At the X. margin of the Karlsaue is 
the new Academy of Arts, erected in 1904-8 from the designs of 
Bohnstedt. The main building is surrounded by six pavilions ac- 
commodating the studios of the pupils. — Beyond the flower-terrace, 
known as the "Bowling G-reen\ the G-rosse Allee • passing near a cafe- 
restaurant, p. 57) leads to the Aue Teich (boats for hire). 

Walks isee Map. p. 59). To the X.E. to (IV2 M.) Wolfsanger, on the 
Fulda (Kuranstalt Luisental. with restaurant: tramway and steamboat, 
see p. 58! : above the village \?> Raahe's Felsenkeller (view). The (i/2_hr.j 
Sonde rshauser Berg, on the opposite bank, also commands a fine view. 
The walk mav be extended to '1 hr.) the Graue Katze Restaurant. — To 
the W. by the Kolnische Allee (PI. B. C, 1) to the (IV4 M.) Reservoir 
(PI. A. 1; view). — To Miinden (p. 66), by the picturesquely wooded 
and winding valley of the Fulda. 4V 4 hrs. (passing the Grraue Katze, see 
above); steamboat, see p, 58. 

From Cassel to Hanover, see R. 7 ; to Berlin and Halle, see R. 47; 
to Leipzig, sec R. 39, 

* Cassel' 

WilhelmsMhe. CASSEL. ^. Route. 65 

From Cassel to Wilhelmshohe. 

Electric Tramways. Wilhelmshohe is reached directly by Lines 
1 & 6 and also, with change of cars, by Lines 2 & 3 (see p. 58). No. 2 
connects at Mulang with the Herlcules-Bahn (40 pf., return 50 pf.), which 
has a station near the Octagon (see below). — Railway from Cassel to 
stat. Wilhelmshohe in 7 min. (fares 40, 30, 20 pf .) ; thence to the entrance 
of the park nearly 1 M. (tramway). — Carriages, see p. 57. 

Hotels. * Grand- Hotel Wilhelmshohe, in the park, a little to the 
N. of the Palace, R. 3-6, B. IV4, D- 3V2-4, pens. 8V2-IO JC (advisable to order 
rooms in advance); Ledderhose (Rii^imgQx Schloss; PI. a), Mulang-Str., R. 
11/2-4= t^j with cafe-restaurant; Pensionshaus Wilhelmshohe,WiegSin([-Sti\, 
R. 2-5, pens. 5-8 cS, these two very fair; Kro7iprinz, R. 2-3 JC; Schloss 
Weisse7istein. — Sanatoria (open throughout the year). Dr. Wieder- 
hold's Kur-Anstalt (PI. c) ; Bad Wilhelmshohe (PI. d), pens. 6-10 JC; 
Gossma7in's Naturheilanstalt , pens. 65-98 JC per week; Dr. G^^eger's 
Ktvr-Anstalt (PI. e), pens. ^-^ JC. 

Restaurants at the hotels ; open-air restaurants at the Octagon and 
at the foot of the Cascades. — Kurhaus, at the Ridinger Schloss (see 
above); season-ticket 3 JC. 

The Fountains play from the beginning of May till October on 
Sun. and Wed. at 3.30 p.m. (the 'Cascades' and the 'New Waterfall' on 
Sun. only); also on Ascension Day and Whit-Monday (but not on Whit- 
Sunday). The visitor is recommended to be at the foot of the Cascades 
in good time (on Wed. at the Steinhofer Fall ; thence to the Teufels- 
Brticke, Aqueduct, Great Fountain, and New Waterfall), as the supply 
of water is limited and the exhibition therefore of brief duration. 

From the Willielmshoher-Platz (p. 59; PL D, 2) the Wilhelms- 
hoher Allee (PL A-D, 2), flanked with handsome villas, leads by the 
suburbs of Wehlheiden and Wahlershausen to (3 M.) *Wilhelins- 
hohe, formerly the summer-residence of the Electors of Hesse, and 
celebrated for its park and fountains. The beautiful grounds were 
partly laid out in 1701 by the Italian Giov. Franc. Guernieri. 

The Schloss, erected in 1787-94, and occupied by Napoleon III. 
when a prisoner of war in 1870-71, is a somewhat heavy building, 
the body and wings of which are disposed in the form of a semi- 
circle. The interior (shown on week-days; tickets 25 pf.) is sump- 
tuously fitted up. The castellan lives on the groundfloor, close to 
the entrance. When any members of the imperial family are in 
residence, the Schloss and part of the grounds are closed to the 
public. Near the Schloss are the Guard House^ the Grand-Hotel 
Wilhelmshohe (see above), and the old Marstall^ or stables. To the 
S.E. is the 'Lac' (p. 66). 

A visit to the finest points in the *Paek requires about 4 hrs. 
(compare Plan). 

From the Hotel Wilhelmshohe winding paths lead to the New 
Waterfall., 130 ft. in height. We ascend thence to the left to the 
Temple of Mercury^ and proceed by wood-paths to the so-called 
Octagon (1714), the highest point in the grounds, 1360 ft. above 
the Fulda, an artificial ruin consisting of three vaulted stories. 
The platform, which commands a beautiful *Panorama, bears an 
obelisk, 98 ft. in height, surmounted by a colossal statue of the 

66 Route 1. MtXDEN. 

Farnese Hercules in copper (33 ft. in height; room in the club for 
8 pers. '. The Grotto in front of the Octagon contains a water-puzzle. 
The Eleven Beeches (Elf Buchen), IV2 M. to the X. of the Octagon, 
command a fine view (tower) ; the route to them passes the restaurant 
and crosses the plateau of the Habichtswald. About 2 M. to the S. is 
the view-tower on the Hohe Gras (1950 ft. ; restaurant). 

The Cascades descending from the Octagon are 300 yds. in 
lenc^th. with laro^e basins at intervals of 50 vds. On each side are 
long and fatiguing flights of steps (842 steps in all). Pleasant 
walks descend to the right, passing the Steinhofer Waterfall^ to 
the Loicenharg^ an imitation of an ancient castle (1793-96;. The 
interior contains some antiquities, but the view from the platform 
of the lower is the chief attraction ifee 25 pf.). 

To the X.W. of the Lowenburg are the Teufels-Brilclce (devil's 
bridge) and the Holle or Grotto of Pluto^ a little to the E. of 
which is the Aqueduct, with a fine waterfall. Thence a path leads 
in 5 min. to the * Great Fountain^ one of the highest in Europe, 
which sends up a jet of water 1 ft. in thickness and 200 ft. in 
height. We now proceed to the S.E. to the La<i or to the villa- 
colony of Mulang ('electric railway, the so-called 'Herkules-Bahn', 
hence to the Octagon: comp. p. 65;. 

About IV2 ^I- to the S. of the Lowenburg ^see above) or Mulang 
opens the Drusel-ToJ (restaurant; reached by the Herkules-Bahn), whence 
the Hirzstein or the (3,^ hr; Hohe Gras (see above) may be visited. 

The almost shadeless Fiirsten-Allee or ilasen-Allee' leads from Wil- 
helmshohe to [b M.) Wilhelmstal (see p. 57). 

7. From Cassel to Hanover. 

103 M. Raelwat in 3-5 hrs. (express fares 15 JC 90, 10 JC 30, 6 ^^ 50 pf . : 
ordinary fares 13 JC 90. 8 ^ 30, 5 c^ 50 pf .). 

Cassel -Rail. Restaurant, D. 2c/^), see p. 57. — The train 
crosses the Fulda at (6^ M.) Kragenhof, by a bridge 130 ft. high, 
and for a long distance skirts the picturesque banks of the stream. 

15 X. Miinden. — Hotels. Hessischer Hof (PI. a), Neue Bahnhof- 
Str.. R. 21 .,-51 J. B. 1, D. 21 -2-310^, well spoken of; Jung (PI. b), Lange- 
Str.! R. & B. 2-3 J^: Deutsches Haus (PI. cj, Burg-Str. ; Andree's Berg 
(PL d), 1 M. from the station. R. 2-3. D. 2, pens. 5-6 JC, verv fair; Tivoli 
(PI. e), R. 3. pens. 5 JC : Schdferhof, 11.2 M. to the E. of the station; 
Bergschlosschen fPl. ij. — Wine at Schilling's, Ziegel-Str. 3. — Post 
dr Telegraph Office (PI. 6), Xeue Bahnhof-Strasse. 

Miinden -462 ft.t. charmingly situated on a tongue of land at the 
junction of the Fulda and Werra. the united waters of which form 
the Weser, is a pleasant, old-fashioned little town. Pop. 11,300. 
From the railway-station the Bismarck-Str. leads to the aS^^ . Egidien- 
Kirche (V\. 4), of the 13th cent., with a nave rebuilt after the siege 
of 1626. Farther to the X. is the Church of St. Blasius (PI. 3; 
sexton, Lange-Str. 62., of the 15-1 6th cent., containing a Grothic 
font il392 and the tomb of Duke Eric I. of Brunswick (d. 1540). 

rr^ -S ty-: •- -^ ^ ^ __i e d-'^'-^-^ B'eg -: ^ ^ 

-fg =v- 





GOTTINGEN. 7: Route. 67 

The Renaissance Rathaus (PL 7) was completed in 1619. The 
Schloss, built by Duke Eric II. of Brunswick about 1561 and 
restored in 1898, accommodates the district-court, the collections of 
the Forst-Akademie, and the municipvil Museum , with its examples 
of Munden fayence from 1753 to 1855 (Sun. 11-1, Wed. 2-5, free; 
on other days, 10-12 & 2-5, 15 pf.). Near the Schloss is the Forst- 
Akademie (PI. 1), founded in 1869. Picturesque views are obtained 
from Andree^s Berg (Y'ilir. ; see p. 66) beyond the suburb of 
Blume, on the other side of the Werra, and from the tower on 
^Tilly^s Schanze\ among the woods on the left bank of the Fulda, 
about 3/4 M. from the bridge (coloured plaster relief representing the 
Defence of Munden against Tilly, 1626; adm. 10 pf. ; restaurant). 

From Munden to Hameln, 84 M. (steamboat on the Weser daily in 
summer, in 10 hrs., upstream 151/2 hi"s«; fares IJC 20, 4 .^ 70 pf . ; D. on 
board 2 JC). This is the pleasantest way of visiting the pretty Valley 
of the Weser. On the left bank is the Reiyihardswald (ending at 
Carlshafen), on the right bank are the Bramwald (till Lippoldsberg) and 
the Soiling (till Hol7mindcn ; see p. 49). The following are a few of the 
most noteworthy points. To the right Bursfelde (35 min.), at the mouth 
of the Nieme, with a famous Benedictine monastery (1093-1542), now sup- 
pressed. — r. Lippoldsberg, an old Benedictine convent, with a Roman- 
esque church (12th cent.). — 1. Carlshafen, also a railway-station (to 
HUmme, see p. 57). — 1. Herstelle, where Charlemagne erected a fortified 
camp in 797. — 1. Beverungen, on the Holzminden and Scherfelde railway 
(p. 56) ; opposite (r.) is Lauenforde, a station on the Ottbergen-Northeim 
railway. The imposing chateau of Wehrden (p. 56) now rises on the left. 
On the right bank, 1 M. farther on, the elevated village of Filrstenherg 
(Hotel Fiirstenberg), with its old porcelain-factory, is conspicuous. The 
steamer now shoots the bridge of the Ottbergen-Northeim railway, passes 
the Brunsherg on the left, and reaches Hoxter (see p. 48). — In V4 ^ir. 
more we pass under the Westphalian railway bridge and reach (1.) Corvey 
(p. 48), and in another hour we reach the station of Holzminden (p. 49). 
— 1. Polle (Zur Burg), with a ruined castle; just beyond is the SteiJi- 
milhle, at the foot of the cliff. — 1. Bodenwerder (Traube; Goldener 
Anker), the residence of Baron Miinchhausen (d. 1797), famous for his 
marvellous adventures ; 1. Kemnade, with an ancient abbey-church. At 
Hehleti (1.) rises the imposing chateau (1589) of the Counts of Schulen- 
burg. — I. Emmertal (station), on the Hanover and Altenbeken railway, 
which here crosses the river. — r. Hameln, see p. 46. 

Steamboat from Munden to Cassel, see p. 58. 

The train crosses the Werra (fine retrospect of Munden), follows 
the valley of the Weser for some distance, ascends gradually to 
(26 M.) Dr arts f eld (987 ft.), and descends to the valley of the Leine. 

36 M. Gottingen. — Hotels. Kroyie (PI. b ; B, C, 3), E. from 
21/2, B. 1, D. IV2-2V27 pens, from ^ JC, well spoken of; Gebhard's Hotel 
(PI. a; A, 2), near the station, R. 2V2-4, B. 1, D. 2-3, pens. 51/2-7 tS; Royal 
(PI. c; C, 3), R. 2-21/2, D- IV2-2 -/^; National (PL e ; B, 2) ; Deutscher Hof 
(PI. d; C, 2). — Pension Stegemann, Hainholzweg 46 (PI. D, 3), pens. 
4-41/2 c/^. — Restaurants. Ratskeller; Krone, Royal, see above ; Automatic, 
Weender-Str. 57 ; 3Iutze's Wine Rooms, Barfiiss'er-Str. 5. — The Deutsche 
Gar-ten (PL C, 4) and the Stadt-Park (PL D, 2, 3) are popular resorts (con- 
certs). — Post Office (PL A, 2). — Taximeter Cabs. — English Church 
Services, in term time alternately with Cassel (comp. p. 58), at 8 a.m. 

The Bottinger-Studienhaus , Bahnhof-Str. 24, supplies foreign students 
with information of all kind, arranges courses of instruction in German, etc. 

68 Route 7. G0TTI:N^GEN. 

The building also contains club-rooms for the members of the British and 
American colonies in Gottingen. 

Gottingen, an old to\v-n with 3-4,100 iuhab., is famous for its 
University (Georgia Augusta, 2000 students), founded in 1737 by 
Greorge II. The inner town, with many quaint old houses, is enclosed 
by ramparts and promenades. 

Xear the railway-station is the ^//«fo??i/e (PI. A, 2), containing 
Blumenbach's collection of skulls. The Allee-Str., with the house 
(Xo. 6) of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (1829-37), leads hence to the 
E., crossing the Leine Canal, to the extensive University Library 
(PL B, 3), with 550,000 vols, and 6500 MSS. (open daily, 9-1 and 
2.30-6; Sat. 9-2: in vacation, 9-1, daily except Sun.). Close by, to 
the E.. is the Johannis-Kirche (PI. B, 3), a Romanesque edifice 
rebuilt in the Grothic style in the 14th century. 

In the market-place stands the Bathaus (PL B, C, 3; open free, 
9-1 and 3-6 ». a picturesque building of 1369-71; the main hall 
(restored in 1880) and the council-chamber are adorned with mural 
paintings by Schaper. In front of the Eathaus stands the charming 
Goose Girl Fountain (1900). Running X. from the market-place 
is the Weexder-Strasse (PL B, C. 2), the chief business -street, 
with the Gothic Jakobi-Kirche .PL C, 2; 14-15th cent.) and a 
house of 1549 (Xo. 59). — The Barfiisser-Str., with a house of ca. 
1550 (Xo. 5, see p. 67 1, leads to the E. to the Wilhelm-Platz 
(PL C, 3), which is adorned with a statue of King William IV. of 
Hanover (d. 1837'. Adjacent, in the Ritter-Plan (Xo. 12), is the 
municipal Collection of Antiquities <PL C, 2: open free, March- 
Xov.. on Sun.. 11-1. and Wed., 2-4; on other days, 10-4, adm. 1 ^l 
for 1-2 pers.: catalogue 20 pf.). 

At the X. end of the Weender-Str. (PL B, 2) rises a large build- 
ing for Lectures, in front of which is a statue of Wohler (1800-82), 
the chemist, by Hartzer. Adjacent is the Botanical Garden 
(PL C. 1 1. Xo. 40 Kurze Geismar-Str. (PL 2) contains the Univer- 
sity Bi'-ture Gallery and Collection of Engravings : adm. free, 
to the pictures Sun. 11-1, to the engravings Wed. 2-4 (catalogue 
70 pf.i. Close by are the Chemical Laboratory (PL C, 4), and a 
monument (erected in 1899 1 to Gauss (1777-1855), the mathemati- 
cian, and W. E. Weber (1804-91), the physicist. — In the W. 
part of the rampart-promenades, close to the Leine Canal, is the 
small house (PL A. B, 4) in which Prince Bismarck lived as a 
student in 1832-3 (memorial tablet). 

On the ai.>M.) Hainherg '1083 ft.) is a memorial-stone to the Got- 
tinger 'Hainbund'. Above, to the left, is the Rohns, a pleasure-garden. 
On the top of the hill is the Bismarck Tower (view; 10 pf.). The Harz- 
blick. another view-tower, may be reached hence by a walk through the 
Gottineer Wald in I1/2 l»r. — In the old cemeterv. outside the Weender 
Tor, is^a bronze bust of G. A. Burger (1747-94), 'the poet (PL B; B, 1). 

A favourite excursion is to the (2 hrs.) ruin of Plesse (1080 ft.; p. 69), 
with its two towers, on a wooded height, commanding a charming view. 

. NORTHEIM. 7. Route. 69 

and thence down to Mariaspring (V2 hr. ; music in summer on Sun. and 
Wed.). — In the pleasant B re inker- Tal, to the S., lies (5 M.) Beinhausen, 
at the foot of the wooded Gleichen (1404 ft.), which arc surmounted 
with ruins. 

From Gottingen to Eichenberg (for Gotha, Erfurt, Halle) and Bebra 
(and Frankfort), sec R. 52. — A light railway runs from Gottingen via 
(11 M.) Rittmarshausen to (22 M.) Duderstadt (p. 342). 

40 M. Bovenden (4o6 ft.), commanded by the ruin of Plesse 
(p. 68). Above (42 M.) Norten rises the ruin of Hardenherg 
(541 ft.); below, a modern chateau. — 48 M. Wortheim (394 ft.; 
Sonne; Englischer Hof, R. l^g-^ ^), an old town (pop. 8000), 
with a good church of 1519 (old carving on the altar; remains of 
fine stained glass of 1404 in the choir), is also a station on the line 
from Nordhausen (p. 305) to Ottbergen (p. 48). 

From (56 M.) Salzderhelden^ with a saline spring and a ruined 
castle, a branch-line runs to (21/2 M.) Einhech (pop. 8700; Herzog 
Erich; Groldener Lowe), with numerous quaint old buildings, and to 
(11 M.) DasseL 

60 M. Kreiensen (p. 49) is the junction for the Holzminden 
and Magdeburg line (R. 5), and is connected with (2072^-) Osterode 
(p. 308) by a light railway (2 hrs.). — 66 M. Freden is situated in 
one of the prettiest parts of the valley of the Leine, on which the 
ruins of the Winzenhurg look down from the heights. — 72 M. 
Alfeld (305 ft.; Kaiserhof), with 6400 inhab., lies at the base of 
the Sieben Brilder^ a group of hills, the highest of which is 1480 ft. 
above the sea-level. Various pleasant excursions may be made 
hence. The mountainous district is now quitted. 

Beyond (83 M.) Elze, the junction for (18 M.) Hameln (p. 46), 
the Leine is crossed. On an eminence to the left rises */Schloss 
Marienhurg (no adm.), built in the mediaeval style by Hase, with 
a frieze by Engelhard (1851), illustrating northern mythology. 

87 M. Noi^dstemmen is the junction for the Hildesheim-Ringel- 
heim line (pp. 49, 46). — 951/2 M. Rethen; 981/2 M. Willfel. 

103 M. Hanover, see p. 71. 

8. Prom Rotterdam (Hook van Holland) to 
Hanover via Salzbergen. 

260 M. Railway in 81/2-I3 hrs. (express fares ^ JC 70, 2Z JC 50, \^ JC 
90 pf.). — This is the shortest route between Rotterdam di\\(\ Berlin (ex- 
press in 12 hrs. ; fares 52 JC 70, 35 JC 90, 22 .yfC 80 pf .). From London to Ber- 
lin, via Harwich and the Hook of Holland, daily in 22 hrs. (fares U. 3s. 4c?., 
2?. Ihs. 6d.). — Custom-house formalities at Bentheim (see below). 

From Rotterdam to (118 M.) Hengelo^ see Baedeker^ s Belgium 
and Holland. Branch-lines diverge from Hengelo to Almelo on the 
N., and to Enschede and Munster (p. 92) on the S. Beyond (125 M.) 
Oldenzaal the line crosses the Prussian frontier. The custom-house 
is at (135 M.) Bentheim (Bellevue, R. 21/4, D. 2, pens. 5-6 ^^ 

70 Route 8. OSXABRtCK. 

well spoken of: Kaiserkof)^ a small town (pop. 2700) with an old 
chateau (partly of the 12th cent.). Bad Bentkeim (Kurhaus, R. & 
board from 5^ o ^/ visitors' tax 10 <^), with a sulphur-spring, lies 
about 1 M. from the town. — 143 M. Salzhergen (junction for 
Emden, p. 96). — 148 M. Rheine (Rail. Restaurant ; Schultze^ 
Hartmann J R. 2-3 -Jl)^ a cotton-making town on the Ems., with 
12,800 inhab., is the junction for Miinster and Hamm (comp. p. 96). 
The Osnabrlick line crosses the Ems. On the risfht rises a 
wooded chain of hills, the X.^. spurs of the Teutoburgian Forest 
(p. 36). — 161 M. Ihhenhuren (pop. 6000), on the Aa. 

177 M. Osnabruck. — Hotels. ^Schaumhurg (PL a: E, 3), 
Schiller-Str. 9. R. from 2i .„ B. 1. B.ZJC: Central (PI. b; D, 3),'Moser- 
Platz. R. from 2, D. 214!^; Germania{V\.c; D. 3), Moser-Str.. well 
spoken of; *Dutting's '^Pl. d ; D. 2, 3), Domhof ; Kaiserhof (Pl.c; D, 3), 
E. 2-3, D. 11/2-21.2-^; Eeichshof (PL f ; E, 3), Eohenzollern (PL g; E, 3), 
these two near the General Station. — Restacraxts at the Central 
Station and at the Hotels Schaumhurg, Germania. Kaiserhof, and Central 
(see above; ; also. Schorn, Schlagvorder-Str. 22 (PL E, 3), D. 3 J^. 

Cabs. 1-2 pers. per 1/4 hr. 60, V'., hr. 90 pf., 1 hr. IV2 ^; 3-4 pers. 
80 pf., 1 ^S 20 pf.. and 2 JC. — Electric Tramways through the chief 
thoroughfares (see Plan). — Post & Telegraph Office (PL E, 3), Witte- 
kind-Str. 5. 

OsnabrucJc (190 ft.i, a town on the Hase, with 60,000 inhab. 
and extensive iron-works, the capital of a bishopric founded by 
Charlemagne in 785, but suppressed in 1803, has since 1858 again 
been the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. 

From the General Railway Station (PL E, F, 3) the Moser-Str. 
leads to the centre of the town, via the Groethe-Platz , with an 
Equestrian Statue of Emp. William I. 'PI. 4; E, 3j, the Gewerhe- 
Halle (PL 8; industrial exhibition), and the Moser-Platz (PL C, 3) 
to the X. of which is the Herz-Jesu-Kirche (PL D, 2; 1901). 

A little farther on rises the Cathedral (Rom. Cath. ; PL D, 2), 
a spacious cruciform structure (12-13th cent.) partly in the Ro- 
manesque and partly in the transitional stj'le, with an octagonal 
tower above the crossing and two square "W. towers. 

The I>-terior (verger. Xo. 4, Kleine Domfreiheit) contains a bronze 
font of the 12th cent., a large wooden crucifix of the 13th cent., and 
eight late-G-othic figures of the Apostles (in the ambulatory). — The 
* Treasury, in the late-Romanesque sacristy, includes five fine reliquaries 
(12-15th cent.), crucifixes, croziers. etc. An ivory comb and set of 
chessmen, said to have belonged to Charlemagne, really date from the 
12th century. 

The Grosse Domfreiheit (PL D, 2), to the K of the cathedral, 
is adorned with a bronze Statue of Justus Moser (1720-94), the 
patriotic author and philanthropist, by Drake. 

A little to the ^. is the Market Place fPl. D, 2), with some 
old gabled houses and the Rathaus (,P1. 12;, erected at the close 
of the 15th cent., where the negociations for the Peace of West- 
phalia were carried on from 1643 to 1648. The 'Friedens-SaaP, 

OSNABRDCK. s. Route. 7I 

restored in 1890, contains portraits of princes and ambassadors, 
and other reminiscences of that period (comp. p. 84). The statues 
of emperors on the facade are modern. The so-called "^Imperial 
Goblet ('Kaiserpokar), a silver-gilt cup of the 14th cent, (altered 
in the 16th cent.), is shown only by a magistrate's order. 

The adjacent *Marien-Kirche (Prot.; PL C, D, 2; sexton, 
Markt 12) is a noble Grothic structure, borne by very lofty, slender 
columns. The nave was erected in :! 306-18, the choir and the 
retro-choir about 1420. The sculptures on the 'Paradiespforte' are 
modern copies (originals in the Museum, see below). The carved 
altar (freely restored) dates from the beginning of the 16th cent., 
the font from 1560. 

In the Kanzler-Wall, No. 28, to the S., is the Museum (PI. C, 3), 
containing a natural history cabinet and G-ermanic antiquities (open 
free on Wed. & Sun. 11-1, Sat. 3-5; at other times 50 pf. ; catalogue 
30 pf.). — The Gothic Katharinen-Kirche (Prot.; PL 3, C, D, 3) 
dates from the 14th cent, and was restored in 1881; the tower is 
338 ft. high. — The Royal Palace (PL D, 3), a handsome baroque 
edifice, was built in 1662-75 and enlarged in the 18th century. — 
In the Johannis-Kirche (PL D, E, 4), of the 13th cent., are some 
interesting wood-carvings and statues (sexton, Johannis-Str. 85). — 
The Burger -Park (PLD,E,1; adjoined by the large Insane 
Asylum), the Westerberg (PL A, 1), and (2 M.) Steinka7np are 
pleasant resorts for walkers. 

From Osnabruck a branch-line runs to (33 M.) BracJcicede (p. 35). — 
To Quakenbriick and Oldenburg, see p. Ill; to Cologne, or to Bremen 
and Hamburg, see R. 19. 

191 M. Melle (pop. 3300; Bahnhof-Hotel), on the ^^56/201 M. 
Bilnde (220 ft.; pop. 5100; Deutscher Kaiser), with salt springs, 
also on the Else. — 208 M. Ldh7ie, where the Cologne and Hanover 
line is reached (see p. 37). From Lohne to — 

260 M. Hanover, see R. 3. 

9. Hanover. 

In the following description the large general plan of Hanover is 
referred to as PL I, the smaller plan of the inner city as PL II. 

Hotels. Near the Station: *H6tel Royal (PL II, a; D, 3), R. from 
31/2, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D.4, pens, from 101/2-^; ^Bristol (PL II, c; D, 3), 
R. 31/2-10, B. IV2, dej. 21/2, D. 3-4, pens, from 10 JC; Savoy Hotel 
(PI. II, d; D, 3), R. 2-4, B. 1, D. IV2-2V2 -^; *Rheinischer Hof (PL II, b ; 
D, 3), R. 2i/r5, D- 3, pens, from 71/2 ^; Bornemann's (PL II, e; D, 3), 
r! 21/1-31/2, B. 1, D. 21/2 JC, very fair ; Central (PL II, f ; D, 3) ; Wachsking's 
(PL II, p; D, 3); Russischer Hof (PL II, q; D, 3), R. 2-3, D. I1/2-2 JC; 
Hannover (PL II, r; D, 3), R. from 21/2 JC ; Hohenzollern (PL II, s; 
D, 3), R. 13/,-3, D. 11/2^; Otto (PL II, t; D, 3), R. 21/2-6.^; Kronprinz 

' III the Town (not far from the station): *Kasten's (PL II, h; D, 3), 
Theater-Platz 9, with restaurant; Reichshof (PL II, v: D, 3), Grosse Pack- 

72 Rovfe 9. HANOVER. Practical Notes. 

hof-Str. 18: Tier Jahreszeitex (PL II. n; D, 4). ^gidientor-Platz 2; 
Bayrischer Hof PL II, m : D. 3). Liiisen-Str. 10, R. 3-5, D. V^j^JC: Dase- 
Kixcx's Hotel PL II. w ; C, 3), Georg-Str. 46. R. 13 >3 .4C : Hot. de l'Europe 
(PL II, 1: D, 3). Luisen-Str. 4: Evaxgelische Yereixshauser at Limburg- 
Str. 3 (PL II: C, 3) and Prinzen-Str. 12 (PL II. o; D, 4). R. from IV4, 

B. 3^. D. I^^'JC. 

Pensions. Fran Hagemeister, Holtv-Str. 11 (PL II ; D, 4), 31/2-6 .^: 
Pension Internationale. Prinzen-Str. 2 (PL II : D. 3. 4), d-1'^IoJC: Frau 
Schafer. Heinrich-Str. 44 (PL II: D. 3), S^j^-oJC: Frdulein Wuthemann, 
Heinrich-Str. 34: Si)arkuhl , Marien-Str. 61: Xoltemeier, Lemforder- 
Str. 11 (PL II: D. 4 . 4-6.^; Von Thielen, Prinzen-Str. 21 (PL II: D, 3, 4), 
5-61 2 J^. 

Kestaurants. TVixe. *Geo?'gshaUe. in Kasten's Hotel (see p. 71); 
BatsireinkeUcr. in the Old Rathaus (p. 74), D. (1-3 p.m.) 2 JC; *Spiess, 
Langelaube 47, D. (1-3) 2 JC ; MicTiaelis, Windmiihlen-Str. 5, D. (1-3) 
li.2^4!;; Pw-sf, Theater-Platz 7; Lucke, Standehaus-Str. 1, with oyster- 
saloon: Filers. Langelaube 46: Continental Bodega, Georg-Str. 38. — 
Beer. *3Iunchner BurgerhrdH, in Kasten's Hotel (seep. 71); ^Franzis- 
kaner. in the Bayrische Hof (see above): Hansahaus, ^gidientor-Platz ; 
Bheinischer Hof. see p. 71: Kidmhacher Bierhalle, Bahnhof-Str. 13. — 
Automatic Bestat'.rant, Standehaus-Str. 4. 

Cafes. ^Kropcke, at the pavilion in the Theater-Platz, with garden ; 
Schmidt, Theater-Platz 16a, corner of Bahnhof-Str., on the first floor; 
Wiener Cafe. Georg-Str. 37: Cafe Palais, Georg-Str. 8, on the first 
floor. — Confectioners. A>fJi)6, Bahnhof-Str. 12; S'2<^r, Georg-Str. 29 ; 
Hartmann. Grosse Paekhof-Str. 2. 

Theatres. *Boyal Theatre (PL II, D 3 : closed in June, July, and 
Aug.): narquet 'stalls) 31 .,-6. dress-circle 4-8 JC : concerts in winter. — 
Be s i den z- Theater (PL II: D. 4). Markt-Str. 47 (closed from May to Aug.), 
modern plavs, reserved seat from 2 ^^ 10 pf . — Deut^ches Theater (PL II ; 

C. 3), Reuter-Str. 10 (closed in summer). — Union-Theater (PL II; D, 4), 
Masch-Str. 12 ^.summer Xhed^XxQ). — Mellini-Theater (PL II; C, 3), Artillerie- 
Str. 10 (varieties-. 

Amusements. In the town: Tivoli (PL II: D, 3), Konig-Str., con- 
certs in summer daily restaurant). — Outside the town: Zoological 
Garden 'p. 79(. band dailv except Sat. ; Lister Turm: Xeues Haus (p. 79), 
all three in the Eilenriede (PL I; E-G. 1-3); Parkhaus (PL I; B, 1), near 

Baths. Municipal Baths (PL II: C. 3). Goseriede, with Turkish, 
Russian, and swimming baths for ladies and gentlemen: Luisenbad, 
Luisen-Str. 5 PL II : D, 3 . — Schroder's Biver Baths, behind the Archive 
Building p. 7 7\ 

Taximeter Cabs (horse and motor). For 1-2 pers., 800 metres 
50 pf .. each 400 m. more 10 pf . ; 3-4 pers., 600 m. 50 pf., each 300 m. more 
10 pf . : at night (10 p.m. to 7 or 8 a.m.), 400 m. 50 pf., each 200 m. more 
10 pf. : waiting. 10 pf. per 4 minutes. From the rail, station 25 pf. extra. 
Luggage up to 25 lbs. free, up to 55 lbs. 25 pf. 

Electric Tramways fares 10-25 pf.). The main points of inter- 
section are the BaiJiroy Station (PL I. D 3 : lines 3, 5. 7-10, 13, 15, 17, 19) : 
the Cafe Kropcke PL 11. D 3 : lines 1. 3-11. 13. 15. 17-19j : the JEgidientor- 
Platz PL I. D 4: lines 1. 2. 4. 14. 20 : and the Schwarzer Bar (PL I. B4; 
lines 2-5. 7. 10. 12. 13. 15. 17). — 1. From Wulfel ^S.E.) via Herren- 
hausen to Leinhausen (X.^^.). — 2. Inner Circle (Bundbahn). From the 
Schwarzer Bar (PL I: B. 4) to the Kciniirsworther-Platz (PL II: B, C, 3), 
Bodeker-Str. (PL I : E. 2). ^gidientor-Platz (PL D, 4), and Schtcarzer Bar. 
— 3. From the Lister turin^CPl. I : E. 1 > to Ricklingeu and the Landwehr- 
Schenke (S.). — 4. From Fischerhof (n. 1: B, 6) to the Pferde-Turm 
(PL I; F, G, 4). — 5. From Xieschlag-Strasse (PL I; B, 4) to the Pferde- 
Turm. Tiergarten. Anderteu. and Misburg (E.). — 6. From Limmer to 
the Zoological Garden (PL I: F. 3). — 7. From Xieschlag-Strasse (PL I; 
B. 4) to the Markthalle and Buchholz (X... — 8. From Hainholz (PL I; 

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Ernst- August-Platz. HANOVER. 0. Boute. 73 

B, C, 1) to Bodeker-Strasse (PL I; E, 2). — 9. From Vahrenwald (N.) to 
Lister Turin and Vier Grenzen. — 10. From Steintor to Barsinghausen 
(see p. 79). — 11. From Hanover to Hildesheim^ see p. 79. — 12. From 
Limmer (PI. I; A, 3) to FlHCherhof (PI. I; B, H). ~ 13. From the Markt- 
Halle (PI. I; D, 4) to Buchliolz, Misburg, and Anderten (E.). — 14. From 
Limmer (Pl.I ; A, 3) to the Rottger-Str. and Pferde-Turm (Pl.I; F, 0,4).— 
15. From Niederschlag-Strasse (PI. I; B, 4) to Haimar (E.). — 16. From 
the JEgidientor-Flatz (PI. I ; D, 4) to the Zoologiccd Garden (P. I ; F, 3). — 
17. From the Markt-Halle (Pl.I; D, 4) to Buchholz, Bothfeld, Isern- 
hagen, and Burgwedel (N.). — 18. Yvom Hainholz (PI. I; B, C, 1) to the 
JEgidientor - Platz (Pl.I; D, 4). — 19. From Vahrenwald (N.) to the 
Pferde-Turm (P. I; F, G, 4). — 20. From Lister Turm (PI. I; E, 1) to 
the Bohmer-Str. (PI. I; E, 5). — 21. From Rethen to Pattensen. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. II ; D, 3), in the Ernst-August-Platz. 

United States Consul : Bobt. J. Thompson, Esq. ; vice-consul, James 
M. Bou'cock, Esq. — British. Vice-Consul: C. C. Stevenson, Esq. — 
Intelligence Office for Strangers ('Verein zur Forderung des Fremden- 
verkehrs'), Ernst-August-Platz 5, 1st floor (PI. II; D, 3). 

English Church, in the Nicolai-Kapelle, Goscriede (PI. C, 3) ; services 
at 11,30 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. 

Chief Attractions (one day). Morning: Georg-Strasse (nee he\o\x), 
Market Place (p. 74), House of Leibnitz (p. 74), Provincial Museum 
(p. 75). Afternoon: Georgs-Garten (p. 78), Herrenhausen (p. 78), and 
Mausoleum (p. 78). 

Hanover (255 ft.), formerly tlie capital of the kingdom of 
Hanover, now that of the Prussian province of that name, and the 
headquarters of the 10th Army Corps, with 250,000 inhab. (308,000, 
including the suburb of Linden)., is situated in a well-cultivated 
plain on both banks of the Leine^ which is here joined by the 
Ihme. Among its industrial products are machinery, iron, textiles, 
and ledgers. The irregularly-built old town still contains a number 
of antiquated houses of the 15-1 7th cent., while handsome new 
quarters have arisen to the N. and E. In contrast to the older stucco 
fronts, most of the modern buildings are constructed of brick, an 
improvement mainly due to the architect K. W. Hase (1818-1902) 

The name of Hanover appears for the first time in a document of 
1156. Henry the Lion (p. 85) built a castle here, but this was destroyed 
by the citizens in 1371, three years after the town had joined the Han- 
seatic League. The Reformation was introduced in 1529-33. Duke John 
Frederick (1665-79) did much to advance the town and appointed Leibnitz 
the head of his Library in 1676 (comp. p. 77). The union of Hanover 
with England in 1714 and the consequent loss of the court proved a 
serious blow to the city. This union, however, ended at the death of 
William IV. (18S1), and Ernest Augustus (1837-51) became the first King 
of Hanover. In 1866 the Kingdom was annexed l3y Prussia. 

In the spacious Ernst-August-Platz (PL II; D, 3), in front of 
the railway-station, rises an "^Equestrian Statue of Ernest Augustus 
(d. 1851), in bronze, by A. Wolff (1860). 

The Bahnhof-Strasse leads straight on to the Gteorg-Strasse 
(PI. II; C, D 3), the chief thoroughfare of the city, between the 
old and new town. Turning here to the left, we find ourselves in the 
Theater-Platz (PI. II; D, 3), in which rises the Royal Theatre, 
built in 1845-52 by Laves, The principal fagade is adorned with a 

74 ^otde 9. HANOVER. Mgidientor-Platz. 

handsome portico and statues of twelve celebrated poets and com- 
posers. In the Theater-Platz are statues of the composer Marschner 
1 1795-1861 1, Stromeyei^ (^1804-76), the famous surgeon, and Kar- 
marsch (1803-79), the founder and director of the Polytechnic 
Academy at Hanover. The first (PI. 9) is by F. Hartzer, the others 
(PL 10 and 8i by Rassau of Dresden. 

In the G-eorgs-Platz (PL II; D. 4\ to the S. of the Theater- 
Platz. rises a bronze Statue of Schiller^ by Engelhard (1863). At 
the corner of the Landschaft-Str. is the Industrial Exhibition (Ge- 
werhehalle; open daily, except Mon., 11-2 and 5-7; closed on Sat. 
afternoon, also on Sun. afternoon in summer; 20 pf.). On the W. 
side of the square is the IrapeHal Bank (1895-96). — To the S.E. 
of the G-eorgs-Platz, and adjoining it, lies the ^gidiextor-Platz 
(PL II; D, 4), an important tramway- centre (p. 72). The Breite 
Strasse leads hence to the W. towards the Altstadt, passing the 
Gothic ^gidien-Kirche (PI. II, D 4; 14th cent.; restored in 1874), 
with a baroque tower. Opposite the church lOster-Str. 59) is the 
old Justiz-Kanzlei (PL 1 ), a handsome late-Gothic brick building, 
with a lofty gable (15th cent.). — The Markt-Str., in which is a 
bronze statue of Hannovera. by '^>gener (1889), runs X.W. from 
the .Egidien-Kirche to the Market Place (PL C, 4), the centre of 
the old town. 

The old *E,athaus PL II; D, 4). on the S.E. side of the square, 
erected in the late-Gothic style in 1435-80, was restored in 1878-82 
and enlarged in 1891. The large reception-hall is decorated with 
frescoes by Schaper shown by castellan, Kobelinger-Str. 59; 20 pf.). 
— In front of the Rathaus is a tasteful Gothic Fountain^ in bronze, 
by Hase (1881), with figures by Engelhard, and nearer the Markt- 
Kirche is a bronze Luther Monument (PL 5), by Dopmeyer (1900). 
At the base of the high pedestal supporting the figure of the re- 
former are seated figures of the Duchess Elizabeth (left; and Duke 
Ernest the Confessor (rightj. 

The Markt-Kirehe fPl. II; C, 4), a brick building of the 14th 
cent., is open on Tues. and Frid., 11-1 (sacristan, Markt 3). The 
interior, restored in 1855 and adorned with painting by Schaper 
in 1893, contains fine modern stained glass by A. von Kreling and 
others. The glass in the three central windows of the choir is of 
the 14th century. Tower 300 ft. high. — To the X. of the church 
is a Statue of Pastor Bodeker (PL 71, by Dopmeyer (1880j. 

Xo. 10 in the Schmiede-Str., at the corner of the Kaiser-Strasse, 
was once "^Leibnitz's House (PL II; C, 3); it has a sandstone fagade 
of 1652, with rich plastic ornamentation. The interior (restored 
by Haupt in 1891-92), which tiov^ QonXdim^W^ Industrial Museum, 
an interesting collection of art-industrial objects and antiquities 
(open daily 10-2, Sun. 11-2; adm. 20 pf.; at other times shown by 
the keeper. 50 pf.\ affords an excellent idea of a German merchant's 

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Royal Palace. HANOVER. 5. Route. 75 

house of the period. — No. 28 in the quaint Knochenhauer-Str. 
(PL II; C, 3) is a beautiful late-Gothic brick building. 

The extensive Royal Palace (PI. II; C, 4), with its back to 
the Leine, was built in the 17th cent, and altered in 1817 (open 
daily, 10-6, in winter 10-4, adm. 25 pf.; entrance by Portal No. 2). 
The chapel contains an altar-piece by L. Cranach the Elder, re- 
presenting the Crucifixion. Opposite the main facade of the palace, 
in the Lein-Str., is the Alte Palais (PL II; C, 4), built in 1752. — 
A little to the S. are the turretted Waterworks (PL 3) and a mon- 
umental fountain (1900). At the corner of the Friedrich-Strasse 
is the old palace of George Y., now the Town Hall (PL II; C, 4). 
Farther on, in the grounds to the right of the Friedrich-Str., is the — 

Kestner Museum (PL II, 6 4; open daily, 10-2, Sun. 11-2; 
in summer also on Wed. 3-6; catalogues 30 & 50 pf.), which con- 
tains the collections presented to the town in 1884 by Herr Her- 
mann Kestner (grandson of Charlotte Kestner; comp. p. 77), con- 
sisting of Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman antiquities, coins, 
cameos, paintings, and engravings. It contains also the collec- 
tion of mediaeval works of art, rare books, autographs, and paintings 
left by Senator Culemann, and bought by the town, and the 
Municipal Library (open daily, 10-1). — Near the museum is the 
new Town Hall (PL II; D, 4), erected in 1901-9 from the plans of 
Eggert, with a huge dome over the central part. Behind is the 
Masch Park, with a Bismarck Column by Sasse (1900). — To the 
E. side of the Town Hall is the Gutenberg Fountain, by Rowald 
and Dopmeyer (1890). — Farther on, to the S., rises the — 

New Provincial Museum (PL II; D, 4), a sandstone building 
in the Renaissance style by Stier, erected in 1897-1902. The collec- 
tions include the Cumberland Gallery (pictures and sculptures 
belonging to the royal house of Brunswick and Liineburg), and the 
Gueljoh Museum (transferred from Herrenhausen in 1896). The 
museum is open daily 10-3, Sun. and holidays 11-2; closed on the 
chief festivals. Entr. in the Bennigsen-Str. Director, Dr. Behncke. 

GrROUND Floor. Rooms 1 & 2 , to the right of the entrance : Pre- 
historic remains, including interesting neolithic vessels. — R. 3. Sepul- 
chral urns of the Roman and early-Saxon periods ; to the right of the 
door, *Bronze vessels from Westersode and Hemmoor. — RR. 3a, 4, & 5. 
Ethnographical collections. — We return to R. I and ascend to the — 

Main Floor. Rooms 25 & 27 : Plaster casts. — R. 26. Marble sculp- 
tures, including an antique group of Perseus and Andromeda. — RR. 28 
& 29. Ecclesiastical antiquities from the Guelph Museum : *Reliquaries ; 
large winged altar-piece from the ^gidien-Kirche (15th cent.) ; crucifixes ; 
mediaeval embroideries ; three wooden statues by Tilman Riemenschneider 
(Madonna, John the Evangelist, John the Baptist). — R. 30 (to the right). 
Weapons, armour, instruments of torture. Banners of the Anglo-Hanov- 
erian legion of 1803-15. — R. 33. Altars; crucifixes; weapons; large 
Persian prayer -carpet (17th cent.). — RR. 37-39. Geological, botanical, 
and mineralogical collections. 

Second Floor. Cabinets I-XX contain the ancient, RR. 40-48 and 
Cab. XXI-XXV the modern Paintings. 

76 lioHte 9. HAXOYER. Waterloo-Platz. ' 

Old Masters. — Cab. I: 320. Baphon, Altar of the Virgin (1503). — 
Cab. II: Cranach the Elder, 65. Christ and John the Baptist. 66. Luoretia 
(1515;: Holbein the Younger, 151. Portrait, *150. Edward YI. of England 
(15.38) : 416. Master of the Death of the Virgin, Holv Family with St. Anna. 

— Cab. Ill: Ziesenis, Frederick the Great. — Cab. IX: 91. G. Don, 
The old scribe : 236. Jlierevelt. Old woman (1633) ; 130. Dir/c Hals, Lesson 
on the flute: *34S Rubens, Xessus and Dejanira: 357. J. van JRuysdael, 
Landscape. — Cab. Y: Dutch works. — Cab. YI:' 263. Xetscher, Portrait 
il673;. — Cab. YII : 129. Dirk Hals. Man and wife. — Cab. YIII : 578. 
S. de Mieger, Dutch coast. — Cab. IX: 247. J. 31. Molenaer, Peasants; 
185. K. du Jardin, Portrait of himself ^666. — Cab. X : 116. A. de Gelder, 
Portrait. — Cab.'XI: 246. Jlolenaer. Peasants. — Cab. XII: 278. Pala- 
medesz, Portrait of himself (1624 : 469. Spanish Master (?j, Portrait of 
Yelazquez. — Cab. XIII: 11. Sodoma, Madonna, with SS. Joseph and 
Bernard of Siena ; 13. Scarsellino, Yenetian nursery, with charming genre 
episodes. — Cab. XIY-XX: Italian school. 

Modern Painters. R. 41. Sir Thos. Lawrence, 111. Yiscount Canter- 
bury, 110 (farther on) William Pitt: 28. Bleibtreu , Battle on the Katz- 
bach : 113. Lessing , Emp. Henry lY. at the convent of Priifening; 158. 
Schirmer, Storm: 2. A. Achenbach, Winter joys. — R. 40. Landscapes. 

— R. 43. To the right, IS. Hilbner. the sons's return; 40. Camphausen, 
Puritans; 1. A. Achenbach. BrielK^Yhonr. — B.. U. To the left, ^. A. Adam, 
Napoleon at the siege of Ratisbon. — R. 45. Works by Fr. Kaulbach 
(1822-1903). — R. 46!^ Xo. 503. Bracht, Hannibal's grave; 339. Baisch, 
Cattle ; 213. Spitzweg, Rendezvous ; no numbers, Vinnen, In the park, 
Modersohn. Landscape. Ziigel, Cows drinking. In the middle, Meunier, 
At the watering-place (bronze). — R. 47. No. 312. Piloty, Death of Caesar. 

— R. 48. No number. Firle, Nativity; 334. Bokelmann, Arrest; 502. 
Kallmorgen, At the ferry: 350. Vogel, Duke Ernest the Confessor re- 
ceiving the sacrament; no number, Lenbach. Bismarck. — Cab. XXII. 
No number. Defregger. Study of a head. — Cab. XXIII. No number, 
Ed. von Gcbhardt. Last Supper: A. von Werner, Death-bed of Emp. 
William I. — Cab. XXI Y. Works by Kaulbach. — Cab. XXY. No. 499. 
Lieberrnann, Dutch village. 

Rooms 49-57. Natural history collections. The birds (Rooms 51-53) 
are specially good. 

To tlie E. of the Museum is a Figure of Wotan, by Engelhard 
1^1902', and to the ^. of it is a Statue of Rudolf von Bennigsen 
(d. 1902), the statesman, by Gtmdelach (1907). 

We now return to the Waterworks <p. 75). cross the Leine, and 
reach the spacious drill-ground called the AVaterluo-Platz i PL II ; 
C, 4), at the farther end of which rises the Waterloo Column., 
154 ft. in height, erected in 1826-32. Good survey of the town 
from the top (188 steps; in summer opened by a keeper for a trifling 
fee ; in winter the key is obtained at the barracks to the right, Xo. 3.). 
On each side are barracks, and to the E. is also the spacious 
Arsenal J built in 1846 (adm. to the 'Fahnenhalle' on Wed. & Sat., 
10-11.45, gratis; at other times on application at the Artillery 
Depot, 50 pf.). Close by, in the AVaterloo-Platz, are the Police 
Headquarters and the Military School. At the X. end is the 
Statue of Count Alien 1 1764-1840; PL 6;, the Hanoverian general 
at Waterloo and commander of the Anglo-Hanoverian Legion in 
Spain. On the W., between this and the barracks, is a small temple 
with a bust of Leibnitz (d. 1716; p. 74;, by the Irish sculptor 

Kunstlerhaus. HANOVER. 0. Route. 77 

Hewetson (1790). Leibnitz is interred in the neighbouring Neu- 
stadter Kirche (PL C, 4). 

At the back of Greneral Alten's monument is the building of the 
Royal Archives and Library (PL II; C, 4), erected in 1719 and 
enLirged in 1891-92. The librciry (adm. Mon., Tues., Thurs., & 
Frid. 9-1, Wed. & Sat. 9-12 and 2-4) contains 200,000 vols, and 
memorials of Leibnitz. Adjacent are the Government Offices^ a 
Romanesque structure by Hunssus, and the Reformed Church 
(1897). — The Ernst- August Palais (PL II; C, 4), in the Adolf- 
Str. (No. 2), now contains the military headquarters of the province. 

The Synagogue (PL II; C, 4) is built in an oriental style by 
Oppler (1870). — In the Goethe-Platz (PI. II ; C, 3) is the Romanesque 
Garrison Churchy built by Hehl in 1891-96. — We may now 
return via the busy Goethe -Strasse (PL II; C, 3) to the Georg- 
Strasse, crossing the Goethe-Brllcke (view of tower of oldBeguinage 
to the right). 

A few yards to the E. of the Theater -Platz (p. 73) is the 
Kiinstlerhaus (PL II; D, 3), Sophien-Str. 2, a Romanesque edi- 
fice by Hase^ completed in 1858. Art exhibitions are held on the 
first floor between Feb. and May (75 pf.). The E. wing, entered from 
the Prinzen-Str. (No. 4), contains the Hanoverian Museum (Vater- 
Idndische Museum)^ with Hanoverian uniforms, costumes, and an- 
tiquities (open free daily 10-2, Sun. 11-2; at other times shown by 
the custodian, 50 pf.). 

A few yards to the E. of the Kunstlerhaus, at the beginning of 
the pleasant street named Am Schiffgraben (PL II; D, E, 3), stands 
the House of the Provincial Diet, an edifice in the Italian style 
by Wallbrecht (1880). — To the S., in the Marien-Str., is the Garten- 
Kirche (PL II; D, 4), built in the early-Gothic style in 1887-91. 
In the churchyard lies Charlotte Kestner, Werther's Lotte (d. 1828), 
who lived at ^gidien-Str. 4. 

The Misburger Damm (PL I; E, F, 4; the E. continuation of 
the Marien-Str.), the Schiffgraben (PL I; D, E, 3), and the Konig- 
Str. (PL I; D, E, 3), the chief approaches to the Eilenriede (p. 79), 
traverse a pleasant residential quarter. In the Misburger Damm is 
the Veterinary College (1895-99). The circular space at the end of 
the Konig-Str. is embellished with a War Monument (PL I; D, E, 3) 
by Yolz, erected in 1884. — To the E. of the railway-station are 
the Laiv Courts (PL II; D, 3), a Renaissance edifice by Adler (1882). 

The Georg-Str. (see above) is continued towards the N.W. by the 
Langelaube (PL II; C, 3). No. 3 in this street is the so-called 
Haus der Vdter, of 1619, now occupied by the Men's Choral 
Society. A little to the N. is the Goseriede (PL II; C, 3), on which 
is the Goose Fountain (PL G-B.), by Dopmeyer. Farther on is the 
Nicolai Chapel (PL II; C, 3), dating from the middle of the 14th 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 6 

78 lioute 9. HAXOYER. Herrenhausen. 

cent., now the English Church. The adjoining colonnade contains 
some good 17th cent, sculpture by Hanoverian artists. Close by 
is the monument of the poet Holty iPl. H-D.: 1748-76), erected in 
1901. On the X.W. side of the Klages-Markt (PL II; C, 3) is the 
Christus-Kirche (PL II; C, 2). a handsome Grothic brick church 
by Hase il86-4), with o^ood stained o;lass i sacristan. Grustav-Adolf- 
Strasse 1 1. Dr. Windthorst (d. 1891), long the leader of the 'Cen- 
trum', or Roman Catholic party, in the German Reichstag, is buried 
in the Marien-Kirche (PL I: C, 2), in the Paul-Str., to the X. 

The Celler-Str. leads to the X.E. from the Xicolai Cemetery to 
the Welfen-Platz iPl. I; D, 2), with its large barracks. In the 
Vahrenwalder-Strasse, farther to the X., is the Military Riding 
Institute 'PL I: D, li. for training riding-masters for the army. 

ExYiRoxs OF Haxover ( tramways , see p. 72). — From the 
Konigsworther-Platz (PL I; B, C, 3), at the AV. end of the Lange- 
laube (p. 77;, the BjERREXHlrsER Allee (PL I: A, B. 2i, a fine 
avenue of limes, 1^ 4 M. long and 120 yds. wide, laid out in 1726, 
leads to Schloss Herrenhausen. To the right rises the imposing 
Welfen-Schloss. or Palace of the Gruelphs, in the Romanesque 
style, with five towers, fitted up in 1878-80 as a Polytechnic 
School PL I; B, 2). Above the portal are statues of Henry the 
Lion. Ernest the Confessor, the Elector Ernest Augustus, and King 
Ernest Augustus. Behind the Palace is the pretty Wei fen- Garten. 
Farther on. on the same side, stands the Prinzenhaus (PL I, B 2; 
removed hither from the G-oethe-Str.i. In 1774-95 it was occupied 
by Charles. Duke of Mecklenburg, father of Queen Louisa of Prussia 
and Queen Frederica of Hanover. — On the other side of the avenue 
is the Georgs-Garten iPl. I; A. B, 2), a park in the English style, 
which extends to Herrenhausen and contains a royal chateau and 
a cafe. 

Schloss Herrenhausen PL I. A 1; no admission), at the 
farther end of the avenue, was built in 1698 and was the favourite 
residence of G-eorge I. (d. 1727), George 11. (d. 1760), and G-eorge V. 
(d. 1878 1. The "^'Garden [Grosse Garten: PL A, 2j, 120 acres in 
area, laid out in the old French style, contains statues copied from 
antiques and monuments of Hanoverian princes. The marble statue 
of the Electress Sophia, by Engelhard, stands on the spot where she 
expired in 1714. Xear the Orangery (1692), on the E. side, is a 
large Garden Theatre. The fountains play every Wed. and Sun. 
from Whitsunday to Sept. dn May -Aug. 4-6, in Sept. 3-5). The 
waters of the great fountain rise to the height of 141 ft. — To the 
X. of the Schloss is the Berg-Garten (PL I; A, 1). containing palm, 
orchid, and Victoria Regia houses, etc. (fee, 30-50 pL). — At the 
end of the orarden is the '^'Mausoleum, built in 1842-46, contain- 
ing the monuments of King Ernest Augustus [d. 1851) and Queen 


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HILDESHEIM. lO- t^o'ffe. 79 

Frederica (d. 1841) by Raach (open from April to 8t3pt. 9-6, Oct. 
to March 10-4; closed on Snn.; apply to the castellan in the W. 
front wing of the Schloss, No. 1 a). 

In an annexe of the Schloss arc the Historical Portrait Gallerij 
(PI. II. P.-G.), tlie Family Museum (PL F.-M.), and the unimportant Coach 
Houses and Harness Rooms (Pi. W.-M.); adm. on week - days , A^iril- 
Sept. 9-6, Oct.-Marcli 10-4; fee. 

The Eilenriede (PI. I; E, P, Gr, 1-6), a wood belonging to the 
town, affords beautiful walks and contains numerous restaurants 
(Neues Hans, PL E 3 ; Liste?^ Turm, PL E 1 ; Steuerndieh, PL a 1 ; 
Pferdeturm^ PL F, G, 4; Kirchroder Turm^ PL H 4; Bischofs- 
hole^ PL Gr 5; Dohrener Turm^ PL E 6). — In the Tiergarten-Str., 
11/4 M. from the Theater-Platz, is the Zoological Garden (PL F, 3), 
with well-kept grounds and a restaurant (adm. 60 pf. ; concerts 
several times a week). 

To the S.W. of Hanover lies Linden {Scliivarzer Bar Restaurant, 
PL I, B, 4), an industrial suburb, with a Gothic Rathaus (1898). — Tlie 
Lindener Berg (285 ft.; PL A, B, 5), on the top of which are situated the 
Municipal Waterworks , commands an extensive view. 

The Deer Park at Kirchrode (V2 M. from the Kirchroder Turni, see 
above; electric tramway, No. 5), which contains tame deer, is much visited. 

Hanover is connected by Electric Tramways with Barsinghausen 
(16 M. ; 12/3 hr. ; fare 55 pf .) and Hildesheim (I8V2 M. ; IV2 hr. ; fare 60 pf .). 

From Hanover to Soltau (Liinehurger Heide) y see p. 40; to Berlin 
and to Cologne, see R. 3; to Hamburg, see E. 17; to Bremen, see E,. 14; 
to Rottei'dam, see R. 8; to Hameln and Altenheken (Dilsseldorf) , see 
pp. 46, 45; to Cassel (Frankfort), see R. 7; to Leipzig via Magdeburg, 
see p. 39. 

10. Hildesheim. 

Hotels. *H6tel d'Angleterre (PL a; C, 2), R. 21/4-4, B. 1, D. 2'^UJC, 
with restaurant (beer on the groundfloor, wine on the 1st floor) ; *Kaiser- 
HOF (PL c; C, 1), R. & B. 3-6, D. I1/4-2 JC, with restaurant (beer); Hotopp 
(PL d; C, 1), R. 21/4-4, B. 1, D. 11/2-21/2^, very fair, these two at the 
station ; Europaischer Hof (PL h ; C, 1), R. from 2, D. I1/2-21/2 c^ ; Wiener 
Hof (PL b ; C, 3), R. from 2, D. I1/2-3 JC, with restaurant and garden, very 
fair; Bairischer Hof (PL e; C, 2); Krone (Pl.g; C, 2), R. I1/4-I3/4 JC: 

Restaurants. ^Raihcag Restaurant, D. I'^j^^; Unionhaus (Pl.B, 3) ; 
Hasse, Markt-Str. 11, opposite the Rathaus (PL C, 2), D. I1/2 tS; Knazop's 
Etablissement (PL D, 2) ; Automatic Restaurant, Hohe Weg 21 (PL C, 2, 3). 
— Wine. Domschenke, Domhof 2 (PL B, 3); Ratsiceinkeller, under the 
Rathaus; Limpricht, Markt-Str. 6 (PL C, 2); Biirger-WeinscTienke, with 
garden, Hohe Weg 33. — Wiener Cafe, cor. Alms-Str. & WaU-Str. (PL 
C, 2); Cafe Hohenzollern , Bernward-Str. 4 (PL C, 1). — Confectioner, 
Brandes, Markt-Str. 2 (PL C, 2). 

Electric Tramways from the railway station through the town 
to the square called Am Platz (PL C, 3), and thence to the E. along the 
Gosslarsche-Str. and to the W. to the Moritzberg. 

Taximeter Cabs. For 1-2 pers., 50 pf. per 1000 metres, 10 pf. 
for each 500 m. extra; 3-4 pers., 750 m. 50, each 375 m. more 10 pf . ; at 
night (11-7 or 10-8), 1-4 pers., 500 m. 50 pf., each 250 m. more 10 pf. Luggage 
from 22 to 55 lbs. 25 pf. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL B, 3), Domhof. — Baths (Bade- 
hallen; PL C, 1, 2). — Information Bur eaitx, Bernward-Str. 23 (PL C, 1) 
and Worth-Str. 10 (H. Cassel; PL D, 3). 


80 ^oide 10. HILDESHEIM. Rathaus. 

Hildesheim (280 ft.), an ancieut town witli 47,000 inliab. (Ys 
Rom. Cath.i. sitnated on the Innerste, has retained many mediaeval 
characteristics. It became an episcopal see in 814, and attained its 
greatest prosperity in the 15-1 6th centuries. After the inhabitants 
had succeeded in shaking off the supremacy of the bishops it be- 
came a member of the Hanseatic League <1241;, and it was a free 
town of the Empire down to 1803. 

At a very early period Hildesheim attained great importance as a 
cradle of art! chiefly owing to the exertions of Bishop Bernv:ard (993- 
1022). A number of buildings were erected by him ; and in particular 
several fine specimens of Bronze Workmanship , such as the cathedral 
doors , the Bernward Column , and the candelabrum and chalice in the 
cathedral-treasurj-. v.ere executed under his auspices. Under the foster- 
ing care of Bernward and his successors Godehard (1022-38) and Hezilo 
(1054-79). and that of Bishop Bernhard (1130-54). Hildesheim became one 
of the most important seats of Eomaxesqe Art in Germany. Nor is the 
interest attaching to this venerable town confined to its mediaeval art, 
for one of its most attractive and characteristic features consists of its 
timber-architecture in the Grcrman Renaissance style. In several of the 
buildings the traveller will observe traces of the obstinate resistance 
offered by the Gothic forms to the more modern ideas, the full sway of 
which was not established till the beginning of the ITth century. The 
richly-decorated facades, executed by wood-carvers and sculptors (parth^ 
repainted), bear testimony to the taste, the humour, and the enterprise 
of the burghers of that period. 

From the JRailicay Station (PL C, 1) we follow the Bernward- 
Str., passing the Hildesia Monument (hy B-Qder ; 1904), to the broad 
Kaiser-Str., cross the latter, and follow the Alms-Str. to the *Alt- 
stadter-Maekt (PI. C. 2), a fine mediaeval square surrounded by 
several interestiug buildings. The late-Gothic Rathaus (PL C, 2), 
with its arcades, was erected at the end of the 14th cent, and re- 
stored in 1883-92. The fine hall is adorned with ceiling-paintings 
by Mittag (after those in St. Michael's, see p. 81) and with excellent 
frescoes by H. Prell 1892). — To the S. are the ^TempelhaaSy also 
in the Gothic style (14th cent.?;, with a handsome oriel (1591) and 
two round corner -turrets, and the Wedekind House (now a sav- 
ino:s-banki. datinof from 1598. restored in 1900. and adorned with 
carving. To the ^V. stands the '^Knochenhauer-AmthauSj or former 
guild-house of the butchers, built in 1529, and probably the finest 
timber building in Germany (restored after a fire in 1884). It is 
adorned with admirable carving (comp. p. xxxiii). The Fountain 
in the middle of the Platz, with figures of the ten paladins and a 
small Eoland figure on the top, was erected in 1540 (Comp. p. 104). 
— In the Roland -$tr. is the old Roland Hospital (PL B. 2;, a 
building of 1611. The Kaiserhaus (PL B, 2j, Langer Hagen Xo. 12, 
is a Renaissance edifice of 1586-7, adorned with medallion-busts of 
Roman emperors and four statues probably representing the great 
empires of the world;. — The old Ratshauhof > PL C, 3) dates in 
part from 1540. 

In the quaint old *Axdeeas-Platz ^PL B, C, 2, 3), a little to the 

St MichaeVs. HILDESHETM. lO- T^onfe. 81 

S.W. of the market-place, is tlie Protestant Andreas -Kirche, 
with a choir of 1389, a tower 385 ft. high (completed in 1893j, and 
a carved pulpit of 1642. Below the W. tower is a small Museum,, 
with remains, sketches, and models of timber-houses, stone sculp- 
tures, etc. (open free on Sun., 11-12; on other days key obtained at 
Andreas-Platz 5). — The Trinity Hospital, Andreas-Platz No. 21, 
the lower part of which dates from 1334, is now a factory. Oppo- 
site (No. 3) is the Mercers^ Guild House (1482; restored). No. 28, 
the Pfeilerhaus, has some elaborate carving (1632). 

The Rom. Cath. Church of the Magdalen (PL A, 3 ; sacri- 
stan, Mlihlen-Str. 21, opposite the church, to the S.W.), built in 
1234-94 and entirely renewed in 1794, contains several interesting 
works from the studio of Bishop Bernward (p. 80), including a gold 
cross (994) and two candelabra (ca. 1008), also late-Romanesque 
and early-Grothic candelabra and an elaborate rococo antependium 
in silver. 

*St. Michael's Church (PI. A, B, 2; sacristan, Michaelis- 
Platz 3), formerly belonging to the Benedictines, founded by Bishop 
Bernward and built in 1001-33, was restored in 1186 and in 1855-57 
(by Hase, p. 73) and has been partly rebuilt since 1907. It is one 
of the finest Romanesque churches in Grermany, and possesses 
aisles, a double transept, and an elevated W. choir (restored about 
1200); the crypt beneath it was consecrated in 1015. The church 
once boasted of six towers. The S. transept and the W. tower were 
torn down in 1662, the E. choir has also disappeared, and the E. 
transept has been walled up. 

The Interior is borne by pillars and columns alternately, two of the 
latter being placed between two of the former. The pillars and several 
of the colnmns (e. g. those at the junction of the transepts) date from 
the time of Bernward. Part of the galleries of the transepts is of the 
same period. The other columns, with their fine capitals, belong to the 
building of 1186. The interesting ^Paintings on the flat wooden ceiling 
of the nave (genealogy of Christ up to Jesse, prophets, fathers, Christ 
as Judge, on a deep blue ground) date from the close of the 12th cent., 
and are the only ancient works of the kind on this side of the Alps. 
The 'Christ enthroned' is a modern reproduction (1855). ■ — In the N. 
transept are stucco figures (Mary, four apostles, St. Benedict, St. Bern- 
ward holding a model of the church) ; above them, facing the choir, are 
finely executed stucco-reliefs of angels ; and in the S. transept are stiffer 
(painted) works in the same material and of the same period (12th cent.). 
The bronze font in the S.E. transept was made by Dietrich Meute of 
Hildesheim (1618). — The Crypt (used by the Roman Catholics), resting 
on 10 pillars and 8 columns, contains the stone sarcophagus of St. Bern- 
ward , his monument, of the 14th cent., and the original slab from his 
tomb. The paintings are by Schaper (1893). — The adjacent abbey- 
buildings are now used as a lunatic asylum. The cloisters (1241-59) , to 
which visitors are admitted on application at the gate, are in the transi- 
tional style. 

The *Ilomer Museum (PL B, 3), partly endowed by Senator 
Romer and now owned by the city, occupies the Grothic St. Mar- 
tinis Church and the adjoining buildings (open free on Sun., 11-1; 

82 Boute 10. HILDESHEIM. Cathedral. 

on other days on application. 50 pf.: catalogue 30 pf.). It contains 
casts of iuterestiug mediaeval and classical antiquities, some carved 
altars, and a number of paintings of H. Rap-Hon and other early- 
German masters: also a natural history collection, in which the 
geological section is especially rich, and an ethnograiDhical collec- 
tion. In front of the museum is a bronze bust of Senator Romer 
(d. 1894), by Hartzer. 

The *Catliedral (PL B. 3: Rom. Cath.), in the Romanesque 
style, erected in 1055-61 Sunder Bishop Hezilo) on the site of an 
earlier church (before 872'. with late-Gothic aisles fca. 1388) and 
X. transept subsequently added (1412), was entirely disfigured in 
the interior in 1724-30, while the W. towers were rebuilt in 1839 
without reference to their original form. The cathedral is open on 
week-days 10.30-12.30 and 3-5 (in summer 5.30), on Sun. & festi- 
vals 12-1 and after the afternoon service until 5 (5.30); visitors to 
the vestibule (brazen doors), choir, crypt, and cloisters are con- 
ducted in parties; card of admission, 30 pf. 

The brazen ^Doors which separate the W. vestibule from the nave, 
executed by Bishop Bernward in 1015. are adorned with sixteen reliefs 
(the Fall and Redemption) of considerable interest. The brazen Font of 
the 13th cent., with reliefs, in the first chapel on the left, and the large 
Candelabrum in the nave (walls and gates of the Heavenly Jerusalem), 
presented by Bishop Hezilo (d. 1079), are also worthy* of notice. A small 
polished column of calc-sinter near the choir is erroneously said to have 
been an Irmensaule (p. 56). The Bood Loft is a fine Renaissance sculpture 
in stone, executed in 1546. The choir -stalls date from the end of the 
14th century. On the right and left of the high-altar are the gilded Sar- 
copliagus of St. Godehard, with figures of the xVpostles of the beginning 
of the 12th cent., and the silver-gilt Tomb of St. Epiphanius, of the be- 
ginning of the 11th century. To the right of the choir rises a bronze 
Easter Column fChristus-Sdule) by Bishop Bernward (1022), 15 ft. high, 
with 24 groups in low relief of scenes from the life of Christ. — The Roman- 
esque Crypt (restored in 1896) contains the tomb of St. Godehard (p. 83). 

The two-storied ^Cloisters . in the late-Romanesque style . entered 
from the S. transept, date from the 12th century. In the upper story 
are the Cathedral or Beverin Library (25,000 volumes ; open on Tues. & 
Sat., 10-12 and 2-4). and the old Bittersaal, containing 16th cent, tapestry 
and church antiquities (adm. 50 pf.). The Chapel of St. Anne, in the centre 
of the ^Cloister Garth ('Kreuzgarten*). was erected in 1321 and restored 
in 1888. On the outside of the apse of the cathedral -crypt grows a 
venerable Bose Bush, upwards of 30 ft. in height, and 30 ft. in width. 
It is said to be 1000 years old. and its history is known since the 16th cen- 
tury. The Romanesque Chapel of St. Laicrence, on the S. side of the 
cloisters, contains the tomb of Bishop Udo (d. 1114). 

The ^Treasury, above the sacristy (shown on application by the 
sacristan. Domhof 10. on week-days 10. .30-12. 30 and after 3, on Sun. and 
festivals 12-1 and after 4; adm. 1 JC). contains a number of very valuable 
works of art of the 9-12th cent. : e. g. a silver cross, a Byzantine work, 
with portraits of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena : an octagonal 
casket of the 13th cent, enclosing the head of Oswald. King of >;orth- 
umbria (d. 642 : the crown is of fhe 11th cent.) : reliquary of the 9th cent., 
said to have belonged to the chaplain of Louis the Pious : the silver Bern- 
vjard's Chalice (15th cent.) : Head of St. Bernivard , silver-gilt (13th cent.) : 
a drinking-horn and fork of Charlemagne : a small winged altar-piece by 
Fra Angciico d^ Fiosole (1.387-1455) : several codioos with miniatures (11th 
cent.) ; silver statues, ivory carvings, croziers, enamels, etc. 

St. Godehard's. HILDESHEIM. 10. Route. 83 

In the quiet and shady Donihof rises a Statue of iSt. Bern- 
tvard, by Hartzer (1893). — The new Post Office (PL B, 3) has a 
late-Gothic oriel dating from 1518. Close by, at the corner of the 
Bohlweg and Kreuz-Str., is the Goldner Engel^ a house of 1548. 

The Church of the Holy Jiood {Kreuz-Kirche ; PI. C, 3), rebuilt 
in the baroque style in the 18th cent, (sexton, Brlihl 1), contains 
the cross of Bishop Hezilo (1077), another given by Henry the Lion 
(1172), and the reliquary of St. Catharine. 

*St. Godehard's Church (PL B, C, 4; Rom. Cath.; sacristan, 
No. 16 Codehard-Platz), built in 1133-72, restored in 1848-63, and, 
like the church of St. Michael, one of the finest Romanesque edifices 
in Germany, is a basilica with aisles and transept and flat ceiling, 
a handsome choir in the French style, and three massive towers. 
The fine stucco reliefs in the arch of the N.W. portal (13th cent.) 
are worthy of note. The candelabrum and the mural paintings are 
modern. The church possesses a pyx of St. Godehard, supposed to 
date from the beginning of the 11th cent., a Gothic monstrance of 
the 15th cent., and a valuable Romanesque chalice executed in 

In the Neustadter Markt (PL C, 3) is the Neastddter Schenke, 
a Renaissance structure of 1601. — At the IST. end of the Sedan-Str. 
(PL D, 3) is a bronze Equestrian Statue of Emperor William I., 
by 0. Lessing (1900). 

Besides the buildings already mentioned, Hildesheim contains 
many handsome private houses of the 16th and 17th cent. (e.g. in 
the Oster-Str. , Markt-Str. , Domhof, Andreas-Platz , Eckemecker- 
Str., and Hohe Weg). 

The suburb of Moritzberg, ^1^ M. to the S.W. of Hildesheim (beyond 
PL A, 3), possesses an abbey -church founded in 1040, one of the few 
pure columnar basilicas in N. Germany, but partly modernized. The 
Bergholz, to the S. of Moritzberg and 1 M. from Hildesheim, is a beautiful 
point of view (concert at the restaurant two or three times a week). — 
Another fine *Point of view is the Galgenberg (500 ft. ; restaurant), to 
the E. of the tramway terminus in the Goslarsche-Strasse (beyond PL D, 3). 

A pleasant excursion may be made by train to (1 hr.) Wohldenberg, 
and thence on foot to the (20 inin.) top of the Wohldenberg (680 ft.), with 
a ruin (restaurant; view). The walk may be continued to the Bodenstemer 
Klippen and down to station Lutter (p. 47). 

From Hildesheim to Goslar, 331/2 M., railway in 3/^-11/4 hr. — 6 M. 
Grossdiingen (branch-line to Salzdetfurth and Gander sheim , p. 49). — 
12 M. Dernehurg, with an old Cistercian monastery, now a chateau of 
Prince Mlinster ; 22 M, Ringelheim(^. 49); 3OV2 ^- Graiiliof, with a spring 
of mineral water ('Harzcr Sauerbrunn'). — 331/2 M. Goslar, see p. 322. 

Branch-lines also run from Hildesheim to (19^12^..) Hdmelerivald (ip. 39) 
and to (71/2 M.) Nordstemmen (p. 69). 


11. Brunswick, 

Hotels. In the Town : *Dectsches Haus (PL b ; D. 4). Ruhfautchen- 
Platz, R. from 3. B. IV4, B. S-SV^ -^ : Scheader's Hotel (PL a; C, 4), 
Gorde!inger-Str. 7, R. from 2^'.2- ^- I5 ^' 1^4-21/.^. omn. i/.>^: Preussischer 
HoF PL m ; D, 5}. Damm 26: St. Petersburg (PL d; CrS), Kohlmarkt 11; 
Blauer E?fGEL (PL c : C. 4), Gordelinger-Str. 4. commercial ; DAsyE (PL n ; 

D. 6 . Aiisrust-Platz 1: Sachsischer Hof (PL i; C. 4), Gordelinger-Str. 42. 
— Xear the Sf/?f zo/z .• *Moxopol (PL e; C. 6), R. 21/2-4, B. I1/4. D. 3 ^ ; 
Kaiserhof PL f : C, 5). R. 2-3, D. l^,'.^-'2 JC. very fair; FRCHLiyG's Hotel 
or Stadt BREirEX PL h: C. 5), Bauk-Platz 7, R.'2-3. B. 3/^. D. from I1/9 JC : 
WAE>ECKE's'PLg; B.oi. Gulden-Str. IQ. — Pens.Grdling, Steiutor-Wall 6a 
(PL E. F. 5). pens. 41 2-6 ^ : Pens. Block, Wiesen-Str. 6 (PL F, 3). 4-5.^. 

Restaurants. Luck. Steinweg 22. with garden. D. 1V>-2V-. ^^ ; Kaiser- 
hof (see above;; Briiaijufs (see below;, D. I'^j^JC-, Preussischer Hof {sqq 
above), wifh garden ; Bor sen-Restaurant, Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. 2, D. 11/2- 
2JC: Ratskeller. in the Rathaus fp. 87): Hagen-Schenke . Hagenmarkt 8 
(PL D. 3). D. 11', JC\ Cafe - Restaurant HohenzoUern, Bohlweg 73 (PL 

E. 4. 5).'D. 11 2-2 J^: ririci. Sack 21. D. 11/4^4^; Wilhelmsgarten (see 
below), D. 11/4,^: Automatic Restaurants , cor. of the Steinweg and 
Schoppenstedter-Str. -TL E . 3 . 4) . and Friedrich-Wiihelm - Str. 21. — 
"Wine Rooms. Herbst. Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. 23; Bankkeller. Bank- 
Platz 6 PL C. 5;, D. 2^; Schrader & Oherldnder, Post-Str. 8. — 'Mumme', 
a sweet and unrefreshing kind of beer made from wheat (usually drunk 
mixed with lighter beer), is sold by Steger, Backerklint 4. 

Cafes. Luck, see above : Residenz-Cafe, Damm 26 CPl. D. 5~ : Wagner. 
Bohlweg 42 PL D, 3) ; Central. Kohlmarkt 1 (PL C. 5). — Confectioners. 
Wagner, see above; Kurdelhauni, Steinweg 34 (PL D, E, 4). 

Pleasure Resorts. Wilhehnsgarten (PL D, 3), Wilhelm-Str. 20; 
Briining (PL D. 5), Damm 16 fin winter, variety theatre); Hoist's Garden 
(PL D. E. 7). Wolfenbiitteler-Str. 48, in summer only. 

Theatres. Ducal Theatre (PL E, F, 4; p. 89), dress-circle 31/2-51/2, 
parquet 3-4i ., ^ : closed from June 15th to Aug. 15th. — Summer Theatre 
in Hoist's Garden, see above. — Bruning's Variety Theatre, see above. 

Baths. Puhst, Am Fallersleber Tor 10; Haase, Friedrich-Wilhelm- 
Platz 2 (PL C. 5, 6; both with swimming-baths). 

Cabs. Drive within the town, 1/4 hr.. 1-2 pers. 60 pf., 3-4 pers. 1 JC: 
1/0 hr. 1 or 1^'oJC: each 1/4 hr. more 50 pf. Each trunk 20 pf. Double fares 
at night (10-7'). To Ridding shausen (p. 92) 2-21/0 JC. 

Electric Tramways. 1. Richmond (beyond PL E. 8) to the Schiitzen- 
haus bevond PL C. i;. green name-board. — 'I.Richmond to the Xord-Bahn- 
hof (beyond PL E. 1). white board. — 3. West-BoJinhof (beyond PL A. 8) 
to the Gliesmaroder Bahnhof (beyond PL F. 1), red board. — 4. 3Ia- 
damen-Weg (PL A. 5) to the Central Cemetery (bevond PL F. 6), 3-ellow 
board. — 5. August-Tor (PL D. E. 6) to Oelper (bevond PL A. 2). blue 
board. — 6 Ruhfdutchen-Platz (PL D. 4) to the Stadt-Park (beyond PL 

F. 3), black board. — 7. Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz (PL C, 5, 6) to the 
Kastanien-Allee (bevond PL F. 5). crimson board. 

Electric Railway from the August-Tor (PL D, E, 6) to (7 M.) 
Wolfenhuttel p. 307,. every 12-24 min. (fare 35 pf.). 
* Post and Telegraph Office (PL C, 5). Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. 3. 

U. S. Consul, T. J. Albert. — Information Bureau. Bank-Platz 3 
(PL C. 5,. 

Principal Attractions (li/o day). First Day. Morning: "^Altstadt- 
Jlarkt (p. 85;; Burg-Platz, vrith Burg Dankicarderode and "^Cathedral 
(p. 86;: Hagenmarkt, with the Kathariiien-Kirche (p. 87). Afternoon: 
Excursion to Riddagshausen (p. 92). — Second Day. Schloss-Platz (p. 88); 
Municipal Museum (p. 89); Lessing's Monument (p. 89): *Ducal Museum 
(p. 89). — Excursion through the Lechlumer Holz to Wolfenbuttel. see p. 92. 

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Altstadt-Markt. J^RUN'SWICK. H- Uoute. 85 

Brunsioick J Ger. Braunschweic/ (240 ft.), the capital of the 
Duchy of that name, with 136,000 iiihab., lies on the Oker^ which 
flows through the town in several arms, in a fertile plain bounded 
on the 8. by wooded hills. It is now an important industrial place, 
and its sausages, cakes, and asparagus are exported far and wide. 
The city contains many mediaeval churches and specimens of timber 
architecture of the late-Grothic and Renaissance periods. 

Brunswick was founded about 1035, but did not acquire importance 
until the days of Henry the Lion (11H9-*J5) , who laid out the Altstadt, 
Hagen, and Neustadt, and favoured the Burg Dankwarderode as a resi- 
dence. The town gradually attained to almost entire independence, and 
enjoyed its highest prosperity during the latter half of the 14th, and the 
beginning of the 15th cent., when it was the capital of the Saxon-West- 
phalian section of the Hanseatic League (p. 146). The Brunswickers after- 
wards eagerly embraced the reformed faith, and as early as 1528 appointed 
the eminent Reformer Bugenhagen (p. 86) their preacher. With the decline 
of the Hanseatic League Brunswick fell into decay, and at length succumbed 
to the power of the dukes in 1671. It has been the ducal residence since 
1753. On the dcRth of Duke William I. in 1884 without issue, Prince 
Albert of Prussia (d. 1906) was elected Regent, and he was succeeded in 
1907 by John Albert, Duke of Mecklenburg. 

The *Altstadt-Markt (PI. B, C, 5) forms the centre of the W. 
quarter of the town, which adjoins the railway-station. It contains 
a Grothic Fountain^ cast in lead in 1408, and restored in 1847, bear- 
ing ornaments, arms, and Scripture texts in the Low-G-erman dialect. 

The *Altstadt-Kathaus (PL B, 4, 5), consisting of two wings 
at right angles to each other, is an elegant Grothic edifice, first men- 
tioned in 1253, rebuilt in 1393-96 and 1447-68, and restored in 
1841-52. Facing the market-place, both stories of both wings have 
open arcades with graceful tracery, on the nine pillars of which are 
statues of Saxon princes, from Henry the Fowler to Otho the Child, 
and their wives, most of them executed about 1455 by Hans Hesse. 
The beams supporting the Grothic roof of the Great Hall (or 'Dornse') 
in the interior are richly painted. 

*St. Martin's Church (PI. B, 5), opposite the Kathaus, orig- 
inally a Romanesque basilica of the end of the 12th cent., was en- 
larged in the transition style in the first half of the 13th cent, and 
completed in 1321. The Chapel of St. Anne was added on the S.W. 
side in 1434. The W. facade is Romanesque. 

By the N. portal, the 'Bridal Gate', are a relief of the Death of the 
Virgin, a figure of Christ between representatives of the Old and New 
Covenant, and figures of the Wise and Foolish Virgins (beginning of the 
14th cent.). A tombstone built into the wall at the corner towards the 
Rathaus represents Ensign von Rauclihaupt, who fell in 1615. 

In the Interior (sacristan, Turnier-Str. 1), restored in 1897-99, the 
brazen Font with reliefs by Barthold Sprancken (1441), the painted railing 
of 1675, and the Pulpit, by G. Rottger, adorned with reliefs in alabaster 
(1617), deserve notice. Good stained glass (modern). 

Adjoining the church on the S. is the former House of the Diet 
of Brunswick (1792), to the E. of which rises the picturesque Gothic 
Gewandhaus (PI, C, 5), with an E. gable in the Renaissance style 

86 liouU 11. BRUNSWICK. Burg-Platz. 

(1591 . — Thence we may proceed via the Kohlmarkt (PL 0, 5), em- 
bellished with a modern Renaissance fountain, and the Friedrich- 
Wilhelm-Str., iu which is the Post Office (Pi. C, 5;, built by Rasch- 
dorff, to the busy Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz (PL C, 5, 6). 

The street ^Am Bruchtor' leads hence to the Bank-Platz (PL 
C, 5), with the Wittehop House, a Renaissance structure of 1592. 
— At the corner of the 8tein-Str. stands the Synagogue (PL B, 5j, 
built by Llide in 1875. 

There are many handsome old Private Houses iu this part of the 
town; e.g. the Huiliam (1690), Altstadt-Markt 8; Stein -Strasse Xo. 3 
(1512). with a curious relief : and Alte Knochenhauer-Strasse Xos. 11 (Gothic, 
1470) and 13 (Gothic, 1489). To the X. of the Altstadt-Markt may be 
mentioned: Xeue-Str. Xo. 9 (PL C, 4); Schiitzen-Str. Xo.32: Gordeli'nger 
Str. Xo. 38: Backerklint Xo. 4 (PL B, 4), with a (restored) Renaissance 
facade (ca. 1650). — Till Eulenspiegel Cp. 156} is said to have worked and 
played some of his pranks at Xo. 11. Backerklint (1630); and he is com- 
memorated here by the Till Eulenspiegel Fountain (1906). 

The Briidem-Kirehe (PL C, 4), a large Gothic edifice, com- 
pleted iu 1451. and restored in 1865 and 1904, contains a late- 
Gfothic font in copper of 1450, with reliefs, borne by four stand- 
ing fiorures (the Rivers of Paradise >, and an admirable Grothic winofed 
altar-piece with numerous gilded and painted figures, dating from 
the opening of the 15th century. Fine stained glass and choir-stalls. 
The Refectory of the old Franciscan convent attached to the church, 
erected in 1486 and now a military magazine, has a fine Renais- 
sance portal of 1604. In front of the ^. portal is a bronze statue 
of Bugenhagen (d. 1558; p. 85). by Echtermeier (1902). 

"We now proceed to the S.E. via the Schild and the Sack (PL 
C, 4), with its picturesque old houses, to the imposing — 

Bfrg-Platz PL D. 4 . in the centre of which rises the ancient 
Burg Dankwarderode. The castle, built about 1175 by Henry 
the Lion, was repeatedly injured by fire, rebuilt, and enlarged, 
and finally restored in a uniform Romanesque style in 1884 and 
adorned with paintings by Quensen and Peters. It has two stories, 
and is 130 ft. long and 42 ft. wide. The tower marks the site of 
the old chapel. The passage to the cathedral (p. 87) has also 
been restored. Visitors are admitted daily, 9-1 & 3-6 (on Sun., 
11-12), by tickets obtained from the castellan (l-2pers. 1 c/^, 
3-4 pers. l^j^^C; entr. by the door to the right of the just-mentioned 
passage'). — In the Burg-Platz, on the X. side of the cathedral, 
rises a bronze ^Lion, on a modern pedestal, erected here in 1166 
by Henry the Lion as a symbol of his supremacy, and restored in 
1616 and 1858. On the X. side of the Platz is the "^ Giklehaus 
(No. 2 A: the oldi Hunehorstel House) , distinguished for its rich 
burlesque ornamentation. Built in 1536 by the architect of the 
•Brusttuch' at Goslar (p. 323 1. it was removed hither from the Sack 
(see above) in 1902. It now contains a collection of guild insignia 
and the like (open daily, 11-4; 1 pers. 50 pf., 2-4 pers. 1 ^J6). 

Cathedral. BKUNSWICK. li- Route. 87 

The *Cathedral of iSf. BlasmSj or Bunf-Kirche (VX. I), 4), lias 
a vaulted interior borne by pillars, and a spacious crypt. It was 
begun about 1173 in the Romanesque style by Henry the Lion, after 
his return from the Holy Land. The Gothic S. aisle (double) was 
added in 1322-46, the N. aisle (also double) with its spiral columns 
in 1469-74. The heavy W. fagade ends in an early-Gothic belfry 
(ca. 1075), containing a fine set of chimes; the towers have never 
been finished. The chapel in front of the S. transept was completed 
in 1892. The whole edifice has been successfully restored by Wiehe 
since 1876. 

^Interior (adm. 50 pf., crypt 50 pf. extra; the sacristan lives at 
No. 5, opposite the W. portal). — Nave. The ^Monument of the founder 
(d. 1195) and Ills consort Matilda (d. 1189), in the Romanesque style, 
executed about 1260, with lifesize recumbent figures in limestone,' is 
a masterpiece of Saxon sculpture (Henry holds a model of the cathedral 
in its original form). Nearer the choir, beneath a brass of 1707, reposes 
Emp. Otho TV. (d. 1218). In the outer S. aisle are wooden figures of 
Otho the Mild and his wife (1316), and the monument of Duke Lewis 
Eudolph (d. 1735), in zinc. The nave lias been painted from the designs of 
Prof. Essenwein (1884). — Choir. The Romanesque altar, a slab of marble 
resting on five columns of bronze, was presented by the Duchess Matilda 
in 1188. The seven-branched candelabrum, adorned with quaint monsters, 
was executed by order of Henry the Lion. To the right and left of it 
are Romanesque sandstone figures (14th cent.) of Henry the Lion and 
Bishop Hermann of Hildeshcim (d. 1190; painting restored). The stained 
glass is modern. — The walls and vaulting of the choir and the S. Tran- 
sept are adorned with Romanesque "^Mural Paintings, dating from the 
13th cent, (but freely restored), and representing scenes from the Bible 
and from the lives of Thomas Becket and other saints. In this transept 
are shown the alleged drinking-horn of Henry the Lion; an ancient 
crozier ; Gothic monstrances, etc. Also, wooden figures of SS. Blasius 
and John the Baptist (16th cent. ; painting restored). — The N. Transept, 
now fitted up as a chapel, contains the stone coffin of the Margravine 
Gertrude (d. 1117), grandmother of Henry the Lion. Here, too, are some 
wood-carvings (an Ecce Homo of the 15th cent. ; crucifix of the 11th cent.) 
and a Passion Pillar of the 15th century. — The Crypt, partly supported 
by pillars and partly by columns, was converted in 1681 into a burial- 
vault for the Bevern line of the house of Guelph. 

On the E. side of the Burg-Platz is an Equestrian Statue of 
Duke William (p. 85), by Manzel (1904). — The Rathaus (PL 
D, 4), an early-Gothic edifice by Winter- (1896-1900), has a massive 

We now proceed to the N. from the Burg-Platz. To the right 
in the Ruhfautchen-Platz (PL D, 4) is the Finance Office (1894), 
occupying part of the old Pauline Convent. The Caspari-Str. and 
the Bohlweg (p. 88 ; with the Ducal Ministerial Offices) end on 
the ]Sr. at the Hagenmarkt (PI. D, 3), which is embellished with a 
Fountain Statue of Henry the Lion, in bronze, by A. Breymann 
(1874). — The Church of St. Catharine (PI. D, 3; sacristan, 
Schoppenstedter-Str. 20) is a handsome edifice, probably begun in 
the Eomanesque style by Henry the Lion, altered and enlarged in 
the second half of the 13th cent., and restored in 1887-90. The 
choir dates from 1321, the towers also from the 14th century. The 

88 P^oute 11. BRUNSWICK. Palace. 

Gothic belfry over the Romanesque facade was added about 1275. 
The interior contains numerous tombstones of the 16-18th centuries. 
— The 'Hagen-Briicke' leads to the S.W. to the Xeustadt-Rathaus 
(PI. C, 4). a late-Gothic edifice (ca. 1299), sadly disfigured in 1773- 
84. containing the Civic Archives and the Municipal Library 
(40.000 vols.;" daily. 9-1 & 3-6: closed on Sat. afternoon). The 
council-chamber has fine panelling of 1573. 

St. Andrew^s (PL C, 3; was built as a Romanesque basilica 
about 1170. but was entirely remodelled in the 14th century. The 
facade, with its Gothic belfry il360-1420i. resembles that of the 
cathedral. The S. tower, built in 1518-32 and rebuilt in 1680 and 
1740, is 300 ft. high: the X. tower is unfinished. The gable of the 
S. aisle is adorned with curious sculptures of the 15th cent., repre- 
senting the Annunciation and the Magi, the Flight into Egypt, and 
Christ on a throne, on the steps of which cripples of every descrip- 
tion are standing. This is an allusion to the tradition that the 
church was founded by wealthy cripples. — The Alte Wage opposite 
the church, to the S.E., is a handsome late-Gothic timber structure 
of 1534, restored in 1862. 

Amonsr the interesting Private Houses in this part of the town arc 
those at Wenden-Str. Xo. 2 (Gothic, 1491): Falllersleber-Str. Xo. 8 (late- 
Gothic, restored 1859): Wilhelm-Str. Xo. 95 (1619; now a school); Reichs- 
Str, Xo. 1 (Gothic, restored 1869) and Xo. 3 (1630, with fine baroque 
portal and oriel): and Lange-Str. Xo. 9 (PL B, C, 3), of 1536, with curious 

The Steixweg iPl. D, E. 4). which leads to the E. from the 
Burg-Platz ip. 86;, and the Bohlweg (PI. D, 5, 4), which intersects 
the ys^. end of the Steinweg, are now the busiest streets in the inner 
town. The Bohlweg runs S. to the Schloss-Platz (PI. D, 4, 5), in 
which, in front of the palace, are admirable equestrian Statues of 
the Dukes Frederick William (d. at Quatre-Bras in 1815), by 
Hahnel, and Charles William Ferdinand (d. at Ottensen in 1806), 
by Ponninger. executed in copper by Howaldt, and erected in 1874. 

The *Palaee (Besidenz-Schloss : PL E, 4, 5), erected by Ottmer 
in the Renaissance style in 1831-38, was almost entirely rebuilt 
after the destructive fire of 1865. The imposing portal is crowned 
by a quadriga designed by Rietschel, and executed by Howaldt in 
copper. The colossal statues of Otho IV. and Otho the Child, and 
also the group in the pediment are by Bldser. The interior, con- 
taining portraits by Pesne, Grafi", and other masters, is shown on 
application to the castellan at the portal. The public are permitted 
to pass through the portal and to visit the gardens. 

The Stoben-Str. runs hence to the S. to the JEgidiex-^Iarkt 
PI. D, 51, at Xo. 12 in which Lessing died on Feb. 15th, 1781. On 
the S. side of the square is the Brunswick Museum (Vater- 
Idndische Museum : PI. D, 6), occupying the ^gidienhalle, a Gothic 
church of the 13th cent., and the choir of the Pauliiier-Kirche, 

Ducal Museum. BRUNSWICK. H- Jiouic. 89 

wliich has been re-erected on this spot (open free on Wed. & Sun., 
3-6; on same days, 11-2, 30 pf.; on other days, 9-2 & 3-6, shown 
by an attendant, 1-4 pers. 1 ^i ; entr. in the Lessing-Platz; ring). 
The contents include weapons, uniforms, flags, portraits, views of 
Brunswick, autographs, and costumes. — A "^'Statue of Lessing^ 
designed by Rietschel, was erected in the neighbouring Lessing- 
Platz (PL i), 6), in 1853. 

From the ^gidien-Markt we proceed to the N.E. to the Church 
of St. Magnus (PL E, 5), at the back of the palace. The building, 
consecrated in 1031, dates in its present form from the 13th and 
14th centuries. The interior contains some interesting monuments. 

In the Steintor Promenade (No. 14) is the Municipal Museum 
(PL E, 5), erected by Osterloh in 1905 (open free, Tues. & Frid. 
10-2, Sun. 11-2; on other days, 10-12, 50 pL). Director, Dr. Fuhse. 

The exhibition rooms surround a court, the walls of which bear 
ornamented beams from old Brunswick houses. The collections include 
prehistoric objects, local and national antiquities, costumes, coins, 
ecclesiastical antiquities, furniture, musical instruments, and modern 
paintings. There is also an ethnographical section. 

The Sandweg leads hence to (3 min.) the Ducal Museum (see 

The ancient fortifications of the town were levelled in 1797, and 
their site has since been converted into beautiful *ProrQenades, 
the central feature of which, on the E. side of the inner town, is the 
Ducal Theatre Park (PL E, F, 3, 4), which is open till dusk. 
In the middle of this park stands the Ducal Theatre (PL E, F, 4), 
built by Wolf in 1861 and enlarged in 1904. On the N. side of the 
theatre is a monument, by Echtermeier (1891), to Franz Abt (d. 
1885), the composer, who was director of the orchestra in 1852-81. 
— In the S. part of the park, facing the Museums-Str., near the 
old Stein-Tor (p. 92), stands the — 

*Ducal Museum (PL F, 4), a handsome building erected in 
1883-87 by Oskar Sommer. The foundation of the valuable col- 
lections it contains was laid by Duke Anton Ulrich of Brunswick- 
Wolfenhilttel (d. 1714), who purchased a number of paintings and 
works of art during his travels in the middle of the 17th century. 
With these and other materials Dake Charles I. formed a museum 
at Brunswick in 1754. The Picture Gallery is especially strong 
in the Dutch School. Other important features of the Museum arc 
the collections of Italian 3Iajolica, the most important of its kind 
in Grermany, and of Limoges Enamels. The Museum is open free 
daily, except on festivals: June-Sept. 9-3, Sun. 11-2; March, April, 
May, & Oct. 9-2 and 11-2; Nov.-Feb. 10-1 and 11-2 (strangers ad- 
mitted even during the annual cleanings). Catalogue of the pictures 
2 c^; 'guide' 50 pL Director, ProL Paul Jonas Meier. 

Ground Floor. From the entrance-hall we enter Room I, containing 
the Collection of Antiquities: Roman sculptures, ancient glass, sta- 
tuettes, etc. — Room II. Medijeval and Ecclesiastical Collection 

90 Boufe 11, 


Dncol Mn^enm. 

(beginning on the right). Cab. 1: *122-127. Wedding-dishes with oil- 
paintings, 16-1 7th centuries. Cabs. 2-4: Ecclesiastical vestments. Cab. 7: 
*1. Imperial mantle of Otho IT., a Sicilian work (about 1200). — Cab. 14: 
58. Rune-casket, of Irish workmanship, made of a walrus -tusk (7th or 
8th cent.). Cab. 15: "^55. Missal, with miniatures and carved cover made 
of a walrus-tooth (ca. 1200}. Altar - shrines , chiefly Gothic (15th cent.). 
On the marble table. 111.' Saddle of Magnus 11./ Duke of Brunswick 
("d. 1373). with bone-ornaments. — Room III. Princes' Room. Furniture, 
clocks, and tapestry of the 17-18th centuries. — Rooms IY-XI. Plaster 

First Floor. — ^Picture Gallery. The arrangement begins in 
R. XII. to the left. 

Room XII contains works of the 14-16th centuries. To the left: 
*13. Early Dutch School. Diptych; above, *18. Holbein the Younger, 
Portrait of a German merchant of the London Steelyard (1533). To the 
right of the entrance: 29. Cranach the Younger, John the Baptist (1549); 
16, 17. Aniberger, Portraits: 27. Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve. 

Cabi>-ets XIII-XXIII chieflv contain works of the Xetherlandish 
School of the 16th and 17th centuries. — Cab. XYIII. *340. J. van Goyen, 
Landscape ; 234. Rembrandt, Philosopher (early work). — Cab. XIX. To 
the right. Bembrandt. **236. Storm-scene (ca. 1640): 237. Armed warrior; 
232. 233. Man and wife (about 1631-33); *235. The Risen Christ with 
Mary Magdalen (1651). — Cab. XX. 308. Sorgh, The Labourers in the 
Vineyard: 325. A. Palamedes, Guard-room: *300. A. van Ostade, An- 
nunciation to the Shepherds. — Cab. XXI. 338. P. 3Iolyii, Landscape; 
668. J. J/. Jlolenaer, Dentist; 364. A. van Everdingen, Swedish land- 
scape: 312. Brekelenkam, Card-players (1662); 317. Fr. van 3Iieris(?), 
Rembrandt's mother (so-called); 669. Dirk Hals, Officer and wife; 375. 
J. van der Jleer van Haarlem, Sand-hills ; *316. Jan van der 3Ie€r 
van Delft, Girl with a wine-glass ; 304. G. Don, Astronomer : above, 
318. Xetscher. Shepherd and shepherdess (1683). — Cab. XXII. 385' 
N. Molenaer. River-scene; 302. A. van Ostade, Peasants drinking; *303. 
Dou, Portrait of the artist; 306. Fh. ^Vouverman, Ascension; 315. 3Ietsu, 
Beer-house; 265. A^ 3Iaes, Young savant. — Cab. XXIII. 448, 449. 
J. van Huysum, Flowers. 

