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I / 


Harvard College 


Stephen Salisbury 

Cbusof 1817 

For Greek and Ladn Lhetature 





(Vatican Museum, Rome) 


^elected motb^ 








^:^v 10. 

Xt^l:--\ ^'""'^ 

Copyright, xqoo, by 

W. p. 2 



A STATISTICAL table furnished by the United States Commis- 
sioner of Education, covering the years 1889- 1898, gives some 
interesting evidence as to the number and percentage of pupils 
studying Latin in the public and private secondary schools of the 
United States. In the year 1 889-1 890, 100,144 students, or 33.62 
per cent of the whole number, studied Latin. During the suc- 
ceeding period of eight years the number and percentage of 
Latin students steadily increased, until, in 1 897-1 898, 274,293 
students, or 49.44 per cent of the above number, were studying 
Latin. This increase, in the face of the fact that the secondary 
curriculum has been enriched by other subjects which have justly 
claimed large attention from the schools, is cause for congratu- 
lations to classical scholars. 

The same decade has witnessed the awakening of an unusual 
interest in the Latin program itself, and a widespread endeavor 
to enrich and render it more effective. This is especially evident 
in the work of the first year, the great importance of which to the 
succeeding work of the student is self-evident. Traditional books 
and methods have been challenged ; and while neither the ideal 
method nor book .has yet been put forth, a very substantial ad- 
vance has been made toward the solution of the problem as to 
the best method of introducing the young student to the study 
of Latin. The latter half of the first year and the second of a 
four years* course have also claimed serious attention and revision. 
More reading, which shall be at the same time more interesting 
and less difficult, is demanded. As a consequence, the Latin 
program is providing more and more suitable reading supple- 
mentary to Caesar. The place of Cicero and Vergil in the third 

.3. :•.,, 


and fourth years has not been seriously questioned, although the 
same requirement for supplementary rapid reading has been 
made. This requirement has generally been met by selections 
from Ovid, whose poems, on account of their attractive interest 
and clear, easy style, are especially adapted to the needs of this 

Notwithstanding this progress, there still remains much to be 
desired in the study of Roman life and literature as such. The 
study of the Latin language needs to be vivified, on the one hand, 
by a knowledge of the Hfe and manners of those who used it in 
their daily intercourse, and, on the other, by a larger acquaintance 
with the literature which grew out of this life, and which has been 
preserved to us. It is granted that these studies should not and 
cannot displace the study of the technique of the language in the 
early part of the course ; but when it is remembered that a large 
percentage of secondary school pupils end their formal studies 
with graduation from these schools, it is plain that such a course 
should include a clear view, at least in the large, of Roman life 
and letters. This can be gained, without too great encroachment 
upon purely linguistic work, if the teacher seizes such opportuni- 
ties for instruction in Roman life as present themselves in the 
class work itself; and if, in connection with each author studied, 
some attention is paid to the style and contents of his works as 
literature and to their place in the great body of Roman letters. 

As to the works of Ovid, the writer is under the strong impres- 
sion that they deserve a much larger place in the secondary 
curriculum than they have yet received. They abound in those 
old world stories of myth and tradition of which all literatures 
since their time are full, and ignorance of which makes many a 
page even of our own literature meaningless to the reader. These 
poems abound also in pictures of the poet*s own life and the 
manners of his day, in allusion to his contemporaries, and pictures 
of his surroundings both in Italy and in the bleak land of his exile ; 
they contain also a formal account of Roman festivals arranged in 
the order of their occurrence, with the traditional origin and 
meaning of these, — all told with an elegance of diction and a 


racy style that make the reading attractive and delightful to the 

Any edition of selections from the works of an author is unsatis- 
factory, for it is possible for the student to read these without any 
knowledge, or at least a very hazy and insufficient one, of the 
setting of the selections and the contents and character of the 
whole work. And yet it would be manifestly impossible to pre- 
sent the complete works of Ovid as a text-book. The present 
edition strives to obviate this difficulty by two means. Selection 
is made from all the different works of the poet, with a preliminary 
note upon the character and contents of each work and a state- 
ment of the setting of each selection ; in the case of tlie Metamor- 
phoses, not only does an analysis in English precede the different 
selections, but all omitted parts are given in epitome, each in its 
proper place. The student has in his hands, therefore, a reca- 
pitulation of the whole series of stories, and is enabled to see, as 
would not be possible under another arrangement, how the poet 
has skillfully connected the long array of stories, reaching from 
the creation down to his own time. 

The poetic form of Ovid*s work is presented from the stand- 
point of the beginner, so that if these selections be taken up in 
the third or even the second year an easy introduction may be 
obtained to this important subject. On the other hand, the 
presentation is made full enough to be of profit to the advanced 
student who may desire to make a more intensive study of Ovid*s 
poetic form. 

The notes aim to give abundant assistance to the student in 
translation and syntax of more difficult passages, to give such 
explanation as is necessary of historical and archaeological refer- 
ences, and to show by quotations from English literature some- 
thing of the wide influence which Ovid has had upon the world 
of letters since his time. An attempt has also been made to trace 
the progress of the more important stories through their earlier 
presentations by the Greek authors, their Roman restatements, 
and their later revival by the English poets. Much of this mate- 
rial may be considered as in advance of the needs of the younger 


pupils of the secondary school, and as more pertinent to the uses 
of the college student. The writer, while conscious of this, is 
still of the opinion that young students often have a clearer insight 
and a larger appreciation than is usually credited to them ; while, 
on the other hand, more advanced students may be led by these 
suggestions to further investigation along the same lines. 

The vocabulary has been especially prepared for this edition, 
and contains both the literal meanings of the words and their 
various tropical meanings found in these selections. The indi- 
cated derivations will also be found helpful to the understanding 
of the words. 

The illustrations are nearly all from ancient classical sources, 
and have been selected by the writer especially for this work from 
the galleries of Italy. Especial attention of the student is called 
to the mythological stories in stone as seen in the sarcophagi, 
showing how powerfully these stories took possession of the 
sculptor as well as the poet. 

The writer takes this opportunity to express his obligation to 
Miss Eleanor Sherwin, formerly reader in Latin in the University 
of Chicago, for valuable assistance in the notes and vocabulary. 




LIST OF Illustrations 9 

The Life of Ovid (^Tris^ia, TV, 10) 11 

Note on Heroides . 17 

Selection from Heroides ( X. Ariadne to Theseus) . . .18 

Note on Amores . 23 

Selections from Amores: 

The poet's introduction to amatory verse (I, l) . . . . 23 

His impassioned wooing (I, ill) 24 

Immortality of the poet*s fame (I, xv) 25 

An elegy on a dead parrot (H, vi) 26 

To Corinna upon the dangers of a voyage at sea (II, xi) . . 29 

To a swollen river which has stopped his journey (III, vi) . . 30 

The poet's farewell to the loves (III, xv) 32 

Note on Ars Amatoria 34 

Selections from Ars Amatoria: 

The poet is master of the art of love 34 

The story of the rape of the Sabine women 34 

A warning against jealousy; the story of Procris and Cephalus . 36 

Note on Remedia Amoris 38 

Selections from Remedia Amoris 38 

Notes on Tragedy 42 

Note on Fasti 46 

Selections from Fasti: 

January: dedication to Germanicus; history, functions, and attri- 
butes of Janus 46 

February : the derivation of the word; the setting of the Dolphin, 

and the story of Arion 50 

March: sacred to Mars; March once the first month of the year; 

the fatal Ides 53 

April: sacred to Venus; derivation of the word; the shepherd's 

prayer to Pales 56 

May : the story of Chiron and Hercules 59 

June : the feast and worship of Vesta, her temple and name . . 60 

Note on Metamorphoses 63 

Selections from Metamorphoses: 

The story of creation 64 

The golden age and degeneration of man ^"^ 




The destruction of man by flood 70 

The saved pair, and the repeopling of the earth • • • • 75 

Daphne is changed to a laurel tree 79 

lo is changed to a heifer ' 84 

The story of PhaSthon and the chariot of the sun . . . -91 

Cadmus founds the city of Thebes 103 

The story of Narcissus 109 

Pyramus and Thisbe 113 

Juno visits the lower world 117 

Perseus and Andromeda 119 

Perseus slays his enemies with the Gorgon^s head . . . .122 

The rape of Proserpina, and Ceres* wanderings in search of her . 124 

Arethusa is changed into a fountain 130 

The Emathides are changed into magpies 132 

The impious pride of Niobe, and the destruction of her children , 134 
Jason wins the golden fleece through the aid of Medea . . .140 

Medea renews the youth of Jason's father by her magic arts . . 146 

Daedalus and Icarus 151 

X Philemon and Baucis, a proof of the prosperity of the righteous . 155 

The battle of Hercules and Acheloiis 158 

The death and apotheosis of Hercules 162 

Orpheus and Eurydice 167 

Midas and the golden touch 170 

Iphigenia at Aulis 174 

The death of Achilles 176 

The contest of Ajax and Ulysses for the armor of Achilles . . 1 78 

The death of Polyxena 192 

Acis and Galatea; or, the Cyclops* wooing 194 

Some tenets of the Pythagorean philosophy 201 

The death and apotheosis of Caesar 207 

Note on Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto 212 

Selections from Tristia : 

The last sad night in Rome (I, ill) 213 

A letter to his wife from the poet*s sick chamber (HI, in) . .216 
His gratitude to a faithful friend at Rome (V, ix) . . . .219 

Selection from Epistulae ex Ponto (1, 11) 221 

The Poetic Form of Ovid*s Works 227 

Notes upon the Selections 243 

Vocabulary 417 


Jupiter, from a bust in the Vatican Museum at Rome . . Frontispiece 


Cupid and Bow, from a painting by Franceschini (1648-1729) in the 

Uffizi Gallery at Florence 33 

Melpomene, Muse of Tragedy, from a statue in the Vatican Museum 

at Rome Facing 42 

Tragic and Comic Masks, from a mosaic in the Capitoline Museum 

at Rome 45 

A Vestal Virgin, from a statue of a Vestalis Maxima found in the 

House of the Vestals at Rome 62 

The Creation of Man, from a sarcophagus in the National Museum 

at Naples 67 

Mercury, from a bronze statue in the National Museum at Naples 

Facing 87 
Juno, from a statue in the National Museum at Naples . . Facing 1 1 7 
Minerva, from a statue in the National Museum at Naples . Facing 133 
The Destruction of the Children of Niobe, from a sarcophagus 

in the Vatican Museum at Rome 136 

The Goddess Bona Copia, from a statue in the Vatican Museum at 

Rome Facing 161 

A Procession of Bacchanals, from a sarcophagus in the National 

Museum at Naples . .170 

A Battle with the Amazons, from a sarcophagus in the Vatican 

Museum at Rome 177 

Aesculapius, from a statue in the Vatican Museum at Rome Facing 206 
The Calydonian Hunt, from a sarcophagus in the Capitoline Museum 

at Rome 211 



[Probably no Roman writer has revealed himself more frankly in 
his works than has Publius Ovidius Naso. Indeed, the greater part of 
our knowledge of him is gained from his writings. References to his 
parentage, his early education, his friends, his work, his manner of life, 
his reverses, — all lie scattered freely through his pages. And, not 
content with this, he has taken care to leave to posterity a somewhat 
extended and formal account of his life, an example which we cannot 
but wish that all our favorite Roman authors had followed. This 
account, which he wrote during his period of exile (Tristia, IV. lo), 
is here given, that thus our poet may tell to his readers his own story, 
— a story which is made all the more enjoyable since we find ourselves 
personally addressed in the opening lines :] 

Ille ego qui fuerim, tenerorum lusor amorum, 
Quem legis, ut noris, accipe posteritas. 

[We next are told the place and time of the poet's birth, his social 
rank, and something of his family.] 

Sulmo mihi patria est, gelidis uberrimus undis, 

Milia qui novies distat ab Urbe decern, 
s Editus hie ego sum ; nee non ut tempora noris, 

Cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari. 
Siquid id est, usque a proavis vetus ordinis heres, 

Non modo fortunae munere factus eques. 
Nee stirps prima fui ; genito sum fratre creatus, 
lo Qui tribus ante quater mensibus ortus erat. 
Lucifer amborum natalibus adfuit idem ; 

Una celebrata est per duo liba dies : 
Haec est armiferae festis de quinque Minervae, 

Quae fieri pugna prima cruenta solet. 


[His early bent was towards poetry ; but this was opposed by his 
practical father, who desired that both his sons should prepare for the 
profession of the law.] 

15 Protinus excolimur teneri, curaque parentis 
Imus ad insignes Urbis ab arte viros. 
Frater ad eloquium viridi tendebat ab aevo, 

Fortia verbosi natus ad arma fori ; 
At mihi iam puero caelestia sacra placebant, 
20 Inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus. 

Saepe pater dixit * Studium quid inutile temptas ? 

Maeonides nullas ipse reliquit opes.* 
Motus eram dictis, totoque Helicone relicto 
Scribere temptabam verba soluta modis. 
25 Sponte sua carmen numeros veniebat ad aptos, 
Et quod temptabam scribere, versus erat. 

[The two brothers came to the age of manhood, and shortly there- 
after the elder died. Our poet now assumed the garb and duties of a 
Roman citizen.] 

Interea tacito passu labentibus annis 
Liberior fratri sumpta mihique toga est, 

Induiturque umeris cum lato purpura clavo, 
30 Et studium nobis quod fuit ante, manet. 

lamque decem vitae frater geminaverat annos, 
Cum perit, et coepi parte carere mei. 

Cepimus et tenerae primos aetatis honores, 
Eque viris quondam pars tribus una fui. 

[But, to a man of Ovid's tastes and temperament, the life of a states- 
man was utterly distasteful ; and, now that he was his own master, he 
gave loose rein to his poetic fancy.] 

35 Curia restabat. Clavi mensura coacta est : 
Mains erat nostris viribus illud onus. 


Nec patiens corpus, nee mens fuit apta labori, 

Sollicitaeque fugax ambitionis eram, 
Et petere Aoniae suadebant tuta sorores 
40 Otia, iudicio semper amata meo. 

[He soon gained admission to the choice circle of the poets of his 
day, paying unlimited devotion to the masters of his art, and quickly 
becoming himself the object of no small admiration on the part of 
younger poets] 

Temporis illius colui fovique poetas, 

Quotque aderant vates, rebar adesse deos. 
Saepe suas volucres legit mihi grandior aevo, 

Quaeque nocet serpens, quae iuvat herba, Macer. 
45 Saepe suos solitus recitare Propertius ignes, 

lure sodalicio qui mihi iunctus erat. 
Ponticus heroo, Bassus quoque clarus iambis 

Dulcia convictus membra fuere mei ; 
Et tenuit nostras numerosus Horatius aures, 
50 Dum ferit Ausonia carmina culta lyra. 
Vergilium vidi tantum ; nec amara Tibullo 

Tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae. 
Successor fuit hie tibi, Galle ; Propertius illi ; 

Quartus ab his serie temporis ipse fui. 
55 Utque ego maiores, sic me coluere minores, 

Notaque non tarde facta Thalia mea est. 

[His youthful poems soon gained fame among the people also, and 
his love songs became the popular lyrics of the street.] 

Carmina cum primum populo iuvenilia legi, 
Barba resecta mihi bisve semclve fuit. 

Moverat ingenium totam cantata per Urbem 
60 Nomine non vero dicta Corinna mihi. 

Multa quidem scripsi ; sed quae vitiosa putavi, 
Emendaturis ignihus ipse dedi. 


Tunc quoque,cum fugerem, quaedam placitura crfemavi, 
Iratus studio carminibusque meis. 

[Though extremely susceptible to the influences of love, he could 
proudly boast that his name was above reproach. He contracted two 
unhappy marriages in his youth, but his third marriage was a lasting 
joy to him.] 

65 Molle Cupidineis nee inexpugnabile telis 

Cor mihi, quodque levis eausa moveret, erat. 
Cum tamen hie essem, minimoque aeeenderer igni, 

Nomine sub nostro fabula nulla fuit 
Paene mihi puero nee digna nee utilis uxor 
70 Est data, quae tempus per breve nupta fuit. 
Illi successit, quamvis sine crimine coniunx, 

Non tamen in nostro firma futura toro. 
Ultima, quae mecum seros permansit in annos, 
Sustinuit coniunx exsulis esse viri. 
75 Filia me mea bis prima fecunda iuventa, 
Sed non ex uno coniuge, fecit avum. 

[And now his father and his mother died. The poet, while deeply 
mourning their loss with true filial devotion, still cannot but rejoice 
that they died before that disgrace came upon him which was to darken 
his own life and the lives of all whom he loved.] 

Et iam complerat genitor sua fata, novemque 

Addiderat lustris altera lustra novem. 
Non aliter flievi, quam me fleturus ademptum 
80 Ille fuit. Matri proxima iusta tuli. 
Felices ambo tempestiveque sepulti. 

Ante diem poenae quod periere meae ! 
Me quoque felicem, quod non viventibus illis 

Sum miser, et de me quod doluere nihil ! 
8s Si tamen exstinctis aliquid nisi nomina restant, 

Et gracilis structos effugit umbra rogos: 


Pama, parentales, si vos mea contigit, umbrae, 

Et sunt in Stygio crimina nostra f oro : 
Scite, precor, causam — nee vos mihi fallere fas est — 
90 Errprem iussae, non scelus, esse fugae. 

[For now, as the frosts of age were beginning to whiten his locks, 
a sudden calamity fell upon him, no less than an imperial decree against 
him of perpetual banishment to the far off shores of the Euxine sea. 
The cause of this decree he only hints at, as being already well known 
to his friends ; but he gives us to understand (1. 90) that it is an error 
of judgment and not of the heart.] 

Manibus hoc satis est. Ad vos, studiosa, revertor, 

Pectora, quae vitae quaeritis acta meae. 
lam mihi canities pulsis melioribus annis 

Venerat, antiquas miscueratque comas, 
95 Postque meos ortus Pisaea vinctus oliva 

Abstulerat decies praemia victor equus. 
Cum maris Euxini positos ad laeva Tomitas 

Quaerere me laesi principis ira iubet. 
Causa meae cunctis nimium quoque nota ruinae 
100 Indicio non est testificanda meo. 

Quid referam comitumque nefas f amulosque nocentes ? 

[And now, far from home and friends and the delights of his beloved 
Rome, he was forced to live in a rigorous climate, an unlovely land, and 
amidst a society of uncultured semi-savages.] 

Ipsa multa tuli non leviora fuga. 
Indignata malis mens est succumbere, seque 
Praestitit invictam, viribus usa suis ; 
105 Oblitusque mei ductaeque per otia vitae 
Insolita cepi temporis arma manu. 
Totque tuli casus pelago terraque, quot inter 

Occultum stellae conspicuumque polum. 
Tacta mihi tandem longis erroribus acto 
xxo luncta pharetratis Sarmatis ora Getis. 


[His chief solace was the cultivation of his art ; and in this he spent 
the tiresome days. He ends his account with a strain of thanksgiving 
to the Muse, and a prophecy of his world-wide fame and literary im- 

Hie ego finitimis quamvis circumsoner armis, 

Tristia, quo possum, carmine fata levo. 
Quod quamvis nemo est, cuius referatur ad aures, 

Sic tamen absumo decipioque diem. 
115 Ergo quod vivo, durisque laboribus obsto, 

Nee me sollicitae taedia lucis habent, 
Gratia, Musa, tibi! nam tu solacia praebes, 

Tu curae requies, tu medicina venis. 
Tu dux et comes es ; tu nos abducis ab Histro, 
120 In medioque mihi das Helicone locum. 
Tu mihi, quod rarum est, vivo sublime dedisti 

Nomen, ab exsequiis quod dare fama solet. 
Nee qui detraetat praesentia, Livor iniquo 

UUum de nostris dente momordit opus. 
125 Nam tulerint magnos cum saecula nostra poetas, 

Non fuit ingenio fama maligna meo. 
Cumque ego praeponam multos mihi, non minor illis 

Dicor et in toto plurimus orbe legor. 
Si quid habent igitur vatum praesagia veri, 
130 Protinus ut moriar, non ero, terra, tuus. 
Sive favore tuli, sive banc ego carmine famam, 

lure tibi grates, candide lector, ago. 

[Though Ovid says (11. 103 seq.) that he strove to bear his mis- 
fortunes with a manly fortitude, the poems of his exile, the Tristia and 
Epistles from PontuSy abound in plaintive lamentations at his hard lot, 
petitions to his friends in Rome, and unmanly subserviency to Augustus, 
and later to Tiberius, in the hope of gaining his recall. These, how- 
ever, were all in vain, and he died at Tomi, his place of exile, in a.d. 18, 
after a banishment of nine years.] 



[The works of Ovid may be broadly divided into three classes, cor- 
responding to three periods in his life : the works of his youth, of the 
prime of his life prior to his banishment, and of his last years spent in 

His earlier works are all in the elegiac measure and amatory in char- 
acter. The order of these cannot be determined with exactness. It is 
possible that he may have been working upon them all at intervals dur- 
ing this period. However this may be, it has been thought that the 
Htroidesy or ' Epistles of Heroines,' are his earliest work. They are a 
series of fictitious letters, purporting to be written by certain love-lorn 
princesses of the mythical age to the estranged objects of their affections. 
They are pervaded with a spirit of ideality, and are full of the fresh 
vigor of youth. While the general situation in all is the same, still 
the details are as varied as the characters. It is as if the poet would 
present ideal pictures of all possible phases of a "great love despised." 
These letters are highly polished in style ; and, although the somewhat 
unnatural prolongation of the woes of the heroines detracts from their 
interest, still these letters have always been the most popular of Ovid's 
works. This is without doubt owing to their highly dramatic character, 
and to the romantic nature of their subject, a theme which has never 
failed to claim the sympathetic interest of the reader. 

The epistles are twenty-one in number, six of which are of doubtful 
authenticity. Those which are considered as undoubtedly from Ovid's 
hand are as follows : 

Penelope to Ulysses, Phillis to Demophoon, Briseis to Achilles, 
Phaedra to Hippolytus, Oenone to Paris, Hypsipyle to Jason, Dido to 
Aeneas, Hermione to Orestes, Deianira to Hercules, Ariadne to 
Theseus, Canace to Macareus, Medea to Jason, Laodamia to Protesi- 
laUs,HyPermnestra to Lynceus, and Sappho to Phaon. 

The tenth letter, purporting to be sent from Ariadne to Theseus, is 
sufficiently representative of the whole series. 
OVID — 2 ly 


Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, king of Crete. This monarch, 
in vengeance for the death of his son Androgeos, had exacted from the 
Athenians a tribute of seven youths and seven maidens who were to be 
sent every nine years to Crete, to be devoured by the monster Minotaur. 
Theseus, son of Aegeus, king of Athens, offered himself to be of this 
number of youths, and went to Crete with the purpose of slaying the 
Minotaur. This object he accomplished, and made his way in safety 
out of the mazy labyrinth in which the monster was confined, by the 
aid of a clew which Ariadne had given him. For she had seen and 
loved the Athenian hero when he was presented among the others at 
her father's court. Theseus, promising marriage to the princess, fled 
with her from Crete. But landing at Naxos or Dia, he deserted her in 
the night and sailed away to Athens. In the gray dawn she discovers 
that she is alone, and descries his sail just vanishing on the distant 
horizon. This crisis is the setting of the letter which follows.] 

Mitius inveni quam te genus omne ferarum : 

Credita non ulli quam tibi peius eram. 
Quae legis, ex illo, Theseu, tibi litore mitto, 

Unde tuam sine me vela tulere ratem, 
5 In quo me somnusque meus male prodidit et tu, 

Per facinus somnis insidiate meis. 
Tempus erat, yitrea quo primum terra pruina 

Spargitur et tectae fronde queruntur aves ; 
Incertum vigilans a somno languida movi 
10 Thesea prensuras semisupina manus : 

Nullus erat ! referoque manus iterumque retempto 

Perque torum moveo bracchia : nullus erat ! 
Excussere metus somnum ; conterrita surgo, 

Membraque sunt viduo praecipitata toro. 
15 Protinus adductis sonuerunt pectora palmis, 

Utque erat e somno turbida, rapta coma est. 
Luna fuit : specto, siquid nisi litora cernam ; 

Quod videant oculi, nil nisi litus habent. 
Nunc hue, nunc illuc, et utroque sine ordine curro ; 
30 Alta puellares tardat harena pedes. 


Interea toto clamavi in litore 'Theseu !' 

Reddebant nomen concava saxa tuum, 
Et quotiens ego te, totiens locus ipse vocabat : 

Ipse locus miserae ferre volebat opem. 
25 Mons fuit : apparent frutices in vertice rari ; 

Nunc scopulus raucis pendet adesus aquis : 
Ascendo (vires animus dabat) atque ita late 

Aequora prospectu metior aha meo. 
Inde ego (nam ventis quoque sum crudelibus usa) 
3^^ Vidi praecipiti carbasa tenta Noto : 

Aut vidi aut tamquam quae me vidisse putarem — 

Frigidior glacie semianimisque fui. 
Nee languere diu patitur dolor ; excitor illo, 

Excitor et summa Thesea voce voco. 
35 *Quo fugis?' exclamo 'scelerate revertere Theseu, 

Flecte ratem !■ numerum non habet ilia suum.' 
Haec ego ; quod voci deerat, plangore replebam : 

Verbera cum verbis mixta fuere meis. 
Si non audires, ut saltem cernere posses, 
40 lactatae late signa dedere manus, 

Candidaque imposui longae velamina virgae, 

Scilicet oblitos admonitura mei. 
lamque ocuHs ereptus eras : tum denique flevi ; 

Torpuerant molles ante dolore genae. 
45 Quid potius facerent, quam me mea lumina flerent, 

Postquam desierant vela videre tua ? 
Aut ego diffusis erravi sola capillis, 

Qualis ab Ogygio concita Baccha deo, 
Aut mare prospiciens in saxo frigida sedi, 
50 Quamque lapis sedes, tam lapis ipsa fui. 
Saepe torum repeto, qui nos acceperat ambos, 

Sed non acceptos exhibiturus erat, 
Et tua, quae possum, pro te vestigia tango 


Strataque, quae membris intepuere tuis. 
55 Incumbo lacrimisque toro manante profusis 
* * Pressimus ' exclamo * te duo : redde duos ! 
Venimus hue ambo : cur non discedimus ambo ? 

Perfide, pars nostri, lectule, maior ubi est ? ' 
Quid faciam? quo sola ferar? vacat insula cultu: 
60 Non hominum video, non ego facta bourn. 
Omne latus terrae cingit mare ; navita nusquam, 

Nulla per ambiguas puppis itura vias. 
Finge dari comitesque mihi ventosque ratemque . 
Quid sequar ? accessus terra paterna negat 
65 Ut rate felici pacata per aequora labar, 
Temperet ut ventos Aeolus, exsul ero ! 
Non ego te, Crete centum digesta per urbes, 

Aspiciam, puero cognita terra lovi. 
At pater et tellus iusto regnata parent! 
70 Prodita sunt facto, nomina cara, meo, 
Cum tibi, ne victor tecto morerere recurvo, 
Quae regerent passus, pro duce fila dedi, 
Cum mihi dicebas * per ego ipsa pericula iuro, 
Te fore, dum nostrum vivet uterque, meam.' 
75 Vivimus, et non sum, Theseu, tua, si modo vivit 
Femina periuri fraude sepulta viri. 
Me quoque qua fratrem, mactasses, improbe, clava; 

Esset, quani dederas, morte soluta fides. 
Nunc ego non tantum, quae sum passura, recordor, 
80 Sed quaecumque potest ulla relicta pati. 
Occurrunt animo pereundi mille figurae, 

Morsque minus poenae quam mora mortis habet 
lam iam venturos aut hac aut suspicor iliac. 
Qui lanient avido viscera dente, lupos. 
85 Forsitan et f ulvos tellus alat ista leones ; 
Quis scit, an et saevani tigrida Dia f erat ? 


Et f reta dicuntur magnas expellere phocas ! 

Quis vetat et gladios per latus ire meum ? 
Tantum ne religer dura captiva catena, 
90 Neve traham serva grandia pensa manu, 
Cui pater est Minos, cui mater filia Phoebi, 

Quodque magis memini, quae tibi pacta fui! 
Si mare, si terras porrectaque litora vidi, 

Multa mihi terrae, multa minantur aquae. 
95 Caelum restabat : timeo simulacra deorum ! 

Destituor rapidis praeda cibusque feris ; 
Sive colunt habitantque viri, diffidimus illis : 

Externos didici laesa timere viros. 
Viveret Androgeos utinam ! nee facta luisses 
100 Impia f uneribus, Cecropi terra, tuis ; 
Nee tua mactasset nodoso stipite, Theseu, 

Ardua parte virum dextera, parte bovem ; 
Nee tibi, quae reditus monstrarent, fila dedissem, 

Fila per adductas saepe recepta manus. 
105 Non equidem miror, si stat victoria tecum, 

Strataque Cretaeam belua stravit humum. 
Non poterant figi praecordia ferrea cornu ; 

Ut te non tegeres, pectore tutus eras. 
Illic tu silices, illic adamanta tulisti, 
no Illic qui silices, Thesea, vincat, habes. 
Crudeles somni, quid me tenuistis inertem ? 

Aut semel aeterna nocte premenda fui. 
Vos quoque crudeles, venti, nimiumque parati, 

Flaminaque in lacrimas officiosa meas. 
IIS Dextera crudelis, quae me fratremque necavit, 

Et data poscenti, nomen inane, fides ! 
In me iurarunt somnus ventusque fidesque : 

Prodita sum causis una puella tribus. 
Ergo ego nee lacrimas matris moritura videbo., 


i'2o Nec mea qui digitis lumina condat, erit ?, 
Spiritus infelix peregrinas ibit in auras, 

Nec positos artus unguet arnica manus ? 
Ossa superstabunt volucres inhumata marinae ? 
Haec sunt officiis digna sepulcra meis ! 
125 Ibis Cecropios portus, patriaque receptus 
Cum steteris turbae celsus honore tuae 
Et bene narraris letum taurique virlque 
Sectaque per dubias saxea tecta vias, 
Me quoque narrate solam tellure relictam ! 
130 Non ego sum titulis subripienda tuis. 

Nec pater est Aegeus, nec tu Pittheidos Aethrae 

Filius : auctores saxa fretumque tui ! 
Di facerent, ut me summa de puppe videres : 
Movisset vultus maesta figura tuos. 
135 Nunc quoque non oculis, sed, qua potes, aspice ment 
Haerentem scopulo, quem vaga pulsat aqua ; 
Aspice demissos lugentis more capillos 

Et tunicas lacrimis sicut ab imbre graves ! 
Corpus, ut impulsae segetes aquilonibus, horret, 
140 Litteraque articulo pressa tremente labat. 
Non te per meritum, quoniam male cessit, adoro : 

Debita sit facto gratia nulla meo, 
Sed ne poena quidem ! si non ego causa salutis, 
Non tamen est, cur sis tu mihi causa necis. 
145 Has tibi plangendo lugubria pectora lassas 
Infelix tendo trans freta longa manus, 
Hos tibi, qui superant, ostendo maesta capillos ! 

Per lacrimas oro, quas tua facta movent : 
Flecte ratem, Theseu, versoque relabere vento ! 
150 Si prius occidero, tu tamen ossa feres. 


[As the Heroides are pictures of ideal situations, so the Amores are 
full of the real personality of the poet, and abound in descriptions of 
scenes, experiences, and incidents so vividly presented that one does 
not stop to question their reality. We feel that the poet is no longer 
relating the love stories of mythical personages, but is telling episodes 
from his own life. Many of these episodes, it must be admitted, are 
offensive to modern taste. But because of this the whole work should 
by no means be passed over, since in it many interesting and beautiful 
poems may be found. 

In a prefatory epigram Ovid tells us that there were originally five 
books of the Amores^ but that these have been reduced to three. 

At the outset he describes how he was engaged upon a more severe 
theme, when he was forced against his will into the field of amatory 

I. I. Arma gravi numero violentaque bella parabam 
Edere, materia conveniente modis ; 
Par ^rat ftil erior versus : risisse Cupido 
Dicitur atque unum subripuisse pedem. 
5 * Quis tibi, saeve puer, dedit hoc in carmina iuris } 
Pieridum vates, non tua turba sumus. 
Quid, si praeripiat fliavae Venus arma Minervae, 

Ventilet accensas fliava Minerva faces t 
Quis probet in silvis Cererem regnare iugosis, 
lo Lege pharetratae virginis arva coli t 

Crinibus insignem quis acuta cuspide Phoebum 

Instruat, Aoniam Marte movente lyram t 
Sunt tibi magna, puer, nimiumque potentia regna : 
Cur opus adfectas, ambitiose, novum t 
IS An^ouod ubique, tuum est ? tua sunt HeliconiaTeicv^^l 




Vix etiam Phoebo iam lyra tuta sua est ? ' 
Cum bene surrexit versu nova pagina primo, 

Attgnugtjieryos proximus ille meos ; 
Nee mihi materia est riumeris levioribus apta, 
^ 20 Aut puer aut longas compta puella comas. 
Questus eram, pharetra cum protinus ille soluta 

Legit in exitium spicula facta meum 
Lunavitque genu sinuosupi fortiter arcum 

* Quod ' que * canas, vates, accipe ' dixit * opus ! ' 
25 Me miserum ! certas habuit puer ille sagittas : 

Uror, et in vacuo pectore regnat Amor. 
Sex mihi surgat^pus numeris, in quinque residat : 

Fefrea cum vestris oella valete modis ! 
Cingere litorea flaventia tempora myrto, 
30 Musa, per undenos emodulanda pedes ! 

. [The next selection illustrates the impassioned wooing of the youth- 
ful poet, revealing a fervor and an abandon, a real personal interest in 
the case, which the more polished love songs of Horace nowhere 

I. III. lusta precor : quae me nuper praedata puQlla.est, 
Aut amet aut f aciat, cuir ego semper amem ! 
• A, nimium volui ! tantum patiatiir amari : 

Audierit nostras totjly therea preces ! 
5 Accipe, per longos tibi qui deserviat annos, 
Accipe, qui pura norit amare fide ! 
Si me non veterum commendant magna parentum 

Nomina, si nostri sanguinis auctor eques. 
Nee mens innumeris renovatur campus aratris, 
10 Temperat et sumptus parous uterque parens : 
At Phoebus comitesque novem vitisque repertor 

Hijic^^aciunt, at me qui tibi donat. Amor, 
At nulli cessura fides, sine crimine mores 
Nudaque simplicitas purpureusque pudor. 


15 Non mihi mille placent, non sum desultor amoris : 
Tu mihi, siqua fides, cura perennis eris ; 
Tecum, qu os deder int annos mihi fila sororum, 

Vivere contingat teqiie dolente mori ; 
Te mihi materiem felicem in carmina praebe : 
20 Provenient causa, carmina di p-na sua. 
Carmine nomen habent exterrita cornibus lo 

Et quam fluminea lusit adulter ave 
Quaeque super pontum simulate vecta iuvenco 
Virginea tenuit cornua vara manu : 
25 Nos quoque per totum pariter cantabimur orbem, 
lunctaque semper erunt nomina nostra tuis. 

[The hope of literary immortality, everywhere so dear to the 
Roman poets, is expressed again and again by Ovid himself. He 
predicts this immortality in the following poem, and that not only for 
himself but for all the great bards of Greece and Rome.] 

I. XV. Quid mihi, Livor edax, ignavos obicis annos, 
Ingeniique vocas carmen inertis opus ; 
N on m e^more patrum, dum strenua sustinet aetas, 
Praemia militiae pulverulenta sequi 
5 Nee me verbosas leges ediscere nee me 
Ingrato vocem prostituisse foro ? 
Mortale est, quod quaeris, opus; mihi fama perennis 

Quaeritur, in toto semper ut orbe canar. 
Vivet Maeonides, Tenedos dum stabit et Ide, 
10 Dum rapidas Simois in mare volvet aquas. 
Vivet et Ascraeus, dum mustis uva tumebit, 

Dum cadet incurva falce resecta Ceres. 
Battiades semper toto cantabitur orbe : 
Quamvis ingenio non valet, arte valet. 
15 Nulla Sophocleo veniet iactura cothurno; 
Cum sole et luna semper Aratus erit ; 
Dum fallax servus, durus pater, impr6ba\^Tva 


Vivent et meretrix blanda, Menandros erit ; 
Ennius arte carens animosique Accius oris 
3o Casurum nullo tempore nomen habent. 

Varronem primamque ratem quae nesciet aetas, 

Aureaque Aesonio terga petita duci ? 
Carmina sublimis tunc sunt peritura Lucreti, 

Exitio terras cum dabit una dies ; 
25 Tityrus et segetes Aeneiaque arma legentur, 

Roma triumphati dum caput orbis erit ; 
Donee erunt ignes arcusque Cupidinis arma, 

Discentur numeri, culte Tibulle, tui ; 
Gallus et Hesperiis et Gallus notus Eois, 
30 Et sua cum Gallo nota Lycoris erit. 
Ergo, cum silices, cum dens patientis aratri 

Depereant aevo, carmina morte carent : 
Cedant carminibus reges regumque triumphi, 

Cedat et auriferi ripa benigna Tagi ! 
35 Vilia miretur vulgus ; niihi flavus Apollo 

Pocula Castalia plena ministret aqua, 
Sustineamque coma metuentem frigora myrtum 

Atque ita soUicito multus amante legar ! 
Pascitur in vivis Livor, post fata quiescit, 
40 Cum suus ex merito quemque tuetur honos. 
Ergo etiam cum me supremus adederit ignis, 

Vivam, parsque mei multa superstes erit. 

[The following whimsical and exaggerated lament over the death of 
a parrot, the pet of his mistress Corinna, is one of the most famous 
poems of the Amores, It exhibits the charming, half-playful, half- 
plaintive spirit which pervades our poet^s elegies. The poem also 
illustrates one of the most prominent faults of Ovid's style, — its too 
large use of mythological allusion, which tends to conventionality.] Psittacus, Eois imitatrix ales ab Indis, 

Occidit : exequias ite frequenter, aves ; 


Ite, piae volucres, et plangite pectora pinnis 
Et rigido teneras ungue notate genas ; 
s Horrida pro maestis lanietur pluma capillis, 
Pro longa resonent carmina vestra tuba ! 
Quod scfilu3 Ismarii quereris, Philomela, tyranni, 

Expleta est annis ista querela suis ; 
Alitis in rarae miser um devertere fun us : 
10 Magna, sed antiqua est causa doloris Itys. 
Omn^s^,.5Qjae liquido libratis in aere cursus, 
Tu tamen ante alios, turtur amice, dole ! 
Plena fuit vobis omni concordia vita, 
Et stetit ad finem longa tenaxque fides : 
15 Quod fuit Argolico iuvenis Phoceus Orestae, 
Hoc tibi, dum licuit, psittace, turtur erat. 
Quid tamen ista fides, quid rari forma colons, 

Quid vox mutandis ingeniosa sonis, 
Quid iuvat,''ui*clatus es, nostrae placuisse puellae ? 
20 Infelix, avium gloria, nempe iaces ! 

Tu poteras fragiles pinnis hebetare zmaragdos 

Tincta gerens rubro Punica rostra croco. 
Non fuit in terris vocum simulantior ales : 
Reddebas blaeso tam bene verba sono ! 
as Raptus es invidia : non tu fera bella movebas ; 
Garrulus et placidae pacis amator eras. 
Ecce, coturnices inter sua proelia vivunt, 
Forsita n et fiant i nde frequenter anus. 
Pfen uFg ras minimo nee prae sermonis amore 
30 In multos poteras ora vacare cibos ; 

Nux erat esca tibi causaemae papavera somni, 

Pellebatque sitim simplicis umor aquae. 
Vivit edax vultur ducensque per aera gyros 
Miluus et pluviae graculus auctor aquae ; 
35 Vivit et armiferae cornix invisa Minervae, 


Ilia quidem saeclis vix moritura novem : 
Occidit ilia loquax humanae vocis imago, 

Psittacus, extremo munus ab orbe datum ! 
Optima prima fere manibus rapiuntur avaris, 
40 Implentur numeris deteriora suis : 
Tristia Phylacidae Thersites funera vidit, 

lamque cinis vivis fratribus Hector erat. 
Quid referam timidae pro te pia vota puellae, 

Vota procelloso per mare rapta Noto ? 
45 Se£timajux venit non exhibitura sequentem, 

(Et stabat vacuo iam tibi Parca colo) 
Nee tamen ignavo stupuerunt verba palato : 

Clamavit moriens lingua * Corinna, vale ! * 
Colle sub Elysio nigra nemus ilice frondet, 
so Udaque perpetuo gramine terra viret : 
Siqua fides dubiis, volucrum locus ille piarum 

Dicitur, obscenae quo prohibentur aves ; 
Illic innocui late pascuntur olores 

Et vivax phoenix, unica semper avis ; 
55 Explicat ipsa suas ales lunonia pinnas, 

Oscula dat cupido blanda columba mari. 
Psittacus has inter nemorali sede receptus 

Convertit volucres in sua verba pias. 
Ossa tegit tumulus, tumulus pro corpore magnus, 
60 Quo lapis exiguus par sibi carmen habet : 




[The one who seems to have exercised the most powerful influence 
over Ovid's youthful affections, and whose name was most frequently 
found in his love songs, which he tells us in his Life were the popular 
songs of the street, was that Corinna who has already been mentioned 
in these pages. In the following poem he strives to dissuade her from 
a proposed journey by sea ; failing in this, he prays for her safe return.] 



II. XI. Prima malas docuit mirantibus aequoris undis 
Peliaco pinus vertice caesa vias, 
Quae concurrentes inter temeraria cautes 
Conspicuam fulvo vellere vexit ovem. 
5 O utinam, nequis remo f reta longa moveret, 
Argo f unestas pressa bibisset aquas ! 
Ecce, fugit notumque torum sociosque Penates 

Fallacesque vias ire Corinna parat. 
Quid tibi, me miserum, Zephyros Eurosque timebo 
10 Et gelidum Borean egelidumque Notum i 
Non illic urbes, non tu mirabere silvas : 
Una est inii^gtijcaerula forma maris ; 
Nee medius tenues conchas pictosque lapillos 
Pontus habet : bibuli litoris ilia mora est. 
15 Litora marmoreis pedibus signate, puellae : 
Hactenus est tutum ; cetera caeca via est. 
Et vobis alii ventorum proelia narrent, 

Quas Scylla infestet, quasve Charybdis aquas, 
Et quibus emineant violenta Ceraunia saxis, 
20 Quo lateant Syrtes magna minorque sinu ! 
Haec alii referant ad vos; quod quisque loquetur, 

Credite ! quaerenti nulla procella nocet. 
Sero respicitur tellus, ubi fune soluto 
Currit in immensum panda carina salum, 
25 Navita sollicitus cum ventos horret iniquos 

Et proge tam letum, quam prope cernit aquam. 
Quod si concussas Triton exasperet undas, 

Quam tibi sit toto nullus in ore color ! 
Tum generosa voces fecundae sidera Ledae 
30 Et * felix,* dicas * quem sua terra tenet ! * 
Tutius est fovisse torum, legisse libellos, 

Threiciam digitis increpuisse lyram. 
At, si vana ferunt volucres mea dicta procdl^.^^ 


Aequa tamen puppi sit Galatea tuae ! 
35 Vestrum crimen erit talis iactura puellae, 
Nereidesque deae Nereidumque pater. 
Vade memor nostri vento reditura secundo, 

Impleat ilia tuos fortior aura sinus ! 
Turn mare in haec magnus proclinet litora Nereus, 
40 Hue venti spirent, hue agat aestus aquas! 
Ipsa roges, Zephyri veniant in lintea soli, 

Ipsa tua moveas turgida vela manu. 
Primus ego aspiciam notam de litore puppim, 
Et dicam * nostros advehit ilia deos,* 
45 Excipiamque umeris et multa sine ordine carpam 
Oscula : pro reditu victima vota cadet, ^ 
Inque tori formam molles sternentur harenae, 

Et tumulus mensae q uilib et instar erit. 
Illic apposifo narrabis multa Lyaeo : 
50 Paene sit ut mediis obruta navis aquis, 

Dumque ad me properas, neque iniquae tempera 
Nee te praecipites extimuisse Notos. 
Omnia pro veris credam, sint ficta licebit : 
Cur ego non vm-j^ h|apd^r ipse meis ? 
55 Haec mihi quamprimum caelo nitidissimus alto 
Lucifer admisso tempora port^equo ! 

[In the next selection our poet is seen hastening on his way to join 
his sweetheart, when his progress is stopped by a small stream that 
has been swollen to a torrent. He addresses the stream in the lan- 
guage now of remonstrance now of wheedling persuasion.] 

III. VI. Amnis harundinious'limosas obsite ripas, 

Ad dominam propero : siste parumper aquas ! 
Nee tibi sunt pontes nee quae sine remigis ictu 
Concava traiecto cumba rudente vehat. 


5 Parvus eras, memini, nee te transire refugi, 

Summaque vix talos eontigit unda meos ; 
Nunc ruis apposite nivibus de monte solutis 

Et turpi erassas gurgite volvis aquas. 
Quid properasse iuvat, quid parca dedisse quieti 
10 Tempora, quid nocti conseruisse diem, 

Si tamen hie standum est, si non datur artibus ullis 

Ulterior nostro ripa premenda pedi ? 
Nunc ego, quas habuit pinnas Danaeius heros, 

Terribili densum cum tulit angue caput, 
15 Nunc opto currum, de quo Cerealia primum 

Semina venerunt in rude missa solum. 
Prodigiosa loquor veterum mendacia vatum, 

Nee tulit haec umquam nee f eret ulla dies ; 
^3Eiipotius, ripis effuse capacibus amnis, 
ao ^ (Sic^aete rnus eas !) labere fine tuo ! 

Non eris invidiae, torrens, mihi crede, ferendae, 

Si dicar per te forte retentus amans. 
Flumina deberent iuvenes in amore iuvare ; 

Flumina senserunt ipsa, quid esset amor. 

[Here follows a long catalogue, in Ovid's worst manner, of those 
river gods of mythology who had themselves felt the pangs of love. 

This stream, too, like those, shall become famous in song, if only it 
will yield to the poet's request. It will not.? Then let it be accursed 
with drought, as it deserves.] 

85 Dum loquor, increscis latis spatiosior undis, 
Nee capit admissas alveus altus aquas : 
Quid mecum, furiose, tibi ? quid mutua differs 
Gaudia.? quid coeptum, rustice, rumpis iter.^ 
Quid, si legitimum fliueres, si nobile fliumen, 
90 Si tibi per terras maxima fama foret ? 
Nomen babes nullum, rivis conlecte caducis, 
Nee tibi sunt fontes nee tibi certa domus\ 


Fontis habes instar pluviamque nivesque solutas, 
Quas tibi divitias pigra minis trat hiems ; 
95 Aut lutulentus agis brumali tempore cursus, 
Aut premis arentem pulverulentus humum : 
Quis te tum potuit sitiens haurire viator ? 

Quis dixit grata voce * perennis eas ' ? 

Damnosus pecori curris, damnosior agris ; 

loo Forsitan haec alios, me mea damna movent. 

Huic ego vae ! demens narrabam fluminum amores ! 

lactasse indigne nomina tanta pudet ; 
Nescio quem hunc spectans Acheloon et Inachon amnem 
Et potui nomen, Nile, referre tuum ! 
los At tibi pro meritis, opto, non candide torrens, 
Sint rapidi soles siccaque semper hiems ! 

[At the end of this work, the poet bids farewell to the Loves, with 
the evident intention of passing on to higher themes; with the boldness 
of youth, he takes his place beside Vergil and Catullus, and compla- 
cently plumes himself upon the renown which he has conferred upon 
the humble place of his birth ] 

III. XV. Quaere novum vatem, tenerorum mater Amorum: 
Raditur hie elegis ultima meta meis ; 
Quos ego composui, Paeligni ruris alumnus, 

(H ec m^ deliciae dedecuere meae) 
5 Siquid id est, usque a proavis vetus ordinis hares, 

Non modo militiae turbine factus eques. 
Mantua Vergilio, gaudet Verona Catullo ; 

Paelignae dicar gloria gentis ego, 
Q^iarp sua libertas ad honesta coegerat arma, 
ij Cum timuit socia s anxia Roma bj^IUIS. 
Atque aliquis spectans hospes Sulmonis aquosi 

Moenia, quae campi iugera pauca tenent, 
' Quae tantum ' dicat ' potuistis ferre poetam, 
Quantulacumque estis, vos ego magna voco.' 


'5 Culte puer puerique parens Amathusia culti, 
Aurea de campo vellite signa meo ! 
Comiger increpuit thyrso graviore Lyaeus : 

Pulsanda est magnis area maior equis. 
Imbelles elegi, genialis Musa, valete, 
20 Post mea mansurum fata sugergtes opus ! 


Omnia Vincit Amor 
(From a pwnting by Franceschini, in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence) 

OVID — 3 


[This work is, as its name implies, a set of rules for the government 
of affairs of love. The work is in three books, — the first two addressed 
to men, the last to women. Ovid, who by experience was a past master 
in this art, offers minute instructions as to methods of procedure. Others 
may be leaders and instructors in other arts, but he is the master of the 
art of love.] 

I. Siquis in hoc artem populo non novit amandi, 
Hoc legat et lecto carmine doctus amet! 
Arte citae veloque rates remoque moventur, 
Arte leves currus : arte regendus Amor. 
5 Curribus Automedon lentisque erat aptus habenis, 
Tiphys in Haemonia puppe magister erat: 
Me Venus artificem tenero praefecit Amori ; 
Tiphys et Automedon dicar Amoris ego. 

[The poet recommends the theater as the best field of observation 
of the fair sex, who, from the days of the Sabine women down, have 
thronged that place of popular resort.] 

Ut redit itque frequens longum formica per agmen, 
Granifero solitum cum vehit ore cibum, 
95 Aut ut apes saltusque suos et olentia nactae 
Pascua per flores et thyma summa volant, 
Sic ruit in celebres cultissima femina ludos : 

Copia iudicium saepe morata meum est. 
Spectatum veniunt ; veniunt spectentur ut ipsae : 
loo Ille locus casti damna pudoris habet. 
Primos sollicitos fecisti, Romule, ludos, 


Cum iuvit viduos rapta Sabina viros. 
Tunc neque marmoreo pendebant vela theatre, 

Nee fuerant liquido pulpita rubra croco ; 
v)5 Illic, quas tulerant nemorosa Palatia, frondes 

Simpliciter positae, scaena sine arte f uit ; 
In gradibus sedit populus de caespite factis, 

Qualibet hirsutas fronde tegente comas. 
Respiciunt oculisque notant sibi quisque puellam, 
no Quam velit, et tacito pectore multa movent. 
Dumque rudem praebente modum tibicine Tusco 

Ludius aequatam ter pede pulsat humum, 
In medio plausu (plausus tunc arte carebant) 

Rex populo praedae signa petita dedit. 
115 Protinus exsiliunt animum clamore fatentes 

Virginibus cupidas iniciuntque manus : 
Ut fugiunt aquilas, timidissima turba, columbae, 

Utque fugit visos agna novella lupos, 
Sic illae timuere viros sine more ruentes ; 
lao Constitit in nulla, qui fuit ante, color. 

Nam timor unus erat, f acies non una timoris : 

Pars laniat crines, pars sine mente sedet ; 
Altera maesta silet, frustra vocat altera matrem ; 

Haec queritur, stupet haec ; haec manet, ilia fugit. 
125 Ducuntur raptae, genialis praeda, puellae, 

Et potuit multas ipse decere timor. 

[It would be profitless to follow Ovid through the tangled maze of 
precept and illustration. The whole work shows the extremely low 
ideal of morality which existed in the society of the time. No more 
striking commentary upon this society can be made than that such a 
work as this should have been put forth by a popular poet in the confi- 
dent expectation that it would meet with a popular response. 

This work, like all of Ovid's works, abounds in mythological illustra- 
tions. One of the best of these is the following selection from the third 
booky illustrating the folly of the too hasty judgment of jealousyj 


III. Nec cito credideris ! quantum cito credere laedat, 
636 Exemplum vobis non leve Procris erit 
Est prope pur purees colles florentis Hymetti 
Fons sacer et viridi caespite mollis humus : 
Silva nemus non alta facit ; tegit arbutus herbam ; 
^//j Ros maris et lauri nigraque m}Ttus olent; 
Xec densum foliis buxum fragilesque myricae 

Nec tenues cytisi cultaque pinus abest ; 
Lenibus impulsae Zephyris auraque salubri 
Tot generum frondes herbaque summa tremit. 
695 Grata quies Cephalo ; famulis canibusque relictis 
Lassus in hac iuvenis saepe resedit humo, 
' Quae ' que ' meos releves aestus/ cantare solebat 

* Accipienda sinu, mobilis aura, veni ! ' 
Coniugis ad timidas aliquis male sedulus aures 
v^o Auditos memori rettulit ore sonos : 

Procris ut accepit nomen, quasi paelicis, Aurae, 

Excidit et subito muta dolore f uit : 
Palluit, ut serac lectis de vite racemis 

Pallescunt frondes, quas nova laesit hiems, 
705 Quacque suos curvant matura Cydonia ramos, 
Cornaque adhuc nostris non satis apta cibis. 
Ut rediit animus, tenues a pectore vestes 

Rumpit et indignas sauciat ungue genas ; 
Nec mora, per medias passis furibunda capillis 
710 Evolat, ut thyrso concita Baccha, vias. 

Ut prope perventum, comites in valle relinquit, 

Ipsa nemus tacito clam pede fortis init. 
Quid tibi mentis erat, cum sic male sana lateres, 
Procri ? quis attoniti pectoris ardor erat ? 
715 lam iam venturam, quaecumque erat Aura, putabas 
Scilicet atque oculis probra videnda tuis. 
Nunc venissc piget (neque enim deprendere velles). 


Nunc iuvat : incertus pectora versat amor ; 
Credere quae iubeant, locus est et nomen et index, 
720 Et quia amans semper, quod timet, esse putat. 
Vidit ut oppressa vestigia corporis herba, 
Pulsantur trepidi corde micante sinus ; 
lamque dies medius tenues contraxerat umbras, 
Inque pari spatio vesper et ortus erant : 
725 Ecce, redit Cephalus silvis, Cyllenia proles, 
Oraque fontana fervida pulsat aqua. 
Anxia, Procri, lates ; solitas iacet ille per herbas, 

Et * Zephyri molles auraque ' dixit * ades ! ' 
Ut patuit miserae iucundus nominis 'error, 
730 Et mens et rediit verus in ora color : 
Surgit et oppositas agitato corpore frondes 

Movit in amplexus uxor itura viri ; 
Ille feram vidisse ratus iuvenaliter artus 
Corripit : in dextra tela f uere manu. 
735 Quid facis, infelix ? non est f era ; supprime tela ! 
Me miserum ! iaculo fixa puella tuo est. 
* Ei mihi ! * conclamat * fixisti pectus amicum : 
Hie locus a Cephalo vulnera semper habet. 
Ante diem morior, sed nulla paelice laesa : 
740 Hoc faciet positae te mihi, terra, levem. 
Nomine suspectas iam spiritus exit in auras : 

Labor, io ! cara lumina conde manu ! * 
Ille sinu dominae morientia corpora maesto 
Sustinet et lacrimis vulnera saeva lavat : 
745 Exit et incauto paulatim pectore lapsus 
Excipitur miseri spiritus ore viri. 


[This poem is designed as a book of advice for those who would be 
delivered from the snares of love. In the opening lines, Ovid apologizes 
to Cupid for his seeming desertion from the standard of that youthful 
'god, implied in the title of his poem; and explains that his * remedy' 
is only for those who are entangled in the meshes of unhappy or 
unworthy love.] 

Legerat huius Amor titulum nomenque libelli : 

* Bella mihi, video, bella parantur ' ait. 
* Parce tuum vatem sceleris damnare, Cupido, 

Tradita qui toties te duce signa tuli. 
5 Non ego Tydides, a quo tua saucia mater 

In liquidum rediit aethera Martis equis. 
Saepe tepent alii iuvenes ; ego semper amavi : 

Et si, quid faciam nunc quoque, quaeris, amo. 
Quin etiam docui, qua posses arte parari, 
lo Et quod nunc ratio est, impetus ante fuit. 
Nee te, blande puer, nee nostras prodimus artes, 

Nee nova praeteritum musa retexit opus. 
Siquis amat quod amare iuvat, feliciter ardet : 

Gaudeat, et vento naviget ille suo. 
15 At siquis male fert indignae regna puellae, 

Ne pereat, nostrae sentiat artis opem.' 

[The poet moralizes upon the dangers of delay.] 

Nam mora dat vires : teneras mora percoquit uvas 
Et validas segetes, quod fuit herba, facit. 


85 Quae praebet latas arbor spatiantibus umbras, 
Quo posita est primum tempore, virga fuit : 
Turn poterat manibus summa tellure revelli ; 
Nunc Stat in immensum viribus acta suis. 
Quale sit id, quod amas, celeri circumspice mente 
90 Et tua laesuro subtrahe colla iugo. 
Principiis obsta : sero medicina paratur. 

Cum mala per longas convaluere moras. 

Sed propera nee te venturas differ in boras : 

Qui non est hodie, eras minus aptus erit. 

95 Verba dat omnis amor reperitque alimenta morando : 

Optima vindictae proxima quaeque dies. 

Flumina pauca vides de magnis fontibus orta : 

Plurima conlectis multiplicantur aquis ; 
Si cito sensisses, quantum peccare parares, 
100 Non tegeres vultus cortice, Myrrha, tuos. 

[Above all things, the mind must be wholesomely occupied with 
war, farming, the chase, foreign travel, —anything that may furnish a 
healthy activity. It is the empty mind that is most subject to tempta- 
tion. The poet takes occasion here to give a charming picture of 
country life.] 

Rura quoque oblectant animos studiumque colendi : 
170 Quaelibet huic curae cedere cura potest. 
Colla iube domitos oneri supponere tauros, 

Sauciet ut duram vomer aduncus humum ; 
Obrue versata Cerealia semina terra, 

Quae tibi cum multo faenore reddat ager. 
175 Aspice curvatos pomorum pondere ramos, 
Ut sua, quod peperit, vix ferat arbor onus ; 
Aspice labentes iucundo murmure rivos ; 
Aspice tondentes fertile gramen oves ! 
Ecce, petunt rupes praeruptaque saxa capellae : 
180 lam referent haedis ubera plena suis. 


Pastor inaequali modulatur harundine carmen, 

Nee desunt comites, sedula turba, canes. 
Parte sonant alia silvae mugitibus altae, 

Et queritur vitulum mater abesse suum. 
185 Quid, cum suppositos fugiunt examina fumos, 

Ut relevent dempti vimina curva favi ? 
Poma dat autumnus ; formosa est messibus aestas ; 

Ver praebet flores ; igne levatur hiems. 
Temporibus certis maturam rusticus uvam 
190 Deligit, et nudo sub pede musta fluunt; 
Temporibus certis desectas adligat herbas, 

Et tonsam raro pectine verrit humum. 
Ipse potes riguis plantam deponere in hortis, 

Ipse potes rivos ducere lenis aquae. 
195 Venerit insitio : f ac, ramum ramus adoptet, 

Stetque peregrinis arbor operta comis. 
Cum semel haec animum coepit mulcere voluptas, 

Debilibus pinnis inritus exit Amor. 
Vel tu venandi studium cole : saepe recessit 
200 Turpiter a Phoebi victa sorore Venus ; 
Nunc leporem pronum catulo sectare sagaci, 

Nunc tua frondosis retia tende iugis ; 
Aut pavidos terre varia formidine cervos, 

Aut cadat adversa cuspide fossus aper. 

[And let no one think that magic arts can avail. Their uselessness 
is proved by the fact that famous professors of these arts have been 
unable by their aid to help themselves.] 

Me duce non tumulo prodire iubebitur umbra, 
Non anus infami carmine rumpet humum, 
855 Non seges ex aliis alios transibit in agros, 
Nee subito Phoebi pallidus orbis erit ; 

Ut solet, aequoreas ibit Tiberinus in undas, 
Ut solet, in niveis Luna vehetur equis. 


Nulla recantatas deponent pectora curas, 
260 Nee fugiet vivo sulphure victus amor. 
Quid te Phasiacae iuverunt gramina terrae, 

Cum cuperes patria, Colchi, manere domo ? 
Quid tibi prof uerunt, Circe, Perseides herbae, 
Cum sua Neritias abstulit aura rates ? 
265 Omnia fecisti, ne callidus hospes abiret : 
lUe dedit certae lintea plena fugae. 
Omnia fecisti, ne te ferus ureret ignis : 
Longus et invito pectore sedit amor. 
Vertere tu poteras homines in mille figuras : 
270 Non poteras animi vertere iura tui. 

287 Ardet et adsuetas Circe decurrit ad artes, 
Nee tamen est illis attenuatus amor. 
Ergo, quisquis opem nostra tibi poscis ab arte, 
290 Deme veneficiis carminibusque fidem ! 

[In an interesting digression Ovid makes answer to those critics 
who chide him for devoting himself entirely at this period to poetry 
of love. *Let them carp,' says he, *so long as my name resounds 
throughout the world.' 

Nuper enim nostros quidam carpsere libellos, 
Quorum censura Musa proterva mea est : 

Dummodo sic placeam, dum toto canter in orbe. 
Quod volet, impugnent unus et alter opus I 
365 Ingenium magni livor detractat Homeri. 

[He boasts that, though he is still only on the upward slope of the 
hill of Fame, elegiac poetry owes as much to him as epic to Vergil.] 

Principio clivi noster anhelat equus ; 
395 Tantum se nobis elegi debere f atentur, 
Quantum Vergilio nobile debet epos. 
Hactenus invidiae respondimus : attrahe lora 
Fortius et gyro curre, poeta, tuo I 


[It was quite to be expected that Ovid, in the fervor of his ; 
genius, would make some attempts in the field of tragedy, a 1 
literature which, it would seem, in all periods was popular among t 
Romans. He himself makes several allusions to these attempts. IJI^: 
the A mores (II. xviii. 11-18) he describes how he had forced hiiil|idK> 
for a time to give up the writing of mere love poems, and to assume jdU.. 
more noble work of tragedy.] 

Vincor, et ingenium sumptis revocatur ab armis» 

Resque domi gestas et mea bella cano. 
Sceptra tamen sumpsi, curaque tragoedia nostra 

Crevit, et huic operi quamlibet aptus eram : 
15 Risit Amor pallamque meam pictosque cothurnos 

Sceptraque privata tarn cito sumpta manu; 
Hinc quoque me dominae numen deduxit iniquae, 

Deque cothurnato vate triumphat Amor. )' 

[Again {Amores, III. i.), under the form of an allegorical strife be^ * 
tween Elegeia (or Love) and Tragoedia, he represents the conflictiiig - 
influences under which he wrought.] 

Stat vetus et multos incaedua silva per annos : 

Credibile est illi numen inesse loco ; 
Fons sacer in medio speluncaque pumice pendens, 
Et latere ex omni dulce queruntur aves. 
5 Hie ego dum spatior tectus nemoralibus umbris, 
(Quod mea, quaerebam, Musa moveret opus) 
Venit odoratos Elegeia nexa capillos, 
Et, puto, pes illi longior alter erat : 

Melpomene, Muse of Tragic Poetry 
(From the Vatican Museum) 

To face p. 42 


Forma decens, vestis tenuissima, vultus amantis ; 
10 Et pedibus vitium causa decoris erat. 
Venit et ingenti violenta Tragoedia passu. 
Fronte comae torva, palla iacebat humi ; 
Laeva manus sceptrum late regale movebat, 
Lydius alta pedum vincla cothurnus erat. 
15 Et prior * ecquis erit ' dixit * tibi finis amandi, 
O argumenti lente poeta tui ? 
Nequitiam vinosa tuam convivia narrant, 
Narrant in multas compita secta vias. 
Saepe aliquis digito vatem designat euntem, 
20 Atque ait " hie, hie est, quern ferus urit Amor." 
Fabula, nee sentis, tota iactaris in Urbe, 

Dum tua praeterito facta pudore refers. 
Tempus erat, thyrso pulsum graviore moveri ; 
Cessatum satis est : incipe maius opus ! 
25 Materia premis ingenium ; cane facta virorum. 
" Haec animo " dices ** area facta meo est." 
Quod tenerae cantent, lusit tua Musa, puellae, 

Primaque per numeros acta iuventa suos ; 
Nunc habeam per te Romana Tragoedia nomen ! 
30 Implebit leges spiritus iste meas.' 
Hactenus, et movit pictis innixa cothurnis 

Densum caesarie terque quaterque caput. 
Altera, si memini, limis subrisit ocellis ; 
(Fallor, an in dextra myrtea virga fuit ? ) 
35 * Quid gravibus verbis, animosa Tragoedia,* dixit 

* Me premis ? an numquam non gravis esse potes ? 
Imparibus tamen es numeris dignata moveri : 

In me pugnasti versibus usa meis. 
Non ego contulerim sublimia carmina nostris : 
40 Obruit exiguas regia vestra fores. 

Sum levis, et mecum levis est, mea cura, C\]l^\^o\ 


Non sum materia f ortior ipsa mea ; 
Et tamen emerui plus, quam tu, posse ferendo 
Multa supercilio non patienda tuo. 
45 Rustica sit sine me lascivi mater Amoris : 
Huic ego proveni lena comesque deae; 
Quam tu non poteris duro reserare cothumo, 

Haec est blanditiis ianua laxa meis ; 
Per me decepto didicit custode Corinna 
so Liminis astricti sollicitare fidem 
Delabique toro tunica velata soluta 

Atque impercussos nocte movere pedes. 
Vel quotiens foribus duns inlisa pependi, 
Non verita a populo praetereunte legi ; 
55 Quin ego me memini, dum custos saevus abiret, 
Ancillae missam delituisse sinu ; 
Quid, cum me munus natali mittis, at ilia 

Rumpit et apposita barbara mersat aqua ? 
Prima tuae movi felicia semina mentis : 
6o Munus babes, quod te iam petit ista, meum.' 
Desierat ; coepi * per vos utramque rogamus, 

In vacuas aures verba timentis eant. 
Altera me sceptro decoras altoque cothurno : 
lam nunc contacto magnus in ore sonus ; 
65 Altera das nostro victurum nomen amori : 
Ergo ades et longis versibus adde breves ! 
Exiguum vati concede, Tragoedia, tempus : 

Tu labor aeternus; quod petit ilia, breve est.' 
Mota dedit veniam : teneri properentur Amores, 
70 Dum vacat ; a tergo grandius urguet opus. 

[That the tragic Muse did win a temporary sway, and that the 
poet did write at least one play, on the theme of Medea, is attested 
by Quintilian (X. i, 98), who speaks of the tragedy in terms of 
praise : 


Ovidii Medea videtur mihi ostendere, quantum ille vir praestare potu- 
erit, si ingenio suo imperare quam indulgere maluisset. 

Tacitus also (JDialogus, 12) bears testimony to the popularity of this 
play in his time : 

Plures hodie reperies, qui Ciceronis gloriam quam qui Vergilii 
detrectent : nee ullus Asinii aut Messallae liber tam inlustris est quam 
Medea Ovidii aut Varii Thyestes. 

The play is again mentioned in the fifth century a.d. in a letter of 
Valerius to Rufinus, containing a caution against marriage: Lege 
MecUam Nasonis, et vix pauca invenies impossibilia mulieri. 

When we consider the masterly way in which the poet has treated 
this same theme in the seventh book of the Metamorphoses^ we cannot 
but regret the almost utter loss of this tragedy. Of the whole play one 
line alone remains, quoted by Quintilian (VIII. 5, 6) as an example of 
a *sententia': 

Vehementius apud Ovidium Medea dicit, Servare potui ; perdere an 
possim, rogas ? 

The works of the second period of Ovid's life are two in number : 
the Fasti and the Metamorphoses, Both were written, but neither 
was published before the banishment of the poet, which so suddenly 
interrupted his prosperous career at Rome.] 

Tragic and Comic Masks 
(From a Mosaic preserved in the Capitoline Museum at Rome) 


[The Fastiy or Calendar enumerates the various religious festivals 
of the Romans in their chronological order, and narrates the traditional 
events which are connected with these holidays. The poet undertakes 
an explanation of the names of the various months, and accounts for 
the origin of many Roman customs and festivals. It is a poem of times 
and places, which makes the work of great value to the student of 
Roman antiquities. The plan of the work included twelve books, one 
for each month ; and while there is evidence that the poet completed 
his first sketch of the whole work, the first six books only have come 
down to us. These were finished in their original form before Ovid's 
banishment in a.d. 9, and were addressed to Augustus ; but they re- 
mained unpublished until the death of Augustus in a.d. 14. At this 
time the poet revised his first book, and, dedicating it to Germanicus, 
the adopted son of Tiberius, sent the whole to Rome in the vain hope 
that by this means he might gain the favor of the new Emperor. This 
book, like all the previous poems of Ovid, is in the elegiac measure. 

A selection of typical passages is here presented.] 

Book I. January 
[The poet dedicates his revised work to Germanicus.] 

Tempora cum causis Latlum digesta per annum 

Lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa canam. 
Excipe pacato, Caesar Germanice, vultu 

Hoc opus at timidae dirige navis iter; 
5 Officioque, levem non aversatus honorem, 

Huic tibi devoto numine dexter ades. 
Sacra recognosces annalibus eruta priscis, 

Et quo sit merito quaeque notata dies. 
Invenies illic et festa domestica vobis : 

N. 46 


lo Saepe tibi pater est, saepe legendus avus. 
Quaeque ferunt illi pictos signantia fastos, 

Tu quoque cum Druso praemia fratre feres. 
Caesaris arma canant alii : nos Caesaris aras, 
Et quoscumque sacris addidit ille dies. 
15 Annue conanti per laudes ire tuorum, 

Deque meo pavidos excute corde metus. 
Da mihi te placidum, dederis in carmina vires : 

Ingenium vultu statque caditque tuo. 
Pagina iudicium docti subitura movetur 
ao Principis, ut Clario missa legenda deo. 
Quae sit enim culti facundia sensimus oris, 

Civica pro trepidis cum tulit arma reis. 
Scimus et, ad nostras cum se tulit impetus artes, 
Ingenii currant flumina quanta tui. 
25 Si licet et fas est, vates rege vatis habenas, 
Auspicio felix totus ut annus eat. 

[January first. Janus, his festival, history, functions, and attributes.] 

Ecce tibi faustum, German ice, nuntiat annum, 
Inque meo primus carmine lanus adest. 
65 lane biceps, anni tacite labentis origo. 
Solus de superis qui tua terga vides, 
Dexter ades ducibus, quorum secura labore 

Otia terra ferax, otia pontus habet : 
Dexter ades patribusque tuis populoque Quirini, 
70 Et resera nutu Candida templa tuo. 

Prospera lux oritur. Linguis animisque favete ! 

Nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die. 
Lite vacent aures, insanaque protinus absint 
lurgia; differ opus, livida turba, tuum. 
75 Cernis, odoratis ut luceat ignibus aether, 
Et sonet accensis spica Cilissa focis? 


Flamma nitore suo templorum verberat aurum, 

Et tremulum summa spargit in aede iubar. 
Vestibus intactis Tarpeias itur in arces, 
80 Et populus festo concolor ipse suo est 

lamque novi praeeunt fasces, nova purpura fulget, 

Et nova conspicuum pondera sentit ebur. 
Colla rudes operum praebent ferienda iuvenci, 

Quos aluit campis herba Falisca suis. 
85 luppiter arce suatotum cum spectet in orbem, 

Nil nisi Romanum, quod tueatur, habet. 
Salve, laeta dies, meliorque revertere semper, 

A populo rerum digna potente coli. 
Quem tamen esse deum te dicam, lane biformis ? 
90 Nam tibi par nullum Graecia numen habet. 
Ede simul causam, cur de caelestibus unus 

Sitque quod a tergo, sitque quod ante, vides? 
Haec ego cum sumptis agitarem mente tabellis, 

Lucidior visa est, quam f uit ante, domus. 
95 Tunc sacer ancipiti mirandus imagine lanus 

Bina repens oculis obtulit ora meis. 
Extimui sensique metu riguisse capillos, 

Et gelidum subito frigore pectus erat. 
I lie tenens baculum dextra clavemque sinistra 
100 Edidit hos nobis ore priore sonos : 

* Disce, metu posito, vates operose dierum, 

Quod petis, et voces percipe mente meas. 
Me Chaos antiqui — nam sum res prisca — vocabant 

Aspice, quam longi temporis acta canam. 
105 Lucidus hie aer et quae tria corpora restant, 

Ignis, aquae, tellus, unus acervus erat. 
Ut semel haec rerum secessit lite suarum, 

Inque novas abiit massa soluta domos, 
Flamma petit altum, propior locus aera cepit, 


no Sederunt medio terra fretumque solo. 

Tunc ego, qui f ueram globus et sine imagine moles, 

In faciem redii dignaque membra deo. 
Nunc quoque, confusae quondam nota parva figurae. 
Ante quod est in me postque, videtur idem. 
115 Accipe, quaesitae quae causa sit altera formae, 
Hanc simul ut noris officiumque meum. 
Quidquid ubique vides, caelum, mare, nubila, terras 

Omnia sunt nostra clausa patentque manu. 
Me penes est unum vasti custodia mundi, 
120 Et ius vertendi cardinis omne meum est. 
Cum libuit Pacem placidis emittere tectis. 

Libera perpetuas ambulat ilia vias. 
Sanguine letifero totus miscebitur orbis, 
Ni teneant rigidae condita bella serae. 
12s Praesideo foribus caeli cum mitibus Horis: 
It, redit officio luppiter ipse meo. 
Inde vocor lanus. Cui cum Cereale sacerdos 

Imponit libum farraque mixta sale, 
Nomina ridebis : modo namque Patulcius idem 
130 Et modo sacrifico Clusius ore vocor. 
Scilicet alterno voluit rudis ilia vetustas 

Nomine diversas significare vices. 

Vis mea narrata est. Causam nunc disce figurae : 

lam tamen hanc aliqua tu quoque parte vides. 

13s Omnis habet geminas, hinc atque hinc, ianua frontes, 

E quibus haec populum spectat, at ilia Larem. 

Utque sedens primi vester prope limina tecti 

lanitor egressus introitusque videt, 
Sic ego perspicio, caelestis ianitor aulae, 
140 Eoas partes Hesperiasque simul. 

Ora vides Hecates in tres vertentia partes, 
Servet ut in temas compita secta vias. 

ovri? — 4 


Et mihi, ne flexu cervicis tempora perdam, 
Cernere non moto corpore bina licet' 
145 Dixerat : et vultu, si plura requirere vellem, 
Difficilem mihi se non fore fassus erat 

[Why the temple of Janus is shut in time of peace but open in war 

*At cur pace lates, motisque recluderis armis?' 

Nee mora, quaesiti reddita causa mihi est. 
*Ut populo reditus bella profecto, 
280 Tota patet dempta ianua nostra sera. 
Pace fores obdo, ne qua discedere possit : 

Caesareoque diu nomine clusus ero.' 
Dixit, et attollens oculos diversa tuentes, 

Aspexit toto quidquid in orbe fuit. 
285 Pax erat, et vestri, Germanice, causa triumphi, 

Tradiderat famulas iam tibi Rhenus aquas, 
lane, fac aeternos pacem pacisque ministros, 

Neve suum, praesta, deserat auctor opus. 
Quod tamen ex ipsis licuit mihi discere fastis, 
290 Sacravere patres hac duo templa die. 
Accepit Phoebo nymphaque Coronide natum 

Insula, dividua quam premit amnis aqua : 
luppiter in parte est. Cepit locus unus utrumque 

lunctaque sunt magno templa nepotis avo. 

Book II. February 

[The introduction addressed to Augustus. — The derivation of th 
word February,!^ 

lanus habet finem. Cum carmine crescit et annus : 
Alter ut hie mensis, sic liber alter eat 

Nunc primum velis, elegi, maioribus itis: 
Exiguum, memini, nuper eratis opus. 


5 Ipse ego vos habui faciles in amore ministros, 
Cum lusit numeris prima iuventa suis. 
Idem sacra cano signataque tempora fastis : 
Ecquis ad haec illinc crederet esse viam ? 
Haec mea militia est. Ferimus quae possumus, 
10 Dextraque non omni munere nostra vacat. 
Si mihi non valido torquentur pila lacerto, 

Nee bellatoris terga premuntur equi, 
Nee galea tegimur, nee acuto cingimur ense, — 
His habilis telis quilibet esse potest — 
15 At tua prosequimur studioso pectore, Caesar, 
Nomina, per titulos ingredimurque tuos. 
Ergo ades et placido paulum mea munera vultu 

Respice, pacando siquid ab hoste vacas. 
Februa Romani dixere piamina patres : 
20 Nunc quoque dant verbo plurima signa fidem. 
Pontifices ab rege petunt et flamine lanas, 
Quis veterum lingua februa nomen erat. 
Quaeque capit lictor domibus purgamina certis, 
Torrida cum mica farra, vocantur idem. 
25 Nomen idem ramo, qui caesus ab arbore pura 
Casta sacerdotum tempora f ronde tegit. 
Ipse ego flaminicam poscentem februa vidi, 

Februa poscenti pinea virga data est. 
Denique quodcumque est, quo corpora nostra piantur, 
30 Hoc apud intonsos nomen habebat avos. 
Mensis ab his dictus, secta quia pelle Luperci 
Omne solum lustrant, idque piamen habent : 
Aut quia placatis sunt tempora pura sepulcris, 
Tunc cum ferales praeteriere dies. 
35 Omne nefas omnemque mali purgamina causam 
Credebant nostri toUere posse senes. 


[February fourth. The cx>DsteUation of the Dolphin sets. This 
suggests the ston* of Anon.] 

Quem modo caelatum stellis Delphina videbas, 
80 Is fugiet visus nocte sequente tuos: 
Seu f uit occultis felix in amoribus index, 

Lesbida cum domino seu tulit ille lyram. 
Quod mare non novit, quae nescit Ariona tellus ? 

Carmine currentes ille tenebat aquas. 
85 Saepe sequens agnam lupus est a voce retentus, 

Saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna lupum : 
Saepe canes leporesque umbra cubuere sub una, 

Et stetit in saxo proxima cer\*a leae : 
Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite comix 
90 Sedit, et accipitri iuncta columba f uit. 
Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vocalis Anon, 

Tamquam fraternis obstipuisse modis. 
Nomen Arionium Siculas impleverat urbes, 

Captaque erat lyricis Ausonis ora sonis. 
95 Inde domum repetens puppem conscendit Arion, 

Atque ita quaesitas arte ferebat opes. 
Forsitan, inf elix, ventos undasque timebas : 

At tibi nave tua tutius aequor erat. 
Namque gubemator destricto constitit ense 
100 Ceteraque armata conscia turba manu. 

Quid tibi cum gladio } Dubiam rege, navita, puppem ! 

Non haec sunt digitis arma tenenda tuis. 
Ille, metu viduus, * mortem non deprecor ' inquit, 

* Sed liceat sumpta pauca referre lyra.' 
105 Dant veniam, ridentque moram. Capit ille coronam, 

Quae possit crines, Phoebe, decere tuos. 
Induerat Tyrio bis tinctam murice pallam ; 

Reddidit iota suos pollice chorda sonos : 
Flebilibus numeris veluti canentia dura 



no Traiectus pinna tempora cantat olor. 
Protinus in medias ornatus desilit undas, 
Spargitur impulsa caerula puppis aqua. 
Inde — fide maius — tergo delphina recurvo 
Se memorant oneri supposuisse novo. 
115 lUe sedens citharamque tenet, pretiumque vehendi, 
Cantat et aequoreas carmine mulcet aquas. 
Di pia facta vident : astris delphina recepit ^ 
luppiter et Stellas iussit habere novem. 

Book III. March 
[This month is sacred to Mars and derives its name from him.] 

Bellice, depositis clipeo paulisper et hasta, 

Mars, ades et nitidas casside solve comas. 
Forsitan ipse roges, quid sit cum Marte poetae ? 

A te, qui canitur, nomina mensis habet. 
5 Ipse vides manibus peragi fera bella Minervae: 

Num minus ingenuis artibus ilia vacat ? 
Palladis exemplo ponendae tempora sume 

Cuspidis. Invenies et quod inermis agas. 

[While many other tribes of Italy had a month of March, Romulus 
paid the god special honor by placing his month first in the Roman 

lam, modo qua fuerant silvae pecorumque recessus, 

Urbs erat, aeternae cum pater Urbis ait : 
* Arbiter armorum, de cuius sanguine natus 

Credor, et ut credar, pignora multa dabo, 
75 A te principium Romano dicimus anno : 

Primus de patrio nomine mensis erit.* 
Vox rata fit, patrioque vocat de nomine mensem. 

Dicitur haec pietas grata, f uisse deo. 


Et tamen ante omnes Martem coluere priores. 
80 Hoc dederat studiis bellica turba suis. 
Pallada Cecropidae, Minola Creta Dianam, 

Vulcanum tellus Hypsipylea colit ; 
lunonem Sparte PelopeTadesque Mycenae, 

Pinigerum Fauni Maenalis ora caput: 
85 Mars Latio venerandus erat, quia praesidet armis. 

Arma ferae genti remque decusque dabant 
Quod si forte vacas, peregrines inspice fastos : 

Mcnsis in his etiam nomine Martis erit 
Tertius Albanis, quintus f uit ille Faliscis ; 
90 Sextus apud populos, Hernica terra, tuos. 
Inter Aricinos Albanaque tempora constat 

Factaque Telegoni moenia celsa manu. 
Quintum Laurentes, bis quintum Aequiculus acer, 

A tribus hunc primum turba Curensis habet. 
95 Et tibi cum proavis, miles Peligne, Sabinis 

Convenit ; hie genti quartus utrique deus. 
Romulus hos omnes ut vinceret ordine saltern, 

Sanguinis auctori tempora prima dedit. 

[The poet adduces certain proofs of the fact that March was once 
the first month of the year. — Numa Pompilius inaugurated the change 
to the present order, but Julius Caesar completed it.] 

135 Neu dubites, primae fuerint quin ante Kalendae 
Martis, ad haec animum signa referre potes : 
Laurea, flaminibus quae toto perstitit anno, 
Tollitur, et frondes sunt in honore novae, 
lanua tunc regis posita viret arbore Phoebi : 
140 Ante tuas fit idem, curia prisca, fores. 
Vesta quoque ut folio niteat velata recenti, 

Cedit ab Iliacis laurea cana focis. 
Adde, quod arcana fieri novus ignis in aede 


Dicitur, et vires flamma refecta capit. 
145 Nee mihi parva fides, annos hinc isse priores, 

Anna quod hoc coepta est mense Perenna coli. 
Hinc etiam veteres initi memorantur honores 

Ad spatium belli, perfide Poene, tui. 
Denique quintus ab hoc fuerat Quintilis, et inde 
150 Incipit, a numero nomina quisquis habet. 
Primus, oliviferis Romam deductus ab arvis, 

Pompilius menses sensit abesse duos : 
Sive hoc a Samio doctus, qui posse renasci 
Nos putat, Egeria sive monente sua. 
15s Sed tamen errabant etiam nunc tempora, donee 
Caesaris in multis haec quoque cura fuit. 
Non haec ille deus tantaeque propaginis auctor 

Credidit officiis esse minora suis, 
Promissumque sibi voluit praenoscere caelum, 
160 Nee deus ignotas hospes inire domos. 
Ille moras solis, quibus in sua signa rediret, 

Traditur exactis disposuisse notis. 
Is decies senos tercentum et quinque diebus 
lunxit, et e pleno tempora quarta die. 
165 Hie anni modus est : in lustrum accedere debet. 
Quae consummatur partibus, una dies. 

[The Ides of March are memorable for the assassination of Caesar. 
But in reality he was not slain, as men think. Vesta snatched him 
away, and substituted a phantom in his stead.] 

Praeteriturus eram gladios in principe fixos. 

Cum sic a castis Vesta locuta f ocis : 
* Ne dubita meminisse ! mens fuit ille sacerdos. 
700 Sacrilegae telis me petiere manus. 

Ipsa virum rapui, simulacraque nuda reliqui ; 

Quae cecidit ferro, Caesaris umbra fuit. 


lUe quidem caelo positus lovis atria vidit, 

Et tenet in magno templa dicata foro. 

705 At quicumque nefas ausi, prohibente deorum 

Numine, polluerant pontificale caput, 

Morte iacent merita. Testes estote Philippi, 

Et quorum sparsis ossibus albet humus. 
Hoc opus, haec pietas, haec prima elementa fuerunt 
710 Caesaris, ulcisci iusta per arma patrem.* 

Book IV. April 

[This is the month sacred to Venus, whose favoring presence Is here 

* Alma, f ave,' dixi * geminorum mater Amorum ! ' 

Ad vatem vultus rettulit ilia suos, 

* Quid tibi * ait * mecum ? certe maiora canebas. 

Num vetus in molli pectore vulnus habes.?' 
5 * Scis dea,* respondi *de vulnere.' Risit, et aether 
Protinus ex ilia parte serenus erat. 

* Saucius, an sanus, numquid tua signa reliqui ? 

Tu mihi propositum, tu mihi semper opus. 
Quae decuit, primis sine crimine lusimus annis : 
10 Nunc teritur nostris area maior equis. 
Tempora cum causis, annalibus eruta priscis, 

Lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa cano. 
Venimus ad quartum, quo tu celeberrima, mensem. 

Et vatem et mensem scis, Venus, esse tuos.' 
15 Mota Cytheriaca leviter mea tempora myrto 

Contigit, et 'coeptum perfice* dixit *opus.* 
Sensimus, et causae subito patuere dierum. 

Dum licet et spirant flamina, navis eat. 

[One suggested derivation for the word April. Thoughts on the 
universal sway of Venus.] 


85 Quo non livor adit ? Sunt qui tibi mensis honorem 
Eripuisse velint invideantque, Venus. 
Nam quia ver aperit tunc omnia, densaque cedit 

Frigoris asperitas, fetaque terra patet, 
Aprilem memorant ab aperto tempore dictum : 
90 Quem Venus iniecta vindicat alma manu. 
Ilia quidem totum dignissima temperat orbem ; 

Ilia tenet nullo regna minora deo, 
luraque dat caelo, terrae, natalibus undis, 
Perque suos initus continet omne genus. 
95 Ilia deos omnes — longum est numerare — creavit: 
Ilia satis causas arboribusque dedit : 
Ilia rades animos hominum contraxit in unum, 

Et docuit iungi cum pare quemque sua. 
Quid genus omne creat volucrum, nisi blanda volup- 
100 Nee coeant pecudes, si levis absit amor. 
Cum mare trux aries cornu decertat ; at idem 

Frontem dilectae laedere parcit ovis. 
Deposita sequitur taurus feritate iuvencam, 
Quem toti saltus, quem nemus omne tremit. 
105 Vis eadem lato quodcumque sub aequore vivit, 
Servat, et innumeris piscibus implet aquas. 
Prima feros habitus homini detraxit : ab ilia 

Venerunt cultus mundaque cura sui. 
Primus amans carmen vigilatum nocte negata 
no Dicitur ad clausas concinuisse fores : 
Eloquiumque fuit duram exorare puellam, 
Proque sua causa quisque disertus erat. 
Mille per banc artes motae ; studioque placendi 
Quae latuere prius, multa reperta ferunt. 
lis Hanc quisquam titulo mensis spoliare secundi 
Audeat ? A nobis sit furor iste procul. 


[April twenty-first. The festival of Pales. The shepherd's prayer 

to his patron divinity.] 

' Consulc * die * pecori pariter pecorisque magistris : 

Effugiat stabulis noxa repulsa meis. 
Sivc sacro pavi, sedive sub arbore sacra, 
750 Pabulaque e bustis inscia carpsit ovis : 
Si ncmus intravi vetitum, nostrisve fugatae 

Sunt oculis nymphae semicaperve deus : 
Si mea falx ramo lucum spoliavit opaco, 

Unde data est aegrae fiscina frondis ovi : 
755 Da veniam culpae. Nee, dum degrandinat, obsit 

Agrcsti fano supposuisse pecus. 
Ncc noccat turbasse lacus. Ignoscite, nymphae, 

Mota quod obscuras ungula fecit aquas. 
Tu, dea, pro nobis fontes fontanaque placa 
760 Numina, tu sparsos per nemus omne deos. 
Nee Dryadas, nee nos videamus labra Dianae, 

Nee Faunum, medio cum premit arva die. 
Pclle procul morbos. Valeant hominesque gregesque, 

Et valeant vigiles, provida turba, canes. 
765 Neve minus multos redigam, quam mane fuerunt, 

Neve gcmam referens vellera rapta lupo. 
Absit iniqua fames. Herbae frondesque supersint, 

Quaeque lavent artus, quaeque bibantur, aquae, 
Ubcra plena premam, referat mihi caseus aera, 
770 Dentque viam liquido vimina rara sero ; 
Lanaque proveniat nullas laesura puellas, 

Mollis et ad teneras quamlibet apta manus. 
775 Quae preeor, eveniant, et nos faeiamus ad annum 

Pastorum dominae grandia liba Pali.* 
His dea plaeanda est : haee tu conversus ad ortus 

Die quater, et vivo perlue rore manus. 


Turn licet apposita, veluti cratere, camella 
780 Lac niveum potes purpureamque sapam : 

Moxque per ardentes stipulae crepitantis acervos 
Traicias celeri strenua membra pede. 

Book V. May 

[May third. The constellation Centaums rises. This suggests the 
story of Chiron and Hercules.] 

Nocte minus quarta promet sua sidera Chiron 
380 Semivir et flavi corpore mixtus equi. 

Pelion Haemoniae mons est obversus in austros : 

Summa virent pinu, cetera quercus habet. 
Phillyrides tenuit Saxo stant antra vetusto, 
Quae iustum memorant incoluisse senem. 
385 Ille manus olim missuras Hectora leto 
Creditur in lyricis detinuisse modis. 
Venerat Alcides exhausta parte laborum, 

lussaque restabant ultima paene viro. 
Stare simul casu Troiae duo fata videres : 
390 Hinc puer Aeacides, hinc love natus erat. 
Excipit hospitio iunctum PhilyreYus heros, 
Et causam adventus hie rogat, ille docet. 
Perspicit interea clavam spoliumque leonis, 
* Vir'que ait *his armis, armaque digna viro ! ' 
395 Nee se, quin horrens auderent tangere saetis 
Vellus, Achilleae continuere manus. 
Dumque senex tractat squalentia tela venenis, 

Excidit et laevo fixa sagitta pede est. 
Ingemuit Chiron, traxitque e corpore ferrum : 
400 Et gemit Alcides Haemoniusque puer. 
Ipse tamen lectas Pagasaeis collibus herbas 
Temperat, et vana vulnera mulcet ope. 


Virus edax superabat opem, penitusque recepta 

Ossibus et toto corpore pestis erat 
405 Sanguine Centauri Lemaeae sanguis echidnae 

Mixtus ad auxilium tempora nulla dabat. 
Stabat, ut ante patrem, lacrimis perfusus Achilles. 

Sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat 
Saepe manus aegras manibus fingebat amicis ; 
410 Morum, quos fecit, praemia doctor habet. 
Oscula saepe dedit, dbdt quoque saepe iacenti : 

* Vive, precor, nee me care relinque pater ! * 
Nona dies aderat, cum tu, iustissime Chiron, 

Bis septem stellis corpora cinctus eras. 

Book VI. June 

[June ninth. The feast of Vesta. Her temple and worship. H 


Vesta, f ave ! tibi nunc operata resolvimus ora, 
250 Ad tua si nobis sacra venire licet. 

In prece totus eram : caelestia numina sensi, 

Laetaque purpurea luce refulsit humus. 
Non equidem vidi — valeant mendacia vatum — 

Te, dea ; nee f ueras aspicienda viro. 
255 Sed quae nescieram, quorumque errore tenebar, 

Cognita sunt nullo praecipiente mihi. 
Dena quater memorant habuisse Palilia Romam, 

Cum flammae custos aede recepta dea est, 
Regis opus placidi, quo non metuentius ullum 
260 Numinis ingenium terra Sabina tulit. 

Quae nunc aere vides, stipula tum tecta videres, 

Et paries lento vimine textus erat. 
Hie locus exiguus, qui sustinet Atria Vestae, 

Tunc erat intonsi regia magna Numae. 


S165 Forma tamen templi quae nunc manet, ante fuisse 
Dicitur ; et f ormae causa probanda subest. 
Vesta eadem, quae terra. Subest vigil ignis utrique; 

Significant sedem terra focusque suam. 
Terra pilae similis, nullo fulcimine nixa, 
270 Aere subiecto tarn grave pendet onus. 
« ««««««« 

Arte Syracosia suspensus in aere clauso 
Stat globus, immensi parva figura poli, 

Et quantum a summis, tantum secessit ab imis 
280 Terra ; quod ut fiat, forma rotunda facit : 

Par facies templi ; nullus procurrit in illo 
Angulus, a pluvio vindicat imbre tholus. 

« « « « «« « M^ 

995 Esse diu stultus Vestae simulacra putavi, 
Mox didici curvo nulla subesse tholo. 
Ignis inexstinctus templo celatur in illo. 

Effigiem nullam Vesta nee ignis habet. 
Stat vi terra sua : vi stando Vesta vocatur ; 
300 Causaque par Grai nominis esse potest. 

At focus a flammis et quod fovet omnia, dictus ; 

Qui tamen in primis aedibus ante fuit. 
Hinc quoque vestibulum dici reor : inde precando 
Praefamur Vestam, quae loca prima tenet. 
305 Ante focos olim scamnis considere longis 
Mos erat, et mensae credere adesse deos. 
Nunc quoque, cum fiunt antiquae sacra Vacunae, 

Ante Vacunales stantque sedentque focos. 
Venit in hos annos aliquid de more vetusto : 
310 Pert missos Vestae pura patella cibos. 
Ecce coronatis panis dependet asellis, 
Et velant scabras florida serta molas. 



Sola prius furnis torrebant farra coloni, 
Et Fornacali sunt sua sacra deae : 
315 Suppositum cineri panem focus ipse parabat 
Strataque erat tepido tegula quassa solo. 

Inde focum servat pistor dominamque focorum 
Et quae pumiceas versat asella molas. 

Portrait Statue of a Vestalis Maxima 

(Found in the Atrium Vestae at Rome) 


[Ovid's greatest work, the fruit of the best years of the prime of his 
life, when his imagination had ripened and his poetic vigor was at its 
height, was the Metamorphoses, Unlike all his other works, this is 
written in Dactylic Hexameter, and approaches the epic in form and 
dignity of treatment. In' this great poem he attempts no less a task 
than the linking together into one artistically harmonious whole all 
the stories of classical mythology. And this he accomplishes, advan- 
cing in mighty strides, until the whole range of wonders is passed 
in review, from the dawn of creation, when chaos became the orderly 
universe, down to the very age of the poet himself, when the soul of 
Julius Caesar was changed to a star and set in the heavens among the 
immortals. Every important myth is at least touched upon, and though 
they differ widely in place and circumstance, there is no break. The 
poet has seized upon every possible thread of connection as he passes 
on from cycle to cycle of story ; and where this connection is lacking, 
by various ingenious and artistic devices, a connecting link is found. 
As a result, the poem is an unbroken account of the ancient world from 
the time of the' creation, being a strange blending of pure myth, tradi- 
tion, and actual history. 

The poem forms a more or less complete manual of classical mythol- 
ogy, and is, perhaps, the most important source of wonder stories for 
all writers since Ovid's time. This is the real, tangible service which 
he has done the world, a sefvice which no one, who considers the im- 
mense value of these old yet ever new tales that had their origin in the 
childhood of the world, will be inclined to underrate. Many of these 
stories could be now obtained from the sources whence Ovid himself 
drew them — from Homer, Hesiod, the Greek tragedians, and the later 
Alexandrine poets. And yet many, but for him, would have been en- 
tirely lost to us ; and all he has so vivified by his strong poetic imagi- 
nation that they come down to us with an added freshness 2cad VV[^. 



The most interesting parts of the Metamorphoses have been selected 
for the present edition of the poet and the omitted portions are given 
in outline, so that the student may not only have the substance of the 
wliolc work in hand, but may be able to see the methods by which Ovid 
lias united and harmonized the various cycles of stories.] 

Book I 

[May the gods, who themselves have wrought all changes, aid me 
as I shall attempt to describe them.] 

In nova fcrt animus mutatas dicere formas 
Corpora. Di, cocptis — nam vos mutastis et illas — 
Aspirate meis, primaquc ab origine mundi 
Ad mca pcrpetuiim deducite tempora carmen. 

[In the beginning Chaos reigned, a universe of warring elements in 
one shapeless mass.] 

5 Ante mare et terras et, quod tegit omnia, caelum 
Unus erat toto naturae vultus in orbe, 
Quem dixere Chaos ; rudis indigestaque moles, 
Nee quicquam nisi pondus iners congestaque eodem 
Non bene iunctaruni discordia semina rerum. 

lo Nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan, 
Nee nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe, 
Nee circumfuso pendebat in aere tellus 
Ponderibus librata suis, nee bracchia longo 
Margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite. . 

15 Utque erat et tellus illic et pontus et aer, 
Sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda, 
Lucis egens aer. NulH sua forma manebat, 
Obstabatque aliis aljud, quia corpore in uno 
Frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis, 

20 Mollia cum duris, sine pondere habentia pondus. 


QThese elements were at length separated and allotted to their proper 
3laces in the Cosmos, or orderly universe.] 

Hanc deus et melior litem natura diremit ; 

Nam caelo terras et terris abscidit undas, 

Et liquidum spisso secrevit ab acre caelum. 

Quae postquam evolvit caecoque exemit acervo, 
25 Dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit. 

Ignea convexi vis et sine pondere caeli 

Emicuit summaque locum sibi fecit in arce. 

Proximus est aer illi levitate locoque ; 

Densior his tellus, elementaque grandia traxit 
30 Et pressa est gravitate sua. Circumfluus umor 

Ultima possedit solidumque coercuit orbem. 

[Then was the earth itself molded into shape and its various surface 
features formed. The five terrestrial zones also were established, cor- 
responding to similar divisions of the heavens.] 

Sic ubi dispositam, quisquis fuit ille deorum, 
Congeriem secuit sectamque in membra redegit, 
Principio terram, ne non aequalis ab omni 

35 Parte foret, magni speciem glomeravit in orbis. 
Tum freta diffundi rapidisque tumescere ventis 
lussit et ambitae circumdare litora terrae. 
Addidit et fontes et stagna immensa lacusque, 
Fluminaque obliquis cinxit declivia ripis, 

40 Qijagijiiversa locis, partim sorbentur ab ipsa, 
In mare perveniunt partim, campoque xe cepta 
T^i^^ rjoris^aqu^a e pro ripis litora pulsant. 
lussit et extendi campos, subsidere valles, 
Fronde tegi silvas, lapidosos surgere montes. 

45 Utque duae dextra caelum totidemque sinistra 
Parte secant zonae, quinta est ardentior illis ; 
Sic onus inclusum numero distinxit eodem 

OVID— 5 


Cura dei, totidemque plagae tellure premuntur. 
Quarum quae media est, non est habitabilis aestu ; 
50 Nix tegit alta duas : totidem inter utramque locavit, 
Temperiemque dedit mixta cum frigore flamma. 

[The atmosphere, with its mists and clouds, thunders and winds; 
the highest spaces of pure, weightless aether.] 

Imminet his aer; qui, quanto est pondere terrae 
Pondus aquae levius, tanto est onerosior igni. 
Illic et nebulas, illic consistere nubes 

55 lussit, et humanas motura tonitrua mentes 
Et cum fulminibus facientes frigora ventos. 
His quoque non passim mundi fabricator habendum 
Aera permisit. Vix nunc obsistitur illis, 
Cum sua quisque regant diverso flamina tractu, 

60 Quin lanient mundum ; tanta est discordia fratrum. 
Eurus ad auroram Nabataeaque regna recessit 
Persidaque et radiis iuga subdita matutinis. 
Vesper et occiduo quae litora sole tepescunt, 
Proxima sunt Zephyro ; Scythiam septemque trionem 

65 Horrifer invasit Boreas. Contraria tellus 
Nubibus assiduis pluvioque madescit ab Austro. 
Haec super imposuit liquidum et gravitate carentem 
Aethera nee quicquam terrenae faecis habentem. 

[Then appeared the heavenly lights ; and earth, water, air and sky 
were filled with forms of life.] 

Vix ita limitibus dissaepserat omnia certis, 
70 Cum, quae pressa diu massa latuere sub ilia, 
Sidera coeperunt toto effervescere caelo. 
Neu regip foret ulla suis animantibus orba, 
Astra tenent caeleste solum formaeque deorum, 
Cesserunt nitidis habitandae i"^':ibus undae, 
75 Terra feras cepit, volucres agi ilis aer. 




[And last came man, instinct with life divine, and set to rule all 
creatures of the earth.] 

Sanctius his animal mentisque capacius altae 
Deerat adhuc, et quod dominari in cetera posset. 
Natus homo est : sive hunc divino semine fecit 
I lie opifex rerum, mundi melioris origo, 
80 Sive recens tellus seductaque nuper ab alto 
Aethere cognati retinebat semina caeli, 
Quam satus lapeto mixtam fluvialibus undis 
Finxit in effigiem moderantum cuncta deorum ; 

The Creation of Man 
(From a sarcophagus in the National Museum at Naples) 

Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera terram, 
8s Os homini sublime dedit, caelumque videre 
lussit et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. 
Sic, modo quae fuerat rudis et sine imagine, tellus 
Induit ignotas hominum conversa figuras. 

[The first, or Golden Age of the world was marked by universal 
sinlessness of man; hence sprung his peace and freedom from the 
necessity of toil.] 

Aurea prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo 
90 Sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebal. 


Poena mctusque aberant, nee verba minacia fixo 
Aere legebantur, nee supplex turba timebat 
ludicis ora sui, sed erant sine vindice tuti. 
Nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem, 
95 Montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat undas, 
Nullaque' mortales praeter sua litora norant. 
Nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae : 
Non tuba directi, non aeris cornua flexi, 
Non galeae, non ensis erant : sine militis usu 

loo Mollia securae peragebant otia gentes. 

Ipsa quoque inyijuais rastroque intacta nee ullis 
Saucia vomeribus per se dabat omnia tellus ; 
Contenjique cibis nuUo cogente creatis 
Arbuteos fetus montanaque fraga lege l^ant 

105 Comaque et in duris haerentia mora rubetis 
Et quae deciderant patula lovis arbore, glandes. 
Ver erat aeternum, placidique tepentibus auris 
Mulcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores. 
Mox etiam fruges tellus inarata ferebat, 

no Nee renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis : 
Flumina iam lactis, iam flumina nectaris ibant, 
Flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella. 

[The Silver Age saw the establishment of the seasons and the con 
sequent need by man of houses and the tilling of the soil.] 

Postquam Satumo tenebrosa in Tartara misso 
Sub love mundus erat, subiit argentea proles, 

115 Auro deterior, fulvo pretiosior aere, 
luppiter antiqui contraxit tempora veris, 
Perque hiemes aestusque et inaequales autumnos 
Et breve ver spatiis exegit quattuor annum. 
Turn primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus 

lao Canduit, et ventis glacies astricta pependit 


Turn primum subiere domus. Domus antra fuerunt 
Et densi frutices et vinctae cortice virgae. 
Semina turn primum longis Cerealia sulcis 
Obruta sunt, pressique iugo gemuere iuvenci. 

[During the Brazen and the Iron Ages, the degeneracy of mankind 
was gradual but complete, and all the gods in anger left the earth.] 

125 Tertia post illam successit aenea proles, 

Saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promptior arma, 
Non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima f erro. 
Protinus irrupit venae peioris in aevum 
Omne nefas : fugere pudor verumque fidesque ; 

130 In quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolique 
Insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi. 
Vela dabant ventis, nee adiiuc bene noverat illos 
Navita ; quaeque diu steterant in montibus altis, 
Fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae. 

135 Communemque prius ceu lumina solis et auras 
Cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor. 
Nee tantum segetes alimentaque debita dives 
Poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae : 
Quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, 

140 Effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum. 

lamque nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum 
Prodierat : prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, 
Sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arma. 
Vivitur ex rapto ; non hospes ab hospite tutus, 

14s Non socer a genero ; fratrum quoque gratia rara est 
Imminet exitio vir coniugis, ilia mariti ; 
Lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae ; 
Filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. 
Victa iacet pietas, et virgo^ede madentes, 

ISO Ultima caelestum, terras Astraea reliquit. 


Neve foret terris securior arduus aether, 
Adfectasse ferunt regnum caeleste Gigantas, 
Altaque congestos struxisse ad sidera montes. 
Turn pater omnipotens misso perfregit Olympum 

iss Fulmine et excussit ^uhieQto Pelion Q^sae. 
Obruta mole sua cum corpora dira iacerent, 
Perfusam multo natorum sanguine Terram 
Immaduisse ferunt calidumque animasse cruorem, 
Et, ne nulla suae stirpis monumenta manerent, 

i6o In faciem vertisse hominum. Sed et ilia propago 
Contemptrix superum saevaeque avidissima caedis 
Et violenta f uit : scires e sanguine natos. 

[Then were the gods convoked by Jove in council on the heavenly 

Quae pater ut sum ma vidit Saturnius arce, 
Ingemit et, facto nondum vulgata recenti, 

165 F_p!^da Lycaoniae referens c onviv[a m ensae, 
Ingentes animo et dignas love concipit iras, 
Conciliumque vocat. Tenuit mora nulla vocatos. 
Est via sublimis, caelo manifesta sereno ; 
Lactea nomen habet, candore notabilis ipso. 

170 Hac iter est superis ad magni tecta Tonantis 
Regalemque domum. Dextra laevaque deorum 
Atria nobilium valvis celebrantur apertis. 
EJebs habitat diversa locis ; hac fronte potentes 
Caelicolae clarique suos posuere penates. 

17s Hie locus est, quem, si verbis audacia detur, 
Hand timeam magni dixisse Palatia caeli. 
Ergo ubi marmoreo superi sedere recessu, 
Celsior ipse loco sceptroque innixus eburno 
Terrificam capitis concussit terque quaterque 

180 Caesariem, cum qua terram mare sidera movit. 


[Jove pronounces the doom of utter destruction which impends over 
sinful man.] 

Talibus inde modis ora indignantia solvit : 
* Non ego pro mundi regno magis anxius ilia 
Tempestate fui, qua centum quisque parabat 
Inicere anguipedum captivo bracchia caelo. 

185 Nam quamquam ferus hostis erat, tamen illud ab uno 
Corpore et ex una pendebat origine bellum. 
Nunc mihi qua totum Nereus circumsonat orbem, 
Perdendum est mortale genus. Per flumina iuro 
Infera sub terra Stygio iabentia luco, 

190 Cuncta prius temptata. Sed immedicabile vulnus 
Ense recidendum est, ne pars sincera trahatur. 
Sunt mihi semidei, sunt rustica numina, nymphae 
Faunique satyrique et monticolae Silvani : 
Quos quoniam caeli nondum dignamur honore, 

195 Quas dedimus, certe .^erras habitare sinamus. 
An satis, superi, tutos fore creditis illos. 
Cum mihi, qui fulmen, qui vos habeoque regoque, 
Struxerit insidias notus feritate Lycaon ? * 

[At the request of the assembled gods their king narrates the impiety 
^f Lycaon, and his metamorphosis into a wolf.] 

Confremuere omnes, studiisque ardentibus ausuij^ 
200 Talia deposcunt. Sic, cum manus impia saevit 
Sanguine Caesareo Romanum exstinguere nomen, 
Attonitum tanto subitae terrore ruinae 
Humanum genus est totusque perhorruit orbis. 
Nee tibi grata minus pietas, Auguste, tuorum est, 
205 Quam fuit ilia lovi. Qui postquam voce manuque 
Murmura compressit, tenuere silentia cuncti: 
Substitit ut clamor, pressus gravitate regentis, 
luppiter hoc iterum sermone silentia rupil*. 


• Ille quidom poenas. curam hanc dimittite, solvit. 

-MO (Juod tamon adniissum. quae sit vindicta, docebo. 
Contigorat nostras iiuLuxHa temporis aures: 
Qiuiu i git^ii^s. lalsam. summo delabor Olympx) 
V.x dous huniana lustro sub imagine terras. 
l.onga mora est. quariium noxae sit ubique repertum, 

J15 luiumoraro. Minor tuit ipsa infamia vero. 
Maonala iransicram Litebris horrenda ferarum 
Kl oum Cyliono golidi pineta Lycaei : 
.\rcadis hino sodcs ct inhospita tecta tjTanni 
IngTodior. trahcronr cum sera crepuscula noctem. 

JA^ Signa dodi. vonisse deuni. vulgusque precari 
Cooporai. Inridot primo pia vota Lycaon, 
Mox ait •*oxporiar. deus hie. discrimine aperto, 
An sit mortalis. Neo cri: dubitabile verum." 
Nooto gravom somno uecopina perdere morte 

^-\'i Mo parat : haoo i'.li place: experientia veri. 
Xoc contontus co. missi de ^ente Molossa 
t^bsidis unius iUiCulum mucrone resolvit, 
At que it a semineces partim ferventibus artus 
Mollit aquis. partim subiecto torruit igni. 

.30 Ouos simul imposuit mensis. ego vindice flamma 
In dominum diirnosquo everti tecta Penates. 
Territus ipse tUi^it. nactusquo silentia runs 
Exululat, frustraque loqui conatur ; ab ipso 
Conligit OS rabiem. solitaeque cupidine caedis 

235 Vertitur in pccudos. et nunc quoque sanguine gaudet; 
In villos abeunt vesres. in crura lacerti : 
Fit lupus, et veteris sor\at vestigia formae. 
Canities eadem est. eadem violentia vultus, 
Idem oculi lucent, eadem teritatis imago. 

a*o Occidit una domus : sed non domus una perire 
Digna fuit: qua terra patet. fera regnat Erinys; 


In facinus iurasse putes. Dent ocius omnes 
Quas meruere pati, sic stat sententia, poenas.' 

[Jove promises the gods a better race of worshipers, and considers 
the best method for the destruction of the world.] 

Dicta lovis pars voce probant stimulosque frementi 

245 Adiciunt, alii partes adsensibus implent. 
Est tamen humani generis iactura dolori 
Omnibus, et, quae sit terrae mortalibus orbae 
Forma f utura, rogant : quis sit laturus in aras 
Tura ? f erisne paret populandas tradere terras ? 

250 Talia quaerentes, sibi enim fore cetera curae, 
Rex superum trepidare vetat, subolemque priori 
Dissimilem populo promittit origine mira. 
lamque 6rat in totas sparsurus f ulmina terras : 
Sed timuit, ne forte sacer tot ab ignibus aether 

25s Conciperet fiammas, longusque ardesceret axis. 
Esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur, adfore tempus, 
Quo mare, Ijuo tellus correptaque regia caeli 
Ardeat et mundi moles operosa labore t. 
Tela reponuntur manibus fabricata Cyclopum. 

260 Poena placet diversa, genus mortale sub undis 
Perdere. et ex omni nimbos demittere caelo. 

[Jove detertnines to destroy mankind by universal flood.] 

Protinus Aeoliis Aquilonem claudit in antris 
Et quaecumque fugant inductas flamina nubes, 
Emittitque Notum. Madidis Notus evolat alis, 
365 Terribilem picea tectus caligine vultum : 
Barba gravis nimbis, canis fluit unda capillis, 
Fronte sedent nebulae, rorant pennaeque sinusque 
Utque manu lata pendentia nubila pressit. 
Fit fragor; hinc densi funduntur ab aelVvete mxcOcA. 


270 ^{untia lunonis varies induta colores 

Coiicipi t Iris^Xqua"§, alimentaque nubibus adfert 
Sternuntur segetes et deplorata coloni 
Vota iacent, longique perit labor inritus anni. 
Nee caelo contenta suo est lovis ira, sed ilium 

275 Caeruleus frater iuvat auxiliaribus undis. 

Convocat hie amnes. Qui postquam teeta tyranni 
Intravere sui, * non est hortamine longo 
Nune ' ait * utendum. Vires eff undite vestras, 
Sie opus est. Aperite domos, ae mole remota 

280 Fluminibus vestris totas immittite habenas/ 
lusserat. Hi redeunt, ae fontibus ora relaxant, 
Et defrenato volvuntur in aequora cursu. 
Ipse tridente suo terram percussit. At ilia 
Intremuit motuque vias patefeeit aquarum. 

28s Exspatiata ruunt per apertos flumina eampos, 
Cumque satis arbusta simul pecudesq^e virosque 
Teetaque, eumque suis rapiunt penetralia saeris. 
Siqua domus mansit potuitque resistere tanto 
Indciecta malo, eulmen tamen altior huius 

290 Unda tegit, pressaeque latent sub gurgite turres. 
lamque mare et tellus nullum diserimen habebant : 
Omnia pontus erant. Deerant quoque litora ponto. 
Oceupat hie collem : eumba sedet alter adunca 
Et dueit remos illie ubi nuper ararat ; 

29s Ille super segetes aut mersae culmina villae 
Navigat, hie summa piscem deprendit in ulmo; 
Figitur in viridi, si fors tulit, aneora prate, 
Aut subieeta terunt eurvae vineta carinae. 
Et, modo qua graciles gramen carpsere capellae, 

300 Nune ibi deformes ponunt sua eorpora phocae. 
Mirantur sub aqua luces urbesque domosque- 
Nereides. Silvasque tenent delphines, et altis 


Incursant ramis agita jaque r pbefa pulsant. 

Nat lupus inter oves, fulvos vehit unda leones, 
305 Unda vehit tigres. Ne£,^ii:gs^ulminis apro, 

Crura nee ablato prosunt velocia cervo. 

Quaesitisque diu terris, ubi sistere detur, 

In mare lagsatis volucris vaga decidit aUs. 

Obruerat tumulos immensa licientia ponti, 
310 Pulsabantque novi montana cacumiAa fluctus. 

Maxima pars unda rapitur: quibus unda pepercit, 

lUos longa domant inopi ieiunia victu. 

[Pyrrha and Deucalion alone survive. Their boat finds resting place 
on Mount Parnassus, and the floods are recalled from the face of the 

Separat Aonios Oetaeis Phocis ab arvis, 
Terra ferax, dum terra fuit : sed tempore in illo 
315 Pars maris et latus subitarum campus aquarum. 
Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus astra duobus, 
Nomine Parnasus, superantque cacumina nubes. 
Hie ubi Deucalion, nam cetera texerat aequor, 
Cum consorte tori parva rate vectus adhaesit, 
320 Corycidas nymphas et numina montis adorant, 
Fatidicamque Themin, quae tunc oracla tenebat. 
Non illo melior quisquam nee amantior aequi 
Vir fuit, aut ilia metuentior ulla deorum. 
luppiter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem, 
325 Et superesse virum de tot modo milibus unum, 
Et superesse videt de tot modo milibus unam, 
Innocuos ambos, cultores numinis ambos, 
Nubila disiecit, nimbisque aquilone remotis 
Et caelo terras ostendit et aethera terris. 
330 Nee maris ira manet, positoque tricuspide telo 
Mulcet aquas rector pelagi, supraque profundum 
Exstantem atque umeros innato murice tectum 


( *:icriileiini Tritona vocat. conchaeque sonanti 
Iiispirarc iiibot, fliictiisque et flumina signo 

n. Iain rcvocaro dato. Cava bucina sumitur illi 
TorliHs, in latum quae turbine crescit ab imo, 
Muiina, (|uae medio concepit ubi aera ponto, 
I jlora voce replet sub utroque ia centia Phosb o. 
Tinu' nuoi|uo, ut ora dei madida rorantia b^rly 

it'. Conlij^il, el eecinit iussos inflata receptus, 
Omnibus audita est telluris et aequoris undis, 
ICt (|uihus est undis audita, coercuit omnes. 
I^'lumina suhsidunt. collesque exire videntur : 
lam mare lilus habet, plenos capit alveus amnes, 

us Sur^il humus; crescunt loca decrescentibus undis. 
I*osl(|ue diem lon^am nudata cacumina silvae 
Oslendunl, limunuiue tenent in fronde relictum. 

[Ill nuiliuil ^jriof tor lost humanity, they inquire of the oracle hov 
the v\\x\\\ may a^ain he peopled.] 

Redditus orbis erat. Quern postquam vidit inanem 
V\ desolatas aj;ere alta silentia terras, 

3r»<» I )eucalion lacrimis ita Pyrrham adfatur obortis : 
' O soror, o coniunx, o femina sola superstes, 
Quam commune mihi genus ct patruelis origo, 
Deinde torus iunxit, nunc ipsa pericula iungunt: 
Terrarum, cjuascumque vident occasus et ortus, 

355 Nos duo turba sunuis : possedit cetera pontus. 
Haec quoque adhuc vitae non est.fidixci^nostrae 
Certa satis. Terrent etiamnunc nubila mentem. 
Quis tibi, si sine me fatis erepta fuisses, 
Nunc animus, miseranda, foret } Quo sola timorem 

360 Ferre modo posses t Quo consolante doleres } 

Namque ego, crede mihi, si te quoque pontus haberet 
Te sequerer, coniunx, et me quoque pontus haberet. 


O utinam possem populos reparare p,aternis 
Artiljug atque animas f ormatae inf undere terrae ! 

365 Nunc genus in nobis restat mortale duobus ; 

Sic visum est superis : hominumque exempla manemus.' 
Dixerat, et flebant. Placuit caeleste precari 
Numen, et auxilium per sacras quaerere sortes. 
Nulla mora est, adeunt pariter Cephisidas undas, 

370 Ut nondum liquidas, sic^iam vada nota secantes. 
Inde ubi libatos inroravere liquores 
Vestibus et capiti, flectunt vestigia sanctae 
Ad delubra deae, quorum fastigia turpi 
Pallebant musco stabantque sine ignibus arae. 

375 Ut templi tetigere gradus, procumbit uterque 
Pronus humi, gelidoque pavens dedit oscula saxo. 
Atque ita ' si precibus * dixerunt * numina iustis 
Victa remollescunt, si flectitur ira deorum, 
Die, Themi, qua generis damnum reparabile nostri 

380 Arte sit, et mersis fer opem, mitissima, rebus.* 

[Bidden to cast behind them their parent's bones, they are horrified 
itil the meaning of the oracle flashes upon Deucalion.] 

Mota dea est sortemque dedit, ' discedite templo, 
Et velate caput, cinctasque resolvite vestes, 
Ossaque post tergum magnae iactate parentis.* 
Obstipuere diu, rumpitque silentia voce 

38s Pyrrha nrior, iuss isque deae p arere recusat, 
Detqtl^sibi veniam, pavido Tbgat ore, pavetque 
Laedere iactatis maternas ossibus umbras. 
Interea repetunt caccis obscura latebris 
Verba datae sortis secum, inter seque volutant ; 

390 Unde Promethides placidis Epimethida dictis 
Mulcet et 'aut fallax* ait ' est sollertia nobis, 
Aut pia sunt nullumgue nefas oracula suadexvl. 


Majna parens terra est: lapides in corpore terrae 
Ossa reor dici : iacere hos post terga iubemur.' 

'S; '.' ir.ty :rr:w behir.d thcna the stones of mother earth, whid 
are s:ri:^h:-.vdy^ho5ed into men and women, and thus was 
the "A : rl i re-.e : ^'led/ 

3:-5 Con:::^is auguno quamquam Titania mota est, 
Spes tamen in dubio est : adeo caelestibus arnbo 
Diffident monitis. Sed quid temptare nocebit ? 
Descendunt velantque caput tunicasque recingunt 
Et iussos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt. 

400 Saxa — quis hoc credat, nisi sit pro teste vetustas ? 
Ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem, 
Mollirique mora, mollitaque dugere^Xo^mam. 
Mox ubi creverunt, naturaque mitior illis 
Contigit, ut quaedam, sic non manifesta, videri 

405 Forma potest hominis, sed uti est de marmore coeptis 
Xon exacta satis rudibusque simillima signis. 
Quae tamen ex illis aliquo pars un iida suco 
Et terrena f uit, versa est in corporis usum : 
Quod solidum est flectique nequit, mutatur in ossa: 

410 Quae modo vena fuit, sub eodem nomine mansit : 
Inque brevi spatio superorum numine saxa 
Missa viri manibus f aciem traxere virorum, 
Et de femineo reparata est femina iactu. 
Inde genus durum sumus experiensque laborum, 

415 r^t documenta damus, qua simus origine nati. 

[Hut the lower forms of life were recreated by spontaneous genera 
tion from the earth.] 

Cetera diversis tcllus animalia formis 
Spontc sua pepcrit, postquam vetus umor ab igne 
Percaluit solis, cacnumque udaeque paludes 
Intumuerc acstu, fecundaque semina rerum 


4flo Vivaci nutrita solo, ceu matris in alvo, 

Creverunt faciemque aliquam cepere morando. ./ 

Sic ubi deseruit madidos septemfluus agros 
Nilus et antiquo sua flumina reddidit alveo, 
Agtjjeiipque recens exarsit ^sidere linius, 

435 Plurima cultores versis animalia glaebis 

Inveniunt, et in his q uaeda m modo co£pta^sub ip sum 
Nascendi spatium, quae3am imperfecta suisque" 
Trunca vident numeris, et eodem in corpore saepe 
Altera pars vivit, rudis est pars altera tellus. 

430 Quippe ubi temperiem sumpsere umorque calorque, 
Concipiunt, et ab his oriuntur cuncta duobus. 
Cumque sit ignis aquae pugnax, vapor umidus omnes 
Res creat, et discors concordia fetibus apta est. 
Ergo ubi diluvio tellus lutulenta recenti 

435 Solibus aetheriis almoque recanduit aestu, 
Edidit innumeras species, partimque figuras 
Rettulit antiquas, partim nova monstra creavit. 

[Now, among these creatures was the monster serpent, Python, which 
Apollo slew ; and in commemoration of this deed he established the 
Pythian Games.] 

U la quide m nollet, sed te quoque, maxime Python, 
Turn genuit, populisque novis, incognite serpens, 
440 Terror eras ; tantum spatii de monte tenebas. 
Hunc deus arcitenens, et numquam talibus armis 
Ante nisi in dammis capreisque fugacibus usus, 
Mille gravem telis, exhausta paene pharetra, 
Perdidit effuso per vulnera nigra veneno. 
445 Neve operis famam possit delere vetustas 
' Instituit sacros celebri certamine ludos 
Pythia perdomitae serpentis nomine dictos. 
His iuvenum quicumque manu pedibusve rotave 
Vicerat, aesculeae capiebat frondis honorem. 


450 Nomliim launis erat, longoque decentia crine 
Tcinpora cingebat de qualibet arbore Phoebus. 

I Stun^ by the taunts of Apollo, Cupid, in revenge, inspires the archer 
i;()(l with a mad passion for Daphne, while the latter is made •proof 
against all approiich of love.] 

Primus amor Phocbi Daphne Peneia, quem non 
Vovs ignara dcdit, sed saeva C upidinis ira. 
Dcliiis Inmc nuper, victo serpente superbus, 

455 Vidcrat adducto floctentem cornua nervo, 

'(Juid'quc *tibi, lascive puer, cum fortibus armis.?* 
Dixorat; *i.sta decent umeros gestamina nostros, 
(Jul dare certa ferae, dare vulnera possumus hosti, 
Oui mtnlo pestifero tot iugera ventre prementem 

4'« Slravinuis innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis. 
Tu face nescio quo.s esto contentus amores 
Inritare tua, nee laudes adsere nostras.' 
I^'iliu.s huic Veneris * figat tuus omnia, Phoebe, 
Te mens arcus ; ' ait ' quantoque animalia cedunt 

4<'5 Cuncta deo, tanto minor est tua gloria nostra.* 
Dixit, et eliso percussis acre pennis 
Impiger umbrosa Parnasi constitit arce 
l\\nc sagittifera prompsit duo tela pharetra 
Diversorum opcrum ; fugat hoc, facit illud amorem. 

470 Ouod facit, hamatum est et cuspide fulget acuta : 
Quod fugat, obtusum est et habet sub harundine 

Hoc deus in nympha PeneYde fixit ; at illo 
Laesit Apollineas traiecta per ossa medullas. 
Protinus alter amat ; fugit altera nomen amantis, 

475 Silvarum tenebris captivarumque ferarum 
Exuviis gaudens innuptaeque aemula Phoebes. 
Vitta coercebat positos sine lege capillos. 


ti illam petiere, ilia aversata petentes 
atiens expersque viri nemorum avia lustrat, 
quid Hymen, quid amor, quid sint conubia, curat 
I pater dixit 'generum mihi, filia, debes.* 
Saepo. pater dixit * debes mihi, nata, nepotes.* 
Ilia, velut crimen taedas exosa iugales 
Pulchra verecundo suflfunditur ora rubore, 

48s Inque patris blandis haerens cervice lacertis 
' Da mihi perpetua, genitor carissime,' dixit 
' Virginitate f rui. Dedit hoc pater ante Dianae.*^^ 
I He quidem obsequitur. Sed te decor iste quod optas 
Esse vetat, votoque tuo tua forma repugnat. 

490 Phoebus amat, visaeque cupit conubia Daphnes, 
Quodque cupit, sperat ; suaque ilium oracula f allunt. 
Utque leves stipulae demptis adolentur aristis, 
Ut facibus saepes ardent, quas forte viator 
Vel nimis admovit, vel iam sub luce reliquit ; 

495 Sic deus in flammas abiit, sic pectore toto 
Uritur et sterilem sperando nutrit amorem. 
Spectat inomatos coUo pendere capillos, 
Et 'quid, si comantur?* ait. Videt igne micantes 
Sideribus similes oculos, videt oscula, quae non 

joo Est vidisse satis ; laudat digitosque manusque 
Bracchiaque et nudos media plus parte lacertos : 
Siqua latent, meliora putat. Fugit ocior aura 
Ilia levi, neque ad haec revocantis verba resistit : 

[Apollo pleads his cause to the fleeing nymph, but in vain.] 

*Nympha, precor, Pener, mane! non insequor hostis: 
50s Nympha, mane ! sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, 
Sic aquilam penna f ugiunt trepidante columbae, 
Hostes quaeque suos. Amor est mihi causa sequendi. 
Me miserum ! ne prona cadas, indignave laedv 

OVID — 6 


Crura notent sentes, et sim tibi causa doloris. 
510 Aspera, qua properas, loca sunt. Moderatius, oro, • 

Curre, fugamque inhibe. Moderatius insequar ipse. 

Cui placeas, inquire tamen. Non incola montis; 

Non ego sum pastor, non hie armenta gregesque 

Horridus observo. Nescis, temeraria, nescis, 
515 Quern fugias, ideoque fugis. Mihi Delphica tellus 

Et Claros et Tenedos Patareaque regia servit. 

luppiter est genitor. Per me quod eritque fuitque 

Estque, patet : per me concordant carmina nervis. 

Certa quidem nostra est, nostra tamen una sagitta 
sao Certior, in vacuo quae vulnera pectore fecit. 

Inventum medicina meum est, opiferque per orbem 

Dicor, et herbarum subiecta potentia nobis. 

Ei mihi, quod nullis amor est sanabilis herbis, 

Nee prosunt domino quae prosunt omnibus artes ! ' 

[Unable to escape, Daphne invokes the aid of her father, the river 
god Peneus, and by him is changed into a laurel tree.] 

52s Plura locuturum timido PeneYa cursu 

Fugit cumque ipso verba imperfecta reliquit, 
Tum quoque visa decens. Nudabant corpora venti, 
Qbvi^ijiie adversas vibrabant flamina vestes, 
Et levis impulsos retro dabat aura capillos ; 

530 Auctaque forma f uga est. Sed enim non sustinet ultra 
Perdere blanditias iuvenis deus, utque movebat 
Ipse amor, admisso sequitur vestigia passu. 
Ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo 
Vidit, et hie praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem ; 

535 Alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere 
Sperat, et extento stringit vestigia rostro ; 
Alter in ambiguo est, an sit comprensus, et ipsis 
Morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit : 


Sic deus et virgo, est hie spe celer, ilia timore. 

540 Qui tamen insequitur, pennis adiutus amoris 
Ocior est requiemque negat tergoque fugacis 
Imminet et crinem sparsum cervicibus adflat. 
Viribus absumptis expalluit ilia, citaeque 
Victa labore fugae, spectans Penerdas undas, 

545 * Fer pater* inquit * opem ! Tellus,* ait, * hisce, vel istam, 

547 Quae facit, ut laedar, mutando perde figuram ! ' 
Vix prece finita, torpor gravis occupat artus, 
Mollia cinguntur tenui praecordia libro, 

550 In f rondem crines, in ramos bracchia crescunt : 
Pes modo tarn velox pigris radicibus haeret, 
Ora cacumen obit. Remanet nitor unus in ilia. 

[Apollo embraces the tree and vows that hereafter the laurel shall 
be sacred to him.] 

Hanc quoque Phoebus amat, positaque in stipite dextra 
Sentit adhuc trepidare novo sub cortice pectus, 

555 Complexusque suis ramos, ut membra, lacertis 
Oscula dat ligno : ref ugit tamen oscula lignum.^ 
Cui deus ' at quoniam coniunx mea non potes esse. 
Arbor eris certe ' dixit * mea. Semper habebunt 
Te coma, te citharae, te nostrae, laure, pharetrae. 

560 Tu ducibus Latiis aderis, cum laeta Triumph um 
Vox canet et visent longas Capitolia pompas. 
Postibus Augustis eadem fidissima custos 
Ante fores stabis, mediamque tuebere quercum. 
Utque meum intonsis caput est iuvenale capillis, 

565 Xu- .quoque perpetuos semper gere frondis honores.' 
Finierat Paean. Factis modo laurea ramis 
Adnuit, utg[ue caput visa est agitasse cacumen. 

[Now come the tributary river gods to condole with Peneus upon 
the loss of his daughter; all save Inachus, who himself bemoans the 
loss of his own daughter Jo.] 


Est nemus Haemoniae, praerupta quod undiquc 

Silva, vocant X empe- Per guae Peneus ab imo 
570 Effusus Pindo spumosis volvitur undis 
^f Deiectuque gravi tenues agitantia fumos 
Nj ij Nubila conducit, summisque aspergine silvis 
» Impluit et sonitu plus quam vicina fatigat. 
Haec domus, haec sedes, haec sunt penetralia magfni 
575 Amnis. In his, residens facto de cautibus antro, 
Undis iura dabat nymphisque colentibus undas. 
Conveniunt illuc Rop ularia^^fl jmakia primum, 
Nescia, grate ntur co nsolenturne parentem, 
Populifer Spercheos et inrequietus Enipeus 
580 Apidanusque senex lenisque Amphrysos et Aeas, 
Moxque amnes alii, qui, qua tulit impetus illos, 
In mare deducunt fessas erroribus undas. 
Inachus unus abest imoque reconditus antro 
Fletibus auget aquas, natamque miserrimus lo 
585 Luget ut amissam. Nescit, vitane fruatur, 

An sit apud manes. Sed quam non invenit usquam, 
Esse putat nusquam atque animo peiora veretur. 

[For lo, beloved of Jove, had been transformed by him into a 
heifer in order to elude the jealous watchfulness of Juno. But the 
goddess, suspecting the truth, begged the heifer as a gift, and^ placed 
her under the watchful care of Argus.] 

Viderat a patrio redeuntem luppiter illam 
Flumine et ' o virgo love digna tuoque bcatum 
590 Nescio quem f actura toro, pete * dixerat * umbras 
Altorum nemorum,* et nemorum monstraverat umbras, 
* Dum calet et medio sol est altissimus orbe. 
Quod si sola times latebras intrare ferarum, 
Praeside tuta deo nemorum secreta subibis» 


595 Nec de plebe deo, sed qui caelestia magna 

Sceptra manu teneo, sed qui vaga fulmina mitto. 
Ne fuge me!' fugiebat enim. lam pascua Lernae 
* Consitaque arboribus Lyrcea reliquerat arva, 
Cum deus inducta latas caligine terras 

600 Occuluit tenuitque fugam rapuitque pudorem. 
Interea medios luno despexit in Argos ; 
Et noctis faciem nebulas fecisse volucres 
Sub nitido mirata die ; non fluminis illas 
Esse, nec umenti sensit tellure remitti, 

605 Atque sims^QOIUunxubi sit, circumspicit, ut_£uae 
Deprensi totiens iam nosset furta mariti. 
Quem postquam caelo non repperit, * aut ego f allor, 
Aut ego laedor ' ait, delapsaque ab aethere summo 
Constitit in terris, nebulasque recedere iussit. 