Room XXIV. Xetherlandish School of the 17th century. 417. J. 31. 
de Jong, Gustavus Adolphus at Liitzen ; 369. P. Wouverrnan , Hunting 
scene. — Rooms XXV- XXVI contain v»-orks of the German School 
(17-18th cent.). — R. XXV. Elsheimer. 549, *550. Landscapes. — R. XXVI, 
with portraits by Kujjetzky. Graff. Tischbein. etc.. is adjoined by a 
room (XXXI) containing studies by the painters Henneberg (1825-76) and 
Brandes (1803-68) of Brunswick. — Beyond the following room (XXXII, 
Drawings) are two rooms (XXXIII, XX'XIV: open on Tues. & Frid., 10-1) 
devoted to exhibitions of drawings and prints (periodically changed). 

Saloon XXVII (adjoining Room XXIV) contains unimportant Xeder- 
landish works of the 16-17th centuries. 

Saloon XXVIII. Dutch Masters. On the right : 441. 3/?"^wo/?, Flower- 
pieces : 363. A. van Ecerdingen, Waterfall; **238. Bembrandt, Family 
group, the gem of the collection (a late work) ; *376. J. van Buysdael, 
Mountain-landscape ; *228. Claes 3Ioyaert, Calling of St. Matthew ; 359. 
Berchem. Vertumnus and Pomona; 393. Hondecoeter, Xoah's Ark; *378. 
J. van Buysdael, Waterfall with Vatch- tower : *313. Jan Steen, The 
Marriage Contract, one of the master's best works : 247. F. Bol, Mars and 
Venus ; =^377. J. van Buysdael.Vi'dteria.ll and castle ; *268. B. Fabritius.Vetei 
in the house of Cornelius (1653): *242. Jan Lievens, Abraham's sacrifice. 

Saloon XXIX. Flemish School. On the right : *86. Bubens. Portrait ; 
55. Fourbus the Elder, Man with a glass ; *116. J. Jordaens, Adoration 
of the Shepherds; 206. C. de Vos. Family group ; 117. J. Jordaens, Holy 
Family; =J=125. Yan DycTc. Portrait of a Genoese nobleman; *87. Bubens, 
Judith with the head of Holophernes : '^Bd. Floris, Falconer; 48. A. Key, 
Portrait: 119. J. Jordaens, Twelfth X^ight : 127. Yan Dijck, Portrait; 

Technical Co/Uu/f. l')KUNSWICK. i^- Route. 91 

141. Peeters, River-scene; *38. Ant. Moor (Sir A. More), Portrait; 135. 
Jan Fiji, Birds; 85. Rubens, Portrait of General Spiuola ; Corn, de Vos, 
207. Lawyer, 109. Allegorical scene. 

Saloon XXX. Italian, French, and late-German Masters. To the 
right: 529, 528, i)2(). Bigaud, Portraits; 497. Carava(/gio, Portrait of the 
artist; 499. Salvator Rosa, Raising- of the Cross; **453. Fainia Vecchio, 
Adam and Eve ; 162. Tintoretto, Lnte-player ; *480. G aid o Ben i, Cc])hsi\uii 
and Procris ; 521. N. de Largilllere, Portrait; 177. Ann. Caraccl, Shepherd 
and shepherdess ; 531, 535. Fesne, Portraits. — We now regain the staircase. 

Second Floor. Antiquities (continned); pottery; smaller works of 
art; and coins. — Room XXXV (to the right of the staircase) contains 
prehistoric antiquities, chieflv from North Germany and Denmark. — 
RR. XXXVI, XXXVII, and XXXVIII contain the ^Ceramic Collection, 
including the highly valuable Italian Majolicas of the 16-17th cent., etc. 
— In R. XXXIX is the tine ^Collection of Enamels and Jewels, 
chiefly from Limoges (16-17th cent.). Also, 220. Luther's 'doctor's ring' ; 
221. Luther's wedding-ring; 222. Seal-ring of Queen Mary Stuart. — 
R. XL. Objects in tortoise -sliell and mother-of-pearl, lacquer- work, 
glass, etc. — R. XLI. Objects in wax. — R. XLII. Wood-carvings. — 
R. XLIII. Ivory carvings of the 17-18th centuries. — R. XLIV. *Col- 
LEOTioN OF Bronzes, from Italy, France, Germany, and the Netherlands 
(15-18th cent.). - - R. XLV. Smaller works in stone ; *179. John the 
Baptist by Schiceiger. — R. XLVI. Embroidery, lace, book-bindings. — • 
R. XLVII. Chinese and Japanese articles, etc. — R. XLVIII. Coins 
(24,000), Medals, and Gems. Among the last is the so-called ^Ilantuan 
Vase (No. 300), of ancient workmanship, cut out of a single sardonyx, 
consisting of five variously shaded laminae. 

From the Museum the Sandweg and the Steintor-Wall lead to 
the S.W^. to the Monument -Platz (PI. E, 5, 6), adorned with an 
iron Obelisk^ 40 ft. in height, erected in 1822 to the memory of 
Dnkes Charles William Ferdinand and Frederick William (comp. 
p. 88). — To the S. is the Windmuhlenberg (PI. E, 6), which com- 
mands a fine view. 

In the Sieges-Platz (PL D, 6) rises the Monument of Victory 
in memory of the campaign of 1870-71, designed by Breymann and 
Dietz, and consisting of a Germania on an obelisk adorned with re- 
liefs in bronze. — To the N. of the Sieges-Platz is the Lessing- 
Platz (p. 89), to the W. are the Bruch-Tor Promenade and the 
Railway Park (Eisenbahn Park; PL C, D, 6). 

On the Gaussberg (PL D, 2) rises a good Statue of Gauss (1777- 
1855), the great mathematician, by Schaper. Gauss was born at 
No. 30 in the adjacent Wilhelm-Strasse. 

To the N.E. stands the Technical College (PL D, E, 1, 2), 
a Kenaissance building (1877). 

Interior. The vestibule contains two groups by Echtermeier, repre- 
senting Art and Science. The staircase is adorned with two ceiling- 
paintings by Groll of Vienna. — The groundfloor is occupied by exten- 
sive collections illustrative of Architecture, Engineering, Mechanics, 
and Fhysics (with Gruericke's air-pump and other historical relics), and 
by a Cabinet of Minerals. — The N. staircase ascends to the Natural 
History Collection (Sun. 11-1, Wed. & Sat. 2-4; other days, except 1-3, 
on application), the ornithological section of which is particularly fine. 

Outside the Fallersleber Tor is the Botanical Garden (PL 
E, F, 2), open daily, except Sun., 8-12 and 2-7. 

92 Route 12. MtXSTER. 

Behind the Ducal Theatre is the Kaiser- Wilhelm Bindge (PI. 
F. 4), with allegorical figures by E. Muller (1902). The Kaiser- 
Wilhelm-Strasse (PL F, 3; leads hence to the E. to the (V 2 ^^0 
Stadt-Parh (tramway ^0. 6, see p. 84). — A column on the Niiss- 
herg (295 ft.) commemorates Gen. Olfermann., the commander of 
the Brunswickers at Waterloo. 

From the Stein-Tor the Adolf-Str. and Leonhard-Str. lead to 
the St. Leoxhards-Platz, bounded on the AV. side by cemeteries. 
Lessing's G)'ave in the cemetery of St. Magnus here is marked by 
a monument with a relief by Th. Striimpel. — At the S.E. corner 
of the St. Leonhards-Platz rises the Monument of Schill, erected 
in 1837 to him and to the eleven officers of his corps who were shot 
at Wesel by order of Xapoleon (see p. 165 1; SchilPs head is interred 
on this spot. The small Chapel adjoining the custodian's house 
contains memorials of Schill and his period (1809;. 

About 1 M. beyond the August-Tor (PL D, £. 6) the electric railway 
to Wolfenhiittel comp. p. 84) passes the chateau of Alt-Richmond, erected 
in 1768. with beautiful grounds. — The line goes on via Melverode. with a 
siUciU Romanesque church of the 12th cent., and through the picturesque 
Lechiumer Holz (Stenihaus Restaurant: Kur-HoteJ, 1 M. from 

To the E. of Brunswick, 2 M. from the Stein-Tor, lies Riddags- 
hausen {Herrenkrug. JIanegoM. restaurants : Griine Jdger. a pleasure- 
resort), with a fine ^Church in the transition style, once belonging to 
a Cistercian monastery, and consecrated about 1250. 

From Brunswick to Harzburg. see R. 48: to Oebisfelde, and to 
FaUersleben, see p. 39. 

12. From Hamm to Miinster, Emden, 
and Norddeich (Xordemey). 

158 M. Railway in 5-bi ., hr. (fares 21 JC 30, 14 JC '20, S JC 80 pf . : 
through-fares to Xorderney 25 JC 70, 17 JC 80, 12 JC 50 pf.). 

Hamm. see p. 34. — Several small stations. Beyond (14 M.) 
Ri like rode we cross the Dortmund and Ems Canal. — 22 M. Miinster. 

Miinster. — Hotels. At the station: ^Kaiso^hof (PI. d; F, 4), 
with winter-eardeu. R. 3-5. B. 1, D. I1/2-2 JC; Continental (PI. f ; F, 4), 
R. 2-3. D. ri.2-2^2 •^- ^lonopol (PI. h: F. 3. 4), R. 2-3, D. IV2-3 JC; 
Germania (Pi. k: F. 4, 5): Westfdlischer Hof (PI. i: F, 4). Wolbeckcr- 
Str. 1. R. & B. from 2i 2. D. 11-2-2 JC. — In the town: Konig von Eng- 
land (PL a : E. 3^. with cafe-restaurant and bar. R. from 3. B. 1. D. 3 ^; 
Brandts I'Pl. b: E. 4). R. & B. 23/^-4. D. I1/0-21/4. omn. 1/2 JC; *Rh€in- 
ischer Hof (PI. c ; E. F, 3), R. from 2. D. is/, JC. 

RESTACRAJfTs. Wine : StadtweinMus (Ohmsche Hans), Roggen-Markt 11 
(beer on the groundfloor) : Niemer. Salz-Str. 57 (PI. E. 3): Schmedding. 
Alter Steinweg 15 (PI. E, 3) ; Beiderlinden, Klemens-Str. 38. — Beer : 
Brandts, Kaiserhof, see above : also. CentraJhof. Rotenburg 8 ; Kreuz- 
sc/ia/z^e (see PL D. 2): S^?>?2€», Syndikatsgasse 6, D. 114^^,: Zum Dort- 
munder, Konie-Str. 1. D. 1^.2 JC: Ini Franziskaner. Bogen-Str. 14 ; Auto- 
matic Restaurant. Prinzipal-Markt (PL E, 3). — Garden Restaurants: 
Linnenhrink (PL H, 3; concerts in summer). Gertrudenhof, Lindenkof 

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(PI. B, 3), and others. — Cafes. Prinzipal-Cafc, in the Konig von Eng- 
land (p. 92) ; Cafe dc Falais, Prinzipal-Markt 25. — 'Alt-Bier' (peculiar 
to Miinster) : Appels, Neubriicken-Str. 12, 

Post & Telegrah Office (PL D, 3), Doni-Platz 6. — Information 
Bureau, Prinzipal-Markt 8 (PI. E, 3). 

Public Baths, in the Promenade, near the Zoological Garden (PI. B, C,4), 

Cabs. Per drive (20 min.), 1 pers. 60, 2 pers. 75 pf., each addit. 
pcrs. 25 pf. ; each trunk 25 pf . By time, 1-2 pers. per 1/2 ^ii"- I5 pcr lir. 
IV2 ^f^'y each addit. V4 l^i"- ''^ pf- Bouble fares at nig-ht (9-7). 

Electric Tramways from the Harbour (beyond PI. F, 5) via the 
Railway Station (PI. F, 1) and 8t. Lambert's Church (PL E, 3) to the 
Grevener-Str. (PL B, 1, 2); from the Schutzenhof (})eyond PL D, 5) via 
St. Lambert's Church to the Schiffahrterdamm (beyond PL H, 2, 3). 

Chief Attractions (one day). Prinzipal-Markt and Rathaus, Roggen- 
Markt and Bogen-Strasse, St. Lambert's, Catliedral, AVestphalian Museum, 
Church of Our Lady. Afternoon: Ludgeri-Kirche, Palace, and Promenades. 

Miinster, situated on the Munstersche Aa and Dortmund-Ems 
Canal, in a flat district, the capital of the Prussian province of 
Westphalia, seat of a university, and headquarters of the 7th Army 
Corps, with 80,000 inhab. (85 per cent Rom. Catholics), has been 
an episcopal see since the 9th century. In the 13th and 14th cent, 
it was a prosperous Hanseatic town, and even carried on commerce 
beyond seas on its own account. At the time of the Reformation it 
was the scene of the fanatical excesses of the Anabaptists under 
John of Leyden (1534-35), and in 1661 it finally succumbed to the 
episcopal yoke of the warlike Bishop von Galen. The bishopric was 
secularized in 1803 and annexed to Prussia. 

The inner town still retains many mediaeval characteristics, which 
are most conspicuous in the Prinzipal-Markt (No. 27) and Roggen-Markt 
(No. 10; restored in 1904) with their arcades, picturesque old gabled 
houses, the church of St. Lambert, and the Rathaus. Besides these (jrothic 
buildings, there are many dwelling-houses of the Renaissance period, and 
even those of the 17th cent, present a mediaeval appearance, with their 
lofty gables and arcades on the groundfloors. Amongst the peculiarities 
of Miinster, are the 'Hofe', or mansions of the wealthy noblesse, some 
of which are in the rococo style of the 18th centurv. Among the most 
interesting of these are the Merveldter-Hof (1701), Ludgeri-Str. 36 (PL D, 
E, 4); Beverfordev-Hof {m^^-lli}'d), Konig-Str. 46 (PL D, 4); Erhdroaten- 
Hof (1757), Salz-Str. 38 (PL E, 3); and Roniherger-Hof (18th cent.; now 
a theatre), Neubrticken-Str. 65 (PL E, 2). 

To the left as we enter the town from the station, by the former 
Servatii-Tor (PL F, 4), is the Church of St. Servatius (PL E, F, 3), 
erected in the Romanesque style in 1197 and enlarged in the Grothic 
period. A little to the W. is the large public Hospital of St. Cle- 
ment (PL E, 3). 

The Salz-Str., with the fine Erbdrostea-Hof [ste above) and the 
Dominican Church (PL E, 3; ca. 1725), leads to the beautiful 
Gothic *Church of St. Lambert (PI. E, 3), built after 1375, and 
characterized by graceful proportions, bold vaulting, rich window- 
tracery, and imposing exterior. Over the S. portal is the 'Tree of 
Jesse', showing the genealogy of Christ. On the present tower 
(310 ft.), built in 1887-98 by Hertel, are suspended the three iron 
cages in which the bodies of the fanatics John of Leyden, Knipper- 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 7 

94 B^ute 12. MONSTER. Fram Hamm 

dolliug. and Krechtiug, the leaders of the Anabaptists, were ex- 
posed on the old tower in 1536. The present arrangement of the 
interior is modern. 

Xear the church are the Schoehaus (1525), the interesting old guild- 
hall of the shoemakers. Alter Fischmarkt 27, and the Kramer- Amthaus 
(PL E, 3), Alter Steiuweg 7, built about 1620. 

To the S. of St. Lambert's is the Prinzipal-Markt (PL E, 3), 
surrounded by Gothic arcades and old houses (comp. p. 93). Here 
stands the *Rathaus PI. E. 3; 14th cent.), with a beautiful Grothic 
gable, containing the "Friedens-Saar where the Peace of Westphalia 
was signed on •24th Oct., 1648 (apply to the custodian; fee). 

The Feiedexs-Saal. remodelled in 1577 and restored in 1853, contains 
a picturesque chimney-i)iece of 1577, and 35 portraits of ambassadors and 
princes, present at the conclusion of the peace, painted by J. B. Florii> 
in 1646-49. The portrait of tlie representative of Utrecht is attributed 
to Terburg. On the first floor is the Large Saloon, in the Gothic style, 
designed and excuted by Salzenberg. which was added in 1862, and is 
adorned with twelve historical portraits. 

Adjoining the Rathaus, Prinzipal-Markt 8, is the fine old Weigh 
House, a late-Renaissance building of 1615, with a balcony. 

At the corner of the Prinzipal-Xarkt and the Klemens-Str. is 
the Sfadthaus (PL E, 3), erected in 1905 in the same style as the 
old Stadtweinhaus ! 1569-71) which it replaces. 

We now proceed through the Michaelis-Platz to the Dom-Platz 
('PL D, 3,1. which is shaded with lime-trees and embellished with a 
bronze Statue of Filrstenherg. the statesman (1729-1810i. 

The ^Cathedral (PLD,'3), consecrated to St. Paul, is the 
largest and finest church in Westphalia. The main part of it, in- 
cluding the two choirs and double transepts, was erected in 1225- 
61 and incorporates details from an earlier building. The cloisters 
on the X. side date from the 14th century. The W. choir was dis- 
figured in the 16th cent.; its present portal is of 1516. The vesti- 
bule of the S.W. transept contains * Statues of apostles, saints, etc. 
(13th cent.' and a late-Romanesque frieze. 

Interior (closed 12-2: the E. Choir and Chapter House are shown 
by the verger. 50 pf.). The mediaeval decorations were almost entirely 
destroyed by the Anabaptists, and the harmonious proportions of the 
building have lately been disguised by gaudy painting. In the W. Choir, 
a Pieta by Achtennann (1850). Over the portal of the X.W. Transept. 
is an old painting of the 14th cent.. Frisians offering tribute to JSt. Paul. — 
X.E. TRA^'SEPT : Raising of Lazarus, by Hermann torn Bing (1546j. — 
S.E. Transept: Crucifixion hy Hermann torn Bing : tomb b}- J. TF. Gri)- 
ninger, with Christ on the Mt. of Olives. — E. Choir: Choir-stalls of 
1539: above, marble reliefs by J. 31. Groninger (1705): two ciboria of 
1536. by Beldensngder: paintings of the Romanesque period on the vault- 
ing restored). — Retro-Choir. On the wall, an astronomical clock, with 
the Months, by Ludger torn Bing. 3rd Chapel : Monument of the warlike 
bishop Bern, von Galen (d. 1678) by J. 3/. Groninger. 4th Chapel: Achter- 
mann's Descent from the Cross, a fine group in marble. — The '^Chapter 
House (closed) is adorned with the finest wood -panelling in Germany, 
carved by Joh. Kupper in 1544-52. — In the Cloisters is a fine group of 
Christ enterine Jerusalem bv H. Beldensnyder (modern replica above the 
W. portal). 

to Norddeich. MtTNSTER. ^-^- Ifotitc. 95 

To the 8. of the cathedral is the handsome Lad(jerus Fountain, 
by Fleige, erected in 1889, with statues of St. Ludgerus, first Bishop 
of Miinster (d. 809), Bishop Suitger (d. 1011), and Bishop Erpho 
(d. 1097). Opposite is the Governmerd Building (Fl. D, 3), erected 
by Erdell in the German Renaissance stvle (1886-89). Adjoining 
is the Post Office (1878-80), to the W. of which stands the — 

Westphalian Museum (PI. D, 3), completed from SchCldt- 
ler's phms in 1908. On the E. wall is an alto-relief of St. Greorge, 
by Lederer. The museum is open on week-days 10-1 & 3-5 (in 
winter 3-4), on Sun. 11.30-1 & 3-5 (4); adm. on Mon. 1 .^, on Wed. 
and Sat. 50 pf., on other days free. 

Ground Floor. Sculptures (mainly). — Room 1. Prehistoric col- 
lections. — R. 2. *Woo(len crucifix from Bockhorst (11th cent.); three 
stone reliefs from Miinster (12th cent.); St. (xeorg-e (?), from Socst 
(13th cent.). — RR. 8 & 4. Grothic wood - carvings (14-16th cent.). — 
A staircase descends hence to a room with Gothic *Sculptures of the 
14th cent, (most of them stolen from the catliedral by the Anabaptists, 
used to strengthen the ramparts, and dug up again in 1898); Crucifixion 
and Christ before Pilate, by //. Beldensnyder. — The late -Gothic 
Margareten-Kapelle (1464) contains sculptures by the Beldensnyder s, 
Groimigers, and other masters of the 16-18th centuries. 

First Floor. Objects of Industrial Art. — Westphalian rooms wilh 
fittings of the 16-18th centuries. Church-vestments with silver embroidery 
(S.W. corner). Reproductions of A. ElsenhoiV s works in silver (1582-89). 

Second Floor. Pictures. — E. Side: Early WeMjyhalian School, 
*Antependium from the Walpurgis Church at Soest, the oldest German 
panel -painting (12th cent.); Konrad of Soest, SS. Dorothy and Ottilie 
(15th cent.); Master of Lie shorn, Angel with chalice, Angels adoring the 
Infant Christ (1465) ; Master of Schoppingen, St. Nicholas and the four 
Fathers of the Church; J. Korbecke (Miinster, 1446-91), Altar- panels. 
The two Diinnivege (St. Luke), the Master of Cappenbery, Ludger torn, 
Ring (portraits), and Hermann torn Ring (Annunciation) are also well 
represented. — S.W. Corner: Landscapes by K. F. Lessing, Schonleber, 
Georgi, and Pankok : Falstafl' by Schrodter, portrait of himself by 
Pa7ikok, and other modern works. — West Side : Master of the Hausbuch, 
Madonna, St. John, and John the Baptist; North German Master, Death 
of the Virgin. Works by Barthel Bruyn and L. Cranach. Early Dutch 
triptych (16th cent.). Jan Gossaert, Madonna. Terburg, Arrival of 
Dutch envoys to the Peace Congress of Miinster (1646). Landscapes by 
A. van de Velde, J. van Ruysdael, J. van der Meer of Harlem, and others. 

On the W. side of the Dom-Platz are the University (PI. D, 3), 
built in 1878-80, with faculties of theology, philosophy, and law 
(ca. 1600 students), and the Museum of Christian Ai't (No. 26; 
open on week-days 9-12 and 2-6, on Sun. 11.30-1; fee 50 pf.). Ad- 
joining the latter is the Episcopal Besidence, built in 1732. - - 
In the Bispinghof is the University Library (PL C, 3), with 
200,000 vols. (9.30-1 & 4-7; on Sat. in the morning only). 

The noble Grothic Church of Our Lady, or Ueberwasser- 
Kirche (PI. C, D, 2) dates from 1340-46, but most of the internal 
decorations belong to a recent period. In the W. porch are two 
votive pictures by Ludger and Hermann torn Bing. — The 
Lndgeri-Kapelle, adjoining the tower, is said to be the oldest 
building in Miinster (restored in 1903). Adjacent is the Priests^ 

96 i^''-'j/^t' I'J. MtXSTER. .Fron Ha mm 

Se}/u/ianj. iu front of which is a Statue of Bern. Overberg (d. 1826;, 
the pedagogue, by A. Eiiller (1897i. 

The Ludgeri-Kirche PL D. E. 4 . with a *Tower terminating 
in a picturesque lantern, was begun in the Romanesque style about 
1173 and extended in the Gothic style after a fire in 1383. The 
whole was judiciously restored in 1856-60. 

^\"e may now complete our sightseeing with a AValk rouxd the 
Rampart Promenades. — In the so-called 'Kanonen-AValP is the 
Peace of Westphalia Monument (PI. C, 4), by Bolte (1905). 

Farther on we reach the Zoological Garden (PI. B, 3, 4; adm. 
50 pf.L It contains a statue of Prof. Landois (d. 1905), its founder, 
by Schmiemann il901\ and the Provincial Museum of Natural 
Historg'ioYien daily; fee), in which also are the collections of the 
AVestphalian Antiquarian Society. 

A little to the X. is the Xeu-Platz or Schloss-Platz (PI. B, C, 2, 3 1, 
on the S. side of which are the Law Courts <'P1. C, 3\ and on the 
^y. side the royal Palace <P1. B. 3 >. formerly the episcopal palace, 
built in 1767, and adorned with rich plastic decorations; it is now 
occupied by the Provincial President and the Commandant. In 
front of the palace rises an equestrian Statue of William 1., by 
Reusch '1897': and to the X.E. of it is the new Oher-Prasidium 
or Provincial Administrcdion Building (PL A. 2: 1905). — Be- 
hind the palace is the lAeixsaiit ScMoss-Garten (restaurant), occupy- 
ing the site of the old citadel and including the Botanical Garden 
(open fi-ee on week-days, 6-12 & 2-7). 

In the Kreuzschanze Promenade 'PL C, B, 2) are three mon- 
umental busts. The Budden-Turm (PL C, D, 2), now much altered 
and used by the city waterworks, is the last relic of the original 
fortifications of the town. The Zicinger (PL E, 2) was built in 1536. 

Outside the 3Iauritz-Tor, to the left, is the Landeshaus (PL 
F, 3'; in front of it is a bronze statue (1902) of Baron von 
Scho rlemer-Alst , the statesman. Farther on is the abbey-church of 
St. Maurice (PL H, 3i. founded about 1070, the nave rebuilt in 
1862 in the Romanesque style. The lower part of the W. tower 
■Romanesque: 11th cent.i and the Gothic choir (1451) are old. The 
monuments of the founders. Bishop Frederick (1063-84) and Bishop 
Erpho '1084-97), were demolished by the Anabaptists, but restored 
in 1576 and 1620. 

Branch-lines run from Miinster to Burgt^tiinfurt ami ;35 M.) Gronau 
(p. .34}, to (35 M.) Borkcn. to (ioi ;. M.) Lippstadt ('p. 13) via Rlieda 
(p. 8.")). and to (J-3V2 ^O the same terminus v>'i a Beckum. 

From Miinster to Cologne and Osnabn'ick (Hamburg), see p. 26. 

The train next traverses a flat, moorland country. — 46 M. 
Pheine. see p. 70. 

51 M. Salzbergen 'p. 70). — 77^ 2 ^- Meppen (Kerckhoff^ 
R 21 0-31 .>. B. 1 ^^Cj, with 4600 inhab., lies at the confluence of the 

A .•^':. E^l ^ ^- ^ 



io Nordd^icTi. . EMBEN. 1^- Bonfp. 07 

Haase and the Ems. In the market-place is a statue of Windthorst 
(d. 1891; p. 78). — 106 M. Papenbmr/ (Hilling, R. & B. 2-4, JJ. 
I-I3/4 ty/l ; Ih'it. vice-consul, C. Bruns; Lloyd's agent, Gr. Bueren), 
a town with 7600 inhab., was founded in 1675 on the Hoch-Moor, 
a marshy district 120 sq.M. in extent, intersected by canals. — 
112 M. Ihrhove, whence a line diverges io Neuschanz and other 
places in Holland (see Baedeker's Belcjium and Holland). 

118^/2 M. Leer (Prinz von Oraiiien, R. 2-4, D. l^/g-S, omn. 
^/gt/^; Victoria; Lloyd's agent, //. Wiemanii), a busy seaport, 
with 12,400 inhab., lies on the Leda^ at its union with the Ems. 
Pleasant walks to (2 M.) Leeroji, on the Ems, and to (2 M.) Loga, 
with Schloss Evenhimj and its park. (Railway to Oldenburg and 
Bremen, see R. 16.) 

133 M. Emden. — Hotkls. . '^Wel&ises Ilaus (PL a), opposite the 
Ra'haus, E. 2-5, B. 1, D. 2Vo-3t^; Central Hotel (PI. b), R. from 2 JC : 
Union (PI. d), R. IV4-2V4. !>• IV2 -*/ Heeren's (PI. c), these two near 
the station. — Railway Restaurant. — Post & Telecfrajyh Office, Grosse 
Briick-Str. — Brit, vice-consul, W. H. M. Sinclair. — Lloyd's agents, 
Y. rf' B. Brans. — Steamer to Borkum, see p. 99. 

Emden, the terminus of the Dortmund and Ems Canal, with 
16,500 inhab., formerly situated on the Ems, but now 21/2 M. distant 
from it, is a prosperous industrial town and river-port, intersected 
by navigable canals, and connected with the Ems and the Dollart 
by large harbour-works. The old town is very Dutch-looking and 
is enclosed by ramparts with trees and windmills. — The '^Rathans, 
a rich Renaissance structure of 1574-76, contains an interesting 
armoury, where a number of very curious old firearms of the Thirty 
Years' War are preserved (adm. 50 pf.; catalogue 60 pf.). The tower 
(144 ft.) commands a good survey. In front of the Rathaus are Mon- 
uments to Emp. William I. (1896), the Great Elector (1901), and 
Frederick the Great (1901). The Grosse Kirche contains the ala- 
baster monument of Count Enno II. of East Friesland (d. 1540), 
perhaps by Corn, de Vriendt. The Natural History Museum, is 
open daily (adm. 50 pf.). The museum of the local Antiquarian 
Society (Gesellschaft fur Kunst und Vaterldndische Altertilmer) 
contains a collection of pictures (mostly Flemish and Dutch), coins, 
and antiquities (adm. 50 pf.). — A pleasant motor-launch trip (fare 
10 pf.) may be made to the Nesserlander Schleusej or locks at the 
entry of the outer harbour. 

The train now traverses a meadow -land. — From (143 M.) 
Ahelitz a branch-line runs to (7 M.) Aurich (Piqueurhof, very fair; 
Deutsches Haus), the principal town of E. Friesland, pleasantly 
situated, with 6100 inhabitants. — 153 M. Worden (ZumWein- 
haus, R. 2-3, D. 2-3 ^l; Deutsches Haus), with 6700 inhab. and a 
pretty church of 1445. 

From Xorden to Saxde, 39 M., railway in 3 hrs. — 10 M. Dornuw 
(Hot* von Ostfriesland). To Baltruni, sec p. 101. — 18 M. K.<^ens (Wesser.s 

98 r^oute 13. XORDERXEY, East Frisian 

Inn, R. 2. D. 2 Jt\ chief town (2200 inbab.) of a marshy but fertile 
district called the HarJingerland. To Langcooq and Spiekeroog, see 
p. 100. ~ 31 M. Jever ^Hof von OJdenburg. R. from 210. D- 2 .^; Erh- 
(frossherzog : Bail. Bestauvantj^ with 5600 inhab.. was formerly fortified. 
It is united with the Jade by a canal. In the Palace is a fine cassetted 
*Ceiling of oak, probably by Adrian (1560), one of the finest Renaissance 
works in Germanv. From Jever a branch-railwav runs to (11 M.) Cam- 
linen siel -Earl e and (12V.> M.) Harle (p. 100; *Rail. Restaurant, with 
bedrooms). — At (58^.> M.) Sande (p. Ill) we join the railway to Wilhelmic 
haveu and Oldenburg. 

158 M. Xorddeich (Rail. Restaurant; Ferry Inn), a small sea- 
])at]iing place, whence a steamer plies to Nordeniey (see helowi. 

13. The East Frisian Islands. 

The East Frisian Islands, a chain of sandy islets, almost de- 
stitute of vegetation, lying off the German coast between the mouths 
of the Ems and the Weser, have long been popular among the 
Germans as sea-bathing resorts. Good accommodation may be ob- 
tained at the hotels and lodging- houses, while private apartments 
are numerous. The larger resorts have 'Kurhauser*, with bands and 
other attractions during the season. The bathing-arrangements are 
generally excellent, though somewhat simple in the smaller places. 
Intending visitors may obtain full information on application to 
the 'Badedirektion* of the place they may select. 

Nordemey. — Approaches. 1. Steamer from Xorddeich (see above) 
several times daily in 35-40 min. (fare 3 ^4C 10 pf.). — 2. Steamer from 
Breriu-rJinren p. 109,1 thrice weekly direct in 41/2 hrs.. four times weekly 
via Heligoland in 6V.2 hrs. (fare 8 ,^€ 45 pf.). — 3. Steamer from Ham- 
burg (p. 117} daily via Heligoland in 11 hrs. (17 JC). 

Arrival. Cabs meet the steamers to convey passengers to the town 
(fare l-li'., ^S) or to the waiting-room (fare 75 pf.) at the end of the 
pier '34 M. in length), where the luggage is distributed (omn. 25-40 pf.). 
Apartments assigned on application at the Wohuungs-Bureau. in the Rat- 
haus rpi. B. 2;. 

Hotels 'all with restaurants). "^Euroxmischer Hof (PL c: B. 1), R. 
from 3. B. I1/4. D. 2Vo-3. pens. 8-20 ^: '^Germania (PI. b : A, 2). R. 3-71/2- 
pens. 8io-13i;2-^- Kaiserhof fPl. a: B. 1); BeUevue (PI. d; C, 3); 
Kaiser Franz Joseph PI. e: B. 3): Schuchardt's (PI. f: B. 2), R. 3-6, 
very fair. — DeiUsches Hans (Pi. g; C. 2); Ebeling (PL h; B, 3), 
R. 21 2-3 ^S: Brans (PL k: B. 2). pens. 40-45 JC per week, well spoken 
of; Simmering (PL n: B. 2;; Engehauscn fPl. m; B, 3). 

Pexsio^s. Pens. Daheim. at the corner of the Kaiser -Str. and 
Moltkc-Str. : Dippeh Moltke-Str. 11. 6-8.^; Pens. Loling, Friedrich-Str.ll. 
— Apartments at the Grosse Logierhaus (PL B, 3; apply to the bath- 
authorities), at the Bremer Logierhduser (Pl.B. 1). and in theVictoria-Str., 
Kaiser-Str.. Bismarck-Str.. Moltke-Str., and Friedrich-Str., near the beach. 
Room with sea-view 30-45 Jt. whole fiat 100-150 JC per week. 

Restaurants. *Bichter. Backer- Str.. D. (1-5 p.m.) 41/2 ^." Kon- 
rersation.<-Haus (PL B. 3 . D. at 1p.m. 2I2. at 2 p.m. 23.4 ,S; Strand- 
halle (PL A. 2 . D. 2 JC: Bestaurant der Bremer Hditser (PL B, 1), 
D. 3Vo ^4C: Phoenix, Friedrich-Str.. D. 31 '2 JC: VictoriahaUe (PL A, 2), 
D. 2 c^; Giftbude (PL C. 1). on the X. beach. 2i/2-3 .€ : Continental 
Bodega. 'Post-StT. 11. — Kaiser-Cafe, in the Franz Joseph Hotel. 

Sea Baths (6-2), 1 JC inel. towels, 80 pf. without. — Visitors' Tax. 


B I „_C I D~ 


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"«« «. iWarte-i^- NORDERNEY 

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icogiapih. AnsUOt 

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IsUnch. BOBKUM. ^•>- limde. 99 

5 t/^ per week, 15 JC per season; reduction for families. - - Tiieatrk 
(PI. C, 3) daily during the season. — Concerts at the Konversationshaus 
or the Strandhalle. 

Cab per hr. ^i JC ; to the lighthouse and hack 10 JC. — Sailing Boat 

Ser hr. 9 JC (1-2 pers.) ; to Juist or J3altrum 15 JC. — Steamer to Borkuni 
ally in 2i/2-3 lirs. [^JC 20 pf., return-ticket W JC 20 pf.); to Lamjeoog in 
13/4 hr. (return-fare 5 ^.^ 70 pf.) ; to jHi.<it in 1 lir. (return-fare 4 J^ 80 pf.). 

Norderney, i. e. 'nortliern island', with 4000 inhab., about 
8 M. long and V/2 M. broad, is the largest of the East Frisian Is- 
lands. The village, which is at present the most fashionable Ger- 
man sea-bathing place (40,000 visitors yearly), lies at the S.W. 
angle of the island and owes its reputation to its fine sandy beach, 
excellent drinking-water, and mild climate. It is frequented also 
as a winter-residence by j^ei'sons with delicate chests, and a large 
institution has been built for scrofulous children. The season lasts 
from June 1st to Oct. 10th. The attractions include a Konversa- 
tions-Haiis, a Strand-Halle., with a glazed veranda on the side 
next the sea, a Reading Boom, and a Theatre. The chief prome- 
nade is the so-called Strandnumer (PL A-C, 1-2), running along 
the beach. The men's bathing-place is at the N.E. end of the beach 
(PL C, 1). The lighthouse (117 ft. in height), 11/4 hr. to the E., 
affords an extensive panorama (cards of admission at the office of 
the baths, 1 ^//.). 

Borkum (see Plan, p. 97). — Approaches. 1. Steamer from 
Emdcn (Nesserlander Schleuse ; p. 97) 3-4 times daily in 2V2-3 hrs. (fare 

6 t/^ 20 pf ., including railway from Borkum pier) ; ferry-steamer several 
times weekly (5 ^fC 10 pf., incl. railway). — 2. Steamer from Hamburg 
(p. 117) via Norderney (change steamers), see pp. 98, 99 (fare 19 JC 90 pf.). 
— 3. Steamer from Delfzyl (Holland), once or twice weekly. 

The steamboat-pier is connected with the village hv a railway 41/2 M. 
in length (20 min.; fare IV2 ^^)- 

Hotels. On the Beach: *KdhIer''s Strand Hotel (PL a), pens. 45- 
70 JC weekly ; Victoria (PI. c) ; '■^Kaiserhof (PI. b), R. 21/2-6, D. 21/2-31/2 ^; 
'^Hawich^s Strand Villa (PL i), pens, from -ib JC weeklv; Nordsee-Hotel 
(PL d), pens. 35-50.^ weekly ; Backer's Strand Hotel (PI. 1), pens. 40-50^.— 
At the Station: Detdsches Hans (PL m), Balinhofs-Hotel: Landsberg 
(PL n), pens. 35-50 .S. — In the Village: KoJiler's Dorf-Hotel (PI. f), 
pens, from 36 JC; Backer Junior; Bakker Senior (PL g) ; Seestern 
(PI. h), pens. 4-6 JC. — Pensions. Becker, 35-45 JC a week; Dr. Schmidt; 
Marienhof; Schumacher. — Private Apartments, 15-40 JC per week. 

Restaurants at the hotels; also, Becker, see above, h. l^j^-2^j^JC; 
Middehnann, D. I1/2 JC; Continental Bodega, Strand -Str. — Cafes- 
Restaurants outside the village at Upholm, Jdgerheim, Victor iahdhe, 
Bloonfontein, and Wilhehnslust. 

Sea Baths (at high-water only), 40-60 pf., fee 1 t^/C per week. — 
Warm salt-water baths at the Warmbade-Anstalt, I1/2 JC. — Visitors' 
Tax (after 3 days), ^ JC, 2 pers. 10, 3-4 pers. 12, 5 pers. and upwards 
14 ^#. — Theatre at Kohler's Dorf - Hotel. — Reading Room next 
the Warmbade-Anstalt. — Steamboat via Juist (31/2 JC) to Norderney, 
see above. 

Borkum, situated at the mouth of the Ems, 9 M. from the Dutch 
coast and between the channels called the Oster Ems and Wester 
Ems, is the westernmost of the E. Frisian Islands. It is 5 M. long 

100 Route 13. LAXGEOOa. 

and 2^ g ^- broad, and possesses pleasant green pastures, which 
support an excellent breed of milch-cattle. The island is visited 
bv about 22.000 sea-bathers annuallv (^June-Oct.). In the \-illao:e 
(^2100 inhab. I is an old lighthouse. 153 ft. in height, and near it is 
a new one. 40 ft. higher. — The K side of Borkum and the Dutch 
island of Rottum are the haunts of thousands of sea-fowl, whicli 
breed there (ticket of admission to the breeding-place 30 pf.). 

The more important of the other E. Frisian Islands are also 
frequented for sea-bathing. 

"VkTailgeroog. — Approaches. 1. Steamboat daily from Harle 
(p. 98; in 3 ^ hr. (^fare 4 ^/if) ; railway from the pier to the (20 min.) 
village. — 2. Steamer from Wilhelmshaven fp. 111} daily in 21/0-3 hrs. 
(1 t.4C,. — 3^ Steamboat from Bremen (p. 102) via BremerJiavcn (p. 109) dailv 
in 61 V 7 hrs. (10 J^-). 

Hotels. Strojid Hotel. R. 2Vo-4V2; B. 1. D. 2-21/4, pens. 6-8 J^ : 
Kaiserhof. pens. 51/2-8 JC: Jlonopol. pens. 51/2-6 J^ : Hanken; Kurhaus- 
Hdtel, in the village, pens. 5 ^^; Jurgens. — Private ApartmentH, 
8-15 JC per week. 

Visitors' Tax (after 5 days). 5 ^, 2 pers. 7, 3-4 pers. 10, 5 pers. 
and upwards 12 Jl. — Sea Bath 60 pf . ; warm salt-water bath li/o J(. 

Wangeroog. belonging to Oldenburg, is 5^2 M. long and 1 M. 
broad, and is visited by 10,000 sea-bathers annually. The square 
West-Turm (17th cent. '. which lies 2^ jo M. to the W. of the present 
village railway 20 pf.}. is the relic of a previous village over- 
whelmed by a storm in 1854. 

Spiekeroog. — Approaches. 1. Omnibus daily in summer from 
E.^ens p. 97, to (51.2 M.) Xeuharlingersiel . and thence motor-launch to 
(1 hr.) the pier and tramway to the village (fare from Xeuharlingersiel 2^4). 
— 2. Steamboat from Ba'rle (p. 98) daily in 2i 2 hrs. (5 ^€ 50 pf.). 

Hotels. GirnseJ. R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 21/2. pens, from 33 ^4 a week: Zur 
Llnde. pens, from 33 ._4' a week: Inselfriede. — Private Apartments, 
8-15 JC per week. — Giftbude Bestaurant. — Sea Bath 50 pf., warm salt- 
water bath 11 2..4(. — Visitors* Tax (after 4 days), S JC. — Tramway from 
the village to the (10 min.) beach, 10 pf. 

Spiekeroog., which belongs to Prussia, is 5 M. long and IV 4 M. 
broad, and is visited by 1700 sea-bathers annually. The bathing- 
arrangements, though unpretending, are good. The village is situated 
amidst trees, about 1 M. from the bathing-beach. 

Langeoog. ■ — Approaches. 1. Light railway in 1/4 hr. from Escus 
(p. 97) to 3 M.) Bensersiel, and thence steamboat in 40 min. (ferry- 
boat in 11 2 hr.) to Langeoog pier, and tramway to the (20 min.) village 
(fare from Esens 51 o «.*;• — 2. Steamer from Norderney. see p. 99. 

H otels. ^ Strand -Hot/- J Kurhaus. R. 21.2-4. pens, per week 35-60^.4: 

1 33 ^ weekly: Meinen , pens. 30-36 .A: 

.occura Convent. R. 8-20. board 26^^ weckly 

•tments. from 10 ^€ per week. — Sea Bath 

warm salt-wateV hat\ li o ^. Visitors" Tax (after 5 days) 4 c^. 

^^h is SioPI- l'"J"g ^^^ I ^^- broad, is visited by 
^5000 ^^gy^s annuall]^ /he village (340 inhab.) is situated on 

the bathing-beach on the W. coast. 
L-fowls' breeding-place (comp. above). 

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Baltrum. — Approach. Omnibus daily iu Yi l»i- from Dornum 
(p. 97) to (3V2 M.) Nessmersiel, whence a ferry plies to the island in 1 hr. 
(fare li/2«^)- 

Hotels. Kilper, R. 21/2, pens, weekly 28-32 JC; Post. — Private 
Apartments from 8^ per week. — Sea Bath 50 pf . — Visitors' Tax, 4-5..^. 

Baltrum., 4^2 M. long and 72^^- l>i'oad, is the smallest of tlio E. 
Frisian bathing-places; but its accommodation and arrangements, 
though unpretending, are very fair. 

Juist. — Approaches. 1. Steamboat daily from Nordcleich (p. 08) 
in ^V^ hr. (fare 4 t^/fc^ 80 pf., incl. street-railway) or ferry-boat in 2 hrs. 
(S J^). — 2. Steamer from Norderney, sec p. 99. 

Hotels. Kicrhaus, R. from 21/2, B. 1, D. 23/^, pens, from 7 JC ; Friesen- 
hof, pens, from 6^; Itzen, Rose, pens, from 42 c^ weekly; Claasen. — 
Private Apartments, 8-15 <^ per week. — Sea Bath, 60 pf . ; warm 
salt-water bath V/.^J^. — Visitors' Tax (after 3 days) (> ^ , 2 pers. 8. 
3-4 pers. 10 tS. 

Juist., 10^2 ^^- lo"g and '/^ ^- hroad, is visited annually by 
6000 sea-bathers. Walks may be taken to the (2 hrs.) Bill (inn) 
at the W. end of the island, and to the (V/9 hr.) Kalfame?^ at the 
E. end. 

14. Prom Hanover to Bremen. 

76 M. Railway. Express iu 2 hrs. (fares 10 c^ 20, 6 ^ 80, 4 ,S 20 pf .) ; 
ordinary trains in 3 hrs. (9 JC 20, ^ JC 80, 3 ^H^ 70 pf.). 

From Hanover to (13 M.) Wunstorf, see pp. 39, 38. Country 
poor, flat, and sandy. In the distance, to the W., we observe the 
^Stehihudei' Meer (p. 38). Several unimportant stations. 34 M. 
Nienhnrg (Kanzler), with 10,400 inhab., on the Weser. The train 
crosses the Aller. — 54 JVI. Verden (Hotel Hannover, R. 2-3, 
D. 2 t/^j, with its cathedral destitute of tower (1290), where Char- 
lemagne founded an episcopal see; pop. 9700. Branch-line to 
Celle, sec p. 113. — 58 M. Langtvedel, junction of the Berlin line 
(p. 40). — 721/2 M. Sebaldshrilck is connected with Bremen by a 
tramway-line (see p. 102). To the left is the handsome new church 
of Ha.siedt. — 76 M. Bremen. 

15. Bremen. 

PI. I refers to tlic general plan, PL II to that of the inner town 
(p. 103). 

Hotels (the best often crowded on the eve of the sailing- of the 
American steamers; advisable to order rooms in advance). *Hillmanjn's 
(PI. II; a, E I), R. from 4, B. I1/4, D. 'V^jo JC , with restaurant; *Hotel 
DE l'Europe (PI. II; b, F 4), R. from 31/2', B. IV2, flej. 2, D. 'i JC, witli 
restaurant and cafe , both in the Herdentor-Steinweg (Nos. 51 and 50) ; 
^Central (PI. II; d, F 4), Bahnhofs-Platz, R. from 3, B. I1/4, D. 31/2-^; 
Ctrand- Hotel du Nord (PI. II; c, F 4), Bahnhof-Str. 14; Sieden- 
BCRG (PL II; e, F 5), Am Wall 175, R. 21/2-0, D. 13/^-3 JC; Bristol 
(PL II; p, F 4), Am Wall 161, with cafe-restaurant; Alberti (PL II; f, 
F 4). R. from 3, I). 2V/., JC. fair; Schaper (PL II: g, F 4), D. 21/4 o^, 

102 If^'i'te i'>- 


PTiXctical yotes. 

these two in the Bahuhof-Strasso ; Bahnhof-Hotel (PI. 11 ; k, F 1), Herden- 
tor-Steiuweff 30; Reichshof (PL II; h. F 4). Bahnhof-Str. 26, R. 2V2-3. 
D. 21 o .S : Kaiserhof iTL II : o. F 4i, Bahnhofs-Platz. R. 2i v3. D. 21/2 J( ; 
CoxTi.xENTAL (PL II; 1, F 4), Bahuhofs-Platz ; Victoria (PL II; i, F 4). 
Herdentor-Steinweg 17: Stadt Bremen (PL II; n, F 4), Bahnhof-Str. 35; 
Germaxia (PL II; m, F 4), Bahnhof-Str. 32. — Pensions. Barleheiiy 
Fedelhoren 48 (PL II: F, 4). pens. 6-8 .M; Pfaff, Fedelhoren 51. 5-6 JO. 

Restaurants. "^HiUmanv/s, *II6t. dc rEiirojie, see p. 101; *BaU' 
l^eller ;p. 104,; AUhremer Hans (PL II , E 5 ; p. 106), D. from 13/^ .^ ; 
PiUfenliof-KeUcr. sec below: Siedenhurg. see p. 101; Continental Bodega. 
Haken-Str. 2a. D. 2i/.> JC. — Beer. Rntenliof (p. 105). D. 1 JC m pf! & 
2 .M : Lichfrauen, Soge-Str. 23. D. l^i^JC : Jakohi-HaUe, Jakobi-Kirehhof 11, 

D. 1.4C 60 pf . : TivoU PL II : F. 4 1. D. 11/2 JC : Becknje : Borsen-Bestaurant : 
Automatic Bcstaurant, cor. Kaiser-Str. & Hutfilter-Str. (PL II; E, 4). — 
Cafes. Wiener Cafe, at the Hot. de LEnrope (p. 101); Turck , Am 
AVall 164: Central Cafe, Schliisselkorb 11: Boland, Knochenhauer-Str. 6. 

Theatres. Stadt-Theater (PL II; F, 5), Am Wall , from Sept. to 
April only: TivoU (PL II; F, 4). An der Weide ; Metropol^ Ansgarii- 
Tor-Str. 20 (PL II: E. 4), variety theatre. — Concerts, in summer daily 
in the Bf/'rc/er-Park fp. 1081, and in the Garden of the TivoU Theatre. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PL II; E, F, 5), Domsheide. 

Baths. Biver Baths, at the Kaiser -Brtlcke (PL I; D, 4) and the 
Osterdeich PL I : F. G. 6). — Warm Baths: ^PuhUc Baths (PL II; F, 4), 
adjoining the railway-station (Turkish and Russian baths 2 JC^ warm baths 
1 -A. swimming-bath 40 pf.). 


Within the cit^' . 
With luggage' . 
At night ^11-7.30) 

Electric Tram^w^ays '10 pf. ; principal centre in the Market, PL I. 
E 5). — 1. Bingbahn, round the city (5 M.), beginning and ending at the 
Panzenberg (PL I: D. 3). — 2. From Arsterdamni (beyond PL I, E 6) to 
the Bilrger-Park (F\. I: CL H. 1, 2). — 3. From the Domshof (PL II; 

E. F 5) to Horn (bevond Pi. I. H, 3). — 4. From GropeUngen (bey. PL I, 
C 1) to WeserJust (bey. PL I, H 6).'— 5. From Sebaldsbriick (bev. PL I, 
H 5) to the Holzhafen (PL I; B. 1). — 6. From the Biirger-Park (PL I; 
G. H. 1, 2) to the Pappel-Strasse rPl. I; D. 6). — 7. From the Park- 
AlUe (PL I; G, 3, 4) to WoUmershausen (PL I; B, 4). — 8. From Gropel- 
ingen to Burg. 

Steamboats to Bremerhaven (p. 109) twice daily in summer in 3V2hrs. 
(fare 2..^.). — From Bremen to London (36 hrs.) thrice', to HuJl (36 hrs.) twice 
weekly. From Brcmerhayen to Xev: York the fast steamers of the North 
German Lloyd ply once weekly (in which travellers for England may 
return to Southampton). For particulars apply at the offices of tlie 
Xorth German Lloyd Xorddeutscher Lloyd), Papen-Str. 5 (PL II; E, 4). 

Consulates. British Yice-Consul, C.JIosle. Borsen-Xebengebaude 28. 
United States Consul. Wni. T. Fee, 15 Soge-Str. (9.30 a.m. - 2 p.m.). — 
Lloyd's Agents, F. Beck d: Co. — Strangers' Enquiry Office, Bahn- 
hof-Str. 36 (PL II: F. 4). 

Chief Attractions (one day). Market Place and Bathaus (p. 103), 
Cathedral (p. 105;. Domsheide (p\ 105) ; along the Obern-Str. or Langen- 
Strasse (p. 106) to the Kaiser-Brilcke: Promenades (p. 106) and Kunst- 
haile (p. 106). Afternoon : Municipal Museum (p. 107) : Jlomiment ofEmp. 
Frederick III. (p. 108); Biirger-Park (p. 108) or Free Harbour (p. 108); 
evening at the Batskeller (p. 104). 

Bremen, the second iu importance of the three independent Han- 
seatic cities, with 215.000 iiihab., and one of the chief commercial 


Two -horse 

10 min. 

each addit. 5 min. 

10 min. I each addit. 5 min. 

















•5 ^-'.l 


^C^ V^:i ^T^ ^^ 

^ V 


Bathau.9. BREME"Nr. ^•''>- J^tntc. t()8 

places in N. Germany, lies in a sandy plain on both banks of the 
Weser, about 46 M. from its influx into the German Ocean. On 
the right bank is the Alfstadty formerly enclosed by ramparts, 
round which the Suburbs are situated, and on the left bank is 
the Neustadt. Many well-preserved old buildings testify to the 
mediaeval importance of the place, while the numerous handsome 
new^ edifices entitle it to a respectable rank among the modern 
cities of Europe. 

Bremen is the oldest seaport of Germany. The Bishopric of Bremen 
was founded in 787 by Charlemagne. In the 10th cent, the town, in con- 
sequence of certain privileges accorded to it by the archbishops, began 
to flourish as a seaport and a commercial place; but in the 13-llth cent, 
the citizens contrived gradually to shake off the archiepiscopal yoke. 
They joined the Hanseatic League (p. 116) in 1270, but for a long' time 
kept aloof from its proceedings. Bremen reached the height of its import- 
ance in the 16th cent., after which it was thrown into the shade by Ham- 
burg. In 1522 Bremen embraced the Reformation, and in 1517 gallantly 
repelled an attack by the Imperial army. The citizens bravely defended 
themselves against the Swedes also (1666), who had obtained possession 
of the episcopal see by the Peace of Westphalia, and finally in 1731, after 
having been subject to Hanover for 12 years, vindicated the position of 
Bremen as a free city of the Empire. The form of government is similar 
to that of Hamburg (p. 119). The town is now chiefly indebted for its 
importance to its seaport, Bremerhaven (p. 109), which was entered in 
1907 by 5208 sea-going vessels of 4,097,055 tons' burden. The value of the 
imports in the same year amounted to 1845 million, of the exports to 
1743 million marks. The staple commodities arc tobacco, rice, cotton, 
wool, grain, and coffee. In 1908 the merchants of Bremen possessed 531 
sea-going vessels of 1,239,910 tons, including 430 steamers, more than half 
of which are engaged in the Atlantic traffic. Bremen is the headquarters 
of the Norddeutscher Lloyd, whicli, in 1909, possessed 425 vessels, with 
a total register of 765,827 tons. 

The principal business part of Bremen consists of the three 
squares, the Domshof, the Domsheide, and the Market Place, situ- 
ated near each other in the Altstadt (PL II; E, F, 5). From the 
market-place diverge also the most important thoroughfares: the 
Langen-Strasse (containing several buildings of the 16tli cent. ; 
comp.p. 106), the Obern-Strasse (p. 106), and the Soge-Strasse (PL II; 
E, 4), the chief business-street (Historical Museum, see p. 106). 

In the *Makket Place (PL E, 5) are the Rathaus, the Ex- 
change, the 'Schiitting', and several fine old houses. Among the last 
is the Rats-Apotheke (1532), furnished with a new fagade in 1894. 

The *Rathaus (PL II; E, 5), mainly a Gothic building, was 
erected in 1405-10; in 1609-12 a Renaissance fa^'ade was added on 
the S.W. side, resting on twelve Doric columns, and remarkable 
for its richly-decorated oriel-window and handsome gable. The 
sixteen statues between the windows are mediaeval (on the end- 
walls, saints and philosophers; towards the market, the Emperor 
and the seven Electors). By the S.E. portal are two armour-clad 
knights on horseback, by the S.W. portal, two knights on foot, all 
in chased copper, by R. Maison (1901-4). 

104 Route lo. P.REMEX. Eychnnge. 

From the Kaisor-Wilhclm-Platz we enter the lower hall of the Rat- 
haus, and ascend a winding wooden staircase on the right to the *Great 
Hall (ca. 150 ft. long, 45 ft. wide, and 28 ft. high), which is open free 
daily 8-7 (Sun. 10-2). By the end -wall are the seats of the councillors 
(190'3). On the side next the market-place an elaborately carved *Winding 
Staircase (1616) ascends to the upper oriel room above the 'Gulden- 
Kammer' (redecorated in 1905). On the opposite wall are a large painting 
by Hilnten. representing the battle of Loigny (Dec. 2nd. 1870) and a 
fresco of 1532 fCharlemagne and St. Willihad with a model of the 
cathedral). Over the next door are reliefs of Wisdom. Peace, and Justice 
(1577). From the ceiling, which is adorned with medallions of German 
emperors from Charlemagne to Sigismund. are suspended old models of 
ships. The stained-glass windows contain names and armorial bearings of 
councillors of Bremen. In a corner of the hall stands a marble Statue 
of Smidt (d. 1857). Burgomaster of Bremen (p. 109), by Steinhauser. 

On the W. side is the entrance to the celebrated *Ratskeller, con- 
siderably "enlarged in 1874 and adorned with frescoes by Arthur Fitger. 
The cellar, which contains German wines exclusively, is open daily till 
11p.m. (on Sundays not before 3 p.m.). Wine may be purchased by the 
glass or bottle; cold and (after 7p.m.) warm viands arc also supplied. 
The oldest casks are the -Rose' (dating from 1653) and the -Twelve 
Apostles'. The 'Rose' derives its name from a large rose painted on the 
ceiling, beneath which the magistrates of olden times are said to have 
held their most important meetings, such deliberations 'suh ro^a being 
kept profoundly secret. Travellers versed in German literature will re- 
cognize several of the "dramatis persona?' inHauffs 'Phantasien im Bremer 
Ratskeller'. to which some of the frescoes refer. The cellarer enquires 
from time to time in the upper rooms whether any of the visitors desire 
to inspect the cellars ^gratuity). 

On the X.W. side of the Eathaus is an equestrian Statue of 
Emperor William I. (PL 7 1. in bronze, by Barwald 1 1893). — The 
Sfadthaus. adjoining the Rathaus on the X.E., is being rebnilt. 

In fi'ont .'to the S.W.) of the Rathaiis stands the *Roland 
iPI. 9 ». a colossal fiorui-e in stone, 18 ft. hio^h. erected in 1404 on the 
site of an earlier figure of wood, a symbol of municipal jurisdic- 
tion, and the palladium of civic liberty. In his left hand the giant 
bears a shield with the imperial eagle, and a naked sword in his 
right. The figure was repainted in 1905. 

On the S.W. side of the market is the Schiittiny^ or Chamber 
of Commerce, erected in 1538-94 (facade restored in 1899). 

The ^Exchange PL II: E, 5), designed by H. Midler^ is in 
the Gothic style 1861-64!. The handsome Hall business-hour 1-2; 
has a coffered ceiling, supported by columns. The S. wall is oc- 
cupied by a large painting by Janssen. The galleries and staircase 
are adorned wih mural paintings by Arthur Fitfjer. Over the en- 
trance is a marble figure representing Brema. by Kropp. 

To the S. of tlie Exchange is the Cotton Exchange, designed by 
Poppe 1899-19021. — In the small square between the Rathaus, 
the Exchange, and the Cathedral are the Turmhldser-Brunnen 
(TL 11), by Dennert (1899), and the WiUehadi-Brunnen (PL 12), 
by R. Xeumann 1833 •. The Historical Museum. Am Dom 3, con- 
tains viev.s. models of ships, and household gear Sat.. 10-2. and 
Sun.. 10-5: closed Dec. -March.: see also p. 106). 

Cathedral. BRP:MEN. lo- Houtc. 105 

The ^Cathedral (PI. II, E 5; Prot.; open on week-days, 10-2), 
a Romanesque edifice with double choir, the main parts of which 
belong to the original building, seems to have been erected between 
1044 and 1101, but was greatly altered in the 13th century. The 
N. aisle, which is of equal height with the nave, was added in the 
16th century. The whole of the exterior was restored in 1888-98 
and a tower above the crossing was added in 1899. 

The dimly lit Interior (entered by the left side-door in the main 
facade or through the house of the sacristan, Sand-Str. 9) was painted 
by Schaper in 1899-1901. Admirable Organ (1894). In front of it are 
fine reliefs dating from 1500, representing Charlemagne, St. Willehad 
with the model of the cathedral, bishops, and others. The Stained Glass 
Windoivs, with portraits of Luther and Melanchthon, are modern. Rococo 
Pulpit (1638). In the first chapel (counting from the choir) of the S. Aisle 
is a Font, in bronze, of the 12th century. Hence we enter the Cloister^s 
(IJrth cent., restored in 1903), with weather-worn figures from the W. 
gable. In the fifth chapel of the S. Aisle are some relics of the old choir 
stalls (1365). — From the S. Transept a few steps descend into the Blel- 
keller {i. e. lead-cellar, where the lead for the roof was melted), which 
contains several mummies. This vault (open on week-days, 9-10 & 1-4; fee 
50 pf., 3 pers. lt/A() still possesses the property of preventing decomposition. 

In the DoMSHOF (PL II; E, F, 5), an extensive Platz on the N. 
side of the cathedral, is the Bremen Bank (1905), and opposite is 
the Ratenhof (restaurant, see p. 102), a private edifice erected in 
1875. The court (open to the public) contains a frieze with frescoes 
from German history, painted by Fitger. — On the N. side of the 
Platz stands the Teichmann-Brunnen (PI. T.-B.), by R. Maison 
(1899), representing a mariner and Mercury in imminent danger of 
shipwreck, while a nymph strives to pull the boat under. 

The DoMSHEiDE (PL II; E, F, 5), to the S. of the cathedral, is 
adorned with a Statue of Gustavus Adolphas (PI. 5), designed by 
the Swedish sculptor Fogelberg, and originally destined for Groten- 
burg. — On the N. side of the square is the Gothic building of the 
Kiinstlerverein (artists' association), with mural paintings (inside) 
by Fitger. — The Post Office, in the Renaissance style, was com- 
pleted in 1879. Opposite are the handsome Law Courts (PI. II; 
F, 5), in the style of the German Renaissance (1891-95). — The 
Ostertor-8tr. (PL II; F, 5) leads hence to the S.E. to the Kunst- 
halle (p. 106). 

The Roman Catholic Johannis - Kirche (PI. II; E, 5), dating 
frojn the 14th cent., has a nave 60 ft. in height, borne by eight 
slender columns. — In the oldest part of the town, between the 
Weser and the market-place, rises the Church of St. Martin, 
(PL II; E, 5), founded about 1229 and rebuilt in the 14th and 
15th cent.; it contains an organ-case in the Renaissance style. 

To the N. of the Rathaus is the Liebfrauen-Kirche (PL II; 
E, 5), dating from the 12th and 13th cent., with a S. aisle added 
in the 14th century. The W. fagade was restored in 1893. The 
carved pulpit is of 1709. — The cloisters of the former Convent of 

106 Boide 15. BRE3IEN. Ansgaru-Kirche. 

St. Catharine, now a school, in the Soge-Strasse, accommodate the 
second section of the Historical Maseam (PL II: E, 4), containing 
architectural fragments, weapons, and ecclesiastical antiquities. 
Visitors are admitted on application to the school-janitor (^fee). 

From the Rathaus the Obern-Strasse (PI. II; E, 4, 5) leads to 
the X.W. to the 13th cent. Ansgarii-KIirche (PI. II, E 4; re- 
stored), with an altar-piece by ./. H. W. Tischhein and modern 
stained-glass windows. The tower. 375 ft. in height, commands 
an extensive view. Opposite the AV. portal is a group in marble 
by Steinhauser , representing St. Ansgarius, the apostle of the 
North and first archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg fd. 865), in 
the act of releasing a heathen boy from the yoke of paganism. — 
Beyond it is the *Gewerbehaus PI. II: E, 4i, erected in 1619-21 
as a guildhall of the cloth -merchants, with a well-preserved 
Renaissance fagade in sandstone. The interior (restored) contains 
portraits of Burgomasters of Bremen, etc. (apply to the steward). — 
In the Papen-Str. are the large offices of the Xorth German Lloyd 
(PI. II, E 4: see p. 103 >, by J. G. Poppe, with a tower 250 ft. high. 

Nos. 20-22 in the Kaiser-Str. contain ihe Museum of Industrial 
Art (PL II, E 4; open daily, except Sat., 10-1), with interesting 
wood-carvings and furniture. — St. Stephen's Church (PL II: D, 4j, 
to theX.AV.. a Romanesque building of the 12th cent., was restored 
in 1889; the inelegant spire on the S. tower dates from 1856. 

"VVe now return to the market-place via the Laxgen-Stkasse 
(PL E, 4, 5), with its quaint old houses: the Kornhaus (Xo. 75; 
1591 . the Stissersche Hans (N. 16i, the *AIthremer or Essiy 
HauS'So. 13: 1618. restored 1896: restaurant, see p. 102 1, and the 
Weigh House iStadt-War/e : Xo. 9; PL II, E 5}, dating from 1587. 

The *Proinenades, or Wall-Anlagen. laid out after 1815 by 
Altmann. on the old ramparts, and separating the old town from 
the suburbs, constitute the principal ornament of the city. The 
moat is crossed by six bridges, named after the old gates (comp. 
Plan*. In the promenades, near the Herden-Tor (PL E, F, 6), is a 
Marble Vase with reliefs by Steinhduser. representing the so-called 
'Kloster-Ochseuzug*. which formerly took place here annually. Xear 
the Ansgarii-Tor 'PL II: E, 4i is a * Monument to the natives of 
Bremen who fell in 1870-71 (bronze relief of the battle of Sedan;. 
Beside the Bischofs-Tor is the Town Theatre (PL II; F, 5): below 
to the E. is the Horse Tamer, by Tuaillou 1902: bronze). 

Xear the Oster-Tor is the *Kunsthalle <PL II: F, 5i, con- 
taining pictures by old and modern masters (the latter including 
noteworthy examples from the artists' colony of "VS'orpswede, see 
p. 108', sculptures, drawings, engravings, woodcuts, etc. Open free, 
daily except Sat.\ 11-2. Director. Dr. G. Pauli ; catalogue 1 JC. 

Q-round Floor. — On the right are the Collections of ExGRAVijfGs 
(ca. lOO.OOO; and Dbawings (2500), in which Dilrer and the Minor Ger- 

Kaw quarters. BREMEN, ^•>- Route. 1()7 

man Masters are especially well represented. Among the 40 drawings 
by Durer are several fine studies for landscapes. — The Sculpture Room 
contains casts and German and French plaques. 

On the First Floor are the Picture Gallery and small sculptures 
by Gaul, Geyger, Stuck, Rodin, 3Teunier, Tuaillon, and others. — Room A. 
To the right,' 306. Leibl, Portrait; Liehermann, Harlem; 237. Trtibner, 
Portrait; 279. F. von Uhde, Garden-path; 266. H. von Maries, Portrait 
of himself; 296, 295. Courhet, Sea-scenes; *298. 3Ionet, 'La fcmme a la 
robe verte' (1866) ; 283. L. Simon, Old couple. — Room C. Landscapes by 
Hans am Ende, Modersohn, and Achenbach. Mackensen, 233. Mourners, 
*184. Motherhood; 50. Gude , Norwegian harbour; 273. Lenbach , Bis- 
marck; 223. Zilf/el, Sheep; 224. L. Samberger, Jeremiah. — Room B. 
l!io. 24:0. Zuloaga, Consuelo, the actress; 263.* Z>/Z/, Moorland brook; 231. 
G. Kulil, Augustus -Briicke, Dresden; 426. Grethe, Ice in the harbour; 
119. Schleich, Valley of the Isar; 266. Jan Toorop, Boys with dove. — 
Room D. To the right, *241. Thoma, Falls of the Rhine: 229. H. Olde, 
Claus Groth ; 218. Vinne^i , Landscape; *19. Bocklin , Adventurer; 247. 
Feuerbach, Mandolin-player; 222. Lenhacli, Voluptas. — Room E. No. 147. 
Verlat, Ducks; 280. Richter , Pilgrims resting (1839); 102. Overbeck, 
Finding of Moses (1823) ; 145, Vcit, Eccc Homo ; 272. Schnor7' von Carols- 
feld, Cavalry skirmish (1816). — Room F. No, 76. Leutze, Washington 
crossing the Delaware. 

Cabinets G-K contain Dutch and other old paintings. Cab. G: 48. 
J. van Goyen, Landscape (1625); 252. Hondecoeter, Poultry. — Cab. H: 
142. Adr. Backer, Nymphs. — Cab. I: Terbitrg, *258. Burgom.aster. 
135. Backgammon -players (early work); *259. Buysdael, Chateau of 
Bentheim. — Cab. K: *6. A. Altdorf'er, Nativity (early work, 1507); 
164. MasoWto (?), Madonna (in an old frame; 1423): A. Durer, 32. Head 
of Christ (1514), 33. SS. Onuphrius and John the Baptist (unfinished; 
1505*?); 278. Cranach the Elder, Trinity (ca. 1515); 62. Lucas van Leyden, 
Judgment of Daniel. — Room M. To the left, 38. G. van den EeckJiout, 
Samson and Delilah; 123, Snyders, Still-life. 

The rooms and cabinets on the N. side of the upper floor are used 
for the exhibitions of the Kimstvereln (daily 11-2, except Sat., from Oct. 
to April; 1/2-I -^)- 

The New Quarters of the town beyond the moat, especiaHy 
the Osterdeich on the banks of the Weser (PI. I; F, a, 4-6), the Siel- 
wall, with a monument to Theodore Korner (PL I, 16; Gr, 5), and 
the streets near the railway-station, contain many handsome private 
houses. At the corner of the Bismarck-Str. and the Schwachhauser 
Ohaussee is the * Centaur Fountain (PL I, K-B ; &, 4), by A. Sommer. 
— At the E. end of the Osterdeich, 2 M. from the Promenades, are 
the Botanic Garden and the Weserlust^ an open-air restaurant. 

The Herdentor-Steiuweg and the Bahnhof-Str. (PL F, 4) lead 
from the Her den-Tor (p. 106) to the Bahnhofs-Platz, on the 'N, 
side of which stands the Central Baihvay Station (VI. II; F, 4). — 
On the W. side of the square rises the ^Municipal Museum of 
Natural History, Ethnology, and Commerce (PL II; F, 3), 
erected in 1896 and recently enlarged (open in summer, free on 
Sun., 10-2, and Wed. and Sat., 2-6; adm. on Tues. andFrid., 10-2, 
50 pf.). The lifelike groups illustrating different races of mankind 
and different families of animals form a special feature that has 
been imitated in other museums. Director, Prof. Schauinsland. 

The Ground Floor contains the Ethnological Collections, the Fisheries 
Collection, and the extensive Commercial Collection. — On the First 

108 Route 15. GEESTEMCXDE. 

Floor is the Zoological Collection. — The Second Flook is devoted to the 
Prehistoric, Botanical, Mineralogicol, and Palaeontological Collections, 

To tlie S.^V. of the Museum is the Municipal Library (PL II; 
E, 3), coutaining 130.000 vols, lopen dailv 11-1. also on Mon., Wed., 
Thurs.. and Sat.. 3.30-6.30). 

Between the rail, station and the Bilrger-Park is a bronze "^Statue 
of Emp. Frederick III. (PL I, 15; Gr, 3), in Roman dress, bv 
Tuaillon (1905). The *Burger-Park (PL I; F-H, 1-3) was laid 
out by W. Bencjue in the English style in 1866-84. There are 
numerous restaurants (Parkhaus on the Holler-See,, Cafe on the 
Emma-See. both very fair; Wildgeliege ; Meiei^ei or dairy; Wald- 
Sckldsschen)^ at which bands occasionally play in the evening. 

The aecession of Bremen to the ZoUverein, or German Customs Union, 
in 1888 necessitated the creation of a Free Harbour (Freihafen: PL I; 
B, C, 2, 3) to the X.W. of the old town, on the right bank of the Weser, 
with large bonded warehouses, apparatus for loading and unloading ships, 
and other necessary features. — The Haus Seefalirt (PI. I, 14; D, 3), an 
asylum for aged seamen and their widows, founded in 15-45, was rebuilt 
on its present site in 1874-76. It incorporates the old doors , with the 
famous inscription, 'Xavigare necesse est, vivere non est necesse'. 

Several bridges connect the Altstadt on the right with the 
Neustadt on the left bank of the AVeser. The Church of St. Paul 
(PL 1. 18; E, 5), in the French baroque style, dates from 1679-82. — 
To the S.E.' is the Marine School (PI. I, 19: E, 6), founded in 
1822. ■ — On the former ramparts are several Barracks and the 
Technical Institute (PL I; D. 5). 

From Bre3jex to Tarmstedt. 17 M.. light railway in li/o hr. The 
line (station, PL I. F 3) runs through moorland scenery. — 10 M. Worp- 
hausen. A road leads hence to the X.W. to (3 M.) ^W'orpswede (Stadt 
London^, a pretty village at the foot of the Weyerberg ^167 ft.), which since 
1894 has harboured a well-known artists* colour. — 17 M. Tarmstedt. 

From Bremen to Geestemiinde and Bremerhaven. 

SSVs M. Railway to Geestemiinde in l-l^/^ hr. (fares 4 ^#80, 3^, IJt. 
95 pf . : express-fares 5 t.A^ 30. 3 ^€ 50, 2 Ji 20 pf.). In summer some 
trains go on to the Lloyd-Halle at Bremerhaven, where the steamers of 
the Xorth Cierman Lloyd berth. Comp. the Map. — Steamer, see p. 102. 

41 2 M. Oslehshausen (lo the right the prison of Bremen); 7 JVI. 
Burcf-Lesum 1 branch-line to G rohn-Vegesack, with large ship- 
building, yards., and Forge . Then several small stations. 

38^2 M. Geestemiinde comp. Plan, p. 101). — Hotels. 
Deutsches Halts ;P1. a). R. & B. 2-\-'i^rz^ I>- 1^:2-2 ^-.Lehr eke, in the market- 
place. R. & B. 3. D. 2 a: Hannover (PL b) ; Janssen. Georg-Str. 12. — 
Bailvsay Be!<taurant : Restaurant at the Fischerei-Hafen. D. from li/., «.4'. 
— Electric Tramways from the station through Bremerhaven to Lehe, 
a Prussian town of 35,000 inhab. (with branch to the Lloyd-Halle), and 
via Georg-I^tr. to the Fischerei - Hafen and AVulsdorf. — Cab to the 
Fischerei-Hafen I1/.2, to the Kaiser-Hafen at Bremerhaven 21/2 «^. 

Geestemiinde (25,000 inhab.), situated on the left bank of the 
Geeste. at its influx into the AVeser, was founded by the Hanoverian 

BREMERHAVEN. !'>- J^oute. lOO 

*^oveninieut in 1857. The Morgenstern Museum contains prehistoric 
and local collections and North Sea fauna (open free, Tliurs. 2-A^ 
Sun. 11-1). — A steamboat, starting near the Hot. Hannover, plies 
every Y2 ^i'- i^i 1^ "^i^- (10 pf.) to the Fischerei-Hafen^ constructerl 
in 1891-96, which carries on important deep-sea fisheries and a 
trade in fish. A branch-railway runs from Geestemiinde to (27 M.i 
Cnxhaven (p. 132), and another to (591/2 M.) Buchhoh (p. 133). — 
On the opposite bank of the Geeste lies — 

Bremerhaven (sec Plan, p. lOl). — Hotels. Beermann's, R. 2VV 
8, B. 1, D. 21/0-3 JC; Central Hotel; Herrmann, Homfeld, R. from 13/^, 
D. 11/2'^; Sanssoitci, R. from 21/2, I>- 13/4-21/2*^^. — Restaurants. Sans- 
.soiici (see above), Cafe Bismarck, EeicJishalle , all in the Smidt-Str.; 
LloydJialle, SeeltiHt, both at the Kaiscrhafen. 

Post & Telegraph Office, Schiffer-Str. A and at the Lloyd -Halle. 

Brit. Vice-consul, N. C. Haag. — U.S. Consular Agent, J. H. Sclina' 
bel. — Lloyd's Agents, Clausscn & Wieting. 

Bremerhaven^ the prosperous seaport of Bremen, was founded 
in 1827 by the advice of Burgomaster Smidt (p. 104; to whom a mon- 
ument was erected in 1888 in the market-place, PL 3) on a small 
piece of land purchased from Hanover and enlarged by later treaties 
with Hanover and Prussia. It is now a rapidly-increasing town 
with 25,000 inhab., commodious docks, and extensive shipping- 
traffic. At Blirgermeister- Smidt -Str. 26 is a Natural History 
Museum (open free on Wed., 12-1, and Sun., 11-1). l^\iQ Free 
Harbour J retained after Bremen joined the Zollverein, embraces 
the Kaiser-Hafen and the N. part of the Neue Hafen. A visit may 
be paid to one of the large transatlantic steamers of the Nord- 
deutsche Lloyd^ usually lying here (adm. to wharves, workshops, 
and vessel 50 pf.). The Lighthouse (adm. 25 pf.) commands a good 
survey of the environs. 

Steamer to Norderney, see p. 98 : to Wangerooge, see p. 100 : to Heligo- 
land, see p. 1.33. 

16. Prom Bremen to Emden and 
Norddeich (Norderney), 

Railway from Bremen to Emden. 76 M., in 21/0-33/4 hrs. (fares 9 ^fC 70, 
G .^ 10, 3 .^ 90 pf . ; express-fares 10 JC 70, 7 JC lo", 4 ^ 40 pf . ; to Nord- 
deich, 101 M., express-train (in summer only) in 4 hrs. (fares 15 t,^ 10, 
9 ^fC 80 pf., 6 ..fC; to Norderney 18 JC 80, 13 ^fl 70, 9 ^fC 60 pf.). 

Bremen J see p. 101. The train crosses the Weser (view to the 
left) and halts Rt {V/.2'M.) B7^emen-Neustadt. From {9 M.JDelmen- 
horst (20,200 inhab.) a branch -line runs to (57^/2 M.) Bramsche 
(p. 111). From (16 M.) Hude, with a picturesque ruined monastery 
(begun in 1236), a branch -line runs via Elsfleth and Brake (Brit, 
vice-consul, F. Ohlrogge; U. S. consular agent, W. Clemens; Lloyd's 
agent, J. Miiller) to (27 M.) Nordenham (Friesischer Hof) and 
(31 M.) Blexen, whence a steam-ferry plies to Geestemiinde (p. 108). 

B.4kdeker's X. Germany. 15th Edit. g 

110 BoHte 16. OLDENBUKCi. i'rom Bremen 

27 31. Oldenburg. — Hotels. Hotel de Bussie, very fair; Erb- 
grossherzog: "^Bahnhofs-Hotel. R. & B. 21/2-5, D. 11/2-2^; Uchtmann's 
Hotel : Fi8Che)''s Hotel. — Restaurants. Hoyer (wine), Baiimgarten-Str. : 
Graf Anton Gilnther : Kaiserhof : Union. HeiligeDgeist-Str. 5, withgardeu. 
D. 114^*; Batskellcr. belov.- the Rathaus (see below). — Post Office, in 
the Jordan. — Taximeter Cabs. 50 pf. per 1000 metres. 

Oldenhurg, with 28.600 inliab. (incl. suburbs), the capital of 
tiie grand -diicliy of that name, is a quiet town on the Hnrite^ sur- 
rounded bv handsome avenues and modern dwellinir-houses, which 
Lave superseded the old ramparts. It was founded about 1108. 

From the Railway Station the Kaiser-Str. leads S. to the Stan, 
with the Industrial Museum^ containing household gear, models 
of ships, etc. (apen on Tues., Frid., & Sat. 11-2, Wed. 1-4, and Sun. 
12-2; at X)ther times on application). — The Ritter-Str. leads hence 
to the market-place, with the Bafhavs , built in 1887, and *SY. 
Lambert's Church, dating from the 13th cent, but rebuilt in the 
18th cent, and restored in 1874-86. 

Xear the centre of the town is the grand-ducal Schloss, erected 
in the 17th cent, and altered in the 18th and 19th: it is now un- 
occupied. Opposite the palace i^.) are the Dur-al Stables (open 
to visitors'. To the \V. of the palace is a Statue of Duke Peter 
Frerlerick Lewis (d. 1829), by Gundelach. To the S. lies the pretty 
SchlosS' Garten, or Palace Garden, with the Elisabeth Anna 
Palais, occupied by the Grand Duke. 

Crossing the Hunte and pursuing a straight direction, we observe 
the Palais (visitors admitted), which contains a number of good 
modern pictures. — A little farther on, to the S., we reach the 
grand -ducal Xatir-\x History Museum, a Renaissance edifice 
(open on Wed. and Sat. 3-6. in winter 2-4, Sun. 12-2;. Adjacent 
is the Public Library, containing 123,000 vols, and 3ISS. (adm. 

To the right of the Palais, in the Elisabeth-Strasse. rises the 
Augusteum, a handsome edifice in the late -Renaissance style 
(1866 1, containing the valuable grand-ducal '■^■Picture Gallery of 
old masters 'open daily 10-1, Sun. 12-2; free). Catalogue 25 or 75 pf. 

Upper Floor. }iAi>- Hall. Section 1: To the left, 64. Giiido 
Bent. St. James the Less: 103. Murillo, Virgin as the Good Shepherdess. 

Section 2: *91. Moroni 'not Bordone) . Portrait, a well-preserved 
masterpiece: 95. Veronese. Venus and Cupid; *83. L. 'Lotto, Cavalier: 
93, 92. Moroni. Portraits: 20. Al. AUori, Bianca Cappello; *o2 Bibera (?), 
Entombment: 47. A. Solario, Salome. 

Section 3: 46. Amb. de Prcdis. Portrait; 8. Florentine School (not 
Masaccio), Portrait; 40. G. Ferrari, Madonna: 6. L. MazzoUno. Holy Fa- 
mily (after Diirer): 81. Seb. del Piombo. Pieta (ca. 1526: studio-piece?); 
*39.' Lombard School. John the Baptist (injured) : 77. Giov. Bellini, Ma- 
donna fstudio-work) : 80. A. Previtali, John the Baptist (1521); 41. Defen- 
dente de Ferrari . Yii-gm and St. Anna : 19. Pontormo , Fine lady: 4. 
Garofalo. St. Catharine"(1529) : 9. Lor. di Credit?), Madonna : 28. Periigino. 
St. Sebastian: i2. A. Bnrgognone. Madonna; 7. Fra Angelica. Madonna 
foarlv -n-'^rk . 

to Norddeich. WILHELMSHAVEN. ^6\ Route, m 

Section 4: *323. Feuerbach, Battle of Amazons (sketch in colours); 
326c. Makart, Venetian woman; 271. Schongauer, Madonna; *277. Lucas 
Cranach the Elder, Sermon on the Mount (ca. 1515); *108. Lucas van 
Leydeui?), Count Etzard I. of E. Fricsland. 

Section 5: 123. Rubens, Portrait; Rubens, *124. St. Francis, 125. 
Nymphs and Satyrs (these two ca. 1615). 

Section 6: 143. Snyders, Grame (1614); 141. C. de Vos, Portrait; 145. 
Jordaens , St. Jerome; 172. De Keijser (not Ravestcyn) , Portrait (early 
work; ca. 1620). Rembrandt, 193. The Apostle Philip (ca. 1628); 192. 
Artist's mother (so called; 1639); *194. Old man (1632); 195. Old man 
in a red vest (ca. 1632); *197. Before the storm (ca. 1645). 186. S. van 
Ruysdael, Landscape (1634) ; 175. 6r. Do2*, Portrait (early work ; ca. 1635) ; 
162. M. van Mierevelt, Portrait. 

Section 7 : 199, 200. F. Bol, Portraits (1658) ; 187. J. van Ruysdael, 
Landscape; 234. Molenaer {not Honthorst), Peasants' concert; 212. Heda, 
Breakfast ; 226. A. van Everdingen, Norwegian scene ; 263. C. de Heem, 
Breakfast; over the door, 121. Rubens, Prometheus (ca. 1612; freely 

Adjoining tlie residential quarter to tlie S.W. lies the Eversten- 
holzj a pretty wooded park. 

From Oldjunburg to Osnabruck, 70 M., railway in 3 hrs. From (39 M.) 
Quakenbriick (Rotes Haus) , an industrious little town on the Haase, 
possessing an old abbey-church, a line diverges to (102 M.) Oberhausen 
(p. 31), passing Hheine, Burgsteinfurt, and Coesfeld. — 57V2 M. Bramsche 
(p. 109). — 70 M. Osnabruck, see p. 70. 

From Oldenburg to Wilhelmshaven, 321/2 M., railway in I-IV2 hr. 
(from Bremen to Wilhelmshaven , 60 M., express train in 2 hrs.; fares 
8 c^ 60, 5 t/^ 60, 3 c/^ 60 pf.). — 8 M. Rastede, once a large Benedictine 
abbey, founded in 1121, was converted into a chateau in 1500, and is now 
a summer -residence of the Grand Duke of Oldenburg; fine park in the 
English style. — 19 M. Varel (Hotel Ebole; Victoria), a cheerful little 
town (5600inhab.) amid pretty scenery, with a 12th cent, church. — Beyond 
(24 M.) EUenser - Damm we*^cross the Ems -Jade Canal. — 28 M. Sande, 
the junction of the railway to Norden and Emden (p. 98). 

32V2M. AATilhelmshaven (Loheyde, PI. a, R. 3-5, D. 2-21/2-^ ; Hempel, 
PL b, both good; Bristol, PL f, R. 3-4, D. 2-3 Ji; Burg Hohenzollern, 
PL c, R. 3-5, D. 2-3 c^; Prinz Heinrich, PL d; Deutsches Haus, PL e; 
Meyer'' s Restaurant, Roon-Str. ; Rathauskeller ; Cafe Kaiserhof; Post 
Office, PL 10), with 26,000 inhab., is the second war-harbour of Germany, 
constructed by Prussia in 1857-69, on the N.\Y. side of the Jade-Busen, 
and strongly fortified. This basin, formed in the 13th and 16th cent, by 
an inundation, is upwards of 60 sq. M. in area, and is connected with the 
German Ocean by the Jade, a channel 3 M. wide. Wilhelmshaven is a 
pleasant-looking town, laid out on an ample scale. (See Plan, p. 112.) 

In front of the station is the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Platz, with a Mon- 
ument to Emperor William I. (1895 ; PL 2) and a Statue of Admiral 
Prince Adalbert of Prussia (d. 1873; PL 1). To the S. is the EUsabetk- 
Kirclie (PL 4). — The Markt-Str. leads hence to the Imperial Dockyard 
(Kaiserliche Werft), which is enclosed by a lofty wall, and is not shown 
to foreigners without special permission. The New Harbour (17 acres in 
area, and 25 ft. deep), for war-vessels in commission and for torpedo-boats 
(separate section), is connected by locks with the New Channel ('Neue 
Einfahrt') and the Ems and Jade Canal. On the N. it communicates with 
the Fitting-out Harbour ('Ausriistungs-Hafen'), to the E. of which are the 
Outer Harbour ('Yorhafen') and the 'Alte Einfahrt'. To the W. of the 
Fitting-out Harhour is the Bauhafen (building harbour; 400yds. by 240 
yds.). Connected with the latter are dry- docks and slips for the con- 
struction of vessels of all kinds. — To" the N.E. of the town, beyond 
two large barracks, is the Observatory, with a time-ball. A good pano- 
rama is obtained from the 'Wasserturm^ in the park (adm. 25 pf.)- 

112 Bo ate 16. 


37 M. Zicischenahn (Kurliaus. pens. 4-7 -^M : Meyer's Hotel, 
pens. 41 2'^ --^^J? pleasantly situated on a lake and visited as asnmmer- 
resort. — The line intersects the extensive Hoch-Moor (p. 97). 

611 ^ 31^ Leer, and thence to (76 M.) Emdea and (101 M.) 
Xorddelch (;Xorderney}, see pp. 97, 98. 

17. From Hanover to Hamburg. 

113 M. Railway. Express in SV^ hrs. (fares 16 ./^ 60, 10 JC m, Q JC 
80 pf.); ordinary trains in 4-5 hrs. (fares 14 ^ 60, 8 ^^ 80, JC SO pf.). 

Hanover, see p. 71. — lOVo ^^- Lehrte, the junction of the 
Berliu-Hanover-Cologne (jd. 39). Brunswick-Magdeburg 'p. 39;, and 
Hildesheim /j). 79) lines. 

281. M. Celle fHot. Hannover. R. 23/4-31/4, I>. 1^:^-2^^, 
omn. i/2"->^: Schloss-Hotel, R. & B. 3-4, D. li'g ^; Celler Hof; 

%W M>, 











5 e: a 


fh it 

(1 kl^ 

f^-^. I 





LONEBURG. i'- nonte, lj3 

Railway Hotels K. 2-2 \ 2? D. 1^2 ^^^j ^^'^11 spoken of), on the Alter , 
with 21,400 inhab., has an old Schloss, formerly the residence ol' 
the Dukes of Brunswick-Llineburg (1369-1705), which is partly late- 
Grothic and partly in the Renaissance style (1666-75). The altar-piece 
of the interesting chapel is by Martin de Yos of Antwerp (1569). Op- 
posite the Schloss on the E. is the Vafe'ddndische Masevm (open 
on Sun. & Wed., 11-1 & 3-5, on other days 10-3; 1-2 pers. 1 c.//, each 
pers. addit. 50 pf.), containing- interesting old furniture and an almost 
complete collection of the uniforms of the former Hanoverian army. 
The old Parish Church contains the ducal burial-vaults (no ad- 
mission), in which rest Sophia Dorothea (d. 1726), first wife of 
Greorge 1. of England, and theDanishqueenCarolineMatilda(d. 1775). 
To the S. of the Altstadt is the 'French Grarden', with a monument 
to Queen Caroline Matilda. Many of the old houses (16-1 7th cent.) 
are quaint. 

A branch-line runs from Celle to (53 M.) Langwedel (p. 40) via Wietze- 
Steinforde (with xjctroleum wells), Alilden, where the Princess Sophia Doro- 
tliea (sec above) was confined from 169-1 till her death, and Verden (p. 101). 

The train traverses the dreary Lilnehurger Heide. — 60 M. 
Uelzen (Rail. Restaurant; Stadt Hamburg)^ with 9300 inhab., 
is the junction for the Stendal and Bremen line (p. 40). 

80 M. Liineburg. — Hotels. '^Deidsches Hans (PI. a; D, 4), 
R. 3-7, B. 1, D. 21/2 c^; Wellenkamp (PI. b ; D, 4), R. 3-6, B. 3/^, D. 2^^^^, 
well spoken of : Zum Scliiessgrahen (PL c ; E, 3) ; Hoffming (PI. d ; D, 3, 4), 
R. IV2-2V2' D. lVo-2^^; Park (PL e; D, 3). — Restaurants. Ratswein- 
keUer , at the Rathaus (with mural paintings), D. 3 c/^ ; Von Losecke, 
Stintmarkt 3 (PL E, 2, 3); Bamw, drosse Backer-Str. 13 (PL D, 3); Rats- 
nchenke, in the market-place (PL D, 3) ; Schilttiug (PL 7 ; D, 3, 4), beer 
at the last three. — Post Office (PL C. 3). — Cabs per V^ hr., 1 or 2 pers. -U, 
3-4 pers. 1 ^^, each addit. Vi i^^"- 25 pf . ; trunk 20 pf . 

Lilnehurg, an old town with 26,700 inhab., on the navigable 
Ilmeuait, possessing salt-works which have long been of some im- 
portance, was a prominent member of the Hansa in the middle ages. 
A number of public, and many handsome private buildings, in the 
late-Grothic and Renaissance styles, are memorials of the town's 
prosperity in the 14-1 6th centuries. 

On quitting either of the Raihcag Statists (PI. E, F, 3), which 
lie to the E. of the town, we turn to the S. (left), cross the Ilnie- 
nau, and soon reach the church of *^SV. John (PL D, E, 3), a Grothic 
edifice with double aisles, dating from the middle of the 14th cent., 
with a lofty tower and handsome carved altar of the 15th cent, 
(sacristan, Johannis-Kirchhof 25). Opposite is the Kalandhaus 
(PL 4), with a crow-stepped gable of the 15th cent, (restored). A 
little farther to the W. is the *Sand (PL D, 3), a square with the 
Schiltting (see above) and many other quaint old houses. 

About 300 yds. to the N. of the Sand is the Market Place 
(PL D, 3), which is adorned with a fountain of 1530, and con- 
tains the Rathat s, a pile of various buildings dating from the 


lU P^^'^'tr n. HARBURO. 

13th down to the middle of the 18th cent, i baroque facade of 1704- 
40: custodian. Lichte, in the \V. wing). The so-called Laube, of 
the 15th cent, "restored in 1888 1, contains stained -glass windows, 
carved cabinets, and interesting mural and ceiling decorations ('about 
1525 . The Kor-Gemach. or election-room, dates from the 15th 
century. The former Muniment Boon contains various small an- 
tiquities. Opposite is the Old Chancery, now a museum. In one 
of the corridors is an elaborately wrought iron gate by H. Ruge 
1 1576). The FiirstensaaL a richlv decorated hall datino: from the 
15th cent., contains numerous ancient portraits and electroplate 
copies of the Llineburg silver service now in Berlin: the Batsstuhe, 
of 1566-83. contains admirable carved work by Albert von Soest. 
The "W. part of the Rathaus, called the Kcimmerei-Gehaude, con- 
tains a beautifully carved wooden door ( Grothic) and a fine panelled 
and carved room of the end of the 16th cent, (first floor). — The 
Town Library 'PI. 8: D. 3' possesses several MSS. with beautiful 
miniatm*es of the 15th cent, and some rare incunabula. 

A little to the X . of the market-place is the church of *^SY. Nicho- 
las 'PL D, 2 1, with a lofty nave and double aisles, dating from 1409 
and containing some good paintings and valuable old vestments'(15th 
*S: 17th cent.: sexton, An der Xicolaikirche li. 

To the S. are the Saline (PL C, 4) and the Salt Water Baths. 
— At Wandrahm 10, in the S.E. part of the town, is the Museum 
'PL E, 4 1, with natural history and other collections ladm. 50 pf.; 
8uu. 11.30-1. free . 

About ^ M. to the X. of the two railway stations is the Ben- 
edictine nunnery of Liine (PL F, 1 ; now a ladies' home), founded in 
1172. a brick buildincr datino^ from the end of the 14th cent., with 
many additions of the 18th. Fine cloisters, with rich collection of 
textile fabrics and embroideries. 

From Lu^eburg to Buchex. 18^ o M.. railway in ^4 hr. — 11 M. 
Lauenburg [Central Hotel. R. 2 JC). a small town with 5200 inhab., 
the rapital of the former duchy of Lauenburg. is situated at the mouth 
of the Elbe and Trave Canal.' — ISVU ^f- Bp'cheji (p. 156); thence to 
Lilbeck, see R. 24. 

Beyond Luneburg we pass (85^ ^ M. 1 Bardoiviek^ once the chief 
commercial town of X. Germany. It was destroyed by Henry the 
Lion in 1189, and fragments of the vast cathedral now alone remain, 
incorporated with a Gothic church (date about 1380). Pop. 2200. 

1051 2 ^^' Harburg ^Kaiserhof: B ah nhofs- Hotel, R. 2^ ^-SVs, 
D. 21/4 e^, both good: Deutsches Haas: Bail. Bestaurant: Brit, 
vice-consul, C. Benck: steamer from Hamburg, see p. 117 1, an in- 
creasing town with 56,000 inhab., and a busy seaport, is the junction 
for the Bremen and Cuxhaven lines (pp. 132, 133). 
.. Beyond Harburg the line crosses the Sutler -Elbe and the 
Border-Elbe, and reaches — . 

113 M. Hamburg (see next page;. 







Geograph-Anstalt voiiWaexier & Debes .Leipzig 


N o u n '"• 



18. Hamburg, Altona, and their Environs. 

I. Hamburg. 

The plan of the inner town (p. 121) is referred to in the Text as PI. I, 
the general plan of Hamburg- and Altona (p. 125) as PL II, and the rail- 
way and tramway map of Hamburg and its environs (see opposite) as PI. III. 

Railway Stations. Hamburg Central Station (PI. I, P 10 ; '^Restau- 
rant), for all trains (office for incoming baggage on the W. side , for 
outgoing baggage on the E.) ; Altona Terminal Station (PI. II ; I, K, 10), 
for all trains except those for Lilbeck. The subsidiary stations Dammtor 
(PI. II; N, 9), Sternschmize (PI. II; M, 8), and Holsten-Strasse (PI. II; 
K, L, 9) are connected with the two main stations by the Junction Railway 
('Yerbindungsbahn') between Blankcnese and Ohlsdorf (see p. 117). — 
Cabs, see p. 116. Numbers are given out as at Berlin (p. 1). The hotels 
do not send vehicles to meet the trains. — The Porters will, if desired, 
transport luggage to the hotel or steamer. 

Hotels. The most convenient situation for tourists is on or near 
the Binnen-Alster (PI. I; 0, 9, 10). Hotels of the first class are apt to 
be crowded on the eve of the departure of the New York steamers, and 
rooms should then be secured in advance. — *Hotel Esplanade (PL I, E; 
N, 9,) at the Dammtor, R. 6-12Vo, B. IV2, dej. 31/2, D- ^ ^; Atlantic 
Hotel (PL I, w4 ; P, 9), An der Alster 12, opened in 1909, R. 5-15, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. (4.30 to 7.30) 6 Ji; ^Hamburger Hof (PL I, h; 0, 10), Jungfern- 
stieg30, R. from 3, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. (5-8 p.m.) 4c^; *Palast (PL I, w; 
0, 9), Neuer Jungfernstieg 16, R. from 4, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. (4.30 to 8) 
4-51/2 «^; *ViER Jahreszeiten (PL I, c; 0, 9), Neuer Jungfernstieg 11, 
R. 4-10, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. ''5-8) 4-5 c^. — 0>^ tJie Binnen-Alster : *Kron- 
PRiNZ (PL I, f ; 0, 10), Jungfernstieg 16, R. from 4, B. VU, dej. 21/2, 
D. (5.30) 4-41/2 ^; *Streit's (PL I, b ; N, 10), Jungfernstieg 38 ; Jungfern- 
stieg Hotel (PL I, x ; 0, 10), Jungfernstieg 24, R. from 4, B. 1, D. 2-4 J^. 
— Xear the Binnen-Alster: Moser's (PL I, i; 0, 10), on the Kleine 
Alster, opposite the Rathaus, R. from 3, B. I1/4, D. (2-7) 2-4, wcU 
spoken of; Bartel's (PL I, v; N, 0, 10), Post-Str. 14, R. from 3, B. 1, 
D. 13/4^; AuE (PL I, n; N, 9), Dammtor-Str. 29, R. & B. 3-4.^. — Near 
the Central Railway Station: Savoy Hotel (PL I, q; P, 10), corner of 
Stein-Tor-Platz and' Kirchen-Allee, R. 21/2-6, B. 1, D. 31/.^ J^; Schaden- 
DORF (PL II, m; P, 10), (xrosse Allee 1, with cafe-restaurant; Hot. Graf 
Moltke (PL II, r; P, 10), Steindamm 1, R. 2iA,-5, B. 1, D. 11/2-21/2.^, well 
spoken of; St. Petersburg (PL I, d; P, 9), Holzdamm 57 ; Grossherzog 
von Mecklenburg (PL I, z ; P, 10), Schweinemarkt 1, with restaurant. — 
In the Altstadt : Borsen-Hotel (PL I, p ; N, 10), Monkedamm 7, R. 23/^-5, 
D. 2-3 JC; Metropole (PL I, e; 0, 10), Schauenburger-Str. 49, with 
good restaurant; Washington Hotel, Zeughaus-Markt 33 (PL I; M, 10); 
English Hotel, Admiralitats-Str. 2 (PL I: N, 10), with good restaurant, 
R. 3-5, B. 11/4, D. 3-4 JC. — Neai- the Sternschanze Station : Central Hotel 
(PL II, Z; M, 9), Reutzel-Str. 68, R. 2i/.,-6, T>. 2i/.. JC. — In St. Pauli : 
Wiezel's Hotel (PL II, o ; M, 10), on the harbour, R. from 3, D. 31/2 Ji, 
well spoken of; Hammonia Hotel (PL II, t; M, 10), Reeperbahn 2, with 
cafe; Holstentor (PL I, 1; N, 10), Holsten-Wall 1, R. 2i/2-5, D. 2 J^. 

H6tels Garnis. Bellevue , cor. of Jungfernstieg & Ganse-Markt 
(PL I; N, 0, 10), with cafe-restaurant, R. & B. from 41/2.^; Mahlmann, 
Kirchen-AUee 33 (PL I; P, 10), R. from 2i/.,, B. 1 c^; Lengenfeldt, 
Holzdamm 53 (PL I; P, 9), R. from 2, B. 3/4 JC. 

Pensions. British Private Hotel, Yorsetzen 35 (PL I; N, 11), R. 
from 2, D. (1 p.m.) 2, pens. 5-6 cS; Frdulein Winckel, Holzdamm 38 
(PL I; P, 9), 4-8 J^: Franlein Zinnius, Rotenbanm Chausee 27 (PL II; 
N, 8, 9), 7-10 .4: Frl. Bethge, Graumanns-Weg 1 (PL II: Q, 8, 9), 5-9 .S: 
Kandler, Neuer jungfernstieg 7 ; Mnrnm, Holzdamm 44 (PI. I ; P, 9), 5-8 ^C 

11(3 Bnute 1^. HAMBURCt. Practical 

Restaurants. ^P/'oi'Jtc. at tlic Atlantic Hotel (p. 115); "^Ehmkt, 
(rJiuse-Markt 50. D. (4-8 p.m.} 1-6 ^€ : "^Carlton. Xeucr Jimgfernstieg 3. 
dej. 21 2- D. i-^-^) 4-5V-2 -^- '^RatsireinkeUer, at the Rathaus (p. 120), d^j! 
2Vij. D- (2-7 p.m.) 4 .*; Kenn)inslcL Jungfernstieg 6: Zoological Garden 
(p. 123). dej. 2V.2. D- from 3i o ^*- Franz Meyer, Zollenbriicke 5: Deutsches Jungfernstieg 24. D. from 2 Jt^. — Oysters. "^ Schumann, 
Jungfernstieg 34; ^CoUn . Brodschrangen 1 (closed on Sun. in summer 
after 2p.m.); Portermeyer. Charleti Xeale, Zirkus-Weg. — Wine Rooms. 
Bahaus. Xess 4, frequented by stockbrokers : Sievers & Droge. opposite 
the Central Railway Station : Continental Bodega Company, at the cor. 
of the Plan and the Rathaus-Markt. — Beer. '^Siechen. Berg-Str. 29; 
'■^Borsen-Keller. in the Exchange. D. (2-7/ 3 ^^: ^Dammtor Pavilion, to 
the X. of the Esplanade Hotel, with garden. D. 3 JC: '^Lnnsmann, Plan 7 : 
^Klosterburg. opp. the Central Railway Station; Borsenhof, opp. the Ex- 
chans-e. D. (2-8) I'^joc^^: Milnchener Bilrgerbrdu. Stadthaus-Briicke 13, D. 
(12-6) 1-11,2 .4(; Oebhard, Kleiue Backer-Str. 18. At St. Pauli: St. Pauli 
Fdhrhaiis: above the steamboat-pier (PL II; M. 11). with view; Wiezel, 
see p. 115 ; Kidmhacher Bierhans. Otto, Reeperbahn 31 & 7. — Automatic 
RESTArRA>-Ts. Rathaus-Markt 8. Stein-Tor-Wall 6. Grosse Johannis-Str. 25. 
— Schuharth's Vegetarian Bestaurant. Aister Arcades. Passage 8 (1st floor). 

Caf^s. ^Alstcr Pavilion (PL I: 0, 10), Jungfernstieg, with view of 
Binnen-Alster : ^Dammtor Cafe, next door to Dammtor Pavilion (see 
above); Casino, cor. of the Xeuc Jungfernstieg and the Giinse-Markt ; 
"^Cafe de V Opera. Gause-Markt 53 : Belvedere. Alsterdamm 40: Kloster- 
bit.rg. see above; Alsterlu^t (PL I: 0. 9), with tine view of the Outer 
Aister Basin {also restaurant). — Confectioner. Hiibner. Xeuer Wall 22 : 
English Tea House. Aister Arcades (PL I ; 0. 10); WUm, Ferdinand-Str. 67. 
' Pleasure Resorts. ^City Zoological Garden (p. 123). daily; '^Hagen- 
beck's Zoological Garden [i^. 131); ^Uhlenhorst Ferry House (^. 129); 
^Alstoiust (see above i: Konzerthaus Hamburg (PL I; M, 10), with 
summer and winter gardens. Music at these. — Variety performances 
at the Hansa Theatre. Steindamm 11 (PL II: P. 9. 10) and manv others 
in St. Pauli. — Zirkus Busch 'PL II : M. 19), Zirkus-Weg. St. Pauli. 

Theatres. Stadt-Theater (PL I. X^ 9 ; p. 122), Dammtor-Str. Prices 
vary according to the character of the performance : best seats 3-7 JC. 
second boxes, in the centre. 2-41., .^4!^. at the sides, li/.,-3i/2 t^. third boxes 
1 .€ 15 to 2 .€ 30 pf. — Deutsches Schauspielhaus (PL I. P 10; p. 128), 
Kirchen-Allee 38, first tier 3^-4^4 80 pf., parquet (stalls) 41.2 Ji, par- 
terre (behind the stalls) 2^U-2^U,M. — Thalia Theatre (PL I, 0, 10; p. 122), 
chiefly for comedy; first boxes or parquet (stalls) 2-i JC, reserved parterre 
11/4-2172 JC. second boxes or amphitheatre 1-2 JC. These three theatres 
are closed from June to the end of August. — Xeues Operetten- 
Theater. Spielbuden-Platz. St. Pauli (PL II; L, M, 10), for spectacular 
pieces; box 4. dress circle 2. parquet li 2-2 c4(. — Karl Schultze Theatre 
(PL II: L. 10\ Reeperbahn 142. operettas, farces, and local pieces; prices 
from 2 .4( to 4.* 50 pf. — Drucker's Theatre (PL II ; L, M, 10), St. Pauli, 
local pieces. — Conxerts at the Xeue Mnsikhalle (see p. 123). 

Baths. In the Aister: AUterlust (see above; 40 pf.). In the Elbe: 
Steinwardcr (PL II ; M. 11). — Warm Baths. Gertig, (xrosse Bleichen 36; 
Vt'iencr-Bad. Gn.-sse Theater-Str. 42, with swimming-basin. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL I; X, 9), Stephaus-Platz. 

Taximeter Cabs. Fares: 1-2 pers. for 1200 metres 80 pf., each 
400 metres more or for every 4 min. spent in waiting 10 pf. : 3-4 pers. 
for 900 metres 80 pf.. each' 300 metres more 10 pf. If with luggage 
weighing more than 33 lbs., or if outside the radius, or if driving at 
night (11-7). for 600 metres 80 pf.. each 200 metres more 10 pf. A drive 
round the city '(-Rundfahrt'i of 2i 2 hrs. from the Jungfernstieg via the 
Uhlenhorst to tlie steamboat-piers at St. Pauli costs for 1 or 2 pers. 
about 5 c^. — There are also Motor Cabs. 

Electric Tram^ways. The main points of intersection are the 
Bathaus-Markt PL I. 10: Xos. 1, 2. 6. 7. 11, 17-19, 22, 28). the 

Notes. HAMBURa. i^- J^outc. \\1 

Rodinqs-MarU (Fl. I, X 10; Nos. 1-7, 9, 12-16, 21-26, 31), the Main 
Bmlivay Statio7i (PI. I. P 10; Nos. 1-9, l.S, 17-20, 22), and tlie St. PauH 
Landunga-Brucke (PI. I, M 11 ; Nos. 7, 14, 22, 26). — 1. From Wandsbek 
to Eppcudorf. — 2. From Wandsbck to Niendorf. — 8. From the Neuc 
rfevdc-Markt (PI. II : M, 9) to Wandsbek. — 4. From FJlbeck to Altona. — 
5. From Eilbeck to Hoheliift. — 6. From Eiinsbnttel to Ohlsdorf. — 
7. From Barnibeck to Othmarschcn. — 8. From Barmbeck to Ottensen 
(Altona). — 9. From Barmbeck to St. Pauli. — 10. From the Pferde- 
Markt (PI. I; 0. 10) to Langenfelde and SteUingen (Hagcnbeek's). — 
11. From the Rathaus-2Iarkt to Langenfelde. — 12. From Rotenburgsort 
to Winterhude. — 13. From Borgfelde to Langenfelde. — 14. From t])e 
Oster-Stras8e to the Suder-Strasse. — 15. From the Rodings-Markt to 
Eimsbiittel. — 16. From the Rodings-Markt to Hoheluft. — 17. From 
Hamm to Gross-Borstel. — 18. (Grosse Alster-Ring). From Winterhude, 
by the TJhlenhorst, the Rathaus-Markt, and the Stephans-Platz, back 
to Winterhude. — 19. (Kleiner Alster-Ring-). From the Do rotheen-Strasse 
by Uhlenhorst and the Rathaus-3Iarkt, and back to Dorotheen-Strasse. — 
20. From the Winterhuder Weg to Hoheluft. — 21. From the Watenvorks 
to Mitteliceg. — 22. From Bahrenfeld to Borstelmatms-Wcg. — 23. From 
Veddel to Mittelweg. — 24. From Eppendorf to Horn. — 25. From the Suder- 
Strasse to Altona. — 26. Circular Line (Innere Ringbalm) from the Georgs- 
Platz(V\. I: 0, 10), by the Stephan.s-Platz, St. Pauli Quai, and Steintor 
(Main Rail. Station), back to the starting-point (in 40 min.). — 27. From 
Schlump, by the Altona Station, to Ottensee. — 28. From the Rathaus- 
Markt to Winterhude and Ohlsdorf. — 29. Circular Line from Altona 
Station and back, by the Ratliaus-Markt and the Holsten-Strasse. — 30. 
From Altona to Eimsbilttel. — 31. From the Rddings-3Ia7'kt to Bahrenfeld. 
— 32. From Harburg Station to the Stader-Strasse. — 33. From Dornbusch 
(PI. I; Y, 10) to Veddel and Harburg (IV4 hr.). — 34. From Harburg to 
the Heimfelder-Strasse. — 35. From Ottensen via Altona to Borgfelde 
(yellow cars). — 36 From ^//o»a to Blankenese (6 M., in 3/4 hr. : 25 pf.). 

The Blankenese & Ohlsdorf Junction Kailway (' Verbhidungs- 
bahn') is an electric line uniting Blankenese with (16 M.) Ohlsdorf and 
calling at various points in Hamburg and Altona (comp. p. 115; fares 
from the Hamburg Central Station to Altona 20 & 15, to Ohlsdorf 45 & 30, 
to Blankenese 70 & 40 pf.). 

Steamboats. — 1. On the Alster. Small screw-steamers, leaving 
the Jungfernstieg (PI. II; 0, 10) every 5 min., touch at the Lomhards- 
Brilcke (PI. II; 0, 9), and then at Raben-Strasse, Krugkoppel-BrUcke, 
Frauental, and Eppendorf-Winterhude on the W. bank of the Aussen- 
Alster. and at Gurlitt-Strasse, Lohmuhlen-Strasse (PI. II ; P, 9), Schicanen- 
wik (PI. II, P 8; and up the Eilbek to the Essen -Str.), Walhalla 
(PL II; P, 8), Aug list- Str as se (PL II; P, 8), Fdhrhaus and Bellevue at 
Uhlenliorst, Sierich-Strasse, and Muhlenkamj) on the E. bank; fare 10 pf. 

2. On the P2lbe. From St. Pauli Quay (PL II; M, 11) hourly to 
Blankenese (p. 131; fare 40 pf.), via Altona Quay (PL II; K, L, 11), 
NeumiiJilen (p. 131), Teufelsbrilcke (p. 131), and Nienstedten (p. 131). — 
From St. Pauli Quay to BuxteJiude (p. 132), Cuxhaven (p. 132), Harburg 
(p. 114), Heligoland (p. 132), Stade (p. 132), etc. — The Ferries across 
the harbour (5 pf.) are marked on Plan II (p. 125). 

3. Circular Trips in the Port. a. From the Hafentor (PL II; M, 11), 
every 10 min. (white flag; 10 pf.), to Amerikahoft (PL II, 12; and 
bark), via Kehriciederspitze (PL N, 11), Kaiserhoft (PL N, 11), Strand- 
hoft (PL N, 11), Baakenhoft (PL 0, 11). Veddelhoft (PL P, 12), and 
Krahnho ft (PI. 0, 12). — b. Ease's Round Trip (fare 31/2-^, with V2-I -^ 
extra for a visit to an ocean-steamer; tickets at tlie hotels). This com- 
bined land and water excursion (4 hrs.) begins at 9 or 10 a.m. with a 
drive round the Alster Basin, starting at the Alster Pavilion, and this 
is followed by a steam-trip through the harbours. A halt of about V^ hr. 
is made about 1 p.m. at the St, Pauli Ferry House (p. 118), and the ex- 
cursion ends with a drive throuuii Altona and St. Pauli back to the Alster 

lis Boutf IS. HAMBURG-. Practical Notes. 

Pavilion. Similar trips arc made by A. Banciert, ScUg, and Hammonia. 
— c. Trips round the harbour only* start from the St. Pauli Ferry House 
(PI. I: M. 11) and proceed via the Baumwall (PI. X. 11) even,- hour from 
9 to 6: fare ^o-l ,.d, time IV o hr.. or with visit to an ocean-steamer 
1^., t4(. in 2-2\.2hrs. — The headquarters of the Hamburg-America Line 
(see p. 121' are at Alster-Damm 25 (PI. I: 0. 10). The express-steamers 
start at Cuxhaven (p. 1.32). 

Small Boats (JoUej. On the Alster. pair-oar boat. 2-4 pers. 10-60 pf. 
per hr.. six-oared boat. 1-6 per.s. 1 c^ 50 pf. for the first hr., 1 c4^ for 
each addit. hr. (incl. boatman). — On the Elbe, 1 pers.. 40 pf. per 1/2 hr., 
every ^ 4 lir. more 20 pf. (bargain desirable). 

Consuls. British. Sir W. Ward (Consul General). SehaartorO; vice- 
consuls. F.A. Oliver and W. R. K. Gandelt. — American. Bobt. P. Skinner 
(Consul General . Adolphs-Platz 6: vice-consul. E. H. L. Mummenhoff. 

Lloyd's Agent, C. Eivald. — Tourisffi' Information Bureau, Alster- 
damm 39 PI. I: 0. 10;; Thos. Cook d- Son, Alsterdamm 39; United 
States E.rprr^s Company. Ferdinand-Str. 68. 

English Church. (PI. II: M. 10). Zeughaus-Markt. near the Millern- 
Tor: chaplain. Rev. C. Gerant. 31. A.. Erlenkamp ; services at 11a.m. and 
6.30 p.m. : H. C. on alternate Sun. after matins. — Congregational Church, 
Johannisbollwerk. opposite the harbour; services at 11a.m. and 6p.m. 

Principal Collections, etc. 
-.4/-^ Exhibitions. — Louis Bock a- Son, Grosse Bleichen 34, week-days 9-8, 

Sun. & holidays 10-2 (winter 10-4): IJ^. — Commeter, cor. of Hcrmanu- 

Str. and Berff-Str.. week-davs 10-5! Sun. & holidays 11-3: IJC. — Hulbe. 

Linden-Str. 43. week-days 8-6. Sun. 10-2 (winter'lO-4) : 50 pf. — Kunst- 

rcrein. Xeue "Wall 14. ' v.-eek-days 9-5 (50 pf.). Sun. & holidays 10-2 

(25 pf.). — See also GaJerie Weber. Glitzka Gallery, and Kunsthalle. 
Botanic Garden (p. 123). daily in summer from 6a.m. till dusk; gratis. 
City Library (p. 122). Beading Room on week-days 10-4 & 7-9. 
Comniercieil Library (p. 121). week-days 10-4. 

G^alerie Weber (p. 127). on application daily, except Tues. & Sat., 10-1. 
Glitzka Gallery (p. 129;, on application the previous day to Adolf Glitzka, 

Alsterdamm 16 (preferably between 3 & 5 p.m.). 
Hagenbeck's Collection of Animals (p. 131), daily, 8 till dusk; 50 pf.. 

on AVed. 1 ^^. . ' 

Kunsthalle (p. 126), daily 10-5 (winter 10-4. Mon. 1-4); gi-atis. 
Meteorological Station (p. 124), Tues. & Frid., 11-2; ascent of the tower 

on week-days, 9-3. 
Museum. Altona Municipal (p. 130), daily, except Mon., 10-5 (winter 

10-4); gratis. 
Museum, Botanic (p. 123), daily 11-3. Sun. 10-4; gratis. 
Museum of Hamburg Antiquities (p. 122), daily 10-4; gratis. On Tues. 

visitors must apply to the custodian (ring). 
Museum of Industrial Art (p. 128), daily, except Mon., 10-5 (Xov.-Feb. 

10-4); gratis. 
MurSeunC Geological (p. 129). daily, except Mon., 11-4; gi-atis. 
Museum of Xaiural History (p. 128), daily, except Mon., 11-4, Sun. & 

holidavs 10-5 (winter 10-4); gratis. 
BathoHS (p. 120), week-days 11-6 (50 pf.). Sun. 11-3 (20 pf.). 
Zoological Garden ('p. 123), daily till dusk 1 ^€ , on Sun. in summer 

alternately 30 and 50 pf. 
Chief Attractions. 1st Day. Jungfernstieg (p. 120); drive on tlie 
electric circular line (Xo. 26. p. 117); trip round the town and harbours 
(see p. 117): Church of St.' Nicholas (p. 121): Botanical or Zoological 
Garden (p. 123). — 2nd Day. Museums (pp. 126-128): Exchange (p. 121); 
Rathaus (p. 120); steamer 'to Uhlenhorst Ferry House (p. 129); steamer 
to Blankenese (p. 131; between 6& 7 p.m.). — 3rd Day. Bismarck Mon- 
ument (p. 123); via St. Pauli (p. 124) to Altona (Museum, p. 130): Hagen- 
beck's Zoo (p. 131). — The excur^!iou to I.uneburgfp, 113) is very attractive. 

History. HAMBURG. l^- ^oiUc. 119 

Hamburg^ with 855,000 inhab., is the second city of Germany 
and the largest of the three free Hanseatic towns of the German 
Empire, while next to London, Liverpool, and New York, it is the 
most important commercial place in the world. It is advantageously 
situated on the broad lower Elbe, in which the tide rises twice daily 
so as to admit of the entrance of vessels of 28 ft. draught, and is 
also connected by railways with every part of Europe. The town 
consists of iho Altstadt nm\ Neustadt , the former suburb ot St. 
George (N.E.), and the suburb oi St. Pauli(W.), together with six- 
teen adjacent villages, now incorporated in the municipal limits. Be- 
sides the Elbe, there are two small rivers at Hamburg called the 
Alster and the Bille. The former, flowing from the N., forms a 
large basin outside the tow^n, and a smaller one within it, called the 
Aiissen- Alster (p. 129) and Biniien- Alster (p. 120) respectively, and 
then intersects the town in two main branches. The Bille comes 
from the E. Both are finally discharged through locks into the ca- 
nals (Flete) which flow through the lower part of the town. 

Nothing certain is known of the origin of Hamburg, but as early as 
811 (?) Cfiarlemaqne founded a castle here, to which was soon added a 
church, presided over ])y a bishop. The Counts of Holstein, within 
whose jurisdiction Hamburg was situated, became great benefactors of 
the town, and procured for it many privileges and immunities whicli 
■formed the foundation of its subsequent independence. Hamburg joined 
the Hanseatic League (p. 146), at an early period, and played a prominent 
part in its contest with the Danish kings in the 13th and 14th centuries. 
Tlie discovery of America and of tlie sea-route to India was not without 
effect in stimulating the trade of Hamburg. In 1529 the citizens adopted 
the reformed faith. Hamburg fortunately remained unaffected by the 
Thirty Years' War, chiefly owing to the powerful fortifications constructed 
at the beginning of that struggle, and now converted into promenades. 
Dissensions, however, which frequently arose between the Council and 
the citizens, proved very detrimental to the welfare of the city. Towards 
the middle of the 18th century her prosperity began to return, chiefly owing 
to the establishment of that direct communication with America, which 
to this day forms the mainspring of her commercial importance; but 
at the beginning of the 19th century the citizens were doomed to an 
overwhelming reverse. In 1810 Hamburg was annexed to the Frencli 
Empire, and the citizens having in 1813 attempted to rebel against the 
foreign yoke, Davout wreaked his vengeance on them with unexampled 
barbarity (p. 123). During those years of disaster, from 1806 to 1814, 
the direct loss sustained by the city is estimated at 300 million marks. 
After the Peace of Vienna Hamburg rapidly increased in extent, and 
notwithstanding the appalling fire which raged from 5th to 8th May, 1842, 
and destroyed nearly a quarter of the city, she has never ceased to prosper 
since she regained her independence. The most important event of her 
recent history has been her accession to the German Customs' Union (Zoll- 
verein) in 1888. — The government of Hamburg is in the hands of a 
Senate of 18 members (elected for life by the 'Burgerschaft' and itself) 
and the Burgerschaft or City Council, consisting of 160 members elected 
for six years. The Senate elects yearly two burgomasters from among 
its own members. 

Down to the beginning of the 19th century Hamburg enjoyed no in- 
considerable reputation in the literary world. In 1678 the 'first theatre 
in Germany for operas was founded here; in llCu Lesslng visited Ham- 
burg with a view to assist iu the foundation of a national theatre: and 

120 Isolde IS. HAMBUKG. Binncn-AUter. 

Klopstock resided in the Kiinig-Strasse (Xo. 52) here from 1774 to 1803. 
Soienee. also, has by no means been neglected: and the various scientific 
institutions, some of which are mentioned in the following pages {c. g. 
pp. 124. 128. 131}. are not unworthy of the city's size and wealth. 

The history of the city, together with the enterprising character 
of its inhabitants, and partly, likewise, the fire of 1842 (p. 119), suf- 
ficiently account for the almost entire disappearance of all relics of 
the past, and for its thoroughly modern aspect. In a few streets, how- 
ever, such as the Eeichen-Str. (PI. I; 0, lOi, the Katharinen-Str. 
(PL I; X, 0, 11), the Grimm (PI. I; 0, 10), and the Groninger-Strasse 
(PI. I; 0, 10), there are still many handsome residences of Ham- 
burg merchants of the 17th and 18th centuries. The only mediaeval 
churches are those of St. Catharine and St. James ('p. 122). 

a. Bixxen-Alstek. Axtstadt. Xeustadt. Promenades. St. Pauli. 

Electric Tramways to St. Pauli. Xos. 8, 9. 35 (p. 117). 

The *Biimen-Alster, usually called the AIster-Bassin iPl. I, 
10; comp. p. 119 . and its environs, are perhaps Hamburg's great- 
est attraction. This sheet of water, of an irregular quadrilateral 
form, upwards of 1 M. in circumference, is bounded on three sides 
by quays planted with trees and flanked with palatial hotels, bus- 
iness edifices, and private dwellings, named respectively the Jung- 
fernstieg, the Xeue Jungfernstieg. and the Alsterdamm, while the 
fourth side (X. > towards the Aussen-Alster is laid out in promenades 
connected by means of the Lombards -Brucke. The surface of the 
Avater is enlivened with small screw-steamers (p. 117), rowing-boats, 
and groups of swans. — The Juxc4ferxstieg (150 ft. widej is the 
scene of the busiest traffic and the centre of the fashionable life of 
Hamburg (Alster- Pavilion, see p. 116). — On the Alsterdamm 
(Xo. 25) is the Office of the Hamburg- America Line (PL I, 10; 
comp. p. 124). In the promenades to the X. rises a bronze Statue 
of Schiller (PL I: 0, 9i by Lippelt. erected in 1866. Kunsthalle, 
see p. 126. — The Lombards -Brlxke (PL I; 0, 9; commands an 
admirable view of the expansive Aussen-Alster to the X., with its 
banks studded with villas, and the Binnen- Alster to the S., with the 
towers of the city in the background. 

Altstadt (Liner T&wnj. From the Jungfernstieg we may pro- 
ceed via the Alster Arcades or the Keesendamm to the Rathaus- 
Marl't (PL I; 0, 10), one of the chief intersecting points of the 
electric tramways (p. 116). Here stands an ^Equestrian Statue of 
Emp. William /.. by Schilling, with allegorical groups and reliefs 
(1903'. — On the W. side of the square rises the — 

"Rathaus 'PL I: 0. 10', an imposing edifice in the German 
Kenaissance style, erected in 1886-97 from designs by nine different 
architects (adiii.. see p. 118;. The exterior is richly adorned with 
sculptures. On the facade are bronze statues of 20 German empe- 

9 7/ Qfl^JeJdfeU^ssv / .^, 


N Bot^ai\is( lxPi b-a iten 

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igoge to 


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fX;^''^- "^^ 


Rofhi'.ooTi 'MfmiAjenhr 

Krrlwmir. HAMBURG. i^- ^^o"^^- 121 

rors, and above it are bronze figures of the patron-saints of the live 
old city parishes and two monasteries. Above the windows of the 
main floor are figures representing crafts and industries and the 
arms of Hanseatic towns. The tower, 370 ft. high, is surmounted 
by the German eagle. Over the portal are four figures emblematical 
of tlie civic virtues. The court -facade is adorned with statues of 
SS. Paul and George (for the suburbs) and others of benefactors of the 
city. The beautiful 'Brautpforte' (bridal door) leads to the room for 
civil marriages. In the centre of the court is a fountain, by Kramer. 

Interior. The main entrance gives on the so-called Rathaiisdiele , 
the roof of which is supported by 16 massive sandstone columns. Stair- 
cases lead hence to the Basement Story, containing part of the municipal 
archives; to the Mezzanin Floor, with the financial department; to the 
Ratsweinkeller (sec below); and to the Main Floor. The principal rooms 
on the last include the Great Hall (135 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, and 50 ft. 
liigh ; with painting by H. Vogel) , the rooms of the Senate and City 
Council (see p. 119), the Kaisersaal (with paintings by A. Fitger), the 
Burgomaster'' s Room (with painting by H. Vogel), the Orphans^ Room 
(witii 15 landscapes), and the Phoenix Room (with a large painting by 

The vaults of the central building form the *Ratsweinkeller (p. 116; 
cntr. from the Grosse Johannis-Str.). Passing a stone figure of Bacchus 
(1770), we enter the Vestibule, gaily decorated with stained-glass figures 
of naval heroes of Hamburg. The galleries at the sides lead to the 
Remter (S.) and the Rosenkranz, both adorned with mural paintings by 
Fitger and Duyffcke. Beyond the vestibule is the Tavern proper, wutli 
paintings by Jordan; and eight steps descend hence to the ^ Grundstein- 
keUer\ with the foundation stone of the building. 

On the S. the Rathaus is adjoined by the *Exehange, or Borse 
(PI. I; 0, 10), the great focus of Hamburg's business-life, erected in 
1836-42 and since repeatedly enlarged. The S.E. wing has been 
torn down owing to the construction of the underground railway. 
The groups surmounting the central part are by Kiss. In the three 
main rooms on the groundfloor 7000 brokers, merchants, and ship- 
owners congregate daily between 1.30 and 2 p.m. (the public are 
admitted to the gallery ; the best time is between 1.30 and 1.45 p.m. ; 
on Sat. 1/2 hr. earlier). On the first floor is the Bdrsenhalley a read- 
ing-room well supplied with newspapers (member's introduction 
necessary). The Commercial Lihrary, belonging to the Exchange, 
contains about 110,000 vols, and is temporarily installed at Dom- 
8tr. 6 (adm., see p. 118). 

To the 8.E. of the Adolphs-Platz are the hnperial Bank and 
the premises of the 'Fafriotische GesellschafV (PL I; 0, 10), or 
Patriotic Club, founded by Reimarus and others in 1765. The build- 
ing, erected in a Gothic style in 1845-47 and rebuilt in 1898, con- 
tains the meeting -rooms of various artistic and learned societies. 

The Trwst-Briicl'e, on which are statues of Count Adolph III. 
of Schauenburg and of Ansgar, the first Bishop of Hamburg (both 
by Pfeiffer), leads direct to the *Church of St. Nicholas (PI. I, 
10; open daily in summer 2-3 p.m., gratis; at other times on 

122 Jiotdc 18. HAMBURG. St. Peter's Church. 

application to tiie sacristan. Bohnen-Str. 12, Isttioor: l-2pers. 50pl'.. 
3 or more 20 pf. each: tower, 1-8 pers. 2V/2 t^), erected after the 
fire of 1842 by Sir Gilbert Scott in the rich Grothic style of the 
13th century. The W. tower '1874i, 485 ft. in height, is one of 'the 
highest buildings in Europe. In the rich sculpture of the exterior 
and interior it was intended to perpetuate the memory of the chief 
propagators of Christianity. Fine stained-glass windows, organ, and 
chimes i Wed. & Sun. 1-1.30. Frid. 8.30-9 1. The beautiful intarsia- 
work of the sacristy-door, by Plarnheck ^863. deserves notice. 

St. Catharine's Church^Pl. I; 0, 11), to the S.E. of 8t.Xicho- 
las, on the opposite side of the broad canal, founded in the 13th cent., 
though the present edifice dates only from the 17th. was spared by 
the fire of 1842. It contains some old German paintings, Renaissance 
tombstones, a marble pulpit of 1633 (apply at the church-office. 
Katharinen-Kirchhof 30 >. — A little to the E. iZippelhaus 18; is the 
XohelshofWl. I: 0, 10), the seat of the dynamite factory estab- 
lished by Alfred Xobel (d. 1896 1. the founder of the'Xobel Prizes'. 

From the Exchange the Schauenburger-Str. (Xo. 59, with med- 
allions of Heine and his publisher Campe) leads to the E. to the 
Johanneum PI. I: 0. 10 •, a college founded in 1529 by Johann 
Ba<^enhagen, the Hamburg reformer 'monument in the court, by 
Peifi'er '. The present building dates from 1834. 

The S. wing contains the City Library, consisting of about 365,000 
vols, and 7000 MSS. (adm.. see p. 118). — On the groimdfloor (entr. from 
the Fish Market) is the JIuseum of Hamburg Antiquities (adm., see p. 118 : 
catalogue 40 pf.). where among other curiosities in preserved an old 
tombstone (1516.; representing an ass blowing the bagpipe , with the 
quaint incriptiou. -De Werlt heft sik ummekert. darumme so hebbe ick 
. arme esel pipen ghelert'. 

A little to the S. of the Johanneum, in the Fish Market, is the 
Kaiser-Karl-Bruiri(er( 1890). — To the X.W. of the Johanneum 
rises St. Peter's Church (Pi. I; 0, 10), burned down in 1842, 
and re-erected in the Gothic style of the 14th cent, (sacristan, Paul- 
Str. 61 The chief objects of interest are the rings on the main door 
(1342 1 : the canopy over the pulpit '14th cent, i: the granite columns 
from the old cathedral /taken down in 1806!.- and, to the left in the 
chancel, a fine relief, representing the Entombment, bv H. Schubert. 

Xear the Alster-Tor is the Thalia Theatre (PL I,* 10; p. 116 -. 
a Renaissance edifice erected in 1842. — To the E. of the Johan- 
neum is the Church of St. James <P1. I: 0, 10), mentioned as early 

as 1235 and enlarcredin 1498-1507. The W. tower was added in 1827. 

Xeustadt (Xeiv Townj. In the Dammtor-Str., to the AV. of 

the Binnen-Alster, is the Stadt-Theater (PI. I, X 9; p. 116), with 
2500 seats. — In the Ganse-Markt, to the 8., is a Statue ofLessi/u/ 
(PL I, X 10: comp. p. 119), by Schaper (I88li: on the pedestal are 
medallions of Ekhof, the actor, and Reimarus, the scholar. — Op- 
posite the Stadthaus (PL I, X 10: now occupied by the police- 

Zoological Garden. HAMBURG. 1^- Uoute. 123 

autliorities), in the Neue Wall, is a bronze statue of Burgomaster 
Petersen (cl. 1892), by Tilgner (1898), - - The large *Church of 
St. Michael (PL I; N, 10), erected in 1751-62, was burned down 
in 1906 and re-erected on the old lines. The boldly-constructed in- 
terior, which is destitute of pillars, can contain 3000 persons. The 
tower is 426 ft. in height. 

The W. side of the Neustadt is l)Ounded by the Wall-Anlagen, 
or public promenades laid out on the old fortifications and extend- 
ing from the Lombards-Briicke (p. 120) to the Harbour. A little to 
the N.W. of the Lombards-Briicke is an obelisk, erected in memory 
of J. G. Bilseh (d. 1800), the political economist. A little farther 
on, at the l)eginning of the Esplanade (PL I; N, 0, 9), rises a bronze 
Monument to the Hamburgers who fell in the war of 1870-71, 
designed by Schilling. — To the W., in the Stephans-Platz, is the 
handsome Post Office (PL I; N, 9), a large Renaissance building 
with a lofty tower. 

To the W. of the Dammtor lies the attractive Botanical 
Garden (PL II, N 9; adm., see p. 118), which is especially rich in 
water-plants. In the Jungius-Str., at the N.W. corner of the garden, 
is the Botanical Museum (adm., see p. 118). — A little farther on 
(reached from the Rathaus-Markt in 7 min. by electric tramways 
isTos. 1 & 2) is the *Zoological Garden (PL 11, N 9; plan 10 pf.; 
'guide' 30 pf. ; Restaurant)^ one of the most extensive and best or- 
ganized in G-ermany (adm., see p. 118). The most interesting points 
are the elephant-house, the dens of the beasts of prey (feeding-hour 
7 p.m.), the Eulenburg, the sea-lions' grotto (feeding-time 6.30 p.m.), 
the bears' den (feeding-time 5.30 p.m.), the aviary, and the aquarium 
(adm. 40, on Sun. 15 or 20 pf.). 

The old Cemeteries, now laid out as gardens, adjoin the Zoolog- 
ical Garden on the S.W. On the N. side, opposite the Petri-Kirch- 
hof, is a sarcophagus commemorating the fate of 1138 citizens of 
Hamburg, 'who, having been banished by Marshal Davoiit, together 
with many thousands of their fellow -citizens during the severe 
winter of 1813-14, fell victims to grief, starvation, and disease'. — 
Outside the Holsten-Tor are the Criminal Courts (PL I; N, 9), the 
Civil Courts (PL I; M, 9), the Supreme Trihunal (PL I; M, 9) of 
the Hanseatic towns, and the Neue Musikhalle (PL I; N, 9), com- 
pleted in 1908, in the lobby of which is a statue of Brahms by 
Klinger (visitors admitted 10-1; fee 30 pf., free on Tues.; tickets 
from the castellan, at the back). 

On the Miihlberg rises the striking ^Monument of Prince 
Bismarck (PL I; M, 10), by Lederer and Schaudt (1906), with 
an enormous figure of the Chancellor on a pedestal adorned w4th 
reliefs. — The Kei^sten Miles Bridge, spanning the Helgolander 
Allee in an arch of 120 ft., is embellished with statues of Kersten 
Miles (d. 1420) and three other naval heroes of Hamburg. -— The 

124 P^O'Atc IS. HAMBURCI. Harbovr. 

terrace iu I'rout of the Deutsche Seewarte !pl. I: M, 10) or Met- 
eorological Station of the German Admiralty (adm., see p. 118) com- 
mands one of the finest views near the harbour, embracing the Elbe, 
with its numerous islands, forest of masts, and gaily-coloured flags, 
and St. Pauli and Altona. On a height to the AV. rises the Sailors 
Home PL I: X. 10', for unemployed mariners. 

St. Pauli /restaurants, see p. 116t. the suburb contiguous to 
Hamburg on the AY., is principally frequented by sailors. In the 
Spielbuden-Platz (PI. II: L, M. 10' are numbers of music-halls. — 
Below the Sailors* Home is the landing-place (PL II: ]\f. 11 1 of the 
steamboats to Cuxhaven and the sea-bathing resorts of the German 
Ocean. Close by is the entrance to the tunnel (in construction) run- 
ning beneath the Elbe to the Steinwarder. — At the St. Pauli Fish 
Jfarl'et large fish-auctions take place daily between 6 and 8 a.m. 

b. The Harbour. 

Electric Tramways {p. 117): from the Rathaus-Markt PL II: 0. 10) 
to (1/4 hr.) St. Pauli Quaij (PL II ; M, 11). Xos, 7 & 22 (10 pf.): to tho 
(20 mill.) Watertrorks. Xo. 21 (starting from the Bor.sen-Briirke : 15 pf. 
and Xo. 12. 

The *Harbour, where numerous vessels from all quarters of 
the globe generally lie, presents a busy and picturesque scene. The 
(}uays stretch along both banks of the Xorder-Elbe from Altona to 
the Elbe bridge (p. 125j, a distance of 5 M., and accommodate up- 
wards of 450 sea-going vessels, about 1400 from the upper Elbe, 
and 5000 barges and smaller river-craft. The greater part of the 
port forms a Free Harbour or Bonded Warehouse District (Frei- 
hafen-Gehief ). M-hich comprises 1*250 acres of land and 1260 acres 
of water, and is bounded by floating palisades in the Elbe and by the 
Zoll-Kanal on the side of the city. The original cost of the har- 
bour-works executed in 1883-88 was 133 million marks, and they 
have since been greatly extended. The Freihafen-Gcbiet is ap- 
proached by the Brools-Brik-l'e (PL II, X 11 : adorned with statues 
of Germania and Hammoniai, the Kornhavs-BrUcle (PL I, 11: 
figures of Yasco da Gama, Columbus. Magellan, and Cooki, and sev- 
eral other bridofes. Xothiner liable to dutv should be taken inside 
the Free Harboui' limits. 

Statistics. In 1906 the port of Hamburg was entered by 15,77 7 vessels, 
iif an aggi-egate burden of 11.039.069 tons, including 10,5*45 steamers and 
5232 sailing-vessels. From the Upper Elbe arrived 22.606 river-craft of 
7,934.746 tons burden. The total value of the imports in 1906 amounted 
to 5340 million marks, that of the exports to 4795 millions. The chief 
articles of commerce are coffee, sugar, iron, grain, wool and woollen 
goods, cotton and cotton goods, machinery, saltpetre, and hides. The 
number of emigrants who embarked here in 1906 was ilS.lOO. of whom, 
however, only 8800 were Germans. At the beginning of 1908 the com- 
mercial fleet of Hamburg consisted of 676 steamboats and 485 sailing- 
vessels of 1.518.197 aggregate tonnage. In 1909 the Hamburg-America 
Lino alone possessed 164 or-ean-stoamfrs of 870..')(>0 touK register, besides 





Harbour. ilAMlUIRG. i^- RotUc, 125 

215 smaller vessels. The English trade with the uorth of Europe is 
chiefly carried on via Hamburg. 

The best view of the port is obtained in the course of one of the 
circular trips (see p. 117; comp. Plan II). To the left beyond the 
customs-boundary is the Sandtor-Hafen, 1100 yds. in length and 
100-140 yds. in width, bounded by the Sandtoi^ - Qiiai and the 
Kffdser- Quai, where Mediterranean, British, and Dutch steamers 
lie, and also some emigrant vessels. At the AV. end of the Kaiser- 
Quai is a huge Government Granary. To the S. is the Grasbkook- 
Hafen, with the Dalmann-Quai and the Huhenei'-Quai, for the 
Atlantic liners and French and Swedish steamers. By the Strand- 
Quaij the outer wharf, lie the Norwegian tourist-steamers. P'arther 
on are Passenger Waiting liooins (Hamburg-America Line). Beyond 
the Gas Works and the Magdeburger Hafen, both to the left, 
opens the Baakex-Hafen, between the Versmann- Quai and the 
Petersen- Quai^ used by Atlantic liners. At the Petersen-Quvai lie 
the steamers of the German Levant Line, the German E. Africa 
Line, and the Woermann Line (for W. Africa). — Our steamer now 
proceeds up the Elbe, passing the Kir chenpauer- Quai (for smaller 
ships), to the large railway-bridge (see below), which marks the E. 
end of the free port, and then descends by the S. bank. Passing the 
Moldat^-Hafex (river-craft) at the Veddelhoft, and a lofty Steam 
Crane with a lifting-power of 150 tons, we reach the Asia Quai 
(N.) and America Quai (S.), between which lies the Segelsohiff- 
Hafen (1320 yds. long and 150-300 yds. wide), in which lie the 
large vessels of the Laeisz and Union Lines. In the Haxsa-Hafen 
lie the steamers of the South American Line (starting from the 
0\Swald Quai) and of the Sloman Line. The India-Hafex is used 
])y the Cosmos and German-Australian Lines. Next follow the Petro- 
leum -Haf en and a series of Wet and X>r^/ Docks, Shipbuilding 
Yards (Blohm & Voss, PL II, L 11), etc. The enormous Kuh- 
warder-Hafen, Kaiser-AVilhelm-Hafex, and Ellerholz-Hafex 
complete the series. The last two of these are leased by the Ihun- 
hurg- America Line, the largest steamship company in the world 
(comp. p. 124), any of the steamers of which maybe visited between 
9 and 4 (tickets, 50 pf., obtained on the quay). Ferries ply to these 
docks every 10 niin. from the St. Pauli Fischmarkt fPl. 11; L, 11) 
and the Kehrwiederspitze (PL II; N, 11). On the 8. side of the 
Ellerholz Dock is the wharf of the Vulcan Shipbuilding Works 
(ocean steamers). 

An interesting walk may also be taken by the Brooks-Briicke 
(p. 124) to the Sandtor-Quai (see above) with its huge granaries. 

To the E. of the Baaken-Hafen is the Iro7i Raihmy Bridge (PL II, 
12), erected iu 1868-73 and widened in 1891. About 250 yds. farther 
u|) is an iron Bridge (completed in 1888) for carriages and foot-pass- 
cng-ers. Still farther to the E. are the Municipal Waterworks, at 
h'otenhttrgs'Ort (PI. II. R. 12: =>=Vie\v from the tower). The extensive 

126 ^'^?'^^ ^'^- HAMBURG. Knmthalle. 

filter-beds, begun in 1893. lie on the island of KcdMiofe in the Elbe, 
and the settling-basin, with which they are connected, on the Billicdrder 
Island, a little farther up. — In Wilhelnisburg are the huge Emigrant 
Shcd^s {V\.l\\ P, 18) of the Hamburg-America Line, with accommodation 
for I-.tOOO persons. 

c. Museums. St. George. Horx. 

Oil the Alsterliohe, to the E. of the Biiuien-Alstcr ('p. 120), rises 
the *Kuiisthalle {V\. I; 0, 9), erected in 1867-69 in the early- 
Italian Renaissance style and enlarged in 1886. Adni., see p. 118. 
Catalogue of the paintings 80 pf. The pictures bear names, but no 
numbers. Director. Dr. Lichficarl'. 

Besides a cabinet of engravings . the Kunsthalle contains about 
1000 paintings, including an interesting collection of works by Hamburg 
masters of the 14-18th centuries. The Schwabe Collection, presented by 
the Hamburg merchant G. C. Schwabe (d. 1897). who lived in London, 
consists mainly of pictures by modern British masters and is in this 
respect unique on the Continent. 

Ground Floor. To the right is a room for periodical exhibitions. — 
In the Cabinet of Exr^RAvixos the German and Italian engravers of the 
15-16th cent, are especially well represented. Xumerous drawings. Etchings 
and lithographs by modern masters. 

To the left of the entrance is a *Collectiox illustrating the 
History of Paixtixg ix Hamburg (14-18th cent.). Room II. On the left: 
Meisfer Bertram (flourished at Hamburg. 1367-1415), Life of tljc Virgin: 
M. Scheits. Last Supper, Wine. Woman, and Song; Van der Smissen, 
Portrait of himself; Fr. Franclce, Crucifixion (1563). 

Room I. ^Meister Bertram. Parts of an altar-piece from Havesto- 
hude (1. and r.}; Altar of the Virgin from Buxtehude (in the middle; 
ca. 1390); four scenes from the high-altar of St. Peter's at Hamburg (left 
wall : 1379) ; other parts of the same altar, a masterpiece of the German 
painting and sculpture of its period (right wall). 

Room III. To the right: 6Wjfif.s-. Baptism 'of Christ; F. W. Tamm, 
Still-life; Van der Smissen. The poet Hagedorn; Denncr, Groger, Tiscli- 
bein. Portraits; Scheits, Bird's nest. 

Room V. To the left: Meister Francke (early 15th cent.). Five scenes 
from the Passion; above. D. Kindt, Portrait of himself (1604); Kneller. 
Portrait. To the right: Meister Francke. *St. Thomas a Becket, *£ccc 
Homo (one of the most important German works of its date), ^Adoration 
of the Magi: above. Kindt. Portrait. — The Colonnaded Room, Room XIII, 
and Cabinets VI-XII contain the — 

Collection of Old Masters. — Cab. VI: S. van Euysdael, River- 
scene; Bembrandt. Portrait of Maurits Huyghens. — Cab. VII: Terburg. 
Portrait. — Cab. VIII: P. de Hoogh. Love's messenger; Brekelenkam, 
The letter. — Cab. IX: Jan .SYo^/z, Merry peasants. — Cab. X: J. van 
Euysdael. Landscape: B. van der Heist. 'Vortr-Ait: Jan Steen, Forbidden 
sweets. — Cab. XI: Kalf. Still-life. — Cab. XII: Weenix, Still-life. 

Room XIII. To the right: Goyen. Winter-scene; Frans Hals, Man 
with herring-barrel; A. van Everdingen. Landscape; Ph. de Champaigne, 
Madonna enthroned on clouds handing the crown and sceptre to Louis XIV. 

The Staircase is adorned with mural paintings bv Val. Euths and 
A. Fitger. 

The First Floor contains the Modern Paintings. The most notable 
works in the three large rooms XXVIII-XXX are the following (named 
here in alphabetical order on account of the numerous changes): A. Achen- 
bach. Mill in Westphalia. Landscape; 0. Achenbach, Italian convent- 
garden : G. von Bochmann. Peasants of Esthonia going home ; A. Bocklin, 
Fire-worshippers. Portrait of liimself, Penitent Magdalen. Young man .. 
Jos. von Brandt, Gay quarters (scene during the Polish war); A. Burger^ 

Galerie Weber. HAMBURGr. ^«. Rente. 127 

Judengasse at Frankfort; A. Calame, Handeck Waterfall; W. Camp- 
hausen, Battle of Naceby ; Fr. Defregger, Poachers in a chalet; W. Diez, 
Stragglers in the Thirty Years' War; A. Eheiie, The bailiffs; A. Feuer- 
bach, Judgement of Paris; K. 0. Friedrich, Winter-scenes; E. von Geb- 
hardt, Crucifixion, Convent scholars ; H. Gude, Landscape ; F. K. Haus- 
'}nann, Galileo; A. Helsted, Sitting of town - council ; H. Kauffmann, 
"Village politicians; M. KUngei', Landscapes; L. Knaus, Toper; W. von 
Kobell, Forest -path, On the ramparts; Ch?-. Kroner, Rutting ground; 
W. Leibl, Peasant women, Portrait; F. Le?ibach, Prince Bismarck, Emp. 
William I., Count Moltke; C. F. Lessing, Landscape; M. Lieberniann, 
Net-makers, Dutch village-scene; H. Malcart, Charles V. entering Ant- 
werp; G. Max, The nun. The child - murderess ; Meissonier, Cavalier 
resting; A. MeJbye, Ocean solitude; A. Menzel, Portrait, Burial of the 
victims of 1848 at Berlin (unfinished), Frederick the Great surprising the 
Austrian officers at Lissa (p. 374); P. 3Teye7'heim, Charcoal-burners in the 
mountains; F. Millet, Flowers; Morten Milller, Norwegian pine-forest; 
L. Munthe, Winter-landscape ; C. Oesterley, Norwegian landscape ; W. Rief- 
stahl, Cloisters at Brixen ; C. Rodeck, Port of Hamburg; K. Rottmann, 
Near Corinth; Segantini, Grief consoled by faith; H. Thoma, Sabbath- 
peace, Landscape; C. Trc/on, Cattle; F. von XJhde, The nursery; 
B. Vautier, Toasting the bride. Return of the Prodigal Son ; H. Vogel, 
Luther preaching at the Wartburg; A. von Werner, Moltke at Ver- 
sailles. — The five rooms on the S. (XIV-XVIII) are occupied by the — 

*ScHWABE Collection (Britisli masters ; p. 126). — Room XIY : G. D. 
Leslie, Nausicaa; H. W. B. Davis, Scottish cattle; W. Q. Orchardson, 
Voltaire and Sully; J. Phillip, In Seville; Lord Leighton, Italian girl; 
P. H. Calderon, Herr and Frau Schwabe ; J. Pettie, Edward VI. signing his 
first death -w^arrant; Rauch, Goethe (bronze statuette). — Room "XV: 
H. Woods, Doge's Palace; G. Todd, Spring; W. Milller, Landscape; 
G. Schadoiv, Bronzes. — Room XVI: H. W. B. Davis, Mares and foals; 
Coli7i Hunter, Shell - gatherers ; E. Gill, Rapids on the St. Lawrence; 
Gaul, Eagle (bronze). — Room XVII: B. Riviere, The last spoonful; 
6r. A. Storey, Old soldier; J. E. Millais, Child dancing; P. IL Calderon, 
With the stream ; J. 31. W. Tuimer, On the Loire ; W. Dyce, Jacob and 
Rachel. — Room XVIII: J. C. Hook, Seaweed-gatherer; H. T. Wells, The 
friends at Yewden (portraits of the painters Leslie, Storey, Hodgson, 
Yeames, Calderon, and Wells, and of G. C. Schwabe) ; R. P. Boningto7i, 
Sea-piece; Sir A. W. Callcott, River-scene; Luke Fildes, Italian flower- 
girl ; E. Ansdell, Interrupted meal. 

Rooms XIX & XXVII (the latter on the second floor) contain a col- 
lection of Pictures of Hamburg Scenes and Portraits of Hamburg 
Worthies. Many of these are of great interest. 

Rooms XX-XXVI (the last of which is on the second floor) contain 
works by Hamburg artists of the 19th century, including examples of 
Lehmann, Ruths, T. O. Runge, F. Heilbuth (Luca Signorelli, the painter, 
by the dead body of his son), E. Janssen, G. Spangenberg, Morgenstern, 
Vollmer, Wass7nann, Asher, 3Iilde, Oldach, Specter, and H. Steinfurth. 

To the N. of the Kunsthalle, at An der Alster 59, lies the 
*Galerie Weber (PI. Gr, 2), founded by Heir E. F. Wehei- 
(d. 1907) and containing 350 paintings by the old masters. Ad- 
mission, see p. 118. Catalogue by Woermann (1907), 4 ^L 

Q-round Floor. Room I. No. 18. In the Style of the blaster of 
Liesborn, St. Michael ; 36. Holbein the Elder, Presentation in the Temple ; 
39. M. Schaffner, Epitaph of Seb. Welling (1535); 11. Cranach the Elder, 
Mocking of Christ (1538); 46, 47. H. von Kidmbach, Portraits ; *48. H. Bal- 
dung Grien, Virgin and Child (1519); 50. Altdorfer , Salutation (1521); 
56. Schdufelein, Adoration of the Lamb ; *57. B. Beham, Portrait ; 62. Blaster 
of St. Severin, Triptych; *72 Ludger torn Ring the Younger, Portrait; 
74. Master of the Holy Blood Chapel, Triptych (ca. 1510) ; *84. blaster 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 9 

128 P^outc 18. HAMBURG. ^^o.t. Hist. Museum. 

of the Death of the Virgin, Crucifixion; *89. Jan van Scorel, Triptych. 
106. -Soltykoff Altar', a carved Flemish -vrork of ca. 1510. 

First Floor. Room II (Italian & Spanish works). Xo. 20. Man- 
tegnn. Holy Family with Mary Magdalen; 22. G. da Treviso the Elder, 
"Virgin and Child ; dl. Palmezzano, Madonna enthroned; 33. Cinia da Co- 
negliano. John the Baptist; 110. Sodonw.. Lucretia ; *111, Titian, Land- 
scape; *115. Palraa Vecchio. Annunciation; *128. Moretto, Pieta; 133. 
Tintoretto, Portrait; 148. Sassoferrato . Crucifixion; 152. C. Dolci. St. 
Catharine: 159, 160. Tiepolo. Bearing of the Cross, Crucifixion; 174. Ri- 
hera, Adoration of the Shepherds: *176. Velazquez. Infanta Margaretha ; 
178. Jloya. Portrait; Jlurillo. *179. Madonna of Mt. Carmel. 180. Return 
from Egypt. — Room III. (Flemish and Dutch works of the 17th cent.). 
Rubens. *188. Helena Fourment. *190. Caritas Romana: Jordaens, 196, 
Pieta, 200. Curlv Head : 202. Van Dijck. Duchess of Crov; 208-210. Teniers, 
Boors: *223. *224. Fraus Hals the Elder, Portraits; 2S6. G. Cuyp, Twins; 
*2.39. S. van Ruysdael. 243. A. van der Neer, Landscapes; 247. Houck- 
geest. Xieuwe Kerk at Delft; Rembrandt, 248. Presentation in the Temple, 
*249. P.ortrait of a boy, *250. "Woman taken in adultery; 259. A. van 
Ostade. Man at a window ; 262. B. van der Heist, Civic Guard ; 266. Bol, 
Portrait: 267. Terburg, Portrait; 270, 271. Wouverman. Cavaliers; 275. 
C. G. Decker, Cottage: 276. A. Cuyp, Girl milking; 284. C. du Jardin, 
Italian vegetable -dealer; *290. P. Potter, Grey horse; Jan Steen, 291. 
Parental joy, 292. Continence of Scipio; 294-296. J. van Ruysdael, Land- 
scapes: 308. Fabritius. Christ among the Doctors; 313. Maes, Portrait; 
314. IT. van de Velde. Calm: 317. A. van de Velde. Landscape; Hobbema, 
321. Water-mill. 322. Cottage. — Still-life pieces bv Beyeren (278). Claesz 
(238), Heda (228). Seghers (196), Weenix (326), and Kalf (282). 

Herr Weber's residence (adm. on special request) also contains a 
number of excellent works by modern German and French masters, as 
well as examples of Constable. Gainsborough, Hogarth, Hopxmer, Rae- 
burn, and Reynolds. 

To the S. of the Knnstlialle lies the Central JRaihvay Station 
fPl. I. P 10: p. 115 1, erected in 1906. The main hall has a span of 
240 ft. In the Kirchen-Allee rises the Deutsche Schauspielhaus 
(PL I, P 10: p. 116!, erected in 1900. 

In the Stein-Tor-Wall is the "Natural History Museum 
iPl. I: P. lOi, completed in 1891 from designs by Semper and 
Kratisch. Admission, see p. 118: guide 30 pf. Director, Professor 

Ground Floor. Mammalia, stuffed and skeletons. — Mezzanin. Se- 
lection of Birds. Insects and Sea Shells. — Maix Floor. The collec- 
tion of German mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects, with their natural 
surroundings faithfully imitated, and the representations of marine life, 
may be specially mentioned. S. side, to the left of the hall: Selection 
of the most interesting of the Lower Forms of Animal Life (reptiles, 
fish, worms, etc.;. W. side: Scientific Collection of Birds , with their 
eggs and nests. In the gallery: Insects found in the district of the 
Lower Elbe; native and foiei^ Land and Fresh Water Shells. N. side: 
Native Fauna: Animals of the Baltic Sea and German Ocean; Anato- 
mical Collection. E. side, to the right of the hall: Variations of Ani- 
mals, their Means of Attack and Defence, Protective Colouring, Develop- 
ment and Eggs. Useful and Harmful Lower Animals. — The Gallery 
Floor contains xhe Ethnograpj?iical Collection and the Collection of Pre- 
historic Antiquities (new building for these in progress; PL II, X 8). 

To the E.. in the St. (xeorge Quaetek, is the Gewerhe-Schule, 
with the interesting ^Museum of Industrial Art (PI. I, P 10; 
adm., see p. 118 1. fonnded in 1877 Director, Prof. Briackmann. 


Stadtteile : 

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Aussen-Alster. HAMBURGr. ^S- Route. 129 

The objects are provided with labels, and illustrated catalogues are 
also furnished for general use. 

Among- the most notable contents arc the Japanese bronzes, sword 
ornaments of the 15-19th cent, (mainly, sword-guards, Jap. Tsuba) , lac- 
quer-work, and carvings (Nctsuka) ; the bronze door-handles; the Ham- 
burg tile-stoves (18th cent.); weapons; table cutlery; the ceramic collec- 
tion. French ivory-carvings (13-14th cent.); German wood-carvings (16th 
cent.); furniture; and lace. 

At Norder-Str. 66 is the Hamburg Mint (PL II; P, 10), con- 
taining a collection of medals (open free on week-days, 9-4). — The 
Hansa Fountain^ in the Hansa-Platz (PL II; P, 10), 56 ft. in height, 
was erected in 1878 from a design by E. Peiffer. — The chapel of 
the Old General Hospital (PL II; P, Q, 9) contains an altar-piece 
by Overbeck (1834). — A little to the S.E. is the Mineralogical 
& Geological Museum (PL II, Q 9; adm., see p. 118). 

To the E. of St. George lie the suburbs oi Borgfelde and Hamm. 

— Still farther to the E. is Horn (tramway No. 24, p. 117), with 
the Rauhe Havs (PL III; T, U, 10), an interesting home mission- 
ary establishment founded in 1833. The Glitza Collection (adm., 
see p. 118), Horner Landstrasse 47 (PL III; U, 10), contains 120 
paintings by early German and Dutch painters, including examples 
of Cranach the Elder, Deuner, Flinck, De Heem, the Master of 
the Assumption, Molenaer, Terhurg (*Fish-seller), Weenix, and 

d. The Aussen-Alster. Northern Quarters. Ohlsdorf Cemetery. 

Comp. Plan III (p. 115) and the Map at p. 131. 
Electric Tramways (p. 117) from the Rathaus-Markt (PL II; 0, 10) 
to Uhlcnhorst (Nos. 18 or 19, in 20 min. ; 15 pf .) ; to Eppendorf Hos- 
pital (No. 1) ; and to Ohlsdorf Cemeterij (No. 6 or No. 28, in 50 min. ; 20 pf.). 

— Railicay to Ohlsdorf, see p. 117. — Steamers on the Alster, see p. 117. 

The annual Flower Corso on the Binnen-Alster and Aussen-Alster (in 
autumn) is a very pretty sight. 

The banks of the Aussen-Alster, 430 acres in area, are 
sprinkled with country-houses, gardens, and parkr. One of the 
favourite points is the Vhlenhorst^^ Hot el- Best aiir ant Fdhrhaus, 
R. 4Y2-6, B. 1, B. 4^25 board 6 c^; concerts daily in summer), which 
may be reached either by tramway (p. 117) or by steamer from the 
Jungfernstieg (Y4 hr. to the Fahrhaus). The latter route is re- 
commended ; passengers should leave the steamer at August-Strasse 
(PL II ; P, 8), walk to the (1/2 M.) Fahrhaus, and cross thence by 
steamer to the Krugkoppel-Briicke. They may then proceed on foot 
by the Harvestehuder Ufer to the Raben-Str., and re-embark for the 
Jungfernstieg. — Farther on are Harvestehude, with the Johannis- 
Kirche (PL II; 0, 8); and Eppendorf (RestavirRni Fahrhaus), with 
the Greneral Hospital (PL III; M, N, 5), an admirable institution 
(comp. above). To the N. lies Ohlsdorf (ca. 51/2 M. from the 


130 Boute 18. ALTONA. 

Rathaus-Markt), with a fine Cemetery (PL III, R, S, 1 ; main entr. 

on the ^. sidei and a Crematorium (adin. 50 pf.). 

"Wandsbek ^railway, p. 145: tramways. Nos. 1-3. p. 117; Altes Post- 
haus. very fair : Wandsheker Hof). a town in Holstein, with 31,600 inhab., 
about 3 M. to the X.E.. was once the residence of Matthias Claudius (d. 1815), 
the 'Wandsbeker Bote', who is buried in the old churchyard here. A simple 
monument has been erected to him in the Wandsbek grove. 

II. Altona. 

Hagenbeck's Zoo. Blankenese. 

Railway and Stea3iers from Hamburg, see pp. 115 and 117. Tram- 
ways Xos. 35. 4. & 29 (p. 117). 

Hotels. ^Kaiserhof {V\. II. e: I. K, 10). opposite the station. R. 
from 3. D. from li/., .^ : Bathaus-Hdtel (PI. II. b ; K, 10), Konig-Str. 291; 
Some CPl. 11, c; K, 10), Bahnhof-Str. 4. 

RESTArRA:!fTS. GeseUschaftshaus. Papst, Konig-Str. 154 and 135. 

Theatres. Stadt-Hieater (PL II; K, 10), Konig-Str. 164 (actors of 
Hambursr Stadt-Theater: prices lower). 

Post asd Telegraph Office (PI. II ; K, 10), Post-Str. 9. 

Altona, situated on the steep X. bank of the Elbe, immediately 
adjoining St. Pauli (p. 124), is a rapidly-increasing commercial and 
manufacturing town with 168,000 inhab. (includ. Ottensen), and 
the headquarters of the 9th Army Corps. It came into the hands 
of Prussia in 1866 and is the largest town (after Kieli in the pro- 
vince of Schleswig-Holstein. The Harbour affords accommodation 
for large ocean-going vessels; the seafaring class is seen at its 
busiest in the G^rosse Elh-Str. (PI. II: K, 11), and in the Fisch- 
Markt iPl. II: L, 11). The fish-auctions resemble those of St. Pauli. 

Entering Altona from the AV. end of the Spielbuden-Platz in 
St. Pauli p. 124), we traverse the Reichen-Str. and the Konig-Str. 
(PL II: K. L. lOi, and in 25 min. reach the Real- Gymnasium, in 
front of which is a monument to the Austrians who fell at the naval 
battle of Heligoland in 1864. Beyond the Theatre and a Statue 
of Bismarck, by Briitt (1898i, we come to the JRathaus (PL II; 
I, 10; 1896-98 1, in front of which, on the S., is a Monument of 
Victory (PL 7) to commemorate the part taken by the 9th army 
corps in the war of 1870-71, by Luthmer, while on the N. is a 
bronze Equestrian Statue of Emp. William I. (PL 4j, by Eber- 
lein (1898;. A little to the E., in the Palmaille (PL 11; K. 10, llj, 
the most fashionable street in Altona, is a bronze Statue of Count 
Conrad Bliicher (PL 3), who was Danish governor of Altona in 
1808-45. by Schiller <:1852). From the Elbberg /PL II; I, 11), to 
the^. of the Rathaus, we obtain a view down the Elbe; the Town 
Park, 1 2 ^^- farther on (via the Flottbeker Chaussee) commands a 
still more extensive prospect. 

In the Kaiser-Str., leading to the Railway Station (PL II; 
K, 10 . stands the *Muiiicipal Museum PL II; I, lOi, built in 
1900 (adm., see p. 118;. Director, Dr. Lehmann, 

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ALTON A. 1^' Route. 131 

In the Basement is an interesting Fisheries Exhibition (guide 50 pf.). 
— On the Lower Floor are Zoological Specimens from the province 
of Schleswig-Holstein, and on the Upper Floor, Historical Collections 
from Schleswig-Holstein. 

Farther on in the Kaiser-Str. is the StuMmann Fountain (PL 8 ; 
I, 10), with a bronze group by Tiirpe (1900). 

The Roman Catholic Church of St. Joseph (PL II; L, 10), in 
the Renaissance style (1718), contains an altar-piece ascribed to 
Murillo. — The large Lutheran Hauptkirche (PL II; L, 10), con- 
secrated in 1743 (facade restored in 1897), is conspicuous by its 
imposing copper-covered dome (1694). — The tasteful Gothic tJo- 
hannis-Kirche or Norder-Kirche (PI. II; L, 9), in the Allee, was 
built in 1868-73 by Otzen, who was also the architect of thePefW- 
Kirche (PL II; K, 10) and the Friedens-Kirche (PL II; L, 9). 

At the W. end of Altona, near the station, begins Ottensen, 
a town incorporated with Altona in 1889, in the churchyard (PL II; 
I, 10) of which Klopstock (1724-1803) and his two wives are in- 
terred. Their grave is shaded by an old lime, a few paces from 
the entrance. 

To the N. of Altona lies JStellingen, a village reached from 
Hamburg by tramway (p. 117; ^/^ hr. ; 15 pf.), by railway (Y4hr.; 
fares 25, 15 pf.), or by taximeter cab (1-2 pers. ca. 4 ^/l). It is often 
visited on account of *.Karl Hagenbeck's Zoological Park 
(PI. Ill; I, K, 4, 5), which contains a fine collection of animals, 
mostly exhibited in large enclosures, under conditions as similar 
as possible to those of nature (adm., see p. 118; illust. guide 50 pf.). 
The lions are fed at 4 p.m. (except on Mon.), the other animals at 
11,4, and 6. In the S.W. corner is a restaurant (dej. 2^/2^ D. 4Y2 ^^)- 
To the E., beyond the Kaiser-Friedrich-Str. (bridge), is an Ostrich 
Farm (20 pf.). 

From Altona to Blankenese, 6 M., a charming excursion. — Steamers, 
see p. 117. — Electric Railway and Electric Tramway No. 36 (no view of 
the Elbe), see p. 117. — The walk from Altona to Blankenese takes 21/2 hrs. 

The road passes numerous villas and gardens. At the end of the 
pleasant village of Neumtihlen rises the castellated Villa Do7iner. At 
Klein -Flottbek is the ^Park Hotel (R. 3-10, D. 4, pens, from 8 JC), 
with its pleasant grounds. Near Teufelsbrticke (steamb. station) is 
the Pai-lc of the Jenisch Family (open). Farther on is Nienstedten 
{^JacoVs Restaurant^ with shady terrace on the river, D. 51/2 ^)- The 
finest view of the Elbe is obtained from the *Sullberg (250 ft. ; tavern 
at the top, D. 3 JC), one of the hills among which lies the fishing-village 
of Blankenese (Fahi-haus ; Elhfernsicht ; Elhlust ; Lloyd's agent, H. W. 
Schade) — ~ ■ • ' " - - ... 

Prom Hamburg to Cuxhaven and Heligoland. 

Railway to (73 M.) Cuxhaven in 2-3 hrs. (fares 9 ^^ 20, b JC 80, 
3 V* 70 pf . ; express 10 e^ 20, 6 J^ 80, 4 ^^^ 20 pf .). — Steamer from Hamburg 
(St. Pauli Quay; see p. 124) to (106 M.) Heligoland once daily in summer 
in 7 hrs. (fare 9 JC 40, there and back 18 JC 80, on Sun. 10 JC 20 pf .), 
touching at Cuxhaven (4-4V2 hrs. ; fare 3 t/^ 70 pf .) and going on to Hornum 

132 ^oute 18. CUXHAVEK 

iu Svlt (p. 142: fare from Cuxhaven to Heligoland, 1 JC 40 pf., return- 
ticket 11 JC 20. on Sun. 7 ^ 20 pf.). 

The Railway to CrxHAVEx, starting at the Hanover Station, 
runs ^ia Harhurg ip. 114). Buxtehude (21 M.) and (33 M.) Stade, 
a town with 10.500 inhabitants. Branch -line to (44 M.) Geeste- 
niiinde (p. 108). — The Steamboat Jourxey affords a good view of 
Hamburg and the busy traffic on the lower part of the Elbe. 

Cuxhaven. — Hotels. Continental (PI. a), pens. 7 JC: Bellevue 
(PI. b); Kronprinz (PI. c), R. 2i/.,-6, D. 2-3 JC, these three on the dyke, 
facing the sea; Belvedere (PL q)\ Kur-Hotel (PL f), with a beautiful 
garden, R. 2-3 ^M. these two in the town. — Restaurant Seepavillon 
(PL 5),' well spoken of. — Baths 50-60 pf. — Visitors' Tax 3-6 JC (after 
first 5 davs). — Brit, vice-consul. G. Sta?-lce : V. S. consular agent, 
J. G. F. Staj'ke. — Lloyd's agent, ^. H. Kullherg. 

Cuxhaven (12,000 inhab.), a busy and increasing place belong- 
ing to Hamburg, united with Ritzehilttel since 1872, is much visited 
as a seaside-resort. The castellated chateau of the 14th cent., which 
is visible from the Elbe, is one of the oldest secular structures in 
N. Germany. The large harbour was constructed in 1891-95. 

About 3 M. to the X.W. of Cuxhaven lies Diihnen (Kurhaus, R. from 2, 
D. 3 t^), a seaside-resort, with two children's hospitals. 

see p. 109. 

Heligoland. — Passengers are landed in tugs or row-boats (80 pf., 
generally included in the price of the tickets). Porter from the landing- 
place to' the fnterland 30 pf., to the Oberland 40 pf. (for luggage not 
exceeding 44 lbs.). 

Hotels. In the Unterland : Konversations-Haus , R. from 4, B. IV'^, 
D. 31/.2. pens. 12 a: Queen Victoria (PL a). R. 21/2- SV'o^ B. 1, D. 2i,,- 
31/0 JC; Princess Alexandra (PL b), these three near the quav : Mdrk- 
ischer Hof (PL c), at the foot of the steps. ^. 2 JC. — In the Oberland: 
Janssen (PL d), close to the church. R. 2-3. B. 1 JC. — Lodgings abundant. 

Restauraxts at the hotels. Also: Eiechers (D. S'^l.^-o JC). Bufe, 
Berliner Hof. Kaisergarten (D. 1 1.2-2 JC). all in the Unterland; Ham- 
burger Hof, in the Oberland: TJiaten. Bredau. on the Sandinsel. 

Sea Bath (comp. p. 133) 60, towel 10, sheet 20 pf . : fee of 3 c^ to 
the attendant on departure. Warm salt-water bath at the Badehaus in 
the Unterland 1 JC 20 , swimming-bath 80 pf. — Visitors' Tax (after 
2 days) 3 ^S per week. — Theatrical Performances, Balls, and Concerts 
during the season (June- Sept.). — Lloyd's Agent. F. K. Oelrichs. 

Heligoland, i. e. 'Holy Land*, which formerly belonged to Hol- 
stein. was taken bv the EnHish in 1807. thouorh not officiallv re- 
cognized as English till 1810, but was ceded to Grermany in 1890. 
On three sides the island, which consists of hard red clay and 
white sandstone and is about ^ 5 sq. M. only in area, rises nearly 
perpendicularly from the sea to a height of 180 ft., forming a long 
and narrow triangle called the Oberland. On the S.E. side only a 
low, flat bank of sand rises from the water, called the Unterland. 
The island (^1 M. fi-om the mainland) contains 2300 inhab. (of 
Frisian stock) and is visited annually by 30,000 sea-bathers. It is 
now strongly fortified. 

HELIGOLAND. is. Route. 133 

The visitor disembarks on the Uxterland, on which are situated 
a bath-house, a basin used by bathers when prevented by stormy 
weather from crossing to the 'Diine' (see below), the Konversations- 
Haus, etc. In the Kaiser-Str. is the North Sea Museum (PI. 5; open 
in summer on week-days, except Sat., 10-12 & 2-6, adm. 30 pf.), 
with interesting collections of birds, beasts, and plants. On the N. 
beach is a Biological Station, with an aquarium (open daily, 9-5 ; 
•adm. 50, on Sun. 30 pf.). A bust of the poet Hoffmann von Fallers- 
lehen (PI. 3) was erected here in 1892. 

From the Unterland a flight of 182 wooden steps (PI. 6) and a lift 
(PL 2; 10 pf.) ascend to the Oberland, the principal street of which, 
called the Falm, skirts the S.E. margin of the cliff and commands 
a fine view of the Unterland, the downs, and the sea. The best 
views of the cliffs are obtained at the Satkurn (South Horn; with 
'wireless' station) and Nathurn (North Horn), which last is a 
favourite point towards sunset (restaurant). Near the N. end of the 
island is the Lummenfelsen ('Lummen', guillemots), its highest 
point, where thousands of gulls nest in May and June. 

Opposite the Unterland, and separated from it by a strait ^j^ M. 
in width and 12-16 ft. deep, is the Dilne or Sandinsel (ferry there 
and back 80 pf.), on the W. (left) side of which is the ladies', and 
on the E. (right) side the 'mixed' and the gentlemen's bathing-place. 

Boat for the interesting excursion round the island, 1-3 pers., 2 hrs., 
3 c^, each addit. 1/2 hr. IV2 ^; larger boat, 1-6 pers., twice these fares. — 
An ^Illumination of the rocks and grottoes takes place on Aug. 10th, on 
which occasion the whole of the visitors hire boats in order to witness 
it to advantage (3 JC each pers.). 

Steamer from Heligoland to Norderney (p. 98) 6 JC 20, return 9 JC 
20 pf.; to Westerland (p. 113) 7 ^ 60 , 11 ^ 20 pf . ; to Bremerhaven 
7 JC 70, 11 ^ 20 pf. 

19. Prom Hamburg to Cologne via Bremen 
and Miinster. 

278 M. Express Train in 71/2-8 hrs. (fares 38 JC 80, 24 JC 60, 15 J6 
70 pf.). The daily 'Lloyd Express' (running through to Genoa) takes 
7 hrs. (fare 47 JC 30 pf.). — From Hamburg to Bremen railway in 2-31/2 hrs. 
(fares 9 c^ 20, 5 ^ 80, 3 c^ 70 pf . ; express fares 10 ^ 20, 6 ^^ 80, 4 .^ 20 pf .). 

From Hamburg to (T^/g ^0 Harburg, see p. 114. From (19 M.) 
Buchholz branch -lines diverge for Liineburg and Wittenberge 
(p. 157), and for Greestemiinde (p. 109). — 45 M. Botenburg is 
situated at the confluence of the Bodau and Wilmme. — 64 M. 
Oberneidand, with a fine park known as 'Hopken's Kuh'. 

711/2^- Bremen (Bail. Bestaurant), see p. 101. — Beyond 
(75 M.) Hemelingen we cross the Weser. At (92 M.) Bassum is 
an old abbey-church of the 14th cent., restored in 1866. 114 M. 
Diepholz (pop. 3100), on the Hunte, has an old chateau. To the 
right appears the Bummer-See. — 131 1/2 M. Bohmte. 

134 Route 20. ITZEHOE. 

About 31/2 M. to the S. of Bohmte (light railway) are the small saline 
baths of Es.^eu (Reckiim). 

147 M. Osnabriick (Bail. Restaurant), see p. 70. — Beyond 
(152 M.) Hashergen we pass a tunnd Y2 ^- ^^ length. — From 
(158^ 2 ^^O Lengerich brancli-lines run to Ibbenburen (p. 70) and to 
Giiterslob fp. 35). — "^e cross the Ems, and farther on the Dort- 
mnnd and Ems Canal. 

178 M. Miinster (Eail. Bestaurant), see p. 92. — 196 M. 
Diilmen, a town of 6500 inhab., with the chateau and estate of the 
Duke of Croy-Dlilmen, is the junction for Dortmund and Gronau 
('p. 34). — 2031 2 ^^- Haltern (Hennewig) is the junction for Flush- 
ing, ^esel, and Hamburg. The museum (adm. 50 pf.. Sun. 25 pf.) 
contains antiquities found in the environs of the town, which is 
supposed to be the ancient Roman fort of Aliso. — We cross the 
Lippe. At (213^ o ^O Becklinghuusen begins the Rhenish -West- 
phalian Coal District (see p. 30). 

At (219 M.) TTanne our line joins that fi'om Berlin to Cologne 
via Hanover and Oberhausen (see p. 31). 

20. Prom Hamburg to Kiel. 

69 M. Railway in 2 hrs. (fares 8 .^ 50. 5 ^ 20. 3 c^ 40 pf . ; express 
fares 9 ^ 50, 6 .^ 20. 3 ^ 90 pf.). 

Hamburg, see p. 115. The trains cross the Lombards-Briicke 
and stop at the stations of Dammtor, Sternschanze, and Holsten- 
Strasse. 4^ 9 M- Altona, see p. 130. The next stations are un- 
important. — 23 M. Elmshorn ^Holsteinischer Hof, R. 2-3, 
D. 2 ^l), a prosperous town on the Krilckaue, with 14,000 in- 
habitants. Branch-line (33V2 ^0 to Oldesloe (p. 145). 

From: Elmshorx to Hoyer-Schleuse. 120 M., railway in 31/4-51/4 hrs. 
(express train from Hamburg in 41 2 hrs.}. — The line traverses the fertile 
Marschland. the home of the Ditmarsch peasants, whose gallant struggles 
with the Dukes of Holsteiu ended with their subjection in 1559. — IO1/2 M. 
Gluckstadt fBahnhofs- Hotel: Llovd's asrent . E. Falckj , a town of 
6200 inhab.. formerly fortified. — 22 M. Itzehoe rStadt Hamburg, R. 
2-21/.,. D. 2 ^M: Bahuhofs-Hotelj. the oldest town in Holstein, founded 
in 809, lies on the Sfor and was once the meeting-place of the Holstein 
Estates. Pop. 16.200. A branch-line runs hence to (ISV^M.) Wrist (p. 135). 
— [From '32 M.) St. Margareten a branch-line runs to (4i 2 M.) Bruns- 
b-attelkoog ^Bah/ihofs-Hotel : Lloyd's agents, Sartori & Berger), at the 
W. end of the Baltic Ship Canal' ^Kaiser- Wilhelm-Kanal), with inner 
and outer harbours, connected bv a double lock (steamer to Rendsburg, 
see p. 138).] — We now cross the Baltic Ship Canal (p. 138). — 47 M. 
Meldorf {HoUcinderei. R. 2-21., ^^. vreH spoken of), with 3900 inhab., 
was the home of Carsten Xiebuhr (d. 1815). the traveller, and also of 
his more famous son. the historian Barthold Georg Xiebuhr (1776-1831). 
The old Parsonage (13th cent.) has a gable of 1601. The Museum con- 
tains a carved room of 1568 and another room of the second half of the 
17th century. The Parish Church (13th cent.) has old ceiling-paintings 
and a choir-screen of 1603. — 55 M. Heide (LandschaftUches Haus), 
with 8800 inhab.. has a late-Gothic church, with a 16th cent, pulpit. It 
is the junction of a line to Tonning (p. 135) and of another to (15 M.) 

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Bilsum (Seegartcn, R. 8-31/2, !>• 21/2 ^; Kaiserhof, R. 2-3, D. 2 c^;, a 
pleasant little watering-place. — 68 M. Friedrichstadt (Staclt Hamburg), 
a small Dutch-like town (pop. 2700) near the Eider. 

76 M. Husum (Thomas's, R. 21/2-31/4, B. 1, D. 2 .^; Bahnliofs-Hotel ; 
Stadt llambu7'g, R. 13/^-21/2, B. 3/4 J^; Brit, vice-consul, C. Cristiansen), 
on the IIus7imer Au, which here empties itself into the German Ocean 
by means of the 'old' and the 'new' Hever, is a small seaport (9000 inhab.), 
with an old Chateau (1582) of the former dukes. The Ostenf elder Bauern- 
Jiaiis (adm. 10 pf.), re-erected here in 1899, is also interesting. — [From 
Husum a railway runs to the S.W. to (13 M.) Tonning (Bahnhofs- 
Hotel, R. 2-3, D. 2c^; Brit, vice-consul, C. Becker; Lloyd's agent, 
C. M. Lexow), with 4400 inhab., situated on the North Sea, at the mouth 
of the Eider, which forms a good harbour here, and to (20 M.) Garding 
(Post), connected by omnibus (80 pf.) with the small sea-bathing resort 
of St. Peter. ^ — Steamers ply from Husum to Amrum (p. 143), to No7'd- 
strand (once daily in 1 hr., fare 80 pf .), and to Pellioorm (daily, in 21/2 hrs. ; 
fare 3 JC). — From Husum to Jiibek, see p. 110. 

101 M. Niehilll (Schroder), the junction of a branch-line to Dagehilll 
(Strand Hotel, R. 21/2, D. 12/4-21/4 JC), whence a steamer plies to Wvk (see 
pp. 142, 143). — 112 M. Tondern (Olufsen), an ancient town with 4200 
inhab. and a late-Gothic church (16th cent.), is the junction of lines to 
(I61/2 M.) Tingleff (p. 142) and to (40 M.) Bramminge (in Denmark). — Our 
line turns to the W. II91/2 M. Hoyer (Stadt Tondern). — 120 M. Hoyer- 
Schleiise (Rail. Restaurant). Steamer to Sylt, see p. 142. 

36 M. Wrist; branch-line to Itzehoe, see p. 134. 

51 M. Weumiinster {Bahnhofs- Hotel; Horii's Railway 
Restaurant)^ a town with considerable cloth-factories and 31,500 in- 
hab., is the junction of lines to (50 M.) Tonning (see above) via Heide, 
to Flensburg (R. 21), to Plon and Eutin via Ascheberg(p. 152), and 
to (28 M.) Oldesloe (p. 145) and Ratzehurg (p. 156) via Segeherg. 

58 M. Bordesholm, once a richly-endowed monastery, Hes on 
the lake of that name. The church (14-1 7th cent.) contains the 
grave of King Frederick I. of Denmark (d. 1533). — The country 
becomes more attractive. Near Kiel the picturesque Eider Valley 
is traversed, beyond which the harbour and the distant Baltic be- 
come visible. 64 M. Voorde. — 69 M. Kiel. 


Hotels (advisable to order rooms in advance during the 'Kiel "Week'). 
Near the Raihcay Station: *Germania (PI. a; C, 5), R. 3-8, B. I1/4, D. 
31/2-5^; *Hansa (PI. p ; C, 6), R. 2-10, B. 1, D. 2-3 c^: ^Continental (PI. i; 
C, 6), R. 21/4-41/2, B. 1, D. 2-3 .^; Europaischer Hof (PI. k ; C, 6), R. 21/4-41/2, 
B. 1, D. 2-3 oS; MuHL, (PI. c; C, 5) ; M^dicke (PI. b; C, 5), with garden, 
R. 2-31/2, B. 1, J).2 JC. — In the Town: *Zum Kronprinzen (PL d ; C, 5) ; 
Deutscher Kaiser (PI. g ; C, 4) ; Borse (PI. 1 ; C, 4, 5) ; Union (PL e ; C, 5) ; 
KiELER Hof (PL 0; C, 5), R. 2-3, D. 2-3 J^. — By the Schloss- Garten: 
*Holst's (PL h; C, D, 3), R. from 21/2, B. 1, D. 2-31/2^; Zum Schloss- 
GARTEN (PL m ; C, 3), R. I1/2-3 JC. — For a stay of several days : *Seebade- 
Anstalt (p. 137), R. from 4, B. I1/2, D. 4^; *Bellevue (p. 137), R. 3-10, 
B. 11/4, D. 3-5, pens. 8-15 c^^, these two with view of the bay. — Pension 
Friedrichs, Bau-Str. 9 (pens. 3-4 JC). — Summer Lodgings may be obtained 
through the 'Verein zur Forderung des Fremdenverkehrs'. 

Restaurants. *Seebade-Anstalt, * Belle vne, Continental, *Holst's, 
see above; MUnchner Ldwenbrdit, cor. of Markt and Schloss-Str. ; See- 
garten (PL D, 4), on the harbour, with garden, T>. 2 JC; Biirgerhrauj 

136 Houte 20. KIEL. Practical Notes. 

Schuhmacher-Str. 29 ; Burghalle, Daniscne-Str. 42 ; Ratsioeijikeller (p. 137) ; 
AuionuLtic Bestaiirants, Holstein-Str. 41 and elsewhere. — Caf6s. Mono- 
2mL Holsten-Str. 9: Chatelaine, Schlossgarteu 11 : Uhlmann, in theMarkt; 
Bolfs. Schlossgarten 5. these two also confectioners. 

Theatres'^ Stadt- Theater (PL 9; B. 4), in winter only; Klcines 
Theater (PL A. 1); Kaiserkrone, Breite Weg 3, varieties. — Opex-air 
Concerts at the Diisternbrook Hotel (PL f : D. 1), the Victoria Hotel 
(Pl.n: D. 1). and the Waldburg (also in Diisternbrook). 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL C, 5), Jensen-Str. 5. 

Cabs. Per drive of 10 uiin. 1-2 pers. 60 pf., each 10 min. more 30 pf . : 
double fares at night (12 to 6 or 7). — Taximeter Ca?)S- .-1-2 pers. for 800 metres 
50 pf .. each 400 m. more 10 pf . ; 3-5 pers., 600 m. 50 pf., each 300 m. more 
10 pf . ; at night (1-5 pers.), 400 m. 50 pf., each 200 m. more 10 pf . ; wait- 
ing. 10 pf. per 8 minutes. Luggage up to 221/2 lbs. free, up to 55 lbs. 25 pf. 
— Drive to Holtenaii and Levensau (p. 138) and back (21/.2 hrs.), 6 JC 
(bargain advisable). 

Electric Tram-ways. 1. From the Waldwiese to the Belvedere. 
2. From the Waitz-Str. to the Knooper Weg. 3. From the Wall to the 
Seebade-Anstalt (beyond PL D, 1). 4. From the Station to WelUngdorf. 

Boat per hour, for 1-4 pers. 2 c#, each V2 1^^- i^ore 50 pf. 

Small Steamers also ply in all directions: from the Jensen-Str. 
(PL C. 5) and from the Schumacher-Tor (PL D, 4) to Gaarden (Germania 
Wharf) every 5 min.: from the Seegarten-Brlicke (PL D , 4) to WelUng- 
dorf. Dictrichsdorf, and XeumUhlen every 1/2 ^^^- 0-^ pf-)j to Laboe via 
Friedrichsort hourly (20 pf .). — Circular trips (2 hrs., 40 pf.) to Friedrichs- 
ort and back, calling at various intermediate points (10, 15, 20 pf.) are 
made every 1 ., ^r- — Luck's Circular Trip round the harbour (31/2 brs.) 
start from the Bahnhofs-Quai (PL C. 6) at 9,30 a.m. and the Seegarten- 
Briicke (PL D. 4) at 3 p.m. (fares 3, I1/2 -*)• 

Baths. Ludwigsbad . Lorenzen-Damm 21 (PL B, C, 3, 4). — Sea 
Bathing at the Seebade-Anstalt. Bellevue. Holtenau, Heikendorf, Laboe, 
and Stein. 

Consuls. British Yice-Consul, Herr A. L. A. Sartori; U. S. Consular 
Agent. Htrr Paid Sartori. — Lloyd's Age]s-ts, Sartori & Berger. 

Principal Attractions (one day). Morning : ImperialWharves (p. 138) ; 
Thaulow Museum (see below); Museum of Antiq^uities (p. 137); Palace 
Garden (p. 137): Diisternbrooker "Weg; visit to a man-of-war. Afternoon: 
excursion to Levensau (p. 138) or over the bay to Laboe (p. 138). — A visit 
to one of \\iQ 2Ien-of-War in the harbour is generally permitted between 
12 & 1.30; apply to one of the boatmen (charges, see above; no fee should 
be offered to the sailor who shows the vessel). 

Kiel, the largest town in Schleswig-Holstein (184,000 inhab.) and 
the headquarters of the Germam^ navy, with a naval academy and 
a university founded in 1665, is picturesquely situated at the S. 
end of the Kieler Forde, one of the best havens in Europe and the 
chief war-harbour of Germany. Kiel is also a great depot of the 
lumber trade and of the trade between the Danish islands and the 
continent. Extensive harbour-fortifications, quays, and docks have 
been recently constructed. International regattas, invariably attended 
by the Emperor, are held in the second half of June ( -Kieler Woche'). 

The old town is badly built, with narrow, crooked streets; but 
a handsome new quarter has come into existence between the Kleine 
Kiel and the Diisternbrook Woods. 

In the Sophienblatt, to the X. of the station, stands the *Thaulow 
Museum (PL C, 5, 6; open free, except on Mon., 11-4), contain- 
ino: an unrivalled collection of Schleswiof-Holstein wood-car vinous 




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Palace. KIEL. 20. Route. 137 

(16-17th cent.) presented to the province in 1875 by the late Pro- 
fessor Thaulow (comp. p. xxxiii), besides household furnishings, 
pottery from Schleswig-Holstein, works in metal, costumes, and lace. 

Skirting the harbour, or proceeding through the 'Klinke' and 
the Holsten-Str. (the chief business streets), we soon reach the town 
(Altstadt) itself, which lies between the pool called the i^Zei/ieiueZ 
and the harbour. In the Kirch -Platz rises the Church of St. 
Nicholas (PL C, 4), built ca. 1241 and spoiled by restoration in 
1877-84. It contains a font of 1344 and a high -altar of 1460 
(sexton, Flamische-Str. 2 a). — In the Markt-Platz is the Old Rat- 
haus (PI. C, 4), with the Ratsweinkeller (p. 136), decorated with 
paintings by Koch. The Danische-Strasse leads hence to the left to 
the Kiinsthalle (No. 17), with the picture-gallery of the Art Union 
(in summer, daily, except Mon. & Sat., 11-2, Sun. 11-5 ; adm. 30 pf.), 
and a collection of casts. New Art Museum, see below. 

The ScHLoss or Palace (PL D, 4), built at the end of the 16th 
cent, and restored after a fire in 1838, Avas formerly the residence 
of the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, and is now occupied by Prince 
Henry of Prussia. In the court is a monumental fountain, by Liirssen 
(1888). — The interesting Museum of National Antiquities {Fl. 5; 
D, 4), in the old university, Katten-Strasse 3, contains many objects 
of a prehistoric period, including a Viking boat 70 ft. in length, 
found in the Sundewitt Moor (adm. on Sun., Wed., and Sat., 11-1; 
at other times on application to the attendant; catalogue 20 pf.). — 
The Schloss- Garten^ to the N. of the Schloss, contains fine old trees, 
a War Monument (PL 3) for 1870-71, and an Qf^wQ^ixmn Statue of 
Emp. William 1. (PL 2), by Briitt (1896). At its N. end rises the 
new University (PL C, 3; 1000 students), built in 1876. Adjacent 
are several institutes in connection with it, including the Library 
(265,000 volumes) and the Zoological Museum (adm. on Sun. 11-2, 
Wed. 12-2). To the N. is the new J.r^ Museum (PL 4), which is to 
contain the art-collections of the University and of the Art Union 
(see above). In front of the GarrisonChurch (PL C, 1, 2) are a bronze 
Crucifixion, by Eberlein (1900) and an Obelisk to the memory of 
Frederick William, Duke of Mecklenburg, drowned in 1897. 

To the W. of the Altstadt is the Neumarkt (PL B, C, 4), with 
the Town Theatre (PL 9 ; 1907), the New Eathaus (by Billing), and 
a bronze Statue of Prince Bismarck (PL 1), by Magnussen (1897). 

*Environs. The harbour is picturesque , and tempts to a trip by 
steamer or small boat. 

On the W. Bank the *Dusternbrooker Weg (PI. D, 1, 2; tramway 
No. 3, p. 136), flanked with pleasant country-houses, leads to the N". from 
the university, past the Botanic Garden (PI. C, D, 2), the Admiralty (v.), 
and the Marine Academy (PL D, 1), with busts of admirals on its terrace, 
to (11/4 M.) the Seehade-Ayistalt {^. 135) and the premises of the Imperial 
Yacht Club. We may then go on, past the Bellevue Hotel (p. 135), to the 
suburb of TFiA:, with the Torpedo Boat Harboitr and the Prot. Garrison 
Church. About 2 M. from the Seebade-Anstalt, we reach the E. end of 

13 8 Boute 20. KIEL. Environs^. 

the Kaiser "Wilhelm Canal or Baltic Ship Canal fsee below), which 
is provided, like the W. end at Brunsbiittelkoog ,p. 134), with an inner 
and outer harbour, connected by a double lock. On the N. bank lies the 
village of HoUenau (Restaurant, above the wharf of the Kiel boats, with 
fine view;, with a statue of Emp. William I. (on the plinth two figures 
representing War and Peace) and a Lighthouse. To the W. of the lock 
is a Pontoon Drawbridge. To the X.E. of Holtenau is the Friedrichsort 
Fort, commanding, along with the coast-batteries between Laboe and 
Moltenort 'see below), the entrance of Kiel Harbour. 

The idea of connecting the Baltic with the Xorth Sea by a water- 
route which would avoid the dangerous voyage round the peninsula of 
Jutland first crops out in the 14th cent. , and various modest attempts 
were made to solve the problem. The foundation-stone of the present 
canal was laid by Emp. William I. in 1887, and the canal was formally 
opened by Emp. William II. in 1895. The expense of construction amounted 
to 156 million marks (7,800.000?.). The canal crosses the land at sea- 
level, the locks at either end merely serving to neutralize the tidal changes. 
Erom Holtenau to Brunsbiittelkoog (p. 134), where it joins the Elbe, it is 
60 M. long. The depth is 30 ft. ; the width at the bottom is 70 ft., at the 
top 220 ft. A steamer takes about 9 hrs. to pass through the canal, which is 
lighted at night by electricity. — Steamers ply through the canal 6 times 
a week from Bransbiittel to Bend^harg (51,2 brs.: '^JC). and twice daily 
from Bend^^hurg to Kiel (31,2 1^^- ; 1^ •_» ^)- The voyage, however, presents 
little interest to the tourist, as the scenery is flat and monotonous and 
the view impeded by the high banks. 

From Kiel to Leve:?sau axb back (4 hrs.). We take the Rendsburg 
steamer (from the Seegarten-Brucke ; PI. D, 4) to (1 hr. ; fare 40 pf.) 
Lecensaii (see below: cab. see p. 136). above the wharf at which is the 
Bestaurant Margaretental. We then ascend to (1/4 hr.) the imposing High 
Level Bridge of Levensau, which carries road and railway* over the canal 
in an arch of 430 ft. span. 130 ft. above the level of the water. Hurried 
travellers may return hence to Kiel by railway. Others may walk along 
the S. bank of the canal (or the X. bank, via the pretty park oi Knoop : 
somewhat longer) to the (1/2 hr.) Knooper FdJirhaiis (inn) and the (20 min.) 
Pontoon Bridge (see above). We then cross to the X. bank and proceed to 
the right to the (25 min.) wharf at Holtenau, whence we return by one of 
the small harbour-steamers (1/2 hr. ; 15 pf .). 

The E. Baxk of the harbour (tramway to Wellingdorf, see p. 136) is 
also attractive. In Gaarden are Krupp's Gernmnia Wharf (¥\. J), 5, 6; 
no admission) and (to the X.) the large Imperial Wharves and Docks 
(7100 men: no admission for foreigners). — Opposite Wellingdorf lies 
Xeumilhlen (Stadt Kiel: Margaretenhohe). at the mouth of the Schwentine. 
with an extensive ship-building yard. Farther distant are the Schreven- 
horn wood (view-tower) and the group of villas called Kitzeberg. Between 
the villages of Alt-He ikendorf (StvaiJid Hotel), Moltenort (inn), and Laboe, 
the -Gfriinde' afi'ord charming silvan walks on the slopes of the coast. 
The fishing-village and bathing-resort of Laboe (Laboe ; Seegarten) is 
situated in the Probstei. an extremely fertile district. 

From Kiel to Flexsburg. 50 M.. railway in 2-3 hrs. The train crosses 
the Baltic Ship Canal at '6 M.) Levensau. by the bridge mentioned above). 
From (20 M.) ^c^ernforde^Drovjatzky:' Stadt Hamburg j, a seaside- 
resort (7100 inhab.;. railways run to (17^ 2 M-) Kappeln Tp. 140) and (151/2 M.) 
Oifschlag (p. 139). We cross a corner of the Bay of Eckernforde, and the 
broad Schlei, and traverse the district of Angeln (p. 140). — From (32 M.) 
Siiderbrarup light railways run to Schleswig (p. 139) and Kappeln (p. 140). 
— 50 M. Flensburg. see p. 140. 

From Kiel steamers ply twice daily, in 51/2-6 hrs., to Korsor, on the 
W. coast of the isle of Zealand : thence an express-train runs to Copen- 
hagen in 13/4-2 hrs. (71/2-81 2 brs. in all; fares 18 c^ 40, U JC 90, 8 c^ 50 pf.). 

To Sonderburg ^p. 142). steamboat daily, in 41/0 hrs.; to Kappeln 
(p. 140) twice weekly, in 3 hrs. : to Eutin and Liibeck, see R. 23. 


21. Prom Hamburg to Plensburg and 
Vamdrup (Copenhagen). 

162 M. Railway to (111 M.) Flensburg iu 8-41/2 lirs. (fares 14 J^, 
8 J6 40, f> JC 50 pf.; express fares 16 JC, 10 JC 40, 6 Ji. 50 pf.); to Vam- 
drup in 5-7 hrs. 

From Hamburg' to (51 M.) Neumunster, see E. 20. The line 
traverses heath and moorland. — 65 M. Bokelholm. — We cross 
the Baltic Ship Canal (p. 138). 

71 M. Rendsburg {Green's, Bahnhof-Str., R. 2-4, D. 21/2 ^^; 
Railway Hotel, R. 2^/2, B. 1, D. 21/2 ^^7 both very fair), a town 
with 15,600 inhab., consists of three parts separated by the ^2C?er; 
the Altstadt on an island, the Neuwerk to the S., and the Kronwerk 
to the IST. The fortifications are now converted into promenades. 
In the Altstadt are the Gothic Marien-Kirche (13th cent.) and the 
Rathaus (oldest part, 1566). In Neuwerk are barracks, the Christ- 
Kirche (1696), and a monument to the patriot Lornsen (1878). 
Steamer to Kiel and to BrunshUttel (p. 134), see p. 138. — 78 M. 
Oivschlag. As Schleswig is approached a fine view is suddenly 
disclosed of the town, with its lofty cathedral-tower in the back- 

The Danewerk (or Dannevirke), an intrenchment which formerly de- 
fended the Danish frontier, dating from the 9th cent., was stormed by 
the Prussians in 1848. The works were subsequently extended and strenii- 
thened, but in 1864 the small Danish army had to abandon them without 
a blow. Only a few remains of the rampart are now visible. 

86 M. Schleswig-Priedrichsberg. — Hotels. Stadt Hamhurq 
(PI. a; B, 2), R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 2-2^1^ JC; Raven's Hotel (PL b; D, 1), these 
two very fair; Dehn's (PL c; B, 2), small, well spoken of, R. 2, D. 2-3 J^; 
Koster (PL e ;' A, 2) ; Bahnhofs-Hotel (PL d ; A, 4) ; UntiedVs (PL f ; A, 4), 
at the station. — SchleihaUe Restaurant, Gottorper Damm, D. li/o ci(- — 
Post Office (PL C, D, 1), Stadtweg. — Baths at the Licisenbad (PL 0, 2). 

Tramway from the Deaf and Dumb Institute (PL B, 4) in the Fried- 
richsberg quarter (branch -line to the station) to the Rathaus-Markt (PL 
E, 1). — Junction Railway from the Friedrichsberg Station to the (2 M.) 
Altstadt Station (PL D, 1). ^ The town may be seen, hurriedly, in 4 hrs. 

Schleswig, a quiet provincial capital with 18,400 inhab., 
charmingly situated, traces its origin to the reign of Charlemagne, 
and afterwards became the residence of the Dukes of Schleswig. 
It extends round the W. end of the arm of the sea named the Schlei, 
and is divided into the Friedrichsberg, Loll fuss, and Altstadt. 