610 Coniugis adventum praesenserat, inque nitentem 
Inachidos vultus mutaverat ille iuvencam. 
Bos quoque formosa est. Speciem Saturnia vacca^ 
Quamquam invita, probat nec non et cuius, et unde, 
Quove sit armento, veri quasi nescia quaerit. 

615 luppiter e terra genita m mentitur, ut auctor 
^j^' Desinat inquiri. PetitTianc Saturnia munus. 
Quid faciat ? crudele, suos addicere amores ; 
Non dare, suspectUlC "Pudor est qui suadea tillir^ :, 
Hinc dissuadet amor. Victus pudor esset amore : 

6ao Sed 1^ si munu s sociae generisque torique 
Vacca negaretur, poterat non vacca videri. 
Paelice donata non protinus exuit omnem 
Diva metum, timuitque lovem et fuit anxia furti, 
Donee Arestoridae servandam tradidit Argo. 

[Now Argus ' is a monster equipped with a hundred eyes, and all 
efforts of lo to escape him are in vain. Her identity is at last discov- 
ered by her father, who bewails her with unavailing grie{.'\ 


6as Centum luminibus cinctum caput Argus habebat : 
Indcj uis vicibus capiebant bina quietem, 
Cetera servabant atque in statione manebant. 
Constiterat quocumque modo, spectabat ad lo : 
Ante oculos lo quamvis aversi^ habebat. 

6jo Luce sinit pasci. Cum sol tellwre sub alta est, 
Claudit et indigno circumdat vincula collo. 
Frondibus arboreis et amara pascitur herba, 
IVoque toro terrae non semper gramen habenti 
Incubat infelix, limosaque flumina potat. 

'>j5 Ilia etiam supplex Argo cum bracchia vellet 

Tendere, non habuit quae bracchia tenderet Argo ; 
Conatoque queri mugitus edidit ore, 
Pertimuitque sonos propriaque exterrita voce est. 
Venit et ad ripas, ubi ludere saepe solebat, 

040 Inachidas : rictus novaque ut conspexit in unda 
Cornua, pertimuit seque exsternata refugit. 
Naldes ignorant, ignorat et Inachus ipse. 
Quae sit. At ilia patrem sequitur sequiturque sorores, 
Et patitur tangi seque admirantibus offert. 

64s Decerptas senior porrexerat Inachus herbas : 
Ilia manus lambit patriisque dat oscula palmis. 
Nee retinet lacrimas et, si modo verba sequantur, 
Oret opem nomenque suum casusque loquatur. 
Littera pro verbis, quam pes in pulvere duxit, 

650 Corporis indicium mutati triste peregit. 

* Me miserum ! ' exclamat pater Inachus, inque gementis 
Cornibus et niveae pendens cervice iuvencae 

* Me miserum ! * ingeminat, * tune es quaesita per 

Nata, mihi terras ? tu non inventa reperta 
65s Luctus eras levior. Retices, nee mutua nostris 
Dicta refers, alto tantum suspiria ducis 

(From tht; Njitional Miiseiiin ;it Naples) 

To face p. 87 


Pectore, quodque unum potes, ad mea verba remugis. 
At tibi ego ignarus thalamos taedasque parabam, 
Spesque fuit generi mihi prima, secunda nepotum. 
660 De grege nunc tibi vir, nunc de grege natus habendus. 
Nee finire licet tantos mihi morte dolores : 
Sed nocet esse deum, praeclusaque ianua leti 
Aeternum nostros luctus extendit in aevum/ 
Talia maerentes stellatus submovet Argus, 
665 Ereptamque patri diversa in pascua natam 

Abstrahit. Inde procul mentis sublime cacumen 
Occupat, unde sedens partes speculatur in omnes. 

[Jove in pity sends Mercury to slay Argus and release the hapless lo. 
lercury approaches the monster in the disguise of a shepherd, playing 
pon his pipes.] 

Nec superum rector mala tanta Phoronidos ultra 
Ferre potest, natumque vocat, quem lucida partu 

670 Pletas enixa est, letoque det, imperat, Argum. 
Parva mora est alas pedibus virgamque potenti 
Somniferam sumpsisse manu tegumenque capillis : 
Haec ubi disposuit, patria love natus ab arce 
Desilit in terras, illic tegumenque removit 

675 Et posuit pennas : tantummodo virga retenta est. 
Hac agit ut pastor per devia rura capellas, 
Dum venit, abductas, et structis cantat avenis. 
Voce nova captus custos lunonius. * At tu, 
Quisquis es, hoc poteras^m ecum considere saxo,' 

680 Argus ait, *neque enim pecori fecundior ullo 

Herba loco est, aptamque vides pastoribus umbram.* 
Sedit Atlantiades, et euntem multa loquendo 
Detinuit sermone diem, iunctisque canendo 
Vincere harundinibus servantia lumina temptat. 

685 I He tamen pugnat molles e vincere somnos 


Et, quamvis sopor est oculorum parte receptus, 
Parte tamen vigilat. Quaerit quoque — namque repeiU 
Fistula nuper erat — qua sit ratione reperta. 

[At the request of Argus, the seeming shepherd recounts the origin 
t)f the i^ipes ; how the nymph Syrinx, beloved of Pan, endeavoring to 
escape, was changed into whispering reeds. These the god, in memory 
of her, had fashioned into the Syrinx, or pipes of Pan.] 

Turn deus * Arcadiae gelidis in montibus * inquit 

690 * Inter hamadryadas celeberrima Nonacrinas 
Naias una f uit ; nymphae Syringa vocabant. 
Non semel et satyros eluserat ilia sequentes 
Et quoscumque deos umbrosave silva feraxve 
Rus habet. Ortygiam studiis ipsaque colebat 

695 Virginitate deam. Ritu quoque cincta Dianae 
Falleret, et credi posset Latonia, si non 
Corneus huic arcus, si non foret aureus illi. 
Sic quoque fallebat. Redeuntem coUe Lycaeo 
Pan videt banc, pinuque caput praecinctus acuta 

700 Talia verba refert * — restabat verba ref erre, 
Et precibus spretis fugisse per avia nympham. 
Donee harenosi placidum Ladonis ad amnem 
Venerit. Hie illam, cursum impedientibus undis, 
Ut se mutarent liquidas orasse sorores : 

705 Panaque cum prensam sibi iam Syringa putaret, 
Corpore pro nymphae calamos tenuisse palustres. 
Dumque ibi suspirat, motos in harundine ventos 
Effecisse sonum tenuem similemque querenti; 
Arte nova vocisque deum dulcedine captum 

710 * Hoc mihi concilium tecum ' dixisse * manebit! ' 
Atque ita disparibus calamis compagine cerae 
Inter se iunctis nomen tenuisse puellae. 

[Argus, having fallen asleep meanwhile, is slain by Mercury ; and his 
hundred staring eyes are placed by Juno in her peacock's tail.] 


Talia dicturus vidit Cyllenius omnes 
Succubuisse oculos adopertaque lumina somno. 

715 Supprimit extemplo vocem, firmatque soporem 
Languida permulcens medicata lymina virga : 
Nee mora, faleato nutantem vulnerat ense 
Qua eollo est confine caput, saxoque cruentum 
Deicit et maculat praeruptam sanguine rupem. 

720 Arge, iaces. Quodque in tot lumina lumen habebas, 
Exstinctum est, centumque oculos nox occupat una. 
Excipit hos volucrisque suae Saturnia pennis 
Conlocat et gemmis caudam stellantibus implet. 

[Juno, in a rage, drives the heifer, lo, by a gadfly's sting through 
many lands, until at length she comes to Egypt. Here Jove, to whom 
she appeals in her helpless flight, restores her to her own form, and in 
this form she is worshiped as a goddess by the Egyptians.] 

Protinus exarsit, nee tempora distulit irae, 

725 Horriferamque oculis animoque obiecit Erinyn 
Paelicis Argolicae, stimulosque in pectore caecos 
Condidit, et profugam per totum terruit orbem. 
Ultimus immenso restabas, Nile, labori. 
Quem simulac tetigit, positis in margine ripae 

730 Procubuit genibus, resupinoque ardya collo 
Quos potuit solos tollens ad sidera vuitus, 
Et gemitu et lacrimis et luctisono'mugitu 
Cum love visa queri est finemque orare malorum. 
Coniugis ille suae complexus colla lacertis, 

735 Finiat ut poenas tandem, rogat, * in * que * f uturum 
Pone metus,' inquit, 'numquam tibi causa doloris 
Haec erit,* et Stygias iubet hoc audire paludes. 
Ut lenita dea est, vultus capit ilia priores, 
Fitque quod ante fuit. Fugiunt e corpore saetae, 

740 Comua decrescunt, fit luminis artior orbis, 

Contrahitur rictus, redeunt umerique manusque, 


Ungulaque in quinos dilapsa absumitur ungues. 
De bove nil superest, formae nisi candor, in ilia. 
Officioque pedum nymphe contenta duorum 
745 Erigitur, metuitque loqui, ne more iuvencae 
Mugiat, et timide vejba intermissa retemptat. 
Nunc 35a IJr^Cf^ra cnlitur tii^leJ^tfi l ima_h] fha. 

[Now Epaphus, the son cf lo, had among his companions one 
Phaethon, who claimed to be the son of Phoebus. Epaphus taunt- 
ingly disputes this claim. Whereupon Phaethon seeks out his mother, 
Clymene, and begs for a confirmation of his parentage. Clymene 
sends him to Phoebus himself for proof of her assertion] 

Huic Epaphus magni genitus de semine tandem 
Creditur esse lovis, perque urbes iuncta parenti 

750 Templa tenet. Fuit huic animis aequalis et annis 
Sole satus Phaethon. Quem quondam magna lo- 

Nee sibi cedentem Phoeboque parente superbum 
Non tulit Inachides, * matri ' que ait * omnia demens 
Credis, et es tumidus genitoris imagine falsi.' 

755 Erubuit Phaethon, iramque pudore repressit, 
Et tulit ad Clymenem Epaphi convicia matrem : 
'Quoque magis doleas, genetrix,' ait *ille ego liber, 
I lie ferox tacui. Pudet haec opprobria nobis 
Et dici potuisse et non potuisse refelli. 

760 At tu, si modo sum caelesti stirpe creatus, 
Ede notam tanti generis, meque adsere caelo.' 
Dixit et implicuit materno bracchia coUo, 
Perque suum Meropisque caput taedasque sororum, 

uX Traderet, oravit, veri sibi signa parentis. 

765 Ambiguum, Cl^uigne, precibus Phaethontis, an ira 
Mota magis dicti sibi criminis, utraque caelo 
Bracchia porrexit, spectansque ad lumina solis 
* Per iubar hoc ' inquit * radiis insigne coruscis, 


Nate, tibi iuro, quod nos auditque videtque, 
770 Hoc te, quem spectas, hoc te, qui temperat orbem, 
Sole satum. Si ficta loquor, neget ipse videndum 
Se mihi, sitque oculis lux ista novissima nostris. 
Nee longus patrios labor est tibi nosse penates. 
Unde oritur, domus est terrae contermina nostrae. 
775 Si modo fert animus, gradere, et scitabere ab ipso.* 
Emicat extemplo laetus post talia matris 
Dicta suae Phaethon et concipit aethera mente, 
Aethiopasque suos positosque sub ignibus Indos 
Sidereis transit patriosque adit impiger ortus. 

Book II 

[Phaethon comes to the palace of the sun god, and is lost in wonder 
at its magnificence.] 

Regia Solis erat sublimibus alta columnis, 
Clara micante auro flammasque imitante pyropo ; 
Cuius ebur nitidum fastigia summa tegebat, 
Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvae. 
5 Materiam superabat opus. Nam Mulciber illic 
Aequora caelarat medias cingentia terras 
Terrarumque orbem caelumque, quod imminet orbi. 
Caeruleos habet unda deos, Tritona canorum, 
Proteaque ambiguum, ballaenarumque prementem 

10 Aegaeona suis immania terga lacertis, 

Doridaque et natas, quarum pars nare videtur. 
Pars in mole sedens virides siccare capillos, 
Pisce vehi quaedam. Facies non omnibus una. 
Nee diversa tamen ; qualem decet esse sororum. 

15 Terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque 
Fluminaque et nymphas et cetera numina rviris* 


Haec super imposita est caeli fulgentis imago, 
Signaque sex foribus dextris, totidemque sinistris. 
Quo simul acclivo ClymeneTa limite proles 

90 Venit et intravit dubitati tecta parentis, 
Protinus ad patrios sua fert vestigia vultus 
Consistitque procul : neque enim propiora f erebat 
Lumina. Purpurea velatus veste sedebat 
In solio Phoebus claris lucente smaragdis. 

25 A dextra laevaque Dies et Mensis et Annus 
Saeculaque et positae spatiis aequalibus Horae, 
Verque novum stabat cinctum florente corona,. 1. 
Stabat nuda Aestas et spicea serta gerebat, 
Stabat et Autumnus calcatis sordidus uvis 

30 Et glacialis Hiems canos hirsuta capillos. 

[Seeking Phoebus, he asks for proofs of his sonship. Obtaining in 
proof of this the promise of any boon which he may ask, he at once 
claims the privilege of driving for a single day the glorious chariot of 
the sun.] 

Inde loco medius rerum novitate paventem 
Sol oculis iuvenem, quibus aspicit omnia, vidit, 
'Quae* que *viae tibi causa? Quid hac* ait *arce petisti, 
Progenies, Phaethon, baud infitianda parenti ? ' 

35 Ille refert * o lux immensi publica mundi, 
Phoebe pater, si das huius mihi nominis usum, 
Nee falsa Clymene culpam sub imagine celat : 
Pignera da, genitor, per quae tua vera propago 
Credar, et hunc animis errorem detrahe nostris/ 

40 Dixerat At genitor circum caput omne micantes 
Deposuit radios, propiusque accedere iussit, 
Amplexuque dato * nee tu meus esse negari 
Dignus cs, et Clymene veros * ait * edidit ortus. 
Quoquc minus dubites, quodvis pete munus, ut illud 


45 Me tribuente f eras. Promissis testis adesto 
Dis iuranda palus, oculis incognita nostris.' 
Vix bene desierat, currus rogat ille paternos 
Inque diem alipedum ius et moderamen equorum. 

[Phoebus attempts to dissuade him from this by narrating the diffi- 
culties and dangers of such a task.] 

Paenituit iurasse patrem. Qui terque quaterque 

^50 Concutiens inlustre caput 'temeraria* dixit 

* Vox mea facta tua est. Utinam promissa liceret 
Non dare ! confiteor, solum hoc tibi, nate, negarem. 
Dissuadere licet. Non est tua tuta voluntas. 
Magna petis, Phaethon, et quae nee viribus istis 

55 Munera conveniant nee tarn puerilibus annis. 
Sors tua mortalis. Non est mortale quod optas. 
Plus etiam, quam quod superis contingere fas est, 
Nescius adfectas. Placeat sibi quisque licebit, 
Non tamen ignifero quisquam consistere in axe 

60 Me valet excepto. Vasti quoque rector Olympi, 
Qui fera terribili iaculatur fulmina dextra, 
Non agat hos currus. Et quid love maius habemus ? 
Ardua prima via est et qua vix mane recentes 
Enitantur equi. Medio est altissima caelo, 

65 Unde mare et terras ipsi mihi saepe videre 
Fit timor, et pavida trepidat formidine pectus. 
Ultima prona via est et eget moderamine certo : 
Tunc etiam quae me subiectis excipit undis, 
Ne ferar in praeceps, Tethys solet ipsa vereri. 

70 Adde quod adsidua rapitur vertigine caelum 
Sideraqiie alta trahit celerique volumine torquet. 
Nitor in adversum, nee me qui cetera, vincit 
Impetus, et rapido contrarius evehor orbi. 
Finge datos currus : quid ages ? Poterisue lOX^XVa 


75 Obvius ire polis, ne te citus auf erat axis ? 
Forsitan et lucos illic urbesque deorum 
Concipias animo delubraque ditia donis 
Esse ? Per insidias iter est f ormasque ferarum/ 
Utque viam teneas nulloque errore traharis, 

80 Per tamen adversi gradieris cornua Tauri 
Haemoniosque arcus violentique ora Leonis 
Saevaque circuitu curvantem bracchia longo 
Scorpion atque aliter curvantem bracchia Cancrum. 
Nee tibi quadrupedes animosos ignibus illis, 

85 Quos in pectore habent, quos ore et naribus efflant, 
In promptu regere est. Vix me patiuntur, ubi acres 
Incaluere animi, cervixque repugnat habenis. 
At tu, funesti ne sim tibi muneris auctor, 
Nate, cave, dum resque sinit, tua corrige vota. 

90 Scilicet ut nostro genitum te sanguine credas, ^ 
Pignera certa petis ? Do pignera certa timendo, 
Et patrio pater esse metu probor. Aspice vultus 
Ecce meos. Utinamque oculos in pectora posses 
Inserere, et patrias intus deprendere curas ! 

95 Denique quicquid habet dives, circumspice, mundus, 
Equc tot ac tantis caeli terraeque marisque 
Posce bonis aliquid. Nullam patiere repulsam. 
Deprecor hoc unum, quod vero nomine poena, 
Non honor est. Poenam, Phaethon, pro munere poscis. 

100 Quid mea colla tenes blandis, ignare, lacertis } 
Ne dubita, dabitur — Stygias iuravimus undas ! — 
Quodcumque optaris. Sed tu sapientius opta.' 

[But Phaethon persists in his request, and at the appointed hour the 
shining chariot, with its fiery, unmanageable steeds, is brought forth.] 

Finierat monitus. Dictis tamen ille repugnat, 
Propositumque premit flagratque cupidine cumis. 


105 Ergo qua licuit, genitor cunctatus, ad altos 
Deducit iuvenem, Vulcania munera, currus. 
Aureus axis erat, temo aureus, aurea summae 
Curvatura rotae, radiorum argenteus ordo. 
Per iuga chrysolithi positaeque ex ordine gemmae 

no Clara repercusso reddebant lumina Phoebo. 

Dumque ea magnanimus Phaethon miratur opusque 
Perspicit, ecce vigil rutilo patefecit ab ortu 
Purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum 
Atria. Diffugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit 

115 Lucifer, et caeli statione novissimus exit. 

Quem petere ut terras mundumque rubescere vidit, 
Cornuaque extremae velut evanescere lunae : 
lungere equos Titan velocibus imperat Horis. 
lussa deae celeres peragunt, ignemque vomentes 

120 Ambrosiae suco saturos praesepibus altis 

Quadrupedes ducunt adduntque sonantia frena. 

[The father, with many misgivings, prepares his son for the journey, 
and gives him much parting advice and many directions.] 

Turn pater ora sui sacro medicamine nati 
Contigit et rapidae fecit patientia flammae, 
Imposuitque comae radios, praesagaque luctus 

125 Pectore soUicito repetens suspiria dixit : 
* Si potes his saltem monitis parere paternis, 
Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris. 
Sponte sua properant : labor est inhibere volentes. 
Nee tibi directos placeat via quinque per arcus : 

130 Sectus in obliquum est lato curvamine limes, 
Zonarumque trium contentus fine polumque 
Eff ugit australem iunctamque aquilonibus Arcton. 
Hac sit iter. Manifesta rotae vestigia cernes. 
Utque ferant aequos et caelum et terra caloies. 


135 Nee preme, nee summum molire per aethera cursum. 
Altius egressus caelestia tecta cremabis, 
Inferius terras : medio tutissimus ibis. 
Neu te dexterior tortum declinet ad Anguem, 
Neve sinisterior pressam rota ducat ad Aram : 

140 Inter utrumque tene. Fortunae cetera mandOy 
Quae iuvet et melius quam tu tibi, consulat opto. 
Dum loquor, Hesperio positas in litore metas 
Umida nox tetigit. Non est mora libera nobis ; 
Poscimur: effulget tenebris aurora fugatis. 

14s Corripe lora manu ! — vel, si mutabile pectus 
Est tibi, consiliis, non curribus utere nostris, 
Dum potes, et solidis etiamnunc sedibus astas, 
Dumque male optatos nondum premis inscius axes. 
Quae tutus spectes, sine me dare lumina terris! ' 

[Phaethon speedily loses control over the horses, who now rush at 
will through the heavens.] 

150 Occupat ille levem iuvenali corpore currum, 

Statque super, manibusque datas contingere habenas 
Gaudet, et invito grates agit inde parenti. 
Interea volucres Pyrois et Eous et Aethon, 
Solis equi, quartusque Phlegon hinnitibus auras 

iss Flammiferis implent pedibusque repagula pulsant. 
Quae postquam Tethys, fatorum ignara nepotis, 
Reppulit, et facta est immensi copia mundi, 
Corripuere viam pedibusque per aera motis 
Obstantes scindunt nebulas pennisque levati 

160 Praetereunt ortos isdem de partibus Euros. 

Sed leve pondus erat, nee quod cognoscere possent 
Solis equi, solitaquc iugum gravitate carebat. 
Utque labant curvac iusto sine pondere naves 
Perque mare instabiles nimia levitate fei*untur, 


165 Sic onere adsueto vacuus dat in aera saltus 
Succutiturque alte similisque est currus inani. 
Quod simulac sensere, ruunt tritumque relinquunt 
Quadriiugi spatium nee quo prius, ordine currunt. 
Ipse pavet Nee qua commissas flectat habenas, 

X70 Nee scit, qua sit iter; nee, si sciat, imperet illis. 
Turn primum radiis gelidi caluere Triones 
Et vetito f rustra temptarunt aequore tingui. 
Quaeque polo posita est glaciali proxima Serpens, 
Frigore pigra prius nee formidabilis ulli, 

175 Incaluit sumpsitque novas fervoribus iras. 
Te quoque turbatum memorant fugisse, Boote, 
Quamvis tardus eras et te tua plaustra tenebant 
Ut vero summo despexit ab aethere terras 
Infelix Phaethon penitus penitusque iacentes, 

x8o Palluit, et subito genua intremuere timore, 

Suntque oculis tenebrae per tantum lumen obortae. 
Et iam mallet equos numquam tetigisse paternos, 
lam cognosse genus piget, et valuisse rogando ; 
lam Meropis dici cupiens ita fertur, ut acta 

x8s Praecipiti pinus borea, cui victa remisit 

Frena suus rector, quam dis votisque reliquit 
Quid faciat ? multum caeli post terga relictum, 
Ante oculos plus est Animo metitur utrumque. 
Et modo quos illi fatum contingere non est, 

190 Prospicit occasus, interdum respicit ortus. 

Quidque agat, ignarus stupet et nee frena remittit, 
Nee retinere valet, nee nomina novit equorum. 
Sparsa quoque in vario passim miracula caelo 
Vastarumque videt trepidus simulacra ferarum. 

X9S Est locus, in geminos ubi bracchia concavat arcus 
Scorpius, et cauda flexisque utrimque lacertis 
Porrigit in spatium signorum membra duorum. 

OVID — / 


Hunc puer ut nigri madidum sudore veneni 
Vulnera curvata minitantem cuspide vidit, 

200 Mentis inops gelida formidine lora remisit. 
Quae postquam summo tetigere iacentia tergo, 
Exspatiantur equi, nulloque inhibente per auras 
Ignotae regionis eunt, quaque impetus egit, 
Hac sine lege ruunt, altoque sub aethere fixis 

20s Incursant stellis, rapiuntque per avia currum. 

[A universal conflagration threatens by reason of the too near 
approach of the fiery chariot.] 

Et modo summa petunt, modo per declive viasque 
Praecipites spatio terrae propiore feruntur. 
Inferiusque suis fraternos currere Luna 
Admiratur equos, ambustaque nubila f umant. 

210 Corripitur flammis ut quaeque altissima, tellus, 
Fissaque agit rimas et sucis aret ademptis. 
Pabula canescunt, cum frondibus uritur arbor, 
Materiamque suo praebet seges arida damno. 
Parva queror. Magnae pereunt cum moenibus urbes, 

215 Cumque suis totas populis incendia gentes 

In cinerem vertunt. Silvae cum montibus ardent, 
Ardet Athos Taurusque Cilix et Tmolus et Oete 
Et turn sicca, prius creberrima fontibus Ide 
Virgineusque Helicon et nondum Oeagrius Haemos. 

220 Ardct in immensum geminatis ignibus Aetne, 
Parnasusque biceps et Eryx et Cynthus et Othrys, 
Et tandem nivibus Rhodope caritura, Mimasque 
Dindymaque et Mycale natusque ad sacra Cithaeron. 
Nee prosunt Scythiae sua frigora: Caucasus ardet, 
i 225 Ossaque cum Pindo maiorque ambobus Olympus, 
Aeriaeque Alpes et nubifer Appenninus. 
Tum vero Phaethon cunctis e partibus orbem 


Aspicit accensum nee tantos sustinet aestus, 
Ferventesque auras velut c fornace profunda 

230 Ore trahit, currusque suos candescere sentit; 
Et neque iam cineres eiectatamque favillam 
Ferre potest, calidoque involvitur undique fumo, 
Quoque eat, aut ubi sit, picea caligine tectus 
Nescit, et arbitrio volucrum raptatur equorum. 

235 Sanguine tunc credunt in corpora summa vocato 
Aethiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorem. 
Turn facta est Libye raptis umoribus aestu 
Arida. Turn nymphae passis fontesque lacusque 
Deflevere comis. Quaerit Boeotia Dircen, 

240 Argos Amymonen, Ephyre Pirenidas undas. 
Nee sortita loco distantes flumina ripas 
Tuta manent. Mediis Tanais fumavit in undis, 
Peneosque senex, Teuthranteusquc Caicus, 
Et celer Ismenos cum Phegiaco Erymantho, 

S245 Arsurusque iterum Xanthus, flavusque Lycormas, 
Quique reeurvatis ludit Maeandros in undis, 
Mygdoniusque Melas et Taenarius Eurotas. 
Arsit et Euphrates Babylonius, arsit O routes, 
Thermodonque citus, Gangesque, et Phasis, et Hister. 

950 Aestuat Alpheus, ripae SpereheYdes ardent : 

Quodque suo Tagus amne vehit, fluit ignibus, aurum : 
Et quae Maeonias eelebrarant carmine ripas 
Flumineae volucres, medio caluere Caystro. 
Nilus in extremum fugit perterritus orbem* 

255 Oeeuluitque caput, quod adhuc latet. Ostia septem 
Pulverulenta vacant, septem sine flumine valles. 
Fors eadem Ismarios, Hebrum cum Strymone siccat, 
Hesperiosque amnes, Rhenum Rhodanumque Padum- 

Cuique fuit rerum promissa potential ThyWm. - - - - 


a6o Dissilit omne solum, penetratque in Tartara rimis 
Lumen et infernum terret cum coniuge regem. 
Et mare contrahitur, siccaeque est campus harenae 
Quod modo pontus erat ; quosque altum texerat aequor, 
Exsistunt montes et sparsas Cycladas augent 

a6s Ima petunt pisces, nee se super aequora curvi 
Tollere consuetas audent delphines in auras. 
Corpora phocarum summo resupina profundo 
Exanimata natant. Ipsum quoque Nerea fama est 
Doridaque et natas tepidis latuisse sub antris. 

370 Ter Neptunus aquis cum torvo bracchia vultu 
Exserere ausus erat ; ter non tulit aeris ignes. 

[The Earth, parched with the heat, prays to Jove for relief.3 

Alma tamen Tellus, ut erat circumdata ponto. 
Inter aquas pelagi, contractos undique fontes, 
Qui se condiderant in opacae viscera matris, 

275 Sustulit oppressos collo tenus arida vultus, 
Opposuitque manum fronti, magnoque tremore 
Omnia concutiens paulum subsedit et infra 
Quam solet esse, f uit ; sacraque ita voce lociita est : 
' Si placet hoc, meruique, quid o tua fulmina cessant, 

280 Summe deum ? liceat periturae viribus ignis 
Igne perire tuo, clademque auctore levare. 
Vix equidem fauces haec ipsa in verba resolvo ' — 
Presserat ora vapor — * tostos en aspice crines, 
Inque oculis tantum, tantum super ora favillae. 

285 Hosne mihi fructus, hunc fertilitatis honorem 
Officiique refers, quod ad unci vulnera aratri 
Rastrorumque fero totoque exerceor anno, 
Quod pecori frondes alimentaque mitia, friiges 
Humano generi, vobis quoque tura ministro? 

290 Sed tamen exitium fac me meruisse, quid undae. 


Quid meruit f rater ? cur illi tradita sorte 
Aequora decrescunt et ab aethere longius absunt ? 
Quodsi nee fratris, nee te mea gratia tangit, 
At caeli miserere tui. Circumspice utrumque, 

395 Fumat uterque polus. Quos si vitiaverit ignis, 
Atria vestra ruent. Atlas en ipse laborat, 
Vixque suis umeris candentem sustinet axem. 
Si f reta, si terrae pereunt, si regia caeli, 
In chaos antiquum confundimur. Eripe flammis 

300 Siquid adhuc superest, et rerum consule summae.' 

[Jove hears her prayer, and sends forth a thunderbolt which demol- 
ishes the flying chariot, and hurls Phaethon himself down to the river 
Po, where his charred corpse is buried by the Hesperian Nymphs.] 

Dixerat haec Tellus : neque enim tolerare vaporem 
Ulterius potuit nee dicere plura, suumque 
Rettulit OS in se propioraque manibus antra. 
At pater omnipotens, superos testatus et ipsum, 

305 Qui dederat currus, nisi opem ferat, omnia fato 
Interitura gravi, summam petit arduus arcem, 
Unde solet latis nubes inducere terris, 
Unde movet tonitrus vibrataque fulmina iactat. 
Sed neque quas posset terris inducere nubes 

310 Tunc habuit, nee quos caelo dimitteret imbres. 
Intonat et dextra libratum fulmen ab aure 
Misit in aurigam pariterque animaque rotisque 
Expulit, et saevis compescuit ignibus ignes. 
Consternantur equi et saltu in contraria facto 

315 CoUa iugo eripiunt abruptaque lora relinquunt. 
Illic frena iacent, illic temone revulsus 
Axis, in hac radii fractarum parte rotarum, 
Sparsaque sunt late laceri vestigia currus. 
At Phaethon, rutilos flamma populante capillos, 


320 Volvitur in praeceps longoquc per aera tractu 
Fertiir, ut interdum de caelo Stella sereno 
Etsi Tion cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. 
Quern procul a patria diverse maximus orbe 
r^xcipit Kridanus, fumantiaque abluit ora. 

325 Naides Hesperiae trifida fumantia flamma 

Corpora dant tumulo, signant quoque carmine saxum : 
Hic srrus est Phaethon, currus auriga paterni; 


[Phaethon's mother and sisters, after a world-wide search, find his 
tomb ; here tliey lament with inordinate grief, until the sisters are turned 
into poplar trees. Cycniis, also, a friend and relative of Phaethon, in the 
midst of his grief is changed into a swan (329-380). But Phoebus, 
tilled with wrath because of the destructive thunderbolt of Jove, vow's 
that he will never again drive the chariot of the sun. This vow, how- 
ever, is recalled at the earnest prayer of the gods (381-400). Jove now 
wanders over the earth, restoring her fields and woods to their wonted 
verdure. In his wanderings, he is smitten with the charms of Callbto 
of Arc ulia, a nymph of Diana's train. The nymph, though transformed 
by Juno's hate into a bear, is raised by her lover into the heavens, as 
the constellation of the (ireat Bear. Her son Areas, who has been 
on the point of slaying his mother, is at the same time transformed 
into the constellation of the Little Bear. At this, Juno prays the 
powers of Ocean never to allow this constellation to pollute their sacred 
waters (401-530). Satisfied with this revenge, she returns to heaven, 
drawn by her peacocks, whose tails have recently been adorned by 
Ar^ijus' eyes. The mention of this change suggests that of another bird, 
the raven, whose white plumage was changed by Apollo to black, 
because of the bird's ungracious tattling upon Coronis, the favored 
mistress of the god. After her death, Coronis' infant son, Aesculapius, 
is given by Apollo to Chiron the centaur, to rear (531-632). Now 
Chiron's daughter, Ocyrrhoe. being gifted with the power of prophecy, 
on beholding the infant, foretells his fate ; and for this presumption, 
Jove changes her into a mare (633-675). (Many years may be sup- 
posed to have elapsed. Aesculapius has become a very god of healing, 
and has power by his art to restore men even from the dead. To curb 
this power, Jove blasts him with a thunderbolt. Then Apollo^ in rage at 


the destruction of his son, destroys the Cyclopes, who forged the bolts, 
and is for this act sentenced to serve a mortal for a year.) While 
Apollo, in fulfillment of this sentence, was tending the herds of 
Admetus, absorbed in meditation on the pipes. Mercury stole away 
his herds. The act was witnessed by an old peasant, Baltus by name, 
who for his treachery in betraying it, though only to the god himself, 
in disguise, was changed into a touchstone (676-707). While Mercury, 
after this incident, was on his way back to Olympus, passing over 
Athens, he saw and was charmed by Herse,'the daughter of Cecrops. 
On seeking to gain her presence, he was met by Aglaurus, her sister, 
who, in return for her aid, demanded large sums of money from the 
god. Minerva was enraged by the girPs greed and presumption, and 
forthwith sent the hag Envy to torment the maiden. Under this 
influence, she opposed Mercury, and was by liim changed to stone 
(708-832). Now Europa, the daughter of Agenor, King of Sidon, 
was beloved by Jove ; he, seeing Mercury returned to heaven, claimed 
his assistance in his plan of action Jove straightway assumed the 
form of a snow-white bull, and disported himself in the flowery meadows, 
until Europa at length, all fear dispelled, seated herself upon his back ; 
whereupon the bull plunged into the sea, and swam to Crete. Here the 
god appeared before the astonished maiden in his true form (833-875).] 

Book III 

[Agenor sends his son Cadmus in search of Europa, with the in- 
junction that he is never to return to his father's house until he has 
found his sister. Wearied by his fruitless search, Cadmus at last con- 
sults the Delphic oracle as to his future home.] 

lamque deus posita fallacis imagine tauri 
Se confessus erat Dictaeaque rura tenebat : 
Cum pater ignarus Cadmo perquirere raptam 
Imperat, et poenam, si non invenerit, addit 
5 Exsilium, facto pius et sceleratus eodem. 
Orbe pererrato — quis enim deprendere possit 
Furta lovis.? — profugus patriamque iramque parentis 
Vitat Agenorides, Phoebique oracula supplex 


Consulit et, quae sit tellus habitanda, requirit 
lo * Bos tibi ' Phoebus ait ' solis occurret in arvis, 
Nullum passa iugum, curvique immunis aratrl 
Hac duce carpe vias et qua requieverit herba, 
Moenia fac condas, Boeotiaque ilia vocato.' 

[Following the direction of the oracle, he is guided by a wandering 
heifer to his destined land, which, from his guide, he calls Boeotia.] 

Vix bene Castalio Cadmus descenderat antro, 

15 Incustoditam lente videt ire iuvencam 
Nullum servitii signum cervice gerentem. 
Subsequitur pressoque legit vestigia gressu, 
Auctoremque viae Phoebum tacitumus adorat. 
lam vada Cephisi Panopesque evaserat arva : 

ao Bos stetit et tollens speciosam cornibus altis 
Ad caelum frontem mugitibus impulit auras 
Atque ita, respiciens comites sua terga sequentes, 
Procubuit teneraque latus submisit in herba. 

[His servants, sent to search out springs of water, are devoured b> 
a dragon which lies concealed in a neighboring cave.] 

Cadmus agit grates, peregrinaeque oscula terrae 
25 Figit, et ignotos montes agrosque salutat 
Sacra lovi facturus erat. lubet ire ministros 
Et petere e vivis libandas fontibus undas. 
Silva vetus stabat nulla violata securi, 
Et specus in media, virgis ac vimine densus, 
30 Efficiens humilem lapidum compagibus arcum, 
Uberibus fecundus aquis, ubi conditus antro 
Martins anguis erat, cristis praesignis et auro : 
Igne micant oculi ; corpus tumet omne veneno ; 
Tresque vibrant linguae ; triplici stant ordine dentes. 
35 Quem postquam Tyria lucum de gente profecti 


Infausto tetigere gradu, demissaque in undas 
Urna dedit sonitum, longo caput extulit antro 
Caeruleus serpens horrendaque sibila niisit. 
Effluxere urnae manibus, sanguisque relinquit 

40 Corpus, et attonitos subitus tremor occupat artus. 
I lie volubilibus squamosos nexibus orbes 
Torquet, et immensos saltu sinuatur in arcus, 
Ac media plus parte leves erectus in auras 
Despicit omne nemus, tantoque est corpore, quanto 

45 Si totum spectes, geminas qui separat Arctos. 
Nee mora, Phoenicas, sive illi tela parabant, 
Sive fugam, sive ipse timor prohibebat utrumque, 
Occupat. Hos morsu, longis amplexibus illos, 
Hos necat adflati funesta tabe veneni. 

[With this dragon Cadmus himself engages in conflict, and, after a 

fierce struggle, slays him .J 


50 Fecerat exiguas iam sol altissimus umbras : 
Quae mora sit sociis, miratur Agenore natus, 
Vestigatque viros. Tegumen direpta leonis 
Pellis erat, telum splendenti lancea ferro 
Et iaculum, teloque animus praestantior omni. 

55 Ut nemus intravit letataque corpora vidit, 
Victoremque supra spatiosi corporis hostem 
Tristia sanguinea lambentem vulnera lingua, 
' Aut ultor vestrae, fidissima corpora, mortis, 
Aijt comes' inquit 'ero.' Dixit, dextraque molarem 

60 Sustulit et magnum magno conamine misit. 
Illius impulsu cum turribus ardua celsis 
Moenia mota forent : serpens sine vulnere mansit, 
Loricaeque modo squamis defensus et atrae 
Duritia pellis validos cute reppulit ictus. 

65 At non duritia iaculum quoque vicit eadem, 


Quod medio lentae spinae curvamine fixum 
Constitit, et totum descendit in ilia ferrum. 
I lie dolore ferox caput in sua terga retorsit, 
Vulneraque aspexit, fixumque hastile momordit, 

70 Idque ubi vi multa partem labefecit in omnem, 
Vix tergo eripuit : ferrum tamen ossibus haesit. 
Tum vero postquam solitas accessit ad iras 
Causa recens, plenis tumuerunt guttura venis, 
Spumaque pestiferos circumfluit albida rictus, 

75 Terraque rasa sonat squamis, quique halitus exit 
Ore niger Stygio, vitiatas inficit auras. 
Ipse modo immensum spiris facientibus orbem 
Cingitur, interdum longa trabe rectior exstat, 
Impete nunc vasto ceu concitus imbribus amnis 

80 Fertur et obstantes proturbat pectore silvas. 
Cedit Agenorides paulum, spolioque leonis 
Sustinet incursus, instantiaque ora retardat 
Cuspide praetenta. Furit ille et inania duro 
Vulnera dat ferro, figitque in acumine dentes, 

85 lamque venenifero sanguis manare palato 
Coeperat et virides aspergine tinxerat herbas : 
Sed leve vulnus erat, quia se retrahebat ab ictu 
Laesaque colla dabat retro, plagamque sedere 
Cedendo arcebat, nee longius ire sinebat : 

90 Donee Agenorides coniectum in gutture ferrum 
Usque sequens pressit, dum retro quercus eunti 
Obstitit, et fixa est pariter cum robore cervix. ^ 
Pondere serpentis curvata est arbor, et imae 
Parte flagellar! gemuit sua robora caudae. 

[Cadmus, at the command of Pallas, sows the teeth of the con- 
q-.iercd dragon in the earth ; and these straightway produce a crop of 

armed men.] 

95 Dum spatium victor victi considerat hostis, 


Vox subito audita est ; neque erat cognoscere promp- 

Unde sed audita est, * quid, Agenore nate, peremptum 
Serpentem spectas ? et tu spectabere serpens.' 
ille diu pavidus pariter cum mente colorem 

100 Perdiderat, gelidoque comae terrore rigebant. 
Ecce viri fautrix superas delapsa per auras 
Pallas adest, motaeque iubet supponere terrae 
Vipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri. 
Paret et ut presso sulcum pate fecit aratro, 

105 Spargit humi iussos, mortalia semina, dentes. 
Inde, fide maius, glaebae coepere moveri, 
Primaque de sulci s acies apparuit hastae, 
Tegmina mox capitum picto nutantia cono, 
Mox umeri pectusque onerataque bracchia telis 

no Exsistunt, crescitque seges clipeata virorum, 
Sic ubi tolluntur festis aulaea theatris, 
Surgere signa solent, primumque ostendere vultus, 
Cetera paulatim ; placidoque educta tenore 
Tota patent imoque pedes in margine ponunt. 

[These monsters all fall in mutual strife save five, one of whom is 
Echion ; these form an alliance with Cadmus and help him to build the 
city of Thebes. Here the hero lives and reigns in seeming blessed- 

IIS Territus hoste novo Cadmus capere arma parabat. 
' Ne cape,* de populo, quem terra crcaverat, unus 
Exclamat 'nee te civiiibus insere bellis.' 
Atque ita terrigenis rlgido de fratribus unum 
Comminus ense ferit : iaculo cadit eminus ipse. 

120 Hie quoque qui leto dcderat, non longius illo 
Vivit, et exspirat niodo quas acceperat auras. 
Exemploque pari furit omnis turba, suoque 
Marte cadunt subiti per mutua vulnera fratres. 


lamque brevis vitae spatium sortita iuventus 
125 Sanguineo tepidam plangebat pectore matrem, 
Quinque superstitibus : quorum fuit unus Echion. 
Is sua iecit humo monitu Tritonidis arma, 
Fraternaeque fidem pads petiitque deditque. 
Hos operis comites habuit Sidonius hospes, 
133 Cum posuit iussam Phoebeis sortibus urbem. 
lam stabant Thebae. Poteras iam, Cadme, videri 
Exsilio felix : soceri tibi Marsque Venusque 
Contigerant. Hue adde genus de coniuge tanta, 
Tot natos natasque et, pignera cara, nepotes, 
135 Hos quoque iam iuvenes. Sed scilicet ultima semper 
Exspectanda dies homini, dicique beatus 
Ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet. 

[But now begins the stor}- of the woes of the house of Cadmus. And 
first Actaeon, grandson of the king, chanced to behold Diana and her 
nymphs bathing. For this mischance he was changed by the angry god- 
dess into a stag, and was pursued and devoured by his own dogs (138- 
252). The gods questioned the justice of Actaeon*s punishment, but 
Juno rejoiced in his fate, for was he not related to her hated rival Europa? 
Again the house of Cadmus suffered from the jealousy of June. For 
Semele, the daughter of the king, was loved of Jove ; and she, through a 
ruse of Juno, was consumed by the fiery manifestation of the Thunderer*8 
real presence. Of this union was born the infant Bacchus, whom Jove 
rescued from destruction and gave to I no, the sister of Semele, to rear 
as her foster child (253-315). It was at this time that Tiresias was both 
smitten with blindness by Juno, and gifted with prophecy by Jove. He 
became famous as a seer, and many sought his prophetic aid. Among 
these was Liriope, who sought to know her son Narcissus^ fate. The seer 
replied that he would live to old age " if he ne'er knew himself." With 
this Narcissus Echo fell in love, but he was deaf to her and all advances 

Narcissus at last beholds his own face in a pool, and pines away with 
a hopeless passion for the beautiful reflection ; and then is fulfilled 
the prophecy of Tiresias, for the sight of his own beauty brings him 
to his death.] 


Sic banc, sic alias undis aut montibus ortas 
Luserat bic nympbas, sic coetus ante viriles. 
Inde manus aliquis despectus ad aetbera toUens 

405 ' Sic amet ipse licet, sic non potiatur amato ! * 
Dixerat : adsensit precibus Rbamnusia iustis. 
Fons erat inlimis, nitidis argenteus undis, 
Quern neque pastores neque pastae monte capellae 
Contigerant aliudve pecus, quern nulla volucris 

410 Nee fera turbarat nee lapsus ab arbore ramus. 
Gramen erat circa, quod proximus umor alebat, 
Silvaque sole locum passura tepescere nullo. 
Hie puer et studio venandi lassus et aestu 
Procubuit, faciemque loci fontemque secutus. 

415 Dumque sitim sedare cupit, sitis altera crevit. 
Dumque bibit, visae correptus imagine formae 
Spem sine corpore amat, corpus putat esse, quod 

umbra est. 
Astupet ipse sibi, vultuque immotus eodem 
Haeret, ut e Pario formatum marmore signum. 

4ao Spectat humi positus geminum, sua lumina, sidus, 
Et dignos Baccho, dignos et Apolline crines, 
Impubesque genas, et eburnea colla, decusque 
Oris, et in niveo mixtum candore ruborem ; 
Cunctaque miratur, quibus est mirabilis ipse. 

4*5 Se cupit imprudens et qui probat, ipse probatur, 
Dumque petit, petitur, pariterque accendit et ardet 
Irrita fallaci quotiens dedit oscula fonti ! 
In medias quotiens visum captantia collum 
Bracchia mersit aquas, nee se deprendit in illis ! 

430 Quid videat, nescit : sed quod videt, uritur illo, 
Atque oculos idem, qui dccipit, incitat error. 
Credule, quid frustra simulacra f ugacia captas .^ 
Quod petis, est nusquam. Quod amas, aveil^ie,^^!^^^. 


Ista repercussae, quam cernis, imaginis umbra est : 

435 Nil habet ista sui. Tecum venitque, manetque; 
Tecum discedet, si tu discedere possis. 
Non ilium Cereris, non ilium cura quietis 
Abstrahere inde potest : sed opaca f usus in herba 
Spectat inexpleto mendacem lumine formam, 

440 Perque oculos perit ipse suos. Paulumque levatus, 
Ad circumstantes tendens sua bracchia silvas, 
* Ecquis, io silvae, crudelius ' inquit * amavit ? 
Scitis enim et multis latebra opportuna fuistis. 
Ecquem, cum vestrae tot agantur saecula vitae, 

445 Qui sic tabuerit, longo meministis in aevo ? 

Et placet et video : sed quod videoque placetque, 
Non tamen invenio: tantus tenet error amantem. 
Quoque magis doleam, nee nos mare separat ingens, 
Nee via, nee montes, nee clausis moenia portis : 

450 Exigua prohibemur aqua. Cupit ipse teneri: 
Nam quotiens liquidis porreximus oscula lymphis, 
Hie totiens ad me resupino nititur ore. 
Posse putes tangi: minimum est, quod amantibus 

Quisquis es, hue exi ! quid me, puer unice, fallis,- 

455 Quove petitus abis ? certe nee forma nee aetas 

Est mea, quam f ugias, et amarunt me quoque nymphae. 
Spem mihi nescio quam vultu promittis amico, 
Cumque ego porrexi tibi bracchia, porrigis ultro : 
Cum risi, adrides: lacrimas quoque saepe notavi 

460 Me lacrimante tuas : nutu quoque signa remittis : 
Et, quantum motu formosi suspicor oris. 
Verba refers, aures non pervenientia nostras — 
Iste ego sum ! sensi ; nee me mea fallit imago. 
Uror amore mei, flammas moveoque feroque. 

465 Quid faciam ? roger, anne rogem ? quid deinde rogabo? 


Quod cupio mecum est : inopem me copia fecit. 

O utinam a nostro secedere corpora possem ! 

Votum in amante novum, velLem quod amamus abes- 

set! — 
lamque dolor vires adimit, nee tempora vitae 

470 Longa meae superant, primoque extinguor in aevo. 
Nee mihi mors gravis est, posituro morte dolores : 
Hie, qui diligitur, vellem diuturnior esset. 
Nunc duo Concordes anima moriemur in una.' 
Dixit, et ad speciem rediit male sanus eandem, 

475 Et lacrimis turbavit aquas, obscuraque moto 

Reddita forma lacu est. Quam cum vidisset abire, 
' Quo refugis ? remane, nee me, crudelis, amantem 
Desere ! ' clamavit ; ' liceat quod tangere non est 
Aspicere et misero praebere alimenta furori.' 

480 Dumque dolet, sum ma vestem diduxit ab ora, 
Nudaque marmoreis percussit pectora palmis. 
Pectora traxerunt tehuem percussa ruborem, 
Non aliter quam poma solent, quae Candida parte 
Parte rubent, aut ut variis solet uva racemis 

485 Ducere purpureum, nondum matura, colorem. 
Quae simul aspexit liquefacta rursus in unda, 
Non tulit ulterius : sed ut intabescere flavae 
Igne levi cerae matutinaeque pruinae 
Sole tepente solent, sic attenuatus amore 

490 Liquitur et caeco paulatim carpitur igni. 
Et neque iam color est mixto candore rubori. 
Nee vigor et vires et quae modo visa placebant, 
Nee corpus remanet, quondam quod amaverat Echo. 
Quae tamen ut vidit, quamvis irata memorque, 

495 Indoluit, quotiensque puer miserabilis * eheu ! * 
Dixerat, haec resonis iterabat vocibus * eheu ! * 
Cumque suos manibus percusserat ille lacertos, 


Haec quoque reddebat sonitum plangoris eundem. 

Ultima vox solitam fuit haec spectantis in undam, 
500 * Heu frustra dilecte puer ! ' totidemque remisit 

Verba locus ; dictoque vale * vale ! ' inquit et Echo. 

Ille caput viridi fessum submisit m herba, 

Lumina nox clausit domini mirantia formam. 

Turn quoque se, postquam est infema sede receptus, 
505 In Stygia spectabat aqua. Planxere sorores 

Naides et sectos f ratri posuere capillos ; 

Planxerunt dryades : plangentibus adsonat Echo. 

lamque rogum quassasque faces feretrumque parabant: 

Nusquam corpus erat. Croceum pro corpore florem 
Sio Inveniunt foliis medium cingentibus albis. 

[Thus was the seer's fame established. But Pentheus, king of 
Thebes, son of Echion and Agave, the daughter of Cadmus, only 
scoffs at the blind old prophet. The latter warns him that it were bet- 
ter to be blind than, seeing, not to know the hie that shall soon be hu 
unless he receives with reverence the advent of the young god Baochns. 
Now all Greece is ringing with the praises of this young god, and in 
his progress he comes to Thebes. But Pentheus in his madness not only 
himself refuses to acknowledge the divinity, but forbids his subjedi 
to do so. He orders the impostor to be brought into his presence 
(511-576). The god comes in disguised as Acoetes, the pilot of the 
ship which brought the infant Bacchus from the island of Nascos. 
Being asked to give an account of himself, he relates how he and his 
sailors had picked up the young Bacchus in their voyage, and how for 
their impiety all but himself had been changed by the god into dol- 
phins. Pentheus is only hardened by this account, and orders his 
prisoner away to torture and death (577-700). The king now detei^ 
mines to hunt out the pretended god for himself and visits hi pei> 
son the slopes of Cithaeron, where the Theban women, his own mother 
and sisters among them, are celebrating the rites of Bacchus. Here 
the women, in their frenzy mistaking him for a wild boar, rend him in 
pieces (7oi-733)-] 


Book IV 

[Alcithoe and her sisters, the daughters of Minyas, undeterred by 
the fate of Pentheus, contemn the orgies of Bacchus, and on a day set 
apart for his worship, remain ostentatiously at home, employed in weav- 
ing and spinning. Here, to while away the time, they agree each to 
tell a tale (1-54). 

And the first sister tells the tragic tale of Pyramus and Thisbe.] 

55 ' Pyramus et Thisbe, iuvenum pulcherrimus alter, 
Altera, quas oriens habuit, praelata puellis, 
Contiguas tenuere domos, ubi dicitur altam 

^ Coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbem. 
Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit : 

60 Tempore crevit amor. Taedae quoque iure coissent : 
Sed vetuere patres. Quod non potuere vetare, 
Ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo. 
Conscius omnis abest, nutu signisque loquuntur, 
Quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis. 

65 Fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim 
Cum fieret, paries domui communis utrique. 
Id vitium nulli per saecula longa notatum — 
Quid non sentit amor ? — primi vidistis amantes, 
Etvocis f ecistis iter ; tutaeque per illud 

70 Murmure blanditiae niiriimo transire solebant. 

Saepe, ubi constiterant, hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc, 
Inque vices fuerat captatus anhelitus oris, 
" Invide " dicebant " paries, quid amantibus obstas ? 
Quantum erat, ut sineres toto nos corpore iungi, 

75 Aut hoc si nimium, vel ad oscula dan da pateres ! 
Nee sumus ingrati : tibi nos debere f atemur, 
Quod datus est verbis ad arnicas transitus aures.*' 
Talia diversa nequiquam sede locuti 
Sub noctem dixere vale, partique dedere 
ovw — S 


80 Oscula quisque suae non pervenientia contra. 
Postera nocturnos aurora removerat ignes, 
Solque pruinosas radiis siccaverat herbas : 
Ad solitum coiere locum. Turn murmure parvo 
Multa prius questi, statuunt ut nocte silenti 

85 Fallere custodes f oribusque excedere temptent, 
Cumque domo exierint, urbis quoque tecta relin 
Neve sit errandum lato spatiantibus arvo, 
Conveniant ad busta Nini, lateantque sub umbra 
Arboris. Arbor ibi niveis uberrima pomis 

90 Ardua morus erat, gelido contermina fonti. 
^Pacta placent, et lux tarde discedere visa est. 
Praecipitatur aquis, et aquis nox exit ab isdem. 
Callida per tenebras versato cardine Thisbe 
Egreditur fallitque suos, adopertaque vultum 

95 Pervenit ad tumulum, dictaque sub arbore sedit* 
Audacem f aciebat amor. Venit ecce recenti 
Caede leaena bourn spumantes oblita rictus, 
Depositura sitim vicini fontis in unda. 
Quam procul ad lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe 

100 Vidit, et obscurum trepido pede fugit in antrum, 
Bumque fugit, tergo velamina lapsa reliquit , 

Ut lea saeva sitim multa compescuit unda, 1 

Dum redit in silvas, inventos forte sine ipsa 
Ore cruentato tenues laniavit amictus. 

105 Serius egressus vestigia vidit in alto 
Pulvere certa ferae, totoque expalluit ore 
Pyramus. Ut vero vestem quoque sanguine tinctam 
Repperit, "una duos** inquit "nox perdet amantes: 
E quibus ilia fuit longa dignissima vita, 

no Nostra nocens anima est. Ego te, miseranda, peremi, 
In loca plena metus qui iussi nocte venires. 
Nee prior hue veni. Nostrum divellite corpus. 


Et scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu, 
O quicumque sub hac habitatis rupe, leones. 

IIS Sed timidi est optare necem " — velamina Thisbes 
Tollit, et ad pactae secum fert arboris umbram. 
Utque dedit notae lacrimas, dedit oscula vesti, 
"Accipe nunc'* inquit "nostri quoque sanguinis 

haustus ! '* 
Quoque erat accinctus, demisit in ilia ferrum, 

120 Nee mora, ferventi moriens e vulnere traxit. 
Ut iacuit resupinus humo, cruor emicat alte: 
Non aliter, quam cum vitiato fistula plumbo 
Scinditur, et tenui stridente foramine longas 
Eiaculatur aquas atque ictibus aera rumpit. 

125 Arborei fetus aspergine caedis in atram 

Vertuntur faciem. Madefactaque sanguine radix 
Puniceo tinguit pendentia mora colore. 
Ecce metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem, 
Ilia redit, iuvenemque oculis animoque requirit, 

130 Quantaque vitarit narrare pericula gestit. 

Utque locum et visa cognoscit in arbore form am, 
Sic facit incertam pomi color. Haeret, an haec sit 
Dum dubitat, tremebunda videt pulsare cruentum 
Membra solum, retroque pedem tulit, oraque buxo 

135 Pallidiora gerens exhorruit aequoris instar. 

Quod tremit, exigua cum summum stringitur aura^ 
Sed postquam remorata suos cognovit amores, 
Percutit indignos claro plangore lacertos, 
Et laniata comas amplexaque corpus amatum 

140 Vulnera supplevit lacrimis fletumque cruori 
Miscuit, et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens 
"Pyrame," clamavit "quis te mihi casus ademit? 
Pyrame, responde: tua te carissima Thisbe 
Nominat. Exaudi, vultusque attolle iacentesl" 


145 Ad nomen Thisbes oculos iam morte gravatos 
Pyramus erexit, visaque recondidit ilia. 
Quae postquam vestemque suam cognovit, et ense 
Vidit ebur vacuum, " tua te manus " inquit '* amorque 
Pcrdidit, infelix. Est et mihi fortis in unum 

150 Hoc manus, est et amor : dabit hie in vulnera vires. 
Persequar exstinctum, letique miserrima dicar 
Causa comcsque tui. Quique a me morte revelli 
Heu sola poteras, poteris nee morte revelli. 
Hoc tamen amborum verbis estote rogati, 

155 O multum miseri, mens illiusque parentes, 

Ut quos certus amor, quos hora novissima iunxit, 
Componi tumulo non invideatis eodem. 
At tu, quae ramis arbor miserabile corpus 
Nunc te<;is unius, mox es tectura duorum, 

160 Sif^na tone caedis, pullosque et luctibus aptos 
Semper habe fetus, gemini monumenta cruoris." 
Dixit, et aptato pectus mucrone sub imum 
Incubuit ferro, quod adhuc a caede tepebat. 
Vota tamen tetigere deos, tetigere parentes. 

165 Nam color in pomo est, ubi permaturuit, ater: 
Quodque rogis superest, una requiescit in urna.' 

[The second sister tells of the sun god's passion for Leucothoe. 
Her father, hearing of this amour through the information of her 
jealous rival, Clytie, buries Leucothoe alive. Apollo, unable to save 
Iiis mistress, causes to spring from her grave a beautiful incense-bearing 
tree ; while Clytie, scorned by the god, is changed into a heliotroije, 
which ever turns its face towards the sun (167-270). Alcithoe herself 
tells the next tale of how the maid Salmacis and the youth Herma- 
phroditus were changed by the gods into one body (271-388). But 
while the sisters thus beguile the time, the presence and power of 
Bacchus are manifested in that their threads are suddenly changed to 
ivy and vines, and they themselves become bats and seek the darkest 
caves (389-415). 

(From the National Museum at Naples) 

To face p. 117 


The power of Bacchus is now fully acknowledged in Thebes. But 
the boastful pride of his foster mother, I no, once more arouses Juno's 
hate (416-^31). In quest of vengeance she proceeds to the lower 
world to fetch one of the Funes for the destruction of I no's bouse.] 

Est' via'declivis funesta nubila taxo, 
fimcft ad inf emas per muta silentia sedes. 
Styx nebulas exhalat iners, umbraeque recentes 

435 Ciescendunt iliac simulacraque functa sepulcris 
. Bailor hiemsque tenent late loca senta. Novique 
,Qutf sit iter, manes, Stygiam qua ducat ad urbem, 
Igndianty'ubi sit nigri fera regia Ditis. 
Hflle capax aditus et apertas undique portas 

44D iTrbs habQt. Utque fretum de tota flumina terra, 
Sic omnes animas locus accipit ille, nee ulli 
Exiguus populo est, turbamve accedere sentit. 
Errant exsangues sine corpore et ossibus umbrae, 
Farsque forum celebrant, pars imi tecta tyranni, 

445 Pius aliquas artes, antiquae imitamina vitae. 

447 Sustinet ire illuc caelesti sede relicta, 

Tantum odiis iraeque dabat, Saturnia luno. 
Quo simul intravit, sacroque a corpore pressum 

4S0 Ingemuit limen, tria Cerberus extulit ora 
Et tres latratus simul edidit. Ilia sorores 
Nocte vocat genitas, grave et implacabile numen: 
Carceris ante fores clausas adamante sedebant, 
Cumque suis atros pectebant crinibus angues. 

455 Quam simul agnorunt inter caliginis umbras, 
Surrexere deae : sedes Scelerata vocatur. 
Viscera praebebat Tityos lanianda, novemque 
lugeribus distentus erat. Tibi, Tantale, nullae 
Deprenduntur aquae ; quaeque imminet, effugit arbos. 

460 Aut petis, aut urgues ruiturum, Sisyphe, saxum. 
Volvitur Ixion et se sequiturque fugitque. 


Molirique suis letum patruelibus ausae 
Adsiduae repetunt quas perdant, Belides undas. 
Quos omnes acie postquam Saturnia torva 

465 Vidit, et ante omnes Ixiona, rursus ab illo 
Sisyphon aspiciens ' cur hie e fratribus ' inquit 
* Perpetuas patitur poenas, Athamanta superbum 
Regia dives habet, qui me cum coniuge semper 
Sprevit ? ' Et exponit causas odiique viaeque, 

470 Quidque velit. Quod vellet, erat, ne regia Cadmi 
Staret, et in facinus traherent Athamanta sorores. 
Imperium, promissa, preces confundit in unum, 
Sollicitatque deas. Sic haec lunone locuta, 
Tisiphone canos, ut erat, turbata capillos 

475 Movit et obstantes reiecit ab ore colubras, 

Atque ita * non longis opus est ambagibus/ inquit 
' Facta puta, quaecumque iubes: inamabile regnum 
Desere, teque refer caeli melioris ad auras.' 
Laeta redit luno. Quam caelum intrare parantem 

480 Roratis lustravit aquis Thaumantias Iris. 

[By the Fury's influence Ino's husband, Athamas, is driven mad, the 
king fancying that his wife and sons are a lioness and her whelps. 
The king slays one son, while the mother with her other son, Meli- 
certa, plunges in her flight from a cliff into the sea. She is changed 
by Nei)tune into a sea divinity, Leucothoe, and Melicerta becomes a 
sea god, Palacmon. Then the Theban matrons, companions of Ino, 
because of their grief at their mistress' fate, are changed by Juno into 
stones and birds (481-562). Now Cadmus and his queen, worn with 
age and grief at the misfortunes of their house, fly from Thebes to 
Illyricum, and there, at their own request, are changed to seipents 
(563-603). All Greece now acknowledges the divinity of Bacchus, 
except Acrisius, king of Argos, whose daughter Danae had given birth 
to the Jove-begotten Perseus. Acrisius is at length led to acknon^ 
edge the divinity both of Bacchus and of his grandson Perseus. The 
latter, returning from the conquest of the Gorgons, passes the country 
of Atlas, from whom he claims hospitality. Upon the refusal of this 



^quest the giant Atlas is changed into a mountain of stone by a 
sight of the Medusa's head which Perseus bears (604-662). 

Perseus, returning past the shores of Ethiopia, sees Andromeda 
chained to a rock and exposed to a monster of the sea, by order of the 
god Ammon. The hero proposes to the maiden's father to rescue her, 
on condition that she be given to him as hb wife. The father joyfully 

Clauserat Hippotades aeterno carcere ventos, 
Admonitorque operum caelo clarissimus alto 

665 Lucifer ortus erat. Pennis ligat ille resumptis 
Parte ab utraque pedes, teloque accingitur unco, 
Et liquidum motis talaribus aera findit. 
Gentibus innumeris circumque infraque relictis, 
Aethiopum populos Cepheaque conspicit arva. 

670 lUic immeritam maternae pendere linguae 
Andromedan poenas immitis iusserat Ammon. 
Quam simul ad duras religatam bracchia cautes 
Vidit Abantiades, — nisi quod levis aura capillos 
Moverat, et tepido manabant lumina fletu, 

67s Marmoreum ratus esset opus — trahit inscius ignes 
Et stupet. Eximiae correptus imagine formae 
Paene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. 
Ut stetit, * o ' dixit ' non istis digna catenis, 
Sed quibus inter se cupidi iunguntur amantes, 

680 Pande requirenti nomen terraeque tuumque, 
Et cur vincia geras.' Primo silet ilia, nee audet 
Appellare virum virgo ; manibusque modestos 
Celasset vultus, si non religata fuisset. 
Lumina, quod potuit, lacrimis implevit obortis. 

685 Saepius instanti, delicta fateri 

Nolle videretur, nomen terraeque suumque, 
Quantaque maternae fuerit fiducia formae, 
Indicat Et nondum memoratis omnibus unda 
Insonuit, veniensque immenso belua ponto 



690 Imminet et latum sub pectore possidet aequor. 
Conclamat virgo. Genitor lugubris et una 
Mater adest, ambo miseri, sed iustius ilia. 
Nee secum auxilium, sed dignos tempore fletus 
Plangoremque ferunt, vinctoque in corpore adhaerent: 

69s Cum sic hospes ait : * lacrimarum longa manere 

Tempora vos poterunt ; ad opem brevis bora ferendaro 

Hanc ego si peterem Perseus love natus et ilia, 
Quam clausam implevit fecundo luppiter auro, 
Gorgonis anguicomae Perseus superator, et alis 

700 Aerias ausus iactatis ire per auras, 

Praeferrer cunctis certe gener. Addere tantis 
Dotibus et meritum, faveant modo numina, tempto. 
Ut mea sit servata mea virtute, paciscor.' 
Accipiunt legem — quis enim dubitaret ? — et orant, 

705 Promittuntque super regnum dotale parentes. 

[Perseus engages in conflict with the monster, and slays him.] 

Ecce velut navis praefixo concita rostro 
Sulcat aquas, iuvenum sudantibus acta lacertis, 
Sic fera dimotis impulsu pectoris undis 
Tantum aberat scopulis, quantum Balearica torto 

710 Funda potest plumbo medii transmittere caeli : 
Cum subito iuvenis pedibus tellure repulsa 
Arduus in nubes abiit. Ut in aequore summo 
Umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram. 
Utque lovis praepes, vacuo cum vidit in arvo 

715 Praebentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem, 
Occupat aversum ; neu saeva retorqueat ora, 
Squamigeris avidos figit cervicibus ungues : 
Sic celeri missus praeceps per inane volatu 
Terga ferae pressit, dextroque frementis in armo 


720 Inachides ferrum curvo tenus abdidit hamo. 
Vulnere laesa gravi modo se sublimis in auras 
Attollit, modo subdit aquis, modo more ferocis 
Versat apri, quem turba canum circumsona terret 
Ille avidos morsus velocibus effugit alis : 

725 Quaque patent, nunc terga cavis super obsita conchis, 
Nunc laterum costas, nunc qua tenuissima cauda 
Desinit in piscem, falcato verberat ense. 
Belua puniceo mixtos cum sanguine fluctus 
Ore vomit. Maduere graves aspergine pennae ; 

730 Nee bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus 

Credere, conspexit scopulum, qui vertice summo 
Stantibus exstat aquis, operitur ab aequore moto. 
Nixus eo rupisque tenens iuga prima sinistra 
Ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum. 

735 Litora cum plausu clamor superasque deorum 
Implevere domos. Gaudent, generumque salutant 
Auxiliumque domus servatoremque fatentur 
Cassiope Gepheusque pater. Resoluta catenis 
Incedit virgo, pretiumque et causa laboris. 

740 Ipse manus hausta victrices abluit unda : 
Anguiferumque caput dura ne laedat harena, 
MoUit humum foliis, natasque sub aequore virgas 
Stemit, et imponit Phorcynidos ora Medusae. 
Virga recens bibulaque etiamnum viva medulla 

745 Vim rapuit monstri, tactuque induruit huius, 
Percepitque novum ramis et f ronde rigorem. 
At pelagi nymphae factum mirabile temptant 
Pluribus in virgis, et idem contingere gaudent, 
Seminaque ex illis iterant iactata per undas. 

750 Nunc quoque curaliis eadem natura remansit, 
Duritiam tacto capiant ut ab aere, quodque 
Vimen in aequore erat, fiat super aequora saxum. 


[Then ensues the wedding of Perseus and Andromeda. During the 
wedding feast the hero tells how he won the Medusa^s head (753-803).] 

Book V 

[While the wedding festivities are in progress, Phineus, the brother 
of king Cepheus, to whom Andromeda had been betrothed, breaks into 
the hall at the head of a large band of companions. These fiercely 
attack Perseus, who, with the aid of the courtiers who are friendly to 
him, defends himself as long as possible, and slays many of his foes 

At last, overwhelmed by numbers, Perseus calls upon his friends to 
avert their gaze, and holds aloft the Gorgon's head. At sight of this, 
his foes one and all turn to statues of stone, in the various postures of 
the fight.] 

Verum ubi virtutem turbae succumbere vidit, 
* Auxilium,' Perseus * quoniam sic cogitis ipsi,' 
Dixit ' ab hoste petam. Vultus avertite vestros, 

180 Siquis amicus adest ! ' Et Gorgonis extulit ora. 
' Quaere alium, tua quern moveant miracula ' dixit 
Thescelus; utque manu iaculum fatale parabat 
Mittere, in hoc haesit signum de marmore gestu. 
Proximus huic Ampyx animi plenissima magni 

185 Pectora Lyncidae gladio petit; inque petendo 
Dextera diriguit, nee citra mota nee ultra. 
At Nileus, qui se genitum septemplice Nile 
Ementitus erat, clipeo quoque flumina septem 
Argento partim, partim caelaverat auro, 

190 * Aspice,' ait *Perseu, nostrae primordia gentis: 
Magna feres tacitas solacia mortis ad umbras, 
A tanto cecidisse viro * — pars ultima vocis 
In medio suppressa sono est, adapertaque velle 
Ora loqui credas, nee sunt ea pervia verbis. 

195 Increpat hos ' vitio ' que ' animi, non viribus ' inquit 


' Gorgoneis torpetis ' Eryx ; * incurrite mecum 
Et prosternite humi iuvenem magica arma moventem ! ' 
Incursurus erat : tenuit vestigia tellus, 
Immotusque silex armataque mansit imago. 

acx) Hi tamen ex merito poenas subiere. Sed unus 
Miles erat Persei, pro quo dum pugnat, Aconteus, 
Gorgone conspecta saxo concrevit oborto. 
Quem ratus Astyages etiamnum vivere, longo 
Ense ferit Sonuit tinnitibus ensis acutis. 

ao5 Dum stupet Astyages, naturam traxit eandem 
Marmoreoque manet vultus mirantis in ore. 
Nomina longa mora est media de plebe virorum 
Dicere. Bis centum restabant corpora pugnae, 
Gorgone bis centum riguerunt corpora visa. • 

210 Paenitet iniusti tunc denique Phinea belli. 

Sed quid agat ? Simulacra videt diversa figuris, 
Agnoscitque suos, et nomine quemque vocatum 
Poscit opem, credensque parum, sibi proxima tangit 
Corpora : marmor erant. Avertitur, atque ita supplex 

ais Confessasque manus obliquaque bracchia tendens 
* Vincis/ ait * Perseu : remove tua monstra, tuaeque 
Saxificos vultus, quaecumque ea, tolle Medusae : 
Tolle, precor. Non nos odium regnique cupido 
Compulit ad bellum: pro coniuge movimus arma. 

220 Causa fuit meritis melior tua, tempore nostra. 
Non cessisse piget. Nihil, o fortissime, praeter 
Hanc animam concede mihi: tua cetera sunto.' 
Talia dicenti neque eum, quem voce rogabat, 
Respicere audenti *quod,' ait *timidissime Phineu, 

225 Et possum tribuisse et magnum est munus inerti, 
Pone metum, tribuam. Nullo violabere ferro. 
Quin etiam mansura dabo monumenta per aevum ; 
Inque domo soceri semper spectabere nostri, 


Ut mea se sponsi soletur imagine coniunx.* 
230 Dixit, et in partem Phorcynida transtulit illam, 

Ad quam se trepido Phineus obverterat ore. 

Turn quoque conanti sua vertere lumina cervix 

Derigiiit, saxoque oculorum induruit umor. 

Sed tamen os timidum vultusque in marmore supplex 
235 Submissaeque manus faciesque obnoxia mansit. 

[Perseus now proceeds to his native city and reinstates his grand- 
sire, Acrisius, upon his throne, which Proetus, the king's brother, had 
usurped (236-248). During all these adventures, Minerva had been 
the companion of Perseus., and his helper. She now leaves him for 
Mt. Helicon, where she is entertained by the Muses. While one of the 
sisters is relating the impiety and punishment of Pyreneus, king of 
Thrace, nine magpies suddenly alight in a tree near at hand, and speak 
with human voices. In answer to Minerva's question as to this wonder, 
the Muses relate how the nine daughters of Pierus, proud of their skill 
in song, had challenged them to a contest in music. The Muses had 
accepted the challenge, with the nymphs as judges. The Pierides sang 
first, taking as their subject the rebellion of the Giants, and the forms 
which the various Gods assumed to escape their rage (250-340). 

Then followed the song of the Muses, which now, at the request of 
Minerva, Calliope rehearses in full. This song, opening in praise of 
Ceres, then describes the arts of Venus by which Pluto is inflamed 
with love for Proserpina, the virgin daughter of Ceres and Jove.] 

' Prima Ceres unco glaebam dimovit aratro, 
Prima dedit fruges alimentaque mitia terris. 
Prima dedit leges : Cereris sunt omnia munus. 
Ilia canenda mihi est. Utinam modo dicere possem 

345 Carmina digna dea : certe dea carmine digna est. 
Vasta Giganteis ingesta est insula membris 
Trinacris, et magnis subiectum molibus urguet 
Aetherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes. 
Nititur ille quidem, pugnatque resurgere saepe: 

350 Dextra.sed Ausonio manus est subiecta Peloro, 
Laeva, Pachyne, tibi : Lilybaeo crura premuntur: 


Degravat Aetna caput. Sub qua resupinus harenas 
Eiectat, flammamque ferox vomit ore Typhoeus. 
Saepe remoliri luctatur pondera terrae, 

355 Oppidaque et magnos devolvere corpore montes : 
Inde tremit tellus et rex pavet ipse silentum, 
Ne pateat latoque solum retegatur hiatu, 
Immissusque dies trepidantes terreat umbras. 
Hanc metuens cladem tenebrosa sede tyrannus 

360 Exierat, curruque atrorum vectus equorum 
Ambibat Siculae cautus fundamina terrae. 
Postquam exploratum satis est, loca nulla labare, 
Depositique metus, videt hunc Erycina vagantem 
Monte suo residens, natumque amplexa volucrem 

365 " Arma manusque meae, mea, nate, potentia," dixit 
** Ilia, quibus superas omnes, cape tela, Cupido, 
Inque dei pectus celeres moHre sagittas, 
Cui triplicis cessit fortuna novissima regni. 
Tu superos ipsumque lovem, tu numina ponti 

370 Victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. 
Tartara quid cessant ? Cur non matrisque tuumque 
Imperium profers ? Agitur pars tertia mundi. 
Et tamen in caelo, quae iam patientia nostra est, 
Spernimur ac mecum vires minuuntur Amoris. 

375 Pallada nonne vides iaculatricemque Dianam 
Abscessisse mihi.? Cereris quoque filia virgo. 
Si patiemur, erit: nam spes adfectat easdem. 
At tu pro socio, siqua est ea gratia, regno 
lunge deam patruo." Dixit Venus. lUe pharetram 

380 Solvit et arbitrio matris de mille sagittis 
Unam seposuit, sed qua nee acutior ulla 
Nee minus incerta est, nee quae magis audiat arcus; 
Oppositoque genu curvavit flexile cornum 
Inque cor hamata percussit harundine Ditecn. 


[Proserpina, while gathering flowers in the vale of Henna in Sicily, is 
seized by Pluto and taken to his infernal home. The nymph Cyane, 
attempting to stop the god, is changed by him into a fountain.] 

385 Haud procul Hennaeis lacus est a moenibus altae, 
Nomine Fergus, aquae. Non illo plura Caystros 
Carniina cycnorum labentibus audit in undis. 
Silva coronat aquas cingens latus omne, suisque 
Frondibus ut velo Phoebeos submovet ignes. 

390 Frigora dant rami, Tyrios humus umida fJores : 
Perpetuum ver est. Quo dum Proserpina luco 
Ludit, et aut violas aut Candida lilia carpit, 
Dumque puellari studio calathosque sinumque 
Implet, et aequales certat superare legendo, 

395 Paene simul visa est dilectaque raptaque Diti: 

Usque adeo est properatus amor. Dea territa maesto 
Et matrem et comites, sed matrem saepius, ore 
Clamat; et ut summa vestem laniarat ab ore, 
Conlecti flores tunicis cecidere remissis. 

400 Tantaque simplicitas puerilibus adfuit annis, 
Haec quoque virgineum movit iactura dolorem. 
Raptor agit currus, et nomine quemque vocatos 
Exhortatur equos, quorum per colla iubasque 
Excutit obscura tinctas f errugine habenas ; 

40s Perque lacus sacros et olentia sulphure fertur 
Stagna Palicorum, rupta ferventia terra, 
Et qua Bacchiadae, bimari gens orta Corintho, 
Inter inaequales posuerunt moenia portus. 
Est medium Cyanes et Pisaeae Arethusae, 

410 Quod co'ft angustis inclusum cornibus aequor. 

Hie fuit, a cuius stagnum quoque nomine dictum est, 
Inter Sicelidas Cyane celeberrima nymphas, 
Gurgite quae medio summa tenus exstitit alvo, 
Agnovitque deam. " Nee longius ibitis ! " inquit 


4x5 " Non potes invitae Cereris gener esse : roganda, 
Non rapienda fuit. Quodsi componere magnis 
Parva mihi fas est, et me dilexit Anapis ; 
Exorata tamen, nee, ut haec, exterrita nupsi." 
Dixit, et in partes diversas bracchia tendens 

4ao Obstitit. Hand ultra tenuit Satumius iram, 
Terribilesque hortatus equos in gurgitis ima 
Contortum valido sceptrum regale lacerto 
Condidit. Icta viam tellus in Tartara fecit 
Et pronos currus medio cratere recepit. 

425 At Cyane raptamque deam contemptaque fontis 
lura sui maerens, inconsolabile vulnus 
Mente gerit tacita, lacrimisque absumitur omnis : 
Et quarum fuerat magnum modo numen, in illas 
Extenuatur aquas. MoUiri membra videres, 

430 Ossa pati flexus, ungues posuisse rigorem : 

Primaque de tota tenuissima quaeque Hquescunt, 
Caerulei crines digitique et crura pedesque ; 
Nam brevis in gelidas membris exilibus undas 
Transitus est. Post haec umeri tergusque latusque 

435 Pectoraque in tenues abeunt evanida rivos. 
Denique pro vivo vitiatas sanguine venas 
Lympha subit, restatque nihil, quod prendere possis. 

[Ceres wanders over the earth, night and day, in search of her 
daughter. Stopping at a humble cottage for a draught of water, she 
turns a youth who mocked at her into a lizard (438-461). 

At last, in her wanderings, she comes to the fountain of Cyane, 
whose waters lift into her view the girdle of her lost daughter. Enraged, 
she lays a curse upon the whole earth, and especially upon Sicily, as 
most responsible for her daughter's loss.] 

Quas dea per terras et quas erraverit undas, 
Dicere longa mora est. Quaerenti def uit orbis. 
Sicaniam repetit : dumque omnia lustrat eundo, 


46s Venit et ad Cyanen. Ea ni mutata fuisset, 
Omnia narrasset. Sed et os et lingua volenti 
Dicere non aderant, nee quo loqueretur, habebat 
Signa tamen manifesta dedit, notamque parent! 
Illo forte loco delapsam in gurgite sacro 

470 Persephones zonam summis ostendit in undis. 

Quam simul agnovit, tamquam tunc denique raptam 

Scisset, inornatos laniavit diva capillos, 

Et repetita suis percussit pectora palmis. 

Nescit adhuc ubi sit : terras tamen increpat omnes 

475 Ingratasque vocat nee frugum munere dignas, 
Trinacriam ante alias, in qua vestigia damni 
Repperit. Ergo illic saeva vertentia glaebas 
Fregit aratra manu, parilique irata colonos 
Ruricolasque boves leto dedit, arvaque iussit 

480 Fallere depositum, vitiataque semina fecit. 
Fertilitas terrae latum vulgata per orbem 
Falsa iacet : primis segetes moriuntur in herbis, 
Et mode sol nimius, nimius modo corripit imber ; 
Sideraque ventique nocent, avidaeque volucres 

485 Semina iacta legunt ; lolium tribulique fatigant 
Triticeas messes et inexpugnabile gramen. 

[The nymph Arethusa relates to Ceres how, in gliding under the sea, 
she saw Proserpina in Hades, now become the wife of Pluto.] 

Tum caput Eleis AlpheYas extulit undis, 
Rorantesque comas a fronte removit ad aures, 
Atque ait " o toto quaesitae virginis orbe 
490 Et frugum genetrix, immcnsos siste labores, 
Neve tibi fidae violenta irascere terrae. 
Terra nihil meruit, patuitque invita rapinae. 
Nee sum pro patria supplex : hue hospita venL 
Pisa mihi patria est, et ab Elide ducimus ortus : 


495 Sicaniam peregrina colo. Sed gratior omni 

Haec mihi terra solo est. Hos nunc Arethusa penates, 
Hanc habeo sedem : quam tu, mitissima, serva. 
Mota loco cur sim tantique per aequoris undas 
Advehar Ortygiam, veniet narratibus hora 

500 Tempestiva meis, cum tu curaque levata 
Et vultus melioris eris. Mihi pervia tellus 
Praebet iter, subterque imas ablata cavernas 
Hie caput attoUo desuetaque sidera cerno. 
Ergo dum Stygio sub terris gurgite labor, 

505 Visa tua est oculis illic Proserpina nostris : 
Ilia quidem tristis, neque adhuc interrita vultu, 
Sed regina tamen, sed opaci maxima mundi, 
Sed tamen inferni pollens matrona tyranni." 

[Ceres appeals to Jove for their common daughter's release. Jove 
declares that this may be accomplished if, in Hades, Proserpina has 
tasted no food.] 

Mater ad auditas stupuit ceu saxea voces, 
510 Attonitaeque diu similis fuit. Utque dolore 
Pulsa gravi gravis est amentia, curribus oras 
Exit in aetherias. Ibi toto nubila vultu 
Ante lovem passis stetit invidiosa capillis, 
"Pro" que **meo veni supplex tibi, luppiter," inquit 
515 " Sanguine, proque tuo. Si nulla est gratia matris, 
Nata patrem moveat. Neu sit tibi cura, precamur, 
Vilior illius, quod nostro est edita partu. 
En quaesita diu tandem mihi nata reperta est : 
Si reperire vocas amittere certius, aut si 
520 Scire ubi sit, reperire vocas. Quod rapta, feremus, 
Dummodo reddat earn. Neque enim praedone marito 
Filia digna tua est — si iam mea filia non est." 
luppiter excepit " commune est pignus oiv\isc\v3l^ 

OVJD — p 


Nata mihi tecum. Sed si modo nomina rebus 
sas Addere vera placet, non hoc iniuria factum, 

Verum amor est. Neque erit nobis gener ille pudori, 
Tu modo, diva, velis. Ut desint cetera, quantum est 
Esse lovis fratrem ! quid quod non cetera desunt 
Nee cedit nisi sorte mihi. Sed tanta cupido 
530 Si tibi discidii est, repetet Proserpina caelum, 
Lege tamen certa, si nullos contigit illic 
Ore cibos : nam sic Parcarum foedere cautum est" 

[But Proserpina had already eaten seven seeds of a pomegranate, 
and this act was witnessed by Ascalaphus alone. For reporting this he 
is changed by the angry queen of Hades into an owl. In order to 
soothe the grief of Ceres, Jove now decrees that her daughter shall re- 
main one half of the year in Pluto's realm, and the other half upon the 
earth (533-570- 

Ceres, now appeased, begs Arethusa to tell the story of her change 
from a maiden follower of Diana into a fountain. Accordingly the 
nymph relates her tale.] 

Exigit alma Ceres, nata secura recepta, 

Quae tibi causa f ugae, cur sis, Arethusa, sacer fens ? 

Conticuere undae, quarum dea sustulit alto 

575 Fonte caput, viridesque manu siccata capillos 
Fluminis Elei veteres narravit amores. 
" Pars ego nympharum, quae sunt in Achaide," dixit 
" Una f ui : nee me studiosius altera saltus 
Legit, nee posuit studiosius altera casses. 

580 Sed quamvis formae numquam mihi fama petita est, 
Quamvis fortis eram, formosae nomen habebam. 
Nee mea me facies nimium laudata iuvabat ; 
Quaque aliae gaudere solent, ego rustica dote 
Corporis erubui, crimenque placere putavi. 

585 Lassa revertebar, memini, Stymphalide silva : 

Aestus erat, magnumque labor geminaverat aestum. 


Invenio sine vertice aquas, sine murmure euntes, 
Perspicuas ad humum, per quas numerabilis alte 
Calculus omnis erat, quas tu vix ire putares. 

590 Cana salicta dabant nutritaque populus unda 
Sponte sua natas ripis declivibus umbras. 
Accessi, primumque pedis vestigia tinxi, 
Poplite deinde tenus : neque eo contenta, recingor, 
Molliaque impono salici velamina curvae, 

595 Nudaque merger aquis. Quas dum ferioque trahoque 
Mille modis labens, excussaque bracchia iacto, 
Nescio quod medio sensi sub gurgite murmur, 
Territaque insist© propioris margine ripae. 
'Quo properas, Arethusa?' suis Alpheus ab undis, 

600 * Quo properas ? * iterum rauco mihi dixerat ore. 
Sicut eram, fugio sine vestibus : altera vestes 
Ripa meas habuit. Tanto magis instat et ardet. 
Sic ego currebam, sic me ferus ille premebat, 

605 Ut fugere accipitrem penna trepidante columbae, 
Ut solet accipiter trepidas urguere columbas. 
Usque sub Orchomenon Psophidaque Cyllenenque 
Maenaliosque sinus gelidumque Erymanthon et Elin 
Currere sustinui ; nee me velocior ille. 

610 Sed tolerare diu cursus ego, viribus impar, 
Non poteram : longi patiens erat ille laboris. 
Per tamen et campos, per opertos arbore montes, 
Saxa quoque et rupes et qua via nulla, cucurri. 
Sol erat a tergo : vidi praecedere longam 

615 Ante pedes umbram — nisi si timer ilia videbat — 
Sed certe sonitusque pedum terrebat, et ingens 
Crinales vittas adflabat anhelitus oris. 
Fessa labore fugae * fer opem, deprendimur,' inquam, 
'Armigerae, Dictynna, tuae, cui saepe dedisti 

6flo Ferre tuos arcus inclusaque tela pharetra.' 


Mota dea est, spissisque ferens e nubibus unam 
Me super iniecit. Lustrat caligine tectam 
Amnis, et ignarus circum cava nubila quaerit : 
Bisque locum, quo me dea texerat, inscius ambit, 

625 Et bis * io Arethusa, io Arethusa ! ' vocavit. 

Quid mihi tunc animi miserae f uit ? anne quod agnae 

Siqua lupos audit circum stabula alta frementes ? 
Aut lepori, qui vepre latens hostilia cernit 
Ora canum, nullosque audet dare corpore motus ? 

630 Non tamen abscedit ; neque enim vestigia cernit 
Longius ulla pedum : servat nubemque locumque. 
Occupat obsessos sudor mihi frigidus artus, 
Caeruleaeque cadunt toto de corpore guttae : 
Quaque pedem movi, manat lacus, eque capillis 

635 Ros cadit ; et citius, quam nunc tibi facta renarro, 
In latices mutor. Sed enim cognoscit amatas 
Amnis aquas, positoque viri, quod sutnpserat, ore 
Vertitur in proprias, ut se mihi misceat, undas. 
Delia rupit humum, caecisque ego mersa cavemis 

.640. Advehor Ortygiam, quae me, cognomine divae 
Grata meae, superas eduxit prima sub auras." 

[Ceres now flies away in her dragon-drawn car to Athens, where she 
presents her magic car to Triptolemus, giving him seeds and bidding 
him to instruct the nations in the arts of agriculture. In the perform- 
ance of his mission the youth comes to Lyncus, king of Scythia, who 
attempts to assassinate his guest, and is for this act of impiety changed 
into a wolf (642-661). 

Here ends Calliope's story of the contest in song between the Muses 
and the Pierides, at the conclusion of which, they inform Minerva, the 
maidens had been transformed into magpies in punishment of their 

Finierat dictos e nobis maxima cantus : 
At nymphae vicisse deas Helicona colentes 

(From the National Museum at Naples) 

To face pi 133 


Concordi dixere sono. Convicia victae 
66s Cum iacerent, "quoniam" dixit "certamine vobis 
■ Supplicium meruisse parum est, maledictaque culpae 
Additisy et non est patientia libera nobis, 
IlUmus in poenas, et qua vocat ira, sequemur." 
-Rideht Emathides, spernuntque minacia verba : 
679 Conataeque loqui et magno clamore protervas 
4ntentare manus, pennas exire per ungues 
ikspc^ere suos, operiri bracchia plumis: 
Aiteraque alterius rigido concrescere rostro 
.Ora videt, volucresque novas accedere silvis. 
675 Dumque volunt plangi, per bracchia mota levatae 
. A€fe pendebant, nemorum convicia, picae. 
Nunc quoque in alitibus facundia prisca remansit 
Raucaque garrulitas studiumque immane loquendi.' 

Book VI » 

[Minerva, hearing this story of the punishment which the Muses 
had inflicted upon the Pierides for daring to challenge them in song, is 
reminded that her own divinity has been slighted by Arachne, who, 
wonderfully skilled in the arts of the loom, has challenged the goddess 
herself to a contest. This challenge the goddess now accepts, and 
both sit down to their looms. Minerva portrays a council of the twelve 
great gods, each represented with his own proper symbol. In the four 
comers of her web the goddess pictures incidents of warning to those 
who dare to challenge the gods. Arachne in her web pictures the 
various amours of Jove and other gods. She acknowledges herself 
defeated in the contest, and in despair hangs herself to a beam. But 
Minerva changes her into a spider doomed to spin and weave as before 


Unwarned by the fate of Arachne, Niobe, daughter of Tantalus and 
queen of Thebes, boasts of her seven sons and seven daughters over 
Latona, the mother of two children only, Apollo and Diana, and forbids 
her country-women to worship Latona.] 

134 '^^^ WORKS OF OVID 

Lydia tota fremit, Phrygiaeque per oppida facti 
Rumor it et magnum sermonibus occupat orbem. 
Ante suos Xiobe thalamos cognoverat illam, 
Turn cum Maeomam virgo Sipylumque colebat : 

150 Nee tamen admonita est poena popularis Arachnes 
Cedere cuelitibus, verbisque minoribus uti. 
Multa dabant animos. Sed enim nee coniugis artes 
Nee genus amborum magnique potentia regni 
Sie placuere illi, quamvis ea euneta placerent, 

155 Ut sua progenies. Et felieissima matrum 
Dicta foret Niobe, si non sibi visa fuisset. 
Nam sata Tiresia venturi praeseia Manto 
Per medias fuerat, divino eoneita motu, 
Vaticinata vias, * Ismenides, ite frequentes 

160 Et date Latonae Latonigenisque duobus 

Cum preee tura pia, lauroque inneetite crinem : 
Ore meo Latona iubet.* Paretur, et omnes 
ThebaYdes iussis sua tempora frondibus omant, 
Turaque dant Sanctis et verba precantia flammis. 

165 Ecce venit comitum Niobe celeberrima turba, 
Vestibus intexto Phrygiis spectabilis auro 
Et, quantum ira sinit, formosa movensque decoro 
Cum capite immissos umerum per utrumque capillos. 
Constitit : utque oculos circumtulit alta superbos, 

170 * Ouis furor, auditos ' inquit * praeponere visis 
Caelestes ? Aut cur colitur Latona per aras, 
Numen adhuc sine ture meum est? Mihi Tantalus 

Cui licuit soli superorum tangere mensas. 
PleYadum soror est genetrix mea. Maximus Atlas 

17s Est avus, aetherium qui fert cervicibus axem : 
luppiter alter avus. Socero quoque glorior illo. 
M e gentes metuunt Phrygiae, me regia Cadmi 


Sub domina est, fidibusque mei commissa mariti 
Moenia cum populis a meque viroque reguntur. 

180 In quamcumque domus adverti lumina partem, 
Immensae spectantur opes. Accedit eodem 
Digna dea facies. Hue natas adice septem 
Et totidem iuvenes, et mox generosque nurusque. 
Quaerite nunc, habeat quam nostra superbia causam, 

185 Nescio quoque audete satam Titanida Coeo 
Latonam praeferre mihi, cui maxima quondam 
Exiguam sedem pariturae terra negavit. 
Nee caelo nee humo nee aquis dea vestra recepta est. 
Exsul erat mundi, donee miserata vagantem 

190 " Hospita tu terris erras, ego " dixit " in undis," 
Instabilemque locum Delos dedit. Ilia duorum 
Facta parens : uteri pars haec est septima nostri. 
Sum felix: quis enim neget hoc? Felixque manebo; 
Hoc quoque quis dubitet.? Tutam me copia fecit. 

195 Maior sum, quam cui possit Fortuna nocere ; 
Multaque ut eripiat, multo mihi plura relinquet. 
Excessere metum mea iam bona. Fingite demi 
Huic aliquid populo natorum posse meorum. 
Non tamen ad numerum redigar spoliata duorum 

floo Latonae turbam : qua quantum distat ab orba ? 
Ite, satis, properate, sacri est ; laurumque capillis 
Ponite.' Deponunt, infectaque sacra relinquunt, 
Quodque licet, tacito venerantur murmure numen. 

[Latona, enraged, seeks out Apollo and Diana and prays them to 
avenge her slighted divinity.] 

Indignata dea est, summoque in vertice Cynthi 
ao5 Talibus est dictis gemina cum prole locuta: 
* En ego vestra parens, vobis animosa creatis, 
Et, nisi lunoni, nulli cessura dearum. 



An dea sim, dubitor. Perque omnia saecula cultb 
Arceor, o nati, nisi vos succurritis, aris. 

2IO Nee dolor hie solus : diro convicia f aeto 
Tantalis adieeit, vosque est postponere natis 
Ausa suis, et me, quod in ipsam reeidat, orbam 
Dixit, et exhibuit linguam seelerata patemam/ 
Adiectura preees erat his Latona relatis : 

215 ' Desine ! * Phoebus ait * poenae mora longa querella est.* 
Dixit idem Phoebe. Celerique per aera lapsu 
Contigerant tecti Cadmelda nubibus arcem. 

[The two gods take their stand near the Theban plain, and slay 
with their arrows, one by one, the seven sons of Niobe, who are exer- 
cising there.] 

The Destruction of the Children of Niobb 

(From a sarcophagus in the Vatican Museum) 

Planus erat lateque patens prope moenia campus, 
Adsiduis pulsatus equis, ubi turba rotarum 

220 Duraque mollierat subieetas ungula glaebas. 
Pars ibi de septem genitis Amphione fortes 
Conscendunt in equos, Tyrioque rubentia suco 
Terga premunt, auroque graves moderantur habenas. 
E quibus Ismenos, qui matri sareina quondam 

225 Prima suae fuerat, dum eertum fleetit in orbem 
Quadrupedis eursus, spumantiaque ora coercet, 


* Ei mihi ! ' conclamat, medioque in pectore fixa 
Tela gerit, frenisque manu moriente remissis 
In latus a dextro paulatim defluit armo. 

230 Proximus, audito sonitu per inane pharetrae, 

Frena dabat Sipylus : veluti cum praescius imbris 
Nube f ugit visa, pendentiaque undique rector 
Carbasa deducit, ne qua levis effluat aura. 
Frena dabat : dantem non evitable telum 

235 Consequitur, summaque tremens cervice sagitta 
Haesit, et exstabat nudum de gutture ferrum. 
I lie, ut erat, pronus per crura admissa iubasque 
Volvitur, et calido tellurem sanguine f oedat. 
Phaedimus infelix et aviti nominis heres 

240 Tantalus, ut solito finem imposuere labori 

Transierant ad opus nitidae iuvenale palaestrae : 
Et iam contulerant arto luctantia nexu 
Pectora pectoribus, cum tento concita nervo, 
Sicut erant iuncti, traiecit utrumque sagitta. 

a45 Ingemuere simul, simul incurvata dolore 

Membra solo posuere ; simul suprema iacentes 
Lumina versarunt, animam simul exhalarunt. 
Aspicit Alphenor, laniataque pectora plangens 
Advolat, ut gelidos complexibus adlevet artus, 

250 Inque pio cadit officio ; nam Delius illi 
Intima f atif ero rupit praecordia f erro. 
Quod simul eductum, pars est pulmonis in hamis 
Eruta, cumque anima cruor est effusus in auras. 
At non intonsum simplex Damasichthona vulnus 

255 Adficit. Ictus erat, qua crus esse incipit, et qua 
Mollia nervosus f acit internodia poples. 
Dumque manu temptat trahere exitiabile telum. 
Altera per iugulum pennis tenus acta sagitta est. 
Expulit banc sanguis, seque eiaculatus in altum 


a6o Emicat, et longe terebrata prosilit aura. 
Ultimus Ilioneus non profectura precando 
Bracchia sustulerat, * di ' que * o communiter omiies/ 
Dixerat, ignarus non omnes esse rogandos, 
* Parcite ! * Motus erat, cum iam revocabile telum 

265 Non fuit, arcitenens. Minimo tamen occidit ille 
Vulnere, non alte percusso corde sagitta. 

[Niobe hastens to the scene, and, though grieving over her sons, is 
still impenitent, and again defies Latona, since still her children outnum- 
ber those of the goddess. Then, one by one, her daughters also perish 
by the darts of the hidden archers. The wretched Niobe, now frozen 
in despair, is changed to stone.] 

Fama mali populique dolor lacrimaeque suorum 
Tarn subitae matrem certam f ecere ruinae 
Mirantem potuisse, irascentemque, quod ausi 

270 Hoc essent, superi quod tantum iuris haberent. 
Nam pater Amphion ferro per pectus adacto 
Finierat moriens pariter cum luce dolorem. 
Heu quantum haec Niobe Niobe distabat ab ilia, 
Quae modo Latois populum submoverat aris 

275 Et mediam tulerat gressus resupina per urbem, 
Invidiosa suis ; at nunc miseranda vel hosti. 
Corporibus gelidis incumbit, et ordine nullo 
Oscula dispensat natos suprema per omnes. 
A quibus ad caelum liventia bracchia toUens 

280 * Pascere, crudelis, nostro, Latona, dolore, 
Pascere ' ait, * satiaque meo tua pectora luctu : 
Corque ferum satia ! ' dixit ' per f unera septem 
Efferor. Exsulta, victrixque inimica triumpha. 
Cur autem victrix ? miserae mihi plura supersunt, 

285 Quam tibi felici. Post tot quoque funera vinco.' 
Dixerat, et sonuit contento nervus ab arcu : 
Qui praeter Nioben unam conterruit omnes. 


Ilia malo est audax. Stabant cum vestibus atris 
Ante toros f ratrum demisso crine sorores : 

290 E quibus una trahens haerentia viscere tela 
Imposito fratri moribunda relanguit ore : 
Altera solari miseram conata parentem 
Conticuit subito, duplicataque vulnere caeco est : 
Oraque compressit, nisi postquam spiritus ibat. 

29s Haec fru-stra fugiens conlabitur : ilia sorori 
Immoritur : latet haec : illam trepidare videres. 
Sexque datis leto diversaque vulnera passis 
Ultima restabat : quam toto corpore mater, 
Tota veste tegens * unam minimamque relinque ! 

300 De multis minimam posco ' clamavit ' et unam.' 

Dumque rogat, pro qua rogat, occidit. Orba resedit 
Exanimes inter natos natasque virumque, 
Deriguitque malis. NuUos movet aura capillos, 
In vultu color est sine sanguine, lumina maestis 

305 St ant immota genis : nihil est in imagine vivum. 
Ipsa quoque interius cum duro lingua palato 
Congelat, et venae desistunt posse moveri ; 
Nee flecti cervix nee bracchia reddere motus 
Nee pes ire potest : intra quoque viscera saxum est. 

310 Flet tamen, et validi circumdata turbine venti 
In patriam rapta est. Ibi fixa cacumine montis 
Liquitur, et lacrimas etiam nunc marmora manant. 

[This terrible event leads to a great revival among men of reverence 
for the gods ; and they relate other instances of punishment of similar 
impiety. One tells how some Lycian peasants had been changed to 
frogs by Latona, because they had refused her a draught of water; 
another tells how Apollo flayed Marsyas, who had dared to challenge 
the god to a trial of skill in music (313-41 1 ). 

All the neighboring states now send messages of condolence to 
Thebes for the fate that has befallen the royal house. Athens alone, 
being girt with siege, sends no message. Now Tereus, km^ olTVx^ic^^ 


a<io Kmicat, et longe terebrata prosilit aura. 
Ultimus Uioneusnon profectura precando 
Bracchia sustulerat, * di ' que * o communiter omues/ 
Dixerat, ignarus non omnes esse rogandos, 
' Parcite ! ' Motus erat, cum iam revocabile telum 

265 Non f uit, arcitenens. Minimo tamen occidit ille 
Vulncrc, non alte percusso corde sagitta. 

[Niobc hastens to the scene, and, though grieving over her sons, is 
still impenitent, and again defies Latona, since still her children outnum- 
ber those of the goddess. Then, one by one, her daughters also perish 
by the darts of the hidden archers. The wretched Niobe, now frozen 
in despair, is changed to stone.] 

r\ima mail popuHque dolor lacrimaeque suorum 
Tarn subitac niatrem certam fecere ruinae 
Mirantom potuisse, irascentemque, quod ausi 

a.-o Hoc cssent, supori quod tantum iuris haberent. 
Nam pater Amphion ferro per pectus adacto 
Flniorat morions pariter cum luce dolorem. 
Hou quantum haec Niobe Niobe distabat ab ilia, 
Ouae modo Latois populum submoverat aris 

*-\5 K: nK\iiam tulorat grc^sus resupina per urbem, 
Ir.v:v;:os.i s;:is : a: nunc nusoranda vel hosti. 
Co::N^::>us i^oliviis :nou:rb::. e: ordiae nullo 
v^Sv\:\; v;:s:v^v,<.k: r.,;:."^ :s;:rrer::jL per onuies. 
\ .:s;;>.:s ^u; vMo';::r. 'i^-^ntii brjLCchia tollens 

■•-\^ :V.>.v*x\ x': ,:n;o*::?v r..^i>:r.\ Li^^cJL dolore, 

. v ^ , : v ^ " ^-ic :=::::i: rtcrgL sapersunt, 
«^ - ." ." c . V,-^ r,'C ^:;5a:;o? rtaaeri vinco.' 


Ilia malo est audax. Stabant cum vestibus atris 
Ante toros fratrum demisso crine sorores : 

290 E quibus una trahens haerentia viscere tela 
Imposito fratri moribunda relanguit ore : 
Altera solari miseram conata parentem 
Conticuit subito, duplicataque vulnere caeco est : 
Oraque compressit, nisi postquam spiritus ibat. 

29s Haec fru*stra f ugiens conlabitur : ilia sorori 
Immoritur : latet haec : illani trepidare videres. 
Sexque datis leto diversaque vulnera passis 
Ultima restabat : quam toto corpore mater, 
Tota veste tegens ' unam minimamque relinque ! 

300 De multis minimam posco' clamavit 'et unam.' 

Dumque rogat, pro qua rogat, occidit. Orba resedit 
Exanimes inter natos natasque virumque, 
Deriguitque malis. Nullos movet aura capillos, 
In vultu color est sine sanguine, lumina maestis 

305 Stant immota genis : nihil est in imagine vivum. 
Ipsa quoque interius cum duro lingua palato 
Congelat, et venae desistunt posse moveri ; 
Nee flecti cervix nee bracchia reddere motus 
Nee pes ire potest : intra quoque viscera saxum est 

310 Flet tamen, et validi circumdata turbine venti 
In patriam rapta est. Ibi fixa cacumine montis 
Liquitur, et lacrimas etiam nunc marmora manant. 

[This terrible event leads to a great revival among men of reverence 
for the gods ; and they relate other instances of punishment of similar 
impiety. One tells how some Lycian peasants had been changed to 
frogs by Latona, because they had refused her a draught of water; 
another tells how Apollo flayed Marsyas, who had dared to challenge 
the god to a trial of skill in music (313-41 1 ). 

All the neighboring states now send messages of condolence to 
Thebes for the fate that has befallen the royal house. Athens alone, 
being girt with siege, sends no message. Now Tereus, king of Thrace, ^j 


with his own and auxiliary forces, frees Athens from this siege, and for 
his service obtains in marriage Procne, the daughter of King Pandion. 
Carried by her lord to Thrace, the queen longs for her sister Philomela; 
Tereus undertakes to carry this request to King Pandion, and prevails 
upon him to allow his remaining daughter to visit Thrace. The story 
further relates the horrible crime of Tereus, and his more horrible pun- 
ishment (412-674). Pandion, moreover, in grief for the calamities of 
his house, slays himself, and Erechtheus rules in Athens in his stead. 
One of the daughters of this king, Orithyia by name, is beloved by 
Boreas, and is by this bluff lover carried away against her will. Of 
these parents two winged sons are born, Zethes and Calais, who, when 
they come to manhood, engage among other heroes with Jason in the 
famous Argonautic expedition (675-721).] 

Book VII 

[Now Jason had been sent by Pelias, the usurping king of lolchos 
in Thessaly, in quest of the golden fleece which was held by King Aeetes 
of Colchis. All the heroes of antiquity flocked to Jason to secure a part 
in this expedition. Through the aid of Minerva a ship for the expedition 
had been built, and this was named from its human designer, the Argo. 

The Argonauts, after many adventures, come to Colchis, and demand 
the golden fleece. This is promised upon the fulfillment by Jason of 
certain terrible labors.] 

lamque f return Minyae Pagasaea puppe secabant : 
Perpetuaque trahens inopem sub nocte senectam 
Phineus visus erat, iuvenesque Aquilone creati 
Virgineas volucres miseri senis ore f ugarant : 
5 Multaque perpessi claro sub lasone tandem 
Contigerant rapidas limosi Phasidos undas. 
Dumque adeunt regem Phrixeaque vellera poscunt, 
Lexque datur numeris magnorum horrenda laborum. 

[Medea, the daughter of the king, struggles within herself against a 
growing passion.] 

Concipit interea validos Aeetias ignes. 


o Et luctata diu, postquam ratione f urorem 
Vincere non poterat, * f rustra, Medea, repugnas : 
Nescio quis deus obstat ; ' ait 'mirumque, nisi hoc est, 
Aut aliquid certe simile huic, quod amare vocatur. 
Nam cur iussa patris nimium mihi dura videntur ? 

15 Sunt quoque dura nimis. Cur, quern modo denique 
Ne pereat, timeo ? Quae tanti causa timoris ? 
Excute virgineo conceptas pectore flammas, 
Si potes, infelix. Si possem, sanior essem. 
Sed gravat invitam nova vis. Aliudque cupido, 

ao Mens aliud suadet Video meliora proboque, 
Deteriora sequor. Quid in hospite, regia virgo, 
Ureris, et thalamos alieni concipis orbis ? 
Haec quoque terra potest, quod ames, dare. Vivat, 

an ille 
Occidat, in dis est. Vivat tamen : idque precari 

as Vel sine amore licet. Quid enim commisit lason ? 
Quem, nisi crudelem, non tangat lasonis aetas 
Et genus et virtus ? quem non, ut cetera desint, 
Ore movere potest.^ Certe mea pectora movit. 
At nisi opem tulero, taurorum adflabitur igne, 

30 Concurretque suae^egetis tellure creatis 

Hostibus, aut avido dabitur fera praeda draconi. 
Hoc ego si patiar, tum me de tigride natam, 
Tum ferrum et scopulos gestare in corde fatebor. 
Cur non et specto pereuntem, oculosque videndo 

35 Q^nscelero ? Cur non tauros exhortor in ilium 
Terrigenasque f eros insopitumque draconem ? 
Di meliora velint. Quamquam^non ista precanda, 
Sed facienda mihi. Prodamne ego regna parentis, 
Atque oge nescio quis servabitur advena nostra. 

40 Ut per me sospes sine me det lintea ventis, 


Virque sit alterius, poenae Medea relinquar? 
Si facere hoc, aliamve potest praeponere nobis, 
Occidat ingratus. Sed non is \Tiltus in illo, 
Xon ea nobilitas animo est, ea gratia formae, 

45 Ut timeam fraudem meritique oblivia nostri. 
Et dabit ante iidem. Cogamque in foedera testes 
Esse deos. Quin tuta times I Accingere et omnem 
Pelle moram ! Tibi se semper debebit lason, 
Te face sollemni iunget sibi, perque Pelasgas 

50 Ser\-atrix urbes matrum celebrabere turba. 

Ergo ego germanam fratremque patremque deosque 
Et natale solum, ventis ablata, relinquam ? 
Xempe pater sae\-us, nempe est mea barbara tellus, 
Frater adhuc infans. Stant mecum vota sororis : 

55 Maximus intra me deus est. Non magna relinquam: 
Magna sequar : titulum seryatae pubis Achivae, 
Notitiamque loci melioris, et oppida, quorum 
Hie quoque fama viget, cultusque artesque locorum ; 

N^y Qge.ijiau^ ego cum rebus, quas totus possidet oiibls, 
^60 Afis^iniden mutasse velim, quo coniuge felix 
Et dis cara ferar et vertice sidera tangam. 
Quid, quod nescio qui mediis incurrere in undis 
Dicuntur montes, ratibusque inimica Charybdis 
Nunc sorbere fretum, nunc reddere, cinctaque saevis 

65 Scylla rapax canibus Siculo latrare prof undo ? 

Nempe tenens quod amo, gremioque in lasonis haerens 
Per freta longa ferar. Nihil ilium amplexa verebor ; 
Aut, siquid metuam, metuam de coniuge solo. 
Coniugiumne putas, speciosaque nomina culpae 

70 Imponis, Medea, tuae ? quin aspice, quantum 
Aggrediare nefas, et dam licet, effuge crimen.' 
Dixit: et ante oculos rectum pietasque pudorque 
Constiterant, et victa dabat iam terga Cupido. 


[In the sacred grove she meets the hero, who entreats her assistance 
in his dangerous undertakings, and, on the promise of this, enters into 
a solemn pledge of marriage.] 

Ibat ad antiquas Hecates Perserdos aras, 

75 Quas nemus umbrosum secretaque silva tegebat. 
Et iam f ortis erat, pulsusque recesserat ardor : 
Cum videt Aesoniden, exstinctaque flamma reluxit 
Erubuere genae, totoque recanduit ore, 
ytque^solet ventis alimenta adsumere, quaeque 

80 Parva sub inducta latuit scintilla favilla, 
Crescere et in veteres agitata resurgere vires, 
Sic iam lentus amor, iam quem languere putares, 
Ut vidit iuvenem, specie praesentis inarsit. 
Et casu solito formosior Aesone natus 

8s Ilia luce fuit : posses ignoscere amanti. 
Spectat, et in vultu veluti turn denique viso 
Lumina fixa tenet, nee se mortalia demens 
Ora videre putat, nee se declinat ab illo. 
Ut vero coepitque loqui dextramque prehendit 

90 Hospes, et auxilium submissa voce rogavit, 
Promisitque torum, lacrimis ait ilia prof usis : 
* Quid f aciam, video : nee me ignorantia veri 
Decipiet, sed amor. Servabere munere nostro : 
Servatus promissa dato.' Per sacra triformis 

95 lUe deae, lucoque foret quodjiumen in illo, 
Perque patrem soceri cernentem cuncta futuri, 
Eventusque suos et tanta pericula iurat. 
Creditus accepit cantatas protinus herbas, 
Edidicitque usum, laetusque in tesca recessit. 

[The first labor. Protected by Medea's magic, Jason yokes the 
brazen fire-breathing bulls, and plows the field of Mars.] 

100 Postera depulerat Stellas aurora micantes : 


Conveniunt populi sacrum Mavortis in arvum, 
Consistuntque iugis. Medio rex ipse resedit 
Agmine purpureas sceptroque insignis eburno. 
Ecce adamanteis vulcanum naribus efflant 

105 Aeripedes tauri, tactaeque vaporibus herbae 
Ardent. Utque solent pleni resonare camini, 
't ('Aut ubi terrena silices fornace soluti 
^ Concipiunt ignem liquidarum aspergine aquarum ; 
Eg ctora sic intus clausas vj ^ventja flammas 

no Gutturaque usta sonant. Tamen illis Aesone natus 
Obvius it. Vertere truces venientis ad ora 
Terribiles vultus praefixaque cornua ferro, 
Pulvereumque solum pede pulsavere bisulco, 
Fumificisque locum mugitibus impleverunt. 

IIS Deriguere metu Minyae. Subit ille, nee ignes 
Sentit anhelatos — tantum medicamina possunt — 
Pendulaque audaci mulcet palearia dextra, 
Suppositosque lugo pondus grave cogit aratri 
Ducere et insuetum ferro proscindere campum. 

[The second labor. The hero now sows in the plowed field the 
dragon's teeth, which immediately spring up into a crop of anaed 
giants. These attack Jason, but are turned against one another b^ a 
stone which he, taught by Medea, throws into their midst.] 

120 Mirantur Colchi : Minyae clamoribus augent 
Adiciuntque animos. Galea turn sumit aena 
Vipereos dentes, et aratos spargit in agros. 
Semina mollit humus valido praetincta veneno, 
Et crescunt fiuntque sati nova corpora dentes. 

125 Utque hominis speciem materna sumit in alvo, 
Perque suos intus numeros componitur infans, 
Nee nisi maturus communes exit in auras : 
Sic ubi visceribus gravidae telluris imago 


EfFecta est hominis, feto consurgit in arvo ; 

130 Quodque magis mirum est, simul edita concutit arma. 
Quffs ubi^viderufit praeacutae cuspidis hastas 
In caput Haemonii iuvenis torquere paranTS?, 
Demisere metu vultumque animumque Pe)asg jr 
Ipsa quoque extimuit, quae tutum fecerat ilium, 

13s Utque peti vidit iuvenem tot ab hostibus unum, 
Palluit et subito sine sanguine f rigida sedit ; 
Neve parum valeant a se data gramina, carmen 
Auxiliare canit, secretasque advocat artes. 
Ille gravem medios silicem iaculatus in hostes 

140 A se depulsum Martem convertit in ipsos. 
Terrigenae pereunt per mutua vulnera fratres, 
Civilique cadunt acie. Gratantur Achivi, 
Victoremque tenent avidisque amplexibus haerent. 
Tu quoque victorem complecti, barbara, velles ; 

14s Obstitit incepto pudor. At coraplexa fuisses ; 
Sed te, ne faceres, tenuit reverentia famae. 
Quod licet, aspectu tacito laetaris, agisque 
Carminibus grates et dis auctoribus horum. 

[The third labor. Jason now puts to sleep by Medea's drugs the 
cvcr-watchful dragon which guards the golden fleece ; he secures the 
prize, and returns to Greece with Medea as his bride.] 

Pervigilem superest herbis sopire draconem, 
150 Qui crista linguisque tribus praesignis et uncis 
Dentibus horrendus custos erat arboris aureae. 
Hunc postquam sparsit Lethaei gramine suci 
Verbaque ter dixit placidos facientia somnos. 
Quae mare turbatum, quae concita flumina* sistunt, 
155 Somnus in ignotos oculos sibi venit, et auro 
Heros Aesonius potitur. Spolioque superbus 
Muneris auctorem secum, spolia altera, portans 
Victor lolciacos tetigit cum coniuge portus. 
OVID — 10 


[Jason, returned to Greece, entreats his wife to restore to youth his 
aged father Aeson, which she does by means of her magic arts.] 

Haemoniae matres pro natis dona receptis 

160 Grandaevique ferunt patres, congestaque flamma 
Tura liquefaciunt, inductaque cornibus aurum 
Victima vota litat. Sed abest gratantibus Aeson, 
lam propior leto fessusque senilibus annis. 
Cum sic Aesonides : * O cuijlebere salutem 

X65 Confiteor, coniunx, quamquam mihi cuncta dedisti, 
Excessitque fidem meritorum summa tuorum : 
Si tamen hoc possunt, — quid enim non carmina 

possunt ? — 
Deme meis annis, et demptos adde parentL* 
Nee tenuit lacrimas. Mota est pietate rogantis, 

170 Dissimilemque animum subiit Aeeta relictus. 
Nee tamen adfectus tales confessa * quod ' inquit 
* Excidit ore tuo, coniunx, scelus ? ergo ego cuiquam 
Posse tuae videor spatium transcribere vitae ? 
Nee sinat hoc Hecate, nee tu petis aequa. Sed isto, 

X75 Quod petis, experiar mains dare munus, lason. 
Arte mea soceri longum temptabimus aevum, 
Non annis renovare tuis ; modo diva triformis 
Adiuvet et praesens ingentibus adnuat ausis,' 
Tres aberant noctes, ut cornua tota coirent 

x8o Efficerentque orbem. Postquam plenissima fulsit 
Ac solida terras spectavit imagine luna, 
Egreditur tectis vestes induta recinctas, 
Nuda pedem, nudos umeros infusa capilUs, 
Fertque vagos mediae per muta silentia noctis 

185 Incomitata gradus. Homines volucresque ferasque 
Solverat alta quies : nullo cum murmure saepes, 
Immotaeque silent f rondes ; silet umidus aer : 
Sidera sola micant. Ad quae sua bracchia tendens 


Ter se convertit, ter sumptis flumine crinem 

190 Inroravit aquis, ternisque ululatibus ora 
Solvit, et in dura submisso poplite terra 
* Nox ' ait ' arcanis fidissima, q uaeque diumis 
Aurea cum luna succeditis ignibus, a stra^ 
Tuque triceps Hecate, quae coeptis conscia nostris 

19s Adiutrixque venis, cantusque artesque magorum, 
Quaeque magos, Tellus, pollentibus instruis herbis, 
Auraeque et venti montesque amnesque lacusque, 
Dique omnes nemorum, dique omnes noctis adeste : 
Quorum ope, cum volui, rip is mirantibus amnes 

aoo In fontes rediere suos, concussaque sisto, 
Stantia concutio cantu freta, nubila pello 
Nubilaque induco, ventos abigoque vocoque, 
Vipereas rumpo verbis et carmine fauces, 
Vivaque saxa sua convulsaque robora terra 

aos Et silvas moveo, iubeoque tremescere montes 
Et mugire solum, manesque exire sepulcris. 
Te quoque, Luna, traho, quamvis Temesaea labores 
Aera tuos minuant : currus quoque carmine nostro 
Pallet avi ; pallet nostris Aurora venenis. 

aio Vos mihi taurorum flammas hebetastis, et unco 
Impatiens oneris coUum pressistis aratro. 
Vos serpentigenis in se fera bella dedistis, 
Custodemque rudem somni sopistis, et aurum 
Vindice decepto Graias misistis in urbes. 

215 Nunc opus est sucis, per quos renovata senectus 
In florem redeat, primosque reconligat annos. 
Et dabitis. Neque enim micuerunt sidera frustra, 
Nee frustra volucrum tractus cervice draconum 
Currus adest/ Aderat demissus ab aethere currus. 

aao Quo simul ascendit, frenataque colla draconum 
Permulsit, manibusque leves agitavit habenas, 


Sublimis rapitur, subiectaque Thessala Tempe 
Dispicit, et Threces regionibus applicat angues ; 
Et quas Ossa tulit, quas altum Pelion herbas, 

225 Othrys quas Pindusque et Pindo maior Olympus, 
Perspicit, et placitas partim radice revellit, 
Partim succidit curvaraine falcis aenae. 
Multa quoque Apidani placuerunt gramina ripis, 
Multa quoque Amphrysi; neque eras immunis, Enipeu; 

230 Nee non Peneus, nee non Spercherdes undae 
Contribuere aliquid, iuneosaque litora Boebes. 
Carpsit et E uboifca v iyax Aathgdone gramen, 
Nondum niutato vulgatum corpore Glauci. 
Et iam nona dies curru pennisque draconum 

235 Nonaque nox omnes lustrantem viderat agros. 

Cum rediit. Neque erant tacti, nisi odore, dracones, 
Et tamen annosae pellem posuere senectae. 
Constitit adveniens citra limenque foresque, 
Et tan turn caelo tegitur : refugitque viriles 

240 Contactus. Statuitque aras e caespite binas, 
Dexteriore Hecates, ast laeva parte luventae. 
Has ubi verbenis silvaque incinxit agresti, 
Haud procul egesta scrobibus tellure duabus 
Sacra facit, cultrosque in guttura velleris atri 

24s Conicit, et patulas perfundit sanguine fossas. 
Turn super invergens liquidi carchesia bacchi 
Aeneaque invergens tepidi carchesia lactis 
Verba simul fudit, terrenaque numina civit, 
Umbrarumque rogat rapta cum coniuge regem, 

250 Ne properent artus anima fraudare senili. 

Quos ubi placavit precibusque et murmure longo, 
Aesonis effetum proferri corpus ad auras 
lussit, et in plenos resolutum carmine somnos 
Exanimi similem stratis porrexit in herbis. 


255 Hinc procul Aesoniden, procul hinc iubet ire ministros, 
Kt monet arcanis oculos removere profanes. 
Diffugiunt iussi. Passis Medea capillis 
Bacchantum ritu flagrantes circuit aras, 
Multifidasque faces in fossa sanguinis atra 

260 Tinguit, et infectas geminis accendit in aris : 

Terque sen em flamma, ter aqua, ter sulphure lustrat. 
Interea validum posito medicamen aeno 
Fervet et exsultat spumisque tumentibus albet. 
Illic Haemonia radices valle resectas 

265 Seminaque floresque et sucos incoquit acres. 
Adicit extremo lapides oriente petitos 
Kt quas Oceani refluum mare lavit, harenas ; 
Addit et exceptas luna pernocte pruinas 
Kt strigis infames ipsis cum carnibus alas, 

270 Inque virum soliti vultus mutare ferinos 
Ambigui prosecta lupj ; nee defuit illic 
Squamea Cinyphii tenuis membrana chelydri 
Vivacisque iecur cervi, quibus insuper addit 
Ora caputque novem cornicis saecula passae. 

a75 His et mille aliis postquam sine nomine rebus 
Propositum instruxit remorari Tartara munus, 
Arenti ramo i ampridem mitis olivae 
Omnia confudit summisque immiscuit ima. 
Ecce vetus calido versatus stipes aeno 

380 Fit viridis primo, nee longo tempore frondes 
Induit, et subito gravidis oneratur olivis. 
At quacumque cavo spumas eiecit aeno 
Ignis, et in terram guttae cecidere calentes, 
Vernat humus, floresque et mollia pabula surgunt. 

aSs Quae simul ac vidit, stricto Medea recludit 
Ense senis iugulum, veteremque exire cruorem 
Passa, replet sucis. Quos postquam combibit A.^^ox\ 


Virque sit alterius, poenae Medea relinquar ? 
Si facere hoc, aliamve potest praeponere nobis, 
Occidat ingratus. Sed non is vultus in illo, 
Non ea nobilitas animo est, ea gratia formae, 

45 Ut timeam fraudem meritique oblivia nostri. 
Et dabit ante fidem. Cogamque in foedera testes 
Esse deos. Quin tuta times ! Accingere et omnem 
Pelle moram ! Tibi se semper debebit lason, 
Te face sollemni iunget sibi, perque Pelasgas 

50 Servatrix urbes matrum celebrabere turba. 

Ergo ego germanam fratremque patremque deosque 
Et natale solum, ventis ablata, relinquara ? 
Nempe pater saevus, nempe est mea barbara tellus. 
Prater adhuc inf ans. Stant mecum vota sororis : 

55 Maximus intra me deus est. Non magna relinquam : 
Magna sequar : titulum serYataej)ubis Achivae, 
Notitiamque loci melioris, et oppida, quorum 
Hie quoque f ama viget, cultusque artesque locorum ; 

v^ Qjie.Qiqu^ ego cum rebus, quas totus possidet orbjs, 
"^60 Afisgnijien mutasse velim, quo coniuge felix 
Et dis cara ferar et vertice sidera tangam. 
Quid, quod nescio qui mediis incurrere in undis 
Dicuntur montes, ratibusque inimica Charybdis 
Nunc sorbere fretum, nunc reddere, cinctaque saevis 

65 Scylla rapax canibus Siculo latrare profundo ? 

Nempe tenens quod amo, gremioque in lasonis haerens 
Per f reta longa ferar. Nihil ilium amplexa verebor ; 
Aut, siquid metuam, metuam de coniuge solo. 
Coniugiumne putas, speciosaque nomina culpae 

70 Imponis, Medea, tuae ? quin aspice, quantum 
Aggrediare nefas, et dum licet, effuge crimen.' 
Dixit : et ante oculos rectum pietasque pudorque 
Constiterant, et victa dabat iam terga Cupido. 


[In the sacred grove she meets the hero, who entreats her assistance 
in his dangerous undertakings, and, on the promise of this, enters into 
a solemn pledge of marriage.] 

Ibat ad antiquas Hecates PerseYdos aras, 

75 Quas nemus umbrosum secretaque silva tegebat. 
Et iam f ortis erat, pulsusque recesserat ardor : 
Cum videt Aesoniden, exstinctaque flamma reluxit. 
Erubuere genae, totoque recanduit ore, 
ytque^solet ventis alimenta adsumere, quaeque 

80 Parva sub inducta latuit scintilla favilla, 
Crescere et in veteres agitata resurgere vires, 
Sic iam lentus amor, iam quem languere putares, 
Ut vidit iuvenem, specie praesentis inarsit. 
Et casu solito formosior Aesone natus 

8s Ilia luce fuit : posses ignoscere amanti. 
Spectat, et in vultu veluti tum denique viso 
Lumina fixa tenet, nee se mortalia demens 
Ora videre putat, nee se declinat ab illo. 
Ut vero coepitque loqui dextramque prehendit 

90 Hospes, et auxilium submissa voce rogavit, 
Promisitque torum, lacrimis ait ilia prof usis : 
* Quid f aciam, video : nee me ignorantia veri 
Decipiet, sed amor. Servabere munere nostro : 
Servatus promissa dato.' Per sacra triformis 

95 lUe deae, lucoque foret quodjiumen in illo, 
Perque patrem soceri cernentem cuncta futuri, 
Eventusque suos et tanta pericula iurat. 
Creditus accepit cantatas protinus herbas, 
Edidicitque usum, laetusque in tesca recessit. 

[The first labor. Protected by Medea's magic, Jason yokes the 
brazen fire-breathing bulls, and plows the field of Mars.] 

MO Postera depulerat Stellas aurora micantes ; 


Conveniunt populi sacrum Mavortis in arvum, 
Consistuntque iugis. Medio rex ipse resedit 
Agmine purpureas sceptroque insignis eburno. 
Ecce adamanteis vulcanum naribus efflant 

los Aeripedes tauri, tactaeque vaporibus herbae 
Ardent. Utque solent pleni resonare camini, 
' ^ r Aut ubi terrena silices f ornace soluti 
^ Concipiunt ignem liquidarum aspergine aquanim ; 
E^ ctora sic intus clausas v Qlventia flammas 

no Gutturaque usta sonant. Tamen illis Aesone natus 
Obvius it. Vertere truces venientis ad ora 
Terribiles vultus praefixaque cornua ferro, 
Pulvereumque solum pede pulsavere bisulco, 
Fumificisque locum mugitibus impleverunt. 

115 Deriguere metu Minyae. Subit ille, nee ignes 
Sentit anhelatos — tan turn medicamina possunt — 
Pendulaque audaci mulcet palearia dextra, 
Suppositosque iugo pondus grave cogit aratri 
Ducere et insuetum ferro proscindere campum. 

[The second labor. The hero now sows in the plowed field the 
dragon's teeth, which immediately spring up into a crop of armed 
giants. These attack Jason, but are turned against one another by a 
stone which he, taught by Medea, throws into their midst.] 

120 Mirantur Colchi : Minyae clamoribus augent 
Adiciuntque animos. Galea tum sumit aena 
Vipereos dentes, et aratos spargit in agros. 
Semina moUit humus valido praetincta veneno, 
Et crescunt fiuntque sati nova corpora dentes. 

125 Utque hominis speciem materna sumit in alvo, 
Perque suos intus numeros componitur infans, 
Nee nisi maturus communes exit in auras : 
Sic ubi visceribus gravidae telluris imago 


Eff ecta est hominis, f eto consurgit in arvo ; 

130 Quodque magis mirum est, simul edita concutit arma. 
Quffs ubi^viderufit praeacutae cuspidis hastas 
In caput Haemonii iuvenis torquere parariW?, 
Demisere metu vultumque animumque Pe^asg -^^ 
Ipsa quoque extimuit, quae tutum fecerat ilium, 

135 Utque peti vidit iuvenem tot ab hostibus unum, 
Palluit et subito sine sanguine f rigida sedit ; 
Neve parum valeant a se data gramina, carmen 
Auxiliare canit, secretasque advocat artes. 
lUe gravem medios silicem iaculatus in hostes 

140 A se depulsum Martem convertit in ipsos. 
Terrigenae pereunt per mutua vulnera fratres, 
Civilique cadunt acie. Gratantur Achivi, 
Victoremque tenent avidisque amplexibus haerent. 
Tu quoque victorem complecti, barbara, velles ; 

14s Obstitit incepto pudor. At complexa fuisses ; 
Sed te, ne f aceres, tenuit reverentia famae. 
Quod licet, aspectu tacito laetaris, agisque 
Carminibus grates et dis auctoribus horum. 

[The third labor. Jason now puts to sleep by Medea's drugs the 
cvcr-watchful dragon which guards the golden fleece ; he secures the 
prize, and returns to Greece with Medea as his bride.] 

Pervigilem superest herbis sopire draconem, 
150 Qui crista linguisque tribus praesignis et uncis 
Dentibus horrendus custos erat arboris aureae. 
Hunc postquam sparsit Lethaei gramine suci 
Verbaque ter dixit placidos facientia somnos. 
Quae mare turbatum, quae concita flumina sistunt, 
155 Somnus in ignotos oculos sibi venit, et auro 
Heros Aesonius potitur. Spolioque superbus 
Muneris auctorem secum, spolia altera, portans 
Victor lolciacos tetigit cum coniuge portus. 

i OVJD — 10 


Quae favet ingeniis, excepit Pallas, avemque 
Reddidit, et medio velavit in acre pennis. 
Sed vigor ingenii quondam velocis in alas 
255 Inque pedes abiit : nomen quod et ante, remansit 
Xon tamen haec alte volucris sua corpora toUit, 
Xec facit in ramis altoque cacumine nidos; 
Propter humum volitat, ponitque in saepibus ova, 
Antiquique memor metuit sublimia casus. 

[Tlieseus, on the death of his father, now succeeds to the throne of 
Athens, and his fame tills the \vhole land. He is next summoned with 
all the great heroes of Greece to Aetolia to assist in the hunt of the 
Calydonian boar, which Diana, in punishment for the neglect of her 
worship by Oeneus, the king of Aetolia, had sent to ravage the country. 
Among the others comes Atalanta, the maiden huntress, who is the 
first to wound the boar. After many incidents, Meleager, the king^s 
son, and leader in the chase, slays the boar, and cutting off his head 
presents it to Atalanta, on the ground that she has been the first to 
wound the beast. Meleager s two maternal uncles dispute this award, 
and in the quarrel are both slain by their nephew (260-444). Upon 
learning of this disaster to her brothers, Althaea, Meleager^s mother, 
in grief and rage casts into the fire the brand upon the preservation of 
which the continuation of her son's life depends. There is a mighty 
struggle in Althaea's heart between maternal and sisterly affection. 
With the death of Meleager, the royal house of Aetolia falls in ruins, 
and Diana's vengeance is appeased (445-546). 

Theseus, having borne his part in the Calydonian hunt, now directs 
his way to Athens, but is stopped on the way and entertained by the 
river god Acheloiis, who relates how in rage at a slight put upon his 
divinity he had turned five naiads into islands, and how Neptune had 
turned another nymph into a rock (547-610). 

One of the guests here expresses his skepticism as to these meta- 
morphose.s, and even as to the very existence of the gods themselves. 
In reply old Lelex tells the beautiful story of Philemon and Bauds, 
who entertained Jupiter and Mercury unawares. These gods, pleased 
with the piety of the aged pair, after granting them many blessings in 
life, gave them a common death, and transformed them into trees.] 


Amnis ab his tacuit. Factum mirabile cunctos 
Moverat. Inridet credentes, utque deorum 
Spretor erat mentisque ferox Ixione natus, 
* Ficta refers, nimiumque putas, Acheloe potentes 

615 Esse deos/ dbcit *si dant adimuntque figuras/ 
Obstipuere omnes, nee talia dicta probarunt ; 
Ante omnesque Lelex, animo maturus et aevo, 
Sic ait : * immensa est finemque potentia caeli 
Non habet, et quicquid superi voluere, peractum est. 

690 Quoque minus dubites, tiiiae contermina quercus 
CoUibus est Phrygiis, modico circumdata muro : 
Ipse locum vidi; nam me PelopeYa Pittheus 
Misit in arva, suo quondam regnata parenti. 
Haud procul hinc stagnum est, tellus habitabilis olim, 

62s Nunc celebres mergis f ulicisque palustribus undae. 
luppiter hue specie mortali, cumque parente 
Ve nit Atlantiades positis caducifer alis. 
Mille domos adiere, locum requiemque petentes : 
Mille domos clausere serae. Tamen una recepit, 

630 Parva quidem, stipulis et canna tecta palustri : 
Sed pia Baucis anus parilique aetate Philemon 
Ilia sunt annis iuncti iuvenalibus, ilia 
Consenuere casa ; paupertatemque fatendo 
Effecere levem nee iniqua mente ferendo. 