From the Friedrichsberg Station (PL A, 4) the Bahnhof-Str. 
leads to the N"., past (1.) the Ei^dheereyiberg (tower; fine panorama), 
to the Friedrich-Strasse. The latter and its IST. prolongation, the 
Gottorper-Str., lead to the Government Offices (PL A, 3), in front 
of which is a War Monument for 1870-71. Farther on is the old 
ducal Schloss Gottoiy (PL A, 2), now a barrack, the chapel of 
which (adm. 50 pf.) has an interesting carved royal pew (1612). To 
the N. is the wooded Tiergarten (PL A, 1), with delightful walks. 

140 Boute 21. FLENSBURG. From Hamburg 

The Dom in the Altsf adt (PI. D, E, 2), erected in the Romanesque 
style in the 13th cent., was restored in Grothic taste after a fire 
in 1440. The tower (365 ft. high) was completed in 1894 (adm. 
20 pf. ; view). 

The IxTERioR, with double aisles restored in 1888-94, is open free 
daily, 11-12. and on Wed. & Sun. 11.30-1.30 (in summer also 3-5); at other 
times on application to the sacristan (opposite the Romanesque S. portal, 
Xo. 11: fee 50 pf.). — The *Reredos , formerly in the monastery of 
Bordesholm (p. 135> a work executed in carved oak by Bruggemann in 
1514-21. represents the history of the Passion in 22 sections, and is the 
finest work of art in the Duchies. In the choir, which is freely adorned 
with paintings, to the left, is a font of 1480: on the right tlie marble 
tomb (1555) of King Frederick I. (d. 1533). Adjacent is the chapel of the 
Dukes of Gottorp . and in the nave are those of several noble families. 
The X. aisle contains two altar-pieces by Juriaen Ovens (d. 1678). — The 
old paintings in the Cloisters have been restored. • 

On the X. side of the Altstadt, in the direction of St. Jtirgen, 
stands a monument (beyond PI. E, 1) to the eminent painter J. A. 
Carstens (b. at St. Jiirgen in 1754, d. at Rome in 1798j, erected 
in 1865. *Yiew. Another monument commemorates Chemnitz and 
Bellmann (V\. B, C, 1), the writer and composer of the song 
'Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen'. — On the Gallberg (PL E, 1) 
is a Museum of Antiquities (open on Sun. 11.30-1, ^Ted. 3-5, and 
Sat. 11-12.. 

Steamboat twice or thrice daily, in 3 hrs. (fare 21/2 c^) to (21 M.) 
Kappeln (Stadt Hamburg j, with 2600 inhab., on the picturesque banks 
of the Schlei , a charming excursion. The old church of Kappeln con- 
tains a fine carved altar (1641). The district of Angeln, a fertile pen- 
insula between the Schlei and the Bay of Flensburg, presents a somewhat 
English appearance with its high hedges , which are not common on the 
Continent? The finest survey of the district is obtained from the Schiers- 
berg ^240 ft.). — From Kappeln to Kiel, steamer in summer daily, ex- 
cept Sun., in 3 hrs. (fare 2 ^ 60 pf.). Railway to Flensburg (see below); 
to Eekeruforde. see p. 138. 

Kappeln is also reached bv a light railwav (14 M.) via SV.derbrarup 
(p. 1.38). 

93 M. Jilbek, the junction for Husum (see p. 135). — From 
(107 M.) Xordschleswigsche Weiche branch-lines diverge to Niehilll 
(25 M.; p. 135) and to Sonderhurg (29 M.: p. 142). 

Ill 31. Flensburg. — Hotels. ^Flensburger Hof (PI. a; B, 2), 
R. 2-41/0. B. 1. D. 13^-3.^; lift: ^Bahnhofs-Hotel (PI. b: B, 2): Central 
(PL c; B. 2). R. 13/^-2. D. 2 JC. very fair; Kronprinz (PI. d ; B, 2) : Sommer's 
(PL f ; B. 2). — Restauraxts. ^Flensburger Hof (see above); 3Iunchener 
Bilrgerbrdu : Kolosseum: Steamboat Pavilion. — Cafes. Flensburger Hof ; 
Theatre (PL 12) : Bellevuc (p. 141). — Wixe at the Gnomenkeller, Holm 1, 
J). 2JC. 

Electric Tra^^iway from the Bismarck-Str. (PL C. 2, 3) to the Apen- 
rader-Str. (beyond PL B, 1). 

British Yice-Coxsul. Thomas Hollesen. — Lloyd's Agent, H. W. 
Christo])hersen. — Post Office (PL B, 2), Rathaus-Str. 

Flensburg, a thriving town with 54.000 inhab., beautifully 
situated at the S. end of the Flensburg Fjord, has an excellent 
harbour and the largest (German) commercial fleet on the Baltic. 

Mk''( rf^ Is/t ' jM^^-^^ =^ %^ 

to Vamdntp. 


21. Route. 141 

Among the most imj)ortant buildings are the Nicolai- Kirche 
(PI. B, 3), the Marien-Kirche (PL B, 2; 13th cent.; both with 
modern towers), the Lmv Courts (PI. 8), with wall-paintings by 
Frohlich, and the Theatre (PI. 12). Opposite the last rises the 
*Mi:sEUM OF Industrial Art (PI. B, 2), completed in 1903, which 
rivals the Thaulow Museum in Kiel (p. 136) in importance (open 
in summer dnily, except Mon., 10-4, Sun. 10-5, in winter 11-3: 

Ge ogr. Arxst .^."WagiLer ifcJ) eb e s , L eip z ig . 

adm. 50 pf.). It contains prehistoric antiquities, cottage interiors, 
furniture, wood-carvings, household furnishings, specimens of home 
industry, and pottery and glass from Schleswig-Holstein. 

^ In the Siider-Markt (PL B, 3) is a Bismarck Memorial Foun- 
tain, by Schievelkamp (1903). — Fine view from the Bellevue 
(PL B, 2), a cafe on the hill to the W. 

The *Flensburg Fjord is a fine sheet of water enclosed by gentle 
p-assy and wooded slopes, enlivened by the red roofs of scattercd'farm- 
houscs. Small steamers ply on the fjord (to Sonderburcr in 2V.. hrs., 
fare 1 JC 60 pf.; to Gliicksburg abont 1 hr.). 

142 P^outc 21. APEXRADE. 

On the S. bank lies Glucksburg (Strand Hotel. PL a. R. 2i;.>-5. 
D. 31.,. pens. 71.2-10^; BcUfvve. PL b. R. l^/o-S JC ; visitors' tax hJt)\ 
a frequented bathing-place. The village (Ruhetal Inn. PL c ; Stadt Ham- 
burg). 3/^ M. from the shore, possesses a Schloss of 1587. picturesquely situ- 
ated on a small lake. — The steamer next passes through the narrow Eken- 
Sund and touches at Gravenstein (*Kurhaus. R. 2i 2-I. pens. h^l^-IJC), then 
returns to the fjord, rounds the peninsula of Broacker, and reaches — 

Sonderburg (Kurhaus. well spoken of: Holstehi'sches Haus: bath 
and lodging-houses), the pleasant little capital (6000 inhab.j of Alsen, an 
island 122 sq. M. in area. The old Schloss of the Dukes of Augusten- 
burg is now a barrack. Sonderburg is the headquarters of the Inspector 
of Xaval Artillery, and is frequented as a bathing-place. Steamer to Apen- 
rade (see below; through the Alscn-Sund A times daily (3 hrs.. fare 2JC). — 
Towards the X.E.. about 4^2 M. from Sonderburg. lies the bathing-place 
of Augustenhurg (Frost;, on the deeply-indented Avgustcnhurg Fjord. 
Xear AtzerhaUig. 3 M. farther on, rises the Hiigc Berg (240 ft.), which 
commands a. survey of the island, the sea. Fiinen, Arroe, etc. 

A walk from Sonderburg, starting from the "W. side of the bridge 
over the Alsen-Sund. passing the rail, station on the right, and along 
the Flensburger Chaussee to (2 M.) the IntrencTiments of Dvppel is 
recommended. These were a connected series of bastions forming a 
semicircle round the point of the Sundewitt opposite Sonderburg (see 
Map), and extending from the Alsen-Sund to the Wenninghund. and 
were stormed by the Prussians in 1864 after a siege of two months. 

A light railway connects Sonderburg with Flensburg. Steamer from 
Flensburg to Faaborg, via Sonderburg. once daily (6 hrs. ; A JC 60 pf .). 

Railway from Flensburg to Eckernforde and Kiel, see p. 138. 

From Flensburg to Kappeln (p. 140). 32 M., light railway via Gliicks- 
hurg (see above) and Steinberg in 3 hrs. 

The railway now runs due X. 126 M. Tinrjleffis tlie junction 
of a line to Tondern (p. 135'. — 136 M. Rotenkriig ^ whence a 
branch-line runs to (^^ o M. > Apenrade f Bahrthofs- Hotel : Stadt- 
Theater: Bellevueu a small trading-town and sea-bathing place 
(TOOOinhab.i on the beautiful Apenrade Fjord. Steamer from 
Apenrade to Sonderburg. see above. 

A pleasant drive may be taken from Apenrade to the (9 M.) Kniis- 
berg. with its Bismarck Tower (144 ft. ; one-horse carr. 5, two-horse 8 JC). 

From (149 M. ^ Woyens a branch-line runs to (7^ 2 ^^•* Haders- 
leheju a small trading-place i9300 inhab.* on the fjord of that name. 

At 162 M.I Vamdrap the Danish frontier is reached (see 
Baedeler's Xorway. Sweden, and Denmark). 

22. The North Frisian Islands. 

Approaches. To "Westerlaxd ix Sylt. 1. Railway from Ham- 
burg express in 4iy., hrs. to Hoijer-Schleuse (p. 135). either via Itzehoe 
(comp. R. 20) or via Jtibek (R. 21) ; and steamer (fares S J^. 2 JC 60 pf .) thence 
twice dailv in 1^ ^ hr. to Mnnkmarsch on the E. coast of Sylt. whence 
a light railwav plies in 1 4 hr. to r2i/, M.) Westerland. Through express- 
fares from Hamburg. 26 'jC 30. 19 Ji. 13 JC 30 pf. — 2. Steamboat from 
Hamburg dailv via Cuxhaven and Heligoland (comp. p. 132) in 10-11 hrs. 
to Hormirn. at the S. extremity of Sylt: thence by light railway in 
40 min. to (11 M.; Westerland. 'Fare 1*7 JC- 

To Wyk ly FoHE. 1. Railway from Hamburg (express in 4 hrs.) 
via Itzehoe or Jiibek to Niebfdl and thence to (81/2 M.) DagebfUl (p. 135). 



> Strrmd 


S Y L T 

1 : 2o0.000 



Sfrr^fg-uftiMid WESTERLAND 

1 : 30.000 


ft- JZTrre n p It^-S^^' 

EC i^^ ♦ -C ^ - •Osi 

5^ \BadelHireaiL 

■ZL ■~~^ \i c,7.. ,-^ 3 EuidcrTitUstdUi: 

Geo|rajilx..^jjtall von 

"Wagner *Debes ^ip 

WESTERLAND. 22. Route. 143 

whence a steamer plies twice daily in 3/^ hr. (fare 1 JC 10 pf.) to Wyk. 
Through express-fares from Hamburg 21 JC 10, 15 JC 40, 10 tM 20 pf. — 

2. Steamer daily from Hambitrg to Hornum (sec p. 142; boats changed) 
and thence to Wittdiln in Amrum and to Wyk in 11 hrs. (through-fare 
15 Ji 40 pf.). 

To Amrum. 1. Steamer from Husum (p. 135) daily to Wittdiln in 
4 hrs. (5 tS). — 2. From Wijk steamer twice daily in IV4 hr. (1 t^). — 

3. From IJamhurg, see above. 

To RoAi. Railway from Hamburg to Hoyer-Schleuse as above, and 
thence by steamer (twice daily) in 2 hrs. (fare 41/2 «^) to Konigsmark, on 
the E. coast of Rcim ; thence tramway to (2 J^) Lakolk. Through-fares 
24 J6 80, 17 J6 50, 12 J^ 70 pf. 

The North Frisian Islands, frequented as sea-bathing resorts 
by the Germans (comp. p. 98), lie off the W. coast of Schleswig- 
Holstein, from which they are separated by a narrow arm of the 
sea, known as the Watten. The narrow navigable channels between 
the numerous sand-banks are indicated by brooms. A characteristic 
feature in the archipelago is formed by the Halligen, low green 
islets rising a few feet only above the surface of the sea upon which 
they seem to lioat. The chain of islands represent the old coast- 
line, and efforts are now being made to prevent farther encroach- 
ment by the sea and even to form new land (koog) by reclamation. 

The long and narrow island of Sylt is the largest G-erman island 
in the North Sea, being upwards of 39 sq. M. in area (4800inhab.). 
It contains numerous 'giants' graves'. The principal village on it is — 

"Westerland. — Hotels. ^Kurhaus ; ^Deutscher Kaiser (PI. a), 
with garden, R. 3-10, B. IV4, D. 3-31/2, S. 3, 'pens. 8-14 c^; "^Hot. Royal 
(PI. b); "^Victoria (PL c), R. from 21/2, pens. 7-15 JC; Hohenzollern (PI. d), 
well spoken of; Gr and- Hotel {V\. e)', Ger mania {VIA); Hamami {V\.\i)', 
Stadt Hamburg (PI. f), R. 2i/2-5, D. 2-l^JC: ReichsJiof (PI. g), pens. 61/2-8^; 
Christianenhdhe (Pl.h); Holsteinisches Haus (PI. i). 

Restaurants. Seestern, Friedrich-Str., D. 21/2 ^^l ^gir, Strand-Str., 
D. 2^/2 JC: Beier, on the beach, D. from 3<y^; Aj'kaden; Baivmannshohle , 
D. from 1 t/^ 80 pf. The larger hotels also have restaurants on the 
beach. — Cafes. Wiener Cafe (Park), Siebert, Wiedermann, Strand-Str. — 
Bodega, Strand-Str. 

Band twice daily on the beach ; in the evening at the Kurhaus 
Restaurant. — Reading Rooms on the beach and at the Kurhaus. 

Sea Baths 75 pf., towel 1 JC per week. Tickets at the Bade-Bureau 
(PI. 1) or on the beach, 6a.m. -1p.m. Warm Baths (PI. 4; 7 a.m. -2p.m.), 
next door to the Hotel Royal, IV2 <^- — Visitors' Tax (after 3 days), 
12 JC for the season, 1 JC per day. 

Sailing Boats for 1-4 pers., at Munkmarsch or Westerland beach 
4 JC per hour; each addit. pers. 1 t^. — Cabs. Per drive within the 
town, 1-2 pers, 1, 3-4 pers. I1/2 «^- 

Railways run from Westerland to Hornum, to Munkmarsch, and to 
Wenningstedt, Kampen, and List (comp. Map). 

Westerland (2500 inhab.), including the village oi Alt-Wester- 
land and the more town-like Neu- Westerland, is situated on the W. 
side of Sylt, and is separated from the sea by a chain of sand- 
dunes across which board-walks lead to the beach. Another board- 
walk connects the gentlemen's and 'mixed' bathing-place with that 
for ladies. The streets of the town are paved and lighted with 

144 Boute 22. WYK. 

electricity. About 25,000 sea-bathers annnally visit Westerland, 
where the sea is seldom perfectly calm. 

About 3 M. to the X. of TTesterland (carr. 2,-1 ^€. there and back; rail- 
way, see p. 143. fares 70. 40 pf.) lies "Wenningstedt {Kronprinz, pens. 
o5 J6 di week: Strand: Bahnhof ; Friesenlwf : lodgings), also frequented 
for sea-bathing (bath 50 pf.). Xear it is the Denghoog. a tumulus formed 
of immense blocks of granite. — At Kampen (Kurhaus, D. from 
21 4 Ji: Zum Roten KUff, 2 JC), IV2 ^ to the X. of Wenningstedt, is a 
tall lighthouse (adni. 1 ^H.). — "We may go on hence either by railway 
(fares from Westerland 3 ^ 20, 2 JC h pf.) or bv carriage (return-fare 
from Westerland 14-16 ^^) to the (1 M.) hamlet of List, at the X. end 
of the island. — On the E. coast of Sylt, 3 M. from Westerland (carr. 
there and back 3-4 JC), lies Keitum (Friesenhalle), containing a local 
museum (adm. 50 pf.). About 4i'.2 M. farther on is the JIorsum-Klifjf {mu). 

Wyk. — Hotels. '^Kurhaus: ^Bedlefsetrs (PI. a), R. 21/2-7, B. 1, 
D. 21 4. board 5,.^; Deppe's (PI. c), with cafe. R. 3-6, D. 21/2, pens, from 
6.^: Schidzs (PL b) ; Xordfriesischer Hof (PI. d) ; Strand Hotel (PL e), 
near the harbour. R. 2-3 JC : Borse (PL f ) ; Fcihrliaus (PL g). — Lodgings 
(best in the Sandwall). 9-30 JC per week. 

Restaurants. Bedlefsen^s Altdeutscher Keller, Erholung (D. 2 JC)., 
both in the Sandwall; ScJuceizerhalle. in the Konigs-Garten ; Strand- 
halle, Schiltzenhof. near the beach. — Wiener Cafe, Mittel-Str. 110. 

Sea Baths (7-12 a.m.). 80 2)f . : warm salt-water bath I1/2 JC: tickets 
from G. Weigelt, Sandwall 127. — Visitors' Tax (after 3 days) 9 JC, 
families 12-20 JC. — Lloyd's Agents. L. Heymann & Sons. 

Wijk, the capital of the island oiFohr.^ on the E. coast of which 
it lies, is a pleasant village with 1200 inhab. and a local museum 
(Friesen-Museum). The chief resort of the visitors (5500 annually) 
is the Sandwall, which is shaded by trees and skirts the beach. 
At its X. end is the Harbour: to the W. of it the Konigs-Garten. 
^yk is the mildest of the bathing-resorts on the North Sea. 

The island of Fohr (30 sq. M. ; 4500 inhab.) contains 17 villages, of 
which the most frequented are (1 M. from Wyk) Boldixuni, (31/2 M.) 
Xiehlum. and (3i 2 M.) J.ZA:e;"Swm. — A visit should be paid to one of the 
so-called 'Yogelkojen', where enormous numbers of teal (about 400,000 
yearly) are captured by means of 'duck-pipes' and decoys. — The situation 
of Wyk admirably adapts it for sailing-excursions; e.g. to the 'Halligen' 
(p. 143) of Hooge (18 JC). Oland (9 JC), and Lojigeness (9 JC), to Amrum (see 
below : 9 JC). or to Dagehilll (p. 135 : 9 JC). — Steamboat to Sylt, see p. 143. 

The island of Amrum '900 inhab.;, which is 6 M. long and 
3 X. broad, lies to the S. of Sylt. There are steamboat-quays at 
Wittdiin. Xorddorf. and Steenodde. 

Wittdiin. — Hotels. Kurhaus, 2-3i 2. B. 1, D. 21/2, board 4 .^; 
Kaiserhof. pens, from QJC: Strand Hotel : Gerrna7iia,ipens. A-7JC: Central : 
Quedens: Victoria. — Lodgings. — Sea Bath, 60 pf. — Visitors' Tax 
(after 3 days) 5, families 8-15 ^€. 

Wittdiin is the leading bathing-resort in Amrum. The beach 
is at Kniepsand. to the W.. whither a light railway and a board- 
walk lead. — To the X. is the old harbour of A^fee^ioc^c^e (Seehund), 
and to the X.W. is a lofty lighthouse (wide view). 


23. Route. 145 

C«o^»pliJln« all wajnoriDol™ ip= 

LHBECK. 25. Route. 145 

Another light railway rims to the N. from Wittdiin pier to Suddorf, 
Hotel Satteldilne (pens. 41/2 tJC), Nebel (Erholung), and Norddorf (See- 
Pensionat), beyond which is the See-Hospiz (R. 1-3, board 31/2 <^)- 

To the N. of Sylt lies the island of Rom, 91/2 M. long and 3 M. 
broad, on the E. coast of wliich is the village of Kdniysmark (Romerhof, 
R. IV2-2 cJC). On the W. coast lies the bathing-resort of Lakolk, where 
accommodation may be obtained in the 'Block Houses' (three furnished 
rooms with 2 beds 40-50, board 3IV2 ^ per week) or in the Hotel Drachen- 
bur^. Visitors' Tax 4-10 JC. 

23. Prom Hamburg to Lubeck 
and to Stettin. 

223 M. Railway to Lubeck, 40 M., in l-is/^ hr. (fares 5 ^ 20, 3 J^ 30, 
2 c^ 25 pf . ; express fares 5 c^ 70, 3 c^ 80, 2 .i( 50 pf ,) ; from Liibeck to 
Stettin, 183 M., in 6-10 hrs. (fares 23 J{, 50, 14^ 60, 9 c^ 90 pf . ; express 
25 JC 50, 16 J6 60, 10 JC 90 pf.). 

Hamburg, see p. 115. — 31/2 M. Wandsbek (p. 130). — 25 M. 
Oldesloe (Kurhaus, E,. 2-5 o#; Holsteinisches Haus), a picturesquely 
situated watering-place with saline baths (5500 inhab.). 

Branch-lines run hence to Ratzehurg (p. 156), to Ehnshorn (p. 134), 
and to Neumilnstei' and Schwarzenhek (see p. 135). 

40 M. Lubeck. — Hotels. *Stadt Hamburg (PI. a; D, 5), on 
the Klingberg, w^ith garden, R. from 3, B. IV4, D. 3-3i/.? <^; Kaiserhof 
(PL g; C, 4), Untcrtravc 104, with restaurant, R. from" 3, B. IV4, D. 2- 
21/2 JC; Union (PL b; D, 4). Braun-Str. 15, with restaurant, R. from 3, 

B. IV4, r>. 2V2-3V2 ^j very fair ; Deutsches Haus (PL c ; D, 5), ^gidien- 
Str. 3, with restaurant; Brockmuller (PL d; D, 5), Kohlmarkt 11, 
R. 2V2-3V2J B. 1, D. 21/2 ^; International, opposite the station, with 
garden, R. 21/2-31/25 B. 1, D. 21/9-3 JC; Central (PL 1; D, 4) ; Borgwardt 
(PL f; D, 5); Spethmann (PL e; C, 4) , R. I1/2-2V2, B. ^U, D. IV2 -^; 
Anker (PL h; C, 4); Bahnhofs-Hotel (PL i ; C, 4, 5). 

Restaurants. Wine: Ratskeller (p. 148), D. 3 JC (claret); Freden- 
hayen-s Keller, corner of the Fisch-Str. and the Schiisselbuden (PL D, 4), 

D. from 2 JC; Kelling ; Schabbel-Stiftung (p. 149); Bodega, Fleischhauer- 
Str. 14. — Beer: Railivay Restaurant ; ReicheVs, Fleischhauer-Str. 16 (PL 

E, 4), D. 11/4 JC; Deutscher Kaiser, corner of Konig-Str. and Johannis- 
Str. (PL E, 4), with garden, D. 11/4-^; Schiffer-Gesellschaft (p. 151); Rat- 
liaus-Halle, Welter Krambuden 5. — Automatic Restaurant, Breite-Str. 65. 

Caf6s. Kopif, Hansa Cafe, Breite-Str. 89 & 13; Cafe Central, 
Meng-Str. 18. — Marzipan (the old English 'marchpane') is a kind of 
macaroon for which Lubeck is famous; to be had of Maret (Markt 17), 
Kopff (see above), and elsewhere. 

Post Office (PL D, 4) in the market-place. — Telegraph Office 
(PL D, 4), Schliisselbuden. 

Theatres. Stadt - Theater (PL D, E, 3), in winter only; Hansa- 
Theater (PL A, 6), varieties; Stadthalle (concerts). — Lachsivehr {VI. B, 

C, 8), a garden-restaurant on the Trave ; Forsthalle, at Israelsdorf (tram- 
way, see p. 146). — Organ Recitals (free) in summer in the Cathedral 
(Sun., at noon) and the Marien-Kirche (5 p.m. on Wed. in Aug. & Sept.). 

Taximeter Cabs. For 1-2 pers., 1000 metres 50 pf ., each 500m. more 
10 pf . ; 3-4 pers., 750m. and 375m.; at night (10-6), 500m. and 250m. 
Luggage up to 221/2 lbs. free, up to 55 lbs. 25 pf. — Also ordinary cabs. 

Electric Tramways from the Railway Station (PL A, 4) to the 
Barracks (beyond PL Gr, 6), from the Cronsforder Allee (PL E, 8) and 
MUhlen-Tor (PL F, 7) to the Burg-Tor (PL F, 1), and on to the Roeck- 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 10 

146 P^outc 23. LtBECK. Histon/. 

Str. or the Forsthalle (p. 145): from the Kohlmarkt (PL D, 4, 5) bv 
the Holsteu-Tor (PI. C, 4, 5) and Liudeu-Platz to the Schiitzenhof, and 
on to Krempelsdorf or the Schwartauer Allee. Fare 10 pf., to the Forst- 
halle 20 pf. 

Steamboats. Small steamboats ply from the Trave Pavilion (PI. C, 4) 
to Schirartau ;p. 152: 30 pf.), Israelsdorf, and Travemilnde (p. 152) on 
the Lower Trave. and to the Lachswehr (see p. 143: 10 pf.) and the 
Walk-3IiViIe (p. 151; 15 pf.) on the Upper Trave. Motor -launches to 
Moisling and Padeliigge. Large steamers to Copenhagen (quay PI. E, 1 . 
Reval. Helsinsrfors. and other ports on the Baltic. 

Baths at^ theKraheu-Teioh (PL F. 6). Warm Baths (PL F, 5). 
Hiix-Str. 130. 

British Vice-Consul, H. L. Behncke. — U. S. Agent, Wolfgang 
Gaedertz. — Lloyd's Agent, 3Iax Gaedertz. — Strangers' Enquiry 
Off.ce. Markt 15 ^Pl. C. D. 4;. 

Chief Attractions (one day). Holsten-Tor (p. 147); Rathaus p. 147) ; 
St. Mary's p. 148, ; Cathedral (p. 149): Museum (p. 150); Schiflfer-Gesell- 
schaft (p. 151) ; Kaufleute-Kompanie (p. 151) ; Holy Ghost Hospital (p. 151) ; 
Burg-Tor (p. 151): Travemiinde (p. 152). 

Liibeck. with 92,000 inliab., tlie smallest of the three in- 
dependent Hanseatic towns of the German Empire, is still a busy 
commercial industrial place. It lies 14 M. from the Baltic, on 
the Trave. the channel of which has been deepened, so as to afford 
access to vessels of 25 ft. draught, while the Elbe and Trave Canal 
(42 X. long; completed in 1900) connects it with the Elbe. Wine 
(especially claret), timber, and tar are the chief articles of trade 
at Liibeck. — The town still contains reminiscences of its mediaeval 
greatness in its lofty towers, its ancient gabled houses in the late- 
Gothic and Renaissance styles (Kohlmarkt 13, Fisch-Str. 34, etc.), 
its fortified gateways, its Gothic churches, and its venerable Rathaus. 

Liibeck was founded in 1143 by Count Adolph II. of Holstein, near 
the site of an earlier town of the Wends (Alt-Liibeck. near Schwartau), 
and shortly afterwards ceded to Henry the Lion, under whom it pros- 
pered so well that it was declared a free town of the Empire in 1226 
and invested with important municipal privileges. In 1227 Liibeck in 
alliance with the Holsteiners signally defeated the Danes at Bornhoved, 
thus releasing the surrounding country from their yoke, and soon after 
it developed considerable naval power. Liibeck's enterprising spirit, 
coupled with the increasing activity of the neighbouring towns (Rostock, 
Wismar. Greifswald. Stralsuud, Hamburg), gave rise to the foundation 
of the Hanseatic League (from -Hansa', i.e. association), an alliance 
of the great commercial towns of X. Germany, which formed a peace- 
loving, but powerful bond of union between Western and Eastern Europe. 
The first alliances were indeed soon dissolved, but in the 14th cent, they 
were eagerly renewed , in consequence of the Danes having by the 
conquest of the ancient colony of Wisby in the island of Gothland in 
1361 threatened to monopolize' the trade *of the Baltic. The war resolves 
on by the general Hanseatic Diet at Cologne in 1367 soon raised the 
League to the zenith of its power. It conquered S. Sweden (Skane) and 
Denmark and permanently garrisoned several important places within 
these countries, and by the Peace of Stralsund in 1370 it even became 
entitled to ratify the election of the next king of Denmark. The League 
enjoyed marked' prosperity for upwards of a century, and embraced 
eighty cities in all. from' Reval to Amsterdam, and from Cologne to 
Breslau and Cracow, besides owning factories at Bergen, Novgorod, Bruges, 
and London. Liibeck at that period held undisputed precedence over the 
other members of the League. Towards the close of the 15th cent, the 

Rathaus. LUBECK. 2.5. Bo7(fe. 147 

increasing power of the three Northern and the Russian empires proved 
detrimental to tlie League, and its decline was accelerated by the new 
commercial relations of Europe with America and India, which were 
chiefly carried on through the medium of England and Holland. Not- 
withstanding this , Liibeck again endeavoured to assert her ancient 
supremacy over the Baltic, and the enterprising burgomaster Jilrgen 
Wullemvever conceived tlie bold project of establishing a dominion over 
the Danish kingdom (1531-35). But these schemes proved abortive, and 
a war against Sweden in 1563-70, although not unattended with glory, 
led to no practical result. Liibeck's power thenceforth declined, although 
she preserved her position as a free city of the Empire, and continued 
to enjoy considerable commercial prosperity. The form of government 
is the same as that of Hamburg (p. 119). 

In the history of Medieval Architecture Liibeck is a place of 
great importance, owing to the care with which brick building was 
practised here. This style was chiefly cultivated during the Grothic period. 
Tlie Liibeck style of church-architecture, particularly that of the Marien- 
Kirche, has extended to Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Prussia, Brandenburg, 
and to the W. far beyond the frontiers of Holstein. The material was 
unsuitable for rich plastic decoration, and compelled the architects to 
simplify their forms. Thus the buildings arc destitute of foliage ; the 
capitals are trapezium-shaped instead of cubical, and there are no slender 
columns ; but those peculiarities led to new structural and decorative 
beauties. Great attention was paid to the vaulting; spacious halls were 
constructed without difficulty ; surfaces, otherwise blank, were enlivened 
by moulded stones ; and coloured bricks were introduced for the same 
purpose. The external architecture of the churches appears plain and 
clumsy, owing to the sparing use of flying buttresses, but the interiors 
are generally imposing. 

From the new Railway Station (PL A, 4) we cross the Puppen- 
Brilcke (PL B, 4, 5) to a small park with a bronze Statue of 
Prince Bismarck, by Hnndrieser (1903). Hence we enter the town 
by the inner "^Holsten-Tor (PL C, 4), a fine specimen of a mediaeval 
fortified gateway, completed in 1478 and restored in 1871. The 
Holsten-Strasse leads straight to the Market Place (PL D, 4), 
which contains the Post Office and is adorned by a Grothic Fountaiii^ 
erected in 1873. — The Breite-Strasse, skirting the market-place 
on the E., is the busiest street in the city. 

The *Itathaus (PL D, 4), occupying the N.E. corner of the 
market-place, a Grothic brick building (13-1 5th cent.) with huge 
gables and quaint spires, consists of two buildings adjoining each 
other at right angles (comp. p. xxxi). In 1570 the principal part 
of the building, adjoining the market-place, was embellished with 
an entrance-hall in the Benaissance style, and in 1594 a handsome 
staircase in the same style (restored in 1895) was constructed on 
the side next the Breite-Strasse. In front of the main entrance in 
the Breite-Str. are two 'Beischliige' (see p. 353), with metal reliefs 
of 1452, The N. f agade is adorned with paintings of German emperors, 
princes, civic dignitaries, and chroniclers, by Liitgendorfl". 

The Interior (open 9-6; adm. by tickets obtained from the keeper, 
to the left, in the main entrance ; 30 pf .) underwent a complete restoration 
in the late-Gothic style in .1887-91. The main entrance (see above) leads 
into a square Vestibule. On the groundfloor, to the right, are the Azcdience 
or Senate Room, rebuilt in the rococo style in 175JL-GO (door of 1573; 


148 Bonte 23. LtBECK. St. Mary's. 

paintings by Torelli. of Bologna), the Borsen-Nebensadl (with gallery sup- 
ported by columns and ceiling-paintings, ancient civic coats-of-arms, etc.), 
and the Borsen- Saah A gorgeous staircase, supported by pillars of 
glazed tiles, with richly-painted arches and a mural painting by Koch 
(Henry the Lion receiving the homage of Liibeck; comp. p. 146), ascends 
from the vestibule to the First Floor, with the BUrgerschafts-Saal, 
adorned with mural paintings by Koch. Among the more ancient apart- 
ments is the ^Kriegsstube (*War Chamber' : 1594-1608), with a richly- 
carved door, beautiful inlaid wall-panelling, and a sandstone and alabaster 
mantelpiece (1595). The decorations are due to Tonnies Evers the Younger ; 
the cassetted ceiling is new. The ancient Hansestic Hall, in the X. part 
of the upper floor, in which the diets were held, was destroyed in 1817. 
The Ratskeller (see p. 145; entrance from the Market), with its 
remarkable late-Romanesque and Gothic vaulting and columns, was last 
restored in 1900. The Bansa-Saal is adorned with the arms of the Hansa 
towns (1889). The sandstone Chimney Piece in the *Braut-Gremach' bears 
the quaint inscription of 1575: 'Menich Man lude synghet. wen men em 
de Brut bringet ; weste he wat men em brochte, dat he wol wenen mochte' 
(many a man sings loudly when they bring him his bride; if he knew 
what they brought him, he might well weep). The Admiral's Table is 
said to be made of a plank of the last admiral's ship of Liibeck (1570). 
The Admiral's Room ( Admiralzimmer) is adorned with humorous mural 
paintings by Liitgendorff (1887). 

A few paces to the X. of the market rises the * Church of 
St. Mary (PL D, 4), one of the most admirable examples of low- 
German brick architecture, which has served as a model for nu- 
merous churches in this part of the country. It was indebted for 
its origin in 1251-1310 to the ambition of the citizens to have their 
principal church larger than the cathedral of the bishop. The plan 
is similar to that of the French cathedrals, the aisles being lower 
than the nave, which is not the case with most of the brick churches. 
It is 335 ft. long: transept 186 ft. in width; nave 127 ft. and aisles 
69 ft. high; spires about 410 ft. high. A chime of bells in the 
small E. tower plays a chorale at the hours and half-hours. 

Interior (open all day. entr. by S. door; tickets, 30 pf., for closed 
chapels obtained from the sacristan at Xo. 8 in the neighbouring Meng-Str., 
who. however, is generally in the church in the afternoon). On the wall 
to the left of the S. door is a fine memorial brass of the Wigerinck 
family by Peter Yischer (1518). Farther on, to the left, are the Stalls of 
the Skane (S. Sweden) Sailors (1506). adjoining which is the Briefkapelle 
(chapel of letters, built in 1310). so named because portraits of saints with 
written or printed prayers were once sold here, with groined vaulting 
supported by two slender monoliths, 28 ft. high ; *Altar with scenes from 
the life of the Virgin, carved at Antwerp, and painted in the style of 
the Louvain school (1518). — Yost of 1337 (the best view of the church 
is from this point). — Beneath the organ is the Chapel of the Bergen 
Sailors, with fine carved stalls and bronze screen (1518). In this chapel, 
to the right, a diptych, with the Conversion of St. Olaf , King of Xorway, 
patron-saint of the "Bergenfahrer". or mariners of the northern seas,^ by 
J. Kemmer (1524). Stained-glass windows. — The Dance of Death, in a 
chapel on the left, is a copy (1701) of the original of 1463. — In front 
of the next chapel r Qerice-Kammer) is a stone Madonna of 1420. — In 
the chapel is the Taking leave of the body of the Saviour, painted by 
F. Overbed: in 1846; perhaps his best work. — The Sacristy contains 
some good carving from the old high-altar, representing scenes from the 
fife of the Virgin and the Passion of Christ (1425). The silver statuettes 
lormerly here have been replaced by figures copied from the St. Sebaldus 

Cathedral. LUBECK. 25. Route. 149 

shrine at Nuremberg. — Farther to the N. hangs an admirable old winged 
picture, the Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, and Flight into Egypt, 
painted in 1518. — The Clock at the back of the high-altar, dating from 
1561-66, has mechanical figures which move at noon. To the right and 
left of the clock are *Stonc Reliefs (1498) of Christ washing his Dis- 
ciples' feet, the Last Supper (at the foot a black mouse gnawing at the 
roots of an oak, the ancient emblem of the city), Gethsemane, and Tak- 
ing of Christ. — The so-called Beicht-Kapelle, to the E., at the back 
of the choir, contains an altar-piece with the Crucifixion and the Death 
of the Virgin, by Hcrm. Rode (1494), and also Overbeck^s Entry of 
Christ into Jerusalem. The *Stained Glass of three of the windows 
in this chapel was executed about 1400, and removed hither from the 
old Burg-Kirche. — To the right, on the choir-wall, is a winged altar 
of about 1520 (in the centre Adoration of the Trinity, after Diircr). Mass 
of St. Gregory, a 'tempera' painting of the early 16th century. Painted 
statue of St. Anthony (2nd half of 15th cent.). — Marble High Altar of 
1697, by Thomas Quellinus, of Antwerp, adjoined by a graceful Gothic 
*Ciborium of 1479, restored in 1855. — The Choir Screen has some stucco 
sculptures (ca. 1520) and paintings (some by J. Willinges, 1595, others 
older). On the first pillar to the right, fine statue of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, in painted wood (1520). Some fine wood-carving on the benches 
(14-18th cent.), several brasses of the 15th and 16th cent., the Renaissance 
epitaphs, the pulpit of 1691, and the screens are also worthy of notice. 
— The organ-loft of the largest of the three organs (W. side ; 5134 pipes 
and 81 stops) is in the ornate style of the latest Gothic period (1516-18). 

In the Meng-Str. (No. 36) is the Schahhel-Sti flung (PL D, 3, 4), 
an old patrician residence, with a museum of local art (restaurant 
in front). 

To the S.W., near the market, is the Church of St. Peter 
(PL D, 5; sacristan, Grrosse Petersgrube 2), founded in the first half 
of the 13th cent., and converted into the present Gothic edifice with 
double aisles early in the 14th century. The tower is 282 ft. high. 

Among the objects of interest in the Interior are the monumental 
*Brass of Burgomaster Klingenberg (d. 1356), which was executed in 
Flanders ; a smaller brass of Liideke Lammeshoft (15tli cent.), with the 
Crucifixion and donors ; the organ, with rich carvings by Tonnies Evers 
(1587-90) ; an artistic clock (1605) ; and a carved wooden pulpit with 
reliefs (ca. 1665). 

We now cross the Klingenberg (PL D, 5), where there is a 
handsome Fountain, 36 ft. in height (1875), and proceed to the S., 
passing the modern Roman Catholic Church (PL D, 6), to the ^- 

*Cathedral (PL D, 6; sacristan, Hartengrube 3, in summer 

generally in the church 10-11.30 & 2-4.30: ticket for the chapels 

30 pf.), founded by Henry the Lion in 1173, enlarged in the 13th 

cent., and completed in the 14th cent.; towers 394 ft. high. The 

*Porch of the N. aisle, a gem of the transition style, dates from 

the middle of the 13th cent, (restored in 1890); the inner portal, 

with garlands, fantastic animals, and polished columns of black 

slate, is especially worthy of attention. 

Interior (entr. by N. door). Beneath the organ (1699) is a font of 
1155. In the wall of the S. aisle is the *Brass of Bishop Tiedemann 
(d. 1561). — The pulpit, with seven alabaster reliefs (1568), is enclosed 
by an iron railing of 1572. Opposite is a Last Judgment, by B. Wulff 
(1673). — Choir-screen of the late 15th cent. ; in front of it, a large 

150 ^ouic 23. LfBECK. Museum. 

crucifix dating from 1477. repainted in 1894. In the Choir, the recumbent 
bronze ^Figure of Bishop Bocholt (d. 1341), probably of Flemish workman- 
ship. — High Altar of 1696. with a Crucifixion by J. H. Tischbein. 
The sedilia to the right, erected by Bishop Bocholt, should be noticed. — 
The Archiepiscopal Chapel contains sarcophagi of the last prince- 
bishops. — In the Mulsche-Kapelle the large *Brass of Bishops von 
Serken and von Mul. Xetherlandish workmanship of the 14th cent. ; Ma- 
donna of 1509 in coloured stucco. — The altar-piece in the Greveraden 
Chapel is a double ^Triptj-ch by Memling (1491). On the external 
shutters is represented the Annunciation , in grisaille ; on the inner 
shutters the lifesize figures of SS. Blasius, John the Baptist, Jerome, 
and ^gidius, the patron -saints of the donor. Canon Adolf Greverade. 
These saints, with their rich warm tones, rank with the artist's master- 
pieces. The inner pictures are scenes from the Passion; a Crucifixion 
occupies the principal place in the centre. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the S. is the *Museuin (PI. B, 7), a 
G-othic edifice built in 1892 by Schicienwg. The E. wing includes 
remains of the old cathedral-cloisters. Open free on Sun., 11-4, 
and Thurs., 4-6 (in winter 2-4); adm. on other days, 10-3, 50 pf., 
on application to the custodian on the S. side of the building. 
Catalogue 30 pf. 

Ground Floor (Lower Section). Museum of Liibeck Art and History. 
To the right of the entrance : Architectural specimens ; prehistoric anti- 
quities : weapons : seals : portraits of local celebrities ; views of Liibeck ; 
musical and scientific instruments ; instruments of torture. — To the 
left of the entrance: Weapons (*Xo. 143, dagger with chasing and niello- 
work), military apparatus, costumes, ornaments (3507. So-called 'Girdle 
of Luba"). boats, coaches, coins, weights, and measures. — W. Corner 
Room: Domestic articles, guild-utensils. 

Grouxd Floor (Upper Section). In front and to the right: In- 
dustrial Museum. — To the X.: Ecclesiastical Collection, including 
tasteful altar-screens of 1484. 1496, 1500. 1522, etc.; ivory diptychs ; 
clerical vestments; altar utensils; crucifixes; educational appliances. — 
To the left of the entrance : Etlinograjihicol Collection. 

^NlAiy Floor. The S. and E. rooms contain the interesting Natural 
History Collection. — In the W. wing is the Commercial Museum. 

Upper Floor. Plaster Casts. In the rooms to the W. is the Pic- 
ture Gallery. 

To the X.E. of the cathedral is the late-Gothic Convent of 
St. Anne tPl. E, 6 : 1 502-10 1. in the St. Annen-Str., now a penitentiary, 
and greatly disfigured by fire. The Church of St. ^gidius (PI. E, b) 
is a somewhat cumbrous structure of the 14th century. In the in- 
terior (entr. on W. side ; sexton, iEgidien-Kirchhof) are a richly- 
carved organ-case (1625). a screen by Tonnies Evers the Younger 
(1587), and a bronze font of 1453. 

The Church of St. Catharine (PI. E, Si, now secularized and 
used for exhibitions, is a fine (rothic structure of the middle of the 
14th cent., with a lofty nave and an elevated choir borne by columns. 
Below the choir is a brass of Burgomaster Liineborg (d. 1461). 

The old Franciscan Convent, which adjoins the church on 
the S., has been restored several times since the Reformation. The 
building now contains the Katharineurn (a 'gymnasium- and a 'real 
gymnasium'), the Public Library^ founded in 1620 (open daily, 

St. James's. LUBECK. ^5. Brmte. 151 

except Sun., 10-2; cntr., Hundc-Str. 1), with upwards of 120,000 
vols., and a Cabinet of Coins, with a complete series of Liibeck 
coins and medals. — Tlie Stadt-Theater (PL D, E, 3) was built by 
Diilfer in 1908. 

The Church of St. James (PI. E, 3 ; sacristan, Konigs-Str. 2), 
a Gothic building of the 14th cent., contains a fine flight of steps 
(ca. 1620), adorned with carving and intarsia-work, leading below 
the Gothic organ to the choir. In the Bromsen-Kapelle is an in- 
teresting Altar of about 1500. 

Opposite the W. Portal of the church, Breite-Str. 2, is the hand- 
some house of the *SchifFer-Gesellschaft (PI. D, E, 3; see 
p. 145), built in 1535 and remodelled in 1880. The little altered 
interior is an interesting example of a guild-house. On the walls 
are pictures of Scriptural subjects, repainted in oils in the 17th 
century. Models of ships and bronze candelabra hang from the 
roof. — The house of the Kaufleute-Kompanie (PI. D, E, 3), 
Breite-Str. 6, rebuilt in 1840, contains some admirable wood-carving, 
particularly in the old * Fredenhagen Room, executed in 1573-85 
(open daily; fee). 

The Hospital zum Heiligen Geist (PI. E, F, 3; adm. by 
ticket 20 pf.), in the Geibel-Platz, is an admirably organized alms- 
house, completed in 1286. The fagade shows three gables and five 
turrets. A fine early -Gothic chapel, dating from the early part 
of the 13th cent., serves as an entrance-hall. The chapel was re- 
painted in 1898. The scenes from the legend of St. Elizabeth, on 
the screen, date from about 1420 and were restored in 1894. From 
the entrance-hall we enter a large ecclesiastical-looking room con- 
taining about 140 cubicles. — In the Geibel-Platz is a seated 
bronze figure, by Yolz, of Emanuel Geibel (1815-1884), the poet, 
who was born in Liibeck. 

The Law Courts (PI E, 2), built in 1896, incorporate the 
cloisters and several rooms of the old Burgkloster. Above an old 
archway at the N.E. corner of the building are some excellently 
executed grotesque wood-carvings. 

The ""Burg-Tor (PL F, 2), the K gate of the town, is a lofty 
brick structure of 1444. Near this point the Battle of Liibeck took 
place on Nov. 6th, 1806, between Bliicher, with the wreck of the 
Prussian army after the battle of Jena, and the pursuing French 
marshals Bernadotte, Soult, and Murat. — Good views of the Trave 
and harbour are enjoyed from the grounds outside the Burg-Tor and 
from the bridge over the canal. 

On the left bank of the Trave, between Schicartau and Hei'venwiek, are 
several factories and large blast furnaces. — The Walk-3IuhIe(TestaiiTixnt), 
2 M. from the Miihlen-Tor, is a favourite resort (steamboat, see p. 146). 

A branch-railway (13 M., in 30-40 min.; fares 1 J^ GO, 1 JC, 65 pf.) 
runs from Liibeck past (71/2 M.) Waldhusen to Travemundc. The 'Hun's 

152 Bonte 23. PLON. From Hamburg 

Grave', discovered in 1843 about 1 M. from Waldhusen (pretty forest- 
path;, is one of the largest tumnli of the kind in Germany. — 121/2 M. 
Travemunde {Hot. de Eiissie . R. 2-4. D. 21.2 JC. very fair), a small 
town with 2000 inhab., was the port of Liibeck before the deepening of 
the river. The train goes on to (13 M.) Travemunde-Strand (*Kur- 
Jiaus. R. & B. 3-71/2, D. 21/2-4, pens. 61/2-IO c^; * Strand Hotel; restaurant 
in the Strand Pavilion: visitors' tax I'^joJC). frequented for sea-bathing. 
Prctt^' walks. — About 31 2 M. to the N.W. of Travemunde (omnibus in 
summer. 60 pf.) is Xiendorf, another sea-bathing place. 

From Liibeck to Buchen (Berlin), see p. 156. 

From Lubeck to Kiel, 50 M.. railway in 11/2-23/^ hrs. — The train 
follows the left bank of the Trave. 31/2 M*. Sclncartau (Erbgrossherzog). 
a favourite resort from Liibeck. Fine view from the Bismarck Tower 
(20 min.). — 20 M. Eutin rVoss-Haus, sec below, R. 21/2-3, B. 1, D. 
21 o. pens. Q-l Ji. well spoken of; Stadt Hamburg : Hoi steinischer ilof : 
Bahnhofs-Hotel, R. 13 4-2. B. 3^ jc: Victoria, R. & B. li 2-3. D. 11/2 .^;, 
a town with 5400 inhab., pleasantly situated between the Grosse and 
Kleine Eutiner- See . was the seat of a bishop from 1162 to 1535, and 
now belongs to the grand-duchy of Oldenburg. Its Schloss has pretty 
grounds. Weber (1786-1826), the composer, was born here, in a house 
in the Liibecker-Str. (Xo. 26), denoted by an inscription. His monument 
is in a grove to the S. of the town.* Count Stolberg, the friend of 
Goethe, and the poet Toss (monument in front of the gymnasium) also 
resided here, and their houses, in the Hinter-Str., are indicated by 
memorial tablets. Toss's house, formerly the rectory, is now a hotel. 
Eutin is situated in the prettiest part of Holstein (automobile lines to 
various points'. From Eutin to OrtJi. see below. 

The scenerv between Eutin and Ascheberg is verv prettv. — 25 M. 
Malente-Gremsmiitilen C^Park Hotel: Brahmberg,^B.. 13/4-21/2, B. 3/^^, 
very fair: Bellevue. R.&B. 2i 2-3<^: visitors' tax S,^j, a frequented summer- 
resort, charmingly situated on the Dieksee, with interesting walks. From 
Malente to Liitjenhurg, see below. 

30 M. Plon rZum Prinzen. R. from 2. D. 21/4 JC, very fair; Deutscher 
Kaiser : Post), with 3750 inhab., is very picturesquely situated between 
the Grosse and Kleine Ploner-See. The Prussian military school was 
once a royal Danish chateau. A pleasant walk of 1V2"2 ^i^'S- niay be 
taken as follows : from the station by the Eutin road to (1/4 M.) See- 
garten (with garden-restaurant; boats), on the Grosse See. commanding 
a good view. Then to the Steinberg (view), and by the Liitjenburg road 
round the Scholisee to the Parnass (*Tiew ; 20 pf.) and the Biberhohe 
(restaurant). 1/2 M. from the station. 

The railway skirts the X. bank of the Grosse Ploner-See. 35 M. 
Ascheberg (Rail. Hotel), junction for Xeumiinster (p. 135). The Kiel 
line turns to the X. and skirts the Lanker-See. — 40 M. Preetz (Stadt 
Hamburg) possesses a convent for ladies of noble birth, founded in the 
13th century. Pop. 5050. A busy manufacture of shoes is carried on here. 

50 M. Kiel, see p. 135. 

[From Euxiy to Orth. 53 M.. railway in 51/2 hrs. — 10 M. Neustadt 
(Stadt Hamburg: Marienbad;. with 4800 inhabitants. — 241/2 M. Oldenburg 
(Stadt Hamburg.' R. 2-3 c4^). ' an ancient town on the Brokau, with 2500 
inhabitants. — 34 M. LUtjenbrode. junction of a branch-line to (21/2 M.) 
Heiligenhafen (Kurhaus. pens. 5-6 Ji\ Kurhaus Warteburg, R. 2-21/0^), 
a seaside-resort with 2400 inhabitants. ' From (39 M.) Grossenbroder Fdhre 
a ferrv-steamer plies to Fehmarn (10 min.; Lloyd's agent, E. Aereboe). 
44 ^i.'Burg. — 53 M. Orth.] 

[From ;^LLLEXTE-GREMSMUHI>E^- to Lutjexburg, IO1/2 M., railway in 
34 hr.. traversing the most picturesque part of Holstein, known as the 
Holstein Switzerland, with the Keller-See, the *Uklei or Uglei-See, the 
Bungsberg. and other points. Good inns. — 101/2 M. Liitjenburg (pop. 
2200; Stadt Hamburg) has an ancient church with a monument of 1608.] 





?*% \. 




'Neinmmster xHosnlna-g mi^ 

'.amyrarpXO * l{»B)Kn.»)r 


to Stettin. ROSTOCK. 25. Route. 153 

Beyond Liibeck the railway to Stettin runs towards the E. 
From (61^2 M.) Grevesmiihlen (Rail. Restaurant) a light railway 
runs to (9^2 ^0 Klutz^ whence a diligence plies to (2^2 ^0 Bolten- 
hagen (Grossherzog von Mecklenburg, pens. 4Y2-5V2 ^)i ^ sea- 
bathing place. At (76 M.) Kleinen (Railway Restaurant, good) our 
line intersects the railway from Ludwigslust (Berlin) to Schwerin 
and Wismar (R. 25), and farther on it skirts the Lake of Schwerin. 
At (87 Yg ^') Blankenherg (Sail. Restaurant) we cross the line from 
Wismar to Karow and Neustadt (p. 157). — 102 M. Biitzow (Hotel 
de Prusse), a little town with 5900 inhabitants. 

From Bijtzow to Rostock, 19 M., railway in V2"V4 ^^- ^^^ 
line runs first on the right, then on the left bank of the Warnow. 

— 9Y2 Schwaan. 

19 M. Rostock. — Hotels. *Ro8tocker Hof (P\. c; D, 3), Hopfen- 
Markt 11, R. 3-5, B. 1, D. 21/2 ^, with restaurant; FUrst Blilcher (PL d; 
D, 3), Bliicher-Str. 24, R. 2-4, B. 1, D. 21/4 JC, with garden and restaurant; 
Hotel de Russie (PI. a; D, 3), Neue Markt 9, R. 21/2-4, B. 1, D. 21/2 JC, 
with restaurant; Sonne (PI. b; E, 3), Neue Markt 2, R. 1 1/2-4 «^; 
Pohley's (PI. f ; D, 3), Stein-Str. 7; Central-Bahnhofs-Hotel (PL g; C, 5), 
R. from 11/2 JC. 

Restaurants. Railway Restaurant; Winter gai^ten, Breite-Str. 23, D. 
1 JC 60 pf.; Kli7igenberg, Friedrich-Franz-Str. 109; Fritz Renter Keller, 
in the Sonne Hotel (see above). — Wine Rooms : FUrst Blilcher, see above ; 
Ratsweinkeller, D. 2JC; Geccelli, Stein-Str. 16; Evert, Hopfen-Markt 29. 

— Automatic Restaurant, Blut-Str. — Cafe Flint, Hopfen-Markt 16. 

Theatres. Town Theatr-e (PL E, 4), open in winter only. — Mahn 
& OhlericWs Keller (PL A, 2), a place of popular resort. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PL D, 3), Wall-Promenade. 

Cab from the Central Station to the town 60 pf., trunk 15 pf. ; per 
1/2 hr. for 1-2 pers. 75 pf., per hr. I1/2 JC ; between 10 and 11 p.m. 50 pf. 
extra, after 11p.m. double fares (minimum l^j^JC). — Tramways through 
the principal streets (comp. the Plan). 

Steamboat 15-25 times daily in the season to Warnemiinde in 1 hr. 
(25 pf.), starting at the ZoUspeicher (PL E, 1). Comp. p. 154. 

British Yice- Consul, H. Ohlerich. — Lloyd's Agent, C. C. E. 

Chief Attractions (3-4hrs.). Bliicher-Platz, Hopfen-Markt, St. Mary's, 
Neue Markt, Grosse Wasser-Strasse, Museum of Art, Wall-Promenade, and 

Hostocky with 61,000 inhab., once a prominent member of the 
Hanseatic League (p. 146), the most important place in Mecklen- 
burg, and the seat of a university (over 750 students), lies about 
8 M. from the Baltic, on the left bank of the Warnoiv, which is 
550 yds. wide, and deep enough for vessels of moderate tonnage to 
enter the town. The town still retains a picturesque, mediaeval 
appearance. The visitor will observe a number of tasteful Grothic 
dwelling-houses, some of which are adorned with coloured bricks 
(Grosse Wasser-Str., S. side of Am Schild, Hopfen-Markt 28, etc.). 

The central point of the old town is the Neue Markt, which con- 
tains the Bathaus (PL E, 3), built in the beginning of the 14th cent. ; 
the old Grothic fagade with its seven turrets is concealed by a build- 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 11 

154 Route 23. ROSTOCK. From Hamburg 

ing which was added iu 1727. Near it, to the X.W., is the Church of 
St. Mary iPl. D, 2; open daily, from June 15th to Sept. 15th, 11-1 ; 
sacristan, Marieukirch-Platz 8i, crowned by two Romanesque tow- 
ers, with an ambulatory of the 13th century. It contains a Roman- 
esque font of bronze ^1290), a carved-wood altar (end of the 15th cent.), 
and a curious astronomical clock in the late-Renaissance style (1643). 

In the quarter to the E. of the Rathaus is the Church of St, 
XichoJas (PL F, 3: open as St. Mary's; sacristan, Bei der Nicolai- 
kirche 1), of the early 14th cent., restored in 1893; it has a carved 
altar (ca. 1470), interesting mural paintings (15th cent.), and a 
curious old crucifix. To the S. rises the lofty tower of St. Peter's 
Church (PL F, 2: 15th cent.), 433 ft. high. Adjacent is the mon- 
ument (PI. 12j of the Reformer Joachim Slilter (d. 153^2). 

From the Xeue Markt diverges, to the W., the Blut-Str., con- 
tinued by the long Hopfen-Markt (both containing a number of med- 
iaeval houses), and leading to the Blticher-Platz (PL C, D, 3). In 
this square rises Schadow"s bronze Statue of Blucher (11 4:2-lS19), 
who was born in the Bliicher-Str., in the house Xo. 22, marked by 
a tablet. The inscription is by G-oethe. 

On the left (S.) side of the square are the Grand Ducal Palace 
(PL 4; C, 3) and the Church of the Holy Cross (14th cent.), con- 
taininff well-executed carved hio^h-altars of the 15th centurv. On 
the W. is the Geological & Mineralogical Institute (open free on 
Sun. & Wed.. 11-1). Adjoining this on the X. is the University 
(PL 14: C, 3), a brick structure in the Renaissance style, built in 
1867-70 and adorned with statues and medallion-portraits; the lib- 
rary contains 340,000 volumes (open on week-days, 11-1). 

The Kropeliner-Str. leads from the Bliicher-Platz to the Kro- 
peliner-Tor (PL B, 2i, a brick structure of the 14th cent., with an 
addition of 1847. 

In the Stein-Str., to the S. of the Xeue Markt, is the Municipal 
MusEUii OF Art axd Axtiquities (PL 7, D 4: open free on Sun. & 
Wed., 11-1.30: at other times on application to the caretaker, fee), 
containing prehistoric antiquities, coins, models, weapons, relics of 
Bliicher. furniture, costumes, etc. The picture gallery is on the first 
floor. The Stein-Str. ends at the Stein-Tor (PL D,''E, 3), rebuilt 
in 1575. Adjoining the gate is the Stdndehaus (PL 12a; D, 3), 
erected in 1889-93; outside it is the Town Theatre (PL E, 4). 

To the W. of the Stein-Tor is the Promenade , laid out on the 
site of the old ramparts, with a bronze statue of Grand Duke 
Frederick Francis III. (d. 1897), by Wandschneider. 

Small steamers ply twice an hour (5 pf.) from the N. eud of the 
Schnickmann-Str. 'PI. "C. D. 1) to Gehlsdorf (restaurant in the ferry- 
house), on the right bank of the Warnow, with the lunatic asylum of 
GehJsheim. About I1/2 M. farther on is Toitenwinkel, with an interest- 
ing old church. 

From Rostock to Warnemunde, railway, see p. 163 ; steamer, see p. 153. 

_^arDeiTmnde ^ 


-*4:^.W-:^ ^Jpmm 

^ t/i > 







r ^^, 

to Stettin. GUSTROW. 23. Route. 155 

From Rostock to Wismar , 36 M., railway in 13/4 hr. - 10 M. 
Doberan (Logierhaus : Lindenhof ; Erbgrossherzog), on the Baltic, a 
pleasant little town (5200 inhab.) with a chalybeate spring. The fine 
Gothic * Church was completed in 1588 and restored in 1881-1900. It 
contains some interesting tombs, choir-stalls of the 14th cent., a large 
ciborium, etc. (adm., 1-4 pers., 1 J^). A steam -tramway runs from the 
station through the town to (41/2 M.) the sea-bathing resort of Heiligen- 
damm (Kurhaiis, R. 2-10, board 6 JC; Krieg, pens. 5-8 JC ; Scherpeltz ; 
Dunker), situated near fine beech-woods. Sea-bath 50-75 pf. ; visitors' tax, 
5 JC per week. — 151/2 M. Kropelin (Haase) is the station for the bathing- 
resorts of Bninshaupten and Arendsee. — 36 M. Wismcu^ see p. 161. 

From Rostock to Greifsvvald (p. 164), 60 M., railway in 4 hrs. 

From Rostock to Stralsund, see p. 166; to Berlin via Neu-Strelitz, 
see p. 163 ; to Copenhagen, sec Baedeker^ s Norway, Sweden, and Den^nark. 

The Mecklenburg Line proceeds from the Biitzow junction in 
an easterly direction to (110 M.) Giistrow (Erhgrossherzog, R. 
2-3, D. 2^4 t/^; Hotel de B.ussie, both good; Germania, well 
spoken of), a town of 17,700 inhab., with an old ducal fSchloss 
(1558-70; now a house of correction) and a brick Cathedral of the 
13th cent., with ducal and other monuments. The Grothic Parish 
Church has a double- winged *Altar Screen of 1522; the wood- 
carving is by Jan Rorman of Brussels, and the oil-paintings by the 
Flemish court-painter B. van Orley (sacristan, Griinwinkel 37). In 
the public gardens is a Memorial Fountain to Brinckman (d. 1870), 
the Piatt -Deutsch poet. — Branch -line hence to Karow (p. 156). 

I36V2 M. Malchin {Hotel de Russie, R. 21/2-3, B. 21/2 ^#, 
very fair), a town with 7200 inhab. and two gates of the 15th cent., 
situated in the plain of the Peene, between the Cummer ower- See 
and Malchiner-See. The fiinest points of the pretty environs (the 
'Mecklenburg Switzerland') may be visited by carriage in an after- 
noon (10-12 ^l). — Branch -line from Malchin to Basedow and 
(I71/2 M.) Waren (p. 163). 

143 M. Stavenhagen (pop. 3400; Fritz Renter Hotel) is the 
birthplace of Fritz Renter (1810-74), the Platt-Deutsch poet. — 
164 M. Neu-Brandenburg (Bail. Bestaurant ; Goldene Kugel, 
R. 2-4, D. 21/2 ^^; Deutsches Haus), with 11,500 inhab., situated 
on the Tollense-See and enclosed by a wall (25 ft. high) and ram- 
parts. It has an early-Gothic church (St. Mary's) of the 14th cent, 
and four picturesque Gothic gates. To the S. of the station are a sta- 
tue of Fritz Beuter (see above), ^War Monument, and, in the Palais- 
Str., the Grand Ducal Palace and the Municipal Art Gallery. 

Neu-Brandenburg is the junction for the Berlin Nordbahn (to Stral- 
sund ; see p. 163) and for Ludwigslust (p. 156). 

At (185 M.) Strashurg in der Uckermarh (Preussischer Hof ; 
6800 inhab.) we enter Prussia. Branch-lines to Prenzlau (p. 163) 
and to Blankensee (p. 163). — 196 M. Pasewalk (p. 163), the 
junction of the line from Berlin to Stralsund via Angermiinde. 

223 M. Stettin, see p. 345. 



24. From Hamburg to Berlin. 

178 M. Railway in Si^-^Vo l^rs. {express fares 24 JC 70, 15 JC 90, 
9 ^ 90 pf. ; ordinary fares tt Jc 70, 13 ^ 90, 8 ^ 90 pf .). 

Hamburg, see p. 115. — 10\ ^^I. Bergedorf (EerTi^iohi)^ where 
the peasant-women of the Vierlande, wearing a peculiar and pictur- 
esque costume, offer fi'uit and flowers for sale, belongs to Hamburg. 
The Stadt Hamburg Hotel is an interesting frame-building of 1669. 

— 13 M. Reinhek: 15^/2 M. Aumuhle, with a Bismarck tower. — 
16^ 2 ^^- Friedrichsruh (Prohlj, with the chateau where Prince 
Bismarck died on July 30th, 1898 (no admission). Close by is his 
mausoleum (special permission necessary;. — 23 M. Sckwarzenhek. 

30 M. Bnchen is the junction of lines to Ltineburg (p. 114) 
and to Liibeck. 

From Buchex to Lubeck, 30 M., railway in I-IV* lir- — The first 
important station is (11 M.) MoUn (Kurhaus: Stadt Hamburg; Ger- 
'/naniu), a town and summer-resort of 4500 inhab., with numerous med- 
iaeval buildings, pleasantly situated between two lakes. The popular 
German jester. Till Eulenspiegel. is said to have died here in 1350, in 
proof of which his tombstone (really of the 16th cent.) with an owl 
("Eule') and mirror ('Spiegel*) upon it and various personal relics are 
shown in the tower of the interesting old Church (restored in 1896-99). 

171 2 M. Ratzeburg rBatskeUer, R. 2-21.2. B. 1, D. 2J^; Stadt Ham- 
burg. R. 11/2-2 JC; Bail. Restaurantj, a town with 4300 inhab., formerly 
a celebrated episcopal see. is charmingly situated on an island between 
the Ratzeburger-See and the Kiiohen-See. The handsome late-Romanesque 
'^Cathedral, begun about 1173 and completed in the 13th cent., was restored 
in 1895. The interior contains several very ancient tombstones, includ- 
ing some of the early bishops. The richly decorated pulpit is in the 
Renaissance style (1576). To the left of the altar is the so-called Apostle 
Cabinet, with a fine stone-relief of the Crucifixion (15th cent.) and a 
silver statue of Christ on the top ; the silver figures of the apostles 
have vanished and are replaced by silvered porcelain figures after Thor- 
valdsen. The font, to the right of the choir, dates from 1440. The 
remains of a Romanesque-Gothic Monastery (partially restored in 1898) 
may be seen to the X. of the cathedral. The mediaeval mural paintings 
in the cloisters have been refreshed. — The visitor should make a trip 
by ferry (10 pf .) from the cathedral to the Bdk (inn) : or walk round the 
Kiichen-See to (^ ^ hr.) Waldesruh (restaurant : motor-boat daily) and the 
(34 hr.) Weinberg (restaurant), and thence back to the (1/4-1/2 hr.) town. 

22 M. Sarau; 25 M. Blankensee. — 30 M. Liibeck^ see p. 145. 

59 M. Hagenow-Land is the junction for Schwerin and Rostock 
(R. 25) and also for Ratzeburg isee above) via Zarrentin. 

72 M. Ludwigslust (Hot. de Weimar) is a residence of the 
Duke of Mecklenburg -Schwerin, with a chateau (1775) and park. 
Pop. 6800. 

From Ludwigslust to XEu-BRAyDEXBURCf. 88 M.. railway in 51/2 hrs. 

— 16 M. Parchim ^Wall-Hotelj. a small town with 10,400 inhab.. on 
the navigable Elde. is the birthplace of the famous Prussian field-marshal 
Count Moltke (1800-1891). to whom a monument, by Brunow, was erected 
here in 1876. — 38 yi. Karon: fRail. Restaurant). A branch-line runs 
hence to Giistrow (p. 155). — 60 M. Waren (p. 163). — 88 M. Neu-Bratide7i- 
biirg. see p. 155. 

From Ludwigslust to Schuerin, see R. 25. 

SCHWERIN. 25. Route. 157 

99 M. Wittenberge (Bail. Restaurant, good; Germania, 
R. 2-21/2 .///; Hiller, R. Vj.^-2 Jt), an industrial town of 18,500 
inhab., on the Elbe, is tlie junction for Magdtibur^ and Leipzig via 
Stendal (comp. p. 249), for Liineburg and Buchholz (p. 133), and of 
a branch-line via Perleherg to Neu-Strelitz (p. 163). 

From (115 M.) Glowen a short branch-line runs to Havelhercj 
(Stadt Magdeburg), with a fine Romanesque cathedral of 1170 (in- 
terior restored in 1892). Pop. 6000. 

At (131 M.) Neustadt (Huth) the Dosse is crossed. 

From Neustadt to Wismar , 102 M., branch-railway in 7 hrs. — 
71/2 M. Kyritz; 49 M. Plan (Sonntag), on the Plaucr-See; 541/2 M. Karow, 
on the Ludwigshist and Neu- Brandenburg line (p. 156). 78 M. Stern- 
berg (Hot. de Russie), on the Sternberger- See, alternates with Malchin 
(p. 155) as the seat of the Mecklenburg Diet. At (86 M.) Blankenberg we 
cross the Liibeck and Stettin railway (p. 153). — 102 M. Wismar (p. 161). 

Another branch-line runs to (2IV2 M.) RatTienow (p. 40) and (78 M.) 

139 M. Friesack (pop. 3000; Rail. Restaurant), with a mon- 
ument to Elector Frederick I., by Calandrelli (1894). — 147 M. 
Paulinenaue. Light railway to Rathenow (p. 40). 

From Paulinenaue to Neu-Ruppin, 171/2 M., railway in 1 hr. — At 
(10 M.) Fehrbellin (Deutsches Hans) is a statue, by Schaper (1902), of 
the Great Elector, who defeated the Swedes in 1675 near the village of 
Hakenberg , 41/2 M. to the S.E. A column, 105 ft. in height, marks the 
battlefield. — 171/2 M. Neu-Kuppin (Mdrkischer Hof, R. 2-3 JC; Ki^one), 
a town with 18,600 inhab., on the Ruppiner-See, has an abbey-church 
of the 13th cent, (restored in 1841) , and statues of Fred. William II., 
of the poet Fontane (d. 1898), and of Schinkel, the architect (1781-1841; 
the last two born here). 

159 M. Naiien^ with an important wireless telegraph tower 
(328 ft. in height). Light railway to Brandenburg, see p. 55. — 1 73 M. 
Spandau, see p. 40. The train now crosses the Havel and the Spree. 

178 M. Berlin, see p. 1. 

25. Prom Berlin to Schwerin and Wismar. 

149 M. Railway to (129 M.) Schwerin in 3^/2-5 hrs. (express-fares 
18 .^ 20, 11 ^ 90, 7 ^ 40 pf.); thence to (20 M.) Wismar in 3/^^ hr. 
(fares 2 ^ 70, 1 c^ 60, 1 ^ 15 pf.). 

From Berlin to (106 M.) Ludwigshist, see E. 24. 

About 2 M. to the S.E. of (112 M.) Luhlow lies Wobbelin, with 
the grave of Theodore Korner (who fell at Rosenberg, p. 161) and 
some reminiscences of that poet. — 123 M. Holthusen, junction of 
a line to Hagenow (p. 156). 

129 M. Schwerin. — Hotels. In the Town : Stern's (PL b ; B, 3), 
on the Pfaffenteich, with restaurant, very fair ; Hotel de Paris (PL c ; C, 3), 
^ood cuisine. — At the Station: Hotel de Russie (PL d; B, 2), R. 2V2-4, 
B. 1, D. 2-21/2 c^, very fair; Niederldndischer Hof (PL e; B, 2), R. 21/2-5, 
B. 1, D. 2-4^, well spoken of; Lttisenhof (PL f; B, 2), R. from 21/4, 
B. 1, D. 2 JC, well spoken of; Bahnhofs- Hotel (PL g; B, 2), R. 2-21/3, 
JB. 1, D. 13/^ j^. 

158 P^Oiii€ 2.5. SCHWERIN. Fnrm Berlin 

Restaurants. See the above hotels. Also (for (fejeuncr): Cohen, 
Konig-Str. 81 : Dimst, ScMoss-Str. 35: Kuchenmeister. Wisraarsche-Str. 57; 
Dabclstein, Salz-Str. 4: Klemaun. Bischof-Str. 3 ; Feltmann, Rostockcr- 
Str. 55. — WixE Rooms. WohJer. Fischer-Str. 2; Uhle, Schuster-Str. 15: 
Havemann , Grosse Moor 5. — Confectioners. Kreff't, corner of the 
Schloss-Str. and Konig-Str. ; Goldenbaum, Arseual-Str. 16. 

Cabs. 50 pf. per drive: per 1/2 hr. 75 pf., per hour V^I^JC\ box 25 pf. 

Electric TRAiiwAYs through the chief streets (comp. Plan). 

Steamboats on the Lake of Schwerin several times daily in sum- 
mer, starting at the Anna-Str.. near the Museum (PL C, 4). or at the Altc 
Garten, by the Burgsee (PL C, 4): to Zippendorf and the Kaninchen- 
vrerder 20 pf., to the Ferry 30 pf. 

Theatre. Hof-Theater (PL C, 4), in the Alte Garten. — Concert 
Gardens: at the Hotel de Paris (p. 157): Pavilion (PL C, 5), in the 
Schloss-Garten; Paidshohe. on the road to Zipj^endorf (p. 161). 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL B, 3), Kaiser-TTilhelm-Strasse. 

Schweriii (125 ft.: accent ou the second syllable), an ancient 
settlement of ^Vends, invested with municipal rights in 1161 by 
Henry the Lion, and an episcopal see from 1167 to 1648, is now a 
well-built town with 41,500 inhab., and the capital of the Grand- 
Duchy of Mecklenburg-ScbvN'erin. It is prettily situated on the 
Lale of Schicerin (14 M. long, 3\ 2 ^- broad; and several smaller 
lakes. From the Bailicay Station f'Pl. H, 2; we proceed by the 
Luisen-Platz and the Wihelm-Str. to the Pfafferdeich (PL B, 2), 
among the buildings round which the most conspicuous are the 
Arsenal (PI. B, 3; with a collection of weapons, etc.; open on week- 
days, 11-2), the Amt (PL 7; B, 2j, and the Gymnasium (PL 8; C, 2). 

Xear the S. end nf the Pfaffenteich, in the heart of the town, 
rises the * Cathedral 'PI. B, C, 3i, a fine brick edifice in the 
Baltic style, dating from 1327-1416. The tower, 380 ft. high, was 
built in 1889-91. Open free 12.30-2 p.m.; at other times, 1-2 pers. 
50 pL, each pers. more 25 pf. ; sacristan, Am Dom 4. 

The ^Chapel of the Holy Blood\ at the back of the high-altar, con- 
tains tomhs of the grand-ducal family. The stained -glass windows re- 
present the Ascension, with figures of apostles and evangelists; those in 
the centre were executed from cartoons by Cornelius (p. 159). The N. 
side of the ambulatory contains the large marble Monument of Duke 
Christophe^r fd. 1592) and his consort. To the right of the above chapel 
is a bronze Epitaphium of the Duchess Helena (d. 1524). by Peter Vischer 
of Nuremberg. The four curious monumental Brasses. 10 ft. long, are of 
Flemish workmanship and date from 1347 and 1375. Excellent organ. 

The cloisters, to the X. of the cathedral, contain the Ducal Li- 
brary (225,000 vols.). 

From the cathedral we cross the market-place (PL B, C, 3 1, with 
a bronze Statue of Bismarck (PL 1', by ^"andschneider ^1901), 
then traverse the Konig-Str. and the Schloss-Str., at the end of 
which, on the right, are the Government Offices (PL 12), built in 
1865-67. Beyond them is the Alte Garten (Tl. C, 4), an open space, 
with the Court Theatre, a Monument to Grand-Duke Paul 
Frederick (PL 2), designed by Ranch (1849;, and a Monument 
l^Pl. 5i to the memory of the Mecklenburgers who fell in 1870-71. 

vWagner fcDcbea , Le^aij^ 

to Wismar. SCHWERIN. 25. Route. 159 

In tho same square, at tlie corner of the Anna-Str., stands the 
*Museum (PL C, 4), erected by AVillebrand in 1882, and enlarged 
in 1900. On tlie upper floor is the grand-ducal picture-gallery, with 
good examples of the Dutch school of the 1 7th century, and on the 
lower floor are the other collections. Director, Dr. Steinmann. 

The Picture Gallery is open free on Sun. 11.30-2 and on Tucs., 
Tlmrs., and Sat. 11-2; adm. on other days, 9-11 and 8.30-5, 50 pf. (Mon. 
1 JC; bell at tlie top of the staircase). — Catalogue 1 JC. — From the 
vestibule we enter — 

Room III (lighted from the roof). To the right, 426a. Goijen^ Land- 
scape ; 9. Aalst, Still-life; 146. Codde , Family concert; lOll! Terhurg, 
Domestic scene ; 542. C. Janssens van Ceulcn , Portrait ; *339. G. Dou, 
Astronomer; 554. W. Kalf, Still-life; 326. G. Dou, Rembrandt's mother 
at the spinning-wheel; *1086. De Vlieger, Shipping; 618. A. de l.orme, In- 
terior of the Groote Kerk ; *841, Potter', Tavern; 1006. D. Taniers the 
Younger, Landscape; 426b. Goijen, River-scene; 1058. Verboom, Land- 
scape; 91. F. Bol, Portrait; *1013. Terbm^gf, Violin-player ; *666. i'Y. i^a?z 
Mieris the Elder, Lady at the piano; 910. J. van Ruysdael, Mountain 
scene with water; *854, Rembrandt, Old man; 959. P. van Slingeland, 
Genre-scene; *327. G. Dou, Rough dentistry; 701. P. Moreelse, Portrait; 
1076. H. Sorgh, Old woman in the kitchen ; *1099. Corn. Vroom, River 
scene; 661. Mierevelt, W. J. Delff, the engraver; 89. W. Dubois, Evening 
scene ; 1046. Wouverman, River-scene ; *444, 445. Franz Hals, Laugh- 
ing youths; 341. Karel Fabritius , Sentinel; *1085. De Vlieger, Rough 
sea with shipping; 916. W. Kalf, Old woman in the kitchen; *761. A. van 
Ostade, Tavern; *837. Potter, Milk-maid; *656. 3Ietsu, The widow's mite ; 
459. Heda, Still-life; *842. Potter, Farm; G. Dou, 330. At the dealer's, 
928. Genre-scene; 460. Heda, Still-life; 61. Berckheyde, The merry break- 
fast; 538. Jan van Huysum , Fruit and flowers; 547a. Jordaens , Birth 
of the Red Rose; *974. J. Steen, Love - sickness ; 1012. Terburg, Young 
man reading. In the middle. Dinner-set of Berlin porcelain (ca. 1800). 
In the recess, 1252a. Paulsen, Grand -Duke Frederick Francis II. — At 
the back of this room is Cab. 14, containing Cornelius's coloured car- 
toons for the windows in the cathedral (p. 158). Cabs. 13 & 15 contain 
cartoons of Mecklenburg princes by Schumacher (17) and Schlopke (1), 
which were copied on glass by Gillmeister for the 'Waffenhalle' in the 
Palace (p. 161). 

Room IV. (lighted from the roof). To the right, 507. Hondecoeter, 
Poultry; 1087. H. C. de Vliet, Interior of a church at Delft; 1061, 1062. 
Verdoel, Pigs ; 679. Kl. Molenaer, Winter-scene ; 875. Rembrandt, Portrait 
of himself; *576. S. Koninck, Joseph before Pharaoh ; 40. L. Bakhuisen, 
Rough sea with shipping; 724, 725. A. van der Neer, Moonlight-scenes; 
680a. Molenaer, River-scene ; 703. Moreelse, Shepherd-boy. — 555. W. Kalf, 
Still-life; 723.^. Van der Neer, Conflagration; %f)h. Rembrandt, ^iudy oi 
a head; 333. H. Dubbels, Rough sea; *90. F. Bol, Joseph in prison inter- 
preting the dreams of Pharaoh's servants; 36. L. Bakhuysen, Stormy sea 
with shipping; Honthorst, 518. Prince Frederick of Orange, 519. Prince 
William II. of Orange; 99. Both, Mountain-scene. 

Room V (lighted from the roof). Various Schools. To the right, 421. 
J. Glauber, Landscape; 662. Mierevelt, Portrait; 1105. J. B. Weenix, 
Shepherds on the Campagna ; 748. Master of the Altar of Mary Mag- 
delen. Two wings of an altar-piece ; 159. L. Cranach, Emperor Charles V. ; 
994. Stengel, Margaret of Austria, Stadholder of the Netherlands ; 510. 
Hondecoeter, Poultry-yard ; Wouverman, 1130. Battle-scene, 1129. Gipsy 
camp; 567. Knilpfer, Persuit of pleasure ; 55. Bercham, Italian landscape 
with ruins; *1051. A. van de Velde , Roman ferry-boat; 1103. J. B. 
Weenix, Dutch kitchen; 548. Heda, Breakfast-scene; 839, 840. Potter, 
Horses at pasture; *505. Hondecoeter, Poultry; 544. K. dujardin, Monkey 
and ass; 1114. A. Van der Werff, Chess-players. 

160 Route 25. SCHWERIN". From Berlin 

Room VI (lighted from the roof). Italian School. 96. Borgognone, 
Madonna ; 1058. Venetian Master of the 14th Century, Descent of the Holy 
G-host ; 419. Liica Giordano, Feeding of the five thousand ; no number, 
Rihera, Boy with his patron-saints; 94. 3Ioretto, Xun ; 877. Tintoretto, 
Portrait: 325a. Dosso Dossi , Concert; 876. Tintoretto, Admiral Sebas- 
tiano Yeniero ; 125. Paolo Veronese, Portrait; 152 A. Francesco Francia, 
Madonna and Child , with St. Francis; SIS. Tintoretto , Portrait; 930. 
GiuUo Romano, Holy Family; 420. Luca Giordano, Wedding at Cana 
of Galilee; 124. Veronese, Venetian lady; *54. Canaletto , Approach to 
the Doge's palace; no number, Vmhrian-Florentine Master {IbOi.), Pieta, 
with SS. John and Paul; 53. Canaletto, Court of an Italian palace; 639. 
P. de Matteis, Madonna; no number, TJnknoien Master, Apotheosis of a 
saint; Guido Reni, 861. Mary Magdalen. 863. Lucretia. — The sculpture 
in this room includes an ancient bust of Homer , an ancient herma of 
an unknown person, and two clay models by Bernini (Time unveiling 
Truth; Venus finding the dead Adonis). 

We now return through R. V. to Cabixet VIII. *833. J. Molenaer, 
Boors. ^- Adjacent, to the left, is the Collection of Coins. — Cabinet VII. 
1013a. Terburg. Portrait; 732^ C. Netscher, The black-sealed letter; 668. 
W. van Mieris. Candaules and Gvges : 34. Avercamp. Ice-scene. 

Room II (lighted from the roof). ' Dutch School. 88. Boel, Spoils of 
the chase; 613. D. van der Lisse, Lot and his daughters; 1005. Teniers 
the Younger, Daniel in the den of lions ; J. Brueghel, 118. Fish-market, 
119. Windmills ; 333. H. Dubbels, Rough sea ; 1107. J. Weenix, Dead game ; 
1003. Teniers the Younger, Family-scene in the house of the painter; 
492. Jan van der Xeer, Moonlight-scene ; A. van de Velde, *1052. St. Je- 
rome, 1053. Cattle at a brook: *1010. Teniers the Younger, Tavern; 1001. 
Teniers the Elder. Temptation of St. Anthony; 110. P. Bril, Harbour; 
*547. Jordaens, Xocturnal apparition; 424. Govaerts, Stag-hunt; 1108. 
J, Weenix, Dead game: 451. C. W. de Hamilton, Dead fox. 

Room I (lighted from the roof;. French Masters , chiefly pictures 
by Oudry (d. 1755\ the animal-painter. Also. 153. Courtois, (^avalrj^-en- 
gagemen't; 687-690. Pierre Mangin. Roman gardens; 999. Le Sueur, 
St. Paul at Ephesus; 590. Lairesse, Children dancing. 

Room VII (lighted from the roof). Modern Pictures and periodical 

We now return through R.I. to Cabinet IV. Various Schools. 413. 
Claude Lorrain , Roman landscape. — In the adjoining ante-room are 
46 unfinished portraits of the ducal court of 1479, by Bait. Denner. — 
Cabinets I-III. Modern pictures, chiefly by Mecklenburg painters. 

Lower Floor (entr. below the flight of steps ; adm. Sun. 12-2, Wed. 
and Frid. 11-2. free; at other times 1 JC). — The rooms in front and to 
the left contain the Museum of Industrial Art and a Collection of 
Ecclesiastical Antiquities. To the right is the Collectioii of Casts, 
beyond which is the Cabinet of Engr'avings. 

The Sunk Floor contains the interesting Collection of National 

The Anna-Strasse (PL C, 4; steamboat - quay) leads from the 
Museum to the S.E., along the lake, to the Ducal Stables (PL D, 
3, 4; open daily till 3 p.m.). 

A bridge adorned with two colossal groups (Obotrites equipping 
their chargers) crosses to an island lying between the Schweriner 
See and the Burgsee, on which is situated the grand-ducal *Palace 
(PL C. 4i. begun in the early-Renaissance style from designs by 
Demraler in 1845, and completed by Staler in 1857. It is an 
extensive structure, with irregular wings flanked with lofty towers 
and encloses a pentagonal courtyard, the whole producing a very 

^1 a « -• ' 




^era^Jh-Anstalt von 

"Wa-sner irDel>es , leipxi 

to Wismar. WISMAR. -'^'5- I^oide. 161 

picturesque effect. As early as the 12th cent, a palace of the princes 
of Mecklenburg occupied this site. It was rebuilt in the 15th and 
16th cent., and parts of this mediaeval edifice have been skilfully 
incorporated with the modern palace. Above the portal is an eques- 
trian statue of Niclot, the Obotrite chief (d. 1160), by Genschow. 
Tlic ^Interior, decorated chiefly by Stiller and Strack, is open on 
Sundays and holidays at noon, on week-days at 10, 1, and 5.30 (from 
1st Sept. to 31st March at 3) o'clock (tickets, 1 Jt' cacli, to be obtained 
from the porter on the left side of the inner portal). The most interesting^ 
apartments are the Woffejihalle, the Thronsaal, and the Goldene Saal. 
The tasteful Gothic Chapel, built in 1560-63, was afterwards restored. — 
The Burg-Garten adjoining the Schloss is open to the public on Sun. 
morning (at other times with guide obtained at the palace). 

The extensive Schloss - Garten (PI. C, 5, 6) is worth visiting. 
Near the entrance is an Equestrian Statue of Grand-Duke Fred- 
erick Francis 11. , by Brunow (1893). Refreshments at the Pavilion. 

*Walk along the bank of the lake to (3 M.) Zijppendorf (steamboat 
station; comp. PI. B, C, 6), and on to (1 M.) Milss and (1/2 M.) the Fdhre 
(steamboat-station). At (3/4 M. farther) Rahensteinfeld there are several 
favourite resorts in the woods bordering the lake. The Pinnower-See lies 
1/2 M. from Rahensteinfeld, surrounded by wooded hills. The Kaninchen- 
iverder (restaurant; steamboat-station), or rabbits' island, is much visited 

From Schwerin to Rehna, 21 M., railway in 1 hr. — 5 M. Friedrichs- 
tal. About 1 M. from the station is the former hunting-lodge of the 
same name (Dreyer's Restaurant) ; pretty woodland walks on the banks 
of the lake of Neumilhlen. — At Rosenberg, 2 M. to the N.E. of (IO1/2 M.) 
Liitzoiv, is an obelisk marking the spot where Theod. Korner fell in 1813 
(comp. p. 157). — 15 M. Gadehusch (2400 inhab.), with an interesting 
church, 13-15th cent.), Rathaus (1618), and chateau (1571). — 21 M. Rehna. 

A branch-line runs from Schwerin to (28V2 ^0 PcLrchim (p. 156). 

139 M. Kleinen, junction for Liibeck and Stettin (p. 153). 

149 M. Wismar. — Hotels. Stadt Hamburg (PI. a; C, 4), 
R. 21/2-5, B. 1, D. 21/2 c^, very fair; Wddekin (PI. d; C, D, 4), R. 2, 
D. 13/4 JC; FrilndVs Hotel (PL b; C, 3); Sonne (PI. c; C, 4), R. 2, 
D. IV2-2 ^- — Rail. Restaurant; RatskeUer; Fenger ; Alte Schivede (see 
below); Altdeutsches Restaurant, in the Koch House (p. 162); Bockel 
Wine Rooms. — Post & Telegraph Office (PL C, 5), Mecklenburger 
Str. 18. — British Vice-Consul, Heinrich Podcus. — Lloyd's Agent, 
R. Nilsso7i. 

Wismar, an old Mecklenburg town with 22,000 inhab., once 
an important member of the Hanseatic League, possesses many in- 
teresting mediaeval buildings and monuments. 

In the market-place (PL C, 4), in the middle of the town, are 
the Guard House, the ^Alte Schwede' (a house of the 15th cent.; 
restaurant), and the Rathaus. The Waterworks in the S.E. corner 
date from 1580-1602, the gable of the Wddekin Hotel (see above) 
from 1363. — To the S.W. of the market-place are the Archdea- 
conry (15th cent.) and St. Mary's Church (PL B, 4; sacristan, 
Marien-Kirchhof 5), a brick edifice of the 13-14th cent., with a 
brazen font of the 14th cent., a carved altar of the 15th cent., and 
the fine brass of Duchess Sophie of Mecklenburg (d. 1504). TheW. 

162 P^oide 26. XEU-STKELITZ. 

tower is 265 ft. high. — To the S. of the church is the so-called 
*Ai.TE SchtjXe (PL B, 4), dating from about 1300 and rebuilt in 
1880. It contains a collection of Wismar antiquities (Sun., 12-1.30 ; 
at other times on application to Herr Schroder, G-riine-Str. 7). — 
The *FuRSTEXHOF (PI. B, 4), formerly a ducal palace, and now the 
seat of the district court, is a good specimen of the G-erman Re- 
naissance ('1553-4; badly restored in 1879-81). — St. George's 
CnrRCH (PI. B, 4; sacristan, Georgen-Kirchhof 16) has a choir of 
the 14th and a nave of the 15th century. It contains a fine altar 
(ca. 1430), choir-stalls of the 15-16th cent., a pulpit of 1608, and 
a bronze font with a carved wooden cover of 1649. 

To the N. of the market-place is the Church of St. Nicholas 
(PI. C, 3; sacristan. Xicolai-Kirchhof 11), which was begun at the 
end of the 14th cent. : the nave was finished in 1459. The exterior 
is elaborately decorated, and the interior has some old mural paint- 
ings. The Koch House (PI. C, 3; see p. 161) dates from 1569. — 
A walk round the town i^j^-l hr.) may be begun at the Linden- 
Garten (PL D, 3) and ended at the Baumhaus (PL A, 1; restau- 
rant), at the harbour. 

A pleasant steamer-excursion (15 pf.) may be made to (21/2 M.) Wen- 
dorf (Hotel Ostseebad) ; fine view of the town. — Steamers also ply in 
summer daily (except Sun.) to the sea-bathing resorts of Alt-Gaartz, 
Arendsee, and Brunshauptcn (p. 155). 

From AVismar to Bostock, see p. 155; to Neustadt an der Dosse, 
see p. 157. 

26. From Berlin to Stralsund. 

a. Via Neu- Brandenburg. 

137 M. Railway from the Stettin Station (p. 1) in 4-6 hrs. (fares 
17 ^ 40 pf.. 11 JC, 7 Ji; express fares 19 JC 40 pf., 13 J^, 8 JC. 

Berlin, see p. 1. — The first important station is (18 M.) 
Oranienhurg (Eilers;, a town of 10,600 inhab., on the Havel. 
The chateau (1650-90) is now a normal school. In front of it is a 
statue of Louisa Henrietta fd. 1667), wife of the Great Elector, 
by Fr. ^olft' (1858i. — 29 X. Lowenherg. 

From Lowexberg to Prexzlau (p. 163). 45 M., railway in 3 hrs., 
via (20V 2 M.) Templin (4900 inhab.) and (311/2 M.) Hasslehen. 

From Lowenherg a light railway runs to (231/2 M.) Rheinsberg (Bats- 
'keller), with the chateau where Fi-ederick the Great lived when crown- 
prince from 1736 to 1740. A statue, by Elster. was erected to him in 1903. 

50 ]\I. Furstenherg is the junction of a branch -line to (49 M.) 
Eherswalde (p. 344). 

62 :\r. Neu-Strelitz rMahncke, R. 2-21.: D. 2 Jl : British 
HoteL similar charges: Bail. Restaurant), the capital of the grand- 
duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, is a town of 11,700 inhab., pleasantly 
situated amid woods on the Zierker-See. The handsome Schloss is 

PRENZLAU. 2ff. Route. 163 

surrounded by pleasure-grounds. In tlie market-place is a bronze 
statue of Grand-Duke George (d. 1860), by A. Wolff (1866). 

About 7 M. to the N. (carr. there and back 6-8 JC) is the summer- 
chateau of Hohen-Zieritz, where Queen Louisa of Prussia, a princess of 
Mecklcnburg-Strelitz, died in 1810. 

From Neu-Strclitz a branch-line runs to Wittenberge (p. 157). 

From Neu-Strelitz to Rostock and Warnemunde, 82 M., railway 
in 21/4-4V4 hrs. The express from Berlin to (13B M.) Bostock via Neu- 
Strelitz (4 hrs.; fares 18 c^ 70, 12 t^ 30, 8 J6 10 pf.) affords the shortest 
route to Copenhagen. — 22 M. "Waren (Stadt Hamburg, R. 2-3, B. 1 J^, 
very fair), a town of 9500 inhab. on the Miiritz, a large lake. — 54 M. 
Giistrow, see p. 155. — 74 M. Rostock, see p. 153. 

82 M. "Warnemunde (*Berri7iger S Pavilion, R. 11/2-3, B. 11/4, D. 
21/2, pens. 5-7 J6; * Sti^alendorf; *Hubner, R. IV2-3V2 «^; Strand-Eotel, 
all on the beach; Heldt, Rohn, with restaurant, R. 1V2"^> ^' 2 JC, both 
near the beach; Borse and Quittenbaum Restaurants; lodgings 25-60 Ji 
per week; visitors' tax 8 JC ; Post Office, Kirch-Platz) is a seaport and 
bathing-place with 4200 inhab. (ca. 19,000 visitors) on the Baltic. — Ex- 
cursions to the Wilhelmshohe, to the Rostocker Heide, to the Schnater- 
mann (by motor-boat), and to Miiritz and Graal (p. 166; by steamer). 
From Warnemiinde to Copenhagen, via Gjedser, see Baedeker^ s Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark. 

From (72 M.) Blankensee a branch-line runs to (23 M.) Stras- 
burg in der Uckermark (p. 155). 

841/2 M. Neu- Brandenburg, see p. 155; 93 M. Treptow 
(Deutsches Haus), on the Tollense; 110 M. Demmin (Sonne), with 
12,500 inhab. and a 14th cent, church; 125 M. Grimmen. 

137 M. Stralsundj see p. 164. 

b. Via Angermiinde. 

150 M. Railway in 4-6 hrs. (fares as in R. 26a). — To Sivinemilnde 
(124 M.) in 4-6V4 Jirs- (express fares 17 JC 80, 15 c^ 50, 1 JC 30 pf.) ; to 
Herhigsdorf (129 M.) in 41/2-7 hrs. (express fares 18 JC 30, 11 JC 90, 
7 .^ 50 pf.). 

From Berlin to (45 M.) Angermiinde, see R. 53. 

68 M. Prenzlau (Hotel du Nord; Deutsches Haus), on the 
Ucker or Uecker, the ancient capital of the Uckermark, with 
21,000 inhab., lies at the N. end of the lower Uckersee. The Gothic 
Church of St. Mary (13-1 4th cent.) is one of the finest brick struc- 
tures in this district. The great E. gable is adorned with elaborate 
tracery and mouldings. The Uckermark Museum, in the Witt-Str., 
is open free in summer on Wed. & Sat., 2-4, and on Sun., 11-1. The 
Holy Ghost Church now contains a collection of local antiquities. 
In the market-place are statues of Emp. William I. (equestrian), 
Bismarck, and Moltke, all by Schilling. Three gate -towers of the 
15th cent, and part of the town-walls are preserved. — Railway to 
Lowenberg, see p. 162. 

82 M. Pasewalk (Stuthmann's Hotel), a town on the Ucker, 
with 10,500 inhab., is the junction of the lines to Stettin, Schwerin, 
and Hamburg (R. 23). — 101 M. Ducherow (to Swinemilnde and 
Heringsdorf, see p. 349). 

164 Boute 26. GREIFSWALD. From Berlin 

108 M. Anklam (X^oldene Traiihe; Sagert's; Deutsches 
Haus), with 15,600 inhab., on the Peene, formerly the frontier 
between Prussia and Sweden. The town contains quaint old houses, 
some relics of its old fortifications {e.g. the Stein-Tor^ of the 
15th cent.), and a chiu'ch (St. Mary's) of the 13-1 5th cent., with 
a modern tower. 

119 M. Ziissow is the junction of a line (11 M.) to Wolgast 
(Deutsches Haus), a busy commercial town (8300 inhab.) on the 

From TTolgast a diligence plies twice daily in summer in II/2 hr. to 
(51/2 M.) Zinnowitz (p. 349). 

130 M. Greifswald. — Hotels. DeutscJies Haus, R. 2-3, B. 1, 
D. 21 2 JC, omn. 50 pf. ; Hotel de Prusse, R. 21/2-^. D- 1V2-3 J^, omn. 
50 pf.. very fair: Hot. du Xord : Trauhe. — Rathauskeller ; IhlenfehVs 
Restaurant : Raitivay Restaurant : Bartens' Wine Rooms. 

Taximeter Cabs per drive. 1-2 pers., 1000 metres 50 pf., each 500 m. 
more 10 pf. — Post Office, in the market-place. 

The chief points of interest may be visited in 2-3 hrs. 

Greifswald, an ancient town (1241) with 23,800 inhab., lies on 
the right bank of the navigable Pyck, 2^ 2 ^^- above its mouth in 
the Greifswalder Bodden. In the market-place are the Rathaus 
and two late-Grothic gabled houses (Xos. 11 & 13). St. Mary's 
Church, to the X.E., dates from the 13-14th cent, and contains a 
carved wooden pulpit of 1587. The Church of St. Nicholas, also 
of the 13-14th cent., has a tower 300 ft. high (view); that of .S'^. 
James, of the same period, contains a granite font of the 13th cent- 
ury. — The University (900 students) was founded in 1456. Op- 
posite is a monument commemorating its 400th anniversary. The 
university owns the Croy Tapestry (16th cent.), representing Luther 
preaching before the royal families of Saxony andPomerania (shown 
only once every 10 years, in June; next exhibition in 1910). 

Steamers (10 pf.) ply in summer to Eldena (with a ruined convent 
of 1199), at the mouth of the Ryck. — A light railway runs via Eldena 
and the bathing resort of (19 ^i.) Lubmin to (30i o M.) Wolgast (see ahove). 

From Grreifswald to Triehsees and Rostock, see p. 155. — Steamer 
to Rugen, see p. 166. 

140 M. Miltzoiv: 144 M. Wustenfelde. 

150 M. Stralsiind. — Hotels. Goldener Lozve (PI. b ; C, 3), 
R. 2-4. B. 1, D. 13 4-2io.#, verv fair: Hotel Brandenburg (PI. a; B, 4), 
R. 2-3, B. 1. D. 2 J^:' Hotel Bismarck (PI. d; B, 3) , with view from 
terrace; Konig von Preussen (PI. c; B, 5), R. 2-21/2, B. ^U, D. l^/i .^; 
Fahr-Hotel (PL e; D. 3), at the harbour, R. I1/2-2, B. 3/^^. 

Restaurants. Wine: Ratsweinkeller : Friederich, Baden -Str. 44; 
TT^«7;fcro»a, Heiligegeist-Str. 30. — Beer : Heim, Ossenreyer-Str. 16, D. 2^^; 
Schlossbrauhaus. Heilisegeist-Str. 87: Rathausbierkeller , D. I1/4-2 JC. 

Sea Baths at Kleinoth's . Strand-Str. (above PL B, 1). — Warm 
Baths, Saruow-Str. 5 (PL A1-B2). 

Cabs. Drive within the town, 50 pf. (at night 70 pf.). to one of 
the surburhs, to the station, or from the station to the harbour 70 pf. 
(at night 1 JC) : trunk 20 pf . ; per hr. 2 ^. 