635 Nee refert, dominos illic, famulosne requiras : 
Tota domus duo sunt, idem parentque iubentque. 
Ergo ubi caelicolae placitos tetigere penates, 
Summissoque humiles intrarunt vertice postes. 
Membra senex posito iussit relevare sedili, 
640 Quo superiniecit textum rude sedula Baucis. 
Inde foco tepidum cinerem dimovit et ignes 
Suscitat hesternos foliisque et cortice sicco 
Nutrit et ad flammas anima producit anili, 


Multifidasque faces ramaliaque arida tecto 

645 Detulit et minuit, panoque admovit aeno. 
Quodque suus coniunx riguo conlegerat horto, 
Truncat holus f oliis. Furca levat ille bicomi 
Sordida terga suis nigro pendentia tigno, 
Senatoque diu resecat de tergore partem 

650 Exiguam, sectamque domatTerventibus undis. 
Interea medias fallunt sermonibus boras, 

655 Concutiuntque torum de moUi fluminis ulva 
Impositum lecto, sponda pedibusque saJignis. 
Vestibus hunc velant, quas non nisi tempore f esto 
Sternere consuerant : sed et haec vilisque vetusque 
Vestis erat, lecto non indignanda saligno. 

660 Accubuere dei. Mensam succincta tremensque 
Ponit anus. Mensae sed erat pes tertius impar : 
Testa parem fecit. Quae postquam subdita clivum 
Sustulit, aequatam mentae tersere virentes. 
Ponit ur hie I>kolor sincerae baca Minervae, 

665 Conditaque in liquida coma autumnalia faece, 
Intibaque et radix et lactis massa coacti, 
Ovaque non acri leviter versata favilla, 
Omnia fictilibus. Post haec caelatus eodem 
Sistitur argento^crater fabricataque fago 

670 Pocula, qua cava sunt, flaventibus inlita ceris. 
Parva mora est, epulasque foci misere calentes, 
Ncc longae rursus referuntur vina senectae, 
Dantque locum mensis paulum seducta secundis. 
Hie nux, hie mixta est rugosis carica palmis 

67s Prunaque et in patulis redolentia mala canistris 
Et de purpureis conlectae vitibus uvae. 
Candidus in medio favus est. Super omnia vultus 
Accesserc boni nee iners pauperque voluntas. 
Interea toticns haustum cratera repleri 


680 Sponte sua, per seque vident succrescere vina : 
Attoniti novitate pavent, manibusque supinis 
Concipiunt Baucisque preces timidusque Philemon, 
Kt veniam dapibus nullisque paratibus orant. 
UniCus anser erat, minimae custodia villae, 

685 Quern dis hosptibus domini mactare parabant. 
I lie celer penna tardos aetate fatigat, 
Kluditque diu, tandemque est visus ad ipsos 
Confugisse deos. Superi vetuere necari : 
" Di " que " sumus, meritasque luet vicinia poenas 

690 Impia" dixerunt; "vobis immunibus huius 

Esse mali dabitur. Modo vestra relinquite tecta 
Ac nostros comitate gradus et in ardua montis 
Ite simul." Parent ambo, baculisque levati 
Nituntur longo vestigia ponere clivo. 

69s Tantum aberant summo, quantum semel ire sagitta 
Missa potest : flexere oculos, et mersa palude 
Cetera prospiciunt, tantum sua tecta manere. 
Dumque ea mirantur, dum deflent fata suorum, 
Ilia vetus, dominis etiam casa parva duobus 

700 Vertitur in templum : f ureas subiere columnae, 
Stramina flavescunt aurataque tecta videntur, 
Caelataeque fores, adopertaque marmore tellus. 
Talia tum placido Saturnius edidit ore : 
" Dicite, iuste senex et femina coniuge iusto 

705 Digna, quid optetis." Cum Baucide pauca locutus, 
Judicium superis aperit commune Philemon : 
" Esse sacerdotes delubraque vestra tueri 
Poscimus ; et quoniam Concordes egimus annos, 
Auferat hora duos eadem, nee coniugis umquam 

710 Busta meae videam, neu sim tumulandus ab ilia.*' 
Vota fides sequitur. Templi tutela fuere, 
Donee vita data est. Annis aevoque soVuli 


Ante gradus sacros cum starent forte locique 
Navarent curas, frondere Philemona Baucis, 

715 Baucida conspexit senior frondere Philemon, 
lamque super geminos crescente cacumine vultus 
Mutua, dum licuit, reddebant dicta "vale" que 
"O coniunx" dixere simul, simul abdita texit 
Ora frutex. Ostendit adhuc Cibyrelfus illic 

720 Incola de gemino vicinos corpore truncos. 

Haec mihi non vani, neque erat cur fallere vellent, 
Narravere senes. Equidem pendentia vidi 
Serta super ramos, ponensque recentia dixi 
" Cura pii dis sunt, et qui coluere coluntur." ' 

[After the story of Philemon and Bauds, Acheloiis tells of the varioQ 
changes of Proteus ; of the impiety of Erisichthon, who scoffed at thi 
worship of Ceres and cut down her sacred grove, for which the goddes 
had afflicted him with unappeasable hunger. Acheloiis then relate 
the various transformations of Erisichthon's daughter, and explain! 
what forms he himsel^ is able to assume. He ends his story witi 
a groan at the memory of certain unhappy experiences of his owi 

Book IX 

[Theseus asks Acheloiis to tell the cause of his grief. Thereupon th( 
god relates his contest with Hercules, his rival for the hand of Delaiun 
daughter of Oeneus, king of Aetolia. They long strive in their owl 
proper shapes, but the advantage is with Hercules.] 

Quae gimitus truncaeque deo Neptunius heros 
Causa rogat frontis. Cum sic Calydonius amnis 
Coepit, inornatos redimitus harundine crines : 
* Triste petis munus. Quis enim sua proelia victus 
5 Commemorare velit ? Ref eram tamen ordine. Nee 
Turpe f uit vinci, quam contendisse decorum est ; 



Magnaque dat nobis tantus solacia victor. 
Nomine siqua suo tandem pervenit ad aures 
Delfanira tuas — quondam pulcherrima virgo 

10 Multorumque fuit spes invidiosa procorum. 
Cum quibus ut soceri domus est intrata petiti, 
** Accipe me generum/' dixi " Parthaone nate : " 
Dixit et Alcides. Alii cessere duobus. 
I He lovem socerum dare se, famamque laborum, 

IS Et superata suae referebat iussa novercae. 

Contra ego *' turpe deum mortali cedere : '* dixi — 
Nondum erat ille deus — " regem me cernis aquarum 
Cursibus obliquis inter tua regna fluentum. 
Nee gener externis hospes tibi missus ab oris, 

ao Sad popularis ero et rerum pars una tuarum. 
Tantum ne noceat, quod me nee regia luno 
Odit, et omnis abest iussorum poena laborum. 
Nam, quo te iactas, Alcmena nate, creatum, 
luppiter aut falsus pater est, aut crimine verus. 

as Matris adulterio patrem petis. Elige, fictum 
E sse lovem mal is, an te per dedecus ortum." 
Talia dicentem iamdudum lumine torvo 
Spectat, et accensae non fortiter imperat irae, 
V grbaque jot reddit : ** Melior mihi dextera lingua. 

30 Dummodo pugnando superem, tu vince loquendo," 
Congrediturque ferox. Puduit modo magna locutum 
Cedere : reieci viridem de corpore vestem, 
Bracchiaque opposui, tenuique a pectore varas 
In statione manus et pugnae membra paravi. 

35 lUgjravis hausto spargit me pulvere palmis, 
Inque vicem fulvae tactu flavescit harenae. 
Et modo cervicem, modo crura micantia captat, 
Aut captare putes, omnique a parte lacessit. 
Me mea defendit gravitas: frustraque petebar\ 


4o Haud secus ac moles, magno quam murmure fluctus 
Oppugnant ; manet ilia, suoque est pondere tuta. 
Digredimur paulum, nirsusque ad bella coimus, 
Inque gradu stetimus, certi non cedere ; eratque 
Cum pede pes iunctus, totoque ego pectore pronus 

45 Et digitos digids et frontem fronte premebam. 
Xoa aliter vidi fortes concurrere tauros. 
Cum pretium pugnae toto nitidissima saltu 
Expotitur coniunx : spectant armenta paventque 
Nescia, quem maneat tanti victoria regni. 

50 Ter sine profectu voluit nitentia contra 
Reicero AlciUes a se mea pectora : quarto 
Excutit amplexus, adductaque bracchia solvit, 
[mpulsumque manu — certum est mihi vera fateri — 
Pro tin us avert it, tergoque onerosus inhaesit. 

55 Siqua tides, — neque enira ficta mihi gloria voce 
Quaeritur — imposito pressus mihi monte videbar. 
Vix tamen inserui sudore fluentia multo 
Bracchia, vix solvi duros a pectore nexus. 
Instat anhelanti, prohibetque resumere vires, 

60 Kt cer\ice mea potitur. Turn denique tellus 
Pressa genu nostro est, et harenas ore momordL 

[Achelous now has recourse to magic, changing first into a snake 
then into a bull ; but he is conquered in these disguises also.] 

Inferior virtute, meas divertor ad artes, 
Elaborque viro longum formatus in anguem. 
Qui postquam flexos sinuavi corpus in orbes, 
65 Cumque f ero movi linguam stridore bisulcam, 
Risit, et inludens nostras Tirynthius artes 
** Cunarum labor est angues superare mearum," 
Dixit " et ut vincas alios, Acheloe, dracones, 
Pars quota Lernaeae serpens eris unus echidnae ? 


(From the Vatican Museum) 

To face p. i6r 


70 Vulneribus fecunda suis erat ilia, nee ullum 
De centum numero caput est impune recisum, 
Quill gemino cervix herede valentior esset. 
Hanc ego ramosam natis e caede colubris 
Ciescentemque malo domui, domitamque reclusi. 

7S (^lid fore te credas, f alsum qui versus in anguem 
Atma aliena moves ? Quern forma precaria celat ? " 
Dixera^ et summo digitorum vincula coUo 
Imdt : angebar, ceu guttura f orcipe pressus, 
^oUicibusque meas pugnabam evellere fauces. 

80 ^c quoque devicto restabat tertia tauri 
Fonna trucis. Tauro mutatus membra rebello. 
Indiut ille toris a laeva parte lacertos, 
Admissumque trahens sequitur, depressaque dura 
Comlia figit humo, meque alta sternit harena. 

85 Nee satis hoc f uerat : rigidum fera dextera cornu 
Diini tenet, inf regit, truncaque a fronte revellit. 
Naides hoc, pomis et odoro flore repletum, 
Sacrarunt; divesque meo Bona Copia cornu est.' 
Dbcerat : et nymphe ritu succincta Dianae, 

90 Una ministrarum, f usis utrimque capillis, 
Incessit totumque tulit praedivite cornu ^»^ 

Autumnum et mensas, felicia poma, secundas. 
Lp iLSlibit ; et primo feriente cacumina sole 
Discedunt iuvenes. Neque cnim, dum flumina pacem 

9S Et placidos habeant lapsus, totaequc residant, 
Opperiuntur, aquae. Vultus Acheloiis agrestes 
Et lacerum cornu mediis caput abdidit undis. 

[The victorious Hercules journeys homeward with his bride. Com- 
ing to a swollen stream, he intrusts Deianira to the Centaur Nessus to 
carry across the stream, while he himself precedes. Nessus proves 
blse to his charge, and is shot by the poisoned arrows of Hercules. 
The dying centaur, plotting revenge, presents to Deianira his tunic 



dyed with his own life blood, which is now tainted with the Lemaeao 
poison from the darts of Hercules. This tunic, he assures her, will 
have the power to recall her husband's affections should he ever prove 
faithless to her (98-133). 

Now many years have passed, and Deianira hears a rumor that Her- 
cules is smitten by the charms of lole, a captive maiden. She believes 
the rumor, and, in a fit of jealousy, sends the poisoned tunic to her hus- 
band, who puts it on in the midst of a sacrifice of thanksgiving to Jove. 
As soon as the virulence of the poison is aroused by the heat, Hercules 
is seized with fearful sufferings.] 

Longa f uit medii mora temporis : actaque magni 

13s Herculis implerant terras odi umcme no vercae. 
Victor ab Oechalia Cenaeo sacra parabat 
Vota lovi, cum fanxa loquax praecessit ad aures, 
Deianira, tuas, quae veris addere falsa- 
Gaudet, et e minimo sua per mendacia crescit, 

140 Amphitryoniaden loles ardore teneri. 

Credit amans, venerisque novae perterrita fama 
Indulsit primo lacrimis, fiendoque dolorem 
Diff udit miseranda suum. Mox deinde * quid autem 
Flemus ? * ait * gaelex lacrimis laetabitur istis. 

14s Quae quoniam adveniet, properandum aliquidque 
novandum est, 
Dum licet, et nondum thalamos tenet altera nostros* 
Conquerar, an sileam ? Repetam C^^lydo'^j moreme? 
Excedam tectis .•* an, si nihil amplius, obstem ? 
Quid si me, Meleagre, tuam memor esse sororem 

150 Forte paro facinus, qnnnt2imriqnf^ jninrin poRnit 
Femineusque dolor, iugulata paelice tester.?' 
Incursus aniiniis varios habet. Omnibus illis 
Praetulit imbutam Nesseo sanguine vestem 
Mittere, quae vires defecto reddat amori. 

155 Ignaroque Lichae, quid tradat, nescia, luctus 
Ipsa suos tradit. Blandisque miserrima verbis, 


Dona det ilia viro, mandat. Capit inscius lieros,VVA'^' 
Induiturque umeris Lernaeae virus echidnae. 
Tura dabat primis et verba precantia flammis, 

160 Vinaque marmoreas patera fundebat in aras: 
Incaluit vis ilia mali, resolutaque flammis 
Herculeos abiit late diffusa per artus. 
Dum potuit, solita gemitum virtute repressit. 
Victa malis postquam est patientia, reppulit aras, 

165 Implevitque suis nemorosum vocibus Oeten. 
Nee mora, letiferam conatur scindere vestem : 
Qua trahitur, trahit ilia cutem, foedumque relatu, 
Aut haeret membris f rustra temptata revelli, 
Aut laceros artus et grandia detegit ossa. 

170 Ipse cruor, gelido ceu quondam lamina candens 
Tincta lacu, stridit coquiturque ardente veneno. 
Nee modus est, sorbent avidae praecordia flammae, 
Caeruleusque fluit toto de corpore sudor, 
Ambustique sonant nervi, caecaque medullis 

17s Tabe liquefactis tendens ad sidera palmas 

' Cladibus,* exclamat ' Saturnia, pascere nostris : 
Pascere, et banc pestem specta, crudelis, ab alto, 
Corque ferum satia. Vel si miserand us ethosti, 
Hoc est, si tibi sum, diris cruciatibus aegram 

180 Invisamque animam natamque laboribus aufer. 

Mors mihi munus erit. Decet haec dare dona novercam. 
Ergo ego f oedantem peregrino templa cruore 
Busirm domui ? saevoque alimenta parentis 
Antaeo eripui ? nee me pastoris Hiberi 

185 Forma triplex, nee forma triplex tua, Cerbere, movit ? 
Vosne, manus, validi pressistis cornua tauri ? 
Vestrum opus Elis habet, vestrum Stymphalides undae, 
Partheniumque nemus ? vestra virtute relatus 
Thermodontiaco caelatus balteus auro, 


190 Pomaque ab insomni concustodita dracone ? 
Nee mihi Centauri potuere resistere, nee mi 
Areadiae vastator aper ? nee prof uit hydrae 
Creseere per damnum geminasque resumere vires ? 
Quid, eum Thraeis equos humano sanguine pingues 

195 Plenaque corporibus laceris praesepia vidi, 
Visaque deieci, dominumque ipsosque peremi ? 
His elisa iacet moles Nemeaea laeertis : 
Hae caelum cerviee tuli. Defessa iubendo est 
Saeva lovis eoniunx : ego sum indefessus agendo. 

200 Sed nova pestis adest, eui nee virtute resist! 
Nee telis armisque potest. Pulmonibus errat 
Ignis edax imis, perque omnes pascitur artus. 
At valet Eurystheus ! et sunt, qui credere possint 
Esse deos ? ' Dixit, perque altum saucius Oeten 

205 Haud aliter graditur, quam si venabula taurus 
Corpore fixa gerat, factique refugerit auctor. 
Saepe ilium gemitus edentem, saepe frementem, 
Saepe retemptantem totas refringere vestes 
Sternentemque trabes irascentemque videres 

210 Montibus aut patrio tendentem bracchia caelo. 

[Hercules, in his madness, hurls Lychas, the bearer of the £ital 
tunic, into the sea; the youth is changed into a rock (211-229). 

The apotheosis of Hercules. The hero builds a mighty pyre on 
Mount Gete, and, after consigning his bow and arrows to his friend 
Philoctetes, mounts the pyre and bids his friend apply the torch. 
Meanwhile, in a council of the gods, it is decided that the long-suffer- 
ing hero shall be enrolled among their number and have a place in 
heaven. It is elsewhere related that DcTanira hanged herself through 

At tu, lovis inclita proles, 
230 Arboribus caesis, quas ardua gesserat Oete, 

Inque pyram structis arcum pharetramque capacem 
Regnaque visuras iterum Troiana sagittas 


Ferre iubes Poeante satum, quo flamma ministro 
Subdita. Dumque avidis comprenditur ignibus agger, 

235 Congeriem silvae Nemeaeo vellere summam 
Stemis, et imposita clavae cervice recumbis, 
Haud alio vultu, quam si con viva iaceres 
Inter plena meri redimitus pocula sertis. 
lamque valens et in omne latus diffusa sonabat, 

240 Securosque artus contemptoremque petebat 
Flamma suum. Timuere dei p ro vin dice terrae. 
Quos ita, sensit enim, laeto Saturnius ore 
luppiter adloquitur: 'nostra est timor iste voluptas, 
O superi, totoque libens mihi pectore grator, 

245 Quod memoris populi dicor rectorque paterque 
Et mea progenies vestro quoque tuta favore est. 
Nam quamquam ipsius datur hoc immanibus actis, 
Obligor ipse tamen. Sed enim, ne pectora vano 
Fida metu paveant, Oetaeas spernite flammas ! 

as© Omnia qui vicit, vincet, quos cernitis, ignes ; 
Nee nisi materna vulcanum parte potentem 
Sentiet. Aeternum est a me quod traxit, et expers 
Atque immune necis, nullaque domabile flamma. 
Idque ego de functum terra c aelestibus oris 

^5 Accipiam, cunctisque meum laetabile factum 
Dis fore confido. Siquis tamen Hgrcule, siquis 
Forte dep doliturus erit, data praemia nolet, 
Sed meruisse dari sciet, invitusque probabit.' 
Adsensere dei. Coniunx quoque regia visa est 

a6o Cetera non duro, duro tamen ultima vultu 
Dicta tulisse lovis, seque indoluisse notatam. 
Interea quodcumque fuit populabile flammae, 
Mulciber abstulerat : nee cognoscenda remansit 
Herculis effigies, nee quicquam ab imagine ductum 

265 Matris habet, tantumque lovis vestigia servat. 


Utque novus serpens posita cum pelle senecta 
Luxuriare solet, squamaque virere recenti : 
Sic ubi mortales Tirynthius exuit artus, 
Parte sui meliore viget, maiorque videri 
270 Coepit ct augusta fieri gravitate verendus. 

Quern pater omnipotcns inter cava nubila raptum 
Quadriiugo curru radiantibus intulit astris. 

[lole, by Hercules' command, had been espoused to Hyllus, the hero^ 
eldest son. After the death of Hercules, his mother Alcmena relates to 
lole the story of the birth of her great son, and of the hostility of Juno, 
who changed her servant maid Galanthis, because of her fidelity to her 
mistress, into a weasel (273-323). lole then relates how the nymph 
Dryope was changed into a tree by the angry deities of the woods 
because she picked a twig from the sacred lotus tree (324-393). While 
they are lamenting these sad chances, lolaus suddenly appears among 
them in renewed youth, which Hebe, the goddess of eternal youth, had 
bestowed upon him at the request of Hercules (394-417). Over this 
event a great clamor arises among the gods for a like favor for those 
mortals whom they love. But Jove forbids the gift of immortality to 
be given to any but those to whom the fates have decreed it. He cites 
Aeacus, Rhadamanthus, and Minos (418-438) as mortals whom he 
would if he could restore to youth. Now Minos, in the prime of his 
power, had driven Miletus forth from Crete, who fled to Asia and 
there founded the town that bears his name. Here Miletus had a son 
and a daughter, Caunus and Byblis. The latter, filled with an unnatu- 
ral love for Caunus is, in her despair, converted by the nymphs into a 
fountain (439-665). This story suggests the wonder of Crete, the 
metamorphosis of the maiden I phis into a youth, whose union with 
lanthe was honored by the presence of Venus, Juno, and Hymen, the 
god of marriage (666-797).] 

Book X 

[Hymen proceeds from Crete to Thrace to solemnize the nuptials of 
Orpheus and Eurydice. But the unfortunate bride is stunj^r by a ser 
pent and dies. Orpheus seeks her in the land of shades with the he^ 


if his lyre alone. By his sweet strains he wins the sympathy of all the 
pirit world, and even of the king and queen of Hades, who grant him 
lis request that his wife return to earth with him, upon the one condi- 
ion that he does not look back until he has regained the earth. This 
ondition he fails to fulfill, and again Eurydice is lost to him.] 

Inde per immensum croceo velatus amictu 
Aethera digreditur, Ciconumque Hymenaeus ad oras 
Tendit, et Orphea nequiquam voce vocatur. 
Adf uit ille quidem, sed nee sollemnia verba 
S Nee laetos vultus nee felix attulit omen. 
Fax quoque, quam tenuit, lacrimoso stridula fumo 
Usque fuit, nullosque invenit motibus ignes. 
Exitus auspicio gravior. Nam nupta per herbas 
Dum nova naiadum turba comitata vagatur, 

10 Occidit in talum serpentis dente recepto.^ 

Quam satis ad superas postquam RhoaopeYus auras 
Deflevit vates, n£non temptaret et umbras, 
Ad Styga Taenaria est ausus descendere porta : 
Perque leves populos simulacraque functa sepulcro 

IS Persephonen adiit inamoenaque regna tenentem 
Umbrarum dominum. Pulsisque ad carmina nervis 
Sic ait : * O positi sub terra numina mundi. 
In quem recidimus, quicquid mortale creamur : 
Si licet, et falsi positis ambagibus oris 

ao Vera loqui sinitis, non hue, ut opaca viderem 
Tartara, descendi ; nee uti villosa colubris 
Tema Medusaei vincirem guttura monstri. 
Causa viae coniunx, in quam calcata venenum 
Vipera diffudit, crescentesque abstulit annos. 

as Posse pati volui, nee me temptasse negabo : 

Vicit Amor. Supera deus hie bene notus in ora est : 
An sit et hie, dubito ; sed et hie tamen auguror esse, 
Famaque si veteris non est mentita rapinae. 


Vos quoque iunxit amor. Per ego haec loca plena 

30 Per Chaos hoc ingens vastique silentia regni, 
Eurydices, oro, properata retexite fata. 
Omnia debentur vobis, paulumque morati 
Serius aut citius sedem properamus ad unam. 
Tendimus hue omnes, haec est domus ultima, vosque 

35 Humani generis longissima regna tenetis. 

Haec quoque, cum iustos matura peregerit annos, 
luris erit vestri : pro munere poscimus usum. 
Quod si fata negant veniam pro coniuge, certum est 
Nolle redire mihi: leto gaudete duorum.' 

40 Talia dicentem nervosque ad verba moventem 
Exsangues flebant animae : nee Tantalus undam 
Captavit refugam, stupuitque Ixionis orbis, 
Nee carpsere iecur volucres, urnisque vacarunt 
Belides, inque tuo sedisti, Sisyphe, saxo. 

45 Tunc primum lacrimis victarum carmine fama est 
Eumenidum maduisse genas. Nee regia coniunx 
Sustinet oranti, nee qui regit ima, negare : 
Eurydicenque vocant. Umbras erat ilia recentes 
Inter, et incessit passu de vulnere tardo. 

50 Hanc simul et legem RhodopeYus accipit Orpheus, 
Ne flectat retro sua lumina, donee Avernas 
Exierit valles ; aut inrita dona f utura. 
Carpitur acclivis per muta silentia trames, 
Arduus, obscurus, caligine densus opaca. 

55 Nee procul af uerunt telluris margine summae : 
Hie, ne deficeret, metuens, avidusque videndi, 
Flexit amans oculos : et protinus ilia relapsa est, 
Bracchiaque intendens prendique et prendere certus 
Nil nisi cedentes infelix adripit auras. 

60 lamque iterum moriens non est de coniuge quicquam 


Questa suo : quid enim njgjj^p qi]fi|;^rfitnr^anTat^>yi ? 
Supremumque vale, quod iam vix auribus ille 
Acciperet, dixit, revolutaque rursus eodem est. 

[In despair at his second loss, Orpheus now disdains all woman- 
kind and retires to the woody slopes of Rhodope and Haemus, where 
he consoles himself upon the lyre. To these sweet strains all the 
trees of the forest throng around him to listen. Among these is the 
cypress, into which had been changed the youth Cyparissus, who 
pined away with grief because he had accidentally killed a favorite stag 
(64-142). Orpheus, in protracted song, relates how. the beautiful 
youth Hyacinthus, beloved by Apollo, was accidentally slain by that 
god during a game of quoits, and was changed by the grieving god 
into the flower that bears his name (143-219) ; how Venus changed the 
Cerastae to oxen because of their desecration of the rites of hospitality 
(220-242) ; how Pygmalion, a celebrated artist, became enamored of a 
beautiful statue which he had made, and at his prayer Venus infused 
the breath of life into the ivory figure (243-297) ; how Venus herself 
was smitten with the charms of the beautiful youth Adonis, whom she 
warned against the savage wild beasts. For his entertainment she told 
him the story of the swift-footed maiden Atalanta, who put all her lovers 
to the test of a foot race with her, adding the condition that the unsuc- 
cessful competitors should be slain. The youth Hippomenes, by the 
use of the golden apples which Venus taught him, won the race, and so 
the maiden for his promised bride. These two, however, for polluting 
the sacred temple of Cybele, were changed by that goddess into lions, 
and tamed to draw her car. Adonis, unmindful of the warnings of 
Venus, attacked a savage wild boar, by which he was slain. The sorrow- 
ing goddess, in memory of him, caused the anemone to spring from 
his blood (503-739).] 

Book XI 

[As Orpheus thus sings to the enchanted woods, the Thracian 
women roving through the mountain in a bacchanalian revel espy him, 
and in their madness, calling him the despiser of their sex. tear him in 
pieces (1-66). Bacchus, offended by their wanton cruelty, changes 
them all into trees, and deserts their land. He selects for his favored 
haunts the mountains of Lydia. Here, pleased with the hospitality of 


King Midas toward his foster father Silenus, the god promises to grant 
whatever boon Midas may ask (i-ioi). 

The foolish king prays that all which he touches may turn to gold. 
Returning to his palace, he is delighted to find that his prayer has been 
granted, and only realizes that he has attained a curse instead of bless- 
ing when he attempts to eat and drink. In his despair he prays again 
to Bacchus, who bids him bathe in the head waters of the river Pac- 
tolus, and thus be free from the fatal gift.] 

The Drunken Silenus in a Procession of Bacchanals 

(From a sarcophagus in the National Museum at Naples) 

Ille, male usurus donis, ait * effice quicquid 
Corpore contigero fulvum vertatur in aurum.' 
Adnuit optatis, nocituraque munera solvit 

xos Liber, et indoluit, quod non meliora petisset. 
Laetus abit gaudetque malo Berecyntius heros : 
Pollicitique fidem tangendo singula temptat. 
Vixque sibi credens, non alta fronde virentem 
nice detraxit virgam: virga aurea facta est. 

no Tollit humo saxum : saxum quoque palluit auro. 
Contigit et glaebam : contactu glaeba potenti 
Massa fit. Arentes Cereris decerpsit aristas : 
Aurea messis erat. Demptum tenet arbore pomum. 
Hesperidas donasse putes. Si postibus altis 

115 Admovit digitos, postes radiare videntur. 
Ille etiam liquidis palmas ubi laverat undis, 
Unda fluens palmis Danaen eludere posset 
Vix spes ipse suas animo capit, aurea fingens 
Omnia. Gaudenti mensas posuere ministri 


xao Exstructas dapibus nee tostae f rugis egentes : 
Turn vero, sive ille sua Cerealia dextra 
Munera contigerat, Cerealia dona rigebant ; 
Sive dapes avido convellere dente parabat, 
Lamina f ulva dapes, admoto dente, premebat. 

125 Miscuerat puris auctorem muneris undis : 
Fusile per rictus aurum fluitare videres. 
Attonitus novitate mali, divesque miserque, 
Eff ugere optat opes et quae modd voverat, odit. 
Copia nulla f amem relevat ; sitis arida guttur 

130 Urit, et inviso meritus torquetur ab auro. 

Ad caelumque manus et splendida bracchia tollens 

* Da veniam, Lenaee pater ! peccavimus ; * inquit 

* Sed miserere, precor, speciosoque eripe damno.' 
Mite deum numen, Bacchus peccasse fatentem 

13s Restituit, factique fide data munera solvit. 

* Neve male optato maneas circumlitus auro, 
Vade * ait * ad magnis vicinum Sardibus amnem, 
Perque iugum montis labentibus obvius undis 
Carpe viam, donee venias ad fluminis ortus ; 

140 Spumigeroque tuum fonti, qua plurimus exit, 

Subde caput, corpusque simul, simul elue crimen/ 
Rex iussae succedit aquae. Visjaurea tinxit 
Flumen, et humane de corpore cessitjn amnem. 
Nunc quoque iam veteris percepto semine venae 

145 Arva rigent auro madidis pallentia glaebis. 

[But Midas' foolish character remains unchanged. Being one of 
the judges at a contest of musical skill between Pan and Apollo, he 
takes the side of Pan. Apollo, in disgust, causes a pair of ass's ears to 
grow from Midas' head.] 

Ille, perosus opes, silvas et rura colebat, 
Panaque montanis habitantem semper in antris. 
Pingue sed ingenium mansit ; nocituraque, ut ante, 


Rursus erant domino stolidae praecordia mentis. 

150 Nam freta prospiciens late riget arduus alto 
Tmolus in ascensu, clivoque extensus utroque 
Sardibus hinc, illinc parvis finitur Hypaepis. 
Pan ibi dum teneris iactat sua carmina nymphis 
Et leve cerata modulatur harundine carmen, 

155 Ausus ApoUineos prae se contemnere cantus, 
ludice sub Tmolo certamen venit ad impar. 
Monte suo senior index consedit, et aures 
Liberat arboribus ; quercu coma caerula tantum 
Cingitur, et pendent circum cava tempora glandes. 

160 Isque deum pecoris spectans *in iudice' dixit 

* Nulla mora est.' Calamis agrestibus insonat ille : 
Barbaricoque Midan — aderat nam forte canenti — 
Carmine delenit. Post hunc sacer ora retorsit 
Tmolus ad os Phoebi; vultum sua silva secuta est. 

165 Ille caput flavum lauro Parnaside vinctus 
Verrit humum Tyrio saturata murice palla : 
Instrictamque fidem gemmis et dentibus Indis 
Sustinet a laeva : tenuit manus altera plectrum. 
Artificis status ipse fuit. Tum stamina docto 

170 Pollice sollicitat, quorum dulcedine captus 
Pana iubet Tmolus citharae summittere cannas. 
Indicium sanctique placet sententia montis 
Omnibus. Arguitur tamen atque iniusta vocatur 
Unius sermone Midae. Nee Delius aures 

175 Humanam stolidas patitur retinere figuram : 
Sed trahitjn,^gatium, villisque albentibus implet, 
Instabilesque imas facit et dat posse moveri. 
Cetera sunt hominis : partem damnatur in unam, 
Induiturque aures lente gradientis aselli. 

180 Ille quidem celare cupit, turpique pudore 
Tempora purpureis temptat velare tiaris. 



Sed solitus longos ferro resecare capillos 

Viderat hoc famulus. Qui cum nee prodere visum 

Dedecus auderet, cupiens efferre sub auras, 

i8s Nee posset retieere tamen, secedit, humumque 
EflFodit, et, domini quales aspexerit aures, 
Voce refert parva, terraeque immurmurat haustae ; 
Indiciumque suae vocis tellure regesta 
Obruit, et scrobibus tacitus diso^it opertis. 

190 Crebfir harundinibus tremulis ibi surgere ^cus 
Coepit, et, ut primum pleno maturuit anno, 
Prodidit agricolam : leni nam motus ab austro 
Obruta verba refert, dominique coarguit aures. 

[Apollo now goes to the neighborhood of the Hellespont, where he 
and Neptune engage to build the walls of Troy for King Leomedon for 
a certain reward. But when the work is done the king refuses to per- 
form his part. For this, the land is deluged and a sea-monster is sent 
to ravage the country. The king has promised his daughter Hesione 
to the one who will rescue her from the monster, to whom she has been 
destined as an expiatory offering. She is rescued by Hercules, but the 
reward is again denied, and Hercules, with the assistance of the brothers 
Telamon and Peleus, sacks Troy in revenge. Hesione is given by the 
victorious hero to Telamon ; for Peleus had already obtained the god- 
dess Thetis for his bride (194-220). 

This goddess had been assigned to Peleus as a reward for his virtu- 
ous life. After his pursuit of her through the many changes which she 
assumed in her endeavors to escape him, she finally yielded to his suit, 
and of this union was Achilles born (221-265). 

But Peleus' happiness was not destined to continue. Having by 
accident slain his brother Phocus, he is driven from his native land. 
He comes first to Trachinia, where Ceyx and Alcyone rule. Ceyx 
relates how his brother Daedalion had been changed into a hawk while 
in the act of throwing himself from a cliff through grief at his daughter 
Chione's death. A wolf now ravages the herds of Ceyx, and the mon- 
ster is, at the prayer of Peleus, changed into marble. Peleus comes next 
to Magnesia, where he is cleansed from the stain of his crime by Acastus 


Ceyx journeys by sea, against the urgent solicitatioii of Alcyone, to 
consult the oracle. During this voyage a terrible storm arises, and 
Ceyx is drowned. Juno, in pity for Alcyone, requires the god Soninus 
to send a dream to the queen which shall inform her of her husband^s 
death. Accordingly, Morpheus, assuming the form of the dead Ceyx, 
presents himself before Alcyone, and reveals to her the disaster which 
has happened to her husband. The gods, pitying her gfrief, change 
both iier and her husband to halcyons, the harbingers of calm weather 

An old man, seeing these birds in the air, is reminded of how Aesacus, 
a son of Priam, king of Troy, throwing himself into the sea because of 
his grief for his dead mistress, was changed into a cormorant (749- 

Book XII 

[Priam mourns Aesacus as dead, and all his sons join his mourning 
except Paris. He, by his impious deed, has brought upon Troy the 
avenging wrath of all Greece ; and even now the hostile fleet lies at 
Aulis ready to sail. But first the winds must be appeased by the sacri- 
fice of Iphigenia.] 

Nescius adsumptis Priamus pater Aesacon alis 
Vivere, lugebat. Tumulo quoque nomen habenti 
Inferias dedcrat cum fratribus Hector inanes. 
Def uit officio Paridis praesentia tristi, 

5 Postmodo qui rapta longum cum coniuge bellum 
Attulit in patriam, coniurataeque sequuntur 
Mille rates gentisque simul commune Pelasgae. 
Nee dilata foret vindicta, nisi aequora saevi 
Invia f ecissent venti, Boeotaque tellus 

10 Aulide piscosa puppes tenuisset ituras. 
Hie patrio de more lovi cum sacra parassent, 
Ut vetus accensis incanduit ignibus ara, 
Serpere caeruleum Danai videre draconem 
In platanum, coeptis quae stabat proxima sacris. 

15 Nidus erat volucrum bis quattuor arbore summa, 


Quas simul et matrem circum sua damna volantem 
Corripuit serpeivs avidoque abscondidit ore. 
Obstipuere omnes. At veri providus augur 
Thestorides * vincemus/ ait * gaudete, Pelasgi. 

ao Troia cadet ; sed erit nostri mora longa laboris * ; 
Atque novem volucres in belli digerit annos. 
Ille, ut erat, virides amplexus in arbore ramos 
Fit lapis ; et superat serpentis imagine saxum. 
Permanet Aoniis Nereus violentus in undis, 

as Bellaque non transf ert ; et sunt qui parcere Troiae 
Neptunum credant, quia moenia fecerat urbi. 
At non Thestorides. Nee enim nescitve tacetve, 
Sanguine virgineo placandam virginis iram 
Esse deae. Postquam pietatem publica causa, 

30 Rexque patrem vicit, castumque datura cruorem 
Flentibus ante aram stetit Iphigenia ministris, 
Victa dea est, nubemque oculis obiecit, et inter 
Officium turbamque sacri vocesque precantum 
Supposita fertur mutasse Mycenida cerva. 

35 Ergo ubi, qua decuit, lenita est caede Diana, 
Et pariter Phoebes, pariter maris ira recessit, 
Accipiunt ventos a tergo mille carinae, 
Multaque perpessae Phrygia potiuntur harena. 

[Straightway rumor spreads over the world the news of the intended 
attack upon Troy. The Trojans prepare their defense. Protesilaiis, 
the first Greek to land, is slain by Hector. In one of the many battles 
that ensue, Achilles engages with Cycnus, the son of Neptune. Finding 
his foe invulnerable to spear and sword, Achilles at length succeeds 
in strangling him. The fallen hero is changed by Neptune into a 
swan (39-145). These events are succeeded by a truce, during which 
Achilles pays the feast which he had vowed for the death of Cycnus. 
The chiefs discuss their various deeds of arms, and especially Cycnus' 
fiite. Nestor recalls the similar case of Caeneus, who, once a beautiful 
maiden, Caenis, had been ravished by Neptune, and had been at hec 


own request changed by the god into a man and made invulnerable 
(146-209). It \v;is at this time that, at the marriage of Pirithoiis, king 
of the Lapithae, with Hippodamia, the famous contest of the centaurs 
with their hosts, the Lapithae occurred. Nestor, who also had been a 
guest at the marriage feast, now recites at great length the story of the 
bloody strife. The part of the invulnerable Caeneus in this fight was 
of especial interest. Many centaurs fell by his hands, but their spears 
and swords were ineffectual against him. He was finally overwhelmed 
by a mass of trees which they heaped upon him, and at the moment of 
his death he was changed into an eagle (210-535). As Nestor finishes 
his tale, Tlepolemus, the descendant of Hercules, chides the old man 
for omitting the deeds of his mighty ancestor. Nestor explains his 
personal reasons for animosity toward Hercules: how the latter had 
devastated his country and slain all of his brothers, one of whom, 
Periclymenus, Neptune had endowed with the power of assuming what- 
ever shape he pleased. Assaulting Hercules in the form of an eagle, 
he was slain by the hero's dart (536-579). 

At the close of Nestor's story, the Greeks withdraw to rest. Mean- 
while, Neptune vows vengeance upon Achilles for the death of his son 
Cycnus. For nine years he remembers his vow, and at last, by the 
aid of Apollo, he secures its fulfillment through an arrow shot by Paris. 
The Greeks, after rendering the dead hero the due funeral honors, 
assemble to listen to the rival claims of Ajax and Ulysses for Achilles* 

580 At deus aequoreas qui cuspide temperat undas, 
In volucrem corpus nati Phaethontida versum 
Mente dolet patria ; saevumque perosus Achillem 
Exercet memores plus quam civiliter iras. 
lamque fere tracto duo per quinquennia bello 

585 Talibus intonsum compellat Sminthea dictis : 
' O mihi de fratris longe gratissime natis, 
Inrita qui mecum posuisti moenia Troiae, 
Ecquid, ubi has iam iam casuras aspicis arces, 
Ingemis ? aut ecquid tot defendentia mures 

590 Milia caesa doles } ecquid, ne persequar omnes, 
Hectoras umbra subit circum sua Pergama tracti. 



Cum tamen ille ferox belloque cruentior ipso 
Vivit adhuc, operis nostri populator, Achilles? 
Det mihi se, faxo, triplici quid cuspide possim, 

595 Sentiat. At quoniam concurrere comminus hosti 
Non datur, occulta necopinum perde sagitta ! * 
Adnuit, atque animo pariter patruoque suoque 
Delius indulgens nebula velatus in agmen 
Pervenit Iliacum, mediaque in caede virorum 

600 Rara per ignotos spargentem cernit Achivos 

Tela Parin : f assusque deum, * quid spicula perdis 
Sanguine plebis ? ' ait. * Siqua est tibi cura tuorum, 
Vertere in Aeaciden, caesosque ulciscere f ratres ! ' 
Dixit, et ostendens stern en tern Troica ferro 

60s Corpora Peliden, arcus obvertit in ilium, 
Certaque letifera direxit spicula dextra. 
Quod Priamus gaudere senex post Hectora posset, 
Hoc fuit. Ille igitur tantorum victor, Achille, 
Vinceris a timido Graiae raptore maritae ! 
610 At si femineo fuerat tibi Marte cadendum, 
Thermodontiaca malles cecidisse bipenni. 

A Bati'LE with the Amazons 
(From a sarcophagus in the Vatican Museum) 
OVID — J 2 


lam timor ille Phrygum, decus et tutela Pelasgi 
Nominis, Aeacides, caput insuperabile bello, 
Arserat. Armarat deus idem, idemque cremarat. 

615 lam cinis est ; et de tam magno restat Achille 

Nescio quid, parvam quod non bene compleat urnam. 
At vivit totum quae gloria compleat orbem. 
Haec illi mensura viro respondet et hac est 
Par sibi Pelides, nee inania Tartara sentit. 

620 Ipse etiam, ut, cuius fuerit, cognoscere possis, 
Bella movet clipeus, deque armis arma feruntur. 
Non ea Tydides, non audet Oileos Aiax, 
Non minor Atrides, non bello maior et aevo 
Poscere, non alii. Solis Telamone creato 

625 Laerteque fuit tantae fiducia laudis. 

A se Tantalides onus invidiamque removit, 
Argolicosque duces mediis considere castris 
lussit et arbitrium litis traiecit in omnes. 

Book XIII 

[Ajax, with overweening boastfulness and unrestrained passion, lays 
claim to the armor. He bases his claim first upon his noble descent, 
being in the third generation from Jove ; second, upon the feet that he 
is next of kin to the dead Achilles ; and finally he compares the cow- 
ardly, underhanded dealings of his rival with his own brave deeds and 
warlike prowess.] 

Consedere duces et vulgi stante corona 
Surgit ad hos clipei dominus septemplicis Aiax; 
Utque erat impatiens irae, Sigeta torvo 
Litora respexit classemque in litore vultu, 
5 Intendensque manus * agimus, pro luppiter ! ' inquit 
* Ante rates causam, et mecum conf ertur Ulixes ! 
At non Hectoreis dubitavit cedere flammis. 


Quas ego sustinui, quas hac a classe fugavi. 
Tutius est igitur fictis contendere verbis, 

10 Quam pugnare raanu. Sed nee mihi dicere promptum, 
Nee facere est isti : quantumque ego Marte feroci 
Inque acie valeo, tantum valet iste loquendo. 
Nee memoranda tamen vobis mea facta, Pelasgi, 
Esse reor ; vidistis enim. Sua narret Ulixes, 

15 Quae sine teste gerit, quorum nox conscia sola est. 
Praemia magna peti fateor : sed demit honorem 
Aemulus : Aiaci non est tenuisse superbum. 
Sit licet hoc ingens, quicquid speravit Ulixes. 
Iste tulit pretium iam nunc temptaminis huius, 

ao Quo cum victus erit, mecum certasse feretur. 
Atque ego, si virtus in me dubitabilis esset, 
Nobilitate potens essem ; Telamone creatus, 
Moenia qui forti Troiana sub Hercule cepit, 
Litoraque intravit Pagasea Colcha carina. 

35 Aeacus huic pater est, qui iura silentibus illic 

Reddit, ubi Aeoliden saxum grave Si gyphon urguet. 
Aeacon agnoscit summus prolemque fatetur 
luppiter esse suam. Sic ab love tertius Aiax. 
Nee tamen haec series in causam prosit, Achivi, 

30 Si mihi cum magno non est communis Achille. 
Fgter erat ; fraterna peto. Quid sanguine cretus 
Sisyphio, furtisque et fraude simillimus illi, 
Inserit Aeacidis alienae nomina gentis ? 
An quod in arma prior nulloque sub indice veni, 

35 Arma neganda mihi ? potiorque videbitur ille. 
Ultima qui cepit, detractavitque furore 
Militiam ficto, donee sollertior isto 
Sed sibi inutilior timidi comment a retexit 
Naupliades animi, vitataque traxit in arma ? 

40 Optima num sumat, quia sumere noluit ulla i 



Nos inhonorati ct donis patruelibus orbi, 

Obtulimus quia nos ad prima pericula, simus ? 

Atque utinam aut verus furor ille, aut creditus 

Nee eomes hie Phrygias umquam venisset ad a— — ^i^c< 

45 Hortator seelcrum ! non te, Poeantia proles, 
Expositum Lemnos nostro cum crimine habere 
Qui nune, ut memorant, silvestribus abditus an 
Saxa moves gemitu, Laertiadaeque precaris 
Quae meruit, quae, si di sunt, non vana precarL- -*- ^^^ 

50 Et nunc ille eadem nobis iuratus in arma, 

Heu ! pars una ducum, quo successore sagittae ^^. 

Herculis utuntur, fractus morboque fameque 
Velaturque aliturque avibus, volucresque peten -^^ -^^^ 
Debita Troianis exercet spicula fatis. 

55 Ille tamen vivit, quia non comitavit Ulixen. 
Mallet et infelix Palamedes esse relictus, 

58 Quem male convicti nimium memor iste furoris- 
Prodere rem Danaam finxit, fictumque probavil 

60 Crimen et ostendit, quod iam praefoderat, auru-- 
Ergo aut exsilio vires subduxit Achivis, 
Aut nece. Sic pugnat, sic est metuendus Ulix< 
Qui licet eloquio fidum quoque Nestora vincat, 

^ .Haud tamen efficiet, desertum ut Nestora crim* 

65 Esse rear nullum : qui cum imploraret Ulixen 
Vulnere tardus equi fessusque senilibus annis, 
Proditus a socio est. Non haec mihi crimina ii:^^"^^-^^^ 
Scit bene Tydides, qui nomine saepe vocatum 
Corripuit, trepidoque fugam exprobravit amico. 

70 Aspiciunt oculis superi mortalia iustis : 

En eget auxilio, qui non tulit ; utque reliquit, 
Sicjioquen^iis erat : legem sibi dixerat ipse. 
Conclamat socios. Adsum, videoque tremente: 
Pallentemque metu et trepidantem morte futura^ 



75 Opposui molem clipei texique iacentem, 

Servavique animam — mininium est hoc laudis — 

Si perstas certare, locum redeamus in ilium : 
Redde hostem vulnusque tuum solitumque timorem, 
Post clipeumque late, et mecum contende sub illo. 

80 At postquam eripui, cui standi vulnera vires 
Non dederant, nullo tardatus vulnere fugit. 
Hector adest, secu mque ji^s in proelia ducit: 
Quaque ruit, non tu tantum terreris, Ulixe, 
Sed fortes etiam : tantum trahit ille timoris. 

85 Hunc ego sanguineae successu caedis ovantem ? ? 
Eminus ingenti resupinum pondere f udi : ^ ' 

Hunc ego poscentem, cum quo concurreret, unus 
Sustinui : sortemque meam vovistis, Achivi, 
Et vestrae valuere preces. Si quaeritis huius 

90 Fortunam pugnae, non sum superatus ab illo. 
Ecce ferunt Troes ferrumque ignemque lovemque 
In Danaas classes. Ubi nunc facundus Ulixes ? 
Nempe ego mille meo protexi pectore puppes, 
Spem vestri reditlis. Date tot pro navibus arma. 

95 Quod si vera licet mihi dicere, quaeritur istis, 

Quam mihi, maior honos, coniunctaque gloria nostra ) \ 
est, ^ ^ 

Atque Aiax armis, non Aiaci arma petuntur. 
Conferat his Ithacus Rhesum imbellemque Dolona 
Priamidenque Helenum rapta cum Pallade captum. 

100 Luce nihil gestum, nihil est Diomede remoto. 
Si semel ista datis meritis tam vilibus arma, 
Dividite, et pars sit maior Diomedis in illis. 
Quo tamen haec Itha^o, qui clam, qui semper inermis 
Rem gerit et furtis incautum decipit hostem ? 
^ Ipse nitor galeae claro radiantis ab auro 


Insidias prodet manifestabitque latentem. 
Sed neque Dulichius sub Achillis casside vertex 
Pondera tanta feret, nee non^oa^rosa gravisque 
Pelias hasta potest imbellibus esse lacertis, 

no Nee clipeus vasti concretus imagine mundi 
Conveniet timidae nataeque ad furta sinistrae. 
Debilitaturum quid te petis, improbe, munus ? 
Quod tibi si populi donaverit error Achivi, 
Cur spolieris, erit, non cur metuaris ab hoste ; 

IIS Et fuga, qua sola cunctos, timidissime, vincis, 
Tarda futura tibi est gestamina tanta trahenti. 
Adde quod istejuus, tarn raro proelia passus, 
Integer est clipeus : nostro, qui tela ferendo 
Mille patet plagis, novus est successor habendus. 

I20 Denique, quid verbis opus est ? Spectemur agendo ! 
Arma viri f ortis medios mittantur in hostes : 
Inde iubete peti et ref eren tem ornate relatis/ 

[Ulysses next speaks, and with his well ordered words shows the 
superiority of reason and eloquence over brute force. He pleads that 
his gift of speech and shrewdness with which Ajax has taunted him 
may not be considered to his disadvantage, for by it he has often served 
the Greeks. By this he gave Achilles to the war.] 

Finierat Telamone satus ; vulgique secutum 
Ultima murmur erat ; donee Laertius heros 

125 Astitit, atque oculos paulum tellure moratos 
Sustulit ad proceres, exspectatoque resolvit 
Ora sono ; neque abest facundis gratia dictis. 
* 5u^ea cum vestris valuissent vota, Pelasg^, 
Non foret ambiguus tanti certaminis heres, 

X30 Tuque tuis armis, nos te poteremur, Achilla. 

Quem quoniam non aequa mihi vobisque negarunt 
Fata,' — manuque simul veluti lacrimantia tersit 
Lumina — * quis magno melius succedat Achilli, 


Quam per quem magnus Danais successit Achilles ? 
135 Huic modo ne prosit, quod, uti est, hebes esse videtur; 
Neve mihi noceat, quod vobis semper, Achivi, 
Prof uit ingenium : meaque haec f acundia, siqua est. 
Quae nunc pro^offlino, pro vobis saepe locuta est, 
Invidia careat, bona nee sua quisque recuset. 

[He contrasts his own descent with that of Ajax, and refutes the 
latter's claim to be next of kin to Achilles.] 

140 Nam genus et proavos et q uae non fecim us ipsi, 
Vix ea nostra voco. Sed enim quia rettulit Aiax 
Ksse lovis pronepos, nostri quoque sanguinis auctor 
luppiter est, totidemque gradus distamus ab illo. 
Nam mihi Laertes pater est, Arcesius illi, 

145 luppiter huic ; neque in his quisquam damnatus et exsul. 
Est quoque per matrem Cyllenius addita nobis 
Altera nobilitas. Deus est in utroque parente. 
Sed neque materno quod sum generosior ortu, 
Nee mihi quod pater est fraterni sanguinis insons, 

150 Proposita arma peto. Meritis expendite causam ; 
Dummodo quod fratres Telamon Peleusque fuerunt 
Aiacis meritum non sit, nee sanguinis ordo, 
Sed virtutis honor spoliis quaeratur in istis. 
Aut si proximitas primusque requiritur heres, 

155 Est genitor Peleus, est Pyrrhus filius illi. X 

Quis locus Aiaci ? Phthiam haec Scyrumve ferantur ^ 
Nee minus est isto Teucer patruelis Achilli. 
Num petit ille tamen, num si petat, auf erat ilia .? -* 7 

[Basing his argument upon desert, Ulysses claims as his own all the 
mighty deeds of Achilles, for it was he who sent that hero to the war.] 

Ergo operum quoniam nudum certamen habetur, 
160 Plura quidem feci, quam quae comprendere dictis 


In promptu mihi sit. Rerum tamen ordine ducar. 
Praescia venturi genetrix Nerela leti 
Dissimulat cultu natum. Deceperat omnes, 
In quibus Aiacem, sumptae fallacia vestis. 

165 Arma ego femineis animum motura virilem 

Mercibus inserui. Neque adhuc proiecerat heros 
Virgineos habitus, cum parmam hastamque tenenti 
" Nate dea," dixi "tibi se peritura reservant 
Pergama. Quid dubitas ingentem evertere Troiam ? *' 

170 Iniecique manum, fortemque ad fortia misi. 

Ergo opera illius mea sunt. Ego Telephon hasta 
Pugnantem domui, victum orantemque refeci. 
Quod Thebae cecidere, meum est. Me credite Lesbon, 
Me Tenedon Chrysenque et Cillan, ApoUinis urbes, . 

175 Et Scyrum cepisse. Mea concussa putate 
Procubuisse solo Lyrnesia moenia dextra. 
Utque alios taceam, qui saevum perdere posset 
Hectora, nempe dedi. Per me iacet inclitus Hector. 
I His haec armis, quibus est inventus Achilles, 

180 Arma peto : vivo dederam, post fata reposco. 

[It was by his arguments at Aulis that Agamemnon had been pre- 
vailed upon to yield to fate and sacrifice his daughter to appease the 
winds. He also was the chosen ambassador of the Greeks sent to the 
court of Priam to demand the restoration of Helen.] 

Ut dolor unius Danaos pervenit ad omnes, 
Aulidaque Euboicam complerunt mille carinae, 
Exspectata diu, nulla aut contraria classi 
Flamina erant : duraeque iubent Agamemnona sortes 
185 Immeritam saevae natam mactare Dianae. 
Denegat hoc genitor, divisque irascitur ipsis, 
Atque in rege tamen pater est. Ego mite parentis 
Ingenium verbis ad publica commoda verti. 



^tSunc equidem fateor, f assoque ignoscat Atrides : 
JDi fficilem tenui s ub iniquo iudice causam. 
^tlunc tamen utilitas populi fraterque datique 
^^Summa movet sceptri, laudem ut cum sanguine penset. 
^^littor et ad matrem, quae non hortanda, sed astu 
IHDecipienda f uit Quo si Telamonius isset, 
^^5 Orba suis essent etiam nunc lintea ventis. 
I^ittor et Iliacas audax orator ad arces, 
"Visaque et intrata est altae mihi curia Troiae : 
TPlenaque adhuc erat ilia viris. Interritus egi 
^uam mihi mandarat communis Graecia causam, 
^^^^'^ J^ccusoque Parin praedamque Helenamque reposco, 
lEt moveo Priamum Priamoque Antenora iunctum. 
At Paris et fratres et qui rapuere sub illo, 
"Vix tenuere manus — scis hoc, Menelae ! — nefandas : 
Primaque lux nostri tecum fuit ilia pericli. 

, L^^e recounts his service in restraining the Greeks at the time when 

. ^V'> Ajax included, would have returned home leaving Troy untaken ; 

^ tlie daring deeds which, in company with Diomede, he had done.] 

^^S Longa referre mora est quae consilioque manuque 
Utiliter feci spatiosi tempore belli. 
Post acies primas urbis se moenibus hostes 
Continuere diu, nee aperti copia Martis 
Ulla fuit : decimo demum pugnavimus anno. 

*^^ Quid f acis interea, qui nil, nisi proelia, nosti ? 

Quis tuus usus erat ? Nam si mea facta requiris, 
Hostibus insidior, fossas munimine cingo, 
Consolor socios, ut longi taedia belli 
Mente ferant placida : doceo, quo simus alendi 

^^S Armandique modo; mittor, quo postulat usus. 
Ecce lovis monitu, deceptus imagine somni, 
Rex iubet incepti curam dimittere belli. 


r/.e ro:es: auc:.Te suan defendere vocem. 

N::: <::ij.: h:c A:j:x. delendaque Pergama poscat, 

ijc Oj^Ai^ue rc:c;<:. Cur non remoratur itun 
Cur :ior. ^rr/.jL car::, cat, quod vaga turba sequatur? 
Non c-i: hoc r.iro.ium numquam nisi magna loquent 
Ou:d cu:v: o: irse rup: ? Vidi, puduitque videre, 
C;:n: :u tcrc^ dares inhonestaque vela parares. 

ii5 Noc :v.ora. " ouid facitis ? Ouae vos dementia" dixi 
" Concira:, O soci:. capram dimittere Troiam ? 
Ouidvo dor.:ur.: lertis decimo. nisi dedecus, anno?" 
Tao.bus arcue aliis. in quae dolor ipse disertum 
Focora:, avorsos protUir^ de classe reduxi. 

-V ConvovMt A:r:do5 5oc:o5 terrore paventes : 

Noo ro*.i:r.or.:.ides etiam nunc hiscere quicquam 
Audo: A: ausus era: regres incessere dictis 
rhcrs::o5. o::arn rer rae haud impune, protervis. 
Kri^w. o: :ro*o:dos cives exhortor in hostem, 

3jic^ A:v.iss,\:r.o;:e nioa vir:u:em voce repono. 

loo.vooro ab hoo. quodcumque potest fecisse videri 
Forutor is:o, :nou:n est, qui dantem terga retraxi. 
Poniquo do Danais quis te laudat\e petitv^e ? 
At SUA Tvdides meoum communicat acta, 

240 Mo probat ot socio semper confidit UHxe. 
Kst aliquid, do tot Graiorum milibus unum 
A Dioniodo legi : neo me sors ire iubebat 
Sio tamon ot spreto nootisque hostisque periclo 
Ausum oadom. quae nos, Phrj'gia de gente Dolona 

245 Intorimo: non ante tamen, quam cuncta coegi 
Prodoro, et edidici, quid perfida Troia parareL 
Omnia cognoram, nee. quod specularer, habebam, 
Et iam promissa poteram cum laude reverti. 
Haud contentus eo petii tentoria Rhesi, 

250 Inque suis ipsum castris comitesque peremi: 


Atque ita captivo victor votisque potitus 
Ingredior cumi laetos imitante triumphos. 
Cuius equos pretium pro nocte poposcerat hostis, 
Arma negate mihi. Fueritque benignior Aiax ! 

[His warlike deeds in open fight. It was he himself who rescued 
the body and armor of the fallen Achilles.] 

255 Quid Lycii referam Sarpedonis agmina ferro 
Devastata meo ? Cum multo sanguine fudi 
Coeranon Iphitiden et Alastoraque Chromiumque 
Alcandrumque Haliumque Noemonaque Prytaninque, 
Exitioque dedi cum Chersidamante Thoona 

260 Et Charopem, fatisque immitibus Ennomon actum, 
Quique minus celebres nostra sub moenibus urbis 
Procubuere manu. Sunt et mihi vulnera, cives, 
Ipso pulchra loco : nee vanis credite verbis. 
Aspicite en ! ' vestemque manu diduxit et * haec sunt 

26s Pectora semper ' ait * vestris exercita rebus. 
At nil impendit per tot Telamonius annos 
Sanguinis in socios, et habet sine vulnere corpus. 
Quid tamen hoc refert, si se pro classe Pelasga 
Arma tulisse refert contra Troasque lovemque ? 

270 Confiteorque, tulit : neque enim benef acta maligne 
Detractare meum est. Sed ne communia solus 
Occupet, atque aliquem vobis quoque reddat honorem. 
Reppulit Actorides sub imagine tutus Achillis 
Troas ab arsuris cum defensore carinis. 

275 Ausum etiam Hectoreis solum concurrere telis 
Se putat, oblitus regisque ducumque meique, 
Nonus in officio, et praelatus munere sortis. 
Sed tamen eventus vestrae, fortissime, pugnae 
Quis fuit ? Est Hector violatus vulnere nullo. 
a8o Me miserum, quanto cogor meminisse dolore 


'reniporis illius, quo Graium mums, Achilles 
l*rocubuit ! Nee me lacrimae luctusve timorve 
'i'ardarunt. quin corpus humo sublime referrem. 
His umeris, his, inquam, umeris ego corpus Achillis, 
jSs l^t simul arma tuli. Quae nunc quoque ferre laboro. 
Sunt mihi, quae valeant in talia pondera, vires. 
Mst animus ccrte vestros sensurus honores. 

[ It would be a shame for Ajax to possess this heavenly armor, for he 
i.s too l)n»tish and iluU to appreciate its beauties.] 

Scilicet idoirco pro gnato caerula mater I 

Ambitiosa suo fuit, ut caelestia dona, | 

*/» Artis opus tantae, rudis et sine pectore miles 
Inducrot ? Ncque enim clipei caelamina norit, 
Ocoanum ct terras cumque alto sidera caelo, 
ricTadasque, 1 Iyadasque,immunemque aequoris Arcton, 
Divcrsasque urbes, nitidumque Orionis ensem. 

»js i\)stulat ut capiat quae non intellegit arma. 

[As to the taunt of Ajax that Ulysses had sought by strategy to 
avoid coining; to the war, Achilles himself had done the saoie.] 

Quid quod me duri fugientem munera belli 

Arguit incepto serum accessisse labori. 

Nee se magnanimo maledicere sentit Achilli ? 

Si simulasse vocas crimen, simulavimrus ambo. 
300 Si mora pro culpa est, ego sum maturior illo. 

Me pia detinuit coniunx, pia mater Achillem ; 

Primaque sunt ilHs data tempora, cetera vobis. 

Hand timeo, si iam nequeo defendere, crimen 

Cum tanto commune viro. Deprensus Ulixis 
305 Ingenio tamen ille : at non Aiacis Ulixes. 

[Not Ulysses alone but all the Greek chieftains are responsible:^ for 
the fate of Palamedes and Philoctetes. Yet Philoctetes shall sti^ ^ be 
brought by Ulysses' wit to serve the Greeks at Troy, the same wit W'^ikii 


had learned of the Palladium and secured that aiding presence of the 
goddess for the Greeks.] 

Neve in me stolidae convicia fundere linguae 
Admiremur eum, vobis quoque digna pudore 
Obicit. An falso Palameden crimine turpe 
Accusasse mihi, vobis damnasse decorum est ? 

310 Sed neque Naupliades facinus defendere tantum 
Tamque patens valuit, nee vos audistis in illo 
Crimina : vidistis, praestoque obiecta patebant. 
Nee Poeantiaden quod habet Vulcania Lemnos, 
Esse reus merui. Factum def endite vestrum ; 

315 Consensistis enim. Nee me suasisse negabo, 
Ut se subtraheret bellique viaeque labori, 
Temptaretque f eros requie lenire dolores. 
Paruit, et vivit. Non haec sententia tantum 
Fida, sed et felix; cum sit satis, esse fidelem. 

320 Quem quoniam vates delenda ad Pergama poscunt, 
Ne mandate mihi : melius Telamonius ibit, 
Eloquioque virum morbis iraque f urentem 
Molliet, aut aliqua producet callidus arte. 
Ante retro Simois fluet et sine frondibus Ide 

325 Stabit, et auxilium promittet Achaia Troiae, 
Quam, cessante meo pro vestris pectore rebus, 
Aiacis stolidi Danais soUertia prosit. 
Sis licet infestus sociis regique mihique. 
Dure Philoctete ; licet exsecrere, meumque 

330 Devoveas sine fine caput, cupiasque dolenti 
Me tibi forte dari, nostrumque haurire cruorem, 
Utque tui mihi, sic fiat tibi copia nostri: 
Te tamen aggrediar, mecumque reducere nitar. 
Tamque tuis potiar, faveat Fortuna, sagittis, 

335 Quam sum Dardanio, quem cepi, vate potitus ; 
Quam responsa deum Troianaque fata retexi ; 


Ouam rapui Phr)'giae signum penetrale Minervae 
Hostibus e mediis. Et se mihi comparat Aiax? 
Nempe capi Troiam prohibebant fata sine illo. 

340 Fortis ubi est Aiax? Ubi sunt ingentia magni 
Verba viri ? Cur hie metuis ? Cur audet Ulixes 
Ire per excubias et se committere nocti, 
Perque feros enses non tantum moenia Troum, 
Verum etiam summas arces intrare suaque ^ 

345 Eripere aede deam, raptamque adf erre per hostes ? 
Quae nisi fecissem, frustra Telamone creatus 
Gestasset laeva taurorum tergora septem. 
Ilia nocte mihi Troiae victoria parta est : 
Pergama tunc vici, cum vinci posse coegi. 

[Yes, during the whole \var, while the brawn and physical valor of 
Ajax had often gained renown (though many others had been as brave 
and strong as he), still it was the mind of Ulysses that had planned 
and counseled with the leader of the war, and it is mind that makes the 
worth of a man.] 

350 Desine Tydiden vultuque et murmure nobis 
Ostentare meum. Pars est sua laudis in illo. 
Nee tu, cum socia clipeum pro classe tenebas, 
Solus eras. Tibi turba comes, mihi contigit unus. 
Qui nisi pugnacem sciret sapiente minorem 

355 Esse, nee indomitae deberi praemia dextrae, 

Ipse quoque haec peteret. Peteret moderatior Aiax, 
Eurypylusque f erox, claroque Andraemone natus ; 
Nee minus Idomeneus, patriaque creatus eadem 
Merion8s ; peteret maioris f rater Atridae : 

360 Quippe manu fortes nee sunt mihi Marte secundi, 
Consiliis cessere meis. Tibi dextera bello 
Utilis ; ingenium est, quod eget moderamine nostro. 
Tu vires sine mente geris : mihi cura f uturi. 
Tu pugnare potes : pugnandi tempora mecum 


^ -^^ligit Atrides. Tu tantum corpore prodes, 

^^^ OS animo. Quantoque ratem qui temperat, anteit 
^^cmigis officium, quanto dux milite maior, 
^t^antum ego te supero. Nee non in corpore nostro 
*^^ctora sunt potiora manu; vigor omnis in illis. 

^;^sses makes a final appeal to the judges and ends his speech.] 

^^ -^V.t vos, o proceres, vigili date praemia vestro ; 
^t^roque tot annorum cura, quibus anxius egi, 
I^unc titulum meritis pensandum reddite nostris. 
X am labor in fine est, obstantia fata removi, 
-^Itaque posse capi faciendo Pergama, cepi. 
^^s I^er spes nunc socias casuraque moenia Troum, 
X^erque deos oro, quos hosti nuper ademi, 
I^er siquid superest, quod sit sapienter agendum, 
Siquid adhuc audax ex praecipitique petendum est, 
Si Troiae fatis aliquid restare putatis, 
380 ;Este mei memores ! Aut si mihi non datis arma, 
Huic date !' Et ostendit signum fatale Minervae. 

C^lie armor is awarded to Ulysses, whereupon Ajax, in a frenzy of 
.^F^p> ointment and rage, slays himself with his own sword. From his 
«i^^ springs a purple flower (the hyacinth) whose petals commemo- 
^l:ie name of the fallen hero.] 

^ota manus procerum est, et quid facundia posset, 
He patuit ; f ortisque viri tulit arma disertus. 
Hectora qui solus, qui ferrum ignemque lovemque 
Sustinuit totiens, unam non sustinet iram : 
Invictumque virum vincit dolor. Adripit ensem, 
Et * meus hie certe est. An et hunc sibi poscit Ulixes ? 
Hoc ' ait ' utendum est in me mihi. Quique cruore 
Saepe Phrygum maduit domini nunc caede madebit, 
Ne quisquam Aiacem possit superare nisi Aiax.' 
Dixit, et in pectus tum demum vulnera passum, 




~»i:i ZaZJiL f:smnT, Ien7er7 ccodidit ensem. 
^k ±c Til-ier^ TTJziis ir'.i:-:! edoicere telum : 
^■ TT 'iZi: 3se zrzizc . rzxf^iXiquiS sanguine tellus 
ic5 r'lrpcTi'.iiz: xiritfi ^^si:rL de ciespiue dorem, 
J^'ii rrzis Ceca.r'H^ raeroi ce Tnlnere natus. 

LirriTi r^t t^t^ ^r^Fs poeroque \Troque 

LiscrtrcL esc f ^Ss. haec nommfs 31a querellae. 

TT^e!! riZiZ^w in Tszid sjocssssca rhe final events of the Trojan war : 
Tr: J is rLc*=- rrszi slaiz. A5ct2=2x C2§bed to pieces from the battle- 
=-iZ3w tie Trrniz. iiz^es efisLzTetf. The Tkrtofious Greeks now sail 
iTij :: Tiinc*. wbere zbsj are deSajed bj ad\xrse winds (399-428). 
H-~ the s>.i-.-:e cf AchZIes arpeirs aad rfrmands the sacrifice of the 
Trrfiz. rrlncsss PctTxeaa c»a his tomb. The Greeks consent, and 
PzlTTezi is prepurec fr-r sacri£ce. She meets her fcite with dauntless 
spirit. Askir,^ c=Iy ;h,i: her bodv be respected and given over to her 
mother ror burial.] 

Est, ubi Troia fuit, Phrj-giae contraria tellus 
430 Bistoniis habitata x-iris. Polymestoris illic 
Regia dives erat, cui te commisit alendum 
Clam, Polydore, pater, Phrygiisque removit ab armis ; 
Consilium sapiens, sceleris nisi praemia magnas 
Adiecisset opes, animi inritamen avarL 
435 Ut cecidit fortuna Phrygum, capit impius ensem 
Rex Thracum, iuguloque sui demisit alumni ; 
Et tamquam tolli cum corpore crimina possent, 
Exanimem scopulo subiectas misit in undas. 
Litore Threfcio classem religarat Atrides, 
440 Dum mare pacatum, dum ventus amicior esset. 
Hie subito, quantus cum viveret esse solebat, 
Exit humo late rupta, similisque minanti 
Tcmporis illius vultum referebat Achilles, 
Quo ferus iniusto petiit Agamemnona ferro : 
Immcmorcs ' que * mei disceditis ' inquit ' Achivi ? 



Ot>x-v:i^-|;aque est mecum virtutis gratia nostrae ? 

N^ f ^cite! utque meum non sit sine honore sepul- 


Plp-c^^t Achilleos mactata Polyxena manes.' 

^^^^it : et, immiti sociis parentibus umbrae, 

450 R^p>ts sinu matris, quam iam prope sola fovebat, 

^^^^is et infelix et plus quam femina virgo 

■*^^^^it:ur ad tumulum, diroque fit hostia busto. 

yu.^.^ ixiemor ipsa sui, postquam crudelibus aris 

^^^■^^^ota est, sensitque sibi fera sacra parari, 

455 ^tcjxie Neoptolemum stantem ferrumque tenentem 

^^SL^i ^ suo vidit figentem lumina vultu, 

^^xe iamdudum generoso sanguine ! ' dixit 

^^^-^lla mora est. Quin tu iugulo vel pectore telum 

on^g nieo! ' iugulumque simul pectusque retexit. 

^^licet aut ulli servire Polyxena vellem ? 

,,^^ TDer tale sacrum numen placabitis ullum ? 

'^^ tantum vellem matrem mea fallere posset. 

^^^r obest, minuitque necis mihi gaudia : quamvis 

^^*^ mea mors illi, verum sua vita tremenda est. 
p. ^ xnodo, ne Stygios adeam non libera manes, 
^. ^^ procul, si iusta peto, tactuque viriles 
^ ^j&ineo removete manus. Acceptior illi, 
y .^^quis is est, quem caede mea placare paratis, 
y ^^x erit sanguis. Siquos tamen ultima nostri 
Tyj "^ "^a movent oris, Priami vos filia regis. 


^ *^ captiva rogat, genetrici corpus memptum 

Q ^ ^ite ; neve auro redimat ius triste sepulcri, 

£v ^^^ lacrimis. Tunc, cum poterat, redimebat et auro.' 

M" "^^rat. At populus lacrimas, quas ilia tenebat, 

p -^^ tenet. Ipse etiam flens invitusque sacerdos 

^'^^bita coniecto rupit praecordia ferro. 
^*- super terram defecto poplite labens. 

^^VID— IJ 


PertuHt intrepidos ad fata novissima vultus. 
Tunc quoque cura fuit partes velare tegendas, 
480 Cum caderet, castique decus servare pudoris. 

[The unhappy Hecuba, herself a slave to Ulysses, wildly laments 
her daughter's death, and the fate of Troy that continues to pursue 
herself alone. One comfort and stay alone remains to her, her son 
Polydorus, who had been sent by Priam for safe keeping, together with 
much treasure, to the king of Thrace. But now, as the hapless mother 
goes to the seashore to fetch water to bathe her dead daughter's wound, 
she sees the mangled corpse of Polydorus upon the shore; for the 
Thracian king had slain him to secure his treasure. Maddened beyond 
endurance by this last blow, Hecuba seeks the king and succeeds in 
tearing out his eyes. Changed to a dog, she flees, howling, madly away 


Though others mourned for Hecuba, Aurora was filled with grief of 
her own, for her son Memnon had been slain in battle by Achilles. 
She implores Jove in some way to honor her dead hero son. This the 
god consents to do, and changes the ashes of Memnon into a flock ci 
birds that bear his name (576-622). Aeneas, after the fall of Troy, 
fleeing with his father and his son, touches at Thrace, and comes to 
Delos ; here he is hospitably entertained by Anius, priest and king of 
the island. In answer to a question of Anchises, Anius relates how his 
daughters were transformed into doves. After an exchange of costly 
gifts the Trojans depart and come to Crete, thinking that this is their 
< ancient mother ' which the oracle at Delos had bidden them to seek. 
But pestilence again drives them to sea, upon which, after touching at 
the Strophades, Phaeacia, and Epirus, they come to the coast of Sicily, 
near the dangerous region of Scylla and Charybdis. 

Scylla was once a beautiful nymph, beloved of many suitors. While 
she was boasting of this to her sister nymphs, Galatea mournfully re- 
lates in the following tale her own sad love story (623-749). 

Galatea was the object of the Cyclops' love, but her heart was fixed 
upon the beautiful youth Acis, and so the giant's clumsy wooing was in 
vain. In a mad fit of jealousy the Cyclops hurls at Acis a huge jagged 
rock, which crushes him to the earth. The youth is changed into a 

7SO ' Acis erat Fauno nymphaque Symaethide cretus» 


Magna quidem patrisque sui matrisque voluptas, 
Nostra tamen maior. Nam me sibi iunxerat uni. 
Pulcher et octonis iterum natalibus actis 
Signarat dubia teneras lanugine malas. 

755 Hunc ego, me Cyclops nulla cum fine petebat: 
Nee, si quaesieris, odium Cyclopis, amorne 
Acidis in nobis fuerit praesentior, edam : 
Par utrumque fuit. Pro, quanta potentia regni 
Est, Venus alma, tui ! nempe ille immitis et ipsis 

760 Horrendus silvis et visus ab hospite nullo 

Impune, et magni cum dis contemptor Olympi, 
Quid sit amor, sentit, validaque cupidine captus 
Uritur, oblitus pecorum antrorumque suorum. 
lamque tibi formae, iamque est tibi cura placendi 

765 lam rigidos pectis rastris, Polypheme, capillos; 
lam libet hirsutam tibi fake recidere barbam, 
Et spectare feros in aqua et componere vultus. 
Caedis amor feritasque sitisque immensa cruoris 
Cessant, et tutae veniuntque abeuntque carinae. 

770 Telemus interea Siculam delatus ad Aetnen, 
Telemus Eurymides, quem nulla fefellerat ales, 
Terribilem Polyphemon adit, "lumen" que, "quod 

Fronte geris media, rapiet tibi " dixit " Ulixes. " 
Risit et "o vatum stolidissime, falleris,** inquit 

775 "Altera iam rapuit" Sic frustra vera monentem . 
Spemit, et aut gradiens ingenti litora passu 
Degravat, aut fessus sub opaca revertitur antra. 
Prominet in pontum cuneatus acumine longo 
Collis ; utrumque latus circumfluit aequoris unda. 
780 Hue ferus ascendit Cyclops, mediusque resedit ; 
Lanigerae pecudes nullo ducente secutae. 
Cui postquam pinus, baculi quae praebuit usum^ 


Mollia fraga leges, ipsa autumnalia corna 
Prunaque, non solum nigro liventia suco, 
Verum etiam generosa novasque imitantia ceras. 
Nee tibi castaneae me coniuge, nee tibi deerunt 

820 Arbutei fetus. Omnis tibi serviet arbor. 

Hoc pecus omne meum est. Multae quoque vallibus 

Multas silva tegit, multae stabulantur in antris. 
Nee, si forte roges, possim tibi dicere, quot sint. 
Pauperis est numerare pecus. De laudibus harum 

825 NilTnihi credideris : praesens potes ipsa videre, 
Ut vix circumeant distentum cruribus uber. 
Sunt, fetura minor, tepidis in ovilibus agni ; 
Sunt quoque, par aetas, aliis in ovilibus haedi. 
Lac mihi semper adest niveum. Pars inde bibenda 

830 Servatur, partem liquefacta coagula durant. 
Nee tibi deliciae faciles vulgataque tantum 
Munera contingent, dammae leporesque caperque, 
Parve columbarum, demptusve cacumine nidus : 
Inveni geminos, qui tecum ludere possint, 

835 Inter se similes, vix ut dignoscere possis, 
Villosae catulos in summis montibus ursae : 
Inveni et dixi 'dominae servabimus istos.* 
lam modo caeruleo nitidum caput exime ponto, 
lam, Galatea, veni, nee munera despice nostra. 

840 Certe ego me novi, liquidaeque in imagine vidi 
Nuper aquae ; placuitque mihi mea forma videnti. 
Aspice, sim quantus. Non est hoc corpore maior 
luppiter in caelo. Nam vos narrare soletis 
Nescio quem regnare lovem. Coma plurima torvos 

845 Prominet in vultus, umerosque, ut lucus, obumbrat. 
Nee mea quod rigidis horrent densissima saetis 
Corpora, turpe puta. Turpis sine f rondibus arbor : 


Ante pedes posita est, antemnis apta ferendis, 
Sumptaque harundinibus compacta est fistula centum, 

785 Senserunt toti pastoria sibila montes, 

Senserunt undae. Latitans ego rupe meique 
Acidis in gremio residens procul auribus hausi 
Talia dicta meis auditaque verba notavi : 
'* Candidior folio nivei, Galatea, ligustri, 

790 Floridior pratis, longa procerior alno, 
Splendidior vitro, tenero lascivior haedo, 
Levior adsiduo detritis aequore conchis, 
Solibus hibernis, aestiva gratior umbra, 
Nobilior forma ac platano conspectior alta, 

795 Lucidior glacie, matura dulcior uva, 
Mollior et cygni plumis et lacte coacto, 
Et, si non fugias, riguo formosior horto : 
Saevior indomitis eadem Galatea iuvencis, 
Durior annosa quercu, fallacior undis, 

800 Lentior et salicis virgis et vitibus albis, 
His immobilior scopulis, violentior amne, 
Laudato pavone superbior, acrior igni, 
Asperior tribulis, feta truculentior ursa, 
Surdior aequoribus, calcato immitior hydro, 

805 Et, quod praecipue vellem tibi demere possem, 
Non tantum cervo claris latratibus acto, 
Verum etiam ventis volucrique fugacior aura ! 
At bene si noris, pigeat fugisse, morasque 
Ipsa tuas damnes et me retinere labores. 

810 Sunt mihi, pars montis, vivo pendentia saxo 
Antra, quibus nee sol medio sentitur in aestu, 
Nee sentitur hiems. Sunt poma gravantia ramos ; 
Sunt auro similes longis in vitibus uvae. 
Sunt et purpureae : tibi et has servamus et illas. 

815 Ipsa tuis manibus silvestri nata sub umbra 


MoUia fraga leges, ipsa autumnalia corna 
Prunaque, non solum nigro liventia suco, 
Verum etiam generosa novasque imitantia ceras. 
Nee tibi castaneae me coniuge, nee tibi deerunt 
8ao Arbutei fetus. Omnis tibi serviet arbor. 

Hoc pecus omne meum est. Multae quoque vallibus 

Multas silva tegit, multae stabulantur in antris. 
Nee, si forte roges, possim tibi dicere, quot sint. 
Pauperis est numerare pecus. De laudibus harum 
825 Nil inihi credideris : praesens potes ipsa videre, 
Ut vix circumeant distentum cruribus uber. 
Sunt, fetura minor, tepidis in ovilibus agni ; 
Sunt quoque, par aetas, aliis in ovilibus haedi. 
Lac mihi semper adest niveum. Pars inde bibenda 
830 Servatur, partem liquefacta coagula durant. 
Nee tibi deliciae faciles vulgataque tantum 
Munera contingent, dammae leporesque caperque, 
Parve columbarum, demptusve cacumine nidus : 
Inveni geminos, qui tecum ludere possint, 
835 Inter se similes, vix ut dignoscere possis, 
Villosae eatulos in summis montibus ursae : 
Inveni et dixi 'dominae servabimus istos.* 
lam modo caeruleo nitidum caput exime ponto, 
lam, Galatea, veni, nee munera despice nostra. 
aio Certe ego me novi, liquidaeque in imagine vidi 
Nuper aquae ; placuitque mihi mea forma videnti. 
Aspice, sim quantus. Non est hoc corpore maior 
luppiter in caelo. Nam vos narrare soletis 
Nescio quem regnare lovem. Coma plurima torvos 
84s Prominet in vultus, umerosque, ut lucus, obumbrat. 
Nee mea quod rigidis horrent densissima saetis 
Corpora, turpe puta. Turpis sine frondibus arbor ; 



£45 Turpis equ::5, nisi coHa iubae flaventia velent 

55^ Birba viros hirtaeque decent in corpore saetae. 
Unurr. est in media lumen mihi fronte, sed inst 
In^jr.rls clipeL Quid? Xon haec omnia magnc 
S:I \-:de: e caelo ? Soli tamen unicus orbis. 
Adde. quod in vestro genitor mens aequore regna 

iS5 Hunr rlbi do soceninL Tantum miserere, preces 
Supp'icis exaudi : tibi enim succumbimus unL 
Ouique lovem et caelum spemo et penetrabile ful -Wnien, 
Xere:. te vereor. Tua fulmine sae\4or ira est 
Atque e^o contemptus essem patientior huius, 

s» Si fugeres omnes. Sed cur Cyclope repulso 
Acin amas, praef ersque meis amplexibus Acin ? 
Hie tamen placeatque sibi, placeatque licebit. 
Quod nollem, Galatea, tibi: modo copia detur! 
Sentiet esse mihi tanto pro corpore vires. 

865 Mscera viva traham, dix'ulsaque membra per agrc^::^^' 
Perque tuas spargam — sic se tibi misceat! — im<^-^* 
Uror enim, laesusque exaestuat acrius ignis, 
Cumque suis x^ideor translatam viribus Aetnam 
Pectore ferre meo. Nee tu, Galatea, moveris." 

870 Talia nequiquam questus — nam cuncta videbam -^"' 
Surgit, et ut taurus vacca furibundus adempta. 
Stare nequit, silvaque et notis saltibus errat : 
Cum ferus ignaros nee quicquam tale timentes 
Me videt atque Acin, " video " que exclamat " et is^^ 

87s Ultima sit, faciam, Veneris concordia vestrae." 
Tantaque vox, quantam Cyclops iratus habere 
Debuit, ilia f uit. Clamore perhorruit Aetne. 
Ast ego vicino pavefacta sub aequore mergor, 
Terga f ugae dederat conversa Symaethius heros : „ 

880 *' Adfer opem, Galatea, precor, mihi ! ferte parental ^ 
Dixerat " et vestris periturum admittite regnis." 


Insequitur Cyclops, partemque e monte revulsam 
Mittit, et extremus quamvis pervenit ad ilium, 
Angulus is molis totum tamen obruit Acin. 

88s At nos, quod solum fieri per fata licebat, 
Fecimus, ut vires adsumeret Acis avitas. 
Puniceus de mole cruor manabat, et intra 
Temporis exiguum rubor evanescere coepit, 
Fitque color primo turbati fluminis imbre, 

890 Purgaturque mora. Tum moles taetra dehiscit, 
Vivaque per rimas proceraque surgit harundo, 
Osque cavum saxi sonat exsultantibus undis : 
Miraque res, subito media tenus exstitit alvo 
Incinctus iuvenis flexis nova cornua cannis, 

895 Qui, nisi quod maior, quod toto caerulus ore, 

Acis erat. — Sed sic quoque erat tamen Acis, in amnem 
Versus; et antiquum tenuerunt flumina nomen.* 

[Thus ends the tale of Galatea. While sporting on the shore, the 
nymph Scylla was seen and loved by Glaucus, a sea-god, who but now 
had been a mortal fisherman. He relates to Scylla his wonderful meta- 
morphosis through the eating of certain magic herbs (898-968).] 

Book XIV 

[Spumed by the nymph, Glaucus seeks out Circe and begs her aid. 
But Circe herself is enamored of Glaucus, and, confessing her love, is 
rejected by him. In revenge she, by her magic art, changes Scylla into 
a hideous monster, fixed upon the coast of Sicily (1-74). This danger- 
ous spot, which had proved disastrous to the ships of Ulysses, the fleet 
of Aeneas escapes, who, continuing on his way, comes to Carthage, 
where he is hospitably received by Queen Dido. From Carthage he 
again proceeds to Sicily and thence to the island of Pithecusa, whose 
inhabitants had been changed into apes (75-100). Crossing to Cumae, 
Aeneas, under the guidance of the Sibyl, visits the shade of his father in 
Hades. On their return the Sibyl relates how Apollo, for love of her, had 


promised to grant her wish, which was years of life in number equal to 
the grains in a heap of sand. This she had gained, but without contin- 
ued youth (101-153). Aeneas next arrives at Caieta, where he meets 
Achemenides, the lost companion of Ulysses, who, at the request of 
Aeneas, tells of his adventures among the savage Cyclops before he 
was rescued (154-222). Macareus, another former companion of 
Ulysses, relates how he and his companions were changed into swine 
through the magic of Circe, but were restored to human shape at the 
request of Ulysses (223-319). 

Macareus tells another tale that he had heard in Circe's Isle, how 
Picus, king of Latium, had loved and wedded the beautiful Canens, the 
daughter of Janus ; how Picus, rejecting the advances of Circe, had 
been transformed by her into a woodpecker, and how Canens, in de- 
spair, had wasted away to a mere breath or voice (320-434) . 

Passing on from Caieta, Aeneas at last enters the Tiber, and Lati- 
nus, the king of Latium, bestows upon him the hand of his daughter 
Lavinia. This causes a struggle for supremacy between the Rutulians 
and Latinus, headed by Turnus, and the Trojans, headed by Aeneas. 
The latter appeals to Evander for aid, and the former to Diomede, who 
had settled in Italy and become the son-in-law of Daunus. Diomede 
recounts to the Rutulian ambassadors his adventures since the fall of 
Troy (435-526). Turnus sets fire to the fleet of Aeneas, but the burn- 
ing ships are transformed into nymphs at the command of Cybele. 
Turnus is finally slain, and Aeneas is triumphant through the aid of 
Venus (527-580). 

The wrath of Juno against Aeneas is now at length appeased, and 
Jove, in a council of the gods, decrees an apotheosis to Aeneas. He is 
accordingly removed from earth and ranked among the gods (581-608). 
Ascanius succeeds his father on the throne, and then follows a long 
line of Alban kings. 

In those days there dwelt in Italy a beautiful wood-nymph, Pomona, 
who, devoted entirely to her fruits and flowers, rejected all advances of 
those who sought her love ; until at last Vertumnus, the native god 
of seasons, wooed and won her. As a warning against the neglect of 
honest love, he tells to her the story of the maiden Anaxarete, who, for 
her contempt of Venus in the cruel rejection of her lover, Iphis, was 
changed to stone (609-771). Numitor finally succeeds to the Alban 
throne, is dispossessed by his brother Amulius, but restored by Romu- 
lus, who founds Rome, schemes for its settlement, establishes it in 


power among the surrounding nations, and is finally translated to the 
skies by Mars, where he is enrolled among the gods under the name 
of Quirinus, while his wife Hersilia is also deified under the name of 
Hora (772-851).] 

Book XV 

[After the removal of Romulus from earth, Numa Pompilius was 
chosen king in his stead. The mind of this prince was turned toward 
the peaceful arts and the acquisition of knowledge. In pursuit of this 
he came to Crotona, on the coast of Bruttium. Here he eagerly imbibed 
the doctrines of the sage Pythagoras, who had removed from his native 
Samos and settled in Crotona (1-59). The first endeavor of this 
philosopher was to persuade men to renounce the use of flesh as food. 
In the golden age men ate only the fruits of the earth, and all animal 
life was sacred except that which was harmful to human interests. 
Gradually the greed of man invented causes of offense, until even the 
most inoffensive and helpful animals were slain for food under cover 
of sacrifice to the gods (60-142). 

The philosopher longs to free his fellow-mortals from the fear of 
death. Death is not the fearful thing that popular belief would make 
it, but merely a transition from one life to another. All things change, 
but nothing dies. The soul is still the same, though housed in many 
changing forms of man and beast. And what is true of souls is true of 
all nature — all is in a state of ceaseless change.] 

* Et quoniam deus ora movet, sequar ora moventem 
Rite deum, Delphosque meos ipsumque recludam 

145 Aethera et augustae reserabo oracula mentis. 
Magna, nee ingeniis evestigata priorum, 
Quaeque diu latuere, canam. luvat ire per alta 
Astra ; iuvat terris et inerti sede relicta 
Nube vehi, validique umeris insistere Atlantis, 

150 Palantesque homines passim ac rationis egentes 
Despectare procul, trepidosque obitumque timentes 
Sic exhortari, seriemque evolvere f ati : 
O genus attonitum gelidae formidine mortis ! 


Quid Styga, quid tenebras et nomina vana timeti&-S:^^» 
155 Materiem vatum, falsique piacula mundi ? 

Corpora, sive rogus flamma, seu tabe vetustas 

Abstulerit, mala posse pati non uUa putetis. 

Morte carent animae ; semperque priore relicta 

Sede novis domibus vivunt habitantque receptae. - ^• 
160 Ipse ego — nam memini — Troiani tempore belli i i 

Panthoides Euphorbus eram, cui pectore quondair:«'-^ni 

Haesit in ad verso gravis hasta minoris Atridae. 

Cognovi clipeum, laevae gestamina nostrae, 

Nuper Abanteis templo lunonis in Argis. 
165 Omnia mutantur, nihil interit. Errat, et illinc 

Hue venit, hinc illuc, et quoslibet occupat artus 

Spiritus ; eque f eris humana in corpora transit, 

Inque feras noster, nee tempore deperit ullo. 

Utque novis facilis signatur cera figuris, 
170 Nee manet ut fuerat, nee formas servat easdem, 

Sed tamen ipsa eadem est ; animam sic semper ean 

Esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras. 

Ergo — nee pietas sit victa cupidine ventris — 

Parcite, vaticinor, cognatas caede nefanda 
17s Exturbare animas ; nee sanguine sanguis alatur. 

Et quoniam magno feror aequore plenaque ventis 

Vela dedi : nihil est toto, quod perstet, in orbe. 

Cuncta fluunt, omnisque vagans formatur imago. 

Ipsa quoque adsiduo labuntur tempora motu, 
180 Non secus ac flumen. Neque enim consistere flur 

Nee levis hora potest : sed ut unda impelHtur unda 

Urgueturque eadem veniens urguetque priorem; 

Tempora sic fugiunt pariter, pariterque sequuntur, 

Et nova sunt semper. Nam quod fuit ante 
relictum est, 
185 Fitque quod baud fuerat, momentaque cuncta novant 



Cernis et emensas in liicem tendere noctes, 
Et iubar hoc nitidum nigrae succedere nocti. 
Nee color est idem caelo, cum lassa quiete 
Curxcta iacent media, cumque albo Lucifer exit 
190 Clarus equo ; rursusque alius, cum praevia luci 
Tradendum Phoebo Pallantias inficit orbem. 
Ipse dei clipeus terra cum .tollitur ima 
Mane rubet, terraque, rubet, cum conditur ima ; 
Candidus in summo est, melior natura quod illic 
195 Aetheris est, terraeque procul contagia fugit. 
Nee par aut eadem noctumae forma Dianae 
Esse potest umquam. Semperque hodiema sequente, 
Si crescit, minor est ; maior, si contrahit orbem. 
Q^id ? non in species succedere quattuor annum 
»o AspxQjs^ aetatis peragentem imitamina nostrae ? 
Nam tener et lactens puerique simillimus aevo 
Vere novo est : tunc herba recens et roboris expers 
Turget, et insolida est, et spe delectat agrestes. 
Ottinia tunc florent, florumque coloribus almus 
9P5 I-"Udit ager, neque adhuc virtus in frondibus ulla est. 
^y^-nsit in aestatem post ver robustior annus, 
*^^^que valens iuvenis : neque enim robustior aetas 
^^la, nee uberior, nee quae magis ardeat, ulla est. 
^^cipit autumnus, posito fervore iuventae 
aio Maturus mitisque, inter iuvenemque senemque 
* ^niperie medius ; sparsus quoque tempora canis. 
l^^de senilis hiems tremulo venit horrida passu, 
Aut spoliata suos, aut, quos habet, alba capillos. 
^^stra quoque ipsorum semper requieque sine ulla 
aiS Corpora vertuntur ; nee quod f uimusve sumusve, 
^^as erimus. Fuit ilia dies, qua semina tantum 
^Pesque hominum primae matris cubitavimus alvo. 
«ai Editus in lucem iacuit sine viribus inf ans ; 


Mox quadrupes rituque tuBt sua membra ferarum; 
Paulatimque tremens et nondum poplite firmo 
Constitit, adiutis aliquo conamine nervis ; 

225 Inde valens veloxque fuit, spatiumque iuventae 
Transit, et emeritis medii quoque temporis annis 
Labitur occiduae per iter declive senectae. 
Submit haec aevi demoliturque prions 
Robora : fletque Milon senior, cum spectat inanes 

2JO Illos, qui fuerant solidorum mole tororum 
Herculeis similes, fluidos pendere lacertos. 
Flet quoque, ut in speculo rugas aspexit aniles, 
Tyndaris, et secum, cur sit bis rapta, requirit. 
Tempus edax rerum, tuque, invidiosa vetustas, 

235 Omnia destruitis, vitiataque dentibus aevi 
Paulatim lenta consumitis omnia morte. 

[All nature is derived from four primal elements, — earth, air, fire, and 
water; but these are constantly passing from one to another. The 
face of the earth is always changing. The sea encroaches upon the 
land and land upon the sea. The valleys are exalted, and the hills 
brought low ; and rivers in their winding course make constant changes 
in the land. And not only so, but the waters of many streams have strange 
powers to change the character of those who drink them (237-341). 

Many wonderful changes are told, as when bees spring by spontane- 
ous generation from the entrails of a buried steer, wasps from the 
horse, the scorpion from the crab, and frogs from slime. Most strange 
also are the developments of insect and bird life (342-417). 

This universal change extends to cities which grow to greatness, 
have their day and cease to be. Such were Troy, Mycenae, Sparta, 
Thebes ; and Rome, though now in infancy, is destined both by fate 
and prophecy to pass on through all the changes of growth until the 
whole world shall be included in her sway (418-452). 

Yes, all matter is in a state of flux, and souls are clothed now with 
form of man and now of beast. This thought should make all animal 
life sacred, save that which is itself destructive of life. Impious is it 
above all to expel the soul with the intention of eating the flesh that 
sheltered it.] 


Ne tiamen oblitis ad metam tendere longe 
Exsp^atiemur equis, caelum et quodcumque sub illo est, 

4SS Immutat formas, tellus et quicquid in ilia est. 

Nos quoque, pars mundi, quoniam non corpora solum, 
Verviin etiam volucres animae sumus, inque ferinas 
Possumus ire domos pecudumque in corpora condi, 
Corpora quae possint animas habuisse parentum 

460 Aut f ratrum aut aliquo iunctorum foedere nobis 
Aut hominum certe, tuta esse et honesta sinamus, 
Neve Thyesteis cumulemus viscera mensis. 
Quarn male consuescit, quam se parat ille cruori 
Iinpius humano, vituli qui guttura ferro 

465 Rurtipit, et immotas praebet mugitibus aures ! 
Aut qui vagitus similes puerilibus haedum 
Edentem iugulare potest : aut alite vesci, 
Cui dedit ipse cibos ! quantum est, quod desit in istis 
Ad plenum f acinus ? quo transitus inde paratur ? 

470 Bos aret, aut mortem senioribus imputet annis : 
Horriferum contra borean ovis arma ministret: 
^"^^Ta dent saturae manibus pressanda capellae. 
*^^tia cum pedicis, laqueos, artesque dolosas 
ToU j|.g . j^g^ volucrem viscata f allite virga, 

475 Ne^^ formidatis cervos inludite pennis, 
■^^^ celate cibis uncos fallacibus hamos. 
* ^^^te siqua nocent, verum haec quoque perdite 

tantum ; 
O^^ vacent epulis, alimentaque mitia carpant.' 

^TV^o^^ doctrines of Pythagoras Numa brought to Rome, and by his 
Vvse ao^ mild sway established his people in religion and the peaceful 
aits, '^lie good king died in time, mourned by all his people. But 
tgcTia, his wife, was inconsolable, and withdrawing to the dense groves 
^ Aricia she indulged her grief. Here Hippolytus appeared to her 
and strove to soothe her by the story of his own sad fate : how, thou^K 



guiltless, he had been accused to hb fether Theseus by his stepmother 
Phaedra of an attempt upon her honor; how he had been drivea ou 
from home loaded with his father's curses; how he had been slaunliy 
Neptune in answer to his father's prayer, and finally restored to life 
and made immortal by Diana, and set here in this wood as her sami 
attendant under a new name (Virbius) and changed form (479^546)^ 

But Egeria, uncomforted by another's woes, continues inconfroWc, 
and is at last changed by Apollo into a fountain. This change ik 
nymphs and Virbius view with as great astonishment aa when Cip«v 
a Roman nobleman, returning from the chase, found horns sproalwu 
fortli from his forehead. On consulting the fates by sacriiict aad 
augury, he was told that he was destined- to be king of Rome shoul^i k 
again enter her gates. He convened the senate without the waUa, M 
them the oracle, and begged them to destroy him in order to save Ik 
state. The grateful senate decreed that he should live in honor ^Mnn^A 
the walls, and allotted him for his own a portion of the public liQlti 

A mighty plague once visited Rome, and a deputation from ik 
senate was sent to consult the Delphic oracle. Here they were icld 
that not Apollo but Apollo's son, Aesculapius, the god of the healing 
art, would save them. Repairing to Epidaurus, the seal of Aesculapha* 
they implored his aid. The god accompanied them to Rome in the 
form of a serpent, and the plague was stayed. From that time ofl 
divine honors were always paid in Rome to the god of the bealb| irt 

Now the worship of Aesculapius was introduced from another imA 
but Caesar's worship sprung from his own city, Rome* When he llid 
reached the acme of renown, and his enemies were plotting his destroy 
tion, Venus, foreseeing his fate, implored the gods to save her olfapfia^ 
The gods were powerless to avert the fate of Caesar, yet they gave iQQl} 
warning omens of his approaching doom. But all in vain. The asja*- 
sins succeeded in their bloody work, though Venus strove to wrap bcf 
hero in that veil of mist that had of old saved Paris and Aeneas &o» 
their foes. Now Jove, in order to console her. revealed to Venus tJM 
glorious fate that was in store for Caesar, and the still more glorious de§^ 
tiny of his successor, his adopted son. Thus comforted, the goddess 
flew to the earth and bore to heaven the soul of Caesar, where, a glit- 
tering comet with a glowing train, it illumined the sky. 

Great though the father was, the son is destined to be greater 


(From the Vatican Museum) 

lace p. 206 




still. May all the gods who guard the destinies of Rome enlarge his 
sway, and may he long remain upon the earth to guide the Roman 

745 Hie tamen accessit delubris advena nostris : 

Caesar in urbe sua deus est. Quern Marte togaque 
Praecipuum non bella magis finita triumphis 
Resque domi gestae properataque gloria rerum 
In sidus vertere novum stellamque comantem, 

7SO Quam sua progenies. Neque enim de Caesaris actis 
Ullum mains opus, quam quod pater exstitit huius. 
Scilicet aequoreos plus est domuisse Britannos, 
Perque papyriferi septemflua flumina Nili 
Victrices egisse rates, Numidasque rebelles 

755 Cinyphiumque lubam Mithridateisque tumentem 
Nominibus Pontum populo adiecisse Quirini, 
Et multos meruisse, aliquos egisse triumphos, 
Quam tantum genuisse virum ? quo praeside rerum 
Humano generi, superi, favistis abunde. 

760 Ne foret hie igitur mortali semine cretus, 
I lie deus faciendus erat. Quod ut aurea vidit 
Aeneae genetrix, vidit quoque triste parari 
Pontifici letum et coniurata arma moved ; 
Palluit et cunctis, ut cuique erat obvia, divis 

765 ' Aspice,* dicebat * quanta mihi mole parentur 
Insidiae, quantaque caput cum fraude petatur, 
Quod de Dardanio solum mihi restat lulo. 
Solane semper ero iustis exercita curis ? 
Quam modo Tydidae Calydonia vulneret hasta, 

770 Nunc male defensae confundant moenia Troiae : 
Quae videam natum longis erroribus actum 
lactarique freto sedesque intrare silentum, 
Bellaque cum Turno gerere, aut, si vera faitemur, 
Cum lunone magis ? quid nunc antiqua recorder 


775 Damna mei generis ? timor hic meminisse prioru 
Non sinit. In me acui sceleratos cemitis enses. 
Quos prohibete, precor, facinusque repellite! ne^ 
Caede sacerdotis flammas exstinguite Vestae.' 
Talia nequiquam toto Venus anxia caelo 

780 Verba iacit ; superosque movet Qui rumpere 
Ferrea non possunt veterum decreta sororum, 
Signa tamen luctus dant baud incerta futuri. 
Arma ferunt inter nigras crepitantia nubes 
Terribilesque tubas auditaque cornua caelo 

78s Praemonuisse nefas. Solis quoque tristis imago 
Lurida sollicitis praebebat lumina terris. 
Saepe faces visae mediis ardere sub astris : 
Saepe inter nimbos guttae cecidere cruentae : 
Caerulus et vultum ferrugine Lucifer atra 

790 Sparsus erat, sparsi lunares sanguine currus : 
Tristia mille locis Stygius dedit omina bubo : 
Mille locis lacrimavit ebur, cantusque feruntur 
Auditi Sanctis et verba minantia lucis. 
Victima nulla litat, magnosque instare tumultus 

795 Fibra monet, caesumque caput reperitur in extis. 
Inque foro circumque domos et templa deorum 
Nocturnos ululasse canes umbrasque silentum 
Erravisse ferunt, motamque tremoribus urbem. 
Non tamen insidias venturaque vincere fata 

800 Praemonitus potuere deum : strictique feruntur 
In templum gladii ; neque enim locus uUus in ux\ 
Ad facinus diramque placet, nisi curia, caedem. 
Tum vero Cytherea manu percussit utraque 
Pectus, et Aeneaden molitur condere nube, 

805 Qua prius infesto Paris est ereptus Atridae. 
Et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat enses. 


Talibus banc genitor : * sola insuperabile f atum, 
Nata/movere paras? intres licet ipsa sororum 
Tecta trium ; cernes illic molimine vasto 

810 Ex acre et solido rerun tabularia ferro, 

Quae neque concussum caeli neque fulminis iram 
Nee metuunt uUas tuta atque aeterna ruinas. 
Invenies illic incisa adamante perenni 
Fata tui generis. Legi ipse animoque notavi 

815 Et referam, ne sis etiamnum ignara futuri. 
Hie sua complevit, pro quo, Cytherea, laboras, 
Tempora perfectis quos terrae debuit annis. 
Ut deus accedat caelo templisque locetur, 
Tu facies natusque suus ; qui nominis heres 

820 Impositum feret unus onus, caesique parentis 
Nos in bella suos fortissimus ultor habebit. 
Illius auspiciis obsessae moenia pacem 
Victa petent Mutinae ; Pharsalia sentiet ilium, 
Emathiaque iterum madefient caede Philippi, 

825 Et magnum Siculis nomen superabitur undis : 
Romanique ducis coniunx Aegyptia taedae 
Non bene fisa cadet ; frustraque erit ilia minata 
Servitura suo Capitolia nostra Canopo. 
Quid tibi barbariam, gentes ab utroque iacentes 

830 Oceano nuriierem ? Quodcumque habitabile tellus 
Sustinet, huius erit : pontus quoque serviet illi. 
Pace data terris animum ad civilia vertet 
lura suum, legesque feret iustissimus auctor : 
Exemploque suo mores reget, inque futuri 

835 Temporis aetatem venturorumque nepotum 
Prospiciens prolem sancta de coniuge natam 
Ferre simul nomenque suum curasque iubebit, 
Nee nisi cum senior Pylios aequaverit annos, 
Aetherias sedes cognataque sidera tanget. 

OVID — 14 


840 Hanc animam interea caeso de corpore raptam 
Fac iubar, ut semper Capitolia nostra forumque 
Divus ab excelsa prospectet lulius aede/ 
Vix ea fatus erat, media cum sede senatus 
Constitit alma Venus, nulli cernenda, suique 

84s Caesaris eripuit membris nee in aera solvi 

Passa recentem animam caelestibus intulit astris. 
Dumque tulit, lumen capere atque ignescere sensit, 
Emisitque sinu. Luna volat altius ilia, 
Flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 

850 Stella micat : natique videns benefacta fatetur 
Esse suis maiora, et vinci gaudet ab illo. 
Hie sua praeferri quamquam vetat acta patemis, 
Libera fama tamen nullisque obnoxia iussis 
Invitum praefert, unaque in parte repugnat. 

855 Sic magni cedit titulis Agamemnonis Atreus ; 
Aegea sic Theseus, sic Pelea vincit Achilles. 
Denique, ut exemplis ipsos aequantibus utar, 
Sic et Saturnus minor est love. luppiter arces 
Temperat aetherias et mundi regna triformis ; 

860 Terra sub Augusto. Pater est et rector uterque. 
Di, precor, Aeneae comites, quibus ensis et ignis 
Cesserunt, dique Indigetes, genitorque Quirine 
Urbis, et invicti genitor Gradive Quirini, 
Vestaque Caesareos inter sacrata penates, 

86s Et cum Caesarea tu, Phoebe domestice, Vesta, 
Quique tenes altus Tarpeias luppiter aedes, 
Quosque alios. vati fas appellare piumque est: 
Tarda sit ilia dies et nostro serior aevo, 
Qua caput Augustum, quem temperat, orbe relicto 

870 Accedat caelo faveatque precantibus absens. 

[And now thG poet's work is done, a work which no destructive 
agency can mar. Though death may claim his body, still it cannot 


nobler part, his ^me, for this shall live forever on the lips 

ique opus exegi, quod nee lovis ira nee ignis 
c poterit ferrum nee edax abolere vetustas. 
m volet, ilia dies, quae nil nisi corporis huius 
habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi : 
te tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 
lira ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 
aque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 
3 legar populi, perque omnia saecula f ama, 
uid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam. 

The Calydonian Hunt 

(From a sarcophagus in the Capitoline Museum) 

See Met. VIII, 260-444, p. 154 




[There remains the poetic product of the third period of our authofll 
life, the nine years spent in exile on the dreary shores of the Euzine 
Sea, far removed from everything that had been a source of joyous 
inspiration to him in his former life. 

Here was no gay capitol with its constant round of pleasures to 
stimulate his poetic fancy ; no circle of literary friends to call forth his 
best endeavors by their admiring applause, and sing his latest songs 
about the streets; no soft Italian skies and rich country scenery of 
wood and hill and ruiu to provide that background and atmosphere of 
beauty so necessary to a poet of Ovid's luxurious temperament. Insteadi 
he found a rude colonial town almost without the pale of dvilizatioDf 
inhabited by cliurlish barbarians, subject to constant alarms of war from 
more savage tribes without ; he found a treeless, dreary land with 
frowning skies and bleak winds almost the year around. 

It would be surprising if such an absolute change of environment did 
not produce a corresponding change in the character of Ovid's poetiy 
during this period ; if he who wrote so frankly of the joys of his youth 
should not now record the sorrows of his age. And this we find to be 
the case. The two important works of this period are five books of 
short poems in the elegiac measure, appropriately entitled Tristia^ and 
four books of letters in the same measure, which are named Ex PofUo^ 
from the place of writing. These two works are alike as to subject- 
matter, spirit and form of expression. They are both books of letters 
written from the poet's place of banishment to friends at Rome, fondly 
recalling former joys and complaining of present hardships. Both give 
vivid descriptions of the poet's surroundings and every-day life, and 
both abound in frantic appeals from Ovid to his friends at Rome that 
the^ use their good offices with the Emperor to soothe his anger and 



secure the exiled man's return^ or at least a mitigation of his hard 

The chief difference between these two works is that in the first the 
names of the friends to whom the letters are addressed are withheld, 
while in the second the names are given; this for the reason that, 
during the first part of the poet's banishment, when the anger of the 
Emperor was fresh, his friends feared to be involved in his misfortunes. 
But this fear seems to have disappeared by the end of the third year 
of his exile. 

In one of the early numbers of the Tristia (I, iii) the poet gives us a 
vivid and very human description of his last sad night at Rome, before 
1; parting forever from all that he held dear.] 

I Cum subit illius tristissima noctis imago, 

J Qua mihi supremum tempus in urbe fuit, 

Cum repeto noctem, qua tot mihi cara reliqui, 
Labitur ex oculis nunc quoque gutta meis. 
5 lam prope lux aderat, qua me discedere Caesar 
Finibus extremae iusserat Ausoniae. 
Nee spatium fuerat, nee mens satis apta parandi. 

Torpuerant longa pectora nostra mora. 
Non mihi servorum, comites non cura legendi, 
10 Non aptae profugo vestis opisve fuit. 

Non aliter stupui, quam qui lovis ignibus ictus 

Vivit et est vitae nescius ipse suae. 
Ut tamen hanc animi nubem dolor ipse removit, 
Et tandem sensus convaluere mei, 
15 Adloquor extremum maestos abiturus amicos, 
Qui modo de multis unus et alter erant. 
Uxor amans flentem flens acrius ipsa tenebat, 

Imbre per indignas usque cadente genas. 
Nata procul Libycis aberat diversa sub oris, 
s» Nee poterat fati certior esse mei. 

Quocumque aspiceres, luctus gemitusque sonabauu, 
Formaque non taciti funeris intus erat. 


Femina virque meo, pueri quoque funere maeren^rzK: nt, 
Inque domo lacrimas angulus omnis habet : 
as Si licet exemplis in parvis grandibus uti, 
Haec facies Troiae, cum caperetur, erat. 
lamque quiescebant voces hominumque canumqL^' JH^^* 

Lunaque nocturnes alta regebat equos. 
Hanc ego suspiciens et ab hac Capitolia cernenS:,.^^ s, 
30 Quae nostro frustra iuncta f uere lari, 
* Numina vicinis habitantia sedibus,* inquam 

* lamque oculis numquam templa videnda meis-S: is, 
Dique relinquendi, quos urbs habet alta Quirini, « 

Este salutati tempus in omne mihi ! 
35 Et quamquam sero clipeum post vulnera sumo, 
Attamen hanc odiis exonerate fugam, 
Caelestique viro, quis me deceperit error, 
Dicite, pro culpa ne scelus esse putet, 

Ut quod vos scitis, poenae quoque sentiat auctoi ' 

40 Placato possum non miser esse deo/ 

Hac prece adoravi superos ego, pluribus uxor, 

Singultu medios impediente sonos. 
Ilia etiam ante lares passis astrata capillis \ 

Contigit exstinctos ore tremente focos, 
45 Multaque in adversos effudit verba penates 
Pro deplorato non valitura viro. 
lamque morae spatium nox praecipitata negabat j^ 

Versaque ab axe suo Parrhasis Arctos erat. 
Quid facerem ? Blando patriae retinebar amore 
so Ultima sed iussae nox erat ilia fugae. 

A ! Quotiens aliquo dixi properante *Quid urgues:^^^* 

Vel quo festinas ire, vel unde, vide ! * 
A ! Quotiens certam me sum mentitus habere 
Horam, propositae quae foret apta viae. 
55 Ter limen tetigi, ter sum revocatus, et ipse 



Indulgens animo pes mihi tardus erat. 
Saepe vale dicto rursus sum multa locutus, 

Et quasi discedens oscula summa dedi. 
Saepe eadem raandata dedi meque ipse fefelli, 
60 Respiciens oculis pignora cara meis. 

Denique * Quid propero ? Scythia est, quo mittimur/ 
* Roma relinquenda est. Utraque iusta mora est. 
Uxor in aeternum vivo mihi viva negatur, 
Et domus et fidae dulcia membra domus, 
65 Quosque ego dilexi fraterno more sodales ; 
O mihi Thesea pectora iuncta fide ! 
Dum licet, amplectar. Numquam fortasse licebit 

Amplius ; in lucro est quae datur hora mihi.' 
Nee mora, sermonis verba imperfecta relinquo, 
70 Complectens animo proxima quaeque meo. 
Dum loquor et flemus, caelo nitidissimus alto, 

Stella gravis nobis, Lucifer ortus erat. 
Dividor baud aliter, quam si mea membra relinquam, 
Et pars abrumpi corpore visa suo est. 
75 Sic doluit Mettus tunc, cum in contraria versos 
Ultores habuit proditionis equos. 
Tum vero exoritur clamor gemitusque meorum, 

Et feriunt maestae pectora nuda manus. 
Tum vero coniunx, umeris abeuntis inhaerens, 
80 Miscuit haec lacrimis tristia verba meis : 

' Non potes avelli. Simul hinc, simul ibimus ' inquit : 

' Te sequar et coniunx exsuHs exsul ero. 
Et mihi facta via est, et me capit ultima tellus : 
Accedam profugae sarcina parva rati. 
85 Te iubet a patria discedere Caesaris ira. 

Me pietas. Pietas haec mihi Caesar erit.' 
Talia temptabat, sicut temptaverat ante, 

2l6 THE WORKS OF OVID i^^^t 

Vixque dedit victas utilitate manus. 
Egredior, sive illud erat sine funere ferri, 
90 Squalidus immissis hirta per ora comis. 
Ilia dolore amens tenebris narratur obortis 

Semianimis media procubuisse domo, 
Utque resurrexit foedatis pulvere turpi 

Crinibus et gelida membra levavit humo, 
95* Se modo, desertos modo complorasse penates, 

Nomen et erepti saepe vocasse viri, 
Nee gemuisse minus, quam si nataeque meumque 

Vidisset structos corpus habere rogos, 
Et voluisse mori, moriendo ponere sensus, 
100 Respectuque tamen non periisse mei. 

Vivat ! Et absentem — quoniam sic fata tulerunt — 

Vivat ut auxilio sublevet usque suo. 

[The following letter to his wife {Tristia^ III, in) is even more sad 
than usual, for it is written from the poet's sick chamber. He patheti- 
cally describes the utter loneliness of his life, with no friend near to 
lighten the tedium of the slowly moving days ; while every delicacy of 
food and care that should sustain him in his sickness is lacking. He 
looks forward to his death, and hopes that his wife will grieve for him 
and rescue his bones at least from the exile's lot.] 

Haec mea, si casu miraris, epistula quare 

Alterius digitis scripta sit : aeger eram. 
Aeger in extremis ignoti partibus orbis, 

Incertusque meae paene salutis eram. 
5 Quern mihi nunc animum dira regione iacenti 

Inter Sauromatas esse Getasque putes ? 
Nee caelum patior, nee aquis adsuevimus istis, 

Terraque nescio quo non placet ipsa modo. 
Non domus apta satis, non hie cibus utilis aegro, 
10 Nullus, Apollinea qui levet arte malum, 
Non qui soletur, non qui labentia tarda 


Tempora narrando fallat, amicus adest. 
Ussus in extremis iaceo populisque locisque, 
Et subit adfecto nunc mihi, quicquid abest. 
^5 Omnia cum subeant, vincis tamen omnia, coniunx, 
Et plus in nostro pectore parte tenes. 
Te loquor absentem, te vox mea nominat unam ; 

Nulla venit sine te nox mihi, nulla dies. 
Quin etiam sic me dicunt aliena locutum, 
20 Ut foret amenti nomen in ore tuum. 
Si iam deficiam, suppressaque lingua palato 

Vix instillato restituenda mero, 
Nuntiet hue aliquis dominam venisse, resurgam, 
Spesque tui nobis causa vigoris erit. 
25 Ergo ego sum dubius vitae, tu forsitan istic 
lucundum nostri nescia tempus agis ? 
Non agis ; adfirmo. Liquet hoc, carissima, nobis, 

Tempus agi sine me non nisi triste tibi. 
Si tamen implevit mea sors, quos debuit, annos, 
30 Et mihi vivendi tam cito finis adest. 

Quantum erat, o magni, morituro parcere, divi, 

Ut saltem patria contumularer humo ? 
Vel poena in tempus mortis dilata fuisset, 
Vel praecepisset mors properata fup;am. 
35 Integer banc potui nuper bene redderc lucem ; 
Exsul ut occiderem, nunc mihi vita data est. 
Tam procul ignotis igitur moriemur in oris, 

Et fient ipso tristia fata loco; 
Nee mea consueto languescent corpora lecto, 
40 Depositum nee me qui fleat, ullus erit ; 
Nee dominae lacrimis in nostra cadentibus ora 

Accedent animae tempora, parva meae; 
Nee mandata dabo, nee cum clamore supremo 
Labentes oculos condet amica manus, 


45 Sed sine funeribus caput hoc, sine honore sepuV 
Indeploratum barbara terra teget ! 
Ecquid, ubi audieris, tota turbabere mente, 

Et f cries pavida pectora fida manu ? 
Ecquid, in has frustra tendens tua bracchia parted 
50 Clamabis miseri nomen inane viri ? 

Parce tamen lacerare genas, nee scinde capillos : 

• Non tibi nunc primum, lux mea, raptus ero. 
Cum patriam amisi, tunc me periisse putato. 
Et prior et gravior mors fuit ilia mihi. 
55 Nunc, si forte potes, — sed non potes, optima 
coniunx — 
Finitis gaude tot mihi morte malis. 
Quod potes, extenua forti mala corde ferendo. 
Ad quae iam pridem non rude pectus habes. 
Atque utinam pereant animae cum corpore nostrae 
60 Effugiatque avidos pars mihi nulla rogos. 
Nam si morte carens vacua volat altus in aura 

Spiritus, et Samii sunt rata dicta senis, 
Inter Sarmaticas Romana vagabitur umbras, 
Perque feros manes hospita semper erit ; 
65 Ossa tamen facito parva referantur in urna : 
Sic ego non etiam mortuus exsul ero. 
Non vetat hoc quisquam: fratrem Thebana perempi 

Supposuit tumulo rege vetante soror. 
Atque ea cum foliis et amomi pulvere misce, 
70 Inque suburbano condita pone solo ; 

Quosque legat versus oculo properante viator, 
Grandibus in tituli marmore caede notis : 



Hoc s^i.tis in titulo est. Etenim maiora libelli 

^t: di iuturna magis sunt monumenta mihi, 
Quos ^^go confido, quamvis nocuere, daturos 
^^ -N'oinc:^en et auctori tempora longa suo. 
■^^ ^^-""^^inen exstincto feralia munera semper 

-*^^^^~tje tuis lacrimis umida serta dato. 
Quai::r:i^ "v^is in cineres corpus mutaverit ignis, 
^^^^*^^ tiet officium maesta favilla pium. 
5 Scrit>^:^--g plura libet. * Sed vox mihi fessa loquendo 
^J"-^^ t^ndi vires siccaque lingua negat. 
Accx;p> ^^ supremo dictum mihi forsitan ore, 
\2^^-^<:2^ ^, tibi qui mittit, non habet ipse, vale ! 

Ovid s .^^^■T'^^tjtmjg tQ those friends at Rome who stood by him in his 

t)leSj ^ '^ their unwillingness to be named in his letters lest they 

be i^ ^^^-*''^^^d, are well illustrated in the following selection (V,ix).] 

O *- ^ ^i sineres in nostris nomina poni 

^ "*^^^^iainibus, positus quam mihi saepe fores! 
T^ ^-^*^erem solum, meriti memor, inque libellis 

. ^"v^-isset sine te pagina nulla meis. 
S ^^^^^ "^ibi deberem,.tota sciretur in urbe, 
v^^^ vul in amissa si tamen urbe legor. 
^^^^^^-esens mitem nosset, te serior aetas, 
•^^^ipta vetustatem si modo nostra ferunt, 
^^ ^xki cessaret doctus bene dicere lector. 
*^^^ te servato vate maneret honor. 
C^^^^^is est primum munus, quod ducimus auras ; 

^r^tiia post magnos est tibi habenda deos. 
Jlle a^dit vitam ; tu, quam dedit ille, tueris, 

E-t facis accepto munere posse frui. 
C^^^ue perhorruerit casus pars maxima nostros, 
Pars etiam credi pertimuisse velit, 
v>^>m fja^f^agiumque meum tumulo spectarit ab alto, 


Nec dederit nanti per freta saeva manum, 
Seminecem Stygia revocasti solus ab unda. 
ao Hoc quoque, quod memores possumus esse, tuum est. 
Di tibi se tribuant cum Caesare semper amices : 

Non potuit votum plenius esse meum. 
Haec meus argutis, si tu paterere, libellis 

Poneret in multa luce videnda labor ; 
25 Nunc quoque se, quamvis est iussa quiescere, quin te 

Nominet invitum, vix mea Musa tenet. 
Utque canem pavidae nactum vestigia cervae 

Latrantem f rustra copula dura tenet ; 
Utque fores nondum reserati carceris acer 
30 Nunc pede, nunc ipsa fronte lacessit equus, 
Sic mea lege data vincta atque inclusa Thalia 

Per titulum vetiti nominis ire cupit. 
Ne tamen officio memoris laedaris amici, 

Parebo iussis — parce timere — tuis. 
35 At non parerem, si non meminisse putares. 

Hoc quod non prohibet vox tua, gratus ero. 
Dumque — quod o breve sit ! — lumen vitale videbo, 

Serviet officio spiritus iste tuo. 

[The poet's autobiography, which has been given in full at the begin- 
ning of this volume, also belongs to this period, being the tenth number 
of the fourth book. While it is of a somewhat more general character 
than the other poems written from exile, still it manifests the same 
longing to keep his name and memory alive in the world of men and 
letters, from which he had been driven, and the same disposition to 
dwell upon that unnamed cause of his banishment, so mysterious to us, 
though perhaps well known to Ovid's contemporaries. 

One selection from the Epistulae Ex Ponto will illustrate the general 
character of all, showing Ovid's bitter repining at his hard lot, upon 
which he dwells in detail ; his reiterated prayers to his friends to inter- 
cede for him with the Emperor, and his abject subservience to that 
prince's will.] 



I, II. Maxime, qui tanti mensuram nominis imples 
Et geminas animi nobilitate genus : 
Qui nasci ut posses, quamvis cecidere trecenti, 
Non omnes Fabios abstulit una dies : 
5 Forsitan haec a quo mittatur epistula, quaeras, 
Quisque loquar tecum, certior esse velis. 
Ei niihi ! quid faciam ? Vereor ne nomine lecto 
8 Durus et aversa cetera mente legas. 
II Videris : audebo tibi me scripsisse fateri 
mt * « « « « « « 

Qui, cum me poena dignum graviore fuisse 
Confitear, possum vix graviora pati. 
15 Hostibus in mediis interque pericula versor, 
Tamquam cum patria pax sit adempta mihi : 
Qui, mortis saevo geminent ut vulnere causas. 

Omnia vipereo spicula felle linunt. 
His eques instructus perterrita moenia lustrat 
20 More lupi clausas circueuntis oves : 
At simul intentus nervo levis arcus equino, 
Vincula semper habens inresoluta, canet, 
Tecta rigent fixis veluti vallata sagittis, 
Portaque vix firma submovet arma sera. 
25 Adde loci faciem nee fronde nee arbore laeti, 
Et quod iners hiemi continuatur hiems. 
Hie me pugnantem cum frigore cumque sagittis 

Cumque meo fato quarta fatigat hiems. 
Fine carent lacrimae, nisi cum stupor obstitit illis, 
30 Et similis morti pectora torpor habet. 
Felicem Nioben, quamvis tot funera vidit, 
Quae posuit sensum, saxea facta, mali ! 
Vos quoque felices, quarum clamantia fratrem 
Cortice velavit populus ora novo. 
35 lUe ego sum, lignum qui non admittar in uUum : 


Ille ego sum, frustra qui lapis esse velim. 
Ipsa Medusa oculis veniat licet obvia nostris, 

Amittet vires ipsa Medusa suas. 
Vivimus, ut numquam sensu careamus amaro, 
40 Et gravior longa fit mea poena mora. 

Sic inconsumptum Tityi semperque renascens 

Non perit, ut possit saepe perire, iecur. 
At, puto, cum requies medicinaque publica curae 

Somnus adest, solitis nox venit orba malis. 
45 Somnia me terrent veros imitantia casus, 

Et vigilant sensus in mea damna mei. 
Aut ego Sarmaticas videor vitare sagittas, 

Aut dare captivas ad fera vincla manus. 
Aut ubi decipior melioris imagine somni, 
50 Aspicio patriae tecta relicta meae. 

Et modo vobiscum, quos sum veneratus, amici, 

Et modo cum cara coniuge multa loquor. 
Sic ubi percepta est brevis et non vera voluptas, 

Peior ab admonitu fit status iste boni. 
55 Sive dies igitur caput hoc miserabile cemit, 

Sive pruinosi noctis aguntur equi. 
Sic mea perpetuis liquefiunt pectora curis, 

Ignibus admotis ut nova cera solet. 
Saepe precor mortem, mortem quoque deprecor idem, 
60 Ne mea Sarmaticum contegat ossa solum. 
Cum subit, Augusti quae sit dementia, credo 

Mollia naufragiis litora posse dari. 
Cum video, quam sint.mea fata tenacia, frangor; 

Spesque levis magno victa timore cadit. 
65 Nee tamen ulterius quicquam sperove precorve, 

Quam male mutato posse carere loco. 
Aut hoc, aut nihil est, pro me temptare modeste 

Gratia quod salvo vestra pudore queaL 



Suscipe, Romanae facundia, Maxime, linguae 
70 Difficilis causae mite patrocinium. 

Est mala, confiteor, sed te bona fiet agente : 

Lenia pro misera fac modo verba f uga. 
Nescit enim Caesar, quamvis deus omnia norit, 
Ultimus hie qua sit condicione locus. 
75 Magna tenent illud numen molimina rerum ; 
Haec est caelesti pectore cura minor. 
Nee vacat, in qua sint positi regione Tomitae, 

Quaerere, finitimo vix loca nota Getae ; 
Aut quid Sauromatae faciant, quid lazyges acres, 
80 Cultaque Oresteae Taurica terra deae ; 

Quaeque aliae gentes, ubi frigore constitit Hister, 

Dura meant celeri terga per amnis equo. 
Maxima pars hominum nee te, pulcherrima, curat, 
Roma, nee Ausonii militis arma timet. 
85 Dant illis animos arcus plenaeque pharetrae, 
Quamque Kbet longis cursibus aptus equus, 
Quodque sitim didicere diu tolerare famemque, 
Quodque sequens nullas hostis habebit aquas. 
Ira viri mitis non me misisset in istam, 
90 Si satis haec illi nota fuisset humus. 

Nee me, nee quemquam Romanum gaudet ab hoste, 

Meque minus, vitam cui dabat ipse, capi. 
Noluit, ut poterat, minimo me perdere nutu. 
Nil opus est ullis in mea fata Getis. 
95 Sed neque, cur morerer, quicquam mihi comperit 
lEt minus infestus, quam fuit, esse potest. 
Tunc quoque nil fecit, nisi quod f acere ipse coegi : 

Paene etiam merito parcior ira meo est. 
Di faciant igitur, quorum iustissimus ipse est, 
100 Alma nihil maius Caesare terra f erat : 



Utque diu sub eo sit publica sarcina rerum, 

Perque manus huius tradita gentis eat. 
At tu tarn placido, quam nos quoque sensimus ilium, 

ludice pro lacrimis ora resolve meis. 
105 Non petito, ut bene sit ; sed uti male tutius, utque 

Exsilium saevo distet ab hoste meum : 
Quamque dedere mihi praesentia numina vitam, 

Non adimat stricto squalidus ense Getes : 
Denique, si moriar, subeam pacatius arvum, 
110 Ossa nee a Scythica nostra premantur humo, 
Nee male compositos, ut scilicet exsule dignum, . 

Bistonii cineres ungula pulset equi : 
Et ne, si superest aliquis post funera sensus, 

Terreat et manes Sarmatis umbra meos. 
115 Caesaris haec animum poterant audita movere, 

Maxime, movissent si tamen ante tuum. 
Vox, precor, Augustas pro me tua molliat aures, 

Auxilio trepidis quae solet esse reis : 
Adsuetaque tibi doctae dulcedine linguae 
120 Aequandi superis pectora flecte viri. 

Non tibi Theromedon crudusque rogabitur Atreus, 

Quique suis homines pabula fecit equis; 
Sed piger ad poenas princeps, ad praemia velox, 

Quique dolet, quotiens cogitur esse ferox ; 
125 Qui vicit semper, victis ut parcere posset, 

Clausit et aeterna civica bella sera : 
Multa metu poenae, poena qui pauca coercet, 

Et iacit invita fulmina rara manu. 
Ergo tam placidas orator missus ad aures, 
130 Ut propior patriae sit fuga nostra, roga. 
Ille ego sum, qui te colui, quem festa solebat 

Inter convivas mensa videre tuos. 
Ille ego, qui duxi vestros Hymenaeon ad ignes, 


Et cecini fausto carmina digna toro ; 
X3S Cuius te solitum qiemini laudare libellos 
Exceptis, domino qui nocuere suo ; 
Cui tua nonnumquam miranti scripta legebas. 
Ille ego, de vestra cui data nupta domo est. 
Hanc probat et primo dilectam semper ab aevo 
r4o Est inter comites Marcia censa suas, 
Inque suis habuit matertera Caesaris ante : 
Quarum iudicio siqua probata, proba est. 
Ipsa sua melior fama, laudantibus istis, 
Claudia divina non eguisset ope. 
X45 Nos quoque praeteritos sine labe peregimus annos : 
Proxima pars vitae transilienda meae. 
Sed de me ut sileam, coniunx mea sarcina vestra est : 

Non potes hanc salva dissimulare fide. 
Conf ugit haec ad vos, vestras amplectitur aras — 
ISO lure venit cultos ad sibi quisque deos — 
Flensque rogat, precibus lenito Caesare vestris, 
Busta sui fiant ut propiora viri. 




This is the great epic and didactic measure introduced 
from the Greek into Latin literature by the poet Ennius, 
in his historical epic, the Annates. He was followed in 
this by all the satirists, — Lucilius (for the most part), 
Horace, Persius, and Juvenal, — whose poetry, as Horace 
himself said, was in outward form only ; by Lucretius, in 
his great work on natural philosophy, De Natura Renim; 
and by Vergil, in all his works. Though the Aeneid, his 
greatest work, shows some metrical defects, — which the 
author would doubtless have removed, had he lived to 
do so, — Vergil will stand as the poet who advanced the 
noble measure to its highest state of perfection, and will 
be considered, as Tennyson has styled him, — 

<* Wielder of the stateliest measure ever molded by the lips of man." 

It was in the Dactylic Hexameter that Ovid wrote his 
longest poem, and probably his greatest work, — though 
he himself seems not so to have regarded it, — the Meta- 
tnorphoses. Many students will in this poem meet their 
first Latin verse, while more advanced students will come 
to it with a wider range of metrical knowledge. It is 



for the interest and instruction of both these classes that 
the following notes are prepared. 

Let the beginner read the following lines {^Met, I. 89 
and following) aloud repeatedly, giving careful heed to the 
correct enunciation of the Latin words. Let him continue 
this until he feels a sense of rhythm, and then advance to 
a consideration of the verses in detail. 