Electric Tramways. From the station to the Frankendamm (PL D, 

Xleinoth s^Badeanstalt, 




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^Wa^oer X= Deb e s .Lfl^ 

to StraUund. STRALSUND. 2^- Route. 165 

5, 6) and from the intersection of the Ossenreyer-Str. and the Hciligen- 
geist-Str. (PI. B, 4) to the Knieperdamm (PI. A, 2). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 10 ; B, 5), in the Ncue Markt. 

Steamboat to Riigen, leaving the landing at the Fahr-Briicke (PI. D, 3) 
11/4 M. from the main railway station, see p. 16(). A steam-ferry plies 
from the Fithr-Briicke to Altefdhr (p. 167 ; 20 pf .}. 

Lloyd's Agent, R. Mintzlaff. 

Chief Attractions (4hrs.): St. Mary's Church; St. James's Church ; 
Rathaus ; Church of St. Nicholas; Johannis-Kloster ; Knieper-Damm 
(PI. A, B, 2). 

Stralsund, with 31,800 inhab., lies on the Strelasund, a strait 
2 M. wide, which separates Rugen from the mainland and washes 
the small fortified island of Ddnholm. The town is entirely sur- 
rounded by water, being connected with the mainland by three 
moles only. The lofty gabled houses, the towers, and the Gothic 
churches of brick resemble those of Rostock and Ltibcck. The forti- 
fications have been removed or converted into promenades. 

Stralsund was founded about 1209, and soon attained to such pros- 
perity that in the 14th cent, it was second in importance, among the 
Hanseatic towns on the Baltic, to Liibeck alone. The citizens adopted 
the reformed faith at an early period, and were therefore on the side of 
Sweden during the Thirty Years' War. In 1628, aided by Danish and 
Swedish vessels, they gallantly defended their town against Wallenstcin, 
who had sworn to take it, 'though it had been chained to heaven', but 
was compelled to abandon the siege after losing 12,000 men. From the 
Peace of Westphalia in 1648 until 1815, when it became Prussian, the 
town, belonged to Sweden. — In 1809, when the war between France and 
Austria broke out. Major Ferdinand von Schlll, a distinguished Prussian 
officer of hussars, quitted Berlin with his regiment without the knowledge 
of the king, with a view to effect a patriotic rising against the French 
in N. Germany. His noble effort met with little response, and he and 
his corps were eventually driven back to Stralsund. The town was taken 
by storm, and after a heroic defence Schill and most of his corps were 
killed in the streets. The spot where Schill fell is indicated by an in- 
scription in the pavement of the Fahr-Strasse (PI. C, 3 ; opposite the 
house No. 21). His grave is in the N.E. angle of the St. Jilrgen Cemetery, 
3/4 M. from the Knieper-Tor (p. 166; to the left of PI. A, 2). Comp. p. 92. 

On leaving the Raihvay Station (beyond PI. A, 6), we cross the 
Tribseer Damm to (1/2 M.) the Neue Markt (PI. B, 5). The Church 
of St. 3Iary, situated here (PI. 6; open daily in summer, 11-12 
and 3-4; on Sun., 12-1), erected in 1416-73, is a vast brick struc- 
ture with a transept, aisles, and a series of chapels between the fly- 
ing buttresses. The tower affords a fine survey of the town and 
part of the island of Riigen. (Sacristan, Marien-Str. 10.) 

In the Alte Markt (PI. B, C, 3), a fine mediaeval square, stands 
the Bathaus (PI. 11), dating partly from the 13th century. The 
two rich facades fronting the market, built in the 14th and modern- 
ized in the 18th cent., have been restored in the original style. 

The large Cottncil Chamber contains portraits of Swedish and Prussian 
kings, and Luther at the Diet of Worms, by Jakobs. — The ^Provincial, 
Museum of Neu-Vorpommern and Rugen, on tlie upper floor, contains 
an important Collection of Prehistoric Antiquities, mediaeval ornaments, 
pictures, weapons, coins, guild insignia, and ecclesiastical antiquities 
(open daily from May 15th till Sept. 15th, 11-1 ; at other times on appli- 
cation to the castellan of the Rathaus, Room 18). 

166 Ii^>»te 27. RtaEN. 

Beyond the Ratliaus rises the Church of St. Nicholas (PI. 7; 
C, 3), a noble edifice begun in 1311, resembling St. Mary's (open 
11-1 & 3-4. on Sun. in morning only: sacristan. Xicolai-Kirchhof 2). 
The choir has been repainted after the old fashion. 

INTERIOR. The high-altar, carved in wood iu the 15th cent.(?) and 
restored in 1856. represents the Passion : fine brass of Burgomaster 
Hovcner (d. 1357). of Netherlandish workmanship : pulpit of 1637. The 
benches are partly of the 16th cent. ; at the entrance to those of the 
Kramer, or merchants, is the polite intimation: *Dat ken kramer ist de 
bliof da buten, oder ick schla em up de schnuten' (literally, 'He that's 
no merchant stay without, else I shall strike him on the snout I'). 

At Baden-Str. 13 (PI. C, 3, 4) is the Municipal Library^ founded 
in 1709 (70.000 vols.). — The old Johannis-Kloster (PL 15; C, 3) 
has some featm-es of interest. — St. James's Church (PI. 4, C 4; open 
at same times as St. Xicholas; sacristan, Papen-Str. 14) is a Gothic 
building of the 14th cent., with nave and aisles of different heights. 
The ys. facade is surmounted by a richly-decorated tower. In the 
sacristy is some fine carved panelling. — At the W. end of the 
Heiligegeist-Str. is the Kilter-Tor (PL A, B, 4; 15th cent.). — 
Outside the Knieper-Tor (PL B, 2) rise a Gothic War Monument 
fPL 2: B, 3), 52 ft. in height, by Richards (1886), and a statue of 
Schill (p. 165), by Glumer (1909). 

From Stralsund to Rostock. 46 M.. railway in 21/.2-3 hrs. — From 
(12 M.) Velgast a branch (7 M.) diverges for Barth (7350 inhab. ; Sonne, 
R. 2 ^4^). whence steamers ply to the seaside-resorts of Zingst and Prerow 
in 3 ^ hr. and 2 hrs. (fares 70 pf. and 1 .^ 20 pf.). — 27 M. Kibnitz (Sonne), 
with 4700 inhabitants. An omnibus runs twice daily from Ribnitz to (8 M.) 
Mirritz (p. 163): and steamers ply daily to Wusirov: and to AJirensko op, 
all frequented as sea-bathing resorts. — 46 M. Rostock, see p. 153. 

27. The Island of Rugen. 

Railway from Stralsund (p. 164), see below. — Steamboats also 
ply from Stralsund to Hiddensee. Breege, and Wiek, from Greifswald to 
Thiessow, Gohren. Sellin, Binz. and Sassnitz. and from Stettin to Gohren, 
Sellin. Binz. and Sassnitz. — Steam Ferry from Stralsund to Altefdhr, 
see p. 165. 

Rligen, the largest island belonging to Germany (377 sq. M. ; 32 M. 
long and 25 M. wide), is separated from the mainland on the S.W. by 
the Strelasund (p. 165). The deep bays by which the island is indented 
in every direction form a number of peninsulas, connected with it by 
narrow strips of land only. The most important of these are Wittovj 
Siiid Jasmund on the X. srnd Jlonchgut on the S. side of the island. The 
scenery on the E. coast of the island is very picturesque, with its beach- 
woods, white cliffs, and blue water. The finest points are Stubhen- 
kamnier, Piittbus, and the Jagdschloss. Binz and Sassnitz are the most 
frequented bathing-resorts. 

The hotels in the most frequented resorts are often crowded in sum- 
mer, so that previous application for rooms is advisable. 

a. From Stralsund to Sassnitz ^Trellehorg) via Bergen. 
Stubbenkammer. Arkona. 
32 M. Railway in l^j.^-'^^'u hrs. (fares 4.JC, 2 JibO.lJC Qb pf. ; express- 
fares 4 c^ 50. 3 t^, 1 c^ 90 pf.). — Steamboats to Trelleborg (for Copen- 
hagen and Stockholm), see Baedeker's Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 


SASSNITZ. 27. Route. 167 

The train starts from the principal station ol Sfralsund {p . 164), 
and skirts the Frankenvorstadt to (2 M.) Stralsund Harbour. 
Hence it is conveyed by a steam-ferry-boat across the Strelasund 
to (25 min.) Altefdhr Station, in Riigen. — Altefahv (Kurhaus ; 
Hotel Putbus)^ 1 M. from the station, is a small bathing-resort. 

From Altcfahr a light railway runs to (22 M.) Putbus (p. Ifi9) in 

2 hrs. (fares 2 J^ 10, 1 JC 4.0 pf.), passing (11 M.) Gross- Schoritz (birth- 
place of E. M. Arndt; 1769-1860) and (141/2 M.) Garz (Hot. du Nord). 

Our line runs towards the N.E. 

18 M. Bergen. — Hotels. Ratskeller, R. IV2-2V2) I^- 2 JC, very 
fair; Hotel zum Bahnhof; Prinz von Preussen, R. IV2-2, D. IV2 ^; 
Goldner Adlei; R. IV2-2, D. 13/^ JC. 

Bergen, a town with 4000 inhab., is the official capital of Riigen. 
The conspicuous Church with its lofty tower is in the late-Roman- 
esque style and dates originally from the 13th cent, but was remod- 
elled in 1445 (restored Romanesque paintings in transept; sexton, 
50 pf.). — About 2 M. to the E. of the rail, station rises the Ru- 
gard (300 ft. ; carr. there and back 3 c/^), crowned by an ancient 
intrenchment, and with a tower to the memory of Arndt (see above; 
adm. 20 pf.; restaurant). The *View is very extensive and pictur- 
esque, especially by evening-light. 

From Bergen to Altenkirchen, 24 M. railway in 2i/2-3 hrs. (fares 

3 J^, 1 JC Qo pf.). 131/2 M. Wittower Fahre. From (201/2 M.) Wiek 
(Schlitt, R. 1 JC) a steamer runs to Stralsund via Hiddensee (see below). — 
24 M. Altenk irchen (Nordischev Hof, R. I1/2 ^), a village with 600 inhab. 
and a late-Romanesque church, in the porch of which is a relief of the 
god Swantewit(?). Arkona (p. 169) lies about 41/2 M. to the N.E. 

From Bergen to Ptttbus, see p. 169; to Binz and Gbhren, see p. 169. 

To the W. of Riigen lies the narrow island of Hiddensee (11 M. 
long; steamer, see above), inhabited by fishermen. The Dornhusch 
(216 ft.), at the N. end of the island, affords fine views. It is reached 
from the steamboat-station via (41/2 M.) Kloster (inn), with the ruins of 
a Cistercian convent (1296), and Tannhausen. 

Beyond Bergen the railway crosses the narrow passage between 
the Grrosse and Kleine Jasmunder Bodden to (24 M.) Lietzoiv. — 
Near (28 M.) Sagard (Fiirstenkrone), to the left, is the Dubber- 
worth, the largest tumulus, or 'giant's grave', in Riigen. Lohme 
(p. 169) is 51/2 M. to the N.E. (carr. 7 ^). — 31 M. Sassnitz (town). 
— 32 M. Sassnitz Harbour. 

Sassnitz. — Hotels. In the E. Part of the Town; Hotel Fahrn- 
herg, high up near the wood, R. 21/2-5, B. 1, D. 21/2? pens. 6-8 J^; Strand- 
Hotel, Hotel am Meer, Seeschloss, these three on the Strand Esplanade ; 
Central, R. from 2, D. 13/^ J6: Bristol, R. 2-4, D. 2-3 Ji; Waldesritlie, 
1/2 M. to the E.; Kaiserhof, R. 1V2-3 J^; Bottcher, R. 2-4 J^; Slower, 
R. 2-4 JC. — In the W. Part of the Town (formerly called Crampas); 
Victoria, R. 2-3, pens. 5-71/2 «^; Monopol; Prinz Heinrich von Preussen, 
R. 11/2-3, pens. 5-8 JC, all three with view of sea; Geschwister Koch; 
Stuhhnitz, R. I-21/2 JC. — Lodgings from 25 JC per week. 

Restaurants. Kui^-Restaurant & Miraniare, on the beach, D. 2 JC, 
with music pavilion; Bottcher^ s Strand- Pavilion, D. 2 JC; Seeschloss 
(see above), D. 13/4-21/0 J6; Hauer, D. 11/^-2 JC; Berg-Schlosschcn. — 
Strand-Kojiditorei. on "the beach. 

168 Houte 27. STUBBENKA]\niER. I^laM of 

Post Office, Post-Str., near the Hotel Fahrnberg. — Visitors' Tax, 
50 pf . per day, 5 JC for the season. — Bath 40 pf . ; warm bath 1 JC. 

Carriages (with two horses) from the rail, station to the town 1 JC ; 
to Stubbenkammer 6 JC, there & back 8 JC (inch stop of 1 hr., each 
addit. hr. 1 JC). — Omxibus to Stubbenkammer (I1/4 hr.) 1 JC. — Motor 
Boat to Stubbenkammer 75 pf. each, there & back IV4 JC. 

Sassnitz, prettily situated at the mouth of a ravine, near the 
forest of Stnbnitz, has 1800 permanent inhab. and is annually fre- 
quented by 20,000 visitors, whose chief resort is the * Strandweg 
or Es^jlanade. The beach is stony. 

The most attractive walks are afforded by the beautiful beech- 
forest, called the ^Stubnitz, which covers the seaward half of the 
peninsula of Jasmund. A favourite point is the (^/4-l hr.) Restau- 
rant Waldhalle. which is reached either by road via the "Waldes- 
ruhe Hotel ('p. 167) or on foot along the beach and up (12 min.) 
past the Wissower Klmken. a series of chalk cliffs. Xumerous 

From Sassnitz to Stubbenkammer, about 8 M. Ton foot 2^ 4 hrs., 
by carr. IV^ hr.. by motor-boat 35 min.). The road ascends past 
the Johannis - Kirche and traverses the W. part of the Stubnitz. 
From the ^aldhalle (see above) walkers follow the path along the 
cliffs, crossing three small ravines and passing the Victoria- Sicht 
and the Wilhehn-Sicht (or Kleine Stuhhenkammer). — The land- 
ing-place of the motor-boats is about ^ 9 M. from the hotel. 

Stubbenkammer (Hot. Stuhhenkammer^ R. 1 1/2-31/2, D. 2^/2, 
pens. 6-7 1 o -^^/ tolerable quarters at the Filrstenkrone at Hagen, 
2 M. to the S. W. , and at Eiehstadt's in Xipmerow , 2 M. to the 
"W.), the finest point in Riigen. situated on the E. coast of the penin- 
sula of Jasmund^ is a furrowed chalk cliff, rising almost perpen- 
dicularly from the sea to a height of 400 ft. The summit, called the 
'^KonigsstuhL commands a beautiful view. To the left is a rugged 
precipice of chalk: in the distance the lighthouse of Arkona: to the 
right the Kleine Stubbenkammer (see above). Between the Konigs- 
stuhl and the Kleine Stubbenkammer a winding path descends be- 
tween tall beeches to the (10 min.) foot of the cliffs, of which an 
imposing survey is obtained from below. 

About 12 min. to the W. of Stubbenkammer, between the Nip- 
merow and Sassnitz roads, lies the Hertha-See. a small lake about 
200 yds. in diameter, on the X. bank of which rises the He?^thahurg. 
a semicircular mound, 50 ft. in height. [At (6 min.) the finger-post 
on the Sassnitz road we take the middle, unpaved path to the right, 
reaching in 3 min. more another post marked 'G-asthof zur Hertha- 
burg\] The tradition which connects the mysterious rites of the 
goddess Xertus or Hcrtha (mentioned by Tacitus, Germ. 40) with 
this spot is not older than the 17th century. The so-called 'Opfer- 
steiu' ('altar of sacrifice') is about 110 yds. from the second of the 
above-mentioned finger-posts. 

Riigen. PUTBUS. 27. Route. 169 

From Stubbenkammer a motor-boat plies in 20 min. to Lolimc (fare 
50 pf.)? which walkers may reach in 1 hr. either through tlie wood (views) 
or along the beach (road via Nipmerow). Lohme {Strand-IIotel, pens. 
41/2-6 t^; Grej/, pens. 4-6 J^; Jenssen, pens. 5-() JC; Visitors' Tax, 3 JC) 
is a fishing-village, frequented annually by 3000 sea-bathers. Road to 
Sagard, see p. 167. 

Arkona is most conveniently reached by steamer (in summer daily, 
except Sun. ; from Sassnitz 2, from Stubbenkammer IV2 ^)- We may, 
however, also drive across the narrow line of sand-dunes named the 
Schaabe (see Map) to Glowe (Strand-Hotel, pens. 4 c^) and Breege {Ostsee, 
pens. 41/2-5 JC; Schon), from the latter of which we may follow the 
beach (21/2 hrs. ; carr. 6 JC) to Arkona. 

The promontory of Arkona (Schilling), the northernmost point of 
Riigen, 206 ft. above tlie sea, is crowned with two lighthouses (adm. 
30 pf.). The view embraces the coast of Jasmund, the island of Hidden- 
see, and the Danish island of Mocn in the distance. Here are the ruins 
of an ancient stronghold of the Wends, consisting of a circular intrench- 
ment 30-40 ft. high, which contained the temple of their four-headed idol 
Swantevit. It was destroyed by the Danes in 1168. 

b. From Bergen to Putbus and Lauterbach. 

7 M. Railway in 1/0 hr. (fares to Putbus 90, 45, 30 pf . ; to Lauter- 
bach 1 JC 15, 55, 45 pf. ; from Stralsund to Putbus 3 t/^ 20, 1 JC 90, 
1 .^ 25 pf.). 

7 M. Putbus. — Hotels. Fiirstenhof, in the Allee, R. IV2-3V2. 
D. 13/4 JC; Bellcvue, in the Circus; Adler, in the Allee, unpretending; 
Deutsches Haus, in the market, pens. 4-5 JC. — Restaurants, Kursaal, 
in the Allee, with garden; Railway Restaiwant. — Theatre, open July 
15th to Sept. 15th. 

PutbuSj a cheerful little town witli 2050 inhab., and the resi- 
dence of the Prince of Putbus, lies about V/2 M. from the sea. The 
town consists chiefly of the Allee- Strasse and the Circus; the latter 
is adorned with an obelisk in memory of the foundation of the town 
in 1810. — The Palace, in the park, in the late-Renaissance style, 
was completed in 1872. In front of it is a marble statue of Prince 
Malte (d. 1854), founder of Putbus, by Drake. 

The bathing-places are IY2 ^I- distant, at Lauterbach (Hot. 
Victoria; farther to the E., Friedrich-Wilhelms-Bad), which is 
charmingly situated on the Rugensche Bodden. The island of 
Vilm (Witte's Hotel, pens. 5 c/# ; motor-launch there and back 40 pf .) 
contains magnificent oaks and beeches. 

c. From Putbus to Binz and Gohren. 

15 M. Railway in IV2 hr. (fares 1 JC QO, 1 JC 25 pf .) ; to Binz in 
40 min. (fares 90, 55 pf.) ; to Jagdschloss in 50 min. (fares 1 J^ 10, 75 pf.); 
to Scllin in 1 hr. (fares 1 JC 30, 85 pf.). 

Pidbiis , see above. The train runs towards the E. , passing 
(31/2 M.) Seelvitz and the SchmachterSee (left). 

7 M. Binz. — Hotels. Kurhatis ; Kaiserhof^^.^^k-^.'B.l^U.'D. 2^1^-4:, 
pens. ^-12 JC: Seeschloss, R. 3-5, pens. TV^-IO JC; Strand, pens. 6-8V2 ^; 
Ostsee-Hotcl ; Potenberg, R. 1V2"2, pens. ^^j^,JC. — Restaurants. Gramni, 
D. 11/4-1^/4 cS; Rail. Restaurant. — Visitors' Tax, 4-8 JC. Bath 40 pf. 

170 P^oute 27. GOHREX. 

Binz, a seaside-resort with a good sandy beach, attracts 18,000 
visitors annually. It lies on the "W. side of the Granitz, a beautiful 
deer-park enclosed by a lofty fence and has an esplanade and a long 
pier. Pretty walks to the Jagdschloss (see below), to the (l^^hr.; 
Waldhalle ( restaurant i, to the {^ \ hr.) Cafe Waldwiese, and to 
the ^1^ 3 hr.) Forsthaus Prora. 

9 M. Jagdschloss: the station lies ^/g M. from the chateau. 
The Jagdschloss (or 'shooting -lodge'), situated on an eminence, 
contains a collection of antlers. The platform of the tower, to which 
a spiral and dizzy staircase of 154 steps ascends, commands a fine 
*View (Monchgut). Tickets of admission (20 pf.) are obtained at a 
stall opposite the Hotel Granitz. 

11 .M. Sellin ("^Filrsf Wilhelm. R. 3-4. pens. ey^^-S^^^; 
Strand - Hotel : Ostsee : Wald- Hotel: Ehlert: Visitors' Tax, 
4:-10'JC), with two stations, is a pleasant little resort (8000 visitors 
annually) with a long pier. 

The railway, running to the S.. now enters the rugged penin- 
sula of Jlonchgut. where the primitive native customs and peculiar 
costume still prevail. — 13 M. Baabe. 

15 M. Gohren. — Hotels. Brandenburg, R. 2-3V2, pens. 6-8.^: 
Strand. R. 2-3. pens. 5-8 ^€: Xordpeerd. pens, from iJC: Seeschloss, well 
spoken of: Borgmeyer : Ostsee-Hotel: BeUeviie : Wald-Hotel : Wendt, 
Linde. both moderate. — Visitors' Tax, 5 JC. Bath 30 pf. 

Gohren is situated on a narrow ridge, on the X. side of which 
is the bathing -beach f 10. 000 visitors^. Good views are obtained 
fi'om the Xordpeerd (200 ft.; E. extremity of Monchgut) and the 
Plansherg (i ^ hr. to the ^.).' 

Thiessoir :Strand-H6tel : Monehgut ; ^^stpfahl : Visitors* Tax, r^lc^-^JC)\ 
is a little bathing-resort at the S. extremity of Monchgut, 51/2^- to the' 
S. of G-ohren. Daily steamer to Greifswald (p. 164). 


Route Page 

28. From Berlin to Dresden 173 

a. Via Zossen 173 

b. Via Jiiterbog and Roderau 174 

Abbey of Ziiina 171 

29. Dresden 175 

a. Briihl Terrace, Theatre, and Royal Palace, 182. — 

b. Picture Gallery and Z winger, 186. — c. Old Town 
with the Museum Johanneum and the Albertinum, 199. 
— d. Suburbs on the Left Bank, 204. — e. Right bank 
of the Elbe, 206. — f. Environs of Dresden, 208. 

30. Saxon Switzerland 209 

a. From Dresden to Bodenbach (Prague, Vienna) and 

Tetschen by Railway 209 

Lockvrit.zer Grrund 210 

From Pirna to Grottleuba 210 

Lilienstein. Pfaffenstein. Bielagrund. Sclmeeberg. 

Tyssaer Wande 210, 211 

b. From Dresden to Bodenbach by Steamer 212 

c. From Schandau to Bautzen 213 

FromSebnitz toHinter-Hermsdorf '; to theHochbusch 213, 214 

d. From Wehlen to Scbandau via the Bastei 214 

Uttewaldcr Grund, 214. Environs of Schandau. . . 217 

e. From Schandau via the Prebischtor and the Ed- 

mundsklamm to Herrnskretschen 217 

f. From Schandau to Dittersbach via Hinter-Herms- 

dorf ' 219 

From Dittersbach to Herrnskretschen 221 

31. From Dresden to Reichenbach via Chemnitz and 

Zwickau 221 

From Chemnitz to Leipzig. — From Glauchau to 

Gossnitz 225 

32. The Erzgebirge 226 

a. From Dresden to Teplitz 227 

b. From Freiberg to Brux 228 

c. From Chemnitz to Komotau via Reitzenhain . . . 228 

d. From Chemnitz to Komotau via Annaberg .... 229 

e. From Zwickau to Johanngeorgenstadt (Carlsbad) 231 

f. From Chemnitz to Adorf 231 

33. From Dresden to Leipzig 232 

a. Via Riesa 232 

From Riesa to Chemnitz and to Freiberg 233 

b. Via Meissen ; 233 

From Grossbothen to Glauchau. Wechselburg . . . 236 

34. Leipzig 237 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 12 





From Berlin to (Halle and; Leipzig 



From Hamburg to Leipzig via Magdeburg 


a. Via 3Iagdeburg, Cothen, and Halle 


From Schonebeck to Stassfurt and Giisten 


From Cothen to Aschersleben 


From Halle to Cottbus and Guben 


b. Via Magdeburg, Zerbst, and Bitterfeld 


From Dessau to Worlitz ; to Cothen 256, 257 | 


From Leipzig to Hof (Nuremberg, Ratisbon, Municli) 

or E^er 


Greiz. 258. — Schleiz. Hirschberg 



From Leipzig to Hocbstadt via Gera and Saalfeld . 


From Gera to Gossnitz and to TVeischlitz 


From Triptis to Marxgriin. Lobenstein 



From Leipzig to Bebra (Frankfort on the Main) and 

Cassel. Thuriugian Railway 



Battlefields of Rossbach and Liitzen. Merseburg. . 

From Xaumburg to Artern 


From Gross-Heringen to Straussfurt 



From Xaumburg to Jena and Saalfeld 



Environs and Battlefield of Jena 




Environs of Rudolstadt 


Tiefurt. Ettersburg 

From Weimar to Blankenhain, to Gera. and to 







Eisenacb and Environs 

From Eisenacb to Coburg and Licbtenfels 

From Salzungen to Kalten-Xordheim 


From Wernshausen to Zella-St-Blasii. Landsberg . 


Grosse Dolmar. From Meiningen to Kissingen and 

Schweinfurt. Romhild 


From Hildhurghausen to Lindenau-Friedrichshall . . 


From Immelborn to Liebenstein 


From Liebenstein to Altenstein. From Altenstein 


to Ruhla 




From Coburg to Rodaeh and to Lauscha 



The Thuriugian Forest 


a. Schwarzburg and the Yallev of the Schwarza . . 


b. From Xeu-Dietendorf to Saalfeld 


c. From Xeu-Dietendorf to Ritschenhausen. Oberhof 


d. From Plane to Hmenau and Themar. The Schmiicke 


e. From Gotha to Grafenroda via Georgental 



f. From Frottstedt to Friedrichroda and Georgen- 

tal. Inselsbero" 


g. From Wutha to Ruhla 



Route Page 

47. From Berlin or Halle to Cassel via Nordhausen . . . 303 

From Sangcrhausen to Erfurt 304 

The Kyflfhiiuser. Rotenburg. Frankenhausen . . . 305 

From Leinefelde to Wulften and to Gotha 306 

48. From Brunswick to Nordhausen and Erfurt via 

BOrssum (Harzburg, Goslar) 307 

From Borssum to Harzburg 308 

From Scharzfeld to Lautcrborg and St. Andreas])crg 308 

From Walkcnried to Braunlage. The Stoberhai . . 309 

49. From Halle (Leipzig) to Seesen via Ascherslebcn 

and Goslar (Hildesheim^ Hanover) 310 

From Halberstadt to Magdeburg and to Blankenburg 311 

50. The Harz Mountains 312 

I. The Eastern Harz Mts 313 

a. Quedlinburg 313 

b. Selke-Tal. Gernrode. Suderode. Lauenburg. 

Magdesprung. Alexisbad.YiktorshOhe. Hassel- 

felde 314 

c. Bode-Tal. Rosstrappe. Hexentanzplatz. Trese- 

burg. Railway from Thale to Blankenburg . 317 

d. Blankenburg. Riibeland. Elbingerode. Tanne. 

Braunlage 320 

e. Stolberg. Joscphshohe. Neustadt 321 

11. The Western Harz 322 

f. Goslar. Hahnenklee. Oker-Tal 322 

g. Harzburg. Ilsenburg. Wernigerode 325 

h. From Wernigerode to Nordhausen 329 

i. The Brocken 330 

j. Claustal. St. Andreasberg. Grund 332 

51. From Cassel to Frankfort on the Main 333 

From Wabern to Fritzlar and Wildungen 333 

From Marburg to Creuztal 336 

From Giessen to Fulda and to Gelnhausen 337 

52. From Gottingen to Bebra and Frankfort on the Main 338 

The Meissner 338 

From Niederhone to Leinefelde to Eisenach, and to 

Treysa 338, 339 

From Fulda to Gersf eld and to Tann. The Rhon-Gebirge 340 

28. Prom Berlin to Dresden. 

a. Via ZossEx. 

112 M. Express in 3 hrs. (fares 16 JC 20, 10 ^50, Q JC 60 pf .) ; ordin- 
ary trains in 41/2 hrs. (fares 14 c^ 20, S JC 50, 5 ,^ 60 pf.). 

Berlin J see p. 1. Departure from the Anhalt Station. — Un- 
important stations. 20^2 ^- Zossen is also connected with Berlin 
by a military railway, running parallel with ours and going on to 


174 J^oute 28. jnTERBOG. 

(44 M.) Jiiterbog (see below). — 46 \ 2 M. Uckro^ 5 M. (light rail- 
way) from Luckaii (Goldener Ring), witli 4200 inhab., and a church 
containing a Limoges reliquary of the 13th century. — At (64 M.) 
Dohrilugk-Kirchhain (with an old Cistercian convent-church) the 
train crosses the Halle-Cottbus-Guben line (p. 252), and at (76 M.) 
Elstericerda the Kohlfurt-Rosslau line (p. 373). A branch-line 
also runs from Elsterwerda to Riesa (p. 233). — 88 M. Gy^ossenhain 
(Hotel de Saxe), with 12,000 inhab. and important cloth-factories, 
the junction for Frankfort on the Oder (p. 370) and Priestewitz 
(p. 232.. — 97 M. Weinbohla: 105 M. Badebeul (p. 232). — 
109 M. Dresden tp. 175), Xeustadt Station; the trains go on to 
the ^112 M.) Central Station ^p. 175). 


119 M. Express in 21/0 hrs. ; ordinary trains in 5 hrs. (fares as above). 

Berlin^ see p. 1. Departure from the Anhalt Station. — At 
(5^2 ^^0 Gross -Lichterf eld e the extensive red buildings of the 
Cadet School (p. 25) are conspicuous to the right. 11 M. Gross- 
Beeren^ where, on 23rd Aug., 1813, the Prussians under Billow 
defeated a French corps under Oudinot. 31 M. Luckenwalde 
(22,300 inhab.). — 36V 31. GrVma. 

The Cistercian abbey of Zinna, l M. to the E., was founded in 1170 
and secularized in 1547. The church, a handsome granite edifice dating 
from early in the 13th cent, (key at the 'Yogtei'). contains brick vaulting 
of the 15th cent, and some old stained glass and wood-carvings. The 
secular buildings of the abbey are interesting; the larger dates from the 
15th. the smaller from the 14th century. The village of Zinna (1400 in- 
hab.; Schwarzer Adler) was founded in 1764-77 by Frederick the Great, 
whose statue adorns the market-place. 

39V., M. Jiiterbog (Herold; Bergschmidt) , an old town of 
7100 iniiab., 1^ ^ 31. to the E. (tramway). The Church of St. 
2\icholas (sacristan, 31ittel-Str. 27) dates from the 15th cent., while 
the towers were finished in the 16th cent, (chimes). The interior 
contains a ciborium of the 16th cent., some ceiling-paintings (Old 
Sacristy), and the so-called 'Tetzelkasten'. The Bafhaus (15-1 6th 
cent.") contains a room with handsome star-vaulting. The Abbot's 
House, which formerly belonged to the abbey of Zinna (see above), 
the Tetzel Chapel, and the three old gates of the town also merit 
inspection. The line to Halle and Leipzig diverges here (R. 35). 

Denneicitz. 2 M. to the S.^V. of Juterbog. was the scene of a victory 
gain^ by the Prussians under Bulow. on 6th Sept., 1813, over the French 
under Xey and Oudinot. — Military Railway to Berlin, see p. 173. 

69V 2 M. Falkenberg (p. 253); 88 31. Boderau (line to Riesa, 
see p. 233). From (90V'2 31.) Langenberg to (119 31.) Dresden 
(Central Station^ this line is identical with that from Leipzig (R. 
33 a). 





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Tt-oEriph-Aiu t 1 iWagner ABebesLepta^ I 


29. Dresden. 

Arrival. Cab-tiokuts arc issued at the stations, as at Berlin (p. 1). 
Cab into the town from any of tlio stations, see pp. 177, 178. Tramway 
between tlic Ncustadt and Central stations (Nos. 10 and 26, see p. 178). 

There are four railway-stations in Dresden proper, besides several 
suburban stations: 1. Centkal Station (PI. I), 7, /; ^Restaurant), for the 
trains to Berlin, Leipzig, tlie Saxon Switzerland, Bodenbach, and Prague 
(upper platform), and for Tharandt, Freiberg, Chemnitz, Gorlitz, and Brcslau 
(lower platform). 2. Wettinek Stkasse Station (PI. C, 5; /) for the 
loop-line connecting the Central Station with the Ncustadt Station. 
3. Friedrichstadt Station (PI. B, 5; /), for local trains. 4. Neustadt 
Station (PI. E, 3, /; *Restaurant) , for Lcipsic, Berlin, Gorlitz, and 
Breslau. The first three arc in the Altstadt, the last in the Neustadt. — 
Steamers, see p. 178. 

Hotels (none of them with omnibuses at the station). In the Alt- 
stadt: *Sendig's E^uropaischer Hof (PI. a, D 7 ; //), at the corner of the 
Prager-Str. and Sidonien-Str., with winter-garden, etc., R. 3Vo-10, B. IV2, 
D. (1.30 p. m.) 41/2, pens, from 9 J^; *Savoy Hotel (PI. b, I) 8 ; /), Se- 
dan-Str. 7, R. 3-10, B. V/o, D. 41/2, pens, from 9^, with garden, baths, etc.; 
*Grand Union (PI. c, D 7 ; /), Bismarck-Platz 2, R. 3-8, B. Vj^, D. 4, 
pens, from 71/2 ^; *Kaiser Wilhelm (PL e, D 7; II), Wiener-Str. 3, 
with garden, R. 21/0-6, B. IV4, D. 31/2 ^ pens, from 8 JC ; * Continental, 
(PI. f, D 7; 7), Bismarck-Str. 16, with garden, R. 3V2-IO, B. VU, D. 3-5, 
pens. 7-15 JC; *New York (PL u, D 7 ; II), Prager-Str. 47, R. 3-7, 
D. 3-4 J^; *Bristol (PL d, D8; /), Bismarck-Platz 5, R. 21/2-8, B. 1, 
D. 3, pens. 7-12 t^; Westminster, Bcrnhard-Str. 1, R. 3-6c^. — Hartig's 
Carlton Hotel, Bismarck-Platz 1 (PL D, 7, 8; I), R. 21/2-8, B. 1, D. 2-3, 
pens. 6-8 J^: Monopol, Wicner-Platz 9 (PL D, 7; //), R. 21/3-5 J^ ; 
Terminus, Wiener-Platz 8, R. 2-6 JC; Central-Hotel (PL t, D 7 ; //), 
Wiener-Platz 10, with garden-restaurant; Horitzsch (PL i, D 7; 7), Bis- 
marck-Str. 14, R. 21/2-5, D. 13/^-21/2 c^; these all near the Central Station. 

— Bellevue (PL g, D, E, 5; 77), Theater-Platz 1, beautifully situated 
on the Elbe, first-class, R. 4-10, B. I1/2, D. (1 p. m.) 5 ^, with garden. 

— *Weber's (PL h, D 5; 77), Ostra-Allee 1, close to the Zwinger, R. 
3-6, B. 11/4, D. 3, pens. 7-10 JC; Hot. du Nord (PL m, D 7; 77), Mos- 
czinsky-Str. 1, at the corner of the Prager-Str., R. 3-7, B. 1, D. 3, pens, 
from 71/2 cS, with garden; *Stadt Gotha (PL n, E 5; 77), Schloss- 
Strasse 11, R. 21/3-51/2, B. 1, pens. 71/2-IO JC; *Goldener Engel (PL s, 
D6; 77), Wilsdrulfer-Str. 7, R. 2-4, B. 1, D. 23/^-3, pens. 6-9 Ji; Stadt 
Berlin (PL k, E 5; 77), Neumarkt 1; Stadt Rom (PL 1, E 6; 77), 
Neumarkt 10; Drei Raben (PL D, 6; 77), Marien-Str. 18, R. 21/2-5 JC; 
Deutsches Haus, Scheffel-Str. 4 (PL D, 6; 77), R. 2-3, D. 21/4 JC; 
Imperial, Konig-Johann-Str. 12 (PL E, 6; 77); Hot. de France. Wils- 
druffcr-Str. 15 (PL D, 6; 77), R. 2-41/2, B. 1, D. 13/^-3 c^, good; Hohen- 
zoLLERN-HoF, Bicitc-Str. 5 (PL D, 6; 77), R. from 2, D. 21/3 JC; Kur- 
landerHaus, Dippoldiswaldcr-Platz 2 (PL D, 6; 77), R. I1/2-3, D. I'^UJC, 
B. 85 pf. ; Hot. Wettin, Wettiner-Str., at the corner of the Post-Platz, 
R. 21/4-31/2 JC; Deutscher Herold, Sophien-Str. 2, these two near the 
Zwinger (PL D, 5 ; 77) ; Palmengarten, Pirnaische-Str. 29 (PL E, F, 6 ; 77), 
R. 2-3, B. 3/4, D. 11/4 c^; Hotel Edelweiss, Wettiner-Str. 2 (PL C, D, 5 ; 77), 
R. 11/2-23/4 ^; Amalienhof, Amalien-Str. 24 (PL E, F, 6: 77), R. l^/.^S JC; 
Angermann's Hotel Garni, Pillnitzcr-Str. 54 (Pl.F, 5, 6; 77), R. l^U-^^I^JC, 
good; Haubold's Hotel Garni, Jiidcnhof 1 (PL E, 5; 77), R. from 2JC; 
Mahrholdt's Hotel Garni, Maximilians-Ring 27, at the corner of Moritz- 
Str. (PL E, 6; 77), R. I1/2-3 JC. — Hospice for Women, Liittichau-Str. 10 
(PLE, 7; 77), R. I1/2-2 ^. 

In the Neustadt: *Kronprinz (PL o, E4; 77), Haupt-Str. 5, R. from 2, 
B. 1, D. 3, pens, from ioJC; Kaiserhof & Stadt Wien (PL p, E 5; 77), 

176 lioute 29. DHESDEN. Practical 

hy the Augustus Bridge, R. 2-7. B. 1. D. 2-S JC, well spoken of. — 
Hotel Royal (PI. q. E 3: I), Anton-Str. 33; Neustadter Hof, Auton- 
Str. 25. R. 2-3. B. 3 4, D. 11/4^, these two opposite the Neustadt Station; 
Tier Jaheeszeite>' (PI. r. E4; //), in the market-place: Stadt Coburg, 
Kaiser-Str. 1 (PI. E. 4: /). near the Xeustadt Station; Drei Goldexe 
Palmexzweige. bv the Japanese Palace (PL E. 4; II), R. 1^1^-5, B. s/^. 
D. 11 '2 .^. ' 

Pensions ('Pensionate* ; terms and length of notice should be ar- 
ranged in advance). Between the Lsxer City axd the Central Sta- 
tion: Ammon-Str. 7 (PL C. D. 6. 7 : //). Blech, 5-8 JC. — Biirgerwiese 
(PL E, 7; //): Xo. 18 (groundfloor), Fritzsche, 4-8 JC; (second floor), 
Seldel, 4-6 JC. — Christian-Str. 31 (PL D. E. 7 ; II) ; Kuhlemann. 4V.>-7 JC. — 
Johann-aeorgen-Allee 35 (PL E, F, 6, 7 ; II). 5-8 JC. — Kohlschiitter-Str. 3 
Tl. D, 7; //), Villa LUderitz, 41/2-IO c^. — Liittichau-Str. (PL E, 7; //) : 
Xo. 13, Donath, 41/2-7 JC : Xo. 24, Simon, 4^1 JC; Xo. 26, Unity, 41/2-" JC; 
Xo. 28. KotTie. 4-5i/o JC : Xo. 3i, Villa Gori. 41/2-61/2 -^- — Portikus- 
Str. 12 (PL E, 7: //), Jlehring, l-l JC. — Prager-Str. 58 (PL D, 7: II). 
Jleincl^e, 4i'o-9 J. — Rackuitz-Str. (PL D. E. 7 ; II) : Xo. 6. Fricke, 4-6 JC; 
Xo. 9, Kosinska, S'^ 2-^'^ ■■> ^ • Xo. 15. 3Iiss Martin, o-SJC; Xo. 22,' Gdde, 
4-7 .«. — Sidonieu-Str. 5"(P1. D. 7; //), lira. hv.^-i^JC. — To the South 
OF THE Central Station: Bendemann-Str. (PL D, 8; J): Xo. 3, Villa 
Xora. 5-7 JC: Xo. 11. Von Briesen, 5-10 JC. — Berg-Str. (PL D, 7, 8; /) : 
Xo. 23. Mecklenburg, 4i .,-7 JC: Xo. 33. Baumann-Riesel, 5-1 JC. — 
Bismarck-Platz 16 (PL D. 7, 8;'/}. Bipherger, 5-S JC. — Hettner-Str. 8, 
Mrs. Keyser. 5V2-9 ^^- — Lindenau-Platz 4 (PL E, 8 : I), Schadeivell, 5-7 JC. 
— Lindenau-Str. 16 (PL D. 8; /). Kersting, 41/0-8 JC. — Xurnberger-Platz 
(PL C. D, 8: I): Xo. 3, Le Biche. 5-8 JC: Xo. 5, Petereit, 5-8 JC. — 
Reichenbach-Str. 22 (PL D, E. 8; J), Opel-Otlntz. 41/2-7 JC. — Reichs-Str. 
(PL D. 8; I): Xo. 1, Gornemann, 5-9 .S : Xo. 4. Edehnann. 5-8 .4C; Xo. 9, 
Kinze. 4io-8^; Xo. 13. Becker- Opitz. 5-% JC; Xo. 14, Bockmann, 5-1 JC: 
Xo. 26. Von Oertzen. 5-10 JC. — Schnorr-Str. la (PL D, E, 8; /). Budeloff, 
4-6 ..^. — Sedan-Str. 25 (PL D. 8 : I). Looss. — Strehlener-Str. 3, Mrs. Todd, 
4-6 .^. — Uhland-Str. 15 (PL E. 8 : /). Hflbler, 51/2-8 JC. — In the Xeustadt : 
Hospital-Str. 13 (PL F. 4; /). Busche, 4.-1 JC. 

"Wine Restaurants. In the Altstadt: ■^Eiiropdischer Hof (p. 175); 
Belvedere, on the Briihl Terrace (p. 182), D. (12.30-6) 4 JC; ^Englischer 
Garten. Waisenhaus-Str. 29 (PL D, E, 6; //), D. 31/2 JC; "^ Stadt Gotha, 
(p. 175). D.SJC: Tiedemann & Grahl. See-Str. 9 (PL E, 6; //), D. 2-3 JC; 
Malepartus. Moritz-Str. 21 (PL D. 6: 11), D. 2-3 JC.: '^Grell. Zahnsgasse 2 
(PL D. 6: //). D. 13 4-23/^^; Kaiser-Palast. Amalien-Str. 1 (P1.E,F,6; //), 
D. 2-3 c*:.- Neues Palais de Saxe. Xeumarkt 9 (PL E, 5; //), D. 21/.2 JC ; 
*Schonrock's Xachfolger, Wilsdrufifer-Str. 14 (PL D, E, 6; //). D. 1^/2 JC. 
In the Xeustadt: Kronprinz (p. 175). — TVine and Luncheon Rooms. 
Kunath. WaU-Str. 8 (PL D, 6: //) ; Boning. Johann-Georgen-Allee 17 
(PL E, F. 6. 7: II): Anton, An der Frauenkirche 1 (PL E, 5; //) ; 
Bodega. Waisenhaus-Str. 14 (PL D. E. 6: //), first floor; Marchi, See- 
Str. 13 (PL E. 6; //), Italian wine. 

Beer Restaurants. In the Altstadt: '^Stadt Gotha (p. 175), D. 
11 2 ^^: Kneist. Grosse Briidergasse 2 (PL D, E, 5; //), good cooking; 
Kaiser-Palast (see above), D. I1/4-13/4 JC; Drei Baben (p. 175), with 
garden. D. li/o JC. good; Hotel de France (p. 175), much frequented; 
Viktoria-Haus. Friedrichs-Ring. at the corner of the See-Str. (PL E, 6; II); 
Geu.-erbehaus .' Ostrsi-AUee 13 (PL D. 5: II), near the Zwinger (comp. 
p. 178); Angermann (p. 175). well spoken ot; Helbig ('Italian Village'), 
bv the Augustus Bridge (PI. E. 5: //). much frequented for the view; 
Zacherlbrdu, Konig-Johann-Str. 8 (PL E. 6: II). D. VJ^JC, well spoken of; 
Loicenbrdu. Moritz-Str. lb (PL E, 6; //), D. I1/4 JC, well spoken of; 
Franziskaner. Xeumarkt 10 (P1.E,5: //), at the corner of Moritz-Str.; 
PUsener Bierhalle. Grosse Kirchgasse 6 (PL E, 6; //); Amtshof, Sachsen- 
Platz 2 (PL F, G, 5; II); Bilrger-Kasino, Grosse Briidergasse 25 (PL D, 

Notes. DRESDEN. 25. Route. 177 

E, 5; //); StadtwaldschldHSChen, Sophicn-Str. 1, cor. of the Post-Platz 
(PI. D, 5, 6; II). — In the Neustadt: Wiener Garten, at the Hot. Kaiserhof 
(p. 175); Dienhold's, Bautzener-Str. 45 (PI. F, G, 4; /), D. 11/4-1^/4 -^, 
well spoken of. 

Automatic Restaurants : See-Str. 7 (PL E, 6; //) ; Wilsdruffer-Str. 25 
(PI. D, E, 6; //); Prager-Str. 33. 

Caf6s and Confectioners. In the Altstadt: Belvedere (p. 183); 
Central Station Cafe, Bismarck-Str. 3 (PL D, 7; /); Kaiser-Cafe, Wiener 
Platz 1 (PL D, 7; /); Limberg, Pragcr-Str. 10 (PL D, 6, 7; //) ; Hiilfert, 
Prager-Str. 48 ; Central Theatre Caf6, Waisenhaus-Str. 8 (PL D, E, 6; //) ; 
Residenz, Konig-Johann-Str. 2 b (PI. E, 6; //) ; Konig, Johannes-Ring 14 
(PL D, E, 6; //); Kreutzkamm, Altmarkt 14 (PL E, 6; //) ; Central, 
Schloss-Str. 2 (PL E, 5, 6; //) ; Gohring, Schloss-Str. 19 (PL E, 5, 6; //). 
— In the Neustadt: Pollender, Haupt-Str. 27 (PL E, 4; //); Moltke, 
Augustus-Brucke 2 (PL E, 5; //); Albert, Albert-Platz 8 (PL E, F, 4; /). 

Cabs. Taximeter Cabs (first-class). For 1-2 pers. 70 pf. for 800 
metres, 10 pf. for each 400 metres more; 3 pers. 70 pf. per 600 metres, 
10 pf. for each 300 metres more; 1-3 pers. with over 56 lbs, of luggage, or 
at night (11-7), or outside the inner town, 70 pf. per 400 metres, 10 pf. for 
each 200 metres more. — Waiting for 8 min. 70 pf., each 4 min. more 
10 pf., per hr. IV2 '^- The fare from the railway-stations is in each 
case 10 pf. more. Bridge-toll 10 pf. Luggage under 221/2 lbs. free, under 
55 lbs. 25 pf., under 110 lbs. 50 pf. — The charges of the second-class 
cabs are somewhat lower. — There are also 3Iotor Cabs. 

'^Fiacres\ or carriages with two horses, first 1/2 hr. 2-21/2? each addit. 
1/2 hr. IV2 «^- — It is advisable, particularly for the longer excursions 
(1st hr. 5, 2nd hr. 4, 3rd hr. 3 JC, each addit. hr. 2 JC) to make a bargain 
with the driver beforehand. 

Trip 7'ound the Town (3 hrs.). Four-horse vehicles start from the 
Theater-Platz at 10 a.m. daily from May 15th to Oct. 15th; fare 3 JC. 

Electric Tramways. — 1. Flatten (PL A, B, 9; /) to the Central 
Station (PL D, 7 ; /), Georg-Platz (PL E, 6 ; /), Sachsen-Platz (PL F, G, 5 ; I), 
Blasewitzer-Str. (PL H, I, 5 ; /), and Blaseivitz (p. 208) or Loschwitz (p. 208 ; 
43 or 49 min. ; fares 10-30 pf.). — 2. Friedrich-Str. (PL B, 4; /) to the 
Wettiner-Str. Station (PL C, 5 ; /), the Altmarkt (PL E, 6 ; /), Stubel-Platz 
(PL F, 6 ; /), Barbarossa-Pla'tz (PL K, 6 ; 7), and Blasewitz (p. 208 ; 37 min. ; 
10-20 pf.). — 3. Neustadt Station (PL E, 3 ; /) to the Albert-Brucke (PL 

F, 5 ; /) and Barbarossa-Flatz (PL K 6, /; 20-22 min. ; lOpf.). — 4. Neustadt 
Station (PL E, 3 ; 7) to the Augustus-Brucke (PL E, 5; I), Post-Platz 
(PL D, 5, 6; 7), Ferdinand-Platz (PL E, 6; 7), Schnorr-Str. (PL D, E, 8; 7), 
Johann-Georgen-Allee (PL F, E, 7, 6; 7), the Carola-Briicke (PL F, 5; 7), 
and the Neustadt Station (45 min. ; 10-15 pf .). — 5. Hecht-Str. (PL F, 1, 2 ; 7) 
to Alaun-Platz (PL F, G, 2 ; 7), the Albert-Brucke (PL F, 5 ; 7), Georg- 
Platz (PL E, 6 ; 7), Central Station (PL D, 7 ; 7), and Zschertnitz (PL E 10, 7; 
40-42 min. ; 10-20 pf.). — 6. Wilder Mann (bey. PL D, 1 ; 7) to the Neustadt 
Station (PL E, 3 ; 7), the Marien-Brucke (PL D, 4 ; 7), Ostra-Allee (PL D, 5 ; 7), 
Dippoldiswalder-Platz (PL D, 6; 7), Berg-Str. (Pl.D, 7-9; 7), and Racknitz 
(PL D 10, 7; 44 min. ; 10-25 pf.). — 7. Wolfnitz or Alt-Cotta (bey. PL 
A, 7; 7) to Freiberger- Platz (PL C, 6; 7), Post-Platz (PL D, 5, 6; 7), 
the Augustus-Brucke (PL E, 5; I), Albert-Platz (PL E, F, 4; I), and the 
Arsenal (PL G 1, 7; 36 or 39 min. ; 10-20 pf.). — 9. Leubnitz-Neuostra (bey. 
PL G, H, 10; 7) to the Zoological Gardens (PL F, 8; I), Georg-Platz (PL 

E, 6; 7), the Neumarkt (PL E, 5; I), the Augustus-Briicke (PL E, 5; 7), 
Albert-Platz (PL E, F, 4; 7), and the Waldschlosschen (PL I 3, 7; 42 min. ; 
10-25 pf.). — 11. Neustadt Station (PL E, 3 ; 7) to Albert-Platz (PL E, 

F, 4; 7), Waldschlosschen (PL I, 3; 7), Weisser Hirsch (p. 208), Buhlau 
and W^eissig (bey. PL N 4, 7; 42 min. ; 10-30 pf .). — 12. Seidnitz (PL L, 9 ; 7) 
and Gruna (PL I, 8; 7) to Stubel-Platz (PL F, 6; 7), Johann-Georgen- 
Allee (PL F, E, 7, 6; 7), the Carola-Briicke (PL F, 5; 7), the Neustadt 
Station (PL E, 3 ; 7), and the St. Pauli Cemetery (bey. Pl.D 1, 7; 47 min. ; 
10-25 pf.). — 15. Plauen (Riug-Str.; PL B, 9, 10, 7) to Chemnitzer-Str. 

178 lioute 29. DRESDEN. Practical 

(PL B, C, 9-7 ; /), Post-Platz (PL D. 5, 6 : 1), the Augustus-Brucke (PL E, 5 ; /)» 
Kaiser- Wilhelm-Platz (PL E. 4: /), Leipzieer-Str.. and Mickten (PL A, 

B. 1. 2. /; 35 min. : 10-25 pf.). — 16. Gretiadier-Kasenie (PL H, 2; /) to 
Albert-Platz (PL E. F, 4 . the Augustus-Brucke (PL E. 5; /), Georg-Platz 
(PL E. 6 : /), Central Station (PL D. 7 : /). and Beichenhach-Str. (PL D 8, 1; 
34 min.; 10-15 pf.i. — 18. Schloss-Platz (PL E. 5: //) to Sachsen-Platz 
(PL F, G. 5; /). Pfotenhauer-Str. (PL G-. H, I, 5, 4; I), Blasewitz (p. 208). 
Loschwitz (p. 208). Wachwitz (p. 209), Hosterwitz (pi 212), and Pillniiz 
(p. 209: 48 min.: 10-35 pf.). — 19. Cotta fHamburger-Str.'; PL A 4, /) 
to the Altmarkt (PL E, 6; I . Pillnitzer-Str. (PL F, G. 6; /), Tolke- 
witz (PL X. 8 : /), and Lauheqast [hex. PL X 8, /; 54 min. ; 10-30 pf.). — 

21. Tolkewitz (PL X. 8: /) to Amalien-Platz (PL F, 5; /), the Altmarkt 
(PL E. 6: /). Cotta. and Cossebaude (bev. PL A 4, /; 67 min. ; 10-25 pf.). — 

22. Hainsherg (p. 222) to Lobtau (PL A. 7.8; 1)1 Lobtauer-Str. (PL B, 

C. 6. 5: /). Ostra-Ailee (PL D. 5: /), Altmarkt (PL E, 6; /), Stubel- 
Piatz (PL F. 6 : 7). Barbarossa-Platz (PL K. 6 : 7), and AUenherger-Str. (PL L, 
M. 7, 7; 79 min, : 10-35 pf.). — 23. Geising-Str. (PL I, 7. 8 : I) to Amalien- 
Platz (PL F. 5; 7 . Post-Platz (PL D, 5, 6; 7), Stern-Platz (PL C. 6; 7), 
Central Station (PL D. 7: 7). Lenne-Str. (PL F, 7: 7), Fursten-Str. (PL 
H. 6 : 7). and Pfotenhaiier-Str. (PL I 4, 7; 47 min. ; 10-15 pf.). — 26. Central 
Station (PL D. 7 : 7) to Lenne-Str. (PL F. 7 : 7), Holbein-Platz (PL F, 5; 7), 
the Albert-Briicke (PL F, 4, 5; 7), the Xeustadt Station (PL E, 3; 7), 
the Marien-Briicke (PL D, 4; 7), the Wettiner-Str. Station (PL C, 5; 7), 
Ammon-Str. (PL C. D. 6. 7 :' 7). and X\\e'Central Station (42-45 min. : 10 pf .). 

Omxibus from the Reiehenbach-Str., past the Central Station, through 
Prager-Str.. See-Str., and Schloss-Str. to the Theater-Platz. 

Steamboats. 1. Up the River, starting from the foot of the Briihl 
Terrace ^Pl. E. 5; 77) in the Altstadt. from the Karl-Str. (PL F, G, 4; 7) 
in the Xeustadt, and from Dresden-Johannstadt (PL G, 4; 7). In summer 
every i ., hr. in the afternoon to Loschivitz and Blasewitz (fare 35, there 

6 back"59 pf.), and to Pillnitz (fare 59 pf., there & back 1 v# 10 pf.). 
To WeJilcn, Konigstein. Schandau, etc., see p. 212. — 2. Dowx the 
River to Meissen (p. 233; 1 JC 15, 75 pf.) and to JIuhlherg via Biesa 
(p. 233: 2 ^€ 25. 1 JC 50 pf.). starting from a pier near the Hotel Bellevue 
(Pl.g, D. E. 5: 77). 

Post Office, Postamt 1 (PL D. 6; 77), Post-Platz 2, open from 

7 (in winter 8; a.m. to 8 p.m.. on Sun. and holidays 7 (8) -9 and 12-1. 
Xumerous branch -offices. — Telegraph Office (PL D, 6; 77), Post- 
Platz 1 (open day and night). 

Baths. Albertshof, Sedan-Str. 7 (PL D, 8, 9: 7), with swimming- 
bath; Gilntzhad (PL F, 5; 77), Elbberg 3, with swimming-bath; Diana- 
Bad^ Xn der BUrgerwiese 22 (PL E. 7; 77); Bad zur Hojfnung, Falken- 
Str. 5 (PL C. 6, 7: 77), with swimming-bath. — Bicer Baths above and 
below the Augustus Bridge. 

Theatres. Boyal Opera House (PL D 5, II: see p. 185); closed in 
July. Ordinary charges : boxes in the first circle 7 JC. second boxes 6 ^€, 
other boxes 4i'.2-5i;2 '^' parquet 4 or 5 c^. — The Boyal Theatre (Schau- 
spielhaus : PL F 4 , Ij in the Xeustadt, is for dramas and comedies; 
charges somewhat lower; closed June-August. Tickets for both obtainable 
also at the Invalidendank (See-Str. 5, PL E 6. 77; 10-4, Sun. 10.30-1). — 
Besidenz-Theater ''PL F, 6; 77), for farces and comic opera. — Central- 
Theater (PL D, 6; 77), Victoria- Salon (PL E, 6; 77), both in the 
Waisenhaus-Str!, Xos. 6 and 26; these two theatres of varieties. 

Concerts in summer in the Belvedere (p. 183), Wiener Garten 
(p. 177:. Liuckesche Bad (PL G, 3. 4; 7). the Waldschlosschen (PL I, 3; 7), 
Zoological Garden PL F. 8; 7j. etc.; in winter at the PhilharmoJiie, the 
Geirerhehaus 'p. 176;. and the Exhibition Buildings (see p. 206). 

British Legation: Minister Resident, A. C. Grant Duff (office- 
hour 12-1;. British Consul, H. Palmie. Altmarkt 16 (11-1,: Yice-Consul, 
C. TT^ Palmie, Altmarkt 16. — United States Consul G-eneral: 2\ St. 



Notes. DRESDEN. ^9. Route. 179 

John Oaffney, Amnion -Str. 2 (10-1); Vice and Deputy Consul General, 
Alfred C. Johnson. 

llnglish Church (All Saints^) in the Wiener -Strasse, near the 
Central Station (p. 205); matins daily at 10 a.m. (Wed. & Frid. at 11), 
services on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. (Holy Communion at 8 a.m. and 
10 a.m. or 12 midday). Chaplain, Rev. C. A. Moore, M. A., B. C. L., 
Strchlener-Str. 21. — American Church (St. Joh7i^s), Keichs-Platz 5 (p. 205), 
services at 11 a.m. & 5.30 p.m.; rector. Rev. J. F. Butterworth, M. A., 
Reichs-Platz 5. — Scottish Presbyterian Services, Bernhard-Str. 2 
(p. 205); services at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m.; minister, Rev. T. U. WWight. 

Bankers (English and American) : Dresdner Bank, Konig- Johann- 
Str. 3 and Prager-Str. 39; Deutsche Bank, Joliannes-Allee 12; Allgemeine 
Deutsche Credit-Anstalt, Altmarkt 16. — Physicians : Dr. Pusineili, Berg- 
Str. 21 ; Dr. Gauser, Liittichau-Str. 25 ; Dr. Ililgendorf, Uliland-Str. 15 ; 
Dr. De Souza, Sidonien-Str. 26. All these speak English. — American 
Dentists : Dr. McBride, Biirgerwiese 20 ; Dr. W. A. Spring, Nurnberger- 
Str. 40 ; Dr. Upton, Prager-Str. 38. 

Anglo - American Club, Mosczinsky-Str. 1. — English Tennis 
Chib, Sports-Platz. — Golf Club, with links at Reick. 

Enquiry Office for Strangers ( Verein zur Forderung des Fremden- 
verkehrs), in the N. pavilion of the Central Station (PL D, 7; /), open 
on week-days 9-7. — Reading Room, see p. 180. — Depot of the Royal 
Porcelain Manufactory, Schloss-Str. 36 (PI. E, 5, 6; //). 

Collections. The royal collections are open on Sunday. They are 
closed on Good Friday, Christmas Eve, Christmas, Easter, Whitsunday, 
and the two Saxon fast-days. [The Albertinum and the Zoological Museum 
are, however, open on Christmas, Easter, and Whitsunday.] Comp. the 
Filhrer durch die Koniglichen Sammlungen zu Dresden (50 pf.). 

* Albertinum (p. 202) free ; daily, except Sat., 9-3 ; Sun. & holidays 11-2. 

Anglo-Saxon Art Gallery, Schloss-Str. 24 (PI. E, 5, 6; //), daily, 
except Sun., 10-6; 1 JC. 

Aquarium, Zinzendorf-Str. 34 (PL E, 6, 7 ; II), daily, 30 pf. 

Army Collection, Royal (p. 208), Tues. and Thurs., 'lO-l; Sun. and 
liolidays, 11-2; free. 

Arnold's Picture Exhibition, Schloss-Str. 34 (PL E, 5, 6 ; II), daily 
9-7, Sun. 11-2; 1 JC. 

Arsenal Collection, Royal (p. 208), Konigs-Platz 1, Albertstadt, April- 
Oct., daily, except Frid., 10-2 (Sun. 11-2); 25 pf. 

Art Union (pictures; p. 182), 11-2 (in winter 3), Thurs. 10-1, other 
days 10 to 4 or 5; 50 pf. 

Botanical Garden (p. 206), daily 6-6, Sun. 6-1 (in winter 8-4 and 
9-1); free. 

Coins, Cabinet of (p. 185), for scientific visitors only, Tues. and 
Frid., 10-1. 

Cosel Palais (p. 199), hours as at the Albertinum. 

Drawings and Engravings (p. 198) open, except on Mon., 9-2 (in 
winter 10-3); Sun. and holidays 11-2 (also on Tues. & Frid., 5-7, in 
winter) ; free. 

^Grtines Gewolbe (Green Vault; p. 183), in summer on Sun. and 
holidays 11-2, and week-days 9-2 (May and Oct. 10-2), 1 JC; during the 
winter-months on Aveek-days 10-1, by card admitting 1-6 pers., 9 JC, each 
additional pers. I1/2 ^' Single visitors will find no difficulty in joining 
a party at the entrance. 

Korner Museum (p. 207), Mon., Tues., Thurs., & Frid. 9-2, Wed. & 
Sat. 9-1 and 2-5, Sun. & holidays 11-2 (50 pf.). 

Library, Royal (p. 206), daily, 9-2 and 4-6 (closed on Sat. afternoon 
and on afternoons in July). Visitors conducted at 1 p.m. (in summer 
only; 50 pf. per person). Apply at the office on the groundfloor. 

Mathematical and Physical Instruments and Models (p. 199), open 
free 9-12, except Sat.; Sun. and holidays 11-1; iu winter, daily 9-12, 
50 pf. (closed on Sat., Sun., and holidays). 

180 Roide 29. DRESDEN. Collections. 

Museum of the Antiquarian Society (p. 205). on weck-davs in summer, 
9-12 and 3-6, 50 pf. ; free on Sun.. Wed., and Sat. afternoons 3-6. — From 
1st Xov. to 30th April visitors are conducted round the museum for a 
fee of 1 JC. 

"^Museum, Historical (p. 200) and Gallery of Arms fp. 201) in the 
Museum Johanneum, Sun. and holidays 11-2 (25 pf .) ; other days 9-2, in 
winter 10-2 (50 pf . ; Mon. I1/2 «^). In winter, Gallery of Arms 50 pf. 

Museum of Industrial Art (p. 206). dailv, except Mon., 9-2: Sun. 
11-1 : free. 

Museum Johanneum (p. 200). see the Historical Museum. 

Museum^ Mineralogical and Prehistoric (p. 198). Sun. and holidays 
11-1. Mon., Tucs., Thurs.. and Frid. 10-12, Wed. and Sat. 1-3; gratis.' 

Museum, Municipal (Stadtmuseum, p. 199), Sun., Mon. and Thurs. 
11-2, free (in summer : in winter Sun. and Mon. only). 

Museum, Zooloqical and Ethnographical (p. 198), on Sun., Mon., 
Tues., Thurs., and Frid. 11-1, Wed. and Sat. 1-3; gratis. 

Palace, Royal (p. 183), 11-1, on application to the castellan; 1-3 pers. 

IV2 ^' 

^^Picture Gallery (p. 186), on Sun. and holidays (with the exception 
of those mentioned on p. 179). 11-2. and on Tues., Thurs., and Frid., 9-5 
(in winter 10-3) gratis: on Wed. and Sat. 9-5 (in winter 10-3), 50 pf . ; on 
Mondays 9-1 (in winter 10-2), I1/2 JC. 

Porcelain. Collection of (p. 201), same days, hours, and fees as the 
Historical Museum (see above), except Mon. (50 pf.) and Sat. (IV2 «^)- 

Bail way Museum, under the general direction of the Saxon State 
Railways (PL D, E. 7; /), Frid. 1.30-8-80; free. 

Reading Room (p. 199), week-days 10 a.m. - 11p.m.. Sun. and holidays 
11 a.m. -8 p.m., with a room for ladies: 30 pf. 

Richter's Art Exhibition, Prager-Str. 13 (PI. D, 6, 7; //), week-days 
9-7, Sun. 11-2; 50 pf. 

Schilling Museum (p. 206), daily 1 Ji. from 10, Sun. from 11. 

School Museum, 19th District School (PI. D, 8; I), Sedan-Str. 19; 
open free on Wed. and Sat.. 4-6; on other days 30 pf . ; closed during 

Silver Room, Royal [-p. 185), on week-days 9-1 and 4-6. in winter 9-3 ; 
Sun. 9-11, in winter 11-1: 1-2 pers. 1 ^S, each additional pers. 50 pf. 

Zoological Garden (p. 206), daily, 75 pf., Sun. 50 pf. Military Band 
on Sat. afternoon (at 4. 5, or 6 p.m.). 

Principal Attractions (two days). 1st Day. Briihl Terrace (p. 182); 
Picture Gallery (p. 186; ; Albertinum (p. 202). In the afternoon cross the 
Augustus (Temporary) Bridge, traverse the Xeustadt to the Albert-Platz, 
and return by the C'arola Bridge ; then through the Altstadt to the Grosse 
Garten (p. 205). Evening at the Opera House. — 2nd Day. Green Vault 
fp. 183); Museum Johanneum (p. 200). Afternoon: second visit to the 
Picture Gallery: trip towards evening to Loschwitz (Roschwitzer Hohe) and 
Blasewitz (p. 208). — Excursions to the Bastei (p. 214), to Meissen (p. 233), 
and to Tharandt (p. 222) recommended. 

Rapid changes of temperature are not unfrequent at Dresden, especially 
in summer, when the evenings are often very cool. This remark also ap- 
plies to Schaudau and other places in the valley of the Elbe. 

Dresden (356 ft.), the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony, the 
headquarters of the 12th Army Corps, and the seat of a technical 
college, contains 517,000 inhab., including a garrison of 11,000 men. 
It lies on both banks of the Elbe, which separates the Altstadt 
on the left bank i with the Royal Palace and Museums) from the 
Xeustadt on the right bank, with the Alberstadt (barracks). To 
the S. and S.W. of the Altstadt lie various industrial suburbs, while 

History. DRESDEN. 2^. Uoute. 181 

to the E. of it is a quarter of villas. The beautiful envirous and 
the magnificent picture-gallery attract numerous visitors, and a 
considerable English community resides here. 

The Altstadt and Neustadt are connected by means of five 
bridges. The Aiu/iistus Brid(/e (PI. E, 5; //), constructed in the 
12th cent., one of the chief thoroughfares of the city, was torn 
down in 1908 and is to be at once rebuilt (temporary substitute a 
little lower down). — About Y2 ^- ^elow it is the Marien-Brilcke 
(PI. D, 4; 7), borne by 12 arches (1851). The adjacent Railway 
Bridge was completed in 1901. — Above the Augustus Bridge is 
the Queen Carola Bridge (PL F, 5; 77), completed in 1895, com- 
manding a pleasant view. The sandstone groups at the N. end of 
the bridge (the Elbe in storm and calm) are by Offcrmann (1907). 
— Farther up is the Albert Bridge (PI. F, 4, 5; 77), opened for 
traffic in 1877. 

Dresden, originally a Slav fishing-hamlet near the present Frauen- 
kirche, is first mentioned in a document of 1206. It began to grow 
gradually after 1485, when it was selected as his residence by Duke Albert 
the Hearty of the Albcrtine branch of the Wettin family. The Reforma- 
tion was introduced in 1539. The splendour-loving Augustus the Strong 
(see below) greatly extended and embellished the city. In 1760 Dresden 
was bombarded by Frederick the GTreat. The fortifications were razed 
in 1817. 

Dresden will probably long retain the designation of the Cradle of 
Rococo Art, although the expression 'rococo' is now used in a somewhat 
narrower sense than it formerly was, and no longer applies to the whole 
of the art of the 18th cent., which embraces both the 'baroque' style 
and 'classicism'. During the reign of Augustus the Strong (1694-1733) 
Dresden began to occupy a prominent position as a home of art, the 
foundation of the Zioinger and the Invention of Poi^celaln (see p. 202) 
being the two most important events in its art career. As Augustus the 
Strong bore some personal resemblance to Louis XIV., so the erection of 
the Zwinger, of which, however, a very small portion only (the anterior 
court) was completed, recalls the palatial edifices built about that period 
as monuments befitting the glorious reign of the Grand Monarquc of 
France. The leading object of the rococo art, which to some extent finds 
an exponent in the style of the Zwinger, appears to have been to invest 
even the domestic life of monarchs with pomp and splendour, and to 
unveil to the eyes of the public the privacy of the princely boudoir and 
cabinet. Thus, in harmony with this tendency, the Zwinger would have 
afforded an admirable scene for the 'Merceries', or fairs, in the comedies 
and festivities of which the court would have acted a prominent part in 
transparent incognito. The porcelain manufacture was particularly well 
adapted for giving expression to the spirit of the style, as the material 
was equally suitable for being moulded into elegant, doll-like figures, 
or into flourishing and fantastic decorations. A characteristic of the 
style, however, was superficiality, and its reign at Dresden was ac- 
cordingly but brief. About the middle of the 18th century the city again 
lapsed into its former obscurity, unaffected to any material extent by 
the artistic labours of Mengs or the important archaeological researches 
of Winckelmann. 

At length, about the beginning of the 19th century, Dresden began 
to regain a share of its former reputation in the province of art, when 
the city became the headquarters of the 'Romanticists', who were more 
given to poetry of conception than technical excellence of execution. 
The chief masters of this period were Runge, Friedrich, Gerhard von 

182 Bonte 29. DRESDEN. BrUhl Terrace. 

Kiigelgen. aud Matthdi. An attempt was made to stimulate the pro- 
gress of native art by the invitation of eminent artists (Bendemann, 
Buhner, and Schnorr) from Dtisseldorf and Munich ; but the experiment 
was only partially successful. On the other hand , Dresden has made 
immense strides in the practice of the plastic art. Of this school 
Bietschel (1804-61) was the founder, and he was worthily succeeded by 
Jolionnes Schilling (p. 180). the sculptor of the Xiederwald Monument, 
aud Donndorf (now at Stuttgart). Ernst Hdhnel (1811-91) was looked 
upon as the second head of the Dresden school. The realistic school is 
powerfully represented by Bohert Diez (b. 1844; p. 205). In the history 
of architecture Dresden has gradually attained a high reputation from 
having long been the headquarters of Gottfried Semjjer (1804-79), one of 
the greatest German architects of the 19th century. In the most recent 
epoch Dresden has occupied an important place among the art-centres of 
Germany through the calling of Baid Wallot (b. 1841), the architect, 
and Gotth. Kuehl (b. 1851). the painter, to the Academy and through its 
admirable exhibitions of art. 

a. The Briihl Terrace, the Theatre, and the 
Koyal Palace. 

From the Central Railway Station (PL D, 7 ; II) a busy line 

of thoroughfares (Prager-Str., See-Str., and Schloss-Str.) lead to 
the X. to (1^ 4 M.i the Sehloss-Platz and the Elbe, passing a Statue 
of Bismarck (PL D, E, 6; //), by Diez (1903), and the Altmarkt 
(p. 199j. Several of the chief attractions of Dresden are situated 
close to the Schloss-Platz, on the left bank of the river. On the E. 
lies the Briihl Terrace: on the S. are the Royal Palace and the 
Roman Catholic Court Church, and on the W. are the Museum, the 
Zwinger, and the Opera House. 

The ^Briihl Terrace (PL E, 6; //i, about i ^ M. in length, 
laid out in 1738 by Count Briihl, minister of Augustus III., on the 
site of the old ramparts (conip. p. 183), rises above the Elbe and 
commands a fine view of the river. It is approached from the 
Schloss-Platz by a broad flight of 41 steps adorned with bronze 
groups of Xight, Evening, Xoon, and Morning, by Schilling (1872; 
sandstone originals removed to Chemnitz in 1908). The terrace is 
planted with trees, and on the S. side are the new House of the 
Saxon Diet ip. 183) and the Old Academy of Art, now containing 
a library (open on Tues., Thurs., and Sat.; 10-1) and a collection 
of engravings (Mon., Wed., and Frid., 10-1). Opposite rises the 
Bietschel Monument, by Schilling (1875). 

The Academy of Art PL E. 5: //t, built in the Italian Re- 
naissance style by ii. Lipsius in 1890-94, consists of several distinct 
but connected edifices. The Academy proper, next the Elbe, has 
a colonnaded portico with busts and medallions of artists and poets 
and other sculptures. Adjoining are a small Domed Edifice and 
the Exhibition Building of the Saxon Art Union (^p. 179). 

Between the Exhibition Building and the Albertinum (p. 202) is a 
bronze Statue of Gottfried Semper, by Schilling (1891), and nearly 
opposite is one of Ludwig Bichter, by Kircheisen (1898). Beyond 


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Royal Palace. DRESDEN. 2.9. Route. 183 

the latter is the Belvedere Restaurant (p. 178), below which, at tlie 
corner of the terrace next to the quay on the river, is the Maurice 
Monument, originally erected in 1591 and removed to this site in 
1895. It commemorates the Elector Maurice of Saxony, who fell 
in a battle with the Margrave of Brandenburg at Sievershausen in 
1553 (comp. p. 200), after having resigned his dignity to his brother 
Augustus, as the relief indicates. 

The Roman Catholic Court Church (PL E, 5; //), to the W. 
of the Briihl Terrace, erected in the baroque style in 1738-51 by 
Chiaveriy and adorned with 78 statues of saints on the parapets 
and at the entrances, by Mattielli, contains an altar-piece by Ma- 
phael MengSj representing the Ascension. The tower is 305 ft. 
high. Beneath the sacristy are the royal burial-vaults. *Church- 
music on Sun. and festivals at 11 a.m. A covered passage connects 
this church with the first floor of the palace. 

To the E. of the Court Church, on the site of the old Briihl 
Palace, is the new House of the Saxon Diet (Stdndehaas ; 
PI. E 5, 77), erected by Wallot in 1901-07. In front of it is a 
bronze Statue of King Albert (d. 1902), by Baumbach (1906). 

The Royal Palace (PI. D, E, 5, 77; adm., see p. 180) was 
founded in 1530-37, and frequently enlarged, notably by Augustus 
the Strong after a conflagration in 1701. In 1890-1901 extensive 
alterations under the direction of Dunger and Frolich imparted to 
it its present Renaissance character. On the N. side, towards the 
Augustus Bridge, is the Georgen-Tor^ capped by an equestrian 
statue of (reorge the Bearded, by Behrens (1901). Above the GrUne 
Tor, opposite the Court Church, rises the loftiest tower in Dresden 
(331 ft.). The Green Gate leads into the Great Court, with inter- 
esting staircase-towers at the four corners, and a gallery over the 
gate (1549-51). In the Small Court, to the S. of the Great Court 
and entered also by a gateway in the Schloss-Str., is a fountain by 
Volkmann (1905). In the S.W. corner of the Great Court is the 
Green Vault (see below). 

The Interior of the palace is embellished with beautiful frescoes 
by Bendemann (1845). In the Ball Room are scenes from Grreek my- 
thology. — In the Throne Room, or Banquet Hall, the Four Estates are 
represented in scenes from the history of Enip. Henry I. (d. 936). On 
the frieze, the Occupations and Labours of Life. — In the Toiver Room 
and the adjoining Gallery arc some large Chinese vases and a valuable 
collection of Dresden china of the baroque period. — The Palace Chapel 
contains a number of good pictures by Guido Reni, Annibale Caracci, 
Raphael Mengs, and others. 

The *Green Vault {Grilnes Gewolhe; entrance, see above; 
admission, see p. 179), on the groundfloor of the palace, contains 
one of the most valuable existing collections of curiosities, jewels, 
trinkets, and small works of art, dating chiefly from the late-Re- 
naissance and rococo eras, but also including numerous fine exam- 
ples of an earlier period. The German goldsmith's work of the 

184 Boute 29. DRESDEN. Green Vault. 

16tli and ITtli cent., the enamels of Limoges, and tlie arts of ivory- 
carving and crystal-cntting are particularly well represented. Cata- 
logue 50 pf. Director, D7\ Sj)onseI. 

1. Roo-M. Bronzes. To the right of the entrance : -4. Copy of the 
Farnese Bull. Adr. de Vries (d. 1627); 1. Crucifix, Giov. da Bologna. 
Opposite. Models of equestrian statues of Augustus the Strong (87) and 
Louis XIV. (67}: the former, by Weinhold (d. 1732), is the original 
model of the monument in the Xeustadt market-place (p. 206). Many 
of the tortoise-shell pedestals inlaid with brass are the work of Charles 
Andre BouUe 1642-1732). the court cabinet-maker of Louis XIY., who 
has bequeathed his name to this kind of work ('Buhl' work). — II. Room. 
Ivory. To the right, 394. Hunting goblet; adjacent, on the table-case, 
274. Crucifix with the Madonna (18th cent.). In the middle of the wall 
to the left, 107. Frigate in full sail, Jakoh Zeller (1620); to the right, 
51. 52. Wings of triptychs (under glass); to the left, above, *40. Shepherd 
and musirian. By the exit-wall: on a glass-case, 131. Fall of the angels, 
in 142 figures carved out of a single mass of ivory about 1 foot in height. 
— III. Room. In the middle, 249. Magnificent porcelain chimney-piece 
by Xeuber (1782). 105. Amber cabinet (17th cent.). "Wall A: Limoges 
enamels (6. 10. Goblets with handles. 8. Dish with a representation of 
the Scarlet Woman). Wall C : Amber. WallD-F: Shell-work: mother-of- 
pearl casket. 175. Mosaic of mother-of-pearl. G-oblets and other vessels 
made of ostrich-eggs and shells. Wall E: 185, 189. Nautilus; 106. 
Pelican; 144. Swan. Wall F: 223. 226. Goblets. Florentine tables with 
pietra dura work. — IV. Room, the 'Green Vault', properly so called, 
owing to the colour of its walls: Vessels of Gold. Silver, and Crystal. 
To the left, 145. Work-box, presented by the Electress of Brandenburg 
to the Elector Christian I. of Saxony (1590) ; behind, 5. Wash-hand basin 
from Augsburg ,1714); above. 10. Table service by Urban Wolff, 9. Tan- 
kard and Ewer by Dan. EeUerthaJer (1617), *184. Nuremberg beaker 
in the shape of a maiden; 18. 19. 2id, 27. Goblets by Wiber and i?05-??€r ; 
by the first vrindow. to the left. 33. Reliquary, 34. Royal font, by Daniel 
Kellertlialer (1615) ; in the centre, 315. Goblet presented to Luther by 
the Elector John Frederick (1539) ; in front of it, 50. Bible of Gustavus 
Adolphus : to the left, 42. Sacrament chalice, and 41. Goblet of the 
Archbp. Job. Gebhard of Cologne (1558-62); to the right, 181. Rock- 
crystal vessel. In the glass-case by the first window on the right. Drink- 
ing-horns and 225, 226. Two Arabian glasses; above, 57. Ewer, by 
D. Kellertlialer (1629). By the second window to the left, 106. Private 
altar, by Hans Kellertlialer (1607); to the right, 110. Wall-mirror of the 
Electres's Sophia (1592). Wall C. *115. Jewel- casket by Jamnitzer 
(1508-85), the greatest of the earlier goldsmiths. Wall D. 12, 8, 296, 297. 
Goblets'; 17, 187. Goblets with lids; 181. Ewer (16th cent.); farther on, 
to the right. 252. 254. Goblets with lids; *268. Bottle of opalescent 
glass. — V. Room. Vessels in Stone and Crystal: various objects in 
chalcedony, agate, lapis-lazuli, oriental jasper, and onyx; cups with 
cameos. To the left, 1. Large antique onyx cameo with portrait of 
Augustus. By the first window, on the left*. 2. Charles II. of England 
slaying the dragon: on the right. 153. Vase by J. 31. Dinglinger (1712, 
the' Benvenuto Cellini of Saxony). Between the first two windows, 
152. Madonna, by Dinglinger (1712). By the third window, to the 
right. 12. Onyx vase. Between the 3rd and 4th windows, 140. Clock 
(•perpetuum mobile') representing the Tower of Babel, by Schlottheim 
of Augsburg. Bv the fifth window. Objects in rock-crystal: to the 
right, under glass, *306. Vase; 163. Jewel-case by Jamnitzer; *188. 
Ciystal drinking-glass of Luther. Farther on. to the' right, *171. Mirror 
with frame in "the style of Bencenuto Cellini; *178. Crucifix. To the 
right of the exit. Saxon and Chinese vases in serpentine ; vases _ of 
nephrite or jade. In the middle of the room is a glass-case containing 
specimens from the royal cabinet of coins. — VI. Corneb Room, adorned 

Oj>era House. DRESDEN. 25. Route. 185 

in the baroque style: Bric-d-BTac and Trinkets of gold, precious 
stones, and pearls (from the middle of the 17th to the beginning of the 
18th cent.). To the riglit of the entrance, 2. Clock; to the right of the 
window, 119. Caryatid by Dinglinger. — VII. Room. Articles in Wood, 
Dough, Wax, Cherry Stones, etc. Polish regalia, in a case to the right. 
Models of Saxon palaces and churches. — VIII. Room, with handsome 
mural decorations. This room contains Jewels, including the Saxon crown 
jewels and ornaments. In tlie 1st wall-cabinet (A; left) are the jewels: 
green diamond, 48V'2 carats in weight, set in a hat-clasp ; shoulder-knot, 
with a brilliant, 59 carats in weight; valuable chains of different orders, 
clasps, buckles, studs; ladies' trinkets, including a bow with 662 dia- 
monds ; rings (in tlie 3rd division of the 1st case), including Luther's 
signet-ring. 1st window, to the left, 377. Diana bathing, to the riglit, 
203. Golden tea-service. 2nd window, to the left, 204. Court of the 
Grand Mogul Aurungzebe at Delhi, with 132 movable figures (these three 
all by J. M. Dinglinger)', to the right, 199. Onyx-plaque, 7 inches high, 
4 inches broad, the largest known. In wall-case C are chains of honour; 
in wall-case D the golden electoral sword. In the centre, 378-380. Three 
fine silver-gilt groups by Dinglinger, representing the dawn, the climax, 
and the end of human life. 

The Cabinet of Coins, entered by a door to the left in the passage, 
was begun by George II. (d. 1680) and considerably extended under 
Frederick Augustus (d. 1827) and again in 1871. It is particularly rich 
in mediaeval and Saxon coins and medals. Admission, sec p. 179. 

The Silber-Kammer, or Silver Room, containing the king's plate, 
is also on the groundfloor of the palace (adm., see p. 180). 

The N. wall of the old ' Stallgehdude' in the Augustus-Str., ad- 
joining the palace on the E., is embellished with a cavalcade of the 
Saxon princes (since 1127), originally executed by "Walther in 
'sgraffito' (1874) but renewed on porcelain tiles in 1908. Museum 
Johanneum., see p. 200. 

In the Theater-Platz (PL D, E, 5; //) with its promenades, 
extending to the N.W. of the Palace, are situated the Opera House 
(see below), the Rom. Oath. Court Church (p. 183), the Haupt- 
wachCj or Guard House, erected from designs by Schinkel in 
1831, with a vestibule borne by six Ionic columns, and the Museum 
(p. 186). The centre of the square is occupied by an Equestrian 
Statue of King John (d. 1873), by Schilling, unveiled in 1889. 
The pedestal is adorned with a fine frieze. 

The *Opera House {'Hoftheater\ PL D 5, //; see p. 178), 
a magnificent Renaissance building, richly adorned with sculpture, 
opened in 1878, was built by Manfred Semper after designs by 
his father Gottfr. Semper on the site of the former theatre burned 
down in 1869. The front of the building, facing the Court Church, 
projects in a semicircular form. The principal entrance is flanked 
with statues of Goethe and Schiller, by Bietschel^ and surmounted 
by a quadriga in bronze by Schilling, representing Dionysus and 
Ariadne. The ornate upper vestibules and upper foyer are decor- 
ated with paintings by Choulant, Preller, and others. The interior 
can contain 2000 spectators; the drop-scene is by Keller. 

To the S. of the theatre rises a bronze Statue of Karl Maria 
von Weher, the composer (d. 1826 ; PL D 5, //), by Rietschel (1860). 

186 ^oute 29. DRESDEN. Zwinger. 

b. Picture Gallery and Z-winger. 

The ^Museum (PL D, 5: 77), a handsome edifice in the Italian 
style, designed by Goftfr. Semper, begun in 1847 and completed 
in 1854. is considered one of the finest examples of modern archi- 
tecture. The sculptures on the exterior by Rietschjel and Hdhnel 
indicate the object of the building. 

The Museum forms the X.E. wing of the *Zwin.ger iPl.D, 5; 77), 
a building erected by Poppelmann. the architect of Augustus II., 
in 1711-22, but left unfinished for more than a century. It consists 
of seven pavilions, connected by a gallery of one story, enclosing 
an oblong court 128 yds. long and 117 yds. wide. In some of its 
features the style of the Zwinger is rococo, but in the main it is a 
baroqueedifice, and one of the most pleasing examples of that style 
(comp. p. 181). The original beautiful marble decorations have 
been preserved in the Mathematical Saloon (p. 199) and in the 
X.^. pavilion ('Room S. of the picture-gallery i: the former is also 
adorned with paintings by Louis de Silvestre (1717-23). 

In the centre of the Zwinger -Hof is a bronze Monument of 
Frederick Augustus 7. id. 1827), by Rietschel (1843 j. — Best sur- 
vey of the building from the Zwinger Wall, at the X. angle, 
reached through the X.W. pavilion. 

The Museum and the Zwinger contain the chief collections of 
Dresden. In the Museum are the picture-gallery, engravings, and 
drawings. In the Zwinger are some rooms of the picture-gallery, 
the zoological, ethnographical, and mineralogical museums, and the 
collection of mathematical and physical instruments. 

The **Picture Gallery occupies the first and second floors 
of the Museum (adm., see p. 180). The entrance is in the archway, 
on the right when approached from the theatre. Director, Prof. 
Woermann. Catalogue, in English. French, or German, 4 ^. small 
edition 1^ 2 ^• 

The Dresden picture-gallery, which now ranks with the Louvre, 
Pitti. and Uffizi as one of the finest collections in the world, is 
essentially the creation of Augustus III. (1733-63), who added to 
the previously existing royal collection by the purchase of part of 
the Modena ^allerv in 1745. The Sistine Madonna from Piacenza 
il753i, numerous Dutch and Flemish cabinet-pieces, etc., were also 
added about this period, so that at the time of the death of Au- 
gustus III. it had well-nigh attained to its present high rank. — 
The total number of oil-paintings by the earlier masters is ca. 2240, 
that of modern works 380. 

In accordance with the taste prevalent at the time of its found- 
ation, the gallery is somewhat sparingly provided with early works. 
This is notably the case with the Italian Schools of the 14th and 
15th centuries, where the following works are alone remarkable; 

Picture GaUcry. DKP]SDEN. 2^. Route. 187 

a Holy Family by Manteffiia (No. 51), 8t. kSehastiaii by Antonello 
da Messina (No. 52), a large Holy Family by Piero di Cosimo 
(No. 20), a characteristic example of Lorenzo di Credi (No. 13), 
three works by Cima (Nos. 61-63), and four small pictures by 
Jacopo de' Barhari or Jacob Watch (Nos. 57-59 A), who is inter- 
esting as a German member of the Venetian school and also on 
account of his influence on Diirer. 

The great masters of the Golden Period of Italian art are, on 
the other hand, admirably represented. The radiant magnificence 
of RajyhaeVs Sistine Madonna, in which the most tender beauty is 
coupled with the charm of the mysterious vision, will forcibly 
strike every susceptible beholder, and the longer he gazes, the 
more enthusiastic will be his delight. Raphael's Florentine contem- 
poraries are represented by Andrea del Sartors large and gaily 
coloured Sacrifice of Abraham (No. 77) and by two companion- 
pieces of rare merit by Franciahigio and Uhertini (Nos. 75, 80). 
The most noteworthy of the later Florentine works is the portrait 
of the Grand-Duchess Eleanora by Bronzino (No. 82). 

The Parmesan School, in the works of its great master Cor- 
reggio, is even more richly illustrated here than at Parma itself. 
The Madonna enthroned (No. 150) is of the master's earlier period, 
and reveals in its strict composition and luminous colouring the 
influence of the earlier Ferrarese school. In the Madonna with 
St. Sebastian (No. 151) and his Holy Night (No. 152; retouched), the 
master of chiaroscuro is seen at his best, while the Madonna and 
St. George (No. 153) charms by the beauty of its flower-like tinting. 
The famous little picture of the Magdalen (No. 154) must, however, 
be pronounced nothing more than a masterly copy, while the so- 
called Physician of Correggio (No. 155) is probably by a Ferrarese 
artist. — The School of Ferrara is represented by numerous 
works of Dosso Dossi, Benvenido Garofalo, and others. 

The pictures by the great Venetian Masters rank among the 
principal treasures of the gallery. Giorgio7ie is represented by the 
fine Sleeping Venus (No. 185), from which the Cupid was obliterated 
by an early attempt at restoration. Titian is studied here to great 
advantage. The Tribute Money (No. 169), a grand work of his early 
period, is one of the most nobly-conceived and admirably-executed 
paintings ever produced. The portrait of his daughter Lavinia in 
her riper years (No. 171) and that of an unknown personage, 
formerly supposed to be Aretino (No. 172), are good examples of 
his later style. Falma Vecchio's Venus and the Three Sisters 
(Nos. 190, 189) are among the finest works of this masterly deline- 
ator of ripe Venetian beauty. No other gallery possesses so exten- 
sive a collection of the gorgeous masterpieces of Paolo Veronese 
(Nos. 224-227, 230, 236). The close of the great epoch of Venetian 
art is illustrated by numerous good works by Tintoretto and the 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 13 

188 ^OHt^ 29. DRESDEN. Picture GaUery. 

different members of the Bassano family, wiiile the landscapes of 
Canale and his nephew Bell otto still reflect a favourable light on 
A^enice at a time when Italian art generally had fallen into sad 
decadence (18th cent.). — The school of the Academiciaxs and 
mannerists is represented only too fully for the general character 
of the collection. The Xaturalists are represented by the Card 
Sharper of Caravaggio iXo. 408) and by a series of good works by 
Bihera. among which the St. Agnes <^Xo. 683; boasts a charm very 
unusual in this master. 

The only works of the Spanish School that demand notice are 
the splendid portrait of an elderly man by Velazquez (Xo. 697), and 
the charming genre-like Madonna and Child of Murillo (Xo. 705 1, 
deservedly a popular favourite. — The French School of the 17th 
and 18th cent, is represented by a few good works of its leading 
masters, including two fine landscapes by Claude Lorrain (Xos. 
730, 731;. of magical atmospheric effect, two large pastoral scenes 
by Watteau (Xos. 781, 782), examples of Xicolas Poussin and 
Gaspard Dughet. and numerous characteristic portraits. 

Xetheelaxdish Schools. The masters of the 15th cent, are 
almost entirely unreprrsented, but the gallery possesses one price- 
less gem of this period in the small altar-piece of Jan van Eyck 
(Xo. 799). The masters of the 16th cent, are also represented either 
unfavourably or not at all. The culmination of art in the Xether- 
lands during the 17th cent, is, on the other hand, illustrated by 
numerous attractive works. Peter Paul Bubem, the great master 
of the Flemish School, mav be studied here to o:reat advantaofe. 
Some of the most popular of the works catalogued under his name, 
such as the Portraits of his Sons (Xo. 986 b), the Lion Hunt (972 1, 
and the Grarden of Love (Xo. 986 C', are, indeed, merely admirable 
school-pieces, but there is no lack of authentic productions from his 
own hand. Thus the gallery possesses several paintings of his 
Italian period, including a fine St. Jerome (Xo. 955). The Boar 
Hunt (Xo. 962). a powerful, broadly-handled work, and a series of 
admirable portraits which seem to be connected with each other 
belong to his early Xetherlandish period, while his latest style is 
illustrated in the brilliant Bathsheba (965) and in the large 'Quos 
Ego' (^0. 964b), an improvisation of imposing dramatic effect, pro- 
duced for the entry of the Infant Ferdinand into Antwerp in 1635. 
Rubens's famous pupil, Anthony van Dyck, is represented by a 
series of admirable portraits, chiefly of his later English period, 
and by a St. Jerome i^Xo. 1024), which surpasses, at least in pictur- 
esque treatment, that of his master. Jacob Joy^daens^ the most 
Flemish of the Flemings, can be studied here better than in any 
other collection. Snyders contributes numerous pieces of still-life. 
David Teniers the Elder and his more famous son are represented 
by several genuine though not striking works, which, however, 

rictnre Gallery. DRESDEN. 25. Boiite* 189 

yield in interest to the sketchy but powerful little works oiA. Brou- 
wer. The gallery also boasts of numerous works by the contempor- 
ary landscape-painters I^aid Bril, Momjx'r, Van UdeUj and Jan 
Brueghel, with his followers Fieter Gysels and Pieter Bout. 

Dutch School. The early masters are represented by a few 
moderate works only. Frans Hals, one of the great leaders of the 
school, also contributes only two or three insignificant portraits, 
but those by Favesteyn and Mierevelt are more important. Hont- 
horsty too, is represented, but not so well as the cognate master 
Caesar van Everdingen (No. 1834). The landscapes of Van Goyen 
undVlieger also belong to this period. — Beinhrandt vanBijn, the 
great master of chiaroscuro, is represented by several of his finest 
creations, such as the portrait of his wife Saskia of 1641 (No. 1562), 
the portrait of himself with his wife on his knee (No. 1559; an 
earlier work), Samson's Riddle (No. 1560), Manoah's Sacrifice (No. 
1563), and the admirable portrait of an old man, dating from 1654 
(No. 1567). Kembrandt's school is nowhere better illustrated. His 
earlist scholar G. Dou contributes seventeen pictures of the most 
varied styles and dates, and Vermeer or Van der Meer of Delft 
appears in a group of lifesize half-figures of rare beauty of colouring 
(No. 1335) and in the charming Love-letter (No. 1336). Scarcely 
a single one of the masters of low-life pieces is absent; the most 
prominent is Ady^iaen van Ostade, whose Studio and Village Tavern 
(^Nos. 1397, 1396) are unsurpassed of their kind. The conversation 
pieces of Ter'hurcj and G abriel Afetsu are numerous and good, while 
Frans van Mieris the Elder contributes no fewer than fourteen 
works, several of which rank among his masterpieces. — Jacob 
van Buysdael, one of the greatest of Dutch landscape-painters, is 
particularly well and fully represented. The Hunt, the Monastery, 
and the Jewish Cemetery (Nos. 1492, 1494, 1502) are among the 
most famous works in the whole gallery, but his delicate manage- 
ment of light and space are perhaps seen to still greater advantage 
in the less pretentious Chateau Bentheim, the Heath, and the Forest 
Path (Nos. 1496, 1503, 1500). Allartvan Everdingen^sl^OY\yegian 
Mountain-lake (No. 1835) is almost as poetical as the finest of 
Ruysdael's works, and surpasses them in vigour of colouring. Jan 
Both, Ciiyp, and Van der Neer, the great renderers of sunny 
atmosphere, are neither so happily nor so numerously illustrated, 
but their followers H. Saftleven, Griffier, and J. Moucheron are 
represented to excess. — The Dutch animal-painters may also be 
well studied at Dresden. Paid Potter contributes two works 
(Nos. 1629, 1630), Adriaen van de Velde several masterpieces, 
and Berchem thirteen works, one of which (No. 1478) is a little 
gem. The gallery also contains nearly seventy examples of Philip 
Wouverman, the masterly delineator of cavaliers and battles, many 
of which are of the highest excellence. — The masters of still-life 

190 Bonfe 29. 


Picture Gallery. 

and painters of poultry are almost all represented, as are also the 
scmewhat affected and over-refined masters of the early 18th cent., 
such as the Van der Werffs and TT". Mieris. who inaugurate the 
decline of the Dutch school into insipid conventionalism. 

The GrERifAx School is not so well illustrated in the Dresden 
Gallery as those of Italy and the Xetherlands. The famous Ma- 
donna of Burgomaster Meyer (Xo. 1892 1. long ascribed to Holbein, 
has been shown by modern criticism to be only an admirable 
Netherlandish copy of the original at Darmstadt. On the other 
hand Holbein's Portrait of the Sieur de Morette (Xo. 1890) is un- 
questionably genuine, and of such artistic finish, brilliant colour, 
and faultless modelling, that it long passed as a masterpiece of 

T K e CL ter-PlcLt x 

Leonardo da Vinci. The fine double portrait of Sir Thomas and 
John Godsalve (^Xo. 1889) also dates from Holbein's English period. 
Durer's priceless Crucifixion ^Xo. 1870;, a small picture, is purely 
Grerman in conception, but shows the beneficial influence of the 
Venetian school in its execution. The winged altar-piece (Xo. 1869i 
shows Diirer under the spell of Mantegna, while the portrait of 
Bernhard van Orley (Xo. 1871) was painted in 1521 during his 
tour in the Xetherlands. The examples of the two Cranachs are 
numerous, but indifferent in quality, with the exception of the 
excellent study for a portrait of the Elector Joachim II. of Branden- 
burg (So. 1916) by the younger Cranach. — The masters of the 
17th cent, are happily represented by two small masterpieces of 
Adam Elsheinier (Xos. 1977, 1978) and a vigorous family-portrait 
by Knupfer. — The portraits in chalk and Belotto's views of 
Dresden on the groundfloor possess little artistic merit, but afford 
an instructive insight into the manners of the 18th century. 

Picture Galler If. DRESDEN. up. JRonte. 191 

The Entkance Hall (containing the cloak-room and the ticket 
office) is adorned with a frieze of stucco, illustrative of the history 
of painting. To the left are rooms 52-69, with JSfh Ceidury Paint- 
ings, Pastels J and Aliniatures (comp. p. 198). In a straiglit direc- 
tion is the Collection of Drawings and Engravings (p. 198); to 
the right are rooms 39-43 with the examples of the earlier German 
masters and the most recent acquisitions (p. 198). 

Ascending the staircase to the First Floor (Plan, see p. 190), 
we traverse an Ante-Room hung with large family-portraits (where 
tickets are given up), a corridor with unimportant Flemish works 
of the 17th cent., the Cupola Saloon Cr, and the adjacent rooms F-B 
(Large Italian Paintings)^ and proceed, with unimpaired energy, 
to inspect and admire the Sistine Madonna in Room A. 