Aurea | prima sa'ta (e)st aejtas, | quae | vindice | nullo 
Sponte su|a, | sine | lege ii|dem | rec|tumque co|lebat. 
Poena melusque abejrant, | nee | verba mi|nacia | fixo 
Aere le|gebanjtur, U nee | supplex | turba ti|mebat 
ludicis I ora su i, | sed e|rant sine | vindice | tuti. 
Nondum | caesa su|is, || peregrinum ut | viseret | orbem, 
Montibus | in liquijdas | pi|nus dejscenderat | undas, 
Nulhque | mortajles | prae|ter sua | litora | norant. 
Nondum | praecipijtes || cin'gebant | oppida | fossae : 
Non tuba | direcjti, || non | aeris | cornua | flexi, 
Non gale|ae, || non | ensis e|rant : || sine | militis | usu 
Mollia I secu rae || perajgebant | otia | gentes. 
Ipsa quo|que immunis | rasjtroque in|tacta nee | ullis 
Saucia | vomeri|bus || per | se dabat | omnia | tellus ; 
Conten|tique ci|bis || nul|lo co|gente cre|atis 
Arbute|os fejtus || mon|tanaque | fraga le|gebant 
Cornaque et | in du|ris || hae|rentia | mora | mbetis 
Et quae | decide|rant || patu|la lovis | arbore, | glandes. 
Ver erat | aeter[num, || placi|dique te|pentibus | auris 
Mulcejbant zephy|ri || na|tos sine | semine | flores. 
Mox etijarn fru|ges || teljlus ina|rata fe|rebat. 
Nee renojvatus a|ger || gravi|dis ca|nebat a|ristis : 
Flumina | iam lac|tis, || iam | flumina | nectaris | ibant, 
Fkvaque | de viri\di \ sl\\\\abaLiit 1^ ilice ( mella. 



Hninber, yalue. 

A consideration of the metrical structure of 

^tbe constitu- these lines shows that each is divided into six 
^ V^^^^ ^^ regularly recurring cadences ; and that these 
cadences, measures or feet are composed 
either of two long syllables or beats (a spondee), or of 
one long and two short beats (a dactyl) ; and that they 
are consequently equal in respect to the time required to 
pronounce them. The last foot in each line differs from 
the others in that it may be either a spondee, filling up 
the full time of the measure, or a trochee, composed of a 
long and a short beat followed by a rest equivalent in 
time to a short beat. The first two lines are represented 
both metrically and musically as follows : — 

|Z.ww| /_ I /._ I /. 


|^WW|^_ I Ar 


1 1 1 











Quantity the It will be seen from these considerations 

in Latin ▼erse. that the rhythm of Latm verse depends upon 
the quantity of the syllables which compose it. 
If due attention has been paid to the subject of quantity 
from the beginning of the study of Latin, the student will 
experience little difficulty at this point, particularly in the 
Hexameter, whose mechanical structure is simple. If this 
has not been the case, the student should master at the 
outset a few of the simpler principles, especially those 
which include quantity by position and quantity of final 
and increment syllables. For these, the ioWoVm^ x^\&\- 


ences may be consulted: 11.687-711(576-586); M. 16-22; 
A. 347-351 ; G. 702-713 ; B. 5, 362-365. 

While mastering these principles, the student should 
put them into practice by attempting to read Latin verse 
at once. Let him get the swing of the hexameter by 
repeatedly reading atoud the verses printed above, ob- 
serving the application of the principles of quantity 
which he is considering. 

, . , Meanwhile, observe that there is a musical 

The metncal ' 

accent and the or metrical stress falling upon the first syllable 

word accent. . , _, . . ., •• 

m each measure. This stress, m the last two 
feet of each line, coincides with the word-accent, but does 
not regularly do so in the other feet. It is the traditional 
theory that the word-accent is lost when it falls upon a 
syllable that does not bear the metrical stress. The oppo- 
site theory, advanced notably by Professor W. G. Hale 
(^Proceedings of the Am, Phil, Ass.y 1895, p. xxvi), is that, 
beside quantity, both word-accent and metrical stress were 
given by the Romans in reading verse. While the exact 
facts can probably never be known, it is likely that only 
a slight stress, whether metrical or word, was given by 
the Romans themselves. 

Slurring of The rhythm of Latin verse further requires 

so-caiiBdEi^' ^^^ practical suppression of certain easily 
sion. slurred final syllables coming before a word 

beginning with a vowel or the simple breathing h. These 
letters are any vowel or vowel with m, or a diphthong. 
The slurred part is retained sufficiently to indicate to the 
ear its presence in the verse, but not enough to count in 
the time. It is the second or receiving element which 
gives the time to the resultant syllable. In the case of 


est following a syllable or letter that would ordinarily 
be slurred, the reverse takes place ; />. the e is lost, and 
St is pronounced with the preceding unchanged word. 

Omission of slurring {Hiatus) rarely occurs. In the nearly 
four thousand lines selected from the Metamorphoses for the 
present edition, only the following cases occur : — 

I> 363. O uti|nam pos|sem || popu|los repa|rare pa|temis. 
756. Et tulit I ad C\ymt\uem || Epa|phi conlvicia | matrem. 

II, 244. Et celer | lsme|nos || cum | Phegia|c^ Ery|mantho. 

Ill, 467. O uti|nam a nos|tro || se|cedere | corpore | possem ! 
501. Verba lojcus ; || dic|toque va|le, || *val^' | inquit et | Echo. 

In this line note the double peculiarity of hiatus and the 
shortening of final e in the second vale. 

V, 409. Est medi|um Cya|nes || et | Pisae]d5<? Are|thusa. 
625. Et bis *i|^ Are|thusiZ, i\o Are|thusa!' vo|cavit. 

In this line note that there is a triple hiatus. In such 
cases, including the two lines in which O occurs, hiatus is 
regularly found, since it is evident that the word could not 
be slurred without undue loss to its integrity as a word. 

No instance is found, in the hexameters of this edition, 
of a letter at the end of a line slurring over to the begin- 
ning of the next line {Synapkeia), Vergil allows, in all, 
twenty such hypermetric lines, the syllable concerned 
being, in all but two cases, the enclitic -qtie. 

The polished hexameter of the Augustan period avoids 
frequent and harsh slurrings, although these abound to 
excess in the earlier poets, e.g. Ennius, Lucilius, and 
Lucretius. Some specimens of Lucilian harshness are 
seen in the following: — 


Praetextae ac tunicae, Lydorum opus sordidulum omne. 
Ad cenam adducam et primum hisce abdomina thunni. 
Ceteri item, in capulo hunc non esse aliumque cubare. 

Slurring in good verse is rare in the fifth foot, and so 
rare in the sixth as to be almost unknown. The only- 
cases which these selections from the Metamorphoses' 
present are: II, ^6\ IV, 103; VII, 12; XV, 214. 

In general it may be said of Ovid's verse that it is- 
remarkably smooth in the matter of elision, even when 
compared with Vergil. Only a few lines show any ap- 
proach to roughness, and these, if compared with such, 
standards as the lines just quoted from Lucilius (which- 
are typical), are not noticeably harsh. 
„, . .^^. Analogous to the slurring of a final letter 

Slttmng witnin ^ 

a word. Synae- or letters, in its effect both upon the ear and 
upon the rhythm of the verse, is the slurring 
of two vowels coming together within a word {Synaeresis). 
In both cases there is the sounding of two letters with 
the time of one, and in both, with the exception of deerat, 
it is the second element which gives the time to the 
resultant syllable. The following instances of Synaeresis 
occur in these selections: I, ^^, d^^rat; 292. d^^ant; 353. 
(et passim) d^mde; 423. alv^^; 461. (et passim) nesc/i?; 
V, 201. Pers^/; VII, 151. ZMxeae \ 247. aenea.; IX, 51. 
r^^'cere ; XIII, 366. ant^/t ; 819. d^^runt 
The lengthen- The metrical effect of both final and medial 
syllable.^ Diaa- slurriug is to shorten the line to the propor- 
'*''•• tions required by the rhythm. To produce 

the opposite effect of gaining time, resort is sometimes 
had, though rarely in Ovid, to the lengthening of a short 


8>[\\m^ {Diastole), as, for example, in the following pas- 
sages: i^ 1^3. faunique; II, 247. Taenarius; V, 484. side- 
raque; VII, 265. seminaque; XIII, 257. Alastoraque. 
It will be seen that the lengthened syllable in each of 

- these cases is the accented syllable of the foot, which is in 
itself an indication that the metrical accent of the verse 
had a perceptible influence in determining rhythm. In 
every instance but one, the lengthened syllable in the 
cases quoted above is the enclitic -que. Vergil lengthens 

I -qiie seventeen times, and rather freely uses the license 

' of diastole in a large variety of other final syllables. 

I Conversely, a long syllable may be shortened for 
metrical purposes {Systole), as seen in III, 501: — 

Verba lo|cus; dic|toque va|le *vale'|! inquit et | Echo. 

ftepoiitioii As to the character of the different feet in 

•aceofdactyis the hexameter verse, it has been seen that 
S^Md ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ always either a spondee or 
««kfcet. a trochee. The fifth foot is, except in rare 
mstances, a dactyl. So rare is the spondee 
in the fifth foot that lines having this peculiarity are 
Jiamed spondaic lines. The following instances occur in 
these selections : I, 14, 62, 117, 193, 690, 732; II, 226, 
247; V, 607 ; VI, 247 ; VII, 114. It will be seen that the 
lilies all end in a polysyllabic word, frequently a difficult 
proper name. 

The first four feet in a hexameter verse may be either 
dactyls or spondees. The proportion of these varies in 
different authors. In the verses of Homer, the dactyls far 
outnumber the spondees, being about 6% per cent of all. 
In the Latin writers, the two feet are about ecjually pro- 


portioned, the spondees preponderating by a small percent- 
age, except in Ovid, whose lines are noticeably dactylic 
in effect. In the first foot, however, the dactyl is favored 
by all, in Ovid especially so, whose line initials are even 
more preponderatingly dactylic than Homer's. A large 
number of the lines of the Metamorphoses are composed 
entirely of dactyls with the exception of the sixth foot. 
Some examples of this are: I, 143, 158, 234, yj^) II, 32, 
34, 158, 19s; IV, 67s, 696; V, 365, 400; VI, 172, 174, 
176, 304; VIII, 675; IX, 134; X, 14, 15; XIII, 35, 267, 
273. Since the thought in these lines does not, as a rule, 
require rapidity of expression, it is evident that Ovid 
chooses the rapid style for its own sake. 

An unusual line for Ovid, both in its monosyllabic 
character and consequent slow movement, is VII, 40. 
The rhetorical If the model lines are again examined, it 
^thinafoot. will be scen that each is rhetorically broken 
f Inland ^mh"' ^^ ^ ^orc or Icss noticcablc pause (marked ||) 
nine. falling in all but three lines in the middle of 

the third foot, t.e, after the first or metrically accented 
syllable. In the exceptional lines, the pause falls in 
one case (1. 89) in the fourth foot ; and in the other two 
(11. 90 and 99) there are two such pauses, falling in the 
second and fourth feet respectively. Such a pause as is 
here described is called the caesiiral pause of the line. 
The above-mentioned distribution of the caesural pause 
pretty accurately represents Ovid's usage as to the posi- 
tion of the caesura. A comparison with the corresponding 
feature of Vergil's hexameter shows that he is much more 
careful to secure variety by breaking consecutive lines 
differently, than is Ovid. 


As has been said, the pause regularly falls after the 
first or accented syllable of the foot {Masai/iue Caesura), 
In infrequent instances, however, the rhetorical pause of 
the line falls between the two short or unaccented syllables 
of a dactyl {Feminine Caesura\ as in the following lines: — 

VI, 246. Membra so|lo posu|ere ; || sijmul su|prema iajcentes. 
XIII, 77. Si per|stas cer|tare, || lo|cum rede|amus in | ilium. 

It is a metrical fault for a line to be so constructed that 
no such pause occurs ; also to have any considerable pro- 
portion of the words in a line coincide with the feet, thus 
forming what may be called a mechanical or prose line. 
From this fault, Ovid is singularly free. The following 
lines exhibit this fault to a slight extent: IX, 208, 209; 
XV, 868. Much more mechanical is Lucretius, e,g, — 

I, 244. At nunc, | inter | se || quia | nexus | principi|orum ; 

and the most extreme case known is the following line 
from the Satires of Ennius : — 

Sparsis | hastis | longis | campus | splendet at | horret. 

Line endings, A glance at Ovid's lines shows that his 
monosy c, £^^Qj.j^g ending is a word of two or three syl- 
lables. So in Vergil. Lucretius, more than 
any other poet, is fond of a resounding polysyllabic end- 
ing. In all, it is considered a metrical blemish to end 
a line with a monosyllable, unless it be the absorbed est, 
or unless the ending be used intentionally for dramatic 
effect or for emphasis, as in Horace {^A. P. 139)* — 

Parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus; . 


where the monosyllabic ending represents the insignifican 
outcome of the great preparations suggested by the other 
wise high-sounding line. 

As a rule, however, the prevalence of this ending is a 
fair test as to the smoothness of a writer's hexameters in 
other respects. Of the extant fragments of the Anmles 
of Knnius (about 430 full lines), 10 per cent have the 
monosyllabic ending ; of the fragments of Lucilius (1000 
lines), 6.3 per cent; in Lucretius, 3.5 per cent; in Horace, 
8.3 per cent; in Juvenal, 7 per cent; in Vergil and Ovid, 
not more than J of i per cent of the lines have this ending. 
AiutetatioH, Qiic of the most noticeable features of the 

kindr^d effects earlier Latin poetry is the fondness of its 
feature of^ writers for multiplying similar sounds at the 
Ovid's style, beginning of words and accented syllables. 
In the crude poetry of early English literature, this allit- 
erative principle seems to have been the basis of rhythm; 
but among the early Latin writers it is probably nothing 
more than an attempt to embellish their lines by what 
was considered an artistic devise. A pleasant effect is 
undoubtedly produced by this means, if used in mod- 
eration. The fault, however, of such writers as Ennius, 
and to a less extent of Lucretius, is that they are carried 
away by these jingles, and use them until they are nC 
longer pleasing. Ennius runs riot in alliteration. Nearly 
20 per cent of his lines are marked by this feature. E^ 
treme examples of his alliterative verse are as follows:-—' 

Machina multa minax molitur maxima muris. 
Si luci, si nox, si mox, si iam data sit fnix. 
O Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti. 


Vergil does not make alliteration a feature of his verse, 
at least so far as conscious striving for this effect is 

Ovid, on the other hand, while he nowhere goes quite 
to the extreme of Ennius, did consciously and constantly 
avail himself of alliterative effects. Alliteration in two 
letters is very common. In these lines, the words which 
begin with the same letter are generally connected rhetori- 
cally. Many of the lines contain two pairs of alliterated 
words, e.g. VII, 96; XIII, 93. Alliteration in three let- 
ters is also common, e,g. II, 77, 82; III, 481; X, 44; 
XIII, 83, 84. Ovid's most extreme alliterative lines are 
as follows: II, 155, 170; V, 473; VI, 312; VII, 136; 
IX, 80; XIII, 87, 116, 577. 

The same taste which led the Latin poets to alliteration 
is displayed in their frequent attempts to produce a jin- 
gling or rhyming effect at the end of two or more words 
in a line. Whether such attempts are to be considered as 
the origin of the modern rhyme is a question which cannot 
be answered; and yet the fondness for such effects, dis- 
played by many of the Latin poets, is significant. This 
is shown very strongly in Ennius, and perhaps most of 
all in Lucretius. Ovid also makes use of assonance with 
extreme frequency. The following lines illustrate this 
echoing or rhyming effect : — 

I, 130. In quo/T/w subiere \ocum fraud esque dolique. 
307. Quaesi//jque diu term, ubi sistere detur. 

Other examples are in: II, 27, 215, 235, 245, 249; IV, 
8j, 147, 480; V, 192, 193, 422, 428, 432, 625; VI, 219, 
iSo; VII, 139, 177, 271; VIII, 673; IX, 91, 180; XI, 


142; XIII, 303, 304, 361, 844; XV, 754, 757, 758. It 
will be seen, upon examination, that the syllables here in 
question fall in the masculine caesurae in the second and 
fourth feet. There can be little doubt that the poet con- 
sciously aims to produce an echoing effect in these lines. 
This effect can be produced only by giving prominence 
to {ie, by accenting) the similar syllables ; and since these 
syllables are word finals, this requires an accent which is 
not the proper accent of the word. 

A favorite line ending with Ovid is seen in I, 129, 130. 
Over fifty such endings occur, with the similarly duplicated 
enclitic -ve. 

Ovid's fondness for jingles is further illustrated in such 
phrases as the following : \\le /evem ; adveh(?r Ortygia,m ; 
Heli^^na c^lentes ; conz;/da vtct3,e ; Latona, re/^itis ; deme 
meis'y cnse senis; clzMsere serae ; texxX, era fru/^;ir/ voc^ 
voc2Xyix\ pecox\^ s/^^tans; senti^/ at; tantae ... Tanta- 
lides; "L^vanos nostxo] spolims mt; nobis altera nobiXi- 
tas; remora/«r i/«n)s ; sWvis ot visws \ septem^«a^«mina; 
Mnus onus. 

In this class of jingles, Lucretius easily excels all other 
Latin poets. In the actual repetition of words and phrases, 
however, Ovid outdoes even Lucretius. This repetition 
extends from such simple cases as — 

I, 240. Occidit una domus : sed non domus una perire, 

through all phases of line initial, medial and final repeti- 
tion, with duplication of part lines and half lines, to almost 
complete line repetition, such as, — 

I, 325, 326. Et superesse virum de tot modo millibus unum, 
Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unauL 


For further illustrations of this most prominent feature of 
Ovid's poetic form, turn to the following passages : — 

I, 248, 249. ^orma yU/z^ra, rogant : quis sit \a.tums in aras 
TursL? ferisne /aret /opulandas /radere /erras? 

and 325, 326 (line repetition with slight changes); 361, 
362 (second half line repeated); 481, 482 (first half line 
repeated); 514, 515 (double word repetition); 742 (double 
jingle: que in qtiinos dil^/^a ^^^umitur); II, 280, 281 
(double phrase repetition with chiasmus); III, 98 (a per. 
fectly symmetrical chiasmic arrangement of a double re- 
peated phrase) ; 446 (the same as in 98) ; 465 (triple word 
repetition); IV, 152, 153; 713 (double word repetition with 
chiasmus and triple alliteration) ; V, 345 (triple word repe- 
tion ; two in parallel order, and one in chiasmic order) ; 
369, 370; 483; VII, 197, 198 (remarkable repetition of 
-que, and double word repetition in beginning and medial 
positions); VIII, 673 (every word but one containing an 
echoing syllable: Dantque \0cu7n mtv\sis p3,u/um ^^ducta 
secundts); 714, 7x5 (triple word repetition); IX, 36-38 
(11. 36 and 37 are held together by vtrem and cervzcem ; 
while 37 and 38 are joined by capiat and capture)] 44, 
45 (three pairs of repeated words, with quadruple allit- 
eration in one line, and two pairs of double alliteration 
in the other); 207-210 (a strongly onomatopoetic passage 
with many repetitions); XIII, 284; XV, 757, 758 (in one 
line, triple ending in -os and double in -isset every word 
but et being involved ; in the other, triple ending in -um 
and one in -isse). 

These passages, containing every possible variety of 
alliteration, assonance, anaphora, double, triple, and quad- 


ruple echoes, repetitions in parallel and chiasmic orde 
exhibit an amazing fluency which amounts to an slmost 
fatal facility of language. Add to this the ceaseless, swift 
gallop of his lines, of which mention has already been 
made, and it will be seen that Ovid is a past master in tbc 
use of the Hexameter — a veritable juggler in language. 


The first appearance of this species of verse in Roman 
poetry is in the Epigrammata of Ennius, of which the 
following lines, upon the poet himself, are a good illus- 
tration : — 

Aspici|te 6 ci|v^s, || senis | fenni i|miginis | f6rmam ! 

Hie ves|trijm pan|xit ^ mdxima | fdcta pa|tniiTi. 
N^mo I m^ lacru|mis deco|r6t || nee | fiinera | fl^tu 

Fdxit. I Ciir? voli|t6 ^ vlvu' per | 6ra vi|nim. 

Marcus Terentius Varro employed the same verse, to a 
limited extent, in his Menippean satires. The following 
passage, of which the initial hexameter line is lost, is 
among the extant fragments : — 

Ndtu|ra h6ma|nis # 6mnia | stint pari|d : 
Qui pote I plus, ur|g^t, || pis|cis ut | sa^pe mi|ni!itos 
Mdgnu' co|m^st, ut a|v6s j^ ^nicat | dccipi|t^r. 

In Catullus, Cannina 65-116 are in the elegiac distich- 
This poet is probably the first of the Latins to use tn^ 
distich in the true elegiac (mournful) strain, as illustrate^ 
in Carmen 65, in which he laments the death of ^ 
brother; — 


Ntkmquam ego | t^ vi|td j^ frdter a{mdbili|6r 
Aspici|dm post|hdc : | at | c^rte | semper a|mdbo, 

Samper | ma^sta tu|d ^ cdrmina | m6rte ca|ndm, 
Qudlia I st^b den|sis || ra|m6rum | c6ncinit | i^mbris 

Datilias | dbsump|ti # fdta ge|m^ns Ity|Il. 

But the distich reaches its highest perfection of devel- 
opment in the more properly styled elegiac poets, Pro- 
pertius, Tibullus, and Ovid, in whose hands it becomes 
the ready instrument for the expression of the passion 
of love. For Ovid's own account of the measure, and 
the origin of his use of it, read Amores, I, i, and see 
notes upon this. 

The elegiac distich, as will have been observed above, 
is composed of a dactylic hexameter line followed by a 
(wrongly so-called) pentameter. It is to this pentameter 
only that the attention of the student need be called. 
In the selections quoted above, and in the minor works 
of Ovid {i.e, all except the Metamorphoses)^ observe the 
following facts : — 

1. The distich is a true couplet, — a unit, not alone 
in form, but in thought, — which is brought to a close 
by the pentameter line; so that the sense rarely goes 
over uncompleted into the next hexameter. In this 
respect, compare the English rhymed couplet, e.g, of 

2. The pentameter line, as has been suggested above, 
is wrongly so called. Properly considered, it is a dactylic 
hexameter with the unaccented part of the third and sixth 
feet suppressed. In theory, the remaining syllable has the 
time of the entire foot. 

3. The line is usually broken rhetorically after the 

ovm — 16 


accented part of the third foot. This break in the pen- 
tameter is marked in the lines above thus #, and divides 
the line into two equal parts. There are many lines, how- 
ever, in which there is no rhetorical break here, e,g. — 

Tiphys in Haemonia puppe magister erat 

4. In the first half, substitution of spondees for dactyls 
is freely admitted, while in the second half no substitution 
is allowed. Here the dactyl only is found. Hence the 
verse scheme is as follows : — 

5. Elision, especially in Ovid, is exceedingly rare in the 
second half of the line. 

6. It is Ovid's almost universal rule to end the penta- 
meter with a dissyllable. The older poets, as seen above, 
had no such practice. 

7. It is a very common thing in Ovid for the two words 
which end the two halves of the pentameter to be noun 
and adjective in agreement, having the same ending, thus 
forming an assonance or rhyme ; e.g. — 

Venerat, antiqu<z^ miscueratque com^x. 

Oftentimes the echo of the sound is secured, although the 
two ends are unconnected in construction ; e.g, — 

lUe fuit. Ma/r/ proxima iusta tu//. 

Again, the two words may be in agreement, though the 
final sounds are not identical, as in the following line : — 

Prodita sura causw una puella trib«j./ 


H^Harkness* Complete Latin Grammar, references to Harkness* Standard 
Grammar being inclosed in parentheses; M=Mooney; A = Allen & Greenough; 
GsQildersleeve ; B= Bennett; L. & M.=» Lane & Morgan. 

THE LIFE OF OVID {TrisHa, IV, lo) 

Pack 11. — i. ** Who I was, that playful poet of the tender loves." Refei- 
ence is made to the love poems of Ovid*s youth. The present poem 
was written at the end of his life, after the completion of his greater 
and more serious works. But the poet passes over these, and introduces 
himself to posterity merely as the writer of amatory verse. 

3. Snlmo : a town of the Peligni, lying almost due east of Rome, watered by 

cool mountain streams {gelidis undis), Ovid claims {Fast, IV, 79) that 
the town was named from Solymus, one of the followers of Aeneas. 
For a further account of the poet's birthplace, see Amores, III, xv, 
p. 32, of this book. 

4. ab Urbe : to a Roman, urbSf unless otherwise defined, referred, as a matter 

of course, to Rome, the city,/ar excellence. See Quintilian (VI, 3, 103) : 
" After the term Urbs, even though no distinguishing proper name was 
added, came to be understood as referring to Rome." 
6. cum cecidit : i>. in 43 b.c. The two consuls were Hirtius and Pansa, who, 
after the death of Caesar, had taken sides against Antony. They fell in 
a successful attack upon that general, who was besieging D. Brutus 
in Mutina. 

5. " Not made a knight by fortune's gift alone." His was an ancient order 

of knighthood, descended to him from a remote ancestor, and not con- 
ferrfed by fortune's latest whirl. In these lines, Ovid substantially repeats 
what he had said in the Amores (III, xv, 5, 6, p. 32), where militiae tur- 
bine is substituted for fortunae munere, both phrases having reference 
to the sudden promotion which had come to many as the reward of 
service in the civil wars. 

[ I . ** The same morning dawned upon the natal day of both." In the three 
lines (10-12) there is a threefold statement that the birth anniversary 
of the poet and his brother fell on the same day. 

[2. lilMl: the libum was a kind of pancake, the composition of which is thus 
described by Cato (de Re Rustica, 75) : " Make the libum after the fol- 


lowing fashion : take two parts of cheese and rub up well in a mortar. 
To this add one pound of wheaten flouv, and mix well with the cheese. 
Add one egg and mix all well together. Make the mixture into a cake, 
cover it with leaves, and bake it slowly on the warm hearth.'* It was 
customary to offer such a cake to the gods upon one's birthday. 
13-14. In these lines we are told the month and day of Ovid's birth, — the 
twentieth of March. The "five festal days of armor-clad Minerva" 
here referred to were the Quinquatriaf which lasted for five days, 
March 19-23. Ovid {^Fast. Ill, 809-814) thus describes the festival: — 

Una dies media est, et fiunt sacra Minervae, 
Nomina quae iunctis quinque diebus habent 

Sanguine prima vacat, nee fas concurrere ferro : 
Causa, quod est ilia nata Minerva die. 

Altera tresque sup>er rasa celebrantur harena : 
Ensibus ex sertis bellica laeta dea est. 

Therefore, " the first day that was wont to be ensanguined with battle " 
would be the first of the last four days, or the twentieth of the month. 
Page 12. — 15. cura parentis : Horace gives us a similar picture of his own 
father's ambition for his son's education and of his personal super- 
vision and care {Saiirest I, vi, 71) : "My father, though possessed of 
but a meager estate, was unwilling to send me to Flavins' school, but was 
enterprising enough to take me early in my career to Rome, there 
to be instructed in the studies which the sons of knights and senators 

18. "Born for the wordy forum's ardent strife." His brother chose the pro- 

fession of the law. 

19. caelestia sacra : poetry was regarded as sacred, exalted, because inspired 

of Heaven. The poet was the priest of the Muses. 
22. Maeonides : i.e. Homer. The utilitarian old father could see no good in 
that which brought no financial profit. 

24. " I strove to write unrh>thmic phrases," 1^. prose. 

25, 26. Compare the early experience of Pope, who» no doubt, remembered 

his CK'id when he wrote (^Prologtu to the Satires) :* — 

As yet a child, nor yet a fool to feune, 

I lisped in numbers, for the numbers came. 

2$. liberior toga : otherwise called the /c^ virUiSj the assompdon of vludi 
was a sign that the young man had attained his majority, or tlie age 
of sixteen years. The tcga praetexta, the dress of boyhood, was at tint 
time laid aside. 
lato davo : the Ltticl^xn was a broad band of purple whidi adoned the 
front of the tunic. It was primarily designed as a muk of 1 


Q NOTES 245 

rank, but the sons of wealthy knights were allowed by Augustus to 
assume this badge, since they also might aspire to senatorial dignity. 

itudiuin nobis manet : each boy entered public life with his early incli- 
nations strong upon him. 

parte mei: the force of these words is somewhat weakened by Ovid*s 
frequent use of similar expressions. He thus addresses Severus {Ex 
Panto, I, viii, 2) : Pars animae magna, Severe, meae. 

The triumvirate was a sort of committee or commission of three, charged 
with the police or the mint, as the case might be. The office of the 
triumyir was a minor one, which, however, was one of the necessary 
steps for the political aspirant. 

mensura coacta : instead of entering the senate, the badge of which was 
the broad purple stripe, which he had assumed as destined to the 
senate, Ovid now gave up his political aspirations, and was content 
to remain a knight, and wear only the narrow purple stripe of that 
^13. — 39. Aoniae sorores: the Muses. Aonia, that is, Boeotia, was 
especially sacred to the Muses, because here was Mt. Helicon, their 
favorite haunt, and many fountains and streams which were conse- 
crated to them. G)mpare Milton {Paradise Lost, I, 13) : — 

My adventurous song, 
That with no middle flight intends to soar 
Above the Aonian mount. 

**And every bard I took to be a god." Such enthusiastic reverence 
readily explains, in part, the popularity which Ovid speedily enjoyed 
among his brother poets. 

Kacer : this was Aemilius Macer, of Verona, the friend both of Vergil 
and Ovid. He wrote a poem on serpents and birds, no trace of which 
remains to us. Ovid here implies that he wrote on the healing proper- 
ties of herbs also. 

Propertias: an elegiac poet, about ten years older than Ovid, born in 
Umbria, near the confines of Etruria. Four books of his elegies have 
come down to us. He also was of an equestrian family, and his friend- 
ship with Ovid seems to have been based on many similarities of taste 
and experience. 

ignes : the poets frequently call their passionate effusions by the appro- 
priate names of ignes, ardores, flammae, and the like. 
• ** Who by bonds of comradeship was joined to me." 

^Onticus: Propertius addresses two elegies (I, 7 and 9) to this poet, in 
the first of which he recommends his friend not to despise love poetry, 
and in the second PoDticus is jestingly taunted witYi bem^ «X \a&\. m 


love. In the first four lines of the seventh elegy, Propertius unplies ' 

that Ponticos is writing a heroic poem upon Thebes. 
47. Bassus : Propertius addresses the fourth elegy of his first book to this 

same Bassus, in which he reproaches that poet for trying to part hun 

from his sweetheart, Cynthia. Of this Bassus nothing further is known. 
49. Horatius: Horace was Ovid's senior by twenty-two years. While they 

both moved in the same literary circles, there is no evidence in the 

works of either poet that they were intimate friends. 
5a Ausonia : i.e. Italian, Horace himself {Odes^ III, 30) claims that he 

was the first Roman to adapt the Greek lyric meters to Latin verse. 
51. Vergilium: Vergil died in B.C. 19, when Ovid was only twenty-four years 

old. He spent much of his time, in the later years of his life, at Naples. 

These facts, added to the well-known reserved disposition of Vergil, 

would account for Ovid's extremely limited acquluntance with him. 
Tibullo : Tibullus was, like Propertius, an elegiac poet, bom at about the 

same time with him, and of an equestrian family of considerable wealth ; 

but, unlike his friend, he was bom in the city itself. Ovid's love for 

Tibullus is testified by the impassioned lament over his death, which 

occurred in B.C. 19. This lament is found in the AmoreSj III, 9. 

53. Galle : C. Cornelius Callus was, like Tibullus and Propertius, an elegiac 

poet, and that of no mean ability. His writings, none of which are 
extant, comprised a volume of elegies in four books in praise of a cer- 
tain Greek actress, to whom he gives the name of Lycoris. These 
elegies are favorably mentioned by Ovid (A mores, I, 15, 29): — 

Gallus et hesperiis et Gall us notus eois, 
Ex sua cum Gallo nota Lycoris erit 

He was also a sincere friend and patron of men of letters, and in 
particular of Vergil, whom he introduced to the notice of the great 
Maecenas. Vergil's warm friendship and admiration of his friend and 
brother-poet are expressed in his sixth and tenth eclogues. 

54. The elegiac succession would, then, be Gallus, Tibullus, Propertius, Ovid. 

56. Thalia: Ovid here uses the name of a specific muse (the muse of 

Comedy), as Horace also frequently does, for poetry in general. 

57. " When I first gave public readings of my youthful verse." This practice 

of reading one's own productions has already been alluded to in line 45. 
The custom was instituted by Asinius Pollio. 
60. Corinna : the mistress who inspired his love songs, as did the Lesbia of 
Catullus, Lycoris of Gallus, Delia of Tibullus, and Cynthia of Propertius. 
What the real name of Corinna was is matter only for conjecture. 
This device of addressing an inamorata under an assumed name was 
adopted by many Englbh poets. 





a ^v 

< > 

% J 

O rt 





fiqxas jo jTOjaa- 



iddjitq J JO 9iH«g- - 


Page 14. — 63. " Then, too, on the eve of flight, I burned some works which 
would have pleased." Among these works yet in hand was the Meta- 
morphosesy which Ovid was at that time employed in correcting. For- 
tunately for posterity, however, this great work was not destroyed. 

68. " No scandal was ever connected with my name." 

78. lustris : the lustrum was an expiatory sacrifice or lustration made by 

the censors at the end of every five years, upon the completion of 
the official census. A lustrum hence came to mean a period of five 

79. <* I mourned him as he would have mourned for me had I been taken 


85-88. Ovid raises questions which to the thinkers of his time were full of 
interest, questions which were variously answered but never settled: 
when a man dies does anything remain ? does the soul escape the 
funeral flames? does news of earthly doings penetrate to the spirit 
world ? While Ovid, in more than one passage, boldly asserts belief 
in his own immortality, it is more of the enduring life of his literary 
fame than of his own personal existence that he speaks. 

Page 15. — 90. " The cause of my enforced flight was an unfortunate blunder, 
not a deliberate sin." 

94. antiquas comas : i.€, that of the former days of his youth. Ovid is 

very fond of this use of antiquus in the sense of "old-time" or 
" former." Elsewhere he has antiqua fronsy antiqui capilli, antiqua 
fades, mensy and the like. 

95. Pisaea oliva : reference is here made to the Olympic games which were 

held in the territory of Pisa. The victor's crown was a wreath of wild 
olive. Hence the words of the text. These games were held at inter- 
vals of four years called Olympiads. Ovid has evidently confounded 
the Olympiad with the Roman lustruniy which was a period of five 

95. 96. " And since my birth the victorious horse, crowned with Pisa's olive 

wreath, had ten times won the prize." By this whole passage he 
means to tell us that he was fifty years old when this calamity came 
upon him. As a matter of fact, he was fifty-one years of age, which 
would set the date of his banishment in 8 A.D, 

96. victor equus: the use of equus instead of eques seems strange here 

until we remember that Pindar twice chants the praises of the victori- 
ous horse. Horace refers to this feature of Pindar's verse in OdeSy IV, 
2, 17. 

97. For a full description of the place and circumstances of Ovid's exile, 

see the selections from the Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto, and 

p. i6] NOTES 249 

10 1, comitom nefas : this is a dark allusion to the faithlessness of friends 
in his time of trouble. In m Ponto (II, vii, 61) hs plainly says that, 
instead of aiding him as they might have done, they had actually 
proBted by his misfortunes : — 

Recta fides comitum poterat mala nostra levare : 
Ditata est spoliis perfida turba meis. 

109, no. "At length, worn with long wanderings, I reached Sarmatia's 
shores, hard by the quiver-bearing Getae." 

Page 16. — 113. quod : " this," my poetry {carmen), the subject of referatur. 

115 seq. So Horace acknowledges his debt to the muse for all that he has 
attained in life {Odes, IV, iii, 21) : " Tis all thy gift that I am noted by 
the passer-by, and called Rome's lyric bard; and that I live and please, 
if so I please, is thine." 

116. **That utter weariness of the irksome days does not overwhelm me." 

119. ab Histro: the Ister stands for all his savage and unpoetic surround- 
ings. From these he is lifted bodily by the muse's inspiration to the 
sacred haunts of poesy. 

121. mihi vivo nomen: it is the result of the natural envy of man that the 
full meed of praise is rarely bestowed in life. 

125. "For though our age has produced great poets," etc. Notwithstanding 
the strong rivalry for fame of many gifted men, Ovid feels that his has 
been no mean share of fame. 

1 28. A prophecy fulfilled, in that even now the poet is being read and studied 

in a land of which he never dreamed. 

129, 130. This prediction of his own literary immortality Ovid is very fond 

of making. See Tristia, III, vii, 50 : — 

Me taraen exstincto fama superstes erit, 

Dumque suis victrix omnem de montibus orbem 

Prospiciet domitum Martia Roma, legar. 

The fullest statement of these hopes is found in the concluding lines 
of the Metamorphoses, which see with note. 


The story of Ariadne falls into three parts : her connection with the adven- 
ture of Theseus in Crete against the Minotaur, her flight with Theseus and 
subsequent desertion by him upon the island, and her union with Bacchus, 
who discovered her there. Ovid gives the briefest outline of the whole story 
in Met, VIII, 172-182; the present letter describes at length the second, and 
Ars Amatoria, I, 526-564, gives the third phase of the story. This same phase 


he f^tjmt* at lengtli in /jjiii» III, 459-516^ ending with the transformational 
Aii&dse's crcmn into the constellation of that name. 

The story of Ariadne is referred to br nnmeroas other Latin writers, rekted 
among the other legends of antiqiiitT in the Fabulae of Hyginus (who was in- 
timaieW acquainted with Ovid), and in Plutarch ( Theseus) ; but it is told most 
graphically and at greater length br Catnllns {^Carmen^ 64, 50-264), who de- 
scribes the whole story in all iu details as embroidered upon the drapery of 
the marriage couch of Thetis. 

Among ancient references to this heroine are Hesiod ( Thecg, 947), tod 
Homer {Od. XJ, 323), where Ulysses beholds the shades in Hades: — 

Phaedra I saw, and Procris, and the child 
Of the vise Minos. Ariadne, lamed 
For beauty, whom the hero Theseus once 
From Crete to hallowed Athens' fertile coast 
Led. but possessed her not. Diana gave 
Ear to the tale which Bacchus brought to her. 
And in the isle of Dia slew the maid. 

Note the variation here in the ending of the story. This m3rth has taken 
strong hold upon the fancy of English writers from Chaucer (^Legend of Gooi 
IVomen) to modem poets. Among the latter may be mentioned Frederick 
Tennyson {Ariacine)^ R. S. Ross (^Ariadne in Xaxos)^ J. S. Blackie {Ariadm)i 
W. M. CaU {Ariadne)j and H. H. Jackson {Ariadne's Farewell), 

Page 18. — X, i, 2. Palmer points out that these lines appear to have been 
prefixed by a later hand, and that the poem properly begins at line 3. 
3. quae : the antecedent is ea understood, the object of mitto, 
7. tempus erat : a stock expression used to introduce the description of 
circumstances preceding some important action or event 
quo primum : this time was in the early gray dawn, with not light enough 
as yet to dim the moon, which was still shining. 
9, 10. These lines are strikingly recalled by Tennyson (/if Memorianh 
XIII): — 

Tears of the widower, when he sees 
A late-lost form that sleep reveals. 
And moves his doubtful arms, and feels 
Her place is empty, fall like these. 

18. " My eyes find (have) nothing to see except the (long line of) shore."^ 
Tideant: H. 591, i (503, i); M.383, 2; A. 320, a; G.631,2; B.283,2?. 

L. & M. 838. 

19, 20. These lines present an unusually realistic picture, even for Ovid. 
Page 19. — 21-23. Ovid again describes this moment in Ars Amatorui^ 

(I, 529-532), where he tells the sequel of the present situation:^' 

P, 20] NOTES 251 

Utque erat e somno tunica velata recincta, 

Nuda pedem, croceas inreligata comas, 
Thesea crudelem surdas clamabat ad undas, 

Indigno teneras imbre rigante genas. 

At this point Bacchus and his train appear upon the scene. 

24. This is exceptional, for elsewhere throughout the letter she represents all 
nature as conspiring with Theseus against her. 

29. nam ventis, etc. : ** for I found that the winds also were cruel to me." 

31, 32. quae has a suppressed antecedent. " I either saw (them, i.e. the 
sails), or as it were such as I thought I saw — (at any rate) I was 
colder than ice and half dead (with fear). 

36. namerum suum : a nautical expression for a full ship's crew, or comple- 
ment of passengers. 

38. yerbera com yerbis : such a play upon words (paronomasia), whether 
conscious or otherwise, is frequently to be noticed in Latin poetry. 

42. md: H.454(4d6,II); M.227; A. 219,1; G. 376; B.206,1; L.&M.588. 

43. OCiilis: H. 429, 2 (386, 2); M. 211; A. 229; G. 345, Rem. i; B. 188, 

2, (/; L. & M. 532, 534. (It will be observed that ocu/is in the present 
passage is really personified.) 

45. facerent : H. 559, 4 (484, V) ; M. 324; A. 268; G. 265 ; B. 277; L.& M. 723. 

45, 46. " What should my eyes do other than weep when they no longer saw 
thy sails?" 

48. Ogyg^o deo: i.e. Bacchus, so called from Ogyges, a mythical king of 
Thebes. Bacchus is especially connected with Thebes, both because 
be was peculiarly honored there and because his mother, Semele, was 
a Theban princess. 

Page 20. — 55. toro manante is in the ablative absolute construction with 
lacrimis profusis as a limiting phrase : "And while the couch is sprin- 
kled with my gushing tears." 

58. pars nostri maior : this phrase strikingly suggests the modem expression 

** my better half." It is similar to Horace's animae dimidium meae. 

59. faciam: see note ony^^r^r^w/, line 45. 

64. quid sequar? "where am I to go?" 

65. utlabar: H. 586,11 (515, III); M. 378, 2; A. 313, a; G. 608; B. 308. 
67. centom nrbes : " Crete of the hundred towns " was Homer's expression 

(//. II, 649), and the Latin poets have followed him. So Vergil 
{Aen. Ill, 106) : — 

Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regaa; 
and Horace (^Odesy III, xxvii, 33) : — 

Quae simul centum tetigit potentem 
Oppidis Creten. 

252 HEROIDES [P. 20 

68. paero cognita terra lOTi : "the land that Jove's infancy knew." Accord- 

ing to an ancient tradition (as far back as Hesiod), Jupiter, the son of 
Saturn and Rhea, was born in the island of Crete. Vergil therefore 
calls Crete the island of Jove (^Aen, III, 104) : — 

Creta lovis magni medio iacet insula ponto ; — 

an expression which Ovid also uses {Her, IV. 163) : — 

Est mihi dotalis tellus lovis insula, Crete.' 

69. parent!: 1^.431,6(388,4); M. 207, 2; A.232,<i; G. 354, note 2; B. 189, 

2; L. & M. 545. The traditional genealogy of Ariadne is as follows: — 

Inppiter = Europa 

Minos I. Helios = Persa 

I I — ^ — ^ 

Minos II. = Pasiphae Circe Aeetes = Idyia 

, I , „ I 

Phaedra Androgeos Ariadne 

It was the first Minos, the son of Jupiter, who for his justice was made 

a judge in Hades along with Aeacus and Rhadamanthus. By his use 

of the adjective iusto Ovid seems to refer to Minos I., although Minos II. 

was the father to whom Ariadne refers. 
71, 72. "When, lest within the mazy labyrinth, though victor, thou shouldst 

perish, I gave a cord to thee as guide to lead thy steps." 
73. per ego pericula iuro: the pronoun frequently takes this position in 

oaths. Compare Vergil (^Aen, IV, 314) : Per ego has lacrimas, etc. 

To swear by one's perils was a common oath. See Alei, VII, 97 : Per 

tanta pericula iurat. 

76. sepulta : i.e. " as good as buried." 

77. mactasses: H. 559, 6; A. 266, e. 

78. " The pledge which you gave (i.e. that I should be yours as long as I 

lived) should have been fulfilled by my death." He would in that case, 
indeed, be guilty of murder, but not of perjury. 

82. mora mortis : cf. line 38, note. 

83. iam iam: the repetition of iam serves dramatically to represent the 

imminence of the fear. 
85. alat: H. 552(485); M. 327; A. 311, a; G. 257; B.280; L. & M. 717. 
Page 21. — 88. gladios : Though this seems to be a desert island (cf. line 60), 

still the evident reference here is to fear of hostile men, as is shown in 

the next line. > 

p. 22] NOTES 253 

89. nereliger: H.'558(484); M.325; A. 267; G. 260; B.279; L.&M.7ia 

91, 92. Such a fate would ill become one who had three such claims to great- 
ness. See the genealogy of Ariadne, line 69, note. 

93. si vidi : " if I look or turn to," i,e, for escape. 

95. caelom restabat: her only chance to escape is by flight through the 
air; and from this she is deterred, not by the impossibility of such an 
attempt, but by her fear of those shadowy phantoms of the gods, who 
were supposed to inhabit the regions of the upper air. This is, indeed, 
Ovid's definite conception, expressed in Met, I. 72, 73, which see. 

The present passage is not Ovid's first expression of the threefold 
method of escaping. See Heroides^ VI, 161 : — 

Cum mare, cum terras consumpserit, aera templet. 

98. eztemos : she has had experience enough with " foreigners " in Theseus. 

99-104. She regrets all the chain of circumstances which have brought her to 
her present situation : her brother's death, the dreadful atonement of 
Athens, the death of the Minotaur at the hands of Theseus, and the 
assistance which the princess herself has rendered. 

This regret for the remote source of present tribulation is common in 
literature. A further illustration of this is in a fragment from Ennius^ 
in which Medea's old nurse laments that the tree was ever felled that 
made the Argo's timbers. 

loi, 102. "And would that, with thy knotty club, O Theseus, thy strong hand 
high upraised, thou ne'er hadst slain the man-beast monster." 

104. This line describes the process by which Theseus found his way out of 
the labyrinth, pulling in the clew hand over hand as he advanced. 

105-110. Small wonder that he conquered the Minotaur, for such a flinty 
heart would be proof against the thrust of any weapon. 

108. "Even though thou didst wear no defensive armor, thou wast still 
invulnerable because of thy hard heart." There is nothing unusual in 
the mode of eras, since the reference is directly to the facts of the 
struggle, as the previous two lines show. 

I JO. "There {i.e, in thy heart) thou hast that which is harder than flint — 

112. aut presents the statement of this line as an alternative with an im- 
plied statement in thie previous line, "(I ought to have awakened 
' before Theseus abandoned me) or else been buried in an endless 

Page 22. — 1 19-124. A new and terrible aspect of her case now presents 
itself: she must die here, with no friendly hand to close her eyes, 
unwept, nnbnried. Pope, in his Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate 
Lady, rings the changes on the same theme : — , 

254 HEROIDES j^.n 

What can atone (O ever injured shade !) 
Thy fate unpitied, and thy rites unpaid ? 
No friend's complaint, no kind domestic tear 
Pleased thy pale ghost, or graced thy moumiiil bier. 
By foreign hands thy dying eyes were closed, 
By foreign hands thy decent limbs composed. 
By foreign hands thy humble grave adom'd. 
By strangers honor'd, and by strangers moum'd ! 

121. The idea seems to be that if one dies in a foreign land his soul finds 
itself in a correspondingly foreign spirit world. 

124. Ironical. " Such burial as this befits my services ! " 

125-130. She pictures the triumphal arrival of Theseus at Athens, and the 
honors which await him there as the deliverer. She bitterly bids him 
not to leave his desertion of her out of the tale of his adventures. 

126. ** When thou shalt stand uplifted high amid the acclamations of thy 
thronging townsmen." Celsus may picture him actually elevated as 
upon the shoulders of the people, or, in a less material sense, exalted 
by their praises. 

I3i> 132. "Thou art the offspring of no human parents, but the crags were 
thy father and the sea thy mother ! " This is a favorite characteriza- 
tion of a hard-hearted man. So Dido upbraids Aeneas {Aen. Vft 
365-367): — 

Nee tibi diva parens, generis nee Dardanus auctor, 
Perfide ; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens 
Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera tigres. 

In the //iaJ (XVI, 42) Patroclus thus strives to arouse Achilles: — 

O merciless 1 it cannot surely be 
That Peleus was thy father, or the queen 
Thetis thy mother; the green sea instead 
) And rugged precipices brought thee forth, 

^ For savage is thy heart 

This last is identical with the thought of Ovid in the present passage. 

133. facerent: see references on w«^/tojj«, line 77. 

135-150. She has run the whole gamut of passion from plaintive reproach to 
the bitterest denunciation and execration; and now her storm of pas- 
sion dies down into piteous and submissive pleading. ^ 

135. " Behold me now, not with your eyes, but with your mental visioii, with 
which you can (behold me)." 

139. A striking and beautiful simile. Ovid is rich in the expression of this 
physical effect of fear and grief. See Mtf, 135, 136 for a rimikr experi- 
ence described under a different but equally beautiful simile. 

Ft as] NOTES 255 

ti|0. ** And the letters as I trace {pressa) them with my trembling fingers 
sprawl unsteadily." This is a very realistic line and represents the 
speaker as actually writing. We need not trouble ourselves about 
the source of her materials any more than Ovid did — not to mention 
the tremendous anachronism of her writing at all ! 

Tennyson in The Princess (I) curiously transfers the simile of Ovid*t 
line 139, which here describes the trembling body, to the handwriting 

of line 140 : — » . , 

And I sat down and wrote, 

In such a hand as when a field of corn 
Bows all its ears before the roaring East 

14^ •* There still is no (reason) why you should be the cause of my death." 
1 4y. After the two fine dramatic lines immediately preceding, this is ludicrous 

and bathetic enough: ''these hairs I sadly stretch to you, what few 

hairs still remain ! ** 
X4.9. vento: the sense of this passage, as has been suggested by Palmer, 

would be better served by veloy since Theseus could not change the 

wind at will, whereas his sail was under his control. 
SCO. feres : the future used in mild imperative. H. 536, 2 (487, 4) ; A. 264, c\ 

G. 243; L. & M. 747. 

Ovid himself lived to make the same pathetic request of his wife, 

writing from his sick chamber in exile ( Tristia^ III, iii, 65, 66) : — 

Ossa tamen facito parva referantur in uma : 
Sic ego non etiam mortuus exsul ero. 


This work was originally published in five books about 14 B.C. The edition 
that has come down to us is in three books and was published about 2 B.C. 

I, i. In this poem he describes in a dramatic way how Cupid thwarted his 
youthful ambition to write in heroic measure on serious themes. Vergil relates 
the same personal experience {Eclogues ^ VI, 3-5): — 

Cum canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem 
Vellit, et admonuit : Pastorem, Tityre, pingues 
Pascere oportet oves, deductum dicere carmen. 

Pack 23. — i, 2: "I was all ready to relate in ponderous strains the stirring 
deeds of war, my subject and my verses in accord." That is, he was 
well launched in hexameter lines upon some epic theme. 
modis: H.434(39i); M. 214; A.234,tf; G. 359; B. 192, 2; L.&M.536. 

J. par erat inferior yeraus : " the lower (or second in each couplet) verse 
was equal (in length) (to the first).'' The shortening of the alternate 

2S6 AMORES I [P. 23 

verses by the mockery of Cupid is described in the following line. So, 
in his allegorical description of Elegeia {Amores, III, i, 8), he repre- 
sents her with halting feet : — 

Et, puto, pes illi longior alter erat. 

5-16. The poet protests against the attempt of Cupid to divert him from his 
lofty aims, first on the ground that such a transfer of activity would be 
unseemly; as well might Venus exchange functions with Minerva, 
Ceres with Diana, Phoebus with Mars. The second ground of protest 
is that the power of Cupid is already too extensive. 

5. iuris: H. 440, 5 (397, 3); M. 225, 2; A. 216, 3; G. 369; B. 201, 2 
L. & M. 564. 

12. Aoniam lyram : Aonia is that part of Boeotia in which is Mount Helicon 
the home of the muses. 

15, 16. These are indignant rhetorical questions. "Is all the world, then, 
yours ? Is the Vale of Tempe (the muses* favorite haimt) yours ? Is 
his own lyre scarce safe in Phoebus' hands ? " 

15. quodubique: understands?^/. 

Pacie 24. — 17, 18 : " When well the new page started with its opening verse, 
he standing by me, did curtail my lines." 
attenuat nervos is a rather ambiguous metaphorical expression, meaning 
simply that he reduces the hexameter to the elegiac measure. Nervos 
would most naturally refer to the strings of a lyre, and hence by an easy 
transfer, to the lines of poetry. 

19, 20. The poet is now equipped with the meters of amatory verse, but has 
no love to celebrate in song. This passage is a striking illustration of 
the necessary agreement between form of expression and subject matter. 
If one is changed, the other must be also. By forcing upon the poet 
elegiac meters, Cupid turns him of necessity to sing of love. 

22. in exitium facta meum : " formed for my undoing." 

24. canas: H. 589, II (503, I); M. 382, 5; A. 320; G. 631, 2; B. 283; 
L. & M. 836. 

27. " In the hexameter strain let my verses arise; let them sink in pentameter 

This conception of the rise and fall of the lines in the elegiac distich, 
as well as a good illustration of the distich itself, is seen in the follow- 
ing lines of Coleridge : — 

In the hexameter rises the fountain's silvery column ; 
In the pentameter aye falling in melody back. 

in quinque : understand numeros. 

The poet's surrender is complete, and he bids farewell to epic verse and 


p. 25] NOTES 257 

30. I>er nndeilOS pedes : observe with this the many ways in which Ovid 
has described the formation of the elegiac distich by the shortening of 
the second hexameter line: unum subripuisse pedem (line 4), attenuat 
ntrvos (line 18), numeris leviorihus (line 19), and line 27 entire. 
This repetition of an idea under many forms of expression is a promi- 
nent characteristic of Ovid's style. 

I, iii. — I, 2. qnae me, etc. : *<may the maiden who lately ensnared me or 

love me or make me her lover for ever." 
3, 4. He is shocked by the boldness of this double petition, and insists only 

upon its latter half, 
audierit, etc. : " may Venus hear just that much of my prayer." 
7-ia He acknowledges the obvious objections to his suit — he is neither high 

bom nor wealthy. But these objections are offset by the personal 

characteristics of the poet and his devotion to his love described 


II. yitis repertor: U, Bacchus. 

12. hinc faciunt : hinc here refers to the objections above mentioned; and 
the statement is made in these words, for which there is no correspond- 
ing English idrom, that Phoebus, the Muses, Bacchus, and the rest 
serve to counterbalance these objections. 

Page 25. — 17. dederint: "such years as the fates may have granted me." 

18. ** May it be mine to live with thee, and mid thy mourning die." 

19. in carmina : " for my songs." 

21-26. He holds before her the alluring prospect of immortality through song 
that lo, Leda, and Europa gained. 

I, XV. — 1-6. Ovid here undoubtedly voices the criticisms that were commonly 

made upon him by members of his own family and by his friends. 

Compare the words of his father (page 12, lines 21, 22). 
I, 2. " Why, carping spite, dost thou protest that my years are spent in sloth, 

and call my verse the work of sluggish powers? " 
3. non me seqni, etc. : understand dicens, 
4-6. War, the law, and statesmanship were the honorable professions, one of 

which each Roman youth of good birth was expected to follow. Ovid 

had himself been bred up to the law, but this he had deserted for 

7, 8. His answer to these materialistic criticisms is that his is no mortal task. 

The object of his quest is lasting fame, — the glory of renown in verse 

in aU the world and always. 
ovm — 17 

2SS AMORES I [P. 35 

o-jTO. In this brilbuit juMige CKkl tinks the poets' existence with the dura- 
tion of that which each has cdehrated in his verse. It is clear that be 
has in mind the isuDortahtT in hnmmn remembrance to which Ennios 
l e f e is in his epitaph : — 

Nemo me lacrimis decoiet nee fimera fletu 
Faxit. Cnr ? toIiio virus per ora Tirum. 

Q, iol ** Homer shall lire while Tenedos and Ida stand, 

WliDe Simois rolls his whirling waters to the sea." 

1 1. The fiune of Hesiod (bom at Ascra in Boeotia) is linked with the vine 
and com, whose CQlture he describes in his IVorks and Days. 

13. Compare this line with line S and note the variation in phraseology. 
BattiJides : an inhabitant of Cyrene, founded by Battus, f .^. Callimachos, 
a Greek poet who flourished in the third century B.C. Of his works there 
remain seventy-four Epigrams^ six Hymns, and fragments of his Ek- 
gies and other works. One of these elegies is entitled Cydippe, which 
is recalled by Ovid in his twentieth Heroid, and to which he refers in 
the Remedia Amoris (lines 3S1, 382) : — 

Calliroacbi nuroeris non est dicendus Achilles. 
Cydippe non est oris, Homere, tuL 

ONnd follows Callimachus also in his poem entitled Ibis. His seeming 
familiarity with the Greek poet renders his criticism in line 14 of real 
value : — 

" He makes up by art what he lacks in native genius." 

15. This line is too much abridged. The poet means that Sophocles shall 

live as long as tragedy endures; what he succeeds in sa3dng is that 
Sophocles' own tragedies shall never perish. 

16. Aratas, a Greek poet, contemporary with Callimachus. He was the 

author of an astronomical poem, treating of the heavenly bodies, their 
names, movements, etc. His fame is therefore linked by Ovid witb 
the sun and moon. 

17. 18. T\i!t fallax servusy durus pater j improba Una and meretrix hlat*^^ 

are constantly recurring characters in the comedies of the Greek po^ 
Menander, whose works are not extant, but are imitated and transla-'t*^ 
by the Roman Terence. Ovid says elsewhere of Menander ( TrUU "^»> 
369), that his plays all turn on love and that in his own time they li^'*** 
used as school books : — 

Fabula iucundi nulla est sine amore Menandri, 
£t solet hie pueris virginibusque legi. 

26] NOTES 259 

£ 26. — 19. Ennins arte carens: this stinted mention, as well as dis- 
praise of the " Father of Roman Song," is hardly in accord with the 
popular estimate of that poet. This estimate is voiced by Horace 
{^Mpist, II, i» 50), though he himself would not fully sustain it: — 

Ennius et sapiens et fortis et alter Homenis, 
Ut critici dicunt. 

That Ennius* lines were rough, many of the extant fragments abun- 
dantly testify; but, on the other hand, a contrary judgment can be 
equally well sustained by others of these fragments. Vergil himself 
drew freely from Ennius, often with very little change in the lines. 

animosi Accios oris : Accius or Attius was a Roman tragic poet bom 
170 B.C, the year before the death of Ennius. Only fragments of his 
tragedies remain. He was held in high estimation among the Romans. 
Horace {Ars Poetica, 259) speaks of the ** nobiles trimetri " of Accius, 
the epithet being an echo of popular sentiment. Ovid no doubt intends 
to express in his epithet '* animosi " the idea of strength and vigor of 
language and sublimity of thought. 

Varro : i,e, Varro Atacinus, as distinguished from the great Varro, died 
about 37 B.C He wrote a free translation into Latin verse of the 
ArgofiauHcs of the Greek ApoUonius Rhodius, which was a history of 
the voyage of Jason and his companions in search of the Golden Fleece. 
Notwithstanding Ovid's prediction, only the merest fragment of Varro*8 
work remains. 

duel : sec references on parenti {HeroideSf 69). 

Lncretius : the great Roman poet, a contemporary of Cicero, author of 
I?e Rerum Naiura^ which is a presentation of the physical and ethical 
philosophy of Epicurus. 

The three great works of Vergil are mentioned under words most 
suggestive of each. The first Eclogue begins Tityre, etc., and this 
character-nay be taken as a typical shepherd; the Georgics open with 
the words: "Quid faciat laetas segetes," etc.; while the theme with 
^irhich Vergil opens the AenMis ** Arma virumque." 

These works shall all endure while Rome remains the capitol of the 
world, the "eternal city." See Life, line 129, note. Horace similarly 
measures what to him was unending time {Odes^ III, 30, 7) : — 

" My praise shall ever grow while priest with silent virgin train shall climb 
the capitol." 

The torch, as well as the bow and arrows, was one of the traditional 

implements of Cupid; see page 80, line 461. 
Tibnlle : see note on TA^ Li/f o/Ovid ( '/'risHa, IV, lo"), Wne ^\. 

26o AMORES II [P. 36 

X^ Gallai : SK ncite cm Ufe^ line 53. 

51-4^ Orii is fiUcd whh a poetic ecstasy as he realizes and proclaims the 

trixocpb of ibe lord orer power and wealth, the tongae of envy, time, 

and even deaih iiselL 
55. cedant: H. ;ca, 2 4S3); M. 521, 2; A. 266; C 263, 3; B. 275; L.& 

57. xnTTtna : :be inynj? «-as sacred to Vcnns. 

3C1, 4c, -EsTT feeds cpj'D :be qnick, but ^mtcs the dead, where his own 

praise keeps wa:ch i>'ct every man according to his deeds." 
4-2. Codpare with this ibe final passage of the Metamorphosei^ and both with 
Horace, CSn, HI, 30, and consder whether Ovid had this ode in mind 

as be wrote. 

II, vi. — I. psittams : there are nuiny references in the Roman writers to the 
use of the parrot as well as of other birds as pets. This lament of the 
pr»et over the death of the parrot is no doubt suggested by the poem 
of CatuDns ^carmen 3^ npon the death of his mistress*s pet sparrow. 
It is worth while to note, however, the wide difference between the 
simple and natural, ten ler though half plaj-fiil treatment of Catullus 
with the florid, almost mock-heroic, and conventional style of Ovid. 
Statius ySih^ae^ II. vi) has a poem upon the same theme, though it is 
evident that he follows 0\'id rather than Catullus, 
imitatrix : />. as Statius has it, kumanae linguae. 
1-16. The announcement of the death and the summons to the funeral of all 

bird-kindred and friends. 
2. ezequias, etc. : *' attend in throngs the funeraL" Exequias ire is a con- 
ventionalized expression, exequias being used as the limit of the motion 
in ire. 
Pa(;e 27. — 3-6. All the features of the typical Roman funeral are to be 
present, of which the most notable were the hired mourners, women 
who beat their breasts, rent their cheeks, and tore their hair. The horn 
would suggest the musicians who headed the procession at the funenl 
of a man of importance. 
7, 8. " As for the crime of the Thracian tyrant, which thou, Philomela, I 
wailest, that complaint has expired by natural limitation." 

Ovid has related the story of Tereus, Procne, Philomela, and Itj 
at some length in the Metamorphoses (VI, 412-674). See ana^rsiso 
page 139. This Thracian king did violence to Philomela, the 1 
of his wife Procne. The latter, together with her sisteir, in reveng^^e, 
slays Itys, the son of the king, and serves him up as a feast to h :^Si 
father. Tereus, on discovering the horrible nature of his repast, dnii^i 1 
his sword and pursues the two sisters; whereupon he is changed int^ 
a lapwing, Philomela into a n\g):i\.vn^a!le, and Fcocne into a swallow. 

NOTES 261 

The complaints of Philomela, half nightingale, half maid, have 
itered deeply into literature. Examples of this are in Shakespeare 
Lucrece, 1079) : — 

By this, lamenting Philomel had ended 
The well-tuned warble of her nightly sorrow, 
And solemn night with slow, sad gait descended 
To ugly hell. 

And in Matthew Arnold {Philomelct) : — 

O wanderer from a Grecian shore. 
Still, after many years, in distant lands, 
Still nourishing in thy bewilder'd brain 
That wild, unquench'd, deep-sunken, old-world pain — 
Say, will it never heal? 

Omnes : supply doUte from the next line. 

Ovid makes much of the supposed friendship between the parrot and the 
turtle dove, and does not fail to compare this friendship with that of 
Orestes and Pylades. Other famous friendships are those of Damon 
and Pythias, Scipio and Laelius, not to mention David and Jonathan. 
I^lades was the faithful friend and cousin of Orestes, who shared his 
fortunes in his banishment, and helped him to avenge Agamemnon's 
death upon Qytaemnestra and Aegisthus. 
17-32. Regretful memories of the departed bird's beauty, accomplishments, 

and excellence of disposition. 
19* '^What avails it that thou didst find favor with my mistress when I gave 

thee to her?" 
21. pinniBy i^, by comparison with the brilliant colors of the feathers. 
** ** With thy purple-red beak tinged with orange. " 

'5* It must have been pure spite on the part of Fate that took off this peace- 
fill, harmless bird. It is the irony of Fate that quarrelsome quails thrive 
amid Uieir quarrels. 
** **And perhaps for this very reason {indey i.e. their quarrelsome disposition) 

large numbers of them reach old age." 
*3^^ "The merest morsel was thy fill, and thy mouth, forever full of talk, 

had little room for food." 
' ^^iisae is plural by attraction to the number oi papavera, with which it is 

in apposition. Understand erant esca with papavera, 
"4-^. The bad and unworthy among birds and men live on and on, but the 

good die young. 
• ** The jackdaw, harbinger of rainy weather.** The crow is the usual 
htilMiiger of rain. 

262 AMORES II [P. 27 

Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce. 

— Vergil, GeorgUs^ I, 388. 

Aquae nisi fedlit augur annosa cornix. 

— Horace, Odes^ III, 17,12. 

35. comix invisa Minenrae. The crow had once been the favorite bird of 

Minerva, but had incurred the displeasure of that goddess through being 
the bearer of unwelcome news. The raven, Apollo*s bird, had been 
changed from white to black for an offense of the same kind. Ovid 
tells both these stories in his Metamorphoses^ II, 535-632. 

36. The notion that the crow lived to a fabulous age was a general one. The 

nine generations mentioned here would amount to about three hundred 

Page 28. — 39, 40. " Death loves a shining mark." 
41. Protesilaus, the grandson of Phylacus and native of Phylace, was the first 

Greek to faU in the Trojan War, — 

For a Dardan warrior slew 
Her (Laodamia's) husband as he leaped upon the land. 
The foremost of the Acbaians. 

— Homer, //«W, 11,698. 

Homer does not mention the slayer of the hero, but Ovid says that it 
was Hector (^MeL XII, 67). In Heroides, XIII, 93-98, Laodamia, 
writing to Protesilaus, warns him of the fated death that awaits the 
Greek who first sets foot on Trojan soil, and begs him to beware. This 
brave and noble Protesilaus was the pride of the Greeks, but the 
pestilent Thersites was their bane. 
43-48, The death-bed scene regnacted : the fruitless prayers of the maiden, 
and the faithful bird's farewell. 

45. septima lux, the seventh day, i.e, of the bird's illness. 

46. The Parcae were the Fates personified as three sisters, whose name*, 

according to Hesiod, were Qotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. They we 
represented as spinning, measuring, and cutting off the thread of human 
life. Spenser (/*. Q. II, 48) gives a graphic picture of these dread 
sisters at work : — 

Sad Clotho held the rocke [distaff] the whiles the thrid 

By griesly Lachesis was spun with paine, 

That cruel! Atropos eftsoones undid, 

With cursed knife cutting the twist in twaine ; 

Most wretched men, whose dayes depend on thrids so vaine ! 

The Parca mentioned in Ovid's line is Qotho, whose empty spindle 
ihows that the bird's thread of life is all spun out. 

. 29] NOTES 263 

^58. .An ideal scene in bird heaven. 

^ plLOeniz iinica. The story of this fabulous bird has been often told. 
lE^erhaps the oldest account is that of Herodotus (11, 73). Later 
SLcconnts are in substantial agreement with this. Oyid has himself 
described this bird at some length {Met XV, 392-407) ; — 

Una est, quae reparet seque ipsa reseminet, ales : 
Assyrii phoenica vocant. Non fruge neque herbis 
Sed turis lacrimis et suco vivit amomi. 
Haec ubi quinque suae complevit saecula vitae, 
Ilicet in ramis tremulaeque cacumine palmae 
Unguibus et puro nidum sibi constniit ore. 
Quo simul ac casias et nardi lenis aristas 
Quassaque cum fiilva substravit cinnama murra, 
Se super imponit finitque in odoribus aevum. 
Inde ferunt, totidem qui vivere debeat annos, 
Corpore de patrio parvum phoenica renasci. 
Cum dedit hulc aetas vires, onerique ferendo est, 
Ponderibus nidi ramos levat arborls altae, 
Fertque pius cunasque suas patriumque sepulcrum, 
Perque leves auras Hyperionis urbe potitus 
Ante fores sacras Hyperionis aede reponit. 

55* Ales Innonia, ue. the peacock. 

59^2. His tomb and epitaph. 

^ "Where a slender slab has an epitaph [compare "short and simple 
annals"] to match." 

^'' ex ipso sepulcro, i e, from the very fact that I am buried at all. 

"^ "My tongue was skilled to speak beyond the wont of birds." 

^AGE 29. — II, xi. 1-4. " The first pine felled on Pelion*s heights to won- 
dering ocean's waters evil ways revealed, when, reckless, midst the 
clashing rocks, it bore the wondrous sheep of golden fleece." 

Ovid, though very fond of the story of Jason and Medea, nowhere 
enlarges upon the voyage of the Argonauts in search of the Golden 
Fleece. In these four lines he gives the briefest possible summary. 
The impiety of that first voyage is everywhere dwelt upon by the poets. 
The concurrentes cautes were the Sjmiplegades, two rocky islands in 
the Euxine Sea that clashed together on the attempt of any object to 
|>ass between them. This first ship, the Argo, did not carry the golden- 
fleeced ram, as Ovid narrates here. This animal proceeded by miracu- 
lous flight to Colchis, bearing Phrixus upon his back. It was the fleece 
alone that the Argo bore away from Colchis, but not by way of the 

264 AMORES II [P. 29 

5, 6. If the first ship had been wrecked, there never would have been another, 
and my sweet-heart would not now be leaving me. 

This vain regret for a remote first cause of present suffering is 
frequently expressed in the poets. An excellent example of this, and 
one which also traces misfortune back to the Argo, is the lament of 
Medea's nurse in the tragedy of Medea Exsul, by Ennius, in which 
the nurse holds that if the timbers for the Argo had never been cut, 
Medea would never have come to her present misfortunes. 

1 1- 1 6. He attempts to dissuade her from the voyage on the ground that there 
is nothing worthy of her notice there. 

12. "The restless sea is just one dark blue expanse." 

18. Scylla, Charybdis: these are the stock fabulous terrors of the sea, the 

names of two dangerous rocks in the passage between Sicily and Italy. 

19. Ceraunia was a part of the dangerous rocky coast, the westernmost 

portion of Epirus. See Vergil (^Aen, III, 506) : — 

Provehimur pelago vicina Ceraunia iuxta, 
Unde iter Italiam cursusque brevissimus undis. 

The danger of this coast Horace describes (fides, I, iii, 19) : — 

Qui vidit mare turgidum et 
Infames scopulos Acroceraunia. 

20. The " great and lesser Syrtes " were hidden sandbanks off the northern 

coast of Africa. 
22. " No blast can harm the one who (merely) questions." 

26. "And sees destruction near as are the waves themselves"; ue, the waves 

are destruction. 

27. concussas is proleptically used. The waves will not be concussae until 

the action in exasperet has taken place. 

29. sidera Ledae : the constellations of Castor and Pollux, regarded by sailors 
as their patron divinities. These gods were supposed to be manifest 
in the electric balls that are said at times to play around the masts of 
vessels after stormy weather. Horace enlarges upon this thought 
(fides, I, xii, 25). 

31, 32. fovisse, legisse, increpuisse: the tense of these infinitives is with 
reference to the time when this thought will come home to the girl. 

33. at, etc.: the poet, finding his warnings vain, turns to prayers for her 
safety, and brightly pictures her return, 
si yana, etc. : this fate of vain prayers, to be the sport of the winds, is 
one commonly expressed. See the previous selection, line 44. 

Page 30. — 34. Galatea : there is no special reason why Galatea*s presence 
should be invoked, except that she was a sea-nymph, herself accus- 
tomed to skim the waves in safety. See Vergil (^Aen, IX, 102) : — 

p. 31] NOTES 26s 

Qualis Nereia Doto 
Et Galatea secant spumantem pectore pontum. 

36. Kereidesqne: que is redundant here, as frequently. Compare the com- 

mon phrase pater deumque hominumque. 

37. n08tri: H. 451 (399, I, 2); M. 226, l; A. 218, a\ G. 374; B. 204, i; 

L. & M. 573. 
37-42. The god of the sea, the winds, the waves, the girl herself, are to assist 

in speeding the homeward bound vessel. « 

39. "Then may mighty Nereus incline the sea toward these shores." 

41. Zephyri: if, as is natural to suppose, Corinna was sailing toward Greece, 

the Zephyrs, literally interpreted, would not bring her home. We are to 
understand, therefore, merely gentle breezes as opposed to storm blasts. 

42. "Do thou thyself lay eager hands upon the swelling sails." The pretty 

picture is here presented of the girl, in her eagerness to reach home, 
pressing upon the already swelling sails, as if to add her weight to the 
strength of the wind. It is this eagerness, perhaps, that the poet most 
loves to picture, rather than its possible — or impossible — physical effect. • 
43-56. Joyous anticipation and picture of her return. 

44. ilia: understand /»//fj. 

45. ** And I shall catch thee in my arms and wildly kiss thee." 

47. 48. In his eager haste he will not wait for preparations for a formal ban- 

quet, but will improvise table and dining couches of sand for an im- 
promptu banquet on the shore. 

48. "And any mound you please shall take a table's place." 

49. multa: this is expanded by two different clauses, — sit ut obruta navis 

(line 50), and te extimuisse (line 52). 
5a lit = ** how that," introducing indirect question. 

53. sint : understand ut, 

54. "Why should I not myself invite my own prayers' fulfillment" (and 

gladly believe any tale of deliverance you choose to tell) ? 

Ill, vi. — I, 2. "O stream, thy muddy banks thick set with reeds, I'm hast- 
ing to my mistress : stop thy waves awhile. Thou hast no bridge nor 
hollow skiff which, even oarless, still by cordage stretched across, might 
bear me over." 

4..Teliat: H. 591, i (503, i); M. 383; A. 320, a\ G. 631, 2; B. 283, 2; 
L. & M. 838. 

Page 31. — 11, 12. si non datur, etc.: 'Mf I am not allowed in any way 
to set foot on the further bank." 

13, 14. The reference is to Perseus, the son of Danae, who was equipped 
with winged sandals, and carried in his hand the Medusa head with its 
snaky locks. 

266 AMORES III [P. 3 

15, 16. For explanation of references in this line see epitome of story of 
Triptolemus and the car of Ceres, as told in Metamorphoses^ V, 642- 
661, page 132. 

17, 18. ''But I am voicing the monstrous lies of ancient bards; no time has 
ever produced these wonders, nor ever will produce them." 

Considering Ovid's especial fondness for these mythical tales, and the 
verisimilitude with which he tells them everywhere, this is a remark- 
able admission for him to make. We should hardly expect him to 
cheapen his own wares. The estimate, however, in which these tales 
were held generally is well voiced by the passage. The same con- 
tempt is expressed by Cicero in Tusculan Disputations^ I, 6. The dis- 
putant has been recalling the traditional terrors of Hades, and the 
following dialogue ensues : M, Haec fortasse metuis et idcirco mor- 
tem censes esse sempiternum malum. A. Adeone me delirare censes, 
ut ista esse credam? M, An tu haec non credis? A, Minime vero. 
Again, § 48, he says : Quae est anus tam delira quae timeat ista? 

20. " (So may you go on forever ! ) flow within bounds." This is a curious 

form of adjuration, in which a favor is asked, as it were, in the name of 
that which the grantor of the favor would most desire. Other cases in 
point are : — 

Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos, 
Sic cytiso pastae distendant ubera vaccae, 
Incipe, si quid babes. — Vergil, EcL IX, 301, 

Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterlabere Sicanos, 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam : 
Incipe. — £r/. X, 4. 

" So may the goddess of Cyprus, the brothers of Helen, bright gleaming 
stars, and the father of winds guide and protect thy course, O ship, 
(on this condition), that thou return Vergil in safety to his journey's 
end." — Horace, Odes, I, iii, i. 

21. " O boisterous stream, believe me, thou wilt incur unbearable odium." 
inyidiae: H. 447 (401); M. 217, 2; A. 214, c; G. 366; B, 203, 5; L. & 

M. 556. 
23. deberent : the obligation is doubly expressed — by the verb itself and by 

its mode. It is a past as well as a present obligation, since the poet 

proceeds to treat the matter historically. 
87. " What have I to do with thee, mad stream ? " 
89. quid, si flueres : " what and if thou wert to flow? " etc. 
91-96. This is no true river, with permanent tributaries and fountain head, 

but a nameless chance product of rains and melting snows. This lack 

of sustained life leads to the extremes of the muddy torrent and the 

dried-up rilL 

P.3«] NOTES 267 

Page 32.-96. pulyerulentus : to address a river thus is almost paradoxi- 
cal; it is a strong way of saying that in the dry season there is no river 
there at all. 

97, 98. Rhetorical questions. No traveler at such a time could slake his 
thirst by thy waters; no one in gratitude has ever blessed thee with the 
river's blessing — " flow on forever." With this form of blessing com- 
pare a similar expression in line 20. 

100. damna: i,e. my disappointment in that I cannot cross and continue my 

101-104. The poet expresses extreme disgust that he should have mentioned 
the names of noble streams in such a presence. It is a case of *' pearls 
before swine." 

102. "To this stream, — think of it ! — I, fool that I was, was telling the tales 

of rivers' loves ! " 

103. nescio quern hunc spectans : " gazing upon this mere nobody." 

Ill, XV. — I. teneromm Amorum: a frequent phrase, designating the objects 
of amatory verse. See Li/e of Ovid, line I. 

2. ** Here are my elegies rounding their final goal." The figure is from the 

race course, where the chariot in turning just grazes the goal post 
(jneta) set up to mark the course. The representation of life, or a 
period of life, under the figure of a race course is a poetical common- 

3. alumnus: this, with heres (line 5) and factus eques (line 6) is to be 

construed with ego, the subject of composui. 

4. •* And never have my loves disgraced me." Compare similar statement in 

Life of Ovid, lines 67, 68. 

5. 6. See also Life, lines 7, 8, and note. 

7. The following epitaph, according to Suetonius, was placed upon the tomb 
of Vergil at Naples : — 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope ; cecini pascua, rura, duces. 

9, 10. " Which its desire for liberty had forced to honorable arms, when Rome, 
anxious (for her power) feared the allied bands." The reference is to 
the social war, or the struggle of the Italian allies for Roman citizen- 
ship. Among these allies were the Pelignians. The war ended in 
90 B.C. with a successful issue for the allies. 

13. dicat:H.552(485); M.327; A.3ii,tf; G.257, 2; B.280, i; L.&M.717. 

I3» *4« "Ye walls, which could produce so great a poet, however small you 
are, I call you great." 

B AMORES ni [P. 3 

. 3i. Fir I ■ j Mi fi II {f l i fcufcif m thb fiae sec epitome of story of 
TrntUMsanis sue :^ ear of Ctn%, as told in Metamorphoies^ V, 642- 

K lies of mndeDt bards; no time has 
r viD produce them." 
fs ryftrai ioodaes for these mythical tales, and the 
vx^ v^k^ be teik them ererywhere, this is a remark- 
■ » bin to make. We should hardly expect him to 
: Us cvx racs. Ibe ^*»^-^»^. hoverer, in which these tales 
aZy as vdl nnced br the passage. The same con- 
ed =v Ckcro in Tmuwlam Disputations, I, 6. The dis- 
beea xecaHais the traditional terrors of Hades, and the 
ialicwag saki^K casaes: Jf. Haec fbitasse metuis et idcirco mor- 
tsst ,Ta»rT esse se^xtenram mafami. A. Adeone me delirare censes, 
s aca esse crrim? M. An tn haec non credis? A, Minime vero. 
A^aia. { 4S» be says: Qnae est anas tam delira quae timeat ista? 
.Sc Bay yi:a fry oa focrter ! ) flow vithin bonnds." This is a cun'ou^ 
fcrm oc airsradoB. in vhicb a fiTor is asked, as it were, in the name ^* 
' ich tbe grantor of the £iTor would most desire. Other cases 


2KC tt^A vJvTscas nwt^nt cxamma tazos, 
Sk cytao postae dxstendant ubera vaccae, ^ 
ladpe. SI quid babes. — Vergil, EcL IX, 3a 

Sic txbi. cnm fiactns snbCerlabere Sicanos, 
Doris amara snam noo intermisceal tmdam : 
Incipe. — EcL X, 4. 

* So mar the goddess of Cyprus, the brothers oi Helen, 1 

stars, and the £uher of m'nds guide and protect thy C<^r^^\ 
(on this condition), that thou return Veigil in saiety j^v ^\^ ^ 
end."— Horace; Odts, I, ill, i. Vv^^^^ 

21. *0 bc^CToiES streanii bdieTe roe, thou will incur unbc^f^Y \k * ^ 

inridiie: H. 447 C4<>0; M. 217, 2; A, 214, r; a 366 H\ h 

23- debcreut ; the oblig^ibn is doubly expfes^d ^ hy *i ^ W' 

its DiDde, It is a pasi -.s ... n a.^ 3 pi-^-sefit ohV ^ ^ ^ 


Page 33. — 15. Amathusia : Venus is so called from Amathus, a dty of btr 

favorite Cyprus. 
17. " Horned Bacchus has sounded with heavier thyrsus." Bacchus is sontt- 
^ times represented with horns as symbolic of natural powers. Sm 

Tibullus (II, i, 3) : — 

Bacche, veni, dulcisque tuis e comibus uva 

And Propertius, in the ode in which he declares his intention of becoiD' 
ing a votary of Bacchus (IV, 16, 19), says : — 

Quod superest vitae per te et tua comua vivam, 
Virtutisque tuae, Bacche, poeta ferar. 

Bacchus was sometimes represented upon the stage with horns. See 
Euripides, Bacchanals^ 920 : — 

Pentheus (to Dionysus) : 

" Thou as a bull seemest to go before me, 
And horns have grown upon thine head. Art thou 
A beast indeed ? Thou seem'st a very bull.*' 

In Horace (^OdeSy II, xix, 29) Bacchus is described as adorned with t 

golden horn : — 

Tc vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Cornu decorum. 

But this is probably in reference to the horn of wine carried by the god 
to propitiate monsters in Hades. 

For the horn as an emblem of power, compare the frequent language 
of Scripture; e^. " All the horns of the wicked also will I cut off; but 
the horns of the righteous shall be exalted " (Ps. 75 : 10). 

f 8. I.e. " I must undertake a greater work." The poet evidently has in mind 
the Fasti and Metamorphoses, 

to. " Work destined to live on, surviving, after I am dead." Upon the im- 
portance which Ovid himself attached to the Amoves see Life of Ovid^ 
line I, note. 


The composition of this work may be dated by the allusion in I, 171, to a 
naumachia or sham sea fight presented by Augustus in 2 B.C. : — 

Quid, modo cum belli navalis imagine Caesar 
Persidas induxit Cecropiasque rates ? 

p. 35] NOTES 269 

Page 34. — 1> 3* 4. "By art — and sails and oars, swift ships are moved, 
by art, quick flying chariots : by art must Love be guided." The poet 
would emphasize that which forms the theme of his poem — the art 
to which he has reduced what was hitherto but an untrained impulse 
of love. 

5. Antomedon was the famous charioteer of Achilles, master of his art. He 

is mentioned by Vergil in Aeneid, II, 477. 

6. Tiphys was famous as the skillful pilot of the Argo. 

7. 8. And Ovid is to combine the skill of both, as charioteer and pilot of the 

car and bark of Love. 

95. saltusqne : see Amores, II, xi, 36, note. 

96. thyma suiiima : *< the tops of the thyme." 

97. cultissima femina is here used in the sense of culHssima quaeque 

femina^ ^ all the fine ladies." 

98. " Their numbers often have delayed my choice." 

101-126. The poet seizes this opportunity to tell the well-known story of the 
ruse of Romulus and the rape of the Sabines. 

loi. '*Thou didst make, O Romulus, the first games a place of confusion and 

Page 35. — 103-108. This description of the primitive theater is, we may be 
sure, in conscious contrast to the theater that Ovid knew, with its vela 
or awnings, stretched over as a protection to the spectators from the 
sun and rain ; its rich marble structure ; its highly decorated stage and 
elaborate stage setting. 

106. scaena : does this mean that the trees in their natural position formed 

a ^Ivan background to the whole rural scene? or is scaena to be taken 
in its more technical sense of "stage setting," ''background," or 
** scenery " for the stage ? Vergil, in his picture of the home of the 
nymphs {Aen, I, 164), thinks of the bay as a theater, and the grove 
of trees at its inner extremity as a scaena or background : — 

Turn silvis scaena coruscis 
Desuper horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbra. 

107. in gradibus de caespite factis : <* on seats made of turf," i.e. they sat 

upon the sloping, turf-covered hillside. 

108. *• Their shaggy locks encircled by a wreath of any sott." 

109. qnisqne splits the subject of notant into its component parts. 

112. ter pede: ''in a dance of triple measure." This rude dance is described 
by Horace in his ode on the rustic festival of Faunus {Odes^ III, xviii, 


Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor 
Ter pede terram. 

2/0 ARS AMATORIA [P. 35 

121-124. Ovid is fond of detailed analysis of action. Another striking exam- 
ple of this is in the description of the destruction of the children of 
Niobe, Metamorphoses y VI, 218-31/. 

126. "And fear itself enhanced the loveliness of many." 

Page 36. — III, 685, 686. The story of the death of Procris has been often 
told, and with variation of details. Before Ovid, Homer and Vergil 
had both made brief mention of Procris in Hades among other heroines 
whose love had come to a tragic end. The Greek Apollodorus had 
told her story. After Ovid*s time Pausanias told the same story. Ovid 
himself has told the story twice, first in the present passage, and again 
with much greater elaboration in Metamorphoses^ VII, 661-862. The 
latter version is put into the mouth of Cephalus himself. For its con- 
nection in the chain of story, see analysis on page 150. 

693. Zephyris auraque : Ovid shows great art in giving the reader the 
necessary clew at the outset to the real meaning of aura^ which is the 
word on which the story turns. By coupling it with Zephyri^ he shows 
us at once that it is a breeze and not a nymph. It is this same coupling 
of the two words in line 728 that undeceives Procris. In the second 
telling Ovid omits this fine touch, and it is necessary for Cephalus to 
explain in set terms to his dying wife. 

697. releves: H. 590 (497, i); M. 382, 3; A. 317, 2; G. 630; B. 282,2; 
L. & M. 835. 

699. male sedulus : " over officious." 

700. memori ore : a striking phrase, because the power of memor]^ is trans- 

ferred from the brain to the lips. The gossip repeated with " retentive 
lips " what he had heard. 

703-706. With all his city-bred tastes, Ovid has a genuine artist's love for 
the country, and draws some of his most effective descriptions and 
figures from nature. It must be admitted, however, that the present 
comparison is rather Cyclopean in its realism : — " like the lingering 
frost-bitten leaves of the vine after the grapes have been gathered, and 
the ripe quinces that curve their branches down, and cherries not yet 
ripe for human food." Compare Met, XIII, 789 and following. 

70S. indignas : this word is used here, as often, when applied to an inanimate 
object, in the sense of "unworthy or undeserving such treatment" 

711. perventum: impersonal, supply «/. 

713. "What were thy feelings, then, O Procris, when thus, almost beside 
thyself, thou didst lie in waiting." 

715. iam, iam: the dramatic repetition of iam^ a device often employed by 
the poets to express the imminence of the act. 

''37] NOTES 271 

Anra, according to regular construction, would be Auram^ construed as 
subject of venturam (fsse), the object of putabas, 

6. probra : adjective used as substantive, nominative, plural. Supply esse 

with videnda, 

7. yelles : this is an extension of the subjunctive use regularly found in the 

first person only. H. 556 (486, I); A. 311, ^; G. 258; B. 280, 2, a\ 
L & M. 720. 

lGE 37. — 719, 720. " To influence her belief there is the place, the name, and 
the informer, and the further fact that a lover always believes his fears." 

3,724. The same thought — the arrival of the hour of noon — is twice 
expressed in poetical repetition in these lines. Examples of this par- 
allelism of thought, which forms the basis of Hebrew poetry, are very 
frequent in the Latin poets. 

^5* ecce always introduces a new actor upon the scene, and this with some 
abruptness and promise of interesting developments. It corresponds 
to the English « But see ! " " See there ! " 

^> This line beautifully illustrates the interlocking arrangement of nouns 
and adjectives. The student should watch the verses for variations 
upon this arrangement. 

& See note on line 693. 

S» 736. The poet himself, as if carried away by his interest in the scene, 
cries out to avert the disaster. So also when the sailors are about to 
murder Arion. See page 52, lines 10 1, 102. The value of this rhetor- 
ical device can readily be seen. 

^' hoc: ue, the fact mentioned in nulla paelice laesa, "This thought 
will make thee rest lightly upon me, O earth, when I am laid in the 

> 746. " Her spirit takes its leave, and, slipping gently from the breast 
that had too heedless been, is caught up by her grieving husband's 

The reference is to the Roman custom in accordance with which the 
nearest relative would catch the last breath of the dying one in his own 
mouth. Following are some other references to this custom : — 

Filiorum suorum supremum spiritum ore excipere liceret. 

— Cicero, in Verrem, 
Membra complecti ultima, 
O nate, liceat; spiritus fugiens meo 
Legatur ore. — Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus^ 1341. 

Date vulnera lymphis 
Abluam, et, extremus si quis super halitus errat, 
Ore legam. — Vergil. AenHd^ IV, 683. 


Impositaque manu vulnus fovet, oraque ad ora 
Admovet atque animae fugienti obsistere tentat 

— Ovid, Metamorphoses, XII, 424. 

This custom may point either toward the perpetuation of the dying, 
in the relative who receives his Bnal breath, or merely to the natunl 
desire to prevent the exit of the departing breath. The last passage 
quoted above plainly expresses this thought 


Page 38. — 3. parce damnare : a poetic variation on noli damnare. Exam- 
ples of this construction are frequent in Horace : ft^e qucterere, ne para 
darcy niitte sectari^ remittas quaerere^ omitte mirari, etc. 
sceleris: H. 456 (409, II); M. 228; A. 220; G. 378; B. 208, 2; L& 
M. 582. 

4. " Me who have so often under thy leadership borne the standard intrusted 

to my care." 

5, 6. Homer, in his fifth book of the Iliad^ tells how Venus rescued Aeneas 

from death at the hands of Diomede, the son of Tydeus; how Diomede 
wounded the goddess with his spear, and how she was carried back to 
heaven in the chariot of Mars. 

9, 10. The reference is to the Ars Amaioria, which is here shown to be prior 

in composition to the present work. Line 4 above probably refers to 
the ArSf though it may easily include the Amores, 

10. " And that (J.e. love) which once was mere blind impulse, is now reduced 

to law." 
13, 14. ardet is coordinate with amaff and the conclusion of both is in 

gaudeat and naviget. 
gaudeat: II. 559, 2 (483); M. 321, 2; A. 266; G. 263,3; B. 275, i; 

L. & M. 713. 
15. " But if any one is struggling under the sway of an unworthy love." 

74. The intervening steps in the natural growth from the " green shoot " to 
the " sturdy stalk " are poetically described by Cicero (^De Senectute^ 51). 

Page 39. — 87, 88. summa tellure : " the surface of the earth," is in con- 
trast with in immensum, "deep down (below the surface)." 

90-94. The doctor amoris is full of wise saws and the proverbial expressions 
of his art. 

95. verba dat: a common expression, " cheats," "deceives." 

96. " The nearest (earliest) chance for freedom is the best." The vindUta was 

the rod with which a slave was touched in the ceremony of manumis- 
sion. Its use here in connection with the slave of love is very apropos. 

^•40] NOTES 273 

'^'"loa This is a truism of nature and of ethics. Size and strength are the 

result of gradual growth through the lapse of time. 
'^ 100. ** If thou hadst known at the start to how great a sin thy course was 

leading, a tree's rough bark, O Myrrha, would not now conceal thy 

face." The story of the change of Myrrha into a myrrh tree is told in 

the tenth book of Metamorphoses, 

4. reddat: H. 590 (497, i); M. 382, 3; A. 317, 2; G. 630; B. 282, 2; 

L. & M. 835. 
3K 40. — 185, 186. "What, when the bees flee the smoke that's made 
beneath (their hives), that the honeycombs may be removed and relieve 
the bending withes." 
nt relevent is a clause of purpose, but it is not the purpose of the subject 

of the main yetb, fyg^iunt, but of the agent oi suppositos. 
▼imina carva : are the shelves or partitions of osiers within the hives on 
which the combs are built. The removal of the honeycombs would 
relieve the overweighted withes. 
The reference is to the ancient custom of placing the grapes in large 

vats and treading out the juice or " must " with the bare feet. 
192. These lines mention the three processes in harvesting grain — the 
reaping with the sickle {desectas), the binding into sheaves {adligat 
herbas), and the gleaning of the scattered stalks of grain. 
lierbas : the poet does not here make the distinction between herba and 

segetes which he draws in line 84 of this poem. 
196. "Then there is grafting: make one branch adopt another, and let 
the tree stand covered o'er with borrowed foliage." 

The process of grafting always excites admiration and poetic fancy. 
Cicero says of it (^De Senectute^ 54) : Nee consitiones modo delectant 
sad etiam insitiones, quibus nihil invenit agricultura soUertius. 
haec YOloptus : " pleasure of this sort." 
leporem pronum : see vocabulary under the word pronus, 
▼aria fonnidine : compare Metamorphoses, XV, 475, and note. 

-258. These are the often stated wonders which professors of magic arts 
claimed to be able to perform — to call spirits from the tomb, to cause 
the earth to yawn asunder, to transfer crops from Beld to Beld, dim the 
sun's light, turn rivers back upon their course, wrest the moon from the 
sky, and other things equally wonderful. Compare Vergil (^Aeneid, IV, 
487-491): — 

Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, 
Quas velit, ast aliis duras immittore curas ; 
OVJD — 18 



DP. 41 

Sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retro ; 

Noctumosque ciet Manes ; mugire videbis 

Sub pedibus terrain, et descendere montibus omos. 

'age 41. — 259. recantatas is partly adverbial in its force : ** no hetiH { 
shall lay aside their cares throu^ the force of charms" 

\ti, 262. Medea (the Colchian witch) is represented at the opening of 
MetamorphoseSy VII, as struggling between filial devotion and her new- 
born love for Jason — a love which in the end she is unable to resitf. 

{63-288. Circe was the daughter of the Sun and of the sea-nymph Peiaig 

* from whom she inherited her magic powers. Homer has given it 

length the story of Ulysses and Circe in the tenth book of the Odysteji, 

but he describes no such attempt on the part of the goddess to retiii 

Ulysses, and no such struggle with her own love as is here representedt 

J62. " According to whose standard my muse is wanton." 

J63. placeam: H. 587 (513, 1); M. 376; A. 314; G. 573; B. 310, II; U 

& M. 920. 
J64. " Let any and every man say what he will against my work.* 

$95, 396. Ovid here bases his fame upon his love poetry. And even at 
end of his life, when his two great poems, the Fasti and Mik 
phases were completed, he still introduces himself to posterity 
as tenerorum lusor amorum ( Tristia^ IV, lOy l). 

397, 398. " So far I answer spite : now bard, more firmly grasp the reins 
speed thee on thy way." 


Page 42. — Amores, II, xviii, 11, 12. Compare with this passage A\ 

I, I (page 23), in which the poet refers to a straggle of the same kid 
with the same outcome. 

12. /.^. .- he betakes himself again to amatory verse. * 

13. sceptra: one of the accompaniments of Tragedy, 
tamen : this shows that, notwithstanding his fiulure to keep to the 

implied in sumptis ab armis of line II, he did accomplish 
tangible in tragedy. This something must have been his lost 
of Medeuy the only one from Ovid's pen of which we have knuidedll 
The Medea must therefore have been written before the present 

15. pallam, cothurnos: two other accompaniments of Tragedy. 

lb. ** The scepter which my hand assumed and so quickly lost again.** 


F- 43] NOTES 27s 

Amores, in» L The obvioiis inference from this whole poem is that it was 
written before Ovid had given himself to the work of Tragedy, for it 
represents the two divinities, Elegeia and Tragoedia, contending for his 
devotion, and ends by a request to Tragedy that she wait awhile before 
claiming him, a request which she grants. 

6w The poet was in a receptive mood, seeking a theme for song. The 
moment was therefore an opportune one for the advent of the claim- 
ants for his attention. 
moveret : see references to reddat. Rem, Am, 1 74, note. 

Page 43. — 11. The line pictures the vehemence that would *' tear a passion 
to tatters," and the traditional stage strut of the tragedian. 

12. comae: understand iacebant. ''Her hair hung low upon her frowning 
brow, her palla swept the ground." 

14. rfydins cothurnus : Micyllus commenting upon this passage says : Lydium 
pro Hetrusco hie accipit Commentator, quasi Graeci ab Hetruscis trag- 
oediam et eius omatum accepissent. Ego vero proprie dictum Lydius 
accipere malim: propterea quod multa, quae ad rem ludicram perti- 
nent, a Lydis inventa fuere. 

It should be added that the ancients considered the Etruscans to be 
of Lydian origin. 

17, 18. "Thou art the common talk at the drinking bouts and street corners.'* 

23. tempos erat : an emphatic way of saying " it is time," i,e* ** it is high 
time." Compare Horace {Odis^ I, xxxvii, 4) : — 

Nunc Saliaribus 
Omare pulvinar deorum 
Tempus erat dapibus, sodales. 

tbyrso grayiore : it is not the intention of Tragedy to suggest that Ovid 
come under the sway of Bacchus, whose symbol the thyrsus is. She 
means simply that he must be swayed by a mightier, more exalted im- 
pulse than love. For this more general meaning of thyrsus see Lucre- 
tius 1,923:— c ^ • 

Sed acn 

Percussit thyrso laudis spes magna meum cor. 

^5^ •«Thou art dwarfing thy powers by the stuff thou writest of." 

28. per nnnieros suos: see Life of Ovid, lines 25, 26. 

3^ lUilieam: H. 558 (483); M.325; A. 267; ('..260; B. 279, i; L.&M. 710. 

y^ implebit is the future indicative of mild command. See references to 

JereSf Heroides^ X, 150 note. 
jr^ j6. ** Why with labored phrases, O soulful Tragedy, dost thou o'erwhelm 

me? Canst never be else than ponderous? " 
j«^ ^. Ja, lumber abgve address. Tragedy has used the; elegiac measure. 


39. ** As for me, I should not bring your lofty strains into comparison witb 

mine/* The proper meter of tragedy was the heroic measure, or iambic 

4a •* (The uses of) your princely dwelling overwhelm my humble doori;" 

i.e, ** my humble measures are but a slender and insufficient instnunent 

through which to convey your lofty thoughts.*' 
Page 44. — 43, 44. " And yet I have acquired greater powers than thou, 

simply by bearing much that thy haughty spirit would not endure." 

Elegeia has been alwa>'s willing to " stoop to conquer." 
45-52. The personification is still kept up here, although these lines wonld 

apply equally well to a person and to poems of love. 
53-58. In these lines the personification is entirely dropped, except that tiie 

"irst person is still used. But the speaker is no longer Elegeia, ner 

even the amatory poem, but rather the paper on which the latter is 

written. Each couplet in this passage describes some ruse, either 00 

the part of the writer to get his poetic billet-doux into his mistress' 

hands undiscovered, or on the part of the latter herself to prevent the 

detection of the note by her duenna. 
55. abiret: II. 603, II, 2 (519, II, 2); M. 354; A. 328; G. 572; B.293, 

JII, 2; J.. cV M. 921. 
57. natali: understand dV^. 

at : in a sense coordinates rumpit and mersat with mitiiSfhvX only loosely 

so : *' what of this, that when thou dost send me as a gift upon her 

birthday, she, on the other hand," etc. 
59, 60. Ovid drew his first poetic inspiration from love, and through his ana* 

tory verse gained that reputation as a poet which causes Tragedy to 

seek his services. 
61-68. Ovid's reply expresses reverence to both the goddesses and dcare 

to please both. Inasmuch, however, as tragedy is a grander and 

more enduring work, he begs the postponement of this work for * 

61, 62. " By both your divinities I beg that he who reverences you bothm^y 

receive your words into empty ears," i.e. without decision for the 

moment in favor of either. 
64. It is as if his lips had already been touched with the finger of inspiration 

and the heroic strains of tragedy were pressing for utterance. 
69, 70. He will indulge in amatory verse now; tragedy is soon to follow. 

Ovid in later life, writing from his banishment ( Tristia, II, 553^' 

calls attention to tragedy among the more serious works of his pen: ^ 

Et dedimus tragicis scriptum regale cothumis, 
Quaeque gravis del)et verba cothurnus babet 

46] NOTES 277 


Fasti (understand dies) are primarily court-days, on which the courts could 
held and judgment pronounced. By a transfer the word comes to mean a 
or calendar of all the days in the year, with the particular event connected 
\i the several dAjs^ the festivals falling thereon, etc. 

GE 46. t— I, 1,2. Ovid states the design and scope of his poem : " Of times 
and seasons, each with its cause, arranged throughout the Roman year, 
and constellations that set beneath the earth and rise again, I'll sing." 

Caesar Gennaiiice : as has been stated on page 46, this first book was 
revised and rededicated to Germanicus. Ovid, writing to Augustus from 
exile ( TrisHa, II, 549-552), tells bow he had written twelve books of 
FasHf dedicated to Augustus himself, and how the work had been 
bcdcen off by his exile : 

Sex ego Fastorum scripsi totidemque libellos, 
Cumque suo finem mense volumen habet, 

Idque tuo nuper scriptum sub nomine, Caesar, 
£t tibi sacratum sors niea nipit opus. 

It is a favorite device of Ovid to compare his work to a ship. See II, 3; 
IV, 18. Similarly, in 1, 25, the poet's work is likened to a chariot drawn 
by horses; and see IV, 10, also Remedia Amoris, I, 394, 397. 

Olfllcio huic devoto is to be construed with ades, " And, not disdaining 
even meager praise, graciously accord, of thy divine favor, a hearing to 
this work which is here presented as an offering to thee. " This base 
spirit of sycophancy pervades and spoils the whole passage. 

lacra annalibtis eruta priscis: so in IV, 11. Ovid here gives in part 
the sources of his information. The annales were, in the first place, the 
public chronicles, kept from ancient times by the Pontifex Maximus. 
There were also other writers of annals and antiquarians from whose 
works Ovid could draw, such as M. Fulvius Nobilior, Quintus Ennius, 
M. Porcius Cato, and M. Terentius Varro. The works of Livy would 
also furnish much valuable material. As a model for his work Ovid 
had the 'Afrta or " Causes " of Callimachus, a Latin translation of which 
was known to him. It may be that the title of this work is reflected in 
Tempora cum causis in line i above. 

festa domestica vobis : the fashion of commemorating the deeds of the 
ruling families by inscriptions in public buildings and by establishing 
holidays in their honor became more and more in vogue in the days of 
the empire. Compare our national holiday on the birthday of Washing- 
ton. Horace refers to the custom of honoring both by tituH (public 
inscriptions) and fasti {Odes, IV, xiv, i) : — 

2/8 FASTI I p^46 

Quae cura patrum qoaeve Quiritium 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 

Auguste, virtutes in aeYum 

Per titulos memoresque £astos 
Aeteraet ? 

Page 47. — lo. pater, ayns: i.e, his adoptive father (Tiberius), and grand- 
father (Augustus). 

11, 12. "The honors which they enjoy marking red-letter days in our calen- 

dar, thou too with Drusus shalt obtain." 

12. Drusus, the younger, was the son of Tiberius, and hence the adopthre 

brother of Germanicus. He died of poison administered through thie 
plots of the imperial favorite Sejanus. 

15. conanti: supply x^/t>i/. 

ire: i.e. to enumerate. Compare II, 16, ingf'edimur. In both passages 
the poet pictures a solemn procession passing in review the hero's 
glorious deeds, and honors that have been bestowed for these. The 
whole passage (II, 9-16), wherein the poet disclaims the power or in- 
tention to bear the arms of the soldier, but offers rather the higher 
service of the bard, parallels, though in greater detail, I, 13—15. The 
former is the original passage addressed to Augustus, while the lattei^ 
addressed to Germanicus, is the product of the revision of Book I. 

17. da is a common elegiac construction for si debts, 
steteris is the conclusion of this condition. 

19, 20. " My book is started on its way to undergo the criticism of the learned 
prince, as if sent to be read by the Clarian god himself." 

21, 22. quae sit facundia culti oris is the object of sensimus, and facundia 
(understood) is the subject of tulit. The reference is to the exercise 
of the prince as an advocate in defense of his clients. 

23, 24. Though famed chiefly as a soldier, Germanicus devoted himself also to 
literary pursuits, and produced two Greek comedies, some epigrams, 
and a translation of Aratus into Latin verse. A portion of the latter 
only is extant. 

26. annus : i,e. " my year of song," " my poem on the year." 

63. ecce is generally used to call attention to some new actor whose, appetf* 
ance on the stage causes some surprise. Ovid has just been discmsiiV 
fasti and nefasti dies^ and, having finished his introductory matter, 
comes now to the first month of his year. 

" But see, Germanicus, here is Janus himself, the leader in my song, 
and he wishes you a glad new year." 

d/. ducJbus : i.e. the imperial family. 

F-4«l NOTES 279 

69. tuis is to be joined both to patribus and populo, " To the fathers and 

the Roman people who are thine." 

70. reaera: Janus as the god of doors is represented with a key. See 

line 99. 

71. lingnis animisqiie favete ! This is the ore favete omnes of Vergil, and 

^c faveie Unguis of Horace. Ovid goes a little deeper, in that he 
appeals to the thought as well as the word. It is the common appeal 
of the priest for a sacred silence lest some ill-omened word should 
escape the lips. 

73t 74* ^^ ^^ ^ini^ of the courts, the wranglings of the forum, and din of 
trade all cease to-day. 

75~7^ A beautiful picture is given of the scene, as the perfumed clouds of 
incense rise from the altars, and the gilded temples gleam with the 
reflections of the altar fires. 

76. spica Cilissa : i.e, the saffron crocus, the best of which came from Cilicia 
in Asia Minor. It was used by the Romans as a condiment and as a 
perfume diluted in water or wine. Ovid describes it here as thrown on 
the fire. And since it bums with a crackling noise {sonet) it is a good 

Page 'M. — 79* 80. The attention is next attracted to the consuls elect, who 
in pure white garments {vestibus intactis) take their way up the Capi- 
toline Hill (poetically referred to as Tarpeias arces, which formed a 
part of the hill), while the people, themselves in festal attire of white, 
press around. 

8l» 82. All is new (novt) because the newly elected officials are inaugurated 
ebW: the curule chair of ivory, on which the "curule officers," con- 
suls, praetors and curule aediles, were allowed to sit. 

84. herba Falisca : ** Faliscan pasturage," i.e. of Falerii, the capital of the 

ancient Faliscans. This was near the region of the River Clitumnus in 
Umbria, a place famous for its white herds of cattle, which were re- 
served as victims for sacrifice. See Vergil (Georgics, II, 146). 
85-88. A complaisant Roman boast of world-wide dominion. 

85. arce sua : i.e. his place of observation on the vault of heaven. 

86. tueatar: see references to videant. Her aides, X, 18. 

88. remm: compare H. 451, 3 (399, II); M. 226, 2; A 218, b\ G. 375; 

B. 204, I, «; L. & M. 573, 574. 

89. tamen is resumptive, as opposed to the digression in the preceding lines. 

" But, to resume my story." 
9a •*For Greece has no divinity corresponding to thee." Nearly all the 
Roman gods have corresponding deities in the theogony of Greece. 
But not so Janus. 

28o FASTI I [P. 48 

89-93. There are two distinct questions here : (i) Who are you? (2) y9kf 
have you this double form? 

100. ore priore : " with his front mouth," the one nearest me. 

loi. Tales operose dienim : f>. as author of the Fasti, a poem of days. 

103. Chaos: CH'id does not connect this name et3rmologicaUy with lanm, 
but it has been supposed by some that Janus is a corruption of Ckan. 
A second derivation of Janus is by connection with Dianus, whidi 
would be a masculine parallel to Diana. In Varro the form Jam 
does occur for Diana, the moon-goddess. A similar loss of an inititl 
D before 1 is seen by comparing Joins with Vediovis (cf. Fast, 111,457). 
Ch'id's own deri\'ation is from the V7. See lines I26> 127. Thishii 
been generally accepted as the popular etymology, but the second 
derrvation given above is more probably correct. 

105, 106. The ancients conceived of all matter as formed from the four 
primal elements, earth, water, air, and fire. 

107, loS. " As soon as this mass broke up through the strife of its component 
elements, and in its freed state sought new location (for its parts);" 
i.e. the severed elements sought new positions. 

107-110. In his introduction to iht Metamorphoses Ovid gives an extended 
account of the war of these elements and their readjustment in the 
orderly universe. 

109. petit is perfect, —petiit. 

Pac;k 49 — 1 10. medio solo : " in the central region," i.e. of the great sphere 
which is conceived of as the original form of shapeless chaos. The 
globe is indeed a symmetrical form, but in Ovid's conception (see 
line III) globus and sine imagine moles are synonymous. 

113. confusae, etc. : " a slight indication of my once shapeless condition." 

113, 114. J.e. while once in his form all sides were alike, now at least two 

sides are the same. 

114. in me shows that he is speaking of his own form, front and back, and 

not of objects in front and behind. 
116. noris: a syncopated form for noveris. 

120. cardinis: i.e. of the sphere of the created universe. 

1 21-124. The conception here is that Janus holds both Peace and War con- 
fined in his temple, either of which he may release upon the land at 
will. A different explanation is offered in lines 279-281. 

121, 122. "When it is my pleasure to send Peace forth among the quiet 

haunts of men, she holds free course along unbroken ways." 
placidis is proleptic The tecta are placida as a result of the advent of 
'23. miscebitur is used instead the less vivid misceatur, which would be the 
more natural conclusion of ni teneant. 

-♦•so] NOTES 281 

- IS7. inde : i.e, from ianua implied in forihus caeli, and from it and reditu 

which all contain the v^. See line 103, note. 
' is8. libimi : there was a kind of cake offered to Janus called ianual. 

fam mixta sale: more frequently called mola saUay was the sacred 
^ salted meal which, sprinkled on the head of the victim, devoted him 

■ to the sacrifice. In II, 24, we find torrida cum mica {salis) farra, 

\ 199^ 13a Patnlcius, Clnsius : i.e, " the Opener " {pateo), and " the Qoser " 
131, 132. "The reason is that the people of that rude ancient time desired 
by the use of these names alternately to call attention to my opposite 
functions which I exercise in turn." 

133. Tis mea : " my functions." It has been seen above that Janus is the 

god of all opening and closing doors ; of all things that begin and end 
in the earth, the sea, and sky ; of the gates of heaven, where Jove's 
own movements are subject to the " Opener "; of the temple of peace 
and war. Spenser {F, Q. IV, x, 12) represents Janus as presiding 
over the beginning of the year : — 

Therein resembling lanus auncient, 

Which hath in charge the ingate of the yeare. 

134. aliqua parte: ''to some extent," that is, in lines 113, 114, where he 

explains that his present shape is a relic of his original form as Chaos. 
(36. popnlum, or the outside; Larem, or the inside, where the image of the 

Lar familiaris stood in a shrine on the hearth of the central room 

{atrium) facing the door. 
141. ora Hecates: Vergil {Aen, IV, 510) speaks of this goddess: 

Tergeminaroque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianae. 

This is the goddess of threefold manifestation — Luna in heaven, Diana 
on earth, and Hecate in Hades. Her statues represent three female 
forms, and these are placed where three roads meet, *' in order that she 
may watch the roads cut into threefold ways " (line 142). 
Page 50. — 145. si vellem : a less vivid future condition from a past point 
of view. 

279-283. Janus now says that the gates of his temple are open in war ** in 
order when the people go to war they may have opportunity to return," 
and that he shuts the door in peace " in order that peace may not be 
allowed to depart." That is, Peace is shut up in order that she may be 
kept in safety. 

VergiPs picture is quite different {Aen, I. 294). Behind the shut 
gates of Janus' temple Fury sits bound hand and foot ; — 

282 FASTI I (P. 50 

Dirae ferro et compagibus artis 
Claudentur Belli portae ; Furor impius intns, 
Saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus aSnis 
Post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento. 

282. dusiia ero : the temple of Janus had been shut only twice in Roman 
history prior to the reign of Augustus — once in the reign of the peace- 
ful Numa, and again at the close of th^ Brst Punic war. In Augustus' 
reign the gates were three times closed. 

385, vestri . by courtesy includes the Emperor Tiberius, who is represented 
as sharing in the triumph of Germanicus. 
triumphi: Germanicus celebrated a triumph in the year 16 A.D.forhis 
victories over the Germans. 

289. quod : refers to the fact stated in line 290. 

291. The son of Phoebus and the nymph Coronis was Aesculapius, the great 
healing god. See analysis of Metamorphoses^ XV, 622 and following. 

2^. Insula : was the island in the Tiber within che city of Rome. 

II. — 4. exiguum : is in contrast to velis maioribus, and is explained bylines 
5, 6 — "trifling." 

5^ 6. The reference is to the Amores and other love poems written in elegiac 

Page 51. — 8. ** Would any one believe that there is any connection between 
that former work and this ? '* 

9-16. See I, 15, note. 

10. omni munere: H. 464 (414, I); M. 237, i; A. 243 a; G. 390, 2; 
B. 214, I, ^; L. & M. 601. The legal age of exemption from service in 
the Roman army was forty-six years. Ovid implies that he is past that 
age (this would date the present writing at 3 A.D. or later), but that 
he still can render valuable service with the pen if not with the sword. 

19. The poet proceeds to an examination into the meaning of the old Sabine 
word februa (n. pi.) from which February is derived. The point is to 
connect the word with purgamina in meaning. The facts which he 
adduces in " proof" {Jidem) of this connection are as follows: (i) the 
ii&mt februa was given anciently to the fillets of wool (Janas) used in 
sacrifice; (2) the sacrifices of lustration performed with the salted 
meal had the same name; (3) the branches of certain sacred purifica- 
tory trees were called februa ; (4) this name in ancient times was given 
to all expiatory and lustral processes. 

21. rege: understand j<7^r<7r«w. 

22. quis : a contraction for quibus, 

23. lictor : a priest's assistant or attendant. 

^i] NOTES 283 

ai1x>re para : not ''a pare tree/' but " a tree that makes pure," i.e, one 
used in lustral ceremonies. Pura is an example of what may be called 
active adjectives, in which not the quality, but the power to produce 
tliat quality, is ascribed to the limited noun. Compare in Horace, 
palma nobilis, "the palm that confers renown"; albus no^us,**Si wind 
that makes bright," a " clearing wind." 

pinea : the pine tree is seen to be one of the arbores purae, 

intOllAOS avos : the Romans in early times wore the beard uncut. Bar- 
bers were not introduced into Rome until 300 B.C. Intonsi, therefore, 
of itself means ** ancient." 

Granting Xh^X, februa KaApurgamina are connected in meaning, how did 
the month acquire the name Februarius? Two explanations are 
ofTered: (i) because in this month Was celebrated the festival of the 
Lupercit whose ceremonies were considered expiatory; (2) because 
the Feralia or Parentalia (see below) fell within that month. 
32. The Lupercalia was a festival held on the 15th of February in 
honor of Faunus. "The object of the festival was, by expiation and 
purification, to give new life and fruitfulness to fields, flocks, and 
people." The ceremonies were performed by the priests {Luperci)^ 
who, armed with a whip of thongs from the hide of the goat which 
they had sacrificed {secta pdle)r traversed {lusiranf) the city, striking 
all whom they met with the thongs, in token of purification. 
34, The festival of Parentalia^ or festival in honor of dead relatives, was 
celebrated in the latter part of February. At this time oblations of 
victims, wine, milk, and other things were presented to the manes of 
ancestors, who among the ancient Romans were accounted gods. 
In the latter part of the festival, more properly called Feralia^ the 
Romans were accustomed to carry food to the sepulchers for the use of 
the dead. The departed spirits would thus be appeased and their 
"ghosts laid" {placatis sepulcris). In II, 569, Ovid again refers to 
the Feralia : — 

Hanc, quia iusta,^rr«»/, dixere /3prfl//a lucem. 
Ultima placandis Manibus ilia dies. 

See also TrisHa, III, iii, 81-84. 
SB 52. — 81, 82. Two causes are suggested for one of which the dolphin 
was honored by a place among the heavenly constellations : (i) When 
Neptune was wooing Amphitrite, the nymph for a long time shunned 
his addresses. But a dolphin revealed her place of concealment to 
Neptune, who, out of gratitude, placed the fish in the heavens. 
(2) The dolphin saved the life of Arion, a famous musician, native of 
Lesbos, and for this act was rewarded by Jove, as the story hai^rate»,^' 

284 FASTI II \p.p 

85-92. These are some of the stock illustrations of the power of music. Set 

description of the effect of the music of Orpheus among the shadow 

MetamorphoseSt X, 40-48. 
89. PalUdis alite : i.e, the owL For an explanation of the natural fxsast^ 

between the owl and the crow, see Amares, II, vi, 35, note. 
96. qnaesitas opes : the fruits of his western tour, 
loi, 102. See Ars Am<Uoria, III, 735, 736^ note. 
109, 1 10. " As when, in mournful strains, his whitening temples pierced witk 

deadly shaft, the swan pours forth his (dying) song.*' 
Page 53.— iio. tempora: H. 416 (378); M. 194; A. 240, c; G. 338,1; 

B. 180, I ; (but see 179, i and 3) ; L. & M. 51a 
115. pretium: in apposition to the following sentence. 

117. astris: H. 428, i (384, 11,3, i), note i); M.213; A.225,^,3; G.358; 

B. 193; L. & M. 540. 

118. Stellas novem : Hyginus {Fabulae, 194) tells the story of Arion and 

the dolphin, ending with this statement : Apollo autem propter 
citharae Arionem et delphinum in astris posuit 

III. — 4. The statement in this line is in answer to the question in line 3. 

5, 6. *' Thou thyself seest dire conflicts waged by the hand of Minenra : hai 

she then less time for devoting herself to the fine arts?" In Homer, 
Minerva, like Mars and other gods, mingles freely in the conflict of 

6. ingenuis artibus: see references under munere. Fast, II, 10. Minem 

was goddess of wisdom, poetry, the arts and sciences, and handicnil 
in general, such as weaving, spinning, building, etc. 
8. quod agas : <* something to do.'' 

71. iam, etc.: the omitted passage, apropos of inermis (line 8), reprea^Ytis 

Mars as the progenitor of Romulus, and relates the prophetic drea:ttx ^ 
Rhea Silvia, who was to be the mother of the twin brothers. iTVaft 
follows the birth of these, the attempt of Amulius to destroy "^^ktiB, 
their miraculous deliverance ; their growth to manhood ; their ice*Bft 
as the slayers of Amulius and restorers of Numitor to his throrm^* ts^ 
the founding of a new city. 

72. pater Urbis : i.e, Romulus. 

74. et ut credar . . . dabo : " and, that I may be believed (to be of thyfc^*-^ 

I shall give many proofs ; '' i.e, Romulus was to be a warlike 1 
76. Thus the first month of the year of Romulus began with March. 

54] NOTES 285 

;e 54. — 79, 80. " And yet (the peoples of Latium) before (the time of 
Romulus) worshiped Mars above all (other gods). This tribute they, 
being a warlike race, had paid to their natural inclinations." 

telliia Hypsipylea : Lemnos. Hypsipyle was the daughter of Thoas, and 
queen of Lemnos. When the Lemnian women, under the influence of 
Venus, killed off all the men of the island, the queen alone preserved 
her father. Lemnos under the reign of Hypsipyle is also connected 
with the voyage of the Argonauts, who touched at this island. 

Vulcanum : Lemnos was the favorite haunt of Vulcan on earth. It was 
on this island that he fell when Jove hurled him from heaven. 
-98. Other countries had other gods, but Mars was preeminently the god 
of warlike Latium, and the various peoples of Latium honored him also 
in their calendars, although his month was variously situated in the 
order of months. 
92. ** Among the calendars of Aricia and Alba and (that city whose) 
lofty walls (were) reared by the hand of Telegonus (J,e, Tusculum), 
there is an agreement." 

Telegonus was the son of Ulysses and Circe, who unwittingly caused his 
father's death. He afterward founded the Italian town of TusCuli||ift. 
Hence Horace thus speaks of this town : — 

Telegoni iuga parricidae {0(Us, III, jtxix, 8) ; and 
Tusculi Circaea moenia {Epodes, I, 29). 

a tribns prinmiii : " the fourth." Ovid delights in such roundabout ex- 
pression of numbers. Compare his **four times three months," his 
" doubling of ten years," his " adding of nine lustra to other nine," and 
his "joining of ten times six to three hundred and five days." 

convenit : compare constat above. 

genti utrique : ** for both branches of the race," ue, the Sabines and 
the Pelignians. 

. "And that you may not doubt that prior (to the time of Numa) the 
Kalends of March was the first day (of the year), give your attention 
to the following proofs." 

-149. These "proofe" are: (i) that in olden times in March or on the 
first of March the laurel branch in the houses of the Flamens was 
annually renewed; (2) fresh laurel was hung at the door of the rex 
sacrorum, of the chapel of the ward, and in the temple of Vesta; 
(3) fresh fires were kindled upon the altars in the shrines; (4) the 
worship of Anna Perenna, the goddess of the old lunar year was insti- 
tuted; (5) newly elected officials entered upon their offices; and (6) 

286 FASTI III [P. 54 

the count must start with March in order to explain the titles of the 
months which are named from numbers. 

140. curia prisca : these curiae, of which four remained in Ovid's time, were 
the ancient chapels, one of which was placed in each of the original 
curiae or wards of the city. 

Page 55. — 145. parva fides : supply est, — isse = ivisse, 

148. Although all Carthaginians were to the Roman proverbially "per* 
fidious," the reference is here to Hannibal and, loosely speaking, to 
the second Punic war. It was not until after 153 B.C. that the consuls 
entered upon their office in January. 

151. Numa was, according to tradition, a native of Cures, a town of the 

153, 154. The "Samian" was the philosopher Pythagoras of Samos, who 
taught the transmigration of souls. Ovid is apparently not troubled by 
the anachronism involved in making this philosopher the instructor of 
Numa. See the fifteenth book of the Metamorphoses ^ in which Ovid 
gives an extended account of the life of Numa and the philosophy of 

155. Numa added January and February, making a year of twelve months. 

But these, as before, were lunar months, so that the year consisted of . 
only 355 days. Hence, even with Numa's addition {etiam nuru)y^^ 
seasons " kept going wrong" {errabant), making the addition of inter- | 
calary months necessary, until 46 B.C., when Julius Caesar placed the j 
calendar upon a scientific basis, giving to the year 365}^ da3rs. As is well 
known, this arrangement continued until the time of Pope Gregory IH* 
who in 1582 made the final adjustment under which all Christendoin, 
with the exception of Russia, is now living. 

157, 158. "That prince, himself a god and founder of a noble line, did not 
consider such things as these too small for his attention." 
officiis: H. 471(417); M. 239, i; A. 247; G.398; B.217, i; L.&Mi6i^- 

161. signa: i,e, the signs of the Zodiac, through which the sun jgoes inhi» 
apparent annual round. 

164. e pleno tempora quarta die c f>. a quarter of a day. On this and th^ 
preceding line, see line 94, note. 

165, 166. in lustrum, etc.: "there should be added every fourth year the 

one day which is the sum of the part days {i^, the quarters)." Tbi* 
is the institution of our quadriennial leap year. 

701. simulacra: it was a favorite devise of the deus ex mackina inmytho* 

> . logical story to substitute a delusive image for some imperiled favorite 

Qiana's: rescue. of Iphigexua 4rp|n the saqnficii^ Ji^nife-at AuQs, and 

p. 57] . NOTES 287 

Apollo's rescae of Aeneas on the field of battle, are case^ in poiiitl 
The latter incident is thus related by Homer (//. V, 449): — 

Meantime the bowyer-god, Apollo, formed 
An image of Aeneas, armed like him. 
Round which the Trojans and Achaians thronged 
With many a heavy weapon-stroke. 

Page 56. — 707. Brutus and Cassius, the leaders of the conspirators against 
the life of Caesar, and afterward the leaders of the so-called patriotic 
forces, were defeated and slain at the battle of Philippi, 42 B.C., where 
they met the opposing forces under Octavian. 

708. "And ye whose scattered bones lie bleaching on the ground." 

710. Caesaris : i,e, Octavian, afterward Augustus. 

patrem : Julius Caesar was Octavian 's adoptive father, though in reality 
his uncle. \ 

IV. — I. geminoram Amoniin : " the twin loves," i,e. Eros and Anteros. 

3. maiores canebas : the poet is well on in the composition of his Fasti, 

4, 5. There is a joke between the poet and the goddess about some old love 

affair of the former. 
7. saucius, an sanus : an is loosely used here for sive . . . Hve. 
9. "What (trifling themes) 'twas fitting (I should sing), I sang in earlier 

years without offense." With lusimus compare lusor amorum in line i 

of Life; and with sine crimine. Life, 68. 

11. This line is a combination of parts of I, i and 7. 

12. Repeated from I, 2. 

17. Ovid here as elsewhere represents himself as obtaining his facts, at least 
in part, by the direct inspiration of some god. 

Page 57. — 85. mensis honorem : . i,e, the honor of having the name con- 
nected directly with Venus by etymological derivation. Ovid gives his 
own opinion on the etymology of the word in lines 61, 62 : — 

Sed Veneris mensem Graio sermone notatum 
Auguror : a spumis est dea dicta maris. 

Ovid*s derivation would therefore be: (i) Greek d0p6s {= spumaf 
"foam"), (2) *A4>poSlTri {Aphrodite, the goddess sprung from the 
foam of the sea), (3) Aprilis, It is needless to say that modern phi- 
lology would not allow this derivation. Ovid falls into another error in 
supposing that any I^tin word can be derived from a Greek word. It 
must be either cognate with the Greek, or else a mere transliteration of it 
tibi: H, 429, 2 (386, 2); M. 211; A. 229; G. 347, 5; B. 188, 2, </; 
U & M. 539. 

288 FASTI IV [P. 57 

86. yeiint: H. 591, i (503,1); M. 383, 2; A. 320, a; G. 631, 2; B. 283,2; 
L.&M. 838. 

87-89. llie derivation which Ovid here contemptuously quotes is, however, 
the one now commonly received : Aprilis (contracted from aperUis^ an 
adjectival form from the verb aperire), is the month in which the earth 
opens and softens, and awakes to renewed life. 

90. " (A month) which fruitful Venus lays her hand upon and claims as her own." 

iniecta manu and yindicat are both technical words, used primarily of a 

master who officially claims a runaway slave by laying his hand upon him. 

93. lutalibiu undis : see note on Aphrodite, line 85. Venus rose from the 
spray of the sea near the island of Cythera; hence her epithet in line 
15, and her more common name Cytherea, 

97. " She united the rough minds of men into one (society)." The home, 
which is based upon the mutual love of the man and wife, is the 
foundation of civilized society. Cicero (^Tusc, Disp, I, 62) imagine* 
some one man to have brought this about, and claates him with thos^ 
unknown men who have performed important service for civilization* 
and who illustrate the greatness of the human soul : Aut qui dissipato*^ 
homines congregavit et ad societatem vitae convocavit. 

10 1, mare: ixorsimas, 

108. " From her (influence) came display in dress and a decent care for one^ * 
personal appearance.'* This fact is illustrated in the individual as we^^^ 
as the national experience of man. 

III. eloquiom fuit ezorare : the poet plays upon these two words, which ar-- '^ 
similar in composition and meaning, and asserts that the experience '^ 
involved in exorare called forth the original eloquium. Hence love L— ^^ 
the origin of the art of persuasive speech. 

115. titulo: H. 462 (414, I); M. 237, i; A. 243, a; G. 390, 2; B. 214,1,^^^ ^'' 

L. & M. 601. 

116. audeat. H. 557(485); M. 327; A 311; G.257,2; B.280,2; L.&M, ^^^ 


Page 58. — 747 and following. Pales was a pure Italian deity, one of the«=-^^ 
most ancient. Her festival, called the Paliliaj was celebrated on the '^^ 
2 1st of April, which was regarded as the day on which Rome was -^^ 
founded. Her favor was much desired by both shepherd and fanner. ^^ 
Vergil {Eel, V, 35-39) describes the disastrous consequences of the 
withdrawal of Pales and Apollo : — 

" Often nowadays, in the very furrows to whose care we give our laigest 
barley grains, we see growing ungenerous darnel and unfruitful oats. In 
place of the delicate violet and the dazzling bright narcissus springs up the 
thistle, and the thorn with its sharp spikes.** — [Conington*s trans.] 

59] NOTES 289 

'-776. This passage, aside from its other merits, is of especial interest in 
that it is Ovid's ideal of a rustic's formal prayer. Similar to this is the 
£eirmer's prayer addressed to Ceres and Tellus {Fasti ^ I, 675-694). 
The student should analyze both of these prayers and observe the 
elements, if any, of praise, thanksgiving, petition, etc., which they con- 
tain. With these may also be compared such passages as Lucretius, 
De Rerum Natura^ I, 1-43 (a hymn or prayer to Venus) ; and Horace, 
Odes^ I, xxxi, xxxv, and III, xviii. As an interesting statement of the 
conditions for successful prayer, read Horace, OdeSy HI, xxiii. 

^-754. A list of the ceremonial offenses which he or his flock may know- 
ingly or unwittingly have committed. 

). sive sacro pavi : " if I have fed (my flocks) on sacred (food)." 

i* semicaper deus : ue. Faunus. 

$. Both lucum and nemus of line 751 here refer to a sacred or consecrated 

S. fano: H. 429, i (386, i); M. 202, i; A. 228; G. 347; B. 187, IH, 2; 
L. & M. 534. 

X To the timorous mind of the rustic, every spring and wood and mountain 
had its deity who would be offended by the slightest intrusion, and 
who, if beheld by human eyes, was likely to bring disaster and death 
upoii the unlucky mortal. 

1. nee videamus labra Dianae : as Actaeon did. The story of his mischance 

is told in the Metamorphoses (HI, 138-252). See outline on page 108. 
8. Uyent: H. 590 (497, I); M. 382, 3; A. 317, 2; G. 630; B. 282, 2; 

L. & M. 835. 
X "And may my osier sieve let freely drain the watery whey." 

2. " Soft and well fit for hands however tender." 
5. ad annum: " with each returning year." 

7. his, haec: " these (words)." The reference can hardly be to the whole 
prayer, but is most naturally to the last sentence, which makes mention of 
rich gifts to Pales. " With these words must the goddess be appeased." 

^^782. These lines contain detailed instructions in the mysteries of the 
worship of Pales, being an addition to and in part a repetition of the 
lines which preceded the prayer. Some of these practices, such as 
turning to the east in prayer, bathing the hands in running water, and 
leaping through the fire, are common to the superstitious practices of 
many nations before and since the time of Ovid. 

■^ 59. — V, 379, and following. Chiron was a centaur, the offspring of 
Saturn and the nymph Philyra (the " lyre-loving one "). He is praised 
by Homer (//. XI, 832) for his love of justice; his skill in surgery also 
is incidentally mentioned : — 
OVID — 19 

290 FASTI V [P. 59 

( Tkt wounded Eurypkylus addresses PeUrochts^ 

Soothing and healing balms upon the wound, 
As taught thee by Achilles, who had learned 
The art from Chiron, righteous in his day 
Beyond all other Centaurs. 

Chiron was, moreover, skilled in the art of music, which he im- 
parted to his pupils, the young heroes, Jason, Hercules, Aesculapius, 
and Achilles, who were entrusted to his care. For further account of 
Chiron's part in story, see analysis on page 102. 

379. nocte minus quarta : Ovid's way of saying node tertia, 

385. manus : i.e. of Achilles. 

387, 388. In the course of his wanderings, having reached almost the end oi 
of his twelve labors, Hercules pays a visit to bis old instructor in h^* 
cave on Mount Pelion. 

389. casuvideres: H. 555(485); M. 327, note; A. 311,4; G. 258; 8.28^^1 
3; L. & M. 720. 
Troiae duo fata: ij, Achilles, who was destined to slay Hector, tt» ^ 
bulwark of the Trojans; and Hercules, who, after his twelve labors we^^ * 
ended, in company with a band of heroes, attacked Troy and slew Kii* -^ 
Laomedon and all his sons, except the youthful Podarces, afterwar 
called Priam. This vengeance he took for the faithlessness of Laomedo -^ 
in withholding the promised reward for the rescue of Hesione. 