Room A. **9?). Baphael, Madonna di San Sisto, an altar-piece, 8 ft. 
hig'li and 6 ft. wide (so called from the church of tlie Benedictines at 
Piacenza for whom the picture was painted), the Virgin and Child in 
clouds, with St. Sixtus on the right, St. Barbara on the left, and two 
cherubs beneath, indisputably a work of tlie great master's own hand 
throughout, painted probably about 1515 (purchased in 1753 for 9000?.). — 
The composition most resembles that of the Madonna di Foligno. A 
curtain has just been drawn back and the Virgin issues as it were from 
the depth of Heaven, awe-inspiring, solemn, and serene, her large eyes 
embracing the world in their gaze. The idea of the sudden revelation 
of a hitherto concealed mystery could not be more effectively expressed. 
The attention is usually concentrated upon the Madonna and the two 
cherubs below, pictures of naive innocence. The saints, however, should 
not be overlooked. Contrasted in age and sex, expression and move- 
ment, they supplement each other with admirable effect. Both must be 
thought of in connection with the whole community of Christians ; the 
reverent and pious Sixtus commends himself to the Virgin's mercy, the 
beaming face of St. Barbara represents the joyful enthusiasm of the 
redeemed ('Baffael aud Michelangelo', by Prof. Anton Springer). 

Room B. 1st Wall: 161. Parmigianino, Madonna with the rose. — 
2nd Wall: *103. Giulio Romano, 'Madonna della Catina' (Madonna with 
the basin); 76. Andrea del Sarto, Betrothal of St. Catharine. — 3rd Wall : 
*52. Antonello da Messina, St. Sebastian, with a Venetian canal in the 
background, a work of great charm in S2)ite of its damaged condition; 
*J:2a. Cosimo Tura, St. Sebastian. 

Room C. 2nd Wall: 71. Copy of Michael Angelo's Leda and the 
swan. — We now return through Room B to • — 

Room D. 1st Wall: Correggio, *150. Madonna enthroned, with SS. 
Francis. Anthony, John the Baptist, and Catharine, a youthful master- 
piece, showing the influence of the Ferrara school (1514-15); 151. Ma- 
donna surrounded by angels, with SS. Sebastian, Geminian, and Rochus 
(damaged). *168. Titian, Madonna and saints, an early work (half-lengtli). 
Correggio, **152. Adoration of the Shepherds, the far-famed 'Holy Xight' 
(La Notte), his great masterpiece of chiaroscuro ; *153. Madonna enthroned, 
witli SS. Crcorge, Peter Martyr, John the Baptist, and Geminian, a work 
of his later period, distinguished by breadth of handling and by rich 
and luminous colouring. — 2nd Wall: 128. Dosso Dossi, Four Fathers 
of the Church: *270. Tintoretto, Portraits. — 3rd Wall: *229. Paolo 
Veronese, Finding of Moses, distinguished from tlie other masterpieces 
of Veronese in the gallery by its perfect preservation. 266. Tintoretto, 
Fall of the rebellious angels; *77. A. del Sarto, Abraham's sacrifice: 113. 
Bagnacavallo, Madonna with four saints; *20. Piei-o di Cosimo, Holy 
Family; 48. F. Francia, Baptism of Christ (1509); 160. Parmegianino, 


192 Koutc 20. DRESDEN. Picture Gallery. 

Madonna and saints. — 4tli Wall : *192. Palma Vecchio, Jacob and Rachel : 
204. Paris Bordoue. Diana: 135. Garofalo. Mars and Yenus before Troy. 

Room E. 1st Wall: Paolo Veroiiese,' *22Q. The Wedding at Cana, 
*225. Adoration of the Magi, two priceless companion-pieces from the 
gallery of Modeua. — 2nd Wall: Titian, 170. Portrait of his daughter 
Lavinia as a bride. *1T1. Portrait of the same at a later period. *185. 
Giorgione, Yenus; *190. Palma Vecchio. Yenus resting in a hilly land- 
scape; *236. Paolo Veronese, Daniele Barbaro. — 3rd Wall: Veronese, 
*224. Faith. Hope, and Charity introduce the Cuccina family to the en- 
throned Madonna. 227. Bearing of the Cross (studio-work}; 270a. Tinto- 
retto. The Woman taken in adultery (studio-work). — 4th Wall: *172. 
Titian. Portrait of a Yenetian. formerly supposed to be Aretino, dated 1561 : 
281, 282. Bassano, Portraits of the Doge Cicogna and his wife. — Froni 
Room E a side-door leads to Rooms 44-46. containing French paintings. 

Room F. 1st Wall: *230. Veronese, The Good Samaritan, with a 
charming landscape: *408. Caravaggio, The card-sharper, a vigorous and 
masterly work: 303. Ann. C'aracci. Assumption ; 328. Guido Reni,Yirgm 
and saints. — 2nd Wall: 324. Guido Reni, Yenus and Cupid; Guercino, 
6^2. Semiramis. 363. Diana. — 3rd Wall : 306. Ann. Caracci, (renins of 
Fame: 525. Padovanino, Judith: 305. Ann. Caracci, St. Rochus giving 
alms. — 4th Wall: 447. Fr. Trevisani, Rest on the'Flight into Egypt, 
in a genre-like style; 325. Guido Beni, Xinus and Semiramis. 

Returning to Room E, we next enter Cabinets 1-5, containing 
the Smaller Italian Pictures. 

1st Cabinet. Wall a: 36. 37. Luca Signorelli, Painted pilasters: 
*49. Franc. Franvia , Adoration of the Magi; 123. Mazzolino, Christ 
before Pilate. 57. Jac. de' Barhari, Saint in the act of blessing; *63. 
Ci7na da Conegliano. Presentation of the Yirgin, of exquisite colouring 
and delicate conception, the model of Titian's celebrated picture in the 
Academy of Yenice. — Wall b: Ercole Boberti, *45. Christ led away to 
be crucified. *46. Christ taken captive on the Mt. of Olives, two spirited 
compositions in the style of Mantegna. *43. Fr. Cossa, Annunciation; 
9. S. Botticelli. Life of St. Zenobiiis ; 15. Lor. di Credi, Madonna and 
Saints. — Wall c: 41. PinturiccJuo. Portrait; *194a. Lorenzo Lotto, 
Madonna and Child with St. John: *51. Mantegna, Holy Family; *13. 
Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna, an early work. 

2xD Cabixet. Wall a: *188. Palma Vecchio. Madonna and Child, 
with John the Baptist and St. Catharine, an early work. There is so 
much loveliness in the serene rapture of St. Catherine , such spright- 
liness in the child, nestling at its mother's throat, so much tender in- 
quiry in the Yirgin"s eye, and a meaning so earnest in the glance of the 
Baptist, that we dwell with pleasurable sensation on each figure of the 
group and wonder at the harmony which it creates (C. ct- C). *191. 
Palma Vecchio. Holy Family with John the Baptist and St. Catharine. — 
Wall b: 61. Cima da Conegliano, Christ blessing. — Wall c: Jac. de' 
Barhari, 58. St. Catharine. 59. St. Barbara; *189. Palma Vecchio, The 
•Three Sisters*, a work of his middle period. 'These three young women 
are grouped with pleasing variety and artifice in front of a very pretty 
landscape. There is hardly a single peculiarity in the master remaining 
unrepresented; his melting shapes, his fair, almost waxen, complexions, 
his fine chiselled features, small hands, brocades and slashes, his dra- 
peries without depth, flow, or winding contour' (C. d: C.J. ■ — **169. 
Titian, The tribute-money, painted about 1514. 'Simple as the subject 
is. the thought which it* embodies is very subtle . . . The contrast is 
sublime between the majestic calm and elevation, and what Quandt calls 
the 'Godlike beauty' of Christ, and the low cunning and coarse air of 
the Pharisee . . . The form of Christ was never conceived by any of the 
Yenetians of such ideal beauty as this. Xor has Titian ever done 
better .... Nothing can exceed the brightness and sheen or the trans- 
parent delicacy of the colours .... The most perfect easel-picture of 

Picture QalUry. DKESDEN. Hf). Rmfe 193 

which Venice ever witnessed the production, this is also the most polished 
work of Titian' (C. & CJ. 

8kd Cabinet. Wall a: *201. Moranda, Portrait of a gentleman. — 
Wall b : 80. Francesco Ubcrtini ( Bacchiacca) , Ordeal to prove the true 
heir to the throne; *16. Frmiciabigio, Bathsheba at the bath, dated 1523, 
in the style of his friend Andrea del Sarto ; *82. Angelo Bronzinu, 
Eleonora, wife of Cosimo I., Grand Duke of Tuscany. — Wall c: 154. 
Early Copy after Correggio, Repentant Magdalen; 155. Dosso Dos8i{?)f 
The so-called 'Physician of Correggio'. 

4th Cabinet. Wall a: *308. AnnihaJe Caraccl, Lute-player; 387. 
Cignani. Temptation of Joseph. — Wall b: 337. Francesco Mbani, 
Cupids dancing; Sassoferrato, 431. Madonna, 432. Virgin at prayer. — 
Wall c: *323. Guido Reni, Ecce Homo; 499. SoUmena, Mater Dolorosa; 
309. A7in. Caracci, Head of Christ. 

5th Cabinet. Late-Italian pictures, by Do)n. Feti, etc. Also: 357-300. 
Gii'Crcino, The Evangelists: Carlo D old, 508. The daughter of Herodias 
with the head of John the i3aptist, *509. St. Cecilia. 

The next Cabinet contains works of the French School. 

6th Cabinet. Wall a: *731. Claude Lor rain, Coast-scene with Acis 
and Galatea (dated 1657). — Wall b: 719. Nic. Poussin, The realm of 
Flora ; *754. Millet, Roman Campagna, a characteristic, richly coloured 
masterpiece. — Wallc: *730. Claude Lorrain, Landscape, with the flight 
of the Holy Family (dated 1647), a masterpiece of atmospheric effect, in 
perfect preservation (companion-piece to No. 731). 

Cabinets 7-21 are devoted to the Smallei' Works of the Diitehj 
Flemish^ and German Schools. 

7th Cabinet. Wall a: Karel duJardin, 1632. Milking goats, *1633. 
Cattle grazing; 1813. A. van der WerfjT, Family-portraits; 1428, 1452, 1461. 
Ph. Wouverman, Cavalry skirmishes. — Wall b : *1482. CI. P. Berchem, 
Fishermen at a lake; 1820. A. van der Werff, Annunciation. — Wall c: 
A. van der Werff, 1823. Expulsion of Hagar, 1818. Judgment of Paris. 

8th Cabinet. Wall a: *1835. Allai^t van Everdingen, Norwegian 
mountain-lake, with stag-hunt, by N. Berchem, a masterpiece ; 1664. 
J. van der Heyde, Church and convent. — Wall b : *1658. A. van de Velde. 
Cattle; 1617. A. Dilbbels, Sea-piece; 1338a. J. van Goyen, Cottages and 
well; 1445, 1466. Ph. Wouverman, Game. — Wall c: *1521. G. Berck- 
Heyde, Town Hall at Amsterdam ; *1346. K. Netscher, The letter-writer ; 
*1417. Ph. Wouverman, Feeding the poor at a monastery, an early 

9th Cabinet. Wall a: 1479. CI. Berchem, Merchant receiving a 
Moor. — Wall b : Wouverman, *1449. Stag-hunt (a highly-finished work 
of a silvery tone), 1450. Camp. — Wall c: CI. Berchem, 1477. Evening, 
*1478. Cattle in a mountainous landscape; 1239-41, I'ii'^-lo. Poeloiburgh, 

10th Cabinet. Wall a: 1618a. G. van den Eeckhout, Jacob's Dream: 
1612a. Ph. de Koninck, Landscape; 1481, 1486. CI. Berchem, Landscapes. 
— Wall b : *1336. Jan Vermeer van Delft, Girl reading a letter at a 
window, one of the largest and finest works of this rare follower of 
Rembrandt; 1836. Allart van Everdingen, Norwegian waterfall; 1497, 
1198. J. van Ruysdael, Waterfalls. 

llTH Cabinet. Wall a: Jacob van Ruysdael, 1500. Forest -path, 
*1494. The monastery, *1495. Waterfall by the Schlossberg, 1501. Water- 
fall with fir-tree; *1735. G. Metsu, Game-dealer; *1349. A'. Netscher, 
Music-lesson (1666). — Wall b : *1656. A. vayi de Velde, Woman drinking 
(1662); *1358, *1359. Frans Hals the Elder, Portraits of young men; 1662. 
Ja7i van der Heyde, The monastery; *1496. Jac. van Ruysdael, The 
Chateau of Bentheim, an early masterpiece; Frans van Mieris, *1750. 
The artist painting a lady, *1751. The connoisseur's visit (two master- 
pieces); 1657. A. van de^ Velde, Ruins (1665); P. Wouverman, 1434. 
Fishers, 1420. Smithy. — Wall c: Jar. van Ruysdael, *1503. Village 

194 P^'^vtc 29. DRESDEX. PMure Galleivj. 

behind the dunes ('The heath'), *1502. Jewish cemetery (of imposing 
sombre effect). 1499. Knoll with oaks ; 154.S. 77?. de Keyser, Two riders; 
*1733. *1734. G. Metsu. Game-dealers. 

12th Cabinet. *1064a. Hobbcnm, Water-mill. — Wall c: *1492. Jac. 
van Bi/ysdacl. Hunt, with accessories bv A. van de Velde. 

13th Cabixet. Wall a: *1629. *163d. Paul Potter, Dutch landscapes 
with cattle: *1258. Knupfer, The artist's family. — Wall b: 1655. 
A. van de Velde, Cattle (1659); 1426. Ph. Wouverman. Riders at the 
forge. — Wall c: *1554. Aert van der Neer. Canal; *1443. Wouverman, 
Horseman and peasant's cart: 1491. J. van Ostade, Frolics on the ice; 
1511. Berck-Heyde. Interior of the 'Groote Kerk' at Haarlem (1665). 

14th Cabinet. Wall a: *1600. 1601. FlincJc. Portraits; *1270. Jan 
Both. Italian laud^^cape by evening-light : 1368. Peter C7ae«c, Still-life. — 
AVall b: *1416. Woircerman, John the Baptist preaching. — Wall c: 
A. van de Velde. 1660. Cattle, *1659. Ice-scene (1665); *lDb6. Betyihrandt, 
iSaskia van I'ilenburgh. the artist's bride (1633); 1544. A. de Vries, Por- 
trait; 1557. Bernbrandf, Portrait of Willem Burggraeff (1633). 

15th Cabinet. Walla: Gerard Dou, *1706. Girl at a window. 1713. 
Festive couple. 1714. The lost thread. — Wall b: Ph. Wouverman, *U2i. 
Stable. *1463. Combat by the wind-mill; *1725. Jan Steen, Marriage at 
Cana ; *1371. Heda. Luncheon: 1338c. 1338b. J. van Goyen, Landscapes 
in summer and winter. — Wall c: 1715. Gerard Dou. Young man holding 
a light to a girl's face : 1762. Slingelandt. Old woman handing a fowl 
to a girl: G.Dou. 1709. Schoolmaster at a window. *1711. Hermit. 1710. 
Dentist; *1375. Jan Wynants, Dutch landscape, with accessories by 
A. van de Velde. very delicate in workmanship; Gerard Dou, *1707. 
The artist (?) playing the violin (1665), 1704. The artist in his studio; 
1419. Wouverman. In camp. 

16th Cabinet. Wall a : Adriaen van Ostade, *1398. Peasants eating 
(1663). *1399. Peasants smoking (1664); *1493, 1504. J. van Buysdael. 
Landscapes : Terburg. *1832. Lady in a white satin dress (a study for 
the 'Paternal Admonition' at Berlin and Amsterdam; 1831). The music- 
lesson: *1422. Wouverman. Executioner's house. — Wall b: 1395. 
A. van Ostade. Peasants in a tavern: Terburg. *1830. Young lady 
washing her hands. 1829. The letter; 1301. M. d'Hondeeoeter, Hawk in 
a poultry-yard. — Wall c: G. Metsu, *1736. The lace-maker (a highly- 
finished and fascinating work\ *1737. By the fire-side, with a fine effect 
of light: 1507. J. van der Meer. View from the dunes: A. van Ostade, 
1400."Tavern. a late work (1679;'. *1397. The artist's studio (1663). *1732i 
G. Metsu, Champagne luncheon (1661). after Rembrandt's famous master- 
piece (Xo. 1559). and perhaps also representing the artist and his wife. 
*1396. A. van Ostade. Peasants in a tavern. 

17th Cabinet. Wall a: 1261. J. de Heem. Still-life: K. Netscher, 
*1368. H. G. Pot. Portrait of a man, full length. — Wall b: 1727. 
J. Steen. Expulsion of Hagar: 1742. F. van 3Iieris, Love's message; 
*1476. Bega. Peasants dancing. — Wall c: 1350. 1351. A'. Netscher, 
Madame de Montespan. *1.S48. Ladv at her toilet; 1268. J. de Heem, 

18th Cabinet. Wall a : Teniers the Younger, *1067. Bleaching-greeu. 
*1068. Countrv-fair. the two best works of this lAaster in the gallery : 
1150b. B. Peelers. Sea-piece. — Wall b: 1260. Jan de Heem. Still-life; 
1114. 1115. A. van der Meulen, Louis XIV. — Wall c: 1070. Teniers 
the Younger. Tillage-festival. 

19th Cabinet. Walla: 1072. Teniers the Younger, Alchemist; 1094. 
Byckaert the Younger. Peasant family. — Wall b: *1097. Gonzales 
Coques. Family-group upon a terrace, a vigorous example of this rare 
master : Teniers the Younger, 1065. 1064. Landscapes ; *1059. Adr. Brouxcer. 
The brawl, a masterpiece of colour. — Wall c : 1093. Byckaert the Younger, 
Peasant family; 1082. D. Teniers the Younger, Temptation of St. Anthony ; 
*1058. A. Brouwer, A brawl, a very clever sketch : 1073. Teniers the 
Younger. The reckoning. 

Picture Galkr J/. nKK^DKN". ^•^- ^onfr.. -[C)^ 

20th Cabinet. Wall a: 1079. ToiierH the Yoiuiyer, Toinptation of 
St. Anthony. — Wall b: 1111, 1142. L. van Udrn, landscapes; 
*1081. D. Tenters, Fair; *1032. A. van Dyck, 'Old Pan' at the age of 
150 (V); 962b. Ruhens, Judgment of Paris, a diminislied replica of the 
work in the London National Gallery. — Wall c : Tcnicrs the Younger, 
1066. Tavern interior, 1075. Portrait of the artist in a tavern. 

21sT Cabinet. Wall a: *1547a. CI. Moyaert, Joseph lowered into 
the pit by his brethren; 1908. Cranach the Elder, Christ on the Mount 
of Olives. — Wall b: Cranach the Younger, 1947. Elector Augustus, 
1918. Elector Maurice, 1952. Melanchthon on his death-bed ; *1871. ^. Dilrer, 
Bernhard van Orley, painted at Antwerp in 1521 ; 1948a. Cranach the 
Younger, Elector Joachim II. of Brandenburg. — Wall c: Elsheimer, 
*1977.' Jupiter and Mercury at the house of Philemon and Baucis, *1978. 
Rest on the Flight into Egypt; S22-SS0. Hans Bol, Landscapes in water- 
colour; *1889. Hans Holbein the Younger, Sir Thomas Godsalve and 
Ids brother John, an admirable work of the first period of Holbein's 
sojourn in England (1528); 809. Master of the Death of the Virgin, 
Adoration of the Magi. 

Rooms N, M, L, 0, P, Q, K, and J contain the Larger Dutch 
and Flemish, and also a few Gey^maii Paintirigs. 

Room N. *1892. Old Netherlandish copy (about 1600) of the picture 
at Darmstadt by Holbein the Younger, representing the Virgin and 
Child, with Jacob Meyer, the burgomaster of Basel, and his family 
(comp. p. 190). 

**1890. H. Holbein, Sieur Charles Solier de Morette, a French 
nobleman at the court of Henry VIII. of England (comp. p. 190); on the 
adjacent wall, to the right, hangs the original drawing for this portrait 
(No. 1891). — **799. J. van Eyck, Madonna with SS. Catharine and 
Michael and the donor, a triptych. 'This picture is painted with a pro- 
fusion of colour, is perfectly harmonious, and shows no trace of the 
hand .... Through a window behind St. Catherine is one of Van Eyck's 
marvellous miniature landscapes' (C. & C). — **1870. A. Dilrer, Cruci- 
fixion, with evening-light (1506), a small work of intense feeling and 
expression, showing the influence of Giov. Bellini. — Wall 2 : *1869. 
Dilrer, Large altar-piece, painted in tempera about 1500. — Wall 3 : 
1906g, 1906h. L. Cranach the Elder, Duke Henry the Pious and his con- 
sort Catharine. 

Room M. Wall .8: Rubens, 963. Head of a bishop, of his late period, 
958a. Last Judgment, sketch for the large picture at Munich; 1031, 1030. 
Van Dyck, Portraits; *964a. Ruhens, Portrait. — Wall 2: *962c. Rubens, 
Mercury about to slay Argus, a work of his latest period. 

Room L. Wall 3 : *1834. C. van Everdingen, Bacchus with two 
nymphs and Cupid; 1782. Aelb. Cuyp, Boy with a greyhound. — Wall 2: 
1791. Aert de Gelder, 'Behold your King', the masterpiece of this pupil 
of Rembrandt (dated 1671). 

A short corridor leads hence to rooms 0, P, Q,. — In Room 0. Wall 3 : 
1868a. Master of the Hausbuch (ca. 1190), Pieta. In Room Q. Wall 1: 
809a. Master of the Death of the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi. — We 
now retrace our steps through Room L to reach — 

Room K. Wall 1 : 1564. Rembrandt, Weighing gold ; 1196. Fr. Snyders, 
Boar-hunt; 1566. Rembrojidt, Entombment, a school-piece touched up by 
the master in 1653; *1603. F. Bol, Rest on the Flight into Egypt. — 
Wall 3: *1601. F. Bol, Jacob's dream, a masterpiece, in the manner of 
his master Rembrandt. *962. Rubens, Boar-hunt, a very spirited work 
(about 1614); *1191, 1191. Fr. Snyders, Still-life, two large works of 
admirable decorative effect; **1563. Rembrandt, Manoah's sacrifice, a 
finelv-coloured masterpiece (dated 1641), *1560. Samson's riddle (1638). — 
Wall 1: 1192, *1195. Snyders, Still-life; *1571. Rembrandt, Portrait of 
an old man (ca. 1645); 1792a. Aert de Gelder, The document: Rembrandt, 
1558. Ganymede carried off by the eagle, a realistic work of his early 

196 Route 29. DRESDEN". Picture Gallery. 

period (1635), 1570. Portrait of an old man. a highly finished work of 
his late period. 1569. Portrait of himself in old age (dated 1657), *1561. 
The bittern shooter (dated 1639}. — Wall 2. *1335. Jan Venneer van Delft, 
G-roup in a balconv. an earlv and finely coloured masterpiece (1656). 
Rembrandt. **1562' Portrait of his wife'Saskia f? ; dated 1641). *1567. 
Portrait of an old man (most lifelike and of remarkable colouring; 1654), 
*1559. Portrait of himself and Saskia (the 'Breakfast': about 1637), 1.569. 
Portrait of himself, drawing ^657). 

Room J. Wall 4: Van Dyck. *1017. Drunken Silenus, an earlv work, 
1029. *1026. Portraits; 972. Pupil of Rubens. Lion-hunt;' 986b. Rubens, 
His two sons, a good school-copy of the fine painting in the collection 
of Prince Liechtenstein: 682. Ribera. Diogenes with his lantern. • — 
"Wall 3: *1010. Jordaens, Diogenes looking for a man, full of a some- 
what coarse humour: Van Dyck. *1024. St. Jerome (an early work of 
great breadth of handling and picturesque effect). 1023c. *1023d. Portraits; 
1012. .Jordoena. Presentation in the Temple: *955. Ruhens, St. Jerome, 
a highly-finished work of his Roman period; *1011. Jordaens, The 
Prodigal Son. — Wall 1 (beginning to the right): 1023b. Va7i Dyck, 
Portraits; *960. Rubens, Portrait, one of the best he ever painted, of his 
middle period ; 1038. Sir Peter Lely (copy of Yan Dyck), Charles I. of 
England: *965. Ruhens, Bathsheba. a luminous work in his latest manner; 
1033. Van Dyck. Children of Charles I.; *964b. Ruhens, 'Quos Ego', 
Xeptune stilling the winds, painted for the triumphal entry of the Infant 
Ferdinand into Antwerp in 1635; Van Dyck, 1034. Queen Henrietta, wife 
of Charles I. of England. *1027, *1028. Man and wife (about 1630); 1011. 
Jac. Jordaens. Old and voung. — Wall 2: Velazquez, *698. Portrait, 
**697. Juan Mateos. Master of the Royal Hunt(?); 1023a. Van Dyck, 
Young man; Rubens, 957. Hercules carried off by a nymph and a satyr, 
956. Victory crowning the champion of virtue, painted in Italy for the 
Duke of Mantua. 

Room H is devoted to works of the Spanish School., a few of 
wbicli are also in Room J. 

Room H. Wall 4: Murillo. *705. Virgin and Child, of delicate 
colouring and charming simplicity*, 704. St. Rodriguez. — Wall 3 : *703b. 
Murillo. Death of St. Clara (1646); *683. Ribera, St. Agnes, the face 
showing the features of the master's beautiful daughter (1641), — Wall 1 : 
696. Zurbaran, St. Bonaventura, on behalf of the cardinals, choosing the 
pope in 1271. 

We now ascend to the Cupola Saloon (G-), which is above the 
lofty portal. 

This small room contains twelve valuable pieces of ^Tapestry. The 
six below (a-f) are old Flemish, some of them perhaps from cartoons by 
Q. Matsys (a., admirable Crucifixion). The six above ''g-nij were probably 
woven in England from cartoons by Raphael. 

A staircase ascends lience to the Upper Floor, wMcli contains 
the Modern Pictures (19th cent.), the arrangement of which is 
frequently altered owing to the arrival of new acquisitions. 

On the Staircase (R. 22): Wall a: 2518. Gerard, Napoleon I. — 
Wall b: 2509. A. Thedy, Adoration of the Cross; 2259. Dreber, Ideal 
landscape. — Wall d: 2586. Roller, Oxen ploughing; 2218. Schnorr von 
Carolsfeld, St. Paul and Ananias, sketch for a window in St. Paul's, 

Rooms to the Right (Xos. 23-30). R. 23. Wall a: 2503. Preller, 
Centaur and nymph in an ideal landscape; 2236. Hilbner, The Golden 
Age ; 2230. L. Richter. Spring landscape with bridal procession. Wall b : 
2217. Sch7iorr von Carolsfeld. Holv Familv; 2470. A. Feuerbach, Ma- 
donna. Wallc: 2229. i?fr7?/6r. The Schreckenstein: 2221. PescTjeZ, Jacob's 
home-coming. Wall d: Richter. 2228. Ariccia. 2227. Civitella. — R. 24. 

Picture Gallcrij. DRESDEN. 29. Boyfr. ;197 

Wall a: 2SU. Etid. Jordan, Shipwreck. Wall c: 2201. Dahl, Norwegian 
scene; 2274. Scholtz, Cornfield. Wall d: 2473. Kuntz, A greeting from 
the outside world. — R. 25. Wall a: 2407. Leibl, Female head; 2492. 
Baisch, Cattle going to water; 2392. K. Raupp, Storm - driven ; 2296. 
Kiessling, Mignon ; 2397. Gebler, The Seven Sleepers. Wall b : 2345. 
A. Aclienhach, Dutch coast; 2326. Schenker, Landscape. Wall c: 2371. 
Oehmichen, Paying taxes ; 2362. Vatitier, Between the dances ; 2360. 
O. Achcnhach, Bay of Naples. Wall d: 2432. Claus Meyer, Cats. — 
H. 26. Wall a: 2370. Rasmussen, Mountain-lake in Norway; 2401. Jos. 
Brandt, Polish freebooters; 2375. Von Bochmann , Thirsty. Wall b: 
2365. Von Gchhardt, Anointing the body of Christ; 2373. Bolcelmayin, 
Emigrants. Wall c: 2276. Leonhardi, Forest-scene; 2423. F. A. von Kaid- 
bach, Spring. Wall d: 2155. P. Meyerheim, Menagerie; 2448. L. Knaua, 
Before and behind the scenes. — R. 27. Wall a: 2444. Becker, Picture- 
sale; 2408. Leibl, Girl knitting; 2406. Schuch, Tumulus; 2287. F. Pau- 
wela, Prince visiting the hospital at Ypres. Wall b : 2400. G. Max, 
A Paternoster; 2402. Gysis, Punishment of a poultry-thief in Smyrna. 
Wall c: 2358. 0. Achenbach, Rocca di Papa. Wall d: 2387. Defregger, 
Taking farewell of the Alpine herd-girl ('Sennerin'). — R. 28. Wall a: 
2374. Normann, The Rafssund in Norway. Wall b: 2477. Mimkacsy, 
Crucifixion. Wall c: 2434. Aug. Dieffenbacher, A blow of fortune; 
2386. Lier, The Oise by moonlight. Wall d: 2359. O. AcheMbach, Festival 
in Ischia. — R. 29. Wall b: H. Hoifmann, 2265. The Woman taken in 
adultery, 2266. Christ in the Temple. Wall c: 2480. Lessing, Convent 
on fire. Wall d: 2278. A. von Gotz, Crown-Prince Albert of Saxony, 
victor at Beaumont. — R. 30. Wall a: 2531. Calame, Landscape; 2485. 
Hoff, Bad news ; 2300. Preller the Younger, Monastery near Subiaco. 
Wall b: 2309. Pohle, King Albert. Wallc: 2504. VonKameke, Landscape; 
2388. Defregger, Scythe-forging for the Tyrolese insurgents. Wall d : 
2446. Gude, Fishers landing. — We return to the staircase and enter the — • 
Rooms to the Left (Nos. 31-38). R. 31. Wall a: 24.30. Strobentz, 
Love's young dream. Wall b: 2487. Tlioma, Portrait of himself; 2540. 
a. Meunier, The puddler. Wall c: 2460. Klinger, Picta. Wall d: 2523. 
Puvis de Chavannes, The fisherman's family. — R. 32. Wall a: 2443. 
Menzely Beer-garden! Wall c; 2290. Ochme, Quarry in Saxon Switzer- 
land. — R. 33. Wall a: 2433. Haitg, Sunrise; 2369. Dilcker, Scene in 
Riigen ; 2442. Menzel, Yegetable-market in Verona. Wall b : 2324. Kuehl, 
Tlie Augustus Bridge in winter. Wall c: 2376. Fellmann, Reception of 
a monk into the Benedictine order. Wall d : 2479. Moll, Before the feast. 
— R. 34. Wall a: 2456. Skarbhia, Belgian tavern; 2441. Menzel, A 
sermon ; 2534. Bocklin, A summer day ; 2366. Gebhardt, Jacob wrestling 
with the angel; 2420. F. von Uhde, Portrait of himself; Lenbach, 2390. 
R. Begas, 2391. Paul Heyse ; 2457. Liebermann, Sempstress. Wall b: 
2521. Couture, Bird-catcher. Wall c: Bocklin, 2532. Pan and Syrinx, 
2535. War; 2486. Thoma, G-uardian of the valley. Wall d: 2488. Thoma, 
Spring idyll. — R. 35. Wall a: 2538. Krohg, Norwegian pilot-boat; 
2530. 3Ielchers, Dutch ship-carpenter; 2516. Dei^/^i^a/m, Difficult landing. 
Wall b : 2377. Kampf, Worshippers. Wall c: 2496. Comit von Kalckreuth, 
Age. — R. 36. Wall a: 2330. Bantzer, Hessian peasant-woman; 2417. 
F. von Uhde, Bethlehem. Wall b : 2533. Bocklin, Delights of spring. 
Wall c: 2337. Milller, Sister of Mercy; 2323. Kuehl, In the Lubeck or- 
phanage. — R. 37. Wall a: 2454. BracM, Autumn day on the south 
coast of England. Wall b: 2389. Lenbach, Minghetti, the Italian states- 
man; 2522. Courbet, The stone-breakers. Wallc: 2494. Schonleber, Low 
tide at Flushing; 2462. Leistikoiv, Brick-kilns. — R. 38. Wall a: 2458. 
Friese, Lions in the desert. Wall b : 2472. H. Makart, Summer. Wall c : 
2541. Claus, Cattle-ferry at Afsne. 

The Ground Floor contains in Rooms 39-43 (reached by the 
door opposite the staircase; comp. p. 191) works by older G-erman 
artists, and recent acquisitions. 

198 Boi'te 29. DKESDEX. Picture Gallery. 

R. 4a). Wall a: 2197. A'. D. FHedrich (d. 1840). Havmakers resting. 
— R. 42. Wall a: 2419a. Uhde, At the summer-resort. ~ R. 43. Wall a: 
uo number. L. Bichter, Italian landscape ; 2242a. Bayski. Portrait of his 
sister. Wall b: 2249a. Gonne, Portrait of his mother. Wall c: 2264a. 
H. Hofmann, Portrait of the sculptor Ernst Hahnel. 

We return to tlie archway /p. 186) and enter Booms 52-69, 
which contain German, French, and Italian Works of the period 
of the decline in the 18th cent., and Pastels. 

The badly-lighted anterooms contain colossal Venetian paintings of 
the 18th century. We turn to the left and traverse R. 53 to R. 52, in 
which are pastels ('18-19th cent.), chiefly by Bosalha Carn£ra, and minia- 
tures of the same period. — RR. 53. 54.' French works: 781. 782. Watteau, 
and 785. IS^. Lonc?'ct. Fetes chanipetres ; 1S4:. Lan^ret, Festive dance. — 
RR. 55. 56. German works. Portraits by Graff', Denner, Angelica Kauff*- 
mann. including (in R. bo) 2166-2168. Gra/f, Portraits of himself; (in 
R. 56; Angelica Kauffiaann, 2182. the well-known Vestal Virgin. 2181. 
Sibyl; 2189. Yogel, Two boys. — R. 57. Italian works. 454. Battoni, 
Repentant Magdalen; 582. Canale, Santi Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. — 
R. 58-62. Canale, Views of Venice ; Canaletto (Belotto). Views of Verona, 
Dresden. Pirna. etc. — R. 63. Crayon portraits of distinguished persons, 
most of them by Bosalha Carriera. a few by Baphael Mengs, the best 
by De la Tour (163. 164} and Liotard (159. Portrait of the painter in 
the costume worn by him at Constantinople ; 160. Count Maurice of 
Saxony; *161. The chocolate girl; 162. Portrait of the artist's niece, 'the 
beautiful Lvonnaise'). — We return to R. 58 and traverse the anteroom 
on the left,' to R. 64. Italian works. 392-398. Crespi, The Seven Sacra- 
ments. — RR. 65-67. German works. Small works by the Saxon court- 
painter Dietrich (d. 1774). — R. 69. French works: Silcestre, 771, Maria 
Josepha. 770. Augustus II. and Frederick William I. of Prussia. 

The Collection of Engravings, which also is on the ground- 
floor of the Xew Museum (adm., see p. 179; Director, Dr. Lehrs), 
founded by Augustus II. and afterwards gradually extended, now 
comprises 500,000 plates, from the earliest masters (15th cent). 
down to the present day. The show-cases (beginning to the left) in 
Room A contain a number of the most interesting plates of the 
15-18th cent., arranged so as to illustrate the development of the 
art, while Room C contains a similar collection of the second half 
of the 19th century. Room B contains the recent acquisitions, and 
in Room D is an exhibition (changed quarterly) of some of the chief 
plates. The others are kept in portfolios, which are shown on ap- 
plication by filling up one of the printed forms in Room A. There 
is a separate room for students. 

The Zoological and Ethnographical Museum (entr. on 
the S.W. side of the Zwinger, opposite the Sophien-Kirche: Director. 
Dr. Jakobi; adm., see p. 180; catalogue 50 pf.j contains good col- 
lections of stuffed birds, nests, .shells, and (accessible to naturalists 
only) of eggs and insects. The Japanese, Polynesian, East Asian, 
and Javanese articles in the ethnological section (on the upper 
floor- are also interesting. — The Mineralogical and Pre- 
historic Museum entr. in the W. passage, opposite the Museum; 
Director. Dr. Kalkowsky: adm.. see p. 180j contains some inter- 
esting fossils from Eichstatt. — In the X.W. angle of the Zwinger 

Kreuz-Kirche. DRESDEN. 2.9. Tioute. 199 

is the Mathematical and Physical Saloon (coiiip. p. 186; Director, 
Dr. Pattenhausen), which is entered from the Zwinger Wall (adin., 
see p. 179) and contains instruments and apparatus of the 16-19th 

c. The Old Town, with the Museum Johanneum 
and the Albertinum. 

Opposite the Zwinger (p. 18()), towards the E., rises the Prinze})- 
Palais (Pl.D, 5; //), erected by Poppelmann (p. 186) in 1707-11. 
In front stands the Wettin Obelisk (1895), 62 ft. in height. The 
Sophieii-Kirche (PL D, 5; //), or Protestant court-church, dating 
from the 13th and 14th cent., was handsomely restored in the 
Gothic style in 1864-68. 

In the Post-Platz, to the S., stands the General Post Office 
(PI. D 6, //; p. 178). In front of it is the 'Cholera Fountain', 
erected in 1846 and restored in 1891. 

The Altmakkt (PI. E, 6 ; //) is embellished with a "^Figure of 
Germania in memory of the war of 1870-71, modelled by Henze 
and executed in Carrara marble by Cellai (1880). The Old Eat- 
hanSj on the W. side, was built in 1741-45. The busy Konig- 
Johann- Strasse leads hence to the Pirnaische-Platz. Adjacent 
(Johannes-Str. 18) is the Municipal Museum (adm., see p. 180), 
containing paintings (Kuehl, Lenbach, LudwigRichter, etc.), Dresden 
coins, models, ecclesiastical and municipal antiquities, autographs, 
etc. — The Kreuz-Kirche (PL E, 6; //), founded ca. 1200 and 
remodelled in 1491 and 1760, was burned down in 1897 and 
restored in 1900. A motett is sung here on Sat. at 2 p.m. (see daily 
papers). The tower (314 ft.) commands a good view of the town 
(sho\vn at 12 and 5 p.m. ; fee 40 pf. ; sexton, An der Kreuzkirche 15). 
To the S. are the Church Administration Office, the City Savings 
Bank, and the Provincial Bank, all erected in 1907. — To the 
S.E. of the Kreuz-Kirche is the New Rathaus , to which (when 
iinished) the Municipal Museum will be transferred. — In the 
Friedrichs-Ring is the Reformed Church (PL E, 6; //), erected 
in 1894. Close by is the Victoria-Haus (p. 176), built in the Ger- 
man Renaissance style in 1891-92. — The Central-Theater (PL 
D 6, //; see p. 178), in the Waisenhaus-Str., is a baroque edifice 
of 1897. Opposite (]^o. 9) is the tastefully fitted up Reading Room 
{Lesehalle: adm., see p. 180). 

In the Neumarkt (PL E, 5; //) rises the Frauen-Kirche, 
or Church of Our Lady, erected in 1726-43, with a lofty dome 
(musical vespers on Sat. at 4 p.m.). The lantern is 310 ft. in height 
(fine view; 1-4 pers. 1 -Jl; sexton, Moritz-Str. 4, fourth floor). — 
The Platz in front of the church is embellished with a *Lutheii 
Monument, by Rietschel, a bronze-cast after the original at Worms. 
— Behind the church is the old Cosel Palace, now containing 

200 Boufe 29. BRESBEK". Museitin Johanneum. 

models of modern Freucli sculpture (Bartliolome, Barye, Bubois, 
Fremiet, Rodin, etc.; adm., see p. 179). 

In the N.W. angle of the square is situated the *Museuni 
Johanneum (PL E, 5; II), erected in 1586-89 and altered in 
1872-75. It now contains the Historical Museum and Gallery of 
Arms (^on the first floor) and the Collection of Porcelain (on the 
second floor). The entrance is in the Augustus-Str., through the 
quaint-looking court ^'Stallhof). 

The ^Historical Museum (adm., see p. 180: 'guide' 50 pf.), on 
the 1st floor, contains weapons, armour, domestic chattels, costumes, 
and other objects of historical or artistic value. This collection, the 
most valuable of the kind in Germany, comprises many precious works 
of the German and Italian Renaissance. The objects are furnished with 
labels. Some of Schnorr's cartoons for his frescoes at Munich are also 
l)reserved here. — Ante-Room. Two c\7)ress-wood gaming-tables (ca. 
1625); two inlaid cabinets by Hans Schifferstein (ca. 1615;; portraits of 
Elector Augustus and his wife, by Cra.nacli the Younger. — A. Art 
Saloox (Kunstl:a.mmer). Entrance Wall. Glass and goblets. In the 
middle, Jewel-cabinet of the Electress Sophia, by Hans Kellerthaler 
(1585} ; ^'Positive' or choir-organ, by C. "Walther (1584). By the second 
window-recess. Reliefs in embossed ^silver, by Seb. Battler (ca. 1625). — 
B. Medieval Armoury. To the left of the entrance. Helmets of the 
12-15th cent.; 75. Suit of Gothic armour (ca. 1470). To the right of the 
entrance. 76. German tilting-suit (ca. 1500). To the right of the exit. 
117a. Armour of Emp. Maximilian (ca. 1515). The cases contain the 
electoral sword of Frederick the Quarrelsome (1425; Xo. 34), the gala- 
sword of Count Eberhard of Wurtemberg (1474: Xo. 36), and other blades 
of the 9-16th centuries. — C. Tourxamext Hall. Jousting weapons of 
Saxon princes and nobles (16th cent.). By the rear wall. Xos. 3 & 4. 
Tournament in full armour (1550-53). — D. Saloox of Foot-Combats. 
In the centre of Wall I. 1. Gala armour of Charles Emmanuel of Savoy 
(d. 1630). of Italian workmanship ; to the right and left, two suits in 
silver (Xos. 2 &: 3). executed in 1591 for Elector Christian I. of Saxony 
(d. 1591) and his friend Prince Christian of Anhalt (d. 1630). — *E. Parade 
Saloox. Xine sumptuous suits of equestrian armour, belonging to Saxon 
princes. Xo. *7 (under glass\ a suit of Christian II. (d. 1611), purchased 
at Xuremberg in 1606. is the most magnificent and valuable of the col- 
lection (reliefs of the Argonauts and Trojan War; on the horse-armour, 
the labours of Hercules). Between Xos. 8 and 14 are three suits in 
gilded copper for unmounted men (Xos. 9, 11. & 13). In the cabinets are 
swords, shields, and helmets of different workmanship, several of them 
decorated with artistic reliefs. In the first window-case: 575. Electoral 
sword of Maurice (1548). In Wall Case XXX, to the left of the exit, 
770. Consecrated sword presented to Augustus II. by Pope Benedict XIII. 
(1725). — F. Pistol Chamber. Fire-arms of the 16-17th cent., many of 
them of Saxon princes. In the first window-case, 66. 67. Pistols of 
Gustavus Adolphus and Louis XIV. In the second window-case is the 
so-called 'Monksbuchse' (ca. 1500; Xo. 73). an early form of breech- 
loader. Cases lY-XV. contain hand-guns and pistols of 1540-1700. — 
G. Battle Saloox. Arms of offence and defence (1500-1700). 29. Armour 
of Henry the Pious (d. 1541); 39. Armour of Elector Maurice. In an 
adjoining glass-case (38) the blood-stained scarf worn by the latter at 
the battle of Sievershausen (1553 : see p. 183) , and *the bullet by 
which he was killed. 113. Armour' of Elector John George III. (1683) ; 
184. Standard of Pappenheim's cuirassiers, captured at Liitzen in 1632. 
On the walls are maces, swords, daggers, and cuirasses. In the first 
window-case: 144. 145. Batons of Tilly and Pappenheim. — H. Modern 
Saloox. To the right of the entrance, under glass, is the horseshoe 

Museum Johanneum. DRESDEN. -^- Route. 20 i 

broken with his naked hand by Augustus the Strong in 1711. In the 
first window-case: 9, 11. Sword and pistols of Charles XII. of Sweden; 
13, 14. Two swords of Peter the Great. In the centre: French mitrail- 
leuses, captured in 1870-71 ; in front, marshal's staff of King Albert. 
On the walls, weapons of tlie 18-19th cent., chiefly of the Saxon and 
Polish w'ars and the war of 1870-71. Hanging from the ceiling, Turkisli 
and Saxon standards. — J. Turkish Tent of the Grand -Vizier Kara 
Mustapha, captured at the raising of the siege of Vienna in 1683 by the 
Saxon army under Elector John George III. In Glass-case 4: 175. Polish 
scale-armour with Maltese crosses (ca. 1680); 176. Gala-shield of King 
John III. Sobieski of Poland. In the window-cases: Hungarian, Polish, 
and Oriental weapons. — K. Saddle Chamber. Sumptuous caparisons, 
embroidered trappings, etc., used on festive occasions. 10, 11. Caparisons 
of Elector John George IV., one set with 550 rubies, the other with 
500 pearls and 700 diamonds ; 13. Caparison of Augustus the Strong. At 
the entrance to the next room, in Case XI, are relics of Napoleon I. — 
L. Costume Chamber. Court and gala costumes of the 16-18th cent.; 
mitres of bishops of Meissen (14-16th cent.). 

We now return to Room B and pass through Room M (containing 
weapons of the chase) to the Gallery of Arms (adm., see p. 170; 
catalogue 1 JC)., containing a valuable collection of fire-arms and other 
weapons, pictures of tournaments, fine antlers, etc. — On the walls, 
portraits of Saxon rulers down to Augustus II. 

The ^Collection of Porcelain, on the second floor, one of the 
finest of its kind, consists of about 20,000 specimens of Chinese, Japanese, 
Indian, French, Dresden, and Italian w^orkmanship. 

The examination of the Vestibule should be deferred till after the 
main rooms have been visited. 

Room I. *Chi)iese Porcelain of the best period (17-18th cent.). The 
invention of porcelain in China dates from the 6th cent., but the oldest 
extant specimens are of a much later date. The secret of painting under 
the glaze, i. e. before firing, was not discovered, however, until the 
15th century, and it was not till the turn of the 17th cent, that the art 
reached its greatest perfection. Among the most notewortliy specimens 
are figures of gods (Cabinets 1, 9); white and yellow ware with ornaments 
(Table-Cases 2, 5); sea-green porcelain, or celadon (Cab. 3, 7a, 7b); crackle- 
china (the cracks produced by a process of rapid cooling after the first 
firing; Cab. 7c, Case 10a); yellow imperial or dragon china (17-18th cent., 
rare), manufactured for the personal use of the Emperor of China (Case 11, 
front); turquoise-blue porcelain (very rare; Cases 11a & e), including six 
large dogs of Fob (blue and violet); enamel-painting on biscuit china 
(Cab. 11, back, g, h, i) ; porcelain with enamel-painting in the style of 
the Ming dynasty (Cab. 13-20); *Dishes with patterns of animals and 
plants, large *Dish with female figures (Case 13 f-k) ; dishes with scenes 
of court-life (Case 15). Two *Lanterns (Case 15 i) ; large *Vases (Stand 19) : 
coral-red porcelain (Cab. 20, back): rose porcelain (Cab. 22, b & c, and 
Case 22); red porcelain (Cab. 22d-h); *Porcelain speckled with blue 
(Cab. 24-26). On the stands in the middle (27-31, 33-37): *Monumental 
vases of cobalt-blue, among them (though they can no longer be in- 
dividually identified) the celebrated 'Dragoon Vases', said to have been 
given by Frederick William I. of Prussia to Augustus the Strong in 
1717 in exchange for a regiment of dragoons. Vase with the Saxon- 
Polish arms (made in China; Stand 40). On the right side of the room, 
^Hawthorn-pattern vases (deep blue ; in Cab 48 six priceless tankards 
with lids). — Corridor. Japanese porcelain (17-18th cent.), Vases, 
bowls, jilates, etc. (on stands and on the w^alls). — Imari Porcelain 
(so-called after the shipping-port; Cases 55c, 55d). Old Imari ware, 
large *Bow^ls (Cab. 59, b-d ; Case 56). Cobalt-blue porcelain (Stand 55a; 
Cases 55b, 58). 

Room II. European Porcelain, principally Bottger Ware and ^Dresden 
(Meissen) China. The chemist J. F. Bottger (1682-1719) discovered the 

202 Botite 29. DRESDEN. Albcrtinum. 

secret of making porcelain in 1709. at first producing only red stoneware 
erroneously termed 'Bottger' or 'Jasper Porcelain', but soon afterwards 
also white porcelain. The manufacture was removed from Dresden to 
Meissen 'p. 235} in 1710: so that the English term 'Dresden china' is 
really a misnomer for what is more accurately called in German 'Meissen 
china'. After Bottger's death the manufacture was carried on under the 
court-painter Herold (d. 1775), assisted by the sculptor KdndJer (d. 1775), 
who was the first to use the rococo forms of art for porcelain. 

Cabinet 63: Bottger Stoneirare, without glaze: dark 'ironstone' 
china. Cab. 66: Perfected Bottger ware. — Case 67 & Cab. 70: Bottger 
Porcelain. Cases 70 f-k & 71. Cab. 73: Specimens produced under jfferoW 
(see above), some with Chinese types. Cab. 76: Porcelain with coloured 
ground. Cab. 79: Historical service (front); figures of the apostles and 
groups by Kdndler (see above; behind). — Case 79 i: Meissen onion- 
pattern. — The kiosks in front and behind (81. 81a' contain six large 
'*Vases with the French arms, and small *Animals by Kandler. — Cab. 82: 
Portions- of the '.Swan Service' which belonged to Count Briihl ; figures 
and groups, incl. a -lovers' duet'. Case 82c: Cups with "SVatteau designs. 
On the centre stands are large vases (incl. the 'snowball vases' : 84) and 
large auimal-figures by Kandler. — Between Cab. 73 and 76 are groups 
(mostly by Kandler;, representing the Crucifixion. Madonnas, a Pieta, 
models of notabilities, etc, — Cab. 99-102 (on the side next the court): 
China of the Maroolini period (1774-1815). — Biscuit-china figures. — 
Cab, 102, 105: Dresden china made in 1880-87. Large vases on separate 
stands. — Other European porcelain (18th cent.: Case 106, Cab. 108). — 
Between Cab. 108 and 109: Vases from the imperial factory at St. Peters- 
burg (1905). — Cab. 109: Vienna porcelain of the Empire style. In front 
of the last are Sevres vases. — Cab. 110: *Bunch of flowers on a bronze 
pedestal (from Yincennes). 

Yestibcle. To the right and left of the entrance are Majolica vases 
from Castelli. Cab. 119 contains German stoneware. Cab. 124. Recent 
acquisitions. Cab. 120. Italian majolica (16-17th cent.). In the centre 
stands the large drinking-table of the Elector Augustus I. (d. 1586); upon 
it is a large fayence vase (18th cent.). The glass of the 17-18th cent, in 
Cab. 125 (to the left of the exit; should be noticed. 

Adjoining the Museum Johanneum on the S.. in the Judenhof, 
is the handsome gate of the old palace-chapel, in the Renaissance 
style, with sculptural ornamentation and a carved wooden door of 
1555. The Johann-Georg Fountain here commemorates Saxony's 
share in the relief of Tienna in 1683. 

In the opposite corner of the Xeumarkt rises a Statue of Fred- 
erick Augustus II. id. 1854). in bronze, by Hahnel. 

The old Courland Palace, Zeughaus-Platz 3. dating from the 
early 18th cent., contains first floon the Gehe Collection of drugs 
and minerals (open on Wed.. 10-12). 

The *Albertinuin 'PI. E, 5; II k originally the Arsenal, built 
in 1559-63 and entirely altered in 1705 and 1743-47. was adapted 
in 1884-89 for the reception of the sculpture-gallery and casts. 
The staircase is decorated with frescoes and sculptures by H. Prell 
(adm., see p. 179: entr. opposite the Belvedere). On the ceiling. 
Overthrow of the Titans: right wall. Kape of Europa and the 
Graces: left wall. Chaining of Kronos and the Fates. Marble 
figures of Aphrodite and Prometheus. Director, Professor Treu. 

The Maix Floor is occupied by the Collection of Antiquities, 
rom the staircase we enter the Vestibule (XI;, which is adorned with 

Albert inum. 


?.9. jRoKte. 


1)iist.s of Saxon rulers and reproductions of ancient sculptures. Wc then 
turn to the left and pass througli ten rooms in order to begin with the 
Egyptian Room. /. Egyptian Boom. Mummies: Cases with scarabsei, 
figures of tlic dead, and mummy-heads ; 4, Fragment of a papyrus of the 
Book of the Dead; 5-7 (above), limestone reliefs from Glzeli; 1. Painted 
wooden coffin (ca. 700 B.C.). — If. Eyi/ptian- Assyrian Room. 25, 26 
(in the centre). Mummies from Sakkara (3rd cent. A.D); 27. Mummy- 
l)ortrait from tlie Fayum ; 28, 30. Two lions of syenite; 31-37. Four 
Assyrian alabaster reliefs from Nineveh; 31. Head of Antinous (Roman 
])eriod); 32, 33. Tombstones from Palmyra. — ///. Uooin of Aixhalc 
Greek Sculptures. In the centre: *51. Base of a candelabrum, with 
reliefs referring to the theft of the Delphic tripod by Hercules; 50. Torso 
of Athena Promaclie (so-called 'Dresden Palladium'). In front of the 
second window, G7. Bronze cinerary urn from Capua. In the cabinets. 
Vases in the geometric style, Greek and Etruscan black vases, terra- 
cottas, and bronzes. — IV. Room of Phidias. By the entrance-wall, 
135. Head of Athena, from S. Italy; 131, 132. Replicas of the Athena 
Lemnia of Phidias; between these, 133. Milesian votive relief. In the 
middle, 125. Clay sarcophagus from Clazomense (ca. 550 B.C.). In front 


of the window, 112. Marble relief with Hercules and the Ceryneean Hind ; 
adjacent, to the left, 113. Bronze mirror from Megara, In tlic cabinets (G, H), 
early-G-reek vases and terracottas. — F. Room of Poly clef us. Entrance- 
wall, to the left, 156. Prize-fighter; to the right, 150. Zeus (Pliidian school); 
152. Head of a Diadumenos (after Polycletus) In the middle : 151, 155. Sta- 
tues of athletes; by the first window, *391. Bronze statuette of Aphrodite. 
By the exit-wall, 158, 159. Statues of victorious boys (after Polycletus). 
In the cabinets I-M, later Greek vases (5th cent.). — VI. Room of 
Praxiteles. In the centre: 217. Son of Niobe ; 204. Artemis. By Use first 
window. Reliefs. In Cabinet N" (to the right), Greek terracottas; 200. 
Statuette of Plutus (after Cephisodotus) : 201. Satj'-r (after Praxiteles) ; 
216. Head of Niobe. By the second window: 221. Artemis, from Salamis ; 
*209. Head of a girl, from Cyzieus ; 210. Head of a girl, from Glzeh. 
Cab. 0, with terracottas from Asia Minor. Marble torso of a Maenad, 
after Scopas. — VII. Hellenistic Room. By the entrance-wall, 304. Her- 
cules ; in the centre, 314. Fragment of a wounded Gaul; 310, 311. Satyr 
and Hermaphrodite. Exit-wall: 308. Rustic; 305. Athena; 307. Drunken 
old woman. In the cabinets, vases and terracotta reliefs from Lower 
Italy. In the window-cases, Reliefs and fragments of Aretine pottery. — 

^J04 Routt: 29. DRESDEN. Friedrichstadt. 

VIII. Boom of the Coloured Marbles. Specimeus of marble ; Etruscan 
bronze mirrors : Italian terracottas. — IX. Boom of the 3Iomic8. Entrance- 
wall: 361. Thalia. In the centre, 371. Mosaic pavement with Bacchus 
and masks {from Civita Tecchia}.' To the left, each between Etruscan 
cinerarv urns, 360. Euripides;?;, 372. Aphrodite (from Alexandria). In 
front of the Aphrodite. 432. Gold ornaments from Ribualto, near Bolsena. 
On the other side of the mosaic are two more Etruscan cinerary urns : 
between these, 373. Serapis (bronze statuette from Alexandria) and a 
case {d) with Etruscan bronze mirrors. Window-cases g and e contain 
gold ornaments and gems. By the balustrade, *369. Mosaic ornament; 
to the left. 367. Cupid and Psyche. — X. Boom of the Four Combatants. 
In the centre, 450-453. Victorious pugilists. On the right of the stair- 
case: 460. Antinous as Bacchus: 458. Boy playing with a lion, on a 
Roman sarcophagus (459); Roman terracotta lamps. Side-wall, Roman 
sarcophagi: 471. Silenus (fountain -figure). Exit -wall: 454. So-called 
'Dresden Venus'; 455. Ariadne. — TTe now traverse the Vestibule (XI; 
p. 202) and enter the Boom of the Berculaneum Women (XII), so called 
from the" three draped *Statues in the centre (500, 501, 502) found in 
almost perfect preservation at Herculaneum in 1713. To the right. 503. 
Crirl playing with astragali. Roman portrait-busts (506-508. etc.). In the 
first window-recess, 504. Tomb-ielief of a butcher. Exit-wall, Replica, by 
Alex. Charpentier. of the stone relief of a baker, near St. Germain-des 
Pres at Paris. — Booms XIII and XIV contain Modern Sculptures of 
various kinds, among the most notable of which are Xos. 600 (Charles I. 
of England). 601. 602. 635. 638. 616. 610, 606, 604, 700, and 701. 

The First Floor and the Basement are devoted to the admirable 
"^Collection of Casts of ancient, mediaeval, Renaissance, and modern 
works. The arrangement is chronological, the modern works being placed 
in the basement, which is reached by a staircase to the right of the 
main entrance. The covered court is occupied by a collection of casts 
and models of the works of Rietschel. Diez, Begas, Meunier, and others. 

The groundfloor of the Albertinum also contains the Boyal Archives 
(week-days, 9-1 & 3-6: Director, Dr. Posse). 

To the E. of tlie Albertiuum is the Synagogue (PI. E, F, 5; //). 

a Romanesque edifice by Semper. — Pillnitzer-Str.. see p. 206. 

d. Suburbs on the Left Bank. 

From the Post-Platz p. IGGj the Ostra-Allee runs to the N.W.. 
the Wettiuer-Str. to the ^V.. and the Anuen-Str. to the S.^. 

In the Ostra-Allee, near the Zwinger, is the Her zogin- Garten 
<P1. D, 5: // . with a Renaissance orangery. To the N., in the 
Stallhof-Str., are the Boyal Mews (V\. D, 5; II). open 2-4 p.m. 

The Wetti>'er-Strasse (PI. C. D, 5; /), with the Church of 
St James ^1901 . leads to the Friedrichstadt. the quarter contain- 
ing the Friedrichstadt Station and the extensive Friedrichstadt 
Town Hospital (PI. B. C. 4: 1}. Part of the last occupies the old 
^larcolini Palais, in which Xapoleon I. had his quarters at various 
times in 1813. The garden, formerly one of the finest in Dresden, 
contains a handsome fountain in sandstone, representing Xeptune and 
Amphitrite, by Mattielli; the water plays in summer on Sun., 11-1, 
and Thurs. and Sat., 3-5 p.m.; adm. gratis (entr. from the Wachs- 
bleichgasseV — In the Boman Catholic Cemetery (PL C. 4; 7) is 
the grave of Karl Maria von Weber (d. 1826), the composer. 

QroHsa Garten, DRESDEN. 2^- Route. 205 

At the end of the Annen-Stkasse (PL D, 6; //) stands tlie 
Church of St. Anne (PI. D, 6; //), an edifice of the 16th cent., 
restored after a fire in 1760, and practically rebuilt in 1907. In 
front of the church is the Anna Monument , erected in 1869 to 
the wife (d. 1585) of Augustus T., from a design by Henze. 

The Prager-Strasse leads to the S. from the Altstadt to the 
Bismarck-Platz (PI. D, 7, 8; /), on the S. side of which is the 
Technical School (PL D, 8; /), built in 1872-75 by Heyn. To the 
right, in the Bcrnhard-Str., is the Scottish Presbyterian Church 
(p. 179). ~ In the Reichs-Str. is the Russian Chapel (PL D, 8; /), 
with six towers, designed by Bossc of St. Petersburg (Russian 
service. Sat. 7 p.m.. Sun. 11 a.m.), and in the Reichs-Platz is the 
tasteful American Church (PL D 8, /; p. 179). — In the Mlinchner 
Platz is the Provincial Court House (PL C, 9; /), a picturesque 
sandstone building by 0. Kramer (1907). 

To the S.E. of the Altstadt is the Geokg-Platz (PL E, 6; //), 
No. 6 in which is the modern Gothic Kreuz-Schule, a grammar- 
school with a handsome hall (frescoes by Dietrich). In front of the 
edifice are a bronze Statue of Theodore Korner (p. 179), by Hahnel, 
and busts of Karl Gutzkow (d. 1878), the author, and Julius Otto 
(d. 1877), the composer. 

In the adjoining BuRGERWiESE (PL E, 6, 7: //), a large open 
space with promenades, and farther on, throughout the whole S. 
part of the town (Beust-Str., Goethe-Str., etc.), numerous handsome 
modern dwelling-houses have sprung up, nearly all built in the 
Renaissance style. In the Biirgerwiese are the Mozart Monument, 
by Hosseus (1907; N. end) and other sculptural groups. — The 
Moltke-Platz (PL E, 7; //) is embellished with the Nymph 
Fountain by Brossmann (1865), and the Ferdinands-Platz (PL 
E, 6) with the Goose-Stealer Fountain by Diez (1880). — To the 
S., in the Wiener -Strasse, is the English Church (PL E 7, /; 
p. 179), embellished with stained-glass windows. — The late Consul 
Meyer's Collection of Modern Paintings, Beust-Str. 1 (PL E, 7 ; 7), 
is vshown daily, 11-1 & 3-5, on application. 

The Grosse Garten (PL G, H, 8, /; cafes and restaurants), 
to the S.E. of the town, a royal park laid out in 1676 and sub- 
sequently enlarged, covers an area of about 375 acres. It is inter- 
sected by two broad avenues at right angles to each other, and is 
embellished with marble groups. At the intersection of the avenues 
stands the Lustschloss (PL G, 8; /), a chateau built in 1679-93, 
where the Museum of the Saxon Antiqitarian Society and the 
Saxon Folklore Society are now established. 

The Museum (adm., see p. 180; eataloguc 50 pf.) consists chiefly of 
ecclesiastical objects of mediseval origin, removed from the churches of 
Saxony in consequence of the Reformation, and collected here in 1841. 
It contains about 3000 objects in all. 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 14 

206 Route 29. DRESDEX. Royal Library. 

The Botanic Garden^ to the X. of the Grosse Grarten, was laid 
out in 1891 ('adm.. see p. 179t. Adjacent is the mnnicipal Ex- 
hibition Building PL F, G, 6. 7 : /), entered from the Stiibel-Allee. 
in which is the Stuhel Fountain. — The Zoological Garden 
(PI. F 8, J: adm., see p. 180) lies to the S. (concert-hall and 
restaurant). To the "VT. is the Sport-JPlatz, with a bronze figure 
of a ball-player, by Fabricius (1908). — In the Elias-Str. is the 
Ehrlich Foundation <P1. F, 6; J/i. with a church (1907) and a 
Statue of Count Zinzendorf^h. at Dresden in 1700; comp. p. 399), 
by Engelke (1906 1. — Farther to the X.W., at the corner of the 
Grunaer-Str. and Albrecht-Str., is the Kiinstlerhaus (PL F, 6; //), 
erected in 1908. 

To the X. of the Ehrlich Foundation is the imposing baroque 
building'of the School & Museum of Industrial Art (PL G, 
5: /;, erected in 1901-7 from the plans of Lossoic and Viehweger. 
The museum is entered from the Elias-Str. (adm., see p. 180 1. 
Director, Prof. Berling. Catalogue 40 pf. 

The various rooms of the museum are fitted up in the taste of the 
(lifi'erent periods of art and contain appropriate furniture and other ob- 
jects. Perhaps the most attractive is the Empire Po.vilion (So. 11). con- 
taining tapestry from the end of the 18th century. The Court contains 
sandstone groups by Matielli. 

The Kandler porcelain in Room 19 fCase 69) .should not be overlooked. 

From Room 20 a rococo door (closed; leads to the "^Aula. which is 
shown on request. This was the banquet-room of the Briihl Palace (torn 
down in 1901) and dates from the middle of the 18th century. The 
ceiling-painting, by Silvestre. represents the victory of the virtues over 
the vices. The richly gilt doors and walls Avere decorated by Deibel, 

In the Pillxitzee-Strasse, which begins near the Albertinum 
/p. 202), is the Church of St. John, a Gothic edifice built in 1878 
by Mockel. with elaborate plastic decoration inside. Xo. 63 is the 
Schilling Museum iPl. G 6, //; adm., see p. 180; illustrated cata- 
logue 50 pf. I. with models of the works of that master. 

e. Right Bank of the Elbe. 

In the Neustadt. on the right bank of the Elbe, in the Market 
Place adjoining the Augustus Bridge, rises an equestrian Statue of 
Augustus II. PL E, 4: II k 'the Strong', over lifesize, in gilded 
copper, by Wiedemann of Augsburg, 1736 ? model, see p. 184). 

Turning to the left, we soon reach the Japanese Palace 
Vl. D, E, 4: /\ erected by Count Flemming in 1715, purchased 
by Augustus II. in 1717, and named after the Japanese porcelain 
(see p. 201 1 formerly preserved here. It is now wholly occupied 
by the Royal Library ladm.. see p. 179; Director, Dr. Ermisch). 

The Librarv. founded by Elector Augustus (d. ISSS"!, now comprises 
500.000 vols., 2000 incunabula, 6000 MSS., and 28,000 maps. Historical 
works and modern literature form the most valuable part of the collection. 

On the staircase are marble busts of Goethe and Tieck. by David 
iV Angers. — Numerous interesting furiosities are exhibited in glass-cases 

Roijcd Theatre. DRESDEN. 25. Botite. 207 

in the Treasure Room. Case i. Maya MS. from Yucatan, 12 ft. long-, 
written on both sides ; Codex BGrnevianus of the Pauline Epistles, 
written in the 9th cent, by an Irisli monk at St. Gall; poems by Uana 
Sachs (autograph) ; Bohemian Bible (15th cent.) ; part of Gutenherg'a 
42-line Bible; Indulgence of 1188; Bihlia Panperu7n: Psaltery, being 
the earliest printed work with a date (1157) ; first German edition of 
Seb. BranVs Narrenschifl' (14.94), witli 111 woodcuts. — Case h. Runic, 
calendars of boxwood, of the 12th and 18th cent. ; Valturius 'De re mili- 
tari\ a parchment MtS. of the 15th cent., with illustrations; *Volume with 
fifty-six miniatures of eminent men uf the 15-16th cent., probably by 
Cranach the Younger; three Breviaries with miniatures of the 15-16t]i 
cent.; illustrated MS. of the ^ SachsenspieijcV, 1380; collection of portraits 
of Saxon princes from the earliest times until Augustus II. — Case /'. 
Greek papyrus of the Ptolemaic period; municipal accounts of Leipzig, 
inscribed on black waxen tablets ; two woodcuts in chiar'oscuro ; MSS. of 
Luther (1531) and Melanchthon; facsimile of Diircr's Four Books of 
Human Proportions (original in the MSS. room); translation of Dante 
by Philalethes (King John of Saxony), the beginning in the king's hand- 
writing; Weber\s Jubilee overture (autograph); A. W. SchlegeVs trans- 
lation of Hamlet (autograph). — Case (j. Octagonal Koran, of the size 
of a crown-piece; Koran of Sultan Bajazet II.; MS. of a Turkish poem 
against drinking, with fine illustrations. — In Cases 1-6, by the windows, 
are sumptuous stamped bindings. — The next room but one contains a 
cast of Gellert's features after death, in coloured wax. — Amongst the 
treasures not shown to the public is the Atlas Royal, a collection in 
19 folio vols, of portraits of princes and princesses of the 17th cent., 
with maps, plans, etc. (three copies only of the work were made at 
Amsterdam in 1707; one is now at The Hague, another at Copenhagen). 

The Japanese Garden., or Palais- Garten, behind the palace, 
which is open to the public, affords a pleasant view. 

Marhle tablets and medallions on No. 7 Korner-Str. mark the 
house once occupied by Councillor Korner, where Schiller resided 
in 1786-87, and where Theodore Korner was born in 1791. It 
contains the Korner Museum (PL E, 4; //), with many memorials 
of the poet of the 'Lyre and Sword' and of the wars of liberation at the 
beginning of the century (adm., see p. 179; Director, Dr. Peschel). 

From the market-place the broad Haupt-Strasse, planted with 
rows of trees, leads towards the N.E. Farther on, to the left, rises 
the Dreikonigs-Kirche (PL E, 4; /), erected in 1732-39, with its 
lofty modern tower. 

The Haupt-Strasse ends at the Albert-Platz (PL E, F, 4; /), 
with its two handsome fountain-groups in bronze, by Rob. Diez 
(1894), representing Calm Water and *Stormy Waves. At the bo- 
ginning of the Bautzener-Str. are an Artesian Well (in a small 
temple ; 1906) and the Royal Theatre {Schauspielhaus ; PL F 4, /; 
p. 178), adorned with sculptures by Menzel and Henze, sgrafitto 
paintings by Dietrich, and ceiling-paintings by Oehme. — The 
Bautzener-Str. leads to the right to the (Jothic Luther - Kirche 
(PL F, 3; /), built in 1887. — To the S., near the Carola Bridge, 
rises the Finance Ministei'^s Office (PL E, 5; II), Fine views 
from the terrace in front of it and from the bridge. To the E. 
stands the Ministry of Beligion, Justice., and the Interior (PL 
F, 4, 5, //: 1900-1904). 


208 Boiitf 29. BRESDEX. Environs. 

To the X.E. of the Xeiistadt extends the quarter known as the 
Albertstadt. containing the Romanesque Garrison C/?wrcA (1900), 
the Arsenal (PL G-, 1; /}, the Boyal Army Museum (adni., see 
p. 179; portraits, etc.), large Barracks, and other military estab- 
lishments. The BoyaJ Arsenal Collection (adm., see p. 179) in- 
cludes an interesting collection of portable fire-arms on the first 

In the Old Xeustadter Kirchhof. ^ ^ M. to the X. of the Silesiaii 
Station, risess on obelisk to the memory of soldiers who fell durino: the 
revolution of 1849. The wall of the cemetery is adorned with a Dance 
of Death, consisting of 27 figures in relief, executed in 15.S4, 

f. Environs of Dresden. 

(Comf). the Map. and R. 30. — Tramways and Steamboats, see pp.177, 178.) 

The suburb of Plauen (see p. 221) is most conveniently reached by 
Tramwav Xo. 15. 

The 'Bergstrasse (PI. D, 79; I) leads from the Central Station to the 
.suburb of Kacknitz (PI. D 10, //tramway Xo. 6), IV4 M. to the S. of the 
town, just beyond which, to the left, is situated Moreau's 2Ionument 
'.V\. E, 10 ; / , surrounded by three oaks , erected near the spot where 
the general was mortally wounded, 27th Aug.. 1813. Close by is the 
Bisma rclc-Wo rte . with view of the Saxon Switzerland. — A still more 
extensive prospect is enjoyed from the Goldene Hohe (1140 ft. ; Restaurant), 
4J/2 M. farther to the S. — To the X.E. of Racknitz is Strehlen, a residential 
suburb with a fine church (PL G, H, 9; I), built in 1905. — Th<iraiult 
(p. 222) is another favourite resort. 

A pleasant drive (tramway Xo. 11, p. 177) may be taken along the 
slopes of the vine - clad hills on the right bank of the Elbe , passing 
numerous villas and the popular establishments of TTaldschlosschen (PI. 
1 3. I: 11 '4 M. from the Augustus Bridge) and Saloppe {Vl. K, 3; /), a 
steamboat-station. Below, on the Elbe, is the turreted building of the 
Dresden water-works. About ^/^ M. from the Waldschlosschen are the 
Albrcchts-SchJoss (PI. K. L. 3 : /) and the ViUa Alhrechtsberg. A little 
farther up the river is the Villa Eckherg . built in the English style, 
with three towers. — Pleasant silvan walks from the Alhrechtsberg through 
the King Albert Park to the Wolfshilgel (690 ft. : PL L. 2. 3, /; belvedere). 

About 2 M. farther on is the "Weisse Hirsch (720 f t. : PL X, 3, 4, 7), 
a favourite summer-resort (visitors' tax 5 JC). connected with Dresden by 
electric tramway ! Xo. 11, p. 177) and with Loschwitz (sec below) by a cable- 
tramway (up 20. down io. return 25 pf.}. It is situated on the' edge of 
the Dresdener Heide. a wooded plateau, and is most widely known through 
Dr. Lahmanns Sanaiorium {V\. H 3, /; pens, from li JC) . but there 
arc now other sanatoria [Dr. Teuscher's, etc.). besides hotels and pen- 
sions, anions: which mav be mentioned the Kurhans (PL a; R. 2-6. pens. 
B-12 'jC) and the Park Hotel (PL b; R. ^'r^^:^. pens, from 6 JC). The 
Luisenhof Restaurant (PL X, 4) affords a fine view. 

From the road to Loschwitz we may diverge to the right to visit the 
small summer-house (Schillerhduschen ; PL M, 4) in a vineyard where 
Schiller wrote his Don Carlos in 1785-87. At Loschwitz (VI. M, X. 5), 
a village with 6300 inhab., connected with Dresden by tramways 1 & 18 
(pp. 177, 178), are the Demnitz Hotel (PL c) , ihe Hotel -Restaurant 
Victoriahohe (PL X, 5). and a small monument to Ludwig Richter (d. 1884), 
the painter. An elevated railway ('Schwebebahn' ; PL X, 5) ascends hence 
to the Rochiritzer-Hohe (view; hotel-restaurant) in 3 min.: fares, up 20. 
down 10, return 25 pf. ' 

Opposite Loschwitz. on the left bank (bridge), lies Blasewitz {Belle- 
cue, very fair- Srhilhr-Gartfu Rpstnt/rnnt. both with view", also reached 

SAXON SWITZP]KLANT). -^o. Haute. 209 

by traniwavb 1 & 18 (pp. 177, 178). Following the left bank, we pa.SK 
Tolkeivitz,' iiua reach Laubega^t, with a monument to Caroline Neuber, 
the actress, who died here in 1760 (tramway No. 19, p. 178). — At Hoster- 
ivitz, 8V2 M. from Loschwitz, Weber composed his TreischUtz' and 

Pillnitz (375 ft.; Restat^'ants and steamboat -station; tramway 18, 
p. 178), on the right bank of the Elbe, 8 M. above Dresden, is a chateau 
of the king, with pleasant grounds and a botanical garden. The grounds 
are open free; adm. to the chateau, 1-2 pers. 1 JC, 3-4 pers. IV2 cS, a 
party 30 pf. each. 

From Pillnitz we may proceed through the shady Friedrichsgrund 
to the (3 M.) Porsberg (il85 ft.; belvedere; inn), which commands a 
fine view of the Elbe valley. Hence we may either return via the 'Kuine' 
(an artificial ruin ; view) to Pillnitz or go on to (41/2 M.) the Lochmilhle 
Bestauraiit , Lohmen (p. 209), Utteivalde (p. 214; 3 M.), and (2V2 M.) 
Wehlen (p. 214) or the Bastei (p. 214). 

The Osterherg (805 ft. ; Restaurant, with view), on the left bank of 
the Elbe, to the N.W. of Dresden, is reached in 1/2 ^^r. from Cossebaude 
(p. 209; tramway 21, p. 178). We may return through the pretty Amsel- 
grund (p. 215). 

LOssnitzgrund, see p. 232. 

30. Saxon Switzerland. 

The Meissen HigJilands, a very picturesque district, known for more 
than a century as the *Saxoii Switzerland, extend on both banks of 
the Elbe from Liebetal to the Bohemian frontier, a distance of 25 M., 
and from the Falkenberg to the Schneeberg, about the same distance. 
The Elbe and its affluents have worn deep beds in the sandstone rock 
of which the district consists, and rain and wind have carved the rocky 
walls into the most picturesque and fantastic forms. 

Plan. Two days at least are requisite for a visit to this interesting 
district. 1st. Walk from Potzscha -Wehlen via the Bastei, Hochstein, 
and Brand to Schandau; 61/2-7 hrs. ■ — 2nd. Walk from Schandau via the 
Kuhstall, Winterberg, and Prebischtor to Herrnskretschen ; l^/^hrs. If a 
carriage be taken to the Winterberg the detour via the Edmundsklamm 
from the Prebischtor may be conveniently included. — Two additional days 
may be disposed of thus : — 3rd. Railway from Schandau to Sebnitz in 
^/4-i hr., walk via Grenadierburg, Tanzplan, Wachberg, Saupsdorf, and 
Hinter-Hermsdorf to the Obere Schleuse and Hiuter-Dittersbach; 7 hrs. — 
4th. Walk from Hinter-Dittersbaeh , via the Rudolfstein, Wilhelminen- 
wand, and Marienfelsen , to Dittersbach in 3Vo-4 hrs.; thence drive or 
walk to Bohmisch-Kamnitz and take the railway to Tetschen-Bodenbach 
(p. 211). — The Schneeberg and Bielagrund, see p. 211. 

Guides (4-5 JC per day, 2 ^ per half-day; in Austria 5 and 3 K.), 
though seldom necessary, are sometimes desirable. — Carriages may be 
hired at Wehlen, the Bastei, the Brand, Schandau, etc. ; carr. and pair 
for 4 pers., 18 ,.€ per day, 10 JC per half-day; one-horse carr. for two 
pers., 12 or 71/2 «^? besides fee to the driver. Horse generally 2 cS per 
hour (comp. p. 217). ■ — Steamboats on the Elbe, see p. 212. — During 
Whitsuntide the Saxon Switzerland is apt to be overcrowded with holi- 
day-makers. The hotel-charges at the most frequented places are as high 
as in towns. 

a. From Dresden to Bodenbach (Prague, Vienna) and 
Tetschen by Railway. 

38 and 39 M. Railway. To Bodenbach in 1-2 hrs. (fares 4 .^ 90, 
3 o^« 10, IJC 9o pf . ; express 5 ^^ 40, 3 ^^ 00, 2 ^^ 20 pf .) ; express from 
Dresden to Prague in 33/^ hrs. Fares to Tetschen, 5 ^^ 50. 3 ^S 70, 

210 Honte 30. KONIGSTEIX. ^^xon 

2 ^€ 30 pf. : express from Dresden to Vicniia in 10 lira. Fares to Potzscha 

■> ^M 10, 1 c£ 30. 85 pf . ; to Schandau 3 c4f 20, 1 ^ 90, 1 JC 25 pf . (express 

3 v« 70, 2 ^ 40, 1 ^4 50 pf.). — Best views to the left. — Austrian 
Custom Houses at Bodenbaoh and Tetschen. 

Steamer (preferable to the railway), see p. 212. 

Dresden (Central Station i. see p. 175. — Tbe train gradually 
approaches the Elbe. — 5 M. Xieder-Sedlitz. 

A branch-line runs hence to Lockwitz and (5^ o ^v Kreischo. A 
pleasant excursion may be taken through the Lockwitzer Grund to 
.5 M.) KreiscTm and thence to the S.E. to (3 M.; Maxeu. 

From (7 M.» MUgeln a branch-line runs to (221 g ;^j; ) Qeisiiig- 
Altenherg ip. 227j. — About 3^^ M. to the S. of (9i g M.) Gross- 
Sedlitz is the royal chateau of that name, with a park in the French 
style. The train reaches the Elbe here and follows its windings 
through a narrow rocky valley. 

IOV2 M. Pima (385 ft.: Schwarzer Adler, R. from 2 ^; 
Weisser Schican: Sdchsischer Hof; Rail. Restaurant)^ a town 
with 19.200 inhab.. on the left bank of the Elbe, contains some 
interesting old houses and is commanded by the Sonnenstein, an 
old fortress converted into a lunatic asylum. The Stadt-Kirche, 
built in 1502-46 and restored in 1890, contains ceiling-paintings 
of the middle of the 16th century. The Municipal Museum and 
the Museum of the Mountain Cluh are open free in summer on 
Sun., 10.30-12 I at other times 25 pf.). 

Fbom Pirxa to Gottlecba, 11 M.. railway in 1 hr. The train ascends 
the picturesque and narrow valley of the Gottleuba. ■ — 91/2 M. Berg- 
giessh"Q.bel (961 ft.; pop. 1400: ' Sdchsisches Hans; Bahnhofs - Hotel : 
Rail. Ecstaurayit) is a small town with mineral baths. — 11 M. Gottleuba 
'Kurhaus : Eronprinzj . a chalybeate spa prettily situated in a deep valley. 

From Pirxa to Arxsdorf (p. 400;. 13 M.. railway- in 40 min. 

Large sandstone quarries are visible on both banks of the river. 
— 16 M. Potzscha, at the foot of the Barensteine (1095 ft.; ^ 4 hr.; 
E.) and the Rauensteine i^995; 1 hr. ; S.j, opposite Wehlen (p. 214). 
To the left rise the lofty rocks of the Bastei. — 18 M. Rathen, 
see p. 215. 

22 M. Konigstein -415 ft.: Konig Albert^ at the station; 
Stadt London, R. l\r^\;^ 'JC\ Blauer Stem, R. 1^ ^-2 JC: Kron- 
priiu. R. 1-11 2 ^; Rail. Restaurant) is a small town /4100 inhab.j 
at the mouth of the Biela-Tal, commanded by the small Foi'tress 
of Konigstein (1184 ft. above the sea, 807 ft. above the Elbe). 

This fortress (no admission) was formerly regarded as impregnable, 
and in time of war the treasures and archives of Saxony have usually 
been deposited here. It is mentioned as belonging to the King of Bohemia 
in 1241. and about 1400 it was in the possessionof the Counts of Dohna. 
from whom it passed to the Margraves of Meissen. The present forti- 
fications date from the 16-18th cent., the well (500 ft. deep) from the 
16th cent, (open 9-5. Sun. 11-5: fee 50 pf.). Fine view from the Xeue 
Schenke at the foot of the rock (^'^ hr. from the station). 

On the opposite bank of the river rises the *Lilienstein 
(1325 tx.\ The travolbr crn^ses the Elbe to the village of Halhc- 







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SwUzrrlrr'fL SCHANDAU. SO. Uofitr. 211 

stadt (ferry 10 pi'.), opposite the Konigsteiii station, and proceeds 
thence through the E. end of the village of Ebenheit direct to the 
foot of the Lilienstein. Ascent, partly by steps, somewhat steep, 
1 hr. Liii (R. 1-2 t./^, good), an obelisk, and a belvederes (10 pf.) at 

the top. 

In 1756, at the beginning of the Seven YearK' War, the Saxon army 
of 14,000 men was surrounded at the foot of this liill by the Prussians 
under Frederick the Great and compelled by hunger to surrender. 

The Pfaffenstein (1405 ft.; *Inn, R. 1-2 ^), 1 hr. to the S. of 
Konigstein, is another good point of view with fine rock -formations. 
AVe follow the road to Pfaffendorf and thence proceed by a footpath 
through the Nadelohr (that to the riglit easier). Path (blue and yellow 
signs) from the foot to the Papststein (p. 217) in V/^ hr. 

From Konigstein through the Bielagrund to the Schweizermiihle 
(carr. and pair 7 JC) and thence to the top of the Schneeberg, 5-6 hrs. 
About IV2 M. to the S. of Konigstein is situated the water-cure estab- 
lishment of Kdnigsbi'unn , on the Biela, at the entrance to the Biela- 
grund, an interesting ravine with the most fantastic rock-formations. 
Pleasant walk up this valley to the (7 M.) Sch.weizermtihle (1150 ft.), 
where there are another water-cure, two hotels (Post, Felsenkeller , pens. 
41/2 '^i very fair), and several lodging-houses. About 21/2 M. farther on 
we turn to the left and proceed (guide-posts) via the (25 min.) ZollhauH 
(inn) to the (25 min.) village of Schneeberg (1950 ft.; Schweizerhof ; 
Werner's Inn). Thence we ascend in 35 min. more to the summit of the 
*Hohe Schneeberg (2255 ft.), where a tower commanding a fine view 
(30/^.) and a good inn (bed 2, K.) are situated. From the Schneeberg to 
Bodenbach 21/2 hrs., see Baedeker^ s Austria. 

About 21/4 M. to the W. of Schneeberg are situated the Tyssaer 
"Wande, a curious labyrinth of chasms and grotesque rock-formations. 
Fine view from the plateau. 

25 M. Sehandau C^Rail. Restaurant) ; the town (p. 216; lies 
on the right bank, and is reached in summer by a steam-ferry 
(10 pf.). Branch-line from Sehandau to Bautzen, see p. 213. — 
26 M. Krippen; 291/2 M. Hirschmuhle-Schmilka (p. 213). 

3OY2 ^- Schona (Railway Restaurant), the station for Hei^rns- 
hretschen (p. 218) on the opposite bank. — The line now crosses 
the Austrian frontier, passes (32 M.) Niedergrund (branch-line to 
Tetscheiij see below), and penetrates the Spitzherg and the Sehdfer- 
tvaiid (925 ft.) by two tunnels. — On the bank of the Elbe lies 
Obergrund (see the map at p. 219 ; KocNs Hotel & Villa Stark, 
Pl.d,R.3-4, pens. 6-1 jfiT. ; ^^afZ-Ho^e/, PI. b, R. 2-3, pens. S-lOiiT.), 
a summer-resort, with the Josefshad (PI. c), supplied by a chaly- 
beate spring. Ferry to Tetschen (see below), 10 h. 

38 M. Bodenbach (440 ft. ; Post; Topfer, R. l^/V^ K- ; Hotel 
Umlauft^ R. 2-3 /i.; Bail. Restaurant)^ an industrial town of 
10,000 inhab., with the Austrian custom-house, is dominated by 
the ""Schafertvand (925 ft.; Hotel, with view, R. 2 K.). The Hohe 
Schneeherg (see above) is ascended from Bodenbach in 2^/2 hrs. 

A suspension -bridge (toll 4 h.) and two railway-bridges here 
cross the river to Tetschen (435 ft.; Krone, R. 2-3 K.; National; 
Silherner Stern, R. 1 K. 60 /?.-3 K. ; Stadt Prag; Grilner Bamn, 
with cafe, these three in the market-place; Dampfschiff-Hotel, at 

212 i?o«^€ 30. 'W'EHLEN. Saxon 

the pier, very fair. R. 2-3 K.: good Bohemian wine at the Schloss- 
^chenke), with 9000 inhab.. perhaps the pleasantest point in the 
valley of the Elbe, commanded by the chateau of Count Thun. 

For excursions from Bodenbach and Tetschen. see Baedeker- 8 Auitrio. . 

From Bodenbach to Prague (Tiennai and from Tetschen to 
Vienna, see Baerhker's Austria. 

b. From Dresden to Bodenbach by Steamer. 

4-1 M. Express Ste.oier daily from May 15th to Sept. 15th in 6V4 hrs. 
Another steamer plies dailv in 4^/4 hrs. as far as Herrnskretschen. Fares 
to Pillnitz 1 .U b. Pirna l\4C 30. AVehlen (21/2 hrs.) 1 JC 90, Konigstein 
2 o<^ 30, Schandau (4 hrs.i 2 ^€ 65, Herrnskretschen 3 ^4C 5, Bodenbach 
8 ,.€ 65 pf. Downstream the fares are somewhat higher. Dinner (at 
12,45 p.m.^ 2 ^4C. — There are also slower steamers at lower fares. — 
The best views are to the left. The Austrian custom-house examination 
takes place at Schandau. 

In the following description S. stands for steamer station, R. for 
railway station. Tlie words right (r.) and left (1.) are used with reference 
to the direction in which the steamer is running. 

Dresden, see p. 175. The steamer passes under the Carola- 
Brucke and the Albert-Brucke (p. 181), and stops at (1.) Dresden- 
Xeustadt (PL Gr, 4; 7) and then at (r.) Dresden-Johannstadt (PL 
G. 4; /). — As we proceed the hills of Loschwitz are seen ahead, 
while to the left are slopes with villas and gardens. 

31/2 ^. (1.) Loschwitz (^S.); 3^ ^ M. (r.; Blaseivitz (S. : see p. 208). 

On the ridge to the left is the RochvAtzer Busch. — Before 
reaching Wachicitz (\.) we see, halfway up the hill, a villa of the 
King of Saxony. Above the village is the Johannisturm. In the 
background to the right are the Erzgebirge. — r. Tolkewitz; 1. 
Xieder-Poyritz (S.); r. Lauhegast (S.; p. 209). — Farther on w^e 
see ahead of us the Pfaffenstein ip. 211), Papststein (p. 217), and 
Konigstein (p. 210). — 1. Hostericitz (p. 209;. 

8 M. [l.) Pillnitz iS. ; see p. 209 1. with its chateau. — 1. Sohrigen : 
r. Mugeln (K.); r. Heidenaa (S.), with its manufactories. The valley 
now contracts, r. GrossSedlitz (R.j. AVe now pass under a rail- 
way-bridge and reach — 

'13 M. (r.) Pirna (S. and E.; see p. 210;, with the old fort of 
JSonnenstein. This is considered the beginning of the Saxon Switzer- 
land (comp. p. 209> — 1. Pasta, with quarries. — Beyond (1.) 
Zeichen we have a fine view of — 

18 M. (1.) Wehlen iS.; see p. 214). Opposite is (r.) Potzscha 
\^.). High up on the left is the Bastei ip. 214). with its belvedere. 
— 21 M. (1.) Rathen (S.; p. 215;, with its railway-station on the 
opposite bank. — Upstream we now see the N. side of the Lilien- 
stein (p. 210 1. To the right, at the next bend, rises the Konigstein 
(p. 2l0j. 

241 .. M. (T.) Konigstein <S. and R.; see p. 210). To the left 
is the S. side of the Lilienstein. with the Wettin Obelisk. — 

Switzerland.. SEBNITZ. 30. Route. 213 

Upstream is the Grosse Winterberg (p. 218). — We pass under the 
Carola-Briicke. To the right is the Schandau railway-station. 

28 M. (1.) Schandau (S.; see p. 216). — To the left is Postel- 
wit':^ with the villa colony oi Neu- Schandau- Ostr a above it; to 
the right, Krippen. At the E. end of Postelwitz are quarries, 
with the Schramnisteine (p. 217) rising above them. — r. Hirsch- 
milhle (R.); 1. Kleine Bastei. — 1. Schmilka (S.; p. 217), with its 
railway-station on the opposite bank. Beyond this point the right 
bank (/. e. to our left) is in Bohemia. 

33^/2 M. (1.) Herrnskretschen (S.; see p. 218); to the right, 
opposite, is Schona (R.). — To the right is the Glohtbach, forming 
the boundary between Saxony and Bohemia. The valley now con- 
tracts and steep wooded hills rise on both sides of the river. — 
To the right is the long village of Niedergrund (S. and R.); farther 
on are (r.) Mittekirund (S.) and (1.) the Rosenkamm (p. 219). — 
Beyond the railway -bridge (r.) lies Oheryrund (R.; p. 211). In 
front of us is the Schaferwand (p 211), to the left the chateau of 

41 M. (1.) Tetschen (S. and R.), opposite which (r.) is Boden- 
bach (S. and R.; see p. 211). 

c. From Schandau to Bautzen. 

10 M. Eailway in 2V2 hrs. Views to the right. 

Stat. SchandaUy see p. 216. The train crosses the Elbe to 
(1^/4 M.) Wendisch-Fdhre (comp. p. 216), passes through a tunnel, 
and ascends the Sehnitz-Tal. 2^2 M- rorschdorf. Beyond (3''^/4M.) 
KohlmUhle (branch to Hohnstein, 8 M., see p. 215) the train quits 
the sandstone and enters a granite district. Two tunnels. 6 M. 
Ulbersdorf. The Sebnitz is crossed five times. Four tunnels. 

10 M. Sebnitz (1030 ft.; Sachsischei^ Hof, Stadt Dresden, 
R. 1 W^, D- 1\ 4 ^1 both good; Bail. Bestanrant), a manufactur- 
ing town with 9700 inhabitants. 

From Sebnitz via the Tanzplan and Wachberg to Hinter-Herms- 
DORF (SV'i-'i hrs. ; carr. 71/2 <^)- ■ — We follow the Kirch-Strasse from the 
S.E. angle of the market-place , then take the first turning- (guide-post) 
to the left, pass the church, and follow the Bergstrasse. About 100 paces 
farther on (guide-post), to the right; at the next fork (guide-post), to the 
left; then by the field-track (guide-posts) to the (25 min.) Grenadierburg 
(inn, with belvedere). Passing the Grenadierburg, we descend to (2 min.) 
a guide-post ('Tanzplan') indicating the path through fields. At the be- 
ginning of the wood, beyond a solitary farm-house, the path begins 
gradually to ascend. 20 min. Gruide-post to tlie (5 min.) Heilige Hallcu, 
a group of pines. From the guide-post a little farther on we follow the 
white-marked track to the (25 min.) *Tanzplan (1965 ft.), in the Thoman- 
wald. The view from the top (adm. to tower 10 h.) is one of the finest 
in the Saxon Switzerland (rustic inn). — From the inn a carriage-road 
to the left (guide-post), and then a footpath to the right descend (several 
guide-posts) to (1/4 hr.) the village of Thomasdorf (1595 ft.; Herzig, R. 
1 tS), on the frontier. We ascend the road to the left of the custom- 
house for less than V^M., then, at a guide-post, enter the Diebs-Strasse 

214 ^ouic 30. BA8TEI. .SV7.r0/1 

or 'Thieves" Eoad". to the right. lu 1/4 hr. more we pass a carriage-road 
(gnide-post) and immediately afterwards reach a footpath, leading to the 
right to the 'i/^ hr.) Wachberg or Schiccizey-krone {1635 it.), with a rustic 
inn (R. 11/4-134 t.€) and a view -tower. A path descends hence to the 
right to Saupsdorf (1175 ft.: Schweizerkronc), whence a road, generally 
de'stitute of shade, leads to (2^4 M.) Biuter-Hcnnsdorf (p. 219;. 

From Sebxitz to the Hochbusch (1 hr.). We follow the Hertigs- 
wald road to the Hertigswalder Mlihle. cross the stream to the right, 
and proceed in a straight direction at the fork. At the next choice we 
ascend to the right and then follow the 'Hufenweg' to the left to the 
summit of the Hochbusch (1410 ft.; inn; view-tower. 10 pf .) , whicli 
commands an extensive view. TVe may continue the walk via (3/^ hr.) 
Lichtcnhain to the (i/o hr.) Lichtenhain Waterfall (p. 217). 

Beyond Sebnitz the line reaches its highest point. 14 M. Ki^um- 

hermsclorf. The ruined castle of Stolpen is seen on the left. Several 

small stations. 31 M. Wilthen (branch to Ebersbach, p. 400). 

Beautiful view to the right. — 40 M. Bautzen (p. 399j. 

d. From "Wehlen to Schandau via the Bastei. 

From Wehlen to the Bastei , including a visit to the Uttewalder 
Grund, 2 hrs. From the Bastei to the Hockstein 1^/4 hr. ; thence to the 
Brand IV4 hr. ; thence to Schandau IV2 hr. 

At Pofzscha (p. 210) we quit the railway and cross the Elbe 
by ferry ('10 pf.i to the small town of Wehlen (405 ft.: Devtsches 
Fetch: Wehei\ R. IV 4-8 .JL well spoken of: Dampfschiffs-Hotel, 
Pv. 1^ 4-3. D. 1^2^; Elb-Terrasse : Sdchsische Schweiz). From 
the steamboat-quay (jd. 212) we ascend the Elbe to the right, then 
turn to the left and proceed to the market. Thence, passing the 
Stadt AVehlen Hotel, we ascend the path in the Wehlener Grand. 
Another route quits the market by the Post-Strasse, turns to the 
left opposite the Elb-Terrasse Inn, and ascends the paved 'Schloss- 
berg*, soon joining the other path. The valley forks 25 min. from 
^Vehlen. We keep to the right for the Zscherre-G-rund and the 

The path to the left leads to the * Uttewalder Grund, a fine 
rocky gorge (Restaurant Waldidylle ; path hence to Uttewalde , p. 209), 
usually explored from this point as far as the (1/4 hr.) FeUentor only. 

The route hence to the Bastei can hardly be mistaken. The broad 
path ascends through the Zscherre- Grund, a wild and narrow 
wooded ravine, bounded by lofty and grotesque rocks which are 
partly clothed with moss and fern. At the (20 min. i top of the hill 
a road (finger-post- is crossed, the Steinerne Tisch (rfmts.) passed, 
and the Bastei reached in 25 min. more. A rocky plateau, the 
Wehlstein, 50 paces to the left of the path, immediately before 
the Bastei is attained, commands a fine survey of the rocks of the 
AVehlener Grund. 

The *Bastei dOoOft. above the sea-level and about 615 ft. 
above the Elbe; Hotel on the summit, R. 2-4, D. 2 ^ 2-3^2 =^1 ad- 
mission to the tower 20 pf. 1, a rock with several peaks, rising pre- 
cipitously from the Elbe, is the finest point in Saxon Switzerland. 

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Switzerland. RATHEX. 30. Route. 215 

The view is magnificent and extensive, affording an admirable sur- 
vey of the wooded gorges and of the abrupt peaks resembling 
gigantic castles that surround us on all sides: to the N. Rathewalde 
and Hohnstein; E. the Brand, Rosenberg (in Bohemia), Kleine and 
Grosse Wiiiterberg, Zirkelsteine, and Kaiserkrone; S. the Papst- 
stein and Gohrischstein, in the foreground Lilienstein and Konig- 
stein; S.W. the Rauenstein and Biirenstein; far below the Elbe, 
visible from Wehlen to above Rathen. 

From the inn the traveller descends in 5 min. to the '^'Bastei- 
Briicke, a stone bridge of seven arches constructed in 1851, con- 
necting the rocky pinnacles that here rise from the valley. (To the 
left before the bridge is reached a path diverges to the Ferdinand- 
stein., which affords a good survey of the environs and of the bridge 
itself.) About ^4 hr. beyond the bridge the path emerges from the 
wood and divides. The branch to the left, skirting the wood, leads 
to the Amselgrund (see below); that in a straight direction leads to 
(10 min.) Rathen (380 ft.; Erbgericht, R. IV2-2V2, !>• 1% ^)^ 
a village on the Elbe with a ruined castle (restaurant), and a steam- 
boat and railway-station (the latter on the opposite bank; p. 210). 
The ascent of the Bastei from Rathen occupies about 1 hr., that of 
the Lilienstein (p. 210) 11/2 ^^' 

The above-mentioned path to the left, 1/4 hr. below the Bastei, 
ascends the Amselfjrund, passes a small waterfall, and leads in 
1 1 4 hr. to Rathewalde (960 ft. ; Rittei-'s Inn, R. 1-2 ^ ; Buttner's 
Restaurant). Just short of Ritter's Inn we cross the bridge to the 
right and follow the Hohnstein road to (V4M.) a circular group of 
trees (guide-post), where a road diverges to the right to Schandau. 
The first footpath on the left of this road leads in 1/4 hr. t^ the 
Hockstein (955 ft.), a rock rising abruptly 380 ft. above the green 
Polenzgrund and affording a fine view of the little town of Hohn- 
stein (1005 ft.; Weisser Hirsch; Siichsische Schweiz, R. 1-1 1/2 c^), 
on the opposite side of the valley, commanded by an old castle now 
used as a house of correction. — We then descend through the 
steep and narrow Wolfsschlucht to the (1^/4 hr.) Hotel- Restaur ant 
zum Folenztal (570 ft.), about 1 M. from Hohnstein. 

From Hohnstein (station 1/2 M. to the S.E. of the town; rail, restau- 
rant) a branch-railway runs to (8 M..) Kohlmiihle (p. 213). 