393. clavam spoliumque leonis : these were the club which he cut in th ^^^ 

Nemean forest, prior to his attack upon the Nemean lion; and the ski**'^ 
of that beast, whose death was the accomplishment of the hero's I 
labor. The club and lion's skin were ever after his constant accon 

394. his armis: supply digne, H. 481 (421, III); M. 238, 2; A. 245, «, ij^ ' 

G. 397, note 2; B. 226, 2; L. & M. 654. 

395. 396. "Nor could Achilles keep his hands from making bold to toucb^^^ 

the skin all shaggy with rough fur." This is a fine human touch of th^^ " 

poet, showing the awestruck admiration of the youthful hero for thes-^ 

arms of the now famous Hercules. 
395. auderent. H. 595, 2 (504, 4); M. 341, 3; A. Z12, g\ G. 555, i; B- ^' 

295, 3; L. & M. 913. 
397, 398. According to another account, Chiron was accidentally wounded by 

one of these poisoned arrows in the contest between Hercules and the 

yenenis : this poison which, tipping the arrows of Hercules, made wounds 

inflicted by them incurable, was obtained from the gall of the hydrm. 

which Hercules slew in the accomplishment of his second labor. 

.6o] NOTES 291 

AGE 60. — 403. "The swift poison made the remedy unavailing." Edax is 
explained by the remainder of the couplet. So speedily did the virus 
tat or make its way through the body that no superficial remedy could 

>8. " So must Peleus himself (the father of Achilles) have been mourned, 
had he been dying." For mode oi /lendus erat^ see H. 582 (511, 2); 
M. 369; A. 308, c\ G. 597, 3, tf ; B. 304, 3, b\ L. & M. 938, 940. 

ta "The teacher now enjoys the rewards (of his toil) in (of) the kindly 
disposition {moruni) which he himself has fostered." 

•2. viye: it is related that Chiron retired to his cave, longing to die, but 
.was unable to do so on account of his immortality, till, on his express- 
ing his willingness to die for Prometheus, he was released by death 
from his misery. According to another account (the present), he was, 
on his prayer to Jove for relief, raised to the sky and made the con- 
stellation of Sagittarius, which is one of the twelve signs of the Zodiac. 

3- iustissime : a frequent epithet of Chiron. See above the quotation 
from Homer on line 379. 

\> corpora: H. 416 (378); M. 198; A. 240, c\ G. 338, i; B. 180, i; 
L.& M. 510. 

I.— 249, 250. *0 Vesta, hail! we open now our lips to thee devoted, if in 
thy sacred festival we be allowed a part." 

"^ Compare IV, 5 and 6. 

3* ?aleant mendacia vatum: ^'avgay with the lying tales of bards ;" i,e. 
Vesta never appears to mortals, any statement of the poets to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

^ nee fueras aspicienda yiro : " (and even if thou didst appear to mor- 
tals), thou wouldst not have revealed thyself to (me) a man." No 
man was allowed to enter Vesta*s temple. For the mode of fueras see 
V, 408 and note. 

' 256. Again he professes to receive knowledge of things archaeological, 
philological, and otherwise, by direct inspiration, " at the instruction of 
no (visible) being." Compare IV, 17. 
Palilia : see IV, 747, note. Ovid means to say in this line that forty 
years after the founding of the city, the formal worship of Vesta was 
introduced. He implies also (IV, 731, 732), that after the introduc- 
tion of Vesta's worship, she had some connection with the worship of 
Pales. The two lines here quoted are a part of the instructions for the 
observance of the Palilia : — 

I, pete virginea, populus, suffimen [incense] ab ara; 
Vesta dabit, Vestae munere purus eris. 



[P. 60 

Lanciani's plausible explanation of the origin of the worship of Vesta 
makes her connection with Pales seem very close and natural 

" The origin of the worship of Vesta is very simple. In prehistoric 
times, when Bre could be obtained only from the friction of two sticks 
of dry wood, or from sparks of flint, every village kept a public fire burn- 
ing day and night, in a central hut, at the disposition of each family. 
The care of watching the precious element was intrusted to young 
girls, because girls, as a rule, did not follow their parents and brothers 
to the far-away pasture grounds, and did not share with them the 
fatigue of hunting or Bshing expeditions. In course of time, however, 
this simple practice became a kind of sacred institution, especially at 
Alba Longa, the mother country of Rome; and when a large party of 
Alban shepherds fled from the volcanic eruptions of the Alban crateis 
into the plain below, and settled on the marshy banks of the Tibet* 
they followed, naturally, the institutions of the mother country; an^ 
the worship of Vesta — represented by the public fire and the git^ 
attending to it — was duly organized at the foot of the Palatine hil^ 
on the borders of the market-place (forum)." 

Opus is in apposition to the act expressed in the preceding line. 

regis placidi: Numa's peaceful reign was in striking contrast to tl^^^ 
war-filled reign of Romulus. 

metuentius numinis : " more God-fearing." 

acre, stipula : he contrasts the present bronze roof of Vesta's temj^^* 
with its ancient roof of thatch. 
263, 264. The Atrium Veslae, extensive ruins of which are still to be seen -^^ 

the Forum, was the home 





the Vestal Virgins. The 
round temple, the foundati< 
of which is still traceable, 
the Begia, the ofl&cial residenc:::^^ 
of the Pontifex Maximus, 
in the same plot of groun( 
immediately adjacent to {su^^^' 
Hnet) the Atrium, The ci^^^ 
illustrates their relative locii^^'* 
tion. The foundation of th- ^^ 
Hegia was attributed to Nimu^-^' 
264. intonsi : " unshorn," hence " old-time." See II, joi note. 
Page 61. — 265. forma templi: notwithstanding the many vicissitudes^ 
involving repeated destruction and rebuilding, which this temple ez^^ 
perienced during the centuries, it still retained its original form, i^, cf^ 
Hndrical. Numa's original hut temple was destroyed at the time of th« 

. 6i] NOTES 293 

invasion of the Gauls in 390; the temple was again destroyed by fire 
in 241; it was seriously damaged by an inundation in the time of 
Augustus (cf. Horace, Odes, I, ii, 15, 16); it was burned in Nero's fire, 
and restored by that emperor; burned again in 191 aj)., and recon- 
structed by Julia Domna, the empress of Septimius Severus. In 394, 
Theodosius II shut the gates of the temple and extinguished forever 
the mysterious fire that had been kept burning for over one thousand 
years. Well-preserved ruins were in existence in 1549, when the build- 
ers of Saint Peter's destroyed it, burning its pillars and marble blocks 
into lime. A shapeless mass of concrete of the foundations is all that 
is left in the Forum to-day of the famous shrine. 

\6, "The cause of (this round) form is reasonable and not far to seek 

J7-282. His process of reasoning is as follows: (i) There is an occult but 
real connection and similarity between Vesta and the Earth (Ovid's ex- 
planation at this point is very obscure). (2) The earth is round like 
a ball, a statement supported by purely a priori argument. (3) There- 
fore the temple of Vesta, who, by the first argument, is in a sense the 
same as the earth, must approach the terrestrial rotundity as nearly as 
is possible to a temple; and this form is the cylinder. 

iy. subest vigil ignis utrique : " beneath each is the never dying fire ; " 
i.e. the perpetual fire burned upon the altar in the center of the temple, 
and beneath the earth fires were supposed to be always burning. 

)8. "(Now these two related beings) Earth and Hearth (J.e, Vesta), 
(the one situated at the center of the universe, and the other at the 
center of the temple) suggest (both by their shape and position) 
their (common) abode (1.^. the temple)." 

r8. globus: this was the famous planetarium, a model of the heavenly 
bodies, showing their position, motions, and relation, constructed by 
Archimedes of Syracuse. In this, as in the usual ancient conception, 
the earth is represented as situated at the center of the universe. 

15, 296. The contents of Vesta's temple were sacredly guarded from profane 
eyes. It is known, however, that for centuries the Palladium and 
other sacred relics were preserved there. 

►8. The poet would imply that the Romans never fashioned an image of 
Vesta. The vision wtich Aeneas had on the night of the destruction 
of Troy (^Aen. II, 293-297) is, however, interesting in this connection. 
The apparition of Hector consigns the Trojan Penates to Aeneas, and 
moreover produces -from the shrine the image of Vesia, with the sacred 
fillets upon the head, and also the sacred, never dying fire. 

19. Here again Ovid asserts a relation between Earth and Vesta. The Earth 
is independent of all support, nulla fulcimine nixa (cf. line 269), and 

294 FASTI VI [P.dl 

so is Vestm (t.e, she needs no image to show her forth) ; and from this 
Yery fact, says the poet, she is named both in Latin and Greek. 

Orid*s et}-mology is at fault here, as often. Vgsla and Gr. *Errlm 
arc both derived from the y/vas, "to bum." . Focus also (line 301) is 
not connected etymologically with Jiamma And ^fveo, hut is from the 
y/Ma, ** to be bright," with which root are also connected such words 
z&fax^ fades, etc. 

yoi, 303. In old times the hearth (or vesta) was in the front part of the 
house, in the passage between the street door and the central apart- 
ment or atrium. From this fact, says Ovid, this front entrance or 
{.-tassage is called vestibulumf the place of Vesta, 

J06. In a fragment of Manius, one of the satires of Varro, which describes 
the management of a rural household, there are three maxims for the 
guidance of the pious rustic : not to speak evil against one's neighbor, 
not to put the feet upon the sacred hearth, and to contribute to the god 
who is supposed to be present at the feast his own portion in his dish 
set upon the hearth : Non maledicere, pedem in focum non imponertt 

307. Vacuna was an ancient Sabine goddess, whose worship also, like that of 
Vesta, centered around the hearth. Ovid does not mean to suggest 
any other connection between these two. 

309. de more vetusto : i,e, the ancient custom of associating the gods with the 
family meal, and of worshiping them at the hearthside. 

31 1-3 1 8. Closely connected with Vesta and the hearth as the center of 
family life is bread, which is baked upon the hearth. Hence all imple- 
ments and agents connected with the making of bread, from the 
millstone to the oven, and from the ass who turns the mill to the baker 
himself, are sacred to and under the special patronage of the goddess 
of ovens, Fornax, to whom Numa himself is said to have instituted a 


Page 64. — I, 1-2. "My mind is bent to tell of bodies into new forms 

changed." The subject of the poem is thus briefly stated; it is to be 

a story of transformations or metamorphoses, 
2. nam vos, etc. : " for you yourselves have wrought these changes." 
4. deducite carmen: the metaphor is taken from the process of spinning 

or weaving. There is to be an unbroken thread of song firom the 

earliest to the latest times. 
5-7. Micyllus points out that it was the common belief of antiquity, Aristotle 

to the contrary notwithstanding, that the universe did not exist alwayib 

p. 65] NOTES 295 

but had a beginning and was created out of chaos by God; that these 
common belief extended also to the flood and other similar events of 
world-wide importance; that ideas of God himself were common prop- 
erty; and that these beliefs were passed on as oral traditions from 
generation to generation. These ideas were first and most fully devel- 
oped by the Jews, from whom they passed to the Egyptians, thence to 
the Greeks, and thence to the other nations. 

Ovid has elsewhere described the ^resolution of chaos into the orderly 
universe. See FasU I, 103-110; and Ars Amat. II, 467-470. 

S» 10. COngestaque, etc. : ** and, heaped in one mass, the warring seeds of 
ill-matched elements." 

I2» 13. The ancients had clear notions of the rotundity of the earth, although 
they were wrong in making it the center of the universe. Ovid else- 
where describes the shape and position of the earth with great minute- 
ness (/w/. VI, 269-280). 

15— ao. All matter which now exists was then existent, but in no permanent or 
separate form. All was one mass of opposing elements. 

Milton {Paradise Lost, II) has well described this state of thfngs : — 

A dark 
Illimitable ocean, without bound, 
Without dimension, where length, breadth, and height. 
And time, and place, are lost ; where eldest Night 
And Chaos, ancestors of Nature, hold 
Eternal anarchy, amidst the noise 
Of endless wars, and by confusion stand. 
For Hot, Cold, Moist, and Dry, four champions fierce, 
Strive here for mastery, and to battle bring 

Their embryon atoms 

Into this wild abyss, 

The womb of Nature, and perhaps her grave. 
Of neither sea, nor shore, nor air, nor fire. 
But all these in their pregnant causes mixed 
Confusedly, and which thus must ever fight, 
Unless the almighty Maker them ordain 
His dark materials to create more worlds, etc. 

aa sine pondere habentia pondus : *' things having weight with weightless 

Page 65. — 21. "God and a better nature composed this strife." So the 
literal. According to the ancient belief, God and nature were closely 
united. Seneca, indeed, says : Nihil aliud est natura quam Deus. The 
passage in question would best be translated, in the light of this belief: 
•* God by the laws of nature (t.e. by his own laws) composed V\i\s^\.t\l^^^ 


23. ** And he separated the ethereal heavens from the dense atmosphere." 
26, 27. The ancients considered all things resolvable into four elements : earth, 
water, air, and fire. Fire is the most attenuated and- lightest of all 
substance, and is akin to immaterial spirit. Its natural home is in the 
far regions of upper space. According to Zeno, the Stoic philosopher, 
it is of this substance the soul is made. And Vergil, following this 
thought (^Aen. VI, 730), says of the soul : — 

Igneus est olliS vigor et caelestis origo 

Here read again the passage (in this volume) to which reference has 
already been made — Fast, I, 103-1 la 

31. ultima, i.e. = extima: "the outermost, farthest regions." 

32. quisqois fuit ille deonim : the idea of some definitely conceived crea- 

tive deity, which was set forth in line 21, now gives way to a much more 
indefinite conception — but it is still some deit^ actively engaged in the 
work of creation. 

" When he, whoever of the gods it was, had thus arranged in order and 
resolved that chaotic mass, and reduced it, thus resolved, to cosmic 
parts," etc. 

These " cosmic parts " are earth, water, atmosphere, and ether, as 
mentioned above. 

36. tumescere : understand /rg/a as subject. 

37. circumdare: the subject is some agent unexpressed; the object is /i/ora, 

and the indirect object, terrae. 

40. ipsa : understand terra, 

41, 42. campoque, etc.: "and, being received to (into) an expanse of more 

extended water, beat now on shores instead of banks." 
campo: H. 428, I (385*4, O); M.213; A. 225,3; G.358; B. 193; L.&M. 

45-51. The vault of heaven is first conceived of as marked off into five bands 

or zones; and other zones, corresponding in position and nature to 

these are, as it were, imprinted upon the earth. 

" And as the celestial sphere is cut by two zones on the right {i.e: north 
frigid and temperate), and by two on the left (south frigid and temperate), 
and there is a fifth zone hotter than these (the torrid zone) ; so," etc. 

Page 66. — 48. cura dei: "the providence of God," or, "God in his provi- 

56. Ventosque illic consistere iussit qui fulmina et frigora faciunt, 

57. his: i.e» the winds. Ihis may be construed with habendum as apparent 

Agcntf or with permisit as indVtecl ob^tcX, 

F. 67] NOTES 297 

58-60. Tix nanc, etc : " even as it is (nunc), although they control each one 
bis own blasts in separate •regions, they can with difficulty be kept from 
tearing the universe to pieces.'' 

58. illis: 11.429(386); M.202; A. 228; G.347; B. 187, III; L.&M.532. 

6q. lanient: H. 595, 2 (504, 4); M. 341, 3; A. 332,^; G. 555, i; 
B. 29s, 3; L. & M. 913. 
fratnim: the winds are the brothers, sons of Astraeus, a Titan, and 
Aurora, goddess of the dawn. 

61-66. The four principal winds are here described : the East Wind (£urus), 
the West Wind {Zephyrus), the North Wind {Boreas), and the South 
Wind (^Auster, also called Notus), Vergil has represented these winds 
as confined in a cave under the control of Aeolus {Aen, 1, 52). 

66. plUYioque : que is here made to unite two elements not quite coordinate, 

i.e. nubibus adsiduis, a means or cause, and pluvio ab Ausiro, an ex- 
pression halting between agency and source. 

67. gravitate carentem : " weightless." 

70. massa sub ilia : i.e. chaos, in which the stars and all other individual 
entities had been engulfed. 

72. •* And that no place might be without its own forms of animate life." 

73. To the ancient imagination, the stars were closely connected with the 

gods, many of them bearing the names of gods as well as of earthly 
heroes, animals, and objects which had been so honored by divinity as 
to merit a place in the heavens. The planets all bore names of gods. 
Added to this, the great interstellar spaces were conceived of as the 
home of the invisible gods. And the human mind has not yet lost the 
conception of the heavens as the abode of Deity, and as the world of 
disembodied spirits. 
Page 67. — 76-88. Man is the culmination of creative work. Science, poetic 
imagination, and revelation alike proclaim this. Compare with the 
present passage, Milton, Paradise Lost, Book VII : — 

Now Heaven in all her glory shone, and rolled 

Her motions, as the great first Mover's hand 

First wheeled their course ; earth in her rich attire 

Consummate lovely smiled ; air, water, earth. 

By fowl, fish, beast, was flown, was swum, was walked 

Frequent ; and of the sixth day yet remained : 

There wanted yet the master-work, the end 

Of all yet done ; a creature who, not prone 

And brute as other creatures, but endued 

With sanctity of reason, might erect 

His stature, and upright with front serene 

Govern the rest, self knowing. 



78-83. What made man so superior to all other creatures? The poet advaocet 
two theories : either (i) the Creator himself fashioned him out of divine 
substance, or else (2) the clay of earth from which the man was formed 
was so freshly come from its association with heavenly ether in chaot 
^ as to retain some ethereal elements. Lowell's description of Lincohi 
{Commemoration Ode^ VI) has a thought somewhat akin to the last 
suggestion : — 

For him her Old- World moulds aside she [Nature] threw, 

And, choosing sweet clay from the breast 

Of the unexhausted West, 

With stuff untainted shaped a hero new. 

82. satus lapeto: ue, Prometheus. This is one of the most admirable 

heroes of mythology. He is not only the creator of mankind, but ben- 
efactor and instructor as well in all the arts of civilization — and this at 
the cost of endless suffering on his own part in man's behalf. His 
creative act is briefly mentioned here by Ovid. He is elsewhere repre- 
sented (^^. Horace, Odes^ I, xvi, 13) as creating man in a somewhat 
different manner. His theft of fire for man, its method, and the 
method of his punishment for this are related by Aeschylus {Protnf 

theus Bound) : — 

For I, poor I, though giving 
Great gifts to mortal men, am prisoner made 
In these fast fetters; yea, in fennel stalk 
I snatched the hidden spring of stolen fire, 
Which is to men a teacher of all arts, 
Their chief resource. And now this penalty 
Of that offense I pay, fast riveted 
In chains beneath the open firmament 

83. " Molded into the image of the all-controlling gods." According to this 

statement, man was made in the image of the gods. But the gods of 
classical mythology had long since been made in the image of man. 
All the poets from Homer and Hesiod down had emphasized the 
anthropomorphic conception of deity. Cicero ( Tusc. Disp^ I, § 65) 
turns from this idea in disgust : Fingebat haec Homerus, et humana 
ad deos transferebat; divina mallem ad nos. 

Unless we retain this same anthropomorphic conception of God, the 
" likeness " of Genesis I, 26 must be interpreted as a spiritual likeness. 
Milton's story of the creation of man (in the connection above quoted) 
enlarges upon this text : — 

" Let us make now man in our image, man 
In our similitude." . . . 
This said, he formed \hcc» Kdam\ ^«ft«0 taasu 

Q NOTES 299 

Dust of the ground, and in thy nostrils breathed 
The breath of life ; in his own image he 
Created thee, in the image of God 
Express, and thou becam'st a living soul. 

anrea prima sata est aetas : the conception of man's original perfect state 
and his degeneracy because of sin, and the hope of his final restoration 
to his primal happiness, are ideas common to many ancient nations. 
It is the teaching of the Hebrew Scriptures, and no less the doctrine 
of the classic poets. Ovid here discusses the Brst two conceptions 
only. Vergil predicts (^Eclogues, IV) the imminent return of the bless- 
ings of the reign of Saturn in language that is strikingly similar to the 
millennial prophecies of the prophet Isaiah. 

Opposed to these conceptions of original perfection followed by 
degeneration should be noted the evolutionary theories put by Aes- 
chylus in the mouth of Prometheus, _and set forth also by Lucretius 
(J)e Rerum Naiura), 

E 68. — 92. fixo aere refers to the Roman practice of engraving the laws 
on tablets of bronze, and hanging these in public places to be noted by 
the people. In the Golden Age there were no laws. 

^. "Not yet had the pine tree, felled on its native mountains, descended 
thence unto the watery plains to visit other lands.'* The fixed abode 
of men in one land as a characteristic of this age is thus described by 
Seneca {Medea, 328-333) : — 

The guiltless golden age our fathers saw, 
When youth and years the same horizon bounded ; 
No greed of gain their simple hearts confounded ; 

Their native wealth enough, — 'twas all they knew. 

Horace locates the impiety of man's invasion of the sea in the fact 
that this was plainly intended by Providence to be a means of separa- 
tion between the nations, but man has made it a highway ( Odes, I, iii, 


norant : a syncopated form for noverant. 
directi : supply aeris. 
), "Secure from war's alarms, the nations passed the years in peaceful 
mollia Otia is syntactically the direct object oi peragebant 
Otia is plural, perhaps because of the plural idea in gentes ; but Ovid 
frequently uses the plural with no apparent distinctive plural meaning. 
:. immunis: "without compulsion," i.e. "of her own motion " = j«a 

>. loris arbore : the oak among trees as the eagle among birds was sacred 


to Jove. In the same way the olive was the sacred tree of Minerva, 
the laurel of Apollo, etc. 
I ID. nee renovatus ager : ** and the fields, though unrenewedr-' 

111. The Biblical description of Canaan is strikingly recalled here, — **t 

land flowing with milk and honey." 

112. mella: on the plural, see note on otia^ line lOO. The distilling of 

honey from the trees is a feature of Vergil's prophecy : — 

EU durae quercus sudabunt roscida mella. 

The fourth Eclogue should be read entire in this connection. 

113. 1 14. *' After Saturn had been banished to gloomy Tartara and the world 

came under the sway of Jove." According to the Greek myth, Zeus 
had risen up against his father Cronos (Saturn), and, with the help of 
Prometheus, Oceanus, and others, had dethroned and chained him in 

117. inaequales: ''changeable." 

Page 69. — 1 21-124. Ovid places in the first stage of human degeneration 
those arts of civilization, the lack of which, according to the evoln- 
tionary theory of Lucretius, characterized the early savage life of primi- 
tive man. 

123. semina: but in the Golden Age, plants had sprung up sine semine. 
See line 108. 

127. non scelerata: war was now introduced, but not impious civil strife, 
the worst phase of war. 

132-134. See notes on lines 94-96. 

'35» '36. "And the ground, which had hitherto been a common possession 
like the sunlight and the air, the careful surveyor now marked out 
with long-drawn boundary line." 

137. segetes : H. 41 1, i (374, i) ; M. 192, 2 ; A. 239, c, note 2; G. 339, a\ 
B. 178, I, a; L. & M. 522, 523. 

138-140. In Milton's story {Paradise Lost, Book I), it was Mammon who 
taught men to dig for treasure : — 

By him first 
Men also, and by his suggestion taught, 
Ransacked the center, and with impious hands 
Rifled the bowels of their mother earth 
For treasures better hid. 

So also Horace {OdeSy III, iii, 49) would leave gold unmined: — 

Aurum inrepertum et sic 
Cum terra celat. 

142. utroqne: i.e. gold and iron both. 

Aurum inrepertum et sic melius situm, 
Cum terra celat. 

p. 703 NOTES 301 

144. ▼ivitur ez rapto : " men live on plunder." 

hospes is literally a stranger, and is used to express the relation of 
both host and guest. Among the ancients the relation of hospitality 
{hospitium) was one of the most sacred. In the Iron Age human de- 
generacy is complete, when men sin against this and the closest domes- 
tic ties. 

147. lurida is to be taken as an active adjective, representing its noun 

(^aconiid) not as possessing the quality indicated by the adjective 
("pale," "ghastly "), but as imparting that quality to something else 
(" making pale or ghastly "). Compare FasUf II, 25, note. 

148. ante diem : " before his time," because the son is overanxious to come 

into the inheritance. 

149. 150. et yirgo, etc. : " and the maiden Astraea, last of the immortals, 

abandoned the blood-steeped earth (to its fate)." Astraea was the 
goddess of Justice. She long had mingled with the human race on 
earth, but degeneration was now complete, and she fled to the skies 
where she became the constellation Virgo in the Zodiac. 

Spenser, with his usual fullness in classical allusion, thus describes the 
flight of Astraea (^Faerie Queene, V, i, 11) : — 

Now when the world with sinne gan to abound, 
Astraea loathing lenger here to space [walk] 
Mongst wicked men, in whom no truth she found, 
Retum'd to heaven, whence she deriv'd her race ; 
Where she hath now an everlasting place 
Mongst those twelve signes which nightly we doe see 
The heavens bright-shining baudricke to enchace ; 
And is the Virgin, sixt in her degree. 
And next herselfe her righteous ballance hanging bee. 

It seems straiige that Ovid should have passed over in this connec- 
tion the legend of Pandora and her fatal box, whence escaped all 
human ills, leaving Hope alone behind. 

Page 70. — 154, 155. "Then the almighty father hurled his thunderbolt, 
shattered Olympus, and shook off Pelion from underlying Ossa." This 
famous attempt of the Giants to scale heaven by piling mountain upon 
mountain, and thus to dethrone Jove, is a commonplace in literature. 
Horace (^Odes, III, iv, 53) uses the incident to point the moral that 
brute force cannot avail against wisdom. 

155. Ossae : H. 428, 2 (385, 4, 2)); M. compare 21 1 ; A, 229; G. 345, Rem. I ; 
B. 188, 2, d', L. & M. 534. 

157. natorum: these giants were the sons of Heaven and Earth. 

160. et: "also," ie, in additions to the giants, from whose blood they had 


162. scires: H. 555 (485); M. 327, note; A. 311, a; G. 258; B. 280, 3; 
L. & M. 720. 

164-166. "And, with the infamous revels of Lycaon's table fresh in mind, 
which because of their recent occurrence were not generally known, lie 
conceived a mighty wrath worthy of the soul of Jove," etc. 

169. Lactea: understand wVz, " the Milky Way." 

171, 172. deorum nobilium: a fragment from the Annales of Ennios con- 
tains a list of the twelve gods who were reckoned in the first rank : — 

luno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, 
Mercurius, lovis, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo. 

In this description of the heavenly aristocracy Ovid has definitely in : 
mind (see lines 175, 176) the social state of his own time, with the \ 
spacious palaces of the emperor and his nobles occupying the hills and j 
thronged {celebrantur) with courtiers of lower degree. | 

173. plebs, etc. : "the gods of lower rank dwell (literally, apart in situation) * 
in a different locality"; just as the common people of Rome lived is 
the less desirable quarters of the city, 
hac fronte : " fronting on this way (1.^. the Milky Way)." 

176. Palatia (n. pi.) is the word used distinctively of the palace of Angostos 
on the Palatine. The emperors successively built their palaces on the 
same hill, tearing down, remodeling, adding to the structures of their 
predecessors, until the whole area was covered with buildings, extensive 
ruins of which are still to be seen. 

Page 71. — 183, 184. qua centum, etc. : " when {qua tempestate) each oa^ 
of the serpent-footed (giants) was in act to lay violent hands upOD tli^ 
captive sky." Capiivo is used proleptically, since it could not propcrV^ 
apply unless the undertaking should succeed. 

186. ab uno corpora : in the war with the giants, they only were the aggrt--^ 

sors; but in the present situation all men of every class are in a stm-"** 
.of open and violent rebellion. 

187. qua would naturally be qua cumquey but the generalization is effect- -^^ 

by means of totum orbem. 

188. per flumina iuro, etc. : these rivers of the lower world are named a-r^<J 

described by Milton as follows {Paradise Lost, II) : — 

Abhorred Styx, the flood of deadly hate; 
Sad Acheron, of sorrow, black and deep, 
Cocytus, named of lamentation loud 
Heard on the rueful stream ; fierce Phlegethon, 
Whose waves of torment fire inflame with rage. 

An oath by these rivers, usually the Styx alone, was inviolable. 
Vergil {Aen. VI, 323) : — 

q NOTES 303 

Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem, 
Di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen. 

195. «* Since we do not yet esteem them worthy of the honor of a place 

in heaven, let us at least guarantee that they dwell (in safety) in the 

lands allotted to them." 
an satis, etc. : an indignant rhetorical question, witb evident negative 

Lycaon: a mythical king of Arcadia, notorious for his impiety and 

cruelty, which are illustrated in the following story. 
, avsum talia is very much condensed. It is equivalent to eum qui 

talia ausus est. 
. Caesareo : Le, of Julius Caesar. The adjective is used for the possessive 

;. tanto sabitae terrore ruinae : note the interlocked order of the words — 

a favorite arrangement with Ovid. 
\, The poet here a second time (see lines 175, 176) introduces a flattering 

comparison between Augustus and Jove. 
S» 206. qui postquam, etc. : ** after he, by word and gesture, had checked 

their outcry." 
^s 72. — 209. ille : ue, Lycaon. 

0. admissom : understand sit, ** Still, what the crime was, and what the 

punishment, PU tell." 

1, qnam cupiens falsam, etc. : ** hoping to prove this false," etc. Jove is 

represented here not as the all-seeing, all-knowing one, who sits upon 
the height of heaven and views the world, but as one who must come 
down to earth and investigate like a mortal. VergiPs picture is more 
consistent with the dignity of the god {Aen. I, 223-225) : — 

luppiter aethere summo 
Despiciens mare velivolum terrasque iacentes 
Litoraque et latos populos. 

But it should be said that Ovid's habitual attitude toward the gods is 
One of easy familiarity. They are rarely august in his pages, partly 
because of their anthropomorphic character in the stories which he 
Undertakes to tell; but largely, no doubt, because from Ovid, as from 
his contemporaries, reverence for the gods of mythology was passing 

^'7. Maenala ( n.), Cyllene, Lycaeus: mountains in Arcadia, 
ruled over by Lycaon, the Areas tyrannus. 

^aherent cum, etc. : i.e. just as dusk was deepening into night. 

^igna dedi, venisse deum : " I gave the sign, a god has come." What 
Vras this sign of divine presence ? In the story of Philemon and Baucis 


{^Met, VIII, 679 seq,) it is the miracle of the replenished wine-bowL 
Other signs of godhead may be inferred from the following passages ia 
Vergil; first, where Venus reveals herself to Aeneas just before vanisli* 
ing from his sight (^Aen, I, 402 seq.) : — 

Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refiilsit, 
Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere, pedes vestis defluxit ad imos, 
Et vera incessu patuit dea. 

In the second passage {^Aen. V, 646 seq^y Iris, to deceive the Trojaa 
women, has put on the form of Beroe, <* faciem deae vestemque repo- 
nens." But for all that, her disguise is penetrated by one of the 
women : — 

Non Beroe vobis est 

divini signa decoris 

Ardentesque notate oculos ; qui spiritus illi. 

Qui vultus, vocisque sonus, et gressus eunti. 

222. ezperiar, etc. : " I'll prove by a plain test whether this fellow be god or 

224-230. The proposed test was twofold. The events are stated in reversed 
chronological order. The experiment of the offer of human flesh at 
dinner under the guise of meat would naturally come first. The second 
experiment (which never came to the test) was to have been an attack 
upon the life of the sleeping god. 

227. iugulum resolvit : " he cut the throat." 

228. semineces: ue, "still warm with life." This passage explains the 

foeda convivia of line 165. 

229. moUit = coquit. 

230. simnl — sim ul ac. 

231. " Upon its master did I overthrow the house, and. on his guilty house- 

hold." Penates seems best taken by metonymy for the household who 
were "worthy" of the head of the house, sharers of hb guilt; it may 
also be taken literally of the household gods who shared Lycaon*s 
guilt in not restraining him from his impiety. 

232. ipse : i.e, Lycaon, as opposed to his household. 
234. conligit OS rabiem : naturally, like a wild beast. 

236. " His garments change to shaggy hair, his arms to legs." 

237. fit lupus : Browning {The Ring and the Book^ XI, 2050) thus rationalizes 

this passage, joining it with the story of Byblis {Met, IX, 452 seq^ : — 

Only, be sure, no punishment, no pain, 

Childish, preposterous, impossible. 

But some such fate as Ovid could foresee— 

/p. 733 NOTES 30s 

By bits injluvium, let the weak soul end 
In water, sed Lycaon in lupum, but 
The strong become a wolf forever more. 

S40. perire : a poetic construction. H. 591, 7; 608, 4 (503, II, 2) ; M. 383, i ; 

A. 320,/ and note; G. 631, i; 552, Rem. 2; B. 382, 3; L. & M. 952. 
Pagb 73. — 242. "You would think that men had banded together for 

crime"; f.^. that the whole world was in a criminal alliance. 
dent: the subjunctive represents the resolve of the speaker: "they 
shaU pay." 
245. alii partes implent : the language is that of the stage, " they play (or 
perform) their parts." Compare Terence, Phonnio^ Prologue 27 : — 

Latini Phormionem nominant, 
Quia primas partes qui aget, is erit Phormio. 

247. mortalibus: H. 465 (414, III); M. 237, 2; A. 243, d-, G. 390, 3; 

B. 214, I, d\ L. & M. 604. 

250. ''As they questioned thus, the king of gods bade them not to be 
troubled, for the results would be his care." 

352. popnlO: H.434(39i); M.214; A. 234; G. 359; B. 192,1; L.&M.536. 

353. "And now he was just on the point of hurling." Jove's natural weapon 

of destruction was the thunderbolt, the vindex Jlammay but he sud- 
denly remembers the decree of fate, which he knows but cannot alter, 
that the heavens and the earth shall some day be destroyed by fire; 
and he has no mind to precipitate this destruction which would involve 
the gods as well as men. 
255-258. The destruction of all things by fire, or rather a return of all things 
to the elemental fire from which they had been evolved, was a Stoic 
doctrine. Lactantius (^De Ira, § 13) declares that this fate is foretold 
in the Sibylline Books. 

258. ardeat: H. 591, 2 (500, 1); M. 382, 4; A. 320; G. 631, 2; B. 283, i; 

L. & M. 838. 
mondi, etc.: ''and..when the curiously wrought structure of the world 
shpuld be destroyed." 
257, 258. quo tellus ardeat, etc.: Seneca (^Epigramtttata, VII, 5) refers to 
this belief in the method of the world's destruction : — 

Quid tam parva loquor? moles pulcherrima caeli 
Ardebit flammis tota repente suis. 

259. tela manibus fabricata Cyclopuxn: i.e. the thunderbolts. Ilesiod 

(^Theogony, 139) first represented the Cyclops as smiths who forged 
Jove's thunderbolts. Horace takes up the same idea ( Odes, I, I V, 7) : — 

Dum graves Cyclopum 
Volcanus ardens visit officinas. 
OVID — 20 

p. 77] NOTES 309 

their personal safety not yet secure (351-362) ; the next is, " How can 

the race of mortals be restored?'' 
351. soror, coniunx: see note on line 318. 
352* 353. The pair are united by triple bonds — the ties of blood, of marriage, 

and of common perils. 

355. no8 duo turba sumiis : this is a unique instance of a « crowd ** of two. 

According to other accounts, these were not the only survivors of the 

356. •* Even this hold (which we have) upon our life is not as yet sufficiently 


358, 359. quia tibi nunc animus foret ? " what would be your feelings 


359. miseranda : in a purely adjectival sense, " poor soul." 

360. quo consolante dolores? "with whom consoling wouldst thou grieve?" 

i,e. " who would console thy grief? " 

361, 362. See note, lines 325, 326. 

Page 77. — 363. patemis artibus : i.g. the creative arts which Prometheus 

employed. See line 82, note. 
364. animas f ormatae infundere terrae : '* to breathe the breath of life into 

the moulded clay." 
369. The Cephisus has its source at the foot of Parnassus. 
370- nt,8ic: "though, still." 
37 *• libatos inrorayere liquores: the purification by running water before 

engaging in any sacred act was a well-established custom. In Homer 

(//. IX, 207) this act is coupled with the sacred silence that is also 

enjoined : — 

And now be water brought to cleanse our hands, 
And charge be given that no ill-omened word 
Be uttered, while we pray that Jupiter, 
The son of Saturn, will assist our need. 

And Aeneas (^Aen, II, 718) cannot himself handle the images of the 
gods: — 

Me, bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti, 
Attrectare ne£is, donee me flumine vivo 

"^^^^ y^0tihua et capiti: H. 429 (386); M. 202; A. 228; G. 347; B. 187, 
>f: nX; r'-&M.532. 

huini' '^' ^^' ^ ^^^^* ^)' ^* ^^^* ^' ^' ^58, d\ G. 411, Rem. 2; 

^ ^j^, Z', L.&M. 622. 
• ^"^^ // fxs> ^ Themis, how {qua arte) the loss of our (J,e, the human) 
^^ce t^^y be repaired." 


360, 261. The world is to be destroyed by flood. This flood tradition ist 
part of the stock of old-world story, traceable alike in the Hebrew 
scriptures and in the literature and folk-lore of many nations. See 
Genesis VI, 7 : And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have 
created from the face of the ground; both man, and beast, and creeping 
thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them; 
and Genesis VH, 4: For yet seven days, and I will cause it to raia 
upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living thing that 
I have made will I destroy from off the face of the ground. 

261. perdere, demittere is an example of hysteron proteron^ the reverse of 
the natural order of events. 

265. " His forbidding face shrouded in pitchy darkness." 

269. hmc=</«Vw/^: "next," "after that." 

Page 74. — 270. nuntia lunonis Iris: this description of Iris, the mes- 
senger of Juno, " varies induta colores," is paralleled by Vergil*s lines 
(^^«. IV, 700): — 

Eigo Iris croceis per caelum roscida pennis, 
Mille trahens varios adverso sole colores, 

The bright many-hued trail left by Iris was the rainbow, which Spenser 
{Faerie Queene^ V, iii, 25) thus describes : — «^ 

As when the daughter of Thaumantes fsdre 
Hath in a watry cloud displayed wide 
Her goodly bow, which paints the liquid a3n%. 
That all men wonder at her colours pride. 

271. concipit aquas, etc. : " Iris draws up water and feeds it to the clouds.** 
Compare the familiar phenomenon of " the sun drawing water." 

274. caelo sue : rain, cloud-bursts, and the like are not enough ; there must 

be swollen rivers, broken dikes, tidal waves. 

275. caemleus f rater : 1.^. Neptune. 

277, 278. non est hortamine, etc. : " now is no time to employ a long har- 
angue," such as a general would make to his army just before ordering* 
them into battle. 

280. The figure now changes to that of the horse-race. Immittere hahenas is 
" to give loose rein," " shake out the reins " over the necks of the 

281 and following. Compare with this dramatic account of the coming of 
the flood the exceedingly simple language of Genesis, VII, 17-24. 

281-282. ora relaxant, defrenato cursu: again the figure of the horse with 
the " bits removed from the mouth " and the consequent " unbridled 
course." The poet has, however, in line 282 mixed his iiorses and his 

p. 75] NOTES 307 

streams, since defrenato is applicable only to the former, and vohmn- 
iur only to the latter. 

jS4. Subterranean streams are opened up. 

9B5. ezspatiata is the word used of Phaethon*s runaway horses {Met, II, 
202). In any other writer than Ovid the rapid motion of this line 
might be considered as intentionally agreeing with the motion of the 
swift waters. But see introductory note on Ovid's Hexameters, under 
the head <*The position and preponderance of dactyls and spondees." 

293-306. Ovid delights in the sharp contrasts afforded by these changed rela- 
tions, and makes the most of his opportunity. 

302. Shelley {Prometheus Unbound^ III, ii) thus beautifully pictures the 
Nereids in their under-sea home: — * 

Behold the Nereids under the green sea, 
Their wavering limbs borne on the wind-like stream, 
Their white arms lifted o'er their streaming hair 
With garlands pied and starry sea-flower crowns. 

Page 75. -^ 303. agitata is used by prolepsis, since the oaks would not be 
** shaken " until the act mpulsant is performed. 

304. The abandonment of natural hostility by the lower animals in times of 

common danger, e.g, by flood or forest fire, is well known. 

305, 306. nec vires, etc. : " neither does the power of his lightning stroke 

avail the boar, nor his swift limbs the stag, (since both alike are) 
swept away (by the flood)." Ovid expresses more plainly the applica- 
tion ol fulmen to "the destructive power" of the boar's tusks in 
another place {Met, X, 550) : — 

Fulmen habent acres in aduncis dentibus apri. 

ablato belongs rhetorically with both apro and cervo. For the case of 
these, see 11.429(386); M.202; A. 228; G.346; B. 187, III; L.&M.532. 
• 307* 308. '* And after long search upon the earth for a place to light, the 
wandering bird with wearied wings fell down into the sea." 
detur: H. 590(497,1); M. 382,3; A. 317.2; G.630; B. 282,2; L.&M.835. 
318. The sole surviving mortals were Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, who 
was also his cousin, loosely called his sister (line 351). Their gene- 
alogy is as follows : — 


lapetus (the Titan) 

I 1 

Ptometheus Epimetheus 

Deucalion Pyrrha 


320. Corycidas nymphas, etc. : their first act is one of worship of the 

nymphs and other deities, dwelling in the mountain cave on Parnassus. 
Parnassus from most ancient times was associated with the presence of 
the Muses and Apollo, whose were the Delphic oracle and the Casta- 
Han spring. At this time, however, it was Themis, the goddess of 
justice and of prophecy, who presided over the oracle. 

321. The suppliant attitude of Adam and Eve after the fall reminds Milton of 

these two before the shrine of Themis {Paradise Lost^ XI) : — 

Nor important less 
Seemed their petition, than when the ancient pair 
In fables old, less ancient yet than these, 
Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore 
The race of mankind drowned, before the shrine 
Of Themis stood devout. 

322. aequi: H. 451, 3 (399,11); M.226,2; A. 218,^; G.375; B.204,i,«; 

L. & M. 574. 

325. " And that (only) one man was left from (those who were) but now so 
many thousands." 

325, 326. For the repetition involved in these lines as a characteristic of 
Ovid's style, see note on Ovid's Hexameters, under the heading " Allit- 
eration, assonance, and kindred effects." 

328. aquilone: this wind had been previously shut up (line 262), as being 
one of those which put storm clouds to flight. It is now brought into 
requisition for this very purpose. 

332, 333. Triton was the son of Neptune, whose especial function it was to 
communicate the orders of that god upon his resounding horn or shell 
He is graphically represented here as " standing forth upon the depths, 
. dark blue, his shoulders covered with a thick growth of shell-fish." 

Page 76. — 335. illi: H. 431, 6 (388, 4); M. 207; A. 232, 3 ; G.355,note; 
B. 189,3; L.&M. 545. 

ZVli Z2>^' ^u^e medio, etc. : "which, when in mid sea it has received (the 
Triton's) breath, fills with its notes the shores that lie beneath the 
rising and the setting sun." 

339. ora madida rorantia barba : note the interlocked order of words. 

341. omnibus undis: H. 431, 2 (388, i); M. 207, 2; A. 232, a\ G. 354; 
B. 189, 2; L. & M. 545. 

3t4. plenos capit alyeus amnes: the rivers are still swollen, but arc con- 
tained within their banks. 

345. crescimt loca, etc. : " the lands increase as the waves subside." 

346. diem : " time." 

348-350. The picture is striking and impressive — two living creatures in i 
world of silence and of death. The first thought of the man is ** 

p. rf] NOTES 309 

their personal safety not yet secure (351-362) ; the next is, " How can 

the race of mortals be restored? " 
351. soror, coniunx: see note on line 318. 
352, 353. The pair are united by triple bonds — the ties of blood, of marriage, 

and of common perils. 

355. nos duo turba sumus : this is a unique instance of a « crowd " of two. 

According to other accounts, these were not the only survivors of the 

356. ** Even this hold (which we have) upon our life is not as yet sufficiently 


358. 359. quis tibi nunc animus foret ? " what would be your feelings 

now ? " 

359. miseranda : in a purely adjectival sense, " poor soul." 

360. quo consolante dolores? "with whom consoling wouldst thou grieve?" 

ue, " who would console thy grief? " 
361, 362. See note, lines 325, 326. 
Page 77. — 363. patemis artibus: i,e, the creative arts which Prometheus 

employed. See line 82, note. 
364. animas formatae infundere terrae : " to breathe the breath of life into 

the moulded clay.'* 

369. The Cephisus has its source at the foot of Parnassus. 

370. ut, sic : " though, still." 

371. libatos inrorayere liquores: the purification by running water before 

engaging in any sacred act was a well-established custom. In Homer 
(//. IX, 207) this act is coupled with the sacred silence that is also 
enjoined : — 

And now be water brought to cleanse our hands, 
And charge be given that no ill-omened word 
Be uttered, while we pray that Jupiter, 
The son of Saturn, will assist our need. 

And Aeneas (^Aen, II, 718) cannot himself handle the images of the 
gods: — 

Me, bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti, 
Attrectare ne£is, donee me flumine vivo 

372. yestibus et capiti: H. 429 (386); M. 202; A. 228; G. 347; B. 187, 

III; L. & M. 532. 
376. humi: H. 484, 2 (426, 2); M. 242, 2; A. 258, d\ G. 411, Rem. 2; 

B. 232, 2; L. & M. 622. 
379, **Tell us, O Themis, how {qua arte) the loss of our {i,e, the human) 

race may be repaired." 

The ungirt robes, bare feet, and flowing hair are all 
in religious symbolism. Cf. Ovid's description of Medea (i 
183), and Vergil (Af/t. IV, 518), who represents Dido at 

Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste rednda. 

384. obstipuere : to appreciate fully the horror that the wordi 
if literally interpreted, would occasion, it must be 
worship of ancestors was prevalent among the 
disturb the dead violated not only a natural sentimentf bnt d 
deep-seated principle of religious veneration. j 

386, 387. *' And in timid tones she prays (the goddev) to gnu4 
gence, and trembles at the thought of outraging her motlM 
treating her bones (as the goddess directs)/' 

390. For the force of the patronymics, see note on line 318. 

392. pia: i.e. counseling no failure in duty toward parents. ' 
idea of piety was very broad, signifying action according ti 
cially to the gods and religion in general, to parentii cliildi 

Page 78. — 393. lapides, etc. : " I believe that the bonei wUch 
speaks of are the stones in the body of mother earth." Thi 
of the earth as the mother of all creatures b one of tfae.M 
ideas of the race. 

395. Titania : i.f, Pyrrha, so called because descended from iMptb 

397. monitis: H. 426, i (385, II); M. 205; A. 227; G.346; I 
L. & M. 530. 

399. iussos lapides, etc. : iussos belongs rhetorically with the Hfc 
titnf, ''They cast the stones behind them as they walk* 
goddess bade them." 


382. The veiled head and the ungirt robe were connected with the symbolinn 
of Roman ritualistic worship. The purpose of the former is ezpresdj 
stated by Vergil (^Aen. Ill, 408) in the advice of Helenus to Aeneas:- 

Ne qua inter sanctos ignes in honore deorum 
Hostilis iacies occurrat et omnia turbet 

The ungirt robes, bare feet, and flowing hair are all seemingly related 
in religious symbolism. Cf. Ovid's description of Medea (Mei. VII, 18^ 
183), and Vergil (^Aen. IV, 518), who represents Dido at the altar, - 

Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recincta. 

384. obstipuere : to appreciate fully the horror that the words of the oracle, 
if literally interpreted, would occasion, it must be remembered that the 
worship of ancestors was prevalent among the ancients, and that to 
disturb the dead violated not only a natural sentiment, but also the most 
deep-seated principle of religious veneration. 

386, 387. " And in timid tones she prays (the goddess) to grant her indul- 
gence, and trembles at the thought of outraging her mother's ghost by 
treating her bones (as the goddess directs)." 

390. For the force of the patronymics, see note on line 318. 

392. pia: i.g, counseling no failure in duty toward parents. The ancient 
idea of piety was very broad, signifying action according to duty, espe* 
cially to the gods and religion in general, to parents, children, country. 

Page 78. — 393. lapides, etc. : " I believe that the bones which the goddess 
speaks of are the stones in the body of mother earth." The conception 
of the earth as the mother of all creatures is one of the ancient stock 
ideas of the race. 

395. Titania : 1 .^. Pyrrha, so called because descended from lapetus the Titan. 

397. monitis: H. 426, i (385, II); M. 205; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, H ''J 
L. & M. 530. 

399. iussos lapides, etc. : iussos belongs rhetorically with the subject of "i^* 

/««/. " They cast the stones behind them as they walk, just as the 
goddess bade them." I 

400. nisi sit, etc. : the naivete of this reasoning is similar to that of the 

rustic who proved (Afef, VIII, 620) that Philemon and Baucis had been 
changed into trees by the statement that he had seen the trees, 
credat: H. 557 (486, II); M. 327; A. 307, 2, d; C 259; B. 380,2,*; 
L. & M. 723. 

401. ponere = deponere. 
suum : " their natural." 

402. ducere formam : " to take on a defmite shape." 

404-406. '* A certain likeness to the human form indeed («/) can be seen, 
%tSl (jic) not very cleat, but (^mcVi ql {otta') as (statues) just begun out 

p. 79] NOTES 311 

of marble have, not sharply defined, and just like roughly blocked out 
407. "That part of them, however, which was damp with some slight 

413. Keats {Lamia) recalls this fancied origin of woman: — 

There is not such a treat among them all. 
Haunters of cavern, lake, and water£sUl, 
As a real woman, lineal indeed 
From Pyrrha's pebbles or old Adam's seed. 

4i4« laborum: H. 451, 3 (399, II); M. 226, 2, A. 218, b-, G. 375; B. 204, 
I, a-, L. & M. 574. 

414, 415. Compare Spenser (^Faerie Queene, V, Introd. 2), who complains of 

the reverse process, of men changed into stone : — 

For from the golden age, that first was named, 
It's now at earst [length] become a stonie one ; 
And men themselves, the which at first were framed 
Of earthly mould, and form'd of flesh and bone, 
Are now transformed into hardest stone; 
Such as behind their backs (so backward bred) 
Were throwne by Pyrrha and Deucalione. 

4*6-437. Ovid's theory of the origin of the lower forms of life is that of spon- 
taneous generation from the slime of the recently inundated earth, 
under the genial influence of the heat of the sun. Lucretius, who gives 
the history of the origin of life and progress of civilization (^De 
Herum Natura, V, 771-1457), also represents the earth as the mother, 
in a very real sense, from whom sprung directly all forms of life. 
Herbs and trees were first produced, then birds and animals, and 
finally human infants crept forth from cavities in the earth's surface. 
Tliis theory is opposed alike to that of evolution and to that of the 
olivine origin of life. 
"^^^tiis umor : ue. that which remained from the flood. 
"■^^^^. — 422. The phenomena of the annual overflow of the Nile, and 
^fa ^ consequent fecundation of the adjacent land, are well known from 
^tri^TMie immemorial. Gray {Education and Government) alludes to these 
pi^-Xmenomena : — 

What wonder, in the sultry climes, that spread 
Where Nile redundant o'er his summer-bed 
From his broad bosom life and verdure flings, 
And broods o'er Egypt with his wat'ry wings. 

L^nrio sidere : f.^. the sun. 


426-429. inyeniunt, etc. : these would be " finds " indeed for the biologist, 
if true, in which he could see life in its very inception, inanimate mat- 
ter in the very act of passing into animate existence. 
et in his, etc. : " and among these they see certain forms of life just 
begun, on the very brink of birth ; some not yet completed, and lack- 
ing in some of their parts; and often, in the same body, one part is 
alive while the other is unformed clay." 

430, 431. According to this view, heat and moisture are the complementary 
powers of fecundation, the parents, as it were, of all life. This creative 
power comes from a union. of opposites, expressed very tersely in the 
phrase, vapor umidus (line 432). 

432. aquae: H. 452, i (399 II); M. compare 226,2; A. 218, b\ G. 375; 
B. compare 204, I, <z; L. & M. 575. 

434-437. Compare this second account of the origin of life with the first 
(lines 76-88). 

437. nova monstra : in these words the poet prepares the way for the ncn^ 

story, for the Python which Apollo slew was one of these monster"^- 
See Introduction to Metamorphosesy page 63, first paragraph, and nc»*^ 
Ovid's method of transition to each new story. 

438. ilia: i.e. Tcllus. " She indeed would prefer not (to have done so), b^"*!^ 

she did produce thee also," etc. 
Python : the difference between what may be called the realbtic a^^<^ 
rationalistic treatment of classic myth in English literature is well iWcM^^^ 
trated in the following quotations, both referring to the Python : — 

But still greatest he the midst, 
Now dragon grown, larger than whom the sun 
Engendered in the Pythian vale on slime. 
Huge Python. — Milton, Paradise Lost^ X. 

Gray Power was seated 
Safely on her ancestral throne ; 
And Faith, the Python, undefeated 
Even to its blood-stained steps dragged on 
Her foul and wounded train. — Shelley, Rosalind and Helen. 

The name of this serpent is accounted for as follows : after Apoll^ 
had slain the creature he cried out in triumph, " Now rot (jr<f0€v) ther^ 
on the man-feeding earth." Hence also the name of the oracle o* 
Delphi, near which place the serpent was slain; Pythia^ the prieste*^ 
of the oracle ; Pythius the god Apollo, and Pythia (n. pi.) the game^ 
which Apollo founded. 
441. deus arcitenens: "the archer god," i.e. Apollo. This epithet, "god o^ 
the glittering bow," is one of the earlier epithets of this god, a»<' 

p. 82] NOTES 313 

a favorite with Homer. See Goldsmith ( Vida's Game of Chess) : — 
As ye* Apollo in his radiant seat 
Had never driv'n his chariot through the air, 
Known by his bow alone and golden hair. 
44S9 449, " At these games, every youth who had been victorious in boxing, 

running, or the chariot race, received the honor of an oaken garland." 
449, 450. Note again the preparation for the next story : the victor crowned 
with the oaken garland, since the laurel was not yet Apollo's tree. 
This suggests the story of the laurel tree. 
Fagb 80. — 451. de qualibet arbore: *'with a garland made of any tree 

(you please)." 
452. Daphne: supply ^tf/. 
4,581. qui : the antecedent is nos implied in nostras, 

460. ttuniduin : ie, propter venenum, 

461, 462. "Do thou be content with thy torch to light the hidden (nescio 

quos) fires of love, and do not lay claim to our honors." Cupid is gen- 
erally represented with wings and a bow, but sometimes also with a 
torch, representing the burning fires of love. See Tibullus, II, i , 82. 

463. figat: H. 559, 3 (484, III); M. 323; A. 266, c, G. 264; B. 278; 

L.&M. 716. 

464. axcns: supply /^V. 

469. diYersorum operum : " of opposite effects." 

Page SL. — 478. petentes, the object of ayersata, ** rejecting." 

479. ▼iri: H. 451, 2 (399, I, 3); M. 226, i; A. 218, a; G. 374; B. 204, i; 


480. " Nor does she care anything about Hymen, or love, or marriage." 
488. sed te decor, etc.: "but that beauty of thine forbids thy being what 

thou desirest (i.«f. a virgin)." 
•492. demptis aristis : " when the grain has been harvested." 
493. quas forte viator, etc. : " which some traveler has chanced to build too 

near, or has gone off and left (burning) at break of day." 
500. vidisse : " merely to have seen." 
508^ 509. His fears are threefold : lest she fall on the rough path, lest she be 

scratched by the brambles, and lest he, her lover, be cause of harm to her. 
Fagb 82. — 512. cui placeas, etc. : *' but do stop and ask who your lover is." 
515. mihi: H. 426, I (385, I); M. 205; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, <z; 

L. & M. 530. 
517. The past, present, and future are alike open to him. He is said to have 

been taught divination by Pan. 
•ritque : que is redundant. 
CiS. per me concordant, etc.: Apollo's claim is not quite correct here, 

although he is indeed the god of music. It was MetcMt'y vjVo vKstx^Xt^ 


the Ijrre, and then gave it to his brother Apollo. See Horace (^Odis^ 

519. He is the god of the unerring bow, unmatched save by the archer who 
has smitten him. 

521. Apollo is god also of the healing art, an art which he transmitted to his 

son Aesculapius. 

522. mihi: H. 432 (389, note 2); M. 209; A. 235, ei G. 351 ; B. 188, 2. b\ 

L. & M. 541. 

The physician cannot heal himself. So Medea and Circe were unable 
by their own magic to help themselves. See Remedia Amorts, 261-288. 

526. cumque ipso, etc. : ** and she leaves him with his unspoken words be- 

hind, even in her desertion {/um) seeming fair.'' 

527. corpora: "her limbs." 

528. ** And the opposing breezes set her garments a flutter as she hurried on." 

530. sed enim : " but (the chase draws to an end) for," etc. 

531. perdere blanditias: not so much to "waste his words" as to ''waste 

his time in persuasive words." 

532. admisso passu : " at utmost speed." 

533. 6V cum canis Gallicus leporem in vacuo arvo vidiL 

For the simile, compare Homer (^Iliad, X, 360): — 

As two hounds, 
Sharp-toothed, and trained to track their prey, pursue 
Through forest-grounds some fawn or hare that runs 
Before them panting, so did Diomed 
And terrible Ulysses without stop 
Follow the fugitive. 

And see a similar figure in Iliads XXII, 188, where Achilles is purs -^^" 
ing Hector. Vergil no doubt has these in mind in Aeneid, XII, 748. 

534. hie, ille : the hound, the hare. 

535. iam iamque: this is an instance of the dramatic repetition of iar^'-^' 

expressing the extreme imminence of the act See Vergil (Aen, I-^' 

530) • — 

Ilium ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus 

Insequitur, iam iamque manu tenet et premis hasta. 

536. et extento, etc: "and grazes the very heels (vestigia) (of the hare ^ 

with his outstretched muzzle." 
538. eripitur : has the middle force = se eripit, " escapes." 
Page 83. — 542. crinem : the object of adflat^ which takes eitl\er ace. or da^- 
545, 547. vel istam . . . figtiram : " or else destroy by changing the ac^— 

cursed (istam) beauty which is the cause of my persecution." 
istam : this pronoun, properly a second personal demonstrative, is ottcrtk 

*. 75] NOTES 307 

streams,' since defrenato is applicable only to the former, and vokmn* 
tur only to the latter. 

1S4. Subterranean streams are opened up. 

1B5. ezspatiata is the word used of Phaethon's runaway horses {Met, II, 
202). In any other writer than Ovid the rapid motion of this line 
might be considered as intentionally agreeing with the motion of the 
swift waters. But see introductory note on Ovid's Hexameters, under 
the head " The position and preponderance of dactyls and spondees." 

893-306. Ovid delights in the sharp contrasts afforded by these changed rela- 
tions, and makes the most of his opportunity. 

P2, Shelley (^Prometheus Unbound^ III, ii) thus beautifully pictures the 
Nereids in their under-sea home: — * 

Behold the Nereids under the green sea, 
Their wavering limbs borne on the wind-like stream, 
Their white arms lifted o'er their streaming hair 
With garlands pied and starry sea-flower crowns. 

*AGB 75. -^ 303. agitata is used by prolepsis, since the oaks would not be 
" shaken '* until the act in pulsant is performed. 

04. The abandonment of natural hostility by the lower animals in times of 
common danger, e.g, by flood or forest fire, is well known. 

Off 306. nee vires, etc. : " neither does the power of his lightning stroke 
avail the boar, nor his swift limbs the stag, (since both alike are) 
swept away (by the flood)." Ovid expresses more plainly the applica- 
tion oi fulmen to "the destructive power" of the boar's tusks in 
another place (jiiet, X, 550) : — 

Fulmen habent acres in aduncis dentibus apri. 

Ulato belongs rhetorically with both apro and cervo. For the case of 
these, see 11.429(386); M.202; A. 228; G.346; B. 187, III; L.&M.532. 
^ 308. **And after long search upon the earth for a place to light, the 
wandering bird with wearied wings fell down into the sea." 
^etur.-H. 590(497, 1); M. 382,3; A. 317,2; G.630; B. 282,2; L.&M.835. 
^- The sole surviving mortals were Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, who 
was also his cousin, loosely called his sister (line 351). Their gene- 
alogy is as follows:—- 


lapetus (the Titan) 

Prometheus Epimetheuf 

Deucalion Pyrrha 


320. Corycidas nymphas, etc. : their first act is one of worship of the 

nymphs and other deities, dwelling in the mountain cave on Pamassoi. 
Parnassus from most ancient times was associated with the presence of 
the Muses and Apollo, whose were the Delphic oracle and the Casti* 
Han spring. At this time, however, it was Themis, the goddess of 
justice and of prophecy, who presided over the oracle. 

321. The suppliant altitude of Adam and Eve after the fall reminds Milton of 

these two before the shrine of Themis {Paradise Lost, XI) : — 

Nor important less 
Seemed their petition, than when the ancient pair 
In fables old, less ancient yet than these, 
Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore 
The race of mankind drowned, before the shrine 
Of Themis stood devout. 

322. aequi : H. 451, 3 (399, II); M. 226, 2; A. 218, ^; G. 375; B.204,i,«; 

L. & M. 574. 
325. " And that (only) one man was left from (those who were) but now w 

many thousands." 
325, 326. For the repetition involved in these lines as a characteristic of 

Ovid's style, see note on Ovid's Hexameters, under the heading "Allit- 
eration, assonance, and kindred effects.'* 
328. aquilone: this wind had been previously shut up (line 262), as being 

one of those which put storm clouds to flight. It is now brought into 

requisition for this very purpose. 
332, 333. Triton was the son of Neptune, whose especial function it was to 

communicate the orders of that god upon his resounding horn orshell' 

He is graphically represented here as ** standing forth upon the deptnSi 

dark blue, his shoulders covered with a thick growth of shell-fish." 
Page 76. — 335. illi: H. 431, 6 (388, 4); M.207; A. 232, 3; G.355,notc; 

B. 189,3; L.&M. 545. 
?)?>1y 338- quae medio, etc. : "which, when in mid sea it has received (the 

Triton's) breath, fills with its notes the shores that lie beneath the 

rising and the setting sun." 
339. era madida rorantia barba : note the interlocked order of words. 
341. omnibus undis: H. 431, 2 (388, i); M. 207, 2; A. 232, a\ G. 3S4'. 

B. 189, 2; L. & M. 545. 
3 14. plenos capit alyeus amnes : the rivers are still swollen, but arc con* 

tained within their banks. 

345. crescunt loca, etc. : " the lands increase as the waves subside." 

346. diem: "time." 

348-350. The picture is striking and impressive — two living creatures in \ 
world of silence and of death. The first thought of the man is ft 

77] NOTES 309 

their personal safety not yet secure (351-362) ; the next is, " How can 
the race of mortals be restored?" 
I. aoror, coniunx: see note on line 318. 
2f 353. The pair are united by triple bonds — the ties of blood, of marriage, 

and of common perils. 
$, 008 duo torba sumiis : this is a unique instance of a « crowd " of two. 
According to other accounts, these were not the only survivors of the 
». ** Even this hold (which we have) upon our life is not as yet sufficiently 

»359. quia tibi nunc animus foret? ''what would be your feelings 
miseranda : in a purely adjectival sense, " poor soul." 
quo consolante dolores? "with whom consoling wouldst thou grieve?" 

f>. ♦* who would console thy grief? " 
362. See note, lines 325, 326. 

E 77. — 363. patemis artibus: Le. the creative arts which Prometheus 
employed. See line 82, note. 
animas formatae infundere terrae : " to breathe the breath of life into 

the moulded clay.'* 
The Cephisus has its source at the foot of Parnassus. 
Ut,8ic: "though, still." 

libatos inroravere liquores : the purification by running water before 
engaging in any sacred act was a well-established custom. In Homer 
(//. IX, 207) this act is coupled with the sacred silence that is also 
enjoined : — 

And now be water brought to cleanse our hands, 
And charge be given that no ill-omened word 
Be uttered, while we pray that Jupiter, 
The son of Saturn, will assist our need. 

And Aeneas (^Aen.ll, 718) cannot himself handle the images of the 
gods: — 

Me, bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti, 
Attrectare ne£is, donee me fluroine vivo 

yestibus et capiti: H. 429 (386); M. 202; A. 228; G. 347; B. 187, 

HI; L.&M. 532. 
humi: H. 484, 2 (426, 2); M. 242, 2; A. 258, d; G. 411, Rem. 2; 

B. 232, 2; L. & M. 622. 
**Tell us, O Themis, how (^gua arte) the loss of our {i,e, the human) 

race may be repaired." 


382. The veiled head and the ungirt robe were connected with the symbolisa 
of Roman ritualistic worship. The purpose of the former is expresdf 
sUted by Vergil {Aen, III, 408} in the advice of Helenus to Aeneas:— 

Ne qua inter sanctos ignes in honore deonim 
Hosdlis £acies occurrat et omnia turbet 

The ungirt robes, bare feet, and flowing hair are all seemingly related 
in religious symbolism. Cf. Ovid*s description of Medea QAfe/. VII, 182, 
183), and Vergil (Aen, IV, 518), who represents Dido at the altar,— 

Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recincta. 

384. obstipuere : to appreciate fully the horror that the words of the orade, 
if literally interpreted, would occasion, it must be remembered that the 
worship of ancestors was prevalent among the ancients, and that to 
disturb the dead violated not only a natural sentiment, but also the mort 
deep-seated principle of religious veneration. 

386, 387. "And in timid tones she prays (the goddess) to grant her indul- 
gence, and trembles at the thought of outraging her mother's ghost by 
treating her bones (as the goddess directs)." 

390. For the force of the patronymics, see note on line 318. 

392. pia: f.^. counseling no failure in duty toward parents. The ancient 
idea of piety was very broad, signifying action according to duty, espe- 
cially to the gods and religion in general, to parents, children, country. 

Page 78. — 393. lapides, etc. : " I believe that the bones which the goddess 
speaks of are the stones in the body of mother earth." The conception 
of the earth as the mother of all creatures is one of the ancient stock 
ideas of the race. 

395. Titania : i .^. Pyrrha, so called because descended from lapetus the Titan. 

397. monitis: 11.426,1(385,11); M. 205; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, a; 
L. & M. 530. 

399. iussos lapides, etc. : iussos belongs rhetorically with the subject of miV- 

/«»/. "They cast the stones behind them as they walk, just as the 
goddess bade them." 

400. nisi sit, etc. : the natvete of this reasoning is similar to that of the 

rustic who proved (Af^f, VIII, 620) that Philemon and Baucis had been 
changed into trees by the statement that he had seen the trees, 
credat: H. 557 (486, II); M. 327; A. 307, 2, d; G. 259; B. 380,2,^; 
L. & M. 723. 

401. ponere = deponere. 
suum : " their natural." 

402. ducere formam : " to take on a definite shape." 

404-406. " A certain likeness to the human form indeed («/) can be seen, 
st^ (sic) not very clear, but (such «l fotm^ as (statues) just begun out 

I p. 79] NOTES 311 


i of marble have, not sharply defined, and just like roughly blocked out 

I images." 

[ 407. **That part of them, however, which was damp with some slight 

i moisture." 

413. Keats (Lamia) recalls this fancied origin of woman : — 

There is not such a treat among them all. 
Haunters of cavern, lake, and waterfall, 
As a real woman, lineal indeed 
From Pyrrha's pebbles or old Adam's seed. 

414. labonim: H. 451, 3 (399, H); M. 226, 2, A. 218, 6; G. 375; B. 204, 
; I, a; L. & M. 574. 

! 414, 415. Compare Spenser (Faerie Queene, V, Introd. 2), who complains of 
\ the reverse process, of men changed into stone : — 

For from the golden age, that first was named, 
It's now at earst [length] become a stonie one ; 
And men themselves, the which at first were framed 
Of earthly mould, and form'd of flesh and bone, 
Are now transformed into hardest stone ; 
Such as behind their backs (so backward bred) 
Were throwne by Pyrrha and Deucalione. 

416-437. Ovid's theory of the origin of the lower forms of life is that of spon- 
taneous generation from the slime of the recently inundated earth, 
under the genial influence of the heat of the sun. Lucretius, who gives 
the history of the origin of life and progress of civilization (De 
Herum Natura, V, 771-1457), also represents the earth as the mother, 
in a very real sense, from whom sprung directly all forms of life. 
Herbs and trees were first produced, then birds and animals, and 
finally human infants crept forth from cavities in the earth's surface. 
This theory is opposed alike to that of evolution and to that of the 
divine origin of life. 

417. vetus nmor : i,e, that which remained from the flood. 

Page 79. — 422. The phenomena of the annual overflow of the Nile, and 
the consequent fecundation of the adjacent land, are well known from 
time immemorial. Gray (Education and Government) alludes to these 
phenomena : — 

What wonder, in the sultry climes, that spread 
Where Nile redundant o'er his summer-bed 
From his broad bosom life and verdure flings, 
And broods o'er Egypt with his wat'ry wings. 

424. aetberio sidere : >.«. thesun. 


426-429. inyeniant, etc. : these would be " finds " indeed for the biologist, 
if true, in which he could see life in its very inception, inanimate mat* 
ter in the very act of passing into animate existence, 
et in his, etc. : " and among these they see certain fonns of life josl 
begun, on the very brink of birth ; some not yet completed, and lack- 
ing in some of their parts; and often, in the same body, one partis 
alive while the other is unformed clay.** 

430, 431. According to this view, heat and moisture are the complementary 
powers of fecundation, the parents, as it were, of all life. This creative 
power comes from a union, of opposites, expressed very tersely in the 
phrase, vapor umidus (line 432). 

432. aquae: H. 452, i (399 II); M. compare 226,2; A. 218, ^; G.375» 
B. compare 204, i, a\ L. & M. 575. 

434-437. Compare this second account of the origin of life with the W 
(lines 76-88). 

437. nova monstra : in these words the poet prepares the way for the not 

story, for the Python which Apollo slew was one of these monsters. 
Sec Introduction to Metamorphoses^ page 63, first paragraph,. and note 
Ovid's method of transition to each new story. 

438. ilia : i.e. Tcllus. " She indeed would prefer not (to have done so), but 

she did produce thee also,'* etc. 
Python : the difference between what may be called the realistic and 
rationalistic treatment of classic myth in English literature is well ill"*' 
trated in the following quotations, both referring to the Python :— 

But still greatest he the midst, 
Now dragon grown, larger than whom the sun 
Engendered in the Pythian vale on slime, 
Huge Python. — Milton, Paradise Lost, X. 

Gray Power was seated 
Safely on her ancestral throne ; 
And Faith, the Python, undefeated 
Even to its blood-stained steps dragged on 
Her foul and wounded train. — Shelley, Rosalind and Helen, 

The name of this serpent is accounted for as follows : after Apollo 
had slain the creature he cried out in triumph, ** Now rot (iriJ^eu) there 
on the man-feeding earth." Hence also the name of the oracle of 
Delphi, near which place the serpent was slain; Pythia^ the priestess 
of the oracle ; Pythius the god Apollo, and Pythia (n. pi.) the games 
which Apollo founded. 
441. deus arcitenens : « the archer god," i.e, Apollo. This epithet, "god of 
the ^'littering bow," is one oi t\xt ewVi^t ^^ItUets of this god, and 

.82] NOTES 313 

a favorite with Homer. See Goldsmith ( Vida^s Game of Chess) : — 
As yet Apollo in his radiant seat 
Had never driv'n his chariot through the air, 
Known by his bow alone and golden hair. 
A 449, " At these games, every youth who had been victorious in boxing, 

running, or the chariot race, received the honor of an oaken garland." 
^9» 450. Note again the preparation for the next story : the victor crowned 

with the oaken garland, since the laurel was not yet Apollo*s tree. 

This suggests the story of the laurel tree. 
GE 80. — 451. de qualibet arbore: "with a garland made of any tree 

(you please)." 
i* Daphne : supply erat, 

^ qui : the antecedent is nos implied in nostros, 
>. tumidum : ie, propter venenum. 
t 462. " Do thou be content with thy torch to light the hidden (nescio 

fuos) fires of love, and do not lay claim to our honors." Cupid is gen- 
erally represented with wings and a bow, but sometimes also with a 

torch, representing the burning fires of love. See TibuUus, II, i , 82. 
U figat: H. 559, 3 (484* ni); M. 323; A. 266, c, G. 264; B. 278; 

L. & M. 716. 
k areas: supply ^^V. 

K diversorum operum : " of opposite effects." 
5E 81. — 478. petentes, the object of aversata, " rejecting." 
>. Yiri: H. 451, 2 (399, I, 3); M. 226, i; A. 218, a-, G. 374; B. 204, i; 

L. & M. 573. 
>. "Nor does she care anything about Hymen, or love, or marriage." 
5. sed te decor, etc. : " but that beauty of thine forbids thy being what 

thou desirest (i.e. a virgin)." 
!. demptis aristis : " when the grain has been harvested." 
\, quas forte viator, etc.: "which some traveler has chanced to build too 

near, or has gone off and left (burning) at break of day." 
>. yidisse : " merely to have seen." 
►, 509. His fears are threefold : lest she fall on the rough path, lest she be 

scratched by the brambles, and lest he, her lover, be cause of harm to her. 
;e 82. — 512. cui placeas, etc. : " but do stop and ask who your lover is." 
. mihi: H. 426, l (385, I); M. 205; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, «; 

L. & M. 530. 
. The past, present, and future are alike open to him. He is said to have 

been taught divination by Pan. 
eritque : qtu is redundant. 
. per me concordant, etc.: Apollo's claim is not quite correct here, 

although he is indeed the god of music. It was Mercury who invented 


iiK IjTR. BBC den £K«T X to bk brother Apollo. See Hoiace {Ode, 

p^ H? s tbc gac oE ibs mmaii^ bov, iwMtrhrtl save by the aichervho 

yi Apnii: i^ ^a£ ako of the beafii^ art* an ait which he transmitted to his 

sac Ars-TiBTBiaL 
52r. Bihi: H. ^52 jSek. aote 2^1 M. 209; A. 235, e; G. 351; B. 188, 2,^; 

The pinrsizisx caxmzx heal biasdil So Medea and Circe were unable 
Iv dnr simrr mapc tx> he^p rtjfiiiwhe Si, See Remudia AmoriSt 261-288. 

5j6l n»q ir ipMc c£c. : ** awi die leares hSm with his unspoken words b^ 
bad. cTcx is ber desertioai vAua) srrming fiur." 

5^7. COrpKa : *• ber Iiinbs^'^ 

52S. ~ Asd ibe cyp^isrrng breeies act her garments a flatter as she hurried on." 

53a aed CUM : ~^>a: ^ibe chase dnws to an end) for," etc 

531. pndere blaaditias: &:< so madi to "waste his words" ai to "waste 

bis tiate in pnscasiTc words.*^ 

532. M™*— ^ passQ : *" ax mroost speed.** 

533. iV .-mm A-sm:j Gs^t^-MS u/^-rem im vacM& arvo vidil. 

For the simile, compaxe Homer {/liad, X« 360): — 

As two hounds, 
Sbarj>-tooAed, and trained to track their prey, porsoe 
Through foiest-groimds some fawn or hare tiiat nms 
Before them panting, so did Diomed 
And terrible Ulysses i^ithout stop 
Follow the fugitive. 

And see a similar 6gare in Iliad, XXII, 188, where Achilles is pnH'i* 
ing Hector. Vergil no doubt has these in mind in Aeneid, XII, 748* 

534. hie, ille : the hound, the hare. 

535. iam iamqne: this is an instance of the dramatic repetition of i<i^> 

expressing the extreme imminence of the act See Vergil (Aeiu U. 

530):- I 

Ilium ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus 

Insequitur, iam iamque manu tenet et premis hasta. 

536. et eztento, etc. : " and grazes the very heels (vestigia) (of the hare) 

with his outstretched muzzle." 
538. eripitur : has the middle force = se eripit^ ** escapes." 
Page 83. — 542. crinem : the object of adfia/, which takes eitl\er ace. or dat. 
545, 547. vel islam . . . figuram : ** or else destroy by changing the ac- 
cursed (Jstam) beauty which is the cause of my persecution." 
iitAm : this pronoun, pTopeiVy a second personal demonstrative, is often 

p. 84] NOTES 315 

used in Ovid to express contempt, disgust, or kindred feeling, where 
there is no second personal idea. 

551. pes iot pedes, 

553-567. In a note on the Python (line 438) were given illustrations of the 
realistic and rationalistic treatment of myth. A third method of treat- 
ment, the burlesque, is very well illustrated by Lowell's version of the 
Apollo and Daphne story in the opening lines of his Fable fir Critics : — 

Phoebus, sitting one day in a laurel tree's shade, 
Was reminded of Daphne, of whom it was made ; 
For the god being one day too warm in his wooing, 
She took to the tree to escape his pursuing; 
Be the cause what it might, from his offers she shrunk, 
And, Ginevra-like, shut herself up in a trunk ; 
Arid, though 'twas a step into which he had driven her, 
He somehow or other had never forgiven her. 

553. hanc qnoque : i,e, even in the form of a tree. 

560, 561. The reference is to the several features of the triumphal entrance 
into Rome of a Roman general, who passed in magnificent pomp along 
the Via Sacra, up the Clivus Capitolinus, and halted at the temple of 
Jupiter on the Capitol. The laurel crown is here destined by Apollo to 
adorn the head of the victorious general in his triumph. 

563. ante fores stabis, etc. : two laurel trees stood before the door of Au- 

gustus' palace on the Palatine Hill. 
mediam quercum refers to the civic crown of oak leaves which hung 
over the door in token that the prince was pater urHs. 

564, 565. As Apollo's hair is ever unshorn, so the leaves of the laurel are not 

to be deciduous, but remain ever green. 

566. f actis modo ramis : " with its new-made branches." 

567. utque caput : " and like a head." 

Page 84. — 569. quae refers to Tempe (n. pi. ace). 

ab imo Pindo : " from the foot of Pindus." 
571-573. " And by its heavy fall forms clouds which drive along fine smoke- 
like mist, and sprinkles the tops of the trees with spray, and deepens 
by its roar even remoter regions." 
572. In the description of this natural cloud of mist Ovid has an eye to the 
use which he is going to make of this by contrast with the miraculous 
cloud which Jove produces to conceal his amour (lines 601-604). A 
similar instance of Ovid's foresight is seen in Ars Amatoria, III, 693, 
which see with note. 
S77' popnlaria flumina : i.e, the rivers of his own country. 
S7^ patentur consolentume : "whether to congratulate or console," an 
Indirect question with nescia. 

5lf liTTAJiORPHOSES I [P. 84 

5-*;^ 5<i^ Osaervt Tiic parrir Kt in pntti^g a dcscnpdre epithet with each 


5^* A ine ;c Tsm:± pcicir Seuirr — '"lead down their waters, weary with 

"i^nacnni;, nc^ :i» sol" 
^i^. iftar^mc ; tiis wocc K tbe sseppoig-stoike to the next storj. He alone is 
ahBm: Wry? Ii ukes tiie «i»ole sbxr to teH Ovid tells a part of 
ITS suirr anxjx is Iifyrida, XIV, S5— IO& 
5Sa tODqar VaTTim e:^. : "^and desstxned to make some one {nescio qum) 

bai>rT "r^ yocr ru:ai ■^ ■ ' iih him'^.*' 
5^ prafiside deo : £J:u. abs., gnriiig its force to tiOa ; " (yon) safe mider the 
pr:i:erD:«i: of a jjoi." 
utmamm. k ::• hf rakes wish SA-reta (n. pL sobs.), 
wihilat : ibf f=r=re ia±« used as a mild imperative. 
TjkZS. 85. — 505. BK de plebe deo: av is in apposition with diooi^t 
pcrvioas hat - And (th«i loo) not a god of (firom) the common sort. 
de plebe = i> tCrhHiF Jris.- with these compare what may be called the 

pith das irods .^liae 172 and note). 
Ba|;iii: with nsjvu, 

596. raga is a namral epithet of the li^tning flash viewed from the stand- 

jx>int oi Eaoruis, rui it is somewhat inappropriate in the mouth of 
Juve, -who w/rrj his thunderbolts. 

597. ne fa^: what would be the prose construction? 

602, 603. Supply ^// with miraia, *• And she marveled that quick rising 
clouds had wrought the effect of night in the clear light of day." 

603. non fluminis illas (^nebulas) esse: see line 572 and note. 

604. A second natural ei^lanation of the clouds would be that they were a 

mist or iog exhaled from the damp earth. 

605. ubi sit : indirect question with circumspicU, "she looks around (to see) 

where her husband is." 
ut quae nosset : "as one who well knew," etc. = "since she well knew." 

609. nebulasque recedere iassit : it was natural that Juno should give this 

command and be obeyed, for she was the queen of the air. In the 
physical interpretation of mythology, Jove represents the ether or 
upper regions of the air, while Juno is the lower strata corresponding 
to our atmosphere. 

610. praesenserat : the subject is ille (line 611), i,e. Jove. 

613, 614. nee non et cuius, etc.: "and {nee non) she asks both whose an< 
whence or from what herd the heifer is, as if she did not know." 

615,616. If the creature is a real heifer, she must have an owner who ca 
ptove Yi\& ownership; iC she \s si m\iQL,c\]L\o\3& creation, she must have 

96} NOTES 317 

vaak^r (auctor), Jove puts a stop to the dangerous investigation by 
sajin^ that she is an earth-born creature, having, therefore, no owner 
and X30 maker. 
,618. Osmdele, etc. : "'tis a cruel task to surrender his love; but not to 

do so would arouse suspicion.*' 
, 619* ^udor est qui suadeat, dissuadet amor : the two methods of 
expx'^ssion are for the sake of variety. " On the one hand shame influ- 
ences him (to give her up, and hence avoid suspicion) ; but love dis- 
STjA^cfies him from the other course (i.e. the course of betrayal)." 
0^ 621* ^^TC si munus vacca : " if so slight a boon as a heifer." 
«eiietlsque torique : Juno was the sister as well as wife of Jove. Note 

t!he polys3nideton in -^ue -que, 
lieg^etiir,poterat: H. 583(511, i, note 2); M. 368; A. 308,^:; G. 597, 
3, a; B. 304, 3, tf ; L. & M. 940. 
1^3. aiUDa furti = anxia ne furtum fiat. 

\g^ servandam: understand i//am, i.e. vaccam. The genesis of the pur- 
pose idea in a simple objective gerundive construction is evident if the 
literal meaning be noticed. " She handed the heifer over to Argus as 
a to-be-watched thing," z>. " she gave her to Argus to watch." 
%G£ 8B, — 626. inde = ex eis luminibus, a partitive expression with bina. 

'* Of these, two at a time slept in their turn," etc. 
7. in statione manebant : *' remained on guard," a military metaphor. 
0. IttCe: "by day." 
r. indigno: here, as often, = not "unworthy," but "undeserving" such 

\t 634. " And for a couch, upon the earth not always grassy, does the poor 

wretch lie." 
;, 636. These lines illustrate Ovid's fondness for repetition of phrases. 
;. propria: "her own." 

•» 639. In Heroides (XIV, 85-108) Ovid relates a portion of Io*s story, 
which he puts in the mouth of Hypermnestra. The lines recall and 
enlarge upon the present passage, 
u littera quam pes in pulvere duxit : this has been thought by some to 
refer to the fact that the letters 10 roughly resemble the track made 
by the hoof of the cow, and that the name was simply stamped upon 
the ground, half accidentally. But, according to the better view, since 
the story clearly leaves to lo her human feelings and human reason, she 
may well be considered as intentionally tracing the letters on the 
(. tone es quaesita, etc.: "art thou she whom I have sought in every 

land, my daughter?" 
1,655. til ^^'^ inventa, 6tc.: "unfound a lighter grief Wkst t\iOM AK-mv 


[P. 86 

found." Certainty in such a case as this is far worse than uncer- 

E 87. — 66a habendus : understand est. 

663. praeclosaque ianua, etc. : <* and (the fact that) the door of death 
(is) dosed (to me) prolongs my grief forevermore." 

stelUtns : Argus is so called because of his many eyes which glitter like 

inde procul : " at some distance from there/' 

natam : ue. Mercury. His mother was Maia, one of the Pleiades. 

det : supply ut, 

panra mora est siimpsisse : ix, he put on without delay. 

virga retenta est : this was the caduceus^ a magic wand with which he 
performed many wonders. Some of these are described by Spenset 
{^Faerie Queene^ II, xii, 41) : — 

Of that same wood it fram'd was cunningly, 
Of which Caduceiis whilome was made, 
Caduceiis, the rod of Mercury, 
With which he wonts the Stygian realmes invade, 
Through ghastly horror and eteraall shade ; 
Th' infemall feends with it he can asswage. 
And Orcus tame, whome nothing can persuade, 
And rule the Furyes when they most doe rage. 

677. "With this wand, in the character of a shepherd, through 


sequestered country paths he drives a flock of goats, which he J*^ 
* borrowed ' as he came along." 
. poteras : so in Vergil {Ecloguest I, 79) the shepherd says : — 

Hie tamen banc mecum poteras requiescere noctem. 

Conington, commenting upon this passage, says: "It seems n»' 
pressing than the present — 'you might as well stay.' Perhaps 
account of the idiom is that it treats the time for action as almost g< 
by, the wrong determination as almost formed, and so implies urge 
to change the one and overtake the other." 
. Atlantiades : Maia, the mother of Mercury, vras the daughter of Al 
E 88. — 692. non semel : " not once alone," " more than once." 
, 695. Ortygiam studiis, etc. : " she patterned after the Delian godt 
in her daily pursuits {i.e. hunting, etc.), and especially (Jpsa) in 
taining her maiden life." 
colebat : the nymph's worship took the form of imitation. Compare 

proverb, " Imitation is the sincerest flattery." 
f alleret : the protasis is in si non /bret, below. " Wlieii fgai after 

9] NOTES 319 

manner of Diana, she would deceiye (the beholder), and could be 
believed to be Diana herself, if,*' etc. 

sic quoque : " even as it was.*' 

restabat: Mercury's story stops here, for he sees (line 713) that his 
object is accomplished and his listener is asleep. To satisfy his readers, 
however, Ovid finishes the story — in the indirect discourse. " It 
remained to tell his words, and (to relate) how the nymph fled," etc. 

706. See Keats (^Miscellaneous Poems) : — 

Telling us how feir, trembling Syrinx fled 

Arcadian Pan, with such a fearful dread. 

Poor nymph, — poor Pan, — how did he weep to find 

Nought but a lovely sighing of the wind 

Along the reedy stream ! a half-heard strain. 

Full of sweet desolation — balmy pain. 

,712. tenuisse has for its subject the instrument {syrinx^ or Pandean 
pipes) whose structure is described in the ablative absolute phrase, 
disparibus calamis iunctis. "And so the pipes, made of unequal reeds 
fitted together by a joining of wax, took and kept the name of the 

iGE 89. — 713, 714. This critical point in the story has attracted the fancy 
of the poets, who have made various uses of it. Thus Marlowe {J'he 
Tragedy of Dido) : — 

A man [Sinon] compact of craft and perjury, 
Whose ticing tongue was made of Hermes' pipe 
To force an hundred watchful eyes to sleep. 

Milton describes "the cohort bright of watchful cherubim" as follows 

^^aradise Lost, XI) : — 

All their shape 
Spangled with eyes, more numerous than those 
Of Argus, and more wakeful than to drowse, 
Charmed with Arcadian pipe, the pastoral reed 
Of Hermes, or his opiate rod. 

Pope uses the incident to illustrate the disappearance of fancy and 
'^^t from current literature {J'he Dunciad^ IV) : — 

Before her [Chaos] fancy's gilded clouds decay. 
And all its varying rainbows die away ; 
Wit shoots in vain its momentary fires. 
The meteor drops and in a flash expires ; 
As Argus' eyes by Hermes' wand oppressed, 
Closed one by o&& to everlasting rest. 


Keats (Endymton) thinks especially of the sweetness of MercuT^ | 

music : — r^ . ^ 

Ravishments more keen 

Than Hermes' pipe, when anxious he did lean 

Over eclipsing eyes. 

720. 721. Some have put these lines into the mouth of Mercury as atrium* 

phal boast. But it is quite in the style of Ovid, seemingly from hit 
absorbing interest in the action which he is describing, to speak ont 
in propria persona and himself address the actors. Instances of this 
are to be seen in Ars Amatoria, III, 735, 736; and Fasti, II, loi, I02» 
where see notes. 
quod que in tot lumina, etc.: in = inter, "And the light which thon 
hadst within thy many fires is all put out." 

721. centum is commonly used in poetry to denote an indefinite number. 

722. YOlucris suae: Juno's bird was the peacock (/az/<?), in whose tail she 

now sets the numerous star-like eyes of Argus. See Spenser {Fatru 
Queene, , iv, 17; •— ^^^^ ^^^ [Juno] does ride, 

Draune of fayre pecocks, that excell in pride. 
And full of Argus eyes their tayles dispredden wide. 

725. *' And she set a terrifying frenzy to work before the eyes and within the 

heart of her Grecian rival." 

726. stimulos in pectore caecos: this "goad" has commonly been conceive* | 

of as a gadfly which Juno set to persecute her victim and sting ^^ 
to madness. In Aeschylus {Prometheus Bound) , in which the stotJ 
of lo is told at length, the heifer-maiden comes upon the scene ^ 
Prometheus' sufferings after already prolonged wanderings. 

Shelley {Swellfoot the Tyrant) gives a fanciful historical importatf^ 
to this gadfly : — 

The gadfly was the same which Juno sent 
To agitate lo, and which Ezekiel mentions 
That the Lord whistled for out of the mountains 
Of utmost Ethiopia, to torment 
Mesopotamian Babylon. 

728. Ages are now supposed to pass by, and lo at last comes to Egypt, whc^ 
she is to be delivered from her sufferings. Prometheus (see abov^. 
had prophesied her further wanderings, in the course of which "tl** 
Bosphorus shall take its name from thee," and " from thee the loni*' 
[sea] shall be called." And at last — 

A city stands, 
Can6bos, at its country's farthest bound, 
Hard by the mouth and silt-Lank of the Nile ; 




There Zeus shall give thee back thy mind again. 
With hand that works no terror touching thee — 
Touch only— and thou then shaJt bear a child 
Of Zeus begotten, Epaphos, "Touch-bom." 

PjTometheus foretells that he himself shall be delivered from his present 
ills by a descendant of lo 4n the thirteenth generation. This prophecy 
mras fulfilled in the person of Hercules. Following is the genealogy of 
lo and her descendants : — 

Oceanus = Tethys 


Inachus (a river god of Argos) 

Jupiter = lo 

Phoroneus (hence lo is called Phoronis) 



Libya = Neptune 





Danaus Aegyptus Cepheus = Cassiopea 

49 daughters Hypermnestra = Lynceus 

49 sons 

• For the house of ddmus, 
see Met, 111, z, note 

Abas (k. of Argos) 




Danae = Jupiter 

Perseus = Andromeda 




Alcmene = Jupiter 



730. resapinoque ardua COUo, etc.: **and with her head thrown back, she 
raised to the lofty stars her face, which alone she could (uplift)." The 
natural gesture for a human suppliant would be the hands and arms, 
as well as the £eice, uplifted to heaven. 
OVID — 21 


735. in futumm: "for the future." 
737* Stygias paludes: see line 188 and note. 
738. ilia : i.e. lo. 

742. " And the hoofs disappear, being changed each into five fingers.'* 
Page 90. — 745. erigitur : the middle voice. " She raises herself up," »a 
" she stands erect." 

746. timide verba intermissa, etc : " and with fear and trembling she re- 

sumes (her) human speech (so long ago) abandoned." 

747. "Now she is worshiped with the greatest honor by the linen-robed 

throng {i.e, Egyptians)." lo was identified by the Greeks with the 

Egyptian Isis, the cow-goddess, while Epaphus was connected with 

the worship of Apis, the bull-god. Herodotus, indeed, says that "Apa 

is in the Greek language Epaphus." 
751. magna loquentem: '* talking big," "boasting." 
753. Inachides : see the genealogy of Epaphus above. 

matri omnia demens credis : " you foolishly believe everything yov 

mother says." 
757. ille ego liber, etc. : " I who am so {ille) free, so high spirited, held my 

761. me assere caelo : " claim me for the sky," f.<r. " assure me that I am of 

heavenly origin." 

765. ambiguum : supply est The passage centering in ambiguum is ii> 

part parenthetical. " Clymene, moved (it is uncertain whether by 
Phaethon's prayers, or more by anger at the charge brought agaiwt 
her)," etc. 

766. criminis: H. 440, 2 (396, III); M. 216; A. 217; G. 363, 2; B.200; 

L. & M. 571. 
Page 91. — 774. unde = ex qua {domo), 
775. ipso: i.e. Phoebus. 
777. concipit aethera mente: "he grasps the heavens in his imagination- 

He already thinks of himself as having attained a right to the heavens 

through his assured divine parentage. 

II. The story of Phaethon was anciently told in dramatic form by AescbyJ^ 
and Euripides in the Heliades and Phaethon, only fragments of vh^^ 
remain, and by Apollonius Rhodius in poetic narrative. Among ^ 
Latin writers, it is found in the Fabulae purporting to be by Hygi^^** . 
contemporary and friend of Ovid, and is here told by Ovid biff>**"* 
Vergil only alludes to the story {Aen, X, 189, and EcL VI, 62). ^^ 
illustrations of the use of this story in English literature wiU be ^^ 
below in the proper connection. 

/. vegia, So\\& ; the location of this \^^sa Is indicated in I, 774. 

p. 92] NOTES 323 

2. ** Bright with glittering gold, and bronze that gleams like fUme." 

4. This line is also a part of the relative clause introduced by cuim. The 

prose order would be : cuius{que) valvae bifores lumine argenti 

5. Opus : i.e, the workmanship. 

6. caelarat : a syncopated form for caelaveraU 

9. Protea ambiguum : this sea-god, who possessed the power of changing 
his form at will, has become a type of changeableness and has given 
his name to that quality (^Protean), 

For by his mighty science he could take 

As many formes and shapes in seeming wise. 

As ever Proteus to himselfe could make. 

— Spenser, Faerie Queene, I, ii, xo. 

13, 14. facies non omnibus una, etc. : i.e, they were not all just alike, nor 
yet markedly different, but had a general similarity of appearance such 
as is natural for sisters. 

Page 92. — 18. The twelve signs of the zodiac are represented upon the 

19. quo: "to this place.** 
simul = simul ac, 

20. dubitati parentis : " of his father whose parenthood had been called in 

25, 26. Dies, Mensis, Annus, Saecula, Horae : supply stabant. It is natural 

that these, together with the seasons mentioned below, should be in 

attendance Upon the sun, whose movements measure and control all 

times and seasons. 
28. nuda: •'lightly clad.?* 

spicea serta : the wheat harvest is in the summer, while the vintage 

(line 29) is in the autumn. 
36. canos Ca^illOS: the accusative of the part affected. 
27-30. Spenser (^Faerie Queene, VII, vii, 28-31) has a description of the 

seasons which from many expressions is evidently modeled upon this, 

but is also greatly enlarged. 
31, 32. Inde Sol, loco medius, ittvenem rerum novitate paventem, oculis vidU 

quibus omnia aspiciL 

38. propago: supply esse. 

39. errorem: '* uncertainty.** 

41. accedere: supply eum (1.^. Phaethon) as subject 

42, negari : a poetic construction. 

42, 43. nee tn mens esse, etc. : '* you are both worthy to be acknowledged 
* ai-tuf sonf and Qymene has told you your true origin.** 


Page 93. — 45. me tribuente : "at my hand." 

46. palus : i.e, the Stygian pool. On Dis iuranda see 1, 188 and note. 

47, 48. currus rogat ille, etc. : Shakespeare uses this request as a tjrpe of 

extreme presumption ( Two Gentlemen of Verona^ III, i) : — 

Why, Phaeton, — for thou art Merops' son, — 
Wilt thou aspire to guide the heavenly car 
And with thy daring folly bum the world ? 
Wilt thou reach stars, because they shine on thee r 
Go, base intnider ! overweening slave ! 

50, 51. temeraria vox mea facta tua est: " my words have been made rash 
by yours." They were before only potentially rash, but Phaethon has 
made them actually so. The answer which Phoebus is to give is the 
turning point in the story. 

53. dissuadere licet : " I may (at least) attempt to dissuade you." 

58. placeat sibi quisque licebit: understand tU; "though each (god) may 

(in general) do as he pleases." 

59. non quisquam : " no one." 

60. me excepto : " except myself." 

61. Note the interlocked order of adjectives and substantives to which refer- 

ence has before been made. 

62. agat: H. 552 (485); M. 327; A. 311, a; G. 257, 1 ; B. 280; L. &M. 717. 

63. ardua prima via est : it is easy to think of the path of the sun from its 

point of rising to the zenith as an upward climb, 
recentes : " though fresh." 

67. et eget moderamine certo : " and requires a firm controlling hand (upon 

the reins)." 

68. 69. The prose order is : tunc etiam Tethys ipsa, quae me subiectis undis 

excipit, solei vereri ne in praeceps ferar, 

69. in praeceps : " headlong." 

70-73. The idea in this passage, repeated in several forms, is that of the an- 
cient astronomers, that the vault of heaven (caelum) containing the 
fixed stars {sidera) is whirled around in one direction, while the sun, 
moon, and planets revolve in the opposite direction. 

72. nee me qui cetera, etc. : " nor does this swift motion, which overcomes 
all else, overcome me." 

Page 94. — 75. polis : to be construed with obtdus. 

76, 77. Is it your desire to see wonderful and beautiful sights? Only dread* 
ful creatures are to be met. 

78-83. The poet seems to forget that he is describing not the yearly but tlie 
daily path of ^.he sun. He mentions and describes a part of the codi* 
acal constellations, all of which in their xder are aa ft>Qom: ArUi, 

p. 95] NOTES 325 

Taurus, Gemini^ Cancer, Leo, Firgv, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius^ 
Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces, Ovid here mentions only the more 
terrible of these creatures. 

79. ttt teneas: what force does tamen in the following line give to ut? 

83. aliter : ** in the opposite direction." 

84-86. nee tibi quadrupedes in promptu regere est: "nor is it an easy 
thing {in promptu) for you to control the steeds," etc. 

91. do pignera certa timendo: "I give indubitable proofs by the anxiety 
which I show." 

93* 94. tttinamque : this is one of those Bne, realistic, human touches which 
Ovid often gives. " And O that you could look into my heart, and 
understand the fatherly care (for you) which I have within me." 

98. vero nomine : i.e, ** if rightly understood." 

100. The stage direction for the action of this dramatic passage is readily 
seen. PhaSthon here clasps his father's neck, and renews his i-equest 
with entreaties. It is a strong proof of Ovid's realism that the reader 
finds rising in himself a feeling of impatience that the foolish boy 
should so persist beyond reason. 

104, corrus: H. 440, 2 (396, III); M. 216; A. 213, 2; G. 363, 2; B. 200; 
L. & M. 571. 

Page 95. — 105. qua licuit : supply some such word as ratione, ** in what way 
he could," " as far as," or, by wider interpretation, " as long as he could." 

107, 108. snmma cunratora rotae : i,e. the rim of the wheel. 

109. ittga: either the yoke which would be worn by the horses, and into 
which the end of the chariot pole would be fitted, or, perhaps better 
(inasmuch as it is the chariot itself which is being described), the 
curved top or rail of the front or dashboard of the chariot. 

112, 113. The usual poetic interpretation of the bright colors of sunrise. 

114, 115. Lucifer agmina cogit, novissimus exit : Lucifer, the morning star, 
is represented as driving away before him the other stars, and is him- 
self the last to fade away before the rising sun. 

116. The prose order is: et ut {Phoebus) eum {i.e, Luciferum) terras petere 

vidit tnundumque rubescere, 
petere terras : the morning star is here represented as setting, whereas 
in reality it fades out of sight. This effect is beautifully described by 
Lowell {Prometheus) : — 

And now bright Lucifer grows less and less, 
Into the heaven's blue quiet deep-withdrawn. 

117. eztremae hinae: the moon in its last quarter is still well up in the sky 

at sunrise, and its crescent fades away ^ as it were " {velut) as the sky 


119. insaa deae celeres peragnnt: <*the goddesses speedily do as they are 

ignemque, etc. : the prose order is : quadrupedes, ignem vomentest am- 

brosiae suco saiuros, praesepibus alHs ducunt, 
lao. ambrosiae suco: the heavenly horses are given the same food as the 

gods themselves. 

123. et rapidae, etc.: "and made it {or a, his face) able to endure thede* 

vouring flame." 

124. luctus: objective genitive, see r«rr«j, line 104. 

129. directos: belongs grammatically with ar^ttx, but rhetorically with vfj. 

130. inobliquum: "slantwise." 

130-132. This is a poetic description of the position of the ecliptic, the appa- 
rent path of the sun in its annual (not diurnal) course. This great 
circle cuts across the equatorial zone (of the heavens) and the north 
and south temperate, but leaves untouched the north and south frigid 

Page 96. — 136. altius egressus : " if you go too high." 

138. Angaem: i,e, Draco , the constellation lying between the Greater and 

Lesser Bears, in the extreme north. 

139. Aram: this constellation' would be visible in northern latitudes only low 

down on the horizon, and represents that portion of the sky nearest 
the earth, just as Draco represents that portion nearest heaven. 

141. quaeiuvet: " and may she aid you." 

142-144. A strange disjunction of cause and effect. The night goes away 
from the sky, and the dawn sets the heavens aglow, both as acts inde- 
pendent of the sun, who has not jret started upon his course ! 

148. axes = axem — currum, 

149. " Permit me to give light to the world, O^S^O which you may in safety 


156. nepotis : Clymene, the mother of PhaSthon, was the daughter of Tethys. 

157. et facta est, etc.: *<and free course through the boundless skies was 


161. nee quod, etc. : ''and not one that the horses of the sun could feeL" 

162. gravitate: 11.462(414,1); M. 237, i; A. 243, a; G. 390, 2; B. 214, 

I, c\ L. & M. 601. 

163. pondere: "ballast." 

Page 97. — 165. dat saltus = Wf/. 

168. nee quo prius, ordine currunt: "nor do they run in the (same) track 

as before." 
170. nee, si seiat, imperet illis : ** nor, if he did know, would he be able to 

enforce his orders upon the horses." 
171, 172. Medea boasts among her other magic powers that she has caused 

J NOTES 327 

these constellations to sink beneath the sea. These, with the other 
circumpolar constellations, do not go below the horizon in the latitude 
of the north temperate zone, and hence are poetically said to be for- 
bidden, and sometimes to fear, to sink beneath the sea. 
177. Both in ancient and in modern times the constellations Ursa Maior 
and Ursa Minor have been conceived of under a second and entirely 
different figure; that is, in Latin as the Triones, or oxen yoked to a 
cart, in English as "Carl's Wain." For the mythical origin of the 
conception of the constellations as bears, see analysis at the end of 
Book II, lines 401-530. 

Similarly, the adjacent constellation, containing the bright star 
Arctums, has been named Arctophylax, the " Bear-keeper," and 
Bootes, the " Wagoner," each having reference to his relation to the 
neighboring constellations. Ovid has in this passage rather inartistically 
introduced the bears on the one hand and the ox-driver on the other. 

Some interesting references to these constellations in English litera- 
ture are as follows : — 

Wide o'er the spacious regions of the North, 
That see Bo5tes urge his tardy wain. 

— Thomson, Seasons, IV, 834. 

By this the northeme wagoner had set 
His sevenfold teme behind the stedfast starre 
That was in ocean waves yet never wet, 
But firme is fixt, and sendetli light from farre 
To al that in the wide deepe wandring arre. 

— Spenser, Faerie Queene, I, ii, i. 

[79. .penitns penitnsque iacentes: 'Mying far, far below." 

;S4. lleropis did cupiens : '* more than willing to be called Merops' (son)." 

It will be remembered that this taunt had started Phaethon upon this 

adventure. See Book I, line 754. 
[85. pinna: f>. aship. 

185. 1S6. cni remisit frena: a mixed metaphor. The chief point is, how- 
ever, that control has been lost over ship and horses alike, and there is 

nothing left to do but pray. 
187. qnid facial? H. 559, 4 (484, V); M. 324; A. 268; G. 265; B. 277; 

L. & M. 723. 
189* 190. ** And now he looks forward to the west which he is not destined 

to reach," etc. 

Shakespeare, careless as to mythological accuracy, conceives of 

FhaCthon as lashing on his steeds : — 

JulieL Gallop apace, you fiery-footed steeds. 

Towards Phoebus' lodging ; such a wagoner 


As Pha^thon would whip you to the west, 
And bring in cloudy night immediately. 

— Romeo andjuliet^ III, ii 

195-197. The constellation Scorpio is here represented as covering two of 
the signs or divisions of the zodiac. (For the twelve constellations see 
note on lines 78-83). The constellation Libra, the seventh in order, 
was not commonly used among the Greeks; its place was occupied by 
Chelae, the " Scorpion's Claws." 

Page 98. — 198-205. It is by this terrible creature that the final catastrophe 
is precipitated. PhaSthon in his fright gives up all semblance of con- 
trol, and the horses break entirely from the proper course. 

Spenser {Faerie Queene, V, viii, 40) represents the horses them- 
selves as taking fright at the Scorpion, and draws a very lively picture 
of this situation. 

208, 209. "And Luna in amazement sees her brother's horses speeding 
below her own." The sun is now nearer the earth than the moon. 

210. "The earth catches fire, the highest parts first." Shakespeare uses this 
catastrophe to illustrate the text, " How great a matter a little fire 
kindleth." Clifford (/// //enry VI, II, vi) thus voices his vain 
regrets : — 

Phoebus, hadst thou never given consent 
That Phaeton should check thy fiery steeds, 
Thy burning car never had scorch'd the earth ! 
And, Henry, hadst thou sway'd as kings should do, 

1 and ten thousand in this luckless realm 
Had left no mourning widows for our death. 

217. Ovid abounds in geographical catalogues, with his list of mountains 

here, of rivers a little later; and see Metamorphoses, VII, 220 and fol- 
lowing. A similar case is in Amores, III, vi, 25 and following. Ovid 
redeems these catalogues from dullness by his apt use of epithet. 
Note these in the present passage. 

218. creberrima fontibus Ide: the burden of Tennyson's Oenone very well 

translates this phrase : — 

O mother Ida, many-fountain' d Ida, 
Dear mother Ida, harken ere I die. 

219. virgineus: as the seat of the muses. 

nondum Oeagrius : i.e. it was before the time of Oeagrus, &ther of 
Orpheus and king of Thrace, in which country Mount Haemus was 

220. geminatis ignibus: Aetna was already a mass of flames witfaioi 

P- 950 NOTES 329 

which occasionally burst forth; and this fire is now duplicated by the 
conflagration from without. 

222. et tandem caritnra : ''and Rhodope destined at last to lose her snows." 

223. natusque ad sacra Cithaeron : this Boeotian mountain was a favorite 

resort for the orgiastic worshipers of Bacchus. 
227. cunctis e partibus : " on all sides," '* in every direction." 
Page 99. — 235, 236. "They say (think) that on that occasion the Aethio- 

pians took on a swarthy hue, since the blood was called to the surface 

of the body (by the heat)." Hyginus {Fabulae^ 154) makes a similar 

statement about the people of India : — 

Indi autem, quod calore vicini ignis sanguis in atrum colerem versus est, 
nigri sunt facti. 

239. qnaerit: "seeks (in vain)," t.e. "mourns the loss of." ^ 

240. Bphyre : Corinth was so called from a nymph of that name whose story 

is told in Hyginus (^Fabulae^ 275). 

241, 242. "Nor do the rivers whose lot had given them more spacious chan- 

nels (banks wide apart) remain unscathed." 

242, Homer {liiad^ XXI) describes the battle between the flames of Vulcan 

and the waves of the Xanthus and the Simois. Ovid does not attempt 
a similar personification here. It is Homer and not Ovid, therefore, 
whom Dryden has in mind in his Annus Mirabilis (926). The pas- 
sage is quoted here because of the poetic description in the last two 
lines of the effect of a great fire on a river : — 

Old father Thames rais'd up his reverend head, 
But fear'd the fate of Simois would return : 
Deep in his ooze he sought his sedgy bed, 
And shrunk his waters back into his urn. 

245* arsnrus iterum Xanthus : the first conflict of Xanthus with the flames, 
as described by Homer, has just been referred to in the previous note. 

246. Maeandros *. Ovid more fully describes this wandering stream in Met, 
VIII, 162 and following, where he likens the Cretan Labyrinth to it. 

25 If 252. " And the swans, which had been wont to throng the Maeonian 
streams in tuneful company, were scorched in mid Cayster." 

254. in extremnm orbem : " to the ends of the earth." 

254, 255. The poetical accounting for the fact of the hidden sources of the 


255, 256. ostia aeptem, septem valles : a double reference to the delta of 

the Nile. 
257. Ismarios: understand amnes firom the next line. "The same mis- 
chance dries up the Thracian streams — Hebrus and Strymon." 


Page 100. — 264. et sparsas Cycladas augent : ue. as the mountain tops 
emerged from the sea more islands would come into being. 

272-275. " But now the all-fostering Earth, encircled as she was by sea, amid 
the waters of the deep, amid her fast-contracting streams which had 
crowded into the dark bowels of the earth and hidden there, though 
parched by heat, raised up her smothered face,'' etc. 

275. collo : H. 490, 2, note 3 (434 and note 4); M. 258, 3; A. 260, e ; G. 
413; Remark I, end; B. 142, 3; L. & M. 664. 

2S0. deum = deorum : she addresses Jove. 

280, 281. " If I must perish by the force of fire, let me perish by thy fire (light- 
ning), and ease my downfall by the thought of him who wrought it." 

So Nileus boastfully comforts Perseus with the thought that the im- 
pending death of the latter will be at the hands of a great man (V, 
191, 192) ; and Achelous (^MeL IX, 7) takes comfort in the fact that it 
was the mighty Hector who overcame him. 

286-289. The ^M^^-clauses of this passage are an expansion of the idea in 
officii, " Is this the reward of my fertility and the performance of all 
my duties? Is this the way you pay me for enduring," etc 

Page 101.— 291. frater: i>. Neptune. 

tradita sorte : the kingdom of Saturn had been divided by lot among 
his three sons, Jove, Neptune, and Pluto. Homer puts a description 
of this partition into the mouth of Neptune (Jliad^ XV, 235) : — 

Three parts were made of all existing things, 
And each of us received his heritage. 
The lots were shaken ; and to me it fell 
To dwell forever in the hoary deep, 
And Pluto took the gloomy realm of night. 
And lastly, Jupiter the ample heaven 
And air and clouds. 

293. fratris is coordinate with mea (z^mei); "regard neither for your 

brother nor for me." 

294. at : " at least." 

caeli : H. 457 (406, 1) ; M. 229; A. 221, a ; G. 377; B. 209, 2; L. & M. 586. 

295. quos: i,e, uterque polus, which stand by metonymy for the whole 


296. atria vestra : the home of the gods is here conceived of as built upon 

the vault of heaven as we see it. 

297. axem : i.g. caelum^ the vault of heaven. ^ 

299. in chaos, etc. : *' we are swept back again to primeval chaos." 

300. summae rerum : i.e, the universe. 

301. neque enim: some words are to be supplied here, such as ''and (she 

ceased speaking) for she could neither endure," etc 

p. I02] NOTES 331 

503. lettnlit 08 in 86 : Ovid is guilty here of an absurd and gross mixture 
of fiEict and figure. In the same sentence we have Terra and terra^ 
the one acting upon the other. Similarly, in XI, 125, Midas is said to 
mingle the '' bestower of his gift " (who was Bacchus, but the poet 
now means wine) with water. See also XII, 614. 

506. arduns is used here with the subject oi petite " on high," where we 
should more naturally expect the corresponding adverb with the verb. 

311. Ovid represents Jove in this passage as poising the thunderbolt at his 

right ear just as a soldier would poise a spear. 

312. paiiterque, etc. : " and hurled him equally from life and chariot." This 

is an instance of zeugma, which is common enough in Latin, but 
which sounds rather harsh to English ears. 
3i4f 315*. ^ 8^tu in contraria facto, etc.: '*and, leaping apart, wrench 
their necks from the yoke," etc. 

318. laceri vestigia currus : " the remains of the wrecked chariot." 

319. nitil08 : this epithet is used proleptically, since the hair would not be 

" ruddy" (because in flames) until the act xnpopulante had begun. 
Page 102. — 320. It has already been seen that Shakespeare makes frequent 
use of the Phagthon story. This particular incident well illustrates the 
downfiEdl of princes. So in King Richard 11^ III, ii : — 

Down, down I come ; like glistering Pha€ton, 
Wanting the manage of unruly jades. 

323. diverso orbe : " in another quarter of the globe." 

325. trifida fumantia flamma corpora: scan the line in order to connect 
the adjectives with their proper nouns, trifida carries us back to the 
forked lightning which had been the immediate cause of Phaethon's 
destruction, corpora is for corpus^ according to the usage of Ovid, who 
often writes the plural for the singular with no apparent reason. 

nL— It is a long way from the death of PhaSthon to the subject-matter 
^ the ensuing passage. The student should read carefully the epitome 
of the omitted part on pages 102 and 103, and observe the threads 
by which Ovid unites the various stories. Sometimes, it must be 
admitted, these threads are very slender. See also introduction to the 
Metamorphoses^ page 63. 

The stoiy of Cadmus and the founding of Thebes has an unusual 
importance, since it is closely connected with the historical problem 
of the relation of the East to the early development of Greece. 



[P. 102 

The story is told by ApoUonius Rhodius, ApoUodorus, and Nonnus 
of the Greeks ; and by Ovid and Hyginus {^Fabulae, 178) of the Latin 
writers. A genealogy of Cadmus is here given, which will be of assist* 
ance in the understanding of subsequent history of his family. (For 
descent of Agenor, see table under I, 728, note.) 

Mars = Venus 

I I 

Harmonia = Cadmus 






I I I I I 

Semele gave Ino Antonog Polydorus 

= Jupiter = Echion = Athamas = Aristaeus I 

I I I I I 

Bacchus Pentheus Melicertes Actaeon Labdacus 

Laius = Jocasta 


Jocasta = Oedipus 

I I I I 

Eteocles Polynices Antigone Ismene 

Page 103. — i. dcus: ue. Jove, 
posita = deposita, 

3. ignarus: "ignorant (of these circumstances)." 
perquirere : would this be the prose construction? 

4. Hyginus says that the two brothers of Cadmus were sent with him: 

Agenor suos Alios misit, ut sororem reducerent aut ipsi in suum con- 
spectum non redirent. Phoenix in Africam est profectus ibique reman- 
sit; inde Afri Poeni sunt appellati. Cilix suo nomine Ciliciae nomen 
indidit. Cadmus cum erraret, Delphos devenit, etc. 

5. plus et sceleratus : the father was plus in that he desired to recover his 

lost daughter; sceleratus in imposing commands so harsh upon his son. 
8. Phoebi oracula : ue» at Delphi. See Hyginus above. 
Page 104. — 9. et, quae sit tellus, etc. : " and seeks to learn in what land 

he should settle." With habitanda supply sibu 

12. hacduce: " under her guidance." 

et qua requieverit herba : " and where she shall have lain down to rest 
upon the grass." 

13. moenia fac condas: supply tU virith condas, " See that you build (your 

city's) walls." 

fiosl NOTES 33^ 

Boeotia (supposed to be derived from 60s) was the country in which 
the city was to be built, not the city itself. 
0-13. Hyginus gives a different version of this oracle : — 

Ibi responsum accepit, ut a pastoribus bovem emeret, qui Lunae signum 
in latere haberet, eumque antar se ageret ; ubi decubiusset, ibi latum esse 
eum oppidum condere et ibi regQ/ure. 

14. «* Hardly had Cadmus left the Castalian grotto when he saw," etc. This 

grotto was the seat of the Delphic oracle, named by Ovid from the 

famous Castalian spring near by. 
17. pressoque legit vestigia gressu: "and with guarded step he follows 

presso gressa : that the animal may be uninfluenced, and that fate may 

be unassisted. 
19. From Delphi to Panope is about eleven English miles; and from this 

point to the future site of Thebes about thirty miles, — a long way for 

one proceeding ** presso gressu." 
27. libandas undas : " water for purposes of libation." 
32. MartittS angais erat : here is the starting point of the evils which came 

thick upon the house of Cadmus — the slaying of the sacred serpent of 

35. " When the wayfarers of the Tyrian race had reached this grove with 

luckless steps." These were the ministri mentioned in line 26, who 
: had been sent to draw water. 
Page 105. — 42. et immensos, etc. : *' and with a spring he throws himself 

into huge curves." 
I simiatiir is us^d in the middle voice. 
4,3. ••And lifted high by more than half his length into the unsubstantial air." 

44, 45. This dragon is as large as the great constellation Draco, lying out- 
-^ • -■ stretched between the two Bears in the northern sky. 

.•44. tantocorpore: H. 473, 2 (419, II); M. 246; A. 251; G. 400; B. 224, 
. ; i; L.&M. 643. 

46. nec mora : supply est. 

45, 49. His powers of destruction are three-fold : his teeth, his constricting 

folds, and his pestilential breath. 
CI. ^Cadmus wonders what has delayed his comrades." 
^2, 53- leonis pellis : no particular lion is connected with the adventures of 
Cadmus, as in the case of Hercules; but a lion's skin of the hunter's 
own gaining is a natural accompaniment, half cloak, half shield (see 
line 81), of these traditional heroes. 
, c6w ** And the huge bodied victorious foe (lying) upon (them)." 
.;.: • MrperU: H. 440,3 (396, V); M.222; A.215; G.365; B.203; L.&M.558 


61, 62. cum tnrribiu ardna celsis moenia: ''high walls with their lofty 


62. mota forent = mota esseni. 

Page 106. — 67. f errom : ix. the iron head as opposed to the wooden shaft 

70. " And when, by violent effort, he had loosened this (f>. the shaft) all 

75, 76. quique halitos, etc.: "and such rank breath as exhales from the 

Stygian caves befouls the tainted air." 
yitiatas is another instance of prolepsis. See II, 319 and note. 
77. modo : correlates with interdum (78) and nunc (79). 
79. impete : from impes. Why could not Ovid have used the ablative of the 

more usual impetus in this place? 
83. cuspide : Cadmus was armed with a spear and a javelin, as seen in lines 

53, 54. The javelin has been burled (line 65), and its head Is buried 

in the creature's vitals (line 71). Cadmus now presents the point of 

his spear to the dragon's mouth, and attempts to thrust him through. 

87. quia se retrahebat, etc.: ''because he kept backing away from the 


88. plagamque sedere, etc.: "and by withdrawing prevented the stroke 

from being driven home." 

91. dum retro, etc : " until an oak tree stopped his (f.^. the serpent's) back- 

ward course." , 

92. The serpent is now pinned fast to the oak by the spear which pierces both. 

94. flagellari : for the force of the infinitive see H. 614 (535, III) ; M. 273, 4; 

A. 333. ^\ G. 533; B. 331, V; L. & M. 964. 

95. victor victi : it is quite in Ovid's style to bring these words together. 

See The Poetic Form of Ovid*s Works, under the subject AUiteratien^ 
Assonance^ and kindred effects. 
Page 107. — 96. neque erat cognoscere, etc: "nor was it easy to tell 
whence it came." The voice may be that of Mars, whose wrath has 
been incurred by the death of his sacred dragon. Ovid nowhere dis- 
tinctly refers to the wrath of Mars, but Hyginus (Fabuiae, 6) says : — 

Cadmus ira Martis, quod draconem fontis CastaUi custodem ocdderat. 
suorum prole interempta, cum Harmonia Veneris et Martis filia uxore sua, . 
in Illyriae regionibus in dracones sunt conversi. 

98. et tu spectabere serpens: it is obvious that Ovid uses the awkward 
spectabere, which means here nothing more than eris or JUs, simply 
because he has already used spectas. 

The fulfillment of this prophecy is described by Ovid in lines 563- 
603. See epitome on page 118. It will there be observed that the 

p. io8] NOTES 335 

change came at the request of the royal pair. This is not, therefore, 
itself the punishment for the act of Cadmus; the punishment is in the 
long train of disaster which makes the change welcome. Hence, ref- 
erences to this metamorphosis are in a rather pleasing vein. So in 
Milton {Paradise Lost, IX) : — 

Pleasing was his (f>. Satan's) shape, 
And lovely; never since of serpent kind 
Lovelier, not those that in Illyria changed 
Hermione and Cadmus. 

And Matthew Arnold {Cadmus and Harmomd)\'^ 

Two bright and aged snakes, 
Who once were Cadmus and Harmonia, 
Bask in the glens, or on the warm seashore, 
In breathless quiet after all their ills. 

I02. motaeqae iabet, etc.: *<and she bids him plow the earth and plant 
therein the dragon's teeth." 

105. mortalia semina : " a man-producing seed." 

106. fide maius : " a thing beyond belief." 

111-I14. The curtain {aulaeuni) of the ancient theater was fixed upon a 
roller let into the masonry of the floor in front of the stage. See 
Horace, Epistles, II, i, 189: "The curtain is kept down for more than 
four hours," i»e. the stage is in view of the spectators during that time. 
To " raise the curtain," therefore, had just the opposite effect to that 
in the modem theater. The curtain was decorated by various figures 
(sigtm), as, fc)r.jpstance, those of men. When, at the conclusion of 
the play, the curtain was unrolled, or raised, these figures would come 
into view top first. The appropriateness of this simile to Ovid's narra- 
tive is at once apparent. 

III. testis: because these theatrical performances were given on festal days, 
as part of a religious celebration in honor of some god. 

113. placidoque educta, etc.: "and (at length), drawn up with steady 
motion, the entire figures stand revealed." 

117. ciTilibus bellis,: " this fratricidal strife." 

lao. dederat: for object, understand i7/m/^/, from the following ii/o. 

122. ezemplo pari : ** in the same way." 

123. Sttbiti: referring to the manner of their birth. 

Page 108. — 125. matrem: it should be remembered that these brothers 

were terrigenae (line 118). 
126. Bchion: Hyginus {Fabulae, 178) gives the names of the other four: 

Ek quibus quinque superfuerunt, id est Chthonius, Udaeus, H}rperenor, 

Pdoras, et Eduon. 


128. fraternae = cum fratribus. 

1 29. Sidoniiis hospes : Agenor, the father of Cadmus, was king of Sidon. 

130. Phoebeis sortibns = sortibus Phoebi. See line 13. 

1 32. ezsilio : has a concessive as well as locatival force — " even in exile." 
Mars Venusqoe : see genealogical table under note at beginning of Book 

135-137. Compare with this the solemn words with which the Oedipus Rex 

of Sophocles closes, and which Ovid doubtless recalled as he wrote 

these lines : — ^ , . , 

From hence the lesson learn ye, 

To reckon no man happy till ye witness 

The closing day ; until he pass the border 

^\llich severs life from death, unscathed by sorrow. 

Page 109. — 402 and following. The story of Narcissus is told most fully by 
Ovid, and is briefly touched upon by Hyginus. A different and more 
rational version is told by Pausanias. The story has taken strong hold 
upon the poetic imagination of English writers. Keats (Misceiiaruous 
Poems) gives an exquisite fancy picture of the origin of this story. 
Compare his description of the natural scenery with Ovid's : — 

What first inspired a bard of old to sing 
Narcissus pining o'er the untainted spring? 
In some delicious ramble, he had found 
A little space, with boughs all woven round; 
And in the midst of all, a clearer pool 
Than e'er reflected in its pleasant cool 
The blue sky, here and there serenely peeping, 
Through tendril wreaths fantastically creeping. 
And on the bank a lovely flower he spied, 
A meek and forlorn flower, with naught of pride. 
Drooping its beauty o'er the watery clearness, 
To woo its own sad image into nearness : 
Deaf to light Zephyrus, it would not move ; 
But still would seem to droop, to pine, to love. 
So while the poet stood in this sweet spot, 
Some fainter gleamings o'er his fancy shot; 
Nor was it long e'er he had told the tale 
Of young Narcissus and sad Ekiho's Vale. 

402. hanc : i.e. echo. 

405. sic amet, etc. : '< so may he himself love, and not gain the thing he 

407-412. Ovid is fond of such a scene. See a similar description in An 

Amatoria^ III, 687-694. 

p. Ill] NOTES 337 

414. faciemque loci fontemque secutus : the first -que is redundant. " At- 
tracted by the appearance of the place and by the spring." 

432-436. The poet himself here addresses the person of his creating. He 
has done this before in Ars Amatoria^ III, 735, and Fasti^ II, loi. 
This is an indication of the absorbing interest of Ovid in his own 
story. It is as if one in the audience should cry out to a character on 
the stage, forgetting that it is but a play. 

433. quod amas, avertere, perdes : " (but) turn yourself away (and) the 
object of your love will be no more." 

Page 110. — 435. nil habet ista sui: " it has no substance of its own." 

436. discedet, si possis : the statement starts out vividly in the future indic- 
ative, but sinks to a mere possibility at the end. This possibility itself 
vanishes in the next sentence. 

449. nec clausis moenia portis : '' nor city walls with their close shut gates." 

452. resupino ore: "with upturned face." 

454. tinice : because unmatched for grace and beauty. 

457. "You give me some (ground for) hope by your friendly face." 

461. " And, as I surmise from the movement of your sweet lips." 

463. It dawns suddenly upon him that the object of his passion is his own 

image. In Milton (^Paradise Lost^ IV) Eve relates to Adam a similar 
experience of her own : — 

As I bent down to look, just opposite 

A shape within the watery gleam appeared, 

Bending to look on me ; I started back, 

It started back ; but pleased I soon returned. 

Pleased it returned as soon with answering looks 

Of sympathy and love ; there I had fixed 

Mine eyes till now, and pined with vain desire, 

Had not a voice thus warned me : " What thou seest, 

What there thou seest, fair creature, is thyself; 

With thee it comes and goes." 

464. flammas moveoque feroque : the reader will observe throughout this 

story how Ovid revels in these paradoxes. Many will doubtless feel 
that he overdoes the matter. 

465; faciam, roger, rogem : examples of the familiar deliberative subjunc- 
tive. How has the thought changed so as to allow the indicative in 
rogabOf whereas the preceding verbs were in the subjunctive mode? 

Page 111. — 466. " I have, I am what I desire : the abundance of my 
riches beggars me." 
Spenser (^Amoretii, XXXV) boldly borrows this fine passage : — 

My hungry eyes, through greedy covelize 
Still to behold the object of their paine, 
OVID — 22 


ImTM) no oontentment csn thfjinifthres snffijBS 
Bot baTing, pine, and having not complaine. 
For lacking it, they cannot lyfe sustayne ; 
And having it, they gaie on it the more. 
In their amazement lyke Narcissus vaine, 
\\liose eyes him starv'd : soplatfy makes mepotrg, 

468. TOtnm nOTum : in apposition with veOem, etc 
abesaet : supply ut. This clause is the object of veUem» 

469. nee tempera yitae, etc. : " and but few days of my life remain." 
471. positnro morte dolores : " since I shall lay aside my pains in death." 
475. obscnra reddita fonna est : *' the image was imperfectly reflected." 
478. quod tangere non est : '< what it is not possible to touch." 

480. somma vestem didiudt ab ora: "he plucked away his tonic at 
(from) its upper fold," or " from the upper part (of his breast)." 

483-485. Compare similar descriptive similes in Ars AmatoriOf III, 703-706. 

486. simtil = simul ac, 

494. quae : i.e. echo. Vidit has for its object the unexpressed conception of 
the sufferings of Narcissus. 

Page 112. — 499. " His last words as he gazed into the familiar spring were 

501. The first vale is in absolute construction with dicto and is not to be 

504, 505. It was bad enough to have the shade of Eurydice limping still 
because of her earthly wound (J^ei. X, 49) ; but this passage out- 
Ovids Ovid, wherein a shade is represented as gazing fondly upon the 
shade of a shade. It is a good example of the absurdity into which 
the poet is sometimes led in his tendency to overwork an idea. 

509, 510. This flower is what is termed in botany Narcissus poeticus, "It 
loves the borders of streams; bending on its fragile stem, it seems to 
seek its own image in the waters, and soon fades away and dies." 

Page 113. — IV, 55 and following. The story of Pyramus and Thisbc is 
told in full only by Ovid of the ancients, and is one of his best told 
tales. From Ovid, Chaucer and Shakespeare get the story/ one of 
whom introduces Thisbe as the martyr of Babylon in his Legend of 
Good Women, and the other uses the story as byplay in the Midsum- 
mer Night^s Dream. And again Thisbe appears in the great dram* 
atist's lines {Merchant of Venice^ V, i) : — 

In such a night 
Did Thisbe fearfully o'er trip the dew 
And saw the lion's shadow ere himselt 
And ran dismay*d away. 

p. 115] NOTES 339 

59. notitiam primosque gradus : hendiadys, " the first steps of acquaintance." 

62. ez aequo: << equally." 

63. conscins: i,e. some third person, a frequent feature of clandestine love 

affairs, who acts as a go-between. 
65, 66. " The party wall of the two houses had been split by a slender crack 

which it had at some former time received when it was building." 
74. quantum = quantulum : ** how small a thing it would have been." 

erat: H. 583 (511, note 3); M. 368; A. 311, ^; G. 254, Rem. 2; B. 

304, 3 ; L. & M. 940. 

77. This substantive quod-clause is the object of debere, 

78. nequiquam is to be read with diversd. It was to no purpose that they 

were kept apart by their parents. 

79. 80. partique dedere, etc. : " and imprinted kisses, each one upon his 

own side of the wall." 
Page 114. — 87. neve sit errandum: ''and that they may not run the risk 
of missing each other." 
spatiantibus : used as substantive, dative of apparent agent with sit 

88. ad busta Nini: so in Shakespeare's buslesque, Flute, as Thisbe, says: 

"1*11 meet thee, Pyramus, at Ninny's tomb"; and is corrected by 
Quince: "Ninus* tomb, man." Ninus was the deceased husband of 
Semiramis, who in his honor had built a huge tomb outside of Babylon. 

89, 90. In this way Ovid prepares the way for the denouement of his story. 

For a similar preparation see Ars Amatoria, III, 693 and note. 

98. depositura sitim : " to slake her thirst." 

99. ad lunae radios : " by the moonlight." 

100. ioi« f&git, fi&git : what tense in each verb? Why different? 

103. sine ipsa : " without Thisbe herself; " that is, it was a perfectly harm- 
less act, but direful in its consequences. 

1 10. egOy te, etc. : " I have been the cause of thy death, poor girl, in that I 
bade thee come forth by night," etc. What would be the prose con- 
struction of venires f 

Page 115. — 115. "But 'tis a coward's part (merely) to pray for death." 
See a similarly constructed sentence in Met. XIII, 824, except that 
there the infinitive numerare has not the pregnant force " merely to 

117. notae with vesti\ "the familiar garment." 

118. hanstus: "draughts." 

119. The prose order would be: ferrumque^ quo accinetus erat, in ilia 

131. humo : locative abl., poetic for in humo, here used as a variation upon 
the more frequent Aj««f — " upon the ground." 


1 23. et tenoi stridente f oramine : " and through the slender hissing aperture 
spurts forth long streams of water, and cleaves the air with its jets." 

131, 132. "And while she recognized the form of the tree as she gazed upon 
it, still the color of its fruit mystified her." 

136. summuin {aequor) : " its surface." See simile in HeroideSj X, 139. 

Page 116.— 147. ense: H. 465 (414, III); M. 237, 2; A. 243, d\ G. 390, 
3; B. 214, I, d\ U & M. 604. 

148. ebur : i.e, the ivory scabbard. 

150. manus, amor: these are repeated from line 148. "I too have a hand 

that's brave for this one act; I too have love." 
in YUlnera has a purpose force, frequent with the prepositions ad and in 
with the accusative. 

151. persequar eztinctum : understand/?. " I shall follow thee in death." 

154. hoc: H. 411, I (374, I); M. 192, 2; A. 239, 2, c, note 2; G. 399, 

note 4; B. 178, 2; L. & M. 522, 523. This is expanded and explained 
by hues 156, 157. 

155. meus illiusque parentes: the full expression would be mi par em 

(^ — pater) illiusque parens. Since its substantive is not expressed, 
meus has the nominative instead of the vocative form. 

156. 157. ut non invideatis: non is to be taken intimately with the verb, 

and separated as far as possible from ut (see Ovid's arrangement), in 
order to justify ut non instead of ne, " Be entreated of us that you 
be not unwilling," etc. 
166. "And all that remains from (both) funeral pyres rests in a common urn." 

Page 117. — 432. funesta taxo : the yew tree, because of its poisonous ber- 
ries, was connected with the Lower World. So Seneca (^Oedipus^ 555) 
represents Tiresias as crowned with a wreath of yew leaves while sum- 
moning the shade of Laius from the dead. 

435. simulacra functa sepulcris: "shades of those who have received 
funeral rites." Vergil explains {Aeneid, VI, 325-330) at some length 
the unhappy condition of the shades of the unburied. 

436-438. novique qua sit iter, etc. : " and the shades newly arrived know 
not where the road is, where it leads to the Stygian city, and where is 
the dread palace of the swarthy Dis." 

441, 442. nec ulli, etc. : "and it is not too small for any people (however 
numerous), nor does it feel the accession of a throng." 

444. celebrant: "throng." 

445. There is some authority (though not the best) for the following line at 

this point •. — 

Exercent, aliam partem sua poena cofircet 

p. 117] NOTES 341 

If this line is admitted, /^rj (1. 445) will be construed as the subject 
of exercent; without this line, pars must be taken along with pars of 
line 444 as subject of celebrant. In this case we have zeugma. 
antiquae imitamina vitae : there are many expressions of the Roman 
belief that ''the ruling passion is strong in death,'' and that habits of 
this life will continue in the next. See Met III, 504, 505; AmoreSy 
II, vi, 57, 58. So Vergil {Aeneid, VI, 477-493) describes the shades 
of Greek and Trojan warriors as engaging in all the exercises to which 
they were accustomed on earth, and subject to the same passions and 

448. tantum : i,e, the task mentioned in the previous line. 

452. sorores : the Furies. 

454. This is simply another way of saying that snakes were mingled with 

their locks. Wordsworth {Excursion, III) thinks that this is a weak 
conception of the Furies : — 

: : - Feebly must they have felt 

Who, in old time, attired with snakes and whips 
; _ The vengeful Furies. 

455. agnbrnnt = agnoverunt, 

457-463. Here are briefly enumerated the stock sufferings in Tartara: of 
Tityos, whose huge frame is stretched out upon the ground, while his 
vitals are torn by a vulture ; of Tantalus, who, though standing up to 
his chin in water, is dying of thirst, for the water ever flees his eager 
lips, while above his head also luscious fruit hangs temptingly just 
beyond his reach ; of Sisyphus, forever rolling a heavy stone up a hill, 
and forever unable to reach the top, for the stone escapes his grasp 
each time at the moment of success; of Ixion, bound to a swiftly 
revolving wheel ; of the Belides, condemned to fill a bottomless cistern 
with water borne in sieves. 

458. tibi: H. 431, 6 (388, 4); A. 232, /5; G. 354, note i; B. 189,3; L.&M.545. 

461. bdon : two excellent similes are drawn from the picture of the sufferings 
of Ixion. To Campbell {Lines on revisiting a Scotch River) the wheel 
is the never ceasing necessity of toil : — 

See, left but life enough and breathing room 

The hunger and the hope of life to feel, 

Yon pale mechanic bending o'er his loom. 

And childhood's self, as at Ixion 's wheel. 

From mom till midnight task'd to earn its little meal. 

And to Kingsley {Frank LeigJCs Song) the wheel is the reeling 
. ; . torment of unrequited love : — 


To worship, not to wed, Celestials bid me: 
I dreamt to mate in heaven, and wake in hell ; 
Forever doom'd, Ixion-like, to reel 
On mine own passions' ever burning wheel. 

Page 118. — 462, 463. "And the Belides, for daring to work destmction to 
their cousins, with unremitting toil seek o*er and o'er the waters only 
to lose them again.'' Juno looked with pleasure, no doubt, upon the 
punishment of these, not so much because they had each been guilty 
of an impious murder, but because they were descendants of the hated 
lo. (See genealogy under Aff/, I, 728, note.) So it is said in Iferoides, 
XIV, 85, 86, by Hypermnestra, the only guiltless sister : — 

Scilicet ex illo lunonia permanet ira. 
Quo bos ex homine est, ex bove facta dea. 

463. perdant: it seems weak to consider this a relative clause of purpose. 
It is rather a /a/ec/ than a purposed act. 

465. et ante omnes Ixiona : " and especially Ixion." He is suffering here 
because of an offense against the honor of Juno herself. 

466-469. Sisyphus and Athamas were brothers, sons of Aeolus, and were 
both equally guilty of impiety. Juno's complaint is that one should 
be here in torment, while the other is enjoying immunity from punish- 
ment. The truth is, however, that the only offense of Athamas was 
that he had married Ino, the sister of the hated Semele, mother of 

470. vellet: this is subjunctive, partly as a reflection of the immediately 

preceding velit (which is in an indirect question), and partly as a 
subjunctive of softened or modest assertion. 

471. et in f acinus, etc.: "and that the sisters (i./. the Furies) should 

drive Alhamas to madness." On the fate of Athamas, read Frederick 
Tennyson's poem, King Athamas, 
474. ut erat : " just as she was." Ovid is fond of this expression. See Heroides^ 
X, 16, and Ars Amaioria^ I, 529 (quoted under Heroides, X, 21-23). 
canos capillos : H. 416 (378); M. 198; A. 240, r; G. 338, i; B. 180,1. 
L. &M. 510. 

476. ambagibus: H. 477, III (414, IV); M. 252; A. 243, e\ G. 406; 

B. 218, 2; L. & M. 646. 

477. facta puta, etc. : " consider done all that you ask." 

480. Juno needed this purification, since she had just come from the world 
of the dead. On Iris, the attendant of Juno, see Met. I, 270, and note. 

Page 119. — 663 and following. Ovid passes lightly over the events which 
lead to the present story : how Cassiopeia, the ¥dfe of Cepheus, king 

p. "9] NOTES 343 

of Aethiopia, had boasted of her own beauty as excelling that of the 
Nereides ; how Neptune, to avenge this slight upon his nymphs, had 
flooded the country, and sent a sea monster to ravage the coasts ; and 
how the oracle of Jupiter Ammon had declared that further disaster 
could be averted only if Andromeda, the king^s daughter, should be 
exposed to the monster. 

The story is briefly told among the ancients other than Ovid by 
ApoUodorus and Hyginus. For the genealogy of both Perseus and 
Andromeda, see Met, I, 728, note. In English literature reference 
18 often made to the character and incidents of this story. The most 
extended English version is the Andromeda of Kingsley, in which the 
author departs considerably from the classical details. 

663. Ovid calls attention to the calm that usually accompanies the dawn. 

664. admonitor operum Lucifer : Longfellow conceives not of the dawn as 

awakening labor, but of labor as arousing the dawn i^Evangeline^ 

Life had long been astir in the village, and clamorous labor 
Knocked with its htmdred hands at the golden gates of the morning. 

665. ille : 1.^. Perseus. 

666. parte ab ntraqne pedem = utrumque pedem, 
accingitur is used in a middle sense, " he girds himself." 

telo unco : this was the short sword, with a peculiar hooklike projection 
on one side (harpe), which Mercury had given him. He was other- 
wise equipped with winged shoes, a magic wallet, and helmet of 
invisibility, all of which the nymphs had given him. But his chief 
weapon, used only as the last resort, was Medusa's head. 
670,671. "There the pitiless Anmion had bidden Andromeda, though free 
from guilt, to pay the penalty of her mother's (sinful) words." See 
line 663, and note ; also Milton, // Penseroso : — 

Or that starred Ethiop queen that strove 

To set her beauty's praise above 

The sea nymphs, and their powers offended. 

672. bracchia : for construction, see capillos, line 474, note. 

673. Abantiades : i,e, Perseus, the descendant of Abas. 

nisi quod moverat, etc. : " except that," etc. This clause is equivalent 

to the conditional sentence nisi movisset^ etc., the conclusion of which 

is ratus esset, 
675, inscins : either, " in ignorance of the meaning of this strange sight and 

of the identity of the maiden," or, " without consciousness of the effect 

upon himself," "unwittingly." 
i^neS! understand amoris. 


678. ut stetit: "when he alighted (near the maiden).'* 

679. sed (jis catenis digna) quibus, etc. 

680. reqnirenti : understand mihi, 

682. virum virgo : this is one of Ovid's numberless alliterations; but in this 
instance the juxtaposition has more than the usual significance, espe- 
cially when joined with the position in the sentence of these two words. 
They are contrasted and strongly emphasized : " Nor does she, being a 
maiden, dare to address him, a man.'* 

685-688. " As he continues to urge her, she, lest she seem to be trying to 
conceal some fault of her own, tells him her name and her country, 
and what boastful confidence her mother has had in her own beauty." 

687. maternae fiducia formae : see line 663, note. 

689, 690, and 706, 707. Ovid thus describes what is the most thrilling 
moment in the whole story from a dramatic point of view — the 
approach of the monster. Considering the importance of this crisis, it 
would seem that Ovid has given it rather meager notice in his lines, 
^ee how Vergil treats a similar occasion, though not as important dra- 
matically as the present, where he describes the approach of the two 
serpents that destroyed Laocoon and his sons {^Aeneid^ II, 203-212). 
Compare also Kingsley's elaboration of this passage, wherein he makes 
use of Ovid's simile of the ship (^Andromeda) : — 

Onward it came from the southward, as bulky and black as a galley, 
Lazily coasting along, as the fish fled leaping before it ; 
Lazily breasting the ripple, and watching by sand bar and headland, 
Listening for laughter of maidens at bleaching, or song of the fisher, 
Children that play on the pebbles, or cattle that pawed on the sand hills. 
Rolling and dripping it came, where bedded in glistening purple 
Cold on the cold seaweeds lay the long white sides of the maiden. 
Trembling, her face in her hands, and her tresses afloat on the water. 

Page 120. — 691, 692. genitor, mater: the parents of Andromeda. 

ilia iustius: because through her sin her daughter is thus exposed to 

697-701. Perseus sets forth his claims to the hand of Andromeda first: by 
virtue of his own birth and prowess, which are all-sufhcient in them- 
selves. " If I sought her (only) as the son of Jove and her whom," 

697, 698. ilia, quam clausam: i,e, DanaS, whom her father, Acrisius, fearing 
destruction at the hands of her offspring, had imprisoned in a brazen 
tower. This precaution, however, proved in vain, for Jove gained 
access to her prison, which opened to the sky, by assuming the form of 
a golden shower. 

] NOTES 345 

03; But he now advances a greater claim than these — meritmn, the 
** desert ** of service rendered by saving the maiden's life. ■ 
" My only stipulation is that she be mine if by my valor saved." 
super regnnm dotale : " a kingdom as a dowry in addition." 
71a ** He (the monster) was as far distant from the rocks (where An- 
dromeda was) as is the space of open air through which a Balearic 
sling can send its hurled bullet (lit., can traverse with its bullet)." 
tantomr H. 417(379); M. 196; A. 257; G. 335; B. 181; L. &M. 513. 
qnantiun : is object of transmitiere, and caeli is partitive genitive with 
14. vtqiie loyis praepes, etc.: so Horace {Odes^ IV, iv, 11) Ukens the 
dudden campaign of Drusus against the Vindelici to the swoop of an 
eagle upon its prey. Kingsley compares Perseus at this point to an 
osprey darting upon a dolphin. 

715. pcaebentem Phoebo terga : 1.^. sunning himself. 

716. oCCtipAt aversum : " swoops upon him from behind." 
718. missus praeceps: to be taken with Inachides (line 720). 
7'9. frementis: understand /rr^^. 

Page 121. — 720. Inachides : ue, Perseus, the descendant of Inachus. See 
table under I, 728, note. 
fermm CIUTO, etc. : " he plunged the sword as far as the curved hook." 
See line 666, note. 

721. laesa: t.^. the monster. 

7^5* ^naqae patent: "and where they (t.^. the various vulnerable points) 
lie exposed." 

7^7- talcato ense: the sword is czWtd falcaius^ because of the feature before 

730. bibnlis: i,e. the wings on his sandals were in danger of becoming 
soaked, and hence useless. 

^^'» 732. qui Ycrtice, etc. : " whose top projects above the surface when the 
waves are still, (but) is hidden by the roughened sea." Compare Ver- 
gil's fuller description of a similar scene (Atueid, V, 124-128). 

^^ to: H. 476, 3 (425, I, I) note); M. 247, 3, note i; A. 254, 6; G. 401, 
note 6; B. 218, 3; L. & M. 629. 

'*^ The inference is that the monster is slain by the use of the sword alone. 
According to another version of this part of the story, Perseus changed 
his enemy into a rocky island by presenting to his gaze the Medusa 
head. Kingsley follows the latter version : — 

Then fell the boy on the beast, unveiling the face of the Gorgon ; 
Then fell the boy on the beast ; then rolled up the beast in his horror, 
Once, as the dead eyes glared into his ; then his sides, death-sharpened, 
Stiffened and stood, brown rock, in the wash of the wandering water. 


736. impleyere : is plural because cum piausu clamor is felt as equal to 
clamor plaususque. 
gandent : i,e, the parents of Andromeda. 

741. caput: i.e, the Gorgon's head. 

742. virgas: seaweed. 

743. imponit : supply illis (virgis). 

744-752. The origin of coral; ue. petrified seaweed. 

748. et idem contingere gandent : ** and are delighted that the same result 

is obtained (in case of all)." 
751. " So that they become hard on contact with the air." 

Page 122. — V, 177. "But when he saw (his own) strength no match for 

(the) superior numbers (of his foes)." 
179. ab hoste: i.e. the head of Medusa. 

181. Perseus is tauntingly bidden to try his play magic on some one else. 
185. Lyncidae: i.e, Perseus, as the descendant of Lynceus. See under 1, 

728, note. 
187, 188. qui se genitum, etc.: "who falsely claimed that he was sprung 

from the sevenfold Nile." 
septemplice : referring to the Nile delta of seven mouths. See II, 255, 


191. solacia: it will be observed that Ovid frequently employs the poetic 

plural. See or a above (line 180). 

192. a tanto cecidisse viro: this is the magna solacia of the previous 

line. With the thought, compare II, 280, 281, note. 

195. hos : Eryx does not realize that these have been changed into stone, 
so lifelike are their attitudes; and he charges them that their stupe- 
faction comes from fear (" defect of courage ") rather than from any 
power in the Gorgon's head. 

Page 123. — 196. incurrite: supply itweni or in iuvcnem, 

197. magica arma : uttered in unbelieving scorn, just as miracula of line 181. 

202. " Saw the Gorgon's head, and hardened as the stony influence spread 
through his frame." 

207. longa mora est dicere : " it would take a long time to tell," etc. 

208. corpora : i.e. homines. 

210. Phinea belli: H. 457 (409, III); M. 229; A. 221, b\ G. 377; B. 209; 

L. & M. 585. 
212,213. quemque opem: H. 411 (374); M. 192, 2; A. 239, 2, <:; G. 

339, a; B. 178, I, a; L. & M. 522. 
213. credens parum: "hardly believing (his eyes)." 
215. confessas manus : by an artistic stroke Ovid joins confessas with manus, 

since it is the outstretched hands that confess defeat and implore mercy. 

p. 124] NOTES 347 

216, 217. monstra, Toltus: see line 191, note. 

217. quaeciunqne ea may be either ''whatsoever things they are," 1./. the 

general concepts involyed in monstra and vultus; or, ''whosoever she 

(Medttsa) is." Supply sint or jiV, according to the interpretation 

22a The strength of Perseus' claims to Andromeda lay in his superior 

service in her behalf; the claim of Phineus was based on a prior 

promise by her parents to him. 
221. cessisse: supply /t^'. 

223. talia dicenti : " as he thus spoke." 

224. ait : ue, Perseus. 

225. magnum mmiiss: the "boon" is explained in the next line — nullo 

violabere ferro ; he is not to be slain by the sword. Perhaps also the 

ironical three lines following are included in this. 
Page 124. — 230. Phorcynida : ue, Medusam = caput Medusae, 
zyi, conanti, etc. : " as he strove to avert his gaze," etc. 

341. prima Ceres, etc.: this opening praise of Ceres recalls the lines of 
Vergil in the same strain {Georgics, I, 147). 

The story of Ceres and Proserpina, or, according to the Greek 
names, Demeter and Persephone, is very old, and has been frequently 
treated both by Greek, Latin, and modern writers. Among the Greeks 
it is found in the Homeric H)rmns (V), in Hesiod {Theogony)^ in 
Apollodorus and ApoUonius Rhodius ; among the Romans writers who 
have treated of the subject are Ovid, who, in addition to his story at 
this place, has told it at still greater length in the Fasti (IV, 417-620) ; 
Hyginus (^Fabulae^ 146)* Statius {Ackilleis), and Claudian (in his 
epic poem, De Raptu Proserpinae), 

It is worth while to notice the interesting variations of detail in 
Hyginus : — 

Pluton petit ab love Proserpinam filiam eius et Cereris in coniugium. 
lovis negavit Cererem passuram ut filia sua in tartaro tenebricoso sit, sed 
iubet eum rapere earn floras legentem in monte Aetna ; in quo Proserpina 
dum flores cum Venere et Diana et Minerva legit, Pluton quadrigis venit et 
earn rapuit. 

It has inspired the English writers not only to passing mention, but 
also to entire poems. Thus Shelley {Song of Proserpine), Tennyson 
(^Demeter and Persephone)^ Rossetti (Sonnet), Jean Ingelow (^Perse- 
phone), Aubrey de Vere (The Search after Proserpina)^ Morris 
{Persephone in Epic of Hades) ^ Swinburne (Hymns to Proserpine), 
346. Giganteis membris: the Pierides had sung of the rebelliou oC tha 


Giants (see page 124, analysis of omitted parts), dwelling especially 

upon the terror of the Gods. The Muses begin their song by a picture 

of the final discomfiture and punishment of the Giants. 
34S-355. In Vergil it is Enceladus who is thus buried under Aetna, though 

not under all Sicily, as Ovid here describes Typhoeus {Aett(id,l\i, 

Page 125. — 356. inde : i,e, on account of these struggles. 

rex silentum: Pluto, son of Chronos (Saturn), and brother of Jupiter, 

Neptune, Juno, and Ceres. 
362. "After he had investigated to his satisfaction, and found that no portions 

(of the island) were giving way." 
368. When Chronos withdrew from the sovereignty of the universe, his three 

sons, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, shared the kingdom by lot. Homer 

puts the following account of this event in the mouth of Neptune 

(//iW, XV, 235):- 

Three parts were made of all existing things, 
And each of us received his heritage. 
The lots were shaken ; and to me it fell 
To dwell forever in the hoary deep, 
And Pluto took the gloomy realm of night. 
And, lastly, Jupiter the ample heaven 
And air and clouds. 

novissima : it is here stated that Pluto's lot was " last." But, accordi^^S 
to Homer, as seen above, it was Jove who came last. 

371. quid Tartara cessant: "why does the realm of shades hold off?" **** 

" why is it exempt from our power? " 

372. agitur : " is at stake." 

373. quae = /a/is : " such is our long-suffering." 

376. mihi: 11.428,2(385,11,2); M. 211; A. 229; G. 345, Rem. i; 

188, 2, d', L. & M. 537. 
Cereris filia : Proserpina. 

377. erit : i.e. " will continue to be," " will remain." 

378. siqua est ea gratia = siqua eius regni gra/ia est tiH : " if you have m^ 

regard for this joint sovereignty of ours." 

379. deam patruo: i.e. Proserpina and Pluto. See line 356, note. 

Page 126. — 385, 386. In prose order, Haud procul ab Hennaeis (= H^^ 

nae) ntoenibus es/ lac us aquae al/ae nomine Fergus, 
386, 387. The prose order would be, Cays/ros plura carmina cycnorum UA^^ 

tibus in undis non audi/ illo (= quam ille lacus audi/), 
388, 389. suis frondibus ut velo: "with its foliage as with an awnin^^ 

The Romans were familiar with the huge awnings stretched over i^-^ 

open amphitheater as a pxolecWoii ^tom Ibe sun. 

p. 126] 



391. Milton uses this fair scene in comparison with the beauty of Eden {Par- 
adise Lost, IV) : — 

Not that £iir field 
Of Enna, where Proserpine gathering flowers, 
Herself a fEiirer flower, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered, which cost Ceres all that pain 
To seek her through the world ; . . . 

might with the Paradise 

Of Eden strive. 

396. usque adeo : " to such a degree," <* so." 

398. et ut somma, etc. : " and as (since) she had torn her garment at its 

upper edge." 

399. Shakespeare (^Winter's Tale, IV, iv) makes this scene more real by 

naming the flowers: — 

O Proserpina, 
For the flowers now, that frighted thou let'st fall 
From Dis's wagon ! daffodils . . violets . . 
. . primroses . . oxlips . . lilies. 



* he urges on his 

" And such was the innocence of her girlish years." 
quemque : resolves equos into its component parts : 

horses, calling each by name." 
stagna Palicomm : the god is pursuing a southeasterly course, and is 

now halfway between Henna (in the center of Sicily) and Syracuse (on 

the southeast coast). 

Near the temple of 

the Palici (sec vocab.) 

were two pools of hot 

sulphureous water. 
Tupta ferventia terra: 

'* boiling up from (or 

in) a crevice of the 

earth." The language 

of the whole passage 

is descriptive of a vol 

canic region. 
407-410. Ovid is in these 

lines describing an- 
cient Syracuse (con- 
fined originally to the 

island of Ortygia 

alone). The lines will be easily understood by reference to the accom- 
panying map of Syracuse and its environment. 



408. inaeqiiAles portus : these were the '* Great Harbor ** and the '* Little 

Harbor." See map. 
moenia : ue, of Syracuse in Ortygia. 

409, 410. " There is between (mediutn) Cyane and Pisaean Arethusa a bay 

of the sea (aequor)^ which, confined by enclosing points of land, 
brings its waters to a narrow strait (^cci/)" This aequor is the "Great 
Harbor," between Arethusa on the island and Cyane on the mainland. 
Pisaeae Arethusae : for explanation of this epithet and history of Are- 
thusa, see Unes 577-641, in which the nymph tells her own story. 
411,412. The prose order is: Hie ("near here") JuU Cyane, ceUberritna 
inter Sicelidas nymphas, a cuius nomine stagnum quoque dictum est, 

413. gurgite : i.e. in her own pool. 

summa tenus alvo : " as far as the waist" 

414. deam: i.e. Proserpina. Pluto is now nearing the coast with his fair 


Page 127. — 415. roganda, non rapienda fiat: "she (the maiden) should 
have been wooed, not snatched away by force." 

418. exorata, exterrita : " prevailed upon by prayer, and not by fear." 

420. Satumius : for the epithet, see line 356, note. 

424. pronos currus: "the down-rushing chariot.'' Again Ovid uses the 
plural for the singular. 
cratere : i,e, the basin of the pool of Cyane. 

431. primaque de tota : " and first of all." 

437. The metamorphosis is complete, and the goddess of the pool is no 
longer an entity separate from its waters. 

Page 128. — 465. mutata : i,e. from a nymph into water. 

467. nee quo, etc. : " nor had she any means wherewith to speak.** 

477, 478. saeva vertentia aratra manu : note the quantity of the final 
vowels, as shown by the rhythm of the lines, and assign the epithets to 
their proper nouns. Observe the symmetrical arrangement, and com- 
pare with Ovid's favorite interlocked order, which would be obtained 
in this case by transposing the order of the substantives. 

481. latum vulgata per orbem: "which was famous the world over." 
Sicily was famous in ancient times as a grain-producing country. 

483-486. These are the disasters familiar to farmers. Horace (^Odes, III, i« 
29) says that he who is content with a modest income has no large 
ventures out, and hence has none of these things to fear. 

488. Ovid is fond of this bit of realism, and uses it on several occasions 
where the effect is still more striking. See IV, 475, where Tisiphone 
similarly pushes back her snaky locks before addressing Juno; and XI, 
157, 158, where the mountain Tmolus, half personified, prepares to 
listen by putting back the trees like locks firom bis ears. 

p. 129] NOTES 351 

491. " And do not be grievously wroth with the land which is faithful to thee." 
terrae: H. 426, 2 (385, II); M. 205; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, 2, a; 
L. & M. 531. 

493-495. Frequent and abrupt change from singular to plural may be noticed 
here as elsewhere in Ovid. 

Page 129. — 498, 499. cur aim, advehar: these are indirect questions de- 
pendent upon the idea of telling in the verbal noun narratibus, " A 
convenient time will come for me to tell why," etc. 

501. Ytdtus melioris : " of a more cheerful countenance." For the case, see 
H. 440» 3 (396, V); M. 222; A. 215; G. 365; B. 203; L. & M. 558. 

501-503. According to tradition, Arethusa's waters flowed far down beneath 
the sea, from the point of disappearance in Elis until they reappeared 
in Sicily, unmixed and undefiled through it all. Dryden {Elegies and 
Epitaphs) derives a very appropriate figure of purity of style from this 
feature of the story : — 

Her Arethusian stream remains unsoil'd, 
Unmix'd with foreign filth, and undefil'd. 

503. desneta sidera cerno: during her long submarine journey she had 

become unaccustomed to the sight of the stars. In this and the suc- 
ceeding passage there is no thought but that the stream is the sentient 

504. " While I was gliding beneath the earth in my Stygian stream." Stygio 

gurgite probably means no more than sub terris ; and yet the poet, by 
the use of this word, desires to connect Arethusa not alone with the 
subterranean regions, but also with the Under World, so that she may 
be able to report the whereabouts of Proserpina. In Ovid's other 
account (^Fasti, IV, 577) Ceres asks the Constellations of the Bears 
where her daughter is : — 

Parrhasides stellae, — namque omnia nosse potestis, 

Aequoreas numquam cum subeatis aquas — 
Persephonen natam miserae monstrate parent! ! 

They disclaim all knowledge of the deed, since it was done in the day, 
and refer her to the Sun. And the Sun says : — 

Quam quaeris, ne vana labores, 
Nupta lovis fratri tertia regna tenet. 

506. ilia and the succeeding substantives may be construed either by sup- 
plying erati or by considering them in loose apposition with Proser- 


509. ** The muther upon bearing these words (lit, at these words) stood as if 

petriticd. " 

510, 511. ntqne dolore, etc. : " when her overwhelming frenzy had been dis- 

placed by overwhelming pain." She realizes now as not before that 
her daughter is lost to her. 

515. si nulla est gratia matris : " if you have no regard for the mother." 

516, 517. neu sit tibi cura, etc.: "and let not your regard for her (i/iius) 

be diminished (vUior) by the fact that she is my child." 

519. amittere, reperire: these infinitives are to be read as verbal nouns 

(" losing," •* finding ") and construed as the direct object and predi- 
cate object respectively of vocas. Similarly in the case of scire and 
reperire below. 

520. quod rapta : understand est^ and read as substantive clause. 

521. reddat: i.^. Pluto. 

521, 522. Deque enim praedone, etc.: "for^^^r daughter does not deserve 
to have a robber as a husband." 
si iam mea, etc.: this passage is capable of two interpretations: 
(i) "if now my daughter does not," i,e. if my daughter is above such 
a fate, much more is yours, since you are lord of heaven; (2) "if she 
is no longer mine," i,e. I say your daughter, for she is no longer mint^ 
being stolen from me. 

Page 130. — 525. non hoc iniuria f Actum = Aoc factum (noun) tton est 

526. gener ille : " the fact that he is our son-in-law." 

nobis, pudori: H. 433 (390, I); M. 206; A. 233, a; G. 256; B. 191, 2; 
L. & M. 547. 

527. tu modo velis: this proviso has reference to gener, "(I say son-in- 

law,) provided, of course, that you are willing (that he should be such)." 
ut desint : " though other (recommendations) be lacking." 

528. quid quod: "what of the fact that," etc. 

529. nec cedit nisi sorte mihi: "and that he does not yield place to me 

save by (the grace of the) lot." See line 368, note. 
529f 530. sed tanta cupido, etc.: "but if you so greatly desire to separate 

532. nam sic Parcarum, etc. : according to the belief of the ancients, as shown 

by many passages similar to this, Jove knows the fates, and is privileged 

to reveal them at will, but has no power to thwart or change them. 

573. Arethusa : this beautiful story, in explanation of what purported to be a 
natural wonder, is told by Ovid, as usual, in fuller form than by any 
other author. It iS told also in Pliny the Elder, as well as in Pausa- 
nias and Moschus. Vergil twice refers to Arethusa, first in Eclogue X, 

p. 131] NOTES 353 

in which he invokes the nymph, as muse of bucolic poetry, to aid his 
song, adding the prayer : — 

Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterlabere Sicanos, 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam. 

And again {Aeneid^ III, 694) the main points in the story are touched : — 

Alpheum fama est hue Elidis amnem 
Occultas egisse vias subter mare ; qui nunc 
Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis. 

The story echoes in English poetry from Milton's crude reference in 
Arcades : — 

Divine Alpheus, who by secret sluice 

Stole imder seas to meet his Arethuce, 

with some passing allusions also in Lycidas, to the fuller ani more 
poetic treatment of Keats and Shelley. Keats (^Endymion, II, near 
end) describes the persistent wooing of Alpheus and the all but yield- 
ing of the nymph, each in his watery form; while Shelley tells the 
whole story in his exquisite ode Arethusa, 

575. siccata capillos: in this verb we have a true middle voice, with capillos 

as its object ; so that the reading is not " having been dried as to her 
hair," but " having dried her (own) hair." 

576. fluminis £lei: f>. the Alpheus. 

578. me: H.47i(4i7); M. 239; A. 247; G. 398; B. 217; L.& M. 615, 619. 

581. formosae nomen: "the reputation of (being) a beautiful (maiden)." 

583. _qiia refers to dote ; both words are causal in force, the one of gaudere^ 
and the other of erubui. 

Page 131. — 588. alte : " deep down in the water." 

590, 591. "Silvery willows and the" wave-fed poplar gave natural shade to 
the soft-sloping banks." 

593. recingor : again the middle voice. 

597. nescio quod murmur : " some gently murmured words." 

604-618. Pope {Windsor Forest) transfers the scene to Windsor Forest, 
introduces a local nymph in Arethusa's stead, makes Pan the pursuer, 
and then takes his action from Ovid with but scanty change. The 
passage is a good example of the lavish and unblushing borrowing 
from the classics in which that poet indulged : — 

Not half so swift the trembling doves can fly, 
When the fierce eagle cleaves the liquid sky ; 
Not half so swiftly the fierce eagle moves, 
When through the clouds he drives the trembling doves; 
OVID — 2? 


As from the god she flew with furious pace, 
Or as the god, more furious, urged the chase; 
Now £Eiinting, sinking, pale, the nymph appears; 
Now close behind his sounding steps she hears; 
And now his shadow reach'd her as she run. 
His shadow lengthen'd by the setting sun ; 
And now his shorter breath with sultry air. 
Pants on her neck, and fans her parting hair. 

Compare with this Coleridge's (probable) imitation of lines 614, 
615 {^Ancient Mariner y I) : — 

With sloping masts and dripping prow, 
As who pursued with yell and blow 
Still treads the shadow of his foe. 
And forward bends his head. 
The ship drove fast, loud roared the blast. 
And southward aye we fled. 

Page 132. — 622. tectam: supply me, 

632. sudor frigidus : the beginning of the metamorphosis into a stream. 

636. sed . . . enim : " but (this does not stop his pursuit) for/' etc. * 

637. positoque viri, etc. : " and, laying aside the hiunan form which he had 


638. ut se mihi misceat: in his telling of the story, Ovid ignores the 

accomplishment of this purpose, and represents Arethusa alone as 

gliding under land and sea to Sicily. But other references connect 

the two in their watery career. See Vergil (^Aeneid, III, 694) as quoted 

under line 573, note, and the English poets. Note, in this connection, 

Pope (^Dunciadj II), who is in evident imitation of Milton as quoted 

above : — 

As under seas Alphaeus' secret sluice 

Bears Pisa's offerings to his Arethuse. 

639. Delia: i.e. Diana, to whom the nymph had already appealed for aid 

(line 619). 

640. Ortygiam: H. 419, 2 (380, II, 2, 2)); M. 199, i; A. 258, b; G. 337; 

B. 182, I, a; L. & M. 515. 
640, 641. cognomine divae grata meae: << pleasing (to me) because of the 
name of my goddess (which it bore)." Ortygia was an old name for 
Delos, the birthplace of Diana, and hence an epithet of that goddess. 

662. dictos cantus : the rehearsal of the song of the Muses was begun in 

line 341. Read the connecting paragraphs on page 124. 

663. njrmphae Helicona colentes : these had been the judges of the contest 

between the Muses and the Pieridea. 

t34] NOTES 355 

B 133. — 664. concordi sono : " unanimously." 

Tictae : i.€. the Pierides. 
dixit: f.^. ^ nodis maxima (line 661), who served as mouthpiece for 
the Muses. 

quoniam certamine, etc. : ''since 'tis not enough that you have deserved 
punishment by your presumption in challenging us to a contest 
{certamine) ,^^ 
et non est patientia, etc. : « and since our endurance is not without 

• et qua vocat ira : ue. we shall let our just wrath dictate your punish- 

K Bmathides: this name is given to the Pierides, because their father, 
Pierus, is king of Macedonia, and Macedonia, by metonymy, is called 
Emathia, which is a district of Macedonia. The name Pierides is 
used both of the Emathides and the Muses. See Vocabulary, under 

3* alteraque alterius, etc. : <* and each sees the faces of her fellows stiffen- 
ing with a hard beak." 

). per bracchia mota levatae: i.e. the motion of their arms (now wings), 
intended to be of lamentation, raises them into the air. 

>. nemonun convicia: "the disgrace of the woods." 

ac 134. — VI, 146 and following. The story of Niobe appears first in 
Homer, whose version (^IHad, XXIV, 602) it is worth while to quote 
in fulL The story is told by Achilles as he urges the aged Priam 
-within his tent to partake of food : — 

Now let us break our £ast, 
For even Niobe the golden-haired, 
Refrained not from her food, though children twelve 
Perished within her palace, — six young sons 
And six £ur daughters. Phoebus slew the sons 
With arrows from his silver bow, incensed 
At Niobe, while Dian, archer queen. 
Struck down the daughters ; for the mother dared 
To make herself the peer of rosy-cheeked 
Latona, who, she boastfully proclaimed, 
Had borne two children only, while herself 
Had brought forth many. Yet, though only two, 
The children of Latona took the lives 
Ofallherown. Nine days the corses lay 
In blood, and there was none to bury them, 
For Jove had changed the dwellers of the place 


To stone ; but on the tenth the gods of heaven 

Gave burial to the dead. Yet Niobe, 

Though spent with weeping long, did not refrain 

From food. And now forever mid the rocks 

And desert hills of Sipylus, where lie, 

Fame says, the couches of the goddess-nymphs, 

Who lead the dance where Achelods flows. 

Although she be transformed to stone, she broods 

Over the woes inflicted by the gods. 

The Niobe story is further mentioned in Hesiod, Sophocles, Apcfio* 
dorus, Pausanias, and certain epigrams in the Greek Anthology. 
Besides the present version by Ovid, the story is told in Latin ^ 
Hyginus (Fadu/ag, 9), with brief references in other writers. 

The story has been retold to modern ears by Landor, in his "Niobe," 
Lewis Morris, "Niobe on Sipylus," and Frederick Tennyson, " Niobe" 
It will be found a most valuable literary exercise to study thcie 
poems in comparison with Ovid's version, and observe the (tifferenca 
in style and method of treatment employed by the ancient and moden 

Following is the genealogy of Niobe and her husband Amphion: — 



Nycteus Jupiter Atlas 

(k. of Thebes) 

Jupiter = Antiope Tantalus = Dione 

I (k. of Lydia) I (one of the Pleiades) 

Amphion = Niobe Pelops 

(k. of Thebes) I 

7 sons 7 daughters 

146. facti: i.e. the punishment of Arachne, who was a maiden of Lydia, for 
her presumption in challenging Minerva to a contest of skill. 

148. illam: t e. Arachne. By the statement that Niobe had once knowB 

Arachne, Ovid connects this story more closely with what precedeSi 
and justifies Niobe's punishment by giving the warning a more ptt- 
sonal character. 

149. Niobe is said to have been born in Maeonia (Lydia) near Mt. Sipylus. 

150. popularis : " her countrywoman.*' 

1^2, multa dabant animos*. " maLiv^ lYim^ contributed to her pride." 

p. 135] NOTES 357 

sed enim : " but (one thing especially) for neither," etc. 

conittgis artes: referring to Amphion's skill on the lyre. See I. 178, note. 

156. si non sibi, etc.: i.e, self-consciousness of her good fortune led her 

into the presumptuous sin which wrecked her happiness. 

157. Tiresia:.H.469, 2 (415, II); M. 234, i; A. 244, a; G. 395; B. 215; 

L. & M. 609. 
yenturi : " of the future." 
161. lauro: the laurel had by this time come to be sacred to Apollo. For 
the origin of this sentiment see Met, I, 553-567. 

164. This line is an instance of zeugma. " They burn incense upon the altar 

flames and utter prayers the while." 

165. ecce introduces a conspicuous object suddenly presented to the view; 

«see," "but look." 
celeberrima : " thronged about." 

166. intezto auro : the Phrygians were famous for their skill in embroidery. 

168. immissos: " hanging loose," " free flowing." 

169. alta: " drawn up to her full height." 

170. visis: understand ra^/^j//^Mj. 

1 73. " The only (mortal) ever allowed to recline at the feasts of the gods." 
This privilege, according to Pindar and Euripides, was indeed granted 
to Tantalus; but it does not suit the pride of Niobe to add that her 
father merited and received lasting punishment in Hades for his 
treachery on that same occasion. This is variously stated as theft of 
the immortality-conferring nectar and ambrosia, which he gave to his 
friends on earth, and divulgence of the secrets of the gods. 

172-176. See genealogical table under line 146, note. 

176. socero illo: "in him as father-in-law." 

Page 135. — 178. fidibusque mei commissa mariti moenia: it is said 
that Amphion had been instructed in music by Mercury himself, and 
that this god gave him a golden lyre, by the seductive strains of which 
he built the walls of Thebes, causing the great stones to fall harmoni- 
ously into place till all was done. 

The poets love to dwell upon this triumph of song. Dryden (^Art of 
Poetry') finds the origin of the story in the benefits which poetry has 
conferred upon mankind: — 

These benefits from poets we received, 
From whence are raised those fictions since believed, 
[That] Amphion's notes, by their melodious powers. 
Drew rocks and woods, and raised the Theban towers. 

Tennyson has written a very happy, but quite un-Tennysonian, bur- 
lesque poem, entitled Amphion, 


i8i. accedit eodem: "in addition to this, I am possessed of beauty ^tthy ^^ 
of a goddess." 

182. septem : ancient writers differ as to the number of Niobe's childrea, 
ranging from twenty to twelve. 

185, 186. "And then presume to prefer to me the Titaness Latona, dauglitet 
of Coeus, whoever he may be {nescio quo),''* 

187. The jealousy of Juno had bound the whole earth under a curse not to 
give place of birth to Latona for her children. 

1 89-19 1. This is an allusion to the myth that Delos was once an island 
floating beneath the surface of the sea, and that it had been com- 
manded to appear (S^Xos) by order of Neptune, in order that there 
Latona might give birth to Apollo and Diana. According to Verg^** 
account {Aeneid, III, 75), the island was at last securely anchored by 
Apollo himself in grateful remembrance of its service to his mother. 
See also Spenser (^Faerie Queene, II, xii, 13) : — 

As th* isle of Delos whylome, men report, 

Amid th' Aegean sea long time did stray, 

Ne made for shipping any certeine port, 

Till that Latona, traveiling that way. 

Flying from Juno's wrath and hard assay [persecution]. 

Of her fayre twins was there delivered. 

Which afterwards did rule the night and day. 

190. dixit : i.e. Delos. 

192. uteri nostri: "of my offspring." 

195. " I am too strong for Fortune to harm." 

cui: H. 426, I (385, I); M. 205; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, «; 
L. & M. 530. 

196. ut: "although." 

multo plura : i.e. than she herself has. 
198. huicpopulo: H. 428, 2 (385, 4, 2) ; M. 211; A. 229; G. 347, Rem. 5; 
B. 188, 2, d', L. & M. 537. 
populo natonim : she thinks of her children as a very nation for multitude. 

200. turbam: in apposition with numerum duorum. It is contemptuously 

used of the two children of her rival, " Latona's rabble." 
qua quantum, etc. : " and with this number (Jurba) how lAuch docs she 
differ from a childless (woman) ? " 

201. properate : i.e, " make haste (and cease your worship of Latona)." 

202. ponite = deponite. 
204. dea : i.e, Latona. 

206. vobis animosa creatis : " proud of your birth." 

Page 136. — 208. an dea aim, dubitor : " I have had my divinity called in 

^- l^S] NOTES 359 

^^ quod : the antecedent is the condition implied in or bam, 
^^3* Ungoam paternam: this phrase points to the second of the two 
accounts of the offense of Tantalus given in note on line 173 — an 
unbridled tongue that led him to betray the secrets of the gods. 
^19. adsidois equis: "by the constant tread of horses/' 
221. Amphione: see references on Tiresia, line 157, note. 
2S22. rnbentia terga: i,e. the horses are equipped with purple saddle- 
224, 225. sarcina prima : " the first burden/' i,e. the firstborn child. 
Page 137. — 229. in latus a deztro armo: "sidewise, over (his horse's) 

right shoulder." 
231. Sipylus: this son is evidently named from the Lydian mountain near 
which his mother was bom, just as his brother Ismenus was named 
for the river of that name near Thebes. 
331—233. The prose order is : Veluii cum rector, praescius imbris, nube 

visa, fugii, pendeniiaque undique carbasa deducit. 
233. pendentia carbasa deducit : when the sail was not in use, it would be 
reefed up to the crosspiece at the top of the mast. When the sail was 
unfurled, therefore, it would be drawn down {deducit). 
ne qua: supply /^r/^, "lest on any side." 
237. *• He, just as he was, leaning forward (^pronus) over the neck of the 

swiftly moving horse (lit., the swift neck)." 
245. incurvata: "writhing." 
250. illi : H. 425, 4, note (384, II, 4, note 2) ; M. 208 ; A. 235, a\ G. 350, 1 ; 

B. 188, I ; L. & M. 537. 
252. simul = simul ac» 
eductnm: supply ^j/. 

254. intonsum: "unshorn," hence "youthful," since the Greek boys did 

not cut their hair until manhood. 
non simplex yulnus : " not one wound alone." 

255, 256. qua cms esse incipit, et qua, etc. : a double description of the 

part of the leg just behind the knee. 
258. pennis tenus : " clear up to the feathers." 
Page 138. — 263. non omnes : i.e. where only two divinities were concerned. 

268. certam : why not the more usual certiorem with fecere ? 

ruinae: H. 451, i, note (page 210, footnote 3); M. 226, i; A. 218; 
G. 374, note 9; B. 204, i; L. & M. 575. 

269. mirantem {superos hoc facer e) potuisse. 

271. nam: this is in answer to the natural question as to why Amphion 
does not join the queen in her grief. The king, according to this 
account, kills himself through excess of grief. But Hyginus assigns 
to him a different form of death : Amphion a\\tem, oaocci \.^tk^W^ 


ApoUinis expugnare vellet, ab Apolline sagittis est interfectns. 
(^Fabulaet 9.) 

272. cum luce : i.e. the light of life. 

273. Niobe Niobe : nominative and ablative respectively. 

275. resupina refers to the proudly erect position, with head thrown back, 

facing upward in her disdain of common things. 

276. "An object of envy to her friends; but now an object of pity even to 

her foes." 

279. liventia : as the result of beating her breast and arms, which doubtless 

accompanied her mourning, after the Oriental and ancient fashion. 

280. pascere : a middle imperative. " Feed thyself," " glut thyself." 

282. per funera septem efferor : efferre is the word regularly used of the 

corpse that is borne out to burial. She complains that she has suffered 

seven deaths in the loss of her sons. 
284. victrix : this unfortunate word stirs her up to further impiety. 
Page 139. — 290. viscera : supply suo. 

291. " Sank down in a dying condition with her face pressed to her brother's." 
294. This verse is corrupt. The present reading means : " she shut her lips, 

(and they remained closed) until (except) after her breath left her 

body, (when they again relaxed)." 

The reading adopted by Burmann is : — 

Oraque non pressit, nisi postquam spiritus exit. 

That is to say, she had been speaking to her mother at the moment 

when she received her death wound, " and did not close her lips, save 

after life had left her body." 
298-300. This is the subject and scene of the most famous portion of the 

famous Niobe sculptures, the remaining fragments of which are now 

preserved in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence. 
299. minimam : understand natttj " the youngest." 
302. Keats {Endytniotty I) catches this supreme moment of agony, when 

stony grief is passing into a paralysis of the whole being: — 

Perhaps the trembling knee 
And frantic gape of lonely Niobe, 
Poor, lonely Niobe I when her lovely young 
Were dead and gone, and her caressing tongue 
Lay a lost thing upon her paly lip, 
And very, very deadliness did nip 
Her motherly cheeks. 

305. nihil est in imagine vivum : " there is no sign of life in her whole 
form.^^ Dry den, in his Funeral Pindaric Poem on the death of 

p. 140] NOTES 361 

Charles II, compares the numbing grief of the English people to that 
of Niobe : — 

Thus long my grief has kept me dumb : 
Sure there's a lethargy in mighty woe, 
Tears stand congeal'd and cannot flow ; 
And the sad soul retires into her inmost room; 
Tears, for a stroke foreseen, afford relief; 
But, unprovided for a sudden blow, 
Like Niobe we marble grow. 
And petrify with grief. 

Ovid, in his own bitter grief in exile {^Ex Ponio, I, ii, 31), con- 
gratulates Niobe upon her loss of sense : — 

Felicem Nioben, quamvis tot funera vidit. 
Quae posuit sensum, saxea facta, mali ! 

311. in patriam; fiza cacumine montis: according to myth she was car- 
ried by a whirlwind back to Lydia, and placed upon the summit of her 
native mount, Sipylus. 

310—312. This rock on Mount Sipylus went by the name of Niobe. Pausanias 
says of it that it was merely a rock and a precipice when one came 
close up to it, and bore no resemblance at all to a woman; but at a 
distance, you might imagine it to be a woman weeping, with downcast 

Byron's famous stanza {Childe Haroldy IV, 79), wherein he likens 
Rome to the desolate Niobe, is probably the most notable inspiration 
in English of this famous tale : — 

The Niobe of nations ! there she stands, 
Childless and crownless, in her voiceless woe ; 
An empty urn within her wither'd hands. 
Whose holy dust was scatter'd long ago ; 
The Scipio's tomb contains no ashes now; 
The very sepulchers lie tenantless 
Of their heroic dwellers : dost thou flow. 
Old Tiber ! through a marble wilderness? 
Rise, with thy yellow waves, and mantle her distress. 

Page 140. — VII, i, and following. This is the story of Medea in its most 
complete form. Her line of descent from Phoebus (Helios), however, 
omitted by Ovid, is given in part by Hesiod {Theogonyt 956); and 
Homer {Odyssey y X, 136) gives in part the same facts. From these 
and other sources the following genealogy may be compiled : — 




Helios = Persa 

I r "-^ 

Circe AeStes = Idyia PasiphaS 

Chalciope = Phrixus 

^ — I 

Argus Melas Phrontis Citisorus 


Perses = Asteria 
I (sister of 



Medea = Jason Absyrtus 


Mermerus Pheretes 

The successive incidents in Medea's career are all subjects of freq^^^"^^ 
allusions in the classics. Her flight with Jason from her father's k — ^-^* 
dom is described by Hesiod {Tkeogony, 992-1002). The slaughte==^' '^^ 
her brother Absyrtus to retard her father's pursuit is referred tc^^^ ^ 
Seneca, Medea^ 900. 

Shakespeare {Henry F/, Second Part, V, 2) makes effective ; 
ence to this incident : — 

Meet I an infant of the house of York, 
Into as many gobbets will I cut it 
As wild Medea young Absyrtus did. 

The rejuvenation by Medea of Jason's father, Aeson, and the dest^^'i'*^' 
tion of Pelias through the agency of his own daughters, by Me^K^*'* 
machinations, are striking episodes. 

Cicero {De Senectute^ 83) alludes to the latter incident, althougt:^ ^* 
confounds the experience of Aeson with that of Pelias : — 

Quo {i.e. to the world of spirits) quidem me proficiscentem haud sane ^**** 
facile retraxerit, nee tamquam Peliam recoxerit. 

But it is the events of the later years in Corinth, when she ^l^'^ 
King Creon, Glauce, the king's daughter and her rival in Jason's atf ^ 
tion, and her own sons, as revenge upon her husband — it is tl**^'^^ 
events that have most attracted the ancient poets. Probably a scor^ 
more of Greek and Latin poets have written tragedies based aj^"" 
these scenes. In the case of many, the name alone survives. Of 
Greeks, the Medea of Euripides is extant. In Latin literature, fi^"^ 
ments of tragedies upon tbis theme, by Ennius, Accius, and Pacu^T'^^ 

p. 141] NOTES 363 

are still preserved. On Ovid*s own tragedy see pages 42-45 of this 
book. Hie Medea of Seneca is extant in complete form. It is to be 
noted also that Ovid's twelfth Heroid is addressed by Medea to Jason, 
upbraiding him for his ingratitude and infidelity. Hyginus relates 
many incidents of Medea's story, some of which are not found in other 
accounts (^FabtUae^ 21-26). 

Aside from numerous passing references in English, the following 
books and poems are based upon the story of Jason and Medea: 
Chaucer, Legend of Good Women {Medea) ; William Morris, Life and 
Death of 'Jason ; Frederick Tennyson, Aeson, 
1-6. Brief references are made to some of the adventures of the Argonauts 
prior to their arrival in Colchis. 

2, 3. Phinetis, the king of Salmydessus, had been smitten with blindness by 

the gods, who had also sent the harpies to torment him. 

3, 4. iuvenes : Zetes and Calais, the winged sons of Boreas, who were in the 

company of the Argonauts, drove the harpies away, and pursued them 
as far as the islands of the Strophades. 

4, fugarant: a syncopated form iox fugaverant. 

7. Phrizea vellera: the golden fleece of the fabled ram which had borne 

Phrixus over sea and land from Boeotia to Colchis. Phrixus had there 
sacrificed the ram to Jove, and given the golden fleece to king Aeetes. 

8. "And while the condition (on which the fleece may be obtained) is 

named, dreadful because of the number of mighty tasks (imposed) ." 

The accomplishment of these tasks is described in lines 100-158. 
Page 141. — 12. nescio quis detis : " some god or other." 

mirumque, etc. : supply est. " And I wonder if this is not what is called 

love, or at least something like it." 
15. modo denique: "but now for the first time." 
19, 20. cupido, mens : " passion, reason." The same ideas are expressed by 

furor and ratio in line 10. 
20^ 21. video meliora, etc. : a famous line, expressive of the experience of 

those who sin against light. 
23. quod ames: "something to love." 

23, 24. vivat, an ille occidat, in dis est : " whether he lives or dies (is not 

an affair of mine but) is in the hands of the gods." 

24, 25. idque precari : " I may at least pray for this without loving him." 
26-28. aetas, genus, virtus, ore : these are familiar elements of influence in 

love — "youth, birth, valor, beauty." Compare Dido's experience 
{Aeneid, IV, 2-4) : — 

Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat 
Gentis honos ; haerent infixi pectore vultus 


29-31. She here refers to the three deadly tasks which Jason must perform: 
the yoking of the fire-breathing bulls, the sowing of the dragon's teeth 
which will at once produce armed giants, and the encounter with the 
sleepless dragon that guards the golden fleece. 

30. hostibus suae segetis : " a foe of his own sowing." 

dabitur f era praeda : " he will be given as prey like (any mere) beast" 

32, 33. These are familiar expressions, descriptive of hardness of heart. 

34, 35. oculosque videndo conscelero : she does not seek a reason for defil- 
ing her eyes by the sight of his death ; the real question is : " Why is 
such sight defilement? " Back of this the question isf <* What is he 
to me that I may not properly look upon his death? " ITie defilement 
in question could be incurred only by beholding the death of a loved 
one or a relative. See the indignant words of Priam to Pyrrhus, who 
has just slain Polites in his father's sight : — 

Qui nati coram me cemere letum 
Fecisti et patrios foedasti funere vultus. 

^Aeneid, 11,538. 

37. quamquam, etc.: she rouses herself to action : '*this is no time for 

saying * Heaven forefend,' but for preventive action." 
38-43. The adverse consequences of her aid to Jason at once present them- 
selves to her mind. 

38. prodamne regna: the safety of her father's realm depended upon hii 

retaining the golden fleece. 

39. nostra : read with ope, 

40. per me : construe with sospes. 

Page 142. — 43-45. sed non is, etc.: the negative is here taken with 
iimeam, " But his features, his loftiness of soul, his grace of form, arc 
such that I need fear no trick or forgetfulness of my desert." 

46. ante: "beforehand." 

50. servatrix : in predicate construction with celebrabere — " thou shalt be 

hailed as his deliverer." 

51, 52. Again the objections, not now of jealousy, but of natural sentimentM 

These objections are briefly answered one by one in the followmr; 
three lines. 
54. stant mecum vota sororis: "my sister's good will is on my side." 
Medea's sister was Chalciope (see genealogical table), whom AeStet 
had given in marriage to Phrixus. Hyginus (^Fabulae^ 3) gives aa 
interesting side light upon this point, since he shows Chalciope^ 
motive for being on Jason's side: — 

Phrixum autem Aeeta libens recepit filiamque Chalciopen dedit ei uao-i 
rem, quae postea liberos ex eo ptoertaNvV. Sed veritus est Aeeta ne 


P- 143] NOTES 365 

regno eiicerent, quod ei responsum fuit ex prodigiis, ab advena Aeoli Alio 
mortem cayeret. Itaque Phrixum interfecit. Ac tilii eius in ratem con- 
scenderunt ut ad avum transirent. Hos lason, cum pellem peteret, naufragos 
ex insula Aria sustulit et ad Calchiopen matrem reportavit, cuius beneficio 
ad sororem Medeam est commendatus. 

56. titulnm senratae pubis: servatae is the emphatic participle, and is 
equivalent to a verbal noun with its objective genitive following. Ser- 
vatrix pubis Achiviu, " Savior of the Greek youth," is the title to 
which she aspires. 

59, 60. " And him whom I would not give in exchange for all that the wide 
world holds — the son of Aeson." 

61. ▼ertice sidera tangam: a common expression for extreme pride and 

satisfaction. See Horace (^Odest I, i, 35). 
62^-65. The third objection, now more feeble, of mythical terrors on the deep. 
These three dreaded wonders are used by Milton {Paradise Lost, II) 
for purposes of comparison : — 

And more endangered, than when Argo passed 
Through Bosporus, betwixt tlie justling rocks ; 
Or when Ulysses on tlie starboard shunned 
Charybdis, and by the other whirlpool steered. 

62. quid, quod nescio, etc. : " what of the fact that certain crags are said to 

rush together in mid sea? '' 

63. montes: these were the Cyaneae, two small rugged islands near the 

mouth of the Bosporus at the entrance of the Euxine Sea. There was 
a legend that, these were floating islands, and that they crushed what- 
ever attempted to pass between them. Hence they were called Sypn- 
^^gades ("the dashers"). 

63, 65. Charybdis, Scylla : Vergil {Aeneid, HI, 420-428) gives a vivid 
description of these two monsters that infested the strait between Italy 
and Sicily. They were respectively a dangerous whirlpool on the 
Sicilian side, and a rock on the opposite or Italian side. The ancient 
, imagination personified these objects, giving them the terrifying phys- 

ical characteristics which Ovid here, and Vergil, in the passage above 
referred to, describe. 

69. COniugiumne putas ? this thought, suggested by coniuge in the preced- 
ing line, recalls her to her senses as she realizes how entirely without 
foundation her assumptions are. ^ 

Pagb 143. — 74. Hecates Perseidos: see genealogical table under line i, 
note. Hecate was the goddess of magic and enchantment. 

y6i Ardor : 1^. the furor and cupido of the preceding narrative. 
, J9-4l« The prose order is : Uiijue parva scintilla^ quae sub indueta fainlla 


lahtU^ ventis aiiwutUa adsumere soUt^ crescertquit ei agiiaia ntmgm 
in vires veteres, 

54. solito f ormosior : ** more beautiful than usuaL" 

55. amanti: t^. Medea. 
So. torn denique: " never before." 
91. tonim: {.^."marriage." 

94. promissa dato : " keep your promises." 
trifonnis deae: this «*as the same goddess in three manifesUtioQi- 

Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate in Hades. Her sUtBCi 
were representations of three female forms joined back to back, and 
she \»-as worshiped where three roads met; hence the epithet TVww- 

95. quod = quodcumque. 

96. soceri futuri : t>. Ae€tes. This oath is by the Sun. 
Page 144. — 102. iugis : " upon the ridges " surrounding the field of Maii 
105. vaporibus : " by their hot breath." 
107, 108. The poet has in mind a lime-kiln {fornace) partly hollowed otitrf 

the earth on a hillside (Jerrend) and partly built up of brick. Inthii 
kiln the limestone {silices) is burned until it is softened (soluli) vA 
converted to quicklime. If water be poured upon this product, the 
lime combines chemically with the water, producing much heat A 
hissing steamlike vapor accompanies this action, and to this the fioy 
breath of the bulls is likened. 

1 10, III. illis obvius it : " goes to meet them." 
truces : understand tauri. 
venientis : understand lasonis. 

116. medicamina : these were the cantatae herbae mentioned in fine 98. 

118. suppositos agrees with tauros supplied as part object of cogiU It* 

best rendered as a coordinate verb : " he yoked them and made the* 
draw the heavy plow." 

1 19. insuetum ferro : i,e. this was a virgin field, never before plowed. 1^ 

is indicated also by sacrum in line loi. 

1 22. vipereos dentes : see Met III, loi and following, where Minerva bio* 
Cadmus sow the serpent's teeth in the ground. It would seem t3:**^ 
Cadmus did not use all of these remarkable teeth on that occasi^^* 
According to the account by Apollodorus, Minerva presented t> 
remaining teeth to Aeetes, who now requires Jason to sow them, a^ 
hoped, to his own ruin. 

123-130. Compare with this the corresponding result in III, 106-114. 

125. sumit: the subject is infans, 

126. " And is perfected within through all its parts." 

Page 145. — 130. edita arma: each giant sprung from the earth fis^ 
armed, like Minerva from the head of Jove. 

tq NOTES 367 

yidenmt : the subject is Pelasgi, 

demisere ynltum aninumque : " their faces fell and their hearts failed 


ipsa: i,e, Medea. 

neve pamm valeant: " (fearing) lest the herbs be not strong enough." 
Cadmus (III, 115) needed not to adopt any such ruse. 
148. agisque carminibus grates : '* thou didst thank thy charms.'' 
arboris anreae : ue. the tree on which was hung the golden fleece. 
Lethaei suci : ue, an herb whose juice produced oblivion, just as did 

the waters of the river Lethe, 
ter: this number had a peculiar significance and power; but, on the 

other hand, it is used of an indefinite number, and may signify nothing 

more here than "repeatedly." 
anro : H. 477, 1 (421, 1) ; M. 253; A. 249; G. 407; B. 218, i ; L. & M. 646. 
157. It is like Ovid, after giving part of a story at great length, to hurry / 

over the rest in a few words. 

146. — 161. indiicta comibus aurum: " with gilded horns," . It was 

the custom thus to gild the horns of the victim doomed to sacrifice; 

also to wreath the horns with garlands of flowers or fillets of wool. 
debere : supply me as subject. 
posauilt: supply tua carmina as subject. 
"And the picture of her deserted father, Aeetes, came before her mind 

— a mind so different from that of Jason." 
affectus tales : " such feelings." 
isto : supply munere, 
177. "By my art and not by your years shall I attempt to renew my 

£Bither-in-law's long span of life." 
"There were yet three nights before the horns (of the moon) should 

unite entire." The full moon was a time especially favorable to magic. 
postquam plenissima fulsit: Shakespeare remembers this occasion 

{Merchant of Venice, V, i) : — 

In such a night 
Medea gathered the enchanted herbs 
That did renew old Aeson. 

• 183. indttta, infusa : " clad in flowing robes, with unshod feet, and hair 
streaming down over her bare shoulders." The bare foot, the ungirt 
robes, the flowing hair, are characteristic of the garb of the enchantress 
as well as suppliant in action. Compare Vergil's description of Dido 
{Aennd, IV, 518): — 

Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recincta; 


and Horace (Satires, I, viii, 23) : — 

Vidi egomet nigra succinctam vadere palla 
Canidiam pedibus nudis passoque capillo. 

185-188. An exquisite picture of the absolute stilhiess of the mooslit imd* 

night, where the twinkling stars alone (jnicani) have aught of motion. 

Vergil enlarges his description of a similar time {Aeneid^ IV, 522-528). 
Pace 147. — 191. solvit: *' she opened." 
192, 193. quaeque diumis, etc.: "and ye bright stars whose golden beams 

together with the moon succeed the light of day." 
194. coeptis nostris : H. 453, 2 (400, i) ; I,. & M. 536. 
199-214. For the miracles of magic, compare Remedia Amoris, 248-258, 


199. ripis mirantibus : " while their banks looked on in wonder." 

200. concussa: understand yr^/tf. 
207-209. Pope is thinking of these effects in the closing lines of the Dun- 

ciad: — 

Before her, Fancy's gilded clouds decay. 
And all its varying rainbows die away; 
Wit shoots in vain its momentary fires, 
The meteor drops, and in a flash expires ; 
As one by one, at dread Medea's ^strain, 
The sickening stars fade off the ethereal plain. 

207. Temesaea aera : the eclipses {labores) of the moon were supposed to 

be caused by magic. The simple peasants would try to ward off this 
magic by beating upon brazen vessels. Medea boasts that notwith- 
standing all such efforts she is able by her magic arts still to cause the 
moon's eclipse. 

208, 209. cumis avi : i.e. of the Sun, her grandfather. 

212. serpentigenis : this loose relation, indicated by the dative in Latin, is 

better expressed in English by the genitive. " You turned the savage 
onslaughts of the serpent-born band against themselves." 

213. somni: H. 451, i (399, I, 2); M. 226, i; A. 218, a\ G. 374; 

B. 204, I ; L. & M. 573. 

Page 148. — 222-233. See II, 217, note. 

subiecta Thessala Tempe: "Thessalian Tempe lying far below." 

232. vivax is an example of what may be called, the " active " adjective, 
which represents its noun as conferring, not possessing, the quality 
implied by the adjective. Hence vivax in this connection does not 
mean " ever living," but " conferring immortality." Horace abounds 
in this adjectival use; e.g, palma nobilis {Odes, I, i, 5) is "the pahn 
(h&t confers renown." 

p. 149] NOTES 369 

233. " (An herb) not yet made famous by the change which it produced in 

the body of Glaucus." Ovid tells of this metamorphosis of the fisher- 
man Glaucus into a sea god in Met, XIII, 898-968. See epitome of 
that passage. 

234. curru pennisque : to be construed with lustrantem, 
238. adyeniens : " upon her arrival home." 

243. telliire is in the ablative absolute construction with egesta, and scrobibus 
is to be taken with egesta as ablative of source. The line may be 
freely translated, "having dug two ditches in the earth near by." It 
was customary, in sacrificing to the deities of the Under World, to dig 
a ditch into which the blood of black victims was poured. 

247. aenea carchesia : observe also that the magic herbs were cut with a 
bronze sickle (line 227). Bronze was used as the metal for sacred 
utensils long after the introduction of iron, 
tepidi lactis: fresh drawn blood, new wine, fresh milk, and olive oil 
(this last not mentioned here) were the sacred liquids. 

250. senili : this epithet properly belongs to artusy but is here transferred to 


251. murmure: " a muttered incantation." 

252. ad auras .* he had doubtless been awaiting the event in Jason's house. 

253. resolutum belongs syntactically with corpus. It is best rendered, how- 

ever, as an active verb, coordinate, so far as subject is concerned, with 
porrexit; "having buried him in deep slumber by her magic words, 
she stretched him out like a corpse," etc. 
Page 149. — 256. oculos profanos; the profani were those uninitiated in 
the sacred mysteries. The familiar warning of the priest is given in 
Vergil {Aeneid, VI, 258) : — 

Procul, o procul este, profani, 
Totoque absistite luco. 

270, 271. "And the entrails of a werewolf which has the power {solitt) of 
changing its wild beast features into those of a man." This belief in 
lycanthropy, or werewolfism, is very ancient, and long survived in 
many parts of Europe. Ovid here gives the reverse of the usual form 
of the superstition, which was that of a human being changing volun- 
tarily, or by the will of another, into a wolf, while still retaining human 

273. vivacis : compare meaning in this context with that in line 232. 

274. Compare AmoreSy II, vi, 36, note. 

277. arenti ramo iampridem: "with a branch long since dead (dry)." 

mitis properly applies to the fruit of the olive tree, but is here applied to 
the tree itself. 
OVID — 24 


27^ miBis: H. 427, 474. 2 (385, 3, 419, I, (2)); A. 248,4, Ren.; 

G. 346» note 6, 548. Rem. I; B. 218, 5; L. & M. 534. 
279-2S4. Stkdky makes hmppy use of this detail in his Alasior:^ 

Oh fior Medea's wondrous alchemy. 
Which wheresoe'er it fell made the earth gleam 
Widi blight flowen, and the wintry boughs exhale 
F^om vernal blooms fresh fragrance ! 

285-287. Pope abo {Dumciad, IV) has his use of this story— each after Ui 

kind: — 

When Dufaiess, smiling — ** Thus revive the witsl 
Bat murder first, and mince them all to bits; 
As eist Medea (cruel, so to save !) 
A new edition <tf old Aeson gave; 
Let standard authors, thus like trophies borne 
Appear more glorious as more hack'd and torn. 
And you, my critics! in the chequer'd shade. 
Admire new light through holes yourselves have made." 

Page 150. — 293. hnnc: sappiy /uisu, "He recaUs that he looked Kke 

292, 293. Ovid is content with the ample fact of Aeson's rejuvenation, »» 
the old man*s joy and wonder. Frederick Tennyson in his Aes^^ 
the modem poet's fashion of ** looking before and after,** of coosid''' 
ing the question in its logical sequence. And so : — 

Soon came the bitter knowledge after it 
That this fair resurrection of the Past 
Was all unsuited to the timewom soul. 
That dwelt within it. What were lively limbs 
Without the love that moved them? Could I think 
With youthful thoughts, because my blood was warm? 
Clothe myself with new hope and nought to hope for? 

Page 151. — VIII, 183 and following. The story of Daedalus and !»«» 
seems to have been invented to explain, on the one hand, the ong» 
and spread of the manual arts, and, on the other, the name of the l^ 
rian sea. It is mentioned in Latin, in addition to the present accouDti 
in Vergil {Aeneid^ VI, 14-33) and Hyginus (^Falndae, 40). 

Shakespeare {III Henry F/, V, vi) makes a detailed metaphori» 
application of the story: — 

Gloucester, Why, what a peevish fool was that of Crete, 
That taught his son the office of a fowl I 
And yet, for all his wings, the fool was drown'd. 

p. 152] NOTES 371 

King Henry, I, Daedalus ; my poor boy, Icarus ; 

Thy father, Minos, that denied our course : 
The sun that sear'd the wings of my sweet boy, 
Thy brother Edward: and thyself the sea 
Whose envious gulf did swallow up his life. 

The most obvious metaphorical meaning of the story of Daedalus is 
illustrated in the following passage from Falconer {^Shipwreck, II) : — 

Such arduous toil sage Daedalus endured 

In mazes, self-invented, long immured. 

Till genius her superior aid bestow'd. 

To guide him through that intricate abode : 

Thus, long imprison'd in a rugged way 

Where Phoebus' daughters never aim*d to stray, 

The muse, that tuned to barbarous sounds her string, 

Now spreads, like Daedalus, a bolder wing; 

The verse begins in softer strains to flow, 

Replete with sad variety of woe. 

184. loci natalis : i,e. Athens. 

Page 152. — 186. obstmat: understand J/f»i7j as subject. Daedalus was 

kept as prisoner at large in Crete, since Minos had removed all means 

of escape by sea. 
187. possideat: argumentative concession. 
189. naturam novat: "he changes nature's laws." 

191. ttt divo, etc.: "so that you would think (to look at them) that they 

had grown upon a sloping surface " (like trees upon a hillside). 

192. rustica fistula : the syrinx or pipes of Pan, made of reeds of unequal 

length, placed side by side in orderly succession. 

193. medias et imas : supply pennas, ** the feathers at the middle and bottom 

of each." 
et does double duty by joining iino and certs, and medias and imas, 
195. Teras aves : t .^. real bird's wings. 
195-200. This charmingly natural picture of the playful, innocent boy shows 

how real the story is to Ovid himself. 

195. una : i^. una cum Daedalo. 

196. sua pericla : ** the instruments of his own destruction." 

199. moUibat : an old form of molliebat. 

200, 201. postquam manus, etc. : "after the finishing touches had been put 

upon the work." 
206-208. That is, " do not shape your course by any constellation, as if you 

were an independent navigator, but follow me alone." 
212. soil itemm repetenda : i.e, ** for the last time." 

372 METAMORPHOSES Vlll [P. 152 

215. sequi: supply eum as subject. 

damnosas is true of artes, not inherently, but only in the light of the 
sccjuel. They were destined to be ** destructive " to Icarus. 

217-220. Again the realistic human touch. We are brought close to actual 
human life as we see the three rustics gazing in awe upon the flying 
tigures — the angler no longer intent upon his rod, the shepherd lean- 
ing upon his convenient staff, and the farmer upon his plow handle. 

Page 153. — 219. possent: H. 592(517); M. 382,2; A. 320,^; G. 633; 
K 283,3; L. &M.839. 

220. lunonia Samos .- Samos was said to be the birthplace of the goddess 

and especially sacred to her. See Vergil (^Aeneid, I, 15) : — 

Quam [Karthaginem] luno fertur terns magis omnibus unam 
Posthabita coluisse Samo. 

220-222. Ovid shows a sublime indifference as to the order of these islands. 
The geographer would have traced the course from Crete, past Paros 
and Delos on the left, and Lebinthos on the right, to Samos. The tiny 
island of Calymne, near Rhodes, is so far away from the course to the 
southeast as to lead us to suspect that this island is mentioned only for 
the sake of its poetic epithet, ^r««^<a melle, 

221. fuerat: supply r^Z/V/rt. 

226. odoratas : is this the fragrance lingering in the wax from the flowers 

whence the honey was gathered, or is it by prolepsis the fragrance of 
the burning wax ? 

227. nudos lacertos : i.g, his arms were stripped of their wings as of a gar- 

ment; and now, though he moves his arms as before, he does not 

"take hold of" the air {percipit). 
229, 230. ora caerulea clamantia aqua : Ovid's favorite interlocked order, 

with the additional touch that the nouns and adjectives are arranged in 
- chiasmic order. 
229. patrium nomen : " the name of his father." 
235. tellus : i.g. the island of Icaros, near by the scene of the boy's fall, one 

of the Cyclades. 

Ilyginus (^Fahulae^ 40) relates these facts in the simplest form, and 

tells us the subsequent course of Daedalus : — 

Icarus altius volans, a sole cera calefacta, decidit in mare quod ex eo 
Icarium pelagus est appellatum. Daedalus pervolavit ad regem Cocalum 

in Siciliam. 

Vergil {Aeneid, VI, 14 and following) follows the story which repre- 
sents Daedalus as alighting finally upon the Italian coast near Cumae, 
and there consecrating his wings to Apollo, a consecration which 

p. 155] NOTES 373 

served the double purpose of thanksgiving to the god for deliverance, 
and of a vow that the wings should never again be used. Daedalus 
also built a temple to Apollo, upon the doors of which he represented 
the scenes of his adventures : — 

Tu quoque magnam 
Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolos, Icare haberes. 
Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro ; 
Bis patriae cecidere manus. 

240. longum tibi crimen : " a lasting reproach to thee." 

241-243. The prose order is: N^amque germana {Daedali), fatorum ignara^ 
huic tradiderat progeniem suam docendam puerum bis senis natalibus 
actiSf anitni capacis ad praecepta. 

244, 245. medio spinas in pisce, etc. : " he took the backbone of a fish, 
which he had observed, as a model." This ingenious youth is here 
credited with the invention of the saw, and below of the compasses. 

248. ut aequali spatio, etc. : " so that while these (arms) maintained a con- 
stant angle of divergence, one arm might stand fixed while the other 
traced a circle around it." 
aequali spatio : H. 479, 3 (379, 2); M. 248; A. 250; G. 403; B. 223; 
L. & M. 655. 

250. arce Minervae : i.e, the Acropolis at Athens. 

25 1, lapsum mentitus : " giving out the story that he (the boy) had fallen off." 

Page 155. — 612. inridet: the subject is Ixione natus. "He laughed at 
their credulity." 

613. Ixione natus: this was Pirithoiis, the intimate friend of Theseus. His 

most striking adventure in the character of spretor deorum was his 
attempt to steal Proserpina from her lord, the king of the Lower 
World. Pluto fixed him forever, for this presumption, upon an 
enchanted rock near the entrance to Hades. 
mentis: H. 452, i (399, in, i); A. 218, c\ G. 374, 7; B. 204, 4; L. & 

M. 575- 

614, 615. nimiumque putas, etc. : " and you have too large an estimate of the 

power of the gods, if you think that they can change the forms of men." 
620,621. tiliae contermina quercus modico circumdata muro: ''an oak 

tree and a linden side by side, with a low wall surrounding them." 

The wall indicates that the spot is sacred. 
622. ipse locum vidi : the naivete with which this proof is adduced is re> 

624. hinc: ue, the spot described in lines 620, 621. 
627. Atlantiades : Mercury was the son of Jove, and Maia the daughter of 



632. ilia: supply Trtw. 

639. ** The old man set out a bench and bade them rest their Umbs." 

640. quo : ** upon this bench." 
teztum rude : " a coarse cloth." 

641 and following. These exquisitely realistic touches in description of humble 

hospitality justify the assertion that is sometimes made, that this is the 

best of all the stories which Ovid relates. 
Page 156. — 644. tecto : we need not suppose that she robbed the roof 

itself to obtain fuel. Such material may naturally have been stored 

beneath the roof upon the rafters. 
645. minuit: "broke them up into small pieces." 

647. foliis: 11.462(414,1); M. 237^1; A. 243, ^z; G. 390, 2; B. 214,1,*; 

L. & M. 601. 

648. sordida terga suis : " a piece of bacon blackened (by the smoke)." 

The ancient house had no chimney, but the smoke found its way out of* 

hole in the roof, having previously blackened the interior of the hoose. 
651. medias fallunt horas : " they while away the intervening time." 
655, 656. The family bed is pressed into service as an improvised dining 

couch, with its sedge-grass mattress (/orum) and its bedstead (lede) 

of willow frame {spondd) and feet. 

658. et haec vestis, etc. : " even this (their holiday) spread was a cheap 

thing and well worn {vetus)P 

659. non indignanda : " a good match for." 

660. accubuere del : this is an anachronism. Ovid assigns the customs of 

his own times to the heroic age. 
664. bicolor baca Minervae : the Italians used the olive both in its unripe 
(green) and its ripe (black) condition, and hence were familiar with 
its two colors. The olive was sacred to Minerva. 

666. lactis coacti : the cheese was made simply by pressing the whey out of 

curds or " thick milk." 

667. non acri favilla : " warm ashes." 

668. omnia fictilibus : " all (being served) in cheap earthenware dishes." 
668, 669. caelatus eodem argento crater : " an embossed mixing-bowl of 

the same precious material." The poet indulges in a bit of facetions- 

670. qua cava sunt inlita : " coated on the inside." 

671. epulas calentes: i.e. the boiled bacon and cabbage mentioned above. 
678. nee iners pauperque voluntas : " and lively and abounding good wiU." 
Page 157. — 681. manibus supinis: the gesture of the suppliant — hands 

outstretched with upturned palms. 
682. concipiunt preces : " they fall to praying." 
683. dapihus nullisque paiatibXA; ** ^ot V\\t\t ^ot fare and bad service." 

p. 159] NOTES 375 

684. anser, custodia : custodia is abstract for custos. Ever since the good 
sentinel service rendered by the sacred geese in saving the capitol 
from capture by the Gauls in 390 B.C., the goose had an especial repu- 
tation as a custos. Ovid twice elsewhere honors the goose in his verse. 
It is a better sentinel than the dog (^Met. XI, 599) : — 

Nee voce silentia nimpunt 
Sollicitive canes canibusve sagacior anser. 

Again, in describing the raven, he says that it was once white — - 

Nee servaturis vigili Capitolia voce 
Cederet anseribus, — Met, II, 538. 

690. immiiniblis : " it shall be granted you to escape the destruction (that 

threatens your neighbors)." 

691. mali: H. 452, 2 (399, i, 3) ; M. 226, i; A. 218, «; G. 374, 8; B. 204, 

i; L.&M. 573. 
695. They were a single bowshot's distance from the top. 

699. Ilia vetus casa, etiam parva dominis duobus, in templum vertitur, 

700. fnrcas subiere columnae: <* marble columns took the place of the 

forked wooden supports." 

711. vota fides sequitur: ue, their prayer was answered. 

712. soluti: " worn," " enfeebled." 

Page 158. — 724, cura: metrical reasons forbid the more common con- 
struction of the dative " for which." 

IX. 1,2. Nepiunius heros rogat quae causa deo {sif)gemitu5 truncaeque frontis, 

1. Neptimiiis heros: Theseus was the reputed son of Aegeus, king of 

Athens, and Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, king of Troezen. There was 
a current tradition, however, that he was really the son of Neptune. 

2. Calydonios amnis : i.e. Achelous, the river god. 
Page 159. — 7. See II, 280, 281, note. 

8. nomine siqua suo Deianira : *' if any mention of Delanira." 
12. Partliaone nate: i,e, Oeneus, king of Calydon in Aetolia, and father of 

14, 15. Hercules presses his suit on the ground that he is offering no less a 

father-in-law than Jove himself to his bride, not to mention his own 
great and famous prowess. 

15. novercae: for the genealogy of Hercules see I, 728, note. It was 

through the jealousy of his " stepmother " Juno that he was compelled 
to perform his famous twelve labors. These will be enumerated in 
lines 183-197, where see notes. 
iSw flnentmn = {aquaruni) quae fluunt. 


23, 24. " Jove, from whom you boast that yoa have sprung, is either not you 

father, or is so unlawfully." 
25, 26. fictiun(ne) esse lovem mails : "whether you prefer Jove (f>. his 

fatherhood) to be falsely claimed." 
29. verba tot : "just these words (and no more)." 
deztera : understand manus. 

31. padoit modo, etc. : " I was ashamed to back down after having spoken 

so boldly just now." 

32. viridem vestem : being a river god, he is represented as clothed in 


33. 34. The boxer's attitude is described, though the contest which follows is 

a wrestling rather than a boxing contest. 

33. bracchia opposui : " I put up my arms." 

34. in statione : " in position." 

35. ** He caught up a handful of dust and sprinkled it over me." 

Wrestlers were accustomed to come to the contest with their naked 
bodies besmeared with oil. The river god would naturally be of slip- 
pery body. Hercules besprinkles his own body and that of the god 
with ilust, that he may gain the better hold. 

36-38. Obser\'e how these lines are connected by echoing words. Cervicem 
in the second line recalls vicfPi in the first ; while capiat in the second 
is repeated by captare in the third line. See other illustrations of the 
poet's fondness for these effects near end of note on the Hexameters 
of Ovid. These words describe the attempts of Hercules to get an 
advantageous hold upon his adversary. 

Page 160. — 40. hand secus ac moles: "just like a cliff." Similarly, Ver- 
gil's boxer, Entellus, is strong by virtue of his bulk {Aeneid, V, 439- 

43. certi non cedere : " determined not to yield." 

46. nonaliter: "just so." 

50-56. The position which Hercules is endeavoring to break is the one 
described in lines 44, 55. He now succeeds in breaking his adver- 
sary's hold, turning him around and clasping him in his arms from 
behind, while he bears down upon him with all his weight. 

57, 58. Achelous seeks to thrust his own arms between his chest and the 
encircling arms of Hercules, and thus release himself. 

59, 60. He succeeds, only to be attacked anew, until at last the arms of Her- 
cules clasp his neck, and further resistance is impossible. 

67. This feat of the infant Hercules is famous. He strangled two serpents 
which the jealousy of Juno had despatched against him. The incident 
is used in English literature as an illustration of the lusty strength of 
^oun^^ states. 

p. i6i] NOTES 377 

Campbell, in his Lines on the Departure of Emigrant for New 
South fVaUs, thus apostrophizes that country: — 

Delightful land, in wildness ev'n benign, 
The glorious past is ours, the hiture thine ! 
As in a cradled Hercules, we trace 
The lines of empire in thine infant face. 

Wordsworth is more direct in his allusion {Prelude) : — 

Meanwhile, the invaders fared as they deserved. 
The Herculean commonwealth had put forth her arms. 
And throttled with an infant godhead's might 
The snakes about her cradle. 

Dryden's lines {Britannia Rediviva) enforce the moral of the present 
passage, that heroes thrive on opposition : — 

Thus, when Alcides raised his infant cry. 
The snakes besieg'd his young divinity : 
But vainly with their forked tongues they threat ; 
For opposition makes a hero great. 

69. The killing of the hydra was the second " labor " of Hercules. In the 

following lines he describes his conquest of that monster. 
Page 161. — 71. de centum (capitum) numero: the hydra had nine 

heads, eight of them mortal, and one — in the middle' — immortal. 

Centum is used here, as frequently, to denote an unusual and large 


72. gemino : whenever Hercules cut off one head two sprung forth in its place. 
esaet: H. 595, 4 (504, l); M. 337; A. 319, d; G. 632; B. 283, 4; 

L. & M. 915. 

73, 74. " This creature branching out with serpents sprung from (their prede- 

cessors') death, and thriving on destruction, I overmastered." This 
was accomplished by searing with a burning brand the necks of the 
hydra as fast as the heads were cut off. The immortal head was cut 
of! last and buried. 

76. arma aliena : ** borrowed weapons." 

80. devicto : supply mihi, 

82-85. Hercules throws his arms about the neck of the bull, catching the 
creature as he comes on at full speed {admissum), and drags him to a 
standstill; whereupon he presses the bull's horns down and thrusts 
them into the ground. This action lays the bull himself prone upon 
the earth. 

87, 88. This horn, torn from the brow of Acheloiis, became the horn of 
plenty which Bona Copia, the goddess of abundance, carries. This is 
a familiar represeDtation in art. See illustration opposite '9. \b\. 


91. totnm automnam : t>. **all the fraite of Autumn." 

mensas secnndas, poma : apples and other fruits were generally served 

last at a Roman feast, just as the meal began with eggs. Hence the 

proverb, ab cvo usque ad mala, *'from eggs to apples," in general, 

"from beginning to end." 
93. lux subit : this takes us back to VIII, 547 and following. The whole 

night has been spent by the bank of the river in feasting and story 

95. habcant: H. 603, 11, 2 (519, 11, 2); M. 354; A. 328, i; G.572; B.293, 

III, 2; L. & M. 921. 

Page 162. — 134. longa fnit, etc.: "meanwhile, a long time had elapsed," 
i,e. since the death of Nessus. 

135. implerant terras odiomque: an instance of zeugma; "had filled the 

earth (with their fame) and had sated Juno's hatred." 

136. victor ab Oechalia : all of the trouble which is related below starts with 

this incident. Hercules had vanquished Eurytus, king of Oechalia, a 
city of Euboea, in a contest in archery. The king had promised his 
daughter lole in marriage to the man who should defeat him, but after 
the contest refused the prize to Hercules. The hero thereupon made 
war upon him, and, after slaying the king, carried off lole as his cap- 
Cenaeo lovi : that is, he was intending to sacrifice to Jove at that place, 
the northwest point of the island of Euboea. 
138, 139. This sounds like a fragment from VergiPs famous pen picture of 
Fama {Aeneidj IV, 173-190) : — 

Parva metu primo ; mox sese attollit in auras, 
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit 

Tarn ficti pravique tenax, quam muntia veri. 

140. Amphitryoniden teneii is to be construed with a verb of saying 
implied in fama praecessit. Hercules was the reputed son of Amphi- 
tryon, the husband of Alcmena. 

145. properandum, etc. : " I must make haste and devise some plan." 

147. Calydona : i.e. her father's home. 

149. Meleagre: Meleager and Delanira were children of Oeneus and 

Althaea. Meleager had killed his mother's brothers at the Calydonian 
boar hunt. See epitome of VIII, 260-444. 

150. quantum iniuria possit, etc.: "how much a woman's outraged feel- 
s' ings and grief can do." Comitate \ et^^ ^^Aeneid, V, ^-7") : — 

p. 152] NOTES 371 

King Henry, I, Daedalus ; my poor boy, Icarus ; 

Thy father, Minos, that denied our course : 
The sun that sear'd the wings of my sweet boy, 
Thy brother Edward: and thyself the sea 
Whose envious gulf did swallow up his life. 

The most obvious metaphorical meaning of the story of Daedalus is 
illustrated in the following passage from Falconer (^Shipwreck, II) : — 

Such arduous toil sage Daedalus endured 

In mazes, self-invented, long immured. 

Till genius her superior aid bestow'd. 

To guide him through that intricate abode : 

Thus, long imprison'd in a rugged way 

Where Phoebus* daughters never aim*d to stray, 

The muse, that tuned to barbarous sounds her string, 

Now spreads, like Daedalus, a bolder wing; 

The verse begins in softer strains to flow. 

Replete with sad variety of woe. 

184. loci natalis : i.e. Athens. 

Page 152. — 186. obstmat: understand J/t»i7j as subject. Daedalus was 

kept as prisoner at large in Crete, since Minos had removed all means 

of escape by sea. 
187. possideat: argumentative concession. 
189. naturam novat : « he changes nature's laws." 

191. ut cUvo, etc.: "so that you would think (to look at them) that they 

had grown upon a sloping surface " (like trees upon a hillside). 

192. rustica fistula : the syrinx or pipes of Pan, made of reeds of unequal 

length, placed side by side in orderly succession. 

193. medias et imas : supply pennast ** the feathers at the middle and bottom 

of each." 
et does double duty by joining iino and certs, and medias and imas, 
195. veras aves : i.e. real bird's wings. 
195-200. This charmingly natural picture of the playful, innocent boy shows 

how real the story is to Ovid himself. 

195. una : i,e. una cum Daedalo. 

196. sua pericla : **■ the instruments of his own destruction." 

199. moUibat : an old form of molliebat. 

200, 201. postquam manus, etc. : "after the finishing touches had been put 

upon the work." 
206-208. That is, " do not shape your course by any constellation, as if you 

were an independent navigator, but follow me alone." 
212. soil itemm repetenda : i.e, " for the last time." 

372 METAMORPHOSES Vlll [P. 152 

215. sequi: supply turn as subject. 

damnosas is true of artes, not inherently, but only in the light of the 
sequel. They were destined to be ** destructive " to Icarus. 

217-220. Again the realistic human touch. We are brought close to actual 
human life as we see the three rustics gazing in awe upon the flying 
tigures — the angler no longer intent upon his rod, the shepherd lean- 
ing upon his convenient staff, and the farmer upon his plow handle. 

Page 153. — 219. possent: H. 592 (517); M. 382,2; A. 320,^; G. 633; 
R 2S3, 3; L. &M.839. 

220. lunonia Samos : Samos was said to be the birthplace of the goddess 

and especially sacred to her. See Vergil (^Aeneidf I, 15) : — 

Quam [Karthaginem] luno fertur terns magis omnibus unam 
Posthabita coluisse Samo. 

220-222. Ovid shows a sublime indifference as to the order of these islands. 
The geographer would have traced the course from Crete, past Pares 
and Delos on the left, and Lebinthos on the right, to Samos. The tiny 
island of Calymne, near Rhodes, is so far away from the course to the 
southeast as to lead us to suspect that this island is mentioned only for 
the sake of its poetic e^xihtt, fecunda melle, 

221. fuerat: supply r^//V/«. 

226. odoratas : is this the fragrance lingering in the wax from the flowers 

whence the honey was gathered, or is it by prolepsis the fragrance of 
the burning wax ? 

227. nudos lacertos : i.g. his arms were stripped of their wings as of a gar- 

ment; and now, though he moves his arms as before, he does not 

"take hold of" the air {percipit), 
229, 230. ora caerulea clamantia aqua : Ovid's favorite interlocked order, 

with the additional touch that the nouns and adjectives are arranged in 
- chiasmic order. 
229. patriam nomen : " the name of his father." 
235. tellus : i.e. the island of Icaros, near by the scene of the boy*s fall, one 

of the Cyclades. 

Hyginus {Fabulae, 40) relates these facts in the simplest form, and 

tells us the subsequent course of Daedalus ; — 

Icarus altius volans, a sole cera calefacta, decidit in mare quod ex eo 
Icarium pelagus est appellatum. Daedalus pervolavit ad regem Cocalum 
in Siciliam. 

Vergil {Aeneidy VI, 14 and following) follows the story which repre- 
sents Daedalus as alighting finally upon the Italian coast near Cumae, 
and there consecrating his wings to Apollo, a consecration which 

p. 155] NOTES 373 

served the double purpose of thanksgiving to the god for deliverance, 
and of a vow that the wings should never again be used. Daedalus 
also built a temple to Apollo, upon the doors of which he represented 
the scenes of his adventures : — 

Tu quoque magnam 
Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolos, Icare haberes. 
Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro ; 
Bis patriae cecidere manus. 

240. longum tibi crimen : " a lasting reproach to thee." 

241-243. The prose order is: Namque germana {Daedali), fatorum ignara, 
huic iradiderat progeniem suam docendam puerum bis senis natalibus 
actiSf aniffti capacis ad praecepta, 

244,24$, medio spinas in pisce, etc.: "he took the backbone of a Bsh, 
which he had observed, as a model." This ingenious youth is here 
credited with the invention of the saw, and below of the compasses. 

248. ut aequali spatio, etc. : " so that while these (arms) maintained a con- 
stant angle of divergence, one arm might stand fixed while the other 
traced a circle around it." 
aequali spatio : H. 479, 3 (379, 2); M. 248; A. 250; G. 403; B. 223; 
L. & M. 655. 

250. arce Minervae : t.e, the Acropolis at Athens. 

25 1, lapsum mentitus : " giving out the story that he (the boy) had fallen off." 

Page 155. — 612. inridet: the subject is Ixioue natus. "He laughed at 
their credulity." 

613. Izione natus: this was Pirithous, the intimate friend of Theseus. His 

most striking adventure in the character of spretor deorum was his 
attempt to steal Proserpina from her lord, the king of the Lower 
World. Pluto fixed him forever, for this presumption, upon an 
enchanted rock near the entrance to Hades. 
mentis: H. 452, i (399, iii, i); A. 218, c\ G. 374, 7; B. 204, 4; L. & 

614, 615. nimiumque putas, etc. : " and you have too large an estimate of the 

power of the gods, if you think that they can change the forms of men." 

620,621. tiliae contermina quercus modico circumdata muro: ''an oak 
tree and a linden side by side, with a low wall surrounding them." 
The wall indicates that the spot is sacred. 

622. ipse locum vidi : the naivete with which this proof is adduced is re- 

624. hinc: i,e, the spot described in lines 620, 621. 

627. Atlantiades : Mercury was the son of Jove, and Maia the daughter of 


632. ilia: svLppiy casa. 

639. *' The old man set out a bench and bade them rest their limbs." 

640. quo : '* upon this bench." 
teztum rude : " a coarse cloth." 

641 and following. These exquisitely realistic touches in description of humble 

hospitality justify the assertion that is sometimes made, that this is the 

best of all the stories which Ovid relates. 
Page 156. — 644. tectO: we need not suppose that she robbed the roof 

itself to obtain fuel. Such material may naturally have been stored 

beneath the roof upon the rafters. 
645. minuit : "broke them up into small pieces." 

647. foliis: H. 462 (414, i); M. 237^ i; A. 243, a; G. 390, 2; B. 214, 1, d; 

L. & M. 601. 

648. sordida terga suis: "a piece of bacon blackened (by the smoke)." 

The ancient house had no chimney, but the smoke found its way out of a 

hole in the roof, having previously blackened the interior of the house. 
651. medias f allunt horas : " they while away the intervening time." 
655, 656. The family bed is pressed into service as an improvised dining 

couch, with its sedge-grass mattress (Jorum) and its bedstead (Jecto) 

of willow frame {spondd) and feet. 

658. et haec vestis, etc. : " even this (their holiday) spread was a cheap 

thing and well worn (vetus)" 

659. non indignanda : " a good match for." 

660. accubuere del : this is an anachronism. Ovid assigns the customs of 

his own times to the heroic age. 
664. bicolor baca Minenrae : the Italians used the olive both in its unripe 
(green) and its ripe (black) condition, and hence were familiar with 
its two colors. The olive was sacred to Minerva. 

666. lactis coacti : the cheese was made simply by pressing the whey out of 

curds or " thick milk." 

667. non acri favilla : " warm ashes." 

668. omnia fictilibus : " all (being served) in cheap earthenware dishes." 
668,669. caelatus eodem argento crater: ^'an embossed mixing-bowl of 

the same precious material." The poet indulges in a bit of facetious- 

670. qua cava sunt inlita : " coated on the inside." 

671. epulas calentes: i.e. the boiled bacon and cabbage mentioned above. 
678. nee iners pauperque voluntas : ** and lively and abounding good will." 
Page 157. — 681. manibus supinis: the gesture of the suppliant — hands 

outstretched with upturned palms. 

682. concipiunt preces : " they fall to praying." 

683. dapibus nullisque paratibus : ** for their poor fare and bad service.'* 

p. 159] NOTES 375 

684. anser, custodia : custodia is abstract for custos. Ever since the good 
sentinel service rendered by the sacred geese in saving the capitol 
from capture by the Gauls in 390 B.C., the goose had an especial repu- 
tation as a custos, Ovid twice elsewhere honors the goose in his verse. 
It is a better sentinel than the dog {MeL XI, 599) : — 

Nee voce silentia nimpunt 
Sollicitive canes canibusve sagacior anser. 

Again, in describing the raven, he says that it was once white — - 

Nee servaturis vigili Capitolia voce 
Cederet anseribus, — Met, 11,538. 

690. immimiblis : " it shall be granted you to escape the destruction (that 

threatens your neighbors)." 

691. mail: H. 452, 2 (399, I, 3) ; M. 226, i; A. 218, a\ G. 374, 8; B. 204, 

i; L.&M.573. 
695. They were a single bowshot's distance from the top. 

699. Ilia vetus casa, etiam parva dominis duobus^ in templum vertitur. 

700. furcas subiere columnae: <* marble columns took the place of the 

forked wooden supports." 

711. vota fides sequitur : ue, their prayer was answered. 

712. soluti: ** worn," " enfeebled." 

Page 158. — 724. cura : metrical reasons forbid the more common con- 
struction of the dative " for which." 

IX. I, 2. Nepiunius heros rogat quae causa deo {sit) gemitus truncaeque frontis. 

1. Neptimiiis heros: Theseus was the reputed son of Aegeus, king of 

Athens, and Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, king of Troezen. There was 
a current tradition, however, that he was really the son of Neptune. 

2. Calydonius amnis : i,e, Achelous, the river god. 
Page 159. — 7. See II, 280, 281, note. 

8. nomine siqua suo Deianira : " if any mention of Delanira." 
12. Partliaone nate: i,e, Oeneus, king of Calydon in Aetolia, and father of 

14, 15. Hercules presses his suit on the ground that he is offering no less a 

father-in-law than Jove himself to his bride, not to mention his own 
great and famous prowess. 

15. novercae: for the genealogy of Hercules see I, 728, note. It was 

through the jealousy of his " stepmother " Juno that he was compelled 
to perform his famous twelve labors. These will be enumerated in 
lines 183-197, where see notes. 
iSw fluentmn = (aquaruni) quae fluunt. 


23, 24. " Jove, from whom you boast that you have sprung, is either not your 

father, or is so unlawfully." 
25, 26. fictiun(ne) esse lorem mails: "whether you prefer Jove (2.^. his 

fatherhood) to be falsely claimed." 
29. verba tot: "just these words (and no more)." 
dextera: understand manus, 

31. padoit modo, etc. : " I was ashamed to back down after having spoken 

so boldly just now." 

32. viridem vestem: being a river god, he is represented as clothed in 

Zh 34- The boxer's attitude is described, though the contest which follows is 
a A^TCStling rather than a boxing contest. 

33. bracchia opposui : " I put up my arms." 

34. in statione : " in position." 

35. " He caught up a handful of dust and sprinkled it over me." 

Wrestlers were accustomed to come to the contest with their naked 
bodies besmeared with oil. The river god would naturally be of slip- 
pery body. Hercules besprinkles his own body and that of the god 
with dust, that he may gain the better hold. 

36-38. Observe how these lines are connected by echoing words. Cervicem 
in the second line recalls vicem in the first ; while capiat in the second 
is repeated by captare in the third line. See other illustrations of the 
poet's fondness for these effects near end of note on the Hexameters 
of Ovid. These words describe the attempts of Hercules to get an 
advantageous hold upon his adversary. 

Page 160. — 40. baud secus ac moles: "just like a cliff." Similarly, Ver- 
gil's boxer, Entellus, is strong by virtue of his bulk {Aeneidf V, 439- 

43. certi non cedere : " determined not to yield." 

46. non alitor: "just so." 

50-56. The position which Hercules is endeavoring to break is the one 
described in lines 44, 55. He now succeeds in breaking his adver- 
sary's hold, turning him around and clasping him in his arms from 
behind, while he bears down upon him with all his weight. 

57, 58. Achelous seeks to thrust his own arms between his chest and the 
encircling arms of Hercules, and thus release himself. 

59, 60. He succeeds, only to be attacked anew, until at last the arms of Her- 
cules clasp his neck, and further resistance is impossible. 

67. This feat of the infant Hercules is famous. He strangled two serpents 
which the jealousy of Juno had despatched against him. The incident 
is used in English literature as an illustration of the lusty strength of 
young states. 

p. i6i] NOTES 377 

Campbell, in his Lines on the Departure of Emigrants for New 
South fVa/es, thus apostrophizes that country: — 

Delightful land, in wildness ev'n benign, 
The glorious past is ours, the future thine ! 
As in a cradled Hercules, we trace 
The lines of empire in thine infant face. 

Wordsworth is more direct in his allusion (Pre/ucte) : — 

Meanwhile, the invaders fared as they deserved. 
The Herculean commonwealth had put forth her arms, 
And throttled with an infant godhead's might 
The snakes about her cradle. 

Dryden*s lines (Britannia Rediviva) enforce the moral of the present 
passage, that heroes thrive on opposition : — 

Thus, when Alcides raised his infant cry, 
The snakes besieg'd his young divinity: 
But vainly with their forked tongues they threat ; 
For opposition makes a hero great. 

69. The killing of the hydra was the second " labor " of Hercules. In the 

following lines he describes his conquest of that monster. 
Page 161. — 71. de centum (capitum) numero: the hydra had nine 

heads, eight of them mortal, and one — in the middle* — immortal. 

Centum is used here, as frequently, to denote an unusual and large 


72. gemino : whenever Hercules cut off one head two sprung forth in its place. 
esset: H. 595, 4 (504, i); M. 337; A. 319, d; G. 632; B. 283, 4; 

L. & M. 915. 

73, 74. " This creature branching out with serpents sprung from (their prede- 

cessors*) death, and thriving on destruction, I overmastered." This 
was accomplished by searing with a burning brand the necks of the 
hydra as fast as the heads were cut off. The immortal head was cut 
off last and buried. 

76. arma aliena : " borrowed weapons." 

80. devicto : supply mihi. 

82-85. Hercules throws his arms about the neck of the bull, catching the 
creature as he comes on at full speed {admissum)^ and drags him to a 
standstill; whereupon he presses the bull's horns down and thrusts 
them into the ground. This action lays the bull himself prone upon 
the earth. 

87, 88. This horn, torn from the brow of Achelous, became the horn of 
plenty which Bona Copia, the goddess of abundance, carries. This is 
a familiar representation in art. See illustration opposite ^, i6v. 


91. totnm atttumnqm ; f.^. "all the fruits of Autumn." 

mensas secundas, poma : apples and other fruits were generally served 

last at a Roman feast, just as the meal began with eggs. Hence the 

proverb, ab <rvo usque ad mala, ''from eggs to apples," in general, 

"from beginning to end." 
93. lux subit : this takes us back to VIII, 547 and following. The whole 

night has been spent by the bank of the river in feasting and story 

95. habcant: H. 603, 11, 2 (519, 11, 2); M. 354; A 328,1; G. 572; B. 293, 

III, 2; L. & M. 921. 

Page 162. — 134. longa fuit, etc.: "meanwhile, a long time had elapsed," 
i,e. since the death of Nessus. 

135. implerant terras odiumque: an instance of zeugma; "had filled the 

earth (with their fame) and had sated Juno's hatred." 

136. victor ab Oechalia: all of the trouble which is related below starts with 

this incident. Hercules had vanquished Eurytus, king of Oechalia, a 
city of Euboea, in a contest in archery. The king had promised his 
daughter lole in marriage to the man who should defeat him, but after 
the contest refused the prize to Hercules. The hero thereupon made 
war upon him, and, after slaying the king, carried off lole as his cap- 
tive. * 
Cenaeo lovi : that is, he was intending to sacrifice to Jove at that place, 
the northwest point of the island of Euboea. 
138, 139. This sounds like a fragment from VergiPs famous pen picture of 
Fama (^Aeneid^ IV, 173-190) : — 

Parva metu primo ; mox sese attollit in auras, 
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit 

Tarn ficti pravique tenax, quam muntia veri. 

140. Amphitryoniden teneii is to be construed with a verb of saying 
implied in fama praecessiU Hercules was the reputed son of Amphi- 
tryon, the husband of Alcmena. 

145. properandum, etc. : " I must make haste and devise some plan." 

147. Calydona : i,e, her father's home. 

149. Meleagre: Meleager and Deianira were children of Oeneus and 

Althaea. Meleager had killed his mother's brothers at the Calydonian 
boar hunt. See epitome of VIII, 260-444. 

150. quantum iniuria possit, etc.: "how much a woman's outraged feel- 

ings and grief can do." Compare Vergil (^Aeneid^ V, 5-7) : — 

I". 163] NOTES 379 

Duri magno sed amore dolores 
Polluto. notumque. furens quid femina possit, 
Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducuat. 

^55. Lichas is an innocent bearer of a gift, the terrible power of which the 
giver herself does not know. She intends it only as a love charm, to 
recall her husband's affections to herself. 
Page 163. — 157. dona det ilia: supply ut. The clause is the object of 
heros : ue. Hercules. 

158. induitur is middle (i.e. reflexive) in force; *<he throws over (his own) 
Lernaeae virus echidnae : Hercules, after slaying the hydra (see 73, 74, 
and note), had dipped his arrows in the poisonous gall of the creature. 
With one of these arrows he had shot the centaur Nessus, in whose 
blood this tunic was dipped. Medea made a similar garment, which 
she presented to her rival Creusa. It was steeped in poisonous drugs, 
which, when warmed by the heat of the victim's body, burst into cling- 
ing and inextinguishable flames. 

159. This is a conventional expression. See VI, 164 and note. 

161, 162. The heat of the altar fires arouses the virulence of the fatal tunic. 

164, 165. Between the actions of these two lines Hercules has gone from 
Euboea to Mt. Oete in Thessaly, where he caused a funeral pyre to be 
built for himself. Milton thus recalls these events {Paradise Lost, II) : — 

As when Alcides, from Oechalia crowned 

With conquest, felt the envenomed robe, and tore 

Through pain up by the roots the Thessalian pines, 

And Lichas from the top of Oeta threw 

Into th' Euboic sea. 

Seneca, in his tragedy Hercules Oetaeus, gives in dramatic form the 
story of the sufferings and death of Hercules. 

170. candens; i,e, "white hot," "glowing." 

176. Satumia: i,e, Juno, .the real cause of all his woes. 

178, 179. vel si miserandus, etc.: "or, if I merit pity from my enemy, I 
mean from you.*' 

182-199. ergo, etc. : " was it for this," etc. Hercules now recalls his 
mighty deeds, not only his famous twelve labors, but also those which 
he undertook at his own instance as a public benefactor in character of 
knight errant. See William Morris ( The Sons of Croesus) : — 

Thou knowest how Hercules 
Was not content to wait till folk asked aid. 
But sought the pests among their guarded trees. 


For the better understanding of these dying words of Hercules, \m 
twelve labors are here stated in order: i. the killing of the Nemean 
lion, in whose skin he ever after clothed himself (line 197); 2. the 
destruction of the Lemean Hydra (192, 193); 3. the capture alive of 
the stag famous for its speed and its golden horns ( 1 88) ; 4. the bring- 
ing alive to Eurystheus of the wild boar which ravaged the neighbor* 
hood of Er>Tnanthus (192); 5. the cleansing of the Augean Istables 
(187); 6. the killing of the carnivorous birds near the Stymphalian 
lake in Arcadia (187); 7. the capture alive of the wild bull whicb 
devastated Crete (186); 8. the obtaining of the mares of Diomedes, 
which fed on human flesh (194) ; 9. the securing of the girdle of Hip- 
polyta, queen of the Amazons (189); 10. the killing of Geryon and 
capture of his oxen (184, 185) ; 11. the securing of the apples of the 
Hesperides (190) ; 12. the bringing to the upper world of the dog 
Cerberus from Hades (185). 

182, 183. Busiris, king of Egypt, was accustomed to offer up all strangers 

upon the altar of Jove. This monarch Hercules slew. 

183, 184. Antaeus was son of Neptune and Terra. Engaged in wrestling 

with Hercules, he gained new strength whenever he fell to earth. 
Hercules held him aloft in the air and strangled him there. This is an 
excellent illustration of the principle of " strength from defeat." Mil- 
ton thus describes the contest (^Paradise Regained, IV) : — 

As when earth's son, Antaeus (to compare 
Small things with great) in Irassa strove 
With Jove's Alcides, and oft foiled still rose. 
Receiving from his mother earth new strength, 
Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grappled joined. 
Throttled at length in the air, expired and felL 

185. forma triplex : i.e. Geryon, who had the bodies of three men united. 

Horace {Odes^ H, xiv, 7) describes him as the ier amplum Geryonen, 
Cerbere : see Spenser (^Faerie Queene, VI. xii, 35) : — 

Like as whylome that strong Tirynthian swaine 
Brought forth with him the dreadfiill dog of hell 
Against his will fast bound in yron chaine, 
And roring horribly did him compel! 
To see the hateful! sunne. 

186. See the seventh labor in the note above. 

187. Augeas was King of Elis. Wordsworth {On the Death of Robespierre) 
makes interesting use of this incident : — 

They who with clumsy dcs^wXioTL brought 

p. 164] NOTES 381 

A river of blood and preached that nothing else 
Could cleanse the Augean stable, by the might 
Of their own helper have been swept away. 

188. It was at the crossing of the river Ladon in Arcadia that the stag was 

Page 164. — 191. The reference is to a brawl which Hercules had had with 
Ihe Centaurs dwelling upon Mt. Erymanthus in Arcadia, on the occa- 
sion of his fourth labor. 

192, 193. See Spenser (^Faerie Queened VI, xii, 32) : — 

Or like the Hell-borne Hydra, which they faine 
That great Alcides whylome overthrew, 
After that he had labourd long in vaine 
To crop his thousand heads, the which still 
Forth budded, and in greater number grew. 

194-196. Again Spenser seeks this cycle of stories for illustration (^Faerie 
Queene, V, viii, 31) : — 

Like to the Thracian tyrant, who, they say. 
Unto his horses gave his guests for meat, 
Till he himselfe was made their greedie pray, 
And tome in peeces by Alcides great. 

In the course of this (the eighth) labor Hercules slew the bloody 
Thracian king, Diomedes, himself. This king is a type to Ovid of a 
cruel, heartless man. See Epistulae Ex Ponio, I, ii, 122. 

198. bac caelum, etc : Hercules sustained upon his shoulders the burden of 
the heavens for Atlas, while that hero obtained for him the apples of 
the Hesperides. 

203, 204. This is the heartbroken cry of many a man since Hercules who has 
seen the oppressor thrive while he himself came to grief. Ennius 
voices this skepticism as to the coexistence of God and evil in the 
world in an extant fragment of his tragedy, Telamo, He cannot go so 
far as to deny the existence of God, but expresses a loss of faith in his 
controlling providence. 

207-210. Observe the adaptation of the words of this passage to the sense. 

232. regna yisuras iterum Troiana: Troy had once been taken by Her- 
cules, and its king, Laomedon, had been slain by his arrows, with all 
the king's sons except Priam. Homer {/liady V, 641) puts refer- 
ence to this event in the mouth of Hercules' son, Tlepolemus, as he 
taunts Sarpedon: — 

Not like my daring father, Hercules 
The lion-hearted, who once came to Troy 


To claiiii the comsers of Laomedoa. 
With but six ships, and warriors but a few. 
He laid the city waste and made its streets 
A desolation. 

The fomous bow and arrows of Hercules are now given to bis fiadth' 
fill friend Philoctetes, the son of Poeas. Years afterward, wbile Philoc- 
tetes was suffering in Lemnos from an incurable wound, an oracle was 
given to the Greeks before Troy, that the city could not be taken with- 
out the aid of the arrows of Hercules. After earnest solicitations, Hu- 
loctetes came to the Greek camp, and thus once more Troy felt the 
power of the weapons of Hercules. 

Page 165. — 233. quo flamma, etc. = cuius ministerio Jlamma pyrae stA- 
dita est, 

241. yindice terrae: Hercules is so called because of the many monsters of 
which he had rid the earth. 

247. hoc : ue, this fear which you feel for him. 

248, 249. sed enim, etc. : " but (you need not fear) for," etc. 
251. matema parte: i.e. his mortal part (his body) which he had received 

from his mortal mother. 
254. id : i.e. quod a me traxiL 

defunctam terra : ** when done with earth.*' 
256, 257. Hercule deo: ablative absolute, with causal force. 

261. se indoluisse notatam: a second construction with dolere, 

262. quodcuinqne, etc. : ** whatever the flames could destroy." 
Page 166. — 269, 270. maior yideri coepit : the forms of the gods as wefl 

as of the shades were represented as larger than material bodicL 
Ovid recognizes this again in XIH, 441 and 895. Vergil has seveial 
references to this belief. When Venus appears to Aeneas in burning 
Troy {Aeneid, H, 592) she is 

qualis videri 
Caelicolis et quanta solet 

And the shade of Creusa enlarges to heroic size {AemUi^ II, 772} x* 

Ipsius umbra Creusae 
Visa mihi ante oculos et nota maior imago. 

272. astris : the immortal Hercules is set in the heavens as a constellatioii. 
This is in the northern hemisphere, between Lyra and Corona Borealii 

Page 167. — X, i. inde: i,e, from Crete, where Hymen had been solem- 
nizing the marriage of Iphis and lanthe. 
Crocto amicttt : Hymen \s TepTesetiUd as clad in a yellow robe» his held 

p. i68] NOTES 383 

encircled with a wreath of the plant amaracus, his locks perfumed, 
and bearing a torch in his hand. 

7. motibus : the torch went sputtering out, and could not be rekindled by 

the usual process of brandishing it in the air. 

8. ezitiis : ue. of the events attending the wedding. 

10. <* She fell dead, smitten in her ankle by a ser]>ent's tooth." 

12. ne non = <//. 
et = etiam, 

13. Taenaria porta : see Vocabulary. 

14. simulacra functa sepulcro: only those who had enjoyed the rites of 

burial were allowed to cross the St)rx and mingle with the shades. 
16. dominum : i,e. Pluto. 

21, 22. I,e, " I have no such purpose as had Hercules." 
Page 168. — 32-35. These lines recall many similar sentiments in Horace, 

of which the following stanza is a good example ( Odes, H, iii, 25-28) : — 

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium 
Versatur uma serius ocius 
Sors exitura et nos in aeternum 
Exsilium impositura cumbae. 

37. inrisyestri: H. 447 (401); M. 217, 2; A. 214, c\ G. 366; B. 198, 3; 
L. & M. 556. 

40-48. This experience of Orpheus in Hades, and the prevailing power of his 
lyre, have probably left a deeper impression upon literature than any 
other one mythological incident. It is worth while to note the way in 
which different writers use the story. Vergil tells it at some length 
with exquisite effect (^Georgics, IV, 453-527). For an excellent resume, 
see Spenser's version of Vergil"* s Gnat, 433-480. Horace gives a 
rational explanation of the story that Orpheus could control wild beasts 
by his lyre (^Ars Poetica^ 391). 

Among the English poets, Spenser faithfully reflects the simple, classic 
story without attempt to explain {Shepheardes Calender, X, 27-30) : — 

Seemeth thou doest their soule of sense bereave, 
All as the shepheard, that did fetch his dame 
From Plutoes balefull bowre withouten leave, 
His musicks might the hellish hound did tame. 

Shakespeare's reference to the story is equally characteristic, and 
thews his tendency to rationalize myth (^Merchant of Venice, V, i) : — . 

Therefore the poet 
Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones and floods ; 
Since nought so stockish, hard and full of rage, 
But music for the time doth change his nature. 


Mihca las f i peastrH power of spealdng, not of the classics, but out 
ci ihexD^ so faDr has be hnhihcd their ^irit. The following passages 
viD iDnfinte this: — 

Untwxs&ng an the chains that tie 

The hidden sonl of hannony; 

That Oipbens* self may heave his head 

From golden slomber on a bed 

Of heaped Elrsian flowers, and hear 

Snd) strains as voold have won the ear 

Of PSnto, to have qoite set free 

His half regained Eunrdice. 


Bat oh. sad vii^n, that thy power 
Might raise Mosaeos from his bower! 
Or bid the soul of Orpheus sing 
Snch notes as w^aibied to the string, 
Drr«- iron tears do»*n Pluto's cheek. 
And made Hell grant what love did seek. 

— // Penseroso, 

The student should read the whole of Pope's Ode on St. CecxHdi 
Dcy in this connection. It is chiefly concerned with the story of 
Orpheus and Eurydice, in illustration of the power of music. The 
application of the ode is in its last four lines : — 

Of Orpheus now no more let poets tell. 
To bright Cecilia greater power is given ; 

His numbeis raised a shade from Hell, 

Hers lift the soul to Heaven. 

In Shelley {Prometkeus Unbound) the mythical has become the 
metaph)^cal : — 

Language is a perpetual Orphic song. 
Which rules with daedal harmony a throng 
Of thoughts and forms which else senseless and shapeless were. 

John G. Saxe's burlesque on this story is a good example of the 
irreverent spirit that is often shown in these modern times toward the 
old mythologies. For further illustrations of this see Lowell's humor- 
ous version of the Apollo and Daphne story {Met. I, 553, note), and 
Tennyson's Amphion. 

There is also a decided tendency among modern poets to revamp 
the classical stories, though not always in the classical spirit — a kind 
of Preraphaelite movement in literature. Walter Savage Landor's 
Orpheus and Eurydice may be taken in illustration. He thus 

p. 170] NOTES 385 

describes the critical moment when Orpheus loses his wife the second 

time : — ^ , 

On he stept, 

And Cerberus held agape his triple jaws ; 

On stept the bard. Ixion's wheel stood still. 

Now, past all peril, free was his return, 

And now was hastening into upper air 

Eurydice, when sudden madness seized 

The incautious lover ; pardonable fault, 

If they below could pardon : on the verge , 

Of light he stood, and on Eurydice 

(Mindless of £ate, alas ! and soul-subdued) 

Lookt back. 

Other moderns of this class are E. W. Gosse, Andrew Lang, Lewis 

Morris, William Morris, and Frederick Tennyson. 
48, 49. Upon the absurdity of this conception see III, 504, note. 
Page 169. — 61. quid enim, etc.: "for of what should she complain, save 

that she was too well beloved?" 

Page 170. — XI. 102. ille : t,e, Midas. 

104. " Bacchus granted his prayer, and gave him the baleful gift (which he 

108, 109. non alta is to be taken with ilice ; and fronde is locatival ablative 

with virentefn. Translate this phrase, ** with rich, green foliage." 
112. massa: supply at^W. 
1 14. Hesperidas : see Vocabulary. The golden apples which were guarded 

by the Hespcrides are a favorite poetic conception. See Milton's 

description of Eden (^Paradise Losty IV) : — 

Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm, 
Others whose fruit burnished with golden rind, 
Hung amiable (Hesperian fables true, 
If true, here only), and of delicious taste. 

117. Danaen elndere posset : in reference to the golden shower, in the form 

of which Jove approached Danae, who was shut up in a tower by her 
father Acrisius. It was Acrisius, however, rather than Danae, who 
was "cheated." Jove took the form of a golden shower, not of a 
shower of gold. Ovid assumes the latter in order that the comparison 
with the liquid gold of Midas may be the closer. Horace ( Odes, III, 
xvi, 1-8) still further materializes the medium of Jove's approach, in 
illustration of the all-penetrating power of gold. 

118. anrea fingens omnia: "imagining all things turned to gold." He 

looks forward to this as the consummation of his hopes. 

OVID — 25 


Face 171.— ijol mec tgtmUB = JkdtAtnies ; and tostae frugis is, by melon- 
jflBT, bread made of the floor of parched wheat. The whole expres- 
BOO means simplj ** and with bread." 

125. aactORB wammths: see II, 303, note. 

127. divetqpe Miaerqve : " rich and wretched.** 

13a Mb Mmo: Orid fireqaently uses the ablative with the preposition aHo 
express the inanimate source of an action, instead of the simple abla- 
tive of means. Sec Heroides^ X, 138. Sometimes the construction 
approaches ahnost to the personification of the means as a real agent 
Compare Epistmlae Ex Ponio^ I, ii, 1 10. 

131. ^lendida : * shining." His very arms are turning to gold. 

133. mpe : supply me. 

134. mite denm (= dtcrum) nnmen: supply est, 

135. " Bacchus restored him (to his former condition), and in proof thereof 

( factiqueJuU) he reUeved him of the boon which he had bestowed." 
137. ^tnn^m : the Pactolus, the origin of whose golden sands is thus 

explained. This is the stock golden river of poetry. See in Spenser | 
( Tkt Visiams of Bellay, XII) : — 

I saw a spring out of a rocke forth rayle [flow]. 
As cleare as christall gainst the sunnie beames; 
The bottome yeallow. like the golden grayle [gravel] 
That bright Pactolus washeth with his streames. 

14a spnmigero fonti : construe with subde, 

144, 145. The prose order is: nunc quoque, semine venae iam veterii f^' 

cepto, ana rigent palUntia (" yellow ") glaebis auro madidis. 
Page 172. — 149. stolidae praecordia mentis = stolida mens, " his folly." 

155, 156. The outcome of this strife is a warning to overweening ambition. 

So Colin Qout in Spenser's Shepheardes Calender , VI, 68 : — 

For sith I heard that Pan with Phoebus strove, 
Which him to much rebuke and daunger drove, 
I never list presume to Pamasse hyll. 
But, pyping low in shade of lowly grove, 
I play to please myselfe, all be it ilL 

156, Tmolus, like Atlas, is now mountain, now god, as occasion requires. 

157, 158. aures liberat arboribus: see V, 488, note. 
160, 161. in iudice nulla mora est: i,e, "I am ready." 
167. dentibns Indis : "ivory." 

276. trahit in spatium : " lengthens them out." 
177. instabiles imas: ** unstable at the base." 

180. turpi pudore: H. 473, 2 (419, 11); M. 246; A. 251; G. 400; B. 224; 
L. & M. 643. 

p. 175] NOTES 387 

Page 173.— 182-189. This is one of the few comic situations which develop 
in Ovid*s stories. • Pope {Prologue to the Satires) makes use of this 
story for comparison: — 

'Tis sung, when Midas' ears began to spring, 

(Midas, a sacred person and a king), 

His very minister who spied them first 

(Some say his queen) was forced to speak or burst. 

And is not mine, my friend, a sorer case, 

When every coxcomb perks them in my face ? 

Persius {Satires^ I, 1 19-122) bases his claim to the right of adverse 
criticism upon this example: "Shall I not mutter too? not even in 
secret, nor with a ditch as confidant? nowhere at all? Yes, here (i>. 
in his book) I'll dig my ditch. IVe seen it, my little book, with my 
own eyes IVe seen it. There's no one who hasn't ass's ears ! " 
190. " A thick growth of rustling reeds sprung up there." 

Page 174. — XII. i. Aesacon vivere is the object of the verbal idea in the 
adjective nescius, 

4. defuit Paridis praesentia : it is by this slender line of connection that 
the poet passes over to the events of the Trojan war. Paris is away on 
his nefarious errand to the court of Menelaus. 

8. nee dilata foret vindicta : " nor would vengeance ha^been postponed." 

10. Aulide : this is the scene of the famous events connected with the sacri- 
fice of Iphigenia. Euripides has based his tragedy of Iphigenia in 
Aulis upon the incident, and many later poets have followed him. 

15-23. These lines are a free rendering of Homer (//fW, II, 303 and follow- 
ing), where Ulysses recalls these incidents to the Greeks at the end of 
the ninth year of the war. Homer does not, however, mention the 
sacrifice of Iphigenia. 

Page 175. — 19-21. Calchas' speech in Homer is as follows: — 

Oh, long-haired Greeks, why stand ye thus 

In silence ? All-foreseeing Jupiter 

Hath sent this mighty omen ; late it comes 

And late will be fulfilled, yet gloriously, 

And with a £Eime that never shall decay. 

For as the snake devoured the sparrow's brood, 

Eight nestlings, and the mother-bird the ninth, — 

So many years the war shall last ; the tenth 

Shall give into our hands the stately Troy. 

27. nec enim nescitve tacetve : " for he was neither ignorant of the truth 
nor did he withhold it, that," etc. 

5.>? MET.\MORPHOSES XII [P. 175 

rS. Txpxss ran fefte : :^. : 1 jy.uuL Agamemnon had slain her favorite 

?oi^. i^i Li. L:.i» -r«:^rre:i her wrath. 
;;« • S: : :? <»:_.": . r^r* s=.":acf:crei a hin 1, without the knowledge of the 

-":-i~.i^ »;•/.. -U-- . :;r Oie maiden of Mycenae." 
sx^^rsHA csrra H i^S. 4 4^2, note 2'; A. 252, c; G. 404, note i; 

3. r >. 5 1* -»; M. ffi Fcr a variation of this construction with 

wx..--:. ic^ VII. c::^ ic^ and nute. 

?A3: 1^6 — 5>:- — TtCncrem Phaethontida : it has been narrated, in 
i.Tii* 5;-:x5 ::" iis bcci, how Achilles had slain Neptune's son, Cyc- 
r i:!^ V :-. -w l5 :rA=i*r*d in::- a swan at the moment of his death by Nep- 
:;-T'f Tis i-i 25 calle-d Fij?zk*-mfis, because of another Cycnus, a 
:":■ iT--: iri rtliint cf Hiaeihoa, who, through grief because of Phae- 
i*'. T. * .-s-x;'::. w»s chingtd into a swan. See Metamorphoses, II, 329- 

5>""-5 : :. NfTCMz; r^tffrs :: :he b*:3iing of Troy by himself and Apollo under 
Tr:-=.:si . i r^wiri ry Laomedon. Neptune now forgets the perfidy of 
lii-e 7r: -in v-r^;. asd reni embers only that Troy's walls are his handi- 
» ::£. ^«^•; l.-cs 25. 26 cf ibis bMX'k. 

F\-"i ITT, — 5:.i, 5^5. det mihi se, etc.: "just let him come within my 
rfiJi ir.d I'll cake him feel," etc. 
tlXO: rr::x:rly a future perfect is here used ^sfaciani. 

5^5 . cocccrrere comminiis hosti : - to meet my enemy face to face." 

cct. fassos: supply/--. 

CC-- plebis : - of the common herd.*' 

007, ooS. ~Th:s «-as the ^nrst'^ cause which old Priam had for rejoicing since 
^tbe deiih of ^ Hector.*' 

60S. illeTictor: - thou, that ^ftinaous) victor." 

610. femineo Harte : ** by a woman's battle-stroke." 

611. That is, :: would have been better to have fallen in battle with the 

valiant Amazons. Achilles had fought with and slain Penthesilea, who, 
with hf r Amazons, had come to the aid of Troy in the last year of the 

Page 178. — 614. aiserat: ijt. upon the funeral pyre. 

dens idem : Vulcan, who had forged the arms of the hero, and who now 
consumes him with Are. There is the same bold confusion of fact and 
hgtrv here that has been noted elsewhere. See II, 303, note. 

615. 616. Shakespeare feels the same pathetic contrast between the living 
and the dead Cwsar ^Hamlet, V, i) : — 

ImperioDS Caesar, dead and (um*d to clay, 
Might st^ m hole to keep the wind away : 

178] NOTES 389 

O, that that earth which kept the world in awe. 
Should patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw ! 

See also Vergil's lines on the dead Priam, Aeneidy II, 554-558. 

^ vivit : the subject is gloria eius, 

\, haec mensura : ue, totius orbis, 

). nee inania Tartara sentit: he is not really dead. He is of those 
whose virtue has wrought out for them a place in heaven among the 
immortals. See Horace, Odes^ III, ii, 21-24. Yet Homer (^Odys- 
sey^ XI) does not so represent Achilles. The shade of that hero thus 
addresses Ulysses: — 

Noble Ulysses, speak not thus of death, 

As if thou couldst console me. I would be 

A laborer on earth, and serve for hire 

Some man of mean estate, who makes scant cheer. 

Rather than reign o'er all who have gone down 

To death. 

ipse: i.e, clipeus. 
, 625. Ajax and Ulysses are the only ones who make bold to claim the 
arms of Achilles. 
onu3 invidiamque : Le. of himself deciding between the two claimants. 

I. I and following. The contest for the arms of Achilles, with its tragic 
result to Ajax, is one of the most dramatic incidents of this period of 
the Trojan war. Homer makes reference to it in the Odyssey (XI, 
543 and following), where the shade of Ajax, still cherishing hatred 
against his rival, refuses to hold speech with Ulysses. The latter 
expresses regret at his victory, which had brought the great Ajax to 

* And now how much I wish 

I had not conquered in a strife like that, 
Since for that cause the dark earth hath received 
The hero Ajax, who in nobleness 
Of form and greatness of exploits excelled 
All other Greeks, except the blameless son 
Of Peleus. 

Sophocles based his tragedy of Ajax upon the events immediately 
succeeding the judgment in favor of Ulysses, resulting in the madness 
and suicide of Ajax. Among the Romans, Pacuvius and Accius wrote 
each a tragedy entitled Armorum ludicium, describing the contest 
itself. Fragments only of these plays remain. Ovid*s Armorum ludi- 
cium, which is here given at length, is the only full account that is 
left us of that event. 


28. virginis iram deae : ue, of Diana. Agamemnon had slain her favorite 

stag, and had thus incurred her wrath. 
34. " She is said to have substituted a hind, without the knowledge of the 

Greeks {supposita), for the maiden of Mycenae." 
supposita cerva: H. 478, 4 (422, note 2); A. 252, c\ G. 404, note r; 

B. 218, 5; L. & M. 652. For a variation of this construction with 

niuiare, see VII, 59, 60, and note. 

Page 176. — 581. in volucrem Phaethontida : it has been narrated, in 
lines 39-145 of this book, how Achilles had slain Neptune's son,Cyc- 
nus, who was changed into a swan at the moment of his death by Nep- 
tune. This bird is called Phaiihoniis, because of another Cycnus, a 
friend and relative of Phaethon, who, through grief because of Pha8- 
thon's death, was changed into a swan. See Metamorphoses^ II, 329- 

587-591. Neptune refers to the building of Troy by himself and Apollo under 
promise of reward by Laomedon. Neptune now forgets the perfidy of 
the Trojan king, and remembers only that Troy*s walls are his handi- 
work. See lines 25, 26 of this book. 

Page 177. — 594, 595. det mihi se, etc.: "just let him come within my 
reach and I'll make him feel," etc. 
faxo: properly a future perfect is here used zs/aciam. 

595. concurrere comminus hosti : " to meet my enemy face to face." 

601. fassus: supply j^. 

602. plebis : " of the common herd." 

607, 608. "This was the (first) cause which old Priam had for rejoicing since 

(the death of) Hector." 

608. ille victor: "thou, that (famous) victor." 

610. femineo Marte : " by a woman's battle-stroke." 

611. That is, it would have been better to have fallen in battle with the 

valiant Amazons. Achilles had fought with and slain Penthesilea, who, 
with her Amazons, had come to the aid of Troy in the last year of the 

Page 178. — 614. arserat: i.e. upon the funeral pyre. 

deus idem : Vulcan, who had forged the arms of the hero, and who now 
consumes him with fire. There is the same bold confusion of fact and 
figure here that has been noted elsewhere. See II, 303, note. 

615, 616. Shakespeare feels the same pathetic contrast between the living 
and the dead Caesar {Hamlet ^ V, i) : — 

Imperious Caesar, dead and tum'd to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away : 

p. 178] NOTES 389 

O, that that earth which kept the world in awe, 
Should patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw ! 

See also Vergil's lines on the dead Priam, Aeneidy II, 554-558. 

617. vivit: the subject is ^/((?r/tf ««j. 

618. haec mensura : i.e, totius or bis. 

619. nee inania Tartara sentit: he is not really dead. He is of those 

whose virtue has wrought out for them a place in heaven among the 
immortals. See Horace, Odes, III, ii, 21-24. Yet Homer (^Odys- 
seyj XI) does not so represent Achilles. The shade of that hero thus 
addresses Ulysses: — 

Noble Ulysses, speak not thus of death, 

As if thou couldst console me. I would be 

A laborer on earth, and serve for hire 

Some man of mean estate, who makes scant cheer. 

Rather than reign o'er all who have gone down 

To death. 

620. ipse: i.e, clipeus. 

624, 625. Ajax and Ulysses are the only ones who make bold to claim the 

arms of Achilles. 
626. onus invidiamque : i.e, of himself deciding between the two claimants. 

XIII. I and following. The contest for the arms of Achilles, with its tragic 
result to Ajax, is one of the most dramatic incidents of this period of 
the Trojan war. Homer makes reference to it in the Odyssey (XI, 
543 and following), where the shade of Ajax, still cherishing hatred 
against his rival, refuses to hold speech with Ulysses. The latter 
expresses regret at his victory, which had brought the great Ajax to 

And now how much I wish 
I had not conquered in a strife like that, 
Since for that cause the dark earth hath received 
The hero Ajax, who in nobleness 
Of form and greatness of exploits excelled 
All other Greeks, except the blameless son 
Of Peleus. 

Sophocles based his tragedy of Ajax upon the events immediately 
succeeding the judgment in favor of Ulysses, resulting in the madness 
and suicide of Ajax. Among the Romans, Pacuvius and Accius wrote 
each a tragedy entitled Armorum Judicium, describing the contest 
itself. Fragments only of these plays remain. Ovid's Armorum ludi- 
cium, which is here given at length, is the only full account that is 
left us of that event. 


Shakespemre (^Lucrece, 1394) describes a painting in which the two 
heroes of this contest are characterized : — 

In Ajaz and Ulysses, O what art 

Of physiognomy might one behold ! 

The fiu:e of either cipher'd either's heart : 

Their face their manners most expressly told : 

In Ajax' ejres blunt rage and rigor roll'd ; 
But the mild glance that sly Ulysses lent 
Show'd deep regard and smiling government 

Page 179. — 10. sed nee mihi dicere promptum : supply est, *" But I am 
not ready of speech." 

16, 17. demit honorem aemulus: not "myrivaV but " the fact that he is 

my rival detracts from my honor (in this contest)." Ajax, true to his 
blunt, untactful character, begins by vilifying and belittling his oppo- 

17. tenuisse: " to have gained." 
22-24. Telamon was one of the Argonauts and also a companion of Hercules 

in his raid upon Troy. See IX, 232, note. The following table will 
show the genealogy of Ajax and his relation to Achilles : — 

Jupiter = Aegina (d. of river god Asopus) 

Aeacus = Endels (d. of diron) 

I i 1 

Periboea = Telamon = Hesione Peleus = Thetis Procus 
(d. of Alcathous) I | | 

I Teucer Achilles 

Ajax I 


25, 26. Jove had made Aeacus a judge in Hades after his death, along with 
Minos and Rhadamanthus. According to a scandalous rumor, Ulysses 
was not the son of Laertes, but of Sisyphus. So that the relation of 
the spirits of the ancestors of Ajax and Ulysses is that of judge on the 
bench and condemned prisoner at the bar. 