We now descend the Polenz-Tal for about 35 min. until we 
reach the Waltersdorfer Muhle (inn), whence we take a footpath 
to the left, crossing a bridge. We then ascend the hill to the right 
to the (25 min.) carriage-road on the top, which leads to the right 
in 3 min. more to the *Brand (1080 ft.; Inn, very fair), command- 
ing a magnificent view. From right to left (S. W. to S.E.) : Bastei, 
Barensteine, Konigstein, Lilienstein, etc., and to the extreme left 
the Grosse Winterberof. 

About 2 min. from the inn a footpath leads from the broad 

•216 Boute 30. 



path to tlie left to a singular group of rocks somewhat resembling 
corn-sacks. The main path. 2 min. farther on, enters a rocky gorge 
through which it descends to the (I/4 hr.) Hohenstein and Schandau 
road, which leads via the [^ ^ M.) Frinztalmilhle Inn and the (1 M.) 
Tiefe Grund Inn to to the (1 M.iElbe at Wendisch-Fcihre. a 
station on the railway from Schandau to Bautzen (p. 213) which 
crosses the Elbe here.' Above the bridge, on the left, is the Hotel 
WUhelmslwhe. 1\ 4 M. from Schandau. 

Schandau. — Hotels. *Sendig's Hotel' (Quisisaiia), 3 rain, above 
the steamboat-pier, on the Elbe, with shady gronnds. R. 3-6, B. IV4, D. 
(1.15 p.m.) 31/0. pens, from 7 J^ : '^Fojsthaus S Deiitsches Hans (PI. a), 
with garden on the Elbe, R. from 2. B. li^. D. 3. pens, from 7 JC; 
Kurhaiis S Park Hotel (p. 217), 
R. from 11/0, pens, from 5 ^4 : 
Elb-Hotel (PI. e), R. 2-5.^. very 
fair: Dampfschiff [Fl. bi. with 
garden on the Elbe: Goldener 
Engcl (PL c). R. l^'.-'^^'i ^' 
Sfadt Berlin (PI. d), pens. 5-7 JC : 

Sachsische Schiceiz (PI. f). good ^^ 

cuisine, R. 1V.2-3V> ^- these five 'Sr^^^- /^ .. J / 
on the Elbe: Lindenhof (PI. g . ji^- ^<y^%;>:; ^ /' 

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by the Stadtpark ; Schiceizerhof (PI. h). R. VJ^-'I^joJC, well spoken of. — 
Pexsioxs. Konigs-Villa, Villa Konigin Carola, Villa Luciaj Biissische 
Villa, all under the same management and with same charges as Sendig's 
Hotel (see above). — Restaurants at the hotels : also Wiinsclie, in the 
Bade-Allee; Schiitzenhaus . in the Kirnitzsch-Tal : Schloss-Bastei. on the 
Schlossberg. — Private apartment abundant. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL 3). Post-Strasse. — Guides, see p. 209. 

Visitors' Tax, 1 JC per week (first 5 days free). — Band in the 
Kur-Garten or the Stadt-Park. 

Carriages (fixed tariff; to or from the station, with two horses 2, 
one horse IV4 JC (double fares at night); with two horses, for 4 pers., 
per hr. 3, 1/2 day 10, whole day 18 JC ; to the Bastei 10. there and back 
1") .^; to the Bastei via the Hockstein 11 and 16; to the Papststein and 

+ Aiiscl-QiiB aai die Karte Hint e L-lieiMii s dorf- Dit ter sba c ilh 
gjnierheniisdgrf v^Hmterdi±ters"bach.MM™i™iMMi»3ir.,terdiit£rsbac'lL. • ■■■i^""""»i"i"^^"^"B^^^B™^B» 


Switzerland. KUH8TALL. 30. Uouic. 217 

back 9 JC. Two hours' halt included in each case. — MertUfs Brakes 
start twice weekly from the Kiich-Platz for excursions in the neigh])our- 
hood, S^l2-iJC each* person. — Electric Tramrcay from the Lindenhof Hotel 
to the waterfall (see below), every 18 min. in 85 niin. (fare H5 pf., return- 
ticket 1 JC). — Chair Portcra from the waterfall to the Kuhstall 3 JC, 
from the Kuhstall to the Kleiue Wiuterberg 1 JC, thence to the Grosse 
Winterberg 3 JC, to the Prebischtor 4 JC more, thence to Herrnskretschcn 
^ JC. — Horse or Mule from the Great Waterfall to the Kulistall 2 JC, 
Kleine Winterberg 2V2 «^, Grosse Winterberg 2 JC, Prebischtor 21/2 «^. 
Herrnskretschen Z Ji. — Railway, sec p. 211. — Steam Ferry to and 
from the station in connection with the trains, 10 pf. ; ferry to Klein- 
Hennersdorf, 10 pf. — Steamboat, sec p. 212. 

The small town of Schandau (395 ft.), with 3400 inhab., is 
prettily situated on the right bank of the Elbe, at the mouth of the 
Kir nit zsch- Bach . In the valley of the latter, 72^- above the town, 
is a KnrhauSj witli a chalybeate spring. Schandau is the central 
point of Saxon Switzerland, and is much frequented in summer. 

Walks (comp. Map, p. 314). In the Kirnitzsch-Tal , see below; to 
the Ostrauer Scheihe (820 ft.); to the Scliloss-Bastei, the Schillerhohe , 
and the Schilt^enhaus ; farther distant to the Carola-FelseM (1486 ft.; 
view-point), 2V4 iirs., and the Grosse Winterberg, IV4 hr. more; to the 
*Scfi7'animsteiti-Aussicht (1365 ft.), IVihr., and thence to (3/^ hr.) Schinilka 
(Miihle, R. IVr-'i ^), on the Elbe, 4 M. above Schandau; to the Wolfs- 
berg (1130 ft. ; inn), IV4 hr., and thence to the (IV4 hr.) Grosse (1840 ft.) 
and to (^/4 hr.) the Kleine Zschirnstein. 

A very pleasant excursion may be made, past Klein-Hennersdorf, 
to (IV4 hr.) the top of the *Papststein (1475 ft. ; small inn at the top). 
The view embraces the entire district of Saxon Switzerland. The most 
conspicuous points are: N.W. the Liliensteiu and Konigstein, E. the 
Grosse Winterberg and the peaked Kleis, S.E. the basaltic Rosenberg, 
S. the Hohe Schneeberg. A mere speck only of the Elbe is visible at 
Schandau. — From the Papststein a good path leads to the N.W. via 
GokriscJi (Sennerhiltte ; Erholung) to Konigstein in IV4 hr. (in the reverse 
direction IV2 hr.). 

e. From Schandau via the Prebischtor and the 

Edmundsklamm to Herrnskretschen. 

From Schandau to the Lichtenhain Waterfall by tramw^ay (see above), 
35 minutes. Thence on foot to the Kuhstall 1/2 hr. ; the Grosse Winterberg, 
VJi hr. ; the Prebischtor, 1 hr., and Rainwiese IV2 hr. From Rainwiese 
via the Wilde Klamm and the Edmundsklamm to Herrnskretschen, 21/2 hrs. 

The Kirnitzsch Valley is ascended by a good road from Schan- 
dau, passing the Schutzenhaus, the Ostrauer Muhle (restaurant), 
and the HeideinUhle (restaurant), to the Little Waterfall (restau- 
rant) and the (41/2 M.) Great or Lichtenhain Waterfall (inn). The 
footpath quits the road 50 paces beyond tlie waterfall (guide-post) to 
the right, crosses the Kirnitzsch, and ascends in ^j^ hr. to the — 

Kuhstall (1100 ft.; Inn^ R. 1 1/2-21/2 ^;^), an archway of rock, 
20 ft. in height, commanding in one direction a view of the Habichts- 
grund, a profound wooded ravine, enclosed by sandstone rocks. It 
was probably once employed as a refuge for cattle in time of war, 
and has thence derived its name ('cow-stable'). The summit is at- 
tained ])y 96 steps through a narrow cleft in the rocks. 

218 lioutc 30. HERRXSKRETSCHEX. ^axou 

The path descends .to the left, immediately before the entrance 
to the Kuhstallt through a narrow gorge to the Hahichtsgrund. 
It descends straight on a little farther, then ascends gradually and 
finally in zigzags to (^ ^ hr. > the so-called Plateau (pretty viewi at 
the base of the basaltic Kleine Winterherg (1640 ft. i, on the top of 
which is a small pavilion. -- AVe follow the slope of the Kleine 
Wiiiterberg (avoiding paths diverging to the right), and in about 
1 lir. reach the summit of the — 

^Grosse Winterberg l.si4 ft.: Inn, R. 2-4, B. 1 , D. 3, 
pens. 6-8 «^^), a basaltic ridge, ^ ^, M. long. The tower (82 ft. in 
height: adm. 10 pf.} commands a picturesque and extensive view, 
embracing tbe Saxon, Bohemian, and even the Silesian Mts. 

The path to the Prebischtor f 1 hr. to the S.E.) leads from the 
inn on the Winterberg to the left through the wood. At the (10 min.) 
point where a path leads to the left to the (1^ g ^^'•) Zeughaus 
(p. 219;, our path keeps to the right, and after ('6 min.) descends 
to the right again. The ^Prebischtor 1 1435 ft. : Hotel & Restau- 
rant, R. 3. B. 1^ ^K.K a rockv arch of far more imposing dimen- 
sions than the Kuhstall .66-100 ft. wide: roof 48 ft. long, 10 ft. 
thick), is in Bohemian territory. The top, which may be ascended 
by steps hewn in the rock /adm. 20 h.\. commands a striking view 
of the wild environs. 

Descent to Herrnskretscheu . IV4 hr. A good zigzag path descends 
between huge walls of rock to the (20-25 min.) Herrnskretschen and 
Dittersbach road, where a carriage niav usually be found (to Herrns- 
kretschen. 2 c^;, in the Biela-Tal. The Biela flows into the Kamnit',. 
which joins the Elbe at Herrnskretschen. 

From the Prebischtor to Herrnskretschen vil the Wilde 
Klamm. 4 hrs. AVe descend from the hotel to the left and in 6 min. 
turn to the left again and follow the winding Gahrielensteig (guide- 
posts; ^iews) to the (IV ^hr.) Hotel-Pension of Rainwiese (p. 221; 
R. 21 2r B. 1, D. 3. pens. 6-7^0 /i.-, on the Herrnskretschen and 
Dittersbach road. Beyond the village of Stimmersdorf (20 min. 
to the S.W.) we descend a steep path into the "Edmundsklaiiini, 
the remarkable rocky gorge of the Kamnitz i^adm. 40 pf. or 40 h.<. 
and 10 min. below the bridge reach the small Edmundsklamm 
Inn. — A slightly longer but interesting route leads through the 
* Wilde Klamm, the E. continuation of the Edmundsklamm, 
the upper entrance of which is reached from the Rainwiese Hotel 
in 1 ^ hr. ladm. to both gorges 80 pf. or 80 A., including boat; 
return-fare 1 -^^ 20 pf.i. AVe descend (partly by boat) in ^ 4lir. to 
the Edmundsklamm Inn fsee abovei. whence the lower end of the 
gorge and Herrnskretschen '^ ^ M. from the Elbe- are reached (partly 
by boat; in ^ \ hr. 

Herrnskretschen -410 ft.: Herrenhaus, R. 1^4-4 cT^; 
HttscheVs. R. P ^-2 -.// .• Schweizerhaus, Grilner Bauin. Schlogel, 
in the Kamnitz valley >, a pretty Bohemian village on the Elbe 

^v:Hzerlaml. HIKTER-HERMSBORF. ^'0. BontP. 219 

(700 inliab.). On the opposite bank is stat. Schona (steam -ferry, 
10 pf. or 10 A.), see p. 211. — Steamboat to Tetschen and Dresden^ 
see p. 213. Omnibus thrice daily to Rainwiese (S. 218) in 1 hr. 
(1 ^k or 1 K. 20 A.). Small boat to Schandau (in 1^4 hr.) 6 ^. 
Road to Dittersbach, see p. 221. 

A path descends the left bank of the Kaninitz and then skirts the 
Kibe, passing- the Durrkamnitz Mill at the entrance to the Dilrrkamnitz 
Grundy and then following- the slope to {I'^j^-Vj^^w.) the Belvedere (inn) 
at Elbleiten. Thence the 'Allee' leads straight to the S.E. to (1 hr.) Bina- 
dorf, whence we proceed to the S.W, viTi the Binsdorfer Tlohc (U7 ft.; 
adm. to tower 20/?.) and the Roseukamm to (li/., hr.) Tetschen (p. 213). 

The visit to the Edmundsklamm (p. 218) from Herrnskretschen may 
be combined with the ascent of the *±losenberg (2035 ft.; inn; adni. 
to tower 30 7?.). This trip takes about 4 hrs. 

Good walkers may take a very interesting trip of about 3 days by 
following the ridge from the Rosenberg to the Jeschken (44 M. ; signs 
marked by a blue comb on a white field). The nights are spent at 
Sell on f eld' Rnd at KnrJiaus Lilckendorf. For the Jearhken, see Baedeker's 

f. From Schandau to Dittersbach via Hinter-Hermsdorf. 

From Schandau to the Lichtenhain Waterfall by electric tramway 
(p. 217), 35 minutes. Thence on foot to Hinter-Hermsdorf, 2V2 hrs. Thence 
to Hinter-Dittersbach via the Obere Schleuse, 3 hrs., and on to Dittersbach 
via the Dittersbach Felsen, 31/2 hrs. — Carriage-and-pair from xSchandau to 
Hinter-Hermsdorf 12, to Dittersbach 20 JC; there and back 16 and 22 JC. 

The road at first ascends the Kirnitzsch valley (p. 217) via 
(41/2 M.) the Lichtenhain Waterfall (p. 217) and (71/0 M.) Neu- 
mannsmilhle at the mouth of the 'Grosse Zschand', 

A pleasant path leads through the Grosse Zschand to (IV4 M.) the 
lonely forester's house known as the Zeughaus (rustic inn). Paths (guide- 
posts) lead hence to the S. through the Webers-Schluchte to the (V/.^ hr.) 
Prebischtor (p. 218); to the S.W. (Rosssteig and G-oldsteig) to the (13/^ hr.) 
G-rosse Winterberg; and to the X.W. (Zeughaus- Strasse) between the 
nintere Rauhschloss (left) and the Lorenzsteine (right) to the Kirnitzsch- 
Tal and Schandau. 

A little farther on we pass the Buschmilhle (restaurant) and 
skirt the base of the Arnstein. Beyond the kilometre-stone 13.1, 
the road forks. We may either follow the main road to (11 M. from 
Schandau) Hinter-Hermsdorf, or turn to the right, follow the Kir- 
nitzsch valley to (2 M.) the Untere Schleuse^ and then ascend to 
the left to {2 1si.) — 

Hinter-Hermsdorf. — Zum Erbgekicht, R. & B. i^/o «^.* Zur 
HoFFNUNG, plain. — Restaurant zur SdcTisischen Schweiz. — Carriage 
to Schandau, with two horses 10, with one horse 6 t^, to Sebnitz (sec 
p. 213), 5 t^. — Omnibus to Sebnitz twice daily (1 JC). — Guide to 
(3 hrs.) Hinter-Dittersbach via the Obere Schleuse 21/2 tS. 

The large village of Hinter-Hermsdorf (1260 ft.), situated in 
a wide valley, and frequented as a summer-resort, is an excellent 
centre for excursions in the ^Hintere^ Saxon Switzerland. 

About ^/o M. to the S. of Hinter-Hermsdorf, on the road to 
Hinter-r)itters]).tch. at the beginning of the wood, we reach a deer- 

2-20 Bonte 30. HIXTEH-BITTERSBACH. Saxm 

fence, immediately beyond wliich, to the left, a broad carriage-i'oad. 
known as the 'Hohweg' (red arrow), ascends to the left. In 8 min. 
the 'Hohweg' forks, the path in a straight direction leading to the 
(25 min.^i boat-landing on the Obere Schlense (see below), while 
that to the right ' preferable; ascends to '13 min.) the Koings-Platz 
(1420 ft.!, a fine point of view on a steep cliff. AVe now retrace onr 
steps for 2 min. and then descend to the right to the Tunnel,, a short 
rocky archway, beyond which the path leads throngh tall trees. 
Crossing an open space in the wood ainmerous guide-postsi, we now 
descend to the Holl. a wooded rocky basin, whence a carriage-road 
(guide-post) leads to the right to Hinter-Dittersbach. A gentle 
ascent to the left brings ns in 20 min. to the Hohweg (see above), 
whence the footpath (gnide-posti to the Obere Schlense leads to the 
left. In less than ^ o ^^- we reach the Boat Station (shelter -hut 
with rustic rfmts.\ 

The *Obere Schleuse Upper Sluice: 810 ft.) is a dam or 
sluice on the Kirnitzsch, constructed for the benefit of the timber- 
rafts. The water is let oft' in spring and autumn. A boat may be 
hired for a pleasant row on the picturesque sheet of water (usually 
not before the end of May; one pers. 60, two or more, each 30 pf.). 
Landing beside the sluice on the right bank of the stream, which 
here forms the boundary between Saxony and Bohemia, we ascend 
the steps to the right to the path above. After about ^ ^ M. a path 
(guide-post) ascends to the right to the Hermannseck, a rocky 
projection, on which is the 'Schlegel-Hutte' (view). We may then 
either retrace our steps, or descend the somewhat difficult steps 
in the rocky fissure near the hut, to the path we quitted. We now 
follow the course of the Kirnitzsch. high above the stream, but in 
8 min. we descend to its bank by a flight of steps near a bench, 
and continue to skirt it. (The bridge to the left leads to the foot- 
path to Schonlinde, TV., M.) In 10 min. more we descend the steps 
and cross the bridge to the bank, but in 5 min. return to the right 
bank. A path with steps immediately to the right of this point 
(guide-post) leads to the TVolfs-Schlucht (there and back 5 min.: 
attractive), a narrow ravine with huge boulders. We continue to 
skirt the Kirnitzsch and finally cross the stream to (35 min.) — 

Hinter-Dittersbach (810 ft.: Kirnitzsch-Schenke : Hirsch : 
Hegerhaus, all rustici. a hamlet inhabited mainly by foresters in 
the service of Prince Clary or Prince Kinsky, whose estates meet 
here. [Those who have driven to Hinter-Hermsdorf and desire to 
return to Schandau, should order the carriage to meet them here.] 

The direct road to DitfersbacJi (6 M.) leads through a wooded valley, 
witli lofty sides. 

To DiTTERSBACH vifi the ^Dittershacher Felsen. 3^0 ^^^' ("^ 
inns). After about 2 M. a road (guide-post) leads to the left from 
the direct road into a narrower vallev. About 12 min. farther on 

^idt::erland. BITTERSBACH. ^f>' ^oute. 221 

we turn to tlio right (guide-post 'Dittersbach ;; in 20 niin. more 
(guide-post marked 'Rudolfstein') we ascend to the left, reaching 
the *Rudolfstein (1590 ft. ; shelter-hut), an isolated rock com- 
manding a tine view, in yet anotlier 20 minutes. 

In descending, we take the lirst (level) path to the left and in 8 min. 
turn to the right (guide-post, 'Wilhelminenwand-Dittersbach'). [The 
path in a straight direction leads to (18 min.) the Bahhiltte (rfmts).] 
We then skirt the clearing ('Schneise'), cross a broader track, and 
proceed straight on tlirough a deer-fence, to the (20-25 miii.) 
"Wilhelmiixenwand (1410 ft.), a projecting cliff, with view. 
Thence we return in 4 min. to a guide-post ('Balzer's Lager, Marien- 
fels, Dittersbach') and descend the steps to the right to (7 min.) 
Baher^s Lager, a rock-grotto (rfmts. on Sun.). The path (guide- 
post) descending hence to the right brings us in 10 min. to the foot 
of the *Marienfelsen (1380 ft.), a sharp-pointed rock, ascended 
by means of steps (view). — On redescending the steps, we follow 
the rather steep path to the right, which leads direct to (20 min.) — 

Dittersbach (Bellevue- MicheVs Inv, R, 1^4, D. 1^/4-2, pens. 
4-5 t^, well spoken of; Kronprinz Rudolf\ R. 1 K. 60 h., B. X^:^ 
2 K.)^ the central point of the 'Bohemian Switzerland'. To the 
N.E. of the wide valley in which it lies rise the peaks of Rahen- 
stein, Falkensteiv (^/g l^i'-5 niined castle on the top), Maiiertfehen 
(see above), etc. 

From Dittersbac'li via Kunnersdoff (Felseiikeller) to Bohmisch-Kani' 
nitz , 8 M., carriage in l^/^ hr., 10 K. ; also diligence. Short-cuts for 

From Dittersbach to Kreibitz, 31/2 hrs., via (IV4 M.) Renneradorf 
(Bohmische Schwciz). — Kreibitz (Stern) lies 2V2 M. (diligence 50 Ti.) from 
the station Kreibitz-Teichstatt (p. 400). 

From Dittersbach to Herrnskretsohex, 8 M. (carr. and pair 
in 2 hrs., 10 A".; also diligence). The road leads first to (2 M.) 
Hahenleipe (Richter's Inni, about 1^/2 M. from the "Wilde Klamm 
(p. 218). About 21/2 M. farther on we reach Rainwiese (p. 218), 
whence a road to the Zeughaus (p. 219), a footpath to (1 hr.) Hinter- 
Dittersbach (p. 220), and the Gabrielensteig to the Prebischtor 
(p. 218) all diverge to the right, and a road to S.timmersdorf 
(Edmundsklamm; p. 218) to the left. Thence we descend the valley 
of tiie Biela to I'H M.) Herrnskretschen (p. 218). 

31. From Dresden to Reichenbach via 
Chemnitz and Zwickau. 

931/2 M. Railway in 3-6 lirs. (fares 12 ,,fC 30, 7 ^H 30, i ^fC 70 pf. ; 
express fares 11 JC 30, 9 .4^ 30, 5 c^ 70 pf.). 

Dresden (Central Station), see p. 175. — At (2^/2 M.) Plauen 
(tramway, see p. 177), where there arc extensive breweries, begins 

-2*22 Isolde SI. FREIBERfT. From Bresiden 

the Plauensche Grund. a picturesque and rocky part of the valley 
of the Weisseritz, l^ ^ M. in length, disfigured by factories. The 
train crosses the stream several times. On a hill to the right rises 
the chateau of Begerhurg ( V^ hr. from stat. Plauen). 

At (41 2 ^•) Potschappel a branch diverges to Xossen (24 M.; 
p. 235). — From '7 M.. Hainsherg a branch-line runs to (22^ ., M.i 
Kipsdorf /p . 227, 

81 .> M. Tharandt 685 ft.: Stadthad-HoteL R. 2-5, D. 1^ ^-3, 
pens. 5-10 -JC : Albert-Salon : Burgkeller Restaurant}, with 3000 
inhab.. romantically situated at the junction of the valley of the 
Schloitzbach and the Wilde Weisseritz. On a rocky eminence rise 
the ruins of an ancient castle (840 ft. ; view). The Forst-Akademie, 
founded in 1816. an institution for the education of foresters, en- 
joys a high reputation. Pleasant walks and beautiful woods in the 

11 M. Edle Krone ^920 ft.), a pleasure-resort. Tunnel. AVe 
now quit the valley of the Weisseritz, and ascend the picturesque, 
wooded Seerenhach-Tal to '16 ^L) Klingenherg-Colrnnitz (1^2b ft.-. 

FromKlingenberg--Colmiiitz a branch-railway runs to(12i oMOFrauen- 
stein (2170 ft. ; Goldeuer Loivc), au old town (1300 inhab.} with a chateau 
fadm. 30 pf.) and an ancient castle. 

To the right, below •22i ^I. Mtddenhiitten. is the Muldener 
Hiitte. an extensive government-foundry. The Freiherger Mulde 
is then crossed. Xumerous mines and foundries. 

25 M. Freiberg. — Hotels. Hotel de Saxe (PI. a; C, 4), R. 
21/2-3^0. B. 1. D. 1^ i-2io .4'; Karsch (PI. f: C. 6). R. Is/^-S, D. IV2-2 ^: 
Boter Hirsch (PL b; C . 4 .• Schwarzes Ross (PI. e; B, 4): Goldener 
Stern (PI. c: C. 3): Kronprinz (PI. d; C. 5). R. 2-21/2, D- IV4 ^- — 
Restauraxts. Geirerhehai'.s (PI. C. 3}; Bat skelter : Oberhof\ Peters-Str. 
(PI. B. 4. 3 : Brauhof. with garden: Bail. Bestaurant. 

Electric Tramway from" the rail, station (PI. C. 6) to the Unterc 
Kreuzteich PI. A. 2, and the Meissner Tor (PI. D. 1). 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL C, 4}, Post-Platz. 

Freiberg (1355 ft.), a mining town founded in 1170 on the dis- 
covery of the silver mines, is the centre of the Saxon mining district 
and the seat of a Mining Academy, established in 1765. Pop. 30,800. 
A well-kept promenade surrounds the inner town (see p. 223). 

The Rote Weg, to the left from the station (PI. C, 6;, leads to 
the Post-Platz (PI. C, 4;i, with a bronze Statue of Bisrnarcky by 
Albermann < 1895 *. The Erbische-Str. leads hence to the Obermarkt 
(V\. B. 3'. with the handsome Rathaus on the E. side, a late-Gothic 
building of 1410-16, altered in the Renaissance style, and the 
Kaufhaus. with a portal of 1545, on the IN". The spot where Kunz 
von Kaufungen (p. 257) was executed in 1455, opposite the Rathaus, 
is marked by a stone with a cross: the stone head above the oriel 
of the Rathaus is said to be a portrait of the robber. — Adjacent 
is the Mimag Academy (PL B, 2, 3: 400 students), with mineral- 
ogical and other collections AVed. «S: Sat.. 11-12: 1-5 pers. 2 ^\ 

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to Reichenbach. FRElBERGr. 31. Route. 223 

The Burg-Str., running to the N.W. from the Rathaus, and then 
the Kirchgasse to the right, lead to the *Cathedral(P1.C,2), a late- 
Grothic edifice erected on the site of a Romanesque church which was 
burned down in 1484. The cloisters on the S. side wore completed 
in 1509 (restored in 1890); the choir was added in 1585-94 by an 
Italian architect named Nosseni. A beautiful relic of the earlier 
church, dating from the 12th cent., is the S. Portal, or "^Goldene 
Pforte, the rich sculptures of which probably date from the be- 
ginning of the 13th cent, and rank amongst the best works of the 
mediaeval period in Germany. The porch is now protected by a mod- 
ern addition (1903), but is accessible from 8 to 6 (in winter 10-4). 

The sculptures represent the Kingdom of God revealed to man by- 
Christ. Below are eight statues of representatives of the Old Testament 
and autetypes of Christ: to the left Daniel, the Queen of Sheba, Solo- 
mon, and John the Baptist; to the right Aaron, the Church, David, and 
St. John the Evangelist. Above, in the central field, are the Virgin and 
Child, to the left the Adoration of the Magi, to the right the angel 
Gabriel and St. Joseph; in the first arch. Coronation or the Virgin, 
with Christ and four angels, in the second and third arches, Abraham 
receiving the souls of the blessed and the Holy Ghost (represented by 
a dove) with Apostles and the Evangelists ; in the fourth arch, the Angel 
of Judgment and the Resurrection of the Dead. 

Interior (sacristan, Untermarkt 1 ; adm. 50, 2 pers. 60, 3 pers. 75 pf.). 
The old late -Gothic Pulpit (ca. 1500) is in the form of the stalk and 
calyx of a flower, with steps borne by the figures of the master and his 
assistants. The pulpit now used dates from 1638. The powerful Organ 
was built in 1711, by Silbermann, a native of Freiberg. Behind the 
high -altar is the Kurfursten- Griift (1594), in which repose forty -one 
Protestant princes of Saxony, from Duke Henry the Pious (d. 1541) to 
Elector George IV. (d. 1694). The gilded bronze statues are by Italian 
sculptors. Fine tombstones in the pavement. The finest monument is 
that of the Elector Maurice (d. 1553 at the battle of Sievershausen) in 
the Renaissance style of the 16th cent., a sarcophagus of several rare 
kinds of marble, with a kneeling statue of the prince, and richly sculp- 
tured, designed by Italian masters and executed by Ant. van Zerum of 
Antwerp in 1563. Beside it is the suit of armour worn by the Elector 
at the time of his death. 

Facing the cathedral on the N. is the old Canonry (ca. 1480), 
now containing the King Albert Museum, with its interesting 
collection of antiquities (open' 8-5, 1 t/^, 2-4 pers. 1 1^ 20 pf. ; free 
on Sun., 10.30-1, and Wed., 2-4; catalogue 30 pf.). 

A walk (3/4 hr.) round the Ring-Proiiienade is interesting. The 
Donats-Turm (PL D, 3), to the N.E. of the Post-Platz, is the most 
important part remaining of the old fortifications. Schloss Freuden- 
stein (PL B, 2), dating from the 12th cent., but entirely rebuilt in 
1577, is now a magazine. Near it is a bronze bust of Werner 
(d. 1817), the mineralogist, by RietscheL At tlie W. end of the 
Peters-Str. rises the Schweden- Denkmal (PL A, B, 4), a Gothic 
monument erected in 1844 to commemorate the brave defence of 
the town against the Swedes in 1643. 

Most of the mines in the neighbourhood of Freiberg belong to the 
state, but their importance has declined with the price of silver and they 
are being gradually abandoned. One of the most easily inspected is the 

Baedeker's N". Germany, loth Edit. 15 

224 P^^'i^^c 31. CHE:MNITZ. Front Dresden 

Gruhe Himnielfahrt of the Abraham-Schacht (beyond PI. D, 2, 3), to the E. 
of the town, a visit to which takes 2-3 hrs. (open 7-11; adm. 2 JC, incl. 
use of mining costume). The processes of smelting the ore, etc., are most 
conveniently seen in the Muldener Hiitte, which contains the Royal Mint 
(apply at the office: 1 pers. 1 t^, 2 or more pers. 50 pf. each). 
From Freiberg to Biesa, see p. 333; to BriLc. see p. 228. 

Beyoud (35 M.) Oederan tlie chateau of Augustiisburg (p. 229) 
is seen on a lofty hill to the left. The line enters the attractive 
valley of the FWia, and follows it to its influx into the Zsehopau, 
crossing the stream near Hetzdorf. — 42 M. Floha (910 ft.), a 
pretty village in the Zsehopau -Tal. Branch-lines to Reitzenhain 
and to Annaberg i^both for Komotaui, see pp. 228, 229. — From 
(44 X.) Nieder-Wiesa a branch diverges to Rosswein (p. 235). 

50 M. Chemnitz. — Hotels. Near the Station: *Carola (PI. a; 
D, 3), with restaurant (D. 1V-, JC); *Burg Wetttn (PI. b; D, 3), R. 2-5, 
D. IV2-3 JC; Bahnhofs-Hotel (PI.' d ; D, 2, 3). — In the Town: *Stadt 
Gotha (PI. n; D. 3). R. 2V2-6, D. 21/2-31/2 JC; Central (PI. i; D, 3), R. 2-3. 

D. 11/2 JC: Monopol (PL 0: D, 3), R. 21/2-5, D. 2-3 JC; Roter Hirsch 
(PI. k; D. -4); Victoria (PI. 1; D, 3, 4). 

Restaurants. Romischcr Kaiser, Markt 14; Deutscher Kaiser (D. 
1^1 i JC), Moritzhurg . Theater-Str. ; Kaisersaal, Erich. Lange-Str. ; Zum 
Prdlaten. Kloster-Str. ; Harten stein's Wine Booms. Bretgasse 2; Unger, 
Innere Kloster-Str.; Bail. Bestaurant : Automatic Bestaurants, in Stadt 
Gotha Hotel (see above), in the Xeustadter Markt, etc. — Cafes. Theater- 
Cafe; Wiener Cafe, Johannis-Str. ; BeichsTcanzler, Konig-Strasse. 

Taxtmetek Cabs. For 1-2 pers.. 1000 metres 70 pf., each 500 m. more 
10 pf. ; 3-4 pers., 750m. & 375m.; 1-4 pers., at night (10-7), 500m. & 250m. 
Luggage 25 pf. per 221/2-55 lbs. 

Electric Tramways. From the Central Station (PI. D, 2, 3) to the 
Nicolai Station (PI. C, 4). — From the Theater-Blatz (PI. C, 3) to Hilbers- 
dorf (PI. F, 1). — From Alt- Chemnitz (bev. PI. C, 5) to Furth (bey. 
PI. D, 1). — From Schonau (bev. PI. A, 5^ to the Barracks (PI. a, 2). — 
From Altendorf (PI. A, 3) to Xhi Cemetery (PI. E, 5). — From the Nicolai- 
BrUcke (PL C. 4) to Gablens (PL E, 3, 4), and to Beichenhrand (bey. 
PL A, 5). — From Borna (bev. PL B, 1) to the New Cemetery (bey. PL 

E, 5). — From the Theater- St rasse (PL C, 3) to West-Strasse (PL B, C, 3). 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL 11 ; C, D, 4), Post-Strasse. 

Theatres. Stadt-Theater (PL 16: D. 3), in winter; Central Theatre 
(PL C, 4). plays in summer, vaudeville in winter; Thalia Theatre (PL 
B, C, 4). in summer. — Open Air Concerts in the Schlossgarten (p. 225), 
the Kaufmdunische Verein (PL 6}. and the Colosseum (PL A, 5). — Baths 
at the Hedwighad, Hedwig-Str. (PL C. 3), with swimming-pool. 

U. S. C OS suL., Thos. H. Norton, Esq.; vice-consul, Wm. W. Bruns- 
wick, Esq. 

Chemnitz (1000 ft.: pronounced Kemnitz), the third town of 
Saxony and one of the most important manufacturing places in 
Germany, with 269 000 inhab., lies in a fertile plain at the base 
of the Erzo-ebiro^e. It was orio-inallv a settlement of the ancient 
Wends, and became celebrated at an early period for its linen 
manufactories and bleaching -grounds. The staple products are 
stockings, gloves, woven goods, and machinery, which are manu- 
factured on a large scale both in the town itself and in the neigh- 
bourhood. Large quantities of Chemnitz manufactures are exported 
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to Reichenbach. ZWICKAU. 31. Route. 225 

• The late-Gothic Old Rathaus (PL 12 ; 1496) in the Hauptmarkt 
(PI. C, 3) possesses a lofty tower. To the E. of it is the New Rat- 
haus^ by MObius. Opposite, to the S., stands a bronze Monwnent 
of Emp. William I., supported by statues of Bismarck (left) and 
Moltke (right), by Ruemann and Hahn (1899). Near it is aS'^. James's 
Church (PI. C, 3), of the 15th century. In the Schiller-Platz (P1.D,2) 
are the Gothic Church of St Peter (PI. D, 3; 1888) and the Tech- 
nical Schools (PL 17). Between the church and the Schiller-Str. 
are four groups of the Periods of the Day, in gilded sandstone, by 
Schilling (brought from Dresden). On the S. the Schiller-Platz is 
adjoined by the Neustadter-Markt, with the King Albert Museum 
(PL 7, D 3; entr. on the N. side), containing pictures and collec- 
tions of industrial art, antiquities, and natural history. To the W. 
is the new Town Theatre (PL 16). In the Kassberg are the Law 
Courts (PL C, 3) and the Synagogue (1899; PL C, 4). — To the 
E. of the Central Station is a bronze Statue of Korner, by Epler 
(1901). — The Stadt'Park (PL B, 5), to the S.W., contains a 
Sanatorium (PL 19; pens. 5-1372 -^)- — The Schloss (PL C, 2), to 
the N.W. of the town, once a Benedictine abbey, is now a pleasure- 
resort (view from the terrace). The Schloss-Kirche, founded in 
1136 and rebuilt in a late-Gothic style in 1514-25, has a fine portal 
with sculptures of 1525 and contains a painted wooden group of 
the Scourging of Christ (16th cent.). The Schloss - Teich is sur- 
rounded by pleasant grounds (restaurant). 

From Chemnitz to Doheln and Riesa, see p. 233; to Komotau , see 
p. 229; *to Adorf , see p. 231. — • Another line runs from Chemnitz to 
(28V2 ^0 Rosswein (p. 235) via Frankenberg (13,300 inhab. ; Zum Ross). 

From Chemnitz to Leipzig via Lausigk, 50 M., in lVi-3 hrs. (express 
fares 7 ^ 70 pf., 5 c^, 3 c^ 10 pf.). 7 M. Wittgensdorf. 14 M. Cossen lies 
in the valley of the Zwickauer Mulde, which is here crossed by the im- 
posing Gohrener Railway Viaduct, 500 yds. long, 220 ft. high (excursion 
from Cossen down the Mulde Valley to Rochlitz, see p. 236). 191/2 M. 
Narsdorf, the junction for Penig (p. 236); a local line runs hence to 
Altenburg (p. 257). 221/2 M. Geithain (pop. 3900); 29 M. Lausigk, with 
3700 inhab. ; 45 M. Liebertwolkwitz, where the battle of Leipzig (p. 246) 
began. — Another line from Chemnitz to Leipzig runs via Greithain, 
Borna, and Kieritzsch (p. 257). 

70 M. Glauehau (800 ft. ; Stadt Hamburg ; Deutsches Haus)^ 
a manufacturing town (24,600 inhab.), with two chateaux of the 
counts of Schonburg, lies on the Mulde. 

From Gtlauchau to Gossnitz, 10 M., railway in 1/2 hr. — 7 M. Meerane 
(Hdrtel), an industrial town with 25,000 inhabitants. 10 M. G6ssnitz(^. 258). 

Beyond Glauehau the train crosses the Mulde by a long bridge. 

80 M. Zwickau. — Hotels. Kdstner, R. 2-4, D. 2-3 JC; Wagner, 
R. from 2 JC, both good, near the station; Gi^ilne Tanne; Weintraube; 
Goldener Adler. — Restaurants. Penzler, Moritzgraben-Weg ; Weihen- 
stephan, Schloss-Str. ; Schwanenschloss. — Cafe C'arola, Moritzgraben- 
Weg 1. 

Electric Tramway from the station to the town. — Cab from the 
station 1/2, ^U, 1, or I1/4 tS for 1, 2, 3, or 4 pars. ; double fare at night 
(10-6; in winter, 9-7). — Post & Telegraph Office, Albcrt-Platz. 

226 ^oute 32. THE ERZGEBIRGE. 

Zwickau (930 ft.\ an old manufacturing town with 68,500 in- 
hab.. is situated on the Mulde. 

The -^Church of St. Mary, the best example of late-Gothic 
architecture in Saxony, was built in 1465-1506, and was thoroughly 
restored in 1885-91. Xave, aisles, and choir are all covered with 
flat groined vaulting. 

IxTERioK. High-altar in carved wood, with eight paintings by Mich. 
Wolilgemut, executed in 1479. To the left, similar carving, dating from 
1507 : to the right, highly interesting Pieta in painted wood-carving by 
an unknown Saxon master (early 16th cent.). Handsome choir-stalls. Fine 
view from the tower (227 ft.). The sacristan lives opposite the W. tower. 

The Church of St. Catharine (of the 14th and 16th cent.) con- 
tains an altar-piece of the early 16th century. Thomas Miinzer 
(p. 306) "was pastor here in 1520-22. To the N.W. is the chateau 
of Ostersteiuj built in 1590, now a penitentiary. — In the Haupt- 
Markt are the Rathaus (15th cent.; spoiled later), the late-Gothic 
Geicanclhaus (now a theatre) of 1522-24, and a statue of the com- 
poser i?oZ)erf ^Sc/i^/wa/^/z (1810-1856), near the house (Xo. 5) in 
which he was born. The Gymnasium^ mentioned as early as the 
15th cent., contains the Public Library. In the Kaiser-Wilhelm- 
Platz is a Statue of Bismarck^ by Drischler. To the X. of the rail, 
station is the Luther-Kirche (1906), with an altar-piece by Uhde. 

The environs are well-peopled. The important coal-mines of 
this district employ upwards of 11,000 hands. 

From Zwickau to Oelsnitz (p. 259), 37 M., railway in 2 hrs. ; to 
Werdau, see p. 258; to Johaftngeorgenstadt, p. 231. 

At (89 M.) Neumark we join the line from Leipzig to Reichen- 
bach and Hof (p. 258). 

32. The Erzgebirge. 

The Erzgebirge, or Ore Mountains, a range about 90 M. in length 
and 25 M. in breadth, extends from X.E. to S.W., between Saxony and 
Bohemia. On the X. side , which is densely wooded with coniferous 
trees, the slope is gradual, but the S. side descends abruptly towards the 
valley of the Eger. The water-shed (average elevation 2480 ft.) is almost 
entirely in Bohemia , to which the Keilberg or Sonnenwirhel (4080 ft.), 
the highest summit, also belongs. The name is derived form the former 
rich deposits of silver and other ores , but mining has much declined. 
Many of the mountain-villages are frequented as summer-resorts. 

The IxNS are primitive, but prices are low. — Gtuides (unnecessary), 
4 JC per day. — Carriages may be obtained almost everywhere : one- 
horse 8-12 JC per day, two-horse' 12-18 JC. 

Plan. The Eastern Erzgebirge. including Teplitz, may be explored 
from Dresden in 3 days (comp. p. 227). — A three-days' excursion from 
Chemnitz may be arranged as follows. 1st Day. By rail via Zwonitz 
(p. 231) to Griiyihain (p." 231), and thence on foot via the Spiegelioald 
(p. 231) to Schicarzenherg (p. 231); or by rail to Aue (p. 231) and on 
foot via the Morgenleite (p. 231) to Schwarzenberg. — 2nd Day. Railway 
to Ober-Ritttrsgriln (p. 230), walk to the Fichtelberg (p. 230), and ascend 
the Keilberg (p. 230). — 3rd Day. Walk to Ober-Wiesental {p. 230) and 
take the train to Annaberg (p'. 229); or walk to Joachimstal (p. 230) 

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The Erzgebirge. GEISINGr. 32. Route. 227 

and take the railway thence to Carlsbad. — The best points of view 
arc the Fichtelberg (p. 230), the Keilberg (p. 230), the Auersberg (p. 232), 
and the Ktihberg (p. 232). 

a. From Dresden to Teplitz. 

Railway via Milgeln to (29 M.) Geising-Altenberg in 23/^ hrs. (fares 
2 t/^ 40, 1 t^ 5 pf.), or via Hainsberg to (221/2 M.) Kipsdo7-f in 2V4 hrs. 
(1 J^ 80, 1 J6 15 pf.). 

From Dresden to Geising-Altenberg. — From Dresden to 
(7 M.) Miigeln, see p. 210. — The line thence ascends through the 
picturesque valley of the Milglitz. — 8Y2 ^- Dohna (4000 inhab.); 
10 M. Kottewitz. — At (11 M.) Weesenstein (545 ft.; Bahnhofs- 
Hotel) is a royal chateau, the construction of which is curious, the 
building being partly hewn out of the rock on which it is situated. 
The stables are on the 3rd, the ice-cellar and chapel on the 5th floor. 
— 20 M. Glashiitte (1040 ft.; Stadt Dresden) has important 
watch -manufactories (2400 inhab.). — 29 M. Geising-Altenberg. 

aeisingtl915 ft. ; Bahnhofs- Hotel, R. 11/4-21/2, D. V/^-2y^^; 
Stadt Dresden)., a pleasantly situated mountain-village (1300 in- 
hab.), with straw-plaiting industry, is visited as a summer -resort 
and also for winter-sports. — About I1/2 M. to the W. lies Alten- 
berg (2470 ft.; Altes Amthaus, good; Post)., another straw-plait- 
ing little town, with 1600 inhab. and a tin-mine. About I1/2 M. to 
the N. is the Geising (2703 ft.), with a belvedere and inn. 

From Geising to Teplitz, 12 M., carriage-road (one-horse carr. 
to Graupen 7 ^). At (2 M.) Zinnwald (2460 ft. ; Sdchsischer 
Better) we reach the Bohemian frontier. Thence we proceed to 
the E. and S., via Voitsdorf, to the (4 M.) Muckenherg (2630 ft.), 
on which rises the Milcken-Turmchen (inn; view). [Pedestrians 
reach this point in 2 hrs. from Geising by footpaths via the Wettin- 
hohe (2578 ft.) and the 'Kammweg' (see p. 230).] The road now 
descends to (3 M.) Graupen (1040 ft.; Stadt Dresden)^ a little 
town (3500 inhab.) with an interesting church and the ruins of the 
Bosenburg (restaurant; view). In 1/2 M. more we reach the pilgrim- 
resort of Mariaschein., 1 M. beyond which is the railway-station 
of that name, I1/4 M. from Teplitz (see Baedeker^ s Austria). 

From Dresden to Kipsdorf. From Dresden to (7 M.) Hains- 
bei^g, see p. 221, 222. — The line now ascends the valley of the Bote 
Weisseritz, the picturesque lower part of which is known as the 
Babenauer Grand. — 91/2 M. Babenau (1007 ft.; Ratskeller, 
R. I1/4-I1/2 ^) is a favourite pleasure -resort from Dresden. — 
151/2 M. Dippoldiswalde (1145 ft.; Stadt Dresden, R. 174-2^^; 
B ahnhofs- Hotel )^ with 3800 inhab., on the Rote Weisseritz. — 
20 M. Schmiedeberg (1410 ft. ; Post) is the starting-point for several 
attractive walks. — 22^^^. Kipsdorf (17^0 it; Furstenhof, R. 
from 2, pens, from 5 ^, good; Halali, R. 1 1/3-2 1/2, pens. 41/2-6 ^) 
is a summer and winter resort. Diligence to Altenberg (see above). 

228 lioute 32. MOLDAU. The Erzgebirge. 

From Kipsdorf to Teplitz. 21 M. The road leads via the 
pretty villages of (1 M.) Barenfels (2460 ft.; Kaiserhof, R. from 2, 
pens, from 5 tJC) and '2 !M.) Schellerhau to (2 X.) Rehefeld-Zaun- 
haus, close to the Bohemian border. Thence we proceed via the 
forester's house of (3 M.) Kalkofen to the (4 M.) little town of 
Xiklasherg (1770 ft. : Znm Rathaus). whence the Sturmer (2850 ft. ; 

I hr/i and the Warteck (2437 ft.; ^ ^ ^^') ^^y t)e ascended. — From 
(3 M.' Klostei-grah '1170 ft.: Rathans'i we may either take the train 
to [10 M.) Teplitz via Ossegg, or proceed direct by road (6 M.). 

b. From Freiberg to Briix. 

Railway to (24 M.) JToJdau in 2 hrs.. and thence to (24 M.) Brtix 
in li/o hr. 

Freiberg, see p. 222. — The train follows the valley of the 
Freiberger Midde. 3 M. Bertelsdorf. — From (SVg M.) Mulda 
(1410 ft.: Rail. Restaurant) a branch-line runs to (10 M.) Sayda 
(2220 ft.: Goldener LoiceK one of the oldest towns !n Saxony. 

About 7 M. beyond Sayda lies Bad Einsiedel (2465 ft. : Badehaus), 
a summer-resort with a chalybeate spring, charmingly situated among 
woods. Thence the road proceeds, crossing the (IV2 ^1-) Austrian frontier, 
to (7 M. farther on) Oherleutensdorf (Drei Linden, R. from 1 K. 10 7i.), 
a busy little toy-making town (see below). 

From (16 M. > Bienenrniihle (inn) a mountain-road leads to (5 hrs.) 
^^ssegg (see below). — The Austrian frontier is crossed near (24 M.) 
Moldau r2595 ft.; Fischerhaus), where the custom-house examina- 
tion takes place. — The best views are now to the right. 28 M. 
Xilclasberg (see above): 31\ 2 ^^- Eichwald (1870 ft.; Theresien- 
bad Hydropathic; Waldesruhe), a finely situated summer-resort; 
37^ 2 ^- Klostergrab see above); 40^/2 ^* Ossegg : 44 M. Wiesa- 
Obe rle uten sdo rf. 

48 M. BriLx Ross: Rail. Restaurant), see Baedeker s Austria. 

c. From Chemnitz to Kom.otau via Reitzenhain. 

73 M. Railway in 43/^-6 hrs. 

Chemnitz, see p. 224. — The line diverges from the Dresden 
railway at (8 M.^ Floha /jd. 224) and ascends the valley of the Floha. 

II M. Hetzdorf: 15 M. Leubsdorf. — From (2h M.) Pockau a 
diligence plies thrice daily to (2 M.i Lengefeld (Post; Erbgericht). 

A railway runs from Pockau via (7 M.) Olbemhau (1440 ft: G-erichts- 
schenke, Opitz, R. IV2-2 ^^), an industrial place with 8900 inhab., pictur- 
esquely situated on the Floha, to (13i/-, M.) Xeuhausen (1760 ft.; Erb- 
gericht). From Olbernhau a road leads across the frontier to (6 M.) the 
little town of Ka.tharinahcrg 2195 ft.: Kaiser von Osterreich). 

31^ 2 ^^- Marienberg 1995 ft.; Drei Schwdne: Goldenes 
Kreuz)^ a little town with 7600 inhab. and various industries, has 
an interesting church (1564 > and Rathaus (1539). — 43 M. Reitzen- 
liain 2490 ft.: XJllmann : Bail. Restaurant).^ the frontier-station 
^luggage examined), is a summer-resort. 

The Er-gehirge. ANNABERG. 32. Route. 229 

The Bohemian railway crosses the brook forming the frontier 
by a lofty viaduct and reaches its culminating point (2695 ft.) near 
(48 M.) Sehastiansherg (Goldner LOwe). At (52 M.) Krima-Neu- 
dorf (2450 ft.) our line unites with the Chemnitz- Annaberg railway 
(see p. 230). The train then descends a steep gradient in numerous 
windings to (73 M.) Komotau (Scherber; Reiter; Railway Restau- 
rant), an old and wealthy little town (15,900 inhab.) at the foot of 
the Erzgebirge. Comp. Baedeker^s Austria. 

d. From Chemnitz to Komotau via Annaberg. 

91 M. Railway in l^j^ hrs. 

From Chemnitz to (8 M.) Floha, see p. 224. Our line then as- 
cends the busy valley of the Zschojpau. — IOY2 ^- Erdmanns- 
dorf (960 ft.), a summer-resort. 

Diligence daily to (2 M.) Augustushurg (1620 ft. ; pop. 2400 ; Weisser 
Hirsch, R. I1/2-2V2 ^)i ^ little town commanded by an extensive chateau 
erected in 1568-73 (adm. for 1-10 pers. 1 JC), with an altar-piece of 
Cranach the Younger in the chapel. 

18 M. Zschopau (1110 ft.; Stadt Wien, R. IV4-2 Jl ; Deut- 
sches Haus)^ a small town of 6800 inhab., with cloth-factories and 
the old chateau of Wildeck. From (20 M.) Wilischtal (1120 ft.) 
a light railway runs to Tkum^ Ehrenfriedersdorf, and (20 M.) 
Schonfeld {see below). — 26 M. "Wolkenstein (1540 ft.; Sonne; 
Sdchsischer Hof), a high-lying little town with 2100 inhab., has 
a partly-ruined chateau. About 2 M. from the town is Warmhad 
or Bad Wolkenstein, with warm springs (86° Fahr.) and a Kur- 
haus. — 29 M. Wiesenbad (1417 ft.), another little watering-place 
with a Kurhaus and springs (62° Fahr.); 32 M. Schonfeld. 

35 M. Annaberg (1970 ft.; Wilder Mann, R. 17^-3, D. IV4- 
2 ^, good; Museum; Post; Goldne Gans; Kron/prinz; Rail. 
Restaurant ; BahVs Restaurant, with garden and view), a town 
with 16,800 inhab., busily occupied in making lace and trimmings, 
w^hich are largely exported to the United States. Annaberg was 
founded in 1496 and first attained importance through its mines, 
now of little value. Lace-making was introduced about 1550 by 
Barbara Uttmann (1514-75), a statue of whom stands in the 
market-place. The Church of St. Anne, built in 1499-1520 and 
restored in 1884, contains some interesting works of art (sexton's 
house on the N. side). 

The sculptures on the *'Sch6ne Pforte' are particularly noteworthy 
(1512). On the sides of the galleries are 100 painted reliefs by Franz 
von Magdeburg (1514-17), representing biblical, legendary, and humorous 
scenes. The Renaissance portal of the Old Sacristy dates from 1518. 
The marble high-altar is the work of ^. Daiiher of Augsburg (1522). 
On its back are a Woman taken in adultery, by Cranach the Younger, 
and the Coronation of the Virgin and St. Catharine, by an unknown 
master of the 16th century. The so-called 'Berg-Altar', representing the 
processes of mining (back), dates from 1521. To the right is a wooden 
figure of the Virgin, ascribed to the school of Wolgemut. 

230 ^oute 32. BUCHHOLZ. The Erzgehirge. 

To the X. of the church is a Statue of Luther, by Volker (1883). 
The Sparkasse contains an Antiquarian andj Mining Museum. A 
visit may also be made to the School of Embroidery. 

From Axxaberg to Schwarzexberg, I6V2 ^I-' branch -railway in 
11 2 hr. — 2 M. Buchholz (see below); 8 ^.' Scheibenherg. — From (15 M.) 
Griinstddtel a branch-line runs to (51-2 M.) Oher-Rittersgrun (1995 ft. ; 
Erzgebirgischer Hof, at the station), whence the Fichtelberg (see below) 
may be ascended in 31/2 trs. — I6V2 ^'^' Schwarzenherg, see p. 231. 

36 M. Buchholz (1880 ft.; Deutsches Haus), a town of 9300 

iuhab., on the Sehma. The parish church (1504-21) contains some 
paintings of the Upper German school. — 40 M. Cranzahl (2145 ft. ; 
Goldne Krone; Rail. Restaurant), with 2300 inhabitants. 

From Cranzahl a branch-line runs in IV^hr. to (10^/ 2 M.) Ober- 
Wiesental ^2930 ft.; Stadt Karlsbad, K. II/2-21/2, D. l^i^-2 Ji\ 
the highest town in Grermany (1800 inhab.), which is visited for its 
winter-sports. Carr. and pair via the Fichtelberg to the Keilberg 
and back 15 J{, to Joachimstal 8 ^4C. 

About 2^ o M. to the X.W. of Ober-Wiesental rises the finely 
wooded ^Fichtelberg (3980 ft.; road to the top), on which are a 
good inn (bed 1^ 4 Ji) and a view-tower (15 pf. ; fine view). — The 
wooded Keilberg or Sonnenivirbel ^4080 ft.), the highest summit 
of the Erzgehirge. also with a good inn (bed 1 K. 85 h.) and a 
view-tower (20 h.). lies in Bohemia, due S. of Ober-Wiesental, whence 
it may be ascended direct in 3^ 4hrs. Pedestrians reach the Keilberg 
from the Fichtelberg in about IVg^r., by descending the Prinzen- 
weg on the S."^. and then following the road. 

From the Keilberg an easy and attractive road descends to (IV2 hr.) 
Joachimstal (2125 ft.; Stadt Dresden: Kaiser von Oesterreich), a small 
Bohemian town (7400 inhab.) once known for its silver-mines, whence 
we may proceed by railway via Sclilackenicertli to (141/2 M.) Carlsbad 
(see Baedeker's Austria] ^ 

The Keilberg lies in just about the middle of the so-called Kamm- 
v:eg. or 'Ridge "Way". extending from Bodenbach (p. 211) to (160 M.) 
Asch in Bohemia. 1*8 M. from Adorf (p. 232). Good walkers will find 
this an interesting excursion in either direction (finger-posts and signs 
marked with a blue comb on a white field). 

Beyond Cranzahl the railway traverses a viaduct over the valley 
of the Sehma. and beyond the Pohlbach. which forms the Bohemian 
boundary, reaches (4fei 2 M.) "Weipert (2340 ft.; Stadt Leipzig), 
the first Austrian station (lO.OuO inhab.; luggage examined;. — 
From (541/2 M.) Schmiedeberg (2788 ft.) a road leads to (41/2 M.) 
Ober-Wiesental (see above). The railwav reaches its highest point 
(2830 ft.) near (61 M.) Kupferberg . and then descends via (64 M.) 
Pressnitz-Reischdorfamd (67i 2 ^^-J Sonnenberg to (70 M.) Krima- 
Xeudorf, where we join the preceding line (see p. 229). 

The Erzgehirge. AUE. 32. Route. 231 

e. Prom Zwickau to Johaimgeorgenstadt (Carlsbad). 

351/2 M. Railway in 31/2-4^^/4 hrs. Best views on the right. 

ZwickaUj see p. 225. — The train ascends the valley of the 
Zwickauer Mulde^ through a busy district rich in coal. From 
(33/4 M.) Wilkau (tramway to Zwickau) a branch-line runs to (26 M.) 
Carlsfeld (2690 ft. ; Griiner Baum, R. & B. 1 V4-IV4 -^^; POP- 1800). 

The Kuhherg (p. 232) may be ascended from Rotenkirchen, Stiitzen- 
griln, Neuheide, or Scfionheide, stations on this branch-line. 

About 2 M. to the E. of (7 M.) Wiesenburg is the small town 
of Wildenfels, with a chateau. — 121/2 M. Stein (1020 ft.; Rail. 
Restaurant) with a picturesque old castle; 1 M. to the N.E. is 
Hartenstein (Weisses Ross; pop. 2700), the birthplace of the poet 
Paul Flefiiing (1609-40), commemorated by a monument erected in 
1896. — 16 M. Niederscldema (1090 ft.), with paper-mills. 

Branch-line to (3 M.) Schneeberg (1540 ft.; Sdchsisches Haus ; 
Goldne Sonne), an imjjortant lace-making town with 9000 inhabitants, 
The late-Gothic church, erected in 1516-40, contains a large altar-piece, 
with wings, repiosenting the ^Crucifixion, painted by Cranach the Elder 
and his pupils in 1539. The tower (260 ft.) commands a fine view. The 
numerous mines in the vicinity, formerly rich in silver, now chiefly 
produce cobalt, bismuth, and nickel. 

18 V2 M. Aue (1140 ft.; Erzgebirgischer Hof, R. IV2-3 ^; 
Victoria)^ an industrious town (17,100 inhab.) situated in a hollow 
at the confluence of the Mulde and the Schwarzwasser, is the junc- 
tion for Chemnitz and Adorf (p. 232). — The line then ascends the 
valley of the /Schwarzwasser to (25 M.) Schwarzenberg (1400 ft. ; 
pop. 4600; Siichsischer Hof, R. 172"2 ^; JRathaus)., a small town 
with an old Schloss, on an eminence skirted by the river. 

From Schwarzenberg the Morgenleite (2663 ft. ; view) may be as- 
cended in 11/2 hr. via Henneberghduser (2034 ft. ; red and yellow way- 
marks). The descent may be made to Aue (see above). 

We continue to ascend the valley of the Schwarzwasser. — 
35^/3 M. Johanngeorgenstadt (2640 ft. ; Hotel de Saxe, R. V/2- 
272^/ Deidsches Haus)^ a small town (6200 inhab.) on the left 
bank of the Schwarzwasser. In the market-place is a statue of 
Elector John George, who founded the town in 1654 as a refuge for 
Bohemian Protestant exiles. Luggage is examined here. 

From Johanngeorgenstadt to (39 M.) Carlsbad, railway in 21/2 hrs. 
via Flatten, Bdrringen, and Neudek (see Baedeker''s Austria). 

f. From Chemnitz to Adorf. 

72 M. Railway in 41/2 hrs. 

Chemnitz, see p. 224. — The first important station is (23 M.) 
Zwonitz (1800 ft.), 1/2 ^- f^'oni the little town of that name 
(Blauer Engel; 3500 inhab.). 

From Zwonitz to Scheibenberg, 14 M., branch-railway in VI2 hr. — 
From (8 M.) Grimhain (Ratskeller) an easy path ascends to the (1/2 hr.) 
top of the Spiegehvald (2350 ft. ; view). — 11 M. Elterlein (Ratskeller), 
a small town, surrounded by woods, amid which is the Schatzenstein 

232 Route 32. EIBENSTOCK. The Erzgehirge. 

(2505 ft.). — 14 M. Scheibenberg (2040 ft.; Ratskeller), with 2600 inhab., 
is situated near the mountain of the same name (2640 ft.; 1/2 h^.). 

The train now crosses the ridge (1820 ft.) and descends (1 : 40) 
in windings to the Lossnitz-Tal. — 311/2 M. Aue (1130 ft.), the 
junction of the Zwickau -Schwarzenberg line (p. 231). 'We next 
ascend the valley of the Mulde. — 43 M. Eibenstock (2100 ft.; 
Bathaus, R. IV2-2V2, ^' ^V* ^Z ^^«^^^ Leipzig), a town of 8700 
inhab., 1^2 ^' to the S.E. of the station, the chief seat of the 

From Eibenstock a road runs to the S. to (41/2 M.) Wildental, whence 
the *Aiiersberg (3340 ft.), with view-tower (20 pf.) and inn, may be as- 
cended in 3/4 hr. 

45 M. Schonheiderhammer (1780 ft.; Karlshof), a village with 

The *Kuhberg (2605 ft. ; Restaurant), with view-tower (10 pf.), is 
ascended in IV4 hr. from Schonheiderhammer via Neuheide (p. 231), 

59^2 ^^- Schoneck (pop. 4500 ; Schtitzenhaus), the highest station 
on the line (2515 ft.); 63 M. Zwota (2210 ft.), a long village in the 
Zwota-Tal. — The railway continues to descend rapidly. 60 M. 
Markneukirchen (1540 ft.; pop. 8500), 1 M. from the town (Post, 
R. l%-3, D. 1'^ 4^^; U. S. consular agent, IF. jB?'?^ce Wallace)., which 
is the centre of the Erzgebirge manufacture of musical instruments. 
Fine views from the Bismarck-Sciule and the Hohe Stein (2550 ft.). 
— 72 M. Adorf (1455 ft.; pop. 7100; Goldener Lowe, R. l^V^, 
D. 11/4 ^6; Victoria), a small town in the valley of the Weisse 
Elster, is the junction for the Leipzig and Eger railway (see p. 259). 

33. Prom Dresden to Leipzig. 

a. Via, Riesa. 

74 M. Railway in 13/4-31/4 hrs. (fares 10 JCIO, 6 JC 80, 3 .^ 70 pf.). 

Dresden, see p. 175. — The train starts from the Central 
Station and crosses the Elbe to the (2^/4 M.) Dresden- Neustadt 
Station (p. 175). Beyond the town it skirts the LossJiitz, a range 
of vine-clad hills with numerous villas. — 52/4 M. Radeheul (electric 
tramway to Dresden). 

FromRadebeul a branch-line runs to {lQ^l2^'^-)Iiadeburg, on the Roder, 
via Ldssnitzgrund and (51/2 ^I-) Moritzburg-Eisenberg (Adam's Inn), the 
station for the Moritzburg, a royal chateau built on an islet in a lake 
by Elector Maurice in 1541, and enlarged in 1722-30 (interesting interior). 

7 M. Weintraube, ^j^ M. from the station of which is the 
Paradies (715 ft. ; restaurant), a favourite resort of the Dresdeners. 
8 M. Kotzschenhroda ^electric tramway to Dresden); 10^2 ^^• 
Coswig, the junction for Meissen and Dobeln (see p. 233). 

14V4 ^^- ^i^derau. From (21 M.) Priestewitz a branch-line 
diverges to Grossenhain (3 M. ; p. 174). 283/4 M. Laiigenherg is 
the junction of the Berlin line (p. 174). Roderau (p. 233) lies on 
the right bank of the Elbe. The train crosses the Elbe. 


rlt:klr. Strxissenbahn 

teojxapii ^ji.s-! v .^'arni?^ A Ii«>>it>s,l., 

^L^° 3lPter. 

MEISSEN. 33. Route. 233 

33 M. Riesa (Kaiserhof ; Railway Hotel & Restaurant., very 
fair; Sdchsischer Hof)^ a busy town on the Elbe (14,100 inhab.), 
is an important junction. 

From Riesa to Chemnitz, 41 M., railway in IV4-2 hrs. — 16 M. 
Dobeln is the junction of the Leipzig, Meissen, and Dresden line (see 
(p. 236). The train crosses the Freiberger Mulde here, and the Zschopau 
farther on, commanding several pleasing views of the valley of the latter. 
22 M. Waldheim (Deutsches Haus, Goldncr Lowe; pop. 12,300), a small 
town with a large prison. — 30 M. Mittweida ( Europdischer Hof, 
R. I^l2-2JC] Deutsches Haus), a busy town with 17,500 inhab. and a 
technical school for mechanical engineers. — On a lofty rock on the 
right bank of the Zschopau, 1 M. to the N. of (35 M.) Oherlichtenau, 
is the chateau of Sachsenhurg (now a house of correction) ; IV2 M. to the 
S. lies the extensive chateau of Lichtemvalde, with an old park and 
beautiful fountains. — 41 M. Chemnitz, see p. 224. 

From Riesa to Freiberg, 35 M., railway in 3-43/4 hrs. 8V2 M. Lom- 
77ia<2;sc?i (Goldne Sonne, R. l^l^-'^^I^JC: 4100 inhab.), on the Jahne, in the 
most fertile part of Saxony. 2OV2 M- Nossen, also a station on the 
Leipzig, Dobeln, and Dresden line (p. 235). — 35 M. Freiberg (p. 222). 

Lines aloo run from Riesa to (21/2 M.) Roderau (p. 174) and (16 M.) 
Elsterwerda (p. 174). 

41 M. Oschatz (425 ft.; Groldener Lowe), an industrial town 
(10,900 inhab.) with a fine park and a Rathaus of 1537. 

46 Y2 ^-t- Dahlen. About 4 M. to the S. rises the Collmherg 
(995 ft.), with a view-tower. 

57^2 ^I- Wurzen (Post), a manufacturing place (pop. 17,200), 
with an old cathedral and chateau (1491-97). It is the junction of a 
line to (I5Y2 ^0 Grossbothen (p. 236), passing Grimma (p. 236). 

The Mulde is now crossed. 66 Y2 ^- Borsdorf; 70^2 ^- Pauns- 
dorf. — 74 M. Leipzig, see p. 237. 

b. vm Meissen. 
82 M. Railway in 3-4 hrs. (fares 9 ^^ 10, o JC 80, 3 JC 70 pf.). This 
route is longer, but more attractive than the foregoing. 

As far as (IOY2 ^0 Coswig the route is the same as the preced- 
ing. The train crosses the Elbe, and soon reaches — 

16 M. Meissen. — Hotels. On the right bank: Bahnhofs-HStel, 
at the rail, station; Ross, opposite the station; Hamburger Hof (PI. e), 
with garden. — On the left bank: Blauer Stern (PI. a), R. IV2-3V2J 
D. IV2-2 JC; GoldeJier Lowe (PL c), R. IV2-2 JC ; Albcrthof (PL b) ; Goldene 
Sonne (PL d). — Restaurants. Ratskeller, in the old Rathaus; Burg- 
Tceller, on the Schlossberg, with view, D. 1V2«^/ Geipelburg, Kaisergarten, 
both with gardens. Wine at the Winkelkrug, Sclilossberg 13, and the 
Alte Ritter, next the Frauen-Kirchc. Cafe Milhlberg. 

Cab from the station or stcamboat-q[uay to the Albrechtsburg or to 
the porcelain-factory, 1 pers. 1 JC., 2 pers. 1 ^ 25 pf. — Electric 
Tramway from the station to the (10 min.) porcelain-factory, and thence 
through the Triebisch-Tal to the (V* hr.) Buschbad Restaurant; fare 
10 pf. — Steamer to Dresden in 2^/^ hrs. (from Dresden I1/4 hr.). 

Meissen (360 ft.), one of the most ancient towns in Saxony, 
founded about 930 by King Henry I. and the seat of the Margraves 
of Meissen down to 1090, is picturesquely situated on both banks 
of the Elbe. It has 32,200 inhab. and carries on various industries. 

234 P^oute 33. ]MEISSEN. From Dresden 

On the right bank of the Elbe are the railway-station and the 
interesting modern Church of St. John, with good frescoes by 
Sascha Schneider (open in summer on week-days, except Sat., 5-7; 
at other times, sexton 50 pf.). 

On the left bank is the Heinrichs-Platz, in which are a fountain- 
figure of Henry I. and the old Franciscan Church, the cloisters 
of which contain old sculptures I'adm. 20 pf., 3-5 pers. 15 pf. each, 
larger parties 10 pf. each), while the upper story contains a histori- 
cal collection (10-4, Sun. 11-4; fees as above). Farther on is the 
Grosse Markt . with the Bathaus (1479). ^Te next follow the 
Burg-Strasse to the right, passing under the Schloss-Briicke, then 
turn to the left, cross the bridge, and reach the Schlossberg, 160 ft. 
above the town, on which stand the cathedral and the'Albrechts- 
burg. In front of the latter is a bronze Statue of Albert the Brave 
(1443-1500), by Hultzsch (1876). 

The choir of the "^Cathedral dates fi'om the end of the 13th 
cent., the nave and aisles from 1300-80, and the S.E. tower ("254 ft.), 
with its elegant spire, from the 15th century. The two W. towers, 
295 ft. in height, were added in 1903-08. The portals and the in- 
terior are adorned with numerous interesting sculptures. 

INTERIOR (the sacristan lives at Dom-Platz 7; adm. i'2- 2-4 pers. 1 JC). 
In the Johannis-Kapelle (1291; are good carved figures of John the Baptist, 
and of the Madonna and Child with an angel (?); and in the choir are 
four statues (Emp. Otho I. and his wife. St. John the Evangelist, and 
Bishop Donatus) resemhling the statues in the cathedrals of Bamberg 
and Xaumhurg. Most of the ancestors of the royal family of Saxony 
of the 15th and 16th cent, repose in this church. The finest monument 
is that of Frederick the "Warlike (d. 1-428), in bronze, in the Fursten- 
Kapelle (built in 1420-30). in front of the W. portal. The ^Brasses 
of the Duchess Sidonia (d. 1510) and the Duchess Amalia (d. 1502), and 
those of the princes Ernest (d. 1486^ and Albert (d. 1500), the founders 
of the present reigning lines (see p. 257). all probably from the work- 
shop of Hermann Tischer and his son Peter, are noteworthy. The reliefs 
over the portal of this chapel (1342) should also be noticed. — The 
Georgen-Kapelle. adjoining the Fiirsten-Kapelle, with the tomb of George 
the Bearded (d. 1539) and his wife Barbara (d. 1534), contains a small 
altar-piece by Lucas Cronach the Elder (?), representing Christ between 
St. Mary and St. John, with George and Barbara on the wings (1534), 
and also a fine marble relief of the Entombment (ca. 1530). On the 
screen '(13th cent.) between the nave and choir is a winged altar-piece, 
with paintings of the school of Cranach (Crucifixion in the middle). In 
the choir is a similar altar-piece, with paintings (Adoration of the Magi, 
with saints and a portrait of Bishop Sigismund, the donor) by a German 
master under Xetherlandish influence (ca. 1520). The central stained- 
glass window in the choir (restored) dates from the 13th century. — 
Near the cathedral is a small cloister with the Magdalenen-Kapellc, 
containing a small museum. 

The *Albrechtsburg, erected in 1471-85 by the brothers 
and co-regents Ernest and Albert, from plans by Arnold of West- 
phalia, is one of the most extensive castles of that period, with 
remarkablv fine vaultinof and staircase. From 1710 to 1864 it was 
occupied by the royal porcelain-factory. Since 1873 it has been 

to Leipzig. MEISSEN. 53. Route. 235 

thoroughly restored, and decorated with frescoes illustrative of its 
history by modern Grerman artists. The windows command a number 
of beautiful views. Visitors are conducted (2/4 hr.) through the 
Schloss by the castellan from 9 a.m. to 4, 5, 6, or 7 p.m. according 
to the season; fee for 1-5 pers. 2 t/^, each additional pers. 40 pf. 
The entrance is behind the statue of Duke Albert (see p. 234). 

A handsome spiral staircase ('Grosser Wendelstein') ascends to the 
First Floor, debouching on the Church Hall, which is adorned with 
frescoes of scenes in the history of Meissen, by Dietrich, and with portraits 
of princes and princesses of the Wettin family. The adjoining Jo /la^iwzs- 
Kapelle contains an altar of the 15th century. — The Large Banqueting 
Hall contains excellent painted wooden figures of several Saxon princes, 
carved by Schneider from designs by modern German artists. The fres- 
coes represent the Abduction of the Saxon princes (three pictures), by 
Oehme; Victory of Albert the Brave at the tournament at Pirna (1459); 
Investiture of Ernest and Albert by the Emperor Frederick III. (1465), 
both by Diethe. — The frescoes in the Small Banqueting Hall include 
the Betrothal of Albert the Brave and Princess Sidonia of Bohemia (1445), 
by Hoffmann, and four landscapes by the younger Freller, representing 
places prominent in Albert's career. The Large and Small Electors^ 
Rooms (Kurfiirstenzimnier), on the other side of the Church Hall, are 
adorned with nine pictures, by Scholz, of scenes from the life of Albert. 

Second Floor. The Bottger Room contains two paintings hy Kiessling : 
Bottger as an alchemist (1705) and Augustus the Strong in Bottger's labor- 
atory (1710). — Small Judgment Hall: Opening of the Fiirsten-Schule at 
Meissen by the Elector Maurice (1543) ; Arrival at Meissen of students from 
Leipzig (1547), both by Spiess. — Large Judgment Hall. The frescoes, by 
Marshall, represent an Ecclesiastical Council under Maurice (1548) and the 
Death of Maurice after the battle of Sievershausen (1553). The adjoining 
Tower Room commands a good view. — A Vestibule (Father Augustus's 
Room), with wall-paintings by Gey, leads to the finely-vaulted Armotiry, 
with an elaborate chimney-piece and pictures of Saxon castles by Choulant. 

On the Afra-Berg, which is connected with the Schlossberg by 
the Schloss-Briicke (p. 234), is the new building (1879) of the 
FUrsten-Schule, where Gellert (1729-34) and Lessing (1741-46) 
were pupils. The Gothic Church of St. Afra, built in 1295-1329, 
was afterwards altered. 

The celebrated Royal Porcelain Manufactory (700 workmen), 
the oldest in Europe, founded in 1710 (conip. pp. 201-2), is now 
established in the Triebisch-Tal (tramway, see p. 233; rail, station, 
see below). It is shown on week-days 7-12 (winter 8-12) and 1.30-6 
(Sat. 1.30-4); fee 2 ^ for 1 pers., or 1 ^ for each member of a 
party. The visit takes about V4 hr. 

Among several beautiful points of view in the environs of Meissen 
may be mentioned Schloss Scharfenherg ; the rocky height of the Posel, 
near Oberspaar ; and Schloss Slebeneichen. 

171/2 M- Meissen-Triehischtal, less than V2 ^- t^ ^^^ N- of 
which is the Meissen porcelain-factory (see above). At (30 M.) 
Nossen (branch-line to Freiberg, p. 233), with a Schloss, the pretty 
valley of the Mulde is entered. In the vicinity are the ruins of the 
Cistercian monastery oiAltzella, with a burial-chapel of the princes 
of Meissen. From (35 M.) Bosswein a branch-line diverges to 
Chemnitz (see p. 225). 

236 lioute 33. GRIMJMA. 

42 M. Dobeln (Rdtze: Stadt Altenburg), a thriving little 
town with 18.900 inhab. and a late-Grothic church, is the junction 
of branch-lines to Riesa and Chemnitz (see p. 233) and to Milgeln 
(p. 233). — 50 M. Leisnig (Hot, Belvedere, with view; Goldener 
Lowe: Rail. Restaurantj, a manufacturing town with 8100 inhab., 
is commanded by Schloss Mildenstein (view from the tower; adm. 
10 pf.). — To the right of (54M.) Tanndorf rises the finely-situated 
Scfdoss Kossern. — 59 M. Grosshothen. 

From Grossbothex to Glauchau. 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. The rail- 
way, coming from Wurzeu and Grimma (see p. 233). traverses the pretty 
Millden-Tal, which offers many charms to the pedestrian. — 4 M. Colditz 
(pop. 5200: Weisses Hausj. a small town on the Zicickauer Mulde, com- 
manded by an old castle (1578-91), now a lunatic asylum. — IOV2 ^^• 
Rochlitz (Goldener Lowe), an ancient town of 6300 inhab., with an old 
electoral Chateau with two towers. The late-Gothic Church of St. Cuni- 
giinda (1499) is also noteworthy. The Rochlitzer Berg (1115 ft. above 
the sea, 630 ft. above the river), 21/2 M- from the town, with an inn and 
a view-tower (adm, 15 pf.) commands a beautiful panorama. A branch- 
line diverges hence to Xarsdorf and Penig (see below) ; another to Wald- 
heim. — I5i/., M. "Wechselburg rSdchsischer Hofj, with a chateau, the 
late-Romanesque chapel of which (1-3 pers. 1 .^), containing interesting 
late-Romanesque and Gothic ^Sculptures, was formerly the church of the 
Augustine abbey of Zschillen (founded 1168). The park of the chateau 
may be visited (1-5 pers. 1 J^). A branch-line connects it with Chemnitz 
(p. 224). — The train now passes under the imposing Gohrener Viaduct 
(p. 225). 20 M. Rochsburg (Rochsburg Inn), with a chateau and park of 
the Counts of Schonburg. — 231/2 M. Penig (Stadt Leipzig), a small town 
of 7400 inhab., where the above-mentioned line to Xarsdorf and Roch- 
litz diverges. — 27 M. Wolkenhurg (Park Restaurant), with a chateau 
and park and a church of 1794; 30 M. Waldenhurg (Deutsches Haus ; 
2700 inhab.), the residence of Prince Schonburg -Waldenburg. — 35 M. 
Glauchau (p. 225). 

63^,2 M. Grimraa (Schiitzenhaits , with garden; Goldener 
Lowe), picturesquely situated on the Mulde, with 11,200 inhab.; 
also a station ('Untere Bahnhof; on the Wurzen-Grossbothen line 
(p. 233). The electoral Schloss, by the Mulde bridge, is now oc- 
cupied by public offices. The Fursten-Schule, in a handsome new 
building, farther up the river, was established in 1550. The 
Rathaus dates from 1442. The Gattershurg Restmirant, ^'2 ^^• 
from the upper or Dresden station, commands a fine view. Pleasant 
wood-walks on the opposite bank of the Mulde. — The convent 
of Ximhschen. where Catharine von Bora, Luther's wife, lived in 
1509-23, now lies in ruins IV o ^^- upstream (restaurant). 

The line traverses the vallev of the Parthe. Stations: Naun- 
hof{10 M.) and (74i .^ M.) Borsdorf, where the Riesa line (p. 233) 
is reached. 

Dresden., ChemziitB 



34. Leipzig. 

Arrival. Cab-tickets are issued at the stations, as at Berlin; tariff, 
see p. 238. There are no hotel-omnibuses. Electric tramways, see p. 2.38. 
— A large Union Station for all lines is being erected on the site of 
the old Thuringian, Magdeburg, and Dresden stations. At present (1910) 
there are five principal railway-stations at Leipzig. 1. Bavarian Station 
(PI. D, 5; //), for Berlin (express-trains), Hof (Nuremberg, Munich), Eger 
(Carlsbad), and Chemnitz. 2. Berlin Station (PI. E, 2; /), for Berlin 
(ordinary trains only), Halle, Magdeburg, Hamburg, Hanover (Cologne), 
and Bremen. 3. Dresden Station (PL D, 3; //), for Dresden, G5rlitz, 
Breslau, and Chemnitz. 4. Thuringian Station (temporary; PL D 3, II), 
for Eisenach, Bebra, Cassel, and Frankfort-on-the-Main, and for Gera 
and Saalfeld. 5. Eilenburg Station (PL E, 4; /), for Cottbus, Sorau, 
Posen, Breslau, etc. — Tourists'' Enquiry Ofpce at the Kaufhaus (PL D, 
4; //), entrance from the Kupfergasschen. 

Hotels. (During fair-time prices are raised and rooms should be 
booked in advance.) *Hotel Hauffe (PL a, D4; 7/), R. from 31/2, B. 
IV2, D. (1.15 p.m.) 3V2-4V2 -^; *Kaiserhof (PL p, D 4; II), R. from 3, 
B. 11/4, D. 3-41/2, pens, from S^I^JC; *H6tel de Prusse (PL b, D4; II), 
R. 3V>-6, B. IV4, D. 3, pens. 8-12 J^, all three first-class hotels, on the 
Promenade. — *Sedan (PL d, D 3 ; II), R. from 2, B. 1, D. 21/2-3 J^; *H6t. 
Royal (PL h, D 4; II), R. 21/2-5, B. 1, D. 21/2, pens. 6-10 JC ; *Hentschel 
(PL g, D 4; II), R. from 21/2, B. 1, D. 3, pens, from 6 JC; Hotel de Rome 
(PL i, D, 3, 4; //), near the Dresden Station, R. 3-10, B. I1/4, D. 31/3-5, 
pens, from 9JC; *Sachsenhof (PL k, D 4; II), R. 21/2-5, B. 1^, with 
restaurant (D. l^l^^) and cafe ; Hotel de Russie (PL c, C 4; II), commer- 
cial; Central (PL f, C, D, 4; //), commercial; Hot. de Pologne (PL r, 
C 4; //) ; Palmbadm (PL e, D 3; //), R. 2-5, B. 1, D. 2-3 JC; Furstenhof, 
Trondlin-Ring 4 (PL C, 3; II), R. 2-4, B. 1, D. from I1/2 c^; Deutsches 
Haus (PL s, C, 4, 5; II), R. 2-4, B. 1, D. from 11/4-^; Lebe's Hotel 
(PL 1, D, 3, 4; //), R. l^U-4,, B. 1, D. I1/2-3 J^: Hot. dd Nord, Bliicher- 
Str. 10 (PL D, 3; //), R. 2-6, B. 1 JC ; Stadt Nurnberg (PL m, D 5; II), 
near the Bavarian Station; Muller's (PL n, C4; II); Stadt Freiberg 
(PL q, D 4; //), R. Is/^-S, B. 3/4, D. I1/4 JC; Vier Jahreszeiten, Bliicher- 
Str. 37 (PL D, 3; //), R. 1V2-2V2» B. 3/4, D. I1/2 JC. — Marthahaus, a 
hospice for single ladies, Lohr-Str. 9, R. 1 1/2-4 c^. — Hoffmanyi's Hotel 
Garni, Wintergarten-Str. 14 (PL D, 3; //), R. IV2-2V2, B- ^U ^- — 
Pensions. Clausius, Czermak's Garten 6 (PL D, 4; II), 5 cd; Marggraff, 
Markgrafen-Str. 6 (41/3-? J^) ; Miiller, Quer-Str. 14 (4-6 JC) ; Schneidewiyid, 
Post-Str. 9 (5-71/2 c^^); Wiener, Grassi-Str. 30 (41/2-6 c^). 

Restaurants. Wine. "^Paege, Markt 8 (court) ; ^RatsTieller {^.2i.^), 
D. 13/4-3, S. 21/2 JC; Bodenstein, Schul-Str. 3, D. 2-3 JC; Winckler, 
Grimmaische-Str. 32, D. 2-3 JC ; Krause , Katharinen-Str. 6, D. 3 JC; 
Schdfer, Georgi-Ring 6, D. 2 J^; Simmer, Peters-Str. 34, D. 2-3 J^; Central 
Theatre Restaurant, D. I1/2 JC; AuerhacWs Keller (p. 242); Bodega, 
Grimmaische-Str. 8. — Beer. ^Kitzing & Helbig, Peters-Str. 36, D. 11/4-^; 
^New Theatre (PL D, 4; //), with terrace, D. I1/4 J^; "^Baarmann, 
Katharinen-Str. 3, D. l^j^JC; Oertel, Theatergasse 2 (PL C, 3); KUnstler- 
haus (p. 243), Bose-Str. 9, D. l^UJC; Hannes, Beethoven-Str. 17 ; Panorama 
(PL D, 4; //), Ross-Platz, with concert -garden, D. l^UJC] Thiiriiiger 
Hof, Burg-Str. 21, popular. — Automatic Restaurants, corner of the Grim- 
maische-Str. and the Neumarkt, Peters-Str. 37, etc. — 'Gose' (see p. 246) 
at the Silberner Bar, Universitats-Str. 22, and at Eutritzsch (p. 246). 

Caf^s. Cafe Franqais (Felsche), Augustus-Platz, at the corner of 
the Grimmaische-Str. ; Hennersdorf, Gewandgasschen 4, confectionery at 
these two; Bauer, Ross-Platz; Monopol, Grimmaische-Str. 10; Reichs- 
kanzler, Goethe-Str. 9 (PL E, 3), also confectionery; iferfcwr, Thomas-Ring 5. 

238 Route 34. LEIPZIG. Practical Notes. 

Baths. Sophienhad. Dorotheen-Str. 3 (PI. C, 1; //) ; Dia'nahad, 
Lauge-Str. 8 (PL E. 4 ; I); Carolahad. Diifour-Str.' U (PI. C, 5; 77), all 
with Turkish, vapour, and swimming baths. — River Baths at the swimming 
and bath establishment Tl. B. 4 : I) at Sehreber-Str. 15 and at the Germania- 
Bad (PI. B. 6 : 7), in the Schleussiger Weg. 

Taximeter Cabs. For all drives from the stations, 10 pf. extra. 
Luggage: 22-55 lbs. 25 pf . ; each additional 55 lbs., 25 pf. 

First Class (with yellow wheels) : 1-2 pers. per 800 metres 70 pf., every 
additional 400 metres' 10 pf. more; 3-4 pers., 600 m. 70 pf., every ad- 
ditional 300 m. 10 pf. more; at night (10.30-7) or outside the ordinary 
radius, 1-4 pers., per 400 m. 70 pf., every additional 200 m. 10 pf. more 
(plus 25 pf. for the whole hiring for 2-3 pers., 50 pf. for 4 pers.). — 
Second Class. Distances, etc., as above, with fare of 50 pf ., instead of 70 pf . 
— There are also Motor Cabs. 

Electric Traraways (fare 10 pf . ; free transfer to other cars of 
same compauv\ The chief intersecting points are the Augustus-Plats 
(PI. D. 4: 7 ."the Bl iiche r-Platz {Vl.D. S : 7). the Georgi-Pdng (Vl.J),^', I), 
the Baijerscher-Platz (PL D. 5; 7). and the Old Theatre (PL C, 3; 7). 

A. i&ROssE Leipziger Steassexbahx (blue cars) : A. Gohlis (PL C. 1 ; 7)- 
X\\^\si\\^-VUXz-Kaiser-Wilhelm-Str. (PL C, 6 ; 7). — B. Bavarian Station 
(PL D. 5 : 7 ,-Leutzsch (bevond PL A, 4 ; 7). — D. Dolitz (bevond PL D, 8 ; 7)- 
Gohlis Tl. C. 1:7).— E. Eatritzsch PL D. E. 1: I)-Schlachthof (PL 
D. 6. 7: 7\ — F. Sildfriedhof (PL F. 7: D-Lindenau (PL A. 4:7). — 
G. Gohlis (PL C, 1: I)-Kronprinz-Str. (PL C. D, 6; 7). — K. Klein- 
zschocher (bevond PL A. 6; I)- Sellerhausen (bevond PL F. 3; 7). — 
L. Leutzsch (bevond PL A. 4 ; I)-Tauchaer-Tor (PL E. 3:7). — M. Mockern 

PL A. 1 : lyConnewitz (PI. D. 8:7). — P. Probstheida (bevond PL F. 7 ; 7)- 
Lindenau (PL A, 4: I). — R. Augustus-Platz (PL D, 4; 7)-Reudr.itz- 
Anqer-Crottendorf rbevond PL F. 5; 7). — S. Sellerhausen (beyond 
PL'F. 3: lyPlagv-itz Station (beyond PL A, 5:7).— V. Volkmarsdorf 
(PL F. 3: I -Kleinzschocher 'beyond PL A, 6: 7). 

B. Leipziger Elektrische Strassexbahn (red cars): 1. Mocl^au 
(bevond PL F, 1 ; lyConneicitz Tl. D.8 ; 7). — 2. Schonefeld (PL F, 2 ; 7)- 
StStteritz (PL F, 6; 7). — 3. Eutritzsch (PL D. E. 1 : I)- Grosszschocher 
(beyond PL A, 6; 7). — 4. Paunsdorf (beyond PL F, 4; I)- Mockern 
(PL A, 1; 7). — 5. Schonefeld (PL F, 2; I)- Kleinzschocher (beyond PL 
A. 6 : I\ — 6. Stotteritz rPl. F. 6 : lyGohlis (PL C, 1 ; 7). — 7. Connew'tz 
(PL D. 8: IrPdebeck-Str. (PL F. 5; 7). 

Circular Drive through the town, starting from the Fleischer-Platz 
(PL C. 3. 4: 77 . in summer, at 9.30 a.m. (2 hrs. ; fare 3 JC). 

Strangers' Enquiry Office /Verkehrs-Yerein'), at the Stadtisehe 
Kaufhaus p. 242 . 

Post and Telegraph Office PL D 4. 77; p. 246). in the Augustus- 

Theatres. Xev: Theatre (PL D 4, 77: p. 240), performances daily: 
central balconv 3i o-5i/.,. side-balconv 41/2, parquet 3-31/2^ (opera prices, 
4-6. 5. & 4-5 J). — Old Theatre (PL C 3. 77; p. 243). parquet 31/4^. — 
Schauspielhaus PL D. 5 : 77). fauteuil 3 JC 30. first parquet 2 ^ 80 pf. — 
Xeues Ope retten-T heater (Central- Theater, PL C,4; 77;, fauteuil 3 ^ 60, 
first parquet 2 .€ 60 pf. 

Variety Entertainments. Kri stall- Palast (PL D. 3 ; 77), Winter- 
garten-Str. 19. with theatre of varieties, concerts, etc. (parquet 21/4 t^). — 
Pleasure Resorts. Palmen- Garten, see p. 245 (1 JC, in evening 50 pf. ; 
D.. inrl. admission. 2-3.#) ; Zoological Garden, see p. 245 (60pf.) : Bonorand 
(PL C. 8: 77). with concert-hall. 

Concerts in the Gev:ajidhaus (p. 245). every Thurs. evening in winter 
(tickets 6 JC : nearlv all taken up bv subscribers); general rehearsal on 
Wed. forenoon (adin. 2 JC). Conductor, Prof. A. Xikisch. These cel- 
ebrated concerts were established in the old Gewandhaus (p. 242) in 1743 
(comp. p. 245). — Motett. admirably sung by the boys of the Thomas- 
Schule. in the Thomas-Kirche (p. 243). every Sat. at 1.30 p.m. 


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History. LEIPZIG. ^4. Route. 239 

Exhibitions of Pictures a.t the Kunstverein in the Museum (p. 240); 
Del Vecchio, Burg-Str. 33 (PL C, 4; 77); Betjer S Sohu, SchuLStr. 8 
(PLC, 4; 77). 

British Consul-General, Baron Tauchnitz, Dresdner-Str. 5 (office- 
hour 11-12) ; Vice-Consul, Dr. Curt Otto. — American Consul, Southard 
P. Warner, Esq., Dorotheen-Str. 1 (9-12 & 2-4, Sat. 9-1); Vice-Consul, 
Frederick Nachod, Esq., Kail-Tauchnitz-Str. 27. 

Neiu York Herald Beadincf Boom, at the bank of Knauth, Nachod, 
& Kiihne, Bruhl 7. — Agency of the North German Lloyd, with reading- 
room (American newspapers), Augustus-Platz, Georgi-Ring 1. 

Anglo- American Church (All Saints), 8ebastian-Bach-Str. 1 (PI. 4, 
B 4; 7). Services on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. Brit. Chaplain, Bev. E. F. 
Scofleld. M.A., Schreber-Str. 3. — American-British Union Church, 
in the Schule fiir Frauenberufe, Schillcr-Str. 9 (PL D, 4; 77). Services 
on Sun. at 11.30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. Pastor, Bev. B. B. MacHatton, 
Mozart-Str. 13. 

Leipzig (385 ft.), one of the most important commercial towns 
in Germany and the chief industrial place in Saxony, with 515,000 
inhab., including a garrison of 6000 men, and the centre of the 
German book-trade, is the seat of the supreme law-courts of the 
German Empire and of one of the most ancient and important 
universities in Europe. It is also the headquarters of the 19th 
Army Corps. The city lies in an extensive plain, near the con- 
fluence of the Elster, the Pleisse, and the Parthe. The interior 
of the city consists of lofty and closely-built houses, dating chiefly 
from the 17th and 18th cent., and is surrounded by pleasant Pro- 
menades (about 2 M. round) on the site of the old fortifications, 
beyond which lie the inner suburbs, enclosed in their turn by a 
girdle of outer suburbs (Peudnitz, Eutritzsch, Gohlis, Lindenau, 
Plagwitz, Coniiewitz, Losnig, etc.), incorporated with the city 
since 1889-91. Six other suburbs (Ddlitz^ Dosen, Probstheida, 
Stofteritz, Stilntz, and Mockern) are to be incorporated in 1910. 

Leipzig derives its name from a Slavonic village, beside which a Ger- 
manic settlement is mentioned at the beginning of the 11th century. This 
town, situated at the intersection of the trade-routes between Poland and 
Thuringia and between North Germany and Bohemia, was endowed with 
privileges by Otho the Rich, Margrave of Meissen. Markets were held at 
Leipzig biennially at 'Jubilate' and Michaelmas, but it was not until the 
15th cent., that the Leipzig Fairs attained any great importance. In 1497 
and 1507 the Emp. Maximilian confirmed the privileges of the town by pro- 
hibiting markets to be held at any town within a wide circle around, and 
by guaranteeing a safe-conduct to all the frequenters of the Leipzig fairs. 
The trade of Leipzig was temporarily depressed by the various wars of 
the 17th and 18th cent., but the fairs retained their importance until the 
development of new commercial methods fostered by railways and tele- 
graphs. They are now to be looked on as Sample or Commission Meetings 
rather than as occasions for the actual sale and transference of goods. 
The Jubilate Fair lasts from the first Mon. in March till the following 
Sat., the Michaelmas Fair lasts three weeks beginning Avith the last 
Sun. in August. The focus of business is the Kaufhaus (p. 242), but the 
traffic in the Peters-Str. and the Grimmaische-Str. is also very brisk. 
The wares exhibited include pottery, glass, paper, leather, and articles in 
wood. After London, Leipzig is the chief seat of the fur-trade. 

Leipzig is still more important as the centre of the Book Trade of Ger- 
many, a position which it has occupied since the middle of the 18th century. 

Baedeker's N. Germany. 15th Edit. 16 

240 Boute 34. LEIPZIG. Museum. 

There are 900 publishers' offices and booksellers' shops and over 170 printing- 
offices in the town, and publishers in other parts of Germany almost 
invariably have depots of their books at Leipzig, whence they are sent 
to all parts of Europe and more distant countries. On the Monday after 
Cantate (fourth Sun. after Easter) the yearly balancing of accounts takes 
place (p. 245). 

On the E. side of the old town the promenades are interrupted 
by the spacious Augustus- Pi. atz (PL D, 4; //), which is enclosed 
by the Xew Theatre, the Xuseum, the University (p. 241), and the 
Post Office. The monumental fountain (Mende-Brunnen) in front 
of the Museum, by Gnauth. was erected in 1886. 

The New Theatre PI. D, 4; //), a handsome building in the 
Renaissance style, designed by K. F. Langhans, was completed in 
1867. The back of the building, with its semicircular projecting 
terrace, adjoins the Schwanenteich, a miniature lake, producing a 
very picturesque effect. 

Opposite the theatre stands the * Museum (Vl. D, 4: 11). 
erected from designs by L. Lange in 1858 and enlarged by Licht 
in 1883-86. On the groundfloor are the sculptures and on the first 
floor the picture-gallery, including an excellent modern collection. 

The Museum is open daily, 10-4 (10-3 in winter. Sun. 10.30-3, Mon. 
12-4;: adm. on Mon. IJC. Tues., Thurs., and Sat. 50 pf., Sun., Wed., and 
Frid. free. Director, Professor Schreiber. Catalogue (1903) 1 JC. 

Ground Floor. To the right are the rooms of the Kmutverein 
(adm. 1 c^ . To the left are the ticket-office and the cloak-room, beyond 
which is Room I : Sketches, water-colours, and cartoons bj' Genclli. — 
EooMs XL VI: Water-colours and drawings, by Schwind. Menzel, Leibl, 
Richter, and others. — Corridor Via: 269. Permoser, Condemnation 
(marble) ; 480. TJmhrian School, Fresco of the Archangel Michael, said to 
have been removed from the cathedral at Orvieto (ca. 1500). — Rooms VII-IX: 
Casts of Italian sculjjtures of the 14-17th centuries. R, VIII. also contains 
medallions of the Italian Renaissance and some admirable modern works 
by Jlax Klinger. — To the right is a room with casts \iY Michael Anyelo. — 
Room IX. To the right, 154. Jlurillo (?). Madonna; to the left of the 
exit, 485. B. Mainardi (*?;. Adoration of the Shepherds. — Room X: Casts 
of modern works. Here also are original works in marble by Thorvaldsen 
(80. Ganymede and the eagle). Pauch, Pktschel. Donndorf, Duret, etc. — 
To the left is the entrance to a Separate Room (adm. 1 JC), containing 
KUnger's *Statue of Beethoven, a wonderful work in coloured marble, 
bronze, and ivory. — Room XL Bequest of Alexander Schmidt-Michelsen: 
chiefly works by himself and by modern French artists. 

Middle Floor. Room I. Sixteen Cartoons by Fr. Preller the Elder, 
for his landscapes illustrative of the Odyssey at Weimar (p. 272). — 
Room II. By the entrance, Franz Stuck, 287. 'Athlete. 288. Mounted Amazon 
^statuettes) : opposite, 155. 147. Marble statues of Phidias by Schillina, 
and of Raphael by Ho.hnel. To the left. 658. G. Koch, Cavalry episode 
in the battle of Sedan ; to the right, 550. Uhde, ''Sufi"er little children to 
come unto Me' : 725. Volkjimnn.YdiUey in the Eif el ; 728. Haug, Storming 
of the Grimma gate at Leipzig on Oct.*19th, 1813; *849. Menzel, Gustavus 
Adolphus and his wife at Hanau : 761. Sc7i07i?€5e?\ Venetian fishing-boats. 
— Room IV. To the left, 199, 198. Ludwig Pichter, Landscapes; 528. 
Schirind. Ride of Kuno von Falkeustein; 120. Jos. A. Koch, Ideal land- 
scape : 270. Veit. Germania: 201. Pichter. Evening-scene: 4:14.. A. Pethel, 
SS. Peter and John. 

Room V (to the right). Xo. 224. Schrader, Frederick the Great after 
the battle of Kolin; 726. Fr. Preller the Younger, Roman landscape; 

Museum. LEIPZIGr. 34. Route. 241 

520. Pohle, Ludwig Richter ; 698. Schleich, Chiemscc ; 220. Schirmer, Land- 
scape ; 674. K. F. Lessing, Mountain-scene. — The Loggia, to the left, 
contains portraits of Leipzig worthies. — In front is Room VI. To the 
right, 856. Fritz Thaalow, The blue factory in Flanders ; above, 723. Max 
Liehermann, On the Dunes; 709. Hans Thoma, Landscape; 83.3. Max 
Klingcr, The blues ; Fatersou, After the flood ; 862. Leistikoiv, Park at 
Friedrichsruh ; 769. W. Leibl, Expectation ; 846. Skarbina, Church at 
Furnes in Flanders ; 864. Erler, Festival of St. John. — Room YII. To 
the left, 699. Wcnglein, Autumn in the valley of the Isar ; 268. Vautier, 
Peasants playing cards after church surprised by their wives ; above, 
540. Griltzner, Convent library; 488. Defregger, Grace before meat; 
584. Spitziveg, Maidens on the Aim ; H. Ziigel, Sheep ; 738. 31. Lieher- 
mann, Making preserves; 473. Rosenthal, Seb. Bach's morning-prayer; 
543. 0. Achenbach, Gulf of Naples by moonlight; 487. A. Achenbach, 
Mills ; 537. Jos. Brandt, Departure for the chase ; 779. Otto Greiner, 
Ulysses and the Sirens ; 702. J. E. Schindler, Valley of peace. — Room VIII. 
*775. Bocklin, Spring hymn; 585. Gabr. Max, Madonna and Child; *563. 
Bocklin, Island of the Dead; above, 754. A. Baclimann, The sea; 497. E. 
von Gebhardt, In the days of the Reformation; 752. Franz Stuck, Portrait 
of himself; 767. T/ioma, Wonders of the deep ; 750. Sega7itini, Portrait. — • 
Room IX. 730. H. Neuhaus, Prodigal Son (triptych); 777. A. Kampf, 
National devotion in 1813. — Room X. 764. Palmie, Tavern ; 614. H. Zugel, 
Sheep. — Room XI. 713. Herkomer, Emigrants. — Room XII. Lenbach, 
601. Emp. William I. (1886), 697. King Albert of Saxony, 600, 716. Prince 
Bismarck (1887 & 1894), 715. Count Moltke, 735. Richard Wagner ; 710. 
Leempoels, In the church ; *530. Feuerbach, Serenade by children ; 770. F. A. 
Kaulbach, Max von Pettenkofer ; *278. Meunier, Burden-bearer (bronze). 

Room XIII. 749. Keller -Reutling en. Twilight. — Room XIV. 696. 
E. Zimmermann, Christus Consolator ; 731. Kurt Stoving, Max Klinger; 
848. j¥e?mier. Women-miners. — Room XV. 714. Fii'le, Faith (triptych) ; 
695. Compton, Pennine Alps. 

Room XVI. 834. John Lavery, Venus. — Room XVII. Paintings by 
Ve^'boeckhofen, Calame, and K. Fr. Lessing. — Room XVIII. Landscapes 
by Rottmann and Koekkoek. — Room XIX. Paintings by H. Bilrkel, M. 
Neher, and J. von Filhi'ich. — Room XX. Paintings of the 18th century. 
37. Chodowiecki, Berlin Tiergarten ; 527. Kolbe, Goethe (1825); 407. 
Tischbein, Schiller (1805). Portraits by Ant. Graff, including a portrait of 
himself (1809). — Rooms XXI & XXII. Netherlandish Works of the 17th 
century, including a portrait of himself by Rembrandt (347; sketch). — 
Rooms XXIII & XXIV. Early German works. L. Cranach the Elder, 40. 
Epitaph of Dr. Schmitburg (1518), 757. Nymph resting; 511. Ja7i vanEyck, 
Portrait; 510. Schongauer, Madonna of the roses. — Rooms XXV-XVII. 
Thieme Collection (Netherlandish works of the 17th cent.). — Room XVIII. 
Gottschald Collection, chiefly Dutch works, including a portrait of an 
old man by Rembrandt (ca. 1630). — Room XXIX. French works: 55. 
Delaroche, Napoleon I. at Fontainebleau in 1814; 98. Gudln, Sea-piece. — 
Room XXX. 241. Troyon, Cattle ; 275. Vej'boeckhoven, Sheep in a thunder- 
storm ; Calame, *28. Landslide in the Hasli valley, *26. Oaks in a storm, 
*25. Monte Rosa, *27. Psestum. 

From either R. XVI or R. XXIV. we may ascend to the Upper Rooms, 
containing the Collection of Engravings, presented by Dr. C. Lampe 
(catalogue 1 JC). 

The University Buildings (PI. D, 4; //), handsomely re- 
stored in 1894-96, include the Augtisteum, on the W. side of the 
Augustus-Platz, erected in 1831-36 from designs by Schinkel, and 
also the Fridericianum., the Mauricianum, the Bornerianum^ etc. 
In the court is a bronze statue of G. W. von Leibnitz (b. at Leipzig in 
1646)j by Hahnel. The University, founded in 1409, is now attended 
by over 4200 students. 


242 Boide 34. LEIPZIG. Market Place. 

The spacious Waiting Hall of the Augusteum contains a monument to 
students who fell in the war of 1870-71, a marble statue of king Frederick 
Augustus of Saxony, by Seffner (1909). a number of busts of professors, 
and two frescoes by Fr. Preller the Younger (Prometheus and the Castle 
of TVettin). In the Aula are twelve reliefs by Rietschel. illustrative of the 
development of civilization, and mural paintings by Klinger (1909), re- 
presenting Homer (1.). Plato, and Aristotle (r.). — The Archaeological 
Museum is open on Sun.. 11-1. during the session. 

The adjacent Pauliner-Kirche (PL 10, D 4; //) was founded 
in the 13th cent, and rebuilt in 1897-99. The church contains 
a painted wooden figure of Margrave Diezmann of Meissen (assas- 
sinated in St. Thomas's in 1307i and another of St. Dominic (early 
15th cent.? I. — To the S.'W. of the Museum rises a Statue ofThaer, 
the agriculturist 'd. 1828), by Rietschel (1850). 

The- busy Grimmaische-Strasse (PL D, 4; //), which contains 
several handsome old houses, particularly Xo. 30 fon the left, at 
the corner of L"niversitats-Str. >, the Fiirstenhaus^ completed about 
1558, leads from the Augustus-Platz to the market-place. The old 
Geicandhaus (comp. p. 245) or Hall of the Foreign Cloth Merchants, 
Universitats-Str. 16. well known for the famous concerts which took 
place here from 1781 to 1884, was converted into the Stadtische 
Kaufhaus <PL D, 4; 11) in 1896. On the first floor is the Muni- 
cijyal Library (open 10-1 and 3-6, Mon. &: Thurs. 10-1), containing 
123,000 vols, and 1500 MSS. 

The Grimmaische-Str. next passes the Handelshof (PI. 7 a, 
D 4; //), another municipal 'Kaufhaus' (^1909j, adjoining which 
on the W. is the small Xaschmarkt, with the Old Exchange., erected 
in 1678-82. and a bronze Statue of Goethe, by Seffner. represent- 
ing the poet at the period of his student-days in Leipzig (1765-68). 
Opposite, at Grimmaische-Str. 2, is Auerbach's Keller (p. 237), 
celebrated as the scene of a part of Goethe's Faust, with curious 
mural paintings of the 16th cent, (restored in 1863), representing 
the tradition on which the play was based. 

The centre of the old town is occupied by the quaint *Market 
Place PL C, 4; II k whence radiate the Grimmaische-Str. on the 
E.. the busy Peters- Str. on the S., the Thomasgasse on the W., 
and the Katharinen-Str. and Hain-Str. on the X. The square is 
embellished with a War Monument, by Siemering, erected in 
1888. This is surmounted by a Germania: in front of the pedestal 
is a seated figure of Emp. AVilliam I., and at the corners are eques- 
trian figures of Crown -Prince Frederick William, King Albert of 
Saxony. Moltke. and Bismarck. — On the E. side of the market- 
place rises the Old Rathaus (PL C, D, 4, //; comp. p. 243), 
built by Hieronymus Lotter in 1556 and practically rebuilt in 1907. 
It will contain a Municipal Museum. 

The X. part of the old town is intersected by the wide Bruhl 
PL D, 4; //), a great resort of the Jewish frequenters of the fairs, 


New Rathaus. LEIPZIG. 34. Route. 243 

and containing the offices of many wholesale fur-dealers, which 
runs from the Groethe-Str., on the E., to the Theater-Platz (see 
below), on the W. Richard Wagner (1813-83), the composer, was 
born at No. 3 in this street (rebuilt), near the W. end. — On the 
Promenade to the N of the old town are the Permanent Ex- 
hibition of Machinery and Furniture (PI. 6, D 4, //; adm. daily, 
10 pf.), the Exchange (PI. D, 3; //), a handsome building of 
1884-86, the Reformed Church (PL 11, C 3; //), built in 1896-99, 
and a fountain by linger (1903). 

At the W. end of the Briihl is the Theater-Platz, in which stands 
the Old Theatre (PL C, 3; //), built about 1770, near which is a 
monument to Hahnemann (d. 1843), the homoeopathist. 

A small monument at the end of the Ranstadter Steinweg (PL C, 3 ; //) 
commemorates the premature blowing up of the bridge by the French on 
19th Oct., 1813, which proved so fatal to their rear-guard. The spot 
where Prince Poniatowski was drowned in the Elster on that occasion is 
indicated by a monument with the Polish eagle (PL C 4, JI; Lcssing-Str.). 

Following the Promenade to the S. from Hahnemann's monu- 
ment, we pass on the left the Church of St. Matthew (PL 8,04; //), 
built in 1494-1504 (restored 1879), and beyond it, also to the left, 
the Church of St. Thomas (PL 0, 4; //), with its lofty and con- 
spicuous roof, consecrated in 1496 (restored 1885-89). Motett, sung 
by the boys of the Thomas-Schule, of which J. S. Bach was 'cantor' 
in 1723-50, see p. 238. In the square on the S. side of the church 
is a Statue of Bachj by Seifner (1908). 

To the W. of St. Thomas's Church are the Central Theatre 
(PL 4, II; see p. 238) and the Kunstlerhaus (PL 15, 4, II; 
restaurant). — In the Schul-Str. is the Commercial Academy 
('Handels-Hochschule' ; PL 7, 4, //), founded in 1898. 

The S.W. corner of the inner town is now occupied by the 
*!N'e"W Rathaus (PL 0, 4; //), an imposing structure in the Ger- 
man Renaissance style, erected in 1899-1905 from Licht's designs, 
on the site of the Pleissenhurg , formerly the citadel, the tower 
(view; elevator) of which has been partially retained and recon- 
structed. The plastic decoration is by Georg Wrba and others. 
Visitors are admitted on week-days 1-3.30 and on Sun. 9.30-1 
(1-6 pers. 1^2 ^/ tickets obtained in the Rathauswache, on the W. 
side). Opposite the entrance to the Ratskeller (see p. 237), at the 
N.E. corner, rises a fountain by Wrba. 

To the W., on the other side of the Pleisse, is the Roman 
Catholic Church of the Trinity (PL C, 4; //), beyond which we 
may cross the N. end of the Johanna Park (PL C, 4) to the Anglo- 
American Church (PL 4, B 4, I; see p. 239). The Karl-Tauchnitz- 
Strasse, a street with handsome residences, skirts the Johanna Park 
and leads to the S. to the Racecourse (p. 246), passing (near its 
intersection with the Beethoven-Str. ; PL B, 5, 6) a bronze Statue 
of Bismarck, by Lehnert and Magr (1897). 

244 ^oute 34. LEIPZIG-. Imperial Courts. 

The Koxigs-Platz (PL C, 4, 5; //; lias a poor marble Statue 
of King Frederick Augustus I, by Oeser. 

The S. side of this square is occupied by the *Grassi Museum 
CPl. C. 5: //), containing Ethnographical said Art- Indust^^ial Col- 
lections. Open free daily, except Mon., 10-3 (Sun. and holidays, 
10.30-3). The building was erected in 1893-96 by H. Licht, from 
a bequest by Herr F. D. Grassi kL 1880). 

The centre of the front building is occupied by the imposing stair- 
case. — ART-IyDusTRiAL MusEUM. To the right, on the groundfloor, are the 
collection of pottery, a rich collection of wrought iron-work, medallions, 
and plaquettes. On the first floor are collections of fayence and glass ; 
works of the Italian Renaissance: ecclesiastical objects; the extensive 
collection of textiles: the valuables belonging to the city of Leipzig; 
works in tin: and works in wood and ivory, including a' collection of 
furniture, ending in a handsome Renaissance room from the castle of 
Flims in the Grisons. — The *Eth^oCxRaphical Museum is the richest 
collection of the kind in Germany next to that in Berlin. The African 
bronzes from Benin (staircase) should be noted. — On the second floor is 
a Geographical Museum. 

To the E. of the Konigs-Platz is the Ross-Platz (PL D, 4; //), 
with a fountain by W. Stein (1906j. 

The *Iinperial Supreme Courts (Beichsgerichts-Gehdude; 
PL C 5. // .. to the W. of the Konigs-Platz, built in 1888-95 from the 
plans of Ludicig Hoffmann, form a worthy pendant to the Hall of 
the Imperial Diet at Berlin ip. 21 >. both in skilful arrangement and 
in imposing architecture, though the limited sum fabout 350,000/.) 
set apart for the building has prevented alike the use of costly 
materials and a lavish employment of sculptured ornament. The 
central edifice is crowned by a conspicuous copper-sheathed dome, 
224 ft. in height, upon which stands a bronze figure of Truth, by 
0. Lessing, 18 ft. high. The E. side, with an imposing portico of 
six Corinthian pillars, contains the principal court -room; the X. 
winof contains the librarv; the ^. wino^ accommodates the six courts 
of law or senate-rooms; and the S. wing is devoted to the dwelling 
and reception rooms of the President of the Court. 

The sittings of the imperial courts are open to the public. Visitors 
who desire to inspect the building should apply for cards of admission 
at the office (-Kanzlei-Direktion'j between 3 and 5 p.m. on Wed. & Sat. 
or from the castellan 'fee . "We pass through the handsome wrought-iron 
gates on the E. side and enter the main vestibule, beyond which are the 
great ^Waiting Room and the staircase. This imposing room (109 ft. 
long. 75 ft. broad, and 76 ft. high) is adorned with sculpture referring 
to the condemning and the acquitting powers of justice, while the stained 
glass in the semicircular windows illustrates the entire sphere of German 
legislation, — The Court Rooms are plainly fitted up with oak panelling 
of different patterns : but the Large Hall r'for the meeting of the united 
'Senates' or judicial benches) is more elaborately adorned. — The corridors 
leading to the rooms of the judges are shut off from the central building 
by artistic iron gates. 

To the W. of the Imperial Courts is the University Library 
(PL C, 5; //j, completed in 1891. containing 550.000 vols, and 
6000 MSS. ("open daily 9-1 and. Sat. excepted. 3-5;. On the staircase 

Booksellers' Exchange. LEIPZIGr. 34. Route. 245 

are scenes from the Odyssey by Fr. Preller (1834). — Opposite 
is the Gewandhaus (PI. C, 5, //; comp. pp. 238, 242), designed 
by Gropius & Schmieden (1884). The sculptures in the pediment, 
by Schilling^ represent Apollo and the Shepherds. In front of the 
Gewandhaus, to the E., is a monument, by Werner Stein, to Felix 
Mendelssokn Barfholdy (1809-184:1)^ conductor of the Gewandhaus 
Concerts (p. 242) in 1835-1841, 1842, and 1846-47. - To the N. of 
the University Library is the Royal Academy of the Graphic Arts 
and to the W. is the Royal Conservator ium of Music (PL C, 5 ; //), 
one of the most famous in Europe. 

To the W. is the important industrial suburb oi Flagwitz (tram- 
way, p. 238), in which is the *Palnien-Garten (PL A 4, /; see 
p. 238), with a palm-house, a large concert-hall, and pretty grounds. 

The Church of St. John (PL D, 4; //), 1/4 M. to the E. of the 
Augustus-Platz, was rebuilt in 1894-97 in the style of the original 
church (17th cent.). The remains of Johann Sebastian Bach (p. 243) 
and of the poet Gellert (d. 1769), who was a professor of the uni- 
versity of Leipzig, are interred here. A chapel to the right of the 
choir contains a carved altar of the 16th century. In front of the 
W. portal stands the Reformation Monument, with bronze statues 
of Luther and Melanchthon by Schilling (1883). 

In the Hospital-Strasse, running to the S. past St. John's Cem- 
etery, rises the Buchhandlerhaus (Booksellers^ Exchange; 
PL 2, E, 4, 5, /; comp. p. 239), an imposing edifice in the German 
Renaissance style. Besides a large hall, it contains the archives 
and library of the Society of German Booksellers and a restaurant. 
— Behind it, to the N., is the handsome Buchgewerbehaus 
(Book Industries^ House; PL 1, E 4, /; adm. free on week-days 9-6, 
Sun. 11-4), containing the Gutenherghalle, a large and splendidly 
decorated hall, with paintings by Sascha Schneider, a statue of 
Gutenberg, and busts of Konig, the inventor of the power-printing- 
press (d. 1833), and Senefelder, the inventor of lithography (d. 1834). 
It also accommodates the interesting Museum of the Book Trade. 

The nucleus of the Museum of the Book Trade was formed by 
the valuable Klemm Collection of specimens of early printing, acquired 
by the Saxon government in 1886. Among these is a series of specimens 
from the 18 towns that possessed printing-presses before the year 1471, 
arranged in clironological order, comprising works by Gutenberg (the famous 
42-line Bible, Mayence, 1450-55), Fust, and Schoffer. In connection with 
these is another rich collection illustrating the technical processes in the 

E reduction of books (printing, wood-cutting, engraving, lithography, book- 
inding, etc.) by means of models and proofs. 

Environs of Leipzig. The ""Rosental (PL A-C, 2, 3; /), 
with its pleasant meadows and fine woods, is embellished with a 
marble statue of Gellert and with busts of the composer Zollner 
(d. 1860) and the philosopher G. T. Fechner (1801-87). Near the 
entrance are the Bonorand Restaurant (p. 238) and the Zoological 
Garden (p. 238). — To the N. of the Rosental lies Gohlis, with 

246 Boide 84. LEIPZIG. . Environs. 

the Schiller House (PL 5, C 2, 7; Mencke-Str. 42 : adm. 50 pf.), with 
an inscription recording that Schiller there composed his 'Ode to 
Joy'. — Farther to the X. lies Mockern ip. 253), with barracks. To 
the E. is Eutritzsch, where 'Gose' (p. 237), may be tasted at the 
Gosenschenke, in the market-place (PL D, 1 ; /). 

To the S.AV. of Leipzig, skirting the Pleisse, stretch the ex- 
tensive Connewitz Woods, traversed by pretty drives and walks. 
Conneicitz (Wald-Cafe; PL C 8, /) may be reached from the Ger- 
maniabad (p. 238 : PL B 6, /), by a pleasant footpath on the right bank 
of the Pleisse in 3; 4 hr. Another ronte leads from the King Alhert 
Park (PL B, 5; 7) through the 'Scheibenholz' and past the Race- 
course (PL B,C, 6, 7; restaurant '. turns to the left beyond the bridge, 
reaches the (25 niin.) Linie (PL B, 7; I), and follows this to (^'4 hr.) 
the Wald-Cafe. The return may be made by tramway ('p. 238). 

The Battle of Leipzig, which lasted four* days, 16-19th Oct., 1813, 
is the most prolonged and sanguinary on record. It was conducted on 
both sides by some of the greatest generals of modern times. Xapoleou's 
forces numbered 140-150.000 men. of whom 90.000 survivors only began the 
retreat to the Rhine on 19th Oct. ; the allied troops were 300,000 strong. 
The Russians lost 21.000 men. the Austrians 14.000. the Prussians 16.000. 
The entire number of cannon brought into the field is estimated at 2000. — 
The scene of the engagement of the decisive 18th Oct. is perhaps best 
viewed from the Xapoleonstein (PL F, 7 ; /), situated on a height planted 
with trees, whence the progress of the battle was watched by Napoleon. 
A large battle-monument, by Bruno Schmitz . is being erected in the 
neighbourhood. The neighbouring Gasthaus zum Xapoleonstein contains 
an extensive and interesting collection of reminiscences of the battle and 
other relics of the period (adm. 50 pf.). The village of Probstheida. 
3 4 M. to the S.E.. was the centre of the French position. Xear the Par^' 
Meusdorf (inn). IVo M. farther on, a monument commemorates Prince 
Schwarzenberg. the general of the allied forces (d. 1820;. On the Monarchen- 
Hugel. a hill by the roadside, 1/4 ^- farther on. rises an iron Obelisk on 
the spot, where, according to an erroneous tradition, the three monarchs 
(Russia. Austria. Prussia) received the tidings of the victory on the even- 
in? of 18th October. 

35. Prom Berlin to (Halle and) Leipzig. 

Express Traix to (100 M.; Halle in 2-23/^ hrs., to (107 M.) Leipzig 
(Bavarian Station) in 2^U-2^;^ hrs. (fares 15^^ 10, 9 tJ( 80, 6 ^^ 10 pf.). 

From Berlin to (39i . M.) Jilterhog , see R. 28b. — 43 M. 
Xiedergorsdorf, 1^ o M. to the X.AV. of which is a monument com- 
memorating the battle of Dennewitz (see p. 174). 

151/2 M. "Wittenberg. — Hotels. "^Kaiserliof {V\. aj D, 2), with 
garden, well spoken of: Goldcne Weintrauhe (PI. b; B, 2). R. 21/4-5, D. 
2 .^; Adler (PI. c; C, 2;. R. lV..-2i;4. D. li ., .41. —Restaurants. Railicay 
Besiaurant: i?«»re.' Schloss-Str. 33 (PL B. 2. 3 : wine); Luther-Halle, 
Burgermeister-Str. 21 (PL B. 1. 2) : Cafe Mai'lctscJiloss, in the market-place. 

"The Bailicay Station is 1/2 ^- ^^^'^ the town; tramway to the market- 
place (10 pf.). About 2i;2-3 iirs. suffice for a visit to the town. 

Wittenberg (240 ft.), on the Elbe, with 20,300 inhab., a fort- 
ress down to 1873. and one of the cradles of the Reformation, is 

WITTENBERa. 35. Route. 247 

mentioned in a document of 1180 and was a residence of the Dukes 
and Electors of Saxony from 1212 to 1422. Some of the Wettin 
princes also resided here in the 16th century. 

Following the tramway-line from the Railway Station (PL E, 
F, 1), we observe on the right, outside the Elster-Tor, an oak sur- 
rounded by a small garden (PI. D, E, 2), whicli is said to mark the 
spot where Luther burned the papal bull on 10th Dec, 1520. 

We next enter the KoUegien-Strasse, on the left side of which 
(No. 54) rises the Augasteum, erected in 1564-83, and now a theo- 
logical seminary. The court contains Luther^s House (PL D, 2), 
being part of the old Augustine monastery, where 'Brother Augustine' 
took up his residence in 1508, when summoned from Erfurt to 
occupy the chair of philosophy at the university of Wittenberg. At 
a later period also the house was occupied by the great Reformer, 
and it was presented to him by the Elector in 1526. It passed to 
the university in 1564 and fell into a state of great dilapidation, 
from which it was restored in 1840. The portal to the right of the 
tower dates from 1540. The first floor is fitted up as a ^Liithei'- 
Halle% or Liither Museum (adm. 1-2 pers. 50 pf., 3-6 pers. 1 o#). 

The Vestibule contains a Crucifixion by Ormiach the Younger and 
other pictures. In the cabinet is Luther's drinking-goblet (broken). — 
In Luther's Room are Luther's table, bench, and stove of coloured tiles. — 
Room 3 is adorned with modern paintings. — The Corner Room contains 
the remains of Luther's pulpit from the Stadt-Kirche, and portraits of 
*Luther (1526), Luther and Catharine (1528), ^Magdalen Luther, and *Bugen- 
hagen (1537), by Cranach the Elder. The 'Vineyard of the Lord', with alle- 
gorical allusions and portraits of the Reformers, is by Crayiach the Younger 
(1509). In the glass-case are old translations of the Bible. — Room 5 
contains a cartoon by Konig, representing Luther at his translation of 
the Bible, wood-cuts, engravings, and paintings, including the Ten Com- 
mandments by Cranach the Elder. In the glass-cases are medals, auto- 
graphs, Luther's betrothal-ring, and printed books and pamphlets. — 
Room 6. Model of the Luther Monument in Worms (by RietschelJ. First 
editions of works by Luther and his friends and foes. Documents. — 
The Aula, or lecture-room of Luther, contains an old 'Cathedra', with 
the arms of the four faculties of Wittenberg university, and portraits of 
Luther, Melanchthon, and the Electors of Saxony. 

In the same street, a little farther on, is Melanchthon'' s House 
(PI. 5; No. 60; tablet); the room in which the reformer died is on 
the first floor. In the garden is a stone table with an inscription of 
1551. — The adjacent Infantry Barracks were once occupied by 
the famous University founded by Elector Frederick the Wise in 
1502, of which Luther (1508), Melanchthon (1518), Bugenhagen, 
and other celebrities were members. 

In the Market Place (PL B, 2), is the 16th cent. Bathaus (re- 
stored in 1768), containing the municipal archives; in front, under 
Gothic canopies, rise bronze statues of Luther ^ by Schadow (1821), 
and Melanchthon, by Drake (1865). 

To the E. of the ^narket- place is the Stadt-Kirche (PL C, 2), 
dating from the 14th cent., but afterwards much altered, in which 

248 I^oute 35. WITTEXBERa. 

Luther frequently preached; and here in 1522 the Holy Communion 
was for the first time administered in both kinds (sacristan, in the 
Superintendentur. see below; 1-2 pers. 50 pf., 3-5 pers. 1 ^). 

The high-altar-piece is from the studio of Lucas Cranach the Elder., 
representing the Holy Eucharist, with Baptism and Confession at the sides, 
and portraits of the Reformers Melanchthon and Bugenhagen ; below is 
Luther preaching. To the left of the altar are a Nativity and Crucifixion 
by Cranach the Younger. The paintings on the back of the altar are 
by Cranach the Elder. On the right wall is the fine marble epitaph of 
the Younger Cranach ,'d. 1586\ by Seb. Walther (early 17th cent.)- The Font 
was cast by Hermann Vischer of Nuremberg in 1457. — In the sacristy, 
to the left of the chancel, is the Conversion of St. Paul, the last work 
of Cranach the Younger. 

The Corjms Christi Chapel (PL 4; C, 2), to the S. of the Stadt- 
Kirche, dates from the 14th century. — A bust of Bugenhagen has 
been erected in front of the Superintendentur (PL C, 2), where he 
died in 1558. 

Xo. 1, Schloss-Strasse, the continuation of the Kollegien-Str., 
is the dwelling-house of Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553), 
the painter, who was once burgomaster of Wittenberg: it has been 
frequently restored. In the court is an old staircase-turret. — The 
Schloss-Strasse leads to the old Electoral Palace^ built in 1490-99. 
It has been burned down several times, and is now used as barracks. 

The Schloss-Kirche (PL A, B, 3), erected in 1493-99, seriously 
injured by the bombardment of 1760, and again in 1813-14, was 
restored in 1885-92 ^sacristan. Schloss-Str. 12). The tower on the 
W. side is 289 ft. in height; below the gallery, in huge letters, 
are the first words of 'Eine feste Burg'. 

The wooden doors (X. side) to which Luther affixed his famous 95 Theses 
were burned in 1760. and replaced in 1858 by Metal Doors ('Thesen-Tiir''), 
10 ft. in height, bearing the original Latin text of the theses. 

I:^TERioR. The heroes of the Reformation are commemorated by 
modern statues, medallions, and coats-of-arms. To the right of the entrance 
is a brass below which 27 members of the Ascanian dj-nastj' are buried. 
On the S. wall are the brasses of Elector Rudolf II. (d. 1350), his wife, 
and his daughter. In front of the pulpit are brazen slabs with Latin 
inscriptions which mark the graves of Luther (d, at Eisleben, 1546) and 
Melanchthon (d. at Wittenberg. 1560). To the right of Luther's grave is 
the brass of Henning Groden. with a coronation of the Virgin, by Peter 
Yischer. 1521 Treplica at Erfurt, see p. 266). To the left of the altar, 
on the X. wall of the choir, is the brazen memorial of Elector Frederick 
the Wise (d. 1525). by Peter Yischer the Younger, cast at Nuremberg in 
1527. and to the right is that of John the Constant (d. 1532), by Hans 
Yischer ;i534;. The portraits of the Reformers, in the Sacristy, are by 
Lucas Cranach the Younger (1354). 

In front of the Schloss-Kirche is a bronze Statue of Emp. 
Frederick III., by Arnold .1894.. 

FromWittenbergto RossJau ami Kohlfurf, see -p. 253 : to Torgau{ip. 253), 
28 M.. in about 2V4"hrs. 

The train crosses the Elbe and aftords us a retrospect of Witten- 
berg. — 72 M. Grafenhmnichen, the birthplace of Paul Gerhardt 
<'1607-76\ the hymn-writer. — 75 M. Burgkemnitz., with a hand- 

COTHEN. 56\ Route. 249 

some chateau. We cross the Midde. — 82 M. Bitterfeld (Kaiser- 
hof)^ with 13,300 inhab., and manufactories of earthenware piping, 
the junction for (100 M.) Halle (p. 250) and Dessau (p. 254). 

At (89 M.) Delitzsch the Leipzig train passes under the Halle, 
Cottbus, and Guben railway (see p. 252). — 101 M. Leipzig (Bei-lin 
Station) and (107 M.) Leipzig (Bavarian Station)^ see p. 237. 

36. From Hamburg to Leipzig 
via Magdeburg. 

There are two lines of railway from Hamburg to Magdeburg, and 
also two from Magdeburg to Leipzig, so that this journey may be accom- 
plished in four different ways. The most direct route, on which through- 
carriages are always provided, is via Uelzen, Stendal, Magdeburg, and 
Halle (see below). 

a. Via Magdeburg, Cothen, and Halle. 

2291/2 M. Railway in 6-91/2 hrs. (express-fares 30 JC 50, 19 JC GO, 12 JC 
60 pf. ; ordinary fares 28 c^ 50, 17 ^ 60, 11 JC 60 pf .). 

From Hamburg to (53 M.) Uelzen, see R. 17. The line to Stendal 
and Magdeburg here diverges from that to Hanover. The country 
traversed is flat and uninteresting. 84 M. Salzwedel, see p. 40. 

Unimportant stations. llO^/g ^- Stendal (junction for Berlin, 
see p. 39). Farther on the train runs along the bank of the Elbe 
to (156 M.) Magdeburg (p. 49). 

Another route from Hamburg to Magdeburg is by the line to the N. 
of the Elbe via Wittenberge, which is 13 M. longer (to Leipzig 2421/2 M., 
in 6-8 hrs.; same fares as above). From Hamburg to (99 M.) Wittenbe'rge, 
see R. 24. The Elbe is then crossed, and a fiat district traversed. At 
(130 M.) Stendal the line unites with that above described. 

158 M. Magehurg - Buckau (p. 53). — 1651/2 ^- Schonebeck 
(Hotel Landhaus), a manufacturing place (17,800 inhab.). 

Schonebeck is the point of divergence of the line from Magdeburg 
TO GiJSTEN (271/2 M., in 3/^-11/4 hr.).— H M. (l^/^M. from Schonebeck) Elmen- 
Salze (Kurhaus ; Voigt), with saline baths. — 23 M. Stassfurt {Steinkopff', 
R. 2-4, D. 2-3 JC), with very extensive deposits of potassic and magnesium 
salt, underlain by mines of rock-salt (best visited in afternoon, after 
application the previous day). A branch-line runs to Blumenherg on the 
Magdeburg and Oschersleben line (p. 311). — At (271/2 M.) Glisten the line 
joins the Berlin and Cassel railway (R. 47). 

168^ 2^^- Gnadau, a Moravian settlement (460 inhab.); 173 M. 
Grizehne, station for Calhe an der Saale (p. 303), 2 M. to the W. 

1681/^ M. Cothen (265 ft.; Rumpfs, R. 2-21/2 ^; Kaiser- 
hof, R. 13^/4, D. 13 ^ ^/i; Rail. Restaurant), with 23,000 inhab., the 
former capital of the duchy of Anhalt-COthen, contains a technical 
institute and several sugar and chemical works. In the market- 
place are the Rathaus (1900) and the Gothic Church of St. James 
(15th cent.). Naumann's Ornithological Collection in the Schloss 
(16th cent.) deserves mention. 

250 ^-oute 36. HALLE. From Hamhurg 

From Cothex to Ascherslebex. 27i ., M., railway in 11/4 hr. — 121/2 M. 
Bernburg 'Goldene Kugel : Kaiserhof, R. from 3V2,'D. li/V^.^; Leistner, 
R. 13^-214.^. a pleasant town with 35.000 inhab., a late-Gothic church, 
and a fine old Schloss (14-18th cent.). From (20 M.) Glisten a branch-line 
runs to Stassfurt (p. 249). — 271/0 M. Aschersleben (p. 310). 

From Cothen to Dessau, see p. 257. 

To the right rises the Petersherg (p. 252). 

209 M. Halle. — Hotels. Xear the Station: *Grand-H6teI Berges 
(PI. a; F. 7}; Goldene Kugel (PL b; F, 7). R. 21/4-5. B. 1, D. 13/^.21/2^, 
good: Continental (PI. c: F, 7) : Preussischer Hof (PL e; F, 7). R. 2-5^ 
B. 1. D. lV.>-3 JC; Europa (PL d ; F. 7). — In the Town : ^Stcudt Hamburg 
(PL f : D. E. 5;. R. 2i/o-5, B. I1/4. D. 3 .^; Goldener Ring (PL h: D. 6), 
R. 21/4^; Tulpe (PL i : b, 5) : 3Ietropole (PL k ; E. 5) : Botes Boss. Leipziger- 
Str. 76 vPL D. E. 6. 7), R. 13 ^-2 ^S. unpretending. — Bens- Zeyss, Magde- 
burger-Str. 25 (PL E. F, 5, 6). pens. 3-4^. 

Restaurants. Wine. Griin, Rathaus-Str. 7. D. (1-3 p.m.) I1/2-3. S. 2 ..^ ; 
Broskousky, Grosse-Ulrich-Str. 33, D. 2 Jl^. — Beer. Beichshof, Alte 
Promenade 6. D. 1 ^4C : Tulpe. see above: Theatre Bestaurant & Cafe; 
BatskelUr (p. 251), D. I1/4 JC: Pilsener rrqtteU. Barfusser-Str. 20. — 
Automatic Bestaurant. cor. of the Leipziger-Str. and Konig-Str. (PL E, 6, 7). 

Cafes. Jlonopol. Alte Promenade 1 (PL D, 5); Bauer, Grosse Stein- 
Str. 74. — Cosfectiojters. David, Geist-Str. 1; Bfautsch, Grosse-Stein- 
Str. 7. — -Hallorenkuchen', a favourite kind of cake, may be bought at 
Lauder's. Leipziger-Str. 102. 

Theatres. Stadt-Theater (PL D. 5); Xeiu Theatre. Grosse-Ulrich- 
Str. 3 (PL D. 5); Apollo ^Pl. 18: F, 7j, variety-theatre. 

Baths. Weineck's (PL B. C. 6), in the Klaustor suburb; Flora-Bad, 
Pulverweiden 2 TL A, B, 7): Park-Bad (PL 13: E, 6), Dorotheeu-Str. 17; 
Firrsfental Baths (PL 7: C. 5). 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL E, 5, 6), Grosse-Stein-Str. 72. 

Taximeter Cabs. For 1-2 pers.. 800 metres 50, each 400 m. more lOpf. ; 
for 3-4 pers., 600 m. & 300 m. : at night (11-8), 1-2 pers., 400 m. & 200 m. 

Electric Tramways. From the Central Station (PL F, 7) to the 
Hettstedt Station (beyond PL A. 6): through the town to Trotha : to the 
BoUberc/er-Weg (PL B. 8): via the Leipziger-Str. (red cars) to the Leipzig 
Tower (PL 11 : E. 6) and thence to the Zoological Garden (PL C, 1 : 15 pf .) 
at Giebichensiein. or to Crolhcitz (PL B. 2). From the Steinweg (PL D. 7) 
to the Mersehurger-Str. [Vl. F, 7, 8). — From the Biebeck-Platz (PL F, 7) 
to Merseburg (p. 262), 9 M. in 3^ hr., 40 pf. 

Chief Sights (3 hrs.). From the station by tramway to the market- 
place (see below). Markt-Kirche. St. Maurice's (p. 251). Cathedral (p. 252), 
Moritzburg (p. 252), Alte Promenade, and back to the station by the Post- 
Str. Those who have time should visit the Giebiehenstein (p. 252; there 
and back I1/2 hr. ; tramway, see above). 

Halle (280 ft.j, an old town on the Saale, with 172,000 inhab., 
was an important place at a very early period in consequence of 
its salt-works, and is now an industrial place of considerable conse- 
quence, with manufactures of agricultural machinery, sugar, and 
starch. Halle possesses a university of great repute, founded in 
1694, with which that of Wittenberg was united in 1817; it was 
long noted for its 'Pietistic' tendencies. 

From the Baihvay Station (PI. F, 7j, the Leipziger-Str. leads 
past the Leipzig Toicer (PL 11: E, 6), a relic of the old fortifica- 
tions (rehuilt in 1573;, and the late-Gothic Church of St. Ulrich 
(PI. D, 6) to the (20 min.) picturesque Market Place (PI. D, 6). in 
the centre of the old town, on the X. side of which rises the llote 

■S ^- V 't ^ - - v: 

:^2iIag d£V 

!>Nordhan8. CO 

^ .IT 



to Leipzig. HALLE. 5^. Route. 251 

Turm (PL 17), a clock-tower 276 ft. in height (1506), with a stone 
statue of Roland (p. 104; an 18th cent, substitute for a 13th cent, 
original). Adjacent are a War Monument for 1870-71 (PI. 5), in 
the form of a fountain, and a bronze Statue of Hdndel (d. 1759; 
PL 3), who was born here in 1685 (Nicolai-Str. 6), erected by sub- 
scriptions from Germany and England. The great composer is re- 
presented in the English court-dress; at the back of the music-desk 
is St. Cecilia (a portrait of Jenny Lind). The Rathaas^ in the S.E. 
corner of the square, was begun in the 14th cent.; the central part, 
with a loggia, dates from 1558. To the left is the Weigh House 
(Wage; 1581), with an interesting portal. — The S. side of the 
market-place is occupied by the Ratskeller (PI. 15; restaurant), 
erected in 1893 and containing the meeting-room of the town-council. 

The Markt-Kirche, or Church of Our Lady (PL D, 6), erected 
in 1529-54, with four towers of which the two to the E. are con- 
nected by a bridge, bounds the market on the W. side. Inside 
(sacristan in the clergy -house. An der Marienkirche 3) we may 
notice the Renaissance decoration of the pulpit and galleries. The 
former altar-piece, designed by Cranach, has been divided and 
now hangs on each side of the altar. The so-called Bridegroom 
Stalls date from 1595. 

The finest church is that of St. Maurice (PL C, D, 6 ; sacristan. 
No. 6 on the E. side) in the lower part of the town, near the 'Halle' 
(salt-works), founded in the 12th cent.; elegant choir finished in 
1511; fine carved wood-work over the altar, representing Christ 
and Mary with saints; near it, ancient winged pictures of the end 
of the 15th cent.; pulpit, with reliefs of 1592, resting on a pillar 
representing Sin, Death, and Satan; stone sculptures of 1411-16. 
This church is frequented by the workmen employed in the man- 
ufacture of the salt, called 'Halloren', a distinct race, who still 
wear their characteristic dress on great occasions. 

The University (PI. D, 5), erected in 1834, is attended by about 
2000 students. A little to the N. is a monument to Robert Franz 
(1815-92), the composer, by Schaper (1903). — Adjacent are the 
Archaeological Museum (PL 1; casts) and the Theatre, built in 
1886. — At Friedrich-Str. 50 (PL D, 4, 5) is the Library of the 
Academy of Natural History (60,000 vols.), open on Mon. & Thurs., 
4-6, and on Tues. & Frid., 3-6. A little farther to the N. is the 
University Library (PL D, 4; 228,000 vols.), open 8-1 and 2-4 
(Sat. 8-11, holidays 9-1). In the Wucherer-Str. is the Agricultural 
Institute (PL E, 4), with a collection of domestic animals. — The 
Medical Listitutes of the university are in the E. part of the town 
(PL E, 5). — The adjacent Town Cemetery (PL E, 6) is surrounded 
with singular Renaissance arcades, dating from 1558-65. — In the 
Post-Str. is a Monument to Emp. William I. (PI. 4; E, 6), by 
Bruno Schmitz; the figures are by Breuer (1901). 

252 Boute 36. EILEXBURG. From Hamburg 

Francke's Institutions (PL D,E, 7; entrance from the Francke- 

Platz), on the S. side of the town, comprising an orphan -asylum, 
schools, a printing-office, a bookshop, etc., were begun in 1698 by 
the founder, whose sole means then consisted of a strong and simple 
faith. The court of the asylum is adorned with a bronze Statue of 
Francke (d. 1727;, by Ranch. — In the Aichamt (1st and 2nd floors), 
in the Grosse Berlin 11. is the Museum of Industry and Art (PL 9; 
entrance from the Grosse Brauhaus-Str.), open free on week-days, 
11 -1 . and on Sun. and holidays, 11-2 (at other times 50 pf.). 

The Cathedral (PL C, 5, 6; sacristan, Dom-Platz 3), conse- 
crated in 1523, has its nave and aisles of equal height. It contains 
interesting figures on the pillars, a pulpit of 1526. and votive tablets 
with the arms of Card. Albrecht (1523: X. wall;. Adjacent is the 
old Residence of the Archbishops of Magdeburg (1529), which now 
contains the valuable collections of the Provincial Museum (Sun., 
Tues.. & Thurs., 11-1. free, Mon.. Frid. & Sat., 11-1, 50 pf., at other 
times 1 ^l) and the Mineralogical Institute. 

A little to the X. are the ruins of the late-Gothic Moritzhurg 
(PL C, 5), built in 1484-1503, which are especially picturesque as 
seen from the Burg-Briicke or from the pleasure-grounds beyond 
the Xiihlgrabeu. . The S. side of the ruins is adjoined by the 
Municipal Museum (open free on Sun., 11-2, & Wed., 11-1; at 
other times 50 pf.), on the upper floor of which are two handsome 
rooms fi'om the 'Tal-Amt' of the Halloren (p. 251; 1594). 

A pleasant walk leads by the Kleine Wiese (PI. B, 5), the Ziegcl- 
wiese. and the right bank 'of the Saale to (2 M.) Giebichenstein 
(PL B. 1). a ruined castle commanding a fine view (entr. in the Seebener- 
Str. ; tramway, see p. 250). Lewis "the Springer", Landgrave of Thuringia, 
was imprisoned here in 1102. and. according to tradition, escaped by a 
daring leap into the river. l)uke Ernest II. of Swabia, immortalized by 
L'hland, was also a prisoner here for a considerable time. Opposite 
(bridge; toll 3 pf.) is the village of Crollicitz (Bergschenke. with fine 
view), with a colossal Statue of Bismarck, by Juckoff (1907). A little 
higher up is the Peissnitz (restaurant), a favourite Sun. resort, while 
below are the Saalschloss Breiccrij (PL C, 1), the Beilsbiirg Rest^nurant, 
and the Zoological Garden (adm. 50 pf.). "Wittekind (PL C, D, 1 ; 
Kurhaus, board 3^ 4. D. 1^4 ^#), a watering-place at Giebichenstein, is 
much frequented in summer (concerts). — The Kolkturm, on an eminence 
in the Dolauer Heide. about 3 M. beyond Crollwitz, commands a wide 
panorama. — The Petersberg (790 ft'.), a basaltic summit to the X. of 
Halle, is reached by railway to (91/2 ^0 Walhcitz, and thence on foot 
via Trcbitz (1 hr.). At the top are a Romanesque abbey-church of the 
12th cent, (restored in 1857). with tombs of the Wettin dynasty, and a 
view-tower (extensive panorama). Wettin (p. 310) lies 51/2 ^1- to the W. 
of Wallwitz (light railway in V2 hr.). 

From Halle to Aschersleben, see R. 49. 

From Halle to Cottbus (Sorau) a^d Gubex, 132 M.. railway in 
31/2-6 hrs. — 17 M. Delitzsch (pop. 10.900). junction for Berlin and Leipzig 
(p. 249). — 31 M. Eilenburg ^Hirscli; Adlerj, a busy industrial town 
with 15.700 inhab.. where the Mulde is crossed, the junction for a line 
to (15 M.) Leipzig via Taucha. 

48 M. Torgau ^Goldener Anker: Goldenes Schiff: Bail. Restaurant), 
a fortified town on the Elbe, which is crossed here by two bridges, with 

to Leipzig. ZERBST. •'^^- Route. 253 

12,300 [inliab., is frequently mentioned in the liihtory of the Reformation. 
In 1760 Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians here, and in 1813 
the town, defended by the French, was taken by Tauentzien. *Schlo88 
Hartenfels, one of the largest Renaissance buildings in Germany (1533-44 
and 1616-23), was formerly a residence of the p]lectors of Saxony. The 
half-Gothic palace-chapel was consecrated by Luther (1544) ; the staircase 
and the bay window in the court-yard, as well as the other in the E. wing 
of the palace, and the plastic decorations arc all worth noticing (keeper 
in the gymnasium, on the S. Promenade). The late-Gothic Church of 
St. Mary contains the tomb of Catharine von Bora (d. 1552), Luther's 
wife, and a painting by Cranach the Elder (sacristan, Pfarr-Str. 562). 
The Rathaus, with three high gables, dates from 1567. — Graditz, 
2V2 M. from Torgau , has acquired some renown for its breed of horses 
(royal stud). — Brancli-line to Wittenberg, see p. 248. 

60 M. Falkenberg, the junction of the Kohlfurt-Rosslau (p. 219) 
and the Berlin- Jiiterbog -Dresden lines (R. 28 b); 80 M. Finsterwalde 
(11,700 inhab.); 93 M. Calau , the junction of the Lubbenau-Arnsdorf 
line (p. 400). 

108 M. Cottbus (p. 382), where the train crosses the Berlin and 
Gorlitz line. The line to (36 M.) Sorau (p. 373) diverges here. 

116 M. Peitz. — 132 M. Guben, see p. 373. 

The Leipzig train enters Saxony near (221 M.) Schlceuditz, 
passes Mockerriy where a bloody battle between the French and 
Prussians was fought on 16th Oct., 1813, and reaches (229^2 ^0 
Leipzig (see p. 237). 

b. Via Mageburg, Zerbst, and Bitterfeld. 

Distance and fares the same as in Route a, the line from Magdeburg 
to Leipzig via Zerbst being about the same length as that via Halle. 

From Hamburg to (156 M.) Magdeburg ^ see p. 249. Beyond 
(158^/2 M.) Magdehiirg-Neustadt (p. 54) the train crosses the Elbe. 
At (161 M.) Biederitz is the junction of the Berlin line (R. 5). At 
(177 M.) GuterglUck the line intersects the Berlin and Cassel rail- 
way (R. 47). 

182 M. Zerbst (220 ft.; Goldener Lowe, well spoken of; An- 
halt, R. IV4-2, D. 1^4 ^^; Railway Hotel, R. 1^4-2 V4, D. IV4 -//; 
Mail. Restaurant)., an old town with 18,100 inhab., once the seat 
of the Princes of Anhalt- Zerbst, who became extinct in 1797, is 
still surrounded by walls, towers, and moats. The large iSchloss 
dates from 1681-1750. The market-place, with its handsome gabled 
houses, is adorned with a Roland Column of 1445 and a female 
figure on a slender column, called the Butter - Jung fer, the signi- 
ficance of which is doubtful. The Rathaus, with two handsome 
gables of 1479-81 but disfigured by additions in 1610, was restored 
in 1892. It contains a Museum (Tues. & Frid., 9-12), with letters* 
of Luther and Melanchthon, and other relics. The handsome 
Church of St. Nicholas, built in 1432-94, was restored in 1827. 
The Gymnasium is established in an old Franciscan monastery 
on the ramparts, founded in 1250, and possessing fine cloisters. 
St. Bartholomew's Church has a detached belfry (12th cent.). 

254 P^oide 36. DESSAU. From Hamburg 

190 M. Rosslau, terminus of the Kohlfurt and Rosslau railway 
(p. 373'. Our line crosses the Elbe and the Mulde. — 192 M. 
Wall icitzha fen. a busy little river-port. 

194 M. Dessau. — Hotels. *Gold)ier Beutel (PI. a; C, 4), Stein- 
Str. 3, R. 2-5. B. 1. D. 2-3 JC: Goldnes Schiff (PI. b; C. 4), Zerbster- 
Str. 50, R. 2-21.,. d. 2 .S: KaUerhof fPl. c: B, 3). Kaiser-Str. 17, 
R. 11/2-3. D. 11/2^, these nvo .ffood : ^Baihcay Hotel (PI. d; B. 3), 
Kaiser-Platz 2. R. 2-5. D. li/g-S JC. 

Cab. for 1 pers. 50. 2 pers. 60. 3 pers. 80 pf.. 4 pers. 1 JC: double 
fares at night (10-7): each trunk 25 pf. — Outside the town: 1 hr. l-^'^, 
21/2, 2i;2, 23/^ JC. — Electric TRAiiwAYS from the station through the 
chief streets. — Post & Telegraph Office (PI. C, 3), Kavalier-Str. 

Dessau (200 ft.\ the capital of the Duchy of Anhalt and the 
residence of the Duke, with 55,500 inhab., lies on the left bank of 
the Mulde, 2 M. from its confluence with the Elbe. The Dessau 
art collections are of considerable value and deserve to be better 
known: but they are unfortunately distributed among several dif- 
ferent places, in or near Dessau. 

In the grounds adjoining the Railway Station (PL B, 2) are 
monuments to Moses Mendelssohn (b. at Dessau 1729, d. 1786; 
PL 6), by Hoffmeister (1890), and to Fr. Schneider, the musical 
composer (d. 1853: PL 81, by Schubert. Farther on, in the Kaiser- 
Platz. is a bronze Statue of Emp. William I. (PL 2), by Tondeur 
(1892 1. The Kaiser-Strasse ends at the Friedrich-Strasse, opposite 
the Behordenhaus, or government offices (PL B, 4: library, with 
drawings by Dtirer. Holbein, etc., open 9-1 and 3-5). Following 
the Friedrich-Str. to the left, we reach the Kavalier-Str., which is 
adjoined by the Xeumarkt (PL C, 3), containing the Church of 
St. John il690-1702), a fountain, and a Statue of Duke Leopold 
Frederick Francis (PL 4; 1758-1817), by Kiss. Opposite St. John's 
is the Ducal Library (80.000 vols.; open TTed. k Sat. 10-12. 3-4). 

In the Kavalier-Str. (V\. C. 4) are the Georgs-Palais (1824i, 
the present Palace of the Duke, and the Theatre (performances in 
winter). In front of the Gymnasium (right; is a monument to 
Wilhelm Midler (PL 7), author of the 'Grriechenlieder' (b. at Dessau 
1794. d. 1827t. At the end of the street, to the left, is the Anhalt- 
ische Kunsthalle (open daily, 11-4: 50pf.\ containing the muni- 
cipal art-collections. — The Askanische-Str. and Stein-Str. lead 
hence to the Grosse Markt (PL C, D, 4), in which rises a Statue 
of Prince Leopold, the 'Old Dessauer' (PL 3), modelled by Kiss 
(I86O1 on that by Schadow in the ^ilhelm-Platz at Berlin. 

The Old Ducal Palace (PL C, D, 4) is situated on the bank of 
the Mulde. The main building and the staircase were erected in 
1872-74, and the E. wing was rebuilt in 1784-51, but the fine W. 
wing dates from 1530-49. 

The INTERIOR (shown by the castellan in the absence of the family) 
contains several hundred pictures. The so-called *Old German Rooms, 
a suite on the groundfloor, are fitted up in the taste of the 16th century. 

B' vrnteTihevii C . ^ 


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Vagiier JrDebPs.leipzig. 

to Leipzig. DESSAU. 36. Route. 255 

The pictures by Filippino Lippi, Borgognone, Girol. da Santa Croce, 
Perugino, Garafalo, and other Italian masters, are of no great importance. 
A number of the Netherlandish pictures, however, are excellent (Asselyn, 
Jan Steen, J. van Ruysdael, Wynants , Netscher, Adr. van de Velde, 
Rubens, Van Dyck, and Lairesse). The collection includes several good 
modern works by Lessing, Triebel, Inner, Gude, Richter, etc., and a few- 
pieces of sculpture. — There are also a number of precious objects, anti- 
quities, coins, and relics, including the sword and stick of Prince Leopold 
(p. 254), and Napoleon's silver goblet and his plate captured at Waterloo. 

Opposite the palace, on the right bank of the Mulde, is the 
Tiergarten (PI. D, 5). On the N. side of the palace lies the Lust- 
garten^ with an equestrian statue of Duke Frederick I. (d. 1904), 
by Manzel. Adjacent are an Orangery., a Riding School (with 
reliefs by Doll), and the Ducal Stables. 

To the N. of the Grrosse Markt stands the plain Schloss-Kirche 
or Church of Our Lady (sacristan, Schloss-Str. 19), rebuilt in 

The interior contains paintings by the Younger Cranach and his 
school, including a large Crucifixion, Christ on the Mt, of Olives, and a 
Last Supper, with portraits of twenty-two of the chief promoters of the 
Eeformation. The pulpit and font (1533) are of sandstone, painted. 
A stone monument of Prince Joachim Ernest (d. 1586) may be seen on 
the N. side of the choir. — The vaults below the church contain the 
tombs of Anhalt princes (not worth seeing). 

Proceeding to the N. from the G-rosse Markt, we reach the 
Kleine Markt (PI. C, 3, 4) with the Rathaus, built in the German 
Renaissance style (1901) and having a lofty tower (view). — In the 
middle of the square is the Jubilee Monument by H. Schubert, 
erected in 1867 to commemorate the reunion of the Anhalt terri- 
tories in 1863. 

No. 12 in the Zerbster-Strasse, to the N., is the Amalien- 
Stiftung (PI. C, 3) for the reception of poor old women, founded 
by the daughter (d. 1793) of Prince Leopold. 

The Picture G-allery on the upper floor (adm. on week-days, 10-12), 
numbering about 700 works, affords the visitor an excellent opportunity 
of becoming acquainted with the German painters of the 18th cent. 
[Lisiewski, Schiltz, Seekatz, Pesne, etc.). Among the best works are: 
Van Dyck, Portrait of Maurice of Orange ; Honthorst, Portrait of Princess 
Amalia of Nassau-Orange; D. Mytens, Portrait -group, 1666; Rubens, 
Louis XIII.; Frans Hals, Portrait of a boy; 31. Wolilgemut, Portraits 
of himself and his lady-love : Steenwyk, Architectural pictures ; J. Fyt, 
Dead poultry; Adr. van Ostade, Peasant at a window; Dirck Hals, 
Roisterers and 'rommelpot* players ; Pieter Potter, Expulsion of Hagar ; 
u4i;erca7«_p, Village-feast ; Lingelbach, Harbour-scene; Mierevelt, Tortrsih 
of a lady; Van Goyen, Landscape; C. Netscher, Exhibition of jewels; 
Momper, Italian landscape. 

The pretty Fountain in the Funk-Platz (PI. C, 1), representing 
an ancient G-erman seizing a beaver, is by E. Semper (1901). 

About V2 M- to the N. of the station lies the Geor gen- Garten (PL A, 1), 
wich a chateau (no admittance) and the ducal Chapel of tlie Resurrection 
(1898). A pleasant walk may be taken hence to the (2 M.) Wallwitzberg , 
near Wallwitzhafen (p. 254; restaurant at the Elbhaus ; tramway). — 
The ducal chateau of KiiJinau, situated on a small lake in a fine park, 
2 M. to the "W. of the Georgen-Garten. contains a collection of objects 

2b6 Route 36. 


illustrative of the history and archaeology- of Anhalt (shown by the 
gardener). The lake contains a colony of beavers. 

The chateau and park of Luisium lie 2 M. to the X.E. of Dessau, 
via the Promenade-TVall (PL D, 4). The chateau contains an extensive 
collection of pictures. Refreshments at the forester's house. 

From Dessac to Worlitz, 12 M., railway in 3/^ hr. — 8 M. Oranien- 
baum (Kurhaus. R. & B. l\'.2-2\2? D. l-li 2 V#), the chateau of which 
(1683-98) contains portraits of the Orange family. — 12 M. Worlitz. 
Walkers may go to Worlitz via Luisium, the 'Sieglitzer Berg, and 

"Worlitz {Eichenkranz, PL a, R. 13/4-21/2. D. 2-3 JC; GrUmr Baum, 
PL b. similar charges), a town with 2000 inhab., is famous for the ex- 
tensive and well-kept ducal ^Gardexs and Park, which were laid out 
1765-1808 and afford beautiful walks. The traveller who desires to ex- 
plore them (ca. 31,2 lii'^O had better taka e guide (1 JC) to pilot him 


] Inspektu^/l- ^^ 




IDO 200 300 400 50 


u-arjen r, 




J^ Eolzhof, 


"Wa^na- ADebes.Xeipzig 

through their intricacies and across the various lakes (park open to 
public, reserved points of interest 50 pf .). — The Palace (adm. 30 pf.) 
contains portraits of Countess Solras and the Prince of Orange by Van 
Dyck. and others, and works by Donienichino, Wouvermaa, and S. van 
Riii/sdael. — The *GrOTHic House (open 9-4, in summer till dusk; 50 pf.), 
reached via the Xeumarkische Garten, the Rosen-Insel (PL 10), and the 
Wolfs-Briicke (PL 14), contains armour, weapons, goblets, and a large 
collection of pictures and stained glass (15-17th cent.), some of which 
are very valuable. Among the best works are the following: Petrus 
Christies. Crucifixion: Roger van der Weyden, Portrait; D. Bouts, John 
the Baptist (in grisaille) ; Jia-sfer of Frankfort, Madonna with saints and 
donors; portraits by Cranacli the Younger, Fr. Pourbus the Younger, 
J. Ravesteyn, Verspronck, Mierevelt, Bol, and Netscher, and landscapes 
by Vinckboons and Ariois. The portrait of the Great Elector is by 
Hannemann. The works of Abraham Snaphan (1641-91). a good master 
of the 17th cent., who lived and died at Dessau, are to be met with 
here alone. — If we now take our way past the Flora Temple (PL 4), 

ALTENBURG. S7. Route. 257 

the Ketten-Brilcke (PI. 8), the Litisenklippe. .iiul the Venus Temjyle, \vc 
arrive at the Monument, with marble portraits of Princes of Dessau. 
To the S.l']. of this is tlie Pantheon, containing- several antiquities (Apollo 
with the Muses, etc.); and farther to the 8.W., tlie Stein (PL 13; with 
Venetian views by Canalctto); near by is the Grotto of Egeria (PI. 5; 
•'/.i M. from the station). 

From Dessau to Cothen, 13 M., railway in V2 hr. — 41/2 M. 
Mosigkau, with a cliatean erected in 1752 and now occupied by an 
Adliff-Fraulein-IStift (institution for ladies of the German noblesse). This 
building contains a valual)le picture-gallery, witli works by Rubens, 
Van Di/ck, Rombouts, Dujardin, S. Koninck, Sef/hers, De Heem, 
Hondccoeter, G. Honthorst, Morelse, Mijtens, Mignon, etc. — 13 M. 
Cdthen, see p. 249. 

At (210 M.) Bitterfeld the line unites with the line from Berlin 
to Leipzig (p. 249). 

230 M. (243 M. via Wittenberge) Leipzig (Berlin Station; the 
trains go on to the Bavarian Station), see p. 237. 

37. Prom Leipzig to Hof (Nuremherg, 

Uatlsbon, Municlt) or Eger. 

Railway to Hof, 102 M., in 3-51/2 his. (fares 13 ^ 20, 7 c^ 90, 5 .fC 
10 pf. ; express fares Vo JC 20, 'i) ^fC 90, 6 c^ 10 pf.); to Eger, 118 M., in 
51/4-7 hrs. — From Leipzig to Nuremberg via Lichtenfels, express in 6-8 lirs. 
(fares- 27 JC 10, 17 .S 40, 10 Jt, 90 pf.). 

Leipzig, see p. 237. Departure from the Bavarian Station. 

5 M. Gaschwitz, the junction for (18^/2 M.) Meusehvitz (see 
p. 258) and for Flagwitz-Lindenau, on the Leipzig and Grera rail- 
Avay (p. 260). — 13 M. Kieritzsck, the junction for Chemnitz (p. 225). 

24 M. Altenburg. — Hotels. Wettiner Hof, near the Schloss, 
R. 2-4, B. 1, D. IV2-2V2 ^' good; Eur opdis Cher Hof , opposite the station, 
R. IV2-3? B- '^U ^'^ Thuringer Hof. — Restaurants. GUndel (wine), 
D. Vj.^JC; Ratskeller, D. VI.2 JC ; Plateait : Railioay Restaurant; Theatre 
Cafe. — Post & Telegraph Of fee, Josephs-Platz. — Electric Tramicay 
from the station through the town. 

Altenburg (595 ft.), the residence of the Duke of Saxe-Alteii- 
burg, with 38,800 inhab., is overlooked by the Schloss, which rises 
picturesquely above the town upon a wooded porphyry rock. The 
older parts of the castle date from the 15th cent., the remainder 
from the 17-19th. From this castle, in 1455, the knight Kunz von 
Kaufungen carried off the young princes Ernest and Albert, found- 
ers of the present rayal and ducal families of Saxony. In the 
interior, which has been handsomely restored, the throne-room and 
armoury are worthy of notice (adm. on application: fee). The late- 
fJothic Schloss-Kirche, enlarged in the 15th and restored in the 
17th cent., contains a handsome choir. In the grounds is a Museum 
of Natural History ('Mauritianum'), opened in 1908. — The 
BathauSj in the market, was built in 1562-64 in a good German 
Renaissance style. — The two towers, known as the 'Rote Spitzen', 
to the K. of the market-place, are relics of an ancient monastery 

Baedeker's X. Germany. 15th Edit. 47 

258 Route 5 7. REICHEXBACH. From Leipzig 

1172;. — The Church of St. Bartholometv, iu the Burg-Str., 
dates from the 15th cent, (restored in 1880;. 

The Museum contains antiquities and the collection of art 
bequeathed by the Minister B. von Lindenau (d. 1854; open in 
summer on ^Ted. 2-4 and Sat. &: Sun. 11-1. free; in winter, Sun. 
11-1. free; on other days 11-1, 50 pf.;. 

Of special importauce are the 170 Italian pictures of the 14th and 
15th cent, (catalogue 1 ^4), amongst which may be mentioned works by 
Sinwne Martini (42). Lippo Memnii (43-46), the Lorenzetti (47-49), and 
by Sano di Pietro (70-75), Giovanni di Paola (76-79). Matteo di Giovanni 
(81-83). three masters rarely seen outside Siena : also examples of Fra 
Angelico (91. 92). Jlasacclo (•?95), Filippo Lippi (96), "^Botticelli (100), 
Giovanni Santi (113), Perugino (114. 115). and Sig7iorelli (138-142). and 
eight panels with allegorical figures, of the school of Pinturicchio (116- 
123). There are also more than 300 Greek, Roman, and Etruscan vases, 
and a collection of casts. 

The well-to-do peasantry of the neighbourhood, w^ho are of 
Wendish origin, wear a curious costume. The card-game of 'Skat', 
now universal in Germany, originated among these peasants, in 
memory of which a monumental fountain was erected in 1903. 

From Altzxburg to Zeitz (p. 260), 16 M., branch-line in IV4 hr. 
via Mensehcitz (p. 257). — Local lines to (19 M.) Karsdorf (p. 225) and 
Penig (p. 236). 

33 M. Gossnitz (junction for Glauchau and Chemnitz, p. 225, 
and 6rera, p. 260), Crimmitschau (39 M.; pop. 23,500), Werdau 
(46 M. ; pop. 19.500), all manufacturing towns. 

From Werdau branch-lines diverge to ZicicJcau and Annaherg on the 
E. (pp. 225, 229), and to Wilnschendorf and Weida on the W. (see p. 261). 

To the left rises the castle of Schonfels. — 51 M. Neumarh. 

From Xeumark to Greiz. 8 M.. railway in 1 2 ^^r. — Greiz {Henning, 
U. 2-5, D. 1\.2-2V2 ^^- good; Loice: Thilringer Eof, at the station, well 
spoken of), the capital of the small principality of Reuss-Greiz, charmingly 
situated in the valley of the Weisse Elster, and consisting of the regularly 
built new town on the left bank, and the quaint and irregular old town 
on the right bank. The population (23,100) is largely engaged in the 
manufacture of dress-goods. The bridge beside the Anger commands a fine 
view of the old castle on the left bank of the Elster and of the modern 
palace with its lofty tower, on an isolated wooded hill below. The park 
fills the whole bed of the valley. The environs abound in romantic walks. 

56V o ^^- Reichenbach (Goldenes Lamm. R. 2-4, J). 2 J6; 
Kronprinz^ R. 2-3 -Ji). a manufacturing place with 29,000 in- 
habitants. — Our train crosses the Goltzsch-Tal by an imposing 
viaduct, 285 ft, in height. 60 M. XetzschJcau. with an old castle 
(1462). — 63 M. Herlasgriin. 

From Herlasgrtin a branch-line diverges for Zicota (p. 232) and (33 M.) 

Beyond (67 !M.) Jocketa the train crosses the Elster'Tal by a 
lofty viaduct of two tiers of arches, 230 ft. in height, beneath which 
passes the G-era and ^eischlitz line. 

72 M. Plauen. — Hotels. Wettiner Eof (PI. a : B. 1) ; Plauener 
Hof (PI. b: B. 3). R. from 2, D. IV2-2V0 JC; DeiVs Hotel (PI. c; C, 3), 
E. 21/2-6, D. 21 2 JC : Ceyitral Hotel (PI. d ; C, 2) ; Blauer En-gel (PI. e ; D, 4) ; 


1 : 150X>00 

i ElometeT 

to Hof. PLAUEX. 3 7. Eoitte. 259 

KaiHCrliof (PI. f; B, 1). — Rkstaurants. Albif/ (wine), Bahnhof-.Str. 20; 
Albert-Halle, at the Wettiuer Hof (see p. 258), t). IV4 ^/^; Tiumel: Theatre 
Restaitrayit ; Rail. Restaurant ; Automatic Restaurant, Bahnhof-fStr. 12. - 
Cafe Tromel. — Post Office (PI. C, 3), Balmhof-Str. 

Cab for 1/4 I"'-, foi" 1, 2, 3, 1, or .5 pers., 7.5 pf., IJl, I JC 25, 1 .^ 50. 
1 t^ 60 pf. ; double fares at night (10-6). — VajVatmic Tramway from 
the Upper Railicay Station (PI. B, 1; for Leipzig, Hof, and Eger) to 
(2 M.) the Lower Railway Station (PI. B, 5, 6; for (iera and Weischlitz ; 
fare 10 pf.). -- U. S. Consul, Mr. C. B. Hurst. 

Plauen (1230 ft.), a loftily-situated manufacturing town on the 
Weisse Elster, with 100,000 inliab., is the capital of the Yogtlancl. 

Near the Upper Station is the Knnst-JSchule (PL B, 1), with u 
textile museum (open free). The Breite-Str. leads hence to the 
Friedi'ich-Augusf-BriicJce (PL A, 2, 3), crossing the valley of the 
Syra in an imposing arch of 300 ft. in span (1903-05). — The 
Luther-Kirche (PL B, 3), dating from 1693-1708, has a carved 
altar of the 15th century. — In the Alt-Markt (PL C, 4) are the 
Rathaus (ca. 1470) and a Statue of King Albert (1907). To the S.E. 
is the Johannes- Kir che (PL C, 4), founded in the 12th cent, and re- 
built in 1548-56. To the N. of this point is the castle of Hradschiii 
(PL C, B, 4), anciently the seat of the Vogt (advocatus regni). 

At Plauen the lines to Hof and Eger divide. 

a. To Eger. — 80 M. Weischlitz (p. 261); 84^, M. Oelsuitz: 
921/0 M. Adorf, junction for Chemnitz (p. 232). — 94 M. Bad 
Elster (1610 ft.; *Wettiner Hof, R. 3-8, D. 3-5, pens, from 
10 ^; "^Hotel de Saxe, R. 2V2-7, B. 2-4, pens. 8-12 ^//; Kurhaus, 
D. 3^2 ^^^/ visitors' tax 15 ^l)^ a frequented watering-place with 
chalybeate springs. — 109 M. Voitersreuth is the first Bohemian 
station (luggage examined). — 114 M. Franzenshad and (118 M.) 
Eger, see Baedeker^s Austria, 

b. To Hof. — 78 M. Mehlteuer — 82 M. Schonberg. 

From Schonberg a branch-line runs in 3/^ hr. to (91/2 M.) Schleiz 
(Goldene Sonne; Baierischer Hof J, a small town (5600 inhab.), pleasantly 
situated, and commanded by the chateau of the Prince of Eeuss. The 
early-Gothic Berg-Kirche, with baroque interior, is worthy of notice. 
About 5 M. to the W. is ScMoss Burgk, situated on a wooded rock, 
high above the Saale. ■ — About 71/2 M. to the S.W. of Schleiz, halfway 
to Lobenstein, is Saalhurg (Weisses Ross), a small town on a hill with 
towers and ramparts. 

Another branch runs in 1 hr. from Schonberg to Hirschberg (pop. 2200 : 
Goldener Hirsch), on the Saale, the valley of which offers pleasant excursions. 

Beyond (88 M.) Reuth the line enters Bavaria. To the left are 
seen the blue outlines of the Fichtel-Gebirge. 

102 M. Hof (1610ft.; Kaiserhof near the station; Weisse>i 
Lamm; Rail. Restaurant ; electric tramway to the town) is a 
Bavarian town on the Saale, with 36,300 inhabitants. Gothic 
Rathaus of 1563-6, remodelled in 1823. The 13th cent. Chirch 
of St. Michael ^vas restored in 1826. 

From Hof ioNuremberg ,\\k Hochstadt,Lichtenf els, and Bamberg, 
and to Ratishon via Wiesau, see Baedeker's Southern Germany. 



38. From Leipzig to Hochstadt via Gera 
and Saalfeld. 

137 M. Railway iu 5-9 hrs. — From Leipzig to Xureinberg, express 
in 73,4 hrs. (fares 27 Ji 10. 17 ^*t 40. 10 JC 90 pf.). — The trains start from 
the Temporary Thiiringian Station at Leipzig. 

Leipzig^ see p. 237. — 4^ ._> M. Leutzsch, the junction for 
Bebra and Cassel tp. 262 1; 7 X. Plagwitz-IAndenau (pp. 239, 257); 
10^1. Knauthain: IS^jo^l. Pegau. 

28 31. Zeitz <510 ft.": Sclchsischer Hof\ R. 2-2 1 2 ^^: ; Herald: 
Victoria, R. 2^ 2 --^^Z Bairisches Bierhaus: Rail. ReMaurant ; 
Cafe Eldorado)^ an old town (30,500 inliab.) with cloth and other 
manufactories, situated on the right bank of the Weisse Elster^ 
was an episcopal see from 868 to 1029. — The railway station 
lies in the lower town, from which a cable railway (5 pf.) ascends 
to the upper town, containing the Moritzburg, erected in the 17th 
cent, by the Dukes of Sachsen-Zeitz, and now a reformatory. Its 
church (formerly the cathedral 1. rebuilt in the 13th and 15th cent., 
retains the Romanesque crypt of the original building. The altar- 
piece (by Cranach the Elder; is now in the modern Church of 
St. Nicholas (to the N.E.j. The Fathaus dates from 1502-09. 
St. Michael's Church contains ancient frescoes (13-16th cent.). 

Zeitz is the junction of lines to (20 M.) Weissenfels (p. 263), travers- 
ing a district rich in brown coal: to Camburg (p. 268); and to AUeu- 
hurg (see p. 258). 

The railway now ascends the valley of the Elster. — 38 M. 
Crossen (580 ft.), whence a line runs to the prettily situated 
industrial town of Eisenberg iXowe; 10,000 inhab.). — 41 M. 
Kostritz ((xoldener Kranich, R. 1-1^/2 «^) is noted for its beer and 
flowers. Xear it is Bad Kostritz (Kurhaus). with warm sand and 
salt baths. 

45 M. Gera. — Hotels. Fromniater, R. 2-5. D. 2-3 ^S. very fair: 
Fi'n'sf Bismarck : Schivarzer Bar; Sonntag's; Stadt Dresden; Victoria, 
at the station. R. 2-5, D. 1^ 4 ^4C, well spoken of. — Deutsches Haus 
Bestaiirant ; Cafe Jlonopol : Vogel (wine). 

Post & Telegraph Office. Schloss-Str. — U. S. Cossular Agext. 
Charles Xeuer. 

Gera (620 ft. i, the capital of the principality of Reuss jimgere 
Linie. a busy manufacturing town with 46.900 inhab., is situated 
on the Tl^eisse Elster. Turniuo: to the rio-ht, at tlie exit from the 
station, then to the left by the Bahnhof-Str., we reach the Theater- 
Platz, a little to the E. of which is the Church of St. John, with 
a bronze Equestrian Statue of Emp. William /., by Eberlein 
a894i in front of it. [The present Theatre (1902) stands to the 
"VT. of the rail, station.] The Johannis-Platz is adorned with a. 
modern statue of Count Heinrich Posthumus (d. 1635). In the 
market-place ;with a fountain of 1685; is the Fathaus, built iu 

SAALFELD. 38. Route. 261 

1576 but aiterwiirds altered. To the W. is the Town Museum 
(open free, Sim., 11-1). — On the Hainberg, opposite the town, 
rises the chfiteau of Ostersfein, the residence of the prince. 

From Gera to (jossnitz, 22 M., railway in 1 hr. -- 7 M. Ronnebunj 
(Post), with an old castle and chalybeate springs. — Near (11 M.) 
Nobdenitz is the chTitcau of Lohichau (adni. 50 pf.), with memorials of 
Anna Dorothea, Dnchess of Conrland (d. 1821), Jean Panl Eichter, 
Kurner, etc. — 22 M. Gossnltz, see p. 258. 

From (tera to Weischlitz, 88V2 ^••^ railway in IV2-2 hrs. — Beyond 
(7 M.) Wunschendorf we traverse the romantic Elster-Tal. — 121/2 M. 
lierffa ; 16 M. Neumuhle. — 2OV2 M- Greiz, see p. 258. — The scenery 
now becomes still more picturesque. Passing the chateau of Dolau and 
(231/2 M.) EUterberg (Gruner Baum) with its ruined castle, the train 
traverses the Steinicht Ravine, with the stations of (26V2 ^0 Rentzsch- 
milhle (Steinicht) and (28 M.) Barthtnuhle (hotel) and the ruin of Liebaii, 
to (84 M.) Planen (p. 258). — 38V2 M. Weischlitz (p. 259). 

From Gera to Jena and Weimar, see p. 276. 

471/2 M. Zivotzen, — 53 M. Weida (820 ft.; Goldener Ring), 
with 8400inhab. (branch-line to Werdau, p. 258). — 63 M. Triptis 

From Triptis a branch-line runs in 3-4 hrs. to (43 M.) Marxgriln. 
The chief intermediate station is (331/2 M.) Lobenstein (1690 ft. ; Kur- 
hans, pens. 4-71/2 "-^Z Volkmar, R. 11/2-^? ^- IV2? pens. 41/.2-51/2 t^; Ziehr, 
at the station), a favourite watering-place (3000 inhab.) on the Lemnitz, 
commanded by a ruined castle. 

671/2 ^'^' Neustadt an der Orla (1050 ft.; Goldener Lowe; 
Bottcher)., a manufacturing town (6600 inhab.) in the grand-duchy 
of Weimar, possesses a handsome late-Grothic Rathaus (15-16th 
cent.). In the Stadt-Kirche is an altar-piece of ca. 1525-50. 

A diligence plies hence daily to (IO1/2 M.) Kahla (p. 270) via (6 M.) 
Hammelshain, a summer-resort in a well-wooded region, with a chateau 
of the Duke of Altenburg. Near Wolfersdoi^f (Keller), 41/2 M. to the 
E. of Hummelshain and 41/2 M. to the N. of ISTeustadt, the duke has a 
hunting-lodge, known as the Frohliche Wiederkunft. 

76 M. Possneck (815 ft.; Hirsch; Bitter; Post, R. 11/3-2, 
B. 11/2-2 t^), an industrial town (12,800 inhab.) in the duchy of 
Meiningen, also has a fine late-Gothic and early-Renaissance Rat- 
haus, begun in 1443. Branch-line to Orlamiinde (p. 270), with 
special station. — To the left rises the picturesque castle of Ranis. 

87 M. Saalfeld. — Hotels. Roter Hirsch, R. 1^/^-21/2, D. l^U ^, 
very fair; Thuringer Hof, R. from l^/^ ^S; Rail. Hotel (Alf. Loos), 
R. 13/4-23/4 JC, these two at the station. — Cafe Pfldnzel, in the market- 
place ; Cafe- Restaur ant Prinz Ernst, with view-terrace on the Saale. — 
Post & Telegraph Office, Blankenburger-Str., nearly opposite St. John's 

Saalfeld (710 ft.), an old town, with 13,200 inhab. and numerous 
factories, is prettily situated on the Saale. In the market-place 
is the Rathaus, erected in 1526-37 in the late-Gothic and Renais- 
sance styles. The GotJiic Church of St, John (1389-1456), a little 
to the N., has a sculptured ^V. portal and some stained glass of 
1514. In the school-house is the Toivn Museum. The Chateau 
(1677) of the extinct ducal line of Saalfeld stands in the N. suburb. 
In the S.E. part of the town arc the little chateau Kitzerstein, of 

262 ^r,ufe 59. KEOXACH. 

the I6tli cent., and the ruins of the Hohe Schwarm, which is said 

to have been erected in 632 by the pagan Slav leader Samo, though 

the oldest of the extant remains date only from the 13th century. 

Railway to Buclolstadt and Jena, see R. 40: to Arnstadt, see p. 293. 

The railway ascends the winding valley of the Saale, quitting 
it for the Loquitz-Tal at ('93 M.) Eichichf. junction of a line to 
•20 M;. Lohenstein (p. 261i. — 102 M. Probstzella (1130 ft.: 
Mei/u/ff/er Hof: Rail. Restaurant), a village with extensive slate- 

The train now enters Bavaria. Xear (1041/2 M.) Lauenstein 
(1312 ft.: Burgfried) is the *Castle of the same name, dating from 
the 14- 16th cent, and restored in 1896 (adm. oO pf.). — From 
(106 ^r.) LurJicir/sstadt a branch-line runs to Lehesten (5 M.), the 
centre of the Thuriugiau slate-industry. — The line now quits the 
valley of the Loquitz. crosses the Rennsteig, and soon reaches its 
highest point '19-48 ft. . 121 ^ ^ ^^- Stod'heinij with coal-mines. — 
126 M. Kronach 1110 ft.: Goldener Wagen: Sonne) ^ a town 
1 5200 inhab. I situated at the confluence of the Hosslach and Rodach, 
was the birthplace of the painter Lucas .Cranach the Elder (1472- 
1553'. — 137 M. Hochstadt. the junction of the Leipzig. Hof, and 
Xur^^mberg line, see p. 259. 

39. From Leipzig to Bebra (Frankfort on the 
Main) and Cassel. Thuringian Railway. 

172 M. Railway. Express in SV^ hrs. (fares 2.S JC, Ih JC 30, 9 JC 
60 pf . : from Leipzig via Bebra to Frankfort in TV'g hrs. (fares 31 ^^ 40, 
20 .^M> 20 pf.. 13 t#). Dinner -ears aeeompany the trains on this line. — 
Best views to the left. — By Halle and Nordhauisen, see R. 47. 

This line traverses one of the most picturesque districts in 
Central Germany. 4 M. Leutzsch (p. 260). — The salt-works and 
baths of (16 M.) Diirrenherg (Kurhaus) are passed, and the Saale 
is crossed. — 19^ ^ ^^- Corbetha is the junction for Halle (p. 250). 

Battle Fields. Three celebrated battles have been fought near 
Corbetha. At Eos-^hach. .5 M. to the AV.. Frederick the Great with 22,000 
Prussians signally defeated 60.000 French and their German allies under 
Soubise. on 5th Xov.. 1757. — Xear LUizen (Roter Lowe), 5 M. to the E.. 
Gustavns Adolphus. King of Sweden, was mortally wounded on 6th Xov.. 
1632. after having defeated the imperial troops. A Memorial Chapel 
'1907) and the Schicedenstein . a block of granite with a Gothic roof, 
mark the spot (li/o M. to the X.E. of the market-place). — At Gross- 
Gorschen. 4Vo -M- to the S. of Liitzen, a fierce but indecisive engage- 
ment was fought on 2nd May. 1813, by the allied Russians and Prussians 
against the French, in which the Prussian Gen. Scharnborst was mortally 

Merseburg "^ Mailer's Hotel. R. 2-3 ^^: Goldcne Sonne, R. l^j^-^JC; 
Palmhauin . 6 M. from Corbetha. on the line to Halle, an ancient town 
on the Saale. with 20.000 inhab., mentioned in history as early as the 
9th cent., was a favourite residence of the emperors Henry I. and Otho I.. 
and frequently the scene of imperial diets. It was an episcopal diocese 
from 968 to 15*61. Halfwav from the station to the cathedral stands a bronze 

NAUMBUROt 5.9. nonu, 203 

statue of Emp. Frederick III., by Hnndricscr (1801). The ^Cathedral, 
founded in 1015 and restored in 188.'j-8fi, consists of a choir of tlie liith 
and late-Gothic nave of tlic early KHh century. The choir contains tlio 
brazen monument of Rudolph of Swabia (who fell in 1080 in a battle 
with his rival Henry IV.), a font of the 12th cent., an epitaph by Hans 
Vischer (1544), and interesting wood-carvings, altar-pieces, and tombs. 
The Schloss, built in 1480-89 and rebuilt early in the 17th cent., once a 
residence of the Saxon princes , presents an imposing appearance witli 
its three towers. — A branch-line runs from Merseburg to (11 M.) Schaf- 
fitddt via the chalybeate springs of (7 M.) Lauchstddt (Schwarzer Adler), 
with a simple theatre built in 1802 by Goethe and restored in 1908. 

25 M. Weissenfels (435 ft.; Schutze, R. IV^-S, D. I'V^- 
272 «^<^/ Goldener Hirsch; Bail. Eesfavrant)., on the Saale, which 
is crossed by two bridges, a town with 30,900 inhab., possesses an 
old Schloss of the extinct Dukes of Weissenfels-Querfurt. The 
KleDimberg, which rises above the Schloss, is a good point of 
view. — From Weissenfels to Zeifz, see p. 260. 

On the slope to the right rises the chateau of Goseck, and to 
the left the lofty tower of the ruined Schouhurg. The country be- 
comes more hilly, and the A'ine is cultivated here with some success. 

33 M. Naumburg {Beichskrone , R. 1^^ 4-4, D. 21/4 ^; 
Schwarzes Boss, R. 2-4, D. 2^/2 t///, these two very fair; Kaiser- 
hof, at the station), an ancient town with 25,100 inhab., '74 M. 
from the station (electric tramway 10 pf., cab 50 pf.), is an im- 
portant-looking and pleasantly -situated place. The bulk of the 
'^Cathedral of St, Peter and St. Paul (bell at the E. entrance; 
fee 25 pf.), completed before 1249, is in the late-Romanesque and 
Transition styles; the early-Gothic W. choir was added in 1250-70, 
the more developed E. choir about 1330. The S.W. tower was 
erected in 1894, the N.W. tower is of 1249, and the other two date 
from the 15th century. The gargoyles are of the 13th century. 
The W. choir is adorned with twelve * Statues of founders of the 
church. Below the E. choir is a spacious crypt (12th cent.), with 
pillars and capitals of most varied form. Both choirs are separated 
from the nave by fine screens. They both possess some old stained 
glass. — The Church of St. Wenceslaus or Stadt-Kirche (sacris- 
tan, Kleine Neugasse 4), in the market-place, contains a picture 
by Cranach the Elder: 'Suffer little children to come unto Me' 
(1529). — Fine views are obtained from the Burger - Garten 
(restaurant), on the Gralgenberg. 

From Xaumburg to Artern , 35 M.. railway in 2 hrs. — 31/2 M. 
Freyburg (Weintraube), with 3350 inhab. and a large manufactory of 
sparkling hock (open to visitors at 9, 10, & 11 a.m., 2, 3, & 4 p.m.), 
possesses a fine church, half Gothic and half Romanesque, dating from 
the 13th and loth cent., with two towers connected by a kind of bridge. 
The so-called Erinnerungs-Turnhalle filr Vater .John commemorates 
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the 'father of gymnastics', who lived and died 
(1852) at Freyburg (monument on the fagade). Behind the Turuhalle is 
the Jahn Museum. On the hill to the E. is the ancient Neuenhurg. 
with its Romanesque double chapel, which was one of the chief seats of 
the landgraves of Thuringia. Extensive view. The Romanesque double 

064 Boidc 39. KOSEX. From Leij^zig 

chapel (13th cent.' is a little gem of traceried decoration. A room is 
shown -which Queen Louisa of Prussia is said to have occupied a few days 
before the battle of Auerstadt (see below). — Near (18 M.) Xebra is 
Memleben {i^jo M.). with the interesting Romanesque ruin of a Benedictine 
abbey founded in 975 ; crypt and statues of emperors of the 13th cen- 
tury. — Beyond (25 M.) Bossleben the line traverses the Goldene Aue. — 
35 M. Artehi, p. 304. 

Beyond Xaumbnrg. to the left of tlie line, is the celebrated 
school of Schulpforta. established in 1543 in an old Cistercian 
monastery, where Klopstock. Fichte. Ranke, and other celebrated 
men were pupils. The choir of the fine Gothic church was com- 
pleted in 1268. The valley of the Saale from Xaumburg to Stadt- 
Sulza is very picturesque. 

371 g M. Kosen. — Hotels. *Zm»? Mutigen Patter, R. 2-1. B. 1, 
D. 2-21 o. pens. 5^ 2-8 •^*, with brine baths; Apel, at the station, R. IV2- 
4 JC; LoreUy, at the motor-boat wharf, R. IV2-2 t4^. — Railway Restau- 
rani; Kur-Garten, with view. — Visitors' Tax 6-10 JC. — Electric Boat 
to the foot of the Rudelsburg, 30 pf. 

Kosen (385 ft.: 3000 inhab.) is a pleasant little watering-place 
with salt-baths on the Saale. which is here crossed by an old bridge 
with pointed arches and the railway-bridge. On the left bank lie 
the station, the Kursaal, and the Kur-Garten, on the right the 
Evaporating TVorks. The Saalhduser^ Gottersiiz. Wilhelmshu.rg, 
and Himmelreich ('all with restaurants) command fine views. 

To the left on the hill, 2 M. from Kosen, rises the "^ Rudelshurg 
(280 ft. above the Saale; restaurant;, a ruined castle (12-14th cent.: 
footpath from Kosen via the Katze, a restaurant on the right bank, 
where there is a ferry: to the castle ^/4 hr.). Outside the castle 
are a monument to students who fell in 1870-71, a statue of Bis- 
marcl: as a student, and an obelisk in memory of Emp. William I. 
— Farther on are the two round towers of Saal€cl\ 

41 M. Gross-Heringen ('405 ft. ; JRail. Restaurant)^ at the in- 
flux of the Ilm into the Saale. Branch-line to (5]\1.) Camhu7r^(]^.26S). 

From Gross -Herixgex to Straussfcrt. 33 M., branch -railway in 
2V4 hrs. Beyond (IV'4 M.) Bad- Suiza -Xord (see below) the line pa'sses 
near Auerstedt, in the neighbourhood of which the battle of Auerstedt. 
which proved so fatal to the Prussians, was fought on 14th Oct., 1806. 
A monument marks the spot where the Duke of Brunswick was wounded. 

The train quits the Saale and approaches the Urn. — 43 M. 
Bad Suiza -pop. 2850; Kurhaus. R. 2-4, pens. 5-7 ^; Weimar- 
iseher Hof: Grossherzog von Sachsen : Simon), with salt-baths 
(^visitors' tax 9-18 -^/Ij. 

49 M. Apold a. (Adler; Post) is a busy place with stocking and 
other manufactories ('21.200 inhab. ^i and a clever war monument by 
F. Lepke fl895). 

59 X. Weimar (^Bail. Restaurantj, see p. 271. To Gera, see 
p. 276. Beyond AVeimar the country is hilly. 

72 M. Erfurt. — Hotels. Xear the Station : *Erfurter Hof (PI. b : 
D, 4), R. 2-5, B. 1. D. 2-2i ^ (in restaurant l'/^ JC)', Central (PI. d: 

B wBairiiDfltTBrslehjDieivC 

1 Altes GvmposxzuTV 

^cr-^\^lt%h a -n Tl -t « -T?^! J!^". I KaiserSVUAelmdenkmal'R^ 

a ^ "JI lii^?-^ ^ '^' ^ JQymmandaJVtur ..D3 

r^ 2(^ ^^5?7-p -^:2, tj ^-^ o ZiaherdenJcmal CD 3 


1 Reicfi^'bcmk, C4; ^ 

~ 8 SchZLienI>2^ 2,B 4;,C 1,C 3J)2ai3-l- 

""• civ-^ Seminar B* ; 

^^'"^ -^Waiscnhaus JB4- I 

MJBauigewvrhschxilc B2 ! 
M Eeichartdenk7nal' . B5 | 
o .<: 13 rrsrjLtuvei-kloster. . D 3 
^ <5 ^ . Liuiette 

sr^ ^ Scruesab.aiis-- -^ 

' ^/ V^^ i R F y R T 

i: z^.ooo 

^^^ 50 300 aOO 300 4O0 S30 

^ Gcftt^'' '^tisser.ieiitB 


Geo grapluAiLstall xor. 

"Wagner ADebee^ie^El 

to Cassel. ETlFURT. •'?5. nonfp. 265 

D, 4), R. 2-31/0, B. 1, 1). 2V2 v^ (in restaurant Ji/.^ ^/j^) ; Silber (PI. a ; D, 1) ; 
Reichsfiof i^L c; D, 1), R. 11/2"^^ B. -V^ <^. — In the Town: Europdiachf.r 
Hof& RdmUclier Kaincr (PI. h; C, 3), R. from 3, 13. 1 c^; Rltter (PI. ^; 
C, 3), R. 2-21/2, D. IV2 -^; Premsischer Hof (PL i; D, 3), R. li/.^-2 JC; 
Thuringer Hof (PL e, B, 3); Rheinischer Hof (PL f ; C, 4). 

Restaurants. In the Erfurter Hof and Centi'al- Hotel, see above; 
in the basement of the Europdischer Hof (see above ; T). 2 JC); Spate)i- 
bvciu, Angler 57, 1>.1 Ji; Kohl, Anger 19, with garden; Automatic Restau- 
rant, Bahnhof-Str. 1; llucke-s Wine Rooms, Johannis-Str. 2. 

Cafes. Stolze & Bachrodt, Ncuwerk-Str. .50 ; Wiener Cafe, Anger fU ; 
Cafe Roland, Fisehniarkt 7. 

Cab for 1 pers. 50, 2 pers. 60, 3 pers. 80 pf., 4 pers. 1 JC ; to the 
Schiesshaus or Steiger, 1 t^, 1 ^ 20, 1 .^^ 40, 1 «/{<( 60 pf . ; per hour 1 JC 50, 
1 ^S 80, 2 ,.4 10, 2 .^ 40 pf. — There are also Taximeter Cabs. 

Electric Tramways (10 pf.) as shown on the Plan. 

Theatre (PI. B, 4), Theater-Str. ; VogeVs Garten (variety-theatre). — 
Post & Telegraph Office (PL C, 3), Anger 66. — Baths (PL B, 4), Her- 
manns-Platz 10. 

U. S. Consul, Mr. Ralx)h C. Busser. 

English Church in the Neuerbe-Schtde ; chaplain Rev. Dr. Macintosh, 
Grotha (p. 277jj service at 3.30 p.m. on the last Sunday of the month. 

Erfurt (655 ft.), a very ancient town on the Gera^ with 100,000 
inhab., was a fortress down to 1873, but most of the works have 
been removed. It possesses several handsome Gothic churches, and 
private dwelling-houses of the 16th and 17th centuries. 

The town existed in the form of a fortified agricultural settlement 
as early as the time of St. Boniface (741), the English apostle of this 
district. In the 14th and 15th cent. Erfurt was a member of the Hanseatic 
Leag^ue ; at a later date it became part of the Electorate of Mayence ; 
in 1802 it was annexed to Prussia, from 1806 to 1814 it was under the 
French supremacy, and it was afterwards finally restored to Prussia. 
The so-called Erfurt Congress took place in the autumn of 1808. The 
Parliament of 1850 held its sittings in the Augustine church (p. 267). 
The university, founded in 1392 and suppressed in 1816, was one of the 
chief seats of the Humanists at the time of the Reformation. 

From the Railway Station (PL D, 4) we follow the Bahnhof- 
Str. to the left to the Anger. At the corner is the Steueramt or 
Pachhof (PI. C, D, 3), with a small Public Picture Gallery (open 
daily, 11-1; on Wed. also 2-4) and the Pay al Library, containing 
55,000 volumes and 7700 MSS. (open on week-days 10-1, Wed. also 
3-6; closed during the school-holidays). 

In the Anger (PL C, 3, 4), a broad street planted with trees, 
is the Merohauts' Church (early 14th cent.), in front of whicli 
rises a good Luther Monnmeut (PL 5), by Schaper (1890). 

The Schlosser-Strasse leads from the Post Office to the Fisch- 
MARKT (PL C, 3), in which are a Poland Column (1591) and the 
Rathaus, erected in 1869-75 and adorned with frescoes by 
Kampffer (staircase and passages : Faust, Grleichen, and Tannhauser 
legends, Luther's life) and Janssen (great hall: scenes from the his- 
tory of Erfurt; fee 30-50 pf.). Two of the private houses in the 
Fisehniarkt are handsome Renaissance edifices of the 16th cent., and 
there is another of equal interest in the J(Jiannis-Str. (No. 169). 
Opposite St. MichaeVs Church (PL C, 3), in the Pealschule (PL 8), 

266 ^oute 39. ERFURT. From Leipzig 

is the Museum of the Thuringian Forest Society (Sun., 11-1, 
free; at other times on application to the custodian). The adjacent 
Krcimer-BrUcke (PI. C, 3) is flanked with houses on each side. — 
The Hospital (PL C, D, 2) contains a collection of antiquities, 
paintings, coins, etc. (daily 11-1, free, except Mon. & Sat.). 

To the W. of the Fischmarkt is the principal square, the Fried- 
rich-^ilhelms-Platz (PI. B, 3). in the centre of which rises an 
obelisk in memory of Frederick Charles. Elector of Mayence (1777). 
On the N. side are the handsome Law Courts, and on the S. is the 
old 'Lilie' Inn (1538), where Luther, Maurice of Saxony, and Grustavus 
Adolphus are all said to have put up. To the S.TT. is an eminence, 
on the top of which the Cathedral and the church of St. Severus 
form a picturesque group, approached by a broad flight of steps 
(sacristan in the corner house to the right, at the top ; fee 60 pf., 
for 2 or more pers. 30 pf. each). 

The *Cathedral (PL B, 4: Rom. Cath.), begun about 1154, 
is erected on a massive substructure (the 'Cavaten'); the choir, built 
in 1349-70, is in the pure Grothic style, while the nave and aisles 
date from 1456-72. The X. portal has an elaborately decorated 
porch of 1358. The church was seriously damaged by fires and 
sieges at various periods, but was restored in 1845-70. The W. 
facade, which also is approached by a flight of steps, is adorned 
with a large figure of the Virgin in mosaic on a gold ground (1870). 

INTERIOR. By the first pillar on the X. side a *Bronze Relief, Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, by P. Visctier, being a monument 'Hcnningo Goden 
jurcc' {(1. 1521: replica at TVittenberp-. see p. 248). Near it, on the 
opposite pillar, a curious painting or 1534. representing the Transub- 
stantiation: on the S. wall a figure of St. Christopher, in oil (1499); 
below it the tombstone of a Count von Grleichen and his two wives, of 
the 13th century. The relief in wood of the Resurrection, above an altar 
to the right of the choir, has well-preserved painting (15th cent.). The 
choir contains finely carved stalls of the 15th cent., a Marriage of St. 
Catharine by Cranach the Elder, and a bronze candelabrum of the 12th 
cent., the foot of which represents a worshipper. Fine stained glass of 
the 15th century. 

Beautiful Cloisters on the S. side, partly Romanesque and partly 
Gothic. — The Towers, dating from the beginning of tne 13th cent., 
contain ten bells, the largest of which ('Maria Gloriosa') weighs upwards 
of 13 tons. Fine view from the top (260 steps). 

The ""Church of St. Severus (PI. B. 3: also Rom. Cath.), dating 
from the 15th cent., with its three spires and double aisles, was 
admirably restored in 1878 (key at Severi-Hof 2 >. It contains good 
reliefs (end of 14th cent.) on the altar, a figure of St. Michael (1467), 
and a font with an elaborate pierced canopy (1467). — The Frediger- 
Kirche (PI. C, 3), erected in the 14th cent., contains a carved high- 
altar (ca. 1500;i and interesting reliefs a4-16thcent> — The Bar- 
fUsser-Kirche (PI. C, 3, 4i, dating from the 14th cent., contains 
a carved altar (14th cent.) and interesting tombstones. 

The Goveri^rnent Buildings <P1. C. 4). formerly the palace of the 

io C'assel. NEU-BIETENDORF. 3.9. Rout^. 267 

governors appointed by the Electors of Mayencc, were occupied by 
Napoleon in 1808, who convened a congress of reigning princes here. 

The Aitfjnstine Monastery , now a reformatory (Martinsstift; 
PI. C, 2) and orphan-asylum, contains the cell of Luther, who was a 
monk here in 1505-8; but nearly all reminiscences of the illustrious 
Reformer were destroyed by a fire in 1872. 

The Steiger (boy. PI. B, 6; restaurant), to the S.W., and the Cyriax- 
burg, to the W., are the favourite promenades at Erfurt. At the foot 
of the former is the pleasure-resort Flora (tramway). — The horticulture 
of the environs enjoys a high reputation. The nurseries of J. C. Schmidt, 
K. Benary , F. C. Helnemann, Ilaagc & Schmidt (palms and orchids), 
and Lorenz contain a great variety of plants. A rich display of flowers 
may also be seen in summer and autumn beyond the Briihler-Tor, to the 
right. Near the Steiger are numerous well-kept market-gardens. 

The salt-mine of Ilversf/ehoven (pop. 10,000), 8 M. to tlie X. of Erfurt 
(on the railway to SondersJiausen, sec p. 309; tramway), with a shaft 
1300 ft. deep, mav be visited in the forenoon by permission of the over- 
seer (IV2 -*)• 

From Erfiirt to Nordhausen (Wolfcnhilitcl, Brn7tsv;ick), see R. 48; 
to Sangerhausen, see p. 301. 

The train now approaches the N. slopes of the Thuringian 
Forest. — 79 ^ 2 ^^- Neu-Dietendorf (Bail. Restaurant, D. 
IV2 ^) is a well-built Moravian colony. Railway to Ritschen- 
hansen, see p. 293. 

To the left, farther on, rise three picturesque castles situated on 
three isolated hills, called the Drei GleicJien:viz. the Wachsenhiirg 
(comp. p. 292), the Milhlhurg, and the Wander slehener Gleiche, 
the last two in ruins. The train skirts the Seeherg (p. 279). 

89 M. Gotha (RaiL Restaurant), see R. 42. Route to Leine- 
felde, see p. 306 ; to Grdfenroda, see p. 298. 

Beyond Gotha a fine view is obtained (left) of the mountains of 
Thuringia, among which the Inselsberg is conspicuous. — 96 M. 
Frottstedt, junction for Friedrichroda (see p. 299). 

The railway now follows the course of the Horsel, On the riffht, 
extending nearly as far as Eisenach, rises the long, deeply-furrowed 
ridge of the Horselberg (1575 ft.). Here, according to popular 
tradition, is situated the Grotto of Venus, into which she enticed 
the knight Tannhauser. The ascent is best accomplished from 
Schonau (see below; 50 min.) through the Zapfengrund (blue 
marks); fine view from the top (inn). — 102 M. Hchonau (820 ft.; 
see above). — 104 M. Wutha. Hence to Ruhla, see p. 302. 

107 M. Eisenach (Rail. Restaurant, D. 1^ /; .Jl), see R. 43. 
To Coburg, see R. 44. 

The train c