31. frater: not "brother," but "cousin." See I, 351, where DeucaUon 

addresses his cousin as soror. 
frateraa =.fratris : supply artna, 

32. Sisyphio : see lines 25, 26, note. 

31-33. This is a family affair. " Why does this lowborn fellow seek to intro- 
duce (in this connection) the name of a family entirely outside the 
Aeacidae ? " 

3S, sibi imitilior : Palamedes Yiad <^xi^o%^d Ulysses' feigned madness, and 

p. 181] NOTES 391 

brought him to the war. For this act he finally suffered death through 
the machinations of Ulysses. See Vergil, Aeneidy II, 83-85. 
Page 180. — 43. utinam furor venis : supply ^m^/. 

45. Poeantia proles : see IX, 232, note. Ulysses is said to have engineered 

the practical exile of Philoctetes on the island of Lemnos. 

46. expositum: Philoctetes had been *'put off" by the Greek fleet and left 

on Lemnos. 
49. See IX, 203 and note. 

53. velatur aliturque are good exajnples of the middle voice. <* He clothes 

and feeds himself on birds; " i,e. he eats their flesh and makes gar- 
ments of their feathers. 

54. debita fatis : see oracle mentioned in IX, 232, note. 

60. Ajax charges Ulysses with having hidden some gold in the quarters of 
Palamedes, which he afterward pretended to discover, and charged 
that this was a bribe which Palamedes had received from Priam. 

63. fidum Nestora, in contrast with desertum Nestora^ in the next line. 

65-69. On one occasion, when the Greeks were retreating, old Nestor was 
left behind, and Diomede, after vainly urging Ulysses to go to the res- 
cue of their aged friend, himself went to his aid. These events are 
told by Homer {Jliad^ VIII, 78 and following). 

69. trepidoque, etc. : " and reproached his timorous friend for running away." 

71. eget : i,e, Ulysses, on an occasion when he was wounded and called for 


72. linquendus erat: '' he was doomed to be abandoned." 

Page 181. — 82. Hector adest: the scene shifts again to the day when 
Hector challenged the Greek chiefs to select a champion to meet him 
in single combat. When the lots were cast for this selection, the 
choice fell upon Ajax. 
secum deos ducit: Apollo accompanied Hector to the field to watch 
over and .protect him. 

88. sortem meam voyistis : this statement is ratified by Homer (Jliad^ VII, 
181, 182): — 

Such was their prayer, while the Gerenian knight, 
Old Nestor, shook the lots ; and from the helm 
Leaped forth the Jot of Ajax, as they wished. 

The events of the struggle, which proved to be a drawn battle, are told 
by Homer in the lines that follow. 
91. These battles at the Grecian wall of ships, where the Trojans, led by 
Hector, all but forced their enemy's camp, but were finally repelled 
largely through the prowess of Ajax, are told in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth books of the Iliads 


Shakespeare (JLucrecty 1394) describes a painting in which the two 
heroes of this contest are characterized : — 

In Ajax and Ulysses, O what art 

Of physiognomy might one behold ! 

The £ace of either cipher'd either's heart : 

Their face their manners most expressly told : 

In Ajax' eyes blunt rage and rigor roll'd ; 
But the mild glance that sly Ulysses lent 
Show'd deep regard and smiling government 

Page 179. — 10. sed nee mihi dicere promptum : supply est, <* But I am 
not ready of speech." 

16, 17. demit honorem aemulus: not *< my rival," but "the fact that he is 

my rival detracts from my honor (in this contest)." Ajax, true tolm 
blunt, untactful character, begins by vilifying and belittling his oppo- 

17. tenuisse: " to have gained." 

22-24. Telamon was one of the Argonauts and also a companion of Hercnles 
in his raid upon Troy. See IX, 232, note. The following table will 
show the genealogy of Ajax and his relation to Achilles : — 

Jupiter = Aegina (d. of river god Asopus) 

Aeacus = Endels (d. of Chiron) 

Periboea = Telamon = Hesione Peleus = Thetis Procus 
(d. of Alcathous) I | | 

I Teucer Achilles 

Ajax I 


25, 26. Jove had made Aeacus a judge in Hades after his death, along with 
Minos and Rhadamanthus. According to a scandalous rumor, Ulysses 
was not the son of Laertes, but of Sisyphus. So that the relation of 
the spirits of the ancestors of Ajax and Ulysses is that of judge on the 
bench and condemned prisoner at the bar. 

31. frater: not "brother," but "cousin." See I, 351, where Deucalion 

addresses his cousin as soror. 
fratema —fratris : supply arma. 

32. Sisyphio : see lines 25, 26, note. 

31-33. This is a family affair. " Why does this lowborn fellow seek to intro- 
duce (in this connection) the name of a family entirely outside the 
Aeacidae ? " 
3S, aibi Jliutilior : Palamedea Yiad <^^^o&^d \3V^«iim' feigned madness, and 

p. 181] NOTES 391 

brought him to the war. For this act he finally suffered death through 
the machinations of Ulysses. See Vergil, Aeneidy II, 83-85. 
Page 180. — 43. utinam furor venis : supply ^tjj^/. 

45. Poeantia proles : see IX, 232, note. Ulysses is said to have engineered 

the practical exile of Philoctetes on the island of Lemnos. 

46. expositum: Philoctetes had been *' put off" by the Greek fleet and left 

on Lemnos. 
49. See IX, 203 and note. 

53. velatur aliturque are good exapiples of the middle voice. " He clothes 

and feeds himself on birds; " i.e. he eats their flesh and makes gar- 
ments of their feathers. 

54. debita fatis : see oracle mentioned in IX, 232, note. 

60. Ajax charges Ulysses with having hidden some gold in the quarters of 
Palamedes, which he afterward pretended to discover, and charged 
that this was a bribe which Palamedes had received from Priam. 

63. fidum Nestora, in contrast with desertum Nestora, in the next Une. 

65-69. On one occasion, when the Greeks were retreating, old Nestor was 
left behind, and Diomede, after vainly urging Ulysses to go to the res- 
cue of their aged friend, himself went to his aid. These events are 
told by Homer {Iliad, VIII, 78 and following). 

69. trepidoque, etc. : ** and reproached his timorous friend for running away." 

71. eget : i.e, Ulysses, on an occasion when he was wounded and called for 


72. linquendus erat: " he was doomed to be abandoned." 

Page 181. — 82. Hector adest: the scene shifts again to the day when 
Hector challenged the Greek chiefs to select a champion to meet him 
in single combat. When the lots were cast for this selection, the 
choice fell upon Ajax. 
secum deos ducit: Apollo accompanied Hector to the field to watch 
over and .protect him. 

88. sortem meam yovistis : this statement is ratified by Homer (Jliad, VII, 
181, 182): — 

Such was their prayer, while the Gerenian knight, 
Old Nestor, shook the lots ; and from the helm 
Leaped forth the lot of Ajax, as they wished. 

The events of the struggle, which proved to be a drawn battle, are told 
by Homer in the lines that follow. 
91. These battles at the Grecian wall of ships, where the Trojans, led by 
Hector, all but forced their enemy's camp, but were finally repelled 
largely through the prowess of Ajax, are told in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth books of the Iliads 


95-97. istis, mihi, armis, Aiaci : poetic datives of the apparent agent. 

98. his : " with these deeds of mine." 

98-100. He refers to a night expedition of Ulysses in company with Dio- 

mede, in which Rhesus and Dolon were slain and Helenas captored. 
103. quo tamen haec Ithaco : " and yet why (give) these to the Ithacan (at 

all) ? " 
Pacie 182. — 108. non onerosa : " otherwise than burdensome." 
109. Pelias hasta: Achilles' spear is so called because its shaft came from 

Mt. Pelion in Thessaly. 
1 22. ref erentem oraate relatis : Ovid likes to play with different parts oi 

the same word, as illustrated here. " Adorn with the rescued arms 

their rescuer." 
1 28. si mea vota : " if my prayers and yours had availed." 
Page 183. — 138. pro domino : i.e. pro me ipso, 

140. nam : this goes bacU to sua in the previous line. " Let each one make 

the most of his own powers; for as to ancestry and the glorious deeds 
that others have done, those are in no true sense our own." 

141. sed enim : "but still (I zvill meet him on the point of ancestry) for," etc. 

142. esse lovis pronepos = se esse lovis pronepotem : a rare instance of the 

attraction, after the Greek fashion, of an infinitive predicate to the 
case of the subject of the main verb. 

145. damnatus et exsul: it is said that Telamon and Peleus had slain their 

brother Procus, and were on this account banished by their father 

146. Ulysses can boast of divine descent on his mother's as well as on his 

father's side. Following is his family tree : — 

Jupiter Mercury = Philonis 

Arcesius Amphithea = Autolycus 

Laertes = Anticlea 



Page 184.— 171, 172. ego Telephon, etc.: "'twas I who conquered Telc- 

phus," etc. Telephus, the son of Hercules and son-in-law of Priam, 
was mortally wounded by Achilles while on his way to the Trojan war. 
r According to the words of an oracle, this wound could be cured only 
by him who inflicted it. There was another oracle that Troy could be 
^, taken by Greeks only by the aid of -a son of Hercules. Ulysses, cogni- 
zant of both these oracles, persuaded Achilles to cure his wounded 
QHQmy^ that thus the \attet m\^\i\.\ift v*ow\.o t\ve Greek cause* 

^- i86] NOTES 393 

^73-176. These places are the scenes of Achilles' destructive raids in the 

early years of the Trojan war. 
^80. yivo dederam, etc.: "I gave them to him in his lifetime [?'.<?. I sent 

him to the war] ; now that he is dead I ask them back again." 
181. nnius: i,£, of Menelaiis, the seduction of whose wife by Paris was the 

cause of the war. At her marriage all the Greek chiefs had sworn an 

oath to avenge any wrong that should ever come to her. 
184, 185. These events have been already noted in XII, 1-38. 
187. in rege pater est: compare XII, 30, rex pair em viciL 
Page 185. — 190. "I had a difficult cause to plead, and that too before a 

partial judge." 

192. smnma sceptri: ue, the fact that he held supreme command, and 

hence was responsible for the general welfare and success. 

193. astu decipienda : Ulysses pretended to Clytemnestra that her daughter 

was wanted at the Greek camp at Aulis for marriage with Achilles. 

194-204. Ulysses and Menelaiis were sent by the Greeks, before war was 
declared, to Priam, to demand back Helen and her wealth. 

210. nosti = novisti. 

216-235. Homer {Iliad, II, i and following) relates these events. Accord- 
ing to this account, Jove's instruction to Agamemnon was that he 
should bring all his forces to bear upon Troy, for that city should 
surely fall. But Agamemnon, to test the temper of the Greeks, told 
them that he had been warned in a dream to return to Greece. Ovid, 
in lines 216 and 218, overlooks these facts, and would have it that 
Agamemnon was actually directed to return to Greece. 

PAGfe 186. — 218. ille: Agamemnon. 
auctore: Jove. 

219. non sinat, etc. : this is equivalent to saying, " Why doesn't Ajax pre- 
vent this (movement) ? " etc. 

221. dat, etc. : "and give something for the confused mob to rally around." 

222. ** This was not (better, would not have been) too much for one who 

never speaks except in boasting." 

226. captam : i.e, Troy is already in your grasp, and you are going to let her 
escape after all. 

228. disertum : supply me. 

233. per me haud impune : Ulysses soundly chastised the insolent Thersites 
in the presence of the host. 

236, 237. Ulysses even lays claim to the deeds of Ajax as his own. 

239. Diomede and Ulysses were frequent companions in adventure. 

244. ausum eadem, quae nos, Dolona : i.e. Dolon was engaged in the same 
dangerous business of spying from the Trojan side, as Ulysses and Dio- 
mede from the Gr^ek sid?. 


245. interimo : in Homer it is IMomede who slays Dolon. 

Page 187. — 251, 252. *'And so I went back to camp victorious and^ 
my vows accomplished, while in my captured chariot I rode in joyM 
triumph." This is one of the few anachronisms in Ovid. The /ri- 
umph was a peculiarly Roman custom. 

253, 254. Dolon (Jiostis) had stipulated that the horses of Achilles should be 

given him as the prize of his night's work should he be successfbl. 
See Homer {Iliad, X, 319), where Dolon thus addresses Hector: — 

My daring spirit. Hector, uiges me 

To visit the swift ships and learn the state 

Of the Greek host But hold thy scepter forth, 

And solemnly attest the gods that thou 

Wilt give to me the horses, and the car 

Engrailed with brass, which bear the illustrious son 

Of Peleus. 

254. fuerit benignior Aiax : this refers to the ironical propositions made by 

Ajax in lines loi, 102, which Ulysses professes to take in good faith. 

263. ipso loco : ablative of cause. They are honorable because they are b 
front — on his breast. 

266, 267. nil sanguinis : ** no blood." 
in socios : •* in behalf of his friends." 

274. cum defensore : sarcastically of Ajax. 

277. nonus in officio : "the ninth in proffered service." Nine of the Greek 
chiefs had offered to be the champion against Hector, and the choice 
fell to Ajax by lot. 

Page 188. — 288, 289. "Was it for this then that (Achilles') mother, god- 
dess of the sea {caeruld), was ambitious for her son?" 

291-294. Homer describes the shield which Vulcan made for Achilles in 
Iliad, XVIII, 483-489: — 

For here he placed the earth and heaven, and here 
The great deep and the never-resting sun 
And the full moon, and here he set the stars 
That shine in the round heaven, — the Pleiades, 
The Hyades, Orion in his strength. 
And the Bear near him, called by some the Wain, 
That, wheeling, keeps Orion still in sight, 
Yet bathes not in the waters of the sea. 

Page 189. —308, 309. turpe : supply est. The thought is : << If it Is a base 
thing for me to have accused Palamedes on a false charge, is it any 
less so for you to have condemned him?" 

312. vidistis: see line 60 and note. Ulysses' answer to the charge of Ajax 
is: "Of course, Palamedes -was ^\V\^j\ >jo^all saw the gold that was 

*^- 191] NOTES 395 

hidden in hit tent." But he ignores the real point in the charge, that 

he himself put the gold there, 
obiecta : supply crimina, 
3t5> 314* nee esse reus merui : '* nor is it my fault." 
313. Vulcania: Lemnos was so called because Vulcan had fallen there after 

being flung from heaven by Jove, because he attempted to aid Juno 

against the Thunderer's wrath. Milton poetically describes this fall 

{Paradise Lost, I): — 

From mom 
To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve 
A summer's day ; and with the setting sun 
Dropped from the zenith like a foiling star, 
On Lemnos the Aegean isle. 

326, 327. The subjunctive mode in prosit shows that the condition implied in 
cessanie meo pectore is not likely to be fulfilled : " before he would 
avail the Greeks in case I should cease to help them." 
328-338. A dramatic apostrophe to Philoctetes. 

332. The variation from mei (which we should expect) to nostri is awkward, 
and is evidently a concession to meter. 
ut introduces ^^^/ understood. 

fiat (supply ut) is one of the objects of cupias above. " And that, as I 
was given a chance at you, so you may have a chance at me." 

334, faveat: a proviso; " should Fortune favor." 

335. Dardanio vate : i*e, Helenus, a soothsayer, and son of Priam. See line 

99 and note. Ulysses had captured him and compelled him to reveal 
the oracles upon which the fate of Troy depended. 

Page 190. — 339. illo : i,e, the signum Alinervae, the Palladium. 

341. hie : "at this juncture," when volunteers are being sought for the dan- 
gerous service of securing the Palladium. 

347. tergora septem : Ajax carried a shield (molem clipei of line 99) made 
of seven thicknesses of bulPs-hide. 

350, 351. Tydiden ostentare meum: "to remind us that Diomede was my 
partner (and that he should have part of the praise)." 

356. moderatior Aiaz : Ajax the Less, the son of OKleus. 

360-369. The great principle, upon which Ulysses rests his case, is that mind, 
in which he surpasses his rival, is greater than physical strength, in 
which latter he concedes that Ajax excels. This principle is the text 
of Horace's great Ode (III, iv, 65-67), in which he enlarges upon the 
value of wisdom as compared with brute force. 

Page 191. — 372. hunc titulum : ix. " the honor of this armor." 

376. deos qnos ademi : Minerva only is meant, whose presence and protec- 
tion left Troy with the captured Palladium. 


377. per siquid snperest : " by whatever other deed stUl remains." 

378. ex praecipiti : " hazardous." 

381. huic date: either "to this (statue of Minerva, hence to Mh^^erva her- 
self) if not to me," or "y^r this (and all the prowess on my ^rt that 
its possession implies) if not for my other merits." 1 

Page 192. — 392. qua patoit femun: "where his armor gave place (for 
the blow)." 

395-398. purpureum florem: i.e. the hyacinth. In Met. X, 143-219, it is 
related how Apollo accidentally slew the beloved youth Hyacinthus, 
from whose blood sprang up the flower that bears his name. Apollo 
there prophesies (207) that in time to come this flower shall be con- 
nected with the death of a mighty hero, whose name shall be written 
upon its leaves : — 

Tempus et illud erit, quo se fortissimus heros 
Addat in hunc florem, folioque legatur eodem. 

Apollo then marks the flower with the signs of his own grief (215) : — 

Ipse suos gemitus foliis inscribit, et ai ai 

Flos habet inscriptum, funestaque littera ducta est. 

The Greek name of Ajax, AIA2, is very similar in appearance to the 
repeated exclamation of Apollo (AI AI = alas! alas!), and hence the 
connection of the plant with the hero's death. 

Vergil alludes to this interpretation of the markings in the Eclogues 
(III, 106): — 

Die, quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum 
Nascantur flores. 

The English poets find the first explanation the more effective. See 

Milton {Lycidas) : — 

Like to that sanguine flower inscribed with woe ; 

and Shelley {Prometheus Unbound, II) : — 

I looked, and all the blossoms were blown down; 
But on each leaf was stamped, as the bluebells 
Of Hyacinth tell Apollo's written grief, 
O, follow, follow/ 

397. communis : the sense in which the inscription is common to both boy 
and hero is explained in the next line, 
mediis is to be read yfith foliis. 

^- 195] NOTES 397 

^30. Polymnestor, king of Thrace, had married the daughter of Priam, Ili- 
^ one. To the king and Ilione, Priam had entrusted his youthful son, 
Polydorus. Vergil dwells at some length upon the story of Polymnes- 
tor*s treachery and the death of Polydorus (^Aeneid^ III, 19-68). 
433» 434. nisi adiecisset : see Vergil (lines 49-51) : — 

Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno 
Infelix Priamus fiirtim mandarat alendum 
Threlcio regi. 

434. animi inritamen avari: Vergil's use of this idea is more dramatic 

(line 56):— ^ .^ 

Quid non mortaha pectora cogis, 

Auri sacra fames? 

435. cecidit: "waned." 

438. SCOpulO: construe with subiectas; "into the water which washed the 
foot of a cliff." Ovid, in this description, is jireparing the way for the 
discovery of her son*s dead body by Hecuba, as narrated below in lines 
481 and following. 

441. quantus cum viveret; see IX, 269, 270, note. 

444. Homer describes {Jliad^ I) how Achilles, enraged with Agamemnon 
because of Brisels, had drawn his sword upon the king. 

Page 193. — 448. Polyxena : Achilles had been enamoured of this beauti- 
ful daughter of Priam. While in the temple of Thymbrean Apollo, in 
response to a private message from Priam, relative to his daughter, 
Achilles was treacherously slain by Paris and Deiphobus. The sacri- 
fice of the princess upon the tomb of her dead lover is one of the most 
pathetic incidents in the history of the Trojan war. 

461. She is unselfish and thoughtful of others to the last: " I only wish that 
the knowledge of my death may be kept from my mother." 

465-469. The thought is : " Do not bind me as a victim, but let me meet 
death as free in all my limbs as I am free and eager in soul." 

470, 471 ; Priami VOS filia, etc. : " 'tis the daughter of King Priam, and not 
a captive maiden, who asks it." 

473. The reference is to the rich ransom of Hector's dead body 

Page 195. — 750 and following. Polyphemus in love is one of the roles in 
which he is known in classic literature. Theocritus {/dyls^ VI and XI) 
and Ovid, together with many English poets, portray him in this role. 
Among the English writers are (lay {Song of Polypheme)y Dobson {A 
Tale of Polypheme)^ and Buchanan {Pofypheme^s Passio?i), The other 
r61e of Cyclope terrible is first portrayed by Homer, in the narration of 


the adventure of Ulysses with the Cyclops {Odyssey, IX), and after- 
ward by Euripides, in his satyric drama The Cyclops, the scene and 
main incidents 0/ which are the same as in Homer. Vergil {Aeneid, 
III) gives the sequel to these last mentioned events in connection with 
the arrival of Aeneas off the coast of Sicily, where the blinded giant is 
once more brought upon the stage. 
771. Telemus: in the Odyssey (IX, 509 and following), when Ulysses 
reveals to the Cyclops who has blinded him, the latter cries: — 

Now, woe is me ! the ancient oracles 
Concerning me have come to pass. Here dwelt 
A seer named Telemus Eurymides, 
Great, good, and eminent in prophecy. 
And prophesying he grew old among 
The Cyclops. He foretold my coming fate, — 
That I should lose my sight, and by the hand 
And cunning of Ulysses. 

It will be remembered that the present events precede those nar- 
rated by Homer. 
782. In Vergil {Aeneid, III, 659) he still carries his huge staff : — 

Trunca manu pinus regit et vestigia firmat 

Page 196. — 784. centum : so huge a pipe befits so huge a piper. 
789-797. Ovid borrows his pastoral metaphors both from Theocritus and Ver- 
gil. In the Greek poet (XI, 19-21) we find : — 

O milk-white Galatea, why cast off him that loves thee ? whiter than is 
pressed milk to look upon, more delicate than the lamb art thou, than the 
young calf wantoner, more sleek than the un ripened grape. 

And in Vergil {Eclogues, VII, 37, 38) Galatea is thus described : — 

Nerine Galatea, thyme mihi dulcior Hyblae, 
Candidior cycnis, hedera formosior alba. 

798. eadem Galatea : '* yet the same Galatea is," etc. He now proceeds to 

give the reverse side of her character. 
808. Here follows an inventory of his wealth and of the abundant pleasures 

of pastoral life. 
Page 197. — 824. pauperis est numerare pecns: compare IV, 115, where 

see note. 
826. ut: "how." 
833. parve : " or a pair." 

840. He comes next to himself, and speaks half boastfully, half apologetically. 
yidi : supply me. 

p. 2oi] NOTES 399 

843. nam explains his reference to Jove, though he himself is a contemptor 

deorum (line 761 ) : <* for you are wont to speak of some Jove or other 

as reigning (in heaven)/' 
Page 198. — 851, 852. "True, I have but one eye, but then it is big enough 

for two." This one huge eye gives the Cyclops his name. Vergil 

{Aeneidf III, 636, 637) thus describes it : — 

Ingens, qi!iod torva solum sub fronte latebat, 
Argolici clipei aut Phoebeae lampadis instar. 

854. Cyclops was the son of Neptune. 

859. contemptns : note the quantity of the Bnal syllable. 

862, 863. "And yet he may please himself, and please you too, Galatea; but 

oh, I wish he didn't : (but) only let me have a chance at him ! " 
867. laesusque: "and my passion {ignis) aroused (by my wooing) rages 

more fiercely (within me)." 
Page 199. — 883. et eztremus angulus, etc.: "and although the merest 

fragment (of the rock) struck Acis," etc. 
886. ut vires, etc. : i.e, that Acis should become a river god. His mother 

was a water nymph (line 750). 

893. subito media, etc.: "suddenly there stood forth waist-deep in the 


894. nova comna; Regius, in commenting upon this passage, observes : — 

Nam fluviorum Dii comua habere finguntur, quod bourn similes esse/ 
dicuntur, et propter strepitum, et propter circumflexiones, qiias comua, 
vocant. Cincta autem comua cannis idcirco habere finguntur, quod fere ini 
ripis fluminum harundines nascuntur. 

But see also Atnoresy III, xv, 17, note. 

895. nisi quod maior : see IX, 269, 270, note. 

caernltts : the usual color ascribed to river and sea divinities. 

Page 201. — XV. 146, 147. Compare Milton's ambitious lines {Paradise 

^^'-^y- i.he„ce 

Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song. 
That with no middle flight intends to soar 
Above the Aonian mount, while it pursues 
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme. 

149. In this way the poet describes the cahn heights of philosophy, with its 

wide and true views of life. 
150-152. Ovid in this utterance imitates Lucretius {De Rerum Nature, II, 

7-13), who f^omments upon the delight of the philosopher in viewing 


all the turmoil and strife of life from the calm and secure heights d 
Page 202.— 155. materiem yatnm, etc.: "the stuff that poets manttfac. 
ture, and their (fabled) sufferings of a world that never was." Cicero 
( Tusculan Disputations, T, § 36) says that popular ignorance Mded by 
the poets is responsible for the materialistic terrors of the worW 
beyond the grave : — 

Ignoratio finxit inferos easque formidines, quas tu contemnere non sine 
causa videbare .... quam opinionem roagni errores consecuti sunt, qooi 
auxenint poetae. 

The whole sixth Aeneid of Vergil, with its vivid descriptions of 
Hades and its material punishments for sins done on the earth, is a 
striking illustration of Cicero's point. Similarly, Milton has done 
much harm theologically by a gross materialization of the abode and 
suft'erings of lost spirits. 
'58, 159. These are the two tenets at the core of the philosophy of Pythag- 
oras with reference to the future state — the deathlessness of the soul 
and its transmigration from body to body. Caesar {^De Bella Gailico, 
\lf 14) says that the Druids teach this same doctrine in order to 
remove fear of death from their warriors: — 

Imprimis hoc volunt persuadere, non interire animas, sed ab aliis post 
mortem transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime ad virtutem excitari putant 
metu mortis n^lecto. 

160-164. P}thagoras' proof that the soul of the Trojan Euphorbus now ani- 
mates his own body is that he saw and recognized as his own the 
shield of that hero, which Menelaus had hung up in the temple 0! 
Juno as a trophy and votive offering. 

173, 174. Do not slay an animal for food, lest in doing so you drive the soul 
of your own friend or relative out of its temporary resting place. 

1 78. vagans is predicative with the passive verb formatur, " Everything is 
brought into being with a changing nature." 

184, 185. nam quod fuit, etc.: "for that which once existed is no more, 
and that has come to be which was not." 

Pa(;e 203.— 188-190. The aspect of the heavens is different at different 

189. media: supply w^^/^. 
exit : i.e. e viari, 

190. luci: construe with /ra«/ia. 

196. nocturnae Dianae : i.e. the moon. 

198. si contrahit orbem : « if it is on the wane.** 

p. 207] NOTES 401 

199-213. The similarity between the seasons of the year and the periods of 
the life of a man is obvious, and has been noted by writers in all 

201. tener et lactens : supply annus, 

214. nostra ipsonun: it is in this way only that intensive pronouns may be 
used with the possessive; "our own." 

Page 204. — 223, 224. The first tottering efforts of an infant to stand upright 
are very pleasingly and realistically told. 

228. haec: i,e,senecta, 

229-231. Cicero {De Senectute^ § 27) tells this story, and condemns the super- 
annuated athlete for the undue estimate which he has of the mere 

231. Herculeis: supply //zr^/tj. 

233, 234. Helen had twice been carried away because of her great beauty, 
once by Theseus, and later by Paris. As she now looks at the wrinkles 
of age, she tearfully wonders how she could ever have been attractive. 

Page 205. — 453f 454. ne tamen ezspatiemur : "but, not to wander too 
far out of my course, my steeds forgetting meanwhile to speed toward 
the goal." 

456. nos is to be construed as subject o{ sinamus (line 461). ^ 
456-458. The clause quoniam . , . condi is parenthetically, explanatory. 

457, 458. in ferinas domos = inferina corpora, 

462. Thyesteis mensis : the reference is to one of the most horrible of the 

legends of antiquity, in which Thyestes devours his own sons, served 

up to him in disguise by his brother Atreus. 
468, 469. quantum est, etc. : ** how much does such a deed as that fall short 

of actual murder? What is the end of such a course? " 
475. Nets were spread in a convenient place, and cords were stretched with 

reference to these, to which bright colored feathers were attached. 

The deer, frightened by these, would take to flight, and thus be steered 

into the nets. 

Page 207. — 745. hic: i>. Aesculapius. 
746. Marte togaque : " in war and in peace." 

748. properata gloria : " quickly won glory." 

749. in sidus stellamque comantem: Suetonius {lulitis, 88) tells us that 

after the death of Caesar a comet appeared for several successive days, 

and that it was given out that this was the soul of Caesar deified and 

set in the heavens. Compare a reference in Horace (^OdeSy I, xii, 47) 

to this point: — 

^ Micat mter omnes 

lulium sidus velut inter ignes 

Luna minores. 

OVID — 26 


luiium sidus refers here primarily to the comet mentioned above, bat is 
intended also to represent the Julian house in the person of Augustas. 
Vergil (^EclogueSy IX, 47) speaks of the Caesaris astrum. 

750. quam sua progenies : ue. Augustus. The compliment to the emperor 
is decidedly forced, considering that he was not the << offspring" of 
Julius Caesar, but only his grandnephew and adopted son. But per- 
haps the poet means to say that the crowning act of Caesar's life was 
his adoption of the future emperor. 

752-757. This is a r6sum^ of Julius Caesar's various military triumphs. 

752. domuisse Britannos : this is an extravagant statement, for, as Tadtos 
says {Agricola, XIII) : ** Julius invaded Britain with an army, but suc- 
ceeded only in frightening the natives in one successful battle, and 
gaining a mere foothold on the shore. So that his work was merely to 
discover the island to posterity." 

758. genuisse virum : a more emphatic assumption still that Augustas was 
the son of Julius. 

760, 761. '* Caesar must needs be made a god in order that his (adopted) son 
might not owe his birth to a mortal father ! " Verily, they that wait 
on kings are forced into strange paths in search of compliments. 

762. genetrix: i.e, Venus. 

763. Pontifici : Julius Caesar held the office of Pontifex. 

coniurata arma: "the weapons of the conspirators," Brutus and the 

767. Vergil also derives Caesar in direct lineal descent from Venus, through 

Aeneas, lulus, etc. 

768. instis curls: *' well-founded cares." These cares are explained in the 

lines that follow (769-774). 

769. quam modo, etc. : " since now the spear of Diomede wounds me, and 

now the fall of ill-defended Troy overwhelms me," etc. 

772. sedes intrare silenttim : the visit of Aeneas to Hades is described by 
Vergil in the sixth Aeneid; and his war with Turnus, who was aided 
by Juno, is related in the second half of the Aeneid, 

Page 208. — 775. timorhic: i.e, pro Caesar e, 

781. veterum sororum: i.e, of the Fates. The gods, even Jove himself, 

while they might know the fates, and reveal them, could not change or 
thwart them. 

782. luctns futuri: "of the imminent disaster." 

783-798. These are the portents which, according to tradition, preceded the 
death of Caesar. Shakespeare (^Julius Caesar^ II, ii) puts the re- 
hearsal of them into the mouth of Calpumia, as she strives to dis- 
suade her husband from going to the senate house on the fatal Ides 
of March : — 

p. 209] NOTES 403 

There is one within, 
Besides the things that we have heard and seen, 
Recounts mo^ horrid sights seen by the watch. 
A lioness hath whelped in the streets ; 
And graves have yawned and yielded up their dead; 
Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds. 
In ranks and squadrons and right form of war. 
Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol : 
The noise of battle hurtled in the air. 
Horses did neigh and dying men did groan, 
And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets. 
O Caesar, these things are beyond all use. 
And I do fear them. 

789. caeniliis is coordinate with sparsus as a predicate adjective. 

792. lacrimavit ebtir refers to the vapor that condensed upon the ivory 

images of the gods in the temples. Thus a cold perspiration seemed 
to break out upon the very gods in horror at the impending deed of 

793. auditi : supply esse. 

795. caesum caput: supply iecoris ("of the liver"). The projecting lobe 
of the liver was called in augury caput. The vital organs (Jibrae or 
exta) were inspected by the priest {haruspex) and every departure 
from the normal noted. A double or split {caesum) caput iecoris was 
significant of disaster to the state. Extispicium^ or the reading of 
omens from the exta of animals, is described at length by Seneca 
{Oedipus f 291-402). 

Soi. templum, as explained in the following line, was the curia, or senate 

804. Aeneaden : i,e, Caesar. Venus strives to save him, as she had during 
the Trojan war saved Paris and Aeneas at critical moments, by throw- 
ing around him a cloud of invisibility. Homer thus describes the 
rescue of Paris from Menelaus {Iliad, HI, 380) : — 

But Venus — for a goddess easily 

Can work such marvels — rescued him, and, wrapped 

In a thick shadow, bore him firom the field. 

The similar rescue of Aeneas from Diomede is described in the fifth 

Page 209. —808. intres (supply ut) is the subject oi licet. "Thou thyself 
mayst enter." 
sororam : 1./. the Parcae or Fates. 

809-814. The archives of the Fates, like the Fates themselves, are indestruct- 
ible and unchanging. 


814, 815. It appears from this and many similar passages that Jove had 

knowledge of the Fates and the privilege of revealing them, but no 
power to change them. « 

8 1 5, 819. I,e, he shall be deified through your agency and that of his son 


819. nominis heres: Octavianns, after his adoptive father's death, assumed 

his name as a part of his own. 

820, 82 1, caesi parentis, etc.: "and as the most valiant avenger of his 

father^s murder, he shall have us (as allies) for his wars." 

823-830. In these lines Jove is made to foretell the military triumphs of 
Augustus. Much history is condensed into small space, (i) For the 
affair at Mutina see Life of Ovid{TrUtia^ IV, 10), line 6, note. Ovid 
flatteringly speaks of Octavius as the one under whose imperium the 
siege was raised. As a matter of fact, he was only associated in com- 
mand with the two consuls. Upon the death of these, however, he 
was left in sole command. (2) The battle of Pharsalia was fought 
and won by Julius Caesar against Pompey (b.c. 48). Octavius fought 
no battle here. Ovid means that in the battle of Philippi (b.c 42), in 
which Octavius and Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius, the same gen* 
eral region as Pharsalia was destined to feel the might of Octavius, and 
to be a second time (JUrum) steeped in blood. (3) In 36 B.C., Octa- 
vius, in the person of his admiral, Agrippa, defeated Sextus Pompeio, 
the son of Pompey the Great {niagnum nomen), in a naval battle off 
Naulochus in Sicily. (4) Qeopatra {coniunx Aegyptid) had hoped 
that by a union with Antony (^Romani ducis) she might bring Rome 
(^nostra Capitolia) under subjection to Egypt {suo Canopo), Thcje 
hopes, as well as those of Antony, were crushed by Octavius in the 
battle of Actium (B.C. 31). 

826. taedae: dative; construe with y^j<i. 

828. servitura : supply esse. 

nostra : Jove could say this with especial appropriateness, because his 
temple adorned the Capitol. 

^l^i ^37- prolem sancta de coniuge natam : the reference is to Tiberius, 
one of the two sons of Livia, the wife of Augustus, by her former hus» 
band, Tiberius Claudius Nero. The young Tiberius was adopted by 
his stepfather, and succeeded him in the empire. 

839. cognata sidera : the deification of Julius Caesar had linked Augustus 
already to the heavens. 

Page 210. — 840. hanc animam : i.e, lulii Caesaris, 

841, 842. *^ Make (him) a star {i.e. set him in the heavens as a god), in 
order that ever it may be the divine Julius who looks forth upon our 
Capitol and forum from his lofty temple." Remains of the fdondatioB 

p. 213] NOTES 405 

of the temple of the Divtis Julius are still to be seen in the Roman 

843. media sede senatus = {in) media curia, the senate house, which was 
the scene of Caesar's assassination. 

845. eripuit : the object is animam. 

850. natique, etc.: "and (now) he (the deified Caesar), beholding the 
good deeds of his son, confesses that they are greater than his 

852. hie: i.e, Augustus. 

854. inyitum : understand Augustum, 

855-858. Other instances in which the son was greater than the father. 

857. ipsos is a strong eos, referring to Caesar and Augustus. 

861. The poet appeals to those national gods whose images Aeneas brought 
from Troy through every danger of fire and sword and shipwreck. 

865. The worship of Vesta and Apollo was under the especial watchcare of 
Augustus. The Aedes Vestae, with its adjacent Atrium Vestaef was sit- 
uated at the foot of the Palatine Hill, on which was the palace of 
Augustus; while the emperor built a temple to Apollo on the Palatine 
itself. Hence the epithet domesHce. 

869. caput Augustmn = Wa^fMf/Mj. 
quern : the antecedent is orbe, 

868-870. This prayer for the late return of Augustus to his native skies is 
duplicated in Horace (^Odes, I, ii, 45-49). 

Page 211. — 871-879. Having finished his history of the world of wonders 
from the remotest past down to his own time, the poet triumphantly 
looks forward to his own fame, which is destined to endure to the 
remotest future. Compare Amores, I, xv, 9-30 and note, and Li/e, 
129, 130 and note. The prophecy of his own immortality of remem- 
brance and mention on the lips of men, made in that poem and 
repeated more strongly here, is being in part fulfilled even as the 
present generation of students reads these words. 

The student of Horace will readily recognize the thought as well as 
the phraseology of that poet in these concluding lines of Ovid's great 
poem. For purposes of comparison, the concluding poem in Horace's 
first published volume of Odes (III, xxx) should be read. 


Page 213.— I, iii, i. illius noctis : Ovid has given us the approximate date 

of his banishment. See Life, lines 95, 96 and note. 
4. none quoque : this would imply that the poet is looking back upon that 

sad night after the lapse of a considerable l\me. 

^o6 TRISTIA I, m [P. 213 

6. finibns exti e m ne Ansmiae —finibus extremis^ etc 

7. ** Neither had I time for the proper preparations, nor was my mind fit for 

sach a task." It is no wonder that in the presence of so absolute, far- 
reaching, and sadden a change in his life the poet stood helpless and 
parandi: H. 451, i (599* If 2); M. 226^ i; A.&G. 218, a; G. 374; 
R 204, I ; L. & M. 573. 

S. longa mora : during the long years of uneventful prosperity his heart had 
been lulled to a drowsy restfulness, from which he is now rudely 

9, 10. "I could give no thought either to the selection of servants, of com- 
panions, or of such clothing and other equipments as an exile would 

16. The real friends only would stand by him at such a time, and they, it 

seems, were few. Unui et alter is hardly to be taken in a literal sense, 

17. uxor: this was that third wife of whose devotion he speaks in his Life^ 

lines 73, 74. 
flentem : supply me. 
19. nata: in Life^ 75, Ovid speaks of "my daughter" as if she were his 

only child. She was married before his exile, and seems to have been 

living in Africa at this time. Her name is not known. 
22. foneris : the occasion could be little less than a ** funeral," in view of 

Ovid's final farewell to his loved ones. 
Page 214. — 23. His wife, he himself, the slaves, the whole household, were 

moved by a common grief. 

25. " If one may compare great things with small." 

26. haec facies Troiae, etc.: Ovid may have had the following passage 

firom Vergil in mind {Aeneid^ II, 486): — 

At domus interior gemitu miseroque tumultu 
Miscetur, penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes 
Femineis ululant ; ferit aurea sidera clamor. 
Turn pavidae tectis matres ingentibus errant, 
Amplexaeque tenent postes atque oscula figunt 

29, 30. " Looking upon her (the moon), and from her turning to the Capitol, 

which was hard by my dwelling — though all in vain, I said,*' etc. 

30. This line incidentally shows that Ovid's house was near the Capitoline 

frustra : it had proved of no avail to him to live beneath the shadow of 

kthe splendid temples, for their gods had not protected him £rom dis- 

p. 214] NOTES 407 

31. nmnma: these gods were Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. The nave of the 
great temple was sacred to Jupiter, the right aisle to Minerva, the left 
to Juno. 

33. di relinquendi : in Ovid*s mind the presence of the gods is confined to 

their temples, a notion which was more or less general. Similarly, the 
soul of a man dying in exile goes into an equally foreign land of spirits. 
See Heroides^ X, 121 and note. 

34. tempus in omne : " once for all.'' 

35. " Now that I am wounded it is too late to attempt defense, still," etc. 

37. caelesti viro: the reference here as well as in deo (line 40) is t« 
Augustus. If Ovid felt any resentment, he certainly does not show it. 
But this is natural enough, considering the spirit of the times and his 
own precarious condition. And besides, Ovid was no Cato. 

37, 38. He is very anxious that his unnamed offense be understood to be an 
error or culpa, not a scelus. See Life, 89, 90. 

38-40. The usual punctuation is an exclamation point after putet, and a 
comma after auctor. This removes the ut senHat clause too far from ' 
dicite and connects it too closely with line 40; whereas the reverse con- 
struction is the more natural and logical. " Tell the divine man how I 
was overtaken by a fault, that he may not think my offense to be crim- 
inal, (but) that he, the inflicter of my punishment, may see the matter 
as you see it : if his godhead be but appeased, then I can bear my 

44. ezstinctos focos : the cold hearth with its dead fire is something more 

than a pathetic picture of desolation. The empty hearth was, in 
accordance with Roman custom, a sign of the mourning of the 
bereaved household. 
43-45. These lines recall the fact that the hearth was the family altar, where 
the household gods, the lares and penates, were worshiped. 

45. adversos : this is probably to be taken in its literal sense, " placed over 

opposite," "facing her"; but the present circumstances would also 

justify the derived meaning, "unpropitious." 
48. Parrhasis Arctos: for explanation of this constellation see analysis of 

Met, II, 401-530. 
50. ultima noz implies that some few days of grace had been given him. 

These must, however, have been very few. See line 7. 
53» 54* " How often did I pretend that I had fixed upon a certain hour which 

would be a lucky one {aptd) for starting out upon my journey." 
55. ter limen tetigi: it was unlucky to stumble on the threshold as one 

started on a journey, and to regain the luck one had to start over 

again. Line 56 implies that the poet stumbled on purpose thus to 

gain delay, '*his heavy foot humoring his reluctant mlndL" ¥cyc 

4o8 TRISTIA I, in [P. 214 

other references to this saperstition see Met, X, 452, where it is con- 
nected with the ill-omened hooting of the owl : — 

Ter pedis offensi signo est revocata, ter omen 
Funereus bubo letali carmine fecit 

Aeneas (^Aetu II, 242) says that they might have known that the 
wooden horse was ill-omened, for 

Quater ipso in limine portae 

sum reyocatus is to be taken in the middle sense — "I recalled myself," 

"I went back." 
Page 215. — 57. vale is to be construed as a separate word in the ablative 

absolute construction with dicto, 
59. me ipse fefelli : " I lost control of my feelings." 
61. quo: "whither/* used here as equivalent to ad quam, 
61, 62. This is the same thought, with the names of the places given, that 

was expressed more indefinitely in line 52. 
66. Thesea fide : not that described in Heroides^ X ! The reference is to 

the devoted and famous friendship between Theseus and Firithotis. 

Allusion is made to this in Met XII, 227-229 : — \ 

" Quae te vecordia," Theseus 
" Euryte, pulsat," ait, " qui me vivente lacessas 
Pirithoiim, violesque duos ignarus in uno ? " 

68. " Every hour which is granted to me now is pure gain." 

69. mora : understand est. 
imperfecta: "unsaid." 

70. " Embracing each one of those nearest {i.e, dearest) to my heart." 

72. gravis: it was indeed a "heavy," "momentous" star to him, for it was 

the signal for his departure. 

73. membra : the word is well chosen, for it may refer at the same time to 

the " members " of his family and the "members" of his body. 
75, 76. A striking simile. Mettius, an Alban general, was, for an act of 

treachery against the Romans, condemned to be torn asunder by being 

attached to two four-horse chariots driven in opposite directions. 

Livy tells the story of the treachery of Mettius in Book I, 28. 
83, 84. " For me also the way is open, me also the farthest land receives : I 

shall be but a small additional encumbrance for the exile's bark." 
86. pietas haec : " this love of mine shall be my Caesar (driving me into 

Page 216. — 88. dedit manos: a military phrase; "she surrendered," 

"^ve up." 

p. 217] NOTES 409 

89. ^ I set forth, or rather my departure {illud — egressus) was a funeral 
(Jerri = efferri), without a corpse." This may be better expressed in 
periphrase : '* I set forth, or rather was all but borne forth with funeral 
rites after the manner of a corpse, except that I was not actually dead 
{sine funere)^^ He has before likened the occasion to a funeral (lines 
21, 22, 43-46) ; and now his sad exit from the house forcibly reminds 
him of such a scene. After leaving Rome, Ovid proceeded to Brundis- 
ium, and thence to the place of his exile. At Brundisium he had a 
farewell interview with his friend Fabius Maximus, to whom he. com- 
mitted the care of his wife. 

95. 86 modo : understand desertam. 

97. natae : this was the daughter of Ovid's wife by a former husband. She 
was at this time married to Publius Suillius Rufus, a man seemingly of 
some influence in Rome. 

100. respectu mei : " out of regard for me." 

loi. absentem : understand met s.nd construe with subUvet. 

quoniam sic fata tulenint: "since fate has ordained it so {ue. that I 
should ht absens).*^ This use oi ferre recalls Vergil {Aen. II, 34): 
Troiae sic fata ferebant, " the fate of Troy was tending that way." 

102. It is perhaps natural that in his isolation and distress the poet should 
think only of his own suffering, and desire that his wife should survive 
her troubles largely that she may be of help to him. Cicero's letters 
firom exile were not much more manly. 

ni, iii, 2. alteriiis digitis: the letter was evidently dictated. His wife 
would know this by the handwriting. 
eram : the epistolary imperfect, written from the time standpoint of the 
receipt of the letter. 

7. aquis istis : see EpisL Ex Ponto, I, ii, 89 and note. 

8. nescio quo modo : " somehow." 

10. Apollinea arte : i.e, the medical art. Aesculapius, the god of healing, 
was the son of Apollo. See analysis of Met. 622-744. 

Page 217. — 16. plus parte : " more than a part," i.e. " all." 

19, 20. " Nay, they say that I even spoke strange things in such a manner 
that your name was on my raving tongue; " i.e, "they say that even 
when I was delirious your name," etc. 

31-24. fX deficiam and restituenda (erit) form the primary condition of 
which resurgam and erit are the conclusion. A secondary condition 
is couched in the hortatory nuntiet, Erit in line 24 shows that defi-- 
Ham and resurgam are also future ind. ♦* If I shall be in a dying con- 
dition, and my tongue cleaving to the roof of my mouth shall need the 

4IO TRISTIA III, ni [P. 217 

infttsion of wine to restore its life, let but some one announce that my 
wife lias arrived and I shall arise/' etc. 

28. ** That your time without me does not pass otherwise than sadly." 

31. quantum erat : quantum = ^uantulum, ** how small a thing it was (or, 
would have been)." 

35. It would have been well for him had he died while still untouched by 
misfortune; but, asi it is, it seems to have been ordained that he should 
be spared, only to die in exile, 
hanc lucem : understand zfi^e. 

39. corpora : it has been before observed that Ovid occasionally uses the 
plural for the singular. 

40-46. He describes with the vividness of personal expectation the pathetic 
loneliness of d3ring forsaken in a strange land. All the usual comfort- 
ing accompaniments of death will be absent in his case. Long ago he 
had put a similar complaint in the mouth of Ariadne. See Heroides, 
X, I 19-122. 

41,42. "Nor shall my wife's tears fall upon my face, and thus add some 
slight respite to my dying hour." The reference is probably to the 
custom of the nearest relative placing the lips upon the lips of the 
dying man, and so restraining the flight of the spirit, which was 
connected with the parting breath. See Ars Amatoria, III, 745 and 

43. mandata: «.^. "dying requests." 

Page 218. — 45> 46. sine honore, indeploratnm : compare Scott's famous 
line — "unwept, unhonored, and unsung" {Lay of the Last Minstrel^ 
VI, i). Horace, describing the immortality which poetry confers, 
would say in effect : " unwept, unhonored, because unsung." 

47. audieris : i,e. the news of my death. 

52. lux mea : an expression of affection, = lux meae vitae, 

53, 54. His real existence long since ceased and received its proper mourning 

on the night on which he departed from his home. The end of this 
seeming existence, this death in life, should excite no especial grief. 

57. eztenua, etc. : " lighten your troubles by bearing them with a brave 

58* ad quae : understand ferenda, 
non rude : " experienced." 

62. et Samii, etc. : " and if the words of the old Samian philosopher are 

true," i,e. that the soul survives the body. The doctrines of Pythag- 
oras are explained at large in Met. XV. See also Fasti^ III, 153 note. 

63, 64. Again Ovid expresses that curious belief that the soul of a man dying 

in a strange land goes out among strange and presumably hostile 
Mpints, See Heroidesy X, 121 Mid tiol^,«jBLd Ex Ponto^ I, ii, 113. So 

p. 219] NOTES 4tl 

Tiphys, d3dng in a foreign land, was said to dwell among the unknown 

shades : — 

Procul a paternis 

Occidens regnis tumuloque vili 

Tectus ignotas iacet inter umbras. 

— Seneca, Afedea^ 619. 

65. facito : understand «/, '< have my bones brought back." 

66. This intense desire to have one's bones rest in native soil is natural. 

Compare the dying command of Jacob to his sons in Egypt that they 
should bury him with his fathers in the land of Canaan {Genesis^ 

67. 68. The reference is to Antigone, the Theban princess, who, against the 

command of Creon, the king, administered burial rites to her dead 
brother, Polynices. This incident forms the opening scene of Sopho- 
cles' Antigone, 

69. ea: ue, ossa. 

70. The roads leading from Rome were lined with tombs. Extensive 

remains of these are still to be seen along the Latin and Appian Ways. 
The poet fondly pictures his tomb in this stately company. He was 
doomed to disappointment in this. 

71. oculo properante: compare the common phrase, "he who runs may 


72. " Carve upon my marble tomb (this) inscription in large characters." 
tituli limits noiis. 

73. Ovid chooses, even in his epitaph, to be remembered as a writer of ama- 

tory verse. He characterizes himself in the same way in Life, i, 
where see note. 

74. ingenio meo : these words, and quamvis nocuere, in line 79, refer to the 

reason which Augustus assigned for the banishment of Ovid, namely, 
that the poet's verse was perniciously immoral. 

75. He has been the lover's especial benefactor; to this class he most 

appealed. See Amores, I, xv, 38. 
75, 76. *' But all ye lovers, find it not irksome to say as ye pass by, * Softly 

may the bones of Naso rest.' " 
Page 219. — 77-80. But after all, his books are his greatest monument. 

See the concluding lines of the Metamorphoses (XV, 871-879). 
81. ezstincto: "to me when I am dead." 

feralia mtinera : see Fasti, ii, 33, 34 and note. 
85, 86. We recall that he has been dictating throughout this letter. See line 2. 
88. vale is used in these two lines in two different senses. With dictum it 

means *' farewell"; with quod (of which it is the antecedent) it means 

simply " welfare." 

412 TRISTIA V, IX p. 219 

V, ix, I, 2. Sec tlie utrodnctioii to the Trisiia, the last paragraph but one. 

5, & totm ia vbe, etc. : in the days of his prosperity his proad boast was 
that his works were universally popular; and, instinctively, he assumes 
that he still has the popular ear. This assumption is sadly modified on 
second thought : " if indeed I still am read at all in the city 1 have lost" 

7-9. The real condition, of which lines 7 and 9 form a part of the conclusion, 
is si sintrcs, etc, of line I. Line S, like line 6, is parenthetically 
spoken. " The present age, and future ages, too, should know youi 
kindness (if only my works endure to future ages)," etc. 

11. primnm throws its force rhetorically with Caesaris : ** 'tis Caesar^ s boon 

first," etc 

12. magnos decs: supply by implication quorum magna ^rs Caesar est, 
14. " And you make it possible for me to enjoy the boon which he has given 

me.^' The gracious boon of breathing in this barbarous land of exile ! 

15-19. A striking metaphor. Ovid represents most of his friends as viewing, 
or seeming to view, the wreck of his fortunes with distress, but confin- 
ing their demonstrations of sympathy to wringing their hands help- 
lessly from a safe place on the shore; while this one friend, at some 
risk to himself, rescues him from utter destruction. 

P.\c.K 220. — 22. **! could invoke no greater blessing upon you than that," 
i.e. that his friend should share with Caesar the friendship of the gods. 

25. nimc qaoqae : ** even as it is." 

27, 28. Ovid represents himself under the figure of a dog scarcely restrained 
from slipping his leash and starting in loud pursuit of the deer. We 
may well imagine this would>be-nameless friend as sharing the fear of 
the deer lest this very thing should happen ! 

29, 30. Compare the spirited horses of the Sun, eager to be off on their 
course. Met, II, 1 53-1 55. 

32. per titulum ire : a favorite expression with Ovid. Compare Fast: I, 15, 
and II, 16. 

35. meminisse echoes memoris of line 33. " I should not obey you (and 
withhold your name) if you were not sure (without that proof) that I 
am grateful.'* 

38. spiritus iste : Ovid uses the second {iste) instead of the first personal 
demonstrative {hie), because in his devotion to his friend he feels that 
all he has — his very life — belongs to that friend. 


Page 221. — I, ii, i. Maxime : when there seemed no longer to be danger 
to his friends in addressing them by name, Ovid's letters, for the most 
part, contain the names oi l\io*e to vjVotel >^«^ ^^t^ written. A score 

A 221] NOTES 413 

or more of these names appear, many of them the literary friends of 
Ovid. Among these was his chief friend and patron, Fabius Maximus, 
to whom the present letter is addressed. He was a poet and advocate, 
and a confidential friend and adviser of Augustus. In Epist, IV, xvi, 
his last letter, Ovid speaks of him as 

Pieridum lumen, praesidiumque fori. 

Marcia, the wife of Maximus, mentioned in line 140 of the present 
letter, and again in Fast, VI, 802, was a relative of Ovid's third wife, 
who also bore the same name. Marcia was a cousin of Augustus, her 
mother being a sister of his mother. It is to the friendship of these 
two ladies, Marcia and her mother, for his wife, that Ovid appeals in 
the latter part of this letter. He had especially intrusted his wife to 
the care of Maximus, moreover, on leaving Italy. 
3. trecenti is frequently used of an indefinitely large number. It has been 
computed <* that from the time of the first Fabius who is mentioned as 
consul, to the reign of Tiberius, 48 consulships, 7 dictatorships, 8 cen- 
sorships, and 7 augurships, were filled by members of the Fabian 
- house." Ovid extravagantly represents this noble family as existing 
for and culminating in the birth of his friend. 

16. tamquam = tamquam si: "just as if." 

17-24. A graphic picture of the methods of warfare employed by his semi- 
barbarous neighbors. 

17. qui : the antecedent is hostibus (line 15). 

21. simiil = simul ac: " when," " as soon as." 

22. semper iDitaolVLUi'=numquam resoluta: ue, the bows are never un- 


23. 24. One is reminded of early Indian warfare, where the savages rapidly 

wheeled about a village and rained their arrows into the dwellings. 

26. •* And that one weary winter follows another without interruption." 

27. com sagittis : by Ovid's description above we are made vividly to real- 

ize that no small element in his distress was the constant fear and 
expectation of a poisoned arrow whizzing into his chamber. 

28. qnarta hiems : we learn from Life, 95, 96, that the poet was banished 

in about 8 a.d. This present line would therefore date the beginning 
of the Epistulae ex Ponto as about 12 a.d. 
31, 32. Niobe, although she suffered much, at least found a quick and lasting 
release from her grief. 

31. Hioben: H.421 (381); M.200; A. 240,^; G. 343,1; B.183; L.&M.512. 

32. sazea facta: this is described in Met. VI, 303-312. 

33. 34. voa qnoqne, etc. : i,e, PhaSthon's mother and sisters. See analysis 

oiMit, II, 329 and following. 


35> 36. No such good fortune is in store for him. 

Page 222. — 37. The petrifying powers of the Medusa head are described in 

Met, V, 177 and following. 
41. Tityi iecur: see Met, IV, 457, and X, 43. 
43. medicina . . . somniis : Ovid's conception of sleep as ^ man's uniyersal 

balm for care" is recalled by such passages as the following: — 

Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleave of care. 
The death of each day's life, sore labour's bath, 
Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course. 

Chief nourisher in life's feast. ^, , . ^ , . 

— Shakespeare, Macbeth, 

Tired Nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep ! 

— Young, Night Thoughts, 

O magic sleep 1 O comfortable bird, 

That broodest o'er the troubled sea of the mind 

Till it is hushed and smooth 1 „ „ . . 

— Keats, Endymton, 

65, 66. He does not hope for a recall to Rome, but only {male) for a mitiga- 
tion of his exile to some place less severe, 
carere : take either as unmodified or understand Roma. 
Page 223. — 71. est mala : understand causa, 
72. " Only do speak favorably in behalf of my wretched exile." 

80. Oresteae deae : i.e, Diana, whose image Orestes carried away from the 

Tauric Chersonese to Greece. According to tradition, the image was 
carried to Aricia in Latium. See Met, XV, 487 : — 

Nam coniunx (i>. Egeria) urbe relicta 
Vallis Aricinae densis latet abdita silvis, 
Sacraque Oresteae gemitu questuque Dianae 

81, 82. " And the other nations which, when the Hister is frozen over, pass 

swiftly on horseback over the icy surface of the stream." Understand 
quid faciant from above. 

%2i' hominum: j>. of the men in this region. This is of itself a proof of the 
utter remoteness and barbarity of the place. 

85-88. The chief objects of their thought and care. "Their bows and quiv- 
ers of arrows fill their thoughts; they are exceedingly {quarn) pleased 
also with horses able to endure long journeys, and the fact that they 
have learned by experience to bear prolonged thirst and hunger, and 
that the pursuing foe will have no water." 

89. islam has no second personal force here, but retains its contemptuous or 
disparaging idea. Understand humum from the next line— "to such 
a place as this." hix% is similarly used in Trist III, iii, 7, 

p. 225] NOTES 415 

94, "There is no need of any Getae to produce my death.'* /.e, had he 

wanted to slay me he could have done so by the merest word. 
9J. nil fecit : what little spirit of self-defense Ovid has been able to show in 
the last few lines quickly oozes away, and he becomes more abject than 
facere : understand eum as subject. 
98. ** I can almost say that his wrath is even less than I deserve." 
100. ferat : understand uf. 

Page 224. — 105. Here, as in line 66, Ovid uses ma/t in the unusual sense 
of "merely" or "only." 
tntius : in Trisi, V, ii, 73-78, Ovid suggests that Sicily, with its tradi- 
tional terrors, would be a suitable place for his exile, and concludes : — 

Quod petimus poena est ; neque enim miser esse recuso, 
Sed precor ut possim tutius esse miser. 

105-1 14. These lines reveal the only hopes that Ovid is still able to cherish. 
107, 108. " And that the life which the mighty gods (he probably means only 

Augustus) have granted me, a dirty Getan with his drawn sword take 

not away." 
no. a humo: see Afgt, XI, 130 and note. 
Ill, 112. "And that the hoof of no Bistonian horse tread upon my ashes, 

unburied as, forsooth, befits an exile." 
113, 114. See Tris/. Ill, iii, 63 and note. 

120. aeqiiandi is used in adjectival sense with viri, "the man equal to (or 

comparable with) the gods." 

121. cnidiis Atreus : the most " bloody " act of this king was to slay the two 

sons of his brother Thyestes, and. serve them up as a banquet to their 

122. qiiique, etc. : i^, Diomedes, a king of Thrace. See M^^. IX, 194, 195 

and note. 
123-128. This may be taken in the main as a moderate and fair estimate of 

126. See Fast. I, 282 and note. 
130. fuga nostra : " my place of exile." 
1 31-138. The poet now makes his appeal on the ground of his old intimacy 

with Maximus. See also note on Trisi, I, iii, 89. 
Page 225. — 138. Ovid's third wife, the one living at the time of his exile, 

was, as has been said before, a relative of the wife of Maximus. 
140, 141. The poet pleads that his wife is an old and esteemed friend of Mar- 

cia, the wife of Maximus, and also a favorite of the maternal aunt of 

Augustus, who was Marcia's mother. 
143. istis : i.e. such as Marcia and her mother. 


143, 144. "Claudia herself, though better than her reputation, with sach 
backers, would have needed no heavenly aid." Ovid in Fast. IV, 291- 
548, describes the circumstances to which he here refers. When the 
Romans, in response to an oracle, were bringing the image of Cybele 
to Rome, the vessel grounded at the mouth of the Tiber. Soothsayers 
announced that only a chaste woman could move it. At this juncture, 
Qaudia Quinta, the daughter of P. Qaudius Pulcher (cos. B.C. 249), 
whose chastity, had been called in question, stepped forward, and, call- 
ing upon'Cybele to vindicate her innocence, took hold of the rope; 
whereupon the vessel immediately followed her. Livy (XXDC, 14) 
tells the same story with important modifications. 

147, 148. This for the double reason that she was of the Fabian family and 
that she had been especially intrusted to Maximus on Ovid*s departure 
from Italy. 

151, 152. "And she begs you with tears to prevail upon Caesar by your 
prayers that her husband's tomb be nearer (to her)." 

Even this prayer was never granted, and the poet's ashes were 
buried in his remote land of exile, where the Getae, who had come to 
hold their unwilling guest in high esteem, erected a monument to his 


[Where the simple words have passed unchanged into the compounds, the ele- 
ments in composition are indicated by use of the hyphen. Obsolete or 
theoretical forms involved in derivation are marked with a *.] 

&, ab, aba, prep. w. abl. 1. Of place, 

from, away from; 2. of position, on 

the side off on, at; 3. of time, from, 

since, after; 4. of origin, ]separa- 

tion, and agency, from, by. 
& or fth, interj. of distress, ah I alas ! 
AbantSuB, 2A\,, pertaining to Abas, 
Ab&s, antis, m., the twelfth king of 

ab-dO, ere, didi, ditus, to put away ; 

withdraw, hide; poet., ferrum ab- 

dere, to plunge the sword. 
ab-dacO, ere, daxl, ductus, to 

lead away; draw back, withdraw. 
ab-eO, ire, Ivi (11), itus, to go away, 

go forth, depart. 
abierS, ere, egl, &ctus, [ab + aerd], 

to drive away, dispel. 
ab-lu5, ere, !, tltus, to wash away, 

cleanse, purify. 
aboleS, Sre, evi, itus, [ab + root 

OL, to destroy], to efface, abolish^ 

ab-rumpS, ere, rapi, ruptus, to 

break or tear off, rend asunder, 

break, violate, 
abs-c€d5, ere, cessi, cessus, to go 

off, depart ; get beyond the reach of. 
ab-scindS, ere, scidi, scissus, to 

tear off, tear, rend. 
abs-condS, ere, dl (didi), ditus, 

to put out of sight, conceal. 
absSziB, entis, [part, of absum], 

adj., absent. 
al)c^trah5, ere, tr&zi, tr&ctus, to 

drag away, draw off. 

ab-sum, esse, ftfui, ~, to be away 

from, be absent, at a distance; be 

free from, be wanting. 
ab-sam5, ere, psi, ptus, to take 

away; consume; destroy. 
abundS, [abundus, copious], adv., 

in profusion, plentifully. 
ac, conj., see at que. 
accSdd, ere, cessi, cessdrus, [ad 

-hcSd6], to approach, come near; 

befall : be added ; resemble. 
accendd, ere, i, cSnsus, [ad + 

*cand5, to to shine or glow], 

to kindle, set on fire ; heat, inflame, 

accept\is, a, um, [part, accipid], 

adj., welcome, pleasing. 
accessTis, Us, [acced5], m., a going 

near, an approach. 
accinerd, ere, cinxi, cinctus, [ad 

+ cinerd], to gird on; in pass, with 

a middle sense, gird one's self with ; 

make ready for (by girding up the 

garments) . 
accipi5, ere, cepi, ceptus, [ad + 

capi5], to take, receive, accept; 

take into one's mind, learn; hear, 

accipiter, tris, m., a bird of prey, 

Accius (or Atti\is), ii, m., a Roman 

writer of tragedy and comedy of the 

ante-classical period. 
acclivis, e, adj., uphill, steep, sloping. 
acclivus, a, um, adj., see acclivis. 
accommod5, are, avi, fttus, [ad 

+ commod5, to adjust], to fit, ad- 
just, fit on. 

OVID — 27 




acciunbO, ere, cubul, cubitus, 
[ad + cubOj, to lie down; recline 
at meah. 

accQsd, &re, &vl, &tu8, [ad + 
causa], to reproach^ blame, accuse, 

&cer, &cris, &cre, adj., sharp; of 
mental emotions and character, 
eager, ^fierce, spirited, keen. 

acervus, i, m., a heap, mass. 

Achfiis, Idls, adj. used as sabs., f., 
Achat a, Greece. 

Acheldus, i (ace. -on), m., a river 
of Greece emptying into the Ionian 
Sea ; also the river god. 

Aclillles, is (also ei or i), m., son of 
Peleus and Thetis, and one of the 
most valiant of the Greek heroes at 

Achilleus, a, um, adj., belonging or 
pertaining to Achilles. 

Achivus, a, um, adj., Grecian; subs., 
Achivi, drum, the Greeks. 

aclSs, §i, f., a sharp edge or point of 
a weapon; the glance of the eye, 
the sight; a line of men in battle 


Acis, Idls, m., a river god, son of 
Faunus, beloved by Galatea. 

acomtum, i, n., wolf s4>ane, a poison- 
ous plant. 

Aconteus, i, m., one of the comrades 
of Perseus. 

acta, ae, f., the seashore, beach. 

Actorldes, a,e, m., grandson of Ac- 
tor, i.e. Patroclus. 

actum, i, [part, of agr^jj n., a deed, 

acamen, Inls, [acu5], n., a point, 

acu5, ere, i, atus, to sharpen, 

acatus, a, um, [part. acu6], adj., 
sharp, pointed. 

ad, prep. w. ace., with verbs of mo- 
tion, to, toward; of position, at, 
upon, in vicinity of; of time or 
occasion, for; with verba, at, in 
reply to. 

adamantSus, a, um, [adamfis], 
adj., of adamant, adamantine, 

adam&s, antis, m., adamant. 

adapertus, a, tun, [part, adape- 

rl6, to open], adj., open. 
ad-dic5, ere, dixi, dlctus, to speak 

to, assent to ; yield, give up, resign. 
ad-d5, ere, dldl, ditus, to give or 

join to, add, give in addition. 
adductus, a um, [part. addac5, to 

draw to], adj., drawn to ; tightened, 

strained, co7itracted, drawn, 
ad-ed5, ere, edi, esus, to eat away, 

ad-eo, ire, ivi, (li), Itus, to go to, 

approach; encounter. 
ade5, [ad+eO], adv., so far, so long, 

so ; even, indeed, to emphasize some 

adj. or adv. 
adfectd, &re, &v!, &tus, [freq. of 

ad£lci5], to strive after, aim. at, 

pursue; seize, grasp. 
adfectus, a, um, [part. adflcl5], 

adj., affected, weakened, discour- 
adfectus, as, [adflcl5], m., a state, 

disposition, feeling. 
ad-fer5, adferre, attuH, adl&tum, 

to bear or carry to a place ; bring 

adflclo, ere, fee!, fectiis, [ad + 

facl5j, to treat, use; to attack, af- 
flict, oppress. 
ad-f!rm5, fire, &vi, &tus, to affirm, 

assert positively , be sure. 
ad-fl5, fire, &v!, &tus, to blow or 

breathe something upon some one; 

breathe upon some one with some- 
ad-for, tsai, ffttus, to speak to, ad- 
dress, accost. 
ad-haereO, Sre, — , — , to cleave or 

sti^k to. 
ad-hac, adv., to this place, hither; 

until this time, as yet; still; even 

adlcl5, ere, ISci, lectus, [ad -f- 

lacl5] , to throw to, bring to ; add, 

add to, increase, apply, 
adlffS, ere, 6^1, &ctua, [ad-f-affO], 

to drive or bring to ; of weapons, to 

drive, plunge, thrust. 
adlmO, ere, 6ml, 6mptU8, [ad + 

em0, to buy], to take away, rtmove. 



adiatrlz, Ids, [adiuvO], f., an as- 

ad-iuv5, fire, lavi, latus, to aid, 

helpf assist. . 
ad-levO, &re, &vi, fttus, to lift up, 

ad-ligrd, &re, &vi, &tus, to bind to; 

hind, fasten. 
ad-loquor, i, locatus, to speak to, 

ad-xniror, &ri, fttus, to admire, won- 
der at ; gaze at with wonder or ad- 
ad-mitt5, ere, misi, missiis, to 

send to, let in, admit; of crime, 

to commit; admissS passa, with 

quickened pace. 
ad-moneO, Sre, iii, itus, to admon- 
ish, warn. 
admoxiitus, (tLs), [admonedj, m., 

used only in the abl., a reminding ; 

warning, reproof. 
ad-move5, Sre, mdvi, m5tus, to 

move or bring to ; to place near ; to 

ad-nitor, !, xiisus (nixus), to press 

or lean upon or against. 
ad-nuO, ere, i, (natus), to nod to, 

assent by a nod. 
adoleO, Sre, ui, — , [ad + root ol, 

to destroy] , to burn on the altar ; to 

destroy by fire, burn up. 
ad-operi5, Ire, ul, tus, to cover, 

wrap, bury. 
ad-opt5, &re, &vi, &tuB, to select, 

choose, adopt. 
ad-dr5, ftre, &vi, &tus, to adore, 

beseech, supplicate. 
ad-ride5, 6re, rigfl, risus, to laugh, 

smile upon. 
adripld, ere, ul, reptus, [ad + 

rapiO], to seize, take possession of. 
adsdnsuB, Us, [adseDtid], m., as- 
sent, approval, voice of absent. 
ad-8entl0. Ire, ednsl, sSnsus, to 

assent, agree to. 
ad-8er5, ere, ul, tus, to claim, lay 

claim to. 
adsiduus, a, um, [adsideO, to sit 

by or near], adj., unremitting, in- 

csssarU, constant. 

ad-sonO, are, — , — -, to resound, 

ad-4u6sc5, ere, suSvi, su6tus, in- 
trans., to become accustomed; trans., 
accustom one's self to something, 
make anything familiar to one. 

adsuetus, a, um, [part. adsu6sc5], 
adj., accustomed to. 

ad-sum, esse, fui, to be present, at' 
hand; appear, come forward; aid, 

ad-sam5, ere, psi, ptus, to take to 
oneself, receive, obtain. 

adulter, eri, m., a/i adulterer, para- 

adulterium, ii, n., adultery. 

adxmcus, a, um, adj., bent, hooked. 

ad-ar5, ere, ussi, astus, to scorch, 
burn, singe. 

ad-veh5, ere, vexi, vectus, to 
carry, bring, or conduct to a place; 
pass., be carried in a vehicle of any 
kind, ride, sail. 

ad vena, ae, [adveniO], m. and f., 
a stranger, an adventurer. 

ad-venid, ire, venl, ventus, to come 
to, arrive at, arrive, reach. 

ad ventus, as, [adveni5], m., an 
approach, arrival. 

ad versus, a, um, [part. advertO], 
adj., turned toward or against, op- 
posite, in front; unfavorable, ad- 
verse, opposing. 

ad-vert5, ere, i, versus, to turn to 
or toward. 

ad-voc5, &re, &vl, &tus, to call in, 
invite, summon. 

ad-vol5, &re, &vl, &tus, to fly to, 
hapten to. 

Aeacides, ae, m., a descendant of 

Aeacus, i, m., the fabled son of Ju- 
piter and Europa, father of Peleus 
and Telamon, grandfather of Achil- 
les and Ajax. 

Aeas, antis, m. , a river of Epirus. 

aedes or aedis, is, f., (sing.), a 
dwelling of the gods, a temple ; (pi.) > 
a human dwelling, house, home. 

Aeetes or Ae6ta, ae, m., fabled 
king qf ColchU^ sou of Sol wsA. 



AOCTznibfi, ora. cnlivn, cnhttoA. 

'md^cuhb', to ii£ Sown: reduce 

c: ft**- I*. 
mcc^sS, Mre. ftrt ftma, [Ad -r 

ftoer, ficzia, ftcre, adj., Mkarp: of 
mesial caDC4iocis simI dymifTtn', 

soerroa. i. m., a Ju^cp, noct. 
Arhiw, idiB. ^j. used as sabs., f ., 

Acbeld-QS. i .»nc. -on^. m., a rirer 
</*j-wi« fHfitjfinp iht^ tke lonutH 

5"^ : iirf-' rfc* rfpfr pod. 
Achillas, is lalso ei or I), m., Mm of 

iH.^1 vjii'-nl «•/■ rJk< GreeJt kertpes at 
r- y. 
Acbilleua. a, mm adj., ftefonpiiip or 

Achivus. a. uxn, adj., Grecian ; subs., 
Achivi. 5rum, tkf GrftJt*, 

acies, ®, f.. a «Hfup edge or pom/ ^j/" 
a tcx ii<>n: the gl<ince of the eye, 
the liight : a /tite of men ia battle 

Acis. idis. m., a rtrpr god, 9on of 

>'«T»irtUjt. hi '.'red by Galatea. 
aconitum. i. n., wolf's-bane, a poison- 

0M,« phi tit. 

Aconteus. i, m.. one of the comrades 
i'f Per.*eu*. 

acta. ae. f.,the teashore, beach. 

Actorides, ae. ni., grandson of Ac- 
tor, i.e. Patn^clus. 

actum, i. [part, of agr^], n., a deed, 

acamen, inis, [acu5], n., a point, 

acu5, ere, i, atus, to sharpen, 

acatiis, a,, nm, [part. acu5], adj., 
sharp, pointed. 

ad, prep. w. ace., with verbs of mo- 
tion, to, toward; of position, at, 
upon, in vicinity of; of time or 
occasion, for; with verba, at, in 
reply to. 

adamantSus, a, um, [adamas], 
adj., of adamant, adamantine. 

adazn&s, antis, m., adamant. 

adapertos, a, mn, [part, adape- 

lio, to of!»^n]. adj., open. 
ad-dio5, ere, dixi, dict\is, to sptak 

to, assent to : yield, give up, resign. 
ad-d5, ere, didi, ditus, to give or 

jiHJH to, add, give in oddiHon. 
adductus, a mn, [part. addacO, to 

draw to], adj., drawn to ; tightened, 

strained, contracted, drawn. • 
ad-ed5, ere, Sdi, Ssus, to eat away, 

ad-e5, ire, ivl, (ii), itus, to ffo to, 

approach : encounter. 
ade6, [ad-fe6], adv., so far, so long, 

so : ^cvN, indeed, to emphasize some 

adj. or adv. 
adfect5. ftre, ftvi, fttus, [freq. of 

adflcid], to strive after, aim at, 

pursue; seize, grasp. 
.adfectua, a, mn, [part, adflcid], 
I adj., ajfected, weakened, discour- 
adfectua. Us, [adflcid], m., a state, 
I disposition, feeling. 
I ad-fer5, adferre, attuli, adlfttmn, 
I to 6ear or carry to a plcu:e ; bring 

adflci5, ere, fee!, fectus, [ad + 

faci5J. to treat, use; to atta^, af- 

fict. oppress. 
ad-f!rm5, are, &v!, fttus, to affirm, 

assert positirely, be sure. 
j ad-fl5, ftre, ftvi, fttus, to blow or 

breathe something tipon some one; 

breathe upon some one with some- 
ad-for, fftri, ffttus, to speak to, ad- 
dress, acfost. 
ad-haereO, Sre, — , — , to cleave or 

stick to. 
ad-hac, adv., to this plac^, hither; 

until this time, as yet; still; even 

adiciO, ere, iSci, iectus, [ad + 

iaci5] , to throw to, bring to ; add, 

add to, increase, apply. 
adigrd, ere, Sgi, ftctus, [ad-t-affO], 

to drive or bring to ; of weapons, to 

drive, plunge, thrust. 
adimO, ere, 6mi, emptus, [ad + 

em0, to buy], to take away, rwwve. 




adUtrlx, Ids, [adiuv0], t, an 09- 

ad-luvO, five, ULvI, latua, to aid, 

he^, assist. . 
ad-levO, fire, ftvl, fttus, to lift up, 

ad-llflrG, fire, fivi, fitiis, to bind to ; 

hind, fasten. 
acUloquor, i, locatus, to speak to, 

ad-xnlror, fill, fitus, to admire, won- 
der at; gaze at with- wonder or ad- 
- miration. 
acUxnittd, ere, znisi, missus, to 

send to, let in, admit; of crime, 

to commit; admissO passa, with 

quickened pace. 
ad-znoneO, 6re, ul, Itus, to admon- 
ish, warn. 
adznonitus, (as), [admonedj, m., 

used only in the abl., a reminding; 

warning, reproof. 
ad-xnove5, 6re, mOvi, znOtus, to 

move or bring to; to place near ; to 

ad.Ditor, I, xiisus (nixus), to press 

or lean upon or against. 
ad-xiu5, ere, i, (natiis), to nod to, 

assent by a nod. 
adoleO, Sre, ul, — , [ad + root ol, 

to destroy] , to burn on the altar ; to 

destroy by fire, burn up. 
ad-operiO, Ire, ul, tus, to cover, 

wrap, bury. 
adapts, fire, fivl, fitus, to select, 

choose, adopt. 
ad-dr5, fire, fivl, fitus, to addre, 

beseech, supplicate. 
ad-rideO, fire, ried, risus, to laugh, 

smile upon. 
adriplO, ere, ul, reptus, [ad + 

rapiO], to seize, take possession of. 
adsfinsus, Us, [adseDtid], m., as- 
sent, approval, voice of absent. 
ad^entiO, Ire, sfinsi, sSzisus, to 

assent, agree to. 
ad-serO, ere, ul, tus, to claim, lay 

daim to. 
adsiduus, a, um, [adsideO, to sit 

by or near], adj., unremitting, in- 

'C9»9anip constant. 

ad-sonO, fire, — , — , to resound, 

ad-4u@sc5, ere, sufivi, sufitus, in- 
trans., to become accustomed; trans., 
accustom one's self to something, 
make anything familiar to one. 

adsuStus, a, um, [part. adsufiscG], 
adj., accustomed to. 

ad-s\mx, esse, ful, to be present, at 
hand; appear, come forward; aid, 

ad-sQm5, ere, psi, ptus, to take to 
oneself, receive, obtain. 

adulter, eri, m.,an adulterer, para- 

adulterium, 11, n., adultery. 

adxmcus, a, um, adj., bent, hooked. 

ad-ar5, ere, ussi, astus, to scorch, 
burn, singe. 

ad-vehd, ere, vexi, vectus, to 
carry, bring, or conduct to a place ; 
pass., be carried in a vehicle of any 
kind, ride, sail. 

advena, ae, [advenlG], m. and f., 
a stranger, an adventurer. 

ad-veiil5, ire, vSni, ventus, to come 
to, arrive at, arrive, reach. 

adventus, as, [adveniO], m., an 
approach, arrival. 

ad versus, a, um, [part. advertO], 
adj., turned toward or against, op- 
posite, in front; unfavorable, ad- 
verse, opposing. 

ad-vert5, ere, i, versus, to turn to 
or toward. 

ad-voc5, fire, fivl, fitus, to call in, 
invite y summon. 

ad-vol5, fire, fivi, fitus, to fly to, 
hasten to. 

Aeacides, ae, m., a descendant of 

Aeacus, i, m., the fabled son of Ju- 
piter and Europa, father of Peleus 
and Telamon, grandfather of Achil- 
les and Ajax. 

Aefis, antis, m., a river of Epirus. 

aedes or aedis. Is, f., (sing.), a 
dwelling of the gods, a temple ; (pi.) , 
a human dwelling, house, home, 

AeetSs or Aeeta, ae, m., fabled 
king qf Colchis, son qf Sol and 



PersQf daughter of Oceamis; father 

of Medea. 
AeStias, iadis, f., the daughter of 

Aeetes, i.e. Medea. 
AegaeSn, 5ni8, m., a sea god, son of 

Pontus and Terra, 
aeger, cbegrra, Cbegrruxn, adj., illy 

sick, feeble, wounded, weary; sad, 

anxious, sick at heart, desponding, 

dejected, troubled. 
AegeuB, ei, m., son of Pandion, king 

of Athens, father of Theseus. 
Aeeryptius, a, um, adj., Egyptian. 
aemulus, a, um, adj. (in a good 

sense), emulous, rivaling; (in a 

bad sense), envious, Jealous. 
AeneadSs, ae, m., a descendant of 

Aeneas, ae, m., Aeneas, son of Ve- 

inis and Anchises. 
Aeneius, a, lun, adj., belonging to 

aSneUs, a, lun, [aes], adj., of cop- 
per or bronze, brazen. 
aenus, a, um, [], adj., brazen, 

bronze, copper; subs., aenum, i, 

r\., a brazen ox copper vessel. 
Aeolides, ae, m., a descendant of 

Aeolius, a, um, adj., pertaining to 

Aeolus or Aeolia, Aeolian. 
Aeolus, i, m., the god of the winds. 
aequftlis, e, [aequus], adj., equal, 

like, similar ; subs, pi., aequftlSs, 

equals, companions. 
a.equd,, &vi, a.tus, [aequus], 

to make even, smooth, or level; 

make equal; come up to, keep even 

with; match. 
aequor, oris, [aequus], n., an even 

or level surface, the surface of the 

sea, the sea ; in pi., more frequently, 

aequoreus, a, um, [aequor], adj., 

of the sea, marine; w. Britanni, 

ctequus, a, um, adj., even, level; 

equal, fair, impartial, righteous; 

propitious, favor able; equal, match- 
ed, requited. 
Mr, AeriB, m., the air, atmosph^rt. 

cberipSs, pedis, [aes + Pte], ad]., 

bronze or brazen footed. 
fterius, a, um, [&6r], adj., airy, 

aerial ; high in air, lofty, towering. 
aes, aeris, n., copper or brotux; 

anything— shield, spear, trumpet— 

made of copper or bronze. 
Aesacos, 1, m.,a son of Priam. 
ctesculeus, a, um, [aesculus, oak], 

&d].,ofthe oak. 
Aes5n, onis,ni.,a Thessalian prinee, 

the father of Jason. 
AesonidSs, ae, m., a son or descend' 

ant of Aeson, i.e. Jason. 
Aesonius, a, um, adj., belonging to 

or related to Aeson. 
aest&s, &tis, f., the siunmer. 
aestivus, a, um, [aestfis], adj., of 

summer, summer like. 
aestu5, &re, &v!, fttus, [ctestus], 

to boil, seethe, surge. 
aestus, Us, m., an undulating, boil- 
ing, billowy motion; glowing heat, 

heat ; billows of water, flood, raging, 

boiling waves ; in general, waves or 

tide, the heaving sea ; agitcUion of 

mind, tide or heat of passion, 
aetas, &tis, [for older aevit&s, from 

aevum], f., the period of life, time 

of life, life, age, old age; a period of 

time, a time, an age. 
a^temus, a, tun, [aevum], adj., 

eternal, everlasting. 
aether, eris, m., the upper air, the 

ether; heaven, the vault of heaven; 

heaven, the upper world. 
aetherius, a, um, [aethSr], adj., 

ethereal, airy, heavenly, celestial. 
Aethlops, opis, m., an Ethiopian. 
AethOn, onis, [Gr. aLBttv, burning], 

the name of one of the horses of 

Aethra, ae, f., daughter of Pittheus 

and mother of Theseus. 
Aetna, ae, or Aetn6, Ss, f., the 

famous volcano in the northeast of 

aevum, i, n , eternity ; time in gen- 
eral, age, time of life, youth, old age. 
Agamemndn, onis, m., the leader 

oj* the Greefc forces against Trop. 



Airdn6r, oria, fAyiJwap], a son of 
BeluSf king of Phoenicia ^ father of 
Cadmus and Europa. 

AffSnorlddB, ae, m., a son or de- 
scendant of Agenor, 

tkger, sflrri, m., territory, land; a 

affffredior, I, firreseua, [ad + ffra- 
dior], to go to, approach; accost; 

affit&bilis, e, [affitO], adj., easily 
moved, light, 

aflritO, &re, ftvi, &tu8, to put in mo- 
tion, impel, drive, pursue ; harass, 
unsettle, toss, drive about ; agitate, 
keep in motion, move upon, 

Afirmen, inlB, [afirOJf n., something 
put in motion, a train, a collected 
body in motion, used of anytliing, 
bat especially of men or animals, a 
line, troop, band, 

ftgrna, ae, f., a ewe lamb, 

ftfirndscO, ere, xi0vi, nitus, [ad + 
{g)n6BcC], to recognize that which 
one has seen or known b^ore. 

AgC, ere, ^gl, ftctus, to pujt in mo- 
tion, drive, lead, impel, compel; 
sail or steer a ship; cause, perform, 
do, accomplish ; spend, pass ; agre, 
w. imperative, come ! up! 

affrestis, e, [ager], adj., pertaining 
to the country, r^istic, rural, 

afirricola, ete, [agrer + col5], m., one 
who tills the soil, a farmer, country- 
man, peasant. 

fth, inter j., ah I 

Aiftx, ftcis, m., Jjax, the son of Tela- 
mon, king of Salamis, renowned for 
his strength and valor; Ajax, the 
son of Oileus, king of the Locrians. 

ftiO, defect, vb., to say yes; in gen- 
eral, affirm, say, 

fila, cte, f., a wing of a bird; a wing, 
as of a god. 

AlastOr, oris, [*kkdarup\, m., one of 
the companions of Sarpedon, killed 
by Ulysses before Troy, 

All>&nu8, a, um, [Alba], adj., per- 
taining to Alba, Alban. 

albe5, Sre, [albus], to be white, 

albidua, a, urn, [albus], adj., whit- 
ish, white. 

albus, a, um, adj., white. 

Alcander, dri, m., a Trq^an, slain by 

AlcidSs, ae, m., a descendant of 
Alceus, the father of Amphitryo; 
Hercvdes, his reputed grandson. 

AlcmSna, ae, f., the daughter of 
Electryon, wife of Amphitryo, 
and mother of Hercules by Jupi- 

files, ftlltis, [&la], adj., winged; 
subs., m. or f., a bird. 

alienus, a, um, [alius], adj., per- 
taining to another, another* s, for- 

alimentum, I, [aid], n., nourish- 
ment, food. 

ailpSs, edis, [aia + pSs], adj., wing- 

aliqui, qua, quod, [all- + qui], 
indef. prou. adj., some, any. 

aliquis, qua, quid, indef. pron., 
some one, any one. 

alitor, [alls, old for alius], adv., 
otherwise, in another maimer. 

aUus, a, ud, adj., another, other; in 
pi., the others, others; repeated, 
one . . . another; in pi., some . . . 

almus, a, um, [al6],^adj., nourish- 
ing, life-giving, cherishing ; kindly, 
propitious, gracious, genial, 

alnus, i, f., the alder. 

al5, ere, ul, alitus or altus, to feed, 
nourish, sustain, maintain, cher- 
ish, strengthen, encourage. 

Alpes, ium, f. pi., the Alps. 

Alph€las, adls, f., the water nymph 
Arethusa, whose waters unite with 
the river Alpheus, 

Alphendr, oris, m., a son of Niobe. 

Alpheus, i,m., the chief river of the 
Peloponnesus, flowing through Ar- 
cadia and Elis. 

alte, [altus], adv., on high, aloft, 
high, high up. 

alter, era, erum, adj., the one of 
two, the other: repeated, the one 
, . , the other. 



•ItemuB, a, um. [alter], adj., one 
after another, in turn, bf turns, 


altos, a, mn. adj., hiffh, lofty, deep, 
profound : sabs., altum. i, n. (an- 
dersuuid caelum) , heaven ; (ander- 
stand mare), the deep sea, the sea. 

alumnus, i. [aJ5], m., that which is 
U'jurUhed, a f utter child, son. 

alveus, i, [alvus], m., a cavity, a 
hollow ; the channel of a rirer. 

alvus, !, [al5], f., the heUy, the 

amfins, aatis, [part, amd], wAj.Jbnd 
of, attached to ; fond, loving, affec- 
tionate ; subs., m. or f., a lover. 

amftrus, a, um, adj., hitter (to the 
taste) ; bitter (to the heart), un- 
pleasant, painful. 

AmathtLsia, cte, [AmathOs], f., an 
epithet of Venus, from Amathux, a 
town in Cyprus. 

am&tor, 5ii8, [amO], m., a lover. 

amb&srSs, is, [ambi- + asr5], f., a 
going round about, a winding; pi., 
turnings, windings, riddles. 

ambI- (amb-, am-, an-), prep, in 
comp. only, around, m, both sides. 

ambignus, a, um [ambi- + agro], 
adj., doubtful, uncertain, hesitat- 
ing, ambiguous, difficult, dangerous. 

aml>-i6, ire, ivi (ii), itus, to go 
around, surround. 

ambitio, 6nis, [ambi5], f., a going 
about; the soliciting of votes; a 
striving for fame ; the desire for 

ambitidsus, a, um, [ambitiOj, adj., 
ambitious, eager for honor. 

ambd, ae, 6, adj., pi., both. 

ambul5, fire, &vi, atus, [am-+root 
of fiaivut, to go'], to walk about, go, 

amb-aro, ere, ussi, astus, to burn 
around, scorch, singe. 

ftmSns, entis, [a,-|-xn6ns] , adj . , out of 
one's senses, beside one's self, dis- 
tracted, mad. 

ftmentia, ae, [fimSns], f., madness. 
ilcltia, ae, [amicus], f., friend- 

amictus, tUi, [amici5, to wrap], m., 
any outer garment, a veil, robe, 

I envelope. 

amicus, a, um, adj., friendly, kind, 

j benevolent. 

I amicus, I, m., a friend. 

&-mitt5, ere, misi, missus, to send 

I away, let go, lose. 

amnis, is, m., a large stream, a rioer, 
a rushing river, a torrent. 

am5, &re, &vi, fttus, to love, cherish. 

amOmum, i, [i/uaiiov^, n., an aro- 
matic shrub, balsam. 

amor, Oris, [amO], m., love, longing, 
passion, desire ; personified. Amor, 
m., Cupid, the god of love. 

Amphi5n, onis, ['A/a^cmv], m., a king 
of Thebes, famous as a musician, 
son of Antiope and Jupiter, and 
husband of Niobe. 

Amplutrite, §8, ['AM^trpcni, lit. 
** rubbed about," as pebbles by the 
sea], f., the wife of Neptune and 
goddess of the sea; meton., the sea. 

AmphitryOniadSs, ae, m., a de- 
scendant of Amphitryo; Hercules, 
his reputed son. 

Amplirysos, i, ['A/i^pvotK] , m., a 
river in Thessaly, on whose banks 
Apollo tended the flocks of Admetus. 

am-plector, i, plexus, to wind 
around: embrace. 

amplexus, tls, [amplector], m., 
an embrace. 

amplus, a. imi, adj., ample, large, 
spacious ; abundant, great i 

Ampyx, ycis, m., one of the com- 
panions of Phineus arrayed against 

Amym5nd, es, f., a fountain near 

an, conj., or ; whether, when preceded 
by expressions of doubt. 

An&pis, is, m., a river in Sicily. 

anceps, cipitis, [an- (for ambi-) 
+ caput], adj., having two heads, 
two-headed, double. 

ancilla, ae, [dim. from ancula, a 
ynaidservant], I., a maidservant. 

ancora, ae, [ayxvpa], f., an anchor. 
\ £aiOLTQ.«xa5Ti.^ onia, ['Ai^5pat>wi^], m., 



the father of Thoaa, one of the Greek 

heroes at Troy, 
AndrofiroCs (eus) , 0, ['Avdp^cwf], m., 

a son of Minos, king of Crete, slain 

by the Athenia)is. 
anfirO, ere, — , — , to press tight ; to 

torture, vex, 
aasruifer, era, erum, [aDgruisH- 

ferO], adj., serpent-bearing. 
anerulpes, edls, [ansruis + p€s], 

adj., serpent-footed. 
anffuia, la, m. and f., a serpent. 
anfiTUlua, I, m., an angle, corner; 

secret nook, corner. 
anhSUtuB, as, [anhSld], m., a diffi- 
cult breathing, panting, 
aiili616, fire, ftvl, fitus, to breathe 

with difficulty, pant. 
anlzna, a«, f., air, wind; breath, 

brecOh of life, life; a disembodied 

spirit, a shade. 
animal, filia, [anixna], n., any living 

creature, an animal. 
j^niTwaTta antis, [part. axiim5], adj., 

living, animate; subs., a living 

anlznG, fire, ftvl, fttus, [anlma], to 

quicken into life, animate. 
anlmOsus, a, um, [animus], adj., 

fiUl of spirit, spirited, made spirited 

by, tmdaunted ; proud. 
animus, I, m., the rational so\tl (op- 
posed to body), spirit, feeling, the 

mind, the will, purpose, intention, 

heart; pi., courage. 
ann&16s, lum, [annus], m. pi., an- 
nals, history. 
Anna Perenna, ae, f ., a7i old Italian 

goddess, protector of the returning 

anne, pleonastic for an. 
anndsus, a, um, [annus], adj., fidl 

of years, old, aged, 
annus, I, m., a year, season of the 

annuus, a, imi, [annus], adj., an- 
nual, yearly. 
ftnser, eris, m.,a goose. 
Antaeus, I, m., a Libyan giant, slain 

by Hercules. 
ante, prep. w. ace., b^ore (of time 

and space) ; ante omnSs, before 
(i.e. more than) all; adv., (of time) 
before, formerly, previously; fol- 
lowed by quam, sooner than, before. 

ante-e5, ire, ivi (ii), — , to go before, 
surpass, excel. 

antemna, ae, f., a sail yard, 

Antdn5r, oris, m., a Trojan prince 
related to Priam, who, after the fall 
of Troy, went to Italy and founded 

antequam, see ante. 

antiquus, a, um, [ante], adj., old, 
ancient, belonging to ancient times ; 

antrum, i, [avrpoi'], n., a cave, cavern. 

anus, ds, f ., an old woman, 

anxius, a, um, adj., anxious, trou- 
bled, solicitous. 

Aonius, a (Gr. form Aoni6), um, 
adj., Aonian, Boeotian. 

aper, apri, m., « wild boar. 

aperi5, ire, ui, tus, lay open, un- 
cover, disclose; open up or out, 
render accessible; reveal, make 

apertus, a, um, [part. aperiS], adj., 

_uncovered, open, exposed, clear. 

Apidanus, i, m., a river in Thessaly. 

apis, is, f., a bee. 

Apollineus, a, um, [Apoll5], adj., 
belonigng to Apollo, Apollo*s. 

Apollo, inls, m., son of Jupiter and 
Latona, twin brother of Diana, god 
of archery, prophecy, music, poetry, 
and medicine. 

app&red, ere, ui, itus, [ad+pfireS], 
to appear, come in sight, be visible. 

appelld, fire, fivi, fitus, [ad+pell6], 
to accost, address; call by name, 

Appennlnus, i, m., the Apennines, a 
mountain range of Italy. 

app5n5, ere, posui, positus, [fid H- 
ponoj, to place by, set near, set 

Aprilis, is, [aperio], adj., of April; 
subs, (understand mensis), m., the 
month of April. 

apt5, are, avi, atus, [aptus], to fit, 
to put on. 



aptus, a, um, [*apO. lay hold], adj., 
^ritted or joined to ; suitedy guitable. 

apud, prep. w. ace., tcith, at, &y, near, 

aqua, ae, f., water. 

aquila, ae, f., an eagle. 

aquilo, 5nis, m., the north trind; in 
general, the wind. 

aqudsus, a, um, [aqua], adj., 
watery f rainy. 

ftra, ae, f., an altar, a raided struc- 
ture of earth, wood, or stone; Ara, 
the Altar, a constellation in the 
southern sky. 

ArachnS, §s, [apaxni, a spider], a 
Lydian maiden, changed by Minerva 
into a spider. 

ar&tor, Oris, [ar6], m., a plowman. 

arfttrum, i, [ar6], n., a plow. 

Arfttus, i,m., a Greek poet of about 
2.>0 B.C., author of an astronomical 

arbiter, tri, m., an eyewitness ; um- 
pire, judge. 

arbitrium,i, [arbiter], n. Judgment, 
authority, will, power. 

arbor, oris, f., a tree, woods. 

arboreus, a, um, [arbor], adj., 
belonging to a tree ; treelike, branch- 

arbustum, i, [arbor], n., a grove, 
thicket, orchard. 

arbutelis, a, um, adj., 0/ the arbutus. 

arbutus, i, f., the wild strawberry 
tree, the arbutus. 

Arcadia, ae, f., a mountainous prov- 
ince in the center of the Peloponne- 
sus, A ready. 

arcftnus, a, um, [&rca, a chest], adj., 
secret, hidden, private ; subs., &rc&- 
num, i, n., a secret, a mystery. 

Areas, adis, m., an Arcadian. 

arced, Sre, ui, (tus), to shut up, 
inclose, conjine ; keep at a distance, 
keep o^tf', drive away, 

ArcSsius, i, m., a son of Jupiter, 
father of Laertes, and grandfather 
of Ulysses. 

ArcitenSns, entls, [arcus+teneS], 
adj., wielding or carrying a bow; 

8ubB,, the archer god, Apollo, 

Arctos, I, f., the double drcimipolar 
constellation of the two bears, or 
the Great Bear alone; poet., the north. 

arcus, Os, m., a bow ; anything bow- 
shaped, e.g. the zoneM or divieums 
of the heavens. 

&rd6xiB, entis, [part. ftrdeO], adj., 
burning, glowing, gleaming, glitter- 
ing, glistening, inflamed; ardent^ 
eager, impassioned. 

firded, 6re, &r^, Orsus, to bum, 
blaze, glow, gleam, glitter ; be eager, 
long ; bum with love for, love. 

firdSsco, ere, ftrsi, — , [inch. ftrdeO], 
to take fire, kindle, begin to bum, 

firdor, 5ri8, [ftrdeO], m., a burn- 
ing heat ; ardor, enthusiasm, eager- 

arduus, a, um, adj., high, lofty, 

steep, towering aloft; subs., ar- 

duum, i, n., a high place, a height. 

; area, ae, f., ground, space, expanse. 

; firSna, entis, [part, fired], adj., dry, 

I arid, dried up. 

&re5, 6re, ui, — , to dry up, become 
parched or withered. 

ArestoridSs, ae, m., the son of Ares- 
tor, i.e. Argus. 

Arethasa, ae, f., a celebrated foun- 
tain in Sicily. 

argrenteus, a, um, [arflrentum], 
adj., of silver, silvery, of t?ie silver 

argrentum, !, n., silver. 

Arg6, as, ['Apyci], f., t?ie ship whidi 
bore Jason and his crew to Colchis 
in search of the golden fleece. 

Argrolicus, a, um, [Ai^olls], adj., 
pertaining to Argolis, Argolic, 
(meton.) Grecian. 

ArgroB, ["Apyo?], n., (only nom. and 
ace.), also pi., Argi, drum, m., 
Argos, a city in the Peloponnesus, 
(meton.) Greece, in general. 

argrtlmentum, !, [argruG], n., an 
argument, evidence, proof. 

argruS, ere, i, at\is, to argue, show, 
declare, prove. 

Argrus, 1, ["Apyos], m., the hundred- 
eyed keeper of lo after sfie was 
V cKanged iuto a Keif «r by Juj^iter, 



axvatus, a ;um, part, [arff uO] , clear, 
elear'touneUng, tuneful. 

Axlclnl, 0rum, m. pi., the inhabit- 
ants of Aricia, an ancient town in 
Latium, not far from Alba Longa, 

ftrlduB, a, am, [fireO], adj., dry, 

ArlOn, onis, ['Apcwv], m., a famous 
murician of Lesbos, rescued from 
drowning by a dolphin. 

Arlonius, a, um, [ArI5n], adj., be- 
longing to Arum, 

arista, ae, f., a beard of wheat; a 
head of wheat, ear of corn. 

arma, drum, n. pi., arms, weapons, 

armfttus, a, am, [part. armO], adj., 
armed, equipped. 

armentum, I, [ar5], n., cattle for 
plowing; herd, drove. 

armifer, era, erum, [arma + fer6], 
adj., arms-bearing, warlike. 

armifirera, ae, [arma + firer5], f ., an 
armor bearer. 

armipotens, entis, [arma + po- 
tdns], adj., powerful in anns, war- 

armlBonus, a, um, [arma + Bonus], 
adj., resounding with arms. 

armO, ftre, &vi, &tus, [arma], to 
arm, equip. 

annus, I, m., the shoulder; of an ani- 
mal, the flank, side. 

arO, &re, &v!, &tus, to plow, till, culti- 
vate, ir^abit, 

ars, artis, f., art, skill, dexterity; 
the employment of art, a trade, pro- 
fession, art; artifice, craft, cunr 
ning, trickery. 

articulus, I, [dim. artus], m., a 
joint, finger. 

artifex, Icis, [ars + faci5], m., an 
artificer, artist; in bad sense, 
schemer, plotter, 

artus, Us, m., (mostly in pi.), anoint; 
limhs, parts, the body. 

artus, a, um, [part. arceO], adj., 
shut up, close, tight. 

arvum, I, [arO], n., arable land, a 
field; country, region; shore, as 
opposed to water. 

arx, arcis, f., a citadel, a fortified 
height, a stronghold; a height, pin- 

ascendO, ere, i, scSnsus, [ad + 
scand5, to mount], to climb up, 

ascdnsus, as, [ascendd]. m., the 
act of climbing, an ascent. 

Ascraeus, i, m., IleHod, so named 
from Ascra, his birthplace, a vil- 
lage in Boeotia, near 3fount Helicon. 

asella, ae, [dim. asina, she-ass], 
a Hniall she-ass. 

asellus, 1, [dim. asinus, ass], m., 
a small ass. 

aspectus, as, [asplciO], m., a look- 
ing at, a glance, gaze. 

asper, era, erum, adj., rough, iin- 
even, rugged, prickly, thorny; 
harsh, hard, fierce, cruel. 

aepergrd, Inls, [vb. aspergS = ad + 
spargrd], f., a sprinkling; that 
ichich is sprinkled. 

asperitas, &tis, [asper], f., roughs 
ness, harshness, severity. 

aspicl5, ere, spezl, spectus, [ad 
H- ♦specie, to look], to look at, be- 
hold, see. 

aspir5, are, &vi, fitus, [ad+spirO], 
to breathe or bloio upon; favor, 

astemS, ere, — , — , [ad+8tem6], 
to strew upon ; usually in the middle 
voice, to prostrate one*s self, to lie 

ast6, st&re, stiti, — , [ad -f- st6], to 
stand by or near, stand; stand up, 

A8tra.ea, ae, f., the goddess of justice. 

astringS, ere, strinxi, strictus, 
[ad + stringrO], to tie fast, bind 
up ; with grlaciSs, freeze. 

astrum, i, [avrpov], n., a star. 

astupeO, Sre, — , — , [ad + stupeO], 
to be amazed at. 

astus, as, m., craft, cunning, strata- 

AstyagrSs, is, m., one of the assaiU 
aiits of Perseus. 

at, ast, conj., but, yet, now, more- 
over, however^ at leasts still. 


AiSftZTQAdes. ae. k.. 5 de^eemdami of 

A'^t. if ;*'», Ji?rr«Jir. 
AiUfi. ac2s. 7A-fc»f2. m., a *i>ft 

•SQTie c^r MC. etMij.. ^ni^f aim. amd be- 
tidif. '2%i i-id*td. ^vnermlly giTin^ 
efcphsasis t*> the acoimd of two cour- 

AtrenB. ei. id., a *om of Ptlop*, amd 
Jti i? :/ Ar^>s :iR:i Mycfnoe. 

Atrides. ae. m.. <i ton or descend- 
an: '/ Atr*uf: hi* »», Agamem- 

fttrimn. ii. >ter?;. n., the principal 
<xft'2rtinf <t of a Roman house, the 
h'lll: in cen., hallSy rooms, 

at-tamen. conj., but uerertheless. 

attenuo. fire. fivi. fitus, [ad + 
tenud. to tnake thin'\ , to make thin, 
lesfeti, reduce, diminish; weaken, 

at-toUo. ere, — , — , [ad -i- toU6], to 
lift or raise up. 

attonitus. a um. [part. atton5, to 
thunder at, ftun], adj., thunder- 
struck, oJitounded, amazed, awed; 
poet., applied to inanimate things. 

attraho, ere, trfixi. trfictus, [adH- 
trahoj , to draw, draw in, pull. 

auctor, Oris, [aufir©6], m., f., a cre- 
ator, progenitor, founder, source ; 
author, inventor, instigator, giver, 
promoter ; (rare) prophet. 

aud&cia, a.e, [audax], f., daring, 
courage, boldness. 

audax, acis. [audeS], adj., bold, 
daring, in good or bad sense ; coura- 
geous, resolute. 

auded, ere, ausus sum, to dare, 

audld, ire, ivi (ii), itus, to hear, 
lis fen to. 

aufer5. auferre, abstuU, ablfitus, 
[ab-j-ferS], to bear or carry off or 
at^ai^, remove. 

mused, 6re, auzi, ancinB, to t»- 
create, augment, cause to gnm. 

augur, uris, m., f., an augur, loot)^ 
saffer ; a prophet, seer, 

aasarimn, fi, [au^rur], n., tkt td- 
emce or art of divination ; aprua^ 
timent, foreboding ; an omen, iHim, 

ao^nror, firi, fitus, [aucrur], topre- 
di^, foretell; surmise, imtigine. 

•aguateuB, a, mn, [aogeO], ad}., 
sacred, venerable, noble, mo^utie, 

AnguBtaa, i, m., the surname af Oe- 
tavius Caesar, afUr he gained the 
supreme power of Rome ; the name 
was afterwards assumed by all the 
emperors ; adj., q^ Augustus, impe- 

aula, ae, [•A^^], t., a haU, palace, 
royal court. 

a nlaenm , I, [avA«ia], n., a piece of 
tapestry, a curtain. 

AuUb, idis, f., a seaport in Boeotia, 
where the Greeks assembled before 
sailing for Troy. 

aura, ae, (old gen. aurfii), [avpa], f., 
the air in motion, a breeze ; air, the 
vital breath ; the air of heaven, the 
sky, the light of day, the air (gen- 
erally in the pi.) ; ad aurfts or sub 
atirfis, on high, aloft, heavenward. 

aurat\i8, a, am, [aurum], adj., 
overlaid with gold, gilded, golden. 

aureus, a, imi, [aurum], adj., made 
of gold, golden ; bright, glittering. 

aurifer, era, erum, [aurum+ferO], 
adj., gold bearing, 

aurifira, ae, m., a charioteer, driver. 

auris, is, £., tJ^e ear. 

aurdra, ae, f., the dawn, morning; 
person., the goddess of morning. 

aurum, !, n., gold. 

Ausonla, ae, f., a poetic name for 
Italy, derived from the name of an 
ancient people inhabiting Middle 
and Lower Italy. 

Ausonls, idis, adj., Ausonian, Ital- 

Ausonius, a, um, adj., Ausonian, 
\auBi^\c\\aa, ^21, ^iMuapex, a diviner 



/hmthe omens given by hirds], n., 
ihination from observations of 
birds; atispices; gen. in pi., aus- 
pices, chief command, guidance, 

Mister, til, m., the south wind; per- 
son., Auster, 

anstr&lls, e, [anster], adj., southern, 

ansuzn, I, [auded], n., daring, a dar- 
ing deed, 

aut, con]., or; aut . . . aut, either 
... or. 

autem, con]., but, however, noir, 
mmreover, again. 

AutomedGn, ontis, ['Avro/ica«v], m., 
the charioteer of Achilles, 

autunmfilifl, e, [autiimnus], adj., 
of autumn, autumnal. 

autuxnxiiiB, I, m., the season of iti- 
crease, abundance ; autumn. 

auxili&ris, e, [auziliuxn], adj., aid- 
ing, helping, assisting. 

auxillmn, ii, n., aid, assistance. 

avftrus, a, nm, [aveO, to long for] , 
adj., covetous, greedy, avaricious. 

a-vellO, ere, velU (Trolsi), viilsus, 
to tear off or away, 

avdna, ae, f ., oats ; an oaten pipe, a 
pipe ^f Fan, 

AvemuB, I, [aopvo?], m., a lake near 
Cumae, almost entirely inclosed by 
steep and wooded hills, whose deadly 
exhedatUms were said to kill the 
birds flying over it. Hence the myth 
placed near it the entrance to the 
Lower World; poetic for the Lower 

Avemus, a, um, adj;, pertaining or 
belonging to Lake Avemus. 

avereor, firi, &tii8, [iuteus. avert5], 
to turn from; r^ulse, scorn, de- 

ftversus, a, um, [part. avertO], adj., 
turned away ; alienated, hostile, un- 

ft^vertO, ere, I, versus, to turn away 
or aside (trans, and intrans.) ; pass., 
with middle sense, to turn (one's 
self) aside or away, 

avidus, a, um, [ave5, to long for], 
adj., eager, greedy. 

avis, is, f., a bird, 

avitus, a, um, [avus], adj., of a 

grandlfather, ancestral, 
avlus, a, um, [& + via], adj., out 

of the way, unfrequented; subs., 

ftvium, ii, n., an unfrequented 

place or way, a byway. 
avus, i, m., a grandfather; poet., an 

axis, is, m., an axletree; melon., a 

car or chariot ; the axis of heaven, 

the heavens, the sky, vault of heaven. 

BabylOnlus, a, um, adj . , belonging or 
pertaining to Babylon, Babylonian. 

bftca, ae, f., a ben^y, or any small 
fruit of trees. 

Baccha, ae, f., a Bacchante. 

BacchantSs, um, [subs, from part, 
of bacchor, to celebrate the festival 
of Bacchus], f ., Bacchantes, priest- 
esses of Bacchus. 

Bacchiadae, firimi, m., an ancient 
royal family of Cori7ith, who re- 
moved to Sicily and founded Syra- 

Bacchus, i, m., the god of wine; 
(meton.) irAne. 

baculum, i, n., a stick, staff. 

Bale9Ticu3, a, imx, adj., Balearic, 
pertaining to the Balearic Islands, 
whose inhabitants were famous 

ballaena, ae, [0aAaii/a], f., a whale. 

balteus, i, m., a belt, strap, girdle. 

barba, ae, f., the beard. 

barbaria, ae, [barbarus], f., a 
strange or foreign land from the 
standpoint of Greece or Italy. 

barbarus, a, um, [/Sdp^apo?], adj., 
barbarous, rude, uncivilized, savage. 

Bassus, i, m., a Roman poet, friend 
of Ovid and Propertius, otherwise 

Battiades, ae, m., the poet Callima- 
chus, a native of Cyrene, in Libya, 
so called because the name of Battus 
had been given to Aristotle of Thera, 
the founder of Cyrene. 



BonriB^MtB, f^ the wife^PkOemon j 
mPkn^fia. I 

be»tna. a. mn, [part. beO, to make i 
kapp9],9d}.,k^P9,hiesaedJkrored. I 
BgHrifw, mn, f., ike gramddaui^kters . 
€/ BeiMM, tAe father of Damawt, ' 
bifrcter kDovn as the Damaides. 

beUfttor. Oris, [beU5, to make irar], 
B.. a ttarrior; ms adj., wuirtial; 
bellStor eqiras. a warhone. 

belUciis, a. um, [beUum], adj., irar- 
like,jierre im war. 

beflum. i, n., war, wurfare, a combat. 

bSlna. ae, f., a large animal of any 
kind, a beast, a monster, 

bene, [bonus], adr., well. 

benefacta, 5niin, [bene + C&ci5], 
n., things ttell done, meritorious 
actJi, brare deed*. 

beni^nus, a, am, [bonus+^renns], 
adj., benignant, kindly, friendly. 

Berecyntius, a, am, adj., pertain- 
ing to Berecyntus, a mountain in 
Phrygia, sacred to Cybele, Bere- 
cyntian ; herds, i.e. Midas, a Phryg^ 
ian king. 

bibO, ere, !, — , to drink, dri¥ik in. 

bibulus, a, urn, [bib5], adj., bibvr- 
lous, thirsty, porous. 

biceps, cipitis, [bi + caput], adj., 
having two heads, peaks or summits, 

bi-color, 5ris, adj., two-colored, dap- 

blcomis, e, [bi + comtt], adj., with 
two horns, two pronged. 

bi-foris, e, adj., with two doors, f old- 

bi-fSrmis, e, adj., two formed. 

blmaris, e, [bi-H-mare], adj., on or 
between two seas, 

blnl, ae, a, adj., two by two, two 
apiece; two, a pair^ a couple. 

bipennis, e, jbi- -f penna], adj., 
two winged; two edged; subs, 
(poet.), bipennis, is, f., a two 
edged axe, a battle axe. 

birSmls, is, [bi-H- remus], f., (un- 
derstand n&vls) , a galley with two 
banks of oars, a bireme. 

bis, [bi-], num. adv., twice. 

BlBtonluB, a, um, adj., pertaining to 

the Bistones, a people of I%rott; 

bi-sulcus, a, um, adj., having U» 

furrows, forked, cloven. 
blaesus, a, um, [i3Aata6«], adj., {uptny. 
blandior, iri, itus, [blandus], ft 

soothe, caress; to flatter. 
blanditia, ae, [blandus] , f ., acaren- 

ing, flattery; pi., flatteries, Won- " 

blandus, a, uin, adj., onooA 

tongued, flattering, caressing^ per- 
suasive, soft, pleasant, quiet. 
Boebe, Ss, f., a village in Thestatji, 

on the shore of Lake Boebels. 
Boe5tia, ae, f., a country of Greeett 

northwest of Attica. 
Boeatus, a, um, adj., Boeotian. 
bonus, a, um , ad j . , good ; propitiota. 
Bo6tes, ae, m., a northern consteUa- 

tion situated behind the Great Bear. 
Boreas, ae, m.,the north wind. 
bos, bovls, m., f., a bull, buUoek, 

cow ; in pi., oxen, cattle. 
bracchium, il, [$paxit»v], n., tht 

lower arm, the forearm, the arm. 
brevis, e, adj., sliort, bri^, fleeting. 
brOmfilis, e, [brCLma, winter], adj., 

wintry, winter*s. 
bflb5, 5nls, m., an owl. 
bacina, ae, f., a trumpet, horn. 
Basiris, idls, ace. Basirin, m., a 

savage king of Egypt who was slain 

by Hercules. 
bastum, i, [bar5 = OrG ; compare 

combtlr5], n., a burning and bury- 
ing place ; a mound, tomb. 
buzum, i, [buz\is, the box £rcc], n., 

the wood of the box tree, boxwood. 

cacamen, inis, n., the summit, top, 

CadmSis, idis, f. adj., of Cadmus, 
Cadmean; Theban. 

Cadmus, i, m., son of the Phoenician 
king Agenor, and founder of Boeo- 
tian Thebes. 

cad5, ere, cecidl, c&sus, to faU^ 
\ drop ; fall iu battle^ perish, die a 



*iobnt death ; Hnk doton, subside ; 

Mt droop ; befall, happen, 

^SMflclfer, I, [cftdaceus, herald's 

rffl^ + terO], adj., m., bearing a 

herald's staffs an epithet of Mercury. 

oidllcuB, a, uin, [oadO], adj., /a^len, 

failing, destined to fail. 

eaecuB, a, um, adj., blind; vague, 

^eonfused, obscure, indiscriminate; 
hidden, secret, private, dark, ob- 
scure, gloomy ; uncertain, doubtful. 

caedSs, 18, [caed5J, f., a cutting 
down, slaughter, murder. 

oaedG, er6, cec!d!, caesus, to cut ; 
to cut down, slay, slaughter, of ani- 
mals or men. 

caelftmen, Inis, [oaelO], n., a bas- 

(caeles), itis, [oaeluzn], adj., 
heavenly ; sabs. m. pi., the celes- 
tials, the gods. 

caele0tl8,e, [caelam],t^]., heavenly, 
celestial; subs,, the celestials, 
the gods. 

oaelicola, ae, [caelum + col5], m., 
f., a heaven dweller, a deity, a 

oael5, &re, &vl, &tuB, [caelum, a 
chisel], to chase, engrave, carve in 
relief, emboss. 

caeluzn, I, n., the sky, heavens, vault 
tf heave?i, air, climate; heaven, 
the abode of the gods as distin- 
guished from the earth ; the earth or 
Upper World as distinguished from 
the Lower World. 

caenuzn, I, n., dirt, mud, filth, mire. 

oaerola, -Orum, [for caelula from 
caeluxn])-n. pi., the dark blue sea, 
the azure deep, 

caeruleus, a, um, [for caeluleus 
from caelum], adj., dark blue, 
dark green, cerulean; dark, black, 
gloomy, sable, funereal. 

Oaesar, arls, m., (7. Julius Caesar, 
the dictator; Augustus, the first 
emperor of Rome; Tiberius, the 
second emperor ; an epithet of the 
heir apparent, the crown prince. 

OaeBareus, a, um, adj., of or per- 
taining to Caesar, Caesarian. 

caesariSs, 61, f., the hair of the head, 

flowing locks. 
caespes, Itis, [caedO], m., cut turf, 

Calcus, I, m., a river of Mysia which 

taken its rise on Mt. Teuthras. 
calcunuB, 1, [xaAo/uioc], m., a reed. 
calathuB, i, [itaAa«o«], m., a wicker 

basket, basket. 
calc5, ftre, &vl, &tu8, [calx, the 

heefj , to tread, tread upon, trample. 
calculus, 1, [dim. calx, limestone], 

m., a small ntone, pedble. 
cale5, Sre, ul, — , to glow with heat. 
calidus, a, um, [cale5], adj., warm, 

cftUfiTd, inis, f., a mint, fog, vapor, 

darkness, obscurity. 
callidus, a, um, [called, to be ex- 
perienced], adj., expert, adroit, skill- 
ful; crafty, artful. 
calor, Oris, [cale5], m., warmth. 
Calyd5n, 6iiis, [KaAuicii], f., an an- 
cient town of Aetolia, the seat of 

Oeneus, father of Deianira. 
Calyddnius, a,um, adj., Cahjdonian. 
CalymnS, Ss, [KdAv^i/a], an island in 

the Aegean sea, not far from Rhodes, 

distinguished for its honey. 
camella, ae, [dim. camera, a vault], 

f., a cup,' goblet. 
camlnus, i, [Kdtuvo^]^ m., a furnace, 

campus, i, m., a plain field, open 

country, the level surface of the sea. 
Cancer, cri, m., the constellation 

Cancpr, the Crab. 
cande5, §re, ui, — , to be white, 

shine, glisten ; glow with heat. 
cand68c5, ere. — , — , [inch. cande5], 

to become bright; to begin to glow 

loith heat, to become hot. 
candldus, a, um, [cande5], adj., 

lustrous, brilliant, white, fair, 

candor, 5ris, [canded], a dazzling 

c&ne5, Sre, u!, — , [c&nus], to be 

white, gray, or hoary. 
canSscO, ere, — , ~, [inch, caned], 

to become ^oarv » tDKUen. 



L 1- c 

c -^ftpfij 2m fL, 

■^^"^'^ ne. '_*=^"=*-] 
y 'I "i. c». . '.^"-i.Tfc'Tftr £.-hi juy: 

r- #: i.r '■:■': -:-' ..u **:'*;. 

: *" ' / . r« ■ V . r- - Vr -Y-f. 
cap&x. &C3S. ~cftpa5\ adj.. cuMi'iiJt' 

capeUa. ae. *i:=i. caper', f.. a **•*- 

.ro:. :••::. 

caper, pri, :r.. -, %^^>jt. p'M/. 

capillus. :, [^iii::. form akin to ca- 
put], rz.. :.\i 'j.> o/ rA* head, 
1 ~; ■". 

capio. ere. cepi. capitis, to take, 
#firf. ncnir-:. hy^d: capture, tak^ 
p'jssfj^i'iu ••'"; onrcoine, captivate, 
c^t ' J rr- i ,'ina t-? . 

Capitolium. ii (poet. pL. Capit51ia), 
[caput], n.. t\€ Capitoi at Romey 
a t^mp'e of Jupiter on the Capito- 
Uue Hill: the Capitoline Hill itself. 

caprea. ae, [caper], f., a wild she- 
ffoat. a roe. 

captivTis, a. um, [capid], adj., cap- 
tured, plundered; captive; subs., a 

capta, are, ftvi, atus, [freq. capld], 
to catch at eayerly, graspy handle. 

caput, itis, n., the head of man or 

beast ; top, summit ; source ; the 

geographical and imperial head or 

center, capitoi; the life, the soul; a 

f man, a person. 

firam, n. i^., fine flax; 
mM^J ciotk : a saU. 
career, eris, m., a prison ; the bar- 
ri^r or starting place in the race 

cercbfiBhun, fi, [capxwMr], n., a 
Gryeti drimting cvp, slightly eon- 
trmeled in the middle, with slender 
kindles reading from the rim to 
t\e b'Mamu 

card5, inls, m., the pivot and socket 
o« trhick ancient doors hung, a 

€»re5, §re, m, itfiras, to be wUhota, 
he wanting in, free from, be de- 
prired of, lad, miss. 

cSrica. ae, [GSria], f. adj., of Caria, 
a province in Asia Minor; sabs. 
(imdeistand ficus) , a Carian flg, a 
drifd Jig. 

carina, ae, f., the keel of a ih^; 
(meton.) a ship, a vessel. 

carmen, inis, [for casmen from 
root in can5], n., a song, ehtuU, 
note, strain ; a charmed song, an 
incantation ; a verse, a poetic com- 

cars, camis, t., flesh. 

carpd, ere, a, tus, to pluck, tear 
of, pull away, pluck out, pull out, 
crop; take, catch, snatch; criticise 
harshly, carp at; w. viam, take 
one*s way, pursue one's road, 

cfiros, a, tun, adj., dear; hving, 
affectionate, fond. 

casa, ae, f., a hut, cottage. 

cfiaeus, I, m., cheese. 

CassiopS, ea, [Kcunrtoni], f., the wife 
of Cepheus, mother of Androme^. 

cassis, is, m., a hunting net, snartt 

cassis, idls, f., a metal helmet. 

Castalius, a, um, adj., CastaHan, 
from the famous fountain on Mt. 
Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and tht 

castanea, ae, f., the chestnut, 

castra, Orum, n. pi., a fortified eamp, 
an encampment. 

\ \A^\xM\yMsui^yvsi^qh:^^ pious, lioiy. 



oftBUB, tLs, [cad0], m., a falling , a 
fall ; that which befalls or happens, 
an event, mi^ortune, calamity , dati- 
ger, adventure, peril; chance; c&sa, 
by chance. 

catdna, ae, f., a chain, fetter, 

Catullus, \,m,,a Roman poet, horn 
at Verona in 86 B.C. 

catuluB, I, [dim. catuB, cat], m., a 
young dog ; also the cub or wfielp of 
other animals. 

GaucasuB, I, m., a chain of movn- 
tains in Asia, between the Black 
and Caspian seas, Caucasus. 

Cauda, ae, the tail of an animal. 

cauBa, ae, f., a cause, reason, in- 
fluence ; occasion, pretext ; legal, a 
cause, a case, suit. 

cautdB, iB, f., a rough, pointed rock, 
a crag. 

cautuB, a, um, [part. cave0], adj., 
careful, cautious, provident. 

caveO, 6re, c&vi, cautus, to take 
care, beware, guard against, avoid; 
to provide, decree, stipulate. 

cavema, ae, [cavus], f., a hollow, 
cavity, cavern, cave. 

cavuB, a, uzn, adj., hollow, cavern- 

OaystroB or us, i, [Kivcrrpos], m., a 
river in Lydia, which rises in Mt. 
Tmolus; it is celebrated for its 

CSoropidSs, ae, [Cdcrops], m., a 
descendant of Cecrops, an ancient 
king of Attica, the founder of the 
citadel €f Athens ; in pi., the Athen- 

CSoropls, idls, [CScrops], f., a fe- 
male descendant of Cecrops; i. adj., 
AtHe, of Attica. 

Odcropius, a, um, [CScrops], adj., 
Cecropian, Athenian. 

oMO, ere, cesd, cessus, to go away, 
withdraw, retire, depart; give place, 
give way, yield, submit, subside. 

celeber, bris, bre, adj., frequented, 
crowded, much visited; renowned, 
eeiebrated, famous ; numerous, fre- 

oelebrO, ftre, ftvl, fttu8| [celeber], 

to resort to in crowds; solemnize, 
celebrate, make famous. 

celer, eris, e, adj., sicift, quick, fleet, 

cK0, &re, &vl, &tu8, to conceal, 

celsus, a, um, [part. cell5, to raise], 
adj., high, lofty. 

CSnaeus, a, um, adj., of Cenaeum, 
the northwestern point of the island 
of Euboea. 

c€nBe5, Sre, ui, us, to rate, esti- 
mate; think, judge, consider. 

cSnsOra, ae, [cSnsed], f., opinion, 

centum, Indecl. Dum. adj., a hun- 

Cephalus, i, [K€<fraAos], m.,the son of 
Delonexis, grandson of Aeolus, hus- 
band of Procris, the daughter of 

CSpheus, ei, [Ki^i^evs], m., a king 
of Ethiopia, husband of Cassiope, 
father of Andromeda. 

Cepheus, a, um, adj., of Cepheus, 

CSphisis, idis, f. adj., of Cephisus. 

Cephisus, i, [Kjj^ho-o-os], m., a river 
in Phocis and Boeotia. 

cSra, ae, f., wax. 

ceratus, a, um, [cSra], adj., cov- 
ered with wax, waxed, set in wax. 

Ceraimia, Oram, [Kijpavvios], n. pi., 
a ridge of mountains along the 
coast of Epirus. 

Cerberus, i, [Kep^epos], m., the three- 
headed dog of Pluto that guarded 
the entrance of Hades. 

CereSJis, e, [Ceres], adj., of or be- 
longing to Ceres. 

Ceres, eris, f., the goddess of agri- 

cem5, ere, crevi, cretus (cer- 
tus), to perceive, see, discern, he- 
hold; perceive with the mind, un- 

certftmen, inls, [certo], n., contest, 
struggle, race, game, strife ; strife, 
rivalry, contention, emulation. 

certs, [certus], adv., certainly, 
surely, truly ; at leasts yet surely* 



oertO, ftre, &vi, fttus, [certus], to 
contend f strive, vie with, 

oertuB, a, um, [part. cem5], adj., 
determined, resolved, bent on ; cer- 
tain, fixed, regular, permanent; 
certain, inevitable, sure; straight, 
direct, unerring; undoubted, genu- 
ine, true; aJiquem facere cer- 
tiizn, to ir\form any one. 

cerva, ae, [cerviie], f., a hind, doe. 

cervix, Icis, f ., the neck, 

cerviis, I, m., a stag, a deer. 

cessd, ftre, &vi, fttus, [freq. cSdd], 
to stop, cease, have oiff', pause, falter, 
delay ; he idle, inactive, 

ceterus, a, um, adj., the rest of, the 
remaining, other, 

ceu, adv., as, just as^ as if. 

chaos (Dom. and ace.)? abl. chaO, 
[x*o«], n., boundless, empty space; 
the confused, primitive mass out of 
which the universe was made. 

Charops, opis, m., a Lycian ally of 
the Trojans against the Greeks. 

Chary bdis, is, [x«pv/Wis], f., a whirl- 
pool between Italy and Sicily. 

chelydriis, i, [xeAv«pos], m., a fetid 
water snake. 

Chersidam&8, antis, m., a Lycian 
ally of the Trojans. 

ChirOn, 6nis, [Xei'pwi'], m., one of the 

chorda, ae, [\opSrf], i., a string of a 
musical instrument. 

Chromius, I, m., a Lycian ally of the 

ChryeS, 6s, [XpuoTj], f., a town on the 
coast of Troas, sacred to Apollo. 

chrysoiithos, i, [xpv<»-6Ai«o?], m., 
chrysolite, topaz. 

cibus, i, m., food, nourishment. 

OibyrSius, a, um, adj., of Cibyra, a 
town in Magna Phrygia, 

CiconSs, um, m., a Thracian people 
near the Hebrus. 

deO, Sre, civi, citus, to move, stir, 
shake, stir up ; call upon for help, 

Oilix, icis, adj., Cilician, of Cilicia, 
o province in the southern part of 
Asia Minor. 

Cilia, ae, f ., a town in Troa$, (Bi- 

tinguished for the worship of JpoBo. 
c]ng6, ere, cinxi, cinctus, (o <u^ 

round, gird, encircle, invest, 
cinis, eris, m., ashes. 
Cinyphios, a, um, adj., pertaining 

to or found in or near the dnffps, 

a river in Libya. 
circft, prep. w. ace., and adv., arotmd, 

about, near. 
CircS, Ss or ae, [Kipitij], f., afomfm 

sorceress, daughter of the Sun, liifh 

ing on an island off the western 

coast of Italy. 
circueG, ire, ivi, (ii),itus, [circmn 

+ e6] , to go around, encircle, en- 

circuitus, as, [circueO], m., a going 

around, a circuit. 
circum, prep. w. ace., and adv., 

about, around, near. 
circum.d5, dare, dedi, datus, to 

put or place around ; surround, cft- 

circum-fer5, ferre, tuli, lAtus, to 

bear, turn or carry around. 
circ\im-flu6, ere, fluxi, — , to flow 

circumfluus, a, um, [circumflu5], 

adj., flowing aroutid, circumfluent. 
circum-fimdO, ere, fadi, fOsus, 

to pour around ; in pass. w. reflex. 

force, surround, encompass. 
circumlitus, a, um, [part, circum- 

lin5, to smear over], spread over, 

besmeared, bathed in. 
circum-son5, ftre, — , — , to sound 

or rewound on every side. 
circumspici5, ere, spexi, spectus, 

[circum + *speci6, to look], to 

look about upon, survey, examine. 
circum-st5, etftre, steti, — , trans. 

and intrans., to surround, staTid 

around, encompass. 
Cithaer5n, 5nis, [Kiaaipwc], m., a 

mountain in Boeotia, sacred to 

cithara,ae, [«t«ipa], f., a lute, harp, 

cito (comp. citius, sup. citissimS), 

[citus], adv., quickly, soon, too soon. 



Qftrft, [citer from cia], ady., on this 
tide, this way. 

dtu8, a, HID, [part. oie5], adj., 
quick, swift. 

cMcuB, a, um, [civis], adj., civil, 

cfviUs, e, [civis], adj., belonging to 

a citizen, civic. 
dvHiter, [civilis], adv., as becomes 

a private citizen; plCLs quam 

ci^Uter, excessively. 
civlB, is, m., f., a citizen, fellow citi- 
zen, fellow countryman or country- 
olftdSB, is, f., slaughter, havoc, dis- 

dam, ady., secretly, unawares. 
cULniG, ftre, &vi, &tuB, to call aloud 

to, call by name, call upon. 
cULmor, 5riB, [cl&m5], m., a loud 

cry, shout, wailing, shriek, yell, 

applause, noise, din, roar. 
GlariuB, a, um, [Claros], adj., 

Clarian, an epithet of Apollo. 
ClaroB, i, [KAipos] , f., Claros, a town 

in Ionia containing a temple and 

oracle of Apollo, 
clAniB, a, um, adj., clear, bright; 

dear, loud; illustrious, renowned, 

clasais, is, f., a fleet. 
Cnaudia, ae, f., the daughter of P. 

Claudius Pulcher, Cos. b.c. 249. 
olaudO, ere, si, bus, to close, shut, 

shut up ; shut in, inclose, hide. 
cl&ira, ae, f., a club. 
ciavis, is, f., a key. 
clftvus, I., m., a nail or anything 

iiailshaped ; a purple stripe on the 

tunic, broad (latus) for senators, 

narrow for knights. 
olfixnentia, ae, [clSmSns, mild], t., 

mildness, clemency, mercy, 
cUpe&tus, a, um, [clipeus], adj., 

armed with a shield. I 

clipeus, l,m.,a large, round shield. \ 
clIvuB, l,m., a descent, slope. | 

cltlBius, I, [ciad5 = claud5], in., a 

cognomen of Janus, whose temple \ 

w€U dosed in peace. i 

Clymend, Se, [K\viiivri], L, the wife | 
urin — 2S 

of Merops, king of Ethiopia, and 
mother of PhaWion. 

ClymenSius, a, um, adj., of or be- 
longing to Clyinfnf. 

coftfiTUlum, i, [c6fir6], n., tfiat which 
causes to coagulate, rennet; that 
which is curdled; pi., curds. 

coarfiru5, ere, ul, — , [com- -f 
arg\i5J, to expose, convict, prove 
guilty ; to betray. 

coctilis, e, [coqu5], adj., burned; 
mari coctilSs, walls of burned 

coe5, ire, ivi (ii) , itus, [com- -f e6J, 
to go or rome together. 

coepi, isse, coeptus, to begin, 

coeptum, i, [coepi], n., a work 
begun, undertaking, enterprise, de- 

Coeranus, i, in., a Lycian ally of 
the Trnjun,t. 

coerced, Sre, ui, itus, [com- + 
arce5J, to inclose., routine, restrain. 

coetus. Us, [coe6], m., a coming 
together; (meton.) «/^ assemblage, 

Coeus, i (dissyl.), m., a Titan, the 
father of Latona. 

cQgrn&tus, a, um, [com- + (gr)na8- 
cor], adj., related hy blood; kin- 

cogrnOmen, inis, [com- + (8r)n6. 
men], d., a sunmme, added name; 
poft. fomomen, a name. 

c5grn5scQ, ere, grnovi, grnitus, 
[com- -f (gr)nosc6], to become ac- 
quainted with, ascertain, hear of; 
notice, observe ; recognize ; in perf 
tenses, know. 

c5gro, ere, coegri, coactus, [com- 
+ agrd], to drive or bri)ig together, 
collect, asse7nblc; compress, con- 
dense, narrow, contract; thicken, 
curdle; bring up the rear of an 
army ; drive, force, compel. 

Colchis, idis, f. adj., Colchian, of 
Colchis, a province in Asia, east of 
the Black Sea. 

Colchus, a, um, adj., Colchian; 
subs., a Colchian, 



collis, is, m., a hill, high ground, 

coUum, I, 11., the neck. 

colO, ere, ui, cultus, to cultivate, 
till a country, inhabit; nourish, 
cherish, foster, he fond of; honor, 
revere^ worship ; court, cultivate the 
acquaintance or friendship of; of 
the gods, with reference to places 
where they were worshiped, to 
frequent, cherish, care for, protect. 

eol5nus, i, [col6J, m., a husband- 
inan ; a countryman. 

color, oris, m., color, hue, tint; ex- 
ternal appearance. 

colubra, ae, [coluber, a serpent], f., 
a female serpent, a serpent, snake, 

columba, a^, f ., a dove. 

columna, ae, f., a column. 

colus, i,m.,a distaf. 

com-, old form of cum, prep., found 
only in composition. 

coma, ae, f., the hair ; leaves, foliage. 

com-bib6, ere, i, — , to drink tip, 
imbibe ; to absorb, take up. 

comes, itis, [com- + e6], m., f., a 
companion, associate, comrade, 
partner; an overseer, guide, tutor, 

comitatus, lis, [comitor], m., a 
retinue, a train, afoUoioing. 

comit5, are, avi, atus, or comitor, 
ari, atus, [comes], to accompany, 
attend, folUno. 

com-memoro, are, avi, atus, to 
call to mind, remember; recount. 

commends, are, avi, atus, [com- 
-f mando], to commit, commend, 
intrust to. 

commentum, i, [comminiscor, to 
contrive], n., an invention, false- 

comminus, [com- + manus], adv., 
hand to hand, at close quarters. 

com-mitto, ere, misi, missus, to 
bring together, unite, join ; be guilty 
of, do, commit, perpetrate ; deliver, 
commit, intrust. 

commodum, i, [comm&dus = 
c omi- + m odus] , n . , conve nience , 
advantage, profit, gain. 

commune, is, [commania^, u., 

that which is common; a com- 
munity, state. 

commanic5, are, avi, atus, [com* 
munis], to divide with, share. 

commanis, e, [com- + root mu-, 
to bind], adj., common, shared by 

commaniter, [commQnis], adv., 
together, m common. Jointly, 

c5m5, ere, psi, ptus, to arrange, 
dress, comb. 

compactus, a, um, [part, com- 
pingrd, to join together] , adj., joined 
together, compactly made, 

compagres, is, [com- + root pagr- in 
pangrG, to fasten], f., a joint, seam, 

compafird, inis, [rare for com- 
pares], f., a joining, joint, fasten- 

com-par6, are, Svi, atus, to bring 
together, match, compare. 

com-pell5, ere, pull, pulsus, to 
drive together ; drir>e, force. 

comperiO, ire,l, tus, [com- + root 
par- in pari5], to find out, ascer- 
tain, learn. 

compescG, ere, ui, — , [compSs, a 
fetter], to confine, repress, curb; to 
quench,, slake, 

compitum, i, [compete, fo coincide 
with], n., a place where roads cross; 
pi., a crossway, crossroads, 

com-plector, i, plexus, to encirde, 
enfold, embrace, seize upon. 

com-ple5, Sre, Svi, Stua, to Jill, fill 
up, throng; complete. 

complezus, as, [complector] , m., 
an embrace. 

com-plor5, are, &vi, atus, to be- 
wail, lament. 

com-p5n5, ere, posul, positus, to 
put together, construct, build; put 
to rest, set at rest ; lay to rest, inter, 
bury ; arrange, compose, settle one's 
self, quiet, calm ; put side by side, 

com-prehend5 (prend5), ere, i, 
hensus, to seize, grasp; recount, 
enumerate, describe. 

comprimG, ere, pressl, preeaus^ 



[COXA- + premO], to cheek, quell, 
repress, reetrain, stay, 

o6ii&xneii, Inis, [oCnor], n.,an effort, 
struggle ; a prop, support. 

conoavO, &re, —, fttus, [oonca- 
▼us], to make hollow, curve. 

ooncavuB, a, um, [coin-+cav\i8], 
adj., hollow, vaulted, arched, curved. 

oon-cSdA, ere, ceesl, oessus, [com- 
+ 0MO], depart, go away, with- 
draw, retire; grant, permit, allow. 

oonolia, ae, [xchrx^], i., a shell-fish ; a 
shell, snail shell; anything shaped 
like a shell, a Triton*s trumpet. 

oonoillmn, U, [com- + root oal, to 
call\t n., a gathering, assembly; a 
council; union, bond of union, tie. 

coDdnXi, ere, ui, — , [com- -|- can5J, 
to sing harmoniously, sing. 

conciG or ooncieO, Ire, ivi, cltus, 
[com- + deO], to bring together; 
move violently, shake, stir up; 
rouse, excite, inspire, move, 

oonclpiO, ere, c6pl, oeptus, 
[coxn- + capl0], to take up, take in, 
take, receive ; conceive, become pos- 
sessed by ; conceive, imagine, grasp 
in imagination; take to, have re- 
course to, 

oondtO, &re, ftvl, fttus, [freq. con- 
olO], to rouse, excite, urge, drive. 

concdAmO, &re, &vl, fttus, [com- + 
oUmOJ, to cry or shout out; shout 
or nctme aloud, exclaim. 

ooncolor. Oris, [com-+color], adj., 
of the same color, 

Concordia, ae, [conoors, of the 
same mind], i., harmony, union, 

conoordO, ftre, ftvl, fttus, [con- 
oors, qf the same mind] , to agree, 
karmonixe; be in harmony. 

conoresoO, ere, crSvI, crStus, 
[oom- + cr68c5], to grow together, 
take an form by hardening, to 
harden, stiffen; grow, increase. 

oooonrrO, ere, curri (cucurri), 
onrsus, [oom--f-currO], to run or 
rush together ; encounter, fight. 

eonoiUBUS, fta, [concuti5], m., a 
shatinff, ooneuuion, shock. 

conoutiO, ere, cusbI, cussus, [com- 

+ quatiO] , to shake ; smite, shat- 
ter; agitate, alarm, arouse, excite. 

condiciO, Onis, [condicO, to agree], 
t., an agreement, condition, com- 
pact; situation, nature, condition, 

condO, ere, didi, ditus, [com- + 
dOJ, to found, establish, build; 
store up, put away ; preserve, pickle ; 
hide, conceal; lay to rest, bury, 
consign to the tomb; shut, close; 
w. ferrum, strike deep, plunge, 

condacG, ere, dUxi, ductus, [com- 
-f dClc5J, to draw together, assem- 
ble, collect. 

confer5, ferre, contuU, coulfttus, 
[com- 4- f ©r6] , to bring together, 
collect; to bring together in com- 
parison, mati'h, compare. 

c5nf!d5, ere, fisus, [com- + nd5], 
believe, hope, put confidence in, have 
faith in. 

cinfinis, e, [com- + finis], adj., bor- 
doriu(f, adjoining, contiguous. 

c5nflteor, 6ri, fessus, [com--f 
fateor], to rnnfess, acknowledge. 

confremO, ere, ui, — , [com- -|- 
frem6], to resound, murmur loudly. 

confugriG, ©re. fagrl. — , [com- 4- 
fufiriO], to fiee to for help, have 
recourse to. 

c5nfuDd5. ©re, fadi, fQsus, [com- 
+ fund5], to pour together, mingle ; 
confuse, h^ap up together ; confuse, 

congrel5, ftre, ftvl, fttus, [com- + 
grel5, to freeze], to freeze together, 
congeal, stiffen. 

congreriSs, Si, [congrerO], f., a heap, 
mass, pile. 

congrer5, ere, gressl, grestus, [com- 
+ grer6], fo pile tor/efher, heap 

congrredior, grredi, grressus, [com- 
4- grradior], to encounter in fight, 
meet in battle, attack. 

conici5, ere, iSci, iectus, [com- 
-f iaciO], to throw together; hurly 
cast, throw ^ ihru^i. 



coniuGTiuxn, il, [coniungrO], n\, a 
union; marriage t wedlock. 

coniunGT^, ere, iHnzi, iUnctiis, 
[com-H- iungrS], to join, join to- 
gether, unite. 

conianz, ufiris» [coniunfirS], m., f., 
a husband, wife. 

coniarG, are, ftvi, fttus, [com-4- 
itlr6], to swear together, form a 
conspiracy J plot, conspire. 

conl&bor, i, Iftpsiis, [com- + labor, 
to slip], to fall or sink together; 

conligr5, ere, ISgrl, Ifictus, [com- + 
legr5], to bring together, collect, 
assemble ; to infer. 

conloc5, are, &vi, atus, [com- + 
loc5, to place] , to arrange, put in 
place, put, set. 

cOnor, ari, atus, to try, endeavor, 

conqueror, i, questus [com- + 
queror, to express grief], to com- 
plain, bewail, lament. 

c5n8cend5, ere, i, sceneus, [com- 
+ 8cand5, to rise] , to mount, climb, 
asrend, embark upon. 

consceler5, are, avi, atus, [com- 
-f scelerO, to pollute], to stain 
with guilt, pollute. 

c5nscius, a, um, [com- + sci6], 
adj., knowing or conscious of some- 
thing in common with another, 
privy to; knowing something 
within one*s self, conscious. 

cdnsenescQ, ere, senul, — , [com- 
-f senescQ, to grow old], to grow 
old together. 

c5nsenti6,ire, sSnsi, sensus, [com- 
-f senti6], to agree, consent, take 

c5nsequor, I, secatus, [com- + 
sequor], to follow, folloio close, 

c5nserQ, ere, ui, tus, [com- + ser5, 
to bind together], to tie together, 
fasten; join, make as one. 

c5nser5, ere, sevi, situs or satus, 
[com- + ser6], to sow, plant, set 
c3n8e88U8, Us, [c5naid5], m., a sit- 

ting together; an assembly, con- 
c5nsid5, ere, 8§di, sessus, [com- 

+ sldQ, to sit down], to sit down, 

take one*s seat, 
c5n8ilium, il, [c5n8ul5], n., apian, 

purpose, design, measure; counsel, 1 

advice. | 

c5n8i8t5, ere, stiti, stitus, [com- ; 

-f sistO], to place one's self any- \ 

where, take one's stand, set foot on; 

stand, stand still, settle, be at rest. 
c5ns51or, ari, atus, [com- + sOlor], 

to encourage, console, cheer, com- 
cGnsors, itis, [com- + sors], m.aDd 

f., a sharer, partner, comrade. 
cGnspectus, a, um, [part. cGdt 

spiciO], adj., in full view ; striking, 

distinguished, noteworthy. 
c5nspici5, ere, speiu, spectus, 

[com- 4- •speciG, to look], to look 

at, gaze upon, see, get sight of, spy, 

c5nspicuu8, a, um, [c5xispici5], 

adj., in view, visible ; striking, con- 

spiciious, illustrious. 
c5nstem5, are, avi, atus, [com- 

-f stemO], to confound, terrify, 

alarm, frighten. 
c5nst5, are, stiti, status, [com- 

4- Bt6], to stand still or Jirm, be 

fixed, steadfast. 
c5nsuesc5, ere, suSvI, suStus, 

[com- + suSscO, to become used], 

to form a habit, become accustomed ; 

in perf., to be accustomed, be wont. 
c5nsu€tus, a, um, [part. cSnsu- 

SscQ], adj., accustomed, usual, 

cSnsul, ulis, [com- + root sal of 

sali5, to leap ; compare exsul], m., 

a consul. 
c5nsul5, ere, m, tus, [see cOnsul], 

to go to for advice; consult. 
c5nsumm5, are, avi, atus, [com- 

+ summa, top, summit, sum], to 

accomplish, complete, finish, sum up. 
c5nsam5, ere, psi, ptus, [com- + 

s11m5] , to use up, spend, consume, 
\ devour. 



cdnsTirerO, ere, surrSxi, surrSctus, 
[com- + STirgrO], poet., n«e, rise vp 

cont&ctus, as, [continfir5], m., 
touch t contact, 

(contftfirium, il) , [contingrO], n.,only 
in pi., contagioUy infection. 

contefirG, ere, tSxi, tSctus, [cozn- 
+ tegrO]) to cover up, bury, hide, 

conteznn5, ere, tempsi, temptus, 
[com- + temnO], to de.9pise, defy. 

contemptor, Oris, [contemn5] , m., 
a scomer, contemner, despiser. 

contemptriz, icis, [contemn5], f., 
a scomer, contemner, despiser. 

contendO, ere, i, tentus, [com- + 
tendO], trans., to stretch; strive, 
fight, contend. 

contentus, a, iim,[part. contend5], 
adj., stretched tight, tense. 

contentus, a, um, [part. contineO], 
adj., held together; hence, satisfied, 

conterminus, a, um, [com- -f ter- 
minus, houndary'\, adj., bordering 
upon, neighboring, adjacent. 

conterreG, Sre, ui, itus, [com- + 
terre5], to terrify greatly , frighten, 

conticescO, ere, ticul, — , [com- + 
inch. taceO], to become silent, be 
hushed to rest, cease speaking. 

contieruiis, a, um, [contingrO], 
adj., bordering, neighboring, ad- 

contine5, Sre, \i!, tentus, [com- + 
tene6], to hold together; restrain, 
check, stop, 

contingrO, ere, tigri, t&ctus, [com- 
+ tangrO], to touch, take hold of; 
reach, touch, concern; attain, ob- 
tain, seize upon, take possession of ; 
rea6h, arrive at, come to; impers., 
befall, happen, be one*s lot. 

continue, ftre, &vi, &tus, [con- 
tinuus, joining], to join, make 
continiU)U8; extend, prolong. 

contorqueO, ere, torsi, tortus, 
[com- + torqued] , to turn or twist 
violently or with great effort ; hurl, 
throw, discharge. 

contrft, adv., in turn, in reply ; oppo- 
site, in front ; against, in opposition. 
contrft, prep. w. ace, opposite; 

contrah5, ere, tr&x!, tr&ctus, 
[com- + trah5], to draw together, 
bring into harmony ; draw in, con- 
tract, narrow, abridge, 

contrftrius, a, um, [contrft], adj., 
lying over against; opposite, oppos- 
ing; opposed, hostile. 

contribuS, ere, i, atus, [com- 
4- tribu5], to unite; contribute, 

cOnabium. ii, [com- + nubO, to veil 
one's self], n., marriage, wedlock; 
often used in the pi. 

contumul5, ftre, ftvl, fttus, [com- 
+ tumul5], to cover with a mound, 

c5nus, i, [kwvo?], m., a cone ; the apex 
of a helmet. 

conval§sc5, ere, lul, [com- + inch. 
vale5], to recover, regain health, 
grow strong. 

convell5, ere, velli, vulsus, [com- 
+ vell6], to tear away, tear up, 
pull up, wrench off, pluck off or 

conveni5, ire, venl, ventus, [com- 
+ veni5], to come together, assem- 
ble; fit, be fit, be adapted to, be 
appropriate for, be suitable, agree, 

converts, ere, i, versus, [com- + 
vert6] , to turn, turn around, turn, 
direct, attract attention of; turn, 
change, alter, 

convezus, a, um, [convehG, to 
carry together], adj., convex, con- 
cave, vaulted, arched, rounded. 

convicium, ii, [com- + root of 
vox], n., a loud noise, outcry; 
wrangling, altercation; reproach, 
abuse, insult ; convicianemorum, 
common scolds of the woods, 

convictus, as, [convivO, to live 
together], m., a living together, 
social intercourse, society. 

convince, ere, vici, victus, [com- 
+ vinc6] , to overcome, conquer, 

conviva, ae, (con.vw5^ to Iw^ Xo- 



gether], m. and f^ a table canqtanion, 

convlviuzn, ii, [conyIv5, to live to- 
gether}, n., a licing together; a 
/e<Mt, banquet. 

convoc5, are, ftvi, fttus, [com- + 
voc5], to call together, convoke, 

c5pia, ae, [com- + ops, aid, help], 
f., abundance, plenty ; opportunity, 
chance ; chance at, access to, power 

cupula, ae, [com- + root ap, to 
fasten], t., a band, rope, thong; 

coQud, ere, cozi, coctus, to cook; 
burn, parch, dry up. 

cor, cordis, n., the heart, as a physi- 
cal organ ; the heart, as the seat of 

Corinna, a^, f., a feigned name of 
the object of Ovid's affections, 

Corinthus, i, f., Corinth, a city of 

comeus, a, um, [coma] , adj., made 
of horn, 

comigrer, era, erum, [coma + 
greroj, adj., having horns, horned. 

comix, icis, I., a crow. 

coma, as, n., a horn of animals; 
the horns or points of the moon ; the 
horn, point, or end, as of a bow; a 
horn-shaped projection of land, a 
cape; a horn, trumpet. 

cornum, I, [comus, a cornel-cherry 
tree], n., the cornel-cherry. 

corona, ae, [xopwvij], f., a crown, 
garland, or wreath of flowers or 
leaves; a circle, assembly, crowd, 

Cor6nis, idls, [Kopwi'is], f., daugh- 
ter of the Thessalian Phlegyas, 
and mother of Aesculapius by 

cor6n5, are, avi, atus, [corOna], 
to crown, wreathe, encircle. 

corpus, oris, n., the body of men or 
animals; body, limbs, members ; the 
body, main body, center, source; pi., 
substances, elements. 

corrigO, ere, rSxi, rSctua, \com- 

+ resrO], to set right, improve, 
amend, correct, revise, change, 

corripiO, ere, ul, reptus, [com- 
4- rapid], to seize eagerly, snatch, 
snatch up, away, seize upon, catch; 
catch the attention of, feudnate; 
attack, seize, sweep away, carry 

cortex, icis, m.,t?ie bark of a tree. 

Cdrycides, um, [Kwpvjcis], f. adj., 
a name applied to the nymphs who 
were supposed to inhabit the Cory dan 
cave on Mount Parnassus, Theif 
were the daughters of the river god 

coruscus, a, um, adj., waving; 
flashing, gleaming, glittering. 

costa, ae, f ., a rib or side of an anU 

cothumatus, a, um, [cothurnus], 
adj., shod with the cothurnus, bus- 
kined, tragic. 

cothurnus, i, [icdflopvo?] , m., a buskin, 
a high shoe worn by tragic actors. 

cotumix, icis, f ., a quail. 

eras, adv., to-morrow ; in the future, 

crassus, a, um, adj., thick, clotted; 
turbid, swollen. 

crater, Sris, m., and cratSra, ae, 
[jcpar^p], f., a mixer, a bowl in which 
wine was mingled with water, 

creber, crebra, crSbrum, adj., 
frequent, incessant, repeated, num- 
erous, constant; abounding in, 
teeming with, thick set with, 

crSdibilis, e, [crSdO], adj., to be be- 
lieved, worthy of belief, credible. 

crSdO, ere, didi, ditus, to commit 
or intrust anything to any one ; be- 
lieve, trust, put faith or confidence 
in, give credence to; in general, 
suppose, think, believe. 

credTilus, a, um, [crSd5], adj., be- 
lieving, trusting; credulous, easy 
of belief, simple. 

crem5, are, avi, atus, to consume 
with fire, burn. 

cre5, are, avi, atus, to bring forth, 
produce, create, beget; creatus, 
ihe ^on if* 



crepit5, are (Rvl, fttus), [freq. 

crep5, to rattle] , to rustle^ crackle, 

rattle, resound. 
crepusculum, i, [creper, gloomy], 

n., twilight, dusk. 
crescS, ere, crSvi, crStus, to come 

into existence, spring from, be horn ; 

to rise, grow, increase, swell, enlarge. 
Cresius, a, um, adj., belonging to 

Crete, Cretan, 
CrSssa, ae., f., a Cretan woman. 
CrSte, Ss, [Kp^] , f ., Crete, an island 

in the Mediterranean, 
Cretaeus, a, urn, [Crete], adj., 

crimen, Inis, [cemO], n., a charge, 

accusation; crime, guilt, sin, offense, 

crinftliB, e, [crinls], 2^6]., of the hair. 
crlnis, is, m., the hair, locks; the 

tail or trail of a comet or shooting 

crista, ae, f., a crest ot plume. 
croceus, a, um, [crocus], adj., saf- 
fron colored, yellow, golden. 
crocus, i, [kpokos], m., the crocu!<, 

cruci&tus, as, [cruciS, to torture] , 

m., torture, torment, suffering. 
crUdSlis, e, [crCLdus], adj., cruel, 

pitiless, merciless, fierce, harsh, 

crUdus, a, um, adj., bloody ; cruel, 

cruentG, fire, fivi, fitus, [cruen- 

tus], to make bloody, stain with 

cruentuB, a, um, [cruor], adj., 

bloody, hloof I stained; bloodthirsty, 

cruel, murderous, 
cruor, Oris, m., blood that is shed, 

crCLs, OrlB, n.,the leg, shank. 
eabitO. &re, fivi, — , [freq. cub5] , to 

be accustomed to lie, lie, 
cubO, fire, ui, itus, to lie down, 

recline ; lie at rest, rest, 
culmen, inis, [for columen, from 

*celI9, to rise], n., the top or 

summit of anything ; the roof of a 

building ; a height, pinnacle, acme. 

culpa, ae, f., guilt, fault, offpttsp. 

CTilter, tri. m., n knife of any kind. 
cultor, Oris, [col6], m., a tiW'r, has- 

bandni'Ut ; u-orshiper. 
CTiltus, as, [C0I6], m., a tilling, cul- 
tivation: mode oflifp, culture, cirll- 

izatinn, signs 0/ ririliztttion ; iiiodp 

of drt'Ms, attire. 
cuitus, a, um, [part. col6], adj., 

cultivated, tiihd ; polished, elpgnnt, 

cum, prep. w. abl., with, in every 

cum, conj. adv., irhen, shirv, af- 

though ; cum . . . tum, both . . . 

and, not onhj . . .but aluo. 
cumba, a,e. [tvn^v], f., (/ bout, skiff. 
cumul6, fire, fivi, fitus, [cumulus], 

to h'lip up, pile. 
cumulus, i, ni., a mass, houp, piJf. 
cansie, firum, f. ]>!., a cradlr. 
cunctor, firi, fitus, t(t d-htu, hrsi- 

tiitP. Ungpr, vuiit, hr rohtrtant. 
cClnctus, a, um, [oontnictcrl from 

coniunctus], ailj., nUtngrthcr, in n 

body, thr irholr, till, entire. 
cunefitus. a, um, [cuneus. trr>?(/i>]. 

a<lj., u'"(ti/f atini'Oil. 
Cupidineus. a, um, [Cupido]. adj., 

of Cupid. 
cupido, inis, [cupioj, f., n d^sirr, 

longing,, pa.tsiDn, f/rmi, 

Iw^t, nvaricf, fho pdssinji if lam. 
Cupid5, inis, [person, cupido]. m., 

(.'ujii'f, so)i of Venus, a/nf f/i>iJ if 

cupidus, a, um. [cupioj. adj., eof/rr, 

desirous, l(trinf/, foiiil, piisslnmife. 
cupio. ere, ivi, (ii), itus, to desire, 

vjish. loiiij, lontj fnr. 
CUpreSSUS, i, [xv-apio-o-os], f., the 

c 11 press. 
cClr, adv., why .^ ichereforc f for what 

reason f 
cClra, ae, f., care, soUcituiJe, concern, 

regard; cure, grief, sorrow, an7:ieti/; 

care, pain, pangs of love.; care, busi- 
ness, duty, otjice ; the object of care, 

the bcloc<d one. 
cQralium, ii, [«ovpd\\«.ov'\,n.^ cotuI. 



cOria, ae, f., a court, curia; the 
senate house ; the senate, 

cOrO, ftre, &vi, fttus, [cOra], to care, 
care for, regard, heed, pay attention 

currO, ere, cucurri, cvltbub, to run, 
move swiftly, of any object; of 
rivers, to flow ; hasten, scud along, 
sail, glide. 

currus, Qe, [currS], m., o chariot, 

cvirBUB, lis, [curr6], m., a running, 
race, chase, flight, course ; a course, 
voyage, journey, road, route. 

curvftmen, inis, [c\irv^5], n., a bend- 
ing, bend, curve. 

curvfttdra, ae, [curvOJ, f., a bend; 
w. rot€^e, the rim, 

curv6, are, ftvi, fttus, [curvus], 
to curve, bend, 

curvus, a, um, adj., curved, curving, 

ouspis, idis, f., the pointed end of any- 
thing; a spear point, or by meton., 
the spear itself; the spear or tri- 
dent of Neptune. 

custodia, ae, [custSs], f., the acl 
of guarding; one who watches, a 
guard, custodian. 

cuBt5di5, ire, ivi, itus, [custOs], 
to watch, keep, protect, guard. 

cuBtQs, 5dis, m., t.,a guard, watch, 
keeper, protector. 

cutis, is, f., the skin. 

Cyane, 5s, [Kvavri], f., a fountain 
near Syracuse ; the nymph who was 
changed into this fountain, 

Cyclades, um, [KvKAaSes], f. pi., a 
cluster of islands in the Aegean sea, 
the Cyclades, 

Cycl5ps, 5pis, [KvkAoh//, round eye], 
m., a Cyclops, one of a savage race 
of giants, living in Sicily near Mt, 
Aetna ; they had but one eye, lying 
in the center of the forehead. 

cycnus, I, [kvicvo?], m., a swan, 

CydSnius, a, um, adj., Cydonian, 

of Cydonia, an ancient town in 

Crete, Cretan; w. mftla (apples), 

or 8ub8., n. pi., cydOnia, 5rum, 


CyllfinS, 68 and ae, [KvAAiJvii], f., a 
mountain in Arcadia, the birth- 
place of Mercury. 

CyllSnius, a, um, of Cyllene ; CyUe- 

Csrnthia, ae, [Cynthus], f., the 
Cynthian goddess, Diana. 

Cynthus, i, [Kwv^os] , m., a mountain 
of Delos, the birthplace of Apollo 
and Diana. 

Cythera, orum, [Kv^pa], n. pi., an 
island in the Aegean, northwest of 
Crete; near this island Venus is 
said to have risen from the foam of 
the sea, 

Cyther§a, ae, [Cythera], f., Venus. 

Oytheriacus, a, um, [Oyth6ra],o/ 
Cythera, sacred to Venus. 

cytisus, i, [kvtmtos], m., f., the shrub- 
by lucerne, trefoil, clover. 

Daedalus, i, m., the mythical Athe- 
nian architect, father of Icarus, 
and builder of the Cretan Labyrinth. 

Damasichth5n, onis, [Aafiiurix^wv, 
earth subduer], m., a son of Am- 
phion and Niobe, slain by Apollo. 

damma, ae,m., f., a fallow deer, doe. 

damns, ftre, avi, fttus, [damnum], 
to condemn, sentence; devote, con- 
sign ; blame, disapprove, reject. 

damndsus, a, um, [damnum], adj., 
injurious, destructive, pernicious. 

damnum, i, n., harm, damage, loss, 
injury, mi^ortune, ruin. 

Danae, es, [Aavdrj], f., daughter of 
Acrisius, and mother of Perseus by 

DanaSius, a, um, [DanaS], adj.. 
pertaining to, descended from 
Danae; hSr6s, i.e. Perseus. 

Danaus, a, um, adj., pertaining to 
Danaua, an ancient king of Argos ; 
(meton.) Grecian; subs., Danai, 
5rum, m. pi., the Greeks. 

daphnS, Ss, f., the laurel tree, bay 

tree; hence Daplin§, 68, f., tht 

daughter of the river god Peneus, 

\ vjIio vjos <ih,auyeol into a laurel tree* 



daps, dapis, f., used regularly in the 
pL, a sacrificial feast; a feast, a 
banquet ; food, viands, 

DarcUuiius, a, um, [Dardanus], 
adj., Dardanian; poet., Trojan. 

Dardanus, i, [Aapfiai'os], m., Darda- 
nus ^ one of the founders of the 
royal house of Troy. 

de, prep. w. abl., of source, place 
whence, of, from, out of, down 
from; with expressions of mate- 
rial, off out of; in derived sense, 
in regard to, concerning, about, 

dea, ae, f ., a goddess. 

del>e5, Sre, ul, itus, [for d6hibe5, 
from dS -f- habeO, to keep back], 
to owe ; (in pass.), be du£, destined. 

dSbilis, e, [de + habilis, manage- 
able], adj., unmanageable; weak, 
maimed, crippled, 

debilita, &re, &vi. &tu8, [debilis], 
to cripple, hurt, weaken. 

decerpG, ere, si, tiis, [de -f- carp5], 
to plv^k off or away. 

d§-cert5, are, ftvi, fttus. to fight, 
contend, strive. 

decet, Sre, uit, — , to be fitting, 
proper, suitable, becoming. 

decide, ere, cidi, — , [de + cado], 
to fall, fall down, 

declSs, [decern, ten], num. adv., ten 

decimiis, a, um, [decern, ten] , adj., 

d6cipi5, ere, cepi, ceptus, [de + 
capiOJ, to deceive, beguile, catch. 

dd-clino, &i e, &vl, &tus, to turn aside 
or away ; close, shut, lower. 

dSclivis, e, [de + clivus], adj., in- 
clining downwards, sloping; as 
subs., n., a slope. 

decor, Oris, [decus], m., that which 
is seemly ; grace, beauty. 

decor5, fire, &vi, &tus, [decus], to 
decorate, adorn, 

decdrus, a, um, [decor], adj., be- 
coming, fitting, seemly; comely, 

dd-crS8c5, ere, crSvi, cretus, to 
grow less, decrease, diminish, dis- 

dScrStum, i, [dScem5, to decide], n., 

a decree, ordinance, decision. 
dS-curr6, ere, cucurri, or curri, 

cursus, to run down ; have recourse 

decus, oris, [from root dec, in de- 
cet], u., an ornament, adornment ; 

grace, beauty ; glory, dignity, honor. 
d§-decet, ere, uit, —, to be unseem- 
ly ; to disgrace. 
dS-decus, oris, n., disgrace, dishonor, 

shame ; cause of shame, blemish. 
dS-dtlc5, ere, daxi, ductus, to 

lead, bring, draw down or away; 

turn aside. 
de-fend5, ere. i. fensus, to defend, 

guard, protect. 
dSfensor, Oris, [defendo], m., 07ie 

who defends, a protector, defense. 
de-fer6, ferre, tuli, latus, to take, 

bear, bring, carry from one place to 

dSfessus, a, um, [part, defetiscor, 

to become weary], adj., wearied, 

iceary, fatigued. 
de-flci5, ere, feci, fectus, [de -f 

faci5], to fail, desert, be wanting; 

faint, sink down. 
de-fle5, ere, evi, etus, to weep over, 

de-flu5, ere, fluxi, fluxus, to flow, 

glide, slip, fall down. 
deformis, e, [de + fSnna], adj., 

misshapen, sha2)eless, ugly, \in- 

de-frenatus, a, um, [de + part. 

frenO, to bridle], adj., unrestrained. 
de-fungror, i, functus, to have done 

icith, yet through with, discharge, 

de-grandinat, impers., it stops hail- 
d§-grrav6, are, — , at us, to weigh 

down, burden. 
de-hisc6, ere, hivi, — , to yawn, open 

Deianira, ae, [ATjiai/eipa], f., the 

daughter of Oeneus, and wife of 

de-icio, ere, ieci, iectus, [dS + 

iacio], to cast, hurl doijon.; destrov* 



delectus, as, [dSiclG], m., a throw- 

inij djwn ; fall. 
deinde, (dissyl.), [de + inde], adv., 

from therct thenceforward; there- 

after, thereuporiy then; next, next 

in order, then, after that. 
de-iabor, i, l&psus, to fall down, 

fall into ; glide down, descend 

softly, uteal down ; fly, swoop down. 
delects, are, ftvi, fttus, [dS + in- 

tens. *laci5, to allure], to delight, 

charm, please. 
dS-lenlQ, ire, ivi, Itus, to soothe, 

charm, fascinate. 
dSleS, 5re, Svi, Stus, to efface, 

abolish, destroy, extinguish. 
deliciae, arum, [deliclS, to allure], 

f . pi., a delight ; darling, favorite, 

delictum, I, [dellnquS, to fail], n., 

a fault, offense, trespass. 
deilgr6, ere, ISgrl, ISctus, [d§ + 

leg5], to choose, choose out, select, 

de-lltesc5, ere, litui, — , [d5 + la- 

tescQ, to hide one's self], to hide, 

conceal one's self, lie hidden. 
Dellus, a., um, [Delos], adj., of 

Delos, Delian ; an epithet of Apollo 

and Diana. 
DSlos, i, [AlAo?], f., Delos, an island 

in the Aegean, the birthplace of 

Apollo and Diana. 
Delphi, 5ruin, [AeA<froi], m., a city in 

Phocis, famous as the seat of the 

Oracle of Apollo ; (meton.) oracles, 

Delphicus, a, um, [Delphi], adj., 

Delphic, belonging to Delphi. 
delphin, inls, m., a dolphin. 
deiabrum, i, [delu5, to wash out, 

cleanse], n., the place of expiation; 

a sanctuary, shrine, temple. 
de-mens, entis, adj., out of one's 

mind or senses, mad, distracted, 

demented, foolish. 
dementia, ae, [demens], f., mad- 
ness, folly. 
dSmissus, a, um, [part. dSmitt5], 

adj., let down, lowered; hanging 

dS-mittO, ere, misi, missus, to send 
down, cast down, let down; thrust 
down or into, 

d6mo, ere, dSmpsi, dSmptus, [dS 
+ em5, to buy, obtain], to take 
away, remove. 

de-m51ior, in, itus, to tear down, 
demolish, destroy. 

dSmum, [a superlative form of dS], 
adv., at length, at laM,, finally. 

dS-negO, are, avi, atus, to r^ect, 

dSni, ae, a, [decern, ten], num. adj., 
ten at a time, ten each ; poet., ten. 

dSnlque, adv., finally, at length; 
in short, in fact, at all ; turn or 
tunc dSnique, then for the first 
time, not till then ; modo dSnique, 
never until now. 

dSns, dentis, [from root in ed5, to 
eat; compare edSns], m., a tooth, 
of man or animal ; tusk. 

dSnsus, a, um, adj., close together, 
dense, thick, crowded; thick set: 
continitous; in active sense, making 
dense, solidifying. 

dS-pell5, ere, pull, pulsus, to 
drive away, ward off, put to flight. 

dS-pende5, 6re, — , — , to hang down 
from, hang down. 

de-pere5, ire, ii, ittlrus, to go to 
ruin, perish, be lost. 

de-plOrd, are, avi, atus, to weep, 
lament, deplore. 

de-p0n5, ere, posui, positus, to lay 
aside, lay down, set aside or apart; 
set in, plant; get rid of; quench; 
depositus, a, um, [part. dS- 
p5n5] , adj., laid down ; laid out as 
a corpse, dead. 

de-posc5, ere, poposci, — , to caU 
for, require ; demand for punish- 

dSpositum, I, [dSpGnO], n., that 
which is deposited, a trust ; poet., the 
seed planted in the ground, the pro- 
duct of the seed, the harvest. 

d5-precor, ari, atus, to plead against, 
seek to avoid. 

dS-prehendO (depr6nd0), ere, i, 
\ \i^iis>aa^ to tat<iK, overtaJce ; con^ 



prehend, understand; detect^ ap- 
prehend, find out. 

d6prizn5, ere, pressi, pressiis, [d6 
+ prein5], to press down, weigh 

(dS-rifir^sco), ere, dSrifirui or diri- 
firui, — , to grow rigid, become stiff, 
harden, turn to stone. 

dS8cend5, ere, I, scSnsus, [d@ + 
8cand0, to climb], to go down, climb 
down, descend; sink down, penetrate 

de-secd, fire, ul, tus, to cut away, 
prune off. 

dS-serS, ere, ul, tus, to desert, 
leave, forsake, abandon. 

dfi-serviO, Ire, ~, — , to serve zeal- 
ously, be devoted to. 

d@-Mffn5, fire, fivl, fitus, to mark 
out, point out. 

dSsiliO, ire, vd, sultiis, [d6 + salid, 
to leap], to leap down. 

dS-sinG, ere, sivi (all), situs, to 
leave off, cease. 

d§.si8t6, ere, stiti, stitus, to stand 
off from : l'>ave of, cease. 

dSsOia, fire, fivl, fitus, [dS + s51us, 
alone], to forsake, abandon, leave 

dS-spect5, fire, — , — , [intens. de- 
spici5], to look down upon. 

dSspiciO, ere, spezi, spectus, [de 
H- *8peci5, to look], to look down 
upon; despise, reject, scorn. 

dSstituG, ere, i, atus, [dS + 
8tatu5], to set apart; leave, aban- 

d$>8triner0, ere, strinzi, strictus, 
to strip off; unsheathe, draw. 

dS-8tru5, ere, strttxi, stractus, 
to pull down, destroy, demolish. 

dSsuStus, a, \iin, [part. desuesc5, 
to become unaccustomed], adj., vn- 
accustomed, vnfamiliar, strange. 

dfisultor, Oris, [dSsiliS], m., a vault - 
er; d§8ultor am5ris, inconstant, 

dfi-suzn, esse, fui, — , to be wanting, 
absent, missing. 

dS-teer0, ere, tSzI, tSctus, to un- 
cover, expose, lay bare. 

dSterior, ius. [comparative of deter, 
an obsolete form of d6], adj. comp., 
lower, worsp, of lesft value. 

d§-ter5, ere, trivi, tritus, to rub, 
I away, wear away. 

d§tine5, Sre, ui, tentus, [dS -f- 
teneQ] , to keep bark, d^tuin, ntuu, 
hold ; hold any one to an act or work, 

d3-trfictd, fire, fivi, fitus, to refuse, 
shirk; depreciate, disparage. 

d6-trah5, ere. trfixi, trfictus, to 
draff off, fake oicay from. 

DeucaliQn, Onis, [AevKoAia**], m., »on 
of ProjuetheuSf and husband of 

deus, i, 111., a god, deity. 

d§-v&st5, fire, — , fitus, to lay waste, 

de-vertor, i, versiis, to turn away, 
turn aside: betake one's self to, 
turn attention to. 

de-vinc6, ere, vici, victus, to sub- 
due conipletehi, orercoine. 

devius, a, um, [de+ via], adj., out 
of the icny, remote. 

de-volv6, ere, i, volutus, to roll 
doirn, roll off. 

de-vove6, ere, vovi, v6tus, to 
di'vote to, give up to, doom to, as a 
victim to sacrifice: curse, execrate. 

devotus, a, um, [part, devoveo], 
adj., devoted, faithful. 

dexter, era, erum, or tra, trum, 
adj., on the right, the right hand, 
the right ; suitable, favorable, pro- 
pitious; subs., f., the right hand. 

Dia, ae, [A^a], f., an old name of the 
island of Xar.os. 

Difina, ae, [forDivana] , f., daughter 
of Jupiter and Latofta, sister of 
Apollo, goddess of the vh((se. 

dico, fire, avi, fitus, to give up, set 
apart, appropriate any tiling to or 
for any one; dedicate, consecrate to 
a god. 

dico, ere, dixi, dictus, to say, 
speak ; tell, relate ; tell, order ; speak 
of, lyieution; call; foretell, proclaim, 

Dictaeus, a, um, [DicteJ, adj., per- 


taining to DicU, a mountain in 
Crete; (meton.) Cretan, 

di<a5, ftre, &yl, fttus, [freq. died], 
to pronounce, declare; to dictate 
to one for writing. 

dictum, i, [died], n., a word, a 

Dictyima, ae, [J^crvor, a hunting 
9iet], f.y an appellation of Diana, 
ttho teas probably so called in allu- 
sion to her favorite pursuit of the 

di-daed, ere. dOxi. ductiis, to draw 
apart, draw oj^\ draw aside, 

dids, §i. f . and m., a day ; a set day, 
an appointed time, time in general ; 
a period of time, an age ; the light 
of day, the daylight. 

differs, ferre, distuli, dil&tus, 
[dis- + ferO] , to carry different 
ways, spread abroad, scatter; put 
of, d^fer, postpo¥ie, delay. 

difflcilis, e, [dis- + f acilis] , adj., 
dij^cult, liard ; obstinate, morose, 

diffidS, ere, — , flsus, [dis-H-fidO], 
to distrust, lose faith in. 

diffugriO, ere, fQfiri, -, [dis- + 
fusriS], to jfee in different or all 
directions, scatter, disperse, 

diffundd, ere, fadi, fCLsus, [dis- + 
fund6], to pour in different direc- 
tions: spread, scatter, diffuse, 
spread abroad, publish ; give vent to, 
give free course to. 

di-firer6, ere, gressi, grestus, to carry 
in different directions ; explain, in- 
terpret ; divide, separate, extend (in 
parts) over. 

dig-itus, i, ra., a finger ; a toe. 

dignor, a.ri, Situs, [dignusj, to count 
or deem worthy ; deign. 

dl-gn5sc5, ere, — , — , to know apart, 
tell apart. 

dignus, a, um, adj., worthy, cita- 
ble, fit, proper. 

digredior, i, gressus, [di + grei- 
dior], to go away, go apart, sepa- 

dl-l&bor, i, lapsus, to glide or slip 
away, disappear, vanis/i. 

dnsctus, a, um, [part. dnig^],adj., 

chosen out, loved, beloved, dear. 
dnig5, ere, lexi, lectus, [dl+legG], 

to choose out, esteem, love, 
dnavium, ii, [dilu5, to wash away], 

n., a flood, deluge, inundation. 
di-mitt5, ere, mis!, missus, to send 

in all directions; send away, dis- 

miss ; give up, let go, abandon. 
di-move5, €re, m5vi, m0tus, to 

move or put aside, part, separate, dU 

vide ; drive away, dissipate, scatter, 

Dindyma, 0rum, [AiVSv/xa], n., a 

mountain in Mysia, sacred to CybeU, 
Diomedes, is, [Ato/i^ij?], m., son of 

Tydeus, king of Aetolia, one of tht 

Greek chiefs before Troy. 
DiomSd§us, a, um, [DiomSdSs], 

adj., of or belonging to Diomedes. 
Dirc€, es, [Ai/mcti], f., a fountain in 

directus, a, um, [part. dirigG], 

adj., straight, direct, 
dirigG, ere, rexi, rSctus, [dis- + 

regO], to cause to move in a straight 

line, guide, direct. 
dirimO, ere, 6mi, Smptus, [dis- + 

em6, to buy, obtain], to part, di- 
vide, separate ; interrupt, break off, 

put an end to. 
diripid, ere, ui, reptus, [dis- + 

rapid], to tear in pieces; tear away, 

strip off. 
dims, a, um, &dj., fearful, dreadful, 

awful ; ill omened, portentous, dire ; 

horrid, shocking, cursed, wild, cruel, 

fierce, fell. 
dis- (di-), an inseparable particle used 

in composition with other words, 

and having the force of us\inder, in 

pieces, in different directions; it 

also has sometimes the force of a 

dis, ditis, [comp. ditior, snperl. di- 

tissimus], adj., rich. 
Dis, Ditis, m.,the god of the Lower 

World, Pluto. 
dis-cSdd, ere, cessi, cessus, to go in 

different directions; depart, with- 
\ draifl /rom, leave, go away. 


F <llBckUimi, U, [diBcindO, to Uar 
f mxirt], n., a parting, separation. 

^Uia, ere, didici, — , to learn, be- 
come acquainted with, learn how. 
cUscordla, ae, [discors], f., disagree- 
ment, diecord, strife. 

discors, cordis, [dls- + cor], adj., 
discordant, unlike, different. 

dlscrimen, Inis, [discemfi, to sepa- 
rate], n., that which separates two 
things; an intervening space, in- 
terval, distance; a discrimination, 
distinction, difference ; a decision, 

disertus, a, um, [for dissertus, 
part. dlsserG, to discuss, speak], 
adj., sMUful, clever, fluent, eloquent. 

dlsiolO, ere, led, iectus, [dls- + 
iaci0], to throw apart, disperse, 

dis-pfir, paris, adj., unequal, of un- 
even length. 

dlspidO, ere, spexi, spectiis, [di- 
+ • speciO, to look], to behold, look | 
upon, see, descry. 

di8-pdn5, ere, posui, positiis, to 
place here and there, at intervals, 
arrange, distribute. 

dis-aaepia, ere, si, tiis, to part off, 
separate, divide. 

dissiliG, Ire, ul, — , [dis. + saUd, to 
leap], to leap or spring apart or 

dlB-similis, e, adj., unlike, different. 

dl8-8imul0, &re, &vl, &tu8, to make 
a thing appear other than it is, dis- 
semble, disguise, hide, conceal, keep 
secret : disregard, ignore. 

di8-80ci5, &re, S,vi, fttus, to disjoin, 

dl8-8i2fide5, §re, sufisi, suAsus, to 
dissuade, advise against, oppose. 

di8-tend0, ere, I, tentus, to stretch 
out, distend, fill. 

dl-8tinfiru5, ere, stinzi, stinctus, 
to separate, divide, mark off. 

dl-stO, are, — , — , to stand apart, be 
distant, be different. 

did, adv., /or a long time, long. 

diumus, a, um, [dies], adj., of the 
day, daily. 



diatumus, a, um, [dltL], adj., of 
long duratittn, lasting, long. 

diva, ae, [divusj, f.,a goddeM*. 

dl-vell5, ere, i (vulsij, vulsus, to 
rend asunder, tear in pincfts, tear 

diversus, a, um, [part, divert^], 
adj., turned in different dir*>t:tioim^ 
separated, apart, opposite ; different, 
various, remote, 

dl-vertd, ere, I, versus, to turn 
away, turn anldc ; in iwiss. with 
reflexive force, to turn one*M self 
away to, resort, have recourse to. 

dives, Itis, adj., rich, wealthy, abound- 
ing in, 

divide, ere, vlsl, visus, to part 
asunder, divide, separate; distrib- 
ute, share, apportion ; separate, re- 
move from, keep apart. 

dividuus, a, um, adj., divisible; di- 
vided, sfparatetf, parted. 

divlnus, a,um, [divusj, adj., divine, 

sacred as pertaining to a deity. 
j divitiae, &rum, [dives], f., riches, 
I wealth. 

divus, a, um, adj., divine ; regularly 
as subs, divus, i, [Blo^], m., a god 
(compare diva). 

d5, dare, dedi, datus, to give, 
bestow, grant, permit, nllow, give 
up, consign; put, place; to bring 
or send forth, utter : produce, cause, 
make ; w. vSla, lintea, spread sail, 
set sail, sail ; w. verba, attempt to 
deceive, pretend: w. poenam, patf 
a penalty ; w. prOmissa, keep, ful- 
fill a promise ; w. lacrimas, weep ; 
w. tergra, txtrn the back,fiee. 

doceo, §re, ui, tus, to teach, inform, 
show, tell, point out. 

doctor, oris, [doce6], m.,a teacher, 

doctus, a, um, [part. doceO], adj., 
taught ; learned, well versed, experi- 

documentum, i, [doceO], n., evi- 
dence, proof. 

doled, Sre, ul, itus, to grieve, bear 
or suffer pain or grief. 

Dol5n, 6nis, [AoAa>»'],m., a Trojan spy. 



dolor. Oris, [doleO], m., jorroir, 

gritf, dutresM ; reseiUmeni, vexation, 
doldsus, a, um, [dolus], tdj., cra/tp, 

doliis, i, [£oA(k], m., a mile, $tratagem, 

trirk\ fraud, deception. 
dom&bilis, e, [doxnO], adj., conquer^ 

iihl*tj yielding. 

domesticus, a, um, [domus], adj., 
domestic, Jamiliar, native, home-. 

domina, ae, [domlnuB], f., a mis- 
tress . 

dominor, ftri, &tu8, [dominua], to 
be lord, lord it over, rule. 

doxniniis, i, m., a master, ruler, lord ; 
a tyrant. 

domS, ftre, ui, itus, to conquer, sub- 
due, tame, overcome. 

domus, Us, and i, f., house, home, 
ubodf, mansion, palace ; household, 
ftiniily, race, house, 

dSnec, [shortened dOnicum], conj., 
<is long as, while ; until, till. 

dSnS, ftre, &vi, &tu8, [dSnum], to 
f/ive, present with, bestow, grant. 

dSnum, i, n., a gift, present, prize; 
a votive offering. 

DOrls, idis, f., the wife of Kerens. 

dOs, Otis, [dO], f., a dowry ; endow- 
ment, gift. 

dOt&lis, e, [dOs], adj., pertaining to 
a dowry or marriage portion ; given 
as a portion. 

dracO, Onis, ppaxwi'], m., a serpent, 
a dragon. 

Drasus, I, m., a surname in the 
Livian family, especially theyounger 
Drusus, son of Tiberius, adopted 
brother of Germanicus. 

Dryades, um, [Apuafie?], f. pi., wood 
nymphs, dryads. 

dubitftbilis, e, [dubitO], adj., doubt- 

dubitO, &re, &vl, &tu8, [dubius], 
to waver, be uncertain, be in doubt, 
hesitate, have misgivings, question. 

dubluB, a, um, adj., wavering, irreso- 
lute, hesitating; uncertain, doubt- 
ful, to be doubted, 
diXoOf ere, dazi, duotua, to lead, 

draw, bring, conduct, carry, take; 
draw, draw forth, heave hsi^; pro- 
tract, prolong ; pass, spend ; form, 
fashion, construct, make, produce; 
take on, assume; derive one's ori- 
gin; w. rSmGa, ply; w. aiirSs, 

dulcedd, inis, [dulcis], f ., sweetMtt, 

dulcis, e, adj., sweet to the taste; 
sweet, pleasant, delighiful, chmw 
ing ; dear, beloved. 

DOlicliium, ii, n., an island in t&e 
Ionian sea, south of Ithaca, 

DOlichiuB, a, um, adj., pertmimg 
to Dulichium, belonging to Ulyua, 

dum, conj., while, as long as; untU; 
provided that, if only ; as adv., yet; 
nOn-dum, not yet, etc ; dum modo, 
provided thai, if only. 

duO, ae, 0, num. adj., two. 

duplies, &re, &vi, &tus, [duplex, 
double], to double, increase ; doM 
up, bow. 

dOritia, ae, [dOrus], f., hardness, 

dOritiSB, 6i, [dOrus], f., hardness, 

dtlrO, &re, &vi, &tus, to harden, make 
hard ; be hardened, patient, endwt, 
be strong, be firm. 

dQrus, a, um, adj., ^ard to the Umdi; 
of water, frozen ; hardy, vigorous, 
stout, sturdy; rough, dangermu; 
hard, severe, arduous ; harsh, crud, 
unfeeling, unsympathetic, 

dux, duels, m., f., a leader, gwde, 

6, prep., see ez. 

ebur, oris, n., ivory ; anything ] 

of ivory, e.g., a scabbard, the cunk 

ebumeus (ebumus), a, um, [ebor]. 

adj., of ivory, ivory. 
ecce, interj., lo/ behold/ see/ look! 
echidna, ae, [cxifiva], f., an adder; 

w. Lemaea, the Lernaean hydra. 
EehiOn, onis, ['Ex(o*p], m., one of tki 

giants who sprang up from tkt 
\ dragoTfO & lefcih. %o\»u b\| Cadmus. 



ftc9li5. Us, [person. 4x»], f ., a nymph, 
one of Juno*8 attendants, who, hav- 
ing offended the goddess, lost all 
power of speech except that of mere 
repetition of sound. 

ecQuis, quid, interrog. pron., any 
one? anything? anyf ecquid, 
whether? dof does? wiUf 

edftz, &cis, [edO, eat], adj., devour- 
ing, destroying, consuming. 

S dlBcd, ere, didici, — , to learn com- 
pletely, by heart ; learn, 

6-d5, ere, didi, ditus, to give out, pat 
forth ; publish, announce, say, de- 
dare ; bring forth, bear, produce, 
beget; produce, perform, bring 
about, cause. 

IM111C5, ere, d€LzI, ductus, to lead 
or draw out or forth. 

efferO, ferre, extuU, ei&tus, [ez + 
ferO], to bring or carry out or forth 
or away ; carry out for burial ; 
raise, lift up. 

effervSsoO, ere, ferbul, — , [ex + 
ferv6ac5, to begin to boil], to boil 
up : light up, glow. 

effdtuB, a, um, [ex + fdta, that has 
brought forth young ; exhau^sted with 
bearing], adj., worn out, exhausted. 

efflciO, ere, fScI, fectus, [ex + 
focid], to work out, accomplish, 
make, form. 

-efBfiridB, 61, [efflnfir^, to form], f., 
an image, effigy, statue, form. 

efflO, ftre, &vi, &tu8, [ex + fl5, to 
blno], to blow out, breathe out, ex- 

efflu5, ere, fluxl, — , [ex + fluO], to 
flow out, flow forth, slip away, 

effodid, ere, fddl, fossus, [ex + 
fodiO], to dig out or wp, excavate. 

eff uerld. ere, fQgi, — , [ex + fugri5], to 
flee away, escape ; flee from, avoid, 

ef'fulge6, ©re, fulsi, — , [ex + ful- 
fire5], to shine forth, gleam, glitter, 

effundd, ere, fQdi, fasus, [ex + 
fundd], to pour forth, pour out ; 
give forth, put forth. 

d-flrellduB, a, um, adj., not cold, 
tepid, mild. 

e^rOns, entiB, [part. ege6],2id].,needy, 
poor, in want, wa/Uing, without. 

ege6, ©re, ui, — , to be in want of, 
have need of, be without. 

ego, pers. pron., /. 

Efireria, ae, f., a nymph in Roman 
mythology, the wife of Nnina. 

©-ererO, ere, eressi, firestus, to carry 
out, take away, remove. 

©erredior, I, erressus, [ex + srra- 
dior], to go or com'i oat or forth ; 
mount, ascend. 

©firressus, as, [©grredior], m., a 
going out, egress, departure. 

6heu, interj., ah ! alas! 

ei, interj., ah I alas I w. mihi, ah me ! 

d-ia^ulor, ftri, fttus, to shoot out, 
t'lrow nut. 

S-iciS. ere, iScI, iectus, [ex + 
I iaciS], to cast out, cast <»r throw up. 
, Siect5. &re, &vi, &tii8, [ex + iactd, 
I freq. iaci5], to cast forth, throw up. 
j &>iabor, i, lapsus, to slip or glide 
awatf, escape. 

elegSia, ae, [eXeyeio], f.,elpgiac song 
or stnqyhe, the first line of which is 
a hexumeter, and the second a pen- 
tameter; personified, the muse of 
elegiac poetry. 

elogl, 6rum, [«A«yoi], m., elegiac 

_ verses or popms. 

Eleus, a, um, [Elis], adj., Elean, 
belongjj}g to Elis (see below) ; flu- 
men Eleum, the Alpheus. 

elementiun, i, [probably from root al, 
to nourish; compare alimentum], 
a first pi'inciple, element ; generally 
in pi., beginnings, first acts vr 
I e-lidO, ere, lisi, lisus, [ex -|- laedo], 
to strike or dash out or up; dash 
to pieces, shatter, crush. 

eligrd, ere, leeri, Iectus, [ex -\- legrO], 

_ to pick out, choose, select, elect. 

Elis, idis, ['hais], f., the most westerly 
district of the Peloponnesus, with a 
\ capital of the same name, nea}r which 
the Olympic games were held. 

eiix, icis, f ., a ditch. 



B.. fjij*"»wi, j^mkA, eio^imioe. 

ftJnS. ere, i. Ifttua, fo wnuk ma or 

BSysms. a. uin, [fi lysim n], adj^ 
E:ffia •'. pertaUuM^ to Eiptimm, the 
homt of the BUsted in the Lower 

&natludes, um. [fimathia], f ., the 

davgkifTf of the Macedonian ting, 
_ Piemt, thf Pieridfs^ 
Smatliius, a. xun, [Kknattaia], adj., 

Emathian : (metoD.) Macedonian. 

£mat\i^1 was a district of Mace- 
SmeiMlO. ftre, &Ti. &tna, [ex + 

mendum. a /«•*/!], to correct , im- 

pT>c*vc, revise. 
^inentior. iri, itua. to^jteak faisely, 

/»>..»> 15/M. 
e-mered, ere, ui, itos, to merit, 

de^rre : to terve out, complete. 
^inStior, iri, mSnsiis, to measure 

off, travel over, traverse. 
^znicS. &re, ul, fttus, to spring 

or hap out, dart or bound forth; 

leap vp. 
e-mine5, 6re, ui, — , to stand out, 

reach upward, project. 
Sminiis, [ex -f- manus], adv., at a 

§-inittd, ere, mlsi, missus, to send 

forth, let loose. 
§-mod\ilor, ftri, — . to sing, celebrate. 
Sn, interj., lo ! behold! see! 
enim, con}., for, namely, for instance, 

truly, indeed. 
Enipeus, i, ['Ei'iirew?], a river in 

§-mtor, i, nisus or nixus, to exert 

one's self, struggle ; mount upward ; 

bring forth, bear offspring. 
Ennius, i, m., a Roman poet of the 

ante-classical period^ father of Ro- 
man epic poetry. 
Exmomus, i, m., a Lycian, slain 

before Troy. 
SnaiB, is, m., a sword, a knife. 
fi-numerO, &re, ftvi, &tu8, to 

\ enumerate, count up, recount, re- 
I late. 
e6, ire, ivi, (fi), itus, to go, go forth, 

. eddem, adv., in the same place, to- 
I _ gether ; to the same place, 
fiSus, a, um, [SSs, 'Huk], adj.. of the 
i dawn, of the morning, eastern, ori- 
I ental; subs., S5us, i, m., the mom' 
i ing star, the morning; a name of 
' one of the houses of Phoebus. 
, Bpaphus,!, [*E»oi^], m., sonofJupi- 
I ter Ammon and lo. 
■ Ephjrre, es, fE^wpii], f., a mythical 
1 name for Corinth, after a sea nymph 
I of that name. 

iBpimethiB, idis, ['E«ifii»«if], f., 
Pyrrha, the daughter of Epime- 
' theus. 
epistula, ae, [iwiaroXv], t, a letter, 

epos, (only nom. and ace.), ['iros], n., 

a heroic poem, an epic. 
eques, itis, [equus], m., ahorseman, 
a rider, a mounted soldier, a knight ; 
a knight, one of the equestrian 
order, next below the senatorial 
equidein, adv., truly, indeed, by all 

equlnus, a, um, [equus], adj., 
of a horse ; w. nervus, a bowstring 
of horsehair. 
equus, i,m., a horse, a steed. 
era, ae, [erus], f ., a mistress, lady, 

SrfirO, adv., therefore, then. 
Bridanus, i, ['Hpifiovo?], m., another 

name of the river Po. 
erlerS, ere, r6xi, r6ctiis, [ex + 

regrO], to raise up, set up, lift up. 
Erinys, yos, ['EpiiaJs], f., one of the 
Furies ; (melon.) a scourge, a curse. 
eripiO, ere, ui reptus, [ex + 
rapid], to snatch away, snatch, 
remove, take away ; rescue from 
any danger. 
err5, &re, &vi, Atus, to wander, 
wander about or around; wander 
off, stray ; wander or hover around ; 
^ be in error, go wrong, go astray. 



«rror, 5ris, [errO], m., a wanderingt 

Mtraying; an error, mistake; a 

decepivm, tricky deltision. 
d-rubeac5, ere, rubul, —, to redden ; 

eradi5. Ire, Ivi, itus, [ex + rudls, 

unformed], to teach, communicate, 

instruct in. 
0-ni5, ere, I, tus, to pluck or tear 

up ; overthrow, ruin, destroy utterly. 
erus, \,m.,a master of a house, lord, 

master, owner. 
ervum, I, n., ^ hitter vetch or wUd 

Srycina, ae, [Bryz], f., an epithet 

of Venus, who had a temple near 

Mt. Eryx. 
BryxnanthuB, I, ['£pv/iai'0of], m., a 

chain of mountains in Arcadia; 

also a river in Arcadia. 
Bryz, ycls, ['Epti], m., a mountain 

in the western part of Sicily. 
Ssca, ae, [edd, to eat], i,,food, viands, 

et, con]., and; also, even, too; et — 

et, both — and. 
et-iazn, adv. and conj., and also, too, 

likewise; even, 
etlaxn-num, adv., still, even now, 

even yet. 
et-8l. conj., even if, although. 
Buboicus, a, um, [Euboea], adj., 

of Euboea, an island in the Aegean, 

Buxnenldes, um, [Evfievi5e$], f. pi., 

the kindly goddesses, a euphemistic 

title of the Furies. 
Buphorbus, I, [Ev<^opj3o$], m.,a Tro- 
jan, son of Panthoiis. 
BuphrfttSs, is, [Ev<^pdn}$], m., one of 

the largest and most famous rivers 

of Asia. 
BorOtfts, ae, [Evpciras], m., the chief 

river of Laconia, on which Sparta 

Bums, I, [ESpof], m., the southeast 

wind, the east wind. 
BurydicS, §8, [EvpiJiieij], f., the wife 

of Orpheus, 
Buryxnldes, ae, [Eurymus], m., 
Telemus, the son of Eurymus, a seer, 
or ID — 2^ 

Burypylus, i, [Ewpv'arvAov], m., a 
Grecian leader in the siege of Troy. 

EurystheuB, ei, [Eupva^evc], m., son 
of Sthenelus, king vf Mycenae, who, 
at Juno*s command, imposed upon 
Hercules his tirelve Inhors. 

d-vftdO, ere, vftsi, vftsus, intraiis., 
to go forth, mount up, ascend, rlimb 
up; trans., pass over, leave behind. 

S-vSjiSscd, ere, vftnul, — , to vanish 
away, disappear. 

6v2Uiidu8, a, um, [ev&nescO], adj., 
vanishing, passing away. 

e-veh5, ere, vexi, vectus, to carry 
out, hear away, bear. 

6-vell5, ere, i, vulsus, to tear out, 
pluck out, tear away. 

e-veni5, ire, v6ni, ventus, to come 
forth, cjme to pass, happen. 

Sventus, as, [6veni0], m., an event, 
occurrence, happening, fortune. 

S- verts, ere, i, versus, to upturn, 
overturn, overthrow, ruin, destroy. 

S-vestigrfttus, a, lun, [part, e + 
vestigS, to follow in the track of], 
adj., discovered, investigated, traced 

5-vincO, ere, vici, victus, to over- 
come completoly , vanquish. 

evitabilis, e, [§vit5, to avoid], adj., 

e-volO, Sre, &vi, &tus, to fly out, 
forth, rush forth. 

e-volv5, ere, i, voiatus, to roll out, 
evolve; unroll. 

ex or S (ex always before a vowel, 
aud often before a cons.), prep. w. 
2ih\.,out of, from, in different senses ; 
ex meritO, in accordance uith 
desert; ex illft parte, on that side, 
in that region; vivere ex raptO, 
to live on plunder; ex aequ5, 
equalhj ; ex 5rdine, in order; 6 
nobis maxima, the eldest of us. 

exftctus, a, um, [part, exigb], adj., 
completed; precise, accurate, exact. 

ex-aestu5, &re, &vi, &tus, to boil 
up, foam up, seethe, surge. 

ex&men, inis, [for exftgrmen, from 
ex + agr5], n., a swarm. 

ez£uiim&tu8, a, um, [part, ezcuil- 



cx-a£CMca Ire irlltaaLl^ 
«x-&a£36. TC. Hi If . itos, to kemr^ 

h"Lr C^x. ^TSLj : Wur, r tfm r i^ heed. 
cx-'OfiAS. ere. oeoB 
Jtr^l^ vuU'«r. Imp? 

, §re, uI, ttns, [ex+arceO], 

fo drive, keep busffj employj ke^ 

in action ; exercise, train, practice; 

rear, torment, harass. 

ex-bfild, ftre, &vi, &tu8, to breaik 


ex-bauriS, ire, hau^, haustus, to 

draw out, drain to the dregs, empty; 

Mfkderffo, endure, 

to go exMbeo. Sre. m. itus. [ex + habeG], 

fo ftfy»ii< to present, deliver, give iq>, produce; 

showr, display, exhibit. 

a. vm, ^pait. ercellS, exliorr So co, ere, horrui, — , [inch., 
\ adj., eiewmted, rsunf, ' ex + horreo] , to tremble, shudder, 

1 p%^ ^/y^- 

eif 'irt'jiaip. S. 3^0^ eiaridioiii^ froai 
ex9Ciad5. r> dettrofl^ m^ dmi^att, 
o'iCrur'Xx^ r«u, orert\rott. 

exodd. ete. I, ~. [ex ^ cad5], 
: • /i-T /-V'W, iSp from ; fall down^ 
/^..%.% «vv««; aun, iMf, fail to 
i-'^'-ir., fai2, i 

excip55. ere cSpi, oeptns. [ex + 
capj6^, to totf up, catch : receire. 
w^. >-•*»*: re«fw, accept; gather, 
gisiXfr up: take iq», take in turn; 
tcke up in order, cofne next ; ai^ 
. r^oin : exoeptna, w. abl. abs. 

b* terrified. 
ex-bortor, Bri, fttus, to exhort, en- 

courage, urge on. 
exicro, ere, Sgri, ftctus, [ex + ago], 

to drive out, drive forth ; drive or 

thrust through; demand, require, 

inquire ; bring to an end, complete, 

exicruus, a, uin, [exigrd], adj., 

small, little, scanty, petty, slender, 

enlis, e, [for *exigriliB, from exig5], 

adj., slender, thin, small. 
eximius, a, um, [exizii5], adj., 

oonstmcdon. with the exception^ ex- \ select, choice, excellent. 
erf, hetidf. eximd, ere, Smi, Smptus, [ex + 

ex<^t5. are, ftvi, fttus, [freq. exci5, | emS, to bwj], take away, remove, 
to call forth], to excite, arouse, stir \ free, release. 

exitaSbilis, e, [exitium], adj., fatal, 

deadly, destructive. 
exitium, ii, [exe6], n., destruction, 

ruin, death. 
exitus, Us, [exe6], m., egress; out- 
come, issue, end. 
ex-oner5, are, ftvi, fttus, to free, 

disburden, relieve. 
ex-orior, oriri, ortus, to rise forth, 

arise, spring up. 
ex-5rd, ftre, ftvi, fttus, to entreat 

earnestly, beg, implore. 
exSsus, a. um, [part. ex5di, to 

hate], adj., hating, dHeating. 
expallesc5, ere, pallui, — , [inch. 

ex + palleS], to grow or turn 

ex-pellO, ere, puli, pulsus, to drive 


ex-^d&mO. ftre. ftvi, fttus, to cry out, 
exclai-.i. say with a loud voice. 

ex-colS. ere, ui, cultus, to culti- 
vnte. improre, refine. 

excubiae, ftrum, [excubQ, to camp 
out], f. pi., a watch, guard, sentry, 

excutiS, ere, custi, cussus, [ex + 
quati5, to shake], to shake off, shake 
out, throw off, drive off, drive out of, 
rouse up out of. 

exemplum, I, [exim5, orig., to take 
out as a sample], n., a sample, speci- 
men; example, precedent, pattern, 
model; warning example, warn- 
ing ; way, method, manner, kind. 

ex-eO, Ire, il (IvI), itus, to go forth, 
iitue forth. 



^pendO, ere, I, p6xi8U8, to weigh 
out: weigh, cowtiderj judge^ decUIe. 

iperiens, entis, [part, ezper- 

ior], adj., experienced, used to any- 


tzperientia, ae, [ezperiSna], f., 

trio/, proof, test, 
axperior, Iri, tus, to prove, make 

trial of, try ; try, endeavor. 
ezpers, rtis, [ez + pars], adj., 

having no share op part in, free 

from, without. 
ex-petO, ere, Ivi, itus, to seek after, 

demand, ask for. 
ez-ple5, fire, Svi, 6tu8, to fill full ; 

fill up, fill out, complete. 
ez-plic6, ftre, &vi and ui, fttus and 

itus, to unfold, spread out, display. 
ex-pOnO, ere, posui, positus, to put 

forth, set forth ; set on shore, land; 

exhibit, explain, relate. 
exprobrO, ftre, &vl, &tus, [ex + 

probrum, a shameful act], to re- 
proach, upbraid, charge with. 
ex-sanflTuls, e, adj., bloodless, pale, 

exsecror, ftrl, fttus, [ex+ sacrO], 

to curse, execrate. 
exsequlae, ftrum, [exsequor, to 

follow], t. pi., funeral obsequies. 
ex-serO, ere, ul, tus, to stretch ortt, 

exsilib, Ire, ul, — , [ex + salid, to 

leap], to spring forth, leap up. 
exsilluxn, II, [exsul], n., exile. 
ex-8i8t5, ere, stitl, —^ to come forth, 

emerge, appear. 
ex-Bi>atior, &rl, fttus, to wander 

from, the way, spread out; over- 
ex^spectO, ftre, ftvl, fttus, to expect, 

await, wait for. 
ex-splr6, ftre, ftvl, fttus, to breathe 

out, exhale. 
ex-stemO, ftre, ftvl, fttus, [ez + 

Btem6], to terrify, frighten. 
exstlnctus, a, um, [part, exstin. 

jfuO], adj., lost, destroyed, dead. 
ex-atlnguO, ere, stinzl, stinctus, 

to extinguish, wipe out, blot out, do 
f wUh, put out, destroy. 

ex-stO, stftre, — , — ,to stand forth, 
rise "vifove, be prominent, cunspicu- 

ex-struO, ere, strQxI, strQctus, to 
build, erect, load, heap, cover. 

exsul, ulis, [exsiliO, to spring out], 
m., f ., «/i exile, a irander-er, refugee. 

ex«ultO, ftre, ftvi, fttus, [frcq. ex- 
siliO], to spring or leap up; rejoice, 
exu't, boast. 

exta, Oniin, n. pi., the more impor- 
tant vital organs of victims, the 
vitals, the exta, those parts which 
were consulted in divination. 

extemplS, [for ex + ♦tempulO, 
dim. of tempus], adv., at once, 
immediately, straightway. 

ex-tendO, ere, i, tentus or tSDsus, 
to extend, stretch, stretch out. 

ex-tenu5, ftre, ftvi, fttus, to reduce, 
lessen, aiminish. 

extemus, a, um, [exter, outsidf], 
adj., outward, external, foreign, 

ex-terre6, 6re, ul, itus, to frighten 
suddenly, greatly, to strike with 
terror, terrify. 

extimSscO, ere, ul, — , [ex + inch, 
timed], to fear greatly, shudder at. 

eztremus, a, um, adj. (superlat. of 
ezterus, outer), outermost, far- 
thest, extreme, remotest, last; ex- 
trema ItLna, the waning moon ; 
eztremus (angrulus), the merest 
comer,fragment ; adv., eztrSmum. 
for the last time. 

ez-turb5, ftre, ftvi, fttus, to d7'ive 
out, thrust out. 

ez-ululO, ftre, ftvi. to howl. 
j ezu5, ere, i, atus, to put of, lay 
' aside, strip o^fl'. 

\ ezuviae, ftruza. [ezuO], f. pi., any- 
\ thing which is taken from a body, 
clothing, garments ; the skin of an 

Pabii, Orum, m., members of the 
famous grens Fabia or Fabian 



fabric&tor, 5ris, [fabric5], m., an 

artincer, contriver, makers framer, 

fabrics, are, ftvi, fttus, to /ramet 
bidhf, make. 

fftbula, ae, [for], a story , tale; com- 
mon talk, gossp, scandal. 

fades, ei, [faciS], f., external form, 
appearance, jaspect, shape, face, 
features, form, 

facilis, e, [faci5], adj., easy, favora- 
ble, propitious; easily obtained, 
common, cheap; of pliant nature, 
good natured; easily wrought, 
pliant, plastic, yielding. 

facinus, oris, [faci5], n., a deed, 
act; a bad deed, outrage, villainy, 
crime ; per facinus, treacherously, 

faci5, ere, feci, factus, to do, per- 
form, mak3 ; bring to pass, cause, 
perform ; iu certain imperat. const., 
grant, suppose. 

factum, i, [faciO], n., anything done, 
a deed, action, exploit ; a proposed 
d^.cd, a plan, 

fftciindia, ae, [facundus], f., elo- 
quence, fluency, power of speech. 

fftcundus, a, um, [for], adj., elo- 
qw.nt, fluent. 

faenus, oris, n., interest, usury, 

faex, faecis, f . dregs, lees, sediment ; 
pickle, brine, 

fftgrus, i, f., a beech tree, beech wood, 

falc&tus, a, tun, [falx], adj., sickle 
sh'iped, hooked, curved. 

Faliscus, a, um, adj., of or belonging 
to Faleril, the capital of the Falisci, 
a Tuscan people ; Faliscan, Tuscan, 

fallacia, ae, [fall&x], f., a trick, 
artiflre, device. 

faliax, acis, [fallo], adj., deceitful, 
tr-'oc'ieroufi, d-'ceptlve.' 

fallo, ere, fefelli, falsus, to deceive, 
mislead, cheat; beguile, alleviate; 
elude, bcifft'',fail; escape the notice 
of; disappoint, fail; in pass., be 
mistaken, deceived. 

falsus, a, um, [part. fall6], adj., 
fahe, pretended, feigned, fancied. 

faix, falcis, f., a pruning hook, 
itckkf scythe. 

fama, ae, [for], f., rumor, report, 
story, common talk; fama est, 
rumor has it, the story goes; repu- 
tation, renown, fame. 

fam@s, is, f., hunger, famine. 

famula, ae, [famulus], f., a female 
slave, a maid servant, an attendants 

famulus, i, m., a slave, servant, 

fanum, i, [for], n., a shrine, temple. 

far, f arris, n., spelt, the earliest grain 
cultivated by the Romans; coarse 
meal, used in sacrifice, 

fas, [for], iudecl., n., the law or wiU 
of the gods, divine laio ; hence, that 
which is right, proper, permitted, 
a sacred duty or obligation. 

faecis, is, m., a bundle ; in pi., a 
bundle of rods with an axe in the 
middle, carried by the lictors before 
the chief Roman magistrates, the 

fasti, drum, (properly an adj., fasti 
dies), [fas], m., a register of judi- 
cial days ; a list of the days of the 
year, calendar, annals. 

fastigrium, ii, n., the top of a gable, 
a roof, pinnacle, battlement, top, 

fataiis, e, [fatum], adj., given or or- 
dained by fate, fated, allotted; fat^ 
ful, doom fraught, destructive, 

fateor, Sri, fa«sus, [for], to confess, 
own, acknowledge, admit; speak 
out, declare. 

fatidicus, a, um, [fatum + dic6], 
adj., prophesying, fate revealing. 

fatifer, era, erum, [fatum + ferS], 
adj., death dealing, destructive. 

fatlgrO, are, avi, atus, [«fatis + 
ag5], to tire,weary, plague, torment, 
vex, harofts. 

fatum, i, [for], n., a prophetic utter- 
ance, prophecy ; destiny, fate, the 
will of heaven, evil destiny, misfor- 
tune, doom, death. 

faucSs, ium, f. pi., the throat, jaw.'', 

Faunus, i,m.,a sylvan deity, identi- 
fied with Pan. 
\tav]JBfc>aA>,Mm, [tov *favostus, from 



fAve5], adj., toell^mened, fortu- 
nate, favorable, auspicious, 

fautrix, ices, [for *favetrix, from 
taveQ], one who aids, a protectress. 

fave5, §re, fftvi, fautus, to be 
pleased, have goodrwiU toward, be 
favorable to, 

favnia, ae, f., hot and glowing ashes, 
cinders, enib2rs. 

favor, 6ris, [faveO], m., favor, good- 
will, applause, public approval. 

tftvtis, 1, m., a honeycomb, honey. 

fax, facia, f., a torch, a firebrand ; a 
nuptial torch, marriage ; the torch, 
flame, passion of love, 

f^brua, 5ruxn, n. pi., expiatory rites, 
offeiings far purification. 

fScundus, a, xun, [*feO,io prod wee], 
adj., fruitful, fertile, prolific. 

fSlIx, icls, 2i&]., fruitful; favorable, 
favoring, propitious ; happy, fortu- 
nate, blessed; wholesome. 

f5inina,ae, [see fScundus] , a woman, 
a female, 

f8inineiis, a, um, [fSmina], adj., 
belonging to woman, women's. 

fel, fellis, n., gall, poison. 

fera, ae, [ferus], f., a wild beast. 

fSrSlis, o, adj., funereal; death- 
bjding, baleful, ill-omened. 

fer&z, acls, [fero], ?Ld\., fertile, pro- 
ductive, fruitful; abounding in. 

ferS, adv., nearly, almost; usually, 
commonly, mostly. 

feretrum, I, [(^iperpov], n., a bier. 

feriniis, a, um, [ferus], adj., belong- 
ing to a wild animal. 

fariO, Ire, — , — , to strike, smite; 
cut with a blow; kill by striking, 

feritfts, atis, [ferus], f., wildness, 

terQ, ferre, tuli, l&tus, to bear, 
carry, brinq ; =efferre, to carry 
forth to burial; w. reflex, pron. or 
w. passive voice in middle sense, 
bear one*i* self, betake one's self, go ; 
w. vestigrla, grradas, etc., turn, 
direct; bear with one as a possession, 
wear, have ; carry away, take away ; 
bear on, urge on, impel; hear, pro- 

duce, bring forth, cause to be; bear 
ojft ff^lf obtain, receive; direct, re- 
quire, demand, orduin, allow, per- 
mit, suffer; bear, endure, suffer, 
tolerate; say, tell, relatp, report; 
do, perform, celebrate; \v. leges, 
bring forward, propone, p.'fnnote. 

ferdx, Ocis, [ferus], adj., hi 11, war- 
like, fierce, ferocious ; high-sjurlted, 

ferreus, a, xun, [femim], adj., of 
iron, iron; hard; stern, pitdess, 

ferragrS, inis, [femim], f., iron- 
rubt; the color of iron-rust, dark 
red, dusky, dingy , 

ferrum, i, n., iron; anything made 
of iron, an iron spear-head, an ax, 
sicord, arrow. 

fertilis, e, [fero], Sid]., fertile, fruit- 
ful, luxuriant. 

fertilitfts. fttis. [fertiUs], L, fertility, 
fruitfulnfss, abundance. 

ferus, a, um, adj., wild, untamed; 
cruel, savage, fierce; waste, wild, 
rudo, uncultivated. 

ferveS, ere or ferv6, ere, — , — , to 
boil, glow with hoat, burn. 

fervidus, a, um, [fervor], adj., 
glowing, burning, l:ery, hot. 

fervor, oris, [ferveo], m., glowing 
heat ; heat, vehemence, ardor. 

fessus, a, um, [akin to fatigo, to 
weainjl, adj., iceaHed, worn out, ex- 
hausted, weakffeeb'e, toearjt, spent. 

festind, &re, &vi, atus, [festinus, 
hasty], to make haste, hurry, be 

festum, i, n., a festal day, a festival, 
a holiday. 

festus, a, um, adj., festive, festal, 

fetara, ae, [fetus], f., a breeding; 
young, offspring, Jfock. 

fStus, a, um, [see fecundus], adj., 
pregnant, filled with, teeming with. 

f€tus, ds, m., a bringing forth, a 
production, generation; (meton.) 
that which is brought forth, off- 
spring ; fruit ; growth. 

flbra, ae, 1., a ji5er» ucrwe^ musde ^ 



the vital organs in general, especially 
the Hvert used in taking the omens. 

fie tills, e, [flnfirO], adj., made of clay 
molded into shape, earthen; subs., 
n., an earthen vessel, earthenware. 

fictus, a, vim, [part. fing6], adj., 
false, feigned; subs., fictum, i, n., 
(hat which is false , falsehood. 

fldelis, e, [fldSa], faithful, sincere, 
true ; trustworthy, safe, secure. 

fldSns, entis, [part. fidO], adj., con- 
jident, bold; trusting in, relying 

fldSs, Si, [fid5], f., cor^ence, reli- 
ance, faith; faithfulness, probity, 
honor, fidelity, truth; promise, 
pledge ; proof, evidence, conviction, 
truth; expectation, belief; reality. 

fides, ium, £. pi., a stringed instrtt- 
ment, a lyre ; the strings of such an 

nd5, ere, flsus sum, to trust, con- 
fide ; to have faith or confidence in, 
rely upon. 

fidacia, ae, [fld6], f., confidence, re- 
liance, assurance. 

fidus, a, um, [fid6], adj., trusty, 
trustworthy, faithful. 

figO ere, fixi, fixus, to fix, fasten, 
fasten up ; fix, establish ; set firmly, 
plant ; w. Oscula, imprint ; pierce, 

flgara, ae, [flng5], f., figure, foi-m, 

filia, ae, f., a daughter, 

fllius, i, m., a son. 

nium, i, n., a thread, 

flndO, ere, fidi, flssus, to cleave, 
split, divide, separate. 

fingO, ere, finxi, fictus, to form, 
fashion, make, shape, mold ; chafe, 
press; control; feign, invent, de- 
vise ; form mentally, think, suppose, 

finiO, ire, Ivi, itus, [finis], to limit, 
bound ; check, restrain ; put an end 
to, finish ; come to an end, cease. 

finis, is,jif., f., a boundary, limit, 
border ; an end, conclusion. 
^ finitlmus, a, um, [finis], adj., bor- 
dering upon, neighboring; subs., 
tfnitimi, 5rum, m. pi., those bor- 

dering upon, neighbors, neighboring 

fiO, fieri, factus, to happen, result, 

take place, be made, become ; mihl 

fit timor, fear comes upon me, j 

takes possession of me. 
firmo, are, ftvi, at\is, [flrmus], to 

make firm, support ; secure, asgure, 

make lasting. 
flrmus, a, um, adj., firm, strong, 

fiscina, ae, [fiscus, basket], I, a 

woven basket, hamper. 
fistula, ae, f., a tube, pipe ; shepherd!i 

pipe. Pan-pipes. 
flagellO, are, — , — , [flagellum, 

whip], to scourge, lash. 
flagrO, are, avi, atus, to bum, 

blaze, glow. 
fiamen, inis, [flo, to blow], n., o 

blowing; (meton.) a wind, a blast. 
fiamen, inis, [from the same root 

as fiagrrS, he who bums, e.g., 

offerings], m., a priest, fiamen. 
flaminica, ae, [fiamen], f., the wift 

of a fiamen. 
fiamma, ae, [from root in flagrS], 

f ., a flame, fire ; the flame of love or 

any other passion, passion; a torch. 
fiammifer, era, erum, [flamma+ 

ferO], &d}., flame-bearing, burning, 

flammO, are, avi, atus, [flamma], 

to inflame, set on fire. 
flatus, as, [fl5, to blow], m.,a blowing 

of the wind, a blast. 
flaVeO, Sre, — , — , [fiavus], to be 

yellow or golden; part, flavens, 

entis, golden. 
flavesco, ere, — , — , [inch. flfiveS], 

to grow yellow, ripen. 
fiavus, a, um, adj., golden yellov, 

flaxen, auburn, light-colored. 
fiebilis, e, [fle6], adj., lamentable, 

deplorable; weeping, tearful, dole- 
fiectO, ere, flexi, fiexus, to turn, 

bend, curve; direct, guide, turn, 

move, influence, prevail upon. 
fieO, fiere, fiSvi, fietus, to weep; 
\ \xxsA.., ueep Jot , lament, bewail. 



flfitUB, as, [fled], m., a weeing, cry- 
ing, lamentation, tears, 

flexilis, e, [flectO], adj., flexible, 
bent, curved. 

flezua, Hb, [flectO], m., a bending, 
turn, curve, winding, 

flOrens, entls, [part. fl5re5], adj., 
bright, blooming, gay. 

fl5reG, Sre, ui, — , [fl^s], to bloom, 
be in flower. 

fl5rldu8, a, um, [flds], adj., in bloom; 
flowery, offiowe^^s ; blooming, beau- 

fl6s, 6ris, m., a flower, blossom; 
bloom of youth, freshness, prime. 

fluctus, tls, [fluO], m., a billow, 
wave, flood, tide, the sea in general. 

fluidus, a, um, [flu5], adj., fluid, 
flowing; soft, languid,slack; flabby, 

fliiitO, are, avi, atxis, [freq. fluO], 
to float, flow. 

fltUnen, inls, [flu5], n., flowing 
water, a stream, river, flood, tor- 

flOznlneus, a, um, [flamen], adj., 
of a river, river-. 

fliib, ere, fluxi, fluxus, to flow; 
drip ; be in a state of flux. 

fluviaiis, e, [fluvius, stream'], adj., 
belonging to a river, river-, 

focus, I, m., a hearth, fireplace, 

fodiO, ere, fOdi, fossus, to dig; 
prick, pierce, thrust, wound. 

foeda, [foedus], adv., basely, shame- 

foedd, are, avi, atus, [foedus], to 
befoul, make. filthy ; defile, pollute. 

foedus, a, vim, adj., foul, filthy, 
abominable, loathsome ; hideous, 

foedus, eris, n., an agreement, con- 
tract; treaty, alliance, truce, cove- 
nant; law. 

folium, li, n., a leaf. 

fOns, fontis, m., a spring, fountain, 
source of river ; water. 

fOntanus, a, um, [f6ns], adj., from 
a fountain, spring. 

{for), ail, atus^ to speak, say. 

foramen, inls, [forO, to bore], n., an 
opening, aperture, hole. 

forceps, cipis, f., a pair of pincers, 

fore, forem, for futUrus esse and 

for3nsis, e, [forum], adj., of the 
forum, public. 

foris, is, f., a door, gate, entrance. 

f5nna, ae, i.,form, shape, figure, ap- 
pearance; the form, the person; 
personal beauty, beauty, 

formica, ae, f., an ant, 

formidabilis, e, adj., terrible, for- 

formldd, are, avi, atus, to fear, 
dread; formidatus, dreaded, in- 
spiring terror. 

formidO, inis, f.,fear, terror, dread. 

f0rm5, are, avi, atus, [f5rma], 
to shape, fashion, form, mold. 

fSrmSsus, a, um, [fSrma], adj. 
beautiful in form, lovely, fair. 

fomacaiis, e, [fornax], adj., of 
ovens ; dea fomacaiis. Fornax, the 
goddess of ovens. 

fornax, acis, f., a furnace, oven, 

fors, fortis, f., chance, hap, hazard; 
adv., forte, perhaps, perchance, 
by chance. 

forsitan, [fors sit an], adv., per- 
haps, possibly. 

fortasse, [for fortassis = forte an 
si vis], adv., perhaps, possibly. 

fortis, e, adj., stout, strong, mighty, 
powerful, heroic in size and 
strength; brave, bold, courageous, 

fortiter, [fortis], adv., strongly, 
poljoerfully, valiantly, bravely. 

fortana, ae, [fors], t., fortune, fate, 
chance, lot. 

forum, i, n., a forum, public place of 
assembly, a court of justice. 

fossa, ae, f., a ditch, trench. 

foveQ, ere, fS-sa, fOtus, to warm, 
keep tcarm; cherish, foster; cling 
to, keep to ; fondle, caress. 

ft^actus, a, um, [part. franer5],adj., 
broken, loeafoeiied, ducoura^ed* 



fr&gra. 5rum, n. pi., strawberries. 

trAgiUa^e, [franerd], adj., breakable, 
brittle, fray He. ; slight, frail, 

fragor, 6ris, [frangrSJ, m., a crash, 
din, roar, uproar. 

fr&srr&ns, antis, [part. tr^LgrQ, to 
emit fragrance], adj., sweet-scented, 

frangO, ere, tt^gl, ff&ctiis, to 
break, dash in pieces; break in 
pipces, crush, grind. 

frftter, tris, m., a brother. 

ff&temus, a, um, [fr&ter], adj., 
brother's, brotherly, fraternal, 

fraudO, &re, &vi, &tu8, [fraus], to 
dp/raud, cheat out of, deprive ofun- 

fraus, fraudis, f., deceit, deception, 
fraud, trickery. 

fremS, ere, ui, itus, to roar, rage, 
howl ; resound: wail, b?.wail, lament. 

fr3n0, are, &vi, &tu8, [frenum], 
to put a bridle on, bridle; curb, 
check, restrain, govern, control. 

frSnum, i, n., a bridle, rein, bit, curb. 

frequens, entis, adj., often, fre- 
quent ; assembled in large numbers, 
in throngs, in crowds. 

frequenter, [frequSns], adv.,o/ifen, 
frequently : in great numbers. 

frequents, Sre, ftvi, fttus, [fre- 
quens], to frequent, visit or resort 
to, riftit in crowds, throng. 

f return, i, n., and fretus, lis, m., a 
strait, c'lannel; Ih^ sea. 

frigridus, a, um, [frige5, to be cold], 
adj., cold, frigid, chill, chilling, 

frifiTus, oris, n., the cold, frost of 
winter; coolness. 

frondeo. ere, — , — , [frOns], to put 
forth l-ares, leaf out : be in leaf. 

frondosus, a, um, [fr6ns],adj.,/wW 
of leavrs, leafy, 

frSns, frondis, f., a leaf; leaves, foli- 
age ; a branch, bough, twig; a gar- 
land, irreath. 

ftpOns, frontis, f., the forehead, the 
brow, front, face ; the brow, face, 
countenance as index o( ieeUng. 

frQctus, Os, [fruop], m., produce, 
product, fruit ; result, reward, re- 

fruor, I, fXilctus, (ftuitus), to enjoy, 
take delight in. 

frtlstrft, adv., erroneously, in vain, 
to no purpose, ineffectually. 

finitex, icis, m., a shrub, b^tsh. 

(frax) , frtLgis, f ., more often pi., frQ- 
gSs, um, fruit of any kind, grain, 
cor 71. 

fuera, ae, [fugiS], f., flight; swift 
course, speed ; exile, banishment. 

fug£Lx, ftcis, [fugi5], adj., apt to 
flee, timid, shy ; swift, fleet ; shunr 
ning, avoiding. 

fugi5, ere, fag!, fugitus, intrans., 
to flee, hasten away, et^cape; trans., 
flee from, avoid, shun, escape. 

fugO, &re, Avi, &tu8, [fuga], to put 
to flight, chase away, scatter, dis- 
perse, dispel. 

fulclmen, inis, [fulcid, to prop vp], 
n., a prop, support. 

fulgeO, §re, fulsi, — , also fulgS, 
ere, fulsI, — , to flash, shine, gleam, 

fulica, ae, f., a coot. 

fulmen, inis, [fulge5], n., lightning 
that strikes, a thunder bolt ; destruo- 
live power, stroke, blow, blast. 

fulvus, a. uxn, adj., yellow, tawny. 

famiflcus, a, um, [fCLmus + facio], 
adj., smoking, steaming. 

famO, &re, &vi, &tu8, [fUznus], to 
smoke, steam, reek, fume. 

fUmus, i, m., smoke, fume, vapor. 

funda, ae. f., a sling. 

fund&men, inis, [fundO, to found], 
w., a foundation. 

fund5, ere, fttdi. fasus, to pour, 
pour out, forth, shed; throw to the 
ground, lay low, prostrate ; stretch 
on^^s self out, ^i" otfull length. 

fanestus, a, um, [fanus], adj., 
deady, fatal, destructive, mournful, 

fungor, I. fanctus, to perform, ful- 
flll, discharge ; simul&cra fancta 
sepulcris, shades who have re* 
\ ceiiDed tKe rile* o/ burial. 



fflnls, is, m., a rope, line, cord, 
fOnus, eris, n., funeral rites j obse- 
quies; a dead body, corpse; death; 
ruin, disaster, 

furca, ae, f., a fork; a fork-shaped 
prop, pole, stake. 

furibundus, a, um, [furO], adj., 
raf/iiif/f wild, frantic. 

furibsus, a, um, [furia, /ury], adj., 
full of fury, mad, raging. 

fumus, i, m., an oven, 

fur5, ere, (oii), — , to rage, rave, be 
furious, wild, mad, frantic, in- 

ffiror, ari, atus, [far, thief], to steal, 
take away, uithdraw. 

furor, 6ris, [furO], m., fury, mad- 
ness, rage, frenzy, the passion of 

fOrtim, [fOrtum], adv., secretly, by 

fOrtum, i, [far, thief], n., a secret, 
stealthy action, stealth, artifice, 
stratagem; a cheat, trick, fraud; a 
stolen thing. 

msilis, e, [fundS], adj., molten, 

futOruB, a, um, [part, sum], adj., 
destined to be, future, to come; 
subs., futaruxn, i, n., that which is 
to come, the future, \ 


GalatSa, ae, [raAareia], f., a sea 
nymph, daughter of Nereus. 

eralea, ae, f., a helmet. 

Gallicus, a, um, [Oallus, a Gaul], 
adj., Gallic; Gallicus canis, a 

Gallus, i, m., C. Cornelius, a Roman 
elegidc poet, friend of Vergil. 

Ganeres, is, [rdry??], m., a famous 
rivf'r in India. 

Grarrulitas, atis, [gekrriQ, to chatter], 
f., a chattering, babblhtg, prating. 

srarruliis, a. um, [grarriS, to chatter], 
adj., chattering, talkatim, garru- 

arauded, Sre, gr&visus, to rejoice, be 
glad, take delight ot pleasure in. 

gaudiimi, ii, [gaudeG], n., joy, glad- 
ness, delight. 

erelidus, a, tun, [ereia, only in abl. 
s., frost], 2i.6.]., icy, very cold, chill, 

eremind, &re, &vi, AtuB, [fireminus], 
to double,, augment. 

ereminus, a, um, adj., twin, in pairs, 
two, double. 

firemitus, as, [gremO], m.,a sighing, 
groaning, sigh, groan, moan, lamen- 
tation, wailing; a cry of rage or 

gramma, ae,f., a bud ; gem, precious 
stone ; an eve, oft in a peacock's tail. 

erem5, ere, ui, itus, to groan, lament, 

erena, ae, f., generally pi., the cheek. 

gener, eri, m., a son-in-law. 

grenerosus, a, um, [genus], adj., 
of noble, birth, high born, noble; of 
a good kind, superior, excellent. 

grenetrix, icis, [grenitor],f.,a7}6 that 
prodiicei<, a moiher. 

greniaiis, e, adj., pleasant, joyous, 

grenitor, 6ris, [grigrnS], m., a begetter, 
a father. 

grens, grentis, [root gren in grigrnO], 
f., a race, people, nation; in pi., 
the peoples or nations of the world. 

grena, as, n., a knee. 

grenus, eris, [see grens], n., birth, 
descent, origin; a descenda7it; a 
race, nation, people; kind, sort, 

Germanicus, i, ra., nephew and 
adopted son of the Emperor Tibe- 

grermanus, a, um, [grermen, an 
oJJ'shoot], adj., haring the same 
parents or at least the same father ; 
subs., grermanus. i, m., a brother ; 
grermana, ae, f., a sister. 

grero, ere, gessi, gestus, to bear, 
carry, wield, wear, have about one; 
bear, bring forth, produce; part, 
grerens, having, with ; have, pos- 
sess, etjoy ; carry out, carry on, 
accomplish, do, perform ; w.beUum, 
wage war. 



ireBt&men, inis, [grestO], n., that 
which is borne or worrit an onia- 
mentt equipmentt accoutrement. 

geBtiQ, ire, ivi, — , [grestiis], to ex- 
press strong feeling by bodily ac- 
tion, be eager, long. 

ge&t6, are, ftvi, fttus, [freq. firerO], 
to bear, wear, carry. 

firestus, as, m., bearing, posture, 
attitude, gesture. 

Oetae, amm, m., a barbarous people 
on the western shore of the Black 
Sea ; in sing., Geta, ae, and Getes, 
ae, m., a Getan. 

OifirantSiis, a, um, [Gigr&s], adj., 
of or belonging to the giants. 

Oigr&s, antis, [yiya^], m.,a giant, one 
of the fabled sons of Earth and 

glen6, ere, erenui, erenitus, to 
bear, bring forth ; beget, produce. 

erlax:i&lis, e, [grlaciSs], adj., icy. 

erlacies, ei, f., ice. 

erladius, l,m., a sword. 

glaeba, ae, f., land, soil, 

erl&ns, erlandis, f., an acorn. 

Glaucus, i, m., a fisherman of An- 
thedon in Boeotia, who was changed 
into a sea god. 

erlobus, i, m., a ball, round mass, 
sphere, orb. 

firlomerS, Are, &vi, &tus, [grlomus, 
a ball made by winding], to gather 
into a ball or mass, roll up. 

srlOria, ae, f., glory, fame, renown, 

erlOiior, an, atus, [glOrla], to boast, 
glory, pride one^s self. 

GorgrO, or Gorgron, onis, [ropy<i], f., 
a Gorgon, Medusa, whose head was 
cut off by Perseus, and presented to 
Minerva, who placed it in the center 
of her shield. 

Gorgoneus, a, xun, [GorgO], adj., 
of or belonging to Gorgon, Gorgo- 

gfracilis, e, adj., thin, slight, slender, 
meager, lean. 

firrftculus i, m., a jackdaw. 

erradior, i, gressus, [erradus], to 
step, walk, advance, proceed, go. 

Grftdivus, i, [perhaps from firraduB], 
m., a surname of Mars. 

erradus, as, m., a step, a pace ; step, 
stage, degree; pi., a flight of steps 
or stairs. 

Graecia, ae, [Graecl, rpaweoi], f., 
the country of the Greeks, Greece. 

Gr&ii, orum, m., the Greeks. 

Grains, a, um, adj., Greek, Grecian. 

grramen, inis, n., grass, herbage, an 
herb, plant, 

grrandaevus, a, um, [grremdis + 
aevum], adj., old, aged, 

grrandis, e, adj., full grown, large, 
bulky, great; grreuidior aev5, 
older, elder, 

grranifer, era, erum, [grranum, 
grrai/i + fer6], adj., grain bearing, 
laden with grain, 

grratSs, ibus, [grratus], f. pi., 

grratia, ae, [grratus], f., grace, 
charm, beauty , favor ; regard, lik- 
ing, fondness, taste; gratitude, 
thanks, grateful remembrance. 

grrator. arl, atuB, [grratus], to con- 
gratulate, wish joy. 

grratus, a, \xm, adj., pleasing, pleas- 
ant, acceptable, dear, agreeable, 
grateful, received with thanks, 

grravidus, a, um, [grravis], adj., 
heavy with anything; pregnant; 
full, abundant, fruitful. 

grravis, e, adj., heavy, weighty, firm, 
ponderous ; of things without phys- 
ical weight, heavy, deep, impres- 
sive ; overmastering, oppressive ; 
weighed down, laden, burdened; 
w. somn5, heavy, overcome with 
sleep; w. lacrimis, drenched with 
tears; heavy, burdensome, hard to 
bear, severe, grievous, bad ; w. vul- 
nus, a deep, deadly wound ; of per- 
sons, in bad sense, harsh, severe, 
stern, implacable ; subs., grraviOra, 
n. pi., worse, more grievous things, 

grravitas, atis, [grravis], f., weight, 
heaviness; dignity, influence. 

grravO, are, avi, atus, [grravis], to 
burden, weigh down ; dog as with a 
^ "W^i^ht, oypress. 



ffremlxim, 11, n., a lap; the bosom, 

greaaua, Ob, [erradior], m., a walk' 

ing, gait ; a step, course, way, 
firrez, grreeris, m., a herd, flock. 
srubemfttor, 6ris, [grubemO, to 

steer], m., a steersman, helmsman, 

erureres, Itia, m., a whirlpool, abyss; 

waters, rapids, stream, flood. 
erutta, ae, f., a drop, 
eruttur, iiris, n., the throat, neck. 
firyrus, i, [yOpo«], m., a circle, circular 

eowae, round. 

haT3€na, ae, [habeO], f., generally in 
pi., reins. 

habed, 6re, ui, itus, to have, hold, 

hablllB, e, (liabe5], adj., handy, fit, 
apt, expert. 

habitftbilis, e, [habitO], adj., fit for 
abode, habitable. 

habitO, &re, &vi, &tus, [freq. 
liabeG], to have as a possession, to 
inhabit ; live, dwell. 

habitiis, as, [habed], m., appear- 
ance, dress, attire, garb. 

hac, adv., on this side, here, by this 

b&c-tenus, thu^ far, up to this time, 
vp to this point. 

haeduB, l,m.,a kid, 

Haemonia, ae, [Al/iovia]^ f., a poetic 
name for Thessaly. 

Haemonius, a, um, adj., Haemon- 
ian, Thessalian, 

Haemos, i, fAi/mo?], m., a range of 
mountains in Thrace. 

baered, Sre, haesi, haesHrus, to 
hang, cling, be fixed to; holdfast, re- 
main fixed to, cleave; abide, continue 
in any place, be rooted to the spot. 

hftlitus, tts, [hfiJO, to breathe], m., 
a breath ; a vapor, exhalation. 

Halius, I, m., a Lycian, slain before 

Ham&diyas, adls, [atia^(iv6L%\^ t,, a 
wood nymph, hamadryad. 

bam&tus, a, um, [hamiis], adj.,/Mr- 
nished with a /took, hooked, barbed. 

hSmus, i, m., a hook, barb, 

harSna, ae, f., sand; seashore, 

harenOsus, a, um, [harSna], adj., 

harando, inls, f., a reed; that which 
is made of a reed, a shaft, arrow ; a 
syrinx, pipes of Pan. 

hasta, ae, f., a lance, spear. 

hastile, is, [hasta], n., the shaft of a 
spear, a spear, javelin. 

baud, adv., not, not at all, by no 
means ; baud aliter, not otherwise, 
just so. 

bauri5, ire, hausi, haustus, to 
drain, empty, drink up; take in, 
drink in, receive; scrape or dig out; 
scrape vp, gather. 

haustus, as, [hauriO], m., a draw- 
ing, draining, draught. 

hebes, etis, adj., bhmt, dull; stupid, 

hebeto, are, avi, atus, [hebes], to 
dim, impair, make dull, blunt. 

Hebrus, i, ['E^po9], m., a river of 

Hecate, es, ['E-caTr;], f., a goddess of 
the Lower World, frequently identi- 
fied with Luna in heaven and Diana 
on earth. 

Hector, oris, ['Ektup], m., a son of 
Priam and the bravest of the Tro- 

Hectoreus, a, um, [Hector], adj., 
of Hector, Hector's, Ucctorean, 

Helena, ae, ['EAeVr,], f., the wife of 
Menelaus, carried off to Troy by 
Paris, and thus the cause of the 
Trojan war, 

Helenus, i, ['EAcro?], m., a son of 
Priam, a soothsayer. 

Helice, Ss, [eAi^Tj, a winding"], t., 
the constellation of the Great Bear, 

Helicon, onis, ['e\iku»v], m., a moun- 
tain in Boeotia, sacred to Apollo and 
the 3fuses, 

Heliconius, a, um, [Helic5n], adj., 
of Helicon, Hel'.andau. 

Hennaeus, a, um, [Henna], adj., 



of or belonging to Henna, an an- 
cient city in the center of Sicily, 

berba, ae, f., herbage, grass, a plant, 
herb, vegetation, green blades, green 

HercxilSs, is, ['HpoicA^s], m., Hercules, 
a famous hero, renowned for his 
strength and his twelve labors. 

Hercuieus, a, um, adj., Herculean, 
of Hercules. 

bSr@s, Sdis, m., an heir, successor. 

Hemicus, a, um, adj., Hernician, 
of or belonging to the Hernici, an 
Italian people in Latixtm. 

b@r5s, 6i8, [^p«s], m., a hero, a god- 
like man, a brave or illustrious man, 

hSrSus, a, vim, [hSrOs], adj., heroic ; 
w. versus, vpic poetry. 

Hesperis, idis, [Hesperus =*E<nr€- 
pos], adj., of the West, western ; subs., 
Hespe rides, um, f. pi., the Hes- 
perides, daughters of Hesperus, 
keepers of the garden of gulden 
fruit in the extreme West. 

Hesperius, a, um, adj., Hesperian, 
western, Italian. 

hestemus, a, um, [root bes in ben, 
yesterday], adj., of yesterday, yes- 
terday* s. 

heu, interj., of grief or pain, ah/ 
alas! oh! 

bi&tus, tis, [bio, to yawn"], m.,a gap- 
ing, yawning, chasm, gulf. 

Hiberus, a, um, adj.,/6enan, Span- 
ish; pastor Hiberi, Geryon, a 
mythic king in Spain having three 
bodies, whos3 oxen were carried off 
by Hercules. 

bic, adv., in this place, here; at this 
time, at i hi fi juncture. 

bic, baec, boc, demonst. pron., this. 

biems, emis, f., the lointer, the stormy 
treason; person.. Winter, Hiems. 

bine, adv., from this place, hence, 
thence; bine atque bine, en this 
side and on that, on each side ; from 
this time, henceforth. 

binnitus, as, [binnio, to whinny], 
m., rt n^iahing. 

Hippotadea, ae, [HlppoteB^, m., 

Aeolus, the grandson of the Trojan 

birsatus, a, um, [related to birtus], 
adj., rough, shaggy, hairy. 

birtus, a, um, adj., rough, hairy, 

biseo, ere, — , — , [inch, bio, to yawn], 
to open, gape, yawn ; open the mouth, 
speak, stammer, falter. 

Hister, tri, m., the lower part of the 

bodie, [boc + di§], adv., to-day, 

bodiemus, a, um, [bodi§], adj., 0/ 
to-day, to-day's. 

bolus, eris, n., kitchen Tierbs, cabbage. 

Homerus,!, ['Omizpo?], m., the famous 
Greek epic poet. 

bomo, inis, m., f., a human being, a 
man; in pi., men, mankind, the 
human race. 

bonestus, a, um, [honor], adj., 
honored; honorable, worthy. 

bonor (bonds), oris, m., honor, es- 
teem, respect; a mark of honor, 
place of honor, m$\., honors; hon- 
orary gift, offering, sacrifice; re- 
ward, recompense; beauty, charm, 

bondratus, a, uxn, [part. bondrS, 
to honor], adj., honored, revered, 

b5ra, ae, f., an hour; time; person, 
in pi., the Hours. 

Horatius, i. , m . , Q. Horatius Flaccus, 
the famous Augustan poet. 

bordea, 5rimi, n. pi., barley. 

borrendus, a, um, [part, horreo], 
adj., to be shuddered at, horrible, 
dreadful, awful, terrible, fearful, 
frightful; awe inspiring, dread, 

borrgns, entis, [part. borreS], adj., 
bristling, gloomy, somber, shaggy i 

borreQ, ere, ui, — , to bristle, &« 
rough ; shudder at, fear, be afraid 
of; quake, tremble, shiver. 

horridus, a, um, [borreS]. adj., 
bristling, rough, shaggy; horriJ, 
\ fri<ilitful^ dreadful. 



kionifor, era, eruzn, [horror, hor- 
ror 4- fer5], adj., terrible, dreadful, 

hort&men, Inls, [hortor], n., an 
incitement, exhortation. 

hortator, 6rls, [hortor], m., an in- 
citer, sugieUer, prompter, 

hortor, ari, atus, to encourage, urge, 
incite, exhort. 

hortus, I, m., a garden. 

hospes, itis, [hostis, a stranger + 
pa, the root in pasc5, to feed], m., 
f., Ofie tcho entertains a stranger, 
a host; by transfer, a guest, one 
who receives hospitality ; a stranger, 

hospita, ae, [hospes], f ., a stranger, 
foreigner, wanderer^ viHtor. 

hospltiuin, ii, [hospes], n., hospi- 
tality ; shelter. 

hostia, ae, f., a victim, a sacrifice. 
hostilis, e, [hostis], adj., belonging 

to an enemy, hostile, an enemy's. 
hostis, is, m., f., a stranger, an 

litlc, adv., to this place, hither; to 

t'lii, in addition, besides. 
htUufinus, a, urn, [homS], adj., 

hwnan, pertaining to mankind, 
^Umills, e, [humus], adj., low, low- 

. hi»ff- 

«Uinus, i, f ., the earth, ground, soil ; 

land, country, region. 
^yades, um, [•Yafies, the rainers], f. 

pi., the Hyades, a group of seven 

9tars in the head of the constellation 

^ydra, ae, \!^^po], t., the Hydra, the 

loader serpent of Lerna, slain by 

^ymSn, — , and Hymenaeus or 

OS, i, ['Ym^j'], m., Hymen, the god 

of marriage. 
^ymettus, i, [•Ymtjtto?], m., a moun- 
tain near Athens, famed for its 

honey and marble. 
^ypaepa, 6rum, ["Y^aiTra], n. pi., a 

smill to'iv in Lydia. 
fiypsipylSus, a, um, [HyspipylS], 

adj., belonging to Uypsipyle, queen 

itf Lemnoe in the time qf the Ar- 

gonautic expedition ; 


iaceO, €re, ui, itus, to lie, lie down, 
recline; be situated; lie low; lie 
prostratp, lie slain, lie dead. 

iacio, ere, i@cl, iactus, to throw, 
cdst, hurl. 

iact&QS, antis, [part. iact5], adj., 
bod.'itfnJ, vain-glorious, arrogant. 

iact6, are, avi, atus, [freq. iaciO], 
to throw, cast, hurl, scatter, fling ; 
toss ab'jut, shpke, flourish ; aiis 
iactatis, on beating wings; throw 
out, pour forth, utter wildly, pro- 
nounce, speak, say ; rei^olvc, ponder, 
consider, talk about, discuss ; w. re- 
flex, pron., boast, glory, vaunt. 

iactara, ae, [iacio], f., a throwing 
away, a Iosr. 

iactus, as, [iaciO], m., a throioing, 

iaculatrix, icis, [iaculor], f., a 
janel'ni thrower, huntre.fis. 

iaculor, ari, atus, [iaculum], to 

iaculum, i, [iaciS], n., a dart, jave- 

iam, adv., now, already, at length, 
but now, just now, from this point, 
from that time on, thereafter, soon, 
presently ; iam dadum, now for a 
long time, long since, now at length ; 
iam pridem, long since; iam 
nunc, even now, already. 

iambus, i, [la^/So?], m., an iambic 
foot ; iambic poem, poetry. 

ianitor, oris, [ianua], m., a door- 
keeper, janitor. 

ianua, ae, [related to lanus], f., a 
door of a house, a door, an entrance, 

lanus, i, [see Fasti, 1. 103, note], m., an 
old Italian deity, god of entrances, 
all beginnings, and the month of 

iapetus, i, ['laTreTo?], m., tt Titan, so7i 
of Coelus and Terra, father of 
Atlas, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. 

lasOn, onis, ['id<r<av], m., a famous 



Greek ?iero, son of Aeson, leader of 
the Argonauts. 

Iftzygres, lun, m., a Sarmatian 
people on the Danube, 

Ibl, adv., there, then, thereupon. 

Icarus, i, ra., a son of Daedalus, who, 
accompanying his father in his 
flight from Crete, fell into that 
portion of the Mediterranean called 
from him the Icarian Sea. 

(Ic6), ere, id, ictus, to strike, smite. 

ictus, ds, [ic6], m., a stroke; a blow, 
a thrust. 

idcirc5, [icH- circa], adv., /or this, 
that reason, on that account, to this 

Ids, es, ["W*?], f ., a mountain in Crete, 
also a mountain in Phrygia near 
Troy named from Cretan Ida. 

Idem, eadem, idem, [is+dem], 
demonst. pron., the same; also, 

id-e5, adv., on that or this account, 
for that or this reason. 

idomeneus, ei, (quadrisyl.), m., 
['ifiofiei'cu?], m., a king of Crete, 
leader of the Cretans against Troy, 

iecur, oris and iecinoris, n., the 

iSianium, ii, [iSianus, hungry], m., 
fasting; hunger, 

igrltur, conj., the7i, therefore, 

ifirnarus, a, um, [in- + grnarus, know- 
ing], adj., not knowing, ignorant of, 
unacquainted with, unaware, unsus- 
pecting ; w. fors, blind fate, 

Iern@sc5, ere, — , — , [igrnis], to take 
fire, burn, kindle, burst into flame. 

igneus, a, um, pgrnis], adj., of fire, 

igrnifer, era, erum, [igrnis + fer6], 
adj.,. /ire bearing, fiery, 

ignis, is, m., fire, flame ; a thunder- 
bolt, lightning, flash of lightning; 
a blazing heavenly body, a star; 
the flame of passion, love ; fiery pas- 
sion, wrath; the object of passion, 
loved one, flame ; love songs, 

igndrantia, ae, [ignCrans, not know- 
ing], t, want of knowledge, igno- 

i£rn5r5, are, avi, atus, [in- -{-root 
gna as found in gnarus, knowing], 
to be ignorant of, rut to know. 

ign9sc5, ere, nOvi, notus, [in- + 
(g;n5scoJ, to over look, pardon, for- 
give, excuse, make allowance. 

ignotus, a, um, [in-H- (g) n5tus] , adj., 
unknown, undiscovered, strange, 
foreign; unknown, without repute, 
low born, mean; unacquainted 
with, ignorant of. 

ilex, icis, f ., a holm-oak. 

ilia, 5rum, n. pi., the groin, flank, 

iliacus, a, um, [ilium], adj., of 
Ilium, Trojan, 

ilioneus, ei, (quadrisyl.), m., the 
youngest son of Niobe. 

iliac, [abl. f., illic, supply via], adv., 
that way, on that side, there. 

ille, a, ud, demonst. pron., that, that 
{yonder) ; the famous, the tcdl 
known ; subs., he, she, it, 

illic, [iin (locat. of ille)H-ce], adv., 
there, in that place. 

illinc, [illim + ce], adv., from that 
place, from that side. 

mac, [illic], adv., to that place, in 
that direction. 

imag9, inis, f., an image, likeness, 
form, figure, shape; aspect, imper- 
sonation; reflected image, reflec- 
tion; recollected image, picture, 
recollection; conceived image, con- 
ception, thought. 

imbellis, e, [in- + bellum], adj., 

imber, bris, m., d rain storm, storm, 

imbu5, ere, i, atus, to wet, moisten, 

imitamen, inis, [imitor], n., an imi- 
tation, likeness, copy. 

imitatrix, icis, [imitor], f., one who 
imitates, an imitator. 

imitor, art, atus, to imitate, repre- 

(im-mad@sc5), ere.madul, — , to be- 
come wet. 

immanis, e, adj., of mon^frous size, 

^ -huge^vastf£normmts,nUghtj^ 



ImznedloftblllB, e, [in- + medic&- 
bilis, curable]t adj., incurable, 

Immemor, oris, [in-+zneinor], adj., 
unmiruJlftUt heedless, for getful, un- 

ixnxnensus, a, um, [in- + mSnsus, 
part. mStior], adj., without meas- 
ure, immense, boundless, vast, huge ; 
in inunensum, without end, exceed- 
ingly, to a boundless extent. 

immex^, ere, mend, mersus, [in 
+ merfiT^, to plunge], to plunge into, 
immerse, drown, overwhelm. 

immerituB, a, um, [in- + meritus], 
adj., undeserving (of punishment), 
innocent, guiltless. 

imniine5, Sre, — , — , [in + root in 
minor], to hangover, overhang, pro- 
ject over; be at hand, impend; be 
eager for, long for, be intent upon. 

immlBceO, Sre, ul, miztus, [in+ 
mlaceO], to mingle in or with, stir 
up together. 

immltis, e, [in- + mitis], adj., harsh, 
cruel, merciless, pitiless, fierce, sav- 
age; rough (in appearance) . 

immittO, ere, mis!, missus, [in + 
nutt5], to send or let in, admit ; let 
loose, let go ; slacken, let How freely. 

immObilis, e, [in-H- mSbilis], adj., 
immovable, stubborn, hard hearted. 

ixnmorior, Irl, mortuus, [In + 
morior], to die upon, fall dead upon. 

immOtus, a, nm, [in- 4- mdtns, part. 
znoveO], adj., unmoved, unchanged, 
fixed, steadfast, unshaken, motion- 

immOnis, e, [in- + mttnus], adj., 
free from obligation; w. tellus, 
untilled, UTioccupied; unburdened, 
untaxed, neglected, excused; free 
from, exempt from; shunning. 

immurmurO, are, — , — , [in + mur- 
mur6, to murmur], to murmur in 
or into. 

immatd, &re, ftvl, atus, [in + 
mUtd], to change, alter, transform. 

ixnp&r, arls, [in- + PfiJ^]» adj., un- 
equal, unet^en. 

ixnpatiSns, entis, [in- + patiSns], 
adj., intolerant, impatient; avoid- 

ing; unable to bear, govern, or 

impediS, ire, ivi (ii) , itus, [in+pSs], 
to entanffU ; obstruct, check, impede. 

impellO, ere, puli, pulsus, [in + 
pell5J, to push or strike against, 
strike, hit, smite ; drive or push on, 
set in motion, urge on, move, impel, 

impends, ere, 1, pensus, [in + 
pend5], to weigh out; expend, em- 
ploy, use ; w. sangruinem, to shed. 

impercussus, a, um, [in- + part. 
percuti5J, adj., not struck; w. 
pedes, noiseless. 

imperfectus, a, um, [in- -j- perfec- 
tus, part, perflcioj, adj., unfin- 
ished, incomplete, imperfect. 

imperium, ii, [imperS], n., a word 
of authority, behest, command, man- 
date ; authority, power, control. 

impero, are, avi, atus, [in + par5], 
to order, command ; control, govern. 

(impes, petis), [impetO, to rush 
upon], m., only abl. sing., violence, 

impetus, as, [impetS, to rush upon], 
m., attack, onset, assault, violence ; 
impetus, momentum. 

impierer, grra, grrum, [in- -f pigrer], 
adj., not indolent, quick, active, 
eager, nothing loath. 

impius, a, um, [in- -|- plus], adj.,. 
irreverent, .'iacrilegious, impious, ac' 
cursed, wicked, fell. 

impiacabiUs, i, [in- + piacabilis, 
appeasable], adj., unappeasable, im- 

impleO, ere, evi, etus, [in + pleO,], to fill up, fin full, fill out, fill. 

implied, are, avi, atus, or ul, itus, 
[in + plico, to fold], to fold into, 
infold, twine around, encircle. 

impl5r5, are, avi, atus, [in + 
pl9r5, to Unnent], to implore, be- 
seech, entreat. 

impluo, ere, — , — , [in -f plu6, to 
rain], to vain upon. 

imp5n5, ere, posui, positus, [in -f- 
p3n6], to place or put in, into, or 
upon ; place, put, give to. 



improbus, a, um, [in- + probus, 
honest], adj., bjld, sharneless, inso- 
lentf rudCy malicioiiSy cruel, ruthless, 

impradens, entis, [in-+ pradens = 
providens, /oreseet/ifir], adj , wiih- 
ovtknowituf, unaware, vn^uspectUig. 

impabes, is, [in- + pabes, adult], 
adj., ymtli/ul, young, beardless. 

impagrnO, are, avi, atus, [in + pQ- 
firnOJ, to right against, attack, assail. 

ixnpulsus, as, [impell5], m.,pu8h, 
pressure, inipuhe. 

impane, [impanis, in- 4- poena], 
adv., without punishment, with im- 
punity, safely, unharmed, without 

imus, a, um, adj. (see inferus). 

in, prep. w. abl. aud ace. ; (1) w. abl., 
(a) of space, in, among, on ; (b) of 
time, in, during, at; (c) of other 
relations, in, in respect to, as, by 
way of, considering, in the case of, 
in regard to, in connection with, 
toward, at; (2) w. ace, (a) of 
space, w. vbs. of motion, into or to, 
up to, down to, toward; (b) of time, 
until, for; (c) of other relations, in 
accordance with, after the manner 
of, to, toward, against, for, for the 
purpose of. 

in-, inseparable negative particle, un-, 
in-, not. 

Inachides, ae, [Inacbus], m., a 
7nal3 of Inuc'ius; the 
name is applied to Epaphus, as the 
son of la ; and Perseus, as descended 
fr(»m Arsrive kiricrs. 

inachis, ido3, [Inachus], f., a female 
descend Lilt of Inachus, e.g., lo. 

inachus, i, ["ivaxo?]. m., the first king 
of Argos, father of lo. 

in-aequaiis, e, adj., uneven, un- 
equal of diferent sizes. 

in-amabilis, e, adj., unlovely, hate- 
ful glo )my. 

in-amoenus, a, um, adj., unpleasant, 
unl )ve'7j, gloomy. 

inanis, e, adj., empty, void, vacant, 
bare; empty, useless, meaningless, 
vain; unavailing; lifeless. 

in-aratus, a, um, [in- -f- part. arO], 

adj., unplowed, untitled, fallow. 
in ardesc5, ere, arsi, — , [in -f inch. 

ardeoj, to kindle, takejire, burn. 
in caeduus, a, um, [caedo], adj., un- 

cu', not felled. 
in-calesc5, ere, calui, — , [in + inch. 

caleoj, to grow loarm, bs heated, 

gljw, kindle. 
in-candescd. ere, candui, — , [in + 

inch, candeo], to grow warm, be 

heated, glow, kindle. 
in-cautus, a, um, adj., unsuspecting, 

of one's guard. 
inced5, ere, cessi, cessus, to go, 

wa k, proceed, adrunce. 
incendium, ii, [incend5, to set fire 

to], n., fire, confiagration ; blaze,glov}, 

inceptum, i, [incipioj, n.,an under- 
taking, attempt, beginning. 
incertum, [incertiis], adv., doubt- 
fully ; w. vifiriians, half awake. 
in-certus, a, \am, adj., uncertain, 

unsettled; ill aimed, erring. 
incessS, ere, — , — , [freq. inced5], 

to ass'til, fittafk. 
incido, ere, cidi, cisus, [in + cae- 

doj, to cut into, cut ; engrave. 
in-cing5, ere, cinxi, cinctus, to 

gird, bind about, wreathp. 
incipiS. ere, cepi, ceptus, [in + 

capi5], to b^gin something or begin 

to do s'i'ueth'fng : begin, begin to be. 
in-citO are. avi, atus, to set in rapid 

motion; incite, stimulate, urge on, 

inclitus, a,um. [part, of *inclue3, to 

make illustrious], adj., illustrious, 

renowned, famous. 
inciadS. ere, ciasi, ciasus, [in + 

claud5], to shut up, shut in, inclose, 

in-cognitus, a, um, adj., unknown, 

incola, ae, [incolS, to inhabit], m^ 

an inh^h'tant, resident, native. 
in-comitatus, a, um, adj., unat- 
tended, without an attendant or 

ia-c9ns0iabilis, e, adj., inconsolcible. 



lii.4Son8timptu8, a, um, adj., urir 

iDrCOQiiO, ere, c5^, coctus, to boil, 

inoreznentum, I, [inor6ac0], n., 
growth, inerecue, ir^crement. 

in-crep5, fire, ul, Itus, to sound, re- 
sound, cause to resound; cry aloud 
to, chide, rebuke, 

In-crSBcG, ere, crSvI, — , to grow in 
or upon ; grow, swell, be swollen, 

iDrCub5, Ore, ul, Itus, to lie upon; 
rest upon. 

tzircamb5, ere, cubul, cubitus, to 
lay one's se^ upon anything, rest or 
He upon; fall upon; throw one's self 
upon ; hangover, lean over or upon. 

In-ourrG, ere, ourri (ouourrl), cut- 
bus, to run into, rush in, assail, 

in-cursO, ftre, ftvl, fttus, [freq. in- 
currG], to run into, run against y 
strike against. 

incursus, as, [incurr6], m., an as- 
sault, attack, onset ; impulse, effort. 

in-curvO, ftre, ftvi, fttus, to bend, 
curve; incurvftta w. membra, 

In-ciirvxis, a, um, adj., bent, curved, 

in-c11st5ditU8, a, um, adj., wi- 
watched, unguarded. 

Inde, adv., from that place, thence ; 
from that time, after that; from 
that source, from that one. 

iiirdSfessus, a, um, adj., unwearied. 

iiirdSlectus, a, um, adj., not thrown 
down, not overwhelmed. 

In-dSlSbilis, e, adj., imperishable. 

in-depl5rfttus, a, um, adj., unwept. 

index, Icis, m., one who points out, 
an informer ; a sign mark, indica- 
tion, proof. 

Indl, Orum, m. pi., the inhabitants 
of India, the Indians ; ttsed loosely 
for the Persians, Ethiopians, etc. 

indicium, II, n., a disclosure, dis- 
covery, charge, testimony, evidence. 

Indiires, etls, [Indu, old form of in 
+ gen6, to beget], m.,a deified hero ; 
patron deity of a country. 
ovjD — 30 

In-dlfirestus, a, um, adj., unorgan- 
ized, confused. 

IndlfirnS, [indigrnusj.udv., unworthi- 
ly, undes!'rveilly. 

Indlgrnor, An, fttus, [indigrnus], to 
be indignant, deem unworthy, dis- 
dain ; ch'ife,fret, be enraged, angry. 

In-digrnus, a, um, adj., unworthy, 
undeserved, shameful, undeserving. 

lndol€sc5, ere, dolui, -— , [in -f freq. 
doled], to feel pain, be grieved, be 

in-domitus, a, um, adj., ungoverna- 
ble, stubborn, fiery; unconquered, 

in-dac5, ere, daxi, ductus, to draw 
on, draw over, bring in or on, pat on, 

IndulereQ, 3re, dulsi, dultus, to in- 
dulge in, give one's self up to, yield 
to, humor. 

Indu9, ere, i, indatus, to put on, 
assume; in pass. w. reflex, meau- 
ing, put on, clothe one's self in, 
wear, have. 

Indar§sc5, ere, Indarui, — , [inch. 
IndOrO, to make hard], to harden, 
stiffen ; w. sax9, turn to stone. 

indatus, a, um, [part. Induo], adj., 
clad, covered, arrayed, enveloped. 

in-eiactftbilis, e, adj., inevitable. 

in-emptus, a, um, adj., unbought, 
without a ransom. 

in-eH, ire, ivi (ii), itus, to enter, 
go into. 

inermis, e, [in-+arma], adj., un- 
armed, dpfencpfpss, without arms. 

iners, ertis, [in-+ ars], adj., ?//i- 
skiUful; helpless, weak, effeminate, 
lazy, sluggish, tame; lifeless, dead. 

in-explStus, a, um, adj., not filled, 

In-expagrnftbilis, e, adj., impregna- 
ble, invincible ; \v. grftmen, not to 
be rooted out. 

In-exstinctus, a, um, adj., unextin- 
guished, luiextinguishable. 

infftmia, ae, [infamis], f., ill fame, 
disgrace, infamy. 

infamis, e, [in- + fftma], adj., of ill 
repute, ill omened, disreputable, dis- 



Infftns, tentis, [in- + for], m., f^ one i insreniOsus, a, uxn, [infireniam], 
trithout spetch, an infant. I adj., able, clever, ingenious, 

in-teu8tu8, a, um, adj., HI omened, \ infirenium, il, [in + root firen, to pro- 
ill fated, ui\fortunate. I duce}, innate quality; nature^ tern- 

infeotus, a,um, [in-+factu8], adj., ' perament; character, disposition, 

not made or do/ie, unfinished. 

in-fSlix, icis, adj., unhappy, un- 
lucky, unfortunate, ill fated. 

inferiae, ftrum, [inferus], f., sacri- 
fices in hotwr of the dead. 

InTemus, a, um, [Inferus], adj., 
underground, infernal, belonging 
to the lower tcorld. 

In-fer5, ferre, tuli, inlfttum, to 
bring, carry or bear to or into. 

natural feelings ; mind, intellect ; 

wit, craft, cunning, skill, natural 

insrens, entis, [in- + root firen], adj^ 

not ncUural, monstrous, enormous, 

huge, vast, immense, great, mighty, 

massive, stalwart. 
inerenuus, a, um, [in -|- root firen], 

adj., native, natural; freebom; 

noble, upright, candid, ingenuous. 

inferus, a, um, [see Infrft], adj., in-firerG, ere, eressl, erestus, to fArow 
5e/oir, underneath, in the Under in, heap upon, heap up. 
World; comp. inferior, ius, infe- in-firrfitus, a, um, adj., unthankful, 
rior, lower, worse, meaner ; superl., : ungrateful, irresponsive, unapprt- 
imus, a, um, the lowest, deepest, \ dative, 
the bottom of, inmost, the depths of, ' infirredior, I, firressus, [in -|- gra- 

the end of, the lowest part of; of or 
belonging to t?ie lower world. 

infesWJ, are, — , — , [infestus], to 
disturb, infest. 

Infestus, a, um, adj., made unsafe. 

dior], to go or walk in or into, walk, 
go along, advance, proceed. 
in-haere5, €re, haesi, haesus, to 
stick fast, cleave, cling to or iqxm, 
fasten upon. 

disturbed; that makes unsafe, hos- inhibe5, Sre,ui,itus, [in -|- habeO], 
tile, dangerous, deadly, fat(d, threat- \ to hold in, keep back, restrain, 

InflciO, ere, fScI, fectus, [in + 

faci5], to stain, tinge, dye, color; 

to pollute, corrupt, infect. 
in-fier5, ere, Hzl, Hxus, to fix upon, 

impale ; fasten, fix in. 
infltior, ari, atus, [in--t-fateor], to 

deny, disown. 
in-flO, are, avi, atus, to blow or 

breathe into or upon, inflate. 
infra, [for Infera, supply parte], adv., 

below, underneath ; w. comparative 

sense, lower. 
infringO, ere, frSgri, fractus, [in + 

tra.ng6], to break off, break, bruise. 
In-fundO, ere, fadi, fttsus, to pour 

on, in; pour or spread over; pour 

through, infuse, communicate to, 

in-gremin5, are, avi, atus, to re- 
double, reiterate, repeat. 
in-gem6, ere, gemm, — , to groau, 

/anient, sigh over. 

curb, check. 

in-honestus, a, um, adj., ignomini- 
ous, shameful, dishonorable. 

in-hon5ratus, a, um, adj., unhon- 
ored, disregarded, unrewarded. 

in-hospitus, a, um, adj., inhospUahU- 

in-humatus, a, um, adj., un&vried. 

inici5, ere, ieci, iectus, pn + 
iaci5], to throw, cast, hurl at, upon 
or into ; w. manum and dat of 
persons, to lay hands on, seize; w. 
super, throw over or around. 

inimicus, a, um, [in- + axn^cufll* 
adj., hostile, unfriendly, hat^vll 
injurious, hurtful, destructive. 

iniquus, a, um, [in- + aequus], adj.i 
unfair, unjust, partial, hoitiki 
spiteful, adverse ; unfavorable, dis- 
advantageous; hurtful, injuri^yi^'y 
unwilling, impatient, discontent' 

initium, il, [ine5], n., a beginning; 
\ auspices ; secret sacred rites, saertA 



inituB, Ob, [ineO], m., approach, 
ffeneraHve union, 

tnillria, ae, [iniOrius, from in- + 
iOfl], f., injury, injustice, wrong; 
insuU, affront; a sense of injury, 
wrong, leading to a desire for re- 

faipiOsttis, a, um, adj., ut\just, un- 
righteous, cruel; wrongful; one- 
sided, uneven. 

inlld5, ere, liid, Ubub, [in + laed5, 
to hurt"], to strike, dash into or upon, 
drive upon ; crash into, crash, 

inlimis, e, [in- + Umus], adj., with- 
out mud, clear, 

In-linO, ere, ISvl, litus, to smear over, 
spread upon. 

in-lfLdS, ere, lOsI, ItLsus, to play 
with, make sport of, mock, jeer at ; 
cheat, snare. 

inlOstrls, e, adj., bright, clear; il- 
lustrious, famous, renowned. 

in-nftbilie, e, adj., in which nothing 

can swim. 
In-nfttua, a, urn, native, inborn, in- 
herent, natural. 
in-nectO, ere, nexul, nexus, to tie, 
fasten, bind ; bind about, wreathe. 
iainitor, I, nizus, to lean upon, sup- 
port one's self by, rest upon, 

^nocuus, a, urn, adj., harmless, 
innocent, inoffensive. 

ixi-naxnerus, a, um, adj., innumer- 
able, countless, without number, 

ttMiCLptus, a, urn, adj., unmarried, 

UtircypB, opis, adj., poor, needy, her^t